Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

                      The Terrorist's Handbook

                     Written BY: UNKNOWN AUTHOR

HEAVILY EDITED by: Kloey Detect of Five O and B.S. of Hardbodies

Special thanks to WordPerfect Corporation for their spelling
checker.......This file NEEDED IT!


Nitro Glycerine: For providing the files!
Xpax           : For being patient while the cop was there!
The Producer   : For getting the files to me....
The Director   : For getting the files to me....
Mr.Camaro      : For his BIG EGO!!!
The Magician   : For ALL the Bernoulli carts he is gonna send!!

This is a collection of many years worth of effort........this is
the original manuscript for a non-published work, from an unknown
author.....It was originally two LARGE files which had to be
merged and then HEAVILY EDITED, mostly the pictures, and then
spellchecked...This guy is a chemical genius but he could not
spell if his life depended on it....I have simply run a spell
check via WordPerfect 4.2, so there are probably more errors
which were not picked up...sorry...I hope you have the patience
to sit through this file, read it, then correct every little
error....It is not like I am submitting it or anything...!!!!!

This file is dedicated To Kathie & KiKi
.....Wherever you both may be.....

                           THE TERRORIST'S HANDBOOK


    Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies, a division of Chaos Industries (CHAOS),
is proud to present this first edition of The Terrorist's Handbook.  First
and foremost, let it be stated that Chaos Industries assumes no
responsibilities for any misuse of the information presented in this
publication.  The purpose of this is to show the many techniques and
methods used by those people in this and other countries who employ terror
as a means to political and social goals.The techniques herein can be
obtained from public libraries, and can usually be carried out by a
terrorist with minimal equipment.  This makes one all the more frightened,
since any lunatic or social deviant could obtain this information,and use
it against anyone.  The processes and techniques herein SHOULD NOT BE
USE!!Gunzenbomz Pyro-Technologies feels that it is important that everyone
has some idea of just how easy it is for a terrorist to perform acts of
terror; that is the reason for the existence of this publication.

1.1          Table of Contents

2.01 ........  Black Powder
2.02 ........  Pyrodex
2.03 ........  Rocket Engine Powder
2.04 ........  Rifle/Shotgun Powder
2.05 ........  Flash Powder
2.06 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
2.11 ........  Techniques for Picking Locks
2.31 ........  Nitric Acid
2.32 ........  Sulfuric Acid
2.33 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
3.01 ........  Explosive Theory
3.11 ........  Ammonium Triiodide Crystals
3.12 ........  Mercury Fulminate
3.13 ........  Nitroglycerine
3.14 ........  Picrates
3.21 ........  Black Powder
3.22 ........  Nitrocellulose
3.23 ........  Fuel + Oxodizer mixtures
3.24 ........  Perchlorates
3.31 ........  R.D.X. (Cyclonite)
3.32 ........  Ammonium Nitrate
3.33 ........  ANFOS
3.34 ........  T.N.T.
3.35 ........  Potassium Chlorate
3.36 ........  Dynamite
3.37 ........  Nitrostarch Explosives
3.38 ........  Picric Acid
3.39 ........  Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D)
3.40 ........  Nitrogen Trichloride
3.41 ........  Lead Azide
3.5 .......  OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"
3.51 ........  Thermit
3.52 ........  Molotov Cocktails
3.53 ........  Chemical Fire Bottle
3.54 ........  Bottled Gas Explosives
4.1 .......  SAFETY
4.21 ........  Fuse Ignition
4.22 ........  Impact Ignition
4.23 ........  Electrical Ignition
4.24 ........  Electro - Mechanical Ignition
4.241 .......  Mercury Switches
4.242 .......  Tripwire Switches
4.243 .......  Radio Control Detonators
4.3 .......  DELAYS
4.31 ........  Fuse Delays
4.32 ........  Timer Delays
4.33 ........  Chemical Delays
4.41 ........  Paper Containers
4.42 ........  Metal Containers
4.43 ........  Glass Containers
4.44 ........  Plastic Containers
4.51 ........  Shaped Charges
4.52 ........  Tube Explosives
4.53 ........  Atomized Particle Explosions
4.54 ........  Lightbulb Bombs
4.55 ........  Book Bombs
4.56 ........  Phone Bombs
5.11 ........  Bow and Crossbow Ammunition
5.12 ........  Blowgun Ammunition
5.13 ........  Wrist Rocket and Slingshot Ammunition
5.21 ........  Handgun Ammunition
5.22 ........  Shotguns
5.31 ........  .177 Caliber B.B Gun Ammunition
5.32 ........  .22 Caliber Pellet Gun Ammunition
6.1 .......  ROCKETS
6.11 ........  Basic Rocket-Bomb
6.12 ........  Long Range Rocket-Bomb
6.13 ........  Multiple Warhead Rocket-Bombs
6.2 ........ CANNONS
6.21 ........  Basic Pipe Cannon
6.22 ........  Rocket-Firing Cannon
7.1 .........  Smoke Bombs
7.2 .........  Colored Flames
7.3 .........  Tear Gas
7.4 .........  Fireworks
7.41 ........  Firecrackers
7.42 ........  Skyrockets
7.43 ........  Roman Candles
11.0 ......  ABOUT THE AUTHOR

    Almost any city or town of reasonable size has a gun store anda
pharmacy.  These are two of the places that potential terrorists visit
inorder to purchase explosive material.  All that one has to do is know
somethingabout the non-explosive uses of the materials.  Black powder, for
example,is used in blackpowder firearms.  It comes in varying "grades",
with eachdifferent grade being a slightly different size.  The grade of
black powderdepends on what the calibre of the gun that it is used in; a
fine grade ofpowder could burn too fast in the wrong caliber weapon.  The
rule is:the smaller the grade, the faster the burn rate of the powder.


    Black powder is generally available in three grades.  As stated
before,the smaller the grade, the faster the powder burns.  Burn rate is
extremelyimportant in bombs.  Since an explosion is a rapid increase of gas
volume ina confined environment, to make an explosion, a quick-burning
powder isdesirable. The three common grades of black powder are listed
below, alongwith the usual bore width (calibre) of what they are used in.
Generally,the fastest burning powder, the FFF grade is desirable.  However,
the othergrades and uses are listed below:

GRADE              BORE WIDTH               EXAMPLE OF GUN
-----              ----------               --------------

F                  .50 or greater           model cannon; some rifles
FF                 .36 - .50                large pistols; small rifles
FFF                .36 or smaller           pistols; derringers

    The FFF grade is the fastest burning, because the smaller grade has
more surface area or burning surface exposed to the flame front.  The
larger grades also have uses which will be discussed later.  The price
range ofblack powder, per pound, is about $8.50 - $9.00.  The price is not
affected by the grade, and so one saves oneself time and work if one buys
the finer grade of powder.  The major problems with black powder are that
it can be ignited accidentally by static electricity, and that it has a
tendency to absorb moisture from the air.  To safely crush it, a bomber
would use a plastic spoon and a wooden salad bowl.  Taking a small pile at
a time, he or she would apply pressure to the powder through the spoon and
rub it in a series of strokes or circles, but not too hard.  It is fine
enough to use when it is about as fine as flour.  The fineness, however, is
dependant on what type of device one wishes to make; obviously, it would be
impracticle to crush enough powder to fill a 1 foot by 4 inch radius pipe.
Anyone can purchase black powder, since anyone can own black powder
firearms in America.

2.02    PYRODEX

    Pyrodex is a synthetic powder that is used like black powder.  It
comes in the same grades, but it is more expensive per pound.  However, a
one pound container of pyrodex contains more material by volume than a
pound of blackpowder.  It is much easier to crush to a very fine powder
than black powder, and it is considerably safer and more reliable.  This is
because it will not be set off by static electricity, as black can be, and
it is less inclined to absorb moisture.  It costs about $10.00 per pound.
It can be crushed in the same manner as black powder, or it can be
dissolved in boiling water and dried.


    One of the most exciting hobbies nowadays is model rocketry.  Estes is
the largest producer of model rocket kits and engines.  Rocket engines are
composed of a single large grain of propellant.  This grain is surrounded
by a fairly heavy cardboard tubing.  One gets the propellant by slitting
the tube lengthwise, and unwrapping it like a paper towel roll.  When this
is done, the grey fire clay at either end of the propellant grain must be
removed.  This is usually done gently with a plastic or brass knife. The
material is exceptionally hard, and must be crushed to be used.  By
gripping the grain on the widest setting on a set of pliers, and putting
the grain and powder in a plastic bag,the powder will not break apart and
shatter all over.  This should be done to all the large chunks of powder,
and then it should be crushed like black powder.Rocket engines come in
various sizes, ranging from 1/4 A - 2T to the incredibly powerful D
engines.  The larger the engine, the more expensive.  D engines come in
packages of three, and cost about $5.00 per package.  Rocket engines are
perhaps the single most useful item sold in stores to a terrorist, since
they can be used as is, or can be cannibalized for their explosive powder.


    Rifle powder and shotgun powder are really the same from a practicle
standpoint. They are both nitrocellulose based propellants. They will be
referred to as gunpowder in all future references. Gunpowder is made by the
action of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid upon cotton. This material
is then dissolved by solvents and then reformed in the desired grain size.
When dealing with gunpowder, the grain size is not nearly as important as
that of black powder. Both large and small grained gunpowder burn fairly
slowly compared to black powder when unconfined, but when it is confined,
gunpowder burns both hotter and with more gaseous expansion, producing more
pressure. Therefore, the grinding process that is often necessary for other
propellants is not necessary for gunpowder.  Gunpowder costs about $9.00
per pound. Any idiot can buy it, since there are no restrictions on rifles
or shotguns in the U.S.

2.05       FLASH POWDER

     Flash powder is a mixture of powdered zirconium metal and various
oxidizers. It is extremely sensitive to heat or sparks, and should be
treated with more care than black powder, with which it should NEVER be
mixed. It is sold in small containers which must be mixed and shaken before
use. It is very finely powdered, and is available in three speeds: fast,
medium, and slow. The fast flash powder is the best for using in explosives
or detonators.       It burns very rapidly, regardless of confinement or
packing, with a hot white "flash", hence its name.  It is fairly expensive,
costing about $11.00. It is sold in magic shops and theatre supply stores.


    Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is often used as a
commercial "safety explosive"  It is very stable, and is difficult to
ignite with a match. It will only light if the glowing, red-hot part of a
match is touching it. It is also difficult to detonate; (the phenomenon of
detonation will be explained later) it requires a large shockwave to cause
it to go high explosive. Commercially, it is sometimes mixed with a small
amount of nitroglycerine to increase its sensitivity. Ammonium nitrate is
used in the "Cold-Paks" or "Instant Cold", available in most drug stores.
The "Cold Paks" consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a second plastic
bag containing the ammonium nitrate. To get the ammonium nitrate, simply
cut off the top of the outside bag, remove the plastic bag of water, and
save the ammonium nitrate in a well sealed, airtight container, since it is
rather hydroscopic, i.e. it tends to absorb water from the air. It is also
the main ingredient in many fertilizers.


    The first section deals with getting chemicals legally. This section
deals with "procuring" them. The best place to steal chemicals is a
college. Many state schools have all of their chemicals out on the shelves
in the labs, and more in their chemical stockrooms. Evening is the best
time to enter lab buildings, as there are the least number of people in the
buildings, and most of the labs will still be unlocked. One simply takes a
bookbag, wears a dress shirt and jeans, and tries to resemble a college
freshman. If anyone asks what such a person is doing, the thief can simply
say that he is looking for the  polymer chemistry lab, or some other
chemistry-related department other than the one they are in. One can
usually find out where the various labs and  departments in a building are
by calling the university. There are, of course other techniques for
getting into labs after hours, such as placing a piece of cardboard in the
latch of an unused door, such as a back exit. Then, all one needs to do is
come back at a later hour. Also, before this is done, terrorists check for
security systems. If one just walks into a lab, even if there is someone
there, and walks out the back exit, and slip the cardboard in the latch
before the door closes, the person in the lab will never know what
happened. It is also a good idea to observe the building that one plans to
rob at the time that one plans to rob it several days before the actual
theft is done. This is advisable since the would-be thief should know when
and if the campus security makes patrols through buildings. Of course, if
none of these methods are successful, there is always section 2.11, but as
a rule, college campus security is pretty poor, and nobody suspects another
person in the building of doing anything wrong, even if they are there at
an odd hour.


    If it becomes necessary to pick a lock to enter a lab, the world's
most effective lockpick is dynamite, followed by a sledgehammer.  There are
unfortunately, problems with noise and excess structural damage with these
methods.  The next best thing, however, is a set of army issue lockpicks.
These, unfortunately, are difficult to acquire. If the door to a lab is
locked, but the deadbolt is not engaged, then there are other
possibilities. The rule here is: if one can see the latch, one can open the
door. There are several devices which facilitate freeing the latch from its
hole in the wall. Dental tools, stiff wire ( 20 gauge ), specially bent
aluminum from cans, thin pocket- knives, and credit cards are the tools of
the trade. The way that all these tools and devices are uses is similar:
pull, push, or otherwise move the latch out of its hole in the wall, and
pull the door open. This is done by sliding whatever tool that you are
using behind the latch, and pulling the latch out from the wall. To make an
aluminum-can lockpick, terrorists can use an aluminum can and carefully cut
off the can top and bottom. Cut off the cans' ragged ends. Then, cut the
open-ended cylinder so that it can be flattened out into a single long
rectangle. This should then be cut into inch wide strips. Fold the strips
in 1/4 inch increments (1). One will have a long quadruple-thick 1/4 inch
wide strip of aluminum. This should be folded into an L-shape, a J-shape,
or a U-shape. This is done by folding. The pieces would look like this:


       __________________________________________________________    v
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    | 1
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |
1/4     |_______________________________________________________|    |

    Fold along lines to make a single quadruple-thick piece of
aluminum. This should then be folded to produce an L,J,or U shaped
device that looks like this:
                     / ________________________________________|
                    | |
                    | |          L-shaped
                    | |
                    | |

                     / ___________________________|
                    | |
                    | |     J-shaped
                    | |
                    | |________

                     / ___________________|
                    | |
                    | |
                    | |     U-shaped
                    | |
                    | |____________________

    All of these devices should be used to hook the latch of a door and
pull the latch out of its hole.  The folds in the lockpicks will be between
the door and the wall, and so the device will not unfold, if it is made


    Anyone can get many chemicals from hardware stores, supermarkets,
and drug stores to get the materials to make explosives or other dangerous
compounds.  A would-be terrorist would merely need a station wagon and some
money to acquire many of the chemicals named here.

Chemical                Used In                         Available at
________                _______                         ____________

alcohol, ethyl *       alcoholic beverages            liquor stores
                      solvents (95% min. for both)   hardware stores
ammonia +              CLEAR household ammonia        supermarkets/7-eleven
ammonium               instant-cold paks,             drug stores,
nitrate                fertilizers                    medical supply stores
nitrous oxide          pressurizing whip cream        party supply stores
magnesium              firestarters                   surplus/camping
lecithin               vitamins                       pharmacies/drug
mineral oil            cooking, laxative              supermarket/drug
mercury @              mercury thermometers      supermarkets/hardware
sulfuric acid          uncharged car batteries        automotive stores
glycerine                     ?                       pharmacies/drug
sulfur                 gardening                     gardening/hardware
charcoal               charcoal grills          supermarkets/gardening
sodium nitrate         fertilizer                     gardening store
cellulose (cotton)     first aid                   drug/medical supply
strontium nitrate      road flares                    surplus/auto stores,
fuel oil               kerosene stoves                surplus/camping
bottled gas            propane stoves                 surplus/camping
potassium permanganate water purification             purification plants
hexamine or            hexamine stoves                surplus/camping
methenamine            (camping)
nitric acid ^          cleaning printing              printing shops
                      plates                         photography stores
iodine &               first aid                      drug stores
sodium perchlorate     solidox pellets                hardware stores
                      for cutting torches
notes: * ethyl alcohol is mixed with methyl alcohol when it is used as a
      solvent. Methyl alcohol is very poisonous. Solvent alcohol must be
      at least 95% ethyl alcohol if it is used to make mercury fulminate.
      Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury fulminate from forming.

    + Ammonia, when bought in stores comes in a variety of forms.  The
      pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought; only the clear
      ammonia should be used to make ammonium triiodide crystals.

    @ Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately.  They
      may be hard to find in most stores. Mercury is also used in mercury
      switches, which are available at electronics stores. Mercury is a
      hazardous substance, and should be kept in the thermometer or
      mercury switch until used. It gives off mercury vapors which will
      cause brain damage if inhaled.  For this reason, it is a good idea
      not to spill mercury, and to always use it outdoors. Also, do not
      get it in an open cut; rubber gloves will help prevent this.

    ^ Nitric acid is very difficult to find nowadays.  It is usually
      stolen by bomb makers, or made by the process described in a later
      section.  A desired concentration for making explosives about 70%.

    & The iodine sold in drug stores is usually not the pure crystaline
      form that is desired for producing ammonium triiodide crystals.
      To obtain the pure form, it must usually be acquired by a doctor's
      prescription, but this can be expensive.  Once again, theft is the
      means that terrorists result to.


2.31     NITRIC ACID

      There are several ways to make this most essential of all acids for
 explosives. One method by which it could be made will be presented. Once
 again, be reminded that these methods SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT!!

    Materials:                             Equipment:
    ---------                              ---------
    sodium nitrate or                      adjustable heat source
    potassium nitrate
    distilled water
                                           ice bath
    sulfuric acid                          stirring rod

                                           collecting flask with stopper

1) Pour 32 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the retort.

2) Carefully weigh out 58 grams of sodium nitrate, or 68 grams of potassium
nitrate. and add this to the acid slowly.  If it all does not dissolve,
carefully stir the solution with a glass rod until it does.

3) Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask, and place
    the   collecting flask in the ice bath.

4) Begin heating the retort, using low heat.  Continue heating until liquid
  begins to come out of the end of the retort.  The liquid that forms is
    nitric   acid.  Heat until the precipitate in the bottom of the retort
    is almost dry,   or until no more nitric acid is forming.  CAUTION: If
    the acid is headed too  strongly, the nitric acid will decompose as
    soon as it is formed.  This  can result in the production of highly
    flammable and toxic gasses that may explode.  It is a good idea to set
    the above apparatus up, and then get   away from it.

    Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-bought black
powder, simply by dissolving black powder in boiling water and filtering
out the sulfur and charcoal. To obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate, it would
be necessary to dissolve about 90 g of black powder in about one litre of
boiling water. Filter the dissolved solution through filter paper in a
funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours through is clear. The
charcoal and sulfur in black powder are insoluble in water, and so when the
solution of water is allowed to evaporate, potassium nitrate will be left
in the jar.


    Sulfuric acid is far too difficult to make outside of a laboratory or
industrial plant.  However, it is readily available in an uncharged car
battery. A person wishing to make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top
of a car battery and pour the acid into a glass container.  There would
probably be pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which would have to
be removed, either by boiling or filtration.  The concentration of the
sulfuric acid can also be increased by boiling it; very pure sulfuric acid
pours slightly faster than clean motor oil.


    Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high-order
explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring nitric acid into a large
flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply pouring household ammonia into the
flask and running away, ammonium nitrate would be formed. After the
materials have stopped reacting, one would simply have to leave the
solution in a warm place until all of the water and any unneutralized
ammonia or acid have evaporated. There would be a fine powder formed, which
would be ammonium nitrate. It must be kept in an airtight container,
because of its tendency to pick up water from the air.  The crystals formed
in the above process would have to be heated VERY gently to drive off the
remaining water.


    Once again, persons reading this material MUST NEVER ATTEMPT TO
    These recipes are theoretically correct, meaning that an individual
could conceivably produce the materials described.  The methods here are
usually scaled-down industrial procedures.


    An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat or shock,
undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation.  This process releases energy
that is stored in the material in the form of heat and light, or by
breaking down into gaseous compounds that occupy a much larger volume that
the original piece of material.  Because this expansion is very rapid,
large volumes of air are displaced by the expanding gasses.  This expansion
occurs at a speed greater than the speed of sound, and so a sonic boom
occurs.  This explains the mechanics behind an explosion.  Explosives occur
in several forms: high-order explosives which detonate, low order
explosives, which burn, and primers, which may do both.
    High order explosives detonate.  A detonation occurs only in a high
order explosive.  Detonations are usually incurred by a shockwave that
passes through a block of the high explosive material.  The shockwave
breaks apart the molecular bonds between the atoms of the substance, at a
rate approximately equal to the speed of sound traveling through that
material.  In a high explosive, the fuel and oxodizer are chemically
bonded, and the shockwave breaks apart these bonds, and re-combines the two
materials to produce mostly gasses. T.N.T., ammonium nitrate, and R.D.X.
are examples of high order explosives.
    Low order explosives do not detonate; they burn, or undergo oxidation.
when heated, the fuel(s) and oxodizer(s) combine to produce heat, light,
and gaseous products.  Some low order materials burn at about the same
speed under pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others,
such as gunpowder, which is correctly called nitrocellulose, burn much
faster and hotter when they are in a confined space, such as the barrel of
a firearm; they usually burn much slower than blackpowder when they are
ignited in unpressurized conditions. Black powder, nitrocellulose, and
flash powder are good examples of low order explosives.
    Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field.  Some of them, such
as mercury filminate, will function as a low or high order explosive.  They
are usually more sensitive to friction, heat, or shock, than the high or
low explosives.  Most primers perform like a high order explosive, except
that they are much more sensitive.  Still others merely burn, but when they
are confined, they burn at a great rate and with a large expansion of
gasses and a shockwave. Primers are usually used in a small amount to
initiate, or cause to decompose, a high order explosive, as in an artillery
shell.  But, they are also frequently used to ignite a low order explosive;
the gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by the detonation of its primer.


    Impact explosives are often used as primers.  Of the ones discussed
here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are real explosives;
Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon impact, but they release little
heat and no light.  Impact explosives are always treated with the greatest
care, and even the stupidest anarchist never stores them near any high or
low explosives.


    Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple colored crystals
that decompose under the slightest amount of heat, friction, or shock, if
they are made with the purest ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and iodine.
Such crystals are said to detonate when a fly lands on them, or when an ant
walks across them.  Household ammonia, however, has enough impurities, such
as soaps and abrasive agents, so that the crystals will detonate when
thrown,crushed, or heated.  Upon detonation, a loud report is heard, and a
cloud of purple iodine gas appears about the detonation site.  Whatever the
unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon will usually be
ruined, as some of the iodine in the crystal is thrown about in a solid
form, and iodine is corrosive.  It leaves nasty, ugly, permanent
brownish-purple stains on whatever it contacts. Iodine gas is also bad
news, since it can damage lungs, and it settles to the ground and stains
things there also.  Touching iodine leaves brown stains on the skin that
last for about a week, unless they are immediately and vigorously washed
off.  While such a compound would have little use to a serious terrorist, a
vandal could utilize them in damaging property.  Or, a terrorist could
throw several of them into a crowd as a distraction, an action which would
possibly injure a few people, but frighten almost anyone, since a small
crystal that not be seen when thrown produces a rather loud explosion.
Ammonium triiodide crystals could be produced in the following manner:

    Materials                Equipment
    ---------                ---------

    iodine crystals          funnel and filter paper

                             paper towels
    clear ammonia
    (ammonium hydroxide,     two throw-away glass jars
     for the suicidal)

1) Place about two teaspoons of iodine into one of the glass jars.  The
    jars must both be throw away because they will never be clean again.

2) Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine.

3) Place the funnel into the other jar, and put the filter paper in the
    The technique for putting filter paper in a funnel is taught in every
    basic chemistry lab class: fold the circular paper in half, so that a
    semi-circle is formed.  Then, fold it in half again to form a triangle
    with one curved side.  Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone,
    and place the cone into the funnel.

4) After allowing the iodine to soak in the ammonia for a while, pour the
  solution into the paper in the funnel through the filter paper.

5) While the solution is being filtered, put more ammonia into the first
    jar to wash any remaining crystals into the funnel as soon as it

6) Collect all the purplish crystals without touching the brown filter
    paper, and place them on the paper towels to dry for about an hour.
    Make sure that they are not too close to any lights or other sources
    of heat, as they could well detonate. While they are still wet, divide
    the wet material into about eight chunks.

7) After they dry, gently place the crystals onto a one square inch piece
    of duct tape.  Cover it with a similar piece, and gently press the
    duct tape together around the crystal, making sure not to press the
    crystal itself. Finally, cut away most of the excess duct tape with a
    pair of scissors, and store the crystals in a cool dry safe place.
    They have a shelf life of about a week, and they should be stored in
    individual containers that can be thrown away, since they have a
    tendency to slowly decompose, a process which gives off iodine vapors,
    which will stain whatever they settle on.  One possible way to
    increase their shelf life is to store them in airtight containers.  To
    use them, simply throw them against any surface or place them where
    they will be stepped on or crushed.


    Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known initiating
compounds.  It can be detonated by either heat or shock, which would make
it of infinite value to a terrorist.  Even the action of dropping a crystal
of the fulminate causes it to explode.  A person making this material would
probably use the following procedure:

    MATERIALS                  EQUIPMENT
    ---------                  ---------

    mercury (5 g)              glass stirring rod

    concentrated nitric        100 ml beaker (2)
    acid (35 ml)
                               adjustable heat
    ethyl alcohol (30 ml)      source

    distilled water            blue litmus paper

    funnel and filter paper

1) In one beaker, mix 5 g of mercury with 35 ml of concentrated nitric
acid, using the glass rod.

2) Slowly heat the mixture until the mercury is dissolved, which is when
the solution turns green and boils.

3) Place 30 ml of ethyl alcohol into the second beaker, and slowly and
carefully add all of the contents of the first beaker to it.  Red and/or
brown fumes should appear. These fumes are toxic and flammable.

4) After thirty to forty minutes, the fumes should turn white, indicating
that the reaction is near completion.  After ten more minutes, add 30 ml of
the distilled water to the solution.

5) Carefully filter out the crystals of mercury fulminate from the liquid
solution.  Dispose of the solution in a safe place, as it is corrosive and

6) Wash the crystals several times in distilled water to remove as much
excess acid as possible.  Test the crystals with the litmus paper until
they are neutral.   This will be when the litmus paper stays blue when it
touches the wet crystals

7) Allow the crystals to dry, and store them in a safe place, far away from
any explosive or flammable material.

      This procedure can also be done by volume, if the available mercury
cannot be weighed.  Simply use 10 volumes of nitric acid and 10 volumes of
ethanol to every one volume of mercury.


    Nitroglycerine is one of the most sensitive explosives, if it is not
the most sensitive.  Although it is possible to make it safely, it is
difficult.  Many a young anarchist has been killed or seriously injured
while trying to make the stuff.  When Nobel's factories make it, many
people were killed by the all-to-frequent factory explosions.  Usually, as
soon as it is made, it is converted into a safer substance, such as
dynamite.  An idiot who attempts to make nitroglycerine would use the
following procedure:

    MATERIAL               EQUIPMENT
    --------               ---------

    distilled water        eye-dropper

    table salt             100 ml beaker

    sodium bicarbonate     200-300 ml beakers (2)

    concentrated nitric    ice bath container
    acid (13 ml)           ( a plastic bucket serves well )

    concentrated sulfuric  centigrade thermometer
    acid (39 ml)
                            blue litmus paper

1) Place 150 ml of distilled water into one of the 200-300 ml beakers.

2) In the other 200-300 ml beaker, place 150 ml of distilled water and
about a spoonful of sodium bicarbonate, and stir them until the sodium
bicarbonate dissolves.  Do not put so much sodium bicarbonate in the water
so that some remains undissolved.

3) Create an ice bath by half filling the ice bath container with ice, and
adding table salt.  This will cause the ice to melt, lowering the overall

4) Place the 100 ml beaker into the ice bath, and pour the 13 ml of
concentrated nitric acid into the 100 ml beaker.  Be sure that the beaker
will not spill into the ice bath, and that the ice bath will not overflow
into the beaker when more materials are added to it.  Be sure to have a
large enough ice bath container to add more ice.  Bring the temperature of
the acid down to about 20 degrees centigrade or less.

5) When the nitric acid is as cold as stated above, slowly and carefully
add the 39 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to the nitric acid.  Mix the
two acids together, and cool the mixed acids to 10 degrees centigrade.  It
is a good idea to start another ice bath to do this.

6) With the eyedropper, slowly put the glycerine into the mixed acids, one
drop at a time.  Hold the thermometer along the top of the mixture where
the mixed acids and glycerine meet.  DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE TO GET
TEMPERATURE, RUN LIKE HELL!!!  The glycerine will start to nitrate
immediately, and the temperature will immediately begin to rise.  Add
glycerine until there is a thin layer of glycerine on top of the mixed
acids.  It is always safest to make any explosive in small quantities.

7) Stir the mixed acids and glycerine for the first ten minutes of
nitration, adding ice and salt to the ice bath to keep the temperature of
the solution   in the 100 ml beaker well below 30 degrees centigrade.
Usually, the   nitroglycerine will form on the top of the mixed acid
solution, and the concentrated sulfuric acid will absorb the water produced
by the reaction.

8) When the reaction is over, and when the nitroglycerine is well below 30
degrees centigrade, slowly and carefully pour the solution of
nitroglycerine and mixed acid into the distilled water in the beaker in
step 1.  The nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker, and
the water-acid solution on top can be poured off and disposed of. Drain as
much of the acid-water solution as possible without disturbing the

9) Carefully remove the nitroglycerine with a clean eye-dropper, and place
it into the beaker in step 2.  The sodium bicarbonate solution will
eliminate much of the acid, which will make the nitroglycerine more stable,
and less likely to explode for no reason, which it can do.  Test the
nitroglycerine with the litmus paper until the litmus stays blue.  Repeat
this step if necessary, and use new sodium bicarbonate solutions as in step

10) When the nitroglycerine is as acid-free as possible, store it in a
clean container in a safe place.  The best place to store nitroglycerine is
far away from anything living, or from anything of any value.
Nitroglycerine can explode for no apparent reason, even if it is stored in
a secure cool place.

3.14     PICRATES

    Although the procedure for the production of picric acid, or
trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are described first, since
they are extremely sensitive, and detonate on impact.  By mixing picric
acid with metal hydroxides, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and
evaporating the water, metal picrates can be formed.  Simply obtain picric
acid, or produce it, and mix it with a solution of (preferably) potassium
hydroxide, of a mid range molarity.  (about 6-9 M)  This material,
potassium picrate, is impact-sensitive, and can be used as an initiator for
any type of high explosive.


    There are many low-order explosives that can be purchased in gun
stores and used in explosive devices. However, it is possible that a wise
wise store owner would not sell these substances to a suspicious-looking
individual. Such an individual would then be forced to resort to making
his own low-order explosives.


    First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black powder was first
used in weapons and explosives in the 12th century.  It is very simple to
make, but it is not very powerful or safe.  Only about 50% of black powder
is converted to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is mostly very
fine burned particles.  Black powder has one major problem: it can be
ignited by static electricity.  This is very bad, and it means that the
material must be made with wooden or clay tools.  Anyway, a misguided
individual could manufacture black powder at home with the following

    MATERIALS               EQUIPMENT
    ---------               ---------
    potassium               clay grinding bowl
    nitrate (75 g)          and clay grinder

      or                         or

    sodium                  wooden salad bowl
    nitrate (75 g)          and wooden spoon

    sulfur (10 g)           plastic bags (3)

    charcoal (15 g)         300-500 ml beaker (1)

    distilled water         coffee pot or heat source

1) Place a small amount of the potassium or sodium nitrate in the grinding
bowl and grind it to a very fine powder.  Do this to all of the potassium
or sodium nitrate, and store the ground powder in one of the plastic bags.

2) Do the same thing to the sulfur and charcoal, storing each chemical in a
  separate plastic bag.

3) Place all of the finely ground potassium or sodium nitrate in the
beaker, and add just enough boiling water to the chemical to get it all

4) Add the contents of the other plastic bags to the wet potassium or
sodium nitrate, and mix them well for several minutes.  Do this until there
is no more visible sulfur or charcoal, or until the mixture is universally

5) On a warm sunny day, put the beaker outside in the direct sunlight.
Sunlight is really the best way to dry black powder, since it is never too
hot, but it is hot enough to evaporate the water.

6) Scrape the black powder out of the beaker, and store it in a safe
container. Plastic is really the safest container, followed by paper.
Never store black powder in a plastic bag, since plastic bags are prone to
generate static electricity.


    Nitrocellulose is usually called "gunpowder" or "guncotton".  It is
more stable than black powder, and it produces a much greater volume of hot
gas.  It also burns much faster than black powder when it is in a confined
space. Finally, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by the
following procedure:

    MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
    ---------                    ---------
    cotton  (cellulose)          two (2) 200-300 ml beakers

    concentrated                 funnel and filter paper
    nitric acid
                                 blue litmus paper
    sulfuric acid

    distilled water

1) Pour 10 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid into the beaker.  Add to this
  10 cc of concentrated nitric acid.

2) Immediately add 0.5 gm of cotton, and allow it to soak for exactly 3

3) Remove the nitrocotton, and transfer it to a beaker of distilled water
  to wash it in.

4) Allow the material to dry, and then re-wash it.

5) After the cotton is neutral when tested with litmus paper, it is ready
to be dried and stored.


    There are nearly an infinite number of fuel-oxodizer mixtures that can
be produced by a misguided individual in his own home.  Some are very
effective and dangerous, while others are safer and less effective.  A list
of working fuel-oxodizer mixtures will be presented, but the exact
measurements of each compound are debatable for maximum effectiveness.  A
rough estimate will be given of the percentages of each fuel and oxodizer:

oxodizer, % by weight         fuel, % by weight    speed #     notes
potassium chlorate 67%          sulfur 33%            5   friction/impact
potassium chlorate 50%          sugar 35%             5   fairly slow
                             charcoal 15%                   unstable
potassium chlorate 50%          sulfur 25%            8      extremely
                             magnesium or                    unstable!
                             aluminum dust 25%
potassium chlorate 67%          magnesium or          8          unstable
                             aluminum dust 33%
sodium nitrate 65%            magnesium dust 30%      ?      
                              sulfur 5%                         burn rate
potassium permanganate 60%     glycerine 40%          4     delay before
potassium permanganate 67%     sulfur 33%             5       unstable
potassium permangenate 60%     sulfur 20%             5       unstable
                              magnesium or
                              aluminum dust 20%
potassium permanganate 50%     sugar 50%              3          ?

potassium nitrate 75%         charcoal 15%            7      this is
                              sulfur 10%                    black powder!
potassium nitrate 60%         powdered iron           1     burns very hot
                              or magnesium 40%

oxidizer, % by weight         fuel, % by weight    speed #     notes
potassium chlorate 75%        phosphorus              8  used to make
                             sesquisulfide 25%            anywhere matches
ammonium perchlorate 70%     aluminum dust 30%        6     solid fuel for
                             and small amount of               space
                             iron oxide
potassium perchlorate 67%     magnesium or           10      flash powder
(sodium perchlorate)          aluminum dust 33%
potassium perchlorate 60%    magnesium or             8      alternate
(sodium perchlorate)          aluminum dust 20%               flash powder
                             sulfur 20%
barium nitrate 30%           aluminum dust 30%        9       alternate
potassium perchlorate 30%                                    flash powder
barium peroxide 90%          magnesium dust 5%       10       alternate
                             aluminum dust 5%                flash powder
potassium perchlorate 50%     sulfur 25%              8       slightly
                              magnesium or                    unstable
                              aluminum dust 25%
potassium chlorate 67%        red phosphorus 27%      7     very unstable
calcium carbonate 3%          sulfur 3%                     impact
potassium permanganate 50%    powdered sugar 25%      7       unstable;
                              aluminum or                     ignites if
                              magnesium dust 25%              it gets wet!
potassium chlorate 75%        charcoal dust 15%       6        unstable
                              sulfur 10%
NOTE: Mixtures that uses substitutions of sodium perchlorate for potassium
     perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less stable.

    The higher the speed number, the faster the fuel-oxodizer mixture
burns AFTER ignition.  Also, as a rule, the finer the powder, the faster
the rate of burning.

    As one can easily see, there is a wide variety of fuel-oxodizer
mixtures that can be made at home.  By altering the amounts of fuel and
oxodizer(s), different burn rates can be achieved, but this also can change
the sensitivity of the mixture.


    As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with perchloric
acid will become a low order explosive.  Metals, however, such as potassium
or sodium, become excellent bases for flash-type powders.  Some materials
that can be perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust.  To produce
potassium or sodium perchlorate, simply acquire the hydroxide of that
metal, e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide.  It is a good idea to test the
material to be perchlorated with a very small amount of acid, since some of
the materials tend to react explosively when contacted by the acid.
Solutions of sodium or potassium hydroxide are ideal.


    High order explosives can be made in the home without too much
difficulty.  The main problem is acquiring the nitric acid to produce the
high explosive.  Most high explosives detonate because their molecular
structure is made up of some fuel and usually three or more NO2 ( nitrogen
dioxide ) molecules.  T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene is an excellent example
of such a material.  When a shock wave passes through an molecule of
T.N.T., the nitrogen dioxide bond is broken, and the oxygen combines with
the fuel, all in a matter of microseconds.  This accounts for the great
power of nitrogen-based explosives.  Remembering that these procedures are
NEVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, several methods of manufacturing high-order
explosives in the home are listed.

3.31     R.D.X.

    R.D.X., also called cyclonite, or composition C-1 (when mixed with
plasticisers) is one of the most valuable of all military explosives.  This
is because it has more than 150% of the power of T.N.T., and is much easier
to detonate.  It should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a
not-too severe shock.  It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate, or
nitroglycerine, but it is still too sensitive to be used alone.  R.D.X. can
be made by the surprisingly simple method outlined hereafter.  It is much
easier to make in the home than all other high explosives, with the
possible exception of ammonium nitrate.

    MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
    ---------                    ---------

    hexamine                     500 ml beaker
    methenamine                  glass stirring rod
    fuel tablets (50 g)
                                 funnel and filter paper
    nitric acid (550 ml)         ice bath container
                                 (plastic bucket)
    distilled water
                                 centigrade thermometer
    table salt
                                 blue litmus paper

    ammonium nitrate

1) Place the beaker in the ice bath, (see section 3.13, steps 3-4) and
carefully pour 550 ml of concentrated nitric acid into the beaker.

2) When the acid has cooled to below 20 degrees centigrade, add small
amounts of the crushed fuel tablets to the beaker.  The temperature will
rise, and it must be kept below 30 degrees centigrade, or dire consequences
could result. Stir the mixture.

3) Drop the temperature below zero degrees centigrade, either by adding
more ice and salt to the old ice bath, or by creating a new ice bath.  Or,
ammonium nitrate could be added to the old ice bath, since it becomes cold
when it is put in water. Continue stirring the mixture, keeping the
temperature below zero degrees centigrade for at least twenty minutes

4) Pour the mixture into a litre of crushed ice.  Shake and stir the
mixture, and allow it to melt.  Once it has melted, filter out the
crystals, and dispose of the corrosive liquid.

5) Place the crystals into one half a litre of boiling distilled water.
Filter the crystals, and test them with the blue litmus paper.  Repeat
steps 4 and 5 until the litmus paper remains blue.  This will make the
crystals more stable and safe.

6) Store the crystals wet until ready for use. Allow them to dry completely
  using them. R.D.X. is not stable enough to use alone as an explosive.

7) Composition C-1 can be made by mixing 88.3% R.D.X. (by weight) with
11.1% mineral oil, and 0.6% lecithin. Kneed these material together in a
plastic bag. This is a good way to desensitize the explosive.

8) H.M.X. is a mixture of T.N.T. and R.D.X.; the ratio is 50/50, by weight.
it is not as sensitive, and is almost as powerful as straight R.D.X.

9) By adding ammonium nitrate to the crystals of R.D.X. after step 5, it
should be possible to desensitize the R.D.X. and increase its power, since
ammonium nitrate is very insensitive and powerful. Soduim or potassium
nitrate could also be added; a small quantity is sufficient to stabilize
the R.D.X.

10) R.D.X. detonates at a rate of 8550 meters/second when it is compressed
to a density of 1.55 g/cubic cm.


    Ammonium nitrate could be made by a terrorist according to the hap-
hazard method in section 2.33, or it could be stolen from a construction
site,  since it is usually used in blasting, because it is very stable and
insensitive  to shock and heat.  A terrorist could also buy several Instant
Cold-Paks from a  drug store or medical supply store.  The major
disadvantage with ammonium  nitrate, from a terrorist's point of view,
would be detonating it.  A rather  powerful priming charge must be used,
and usually with a booster charge.  The  diagram below will explain.  
         |       |                               |
 ________|       |                               |
    |        | T.N.T.|     ammonium nitrate      |
    |primer |booster|                            |
    |_______|       |                            |
         |       |                               |

    The primer explodes, detonating the T.N.T., which detonates, sending
    a tremendous shockwave through the ammonium nitrate, detonating it.

3.33     ANFOS

    ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil Solution.  An ANFO
solves the only other major problem with ammonium nitrate: its tendency to
pick up water vapor from the air.  This results in the explosive failing to
detonate when such an attempt is made.  This is rectified by mixing 94% (by
weight) ammonium nitrate with 6% fuel oil, or kerosene.  The kerosene keeps
the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture from the air.  An ANFO also
requires a large shockwave to set it off.

3.34       T.N.T.

    T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene, is perhaps the second oldest known high
explosive. Dynamite, of course, was the first. It is certainly the best
known high explosive, since it has been popularized by early morning
cartoons. It is the standard for comparing other explosives to, since it is
the most well known. In industry, a T.N.T. is made by a three step
nitration process that is designed to conserve the nitric and sulfuric
acids which are used to make the product. A terrorist, however, would
probably opt for the less economical one step method. The one step process
is performed by treating toluene with very strong (fuming) sulfuric acid.
Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very strong (fuming) nitric acid
in an ice bath. Cold water is added the solution, and it is filtered.


    Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but it can be
obtained from labs.  If potassium chlorate is mixed with a small amount of
vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and a shockwave is passed through it,
the material will detonate with slightly more power than black powder.  It
must, however, be confined to detonate it in this manner.  The procedure
for making such an explosive is outlined below:

    MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
    ---------                    ---------

    potassium chlorate           zip-lock plastic bag
    (9 parts, by volume)

    petroleum jelly              clay grinding bowl
    (vaseline)                          or
    (1 part, by volume)          wooden bowl and wooden spoon

1)  Grind the potassium chlorate in the grinding bowl carefully and slowly,
until the potassium chlorate is a very fine powder.  The finer that it is
powdered, the faster (better)  it will detonate.

2)  Place the powder into the plastic bag.  Put the petroleum jelly into
the plastic bag, getting as little on the sides of the bag as possible,
i.e. put the vaseline on the potassium chlorate powder.

3)  Close the bag, and kneed the materials together until none of the
potassium chlorate is dry powder that does not stick to the main glob.  If
necessary, add a bit more petroleum jelly to the bag.

4)  The material must me used within 24 hours, or the mixture will react to
greatly reduce the effectiveness of the explosive.  This reaction, however,
is harmless, and releases no heat or dangerous products.

3.36     DYNAMITE

    The name dynamite comes from the Greek word "dynamis", meaning power.
Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he made nitroglycerine. It was
made because nitroglycerine was so dangerously sensitive to shock. A
misguided individual with some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine
(an insane act) would immediately convert it to dynamite. This can be done
by adding various materials to the nitroglycerine, such as sawdust. The
sawdust holds a large weight of nitroglycerine per volume. Other materials,
such as ammonium nitrate could be added, and they would tend to desensitize
the explosive, and increase the power.  But even these nitroglycerine
compounds are not really safe.


    Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make, and are fairly powerful.
All that need be done is treat various starches with a mixture of
concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids.  10 ml of concentrated sulfuric
acid is added to 10 ml of concentrated nitric acid.  To this mixture is
added 0.5 grams of starch.  Cold water is added, and the apparently
unchanged nitrostarch is filtered out. Nitrostarch explosives are of
slightly lower power than T.N.T., but they are more readily detonated.

3.38     PICRIC ACID

    Picric acid, also known as Tri-Nitro-Phenol, or T.N.P., is a military
explosive that is most often used as a booster charge to set off another
less sensitive explosive, such as T.N.T.  It another explosive that is
fairly simple to make, assuming that one can acquire the concentrated
sulfuric and nitric acids.  Its procedure for manufacture is given in many
college chemistry lab manuals, and is easy to follow.  The main problem
with picric acid is its tendency to form dangerously sensitive and unstable
picrate salts, such as potassium picrate.  For this reason, it is usually
made into a safer form, such as ammonium picrate, also called explosive D.
A social deviant would probably use a formula similar to the one presented
here to make picric acid.

    MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
    ---------                         ---------

    phenol (9.5 g)                    500 ml flask

    concentrated                      adjustable heat source
    sulfuric acid (12.5 ml)
                                      1000 ml beaker
    concentrated nitric               or other container
    acid (38 ml)                      suitable for boiling in

    distilled water                   filter paper
                                      and funnel

                                      glass stirring rod

1) Place 9.5 grams of phenol into the 500 ml flask, and carefully add 12.5
  ml of concentrated sulfuric acid and stir the mixture.

2) Put 400 ml of tap water into the 1000 ml beaker or boiling container and
  bring the water to a gentle boil.

3) After warming the 500 ml flask under hot tap water, place it in the
boiling water, and continue to stir the mixture of phenol and acid for
about thirty minutes.  After thirty minutes, take the flask out, and allow
it to cool for about five minutes.

4) Pour out the boiling water used above, and after allowing the container
to cool, use it to create an ice bath, similar to the one used in section
3.13, steps 3-4.  Place the 500 ml flask with the mixed acid an phenol in
the ice bath.  Add 38 ml of concentrated nitric acid in small amounts,
stirring the mixture constantly.  A vigorous but "harmless" reaction should
occur.  When the mixture stops reacting vigorously, take the flask out of
the ice bath.

5) Warm the ice bath container, if it is glass, and then begin boiling more
tap water.  Place the flask containing the mixture in the boiling water,
and heat it in the boiling water for 1.5 to 2 hours.

6) Add 100 ml of cold distilled water to the solution, and chill it in an
ice bath until it is cold.

7) Filter out the yellowish-white picric acid crystals by pouring the
solution through the filter paper in the funnel.  Collect the liquid and
dispose of it in a safe place, since it is corrosive.

8) Wash out the 500 ml flask with distilled water, and put the contents of
the filter paper in the flask.  Add 300 ml of water, and shake vigorously.

9) Re-filter the crystals, and allow them to dry.

10) Store the crystals in a safe place in a glass container, since they
will react with metal containers to produce picrates that could explode


    Ammonium picrate, also called Explosive D, is another safety
explosive. It requires a substantial shock to cause it to detonate,
slightly less than that required to detonate ammonium nitrate.  It is much
safer than picric acid, since it has little tendency to form hazardous
unstable salts when placed in metal containers.  It is simple to make from
picric acid and clear household ammonia. All that need be done is put the
picric acid crystals into a glass container and dissolve them in a great
quantity of hot water.  Add clear household ammonia in excess, and allow
the excess ammonia to evaporate.  The powder remaining should be ammonium


    Nitrogen trichloride, also known as chloride of azode, is an oily
yellow liquid.  It explodes violently when it is heated above 60 degrees
celsius, or when it comes in contact with an open flame or spark.  It is
fairly simple to produce.

1)  In a beaker, dissolve about 5 teaspoons of ammonium nitrate in water.
   Do not put so much ammonium nitrate into the solution that some of it
   remains undissolved in the bottom of the beaker.

2)  Collect a quantity of chlorine gas in a second beaker by mixing
    hydrochloric acid with potassium permanganate in a large flask with a
    stopper and glass pipe.

3)  Place the beaker containing the chlorine gas upside down on top of the
   beaker containing the ammonium nitrate solution, and tape the beakers
   together.  Gently heat the bottom beaker.  When this is done, oily
    yellow  droplets will begin to form on the surface of the solution,
    and sink down to the bottom.  At this time, remove the heat source

   Alternately, the chlorine can be bubbled through the ammonium nitrate
   solution, rather than collecting the gas in a beaker, but this requires
   timing and a stand to hold the beaker and test tube.

   The chlorine gas can also be mixed with anhydrous ammonia gas, by
    gently heating a flask filled with clear household ammonia.  Place the
    glass tubes from the chlorine-generating flask and the tube from the
    ammonia-generating flask in another flask that contains water.

4)  Collect the yellow droplets with an eyedropper, and use them
    immediately, since nitrogen trichloride decomposes in 24 hours.

3.41     LEAD AZIDE

    Lead Azide is a material that is often used as a booster charge for
other explosive, but it does well enough on its own as a fairly sensitive
explosive.  It does not detonate too easily by percussion or impact, but it
is easily detonated by heat from an igniter wire, or a blasting cap.  It is
simple to produce, assuming that the necessary chemicals can be procured.

    By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in separate
beakers, the two materials are put into an aqueous state.  Mix the two
beakers together, and apply a gentle heat. Add an excess of the lead
acetate solution, until no reaction occurs, and the precipitate on the
bottom of the beaker stops forming.  Filter off the solution, and wash the
precipitate in hot water. The precipitate is lead azide, and it must be
stored wet for safety. If lead acetate cannot be found, simply acquire
acetic acid, and put lead metal in it. Black powder bullets work well for
this purpose.


    The remaining section covers the other types of materials that can
be used to destroy property by fire.  Although none of the materials
presented here are explosives, they still produce explosive-style results.

3.51     THERMIT

    Thermit is a fuel-oxodizer mixture that is used to generate tremendous
amounts of heat. It was not presented in section 3.23 because it does not
react nearly as readily. It is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, both
finely powdered. When it is ignited, the aluminum burns, and extracts the
oxygen from the iron oxide. This is really two very exothermic reactions
that produce a combined temperature of about 2200 degrees C. This is half
the heat produced by an atomic weapon. It is difficult to ignite, however,
but when it is ignited, it is one of the most effective firestarters


    powdered aluminum (10 g)

    powdered iron oxide (10 g)

1) There is no special procedure or equipment required to make thermit.
Simply mix the two powders together, and try to make the mixture as
homogenous as possible.  The ratio of iron oxide to aluminum is 50% / 50%
by weight, and be made in greater or lesser amounts.  

2) Ignition of thermite can be accomplished by adding a small amount of  
potassium chlorate to the thermit, and pouring a few drops of sulfuric acid
on it.  This method and others will be discussed later in section 4.33.
The other method of igniting thermit is with a magnesium strip.  Finally,
by using common sparkler-type fireworks placed in the thermit, the mixture
can be ignited.


    First used by Russians against German tanks, the Molotov cocktail is
now exclusively used by terrorists worldwide. They are extremely simple to
make, and can produce devastating results. By taking any highly flammable
material, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol,
lighter fluid, turpentine, or any mixture of the above, and putting it into
a large glass bottle, anyone can make an effective firebomb. After putting
the flammable liquid in the bottle, simply put a piece of cloth that is
soaked in the liquid in the top of the bottle so that it fits tightly.
Then, wrap some of the cloth around the neck and tie it, but be sure to
leave a few inches of lose cloth to light. Light the exposed cloth, and
throw the bottle. If the burning cloth does not go out, and if the bottle
breaks on impact, the contents of the bottle will spatter over a large area
near the site of impact, and burst into flame. Flammable mixtures such as
kerosene and motor oil should be mixed with a more volatile and flammable
liquid, such as gasoline, to insure ignition. A mixture such as tar or
grease and gasoline will stick to the surface that it strikes, and burn
hotter, and be more difficult to extinguish. A mixture such as this must be
shaken well before it is lit and thrown


    The chemical fire bottle is really an advanced molotov cocktail.
Rather than using the burning cloth to ignite the flammable liquid, which
has at best a fair chance of igniting the liquid, the chemical fire bottle
utilizes the very hot and violent reaction between sulfuric acid and
potassium chlorate.  When the container breaks, the sulfuric acid in the
mixture of gasoline sprays onto the paper soaked in potassium chlorate and
sugar.  The paper, when struck by the acid, instantly bursts into a white
flame, igniting the gasoline.  The chance of failure to ignite the gasoline
is less than 2%, and can be reduced to 0%, if there is enough potassium
chlorate and sugar to spare.

    MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
    ---------                         ---------

    potassium chlorate               glass bottle
    (2 teaspoons)                    (12 oz.)

    sugar (2 teaspoons)              cap for bottle,
                                     with plastic inside

    concentrated                     cooking pan with raised
    sulfuric acid (4 oz.)            edges

    gasoline (8 oz.)                 paper towels

                                     glass or plastic cup
                                     and spoon

1) Test the cap of the bottle with a few drops of sulfuric acid to make
    sure that the acid will not eat away the bottle cap during storage.
    If the  acid eats through it in 24 hours, a new top must be found and
    tested, until a cap that the acid does not eat through is found.  A
    glass top is excellent.

2) Carefully pour 8 oz. of gasoline into the glass bottle.

3) Carefully pour 4 oz. of concentrated sulfuric acid into the glass
    bottle. Wipe up any spills of acid on the sides of the bottle, and
    screw the cap on the bottle.  Wash the bottle's outside with plenty of
    water.  Set it aside to dry.

4) Put about two teaspoons of potassium chlorate and about two teaspoons of
  sugar into the glass or plastic cup.  Add about 1/2 cup of boiling
    water, or enough to dissolve all of the potassium chlorate and sugar.

5) Place a sheet of paper towel in the cooking pan with raised edges.  Fold
  the paper towel in half, and pour the solution of dissolved potassium
  chlorate and sugar on it until it is thoroughly wet.  Allow the towel to

6) When it is dry, put some glue on the outside of the glass bottle
    containing the gasoline and sulfuric acid mixture.  Wrap the paper
    towel around the bottle, making sure that it sticks to it in all
    places.  Store the bottle in a place where it will not be broken or
    tipped over.

7) When finished, the solution in the bottle should appear as two distinct
  liquids, a dark brownish-red solution on the bottom, and a clear
    solution on top.  The two solutions will not mix.  To use the chemical
    fire bottle, simply throw it at any hard surface.


9) To test the device, tear a small piece of the paper towel off the
    bottle, and put a few drops of sulfuric acid on it.  The paper towel
    should immediately burst into a white flame.


    Bottled gas, such as butane for refilling lighters, propane for
propane stoves or for bunsen burners, can be used to produce a powerful
explosion. To make such a device, all that a simple-minded anarchist would
have to do would be to take his container of bottled gas and place it above
a can of Sterno or other gelatinized fuel, and light the fuel and run.
Depending on the fuel used, and on the thickness of the fuel container, the
liquid gas will boil and expand to the point of bursting the container in
about five minutes. In theory, the gas would immediately be ignited by the
burning gelatinized fuel, producing a large fireball and explosion.
Unfortunately, the bursting of the bottled gas container often puts out the
fuel, thus preventing the expanding gas from igniting.  By using a metal
bucket half filled with gasoline, however, the chances of ignition are
better, since the gasoline is less likely to be extinguished.  Placing the
canister of bottled gas on a bed of burning charcoal soaked in gasoline
would probably be the most effective way of securing ignition of the
expanding gas, since although the bursting of the gas container may blow
out the flame of the gasoline, the burning charcoal should immediately
re-ignite it.  Nitrous oxide, hydrogen, propane, acetylene, or any other
flammable gas will do nicely.


    Once a terrorist has made his explosives, the next logical step is to
apply them. Explosives have a wide range of uses, from harassment, to
    The first step that a person that would use explosive would take would
be to determine how big an explosive device would be needed to do whatever
had to be done. Then, he would have to decide what to make his bomb with.
He would also have to decide on how he wanted to detonate the device, and
determine where the best placement for it would be. Then, it would be
necessary to see if the device could be put where he wanted it without it
being discovered or moved. Finally, he would actually have to sit down and
build his explosive device. These are some of the topics covered in the
next section.

4.1     SAFETY

    There is no such thing as a "safe" explosive device.  One can only
speak in terms of relative safety, or less unsafe.


    There are many ways to ignite explosive devices.  There is the classic
"light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run" approach, and there are sensitive
mercury switches, and many things in between.  Generally, electrical
detonation systems are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are
more appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carry an
electrical detonation system into a stadium, for instance, without being
caught.  A device with a fuse or impact detonating fuse would be easier to


    The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps the favorite
type of simple ignition system.  By simply placing a piece of waterproof
fuse in a device, one can have almost guaranteed ignition.  Modern
waterproof fuse is extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5
seconds to the inch.  It is available as model rocketry fuse in most hobby
shops, and costs about $3.00 for a nine-foot length.  Fuse is a popular
ignition system for pipe bombers because of its simplicity.  All that need
be done is light it with a match or lighter.
    Of course, if the Army had fuses like this, then the grenade, which
uses fuse ignition, would be very impracticle.  If a grenade ignition
system can be acquired, by all means, it is the most effective.  But, since
such things do not just float around, the next best thing is to prepare a
fuse system which does not require the use of a match or lighter, but still
retains its simplicity. One such method is described below:


    strike-on-cover type matches

    electrical tape or duct tape

    waterproof fuse

1) To determine the burn rate of a particular type of fuse, simply measure
    a 6 inch or longer piece of fuse and ignite it.  With a stopwatch,
    press the start button the at the instant when the fuse lights, and
    stop the watch when the fuse reaches its end.  Divide the time of burn
    by the length of fuse, and you have the burn rate of the fuse, in
    seconds per inch.  This will be shown below:

    Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its complete time
    of combustion is 20 seconds.

    20 seconds
    ----------  = 2.5 seconds per inch.
    8 inches

    If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse, divide the
desired time by the number of seconds per inch:

    10 seconds
    ------------------- = 4 inches
    2.5 seconds / inch


2) After deciding how long a delay is desired before the explosive device
    is to go off, add about 1/2 an inch to the premeasured amount of fuse,
    and cut it off.

3) Carefully remove the cardboard matches from the paper match case.  Do
    not pull off individual matches; keep all the matches attached to the
    cardboard base.  Take one of the cardboard match sections, and leave
    the other one to make a second igniter.

4) Wrap the matches around the end of the fuse, with the heads of the
    matches touching the very end of the fuse.  Tape them there securely,
    making sure not to put tape over the match heads.  Make sure they are
    very secure by pulling on them at the base of the assembly.  They
    should not be able to move.

5) Wrap the cover of the matches around the matches attached to the fuse,
    making sure that the striker paper is below the match heads and the
    striker faces the match heads.  Tape the paper so that is fairly tight
    around the matches. Do not tape the cover of the striker to the fuse
    or to the matches.  Leave enough of the match book to pull on for

         \                   /
          \                 /  ------ match book cover
           \               /
            |    M|f|M ---|------- match head
            |    A|u|A    |
            |    T|s|T    |
            |    C|e|C    |
            |     |f|     |
            |#####|u|#####|-------- striking paper
            \     |e|     /
             \    |.|    /
              \   |f|   /
               \  |u|  /

    The match book is wrapped around the matches, and is taped to itself.
    The matches are taped to the fuse.  The striker will rub against the
    matcheads when the match book is pulled.

6) When ready to use, simply pull on the match paper.  It should pull the
striking paper across the match heads with enough friction to light them.  
In turn, the burning matcheads will light the fuse, since it adjacent to
the burning match heads.


    Impact ignition is an excellent method of ignition for spontaneous
terrorist activities.  The problem with an impact-detonating device is that
it must be kept in a very safe container so that it will not explode while
being transported to the place where it is to be used.  This can be done by
having a removable impact initiator.
    The best and most reliable impact initiator is one that uses factory
made initiators or primers. A no. 11 cap for black powder firearms is one
such primer. They usually come in boxes of 100, and cost about $2.50. To
use such a cap, however, one needs a nipple that it will fit on. Black
powder nipples are also available in gun stores. All that a person has to
do is ask for a package of nipples and the caps that fit them.  Nipples
have a hole that goes all the way through them, and they have a threaded
end, and an end to put the cap on. A cutaway of a nipple is shown below:

                 |                |
                 _                |
                | |                 |
         _______| |^^^^^^^^|        |
         |      ___________|          |
         |     |                      |
  no. 11       |_______|                |
  percussion    _______                 | ------- threads for screwing
  cap here     |       |                |         nipple onto bomb
         |     |___________           |
         |_______         |           |
              | |^^^^^^^^^|         |
              |_|                   |

    When making using this type of initiator, a hole must be drilled into
whatever container is used to make the bomb out of. The nipple is then
screwed into the hole so that it fits tightly. Then, the cap can be carried
and placed on the bomb when it is to be thrown. The cap should be bent a
small amount before it is placed on the nipple, to make sure that it stays
in place.  The only other problem involved with an impact detonating bomb
is that it must strike a hard surface on the nipple to set it off. By
attaching fins or a small parachute on the end of the bomb opposite the
primer, the bomb, when thrown, should strike the ground on the primer, and
explode. Of course, a bomb with mercury fulminate in each end will go off
on impact regardless of which end it strikes on, but mercury fulminate is
also likely to go off if the person carrying the bomb is bumped hard.


    Electrical ignition systems for detonation are usually the safest and
most reliable form of ignition. Electrical systems are ideal for demolition
work, if one doesn't have to worry so much about being caught. With two
spools of 500 ft of wire and a car battery, one can detonate explosives
from a "safe", comfortable distance, and be sure that there is nobody
around that could get hurt. With an electrical system, one can control
exactly what time a device will explode, within fractions of a second.
Detonation can be aborted in  less than a second's warning, if a person
suddenly walks by the detonation sight, or if a police car chooses to roll
by at the time. The two best electrical igniters are military squibs and
model rocketry igniters. Blasting caps for construction also work well.
Model rocketry igniters are sold in packages of six, and cost about $1.00
per pack. All that need be done to use them is connect it to two wires and
run a current through them. Military squibs are difficult to get, but they
are a little bit better, since they explode when a current is run through
them, whereas rocketry igniters only burst into flame. Military squibs can
be used to set off sensitive high explosives, such as R.D.X., or potassium
chlorate mixed with petroleum jelly. Igniters can be used to set off black
powder, mercury fulminate, or guncotton, which in turn, can set of a high
order explosive.


    Electro-mechanical ignition systems are systems that use some type of
mechanical switch to set off an explosive charge electrically.  This type
of switch is typically used in booby traps or other devices in which the
person who places the bomb does not wish to be anywhere near the device
when it explodes.  Several types of electro-mechanical detonators will be

4.241     Mercury Switches

    Mercury switches are a switch that uses the fact that mercury metal
conducts electricity, as do all metals, but mercury metal is a liquid at
room temperatures. A typical mercury switch is a sealed glass tube with two
electrodes and a bead of mercury metal. It is sealed because of mercury's
nasty habit of giving off brain-damaging vapors. The diagram below may help
to explain a mercury switch.

                    A  /              \   B
     _____wire +______/___________     \
                      \   ( Hg )  |    /
                       \ _(_Hg_)__|___/
                           wire - |

    When the drop of mercury ("Hg" is mercury's atomic symbol) touches
both contacts, current flows through the switch.  If this particular switch
was in its present position, A---B, current would be flowing, since the
mercury can touch both contacts in the horizontal position.
    If, however, it was in the | position, the drop of mercury would only
touch the + contact on the A side. Current, then couldn't flow, since
mercury does not reach both contacts when the switch is in the vertical
     This type of switch is ideal to place by a door. If it were placed in
the path of a swinging door in the verticle position, the motion of the
door would knock the switch down, if it was held to the ground by a piece
if tape. This would tilt the switch into the verticle position, causing the
mercury to touch both contacts, allowing current to flow through the
mercury, and to the igniter or squib in an explosive device. Imagine
opening a door and having it slammed in your face by an explosion.

4.242     Tripwire Switches

    A tripwire is an element of the classic booby trap.  By placing a
nearly invisible line of string or fishing line in the probable path of a
victim, and by putting some type of trap there also, nasty things can be
caused to occur. If this mode of thought is applied to explosives, how
would one use such a tripwire to detonate a bomb.  The technique is simple.
By wrapping the tips of a standard clothespin with aluminum foil, and
placing something between them, and connecting wires to each aluminum foil
contact, an electric tripwire can be made,  If a piece of wood attached to
the tripwire was placed between the contacts on the clothespin, the
clothespin would serve as a switch.  When the tripwire was pulled, the
clothespin would snap together, allowing current to flow between the two
pieces of aluminum foil, thereby completing a circuit, which would have the
igniter or squib in it.  Current would flow between the contacts to the
igniter or squib, heat the igniter or squib, causing it it to explode.

Insert strip of      ----------------------------spring
wood with trip-      _foil__________________________
wire between foil   /_______________________________\

Make sure that the aluminum foil contacts do not touch the spring, since
the spring also conducts electricity.

4.243     Radio Control Detonators

    In the movies, every terrorist or criminal uses a radio controlled
detonator to set off explosives.  With a good radio detonator, one can be
several miles away from the device, and still control exactly when it
explodes, in much the same way as an electrical switch.  The problem with
radio detonators is that they are rather costly.  However, there could
possibly be a reason that a terrorist would wish to spend the amounts of
money involved with a RC (radio control) system and use it as a detonator.
If such an individual wanted to devise an RC detonator, all he would need
to do is visit the local hobby store or toy store, and buy a radio
controlled toy.  Taking it back to his/her abode, all that he/she would
have to do is detach the solenoid/motor that controls the motion of the
front wheels of a RC car, or detach the solenoid/motor of the
elevators/rudder of a RC plane, or the rudder of a RC boat, and re-connect
the squib or rocket engine igniter to the contacts for the solenoid/motor.
The device should be tested several times with squibs or igniters, and
fully charged batteries should be in both the controller and the receiver
(the part that used to move parts before the device became a detonator).

4.3     DELAYS

    A delay is a device which causes time to pass from when a device is
set up to the time that it explodes.  A regular fuse is a delay, but it
would cost quite a bit to have a 24 hour delay with a fuse.  This section
deals with the different types of delays that can be employed by a
terrorist who wishes to be sure that his bomb will go off, but wants to be
out of the country when it does.

4.31     FUSE DELAYS

    It is extremely simple to delay explosive devices that employ fuses
for ignition.  Perhaps the simplest way to do so is with a cigarette.  An
average cigarette burns for about 8 minutes. The higher the "tar" and
nicotine rating, the slower the cigarette burns. Low "tar" and nicotine
cigarettes burn quicker than the higher "tar" and nicotine cigarettes, but
they are also less likely to go out if left unattended, i.e. not smoked.
Depending on the wind or draft in a given place, a high "tar" cigarette is
better for delaying the ignition of a fuse, but there must be enough wind
or draft to give the cigarette enough oxygen to burn. People who use
cigarettes for the purpose of delaying fuses will often test the cigarettes
that they plan to use in advance to make sure they stay lit and to see how
long it will burn. Once a cigarettes burn rate is determined, it is a
simple matter of carefully putting a hole all the way through a cigarette
with a toothpick at the point desired, and pushing the fuse for a device in
the hole formed.

                           |=| ---------- filter
                           | |
                           | |
                           |o| ---------- hole for fuse
cigarette ------------     | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           | |
                           |_| ---------- light this end

    A similar type of device can be make from powdered charcoal and a
sheet of paper.  Simply roll the sheet of paper into a thin tube, and fill
it with powdered charcoal. Punch a hole in it at the desired location, and
insert a fuse. Both ends must be glued closed, and one end of the delay
must be doused with lighter fluid before it is lit. Or, a small charge of
gunpowder mixed with powdered charcoal could conceivably used for igniting
such a delay. A chain of charcoal briquettes can be used as a delay by
merely lining up a few bricks of charcoal so that they touch each other,
end on end, and lighting the first brick. Incense, which can be purchased
at almost any novelty or party supply store, can also be used as a fairly
reliable delay. By wrapping the fuse about the end of an incense stick,
delays of up to 1/2 an hour are possible.

    Finally, it is possible to make a relatively slow-burning fuse in the
home. By dissolving about one teaspoon of black powder in about 1/4 a cup
of boiling water, and, while it is still hot, soaking in it a long piece of
all cotton string, a slow-burning fuse can be made. After the soaked string
dries, it must then be tied to the fuse of an explosive device. Sometimes,
the end of the slow burning fuse that meets the normal fuse has a charge of
black powder or gunpowder at the intersection point to insure ignition,
since the slow-burning fuse does not burn at a very high temperature. A
similar type of slow fuse can be made by taking the above mixture of
boiling water and black powder and pouring it on a long piece of toilet
paper. The wet toilet paper is then gently twisted up so that it resembles
a firecracker fuse, and is allowed to dry.


    Timer delays, or "time bombs" are usually employed by an individual
who wishes to threaten a place with a bomb and demand money to reveal its
location and means to disarm it.  Such a device could be placed in any
populated place if it were concealed properly.  There are several ways to
build a timer delay. By simply using a screw as one contact at the time
that detonation is desired, and using the hour hand of a clock as the other
contact, a simple timer can be made. The minute hand of a clock should be
removed, unless a delay of less than an hour is desired.

           ___________________________________  to igniter      from
           |                                  |
           |               12                 |      :            :
           |         11           1           |      :            :
           |                                  |      :            :
           |     10                   2       |      :            :
           |                 o................|......:            :
           |                                  |                   :
           |   9                         3    |                   :
           |                                  |                   :
           |                                  |                   :
           |    8                      4      |                   :
           |                        o.........|......             :
           |          7             5         |     :             :
           |                 6                |     :.+.....-.....:
           |__________________________________|     __|_____|
                                       |           |
                                       |  battery  |
         o - contacts                  |           |
         ..... - wire                  |           |

    This device is set to go off in eleven hours.  When the hour hand of
the clock reaches the contact near the numeral 5, it will complete the
circuit, allowing current to flow through the igniter or squib.
    The main disadvantage with this type of timer is that it can only be
set  for a maximum time of 12 hours.  If an electronic timer is used, such
as that in an electronic clock, then delays of up to 24 hours are possible.
By removing the speaker from an electronic clock, and attaching the wires
of a squib or igniter to them, a timer with a delay of up to 24 hours can
be made.  To utilize this type of timer, one must have a socket that the
clock can be plugged into. All that one has to do is set the alarm time of
the clock to the desired time, connect the leads, and go away.  This could
also be done with an electronic watch, if a larger battery were used, and
the current to the speaker of the watch was stepped up via a transformer.
This would be good, since such a timer could be extremely small.  The timer
in a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder) would be ideal.  VCR's can usually be
set for times of up to a week.  The leads from the timer to the recording
equipment would be the ones that an igniter or squib would be connected to.
Also, one can buy timers from electronics stores that would be ideal.
Finally, one could employ a digital watch, and use a relay, or
electro-magnetic switch to fire the igniter, and the current of the watch
would not have to be stepped up.


    Chemical delays are uncommon, but they can be extremely effective in
some cases.  If a glass container is filled with concentrated sulfuric
acid, and capped with several thicknesses of aluminum foil, or a cap that
it will eat through, then it can be used as a delay.  Sulfuric acid will
react with aluminum foil to produce aluminum sulfate and hydrogen gas, and
so the container must be open to the air on one end so that the pressure of
the hydrogen gas that is forming does not break the container. See diagram
on following page.

               _               _
              | |             | |
              | |             | |
              | |             | |
              | |_____________| |
              | |             | |
              | |  sulfuric   | |
              | |             | |
              | |  acid       | |
              | |             | |---------- aluminum foil
              | |_____________| |           (several thicknesses)

    The aluminum foil is placed over the bottom of the container and
secured there with tape.  When the acid eats through the aluminum foil, it
can be used to ignite an explosive device in several ways.

    1) Sulfuric acid is a good conductor of electricity.  If the acid that
       eats through the foil is collected in a glass container placed
       underneath the foil, and two wires are placed in the glass          
        a current will be able to flow through the acid when both of the
       wires are immersed in the acid.

    2) Sulfuric acid reacts very violently with potassium chlorate.  If
       the acid drips down into a container containing potassium chlorate,
       the potassium chlorate will burst into flame.  This flame can be
       used to ignite a fuse, or the potassium chlorate can be the igniter
       for a thermit bomb, if some potassium chlorate is mixed in a 50/50
       ratio with the thermit, and this mixture is used as an igniter for
       the rest of the thermit.

    3) Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium permangenate in a similar way.


    This section will cover everything from making a simple firecracker to
a complicated scheme for detonating an insensitive high explosive, both of
which are methods that could be utilized by perpetrators of terror.


    Paper was the first container ever used for explosives, since it was
first used by the Chinese to make fireworks. Paper containers are usually
very simple to make, and are certainly the cheapest. There are many
possible uses for paper in containing explosives, and the two most obvious
are in firecrackers and rocket engines. Simply by rolling up a long sheet
of paper, and gluing it together, one can make a simple rocket engine.
Perhaps a more interesting and dangerous use is in the firecracker. The
firecracker shown here is one of Mexican design. It is called a "polumna",
meaning "dove". The process of their manufacture is not unlike that of
making a paper football. If one takes a sheet of paper about 16 inches in
length by 1.5 inches wide, and fold one corner so that it looks like this:

      |                                                      |\
      |                                                      | \
      |                                                      |  \

      and then fold it again so that it looks like this:

      |                                                     /|
      |                                                    / |
      |                                                   /  |

     A pocket is formed.  This pocket can be filled with black powder,
pyrodex, flash powder, gunpowder,rocket engine powder, or any of the
quick-burning fuel- oxodizer mixtures that occur in the form of a fine
powder.  A fuse is then inserted, and one continues the triangular folds,
being careful not to spill out any of the explosive.  When the polumna is
finished, it should be taped together very tightly, since this will
increase the strength of the container, and produce a louder and more
powerful explosion when it is lit.  The finished polumna should look like a
1/4 inch - 1/3 inch thick triangle, like the one shown below:

           / \  ----- securely tape all corners
          /   \
         /     \
        /       \
       /         \
      /           \____________________________
     /_____________\__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/  ---------- fuse


    The classic pipe bomb is the best known example of a metal-contained
explosive.  Idiot anarchists take white tipped matches and cut off the
match heads.  They pound one end of a pipe closed with a hammer, pour in
the white- tipped matches, and then pound the other end closed.  This
process often kills the fool, since when he pounds the pipe closed, he
could very easily cause enough friction between the match heads to cause
them to ignite and explode the unfinished bomb.  By using pipe caps, the
process is somewhat safer, and the less stupid anarchist would never use
white tipped matches in a bomb.  He would buy two pipe caps and threaded
pipe (fig. 1).  First, he would drill a hole in one pipe cap, and put a
fuse in it so that it will not come out, and so powder will not escape
during handling.  The fuse would be at least 3/4 an inch long inside the
bomb.  He would then screw the cap with the fuse in it on tightly, possibly
putting a drop of super glue on it to hold it tight.  He would then pour
his explosive powder in the bomb.  To pack it tightly, he would take a
large wad of tissue paper and, after filling the pipe to the very top, pack
the powder down, by using the paper as a ramrod tip, and pushing it with a
pencil or other wide ended object, until it would not move any further.
Finally, he would screw the other pipe cap on, and glue it. The tissue
paper would help prevent some of the powder from being caught in the
threads of the pipe or pipe cap from being crushed and subject to friction,
which might ignite the powder, causing an explosion during manufacture. An
assembled bomb is shown in fig. 2.

    _________           _______________          __________
    |       |     ^^^^^^               ^^^^^^    |        |
    | |vvvvv|    |_________________________|     |vvvvvv| |
    | |                                                 | |
    | |                                                 | |
    | |                                                 | |
    | |                                                 | |
    | |           ___________________________           | |
    | |          |                           |          | |
    | |^^^^^|     vvvvvv_______________vvvvvv    |^^^^^^| |
    |_______|                                    |________|

    fig 1. Threaded pipe and endcaps.

         ________                                ________
         | _____|________________________________|_____ |
         | |__________________________________________| |
         | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| |
         | | tissue | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |_|
         | | : : :  |- - - low order explosive - - ----------------------
         | | paper  | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |-|    fuse
         | |: : : : |- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -| |
         | |________|_________________________________| |
         | |__________________________________________| |
         |______|                                |______|

         endcap                pipe               endcap
                                                  w/ hole

    fig. 2  Assembled pipe bomb.

    This is one possible design that a mad bomber would use.  If, however,
he did not have access to threaded pipe with endcaps, he could always use a
piece of copper or aluminum pipe, since it is easily bent into a suitable
position.  A major problem with copper piping, however, is bending and
folding it without tearing it; if too much force is used when folding and
bending copper pipe, it will split along the fold.  The safest method for
making a pipe bomb out of copper or aluminum pipe is similar to the method
with pipe and endcaps. First, one flattens one end of a copper or aluminum
pipe carefully, making sure not to tear or rip the piping.  Then, the flat
end of the pipe should be folded over at least once, if this does not rip
the pipe.  A fuse hole should be drilled in the pipe near the now closed
end, and the fuse should be inserted. Next, the bomb-builder would fill the
bomb with a low order explosive, and pack it with a large wad of tissue
paper.  He would then flatten and fold the other end of the pipe with a
pair of pliers.  If he was not too dumb, he would do this slowly, since the
process of folding and bending metal gives off heat, which could set off
the explosive.  A diagram is presented below:
    _______________________________________________/       |
    |                                                      |
    |                                                  o   |
    |______________________________________________        |

    fig. 1  pipe with one end flattened and fuse hole drilled (top view)

    ____________________________________________/  |  |
    |                                              |  |
    |                                            o |  |
    |___________________________________________   |  |

    fig. 2  pipe with one end flattened and folded up (top view)

                             ____________ fuse hole
    |                             \ |____ |
    |                              \____| |
    |                               ______|
    |                              /

    fig. 3  pipe with flattened and folded end (side view)

                                               _________________ fuse
     ________   ______________________________|___   _______
     |  ____|  /     |- - - - - - - - - - -| - -  \  |___  |
     |  |_____/tissue| - - - - - - - - - - - -|- - \_____| |
     |________ paper |- - -  low order explosive -  _______|
           \         | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - /

    fig. 4  completed bomb, showing tissue paper packing and explosive
               (side view)

     A CO2 cartridge from a B.B gun is another excellent container for a
low-order explosive.  It has one minor disadvantage: it is time consuming
to fill.  But this can be rectified by widening the opening of the
cartridge with a pointed tool.  Then, all that would have to be done is to
fill the CO2 cartridge with any low-order explosive, or any of the fast
burning fuel- oxodizer mixtures, and insert a fuse.  These devices are
commonly called "crater makers".

    A CO2 cartridge also works well as a container for a thermit
incendiary device, but it must be modified. The opening in the end must be
widened, so that the ignition mixture, such as powdered magnesium, does not
explode. The fuse will ignite the powdered magnesium, which, in turn, would
ignite the thermit.

    The previously mentioned designs for explosive devices are fine for
low-order explosives, but are unsuitable for high-order explosives, since
the latter requires a shockwave to be detonated. A design employing a
smaller low-order explosive device inside a larger device containing a
high-order explosive would probably be used. It would look something like:

                                        _______________________ fuse
     _________                          |           _________
     |   ____|__________________________|___________|____   |
     |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
     |   |  * * * * * *  high explosive | * * * * * * * |   |
     |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
     |   |  *  ______    _______________|_    ______  * |   |
     |   | * * |  __|   /   - - - - - - | \   |__  | *  |   |
     |   |  *  |  |____/   low explosive - \____|  |  * |   |
     |   | * * |_______  - - - - - - - - -  _______| *  |   |
     |   |  * * * * *  \  - - - - - - - -  /  * * * * * |   |
     |   | * * * * * *  \_________________/  * * * * *  |   |
     |   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
     |   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  |   |
     |   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
     |   |______________________________________________|   |
     |_______|                                      |_______|

    If the large high explosive container is small, such as a CO2
cartridge, then a segment of a hollow radio antenna can be made into a
low-order pipe bomb, which can be fitted with a fuse, and inserted into the
CO2 cartridge.


    Glass containers can be suitable for low-order explosives, but there
are problems with them.  First, a glass container can be broken relatively
easily compared to metal or plastic containers.  Secondly, in the
not-too-unlikely event of an "accident", the person making the device would
probably be seriously injured, even if the device was small.  A bomb made
out of a sample perfume bottle-sized container exploded in the hands of one
boy, and he still has pieces of glass in his hand.  He is also missing the
final segment of his ring finger, which was cut off by a sharp piece of
flying glass...

    Nonetheless, glass containers such as perfume bottles can be used by a
demented individual, since such a device would not be detected by metal
detectors in an airport or other public place.  All that need be done is
fill the container, and drill a hole in the plastic cap that the fuse fits
tightly in, and screw the cap-fuse assembly on.

                   ________________________  fuse
              | ___|___ |
              | >  |  < |  drill hole in cap, and insert fuse;
              | >  |  < |  be sure fuse will not come out of cap
              | >  |  < |
              |    |    |
              |         |
              |         |
              |         |  screw cap on bottle
              |         |
              |         |
              V         V

               <         >
               <         >
               <         >
                 /     \
                /      \
               /         \
              |           |  fill bottle with low-order explosive
              |           |
              |           |
              |           |
              |           |

    Large explosive devices made from glass containers are not practicle,
since glass is not an exceptionally strong container.  Much of the
explosive that is used to fill the container is wasted if the container is
much larger than a 16 oz. soda bottle.  Also, glass containers are usually
unsuitable for high explosive devices, since a glass container would
probably not withstand the explosion of the initiator; it would shatter
before the high explosive was able to detonate.


    Plastic containers are perhaps the best containers for explosives,
since they can be any size or shape, and are not fragile like glass.
Plastic piping can be bought at hardware or plumbing stores, and a device
much like the ones used for metal containers can be made. The high-order
version works well with plastic piping. If the entire device is made out of
plastic, it is not detectable by metal detectors. Plastic containers can
usually be shaped by heating the container, and bending it at the
appropriate place. They can be glued closed with epoxy or other cement for
plastics. Epoxy alone can be used as an endcap, if a wad of tissue paper is
placed in the piping. Epoxy with a drying agent works best in this type of

              ||               ||
              ||               ||
              ||               ||
              ||     epoxy     ||
              ||               ||
              ||    tissue     ||
              ||     paper     ||
              ||** explosive **||
              ||***********-----------------------  fuse
              ||               ||
              ||    tissue     ||
              ||     paper     ||
              ||               ||
              ||     epoxy     ||
              || _____________ ||
              ||/             \||
              ||               ||
              ||               ||

    One end must be made first, and be allowed to dry completely before
the device can be filled with powder and fused.  Then, with another piece
of tissue paper, pack the powder tightly, and cover it with plenty of
epoxy.  PVC pipe works well for this type of device, but it cannot be used
if the pipe had an inside diameter greater than 3/4 of an inch.  Other
plastic puttys can be used int this type of device, but epoxy with a drying
agent works best.


    The techniques presented here are those that could be used by a person
who had some degree of knowledge of the use of explosives.  Some of this
information comes from demolitions books, or from military handbooks.
Advanced uses for explosives usually involved shaped charges, or utilize a
minimum amount of explosive to do a maximum amount of damage.  They almost
always involve high- order explosives.


    A shaped charge is an explosive device that, upon detonation, directs
the explosive force of detonation at a small target area. This process can
be used to breach the strongest armor, since forces of literally millions
of pounds of pressure per square inch can be generated. Shaped charges
employ high-order explosives, and usually electric ignition systems. KEEP
               An example of a shaped charge is shown below.

                 + wire ________           _______ - wire
                                |         |
                                |         |
                                |         |
_                      _________|_________|____________
^                     | ________|_________|__________ |
|                     | |       |         |         | |
|                     | |       \ igniter /         | |
|                     | |        \_______/          | |
|                     | |     priming charge        | |
|                     | |   (mercury fulminate)     | |
|                     | |             ^             | |
|                     | |            / \            | |
|                     | |           /   \           | |
|                     | |          /     \          | |
|                     | |         /       \         | |
|                     | |        /         \        | |
|                     | |       /           \       | |
                      | |      /             \      | |
8 inches high         | |     /               \     | |
                      | |    /       high      \    | |
|                     | |   /      explosive    \   | |
|                     | |  /        charge       \  | |
|                     | | /                       \ | |
|                     | |/                         \| |
|                     | |             ^             | |
|                     | |            / \            | |
|                     | |           /   \           | |
|                     | |          /     \          | |
|                     | |         /       \         | |
|                     | |        /         \        | |
|                     | |       /           \       | |
|                     | |      /             \      | |
|                     | |     /               \     | |
|                     | |    /                 \    | | ------- 1/2 inch
|                     | |   /                   \   | |         thick
|                     | |  /                     \  | |         pipe
|                     | | /                       \ | |
|                     | |/                         \| |
|      hole for       | |                           | |     hole for
|      screw          | |                           | |      screw
|                     | |                           | |
V_______   ___________| |                           | |___________
|______|   |____________|                           |_____________|

                        |<------- 8 inches -------->|

    If a device such as this is screwed to a safe, for example, it would
direct most of the explosive force at a point about 1 inch away from the
opening of the pipe. The basis for shaped charges is a cone-shaped opening
in the explosive material.  This cone should have an angle of 45 degrees.
A device such as this one could also be attached to a metal surface with a
powerful electromagnet.


    A variation on shaped charges, tube explosives can be used in ways
that shaped charges cannot. If a piece of 1/2 inch plastic tubing was
filled with a sensitive high explosive like R.D.X., and prepared as the
plastic explosive container in section 4.44, a different sort of shaped
charge could be produced; a charge that directs explosive force in a
circular manner. This type of explosive could be wrapped around a column,
or a doorknob, or a telephone pole. The explosion would be directed in and
out, and most likely destroy whatever it was wrapped around. In an unbent
state, a tube explosive would look like this:

               ||      ||
              ||      ||
              || epoxy||
              ||      ||
              || paper||
              || RDX  ||
              || ____ ||
              || | s| ||
              || | q| ||
              || | u| ||
              || | i| ||
              || | b| ||
              || | b| ||
              || |__| ||
              || paper||
              ||  ||  ||
              || epoxy||
              ||  ||  ||
              || _||_ ||
              ||/ || \||
              ||  ||  ||
              ||  ||  ||
                  ||_______ + wire ______________
                  |________ - wire ______________

    When an assassin or terrorist wishes to use a tube bomb, he must wrap
it around whatever thing he wishes to destroy, and epoxy the ends of the
tube bomb together.  After it dries, he/she can connect wires to the squib
wires, and detonate the bomb, with any method of electric detonation.


    If a highly flammable substance is atomized, or, divided into very
small particles, and large amounts of it is burned in a confined area, an
explosion similar to that occurring in the cylinder of an automobile is
produced. The tiny droplets of gasoline burn in the air, and the hot gasses
expand rapidly, pushing the cylinder up. Similarly, if a gallon of gasoline
was atomized and ignited in a building, it is very possible that the
expanding gassed would push the walls of the building down. This phenomenon
is called an atomized particle explosion. If a person can effectively
atomize a large amount of a highly flammable substance and ignite it, he
could bring down a large building, bridge, or other structure. Atomizing a
large amount of gasoline, for example, can be extremely difficult, unless
one has the aid of a high explosive. If a gallon jug of gasoline was placed
directly over a high explosive charge, and the charge was detonated, the
gasoline would instantly be atomized and ignited. If this occurred in a
building, for example, an atomized particle explosion would surely occur.
Only a small amount of high explosive would be necessary to accomplish this
feat, about 1/2 a pound of T.N.T. or 1/4 a pound of R.D.X.  Also, instead
of gasoline, powdered aluminum could be used. It is necessary that a high
explosive be used to atomize a flammable material, since a low-order
explosion does not occur quickly enough to atomize or ignite the flammable


    An automatic reaction to walking into a dark room is to turn on the
light.  This can be fatal, if a lightbulb bomb has been placed in the
overhead light socket.  A lightbulb bomb is surprisingly easy to make.  It
also comes with its own initiator and electric ignition system.  On some
lightbulbs, the lightbulb glass can be removed from the metal base by
heating the base of a lightbulb in a gas flame, such as that of a blowtorch
or gas stove.  This must be done carefully, since the inside of a lightbulb
is a vacuum.  When the glue gets hot enough, the glass bulb can be pulled
off the metal base.  On other bulbs, it is necessary to heat the glass
directly with a blowtorch or oxy-acetylene torch.  When the bulb is red
hot, a hole must be carefully poked in the bulb, remembering the vacuum
state inside the bulb.  In either case, once the bulb and/or base has
cooled down to room temperature or lower, the bulb can be filled with an
explosive material, such as black powder.  If the glass was removed from
the metal base, it must be glued back on to the base with epoxy.  If a hole
was put in the bulb, a piece of duct tape is sufficient to hold the
explosive in the in the bulb.  Then, after making sure that the socket has
no power by checking with a working lightbulb, all that need be done is to
screw the lightbulb bomb into the socket.  Such a device has been used by
terrorists or assassins with much success, since nobody can search the room
for a bomb without first turning on the light.

4.55     BOOK BOMBS

    Concealing a bomb can be extremely difficult in a day and age where
perpetrators of violence run wild.  Bags and briefcases are often searched
by authorities whenever one enters a place where an individual might intend
to set off a bomb.  One approach to disguising a bomb is to build what is
called a book bomb; an explosive device that is entirely contained inside
of a book.  Usually, a relatively large book is required, and the book must
be of the hardback variety to hide any protrusions of a bomb.
Dictionaries, law books, large textbooks, and other such books work well.
When an individual makes a bookbomb, he/she must choose a type of book that
is appropriate for the place where the book bomb will be placed.  The
actual construction of a book bomb can be done by anyone who possesses an
electric drill and a coping saw.  First, all of the pages of the book must
be glued together.  By pouring an entire container of water-soluble glue
into a large bucket, and filling the bucket with boiling water, a
glue-water solution can be made that will hold all of the book's pages
together tightly.  After the glue-water solution has cooled to a bearable
temperature, and the solution has been stirred well, the pages of the book
must be immersed in the glue-water solution, and each page must be
thoroughly soaked.  It is extremely important that the covers of the book
do not get stuck to the pages of the book while the pages are drying.
Suspending the book by both covers and clamping the pages together in a
vice works best.  When the pages dry, after about three days to a week, a
hole must be drilled into the now rigid pages, and they should drill out
much like wood. Then, by inserting the coping saw blade through the pages
and sawing out a rectangle from the middle of the book, the individual will
be left with a shell of the book's pages.  The pages, when drilled out,
should look like this:

              | ____________________ |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |                  | |
              | |__________________| |

                (book covers omitted)

    This rectangle must be securely glued to the back cover of the book.
After building his/her bomb, which usually is of the timer or radio
controlled variety, the bomber places it inside the book.  The bomb itself,
and whatever timer or detonator is used, should be packed in foam to
prevent it from rolling or shifting about.  Finally, after the timer is
set, or the radio control has been turned on, the front cover is glued
closed, and the bomb is taken to its destination.

4.56     PHONE BOMBS

    The phone bomb is an explosive device that has been used in the past
to kill or injure a specific individual.  The basic idea is simple: when
the person answers the phone, the bomb explodes.  If a small but powerful
high explosive device with a squib was placed in the phone receiver, when
the current flowed through the receiver, the squib would explode,
detonating the high explosive in the person's hand.  Nasty.  All that has
to be done is acquire a squib, and tape the receiver switch down. Unscrew
the mouthpiece cover, and remove the speaker, and connect the squib's leads
where it was. Place a high explosive putty, such as C-1 (see section 3.31)
in the receiver, and screw the cover on, making sure that the squib is
surrounded by the C-1. Hang the phone up, and leave the tape in place.
When the individual to whom the phone belongs attempts to answer the phone,
he will notice the tape, and remove it.  This will allow current to flow
through the squib.  Note that the device will not explode by merely making
a phone call; the owner of the phone must lift up the receiver, and remove
the tape.  It is highly probable that the phone will be by his/her ear when
the device explodes...


    Explosive and/or poisoned ammunition is an important part of a social
deviant's arsenal.  Such ammunition gives the user a distinct advantage
over individual who use normal ammunition, since a grazing hit is good
enough to kill.  Special ammunition can be made for many types of weapons,
from crossbows to shotguns.


    For the purposes of this publication, we will call any weapon
primitive that does not employ burning gunpowder to propel a projectile
forward.  This means blowguns, bows and crossbows, and wristrockets.


    Bows and crossbows both fire arrows or bolts as ammunition.  It is
extremely simple to poison an arrow or bolt, but it is a more difficult
matter to produce explosive arrows or bolts.  If, however, one can acquire
aluminum piping that is the same diameter of an arrow or crossbow bolt, the
entire segment of piping can be converted into an explosive device that
detonates upon impact, or with a fuse.  All that need be done is find an
aluminum tube of the right length and diameter, and plug the back end with
tissue paper and epoxy.  Fill the tube with any type of low-order explosive
or sensitive high- order explosive up to about 1/2 an inch from the top.
Cut a slot in the piece of tubing, and carefully squeeze the top of the
tube into a round point, making sure to leave a small hole.  Place a no. 11
percussion cap over the hole, and secure it with super glue.  Finally, wrap
the end of the device with electrical or duct tape, and make fins out of
tape.  Or, fins can be bought at a sporting goods store, and glued to the
shaft.  The finished product should look like:

              |   | ---------- no. 11 percussion cap
               |*| ----------- aluminum piping
             / |t| \
             | |p| |
             | |_| |
             | |e| | -------- fins
             | |p| |
             | |y| |

    tp: tissue paper

    epy: epoxy

    When the arrow or bolt strikes a hard surface, the percussion cap
explodes, igniting or detonating the explosive.


    The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several advantages.
A blowgun can be extremely ccurate, concealable, and deliver an explosive
or poisoned projectile.  The manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile
is not difficult.  Perhaps the most simple design for such involves the use
of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for headaches or
    Such a capsule could easily be opened, and the medicine removed.
Next, the capsule would be re-filled with an impact-sensitive explosive.
An additional high explosive charge could be placed behind the
impact-sensitive explosive, if one of the larger capsules were used.
Finally, the explosive capsule would be reglued back together, and a tassel
or cotton would be glued to the end containing the high explosive, to
insure that the impact-detonating explosive struck the target first.  Such
a device would probably be about 3/4 of an inch long, not including the
tassel or cotton, and look something like this:

               /mercury |           \-----------------------
              (fulminate|   R.D.X.   )---------------------- } tassels


    A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon.  It can throw a shooter
marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy.  Inside of 200 ft., it could
well be lethal to a man or animal, if it struck in a vital area.  Because
of the relatively large sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket,
the wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful explosive
projectiles. A small segment of aluminum pipe could be made into an
impact-detonating device by filling it with an impact-sensitive explosive
material.  Also, such a pipe could be filled with a low-order explosive,
and fitted with a fuse, which would be lit before the device was shot.  One
would have to make sure that the fuse was of sufficient length to insure
that the device did not explode before it reached its intended target.
Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that are used in .22 caliber
blank guns, make excellent exploding ammunition for wristrockets, but they
must be used at a relatively close range, because of their light weight.


    When special ammunition is used in combination with the power and
rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to take on a small army
with a single weapon. It is possible to buy explosive ammunition, but that
can be difficult to do. Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the
home.  There is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition.
If the ammunition is modified incorrectly, in such a way that it makes the
bullet even the slightest bit wider, an explosion in the barrel of the
weapon will occur.  For this reason, NOBODY SHOULD EVER ATTEMPT TO


    If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition for his/her
handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the person had an
impact-sensitive explosive and a few simple tools.  One would first
purchase all lead bullets, and then make or acquire an impact-detonating
explosive.  By drilling a hole in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could
be created for the placement of an explosive.  After filling the hole with
an explosive, it would be sealed in the bullet with a drop of hot wax from
a candle.  A diagram of a completed exploding bullet is shown below.

                     _o_ ------------ drop of wax
                   | |*|-|----------- impact-sensitive explosive
                   | |_| |

    This hollow space design also works for putting poison in bullets.


    Because of their large bore and high power, it is possible to create
some extremely powerful special ammunition for use in shotguns. If a
shotgun shell is opened at the top, and the shot removed, the shell can be
re-closed. Then, if one can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel
that is close to the bore width of the shotgun, a person can make several
types of shotgun- launched weapons. Insert the dowel in the barrel of the
shotgun with the shell without the shot in the firing chamber. Mark the
dowel about six inches away from the end of the barrel, and remove it from
the barrel. Next, decide what type of explosive or incendiary device is to
be used. This device can be a chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe
bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermit bomb (sect 3.41 and 4.42). After the device
is made, it must be securely attached to the dowel. When this is done,
place the dowel back in the shotgun. The bomb or incendiary device should
be on the end of the dowel. Make sure that the device has a long enough
fuse, light the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile is not too
heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible. A diagram of a shotgun
projectile is shown below:

              ||  |
              ||  |
              ||  | ----- bomb, securely taped to dowel
              ||  |
              || |
              || | ------- fuse
              || |
              || --------- dowel
              || --------- insert this end into shotgun


    This section deals with the manufacture of special ammunition for
compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B
guns, and .22 cal pellet guns.  These weapons, although usually thought of
as kids toys, can be made into rather dangerous weapons.


    A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any type of rifle
or pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to fire a projectile with a
caliber of .177, either B.B, or lead pellet. Such guns can have almost as
high a muzzle velocity as a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at
which a .177 caliber projectile flies, an impact detonating projectile can
easily be made that has a caliber of .177. Most ammunition for guns of
greater than .22 caliber use primers to ignite the powder in the bullet.
These primers can be bought at gun stores, since many people like to reload
their own bullets. Such primers detonate when struck by the firing pin of a
gun. They will also detonate if they are thrown at a hard surface at a
great speed. Usually, they will also fit in the barrel of a .177 caliber
gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they will detonate when the gun
is fired at a hard surface. If such a primer is attached to a piece of thin
metal tubing, such as that used in an antenna, the tube can be filled with
an explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun. A diagram of such a
projectile appears below:

            _____ primers _______
           |                    |
           |                    |
           |                    |
           V                    V
         ______                ______
         | ________________________ |-------------------
         | ****** explosive ******* |------------------- } tassel or
         | ________________________ |-------------------   cotton
         |_____                _____|-------------------
                   |_______ antenna tubing

    The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of super glue.
The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and the rear primer is glued
on. Finally, a tassel, or a small piece of cotton is glued to the rear
primer, to insure that the projectile strikes on the front primer.  The
entire projectile should be about 3/4 of an inch long.


    A .22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22 cal rifle, at
close ranges.  Because of this, relatively large explosive projectiles can
be adapted for use with .22 caliber air rifles.  A design similar to that
used in section 5.12 is suitable, since some capsules are about .22 caliber
or smaller. Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be used,
only one would have to purchase black powder percussion caps, instead of
ammunition primers, since there are percussion caps that are about .22
caliber.  A #11 cap is too small, but anything larger will do nicely.


    Rockets and cannon are generally thought of as heavy artillery.
Perpetrators of violence do not usually employ such devices, because they
are difficult or impossible to acquire.  They are not, however, impossible
to make. Any individual who can make or buy black powder or pyrodex can
make such things. A terrorist with a cannon or large rocket is, indeed,
something to fear.

6.1     ROCKETS

    Rockets were first developed by the Chinese several hundred years
before Christ.  They were used for entertainment, in the form of fireworks.
They were not usually used for military purposes because they were
inaccurate, expensive, and unpredictable.  In modern times, however,
rockets are used constantly by the military, since they are cheap,
reliable, and have no recoil. Perpetrators of violence, fortunately, cannot
obtain military rockets, but they can make or buy rocket engines.  Model
rocketry is a popular hobby of the space age, and to launch a rocket, an
engine is required.  Estes, a subsidiary of Damon, is the leading
manufacturer of model rockets and rocket engines.  Their most powerful
engine, the "D" engine, can develop almost 12 lbs. of thrust; enough to
send a relatively large explosive charge a significant distance. Other
companies, such as Centuri, produce even larger rocket engines, which
develop up to 30 lbs. of thrust.  These model rocket engines are quite
reliable, and are designed to be fired electrically.  Most model rocket
engines have three basic sections.  The diagram below will help explain

    |_________________________________________________________| --
     \  clay  | - - - - - - - - - - | * * * | . . . .|c|            casing
      \_______|  - - - - - - - - -  | * * * |  . . . |l|
       ______ _ - - - thrust - - -  | smoke | eject  |a|
      / clay  |  - - - - - - - - -  | * * * | . . . .|y|
    |_________________________________________________________| --

    The clay nozzle is where the igniter is inserted.  When the area
labeled "thrust" is ignited, the "thrust" material, usually a large single
grain of a propellant such as black powder or pyrodex, burns, forcing large
volumes of hot, rapidly expanding gasses out the narrow nozzle, pushing the
rocket forward. After the material has been consumed, the smoke section of
the engine is ignited.  It is usually a slow-burning material, similar to
black powder that has had various compounds added to it to produce visible
smoke, usually black, white, or yellow in color.  This section exists so
that the rocket will be seen when it reaches its maximum altitude, or
apogee.  When it is burned up, it ignites the ejection charge, labeled
"eject".  The ejection charge is finely powdered black powder.  It burns
very rapidly, exploding, in effect.  The explosion of the ejection charge
pushes out the parachute of the model rocket. It could also be used to
ignite the fuse of a bomb...

    Rocket engines have their own peculiar labeling system.  Typical
engine labels are: 1/4A-2T, 1/2A-3T, A8-3, B6-4, C6-7, and D12-5.  The
letter is an indicator of the power of an engine.  "B" engines are twice as
powerful as "A" engines, and "C" engines are twice as powerful as "B"
engines, and so on.  The number following the letter is the approximate
thrust of the engine, in pounds. the final number and letter is the time
delay, from the time that the thrust period of engine burn ends until the
ejection charge fires; "3T" indicates a 3 second delay.

NOTE: an extremely effective rocket propellant can be made by mixing
aluminum dust with ammonium perchlorate and a very small amount of iron
oxide. The mixture is bound together by an epoxy.


    A rocket bomb is simply what the name implies: a bomb that is
delivered to its target by means of a rocket.  Most people who would make
such a device would use a model rocket engine to power the device.  By
cutting fins from balsa wood and gluing them to a large rocket engine, such
as the Estes "C" engine, a basic rocket could be constructed.  Then, by
attaching a "crater maker", or CO2 cartridge bomb to the rocket, a bomb
would be added.  To insure that the fuse of the "crater maker" (see sect.
4.42) ignited, the clay over the ejection charge of the engine should be
scraped off with a plastic tool.  The fuse of the bomb should be touching
the ejection charge, as shown below.

         ____________ rocket engine
         |                         _________ crater maker
         |                         |
         |                         |
         V                         |
    |_______________________________|  ______________________
     \   | - - - - - -|***|::::|      /# # # # # # # # # # # \
      \__| - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___/  # # # # # # # # # # # \
       __  - - - - - -|***|::::|---fuse--- # #  explosive  # # )
      /  | - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___   # # # # # # # # # # # /
     /___|____________|___|____|____ \_______________________/

    thrust> - - - - - -
    smoke>  ***
    ejection charge> ::::

    Duct tape is the best way to attach the crater maker to the rocket
engine.  Note in the diagram the absence of the clay over the ejection
charge Many different types of explosive payloads can be attached to the
rocket, such as a high explosive, an incendiary device, or a chemical fire

  Either four or three fins must be glued to the rocket engine to insure
that the rocket flies straight. The fins should look like the following

         | \
         |  \
         |   \  <--------- glue this to rocket engine
         |    \
         |     \
         |      \
         |       |
         |       |
         |       |
 leading edge    |
  ------->       |
         |       |
         |       |  trailing edge
         |       |    <--------
         |       |
         |       |
         |       |
         |       |

    The leading edge and trailing edge should be sanded with sandpaper so
that they are rounded.  This will help make the rocket fly straight.  A two
inch long section of a plastic straw can be attached to the rocket to
launch it from.  A clothes hanger can be cut and made into a launch rod.
The segment of a plastic straw should be glued to the rocket engine
adjacent to one of the fins of the rocket.  A front view of a completed
rocket bomb is shown below.

          fin                | <------ fin
           |                 |           |
           |                 |           |
           |               __|__         |
           V              /     \        V
          ---------------|       |---------------
                             |o <----------- segment of plastic straw
                             | <------ fin

    By cutting a coat hanger at the indicated arrows, and bending it, a
launch rod can be made.  After a fuse is inserted in the engine, the rocket
is simply slid down the launch rod, which is put through the segment of
plastic straw. The rocket should slide easily along a coathanger, such as
the one illustated on the following page:

                      /    \
                     |      |
         cut here _____     |
                      |     |
                      |     |
                      |    / \
                      V   /   \
        _________________/     \________________
       /                                        \
      /                                          \
                   and here ______|

    Bend wire to this shape:

                        _______ insert into straw
             \  <--------- bend here to adjust flight angle
              | <---------- put this end in ground


    Long range rockets can be made by using multi-stage rockets.  Model
rocket engines with an "0" for a time delay are designed for use in multi-
stage rockets.  An engine such as the D12-0 is an excellent example of such
an engine.  Immediately after the thrust period is over, the ejection
charge explodes.  If another engine is placed directly against the back of
an "0" engine, the explosion of the ejection charge will send hot gasses
and burning particles into the nozzle of the engine above it, and ignite
the thrust section.  This will push the used "0" engine off of the rocket,
causing an overall loss of weight.  The main advantage of a multi-stage
rocket is that it loses weight as travels, and it gains velocity.  A
multi-stage rocket must be designed somewhat differently than a single
stage rocket, since, in order for a rocket to fly straight, its center of
gravity must be ahead of its center of drag.  This is accomplished by
adding weight to the front of the rocket, or by moving the center of drag
back by putting fins on the rocket that are well behind the rocket.  A
diagram of a multi-stage rocket appears on the following page:

                  /   \
                  |   |
                  | C |
                  | M | ------ CM: Crater Maker
                  |   |
                  |   |
                  |   |
                  |   |
                  |   |
                  | C | ------ C6-5 rocket engine
                 /| 6 |\
                / | | | \
               /  | 5 |  \
              /   |___|   \ ---- fin
             /   /|   |\   \
            /   / |   | \   \
           /   /  |   |  \   \
          /   /   | C |   \   \
         |   /    | 6 |    \   |
         |  /     | | |     \  |
         | /      | 0 |      \ |
         |/       |___|       \|
         |       /     \       |
         \______/   ^   \______/ ------- fin
                    C6-0 rocket engine

    The fuse is put in the bottom engine.

    Two, three, or even four stages can be added to a rocket bomb to give
it a longer range.  It is important, however, that for each additional
stage, the fin area gets larger.


    "M.R.V." is an acronym for Multiple Reentry Vehicle.  The concept is
simple: put more than one explosive warhead on a single missile.  This can
be done without too much difficulty by anyone who knows how to make
crater-makers and can buy rocket engines.  By attaching crater makers with
long fuses to a rocket, it is possible that a single rocket could deliver
several explosive devices to a target. Such a rocket might look like the
diagram on the following page:

            /   \
            |   |
            | C |
            | M |
         ___|   |___
         |  |   |  |
         |  | T |  |
        / \ | U | / \
       /   \| B |/   \
       |   || E ||   |
       | C ||   || C |
       | M ||   || M |
       |   ||___||   |
       \___/| E |\___/
            | N |
           /| G |\
          / | I | \
         /  | N |  \
        /   | E |   \
       /    |___|    \
      / fin/  |  \ fin\
     |    /   |   \    |
      \__/    |    \__/

              |____ fin

    The crater makers are attached to the tube of rolled paper with tape.
the paper tube is made by rolling and gluing a 4 inch by 8 inch piece of
paper. The tube is glued to the engine, and is filled with gunpowder or
black powder. Small holes are punched in it, and the fuses of the crater
makers are inserted in these holes.  A crater maker is glued to the open
end of the tube, so that its fuse is inside the tube.  A fuse is inserted
in the engine, or in the bottom engine if the rocket bomb is multi stage,
and the rocket is launched from the coathanger launcher, if a segment of a
plastic straw has been attached to it.

6.2     CANNON

    The cannon is a piece of artillery that has been in use since the 11th
century.  It is not unlike a musket, in that it is filled with powder,
loaded, and fired.  Cannons of this sort must also be cleaned after each
shot, otherwise, the projectile may jam in the barrel when it is fired,
causing the barrel to explode.  A sociopath could build a cannon without
too much trouble, if he/she had a little bit of money, and some patience.


    A simple cannon can be made from a thick pipe by almost anyone.  The
only difficult part is finding a pipe that is extremely smooth on its
interior. This is absolutely necessary; otherwise, the projectile may jam.
Copper or aluminum piping is usually smooth enough, but it must also be
extremely thick to withstand the pressure developed by the expanding hot
gasses in a cannon.  If one uses a projectile such as a CO2 cartridge,
since such a projectile can be made to explode, a pipe that is about 1.5 -
2 feet long is ideal.  Such a pipe MUST have walls that are at least 1/3 to
1/2 an inch thick, and be very smooth on the interior.  If possible, screw
an endplug into the pipe.  Otherwise, the pipe must be crimped and folded
closed, without cracking or tearing the pipe. A small hole is drilled in
the back of the pipe near the crimp or endplug. Then, all that need be done
is fill the pipe with about two teaspoons of grade blackpowder or pyrodex,
insert a fuse, pack it lightly by ramming a wad of tissue paper down the
barrel, and drop in a CO2 cartridge.  Brace the cannon securely against a
strong structure, light the fuse, and run.  If the person is lucky, he will
not have overcharged the cannon, and he will not be hit by pieces of
exploding barrel.  Such a cannon would look like this:
            __________________ fuse hole
    | |______________________________________________________________|
    |endplug|powder|t.p.| CO2 cartridge
    | ______|______|____|____________________________________________

    An exploding projectile can be made for this type of cannon with a CO2
cartridge. It is relatively simple to do. Just make a crater maker, and
construct it such that the fuse projects about an inch from the end of the
cartridge. Then, wrap the fuse with duct tape, covering it entirely, except
for a small amount at the end. Put this in the pipe cannon without using a
tissue paper packing wad. When the cannon is fired, it will ignite the end
of the fuse, and shoot the CO2 cartridge. The explosive-filled cartridge
will explode in about three seconds, if all goes well. Such a projectile
would look like this:

         /   \
         |   |
         | C |
         | M |
         |   |
         |   |
         |\ /|
         | | | ---- tape
           | ------ fuse


    A rocket firing cannon can be made exactly like a normal cannon; the
only difference is the ammunition. A rocket fired from a cannon will fly
further than a rocket alone, since the action of shooting it overcomes the
initial inertia. A rocket that is launched when it is moving will go
further than one that is launched when it is stationary. Such a rocket
would resemble a normal rocket bomb, except it would have no fins. It would
look like this:

         /   \
         |   |
         | C |
         | M |
         |   |
         |   |
         | E |
         | N |
         | G |
         | I |
         | N |
         | E |

    the fuse on such a device would, obviously, be short, but it would not
be ignited until the rocket's ejection charge exploded.  Thus, the delay
before the ejection charge, in effect, becomes the delay before the bomb
explodes. Note that no fuse need be put in the rocket; the burning powder
in the cannon will ignite it, and simultaneously push the rocket out of the
cannon at a high velocity.


    There are many other types of pyrotechnics that a perpetrator of
violence might employ. Smoke bombs can be purchased in magic stores, and
large military smoke bombs can be bought through adds in gun and military
magazines. Also, fireworks can also be used as weapons of terror. A large
aerial display rocket would cause many injuries if it were to be fired so
that it landed on the ground near a crowd of people. Even the "harmless"
pull-string fireworks, which consists of a sort of firecracker that
explodes when the strings running through it are pulled, could be placed
inside a large charge of a sensitive high explosive. Tear gas is another
material that might well be useful to the sociopath, and such a material
could be instantly disseminated over a large crowd by means of a
rocket-bomb, with nasty effects.


    One type of pyrotechnic device that might be employed by a terrorist
in many way would be a smoke bomb.  Such a device could conceal the getaway
route, or cause a diversion, or simply provide cover.  Such a device, were
it to produce enough smoke that smelled bad enough, could force the
evacuation of a building, for example.  Smoke bombs are not difficult to
make.  Although the military smoke bombs employ powdered white phosphorus
or titanium compounds, such materials are usually unavailable to even the
most well-equipped terrorist. Instead, he/she would have to make the smoke
bomb for themselves.

    Most homemade smoke bombs usually employ some type of base powder,
such as black powder or pyrodex, to support combustion.  The base material
will burn well, and provide heat to cause the other materials in the device
to burn, but not completely or cleanly.  Table sugar, mixed with sulfur and
a base material, produces large amounts of smoke.  Sawdust, especially if
it has a small amount of oil in it, and a base powder works well also.
Other excellent smoke ingredients are small pieces of rubber, finely ground
plastics, and many chemical mixtures.  The material in road flares can be
mixed with sugar and sulfur and a base powder produces much smoke.  Most of
the fuel-oxodizer mixtures, if the ratio is not correct, produce much smoke
when added to a base powder.  The list of possibilities goes on and on.
The trick to a successful smoke bomb also lies in the container used.  A
plastic cylinder works well, and contributes to the smoke produced.  The
hole in the smoke bomb where the fuse enters must be large enough to allow
the material to burn without causing an explosion.  This is another plus
for plastic containers, since they will melt and burn when the smoke
material ignites, producing an opening large enough to prevent an


    Colored flames can often be used as a signaling device for terrorists.
by putting a ball of colored flame material in a rocket; the rocket, when
the ejection charge fires, will send out a burning colored ball.  The
materials that produce the different colors of flames appear below.

COLOR               MATERIAL                        USED IN
-----               --------                        -------

red                 strontium                      road flares,
                   salts                          red sparklers
                   (strontium nitrate)
green               barium salts                   green sparklers
                   (barium nitrate)
yellow              sodium salts                   gold sparklers
                   (sodium nitrate)
blue                powdered copper                blue sparklers,
                   old pennies
white               powdered magnesium             firestarters,
                   or aluminum                    aluminum foil
purple              potassium permanganate         purple fountains,
                                                  treating sewage

7.3     TEAR GAS

    A terrorist who could make tear gas or some similar compound could use
it with ease against a large number of people.  Tear gas is fairly
complicated to make, however, and this prevents such individuals from being
able to utilize its great potential for harm.  One method for its
preparation is shown below.


    1.  ring stands (2)
    2.  alcohol burner
    3.  erlenmeyer flask, 300 ml
    4.  clamps (2)
    5.  rubber stopper
    6.  glass tubing
    7.  clamp holder
    8.  condenser
    9.  rubber tubing
    10.  collecting flask
    11.  air trap
    12.  beaker, 300 ml


    10 gms  glycerine

    2 gms sodium bisulfate

    distilled water

1.)  In an open area, wearing a gas mask, mix 10 gms of glycerine with 2
gms of sodium bisulfate in the 300 ml erlenmeyer flask.

2.)  Light the alcohol burner, and gently heat the flask.

3.)  The mixture will begin to bubble and froth; these bubbles are tear

4.)  When the mixture being heated ceases to froth and generate gas, or a
brown residue becomes visible in the tube, the reaction is complete.
Remove the heat source, and dispose of the heated mixture, as it is

5.)  The material that condenses in the condenser and drips into the
collecting flask is tear gas.  It must be capped tightly, and stored in a
safe place.


    While fireworks cannot really be used as an effective means of terror,
they do have some value as distractions or incendiaries.  There are several
basic types of fireworks that can be made in the home, whether for fun,
or nasty uses.


    A simple firecracker can be made from cardboard tubing and epoxy.
The instructions are below:

    1) Cut a small piece of cardboard tubing from the tube you are using.
       "Small" means anything less than 4 times the diameter of the tube.

    2) Set the section of tubing down on a piece of wax paper, and fill
       it with epoxy and the drying agent to a height of 3/4 the diameter
       of the tubing.  Allow the epoxy to dry to maximum hardness, as
       specified on the package.

    3) When it is dry, put a small hole in the middle of the tube, and
       insert a desired length of fuse.

    4) Fill the tube with any type of flame-sensitive explosive.  Flash
       powder, pyrodex, black powder, potassium picrate, lead azide,
       nitrocellulose, or any of the fast burning fuel-oxodizer mixtures
       will do nicely.  Fill the tube almost to the top.

    5) Pack the explosive tightly in the tube with a wad of tissue paper
       and a pencil or other suitable ramrod.  Be sure to leave enough    
       space for more epoxy.

    6) Fill the remainder of the tube with the epoxy and hardener, and    
       allow it to dry.

    7) For those who wish to make spectacular firecrackers, always use
       flash powder, mixed with a small amount of other material for
       colors.  By crushing the material on a sparkler, and adding it
       to the flash powder, the explosion will be the same color as the
       sparkler.   By adding small chunks of sparkler material, the
       device will throw out colored burning sparks, of the same color
       as the sparkler.  By adding powdered iron, orange sparks will
       be produced.  White sparks can be produced from magnesium shavings,
       or from small, LIGHTLY crumpled balls of aluminum foil.

       Example:  Suppose I wish to make a firecracker that will explode
              with a red flash, and throw out white sparks.  First,
              I would take a road flare, and finely powder the material
              inside it.   Or, I could take a red sparkler, and finely
              powder it.  Then, I would mix a small amount of this
              material with the flash powder.  (NOTE: FLASH POWDER
              EXPLODE SPONTANEOUSLY!)  I would mix it in a ratio of
              9 parts flash powder to 1 part of flare or sparkler
              material, and add about 15 small balls of aluminum foil
              I would store the material in a plastic bag overnight
              outside of the house, to make sure that the stuff doesn't
              react.  Then, in the morning, I would test a small amount
              of it, and if it was satisfactory, I would put it in the

    8) If this type of firecracker is mounted on a rocket engine,
       professional to semi-professional displays can be produced.


    An impressive home made skyrocket can easily be made in the home from
model rocket engines.  Estes engines are recommended.

    1) Buy an Estes Model Rocket Engine of the desired size, remembering
       that the power doubles with each letter.  (See sect. 6.1 for        

    2) Either buy a section of body tube for model rockets that exactly
       fits the engine, or make a tube from several thicknesses of paper
       and glue.

    3) Scrape out the clay backing on the back of the engine, so that
       the powder is exposed.  Glue the tube to the engine, so that the
       tube covers at least half the engine.  Pour a small charge of
       flash powder in the tube, about 1/2 an inch.

    4) By adding materials as detailed in the section on firecrackers,
       various types of effects can be produced.

    5) By putting Jumping Jacks or bottle rockets without the stick
       in the tube, spectacular displays with moving fireballs or
          M.R.V.'s can be produced.

    6) Finally, by mounting many home made firecrackers on the tube with
       the fuses in the tube, multiple colored bursts can be made.


    Roman candles are impressive to watch.  They are relatively difficult
to make, compared to the other types of home-made fireworks, but they are
well worth the trouble.

    1) Buy a 1/2 inch thick model rocket body tube, and reinforce it
       with several layers of paper and/or masking tape.  This must
       be done to prevent the tube from exploding.  Cut the tube into
       about 10 inch lengths.

    2) Put the tube on a sheet of wax paper, and seal one end with epoxy
       and the drying agent.  About 1/2 of an inch is sufficient.

    3) Put a hole in the tube just above the bottom layer of epoxy,
       and insert a desired length of water proof fuse.  Make sure that
       the fuse fits tightly.

    4) Pour about 1 inch of pyrodex or gunpowder down the open end of the

    5) Make a ball by powdering about two 6 inch sparklers of the desired
       color.  Mix this powder with a small amount of flash powder and
       a small amount of pyrodex, to have a final ratio (by volume) of
       60% sparkler material / 20% flash powder / 20% pyrodex.  After
       mixing the powders well, add water, one drop at a time, and mixing
       continuously, until a damp paste is formed.  This paste should
       be moldable by hand, and should retain its shape when left alone.
       Make a ball out of the paste that just fits into the tube.  Allow
       the ball to dry.

    6) When it is dry, drop the ball down the tube.  It should slide down
       fairly easily.  Put a small wad of tissue paper in the tube, and    
       pack it gently against the ball with a pencil.

    7) When ready to use, put the candle in a hole in the ground, pointed
       in a safe direction, light the fuse, and run.  If the device works,
       a colored fireball should shoot out of the tube to a height of
       about 30 feet.  This height can be increased by adding a slightly
       larger powder charge in step 4, or by using a slightly longer tube.

    8) If the ball does not ignite, add slightly more pyrodex in step 5.

    9) The balls made for roman candles also function very well in        
       rockets, producing an effect of falling colored fireballs.


    Most, if not all, of the information in this publication can be
obtained  through a public or university library.  There are also many
publications that are put out by people who want to make money by telling
other people how to make explosives at home.  Adds for such appear
frequently in paramilitary magazines and newspapers.  This list is
presented to show the large number of places that information and materials
can be purchased from.   It also includes fireworks companies and the like.

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125 RUNNELS STREET                     AIR RIFLES
P.O. BOX 226

CROSSMAN AIR GUNS                      AIR GUNS
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    In the end, the serious terrorist would probably realize that if
he/she wishes to make a truly useful explosive, he or she will have to
steal the chemicals to make the explosive from a lab.  A list of such
chemicals in order of priority would probably resemble the following:

    LIQUIDS                    SOLIDS
    _______                    ______

    ____     Nitric Acid        ____     Potassium Perchlorate
    ____     Sulfuric Acid      ____     Potassium Chlorate
    ____     95% Ethanol        ____     Picric Acid (usually a powder)
    ____     Toluene            ____     Ammonium Nitrate
    ____     Perchloric Acid    ____     Powdered Magnesium
    ____     Hydrochloric Acid  ____     Powdered Aluminum

                        ____    Potassium Permanganate
                        ____    Sulfur
                        ____    Mercury
                        ____    Potassium Nitrate
                        ____    Potassium Hydroxide
                        ____    Phosphorus
                        ____    Sodium Azide
                        ____    Lead Acetate
                        ____    Barium Nitrate


    In general, it is possible to make many chemicals from just a few
basic ones.  A list of useful chemical reactions is presented.  It assumes
knowledge of general chemistry; any individual who does not understand the
following reactions would merely have to read the first five chapters of a
high school chemistry book.

1.  potassium perchlorate from perchloric acid and potassium hydroxide
    K(OH)       +     HClO     ---->     KClO     +    H O
                  4              4           2

2.  potassium nitrate from nitric acid and potassium hydroxide
     "       +     HNO     ---->     KNO     +     "
                 3             3

3.  ammonium perchlorate from perchloric acid and ammonium hydroxide
    NH OH       +     HClO     ---->     NH ClO     +     "
      3              4                 3   4

4.  ammonium nitrate from nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide
       NH OH       +     HNO     ---->     NH NO     +     "
      3             3                      3  3

5.  powdered aluminum from acids, aluminum foil, and magnesium

A.     aluminum foil    +    6HCl    ---->   2AlCl   +   3H
                                               3            2

B.     2AlCl  (aq)   +    3Mg    ---->  3MgCl (aq)   +  2Al
         3                                  2

    The Al will be a very fine silvery powder at the bottom of the
container which must be filtered and dried.   This same method works with
nitric and sulfuric acids, but these acids are too valuable in the
production of high explosives to use for such a purpose, unless they are
available in great excess.


    The author, who wishes his name to be unknown, is presently attending
a college in the United States of America, majoring in Engineering.  He was
raised by his parents on the East Coast, and received his high school
education there.  He first became interested in pyrotechnics when he was
about eight years of age.  At age twelve, he produced his first explosive
device; it was slightly more powerful than a large firecracker.  He
continued to produce explosive devices for several years.  He also became
interested in model rocketry, and has built several rockets from kits, and
designed his own rockets.  While in high school, the author became
affiliated with CHAOS, and eventually became the head of Gunzenbomz
Pyro-Technologies.  At this time, at age 18, he produced his first high
explosive device, putting a 1 foot deep crater in an associate's back yard.
He had also produced many types of rockets, explosive ammunition, and other
pyrotechnic devices.  While he was heading Gunzenbomz Pyro- Technologies,
he was injured when a home made device exploded in his hand; he did not
make the device.  The author learned, however, and  then decided to reform,
and although he still constructs an occasional explosive device, he chooses
to abstain from their production.  An occasional rocket that produces
effects similar to that of professional displays can sometimes be seen in
the midnight sky near his college, and the Fourth of July is still his
favorite day of the year.

              Pax et Discordia,    the Author

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