’ Ў«Ёж 1 ”ЋђЊ› ЂЌѓ‹€‰‘ЉЋѓЋ ѓ‹ЂѓЋ‹Ђ ( Ї® R.Close,  )
і ѓ‹ЂѓЋ‹њЌЂџ ”ЋђЊЂ і REGULAR і IRREGULAR і
і і ГДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДДґ
і ( Џђ€Њ…Ќ…Ќ€… ) і і Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 BE і
і1. €дЁЁвЁў, Ё¬ЇҐа вЁў, і wait і put hear write be, і
і Ќ бв®пйҐҐ ўаҐ¬п(Єа®¬Ґ і і am, і
і 3-ҐЈ® «Ёж Ґ¤. зЁб« ) і і are і
і2. Ќ бв®пйҐҐ ўаҐ¬п і waits і puts hears writes is і
і 3-Ґ «Ёж® Ґ¤. зЁб«® і і і
і3. Џа®иҐ¤иҐҐ ўаҐ¬п і waited і put heard wrote was, і
і і і were і
і4. -ing participle і waiting і putting hearing writing being і
і5. -ed participle і waited і put heard written been і
Ћ. DO + infinitive : SIMPLE verb phrase - did not like
1. MODAL + infinitive : MODAL verb phrase - could see
2. HAVE + -ed participle : PERFECT verb phrase - have written
3. BE + -ing participle : PROGRESSIVE verb phrase - is sleeping
4. BE + -ed participle : PASSIVE verb phrase - was built
I am writing. The sun was shining.
She is singing. I was strolling.
John is having dinner. She was singing.
You are sitting. You were telling lies.
We are smiling at each other. We were telling the truth.
I have done it.
She has never seen a white man.
Jack has never lived in N.Y. all his life.
We have divorced.
People have forgotten the lesson the world taught them.
I had never done it before.
It had never been like this before we got married.
Paul hadn't had a slightest headache before he met a doctor.
They had lived in the mountains for ten years when the
‚ Є®бвагЄжЁпе вЁЇ "there is..., there was ..." "there"
ўлЇ®«пҐв а®«м Ї®¤«Ґ¦ йҐЈ® Ё ў внЈҐ: "There was a book on the
table, wasn't there?". …б«Ё Ї®¤«Ґ¦ йҐҐ ў Ј« ў®¬ ЇаҐ¤«®¦ҐЁЁ -
Ґ®ЇаҐ¤Ґ«Ґ®-«Ёз®Ґ ¬Ґбв®Ё¬ҐЁҐ, ў внЈҐ ЁбЇ®«м§гҐвбп
"they": "Everyone has been told what to do, haven't they?"
The Earth goes round the Sun.
My son goes to school.
The sun rises in the east.
I see her every day.
Borg plays tennis very well. He lives in Stockholm.
They go to the movies when they are free.
Paul's grandfather wears glasses when he reads.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
b. ‘о¦Ґвл, бжҐ аЁЁ, аҐжҐ§ЁЁ ЄЁЈЁ, дЁ«м¬л, etc.
I am studying now. (I began a little while ago and I will
finish soon.) The trains are running on time now. (Five
years ago, the last time you were here, the trains were
usually late now this is no longer true.) My son is playing
football this fall. (He did pot play in the summer and will
not play during the winter, but now football is one of his
b) ‘®ЎлвЁҐ Ё¬Ґ«® (Ґ Ё¬Ґ«®) ¬Ґбв® ў Їа®и«®¬, ® аҐ§г«мв в Ё«Ё
§ зҐЁҐ б®ЎлвЁп ў ¦л ¤«п бв®пйҐЈ®, Ё Ё¬Ґ® нв® § зҐЁҐ
Ё«Ё аҐ§г«мв в Ё ЁвҐаҐбгов Ј®ў®апйҐЈ®, Є®ЄаҐвлҐ
®Ўбв®пвҐ«мбвў Ё ўаҐ¬п б®ЎлвЁп ҐбгйҐбвўҐл. ќв® ¤ Ґв
®б®ў ЁҐ Ј®ў®апйҐ¬г Є Є Ўл ЁЈ®аЁа®ў вм ўбҐ, зв® Їа®Ё§®и«®
Ї®б«Ґ нв®Ј® б®ЎлвЁп. ‚ нв®¬ б¬лб«Ґ «оЎ®Ґ б®®ЎйҐЁҐ ў PRESENT
PERFECT - ®ў®бвм ¤«п б«ги вҐ«п. Џ®нв®¬г ®ў®бвЁ ЇаҐЇ®¤®бпв ў
PRESENT PERFECT, ®Ўбг¦¤ ов ў PAST SIMPLE.
I've bought a new hat. - I can see that. Where did you buy it?
She has gone out.(the important thing is that now she is not here)
I've heard the doctors' opinion. ( and now I know it )
They have given up hope. ( now they don't hope at all )
We've spent the last dollar. ( now we have no money )
He has never seen an elephant. (he doesn't know what it looks like )
I went up the stairs. I bathed. I changed. I made myself up like
the Queen of Sheba. Then I went downstairs and served dinner
for three. Then I entertained Mr. Sent. Then I wished him a
very good night. Then I wished John good-bye. Then I took my
suitcase and walked out.
He found some matches, climbed on the table, lit the gas lamp
and settled down to read.
ЋЎа вЁвҐ ўЁ¬ ЁҐ а §Ёжг ¬Ґ¦¤г PAST SIMPLE Ё PRESENT PERFECT:
He has lived in London for quite a long time. ( He is still there. )
He lived in London for quite a long time. ( He's no longer
there. He could be even dead. The period of his living in
London belongs to history.)
I've been to Hollywood several times.( I'm still in California
and, who knows, may be I'll go there some more times.)
I went to Hollywood several times. (Perhaps my trips to
Hollywood are finished and belong to the past. Very likely I
no longer live in California.)
relevant point now t
Ex: She was no fool. She had read much in several languages,
and she could talk of the books she had read with a
She was in a dressing gown and her hair was dishevel led.
She had evidently just got out of bed.
Yesterday I exchanged the suit I had bought on Monday.
She began to do all the things she had wanted to do for
For three years he had been in France on his own.
(гЄ §лў Ґвбп Є®Ґж нв®Ј® ЇҐаЁ®¤ .)
‚ PRESENT/PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES бвагЄвга PASSIVE VOICE
гЇ®ваҐЎ«пҐвбп аҐ¤Є® ( б«ЁиЄ®¬ ¬®Ј® to be ).
Ex: The butler was murdered.
The stolen car has been found.
Mohammad Aly had never been beaten before he met Joe
The question has been discussed at the conference.
‘а ўЁвҐ в Є¦Ґ: (1) Sammy was married.
(2) Sammy got married.
…б«Ё (1) ¬®¦Ґв § зЁвм Є Є "‘н¬¬Ё ¦ҐЁ«бп", в Є Ё "‘н¬¬Ё Ўл«
¦Ґ в", в® (2) ®ЇаҐ¤Ґ«Ґ® § зЁв "‘н¬¬Ё ¦ҐЁ«бп".
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’ Ў«Ёж 4 ”ЋђЊ› PASSIVE VOICE
і і SIMPLE і PROGRESSIVE і PERFECT і PERFECT і
і і і і і PROGRESSIVE і
і P і I am і I am і I ДДї і і
і R і you Дї і you Дї і you і і have (has) і
і E і we areДї і we areДї і we haveДї і been і
і S і theyДЩ і і theyДЩ іbeingі theyДЩ іbeenі being і
і E і ГДtaken і іtakenі takenі taken і
і N і he Дї і і he Дї і і he Дї і і і
і T і she is ДЩ і she is ДЩ і she has ДЩ і(possible, but і
і і it ДЩ і it ДЩ і it ДЩ і rarely used ) і
і і I Дї і I Дї і I ДДї і і
і і he іwasДї і he ГДwasДї і he і і had і
і P і she і і і she і і і she і і been і
і A і it ДЩ і і it ДЩ beingі it і і being і
і S і іtaken і takenі іhad beenі taken і
і T і you Дї і і you Дї і і you і takenі і
і і we wereДЩ і we wereДЩ і we і і(possible, but і
і і theyДЩ і theyДЩ і theyДЩ і rarely used ) і
ЏаҐ¤«®¦ҐЁҐ Ї®¬®йЁ - Shall I help you?
SHALL “Ја®§ Ё«Ё аҐиЁ¬®бвм - You shall suffer for this!
Ї® ®в®иҐЁо Є® 2
Ё«Ё 3-Ґ¬г «Ёжг
SHOULD „®«¦Ґбвў®ў ЁҐ, б - You should have known better
than to drink.
®ввҐЄ®¬ бгЎ'ҐЄвЁў®бвЁ - I should stop smoke.
”Ё§ЁзҐбЄ п Ё«Ё г¬бвўҐ п ў®§¬®¦®бвм ў бв®пйҐ¬ -
I can do that job.
CAN Ё«Ё Ўг¤гйҐ¬ - Can we settle it tomorrow?
Џа®бмЎл Ё а §аҐиҐЁп - Can I smoke? Of course you can.
“б«®ўлҐ ЇаҐ¤«®¦ҐЁп I вЁЇ Ё¬Ґов б«Ґ¤гойго бвагЄвгаг:
PRESENT TENSE ў conditional clause, (will+infinitive) Ё«Ё imperative
ў main clause (Ј« ў®¬ ЇаҐ¤«®¦ҐЁЁ).
Ex: If you go to Rome, you'll see the Colosseum.
If you go to London, see the Queen and give her my best regards.
If (as soon as) I have money enough, I will buy a car.
If you have money enough, buy a car.
Leave me, and I'll kill you. ( If you leave me, I'll kill you. )
Leave me, or I'll kill you. ( If you don't leave me, I'll kill you.)
Should you go to London, see the Queen. ( I don't consider it very
likely that you will go to London, so I use "should".)
“б«®ўлҐ ЇаҐ¤«®¦ҐЁп II вЁЇ . ‘вагЄвга :
PAST TENSE ў conditional clause, would + infinitive ( ЎҐ§ з бвЁжл to )
ў main clause.
Ex: If I had money enough, I would buy a car.
If I were you, I would keep quiet.