Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (Z-Z)


(1895-1949) US writer, extremely prolific in a number of PULP-MAGAZINE
genres, publishing about 500 stories; of the relatively few that are sf,
several were with Nat SCHACHNER, including ALZ's first, "The Tower of
Evil" for Wonder Stories Quarterly in 1930. The 11 tales produced
collaboratively before they separated in 1931 were ALZ's best early work.
After about 1936, most of his work appeared in Argosy, including the
Tomorrow series, set in a NEAR-FUTURE post- HOLOCAUST USA; the 1st tale in
the sequence, "Tomorrow" (1939), later appeared in Famous Fantastic
Classics 1 (anth 1974). In Drink We Deep (1937 Argosy; 1951) strange
subterranean dwellers call a human downwards to them. In Seven Out of Time
(1939 Argosy; 1949), his best novel, 7 contemporary humans are studied by
people of the future to rediscover the value of emotions. A post-WWII
novel, "Slaves of the Lamp" (1946 ASF), was little noticed and did not
reach book form, for ALZ had failed to adjust his style and plotting to
the demands of the new world. [JC]See also: GENRE SF; INVASION; OPERATOR

(1951- ) US writer with a master's degree in physics who came into sudden
prominence in the sf field in the 1980s with the rapid release of several
books. He had begun publishing sf with "Ernie" for Analog in 1979, and
early proved himself an adept and productive creator of the
problem-oriented HARD SF characteristic of that magazine. Some better
examples of his work are assembled as Cascade Point (coll 1986), Time Bomb
and Zahndry Others (coll 1988) and Distant Friends and Others (coll 1992);
the title story (1983 ASF) of the 1st of these won a HUGO on its original
release, and has also been published as Cascade Point (1988 chap dos). The
title of the story, which fascinatingly reveals the outward-looking bent
of this early work, refers to a point in space where ships flicker from
one star system to the next; at the point of transition, ALTERNATE-WORLD
versions of the humans on board ship manifest themselves hauntingly. An
experiment designed to elicit more knowledge about humankind from this
convergence of differing versions of lives turns out in the event most
usefully to reveal methods for making the transition itself more
efficient. In work like this, TZ proved himself an exemplary member of the
ASF stable.But the rest of the sf world began to take more notice of him
after he began to publish novels in 1983 with the 1st vol of the
Blackcollar sequence, The Blackcollar (1983), followed by Blackcollar: The
Backlash Mission (1986), both tales being set on an Earth dominated by
ALIEN invaders and describing the eponymous guerrillas' supernormal feats
of resistance against the enemy. The Cobra sequence - Cobra (1985), Cobra
Strike (1986), assembled as Cobras Two (omni 1992), plus Cobra Bargain
(1988) - located similar military/commando heroes in a galactic venue. A
Coming of Age (1985), a singleton of much greater interest, is set on a
colony planet where a mutation has given children telekinetic powers,
until puberty yanks them back into normality; the plotting is complex and
swift, and TZ showed creative awareness as well of the profound issues he
was exposing to the light - for any novel in which puberty marks a passing
of glory from the Earth is a novel about the human condition as well as,
more prosaically, a novel about why children entering puberty begin to
read sf. Other novels of interest are Spinneret (1985), Triplet (1987) and
Deadman Switch (1988), another tale of considerable underlying complexity,
set in a galactic civilization which exploits its retention of the death
penalty by using the condemned as pilots to penetrate an area of space
that only corpses can navigate. TZ's venues have been at times
conventional, and even silly; but again and again he has transformed
routine adventure-sf conventions into moral puzzles, without sacrificing a
jot of momentum.After several years without any prospect of a new Star
Wars movie, TZ was commissioned to write a Star Wars trilogy,
comprisingHeir to the Empire * (1991), Dark Force Rising * (1992) and The
Last Command* (1993); they carry on from RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983),
starting 5 years after the end of that film. [JC]Other works: Warhorse
(fixup 1990); the Conquerors trilogy, commencing with Conqueror's Pride

[r] Marshall B. TYMN.

(1884-1937) Russian writer. YZ graduated in naval engineering from St
Petersburg Polytechnical Institute, his studies interrupted by
participation in the 1905 Revolution as a Bolshevik, prison and
deportation (a sentence which was renewed 1911-13). He began writing in
1908, withdrew from active politics, lectured at the Polytechnic Institute
until his emigration, ran foul of the Tsarist censor in 1914, and built
icebreakers in the UK 1916-17.YZ wrote about 40 volumes of stories,
fables, plays, excellent essays and 2 novels. After the October Revolution
he became a prominent figure in key literary groups, guru for a whole
school of young writers, and editor of an ambitious publishing programme
of books from the West; he wrote prefaces for works by Jack LONDON, George
Bernard SHAW, H.G. WELLS, etc. From 1921 on he incurred much critical
disfavour and some censorship which culminated in a campaign of
vilification by the dominant literary faction, especially after My (see
below) was published in an emigre journal in 1927. After writing a
dignified letter to Stalin, YZ was allowed to go to Paris (retaining his
Soviet passport), where he died shunned by both Soviet officialdom and
right-wing emigres. My (written 1920, circulated in manuscript; trans
Gregory Zilboorg as We 1924 US; first Russian-language book publication
1952 US) deals with the relation between the principles of Revolution
(life) and Entropy (death). By incorporating elements of Ostrovityane
(written 1917; 1922 chap; trans Sophie Fuller and Julian Sacchi as the
title story in Islanders, and The Fisher of Men [coll 1984 chap UK]), a
satirical novella he had written about UK philistinism (which features
coupons for rationing sex, and the "Taylorite" regulation of every moment
of the day), YZ signalled his intention to extrapolate upon the repressive
potentials of every centralized state. Committed to the scientific method
even in his narrative form, which mimics lab notes, YZ's explanation for
why rationalism turns sour is mythical: every belief, when victorious,
must turn repressive, as did Christianity. The only irrational elements
remaining are the human beings who deviate: these include the narrator - a
mathematician and designer of a rocket ship - and the woman who represents
an underground resistance. The plot is modelled on an inevitable Fall (for
the rebellion inevitably fails), ending in an ironic crucifixion. In YZ's
terms, My judges yesterday's UTOPIA, as it becomes an absolutism, in the
name of tomorrow's utopia - for the principle of utopia itself is not
repudiated; the book is thus not a DYSTOPIA.The expressionistic language
of My, which imparts a sense of elegant but humanly charged economy to the
text, helps to subsume the protagonist's defeat under the novel's concern
for the integration of humanity's science and art (including love). YZ
demonstrates that utopia should not be a new religion (albeit of
mathematics and space flights) but should represent the dynamic horizon of
mankind's developing personality. My is the paradigmatic anti-utopia,
prefiguring George ORWELL and Aldous HUXLEY and superseding that tradition
of utopianism, from Sir Thomas MORE on, which ignores technology and
anthropology. By analysing the distortions of the utopia through the
hyperbolic prism of sf, YZ wrote an intensely practical text. It is both a
masterpiece of sf and an indispensable book of our epoch. This sense of
the book was finally confirmed by YZ's rehabilitation in the USSR in the
glasnost year 1988. [DS]Other sf work: "A Story about the Most Important
Thing" (1927 Russia; trans Michael Glenny in YZ's The Dragon, coll
1966).About the author: A Soviet Heretic by YZ (1970); Metamorphoses of
Science Fiction (1979) by Darko SUVIN; Evgenij Zamjatin (1973 Holland) by
Christopher Collins; The Life and Works of Evgenij Zamjatin (1968 US) by
Alex M. Shane; "Yevgeny Zamyatin" by Michael Beehler in SubStance 15.2
(1986); "Brave New World", "1984" and "We" (1976) by E.J. Brown; The Shape
of Utopia (1970) by R.C. Elliott; Clockwork Worlds (anth 1983) ed Richard
D. Erlich et al.; "Imagining the Future: Wells and Zamyatin" by Patrick
PARRINDER in H.G. Wells and Modern Science Fiction (anth 1977) ed Suvin;
"Three Postrevolutionary Russian Utopian Novels" by Jurij Stridter in The
Russian Novel from Pushkin to Pasternak (anth 1983) ed J. Garrarad.See

Film (1974). John Boorman Productions/20th Century-Fox. Prod/dir/written
John Boorman, starring Sean Connery, Charlotte Rampling, Sara Kestelman,
John Alderton. 105 mins. Colour.A future society is divided into 2
regions: the Vortex and the Outlands, separated by an impenetrable FORCE
FIELD. Within the Vortex live the Eternals, IMMORTAL and given to a
decadent aestheticism, while in the Outlands dwell the Brutals, including
a group called the Exterminators whose job is to keep the population level
down. One of these Exterminators, Zed (Connery), infiltrates the Vortex
and his presence catalyses events which destroy both the Immortals and
their computer-run society. Zed represents the primal force that brings
back to the impotent, static Immortals such old favourites as Emotion,
Sex, Fear and Death, releasing them from their artificial world and
allowing them to become part of the Natural Scheme of Things again; that
is, dead. The film is self-indulgent; its profundity is all on the surface
and its oscillation between parody and solemnity is distracting. But
Boorman's presentation of old ideas as if they were just new-minted has a
certain silly charm, and the film has considerable visual brio, assisted
by Geoffrey Unsworth's photography and the beautiful Irish settings.The
novelization, by Boorman and Bill Stair, is Zardoz * (1974). [JB/PN]See

(? - ) US writer in whose The Green Man from Space (1955) a Martian is
discovered on Earth looking for greens, and is taken back home. LZ also
wrote nonfiction on aeronautical subjects. [JC]



(1945- ) Austrian-born writer of Polish descent, in the USA from 1951,
one of the first alumni of the CLARION SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' WORKSHOP
to achieve recognition in the sf world. He has lived with Pamela SARGENT
for many years. GZ began publishing sf stories with "The Water Sculptor of
Station 233" for Infinity One (anth 1970) ed Robert HOSKINS, and remained
active as a short-story writer, releasing about 50 titles over the next 2
decades, some of the best being assembled as The Monadic Universe (coll
1977; exp 1985). From 1970 to winter 1974-5 he was editor of the SFWA
BULLETIN, and from 1983 to date has served as US editor. His first
published novel was the 2nd instalment, in terms of internal chronology,
of his Omega Point sequence - comprising Ashes and Stars (1977) and The
Omega Point (1972), both revised and assembled along with a previously
unpublished 3rd part as The Omega Point Trilogy (omni 1983). Within a
SPACE-OPERA frame, a metaphysical drama is enacted, pitting the sole
survivors of a destroyed culture - created through GENETIC ENGINEERING,
and whose rationale owes something to the theories of the evolutionary
theologian Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955)-against the inimical
Earth Federation responsible for its elimination; after his father's
death, Gorgias finds the eponymous WEAPON, but Omega Point turns out to be
fundamentally a focus of transcendental empathy. The Star Web (1975
Canada) is an unambitious space opera, but the 2 star-spanning forms of
TRANSPORTATION featured in the text are of interest; revised, the book
became the first third of Stranger Suns (1991), a long novel written in
the STAPLEDON-esque vein that marks GZ's most highly regarded single work,
Macrolife (1979; rev 1990). Though otherwise unconnected, the 2 books
share an elevated purposefulness about depicting humanity's future and a
tendency to depend on insufficiently plausible lines of plot. Macrolife
begins on Earth, but soon departs the home planet for self-sufficient
star-travelling SPACE HABITATS, and carries onwards to the end of the
Universe; Stranger Suns views with considerable bleakness the
opportunities taken - and missed - by humanity when given the chance to
use a complex stargate that gives access not only to the Universe as we
know it but also to alternate universes ( ALTERNATE WORLDS).GZ has been
active since early in his career as an editor, producing Tomorrow Today
(anth 1975), an original anthology, and co-editing Faster than Light (anth
1976) with Jack DANN and Human-Machines (anth 1975) with Thomas N.
SCORTIA, a collection of whose stories, The Best of Thomas N. Scortia
(coll 1981), GZ also ed. In the 1980s he began the SYNERGY series of
ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES: Synergy: New Science Fiction #1 (anth 1987), #2
(anth 1988), #3 (dated 1988 but 1989) and #4 (anth 1989). Beneath a Red
Star: Studies in International Science Fiction (coll 1991) assembled
essays on the sf of Eastern Europe. [JC]Other works: 3 short stories for
juveniles, Adrift in Space (1974 in Adrift in Space and Other Stories,
anth ed Roger ELWOOD; 1979 chap), A Silent Shout (1979 chap) and The
Firebird (1979 chap); the Bernal One sequence of juveniles, Sunspacer
(1984) and The Stars Will Speak (1985).As Editor: Creations: The Quest for
Origins in Story and Science (anth 1983) with Isaac ASIMOV and Martin H.
GREENBERG; Nebula Awards 20 (anth 1985); Nebula Awards 21 (anth 1987);
Nebula Awards 22 (anth 1988).About the author: The Work of George
Zebrowski (last rev 1990) by Jeffrey M. ELLIOT and Robert REGINALD.See

(1951- ) US writer whose sf novel, Deathgift (1989), though not
technically a POCKET-UNIVERSE tale, embodies a fundamental rhythm of
constriction and release through the story of a young boy abandoned to the
Native-American-like tribes that mediate among the medieval cities which
surround them, and who only later discovers that his "world" is a "neutral
zone" on a planet torn by interstellar strife. The story unfolds
constantly, is very competently managed, and the sequel, Sky Road (1993),
intriguingly mixes sf hardware (there are several setpiece battles between
natives and the invasive enemy) and a move toward reconciliation (after
the revenge-choked thinning of the narrative in volume one) more typical
of fantasy. [JC]

A John Spencer & Co. house name, erratically spelled Karl Zeigfried on
some occasions; John S. GLASBY used the title once, and Tom W. WADE used
it twice. It is possible thatBeyond the Galaxy (1953) is by John F. Watt
(? - ). For their later BADGER BOOKS line, Spencer used the name for a
number of sf novels, mostly by R.L. FANTHORPE (13 titles). [JC]

(1937- ) US writer, born in Ohio, with an MA from Columbia University in
1962. In 1962-9 he was employed by the Social Security Administration in
Cleveland, Ohio, and Baltimore, Maryland; from 1969 he wrote full-time.
His arrival in the sf world in 1962, along with Samuel R. DELANY, Thomas
M. DISCH and Ursula K. LE GUIN, marked that year as a milestone in what
seemed at the time to be the inevitable maturing of sf into a complex and
sophisticated literature, whose language might finally match its
intermittent hubris. With Delany, Disch and (to a lesser extent) Le Guin -
and with Harlan ELLISON goading all and sundry - RZ became a leading and
representative figure of the US NEW WAVE, writing stories whose emphasis
had shifted from the external world of the hard sciences to the internal
worlds explorable through disciplines like PSYCHOLOGY (mostly Jungian),
SOCIOLOGY and LINGUISTICS. To a greater extent than any of his colleagues,
however, RZ expressed this shift by using mythological structures - some
traditional, some new-minted - in his work. It has been argued that in
true MYTHOLOGY the voyage into CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH of the Hero of a
Thousand Faces always climaxes in the Eternal Return, so that any
20th-century sf tale which retells a myth incorporates, by so doing,
ironies and metaphors highly corrosive of any rhetoric of outward thrust,
and mockingly dismissive of the reality of breakthroughs. It may be for
this reason that RZ's sf was language-driven, irony-choked, corrosively
playful, and - after the early years of his career - intermittent; and
that he is now best known for his works of fantasy, in particular the 2
linked sequences making up the ongoing Amber series. The 1st, featuring
Corwin, is Nine Princes in Amber (1970), The Guns of Avalon (1972), Sign
of the Unicorn (1975), The Hand of Oberon (1976) and The Courts of Chaos
(1978), all assembled as The Chronicles of Amber (omni in 2 vols 1979).
The 2nd, featuring Corwin's son Merlin, comprises Trumps of Doom (1985),
Blood of Amber (1986), Sign of Chaos (1987), Knight of Shadows (1989) and
Prince of Chaos (1991). There are 2 pendants, A Rhapsody in Amber (coll
1981 chap) and Roger Zelazny's Visual Guide to Castle Amber (1988) with
Neil Randall. Like C.S. LEWIS's Narnia, the land of Amber exists on a
plane of greater fundamental reality than Earth, and provides normal
reality with its ontological base. Unlike Narnia, however, Amber is the
Yin in the Yang of Chaos the father, with consequences very far from
Christian, for the Universe so defined is both cyclical and eternally
insecure; and Amber itself is dominated by a cabal of squabbling siblings
whose quasi-Olympian feudings generate vast cat's-cradles and imperfect
nestings of Story, out of which the fabric of lesser realities takes its
shape. The Amber books constitute RZ's most substantial edifice, though
not his finest work, which is sf. Other fantasies have been lesser.RZ's
first published story was "Passion Play" for AMZ in 1962, and for several
years he was prolific in shorter forms, for a time using the pseudonym
Harrison Denmark when stories piled up in AMZ and Fantastic, and doing his
finest work at the novelette/novella length; he assembled the best of this
early work as Four for Tomorrow (coll 1967; vt A Rose for Ecclesiastes
1969 UK) and The Doors of His Face, the Lamps of His Mouth, and Other
Stories (coll 1971). The magazine titles of his first 2 books were as well
known as their book titles, and the awards given them were attached to the
magazine titles. THIS IMMORTAL (1965 FSF as ". . . And Call me Conrad";
exp 1966) won the 1966 HUGO for Best Novel; THE DREAM MASTER (1965 AMZ as
"He Who Shapes"; exp 1966) - the magazine version was eventually released
as He Who Shapes (1989 dos) - won the 1966 NEBULA for Best Novella; and in
the same year The Doors of His Face, the Lamps of His Mouth (1965 FSF;
1991 chap) won a Nebula for Best Novelette. Taken together, the 3 tales
make up a portrait of RZ's central worlds, themes and protagonist, a
portrait which would be repeated, with sometimes lessened force, for
decades. The VENUS on which "Doors" is set, like most of RZ's worlds to
come, is fantastical, densely described, almost entirely "unscientific";
the plot intoxicatingly dashes together myth and literary assonances - in
this case Herman MELVILLE's Moby-Dick (1851) - and sex. THIS IMMORTAL
takes place in a baroquely described post- HOLOCAUST Earth which has
become a kind of theme-park for the ALIEN Vegans; in this shadowy realm of
belatedness and human angst, the immortal Conrad Nomikos serves ostensibly
as Arts Commissioner but turns out to be in a far more telling sense the
curator of the human enterprise, for, despite the US thriller idioms he
uses in his personal speech, he closely resembles Herakles - whose Labours
the plot of the novel covertly replicates - but is certainly both the Hero
of a Thousand Faces and the Trickster who mocks the high road of myth,
redeemer and road-runner both. Under various names, this basic figure
crops up in most of RZ's later books: wisecracking, melancholic, romantic,
sentimental, lonely, metamorphosing into higher states whenever necessary
to cope with the plot, and in almost every sense an astonishingly
sophisticated wish-fulfilment.In THE DREAM MASTER - for one of the few
times in his career - RZ presented the counter-myth, the story of the
metamorphosis which fails, the transcendence which collapses back into the
mortal world. In THIS IMMORTAL, RS had already evinced a tendency to side,
perhaps a little too openly, with complexly gifted, vain, dominating,
immortal protagonists, and, as THE DREAM MASTER begins, his treatment of
psychiatrist Charles Render seems no different. Render is eminent in the
new field of neuroparticipant psychiatry, in which the healer actually
enters the mindspace of his patient - which is laid out like a Jungian
tournament of the cohorts of the self - and takes therapeutic action from
within this VIRTUAL REALITY. But Render becomes hubristic, and when he
enters the mind of a congenitally blind woman, who is both extremely
intelligent and insane, his attempts to cope with her intricate madness
from within gradually expose his own deficiencies as a person, and he
becomes subtly and terrifyingly trapped in a highly plausible psychic
cul-de-sac. All the sf apparatus of the story, and its sometimes overly
baroque manner, were integrated into RZ's once-only unveiling of the
nature of a human hero who could not perform the moult into
immortality.After these triumphs, LORD OF LIGHT (1967), which won a 1968
Hugo, could have seemed anticlimactic, but it is in fact his most
sustained single tale, richly conceived and plotted, exhilarating
throughout its considerable length. Some of the crew of a human colony
ship, which has deposited its settlers on a livable world, have made use
of advanced technology to ensconce themselves in the role of gods,
selecting those of the Hindu pantheon as models. But where there is
Hinduism, the Buddha - in the shape of the protagonist Sam - must follow;
and his liberation of the humans of the planet, who are mortal descendants
of the original settlers, takes on aspects of both Prometheus and Coyote
the Trickster. At points, Sam may seem just another of RZ's stable of
slangy, raunchy, over-loved immortals; but the end effect of the book is
liberating, wise, lucid.None of RZ's subsequent sf quite achieved the
metaphorical aptness of his first 3 novels, but Isle of the Dead (1969)
and Creatures of Light and Darkness (1969) both embody complex plots,
mythic resonance and a fluent intensity of language. Damnation Alley
(1969), a darker and coarser tale, depicts a post-holocaust
motor-cycle-trek across a vicious USA; it was filmed with many changes as
DAMNATION ALLEY (1977). Jack of Shadows (1971), though set on a planet
which keeps one face always to its sun, has all the tonality and
dream-like plotting of a fantasy: a fine one.From the mid-1970s on, RZ's
work maintained a certain consistency, and always threatened to explode in
the mind's eye; but did not quite do so. Deus Irae (1976), with Philip K.
DICK, is uneasy. Doorways in the Sand (1976) is a delightfully complicated
chase tale, involving a MCGUFFIN and an entire galactic community. My Name
is Legion (fixup 1976) - which included the Hugo- and Nebula-winning Home
is the Hangman (1975 ASF; 1990 chap dos) - puts into definitive form the
Chandleresque version of the RZ HERO. Roadmarks (1979) engrossingly
fleshes out the notion that the turnings off a metaphysical freeway might
constitute turnings in time not space. The Last Defender of Camelot (1980
chap), which became the title story of The Last Defender of Camelot (coll
1980; with 4 stories added, exp 1981), Unicorn Variations (coll 1983),
which included the Hugo-winning "Unicorn Variation" (1981), and Frost and
Fire (coll 1989) - which contained "24 Views of Mount Fuji" (1985) and
"Permafrost" (1986), both Hugo-winners - represent competent later short
stories. Eye of Cat (1982) is a proficient sf thriller with a striking
alien and some effective Navajo venues. Had it not been for the romantic
sublimities of his first years, RZ's career might have been seen as
triumphant.He is not, however, regarded as a writer whose later works have
fulfilled his promise, and it may be that he has suffered the inevitable
price of writing at the peak of intensity and conviction when young: that
he may already have put into definitive form the heart of what exercises
him as a man and as a writer. The plummets into INNER SPACE, the
sensitized baroque intricacy of his rendering of the immortal longings of
men who all too easily slip into secret-guardian routines, the rush into
metamorphosis: all have had their cost. Though his Amber books and some
other fantasies (see listing below) exhibit a sustained freshness, RZ's sf
readership has been left with the inspired facility of an extremely
intelligent writer who does not desperately need to utter another word.
[JC]Other works: Today We Choose Faces (1973); To Die in Italbar (1973),
featuring Francis Sandow, the protagonist of Isle of the Dead; Poems (coll
1974 chap); Bridge of Ashes (1976); The Illustrated Zelazny (graph coll
1978; rev vt The Authorized Illustrated Book of Roger Zelazny 1979); the
Changing Land sequence, comprising The Bells of Shoredan (1966 Fantastic;
1979 chap), The Changing Land (1981) and Dilvish, the Damned (coll of
linked stories 1982); For a Breath I Tarry (1966 NW; 1980 chap); When
Pussywillows Last in the Catyard Bloomed (coll 1980 chap), poetry; the
Wizard World sequence, comprising Changeling (1980) and Madwand (1981),
both assembled as Wizard World (omni 1989); Today We Choose Faces/Bridge
of Ashes (omni 1981); To Spin is Miracle Cat (coll 1981), poems; Coils
(1982) with Fred SABERHAGEN; A Dark Traveling (1987), a juvenile; The
Black Throne (1990) with Saberhagen, a RECURSIVE fantasy starring Edgar
Allan POE; The Mask of Loki (1990) with Thomas T. THOMAS; The Graveyard
Heart (1964 AMZ; 1990 chap dos); Bring Me the Head of Prince Charming
(1991) with Robert SHECKLEY; Gone to Earth (coll dated 1991 but 1992);
Flare (1992) with Thomas, describing a deadly solar flare; Way Up High
(1992 chap); Here There be Dragons (1992 chap); A Night in the Lonesome
October (1993); If at Faust You Don't Succeed (1993) with Robert Sheckley;
Wilderness (1994) with Gerald Hausman, associational.As Editor: Nebula
Award Stories Three (anth 1968).About the author: "Faust & Archimedes" in
The Jewel-Hinged Jaw: Notes on the Language of Science Fiction (coll 1977)
by Samuel R. DELANY; Introduction by Ormond Seavey to the 1976 GREGG PRESS
printing of THE DREAM MASTER; Roger Zelazny (1980) by Carl B. YOKE; Roger
Zelazny: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1980) by Joseph L. Sanders;
A Checklist of Roger Zelazny (1990 chap) by Christopher P. STEPHENS.See


(1923- ) US writer and editor who collaborated with Harrison BROWN (whom
see for details) on The Cassiopeia Affair (1968). [JC]

Kenneth BULMER.

[r] Genrikh ALTOV.


US magazine-publishing house, based in Chicago until 1950, then New York.
It entered the sf field in 1938 when it bought AMAZING STORIES from Teck
Publishing Corp, New York, the 1st Z-D issue being April 1938, ed Raymond
A. PALMER under Bernard G. Davis (the Davis of Ziff-Davis) as
editor-in-chief. Under Palmer and later Howard BROWNE, AMZ was the most
juvenile and lurid of the pulp SF MAGAZINES. The Z-D stable was expanded
in May 1939 with the founding of a new title, FANTASTIC ADVENTURES, also
lurid. Local Chicago writers, many of them hacks, churned out material for
Z-D at immense speed, and often under the huge variety of house names that
characterized these magazines and made them a bibliographer's nightmare:
Chester S. GEIER, David Wright O'BRIEN, Rog PHILLIPS, Leroy YERXA and many
others whose work was hardly known outside the Z-D publications. Covers
were colourful, to the say the least, J. Allen ST. JOHN being especially
notable in this regard; Robert FUQUA was also a regular cover artist and
Rod RUTH drew many interior illustrations.As the pulp era drew to a close
in the 1950s, many sf magazines failed, and others converted to the DIGEST
format, as AMZ did in 1953. By then Z-D had founded a new digest magazine,
FANTASTIC, in 1952. This covered similar ground to Fantastic Adventures,
which it absorbed in 1953. The only sf/fantasy addition to the stable
thereafter was the short-lived DREAM WORLD, ed Paul W. FAIRMAN, in 1957,
though Z-D did publish occasional COMICS titles, like Space Patrol in
1952. Stories created by factory-production techniques continued in the
new digest magazines, now based in New York; Robert SILVERBERG was one who
learned his craft in the 1950s by being slotted into the assembly line.
Both AMZ and Fantastic improved enormously under the editorship of Cele
GOLDSMITH 1958-65, but it was too late. Bernard G. Davis had left in the
1950s, and fiction magazines were becoming anomalies in the Z-D line-up,
now largely concentrated (because of the potential for advertising
revenue) on specialist nonfiction magazines like Popular Photography and
Popular Electronics. Fantastic and AMZ were sold in 1965 to Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co., where he made a good thing for years recycling
Z-D backlist stories in new magazines, as well as continuing the 2 main
titles. The newly married Goldsmith stayed with Z-D to work on Modern
Bride. Bernard Davis's son Joel went on to form his own publishing
company, Davis Publications, which founded ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION
MAGAZINE and later bought ASF. The Davis sf dynasty, therefore, continued,
in a much different guise, until 1992, when Dell Magazines bought both
journals. [PN]


(1943- ) US writer, brother of Marion Zimmer BRADLEY, with whom he wrote
his first sf, the 2nd vol of the Survivors sequence, The Survivors (1979),
a somewhat congested sf adventure. A series by PEZ alone, the Dark Border
sequence - The Lost Prince (1982), King Chondo's Ride (1982) and A
Gathering of Heroes (1987) - is fantasy, as are his singletons Woman of
the Elfmounds (dated 1979 but 1980), Blood of the Colyn Muir (1988) with
Jon DeCles, and Ingulf the Mad (1989). [JC]

(1952- ) US writer with a degree in mathematics who began publishing sf
with "The Dreamer's Sleep" for Fantasy Book in 1984, though his career
properly began when he won the WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST with
"Shanidar" (1985). His 1st novel was the long and remarkable Neverness
(1988), an extremely ambitious example of the tale of cosmogony (a tale -
usually containing some plot mixture of SPACE OPERA and PLANETARY ROMANCE-
whose protagonist's life leads to an encounter with questions about the
origins, the ontological nature and the end of the Galaxy or Universe).
The young protagonist has all the necessary complexity and drivenness to
occupy centre-stage "cosmogony opera"; indeed, as he recollects his cruel
and ornate life at a distance of some years, Mallory Ringess may for some
readers too much resemble the Severian of Gene WOLFE's The Book of the New
Sun (1980-83), though he does eventually establish his own chilly
selfhood. The planet in which the city of Neverness nestles is drawn with
a long-breathed relish reminiscent of Wolfe's own model, Jack VANCE; the
growth to manhood of Ringess in this environment is expressed with cold
ornateness, an assiduous attention to character and a sense of immanent
significance. As space-pilot in the Order of Mystic Mathematicians and
Other Seekers of the Ineffable Flame, Ringess eventually becomes involved
in a search for the Elder Eddas which bear messages of import about
reality; encounters an entity whose brain is composed of moon-sized
ganglia; betrays, comes to understand, and saves himself; and penetrates
the eons-deep secrets of the nature of things. The author of Neverness is
romantic, ambitious, and skilled.Full understanding of DZ's immense second
novel - whose first 2 instalments may or may not constitute the entire
story - awaits its full publication. The first volume, The Broken God
(1993 UK), carries on the overall project outlined in Neverness, primarily
through the viewpoint of Ringess's son. The recomplications and
innovations of the tale are consistent with those adumbrated in the
earlier book, which serves as a kind of prelude. A second volume, The Wild
(1995 UK), is projected. [JC]See also: BIG DUMB OBJECTS; COMMUNICATIONS;

(1922- ) Russian writer whose Ziyayushchie Vysoty (1976 Switzerland;
trans Gordon Clough as The Yawning Heights 1979 US) clearly models the
closed DYSTOPIAN society at its heart upon the gerontocracy which then
dominated the USSR. [JC]

(vt Tomorrow I'll Wake up and Scald Myself with Tea) Film (1977). Filmove
studio Barrandov. Dir Jindrich Polak, starring Petr Kostka, Jiri Sovak,
Vladimir Mensik, Vlastimil Brodsky. Screenplay Polak, Milos Macourek,
based on a story by Josef NESVADBA. 90 mins. Colour.Not widely known in
the West (although it has been given a UK tv showing), this Czech
production is one of the most sophisticated TIME-TRAVEL films yet made,
written by a team whose members all have ample sf experience ( CZECH AND
SLOVAK SF). The insanely convoluted comic story, with a richer use of TIME
PARADOXES than is ever seen in Western sf cinema, involves going back in
time to give the H-bomb to Hitler. Though farcical, it throws up
interesting questions of causality. Polak also dir IKARIE XB-1 (1963), and
Macourek, who has been involved with many of the best Czech sf comedies,
codir KDO CHCE ZABIT JESSII? (1965). [PN]

(1948- ) Yugoslav sf publisher and researcher, based in Belgrade. He
received his doctorate at Belgrade University in 1982; a version of his
dissertation, "The Appearance of Science Fiction as a Genre of Artistic
Prose", was published in his Savremenici buducnosti ["Contemporaries of
the Future"] (anth 1983) along with some of the stories he discusses. He
has translated about 50 sf books and published more than 100 under his
Polaris imprint, the first privately owned sf publishing house (founded
1982) in YUGOSLAVIA. Zvezdani ekran ["The Starry Screen"] (1984) is a book
about sf cinema, based on the tv series of the same title which he wrote
and hosted. His most ambitious work is the 2-vol Enciklopedija naucne
fantastike ["Encyclopedia of Science Fiction"] (1990). He wrote the
YUGOSLAVIA entry in this volume. [PN]

(1840-1902) French writer whose long and intense Rougon-Macquart sequence
of Naturalist novels (1871-93) includes tales like Nana (1880; trans E.A.
Vizetelly 1884 UK), for which he was once notorious. EZ is of sf interest
for Verite (1903; trans E.A. Vizetelly as Truth 1903 UK), the 3rd vol of
his unfinished Les Quatre Evangiles ["The Four Evangelists"] quartet,
which was planned to espouse a kind of Tolstoyan socialism. The action in
Truth extends to 1980, and there are hints of advanced TECHNOLOGIES. [JC]

Working name of US painter and writer Pamela Lifton-Zoline (1941- ), in
the UK 1963-86. She illustrated, in a collage-derived style, several
stories for NW in the late 1960s, including the magazine publication of
Thomas M. DISCH's CAMP CONCENTRATION (1968 UK). Her debut sf story, "The
Heat Death of the Universe" (1967 NW), is a finely structured application
of the concept of ENTROPY to the life of a US housewife, through whose
perceptions its rise is experienced literally. The story appeared in PZ's
1st collection, Busy About the Tree of Life and Other Stories (coll 1988
story which gives its title to the UK edn is also sf. With John T. SLADEK,
PZ ed both issues of and contributed to Ronald Reagan: The Magazine of
Poetry (1968); other contributors included Disch and J.G. BALLARD. In
Telluride, Colorado, she has since 1986 written, designed and produced sf
plays for the Muddbutt Mystery Theatre. [JC]Other works: Annika and the
Wolves (1985 chap US), a children's fantasy.See also: COSMOLOGY; OULIPO.


Film (1985). Altar/Empire. Executive prod Charles BAND. Dir Danny Bilson,
starring Tim Thomerson, Timothy Van Patten, Art La Fleur, Biff Maynard.
Screenplay Bilson, Paul DeMeo. 86 mins. Colour.This curious, small, honest
film is as close as the cinema has ever got to the flavour of pulp sf.
Three GIs and a war correspondent are trapped behind German lines in Italy
in 1944. In between repeated clashes with Germans they befriend a BEM -
female, we later learn - from a crashed spaceship, whom the Germans wish
to interrogate. All is played straight and gung-ho, catching delightfully
the tone of 1940s war films. The film ends appropriately with a shot of a
(phony) PULP-MAGAZINE cover, Fantastic Fiction. [PN]

Group pseudonym used by members of the Oxford University Speculative
Fiction Group for the Bloomsbury Good Reading Guide to Science Fiction and
Fantasy (1989), a compact and knowledgeable biographical and
bibliographical dictionary whose usefulness would have been considerably
enhanced had its authors been granted more space. "M. H. Zool" stands for
Massed Hordes of Zool, a recurring phrase found in "Time Warriors of Zool"
(1979) by William Bains, a narrative - distributed in mimeographed form
only - which memorializes the Oxford SF Group in spoof recursive terms.
The main editors/authors involved in the Bloomsbury book were Neal
Tringham (1966- ), Ivan Towlson (1967- ) and Mo Holkar (1967- ). Both
Tringham, as writer of several entries, and Holkar, as coordinator of
entries from other members of the Speculative Fiction Group (not all of
them part of the original Zool enterprise), participated in this
encyclopedia, as did Zool participants Tim Adye (1964- ), Matthew Bishop
(1968- ), Adrian Cox (1968- ) and Penelope Heal (1970- ); other members of
the Zool enterprise included John Bray, Malcolm Cohen, Paul Cray, Melanie
Dymond, Paul Marrow and Simon McLeish. [JC]

(vt Zero Population Growth UK) Film (1971). Sagittarius/Paramount. Dir
Michael Campus, starring Oliver Reed, Geraldine Chaplin, Diane Cilento,
Don Gordon. Screenplay Max EHRLICH, Frank DeFelitta. 97 mins. Colour.This
film was a product of a period when, not before time, the question of
OVERPOPULATION had almost overnight become a matter much publicized by the
media, books like Paul Ehrlich's The Population Bomb (1968) had become
bestsellers, and the Club of Rome was about to publish a very alarmist
report in The Limits to Growth (1972). "Zero population growth" is a term
which refers to a situation where the population of a society remains
steady, neither increasing nor decreasing. But the screenwriters of Z.P.G.
assume, absurdly, that it means nobody having any children at all during
the 30-year period of a world government's ban. A married couple defy the
edict and have a baby secretly. They are betrayed by a jealous neighbour,
but escape the authorities by descending into a sewer. Where they escape
to is not explained. The novelization is The Edict * (1971) by Ehrlich.



(1874-1915) Polish playwright, poet and novelist, of sf interest for his
untranslated trilogy about the colonization of the MOON: Na Srebrnym
Globie ["On Silver Globe"] (1901), Zwycie


Яндекс цитирования