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SF&F encyclopedia (W-W)

(? - ) UK writer who published mainly with sf publishers John Spencer (
BADGER BOOKS) under various pseudonyms. As Victor Wadey he wrote two bad
yet charming sf novels, A Planet Named Terra (1962) and its sequel The
United Planets (1962). The distant planet confusingly called Terra is
populated by the REINCARNATIONS of people from Earth, notably Elizabeth I,
as space explorers from Earth discover to their amazement. He wrote Chaos
in Arcturus (1953) and Chariot into Time (1953) under the house name Karl
Zeigfreid as well as, fairly certainly, the remaining unidentified title
listed in the Karl ZEIGFREID entry. Under the house name Victor LA SALLE
he wrote Assault from Infinity (1953), The Seventh Dimension (1953) and
Suns in Duo (1953). As TWW he wrote 2 later tales, The World of Theda
(1962) and The Voice from Baru (1963). [JC/JGr]

Tom W. WADE.

(? - ) UK author whose Overmind (1967) deals with ALIENS who contact
humanity from another DIMENSION. [JC]

(1932- ) US academic (professor of history since 1971 at the State
University of New York at Binghamton, which has since 1991 been Binghamton
University) and writer. He has published sf - his first story being
"Heart's Desire" for IASFM in 1984 - but his involvement in the field
comes primarily through his many years of work on H.G. WELLS in books like
H.G. Wells and the World State (1961) and H.G. Wells: Journalism and
Prophecy, 1893-1946 (coll 1964). In these WWW concentrates upon a side of
Wells not generally thought very congenial: the insistent, peremptory,
secretly authoritarian proselytizer for a world UTOPIA. The image of Wells
as a simple propagandist does not survive WWW's analysis. Later books,
like Terminal Visions: The Literature of Last Things (1982) and A Short
History of the Future (1989; rev 1992), demonstrate the complexity and
darkness that Wells, and others, brought to their prophecies; the 2nd vol
is a literal recasting of one of Wells's favourite modes, the future
history told as a nonfiction narrative, with illustrations. Terminal
Visions, an important work of sf scholarship, is a social history of
apocalyptic thought in literature, covering (but not confined to) GENRE

(1926-1975) Swedish writer, best known for his detective novels, mostly
with his wife Maj Sjowall (1935- ); on some of his books his name appears
as Peter Wahloo. His NEAR-FUTURE sf thrillers include Mord pa 31: a
vaningen (1965; trans Joan Tate as Murder on the 31st Floor 1966 UK; vt
The Thirty-First Floor 1967 US), which was filmed as KAMIKAZE 1989 (1982),
Stalspranget (1968; trans Joan Tate as The Steel Spring 1970 UK), about a
deadly plague in Sweden, and Generalerna (1965; trans Joan Tate as The
Generals 1974 US), a trial novel set in a military DYSTOPIA. [JC]

An item of sf TERMINOLOGY originated by Robert A. HEINLEIN in his short
novel Waldo: Genius in Orbit (1942 ASF as "Waldo"; a title story of Waldo
& Magic, Inc. [coll 1950]; 1958). The eponymous hero suffers from a
crippling wasting of the muscles, and invents a number of remote-control
devices, also called waldoes, to amplify the power of his feeble muscular
movements. The term has since come into general use in technology to
describe a whole range of remote-control devices, now commonplace. It has
expanded in meaning to include devices for handling radioactive or other
dangerous materials in isolation from the handler, and those concerned
with fine and precise rather than powerful movements. [PN]

(1946- ) US writer, an important member of the Texas-based school of sf
writers, much of whose work is set in the South. His first sf story was
"Lunch Box" (1972) for ASF. His first novel, The Texas-Israeli War: 1999
(1974) with Jake SAUNDERS, makes little capital of its transpositions of
genres and nationalities. In 1976, however, he began to produce more
characteristic work, including a wildly elaborate collaboration with
Steven UTLEY, "Custer's Last Jump" (1976) - an ALTERNATE-WORLD story in
which powered flight has reached the USA in time for the Civil War and the
Indian Wars - and "Mary Margaret Road-Grader" (1976), an accomplished
post- HOLOCAUST story in which Native American trials of strength are
conducted with ageing bulldozers. There were several more collaborations
with Utley, and these along with HW's solo work have been regularly
anthologized.HW is one of the few contemporary sf writers whose work is
mostly short fiction. He has never been especially prolific, and his
stories mine the same rich vein of alternate history almost too
repeatedly, but his combination of deadpan humour and genuine scholarship
(in both academic history and popular culture) has won him a loyal
readership. Although his yoking together of disparate material sometimes
appears crazed, with hindsight it is often strangely logical. Only HW
would have written - it was his first solo novel - an alternate history
(featuring 4 alternate worlds) with time travel from a dystopic future,
Amerindian Mound Builders, Aztec Invaders, ancient Greek merchants in
power-driven boats and much more, in Them Bones (1984); it is both
astonishing and moving. His only other novel (really a novella) is A Dozen
Tough Jobs (1989), a tall tale retelling the labours of Hercules in a late
1920s Mississippi setting; it says a little about ancient Greece and a lot
about Black workers and rednecks.The strain of putting the pieces together
sometimes shows, but at his (moderately regular) best HW has been one of
the unforgettable sf voices of the 1970s and 1980s. Among his memorable
pieces - somewhere between FABULATIONS and GENRE SF - are "Save a Place in
the Lifeboat for Me" (1976), "The Ugly Chickens" (1980), about how the
dodo became extinct in the Deep South, which won a NEBULA, "Ike at the
Mike" (1982), "Flying Saucer Rock & Roll" (1985), "Night of the Cooters"
(1987) - describing what the Martians which had landed in Texas were doing
while their counterparts, as featured in WAR OF THE WORLDS, were ravaging
England - "Do Ya, Do Ya Wanna, Wanna Dance?" (1988) ( MUSIC) and "Fin de
Cycle" (1991). It took a surprisingly long time for any collections to
appear. The first 2 were Howard Who? (coll 1986) and All About Strange
Monsters of the Recent Past (coll 1987), assembled as Strange Things in
Close-Up: The Nearly Complete Howard Waldrop (omni 1989 UK); the 2nd
collection was reissued with A Dozen Tough Jobs included as Strange
Monsters of the Recent Past (omni 1991). His 3rd collection was NIGHT OF
THE COOTERS: MORE NEAT STORIES (coll 1990), republished with A Dozen Tough
Jobs as Night of the Cooters: More Neat Stuff (omni 1991 UK). [PN]See

(1944- ) US writer best known for novels like The Color Purple (1982),
exploring from a FEMINIST perspective the fate of being Black in the USA.
One of the protagonists of The Temple of My Familiar (1989), an extremely
long FABULATION, is immortal or has suffered numerous incarnations, and
the tales she tells embody a savage indictment of racism and patriarchal
dominance over the centuries. Counteracting this, deep memories of a
benign matriarchy also emerge, though shrouded in myth. [JC]

(1911-1992) Scottish-born writer, a Canadian citizen from 1957, best
known for sentimental evocations of Scottish spirit like Geordie (1950),
later filmed. Winter of Madness (1964) is a NEAR-FUTURE drama and The
Lord's Pink Ocean (1972) a tale of POLLUTION and DISASTER in which all but
one of the world's oceans die. [JC]

Pseudonym of German writer Hubert Strassl (1941- ), whose Darkness
sequence - featuring a character who first creates a wargame and then
becomes absorbed within it - is Reiter der Finsternis (1975; trans
Christine Priest as War-Gamers' World 1978 US), Das Heer der Finsternis
(1975; trans Christine Priest as Army of Darkness 1979 US), Boten der
Finsternis (1976; trans Christine Priest as Messengers of Darkness 1979
US) and Damonen der Finsternis ["Demons of Darkness"] (1978). [JC]See

(1921- ) US writer and critic in whose sf novel, Who Killed Utopia?
(1980), the first murder to have taken place for a century brings
suspicion upon the poet/computer at the heart of things. PW contributed
book reviews to Gal in 1978, and in the same year published a collection
of postal interviews, Speaking of Science Fiction: The Paul Walker
Interviews (coll 1978). [JC]



Working name of UK writer Dora Eileen Agnew Wallace Rash (1897- ), author
of much popular fiction over a 65-year career. Forty Years On (1958) is
set in the fens of Eastern England on the Isle of Ely (in fact not an
island but a marsh-surrounded hill surmounted by the famous cathedral)
after a nuclear HOLOCAUST. Here, under pastoral guidance, a chaste rural
Fabian socialism soon takes control. The narrator visits other - visibly
less blessed - parts of the fragmented UK, where cannibalism and US pop
songs create general misery among the survivors, mostly working-class, who
continue pertinaciously to attempt to breed. [JC]About the author:
Dangerous by Degrees: Women at Oxford and the Somerville College Novelists
(1989) by Susan J. Leonardi.

(1875-1932) UK author, playwright and editor, best known for his
thrillers. EW used his experiences of the Boer War in the future- WAR
novels Private Selby (1909 The Sunday Journal as "'O.C.' - A Soldier's
Love Story"; 1912) and "1925": The Story of a Fatal Peace (1915). He
featured the application of Pavlovian conditioning techniques to human
beings in The Door with Seven Locks (1926) and "Control No. 2" (1934);
impending world catastrophe in The Fourth Plague (1913), The Green Rust
(1919; vt Green Rust 1920 US), "The Black Grippe" (1920) and The Day of
Uniting (1921 Popular Magazine; 1926); the counter-Earth theme in
Planetoid 127 (1924 The Mechanical Boy; as title story of coll 1929;
1986); and weird fiction in "The Stranger of the Night" (1910), "While the
Passengers Slept" (1916) and Captains of Souls (1922 US). While working in
Hollywood he assisted on the screenplay of KING KONG (1933), though his
contribution may have been minimal - the novelization, King Kong * (1932),
was by Delos Wheeler Lovelace (1894-1967) - and scripted a horror film,
The Table, novelized as The Table * (1936) by Robert G. Curtis. [JE]Other
works: The Council of Justice (1908); The Death Room (1909-29 var mags;
coll 1986).See also: BOYS' PAPERS; HISTORY OF SF; WEAPONS.

(? -? ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Hideaway" for ASF in
1951, but was more strongly associated with Gal in the 1950s, the period
of his greatest activity. Worlds in Balance (coll 1955 Australia)
assembles 2 typical stories. Address: Centauri (1952 Gal as "Accidental
Flight"; exp 1955), features volunteer cripples setting off for the stars,
where they find redemption in being of use to the human race. [JC]

Pseudonym of John Wallace Pritchard (1912- ), US clinical psychologist
and teacher who spent his working life - from 1934 until his retirement in
1974 - in professional education. As a writer he has been active mainly
since 1967, though under his own name he published some nonfiction in the
1940s and the non-sf Every Crazy Wind (1952).Beginning with Croyd (1967),
IW produced a remarkable series of sf novels, most of them more or less
closely linked to a common background about 500 years hence, though the
baroque contortions of his storylines tend to obliterate any sustained
sense of continuity and often to make it very difficult to determine the
precise era of the tale in question. This freewheeling dreamlike
arbitrariness - as well as a startlingly inept sense of dialogue - has
caused him more than once to be likened to A.E. VAN VOGT, though a sharp
sense of humour has always been evident in IW's work. The common
background to his books has a Solar System that dominates a large group of
planets. Various ALIEN creatures - some godlike - participate in and
impinge upon this central system. Transcendental TIME PARADOXES and loops
abound, as do all the other appurtenances of the more intricate sort of
SPACE OPERA, including HEROES.Of the 2 series sharing this background, the
St Cyr Interplanetary Detective sequence is the more approachable. The
individual titles - The Purloined Prince (1971) set in AD2470 (although
this and other dates, while provided in the texts, are of little help in
tales involving TIME PARADOXES and the like), Deathstar Voyage (1969) set
in AD2475, and The Sign of the Mute Medusa (1977) set in AD2480 - tend
like most detective novels to accept the nature of the world as a given
and to concentrate upon problem-solving plots. Each book features Claudine
St Cyr, an ace officer whose missions embroil her in complicated dilemmas
on various planets; TIME TRAVEL is not eschewed, but is kept relatively
straightforward. Of greater interest - but more taxing - is the Croyd
sequence, comprising by order of event Z-Sting (1979), set in AD2475,
Heller's Leap (1979), set in AD2494 and involving St Cyr, Croyd, set in
AD2496, Dr Orpheus (1968), set in AD2502, A Voyage to Dari (1974), set in
AD2506, Pan Sagittarius (1973), set in AD2509, and Megalomania (1989), set
subsequently. In the earlier-published volumes, IW generally managed to
control his tendency to create heavy-handed exercises in what might be
called Gamine Baroque; Croyd and Dr Orpheus are among the most
exhilarating space-opera exercises of the post-WWII genre. Croyd himself,
the effective ruler of the human worlds for much of the series, frequently
has to withstand - or initiate - radical changes in the rules that ground
the Universe, and as a result must constantly busy himself with matter of
cosmogonic grandeur. In Dr Orpheus, for instance, he must combat a plot on
the part of distant but approaching aliens desperate to implant their
fertile eggs in humans. The aliens have, in an earlier time, given the
egomaniacal Dr Orpheus the use of an IMMORTALITY drug, anagonon, which has
the side-effect of forcing those who take it to obey anyone whom they
intuitively recognize as their hierarchical better - e.g., Orpheus himself
- and thus, according to the aliens' plan, the human race should now be
ripe for implantation. Croyd's counteroffensive involves a great deal of
paradoxical time travel, including a sojourn in ancient Greece. Even at
its most exciting moments, the story is conveyed at a contemplative
remove, permitting the reader to enjoy its intricacies with relative calm.
Of those books not identified with any series, only The Rape of the Sun
(1982) seems clearly not to inhabit the basic and voluminous shared
Universe. The World Asunder (1976) is connected to Pan Sagittarius, and
The Lucifer Comet (1980), a successful tale, is attached by a tangle of
strings to Croyd.The dreamlike tone of IW's work is retrospective in
effect, rather than wish-fulfilling as with Van Vogt; it is only when this
central calm declines to something approaching indifference - however
laced with mysticism and occult plot turns - that IW's novels become


(? -? ) US writer whose sf novel, The Next War: A Prediction (1892), not
untypically for its time and place of origin, plays on White fears of
Negro uprisings. After failing to poison all US Whites, the Blacks lose
the ensuing rebellion and disperse into the hinterlands, where they become
extinct. [JC]See also: POLITICS.

[s] Orson Scott CARD.

(1926- ) US writer whose sf novel is No One Goes There Now (1971), in
which a distorted human culture on a colony planet finds itself
confronting ALIENS who will not abide our games of violence. He is not to
be confused with William A. Walling, an academic critic, one of whose
books is referred to under Mary SHELLEY. [JC]

[r] George C. WALLIS.

(1917- ) UK writer, possibly pseudonymous, of the near-future DYSTOPIAN
fantasy Only Lovers Left Alive (1964), in which the mass suicide of the
adult population leaves teenagers on their own in what rapidly becomes an
anarchic UK. The book expressed contemporary PARANOIA about scooter gangs,
adolescent violence, teen sex, loud music and funny hairstyles, yet,
significantly, retained faith in the fundamental decency of human beings:
it was not wholly pessimistic. [JC/JGr]See also: BOYS' PAPERS.

(1871-1956) UK writer, printer (before WWI) and cinema manager who began
writing sf and historical and adventure fiction in 1896 for the penny
weekly adult magazines and then, from the turn of the century, for the
"slick" magazines. Around 1903 he began to write almost exclusively for
the BOYS' PAPERS, ceasing around 1912. With the genesis of GENRE-SF
magazines in the 1920s he began to write again, with "The World at Bay" as
by B. and G.C. Wallis (the "B" was his cousin and literary agent) for AMZ
(1928). During 1938-41 he had 9 SPACE OPERAS published in Tales of Wonder.
Only 3 of his early sf and fantasy novels were reprinted as books:
Children of the Sphinx (1901), a historical fantasy set in Egypt, A
Corsair of the Sky (1910-11 Lot-O'-Fun; 1912) as by Royston Heath, in
which an airborne pirate declares war on the world, and Beyond the Hills
of Mist (1912 Lot-O'-Fun; 1913), in which a Tibetan lost race ( LOST
WORLDS), equipped with aircraft, plans world domination. Other early
novels, some in serial form, were "The Last King of Atlantis" (1896-7
Short Stories), in which an ancient MS describing the destruction of
ATLANTIS is found in a UTOPIAN world of the future, "The World Wreckers"
(1908 Scraps), a future- WAR story influenced by George GRIFFITH, "The
Terror from the South" (1909 Comic Life), in which an Antarctic lost race
becomes belligerent, and "Wireless War" (1909 Comic Life), with A.J.
Andrews, another future-war novel. GCW also published at least 7 sf short
stories 1896-1904, including "The Last Days of Earth: Being the Story of
the Launching of the 'Red Sphere'" (1901 The Harmsworth Magazine), an
END-OF-THE-WORLD tale set in AD13,000,000, and "The Great Sacrifice" (1903
The London Magazine), in which benevolent Martians save us from ourselves.
GCW was probably the only Victorian sf writer to continue to publish after
WWII. His last novel was The Call of Peter Gaskell (1947), in which yet
another lost race, this time Incan, plots to conquer the world. He is
interesting not as a good writer but because he so exactly typifies the
themes of Victorian sf and the longevity of their sales appeal. [JE/PN]See

Writing name of US writer and actress Hope Campbell (1925- ), who acted
under her own name and as Kathy McDonald, and has written non-sf under her
own name and as Virginia Hughes, concentrating on juveniles. The Light of
Lilith (1961 dos) and Legend of Lost Earth (1963 dos), both as by GMW, are
unremarkable but adequately stirring examples of adventure sf. Both are
set initially on other planets but focus, in the end, on a threatened or
desirable Earth. [JC]

(1897-1952) Australian-born writer who moved to the UK; he wrote
primarily mystery stories, some as by Stephen Maddock. His Vandals of the
Void (1931), its sequel, "The Struggle for Pallas" (1931 Wonder Stories
Quarterly), and Vanguard to Neptune (1932 Wonder Stories Quarterly; 1952)
are fairly routine early SPACE OPERAS, the first of which sees an attack
by MERCURY on Venus, Mars and Earth. The Secret of the Crater (1930) as by
H. Haverstock Hill (1939) has fantasy elements; the AMZ serial "The Terror
out of Space" (1934) is also as by Hill. [PN]Other works: Secret Weapons

(1910-1977) UK writer and pioneer, between 1936 and 1956, of the
development and use of electroencephalography in the UK; his early popular
study, The Living Brain (1953), was influential in its time. His sf novel,
Further Outlook (1956; vt The Curve of the Snowflake 1956 US), affords
illustrative, fundamentally OPTIMISTIC views of future HISTORY up to
AD2056 through the use of a TIME MACHINE. [JC]

[s] George LOCKE.

Pseudonym of UK writer Walter Llewellyn Hughes (1910- ) for his fiction,
all CHILDREN'S SF, and all restricted for many years to his Chris Godfrey
of U.N.E.X.A. sequence of interplanetary adventures: Blast Off at Woomera
(1957; vt Blast Off at 0300 1958 US), The Domes of Pico (1958; vt Menace
from the Moon 1959 US), Operation Columbus (1960; vt First on the Moon
1960 US), Moon Base One (1961; vt Outpost on the Moon 1962 US), Expedition
Venus (1962), Destination Mars (1963), Terror by Satellite (1964), Journey
to Jupiter (1965), Mission to Mercury (1965), Spaceship to Saturn (1967),
The Mohole Mystery (1968; vt The Mohole Menace 1969 US), Nearly Neptune
(1969; vt Neptune One is Missing 1970 US), First Contact? (1971), Passage
to Pluto (1973), Tony Hale, Space Detective (1973), Murder on Mars (1975),
Boy Astronaut (1977 chap), The Caves of Drach (1977), The Last Disaster
(1978), The Blue Aura (1979), First Family on the Moon (1979), The Dark
Triangle (1981) and School on the Moon (1981). Chris Godfrey starts as a
boy, but grows up and advances through the ranks of U.N.E.X.A. - the
United Nations Exploration Agency, the "organization responsible for the
exploration of the Universe"-until he becomes Director, from which point
he supervises younger characters, like the mechanic Tony Hale, who
dominate the action of later books. [JC]Other works: P-K (1986).See also:

(1940- ) French editor and writer who began publishing short stories in
1965, and proved an eclectic author and easy stylist who could switch from
HARD SF to HEROIC FANTASY. Requiem pour demain ["Requiem for Tomorrow"]
(coll 1976) shows him at his most experimental, gathering work which
reminded critics of Harlan ELLISON; Les Quatre Saisons de la Nuit ["The
Four Seasons of the Night"] (coll 1980) assembles dark fantasies. Mais
l'espace . . . Mais le temps ["What about Space? What about Time?"] (1972)
is a long novella blending space technology and MAGIC. He ed Les soleils
noirs d'Arcadie ["Black Suns of Arcadia"] (anth 1975), a manifesto for the
NEW WAVE. His first novel, L'Epouvante ["Dread"] (1979) remains
untranslated; "The Gunboat Dread", the story from which it was derived,
appeared in Maxim JAKUBOWSKI's Travelling towards Epsilon (anth 1976). As
the editor of the Club du Livre d'Anticipation he published US heroic
fantasy in translation, including work by C.J. CHERRYH, who reciprocated
by bringing the early vols of his FAR-FUTURE Swa sequence to the USA. Le
Livre de Swa (1982; trans Cherryh as The Book of Shai 1984 US) and Le
Destin de Swa (1982; trans Cherryh as Shai's Destiny 1985 US) are
intricately composed post- HOLOCAUST dramas of some moral complexity in
which young Swa (Shai) confronts and attempts to bring together the
various raging factions of a balkanized world. [MJ/JC]See also: FRANCE.

(1918-1988) US writer, prolific under his own name and others in several
genres, including tv work. He wrote some sf as Paul Franklin, Kenneth
O'Hara and Dave Sands, though his first story, "The Ultimate World" for
Planet Stories in 1945, was as BW. He contributed actively to the
magazines until about 1960, less frequently thereafter. Sons of the Ocean
Deeps (1952) faces a failed space cadet with the chance to mature in the
benthos, which he grippingly does. [JC]

(1908-1987) US writer and editor, founder with August DERLETH in 1939 of
ARKHAM HOUSE, formed initially to publish the work of H.P. LOVECRAFT, whom
both admired deeply. DW resigned his interest in the firm after WWII -
when he also stopped writing new fiction - and after Derleth's death in
1971 declined to resume it. As a writer he was justifiably best known for
his FANTASY and weird stories, beginning with "The Red Brain" (1927 Weird
Tales), a tale that incorporates a bungled sf premise about the nature of
matter into a narrative whose deepest effect is one of chill horror at the
cosmos. Later sf work, much of it in ASF in the 1930s, is similarly
compounded of disparate ingredients, and the tales assembled in the
posthumous Colossus: The Collected Science Fiction of Donald Wandrei (coll
1989) share the sense of the grotesqueness of the world espoused in that
first story. In addition to some unremarkable verse, gathered in Ecstasy
and Other Poems (coll 1928 chap), Dark Odyssey (coll 1931 chap) and Poems
for Midnight (coll 1965), he published a collection of fantasy, The Eye
and the Finger (coll 1944), a Lovecraftian Cthulhu Mythos tale, The Web of
Easter Island (1948) - probably his finest single work, making, as usual
in DW's work, opportunistic use of sf devices (in this case travel between
the DIMENSIONS) to colour the horror - and Strange Harvest (coll 1965).
With Derleth he selected the contents of the first Arkham House Lovecraft
collections and ed 3 vols of Lovecraft's Selected Letters: 1911-1924 (coll
1965), 1925-1929 (coll 1968), and 1929-1931 (coll 1971).DW's brother,
Howard Wandrei (1909-1956), was an illustrator and the author of some
fantasy stories under his own name, and as by Robert Coley and H.W.

[r] Donald WANDREI.

One of the principal imaginative stimuli to futuristic and scientific
speculation has been the possibility of war, and the possibility that new
TECHNOLOGY might transform war. This stimulus was particularly important
during the period 1870-1914 and in the years following the revelation of
the atom bomb in 1945.Antique futuristic fictions such as the anonymous
Reign of George VI, 1900-25 (1763) anticipate little change in the
business of war; here King George, sabre in hand, leads his cavalry in the
charge. In the mid-19th century, however, awareness of technological
change spread rapidly. Herrmann LANG was able to envisage very different
patterns of future combat in The Air Battle (1859), and many new
technologies were displayed during the US Civil War (1861-5) and observed
by representatives of various European nations. When the German Empire was
consolidated after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 the strength and
firepower of the new German Army inspired an urgent campaign for the
reform and rearmament of the British Army. The case was dramatized by Sir
George CHESNEY in The Battle of Dorking (1871 chap), a drama-documentary
illustrating the ease with which an invading German army might reach
London. It caused a sensation, and initiated a debate which continued
until WWI itself broke out ( INVASION). A new subgenre of fiction had been
inaugurated, and future-war stories were established as a brand of popular
romance; the development of the subgenre, well documented in I.F. CLARKE's
Voices Prophesying War, 1763-1984 (1966), featured such successful
alarmist works as Erskine CHILDERS's The Riddle of the Sands (1903) and
William LE QUEUX's The Invasion of 1910 (1906), which made a great impact
when it was serialized in the newborn Daily Mail. Many products of this
glut of jingoistic fiction enthusiastically embraced the myth of a war to
end war - enthusiastically mapped out in Louis TRACY's The Final War
(1896)-and the popularity of this kind of fiction helped to generate the
great enthusiasm which Britons carried into the real war against Germany
when it finally came. The great bulk of this fiction was relatively
mundane, envisaging quite modest alterations in tactics as a result of new
TECHNOLOGY. The Captain of the Mary Rose (1892) by W. Laird Clowes
(1856-1905), Blake of the Rattlesnake (1895) by Fred T. JANE and "Danger!"
(1914) by Arthur Conan DOYLE are outstanding examples of the realistic
school of speculation; and the most careful of them all, The Great War of
189 - : A Forecast (1893) by P.H. Colomb (1831-1899) and other military
experts, instituted a tradition of drama-documentaries subsequently
carried forward by Hector C. BYWATER's The Great Pacific War (1925) and,
much later, The Third World War (1979) by General Sir John HACKETT and
others.Airships and submarines were by far the most popular innovations in
early future-war fiction. They were displayed to lavish effect by George
GRIFFITH, the most extravagant of the subgenre's writers, in The Angel of
the Revolution (1893) and Olga Romanoff (1894). The discovery of X-rays in
1895 encouraged writers to dream up more fanciful new WEAPONS; in
Griffith's posthumously published The Lord of Labour (1911), the future
war is fought with atomic missiles and disintegrator rays. The worst
excesses of this subgenre are parodied in Michael MOORCOCK's The Warlord
of the Air (1971) and The Land Leviathan (1974); Moorcock also edited a
notable theme anthology of works from the period, published in 2 vols as
Before Armageddon (anth 1975) and England Invaded (anth 1977). An
ambitious but reasonably disciplined imagination was brought to bear by H.
G. WELLS in "The Land Ironclads" (1903), The War in the Air (1908) and the
atom-bomb story The World Set Free (1914). The British High Command,
however, continued to the bitter end to show an extreme conservatism of
imagination, refusing to believe in the potential of the tank, the
submarine or the aeroplane until they were shown the way by the
Germans.Future-war stories enjoyed a second heyday in the UK between the
Wars, when the actual example of WWI caused many writers to believe that a
new war might mean the end of civilization - a conviction bleakly
expressed by Edward SHANKS in The People of the Ruins (1920) and Cicely
HAMILTON in Theodore Savage (1922). This kind of anxiety intensified in
such novels as Neil BELL's The Gas War of 1940 (1931 as Miles; vt Valiant
Clay 1934 as NB) and John GLOAG's Tomorrow's Yesterday (1932), and became
almost hysterical as Europe lurched towards a new war following Hitler's
rise to power (see also HITLER WINS). Invasion from the Air: A Prophetic
Novel (1934) by Frank McIlraith and Roy CONNOLLY, Day of Wrath (1936) by
Joseph O'NEILL and Four Days War (1936) by S. Fowler WRIGHT all feature
chilling accounts of cities devastated by aerial bombing with poison
gas.US future-war fiction was not so prolific, nor-understandably, in view
of the USA's very different experience of WWI - did it ever become so
pessimistic. Frank R. STOCKTON's The Great War Syndicate (1889) and
Stanley WATERLOO's Armageddon (1898) are mild by comparison with
contemporary UK works, and the invasion of the USA by Asiatics, although a
staple of pulp melodrama, never really seemed likely enough to inspire
genuine alarmist fantasy. The bleakest visions of future war written in
the USA before 1945 - Herbert BEST's The Twenty-Fifth Hour (1940) and L.
Ron HUBBARD's Final Blackout (1940; 1948) - both describe the devastation
of Europe. This situation changed dramatically, however, with the advent
of the atom bomb, which bred an alarmism all of its own and inspired a new
subgenre of stories concerning the HOLOCAUST AND AFTER.Wells's THE WAR OF
THE WORLDS (1898) was a logical extension of the more conventional
19th-century future-war story, as was Robert William COLE's story of
colonial war against Sirian aliens in The Struggle for Empire (1900), but
the other-worldly wars fought in most pulp interplanetary romance of the
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS school were mostly fought with swords. The specialist
sf pulps, however, embraced a more conscientiously futuristic outlook
whereby interplanetary wars were to be fought by fleets of SPACESHIPS
armed with marvellous ray-guns and the like. SPACE OPERA thrived on wars
between races, worlds and GALACTIC EMPIRES. Wherever its HEROES went they
found cosmic conflicts in progress, and they never felt inhibited about
joining in. Such was the moral insight of pulp fantasists that these
heroes hardly ever had the slightest difficulty in selecting the "right"
side: it was handsome and honourable vs ugly and treacherous.The quest to
discover bigger and more powerful weapons was driven to its limits in a
few short years. Spectacular genocide became commonplace, as in Edmond
HAMILTON's "The Other Side of the Moon" (1929), and stars were blown up in
prolific quantity. War waged across time between ALTERNATE WORLDS was
invented by Jack WILLIAMSON in THE LEGION OF TIME (1938; 1952). Anti-war
stories like Miles J. BREUER's "The Gostaks and the Doshes" (1930) and Nat
SCHACHNER's "World Gone Mad" (1935) were in a tiny minority until the
outbreak of war in Europe in 1939 helped encourage a new seriousness, most
conscientiously displayed in John W. CAMPBELL Jr's ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION, where A.E. VAN VOGT began chronicling The War Against the
Rull (1940-50; fixup 1959). Ross ROCKLYNNE's "Quietus" (1940) made an
issue of the dilemma which had been so easily sidestepped in the past:
when visitors from elsewhere find two creatures locked in conflict, how do
they choose which to help? After WWII, anti-war stories appeared far more
frequently in the sf magazines; notable are several stories by Eric Frank
RUSSELL, including "Late Night Final" (1948) and "I am Nothing" (1952),
and several by Fritz LEIBER, including "The Foxholes of Mars" (1952) and
"A Bad Day for Sales" (1953). More ironic approaches to the question
include several stories in which war has become institutionalized as a
spectator sport ( GAMES AND SPORTS), such as Gunner Cade (1952) by Cyril
Judd (C.M. KORNBLUTH and Judith MERRIL) and Mack REYNOLDS's Mercenary from
Tomorrow (1962 as "Mercenary"; exp 1968). Sf writers' reflections on WWII
itself are assembled in The Fantastic World War II (anth 1990) ed Frank
McSherry Jr and S.M. STIRLING, while notable stories of nuclear war are
collected in Countdown to Midnight (anth 1984) ed H. Bruce
FRANKLIN.Although the possibility of future wars on Earth and images of
nuclear holocaust dominated the imagination of sf writers from 1945
through the 1950s, more exotic wars continued to be fought, and stories of
interplanetary or interstellar war became a safer haven for militaristic
adventures. The melodramatic excesses of space-opera warfare faded with
the pulps, although they never entirely died out, and there grew up a more
disciplined and more realistic notion of the kind of armies which might
fight interplanetary and interstellar wars, and the kinds of weapons they
might use. In this context a new tradition of militaristic sf grew up in
the 1950s and 1960s, notable early examples being Robert A. HEINLEIN's
STARSHIP TROOPERS (1959) and Gordon R. DICKSON's The Genetic General
(1960; exp vt DORSAI! 1976). The latter began the long-running Dorsai
series, which aspires to offer a serious commentary on the evolution and
ethics of militarism and is still being extended through such novels as
The Chantry Guild (1988). Other important early contributors to this
tradition include Poul ANDERSON, as in The Star Fox (fixup 1965); it was
most aggressively carried forward through the 1970s by Jerry POURNELLE in
such novels as A Spaceship for the King (1973) and The Mercenary (1977).
The initial historical context of this fiction was provided by the Korean
War, where the intervention of UN troops embodied a new philosophy of
military action and responsibility, but doubts about the role played by US
forces were subsequently amplified in no uncertain terms by the progress
of the Vietnam War. Ideas about the moral justifiability of war and the
POLITICS of militarism became matters of fierce debate, exemplified in sf
by such novels as Joe HALDEMAN's THE FOREVER WAR (fixup 1974), clearly
modelled on STARSHIP TROOPERS but overturning many of the assumptions the
earlier novel had taken for granted, and Norman SPINRAD's vivid and
vitriolic The Men in the Jungle (1967). Spinrad went on to write The Iron
Dream (1972), in which the fascist fantasies of one Adolf Hitler, who
emigrated to the USA in the early 1930s and became a minor sf writer,
superimpose all the CLICHES of pulp future-war fantasies on the rise of
the Third Reich, the fighting of WWII and the "final solution" to the
problem of the insidious "Dominators". The most successful mainstream
anti-war novel of the 1960s, Joseph Heller's Catch-22 (1961), influenced
sf stories like Barry N. MALZBERG's "Final War" (1968 as K.M. O'Donnell),
which represents war as a surreal and purposeless nightmare.The
polarization of the sf community by the political conflict over the
Vietnam War was vividly illustrated by a pair of advertisements which
appeared in GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION (June 1968), listing on facing pages
those sf writers for and against the War. Memories of that war have
continued to haunt sf, directly reflected in such anthologies as In the
Field of Fire (anth 1987) ed Jeanne Van Buren Dann and Jack DANN and such
novels as The Healer's War (1988) by Elizabeth Ann Scarborough (1947- )
and Dream Baby (1989) by Bruce MCALLISTER, and indirectly in such novels
as Lucius SHEPARD's Life during Wartime (1987). Alongside these works,
however, the tradition of militaristic sf has not only flourished since
the Vietnam War's end but has become extraordinarily strident. David A.
DRAKE, author of several horror stories reflecting his own experiences in
Vietnam, has written numerous books about the heroic exploits of future
mercenaries, including the Hammer's Slammers sequence: Hammer's Slammers
(coll of linked stories 1979), The Forlorn Hope (1984), Rolling Hot (1989)
and The Warrior (1991). These books helped initiate a fad that has been
extrapolated in various anthologies and SHARED-WORLD series and in novels
such as The Warrior's Apprentice (1986) and its sequels by Lois McMaster
BUJOLD. Other fiercely militaristic sf novels of the 1980s include
Christopher ANVIL's The Steel, the Mist and the Blazing Sun (1983) and
Joel ROSENBERG's Zionist Not for Glory (1988). The annual series of
anthologies begun with There Will Be War (anth 1983) ed Pournelle and John
F. CARR, following Reginald BRETNOR's earlier anthology series The Future
at War (3 vols 1979-80), has generated some controversy. This subgenre has
merged with and absorbed various older materials, including Fred
SABERHAGEN's Berserker series begun in 1963 and the episode in Larry
NIVEN's Known Space future history expanded for The Man-Kzin Wars
SHARED-WORLD series (3 vols 1988-90). Although the popularity of this kind
of fiction can be largely accounted for simply as a love of melodrama, it
does seem to reflect an innate aggression in US culture - a concept
discussed at some length by H. Bruce Franklin in his excellent study of
war as a theme in US imaginative fiction, War Stars: The Superweapon and
the American Imagination (1988). [BS]


(1913?- ) Perhaps a pseudonym of a French writer - possibly Henri Louis
Luc Viard (1921- ) as Donald H. TUCK claims. HW's sf novels are L'enfer
est dans le ciel (trans Alan Neame as Hell's Above Us 1960) and Les
soleils verts (1956; trans Neame as The Green Suns 1961). The latter book
contains a detailed biography of HW in the introduction, claiming that he
is a scientist educated at Cambridge in the UK and then Columbia in the
USA, that at the request of the State Department he liaised between atomic
research units in France and the USA in 1939-40 (which Viard at age 18
could not have done), and that he was later connected with the destruction
of the V-Bomb centre at Peenemunde. However, this information may be a
hoax to lend verisimilitude to the two books, both documentary-style
thrillers involving conspiracy at high political levels involved with the
investigation of implausible sf events vis a vis the space programme,
aliens, the Suez conflict and PARALLEL WORLDS. HW appears as a character
in both. [PN]

(1861-1932) US writer, most of whose short stories of sf interest were
political dramas whose venues were only marginally displaced from the
late-19th-century USA, even though some of the tales assembled in A
Republic Without a President, and Other Stories (coll 1891) were
ostensibly set 100 years hence. The White Crown, and Other Stories (coll
1894) continued in the same vein, though the title story itself is a
future- WAR tale of some interest. [JC]Other works: The Master of the
Magicians (1890) with Elizabeth Stuart Phelps; A Dash to the Pole: A Tale
of Adventure in the Ice-Bound North (1895).

Made-for-tv film (1965). BBC/Pathe Contemporary. Prod/dir/written Peter
WATKINS. Narrators Michael Aspel, Dick Graham. 50 mins, cut to 47 mins.
B/w.This pseudo-documentary about a nuclear attack on England and its
aftermath in a small town in Kent was refused a showing by BBC TV, though
made for them, on the grounds that it was too realistic and might disturb
audiences - as it was designed to do. Since then it has had a wide
theatrical release and won an Oscar. Though clumsily made, it is full of
shattering images: the glare and concussion of the bomb; the raging
firestorms; the hideously disfigured casualties; torment and slow death
from radiation poisoning; mass cremations; buckets of wedding rings
gathered from the dead; and execution squads, composed of uniformed
constables, shooting looters. Its first UK tv showing was in 1985. [JB]See
also: CINEMA.

Film (1983). Sherwood Productions/MGM/UA. Dir John BADHAM, starring
Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman, John Wood, Ally Sheedy, Barry Corbin.
Screenplay Lawrence Lasker, Walter F. Parkes. 113 mins. Colour.Teenager
David (Broderick) attempts to use his computer to hack into the programs
of a computer-games manufacturer. Accidentally - after a week's research
from which he deduces a secret password that will give him access to the
system - he breaks into WOPR, the giant Department of Defense computer
with which the USA will, if necessary, direct the operations of WWIII.
Unable to distinguish between game theory and real life, WOPR, in playing
the game of Global Thermonuclear War with David, almost sets off
Armageddon. The film is briskly directed, with an ingenious first hour and
so engaging a narrative sweep that the gaping logical holes in its plot
may become evident only at a second viewing. It is in fact silly, not
least for the crudely drawn character of Falken (Wood), WOPR's creator,
who thinks we all deserve to die anyway (like the dinosaurs), and appears
to change his mind only because David's girlfriend (Sheedy) is cute; the
metaphor of WAR as video game is both amusing and tritely reductive, and
became an sf CLICHE in the 1980s ( CYBERSPACE). Badham is a good action
director whose films often collapse into ethical confusion on any
examination of their superficially liberal credentials.The novelization is
WarGames * (1983) by David F. BISCHOFF. [PN]See also: CINEMA; VIRTUAL

US FANZINE (1952-85), ed from New York and Puerto Rico by Richard
Bergeron. From undistinguished early issues, W became a large, attractive,
duplicated fanzine containing careful and literate articles on sf and
FANDOM. John BAXTER, James BLISH and Robert A.W. LOWNDES were among the
regular sf columnists, and Terry CARR, Bob SHAW, Harry WARNER Jr and Walt
Willis were fan columnists. Occasional contributors included Robert BLOCH,
Harlan ELLISON and Ted WHITE. In 1980 (though dated 1978), 10 years after
#27, #28 was published; this was a 600+pp hardbound collection of the
writings of Willis since 1947. It was almost certainly the largest fanzine
issue ever published, its size being the reason for the hiatus. There were
3 further issues to June 1985. In 1962 W won a HUGO as Best Fanzine.

[s] Donald A. WOLLHEIM.

(1922- ) US journalist and sf fan, publisher of several FANZINES,
including Spaceways and the long-lived Horizons, which has appeared
regularly in FAPA since 1939. His history of sf FANDOM, All Our Yesterdays
(1969), is an affectionate and thorough examination of individuals, fan
organizations and fanzines in the 1940s. The 2nd part, A Wealth of Fable
(3 vols, mimeographed 1976; exp 1992), continues the history through the
1950s. HW won HUGOS as Best Fan Writer in 1969 and 1972; and the 1992
version of A Wealth of Fable won the 1993 Hugo for Best Non-fiction title.

(1905-1986) UK writer and translator who remains best known for his
earliest adult novels, The Wild Goose Chase (1937), The Professor (1938)
and The Aerodrome (1941), political allegories some of whose devices
relate to the KAFKA-esque side of sf ( ABSURDIST SF; FABULATION). In The
Wild Goose Chase 3 brothers bicycle into a strange country in search of
the eponymous goose, and encounter and participate in a revolution - which
ultimately they cause to triumph - in a DYSTOPIAN society. The Aerodrome
depicts within the allegorical confines of an aerodrome an attempt at
violently remoulding human nature. Why Was I Killed? (1943; vt Return of
the Traveller 1944 US) is an afterlife fantasy. RW was always clear about
which side he stood on in these metaphysical conflicts, a didactic
sidedness which sometimes quite evidently detracted from the imaginative
power of his fiction. [JC]See also: HISTORY OF SF.




1. US RADIO play (30 October 1938). Part of the Mercury Theatre on the
Air series of plays, WOTW was the most famous broadcast ever made; an
adaptation by Howard Koch (1902- ) of H.G. WELLS's 1898 novel, it was
produced by and starred Orson Welles (1915-1985), who gained immediate
notoriety when a huge number of listeners believed that the play
represented a live newscast of an actual INVASION from MARS. The Invasion
from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic, with the Complete Script of
the Famous Orson Welles Broadcast (1940) by Hadley Cantril (1906-1969)
reports on a series of interviews begun by Princeton University a week
after the broadcast, confirming that the panic was surprisingly widespread
(Cantril estimates that well over a million listeners - more than 10% of
the total audience tuned in - were actively frightened by the broadcast);
but also demonstrates, by reprinting the original script, that neither
Koch nor Welles could have intended to hoax the radio public. Though it
was indeed presented in the form of a series of emergency newscasts,
dramatic devices (the passage of hours, for instance, in a few minutes of
radio time) were conspicuous even during the first half of the broadcast,
which caused the most panic; the second half, after a brief programme
break, was set several days later. A made-for-tv movie giving a somewhat
exaggerated account of the night's events is The NIGHT THAT PANICKED
AMERICA (1975), and what has become a national myth has been incorporated
in several other films, including The ADVENTURES OF BUCKAROO BANZAI ACROSS
THE 8TH DIMENSION (1984) and SPACED INVADERS (1989). In 1991 the original
play was broadcast on BBC radio. [JC/PN]2. Film (1953). Paramount. Prod
George PAL. Dir Byron HASKIN, starring Gene Barry, Ann Robinson, Les
Tremayne. Screenplay Barre Lyndon, based on THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898)
by H.G. WELLS. 85 mins. Colour.Few details of Wells's novel remain.
Following the success Welles had had in updating the story in 1938, the
setting is changed to 1950s California. The Martian war machines are
altered from walking tripods to flying saucers shaped (rather beautifully)
like manta rays. A stereotyped Hollywood love interest is substituted for
the original story of a husband searching for his wife. Despite
indifferent performances, the film is well paced and generates
considerable excitement, partly through the spectacular special effects.
The wires supporting the war machines are too often visible, but as a
whole the effects - Gordon Jennings was in charge - are very impressive,
especially in the final attack on Los Angeles: the manta-shaped vehicles
gliding down the streets with their snake-like heat-ray projectors
blasting the surrounding buildings into rubble are among the great icons
of sf CINEMA. The dazed conservatism of the human response to the Martians
is true to Wells, as is the subtext suggesting that a retreat into
religious piety is also an inadequate answer, though here Pal has it both
ways: we are told that it was "God in his wisdom" who created the microbes
that ultimately defeat the invasion. WOTW is George Pal's most successful
film production.3. US tv series (1988-90). Ten-Four/Paramount, for
syndication. Created Greg Strangis. Executive prods Sam Strangis, Greg
Strangis. Prod Jonathan Hackett, starring Jared Martin, Lynda Mason Green,
Philip Akin, Richard Chaves. Dirs included Colin Chilvers, Herbert Wright,
Neill Fearnley, Armand Mastroianni, William Fruet. Writers included Greg
Strangis, Tom Lazarus, Patrick Barry, D.C. FONTANA, Durnford King. 2
seasons; 100min pilot plus 41 50min episodes. Colour.The pilot episode,
The Resurrection, tells us that the events described in the 1953 film were
followed by a government hush-up and the storage of Martian bodies in
barrels at a military base. A terrorist attack on the base breaches some
barrels, and the Martians (no longer identified as such, now just vague
ALIENS) come back to life (the microbes did not kill them but threw them
into estivation, and have now been destroyed by radioactivity). They adopt
the bodies of the terrorists. (Shapeshifting was not an alien skill in the
earlier versions; WOTW borrows heavily from the tv series The INVADERS
[1967-8], and the films of INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS [1955, 1978].)
Their human bodies damaged, so that they look like zombie refugees from
NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD (1968), the aliens again attempt to conquer the
world, initially by jumping out at people and grabbing them with big
flabby hands. Our heroes (male scientist, pretty female microbiologist,
wisecracking Black man in wheelchair) have trouble convincing the
powers-that-be that the aliens even exist, the destruction of Los Angeles
three decades earlier having apparently gone unnoticed. The series had
vigour if nothing else, and continued for 2 seasons with the usual
variants on the INVASION theme. In season 2, now renamed War of the
Worlds: The Second Invasion, the series eliminated some characters, added
new ones, introduced alien-human miscegenation and made moral distinctions
between good and bad aliens, but sagged anyway. [PN]See also: PARANOIA.



Working name of William Bond Warren (1943- ), sf fan and film buff,
author with Allan Rothstein of the RECURSIVE SF murder mystery Fandom is a
Way of Death (1984 chap), set in and distributed at a World SF CONVENTION
in Los Angeles. BW's extraordinarily useful and interesting film reference
books, the most detailed and accurate available for the period, are Keep
Watching the Skies!: American Science Fiction Movies of the Fifties:
Volume I: 1950-57 (1982) and Volume II: 1958-62 (1986), on both of which
he was assisted in research by Bill Thomas. They are not, despite the
title, restricted to US films, but include many foreign films released in
the US ( CINEMA). BW has also written some sf and fantasy, starting with
"Death is a Lonely Place" in Worlds of Fantasy #1 (1968). [PN]


[r] Nick CARTER.

(1925- ) US academic. Most of PSW's work has concentrated upon the themes
explicated in the book version of her PhD thesis, The Cybernetic
Imagination in Science Fiction (1980), supplemented by Machines That
Think: The Best Science Fiction Stories about Robots & Computers (anth
1984) with Isaac ASIMOV and Martin H. GREENBERG. In essays published from
the mid-1970s, and in Science Fiction: Contemporary Mythology (anth 1978)
with Greenberg and Joseph D. OLANDER, she focused on the relationship
between Homo sapiens and its CYBERNETIC offspring, a focus which led
naturally to a concentration on the work of Philip K. DICK. After editing
(with Greenberg) a collection of his work, Robots, Androids, and
Mechanical Oddities: The Science Fiction of Philip K. Dick (coll 1984),
she examined his whole career in Mind in Motion: The Fiction of Philip K.
Dick (1987), the most thorough study of his entire oeuvre yet published.
[JC]Other works: Martin H. GREENBERG for other team anthology productions
with PSW under his general editorship.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; COMPUTERS;


(c1870-? ) UK writer and-apparently - cleric whose sf novel, Palafox
(1927), features an introduction by Compton MACKENZIE, a style mildly
reminiscent of Ronald Firbank's, and a thought-reading machine. [JC]

Film (1959). Filmgroup/Allied Artists. Prod/dir Roger CORMAN, starring
Susan Cabot, Michael Mark. Screenplay Leo Gordon, based on a story by
Kinta Zertuche. 73 mins. B/w.One of Roger Corman's more routine efforts,
this may have been rushed out to capitalize on the publicity received by
The FLY (1958). Cabot plays well the ageing cosmetics executive who, in a
successful attempt at rejuvenation, takes a form of royal jelly (from
wasps not bees) prepared by loony apiarist Zinthrop (Mark). The
side-effect is that she occasionally grows an unconvincing wasp's head and
eats people. TWW is a shabby, rather unhorrifying film. [PN]

Perhaps the most famous of all GRAPHIC NOVELS, written by Alan MOORE and
illustrated by Dave GIBBONS. W appeared initially as a 12-part COMIC (Sept
1986-Oct 1987 Watchmen), each part corresponding to a chapter of the full
novel, which was published as Watchmen (graph 1987 US; with additional
material 1988 US). The initial premise is ingenious: given a late-1930s
USA where costumed SUPERHEROES exist, maintaining law and order on a
vigilante basis, what sort of ALTERNATE WORLD might develop by the
mid-1980s? The changes suggested are subtle: a modest increase in the rate
of scientific development; a Western dominance of the political scene; and
an initial acceptance of the superhero coterie, followed by a period of
repression. The story takes place in 1985, as members of the second
generation of superheroes attempt to trace the person who is murdering
them, one by one. At the same time, a number of signs are pointing towards
imminent nuclear war (and towards a secret plot to frighten the world out
of nuclear madness), which some of the protagonists sense coming but which
none of them know how to confront. An actual HOLOCAUST does take place,
proving terminal for 2 million New Yorkers; but its effects prove
ambiguously positive.W offers a satirical analysis of the human cost of
being (or needing) a superhero, and a portrait of the kind of world in
which one might exist. It also provides, en passant, an extremely sharp
analysis of the psychological makeup (and needs) of those who read
superhero comics. Moreover, the densely packed narrative is perfectly
conveyed through word and image - Moore was at the height of his powers as
an innovative figure in commercial US comics publishing, and Gibbons was
equally primed to generate a sophisticated visual language, through which
subtexts and subplots might interweave with (as rereading makes evident)
the utmost clarity. By subjecting the fantasy worlds inhabited by
comic-strip superheroes to the estrangements of adult-sf scrutiny, W
worked as a threnody for some of the more childish visions of omnipotence
which had crippled the genre; and by rendering visible some sf
conventions, it turned the tables, to a degree, on the scrutinizing
medium. W is one of the central sf novels of the 1980s. [JC]


(1846-1913) US writer whose first sf novel, The Story of Ab: A Tale of
the Time of the Cave Man (1897; vt A Tale of the Time of the Cave Men;
Being the Story of Ab 1904 UK), a juvenile whose hero acquires the
necessary inventions and culture to begin the march to civilization, is
among the earliest romances of ANTHROPOLOGY. Further novels were
Armageddon: A Tale of Love and Invention (1898), in which an Anglo-US
supremacy over the rest of the world is achieved through the use of an
armoured dirigible in a near-future WAR; and A Son of the Ages: The
Reincarnations and Adventures of Scar, the Link: A Story of Man from the
Beginning (1914), which carries Scar, via a sequence of REINCARNATIONS,
through various significant moments in history, including a visit to
ATLANTIS. SW was a routine stylist with a good nose for structure and
idea. [JC]Other work: The Wolf's Long Howl (coll 1899), containing some
marginal sf tales.See also: ORIGIN OF MAN.

(1938- ) US author who began writing sf with Love that Spy! (1968), a
spoof TECHNOTHRILLER featuring a scientist named Niflheim who specializes
in ultra-cold warfare. TAW's first sf of more orthodox interest was The
Probability Pad (1970), a novel which concluded the trilogy begun in
Chester ANDERSON's The Butterfly Kid (1967) and continued in Michael
KURLAND's The Unicorn Girl (1969). This is a lightweight RECURSIVE tale
involving the 3 authors as characters in Greenwich Village, along with a
good deal of alien-inspired body duplication. A countercultural ethos also
inspired the grimmer Centerforce (1974), in which motorcycle dropouts and
commune dwellers combine in opposition to a NEAR-FUTURE police-state USA.

(1935- ) UK tv and film director. Educated at Cambridge, PW worked in
documentary films from 1959. He made a reputation with two
quasidocumentaries for BBC TV, Culloden (1964) and The WAR GAME (1965). He
was one of the pioneers of the technique of staging historical or
imaginary events as if they were contemporary and undergoing tv-news
coverage. The WAR GAME (1965) adopted a cinema-verite manner to simulate
the likely consequences of nuclear attack on the UK, and did this
horrifyingly enough for the film to be denied a screening on tv, for which
it was made, until 1985; it was successful when released in the CINEMA.
His next film, PRIVILEGE (1966), has a pop star used as a puppet by a
future government in a cunning propaganda plan for the manipulation of the
nation's youth. GLADIATORERNA (1968; vt The Peace Game), made in Sweden,
and PUNISHMENT PARK (1971) are both set in the future, and both use
stories of channelled violence to argue a pacifist case, the latter more
plausibly. An interesting paradox is that, while his theme is normally the
use of mind control by future governments to channel the aggressive
instincts of the people, and his purpose is to generate moral indignation
at this cynical curtailment of our freedom, his own work equally uses the
illusion of fact to present a propaganda fiction. Whether knowingly or
not, he is fighting fire with fire. After its initial success, PW's work
has been treated less kindly by critics, who do not doubt his sincerity
but deprecate his methods; it is felt by some that he has thumped the same
tub for too long. [PN]

(1942- ) US writer and academic, associate professor of English at
Brookdale Community College. His first sf novels, with Gene SNYDER, were
Ecodeath (1972), a POLLUTION story in which the leading characters are
called Snyder and Watkins and the plot is fast and furious, and The Litany
of Sh'reev (1976), in which a healer with precognitive powers becomes
involved in a revolution. WJW's solo books are similarly - and at times
haphazardly - venturesome. Clickwhistle (1973) deals in a relatively sober
vein with human/dolphin COMMUNICATION, but The God Machine (1973), in
which political dissidents shrink themselves with a "micronizer" to escape
a mechanized future, is insecurely baroque. What Rough Beast (1980) pairs
an altruistic ALIEN with a world-class computer net to save erring
humanity. The LeGrange League sequence - The Centrifugal Rickshaw Dancer
(1985) and Going to See the End of the Sky (1986) - is adventure sf whose
settings, and quality of writing, are negatively affected by helterskelter
plotting. The Last Deathship off Antares (1989) is a tale of real
intrinsic interest; despite the failings characteristic of all his work,
the philosophical arguments underpinning a revolt of imprisoned humans
aboard a prison ship are sharply couched, and WJW never allows the
grimness of the conflict to slide into routine. He remains, however, a
writer whose ideas are perhaps more interesting to describe than to read.
[JC/PN]See also: ECOLOGY.

[s] Theodore STURGEON.



(1943- ) UK writer and teacher who lectured in English in Tanzania
(1965-7) and Tokyo (1967-70) before beginning to publish sf with "Roof
Garden Under Saturn" for NW in 1969; he then taught Future Studies for 6
years at Birmingham Polytechnic, taking there one of the first academic
courses in sf in the UK; he has been a full-time writer since l976.IW has
published over 100 short stories, at a gradually increasing tempo and with
visibly increased mastery over the form; his collections are The Very Slow
Time Machine (coll 1979), Sunstroke (coll 1982), Slow Birds (coll 1985),
The Book of Ian Watson (coll 1985 US), Evil Water (coll 1987), Salvage
Rites (1989), Stalin's Teardrops (coll 1991) and The Coming of Vertumnus
(coll 1994). It is as a novelist, however, that he remains best known. His
first novel, THE EMBEDDING (1973) won the Prix Apollo in 1975 in its
French translation, L'enchassement; although it is not necessarily his
finest work, it remains the title by virtue of which his stature as an sf
writer of powerful intellect - the natural successor to H.G. WELLS - is
most generally asserted. Through a complex tripartite plot, the book
engages in a searching analysis ( COMMUNICATIONS; LINGUISTICS; PERCEPTION)
of the nature of communication through language; the Whorfian hypothesis
that languages shape our perception of reality - a hypothesis very
attractive, for obvious reasons, to sf writers - is bracingly embodied in
at least two of the subplots: one describing a cruel experiment in which
children are taught only an artificial language, and the other showing the
ALIENS' attempt to understand Homo sapiens through an analysis of our
modes of communication.Again and again, IW's novels reveal themselves to
be very much of a piece, a series of thought experiments which spiral
outwards from the same central obsessions about the nature of perception,
the quest for what might be called the True Names that describe ultimate
realities, and the terrible cost to human beings - in betrayals and
self-betrayals - of searching for transcendence. The Jonah Kit (1975),
which won the BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD for 1978, describes the
imprinting of human consciousness into whales, and the transcendental
whiffs of alien INTELLIGENCES to which those consciousnesses become heir.
The Martian Inca (1977) reverses the operation, as a transformative virus
invades Earth. Alien Embassy (1977) foregrounds a constant IW
preoccupation - his concern with the control of information and perception
by the powers-that-be, generally governments - in a tale about the
frustrated transformation of the human race. Miracle Visitors (1978) again
combines speculations about perception and transcendence, in this case
suggesting that UFOs work as enticements to focus human attention on
higher states of communication. God's World (1979) reworks IW's ongoing
concerns in yet another fashion, describing another ambivalent alien
incursion, this time in the form of the "gift" of a stardrive which will
take a selected team to the eponymous world, where they will undergo
dangerous transfigurations.IW's first 6 novels, then, comprised a set of
virtuoso variations on his central themes. His next, The Gardens of
Delight (1980), conflates sf and fantasy to step sideways from the early
work, describing a world whose transformative energies have resulted in an
environment which precisely replicates the painting The Garden of Earthly
Delights by Hieronymus Bosch (1460-1516). Under Heaven's Bridge (dated
1980 but 1981), with Michael BISHOP, shows the flavour of the latter
writer's mind as its protagonist investigates an alien culture in terms
more relevant to ANTHROPOLOGY than IW would alone have been inclined to
employ; from 1980 on, his novels tended to show a greater inventiveness in
plot and style, and some even attempted humour, though the impatience of
his quick mind does not often make for successful light moments.
Deathhunter (1981) suggests that humans give off a pheromone-like signal
at the point of death, which attracts Death himself in the form of a
mothlike insect ( ESCHATOLOGY). Chekhov's Journey (1983), perhaps his
least enticing novel through its entanglement in too large a cast (IW has
never been a sharp delineator of character), revolves around the Tunguska
explosion of 1908. The Black Current trilogy-The Book of the River (fixup
1984), The Book of the Stars (1984) and The Book of Being (1985), all
assembled as The Books of the Black Current (omni 1986 US) - was his major
1980s effort; in a world divided by a mysterious and apparently sentient
river into two utterly opposed halves, the heroine Yaleen suffers rites of
passage, uprootings, rebirths and transcendental awakenings as she becomes
more and more deeply involved in a final conflict between the Worm and the
Godmind, the latter's intentions being deeply inimical to the future of
humanity. More expansive, and easier than his earlier books, the Black
Current sequence has been, except for a tie (see listing below), IW's
closest attempt to gain a wide readership.Subsequent books are if anything
even more varied. Converts (1984) is a brisk comedy about EVOLUTION and
the misuse of power. Queenmagic, Kingmagic (1986) is a slightly over-perky
FANTASY based on chess and other board games. The Power (1987) and Meat
(1988) are horror. Whores of Babylon (1988) is set in what may be a
VIRTUAL-REALITY version of Babylon reconstructed in the USA, and details
its protagonists' suspicions that a COMPUTER is generating them as well as
the city. The Fire Worm (1988) is a complex and gripping tale in which the
medieval Lambton Worm proves to be the alchemical salamander of Raymond
Lully (Ramon Lull; c1235-1316). THE FLIES OF MEMORY (1988 IASFM; exp 1990)
dazzlingly skates over much of the thematic material of the previous 20
books, as the eponymous aliens memorize bits of Earth so that the Universe
can continue remembering itself, while various human protagonists embody
linguistic concerns and dilemmas of perception. Space-opera antics
continue en passant.IW's intelligent, polemical pieces about the nature of
sf - many of which appeared in SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES, FOUNDATION (for
which he served as features editor 1976-91, sitting on the Council of the
SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION for the same period) and VECTOR - throw some
light on the intentions of his sometimes difficult fiction, and is also,
in a sense, of a piece with it. As a whole, his work engages vociferously
in battles against oppression - cognitive or political-while at the same
time presenting a sense that reality, so far as humanity is concerned, is
subjective and partial, created too narrowly through our perception of it.
The generation of fuller realities - though incessantly adumbrated by
methods ranging from drugs through linguistic disciplines, focused
meditation, radical changes in education from childhood up, and a kind of
enhanced awareness of other perceptual possibilities - is never complete,
never fully successful. Humans are too little, and too much, for reality.
IW is perhaps the most impressive synthesizer in modern sf; and (it may
be) the least deluded. [JC/PN]Other works: Japan: A Cat's Eye View (1969
Japan), a juvenile; Orgasmachine (1976 France) with Judy Watson, a fable
(never published in English) about the manufacture of custom-built girls;
Japan Tomorrow (coll 1977), linked stories set in various projected
Japanese futures; Kreuzflug ["Cruising"] (coll 1987 Germany, in German
trans); 3 Warhammer 40,000 ties ( GAMES WORKSHOP): Inquisitor *
(1990),Space Marine * (1993) and Harlequin * (1994 ); Nanoware Time (1991
dos US); the Books of MANA sequence, elaborately intricate tales based on
the Finnish Kalevala saga and set on a colony planet, comprising Lucky's
Harvest (1993) and The Fallen Moon (1994). As Editor: Pictures at an
Exhibition (anth 1981); Changes: Stories of Metamorphosis: An Anthology of
Speculative Fiction about Startling Metamorphoses, both Psychological and
Physical (anth 1983 US) with Michael Bishop; Afterlives: An Anthology of
Stories about Life After Death (anth 1986 US) with Pamela SARGENT.About
the author: The Work of Ian Watson: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide
(1989) by Douglas A. Mackey.See also: ANTIMATTER; ARTS; CONCEPTUAL

[r] Ian WATSON.

[s] Robert SILVERBERG.

Working name of US writer Lawrence Watt Evans (1954- ), who began
publishing sf in 1975 with "Paranoid Fantasy #1" for American Atheist as
Evans, creating a hyphenated surname in 1979 to distinguish himself from
another Lawrence Evans. He has written several scripts for MARVEL COMICS;
a GRAPHIC NOVEL is projected, Family Matters. He has not been prolific as
a short story writer, though "Why I Left Harry's All-Night Hamburgers"
(1987) won a 1988 HUGO. As a novelist, his work has been varied from the
start, ranging from the somewhat overblown high FANTASY of his first
sequence - the Lords of Dus series comprising The Lure of the Basilisk
(1980), The Seven Altars of Dusaara (1981), The Sword of Bheleu (1982),
The Book of Silence (1984),Taking Flight (1993) and The Spell of the Black
Dagger1994 - through the genre-crossing War Surplus series - The Cyborg
and the Sorcerers (1982) and The Wizard and the War Machine (1987) - which
combines SWORD AND SORCERY, military sf and some speculative content about
the CYBORG protagonist, and on to singleton sf novels like The Chromosomal
Code (1984) and Denner's Wreck (1988). The latter is perhaps his most
sustained tale: on the planet Denner's Wreck two kinds of humans -
primitive descendants of a crashed starship and tourists posing as wilful
gods - must come to some sort of mutual comprehension. Nightside City
(1989) tends to submerge the HARD-SF challenge at its heart - to elucidate
human actions on a slow-spin planet whose terminator is advancing fatally
on the city of the title - in the palely conceived escapades of a female
detective. Though LW-E's novels inhabit traditional venues, and their
protagonists undergo traditional trials without much affecting the reader,
his ingenuity is manifest. [JC]Other works: The Legend of Ethshar fantasy
sequence, The Misenchanted Sword (1985), With a Single Spell (1987) and
The Unwilling Warlord (1989); Shining Steel (1986); Nightmare People
(1990), horror; Newer York: Stories of Science Fiction and Fantasy About
the World's Greatest City (anth 1991), ed; The Rebirth of Wonder (coll
1992); Crosstime Traffic (1992); Split Heirs (1993) with Esther Friesner
(1951- ); Out of this World (1994).See also: ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE

(1943- ) US academic and anthologist, most of whose work has been in
collaboration with Martin H. GREENBERG, either alone or with further
collaborators. All titles shared solely with Greenberg, or with Greenberg
and only Joseph D. OLANDER, are listed under GREENBERG. All titles shared
also with "name" authors will be found under the "name" authors in
question: Robert ADAMS, Poul ANDERSON, Piers ANTHONY, Isaac ASIMOV, David

(1903-1966) UK writer, known mostly for a series of black inter-War
satires, such as Decline and Fall (1928) and A Handful of Dust (1934), and
for Brideshead Revisited (1945). Some of his early fiction, like Black
Mischief (1932) and Scoop (1938), utilizes imaginary African countries for
satirical purposes, and Vile Bodies (1930) ends in an apocalyptic Europe
torn by a final war, but it was only in some post-WWII works that he wrote
fiction genuinely making use of sf displacements. Scott-King's Modern
Europe (1947 chap) satirizes post-WWII totalitarianism through the
imaginary state of Neutralia. Love Among the Ruins: A Romance of the Near
Future (1953 chap)-also included in Tactical Exercise (coll 1954
US)-combines the chemical coercion of Aldous HUXLEY's BRAVE NEW WORLD
(1932) with the drabness and scarcity of the needs of life of George
ORWELL's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949) in a brief but savage attack on the
joylessness of a Welfare State UK a few decades hence. Miles Plastic, his
free will bureaucratically threatened, his lover co-opted by the state,
takes refuge in "gemlike, hymeneal, auspicious" acts of arson. It is a
book, like most of EW's work, in which humour only brings out the more
clearly a radical despair. [JC]See also: DYSTOPIAS.

(1936- ) UK writer whose first novel, The Kretzmer Syndrome (1968), is a
NEAR-FUTURE tale set in a bleak conformist UK susceptible to the theories
of the eponymous scientist, who articulates PSYCHOHISTORY laws that risk
translating the country into a rigid DYSTOPIA. Later novels, like
Super-Celeste (1977), Sunrise (1979) and Icarus (1980), are

(1929- ) UK-born writer who spent some years in Singapore, where he was
actively involved in film-making; he subsequently moved to the USA. He
began writing sf with the Dreamhouse sequence - World of the Sleeper (1967
dos) and Ads Infinitum (Being a Second Tale from the Dreamhouse) (1971) -
which tells 2 associated tales. The first features a man transported into
another world - rather resembling Malaya, the basic plot having originally
been the script for a Malayan film. The other places a similar character
in a GAME-WORLD-like fantasy environment, Commercialand. Dunes of Pradai
(1971), a complex PLANETARY ROMANCE of some speculative interest, is
stifled by TRW's congested style. [JC]

In the catalogue of possible technological wonders offered in the New
Atlantis (1627; 1629), Francis BACON included more powerful cannon, better
explosives and "wildfires burning in water, unquenchable". Such promises
could not be left out if his prospectus were to appeal to the political
establishment - his most important predecessor as a designer of
hypothetical machines, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), had likewise sought
sponsorship on the basis of his ingenuity as a military engineer.In the
second half of the 19th century, when the effects of technological
progress on society became the subject of widespread speculation, the
advance of weaponry became one of the most important stimulants of the
imagination. George CHESNEY's The Battle of Dorking (1871 chap)
popularized the concern felt by a number of politicians that the UK's
armaments had fallen considerably behind the times. In the new genre of
popular fiction which it inspired, the future- WAR story, speculation
about the weapons of the future soon became ambitious. In The Angel of the
Revolution (1893) George GRIFFITH imagined a world war fought with
airships and submarines, armed with unprecedentedly powerful explosives.
The French artist Albert ROBIDA offered spectacular images of future
weaponry in action in La guerre au vingtieme siecle ["War in the 20th
Century"] (1887). Jules VERNE's Face au drapeau (1896; trans as For the
Flag 1897) features the "fulgurator", a powerful explosive device with a
"boomerang" action - a primitive guided missile. H.G. WELLS's "The Land
Ironclads" (1903) foresaw the development of the tank, and bacteriological
warfare was anticipated in T. Mullett ELLIS's Zalma (1895) and M.P.
SHIEL's The Yellow Danger (1898).The discovery of X-rays and radioactivity
in the last years of the 19th century gave a tremendous boost to the
hypothetical armaments industry. The imagination of writers leaped ahead
to imagine all kinds of weapons causing or using the energy of atomic
breakdown. In The Lord of Labour (1911) George Griffith described a war
fought with atomic missiles and disintegrator rays, and awesome rays have
remained a standard part of the sf armoury ever since. During WWI William
LE QUEUX attempted to raise morale with his account of the fight to
develop a new ray to function as The Zeppelin Destroyer (1916). Percy F.
Westerman's The War of the Wireless Waves (1923) was one of countless
NEAR-FUTURE thrillers featuring arms races; here the British ZZ rays must
counter the menace of the German Ultra-K ray.Criminal SCIENTISTS often
armed themselves with marvellous rays or atomic disintegrators, as in
Edmund SNELL's The Z Ray (1932), Austin SMALL's The Avenging Ray (1930 as
by Seamark) and one of the earliest examples of Soviet sf, Giperboloid
inzhenera Garina (1926; rev 1937; trans as The Deathbox 1936; new trans of
rev edn vt The Garin Death Ray 1955 USSR) by Alexei TOLSTOY. Few actually
succeeded in destroying the world, although Neil BELL's The Lord of Life
(1933) almost did. Criminal scientists deployed more subtle agents, too:
Sax ROHMER's Fu Manchu was especially adept with exotic poisons, and
biological blights were used as threats in Edgar WALLACE's The Green Rust
(1919), William Le Queux's The Terror of the Air (1920) and Robert W.
SERVICE's The Master of the Microbe (1926). Others, not quite so
egotistical, tried to use their weapons altruistically to force peace upon
the world; they included the heroes of His Wisdom the Defender (1900) by
Simon NEWCOMB, Empire of the World (1910; vt Emperor of the World UK) by
C.J. Cutcliffe HYNE and The Ark of the Covenant (1924; vt Ultimatum) by
Victor MACCLURE.Few early writers were aware of the differences which
advanced weaponry might make to the nature of warfare, and only H.G.
Wells, in Anticipations (1901), realized what an appalling difference very
simple innovations like barbed wire might make. George Griffith recognized
that aerial bombing would not discriminate between combatants and
noncombatants, although he did not explore the political ramifications.
After 1918, however, poison gases of various kinds became the major
bugbear of UK future- WAR stories, deployed to bloodcurdling effect in
such stories as Shaw DESMOND's Ragnarok (1926) and Neil Bell's The Gas War
of 1940 (1931 as Miles; vt Valiant Clay 1934 as NB). It is perhaps
surprising that the scientific romancers' pessimism about the likelihood
of the Geneva Convention being observed in the next war proved largely
unjustified. Other political fantasies of the period, including Harold
NICOLSON's atom-bomb story Public Faces (1932) and John GLOAG's Winter's
Youth (1934) - which features a kind of super-napalm called "radiant
inflammatol"- also proved (mercifully) a little too cynical.The early
pulp-sf writers took to superweapons-particularly rays - in a big way.
E.E. "Doc" SMITH's The Skylark of Space (1928; 1946) features heat rays,
infra-sound, ultraviolet rays and "induction rays", and an entire planet
is aimed towards Earth at hyperlight speed in the Lensmen series. His
contemporaries were hardly less prolific. John W. CAMPBELL Jr's "Space
Rays" (1932) was so extravagant that Hugo GERNSBACK thought he must be
joking and billed the story as a "burlesque", apparently offending
Campbell sufficiently to deter him from submitting to WONDER STORIES
again. In an era when fictional large-scale destruction could be achieved
at the flick of a switch, an amazing example of restraint can be found in
Thomas P. KELLEY's SPACE OPERA "A Million Years in the Future" (1940),
which features SPACESHIPS armed with gigantic crossbows mounted on their
prows. At the opposite extreme, Jack WILLIAMSON's The Legion of Space
(1934; rev 1947) features the super-weapon AKKA, which obliterates whole
space fleets at the push of a button, and Edmond HAMILTON was fond of
disposing of worlds and stars with a similar casual flourish. After this
there seemed no further extreme available, so innovation thereafter
followed more modest paths. Two standard types of personal weaponry became
CLICHES, the stun-gun and the BLASTER; modern space-opera heroes often
carry modifiable pistols usable in either way, after the fashion of STAR
TREK's "phasers". 20th-century developments have contributed only minor
inspiration: T.H. Maiman's discovery of the laser in 1960 merely
"confirmed" what sf writers had always known about DEATH RAYS, just as
Hiroshima had "confirmed" what they already knew about atom bombs.WWII
renewed fears about the destructive potential of war, but there was little
room left for imaginative innovation, although mention must be made of the
"doomsday weapon": an ultimate deterrent which, if triggered in response
to attack, will annihilate life on Earth. Alfred NOYES's The Last Man
(1940; vt No Other Man 1940 US) invokes such a weapon but leaves the
destruction conveniently incomplete. US GENRE SF now began to reproduce
the hysteria of earlier UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES in lamenting Man's
propensity to make and use terrible weapons; superweapons were more often
treated as ultimate horrors than as fancy toys. Notable examples of the
new attitude are Bernard WOLFE's bitter black comedy on the theme of
"disarmament", LIMBO (1952; vt Limbo '90 1953 UK), and James BLISH's story
about nasty-minded ways and means of guiding missiles, "Tomb Tapper"
(1956). Such stories initiated a tradition which extends through DR
to such works as Marc LAIDLAW's Dad's Nuke (1985). The post-WWII years
also saw the growth of a macabre interest in the subtleties of
"psychological warfare", which sparked off many thrillers about
"brainwashing"; the tradition is gruesomely extrapolated in Gregory
BENFORD's Deeper than the Darkness (1970; rev vt as The Stars in Shroud
1978).This anxiety interrupted but never killed off either the more
romanticized varieties of futuristic swashbuckling or the fantasies
inspired by threats to the US citizen's constitutional right to bear
weapons. A.E. VAN VOGT's Weapon Shops series of the 1940s made much of the
slogan "the right to bear weapons is the right to be free". The intimacy
of the relationship between HEROES and their weapons is related to the
kind of simplistic power fantasy which underlies much SWORD AND SORCERY
and much sf on the FANTASY borderline, but some writers, notably Charles
L. HARNESS in Flight into Yesterday (1949; exp 1953; vt The Paradox Men
1955), have been ingenious in inventing technological reasons (in this
case that FORCE FIELDS are less opaque to slow-moving objects) for the
survival in advanced societies of swordplay a la Edgar Rice BURROUGHS.
Such power fantasies are, of course, reflected in the PSYCHOLOGY of the
actual arms race which obsessed the USA and the USSR for nearly half a
century after 1945; this is parodied in Philip K. DICK's The Zap Gun
(1967). Arms-race psychology reached a real-world climax in the 1980s with
the sciencefictional SDI project, aptly dubbed "Star Wars" by those
cynical about its practicability; the most respectful treatment it
received may have been in David A. DRAKE's ALTERNATE-WORLD story Fortress
(1987), but this text features an orbital launch facility protected by
point defense wapons, which do not much resemble SDI proposals. The
history of the US fascination with the idea of superweapons is detailed in
H. Bruce FRANKLIN's War Stars: The Superweapon and the American
Imagination (1988).Power fantasies involving "intimate weaponry" have made
rapid progress in recent times. The futuristic suits of armour worn in
Robert A. HEINLEIN's STARSHIP TROOPERS (1959) and the supertanks of Keith
LAUMER's interesting Dinochrome Brigade series, collected as Bolo (coll of
linked stories 1976; exp vt The Compleat Bolo 1990) are modest inventions
compared to the more dramatic kinds of CYBORG-ization featured in Poul
ANDERSON's "Kings who Die" (1962), Laumer's own A Plague of Demons (1965)
and Gordon R. DICKSON's The Forever Man (1986). The relatively modest
enhancements featured in the tv series The SIX MILLION DOLLAR MAN are
easily adaptable to routine power fantasy, but adaptations as intrusive as
that featured in Anderson's "The Pugilist" (1973) - which brings a new
perspective to the phallic symbolism of weaponry - belong in a different
category.Modern sf has discovered various more subtle ways to fight wars.
The dependence of modern society on sophisticated technologies opens up
new opportunities for ingenious sabotage, as explored in Mack REYNOLDS's
Computer War (1967) and Frederik POHL's The Cool War (1981). The ultimate
defensive technology featured in Vernor VINGE's The Peace War (1984) turns
out, however, to bring only temporary respite from more destructive
conflict. Laser warfare, as described in Light Raid (1989) by Connie
WILLIS and Cynthia FELICE, also turns out to be less clinical and coherent
than might have been hoped, and the day of fabulously macho weapons, like
the one featured in Roger McBride ALLEN's Farside Cannon (1988), is
clearly by no means done. The most competent survey of the modern
sciencefictional armoury is David LANGFORD's excellent War in 2080: The
Future of Military Technology (1979), some of whose research was
redeployed in the novel The Space Eater (1982), a then-state-of-the-art
account of weapons technology which cheerfully ranges from the most
gruesomely intimate to the most hugely destructive. [BS]


(1961- ) US writer and systems programmer who began publishing sf with
Mercedes Nights (1987), a dark CYBERPUNK-flavoured fable of cloning - the
title is the plural of the name of the protagonist, Mercedes Night, a film
star whose illegal CLONES are being sold as love-slaves. The 21st century,
heated and hectic and violent, seems to be about to endure a World War IV.
Set in the same universe, centuries later, My Father Immortal (1989)
counterpoints the isolated spacefaring lives of the survivors of Earth's
traumas with sequences depicting the lives of the "fathers" before the
children left the planet. MDW's other main work is the Wolf-Dreams fantasy
sequence: Wolf-Dreams (1987), Nightreaver (1988) and Bloodfang (1989), all
assembled as Wolf-Dreams (omni 1989 UK). [JC]



[s] Sharon WEBB.

(1936- ) US nurse and writer who began publishing sf with a poem, "Atomic
Reaction" for FSF in 1963 as by Ron Webb, and whose first story, "The Girl
with the 100 Proof Eyes", also as by Ron Webb, appeared a year later in
the same journal. She began to produce fiction regularly only at the
beginning of the 1980s, after about a decade in nursing, which figured in
her comeback story,"Hitch on the Bull Run" (1979), the first of the Terra
Tarkington tales about a nurse engaged in escapades throughout the Galaxy,
assembled as The Adventures of Terra Tarkington (fixup 1985). SW is
perhaps better known for the Earth Song sequence-Earthchild (fixup 1982),
Earth Song (1983) and Ram Song (1984) - in which the introduction of an
IMMORTALITY process generates social upheaval, at first because the
process must be initiated before the end of puberty, but in the long run
because those who become immortal lose any capacity to create works of
art. The protagonist of the sequence, a musician involuntarily subjected
to the process, helps create, over a 100-century period, a world whose
inhabitants can choose between the ability to make art and the chance to
live forever. SW's subsequent novels - Pestis 18 (1987) and The Halflife
(1989) - are medical horror thrillers, the first dealing with a deadly
virus, the second with a government experiment in personality manipulation
that goes wrong. [JC]


(? - ) US writer of several sf adventures, all with Steve White:
Insurrection (1990), set in a rebellion-torn Terran Federation, Mutineers'
Moon (1991), a TIME-TRAVEL tale in which the rebels, along with their
sentient spaceship, are transported into Earth's distant past, continuing
their adventures in The Armageddon Inheritance (1993); and Crusade (1992),
in which another spaceship, this time ancient, destabilizes a Galaxy-wide
peace. His greatest solo success has been the Honor Harrington sequence of
space operas, featuring a female protagonist in a series of military
adventures which have been likened to C.S. FORESTER's Hornblower books,
but which are far more action-oriented; the series comprises On Basilisk
Station (1993), The Honor of the Queen (1993), The Short Victorious War
(1994) and Field of Dishonor (1994). [JC]Other Works: Path of the Fury

(1886-? ) UK writer, much of whose work related to athletics. His fiction
typically concentrated on mysteriously sapient species ( APES AND CAVEMEN)
in Africa who are persuaded to raise humans as their own. Of the CLUB
STORIES assembled in The Curse of the Lion (coll 1922), "The Ape People",
which posits a separate language of the apes, explores this theme, as does
the not dissimilar Lord of the Leopards (1935). The Ivory Talisman (1930),
Gold and Glory (1932), Lost City of Light (1934), Second Wind (1934),
Mubendi Girl (1935), The Trail of the Skull (1937) and The Land of
Forgotten Women (1950) are LOST-WORLD tales. [JC]Other works: The Odyssey
of Husky Hillier (1924; vt Husky Hillier 1938); The Man who Knew (1927);
Star Lady (1935) and its sequel, Son of Abdan (1936); When Strange Drums
Sound (1935); Dead Venom (1937).

Raymond A. PALMER.

Christopher PRIEST.

Film (1968). Comacico/Copernic/Lira/Ascot Cineraid. Written/dir Jean-Luc
Godard, starring Mireille Darc, Jean Yanne, Jean-Pierre Kalfon, Valerie
Lagrange, Jean-Pierre Leaud. 103 mins. Colour.A FABULATION rather than sf
proper, Godard's satirical and violent film contains sf elements in its
allegory of the Decline of the West. The progression of the film is from
social order through ever-worsening scenes of ENTROPY, mainly imaged in
increasingly large-scale car smashes, to anarchy, paralleled by a
stylistic shift from naturalism to near-Surrealism. One extraordinary
tracking shot begins in the real world and moves into motorized
apocalypse. The bickering middle-class couple who at the outset started
off on a weekend drive to the country observe the road accidents and
associated violence with cool detachment, as does the film itself.
Disturbing, sometimes lovely, images proliferate. Finally the couple
continue on foot and join some armed anarchists; then the woman eats the
man. Godard's previous quasi-sf film was ALPHAVILLE (1965). [PN/JB]See
also: CINEMA.

(1933- ) UK writer whose sf novel, The Moving Snow (1974), rather
prosaically describes how a family copes with climatic change that brings
severe Arctic conditions to the UK. All in all they do quite snugly. [JC]


(1902-1935) US writer whose interest in sf dated from his youth (he
published "The Lost Battle", depicting the end of WWI in 1921, in a school
magazine, The Mercury, in 1917) but who did not begin to publish sf
professionally until the 1930s, after selling a romance novel - "The Lady
Dances" (1934) as by Marge Stanley - to a newspaper syndicate, and after a
first sf novel, The Mad Brain, had been rejected. Although he did not
graduate from the University of Wisconsin, he turned his two years spent
there studying chemical engineering to good stead from the beginning of
his sf career with "A Martian Odyssey" in WONDER STORIES in 1934; this
broke new ground in attempting to envisage LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS in terms
of strange and complex ecosystems with weird ALIEN lifeforms. Told in
SGW's fluent style, it became immediately and permanently popular, ranking
behind only Isaac ASIMOV's "Nightfall" (1941) as the favourite example of
early GENRE-SF short fiction. Other SGW stories in this vein include "The
Lotus Eaters" (1935), which features an interesting attempt to imagine the
worldview of an intelligent plant, "The Mad Moon" (1935), "Flight on
Titan" (1935) and "Parasite Planet" (1935). In a series of comedies
featuring the eccentric scientist Van Manderpootz - including the
ALTERNATE-WORLD story "The Worlds of If" (1935), "The Ideal" (1935) and
"The Point of View" (1936)-he flippantly devised absurdly miraculous
MACHINES. His "Brink of Infinity" (1936) is a rewrite of George Allan
ENGLAND's mathematical puzzle story "The Tenth Question" (1916).SGW
imported some of the methods and values of his early romantic fiction into
sf in "Dawn of Flame", but could not sell it. It was first published as
the title story of Dawn of Flame and Other Stories (coll 1936), a memorial
volume put together by The Milwaukee Fictioneers ( SMALL PRESSES AND
LIMITED EDITIONS) - a FAN group which included, among others, Robert
BLOCH, Ralph Milne FARLEY and Raymond A. PALMER - to express a sense that
SGW's short innovative career had been of great significance in the growth
of US sf. Nor could he sell a version with gaudier superscientific
embellishments, "The Black Flame", which also appeared posthumously (1939
Startling Stories); both tales were combined in The Black Flame (fixup
1948). He continued to produce pulp-sf stories prolifically, including an
early story of GENETIC ENGINEERING, "Proteus Island" (1936), and the
superman story "The Adaptive Ultimate" (1935 as by John Jessel); he also
collaborated on 2 minor stories with Farley. His premature death from lung
cancer robbed pulp sf of its most promising writer, although the full
measure of his ability became apparent only when his posthumous works
appeared. The New Adam (1939) is a painstaking account of the career of a
potential SUPERMAN who grows up as a kind of "feral child" in human
society; it stands at the head of a tradition of stories which drastically
altered the role allotted to superhumans in pulp sf. Another posthumously
published sf novel was the psychological horror story The Dark Other
(1950), an early exploration of the Jekyll-and-Hyde theme. All 22 of SGW's
short sf stories are assembled in A Martian Odyssey and Other Science
Fiction Tales (coll 1975) ed Sam MOSKOWITZ, which combines the contents of
2 earlier collections, A Martian Odyssey, and Others (coll 1949) and The
Red Peri (coll 1952) and adds 1 previously uncollected piece; Moskowitz
had previously ed a smaller collection, A Martian Odyssey and Other
Classics of Science Fiction (coll 1962). The Best of Stanley G. Weinbaum
(coll 1974) contains 12 stories. The King's Watch (1994 chap) is a
previously unprinted hardboiled detective tale. SGW, like his contemporary
John TAINE, was occasionally slapdash in his work-which he produced at a
very considerable rate - but the swift and smooth clarity of his style was
strongly influential on the next generation of sf and fantasy writers. He
was a central precursor of the GOLDEN AGE OF SF. [BS/JC]See also: ADAM AND

(1946- ) US editor, publisher, bookseller and author of FANZINES focusing
on his main interest, the PULP-MAGAZINE world. Much of his task as an
editor and publisher has been to rediscover and reprint magazine stories
from the pulps which would otherwise have disappeared utterly. His
earliest work seems to have been bibliographical - e.g., An Index to
Analog (January 1960 to June 1965) (c1965 chap) - and privately printed;
other untraced titles have almost certainly survived. (A sign of his
interest in ongoing bibliograpgical projects is the much later
publication, through his Robert Weinberg Publications, of Mike ASHLEY's
The Complete Index to Astounding/Analog [1981].) Further bibliographical
and critical guides include The Robert E. Howard Fantasy Biblio (1969
chap) and its sequel, The Annotated Guide to Robert E. Howard's Sword &
Sorcery (1976 ), the valuable Reader's Guide to the Cthulhu Mythos (1969
chap; rev 1973 chap) with Edward P. Berglund, and The Hero-Pulp Index
(1971 chap) with Lohr McKinstry. The climax of his bibliographical work is
almost certainly A Biographical Dictionary of Science Fiction and Fantasy
Artists (1988), whose 279 entries cover the field very amply; though
marred by some inaccuracies, it remains the central resource for
researchers in the field.As the 1970s began, REW moved from privately
produced pamphlets and fanzines into SMALL-PRESS publishing proper,
becoming associated with T.E. DIKTY, who founded in 1972 both STARMONT
HOUSE, for which REW worked for about a year (long before it actually
began to issue books), and FAX COLLECTOR'S EDITIONS, in which REW's
involvement was late and short-lived, though he issued 3 anthologies
through the firm: Famous Fantastic Classics #1, 1974 (anth 1974) and #2,
1975 (anth 1975), and Far Below and Other Horrors (anth 1974; republished
1987 by Starmont). He also part-wrote and edited The Weird Tales Story
(anth 1977), but by then he had left to found his own firm.Robert Weinberg
Publications (1974-81) concentrated on the reprinting of weird and fantasy
fiction. Series included the Pulp Classics, reprint booklets ed REW; out
of the 22 published, those of direct genre interest include Pulp Classics
#1: Gangland's Doom (1973 chap) by Frank Eisgruber Jr; #2: Captain Hazzard
(1938 Captain Hazzard as "Python Men of Lost City"; 1974 chap) by Chester
Hawk; #3: Revelry in Hell (coll 1974 chap); #5: The Moon Man (coll 1974
chap); #6: Dr Satan (coll 1974 chap) by Paul ERNST; #8: The Mysterious Wu
Fang (1975 chap) by Robert J. Hogan ( The MYSTERIOUS WU FANG ); #9: Dr.
Yen Sin (coll 1975 chap) by Donald E. Keyhoe ( DR. YEN SIN); #11: The
Octopus (1939 The Octopus as "The City Condemned to Hell"; 1976 chap) (The
OCTOPUS ) and #12: The Scorpion (1939 The Scorpion as "Satan's Incubator";
1975 chap) (The SCORPION ), both by Randolph Craig (Norvell W. PAGE); #13:
Death Orchids & Other Bizarre Tales (coll 1976 chap); #17: The Secret Six
(coll 1977 chap) by Robert J. Hogan; #19: Dr Death (1935 Dr Death; 1979
chap) and #20: Phantom Detective (coll 1979 chap). Similarly, the Lost
Fantasies series republished work by Otis Adelbert KLINE and Jack
WILLIAMSON as well as several REW anthologies: Lost Fantasies #4: Lost
Fantasies (anth 1976 chap); #5: Lost Fantasies (anth 1977 chap); #6: Lost
Fantasies (anth 1977 chap); #8: The Lake of Life (anth 1978 chap) and #9:
The Sin Eater (anth 1979 chap). The Weird Menace Classics series comprised
several REW anthologies: Weird Menace Classics #1: The Corpse Factory
(anth 1977 chap); #2: Satan's Roadhouse (anth 1977 chap); #3: The Chair
where Terror Sat (anth 1978 chap); #4: Devils in the Dark (anth 1979
chap); #5: Slaves of the Blood Wolves (anth 1979 chap) and #6: The Dance
of the Skeletons (anth 1980 chap). In homage to Lester DENT REW ed The Man
behind Doc Savage (anth 1974). WT50 (anth 1974) was a homage to WEIRD
TALES, the rights to which he owned, eventually forming Weird Tales
Limited to protect and license the name. It was through REW that George H.
SCITHERS arranged to continue Weird Tales. Some of the contents of WT50
reappeared as The Weird Tales Story (noted above).Other small presses in
which REW has been involved include Science Fiction Graphics (1977) and
Pulp Press (1979-82); but as the 1980s advanced he became less directly
involved in publishing activities, concentrating for some time on a
mail-order book business. He has ed 1 anthology with Martin H. GREENBERG,
Lovecraft's Legacy (anth 1990), plus 7 with Greenberg and Stefan R.
Dziemianowicz: Weird Tales: 32 Unearthed Terrors (anth 1988), Rivals of
Weird Tales: 30 Great Fantasy & Horror Stories from the Weird Fiction
Pulps (anth 1990) and Famous Fantastic Mysteries: 30 Great Tales of
Fantasy and Horror from the Classic Pulp Magazines Famous Fantastic
Mysteries and Fantastic Novels (anth 1991); Weird Vampire Tales (anth
1992); The Mists from Beyond (anth 1993); 100 Creepy Little Creatures
(anth 1994) and 100 Wild Little Weird Tales (anth 1994). Solo REW ed The
Eighth Green Man & Other Strange Folk (anth 1989). More interestingly,
with the Alex and Valerie Warner series of horror tales he began to
publish fiction in his own right. The Devil's Auction series - The Devil's
Auction (1988), The Armageddon Box (1991), The Black Lodge (1991) and The
Dead Man's Kiss (1992) - shows a vast knowledge of generic tricks and
baggage, and considerable wit. [JC]Other Works: the Today's Sorcery
sequence of fantasies, beginning with A Logical Magician (1994; vt A
Modern Magician 1995 UK) and A Calculated Magic (1995).See also: H.P.

(1949- ) Canadian writer who began publishing sf with "Empire of the Sun"
in Again, Dangerous Visions (anth 1972) ed Harlan ELLISON, but who became
active only in the early 1980s, with 30 stories released in that decade.
About half of his work was assembled in Distant Signals, and Other Stories
(coll 1989); "Distant Signals" (1984 Twilight Zone) was televised in the
Tales from the Darkside series. Station Gehenna (fixup 1987 US)
intriguingly confronts its protagonist - sent to Gehenna to investigate a
mystery involving the station crew and the partially terraformed
planet-with an ALIEN enigma, a possible murder, and much material for
thought. Craftsmanlike and quietly substantial, AW has yet to gain an
appropriate reputation. [JC]See also: CANADA; TERRAFORMING.

(1954- ) US writer whose work has been restricted to ties. Those for STAR
TREK include The Covenant of the Crown * (1981), Deep Domain * (1987) and
The Better Man* (1994); those for STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION include
Power Hungry * (1989), Exiles * (1990) and Perchance to Dream * (1991);
those for "V" include Prisoners and Pawns * (1985), Path to Conquest *
(1987) and, with A.C. CRISPIN, East Coast Crisis * (1984). [JC]

UK pocketbook magazine. 3 numbered, undated issues 1960; published by
G.G. Swan, London; no ed named, but possibly Walter Swan. WOL contained a
mixture of weird, sf, mystery and adventure stories, most of which had
been sitting in Swan's drawer since WWII. Like its companion, SCIENCE
FICTION LIBRARY, it was difficult to read because of its small print.


1. Comic. COMICS; EC COMICS.2. Film (1985). Universal. Written/dir John
Hughes, starring Anthony Michael Hall, Kelly LeBrock, Ilan Mitchell-Smith,
Bill Paxton. 94 mins. Colour.A pair of teenage nerds feed pin-up-girl
pictures to their computer, and it conjures up a sex goddess (LeBrock) who
is nice to them and gives them moral lessons (rather as one might expect a
scoutmaster to do). Finally they develop the courage to evict some bikers
from a party, and win the hearts of two more appropriate teenage girls;
the nasty older brother is turned into a monster, but the status quo is
restored in time for the parents' return after a weekend away. Starting as
sf, WS quickly turns to supernatural fantasy in which anything goes and
nothing means much; its attitude towards all the women (some undressed
against their will) is infantile. This was one of a series of sf teen
movies made at around the same time ( CINEMA), and perhaps the worst,
though occasionally Hughes's real ability to observe teenage mores shows.

1. US magazine, small PULP-MAGAZINE-size (9in x 6in [23cm x 15cm])
Mar-Apr 1923, BEDSHEET-size May 1923-May/July 1924, pulp-size Nov
1924-July 1953, DIGEST-size Sep 1953-Sep 1954. 279 issues Mar 1923-Sep
1954. Published by Rural Publishing Corp. Mar 1923-May/July 1924, Popular
Fiction Co. Nov 1924-Oct 1938, Short Stories Inc. Nov 1938-Sep 1954; ed
Edwin Baird Mar 1923-Apr 1924, Otis Adelbert KLINE May/July 1924,
Farnsworth WRIGHT Nov 1924-Dec 1939, Dorothy McIlwraith Jan 1940-Sep 1954.
WT was founded in 1923 by J.C. Henneberger and J.M. Lansinger; the former
retained an interest in the magazine throughout its existence. Its early
issues were undistinguished (despite the presence of writers who later
became regular contributors, such as H.P. LOVECRAFT, Seabury Quinn and
Clark Ashton SMITH) and the bumper Anniversary issue, May/July 1924, was
to have been the last. But it reappeared in Nov 1924 with a new publisher
(actually still Henneberger, but now without Lansinger) and a new editor.
It has been suggested that the controversy caused by a necrophiliac horror
story ("The Loved Dead" by C.M. Eddy [1896-1967] with H.P. Lovecraft) in
the May/July issue - attempts were made to have it removed from the
news-stands - gave WT the publicity boost it needed to survive.Under the
editorship of Wright WT developed into the "Unique Magazine" its subtitle
promised. Its stories were a mixture of sf - including some by Ray
CUMMINGS in the 1920s and a lot by Edmond HAMILTON throughout - HORROR
stories, SWORD AND SORCERY, exotic adventure, and anything else which its
title might embrace. The early issues were generally crude in appearance,
but the look of the magazine improved greatly in 1932 with the
introduction of the artists Margaret BRUNDAGE and J. Allen ST JOHN.
Brundage's covers - pastel chalks depicting women in degrees of undress
being menaced in various ways - alienated some readers, but promised a
sensuous blend of the exotic and the erotic which typified the magazine's
appeal. The 1930s were WT's heyday; in addition to Lovecraft and Smith, it
regularly featured August DERLETH, Robert E. HOWARD (including his Conan
series), David H. KELLER, Otis Adelbert KLINE, Frank Belknap LONG, C.L.
MOORE (especially with her Northwest Smith series), Jack WILLIAMSON and
others - although the most popular contributor was Seabury Quinn
(1889-1969), with an interminable series featuring the psychic detective
Jules de Grandin. Although WT printed its share of dreadful pulp fiction,
in the early 1930s it was, at its best, much superior to the largely
primitive sf pulps. However, Wright's WT never really recovered from the
almost simultaneous loss of 3 of its key contributors with the deaths of
Howard (1936) and Lovecraft (1937) and the virtual retirement of Smith.
New contributors in the late 1930s included Henry KUTTNER and artists
Hannes BOK and Virgil FINLAY.At the end of 1939 Wright, in poor health,
was replaced by Dorothy McIlwraith. The magazine continued steadily
through the 1940s - although after being monthly Nov 1924-Jan 1940, with
very few exceptions, it was now bimonthly (and would remain so) - and
featured such authors as Robert BLOCH, Ray BRADBURY, Fritz LEIBER and
Manly Wade WELLMAN with his John Thunstone stories. However, the editorial
policy was more restrictive and WT was no longer a unique magazine: other
fantasy magazines had appeared and, in the case of UNKNOWN, overshadowed
it. Nevertheless, it continued to be the only regular magazine outlet for
supernatural fiction until its death in 1954, when its publisher went
bankrupt. It would be difficult to overestimate the influence of WT in the
genres of weird fiction and Sword and Sorcery; though the emphasis was
always on fantasy and the supernatural, it published a surprising amount
of influential sf, and many sf writers published their early work in its
pages. WT is perhaps rivalled only by ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in terms
of the number of stories of lasting interest which it produced.2.
Subsequent series. Various nostalgic attempts, mostly unsuccessful, have
been made to revive WT-or at least its title. The first was in 1973, with
4 pulp-size issues, Summer 1973-Summer 1974, ed Sam MOSKOWITZ, published
by Weird Tales, Los Angeles (Leo MARGULIES), and continuing the original
WT numeration (Vol 47, #1-#4).The rights to WT were bought by Robert E.
WEINBERG, who eventually formed Weird Tales Limited to protect and license
the name. He published a nostalgic anthology in homage to WT, WT50 (anth
1974), ed Weinberg, some of whose contents re-appeared in The Weird Tales
Story (anth 1977), which he ed and partly wrote.The 3rd WT series was
published as a paperback quarterly ed Lin CARTER, published by Zebra
Books, who leased the rights from Weinberg. There were 4 issues: Weird
Tales 1 (anth 1980), #2 (anth 1980), #3 (anth 1981) and #4 (anth 1983).
Then came the 4th, confusing, series from a small press, the Bellerophon
Network, owned by Californian publisher Brian Forbes. Advance publicity
suggested alternately that the editor would be Gil Lamont or Forrest J.
ACKERMAN, but in the event there were only 2, not very remarkable issues,
both ed Gordon M.D. Garb, these being marked Fall 1984 (appeared 1985) and
Winter 1985 (appeared 1986); they were vol 49, #1 and #2. The superior #1
included fiction by Harlan ELLISON, Stephen KING and R.A. LAFFERTY.The 5th
series, ed George H. SCITHERS, Darrell SCHWEITZER and John Gregory
BETANCOURT, published by another small press, the Terminus Publishing Co.,
Philadelphia, has been by far the most successful relaunch. Its numeration
began with #290 (which counted in the 10 abortive relaunch issues which
had preceded it); the pulp format neatly duplicated the two-column
appearance of the original WT. It contains weird fiction and
sword-and-sorcery, but little if any sf. From #300 (1991) it has been ed
Schweitzer alone. It changed to a more conventional small-bedsheet format
and design with the Winter 1992/93 issue, #305. There were only two copies
a year for each of 1992, 1993 and 1994, the second of 1994 being retitled
to Worlds of Fantasy and Horror, vol 1, no 1, Summer 1994, when the
license to the WT title expired. The latter - effectively a new magazine
despite the very similar content - was announced as quarterly, and #2,
Spring 1995, has appeared. It is still ed Schweitzer. The last WT proper
was #308, Spring 1994. 3. Reprint editions and anthologies. 3 UK edns were
published at various times. In the first half of 1942 Swan Publishers
produced 3 unnumbered issues. 1 more came in Nov 1946 from Merritt.
Finally, Thorpe & Porter published 28 issues, numbered #1-#23, and then
vol 1 #1-#5 Nov 1949-July 1954. There were 2 Canadian reprint editions:
1935-6 (vol 25 #6-vol 28 #1), 14 issues, and 1942-51, 58 issues.WT has
been exhaustively mined for anthologies, and many of its contributors from
the 1930s have gone on to new heights of popularity with paperback
reprints of their stories. The long-running Not at Night series of horror
anthologies (1925-34) ed Christine Campbell Thomson (1897-1985) drew
largely on WT stories, sometimes publishing them even before they appeared
in the magazine. Weird Tales (anth 1976) ed Peter Haining (1940- )
reprints a selection in facsimile. Other reprint anthologies were Peter
Haining's Weird Tales: A Facsimile of the World's Most Famous Fantasy
Magazine (anth 1976), Mike ASHLEY's Weird Legacies (anth 1977 UK) , Marvin
KAYE's Weird Tales: The Magazine That Never Dies (anth 1988); and 4
anthologies ed Leo Margulies: The Unexpected (anth 1961), The Ghoul
Keepers (anth 1961), Weird Tales (anth 1964) and Worlds of Weird (anth
1965), the latter 2 being ghost-edited by Sam Moskowitz. Many other
anthologies drew a large part of their content from WT, notably The Other
Worlds (anth 1941) ed Phil STONG, 11 of its 25 stories being from WT.Major
index sources are Index to the Weird Fiction Magazines: Index by Title
(1962 NZ) and Index to the Weird Fiction Magazines: Index by Author (1964
NZ) by T.G.L. Cockcroft, and Monthly Terrors: An Index to the Weird
Fantasy Magazines Published in the United States and Great Britain (1985)
by Frank H. Parnell with Mike ASHLEY. [MJE/PN]See also: GOTHIC SF; SF

UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 2 undated issues, 1955-6, published by
Gannet Press, Birkenhead; ed anon. WW printed a mixture of sf and fantasy,
including some reprints. The fiction was of fairly low quality. The
advertised companion magazine, Fantastic World, never appeared. [FHP]


(1915-1978) US editor, an active sf fan from the early 1930s, editing
Fantasy Magazine, the leading FANZINE of its day; he also sold a few sf
stories, starting with "The Price of Peace" for Wonder Stories in 1933. In
1936 he became editor of THRILLING WONDER STORIES; later he also ed its
companion magazines STARTLING STORIES and CAPTAIN FUTURE, the latter being
probably his own conception. Under his direction TWS was openly juvenile
in appeal, its garish covers giving rise to the term "bug-eyed monsters" (
BEMS). In 1941 he became editor of the COMIC book SUPERMAN, and
subsequently editorial director of the whole range of National Periodical
Publications ( DC COMICS), to which he recruited many sf writers,
including Alfred BESTER, Otto Binder ( Eando BINDER), H.L. GOLD, Edmond
HAMILTON and Manly Wade WELLMAN. His career is outlined in "Superman" in
Seekers of Tomorrow (1965) by Sam MOSKOWITZ. [MJE]



(1855-? ) UK writer, in the USA for at least 10 years until 1905, after
which nothing is known of LEW, who wrote under pseudonyms. Most of his
work was published as by Grip, including his first 2 sf novels, The
Monster Municipality, or Gog and Magog Reformed (1882), a DYSTOPIAN
prediction that socialist reforms will torture London in 1885, and How
John Bull Lost London, or The Capture of the Channel Tunnel (1882), one of
the earlier future- WAR novels - if not the earliest - to warn against a
tunnel connecting the UK to France ( TRANSPORTATION). LEW is also cited as
the author of Politics and Life in Mars: A Story of a Neighbouring Planet
(1883), anon, in which advanced MARS is contrasted with backward Earth -
though Darko SUVIN, in Victorian Science Fiction in the UK (1983), doubts
the ascription because the opinions expressed are UTOPIAN. As J. Drew Gay,
LEW was definitely responsible for The Mystery of the Shroud: A Tale of
Socialism (1887), in which a fog gives a socialist secret society the
chance to conquer England, but the chance is muffed. [JC]


Film (1977). An EMI/Len Herberman Production. Dir Peter Sasdy, starring
Jack Palance, Keir Dullea, Samantha Eggar, Barry Morse. Screenplay Stephen
Schneck, Michael Winder. 96 mins. Colour.This UK/Canadian coproduction is
one of the earlier movies to take VIRTUAL REALITY as its theme (but see
also WELT AM DRAHT [1973]). A group of amnesiacs find themselves in a
savage township of the Old West, where social advancement is by murder.
They do not realize that they are inhabiting a computer-generated reality,
one of whose supervisors, a woman (Eggar), develops an emotional fixation
on a new conscript (Dullea), and interferes illegitimately with the
"game". This game is designed to find people with high survival quotients,
who will then, in the real world, lead guerrilla units in an unspecified
ongoing war. Flat direction and poor performances fail to make anything
much of the intriguing premise, though the end is touching. [PN]


(1931- ) UK writer. Almost all of her work has - with passion, anger and
a highly charged creative ambiguity - dealt with issues and situations
generally conceived of as FEMINIST. Much of her later fiction verges on
the supernatural or edges into the future, or both. In Puffball (1980) a
pregnant woman is influenced by Glastonbury Tor. In The Rules of Life
(1987 chap), set in AD2004, a dead woman communicates her memoirs through
a computer console. In The Cloning of Joanna May (1989) a man has his wife
"cloned" ("not cloning in the modern sense, but parthenogenesis plus
implantation", the book explains) so that he can enjoy various younger
versions of her. The novel was dramatized as a tv miniseries, The CLONING
OF JOANNA MAY (1991). [JC]Other works: Female Friends (1975); Watching Me,
Watching You (coll 1979); Wolf the Mechanical Dog (1988 chap), an uneasy
sf fable for children.See also: CLONES; WOMEN SF WRITERS.

(1919- ) US writer, almost exclusively of short stories, mostly in the
mystery genre. His first sf was a "non-fact article", "Origins of Galactic
Slang" for Gal in 1952, and was followed by a sequence of Galactic Origins
spoofs. His actual fiction was concise, literate, cynical and frequently
anthologized, and is overdue for collection. In his only novel, Hijack
(1971), told with a delicate balance of spoof and splatter, the Mafia
learns that the US Government is secretly preparing to escape the Solar
System because the Sun is going nova, and muscles in on the action. In the
end, a representative sample of humanity heads toward the stars. [JC]See


(1903-1986) US writer, born in Angola (though his family returned to the
USA when he was 6), prolific in both FANTASY and sf, though far more
significant for works in the former; he also wrote Westerns - though less
frequently than his brother, Paul I. Wellman (1898-1966) - and crime
fiction. MWW began publishing with a fantasy, "Back to the Beast" for
Weird Tales in 1927; his first sf story proper, "When Planets Clashed",
appeared (in Wonder Stories Quarterly) as late as 1931. Both were under
his own name, though much of his early work appeared under pseudonyms,
including Levi Crow, Gans T. Field and the house name Gabriel BARCLAY.
Much of his early work appeared in THRILLING WONDER STORIES and STARTLING
STORIES, and was suitably vigorous and high-coloured. His first book was a
short SPACE OPERA, The Invading Asteroid (1932 chap). Giants from Eternity
(1939 Startling Stories; 1959) featured the rebirth of medical geniuses
from Earth's past to confront a future menace; Sojarr of Titan (1941
Startling Stories; 1949) was a Tarzan-derived tale set in space; and the
Hok series, stories published 1939-41 in AMZ and 1942 in Fantastic
Adventures, were sf adventures set in various early mythic
civilizations.Of greatest sf interest were novels like Twice in Time (1940
Startling Stories; cut 1957; with text restored and 1 story added, rev as
coll 1988), an effective TIME-TRAVEL tale featuring a vivid portrayal of
Leonardo da Vinci's Florence, and Sherlock Holmes's War of the Worlds
(fixup 1975), with his son Wade Wellman, which intricately involves the
detective with the Martian INVASION featured in H.G. WELLS's novel. But in
general MWW's sf almost completely lacks the folkloric tone and cunning
quietude of his best work.MWW's fantasy ranged from early weird stories
derivative of H.P. LOVECRAFT through tales of the occult, tales that
evoked Native American legend, and on to the sequences noted below. Much
of his miscellaneous work was assembled in Worse Things Waiting (coll
1973), a large volume which helped inspire the growth of interest in his
work over the last years of his life. More centrally, the Judge Pursuivant
series (in Weird Tales 1938-41), as by Gans T. Field, and the John
Thunstone series - some of the original stories, published in Weird Tales
from 1938, being originally published as by Gans T. Field - were assembled
in Lonely Vigils (coll 1981). What Dreams May Come (1983) and The School
of Darkness (1985) continued to feature Thunstone. Both Thunstone and
Pursuivant are occult detectives, and the range of their investigations is
compendious, encompassing most of MWW's general periods and venues of
interest, from the US Civil War to the rural USA of the 20th century. From
1951 - with stories appearing frequently in The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND
SCIENCE FICTION , which had taken over from Weird Tales as his main
journal - much of MWW's energy was devoted to his most famous sequence,
the stories and novels set in the Appalachian regions of North Carolina
and following the career of witchcraft-fighter and minstrel Silver John or
John the Balladeer: Who Fears the Devil? (coll of linked stories 1963; exp
vt John the Balladeer 1988), The Old Gods Waken (1979), After Dark (1980),
The Lost and the Lurking (1981), The Hanging Stones (1982) and The Voice
of the Mountain (1985). Along with the stories assembled in The Valley so
Low: Southern Mountain Tales (coll 1987), the series remains his most
significant achievement. [JC]Other works: Romance in Black (1938 Weird
Tales as "The Black Drama"; 1946 chap UK) as by Gans T. Field; The Beasts
from Beyond (1944 Startling Stories as "Strangers on the Heights"; 1950
UK); The Devil's Planet (1942 Startling Stories; 1951 UK); The Dark
Destroyers (1938 ASF as "Nuisance Value"; 1959; cut 1960 dos); Island in
the Sky (1941 TWS; 1961); a CAPTAIN FUTURE novel, The Solar Invasion *
(1946 Startling Stories; 1968); The Beyonders (1977); Cahena: A Dream of
the Past (1986).About the author: Manly Wade Wellman, the Gentleman from
Chapel Hill: A Memorial Working Bibliography (1986 chap) by Gordon BENSON

(1943- ) UK writer, previously a paperbacks editor. Most of his novels
have been Westerns as by Charles L. Pike, James A. Muir and other names.
As Ian Evans, he wrote Starmaidens * (1977), an sf tv tie. Under the house
name Richard Kirk, which he shared with Robert P. HOLDSTOCK, he
contributed to the Raven fantasy series Swordsmistress of Chaos (1978)
with Holdstock and, solo, The Frozen Gods (1978) and A Time of Dying
(1979). As AW he has written the Book of the Kingdoms fantasy sequence -
Wrath of Ashar (1988), The Usurper (1989) and The Way Beneath (1989) - and
begun a second sequence, the Godwars books, with Forbidden Magic (1991)
and Dark Magic (1992). Lords of the Sky (1994) is also fantasy. In 1973-5
AW ed a series of collections assembling for UK readers the "best of"
various sf authors, including The Best of Isaac Asimov (anth in 2 vols
1973), The Best of Arthur C. Clarke (anth in 2 vols 1973), The Best of
Robert A. Heinlein (anth in 2 vols 1973), The Best of John Wyndham (anth
1973), THE BEST OF FRITZ LEIBER (anth 1974), The Best of A.E. van Vogt
(anth 1974), The Best of Frank Herbert (anth 1975) and The Best of
Clifford D. Simak (anth 1975). [JC]

(1912- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Rebirth of Man" for
Super Science Stories in 1940, and whose generally unremarkable work is
assembled in Planets of Adventure (coll 1949) and Doorways to Space (coll
1951). He also wrote 4 tales as by Gene Ellerman. He became comparatively
inactive after about 1957. [JC]

Working name of US writer Catherine Jean Wells Dimenstein (1952- ) whose
sf, a tightly-woven sequence set aeons hence in an ecologically devastated
Earth,comprises The Earth Is All (1991), Children of theEarth(1992) and
Earth Saver(1993). In the first volume an embittered high-tech woman falls
in love with a man fromone of the tribes - CW bases them on Native
American models - whose lifestyle has placated thesentient being of Mother
Earth,while simultaneously young Coconico must defend this world
frominterference from the stars. The second and third volumes are
fantasy-like in the telling, asCoconico, cast centuries forward, battles
to return to his time and his love; back in time, however,he has become a
legend. Stories are interwoven.In the end, a return in time and to proper
living isconsummated. [JC]

(1866-1946) UK writer. At the time of HGW's birth his father was a
shopkeeper - having earlier been a gardener and cricketer - but the
business failed and HGW's mother was forced to go back into domestic
service as a housekeeper. Her desire to elevate the family to middle-class
status resulted in "Bertie" being apprenticed to a draper, like his
brothers before him, but in 1883 he become a teacher/pupil at Midhurst
Grammar School. He obtained a scholarship to the Normal School of Science
in London and studied biology there under T.H. Huxley (1825-1895), a
vociferous proponent of Darwin's theory of EVOLUTION and an outspoken
scientific humanist, who made a deep impression on him. HGW resumed
teaching, took his degree externally, and wrote 2 textbooks (published
1893) while working for the University Correspondence College. He dabbled
in scientific journalism, publishing the essay "The Rediscovery of the
Unique" in 1891 and beginning to sell articles and short stories regularly
in 1893.The most ambitious and important of his early articles was "The
Man of the Year Million" (1893), which boldly describes Man as HGW thought
natural selection would ultimately reshape him: a creature with a huge
head and eyes, delicate hands and a much reduced body, permanently
immersed in nutrient fluids, having been forced to retreat beneath the
Earth's surface after the cooling of the SUN. In other articles HGW wrote
about "The Advent of the Flying Man", "An Excursion to the Sun" (a poetic
cosmic vision of solar storms and electromagnetic tides), "The Living
Things that May Be" (on the possibility of silicon-based life) and "The
Extinction of Man". A good deal of this speculative nonfiction is
reprinted in H.G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction
(coll 1975) ed Robert M. PHILMUS and David Y. Hughes. His early short
stories are less adventurous, mostly featuring encounters between men and
strange lifeforms, as in "The Stolen Bacillus" (1894), "In the Avu
Observatory" (1894), "The Flowering of the Strange Orchid" (1894) and
"Aepyornis Island" (1894).The Chronic Argonauts, a series of essays
written for his amateur publication The Science Schools Journal in 1888,
became the basis for HGW's first major fiction, The Time Machine: An
Invention (1895 US; rev 1895 UK), which maps the evolutionary future of
life on Earth. The human species subdivides into the gentle Eloi and the
bestial Morlocks; both ultimately become extinct, while life as we know it
slowly decays as the Sun cools. His interest in social reform and
socialist political ideas is reflected in the fantasy The Wonderful Visit
(1895), in which an angel displaced from the Land of Dreams casts a
critical eye upon late-Victorian mores and folkways. The central themes of
these novels - the implications of Darwin's evolutionary theory and the
desire to oppose and eradicate the injustices and hypocrisies of
contemporary society - run through all HGW's work. In the
quasi-allegorical The Island of Dr Moreau (1896) he developed ideas from
an essay, "The Limits of Plasticity", into the story of a hubristic
SCIENTIST populating a remote ISLAND with beasts which have been
surgically reshaped as men and whose veneer of civilization exemplified by
their chanted "laws"-proves thin. "A Story of the Stone Age" (1897) is a
notable attempt to imagine the circumstances which allowed Man to evolve
from bestial ancestors. His short stories grew bolder in conception, as
exemplified by the visionary fantasy "Under the Knife" (1896), the cosmic-
DISASTER story "The Star" (1897) and the cautionary parable "The Man who
Could Work Miracles" (1898), later filmed (see below). The novella A Story
of the Days to Come (1899 Pall Mall Magazine; 1976) is an elaborate study
of future society, imagining a technologically developed world where
poverty and misery are needlessly maintained by class divisions, while The
Invisible Man: A Grotesque Romance (1897) is a second classic study of
scientific hubris brought to destruction.In THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898;
with epilogue cut 1898 US) HGW introduced ALIENS into the role which would
become a CLICHA: monstrous invaders of Earth, competitors in a cosmic
struggle for existence ( WAR OF THE WORLDS for radio, film and tv
versions). When the Sleeper Wakes (1899; rev vt The Sleeper Awakes 1910)
is a robust futuristic romance of socialist revolution, whose hero awakes
from SUSPENDED ANIMATION ( SLEEPER AWAKES) to play a quasi-messianic (
MESSIAHS) role. (HGW was never able to believe in proletarian socialism,
assuming that social justice would have to be imposed from above by a
benevolent intelligentsia.) In THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1901 US) he
carried forward the great tradition of FANTASTIC VOYAGES to the MOON, and
described the hyperorganized DYSTOPIAN society of the Selenites. HGW's sf
works of this period were labelled "scientific romances" by reviewers, and
HGW spoke of them as such in early interviews, although he later chose to
lump them together with such fantasies as The Sea Lady (1902) as
"fantastic and imaginative romances". Despite this apparent disowning of
their distinctive qualities, Wells's early SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES became the
archetypal examples of a distinctive UK tradition of futuristic and
speculative fiction.Wells's early realistic novels drew heavily upon his
own experiences to deal with the pretensions and predicaments of the
aspiring lower-middle class. The Wheels of Chance (1896) is light comedy
in a vein carried forward by the more successful Kipps (1905), The History
of Mr Polly (1910) and Bealby: A Holiday (1915), but HGW wanted to make
his name as a serious novelist, and attempted to do so with Love and Mr
Lewisham (1900). He remained an ardent champion of the novel of ideas
versus the novel of character, and he set out to tackle large themes and
to attack issues of contemporary social concern. His most successful
effort along these lines was Tono-Bungay (1909), followed by Ann Veronica
(1909), a polemic on the situation of women in society, and the political
novel The New Machiavelli (1910 US). The longest and most pretentious of
these novels is The World of William Clissold (3 vols 1926). Some of the
later novels of ideas apply fantastic twists for dramatic purposes
although remaining basically realistic; the most effective is that
deployed in The Dream (1924).In his essays HGW began to direct more effort
to careful and rational PREDICTION, and became a founder of FUTUROLOGY
with the series of essays collected as Anticipations of the Reaction of
Mechanical and Human Progress upon Human Life and Thought (coll 1901). He
tried to justify the method of this work in a lecture, published as The
Discovery of the Future (1902 chap), which marked a turning-point in his
thought and work; from then on he abandoned the wide-ranging, exploratory
and unashamedly whimsical imagination which had produced his early
scientific romances and focused on the probable development of future
HISTORY and the reforms necessary to create a better world. His
futurological essays brought him to the attention of Sidney (1859-1947)
and Beatrice (1858-1943) Webb, and he joined the Fabian Society in 1903.
His subsequent career as a social crusader went through many phases. He
tried to assume command of the Fabian Society in 1906, but failed and
withdrew in 1908. During WWI he was active in the League of Nations
movement. Between the Wars he visited many countries, addressing the
Petrograd Soviet, the Sorbonne and the Reichstag. In 1934 he had
discussions with both Stalin and Roosevelt, trying to recruit them to his
world-saving schemes. His real influence, however, remained negligible,
and he despaired of the whole business when the world became embroiled in
global war for a second time.In his UTOPIAN novels A Modern Utopia (1905)
and Men Like Gods (1923) HGW described technologically sophisticated
societies governed by socialist principles, and in his other work he tried
to describe the new people who might help to bring such worlds into being.
In The Food of the Gods, and How it Came to Earth (1904) the new race is
produced by a super-nutrient which enlarges both body and mind. In In the
Days of the Comet (1906) the wondrous change in human personality is
brought about by the gases in a comet's tail, through which the Earth is
fortunate enough to pass. The most interesting of HGW's later scientific
romances, however, are those which attempt to apply a more rigorous logic
to the imagining of future WAR. In "The Land Ironclads" (1903) he
anticipated the use of tanks, and in The War in the Air, and Particularly
How Mr Bert Smallways Fared while it Lasted (1908) he envisaged colossal
destruction wrought by aerial bombing. In The World Set Free: A Story of
Mankind (1914) similar destruction is wrought by atomic bombs whose "chain
reactions" cause them to explode repeatedly, and the story embodies HGW'S
growing conviction that a new and better world could be built only once
the existing social order had been torn down. When WWI began in actuality
HGW was for this reason initially enthusiastic - a point of view expressed
in what remained for some time his most famous novel, Mr Britling Sees it
Through (1916) - but events after 1918 failed to live up to his hopes. He
clung nevertheless to the idea that some such pattern of events would come
about, as displayed in the last and most comprehensive of his speculative
histories of the future, The Shape of Things to Come (1933), based on his
last major summary of his utopian philosophy, The Work, Wealth and
Happiness of Mankind (2 vols 1931 US). The Shape of Things to Come became
the basis of HGW's script for the film THINGS TO COME (1935; book version
1935). He also scripted the 1936 film The Man who Could Work Miracles
(script published 1936 chap; not to be confused with the book publication
of the original story); both scripts were assembled as Two Film Stories:
Things to Come; Man who Could Work Miracles (omni 1940). His other
filmscripts, including one for The King who Was a King (1929), never
reached the screen.HGW became increasingly impatient of the follies of his
fellow men, and dubbed the post-1918 world the "Age of Frustration" - a
notion eccentrically elaborated in The Anatomy of Frustration: A Modern
Synthesis (1936). This attitude underlies an extensive series of
"sarcastic fantasies" begun with The Undying Fire (1919), an allegory in
which the Book of Job is re-enacted in contemporary England, with a dying
Wellsian hero "comforted" by various social philosophers. That book
reflected a brief reinvestment in religious faith which HGW explained in
God the Invisible King (1917) and dramatized in The Soul of a Bishop
(1917). In Mr Blettsworthy on Rampole Island (1928) a shipwrecked man
tries to convert superstitious savages to the ways of common sense but
cannot prevail against their cruel and stupid tribal customs; in the end
he discovers that he has been delirious, and that Rampole Island is New
York. In The Autocracy of Mr Parham (1930) an inoffensive individual
becomes possessed by a "master spirit" which drives him to seek
charismatic political power as "Lord Paramount". In The Croquet Player: A
Story (1936 chap) a village is haunted by the brutal spectres of Man's
evolutionary heritage, but the allegory is lost on the socialite of the
book's title. In The Camford Visitation (1937 chap) the routines of a
university are upset by the interventions of a mocking disembodied voice.
In All Aboard for Ararat (1940) God asks a new Noah to build a second Ark;
Noah agrees, provided that this time God will be content to remain a
passenger while Man takes charge of his own destiny. In the gentler Star
Begotten: A Biological Fantasia (1937) cosmic rays emanating from Mars may
or may not be causing a mutation in the human spirit comparable to that
wrought by the miraculous comet of In the Days of the Comet. The Holy
Terror (1939) is a painstaking study of the psychological development of a
modern dictator based on the careers of Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler.Most
of HGW's short stories were initially reprinted in 5 collections: The
Stolen Bacillus, and Other Incidents (coll 1895), The Plattner Story, and
Others (coll 1897), Tales of Space and Time (coll dated 1900 but 1899),
Twelve Stories and a Dream (coll 1903) and The Country of the Blind, and
Other Stories (coll 1911). The contents of these were reprinted in The
Short Stories of H.G. Wells (coll 1927; vt The Famous Short Stories of
H.G. Wells 1938 US; vt The Complete Short Stories of H.G. Wells 1965 UK)
along with THE TIME MACHINE as well as 3 stories which had previously
appeared in the US collection Thirty Strange Stories (coll 1897 US) and 4
others, including the prehistoric fantasy "The Grisly Folk" (1921) and an
apocalyptic fantasy, "The Story of the Last Trump", from the non-sf book
Boon (coll 1915 as Reginald Bliss; 1920 as by HGW). The short stories not
included in this omnibus were reprinted in The Man with the Nose and Other
Uncollected Short Stories (coll 1984) along with the script for an unmade
film. HGW's most notable long scientific romances were collected in The
Scientific Romances of H.G. Wells (omni 1933; cut vt Seven Famous Novels
1934 US), re-edited as Seven Science Fiction Novels (omni 1950 US).HGW
possessed a prolific imagination which remained solidly based in
biological and historical possibility, and his best works are generally
regarded as exemplary of what sf should aspire to do and be. His other
ambitions persuaded him to put his bold and vigorous imagination into a
straitjacket for the bulk of his career, but he nevertheless remained the
founding father and presiding genius of UK scientific romance, and he was
a significant influence on the development of US sf. He never managed to
resolve the imaginative conflict between his utopian dreams and his
interpretation of Darwinian "natural law", as is evidenced by the
despairing passages of his essay Mind at the End of its Tether (1945
chap), which opines that mankind may be doomed because people cannot and
will not adapt themselves to a sustainable way of life. He seems to have
imagined his own career as an analogue of the situation of the hero of The
Undying Fire or that of the luckless sighted man in The Country of the
Blind (1904 The Strand; 1915 chap US; rev plus original text 1939 chap UK)
- although he also portrayed himself ironically as a deluded idealist in
Christina Alberta's Father (1925) and seemed quite unable to decide how to
portray himself in his quirky Experiment in Autobiography: Discoveries and
Conclusions of a Very Ordinary Brain (Since 1866) (2 vols 1934), though
its continuation, H.G. Wells in Love: Postscript to an Experiment in
Autobiography (1984) - not published during his lifetime because of its
sexual content, and because it mentioned living persons-did something to
round out the picture. HGW slightly revised many of his works for the
26-vol Atlantic edition of The Works of H.G. Wells (1924-7 US). New and
definitive editions of the most famous scientific romances - current
editions of which reveal many textual variations - were in active
preparation from various houses before revision of international copyright
conventions extended the period of protection beyond 50 years after the
author's death; editions which have, all the same appeared, includeThe
Time Machine/The War of the Worlds: A Critical Edition (omni 1977) ed
Frank D. McConnell which presents some valuable information, though the
texts themselves are corrupt; The Definitive Time Machine: A Critical
Edition (1987) ed Harry M. Geduld, which is more reliable; THE ISLAND OF
DR. MOREAU (1993), a variorum text (eccentrically based on the US version
rather than the UK) ed Robert M. PHILMUS; A Critical Edition of The War of
the Worlds (1993) ed David Y. Hughes and Harry M. Geduld.Films based on
HGW's work include ISLAND OF LOST SOULS (1932), The INVISIBLE MAN (1933),
THE MOON (1964), The ISLAND OF DR MOREAU (1977) and, very loosely, FOOD OF
THE GODS (1976). Notable RECURSIVE SF in which HGW is a character includes
The Space Machine (1976) by Christopher PRIEST, Time After Time (1976) by
Karl Alexander (filmed as TIME AFTER TIME [1979]), and "The Inheritors of
Earth" (1990) by Eric BROWN. [BS]Other collections: Many further
collections are merely re-sorts of material first or most reliably
published in the collections listed above. Useful collections include 28
Science Fiction Stories (coll 1952), Selected Short Stories (coll 1958)
and The Best Science Fiction Stories of H.G. Wells (coll 1966).Other
novels: The Research Magnificent (1915); The Bulpington of Blup (1932);
You Can't Be Too Careful: A Sample of Life 1901-1951 (1941).Nonfiction:
Mankind in the Making (1903); New Worlds for Old (1908); The War that Will
End War (1914); The Outline of History (1920); The Salvaging of
Civilization (1921); A Short History of the World (1922); The Way the
World is Going: Guesses and Forecasts of the World Ahead (1928); The Open
Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution (1928); The Science of Life
(1930) with Julian Huxley and G.P. Wells; World Brain (1938); The Fate of
Homo Sapiens (1939); The New World Order (1939); Phoenix (1942); The
Conquest of Time (1942); The Happy Turning: A Dream of Life (1945 chap);
Journalism and Prophecy 1893-1946 (coll 1964; cut 1965) ed W. Warren
WAGAR.About the author: Of the numerous critical works on HGW, those of
interest include: The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances
(1961) by Bernard Bergonzi; H.G. Wells and the World State (1961) by W.W.
WAGAR; H.G. Wells: A Collection of Critical Essays (anth 1976) ed
Bergonzi; The Logic of Fantasy: H.G. Wells and Science Fiction (1982) by
John Huntington; The Life and Thought of H.G. Wells (1963 Russia; trans
1966) by Julius KAGARLITSKI; H.G. Wells and the Culminating Ape:
Biological Themes and Imaginative Obsessions (1982) by Peter Kemp; The
Science Fiction of H.G. Wells (1981) by Frank McConnell; The Time
Traveller: The Life of H.G. Wells (1973) by Norman and Jeanne Mackenzie;
H.G. Wells (1970) by Patrick PARRINDER; H.G. Wells: The Critical Heritage
(anth 1972) ed Parrinder; H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress (1973) by Jack
WILLIAMSON; H.G. Wells and Modern Science Fiction (anth 1977) ed Darko
SUVIN and Robert M. PHILMUS; Aspects of a Life (1984) by Anthony WEST,
HGW's son by Rebecca West (1892-1983); H.G. Wells: A Comprehensive
Bibliography (latest edn 1986) published by the H.G. Wells Society; H.G.
Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography (1986) by David C. Smith; H.G.
Wells under Revision: Proceedings of the H.G. Wells International
Symposium, London, July, 1986 (anth 1990) ed Parrinder and Christopher

Forrest J. ACKERMAN.

Juanita COULSON.

(1929- ) UK writer who began publishing sf with "The Machine that was
Lovely" for the Observer in 1954, and who later concentrated on novels,
beginning with The Parasaurians (1969 US), in which play-safaris against
ROBOT dinosaurs turn into a more serious threat to the hero. The
Spacejacks (1975 US) is a traditional SPACE OPERA. [JC]Other works: Candle
in the Sun (1971); Right-Handed Wilderness (1973 US).


(vt World on a Wire) Made-for-tv film (1973). ARD. Dir Rainer Werner
Fassbinder (1946-1982), starring Klaus Lowitsch, Barbara Valentin, Mascha
Rabben, Karl Heinz Vosgerau, Wolfgang Schenk, Gunter Lamprecht. Screenplay
Fritz Muller-Scherz, Fassbinder, based on Counterfeit World (1964 UK; vt
Simulacron-3 US) by Daniel F. GALOUYE. Originally broadcast in 2 parts,
each 105 mins. Colour.Fassbinder was perhaps the most brilliant German
film director of the 1970s; this was his only sf film. For the purpose of
exploring new technologies, the Institute for Cybernetics and Futures
Investigation has its giant COMPUTER, Simulacron, create a possible future
within its own circuits: a VIRTUAL REALITY whose "human" occupants - in
reality, programs-are unaware of their status and can be deleted if they
behave wrongly. In the real world, in the Institute itself, mysterious
incidents occur, and the protagonist, Stiller, realizes that his world too
is a simulation controlled from a higher level, and that to learn this
truth is fatal. His lover turns out to be a projection from the higher
level, a level in which a Stiller-equivalent is the ultimate manipulator
pulling wires. Stiller succeeds in taking the place of his higher-level
counterpart.In Galouye's novel our reality is the middle level, whereas in
the film our world is the top level, but that does not diminish the film's
threatening effect, for an atmosphere is built up of exchangeability on
all levels, so that reality is dissolved and no place is left for
security. Fassbinder made the most of his low tv budget by exploiting real
locations in modern offices, using glass, concrete and neon lights
alarmingly to create a sense of the artificiality of the real. [HJA]

[s] Charles DE LINT.

[s] Edmond HAMILTON.


(1890-1945) Austrian poet, playwright and novelist, born in Prague, known
mainly for his sentimental novels, though he achieved his early fame as an
Expressionist poet and dramatist. After escaping the Nazis via Spain as
WWII loomed, he went to California, where he wrote Stern der Ungeborenen
(1946 Austria; trans Gustave O. Arlt as Star of the Unborn 1946 US) before
dying in US exile. This long, contemplative UTOPIA depicts a
philosophically complex FAR-FUTURE Earth through the eyes of a narrator
(named Franz Werfel) who is guided through the 3 parts of the novel by a
mentor explicitly associated with DANTE ALIGHIERI's Vergil. This
narrator's response to the depopulated, deeply alienating, surreal world
about him seems cunningly to mirror the exiled author's real-world
experiences of California. The melancholy underlying the story, and its
long effortless perspectives of time and thought, give the book a clarity
and reserve reminiscent of the work of Olaf STAPLEDON. [JC]See also: ARTS;

House name used by US writers Peter T. Scott (? - ) and Peg O'Neill Scott
(? - ) for their unauthorized NewTarzan sequence, each working solo, with
Peter Scott writing all but the 3rd vol: Tarzan and the Silver Globe
(1964), Tarzan and the Cave City (1964), Tarzan and the Snake People
(1964), Tarzan and the Abominable Snowman (1965) and Tarzan and the Winged
Invaders (1965). It enjoyed a short shelf-life; the Edgar Rice BURROUGHS
estate successfully sued the publisher, and the books were withdrawn in
1966. Peg O'Neill Scott, as Scott O'Neill, has written Martian Sexpot
(1963). [JC]



Working name of German-born US illustrator Hans Waldemar Wessolowski
(1894-? ). HWW was educated at the Berlin Royal Academy. He emigrated to
the USA in 1914, and soon found work as an illustrator (both covers and
interiors) for a variety of magazines. When the Clayton magazine chain
created ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION (then called Astounding Stories of
Super-Science) in Jan 1930 they hired HWW, who painted all 34 covers of
the Clayton ASF. His black-and-white ILLUSTRATION was similar to that of
his contemporary Frank R. PAUL, but his colour paintings were very
different; where Paul's were crowded and often artificially busy,
HWW's-often watercolours - were more open, and he seemed more concerned
with the overall design of each piece. His best covers create an almost
abstract beauty out of the conventional icons of SPACE OPERA. HWW did work
for many sf magazines in the 1930s and early 1940s, including more for ASF
in the late 1930s (more accomplished than before) and AMZ, Amazing Stories
Quarterly, Captain Future, Marvel Science Stories, Startling Stories and


(1914-1987) UK writer, in the USA for much of his life, son of H.G. WELLS
and Rebecca West (1892-1983). His H.G. Wells: Aspects of a Life (1984),
published just after his mother's death, was widely understood as an act
of retribution aimed mainly at her - he was an illegitimate child and was
raised eccentrically - and only secondarily at Wells. His first novel, On
a Dark Night (1949 UK; vt The Vintage 1950 US), is an afterlife fantasy
describing a suicide's questings through space and time for the meaning of
life. Another Kind (1951 UK) is a NEAR-FUTURE story with love in the
foreground and a UK civil war filling the scene. [JC]

(1902-1984) US writer most famous for tales of rural Quakerism like The
Friendly Persuasion (1945). Her sf novella, The Chilekings (1954 Star
Short Novels as "Little Men"; 1967), is a moral fable in which children
switch statures with adults and take control. [JC]See also: GREAT AND

(1916- ) Australian novelist, in his early years a lay monk, and best
known for novels like The Devil's Advocate (1959). In The Navigator (1976)
a lost ISLAND is found in the South Pacific, and a UTOPIAN community is
founded there. The Clowns of God (1981), set at the end of the century,
deals in apocalyptic terms with a Pope convinced that the Second Coming is
nigh. [JC]


(1945- ) US writer whose sf novel, 20/20 Vision (1990), is an intricate
TIME-TRAVEL tale in which a murder in 1995 is brooded over by a detective
in 2020 and solved through the agency of time-travelling archivists from
2040, who send the detective back to explore the causes of the crime. [JC]

(1900-1980) US lawyer, writer, public-relations man and pollution-control
expert who began publishing short stories with "Loup-Garou" for Weird
Tales in 1927 and sf with "The Last Man" for AMZ in 1929, thereafter
appearing fairly regularly in the magazines until the late 1960s. His
stories, though unpretentiously told, exhibit a level-headed cognitive
vigour that keeps even his early work from dating. Some of his tales-like
"Dust" (1935) - made significant early attempts to put POLLUTION and other
side-effects of progress on the sf agenda. 2 magazine series collected in
book form were The Bird of Time (fixup 1959), a PLANETARY ROMANCE set on
MARS, and Lords of Atlantis (coll of linked stories 1960), which features
the rulers and scientists of ATLANTIS who, after the island sinks, live on
as the gods of the Greek pantheon. Most of WW's novels were revisions of
pre-WWII material, though The Memory Bank (1951 Startling Stories as "The
Dark Tower"; 1961) demonstrates his marginally more awkward later form. He
was never a remarkable writer, nor did he ever devote himself full-time to
fiction; but he was never dull. [JC]Other works: Betty Boop in Snow-White
* (1934) and Alice in Wonderland * (1934), both film ties; Outposts in
Space (1931 Weird Tales; exp 1962); River of Time (1963); The Time-Lockers
(fixup 1964); The Everlasting Exiles (fixup 1967).See also: OUTER PLANETS;

(1929-1993) UK author, art teacher (1960-85) and antique shop proprietor.
Until near the end of his life his work was mostly for older children. His
debut novel, The Machine-Gunners (1976), which formed the basis of the
play The Machine-Gunners (1986) and won the Carnegie Medal, is a realist
tale set during the war he described in his nonfiction Children of the
Blitz: Memories of Wartime Childhood (1985); the novel's sequel was Fathom
Five (1979).His second novel The Wind Eye introduced supernatural forces
(in the form of St Cuthbert), and these recur often in novels such as The
Watch House (1977), Ghost Abbey (1988), Old Man on a Horse (1989 chap) and
The Promise (1990), and in many stories in his collections Break of Dark
(coll 1982), The Haunting of Chas McGill and Other Stories (coll 1983 US),
Rachel and the Angel and Other Stories (coll 1986), Ghost and Journeys
(coll 1988), The Call and Other Stories (coll 1989), Echoes of War (coll
1989), A Walk on the Wild Side: Cat Stories (coll 1989), The Stones of
Muncaster Cathedral (coll 1991), The Fearful Lovers (coll 1992; vt Fearful
Lovers 1993), plus two retrospective assemblies, Demons and Shadows; The
Ghostly Best Stories of Robert Westall (coll 1993 US) and Shades of
Darkness: More of the Ghostly Best of Robert Westall (coll 1994 US). RW
also published a fine collection of ghost stories for adults, Antique
Dust: Ghost Stories (coll 1989), in which a certain primness only adds a
horrific reticence to the resonances of M.R. James (1862-1936). He ed
Ghost Stories (anth 1988).RW, who by the 1980s had established a
considerable reputation and went on garnering awards, wrote only one pure
sf novel, Futuretrack 5 (1983), set in a conformist future that
lobotomizes individualists. This was good, but better was the earlier
TIME-TRAVEL fantasy The Devil on the Road (1978), where a young biker
finds himself confronting Witchfinder Hopkins in the 17th century. The
Cats of Seroster (1984) is, unusually for RW, SWORD AND SORCERY, set in an
imaginary medieval world. Urn Burial (1987) hovers between sf and horror
in its tale of the awakening of long-dormant aliens. [PN]Other works: The
Scarecrows (1981); The Creatures in the House (1983); Blitzcat (1989); The
Kingdom by the Sea (1990); Stormsearch (1990), not fantasy; Yaxley's Cat
(1991); The Christmas Ghost (1992 chap); some books for younger
children.See also: CHILDREN'S SF; FANTASY.

(1835-1903) UK author and journalist, foreign correspondent for The Times
of London, who travelled in South America. The Phantom City: A Volcanic
Romance (1886) describes a LOST-WORLD race of Maya-type people at
pre-Conquest level. A Queer Race: The Story of a Strange People (1887) is
concerned with a lost race of Elizabethan Englishmen who have undergone
strange mutations in pigmentation. Don or Devil? (1901) is a rare
lost-world text. [JE/EFB]Other works: Tales and Legends of Saxony and
Lusatia (coll 1877); Tales and Traditions of Switzerland (coll 1882).See



(1933- ) US writer, mostly of detective novels and thrillers, often
slapstick, under his own name and under pseudonyms, notably Richard Stark;
he won an Edgar award with God Save the Mark (1968). He began publishing
sf - always of secondary interest in his career, though never carelessly
done - in 1954 with "Or Give Me Death" for Universe, and assembled much of
his short work in The Curious Facts Preceding My Execution and Other
Fictions (coll 1968). His first novel of sf interest, Anarchaos (1967) as
by Curt Clark, is an adventure tale set on a planet where one's own death
is the only crime recognized; along with 9 stories - mostly early - this
novel was assembled as Tomorrow's Crimes (coll 1989) as DEW. High Jinx
(1987) and Transylvania Station (1988), both with Abby Westlake, are
mysteries incorporating elements of spoofed horror. A polished,
intelligent, witty writer, DEW has left sf the poorer by his decision not
to concentrate seriously on the genre. [JC]Other works: Ex Officio (1970)
as by Timothy J. Culver, marginal; Humans (1992), a fantasy.See also: PULP

(1942- ) UK writer and editor whose One Zero and the Night Controller
(1980) is a FABULATION in which a taxi driver tracks down an occult
nocturnal mystery, whose Imaginary Women (1987) plays with questions of
reality, and in whose 51 Soko: To the Islands on the Other Side of the
World (1990) four Japanese men send letters to various English figures,
weaving a pattern whose links are supernatural, and describing en passant
several ALTERNATE WORLD versions of UK history. Of specific sf interest is
The Utopian (1989), a double narrative contrasting the life of an insane
contemporary man with that of his namesake - or metaphorical double, or
literal REINCARNATION - in the communal matriarchy which obtains in
AD2411. Though the tale might seem to read as delusional, both lives are
equally weighted: the delusion, if any, might be the world of 1989. [JC]

(1880-1965) US writer best known for His First Million Women (1934; vt
Comet "Z" 1934 UK), an early version of the theme in which sterility
affects all but one man - a theme more widely used after the first nuclear
explosion. GW's protagonist uses his new-Adam status to promulgate
disarmament, until the dissipation of Comet "Z"'s effects makes it
possible for him to be ignored. [JC]Other works: The Apple Tree (1918);
Queen of the World (1923).

(1944- ) UK sf fan and editor, active mainly in the 1960s and 1970s. He
published a FANZINE, SPECULATION, organized the Speculation sf conferences
in Birmingham (1970-72), was TAFF winner in 1974 ( AWARDS), and was
Chairman of the 1979 UK World SF CONVENTION. He also edited the Andromeda
sequence of original sf anthologies-Andromeda 1 (anth 1976), #2 (anth
1977) and #3 (anth 1978) - which published work by a number of authors
including Brian W. ALDISS, Harlan ELLISON, Fritz LEIBER, Christopher
PRIEST and Bob SHAW. [PR]See also: HUGO.

(1943- ) US writer whose Children of Light (1985), set in a USA direly
but not terminally threatened by HOLOCAUST, treats the possibilities of
human survival with warmth and some plausibility. [JC]

Film (1973). MGM. Dir Michael CRICHTON, starring Yul Brynner, Richard
Benjamin, James Brolin. Screenplay Crichton. 88 mins. Colour.Westworld is
in a future theme park, Delos, that contains also Roman and Medieval
"worlds"; its permanent occupants - even the horses - are ROBOT simulacra,
controlled by human technicians in an underground laboratory. Two male
visitors on holiday enjoy out-drawing the local robot gunman (Brynner) and
sleeping with the acquiescent robot saloon girls, and it seems that the
film will be a comedy about the tawdriness of men's machismo fantasies,
safely acted out in a purely Hollywood "Wild West". Next day, however, the
Brynner robot shoots one of the men dead, the beginning of a revolt by the
machines with the implacable gunman as its focus. The puncturing of the
fantasy forces us to question our reliance on machinery rather than on
ourselves (Crichton's theme for several films to come). With a subtext
about our exploitation of slaves and coolies, Crichton's first theatrical
feature - he had directed the made-for-tv PURSUIT (1972) - is wittily
macabre, and makes its debating points with clarity if not with subtlety.
The novelization, by Crichton, is Westworld * (1974). W's inferior sequel
was FUTUREWORLD (1976), not by Crichton. A tv series, Beyond Westworld
(1980), ran for only 3 episodes, with 2 further episodes made but unaired.
Prod and mainly written by Lou Shaw for MGM TV, this told of a Westworld
scientist who steals androids for sinister purposes. [PN/JB]See also:

(? - ) US writer who collaborated with Thomas HOOBLER (whom see for
details) on The Hunters (1978) and its sequel, The Treasure Hunters
(1983). [JC]

(1862-1944) US writer of several novels. Of sf interest is Sweepers of
the Sea: The Story of a Strange Navy (1900), written with the assistance
of Robert M. Yost, in which 2 young Incans resolve to create the United
States of Incaland and to dominate the Southern Hemisphere as the USA does
the Northern. With the aid of Incan treasure they create a navy of
impregnable ships, defeat the British, make peace with North America, and
prepare to rule. [JC]

Pseudonym of a US painter and writer (1925- ), living in Paris, who
wishes not to reveal his name. Best known for FABULATIONS with a
MAGIC-REALIST colouring, like Birdy (1979 US) and Dad (1981 US), he moved
gradually into tales whose resolution depends upon their being read as
FANTASY, like Tidings (1987 US). Franky Furbo (1989 US), like almost all
his work, can be read as an intense evocation of WW's own family, this
time in sf terms. The eponymous talking fox - at first presented as a
delusional fantasy on the part of the protagonist, author of short stories
featuring the animal - turns out to be a genuine visitant from the future
who has taken on the protagonist's human form in order to become the
mutant progenitor of the new race to which - in the future - he belongs,
and which has inherited the battered Earth. [JC]

(1897-1977) UK writer who served in both WWI and WWII, in the latter with
the Joint Planning Staff 1941-4. He was a prolific and extremely popular
author of many espionage thrillers and historical romances, although the
best of his work - and since his death the only category of his large
oeuvre to be read at all widely - consists of a number of black-magic
tales in which contemporary political knots are unravelled through occult
means. Characters tend to appear and reappear from book to book, genre to
genre, throughout his work, so that the black-magic books form a
quasiseries; they include The Devil Rides Out (1935) - the best of them -
and its sequel Strange Conflict (1941), Gunmen, Gallants and Ghosts (coll
1943), The Haunting of Toby Jugg (1948), To the Devil - A Daughter (1953),
The Ka of Gifford Hillary (1956), The Satanist (1960), They Used Dark
Forces (1964), The White Witch of the South Seas (1968), Gateway to Hell
(1970) and The Irish Witch (1973); a late omnibus is The Devil Rides Out
and Gateway to Hell (omni 1992). Closely associated with these are several
LOST-WORLD novels, including The Fabulous Valley (1934), They Found
Atlantis (1936), Uncharted Seas (1938) - set in a monster-choked Sargasso
Sea and filmed as The LOST CONTINENT (1968) - and The Man who Missed the
War (1945), set in the Antarctic; the last 3 were assembled as Worlds Far
from Here (omni 1952). DW's black-magic and lost-world novels are neither
short nor amusing, though an intermittent story-telling gift sustains
readers through passages of political and racial abuse; his remaining sf,
unfortunately, was less gifted by his story-telling instinct, nor did his
scientific speculations show much acumen. Titles include Such Power is
Dangerous (1933), Black August (1934) - the Prince Regent of England
defeats the forces of totalitarianism - The Secret War (1937), Sixty Days
to Live (1939)-a comet destroys human civilization - and Star of Ill-Omen
(1952), about flying saucers ( UFOS), the last 2 being assembled with a
non-sf novel as Into the Unknown (omni 1960). [JC]Other works: A Century
of Horror Stories (anth 1935).See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; ATLANTIS; UNDER THE

(? - ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with

(1918-?1988) US writer, co-author with Eugene L. BURDICK (whom see for
details) of Fail-Safe (1962). [JC]

(? - ) US writer whose Matters of Form (1987) depicts the long campaign
of a group of ALIENS, stranded on Earth in the 20th century, to upgrade
human civilization to a level at which star travel is possible. Later
sections of the book, introducing a second (and evil) alien race, are less
effective. [JC]

(? - ) US physician and author whose juvenile sf novel Lost Threshold
(1968) is a very late LOST-WORLD story, set underground. Loose Chippings
(1968), also a juvenile, is a borderline-sf tale set in an anachronistic
village in England. [JC]

(1890-1968) US writer, a prolific producer of pulp fiction who was also
important in the history of COMICS as the founder of the firm which became
DC COMICS. Death Over London (1940) is uninteresting sf featuring Nazi
spies destroying US installations with sympathetic vibrations. [RB]

[r] Robert GRANT; John Boyle O'REILLY.

(1950- ) US illustrator, in his popularity the heir to Frank Kelly FREAS.
He has won 11 HUGOS (Freas won 10), of which 10 have been for Best
Professional Artist - every year 1980-86, and again in 1988, 1989 and
1991; the other was for Best Nonfiction in 1988 for Michael Whelan's Works
of Wonder (1987), a book collecting some of his work. A Californian, MW
studied art and biology at San Jose State University and then worked at
the Art Center College of Design in Los Angeles. In 1975 he began painting
covers for DAW BOOKS, then for ACE BOOKS and MARVEL COMICS, and soon for
other paperback houses including DEL REY BOOKS, earning high praise for
his work on several series, such as reissues of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's
Barsoom books and Michael MOORCOCK's Elric books. His popularity increased
on publication of Wonderworks (1979), collecting his work, which was a
bestseller (in art-book terms); it was for his 1979 publications that he
won his first Hugo. MW continually tops the LOCUS poll ( AWARDS) for Best
Artist by a very substantial margin. He has dominated sf book-cover
ILLUSTRATION right through the 1980s. He is given many of the most
prestigious commissions, and his original work fetches astonishingly high
prices at sf art auctions. MW has spoken of his consciousness that it was
during the 1980s that sf art became - at least at the top - a well paid
profession for almost the first time. His huge popularity is difficult to
explain or analyse, though his work is clearly very proficient: vivid,
colourful, meticulous, giving an appearance of naturalism no matter how
"alien" his subject, and highly finished - if occasionally a little
languid. Often he adopts a fully realistic approach; sometimes surreal
objects hover enigmatically. He has acknowledged a debt to his UK
colleagues, and certainly MW's style can be compared with that of, say,
Jim BURNS; it is probably not coincidental that Burns was the first artist
to break MW's run of Hugos (and that was in a year when MW withdrew from
the Hugo contest). [PN/JG]

Film (1969). Hammer/Warner. Dir Val Guest, starring Victoria Vetri, Robin
Hawdon, Patrick Allen. Screenplay Guest, from story by J.G. BALLARD. 100
mins. Colour.This was originally written by J.G. Ballard, but director
Guest got to the script and eliminated anything expensive, original or
intellectual. Still a bit livelier than most prehistoric romances, this is
one of a series of them made by Hammer, the first being ONE MILLION YEARS
BC (1966). The usual story: woman of one tribe (Vetri) falls for man of
another (Hawdon) and also makes friends with a dinosaur. Those who stand
between the star-crossed lovers are conveniently wiped out by vast tides
whipped up by a still gaseous Moon (a survival from Ballard's original
story, which made much of astronomical cataclysms). The dinosaurs and
giant crabs were designed by a team led by Jim Danforth. [PN]

Animated film (1986). Meltdown Productions. Dir Jimmy T. Murakami,
starring the voices of John Mills, Peggy Ashcroft. Screenplay Raymond
BRIGGS, based on his own When the Wind Blows (graph 1982). 84 mins.
Colour. Before turning his bestselling GRAPHIC NOVEL into a screenplay,
Briggs made a RADIO adaption, with the unfortunate effect that WTWB is
shackled to the non-stop chatter of its two (working-class) characters.
Jim (Mills) and Hilda (Ashcroft) live in Sussex, and are concerned about
the approach of WWIII. They follow advice given in official pamphlets, but
the aftermath of the Bomb proves much worse than the pamphlets
contemplate, and they are left on their own. Moaning about international
crises they have not bothered to be interested in, misled by memories of
the cameraderie of WWII and somewhat unfairly patronized by the film, they
are shattered to learn that nuclear HOLOCAUST means no more milk
deliveries, a toilet that will not flush and destroyed curtains, as well
as presumably terminal radiation sickness. While Murakami, who had dir the
live-action BATTLE BEYOND THE STARS (1980), uses state-of-the-art
animation technology to make the best use in the medium of
three-dimensional sets since Hoppity Goes to Town (1941), the film suffers
from a certain middle-class Campaign-for-Nuclear-Disarmament smugness,
with Sir John Mills and Dame Peggy Ashcroft trying to sound as obtuse as
"ordinary" people. There is an irksomely dirge-like David Bowie theme
song. [KN]

Irwin ALLEN.

Film (1951). Paramount. Dir Rudolph Mate, starring Richard Derr, Barbara
Rush, John Hoyt, Larry Keating. Screenplay Sydney Boehm, based on When
Worlds Collide (1933) by Philip WYLIE and Edwin BALMER. 83 mins.
Colour.WWC, which helped spark the 1950s sf-movie boom, was George PAL's
2nd sf production, made after his DESTINATION MOON. 2 wandering planets
are approaching Earth; US scientists calculate (though a disbelieving
world, led by philistine UK scientists, rejects their conclusions) that
the first will pass close by, creating tidal waves and earthquakes, and
the second will annihilate Earth by direct impact; only the construction
of a space ark (like Noah's) will save a handful of survivors. The
spacecraft (launched on an upwards slanting railway line) carries 40
people to one of the two planets, Zyra, which is habitable. A routine love
interest, and melodrama about who gets on the ark and who does not, leaves
the single-minded thrust of the film surprisingly undamaged; it continues
to grip. A low budget meant that the first near-miss sequence was montaged
largely (and effectively) from stock shots - though the liners famously
afloat in city streets in 2 brief shots are new; Earth's final death is
over in an eye-blink, and the new planet is obviously a bright green
painting (by Chesley BONESTELL). The religious subtext - Earth wiped out
for its sins, and new Adams and Eves in a new Eden - is presented with no
great moral conviction. [PN]See also: HOLOCAUST AND AFTER.

Made-for-tv film (1974). Metromedia/NBC. Dir John L. Moxey, starring
Peter Graves, Verna Bloom, Ken Sanson, George O'Hanlon Jr. Teleplay Lewis
John Carlino, Sandor Stern, from a story by Carlino. 72 mins. Colour.A man
and his teenage children are in a cave when a solar flare creates a virus
(!) which kills, then reduces to something like sand, almost everybody on
Earth. The family journeys across California to their seaside home, where
they hope to find the mother alive. They encounter other survivors, some
unfriendly, and packs of dogs running wild. Routine stuff, competently
directed; an interesting twist has the teenagers showing initiative while
the father is passive. [JB]


(1881-1941) US military officer and writer, one of the organizers of the
American Legion in 1919; Camp White in Oregon was named for him. Of his
numerous stories and 4 novels, 2 books are sf. Attack on America (1939)
describes a weakened, unprepared USA attacked through Mexico by an
international coalition dominated by Germany; as with its model, George
CHESNEY's The Battle of Dorking (1871), most of the book consists of vivid
descriptions of army movements and battles (which the USA loses, though
she emerges victorious at the end). In Seven Tickets to Singapore (1939),
US agents pursue spies who have stolen a "detonation ray"; the book is
interesting only for its depiction of a Chinese detective substantially
more intelligent and resourceful than his US employers. The Spy Net (1931)
and Agent B-7 (1934), not sf, combine the worst elements of E. Phillips

(1859-19? ) UK writer who contributed sf to Pearson's Magazine, The
Strand Magazine and other general fiction magazines in the early 1900s. He
continued writing well into the 1920s, being best known for his Doom of
London DISASTER series for Pearson's Magazine - "The Four White Days"
(1903), "The Four Days' Night" (1903), "The Dust of Death" (1903), "A
Bubble Burst" (1903), "The Invisible Force" (1903) and "The River of
Death" (1904) - in which London and the UK are subjected to a variety of
calamities. Catastrophe is turned to the UK's advantage in his only sf
novel, The White Battalions (1900): a shift in the flow of the Gulf Stream
leads to arctic conditions in mainland Europe, so that the UK is able to
win a WAR. [JE]

[r] SPAIN.

(1928- ) UK writer from Ulster who worked as publicity officer with an
aircraft company 1968-84. He began to publish sf with "Assisted Passage"
for NW in 1953. To many readers (though his singleton novels are equally
engaging) he is known almost exclusively for the tales about galactic
MEDICINE comprising the Sector General sequence, set in a 384-level
space-station/hospital "far out on the galactic Rim" and designed to
accommodate all known kinds of XENOBIOLOGICAL problems. Dr Conway (he
seems to have no first name), a human member of the 10,000-strong
multi-species staff, solves alone or with colleagues a series of medical
crises with humour, ingenuity and an underlying Hippocratic sense of
decency. The sequence includes Hospital Station (coll of linked stories
1962 US), Star Surgeon (1963 US), Major Operation (fixup 1971), Ambulance
Ship (fixup 1979 US), Sector General (coll of linked stories 1983 US),
Star Healer (1985 US), Code Blue - Emergency (1987 US) and The Genocidal
Healer (1992). Some further Sector General tales appear, along with
stories set in similar sf venues, in The Aliens Among Us (coll 1969 US;
cut 1979 UK) and Futures Past (coll 1982 US; with 1 story dropped and 1
added rev 1988 UK). White's capacity to conceive and make plausible a wide
range of alien anatomies seems unflagging.Other collections include Deadly
Litter (coll 1964 US) and Monsters and Medics (coll 1977), but their
contents are generally less appealing than his series tales, though they
share an ease with sf hardware and a quickness of plot. His singleton
novels are more impressive. Second Ending (1962 chap US) encompasses in a
few pages the end of humanity, an eons-long perspective, and new hope for
a sole survivor. Open Prison (1965; vt The Escape Orbit 1965 dos US) is
exhilarating adventure sf. Perhaps the most successful is the ingenious
The Watch Below (1966 US), a tale whose two narrative lines dovetail
cleverly. In one a WWII merchant vessel sinks, leaving 3 men and 2 women
to survive in a large air pocket, work out life-maintenance systems and
eventually breed there UNDER THE SEA while 100 years pass. In the other,
water-dwelling ALIENS, who have long been seeking a wet world like Earth
to inhabit peacefully, land their starship in the sea in time to save the
descendants of the 5 20th-century survivors. The various correspondences
between the two sets of "prisoners" are neatly and humanely stressed. In
The Dream Millennium (1974) a physician dreams a Jungian version of the
human story in SUSPENDED ANIMATION as his slower-than-light ship takes him
and other passengers to a paradisal planet. Underkill (1979) marks a grim
contrast, suggesting that an alien race's response to the internecine
savageries of humanity might be the just extirpation of almost the entire
species. It might be noted that JW tends to grow more genial the further
from the present he sets his stories; if some of the Sector General tales
seem at times almost wilfully upbeat, their ebullience may have been
palliative in nature. Underkill clearly represents a vision any writer
might be glad to step around. [JC]Other works: The Secret Visitors (1957
dos); All Judgement Fled (1968); Tomorrow is Too Far (1971 US); Dark
Inferno (1972; vt Lifeboat 1972 US); The Interpreters (1985 chap dos); The
Silent Stars Go By (1991 US), an ALTERNATE-WORLD tale.About the author:
James White, Doctor to Aliens: A Working Bibliography (1986 chap) by

(1934-1985) UK writer, mostly of tales for older children, whose only sf
novel, Comet (1975), treats the title's threat from the humanizing
perspective of its young protagonists. All proves well in the end. [JC]

[r] W. Graham MOFFAT.

[r] David WEBER.

(1873-1946) US writer of travel books and novels, many of the latter
being historical tales set in California. In his later years he became
interested in Spiritualism, believed he was in contact with his dead wife,
and wrote some books about the other world, including The Unobstructed
Universe (1940) and 2 sequels. His sf novels are The Mystery (1907) with
Samuel Hopkins ADAMS, a complicated tale involving an abandoned ship on
the high seas, and the mysterious "celestium" which the mutineers who have
stolen it do not know has the effect of making anyone nearby jump into the
sea; and its sequel, The Sign at Six (1910 Popular Magazine as "The City
of Dread"; 1912), by SEW alone, in which the investigative protagonist of
the previous book uncovers a mad SCIENTIST who threatens to freeze New
York City with his "nullifier". [JC/PN]

Working name of US writer and editor Theodore Edwin White (1938- ) who
became-after working as assistant editor for FSF 1963-8 - the sometimes
controversial editor of AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC 1969-78; he
noticeably improved the magazines, buying original stories and emphasizing
matters relating to sf FANDOM. He later ed HEAVY METAL 1979-80 and
Stardate 1985-6. TW is known, too, for the many chatty, aggressive,
self-defensive and polemical letters he published in such fanzines as The
ALIEN CRITIC , and for his continuing column in ALGOL, which had the same
qualities, as did his editorials in AMZ and Fantastic. He won a HUGO as
Best Fan Writer in 1968.His writing career began with "Phoenix" for AMZ in
1963 with Marion Zimmer BRADLEY; this became part of Phoenix Prime (fixup
1966), #1 in his Qanar series of quest tales, which continued with The
Sorceress of Qar (1966), where a good SUPERMAN fights bad supermen, and
Star Wolf! (1971). His first novel was a TIME-TRAVEL tale, Invasion from
2500 (1964) with Terry CARR, together writing as Norman Edwards. Most of
TW's subsequent titles are unremarkable examples of adventure sf like
Android Avenger (1965 dos) and its sequel The Spawn of the Death Machine
(1968), about the ANDROID Tanner and his adventures, and The Secret of the
Marauder Satellite (1967), an sf juvenile. He also wrote the ending of the
Philip K. DICK serial "A. Lincoln - Simulacrum" (AMZ 1969-70), though
Dick's own ending was restored when it was published as We Can Build You
(1972). TW's 2 novels of some distinction are The Jewels of Elsewhen
(1967), a vividly imagined tale of strife among the DIMENSIONS, and By
Furies Possessed (1970), a tale of PARASITISM in which the invading ALIENS
turn out to be symbionts. [JC/PN]Other works: Lost in Space * (1967), a tv
tie ( LOST IN SPACE) as by Ron Archer, with Dave VAN ARNAM, and Sideslip
(1968), also with Van Arnam; a Captain America tie, The Great Gold Steal *
(1968); No Time Like Tomorrow (1969); Trouble on Project Ceres (1971), a
juvenile; The Oz Encounter (1977) with Marv Wolfman (1946- ), written by
Wolfman from characters and a scenario devised by TW; Phoenix (1977) with
Wolfman; Forbidden World (1978) with David F. BISCHOFF.As Editor: The Best
from Amazing Stories (anth 1973); The Best from Fantastic (anth 1973).See

(1906-1964) UK writer whose overwhelming nostalgia for a lost England
expressed itself most vividly in his 2 best-known works, Farewell Victoria
(1933) and a superlative tragicomic fantasia on Le Morte D'Arthur (1485)
by Sir Thomas Malory (c1408-1471), The Once and Future King (1958), a book
comprising 3 earlier novels, substantially recast, plus a previously
unpublished 4th section; it was adapted by Alan Jay Lerner (1918-1986)
into the stage musical Camelot in 1960 (published as Camelot: A New
Musical 1961; filmed 1967). Those 3 earlier novels - The Sword in the
Stone (1938; rev 1939 US), made into a philistine feature cartoon by Walt
Disney in 1963, The Witch in the Wood (1939 US), retitled "The Queen of
Air and Darkness" in the recasting, and The Ill-Made Knight (1940 US) -
are themselves of very considerable interest as fantasias, as is THW's
original concluding section (the 1958 conclusion was written later), The
Book of Merlyn (1977 US), whose rejection by THW's UK publishers during
WWII, because of its pacifist content, delayed for 15 years the
publication of any version of the whole. The 1958 novel, despite The Sword
in the Stone being a juvenile, constitutes a remarkable and pessimistic
exploration of the complexity of Evil, of the decay of the Matter of
Britain - modern England is envisioned with particular venom in the ant
DYSTOPIA to which Merlyn subjects the young Arthur as part of his
education - and generally of the loss of innocence.Other books by THW are
of some sf interest. Early on, Earth Stopped (1934) and Gone to Ground
(coll of linked stories 1935), introduced an sf HOLOCAUST to underline the
points THW wished to make about contemporary civilization through the
conversations and fox-hunting manias of a large cast; in the 2nd vol,
survivors of the final WAR tell each other exemplary tales ( CLUB STORY)
while hiding in a cave. Without any source being cited, all the
supernatural tales in Gone to Ground were reprinted in The Maharajah, and
Other Stories (coll 1981), losing most of their effectiveness through the
unacknowledged uprooting. Mistress Masham's Repose (1946 US) tells how a
group of Lilliputians, transported to England by Gulliver, have survived
in the capacious grounds of the vast estate of Malplaquet for 200 years,
until a young girl almost destroys them by treating them as pets. The
protagonist of The Elephant and the Kangaroo (1947 US) is a mocking
self-portrait of the author; he becomes a new Noah in a hilariously
pixilated Eire. In The Master (1957), an sf juvenile, a boy and a girl
come across a plot to rule the world from the deserted island of Rockall,
where the Merlyn-like Master, 157 years old, has perfected both hypnotic
control and a vibration device that will destroy all machines; fortunately
he trips over the children's dog, injures himself, and drowns himself in
the sea. THW's sf was of a piece with all his work, sharing the
sentimentality, satirical power, sadness, longing for retrospectic havens,
manic humour and compassion of his best fantasy. [JC]About the author:
T.H. White: A Biography (1968) by Sylvia Townsend Warner.See also:

Working name of UK illustrator Timothy Thomas Anthony White (1952- ), one
of the new school of super-realists that has shaped UK sf ILLUSTRATION
since the mid-1970s. After 2 years in advertising he received his first sf
commission in 1974. Immediately successful, he soon became one of the UK's
premier book-cover illustrators; he has painted several hundred of them.
There is a case for calling him the finest technician in UK sf
illustration, and along with Chris FOSS and Jim BURNS he has produced the
UK's most influential sf artwork of the past two decades. Using very fine
detail, his paintings have a luminous clarity sometimes reminiscent of
Rene Magritte (1898-1967) or (rather differently) of Andrew Wyeth (1917-
). His work is figurative, often uses unusual perspectives, and regularly
makes much of grass and sky in the landscapes in which the sf images are
set. The Science Fiction and Fantasy World of Tim White (1981), a very
strong collection, contains 111 paintings, nearly all book covers.


(1915- ) Australian sf writer and (retired) motoring journalist, whose
first sf may have been "Beyond the Infinite" for Adam and Eve in 1934. He
wrote more sf in the 1950s, beginning to sell to overseas markets with
"The Non-Existent Man" (1958 AMZ) and remaining quite prolific in US
magazines until 1960. His third period of writing began with short stories
in the Kesrii series in 1978. His first novel, Breathing Space Only
(1980), a rather downbeat post- HOLOCAUST tale, ends with its protagonist
isolated among superior humans, returned from the stars, with whom he has
nothing in common. It was followed by Sapphire Road (1982), Thor's Hammer
(1983), The Hyades Contact (fixup 1987 US), which is part of the Kesrii
series, Lake of The Sun (1989 US) and The Specialist (1990 US). Several of
these books imagine forms of evolved humanity; all are thoughtful,
competent sf adventure stories. [PN]See also: AUSTRALIA.


[s] A. Bertram CHANDLER.

(vt The Man in the Steel Mask) Film (1974). Hemisphere/Maclean & Co. Dir
Jack Gold, starring Elliott Gould, Trevor Howard, Joseph Bova. Screenplay
John Gould (Jack Gold), based on WHO? (1958) by Algis BUDRYS. 91 mins.
Colour.Released long after being made, and publicized not at all, this
taut, efficient little metaphysical thriller, hinging on questions of what
constitutes identity, deserved rather better. A key US scientist (Bova) is
terribly injured on the East German border and later returned, fixed up by
the Russians, in CYBORG form with a metal face and hand. Or is he a
planted double agent? Gould plays the US security man who sees to it that
the cyborg is constantly watched. With a series of Cold-War riffs, a
rather good subtext is set up about the human-seeming machine of the state
apparatus (on both sides) versus the machine-seeming human (with more
human feeling than he putatively had before, as shown in a touching scene
with the ex-wife). The prosthetic "monster" finally rejects secret
scientific work; instead he retires, quite alone, to a farm. The mask is
never removed, not even metaphorically, and the mystery is only solved
(for alert viewers) through ironic indirection. Gold is known mainly as
one of the UK's better tv-drama directors. [PN]


(? - ) US bibliographer whose main work has been to compile with Anthony
R. LEWIS (whom see for titles) several vols of The N.E.S.F.A. Index to
Science Fiction Magazines and Original Anthologies during 1973-84. Solo he
produced The New SF Bulletin Index to SF Books, 1974 (1974 chap). [JC]

(1915-1983) Irish writer who lived in the USA from 1943, and who
published at least 103 books, beginning in 1947; much of this work was for
children, and a modest proportion of it was sf or fantasy. His first and
most famous sf novel, the ostensibly adult tale which begins the Grand
Fenwick sequence, is The Mouse that Roared (1955; vt The Wrath of Grapes
1955 UK), a RURITANIAN spoof involving a super- WEAPON; it was filmed in
1959. The subsequent vols - Beware of the Mouse (1958), which is a
prequel, The Mouse on Wall Street (1969) and The Mouse that Saved the West
(1981) - make little use of sf devices except in the most cursory fashion,
except for The Mouse on the Moon (1962), which involves spaceflight, and
which was filmed in 1963. A singleton, One in Four (1976), depicts a USA
threatened by immaterial entities from the FAR FUTURE. Encounter Near
Venus (1967) and its sequel, Journey to Untor (1970), are CHILDREN'S SF.
Of fantasy interest were several further juveniles, including Mrs
Searwood's Secret Weapon (1954), McGillicuddy McGotham (1956), Take Me to
Your President (1957), The Quest of Excalibur (1959), Stranger of
Killknock (1961) and The Crime of Martin Coverly (1981). LW was an
intermittently clever writer whose books were eaten by sweetness. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer whose To Mars Via the Moon: An Astronomical Story
(1911) describes a UTOPIA whose Martian venue owes an acknowledged debt to
the theories of Percival Lowell ( MARS). The book was probably intended as
a fictionalization of popular science for younger readers. [JC/PN]

(1894-1964) US mathematician and writer who established the contemporary
sense of the word CYBERNETICS in his book Cybernetics (1948; rev 1961).
Some of his speculations in this field appear in The Human Use of Human
Beings (1950) and in God & Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points where
Cybernetics Impinges on Religion (1964), which directly influenced Frank
HERBERT's Destination: Void (1966). As W. Norbert he published 2 sf
stories, "The Miracle of the Broom Closet" in FSF (1952) and "The Brain"
in Crossroad in Time (anth 1953) ed Groff CONKLIN. A novel, The Tempter
(1959), is not sf. Ex-Prodigy (1953), nonfiction, is an interesting
speculative study of the intellectual SUPERMAN. [JC]About the author: I Am
a Mathematician (1956), autobiography.

(1883-1958) UK author, usually for children as Trevor Wignall, whose sf
novel Atoms (1923) with G(ordon) D(aniel) Knox posits a world with
abundant atomic energy and broadcast power. These developments are
described with wooden glee. [JC]

Robert POTTER.

Working name of US writer Cleo Eldon Knox (1905- ), who taught creative
writing at Northwestern University; most of his work, sometimes as Cleo
Eldon, Miles Shelton or Max Overton, was for Ray PALMER's AMAZING STORIES
and Fantastic Adventures, where he published his first story, "The Pit of
Death", in 1939. A good GENERATION-STARSHIP tale, "The Voyage that Lasted
600 Years" (1940), soon followed. DW used the house name Alexander BLADE
at least once, and also published a novelette, "Confessions of a
Mechanical Man" (1947), as Buzz-Bolt Atomcracker. The Ebbtide Jones
stories (1939-42; the 1st in AMZ, the rest in Fantastic Adventures) were
published as by Miles Shelton. DW's "The Whispering Gorilla" (1940) was
cobbled together with "The Return of the Whispering Gorilla" (1943) by his
ZIFF-DAVIS stablemate David Vern, writing as David V. REED, to form The
Whispering Gorilla (fixup 1950 UK), published as by David V. Reed. [JC/PN]


each volume comprising stories woven ( BRAID) into a more-or-less
integrated narrative. Martin prefers to think of these books, because
their contents are planned and linked, often as "mosaic novels", though we
treat them as, only technically, anthologies. The 1st vol, Wild Cards: A
Mosaic Novel * (anth 1987; vt Wildcards 1989 UK), shows its alternate
Earth's history ( ALTERNATE WORLDS) deviating from our own in 1946 with
the release over New York of a virus developed by ALIENS. The effect of
the "Wild Card" virus is to kill immediately and horribly one out of ten
people it infects. Survivors are mutated, mostly in useless, often
monstrously damaging ways, in which case they are called "Jokers". One in
ten is mutated beneficially: these become superpowered "Aces". The
dividing line can be blurred; for example, physical deformity can be
offset by an immense gain in strength.Ten vols have been issued to
mid-1992, the remainder being #2: Aces High * (anth 1987), #3: Jokers Wild
* (anth 1987), #4: Aces Abroad * (anth 1988), #5: Down and Dirty * (anth
1988), #6: Ace in the Hole * (anth 1990), #7: Dead Man's Hand * (1990),
#8: One-Eyed Jacks * (anth 1991), #9: Jokertown Shuffle * (anth 1991) and
#10: Double Solitaire (1992). Double Solitaire is a novel by Melinda
SNODGRASS, the first single-author novel in what has otherwise been an
oritinal-anthology series, but is copyrighted in Martin's name; Snodgrass
acted as assistant editor on the series since #6. . The books focus on a
cast of Aces and Jokers through the decades. The strongest stories are in
the 1st vol, which deals impressively with the McCarthy era. Later volumes
are more comic-bookish, and history's incredible resilience becomes
irritating: when a secret Ace of enormous power runs for the presidency,
events contrive to bring about a victory for George Bush. Despite this, WC
is one of the better shared-worlds series, showcasing hard-edged writing
by Edward BRYANT, Lewis SHINER, Walton Simons, Walter Jon WILLIAMS and
others.A companion comic-book series comprises Wild Cards #1: Heart of the
Matter (graph 1990), #2: Diamond in the Rough (graph 1990), #3: Welcome to
the Club (graph 1990) and #4: Spadework (graph 1990), collected as Wild
Cards (graph omni 1991). [RuB/RT]See also: GAMES AND TOYS; SUPERHEROES.

Pseudonym of New Zealand-born writer Cherry Barbara Grimm, nee Lockett
(1930- ), resident in Australia 1954-76 and then in Germany. After
publishing short fiction and poetry she turned to sf, and chose the name
Wilder. The themes of her first published sf story, "The Ark of James
Carlyle" in New Writings in SF 24 (anth 1974) ed Kenneth BULMER, are the
gradual rapprochement of, and changes in, human and ALIEN after First
Contact. These themes recur in the well realized Torin series - THE LUCK
OF BRIN'S FIVE (1977 US), The Nearest Fire (1980 US) and The Tapestry
Warriors (1983 US), all first published as juveniles - and in the adult
novel Second Nature (1982 US), which tells of a castaway society on the
planet Rhomary. The Torin books focus on the relationship between the
marsupial natives of the planet Torin and the succession of humans who
become fruitfully involved with them, though the young protagonists do
tend - perhaps rather conventionally - to open not only their own eyes to
the wonders of the world but also those of their native hosts. CW's most
significant achievements may lie in her complexly achieved short stories
like "Something Coming Through" (1983) and "The Decline of Sunshine"
(1987), in which a wry mythopoeic vein shines through. Some of her short
fiction returns to Torin and Rhomary. CW's work, notable for its narrative
skill, evocative style and rounded characterization, should by now have
given her a higher reputation. [JC/MM/PN]Other works: The Rulers of Hylor
fantasy trilogy, comprising A Princess of the Chameln (1984 US), Yorath
the Wolf (1984 US) and The Summer's King (1986 US); Cruel Designs (1988
UK), occult/horror set in contemporary Germany.About the author: The CW
issue of FOUNDATION, #54, Spring 1992, contains an autobiographical essay
and "The Wilder Alien Shores, or The Colonials are Revolting", a critical
assessment by Yvonne Rousseau.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; AUSTRALIA;

(? - ) UK author of 2 routine sf adventures, Spaceflight - Venus (1955)
and Shadow Over the Earth (1956). As John Robert Haynes he wrote The
Scream from Outer Space (1955), also unremarkable. [JC/PN]

Film (1968). AIP. Dir Barry Shear, starring Christopher Jones, Shelley
Winters, Diane Varsi, Millie Perkins, Hal Holbrook, Richard Pryor.
Screenplay Robert Thom. 97 mins. Colour.Holbrook is the Kennedy-style
Californian senator who, when he realizes that, through demographic shift,
half the population are under 25, enlists a rock star (Jones, looking like
James Dean) to help sway the youth vote. The strategy backfires when the
senator's quid pro quo of lowering the voting age (it is eventually 14)
allows the rock star himself to become president; in an act of revenge
against his awful mother (Winters) he then consigns all the over-35s to
concentration-camp retirement homes where they are force-fed LSD. The
film's LSD-in-the-water-supply sequence created a stir at the time, and
inspired some real-life imitations. The tongue-in-cheek script - the hippy
sections badly dated - is still good, especially the finale where the
subteens are fomenting further revolution. [PN/JB]See also: CINEMA.

US tv miniseries (1993). ABC-TV. Created and written by Bruce Wagner.
Exec prods Wagner and Oliver Stone. Six hours. The first two-hour episode
"Everything Must Go" dir Peter Hewitt; the next one-hour episode "The
Floating World" dir Keith Gordon; the next one-hour episode "RisingSons"
dir Kathryn Bigelow; the next one-hour episode "Hungry Ghosts" dir Keith
Gordon; the last one-hour episode "Hello, I Must Be Going" dir Phil
Joanou. StarringJames Belushi, Dana Delany, Robert Loggia, Kim
Cattrall,Angie Dickinson, Ernie Hudson and Brad Dourif.This is the closest
US television has got to CYBERPUNK, and to hammer the point homeWilliam
GIBSON has a walk-on part as himself. The series is loosely based on a
series of comicsby Wagner published in Details magazine. The year is
around 2007. HarryWyckoff (Belushi) is a California attorney whose life is
turning weird; he keeps seeing a possibly hallucinatory rhinoceros; his
son is cold and withdrawn. He joins a group of religious cultists (the"new
Realists" who believe in "synthiotics") run by a sinistersenator,who has a
new media tv network that projects holograms ostensibly for entertainment
purposes, actually for mind control, with the help of drugs. Nanochips,
the Japanese and conspiracy theories are involved. It is often difficult
to separate VIRTUAL REALITY from mundane reality. People suffer from image
sickness. The whole thing is a paranoid tapestry,saturated in pop culture
both contemporary and as projected into the near future, unusually
virulent for tv (especially the blinding scene), and is somewhere between
completely over-the-top comic-strip melodrama and genuinely impressive
intensity. It is certainly stranger than any tv predecessor, with the
possible exception of the cult tv series Twin Peaks, which many critics
thought it somewhat resembled. Perhaps the outstanding sf television of
the 1990s,though there are certainly plot oddities not really cleared up.
The series, apparently unedited,is available on videotape. The relevant
book is Wild Palms: The Teleplay (1994) byBruce Wagner. [PN]

US tv series (1965-9). A Michael Garrison Production/CBS TV. Created
Michael Garrison. Prods Garrison, Fred Freiberger, Gene L. Coon, Collier
Young, John MANTLEY, Bruce Lansbury. Writers included Henry Sharp, John
Kneubuhl, Ken Kolb, Ken Pettus. Dirs included Paul Wendkos, Richard
Donner, Irving Moore, Robert Sparr, Alan Crosland Jr, Marvin Chomsky. 4
seasons; 104 50min episodes. Season 1 b/w; colour thereafter.An amusing,
sophisticated and successful mixture of Western and secret-agent fantasy,
TWWW series had Robert Conrad playing Jim West, an 1870s James Bond. The
plots usually involved anachronistic, futuristic devices and often
featured mad scientists attempting to overthrow the government, using
everything from manmade earthquakes to time machines. At its best TWWW had
something of the bizarre quality of The AVENGERS (1961-8), to which it was
the nearest US equivalent, but its stylization was not always light or
witty enough. Low-angle shooting and clever use of sets ensured a genuine
sense of decadent menace in the more baroque episodes. Michael Dunn played
an often reappearing villain, the dwarf scientist Dr Loveless who invents
ANDROIDS, miniaturization, hallucinogens and a lot more. The bland persona
of the hero was offset by Ross Martin's jovial performance as his partner,
Artemus Gordon. The series can be seen as anticipating STEAMPUNK. 2
sequels appeared a decade later as made-for-tv movies: The Wild Wild West
Revisited (1979) and More Wild Wild West (1980), both dir Burt Kennedy.



Working name of US writer Katie Gertrude Meridith Wilhelm Knight (1928-
), married to Damon KNIGHT; beyond her writing, she has long been
influential, along with her husband, through his founding of the MILFORD
SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' CONFERENCE in 1958 and its offshoot, in which she
was directly involved, the CLARION SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' WORKSHOP; she
edited one of the anthologies of stories from the latter, Clarion SF (anth
1977).But KW early became best known for her writing, and by the 1980s was
a ranking figure in the field, though her first work would eventually be
seen as atypical. She started publishing sf in 1956 with "The Pint-Size
Genie" for Fantastic, and continued for some time with the relatively
straightforward genre stories of the sort to be found in her first book,
The Mile-Long Spaceship (coll 1963; vt Andover and the Android 1966 UK);
it was not until the late 1960s that she began to release the mature
stories which have made her career an object lesson in the costs and
benefits of the market, for it seemed clear from about 1970 that she was
most happy as a writer at the commercially unpopular novella length, and
least happy as a novelist. Her response was to publish short stories and
novellas, frequently brought together in book form as "speculative
fiction", while at the same time producing intermittently capable and
variously ambitious full-length tales. The shorter fictions were assembled
in: The Downstairs Room, and Other Speculative Fiction (coll 1968), which
includes the NEBULA-winning "The Planners" (1968); Abyss: Two Novellas
(coll 1971); The Infinity Box: A Collection of Speculative Fiction (coll
1975), the title story of which - also republished as THE INFINITY BOX
(1971 Orbit 9 ed Damon Knight; 1989 chap dos) - is a darkly complex
depiction of a NEAR-FUTURE USA as refracted through the slow destruction
of the conscience of a man gifted with a PSI POWER; Somerset Dreams (coll
1978); Listen, Listen (coll 1981); Children of the Wind: Five Novellas
(coll 1989), which includes the NEBULA-winning The Girl who Fell into the
Sky (1986 IASFM; 1991 chap); State of Grace (coll 1991 chap) and And the
Angels Sing (coll 1992), which includes "Forever Yours, Anna" (1987), also
a Nebula-winner. The strongest of these stories are exercises in capturing
the significant texture of the new in the context of individual lives;
time and again, a tale begins within the shaky domesticity of the family
and moves suddenly to an sf or fantasy perspective from which, chillingly,
the fragility of our social worlds can be discerned. At this point, at the
point of maximum realization, her best stories generally stop.With novels
it has tended to be otherwise. After More Bitter than Death (1963), a
mystery, her first sf novel was The Clone (1965) with Theodore L. THOMAS,
one of the rare sf books to use CLONE in the strict biological sense, in
describing a formidable, voracious and ever-growing blob, and a competent
demonstration of her workmanlike capacity to cope with genre content. The
Killer Thing (1967; rev vt The Killing Thing 1967 UK), set almost uniquely
for KW on another planet, also shows some facility in telling conventional
sf tales. But The Nevermore Affair (1966) and Let the Fire Fall (1969; cut
and rev 1972 UK), which attempt to investigate character within
novel-length plots, fail in the first through overexplication and in the
second through an uneasiness of diction, so that the near-future religious
revival at its heart is depicted with a diffuse sarcastic loquacity. This
sense of drift - this sense that her novels wilfully continue past the
point at which her interest in maximum realization has begun to flag - is
avoided in some instances. For example, WHERE LATE THE SWEET BIRDS SANG
(fixup 1976) - which won HUGO and Jupiter AWARDS for Best Novel -
successfully translates her interest in clones (this time in the sf sense
of "people-copies") to a post- HOLOCAUST venue in the Appalachians where
an isolated community of clones has been formed to weather the interregnum
until civilization can spread again, but develops in its own, perilously
narrow fashion; significantly, the book is made up of 3 novella-length
sequences, each superb. The Clewiston Test (1976) balances the effects on
the eponymous developer of a dubious drugs project against those on her of
an unhappy marriage; for the world of experimental BIOLOGY - in which KW
has always been interested - cannot be divorced from the lives it affects,
a truism rarely brought to bear with such sharpness. Fault Lines (1977),
not sf, uses a displaced and edgy diction to present a woman's broken
remembrances, the fault lines of the title representing her own life, her
future, her unhappy marriages, the earthquake that traps her, and a
powerful sense that civilization itself is cracking at the seams. But
these novels stand out.More normally KW's novels - like A Sense of Shadow
(1981), Welcome, Chaos (1981 Redbook as "The Winter Beach"; exp 1983) and
Huysman's Pets (1986) - tend to dissipate powerful beginnings in generic
toings and froings. Her Leidl and Meiklejohn sequence of sf/horror/fantasy
detective tales - The Hamlet Trap (1987), The Dark Door (1988), Smart
House (1989), Sweet, Sweet Poison (1990) and Seven Kinds of Death (1992) -
seem in their compulsive genre-switching almost to parody this proclivity;
but Crazy Time (1988), a late singleton, more successfully embraces the
insecurity of the novel form as KW conceives it, and the ricochets of the
plot aptly mirror the discourse it embodies upon the nature of
institutionalized definitions of sanity and insanity. Most successfully of
all, DEATH QUALIFIED: A MYSTERY OF CHAOS (1991) - whose sequel, The Best
Defense (1994) is associational - combines detection and sf in a long,
sustained, morally complex tale whose central story-telling hook - solving
a murder in order to free the innocent protagonist of suspicion - leads
smoothly into an sf denouement involving Chaos theory, new perceptions and
a hint of SUPERMAN. It is the longest of her novels, yet the one which
most resembles her successful short fiction. [JC]Other works: The Year of
the Cloud (1970) with Theodore L. Thomas; Margaret and I (1971); City of
Cain (1974), a near-future psi thriller with many sf trappings; Juniper
Time (1979); Better than One (coll 1980) with Damon Knight, each
contributing separate items; Oh, Susannah! (1982); Cambio Bay (1990);
Naming the Flowers (1992 chap); Justice for Some (1993), associational.As
Editor: Nebula Award Stories Nine (anth 1974).See also: ECOLOGY;

(1614-1672) UK philosopher who served as the Bishop of Chester. He wrote
no fiction, but was one of the first popularizers of science and a
propagandist for scientific progress whose speculative nonfiction is
remarkable. The 3rd edn of The Discovery of a New World (1638; 3rd rev ed
1640) includes a brief discourse on the possibility of travel to the MOON.
Mathematicall Magick (1648) is a treatise on TECHNOLOGY, including essays
on submarines, flying machines and perpetual-motion MACHINES (of whose
feasibility he was sceptical). While he was Master of Wadham College,
Oxford, he founded the Philosophical Society, which in 1662 became the

(1890-1959) UK writer best known for his historical romances, but who
wrote some tales of sf interest. Being Met Together (1944), though
marginal, interestingly describes an attempt to rescue Napoleon using a
submarine ( UNDER THE SEA) designed by the US engineer and inventor Robert
Fulton (1765-1815). After Bath (1945) is an ornately fantastic juvenile.
The City of Frozen Fire (1950) is an energetic LOST-WORLD tale set in
South Africa. Fanfare for a Witch (1954) is historical fantasy. Valley
Beyond Time (1955) describes trips through the DIMENSIONS to the haven of
the title and back again to a time-ridden, grief-enfolded Earth. [JC]

(? - ) US writer of military-sf adventures: the Strike Fighters sequence
- Strike Fighters (1990), #2: Strike Fighters #2 (1990), #3: War Chariot
(1991), #4: Sudden Fury (1991) and #5: Red Dancer (1991) - and the
Afrikorps sequence as by Bill Dolan - Afrikorps (1991) and #2: Iron Horse
(1991). [JC]

(1919-1988) US writer, best known for his police thrillers in the
Miami-based Hoke Moseley series. His The Machine in Ward Eleven (coll
1963) has more than once been listed as sf, but is not, although one of
its stories is a surreal fantasy. [PN]

(? - ) Canadian writer whose sf novel, Paramind (1973), takes a DYSTOPIAN
view of the commanding role of the COMPUTER in a 21st-century world. [JC]

[s] Willy LEY.


(1886-1945) UK writer whose novels are essentially theological fantasy
thrillers; he was closely associated with C.S. LEWIS and J.R.R. TOLKIEN.
His romantic and obscurely devout use of Tarot and Grail imagery helped
bring these themes into the generic mainstream. Of his novels, Many
Dimensions (1931) bears some remote resemblance to sf, in that it depicts
the world as being threatened by the dangerous powers (in particular
TELEPORTATION) of a magical stone that can be split into endless identical
copies; but in this, as in the remainder of his fiction, the bent of the
fantasy is towards RELIGION. The TIME TRAVEL in All Hallows' Eve (1945) is
devoted to similar ends. [JC/DRL]Other works: War in Heaven (1930); The
Place of the Lion (1931); The Greater Trumps (1932); Shadows of Ecstasy
(1933); Descent into Hell (1937).About the author: Shadows of Imagination:
The Fantasies of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and Charles Williams (anth
1969) ed Mark R. HILLEGAS.See also: FANTASY; MYTHOLOGY.

(1918- ) UK writer, previously a bookseller, who began publishing sf with
"The Desolator" for Science Fantasy in 1965 and was the author of some
routine sf novels for ROBERT HALE LIMITED, starting with The Time
Injection (1968). The Drop In (1977), not for Hale, is an alien- INVASION
novel of some interest. [JC]Other works: Monkman Comes Down (1969); The
Call of Utopia (1971); To End All Telescopes (1969); Flash (1972);
Project: Renaissance (1973); Largesse from Triangulum (1979); Time for
Mercy (1979); Homo Telekins (1981).

Working name of UK writer Edward Francis Williams, Baron Francis-Williams
(1903-1970), whose sf novel is The Richardson Story (1951; vt It Happened
Tomorrow 1952 US). [JC]

(1934- ) Scottish writer best known for the Hazell detective novels with
Terry Venables (1943- ), writing together as P.B. Yuill. Of sf interest is
his solo Micronauts sequence - The Micronauts (1977 US), Microcolony (1979
US; vt Microanaut World 1981 UK) and Revolt of the Micronauts (1981) -
about government agents miniaturized to perform intricate assignments.

(1925- ) US writer, almost all of whose work has reflected his
experiences (including service in WWII) as a US Black. The Man who Cried I
Am (1967) posits a Black genocide plot on the part of the US Government,
to be put into action in case of civil uprising. Sons of Darkness, Sons of
Light (1969) presents a Black revolt centred on Manhattan, comparable to
Warren MILLER's The Siege of Harlem (1964) as a MAINSTREAM use of sf
material. Captain Blackman (1972) features a time-travelling hero who
takes part, as a Black soldier, in all the wars of US history. [JC/PN]See

Walter Jon WILLIAMS.

House name used on pornographic novels, several with sf content,
published by Greenleaf Classics, a company owned by one-time sf editor
William HAMLING. The Sex Pill (1968) as by JXW is by Andrew J. OFFUTT. 2
further fantastic titles, Her (1967) and Witch in Heat (1967), are by
unidentified authors. [PN]

(1940- ) US writer who published 2 sf novels - Martian Spring (1986) and
its sequel, FTL: Further Than Life (1987) - which tackle conflicts between
Earth and MARS, and consequent attempts to transcend these ills by gaining
rapport with a transplanetary group mind; verve and clarity are
lacking.MLW should not be confused with the Michael Williams involved in
various DragonLance ties like DragonLance Heroes: Weasel's Luck * (1989)
and DragonLance Heroes II: Galen Beknighted * (1990), as well as an untied
fantasy series, From Thief to King: A Sorcerer's Apprentice (1990) and A
Forest Lord (1991). [JC]

(1906-1992) US newspaperman - he was with the Los Angeles Times 1931-71,
serving as its chief editor from 1958 - and writer who contributed short
material to various "slicks"; he reported having published his first sf
story pseudonymously in Weird Tales in the late 1920s, but could recall
neither title nor pseudonym. The Atom Curtain (1956 dos) is set in a
thoroughly unusual post- HOLOCAUST USA 170 years after an atomic barrier
has isolated it from the rest of the world. Inside, a crazed immortal
rules a population rapidly reverting to Neanderthal status, and a cave
woman, after being clubbed, falls in love with the barrier-penetrating
protagonist. [JC]

(1948- ) US editor and writer, founder of Crawdaddy, the first US rock
magazine, in 1966, and author of several books on the subject, including
the best books yet written on Bob Dylan. As literary executor of the
Philip K. DICK estate he was from the first involved in the Philip K. Dick
Society and was instrumental in the wisely phased and commercially
successful publication of Dick's posthumous works. In Only Apparently
Real: The World of Philip K. Dick (1986) he set some early guidelines for
the comprehension of Dick's difficult final decade; and with The Ultimate
Egoist (coll 1994) by Theodore STURGEON, he inaugurated a carefully edited
collected edition of Sturgeon's short work, planned to extend to as many
as 10 volumes. [JC]

(1935- ) US writer and professor of literature who won the JOHN W.
CAMPBELL JR. AWARD for Best New Writer in 1983, and who is known in the sf
field almost exclusively for his Pelbar sequence - The Breaking of
Northwall (1981), The Ends of the Circle (1981), The Dome in the Forest
(1981), The Fall of the Shell (1982), An Ambush of Shadows (1983), The
Song of the Axe (1984) and The Sword of Forbearance (1985) - set, 1100
years after a meteor shower has instigated a devastating nuclear WAR, in
the balkanized and barbarian heart of the USA at a time when fragmented
local cultures must begin to come together once again, hopefully without
warfare. The sequence is unusual - and in deep contrast to SURVIVALIST
FICTION - in its disregard for violence and its lack of gear fetish; it
has been compared with Edgar PANGBORN's Davy books. The Dome in the
Forest, which tells of the discovery of an inhabited nuclear shelter,
interestingly explores the psychology of the POCKET UNIVERSE; later
volumes, in which the tempo of technological change begins to increase,
are perhaps less engaging. The series as a whole suffers from a certain
leadenness of narrative diction, but never fails to question generic
assumptions about the nature of a post- HOLOCAUST civilization. The Gifts
of the Gorboduc Vandal (1989) is not part of the sequence. [JC]See also:

(1921-1988) Welsh writer, professor of drama and cultural critic, long
famous for his incisive studies of the interconnections between literature
and society like Culture and Society (1958) and The Country and the City
(1973). Of sf interest is The Volunteers (1978), a tale set in the late
1980s when political conflict in the UK has come to a violent head.
[JC]Other works: George Orwell (1971), nonfiction; Keywords (1976),
nonfiction; The Fight for Manod (1979).See also: PROTO SCIENCE FICTION.

(1907-1977) US writer, active in the sf field under his own name and
various pseudonyms, including John S. Browning, H.H. Harmon, Russell Storm
and the house name E.K. JARVIS. He began publishing sf as Robert Moore
with "Zero as a Limit" for ASF in 1937, and by the 1960s had published
over 150 stories. Though most are unremarkable, he was an important
supplier of competent genre fiction during these decades. Typically
adequate is the Jongor series: Jongor of Lost Land (1940 Fantastic
Adventures; 1970), The Return of Jongor (1944 Fantastic Adventures; 1970)
and Jongor Fights Back (1951 Fantastic Adventures; 1970). He did not begin
publishing books until The Chaos Fighters (1955), but thereafter released
many novels of the same general calibre as his short fiction. Notable were
Doomsday Eve (1957 dos), a post- HOLOCAUST drama in which the world serves
as an arena for struggling SUPERMEN, and the Zanthar series: Zanthar of
the Many Worlds (1967), Zanthar at the Edge of Never (1968), Zanthar at
Moon's Madness (1968) and Zanthar at Trip's End (1969). Zanthar is a
professor with the gifts of a HERO. RMW wrote few original words, but
rarely a dull one. [JC]Other works: Conquest of the Space Sea (1955 dos);
The Blue Atom (1958 dos); The Void Beyond and Other Stories (coll 1958
dos); To the End of Time and Other Stories (coll 1960 dos); World of the
Masterminds (1960 dos); The Day They H-Bombed Los Angeles (1961), which
includes a RECURSIVE reference to Doomsday Eve; The Darkness Before
Tomorrow (1962 dos); King of the Fourth Planet (1962 dos); Walk Up the Sky
(1962); The Star Wasps (1963 dos); Flight from Yesterday (1963 dos); The
Lunar Eye (1964 dos); The Second Atlantis (1965); Vigilante-21st Century
(1967); The Bell from Infinity (1968); When Two Worlds Meet: Stories of
Men on Mars (coll of linked stories 1970); Beachhead Planet (1970); Now
Comes Tomorrow (1971); Seven Tickets to Hell (1972). Nonfiction: Love is
Forever - We Are for Tonight (1970), autobiography.See also: ROBOTS.



(1953- ) US writer whose first works were nautical tales as by Jon
Williams, beginning with The Privateer (1981). He began to publish sf with
Ambassador of Progress (1984), an unexceptional novel in which a female
agent whose mission is to revive civilization makes contact with an
abandoned, semi-feudal colony planet. Knight Moves (1985) describes the
attempts of an immensely powerful immortal and his old friends and enemies
to discover a technique of MATTER TRANSMISSION and to repopulate an almost
abandoned Earth with fantastic creatures taken from MYTHOLOGY, in a style
reminiscent of the early Roger ZELAZNY. But it was with the appearance of
CYBERPUNK that WJW seemed to have found his true voice as a writer. In the
Hardwired sequence - Hardwired (1986), stories like "Video Star" (1986),
Voice of the Whirlwind (1987) and Solip:system (1989 chap) - he displayed
a fascination with intensely detailed surfaces, biologically invasive
gadgetry, and the effects of powerful corporations and rapidly changing
technology on (romanticized) social outsiders. The first tale, in which
underdogs of a repressed Earth rebel against dominant orbital corporations
- proved sufficiently popular to spawn a role-playing game ( GAMES AND
TOYS) based on it, despite the unlikelihood of much of its plot; the game
is presented in Hardwired: The Sourcebook (1989 chap). In the rather
better second tale the CLONE of an alienated one-time corporate soldier,
brought to life on the original's death, hunts for clues to that first
demise in a narrative richly informed by Zen and speculations on the
nature of identity.The Crown Jewels sequence - The Crown Jewels (1987) and
House of Shards (1988) - comprises two "divertimenti" describing the
adventures of a Raffles-like burglar in a cod-Oriental future human
culture heavily influenced by ALIENS to whom style is sacred. But WJW
retained a cyberpunk outlook for his next major novel, Angel Station
(1989), in which family groups of interstellar traders both fight to
survive as major corporations squeeze down their markets, and also betray
each other for the chance to deal with a newly discovered alien race.
Facets (coll 1990) assembles most of his short fiction. In the tautly told
Days of Atonement (1991) WJW moved to a NEAR-FUTURE USA where a macho
small-town sheriff struggles with the physics needed to understand an
apparent outbreak of bodily resurrections at the nearby Advanced
Technological Laboratories. ARISTOI (1992) goes in the other direction,
into a FAR-FUTURE venue once again evocative of Zelazny. Wall, Stone,
Craft (1993 chap) ingeniously posits an ALTERNATE WORLD in which Lord
Byron, unhampered by a club foot, becomes one of the heroes of Waterloo,
and subsequently interacts with Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, here
powerfully imagined, so that Frankenstein (1818), and all of sf to come,
is inevitably created. Ingenious and energetic and knowing, WJW seems very
much at home with the mature GENRE SF of the 1980s and 1990s. [NT]Other
works: Elegy for Angels and Dogs (1990 dos), a sequel to Zelazny's The
Graveyard Heart (1964 Fantastic; 1990 chap dos), with which it is bound
sequentially ( DOS-A-DOS); Dinosaurs (1991 chap).See also: CYBORGS; PSI

Working name of US writer John Stewart Williamson (1908- ) from the
beginning of his career in 1928, though his Seetee stories were originally
signed Will Stewart. JW was born in Arizona and raised (after stints in
Mexico and Texas) on an isolated New Mexico homestead; he described his
early upbringing and his encounter with 1920s sf in the introduction and
notes to The Early Williamson (coll 1975), which assembles some of the
rough but vigorous stories he published 1928-33; and amplified this
material in Wonder's Child: My Life in Science Fiction (1984), which won a
1986 HUGO. These reminiscences reconfirm the explosively liberating effect
early PULP-MAGAZINE sf had on its first young audiences, especially those
who like JW grew up in small towns or farms across a USA hurtling out of
its rural past.After discovering AMAZING STORIES, and specifically being
influenced by its 1927 serialization of A. MERRITT's The Moon Pool (1919),
JW immediately decided to try to write stories for that magazine. His
first published fiction, "The Metal Man" in 1928 for AMZ, was deeply
influenced by Merritt's lush visual style, but like most of his early work
conveyed an exhilarating sense of liberation. JW was from the first an
adaptable writer, responsive to the changing nature of his markets, and
his collaborations over the years seemed to be genuine attempts to learn
more about his craft as well as to produce saleable fiction. His first
great teacher after Merritt was Miles J. BREUER, whom he came across
through his early association with fan organizations like the
International Science Correspondence Club and the American Interplanetary
Society, and to whom he deliberately apprenticed himself. Breuer, he
reported in The Early Williamson, "taught me to curb my tendencies toward
wild melodrama and purple adjectives"; what JW gave Breuer in return was
an inspiring fount of energy, and both of their book collaborations - The
Girl from Mars (1929 chap) and The Birth of a New Republic (1931 AMZ
Quarterly; 1981 chap [but large pages]) - were written primarily by the
younger man, following Breuer's ideas.JW's development was swift. From the
very first he was equally comfortable with both story and novel forms;
indeed, by 1940 he had published over 12 novels in the magazines,
including The Alien Intelligence (1929 Science Wonder Stories; with 2
shorter stories as coll 1980 chap [but large pages]) and the unreprinted
"The Stone from the Green Star" (1931), "Xandulu" (1934), "Islands of the
Sun" (1935), "The Blue Spot" (1937) and "Fortress of Utopia" (1939); and
in his later career he concentrated even more heavily on longer forms. The
best of his pre-WWII work was probably the Legion of Space series, which
initially comprised The Legion of Space (1934 ASF; rev 1947) and The
Cometeers (coll 1950) - itself containing 2 items, The Cometeers (1936
ASF; rev for 1950 coll; 1967) and One Against the Legion (1939 ASF; with
the new "Nowhere Near" added, as coll 1967) - all this material being
subsequently assembled as Three from the Legion (omni 1979). The Queen of
the Legion (1983) was a very late and significantly less energetic
addendum. The series depicts the far-flung, Universe-shaking, SPACE-OPERA
adventures of 4 buccaneering soldiers. (Giles Habibula, the most original
of the lot - though his conception clearly owed much to RABELAIS and to
Shakespeare's Falstaff - became a frequently used model for later sf
life-loving grotesques, including Poul ANDERSON's Nicholas van Rijn.) More
or less unaided, they save the human worlds from threats both internal and
external in conjunction with the woman whose hereditary role it is to
guard from evil a doomsday device called AKKA. The influence of E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's Lensmen saga can be felt throughout; and JW's relative incapacity
to impart a sense of scale was perhaps balanced by a very much greater
gift for characterization. Other early novels, like The Green Girl (1930
AMZ; 1950) and Golden Blood (1933 Weird Tales; rev 1964), share a crude
narrative brio, adaptability to various markets, vivid characters, and
some lack of ambition. The exception, perhaps, was the Legion of Time
sequence (not connected to the Legion of Space sequence), assembled as THE
LEGION OF TIME (coll 1952; vt Two Complete Novels: After World's End; The
Legion of Time 1963), containing THE LEGION OF TIME (1938 ASF; cut 1961
UK) and After World's End (1939 Marvel Science Stories; 1961 UK). One of
the earliest and most ingenious stories of ALTERNATE WORLDS and TIME
PARADOXES - with conflicting potential future worlds battling through
time, each trying to ensure its own existence and deny its opponent's -
the sequence inspired one of the most penetrating studies yet written
about a pulp-sf novel, Brian W. ALDISS's "Judgement at Jonbar" (1964),
published in SF Horizons.By the 1940s, however, John W. CAMPBELL Jr's
GOLDEN AGE OF SF had begun, and JW was suddenly an old-timer. Though JW
did not much participate in its inception, he did adapt to the new world
with commendable speed, and by the end of the decade had published what
will probably remain his most significant work. A transitional series -
the Seetee ANTIMATTER tales - came first: Seetee Ship (1942-3 ASF; fixup
1951) and Seetee Shock (1949 ASF; 1950), both published as by Will Stewart
but reissued in 1968 as by JW, assembled as Seetee Ship/Seetee Shock (omni
1971; vt Seetee 1979), and designed to be read in the original magazine
order. These confront the world with the engineering challenge of coping
with the antimatter that is found to make up part of the ASTEROID belt;
more smoothly told than its predecessors, the series still unchallengingly
presents its asteroid miners and their crises in the old fashion, with a
great deal of action but little insight. Its success led to JW's creation
of a COMIC strip, Beyond Mars, which ran for 3 years in the New York Daily
News. Far more significant was DARKER THAN YOU THINK (1940 Unknown; exp
1948), a remarkable speculative novel about lycanthropy which early
presented the thesis that werewolves are genetic throwbacks to a species
cognate with Homo sapiens ( SUPERNATURAL CREATURES). Also in the 1940s
came JW's most famous sequence, the Humanoids series: "With Folded Hands"
(1947), The Humanoids (1948 ASF as ". . . And Searching Mind"; rev 1949) -
both assembled as The Humanoids (coll of linked stories 1980) - "Jamboree"
(1969) and The Humanoid Touch (1980). Once again at an early point in the
genre's history, these confronted the near impossibility of assessing the
plusses and minuses of a humanoid (i.e.,artificial- INTELLIGENCE-driven)
hegemony over the world, however benevolent. In The Humanoids itself it is
suggested that humanity's new masters are contriving to force people to
transcend their condition; in The Humanoid Touch this ambiguity is lost
for, at the end of the Galaxy, long hence, the euphoria induced by
humanity's keepers is both impossible to perceive and mandatory.In the
early 1950s JW began to suffer from a writer's block which he did not
fully escape for more than two decades, though he continued to produce
novels of interest like Dragon's Island (1951; vt The Not-Men 1968), whose
presentation of GENETIC ENGINEERING once again conceals a prescient
numeracy under a bluff, slightly archaic narrative style. Much of his new
work from this point was collaborative, and the continued modernizing of
his techniques and concerns can be seen as an ongoing demonstration of his
remarkable willingness to learn from the world and from others. Star
Bridge (1955) with James E. GUNN was just a competent space opera, but
JW's ongoing partnership with Frederik POHL was of more interest, though
their first sequence, the Eden series of juveniles - Undersea Quest
(1954), Undersea Fleet (1956) and Undersea City (1958) - was routine; all
3 were eventually assembled as The Undersea Trilogy (omni 1992). The
second, the Starchild tales - The Reefs of Space (1964), Starchild (1965)
and Rogue Star (1969), assembled as The Starchild Trilogy (omni 1977) -
also fails to combine space opera and METAPHYSICS convincingly as it
traces the problematic epic of humanity's EVOLUTION into a mature
planet-spanning species ( LIVING WORLDS). The Cuckoo series - The Farthest
Star (fixup 1975) and Wall Around a Star (1983), both assembled as The
Saga of Cuckoo (omni 1983) - does not quite succeed in bringing to life
its cosmogonic premises or its LINGUISTIC concerns. On the other hand,
Land's End (1988), with Pohl, is an enjoyable singleton; in it a comet
destroys the ozone layer and humanity seeks refuge UNDER THE SEA. The
Singers of Time (1991), with Pohl, is also strong.In the 1950s JW embarked
on a second career at Eastern New Mexico University, where he took a BA in
English and an MA with an unpublished 1957 thesis, "A Study of the Sense
of Prophecy in Modern Science Fiction". He taught the modern novel and
literary criticism until his retirement in 1977, while being deeply
involved in promoting sf as an academic subject ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM). He
had taken a PhD with the University of Colorado in 1964 on H.G. WELLS's
early sf, and expanded his thesis into H.G. Wells: Critic of Progress
(1973), a book which, despite some methodological clumsiness, valuably
examines Wells's complex development of ideas as they relate to the idea
of progress. In 1973 JW received a PILGRIM AWARD for his academic work
relating to sf.In the meanwhile he began slowly to enter the Indian summer
of his writing career, though novels like The Moon Children (1972) and The
Power of Blackness (fixup 1976) are surprisingly insecure and the series
continuations (see above) lack the force of their models. It seemed that
his old age would demonstrate his slow - even though technically
productive - decline. But The Best of Jack Williamson (coll 1978) again
demonstrated his early strengths, and although Brother to Demons, Brother
to Gods (1979) was weak, in the 1980s JW began to produce work of an
astonishing youthfulness. Manseed (1982) uses the space-opera format to
investigate, with renewed freshness, the imaginative potential of genetic
engineering. Lifeburst (1984) is an exercise in interstellar Realpolitik,
grim and engrossing in its depiction of the parcelling out of Earth,
sophisticated in its presentation of sexual material; its sequel, Mazeway
(1990), has the air of a juvenile in its vivid presentation of the
eponymous galactic test that the young protagonists must pass to render
humanity eligible for higher things. Firechild (1986) generates a rhetoric
of transcendence - very much in the fashion of the 1980s - out of BIOLOGY.
Into the Eighth Decade (coll 1990) serves as a brief resume of JW's
post-WWII career. Beachhead (1992) describes an expedition to a MARS
according to contemporary knowledge, although the plot itself is redolent
of a much earlier era. Despite its title, Demon Moon (1994) is also -
highly coloured - sf. In 1976 he was given the second Grand Master NEBULA
award (his sole predecessor was Robert A. HEINLEIN). He has been an sf
writer of substance for over 60 years. In his work and in his life he has
encompassed the field. [JC]Other works: Lady in Danger (1934 Weird Tales
as "Wizard's Isle"; 1945 chap UK), a novelette with a short story by E.
Hoffmann PRICE added; Dome Around America (1941 Startling Stories as
"Gateway to Paradise"; rev 1955 dos); The Trial of Terra (fixup 1962 dos);
The Reign of Wizardry (1940 Unknown; rev 1964; again rev 1979); Bright New
Universe (1967); Trapped in Space (1968), a juvenile; The Pandora Effect
(coll 1969); People Machines (coll 1971); Passage to Saturn (1939 TWS;
1973 chap UK); Dreadful Sleep (1938 Weird Tales; 1977 chap).As Editor:
Teaching Science Fiction for Tomorrow (anth 1980).Nonfiction: Science
Fiction Comes to College (1971 chap; exp 1971 chap); Science Fiction in
College (1971 chap; exp 1972 chap); Teaching SF (1972 chap; exp 1973 chap;
again exp 1973 chap; exp 1974 chap).About the author: Jack (John Stewart)
Williamson, Child and Father of Wonder (1985 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr.See

(1922-1995) US novelist and scriptwriter whose flamboyant Southern
regionalism was most fully expressed in Eternal Fire (1963). His sf novel,
The Building of Venus Four (1977), a SEX-loaded spoof SPACE OPERA, fails
to convey much sense of his best work. An original filmscript for Stephen
SPIELBERG had been completed just before his death. [JC]

[s] Arthur C. CLARKE.

Working name of US teacher and writer Constance Elaine Trimmer Willis
(1945- ). She began publishing sf with "Santa Titicaca" for Worlds of
Fantasy in 1971, but appeared only intermittently in the field until the
early 1980s, when she began to write full-time, winning several awards
almost immediately. Most of her best work of the 1980s was in short-story
form, and her first book, Fire Watch (coll 1985), assembled a remarkable
range of tales. "Fire Watch" (1982) itself, which won both NEBULA and
HUGO, uses its TIME-TRAVEL premise - a future institute of historiography
sends individuals back in time to study artifacts in situ - to embed its
protagonist in a richly conceived UK at the time of the Blitz, when he
engages himself in attempts to save St Paul's Cathedral from bombing. "All
My Darling Daughters" - published as an original in Fire Watch because its
language and theme were still unacceptable in the US magazine market of
1980 - is a significantly harsh tale of alienation and SEX set in a
boarding school in an L5 orbit, where the male students rape alien
lifeforms which have vagina-like organs, making them scream in pain; and
the female protagonist tries to make sense of her hyperbolic adolescence
in terms strongly reminiscent of J.D. Salinger (1919- ). Among other tales
of interest in this first collection are Daisy, in the Sun (1979 Galileo;
1991 chap), "A Letter from the Clearys" (1982), which won a Nebula, "The
Sidon in the Mirror" (1983) and the comic "Blued Moon" (1984). A later
novella, "The Last of the Winnebagos" (1988), won CW both the Hugo and the
Nebula;"At the Rialto" (1989) won a Nebula;"Even the Queen" (1992) won a
Hugo and a Nebula for Short Story and"Death on the Nile" (1993) won a Hugo
for Short Story.As a novelist, CW began slowly with the relatively
lightweight Water Witch (1982) with Cynthia FELICE, set on a sand planet
where the ability to dowse for water is a precious gift. Light Raid (1989)
with Felice also skids helter-skelter through an sf environment, in this
case a post- HOLOCAUST balkanized USA fighting off Canadian royalists,
featuring the adventures en route to spunky maturity of a young female
protagonist much like those found in Robert A. HEINLEIN's less attractive
books. But it seemed clear that both CW and Felice were treating their
collaborations as jeux d'esprit, and CW's first solo novel, Lincoln's
Dreams (1987), aimed successfully at a very much higher degree of
seriousness, winning the JOHN W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD. Once again - as
with much of her most deeply felt work - the enabling sf instrument is
time travel, though in this case via a psychic linkage between a
contemporary woman and General Robert E. Lee (1807-1870), while at the
same time the male protagonist increasingly, and without a breath of
frivolity, seems to be taking on the psychic attributes of General Lee's
famous horse, Traveller (himself the protagonist of Traveller [1988 US] by
Richard Adams [1920- ]). The power of Lincoln's Dreams lies in the
haunting detail of CW's presentation of the American Civil War, which
seems in her hands terrifyingly close - both geographically and
psychically - to the contemporary world. Her second solo novel, DOOMSDAY
BOOK (1992), which shared the 1993 Hugo award and won the Nebula, is
another time-travel story. The frame setting - a mid-21st-century
historiographic unit attached to Oxford University - is shared with "Fire
Watch", but the tale itself is set at the time of the Black Death (around
1350), and mounts gradually to a climax whose intensely mourning gravity
is rarely found in sf, even in novels of travel to times past, where a
sense of irretrievable loss is commonly expressed.In the best of CW's
stories, and in her novels, a steel felicity of mind and style appears
effortlessly married to a copious empathy. Her more recent fascination
with the intersections of film realities and worlds of the past or future
may constitute something of a byway in her career, though several of the
stories in IMPOSSIBLE THINGS (coll 1994) - as well as the hilarious
spoofing of Hollywood Westerns in space in Uncharted Territory (1994; with
2 stories added, as coll 1994 UK), and the delving into the Marilyn Monroe
mythos embedded into Remake (dated 1994 but 1995) - are of sustained
interest. She continues to seem to be one of those writers from the 1980s
who are now approaching their best work. [JC]Other works:Distress Call (in
The Berkley Showcase #4, anth 1982; 1991 chap); The New Hugo Winners:
Volume III (anth 1994) with Martin H. GREENBERG.See also: ISAAC ASIMOV'S

[r] Eileen LOTTMAN.



(1913-1991) UK writer best known for Anglo-Saxon Attitudes (1956) and
other novels sharply anatomical of modern life. His one sf novel, The Old
Men at the Zoo (1961), applies MAINSTREAM techniques to a 1970s
NEAR-FUTURE vision of the UK threatened internally by loss of nerve and by
neofascism, and externally by a federated Europe. AW was an early
supporter of the hardcover PUBLISHING of GENRE SF in the UK, and edited
the book of the best stories entered for the Observer sf prize in 1954, A.
D. 2500 (anth 1955). The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling (1977),
nonfiction, analyses KIPLING in terms which elucidate the haunting power
of that author's genre work. AW was knighted in 1980. [JC]See also:

(1954- ) UK-born writer, now resident in the USA. Her novels are sharp
FEMINIST parables. Altogether Elsewhere (1985) depicts a NEAR-FUTURE
feminist backlash against male violence. Hatching Stones (1991) portrays a
society in which males largely abandon females when GENETIC ENGINEERING
allows them to clone "sons", although a modified form of the family
survives in a quasi- UTOPIAN society where all the adults are female.

(1931- ) UK writer of speculative works best known for his first book,
The Outsider (1956) (in which he gave graphic expression to the brilliant
autodidactism, the erratic system-building mentality, and the voracity for
new mental sensations that would mark the very numerous titles he would
produce over the next several decades, many of them of indirect interest
to sf and fantasy writers and readers), for his numerous books on crime,
notably A Criminal History of Mankind (1984) and Written in Blood: A
History of Forensic Detection (1989), and for his investigations of the
paranormal, of which the most important are The Occult (1971), Mysteries:
An Investigation into the Occult, the Paranormal, and the Supernatural
(1978), Poltergeist! (1981) and Beyond the Occult (1988). Sf critics have
not generally responded with much warmth to CW's later work, perhaps
because his eagerness to penetrate the barriers of "orthodox" science has
led him into assumptions about and formulations of the nature of
consciousness that seem to lurch dangerously far into the realms of
PSEUDO-SCIENCE; that is, the science he uses as underpinning for his sf is
often not generally accepted as such. A further difficulty is that, as his
total oeuvre has grown, it has become harder to work out which texts are
deeply considered, which are blarney, and which are
potboilers.Nevertheless, his sf is of considerable interest. The Return of
the Lloigor (in Tales of the Cthulhu Mythos, anth 1969 US; rev 1974 chap
UK) is fantasy. His only sf short story is "Timeslip" (in Aries 1 [anth
1979] ed John Grant [Paul BARNETT]). His first sf novel, The Mind
Parasites (1967), combines the long temporal perspectives of H.P.
LOVECRAFT's Cthulhu Mythos with the transcendental solipsism of A.E. VAN
VOGT and the metabiological pathos of George Bernard SHAW in a tale which
suggests that humanity has for eons been deliberately hampered by ALIEN
entities, and that these shackles could be cast off. The Philosopher's
Stone (1969), perhaps the most intellectually stimulating of his novels,
with an appealingly ramshackle construction, again invokes Cthulhu to
suggest that the Old Ones who seem to be keeping humanity in thrall are in
fact asleep and indifferent. The Space Vampires (1976; vt Lifeforce 1985
US), filmed as LIFEFORCE (1985), promulgates the same message in the form
of a partly SPACE-OPERA horror tale featuring, once again, parasitic
aliens and a human race of thwarted (but infinite) potential. A similar
dynamic of oppression and release serves as the philosophical base
underlying the boys'-fiction dramaturgy of the later Spider World sequence
- Spider World: The Tower (1987; vt in 3 vols as Spider World 1: The
Desert 1988 US, Spider World 2: The Tower 1989 US and Spider World 3: The
Fortress 1989 US), Spider World: The Delta (1987) and Spider World: The
Magician (1992) - set in a FAR-FUTURE Earth whose human remnants live in
thralldom to giant arachnids. [JC/JGr]Other works: Many works including
the Gerard Sorme series - Ritual in the Dark (1960), Man Without a Shadow:
The Diary of an Existentialist (1963; vt The Sex Diary of Gerard Sorme
1963 US and 1968 UK) and The God of the Labyrinth (1970; vt The Hedonists
1971 US)-of which the 2nd is borderline fantasy and the 3rd fantasy
proper; The Black Room (1971), about sensory deprivation; the Chief
Superintendent Gregory Saltfleet series of psi/occult whodunnits, being
The Schoolgirl Murder Case (1974) and The Janus Murder Case (1984); The
Personality Surgeon (1985).Nonfiction: Many works including The Strength
to Dream: Literature and the Imagination (1962); The Strange Genius of
David Lindsay (1970; vt The Haunted Man 1979 US) with E.H. VISIAK and J.B.
Pick, on David LINDSAY; Tree by Tolkien (1973 chap); Science Fiction as
Existentialism (1978 chap); Starseekers (1980); Frankenstein's Castle
(1980); The Quest for Wilhelm Reich (1981); Afterlife (1985).As Editor:
Dark Dimensions: A Celebration of the Occult (anth 1978 US); The Book of
Time (anth 1980) with John Grant; The Directory of Possibilities (1981),
also with Grant; The Mammoth Book of the Supernatural (anth 1991) with
Damon Wilson.About the author: Colin Wilson: The Outside and Beyond (1979)
by Clifford P. Bendau; The Novels of Colin Wilson (1982) by Nicolas
Tredell; The Work of Colin Wilson: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide
(1989) by Colin Stanley.See also: GREAT AND SMALL; MONSTERS; PARASITISM

(1946- ) US physician and writer who began publishing sf with "The
Cleaning Machine" for Startling Mystery Stories in 1971, and who has
written some associational work as by Colin Andrews. His early career was
much influenced by John W. CAMPBELL Jr, in whose ASF he published several
of his best 1970s stories, including the early versions of tales which
reached book form as the LaNague Federation series - Healer (1972 ASF as
"Pard"; exp 1976), which was elected to the Prometheus Hall of Fame in
1990; Wheels within Wheels: A Novel of the LaNague Federation (1971 ASF;
exp 1978), which won the first Prometheus AWARD for LIBERTARIAN SF; and An
Enemy of the State (1980), all 3 being assembled as The LaNague Chronicle
(omni 1992). The sequence engagingly deployed FPW's knowledgeability, the
deft clarity of his writing, and his unabashed and comfortable use of pulp
concepts - like the protagonist Steven Dalt, an immortal psychiatric
healer who repeatedly saves the Solar System from enemies internal and
external - to express what might be called philosophical perspectives on
the world: the influence of Albert Camus (1913-1960) upon the creation of
Dalt has been adduced.In the 1980s, FPW began to concentrate on novels
like The Keep (1981), the first novel in the Adversary sequence, an
impressive horror tale set in WWII in the Transylvanian Alps, where a Nazi
garrison is being slowly destroyed by vampires indigenous to the eponymous
lodging; it was filmed in 1983. The first sequel, Reborn (1990), is less
assured, and demonstrates some lack of commercial facility during those
moments when the buried Evil from the first book is unconvincingly shown
to be living-dead; but Reprisal (1991; vt Reprisals 1991 UK) more
successfully broadens the compass of the conflict between humans and a
dark nemesis, a broadening which also marks Nightworld (1992 UK). Although
Dydeetown World (fixup 1989) is an sf thriller reminiscent of his 1970s
work, FPW had clearly evolved from the genre by this point, and in 1991 he
stands as a potentially major HORROR writer, an estimate not materially
affected by novels like The Select (1994), a medical sf thriller amply
tinged with horror. [JC]Other works: The Tery (1973 Fiction 4 as "He Shall
Be John"; exp 1979 chap dos; with stories added, further exp as coll
1990); The Tomb (1984); The Touch (1986); Black Wind (1988); Soft and
Others (coll 1989); Ad Statum Perspicuum (coll 1990); Midnight Mass (1990
chap); Pelts (1990 chap); Sibs (1991; vt Sister Night 1993 UK); Buckets
(1991 chap); The Barrens (1992); Freak Show (anth 1992).See also:

(1866-? ) US writer in whose sf novel, The Monarch of Millions, or The
Rise and Fall of the American Empire (1900), a 1950s USA is strictly
organized according to wealth, with the Emperor richest of all; the
sciences have advanced remarkably but the people remain potentially
restive, and young Demos from Alaska is able to topple the old plutocracy.
Unfortunately - despite this cosmetic democratization - the power
structure remains intact. The book's cynicism tends to neutralize some of
the foggy allegory.

[s] Grant ALLEN.

(1920-1987) US writer and director of the News Bureau of Syracuse
University until his retirement in 1982. Involved in sf from an early age,
he was a founder of the FUTURIANS in the 1930s, publishing his first sf
story, "Murder from Mars", with Astonishing Stories in 1940; "Stepsons of
Mars", which he wrote with fellow Futurian C.M. KORNBLUTH under the house
name Ivar TOWERS, appeared in the same issue. A further Towers story, "The
Man without a Planet" (1942), was by RW alone; he later used the pseudonym
Edward Halibut for "Course of Empire" (1956). War service interrupted his
career, but after 1950 - perhaps finding the new atmosphere in sf
congenial to his gently satirical, humorous bent - he contributed
prolifically to the magazines for some years, and soon published his first
novel, The Girls from Planet 5 (1955), the first of 3 in which ALIENS
FICTION); the others were And Then the Town Took Off (1960 dos) and 30-Day
Wonder (1960). In each, RW made use of the arrivals from outer space to
generate mocking perspectives on our own behaviour: from the strident
patriarchy still attempting, in the first novel, to keep Texas pure
although the rest of the USA has become a matriarchy, to the appalling
consequences, in the third, of being exposed to aliens who observe to the
literal letter all Earth laws and enforce similar behaviour on us.
Similarly couched SATIRE dominated his first 2 collections, Those Idiots
from Earth (coll 1957) and Time Out for Tomorrow (coll
1962).Unfortunately, from the mid-1960s RW published no books at all -
Adventures in the Space Trade (1986 chap dos), a memoir, A Rat for a
Friend (1986 chap), a story, and The Kid from Ozone Park & Other Stories
(coll 1987 chap), though welcome, were pamphlet-length - and most of the
graver, smoother, finer stories of his last decades remained uncollected.
He won a 1968 NEBULA for his novelette "Mother to the World" (1968); other
late stories of interest include "See Me Not" (1967), "A Man Spekith"
(1969), "The Day They had the War" (1971) and the contents of The Kid from
Ozone Park (all originals). In his later years, RW reportedly made it
clear to colleagues that he remained too content in his professional life
to continue seriously in a writing career. It is understood that a long
story awaits publication in Harlan ELLISON's projected Last Dangerous
Visions. [JC]About the author: A Richard Wilson Checklist (1986 chap dos)
by Chris DRUMM.

(1932- ) US writer who remains best known for the first Illuminatus!
sequence - The Eye in the Pyramid (1975), The Golden Apple (1975) and
Leviathan (1975), assembled as The Illuminatus Trilogy (omni 1984) - all
written with Robert SHEA. Shea did not collaborate on Cosmic Trigger: The
Final Secret of the Illuminati (1977), The Illuminati Papers (1980), Masks
of the Illuminati (1981) or Right Where You Are Sitting Now: Further Tales
of the Illuminati (coll 1982) - some of these volumes being presented as
nonfiction - or on The Historical Illuminatus Chronicles, set in the 18th
century: The Earth Will Shake (1984), The Widow's Son (1985) and Nature's
God (1991). Shea did, however, write continuations of his own (see his
entry). The series combines detective, FANTASY and sf components into the
extremely complex tale of a vast conspiracy on the part of the Illuminati,
historically a late-18th-century German association of freethinkers but
here rendered into the gods of H.P. LOVECRAFT's Cthulhu Mythos, among
other incarnations, so that mortals cohabit irretrievably with warring
gods; throughout, the PARANOIA engendered by any and all attempts to
understand immortal conspiracies, of which all the things of the world
were emblems, reminded many readers of Thomas PYNCHON, but an
unPynchonesque lightheartedness permeates the sequence. On the basis of
their other works, this nihilistic gaiety derived in the main from RAW,
and was clearly evident as well in The Sex Magician (1974), which was
expanded and transformed into the ultimately opaque complexities of
Schrodinger's Cat: The Universe Next Door (1979), II: The Trick Top Hat
(1980) and III: The Homing Pigeons (1981), all 3 assembled as
Schrodinger's Cat Trilogy (omni 1988), a sequence which transformed the
worlds of subatomic physics into a pattern of ALTERNATE WORLDS. It might
be thought that RAW, like many 1980s writers, would slip into
VIRTUAL-REALITY venues when attempting to manipulate levels of perception;
but ultimately he refused to supply comforts of that ilk, for in his work
there is no centre to the labyrinth, no master waiting to reward the
heroes of the quest. [JC]Other works: Semiotext(e) SF (anth 1990) with
Rudy RUCKER and Robert Lamborn Wilson; Reality is What You Can Get Away
With (1992), an sf spoof.See also: HUMOUR; LIBERTARIAN SF; MUSIC; PHYSICS;

(1953- ) US-born writer, in Canada from 1962, who began to publish sf
with "Equinocturne" for ASF in 1974, though he did not make a significant
impact on the field until the 1980s, when he began to publish his polished
and inventive novels. His first, A Hidden Place (1986), prefigures much of
his work in positing an emotion-drenched binary between the mundane world
and an ALTERNATE WORLD, in this case the latter being the realm of Faery,
though presented in an sf idiom; as in his later work, a protagonist
embedded in everyday reality must come to terms with - and perhaps take
ethically acceptable advantage of - the fragile opening to a better place
that seems to be on offer. The "other place" in Memory Wire (1987) is a
kind of LOST WORLD temporally removed from a CYBERPUNK 21st century; the
protagonists make contact with it through "oneiroliths" or dream stones.
In Gypsies (1989 US) an entire family of Earth children live in various
states of pathological denial of their capacity to walk through the walls
of this world into a variety of parallel existences ( PARALLEL WORLDS);
out of one of these, which is profoundly DYSTOPIAN, comes the Grey Man who
haunts the family in his attempts to lure the children "back" to the
dreadful world in which he claims they belong. But they escape him, ending
in a pastoral world much like a realm of the Pacific Rim in which it does
not rain much. The Divide (1990 US) locates the binary within the skull of
a character who contains 2 utterly distinct selves; the book slips into
melodrama - it is perhaps RCW's weakest novel - and its split-brain
conundra are solved by a blow to the head. In A Bridge of Years (1991 US)
the divide lies between the present and 1961, which are connected through
TIME TRAVEL and a plot which deals, in familiar terms, with a long-ranging
time-war between vying reality-lines. The persistency of RCW's basic
concerns allows him, on occasion, to slide into routine formulations; but,
throughout, he expresses with vigour and imagination the great Canadian
theme (for the sense of being on the lonely side of a binary has sparked
much of the best Canadian sf) of geographical alienation. In The Harvest
(1993), his most ambitious novel to date, an alien group intelligence
offers humanity gifts of immortality, undying curiosity and wisdom; most
accept, for a variety of reasons presented by RCW with the kind of
informed sympathy found in writers of the 1990s - but not generally in
more optimistic decades - for actions of this sort. Mysterium (1994)
returns poignantly to the theme of alienation, describing in considerable
detail what happens to the residents of a small town when it is translated
into a parallel world.RCW should not be confused with the author of The
Crooked Tree (1980), Robert C(harles) Wilson (1951- ). [JC]See also:


(1928- ) US editor, writer and academic, currently President of
California State University, Chico. He began publishing sf with "The State
of the Art" for FSF in 1970; his best story is probably "For a While
There, Herbert Marcuse, I Thought You Were Maybe Right About Alienation
and Eros" (1972). His early work was published as by Robin Scott. RSW was
most influential as the founder, with Damon KNIGHT and others, of the
1968. In addition to directing the workshop, he ed Clarion: An Anthology
of Speculative Fiction from the Clarion Writers' Workshop (anth 1971),
Clarion II (anth 1972) and Clarion III (anth 1973); in the last he
announced his retirement from Clarion. Additionally, RSW ed Those who Can:
A Science Fiction Reader (anth 1973), in which, interestingly, writers
discuss their own and others' stories in the anthology under various
critical headings. [JC]

(1948- ) UK playwright and novelist whose sf novels Spaceache (1984) and
Inside Babel (1985) comprise a short series of SATIRES whose targets are
contemporary politics and culture. Unfortunately, his use of sf
instruments is significantly less than competent - most notably, his
attempt to make fun of SPACE OPERA founders on his manifest ignorance of
its conventions and, indeed, of the scientific rationales underpinning

(1943- ) UK writer who published non-sf short fiction and 3 biker
thrillers before the appearance of The Lost Traveller (1976) - not to be
confused with Ruthven TODD's The Lost Traveller (1943). SW's version, set
in a desolate post- HOLOCAUST venue at century's end, extols the survival
capacity of a group of Hell's Angels, one of whom becomes a MESSIAH
figure. At novel's end, after a battle with the army, it looks as though
agriculture will be revived. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer, one of several contemporaries with the same name, who
devoted 2 chapters of his book of criticism, A Little Earnest Book upon a
Great Old Subject (1851), to "The Poetry of Science", defining there a
species of literature called "Science-Fiction" (the first use of the term)
as writing "in which the revealed truths of science may be given,
interwoven with a pleasing story which may itself be poetical and true -
thus circulating a knowledge of the Poetry of Science, clothed in a garb
of the Poetry of Life". His (unconvincing) example is The Poor Artist by
R.H. HORNE (c 1844; 1871). [BS]See also: DEFINITIONS OF SF.


(1958- ) US editor, artist and writer who began in the first capacity in
1979 at ACE BOOKS, where she developed the company's fantasy line,
discovering such authors as Steven BRUST and Charles DE LINT, and
launching the Ace Fantasy Specials with Emma BULL's War for the Oaks
(1987). Also while at Ace she launched the Fairy Tales series with Brust's
The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars (1987). She moved to TOR BOOKS in 1987 as
consulting editor; the 4th and subsequent Fairy Tales books were published
by that house. The winner of 4 World Fantasy Awards for her editorial
work, TW also edited with Mark Alan Arnold Elsewhere (anth 1981),
Elsewhere, Volume II (anth 1982) and Elsewhere, Volume III (anth 1984),
and edits with Ellen DATLOW (whom see for details) the Year's Best Fantasy
annual anthology. [PNH] Other works: Faery! (anth 1982); the Borderlands
SHARED-WORLD anthology series, the first 2 vols ed with Mark Alan Arnold:
Borderland (anth 1986), Borderland 2 (anth 1986) and Life on the Border
(anth 1991); and 2 anthologies of Twice-Told Wonder Tales with Datlow:
Snow White, Blood Red (anth 1993) and Black Thorn, White Rose (anth 1994).


S. Fowler WRIGHT.

(1954- ) UK writer whose career breaks into 2 logical sequences. In the
first he concentrated on critical work, the earliest significant example
of which - The Immortals of Science Fiction (written 1980) - was printed
but never released (although apparently copies have been circulated).
Apertures: A Study of the Writings of Brian Aldiss (1984), with Brian
GRIFFIN, was both admiring and reasonably comprehensive, and marked a
close association with its subject, who introduced The Science Fiction
Source Book (1984), which packs into relatively few pages a surprisingly
comprehensive "Consumer's Guide" to sf novels; its main flaw is its
sublimely overcomplicated quadripartite rating system. Aldiss then invited
DW to participate with him in revising his energetic history of sf,
Billion Year Spree (1973); the result, published as Trillion Year Spree:
The History of Science Fiction (1986), with DW listed as co-author,
attempts with partial success to sustain the elan of its much shorter
parent, but falters in its coverage of the late 1970s and 1980s. It
received a HUGO.DW's career then changed direction, being subsequently
dominated by the release of the first vols of his enormous Chung Kuo
sequence, projected to reach 8 vols, and to date comprising The Middle
Kingdom (1989), The Broken Wheel (1990), The White Mountain (1991), The
Stone Within (1992), Beneath the Tree of Heaven (1993) and White Moon, Red
Dragon (1994). Set in a 22nd- and 23rd-century Earth dominated by a
monolithic Chinese hegemony which has successfully stymied all
technological development, the sequence elaborately delineates a stalled
and static culture, and clearly seems to be preparing the scene for a
radical transformation of the world; the early volumes, perhaps
consequently, are stronger as dynastic history than as sf. [JC]See also:

[s] John Russell FEARN.

(? -? ) Author, generally thought to be UK, in whose first sf novel,
Station X (1919), a psychic INVASION from Mars is repelled by an
Earth-Venus alliance; the book was reprinted (1975 US) with an intro by
Richard Gid Powers which mystifyingly claims it to be an important work.
In The Mysterious Disappearances (1926; vt Vanishing Men 1927 US) a
criminal scientist uses a kind of ANTIGRAVITY to commit the sort of
"impossible crime" so popular in the detective fiction of the early
decades of this century. [JC/PN]


[s] Harry BATES; Desmond W. HALL.

(1904-1971) US newspaperman and writer, active as an author of sf and
Westerns, as the creator of at least 60 Big Little Books ( DIME-NOVEL SF;
JUVENILE SERIES) - including tales about Maximo the Amazing Superman (all
1941) - and as the author of various COMIC strips throughout his career
(he retired in 1969), initiating Chris Welkin, Planeteer in 1951 and
scripting it into the 1960s. He published his first sf story, "The Star
that Would not Behave", with ASF in 1935, and contributed most
prolifically to the genre before WWII. After concentrating on work for
Whitman Publishing Company (generator of the Big Little Books and other
series for children), he returned to sf writing from 1952 and was again
noted as a prolific author of unambitious work, soon publishing his first
novel, The Space Egg (1958), about an INVASION of Earth; several other sf
adventures followed, including The Other World (1963) as by J. Harvey
Bond, and Planet Big Zero (1964), as by Franklin Hadley. [JC]Other works:
The Red Planet (1962); The Men from Arcturus (1963); The Puppet Planet
(1964); The Lord of Nardos (1966).

(1923- ) UK writer and drama consultant, most of whose works were
thrillers; he wrote also as John McArthur. Most of his sf was borderline,
using genre elements to heighten the suspense. The best known of these
tales was probably The Day the Queen Flew to Scotland for the Grouse
Shooting (1968), about the abduction of the monarch. A second NEAR-FUTURE,
political novel was Who Killed Enoch Powell? (1970), where the
assassination of that politician sets a complex thriller in motion,
escalating to racial violence at Wimbledon. The displacement into sf of
all his work is minimal. [JC]Other works: The Little Fishes (1961); The
Death's-Head (1962); Leatherjacket (1970).As John McArthur: Days in the
Hay (1960); How Now Brown Cow (1962).

(1914- ) US film director. RW began as a film-cutter at RKO Studios and
by 1939 was a fully qualified editor. He worked on Orson Welles's Citizen
Kane (1941) and also - at the studio's insistence when the director was
out of the country - directed a few scenes in Welles's The Magnificent
Ambersons (1942). He then worked with the Val Lewton unit at RKO, first as
editor, then as director. He made 3 films for Lewton - Curse of the Cat
People (1944; co-dir with Gunther von Fritsch), Mademoiselle Fifi (1944)
and The Body Snatcher (1945) - and stayed with RKO until 1949. In 1951 he
dir The DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL . He did not return to the genre until
The ANDROMEDA STRAIN (1971). A versatile director, he has made many kinds
of films, including the musicals West Side Story (1961) and The Sound of
Music (1964). He has made 2 superior contributions to the supernatural
genre aside from his Lewton films: The Haunting (1963), based on Shirley
JACKSON's The Haunting of Hill House (1959) and Audrey Rose (1977). He
returned spectacularly to sf with the controversial STAR TREK - THE MOTION
PICTURE (1979), an ambitious attempt to fuse the simplistic original tv
series with post- STAR WARS special effects and a transcendental 2001: A
SPACE ODYSSEY vision. Subsequently he has directed only the feeble youth
musical, Rooftops (1989). RW's work in sf and supernatural fantasy, at
least until 1971, did more than that of most directors to bring some
maturity to these genres in the cinema. [JB/PN/KN]

Pseudonym of UK writer Fred J. Gebhart (? - ), whose sf novel was the
routine 12 to the Moon (1961). He is unconnected with the film director
Robert WISE. [JC]

(1946- ) US writer who began publishing sf with Starluck (1982), a
competent sf adventure. Warrior Planet (1987) combines sf and fantasy
elements in the story of an interstellar conflict between wizards and
thieves. Planet of the Dead (1988) rather more convincingly sets a cadre
of PSI-POWERED samurai warriors in pursuit of an interstellar drug gang.
[JC]Other works: A Roil of Stars (1991).

Stanislaw Ignacy WITKIEWICZ.

(1885-1939) Polish playwright, novelist and painter, who also signed
himself Witkacy; he committed suicide just after the Nazi invasion of his
country when he learned that Soviet armies had attacked from the east, the
direction in which he was fleeing. Much of his work, some eerily
prophetic, deals darkly and humorously with the theme of a conservative
world suddenly subjected to change, the clash of cultures, apocalypse and
future totalitarianism. Of his 30 surviving plays, the most notable in
this vein include the DYSTOPIAN fantasy Gyubal Wahazar, czyli Na
przeleczach besensu ["Gyubal Wahazar, or Along the Cliffs of the Absurd"]
(written 1921; 1962), Matwa, czyli Hyrkanicznyswiatopoglad ["The
Cuttlefish, or The Hyrcanian World View"] (written 1922; 1923), and most
of the violent dramas of a surreal future assembled in The Madman and the
Nun and Other Plays (all written 1920-30, published 1925-62; coll trans
Daniel C. Gerould and C.S. Durer 1968 US); of these, perhaps the most
important is the blackly terrifying Szewcy (written 1930; 1948; here trans
as The Shoemakers), which predicts WWII. His 2 published novels are sf:
Pozegnanie jesieni ["Farewell to Autumn"] (1927) and Nienasycenie (1930;
trans Louis Iribarne as Insatiability 1977 US). In the former, Communists
take over a future Poland. The latter, set in the 21st century, shows a
fractured, ersatz West, a consumer society subject to a growing appetite
for novelty, being taken over by Chinese Communists and Eastern mysticism,
whose purveyors also provide happy pills. It is a distinguished and
important novel. An uncompleted further tale, Jedyne wyjecie ["The Only
Way Out"] (written 1931-3; 1968), furthers the discourse of its
predecessor. It was not until 1962 that the Polish Government began,
gingerly, to publish a collected edition of his work. [PN/JC]About the
author: Witkacy: Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz as an Imaginative Writer
(1981) by Daniel C. Gerould.See also: POLAND.


(1935- ) French writer whose first sf novel, Les Guerilleres (1969; trans
David Le Vay as The Guerilleres 1971 US), transforms the arguments of
FEMINISM into a series of narrative litanies that work movingly to
describe an abstract "tribe" of lesbian Amazons in a constant state of
warfare with their natural enemy; the novel balances exquisitely between
sf (when its images are taken literally) and poetry. In Virgile, Non
(1985; trans David Le Vay as Across the Acheron 1987 UK), DANTE
ALIGHIERI's Inferno is taken as a model of destructive patriarchy, and a
deadly threat to any lesbian (a category which MW uses to designate a
condition beyond the binary oppositions of our "normal" state) future.

(? - ) US writer whose The Past is Another Country (1988) describes a
USA, 143 years after a Russian invasion, in which thought-control is
almost complete. The young protagonist discovers some of the truth about
Christ and the disappeared city of New York, but only at great cost.
Unfortunately for the book, the basic premise - that mutual disarmament
was a Russian trick to gull pacifistic Americans - very soon became dated.

(1911-1989) US writer whose The Youth Monopoly (1968 dos) is an
unremarkable sf adventure about rejuvenation. [JC]

(1881-1975) UK writer, resident in the USA from long before WWII, known
mainly for his non-genre novels, most of them comic, published in an
unbroken stream from 1902 to the end of his life. The Swoop! or How
Clarence Saved England: A Tale of the Great Invasion (1909) spoofed the
future- WAR/INVASION genre so popular in the UK before 1914 with its
description of 9 simultaneous invasions, 7 of which collapse, leaving the
German and the Russian armies in command. Their chiefs compete with one
another in music-hall recitals of their feats until Boy Scout Clarence
Chugwater exposes the fact that one of them is being paid more than the
others; the invasions end in ignominy. In Laughing Gas (1936) rival
dentists' anaesthetics cause an identity switch between an earl and an
obnoxious child star; the resulting story has all the marks of the typical
PGW comedy, however, and is not easy to think of as sf. [JC]See also: CLUB

(1931- ) UK-born writer, in Australia from 1955, who began publishing sf
with "There is a Crooked Man" for ASF in 1967, and who has since
contributed actively (though less prolifically since the 1970s) to
magazine markets, both in Australia and in the USA, specializing in
clear-cut tales about problem-solving; he primarily writes short fiction,
with over 70 stories published. His cold style is sometimes marred by
facetiousness, in the Sunday-writer manner typical of many HARD-SF
figures. Although the 4 novelettes assembled in Future War (coll 1982)
were original to that volume, the thrust of his ASF style can still be
felt in tales whose overwhelming message is one of bleak disdain for sf's
own visions of the wars of the future. His novels are The Authentic Touch
(1971 US), Looking for Blucher (1980) and Ryn (1982). The first, perhaps
rather hopefully, suggests that things might get out of control in a
planet made over into theme parks; Looking for Blucher investigates
similar material in a loose-structured narrative about shared dreams; Ryn,
probably his best novel, tells of a 62-year-old Black Zimbabwean
reincarnated, to his bafflement, as a white baby in the Brisbane of a
reticently depicted NEAR-FUTURE Australia. JW's hard-bitten humour can be
tiresome at novel length, and he structures longer works badly. His short
fiction is proficient, often witty, and good on military matters. Notable
and typical is "Mostly Meantime" (ASF Feb 1981), about the difficulties of
ordering replacement computer parts over galactic distances. [PN/JC]


(1943- ) US writer who began with an unremarkable sf adventure, The
Planet Masters (1979), followed by the more ambitious Star God (1980). He
then became known for some "V" ties: "V": The Pursuit of Diana * (1984),
"V": The Crivit Experiment * (1985) and "V": Below the Threshhold *
(1988). In Jewels of the Dragon (1986) a young man in search of his lost
father finds himself involved in events on a planet choked with romantic
ruins. The Eye in the Stone (1988) is a fantasy. Crown of the Serpent
(1989) is juvenile sf. The Lair of the Cyclops (1992) returns to the mode
of Jewels of the Dragon, following the quest of a young man who finds
something ancient on a planet. [JC]


(1941- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Love Story" for Worlds
of Tomorrow in 1970, and followed with several sharply SATIRICAL tales
over the next few years; the best of them, like "Dr Rivet and Supercon
Sal" (1976), are generally thought to scan US society with a sharper,
cleaner vision than that attained in his longer work. Soon, however, he
began to concentrate on novels, beginning with Killerbowl (1975), a
briskly violent portrait of a world - rather similar to that of ROLLERBALL
(1975) - in which games are used to sublimate more politically dangerous
passions ( GAMES AND SPORTS). A Generation Removed (1977) depicts a
NEAR-FUTURE society in which the young have violently taken the reins of
power and euthanasia of the middle-aged is common; here the analogy would
be with LOGAN'S RUN (1976). The Resurrectionist (1979), which develops the
MATTER-TRANSMISSION premise of "The Bridge Builder" (1974), again exposes
a corrupt world to violent retribution. Who Censored Roger Rabbit? (1981),
filmed by Walt Disney in conjunction with Steven SPIELBERG's Amblin
Entertainment as Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988) dir Robert Zemeckis, could
not in retrospect compete with the extraordinary and moving animation
techniques which made the film an instant classic. A sequel, Who
P-P-Plugged Roger Rabbit? (1991), involves the same cast in another
adventure, this time a quest of the truth behind a rumoured love affair
between Clark Gable and Roger's girl. The film itself has been followed by
2 Roger Rabbit shorts, Tummy Trouble (1989) and Rollercoaster Rabbit
(1990); work on a further feature is (1992) at drawing-board stage. [JC]


(1915-1985) US writer best known for his work outside the sf field. He
gained a BA in psychology from Yale in 1935, worked for 2 years in the
Merchant Marine, and for a time was a bodyguard to Leon Trotsky
(1874-1940) in Mexico. He subsequently became a war correspondent,
newsreel editor and freelance writer, and contributed stories and articles
to many leading magazines. His first contribution to sf was a novelette in
Gal, "Self Portrait" (1951), soon followed by his only sf novel, LIMBO
(1952; vt Limbo '90 1953 UK; cut 1961 US). This large and extravagant book
is perhaps the finest sf novel of ideas to have been published during the
1950s. It portrays a future in which men have deliberately chosen to cut
off their own arms and legs in order to avoid the risk of war. Complex
(making use of many ideas from CYBERNETICS), ironic, hectoring and full of
puns, LIMBO was firmly based on BW's knowledge of psychoanalysis and in
particular on his understanding of the masochistic instinct in modern Man.
It is perhaps for this last quality that J.G. BALLARD has hailed it
several times as the greatest US sf novel; Ballard may have sensed, too,
that LIMBO also functions as a corrosive assault upon the premises and
instruments of sf itself. BW wrote very little subsequent sf, although
Harlan ELLISON persuaded him to contribute 2 stories to Again, Dangerous
Visions (anth 1972): "The Bisquit Position", an impassioned
anti-Vietnam-War story, centres on the image of a napalmed dog, and "The
Girl with Rapid Eye Movements" is about sleep research and ESP. In his
"Afterword" to these stories, BW expressed an extreme hostility to science
and also to sf, which he considered its handmaiden. Further details of
BW's remarkable career can be found in his Memoirs of a Not Altogether Shy
Pornographer (1972). [DP]See also: CYBERPUNK; CYBORGS; DYSTOPIAS;

(1946- ) US academic and writer, long associated with Roosevelt
University in Chicago, since 1991 as its Professor of Humanities at its
School of Continuing Education. Some of his earlier essays, like "The
Known and the Unknown: Structure and Image in Science Fiction" (1977),
prefigured the typology of sf he presented in full in his most significant
work, The Known and the Unknown: The Iconography of Science Fiction
(1979), in which sf texts and their essential icons are defined according
to their relationship to the permeable membrane separating us from the
unknown, which GKW feels all sf attempts - or pretends to attempt - to
pierce. The discussion is arranged around a lucid disposition of icons -
the SPACESHIP, the city, the wasteland, the ROBOT and the MONSTER - and
the book has served as an admirable mapping of its thesis ( CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH). In Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy: A
Glossary and Guide to Scholarship (1986) GKW made a first attempt - a
revised edn would be welcome - to describe the critical vocabulary used by
scholars in their attempts to encompass this protean genre. [JC]Other
works: Science Fiction Dialogues (anth 1982); David Lindsay (1982 chap.See

(1931- ) US writer, born in New York, raised in Texas, and now living in
Illinois. After serving in the Korean War - his experiences there are
recorded in Letters Home (coll 1991), which contains correspondence with
his mother between 1952 and 1954 - he graduated in mechanical engineering
from the University of Houston and worked in engineering until becoming an
editor of a trade periodical, Plant Engineering, in 1972. Since retiring
from this post in 1984, he has written full-time. Though neither the most
popular nor the most influential author in the sf field, GW is today quite
possibly the most important.He started writing early, but did not find it
easy to break into print; his first published story, "The Dead Man" for
Sir, appeared as late as 1965, years after he had begun to create fiction
of some distinction. In his early career, much of his best work tended to
appear in various volumes of Damon KNIGHT's Orbit anthologies, starting
with "Trip, Trap" (1967) and climaxing with the superb KAFKA-esque
allegory, "Forlesen" (1974). In the middle of the series came "The Island
of Doctor Death and Other Stories" (1970 Orbit 7), which was assembled -
along with The Death of Doctor Island (1973 Universe 3, anth ed Terry
CARR; 1990 chap dos), "The Doctor of Death Island" (1978), and "Death of
the Island Doctor" (original to the coll) - as The Wolfe Archipelago (coll
1983). These 4 stories, each fully autonomous though each mirroring the
others' structural and thematic patterns, comprise an intensely
interesting cubist portrayal of the mortal trap (or coffin) of identity,
written in terms that are instrinsically sf in nature. From the first, in
other words, GW created texts which - almost uniquely-married Modernism (
FABULATION) and sf, rather than putting them into rhetorical opposition;
his ultimate importance to world literature derives from the success of
that marriage, though his use of a thoroughly natural sf idiom has of
course ensured that the response to his work, on the part of non-sf
critics, has been poverty-stricken. CHILDREN - as very often in his work -
tend to be the viewpoint characters in the Archipelago stories, giving the
texts a supremely deceptive air of clarity-for although the surface is
nearly always described with precision in a GW tale, the true story within
is generally conveyed by indirection, revealing itself through the
reader's ultimate comprehension of the proper and hierarchical sorting of
its parts. Constrained to metaphorically fecund ISLAND contexts, the
Archipelago tales are particularly intricate. The first treats with
assurance the shifting line that divides fantasy and reality as a young
boy retreats from a harsh adult environment into the more clear-cut world
generated by a pulp magazine. "The Death of Doctor Island" expands and
reverses this theme in describing the treatment of a psychologically
disturbed child constrained to an artificial environment which responds to
his state of mind. In "The Doctor of Death Island" a cryogenically frozen
prisoner is awakened to find that his bound isolation has been hardened
into IMMORTALITY. All 3 protagonists must attempt - it is a compulsion
that GW would inflict upon many of his characters - to decipher and to
penetrate the stories that tell them, and by so doing to leap free. GW won
a Nebula for "The Death of Doctor Island".During the 1970s, GW continued
to publish short stories at a considerable rate, at least 70 reaching
print before the end of the decade; in the 1980s, as he concentrated more
and more fully on novels, this production decreased markedly. His short
AND OTHER STORIES (coll 1980), Gene Wolfe's Book of Days (coll 1981),
Bibliomen: Twenty Characters Waiting for a Book (coll of linked stories
1984 chap), Plan[e]t Engineering (coll 1984), Storeys from the Old Hotel
(coll 1988 UK) and Endangered Species (coll 1989). Short stories of
particular interest include "Three Million Square Miles" (1971 Ruins of
Earth, anth ed Thomas M. DISCH), "Feather Tigers" (1973 Edge), "La Befana"
(1973 Gal), The Hero as Werwolf (1975 The New Improved Sun, anth ed Disch;
1991 chap), "Tracking Song" (1975 In the Wake of Man, anth ed Roger
ELWOOD), "The Eyeflash Miracles" (1976 Future Power, anth ed Gardner
DOZOIS and Jack DANN), Seven American Nights (1978 Orbit 20, anth ed Damon
Knight; 1989 chap dos), "The War Beneath the Tree" (1978 Omni) and "The
Detective of Dreams" (1980 Dark Forces, anth ed Kirby McCauley). Later
work was variously interesting, though in the 1980s GW was increasingly
inclined, in short forms, to restrict his energies to the composition of
oneiric jeux d'esprit.GW's first novel, Operation ARES (1970), in which a
21st-century USA is invaded by its abandoned Martian colony, was heavily
cut by the publisher, and reads as apprentice work. His next, THE FIFTH
HEAD OF CERBERUS (fixup 1972), comprises 3 separate tales, one previously
published but all so closely linked as to be crippled in isolation. Set on
a distant two-planet system colonized by settlers of French origin, the
book combines ALIENS, ANTHROPOLOGY, CLONES and other elements in a richly
imaginative exploration of the nature of identity and individuality. It
was the first significant demonstration of the great difficulty of reading
GW without constant attention to the almost subliminal - but in retrospect
or after rereading almost invariably lucid and inevitable - clues laid
down in the text to govern its comprehension. As with all his most
important work to date, the protagonist (in this case there is also a more
elusively presented second protagonist) tells from a conceptual or
temporal remove the story of his own childhood, in the form of a
confession whose truth value is unrelentingly dubious. The parenthood of
the clone who narrates the first part of the novel is problematical - or
concealed - as is usual in GW's work; questions of identity are poignantly
intensified as it becomes clear - perhaps only upon a second reading -
that, before the main action of the tale has begun, a shapeshifting alien
(the second protagonist) from the oppressed second planet has taken on the
identity of a visiting anthropologist. By the end of the novel, both
protagonists - one a clone engineered into repeating previous identities,
the other an impostor caught in the coffin of his fake self and literally
imprisoned as well - have come to represent a singularly rich, singularly
bleak vision of the shaping of a conscious life through time.Peace (1975),
an afterlife fantasy set in the contemporary middle USA, was, word for
word, perhaps GW's most intricate and personal work; though not sf, it is
central to any full attempt to understand his other novels, his sense of
the great painfulness of any shaped life, or his methods in general. The
protagonist of the book - who tells the story of his childhood, all
unknowingly, from beyond the grave - is both a self-portrait of the artist
as a teller of stories and a rounded, and murderous, character in his own
right. The Devil in a Forest (1976), a juvenile set at the time of King
Wenceslas, with little or no fantasy element, shares some of the lightness
of tone of Pandora by Holly Hollander (1990), which some feel may have
been written around this time, a non-fantastic detective novel which might
also be described as a juvenile of sorts.It was his next and most
ambitious work - the long central tale and appendages of The Book of the
New Sun sequence - which finally brought GW to a wide audience. The heart
of the sequence was a single sustained long novel broken into 4 parts for
commercial reasons and published as THE SHADOW OF THE TORTURER (1980), The
Claw of the Conciliator (1981), The Sword of the Lictor (1982) and The
Citadel of the Autarch (1983); the first pair were assembled as The Book
of the New Sun, Volumes I and II (omni 1983 UK; vt Shadow and Claw 1994
US), and the second pair as The Book of the New Sun, Volumes III and IV
(omni 1985 UK; vt Sword and Citadel 1994 US). Essays and tales in
explanation of The Book of the New Sun were assembled as The Castle of the
Otter (dated 1982 but 1983); tales supposedly extracted from one of the
seminal books carried throughout his travels by Severian, the protagonist
of The Book of the New Sun, were published as The Boy who Hooked the Sun:
A Tale from the Book of Wonders of Urth and Sky (1985 chap) and Empires of
Foliage and Flower: A Tale from the Book of Wonders of Urth and Sky (1987
chap); "A Solar Labyrinth" (1983) was a metafiction about the entire Book;
and the whole edifice was sequeled in The Urth of the New Sun (1987 UK).
The 1st volume gained a World Fantasy Award and the 2nd a Nebula.As a
synthesizing work of fiction - a type of creation which tends to come, for
obvious reasons, late in the period or genre it transmutes - The Book of
the New Sun owes clear debts to the sf and fantasy world in general, and
in particular to the dying-Earth ( FAR FUTURE) category of PLANETARY
ROMANCE initiated by Jack VANCE. Though it is a full-blown tale of
cosmogony, the entire story is set on Urth, eons hence, a world so
impacted with the relics of humanity's long residence that archaeology and
geology have become, in a way, the same science: that of plumbing the body
of the planet for messages which have become inextricably intermingled
over the innumerable years. The world into which Severian is born has
indeed become so choked with formula and ritual that early readers of THE
SHADOW OF THE TORTURER could be perhaps forgiven for identifying the text
as SWORD AND SORCERY, though hints that the book was in fact sf-oriented
SCIENCE FANTASY were - in the usual GW manner - abundant. Apparently an
orphan, Severian is raised as an apprentice torturer in the Matachin Tower
which nests among other similar towers in the Citadel compound of the
capital city of Nessus, somewhere in the southern hemisphere (one of the
easier tasks of decipherment GW imposes is that of understanding that the
Towers are in fact ancient spaceships). Severian grows to young adulthood,
falls into too intimate a concourse with an exultant (a genetically bred
aristocrat) due to be tortured to death, is banished, travels through the
land, becomes involved in a war to the far north where he meets-not for
the first time - the old Autarch who dominates the world and who
recognizes in Severian his appointed heir, and himself becomes Autarch.It
is a classic plot, and superficially unproblematic. But Severian himself
is very distant in conception from the normal sf or science-fantasy hero
he seems, at some moments, to resemble. As usual with GW, the protagonist
himself narrates the story of his childhood and early youth from a period
some years later; Severian makes it clear that he has an infallible memory
(but is less clear about the fact that he is capable of lying); he also
makes it clear that he has known from an early age that he is (or has
been, or will be) the reborn manifestation of the Conciliator-a MESSIAH
figure from a previous, or through TIME PARADOXES, a possibly concurrent
reality - whose rebirth is for the purpose of bringing the New Sun to
Urth. At this point, sf and Catholicism - GW is Roman Catholic - breed
together, for the New Sun is both white hole and Revelation. The imagery
and structure of The Book of the New Sun make it explicitly clear that
Severian himself is both Apollo and Christ, and that the story of his life
is a secular rendering of the parousia, or Second Coming. His cruelty to
himself and others is the cruelty of the Universe itself; and his
reverence for the world constitutes no simple blessing. His family is a
Holy Family, lowly and anonymous, but ever-present; and their absence from
any "starring" role - GW refuses in the text to identify any of them - has
religious implications as well as aesthetic. (Much attention, some of it
approaching the Talmudical, has been spent on identifying this Family,
which does clearly include: Dorcas, Severian's paternal grandmother; his
unnamed though Charonian paternal grandfather; his father Ouen; his mother
Katherine; and-almost certainly - a sibling, who may be the homunculus
found in a jar in The Citadel of the Autarch.) The sequel, The Urth of the
New Sun, takes Severian through reality levels of the Universe to the
point-ambiguous in time and space, though related to the Omega Point
posited by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955) - where he will be
judged as to his Autarchal fitness to bring the New Sun home. As
foreordained, he passes the test. Urth is drowned in the floods that mark
the passing of the white hole, the rebirth of light. Some survive, to
begin again; or to continue in their ways.Subsequent 1980s novels were
very various. Free Live Free (1984) is a TIME-TRAVEL tale, extremely
complex to parse, through which shines a retelling of L. Frank BAUM's The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). There Are Doors (1988), set in a bleak
PARALLEL WORLD redolent of the USA during the Depression, most
ambivalently depicts a man's life-threatening exogamous passion for a
goddess. Castleview (1990) implants very nearly the entirety of the
Arthurian Cycle in contemporary Illinois, where a new Arthur is recruited
for the long battle. Most interesting perhaps is the Latro sequence,
comprising Soldier of the Mist (1986) and Soldier of Arete (1989), with
further volumes projected. Set in ancient Greece about 500BC, it is
narrated in short chapters each representing a day's written-down
recollections on the part of Latro, a soldier whom a goddess has punished
by removing his capacity to remember anything for more than 24 hours. The
sequence thus works, on every possible level, as a mirror image of The
Book of the New Sun, with Latro's memory-loss reversing Severian's
inability to forget, ancient Greece reversing Urth - being at the start
rather than the end of things - and the series as a whole being
conspicuously open-ended rather than shaped inexorably around Severian's
Coming.In The Book of the Long Sun - comprising Nightside the Long Sun
(1993) and Lake of the Long Sun (1994), both assembled as Litany of the
Long Sun (omni 1994), plus Calde of the Long Sun (1994), with 1 further
volume projected - GW returned to the New Sun universe, though to a
setting some thousands of years earlier, and to the large-scale sf
mythopoeisis that so profoundly characterizes the earlier novel. Like New
Sun, The Book of the Long Sun is in fact a single narrative, and cannot
properly be assessed until its completion. What can be said is that the
entire tale is - so far - set within a vast GENERATION STARSHIP, in closed
universe called the Whorl, and that the protagonist, Pater Silk - having
had a vast infodump of memories epiphanically given him on the first page
of the story by an AI who seems to be the avatar of some figure from Urth,
and perhaps a proclaimer of Christ - gradually becomes a central figure in
the destiny of the decaying cultures of the ship.It may be that GW has
never had an original sf idea, or never a significant one, certainly none
of the calibre of those generated by writers like Larry NIVEN or Greg
BEAR. His importance does not reside in that kind of originality. Setting
aside for an instant his control of language, it is possible to claim that
GW's importance lies in a spongelike ability to assimilate generic models
and devices, and in the quality of the transformations he effects upon
that material - a musical analogy might be the Baroque technique of the
parody cantata, in which a secular composition is transformed by reverent
parody into a sacred work (or vice versa). GW's actual language, too, is
eloquently parodic, and many of his short stories are designed
deliberately and intricately to echo earlier models, from G.K. CHESTERTON
and Rudyard KIPLING on through the whole pantheon of GENRE SF. GW's
importance has been, therefore, twofold: the inherent stature of his work
is deeply impressive, and he wears the fictional worlds of sf like a coat
of many colours. [JC]Other works: At the Point of Capricorn (1983 chap);
The Arimaspian Legacy (1987 chap); For Rosemary (coll 1988 chap UK),
poetry; Slow Children at Play (1989 chap); The Old Woman whose Rolling Pin
is the Sun (1991 chap); Castle of Days (omni 1992), assembling Gene
Wolfe's Book of Days, The Castle of the Otter, plus new material; The
Young Wolfe (coll 1992).About the author: Gene Wolfe (1986) by Joan
Gordon; A Checklist of Gene Wolfe (1990 chap) by Christopher P. STEPHENS;
Gene Wolfe: Urth-Man Extraordinary: A Working Bibliography (1991 chap) by
Gordon BENSON JR and Phil STEPEHENSEN-PAYNE; Lexicon Urthus: A Dictionary
for the Urth Cycle (1994) by Michael Andre-Driussi.See also: BRITISH

(1905-1985) US writer in whose Journey of the Oceanauts: Across the
Bottom of the Atlantic Ocean (1968) 3 genetically engineered ( GENETIC
ENGINEERING) humans make the eponymous trek. [JC]

[r] Ted WHITE.

(1914-1990) US editor and writer, and one of the first and most
vociferous sf fans; with Forrest J. ACKERMAN, DAW was perhaps the most
dynamic member of the embryo FANDOM of the 1930s. A lifetime resident of
New York City, he published innumerable FANZINES, was co-editor of the
early semiprozine FANCIFUL TALES OF TIME AND SPACE in 1936, founded the
Fantasy Amateur Press Association ( FAPA), and was one of the founders in
1938 of the FUTURIANS, becoming deeply involved in its pursuits and feuds.
His long-standing quarrel with James BLISH - whom he does not mention in
his anecdotal analysis of sf, The Universe Makers (1971), whose premises
reflect 1930s enthusiasms - began at this time, and was at least partially
rooted in political differences, for in the years before WWII DAW stood
far to the left and Blish far to the right. DAW's part in early fandom was
extensively chronicled in The Immortal Storm (1954) by Sam MOSKOWITZ and
in The Futurians (1977) by Damon KNIGHT. DAW ed Operation: Phantasy: The
Best from the Phantograph (anth 1967 chap), a collection of early fanzine
material.His first published story was "The Man from Ariel" for Wonder
Stories in 1934, but he did not begin to publish fiction with any
regularity until the 1940s, by which time he had already embarked on his
major career as an editor. In 1941 he became editor of COSMIC STORIES and
STIRRING SCIENCE STORIES, both of which he produced creditably on a minute
budget, publishing many stories by his fellow Futurians (most prolifically
C.M. KORNBLUTH). He also compiled 2 pioneering sf ANTHOLOGIES: The Pocket
Book of Science Fiction (anth 1943) and Portable Novels of Science (anth
1945). For his short stories he often used the pseudonyms Millard Verne
Gordon and Martin PEARSON, as well as the collaborative pseudonyms Arthur
COOKE and Lawrence WOODS, and he once wrote as Allen Warland; as Pearson
he published the Ajax Calkins series which later formed the basis of his
novel Destiny's Orbit (1962) as by David Grinnell, sequelled by
Destination: Saturn (1967) as by Grinnell with Lin CARTER.After WWII DAW
worked for Avon Books (1947-52), for whom he edited the AVON FANTASY
READER and the AVON SCIENCE FICTION READER anthology-like series (which we
treat as magazines) as well as OUT OF THIS WORLD ADVENTURES, 10 STORY
FANTASY and, uncredited, the first sf ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGY, The Girl with
the Hungry Eyes (anth 1949). He subsequently moved to ACE BOOKS in 1952,
where he created and for the next 20 years ran one of the 2-3 most
dominant US sf lists, winning a 1964 HUGO for his work. Taking advantage
of the Ace Double Novel format ( DOS-A-DOS), he published the first or
early works of many writers who later achieved fame, including John
BRUNNER, Samuel R. DELANY, Philip K. DICK, Thomas M. DISCH, Harlan
ELLISON, Ursula K. LE GUIN and Robert SILVERBERG, though the bulk of the
list was cannily built around colourful sf adventures with a strong
emphasis on SPACE OPERA; by the 1960s, the list had begun to fade
seriously, though it is clear in hindsight (see discussion of DAW BOOKS
below) that he himself had lost nothing of his acumen. During the 1950s he
also worked editorially on the magazines ORBIT and SATURN, and edited a
great many anthologies, often for Ace; these included such theme
collections as The End of the World (anth 1956), Men on the Moon (anth
1958 dos; rev 1969) and The Hidden Planet (anth 1959), the latter being of
stories set on VENUS.DAW's own writing in the 1950s and 1960s consisted
largely of novels. These divided into CHILDREN'S SF published as DAW and
adult novels as by David Grinnell, none of the latter being particularly
notable. However, the Mike Mars series of children's books, exploring
different facets of the space programme, was popular: Mike Mars, Astronaut
(1961), Mike Mars Flies the X-15 (1961), Mike Mars at Cape Canaveral
(1961; vt Mike Mars at Cape Kennedy 1966), Mike Mars in Orbit (1961), Mike
Mars Flies the Dyna-Soar (1962), Mike Mars, South Pole Spaceman (1962),
Mike Mars and the Mystery Satellite (1963) and Mike Mars around the Moon
(1964).In 1965, DAW began to issue an annual "year's best" anthology,
World's Best Science Fiction; this continued until the end of his life in
an unbroken yearly succession, although there was some highly confusing
retitling (occasioned in the first instance by his shift from Ace to DAW
Books). The sequence was: #1: World's Best Science Fiction: 1965 (anth
1965) with Terry CARR (who was co-editor through the 1971 volume); #2:
1966 (anth 1966); #3: 1967 (anth 1967); #4: 1968 (anth 1968); #5: 1969
(anth 1969); #6: 1970 (anth 1970); #7: 1971 (anth 1971); #8: The 1972
Annual World's Best SF (anth 1972; vt Wollheim's World's Best SF: Series
One 1977) with Arthur W. SAHA (who was co-editor through the 1990 volume);
#9: 1973 (anth 1973; vt Wollheim's World Best SF: Series Two 1978); #10:
1974 (anth 1974; vt World's Best SF Short Stories #1 1975 UK; vt
Wollheim's World Best SF: Series Three 1979); #11: 1975 (anth 1975; vt
World's Best SF Short Stories #2 1976 UK; vt Wollheim's World Best SF:
Series Four 1980 US); #12: 1976 (anth 1976; vt The World's Best SF - 3
1979 UK; vt Wollheim's World Best SF: Series Five 1981 US); #13: 1977
(anth 1977; vt The World's Best SF - 4 1979 UK; vt Wollheim's World Best
SF: Series Six 1982 US); #14: 1978 (anth 1978; vt The World's Best SF - 5
1980 UK; vt Wollheim's World Best SF: Series Seven 1983 US); #15: 1979
(anth 1979; vt Wollheim's World Best SF: Series Eight 1984); #16: 1980
(anth 1980; vt #9 1985); #17: 1981 (anth 1981); #18: 1982 (anth 1982); #19
(anth 1983); #20 (anth 1984); #21: 1985 (anth 1985); #22: 1986 (anth
1986); #23: 1987 (anth 1987); #24: Donald A. Wollheim Presents The 1988
Annual World's Best SF (anth 1988); #25: 1989 (anth 1989) and #26: 1990
(anth 1990).In 1971, DAW left Ace and in 1972 he founded DAW BOOKS, which
he continued to run until 1985, when ill-health induced him to appoint his
daughter, Betsy Wollheim, president. With his new firm, he began almost
immediately to shift from the format- and content-constraints that had
plagued his later career at Ace: series were emphasized heavily; space
opera gave way to PLANETARY ROMANCE; authors like C.J. CHERRYH and Tanith
LEE, who were comfortable with science fantasy, were strongly encouraged;
and he allowed his authors very considerable latitude (compared with his
days at Ace) to explore moderately TABOO areas (John NORMAN moved over
from BALLANTINE BOOKS, presumably to take advantage of this liberty) and
to write at very varying lengths. Though he continued not to pay well
enough to retain best-selling authors, he kept his firm healthy and active
for the remaining years of his career.For 50 years DAW remained one of the
most important editorial influences on sf, and in his later years -
despite his very well known capacity to carry on disputes half a century
old - he became a revered figure. His death marked - as clearly as those
of Isaac ASIMOV and Robert A. HEINLEIN - the passing of the generation of
the founders. [JC/MJE]Other works: The Secret of Saturn's Rings (1954),
The Secret of the Martian Moons (1955), One Against the Moon (1956) and
The Secret of the Ninth Planet (1959), all juveniles; Two Dozen Dragon's
Eggs (coll 1969); The Men from Ariel (coll 1982); Up There and Other
Strange Directions (coll 1988).As David Grinnell: Across Time (1957); Edge
of Time (1958); The Martian Missile (1959); To Venus! To Venus! (1970
dos).As Editor: The Fox Woman & Other Stories (coll 1949), stories by A.
MERRITT; Flight into Space (anth 1950); Every Boy's Book of Science
Fiction (anth 1951); Prize Science Fiction (anth 1953; vt Prize Stories of
Space and Time 1953 UK); Adventures in the Far Future (anth 1954 dos);
Tales of Outer Space (anth 1954 dos); The Ultimate Invader and Other
Science Fiction (anth 1954); Adventures on Other Planets (anth 1955) and
More Adventures on Other Planets (anth 1963); Terror in the Modern Vein
(anth 1955; vt in 2 vols as Terror in the Modern Vein 1961 UK and More
Terror in the Modern Vein 1961 UK); The Earth in Peril (anth 1957 dos);
The Macabre Reader (anth 1959) and More Macabre (anth 1961); Swordsmen in
the Sky (anth 1964); Ace Science Fiction Reader (anth 1971; vt Trilogy of
the Future 1972 UK); The Best from the Rest of the World (anth 1976); The
DAW Science Fiction Reader (anth 1976).See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL

(1957- ) US writer. He began entering literary contests in 1985, winning
a few small competitions and then the Best of the Year award in the
WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST for 1986, with "On My Way to Paradise",
which appeared in L. Ron Hubbard's Writers of the Future, Volume III (anth
1987). This novella was the basis for his first novel, On My Way to
Paradise (1989), a thoughtful but violent tale of a Latin-American
mercenary force conscripted to fight for a conservative Japanese colony on
another planet. It is packed with sociobiological speculation, and veers
interestingly between HEINLEIN-esque and CYBERPUNK scenarios, and is not
altogether accepting of the LIBERTARIAN ideas which in part it dramatizes;
it was runner-up in 1990 for the PHILIP K. DICK AWARD. Serpent Catch
(1991) - along with its sequel, Path of the Hero (1993) - confirmed him as
belonging to the central extrapolative tradition of sf. Big and almost
over-packed like its predecessor, the first volume is set on a terraformed
moon of a GAS GIANT, whose continents are separated by eco-barriers, part
of an experiment in closed environments and reconstructed geological eras.
Genetically engineered human scientists are driven from space by advanced
aliens and forced down into this zoo they have created, where they
interact complexly (the future meeting the past) with Neanderthals and
other prehumans, dinosaurs, sea-serpents and so on, as the eco-barriers
break down. The novel - which seems to require sequels - is conceptually
ambitious and very idea-driven.His initial involvement with the Writers of
the Future organization deepened with the partial retirement of A.J.
BUDRYS in 1991; DW subsequently co-edited Writers of the Future #8 (anth
1992) with Budrys; and edited solo Writers of the Future #9 (anth 1993)
and Writers of the Future#10 (anth 1994). [PN]Other works: Star Wars: The
Courtship of Princess Leia *(1994); The Golden Queen (1994).

(1956- ) US writer whose first 5 novels are stylish and potent exercises
in a post- CYBERPUNK urban idiom, and comprise the first instalments in a
loose ongoing series about the NEAR-FUTURE state of the USA. The sequence,
reminiscent at points of the baroque New York detective fictions of Jerry
Oster (1943- ), is projected to stop after 5 vols. AMBIENT (1987), set in
the complexly desolated warzone which New York has become in the early
21st century, evokes comparisons with James Joyce (1882-1941) and Anthony
BURGESS in its sensuous, choked, eloquent, linguistically foregrounded
presentation of the victims of a radioactive accident who populate the
fringes of the fragmented city, and who so hypnotically manifest the
Goyaesque horrors of the scene that volunteer "normals" mutilate
themselves and join the ranks of the sinking. In the story itself,
however, JW exhibits a certain lack of plotting imagination, and neither
tycoon Thatcher Dryden nor the megacorporation, Dryco, which he runs
nearly singlehanded are particularly convincing when set against the mise
en scene. Out of that venue, the protagonists of Terraplane (1988) hurtle
pastwards into an ALTERNATE-WORLD version of late-1930s New York, an
apartheid-ridden DYSTOPIA - the oppressed lives of Black Americans are
described with haunting intimacy - whose vileness may, or may not, be seen
as worse than the radiation-corrupted, corporation-dominated
nightmarishness of our own new era. Somewhat less scourgingly, Heathern
(1990 UK) returns to New York and to Thatcher Dryden, who on this occasion
must try (he fails) to make sense of a MESSIAH figure whose fate in this
venue is dourly predictable and whose humaneness seems, in this context,
otherworldy. Elvissey (1993) - which tied for the 1994 PHILIP K. DICK
AWARD with Richard GRANT's Through the Heart (1993) - incorporates the
Elvis Presley myth into the ongoing sequence; and Random Acts of Senseless
Violence (1993 UK) brings the sequence close to the present, conflating
the ravaged life of a streetwise girl with the increasing entropy of a
social system that has lost both energy and heart. JW's vision of the
world continues, perhaps, to lack some focus, though not heat; with
completion of his New York quintet, that focus will almost certainly
sharpen, and the heat will burn deep. [JC]See also: MUSIC.


In "The Image of Women in Science Fiction" (1971 Red Clay Reader) Joanna
RUSS wrote, "There are plenty of images of women in science fiction. There
are hardly any women." Things have changed in the subsequent decades,
chiefly due to the impact of FEMINISM and to the increasing numbers of
women writing sf in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, but the absence of
realistic female characters remains a glaring fault of the genre.Since
GENRE SF developed in a patriarchal culture as something written chiefly
by men for men (or boys), the lack of female protagonists is unsurprising.
When women do appear they are usually defined by their relationship to the
male characters, as objects to be desired or feared, rescued or destroyed;
often, especially in recent, more sexually explicit times, women
characters exist only to validate the male protagonist as acceptably
masculine - that is, heterosexual. Before the 1970s even WOMEN SF WRITERS
tended to reflect the prevailing view about women's place by writing about
men's adventures in future worlds where women stayed home to work the
control panels in automated kitchens. The main alternative to men's
adventure stories was ladies' magazine fiction, in which the domestic
virtues of the sweet, intuitive housewife-heroine somehow saved the day.It
would be hard for even the most ardent fan to list a dozen sf novels
written before 1970 which feature female protagonists: Naomi MITCHISON's
MEMOIRS OF A SPACEWOMAN (1962), Robert A. HEINLEIN's Podkayne of Mars
(1963), Samuel R. DELANY's BABEL-17 (1966), Alexei PANSHIN's RITE OF
PASSAGE (1968), Joanna Russ's Picnic on Paradise (1968) and Anne
MCCAFFREY's The Ship who Sang (1969) are probably the best known, and all
date from the transitional period of the 1960s. Betty King provides a
detailed and apparently exhaustive list from 1818 on in Women of the
Future: The Female Main Character in Science Fiction (1984). Moreover, as
Suzy McKee CHARNAS pointed out in an essay on how and why she came to
write ("No-Road" in Denise Du Pont's Women of Vision [anth 1988]), it is
easy to write a thoroughly sexist story around a female protagonist, and
the real test of whether or not female characters are being written about
as human beings is whether the protagonist is connected in any important
way to other complex female characters, or if she is significantly
connected only to males.Not allowed the variety or complexity of real
people, women in sf have been represented most frequently by a very few
stereotypes: the Timorous Virgin (good for being rescued, and for having
things explained to her), the Amazon Queen (sexually desirable and
terrifying at the same time, usually set up to be "tamed" by the
super-masculine hero), the Frustrated Spinster Scientist (an object lesson
to girl readers that career success equals feminine failure), the Good
Wife (keeps quietly in the background, loving her man and never making
trouble) and the Tomboy Kid Sister (who has a semblance of autonomy only
until male appreciation of her burgeoning sexuality transforms her into
Virgin or Wife). But of course the vast majority of male characters in sf
are stereotypes too. David KETTERER in New Worlds for Old: The Apocalyptic
Imagination, Science Fiction and American Literature (1974), among others,
has argued that the "weaknesses" of poor characterization and lack of
human interest in much sf can be seen as a strength, at least in "cosmic"
fictions in which individual concerns - including gender - are
unimportant.Some find the lack of any female characters in much sf more
disturbing than the use of stereotypes, but Gwyneth JONES (in "Writing
Science Fiction for the Teenage Reader", in Where No Man has Gone Before
[anth 1990] ed Lucy Arnitt) has argued that "Accepting a male protagonist
on the printed page does not mean accepting one's own absence. Indeed the
almost total absence of female characters makes simpler the imaginative
sleight of hand whereby the teenage girl substitutes herself for the male
initiate in these stories." Jones went on to argue that the "feminization"
of teenage sf, through the presentation of more realistic female
protagonists, "does not necessarily mean a better deal for girls", because
such stories reinforce the status quo of a subordinate role for women.
Although Jones was writing about teenage sf, her point may be more widely
applied. Susan WOOD, in her essay "Women and Science Fiction" (in ALGOL,
Winter 1978/79), expressed the desire that women should reclaim rather
than reject the archetypes which lie behind the usually disparaged
stereotyped characters that populate sf. Many women have done so, as well
as creating new possibilities for the expression of female humanity.From
the 1960s, sf was increasingly seen to have the potential to explore
serious human issues, while at the same time many writers (especially
those identified as members of the NEW WAVE) were rejecting the old
PULP-MAGAZINE conventions in favour of experimentation and more artistic
values. As more women were attracted by the changing image of sf (and here
the influence of STAR TREK should not be underestimated), as sf became
more than a minority taste and began to sell in numbers previously
unimaginable, and as more women moved into editorial positions, the role
of female characters in sf became more important not only for aesthetic,
personal or political reasons but also for commercial ones: surveys have
shown that more women than men buy books, so a would-be bestseller cannot
afford to alienate the female audience.The old stereotypes are still
around, although women writers more often give them a subversive twist:
the Good Wife is married to a lesbian star-pilot, the Spinster Scientist
has a rich and fulfilling sex life, the Amazon Queen triumphantly refuses
to be tamed. If women writers feel able to play around with archetypes and
stereotypes, male writers are more likely to avoid them for fear of being
misunderstood and alienating much of their likely audience. Sometimes
their efforts to include female characters are mere tokenism: a few female
spear-carriers, soldiers or scientists appear, but questions of who's
minding the kids and how does this apparently egalitarian society really
work are never even posed. A few of the newer male writers - among them
STERLING - have written novels about strong and interesting self-motivated
women, although female protagonists - particularly ones who are more than
a fantasy figure with an all-male supporting cast - are still more likely
to be found in books by women writers.Unfortunately, these positive
changes in the literature have been countered by a retrogressive movement
in popular sf films, where women's roles are limited and male-determined:
if involved in the action they are victims, ROBOTS or prostitutes
(sometimes all three at once), otherwise they are waiting patiently for
the hero in kitchen or bedroom. The role played by Sigourney Weaver in
ALIEN (1979) stands out as a notable exception: a female HERO. She is just
as human as the rest of the mixed-sex crew, and is menaced by the alien to
the same degree and in the same way. She is no weaker because she is a
woman, and no more special. But in the sequel, ALIENS (1986), the
human/alien battle has become a heavily symbolic fight between two
females. Weaver's character is lumbered with a stray child to make the
final battle acceptable to even the most fearful of immature male viewers:
this isn't a woman fighting a MONSTER, but two mothers doing what comes
naturally, battling to protect their children. [LT]See also: CLICHES.

In the opinion of many it was a woman, Mary SHELLEY, who created sf with
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (1818; rev 1831). But after such a
strong start women's contributions to the genre, while never entirely
absent, were not substantial until the late 1960s.As a commercial genre,
sf was formed chiefly by the men who edited, wrote for and read the US
PULP MAGAZINES of the 1920s and 1930s. For decades the belief that most sf
readers were adolescent males imposed certain restrictions on subject
matter and style - women, and women's supposed interests, were
sentimentalized or ignored, and SEX was TABOO. Yet women not only read but
wrote sf, sometimes under androgynous bylines, real or assumed. Pamela
SARGENT has drawn attention to some of the more memorable stories written
by and about women in her excellent anthologies Women of Wonder (anth
1974) and More Women of Wonder (anth 1976). Among the most popular some,
like Leigh BRACKETT, C.L. MOORE and Andre NORTON, wrote vivid,
action-packed adventure tales, as ungendered as their names, while others,
like Mildred CLINGERMAN, Zenna HENDERSON and Judith MERRIL, wrote often
sentimental stories dealing with more acceptable feminine concerns. Other
women known for writing sf prior to the 1960s include Marion Zimmer
BRADLEY, Miriam Allen DEFORD, Clare Winger HARRIS, Joan Hunter HOLLY,
Lilith LORRAINE, Katherine MacClean, Margaret ST CLAIR, Wilmar H. SHIRAS,
Evelyn E. SMITH, Francis STEVENS, Leslie F. STONE and Thea VON HARBOU. In
addition, there have always been women producing borderline sf in the
MAINSTREAM or in sf-related fields such as FABULATION, surrealism and
ABSURDIST, experimental, GOTHIC and UTOPIAN fiction. And women have quite
often been unattributed collaborators in works published under the names
of their male partners, a role that has only recently begun to be
recognized.By the 1960s the sf field was changing in ways that would make
it more accessible and exciting to a wider audience. Younger writers, in
particular, rebelled against the old pulp limitations and set about
writing sf which would combine the old-fashioned SENSE OF WONDER with more
sophisticated literary values. New editors, some of them women, none of
them committed to the concept of a primarily adolescent readership, played
a large part in this expansion. In particular, Cele GOLDSMITH encouraged
many new writers during her editorship of AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC
(1958-65). Ursula K. LE GUIN, now one of the most respected and
influential of all contemporary sf writers, credits Cele Goldsmith with
"opening the door to me".In 1972 Harlan ELLISON stated (in his intro to
"When it Changed" by Joanna RUSS in Again, Dangerous Visions [anth 1972])
that "the best writers in sf today are the women" - an opinion echoed by
other knowledgeable readers throughout the 1970s, occasionally with the
caveat "excepting James TIPTREE Jr". Despite Robert SILVERBERG's now
notorious claim that there was something "ineluctably masculine" in the
Tiptree stories (in "Who is Tiptree, What is He?", intro to Tiptree's Warm
Worlds and Otherwise [coll 1975]), in 1977 Tiptree was revealed to be
Alice Sheldon. Of the response to her unmasking, Sheldon commented in an
interview with Charles PLATT (in Dream Makers: Volume II [coll 1983]),
"The feminist world was excited because, merely by having existed
unchallenged for years, 'Tiptree' had shot the stuffing out of male
stereotypes of women writers."The reason that sf began to change in the
1960s and 1970s was that increasingly writers were drawn to it not because
of an interest in its pulp traditions but for its still largely unexplored
potential. The effect of the (largely male) NEW WAVE is often cited, but
the impact made on the field by such diverse writers as Le Guin, Kate
WILHELM, Russ, C.J. CHERRYH and Tiptree was undoubtedly stronger and more
lasting than that of any single, self-proclaimed movement. Others might
agree with Suzy McKee CHARNAS (in Aurora #26, Summer 1990): "My own view
of the matter was and is that in the 1960s SF was a dying or at least
moribund genre (the New Wave was an effort, not very successful in my
opinion, to remedy this by importing some technical stunts from the
mainstream), and feminism came along in the 1970s and rescued it." (
FEMINISM.)Among the women sf writers who came to prominence in the 1960s
and 1970s are E.L. ARCH, Bradley, Rosel George BROWN, Octavia E. BUTLER,
Charnas, Cherryh, Jo CLAYTON, Juanita COULSON, Sonya DORMAN, Suzette Haden
Diana Wynne JONES, Lee KILLOUGH, Tanith LEE, Madeleine L'ENGLE, Le Guin,
MORRIS, Doris PISERCHIA, Marta RANDALL, Kit REED, Russ, Sargent, Josephine
SAXTON, Jody SCOTT, Kathleen SKY, Tiptree, Lisa TUTTLE, Joan D. VINGE,
Cherry WILDER, Kate WILHELM, Chelsea Quinn YARBRO and Pamela
ZOLINE.Writers who became better known in the 1980s and 1990s include Gill
CONSTANTINE, Candas Jane DORSEY, Carol Nelson DOUGLAS, Sheila FINCH,
Caroline Forbes (1952- ), Karen Joy FOWLER, Sally Miller GEARHART, Mary
GENTLE, Lisa GOLDSTEIN, Eileen Gunn, Barbara HAMBLY, Gwyneth JONES, Janet
KAGAN, Leigh KENNEDY, Nancy KRESS, Kathe Koja, R.A. MACAVOY, Julian MAY,
Judith MOFFETT, Pat MURPHY, Jane PALMER, Rachel POLLACK, Kristine Kathryn
In addition, a number of MAINSTREAM writers have made detours into sf,
even if their publishers have not always labelled their novels as such.
They include Margaret ATWOOD (THE HANDMAID'S TALE [1985]), Maureen DUFFY
(The Gor Saga [1981]), Zoe FAIRBAIRNS (Benefits [1979]), Cecelia HOLLAND
(Floating Worlds [1976]), Rhoda Lerman (1936- ) (The Book of the Night
[1984]), Doris LESSING (the Canopus in Argos series), Marge PIERCY (WOMAN
ON THE EDGE OF TIME [1976]), Fay WELDON (The Cloning of Joanna May [1989])
and Monique WITTIG (Les guerilleres [1969; trans 1971]). Writers as
diverse as Jean M. AUEL, Christine BROOKE-ROSE, Angela CARTER, Anna KAVAN,
Ayn RAND, Emma TENNANT and Christa Wolf (1929- ) have also, upon occasion,
been claimed for sf.The above lists make no claim to being anything like
complete, but their very existence should make it clear that, while women
writers of sf may still be outnumbered by men, they are by now far too
numerous to be considered rare, and too various to be generalized about or
compressed into a subset of "women's sf". Women contribute to all areas of
the genre. Where once anthologies of stories entirely by men were
customary, now they are unusual.Between 1953, when it was established, and
1967 there were no women winners of the HUGO; between 1968 and 1990 there
were 21 awards to women out of 92 in the fiction categories, while of the
NEBULA awards for the years 1968-90 the figures are better still, at 28
awards to women out of 91. Better again are the results of the JOHN W.
CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New Writer, with 8 of the 19 awards to date going
to women. In all cases, more men than women vote.Have women writers been
discriminated against? Such things are hard to quantify or prove, and,
although most women in the field can cite occasional instances of sexism
(the editor who declares that sf by women doesn't sell; the disgruntled
author who scents a feminist conspiracy when his novel fails to win
awards; the claim from an old-time fan that the values of HARD SF are
being destroyed by female editors with an innately feminine preference for
fantasy), on the whole the Old Boy Network of sf has been remarkably
receptive to any women who care to join. The catch is one common to most
societies: those who join are expected to do so on terms already
established, to follow the rules and, as newcomers, know their place.
Unfortunately, even after 30 years women are still considered "newcomers"
by most men, and women who become too successful or break the unspoken
rules and stretch the boundaries of sf, all too often arouse male
hostility. Hence the antagonism so often directed at Joanna Russ - "the
single most important woman writer of science fiction" according to Sarah
LEFANU (in In the Chinks of the World Machine: Feminism and Science
Fiction [1988]) - is probably as much for her challenging literary
experimentation as for her uncompromising feminism. Presumably because she
is so respected outside the genre, Le Guin is every so often unfairly
accused by men who are not of having "renounced" sf.Women writers are by
now a well established presence within sf, but this situation may not
last. In How to Suppress Women's Writing (1983) Russ has argued,
polemically but effectively, that even the most popular and influential
female writers have been peculiarly subject to excision from the
male-controlled canons of literary history. An economic contraction,
followed by a redefinition of genre boundaries, might send written sf the
way of Hollywood, where sf films are as narrowly confined to catering to
the fears and desires of the adolescent US male as the old-fashioned pulp
magazines ever were. [LT]See also: WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION.

UK pocketbook-size magazine, 10 numbered, undated issues 1951-4,
published by John Spencer, London; ed Sol Assael and Michael Nahum, both
uncredited. One of the 4 poor-quality Spencer juvenile-sf magazines, all
very similar, the others being FUTURISTIC SCIENCE STORIES, TALES OF
TOMORROW, and WORLDS OF FANTASY. They contain some fiction by R.L.

1. US magazine amalgamated from AIR WONDER STORIES and SCIENCE WONDER
STORIES, 66 issues as WS. Volume numeration continued from Science Wonder
Stories, thus beginning with vol 2 #1. WS was published by Hugo
GERNSBACK's Stellar Publishing Corporation June 1930-Oct 1933, and by
Gernsback's Continental Publications, Inc. Nov 1933-Apr 1936. The title
was then sold to Better Publications, to reappear as THRILLING WONDER
STORIES in Aug 1936, with vol numbers continuing from WS. WS was monthly
June 1930-June 1933, skipped to Aug 1933, monthly Oct 1933-Oct 1935, then
3 last issues: Nov/Dec 1935, Jan/Feb 1936 and Apr 1936. It began as a
BEDSHEET-size pulp, but was forced to revert to standard PULP-MAGAZINE
format Nov 1930-Oct 1931, returning to bedsheet size Nov 1931 and
shrinking again from Nov 1933 until it was sold. David Lasser was managing
editor until Oct 1933, being succeeded by Charles D. HORNIG, although
Gernsback remained editor-in-chief throughout. Illustrator Frank R. PAUL
was the cover artist for all issues.WS was Gernsback's most successful
magazine. It encouraged the growth of sf FANDOM by sponsoring the SCIENCE
FICTION LEAGUE in 1934. Notable stories include John TAINE's The Time
Stream (Dec 1931-Feb 1932; 1946), Stanley G. WEINBAUM's classic "A Martian
Odyssey" (July 1934) and Jack WILLIAMSON's "The Moon Era" (Feb 1932). John
Beynon Harris (John WYNDHAM) had his first story and much of his early
work in WS, and Clark Ashton SMITH published his best sf stories in it,
including "City of the Singing Flame" (July 1931) and "The Eternal World"
(Mar 1932). One author particularly associated with WS was Laurence
MANNING, all of whose major work appeared there: "The Wreck of the
Asteroid" (Dec 1932), the Stranger Club series (1933-5) and the Man who
Awoke series (1933). Leslie F. STONE, a woman writer (in those days a
rarity), had 5 stories in WS.If Gernsback had paid his authors more (or,
in some cases, at all) the magazine might have continued longer, but by
1936 he was finding it difficult to attract decent writers, circulation
had dropped, and WS was sold.2. After the demise of TWS in Winter 1955,
the Wonder Stories title was resuscitated for a reprint magazine,
subtitled "An Anthology of the Best in Science Fiction", ed Jim Hendryx
Jr, of which there appeared only 2, widely separated, issues, dated 1957
and 1963, the first a digest, the second a pulp. These continued the TWS
numeration, as vol 45, #1 and #2. [BS/PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE, BEDSHEET-size Fall 1929-Summer 1932, pulp-size Fall
1932-Winter 1933, 14 issues, published by Hugo GERNSBACK's Stellar
Publishing Corporation as a quarterly companion to SCIENCE WONDER STORIES
and AIR WONDER STORIES, and then to WONDER STORIES, the first 3 issues
appearing as Science Wonder Quarterly. David Lasser was the managing
editor. WSQ featured mostly space stories. A complete novel was featured
in every issue, and the magazine was notable for its translations (by
Francis Currier) from the German ( GERMANY), including Otto Willi GAIL's
"Shot into Infinity" (1925 Germany as Der Schuss ins All; trans Fall 1929)
and its sequel "The Stone from the Moon" (1926 Germany as Der Stein vom
Mond; trans Spring 1930), and Otfried Von Hanstein's "Electropolis" (1928
Germany as Elektropolis; trans Summer 1930) and "Between Earth and Moon"
(1928 Germany as Mond-Rak 1. Eine Fahrt ins Weltall; trans Fall 1930).
There were 2 stories by the early woman pulp writer Clare Winger HARRIS,
and WSQ published the 1st fan letter from Forrest J. ACKERMAN. [BS/PN]

US reprint PULP MAGAZINE published by Better Publications, 1950, and Best
Books, 1951-3, ed 1950-51 Sam MERWIN Jr and 1952-53 Samuel MINES. The lead
novels were reprinted from WONDER STORIES and STARTLING STORIES, the most
notable being Manly Wade WELLMAN's Twice in Time (1940 Startling Stories;
1950; 1957) and Jack WILLIAMSON's "Gateway to Paradise" (1941 Startling
Stories; 1953; vt Dome around America 1955. [BS]

US tv series (1974-9), based on Wonder Woman, the COMIC book inaugurated
by DC COMICS in 1942. Warner Bros TV for ABC, then for CBS. The complex
production history falls into 3 parts.1. The 2hr pilot for ABC, Wonder
Woman (1974) dir Vincent McEveety, written John D.F. Black, starring Cathy
Lee Crosby. This flopped.2. Series for ABC with a new Wonder woman, Lynda
Carter: The New Original Wonder Woman, with a 1975 2hr pilot, and 12 50min
episodes 1975-6. This endeavoured to recapture the feeling of the original
comics. Wonder Woman (Carter) leaves her Amazon home of Paradise Island to
help out the USA during WWII, taking with her a golden belt (for strength)
and a golden lariat whose movements she controls. Prod Wilfred Baumes,
this was perhaps the best of Wonder Woman's 3 tv phases; its writers
included Jimmy Sangster, and its dirs Herb Wallerstein and Stuart
Margolin. It was scheduled erratically by ABC, so never really had a
chance.3. The commercially most successful phase. CBS took over the
series, now retitled The New Adventures of Wonder Woman and set in the
present day, but still starring Lynda Carter and made by Warner Bros; this
was the version that was most widely circulated outside the USA. Now prod
Charles B. Fitzsimons and Mark Rodgers, it opened with the story The
Return of Wonder Woman in 1977. 2 seasons, 1 80min pilot and 45 50min
episodes, 1977-9. Dirs included Jack ARNOLD, Alan Crosland, Michael
Caffey, Curtis Harrington, Gordon Hessler. Writers included Stephen
Kandel, Alan BRENNERT, Anne Collins.In 2 and 3 Wonder Woman (herself more
a figure of fantasy than of sf, and looking rather like a busty, glitzy
cheerleader) is regularly confronted by sf-style problems, ranging from a
Nazi superwoman and an alien visitor in 2 to artificial volcanic
eruptions, malign ANDROIDS, a disembodied brain and mind-capturing
pyramids with alien occupants in 3, though for the pure-fantasy fans there
was also a leprechaun. Like so much sf on TELEVISION, there was an air of
camp parody about the whole thing (rather as in the Batman series whose
great success 1966-8 set the pattern for this sort of SUPERHERO-on-tv
enterprise). [PN]


[s] Barrington J. BAYLEY.

(1868-1955) US writer and optical physicist whose sf works were written
with Arthur TRAIN (whom see for details). [JC]About the author: Dr Wood,
Modern Wizard of the Laboratory (1941) by William Seabrook.

(1890-? ) UK author and journalist who wrote 2 minor LOST-WORLD novels,
Winged Heels (1927) and, as by Robin Temple, The Aztec Temple (1955), as
well as a reworking of the airborne-pirate theme, I'll Blackmail the World
(1934 The Blue Book Magazine as "The Man who Bombed The World"; rev 1935).

(1948-1980) Canadian sf critic and academic, with a PhD in 19th-century
Canadian literature, who taught English (including sf) at the University
of British Columbia. An sf fan of great energy, she won a 1973 HUGO as
Susan Wood Glicksohn with her then husband Mike Glicksohn for Best Fanzine
(Energumen), a 2nd (now as Susan Wood again) for Best Fan Writer in 1974,
and a 3rd for Best Fan Writer (tied with Richard E. GEIS) in 1977; her
4th, also for Best Fan Writer, was awarded posthumously in 1981. SW wrote
much criticism, including introductions for GREGG PRESS books and a review
column in ALGOL which campaigned vigorously against sexism ( FEMINISM), as
did her essay in book form The Poison Maiden & The Great Bitch: Female
Stereotypes in Marvel Superhero Comics (as Susan Wood Glicksohn 1974 chap;
as Susan Wood 1990). An important essay was "Women and Science Fiction"
(1978), reprinted in Teaching Science Fiction (anth 1980) ed Jack
WILLIAMSON. She edited and introduced The Language of the Night: Essays on
Fantasy and Science Fiction (coll 1979) by Ursula K. LE GUIN. SW's health
was delicate and she drove herself too hard; her death was untimely. She
wrote the CANADA entry for the 1st edn of this encyclopedia. [PN]See also:

Working name of US illustrator Wallace A. Wood (1927-1981). His first
work was in newspaper COMIC strips in the late 1940s; he soon moved to
comic books, joining EC COMICS in 1951 and working on their sf titles
Weird Science and Weird Fantasy. His sf-comics and war-comics work won
high praise, as did his slightly later work on EC's very successful MAD
Magazine, founded 1952, for which he drew the famous sequence
"Superduperman". One of the most influential comics artists of the
century, WW has been claimed as the best of all artists ever to work in sf
in comic-book form. When EC folded its comic books in 1955 and began to
concentrate on MAD, he remained as one of the senior artists.WW had
already done some sf-magazine illustration (in 1953, for Planet Stories)
when, in 1957, he branched out more fully into this field, mostly
black-and-white interiors, especially for Gal and its sister magazines If
and Worlds of Tomorrow; he also painted 6 covers for Gal. His interior
illustrations were some of the finest ever printed; the chiaroscuro in his
black-and-white work gave it an unmatched feeling of depth.However, WAW's
first love remained comics, though he had resented the restrictions, from
1954, imposed by the Comics Code Authority. From 1966 (8 issues) and again
in 1976 he published an underground magazine, Witzend, featuring stronger
material, sometimes erotic. In the mid-1960s, a boom-time for comics, WAW
gave up most of his sf-magazine illustration and did some good work for
Warren Publications on their horror comics Creepy and Eeerie; in the 1970s
he worked on Vampirella. Also important was the SUPERHERO strip Dynamo
which appeared in Tower Comics's THUNDER Agents (1965-9). Some of WAW's
erotic work for National Screw is collected in the book Cons de Fee
["Fairy Tails" would be a loose translation of this obscene French pun]
(1977 France). He continued in comics until his suicide in 1981. [PN/JG]

(1896-1981) US writer in whose Mr Faraday's Formula (1965) enemy agents
steal a GRAVITY-control device. Part of a non-sf series, the book verges


[s] David V. REED.

Pseudonym used on magazine stories in 1941 by Donald A. WOLLHEIM, 1 solo
("Strange Return"), 1 with Robert A.W. LOWNDES ("Black Flames"), and 1
with John Michel ("Earth Does Not Reply"). [PN]

[s] Barrington J. BAYLEY.

(1882-1941) UK writer famous for novels whose structures sensitively
emblematized the forms of inner consciousness. Of sf interest is Orlando:
A Biography (1928), whose androgynous hero/heroine survives from
Elizabethan to modern times, changing SEX more than once, and coming
ultimately to represent a vision of the nature of England itself.
[JC]Other works: A Haunted House and Other Short Stories (coll 1943).

(1897-1988) UK economist, academic and writer; created a life peer in
1958, becoming Baroness Wootton of Abinger. London's Burning: A Novel for
the Decline and Fall of the Liberal Age (1936) was set in 1940 and
described the totalitarian implications of the aftermath of a general
strike. [JC]


US tv series (1959). CBS TV. Prod and created William Alland. 1 season.
Each episode 25 mins. B/w.Marshall Thompson played a man who, on a secret
mission, becomes the victim of atomic radiation and is shrunk to 6in
(15cm). The government keeps him on as a secret agent, using him for
assignments where his small size will be an advantage. His full-size
partner on these missions was played by Arthur Franz. The short-lived
series was really an excuse to use all the giant-sized props left over
from The INCREDIBLE SHRINKING MAN (1957), which Alland had produced for
Universal. [JB]


US DIGEST-size magazine. 3 issues, monthly Dec 1950-Feb 1951, published
by Hillman Periodicals; ed Damon KNIGHT. WB was divided between original
and reprint material, and between sf and fantasy. New stories of note
included "Null-P" by William TENN (Dec 1950) and Harry HARRISON's first
story, "Rock Diver" (Feb 1951); Harrison also did illustrations for the
magazine. Other contributors included C.M. KORNBLUTH, Richard MATHESON and
Jack VANCE. Knight wrote book reviews. WB was cancelled by the publisher
after adverse sales reports on #1. #2 and #3 were by then advanced in
preparation and duly appeared. [MJE]


International association of sf professionals (not only writers, but also
artists, critics, editors, agents, publishers, etc.), founded in Dublin,
Sep 1976, by professionals at the First World Science Fiction Writers'
Conference, and coming into operation as of the 1978 Dublin meeting. WSF's
stated aim is "the general dissemination of creative sf, the furthering of
scholarship, the interchange of ideas . . . the fostering of closer bonds
between those who already hold such deep interests in common around the
globe". Presidents have been Harry HARRISON (1978-80), Frederik POHL
(1980-82), Brian W. ALDISS (1982-4), Sam J. LUNDWALL (1984-6), Gianfranco
Viviani (1986-8), Norman SPINRAD (1988-90) and Malcolm EDWARDS (1990-92).
Pohl instituted the Karel Award for excellence in sf translation. Under
Aldiss the Harrison Award, for improving the status of sf internationally,
and the President's Award, for independence of thought, were added.
WSF-related books have been The Penguin World Omnibus of Science Fiction
(anth 1986) ed Aldiss and Lundwall and Tales from Planet Earth (anth 1986)
ed Pohl and Elizabeth Anne Hull. The 1st World SF Newsletter appeared in
1980 ed Niels DALGAARD and the 3rd in 1991 ed James Goddard. Annual
meetings after 1978 were: 1979 Stockholm, Sweden; 1980 Stresa, Italy; 1981
Rotterdam, Netherlands; 1982 Linz, Austria; 1983 Zagreb, Yugoslavia; 1984
Brighton, UK; 1985 Fanano, Italy; 1986 Vancouver, Canada; 1987 Brighton,
UK; 1988 Budapest, Hungary; 1989 San Marino; 1990 The Hague, Netherlands;
1991 Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China; 1993 (none in 1992) Jersey, Channel
Islands, UK. [RH]

1. UK pocketbook-size magazine, 14 numbered, undated issues 1950-4,
published by John Spencer, London; ed anon Sol Assael and Michael Nahum.
WOF is almost identical to the other 3 Spencer juvenile-sf magazines,
SPACEWAYS, all containing fiction of very low quality.2. US DIGEST-size
magazine. 4 issues 1968-71, #1 published by Galaxy Publishing Corp., #2-#4
by Universal Publishing; #1-#2 ed Lester DEL REY, #3-#4 ed Ejler
JAKOBSSON. This attempt to produce a fantasy companion to GALAXY SCIENCE
FICTION - it published a lot of SWORD-AND-SORCERY material - might well
have succeeded had it had better distribution. The standard was good: WOF
published The Tombs of Atuan (WOF 1970; exp 1971) by Ursula K. LE GUIN and
early stories by Michael BISHOP and James TIPTREE Jr. [FHP/PN]


UK pocketbook-size magazine. 1 undated issue 1953, published by
Gould-Light Publishing, London; ed anon (though probably Norman Light). No
notable stories. Copies are rarely seen. [FHP]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 26 issues in all, originally published by
Barmaray Co. (Apr 1963) and then by Galaxy Publishing Co. as a bimonthly
companion to GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION and IF, Apr 1963-May 1967, 23 issues,
ed Frederik POHL. The bimonthly schedule slipped when Aug 1964 was
followed by Nov 1964, and it went quarterly May 1966-May 1967. WOT was
briefly revived by the Universal Publishing and Distributing Co. after
they bought the Galaxy group, with 3 disappointing issues published
1970-71 ed Ejler JAKOBSSON. Notable stories included Philip K. DICK's "All
We Marsmen" (Aug-Dec 1963; exp vt Martian Time-Slip 1964), Samuel R.
DELANY's "The Star Pit" (Feb 1967), Larry NIVEN's first novel World of
Ptavvs (Mar 1965; exp 1966) and the early stories in Philip Jose FARMER's
Riverworld series, including "Day of the Great Shout" (Jan 1965), which
was incorporated into the HUGO-winning TO YOUR SCATTERED BODIES GO (fixup
1971). A much-discussed article on CRYONICS by R.C.W. Ettinger (June 1963)
ultimately led to the magazine publishing a symposium on the subject (Aug
1966). WOT was absorbed into its senior partner Worlds of If Science
Fiction after May 1967.The UK edition, published by Gold Star, ran for 4
issues Spring-Winter 1967. [BS/PN]


Film (1959). Sol Siegel-Harbel/MGM. Dir Ranald MacDougall, starring Harry
Belafonte, Inger Stevens, Mel Ferrer. Screenplay MacDougall, based on The
Purple Cloud (1901) by M.P. SHIEL. 95 mins. B/w.As in Arch Oboler's FIVE
(1951), this wordy film tells of a tiny group of survivors in a
nuclear-bomb-ravaged USA. In this case there are 3: a young White woman, a
Black man and a cynical adventurer (White and male). The film is
evocative, as in the Black man's entry into the empty metropolis (although
no explanation is offered for the lack of bodies) and in the final hunt
through the deserted streets of New York. The plot is simple: Black man
finds White woman but hesitates to form a relationship with her; White man
finds both of them and wants woman, who is willing to remain with Black
man; a running duel takes place between the men. Eventually they realize
the futility of it all, and the film ends with all 3 walking off (rather
daringly for the time) hand in hand. The script is more sophisticated than
the banality of the plot would suggest, but the treatment of the racial
theme is embarrassingly tentative, and compromised by the use of so
handsome and light-skinned a Black as Belafonte. There were just 2
survivors in Shiel's The Purple Cloud (1901; rev 1929), on which this film
is based only remotely. [JB/PN]

Film (1956). Allied Artists. Written/dir Edward Bernds, starring Hugh
Marlowe, Nancy Gates, Rod Taylor, Lisa Montell, Nelson Leigh. 80 mins.
Colour.After orbiting Mars, a spaceship goes through a timewarp. The 4
astronauts land on a post- HOLOCAUST Earth in AD2508 and find the surface
inhabited by grotesque MUTANTS and giant spiders, while the remaining
humans live underground - the men impotent, the women sexy, the race dying
out. The astronauts stay, clearing the surface with bazookas. This is not
a particularly low-budget film, and the effects (by Milton Rice) are
passable, but direction and design are poor. The story is an
unacknowledged inversion of H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895), with
Morlock surrogates on the surface and Eloi surrogates underground. Wells's
novel was to be better filmed by George PAL as The TIME MACHINE (1960).


(1908-1977) US writer in various genres. He wrote a Green Hornet
comic-book/tv tie, The Green Hornet in the Infernal Light * (1966) as by
Ed Friend. Under his own name and of some sf interest were Thief of Bagdad
* (1961) and The Last Days of Sodom and Gomorrah * (1962), both film ties,
and Pan Satyrus (1963). [JC]


A ZIFF-DAVIS house name used on magazine stories; it appeared in their
various sf magazines 10 times 1949-51, usually concealing Chester S. GEIER
or Roger Phillips Graham (Rog PHILLIPS). [PN]

(1915- ) US writer known primarily for meaty bestsellers like The Caine
Mutiny (1951) and The Winds of War (1971). His sf SATIRE, The "Lomokome"
Papers (1956 Collier's; 1968), somewhat clumsily puts allegorically
opposing UTOPIAN societies on the MOON and sets them at each other's
throats. [JC]See also: HISTORY OF SF.

(1862-? ) UK writer in whose King Charles & Mr Perkins (1931) a TIME
MACHINE transports Perkins to Restoration England and retrieves him just
before he would have been executed. [JC]

William Benjamin HOME-GALL.

Working name of US writer Martha Kay Renfroe (1938- ) whose early work -
the Phoenix Legacy trilogy, comprising Sword of the Lamb (1981), Shadow of
the Swan (1981) and House of the Wolf (1981) - was fantasy. A Gift Upon
the Shore (1990), on the other hand, is an ambitious and eloquently
written post- HOLOCAUST sf novel in which two women seek to preserve
knowledge - in the form of books - for future and more fortunate
generations, in the face of destructive and attemptedly murderous enmity
from the religious zealots with whom one of them must learn to live.

Thomas T. THOMAS.

(1883-1931) US lawyer who spent much of his leisure time composing
numerous manuscripts about a very large imaginary ISLAND called Islandia,
a place easily described as a UTOPIA, though in fact too densely imagined
and free of cognitive shaping to fit happily into that conventional
category; the island was conceived as being set near the Antarctic and
relating complexly to the real world. Unlike J.R.R. TOLKIEN, whose The
Lord of the Rings (1954-5) originated in similar private activities, ATW
died before putting his work into publishable form, and his daughter,
Sylvia Wright, with the help of Mark SAXTON (whom see for his
continuations), condensed a number of his manuscripts into the novel
Islandia (1942; with intro by Basil DAVENPORT), an enormous book
ostensibly describing the travels of a visitor to the island, and in fact
providing an extremely elaborate picture of an invented alternative
society and its - richly drawn - inhabitants. [JC]

(1888-1940) US editor. An early contributor to WEIRD TALES - his first
story was "The Closing Hand" in 1923 - FW became editor in November 1924
after #13, and continued in the post until December 1939, at which point
he had produced 177 issues. Under his guidance Weird Tales presented a
unique mixture of horror stories, sf, occult fiction, FANTASY and SWORD
AND SORCERY. In 1930 he began a companion magazine, Oriental Stories,
featuring borderline-fantasy stories (many by regular Weird Tales
contributors) in an exotic and largely imaginary Eastern setting. Oriental
Stories became Magic Carpet in 1933 and ceased publication in 1934.
Another project was a PULP-MAGAZINE edn of A Midsummer Night's Dream; FW
was a Shakespeare enthusiast. He suffered from a form of Parkinson's
disease which made it impossible for him even to write his name, except
with a typewriter. Very soon after deteriorating health had forced him to
leave Weird Tales he died. In its field, FW's Weird Tales rivals John W.
CAMPBELL Jr's ASTOUNDING SCIENCE FICTION in terms of the number of stories
of lasting interest which it produced in its field. [MJE]

(1872-1944) US clergyman and enormously popular writer whose only sf
novel, The Devil's Highway (1932) with John Lebar, pseudonym of his son
Gilbert Munger Wright (1901- ), features a wicked SCIENTIST whose
thought-control device suppresses the better instincts of its victims, who
are then inclined to further his plots. [JC]Other work: The Uncrowned King
(1910), fantasy.

(? - ) UK writer whose A Matter of Oaths (1988) engagingly presents a
familiar sf character - the amnesiac protagonist who experiences flashback
hints of a destiny larger than any of those around him dare contemplate -
within a cogently described post- CYBERPUNK frame dominated by The Guild
of Webbers, starship pilots who mediate between complex interstellar
empires. [JC]

[s] Lester DEL REY.

Working name of UK writer and white-collar worker Lionel Percy Wright
(1923- ) for all his fiction. He began publishing sf with "Operation
Exodus" for NW in 1952, and was active for over a decade. His Johnny
Dawson series in NW, about intrigues between Earth and the planet Luther,
were partly assembled in Assignment Luther (1955-7 NW; fixup 1963);
"Joker's Trick" (1959) and "The Jarnos Affair" (1960) remained
uncollected. LW had earlier begun publishing novels with Who Speaks of
Conquest? (1957 dos US). [JC]Other works: A Man Called Destiny (1958 dos
US); Exile from Xanadu (1964 dos US; vt Space Born 1964 UK); The Last Hope
of Earth (1965 US; vt The Creeping Shroud 1966 UK); The Pictures of
Pavanne (1968 dos US; vt A Planet Called Pavanne 1968 UK).See also: MATTER

(1874-1965) UK writer. SFW worked until middle-age as an accountant, was
twice married and had 10 children. In 1917 he was a founder of the Empire
Poetry League and edited the League's journal Poetry, which serialized his
translations of DANTE ALIGHIERI's Inferno and Purgatorio; he also edited
many anthologies for the League's Merton Press, publishing some early work
by Olaf STAPLEDON. SFW's first book was Scenes from the Morte d'Arthur
(coll of poetry 1919) as by Alan Seymour. His first-published novel, The
Amphibians: A Romance of 500,000 Years Hence (1924; vt The World Below
1953 UK), was issued by the Merton Press. He later founded Fowler Wright
Books Ltd to issue his translation of the Inferno (1928) and a novel which
he had written in 1920, Deluge (1928).The Amphibians describes a
FAR-FUTURE Earth where mankind is extinct and new intelligent species are
engaged in their own struggle for existence; its imagery was strongly
influenced by Wright's work on Inferno and its structure recapitulates
HOMER's Odyssey. It was meant to be the part 1 of a trilogy, but part 3
was never written and the concluding chapters of part 2 - added to part 1
in The World Below (1929; vt in 2 vols as The Amphibians 1951 US and The
World Below 1951 US; vt in 2 vols as The World Below 1953 UK and The
Dwellers 1953 UK) - are rather synoptic. Deluge, a DISASTER story in which
most of England sinks beneath the sea - so that the Cotswolds are
converted into an archipelago - enjoyed considerable critical success and
was filmed in 1933 as DELUGE (with New York as the setting); SFW promptly
retired from accountancy and began a second career as a writer.The Island
of Captain Sparrow (1928) deliberately recalls H.G. WELLS's The Island of
Dr Moreau (1896) in its image of an ISLAND inhabited by satyr-like
beast-men who are prey to the corrupt descendants of castaway pirates. It
also features a feral girl, the first of several similar figures used by
SFW to celebrate the state of Nature in opposition to the brutality of
"civilized" men. Dawn (1929), a sequel to Deluge - with which it was
assembled as Deluge, and Dawn (omni 1975 US) - also contains much bitter
commentary on the corruptions of comfort and civilization and carries
forward a Rousseau-esque glorification of Nature and insistence on the
fundamentality of the Social Contract. The Margaret Cranleigh trilogy
began with Dream, or The Simian Maid (1931), which carries these
philosophical arguments to further extremes in telling the story of a
woman transported back to a lost prehistory to witness a battle for
survival between a humanoid species and ratlike predators. The 2nd volume
was ultimately published - shorn of connecting material - under the
pseudonym Anthony Wingrave as The Vengeance of Gwa (1935; reprinted as by
SFW); and the 3rd did not appear until much later, as Spiders' War (1954
US). Beyond the Rim (1932) is a determinedly eccentric lost-race ( LOST
WORLDS) story set in the Antarctic; it is much more interesting than SFW's
lacklustre later works in a similar vein, The Screaming Lake (1937) and
The Hidden Tribe (1938), although its sf content is only marginal.SFW's
vivid short fiction of this period was assembled in The New Gods Lead
(coll 1932; exp vt The Throne of Saturn 1949 US), which groups 7 vitriolic
DYSTOPIAN stories under the heading "Where the New Gods Lead" (the new
gods in question being Comfort and Cowardice). These include a notable
fantasy of IMMORTALITY, "The Rat" (1929), a trilogy of parables about the
taking over of human prerogatives by MACHINES, "Automata" (1929), and 2
polemics against SFW'S pet hates, birth control and the motor car,
"P.N.40" (1929 as "P.N.40 - and Love") and "Justice".Power (1933) belongs
to that subgenre of SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES in which a lone man in possession
of some awesomely destructive WEAPON attempts to blackmail the world.
SFW's protagonist is among the more altruistic and ambitious, but the
story ultimately fades into a mere thriller. SFW visited Nazi Germany in
1934 in order to write a series of newspaper articles, and this inspired a
trio of highly melodramatic future- WAR stories: Prelude in Prague: The
War of 1938 (1935 Daily Mail as "1938"; 1935; vt The War of 1938 1936 US),
Four Days War (1936) and Megiddo's Ridge (1937). By this time he was
falling prey to old age, but he produced a final vivid image of the future
in The Adventure of Wyndham Smith (1938), partly based on a short story,
"Original Sin" (which ultimately saw publication in The Witchfinder [coll
1946] and in The Throne of Saturn). In the novel the inhabitants of a
stagnant and sterile quasi- UTOPIAN state decide to commit mass suicide,
and unleash mechanical Killers to hunt down a handful of rebels. Apart
from Spiders' War and the brief parables "The Better Choice" (1955) and
"First Move" (1963), none of his later work was published; all the
manuscripts have been lost except for the still unpublished fantasy novel
Inquisitive Angel.He also wrote numerous detective stories, all as by
Sydney Fowler in the UK although some appeared as by SFW in the USA. The
Bell Street Murders (1931), as Sydney Fowler, features an invention which
records moving images on a screen; its first sequel, The Secret of the
Screen (1933), as Fowler, has negligible sf content. The weak futuristic
thriller The Adventure of the Blue Room (1945) also appeared under the
Fowler byline.Despite the considerable number of his published works,
SFW's literary career was a chronicle of frustrations. The 2 projects
dearest to his heart - the long Arthurian epic of which Scenes from the
Morte d'Arthur is but a small part, and a long historical novel about
Cortez, For God and Spain - were never published. Although
self-publication led him to brief fame and fortune, he failed in his
ambition to become a social commentator of Wellsian status and ended up
trying to resuscitate his career by reprinting his early works under the
Books of Today imprint while he was editing a trade journal of that title
in the late 1940s. Even The World Below, despite its classic status as a
vividly exotic novel of the far future, is only half the work it was
originally intended to be. Nevertheless, he was a strikingly original
writer and one of the key figures in the tradition of UK scientific
romance. [BS]About the author: "Against the New Gods: The Speculative
Fiction of S. Fowler Wright" by Brian M. STABLEFORD, Foundation #29 (Nov
1983); Sermons in Science Fiction: The Novels of S. Fowler Wright (1994)

(1946- ) US writer whose only novel of sf interest, M31: A Family Romance
(1988), is a FABULATION in an agglutinative style reminiscent of that used
by William Gaddis (1922- ) in The Recognitions (1955). Abandoned by their
parents - Dot and Dash, who claim descent from the inhabitants of the
Andromeda Galaxy (M31) - the protagonists of the book ricochet numbly
through the nightmare shopping malls and 7-11s of the modern "rural" USA.
The vacuum family they make together and the horrors they commit
contribute to an extremely distressing vision of the latter moments of the
century. Going Native (1994) is a road-novel, searingly and hilariously
told, apocalyptic in tone, but not sf. [JC]

[s] Forrest J. ACKERMAN.

This contest, originally sponsored by L. Ron HUBBARD and later, after his
death, by Bridge Publications in the USA, is between short stories or
novelettes of sf or fantasy submitted by novice authors who have
previously published no more than 3 short stories or 1 novelette. Contests
have been held quarterly since 1984; the 3 place-getters receive cash
awards as well as publication in the L. RON HUBBARD PRESENTS WRITERS OF
THE FUTURE series of original anthologies. Winners of the quarterly award
receive $1000; in addition, from 1985, an annual winner, chosen from the
quarterly winners, receives the "L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future
Award" and $4000.Sums very much larger than these have been spent on
publicizing the awards. This practice has aroused controversy, being seen
by some as part of a campaign by the Church of SCIENTOLOGY to elevate
Hubbard's status within the sf community and the literary community at
large. On the one hand, Algis BUDRYS, administrator of WOTFC until 1992,
says that, though he is personally an admirer of Hubbard's fiction, there
is no connection between WOTFC and the Church of Scientology. On the other
hand, the sponsor, Bridge Publications, was originally set up to publish
textbooks of DIANETICS and Scientology; the launch parties and general
publicity given by Bridge to WOTF, which appear to be funded from an
almost bottomless pocket, have been so lavish as to send frissons of
pleasure or disgust through the entire sf community. The company called
Author Services, Inc. - active in publicizing L. Ron Hubbard - which acts
as co-host with Bridge at WOTFC award ceremonies, was alleged in 1984
newspaper reports to have at that time assets of $44 million derived from
the Church of Scientology.WOTFC has had its successes. The first of these
has been the astonishingly prestigious panel of judges it has built up,
including Gregory BENFORD, Ben BOVA, Ramsey Campbell (1946- ), Anne
Theodore STURGEON, John VARLEY, Jack WILLIAMSON and Gene WOLFE. Only the
most determined of conspiracy theorists could see these writers as
representing a secret pro-Scientology agenda; it seems clear that they
wish merely to assist young writers. The second success has been the
writers themselves. By no means all contest winners have gone on to
greater things, but Robert REED (who entered the contest as Robert
Touzalin), Dave WOLVERTON and David ZINDELL have certainly produced
admirable work since, as has Karen Joy FOWLER, who though not a winner has
been perhaps the most distinguished of all the WOTFC graduates. The
general standard of the anthologies drawn from contestants' stories has
been quite high. An Illustrators of the Future Contest is run in parallel.
The WOTFC programme also includes writers' workshops, directed by Budrys
in association with such other writers as Orson Scott CARD, Tim POWERS and
Ian WATSON. These workshops are notable for being - at least in some
sessions - based very specifically on advice to writers originally
formulated by Hubbard many decades ago. Those who do not accept Hubbard as
one of sf's real craftsmen, though he certainly could write vividly and
excitingly, see an irony in this.The listing below is by the year in which
the awards ceremony was held, and refers to work of the previous year.
Those named for 1985 are quarterly winners; the first "L. Ron Hubbard
Writers of the Future Award" proper was presented the following year.
[PN]Winners:1985: Dennis J. Pimple; Jor Jennings; David ZINDELL1986:
Robert Touzalin (Robert REED)1987: Dave WOLVERTON1988: Nancy Farmer1989:
Gary W. Shockley1990: James Gardner1991: James C. Glass

(1951- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "By the Flicker of the
One-Eyed Flame" for Andromeda 2 (anth 1977) ed Peter WESTON, and who has
produced considerable work in various genres, receiving nominations for
various awards; several tales make use of his own Chinese-US background.
His novels are less impressive. The first, Masterplay (fixup 1987), though
not set in a franchised GAME-WORLD, flirts with the intoxications of a
role-playing venue whose outcomes determine real events. The protagonist
of Hong on the Range (1989) had appeared earlier in "Hong's Bluff" (1985).
The Shade of Lo Man Gong (1988 Pulphouse; 1991 chap) is also fantasy. His
other books have been ties: 2 tales in the Robot City sequence, Isaac
Asimov's Robot City #3: Cyborg * (1987) and #6: Perihelion * (1988); Dr
Bones #2: The Cosmic Bomber * (1989); and a Time Tours tale, Robert
Silverberg's Time Tours #1: The Robin Hood Ambush * (1990); 6 volumes of
Isaac Asimov's Robots in Time sequence: #1 Predator* (1993), #2 Marauder
*(1993), #3 Warrior* (1993), #4 Dictator* (1994), #5 Emperor *(1994) and
#6 Invader* (1994); and Mutant Chronicles: In Lunacy *(1993). [JC]Other
work: Yellow Peril: Chinese Americans in American Fiction, 1850-1940
(1982); Shaunessy Fong (1992 chap); Wong's Lost and Found Emporium (coll

Bruce Bingham CASSIDAY.

(1941- ) Chinese academic and sf scholar based at the English Department
of the Shanghai International Studies University. His PhD in English is
from Indiana University of Pennsylvania, his dissertation being titled
"Utopias by American Women". With Patrick Murphy he ed Science Fiction
from China (anth 1989 US), which contains 8 Chinese sf stories and a
chronological bibliography. He is a member of WORLD SF and has had more
than 40 articles and translations, in Chinese and English, published in
the USA and China. He wrote the CHINESE SF entry in this encyclopedia.
[PN]Other works as editor: Selections of American Science Fiction (anth
1983); Star Ducks (anth 1983).


Pseudonym of French dental surgeon and writer Pierre Pairault (1922- ),
who swept onto the sf scene with 11 consistent and imaginative novels, all
published 1956-9. Niourk (1957) is a J.G. BALLARD-like account of a
drowned world. Oms en serie ["Oms by the Dozen"] (1957) inspired the
animated film La PLANETE SAUVAGE (1973). The apparently human protagonist
of Le temple du passe (1958; trans Ellen Cox as The Temple of the Past
1973 US), having crashed on an ALIEN planet, attempts to save his
colleagues after they have all been swallowed by an indigenous whale,
enters SUSPENDED ANIMATION, and is discovered eons later by genuine human
folk and identified as a survivor of ATLANTIS. After 1959, SW fell silent
until the appearance of Noo (1977), a lengthy and flamboyant saga which,
like his earlier novels, shows a deep understanding of the traditions of
US pulp sf. [MJ/JC]Other works: Retour a O ["Back to O"] (1956); Rayons
pour Sidar ["Rays for Sidar"] (1957); La peur geante ["The Immense Fear"]
(1957); L'orphelin de Perdide ["The Orphan from Perdide"] (1958); La mort
vivante ["Living Death"] (1958); Piege sur Zarkass ["Trap on Zarkass"]
(1958); Terminus 1 (1959); Odyssee sous controle ["Controlled Odyssey"]
(1959).See also: FRANCE; UNDER THE SEA.

[r] James L. QUINN.

[s] George H. SCITHERS.

(1937- ) US novelist and screenwriter, most of whose tales may be read as
FABULATIONS in which sf elements are bleakly pickled. Nog (1969; vt The
Octopus UK), Flats (1970) and Quake (1972) share an apocalyptic mise en
scene similar in feeling to, but not clearly identified as being, the
post- HOLOCAUST world so familiar to sf readers. Slow Fade (1984) verges
on similar territory. [JC]

[s] Spider ROBINSON.

Pseudonym of a UK writer, possibly female. PW's Irish Rose (1975) is a
love story set in a world where almost all white women have died - except
in Ireland - as a result of taking the Pill. The RELIGION of the
frustrated male population is, perhaps predictably, misogynist. [JC]

(1914- ) Prolific UK writer, mainly of nonfiction, whose sf SATIRE
Happyland (1952) depicts an arcadian fantasy- ISLAND in which happiness is
literally obtainable. A UK magnate turns the place into a holiday camp; a
new kind of bomb finally eliminates it. [JC]

(1946- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Target of Opportunity"
for Gal in 1974, and who has continued to produce short fiction regularly,
some of it HARD SF tinged with ironies. His novels have all been ties: 2
tales in the Alien Speedway sequence, Roger Zelazny's Alien Speedway #2:
Pitfall * (1988) and #3: The Web * (1988); and 2 in the Dr Bones sequence,
Dr Bones #3: Garukan Blood * (1989) and the last in the series, #6:
Journey to Rilla * (1990). [JC]

Name adopted by Joseph H. Dockweiler, a member of the FUTURIANS fan
group, for several stories written in collaboration with Frederik POHL. C.
M. KORNBLUTH also had a hand in one. "Highwayman of the Void" (1944) is by
Pohl alone. [BS]

(1902-1971) US author who became notorious for his penetrating surveys of
US mores and behaviour, and who coined the term "Momism" to describe the
US tendency to sacralize motherhood, thus making family dynamics and
morality impenetrable to reflection; outside sf he probably remains best
remembered for Generation of Vipers (1942), where the coinage appeared. In
the sf field he was most significant for 4 works: Gladiator (1930), filmed
as The Gladiator (1938), about a young man endowed with superhuman
strength, a tale directly responsible for the appearance of the comic-book
hero SUPERMAN (though there PW's traditional scepticism about the
relationship of a superior being to normal humanity was safely displaced
onto the morose Clark Kent); When Worlds Collide (1933) and its sequel,
After Worlds Collide (1934), both with Edwin BALMER, a retelling of the
Noah's ark legend involving the END OF THE WORLD and interplanetary flight
(the 1st vol was adapted into an sf COMIC strip and a successful film,
WHEN WORLDS COLLIDE [1951]); and The Disappearance (1951), which
ingeniously assaults the double standard through a tale in which the men
and women of Earth disappear from one another, having been suddenly
segregated into 2 PARALLEL WORLDS.The first 3 of these novels were
published early in PW's career, the period during which he produced his
most highly regarded single work, Finnley Wren (1934), a baroque anatomy
in fictional terms of the young century into which were embedded 2 tales
of sf interest, "An Epistle to the Thessalonians" and "Epistle to the
Galatians". Other work from the 1930s included The Murderer Invisible
(1931), a tale inspired by H.G. WELLS's The Invisible Man (1897) (with
R.C. SHERRIFF, PW scripted the 1933 film version of The INVISIBLE MAN );
the screenplay for The ISLAND OF LOST SOULS (1932), adapted from Wells's
The Island of Dr Moreau (1896); The Savage Gentleman (1932), in which a
child is brought up isolated from humanity, and excoriates the social
world when finally exposed to it; and scripts for 2 further films, The
King of the Jungle (1933) and Murders in the Zoo (1933).In the early 1940s
his attention became fixed upon the apocalyptic implications of nuclear
energy, and in "The Paradise Crater" (October 1945 Blue Book) - upon whose
earlier submission to American Magazine he was put under house arrest for
undue prescience - he described a high-tech post-WWII 1965 threatened by
an underground Nazi attempt to rule the world through the use of atomic
bombs; fortunately the hero blows up the villains' Californian HQ, causing
a tsunami which takes care of Japan as well. In Blunder: A Story of the
End of the World (1946 chap), atomic experiments blow up the entire
planet. In several later works PW continued to address the new
vulnerability of the world. Titles include The Smuggled Atom Bomb (1951
Saturday Evening Post; in Three to be Read [coll 1951]; 1956),
"Philadelphia Phase" (1951), The Answer (1955 chap) - a pacifist fantasy -
Tomorrow! (1954) and Triumph (1963), the 2 latter novels being pleas for a
nuclear Civil Defence. Towards the end of his life he turned from atomic
DISASTER to ecological disaster in The End of the Dream (1972) ( ECOLOGY)
and a The Name of the Game tv tie, Los Angeles: A.D. 2017 * (1971). He
also wrote an essay on sf, "Science Fiction and Sanity in an Age of
Crisis", which appeared in Modern Science Fiction (anth 1953) ed Reginald
BRETNOR.PW was a highly successful commercial writer, much of whose work
pretended to no more than entertainment value. In his sf, however, though
he never abandoned a commercial idiom, he gave something like full rein to
the anatomizing and apocalyptic impulses which made him, during his life,
a figure of controversy to his large readership. [JC]Other works: The
Golden Hoard (1934) with Edwin Balmer, a mystery; Night unto Night (1944),
a ghost story; The Spy who Spoke Porpoise (1969).About the author: "Philip
Wylie" in Explorers of the Infinite (1963) by Sam MOSKOWITZ; Still Worlds
Collide: Philip Wylie and the End of the American Dream (1980 chap) by

That fraction of his full name used by UK writer John Wyndham Parkes
Lucas Beynon Harris (1903-1969) after WWII, and by far his best-known
byline; before WWII, he had signed work as John Beynon Harris, John
Beynon, Wyndham Parkes, Lucas Parkes and Johnson Harris. As well as
changing names with frequency, JW often revised - or allowed others to
revise - works from early in his working life; at times this led (as with
Planet Plane; see below) to an excessive number of versions of unimportant
titles.As a whole, JW's career broke into 2 parts: before WWII and after
it, when he became Wyndham. His first career was inconspicuous. He began
publishing sf in 1931 with "Worlds to Barter" as by John Beynon Harris for
Wonder Stories, and contributed adventure sf and juveniles to various UK
magazines throughout the 1930s. Some of this early work was assembled as
Wanderers of Time (coll 1973) as by JW, the title story having been
reprinted earlier as Love in Time (1933 Wonder Stories as "Wanderers of
Time" as by John Beynon Harris; 1945 chap) as by Johnson Harris; most of
the contents of Exiles on Asperus (coll 1979) as by John Beynon were also
pre-WWII. His first novel, The Secret People (1935 as by John Beynon; rev
1964 US; text restored 1972 UK as by JW), was a juvenile sf adventure set
in a underground world threatened by a project to transform the Sahara
into a lake for irrigation purposes. Planet Plane (1936 Passing Show as
"Stowaway to Mars" as by John Beynon; full text 1936 as by John Beynon;
cut 1937 in Modern Wonder vt "The Space Machine"; differing cut [by
another hand] vt Stowaway to Mars 1953; text restored 1972 as by JW) was a
rather well told, though only intermittently subtle, narrative of
humanity's first space flight to Mars, where Vaygan the Martian and the
machines destined to succeed his dying species deal swiftly with 3
competing sets of Earthlings who have landed almost simultaneously. Vaygan
himself impregnates Joan, the stowaway of the magazine title; given the
moral strictures then applying to magazine fiction, it is unsurprising
that she dies in childbirth and that her child is deemed illegitimate. The
sequel, "Sleepers of Mars" (1938 Tales of Wonder as by John Beynon; as
title story in Sleepers of Mars [coll 1973] as by JW), deals merely with
some stranded Russians, not with the miscegenate offspring. In Bound to be
Read (1975), the memoirs of UK publisher Robert Lusty, the John Beynon
Harris of these years appears as a rather diffident, obscure, lounging
individual at the fringes of the literary and social world; there was no
great reason to suppose he would ever erupt into fame.WWII interrupted
JW's writing career, and his later works showed a change in basic subject
matter and a much more careful concern for the responses of the
middle-class audience he was now attempting to reach in slick journals
like COLLIER'S WEEKLY. Where much of his pre-WWII tales were SPACE OPERAS
leavened with the occasional witty aside or passage, JW's post-WWII novels
- most notably The Day of the Triffids (1951 US; rev [and preferred text]
1951 UK; orig version vt Revolt of the Triffids 1952 US), filmed as The
DAY OF THE TRIFFIDS (1963), and The Kraken Wakes (1953; rev vt Out of the
Deeps 1953 US), both assembled with Re-Birth (1955 US; rev vt The
Chrysalids 1955 UK) as The John Wyndham Omnibus (omni 1964) - present an
eloquent post-trauma middle-class UK response to the theme of DISASTER,
whether caused by the forces of Nature, alien INVASIONS, EVOLUTION or
Man's own nuclear warfare. JW did not invent the UK novel of
secretly-longed-for-disaster, or what Brian W. ALDISS has called the COSY
CATASTROPHE, for this had reached mature form as early as 1885, with the
publication of Richard JEFFERIES's retrospective After London, or Wild
England, and the techniques for giving actuality to the moment of crisis
had been thoroughly established, by H.G. WELLS and others, well before
WWI; but he effectively domesticated some of its defining patterns: the
city (usually London) depopulated by the catastrophe; the exodus, with its
scenes of panic and bravery; and the ensuring focus on a small but growing
nucleus of survivors who reach some kind of sanctuary in the country and
prepare to re-establish Man's shaken dominion. UK writers as diverse as
John CHRISTOPHER, Aldiss and M. John HARRISON have used the pattern with
notable success. Their natural tendency has been somewhat to darken JW's
palette and to widen its social relevance, for his protagonists and their
women tend to behave with old-fashioned decency and courage, rather as
though they were involved in the Battle of Britain, a time imaginatively
close to him and to his markets.Three considerably overlapping story
collections assembled shorter material produced after WWII: Jizzle (coll
1954), Tales of Gooseflesh and Laughter (coll 1956 US) and The Seeds of
Time (coll 1956). In them, JW again demonstrated his skill at translating
sf situations into fundamentally comfortable tales of character, however
prickly their subject matter might be. In the UK, though not in the USA,
he was marketed as a middlebrow writer of non-generic work, and was not
strongly identified with sf.Though published and associated with the cosy
catastrophe tales, Re-Birth - JW apparently preferred the title The
Chrysalids, by which the book has always been known in the UK - marked a
new phase, in which the invasion comes not from abroad but in the form of
MUTANTS who must survive in a normal world, and whose threat to "normal"
humans was expressed in bleakly Social Darwinist terms; in the end, a
somewhat traumatized "cosy" normalcy is retained when the novel's mutant
protagonists are forced to leave the human hearth. In his next - The
Midwich Cuckoos (1957; rev 1958 US; vt Village of the Damned 1960 US),
(1963) - the incursion is unqualifiedly inimical: the ALIEN invaders who
inseminate the women of Midwich, and the consequent very effectively
spooky offspring, mark a decided inturning from the comfortable
assumptions of earlier books. Later novels, like Trouble with Lichen
(1960; rev 1960 US), are conspicuous for their facetious unease, and it
might be suggested that the potency of JW's impulse to cosiness may well
have derived from some profound cultural and/or personal insecurity he was
unable to articulate directly. But he wrote effectively for a specific UK
market at a specific point in time - the period of recuperation that
followed WWII - and he will be remembered primarily for the half decade or
so during which he was able to express in telling images the hopes, fears
and resurgent complacency of a readership that recognized a kindred
spirit. During that period, in the UK and Australia at least, he was
probably more read than any other sf author. As late as 1992, his books
appeared regularly on school syllabuses in the UK. [JC]Other works: The
Outward Urge (coll of linked stories: 1959; with 1 story added, rev 1961),
published as by JW and Lucas Parkes; Consider Her Ways & Others (coll
1961) and The Infinite Moment (coll 1961 US), 2 titles whose contents are
similar, though each book was conceived separately; Chocky (1963 AMZ; exp
1968 US); The Best of John Wyndham (coll 1973; without intro or
bibliography vt The Man from Beyond and Other Stories 1975; full version
in 2 vols vt The Best of John Wyndham 1932-1949 1976 and The Best of John
Wyndham 1951-1960 1976) ed Angus WELLS; Web (1979); John Wyndham (omni
1980) assembling The Day of the Triffids, The Kraken Wakes, The
Chrysalids, The Seeds of Time, The Midwich Cuckoos and Trouble with
Lichen.About the author: John Wyndham, Creator of the Cosy Catastrophe: A
Working Bibliography (latest rev 1989 chap) by Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE.See

Diana Wynne JONES.


(1781-1830) Swiss philosopher and writer, of sf interest for Der
Schweizerische Robinson (1812-13; trans - perhaps by William Godwin
[1756-1836] - as The Family Robinson Crusoe 1814 UK; new trans as The
Swiss Family Robinson 1818 UK), which, together with the tale which
inspired it, Daniel DEFOE's Robinson Crusoe (1719), served as a central
model for sf tales of the COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS. (For fuller
discussion ROBINSONADE.) [JC]

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