Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (T-T)

Many sf stories are set in imaginary or alien societies, where taboos are
an important part of the social structure; Robert SHECKLEY and Jack VANCE
both wrote a lot of them. Several such stories are discussed under
ANTHROPOLOGY. And sf has a reputation, not always deserved, for attacking
the sacred cows and breaking the taboos of our own society; while a few
examples of this are necessarily discussed below, this entry focuses on
those taboos set up not by society or by the law but by sf publishers (
PUBLISHING).Sf by MAINSTREAM WRITERS has been subjected to no more
censorship than fiction in general, and indeed has often been a medium for
discussing "taboo" subjects with comparative freedom, even since before
the time of The Great Taboo (1890) by Grant ALLEN. Things were very
different within GENRE SF, where publishers were unwilling to alienate any
part of their readership, and therefore set a great many taboos into
operation for a period that lasted at least from the inception of the SF
MAGAZINES in 1926 until well into the 1950s. Most of these taboos related
to SEX, profanity and RELIGION. Several examples of stories which broke
religious or sexual taboos, and consequently had difficulty in finding
publishers, are discussed under ALIENS. To mention a single example, Harry
HARRISON had great difficulty placing "The Streets of Ashkelon" (1962) - a
not extraordinarily daring story about the anthropological ignorance and
stupidity of a Christian missionary on an alien planet, and about the
damage he does - on the grounds that Christians might find it offensive.
Similarly, although since (at least) WWII MAINSTREAM WRITERS have had
considerable freedom in discussing sexual matters, magazine sf and genre
sf generally remained downright prudish even after the pioneering work (
SEX) of Theodore STURGEON and Philip Jose FARMER.Not all subjects were
taboo. Violence, for example, was (and is) all right, and extreme
to editors like John W. CAMPBELL Jr, whose own editorials on possible
justifications for slavery (though not just for Blacks) were notorious.
Campbell's ASF also exercised several quite subtle taboos in addition to
those regarding sex and profanity; notably, he strongly disliked
publishing downbeat stories in which humanity was somehow unsuccessful, or
outwitted by aliens. This sort of prejudice did not precisely take the
form of censorship, but the writers all knew very well what sort of
stories would be acceptable to which editors. (Later Roger ELWOOD, who for
a while in the 1970s controlled a large percentage of the ANTHOLOGY
market, was well known for his extremely conservative views, both
religious and sexual.) There seems to have been a kind of unspoken
agreement not to publish stories of a socialist orientation - although it
may just have been that few were written, unlike the position in the early
decades of the century when socialist writers like Jack LONDON were at
work and being readily published. And until the 1960s Black writers, and
indeed Black issues, were rare in magazine sf. Racial problems tended to
be discussed symbolically, in terms of meetings with alien races, rather
than directly.In the nations which until recently were often described as
the communist-bloc countries, political censorship of sf, as of most forms
of writing, remained ruthless, especially from the 1940s through the
1960s. As late as 1966 the Soviet writers Yuli DANIEL and Andrey SINYAVSKY
were first imprisoned and then exiled. Political censorship in these
nations had its ups and downs in the 1970s, relaxing only in the late
1980s, not long before the Communist Party began losing power throughout
Eastern Europe and Russia. The entries for BULGARIA, CZECH AND SLOVAK SF,
HUNGARY, POLAND, ROMANIA, RUSSIA and YUGOSLAVIA all (to various degrees)
document this phenomenon. Sf, of course, because of its metaphoric
flexibility, whereby stories apparently set in the future on other worlds
actually tell us something about our world right now, is an ideal medium
for subdued political protest, as many Communist-bloc writers (and some
Capitalist-bloc writers) knew very well.Moving away from politics, we find
that until the 1960s pessimism in magazine sf was largely if not entirely
taboo ( OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM). Cannibalism, on the other hand, was
perfectly acceptable in genre sf. It turned up quite often even before the
1960s, and has been central in more recent stories like Harlan ELLISON's
"A Boy and his Dog" (1969). Ellison was prominent among the
ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY and magazine editors of the NEW WAVE in consciously
breaking taboos, notably in his DANGEROUS VISIONS anthologies, although a
decade later most of these stories seemed tame enough (indeed, many were
quite tame even at the time). The magazine NEW WORLDS, under Michael
MOORCOCK, performed a similar function, rather earlier, in the UK; other
original-anthology series like ORBIT and NEW DIMENSIONS also had an
important liberating effect on what could or could not be discussed in
genre sf. By 1976 Damon KNIGHT had no qualms about publishing a story
advocating incest in a post- HOLOCAUST situation, Felix GOTSCHALK's "The
Family Winter of 1986" in Orbit 18 (anth 1976); Knight's editorial
foreword itself contained a vulgarity which would have been impossible not
long before: "The family that lays together stays together." But the
ground-breaking incest story in genre sf is very much older: Ward MOORE's
classic "Lot's Daughter" (1954).While the 1980s have been seen, rather
like the 1960s, as a period when just about anything controversial could
be published in the USA and the UK, there was, especially in the USA, a
kind of covert censorship operating in some areas. Sometimes this could
perhaps be justifiable: Knight's vulgarity, cited above, seemed less funny
once the prevalence of child abuse became publicly known. Otherwise,
though, this was the period when infantilism forcefully re-entered the
field, after it had been discovered how extremely young much of the
audience was for smash-hit films like STAR WARS. Whenever mass-market
publishers believe there is big money to be won from the youthful market,
then a whole series of taboos comes into operation. (The same syndrome has
always been visible in US tv programmes like STAR TREK whose audiences are
known to be predominantly young; Star Trek scriptwriters still have
"bibles" to tell them what issues cannot be tackled, and what kinds of
language cannot be used.) Thus the 1980s saw the reverse of, say, the
1950s, when book publishers offered more freedom than magazine publishers.
The genre magazines of the 1980s could generally be as broad-minded as
their editors wished, notably in the cases of ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE
FICTION MAGAZINE in the USA and INTERZONE in the UK. But book publishers,
especially those publishing series for the semi-juvenile market, were very
cautious about any undue cleverness or sophistication; though,
disgracefully enough, editors as usual did not seem too disturbed by
violence. Obviously, many publishers paid no attention to restrictions of
this sort, but it is fair to say that during the 1980s the proportion of
the mass market where writers could expect to have their more
sophisticated work published was shrinking relative to the hack-markets
operating according to strict (and uncontroversial) formulae.We should
note also that there are cultural trends perceived by editors and
journalists as not being worth opposing because to do so makes people
cross. In other words, new sacred cows appear every decade. It is not
clear to what degree some of these trends operate in sf publishing. A good
example in the early 1990s was the topic of global warming and the
greenhouse effect: to express the opinion that there was no evidence that
the world was getting hotter, and precious little evidence that it was
likely to, was to say something disgusting. [PN]

Working name of Hungarian writer Paul Tabor or (variously) Pal Tabori
(1908-1974), who gained a doctorate in economic and political science in
1930 and then worked as a literary agent. He moved to the UK before the
outbreak of WWII, about which he would publish several works, including
They Came to London (1943), a marginally NEAR-FUTURE tale involving the
Second Front, and The Frontier (1950), which reworked the terrible history
of Germany in an ALTERNATE-WORLD frame. He cowrote the script for
FOUR-SIDED TRIANGLE (1953), adapted from William F. TEMPLE's novel. Some
of his later (and increasingly commercial) fiction was sf, the best
example being The Green Rain (1961 US), a sour comedy about chemically
polluted rainfall turning people green. Sex and the occult infused much of
his later work, like The Cleft (1969 US), the fissure of the title being
nearly as symbolic as the crack in Emma TENNANT's The Time of the Crack
(1973). PT was an effective writer who sometimes allowed haste to spoil
his results. [JC]Other works: Solo (1948); The Talking Tree (1950); The
Survivors (1964), a post- HOLOCAUST tale; the Hunters series, comprising
The Doomsday Brain (1967 US), The Invisible Eye (1967 US) and The Torture
Machine (1969 US); The Demons of Sandorra (1970 US); Lily Dale (1972); The
Wild White Witch (1973) as by Peter Stafford.See also: HUNGARY.

There is an only half-facetious precept in PHYSICS stating that "anything
which is not prohibited is compulsory". Olexa-Myron Bilaniuk and E.C.
George Sudarshan suggested in 1962, and Gerald Feinberg in 1967, that the
idea of a particle that can only travel FASTER THAN LIGHT does not violate
any of the basic maxims of relativistic physics. Such a hypothetical
particle (a tachyon, as opposed to the more familiar tardyon, or
slower-than-light particle) might emit Cerenkov radiation analogous to the
bow wave of a ship, and thus might perhaps be detected. The mass (or
metamass) of a tachyon must be imaginary, in the same sense that the
square root of minus one is imaginary.If tachyons were shown to exist we
might have to rethink the idea of causality, since they would appear in
some circumstances to go backwards in time, so that to a hypothetical
observer the emission of a tachyon would appear to be its absorption.
However, a negative-energy tachyon propagating backward in time could be
reinterpreted as a positive-energy tachyon propagating forward in time;
some physicists think that such a reinterpretation would be the loophole
through which the principle of causality might be preserved. J. Richard
Gott proposed in 1973 that, after the Big Bang, a tripartite Universe may
have been formed, consisting of universes of matter, ANTIMATTER and
tachyons.The tachyon became an item of sf TERMINOLOGY in the 1970s (though
never to any great extent), because it suggests a more rational basis on
which TIME-TRAVEL stories - or (more plausibly, since we cannot, even
theoretically, convert tardyonic into tachyonic matter) stories of
COMMUNICATION through time - can be written. The physicist-writer Gregory
BENFORD was the first to do this with some care, in his major novel
TIMESCAPE (1980), which describes an attempt to change future history by
transmitting a tachyonic message from that future to our present. [PN]


Pseudonym for all his fiction of Eric Temple Bell (1883-1960), US
mathematician and writer, born in Scotland; he also wrote academic and
popular works on mathematics under his own name. JT's first novel was a
LOST-WORLD fantasy, The Purple Sapphire (1924), and he published several
further sf books before writing for the sf PULP MAGAZINES. The Gold Tooth
(1927) concerns a quest for a magical element. Quayle's Invention (1927)
features a device for making gold. Green Fire (1928) is one of many
contemporary stories about super- WEAPONS. His best and most interesting
work includes a long sequence of mutational romances ( MUTANTS) involving
rapid and uncontrolled EVOLUTION: The Greatest Adventure (1929); The Iron
Star (1930); The Crystal Horde (1930 AMZ Quarterly as "White Lily"; 1952),
featuring crystalline life, and Seeds of Life (1931 AMZ Quarterly; 1951),
an important early SUPERMAN story, both much later assembled as Seeds of
Life and White Lily (omni 1966); "The Ultimate Catalyst" (1939); and The
Forbidden Garden (1947). Before the Dawn (1934) is a didactic prehistoric
romance in which the end of the dinosaurs is observed through a
time-viewer. The Time Stream (1931 Wonder Stories; 1946) is an elaborate
TIME-TRAVEL adventure which, like the mutational romances, helped to
extend the horizons of pulp sf and is one of the outstanding products of
the early SF MAGAZINES; it was much later assembled with The Greatest
Adventure and The Purple Sapphire, all texts slightly edited, as Three
Science Fiction Novels (omni 1964). The title story of The Cosmic Geoids
and One Other (coll 1949) is an interesting but not altogether successful
literary experiment, taking the form of a series of imaginary scientific
reports dealing with strange extraterrestrial objects; the "one other" is
the novella "Black Goldfish". Two inferior novels were the superweapon
story "Twelve Eighty-Seven" (1935 ASF) and the DISASTER story "Tomorrow"
(1939 Marvel Science Stories). JT's last book was the sympathetic- MONSTER
story G.O.G. 666 (1954).JT's prose style is sometimes crude, and his
characterization usually lacks finesse, but his best work shows an
admirable imaginative flair. He loved to do things on a grand scale, and
many of his novels end with catastrophes which overwhelm whole continents.
[BS]Constance Reid, The Search for E T Bell, Also Known as John Taine

[r] Kenneth ALLOTT.


(1939- ) US actor and writer, best known for his role as Mr Sulu in STAR
TREK. Mirror Friend, Mirror Foe (1979) with Robert Lynn ASPRIN places a
Japanese mercenary in a free-for-all corporate world. [JC]


[s] Edward BRYANT.

1. UK pocketbook-size magazine. 11 issues 1950-54 (none in 1951),
numbered but undated, published irregularly by John Spencer, London; ed
(uncredited) by Sol Assael and Michael Nahum. One of the 4 low-quality
Spencer juvenile-sf magazines, the others being FUTURISTIC SCIENCE
(1951-6). ABC TV. Created and prod George Foley, Dick Gordon. 25 mins per
episode. B/w.One of the earliest and most successful sf-anthology tv
series, TOT was ambitious but, like most tv of the period, limited by the
restrictions imposed by live studio shooting. It drew its material from a
variety of sources, including the sf PULP MAGAZINES, as well as using
original teleplays. The first 2 episodes dramatized Jules VERNE's Vingt
mille lieues sous les mers (1870; trans as Twenty Thousand Leagues under
the Seas 1872 UK), starring Thomas Mitchell as Captain Nemo; Leslie
Nielsen co-starred. [FHP/JB]

UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 16 issues [Summer] 1937-Spring 1942,
quarterly to 1940, thereafter slightly irregular, numbered consecutively,
#1 undated. Published by World's Work, London; ed Walter GILLINGS.TOW,
though preceded by SCOOPS (1934), the sf BOYS' PAPER, was the first adult
UK sf magazine. It used both original UK and reprinted US material, and
prospered until wartime paper restrictions and the drafting of the editor
caused its demise. William F. TEMPLE and Frank Edward ARNOLD were among
the authors who made their debuts in TOW, as, with nonfiction, was Arthur
C. CLARKE. Stories included "Sleepers of Mars" (1938) by John Beynon -
title story of Sleepers of Mars (coll 1973) as by John WYNDHAM-and, as
reprints, "The Mad Planet" (1920; 1939) by Murray LEINSTER and "City of
the Singing Flame" (1931; 1940) by Clark Ashton SMITH. Other writers were
John Russell FEARN, Benson HERBERT, Festus PRAGNELL and Eric Frank


Pseudonym of US writer and biology professor Compton Newby Crook
(1908-1981), who began his writing career under various undisclosed
pseudonyms in the 1930s; none of this early work was apparently sf, which
he began publishing as ST with "The Lights on Precipice Peak" for Gal in
1955. He did not start to be active in the field until more than a decade
later, becoming known initially for the Stardust sequence, beginning with
The Stardust Voyages (coll of linked stories 1975), a SPACE-OPERA saga of
the crew of the Stardust, whose mission is to assess the potential of
various planets and the nature of their ALIEN inhabitants. Though the
stories exhibit a sameness of effect, they are capable expressions of ST's
concern for ECOLOGY, in which discipline he was professionally trained. A
sequel, The Ramsgate Paradox (1976), carries the crew into a novel-length
adventure. The People Beyond the Wall (1980), is a remarkably late
LOST-WORLD tale set under an Alaskan glacier, where a placid UTOPIA is
invaded by the usual suspects.The Compton Crook/Stephen Tall Memorial
AWARD for Best First Novel of Sf was established 1983. [JC]See also:



[r] JAPAN.

Film (1955). Universal. Dir Jack ARNOLD, starring John Agar, Mara Corday,
Leo G. Carroll. Screenplay Martin Berkeley, Robert M. Fresco, based on an
episode of SCIENCE FICTION THEATRE called No Food for Thought by Fresco.
80 mins. B/w.This better-than-average MONSTER MOVIE belongs to the Luddite
technology-out-of-control genre. Three idealistic biochemists experiment
with nutrients that cause gigantism in animals (which would help feed the
world) but (unexpectedly) acromegaly in humans, a horrible deformity that
destroys two scientists and then, rather later, the third (an affecting
performance by Carroll). A tarantula injected with the nutrient escapes
into the desert and grows to a vast size. It preys on cattle and people
before being incinerated by the USAF using napalm. Arnold makes strong use
of the desert setting, creating a kind of watchful stillness, where the
giant spider seems natural rather than alien. [PN/JB]See also: MUTANTS.

Writing name of French sociologist Jean Gabriel de Tarde (1843-1904). His
sf novel, Fragment d'histoire future (1896 Revue internationale de
sociologie; 1904; trans Cloudesley Brereton as Underground Man 1905 UK
with intro by H.G. WELLS), depicts first a world society on the surface of
the Earth, then, with the exhaustion of the Sun's energy, a sanitary
underground UTOPIA. The author seems to evince satirical doubts about the
value of the latter as a model for human conduct. [JC]See also: END OF THE

(1851-1905) US-born journalist and writer, in Canada from about 1868;
there he founded a newspaper, La Verite, espousing Quebec nationalism, and
published in it his separatist UTOPIA, Pour la patrie: roman du xxe siecle
(1895; 1895; trans Sheila Fischman as For my Country 1975). Set in a 1945
characterized by electric trains and other sf projections, it describes a
conservative, Catholic "Laurentian Empire" which is opposed - vainly - by
the forces of Satan. [JC]

Film (1954). Abtcon Pictures/Allied Artists. Dir Sherman A. Rose,
starring Richard Denning, Virginia Grey, Kathleen Crowley, Richard Reeves.
Screenplay William Raynor, based on "Deadly City" (1953 If) by Paul W.
FAIRMAN (as Ivar JORGENSON). 75 mins. B/wIn this film, whose low budget is
reflected in its appearance, robots from Venus invade the Earth, using a
beam that kills people. They are eventually defeated by scientists, who
find that ultrasonic sound will break open their glass faceplates, thus
destroying them. Critic Bill WARREN, while he regards it as poor, aside
from lonely, atmospheric sequences in a deserted city, adds that it is
"better than the story it came from". [JB/PN]

(1932-1987) Russian film-maker. A graduate of the Soviet State Film
School, AT attained prominence in RUSSIA with his first film, Ivanovo
Detstvo (1962; vt Ivan's Childhood; vt My Name is Ivan), the story of an
orphan cut off behind enemy lines during WWII. With his next feature,
Andrei Roublev (1966; release delayed until 1971), AT fell foul of the
Soviet censors with his dark vision of the life of the 15th-century icon
painter. His sf reputation rests on two long films, SOLARIS (1971), based
on SOLARIS (1961) by Stanislaw LEM, and STALKER (1979), based on "Piknik
na abochine" (1972; trans as Roadside Picnic 1977) by the STRUGATSKI
brothers. Alternating between b/w and colour, and featuring many static
scenes prolonged to the point of tedium, AT's sf films have been both much
lauded and much reviled by critics, but there is no denying the startling
power of such crystal-clear images as the country house marooned on an
alien lake in SOLARIS or the gradual telekinetic movement of a glass on a
table at the finale of Stalker. More personal are AT's linked pair of
non-sf films, Zerkalo (1974; vt Mirror) and Nostalghia (1983; vt
Nostalgia), the latter made in Italy after his emigration from the USSR.
Not long before his death from cancer, AT made a borderline-sf film in
Sweden, Offret (1986; vt The Sacrifice), a contemplation on faith and
responsibility, heavily influenced by Ingmar Bergman (1918- ), which
contains a central section visualizing WWIII and the dilapidation of
society. [KN]See also: CINEMA; MUSIC.

(1940 - ) Welsh journalist and author who began publishing sf with "The
Post-Mortem People" for NW in 1966; this was assembled with his other
short fiction as Seagulls under Glass and Other Stories (coll 1975 US).
His first novel, The Thinking Seat (1969 US), began a loose sequence of
tales featuring the charismatic and guru-like Simeon; it was followed by
Moon on an Iron Meadow (1974 US) and Faces in the Flames (1976 US). All
demonstrate an interest in POLITICS, and Moon on an Iron Meadow in
particular shows a deep concern about biological weapons - it also
manifests the extent to which PT had been influenced by Ray BRADBURY, the
bulk of the story taking place in Bradbury's imaginary Green Town,
Illinois. PT published 3 other novels: Gardens 12345 (1971; vt Gardens One
to Five 1971 US), Country Love and Poison Rain (1973), probably the first
sf novel about Welsh Nationalism - it concerns the political repercussions
of the discovery of a secret NATO cache of deadly nerve gas in the Brecon
Beacons-and Greencomber (1979 US), a surly and metaphor-choked tale of a
battered NEAR-FUTURE UK rather reminiscent of the work of Keith ROBERTS,
but without that writer's shaping power. [MJE]See also: POLLUTION.


(vt The Thousand Eyes of Dr Mabuse; vt The Diabolical Dr Mabuse) Film
(1960). CCC Filmkunst/CEI Incom/Criterion. Dir Fritz LANG, starring Dawn
Addams, Peter Van Eyck, Gert Frobe, Wolfgang Preiss, Werner Peters.
Screenplay Lang, Heinz Oskar Wuttig, based on characters created by
Norbert Jacques (1880-1954), author of Dr Mabuse, Master of Mystery (trans
Lilian A. Clare 1923 UK). 103 mins. B/w.After a gap of 27 years Fritz Lang
returned, in this West German, Italian and French coproduction, both to
the character who had helped make him famous and from the USA in order to
do it; it was to be his last film. His other films about Dr Mabuse - the
evil genius who seeks world conquest - were the 2-part DR MABUSE, DER
SPIELER (1922), also borderline sf, and Das Testament des Dr Mabuse
(1933). DTADDM, which received a very mixed critical reception, tells of a
kind of Mabuse REINCARNATION (whose identity - or identities - is not
revealed until the end) who operates from a hideout, fitted with monitors,
in a grand hotel whose every room is bugged with hidden tv cameras; he
seeks control of an atomic-weapons empire as part of his scheme for
international anarchy. The film is absurdly plotted and slow-moving, but
is powerful in its single-minded pursuit of images of vision (and of its
distortion): screens, one-way mirrors, a blind seer, dark glasses,
disguises, masquerades. It has been described as Lang's masterpiece. In
Germany it was successful enough to catalyse the making of 5 further
Mabuse films (1961-4) which Lang, now in his 70s, refused to direct; they
feature, successively, zombies, invisibility, post-mortem hypnotism, a
hypnotizing machine and death rays. [PN]

Working name of Brazilian writer Braulio Fernandes Tavares Neto (1950- ),
whose O que e FC ["What is SF?"] (1986) is an introduction to the subject
for younger readers. His first story collection, A Espinha Dorsal da
Memoria ["The Backbone of Memory"] (coll 1989 Portugal), won a Portuguese
sf award. He wrote the notes on Brazilian sf in this encyclopedia ( LATIN


(1912- ) US writer, often of HUMOUR, in whose Adrift in a Boneyard (1947)
the few survivors of a mysterious DISASTER come to a peaceful ISLAND where
they must decide, in terms both farcical and serene, what it will now mean
to be human. [JC]

Although various literary traditions supplied inspiration and continued
support to PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, it was the perception of the power which
the new MACHINES of the Industrial Revolution had to transform the world
which gave birth to sf itself, inspiring Jules VERNE's imaginary voyages,
the hi-tech UTOPIAN fantasies of Edward BELLAMY and others, and the
mechanized DYSTOPIAN nightmares which dissented from them. The demands of
melodrama have always ensured that, even in those specialist magazines
whose editors were outspoken champions of technological advancement - most
notably Hugo GERNSBACK and John W. CAMPBELL Jr - most stories were about
dangerous products or about technology running out of control. Many
particular aspects of general technological progress require individual
treatment as themes in sf: AUTOMATION, CITIES, COMPUTERS, CYBORGS,
attitude of sf to technology has always been deeply ambivalent ( OPTIMISM
AND PESSIMISM). The 18th-century idea that moral progress and
technological progress were inseparably bound together has never been
universally accepted, and literary images of the future have always
recognized doubts as to the essential goodness of technology, even when
their purpose has been to argue that technological progress is the
principal facilitator of moral progress. GENRE-SF writers may take it for
granted - it is a central ideological tenet of almost all HARD SF - but
writers of futuristic fantasy outside the genre have always been more
likely to take the position that moral, social and spiritual values
essential to human happiness are actually placed in hazard by
technological advancement. Leading genre-sf writers like Isaac ASIMOV and
Arthur C. CLARKE have become enormously influential apologists for
technological progress in an era when many voices are raised in outspoken
criticism of the supposed "dehumanizing" effects of technology. More
tellingly - as Jacques Ellul (1912- ) suggests in La Technique (1954
France; trans John Wilkinson as The Technological Society 1964 US) - it is
possible to argue the high cost to human consciousness of emphasizing
means over ends, "technic" over understanding, in a world which is bound
to the measurable and blind to the unique.Sf is, of course, the natural
medium of antitechnological fantasies as well as of serious extrapolations
of technological possibility. There is a good deal of PASTORAL sf which
glorifies a nostalgically romanticized quasi-medieval way of life, often
with PSI-POWER-jargonized MAGIC thrown in to help with the chores. Such
imagery bears no relation whatsoever to the brutal reality of actual
medieval existence, but its phenomenal psychological power is even more
elaborately reflected in modern genre FANTASY; and stories of LIFE ON
OTHER WORLDS and the depiction of ALIEN societies frequently deal in
similar imagery. No doubt the appeal of low-tech societies to sf writers
has much to do with the fact that the strategic elimination of known
technology is easier by far to accomplish than elaborate technological
innovation, but there is clearly also some powerful force at work endowing
such visions with a special glamour. E.M. FORSTER's question - posed in
reaction to Wells's technological utopianism - about what happens when
"The Machine Stops" (1909) is by no means purely practical; he and many
others who followed in his footsteps were arguing - as Aldous did HUXLEY
in BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932) - that the "Machine" will rot our minds down to
intellectual compost. It is worth noting, however, that in pastoral
writings within genre sf, rather than from outside it, the joy and triumph
of technological rediscovery and redevelopment provide a frequent theme -
one particularly prevalent in tales of the HOLOCAUST AND AFTER.If genre sf
needs a defence, it is quite simply that technological progress has
allowed us to become in almost every way healthier, wealthier and in some
senses wiser, and may well continue to perform that role. If Gernsback's
advocacy of that case was naive and Campbell's eccentric, the writers for
whom they created a home were sufficiently various, intelligent and
heterodox to make sure the question was examined in all kinds of ingenious
ways. The wide-eyed optimism of Gernsback's own Ralph 124C 41+ (1911-12;
fixup 1925) and the curiously convoluted explorations of Campbell's "Don
A. Stuart" stories were soon supplemented by David H. KELLER's fabular
cautionary tales, Robert A. HEINLEIN's celebration of all-purpose
problem-solving aptitudes and Asimov's die-hard championship of technical
improvisation as the favourite offspring of maternal necessity. Even if
the conventions of melodrama demanded that things must go wrong in story
after story, true sf writers always put the blame on the greed and
vainglory of rogues, politicians, military men or business tycoons, never
on the march of progress itself. Criminal or mad SCIENTISTS were often
required as VILLAINS, but scientists figured more prominently in genre sf
as HEROES - or, at least, as key supporting players whose endeavours
enabled Everyman heroes to succeed. It was perhaps unfortunate that
Campbell developed in "Forgetfulness" (1937 as by Don A. Stuart) - and was
ever after willing to play host to - the notion that human society might
one day "transcend" technology by developing powers of the mind which
would obviate its necessity. And genre sf has also generated its own
perverse brand of technological scepticism, enshrined in images of
technology literally moving beyond human control by establishing its own
independent processes of EVOLUTION, an idea first broached satirically in
Samuel BUTLER's Erewhon (1872) but given a new edge by genre stories of
self-replicating machines which - as, for instance, in some of Gregory
BENFORD's recent works - may become involved in an ultimate and universal
struggle for existence against biological organisms.Like the Romantics
before them, genre-sf writers have generally been on the side of Faust,
convinced that the quest for knowledge was a sacred one, no matter how
fondly a jealous God might prefer blind faith. Characters in bad Hollywood
MONSTER MOVIES might be able to sign off with a resigned admission that
"there are things Man was not meant to know", but nothing could be more
alien to the ethos of genre sf. Even in early pulp sf, technology was a
means rather than an end, and, however much Campbell's writers were
inclined to the celebration of the competence of the engineer, there
remained a visionary element in their work which centralized the
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH as the peak experience of human existence. The
hi-tech future of pulp sf was not the "Utopia of Comforts" so bitterly
criticized by such sceptical writers as S. Fowler WRIGHT but rather a
reaching-out for further horizons. SPACE FLIGHT became and remained the
central myth of sf because it was the ultimate window of opportunity,
through which the entire Universe could be viewed - and, ultimately,
known. In genre sf, the ultimate aim of technological progress is, in the
words of Mack REYNOLDS, "total understanding of the cosmos". This is
clearly reflected in the increasing interest which post-WWII sf has taken
in the traditional questions of RELIGION and in the evolution of
sciencefictional ideas of the SUPERMAN.Genre sf has played a key role in
the development of modern images of future technology. The ILLUSTRATIONS
of the pulp magazines were remarkably potent in this respect -
particularly the cityscapes of Frank R. PAUL. The imagery of futuristic
vehicles and cities, especially spaceships, has a glamour all of its own,
carried forward in the work of artists like Chris FOSS and Jim BURNS. Much
of this has, of course, been absorbed into the CINEMA, although technical
limitations put a severe restraint on its evolution until films like STAR
WARS (1977) were able to deploy models which looked far more real than the
impressive but obvious fakes used in, say, METROPOLIS (1926). William
GIBSON's dismissal of much of this imagery as an obsolete dream of "The
Gernsback Continuum" (1981) is not altogether fair, although Gibson has
played a leading role in updating and supplementing sf's visual imagery by
providing CYBERSPACE with "inner-spatial landscapes" reflective of the
types of graphics which modern computers are particularly adept at
generating.As anxieties about impending ecocatastrophes increase (
Hyperlink to: ECOLOGY; OVERPOPULATION; POLLUTION), sf stories which focus
closely on controversies regarding the goodness or badness of technology
have inevitably increased in number, and will presumably continue to do
so. Such debates are the central issue of such novels as Norman SPINRAD's
lyrical Songs from the Stars (1980), Poul ANDERSON's dogged Orion Shall
Rise (1983) and Marc LAIDLAW's satirical Dad's Nuke (1985). Perhaps the
most apt verbal image of modern humanity's relationship with technology is
that enshrined in the title of Marc STIEGLER's collection The Gentle
Seduction (coll 1990); the title story (1989) is one of the more eloquent
of the many contemporary sf tales arguing that the development of
NANOTECHNOLOGY will eventually bring us into a much more intimate and
rewarding association with our machines than we could ever, until
recently, have imagined. [BS/PN]

A common term, used in this encyclopedia to designate a tale which,
though it often makes use of sf devices, in fact occupies an undisplaced,
entirely mundane narrative world. Technothrillers may be set in the NEAR
FUTURE and invoke technologies beyond the capacities of the present
moment, but they differ from sf in two respects: first, like the unknown
in HORROR novels, science in the technothriller is either inherently
threatening or worshipfully (and fetishistically) exploited; second, a
typical technothriller plot evokes a technological scenario whose
world-transforming implications are left unexamined or evaded, often
through the use of MCGUFFIN plots. Any novel in which future developments
in science play a central role is not a technothriller at all: it is
sf.Examples of technothrillers by sf writers are Frank M. ROBINSON's and
Thomas N. SCORTIA's successful collaborations from The Glass Inferno
(1974) to Blow Out! (1987), Robin COOK's tales of medicine gone awry, and
the films loosely based on Ian FLEMING's James Bond novels. The latter are
examples of the most common variety - the political thriller in which the
artefacts of science serve as gear (or fetish) and as a target for the
PARANOIAS of our century. [JC]

(? - ) US writer whose sf activities long seemed to have been restricted
to the publication, in a single year, of not only the 3 books of the
Timequest sequence - Time Quest #1: Rashanyn Dark (1981), #2: Hydrabyss
Red (1981) and #3: Nemydia Deep (1981) - but also Silent Galaxy (1981), a
singleton. But a decade later he did publish a horror novel, Liquid Diet
(1992). [JC]


1. A team of 4 pizza-loving humanized turtle troubleshooters created by
US artists Kevin Eastman (1962-) and Peter Laird (1954- ) in a
self-published black-and-white COMIC book from May 1984. Initially seen as
a parody of martial-arts SUPERHERO team-ups, they became so enormously
popular that their creators are reputed to have received about $600
million from merchandising rights alone, and a veritable tsunami of
imitators was rushed into print, including Adolescent Radio-Active
Black-Belt Hamsters and Naive Interdimensional Commando Koalas.TMNT was
published bimonthly from 1985, and within 18 months sales had reached 100,
000 copies per issue. The original story concerned 4 turtles living in New
York's sewers who become engulfed in radioactive mud which causes them to
become humanized and very considerably enlarged. The characters' names are
shared with artists of the Italian quattrocento: Leonardo, Raphael,
Donatello and Michaelangelo (sic). In 1987 Archie Comics began publishing
a children's version of the strip in colour, and four untitled GRAPHIC
NOVELS (numbered I-IV) were published by First Publishing 1986-8. A hugely
successful US animated tv series was spun off from the comic in the late
1980s. [RT]2. Film (1990). Golden Harvest. Dir Steve Barron, starring
Judith Hoag, Elias Koteas. Screenplay Todd W. Langen, Bobby Herbeck. 93
mins. Colour.After the comic, the tv series and the marketing campaign
came the film. This was the biggest independently made hit in film
history, though in fact production had been planned before the success of
the tv series. The surprise was that it was good. The splicing of live
action with puppetry from the Jim Henson workshop - Henson (1936-1990)
died just after the film's release - is seamless, the direction is clean
and purposeful, the script is amusing and succinct. The 4 teenage outsider
SUPERHEROES, the mutant turtles, are junk-food-eating vigilante good guys
up against a Ninjutsu villain who plays a Japanese Fagin to the teenage
pickpockets of New York. The martial-arts fights are excellent (their
violence, subject of many parental complaints, is nominal and stylized);
the affable turtles' shabby rat father-figure, Splinter, is as tatty a Zen
master as ever seen on screen.The sequel, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II:
The Secret of the Ooze (1991), dir Michael Pressman, played it much safer.
Sales of Turtles were falling off, and the blandness of this movie,
intended to reassure the family market, renders its story of the discovery
by a villain of more mutant-creating radioactive ooze almost without
interest. The second sequel was Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III (1992),
dir and written Stuart Gillard, 96 mins, which has the turtles
time-travelling back to seventeenth-century Japan in a conflict involving
Japanese samurai, innocent villagers and English pirates. While the
creators of the original comic, Estman and Laird, had more to do with this
third film, which was touted in advance publicity as "more hard-edged"
than no. 2, the critical consensus was that it was a mess, strictly for
the younger children, and not hugely enjoyed by them. [PN]



(1955- ) Canadian journalist and film and sf critic, resident 1977-85 in
ISRAEL, where he served 5 years as an officer in the paratroop corps. His
sf/horror column in the Jerusalem Post was the first such outside the sf
magazines; he also had a film column in the Hebrew-language magazine
Fantazia 2000. ST is currently Los Angeles correspondent for

Canadian/US tv miniseries (1994). Atlantis Films/Universal. Exec prods
William SHATNER andPeter Sussman; line prod John Calvert; supervising prod
Seaton McLean, based on theTek novels by Shatner. First episode written by
Alfonse Ruggiero, Jr.and WestbrookClaridge, dir Shatner, starring Greg
Evigan, Eugene Clark, Torri Higginson,Barry Morse, Sonja Smits, Sheena
Easton and Shatner. Four 88-min episodes.TW was part of a syndicated
package called "The Action Pack" inwhich it and other two-hour
action/adventure miniseries were broadcast in rotation, 24 episodes inall,
four being devoted to TW, and based with moderate fidelity on theTek
novels attributed to Shatner. Evigan plays Jake Cardigan, a framed cop
doing 15years in cryogenic sleep for murder and drug abuse, but
mysteriously paroled after four. The first book was set in twenty-second
century Los Angeles, but the miniseries, shot in Toronto, Canada, appears
to be in a much closer future than that. The series' most intriguing
aspect is its CYBERPUNK elements,and an interesting attempt is made to
create a visual equivalent for theexperience of cruising in "cyberspace".
In other respects - especially the cars and the cityitself - the series is
less successfully futuristic. The story is a fairly routine affair about
conspiracies involving drug lords ("tek" is a dangerous drug that enables
fantasies to seem, temporarilyreal), android killers and so forth. One
critic described it as "Miami Vice meets NEUROMANCER", and the latter
aspect is more interesting than the former.The miniseries found a
following, and a full series began in Jan 1995, Tek War:The Series, 18
one-hour episodes being planned. [PN/GF]


An important item of sf TERMINOLOGY, from the Greek words for "movement
at a distance", developed from the earlier word "psychokinesis" (often
shortened to PK), coined by Dr J.B. Rhine (1895-1980) in the 1930s;
Charles FORT used the term TELEPORTATION to describe the same phenomenon.
Telekinesis is the ability to move objects by the power of the mind, and
after telepathy is the most commonly used PSI POWER (which see for
details) in sf. The word "telekinesis" was probably not coined in sf, but
began to be used in sf (especially in ASF) in the early 1950s. [PN]


Although a common item of sf TERMINOLOGY, this word is (or has been) used
in 3 different ways.1. Charles FORT used it in Wild Talents (1932) as a
synonym for "psychokinesis" or, later, TELEKINESIS; i.e., the ability to
move objects by the power of the mind alone.2. In sf of the 1950s and
1960s there was a tendency to use "teleportation" as a special case of
"telekinesis", meaning the ability to move oneself from one place to
another by the power of the mind alone; this is probably the commonest
usage.3. Some writers use "teleportation" as the ability to move people or
objects from one place to another by MATTER TRANSMISSION; i.e., using
scientific equipment to transmit items in the form of information-carrying
waves, which at the destination are reconstituted into matter. A
particularly implausible version (since there is no transmitting equipment
at the far end) is the "Beam me up, Scottie!" gadget in STAR TREK. [PN]See

The first thing to understand about televised sf is that it has never
been commercially successful (relative to the top programmes) on US tv,
and seldom on UK tv. Advertisers in the USA seek new programmes that are
likely to end up in the year's top 20; these are the programmes that get
the top advertising and the big budgets. It has been reported that the
only US sf tv programme ever to enter the top-20 category was the
tabloid-style documentary drama programme PROJECT UFO (1978-9), which
exploited widespread PARANOIA already much sensationalized by the popular
press, and had little to do with true sf. Because producers know that sf
does not normally pull that sort of audience, it tends to be regarded as
filler material, with neither budgets, writers nor actors being
top-drawer. Every now and then someone with power tries to break the
hoodoo, as Steven SPIELBERG did with his anthology-series AMAZING STORIES
(1985-7), spending a lot of money and getting good writers and
(especially) good directors, but that too disappointed, in terms of both
quality and commercial success.To concentrate for a moment on artistic
rather than commercial success (though they are linked), we note that for
a while everyone thought the turning point would come in about 1978, when
sf in the CINEMA had made an enormous breakthrough, especially with STAR
(1978). US tv may have had its chance then, but blew it, partly through
the lowest-common-denominator populism of Glen A. LARSON, who created the
infantile BATTLESTAR GALACTICA (1978), its successor GALACTICA 1980 (1980)
and the only fractionally better BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY
(1979-81). US tv has failed consistently with sf adventure (the various
STAR TREK series being, along with The WILD, WILD WEST , the main
exceptions, and then only partially so) and SUPERHERO adventure (like The
INCREDIBLE HULK [1977-82] and WONDER WOMAN [1974-9]); has had limited
success with sf anthology series (like The OUTER LIMITS [1963-5], and The
TWILIGHT ZONE [1959-64]); and has done quite nicely with borderline-sf
sitcoms (like MY FAVORITE MARTIAN [1963-6] and MORK AND MINDY
[1978-82]).Outsiders would argue that much of the problem of US tv rests
in the advertisers, who have a vested interest in reaching as wide an
audience as possible, and therefore tend to veto (especially in programmes
aimed at younger viewers) anything remotely controversial that might upset
a section of the potential audience. It would seem to follow that UK
commercial tv should have just as bad a record, for the same reasons, but
this is not entirely true, as witness The AVENGERS (1961-9), The PRISONER
(1967-8) and the original MAX HEADROOM (1985), all originated by UK
commercial channels. Nonetheless, most classic sf tv in the UK has come
from the BBC - including the first 3 Quatermass serials, DR WHO, BLAKE'S
operates quite independently from advertising income, though it is open
to, and occasionally suffers from, other pressures towards conformity,
including ratings.The other main reason why sf has failed on tv in the
USA, and to a large degree in the UK, is the almost invariable assumption
that it is stuff for the kids. It is difficult to know if adult sf would
succeeed on tv; few people have ever tried. The first sf series to appear
on US tv, CAPTAIN VIDEO (1949-56), was primarily aimed at children, and it
is arguable that the situation, over four decades later, has not
changed.Captain Video, which began in 1949, was a series made on a very
small budget and transmitted live every night. This situation ensured that
sets and special effects were primitive (scenes involving special effects
were pre-filmed and then inserted, usually clumsily, into the show, by
cutting to a tv camera that was pointing directly into the lens of a movie
projector), but its popularity with young viewers quickly produced a host
of imitations, like BUCK ROGERS (1950-51), TOM CORBETT, SPACE CADET
(1950-55), SPACE PATROL (1950-55), SUPERMAN (1953-7), CAPTAIN MIDNIGHT
(1954-6) and COMMANDO CODY: SKY MARSHAL OF THE UNIVERSE (1955). While the
later series were more expensively produced and were pre-recorded on film,
they all followed in the tradition of the movie and RADIO serials of the
1930s-40s rather than that of written sf. Science had little part in any
of these productions, with the exception of Tom Corbett, which had Willy
LEY as scientific adviser, but it was prominent in one of the first
"adult" sf series on US tv, OUT OF THIS WORLD (1952), which was a mixture
of sf and science fact, with guest scientists interrupting the story to
discuss scientific points with the narrator. This nonsensational approach
to sf was continued in SCIENCE FICTION THEATER (1955-7), in which the
host, Truman Bradley, and the show's various writers did their best
(presumably unconsciously) to ensure that no trace of any SENSE OF WONDER
remained in the stories. Nearer to written sf was TALES OF TOMORROW
(1951-6), one of the earliest sf anthology series, which featured stories
adapted from sf books and magazines but, like the early children's
serials, was handicapped by being transmitted live.The first major UK sf
event on tv (apart from Nigel KNEALE's 1949 tv adaptation of George
EXPERIMENT (1953), a horror/sf mixture which was at the time considered
suitable only for adults, though today it would probably seem no more
disturbing than the children's serial DR WHO (1963-89). Even by the early
1950s the fundamental differences between US and UK tv had been
established; instead of having to produce self-contained programme
"packages" that would be attractive to sponsors, the BBC producers had
editorial freedom. One result was that the most popular format for BBC
drama (apart from individual plays) became the serial, usually in 6-10
episodes, whereby the writers could build up atmosphere and concentrate on
character development; in the USA, by contrast, the trend was towards
long-running series whose episodes were self-contained. (The lack of
commercial interruptions was itself an advantage in the pacing of the BBC
programmes, which did not have their rhythm broken by false climaxes and
cliff-hangers designed to entice the viewer to stay tuned during the ads.)
With the arrival of commercial tv in the UK (the first channel in 1955,
the second in 1982), US-style programming was also introduced (though the
UK commercial-break pattern is much less intrusive), but the serial format
still remains popular on all channels of UK tv.BBC TV's first productions
of sf for children also took the form of serials, one of the earliest
being The LOST PLANET (1954). Its sequel, Return to the Lost Planet
(1955), came in the year that saw the first of the Quatermass sequels,
QUATERMASS II (1955).1956-8 were sparse years. In the USA most of the
juvenile series had ended, with the exception of Superman (already the
steady erosion of the boundaries between children's and adult programmes
on US tv had begun) and the sober and dull Science Fiction Theater, both
of which lasted until 1957. From then until 1959 sf on tv was practically
nonexistent. The situation was little different in the UK, though in 1958
there was the third and best of the Quatermass serials: QUATERMASS AND THE
PIT (1958-9).In the USA WORLD OF GIANTS had 1 brief season in 1959, but
the most important new US series that year for sf fans was The TWILIGHT
ZONE (1959-64), an anthology series created by Rod SERLING as a mixture of
fantasy and sf stories, more of the former than the latter. The 1960s saw
an increase of sf-related series in both countries: the BBC serial A FOR
ANDROMEDA (1961) was unusual in that it was cowritten by a scientist, Fred
HOYLE. In 1961 The Avengers (1961-9; followed by The New Avengers
[1976-7]) began, though at that time it was called Police Surgeon and did
not feature any of the sf or fantasy gimmicks that were to dominate this
enjoyably bizarre and imaginative show in later years. Another UK series,
OUT OF THIS WORLD (1962) - not to be confused with the earlier US series
of the same name - tried to repeat the success of The Twilight Zone by
adopting a similar format, with episodes based on the stories of many well
known sf writers. It lasted only 1 short season.The most remarkable of all
sf phenomena on tv began in 1963: the splendid BBC series DR WHO
(1963-89), which was aimed at children but came to attract adults as well.
It had many serialized stories run consecutively, each normally lasting
for at least 4 episodes. Producers, writers and cast changed many times,
but Dr Who ran for 26 years and, according to rumour, even now may be in
suspended animation rather than dead.In the USA another series inspired by
The Twilight Zone began in 1963. The OUTER LIMITS (1963-5) was more
sf-oriented than Serling's series and also took itself rather less
seriously; though inventive and entertaining, it could hardly be described
as adult sf. The same year saw the first of many comedy sf series, MY
FAVORITE MARTIAN (1963-6), a relatively sophisticated sitcom that proved
popular with audiences. Less successful, though in some ways superior, was
MY LIVING DOLL (1964-5), an sf comedy about a ROBOT woman that ran for
only 1 season.It was also in 1964 in the USA that Irwin ALLEN, the Glen
LARSON of the 1960s, produced the first of his sf action/adventure series
for tv, VOYAGE TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA (1964-8). His
lowest-possible-common-denominator approach to the genre has influenced
the style and quality of US tv sf ever since. The same year saw the debut
of The MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. (1964-8), a by-product of the craze for James
Bond movies ( Ian FLEMING) but incorporating many sf devices and plot
situations. This was better, and better still was The Wild, Wild West
(1965-9) which featured two secret agents, equipped with various
anachronistic devices, pitted against mad scientists in the 19th-century
West. Another Irwin Allen series, LOST IN SPACE (1965-8), was more
obviously aimed at children than Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, though
that made little difference in quality or plausibility.In the UK, 1965 saw
the debut of the adult sf series OUT OF THE UNKNOWN (1965-71), an
anthology show that presented adaptations of the work of sf writers
including (among many others) Isaac ASIMOV, Clifford D. SIMAK and J.G.
BALLARD; from this practice it derived an authority not often visible in
televised sf, which is normally written by professional tv screenwriters.
The standard of the adaptations varied and the small budgets were a
handicap (another major difference between US and UK tv is that the former
is usually produced on much larger budgets), but overall it was superior
to most sf series before or since. This view was not shared by the BBC
itself, however; after a couple of seasons it was turned into a series
about the supernatural.Also from the UK came THUNDERBIRDS (1965-6), a
series that used sophisticated puppets and clever special effects.
Produced by Gerry ANDERSON, it proved very popular with children on both
sides of the Atlantic. Anderson had pioneered the use of puppetry for
children's sf with SUPERCAR (1961-2) and FIREBALL XL5 (1962-3). Anderson's
SuperMarionation puppet programmes are fun, but are really for quite young
children.In 1966 began TIME TUNNEL (1966-7), another Irwin Allen
production, but it was not as popular as his other series. The important
new US series of 1966 was STAR TREK, whose ever-swelling following
(largely garnered during re-runs) has become legendary. Aimed primarily at
adolescents, it featured the work of several established sf writers in the
first 2 seasons, though their scripts were usually rewritten by the show's
resident writers. Aside from Jerome BIXBY, no well known sf names appeared
in any of the credits for the final season, which may account in part for
the plunge in quality.The INVADERS (1967-8) was another US series of the
late 1960s but, as based on a single plot gimmick that had to be repeated
each episode, it lasted only 2 seasons. More interesting, and equally
reliant on evoking total PARANOIA, was The PRISONER (1967-8), a
KAFKA-esque UK series created by actor Patrick McGoohan (1928- ), who also
starred. But at the time it was popular neither with the UK company that
produced it (ITC) nor with the public, and it came to a premature end,
although its supporters continue to argue passionately that it was the
finest sf ever to appear on the small screen, and it has been rescreened
more successfully since. In the USA Irwin Allen launched yet another
series, LAND OF THE GIANTS (1968-70), but the vogue for his type of
programme was coming to an end. Also fairly short-lived was The IMMORTAL
(1969-71), based on The Immortals (fixup 1962) by James E. GUNN, who also
produced a novelization, The Immortal * (1970).In the UK Gerry Anderson
switched from puppets to live actors in his new children's series UFO
(1970-73). A UK series with more serious intentions was DOOMWATCH
(1970-72), which exploited popular anxiety about the dangers of scientific
research; one of the creators of the series was the scientist Kit
PEDLER.Rod Serling began another anthology series with ROD SERLING'S NIGHT
GALLERY (1970-72), but it was less sf-oriented than The Twilight Zone and
proved less successful as well. Then, in 1973, came the series which had
the greatest influence on US sf tv in the 1970s, The SIX MILLION DOLLAR
MAN (1973-8), which, though basically a live COMIC strip rather similar to
the 1950s Superman series for children, was successfully cloned; there
were several near-duplications of the formula.The UK children's serial The
TOMORROW PEOPLE (1973-9) began on commercial tv in 1973, and at times
approached the level of Dr Who. The BBC in the same year attempted a more
adult series with MOONBASE 3 (1973), a nonsensational serial set on the
Moon, but it was not a success. That year the awful GENERATION-STARSHIP
programme The STARLOST (1973) came from Canada ( Harlan ELLISON). The
following year in the USA saw 2 further short-lived series, PLANET OF THE
APES (1974), based on the popular movie, and (much better) KOLCHAK: THE
NIGHT STALKER (1974-5), an anthology series primarily about the
supernatural, which included a few sf episodes.In 1975 Gerry Anderson,
after the failure of UFO, created a pale UK imitation of Star Trek with
SPACE 1999 (1975-8). Surprisingly, it enjoyed some success in the USA, but
only briefly, and it ended after 2 seasons. The series represents a nadir
in the quality of scientific thought in televised sf. A more typically UK
series of the same year was SURVIVORS (1975-7), created by Terry NATION, a
post- HOLOCAUST series in the UK manner established by John WYNDHAM and
John CHRISTOPHER.One of the first of the many Six Million Dollar Man
imitations was The INVISIBLE MAN (1975-6), but it did not prove as popular
as expected, despite some ingenious special effects and the use of David
McCallum, the star of The Man from U.N.C.L.E. It returned the following
season with a different actor in the lead role and a new title: The Gemini
Man (1976), neither of which saved the series from being cancelled. Yet
another short-lived series was The FANTASTIC JOURNEY (1977) which utilized
the Star Trek formula without spaceship or other planets (different
cultures being encountered via "time zones" on a lost island in the
Bermuda Triangle). WONDER WOMAN (1974-9), derived from the fantasy comic
strip of the same title, had made her debut in 1974; she was followed by
The BIONIC WOMAN (1976-8), a spin-off from Six Million Dollar Man. In 1977
the comic-book style trend was continued - but with none of the verve of
the best comics - with The MAN FROM ATLANTIS (1977), LOGAN'S RUN (1977-8)
and The INCREDIBLE HULK (1977-82). But while fantasy- and sf-related
series were proliferating in the USA, mostly in a vain attempt to capture
the charisma of the various SUPERHERO comics, UK tv was producing only the
gloomy, Orwellian serial 1990 (1977-8) and, of course, the never-ending
and still sprightly Dr Who. It was not until 1978 that UK tv made a
comparatively formidable entry into the world of SPACE OPERA with Terry
Nation's series BLAKE'S SEVEN (1978-81), which also began in Orwellian
vein. While proficiently produced, and disarmingly cynical, it was still
too close to the Star Trek formula.In the 1970s such anxiety-ridden UK
series as Doomwatch, Survivors and 1990 reflected the fears of a society
that seemed to find itself on the brink of something unpleasant, whereas,
whatever fears may have been preying on the US mass-consciousness, the
apparent reaction to them was (and is) to plunge wholeheartedly into a
second childhood, not only with tv, but also in the CINEMA, as with STAR
WARS and SUPERMAN.The 1980s in the USA saw increasing infantilism in sf
series. Short-lived movie spin-offs included BLUE THUNDER (1984), STARMAN
(1986-7) and ALIEN NATION (1989-90), and a spin-off from a tv miniseries,
SOMETHING IS OUT THERE (1989). Ray BRADBURY's stories barely survived the
miniseries The MARTIAN CHRONICLES (1980), although they did rather better
in RAY BRADBURY THEATRE (1985-6). A US series based on a UK original, MAX
HEADROOM (1987-8), looked promising for a time but deteriorated rapidly.
So did the big-budget sf series of the decade (whose budget shrank with
each succeeeding segment), "V" (1983-5). This was an object lesson in the
corrupting influence of the US tv system, for it worsened practically
minute by minute. In the first part of the first miniseries, this story of
alien invasion (for "aliens" read "Nazis") was interesting; by the end it
was pure pabulum.Until the end of the decade, the most interesting US
experiments in sf were probably the uneven anthology series TWILIGHT ZONE
(2nd series 1985-6) and AMAZING STORIES (1985-7), but in both cases
glutinous sentiment hovered too closely overhead. Then things perked up a
little, with the romantic and sometimes very imaginative BEAUTY AND THE
BEAST (1987-90)-which may have been helped by the input of sf writer
George R.R. MARTIN - and the TIME-TRAVEL series QUANTUM LEAP
(1989-current), which was sometimes amusing and certainly infinitely
better than the earlier VOYAGERS (1982-3) on a similar theme. The end of
the decade also saw the vigorous but silly WAR OF THE WORLDS (1988-90).
But for many the most exciting development was STAR TREK: THE NEXT
GENERATION (1987-current), which surprisingly enough was made for
syndication (a demonstration of the effects of cable, and of the
consequently reduced market sway of the old networks like NBC, home of the
first series). Once viewers recovered from their sorrow at the absence of
the geriatric Kirk, Spock, Scottie, Bones, etc., most agreed that it was
rather better than its famous original.In the UK the 1980s were ushered in
with the fourth (and slightly old-fashioned) Quatermass serial, QUATERMASS
(1979), no longer from the BBC. The BBC was having a semi-success with
Blake's Seven, the prisoners-on-the-run-pursued-by-the-evil-empire series
mentioned above; it also successfully serialized John Wyndham's 1951 novel
with The DAY OF THE TRIFFIDS (1981). By casting cult-figures from earlier
sf series, David McCallum (Man From U.N.C.L.E, Invisible Man) and Joanna
Lumley (New Avengers), commercial tv signalled high hopes with the
time-police series SAPPHIRE AND STEEL (1979-82); in the event it was
incomprehensible, but atmospheric and fun for Surrealism fans. The big UK
sf theme of the 1980s was anarchic comedy, with two big successes from the
BBC, The HITCH-HIKERS GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (1981), based on a cult BBC
RADIO programme, and RED DWARF (1988-current), and one failure from the
commercial side, Nigel KNEALE's disappointing KINVIG (1981). The 1980s
also saw the so-so STAR COPS (1987) and Dr Who repeatedly changing his
persona but somehow losing the plot; the 1970s had been Dr Who's peak
decade.The pressures towards conformity and formula, especially in the USA
but also in the UK, have meant that televised sf, in a history spanning
well over 40 years, has never approached the intellectual excitement of
the best written sf, or indeed the best sf in the cinema. Because
televised sf cleaves to the expected, we are seldom surprised by it: we
seldom feel any sense of wonder or even stimulation. At best we are amused
by the occasional adroit variation on a familiar theme, or by bits of
rather good acting. Televised sf is a cultural scandal; it is, on average,
so much worse than it could be or needs to be. But there seems no way to
combat the entropic forces that make it that way. The tv industry is
something of a "closed shop", with its own well established writers and
producers - one reason why it has generally proven inhospitable to sf
writers - and it is difficult to influence from the outside. Until this is
done, the standard of televised sf will not improve.Good references on
televised sf are hard to come by, and the subject is surprisingly
difficult to research, since tv is more ephemeral than cinema and is not
nearly as well documented. The most up-to-date book on the subject is The
Encyclopedia of TV Science Fiction (1990) by Roger Fulton, which is
descriptive rather than critical, and good on UK sf, rather poor on US sf.
A slightly amateurish monthly US magazine with useful episode synopses
(but much vital information, including production companies, omitted) is
Epi-Log, whose #1 was Summer 1990, published by William E. Anchors Jr from
Tennessee. Also useful is Science Fiction, Horror & Fantasy Film &
Television Credits (1983) by Harris M. Lentz, which has a supplement
(1989) through 1987.This encyclopedia includes a number of made-for-tv
movies which we treat as if they were actual movies. Some have been good -
- but most have not. We also include one entry on what, so far as we can
trace, is the only tv series about sf, the eccentric Canadian talk show
PRISONERS OF GRAVITY (1990-current). The 96 entries for tv serials and
series in this encyclopedia (excluding made-for-tv movies and variant
further tv series are mentioned in passing in film entries and elsewhere,
but not normally with full production data. [PN/JB]See also: JAPAN.


(vt The Black Sun) Film (1980). Filmove studio Barrandov. Dir Otakar
Vavra, starring Radoslav Brzobohaty, Magda Vasaryova, Rudolf Hrusinsky.
Screenplay Vavra, Jiri Sotola, loosely based on Krakatit (1924; trans
1925) by Karel CAPEK. 133 mins. Colour.This is the better-known of Vavra's
2 films of Capek's novel; the earlier and more faithful adaptation,
Krakatit (1948), is the better. TS, a very free version, is set in a
stylized Cold-War world of the late 1970s. Where in the earlier film it is
the aristocracy who wish to control "krakatit" - an energy source which is
also an incredibly powerful explosive (symbolic of nuclear weapons) - in
TS it is the imperialist military-industrial establishment that attempts
to misuse it. This high-budget production, with a prestigious cast, was
intended as propaganda on behalf of the peaceful communists against the
warmongering capitalists. It is less artistic than its predecessor.

Samuel Andrew WOOD.

(1914-1989) UK writer who began his activities in the sf world before
WWII as an active fan, a member of the British Interplanetary Society and
editor of its Bulletin, and housemate of Arthur C. CLARKE. He published a
horror story, "The Kosso" in Thrills (anth 1935) ed anon Charles Birkin
(1907-1986); his first sf story was "Lunar Lilliput", for Tales of Wonder
in 1938. War service interrupted his career for more than half a decade.
His first and best-known novel, Four-Sided Triangle (1939 AMZ; exp 1949),
is a love story in which a girl who is loved by two men is duplicated by
the one she has refused, but unfortunately both clones are attracted to
the same man; it was filmed as FOUR-SIDED TRIANGLE from a script cowritten
by Paul TABORI. WFT then became active in the magazines for about a
decade, continuing to produce at a moderate rate until about 1970, though
it cannot be suggested that he built his post-WWII career with anything
like the energy of more famous colleagues like Clarke or John WYNDHAM, nor
during this period were his book-length fictions remarkably distinguished.
The Martin Magnus series of sf juveniles - Martin Magnus, Planet Rover
(1954), Martin Magnus on Venus (1955) and Martin Magnus on Mars (1956) -
was followed by some undistinguished sf adventures: The Automated Goliath
(fixup 1962 dos US), The Three Suns of Amara (1961 SF Adventures as "A
Trek to Na-Abiza"; exp1962 chap dos US) and Battle on Venus (1953
Authentic as "Immortal's Playthings"; rev 1963 dos US). His last 2 novels,
however, are far more impressive. Shoot at the Moon (1966), parodying many
of the more routine sf conventions concerning trips to the MOON and the
gallery of characters usually involved, is a ship-of-fools extravaganza of
some hilarity. The Fleshpots of Sansato (1968) is a remarkable SPACE OPERA
replete with interstellar agents, a corrupt city in the stars, and much
symbolism. [JC]Other works: The Dangerous Edge (1951), a crime novel; The
True Book about Space Travel (1954; vt The Prentice-Hall Book about Space
Travel 1955 US).See also: CLONES.The Work of William F. Temple: An
Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1994) by Mike ASHLEY.

FANTASY [magazine].

Pseudonym of US writer and academic Philip Klass (1920- ), who taught
writing and sf at Pennsylvania State College from 1966. After serving in
WWII, WT began writing sf, publishing in 1946 in ASF his first story,
"Alexander the Bait", a tale that demonstrates the pointed (and, in terms
of the sf shibboleths of 1946, iconoclastic) intelligence of his work in
its PREDICTION that SPACE FLIGHT would be achieved institutionally rather
than through the efforts of an individual inventor-industrialist-genius (
EDISONADE) - a prediction that sf as a whole was remarkably loth to make,
and with the reality of which it proved subsequently loth to live. WT soon
became one of the genre's very few genuinely comic, genuinely incisive
writers of short fiction, sharper and more mature than Fredric BROWN and
less self-indulgent than Robert SHECKLEY. From 1950 onwards he found a
congenial market in Gal, where he published much of his best work before
falling relatively inactive after about 1960. Among the finer stories
assembled in his first collection, OF ALL POSSIBLE WORLDS (coll 1955; with
2 stories cut and 3 added, rev 1956 UK), were "Down Among the Dead Men"
(1954), about the use of ANDROIDS reconstituted from human corpses as
front-line troops in a savage interstellar war, "The Liberation of Earth"
(1953), in which liberation is imposed upon Earth alternately by two
warring ALIEN races (in a prescient satirical model for much of the
revolutionary activity of later decades), and "The Custodian" (1953), an
effective variant on the last-man-on-Earth theme. WT's occasional
post-1960 stories maintained the high calibre, comic manner and dark
vision of his early work. Most of the contents of his 5 further
collections, however, date from the late 1940s through the mid-1950s: The
Human Angle (coll 1956), Time in Advance (coll 1958), comprising 4 longer
stories, The Seven Sexes (coll 1968), The Square Root of Man (coll 1968)
and The Wooden Star (coll 1968), each containing at least some examples of
his best work. In The Human Angle, for instance, can be found "Wednesday's
Child" (1956), in which a rather simple young woman's biological
peculiarities climax in her giving birth to herself, and "The Discovery of
Morniel Mathaway" (1955), which involves TIME TRAVEL and (unusually in
GENRE SF) evolves into a serious look at the nature of the making of
ART.OF MEN AND MONSTERS (1963 Gal as "The Men in the Walls"; exp 1968),
WT's only full-length novel-released at the same time and in the same
format as the 3 1968 collections listed above, and cursed with a title
that seemed to indicate merely a further assembly - had little impact on
publication, although its reputation has justifiably grown. Giant aliens
have occupied Earth and almost eliminated mankind, except for small groups
living, like mice, within the walls of the aliens' dwellings. These humans
manage to survive, and even prosper after a fashion - though the rites of
passage they engage upon, and the CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGHS they
experience, can only be seen as ironically reversing the implications of
such moments as they occur in "normal" sf. As the novel closes, humanity
is about to spread, again like mice, hiding in niches in the holds of the
aliens' spaceships, to the stars. Also published in derisory book form at
this time was A Lamp for Medusa (1951 Fantastic Adventures as "Medusa was
a Lady"; 1968 chap dos), a fantasy-like tale in which a young American
falls into a kind of PARALLEL WORLD where, as Perseus, he is given an
opportunity to rewrite human history.Despite his cheerful surface and the
occasional zany HUMOUR of his stories, WT, like most real satirists, was
fundamentally a pessimist; and, when the comic disguise was whipped off,
as happened with some frequency, the result was salutary. The sf community
has granted WT no awards.WT is not to be confused with Philip J. Klass
(1919- ), US electrical engineer and UFO debunker, for many years senior
editor of Aviation Week & Space Technology, whose books include UFOs
Identified (1968), Secret Sentries in Space (1971), UFOs Explained (1974),
UFOs: The Public Deceived (1983) and UFO-Abductions: A Dangerous Game
(1988). [JC]As Editor: Children of Wonder (anth 1953; vt Outsiders:
Children of Wonder 1954); Once Against the Law (anth 1968) with Donald E.
WESTLAKE.About the author: William Tenn (Philip Klass) (1987 chap) by

(1937- ) UK writer whose first acknowledged novel - her true first, The
Colour of Rain (1964) as by Catherine Aydy, was not sf - was The Time of
the Crack (1973; vt The Crack 1978), an sf tale about an inexplicable
faultline - described in terms that imply a gamut of meanings, from SEX to
apocalypse - that opens through the heart of London. The Last of the
Country House Murders (1974) is a rather shoddy and very short pastiche of
a classic detective novel set in a hazily realized, depressed NEAR FUTURE
in which the last country house is maintained as a relic of a culture
which ET - a member of the eminent Tennant family - views with
considerable ambivalence. Some sf devices figure in Hotel de Dream (1976),
whose obsessively nostalgic residents begin to find themselves in each
other's dreams: the nostalgia they share - for a cleansed and triumphant
royal Britain, the kind of land Edwardians might have anticipated, but
which WWI destroyed any chance of - somewhat resembles in detail and
ironical import the Edwardian futures promulgated by Michael MOORCOCK in
his Jerry Cornelius and Oswald Bastable series and elsewhere. ET's next
several books - like The Bad Sister (1978), Wild Nights (1979), Alice Fell
(1980), Queen of Stones (1982) and Woman Beware Woman (1983; vt The
Half-Mother 1985 US) - tend to combine GOTHIC furniture, a complex
FEMINISM, supernatural intrusions and an abiding ambivalence. This refusal
to settle meaning upon her characters, her plots or her generic surrounds
results in books of dream-like vivacity which, through their tendency to
close insecurely, occasionally diminish the insights they have dodged
towards. At the same time, her clearly non-genre novels are relatively
unconvincing. Of her more recent titles, the most interesting are fables
in the indeterminate mode of her best work. Two Women of London: The
Strange Case of Ms Jekyll and Mrs Hyde (1989) plays on its classic source
an intricate game of female possession in the late 20th century. Sisters
and Strangers: A Moral Tale (1990) is a feminist reconstruction of history
in which ADAM AND EVE survive to the present day. Faustine (1992) replays
the Faust myth with a female protagonist whose beauty chills the world.In
1975-8 ET ed the journal Bananas, which published J.G. BALLARD and others.
Bananas (anth 1977) was taken from the journal, and Saturday Night Reader
(anth 1979) fairly represents its bent. [JC]Works for children: The
Boggart (1980); The Search for Treasure Island (1981); The Ghost Child
(1984).See also: WOMEN SF WRITERS.

Floating pseudonym used 1947-58 by ZIFF-DAVIS and by the other Chicago
magazines IMAGINATION and IMAGINATIVE TALES. Initially SMT was probably
used by William HAMLING as a personal pseudonym, many of the 22 stories
whose authors have not been identified being perhaps by him; later it was
used once by Randall GARRETT alone, 3 times by him in collaboration with
Robert SILVERBERG, once by Silverberg alone, once by Milton LESSER and
once by Edmond HAMILTON. [PN]

US magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 1 issue, Spring 1951, published by Avon
Periodicals, ed Donald A. WOLLHEIM. 10SF is primarily remembered for its
poor arithmetic (there were 13 stories), for the fact that many of its
writers were very eminent - John Beynon (John WYNDHAM), L. Sprague DE
VAN VOGT - and for publishing Arthur C. CLARKE's "Sentinel of Eternity"
(vt "The Sentinel"), on which was based 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. 10SF was
published simultaneously in Canada. [FHP/PN]


(1929- ) US writer whose first genre publications were poems under her
then married name Sheri S. Eberhart, the earliest being "Lullaby, 1990" in
Gal, Dec 1963. She then fell silent as a writer, beginning to write again
only once she was in her 50s. Her first-written novel, a long, complex
fantasy, eventually appeared as The Revenants (1984). Her first-published
novel was King's Blood Four (1983), #1 in the long and very interesting
True Game series, which continued with Necromancer Nine (1983), Wizard's
Eleven (1984), The Song of Mavin Manyshaped (1985), The Flight of Mavin
Manyshaped (1985), The Search of Mavin Manyshaped (1985), Jinian Footseer
(1985), Dervish Daughter (1986) and Jinian Star-Eye (1986). The first 3
were assembled as The True Game (omni 1985 UK), the next 3 as The
Chronicles of Mavin Manyshaped (omni 1986 UK) and the final 3 as The End
of the Game (omni 1987). In terms of internal chronology, the middle
trilogy precedes the first.Their readers knew almost at once that
something very unusual was happening in these books, but most serious
critics ignore paperback fantasy trilogies, and it took some years before
SST was spoken of much at all. In the True Game books some of the human
colonists on a planet also inhabited by aliens have, long before the story
opens, evolved PSI POWERS; the best term for these books would be SCIENCE
FANTASY. They show an astonishing assuredness of narrative voice; for SST
is that unusual kind of writer, the apparently born story-teller. Further
evidence of her narrative fluency (and her seemingly endless
inventiveness) came with the Marianne fantasy trilogy: Marianne, the Magus
and the Manticore (1985), Marianne, the Madame and the Momentary Gods
(1988) and Marianne, the Matchbox and the Malachite Mouse (1989), all 3
assembled as The Marianne Trilogy (omni 1990 UK). SST also showed real
accomplishment in HORROR fiction with Blood Heritage (1986) and its sequel
The Bones (1987) - both humorous and both involving some very practical
modern witchcraft-and the later (and better) horror novel Still Life (1989
as E.E. Horlak; 1989 UK as by SST).SST's first novel of sf proper was
initially split by the publisher into 2 vols, The Awakeners: Northshore
(1987) and The Awakeners: Volume 2: Southshore (1987), but was soon
sensibly released as The Awakeners (1987). As a work of speculative
sociobiology and ecology it is ebullient, but the plotting of this tale of
a theocratic riverside civilization where it is forbidden to travel
eastwards is sometimes a little awkward. The same year saw the shorter and
more confident After Long Silence (1987; vt The Enigma Score 1989 UK), a
melodrama set on a planet whose crystalline native lifeforms are very
dangerous, and can be lulled only by MUSIC.From this point SST
concentrated on sf, although during and in between sf books she published
crime and mystery fiction as by A.J. Orde (the Jason Lynx series) and B.J.
Oliphant. Her first truly ambitious sf work was THE GATE TO WOMEN'S
COUNTRY (1988), which surprised some readers for the ferocity with which
it imagined a post- HOLOCAUST world where social separation by gender is
almost complete, but where the supposedly meek women outmanoeuvre the
really dreadful men on almost all grounds. All SST's subsequent work is
fierce; indeed, with hindsight, the same controlled anger is visible in
the apparently affable science-fantasy books.The next year saw the
beginning of her major sf work to date, the loosely and thematically
connected Marjorie Westriding trilogy: Grass (1989), Raising the Stones
(1990) and Sideshow (1992). To describe the trilogy by naming its villains
somewhat distorts the ease and glow of these books' telling, and labours
their melodramatic elements (which are only sometimes insistent): the
villains are Nature-ruiners, fundamentalist religionists and - it is a
category which comprehends the previous two - men (whom SST sees as almost
doomed by their own sociobiological nature). SST interrupted this trilogy
with Beauty (1991; preferred text 1992 UK), part MAGIC REALISM, part fairy
tale, part sf, in which Sleeping Beauty is taken to a savagely DYSTOPIAN
future and meets (in various guises, including that of Prince Charming)
the Beast; this is a book about despoliation, not just of womanhood but of
Earth. A Plague of Angels (1993) puts its protagonists through the long
ordeal of coming to an understanding of a world complexly crafted out of
sf and fantasy conventions; and Shadow's End (1994) returns directly to
the theme of environmental destruction at the hands of the fundamental
religionists whom she dubs, in this instance, Firsters, after their
insistence that only humans, of all creatures in the galaxy, have any
right to live.SST requires the engine of story to provide impulsion for
the other things she can do, which tends to tilt her work towards
melodrama and excess, and thus to obscure a little her remarkable
sophistication. In the space of only a few years she has become one of
sf's premier world-builders; the diversity of invented societies in
Sideshow - this diversity being the actual point of the book - is
breathtaking, as is the vivid ecological mystery of Grass and the bizarre
discovery of a bona fide "god" in Raising the Stones. She is one of the
most significant new - and new FEMINIST - voices to enter 1980s sf. The
kindly grandmother, who tells romantic tales around the campfire, has jaws
that bite and claws that snatch. [PN]See also: ECOLOGY; FANTASY; GOTHIC


US PULP MAGAZINE. 3 issues, #84-#86, Mar, Apr and May/June 1935,
published by Dell; ed Carson Mowre. These were futuristic, pure-sf issues
(the story was of O'Leary vs the Ageless Men, who are malign immortals,
with DEATH RAYS, from ATLANTIS) bringing O'Leary over from the aviation
pulp War Birds, whose numeration they followed. Extremely rare collector's
items, they have little interest for anyone else, being very ill written
by Arthur Guy Empey. #85 was reissued as a facsimile paperback book,
Terence X. O'Leary's War Birds (1974). [FHP/PN]

Film (1974). Warner Bros. Prod/dir/written Mike Hodges, starring George
Segal, Joan Hackett. Based on The Terminal Man (1972) by Michael CRICHTON.
107 mins, cut to 104 mins. Colour.Segal plays a man who suffers from
violent blackouts as a result of brain damage suffered in a car accident.
Doctors use him as an experimental guinea pig: into his brain they insert
electrodes linked to a tiny computer implanted in his shoulder, so that
when a convulsion starts the computer will automatically send soothing
impulses to the brain. However, the brain enjoys the soothing effect so
much that it induces the blackouts at an ever-increasing rate; the man is
driven to commit further acts of violence and finally has to be shot down.
Quotes from T.S. Eliot, music by Bach, colour-coded visual symbolism (with
lots of black) - all seem to aspire to a significance that does not, in
the end, seem very profound. The mutually destructive relationship between
man and machine is interesting; the stereotypes (monstrous doctors, etc.)
are crude. [JB/PN]See also: CINEMA.

Film (1984). Cinema '84/Pacific Western/Orion. Prod Gale Anne HURD. Dir
James CAMERON, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Michael Biehn, Linda
Hamilton. Screenplay Cameron, Hurd. 107 mins. Colour.In AD2029 a vicious
war between humans and machines is raging. To ensure their victory, the
machines send back a CYBORG Terminator (apparently human, with flesh and
blood coating a metal armature and electronic implants) to California in
1984 to murder the mother (Hamilton) of the human leader, thus deleting
him from history. The humans send back a man to protect her. Their
desperate efforts to escape the inexorable Terminator form the main part
of this virtuoso film, which also has remarkably vivid if modestly
budgeted sequences of the future war. A virtue is made of Schwarzenegger's
rather robotic appearance as the Terminator; when reduced to metal, the
still-stalking creature - now an actual ROBOT - is as designed by Stan
Winston, who specializes in convincing, nasty aliens ( ALIENS; PREDATOR
2).A lawsuit against the production company was brought by Harlan ELLISON,
alleging similarities with several of his teleplays, notably Soldier (The
OUTER LIMITS [1964]). It was settled out of court and a credit to Ellison
was inserted into prints of TT. The sequel is TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY
(1991). [PN]See also: CINEMA; MUSIC.

Film (1991). Lightstorm/Carolco/Tri-Star. Prod/dir/written James CAMERON.
Executive prods Mario Kassar, Gale Anne HURD. Starring Arnold
Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, Edward Furlong, Robert Patrick, Joe
Morton. Screenplay Cameron, William Wisher. 135 mins. Colour.A decade
after The TERMINATOR (1984), two more Terminators (human-seeming killer
ROBOTS) have been sent back to the present from the human-machine wars of
AD2029, one to eliminate John Connor, the future human leader (the
initials are shared with Jesus Christ), while he is still a child (well
played by Furlong), the other (Schwarzenegger) to protect him. Linda
Hamilton again plays Sarah Connor, John's mother, but, where once she was
cute, now she is a chain-smoking, violent obsessive in a psychiatric ward,
body rippling with muscles, awaiting with a frozen snarl the nuclear
HOLOCAUST-due to arrive in August 1997 - of which she has been forewarned.
T2:JD is fundamentally an action thriller, choreographed with precision,
probably the most expensive film ever made (budget estimated at $95
million), and very exciting indeed. It does, however, project images of
pain and impotence in the shadow of a dark future: the imminence and
immanence of nuclear disaster (powerfully rendered in a dream sequence),
Sarah's wrecked psyche, the irony of a MACHINE becoming a father figure,
the boy struggling inarticulately to explain the sanctity of life to a
killer robot (even if a "good" one this time). There is a clear awareness
in Cameron of the intractability of human anger and violence; it is
precisely these qualities, we must suppose, on which the nihilistic
machines, our killer children, are modelled. This awareness runs
half-hidden beneath the cynicism of the son/daddy mawkishness aimed
directly at the older, softer viewer, and the dishonesty of so violent a
film hawking a dove message.As sf the film becomes embedded in its own
causal loop, whereby a future technology sent into the past catalyses the
creation of the very technology that caused the trouble in the first
place. The second Terminator - played by the interestingly cast Patrick, a
slightly built actor with a wholly affectless face-has the ability to flow
from shape to shape like quicksilver. Though silly, this makes for great
special effects. Commercial considerations demand an upbeat ending, which
leaves us with the unlikelihood of a plot in which the most efficient
killing machine ever created is shown as lacking the competence to kill.
[PN]The film was awarded a HUGO in 1992.See also: ACE BOOKS; CINEMA.

Newcomers to sf are occasionally dismayed by its jargon. Certain concepts
have become so useful in sf (and also in talking about it) that they tend
to be referred to - especially by GENRE-SF writers - in a kind of
shorthand and without explanation. Many receive entries in this volume,
sometimes brief ( CREDITS), sometimes detailed ( ANDROIDS, CLONES,
ROBOTS). We regard the briefer entries, mainly devoted to definition, as
"terminology" entries and the fuller entries as "theme" entries. This
encyclopedia contains 64 terminology entries and 211 theme entries. In the
listing below we have marked the latter with an asterisk ( TIE).Many but
not all sf jargon words and phrases are now recognized by dictionaries.
The ones to which we have chosen to give entries are as follows. First is
a cluster of terms used by sf readers and critics to describe different
aspects of the genre, including CYBERPUNK*, DYSTOPIAS*, EDISONADE*,
SORCERY*, UTOPIA*. Second is a cluster of terms borrowed from outside sf,
usually from science, but much used within sf, sometimes with modified
VIRTUAL REALITY*, WHITE HOLES, WORMHOLES. The final cluster is of terms
which either originate within sf or would be almost unknown were it not
TRACTOR BEAM, WALDO.Sf fans have also developed a specialist terminology,
but this is quite distinct, generally, from the terminology of sf itself.
It is discussed under FAN LANGUAGE.Terminology entries not listed above


Common item of sf TERMINOLOGY. In sf the Latin form is that
conventionally given to the name of our planet, since Earth is ambiguous,
meaning both the planet itself and soil. (The irony is that the same
ambiguity exists in Latin, where terra can mean anything from soil or the
ground, as in terra firma, to the whole world.) Similarly, our Sun is
often, in sf, called Sol. The other Latin word for Earth, commoner in
poetry than in prose, was tellus, and Tellus and its adjective Tellurian
make occasional appearances in sf. [PN]

If the COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS is not to be restricted to those that
prove almost-exact duplicates of the Earth, some form of adaptation will
be necessary; the colonists might adapt themselves by GENETIC ENGINEERING,
as in James BLISH's PANTROPY series, or cyborgization ( CYBORGS), as in
Frederik POHL's MAN PLUS (1976), but if they are bolder they might instead
adapt the worlds, by terraforming them. The term was coined by Jack
WILLIAMSON in the series of stories revised as Seetee Ship (1942-3; fixup
1951; early editions as by Will Stewart), where it is used in a minor
subplot, but such a project had earlier been envisaged in Olaf STAPLEDON's
LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930), where VENUS is prepared for human habitation by
electrolysing water from its oceans to produce oxygen. Stapledon's project
was primitive (and unworkable); most sf stories envisage plant life being
used to generate a breathable atmosphere on terraformable planets, just as
it once did on Earth.As it gradually became accepted that the other
planets in the Solar System could not sustain human life, terraforming
projects became commonplace in sf, especially in relation to MARS. Stories
like Arthur C. CLARKE's The Sands of Mars (1951) and Patrick MOORE's
series begun with Mission to Mars (1956) envisage relatively small-scale
modifications, but, as the true magnitude of the problem has become
apparent, writers have been forced to imagine much more complex processes.
Ian MCDONALD's Desolation Road (1988) tends to the frankly miraculous, but
compensates with some memorable imagery; its echoes of Ray BRADBURY seem
slightly more appropriate than the echoes of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS in The
Barsoom Project (1989) by Larry NIVEN and Steven BARNES. In the real
world, however, people have been hatching long-term plans ever since the
idea of terraforming was first treated seriously by such nonfiction
popularizations as Carl SAGAN's The Cosmic Connection (1973) and Adrian
BERRY's The Next Ten Thousand Years (1974). Kim Stanley ROBINSON has begun
to elaborate a trilogy of novels around his novella Green Mars (1985; 1988
dos), which will endeavour to describe a realistic series of procedures;
RED MARS (1992 UK) begins the series, which is projected to continue with
Green Mars (no textual connection with the novella) and Blue Mars.Other
writers have followed Stapledon in imagining the terraforming of Venus,
among them Poul ANDERSON in "The Big Rain" (1954) and "Sister Planet"
(1956). This project has recently become the subject of an ambitious and
extensive series by Pamela SARGENT, begun in VENUS OF DREAMS (1986) and
continued in Venus of Shadows (1988).The only other worlds in the Solar
System which seem to be plausible candidates for terraforming are some of
the satellites of JUPITER and Saturn ( OUTER PLANETS). Ganymede is the
favourite, featuring in Robert A. HEINLEIN's Farmer in the Sky (1950),
Poul Anderson's The Snows of Ganymede (1955; 1958 dos) and Gregory
BENFORD's Jupiter Project (1975). Jack VANCE's "I'll Build Your Dream
Castle" (1947), about custom-terraformed ASTEROIDS, is decidedly
tongue-in-cheek.The idea that the terraforming of worlds might be reduced
to a matter of routine as mankind builds a GALACTIC EMPIRE is occasionally
featured in sf novels, although generally as a throwaway idea. Elaborate
descriptions of terraforming in such a context are rare, but David
GERROLD's Moonstar Odyssey (1977) and Andrew WEINER's Station Gehenna
(1987) both involve terraforming projects whose methods are more-or-less
scrupulously sketched out. Some of Roger ZELAZNY's works assume that
terraforming projects can be so routinized that "worldscaping" might
become a kind of art form; his Isle of the Dead (1969) features a
protagonist who is in this godlike line of work. The same notion surfaces
in Douglas ADAMS's Hitch Hiker series and in the film Time Bandits (1981)
dir Terry Gilliam, and technologically powerful worldmakers with a
mischievous bent hover (unfathomably) in the background of Terry
PRATCHETT's STRATA (1981). It is probable, though, that it is the
realistic treatments of Sargent and Robinson which will set the pattern
for the most significant future uses of the theme in sf. [MJE/BS]

UK tv series (1983-6). Anderson Burr Pictures/London Weekend Television.
Created Gerry ANDERSON, prod Anderson, Christopher Burr; dirs Alan
Pattillo, Tony Bell, Tony Lenny, Desmond Saunders; all episodes written
Tony Barwick (1 with Trevor Lansdown) except for pilot, by Anderson. 3
seasons, 39 25min episodes in all.Using more advanced puppets than in all
his SuperMarionation series, with more electronic movements built in, this
was the last of Anderson's sf puppet series for children, made after he
had been working for some years with live-action tv ( SPACE: 1999). The
Terrahawks are an elite special force who must save Earth from the
depredations of Zelda, the ANDROID witch-queen of Guk. To help, they have
the silver ROBOTS the Zeroids, commanded by Sgt Major Zero, who has a
funny Sgt-Major voice. Most of the old Anderson ingredients are shuffled
about in this attack-from-space series, but the results are tired and
self-parodic. [PN]

(vt Planet of the Vampires) Italian film (1965). Italian
International/Castilla Cinematografica/AIP. Dir Mario Bava, starring Barry
Sullivan, Norma Bengell, Angel Aranda, Evi Morandi. Screenplay: US Louis
M. Heyward, Ib Melchior; Italian Callisto Cosulich, Antonio Roman, Alberto
Bevilacqua, Bava, Rafael J. Salvia; based on a story by Melchior, based in
turn on an Italian story by Renato Pestriniero. 86 mins. Colour.This
Italian/Spanish/US co-production is directed by Mario Bava, whose baroque,
erotic and sometimes sadomasochistic HORROR films have won him a cult
following; he also dir DIABOLIK (1967). He was once a notable cameraman,
and this sf/horror film is visually intense. Astronauts land on a strange
planet and immediately and inexplicably start killing each other. Three
corpses are buried but, in a striking sequence, rise from the grave, still
shrouded in polythene. It turns out they are possessed by alien spirits.
Two possessed astronauts and the still-human captain (Sullivan) take the
spaceship to return to Earth, where the pickings will be rich. The
discovery in TNS of an ancient, alien SPACESHIP on the surface, occupied
by a giant skeleton, was echoed with some fidelity in the later film ALIEN
(1979). The florid, dreamlike atmospherics of TNS almost make up for the
silliness of the story. Originally to be shot simultaneously in Italian
and US versions, with pages of script delivered only on the day, it must
have presented a challenge to even Bava's celebrated inventiveness.



Film (1986). Altar/Empire. Executive prod Charles BAND. Dir Ted Nicolaou,
starring Mary Woronov, Gerrit Graham, Diane Franklin, Chad Allen, Jonathan
Gries. Screenplay Nicolaou. 83 mins. Colour.This lurid
exploitation-movie-cum-satire has good moments. A hungry beast first
appears on the tv screen, then materializes in the house, of wife-swapping
vulgarians, a SURVIVALIST grandfather, military-minded son and
heavy-metal-obsessed daughter. With admirable joviality the beast eats and
dissolves most of them one by one, along with others, later reproducing
their heads when necessary. Earth's only hope, the interstellar policeman
who pursues it, is summarily dispatched by a tv horror-show hostess who
mistakes him for the monster. [PN]See also: MONSTER MOVIES.



Film (1983). Entertainment Events/American Playhouse. Dir Lynne Littman,
starring Jane Alexander, Ross Harris, Lukas Haas, William Devane, Leon
Ames. Screenplay John Sacret Young, based on "The Last Testament" by Carol
Amen (?1934-1987). 90 mins. Colour.We follow the ordinary, loving,
quarrelsome life of one family in a small Californian town, Hamlin.
Without warning, all US cities are destroyed by nuclear weapons. Hamlin,
not far from San Francisco, is spared the immediate blast (in which the
husband is killed), but loses most of its population to radiation
sickness. Two children die. The mother and her surviving son, at the end,
decide not to commit suicide.This is an intimate film about the END OF THE
WORLD. Too well observed to be simple soap opera, it is nevertheless
formidably and touchingly domestic, and (deliberately) declares itself in
every scene a film made by a woman; even the death of a child is evoked by
the careful sewing of a shroud. It treats the vast scale of the DISASTER
obliquely, the small standing for the large, and seems not interested in
causes, only in effects - in marked contrast to The DAY AFTER , made the
same year. Also in contrast to that film, T is diffident to the point of
shrinking about the physical effects of the HOLOCAUST; radiation sickness
is merely symbolized, by dark shadows round the eyes. The Hamlin/Hamelin
parallel of the "Pied Piper" school play focuses the tightly controlled
anger of the film on the adult negligence that makes children innocent
victims. T is potent and sentimental, one of a number of 1980s films about
nuclear destruction - e.g., SPECIAL BULLETIN, THREADS and WHEN THE WIND

(vt Tetsuo: The Iron Man) Film (1989) Produced, directed, written, art
directed, special effects, co-photographed by Shinya Tsukamoto, who also
plays one of the two leading roles; also starring Tomorah Taguchi and Kei
Fujiwara. 67 mins. Black and white.A metal fetishist (Tsukamoto) is hurt
in a hit and run car accident; the driver of the car, a conservative
office worker (Taguchi), notices a metal splinter growing out of his cheek
the next day. As time passes his body metamorphoses into metal; his penis
becomes a power drill, with which he makes love to his girlfriend
(Fujiwara) in an ecstasy of blood. Meanwhile the fetishist, now
telepathic, is also changing into rusty junk metal. Eventually the two
metal men merge, to form a single metallic monster, the harbinger of a new
conjunction of flesh and metal that will engulf the world.Though not
strictly science fiction-no rational explanation is offered for the
metamorphoses-this Japanese film has been assimilated by CYBERPUNK
enthusiasts as a major cyberpunk document in its portrayal of the
unification of the world of the machine with the world of humans. The
machinery, however, is everyday junk, not high-tech computer stuff. It is
an astonishing film, made on an amateur basis on 16mm film, with nearly
all major production roles taken by its maker, Tsukamoto (b. 1960).
Chaotic and indescribable-the synopsis above takes no account of the jump
cuts and surreal juxtapositions in the story as witnessed-it is at once
hardcore exploitation and an art film, whose nearest Western equivalent
may be David Lynch's Eraserhead (1976), though elements of J.G. BALLARD's
fiction also come to mind. While owing much to the violent, sexist
traditions of Japanese manga (comic books) and anime (animated films), it
is in fact live action throughout. The name "Tetsuo", borrowed from the
hero's name in AKIRA (1987), is spelled by the director, punningly, with
two Japanese characters which individually mean "iron" and "man". The film
was first shown in student clubs, rock-and-roll venues and so on, before
its cult success ensured that it was taken up for distribution in cinemas.
It is insanely powerful, though all too clearly low budget and in some
ways completely unprofessional; the hysterical metallic sound track is
also astonishing in its neurotic machine-like edginess. The somewhat
smoother but still extraordinary sequel, made with financial backing, is


Film (1991). Kaiju Theatre Production for Toshiba EMI.Co-exec prod, dir,
co-cinematographer, ed, screenplay Shinya Tsukamoto; starring Tsukamoto,
Tomoroh Taguchi, Nobu Kanaoka, Toraemon Utazawa. 83 mins. Colour.This is
in many ways a remake two-years later of TETSUO, this time with
professional backing and shot in colour. An office-worker (Taguchi, who
also starred in the previous film) who is amnesiac about his childhood is
maddened by the kidnapping and murder of his own child, sprouts guns from
his chest (to his astonishment) and sets out on revenge. The kidnappers
proveto be a group of skinhead body builders who with special injections
can become partly metallic. They are led by another metal-sprouting
mutant, Yatsu (Tsukamoto), who turns out to be the office worker's kid
brother. Flashbacks reveal that their insane scientist father had
conducted experiments on them. The bad brotherYatsu and the good brother
clash. Good brother wins, but ends up barely human; now resembling a tank,
he later shatters the city. The greater coherence of the remake - in the
manner of an American SUPERHERO comic - comes at a cost; this is more like
a straight exploitation film (there is some arbitrary sexual sadism); the
sound track is brilliant, but some of the deranged surrealist vigour is
lost. However, the idea, stronger in this version, of aggression altering
body image is an interesting metaphor and the cynicism about family values
is unusual in a Japanese film. [PN]

(1928-1984) US writer, professor of English literature at the University
of Ohio, who perhaps remains best known as the author of The Hustler
(1959), filmed in 1961, and its sequel, The Color of Money (1984), filmed
in 1986. He began publishing sf with "The Ifth of Oofth" for Gal in 1957
as Walter S. Tevis - his early work, and the tales he wrote around 1980,
are assembled as Far from Home (coll 1981) - but he first came to wide
notice as an sf writer with The Man who Fell to Earth (1963), the basis of
Nicolas Roeg's film The MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (1976). It is the delicately
crafted story of an ALIEN who comes to Earth from Anthea in an attempt to
arrange asylum for his dying race; in return, he will pass on the benefits
of Anthean science. Becoming as physically and emotionally human as his
technology and his powers of empathy permit, he finds the xenophobic
bureaucracy of humanity's response to him, when he reveals himself and his
quest, impossible to bear; and the blinding he suffers fairly represents
the dying of any hope he might have had of making sense of us. WT's
subsequent novels were less darkly inspired. Mockingbird (1980) rather
mechanically runs its ANDROID protagonist through a process of
self-realization in a senescent USA 500 years hence. The Steps of the Sun
(1983) is the story of an impotent tycoon who revivifies himself and
perhaps the entire world by finding a sentient, motherly and cornucopian
planet on his first space flight and bringing her gifts back home; too
often the plot fades away into psychodrama. WT himself said that his work
was autobiographical. His early death perhaps kept him from telling a
whole story. [JC]See also: ROBOTS.

(1928-1989) The premier artist in the world of Japanese manga ( COMICS)
and animation, in both of which he established a standard. He began
contributing serial comic strips to a regional newspaper in 1946 while in
junior college. He became a leader in Japanese comics with Shin Takarajima
["The New Treasure Island"] (1947). Most of today's Japanese comics
illustrators grew up strongly influenced by OT. His most famous creation
was the Tetsuwan Atom series (1952 on; in trans as Astroboy], which began
as a series in the children's magazine Shonen. It was eagerly welcomed not
only by comics lovers but also by sf fans all over JAPAN, because his
stories showed a real sense of the feeling of modern sf which at that time
had been grasped by few Japanese writers. Most of his work was for
children, but he published in general magazines also, and 2 pure-sf
serials appeared in SF Magajin ["SF Magazine"], SF Fancy Free (1963) and
Chojin Taikei ["Rise and Fall of the Bird-Human Race"] (1971-5). These
were highly esteemed by sf fans, who are normally severe towards comics.In
1952 OT established an animation studio, Mushi Productions, produced
several full-length animated films, and then began work on the first
animated series for Japanese tv, Tetsuwan Atom (1963 onwards), famous in
the West as Astroboy. This was the dawn of "Japanimation". He is often
looked upon as a Japanese Walt Disney, but failed to elevate his company
to a major enterprise, being a better artist than businessman. His main
other comics series were Jungle Taitei (1950 on; trans as Kimba, The White
Lion), later a tv series, the Black Jack series (1973 on), and the Hi No
Tori ["The Phoenix"] series (1966 on), selected sections of which were
made into feature films, some live and some animated: one which appeared
in the West was the animated Hi No Tori: 2772 (1979; vt Space Firebird
2772; vt Phoenix 2772), dir OT with Suguru Sugiyama, which tells of the
attempted capture of a cosmic space firebird whose life-blood may
rejuvenate Earth. [TSh]

[s] Milton LESSER.


(1902-1959) Prolific and once immensely popular US novelist - his first
novel, the courtroom drama Thirteen Men (1930), was reprinted 40 times in
20 years. After the success of Tiffany Thayer's Three Musketeers (1939),
he devoted most of his remaining years to an enormous historical work,
Tiffany Thayer's Mona Lisa; of 7 projected instalments, only the 1200pp
The Prince of Taranto (1956) ever appeared. TT's sf includes The Greek
(1931), about a NEAR-FUTURE dictatorship, Doctor Arnoldi (1934), which
recounts the grisly implications of being both immortal ( IMMORTALITY) and
unkillable, and One-Man Show (1937), a Thorne-Smith-like comedy of the
afterlife. He was an enthusiastic follower of Charles FORT, founding the
Fortean Society and editing its publication Doubt for many years. Although
unknown today except for this affiliation, TT exerted an influence that
has yet to be assessed: his highly kinetic, sardonic prose was almost
certainly known to Alfred BESTER, and his Mona Lisa project may well have
coloured the description of Fellowes Kraft's opus in John CROWLEY's AEGYPT
(1987). [GF]Other works: 33 Sardonics I Can't Forget (anth 1946).About the
author: Charles Fort, Prophet of the Unexplained (1970) by Damon KNIGHT
contains some material on TT.

Sf literature and theatre have much in common, as both rely heavily on
the audience's imagination, yet the two forms have rarely been combined in
a significant dramatic work. The principal reason seems to be a widely
held assumption that the theatre, with its physical limitations, cannot
plausibly present the fantastic vistas which sf writers envision. "Writing
an sf play is a bit like trying to picture infinity in a cigar box," Roger
ELWOOD declared in his introduction to Six Science Fiction Plays (anth
1976), the only such anthology in existence. Thus, though more than 300 sf
dramas have been catalogued, the history of theatrical sf is largely that
of various playwrights influenced by the genre, but with no commitment to
it. (The parenthetical references given in this article are to cities and
years of premieres; only when no such date is known is the earliest
publication date used.)Although some scholars detect speculative elements
in the plays of Aristophanes and even Shakespeare's The Tempest, the
earliest dramas with sf premises were adaptations. Richard Brinsley
Peake's Presumption, or The Fate of Frankenstein (London, 1823) began a
history of more than 100 plays inspired by Mary SHELLEY's novel
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (1818; rev 1831). Adaptations of
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) appeared almost immediately
after Robert Louis STEVENSON's novel was published. Jacques Offenbach's
opera Les contes d'Hoffman ["Tales of Hoffman"] (Paris, 1881), based on
stories by E.T.A. HOFFMANN, includes an episode based on "The Sandman", in
which a poet falls in love with a scientist's mechanical doll.The first
significant original plays appeared in the 1920s and 1930s. Karel CAPEK's
R.U.R., in which an army of rebellious ANDROIDS destroys the human race,
introduced the Czech word ROBOT to our language, and enjoyed successful
runs in New York and London after its 1921 premiere in Prague. (Capek
wrote 2 other plays with sf themes.) New York's Theatre Guild premiered
the first play to deal with EVOLUTION, George Bernard SHAW's Back to
Methuselah (1922), and the first atomic-weapons play, Wings Over Europe
(1928) by Robert NICHOLS and Maurice Browne. Russian satirists Vladimir
MAYAKOVSKY (The Bedbug, Moscow, 1929; The Bathhouse, Moscow, 1930) and
Mikhail BULGAKOV (Bliss, 1934; Ivan Vasilievich, 1935-6) used TIME TRAVEL
to expose the foibles of the Soviet bureaucracy.Through the 1950s many
other famous writers produced full-length sf-related dramas of varying
quality, some of them never staged. Arthur KOESTLER's dark comedy Twilight
Bar (Paris, 1946) features 2 ALIENS who threaten to destroy Earth unless
the inhabitants of a small island achieve happiness within 3 days. J.B.
PRIESTLEY (Summer Day's Dream, London, 1949) and Upton SINCLAIR (A Giant's
Strength, Claremont, California, 1948; The Enemy Had it Too, 1950) were
among the many playwrights to speculate on the consequences of nuclear WAR
in the post-Hiroshima period. Elias Canetti (1905- ) wrote 2 plays in
which societies strive towards UTOPIA: by numbering all citizens according
to their predicted death dates (Die Befristeten, Oxford, 1956; trans as
The Numbered; vt Life-Terms), or by banishing mirrors and other tools of
vanity (Komodie der Eitelkeit, written 1934; 1950 Germany; trans as Comedy
of Vanity). Egypt's Tawfik al- HAKIM sent 2 convicted killers into space
in search of a second chance in Voyage to Tomorrow (1950). Gore VIDAL's
play Visit to a Small Planet (1956; 1960), filmed in 1960, is claimed as
one of the most successful sf plays ever staged.Since the 1950s various
writers have adapted sf narratives for the theatre, but their results have
seldom been satisfactory. An exception is Ray BRADBURY, who relied on
simple staging techniques to dramatize 3 of his short stories in The World
of Ray Bradbury (Los Angeles, 1964; New York, 1965) and THE MARTIAN
CHRONICLES (Los Angeles, 1977). Other sf classics to be adapted have
included H.G. WELLS's THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898; Brainerd Duffield,
1955; Albert Reyes, 1977), John HERSEY's The Child Buyer (1960; Paul
Shyre, 1962), Aldous HUXLEY's BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932; David Rogers, 1970),
George ORWELL's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949; Pavel KOHOUT, 1984) and Walter
M. MILLER's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ (1960; Richard Felnagle, 1986).The
most noteworthy sf dramas since the 1960s have been those by professional
playwrights employing familiar sf premises or iconography for non-sf
purposes. Antonio Buero Vallejo explored the sociological effects of the
Spanish Civil War through the eyes of two scholars from the future in El
tragaluz (Madrid, 1967; trans as The Basement Window). Sam Shepard's "The
Unseen Hand" (New York, 1969) features an alien fugitive who seeks the aid
of 3 Old West outlaws, while his The Tooth of Crime (London, 1972) posits
a society ruled by rock'n'roll stars. David Rudkin's The Sons of Light
(London, 1977) pits a pastor's sons against an evil scientist who has used
myth and brainwashing techniques to create a subterranean slave army. In
Eric Overmeyer's Native Speech (Los Angeles, 1983) the monologues of a
disc jockey influence events in a devastated urban world; in Overmeyer's
On the Verge (Baltimore, 1985) words propel 3 19th-century lady explorers
on a journey through time.Sf has also influenced performance art. In The
Games (West Berlin, 1983) by Meredith Monk and Ping Chong a future society
attempts to preserve its past through Olympic-style rituals. 1000
Airplanes on the Roof (Vienna, 1988), a multimedia collaboration by
playwright David Henry Hwang, composer Philip Glass ( MUSIC) and designer
Jerome Sirlin, is a single-character narrative about a psychological
encounter with aliens.A few playwrights have combined comedy with sf to
reflect modern social problems. Alan Spence's Space Invaders (Edinburgh,
1983) and Constance Congdon's Tales of the Lost Formicans (Woodstock, New
York, 1988) use the alien-encounter premise as a metaphor for the plight
of the individual in a confused world. Alan Ayckbourn employs a mechanical
nanny to explore a similar theme in Henceforward . . . (Scarborough,
1987).Despite the failure of the Broadway musical Via Galactica (Galt
MacDermot, Christopher Gore, Judith Ross, 1972), sf spectaculars have
appeared frequently since the early 1970s. A more successful musical was
Bob Carlton's Return to the Forbidden Planet (Blackheath, England, 1983),
a 1990 hit in London, which covers much the same ground as FORBIDDEN
PLANET (1956) with great good humour and a lot of mainly 1960s rock'n'roll
songs. (For further discussion of sf musical dramas and opera see MUSIC.)
A cult favourite in the USA was Warp! (Chicago, 1971-2; New York, 1973), a
comic trilogy by Stuart Gordon and Lenny Kleinfeld. Its counterpart in
England, Ken Campbell's and Chris Langham's Illuminatus! (Liverpool, 1976;
London, 1977), was a 5-play epic based on the trilogy by Robert SHEA and
Robert Anton WILSON, and was followed by Neil ORAM's 10-part play sequence
The Warp (1979), also dir Ken Campbell. These productions employed a
variety of modern theatrical techniques to create convincingly fantastic
worlds on the stage. [RW]

Film (1954). Warner Bros. Dir Gordon Douglas, starring Edmund Gwenn,
James Whitmore, James Arness, Joan Weldon. Screenplay Ted Sherdeman, based
on a story by George Worthing Yates. 93 mins. B/w.Unexplained deaths
occur, but it is some time before we learn that atomic tests in the US
desert have created gigantism ( GREAT AND SMALL) in a species of ant.
Their nest is located and destroyed, but a queen ant escapes and lays her
eggs in a storm drain beneath Los Angeles, which becomes the setting for
the final battle between giant ants and humans. Along with The THING
(1951) and The BEAST FROM 20,000 FATHOMS (1953), T! was a template for a
series of similar MONSTER MOVIES that followed in the 1950s. It is well
made, and handles its absurd subject with an austere but vivid documentary
style, thus standing out from most of the cheaper and more sensational
variations that followed on the theme. The giant ants were not animated
miniatures but full-scale mock-ups. [JB/PN]See also: HIVE-MINDS; MUTANTS.

(1910-1988) Polish-born author, scriptwriter and photographer, active in
Poland in the 1930s, there editing journals and publishing widely; in the
UK from before the beginning of WWII, he continued publishing in Polish
and French, but increasingly turned to English. He was a member of the
College de 'Pataphysique and founded the Gaberbocchus Press. Given over as
they were to paradox, games of logic and the dislocations of Semantic
Poetry (his own term), ST's novels have never been easy to pigeonhole but
can be thought of - very roughly - as exuberant FABULATIONS. In Professor
Mmaa's Lecture (1953), which comes as close to conventional sf as any of
his books, the eponymous termite lectures his audience on the vast new
primitive creatures called mammals, which are threatening to take over the
world; the book had an introduction by Bertrand RUSSELL. Though they
radically displace the normal world, none of his other fictions could be
called sf; but his last 2 novels - The Mystery of the Sardine (1986) and
Hobson's Island (1988) - assemble many characters from previous books into
worlds which are mirrors of our own - an Anti-Earth floats in the heavens
of the first tale - where they engage in levitations, speculations and
prestidigitations galore. [JC]Other works: Bayamus (1949); Wooff Wooff, or
Who Killed Richard Wagner? (1951); Cardinal Polatuo (1961); Tom Harris
(1967); Special Branch (A Dialogue) (1972 chap); General Piesc, or The
Case of the Forgotten Mission (1976 chap).

(1929- ) US writer and economist, an exponent of the need for alternative
technologies and strategies to survive the turn of the century; his
several texts on these issues culminate in An Alternative Future for
America's Third Century (1976). His sf novel, Teg's 1994: An Anticipation
of the Near Future (1972) with J.M. Scott, carries on these concerns
through a series of dialogues between George ORWELL-Fellowship-winner Teg
and various interlocutors who discuss the course of history leading up to
1994, a time less bad than it might have been (because alternative
technologies were employed), hence the name of the fellowship she has won.
The book, originally circulated in mimeographed form in 1969, was written
to elicit readers' responses, and 60pp of the first printed edn contain
readers' and authors' comments. [JC/PN]

Given in memory of Theodore STURGEON, who died in 1985, to the previous
year's best sf/fantasy story in English under 17,500 words. The TSMA has
been announced annually since 1987 during a July ceremony at the
University of Kansas in Lawrence, at which the JOHN W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL
AWARD is also announced. The winner and place-getters are chosen by a
committee, largely of sf writers, chaired by Orson Scott CARD, with whose
self-published critical magazine Short Form the TSMA is affiliated.
[PN]Winners:1987: Judith MOFFETT, "Surviving"1988: Pat MURPHY, "Rachel in
Love"1989: George Alec EFFINGER, "Schrodinger's Kitten"1990: Michael
SWANWICK, "The Edge of the World"1991: Terry BISSON, "Bears Discover
Fire"1992: John KESSEL, "Buffalo"1993: Dan SIMMONS, "This Year's Class
Picture"1994: Kij Johnson, "Fox Magic"


(1941- ) US writer best known for novels like Saint Jack (1973) and The
Mosquito Coast (1982), which cruelly anatomize their far-flung settings,
and for travel books which do the same. Some of his slighter books are
FABULATIONS, The Black House (1977) is a horror story, and O-Zone (1986)
is an extremely long, seemingly ambitious sf novel set in the familiar
killing ground of a near-future DYSTOPIAN USA, irradiated with traces of
HOLOCAUST, where the rich lurk behind domes and the poor roam a desolated
terrain. It may be that PT thought the venue was original to this book.
Titles of some fantasy interest include Dr. De Marr (1990 UK) and Millroy
the Magician (1993). [JC]See also: MAINSTREAM WRITERS OF SF; POLLUTION;





Film (1988). Alive Films. Dir John CARPENTER, starring Roddy Piper, Keith
David, Meg Foster. Screenplay Frank Armitage (pseudonym of Carpenter),
based on "Eight O'Clock in the Morning" (1963) by Ray NELSON. 94 mins.
Colour.After several not very successful films for major studios ( STARMAN
[1984], Christine [1983]), Carpenter went independent again for this, his
best film for years and, though it did not do much in the marketplace,
most popular with the critics. Based on a 6pp story about the USA being
controlled by disguised ALIENS (partly a satirical attack on tv), it
expands its original cleverly, and is a model of taut, B-movie narrative
skills. In a depression-ridden, conformist USA, Nada (Piper), a labourer,
is puzzled by intimations of something not quite right. He accidentally
discovers a cache of sunglasses that, when worn, reveal subliminal codes
all over the city, urging submission to authority, and also finds that
many wealthier-looking citizens are in fact skull-faced aliens, exploiting
what to them is a Third-World colony. An excellent formula film, TL is
almost something more ambitious as well - but settles for action. [PN]See



1. Film (1951; vt The Thing from Another World). Winchester Pictures/RKO.
Dir Christian Nyby (but see below), starring Kenneth Tobey, Margaret
Sheridan, Robert Cornthwaite, Douglas Spencer, James Arness. Screenplay
Charles Lederer, based on "Who Goes There?" (1938) by Don A. Stuart (John
W. CAMPBELL Jr). 86 mins. B/w.TT was by far the most influential of the
films that sparked off the sf/ MONSTER-MOVIE boom of the 1950s, and
remains one of the most powerful of that decade. The film was actually dir
Howard Hawks, who arranged as a favour that Nyby (an editor on previous
Hawks films) should receive the directing credit. It is full of Hawks's
trademarks: fast pace, overlapping dialogue and an ability to elicit
relaxed, naturalistic performances from the cast. It describes the
discovery of a UFO in the Arctic ice, its retrieval, and the subsequent
series of attacks on a military/scientific base by its thawed-out
occupant, a humanoid, vegetable ALIEN, searching for blood. Hawks wisely
kept the Thing (Arness) off the screen for most of the film; when seen it
is disappointing - and not at all like an "intellectual carrot", as it has
been described. The best things in TT are the increasing tension (every
time a door is opened the audience jumps) and claustrophobia; the gutsy
performance by Sheridan as the wisecracking woman who gives as good as she
gets, especially in the astonishing bondage scene; and the convincing
sense of a nervous group under siege. Typical of adventure films made
during the Cold War, there is a shoot-first-and-ask-questions-later
morality (the scientists who want to communicate with the Thing are seen
as fools); the Cold-War feeling is heightened by the famous last line,
"Keep watching the skies!" [PN/JB]2. Film (1982). Turman-Foster/Universal.
Dir John CARPENTER, starring Kurt Russell, A. Wilford Brimley, T.K.
Carter, Richard Dysart, Charles Hallahan, Richard Masur. Screenplay Bill
Lancaster, based on the Stuart/Campbell story. 109 mins. Colour.Not so
much a remake as a return to the original story, this film reinstates
Campbell's shapeshifting alien that can kill and duplicate the base
workers one by one, with all the PARANOIA that that engenders. It was not
very successful commercially, and was widely criticized as being merely a
string of curiously disgusting special effects (designed by Rob Bottin, an
uncredited Stan Winston and others) without any of the subtlety of the
Hawks version. But the Hawks version, though vivid, was itself not very
subtle, and Carpenter carries his beleaguered working men much further in
extremis emotionally than Hawks would have cared to. Only 2 survive, and
either or both may in fact be alien. There is a case for arguing that the
Carpenter version goes as far as genre movies normally dare, if not
further, in questioning not just the nature of humanity under stress but
its value. Faced by the alien, the humans themselves become inhuman in
every possible way. It is a black, memorable film, and may yet be seen as
a classic. The novelization is The Thing * (1982) by Alan Dean FOSTER.
[PN]See also: CINEMA.


Film (1936). London Films. Dir William Cameron Menzies, starring Raymond
Massey, Cedric Hardwicke, Margaretta Scott, Ralph Richardson, Edward
Chapman, Ann Todd, Maurice Braddell. Screenplay Lajos Biro, H.G. WELLS,
based on Wells's The Shape of Things to Come (1933). 130 mins, cut to 113
mins. B/w.This Alexander Korda production was the most expensive and
ambitious sf film of the 1930s - and, despite the growth of magazine sf
over the next 15 years, the last sf film of any importance until the
1950s. Although Wells himself was closely associated with TTC, it is not
the most satisfactory of the 1930s films based on his work, and was a
box-office failure. The film is divided into 3 parts: the 1st, set in
1940, sees the start of a world WAR that continues for decades; the 2nd,
set in 1970, deals with a community reduced by the war to tribalism until
the arrival of a mysterious "airman", who announces that a new era of "law
and sanity" has begun and quells the local warlords with "Peace Gas"; and
the 3rd takes place in AD2036, when the ruling technocrats have built a
gleaming white UTOPIA and an attempt is being made to fire a manned
projectile into space, using an electric gun, despite (vain) opposition
from effete "artists" who are still maintaining that "there are some
things Man is not meant to know".Characterization and dialogue are weakly
imagined and the rhetoric is preachy and pompous, despite the famously
overblown but moving concluding speech delivered by Raymond Massey, as he
declares of Man: ". . . and when he has conquered all the deeps of space
and all the mysteries of time, still he will be beginning." Wells's belief
that the future of humanity lay with a technocratic elite and his scorn
for the ARTS seemed oddly old-fashioned even in 1936 - not to say
undemocratic. But the visual drama (supported by Arthur Bliss's majestic
musical score), despite static compositions, is exhilarating: the special
effects were by the imported Hollywood expert Ned Mann and director
Menzies was a great production designer (most famously for Gone With the
Wind [1939]). TTC is one of the most important films in the history of sf
CINEMA for the boldness of its ambitions and for the ardour with which it
projects the myth of SPACE FLIGHT as the beginning of humankind's
transcendence. Wells published a version of the script as Things to Come *
(1935). [PN/JB]


Film (1955). Universal. Dir Joseph Newman, starring Jeff Morrow, Faith
Domergue, Rex Reason. Screenplay Franklin Coen, Edward G. O'Callaghan,
based on This Island Earth (fixup 1952) by Raymond F. JONES. 86 mins.
Colour.TIE came closer than any film of its period to capturing the
flamboyant essence of PULP-MAGAZINE sf stories. Unlike most other
early-1950s sf films, which were MONSTER MOVIES, TIE becomes a SPACE OPERA
halfway through; the high cost of special effects required in films of
this type was one reason for their comparative rarity.A nuclear physicist
(Reason), having passed what turns out to have been an IQ test set by
extraterrestrials - he builds an "interociter" from mysterious components
that have arrived in the mail - is conscripted by them, along with other
SCIENTISTS. These include an old girlfriend (Domergue). Several adventures
later the two are taken unwillingly by flying saucer through the "thermic
barrier" to the aliens' planet, Metaluna. The Metalunans hope that the
scientists' expertise in the conversion of elements will provide the
massive amounts of uranium required to keep their atomic shield
functioning, so that it will continue to protect them from meteoritic
bombardment by the sadistic Zahgons. Their arrival is too late; they
witness the death of Metaluna and are returned to Earth by Exeter
(Morrow), the arrogant but sympathetic alien who kidnapped them in the
first place.Newman was a run-of-the-mill director, but it is probable that
Jack ARNOLD (uncredited) directed the Metaluna sequences with the help of
Clifford Stine's extravagant special effects. The sequences are remarkable
not for their realism but for their imaginativeness; they are the closest
sf cinema ever got to the style of ASF's or AMZ's 1930s magazine
covers.TIE can hardly be called a good film, but it is an excellent bad
film, a classic of sf cinema. Its most obvious subtext (what would it feel
like to be the colonized rather than the colonizers?) seems to point
towards isolationism as the best strategy for Earth, but the exoticism of
the offworld sequences, and Exeter's dying speech ("our Universe is vast,
full of wonders . . .") offer powerful propaganda for the contrary
political position, the embrace of otherness. [PN]

Pseudonym of Scottish-born US writer and academic John Macnie
(1836-1909), whose UTOPIA The Diothas, or A Far Look Ahead (1883; vt A Far
Look Ahead, or The Diothas 1890; vt Looking Forward, or The Diothas 1890
UK), set several millennia hence, was prolific with its suggestions of
technological progress while presenting a not untypically regimented
picture of human relations, which are especially constricting for women -
who, if unmarried, go out only with chaperons. Unusually, the book's
protagonist and narrator is himself a native of a future time (a few
centuries hence, which may explain the strangeness of his name, Ismar
Thiusen), and travels from that point into the FAR FUTURE where the main
action takes place. [JC]See also: SLEEPER AWAKES.

Working name of Dutch illustrator Carolus Adrianus Maria Thole (1914- ),
resident in Milan since 1958. The best-known European sf illustrator, KT's
book covers have appeared in virtually every country in continental
Europe, as well as in the UK and the USA (including some for BALLANTINE
BOOKS and DAW BOOKS). But the greatest body of his sf ILLUSTRATION has
been for the publishers Mondadori in Italy and Heyne in Germany; for
considerable periods he has been the only artist working on their sf
lines. His work may be the most sophisticatedly surreal in sf, and it is
not absurd to compare it with that of Max Ernst (1891-1976), Salvador Dali
(1904-1989) or Rene Magritte (1898-1967), all of whom are visible
influences. Symbolic and dreamlike, his covers are often more evocative
than the stories they illustrate. He received a Special Award at the World
SF CONVENTION in Toronto in 1973. A book of his work ed Carlo Fruttero and
Franco Lucentini was published in Italy, and the following year in
Germany, where it was entitled Visionen des Unwirklichen: Die
phantastichen Bilder des Karel Thole ["Visions of the Unreal: The
Fantastic Paintings of Karel Thole"] (1982). [PN/JG]

(1822-1898) US author of a technocratic UTOPIA, The Crystal Button, or
Adventures of Paul Prognosis in the Forty-Ninth Century (1891). The
protagonist travels thence in a dream-state, learns how the peace is
maintained through a rigorous and worldwide attachment to Truth, and, just
as a comet destroys this idyllic civilization, returns to 19th-century
Boston. [JC]

(1942- ) Welsh writer of TECHNOTHRILLERS, most interestingly the Firefox
books - Firefox (1977) and Firefox Down (1983) - about a NEAR-FUTURE
Russian fighter, the MIG-31, which boasts both anti-radar and weapons
operated by thought waves. The former novel was filmed as FIREFOX (1982).
Moscow 5000 (1979), as by David Grant, and Sea Leopard (1981) have less sf
import. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Leonard M. Sanders Jr (1922-1991). In his sf novel
The Seed (1968) a COMPUTER explains the meaning of life to one of its
engineers. [JC]

(1935- ) UK poet and novelist who made use of sf themes most explicitly
in early POETRY like "The Head Rape" for NW in 1968. His The Devil and the
Floral Dance (1978) is a juvenile fantasy. His first adult novels were
densely conceived Freud-inspired FABULATIONS. The Flute-Player (1979), a
fable that depicts the intertwining of art and love, is set in an
imaginary state much like Russia (to which DMT often returns in his
fiction, poetry and translations). Birthstone (1980; rev 1982) features a
protagonist whose several personalities have autonomous lives, and whose
fantasies leak into the world, transforming it. The most successful of
these tales is The White Hotel (1981), in which a graphic and surreal
association in the protagonist's mind between sex and images of mass
violence proves - long after a 1920s analysis by Freud himself - prophetic
of the Final Solution; the book then becomes an extremely dark afterlife
fantasy. The later Ararat sequence - Ararat (1983), Swallow (1984), Sphinx
(1986) and Summit (1987) - adds futurity, politics and garish SATIRE to
the generic mix; and seems, at times, to be sf. [JC]


Working name of UK writer Thomas Hector Martin (1913-1985) in a career
that began just after the end of WWII; he also used the floating pseudonym
Peter SAXON at least once during his association with W. Howard BAKER, for
The Curse of Rathlaw (1968 US) in the Guardians psychic-investigators
series. His first novel, The Evil Eye (1958), was, like many of its
successors, a routine occult tale. [JC]Other works: Bred to Kill (1960);
Assignment Doomsday (1961); Beyond the Spectrum (1964); Laird of Evil
(1965); The Mind Killers (1965); Such Men are Dangerous (1965); Sorcerers
of Set (1966), a contribution to the Sexton Blake Library; The Hands of
Cain (1966; vt The Hand of Cain 1978 US); Brainwashed (1968).

(1951- ) UK writer whose sf novel, Correspondences (1992), is a complexly
crafted presentation of a range of interweaving material, with regard to
which a number of correspondences can be contemplated. The protagonist,
having been transformed into a CYBORG, has developed software which allows
her interact directly with her audience in the telling of her fantasies;
within the frame of this narration, created characters live out lives that
are directly correspondent to their creator's. Correspondences between
machine and human intelligence are also brought into play; and discussed.

(1920- ) US writer and lawyer, prolific in the magazines under his own
name, sometimes rendered Ted Thomas, and as Leonard Lockhard, the
pseudonym he used for his Patent Attorney spoof series (8 stories
1952-64), some of which were with Charles L. HARNESS. He began publishing
sf in 1952 with 2 stories, "The Revisitor" for Space Science Fiction and
"Improbable Profession" (as Lockhard) for ASF, and appeared frequently in
the magazines until about 1980 with tales competently designed for their
markets, the most effective perhaps being those, like "The Weather Man"
(1962), set on a future Earth dominated by a Weather Control Board. With
Kate WILHELM he wrote 2 novels, The Clone (1959 Fantastic as by TLT alone;
exp 1965) and The Year of the Cloud (1970), both featuring unnatural
DISASTERS. The eponymous menace in the first novel represents a rare use
in sf of what is a CLONE in the strict biological sense. [JC]See also:

(1948- ) US writer who began writing sf with The Doomsday Effect (1986),
as by Thomas Wren, which won the Compton Crook Best First Novel AWARD. The
novel describes-in terms that anticipated Greg BEAR's The Forge of God
(1987) and David BRIN's Earth (1990) - the effect upon Earth of a
rampaging BLACK HOLE. The narrative efficiency of the tale, and the
briskly knowledgeable handling of scientific material, marked TTT as a
HARD-SF writer of considerable potential. First Citizen (1987) is a
NEAR-FUTURE tale mixing, in a typical hard-sf manner, POLITICS and
ECONOMICS. An Honorable Defense * (1988) with David A. DRAKE, tied to the
latter's Crisis of Empire sequence (each volume being essentially written
by a different collaborator under Drake's supervision), is military sf,
featuring a disgraced soldier who may be expected to save the Empire,
which will then find that it has been in need of him. The Mask of Loki
(1990) with Roger ZELAZNY is a fantasy set in the 13th and 21st centuries.
Me: A Novel of Self-Discovery (1991) is sf, told from the point of view of
the eponymous AI. Crygender (1992), with an anonymous collaborator,
depicts the hermaphrodite owner of a bordello on Alcatraz Island, by now
owned by a Japanese consortium. Flare (1992), again with Zelazny,
describes with absorbed detail the effects of the short and violent life
of a deadly solar flare. [JC]See also: MEDICINE.


(1924-1993) UK historian and writer, whose highly articulate Marxist
interpretation of the last centuries of UK history is best expressed in
The Making of the English Working Class (1963). His studies of William
MORRIS - William Morris: Romantic to Revolutionary (1955) and The
Communism of William Morris (1965 chap) - are of sf interest, as is his
only novel, The Sykaos Papers: Being an Account of the Voyages of the Poet
Oi Pas to the System of Strim . . . (1988), a laboured SATIRE of Earth
customs seen through the eyes of the poet Oi Pas, who comes from another
planet. [JC]

(1948- ) US writer, often of works for children. Her sf novel Conscience
Place (1984) describes with quiet gravity an apparent UTOPIA hidden in the
US West which is in fact populated by MUTANT nuclear- DISASTER victims.
These people are threatened by the "need" of the scientists who maintain
the refuge to perform GENETIC-ENGINEERING experiments on them. In telling
this emotive tale, JT avoids almost all the traps of sentiment. [JC]Other
works: The Blue Chair (1977); Harry and the Hendersons * (1987; vt Bigfoot
and the Hendersons 1987 UK), a tie based on the film HARRY AND THE
HENDERSONS (1987); East is West of Here: New & Selected Short Stories
(coll 1987).

(1863-1925) US writer in various genres whose The Green Ray (1922-3
Munsey's Magazine as "The Man of the Miracle"; 1924) is hoax rather than
sf, except for some ambivalence surrounding a Black bleached White and
unpleasantly made the basis of a racist denouement. [JC]Other works: The
Carnival of Destiny (1916); The Scarlet Iris (1924).

(1958- ) US writer whose first novel, Virtual Girl (1993), cunningly
updates the icon of the female ROBOT, long a locus for uneasy speculation
among older sf writers (see FEMINISM). Maggie, the protagonist of this
NEAR-FUTURE tale, is an AI and consequently illegal, as independent
artificial intelligences have been outlawed. More humanely, less sharply,
but with a happier outcome than the robot Bildungsromanen for which John
SLADEK became best-known, Virtual Girl carries its robot into what may be
a successful adulthood. AT received the JOHN W. CAMPBELL Award for 1994.

(1941- ) UK writer long resident in the USA, best known for his
nonfiction studies of film. His 2 novels of sf interest were also, in a
sense, film studies. Suspects (1985) is a complex FABULATION, a portrait
of a USA populated - or infiltrated - by a vast extended family of
characters who, the premise argues, have featured at some point in their
lives as protagonists in innumerable films noirs from the period of
Hollywood's prime and dark innocence; at the black heart of the tale sits
the sinister figure of George Bailey, the character portrayed by James
Stewart in Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life (1946). In Warren Beatty: A
Life and a Story (1987; vt Warren Beatty and Desert Eyes: A Life and a
Story 1987 US), chapters which examine the eponymous actor's real life
alternate with chapters of a NEAR-FUTURE tale which dramatize the ideal
life Beatty may be presumed to have indited upon the dream world of film.

[s] Larry T. SHAW.

Pseudonym of UK journalist and writer Cyril Arthur Edward Ranger-Gull
(1874-1923); he also wrote speculative fiction as Ranger Gull. His most
successful work was the alarmist and antisemitic When It Was Dark (1903),
in which faked "scientific evidence" that Christ's resurrection never took
place sends the Christian world into a catastrophic crisis of
demoralization. His later fantasies, stridently championing Christianity,
include several with borderline-sf elements. In Made in His Image (1906) a
bleak futuristic world is redeemed by Christian belief, and in The Angel
(1908) and And it Came to Pass (1915) miracle-working emissaries from God
help show modern mortals the error of their ways. Other borderline-sf
stories signed GT include 2 stories of near-future WAR, The Secret
Sea-Plane (1915) and The Secret Monitor (1918), and a story of
artificially induced DISASTERS, When the World Reeled (1924). Books signed
Ranger Gull include 3 fairly conventional thrillers - The Soul-Stealer
(1906), The Enemies of England (1915) and The Air Pirate (1919) - as well
as the most ambitious of his sf novels, The City in the Clouds (1921),
about an airborne pleasure-palace afloat over London. The detective novel
Black Honey (1913), signed C. Ranger-Gull, has some borderline-sf
elements. Other novels with fantasy elements include the detective story
Doris Moore (1919), the mesmeric fantasy The House of Danger (1920), The
Love Hater (1921) and The Dark Dominion (1923). His translations from the
French include Charles Baudelaire: His Life (1868 France; trans 1915 UK)
by Theophile Gautier (1811-1872), with added material. The latter part of
GT's life was spent in a remote seaside cottage later rented by Neil BELL
- where, Bell learned, GT's behaviour had scandalized the local
population. [BS]Other work: Lucky Mr Loder (1918), a fantasy.See also:

Julian MAY.

[s] Robert SILVERBERG.

Pseudonym of Albert Stearns (? -1899), US dime novelist and author of 2
popular children's books based on the Arabian Nights, Chris and the
Wonderful Lamp (1895) and Sindbad, Smith and Co (1896). He wrote many
kinds of dime novel ( DIME-NOVEL SF), but was best known for marvel
stories written on an almost ABSURDIST level. His most popular was "The
Silent City" (1892 Golden Hours), about adventures in a Fata Morgana city
seen over the Bering Sea. The Boy in Black (1894 Golden Hours; 1907)
describes a weird, irrational supercivilization inside a Western mountain.
"In the World Below" (1897 Golden Hours) anticipates Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS's Pellucidar with adventures in a HOLLOW EARTH after an
earth-borer goes out of control. [EFB]



Made-for-tv film (1984). BBC-TV. Dir Mick Jackson, starring Karen
Meagher, Reece Dinsdale, June Broughton, Henry Moxon, Sylvia Stoker, David
Brierly. Screenplay Barry Hines. 115 mins. Colour.This BBC production, at
once a UK equivalent of The DAY AFTER (1983) and an attempt to update the
harrowing vision of Peter WATKINS's The WAR GAME (1965), is an impressive
and persuasive account of a near-future nuclear attack on the UK, focusing
on the fate of Sheffield. Ordinary people are seen ignoring the escalating
international crisis as they deal with their own problems - the heroine
(Meagher) is a pregnant young girl unsure whether or not to marry - and
are then shattered completely by the coming of war. The civil-defence
forces cannot deal with the extent of the calamity, and traffic wardens
are drafted to supervise summary executions of looters. The film mimics
The War Game's documentary approach as it trots out disturbing statistics.
Finally, it flashes forward a few years to show a medievalized post-
HOLOCAUST UK, brutal and tribalized, bringing this resolutely non-sf
treatment of an sf theme surprisingly close to the surreal horrors of Le

US magazine in the larger, saddle-stapled DIME-NOVEL format for 8 issues,
then PULP-MAGAZINE size. 16 issues, 2 per month, 1 Mar-15 Oct 1919,
published by STREET & SMITH; ed Harold HERSEY (Mar-June 1919) and Ronald
Oliphant (July-Oct 1919). The legendarily rare TB is often cited as the
first SF MAGAZINE, but its initial 8 issues contained no sf, rather
stories intended to provide "thrills" of an occult or weird sort. Only
after Oliphant became editor did TB regularly publish sf stories,
including 2 by Murray LEINSTER (one involving a mad inventor, the other a
biological menace). Others included: an H.G. WELLS-inspired story of
INVISIBILITY by Greye La Spina (1880-1969); a Sax ROHMER-inspired Chinese
supervillain whose inventions include a device for creating black light in
"Mr Shen of Shensi" by H. BEDFORD-JONES; and the satirical "The Man from
Thebes", featuring a reanimated mummy, by William Wallace COOK. Additional
sf by less notable authors treated routinely such sf/ HORROR motifs as
devices to communicate with the dead, drugs that distort the time-sense,
men protected by invisible armour, and LOST WORLDS. TB's most famous story
was The Heads of Cerberus (Aug-Oct 1919; 1952) by Francis STEVENS, a
SCIENCE-FANTASY adventure set predominantly in a Philadelphia located in
an alternate time-track. The definitive work on TB is Richard BLEILER's
obsessively thorough The Annotated Index to The Thrill Book (chap 1991).



US PULP MAGAZINE. 111 issues Aug 1936-winter 1955. Published by Beacon
Magazines, Aug 1936-June 1937; by Better Publications Oct 1937-Aug 1943;
and by Standard Magazines Fall 1943-Winter 1955. Ed Mort WEISINGER (Aug
1936-June 1941), Oscar J. FRIEND (Aug 1941-Fall 1944), Sam MERWIN Jr
(Winter 1945-Oct 1951), Samuel MINES (Dec 1951-Summer 1954) and Alexander
SAMALMAN (Fall 1954-Winter 1955). Leo MARGULIES was editorial director
during Weisinger's and Friend's editorships. TWS began as a regular
bimonthly and changed to monthly Dec 1939-Apr 1941, then back to bimonthly
June 1941-Aug 1943. A quarterly schedule followed, Fall 1943-Fall 1946;
then bimonthly Dec 1946-Aug 1953. The last 6 issues ran Nov 1953, Winter
1954, Spring 1954, Summer 1954, Fall 1954, Winter 1955.TWS was the
continuation, after a brief gap, of Hugo GERNSBACK's WONDER STORIES; the
adjective "Thrilling" was added to the title to bring it into conformity
with other magazines from its new publisher. The issue numeration
continued from Wonder Stories, Aug 1936 being vol 8 #1, so there might be
a case for regarding it as the same magazine. However, its personality
changed. The new magazine was far more garish than its predecessor. The
early covers, by Howard V. BROWN, are said to have been responsible for
the coinage of the term "Bug-Eyed Monsters" (or BEMS), such creatures
being a regular feature of his painting, along with giant dinosaurs,
insects and men. The first 8 issues featured an early sf comic strip
(Zarnak by Max Plaisted) which was abruptly suspended in mid-plot after
the Oct 1937 number. TWS's contributors were mostly second-string authors:
Eando BINDER, Frederick Arnold Kummer (1873-1943), Arthur Leo ZAGAT and
others. It ran a number of popular series, notably John W. CAMPBELL Jr's
Penton and Blake stories, Arthur K. BARNES's Gerry Carlyle stories and the
Hollywood on the Moon series by prolific contributor Henry KUTTNER. An
amateur writers' contest sponsored by the magazine was won by Alfred
BESTER with his first story, "The Broken Axiom" (Apr 1939). TWS was
successful enough to generate 2 companion magazines: STARTLING STORIES, in
Jan 1939, and STRANGE STORIES, featuring mostly weird fiction, in Feb
1939. Startling featured longer stories (a complete novel in each issue,
when possible) and soon became the better magazine. In mid-1940 TWS also
began to proclaim a "complete novel" in most issues, but in actuality the
majority of these were no more than long novelettes. During this boom
period a third companion, CAPTAIN FUTURE, was initiated, and for a little
over a year TWS changed from its habitual bimonthly schedule and appeared
monthly. Earle K. BERGEY succeeded Brown as cover artist with the Sep
1940, issue and was responsible for most subsequent covers; his paintings
switched the emphasis from the BEM to the scantily clad lady being
threatened by it. TWS became more overtly juvenile in the early 1940s with
the introduction of Sergeant Saturn ( STARTLING STORIES).When Merwin
became editor he did away with the magazine's juvenile trappings and
considerably improved it, although it remained evidently secondary to
Startling. It published further noteworthy stories, including many from
Murray LEINSTER, and some "novels" genuinely of novel length: A.E. VAN
VOGT's THE WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER (Feb 1949; fixup 1951), James BLISH's
Jack of Eagles (Dec 1949 as "Let the Finder Beware"; rev 1952; vt ESP-er)
and Leigh BRACKETT's Sword of Rhiannon (June 1949 as "Sea-Kings of Mars";
1953). Ray BRADBURY, whose first solo short story appeared in TWS in 1943,
was a regular contributor, as was Jack VANCE, who also made his debut in
its pages. Vance's Magnus Ridolph series and Kuttner's Hogben stories were
popular features of the Merwin TWS.Although the magazine acquired more
companions in the boom of the early 1950s - Fantastic Story Magazine (
FANTASTIC STORY QUARTERLY) and SPACE STORIES - it soon began to suffer in
the general decline of the pulp-magazine industry. Changes in editor had
little effect, Mines maintaining, approximately, the standard of Merwin's
TWS; he published Philip Jose FARMER's celebrated TABOO-breaking "Mother"
(Apr 1953). The last issue of TWS appeared in Winter 1955, after which the
magazine's title (along with that of Fantastic Story Magazine) was
absorbed into Startling for that magazine's last 3 issues.2 issues of a
reprint magazine, Wonder Stories, revived the old title and continued the
TWS numeration ( WONDER STORIES). 2 UK edns appeared for short periods,
both heavily cut from the original: Atlas Publishing produced 10 numbered
issues (3 in 1949-50, 7 in 1952-3); Pemberton published a further 4,
numbered #101-#104, in 1953-4. A Canadian reprint ran 1945-6 and again
1948-51. [MJE]

Australian magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE format #1-#5, BEDSHEET format #6-#12,
DIGEST format #13-#23, numbered, undated, mostly monthly Mar 1950-June
1952, published by Associated General Publications, Sydney, company name
changed to Transport Publications from #13; mostly ed (uncredited) by
Alister Innes. TI was intended for children. Although US reprints as such
were not used, plagiarism did occur without the publishers' knowledge.
These (with new titles, but originally by Ray BRADBURY, Charles L.
HARNESS, Clifford D. SIMAK, William TENN and others) were the only good
stories printed, although Alan G. YATES contributed some Australian
stories, as did G.C. Bleeck (1907-1971) - some under the name of Belli
Luigi - and Norma Hemming. Some stories were reprinted in the UK AMAZING

US SEMIPROZINE, originally a FANZINE, advertised as quarterly but in the
past often irregular; ed D. Douglas Fratz, #1 Jan 1973 as magazine of the
Maryland Science Fiction Society; it became independent 1977, at which
time Fratz stopped publishing fiction and established the blend of
interviews, articles and reviews, emphasizing controversy and argument,
which has continued since. Always one of the solider journals of
commentary on sf and fantasy, and one of the longest-lasting, T has been 4
times nominated for a HUGO (1980, 1988, 1989, 1990). Beginning with #36,
Spring 1990, T changed its name to Quantum: Science Fiction and Fantasy
Review without major changes to style or format; and in #42, Summer/Fall
1992, Fratz announced that the magazine would end with #43/44. This last
edition, a double-sized 20th anniversary issue, appeared in 1993. Writers
associated with T have included Michael BISHOP, George Alec EFFINGER,
Darrell SCHWEITZER and Ted WHITE. [PN]

UK animated-puppet tv series (1965-6). An AP Films Production for
ATV/ITC. Created Sylvia and Gerry Anderson. Prod Gerry Anderson (season
1), Reg Hill (season 2). Writers included Dennis Spooner, Alan Fennell,
Alan Pattillo. Dirs included David Lane, David Elliott, Desmond Saunders,
Pattillo. Model effects supervised by Derek Meddings. 2 seasons, 32 50min
episodes (re-edited in the USA so that each episode occupied two half-hour
timeslots). Colour.This animated puppet series for children was one of the
most elaborate (and perhaps the best-loved) of all such Gerry and Sylvia
ANDERSON productions, and the first designed for a 1hr timeslot. The 4th
of their SuperMarionation shows to be sf, it involved International
Rescue: based on a secret Pacific Island, this was a future air-, space-
and undersea-rescue service which utilized a variety of spectacular
vehicles (a spaceship, a submersible and a heavily armed pink Rolls Royce
among them) and was run by the Tracy family with the help of Lady
Penelope, their glamorous London assistant, Parker, her Cockney chauffeur,
and Brains, a stuttering bespectacled genius. 2 feature-film spin-offs,
also with animated puppets, were Thunderbirds Are Go (1966) and
Thunderbird Six (1968). [PN/JB]



(1936- ) US writer who published his first story, "Stop Me before I Tell
More", in Orbit 9 (anth 1971) ed Damon KNIGHT, and who was for some years
known only for his short work. This is notable more for its examination of
individual humans caught in social or sexual extremis than for any
specific extrapolative bent, so that moments of genuine insight or threat
tend to be lost in weak plotting. His first novel, Alicia II (1978),
exemplifies this problem, introducing an interesting existential problem
(the brain of an old man is implanted into the body of a young "retread"
and the new amalgam must come to terms with the kind of society which
legitimizes this obscene method of attaining longevity for a few) but
foundering in the telling, which confusedly leads the protagonist into
improbable PULP-MAGAZINE adventures. RT's second independent novel, A Set
of Wheels (in Clarion, anth 1971, as "Wheels"; exp1983), shows the same
difficulty, but his third, Q Colony (in The Berkley Showcase 4 [anth 1981]
ed John W. SILBERSACK and Victoria Schochet as "The Oonaa Woman"; exp
1985), set in a research station on an ALIEN planet whose inhabitants can
interbreed with humans, explores his usual material - sex and identity -
with greater aplomb.It may be, however, that RT will remain best known for
a series of ties, the most significant being his contributions to the
Battlestar Galactica sequence, all with Glen A. LARSON: Battlestar
Galactica * (1978), #2: The Cylon Death Machine*(1979), #3: The Tombs of
Kobol* (1979), #4: The Young Warriors * (1980), #11: The Nightmare Machine
* (1985), #12: "Die, Chameleon!" * (1986), #13: Apollo's War * (1987) and
#14: Surrender the Galactica! * (1987). His sequence of BattleTech ties
begins with Legend of the Jade Phoenix #1: Way of the Clans * (1991), #2:
Bloodname * (1991) and #3: Falcon Guard * (1991). Singleton ties include
Robot Jox * (1989), based on a screenplay by Joe HALDEMAN ( ROBOT JOX),
and Isaac Asimov's Robot City: Robots and Aliens #3: Intruder * (1990).

THX 1138
Film (1971). American Zoetrope/Warner Bros. Dir George LUCAS, starring
Robert Duvall, Donald Pleasence, Maggie McOmie. Screenplay Lucas, Walter
Murch, from a story by Lucas. 88 mins, restored to 95 mins. Colour.A
subterranean future society is governed repressively by COMPUTERS and
bland human technocrats who keep the population under control with drugs.
Everyone wears white clothing, heads are shaven, and sexual intercourse is
forbidden (breeding is by artificial insemination) - it is a truly
sterile, antiseptic world. One of the few dissenters is THX (Duvall), who
experiments with sex; his cellmate becomes pregnant and is liquidated. THX
is imprisoned in a White Limbo but escapes and reaches the surface and
freedom. It is an old and familiar story to sf readers, but Lucas presents
it with panache. He begins with apparently unrelated visual fragments,
accompanied by snatches of dialogue, all of which gradually coalesce to
form a comprehensive DYSTOPIAN nightmare, visually impressive but not
lavish, with a bleak sense of style and a drily witty script.THX 1138,
though a small masterpiece, failed commercially - unsurprisingly since it
is both difficult and downbeat; it did a little better when released again
after the success of Lucas's STAR WARS (1977) with some footage originally
excised by a worried Warner Bros. restored. The novelization is THX 1138 *
(1971) by Ben BOVA. [JB/PN]


(1928-1984) US journalist, novelist and screenwriter, author of the Shaft
series of books about a Black detective, and of scripts for the Shaft
movies, The French Connection (1971) and the supernatural Western High
Plains Drifter (1973), among others. His sf novel, Absolute Zero (1971),
is a NEAR-FUTURE thriller whose protagonist becomes involved in CRYONICS
in an attempt to preserve his accidentally frozen dwarf parents. [JC]

A term used in this encyclopedia to designate a work whose subject matter
is tied to a previous work or concept. In some respects, therefore, a tie
clearly resembles a sequel. However, ties can be differentiated from
sequels in two ways: first, a tie is generally written to occupy a
different format or genre than the work which inspires it - novelizations
are, for instance, often spun off from films, an example being The
Sensitives * (1968), Louis CHARBONNEAU's novelization of a script written
by Deane ROMANO - and, second, a tie is almost always written by some
person other than the author or creator of the original work or concept.
Ties can be spun off, therefore, from almost any kind of source: from
stories, novels, series, comics, films, tv series, BRAIDS and other
SHARED-WORLD enterprises, GAMES AND TOYS, or concepts put out for hire by
packagers like Byron PREISS.The first ties were almost certainly
shared-world anthologies like Mugby Junction * (anth 1866 chap), ed
Charles DICKENS as a special Christmas Number of his journal All the Year
Round; and film novelizations can be found from before WWI, though most
books-of-the-film, until at least 1950, were in fact simple reprintings of
the original novel, sometimes with movie stills inserted. With the
increasing commodification of sf in the 1980s, ties suddenly became very
common, and were often found in conjunction with sharecropping activities.
Ties can be distinguished from SHARECROPS by the fact that ties are
defined by their relationship to the source of their inspiration, while
sharecrops - though they usually involve ties-are, strictly speaking,
works of any sort written for hire.The most interesting tied enterprises
in the 1980s and 1990s are probably shared-world anthologies like George
R.R. MARTIN's WILD CARDS sequence from 1987 and the War World books ed
from 1988 by Jerry POURNELLE, John F. CARR and Roland J. GREEN; but works
of interest can be found through the whole range of the phenomenon.In this
encyclopedia ties are signalled by an asterisk placed between the title
and the date of the work. [JC]

(1928- ) UK writer whose first sf novel, Fade-Out (1975), after the
fashion of borderline works like Fail-Safe (1962) by Eugene BURDICK and
Harvey WHEELER, concentrates long-windedly on the workings of government
and military in a TECHNOTHRILLER context, in this instance displaced
sf-wards by the fact that the action is occasioned by an ALIEN landing
which damps out all electrical impulses ( UFOS). In Mission (1981) Christ
returns to contemporary New York, bearing with him the news that His
crucifixion was one small event in a long SPACE-OPERA conflict between the
Ain-folk and the evil Brax. The Amtrak Wars sequence - The Amtrak Wars #1:
Cloud Warrior (1983), #2: First Family (1985), #3: Iron Master (1987), #4:
Blood River (1988), #5: Death Bringer (1989) and #6: Earth-Thunder (1990)
- more vividly set primitive Mutes against the blindly technocratic Amtrak
Federation in a post- HOLOCAUST USA; as the sequence develops, the
geopolitical realities governing the land become increasingly complex and
the fulfilment of the revelatory Talisman Prophecy-though constantly
deferred - gives succeeding books an increasing momentum. Dark Visions: An
Illustrated Guide to the Amtrak Wars (1984 chap), with Fernando Fernandez,
provides a useful orientation. The sequence, clearly incomplete at the end
of #6, was one of the most compelling sf-adventure series of the decade.
[JC]Other work: Xan (1986), horror.

(1883-? ) UK writer first known for editing Cambridge Poets 1910-1913
(anth 1913), but perhaps best remembered for her 2 sf novels. Set after a
series of HOLOCAUSTS, Concrete: A Story of Two Hundred Years Hence (1930)
contrasts an irreligious DYSTOPIA, which holds under its sway most of the
civilized world, with a pious island UTOPIA; there is much action.
Interestingly, one of the rulers of the dystopia, the head of the Ministry
of Reason, goes by the name of Big Brother. The Approaching Storm (1932)
more conventionally posits a left-wing dictatorship in the UK. [JC]


Film (1979). Orion/Warner Bros. Dir Nicholas Meyer, starring Malcom
McDowell, David Warner, Mary Steenburgen. Screenplay Meyer, from a story
by Karl Alexander, Steve Hayes. Novelized as Time After Time * (1979) by
Alexander. 112 mins. Colour.Dr Stevenson (Warner), whom we soon learn to
be Jack the Ripper, eludes police by stealing the TIME MACHINE from H.G.
WELLS (McDowell) in 1893, and travelling to San Francisco in 1979. The
machine, however, returns, and Wells uses it to pursue the criminal. There
are some good moments in this ingenious movie, with Wells as the alien
naif amazed and baffled by the world of the future (which he had expected
to be utopian), though the mad, affectless Ripper finds its violence and
sleaziness precisely to his taste. But the view, presented rather
labouredly by the film, that 1979 is a period of unparalleled cruelty (and
that Wells could not cope with it), is conceptually tawdry. Steenburgen is
charming as Amy, the not-quite-liberated bank clerk who falls for Wells,
though anybody knowing anything of Wells' real private life will be
astonished to learn that he took Amy back to his own time and they lived
happily ever after as Mr and Mrs Wells! [PN]

Film (1994). Largo International N.V. in association with JVC
Entertainment present a Signature/Renaissance/Dark Horse
EntertainmentProduction. Dir Peter Hyams; exec prod Mike Richardson; prods
include Sam Raimi; screenplay by Mark Verheiden from a story by Richardson
and Verheiden, based on the comics series created by Richardson and
Verheiden; starring Jean- Claude Van Damme, Mia Sara, Ron Silver, Bruce
McGill, Gloria Reuben, Scott Bellis and Jason Schombing. 98 mins.
Colour.Belgian martial-arts performer Van Damme is here asked to extend
his range to therequirements of a romantic lead, a not wholly convincing
exercise. He plays Max Walker,whose wife (Sara) was mysteriously murdered
in 1994, and who now, in 2004, is a timecop for the TEC (Time Enforcement
Commission). Ambitious presidential hopeful Senator McComb (Silver) heads
the government committee that finances TEC, which has effectively become
an arm of government. Walker is sent back to investigate 1994 and later
1929 because somebody has beensending back operatives into history to make
a profit through patents, cheap stocks, etc. The source of the corrupt
senator's campaign funds becomes clear.The film ends in a flurry of time
paradox, less stringently worked out than those of, say, DISASTER IN TIME
(1991). It is all diverting and proficient, with plenty of action, and the
emphasis on governmental conspiracy that is a Hyams trademark, but evokes
memories of other films that have done it better. The time machine, for
instance, recalls BACK TO THE FUTURE (1985).T represents another entry
into film production of a comic-book company,Mike Richardson's Dark Horse,
which earlier in the same year had a fantasy hit with the jokey SUPERHERO
movie The Mask (1994). Director Hyams has a long but not especially
exciting connection with filmed sf, having made CAPRICORN ONE (1977),
OUTLAND(1981, his best) and 2010 (1984). [PN]

One of the early key items of sf TERMINOLOGY, first used by H.G. WELLS in
the title of THE TIME MACHINE (1895). It is, of course, a machine used for

Film (1960). Galaxy Films/MGM. Prod/dir George PAL, starring Rod Taylor,
Alan Young, Yvette Mimieux, Sebastian Cabot. Screenplay David DUNCAN,
based on THE TIME MACHINE (1895) by H.G. WELLS. 103 mins. Colour.Unlike
Pal's WAR OF THE WORLDS (1953), TTM is set in the Victorian era - at least
at the beginning of the film - and it is these sequences, with the
inventor demonstrating his creation to his disbelieving friends amid the
Victorian bric-a-brac of their cosy world, that work the best. After a
visually interesting journey through time (special effects by Wah Chang
and Gene Warren), pausing occasionally - for example, to note the nuclear
bombardment of London in 1966 - the film reduces Wells's angry parable to
a Hollywood sf formula. The parallels between the troglodytic Morlocks and
the Victorian working class and between the beautiful but thoughtless Eloi
and the Victorian upper class are lost. The Time Traveller becomes a
confident, romantic hero, successfully rousing the Eloi to battle against
their ape-like devourers. The disturbing evolutionary perspectives of the
end of Wells's book are also missing. William Ferrari's charming design
for the TIME MACHINE does not compensate for the vulgarization of the
story. [JB/PN]

The fact that TIME TRAVEL into the past disrupts the pattern of
causality, changing or cancelling matters of known fact, has not caused
stories of this kind to be banished from the sf field; instead it has led
to the growth of a subgenre of stories celebrating the peculiar aesthetics
of such paradoxes. The essential paradoxicality of time travel is often
dramatized by asking: "What would happen if I went back in time and killed
my own grandfather?" - a question to which sf writers have provided many
different answers. A time-paradox story usually leads either to a
singularly appropriate reductio ad absurdum or to a cunning literary move
which appears to resolve the paradox by removing or avoiding the seemingly
inevitable contradiction. F. ANSTEY's pioneering fantasy The Time Bargain
(1891; vt Tourmalin's Time Cheques) provided a prototype for the first
kind of story; Fritz LEIBER's "Try and Change the Past" (1958) is a good
example of the latter. Sf writers frequently invoke sweeping metaphysical
hypotheses in the cause of accommodating potential paradoxes; Alfred
BESTER's "The Men who Murdered Mohammed" (1958) does so by providing every
individual with his or her own personal continuum. There are several
notable stories and series about "time police" who try to protect the
world - or, more often, a whole series of ALTERNATE WORLDS - from temporal
upset. Poul ANDERSON's Time Patrol series, Isaac ASIMOV's The End of
Eternity (1955) and John BRUNNER's Times without Number (fixup 1962; rev
1974) are among the most notable of these.The closed loop in time, in
which an event becomes its own cause, is the simplest narrative form of
the time-paradox story, seized upon by several of the contestants invited
by the editor of AMAZING STORIES to find a clever ending for Ralph Milne
FARLEY's "The Time-Wise Guy" (1940). More notable examples include Ross
ROCKLYNNE's "Time Wants a Skeleton" (1941), Bester's "The Push of a
Finger" (1942), P. Schuyler MILLER's "As Never Was" (1944), Murray
LEINSTER's "The Gadget had a Ghost" (1952) and Mack REYNOLDS's "Compounded
Interest" (1956). Greater ingenuity is exercised when these loops become
more complicated, forming convoluted sealed knots. Two classic exercises
in this vein were written by Robert A. HEINLEIN: "By His Bootstraps"
(1941) as by Anson MacDonald and "All You Zombies . . ." (1959), the
latter being a story whose central character moves back and forth in time
and undergoes a sex-change in order to become his own mother and
father.The second fundamental variant of the time-paradox story is that in
which the present from which the time-travellers start is replaced by an
alternative because of the effect (often trivial and unintended) which
they have had upon the past. Nat SCHACHNER's "Ancestral Voices" (1933) is
an early story which uses such a device to expose the absurdities of
ancestor-worship and racism, but the best known example is Ray BRADBURY's
moral fable "A Sound of Thunder" (1952), in which a time-tourist who
treads on a prehistoric butterfly alters the POLITICS of the present for
the worse. Eando BINDER's "The Time-Cheaters" (1940) suggests that time
might have stubbornly ingenious ways of taking care of such threatened
contradictions, and William TENN's "Brooklyn Project" (1948) points out
that observers who change with the world would not notice such
alterations, however drastic they became. In many stories the good
intentions of would-be history-changers go sadly and ironically awry. L.
Sprague DE CAMP's "Aristotle and the Gun" (1958) is a fine example; others
are Poul Anderson's "The Man who Came Early" (1956) and Kirk MITCHELL's
Never the Twain (1987). Works in which such ideas are further extrapolated
and intensively recomplicated tend to feature wars fought through time by
the representatives of alternate worlds ambitious to demolish their
competitors. Jack WILLIAMSON's THE LEGION OF TIME (1938 ASF; 1961) opened
up such imaginative territory for further exploration in Fritz Leiber's
Change War series and Barrington J. BAYLEY's spectacular The Fall of
Chronopolis (1974); the long Timewars series by Simon Hawke (Nicholas
Yermakov) of exuberantly extravagant stories in this vein, begun with The
Ivanhoe Gambit (1984), is still continuing.The potential which
time-travellers have to exist twice in the same time is considered so
uniquely unreasonable as to be specifically proscribed in stories like
Wilson TUCKER's The Lincoln Hunters (1957), where the restriction opens up
potential for ingenious plotting, as it does also in John VARLEY's
elaborate paradox-avoidance story Millennium (1983). However, other
writers - including such non-genre writers as Osbert SITWELL in The Man
who Lost Himself (1929) and Eliot Crawshay-Williams (1879-1962) in "The
Man who Met Himself" (1947) - have been particularly intrigued by the
possible psychological effects of a person's meeting with a later version
of his or her own self. Ralph Milne FARLEY's "The Man who Met Himself"
(1935) is an early example from the sf PULP MAGAZINES. Later sf writers
have casually extended this notion to its absurd limits, displayed by
Barry N. MALZBERG in "We're Coming Through the Window" (1967) and David
GERROLD in The Man who Folded Himself (1973), the latter being a notable
if silly story which conscientiously attempts to compile a narrative
portmanteau of all possible time paradoxes.Sf writers who have made
particularly prolific and ingenious use of time-paradox plots include
Charles L. HARNESS, whose many works in this vein extend from the early
"Time Trap" (1948) and "Stalemate in Space" (1949; vt "Stalemate in Time")
to Krono (1988) and Lurid Dreams (1990), and Robert SILVERBERG, whose even
more numerous contributions range from the early "Hopper" (1956 Infinity;
exp as The Time-Hoppers 1967) and Stepsons of Terra (1958) through the
convoluted Up the Line (1969) to the neat "Many Mansions" (1973) and the
smooth "The Far Side of the Bell-Shaped Curve" (1982).The time-paradox
story may have posed an attractive challenge to sf writers but it has also
been something of a wasting asset. All the elementary changes have been
rung, and it now requires considerable cunning to find a new twist or even
to redeploy an old one in more pointed or poignant fashion. Nevertheless,
there still remains a good deal of life in the subgenre: Bob SHAW's Who
Goes Here? (1977) slickly exploits the comic potential of the theme;
Hilbert SCHENCK's A ROSE FOR ARMAGEDDON (1982) is a brilliantly
recomplicated timeslip romance; Walter Jon WILLIAMS's Days of Atonement
(1991) interrelates time paradox and quantum physics; and John CROWLEY's
Great Work of Time (1989 in coll NOVELTY; 1991) cleverly recombines
several well worn themes to striking quasi-surreal effect. [MJE/BS]

Film (1983). Zoomo Productions/Jensen Farley Pictures. Dir William Dear,
starring Fred Ward, Belinda Bauer, Peter Coyote, Ed Lauter, L.Q. Jones.
Screenplay Dear, Michael Nesmith. 92 mins. Colour.This TIME-TRAVEL Western
prefigures the more successful BACK TO THE FUTURE PART III (1989) in its
juxtaposition of 20th-century technology and the generic conventions
associated with tales of the 19th century. Motorcycle ace Lyle Swann
(Ward) blunders into a time-travel experiment and is zapped back to the
Old West, where he tangles with outlaw varmint Peter Coyote, terrifies the
superstitious Mexicans and romances Belinda Bauer so that he can turn out
to be his own great grandfather. Despite the amiable cast and pleasant
scenery, the film, like its hero, does little but ride around in circles
in the desert. Nesmith, the co-screenwriter, ex-member of the pop group
The Monkees, went on to produce Alex Cox's REPO MAN (1984). [KN]


US sf publishing imprint, issuing both hardcover and paperback, whose
logo first appeared in Mar 1981 and whose last titles were published in
1984. TB was formed by Simon & Schuster and Pocket Books (owned by the
former), for both of whom David G. HARTWELL had been director of sf, and
he was set in charge of the new imprint. It was named after the resonant
title of Gregory BENFORD's successful novel TIMESCAPE (1980), which had
been published by Simon & Schuster; Benford was paid a licensing fee, and
published 2 books - Against Infinity (1983) and Across the Sea of Suns
(1984) - with the imprint. TB was prestigious and influential. However,
despite publishing good books which won awards, it did not produce
bestsellers, was hit by the economic downturn of the early 1980s, and soon
folded. There is an argument over whether Hartwell chose the wrong books
or if publicity and packaging were inadequate. TB publications included
many books of somewhat literary sf and fantasy, such as Philip K. DICK's
The Divine Invasion (1981), John M. FORD's The Dragon Waiting (1983), Lisa
GOLDSTEIN's The Red Magician (1982), which won a National Book Award,
Nancy KRESS's The Prince of Morning Bells (1981), Frederik POHL's The
Years of the City (1984), Hilbert SCHENCK's A Rose for Armageddon (1982)
and Gene WOLFE's Book of the New Sun tetralogy (1980-83). TB NEBULA
winners were The Claw of the Conciliator (1981) by Wolfe and No Enemy But
Time (1982) by Michael BISHOP; as Benford's Timescape had won in 1981, TB
effectively scooped the Nebula pool 3 years running. With hindsight, the
story of TB can be seen as a moral fable of central importance in the
history of US sf publishing, which has certainly been - in the main - a
more cynical business since TB's demise. [PN]

(vt The Atomic Man US) Film (1956). Merton Park/Allied Artists. Dir Ken
Hughes, starring Gene Nelson, Faith Domergue, Peter Arne, Vic Perry.
Screenplay Charles Eric MAINE. 93 mins, cut to 76 mins US.
B/w.Undistinguished UK thriller whose sf concept is that an atomic
scientist, who temporarily died for 71/2 seconds on the operating table
while a bullet was being dug out of his back, now lives mentally exactly
71/2 seconds in the future. The sf implications are mostly left unexplored
in what is essentially a hard-bitten-reporter-investigating-crime story.
The same notion was later treated more intensively by Brian W. ALDISS in
"Man in his Time" (1965) and by Eric BROWN in "The Time-Lapsed Man"
(1988). Maine's The Isotope Man * (1957) was based on his script. [PN]



It is a great literary convenience to be able to move a narrative
viewpoint backwards or forwards in time, and writers have always been
prepared to use whatever narrative devices come to hand for this purpose.
Until the end of the last century dreams were the favoured method -
perhaps most significantly deployed in Charles DICKENS's A Christmas Carol
(1843) and Edgar Allan POE's "A Tale of the Ragged Mountains" (1844) -
although entirely arbitrary timeslips were also used, while characters
could be brought from the past into our own time via various
SUSPENDED-ANIMATION devices, including CRYONIC preservation, extended
sleep and drugs, as in Grant ALLEN's "Pausodyne" (1881). H.G. WELLS's THE
TIME MACHINE (1895) was a crucial breakthrough in narrative technology,
providing sf with one of its most significant facilitating devices,
ultimately used in this instance to survey the kind of FAR FUTURE and END
OF THE WORLD prophesied (erroneously) by contemporary scientific
knowledge. The idea of employing a hypothetical MACHINE as a literary
device, using a jargon of apology to add plausibility, was not entirely
new, but this particular deployment of it was so striking as to constitute
a historical break and a great inspiration. Oddly enough, Wells never
again used such a device, leaving its further exploitation to others. The
earliest writers to take up the challenge included Alfred JARRY in his
classic essay in 'pataphysics, "How to Construct a Time Machine" (1899);
the anonymous "A Disciple" (of Wells), who borrowed the machine in order
to explore The Coming Era, or Leeds Beatified (1900); and H.S. MACKAYE,
whose eponymous time machine in The Panchronicon (1904) is unashamedly
ludicrous. Most UK writers of SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE, however, continued to
prefer visionary fantasy as a method of time-exploration - E.V. ODLE's The
Clockwork Man, (1923) is one honourable exception - and it was left to the
US pulp writers to show what really might be done with time machines if
one had the imaginative daring to employ them. Even the pulp writers
remained relatively modest in their time-jaunting until the 1920s,
although William Wallace COOK's A Round Trip to the Year 2000 (1903
Argosy; 1925) deals sarcastically with the accumulation of time-travellers
to be expected in the magical millennial year. MAINSTREAM WRITERS who
found literary dreams becoming increasingly unfashionable had more and
more recourse to arbitrary timeslips, and there is a curious subgenre of
"timeslip romances" whose affective power is very often concentrated into
love stories, although the real emotional substrate is nostalgia. "Arria
Marcella" (1852) by Theophile Gautier (1811-1872), although its timeslip
is "rationalized" as a visionary fantasy, provides an archetypal example
of the peculiarly heated eroticism with which such stories are sometimes
endowed. Henry James (1843-1916) spent the last few years of his life
working on The Sense of the Past (1917), but left it incomplete; it
inspired the play Berkeley Square (1929) by J.L. Balderston and J.C.
Squire (1884-1958) which was memorably filmed in 1933. Other notable
timeslip romances include Still She Wished for Company (1924) by Margaret
Irwin (1889-1967), The Man in Steel (1939) by J. Storer CLOUSTON, Portrait
of Jennie (1940) by Robert NATHAN, Time Marches Sideways (1950) by Ralph
L. FINN, Time and Again (1970) by Jack FINNEY, Bid Time Return (1975) by
Richard MATHESON, The Dream Years (1986) by Lisa GOLDSTEIN and Serenissima
(1987) by Erica JONG. "Psychological timeslips", by means of which
protagonists are permitted to relive their lives with the aid of a mature
and knowledgeable consciousness, are featured in The Devil in Crystal
(1944) by Louis MARLOW, Strange Life of Ivan Osokin (1947) by P.D.
Ouspensky (1878-1947), Replay (1986) by Ken Grimwood and Changing the Past
(1989) by Thomas BERGER. Significant timeslip "anti-romances" include A
Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court (1889) by Mark TWAIN and Friar's
Lantern (1906) by G.G. Coulton (1858-1947), the latter being written to
dispel the nostalgic illusions about the Medieval Church harboured by G.K.
CHESTERTON and Hilaire BELLOC. Within pulp sf, writers were quick to grasp
the nettle, using time machines to explore both past and future, often
venturing speculations about the nature of time. Even a mediocre pulp
writer like Ray CUMMINGS could get entranced by such mysteries, although
such romances as The Man who Mastered Time (1924 Argosy; 1929) - which
obligingly defines time as "what keeps everything from happening at once"
- and The Shadow Girl (1929 Argosy; 1947) cannot take such philosophizing
very far. Ralph Milne FARLEY, whose time stories - begun with "The Time
Traveler" (1931) - were collected in The Omnibus of Time (1950), did a
little better, and John TAINE (a professional mathematician) set new
standards of sophistication in The Time Stream (1931 Wonder Stories;
1946). Theories about the nature of time, especially those put forward by
J.W. DUNNE, also influenced non-genre writers - the most conspicuous
example being J.B. PRIESTLEY, in his various Time plays - but the
mainstream fictions inspired by that interest were understandably more
modest.Certain periods of the past have always attracted time-travellers
because of their melodramatic potential. The Age of the Dinosaurs was
inevitably the biggest draw - even to people who could only stand and
stare, like the users of the time-viewer in Taine's Before the Dawn
(1934); it was later to become a favourite era for hunters, as in Ray
BRADBURY's "A Sound of Thunder" (1952) and L. Sprague DE CAMP's "A Gun for
Dinosaur" (1956). Meeting famous people has also been a favourite theme,
and Manly Wade WELLMAN was the first writer to allow a timeslipping hero
to become somebody famous, in Twice in Time (1940 Startling Stories;
1957). Some of the more scrupulous pulp writers thought that time travel
into the past really belonged to the realms of fantasy because of the TIME
PARADOXES thus generated, and the first classic timeslip romance from a
genre writer, De Camp's LEST DARKNESS FALL (1939; 1941; rev 1949), was
initially published in Unknown Worlds for this reason. Others had fewer
scruples, and many writers gleefully set about exploiting the peculiar
aesthetics of time paradoxes. In fact, despite the dubious propriety of
its literary device, De Camp's novel - like Wells's THE TIME MACHINE -
warrants serious consideration as sf because of the conscientious way in
which it employs its displaced viewpoint, the protagonist here being used
to explore the crucial but subtle role played in HISTORY by
TECHNOLOGY.Inevitably, the main focus of pulp sf interest was in the
melodramatic potential of time travel, as first displayed by Cummings and
then taken to exotic extremes by such writers as John Russell FEARN, in
Liners of Time (1935 AMZ; 1947), and Jack WILLIAMSON, in his pioneering
1961). Timeslipping was similarly taken to extremes in Murray LEINSTER's
"Sidewise in Time" (1934), in which whole regions of the Earth's surface
slip into anachronistic conjunction - an idea later redeployed by Fred
HOYLE in October the First is Too Late (1966). Individuals and objects
timeslipped from the future cause havoc in the present in a number of
famous sf stories, including "The Twonky" (1942) and "Mimsy Were the
Borogoves" (1943) by Lewis Padgett (Henry KUTTNER and C.L. MOORE),
"Child's Play" (1947) by William TENN and "The Little Black Bag" (1950) by
C.M. KORNBLUTH. These stories appeared during the period when the
elementary plot-possibilities of time paradoxes were also being
comprehensively explored. The cavalier use made of time travel by the
early genre writers did beg certain important questions; the language
problem which would be faced by time-travellers was overlooked until De
Camp pointed it out in "The Isolinguals" (1937) and his essay "Language
for Time Travelers" (1938), and was frequently ignored thereafter,
although this too became a plot-gimmick in the 1940s, in such stories as
"Barrier" (1942) by Anthony BOUCHER. Other sharp idea-twisting stories of
the period include C.L. Moore's "Vintage Season" (1946) as by Lawrence
O'Donnell, in which future time-tourists are drawn to our NEAR FUTURE for
reasons which ultimately become clear, and T.L. SHERRED's "E for Effort"
(1947), which sets out with compelling logic the reasons why the invention
of a time-viewer would bring about the END OF THE WORLD.The capacity of
time travel to generate fresh plot-twists capable of sustaining stories on
their own inevitably declined in the 1950s, by when all kinds of time
travel had been routinized into part of the standard vocabulary of sf
ideas; this was the heyday of the "time police" story, in which vast
manifolds of ALTERNATE WORLDS were routinely patrolled by cunning secret
agents or historical conservationists. The 1960s, however, brought a new
sophistication to treatments of now-classic themes and a new
thoughtfulness to metaphysically inclined stories, particularly but by no
means exclusively in connection with the UK NEW WAVE. J.G. BALLARD's
fascination with time is reflected in many of his early stories, including
"The Voices of Time" (1960), "Chronopolis" (1960), "The Garden of Time"
(1962) and THE CRYSTAL WORLD (1966). The timeslip story was remarkably
refined by Brian W. ALDISS in "Man in his Time" (1965), which features a
very slight but distressing slip, and Aldiss also wrote the best of
several "reversed time" stories, An Age (1967; vt Cryptozoic! US and later
UK edns); others are Philip K. DICK's Counter-Clock World (1967) and
Martin AMIS's Time's Arrow (1991). A psychological timeslip story
underpinned by split-brain research, then very fashionable, is Colin
WILSON's "Timeslip" (1979). The linguistic problems of time-travellers
were thrown into sharper focus by David I. MASSON's "A Two-Timer" (1966).
The Age of the Dinosaurs gave way to the Crucifixion as a key focus of
interest, as in Michael MOORCOCK's BEHOLD THE MAN (1966 NW; exp 1969) and
Brian EARNSHAW's Planet in the Eye of Time (1968). Theodore L. THOMAS's
"The Doctor" (1967) cynically re-examines the potential available to the
time-traveller to operate as an apostle of progress. This kind of
narrative sophistication of idea-twists extended into the 1970s in such
stories as Robert SILVERBERG's "What We Learned from this Morning's
Newspaper" (1972), James TIPTREE Jr's "The Man who Walked Home" (1972),
Garry KILWORTH's "Let's Go to Golgotha" (1975) and Ian WATSON's "The Very
Slow Time Machine" (1978).The metaphysics of time continues to intrigue
writers inside and outside the genre; notable recent works deploying ideas
of this kind include Chronolysis (trans 1980) by Michel Jeury (1934- ) and
When Time Winds Blow (1982) by Robert P. HOLDSTOCK. The oppressions of
determinism are bewailed in Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's Slaughterhouse 5 (1979).
Action-adventure stories involving time travel have, inevitably, continued
to reach new extremes of narrative extravagance, but at the same time have
shown an increasing willingness to become involved with the intimate
details of real history, and hence with its presumed dynamics. Such works
as David LAKE's The Man who Loved Morlocks (1981), Connie WILLIS's "Fire
Watch" (1982) and DOOMSDAY BOOK (1992), Michael BISHOP's NO ENEMY BUT TIME
(1982), David DVORKIN's Time for Sherlock Holmes (1983), Tim POWERS's THE
ANUBIS GATES (1983), Howard WALDROP's Them Bones (1984), Jack L. CHALKER's
Downtiming the Nightside (1985) and Vernor VINGE's Marooned in Realtime
(1986) combine playfulness and seriousness in an artful fashion which is
squarely in the tradition of THE TIME MACHINE. Even such frank melodramas
as DR WHO and Julian MAY's series begun with The Many-Colored Land (1981),
and such knockabout comedies as Ron GOULART's The Panchronicon Plot (1977)
and Simon Hawke's (Nicholas Yermakov's) Timewars series, begun with The
Ivanhoe Gambit (1984), have implications which are not simply left to
languish as throwaway ideas.A variant of the time-travel story which
requires brief mention is the time-distortion story, pioneered by Wells in
"The New Accelerator" (1901), which is about a device that "speeds up"
time for its users and makes the world seem almost to freeze; a similar
hypothesis is explored in Arthur C. CLARKE's "All the Time in the World"
(1952). A device with a contrary effect is deployed in John GLOAG's Slow
(1954), and ALIENS for whom time moves exceedingly slowly are featured in
Eric Frank RUSSELL's "The Waitabits" (1955). More sophisticated stories of
subjective time-distortion include Masson's "Traveller's Rest" (1965) and
Eric BROWN's "The Time-Lapsed Man" (1988), and more extravagant
distortions are featured in Dick's Ubik (1969) and Gordon R. DICKSON's
Time Storm (1977).However paradoxical it may be, time travel will remain a
central element in the sf tradition, and the time machine - whether
modelled on the bicycle, the cummerbund or the police telephone box - will
doubtless retain its status as the ultimate literary-device-made-machine.
An interesting book on the subject is Time Travel in Physics, Metaphysics,
and Science Fiction(1993 by Paul J. Nahin. [MJE/BS]

Made-for-tv film (1976). Irwin ALLEN.

Film (1964). Dobil/AIP. Dir Ib Melchior, starring Preston Foster, Philip
Carey, Merry Anders, John Hoyt. Screenplay Melchior, from a story by
Melchior and David Hewitt. 85 mins. Colour.Melchior is best known as a
(1965) and DEATH RACE 2000 (1975). This is one of his few films as
director. A group of scientists travel through a time portal 107 years
into the future, where they find a world a little like an updated version
of that in H.G. WELLS's The Time Machine (1895) - indeed, the film was
conceived as a sequel to the film The TIME MACHINE (1960). After the
HOLOCAUST a human society living underground battles against MUTANTS on
the surface, while using their ANDROID associates to help them build a
spaceship for their escape from Earth. This uneven but vigorous film is
inventive ( MATTER TRANSMISSION, hydroponics, all sorts of incidental sf
tropes), not least in the final trapping of the scientists in a
deterministic time loop, unable to influence events. David Hewitt's
special effects are sometimes good (nicely displeasing androids), but it
is unclear why he went on to direct the unnecessary remake, JOURNEY TO THE
CENTER OF TIME (1967), only 3 years later. Irwin ALLEN was clearly
influenced by TTT to make the tv series The TIME TUNNEL (1966-7). [PN]


US tv series (1993- ). Gary Nardino Productions in association with
Lorimar Television. Created by/Co-exec prod Harve Bennett, Jeffrey Hayes,
Grant Rosenberg. Exec prod Gary Nardino. Starring Dale Midkiff , Elizabeth
Alexander, Mia Sara. Writers include Bennett, Harold Gast, David Loughery.
Two-hour pilot Jan 1993, written by Bennett,directed by Lewis Teague.
Series proper, beginning in 1993, around 45 one-hour episodes to
date.Harve Bennett is an almost legendary figure in sf tv production and
writing, and fulfilled both those roles on THE INVISIBLE MAN (tv series
1975-76), THE BIONIC WOMAN (tv series 1976-8), GEMINI MAN (tv series
1976), THE SIX MILLION DOLLAR MAN (tv series 1973-78), amongothers, and
also on most of the STAR TREK movies: his metier being the creation of
populist,action-packed, comparatively routine sf adventure. TTis more of
the same, and runs in syndication to independent tv stations. In the year
2192 police officer Captain Darien Lambert (Midkiff) finds that major
criminals are disappearing, and discovers that megalomaniac physicist Dr
Mordecai Sahmbi (Peter Donat) is sending criminals back in time to the
20th century, indeed to our present day. He follows them there.Apart from
the time travel, and a few super-scientific accessories for Lambert
(including Selma, a mainframe computer contained in something that looks
like a credit card and can project a female hologram in visual mode,
played by Elizabeth Alexander), most of the action is not especially
science fictional, and is more concerned with running down criminals
hiding out in our time. There is a degree of humour in Lambert's attempts
to adjust culturally to 20th-century customs. Lambert has superpowers by
our standards (IQ 204, runs the 100 metres in 8.6 secs, can use "time
stalling" to slow down visual perception and thus react faster) butthese
are not unusual, we are told, for the 22nd century.TT has been popular
according to surveys with young men. The series is filmed in Australia,
and some post-production is also Australian. [PN/GF]

US tv series (1966-7). An Irwin Allen Production for 20th Century-Fox
Television/ABC TV. Created Irwin ALLEN, also executive prod. Writers
included William Welch, Wanda and Bob Duncan. Dirs included Allen (pilot
only), Sobey Martin, J. Juran. 1 season. 30 50min episodes. Colour.Dr Tony
Newman (James Darren) and Dr Doug Phillips (Robert Colbert) are trapped in
time after testing a defective TIME MACHINE, which takes the form of a
spiral vortex and is controlled by military personnel. Their military and
civilian colleagues can see what is happening to them but are unable to
return them to the present; efforts in this direction conveniently switch
the travellers to a new time-period every week, usually 5 mins from the
end of an episode, leaving them at a cliffhanger. Tony and Doug spend more
time in the past than in the future, in such venues as the Alamo, the
Little Big Horn, the Titanic, the walls of Jericho and Pearl Harbor, just
as dangerous events are about to take place; thus a good deal of stock
footage could be utilized. Rather more fantastic episodes featured Merlin
and the vengeful ghost of Emperor Nero. Writing, performances and sets
were dire. 2 novelizations are The Time Tunnel * (1967) and Timeslip! *
(1967) by Murray LEINSTER. [JB]

(1933- ) UK writer whose sf/fantasy Atlantis trilogy - The Seedbearers
(1974), The Power of the Serpent (1976) and Twilight of the Serpent (1977)
- deals in occasionally occult terms with ATLANTIS and its fall, moving
subsequently to the founding of civilization in Britain, where Atlantean
impulses might be preserved. [JC]

(1892-1943) UK-born illustrator and writer, in South Africa from 1912.
The Ship that Sailed to Mars (1923), his only fiction, is more fantasy
than sf, though it does describe in glowing detail the fitting up of a
SPACESHIP and its trip to MARS. But WMT's astonishingly evocative
illustrations to the text - for which the original quarto edn of the book
is now heavily collected - strongly underline the surreal nature of the
tale. [JC]

[s] Philip Jose FARMER.

(1729-1774)French author of some works of fantasy and a
PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION work, Giphantie (1760; trans anon in 2 vols as
Giphantia, or A View of What Has Passed, What is Now Passing, and During
the Present Century, What Will Pass in the World 1761 UK). A traveller in
Africa witnesses a prelapsarian world, a possibly farcical vision of world
history as being governed by the effects of emblematical trees grown from
the One Tree in Eden, and a HOLLOW EARTH via which the protagonist returns
to Europe. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer and psychologist Alice Hastings Bradley Sheldon
(1915-1987), who was widely assumed to be a man, despite the deeply felt
rapport she displayed for women in stories like "The Women Men Don't See"
(1973), until her identity was exposed in 1977; she also wrote several
stories as Raccoona Sheldon. She was born in Chicago, spent much of her
childhood in Africa and India and worked in the US Government for many
years, including a period in the Pentagon; this much was known about JT,
but was wrongly assumed to describe a masculine career. Her mother, Mary
Hastings Bradley, was a well known geographer and travel author of 35
books; her father was a lawyer and traveller. After a short pre-WWII
career as an artist and the later work whose details she shared with her
pseudonym, she left the CIA in 1955 and attended college, acquiring a PhD
in experimental psychology in 1967. She began writing as JT in 1967 -
though she had, in fact, as Alice Bradley, published her first, non-sf,
story, "The Lucky Ones" for The New Yorker, as early as 1946.Though she
wrote some novels, JT will be best remembered for her many extraordinary
sf stories. Her first efforts - she began with "Birth of a Salesman" for
ASF in 1968 - were not, perhaps, very remarkable, showing some dis-ease
and an intermittent tendency to protest too vehemently that she-the JT
telling the tale - was just folks; but within a few years she shot into
her prime, and between 1970 and about 1977 produced at great speed and
with great concentration her finest work. Almost all of her best stories
appeared in 4 collections - Ten Thousand Light-Years from Home (coll 1973;
reset with fewer errors 1975 UK), Warm Worlds and Otherwise (coll 1975),
Star Songs of an Old Primate (coll 1978) and Out of the Everywhere and
Other Extraordinary Visions (coll 1981); a later, very thorough selection,
1990) ed James Turner, also concentrated on the work from this period.
Byte Beautiful (coll 1986) assembled an odd mixture of early and late
work. Crown of Stars (coll 1988) restricted itself almost exclusively to
the stories JT wrote in a final splurge of creative energy in the
mid-1980s. The Girl who was Plugged In (in New Dimensions 3 [anth 1973] ed
Robert SILVERBERG; 1989 chap dos) - which won JT her first HUGO - and
Houston, Houston, Do you Read? (in Aurora [anth 1977] ed Vonda MCINTYRE
and Susan J. Anderson; 1989 chap dos) - which won a NEBULA and a Jupiter
AWARD and shared a Hugo - were separate appearances of novellas from her
prime. The Color of Neanderthal Eyes (1988 FSF; 1990 chap dos) is the only
major late item not assembled in Crown of Stars.Several themes
interpenetrate JT's best work - SEX, exogamy, identity, FEMINIST
depictions of male/female relations, ECOLOGY, death - but the greatest of
these is death. It is very rarely that a JT story does not both deal
directly with death and end in a death of the spirit, or of all hope, or
of the body, or of the race. "And I Awoke and Found Me Here on the Cold
Hill's Side" (1971), for instance, seems initially to read as a
straightforward rendering of the effects vastly superior ALIENS have upon
Homo sapiens; only retroactively is it made clear, through the apt sexual
and ANTHROPOLOGICAL analogies worked into the basic story, that these
effects are utterly ravaging, that humans exposed to aliens become
afflicted with a fatal cargo-cult mentality, bound into a sexual
submission very like death. In "The Last Flight of Doctor Ain" (1969; rev
1974), only gradually do we begin to realize-through a reportage-like,
impersonal reconstruction of certain events - that the woman whom Doctor
Ain seems to be accompanying across a heavily polluted, wounded Earth is
actually the Earth herself personified in the Doctor's mind; and that, as
he passes around the globe, he is infecting mankind with a redesigned
leukaemia virus, hoping - probably in vain - to save her, whom he loves,
from the human species, which he does not. In what may be JT's finest and
most intense longer story, "A Momentary Taste of Being" (1975), the human
race, en route to the stars, discovers that its racial role is to act as
gamete in a cosmic coupling, and that the drives that make us human are
merely displacements of that central mindless imperative. It is one of the
darkest GENRE-SF stories ever printed. In shorter compass, it is matched
by others, like "On the Last Afternoon" (1972), "Love is the Plan the Plan
is Death" (1973) - which won a Nebula - "The Screwfly Solution" (1977) and
"Your Faces, O my Sisters! Your Faces Filled of Light!" (1977), both
originally as by Raccoona Sheldon, and "Slow Music" (1980).JT's most
famous single story, "The Women Men Don't See", may appear to escape this
pattern, as only the male narrator seems bound to a quietus, while the two
women he travels with - but fails, symptomatically, to comprehend - seem
bound starwards into a new life. But the ironies of the tale are very
evident, and characteristic of JT's inconsolable complexities of vision.
It may be true that the ageing and surprisingly sympathetic narrator may
represent a suicidal blindness on the part of humanity; but the women who
choose to leave are, in fact-by electing to become companions of utterly
unknown aliens in the depths of space - also expressing the power of
thanatos upon our species. JT's surface was often airy and at times
hilarious, and her control of genre conventions allowed her to convey the
bleakness of her abiding insights in tales that remain seductively
readable; but she was, in the end, incapable of dissimulation.There were 2
novels and 2 collections of linked stories. In Up the Walls of the World
(1978), apparently written around the time her health began to break, she
deliberately broadened her techniques in the fabrication of an
extraordinarily full-blown SPACE OPERA whose 3 venues - the interior
"spaces" of a vast interstellar being derangedly destroying all suns in
its path; an alien planet inhabited by skatelike telepathic flying beings
whose sun is being destroyed; and contemporary Earth, where a
government-funded experiment in ESP begins terrifyingly to cash
out-interpenetrate complexly and with considerable narrative impact. From
telepathy to COSMOLOGY, from densely conceived psychological narrative to
the broadest of SENSE-OF-WONDER revelations, the novel is something of a
tour de force. But stresses - particularly a sense that the whole
structure was willed into existence - do show; and BRIGHTNESS FALLS FROM
THE AIR (1985) demonstrates how difficult it had become for her to
maintain control over the intensities of her vision, which had, if
anything, darkened as the 1980s began. In this novel an assortment of
characters variously confront, on a distant planet, the fact that death
agonies felt by another species generate a literal nectar for our own; but
moments of overt sentimentality, as well as excesses of subplotting, tend
to intrude. The Starry Rift (coll of linked stories 1986) assembled loose,
somewhat sententious tales set in the same universe; and Tales of the
Quintana Roo (coll of linked stories 1986) gathered a mild sequence of
visions of the eastern coast of southern Mexico.Like the novels, the short
fiction of JT's last years, though substantial by the standards of other
writers, suffered from an increasing incapacity of narrative voice and
structure to contain emotion. The best of them are perhaps "Yanqui Doodle"
(1987) and "Backward, Turn Backward" (1988). Alice Sheldon had been
married to Huntington Sheldon since 1945. In the early 1980s he contracted
Alzheimer's Disease. In 1987, herself in precarious health, she shot him
and killed herself.About the author: The Fiction of James Tiptree, Jr.
(1977 chap) by Gardner DOZOIS; James Tiptree, Jr., a Lady of Letters: A
Working Bibliography (1989 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr and Phil

John Russell FEARN.

(1914-1978) UK writer and Blake scholar whose Tracks in the Snow: Studies
in English Science and Art (1946) effectively argued the imaginative power
- when joined - of the two subtitled categories; he was author, as R.T.
Campbell, of several detective novels, and as RT of two metaphysical
tales: Over the Mountain (1939), whose quest plot is consanguineous with a
search for political self-understanding, and the surrealist The Lost
Traveller (1943), in which the protagonist, lost in a strange country,
finds himself questing for a great bird which, at the final moment, he
himself becomes. In his introduction to the 1968 reprinting of the latter,
RT recognized influences from Rex WARNER to Wyndham LEWIS. [JC]Other
works: The Space Cats series of juvenile sf novels, Space Cat (1952 chap
US), Space Cat Visits Venus (1955 chap US), Space Cat Meets Mars (1957
chap US) and Space Cat and the Kittens (1958 chap US).See also: DYSTOPIAS;

(1939- ) Bulgarian literary critic who pursued his postgraduate studies
in Paris under the direction of the semiotic philosopher Roland Barthes
(1915-1980). Among TT's several books and essays on structuralist
criticism, all written in French, Introduction a la litterature
fantastique (1970; trans Richard Howard as The Fantastic: A Structural
Approach to Literary Genre 1973; US paperback 1975 with intro by Robert
SCHOLES) has relevance to the student of sf, along with Scholes's own
Structural Fabulation (1975). (Structuralism has been important in sf
criticism, influencing critics as otherwise diverse as Samuel R. DELANY,
Mark ROSE and Darko SUVIN.) An interesting controversy about TT's book
arose in SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES, the Fall 1974 and July 1975 issues
containing an attack on TT's work by Stanislaw LEM and further debate.
Also relevant is "Historical Genres/Theoretical Genres: A Discussion of
Todorov on the Fantastic" by Christine BROOKE-ROSE in New Literary
History, Autumn 1976. TT's definition of "the fantastic" is much more
exclusive than most ( DEFINITIONS OF SF; FANTASY); he devotes only a

(1928- ) US journalist and author, best known for his speculative
nonfiction on SOCIOLOGY and FUTUROLOGY. Future Shock (1970) documents the
increasing rate of change in the 20th century, and speculates on the
psychological trauma this may be causing Western civilization. It has had
a great influence in futurology generally, and quite directly on many sf
writers, notably John BRUNNER, whose THE SHOCKWAVE RIDER (1975) pays
homage to AT in its title. The Eco-Spasm Report (1975), a much shorter
work which produces 3 plausible scenarios for NEAR-FUTURE disaster, at
points approaches the narrative strategies of some sf. The Third Wave
(1980) is a more utopian (and in some ways LIBERTARIAN) book, whose Third
Wave of history (which AT hopes is arriving) will emphasize diversity,
decentralization, individualism and new social structures. AT's style is
populist, and he has been read by some as simply promoting techno-fixes
for the things that are going wrong in the world, but this is to
underestimate the complexity of his argument. [PN]Other works: The
Futurists (anth 1972), ed; Learning for Tomorrow (anth 1973), ed.See also:

(1902-1980) US writer who enjoyed two widely separated careers as a
published author, the first beginning with his first story, "The Meteor
Monsters" for AMZ in 1938, when as a member of the Milwaukee Fictioneers -
which was focused on the memory and example of Stanley G. WEINBAUM - he
was briefly interested in sf. Between 1938 and his retirement in 1969 he
was a business executive. In the 1970s, encouraged by Roger ELWOOD, he
began publishing stories again. Crash Landing on Iduna (1975 Canada) and
Walls Within Walls (1975 Canada), a post- HOLOCAUST tale with MUTANTS in
conflict, are unremarkable but mildly spirited. The Day the Earth Stood
Still (1976) and Survival Planet (1977) are juveniles. The Ghost Hunters
(dated 1978 but 1979) is an occult tale. [JC]

(1892-1973) South-African-born UK writer and philologist who specialized
in early forms of English; his academic career was crowned by his
appointment as Merton Professor of English at Oxford University in 1945, a
post he held until his retirement in 1959. It was at Oxford, before WWII,
that he formed a close literary association with Owen BARFIELD, C.S. LEWIS
and Charles WILLIAMS, a group which came to be known as The Inklings. It
was at their regular meetings that much of their fiction received a first
hearing, including draft portions of a long High Fantasy epic by JRRT
which put into definitive fictional form his concept of the Secondary
World, as embodied in the creation of Middle-Earth, the intensely imagined
land- or world-scape in which the central action of all his work takes
place. No reasonable definition of sf would encompass the works of JRRT;
but this concept and its embodiment in the Lord of the Rings trilogy have
had enormous influence on both sf and fantasy.Although Secondary Worlds,
"inside which the green sun will be credible", long predate JRRT, it was
"On Fairy Tales" - a 1939 lecture he expanded for Essays Presented to
Charles Williams (anth 1947) ed anon C.S. Lewis, and further exp for its
appearance in Tree and Leaf (coll 1964; rev 1988) - that first gave
legitimacy to the internally coherent and autonomous land of Faerie as
part of the geography of the human imagination. For the sf and fantasy
writers who followed, and who found in the Lord of the Rings trilogy a
model for their own subcreations (his coinage for invented fantasy
worlds), this affirmation of autonomy was of very great importance. No
longer did fantasy writers feel any lingering need to "normalize" their
Secondary Worlds by framing them as traveller's tales, dreams or timeslip
adventures, or as beast-fables. For sf writers, especially practitioners
of the PLANETARY-ROMANCE, the example of JRRT was equally liberating -
though it must be emphasized that Middle-Earth is not in fact a world in
any sf sense but an autonomous landscape, and pure High Fantasy.JRRT's
profound interest in philology permeated his work from its beginnings,
which, as the posthumous publication of a vast assemblage of drafts and
fragments (see below) has demonstrated, predated WWI. His first published
tale of Middle-Earth, The Hobbit, or There and Back Again (1937; rev 1951;
rev 1966), a Faerie-story for children, introduced its readers to an
already achieved and named Secondary World, with a history and geography
that had already long existed in its subcreator's mind; as The Hobbit, it
was made into an animated film dir Arthur Rankin Jr in 1977. The tale of
the hobbit, Bilbo, and of his quest through a portion of Middle-Earth to
help some dwarves (JRRT's preferred spelling of "dwarfs") retrieve a
treasure, gave JRRT the opportunity to reveal some of that history and
geography. But it was not until the release of the Lord of the Rings -
broken for publishing reasons into 3 vols, The Fellowship of the Ring
(1954; rev 1966), The Two Towers (1954; rev 1966) and The Return of the
King (1955; rev 1966), assembled as The Lord of the Rings (omni 1968) -
that the full expanse of his world began to come clear. (The first portion
of Lord of the Rings was made into an animated film in 1978; the expected
conclusion failed to appear.)Middle-Earth is perhaps the most detailed of
all invented fictional worlds, rivalled only by Austin Tappan WRIGHT's
Islandia (1942), the published version of which (as in JRRT's case)
represents only a portion of what was written; JRRT differed from Wright,
however, in having a compelling story to tell. Some of the background
material appeared in the form of appendices to the Lord of the Rings and
in The Silmarillion (1977) ed Christopher Tolkien (JRRT's son); the latter
comprises 5 interconnected texts on which JRRT had been working most of
his life, and which supply an historical background for all his other
work. Poems and songs belonging to the cycle are assembled as The
Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book (coll 1962
chap) and The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle (coll 1967) with music by
Michael Swann. In Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-Earth (coll 1980)
Christopher Tolkien continued the long task of publishing his father's
literary remains. The main sequence of these works, various volumes
containing the History of Middle-Earth, all ed Christopher Tolkien,
comprises The History of Middle-Earth #1: The Book of Lost Tales 1 (coll
1983), #2: The Book of Lost Tales 2 (coll 1984), #3: The Lays of Beleriand
(coll 1985), #4: The Shaping of Middle-Earth (coll 1986), #5: The Lost
Road and Other Writings (coll 1987), #6: The Return of the Shadow: The
History of the Lord of the Rings l (coll 1988), #7: The Treason of
Isengard: The History of the Lord of the Rings 2 (coll 1989), #8: The War
of the Ring: The History of the Lord of the Rings 3 (coll 1990), #9:
Sauron Defeated: The History of the Lord of the Rings 4 (coll 1992) and
#10: Morgoth's Ring (1993).JRRT's influence on fantasy and sf has been not
merely profound but also - with no discredit to JRRT himself - demeaning.
Fortunately for readers of sf, the fairies and elves and orcs and cuddly
dwarves and loquacious plants and bargain-counter Dark Lords and kings in
disguise and singing barmen have been restricted in general to commercial
market-driven FANTASY, caveat emptor; the main exception being hybrid
productions like the STAR WARS films, which are filled with blurred and
decadent copies of JRRT's own creations. It can only be hoped that the
genuine JRRT will survive this assault, the JRRT for whom the heart of the
enterprise of Faerie lay in "the desire of men to hold communion with
other living things". [JC]Other works: Farmer Giles of Ham (1949 chap) and
Smith of Wootton Major (1967 chap), assembled as Smith of Wootton Major
and Farmer Giles of Ham (omni 1975 US); The Tolkien Reader (coll 1966);
Bilbo's Last Song (1974 chap); The Father Christmas Letters (coll 1976
chap); Poems and Stories (coll 1980); Mr Bliss (1982 chap).Nonfiction: A
Middle English Vocabulary (1924) is the earliest of a number of works of
varying interest, including an edition of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
(1925) with E.V. Gordon.About the author: Books about JRRT and his work
are numerous. They include J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography (1977) by Humphrey
Carpenter, various atlases and concordances like A Guide to Middle Earth
(1971) by Robert Foster and The Tolkien Companion (1976) by J.E.A. Tyler;
and, among many other biographical/critical works, Tolkien and the Critics
(anth 1968) ed Neil D. Isaacs and Rose A. Zimbardo, Tolkien: A Look Behind
the Lord of the Rings (1969) by Lin CARTER, Master of Middle Earth (1972)
by Paul H. Kocher, Tolkien's World (1974) by Randel Helms, J.R.R. Tolkien:
Architect of Middle-Earth (1976) by Daniel Grotta-Kurska, The Mythology of
Middle-Earth (1977) by Ruth S. Noel, The Inklings (1979) by Humphrey
Carpenter and J.R.R. Tolkien: This Far Land (anth 1983) ed Robert
Giddings. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (1981), ed Humphrey Carpenter with
the assistance of Christopher Tolkien, is a revealing compilation.See

[r] Ron ELLIK.

(1882-1945) Russian writer, sometimes mistakenly thought to have been a
distant relative of Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910); he was not in fact a blood
relative of the famous Tolstoy, though his mother's second husband was
related, and gave AT his surname. Alexei Constantinovich Tolstoy
(1817-1875), on the other hand, was part of the wideflung Tolstoy family;
his supernatural fiction has been translated as Vampires: Stories of the
Supernatural (coll trans Fedor Nikanov 1969 US). AT is best known for 2
books whose first versions appeared in the experimental 1920s and both of
which were revised in the decade of terror which followed. Aelita (1922;
rev 1937; 2nd text trans Lucy Flaxman 1957 USSR; new trans of 2nd text
Antonina W. Bouis 1981 US; 1st text trans Leland Fetzer 1985 US) - the
first version of the book being filmed as AELITA (1924) - was set on MARS,
where a Red Army officer foments a rebellion of the native Martians (who
are in fact long-ago emigrants from ATLANTIS) against a corrupt oligarchy.
Giperboloid inzhenera Garina (1926; rev 1937; 1st text trans B.G. Guerney
as The Death Box 1936 UK; 2nd text trans George Hanna as The Garin Death
Ray 1955 USSR; Hanna trans cut vt Engineer Garin and his Death Ray 1987
USSR) feverishly describes an attempt on the part of the eponymous
inventor - who is treated with some affection as a kind of force of Nature
- to use his death ray to conquer the world. He manages to rule a
decadently capitalist USA for a short period. At least in their original
versions, both books showed a narrative gusto typical of their precarious
period, in attractive contrast to AT's later, less ebullient work. [JC]See

US tv series (1950-55). CBS TV, later ABC TV, and then NBC TV for season
5. Prod Mort Abrahams. Writers included Albert Aley, Alfred BESTER, Jack
Weinstock. Dirs included George Gould, Ralph Ward. Starring Frankie
Thomas, Jan Merlin, Al Markim, Michael Harvey. 5 seasons. 3 15min episodes
weekly for first 4 seasons; weekly 30min episodes in season 5. B/w.This
was one of the earliest US children's-sf tv serials ( CAPTAIN VIDEO was
earlier, but TC:SC got into space first). Very loosely based on Robert A.
HEINLEIN's Space Cadet (1948), it concerns teenaged Tom Corbett (Thomas),
who is a cadet in the Solar Guards, an interplanetary police force in
AD2350 that helps maintain the Solar Alliance of Earth, Mars and Venus.
Later in the series the cadets leave the Solar System and go out into the
Galaxy. The scientific adviser was Willy LEY. As with other sf serials of
the early 1950s, the concept was on a grand scale but the visual effects
were severely limited by budget and by the necessity to broadcast live:
much had to be described in dialogue or merely suggested. Nevertheless,
the show was hugely successful - it introduced the phrase "Blast off!"
into popular speech - and was followed by comic strips, comic books, toys,
etc., in one of the first examples of the merchandising power of televised
sf. 8 Tom Corbett: Space Cadet hardcover books by Carey Rockwell (a
pseudonym) were published 1952-6, beginning with Stand By For Mars! *
(1952). [PN/JB]



UK tv series (1973-9). A Thames TV Production. Series conceived by Roger
Price. Prod Ruth Boswell and Price (1973), Boswell alone (1974-5), Price
alone (1976), Vic Hughes (1977-9). Technical adviser Dr Christopher Evans.
Starring Nicholas Young, Peter Vaughan-Clarke, Sammie Winmill, Stephen
Salmon, Elizabeth Adare, Mike Holoway. Written mostly Price. Dirs included
Brian Finch, Price, Hughes. 8 seasons (2 in 1978); 68 25min episodes.
Colour.TTP, incorporating many childhood wish-fulfilment fantasies,
concerns a group of MUTANT children-Homo superior - with PSI POWERS. They
band together for self-protection, occasionally conscripting other child
mutants. They can teleport themselves, the term they use (taken
unacknowledged from Alfred BESTER) being "jaunting". They are free of
parental control and live in a secret, underground base protected by a
smooth-voiced supercomputer. Most of the stories, each lasting on average
4 episodes, involve either TIME TRAVEL or encounters with evil beings from
outer space. As with most UK tv series made for children, the budget was
limited, but within that constraint the sets and special effects were
adequate. Probably intended as commercial tv's answer to the BBC's DR WHO,
TTP was not in that league. Novelizations, all by Roger Price (1941- ),
were The Visitor * (1973) with Julian R. Gregory, Three in Three * (1974),
Four into Three * (1975), One Law * (1976) and The Lost Gods, with
Hitler's Last Secret and The Thargon Menace * (coll 1979).Beginning in Nov
1992 a tv miniseries of five 23-min episodes entitled The New Tomorrow
People was broadcast in the UK (ITV), starring Kristian Schmid and
Christian Tessier. This was entirely written by Roger Price, who had
written and conceived the first series twenty years earlier. More of a
remake of the first series than a continuation, it made no reference to
the first series' chronology. This time the kids are not just British:
there was one from England, two from America and one from Australia.

US SEMIPROZINE. #1 launched in Sep 1992, but marked on cover as Jan 1993;
bimonthly; by Apr 1995 had reached #14; small- BEDSHEET format; began with
68pp, went up to 82 pp; color covers, internal art b/w; published and
edited by Algis BUDRYS from Illinois.This magazine was originally to have
been published by PULPHOUSE PUBLISHING, but was sold to Budrys, who had
programme, and his position as co-ordinating judge of the WRITERS OF THE
FUTURE CONTEST (though he continued to serve as an advisor). The magazine
is mostly fiction (at least once by Budrys writing as Paul Janvier), with
a column on writing by Budrys the main non-fiction element. The quality of
the fiction has been quite good, writers including Harlan ELLISON,
Geoffrey A. Landis, Ursula K. LE GUIN, Robert REED, Elisabeth VONARBURG,
Gene WOLFE and a number of newer writers like Mike Christie, Eliot
Fintushel, Donna McMahon and Brooks Peck. The magazine is classified as a
semiprozine because the (low) circulation is only around 3,000, though the
fiction is in the main fully professional. Some readers feel the fiction
tends to lack distinctive voices in the sense of many of them being low
key. Clearly there are distribution problems: the magazine is not
especially well designed visually, and is unlikely to stand out on
newsstands. [PN]

Hero of a JUVENILE SERIES of scientific-invention novels produced by the
STRATEMEYER Syndicate, constituting a central example of the importance
and persistence of the EDISONADE in boys' fiction, and written under the
house name Victor APPLETON, most being the work of Howard R. GARIS. TS was
the most commercially successful and is still the best remembered of all
the boys' sf series of the period. During 1910-38, beginning with Tom
Swift and His Motor-Cycle (1910), 38 titles appeared, all but the last 3
by Garis, and featuring such inventions as the "photo telephone" and the
"ocean airport", the technical difficulties of utilizing which were
emphasized. These stories created a potential readership for Hugo
GERNSBACK's magazines. The TS books were written in what was, even for the
time, stilted prose. Between 1954 and 1971, beginning with Tom Swift and
His Flying Lab (1954) as by Victor Appleton II, a 2nd TS series appeared,
this time featuring Tom Swift Jr, its 33 titles being released at a rate
of about 2 per year; at first it was enormously successful, possibly
giving rise to the 1960s popularity of the Tom Swiftie ("I think we can
get there in time, said Tom swiftly"). The authors behind the new house
name are not known. In 1981 a 3rd TS series, as by Victor Appleton, began
with The City in the Stars (1981), continuing to #11, The Planet of
Nightmares (1984), which was by Mike MCQUAY writing as Appleton; 2 of
these titles have recently been ascribed to Neal BARRETT Jr. Most
recently, in 1991, under the Byron PREISS packaging aegis, a 4th series
began with Tom Swift #1: The Black Dragon (1991) by Bill MCCAY writing as
Appleton; further titles include novels by G. Gwynplaine MACINTYRE and 2
by the team of Debra DOYLE and James D. MACDONALD. [JE/PN/JC]Further
reading:"Tom Swift and the Syndicate" in Strange Horizons: The Spectrum of
Science Fiction (1976) by Sam MOSKOWITZ; Science-Fiction: The Early Years
(1991) by Everett F. BLEILER.


(? - ) UK writer, resident in the USA, whose Mind Out of Time (1958 UK)
deals with a telepathic relationship ( ESP). [JC]

(1902-1988) US writer and publisher who wrote also as Dick Presley
Tooker; his first sf story, under that name, was "Planet Paradise" for
Weird Tales in 1924. He is best remembered for The Day of the Brown Horde
(1929), in which cavemen fight one another and the last of the
plesiosaurs, and which deals, like most of the prehistoric-sf subgenre,
with the onset of human consciousness ( ORIGIN OF MAN). The Dawn Boy
(1932), a juvenile, revisits a similar venue. Inland Deep (1936) rather
more imaginatively features man-frogs and other odd creatures in an
underground LOST WORLD. It is reported that from about 1940 RT was a
ghost-writer. [JC]

(1912-1986) US writer. In Good as Gold (1955) the transmutation of the
metal produces what might be called manure. [JC]


(1945- ) US writer who began publishing sf stories with "Pejorative" for
NW in 1969. His A World of Trouble (1973), sets a galactic agent on an
alien planet, where he has many jocosely told adventures. [JC]

Film (1970). Sweet Music/Lowndes Productions/United Artists. Written/dir
Val Guest, starring Olivia Newton-John, Benny Thomas, Vic Cooper, Karl
Chambers, Roy Dotrice. 95 mins. Colour.This is an unsuccessful attempt by
producer Harry Saltzman, best known for the James Bond films, to mix pop
MUSIC with sf. An embarrassingly made-to-order pop group is kidnapped by
aliens from outer space (who have detected their vibrations) and taken to
their planet for the purpose of creating music. The film was an artistic
and financial failure. [JB]

US reprint magazine. 2 issues, Spring 1953 ( PULP-MAGAZINE size) and Fall
1953 ( DIGEST size). Published by Love Romances, Connecticut; ed Jack
O'Sullivan (#1) and Malcolm Reiss (#2). TISF featured stories which had
first appeared in PLANET STORIES. Contributors included such Planet
regulars as Leigh BRACKETT and Ray BRADBURY. A UK edn, published by Top
Fiction, had 3 digest-sized issues 1954-6. [FHP/MJE]

US paperback publishing company-later moving into hardcover also -
founded by Tom Doherty, then aged 44, in 1980, in conjunction with Richard
Gallen; the first titles were published in 1981. Doherty had previously
been in control of ACE BOOKS for 5 years. The first editor-in-chief was
Harriet McDougal, and first head sf editor was Jim BAEN, who left in 1983
to form his own company in 1984. Beth MEACHAM became sf/fantasy editor in
1984, soon becoming editor-in-chief; David HARTWELLbecame consulting sf
editor the same year. This put two of the most expert sf editors in the US
in the same company. TB expanded rapidly, publishing only a few sf titles
in 1981 but 137 in 1986, which made them one of the most important sf
publishers. At the end of 1986 Doherty and his partners sold Tom Doherty
Associates, Inc. to St Martin's Press, a move perhaps connected to the
bankruptcy of Pinnacle (Tor's paperback distributor on a contract basis),
and to Tor's rapid expansion which had left TB temporarily short of cash;
but Doherty stayed on to run TB. In 1988, TB introduced Tor Doubles,
similar to the old Ace Doubles ( DOS). Beth Meacham left in 1989, but
continued (from Arizona) as an executive editor. The senior editor in
charge of sf and fantasy then became Patrick Nielsen Hayden.By 1988 TB and
St Martins together topped all US sf publishers in terms of number of
titles published, 256; but TB found this too much, and dropped from 12
sf/fantasy/horror titles per month to 9. By 1990-91 TB was publishing
fewer sf/fantasy books than BANTAM/ DOUBLEDAY/Dell and Putnam/Berkley/Ace,
though during those years - and since - it has published more sf/fantasy
hardcovers than any other firm in the English-speaking world. In 1991 TB
dropped its separate horror list. Robert Gleason became editor-in-chief in
1991.TB have published many important sf authors, including Poul ANDERSON,
Greg BEAR, Michael BISHOP, Orson Scott CARD, John KESSEL, Pat MURPHY, Mike
RESNICK, Kim Stanley ROBINSON, Sheri S. TEPPER, Jack VANCE, Walter Jon
WILLIAMS, Gene WOLFE and Jack WOMACK. Authors whose first novels have been
published by TB include Tom MADDOX, Rebecca ORE and Richard Paul RUSSO.

(? -1991) US editor, noted mainly for the competent CHRYSALIS series of
ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES: Chrysalis (anth 1977), #2 (anth 1978), #3 (anth
1978), #4 (anth 1979), #5 (anth 1979), #6 (anth 1980), #7 (anth 1980), #8
(anth 1980), #9 (anth 1981) and #10 (anth 1983). A second sequence ran for
only 2 vols: Other Worlds 1 (anth 1979) and #2 (anth 1980). [JC]


Film (1990). Carolco. Dir Paul Verhoeven, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger,
Rachel Ticotin, Sharon Stone, Michael Ironside, Ronny Cox. Screenplay
Ronald Shusett, Dan O'Bannon, Gary Goldman, based on a story by Shusett,
O'Bannon, Jon Povill, inspired by "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale"
(1966) by Philip K. DICK. 113 mins, cut to 109 mins. Colour.At a purported
$60,000,000 budget this was one of the most expensive films ever made
(though TERMINATOR 2 [1991] would cost even more). Verhoeven, whose sf
film debut was ROBOCOP (1987), is a deft, intelligent director good at
tough action sequences, but with a strong liking for gratuitous violence
which, for all its over-the-top comic-book harmlessness here, still has
about it a faint whiff of sadism. Exported versions were mostly cut to the
requirements of the relevant country's censorship code.Some of the
strengths of Dick's original story remain in this tale of a man who, in
attempting to purchase false memories of a trip to Mars, uncovers some
real ones, and is pitchforked into a heady sequence of exotic adventures,
leaving Earth and fighting with rebels against a power-crazed Martian
establishment. False memories clash with true ones and, since both look
the same on the screen, it is as difficult for the viewer as for the
muscle-bound protagonist to tell illusion from reality. TR is
entertaining, information-dense and packed with intriguing detail, but has
most of the usual faults of big-budget sf sagas: too great a reliance on
grotesque special effects (the bugging eyes of victims exposed to vacuum
are merely absurd); with-one-bound-Jack-was-free plotting; and in this
case a finale of protracted idiocy in which Mars's long-disappeared
atmosphere is replaced through vents in a mountain in a matter of minutes.
Ideas are "borrowed" eclectically from diverse sources: an air-machine
from Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's A PRINCESS OF MARS (1917), disfigured MUTANTS
from Roger CORMAN's The Haunted Palace (1963), a two-headed mutant from
Walter M. MILLER's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ (1960), archaic alien
machinery from FORBIDDEN PLANET (1956), and so on. It would take a fresh
and ignorant viewer to suspend his or her disbelief throughout the film:
sf aficionados tend to giggle through the whole of the second half.



[s] Robert REED.


A Fictioneers Inc. house name (1940-42), used once by C.M. KORNBLUTH and
Richard WILSON in Astonishing and once on an unattributed story in Super
Science Stories. [PN]

[r] M.H. ZOOL.

(1922- ) UK writer, principally for older children, beginning with
Gumble's Yard (1961; vt Trouble in the Jungle 1969 US), not sf. In Noah's
Castle (1975), set in a deeply depressed NEAR-FUTURE UK, a family attempts
to find enough to eat but the world's decline is too precipitate, and
their haven is destroyed. The Xanadu Manuscript (1977; vt The Visitors
1977 US) is a TIME-TRAVEL tale which makes it clear that visitors from the
future can bring only grief. King Creature, Come (1980; vt The Creatures
1980 US), told from the viewpoint of two young representatives of the
ALIENS now occupying Earth, carries them into the human Creatures' lives
just as a revolt is fomented, which they join. A Foreign Affair (1982) is
RURITANIAN, and The Fortunate Isles (1981 US) and The Persuading Stick
(1987) are fantasies. A nonfiction study, Written for Children: An Outline
of English Children's Literature (1965; rev 1974), is of interest.JRT was
not the John Townsend responsible for the interplanetary series for
children consisting of The Rocket-Ship Saboteurs (1959) and A Warning to
Earth (1960). [JC]

Film (1984). HCH/Troma/Palan. Dir Michael Herz, Samuel Weil, starring
Mark Torgl, Mitchell Cohen, Andree Maranda. Screenplay Joe Ritter, based
on a story by Lloyd Kaufman. 100 mins, cut to 79 mins. Colour.After a
cruel practical joke is played on him, a teenage nerd falls into a barrel
of toxic waste in Tromaville, New Jersey, "Toxic Waste Capital of
America". He mutates into the Toxic Avenger and is compelled to murder bad
people very violently. This farrago, combining teenage tits-and-ass comedy
with horror/splatter, typifies the way exploitation films of the 1980s
regularly used sf tropes, in this case gaining a mild cult following.
TTA's deliberate tastelessness is uninteresting because pointless. The
sequel, partly set in Japan, dir Herz alone, is The Toxic Avenger: Part II
(1989). [PN]


(1946- ) UK writer and investigative journalist; she is of the fourth
generation of Toynbees to be involved in literature. Leftovers (1966)
depicts with feeble verve the mixed destinies of a group of youths,
survivors of a poisonous gas which has destroyed the rest of humanity.


(1863-1928) UK journalist and writer, a colleague of M.P. SHIEL, who
(uncredited) assisted him with several detective novels, all published as
by Gordon Holmes. LT is best remembered for The Final War (1896), the
first of his several future- WAR novels, which is significant for the
malign intensity of the SOCIAL DARWINISM it espouses on behalf of "the
Saxon race". The Vansittart sequence - An American Emperor: The Story of
the Fourth Estate of France (1897) with Shiel and The Lost Provinces
(1898) - moves from the RURITANIAN shenanigans of the first vol, in which
the American Vansittart romances a princess and becomes the emperor of
France, into a future-war scenario in which, on behalf of France, he uses
a fleet of armoured vehicles to defeat Germany. The Invaders: A Story of
Britain's Peril (1901) less interestingly threatens the UK with a
NEAR-FUTURE German invasion. 2 later novels endow their protagonists with
PSI POWERS: in Karl Greier: The Strange Story of a Man with a Sixth Sense
(1906; vt The Man with a Sixth Sense 1910) the power is that of reading
minds and controlling others from a distance; in The Turning Point (1923
US) the hero embodies centuries-old family memories. [JC]Other works: The
Wings of the Morning (1903 US), associational ROBINSONADE; The King of
Diamonds (1904), featuring a diamond-filled meteorite; The House 'round
the Corner (1914), a ghost story.See also: ESP; POLITICS.

(1875-1945) US writer and lawyer, best known for work outside the sf
field, particularly his legal series about the lawyer Ephraim Tutt. Some
of the stories assembled in Mortmain (coll 1907) verge on sf. In his first
sf novel, The Man who Rocked the Earth (1915) with R.W. WOOD, the
NEAR-FUTURE course of WWI is interrupted by messages from a mysterious PAX
threatening superscientific punishments if war is not stopped. After some
demonstrations, featuring rays, a flying ship and atomic energy, the
nations obey. In the sequel, The Moon Maker (1916-17 Cosmopolitan; 1958
chap), also with Wood, the character who discovered the dead PAX in the
previous book must now defend Earth against an approaching asteroid. He
travels with a proto- FEMINIST mathematician; they marry. AT's quick skill
as a popular novelist allowed him to fill out the speculations generated
by his collaborator, a competent scientist; both novels thus avoid most of
the absurdities that dogged the sf of the time. [JC]

(1915-1988) UK-born US fan ( FANDOM) from 1935, when he became involved
in the nascent Philadelphia Science Fiction Society, also attending the
1st (highly informal) CONVENTION in 1936. A significant SMALL-PRESS
publisher, he was the main figure behind PRIME PRESS. In 1968 he founded
Oswald Train: Publisher, which specialized in detective fiction, although
it also released work by Lloyd Arthur ESHBACH, A. MERRITT, P. Schuyler

(1926- ) US writer, prolific in several genres under more than one name
and author of various borderline-sf tales, often involving sex. They
include: Dragon's Teeth (1973) as Keith Miles; the Valentine Flynn series
- What a Way to Go! (1966), Operation Boudoir (1967), Win with Sin (1967),
The Nymph Island Affair (1967) and Invasion of the Nymphomaniacs (1967) -
all as Sean O'Shea; Pleasure Planet (1979) as Starr Trainor (a tentative
identification); and, as SRT, the Miss from S.I.S. sequence - The Miss
from S.I.S. (1966), The Chic Chick Spy (1966) and The Ring-A-Ding UFOs
(1967) - Ghoul Lover (1972) and #3 in a Frankenstein sequence (other vols
by various hands). Also as SRT he wrote 3 unremarkable genre novels, The
Cosmozoids (1966), Android Armageddon (1974) and Signal Intruder (1991).

(vt Future Cop) Film (1984). Lexyn/Empire. Prod/dir Charles BAND,
starring Tim Thomerson, Helen Hunt, Michael Stefani. Screenplay Danny
Bilson, Paul DeMeo. 76 mins. Colour.Band apparently learned from his
early, mostly bad movies, for this small film is confident, stylish sf.
Future cop Jack Deth (Thomerson) travels back from AD2247 to present-day
Los Angeles in search of dangerous mystic Whistler (Stefani), who has fled
back in time and now occupies the body of an ancestor. Protected by a
number of zombie-like "trancers", Whistler plans to murder the ancestors
of his future opposition. Although primarily an action movie, T is packed
with sf ideas, and it has an interesting punk look about it. There are
astonishing plot resemblances to The TERMINATOR , released in the same
year.The sequel, Trancers 2: The Return of Jack Deth (1991, vt Future Cop
2), prod and dir Band, written by Band with Jackson Barr, again stars
Thomerson and Hunt. Convolutions of TIME TRAVEL make Jack Deth, 6 years
on, a bigamist, his original (dead) wife, played cutely by Megan Ward,
being sent back (alive) to the present. Soap-opera elements are played out
against further battles with trancers, who use a trendy ecological
movement as a front. This returns us to the awfulness of Band's early
films. Maybe T was a happy accident. Trancers 3: Deth Lives (1993, vt
Future Cop 3), dir C. Courtney Joyner, carries Deth to an even further
future than the one from which he originally came, and is a partial return
to form. Trancers 4: Jack of Swords (1994), dir David Nutter, takes place
in a medieval alternate world called Orpheus and was shot back to back in
Romania with Trancers 5: Sudden Death (1995), dir David Nutter, which
finishes the SWORD-AND-SORCERY story begun in the fourth film. These last
two represent a sad falling off and are not really sf. All these sequels
went straight to video. [PN]



Film (1986). Sunbow/Marvel. Dir Nelson Shin. Voices by Orson Welles, Eric
Idle et al. Screenplay Ron Friedman. Animation by Toei Animation. 86 mins.
Colour.This US-produced, Japanese-animated film is a spin-off from the
comic-book and tv series of the same name, and all are part of a gigantic
marketing operation to sell Transformers: model robots (invented 1984)
which, when twisted around a bit, change their shape from humanoid to
(usually) cars or spaceships. Most such films are pure exercises in
commercial cynicism ( MASTERS OF THE UNIVERSE [1987]) but TT - TM has a
surreal vigour. In AD2005 Earth and other planets are largely populated by
good transforming ROBOTS, the Autobots, who are perpetually at odds with
bad transforming robots who look much the same, the Decepticons. Since
names, voices and shapes are constantly changing, it is almost impossible
to follow the story further. The aggressive animation - which unusually
for a film is in the style of state-of-the-art COMIC-book illustration (in
this case MARVEL-COMICS-derived) - keeps the whole thing swirling along.
Welles's last starring role is, appropriately, as a megalomaniac planet.

Sf stories based on serious speculations about future means of
transportation are greatly outnumbered by stories in which those means
function as facilitating devices - i.e., as convenient ways of shifting
characters into an alien environment. Inevitably, the same kinds of
machines crop up in both categories of story because stories of the second
kind borrow heavily from those of the first. SPACESHIPS have been employed
by sf writers almost exclusively as a literary device; few stories deal
speculatively with the real possibilities of interplanetary and
interstellar transportation. Much fruitless argument has been wasted
comparing the plausibility of machines designed for quite different
literary functions. One such argument, of long standing, concerns the
relative merits of the space-gun in Jules VERNE's From the Earth to the
Moon (1865-70: trans 1873) and the ANTIGRAVITY device in H.G. WELLS's THE
FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1901), which tends to ignore the fact that only the
former device aspires (unsuccessfully) to practicability.In FANTASTIC
VOYAGES written before the mid-19th century virtually all modes of
transport were facilitating devices. Today, the short-sightedness of the
anonymous The Reign of George VI, 1900-1925 (1763), which is optimistic
about the bright future of the canal barge, seems slightly absurd; but the
author of the book lived in a world in which there had been no significant
advance in motive power for 2000 years. John WILKINS, fascinated by ideas
of novel means of transportation, had discussed submarines, flying
machines and land-yachts at some length in Mathematicall Magick (1648),
but even he touched only tentatively on the possibility of adapting new
POWER SOURCES to the business of transport. This situation underwent a
revolutionary change in the 19th century.The first practical steamboat,
The Charlotte Dundas, was built in 1801, but it was not until the
development of the screw propeller in 1840 for the Great Eastern, built by
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), that the revolution in marine
transport really began. Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) built the first
practical steam locomotive in 1804, but only in 1825, with the opening of
the Stockton-Darlington railway, did there begin the railroad revolution
which very rapidly extended itself across Europe and the emergent USA. It
is understandable that the speculative writers of the later 19th century
should find the future of transportation one of their most inspiring
themes. The revolution was continued with the development of the internal
combustion engine, and entered a new phase in 1909, when Henry Ford
(1863-1947) set his Model-T production line rolling. By then the first
heavier-than-air flying machines were in operation, as were the first
practicable submarines. Everything that has happened since in the world of
transportation was within the imaginative sights of the writers of 1909:
private motor cars for all; fast aeroplanes to carry passengers and
freight; even spaceships (Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY published "The Probing of
Space by Means of Jet Devices" in 1903). The man whose literary work
stands as the principal imaginative product of this era of revolution is
Verne, whose first novel was Five Weeks in a Balloon (1863; trans "William
Lackland" 1869 US). This was the period that made tourism possible, and
Verne remains the archetypal tourist of the literary imagination. He was
fascinated by the machines that made far travelling practical, and wrote a
memoir of a real voyage on the Great Eastern:"A Floating City" (in coll
1871; trans 1874 UK). The submarine Nautilus is the real protagonist of
Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870; trans Lewis Mercier 1872 UK),
just as the "aeronef" is of The Clipper of the Clouds (1886; trans 1887;
vt Robur the Conqueror 1887 US). Around the World in 80 Days (1873: trans
Geo. M. Towle 1874 US) inspired many imitators, literary and actual, but
few of the literary ones had Verne's fascination with means: most of them
invented marvellous devices simply to enable the characters to participate
in exotic adventure stories whose plots were thoroughly routine - a kind
of inventiveness ironically celebrated by such latter-day SCIENTIFIC
ROMANCES as Michael MOORCOCK's The Warlord of the Air (1971) and its
sequels, and Christopher PRIEST's The Space Machine (1976).Submarines and
airships were most often invoked in futuristic fiction as carriers of
WEAPONS and other materials of WAR. It quickly became obvious to military
observers of the US Civil War in 1861-5 that observation balloons,
ironclad ships and railroads would transform the tactics and logistics of
warfare. Writers like George GRIFFITH took a particular delight in
imagining the kind of battles which might be fought with airships and
submarines, greatly assisted by the illustrator and occasional sf writer
Fred T. JANE. Other illustrators, most notably Albert ROBIDA, likewise
became entranced by flying machines. Wells's speculations about the future
of transportation technology are mainly concerned with warfare-most
spectacularly, the aerial battles in When the Sleeper Wakes (1899; rev vt
The Sleeper Awakes 1910) and The War in the Air (1908). In The Shape of
Things to Come (1933) he imagined the rebirth of a world devastated by
wars under the aegis of a benevolent "Air Dictatorship", a notion
anticipated by Rudyard KIPLING's stories of the Aerial Board of Control,
With the Night Mail (1905; 1909 chap US) and "As Easy as ABC" (1912).
Kipling's ideas were echoed in Michael ARLEN's Man's Mortality (1933), and
the technological charisma of the aeroplane is evident also in Zodiak
(trans Eric Sutton 1931 US) by Walther Eidlitz (1892-? ). This mystique
carried over into the early sf PULP MAGAZINES: Hugo GERNSBACK founded AIR
WONDER STORIES to deal exclusively with the future of flight. Pulp-sf
writers interested in facilitating devices were soon ready to take extreme
liberties. The FASTER-THAN-LIGHT starship had arrived before the end of
the 1920s, as had the ultimate in personal transport, the antigravity-belt
featured in the BUCK ROGERS stories by Philip Francis NOWLAN. MATTER
TRANSMISSION soon became commonplace; and some interplanetary romances of
the kind pioneered by Edgar Rice BURROUGHS simply ignored the whole issue,
tacitly employing the most blatant facilitating device of all:
TELEPORTATION. Such methods began to receive more detailed speculative
evaluation in Jack WILLIAMSON's "The Cosmic Express" (1930), but not until
Alfred BESTER's Tiger! Tiger! (1956 UK; rev vt The Stars My Destination
US) was there a serious attempt to imagine a society which uses
teleportation as a routine means of travel.Attempts to imagine the
eventual social effects of the transportation revolution soon appeared in
the pulps. In David H. KELLER's "The Revolt of the Pedestrians" (1928) a
ruling elite of automobilists is overthrown by the underprivileged
pedestrians. The social role of the motor car remained a significant theme
in sf, with explorations ranging from satirical comedies like Clark Ashton
SMITH's "The Great God Awto" (1940), Isaac ASIMOV's "Sally" (1953) and
Robert F. YOUNG's "Romance in a 21st Century Used Car Lot" (1960) through
blacker comedies like Fritz LEIBER's "X Marks the Pedwalk" (1963) and
dourer analyses like Ray BRADBURY's The Pedestrian (1952 FSF; 1964 chap),
H. Chandler ELLIOTT's "A Day on Death Highway" (1963) and John JAKES's
surreal On Wheels (1973) to such extreme quasi-apocalyptic works as Ben
ELTON's Gridlock (1991) and the poem Autogeddon (1991) by Heathcote
Williams (1941- ). The car also features as a death-machine in macabre
stories of future GAMES AND SPORTS, in such stories as Harlan ELLISON's
"Dogfight on 101" (1969; vt "Along the Scenic Route") and the film DEATH
RACE 2000 (1975). A classic early exercise in sf realism is Robert A.
HEINLEIN's "The Roads Must Roll" (1940), which deals with the commuter
chaos resulting from a strike by the engineers who maintain moving
roadways. Other notable sf stories attempting to get to grips with the
idea of social revolution brought about through transport deploy some kind
of matter transmission in a quasi-symbolic fashion; notable stories in
this vein include "Ticket to Anywhere" (1952) by Damon KNIGHT and "Granny
Won't Knit" (1954) by Theodore STURGEON. Robert SILVERBERG's anthology
Three Trips in Time and Space (anth 1973) contains novellas on the theme:
Larry NIVEN's "Flash Crowd", Jack VANCE's "Rumfuddle" and John BRUNNER's
"You'll Take the High Road". Niven later continued the theme in 4 further
stories, and Brunner developed it in a novel, Web of Everywhere
(1974).Early sf about transportation infrastructure is mostly concerned
with tunnels. The Channel Tunnel often features in UK INVASION stories,
while a transatlantic tunnel is the subject of Bernhard KELLERMANN's The
Tunnel (1913; trans 1915) and the films based on it, Der TUNNEL (1933) and
The TUNNEL (1935). The idea reappears in modern sf in Ray NELSON's "Turn
Off the Sky" (1963) and is the theme of Harry HARRISON's ALTERNATE-WORLD
satire Tunnel through the Deeps (1972 US; vt A Transatlantic Tunnel,
Hurrah! 1972 UK). Early stories about artificial ISLANDS in the Atlantic
to facilitate the refuelling of aeroplanes, such as Curt SIODMAK's F.P.1
Does Not Reply (trans 1933), filmed as F.P.1 ANTWORTET NICHT (1932), were
soon out of date. The problems of laying railroad tracks on an alien world
are featured in "The Railways up on Cannis" (1959) by Colin KAPP.There are
numerous sf stories which involve improvised means of transport adapted to
exotic situations. Jack VANCE is particularly ingenious in devising such
inventions, although they rarely play a major part in his plots.
Ice-yachts take centre stage in Moorcock's The Ice Schooner (1969) and
Alan Dean FOSTER's Icerigger (1974), and ships which travel on unwatery
media are also featured in David LAKE's Walkers on the Sky (1976), Bruce
STERLING's Involution Ocean (1977) and Brian P. HERBERT's Sudanna, Sudanna
(1985). The strangest vehicles ever devised are perhaps those in Robert
Wilfred Franson's The Shadow of the Ship (1983), in which trails through
airless "subspace" link primitive planets, and can be used only by
starships that are effectively sleds drawn by vast animals; among the
largest are the spacefaring CITIES of James BLISH's CITIES IN FLIGHT
series (omni 1970) and the much more laborious moving city in Priest's The
Inverted World (1974). An abundance of technical detail supports Hilbert
SCHENCK's memorable account of the circumnavigation of the globe by a
steam-powered aeroplane in Steam Bird (1984; title story of coll 1988). In
spite of such bold adventures, it cannot really be said that sf has been
particularly adept in the invention of new means of transportation that
have subsequently proved practicable, aside from a number of devices
concerned with space technology - including, of course, space ROCKETS.
Arthur C. CLARKE has proved particularly expert in this regard, and there
remain several imaginative devices used in his stories which may one day
be actualized, including the lunar transport in A Fall of Moondust (1961)
and the spacefaring SOLAR-WIND-powered yachts of "Sunjammer" (1965), the
latter developing a notion first put forward in 1921 by Konstantin
SHEFFIELD's The Web Between the Worlds (1979) both deploy "space
elevators" connecting the Earth's surface to orbital stations - a
wonderful idea whose practical limitations are, alas, mercilessly exposed
in Sheffield's own article "How to Build a Beanstalk" (1979). [BS]See

Pseudonym of US writer George Shepard Chappell (1877-1946) for a series
of sf tales spoofing the geographical romances popular just after WWI. In
The Cruise of the Kawa: Wanderings in the South Seas (1921) a new
Polynesia is discovered featuring birds which lay dice. Through the
Alimentary Canal with Gun and Camera: A Fascinating Trip to the Interior
(1930) takes Dr Traprock through a human digestive system. [JC]Other
works: Sarah of the Sahara: A Romance of Nomads Land (1923); My Northern
Exposure: The Kawa at the North Pole (1925); Dr Traprock's Memory Book, or
Aged in Wood (1930).

US annual reprint magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 8 issues 1964-71,
published by Popular Library; ed Jim Hendryx Jr for #1-#3, then Helen Tono
for the next 4, then Anne Keffer for the last. A follow-up of Hendryx's
WONDER STORIES of 1957 and 1963, this was retitled as Great Science
Fiction Stories (#3), SF Yearbook: A Treasury of Science Fiction (#4) and
then Science Fiction Yearbook. The stories were from STARTLING STORIES and
THRILLING WONDER STORIES. It is possible to consider the last 5 issues as
a separate magazine, as the "Yearbook" title now stressed annual
publication, the editor changed, and the numeration began again from #1.
Although all 8 issues were in magazine format, there were no editorial
departments, and they could equally be regarded as annual anthologies.

(? - ) US writer, almost certainly pseudonymous (his surname is Robert
spelled backwards), whose sf novel is the unremarkable An XT Called
Stanley (1983). [JC]

[r] SPAIN.

(1936-1972) US writer, co-author with Laurence M. JANIFER of the Angelo
di Stefano series: Target: Terra (1968), The High Hex (1969) and The
Wagered World (1969). [BS]

(1899-1956) US editor and writer; his first story was "The Throwback" for
Weird Tales in 1926 as by Orlin Frederick. Already experienced in
PULP-MAGAZINE publishing-he had ed various magazines from 1921 onward,
including Bernarr MACFADDEN's Brain Power 1921-4 and True Story in 1924 -
FOT assumed the editorship of Astounding Stories ( ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION) in Oct 1933, after it had been taken over by STREET &
SMITH; curiously, although he had been working for ASF's previous
publishers, Clayton Magazines, FOT seems to have had no connection with
the magazine prior to becoming its editor. He produced 50 issues of ASF,
initially with the assistance of Desmond W. HALL, and under his editorship
it became unquestionably the pre-eminent sf magazine of its day, featuring
all the leading writers of the period and publishing the first stories of
such writers as L. Sprague DE CAMP and Eric Frank RUSSELL. He soon
instituted a policy of featuring in each issue at least 1 story described
as a "thought variant" - i.e., a tale which presented a new concept, or a
new gloss on a familiar idea. As an attention-attracting device this was
an undoubted success, inspiring an imitation "new-story" policy in WONDER
STORIES. When FOT became editorial director of a number of the Street &
Smith magazines, he gave up the editorship of ASF, being followed in
December 1937 by his personal choice for the job, John W. CAMPBELL Jr,
whose stories as by Don A. Stuart FOT had been publishing for several
years; the GOLDEN AGE OF SF was just around the corner. FOT's
"thought-variant" notion can be seen as marking an important step in
shifting magazine sf from its concentration on pulp adventure to the
idea-led sf instituted by his successor.The next year FOT left the company
to found his own publishing firm, Orlin Tremaine Co., producing and
editing COMET STORIES, which lasted only 5 issues 1940-41. He wrote a
number of stories under his own name, and at least 1 as Warner VAN LORNE.
He worked in non-sf publishing enterprises in later years, before being
forced into early retirement through ill health. [MJE]See also: ROBOTS; SF

[r] Warner VAN LORNE.

Film (1989). No Frills/Wilson-Maddock/Universal. Executive prod Gale Anne
HURD. Dir Ron Underwood, starring Kevin Bacon, Fred Ward, Finn Carter.
Screenplay S.S. Wilson, Brent Maddock from a story by Wilson, Maddock,
Underwood. 96 mins. Colour.A thinly populated valley in the Nevada desert
is ravaged by 4 monstrous subterranean worm creatures, apparently
possessed of some intelligence, which are finally destroyed by the courage
and wit of the handful of local residents, along with a woman
seismologist, who survive the initial attacks. This unambitious, textbook
MONSTER MOVIE is notable for good dialogue and ensemble acting and for its
very convincing MONSTERS, usually seen in broad daylight: a triumph of the
special-effects teams. However, the monsters are hardly convincing as sf:
arbitrary and unexplained - and probably "pre-dating the fossil record" -
they have no apparent food-source undergound to enable them to grow so
big. They are very like the sandworms in Frank HERBERT's DUNE (1965) in
appearance and in their sensitivity to vibration. [PN]



Ernest G. HENHAM.

Initially the most famous pseudonym and latterly the legal name of the UK
writer born Trevor Dudley-Smith (1920- ), who eventually became best known
for his Quiller espionage tales as by Adam Hall, after an early career
writing children's fantasies (see listing below), some under his original
name. His first novel of genre interest, The Immortal Error (1946), a
fantasy, tells of an accident survivor who wakes up with the wrong soul in
residence. The Domesday Story (1952 as by Warwick Scott; vt Doomsday 1953
US as ET and 1972 US as Adam Hall) tells of fears that an H-bomb test in
Australia will bring about the end of the world. Forbidden Kingdom (1955)
is a children's LOST-WORLD story about a high-tech enclave in the Kalahari
desert. The Pillars of Midnight (1957) depicts the effects of a
devastating disease. The Mind of Max Duvine (1960) is about telepathy. The
Shoot (1966) returns to weapons-testing, this time depicting the launching
of a missile whose fuel is dangerously unstable. The Sibling (1979 US as
Adam Hall; 1989 US as ET) is horror. Deathwatch (1984) is about the
NEAR-FUTURE accidental creation of a fatal virus by GENETIC ENGINEERING
and its subsequent use by rogue Soviet hardliners to cause a decimating
plague in the West.Some of the Quiller tales, such as The Berlin
Memorandum (1965; vt The Quiller Memorandum 1967) and The Theta Syndrome
(1977), have TECHNOTHRILLER elements. A writer of almost excessive
fluency, ET has made use of sf devices in passing, but never - it must be
said - with much air of conviction. [JC]Other works: Children's fantasies,
many with shared characters: Into the Happy Glade (1943) andBy a Silver
Stream (1944), both as Trevor Dudley-Smith, followed by Green Glade (1959)
as ET; the Wumpus sequence, comprising Wumpus (1945), More About Wumpus
(1947) and Where's Wumpus? (1948); the Deep Wood sequence, comprising Deep
Wood (1945), Heather Hill (1946), The Secret Travellers (1947), Badger's
Beech (1948), which was also serialized on BBC radio, Ants' Castle (1949),
2 closely-linked tales - The Wizard of the Wood (1948) and Badger's Moon
(1949) - themselves comprising a short sf subseries featuring space
travel, Mole's Castle (1951), Sweethallow Valley (1951), Badger's Wood
(1958) and Squirrel's Island (1963); Ants' Castle (1949); Secret Arena
(1951); The Racing Wraith (1953) as Trevor Burgess; The Crystal City
(1959), set a thousand fathoms beneath the surface of the ocean.

(1919- ) UK writer whose ALTERNATE-WORLD tales in the World Dionysius
sequence - The Forest and the Kingdom * (1949), Hunt the King, Hide the
Fox * (1950) and The Fires and the Stars * (1951) - convey a bright
childlike nostalgia for a planet which in some regards resembles Earth but
whose history is more satisfactory than ours. This angle of view may be
accounted for by the fact that, with Margaret PRIESTLEY (whom see for her
own contributions), MT had decades earlier created the World Dionysius as
a childhood fantasy. The Other Side of the Moon (1956), an sf juvenile,
and Merlin's Ring (1957), an Arthurian fantasy, are unconnected to the
sequence. [JC]


[r] Louis TRIMBLE.

(1917-1988) US writer and academic, prolific in several genres including
mysteries and Westerns - he wrote 66 novels by 1977 - but relatively
little sf; his only sf short story was "Probability" for If in 1954. His
sf novels came later, in a spurt, beginning with the Anthropol Bureau
tales - Anthropol (1968 dos) and The Noblest Experiment in the Galaxy
(1970 dos) - and climaxing with The City Machine (1972), set on a colony
planet, where the device that constructs CITIES has been lost, forcing
everyone into one overcrowded construct. LT clearly found sf venues of
interest for the telling of tales - some of them surprisingly placid and
landscape-oriented - and showed little concern for the exploration of the
extrapolative implications that inspired the original invention of those
venues. But he was extremely competent, and his entertainments mused
profitably within the worlds of sf. [JC]Other works: Guardians of the Gate
(1972) with his first wife, Jacquelyn Trimble (1927- ); The Wandering
Variables (1972); The Bodelan Way (1974).

[r] M.H. ZOOL.


Film (1970). Herman Cohen Productions/Warner Bros. Dir Feddie Francis,
starring Joan Crawford, Michael Gough, Bernard Kay, Joe Cornelius.
Screenplay Aben Kandel, based on a story by John Gilling, Peter Bryan. 93
mins, cut to 91 mins. Colour.A troglodyte or caveman survival (Cornelius)
is discovered in a cavern, and investigated by an anthropologist
(Crawford, in her last performance). All the innocent-in-the-modern-world
cliches ( Hyperlink to: APES AND CAVEMEN) feature as the bewildered
creature runs amuck, but loyal Crawford stands by him. One scene shows
electrodes taped to his head so that we can "see" his remarkably
anachronistic prehistoric memories, actually old dinosaur clips from Irwin
ALLEN's The Animal World (1956). This routine UK movie was parodied (as if
parody were needed) in John Landis's first feature, SCHLOCK (1973), whose
caveman, unlike Trog (who is disturbed by it) loves rock'n'roll. [PN]

1. UK tv serial (1956-7) ITV. Prod/dir Quentin Lawrence, written Peter
Key, starring Sarah Lawson, Rosemary Miller, Laurence Payne. 6 25min
episodes. B/w. This is set mainly in an Alpine Hotel where intimations of
doom received by a woman with ESP are followed by the revelation that
ALIENS are on the mountain.2. Film (1959; vt The Crawling Eye; vt The
Creature from Another World). Tempean Production/DCA. Dir Quentin
Lawrence, starring Forrest Tucker, Laurence Payne, Janet Munro, Jennifer
Jayne, Warren Mitchell. Screenplay Jimmy Sangster, based on 1. 85 mins.
B/w.The film version is more full-bloodedly unpleasant than 1, especially
in scenes where the aliens animate their dead human victims telepathically
and turn them homicidal in a not very sensible scheme for conquest. The
aliens themselves cannot come off the mountain, because they can survive
only where it is very cold. Special-effects man Les Bowie worked hard on a
shoestring budget, but the octopoid alien, with its one big eye, is
ludicrous and the cloud beneath which the aliens lurk on the mountain was
a piece of cotton wool pinned to a photograph. Loose ends of plot dangle
everywhere, perhaps as a result of a 3hr story being reduced to half that
length, but the film is not as bad as legend has it. [JB/PN]

(1815-1882) UK writer whose most famous novels make up the Barchester
Chronicles. His 61st book, and sole venture into sf, The Fixed Period
(1882), written a few years before his death, understandably (though
evasively: no one actually dies in the book) concentrated upon that topic.
It is 1980 on an ISLAND near New Zealand where sheep farmers are
establishing an ambiguous UTOPIA in which no one will be allowed to live
past the age of 67 - the age at which AT would in fact die. The Navy
arrives in time to avert implementation of the scheme. Though not one of
AT's stronger novels, it remains a speculation of interest, and
demonstrates the vigour of its author's rather gloomy Indian summer.
[JC]See also: MACHINES.

Film (1982) Lisberger/Kushner/Walt Disney. Dir Steven Lisberger, starring
Jeff Bridges, Bruce Boxleitner, David Warner, Cindy Morgan. Screenplay
Lisberger, from a story by Lisberger, Bonnie MacBird. 96 mins. Colour.In
this pleasing but lightweight film, a young man (Bridges) seeks evidence
about dirty work in the computer company from which he has just resigned.
Smuggled into the firm's building by friends, he is deconstructed by the
Master Control Program (or MCP) software, which rules the VIRTUAL REALITY
within which he comes to consciousness as a subprogram (along - just as in
Oz - with analogues of two friends programmed by them to help him out).
There follows, disappointingly, a standard Good-against-Evil struggle -
involving Bridges and MCP's hench-progam Sark (Warner), itself an analogue
of a real-life evil-doer - on a somewhat austere computer-generated
landscape resembling that of a rather good video game ( GAMES AND TOYS).
The film has moments of wit, and a stunning last shot where the now
reconstituted hero looks down on the streets of Los Angeles at night, for
all the world like the computer grid from which he has escaped. This
suggests that perhaps the whole film is a light-hearted text about
determinism, but most of it aspires to being little more than a
wide-screen arcade-game scenario. [PN]


An sf-writer character in Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's God Bless You, Mr Rosewater
(1965) and Breakfast of Champions (1973), first used as a pseudonym by L.
W. CURREY and David G. HARTWELL for a short bibliography, SF-I: A
Selective Bibliography (1971 chap), and later (there was a row about this)
by Philip Jose FARMER on the novel Venus on the Half-Shell (1975). [PN]

Sherwood SMITH.

(vt Hard To Be a God) Film (1989). Dovzhenko Studio/Halleluya Film
GMBH/VO Sovexportfilm. Dir Peter Fleischmann, starring Edward Dzentara,
Ann Gautier, Christina Kaufmann, Alexander Filippenko, Andrei Boltnev,
Mikhail Gluzsky, Werner Herzog. Screenplay Fleischmann, Jean-Claude
Carriere, Dal Orlov, based on Trudno byt' bogom (1964; trans as Hard to be
a God 1973 US) by Arkady and Boris STRUGATSKI. 120 mins. Colour.The most
ambitious Soviet sf film to date, this Soviet/West German coproduction was
4 years in the making, and even so seems unfinished. Gorgeous sets, a good
story (combining medieval swordfighting and futuristic starships) and a
distinguished international cast did, however, ensure its success in
European cinemas. The Strugatskis' multilevelled moral drama has been
simplified to the level of pure action. The focus is court intrigue on an
underdeveloped planet where a group of secret agents/investigators from a
highly developed Earth witness the rise of a kind of medieval fascism, led
by the local Hitler, Reba. The protagonist, Rumata, camouflaged as an
indigenous nobleman, is not allowed to involve himself in the planet's
politics; he is the historical observer who must not interfere with the
experiment. However, he and his friends do attempt to save local
intellectuals from pogroms and, when Reba's men kill the native girl with
whom Rumata is in love, the Earthman humanist takes to the sword. A
failure for Strugatski fans and for those who enjoy serious sf, but a
feast for lovers of sword-and-bluster combat and a sentimental love story.
[VG]See also: RUSSIA.

The unidentified pseudonym of the UK author who lists himself as "Editor"
of The History of a Voyage to the Moon, with an Account of the
Adventurers' Subsequent Discoveries (1864), a PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION tale
described by Darko SUVIN in Victorian Science Fiction in the UK (1983) as
being of considerable importance; Suvin also speculates that CT may
possibly have been James Hinton (1822-1875), father of C.H. HINTON. The
Voyage depicts its protagonists' discovery of an ANTIGRAVITY device which
they use to fly to the Moon, where they find a UTOPIA inhabited by
"amnesiac reincarnations of select Earthmen". [JC]

[r] Candas Jane DORSEY.

(1857-1935) Russian scientist and writer. He began investigating the
possibility of SPACE FLIGHT in 1878. In his monograph Free Space (1883
chap) he suggested that SPACESHIPS would have to operate by jet
propulsion. His consideration of some of the practical difficulties led to
a paper entitled "How to Protect Fragile and Delicate Objects from Jolts
and Shocks" (1891). In 1903 he published the classic paper "The Probing of
Space by Means of Jet Devices", proposing that space travel could be
achieved using multistage liquid-fuelled ROCKETS. He wrote a good deal of
didactic sf, mostly for young readers, in order to popularize his ideas.
All of this is collected, along with several essays by or about
Tsiolkovsky, in a vol ed V. Dutt, Put' k zbezdam (coll 1960 USSR; trans by
various hands as The Call of the Cosmos 1963 USSR; unauthorized edn, with
cuts, vt The Science Fiction of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky 1979 US), the US
version substituting an intro by one "Adam Starchild", also falsely
credited as ed. The sf stories include the novelette On the Moon (written
1887; 1893), Dreams of Earth and Sky (coll 1895), and a full-length novel,
Vne zemli (1916 Priroda i Lyudi; exp 1920; trans in this coll as "Outside
the Earth"; also appeared trans, with intro, Kenneth Syers as Beyond the
Planet Earth 1960 US), which is an account of the building and launching
of a spaceship by an international group of scientists which ends with the
initiation of a project to colonize the Solar System.KT was the first
great pioneer of space research and the first real prophet of the myth of
the conquest of space which has played such a vital role in modern sf. The
inscription on the obelisk marking his grave reads: "Man will not always
stay on Earth; the pursuit of light and space will lead him to penetrate
the bounds of the atmosphere, timidly at first but in the end to conquer
the whole of solar space." [BS]See also: COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS;


[r] JAPAN.

[r] JAPAN.

(1919- ) UK writer and editor who began publishing sf with "No Short
Cuts" for NW in 1951, and for the next half decade or so produced a great
amount of fiction, in UK magazines and in book form, under his own name
and under many pseudonyms, some still undisclosed. After the late 1950s,
his production moderated somewhat, but he remained a prolific author of
consistently readable SPACE OPERAS. Of his many pseudonyms, those known to
have been used for book titles of sf interest include Charles Grey,
Gregory Kern, Carl Maddox, Edward Thompson and the house names Volsted
GRIDBAN, Gill HUNT, King LANG, Arthur Maclean, Brian SHAW and Roy SHELDON.
At least 50 further names were used for magazine stories only. His first
sf novels were pseudonymous: Saturn Patrol (1951) as by King Lang,
Planetfall (1951) as by Gill Hunt, "Argentis" (1952) as by Brian Shaw and
Alien Universe (1952 chap) as by Volsted Gridban. He soon began publishing
under his own name, with Alien Impact (1952) and Atom War on Mars (1952),
though his best work in these years was probably that as by Charles Grey,
beginning with The Wall (1953). Of his enormous output of magazine
fiction, the Dusty Dribble stories in Authentic 1955-6 stand out; ECT also
edited Authentic from Feb 1956 to its demise in Oct 1957.With Enterprise
2115 (1954 as by Grey; vt The Mechanical Monarch 1958 dos US as by ECT) he
began to produce more sustained adventure novels. Alien Dust (1952-3 NW;
1954 Nebula; fixup 1955; expurgated 1957 US) effectively depicts the
rigours of interplanetary exploration. The Space-Born (1956 dos US) is a
crisp GENERATION-STARSHIP tale. These novels all display a convincing
expertise in the use of the language and themes of PULP-MAGAZINE sf,
though they tend to avoid examining their material very thoroughly.
Enterprise 2115, for instance, deals swiftly and with ECT's typical
largesse with REINCARNATION, the SUPERMAN theme and CYBERNETICS, along
with a matriarchal DYSTOPIA; but the sustaining narrative - the pilot of
the first spaceship returns from frozen sleep to reinvigorate a world gone
wrong through its misuse of a predicting machine - hardly allows much
justice to be done to any one concept.The next decade saw few ECT titles
until the start of the long series for which he remains best known, the
Dumarest books: The Winds of Gath (1967 dos US; rev vt Gath 1968 UK),
Derai (1968 dos US), Toyman (1969 dos US), Kalin (1969 dos US), The Jester
at Scar (1970 dos US), Lallia (1971 dos US), Technos (1972 dos US),
Veruchia (1973 US), Mayenne (1973 US) and Jondelle (1973 US) - both
assembled as Mayenne and Jondelle (omni 1981 US) - Zenya (1974 US), Eloise
(1975 US), Eye of the Zodiac (1975 US), Jack of Swords (1976 US), Spectrum
of a Forgotten Sun (1976 US), Haven of Darkness (1977 US), Prison of Night
(1977 US), Incident on Ath (1978 US), The Quillian Sector (1978 US), Web
of Sand (1979 US), Iduna's Universe (1979 US), The Terra Data (1980 US),
World of Promise (1980 US), Nectar of Heaven (1981 US), The Terridae (1981
US), The Coming Event (1982 US), Earth is Heaven (1982 US), Melome (1983
US) and Angado (1984 US) - both assembled as Melome and Angado (omni 1988)
- and Symbol of Terra (1984 US) and The Temple of Truth (1985 US) - both
assembled as Symbol of Terra and the Temple of Truth (omni 1989). It is
understood that a final volume (#32) has been published in France, in
about 1992, under the title Le Retour; there is no English-language
edition. Earl Dumarest, who features in each volume, maintains with
soldier-of-fortune fortitude a long search for Earth - the planet on which
he was born, and from which he was wrested at an early age - but must
battle against the universal belief that Earth is a myth. Inhabited
planets are virtually innumerable; the period is some time after the
collapse of a GALACTIC EMPIRE, and everyone speaks the same language; and,
as Dumarest moves gradually outwards from Galactic Centre along a spiral
arm of stars, it is clear that he is gradually nearing his goal. The
opposition he faces from the Cyclan - a vast organization of passionless
humans linked cybernetically to a central organic computer whose location
is unknown - long led readers to assume that the Cyclan HQ was located on
Earth, but the sequence stopped - perhaps at the behest of its publishers
- at a somewhat inconclusive point. Though some of the later-middle titles
seemed aimless, ECT showed consistent skill at prolonging Dumarest's
intense suspense about the outcome of his long quest.Concurrently, writing
as Gregory Kern, ECT produced a more routine space-opera sequence
featuring galactic secret agent Cap Kennedy. The Kern titles are Galaxy of
the Lost (1973 US), Slave Ship from Sergan (1973 US), Monster of Metelaze
(1973 US), Enemy within the Skull (1974 US), Jewel of Jarhen (1974 US),
Seetee Alert! (1974 US), The Gholan Gate (1974 US), The Eater of Worlds
(1974 US), Earth Enslaved (1974 US), Planet of Dread (1974 US), Spawn of
Laban (1974 US), The Genetic Buccaneer (1974 US), A World Aflame (1974
US), The Ghosts of Epidoris (1975 US), Mimics of Dephene (1975 US), Beyond
the Galactic Lens (1975 US) and The Galactiad (first published as Das
Kosmiche Duelle ["The Cosmic Duel"], 1976 Germany; first English version
1983 US). Though these and some of the Dumarest books descend too readily
to CLICHE, ECT established and successfully maintained a reputation for
providing reliably competent adventure sf, full of action, sex and
occasional melancholy. Late singletons like The Luck Machine (1980) and
Stardeath (1983 US) continued the parade of efficient titles. [JC]Other
works: The Mutants Rebel (1953); Venusian Adventure (1953); Alien Life
(1954); World at Bay (1954); Journey to Mars (1954); City of No Return
(1954); The Stellar Legion (1954); The Hell Planet (1954); The Resurrected
Man (1954); Supernatural Stories 9 (coll 1957), ostensibly a magazine but
all stories by ECT under various names; Moon Base (1964); Ten from
Tomorrow (coll 1966); "The Life Buyer" (1965 NW; the entire novel appears
in SF REPRISE #5 1967); Death is a Dream (1967); C.O.D. Mars (1968 chap
dos US); S.T.A.R. Flight (1969 US); Escape into Space (1969); Century of
the Manikin (1972 US); A Scatter of Stardust (coll 1972 dos US); Sword in
the Snow (1973 chap); novelizations of episodes from the tv series SPACE
1999, being Breakaway * (1975), Collision Course * (1975), Alien Seed *
(1976 US), Rogue Planet * (1976 US) and the comparatively ambitious
Earthfall * (1977); The Primitive (1977); Death Wears a White Face (1957
Authentic as "Dead Weight"; exp 1979); Stellar Assignment (1979); Pawn of
the Omphalos (1980 US).As Charles Grey: Dynasty of Doom (1953); The
Tormented City (1953); Space Hunger (1953); I Fight for Mars (1953); The
Hand of Havoc (1954); The Extra Man (1954).As Volsted Gridban: Reverse
Universe (1952); Planetoid Disposals Ltd (1953); De Bracy's Drug (1953);
Fugitive of Time (1953).As Arthur Maclean: Touch of Evil * (1959 chap),
#438 in the Sexton Blake Library.As Carl Maddox: The Living World (1954
chap); Menace from the Past (1954 chap).As Roy Sheldon: The Metal Eater
(1954).As Edward Thompson: The Imperial Rome series, comprising Atilus the
Slave (1975), Atilus the Gladiator (1975) and Gladiator (1978).About the
author: "The Perils of Bibliography: A Look at the Writings of E.C.Tubb"
(1979 The Science-Fiction Collector #7) by Mike ASHLEY.See also: BOYS'

(1922- ) Australian bibliographer and industrial manager, retired. His
bibliographical labours in sf since the late 1940s were among the most
extensive in the field since the pioneering work of Everett F. BLEILER;
they have since been partially superseded, but comprise one of the
foundation stones upon which later workers have built. His early work was
A Handbook of Science Fiction and Fantasy (1954; rev in 2 vols 1959), in
duplicated format, self-published. Far more thorough is the 3-vol The
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968, consisting of
Vol 1: Who's Who, A-L (1974), Vol 2: Who's Who, M-Z (1978) and Vol 3:
Miscellaneous (dated 1982 but 1983), all from ADVENT: PUBLISHERS; their
usefulness to researchers was a little limited by the slowness of
production, Vol 3 arriving 15 years after the book's cut-off date.
Synopses are given for many books, and publishing data for all. Coverage
of GENRE SF is thorough; coverage of non-genre sf and of older sf is
patchy but sometimes illuminating. Generally (there are exceptions) DHT
does not cover work which has not been reprinted 1945-68. Listings of
stories in collections and anthologies are given, and the coverage is
almost as thorough for fantasy and weird fiction as for sf. [PN]See also:

[s] Wilson TUCKER.



(1914- ) US writer, orphaned, brought up in Bloomington and Normal,
Illinois, where he set some of his fiction, some early stories being
signed Bob Tucker. For several decades he worked as a film projectionist,
retiring in 1972, and he always spoke of his writing - more than 20 books,
half of them sf, half of them mysteries - as an avocation. WT began his
involvement with sf about 1932, and during the 1930s was exceedingly
active as a fan and FANZINE publisher, starting with The Planetoid in
1932, though his most notable fanzine was Le Zombie, which lasted more
than 60 issues 1938-75, the first half-decade of that period being its
heyday; his Neo-Fan's Guide to Science-Fiction Fandom (1966 chap)
demonstrates the quality of this work. As an example of the violent humour
and intense emotions aroused in early FANDOM, it is notable that WT was
twice subjected to hoax obituaries in the sf magazines of the time. His
fanzine The Bloomington News Letter (later Science Fiction News Letter)
dealt mainly with the professional field.While active as a fan WT was also
writing fiction, though not until 1941 did he publish his first story,
"Interstellar Way Station" as Bob Tucker, in Super Science Novels. He
never became prolific in shorter forms - The Best of Wilson Tucker (coll
1982) is definitive - soon turning to novels. His first, The Chinese Doll
(1946), was a mystery, but made RECURSIVE use of the world of sf fandom.
(WT pleased the knowledgeable fans, while annoying some critics, by his
lifelong habit of using the names of fans and writers for the characters
of his books; these names became known as Tuckerisms.) His first sf novel,
The City in the Sea (1951), deals somewhat crudely with material similar
to that treated far more effectively in the much later Ice and Iron (1974;
exp 1975); in both, a matriarchal culture begins to re-invade a USA
reverted to savagery, but in the latter the far-future matriarchy is
linked through TIME TRAVEL to a USA, only generations hence, in the grip
of a new ice age. This latter tale is not very coherently told, but the
panoramas are lucid. Time travel is central to much of WT's work,
featuring in tales like The Lincoln Hunters (1958), one of his best
novels. Time travellers from an imperial USA several hundred years hence
are sent to acquire a recording of a lost speech of Abraham Lincoln; the
two cultures are effectively contrasted. The ending, in which the
protagonist is trapped in an 1856 far less unattractive than the future
from which he came, is both poignant and welcome. In The Time Masters
(1953; rev 1971), whose protagonist appears also in the sequel Time Bomb
(1955; vt Tomorrow Plus X 1957), a long-lived extraterrestrial's presence
throughout human history generates some of the same perspectives as time
travel itself.WT had a knack of choosing unusually resonant and
appropriate titles for his novels. Examples are The Long Loud Silence
(1952; rev 1970; early US edns delete implications of cannibalism, UK edns
do not) and The Year of the Quiet Sun (1970). The former is a powerful
post- HOLOCAUST novel, sombre and tough in feeling, though at points
awkwardly told; the hero, unusually for a genre-sf novel, is in many ways
cruel and insensitive. The latter, which won a JOHN W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL
AWARD retrospectively in 1976, sends its Black protagonist forwards in
time to around AD2020, where he finds the USA in dire shape, his Blackness
terrifying to the racially divided remnants of the civil war which has
ended civilization. The prophecy that he had discovered in a non-Biblical
ancient manuscript is fulfilled: there is to be a Year of the Quiet Sun.
He prepares to watch the final rites of history.WT was a very uneven
writer, but expanded the boundaries of genre sf with his downbeat and
realistic variations on old material, and demonstrated how effective a
generic cliche like time travel could become when treated with due
attention. By tying his use of time travel to virtual archaeologies of the
worlds thus exposed, he transformed that cliche into an instrument of
vision. He became inactive in the field after about 1980. [JC/PN]Other
works: Prison Planet (1947 chap); Wild Talent (1954; exp 1955 UK; The Man
from Tomorrow 1955); Science Fiction Sub-Treasury (coll 1954; cut vt Time:
X 1955); To the Tombaugh Station (1960 dos); Resurrection Days
(1981).About the author: A Checkist of Wilson Tucker (1991 chap) by
Christopher P. STEPHENS.See also: END OF THE WORLD; ESP; HUGO;


(vt The Andromeda Nebula; vt Andromeda the Mysterious; vt The Cloud of
Andromeda) Film (1968). Dovzhenko Studio. Dir Eugene Sherstobytov,
starring Viya Artmane, Sergei Stoliarov, Nikolai Kriukov. Screenplay
Sherstobytov, Vladimir Dmitrievski, based on Tumannost' Andromedy (1958)
by Ivan YEFREMOV. 85 mins, cut to 77 mins. Colour.A disappointingly
polemical Russian adaptation of Yefremov's much better novel, TA tells of
an attempt, 2000 years hence, to establish contact with an intelligent
alien race living somewhere in the Andromeda Nebula. Most of the action
takes place on a spaceship. The film's optimism about the future -
manifest in the woodenly cheerful, healthy and uniformly handsome cast and
the lack of dramatic tension of any kind (a problem not uncommon in
UTOPIAN fictions) - is light years from the bleakness of later Russian sf
films such as SOLARIS (1972). The sets and special effects are good.
[PN]See also: RUSSIA.


(1935-1982) US writer whose Tornado Alley (1978) dramatizes NEAR-FUTURE
attempts to deal with very bad storms. Fuzzy Bones * (1981) is a
continuation of H. Beam PIPER's Fuzzy series, quite successfully
extracting from Piper's own texts material requiring development, and
exploring the origins of the Fuzzy race. [JC]

Film (1933). Vandor Film/Bavaria Film. Dir Kurt Bernhardt, starring Paul
Hartmann, Olly von Flint, Attila Hoorbiger, Gustaf Grundgens, Elga Brink.
Screenplay Bernhardt, Reinhart Steinbicker, based on Der Tunnel (1913;
trans 1915) by Bernhard KELLERMANN. 80 mins (French version 73 mins). B/w.
This ambitious German film tells of a NEAR-FUTURE attempt by German
engineers, imbued with nationalist fervour, to drill a tunnel under the
Atlantic. A speculator attempts to sabotage the project. Technically, the
film has a high standard, with convincing sets and special effects; the
various disasters that occur - cave-ins, floods and volcanic eruptions -
are realistically staged (too realistically, perhaps, as the film's
associate producer was killed during the shooting of one such sequence). A
French-language version was made simultaneously, starring Jean Gabin and
Madeleine Renaud. The slightly inferior UK remake was The TUNNEL (1935; vt
Trans-Atlantic Tunnel US). [JB/PN]

(vt Trans-Atlantic Tunnel US) Film (1935). Gaumont. Dir Maurice Elvey,
starring Richard Dix, Leslie Banks, Madge Evans, Helen Vinson, C. Aubrey
Smith, George Arliss, Walter Huston. Screenplay Clemence DANE, L. du Garde
Peach, based on Der Tunnel (1913; trans 1915) by Bernhard KELLERMANN. 94
mins. B/w.A UK remake of the successful German film Der TUNNEL (1933). The
plot is basically the same: a tunnel is built under the Atlantic linking
the USA with Europe (though here the European end of the tunnel is
situated in England). The film is not as technically impressive as the
German version; it concentrates less on the national grandeur of the
project and more on the domestic dramas of the tunnel's creators. [JB/PN]

(1900-1970) UK writer whose Eagles Restrained (1936) showed some
prescience in predicting a German-Polish conflict (though dating the event
to 1954), but was less fortunate in its assumption that the League of
Nations would intervene to quell the dispute. [JC]



(1958- ) US writer who began publishing sf with the comic adventure Ether
Or (1987), an ALTERNATE WORLD tale in which a female"Hitler"is a force for
peace, and which has been transformed by the eponymous fuel, which makes
space travel cheap. The exceedingly ambitious Black Body (1989) presents,
in terms readable as both sf and fantasy, the autobiography of an
18th-century witch, during which she makes it clear that witches are in
fact a kind of ALIEN species. The style in which the tale is told is both
estranged (because she is not human) and strained (because HCT seems
himself uneasy with some aspects of 18th-century diction); but the end
result is, at points, very impressive. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer whose LOST-WORLD adventure, The Armada Gold (1908) with
Reginald Hodder, is moderately exciting, but who remains of greater
interest for The Submarine Girl (1909), in which a super-submarine meets
up with the Flying Dutchman, awakens her crew, and arranges for their
resettlement in South Africa. [JC]

(1943- ) UK-born writer, in the USA from 1967, best known for his POETRY,
though his first book of sf interest, A Double Shadow (1978), is a novel.
Set on a FAR-FUTURE terraformed MARS, it depicts in dying-Earth flavours
the conflicts of two characters who represent deeply contrasting classes
of evolved humans; their strife leads them to transcend their volatile
human condition. THE NEW WORLD: AN EPIC POEM (1985) more daringly takes
the form of a book-length narrative poem. In a 24th-century balkanized USA
3 men vie to marry the heroine, herself stubbornly attached to an earlier
lover. After much adventuring and a series of disquisitions on the UTOPIAN
lifestyle achieved by the heroine's rural culture, the long tale ends in
the mass-suicide of the villainous fundamentalists who have been
threatening this society and with the resumption of her sanctioned
relationship. Cumbersome at certain points, the book works in the end as
an advocacy of and paean to the good life. Genesis: An Epic Poem (1988) is
perhaps less successful but, in its successful presentation of a
believable MARS, demonstrates its author's very considerable gifts. [JC]

(1916- ) Australian writer and sf critic. His connection with sf came
quite late in life, long after the publication 1959-67 of his first 5
(mainstream) novels. (There has since been a 6th, Transit of Cassidy
[1978].) He became well known for somewhat stern sf criticism in the
1970s, published in SF COMMENTARY, FOUNDATION and elsewhere, and ed The
View from the Edge (anth 1977), stories from a major Australian sf
workshop; GT then began writing sf himself. His first sf novel was Beloved
Son (1978 UK), in which an interstellar expedition returns to Earth in
AD2032 to find a diminished post- HOLOCAUST population with very few old
people, and a radically changed and somewhat merciless culture; the
scenario is complicated by developments in GENETIC ENGINEERING. The book
is perhaps ponderous, but was well received for its careful exploration of
some plausible moral problems of the NEAR FUTURE. The other novels in this
Ethical Culture series - different protagonists but a common background -
are Vaneglory (1981 UK) and Yesterday's Men (1983 UK). They are serious
and interesting, but the characteristic solemnity of their presentation
has alienated some. The first piece in the series was the story "In a
Petri Dish Upstairs" (1978), one of 8 stories collected in Pursuit of
Miracles (coll 1990).Astonishingly, for he was now in his 70s, GT then
changed gear. His next 2 novels are more fluid and spirited than his
earlier work, though sharing with them a (this time different)
21st-century setting. The Sea and Summer (1987 UK; vt Drowning Towers 1988
US), closely related to the earlier story "The Fittest" (1985), marked his
breakthrough into the US market, with a genuinely distinguished and deeply
imagined story of life in an overpopulated city in a future where
Australia and the world's littorals are being drowned by the slowly rising
ocean, a result of greenhouse-effect global warming; it won the ARTHUR C.
CLARKE AWARD in 1988. Brain Child (1985 in Strange Attractors, anth ed
Damien BRODERICK, as "On the Nursery Floor"; much exp1991 US) is a
thriller whose narrator slowly uncovers the story of a scientific
experiment in genetic manipulation designed to enhance INTELLIGENCE (of
which he is in part a product) and learns of the superhumans that may have
resulted. This study in the ethics of superiority ( SUPERMAN) incorporates
the story "On the Nursery Floor" (1985). In the autobiographical In the
Heart or In the Head (1984), GT describes his relationship with sf, and
displays a certain waspishness. He may be his country's most distinguished
sf writer. [PN]Other Works: Genetic Soldier (1994).See also: AUSTRALIA;


(1949- ) US writer and academic who has made use of his field of
scholarship (his PhD was in Byzantine history) to create all his
best-known work. The fantasy Videssos Cycle - The Misplaced Legion (1987),
An Emperor for the Legion (1987), The Legion of Videssos (1987) and Swords
of the Legion (1987), with the Krispos sequence, Krispos Rising (1991),
Krispos of Videssos (1991) and Krispos the Emperor (1994), serving as a
prequel - follows the exploits of a Roman legion translated to the empire
of Videssos, situated in a world where MAGIC works and Byzantine history
is recapitulated. The Basil Argyros stories (1985-7), set in an ALTERNATE
WORLD in which Mahomet became a Christian saint - assembled as Agent of
Byzantium (coll of linked stories 1987) - follows the exploits of a
medieval secret agent who tends to cause scientific innovations against
both his brief and his intentions. Though these books focus on their
various charismatic and canny protagonists, HT's thorough understanding of
his source material gracefully infiltrates the fun and fantastication.HT
began writing work of genre interest with two SWORD-AND-SORCERY tales as
by Eric Iverson, Wereblood (1979) and its sequel Werenight (1979), and was
soon publishing sf and fantasy with some frequency, sometimes as by Eric
G. Iverson, some of his better non-series work being assembled as
Kaleidoscope (coll 1990). Noninterference (fixup 1988) - in which a
galactic survey team runs across ALIENS - and Earthgrip (fixup 1991) - in
which a reader of sf uses the expertise so gained to save alien races -
are, unusually for HT, straight sf books not set in alternate worlds; but
A Different Flesh (fixup 1988) places hominid survivors ( APES AND
CAVEMEN) in an alternate USA, and A World of Difference (1989) confronts
Soviet and US missions on an alternate Mars - here called Minerva -
populated by warring Minervans. HT has never failed to be exuberant when
he sees the chance; and although it may be argued that he has not yet
written any single book that has unduly stretched his very considerable
intelligence, the WorldWar sequence - comprising WorldWar: In the Balance
(1994) and WorldWar: Tilting the Balance (1995), with further volumes
projected - deftly, and at great length, unfolds an ALTERNATE WORLD WW2
scenario, in which the opposing forces are uneasily allied in opposition
to an invading force of comfortingly obtuse aliens, very clearly described
in strict accordance (so far) with the traditional sf view that invading
alien armies were almost certainly to be run by hidebound, reptile-thick
bureaucrats. HT won a 1994 Best Novella HUGO Award for"Down in the
Bottomlands" (1992). [JC]Other works: The Pugnacious Peacemaker (1990 chap
dos), a sequel to L. Sprague DE CAMP's The Wheels of If (1940 Unknown;
1990 chap dos), which precedes it in this sequentially printed DOS volume.

(1901- ) UK writer of fantasies like There Was Once a City (1927), The
Devil's Churchyard (1970 US) and The Festival of Flora: A Story of Ancient
and Modern Times (1972 US). He remains of some sf interest for The Moon
Dies (1972), a book-length blank-verse narrative of the destruction of
Earth's first moon (broken apart by gravity), the death of human
civilization, and the survival of Noah. [JC]

(1952- ) US-born writer, in the UK from late 1980, married to Christopher
PRIEST 1981-7. An early member of the CLARION SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS'
WORKSHOP, she very rapidly established her name as a writer in short
forms, beginning with her first story, "Stranger in the House", for Robin
Scott WILSON's Clarion II (anth 1972), and winning the 1974 JOHN W.
CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New Writer. Her stories very frequently make
quietly devastating use of genre devices - often those associated with
HORROR - to convey FEMINIST lessons about the relationships between men
and women ( WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION), though she tends to
allow the political implications of these lessons to reside, tacitly,
within her texts. Some of her better stories have been assembled in A Nest
of Nightmares (coll 1986), A Spaceship Built of Stone and Other Stories
(coll 1987) and Memories of the Body: Tales of Desire and Transformation
(coll 1992). Her first novel, Windhaven (1975 ASF; exp 1981 US) with
George R.R. MARTIN, depicts life on a lost colony planet whose feudal
culture is focused on the use of artificial (but functional) wings. Most
of her subsequent books - like Familiar Spirit (1983 US), Gabriel (1987)
and Lost Futures (1992), whose heroine is thrust into several ALTERNATE
WORLDS - are fantasies with strong elements of horror, idiomatically and
cleanly told, in a level and foreboding voice, and tending to depict
worlds which, in visual terms, seem both sinister and washed. More and
more, though commercial sagacity seems sometimes to have guided her
tongue, she has given a sense of having revelations in store. She refused
a 1981 NEBULA for "The Bone Flute". [JC]Other works: Catwitch (1983), a
juvenile fantasy; Angela's Rainbow (1983), associational; Skin of the
Soul: New Horror Stories by Women (anth 1990).Nonfiction: Children's
Literary Houses (1984) with Rosalind Ashe; Encyclopedia of Feminism

Pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), US writer and
humorist. It is often not appreciated, although Philip Jose FARMER makes
him the central character of his RECURSIVE The Fabulous Riverboat (1971),
that a significant portion of MT's output - including what is at least his
second-best novel, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889; vt A
Yankee at the Court of King Arthur 1889 UK) - may be classified as sf.
Some of Edgar Allan POE's sf was humorous but MT, drawing on the
traditions of the literary hoax and the tall tale, was the first US writer
fully to exploit the possibilities for HUMOUR of sf, inaugurating a rich
but narrow vein that finds its current apotheosis in the work of Kurt
VONNEGUT Jr.One of MT's notebooks indicates that, like Poe, he was
interested in the possibilities of ballooning, and in 1868 began a story
about a Frenchman's BALLOON journey from Paris to a prairie in Illinois,
leaving it unfinished because of the US publication of Jules VERNE's Cinq
semaines en ballon (1863; trans "William Lackland" as Five Weeks in a
Balloon 1869 US). However, he returned to the topic in an unpublished
manuscript entitled "A Murder, a Mystery, and a Marriage" (1876) and in
Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894), in which the hero crosses the Atlantic by
balloon and ends up in Cairo.Also essentially humorous is a skewed UTOPIA,
"The Curious Republic of Gondour" (1875), in which certain classes of
people, including the more intelligent, have more votes than others (cf
Vonnegut's antithetical "Harrison Bergeron" [1961]). An equally skewed
view of another ideal state is offered in Captain Stormfield's Visit to
Heaven (written 1870s or later; 1909). This materialist heaven is located
in interstellar space, through which Stormfield sails with an increasing
number of companions rather in the manner of the narrator in Olaf
STAPLEDON's STAR MAKER (1937). To begin with, Stormfield races a comet, a
not unlikely invention for a writer whose arrival and departure from Earth
coincided with the timetable of Halley's Comet (a fragment from the 1880s
is entitled "A Letter from the Comet"). MT's interest in astronomical
distances, evident elsewhere, is particularly apparent here.A parallel
interest in vast temporal perspectives and geological ages is conspicuous
in the many pieces that constitute MT's down-home version of the Genesis
story, including his practical speculation concerning the daily lives of
ADAM AND EVE in "Papers from the Adam Family" (written 1870s or later;
1962) and "Letters from the Earth" (written 1909; 1962). A considerably
darkened sense of time and cyclical history informs "The Secret History of
Eddypus, the World-Empire" (written 1901-2; 1972), MT's horrific but
uncompleted vision of a future, 1000 years hence, in which Mary Baker
Eddy's Christian Science rules the world, and MT himself, the potential
saviour, is confused with Adam; MT's acerbic views on Eddy (1821-1910) are
fully presented in his Christian Science (1907).Given his fascination with
time and history, it is not surprising that MT's best and most influential
work of sf, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, should be
concerned with TIME TRAVEL. The tale which seems to have inspired A
Connecticut Yankee, Max ADELER's "Professor Baffin's Adventures" (1880),
is an implicit time-travel story, but Twain's novel may be the first
genuine time-travel story (the destructive ending takes care of the
anachronism issue) and certainly established the pattern for that kind of
sf (predominantly US) in which the hero, more or less single-handedly,
affects the destiny of an entire world or Universe (cf L. Sprague DE
CAMP's LEST DARKNESS FALL [1941]). While writing A Connecticut Yankee, MT,
who like his Promethean hero was gripped by the march of invention - his
own inventions included a history game and a notebook with ears, and he
anticipated radio and tv - became disastrously involved financially with
the Paige typesetter. That was one reason why A Connecticut Yankee is the
transitional work between the light and the dark in MT's corpus. Many of
the gloomy, quasi-Darwinist, philosophical ideas explored in such non-sf
works as What is Man? (first version written 1898; 1906) - the answer
being a machine - and Mark Twain's Mysterious Stranger Manuscripts
(written 1897-1903; fraudulent composite text 1916; 1969), which claim
that everything is determined and that reality is all a dream anyway,
figure prominently in A Connecticut Yankee.The same ideas pervade MT's
explorations in microcosmic worlds ( GREAT AND SMALL) in 2 extended but
unfinished works: "The Great Dark" (A.B. PAINE's title; written 1898;
1962) is about an apocalyptic voyage in a drop of water (cf Fitz-James
O'BRIEN's "The Diamond Lens" [1858]), while the narrator of "Three
Thousand Years among the Microbes" (written 1905; 1967), reduced to
microscopic size by a wizard, explores the world-body of a diseased tramp,
Blitzowski (one of the inhabitants is called Lemuel Gulliver, and the
influence of Jonathan SWIFT is otherwise apparent); it is implied that the
Universe we inhabit is actually God's diseased body. (This kind of
macrocosm/microcosm relationship is hinted at in MT's 1883 notebook
outline for what, in anticipation of the GENERATION-STARSHIP theme, might
best be called a generation-iceberg story.) In The American Claimant
(1892): Colonel Mulberry Sellers claims, among other inventions, to have
perfected the "Materializer", which can reconstruct the dead from whatever
original atoms remain, and to be able to affect the climate by shifting
sunspots.If travel or communication can be managed instantaneously (and in
A Connecticut Yankee and the microscopic-world stories the transference is
indeed instantaneous), it seems logical that some loss of faith in the
physicality of existence might occur, augmenting MT's notion that reality
is insubstantial, a vagrant thought, a dream. In this connection, and as
evidence of MT's concern with psychic possibilities (including the
whirligig of schizophrenia), we should note the essays "Mental Telegraphy"
(1891) and "Mental Telegraphy Again" (1895), which argue for the reality
of ESP. Reference is made to the English Society for Psychical Research,
and it is suggested that something called a "phrenophone" might
communicate thoughts instantaneously just as the telephone communicates
words. In "From the 'London Times' of 1904" (1898) - a newspaper hoax like
"The Petrified Man" - another futuristic invention, called the
"telelectroscope", a visual telephone, is used seemingly to disprove a
murder. But it is precisely the divorce between image and reality afforded
by this kind of instantaneous communication which causes ontological
anxiety, and so the suspected murderer is executed anyway. [DK]About the
author: The Science Fiction of Mark Twain (coll 1984) ed David KETTERER;
New Worlds for Old: The Apocalyptic Imagination, Science Fiction, and
American Literature (1974) by David Ketterer; "An Innocent in Time: Mark
Twain in King Arthur's Court" by Philip Klass (William TENN),
Extrapolation #16, 1974; "Hank Morgan in the Garden of Forking Paths: A
Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court as Alternative History" by
William J. Collins, Modern Fiction Studies #32 (1986); "'Professor
Baffin's Adventures' by Max Adeler: The Inspiration for A Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court?" by Ketterer, Mark Twain Journal (1986);
Mark Twain and Science: Adventures of a Mind (1988) by Sherwood Cummings;
The Connecticut Yankee in the Twentieth Century: Travel to the Past in
Science Fiction (1990) by Bud Foote; the Mark Twain entries in
Science-Fiction: The Early Years (dated 1990 but 1991) by Everett F.

(1890-1940) UK publisher and writer in whose first sf novel, Rinehard: A
Melodrama of the Nineteen-Thirties (1933; vt Gabriel Over the White House:
A Novel of the Presidency 1933 US), filmed as Gabriel Over the White House
(1933), a NEAR-FUTURE US President, after a car crash, begins to transform
society, providentially destroys a Japanese war fleet through the use of
air power, and - after recovering his old personality - dies before he can
dismantle the new world order. Blind Mouths (1934; vt Destiny's Man 1935
US) less interestingly posits the collapse of society. Both books are
written with smooth gravity. [JC]

Film (1957). Columbia. Prod Charles H. Schneer. Dir Nathan Juran,
starring William Hopper, Joan Taylor, Frank Puglia, John Zaremba.
Screenplay Bob Williams, Christopher Knopf, based on a story by Charlott
Knight, Ray HARRYHAUSEN. 84 mins. B/w.In this typical MONSTER MOVIE a
spaceship returns to Earth from Venus carrying a strange egg which hatches
a humanoid/reptilian creature, an Ymir. The Ymir grows and grows until,
bigger than an elephant, it escapes into Rome and is trapped and killed on
top of the Colosseum. The model animation is pretty good, but the trouble
with the Schneer/Harryhausen collaborations - designed solely to showcase
Harryhausen's skills - is invariably a poor script, so that the special
effects exist within an intellectual vacuum. No reason for this
sulphur-eating alien's arbitrary destructiveness is given. A novelization
by Henry SLESAR filled the only issue of AMAZING STORIES SCIENCE FICTION
NOVELS (1957). [JB/PN]

Film (1957). Romson Productions/Columbia. Dir William Asher, starring
Gene Barry, Valerie French, George Voskovec, Arnold Moss, Stefan Schnabel.
Screenplay John MANTLEY, based on his The Twenty-Seventh Day (1956). 75
mins. B/w.This sf morality tale - there were several such in the 1950s -
is more optimistic about mankind's inherent goodness than most. An alien
gives each of 5 people, in 5 different countries, a box of capsules (which
will lose their power after 27 days) capable of destroying all human - but
no other - life on any one continent. The boxes will open only for the
recipients, on whom, especially the Russian, great pressure is put to use
the capsules to wipe out enemy states. The recipients all act nobly (one
suicides) and finally learn that the capsules have a second power: they
will selectively destroy "every enemy of peace and freedom". They are used
thus, several thousand bad people die, and only good people (the vast
majority, in this breathtakingly simplistic scenario) are left. This was
the second sf movie, the first being The DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL (1951),
to advocate mass murder as a way of eliminating warmongers. [JB/PN]

Film (1954). Walt Disney. Dir Richard Fleischer, starring James Mason,
Kirk Douglas, Paul Lukas, Peter Lorre. Screenplay Earl Felton, based on
Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (1870; trans as Twenty Thousand Leagues
under the Seas 1872 UK) by Jules VERNE. 127 mins. Colour.This early Walt
Disney live-action film was one of his best and most lavish. Fleischer has
since returned to sf themes with FANTASTIC VOYAGE (1966) and SOYLENT GREEN
(1973), but not so successfully. Nemo is an anarchist scientist who hates
war; he uses his submarine, the Nautilus (here nuclear powered), to sink
warships. The script is rather lame, though James Mason gives a stirring
performance as the obsessed Nemo, who fights a lone battle against the
world before being betrayed by 3 shipwreck survivors (including a
displeasing harpoonist played hammily by Kirk Douglas) whom he has taken
on board. He expires in style, at the centre of a self-made holocaust that
envelops both his private island and the Nautilus before, significantly,
forming a mushroom-shaped cloud. The special effects are good (and won an
Oscar), especially notable being Bob Mattey's mechanically operated giant
squid; the Nautilus itself with its ornate Victoriana is beautifully
designed by Harper Goff.There had been 3 previous film versions of Verne's
novel: a mysterious 1905 Biograph production (18 mins) that does not
appear in Biograph records, a French one made by George MELIES in 1907 (18
mins) and a US one, with fine underwater photography, written/dir Stuart
Paton in 1916 (113 mins). [JB]

(vt Nuclear Countdown) Film (1977) Geria Productions/Hemdale. Dir Robert
Aldrich, starring Burt Lancaster, Richard Widmark, Paul Winfield, Charles
Durning, Melvyn Douglas. Screenplay Ronald M. Cohen, Edward Huebsch, based
on Viper 3 by Walter Wager (1924- ). 146 mins (cut to 122 mins). Colour.In
this borderline-sf movie, set in 1981, a renegade US general takes over a
missile base and threatens to initiate WWIII unless the President reveals
to the nation the contents of a secret Pentagon file concerning the
Vietnam War. The uncut version reveals how the Pentagon deliberately
became involved in Vietnam to prove to the world that the USA was willing
to sacrifice thousands of men, thus giving extra credibility to its
willingness to fight a conventional war. These sequences disappeared when
24 minutes were cut by the distributor, ostensibly to "speed it up". What
is left is a tautly directed thriller, though some of Aldrich's
characteristic cynicism - reminiscent of his KISS ME DEADLY (1955) -
remains (the Pentagon is victorious, destroying even the President to
protect its secrets). The skilful use of a split-screen technique to
create tension and moments of chaos and confusion justifies it as a
legitimate cinematic tool. [JB/PN]

1. US tv series (1959-64). A Coyuga Production/MGM. Created Rod SERLING,
also executive prod. Prods were Buck Houghton, Herbert Hirschman, Bert
Granet, William Froug. Writers included Serling (91 episodes), Charles
BEAUMONT, Ray BRADBURY, Earl Hamner Jr, George Clayton JOHNSON, Richard
MATHESON. Dirs included Jack Smight, Stuart Rosenberg, John Brahm, Ralph
Nelson, Buzz Kulik, Boris Sagal, Lamont Johnson, Elliot Silverstein, Don
Siegel, William Friedkin, Richard Donner, Joseph Newman, Ted Post. 5
seasons, 156 episodes (138 each 25 mins, plus 18 in season 4 each 50
mins). B/w.TTZ, hosted by Serling with a rasping voice and a thin black
tie, was an anthology series - perhaps the most famous ever on tv. Most of
the playlets were pure fantasy, but a number were sf. The very first
episode, "Where is Everybody?" by Serling, has a young man waking in a
small town to find it deserted, with signs that the inhabitants had left
only moments before. The denouement reveals that the situation has been
implanted in his mind as part of a study conducted by space scientists
into human reactions to loneliness. Sting-in-the-tail plotting was
standard on TTZ.Overall the series was thoughtful and fairly original,
though it certainly had its fair share of CLICHES. Episodes varied in
quality, many of the better sf ones being written by Matheson: 3 of these
were "Steel" (1963), in which Lee Marvin is the manager of a robot boxer
who is forced to take his machine's place in the ring after it breaks
down, "Little Girl Lost" (1962), about a child who falls into a
dimensional warp under her bed, so that her parents can hear her crying
but cannot reach her, and "Nightmare at 20,000 Feet" (1963), with William
SHATNER as a man on an airliner who keeps seeing a mysterious creature -
invisible to others - playing on the wing; as in most of Matheson's work,
PARANOIA is eventually vindicated and the creature is proved to exist.
Another sf episode was Bradbury's "I Sing the Body Electric!" (1962),
about a robot grandmother.Short-story versions of some of his TTZ scripts
appeared in 3 books by (or ostensibly by) Serling: Stories from The
Twilight Zone * (coll 1960), More Stories from The Twilight Zone * (coll
1961) and New Stories from The Twilight Zone * (coll 1962) - the latter
two possibly being by Walter B. GIBSON - with selections appearing in From
The Twilight Zone * (coll 1962) and all 3 being reprinted in 1 vol as
Stories from The Twilight Zone * (omni 1986). Two collections ghosted by
Walter B. Gibson are Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone * (coll 1963) and Rod
Serling's Twilight Zone Revisited * (coll 1964), both assembled in Rod
Serling's Twilight Zone * (omni 1984). A book about the series is Twilight
Zone Companion (1982; rev as The Twilight Zone Companion: Second Edition
1989) by Marc Scott Zicree. TTZ received 3 HUGOS (1960-62) as Best
Dramatic Presentation.TTZ was fondly remembered - indeed, it could hardly
have been forgotten, the episodes being repeated endlessly in syndication
for the next 20 years. This resulted in an anthology feature film prod and
partly dir Steven SPIELBERG, Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983), mostly
updatings of some of the old scripts. Then came a new TTZ tv series (2).
The title was used also for a horror/fantasy magazine, Rod Serling's The
Twilight Zone Magazine (1981-9), whose editors included T.E.D. Klein
(1947- ) and Tappan King (1950- ), and which published some weird fiction
of high quality.2. US tv series (1985-7). CBS TV. Based on 1. Executive
prod Philip DeGuere. Supervising prod James Crocker. Prod Harvey Frand.
Creative consultant Harlan ELLISON. Story editor Rockne S. O'Bannon.
Writers included Ray BRADBURY, Alan BRENNERT, Crocker, DeGuere, Ellison,
David GERROLD, George R.R. MARTIN, O'Bannon, Michael REAVES, Carter
SCHOLZ. Dirs included Wes Craven, Tommy Lee Wallace, Theodore Flicker, Joe
DANTE, Gerd Oswald, Martha Coolidge, Allan Arkush, Peter Medak, Jim
McBride, Paul Lynch, Noel Black. 2 seasons. Season 1: 24 50min episodes,
each containing 2-4 stories. Season 2: 12 episodes, some 50min and some
25min. There were 80 stories in the 36 episodes. Colour.In the mid-1980s
US tv turned back, for a while, to the anthology format, especially for
series of fantastic stories - AMAZING STORIES was another. Few had any
prolonged success. This new series of TTZ dramatized several well known sf
stories, including "The Star" (1955) by Arthur C. CLARKE and stories by
Robert SILVERBERG and Theodore STURGEON, but the majority of playlets were
based on original scripts, some also by sf writers, though as with the
original series the emphasis was on fantasy rather than sf. Good directors
were used and the quality was quite high, but the series was axed after 2
seasons. TTZ was quickly re-edited into half-hour segments for
syndication, when a further 30 stories were dramatized (executive prods
Mark Shelmerdine and Michael MacMillan), with substantially lower budgets,
and shown along with the 80 stories from the 1985-7 series. [PN/JB]


US PULP MAGAZINE.Thrice yearly, 11 issues Winter 1950-Spring 1954,
published by Wings Publishing Co.; ed Jerome BIXBY (Winter 1950-Summer
1951), Malcolm Reiss (Winter 1951-Summer 1953) and Katharine Daffron
(Winter 1953-Spring 1954). Issues numbered #1-#11.A companion magazine to
PLANET STORIES, TCSAB was originally intended to reprint in cheap magazine
format recently published sf novels; #1 contained Isaac ASIMOV's Pebble in
the Sky (1950) and L. Ron HUBBARD's novella "The Kingslayer" (title story
of The Kingslayer, coll 1949). This policy proved impossible to sustain;
although there were a few more reprints, the majority of subsequent
stories were original. These included: Arthur C. CLARKE's "The Seeker of
the Sphinx" (Spring 1951; vt "The Road to the Sea"); James BLISH's The
Warriors of Day (Summer 1951 as "Sword of Xota"; 1953) and "Sargasso of
Lost Cities" (Spring 1953), one of his Okie series; L. Sprague DE CAMP's
"The Tritonian Ring" (Winter 1951; title story of The Tritonian Ring coll
1953); and John BRUNNER's first (acknowledged) story, The Space-Time
Juggler (Summer 1953 as "The Wanton of Argus" by Kilian Houston Brunner;
1963 chap dos as JB). TCSAB did not contain any editorial matter and was
unusual among pulp sf magazines in seldom printing readers' letters. [MJE]

Film (1953). Arch Oboler Productions/United Artists. Dir Arch Oboler,
starring Hans Conreid, Billy Lynn, Gloria Blondell, Janet Warren and Ed
Max. Screenplay Oboler, based on "The Twonky" (1942) by Lewis Padgett
(Henry KUTTNER). 72 mins. B/w.After his sanctimonious FIVE (1951), about
survivors of nuclear war, Oboler chose another sf subject for his next
film. A creature from the future invades a tv set, bringing it alive. The
set is soon running its owner's life, scuttling about doing household jobs
by means of an electronic beam, but later becoming censorious and
dictatorial, hypnotizing those who attempt to stop it. Kuttner's witty
story collapses under the weight of Oboler's laborious script and the
inadequate special effects. Tv was a much-hated medium in Hollywood at
that time, and it was only appropriate that Oboler, an old-time radio
producer, should have launched this symbolic attack. The film was
unreleased for 17 months, then flopped. [JB/PN]

2,000 AD
UK weekly sf COMIC-strip magazine, 32-36pp, published by IPC from 26 Feb,
1977, and then from 1987 by Fleetway. Eds have included Kelvin Gosnell,
Steve McManus, Richard Burton. Throughout, the editor has been presented
as an ALIEN called Tharg, and some very entertaining and original sf short
stories have appeared under the title Tharg's Future Shocks. Early issues
(referred to as "progs") were printed on cheap pulp paper with colour for
the front and back and for a centre-spread. Continued success eventually
justified a "new look", with better-quality paper and printing, including
50-60 per cent in colour. Many of 2,000 AD's contributing artists and
writers have achieved transatlantic success. They include Simon Bisley,
Brian BOLLAND, Dave GIBBONS, JUDGE DREDD writers Alan Grant and John
Wagner, Cam Kennedy, Alan MOORE, Grant Morrison, Kevin O'Niell and Bryan
Talbot. The magazine has featured a number of high-quality sf strips,
including DAN DARE (from #1, 26 Feb 1977), Judge Dredd (from #2, 5 Mar
1977), Robo-Hunter (from #76, 5 Aug 1978), Strontium Dog (from #86, 14 Oct
1978), ABC Warriors (from #119, 30 June 1979), The VCs (from #140, 24 Nov
1979), Stainless Steel Rat (also from #140), Slaine (from #330, 20 Aug
1983), Ballad of Halo Jones (from #376, 7 July 1984), Anderson Psi
Division (from #416, 4 May 1985) and Bad Company (from #500, 13 Dec 1986).
Many 2,000 AD strips have been reprinted in the UK as GRAPHIC NOVELS and
also in the USA in comic-book format (with artwork stretched lengthways to
suit the taller page shape) under the Eagle Comics imprint (subsequently
continued by Quality Comics and later by Fleetway). There have been
several related hardback publications in the form of Annuals and
Yearbooks, containing occasional reprints from the weekly but mostly new
material of lower quality. A monthly black-and-white title with a glossy
cover, Best of 2,000 AD, has been published since Oct 1985. [RT]

Film (1968). Prod/dir Stanley KUBRICK, starring Keir Dullea, Gary
Lockwood. Screenplay Kubrick, Arthur C. CLARKE, based loosely on Clarke's
"The Sentinel" (1951). 160 mins, cut to 141 mins. Colour. Originally in
Cinerama.This was the most ambitious sf film of the 1960s and perhaps
ever. Kubrick's unique production, which received a 1969 HUGO, takes
several traditional sf themes - including the idea, derived from Charles
FORT, that "we are property" - and spins from them a web of pessimistic
METAPHYSICS. In prehistoric times the mysterious arrival of an alien
artefact, a black monolith, triggers primitive ape people into becoming
tool-users; the first tool is a weapon. The transition to the AD2001
sequence - marked by the resonant image of a bone weapon thrown (in slow
motion) into the air and becoming a spaceship - suggests that, for all the
awesome complexity of our tools, humanity itself is still in a primitive
stage. The idea of human deficiency in the 21st century is reinforced by
the deliberate banality of the dialogue and the sterility of the settings;
ironically the most "human" character is a neurotic computer, itself
subject to Original Sin, HAL 9000. A second monolith discovered on the
Moon beams a signal at one of the moons of Jupiter and a spaceship, the
Discovery, is sent to investigate, but, through HAL having a nervous
breakdown, only one of the astronauts (Dullea) survives to reach the area.
There he embarks (through a "Star Gate") on a prolonged, disorienting trip
through what appears to be inner time and INNER SPACE, pausing to meet his
dying self in an 18th-century bedroom, and becoming the foetus of a
Superbeing, an optimistic apotheosis - with its suggestion of a
transcendent EVOLUTION, directed by never-seen ALIENS, or perhaps God - in
an otherwise dark film.Aside from its intellectual audacity, 2001 is
remarkable for a visual splendour that depends in part on astonishingly
painstaking special effects. Conceived by Kubrick - notoriously a
perfectionist - and achieved by many technicians (pointing forward to the
huge teams that would work on the special-effects blockbusters of a decade
later), these mostly employ traditional techniques. Instead of such modern
automatic matteing processes as the blue-screen system, hand-drawn mattes
were produced for each effects frame at the cost of two years' time and
much money, which is why this method is now rarely used. Innovative in
another way is the setting of romantic MUSIC by Richard Strauss, Johann
Strauss and Gyorgy Ligeti against much of the technological action, giving
the paradoxical feeling of a cool romanticism and reinforcing the film's
ambiguities. The present 141min version, cut from the 160min preview
length, should be viewed in the full wide-screen 70mm format (2001 was one
of the early films designed for Cinerama).The tension between Kubrick's
love of oblique allusion and Clarke's open rationalism is resolved in the
latter's book of the film, 2001: A Space Odyssey * (1968), whichwritten
after the film's completion - provides clear explanations in Clarke's
usual manner. He described his connection with the film in The Lost Worlds
of 2001 (coll 1972), which also prints alternative script versions of key
scenes. The film sequel, based on another Clarke novel, was 2010 (1984).

Film (1984). MGM/UA. Prod/dir/photographed/written Peter Hyams, starring
Roy Scheider, John Lithgow, Helen Mirren, Bob Balaban, Keir Dullea.
Screenplay based on 2010: Odyssey Two (1982) by Arthur C. CLARKE. 116
mins. Colour.Nine years after the events of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968),
a joint Soviet-US space mission in a Russian spacecraft is sent to recover
information from the Discovery, which in the previous film had been left
in orbit around Jupiter with its computer, HAL 9000, disabled. In a
remarkably thin storyline the crew reach the Discovery and are contacted
by the ALIEN monolith, their intercourse being mediated through the
"ghost" of Dave Bowman (Dullea), who was last seen transfigured to a Star
Child in 2001: "Something wonderful is going to happen." They then go home
again, helped by the resuscitated HAL. Countless monoliths invest Jupiter
and turn it into a second sun. Homo sapiens is given the Solar System to
populate, except for Europa (one of Jupiter's moons), which is off limits,
and on which a new monolith awaits . . .Devoid of both narrative thrust
and any interaction of characters that transcends cliche, the film -
despite some rather good space scenes - could never have succeeded. The
old pulp-sf notion of Peace on Earth (where WWIII may be about to break
out) being restored by the intervention of a godlike figure Out There is,
to some viewers, insulting mysticism. The approach of Clarke and Hyams to
the metaphysical is a lot less magical and delicate (and ambiguous) than
was that of Clarke and Stanley KUBRICK. This time the alien superbeings
pretty well hit us over the head with a truncheon. The film was awarded a
1985 HUGO. [PN]

Working name of US writer Kathleen Moore Tyers (1952- ). She began
writing with her Firebird sequence,Firebird (1987) and Fusion Fire (1988),
set in an interplanetary-romance venue replete with colourful planetary
cultures, an overarching Federation, space invasions, palace politics and
the discovery of budding PSI POWERS in the eponymous protagonist, a
princess on an evil planet. Her route to psionic maturity and marital
happiness with a telepathic intelligence officer from a neighbouring world
is depicted with cluttered vigour. In Crystal Witness (1989) a female
criminal, exiled to another world, must come triumphantly to terms with
her new circumstances. In Shivering World (1991) yet another arrival into
an alien world must deal with the TERRAFORMING problems of some settlers.
KT is an active writer, and may settle into significant work, though Star
Wars: The Truce at Bakura* (1994) does not, perhaps, mark the way forward.

Pseudonym of US writer Edward William Ziegler (1930-1993), whose The Man
whose Name Wouldn't Fit, or The Case of Cartwright-Chickering (1968) deals
humorously with the computerized regimentation of a NEAR-FUTURE society.

(1937- ) US editor, academic, sf/fantasy bibliographer and editor, whose
work concentrates on the pedagogical implications of both sf and fantasy (
SF IN THE CLASSROOM). After a first, short, self-published bibliographical
guide - A Directory of Science Fiction and Fantasy Publishing Houses and
Book Dealers (1974 chap) - MBT issued a stream of helpful material,
including A Research Guide to Science Fiction Studies: An Annotated
Checklist of Primary and Secondary Sources (1977) with L.W. CURREY and
Roger C. SCHLOBIN, Recent Critical Studies on Fantasy Literature: An
Annotated Checklist (1978 chap), A Basic Reference Shelf for Science
Fiction Teachers (1978 chap), The Science Fiction Reference Book (anth
1981) and its abridged successor, Science Fiction: A Teacher's Guide &
Resource Book (anth 1988), and A Teacher's Guide to Science Fiction (1981
chap; exp 1982 chap). Of somewhat wider interest is the Year's Scholarship
sequence of annotated checklists, appearing first in the journal
EXTRAPOLATION, these instalments being incorporated in the book-form
publication of the series, which comprised The Year's Scholarship in
Science Fiction and Fantasy: 1972-1975 (1979) with Roger C. Schlobin, The
Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy: 1976-1979 (1983) with
Schlobin, The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror
Literature: 1980 (1983), The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction,
Fantasy, and Horror Literature: 1981 (1984) and The Year's Scholarship in
Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Literature: 1982 (1985). After this
last volume the series was again published in Extrapolation through
coverage year 1987 (in 1988). A successor series, Year's Scholarship in
Fantastic Literature and the Arts, began in 1990 in JOURNAL OF THE
FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS, with coverage year 1988, but further work was
hampered by the aftereffects of a serious auto accident in late 1989.Of
even broader potential interest were several BIBLIOGRAPHIES of the genre
itself, including: American Fantasy & Science Fiction: Toward a
Bibliography of Works Published in the United States, 1948-1973 (1979);
Index to Stories in Thematic Anthologies of SF (1979) with L.W. Currey,
Martin H. GREENBERG and Joseph D. OLANDER; Fantasy Literature: A Core
Collection and Reference Guide (1979) with Robert H. Boyer (1937- ) and
Kenneth J. Zahorski (1939- ); Horror Literature: A Core Collection and
Reference Guide (1981); Survey of Science Fiction Literature:
Bibliographical Supplement (1982); and - perhaps most interesting of all
his work - Science Fiction, Fantasy & Weird Fiction Magazines (1985) with
Mike ASHLEY, a comprehensive history of magazines in the field, arranged
as an encyclopedia. Though MBT's coverage of sf and fantasy has sometimes
been partial, with some of his checklists eventually being supplanted by
fuller works from Hal W. HALL, Robert REGINALD and others, MBT was for two
decades an essential figure, and did much to focus the field for the
academic world, not least through his editorial work with GREENWOOD PRESS.
In 1990 he was given the PILGRIM AWARD for sf scholarship, his wife
accepting on his behalf. [JC]See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS ABOUT

(1870-1930) US writer whose The Scarlet Tanager (1922), set in 1930,
rousingly puts a submarine pirate in opposition to a tough US intelligence
agent. A UK agent, the actress of the title, also becomes involved. Sf
devices include sonar and an invisible ray. [JC]Other work: The Barge of
Haunted Lives (coll of linked stories 1923).

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