Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (S-S)

(1930- ) US writer and editor, in the latter capacity with the
Encyclopedia Britannica 1967-73, for which he wrote the original entry on
sf. He began publishing sf with "Volume PAA-PYX" for Gal in 1961, and was
active from that date, soon releasing the first of his many novels, The
Golden People (1964 dos; exp 1984), a SPACE OPERA involving PSI POWERS. As
an sf author, he became known - and remains most famous - for the
Berserker series of stories and novels: Berserker (coll of linked stories
1967); Brother Assassin (1969; vt Brother Berserker 1969 UK); Berserker's
Planet (1975); Berserker Man (1979); The Ultimate Enemy (coll 1979; vt
Berserkers: The Ultimate Enemy 1988); The Berserker Wars (coll 1981),
which repeats some stories from the 1967 collection; Berserker Base *
(anth 1985), a SHARED-WORLD anthology; The Berserker Throne (1985);
Berserker: Blue Death (1985),Berserker Lies (coll 1991) and Berserker Kill
(1993). Berserkers are interstellar killing machines, programmed to
eliminate all forms of life; the sequence was devoted to increasingly
sophisticated examinations of the Man- MACHINE conflict so often addressed
by sf writers since the first days of space opera, but in FS's deft
modernization of the hoary but useful ALIEN-monster theme the unrelenting
Berserkers seem almost tangibly chill with the unlivingness of the
Universe. They soon became a significant icon of GENRE SF; for instance,
the machines that attack Earth in Greg BEAR's The Forge of God (1987) are
clearly descended from FS's marauders.A 2nd series, the Empire of the East
sequence - The Broken Lands (1968), The Black Mountains (1971) and
Changeling Earth (1973; vt Ardneh's World 1988), all 3 assembled, much
rev, as Empire of the East (omni 1979) - somewhat less interestingly
exploited another sf/fantasy model: the post- HOLOCAUST world in which
TECHNOLOGY is banned, MAGIC is reintroduced as a learnable technique (
SWORD AND SORCERY), and a vision of science is slowly renascent. The later
Book of Swords sequence, set in the same Universe and using some of the
same characters, similarly hovers between its sf backdrop and a fantasy
foreground: The First Book of Swords (1983), The Second Book of Swords
(1983) and The Third Book of Swords (1984), all assembled as The Complete
Book of Swords (omni 1985). Its direct sequel, the Book of Lost Swords
sequence, comprises The First Book of Lost Swords: Woundhealer's Story
(1986), The Second Book of Lost Swords: Sightblinder's Story (1987) and
The Third Book of Lost Swords: Stonecutter's Story (1988) - all 3
assembled as The Lost Swords: The First Triad (omni 1988) - and The Fourth
Book of Lost Swords: Farslayer's Story (1989), The Fifth Book of Lost
Swords: Coinspinner's Story (1989) and The Sixth Book of Lost Swords:
Mindsword's Story (1990) - all 3 assembled as The Lost Swords: The Second
Triad (omni 1991); and The Seventh Book of Lost Swords: Wayfinder's Story
(1992) and The Last Book of Swords: Shieldbreaker's Story (1994), both
assembled as The Lost Swords: Endgame (omni 1994); all of this being
followed by a SHARED-WORLD anthology, An Armory of Swords *(anth
1995).FS's 3rd series of (some) sf interest, the Dracula sequence - The
Dracula Tape (1975), The Holmes-Dracula File (1978), An Old Friend of the
Family (1979), Thorn (1980), Dominion (1982) and A Matter of Taste (1990),
A Question of Time (1992) and the RECURSIVE Seance for a Vampire (1994),
which introduces Sherlock Holmes - begins as a rewrite of Bram Stoker's
Dracula (1897) from the viewpoint of the maligned count, who generally
abjures human blood and represents a strain of good vampires (or
nosferatus) whose origins are rationalized in sf terms. In the first
volume, which is constructed as an extended refutation of Bram Stoker's
1897 portrait of Count Dracula, the eponymous immortal demonstrates his
virtue, and tells us that vampires feed on solar energy, avoiding the sun
to avoid overload; in later volumes in the series, set in the present day,
he becomes a kind of SUPERHERO, increasingly well armed with powers and
devices. A kind of pendant to the sequence is Bram Stoker's Dracula *
(1992) with James V. Hart, a film tie. A 4th series, the Pilgrim books -
Pyramids (1987) and After the Fact (1988) - features the adventures of an
immortal time traveller who visits first ancient Egypt and then Lincoln's
USA to interfere with - or preserve - the appropriate time tracks (
ALTERNATE WORLDS).Although most of FS's energies were devoted to the
composition of series, some singletons are of interest, including: the
complexly moody The Veils of Azlaroc (1978); Octagon (1981), one of the
first of his books in which VIRTUAL-REALITY themes begin to dominate, in
this case a computer-run war game; A Century of Progress (1983), a
TIME-TRAVEL tale whose complexities are, as usual in FS's work, controlled
by a clear-headed style and a sure way with sf devices; The Frankenstein
Papers (1986), a tale with RECURSIVE elements which repeats in short
compass the same redemptive strategy earlier applied to Dracula, in this
case presenting the MONSTER as a genuine alien; The White Bull (1976
Fantastic; exp 1988), in which Daedalus consorts with yet another alien,
the minotaur, who is on a miscegenation mission; and The Black Throne
(1990), with Roger ZELAZNY, a fantasy involving Edgar Allan POE. Game-like
textures have increasingly dominated FS's work, as has a growing tendency
- reminiscent of Philip Jose FARMER's Wold Newton Family books - to
rewrite figures of popular mythology into heroes whose rationalized
backgrounds have a certain family resemblance; the result is a sense that,
perhaps rather glibly, his entire oeuvre is becoming something of a
super-series game. At the heart of FS's enterprises, however, lies a
professionalism and an intelligence which have produced book after book
that satisfies the anticipations it arouses. [JC]Other works: The Water of
Thought (1965 dos; exp 1981); The Book of Saberhagen (coll 1975);
Specimens (1976); The Mask of the Sun (1979); Love Conquers All (1974-5
Gal; 1979; rev 1985); Coils (1980) with Zelazny; Earth Descended (coll
1981), containing a Berserker tale; Saberhagen: My Best (coll 1987).As
Editor: A Spadeful of Spacetime (anth 1981); Pawn to Infinity (anth 1982)
with Joan Saberhagen; Machines that Kill (anth 1984) with Martin H.
GREENBERG.About the author: Fred Saberhagen, Berserker Man: A Working
Bibliography (1991 chap) by Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE.See also: AUTOMATION;

(1870-1952) US historian and writer whose sf novel, The City of theSun
(1924), is a LOST WORLD tale set in the 19th centuryAmerican West, where a
beautiful Spanish maiden must be rescued from ritual death, in the mawof a
great snake; and the eponymous ancient Aztec city must,as usual in novels
of this sort, bedestroyed. [JC]

(1892-1962) UK writer, married to Harold NICOLSON and renowned for her
creation of the garden at Sissinghurst, Kent, UK. A member of the
Bloomsbury Group and a model for the title character of Virginia WOOLF's
Orlando (1928), she was best known for non-genre novels like The
Edwardians (1930). In Grand Canyon (1942) a victorious Germany, having won
WWII, threatens the world ( HITLER WINS). [JC]


Pseudonym of French writer Gabriel de Foigny (c1650-1692), whose La terre
australe connue, c'est a dire, la description de ce pays inconnu
jusqu'ici, de ses moeurs et de ses coutumes, par M. Sadeur (1676;
expurgated by author 1692 as Les aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la
decouverte et le voiage de la terre australe; trans of 1692 edition as A
New Discovery of Terra Incognita Australis, or the Southern World 1693)
places its narrator - called Sadeur - in an Antipodean land peopled by an
enlightened, humanlike race with whose precepts current European ideas
contrast poorly. After many years, Sadeur falls under suspicion and
escapes on a bird. [JC]

(1940-1989) US soldier and writer, author of a famous song, "Ballad of
the Green Berets" (1966), which commemorated the Special Forces in
Vietnam; newspaper reports indicated that he was ambushed and assassinated
at his home. As an sf writer he was known exclusively for his series of
military adventures starring an immortal mercenary named Casca, who is
called to and serves in wars throughout history: Casca: The Eternal
Mercenary (1979), #2: God of Death (1979), #3: The War Lord (1980), #4:
Panzer Soldier (1980), #5: The Barbarian (1981), #6: The Persian (1982),
#7: The Damned (1982), #8: Soldier of Fortune (1983), #9: The Sentinel
(1983), #10: The Conquistador (1984), #11: The Legionnaire (1984), #12:
The African Mercenary (1984), #13: The Assassin (1985), #14: The Phoenix
(1985), #15: The Pirate (1985), #16: Desert Mercenary (1986), #17: The
Warrior (1987), #18: The Cursed (1987), #19: The Samurai (1988), #20:
Soldier of Gideon (1988), #21: The Trench Soldier (1989) and #22: The
Mongol (1990). [JC]

(1934- ) French editor and writer, one of the first editors to launch sf
successfully in paperback form in FRANCE; he worked first with Editions
Opta and then with J'ai lu, where he founded the Science-fiction imprint
and ed the Les Meilleurs Recits series of anthologies of stories
translated from the US PULP MAGAZINES. He was also a founder of the Prix
Apollo ( AWARDS). Hier, l'an 2000: L'illustration de science fiction des
annees 30 (1973; trans as 2000 A.D.: Illustrations From the Golden Age of
Science Fiction Pulps 1975 US), a book of sf ILLUSTRATION compiled by JS,
mostly in black-and-white, presents a good selection of gaudy nostalgia
but has no index. His Histoire de la science-fiction moderne ["Story of
Modern SF"] (1973; in 2 vols 1975; rev 1984) is a lengthy and enthusiastic
survey of the field, but has been upbraided for lacking critical analysis,
having a pedestrian style and structure, and containing too many sweeping
generalizations and personal prejudices. Two fantastic novels by JS are La
Passion selon Satan ["The Passion according to Satan"] (1960) and Le
Jardin de la licorne ["The Garden of the Unicorn"] (1978). [MJ/PN]

(1934- ) US astronomer, planetary scientist and author, professor of
astronomy and space sciences and director of the Laboratory for Planetary
Studies at Cornell University, and winner of the Pulitzer Prize. CS played
an active role in the MARS experiments carried out by Mariner 9 (1971),
worked also on the Viking and Voyager projects, and was responsible for
placing a message to alien life aboard the interstellar spaceship Pioneer
10 (Jupiter flyby 1973). He is co-founder and president of the Planetary
Society, a very large space-interest group. For 12 years he was
editor-in-chief of Icarus, a journal devoted to planetary research. From
the mid-1970s, through books and pre-eminently through his 13-part PBS tv
documentary series Cosmos (1980), which he wrote and presented, CS became
perhaps the best known of all US scientific popularizers.His relevance to
sf had been evident much earlier than that, however, through his
speculations about LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS; he is one of the comparatively
few scientists to have given serious thought to this question. His first
book was an updating of a translated 1963 book by the Russian astronomer
I.S. Shklovskii; the collaboration, published under both their names, was
Intelligent Life in the Universe (1966). CS's next books in this area were
The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective (1973), "produced"
by Jerome Agel, and Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (anth
1973), which he edited. He wrote on EVOLUTION (see also ORIGIN OF MAN) in
Dragons of Eden: A Speculative Essay on the Origin of Human Intelligence
(1977) - it won a Pulitzer Prize - and published a collection of
speculative essays (some on PSEUDO-SCIENCE) in Broca's Brain (coll 1979),
including "Science Fiction: A Personal View". There followed the
HUGO-winning book of the tv series, Cosmos *(1980) - it was on the
best-seller lists for over a year - and a book about comets, particularly
Halley's comet, Comet (1985) with Ann Druyan (his wife).Collaboration with
Druyan became the subject of much speculation in the case of CS's sf
novel, Contact (1985), for which he had received a $2 million advance in
1981 when it was still unwritten. It was alleged that this novel was a
collaboration with Druyan, rather than by CS alone; they countered that
only the (unproduced) screenplay based on the book had been collaborative.
The book itself is unexceptionable and unsensational. It invests science
with high glamour in its NEAR-FUTURE story of a successful SETI (Search
for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) project; a rather good BLACK-HOLE
mechanism for interstellar travel is part of the flatly characterized
story, which grips in other respects, especially in its portrayal of the
way SCIENTISTS think. The plot elements about a COMMUNICATION from space
giving instructions for building a machine are reminiscent of the UK tv
serial A FOR ANDROMEDA (1961). The book has a strong religious focus.
[PN]Other works: UFOs: A Scientific Debate (anth 1973) ed with Thornton
Page; Other Worlds (1975) Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar
Record (1978) with Ann Druyan; many others.See also: ALIENS; ASTRONOMY;

(1923- ) US editor. The Year's Best Fantasy Stories sequence, started by
Lin CARTER in 1975, passed to AWS with The Year's Best Fantasy Stories: #7
(anth 1981), and continued with #8 (anth 1982), #9 (anth 1983), #10 (anth
1984), #11 (anth 1985), #12 (anth 1986), #13 (anth 1987) and #14 (anth
1988). With Donald A. WOLLHEIM (whom see for full list) AWS ed the Annual
World's Best SF sequence from #8: The 1972 Annual World's Best SF (anth
1972) until the series stopped in 1990. [JC]

(1941- ) US businessman and writer whose first novel, Memoirs of an
Invisible Man (1987), filmed as MEMOIRS OF AN INVISIBLE MAN (1992), treats
the question of INVISIBILITY as a series of problems in practical living.
After the protagonist is rendered invisible by an accident at a research
establishment, he confronts head-on - sometimes comically - the numerous
conundrums of his state, finally becoming romantically involved with a
woman who believes in ghosts. The novel thus contrasts interestingly with
Thomas BERGER's Being Invisible (1987), in which the condition is likewise
accepted deadpan, but in which the protagonist cannot capitalize upon his
state. [JC]

(1911- ) US writer, usually under her own name, though she wrote a series
of elegant stories in the 1950s as Idris Seabright and published 1 tale in
1952 as Wilton Hazzard. Her sf career began with "Rocket to Limbo" for
Fantastic Adventures in 1946, and by 1950 she had published about 30
stories, most of them vigorous adventures in a strongly coloured idiom; a
magazine series, the Oona and Jik tales, appeared in Startling Stories and
TWS 1947-9. But, even though this early work seems at first glance
conventional enough, and obedient to PULP-MAGAZINE expectations, a
singularly claustrophobic pessimism could soon be felt. The Seabright
stories - which appeared almost exclusively in FSF 1950-59, and for which
MSC became temporarily better known than for the works published under her
own name - were smoother-textured than her pulp adventures and oriented
more towards FANTASY, but at the same time less daringly subversive of the
central impulses of sf: to solve problems, to penetrate barriers (
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH), to gain control. In MSC's central work, these
impulses were consistently treated in terms of pathos.Her first novel,
Agent of the Unknown (1952 Startling Stories as "Vulcan's Dolls"; 1956
dos), is perhaps the definitive MSC text, packing into its brief compass a
remarkably complex plot whose protagonist only seems to represent the
typical HERO of SPACE OPERA. Though he remembers nothing before the age of
14, and though his actions enable the human species to begin a genetic
leap forwards, it is eventually revealed that he is not a SUPERMAN in the
making but a severely limited ANDROID - a toy of the godlike Vulcan who
appears in other MSC tales. His entrapment in a plot he cannot understand
until too late, his love for a human woman who is soon killed, and his
final realization that his puppet actions have released humans into a
state far beyond his comprehension - all generate a sense of extraordinary
constriction, to which the elegiac conclusion of the tale adds a powerful
emotional glow. MSC's other early books - The Green Queen (1955 Universe
Science Fiction as "Mistress of Viridis"; 1956 dos), The Games of Neith
(1960 dos), Message from the Eocene (1964 dos) and Three Worlds of
Futurity (coll 1964 dos) - sometimes feature more vigorous female
protagonists, but all in their various ways explore similar territories.
Published from the very heart of popular sf, they represent a fascinating
dissent from within.Her later novels, though ostensibly more ambitious,
perhaps lose some of the nightmare urgency of her early work, though both
Sign of the Labrys (1963), set underground after a nuclear HOLOCAUST, and
The Shadow People (1969), also set in a netherworld of caverns under the
daylit world, effectively present POCKET UNIVERSES without - significantly
- moving in the expected manner towards any convincing sort of
breakthrough into the larger world. The Dolphins of Altair (1967) uses
intelligent dolphins as an emblem of humanity's self-devastating
relationship with the planet Earth, and The Dancers of Noyo (1973)
overcomplicatedly deals with androids, post-holocaust California, Native
Americans and political oppression. Later stories appear in Change the
Sky, and Other Stories (coll 1974) and the excellent The Best of Margaret
St Clair (coll 1985) ed Martin H. GREENBERG, which includes the delicately
savage "Wryneck, Draw Me" (1980), the best of MSC's later anatomies of the
underside of progress. [JC]About the author: Margaret St Clair (1986 chap)

(1900-1944) French writer, most famous for Le Petit Prince (1944; trans
Katherine Woods as The Little Prince 1945 US). Regarded as an existential
fable for adults as well as one of the century's best children's books,
the story concerns a young prince who leaves his cosy ASTEROID home to
explore neighbouring worlds, among them Earth. His deceptively simple
adventures form a poignant SATIRE of modern society and an affirmation of
the ephemeral nature of life. [PhR]

Joint pseudonym of UK writer David Phillips (?- ) and UK-based Bulgarian
writer Georgi Markov (?1929-1978), whose assassination in London at the
hands of Bulgarian agents was admitted only in 1990 after the old
government fell. In The Right Honourable Chimpanzee (1978) a crisis-ridden
UK elects an ape as prime minister ( APES AND CAVEMEN). [JC]

Charles PLATT.

(1872-1957) US illustrator, the principal illustrator from 1916 for the
original editions of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's many books; his Tarzan and
Barsoom series illustrations became so well known that they have since
overshadowed all his other work. He did 9 covers for Weird Tales, over 50
for AMZ and Fantastic Adventures and several for Other Worlds. JASJ's
illustrations were as Victorian as Burroughs's stories, with noble heroes
and pure, virginal heroines. His black-and-white illustrations are
unsophisticated sketches, and the colours in his paintings are muted, but
the overall effect of violent yet graceful movement added a perfect
romantic complement to Burroughs's writing. His visualizations have had a
profound influence on many illustrators, particularly those specializing
in HEROIC FANTASY, such as Roy G. KRENKEL and Frank FRAZETTA. [JG]Further
reading: J. Allen St John: An Illustrated Bibliography (1991) by Darrell
C. Richardson.See also: FANTASY; ZIFF-DAVIS.

Lester DEL REY.

[r] Frank AUBREY.

US magazine for boys and girls, published by Scribner, later by Century
Co., then by American Education Press. Founded by Rosewell Smith and ed
Mary Mapes Dodge 1873-1905, William Fayal Clarke 1905-27, and others.
Assistant editors included Frank R. STOCKTON 1873-81 and Tudor Jenks
1887-1902. It appeared monthly Nov 1873-May 1930 as St. Nicholas, then as
SNM from June 1930 until its demise in June 1943. The format was large
square octavo, becoming quarto from 1926.SNM maintained a high literary
standard and kept its circulation at 70,000 for many years. Numerous
fantasy stories appeared within its pages, notably by Stockton, John
Kendrick BANGS and Rudyard KIPLING, ranging in content from fairy-tales to
sf such as Clement FEZANDIE's Through the Earth (1898; rev 1898) and
Stockton's "The Tricycle of the Future" (May 1885). Aimed at a more
educated and middle-class market than the dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF),
SNM was undoubtedly enjoyed by children to whom the FRANK READE LIBRARY
was out of reach (through parental veto), and thus has some bearing on the
HISTORY OF SF. [JE]Further reading: Books in Black or Red (1924) by Edmund
Lester Pearson.

(1958- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Gamester" for Questar in
1981; his short work appeared in various magazines through the 1980s. His
first sf novel, The Leaves of October (fixup 1988), competently presents a
vision of ALIENS in the shape of sentient trees, who help humanity through
the evolutionary crisis of the current era. Carmen Miranda's Ghost is
Haunting Space Station Three * (anth 1990), which DS ed and to which he
contributed 2 stories, is a SHARED-WORLD anthology based on a filksong by
Leslie Fish. (Filksongs are songs composed by members of the sf community,
usually for performance at CONVENTIONS.) [JC]

Pseudonym of Hector Hugh Munro (1870-1916), UK author and journalist
noted for his acerbic writings. He began writing for The Westminster
Gazette in the late 1890s as Saki, the name of the cup-bearer in The
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. As H.H. Munro he wrote When William Came (1914),
a trenchant future- WAR novel about a German INVASION and the occupation
of London, regarded by I.F. CLARKE as the best of all such works. Many
tales of the weird and fantastic - ironic, witty and sometimes cruel - are
included in the following collections, all as by Saki: Reginald (coll
1904), Reginald in Russia (coll 1910), The Chronicles of Clovis (coll
1911) - an assemblage of CLUB STORIES - Beasts and Super-Beasts (coll
1914), The Toys of Peace (coll 1919), The Square Egg (coll 1924) and The
Complete Short Stories of Saki (coll 1930). [JE]Other works: The
Westminster Alice (1902); The Unbearable Bassington (1912).


[r] ITALY.


(1944- ) US writer, briefly active in NW during its Michael
MOORCOCK-directed NEW-WAVE phase; he published his first sf story,
"Kazoo", there in 1967. His clearly acknowledged models in the French
avant garde and the gnomic brevity of much of his work limited his appeal
in the sf world, though he received some critical acclaim for A Few Last
Words (coll 1970). Later work (uncollected) appeared in the USA through
the 1970s and 1980s. He ed 2 sf anthologies: The War Book (anth 1969 UK)
and The Shores Beneath (anth 1971). [JC]


[r] SPAIN.

(1906-1980) US writer and chemist, professor of biochemistry at Loyola
University before his retirement in 1973. His first story, "The Medicine"
for TWS in 1941, was published as by William Morrison, under which name he
wrote almost all his fiction of interest; he also wrote some stories with
Frederik POHL. Under the house name Brett STERLING he wrote 2 CAPTAIN
FUTURE tales, "Worlds to Come" (1943) and The Tenth Planet (1944 Captain
Future as "Days of Creation"; 1969), and a juvenile sf novel, Mel Oliver
and Space Rover on Mars (1954) as Morrison. [JC]

(1904-1956) US writer and editor who, after many years with Standard
Magazines, became in 1954 editor of their sf journals, THRILLING WONDER
STORIES, Fantastic Story Magazine ( FANTASTIC STORY QUARTERLY) and
STARTLING STORIES, the first two of which were soon amalgamated with the
latter, though to little avail, for it folded before the end of 1955.
Relatively little of AS's writing was sf, but it has been firmly
speculated - though there can be no certainty - that under the house name
Will GARTH he wrote Dr Cyclops * (1940), a rather effective novelization
of the film DR CYCLOPS (1940). [JC]

(1920- ) US author of more than 50 sf short stories, beginning with
"Report to the People" for The BLUE BOOK MAGAZINE in 1953. Most of his
work appeared in the Saturday Evening Post and other "slicks" and
consequently received less attention from within the sf world than it
might have done, considering its vigour and polish. WS released Island of
Fear and Other SF Stories (coll 1963), and under the pseudonym William
Ayes (he wrote also as Anthony Ayes) published a series of stories about
Crazy Murtag in various men's magazines; in these Melvin Murtag attempts
such impossible feats as repealing the First Law of Thermodynamics. [JC]

(1939- ) US sf critic and professor of English at California State
University, Long Beach. His PhD dissertation (University of Southern
California) was later published by ARNO PRESS as a book, Visions of
Tomorrow: Six Journeys from Outer to Inner Space (1975): it contains
analyses of novels by Isaac ASIMOV, J.G. BALLARD, Algis BUDRYS, Arthur C.
CLARKE, Walter M. MILLER Jr and Theodore STURGEON. His next book was
Arthur C. Clarke: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1984). Many
shorter critical pieces have appeared in EXTRAPOLATION, SCIENCE-FICTION
STUDIES and various critical anthologies. DS is among the more intelligent
and better informed academic critics of sf. [PN]See also: CRITICAL AND


(? - ) US writer in whose sf novel, The Book of Stier (1971), a youth
movement inspired by the MUSIC of the mysterious Richard Stier overtopples
all US institutions. As a sign of the devastation wreaked by this
countercultural putsch, Canada eventually takes over the USA. [JC]See

[r] Leigh BRACKETT.

(1920- ) US writer best known for the Deadly Sin novels (The First Deadly
Sin was filmed in 1980) and for the thriller The Anderson Tapes (1970),
filmed in 1971. The Tomorrow File (1975) depicts a NEAR-FUTURE USA on a
large canvas. At the DYSTOPIAN heart of the book can be found the
Department of Bliss, whose functions in a jaded country are pejoratively
analysed. Of his many remaining books, some - like The Sixth Commandment
(1978) - are borderline sf. The Passion of Molly T (1984) depicts a near
future in FEMINIST terms. As Mark Upton, he wrote a fantasy, Dark Summer
(1979). [JC]See also: PULP MAGAZINES.

(1945- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Touch the Earth" for
Edges (anth 1980) ed Ursula K. LE GUIN. His first novel, Terrarium (1985),
is set in a future USA whose human population has retreated from the
polluted world into domed CITIES; the tale neatly expresses some
late-20th-century guilts and their redemption, for the few humans who
leave the domes find a rejuvenated Nature outdoors ( ECOLOGY). The
Engineer of Beasts (1988), a juvenile, is concerned with GENETIC
ENGINEERING. The Invisible Company (1989) examines the cost of maintaining
a colony of immortals in a place called Paradise Island, to which the
protagonist is ominously called. [JC]

[s] Poul ANDERSON.

[r] Terence ROBERTS.

(1914-1975) US editor and author. He ed FANTASTIC UNIVERSE from Sep 1956
until its demise in Mar 1960, and also a collection of stories from it:
The Fantastic Universe Omnibus (anth 1960). HSS was credited with the
editorship of the US edition of NEW WORLDS (5 issues 1960). Other HSS
anthologies are Rulers of Men (anth 1965), Gods for Tomorrow (anth 1967),
Crime Prevention in the 30th Century (anth 1969), Gentle Invaders (anth
1969), The Mighty Barbarians: Great Sword and Sorcery Heroes (anth 1969),
The Mighty Swordsmen (anth 1970), The Days After Tomorrow (anth 1971) and
Flying Saucers in Fact and Fiction (anth 1968), this last containing some
nonfiction items. [PN]


[r] SPAIN.


(1936-1987) US writer who published some borderline fantasy as by Richard
Ben and, as Richard Sapir and in collaboration with Warren B. MURPHY (whom
see for titles), parts of the Destroyer series of spoof thrillers
featuring the Doc Savage-like adventures of Remo Williams, a White man
(and avatar of Shiva the Destroyer) trained in the paranormal combat arts
of Sinanju. The Assassin's Handbook (coll 1982; rev vt Inside Sinanju
1985) as by RBS and Murphy (in fact by Will MURRAY) is an amused (and
amusing) companion to the sequence. RBS is of sf interest mainly for The
Far Arena (1978), a SLEEPER-AWAKES tale in which a Roman gladiator, having
offended the Emperor Domitian, is cast upon an ice floe where he freezes
until resuscitated in the 20th century; his responses to the contemporary
world are illuminatingly critical. In Quest (1987) the Holy Grail is
discovered and becomes the object of a violent modern-day quest; in The
Body (1983) the remains of Christ are apparently discovered. [JC]See also:

Pseudonym of UK writer Herman Cyril McNeile (1888-1937), who became
famous for the creation in Bulldog Drummond (1920) of a thuggish
antisemitic crime-fighting gentleman vigilante, some of whose adventures -
like The Final Count (1926), a tale set in 1927 and involving the use of a
secret weapon - come close to sf. The Island of Terror (1931 Canada)
features a race of ape-men ( APES AND CAVEMEN). Guardians of the Treasure
(1931 US), written under his own name, is a borderline-sf yarn. [JC]

UK tv series (1979-82). An ATV Network Production. Written/created by
P.J. Hammond (except "Adventure Five" by Ben Houghton and Anthony Reed);
executive prod David Reid; prod Shaun O'Riordan. Dir O'Riordan, David
Foster. 4 seasons, 34 25min episodes in all; broken into "Adventure One"
(6 episodes 1979), "Adventure Two" (8 episodes 1979), "Adventure Three" (6
episodes 1981), "Adventure Four" (4 episodes 1981), "Adventure Five" (6
episodes 1981), "Adventure Six" (4 episodes 1982). Main players Joanna
Lumley (Sapphire), David McCallum (Steel) and David Collings
(Silver).Possibly the most mystifying and least coherent sf series ever to
appear on tv, SAS made a virtue of enigma. Sapphire and Steel are
elemental forces in human form, policing the integrity of the corridor of
time, which suffers incursions (often appearing as ghosts) from the past
or future. Sapphire has paranormal powers, but is not as time-resistant as
Steel. Time shifts and stops; people appear and disappear; memories
dissolve; the atmosphere is theatrical, ardent, brooding; Doppelgangers
proliferate; characters become absorbed into pictures and photographs. The
audience was deeply divided: many saw it as drivel, some as a triumph of
popular Surrealism-Magritte meets The AVENGERS - challenging our
PERCEPTIONS of what is real. [PN]

(? - ) US author of the prehistoric-sf First Americans series: The First
Americans: Beyond the Sea of Ice (1987), #2: Corridor of Storms (1988),
#3: Forbidden Land (1989), #4: Walkers of the Wind (1990),#5: The Sacred
Stones (1991), Thunder in the Sky (1992) and The Edge of the World (1993).
The books were SHARECROPPED. Wolves of the Dawn (1987) is a singleton.

Pseudonym of US writer and motion-picture executive Roger Andrew Caras
(1928- ), author of nonfiction under his own name and, as RS, of an sf
novel, The Throwbacks (1965), about genetic monsters threatening mankind.

Pseudonym of UK writer John W. Wall (1910-1989), a career diplomat for
the UK from 1933 until his retirement in 1966. Most of the short stories
assembled in Ringstones, and Other Curious Tales (coll 1951) and The Doll
Maker, and Other Tales of the Uncanny (coll 1953) are pure fantasy, but
the haunting and nightmarish THE SOUND OF HIS HORN (1952) has often been
conscripted to the sf ranks by sf critics, for it is partially set in an
ALTERNATE WORLD, a Germany 100 years after the Nazis have triumphed in
WWII ( HITLER WINS); the evocation of this timeless RURITANIAN enclave,
however, is as a pure fantasy land, ruled over by a charismatic Master
Forester (an avatar of Herne the Hunter), where untermensch dissidents are
hunted down for sport; the dark, flamboyant imagery of erotic chastisement
is startlingly fetishistic. [PN/JC]See also: GAMES AND SPORTS.


(1940- ) US academic and bibliographer, in the Department of Political
Science at the University of Missouri-St Louis. From his first piece of
interest, "Utopia and Dystopia in Contemporary Science Fiction" for The
Futurist in 1972, his sf work has been exclusively focused on the study of
UTOPIAS and DYSTOPIAS, the most important result of which has been British
and American Utopian Literature 1516-1975: An Annotated Bibliography
(1979; much exp, vt British and American Utopian Literature, 1516-1985: An
Annotated, Chronological Bibliography 1988). The revised edn, which lists
several thousand titles in a format which allows for (sometimes
excessively) brief comment, is an essential tool for the study of this
field. LTS's extremely broad-church definition of a utopian work allows
him to bring very disparate writings - ranging from GENRE SF to primarily
nonfiction works - into thought-provoking juxtaposition. [JC]See also:

(1948- ) US writer and editor with an MA in classical philosophy from the
State University of New York at Binghamton, where she taught for some
time; she has lived with George ZEBROWSKI for many years. Although she
published her first sf story, "Landed Minority", in FSF as early as 1970 -
with much of her early work being assembled as Starshadows (coll 1977) -
she first came to wide notice as the editor of an excellent ANTHOLOGY
series comprising stories written by women about female protagonists.
Though the tales assembled in Women of Wonder (anth 1975), More Women of
Wonder (anth 1976) and The New Women of Wonder (anth 1978) are not all
FEMINIST, the long and argued introduction to the first volume necessarily
presents in feminist terms the case for a theme anthology of this sort. A
further theme anthology, Bio-Futures (anth 1976), is also notable for the
strength of the organizing mind behind it.At the same time PS began to
publish the novels which confirmed a sense that she was one of those
writers of the late 1970s and 1980s capable of making significant use of
the thematic potentials of the genre; the range of themes so examined was
very wide. Cloned Lives (fixup 1976) traces the lives of a number of
genetically identical children brought up together, grippingly
differentiating among them ( CLONES). The Sudden Star (1972 NW as "Julio
204"; much exp 1979; vt The White Death 1980 UK), set mostly in a
post-nuclear- HOLOCAUST Miami, examines through multiple viewpoints a
world whose disintegration reflects a cogent ecological passion (
ECOLOGY). In the Earthminds sequence of FAR-FUTURE sf tales for older
children - Watchstar (1980), Eye of the Comet (1984) and Homesmind (1985)
- comet-dwelling nontelepathic descendants of humanity confront Earth's
own telepaths, whose culture is otherwise primitive; their eventual
reconciliation comes after many trials. A kind of thematic pendant to this
series, Earthseed (1983), carries its juvenile protagonists through a
traditional rite of passage in which they escape a benevolent AI-monitored
GENERATION STARSHIP (see also POCKET UNIVERSE) and earn the chance to land
upon a new planet.The Golden Space (fixup 1982) examines questions of
IMMORTALITY, The Alien Upstairs (1983) exposes a disheartened NEAR-FUTURE
family to the transcendental influence of the eponymous visitor, and The
Shore of Women (1986) complexly subjects a traditional post-holocaust
venue to an analysis ambiguously feminist: women's dominance of science
and technology has a punitive ring, and the world depicted seems less than
stable. VENUS OF DREAMS (1986) and its sequel, Venus of Shadows (1988),
depict the TERRAFORMING of VENUS in long-breathed epic vein; a final
volume, Child of Venus, is projected. A late juvenile, Alien Child (1988),
somewhat awkwardly presents the last human children with ethical questions
about the future of their race as they approach adulthood in an ALIEN
breeding complex which is both hospice and research institute. The Best of
Pamela Sargent (coll 1987) ed Martin H. GREENBERG provides a conspectus of
her career from 1972; and "Danny Goes to Mars" (1992) won a NEBULA award
for Best Novelette. Not all of PS's varied explorations can be described
as fully successful, for a slight sense of cogitation sometimes causes her
narrative sense to falter, and her continued interest in the permutations
of human nature can seem abstract; but always a strong, serious, attentive
mind can be reassuringly felt at work. [JC]Other works: Elvira's Zoo (1979
chap), juvenile; The Mountain Cage (1983 chap); Afterlives: Stories about
Life after Death (anth 1986) ed with Ian WATSON; Ruler of the Sky (1993),
associational.About the author: The Work of Pamela Sargent: An Annotated
Bibliography & Guide (1990 chap) by Jeffrey M. ELLIOT.See also:



US magazine, DIGEST-size Oct 1956-Dec 1958, BEDSHEET-size Feb-May 1959,
18 issues Oct 1956-May 1959. Bimonthly; monthly for last 4 issues (Feb-May
1959). Published by Renown Publications. Cylvia Kleinman (Mrs Leo
MARGULIES) was managing ed on all issues, which were ed Sam MERWIN Jr
Oct-Dec 1956, Leo Margulies Feb 1957-Dec 1958 and Frank Belknap LONG
Feb-May 1959.SSF was to some degree a re-creation in digest format of
STARTLING STORIES, with a similar editorial policy ("a complete science
fiction novel in every issue") and an editor and publisher (Leo Margulies
was both) who had worked on that magazine in the 1940s. It began
promisingly, its first 2 issues featuring "The Man from Earth" (Oct 1956;
rev vt Man of Earth 1958) by Algis BUDRYS and "A Glass of Darkness" (Dec
1956; vt The Cosmic Puppets 1957) by Philip K. DICK, as well as stories by
Isaac ASIMOV, Arthur C. CLARKE (in each of the first 5 issues), L. Sprague
DE CAMP and others. Merwin left after #2, however, and the magazine
gradually declined into mediocrity, though it did run an interesting
series of articles by Sam MOSKOWITZ on the HISTORY OF SF - a partial basis
for his Explorers of the Infinite (coll 1963) - and The Languages of Pao
(Dec 1957; cut 1958) by Jack VANCE. The June 1959 issue was printed but
never distributed. [MJE]

From the earliest days of PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, satire was its
prevailing mode, and this inheritance was evident even after sf proper
began in the 19th century. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary defines
satire as literary work "in which prevailing vices or follies are held up
to ridicule". Proto sf is seldom interested in imagining the societies of
other worlds or future times for their own sake; most proto sf of the 17th
and 18th centuries (by, for example, CYRANO DE BERGERAC, Daniel DEFOE,
Jonathan SWIFT) created imaginary settings, commonly on ISLANDS or on the
MOON, as a kind of convenient blank slate upon which various societies
satirizing the writer's own could be inscribed - commonly a travesty of
some particular aspect of it (still a common strategy in sf by MAINSTREAM
WRITERS and in GENRE SF as well). Therefore, by extension, satire is
ancestral to the DYSTOPIA, and even the UTOPIA often contains satirical
elements. Many critics believe that Sir Thomas MORE intended the reader to
take some aspects of Utopia (1516 in Latin; trans 1551) with a grain of
salt. The satire may also take the form of debunking other kinds of
literature, as in The True History (2nd century AD) by LUCIAN. The
wonderful exaggerations of this story poke fun at travellers' tales
generally, though its zestful telling suggests a certain sympathy with the
inquisitive mind which dotes on such imaginings.It is almost impossible to
write a work of fiction set in another world - be it some alien place or
our own world in another time - which does not make some sort of statement
about the writer's own real world. Thus most sf bears at least a family
resemblance to satire. In his critical study New Maps of Hell (1960 US),
Kingsley AMIS argued that dystopian satire rather than technological
extrapolation is central to sf (perhaps because his own fiction is largely
satirical). It is an easy argument to support, at least in terms of the
number of texts that can be cited as evidence.Samuel BUTLER and Mark TWAIN
were supreme among the prominent satirists of the 19th century who used sf
imagery to make their points; even when we turn to the work of writers
considered more central to the development of modern sf, such as Jules
VERNE and H.G. WELLS, we find the satirical element prominent. Wells's THE
TIME MACHINE (1895), for example, focuses in large part on the
relationship of the working classes and the leisured classes, and THE WAR
OF THE WORLDS (1898) can be read as an ironic tale in which the UK, the
great, technologically advanced colonizing power of the day, is herself
subjected to colonization by a technological superior. Satire need not be
good-humoured (indeed, that brand of satire said to be descended from
Juvenal [AD 60-c130] is commonly biting), and both these works by Wells
are notably savage, especially THE WAR OF THE WORLDS in its portrait of a
demoralized and cowardly population.Among the mainstream writers of this
century who have written important sf satires are Anthony BURGESS, Karel
CAPEK, Anatole FRANCE, Aldous HUXLEY, Andre MAUROIS, George ORWELL, Gore
VIDAL and Evelyn WAUGH. It would be impossible to list the innumerable sf
satires by less-known writers, but we can pick out Archibald MARSHALL's
Upsidonia (1915), Owen M. JOHNSON's The Coming of the Amazons (1931),
Frederick Philip GROVE's Consider her Ways (1947) and Stefan THEMERSON's
Professor Minaa's Lecture (1953). The latter two contain many pungent
comments on human society by insect intelligences, both being examples of
one of the most popular satiric strategies in sf: the use of an alien
perspective to allow us to see our own institutions in a fresh light.
Indeed, there is a sense in which all satire depends upon just such
reversals of perspective, which sf is peculiarly well fitted to supply;
satire forces us to look at familiar aspects of our lives with a fresh
vision, so that all their absurdity or horror is, so to speak, framed, as
in a picture. Jonathan SWIFT used intelligent horses in Gulliver's Travels
(1726; rev 1735), VOLTAIRE a visiting giant alien from Sirius in
Micromegas (1750 Berlin; 1752 France), Grant ALLEN a man from the future
in The British Barbarians (1895), Lester LURGAN a visiting Martian in A
Message From Mars (1912) and Eden PHILLPOTTS a visiting alien lizard in
Saurus (1938). (The same strategy is now common in sf tv comedy; e.g., MY
FAVORITE MARTIAN [1963-6], MORK AND MINDY [1978-82] and ALF [1986-90].)
Aside from visiting aliens and future dystopias there are many other
strategies for producing such shifts of perspective. One such is evident
in The Stepford Wives (1972) by Ira LEVIN, filmed as The STEPFORD WIVES
(1975): sexist masculine attitudes are satirized in a thriller centring on
the attractions of passive, substitute robot wives. Indeed, the satirical
creation of imaginary societies in which the horrors of our own are writ
large is especially common in feminist sf ( FEMINISM), as in Margaret
ATWOOD's THE HANDMAID'S TALE (1985). ROBOTS are often used in sf satire
for a different reason: for their innocence. Because robots are, in
theory, not programmed with prejudices, and are given simple ethical
systems, they may have a childlike purity that cuts through
rationalizations and sophistications. In Philip K. DICK's Now Wait for
Last Year (1966), for example, the hero's moral quandary is amusingly but
touchingly resolved by advice from a robot taxi-cab. CHILDREN IN SF are
occasionally used in a similar manner. Both these are simply special cases
of the "innocent-observer" strategy first popularized by Voltaire in
Candide (1759), in which a naive man, with few expectations of life and a
likable character, is consistently abused and exploited in his travels.
Modern sf examples include THE SIRENS OF TITAN (1959) by Kurt VONNEGUT Jr,
in which the hero is a millionaire brainwashed into innocence on Mars, and
Robert SHECKLEY's Journey Beyond Tomorrow (1962; vt The Journey of Joenes
1978 UK), where the traveller is a naive islander who has a terrible time
in a future USA. Sheckley was for a time among the finest genre-sf
satirists, and a great deal of his work depends on the introduction of a
similar innocent viewpoint.Satire is not only a matter of imaginary
societies and shifts in perspective; it has a great deal to do with
narrative tone, which cannot generally afford to be too hectoring or
sarcastic, or the reader simply feels bludgeoned. An air of mild surprise
is often considered appropriate, though commonly the narrator's voice is
ironic or sardonic, a good example of the latter being found in a
collection which contains several satirical sf fables, Sardonic Tales
(coll trans 1927), assembled from Contes Cruels (coll 1883) by VILLIERS DE
L'ISLE ADAM, after whose collection this whole mode of writing is often
known as "contes cruels" or "cruel tales". Further examples of this
chilling subgenre can be found in the work of John COLLIER, Roald DAHL and
sometimes Howard FAST. In genre sf it characterizes the excellent work of
John T. SLADEK, who shifts skilfully between the mock-innocent and the
ironic in his stories, nearly all of which are satire.The standard of
satire within genre sf was not very high before the 1950s, though numerous
pulp writers from Stanton A. COBLENTZ to L. Sprague DE CAMP wrote
occasionally in this vein. One of the earliest sf writers to excel here
was, especially in his short stories, Henry KUTTNER (whose work, even when
signed Kuttner, was often written collaboratively with C.L. MOORE). Short,
satirical sf stories found a natural home in the early 1950s when the
magazine GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION opened up a new market. The best of the
Gal satirists were probably Damon KNIGHT, C.M. KORNBLUTH, Frederik POHL,
Sheckley and William TENN. As satirical collaborators, Pohl and Kornbluth
specialized in dystopian stories which extrapolated displeasing aspects of
present-day life into the future: the world of advertising was pilloried
in both THE SPACE MERCHANTS (1953) and Pohl's much later solo effort, The
Merchants War (1984), and of organized sport in Gladiator-at-Law (1955).
It was the turn of insurance companies in Preferred Risk (1955) by Pohl
and Lester DEL REY writing together as Edson MCCANN. Another sharp
anti-advertising book is The Big Ball of Wax (1954) by Shepherd MEAD; and
much of the amusing but occasionally heavy-handed satire of Ron GOULART is
directed against the ad-man's mentality, and the MEDIA LANDSCAPE
generally.In the 1960s and 1970s the magazine NEW WORLDS published many
writers whose satirical skills tended more towards a rather dry irony than
to overt anger or even jovial sarcasm. Notable among these were Brian W.
ALDISS, Thomas M. DISCH and the editor himself, Michael MOORCOCK, whose
most directly satirical sequence is Dancers at the End of Time, beginning
with An Alien Heat (1972). US satire, too, became less broad than before.
The amusing but obvious satire of Fritz LEIBER's The Silver Eggheads
(1961) and A Specter is Haunting Texas (1969) gave ground to the work of
writers like Barry N. MALZBERG and James TIPTREE Jr, who (in completely
different ways) also preferred a lower-key irony (through which in both
cases a ferocious bitterness is visible) and in whose works the satirical
was only one of several elements. Pure satires were becoming comparatively
rare in sf by the 1970s, although Peter DICKINSON's The Green Gene (1973)
and Richard COWPER's Clone (1972) are examples; the latter is another
story in the Candide pattern. Some important satirical work issued from
the Communist bloc, notably that of Stanislaw LEM in, especially,
Cyberiada (coll 1965; trans as The Cyberiad 1974 US) and "Kongres
Futurologiczny" (1971; trans as The Futurological Congress 1974 US), where
the savagery of the wit is Swift-like.The sf CINEMA has flirted with
satire quite often. The best-known examples are probably PLANET OF THE
(1967), WESTWORLD (1973), The STUFF (1985), TERRORVISION (1986), EARTH
(1977; vt Zombie) is unusual in marrying satire to HORROR, especially in
its central image of zombies shambling around a shopping mall. STRANGE
INVADERS (1983) manages to combine an exciting alien-invasion story with
considerable satire on the USA of the 1950s (a cultural era into whose
behaviour patterns the aliens have been frozen) and of the 1980s (when
they attempt to act).Parody is a form of satire, and there has not been a
great deal in sf. The best parodies of sf writers and their CLICHES are
probably those by John Sladek in The Steam-Driven Boy (coll 1973); also
fairly successful are those in David LANGFORD's The Dragonhiker's Guide to
Battlefield Covenant at Dune's Edge: Odyssey Two (coll 1988). Langford's
cowritten Earthdoom! (1987) parodies bestselling DISASTER novels. A parody
with a more serious point is Norman SPINRAD's The Iron Dream (1972), which
masquerades as a SWORD-AND-SORCERY novel written by Adolf Hitler. Harry
HARRISON's Bill, the Galactic Hero (1965) and Star Smashers of the Galaxy
Rangers (1973) parody Robert A. HEINLEIN and E.E. "Doc" SMITH
respectively. H.G. WELLS was a favourite subject for parodists from early
on, as in The War of the Wenuses (1898) by E.V. LUCAS and C.L. Graves
(1856-1944) and Max Beerbohm's "Perkins and Mankind" (1912). Mention my
Name in Atlantis (1972) by John JAKES is a parody of Robert E. HOWARD, not
as sharp as Spinrad's, and its hero not as funny as Terry PRATCHETT's
"Cohen the Barbarian", who pops up occasionally in the Discworld series.
Bob SHAW's Who Goes There? (1977) parodies many themes of SPACE OPERA in
general with considerable inventiveness, as does the most successful
sf-parody film, DARK STAR (1974). Sf writers have produced a number of
parodies of PSEUDO-SCIENCE (which see for listing). The best known sf
parodist of the 1980s was Douglas ADAMS, with his Hitch Hiker's Guide to
the Galaxy series. There is also, of course, much pastiche - Philip Jose
FARMER has written a good deal - but pastiche and parody are not the same
thing, for the pastiche may be homage whereas parody normally implies
deflation (although the two can co-exist, as in Dark Star).In general
satire during the 1970s-80s was perhaps less visible in genre sf than in
borderline-sf FABULATIONS (including some by John Calvin BATCHELOR,
Alasdair GRAY, Jerzy KOSINSKI, Thomas PYNCHON and Josephine SAXTON - the
list could be considerably extended). While genre sf continues to take the
form of pure satire comparatively rarely, satirical elements are common in
seemingly nonsatirical genre novels, especially perhaps in the work of
writers for whom irony is an important part of their vision, such as Iain
James MORROW, Rudy RUCKER and Howard WALDROP. Not that irony and satire
can be read as isomorphic: Gene WOLFE and John CROWLEY, for example, are
ironists almost always, satirists almost never. [PN]See also: HUMOUR;

Pseudonym used on 4 magazine stories by Frederik POHL, 1954-9, the first
being a collaboration with Lester DEL REY. [JC]


US DIGEST-size magazine. 5 issues Mar 1957-Mar 1958, published by Robert
C. Sproul as Candar Publishing Company; ed Sproul with editorial
consultant Donald A. WOLLHEIM. A Jules VERNE story appeared in #1, but
nothing else of note. #1 was subtitled "The Magazine of Science Fiction",
#2 "Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction" and the remainder "Science
Fiction and Fantasy". Despite his mere "consultant" title, Wollheim chose
the contents. [FHP/PN]


Film (1980). Transcontinental. Prod and dir Stanley Donen, starring
Farrah Fawcett, Kirk Douglas, Harvey Keitel. Screenplay Martin AMIS, from
a story by John Barry. 87 mins. Colour.With a good director like Donen and
a screenplay by Martin AMIS, it is difficult to see how so obscene and
silly an exploitation movie could come to be. Douglas and Fawcett play the
couple alternating romping in bed with working on a hydroponics project,
designed to feed millions, situated for no logical reason on Titan, a moon
of Saturn. Unbalanced Benson (Keitel) arrives disguised as a legitimate
researcher and builds an equally unstable ROBOT which spends most of the
rest of the film tearing apart living creatures (including people) and
groping lasciviously at Fawcett. This is the second film after DEMON SEED
(1977) to feature an amorous, unbalanced AI, a notion more GOTHIC than
scientific. The novelization was Saturn 3 * (1980) by Steve GALLAGHER.

[s] Robert A. HEINLEIN.

(1947- ) US writer, one of the less active members of a Texas grouping
which includes Howard WALDROP, his collaborator on The Texas-Israeli War:
1999 (1974). [JC]



Pseudonym of UK writer Ivan Roe (1917- ) for his thrillers - including
The Horrible Hat (1949), in which a psychoanalyst/detective explains
strange manifestations - and his sf novel, When the Moon Died (1955),
whose telling involves an exceedingly complicated frame: far-future aliens
visit a dead Earth to listen to a tape whose long-dead narrator has
discovered how, long before, a nuclear HOLOCAUST was prevented by
scientists who destroyed the Moon but subsequently established a
totalitarian DYSTOPIA. The aliens never do work out why Earth is now
bereft of life. Under his own name Roe wrote some non-genre novels, like
The Salamander Touch (1952), in which an atomic scientist disappears with
difficult consequences. [JC/PN]

(? - ) Dominican-born West Indian writer and musician, in the UK since
his teens. His Lemmus trilogy - Lemmus One: Waiters on the Dance (1972),
Lemmus Two: Beyond the Outer Mirr (1976) and Lemmus Three: Archives of
Haven (coll of linked stories 1977) - is an expansive SPACE OPERA in which
GOD (the Galactic Organization and Dominions) experimentally settles Terra
with people who will evolve in isolation ( ADAM AND EVE). Explanations are
offered for the Judeo-Christian tradition, the fall of ATLANTIS, etc.
Arena (1979) involves folk from various times in a mighty struggle. JJS
afterwards turned to thrillers. [JC]

(1933- ) Russian writer who began as an author of short stories,
publishing Tchironyie Zviozdy ["Dark Stars"] (coll 1960) and contributing
to anthologies. His most famous novel, Otkrytiie Sebia (1967; trans
Antonina W. Bouis as Self-Discovery 1979 US), depicts in uncliched terms
the scientific development of a SUPERMAN. Later stories, comparable with
the metaphysical parables of Stanislaw LEM and Philip K. DICK, are to be
found in Ispytaniie Istinoi ["Truth Test"] (coll [date unconfirmed]) and
Algoritm Uspekha ["Success Algorithm"] (coll 1983). A play, Novoiie
Oruzhiie ["New Weapons"] (1983), portrays modern physicists obsessed by
moral problems after discovering a process which neutralizes all nuclear
weapons on Earth. A rare attempt, in the Soviet sf of the 1980s, to create
a future communist UTOPIA is the less successful Za Perevalom ["After the
Pass"] (1984). [VG]

(? -? ) UK writer who wrote also as Knarf Elivas (his own names
reversed). Beyond the Great South Wall (1899) combines the search for a
Mayan LOST WORLD in the Antarctic with the actual discovery of the extinct
Native Americans' polar deity, a brontosaurus with hypnotic eyes. All ends
well with the death of the creature and some human marriages. [JC]



(1960- ) Canadian writer who began publishing sf with "If I'm Here,
Imagine Where They Sent my Luggage" for The Village Voice in 1981, and was
moderately active as a short-story writer in the 1980s. His first novel,
Golden Fleece (1988 AMZ; exp 1990 US), set on a colony ship named Argo,
run by an AI named JASON, perhaps slightly overcopiously engages to meld
Greek myth and HARD SF in the story of a murder and its solution by a
human protagonist so psychologically recessed that the AI cannot read his
intentions. The Quintaglio Ascension sequence - comprising Far-seer (1992
US), Fossil Hunter (1993 US) and Foreigner (1994 US) - is set on an
unstable Moon orbiting a distant planet, and inhabited by intelligent
dinosaurs who were transported there from Earth by a quasi-omniscient
Watcher aeons past. True to the conventions of HARD SF, the young dinosaur
protagonist of the sequence both revolutionizes the sciences of his world,
and has copious adventures while doing so. Some of the detail work is
luminously enjoyable; some of the premises are facile. It is, all in all,
a thoroughly readable presentation. End of an Era (1994 US) is also about
dinosaurs, but different ones: 2 contemporary Earth paleontologists vie
over explanations for the death of dinosaurs on this planet, and use TIME
TRAVEL to test their theses. In the end, an overly intricate explanation
is offered; but again the journey through the text is swift. The Terminal
Experiment (1995 UK), first published 1994-95 in ASF as "Hobson's Choice",
is an sf mystery centring on the discovery that, at the instant of death,
a form of energy escapes the human brain. [JC]See also: CANADA.

Initially the personal pseudonym of UK writer W. Howard BAKER, under
which he wrote many titles for Amalgamated Press, mainly stories in the
Sexton Blake series before its cancellation in 1963. He then took the name
to Mayflower Books, where the series continued, written by him and others
under what was now a house name. The claims of Scottish writer Wilfred
MCNEILLY to have written most of the PS titles are unjustified (see
entries on BAKER and MCNEILLY for their PS work). Other writers who used
the name included Rex Dolpin, Stephen FRANCES, Ross Richards and Martin
THOMAS. Titles of sf interest not by Baker or McNeilly include Slave Brain
(1967), Black Honey (1968) and Corruption (1968), whose authors have not
been identified, and some titles in the Guardians psychic-investigators
sequence: Through the Dark Curtain (1968 US) by Richards, The Curse of
Rathlaw (1968) by Martin and The Vampires of Finistere (1970) by Dolpin.
The most memorable PS title (written by Baker with Frances) may be The
Disoriented Man (1966; vt Scream and Scream Again 1967 US), filmed as
SCREAM AND SCREAM AGAIN (1969), the latter being something of a cult
classic. [JC]


(1935- ) UK writer who began publishing sf with "The Wall" for Science
Fantasy in 1965, and whose first 3 novels - The Hieros Gamos of Sam and An
Smith (1969 US), Vector for Seven: The Weltanschaung [sic] of Mrs Amelia
Mortimer and Friends (1970 US) and Group Feast (1971 US) - established her
very rapidly as an inventive creator of sf FABULATIONS. Each of these
books presents narratives whose outcomes are more readable as allegories
of their protagonists' moral fates than of any physical journey, though
the image of what might be called the bollixed quest is central to her
work. These journeys are described - often in some detail, as in Vector
for Seven - in a register of perilous ambivalence, half INNER SPACE, half
mutable and frustrating external world. When JS returned to publishing
novels in the 1980s, titles like The Travails of Jane Saint (1980; exp as
coll vt The Travails of Jane Saint and Other Stories 1986) and The
Consciousness Machine; Jane Saint and the Backlash: The Further Travails
of Jane Saint (coll 1989) clearly demonstrated the fundamental continuity
of her vision. Queen of the States (1986) - a clever title in which
"States" can be interpreted as referring to the USA or to various sorts of
mental breakdown - comes very close to a savage reductionism: the
sf/fantasy escapades of the female protagonist default constantly to
delusion, for she is imprisoned in a mental institution. Perhaps even more
clearly than before, these later books are governed by a FEMINIST sense of
the constraints binding women to mundane, male-ordained reality - a sense
that goes far to explain the wildness of JS's protagonists and the
lungeing movements of her prose. Her non-Jane Saint short stories, which
tend to a slantwise but pointed lightness of touch, have been assembled in
The Power of Time (coll 1985) and Little Tours of Hell: Tall Tales of Food
and Holidays (coll 1986). [JC]See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS; FANTASTIC

(1914-1988) US writer who, as an editor at Farrar & Rinehart, helped
Austin Tappan WRIGHT's daughter, Sylvia Wright, edit the massive
manuscript of Islandia, which his firm published in 1942. MS himself
produced some detective fiction, but his sf was confined to the Islandia
world, for which he wrote 3 novels in continuation of Wright's original:
The Islar: A Narrative of Lang III (1969), narrated by the grandson of
Wright's John Lang, The Two Kingdoms: A Novel of Islandia (1979) and Havoc
in Islandia (1982). The UTOPIAN glow of the original did not survive
unaltered, but MS's work was both competent and devoted. [JC]

(1950- ) US writer and film-maker. JS made his reputation as a MAINSTREAM
WRITER with the novels Pride of the Bimbos (1975) and Union Dues (1977)
and his collection The Anarchist's Convention (coll 1979). He began
writing scripts for exploitation movies in the late 1970s, and enjoyed a
burst of creativity in association with Roger CORMAN, Joe DANTE, Lewis
Teague and Steven SPIELBERG. His sf and fantasy screenplays, always lively
and self-aware, are PIRANHA (1978), BATTLE BEYOND THE STARS (1980), The
Howling (1980), ALLIGATOR (1980), The Clan of the Cave Bear (1985) and
Wild Thing (1989). Night Skies, a horror script about an isolated farm
besieged by alien visitors, was commissioned by Spielberg but then
abandoned in favour of the similar but more benevolent CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF
THE THIRD KIND (1977). JS made his directorial debut with Return of the
Secaucus 7 (1980), and has made a number of well received non-genre films
since, including Lianna (1981) and Baby, It's You (1983). His sole sf film
as director is The BROTHER FROM ANOTHER PLANET (1984), in which the story
of a Black alien who crashlands in Harlem is used to tackle JS's usual
concerns. [KN]See also: CINEMA.

This entry refers primarily to Sweden and Norway; there are separate
entries for DENMARK and FINLAND. Scandinavia has always been somewhat
isolated from the main roads of European cultural development, and never
more so than during the 18th century, when the Age of Enlightenment swept
across the rest of Europe. Outside the mainly French-speaking court,
Scandinavia was poor and starving, mainly agricultural, and crushed by
repeated, ruinous wars. It is perhaps not surprising that excursions into
fantastic literature were few: Scandinavia had nothing to compare with the
French Voyages imaginaires, a 36-vol series published from 1787 and
running from LUCIAN to CYRANO DE BERGERAC to Jonathan SWIFT. The first
noted Scandinavian example of fantastic literature was Danish ( DENMARK):
Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (1741 in Latin; exp 1745; trans anon as A
Journey to the World Under-Ground. By Nicolas Klimius 1742 UK; vt A
Journey to the World Underground 1974 US) by Ludwig HOLBERG. This witty
journey into a HOLLOW EARTH, somewhat reminiscent of the work of Swift, is
regarded as a classic and has never been out of print. In Sweden, Olof von
Dalin (1708-1763) published in his magazine Then Swanska Argus an amusing
political story about extraterrestrial visitors to Earth, "Saga om Erik
hin Gotske" ["Tale of Erik of the Goths"] (1734), and in Norway there was
the early TIME-TRAVEL play Anno 7603 (1781) by John Hermann Wessel
(1742-1785). But these were isolated examples. Fantastic literature was
popular, but most of it was what we would today call HEROIC FANTASY, with
sword-toting heroes, maidens in distress, sentient dragons, etc. The first
Scandinavian novel that can be considered as modern sf, with everything
that description implies, appeared as late as 1878: Oxygen och Aromasia
["Oxygen and Aromasia"] (1878) by the Swedish journalist Claes Lundin
(1825-1908). Unfortunately, it bore unmistakeable signs that Lundin had
read the German book Bilder aus der Zukunft ["Images of the Future"] (coll
1878) by Kurd LASSWITZ, published in Breslau earlier that same year.
Lundin's version is a tale set a few hundred years hence in a failed
UTOPIA; it is a funny SATIRE bursting with then-new sf ideas-time travel,
tv, moving sidewalks, ALIENS, airships and SPACESHIPS, and even an
interesting TIME PARADOX. It is still eminently readable; a new edition
was published as recently as 1974.Again, however, this was an isolated
example. Lundin wrote no more sf - he is today mostly remembered as the
mentor of August Strindberg (1849-1912) - and no new talents appeared to
take his place. Although the first book ever written about sf, Camille
FLAMMARION's Les mondes imaginaires et les mondes reels (1864; trans as
Real and Imaginary Worlds 1865 US), was translated into Swedish as early
as 1867 and Jules VERNE's novels were translated into the Scandinavian
languages as soon as they appeared in France, few indigenous authors tried
their hands. Of the 286 straightforward sf novels published 1870-1900 in
Sweden, the leading literary market in Scandinavia, the overwhelming
majority were translations of the popular foreign sf authors of the time:
Verne, Flammarion, Lasswitz, Mor JOKAI, Andre LAURIE and H.G. WELLS. There
was an early attempt at a Swedish sf magazine, Stella - 4 irregular issues
Apr 1886-Aug 1888, with short stories by these foreign authors and a
scattering of anonymous material that may have been by local hands - but
it was much before its time and vanished without trace.Very little
happened in Scandinavia until the explosive arrival on the Swedish
literary scene of Otto Witt (1875-1923). Originally a mining engineer, he
worked in Germany until 1912, then returned to Sweden firmly resolved to
win fame and fortune. (Interestingly, he had studied at the Technicum in
Bingen, Germany, at the same time as Hugo GERNSBACK, later to launch the
first US SF MAGAZINE, AMAZING STORIES, and Karl Hans Strobl, later to
launch the first sf/fantasy magazine in AUSTRIA, Der Orchideengarten.
There is no evidence that they met.) To this end Witt wrote dozens of sf
novels, all bursting with new and usually harebrained ideas which nobody
else took seriously. He can be thought of as a Swedish Hugo Gernsback but
with ten times the ego. His many novels were merely vehicles for his
crackpot theories; Hur manen erovrades ["How the Moon was Conquered"]
(1915) treated the creation of the MOON, Guldfursten ["The Prince of
Gold"] (1916) proposed a sure-fire way of making gold, and so on. But his
great accomplishment was the creation of Sweden's first modern sf
magazine, Hugin, which ran for 85 issues 1916-20, preceded by a few
irregular issues published to test the market. According to its cover,
Hugin offered "scientific novels, scientific causeries, inventive
sketches, adventure stories and scientific fairy-tales". Inspiration
probably came from German and French sf magazines, like the German Der
LUFTPIRAT UND SEIN LENKBARES LUFTSCHIFF series, but the style was entirely
Witt's own. Hugin was unique among sf magazines: written, edited and
published by Witt, advocating in fictionalized form every mad idea he
could think of - as if John W. CAMPBELL had extended some of his more
notorious editorials into short stories that filled every issue of ASF.
Witt even wrote the advertisements as sf shorts, complete with kind words
about the sponsor's products!In Norway Ovre Richter-Frich (1872-1945)
issued more than 20 popular novels from 1911 detailing the adventures of
the superscientist Jonas Fjeld.Until now, inspiration for Scandinavian sf
had come mostly from Germany and France. After WWI, however, UK authors -
and to some extent Italian and Russian futurists - became more noticeable.
Wells, Vladimir MAYAKOVSKY, Mikhail BULGAKOV and Antonio Sant'Elia
(1888-1916) represented a sort of European New Wave in the field. A very
influential Swedish novel, Kallocain (1940; trans Gustav Lannestock 1966
US) by Karin BOYE drew heavily on My (written 1920; trans as We 1924 US)
by Yevgeny ZAMIATIN and Soviet "machinism" theories. Then US influence
grew stronger as the miseries of WWII diverted the attentions of European
sf writers and readers to more important matters, such as survival. Most
of Scandinavia felt the full impact of the war on its own territory,
especially Finland, which had to fight Germany and the USSR both singly
and simultaneously. Sweden, however, was largely outside WWII, and here
the world's first weekly sf magazine, Jules Verne-Magasinet ["The Jules
Verne Magazine"] started in 1940, offering mostly translated US
PULP-MAGAZINE stories. It lasted 332 issues before dying in 1948; later it
was resurrected as a bimonthly which is still being published. After WWII
came other magazines: the Norwegian Tempo-Magazinet, the Swedish Hapna!
and Galaxy, and the Finnish Aikamme. During the first boom in Scandinavian
sf, in the mid-1950s, there were 4 sf magazines and over a dozen book
series being published. Interest was fuelled by Harry MARTINSON's Aniara
(1953 Cikada; exp 1956; trans as Aniara: A Review of Man in Time and Space
1963 UK), a book-length poem about the starship Aniara which was later
made into an opera ( MUSIC); Martinson received the 1974 Nobel Prize for
Literature.Unlike the case in the English-speaking countries, fantastic
literature in Scandinavia - and, indeed, in mainland Europe as a whole -
was never trapped in the sf ghetto; one is tempted to suggest that this
was because Europe succeeded in exporting Hugo Gernsback, so that he
created the sf ghetto elsewhere. Although there is in fact an unimportant
fringe sf ghetto in Scandinavia - centring on cheap paperback translations
from English and German that are sold at newsstands but never in
bookstores - in general Scandinavian sf is published in trade editions,
sold in book stores and treated by reviewers with the same respect as any
other modern literature. This is because fantastic literature has always
been part of the Scandinavian literary mainstream, not generally being
regarded as generic; the line between sf and fantasy is very hazy, and
most Scandinavian authors have at one time or another ventured into the
field. The enormous popularity in Scandinavia today of Dutch and Latin
American MAGIC REALISM is probably also a consequence of this historical
attitude. By way of example, we can note that, when Frederik POHL's and C.
M. KORNBLUTH's THE SPACE MERCHANTS (1953) first appeared in Sweden in
1962, it did so in a series of books of social criticism published by FIB,
a company owned by the Labour Government.In short, Scandinavia is much
like the rest of continental Europe in having no specialized sf industry
but instead a lively world of fantastic literature in the old European
tradition, drawing its succour from E.T.A. HOFFMANN, Adelbert von Chamisso
(1781-1838), the German Sturm und Drang, the French 'pataphysics ( Alfred
JARRY; IMAGINARY SCIENCE) and Italian and Russian Futurism, rather than
from the world of English-language sf. Where GENRE SF exists, it is
confined to fans and FANDOM. Much of this sort of sf has traditionally
been published by specialist houses, of which Delta, in Sweden, was, until
it folded in 1991, the largest, with a hardcover book series containing
more than 300 volumes. Among Scandinavian authors to be published by the
specialist houses are Borje Crona (1932- ), Carl Johan Holzhausen
(1900-1989), Denis Lindbohm (1927- ), Bertil Martenson (1945- ) and Sven
Christer Swahn (1933- ) in Sweden, Erkki Ahonen in FINLAND, Oyvind Myrhe
(1945- ) in Norway and Niels E. Nielsen (1924- ) in Denmark. Sweden's
Sture Lonnerstrand (1919- ) played a major role in popularizing sf,
co-editing Hapna! and writing many articles and fictions, such as the
juvenile Rymdhunden ["The Space Dog"] (1954). All these authors are very
popular and eminently readable. However, Lindbohm, for many years a
leading light in Swedish fandom, is now writing mainly about mysticism and
reincarnation, while Martenson, also very popular in Sweden, now writes
only FANTASY.Other sf authors have left genre sf or were never part of it,
their books being usually published by mainstream houses and without the
"sf" label; they include Jon Bing (1944- ) and Tor Age Bringsvaerd (1939-
) in Norway, Sam J. LUNDWALL in Sweden and Kullervo Kukkasjarvi (1938- )
in FINLAND. Bringsvaerd, in particular, is highly respected in the
Scandinavian literary world as a writer of extraordinary merits, while his
countryman Knut Faldbakken (1941- ) achieved international bestsellerdom
with his utopian novels Aftenlandet ["The Evening Land"] (1972) and
Sweetwater ["Sweetwater"] (1974). Lundwall has also written many
influential CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS ABOUT SF, which have to date
(1992) been published in 32 languages. John-Henri Holmberg (1949- ),
another prominent Scandinavian critic, is less known outside his native
Sweden. Slightly external to the sf field are a number of MAINSTREAM
WRITERS who occasionally write sf, and then almost inevitably to
bestselling effect. The well known Swedish author P.C. JERSILD has written
several enormously successful sf novels, including En levande sjal (1980;
trans Rika Lesser as A Living Soul 1988 UK), about a disembodied brain
sloshing about in a glass box, Efter floden (1982; trans Lone Tygesen
Blecher and George Blecher as After the Flood 1986 UK), a post-nuclear-
HOLOCAUST story, and Geniernas aterkomst ["The Return of the Geniuses"]
(1987), describing mankind's history from the very beginnings to the
distant future. The Swedish journalist George Johansson (1946- ) has
written a very successful series of young-adult novels set against an
increasingly enormous galactic backdrop, starting with Uppbrott fran
Jorden ["Flight from Earth"] (1979). Among the biggest and most surprising
bestsellers in Scandinavia during the 1980s were several sf novels by
Peter Nilson (1937- ), starting with Arken ["The Ark"] (1982) and going
through to his most recent, Avgrundsbok ["The Book of the Abyss"] (1987),
about an improbable Queen of Sheba travelling in space and time. Other
authors of note in this context include Anders BODELSEN in Denmark, Axel
JENSEN in Norway and Per WAHLOO in Sweden.Sf in Scandinavia has been hit
by the same problems as in the rest of continental Europe. Book sales are
very much down in all the Scandinavian countries, and there are currently
(1992) no specialist publishing houses in operation. There is only one sf
magazine in Sweden - Jules Verne-Magasinet-although the Finnish
SEMIPROZINE Aikakone ["Time Machine"] is thriving ( FINLAND). All told,
just over 100 sf books are published each year in Scandinavia, of which
about two-thirds are translations from other European languages and
English. About half the total are published in Sweden which, due to its
size, remains Scandinavia's leading sf nation.The first Scandinavian sf
CONVENTION was held in Lund, Sweden, in 1956. Since then conventions have
been held in all the Scandinavian countries, although the first Finnish
convention did not come until 1982. [SJL/J-HH]

Film (1980). Filmplan International/Canadian Film Development Corp.
Written/dir David CRONENBERG, starring Stephen Lack, Jennifer O'Neal,
Patrick McGoohan, Lawrence Dane, Michael Ironside. 103 mins. Colour.This
superior PSI-POWERS movie easily outstrips CARRIE (1976) and The FURY
(1978). Pregnant women (we learn some way into the film) have been given
an experimental drug, ephemerol, ostensibly a tranquillizer but actually
designed to produce paranormal offspring - scanners - who can exercise
total control over the brains and nervous systems of others. The two
oldest telepaths (brothers, it turns out) are corrupted - in different
ways - by their power, though one (Lack) fights for human society, the
other (Ironside) for the superhumans. The film is choreographed in the
most exemplary manner, from the celebrated exploding-head sequence at the
beginning to the final telepathic duel between the brothers and its
enigmatic outcome. It is also advanced in sf terms, working sophisticated
variations on the MUTANT theme, streets ahead of the usual crudities of
psi-power movies. Cronenberg's restless marriage of highbrow metaphor and
lowbrow exploitation seldom works better than here, despite sometimes
indifferent performances, especially Lack's. The novelization is Scanners
* (1981) by Leon Whiteson.Cronenberg had nothing to do with the sequels,
also Canadian, of which there have been three with a fourth in production.
To date these are Scanners II: The New Order (1990), Scanners III: The
Takeover (1991; vt Scanner Force) and Scanner Cop (1993); the first two
were directed by Christian Duguay, the third by Pierre David, and all
three were produced by Rene Malo. Probably wisely, none of these even try
to duplicate the sophistication and complexity of Cronenberg's vision, but
they are slickly made, opting for stylised melodrama and lurid vigour in
their accounts of human/scanner and good scanner/bad scanner clashes, and
all retain Cronenberg's theme of telepathic powers coming at a painful
cost. Scanners III is probably the most compulsive and relentless of the
three, but all received more friendly attention from critics than is usual
for straight-to-video exploitation film releases. [PN]See also:





(1947- ) US writer whose work has long been read as fantasy, but some of
whose later novels transcend genre boundaries in interesting ways. Her
early novels-like her first, Song of Sorcery (1982) (see Other Works for
the Argonia sequence)-tend to lightweight effects; a little later, in
tales like The Drastic Dragon of Draco, Texas (1986), a more humane note
can be detected; and in her finest single novel to date, The Healer's War
(1988), which won the NEBULA Award, an altogether more complex kind of
storytelling unfolds. The protagonist of the book is a nurse in Viet Nam;
EAS's descriptions of events there are of a piece with those found in the
work of Bruce MCALLISTER and Lucius SHEPARD; and the central premise-and
in this too The Healer's War shares preoccupations with those other
writers's work-is that it is possible to access a deeper reality, in this
case via an amulet given her by a holy man, and to cure the maimed. The
protagonist of Nothing Sacred (1991) and its sequel, Last Refuge (1992),
is also a woman haunted by the distress of the world, this time a century
hence, who discovers that the prison camp in Tibet to which she is sent is
in fact Shangri-La, and that the Buddhist doctrine of reincarnation is not
simply a belief. Because of their detailed setting in a recognizeable
world, and because the supernormal elements in each book are argued as
being truly integral to that recognizeable world, it is hard to pigeonhole
EAS's mature novels as either sf or fantasy. The Powers That Be (1994)
with Anne aps mccaffrey is, on the other hand, romantic sf in the
McCaffrey mode. [JC]Other Works: the Argonia sequence, comprising Song of
Sorcery (see above) and The Unicorn Creed (1983), both assembled as Songs
from the Seashell Archives #1 (omni 1987), plus Bronwyn's Bane (1983) and
The Christening Quest (1985), both assembled as Songs from the Seashell
Archives #2 (omni 1988); The Harem of Aman Akbar; or, The Djinn Decanted
(1984); The Goldcamp Vampire; or, The Sanguinary Sourdough (1987); the
Songkiller Saga sequence comprising Phantom Banjo (1991), Picking the
Ballad's Bones (1991) and Strum Again? (1992); The Godmother (1994).

[s] Algis BUDRYS.

(1895-1955) US chemist, lawyer and writer, known mainly for biographies
of US historical figures. He began publishing sf with "The Tower of Evil"
with Arthur Leo ZAGAT for Wonder Stories Quarterly in 1930. The
collaboration with Zagat lasted over a year, all NS's first 11 stories
being done with him, including a novel, "Exiles of the Moon" for Wonder
Stories in 1931. After they ceased collaborating, NS continued to write
very prolifically for the PULP MAGAZINES, under his own name and as Chan
Corbett and Walter Glamis. A novel, "Emissaries of Space" (1932), appeared
in Wonder Stories Quarterly; the Revolt of the Scientists sequence
appeared in Wonder Stories in 1933; and the Past Present and Future series
appeared in ASF 1937-9. He published only 1 sf novel in book form, Space
Lawyer (1941 ASF; fixup 1953), a humorous set of legal adventures in
space. His style was rough, but he was a sharp and knowledgeable writer;
his inattention to the field after about 1940 is regretted. [JC]About the
author: "The Science-Fiction of Nat Schachner" by Sam MOSKOWITZ in Fantasy
Commentator #43 (1992).See also: ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION; POLITICS;



(1928-1991) German writer, active from 1948. He published prolifically -
including much sf - in the circulating-library format in which many pulp
adventures appeared in postwar GERMANY; none of this material has been
translated. However, translations of his novellas in the weekly DIME-NOVEL
SF format of PERRY RHODAN, the enormously successful series he cofounded
in 1961 with Walter Ernsting (who writes as Clark DARLTON), with whom K-HS
had written collaborative works, are familiar to English-language readers.
K-HS was for some time coordinator and chief author of the series. [JC/PN]



(1926- ) US engineer, university lecturer and writer who published his
first sf story, "Tomorrow's Weather" for FSF in 1953, long before he
became seriously involved in fiction; much of his nonfiction of the 1950s
and 1960s dealt lovingly with the ocean and with oceanological research
and exploration technologies. His first two novels, At the Eye of the
Ocean (1980) and A ROSE FOR ARMAGEDDON (1982), both set in the wave-girt
Cape Cod region of New England, followed suit; they share a similar plot
structure, circling in upon a central instant of space/time at which
transcendence may be possible. The protagonist of the first book has an
intuitive capacity to understand the inner shape of the ocean, which
unveils to him a mystical enlightenment; the love-affair that drives the
action of the second comes to fruition at the morphological heart of a
timeslip in the centre of an ISLAND in the midst of the waters, leading to
a form of liberation from the NEAR-FUTURE slide of the world into chaos.
Chronosequence (1988) similarly presents its protagonist with a mystery
from previous centuries whose solution involves the ocean, geography,
time-slippage, and the potential redemption of the world. Though the range
of HS's concerns is clearly narrow, there is nothing forced or lame in his
presentation of these stories; their intensities are fluent, grounded and
scientifically competent. The title story of Steam Bird (coll 1988), a
somewhat heavy-handed comic tale, recounts the pioneering flight of an
enormously slow steam-driven nuclear bomber. Other stories are assembled
in Wave Rider (coll 1980); the best are set along the coasts of New
England. But the world for which HS speaks is central; his work is never
regional in its final effect. [JC]See also: ECOLOGY; END OF THE WORLD;


(1944- ) US academic and bibliographer, with the Department of English at
Purdue University, Indiana. Though RCS has contributed bibliographically
to the sf/fantasy field in general, it is clear that he focuses by choice
on fantasy. His first book of genre interest, A Research Guide to Science
Fiction Studies: An Annotated Checklist of Primary and Secondary Sources
for Fantasy and Science Fiction (1977) with L.W. CURREY and Marshall B.
TYMN, attempted, like many published by US academics in the 1970s, to
perform the essential task of making the field accessible to scholars; and
did so very well. A revised edition has been needed for many years. Also
with TYMN (whom see for further details) RCS cofounded and co-edited
(1976-81) the Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy series.
Solo, he compiled The Literature of Fantasy: A Comprehensive Annotated
Bibliography of Modern Fantasy (1979), which provides a listing of adult
fantasy up to 1979. Other bibliographical work includes Andre Norton: A
Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1980 chap), Urania's Daughters: A
Checklist of Women Science Fiction Writers, 1692-1982 (1983 chap) and the
rudimentary A Glen Cook Bibliography (1983 chap) with Glen COOK. The
Aesthetics of Fantasy Literature and Art (anth 1982) is a useful gathering
of reprint essays, several aspiring to define the genre. RCS has ed The
Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts since 1988. [JC]See also: CRITICAL

Film (1973). Gazotski Films. Written/dir John Landis, starring Landis,
Saul Kahn, Joseph Piantadosi, Eliza Garrett. 77 mins. Colour.This was the
feature debut of 22-year-old Landis, who went on to bigger things with The
Blues Brothers (1980) and An American Werewolf in London (1981), among
others. Low-budget, made in two weeks, it is a genuinely funny and
affectionate (though deeply undergraduate) parody of MONSTER MOVIES in
general, and TROG (1970) and the APES-AND-CAVEMEN subgenre in particular.
Landis plays the caveman Schlockthropus (in a costume designed by Rick
Baker, whose effects debut this was) who gets to terrify the populace,
play boogie on the piano, and form an erotic liaison with a blind girl who
rejects him horrifiedly when she regains her sight because she had thought
he was a dog. [PN]

(1914-1979) German writer noted for his linguistic innovation and the
swift humour of his experimental fictions, which project an air of
joyfully cerebral quarrelsomeness. The marked FABULATION of sf tropes in
his work is noticeable in novels like Leviathan (1949), a metaphysical
train journey into death, KAFF, auch MARE CRISTUM ["KAFF, also MARE
CRISTUM"] (1960), which is set on the Moon, and Schwarze Spiegel ["Black
Mirrors"] (1963) - the last volume of Nobodaddys Kinder ["Nobodaddy's
Children"] (1951-63) - which presents the thoughts of the last man on
Earth. In Die Gelehrtenrepublik (1957; trans Michael Horovitz as The
Egghead Republic: A Short Novel from the Horse Latitudes 1979 UK), which
is genuine sf set in AD2008 after a nuclear HOLOCAUST, an American
attempts to report home on the International Republic for Artists and
Scientists, or IRAS, which is housed on a mobile island currently resting
in the Sargasso Sea. But sex, mutants, language-games and chaos afflict
his brief. [JC]See also: GERMANY.

(? - ) US writer who has restricted himself to series. The first was the
Zen or Kensho sequence - Way-Farer (1978), Kensho (1979), Satori (1981)
and Wanderer (1985) - featuring a protagonist who combines Zen and martial
arts in agreeably complex SPACE-OPERA adventures. The Twilight of the Gods
sequence - Twilight of the Gods: The First Name (1985), #2: Groa's Other
Eye (1986) and #3: Three Trumps Sounding (1988) - is fantasy, and is
likewise conceived with well orchestrated complexity. The Questioner
Trilogy - Labyrinth (1989), City of Crystal Shadow (1990) and Dark
Paradise (1990) - returns to intergalactic space, where the operations of
a peacekeeping force are featured. DS gives some impression of being an
author who might at any point decide to break through into higher regions
of his art. [JC]

(1944- ) US editor, writer and academic, with a PhD in physics (1969),
which he taught until 1978. In that year he became editor of Analog, a
position which in 1992 he retains, occupying his role in the forthright
manner established by John W. CAMPBELL Jr, his most famous predecessor,
but more quietly. He began publishing his own sf with "A Flash of
Darkness" for ASF in 1968. His first novel, Newton and the Quasi-Apple
(1970 ASF; exp 1975), is a HARD-SF exploration in PHYSICS set on a
primitive planet where Newton's principles are being independently
discovered, raising questions as to what kinds of knowledge are helpful -
and when. The Sins of the Fathers (1976) and its sequel, Lifeboat Earth
(fixup 1978), perhaps overcomplicatedly invoke an exploding Galaxy, TIME
TRAVEL and more new physics in their presentation of an ALIEN race whose
effective social engineering challenges Earth ( SOCIOLOGY). Tweedlioop
(1986) again submits an alien - here through shipwreck - to human
PERCEPTIONS, this time those of a young woman; she falls in love.
Throughout his writing career, which has become less active since 1978, SS
has written clear-cut tales within which nest solvable problems, and in
the telling of which cogently argued hard-sf concepts are given fair play.
His editorship of Analog has been similarly clear-cut, and he has
maintained the journal as the primary outlet for thrusting, extroverted,
problem-solving sf tales of a sort that, for many readers, continues to
occupy the high road of sf. He has edited several anthologies spun-off
from the journal or from UNKNOWN, its stablemate from half a century
earlier. [JC]As Editor: The Analog Anthology #1: Fifty Years of the Best
(anth 1980) and #2: Readers' Choice (anth 1982); Analog's Golden
Anniversary Anthology (anth 1981); Analog Yearbook II (anth 1981);
Analog's Lighter Side (anth 1982); Children of the Future (anth 1982);
Analog: Writers' Choice (anth 1983) and Writers' Choice, Vol II (anth
1984); War and Peace: Possible Futures from Analog (anth 1983); Aliens
from Analog (anth 1983); From Mind to Mind: Tales of Communication from
Analog (anth 1984); Analog's Expanding Universe (anth 1986); 6 Decades:
The Best of Analog (anth 1987); Unknown (anth 1988); Unknown Worlds: Tales
from Beyond (anth 1988) with Martin H. GREENBERG.See also: ASTOUNDING

(1911-1981) US writer born in Germany of US parents; he served with the
USAF in WWII. His first story was "Greenface" for Unknown in 1943. From
1949, when "Agent of Vega" appeared in ASF as the first of 4 stories later
assembled as Agent of Vega (coll of linked stories 1960), he regularly
produced the kind of tale for which he remains most warmly remembered:
SPACE-OPERA adventures, several featuring female HEROES depicted with
minimum recourse to their "femininity" - they perform their active tasks,
and save the Universe when necessary, in a manner almost completely free
of sexual role-playing cliches.Most of his best work shares a roughly
characterized common background, a Galaxy inhabited by humans and aliens
with room for all and numerous opportunities for discoveries and reversals
that carefully fall short of threatening the stability of that background.
Many of his stories, as a result, focus less on moments of CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH than on the pragmatic operations of teams and bureaux
involved in maintaining the state of things against criminals, monsters
and unfriendly species; in this they rather resemble the tales of Murray
LEINSTER, though they are more vigorous and less inclined to punish
adventurousness. PSI POWERS are often found. At the heart of this common
Universe is the Federation of the Hub or the Overgovernment. The main Hub
sequence is A Tale of Two Clocks (1962; vt Legacy 1979), A Nice Day for
Screaming and Other Tales of the Hub (coll 1965), The Demon Breed (1968
ASF; exp 1968) and A Pride of Monsters (coll 1970). The Telzey Amberdon
books - The Universe Against Her (fixup 1964), The Telzey Toy (coll 1973)
and The Lion Game (fixup 1973) - nestle conceptually within the Hub.
Amberdon, a brilliant young telepath recruited by the Psychology Service
of the Overgovernment as an agent, is perhaps JHS's most typical creation,
and the stories in which she performs her activities are only marginally
less appealing than his single finest novel, The Witches of Karres (1949
ASF; exp 1966), which features three Amberdon-like psi-powered juvenile
"witches" and their rescue from slavery by a space captain in whom they
induce first apoplexy and second transcendence - for he too finds
superpowers within him.One novel, The Eternal Frontiers (1973), is set
outside this common background; it fails to delight. The Best of James H.
Schmitz (coll 1991) ed Mark L. Olson is a good conspectus. It may be that
JHS's work is too pleasing to have seemed revolutionary, and indeed-with
the exception of his choice of protagonists - it plays very safe with
conventions; but for nearly 40 years he succeeded in demonstrating,
modestly and competently, that the template of space opera could provide
continuing joy. [JC]About the author: James H. Schmitz: A Bibliography
(1973) by Mark OWINGS, with intro by Janet KAGAN.See also: CHILDREN IN SF;


(1912-1972) US illustrator. CS was active in sf for only a short time,
most of his work being for ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION from 1935. He
painted 6 ASF covers, the earliest May 1938 and the last Nov 1952, but is
best remembered for his interior black-and-white ILLUSTRATION in that
magazine; he was its major interior artist until he joined the US Army in
1942. His best work may be the idealized sketches of the heroic Kimball
Kinnison for E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Grey Lensman (1939-40 ASF; 1951) and his
drawings for Jack WILLIAMSON's THE LEGION OF TIME (1938 ASF; rev 1952).
After WWII he worked mainly for newspapers. [JG/PN]


(?1908-1964) US writer whose borderline-sf novel, The Golden Kazoo
(1956), satirized the Madison Avenue nature of the ( NEAR-FUTURE) 1960
presidential election, which he saw as foolishly COMPUTER-dominated. [JC]

(1935- ) US illustrator, regarded by some critics as the finest sf artist
of his generation. A New Yorker who studied at the Pratt Institute, he
made his sf- ILLUSTRATION debut in AMZ 1956. His work has appeared
primarily in ASF (including 75 covers), but he has drawn black-and-white
illustrations for other sf magazines, including Fantastic and Infinity,
and has also worked for paperback publishers, most notably ACE BOOKS and
Pyramid. The cover and interior illustrations he did for Frank HERBERT's
Dune stories in ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION (1963-5) are classics; some of
the best are reproduced in The Illustrated Dune (1978) and Dune Calendar
(1978). JS's style in his colour work is Impressionistic, and he is
regarded by his peers as the most "painterly" in their field. Some of his
earlier work shows the influence of Richard M. POWERS, one of the few sf
artists he admires. He carries his painting techniques over into his
black-and-white work by using a dry-brush method on rough paper or
scratchboard, with fine details added by pen. His ALIENS are particularly
convincing, thanks perhaps to his love for animal illustration (for which
he has won numerous awards), and even his inanimate objects-like
rock-forms - tend to look organic. JS received a HUGO in 1965.
Dissatisfied by poor standards in sf art - "with few exceptions it's
really fourth rate" - and low budgets, he left the field in 1968,
returning briefly in the 1970s. [JG/PN]About the artist: "Sketches: John
Schoenherr Interview" in ALGOL, Summer-Fall 1978.

(1846-1929) UK medical doctor and writer whose first sf novel, Travels in
the Interior, or The Wonderful Adventures of Luke and Belinda: Edited by a
London Physician (1887), as by Luke Courteney, carries its protagonists,
shrunk to a suitable size, on a didactic expedition through a human body (
GREAT AND SMALL). Another World, or The Fourth Dimension (1888), published
as ATS, takes its two-dimensional protagonist on a similarly didactic
mission from Edwin A. ABBOTT's Flatland to even more penurious Lineland,
and thence into worlds of three and four DIMENSIONS, all in order to
convey the truths of a dimension-encompassing Christianity. [JC]

(1929- ) US academic and sf critic. One of the better-known US theorists
in structuralism, he is the author of a number of books on literary
theory. Those with special relevance to sf are The Fabulators (1967),
which deals with FABULATION, Structural Fabulation: An Essay on the
Fiction of the Future (1975), Science Fiction: History, Science, Vision
(1977) with Eric S. RABKIN (whom see for further details) and Fabulation
and Metafiction (1979). The first two and the fourth of these are academic
in approach, the second especially for its attempted definition of the sf
genre ( DEFINITIONS OF SF). With George Edgar SLUSSER and Rabkin, RS
edited Bridges to Fantasy (anth 1982) and Co-Ordinates: Placing Science
Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1983), both collections of critical essays; he
also introduced the 1975 US paperback edition of Tzvetan TODOROV's
Introduction a la litterature fantastique (1970; trans as The Fantastic: A
Structural Approach to a Literary Genre 1973), and has written many
shorter critical pieces on sf. [PN]See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS

(1953- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Closed Circuit" for
Clarion SF (anth 1976) ed Kate WILHELM, and whose short fiction, which
appeared with some frequency for the next decade, constitutes a series of
dark and fluid visions of the inhabitants of the world to come. None of
these stories - like the striking "The Eve of the Last Apollo" (1977) -
has been put into a CS collection (Cuts [coll 1985 chap] restricting
itself to previously unpublished material). He fell almost entirely silent
after 1986. CS is known mainly for his one novel, Palimpsests (1984) with
Glenn Harcourt; its dense, refractive, ruminative, palimpsest-laden style
more than amply surrounds the story of an archaeologist yanked from
brooding internal and external exile by the discovery of a dizzyingly
anachronistic object at a Neanderthal dig. TIME PARADOXES are alluded to,
but with something like ABSURDIST torpor, and the novel ends in dark
irresolution, in an epiphany of flow - "of landho that would never quite
achieve landfall" - which simultaneously moves and irritates the reader.

(1905- ) US illustrator and COMIC-book artist; he has also spelled his
name Schomberg. His first assignment was for Hugo GERNSBACK in 1925; he
did his first cover in that year for SCIENCE AND INVENTION. During his
65-year career, which extended into the 1980s with covers for ISAAC
ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE, he worked for many magazines, including
AMZ, TWS, FSF, Fantastic and Startling Stories. He also painted book
covers, primarily for ACE BOOKS and Winston Books (their "juvenile" sf
series of the 1950s, for which he also designed the endpapers). His
ILLUSTRATION is realistic, versatile and assured, usually eschewing bright
colours; he was known as "king of the airbrush". Important in the comics
industry as well, he worked on many of the Timely Comics (now MARVEL
COMICS) titles, helping develop Captain America and Sub-Mariner. In 1990
he was awarded a Special Award by the World Science Fiction Convention; he
has also won the Lensman Award (1979) and the Frank R. Paul Award (1984).
His work is showcased in Chroma: The Art of Alex Schomburg (1986), text by
Jon Gustafson. [JG]

(1906-1980) US writer best known for his many historical novels. Central
Passage (1962) is set after a nuclear HOLOCAUST has demolished the Isthmus
of Panama, set the oceans astir and initiated a new ice age, whose
escalation is averted through a successful attempt to block the Isthmus
again. In the meantime, atomic radiation has caused mutations, resulting
in a breed of SUPERMEN destined to inherit the Earth. [JC]

[r] August DERLETH.

(1953- ) US writer whose books have been very influential in the
LIBERTARIAN-SF movement. Alongside Night (1979) describes the salvation of
a future USA (whose economy has been destroyed by government intervention
in the free market) by a hard-cash underground economy evolved from
today's black market. The political message is reasonably unobtrusive,
though non-libertarians may find the somewhat casual attitude taken
towards the killing of tax collectors upsetting. The Rainbow Cadenza: A
Novel in Logosata Form (1983), generally considered inferior, is
interesting for its portrayal of a DYSTOPIA judged against libertarian
values rather than (as is more usual) humanist ones, as well as for its
depiction of laser-generated visuals ( ARTS) as a means of artistic
expression. Like many libertarian authors, JNS is a competent thriller
writer whose books are fundamentally motivated by a combination of moral
outrage and a fascination with the hardware of politics and economics.

(1912-1984) US writer, mostly of short stories, and diplomat who
graduated in science and later from the US Counter-Insurgency School. He
was in his 50s when - to give himself something to do while stationed in
West Africa - he began writing sf, with "Maiden Voyage" for FSF in 1965.
His two adventure-sf novels are People of the Rings (1975 UK) and The Moon
Microbe (1976 UK). He wrote thrillers as Jerry Scholl. [PN]

(1895-1977) US writer whose sf, normally written as by Samuel I. Brooks,
appeared obscurely in PULP MAGAZINES between the Wars. In his first sf
novel, Black No More: Being an Account of the Strange and Wonderful
Workings of Science in the Land of the Free, A.D. 1933-1940 (1931) as GSS,
a cosmetic treatment is discovered which will bleach Blacks. In treating
this innovation in terms of SATIRE GSS, himself Black, acerbically
targeted both Blacks and Whites. Black Empire (1936-8 Pittsburgh Courier
as by Samuel I. Brooks; 1991), intro by John A. WILLIAMS, pits Blacks
against Whites in pulp terms, and ends in the creation of a Black UTOPIA.
[PN/JC]See also: POLITICS.

(? - ) US writer whose The Wandering Tellurian (1967 dos) is
appropriately titled: its Terran protagonist travels through space, having
adventures. [JC]

(1915- ) US agent and editor, born Bronx, New York. JS met his lifelong
friend and colleague Mort WEISINGER at a meeting of the Scienceers sf
group in 1931. Together they published the first true FANZINE, The Time
Traveller (1932), and the later fanzine, Science Fiction Digest (1932),
which in 1934 became FANTASY MAGAZINE, though Weisinger was not officially
an editor on the latter. In 1934 they founded Solar Sales Service, the
first literary agency to specialize in sf; early clients included Henry L.
HASSE, David H. KELLER, P. Schuyler MILLER and Stanley G. WEINBAUM. When
Weisinger became editor of THRILLING WONDER STORIES in 1936, JS ran the
agency alone for the next 10 years, new clients including Alfred BESTER,
Otto Binder ( Eando BINDER), Leigh BRACKETT, Ray BRADBURY, John Russell
FEARN and Manly Wade WELLMAN.At Bester's suggestion, JS became editor at
All-American Comics (later part of DC COMICS) in Feb 1944. In the
mid-1950s he played a major role in the DC revival of the SUPERHERO with
new versions of earlier characters, many utilizing sf themes. These
included The Flash (police scientist who gains superspeed in accident),
Green Lantern (test pilot given power ring by alien Guardians from the
planet Oa so that he can police this sector of space), Hawkman (policeman
from the planet Thanagar operating on Earth), Adam Strange (Earthman who
becomes protector of the planet Rann) and The Atom (scientist with the
ability to become smaller - JS called this character, in his civilian
identity, Ray Palmer, Raymond A. PALMER being the shortest of all sf
editors). JS also revived the flagging fortunes of Batman by giving it a
"new look". When Weisinger left DC in 1971, JS took over as SUPERMAN
editor. He left this position in 1986 to edit the shortlived DC SF Graphic
Album adaptations (1985-7), whose titles in publication order were: Hell
on Earth (1942 Weird Tales; graph 1985) by Robert BLOCH, Nightwings (1968
Gal; graph 1985) by Robert SILVERBERG, Frost & Fire (1946 Planet Stories
as "The Land that Time Forgot"; graph 1985) by Ray Bradbury, Merchants of
Venus (graph 1986) from the 1971 novella by Frederik POHL, Demon with a
Glass Hand (graph 1986) from the 1964 Outer Limits tv script by Harlan
ELLISON, The Magic Goes Away (graph 1986) from the 1978 book by Larry
NIVEN and Sandkings (1979 Omni; graph 1987) by George R.R. MARTIN. The
line was a commercial failure, and JS gave up editing to become a
consultant to DC and "a goodwill ambassador for DC . . . to various
conventions". [RH]

(1955- ) Mexican writer who for 7 years had an sf column in the daily
newspaper Excelsior. He is the author of about 50 short stories, many sf
or horror. M-JS was the first winner (1984) of the Puebla Award ( LATIN
AMERICA) for Best SF Short Story in Mexico with his story "La pequena
guerra" ["The Smallest War"]. Some of his stories are collected in Escenas
de la realidad virtual ["Scenes from Virtual Reality"] (coll 1991). M-JS
founded (1991) and edits an sf SEMIPROZINE, Estacosa ["Thisthing"]. He is
part-author of the LATIN AMERICA entry in this encyclopedia. [PN]

(1952- ) US critic, editor and writer who began publishing stories of
genre interest with "Come to Mother" for Weirdbook #4 in 1971, but who
spent his energies very variously for many years, coming initially to
notice with a series of critical studies including Lovecraft in the Cinema
(1975 chap), The Dream Quest of H.P. Lovecraft (1978 chap), Conan's World
and Robert E. Howard (1979 chap), On Writing Science Fiction (The Editors
Strike Back!) (1981) with John M. FORD and George H. SCITHERS,
Constructing Scientifiction & Fantasy (1982 chap) with John Ashmead and
Scithers, and Pathways to Elfland: The Writings of Lord Dunsany (1989).
During this period he also served as editorial assistant at IASFM 1977-82
and at AMZ 1982-6. With John BETANCOURT and Scithers he then restarted
WEIRD TALES (1987-current) with #290. Also with Scithers, he ed 2
anthologies of CLUB STORIES: Tales from the Spaceport Bar (anth 1987) and
Another Round at the Spaceport Bar (anth 1989).DS's fiction, which
sometimes tends to a grimly brisk SCIENCE-FANTASY diction, includes We are
All Legends (coll of linked stories 1981), The Shattered Goddess (1982), a
FAR-FUTURE fantasy which moves into dark regions, Tom O'Bedlam's Night
Out, and Other Strange Excursions (coll 1985), The Meaning of Life, and
Other Awesome Cosmic Revelations (coll 1988 chap) and The White Isle (1980
Fantastic; rev 1990). [JC]As Editor: Some of the SF Voices series of
interviews, those for which he was responsible including SF Voices (anth
1976), Science Fiction Voices #1 (anth 1979) and Science Fiction Voices #5
(anth 1982 chap); Essays Lovecraftian (anth 1977; rev vt Discovering H.P.
Lovecraft 1987); Exploring Fantasy Worlds (anth 1985); Discovering Modern
Horror Fiction #1 (anth 1985) and #2 (anth 1988); Discovering Stephen King
(anth 1985)Discovering Classic Horror Fiction I (anth 1992); Lord Dunsany:
A Bibliography (1993) with S. T. Joshi (1958- ); Speaking of Horror:
Interviews with Writers of the Supernatural (1994).

(1922- ) US composer and writer whose The Rainbow Walkers (1985; vt The
Missing Years 1986 UK) is an intermittently moving sf tale involving
CRYONICS and their consequences. [JC]

US monthly BEDSHEET-size popular-science magazine, slick paper. 220
issues May 1913-Aug 1931. Published 1913-29 by Experimenter Publishing Co.
; ed Hugo GERNSBACK until his bankruptcy in 1929, thereafter ed anon. SAI
was not a new magazine but a retitling (from Aug 1920) of Gernsback's
Electrical Experimenter, founded May 1913, itself modelled on Modern
Electrics, an earlier Gernsback magazine (1908-13), in which his novel
Ralph 124C 41+ (1911-12; 1925) had first appeared. The Aug 1923 issue of
SAI was a special "Scientific Fiction" number with a cover by Howard V.
BROWN, and was effectively Gernsback's first sf magazine. Both before and
after this, however, SAI (whose main content was science articles)
regularly featured sf stories and novels - notably 3 serials by Ray
CUMMINGS and also A. MERRITT's "The Metal Emperor" (1920 Argosy; rev
1927-8 SAI; vt The Metal Monster 1946).The most typical writer of
Gernsbackian SCIENTIFICTION was perhaps Clement FEZANDIE: almost all of
his Dr Hackensaw series - 39 short stories and "A Journey to the Center of
the Earth" (1925), a 4-part serialized novel - was published in SAI (2
final stories were published in AMZ). These are wooden as narratives, but
contain lively ideas about new inventions, including ROBOTS, tv and
brainwashing through dissolution of neural ganglia; Hackensaw even
experiences weightlessness, on a trip to the Moon. After founding AMAZING
STORIES in Apr 1926, Gernsback naturally used there most of the sf he
bought, but sf serials (including Merritt's, noted above) continued in SAI
until 1928. SAI was in fact a more commercially successful magazine than
AMZ, with a formula not unlike that of OMNI today. [PN/MJE/FHP]

1. In the TERMINOLOGY of sf readers, and more especially publishers, this
term has never been clearly defined, although it was the title of a well
known UK magazine 1950-66 ( 2), which was also the period when the term
was most in general use. More recently it has been partially superseded by
the terms SWORD AND SORCERY and HEROIC FANTASY, but it differs from these
two categories in that Science Fantasy does not necessarily contain MAGIC,
may be present, often in a quasirationalized form. Science Fantasy is
normally considered a bastard genre blending elements of sf and fantasy;
it is usually colourful and often bizarre, sometimes with elements of
HORROR although never centrally in the horror genre. Certain sf themes are
especially common in Science Fantasy - ALTERNATE WORLDS, other DIMENSIONS,
one of these ingredients is essential. Many Science Fantasies are also
PLANETARY ROMANCES (many of the books so described in this volume can be
regarded as Science Fantasy). A good discussion of the term, which very
nearly builds to a definition through the accretion of examples, is
"Science Fantasy" by Brian Attebery in Dictionary of Literary Biography:
Volume Eight: Twentieth-Century American Science-Fiction Writers: Part 2:
M-Z (1981) ed David Cowart and Thomas L. Wymer. Attebery cites the
following as among the more important US authors of Science Fantasy:
Marion Zimmer BRADLEY, Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, L. Sprague DE CAMP and
Fletcher PRATT, Samuel R. DELANY, Anne MCCAFFREY, Andre NORTON, Jack
VANCE, John VARLEY, Roger ZELAZNY and Gene WOLFE (indeed, in the 1980s
Wolfe practically resuscitated the genre single-handedly), to which list
should certainly be added Joan D. VINGE and (especially the former) C.L.
MOORE and Henry KUTTNER. Attebery also makes special mention of The Deep
(1975) by John CROWLEY. [PN]2. UK DIGEST-size magazine published from
Summer 1950 by Nova Publications as a companion to NEW WORLDS,
subsequently taken over by Roberts & Vinter in June/July 1964, thereafter
in a paperback-size format. 81 issues appeared as SF Summer 1950-Feb 1966,
and 12 more Mar 1966-Feb 1967 as Impulse (Mar-July 1966) and SF Impulse
(Aug 1966-Feb 1967). #1 and #2 were ed Walter GILLINGS; John CARNELL then
took over until Nova folded. The Roberts & Vinter version was ed until Sep
1966 Kyril Bonfiglioli; the last 5 issues were ed Harry HARRISON and Keith
ROBERTS.SF was numbered consecutively from #1 to #81 (Feb 1966).
Numeration was begun again with the title change to Impulse, in Mar 1966,
with 1 vol of 12 numbered issues (hence Impulse is sometimes regarded as a
separate magazine). Early on SF appeared irregularly, with only 6 issues
1950-53, but from Mar 1954 an uneasy bimonthly schedule began, lapsing to
quarterly every now and then, improving in the late 1950s. A regular
monthly schedule ran from Mar 1965 to the end.SF used offbeat FANTASY
together with some sf not too different from that published in its
companion, NW (but only rarely the kind of whimsical story associated with
the US UNKNOWN). While Carnell was editing both, SF tended to use stories
of greater length than NW, including numerous novellas. Many of its lead
stories were supplied by John BRUNNER, Kenneth BULMER and Michael
MOORCOCK, all of whom published some of their best early work in its
pages. SF also published the first stories of Brian W. ALDISS and J.G.
BALLARD, and part of Aldiss's first sf novel, Non-Stop (1956; exp 1958;
rev vt Starship US 1959) and virtually all the important early work of
Thomas Burnett SWANN. After Bonfiglioli became editor in 1964, Keith
ROBERTS, Christopher PRIEST, Josephine SAXTON and Brian STABLEFORD all
made their debuts in the magazine, and the early Impulse issues featured
Keith Roberts's Pavane stories (Mar-July 1966; fixup 1968). During
Carnell's incumbency SF published material of a higher quality than its
companion, but after its sale in 1964 - despite Bonfiglioli and his
editorial successors buying some good material - it was overshadowed by
Moorcock's NW, with which it ultimately merged. NW and SF were the best sf
magazines published in the UK before INTERZONE joined them in this
category.The cover art of SF was intermittently of a high standard,
especially that by Brian LEWIS, who did most of the covers 1958-61, and
Keith Roberts, who did nearly all the covers from 1965 until the end.
Roberts's bold semi-abstractions were quite outside the conventions of
genre-sf ILLUSTRATION, and Lewis's surreal landscapes, reminiscent of the
work of Max Ernst (1891-1976), were also unusual. [BS]3. Variant title of

There have always been clashes between science fiction purists and sci-fi
fans. Some of the fiercest discussions have centered on the subject of
film.In 1936, thirteen episodes of Flash Gordon were released, and their
popularity was overwhelming. In their action-packed plots and characters,
these two-reelers much resembled what was being published by the magazines
and pulps of the time.But by the 1950s, the paths of print and film
diverged. While science fiction writing was becoming more sophisticated
and science-based, the decade of the monster movie had arrived. And some
of the monsters looked pretty cut-rate.By 1977, Steven Spielberg was
spending - and making - millions with Close Encounters of the Third Kind
and E.T.: The Extraterrestrial. George Lucas hit it big with Star Wars.
But many members of the science fiction-reading public thought that these
films were simply wish fulfillment or slam-bang space opera.One film that
seemed to transcend all categories was 2001: A Space Odyssey. The film was
directed by Stanley Kubrick, with a screenplay by Arthur C. Clarke. This
1968 film still retains the intellectual complexity and the visual jolt
that it did thirty years ago. SF fans point to it as proof positive that
film CAN capture the magic and challenge of science fiction.



US DIGEST-size magazine. 4 bimonthly issues, Oct 1953-Apr 1954. #1 was
published by Bell Publications, Chicago, the rest by Palmer Publications,
Evanston; ed Raymond A. PALMER and Bea Mahaffey. SS printed no notable
fiction, but was nicely illustrated by Hannes BOK, Virgil FINLAY and
others. UNIVERSE SCIENCE FICTION, effectively a continuation of OTHER
WORLDS, was a companion magazine. Some magazine historians regard SS as
likewise a (shorter and cheaper) continuation of Other Worlds, since it
began shortly after Other Worlds's first demise and announced that it was
using Other Worlds's inventory of stories, but it was the numeration of
Universe that Other Worlds adopted when Universe changed its title back to
Other Worlds in 1955. [FHP/PN]


US BEDSHEET-size magazine. 12 monthly issues June 1929-May 1930,
published by Stellar Publishing Corp.; ed Hugo GERNSBACK.After Gernsback
lost control of his first fully sf magazine, AMAZING STORIES, in 1929, he
rapidly made a comeback with a new company and 2 new magazines, SWS and, a
from beginning to end. They stimulate only one thing - IMAGINATION," he
wrote in the first editorial. His policy, as usual, was to emphasize the
didactic aspects of sf, and he claimed that every story had been passed by
"an array of authorities and educators". SWS dealt with all aspects of
science, unlike Air Wonder Stories, but in fact they used much the same
authors and similar material, and it was logical, after a year, to
amalgamate them, as WONDER STORIES. SWS was a handsome magazine, all the
covers being by Frank R. PAUL. Authors included Miles J. BREUER, Stanton
A. COBLENTZ, David H. KELLER (in 10 of the 12 issues), Laurence MANNING,
Fletcher PRATT, Harl VINCENT and Jack WILLIAMSON. Raymond Z. GALLUN made
his debut here. [PN]

US BEDSHEET-size magazine. 10 monthly issues Jan-Oct 1930, published by
Techni-Craft Publishing Co.; ed Hugo GERNSBACK, with Arthur B. REEVE as
editorial consultant. #6-#10 were entitled Amazing Detective Tales, but
Scientific Detective Monthly more accurately described the magazine's
contents. Most issues included Craig Kennedy stories by Arthur B. Reeve
and collaborations by Edwin BALMER and William McHarg. A number of stories
had sf elements (murder by X-ray, whisky contaminated by hormones), though
few were true sf, an exception being "Murder in the Fourth Dimension" in
#10, by Clark Ashton SMITH.SDM was a sister magazine to SCIENCE WONDER
STORIES and AIR WONDER STORIES. Another magazine, Amazing Detective
Stories, was published during 1931 with volume numbering suggesting that
it was a continuation of Amazing Detective Tales, from a new publisher,
Fiction Publishers Inc. This magazine, however, carried no fantasy. [FHP]

Scientific errors in sf are not to be confused with IMAGINARY SCIENCE,
where the author invents the science and tries to make it plausible, nor
with PSEUDO-SCIENCE, where the author adheres to some alternative
quasiscientific system unrecognized by the majority of the scientific
community. Scientific errors are here taken to mean plain mistakes.Sf in
the days of the PULP MAGAZINES was very much more prone to error than it
is now, and it was for the absurdity of so much of the science, at least
in part, that pulp sf (particularly in the 1930s) got a bad name;
schoolteachers and parents were justifiably worried by its innumeracy as
well as its illiteracy. Most sf written since the 1960s will pass
scientific muster even with readers who have a little university-level
science, but the excesses of the 1920s and 1930s must have been obvious
even to many readers who had only a smattering of high-school science. Of
course, some elementary errors can be hard to pick up. Hal CLEMENT cites
stories in which myopic characters' spectacles are used to concentrate the
Sun's rays and light a fire; Clement points out that these would in fact
disperse the rays. By contrast, in The Tomorrow People (1960) Judith
MERRIL used a helicopter for transport on the Moon, even though most
schoolboys could have told her that it would not work without air.Some
errors are notorious. When Jules VERNE uses a gun to shoot travellers at
the Moon, he ignores the fact that the acceleration would leave them as a
thin red smear on the back wall of the cabin. The canali or channels which
the astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910) thought he saw on MARS
were wrongly translated into English as "canals", and hence Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS and many others felt justified in placing intelligent life
there.The history of pulp sf is full of examples of writers using PARSECS
as a unit of velocity instead of distance, of confusing weight with mass
(so that in space we have heroes able to push several tons of spaceship
along with their finger) and, most commonly of all, of exceeding the speed
of light without any sort of justification ( FASTER THAN LIGHT), as in
A.E. VAN VOGT's "The Storm" (1943): "Half a light year a minute; it would
take a while to attain that speed, but - in eight hours they'd strike the
storm." (The same story has a hero with a second brain which has an IQ of
917, as if somehow the exact figure might mean something.) Certain themes,
such as ANTIGRAVITY and ANTIMATTER, have notoriously resulted in schoolboy
howlers in much sf. In the pulp era ROCKETS would regularly perform
manoeuvres, just like a car doing a U-turn. In fact, as most of us know in
the space age, if you use gyros to turn a rocket it will continue in the
same direction, unless another rocket blast is given in the new
orientation to counter the original forward momentum. Nonetheless, STAR
WARS (like many cinematic SPACE OPERAS since) has spacecraft taking part
in what look like WWI dogfights. John W. CAMPBELL Jr, the man who was
supposed to have done more than any other to put the science back in sf,
was quite happy to publicize what he called the Dean Drive (ASF 1960), a
proposed propulsion device which depends on violating the conservation of
momentum: it pushes against itself. This is on a par with the "inertialess
drive" which propelled E.E. "Doc" SMITH's spaceships at fantastic
velocity. Another favourite of the pulps was the electromagnetic spectrum,
which was regularly rifled by writers in search of mysterious "rays" which
would have almost magical effects. Magnetism was yet another favourite,
and all sorts of remarkably cock-eyed schemes were cooked up to exploit
its hitherto unknown properties (though here we reach an area of overlap
between straightforward scientific errors and imaginary science). An
especially enjoyable biological howler was the notion, common on pulp
magazine covers, that aliens would lust after human women, especially if
partially unclad, this being on a par with men lusting after squids.
Nevertheless, James TIPTREE Jr made rather a good thing out of a similar
notion in "And I Awoke and Found Me Here on the Cold Hill's Side" (1972),
the ultimate exogamy story. And nearly all stories in the pulps about
submicroscopic worlds ( GREAT AND SMALL) used a model of the atom - seen
as a kind of solid, spherical ball - which had been out of date for at
least half a century by 1920. Ray CUMMINGS, several of whose heroes shrink
and have adventures on atoms, was a noteworthy offender.Excesses of this
kind still exist, of course, especially in the lowest echelons, but Robert
A. HEINLEIN and Isaac ASIMOV did much in the 1940s to bring scientific
responsibility to sf, and their work was continued by Poul ANDERSON, James
BLISH, Hal CLEMENT, Larry NIVEN and many others. If they committed errors,
they mostly did so because they could not resist certain dramatic plot
turns, like the end of Poul Anderson's Tau Zero (1970), where the crew of
a spaceship survive to witness the ultimate collapse of the Universe into
the monobloc - despite the fact that, in such a scenario, the whole of
space would collapse: the very concept of being "outside" the monobloc is
a contradiction in terms. Nevertheless, there are still novels being
published which would not put the pulps to shame. Battlefield Earth (1982)
by L. Ron HUBBARD was a classic example, containing such lunacies as
invading aliens who are said to come from another Universe whose Periodic
Table contains elements different from the ones we have here.Sf in the
CINEMA and on TELEVISION, moreover, is generally still about as
scientifically illiterate as was pulp sf of the 1930s. SPACE 1999 was a
particularly bad offender. Bob SHAW has several times expressed amazement
at the way that in STAR TREK, when the Enterprise is buffeted about (as it
frequently is), the crew are invariably thrown from their seats. Why, asks
Shaw, in this supertechnological future, has the concept of seat-belts
been forgotten? A particularly irritating error, almost invariable in film
and tv, is the audibility of explosions in space (as in Star Wars and
BATTLESTAR GALACTICA); it is apparently believed that, if the audience
can't hear the bangs, they'll all go home or change channels. TOTAL RECALL
(1990) showed that things had not got much better, with at least two
notable howlers. The first is the idea that, if you puncture a stationary
pressurized dome, normal air pressure will be sufficient to produce
hurricane winds that whip people and furniture out through the hole.
(People do get sucked out of aeroplanes, but only because they are moving
at 600mph.) Even stranger was the notion that oxygen deprivation and near
vacuum give people eyes the size of tangerines, a phenomenon they can
sustain for some minutes without suffering damage. MONSTER MOVIES very
often depend on giant ants, spiders, etc. In fact, such creatures could
not exist; they would collapse under their own weight, not having legs,
like the elephant's, designed to prop them up. Many problems arise with
increases in scale, one of them being that the ratio between skin area and
internal capacity does not stay the same, hence throwing the physiology of
the body completely askew. Flying men are probably impossible, though Poul
Anderson made a valiant attempt to rationalize them scientifically in War
of the Wing-Men (1958; rev vt The Man who Counts 1978), greatly increasing
their lung capacity and incorporating other necessary design
changes.Errors in sf are less common in the SOFT SCIENCES, perhaps because
these are subject to less rigorous laws, but nonetheless absurdities do
occur. It is commonly supposed that, if we had telepathy, we could
understand aliens by bypassing language; however, there is strong evidence
that we actually think in language, in which case telepathy probably would
not work efficiently between different nationalities, let alone between us
and the Rigelians. Brainwashing, and mental conditioning generally, are in
sf usually based on Pavlov's behavioural psychology rather than on B.F.
SKINNER's; that is, carried out through aversion and punishment, not
through reward, even though the latter system has been amply demonstrated
to be more efficient, and presents, perhaps, moral issues of a more subtle
and interesting kind. [PN/JS]

The most common generic term applied to UK sf in the years before the end
of WWII, at which time the "science fiction" label became sufficiently
commonplace to displace it; for several decades thereafter, the styles and
concerns of US GENRE SF dominated. C.H. HINTON issued 2 series of
Scientific Romances (colls 1886 and 1898) mixing speculative essays and
stories, and the term was widely applied by reviewers and essayists to the
early novels of H.G. WELLS, which became the key exemplars of the genre.
When listing his titles Wells usually lumped his sf and fantasy novels
together as "fantastic and imaginative romances"", but he eventually chose
to label the collection of his best-known sf novels "The Scientific
Romances of H.G. Wells (omni 1933), thus securing the term's definitive
status. Brian M. STABLEFORD has recently revived the term in order to
facilitate the comparison and contrast of the distinct UK and US
traditions of speculative fiction; his study of the UK genre's separate
evolution before the triumph of genre sf is Scientific Romance in Britain
1890-1950 (1985). In that book, and in entries throughout this
encyclopedia (see in particular EVOLUTION, RELIGION), the term can be seen
as tending to describe works characterized by long evolutionary
perspectives; by an absence of much sense of the frontier and a scarcity
of the kind of PULP-MAGAZINE-derived HERO who is designed to penetrate any
frontier available; and in general by a tone moderately less hopeful about
the future than that typical of genre sf until recent decades ( OPTIMISM
AND PESSIMISM).A few modern writers have found the term a convenient
rubric for offbeat works; examples include Christopher PRIEST for The
Space Machine (1976) and Kim Stanley ROBINSON for The Memory of Whiteness
(1985). [BS]

1. Term coined by Hugo GERNSBACK as a contraction of "scientific fiction"
and defined by him in the first issue of AMAZING STORIES in Apr 1926 (
DEFINITIONS OF SF). It never became very popular, and within a decade of
its coining was largely replaced by "science fiction". When used now it
usually refers to the awkward, technology-oriented fiction published by
Gernsback or, disparagingly, to modern equivalents. Attempts to
re-establish the term in a positive sense have failed.2. Fanzine (1937-8).

Scientists in pre-20th-century sf often exhibited symptoms of social
maladjustment, sometimes to the point of insanity; they were
characteristically obsessive and antisocial. Some scientists were
quasidiabolical figures, like Coppelius in E.T.A. HOFFMANN's "The Sandman"
(1816) or Mary SHELLEY's eponymous Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus
(1818; rev 1831); others were ridiculous, like those in the third book of
Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's Travels (1726). In Honore de BALZAC's La
recherche de l'absolu (1834; 1st trans as The Philosopher's Stone 1844 US)
scientific research becomes an unholy addiction. Such stories make it
clear that the scientist had inherited the mantle (and the public image)
of medieval alchemists, astrologers and sorcerers, and certain aspects of
this image proved extraordinarily persistent; its vestiges remain even
today, with sciencefictional alchemical romances still featuring in the
work of authors like Charles L. HARNESS. The founding fathers of sf, Jules
VERNE (Nemo and Robur) and H.G. WELLS (Moreau, Griffin and Cavor),
frequently represented scientists as eccentric and obsessive; Robert Louis
STEVENSON's Dr Jekyll is cast from the same anxious mould, as is Maurice
RENARD's Dr Lerne; and Arthur Conan DOYLE's Professor Challenger is not so
very different. A detailed analysis of the process of scientific
creativity as a species of madness is presented in J.S. FLETCHER's
Morrison's Machine (1900).By the end of the 19th century, however, other
images of the scientist were beginning to appear. The US public made a
hero of Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931), and this admiration for the clever
inventor is reflected in much popular fiction ( EDISONADE). The great man
himself is featured in VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM's L'Eve Future (1886) and
Garrett P. SERVISS's Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898; 1947), and a
DIME-NOVEL SF series featured Tom Edison Jr. Other scientists who
attracted hero-worship included Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Albert
Einstein (1879-1955), although Einstein's ideas were so non-commonsensical
that they were accepted by many as a proof of the oddity of scientists.
One wholehearted hero-worshipper of scientists was Hugo GERNSBACK, and he
gave voice to this sentiment in Ralph 124C 41+ (1911-12 Modern Electrics;
1925). The scientist-as- HERO thus entered pulp sf at its very inception,
alongside the eccentric genius - although many of the heroic scientists of
pulp sf were simply stock pulp heroes with scientific prowess improbably
grafted on: E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Richard Seaton is a cardinal example.
Scientists in the early sf pulps were often eccentric and absentminded,
and the demands of melodrama required many to turn their hands to criminal
enterprises, but they were rarely outright nuts, after the fashion of such
cinematic figures as the title-characters of DOCTOR X (1932) and DR
CYCLOPS (1940) and such non-genre arch-villains as Dr Munsker in The
Devil's Highway (1932) by Harold Bell WRIGHT and John Lebar.As pulp sf
matured there was a significant shift in the characterization of the
scientist hero. Especially in ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, the role of the
theoretical genius was de-emphasized relative to that of the
practical-minded engineer; archetypal examples of this species were the
personnel of George O. SMITH's Venus Equilateral (coll 1947), forever
scribbling equations and designs on the tablecloths in Joe's Bar. The
presumed essence of real genius remained as wayward as ever, however:
Henry KUTTNER's inventor Galloway Gallegher always made his marvellous
machines while blind drunk and could never remember afterwards how he had
done it. Hero-worship of the scientific genius was further extended by
Isaac ASIMOV, whose Foundation series was the first notable work to
elevate a social scientist to that status. Outside the sf magazines, a
more realistic image of the work and social situation of the scientist was
depicted in E.C. LARGE's cynical Sugar in the Air (1937), which features a
visionary and idealistic scientist at odds with his stupid and irrational
employers. In the post-WWII decade this kind of image became much more
common - notably in several novels by Edward HYAMS, including Not in Our
Stars (1949), and in many magazine stories.Genre-sf writers mostly
responded to the widespread popular opinion that TECHNOLOGY had got out of
hand by putting the blame on machine-users rather than machine-makers,
claiming that it was not mad scientists but mad generals and mad
politicians who were the problem; nuclear scientists were often
represented as isolated paragons of sanity locked into a political and
military matrix that threatened the destruction of the world ( NUCLEAR
POWER). The US security clampdown of the 1950s emphasized the new social
situation of the scientist and provoked a wave of sf stories dealing with
the morality of carrying out research which had potential military
applications, and with the difficulty of making scientific discoveries in
such circumstances. An effective vignette dealing with the conscience of
the scientist who watches his discoveries in action is C.M. KORNBLUTH's
"The Altar at Midnight" (1952); the most dramatic depiction of the
conflict between scientific interests and military security is Algis
BUDRYS's WHO? (1958). Later tales of scientists in conflict with the
demands made by society include Theodore STURGEON's "Slow Sculpture"
(1970), Bob SHAW's Ground Zero Man (1971), D.G. COMPTON's The Steel
Crocodile (1970 US; vt The Electric Crocodile 1970 UK) and James P.
HOGAN's The Genesis Machine (1978). Non-genre writers continued to have
less sympathy with scientists; irresponsible or outrightly mad scientists
continued to appear in some profusion - notable examples include Peter
WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1963) and Felix Hoenikker in Kurt VONNEGUT
Jr's Cat's Cradle (1963). Outside the protective walls of the sf genre
these sinister figures easily outnumbered scientists credited with the
noblest of ideals and motives; Pierre BOULLE's Garden on the Moon (1965),
which shows German rocket scientists thinking only of the Moon and SPACE
FLIGHT while working on the V2, is a vivid exception. The advent of
technologies like GENETIC ENGINEERING has helped sustain the routine
demonization of scientists in films and horror stories.In modern sf,
scientists have become rather less common, at least as major characters.
Writers who are not scientists themselves have become increasingly wary of
the difficulties involved in presenting a convincing picture of scientists
at work in the laboratory. Sf writers who are scientists are far more
ready to accept the challenge - see Great Science Fiction by Scientists
(anth 1962) ed Groff CONKLIN and The Expert Dreamers (anth 1962) ed
Frederik POHL - and the fictions of many science-trained writers are
regularly featured in the pages of Analog. But even they often find it
difficult to picture the kinds of equipment which will fill the
laboratories of the future, and the kinds of work which will be done
there. Scientists who have written notable sf about the scientists of the
future include Gregory BENFORD, David BRIN, Paul DAVIES, Robert L.
FORWARD, Fred HOYLE and Philip LATHAM. Many Eastern European writers are
practising scientists. (Communist sf characteristically put forward a
determinedly positive image of scientists and their endeavours, although
there are some very uneasy compromises with this orthodoxy in the work of
Arkady and Boris STRUGATSKI.) Many writers of HARD SF are also
popular-science writers of note, and they too have useful expertise which
they can and do deploy in their fiction; notable examples include Isaac
Asimov, Arthur C. CLARKE and John GRIBBIN.The most effective picture of
near-contemporary scientists at work in recent sf is probably Gregory
Benford's TIMESCAPE (1980); other notable examples are Kate WILHELM's The
Clewiston Test (1976), Hilbert SCHENCK's A ROSE FOR ARMAGEDDON (1982),
Paul PREUSS's Broken Symmetries (1983) and Jack MCDEVITT's The Hercules
Text (1986). The most memorable attempt at characterizing a scientific
genius in recent years is Ursula K. LE GUIN's Shevek in The Dispossessed
(1974); there are several charming but less earnest portraits in the work
of Vadim SHEFNER.A useful article (with a bibliography listing various
earlier sources) on the theme is "Scientists in Science Fiction:
Enlightenment and After" by Patrick PARRINDER in Science Fiction: Roots
and Branches (1990) ed Rhys Garnett and R.J. Ellis. A good book on the
subject is From Faust to Strangelove: Representations of the Scientist in
Western Literature (1994) by Roslynn D. Haynes; it deals with genre sf as
well as mainstream fiction. [BS]

In its early years Scientology was known as DIANETICS (which see for
details), a term still used within Scientology. The word "Scientology" was
coined in 1952 by L. Ron HUBBARD, its founder; 2 of his books on the
subject are This is Scientology: The Science of Certainty (1955 UK) and
Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought (1956 UK).The activities of the
Scientologists have evolved in many curious and highly publicized ways
since 1952. A lively account by a not wholly unsympathetic outsider can be
found in Cults of Unreason (1973) by Dr Christopher Evans (1931-1979), but
there have been several more critical studies since then, both of the
movement and of its founder, notably L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?
(1987) by Bent Corydon and L. Ron Hubbard Jr a.k.a. Ronald DeWolf, and
Bare-Faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987) by Russell
Miller, both the subject of legal action by the various corporate groups
associated with the Church of Scientology.Scientology, originally a form
of psychotherapy with many PSEUDO-SCIENCE overtones, became what has been
described as the first sf RELIGION, when the Founding Church of
Scientology was incorporated in Washington DC in July 1955. Sceptical
commentators saw this as no more than a crafty tax dodge, but in fact
Scientology had from the beginning many of the qualities of a genuine
religion, and certainly aroused a religious fervour among its adherents.
(In 1992 it was announced that an arm of the Church of Scientology, the
Church of Spiritual Technology, was building an underground crypt to house
"the religious works of L. Ron Hubbard and other key religious works of
mankind".)Hubbard extended Scientology overseas quite early, opening
centres in Australia and South Africa in 1953, and himself moving to the
UK in 1955. A bad setback was the result of the Board of Inquiry set up in
the state of Victoria, Australia, in 1963; the melodramatic Anderson
report of 1965, having examined 151 witnesses, concluded that "Scientology
is evil; its techniques are evil; its practice a serious threat to the
community, medically, morally and socially; and its adherents sadly
deluded and often mentally ill", and Scientology was banned in Victoria. A
later disaster was the deportation of L. Ron Hubbard from the UK as an
undesirable alien in 1968. Scientology was then directed from the ships of
Hubbard's fleet, usually found in the Mediterranean, until in 1975 Hubbard
returned to the USA. In 1978 he was found guilty in Paris of obtaining
money under false pretences through Scientology, and sentenced in absentia
to 4 years' imprisonment.Scientology and Hubbard had lost some ground, but
the movement continued to attract members, and Hubbard himself was the
subject of an enormous publicity boost when the Scientology publishers,
Bridge Publications, reissued in 1984 Hubbard's novel Battlefield Earth
(1982), originally published by a mainstream publisher, St Martin's Press,
and followed it with an sf "dekalogy", the 10-vol Mission Earth saga by
Hubbard (1983-7; later vols posthumous); these were heavily and
expensively promoted. Around this time Hubbard had also founded and
sponsored the WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST, good entrants to which were
original anthologies, #1 being in 1985. All of this did something to
re-establish Hubbard (who had been discredited in the eyes of some
observers) as an important figure in the sf community, and something of a
philanthropist, though his own writings, and the literary contests and
workshops, became controversial themselves; the sf community is deeply
divided as to the merit of the latter, and Hubbard's own sf books of the
1980s are seldom highly regarded.Hubbard's role remains enigmatic; some
saw him as a cynic, the founder of an organization calculated to bring in
an income of many millions of dollars, which it did. This is almost
certainly too simplistic a view, though the opposing view - that he was a
man of genuine if eccentric vision, totally convinced of the truth of his
case, and fighting valiantly against the powerful conspiracy of orthodox
psychiatry - may also be less than the full story.Scientology is the most
dramatic example of the precepts of pulp sf being put into practice in the
real world. One regular attraction of pulp sf, as witness Hubbard's own
stories and those of his one-time colleague A.E. VAN VOGT, was its
dramatization of the idea that inside us there may be a SUPERMAN
struggling to get out. The glowing promise held out by scientologists is
that this dream can be realized. [PN]

Pronounced "sky fi" or "si fi", an abbreviation for "science fiction",
introduced by Forrest J ACKERMAN, a prominent fan fond of wordplay, in
1954, when the term "hi-fi" was becoming popular. Seldom much used within
the sf community, the term became very popular with journalists and media
people generally, until by the 1970s it was the most common abbreviation
used by nonreaders of sf to refer to the genre, sometimes with an implied
sneer. Some critics within the genre, Terry CARR and Damon KNIGHT among
them, decided that, since the term was commonly derogatory, it might be
critically useful in distinguishing sf hack-work - particularly ill
written, lurid adventure stories - from sf of a more intellectually
demanding kind. Around 1978 the critic Susan WOOD and others began
pronouncing the term "skiffy". In 1980s-90s usage "skiffy", which sounds
friendlier than "sci fi", has perhaps for that reason come to be less
condemnatory. Skiffy is colourful, sometimes entertaining, junk sf: STAR
WARS is skiffy. [PN]


(1929- ) US writer, editor, publisher and military engineer (with the US
Army 1946-73). He began publishing fiction of genre interest with
"Faithful Messenger" for If in 1969, and wrote a spoof cookery book
(suggested by Damon KNIGHT's famous 1950 story), To Serve Man (1976) as
Karl Wurf; but his main sf activities have been as an editor and
publisher. He began his active involvement in 1959 with sf and fantasy as
editor of the famous FANZINE Amra; Amra, still appearing on an irregular
basis, specializes in SWORD AND SORCERY, particularly the work of Robert
E. HOWARD; it won HUGOS in 1964 and 1968. GHS published 2 anthologies
drawn from it: The Conan Swordbook (anth 1969) and The Conan Grimoire
(anth 1972), both with L. Sprague DE CAMP, cofounder with him of the
Hyborean Legion, a group devoted to Howard studies; earlier, De Camp alone
had been responsible for the Amra-derived The Conan Reader (anth 1968). In
1973 GHS founded the Owlswick Press ( SMALL PRESSES AND LIMITED EDITIONS),
which continues successfully to publish sf and other material.GHS became
the founding editor of ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE in 1977; it
was the first sf magazine since the beginning of the 1950s to establish
itself as a dominant force; he continued as editor until the beginning of
1982, also editing several anthologies drawn from it (see listing below)
and winning Hugos for Best Professional Editor in 1979 and 1980. He then
edited the troubled AMAZING STORIES from late 1982 until 1986; more
recently, with John BETANCOURT (until 1990) and Darrell SCHWEITZER, who
had been assistant editor of both IASFM and AMZ during GHS's tenures, he
restarted WEIRD TALES, which had been variously (but unfruitfully) revived
more than once since ceasing regular publication in 1954; the new series
(the numbering is continuous over all incarnations) began with #290 in
1987, and continues, with all but the most recent edited by all three
(each taking the lead role in turn); #300 was ed Schweitzer alone. Also
with Schweitzer, GHS ed 2 anthologies of CLUB STORIES: Tales from the
Spaceport Bar (anth 1987) and Another Round at the Spaceport Bar (anth
1989). In all his projects, which are very various, GHS has managed to
combine energy-efficient verve with a transparent love of fantasy and sf.
[JC]Other works: On Writing Science Fiction (The Editors Strike Back!)
(1981) with John M. FORD and Schweitzer; Constructing Scientifiction &
Fantasy (1982) with John Ashmead and Schweitzer.As Editor: Astronauts and
Androids (anth 1977); Black Holes and Bug Eyed Monsters (anth 1977);
Masters of Science Fiction (anth 1978); Comets and Computers (anth 1978);
Dark Stars and Dragons (anth 1978); Marvels of Science Fiction, Vol 2
(anth 1979); Science Fiction Anthology, #3 (anth 1979), #4 (anth 1980) and
#5 (anth 1981), anthologies from IASFM; Near Futures and Far (anth 1981).

UK BEDSHEET-size magazine, 20 issues 10 Feb-23 June 1934, published by C.
A. Pearson Ltd, London; ed Haydn Dimmock. S was intended as a weekly BOYS'
PAPER that would "transport its readers from the everyday happenings into
the future"; whatever appeal it might have had for adults was not helped
by the decision to use, mostly, writers of ordinary boys' adventure
fiction - Dimmock was also editor of The Scout. There was not much
material by real sf writers, exceptions being A.M. LOW, with the serial
"Space" (1934; vt Adrift in the Stratosphere 1937), a reprint
serialization of The Poison Belt (1913) by Sir Arthur Conan DOYLE, and
stories by Maurice Hugi and John Russell FEARN. Another serial was "The
Black Vultures" by George E. Rochester (c1895-c1985). All issues are now
collector's items. S was the first UK sf magazine, and not a very good
one. 5 tales from it, along with 8 new stories, were later assembled as
The Boys' World of Adventure (anth 1937) ed anon. [FHP/PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE. 1 issue, Apr 1939, published by Popular Publications;
ed Rogers Terrill. TS was in every respect a sequel to The OCTOPUS ; only
the alias of the villainous protagonist being changed. The sadistic,
borderline-sf feature novel, "Satan's Incubator" by Randolph Craig
(Norvell W. PAGE), was reprinted by Robert E. WEINBERG as Pulp Classics
#12: The Scorpion (1976 chap). [MJE/FHP]

(1926-1986) US writer and chemist, active in solid-propellant research in
the aerospace industry during the 1960s before becoming a full-time writer
in 1970. He had already been publishing craftsmanlike stories for some
time, beginning with "The Prodigy" for Science Fiction Adventures in 1954.
He assembled some of his better work in Caution! Inflammable! (coll 1975);
a more definitive conspectus is The Best of Thomas N. Scortia (coll 1981)
ed George ZEBROWSKI. It has been argued that TNS was at his best in short
forms, where his sustained interestingness as a producer of ideas and
situations took sometimes bravura shape; and there is little doubt that
his first novel, What Mad Oracle?: A Novel of the World as It Is (1961),
concerning the aerospace industry, lumbered through its material without
much verve. After 1970, however, as his production started to increase,
TNS began to seem destined for a very substantial career. Artery of Fire
(1960 Original Science Fiction Stories; exp 1972), about the construction
of a huge power network, and Earthwreck! (1974), set in space after a
nuclear HOLOCAUST has extinguished the human species on its home planet,
were both intriguing tales, scientifically numerate and competently
commercial.He then shifted, however, into collaborative enterprises,
mainly a series of popular TECHNOTHRILLERS with Frank M. ROBINSON; though
successful in their own terms, these exhibited little of the creative
daring TNS had always threatened to exploit more fully. They are The Glass
Inferno (1974) - which along with Richard Martin Stern's The Tower (1973)
was filmed as The Towering Inferno (1974) - The Prometheus Crisis (1975),
The Nightmare Factor (1978), The Gold Crew (1980) and - completed by
Robinson after TNS died - Blow Out! (1987). TNS's death was reported as
being from leukemia induced by exposure to radiation as an observer at
early nuclear tests, and came just after he had announced new solo
projects. [JC]As Editor: Strange Bedfellows: Sex and Science Fiction (anth
1972); Two Views of Wonder (anth 1973) with Chelsea Quinn YARBRO;
Human-Machines (anth 1975) with Zebrowski.See also: CYBORGS; IMMORTALITY;

Michael Scott ROHAN; Allan SCOTT.

(1947- ) UK writer whose sf novel, Project Dracula (1971; vt Anthrax
Mutation 1976 US), depicts an explosion in a space station which sprays
anthrax spores in dangerous directions. [JC]

(1952- ) UK writer of fantasy novels, the first being The Ice King (1986;
vt Burial Rites 1987 US) with Michael Scott ROHAN, both writing as Michael
Scot; a second collaboration with Rohan, A Spell of Empire: The Horns of
Tartarus (1992), was published under their real names. Solo, AS has
written a further fantasy, The Dragon in the Stone (1991). [JC]



[r] Robert THEOBALD.

(1923- ) UK-born US writer whose 2 sf novels, Passing for Human (1977)
and I, Vampire (1984), comprise a joyously and at times scatologically
tangled SATIRE of the post-industrial Western world from a FEMINIST point
of view that wittily verges on misandry. The 2nd vol-whose protagonist,
the female vampire Sterling O'Blivion, is only intermittently relevant to
the action - ends in a state of violent confusion after a love affair
between O'Blivion and an ALIEN who closely resembles Virginia Woolf
(1882-1941), though a central message does remain: an arraignment of
exploitation (or vampirism), whether on the part of slave-trading aliens,
Earth-bound capitalists, men or women. [JC]See also: SUPERNATURAL

(1960- ) US writer who began publishing sf with her first novel, The Game
Beyond (1984), a SPACE OPERA of some resonance which uses analogies with
the Roman Empire - familiar since the early Foundation stories (1951-3) of
Isaac ASIMOV-with considerable skill. In 1986 she won the JOHN W. CAMPBELL
AWARD for Best New Writer, at least in part for Five-Twelths of Heaven
(1986), #1 in her Silence Leigh sequence, which continues with Silence in
Solitude (1986) and The Empress of Earth (1987), all 3 assembled as The
Roads of Heaven (omni 1988). As with her first novel, these adventures of
aspiring space-pilot Silence Leigh capably marshal echoes of Earth-in this
case alchemy and astrological symbols - to enrich space-opera routines,
including several close calls with various enemies, a patch of slavery and
an ongoing quarrel with an inimical Empire. The main weakness lies in MS's
attempts to impose FEMINIST arguments upon a traditionally conceived venue
without seeming to think their implications through in that context; the
main strengths, perhaps, lie in the power of the main characters' longing
to find old Earth and in the ironies attendant upon their eventual
success. The Kindly Ones (1987), whose title and plot evoke Aeschylus's
Oresteia trilogy (458BC), specifically its third play, Eumenides, in an
interstellar setting, competently depicts a cruelly rigid society in a
Solar System of some interest. Dreamships (1992) sets an AI on a
FASTER-THAN-LIGHT ship, and very competently examines the nature of a
sentience slaved to travel the stars and, in the sequel, Burning Bright
(1993), to undergo taxing experience on an alien planet. Trouble and her
Friends (1994), though it breaks no new ground, does very competently
traverse CYBERPUNK territory, and the eponymous Trouble is an attractive
protagonist. [JC]Other works: A Choice of Destinies (1986); The Armor of
Light (1988) with Lisa A. Barnett; Mighty Good Road (1990).

[r] Barton WERPER.

(1939- ) UK film-maker who has worked mostly in the USA. After making a
name with a series of stylish, inventive tv commercials, RS made his
feature debut with The Duellists (1977), a period film adapted from a
story by Joseph CONRAD. He then went on to direct 2 of the most
influential and important sf films of the last 15 years: ALIEN (1979) and
BLADE RUNNER (1982), the latter an adaption of Philip K. DICK's Do
Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968). RS is a visionary, at least in
terms of production design, and both his sf films conjure up a detailed
and utterly convincing future (whose style RS later recycled in tv
advertisements for a bank); Blade Runner is particularly powerful in its
design, and proved an influence on the CYBERPUNK movement. However, after
these films RS vanished into the (comparatively well publicized) limbo of
Legend (1985), a fairy tale resembling a feature-length advertisement for
hairspray. He made a tentative commercial comeback with Someone to Watch
Over Me (1987) and Black Rain (1989), both policiers whose content was
more conventional than their style. RS's films are mostly underconceived
on a script and character level, and thus can appear cold. He had a big,
if controversial, success, however, with the effective and satisfying
Thelma and Louise (1991), a female road movie about two women escaping
routine and put-upon lives and revenging themselves against various forms
of sexism; it and the 2 sf films are RS's best work.RS's brother Tony
Scott has directed one borderline-sf film about vampires - The Hunger
(1983) - whose exotic visual qualities fail to eclipse its narrative
failings, rather as in RS's own lesser films. [KN/PN]See also: CINEMA;

One of the many reprint DIGEST-size magazines from Sol Cohen's Ultimate
Publishing Co., using stories from old issues of AMZ and Fantastic
Adventures, including Theodore STURGEON's The Dreaming Jewels (1950
Fantastic Adventures; exp 1950; vt The Synthetic Man 1957). 4 quarterly
issues appeared, 2 in 1970, 2 in 1971, all but #1 as Science Fantasy.

Pronounced "esseff", the preferred abbreviation of "science fiction"
within the community of sf writers and readers, as opposed to the
journalistic SCI FI. In this volume - as often elsewhere - it is rendered
in lower-case letters. [PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE, 12 issues Mar 1939-Sep 1941. Published by Blue Ribbon
Magazines Inc. (Mar-Dec 1939), Double Action Magazines Inc. (Mar 1940-Jan
1941) and then Columbia Publications Inc. (Mar-Sep 1941); ed Charles D.
HORNIG (Mar 1939-Mar 1941) and Robert A.W. LOWNDES (June-Sep 1941).The
second venture into magazine editing by former WONDER STORIES editor
Hornig, SF was never better than very mediocre; although its covers were
all by Frank R. PAUL, they were poor examples of his work. The stories
were from such authors as John Russell FEARN and Eando BINDER, both of
whom also used pseudonyms to multiply their contributions to the magazine.
The readers' departments were conducted on a determinedly chummy basis by
Hornig, who spent a good deal of space airing his enthusiasm for
Esperanto. (In later issues his firm pacifism showed in some anguished
editorials.) After 2 issues under Lowndes's editorship SF was merged with
its companion FUTURE FICTION to form Future Combined with Science Fiction.
The Apr and July 1943 issues of SCIENCE FICTION STORIES, which revived the
SF cover design, were actually a continuation of Future Fiction after a
further title change. Some commentators see The ORIGINAL SCIENCE FICTION
STORIES , also ed Lowndes, as a delayed continuation of SF in the 1950s. 2
issues of SF, cut, were reprinted in the UK. [MJE/PN]



Title used on 2 US DIGEST-size magazines during the 1950s, and on 1 UK
magazine that began as a reprint and continued, using original material,
after its parent - the 2nd US magazine - folded. (The title was used also
as a variant title of SCIENCE FICTION CLASSICS, Jan-May 1973, Sep and Nov
1974.)The 1st US magazine published 9 issues Nov 1952-June 1954. #1 was
published by Science Fiction Publications, the rest by Future
Publications. The issues Nov 1952-Sep 1953 were ed Lester DEL REY as
Philip St John; Harry HARRISON took over shortly before the magazine
folded. The schedule was irregularly bimonthly.The 2nd US magazine,
published by Royal Publications, was ed Larry T. SHAW and ran for 12
issues in 18 months, Dec 1956-June 1958. #1 was numbered, confusingly, vol
1 #6, continuing the numeration of a defunct magazine (Suspect Detective
Stories) from the same publisher; however, #2 was numbered vol 1 #2.The
editorial policy in each case - more overt in Shaw's magazine - was to
concentrate on adventure stories. The 1st SFA serialized del Rey's Police
Your Planet (Mar-Sep 1953; 1956), as by Erik Van Lhin, and C.M.
KORNBLUTH's The Syndic (Dec 1953-June 1954; 1953). The 2nd SFA used very
few short stories, usually featuring 3 long novelettes per issue. Robert
SILVERBERG, under various names, was a particularly prolific contributor,
magazine versions of 6 of his early novels appearing there.Novelettes from
Shaw's magazine were resorted into 5 issues of a UK edition marketed
Mar-Nov 1958 by Nova Publications, with both Shaw and John CARNELL
credited as editors. Carnell alone, no longer using material from the
parent magazine, continued SFA for a further 27 issues until May 1963,
using a great deal of material by Kenneth BULMER (under various names) and
novelettes by other writers regularly featured in the companion magazines
NEW WORLDS and SCIENCE FANTASY. Notable stories included John BRUNNER's
Society of Time series (1962; fixup as Times without Number 1962; rev
1974) and the magazine version of J.G. BALLARD's The Drowned World (Jan
1962; rev 1962). The UK SFA was numbered consecutively #1-#32,
approximately bimonthly to #14, and regularly bimonthly from then on.
Though sometimes regarded as more juvenile than its two companion
publications, it remained continuously enjoyable. [BS]


US critical magazine, founded and ed Neil BARRON, published by BORGO
PRESS, 13 issues 1979-80; revived with the SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH
ASSOCIATION as publisher, still ed Barron, 20 issues 1982-3; amalgamated
with Fantasy Newsletter to form FANTASY REVIEW, Jan 1984, ed Robert A.
Collins, with Barron as reviews editor. This useful journal often reviewed
as many as 50 books an issue - novels, collections, secondary and
associational literature - and with so many reviewers involved was a
triumph of editorial organization. Its passing is regretted, especially
since SFRA NEWSLETTER, which since the late 1980s has been doing something
similar, usually prints rather shorter reviews (especially since mid-1992)
than did SF&FBR, and its standards seem a little more uneven. [PN]

Beginning with Science Fiction and Fantasy Book Review Annual 1988 (dated
1988 but 1989) ed Robert A. Collins and Robert Latham - whose coverage is
of 1987 - this series is an annual book spin-off from the defunct magazine
FANTASY REVIEW (folded Aug 1987). The book-review section of the magazine
had been its strongest feature, and continues as the central feature of
the annual, whose first edition published around 550 brief reviews (most
reprinted, though individual reviews are not so acknowledged, from SFRA
NEWSLETTER) along with essay surveys of the year in sf, sf scholarship,
horror, etc. SFAFBRA's utility is dubious, since by the time its
information is published many of the books described are out of print.
SFAFBRA, published by Meckler for 2 years then by GREENWOOD PRESS, had
(1989), (1990) and (1991) editions up to the end of 1994. [PN]



Australian critical magazine ed Van Ikin from University of Sydney and
later University of Western Australia; associate ed Terry DOWLING;
irregular; PULP-MAGAZINE format, 35 issues 1977-1993, presumably current.
Intended to be a reputable academic journal, as the editorial addresses
suggest, SF:AROSL has oscillated a little uneasily between the academic
and the fannish, but has nevertheless published good critical features.
Until the more regular and perhaps livelier AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE FICTION
REVIEW: SECOND SERIES appeared in 1986, this was the main repository for
Australian sf criticism (especially since its main rival, SF COMMENTARY,
was notably irregular in the 1980s), publishing interesting material by
its editors and by Russell BLACKFORD, George TURNER and others. The very
irregular publication means letters and reviews often seem out of date
even as they appear. [PN]


Sf book clubs were started in both the UK and the USA at roughly the same
time (c1953). The UK version was owned in its early years by Sidgwick &
Jackson, then by Dent as part of that company's Readers' Union group of
book clubs, and finally by David & Charles, who bought the Readers' Union
group in the 1970s. David & Charles's management, which contained no sf
enthusiasts, was apathetic towards the SFBC, which later became subject to
competition from Encounters, a book club aggressively promoted by the
larger group Book Club Associates. Even before the death in 1982 of its
freelance consultant Edmund COOPER, the editorless UK SFBC was slowly
petering out, despite part- and spare-time efforts by one Readers' Union
employee, Paul G. Begg, to keep it alive; it died altogether some time
after Begg left the company.The US SFBC, by contrast, has had a history of
continuity. It is published by Nelson Doubleday, Inc., an associate of,
but distinct from, DOUBLEDAY, whose differing imprint is Doubleday &
Company, Inc. In 1986 the US SFBC was sold, along with Doubleday, to the
German company Bertelsmann. The US club is far larger than the UK club
ever was, offers a very much broader selection, publishes its own editions
(including special hardcover editions of paperback originals) and creates
books - omnibuses of various sorts - especially for its members. (The UK
club normally presented no more than one title per month, reprinted
cheaply on cheap paper and with a cheap binding and cover.) The US SFBC
has been a major force in sf publishing. [MJE/PN/JGr]


US SEMIPROZINE published and ed from New York by Andrew PORTER, monthly,
current, 180 issues to Feb 1995. SFC was founded in 1978 as a department
of Porter's more elaborate but now defunct magazine ALGOL, and became a
separate publication in Oct 1979. It is a general news magazine about sf,
whose coverage is not as broad as that of its competitor, the West Coast
magazine LOCUS, though it contains fan material, a film column by Ed NAHA
(until Sep 1990) and the "London Report" by Stephen Jones and Jo Fletcher,
all of which cover ground rather different from Locus's. The film column
is disappointingly fragmentary and the book reviews, by Don D'Ammassa, are
very short. Something of an East Coast institution, SFC does offer an
alternate voice for the sf community. In its one-man-band editorial
performance it shows astonishing stamina in its producer, Porter, who
received a Special Award at the World CONVENTION in 1991 for his "years of
continuing excellence" in editing SFC, in the pages of which he
subsequently apologized for his less than graceful acceptance of the
award, which he regarded as "a consolation prize". No such response was
necessary in 1993 and 1994, for SFC did indeed win the HUGO award in the
semiprozine category in both those years, bringing to an end Locus's
astonishing run of nine years' domination of the award ever since that
category was first established. [PN]

One of the many reprint DIGEST-size magazines published by Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co., 30 issues published, ed Herb Lehrman as Ralph
Adris #1-#5, then ed Cohen. It began Feb 1967, published #1-#6 in 1967-8
as Science Fiction Classics and #7-#8 in 1969 as Science Fiction
(Adventure) Classics. It resumed publication in Winter 1970 under the
latter title with #12 and published 22 more issues before merging with
in early 1975. SFC was numbered consecutively up to #19, and thereafter
merely dated. The schedule was irregular. The hiatus in numbering (#9-#11
missing) is connected with the fact that 2 other magazines took up their
numbering from SFC in 1969: SPACE ADVENTURES (CLASSICS) published 6 issues
numbered #9-#14, and STRANGE FANTASY published 6 issues numbered #8-#13;
they folded in 1971 and 1970 respectively.In its early issues SFC used a
great deal of material from the 1930s AMZ, reprinting stories by John W.
CAMPBELL Jr, Hugo GERNSBACK, Edmond HAMILTON et al., but from #13 it
reprinted mainly poor stories from the period of Raymond A. PALMER's
editorship. Variant titles were Science Fiction Adventures Classics (July
1973-July 1974) and Science Fiction Adventures (Jan-May 1973, Sep and Nov
1974). [BS]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 1 issue, dated 1970, published by Ultimate
Publishing Co.; probably ed Sol Cohen. All stories were reprinted from the
1930s AMZ. [FHP]

Canadian bibliographical SEMIPROZINE (1976-81), describing itself as a
FANZINE, published by James Grant Books, Calgary, to #3, then by Pandora's
Books Ltd; ed J. Grant Thiessen (1946- ). With #9 (June 1980) the journal
merged with the fanzine Age of the Unicorn, and was renamed Megavore: The
Journal of Popular Fiction.Thiessen, a book dealer with a bibliographical
bent, published in TS-FC a good deal of extremely useful research - which
quite often cannot be found duplicated elsewhere - on sf PUBLISHING,
frequently in the more obscure and less reputable areas of paperback-book
and magazine publishing, with features on ACE BOOKS, sf pornography,
defunct paperback lines, Avalon Books, A.E. VAN VOGT and much else. After
the title-change the emphasis was less strongly on sf/fantasy; within a
year the journal died. [PN]

Australian FANZINE, irregular (Jan 1969-current), ed Bruce GILLESPIE.
SFC, which had reached #73/74/75 by Oct 1993, is a serious critical
journal in stencilled format (until issue #69/70, Jan 1991, since when it
has been lithographed); it also includes rather charming autobiographical
ramblings by Gillespie. It is generally considered one of the best serious
fanzines, and has received 3 HUGO nominations. Important contributors have
included John Foyster, Yvonne Rousseau, George TURNER and Stanislaw LEM;
most of the earliest English translations of Lem's critical articles
appeared in SFC. During June 1981-Jan 1989 SFC did not appear, Gillespie
instead publishing his The Metaphysical Review, which is less
concentratedly about sf, and which had reached #19/20/21 by July 1994.

1. US DIGEST-size magazine. 2 issues, Feb and May 1954, published by
Specific Fiction Corp., New York, ed Chester Whitehorn. SFD was intended
as a reprint magazine which would take its material from the slick
general-fiction magazines and other sources, but the selections were weak
and it quickly failed. Its (purportedly) nonfiction articles had a strong
occult bent. The same publisher and editor had already failed with VORTEX
SCIENCE FICTION the previous year.2. US DIGEST-sized magazine. 4 issues
Oct/Nov 1981-Sep/Oct 1982, ed Shawna MCCARTHY, published by Davis
Publications, New York, as a companion magazine to ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE
FICTION MAGAZINE and ASF. This was an experiment in presenting excerpts
from forthcoming books, both fiction and nonfiction, in the form of
self-sufficient episodes. #4 was a 288pp double issue.3. FANZINE founded
in 1932, better known under the title to which it changed its name in
1934, FANTASY MAGAZINE (which see for details).None of these magazines
should be confused with the UK SF DIGEST. [FHP/PN]

UK small- BEDSHEET-size magazine. 1 undated issue, 1976, published by New
English Library; ed Julie Davis. SFD was to have been a quarterly
successor to SCIENCE FICTION MONTHLY, but was doomed even before #1
appeared by the publisher's decision to concentrate on books rather than
magazines. SFD's format was superior to that of Science Fiction Monthly,
and was less obviously slanted toward a juvenile market. [PN]

US SEMIPROZINE, #1 Winter 1987; ed Stephen P. Brown, Daniel Steffan, and
published by the 'Til You Go Blind Cooperative to #5; ed and published
Brown alone from #6; published from Washington DC to #8, thereafter from
Asheville, North Carolina; thirteen issues to Spring 1994, theoretically 3
issues a year (actually highly irregular), maybe current.This intensely
lively critical journal, professional in appearance, has at times been
regarded as the house journal of CYBERPUNK; it prints its price in US
dollars, pounds sterling and Japanese yen on the cover. It covers
literature (mostly but not exclusively sf), music, technology,
communications, or whatever is hot on the streets at a given moment, with
an agreeable if irritating air of seeing itself as living on the cutting
edge. Its various controversies have included a continuing savage attack
on Orson Scott CARD. Contributors have included Paul Di Filippo, William
GIBSON, Richard GRANT, Eileen Gunn, Elizabeth HAND, Richard KADREY, John
KESSEL, Charles PLATT, Lucius SHEPARD and Bruce STERLING. As time went by
in the 1990s, and the frequency of publication went down to around once a
year, the editor's riding the surf of the future was compromised by the
likelihood he would slop off the back of the wave. But the magazine
remained very readable. [PN]



UK research unit set up in 1971 at the North East London Polytechnic
(which became the University of East London in 1992), but semi-autonomous,
being controlled by a council, partly academics and partly sf
professionals, and including George HAY, whose enthusiasm had much to do
with the SFF's inception. Peter NICHOLLS, the first administrator
(1971-7), was followed by Malcolm EDWARDS (1978-80). The SFF was the first
and only academic body in the UK set up to investigate sf: until 1980 it
also supervised graduate research work in the field and investigated the
usefulness of sf in education generally ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM).Severe
restrictions on UK educational budgets in 1980 led to the freezing of the
position of administrator when Edwards left in May of that year, though
Colin GREENLAND, as an Arts-Council-funded Writing Fellow attached to the
SFF, kept the flag flying for a period, and Charles BARREN served as
(unsalaried) acting administrator for some years, followed by Ian
MacPherson and Ted Chapman, variously designated but never paid. During
1980-91 the SFF was staffed only by a single part-time employee, Joyce
Day, becoming primarily known for its journal, FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF
SCIENCE FICTION, and its research library, housed at the Barking precinct
of the Polytechnic, the largest publicly accessible COLLECTION of sf in
the UK outside the British Library, with c20,000 items including magazines
and fanzines. In 1991 it seemed briefly that the Polytechnic - then about
to be granted, as were other UK polytechnics, the more prestigious
designation "University" - was prepared to refinance the SFF, and an
additional clerical staff member was introduced, though not one either
versed in sf or with a teaching brief. But the now "University" soon
declared itself unwilling to sustain the collection, to house the academic
journal, or to appoint an academic lecturer to the essential post of
Administrator; the "University" additionally proposed to evict the SFF on
a short notice unless the SFF agreed to pay it ps40,000 per annum - though
no Administrator would be appointed, nor any courses permitted, nor any
accessions budget granted, if that sum were in fact advanced. In October
1992, the Council of the SFF therefore agreed in principle to move in
early 1993 to the University of Liverpool, which had expressed much
interest in the chance to gain so substantial (and unique) a research
resource. The University of Liverpool selected Andy Sawyer as
Administrator in 1993; an MA course in sf was announced; and the
Collection was formally transferred into the University's keeping 26
January 1995, though ownership of SFF books remains with the Friends of
Foundation, which was formed in the late 1980s specifically in order to
help sustain the SFF through the difficult period which was, even then,
anticipated.The SFF patrons are Arthur C. CLARKEand Ursula K. LE GUIN;
council and ordinary members have included practically all UK sf writers
as well as distinguished US writers including James BLISH. The SFF helps
administer the ARTHUR C. CLARKE AWARD. [PN/JC]





In September 1953 Sam MOSKOWITZ began to teach what was almost certainly
the first sf course in the USA to be given through a college. The course
was on Science Fiction Writing, was delivered on a non-credit basis
through the City College of New York, and was presented with the
collaboration of a popular-science writer, Robert Frazier (not to be
confused with the sf poet Robert FRAZIER). For the Autumn 1953 sessions,
Moskowitz arranged for several sf writers - including Isaac ASIMOV, Lester
DEL REY, Murray LEINSTER, Robert SHECKLEY and Theodore STURGEON - to give
talks; later sessions included talks by Robert A. HEINLEIN and others.
Moskowitz left the course after 1955, and it probably ceased in
1957.Further sf courses were slow to be established. Guest lectures were
occasionally given, including 2 by Moskowitz, the first in December 1950
at New York University, the second in December 1953 at Columbia
University. Those given by Heinlein, C.M. KORNBLUTH, Robert BLOCH and
Alfred BESTER at the University of Chicago in 1957 were collected as The
Science Fiction Novel (anth 1959) with an introduction by Basil DAVENPORT;
those by Kingsley AMIS at Princeton in 1959 were published as New Maps of
Hell (1960 US). A key year was 1961, when courses were set up by Mark R.
HILLEGAS at Colgate and H. Bruce FRANKLIN at Stanford. 10 years later Jack
WILLIAMSON's pamphlet Science Fiction Comes to College (1971 chap) listed
61 universities offering such courses, and he judged that to be a mere
sampling; by the time of his later pamphlet, Teaching SF (1975 chap), that
estimate had considerably increased, and it seems likely that today there
are at least 250 such courses in the USA. A Research Guide to Science
Fiction Studies (1977), compiled by Marshall B. TYMN, Roger C. SCHLOBIN
and L.W. CURREY, lists 412 doctoral dissertations on sf subjects, the
great majority having been submitted in the USA. Sf scholars have their
membership in the early 1990s hovered just above 300, perhaps two-thirds
being US-based teachers of sf. It is clear that there has also been a
greatly increased use of sf material at high-school level, sf being
studied not only in its own right but because it helps to dramatize issues
as one of the most interesting and rapidly evolving forms of popular
culture, sf is an important register of social history, reflecting shifts
in the prejudices and expectations of society at large.The story is very
different outside the USA. A scattering of universities in Canada, Europe
and Australia have sf courses. The first sf course in the UK was a
non-credit course begun by Philip STRICK in 1969 at the City Literary
Institute, London; it had various leaders (including the editors of this
encyclopedia: John CLUTE, Peter NICHOLLS and Brian M. STABLEFORD) before
its demise in 1992. Brief academic sf courses were taught by Nicholls and
Ian WATSON in the 1970s, and occasional sf texts still find their way on
to more conventional courses in English, politics, etc., but sf courses at
university level remain a rarity in the UK.Fears have been expressed that
the academic study of sf will domesticate it. (A common catchphrase among
sf fans was "Kick sf out of the classroom and back to the gutter where it
belongs".) They are not groundless. Anecdotal evidence suggests that too
often the sf course is regarded as a "soft option", and, although the
number of distinguished scholars and teachers of sf, especially in the
USA, has certainly increased through the 1970s and 1980s, the overall
standard of academic sf criticism is not notably high. Also, the academic
acceptance of sf may have suffered a setback through the popular
perception, in the post- STAR WARS era, that sf books are largely
juvenilia - a perception partly justified in a period when sf PUBLISHING,
chiefly in the USA, appeared to have become cynically focused on a
routine, mass-market product to the detriment of "mid-list" writers whose
work was more serious, more carefully written and, it could be argued,
more entertaining. Nonetheless, the number of CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL
WORKS ABOUT SF increased very dramatically during this period: during 1991
SFRA NEWSLETTER reviewed about 15 books a month on sf/fantasy. Also, many
more academic essays on sf are being published; they are now likely to
turn up in all sorts of nonspecialist literary and critical journals, not
just the specialist journals, whose "Big Three" remain SCIENCE-FICTION
SCIENCE FICTION in the UK; it is too soon to say with what success JOURNAL
OF THE FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS (founded 1988) will join this group. These
journals regularly publish a proportion of unexciting and mediocre work,
as they always did, but there is currently a strong sense that more good
and lively sf criticism and scholarship are abroad in the land now than
when the 1st edn of this encyclopedia was prepared.Especially since the
early 1970s, many books - far too many to be listed here - have been
published for use by teachers of sf at high-school level. Some have
unfortunately tended towards the patronizing and simplistic, or to the
formulaic, as in too many (but not all) of the readers' guides to
individual authors published by companies like BORGO PRESS, Cliffs Notes,
GREENWOOD PRESS, STARMONT HOUSE, Twayne and Ungar. Among the useful
classroom guides are: Science Fiction: An Introduction (1973; rev vt
Science Fiction Reader's Guide 1974) by L. David Allen; Grokking the
Future: Science Fiction in the Classroom (1973) by Bernard C. Hollister
and Deane C. Thompson; Science Fiction: Its Criticism and Teaching (1980)
by Patrick PARRINDER; Critical Encounters: Writers and Themes in Science
Fiction (anth 1978) ed Dick Riley; Science Fiction: A Teacher's Guide and
Resource Book (1988) by Marshall B. Tymn; and Teaching Science Fiction:
Education for Tomorrow (anth 1980) ed Jack Williamson.The standard of
books aimed at university-level readers and graduates ranges bafflingly
from the opaque and semiliterate to the stimulating and rigorous, and
their sheer volume - as suggested under CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS
ABOUT SF - is now dizzying. Among the more important (English-language)
academic authors to have written books in this field are Paul K. ALKON,
Thomas D. CLARESON, I.F. CLARKE, Samuel R. DELANY (a part-time academic),
H. Bruce FRANKLIN, James E. GUNN, Hal W. HALL, Mark R. HILLEGAS, David
PHILMUS, Eric S. RABKIN, Mark ROSE, Joanna RUSS, David N. SAMUELSON, Lyman
Tower SARGENT, Roger C. SCHLOBIN, Robert SCHOLES, George Edgar SLUSSER,
Brian M. STABLEFORD, Darko SUVIN, W. Warren WAGAR, Patricia S. WARRICK and
Gary K. WOLFE. Critical anthologies and journals contain - amid the dross
- the work of other interesting sf academics who have yet to publish
books. An early set of essays about the academic interest in sf is Science
Fiction: The Academic Awakening (anth 1974) ed Willis E. MCNELLY.Sf
BIBLIOGRAPHIES have become a marketable commodity only because of the
academic interest in sf. The 1980s saw the publication of many more of
them than ever before. Somewhere between bibliography, history and
critical reference work is one of the outstanding reference works in the
field, a book whose most recent incarnation is Anatomy of Wonder: A
Critical Guide to Science Fiction: Third Edition (1987) ed Neil BARRON,
aimed in the first instance at librarians but useful for all sf academics;
it contains a chapter on the teaching of sf, with suggested texts.This
interest has brought about the publication of many sf ANTHOLOGIES that are
obviously designed for the classroom, the stories they contain being
complemented by introductions or some kind of critical apparatus. Some
notably thoughtful compilations are The Mirror of Infinity: A Critic's
Anthology of Science Fiction (anth 1970) ed Robert SILVERBERG, Those who
Can (anth 1973) ed Robin Scott WILSON, Modern Science Fiction (anth 1974)
ed Norman SPINRAD, Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the
Nineteenth Century (anth 1966; rev 1968; rev 1978) ed H. Bruce Franklin,
and The Road to Science Fiction (anth in 4 vols 1977-82) ed James E. Gunn.
There are also, of course, a great many theme anthologies collecting sf
stories about everything from ANTHROPOLOGY to RELIGION. One of the most
active theme anthologists for the academic market has been Martin Harry
GREENBERG, along with several colleagues with whom he often works.Beyond
all these direct responses to the academic stimulus is the now very
general interest in sf to be found in the intellectual world generally:
even newspapers and magazines are less dismissive or ignorant about sf
than was the case in, say, the 1960s. Much of the material now published
about sf - notably in the 1980s and 1990s in newspaper articles about
CYBERPUNK - has been hacked out by trend-spotters and journalists cashing
in on a good thing, but this is inevitable. Sceptics see the breaking down
of the walls of sf's ghetto - a process hastened by sf's partial academic
acceptance - as leading to such a general diffusion of sf ideas into the
community at large as to leave sf itself less identifiable as a genre,
perhaps less relevant, and even, according to the pessimists, moribund. If
so, we have the paradox of a genre so disreputable in life that decent
persons turned aside from it in disgust, only for its corpse to be praised
for its beauty and vigour. [PN]

Launched Apr 1934 by Charles D. HORNIG and Hugo GERNSBACK through WONDER
STORIES, the SFL was the first and most successful of several
professionally sponsored sf organizations. The formation of local chapters
in the USA, Australia, and the UK brought sf readers together and provided
a firm foundation for present-day sf FANDOM; in particular, the
establishment of the Leeds and Nuneaton SFL chapters led directly to the

UK pocketbook magazine. 3 numbered undated issues 1960; published by G.G.
Swan, London; no ed named. SFL had no table of contents, poor paper and
very small type. Original and reprinted stories were used, including some
from the first incarnation of SCIENCE FICTION QUARTERLY. A companion

[s] Robin Scott WILSON.

Elleston TREVOR.

US PULP MAGAZINE published monthly Mar 1906-Jan 1912 by the Frank A.
MUNSEY Corp.; ed Perley Poore Sheehan. TSB was published in 2 separate
sections from July 1907, the first containing articles, the second
fiction. The second section became The CAVALIER from Sep 1908, the first
continuing as SB, with some fiction content, until merging with The
Cavalier to form The Cavalier Weekly.SB began as a reprint magazine, often
featuring classic weird fiction. Later it published original stories,
including some sf, notably Julian Johnson's "When Science Warred" (1907),
George Allan ENGLAND's "The House of Transformation" (Sep-Nov 1909) and
Garrett P. SERVISS's "The Sky Pirate" (Apr-Sep 1909). [JE]

Film (1969). Amicus/AIP. Dir Gordon Hessler, starring Vincent Price,
Christopher Lee, Alfred Marks, Michael Gothard. Screenplay Christopher
Wicking, based on The Disorientated Man (1966; vt Scream and Scream Again
1967 US) by Peter SAXON. 94 mins. Colour.This blend of policier, cold-war
political thriller, FRANKENSTEIN and vampire movie, initially ignored, was
later seen by some cineastes as one of the major UK sf films. An enjoyable
farrago, it does have moments of distinction, but its silliness gets in
the way: the opening sequence - a hospital patient is understandably upset
to find that each day he is missing yet another limb - could be a sketch
from the Monty Python tv series. Nowhere is it explained why mad
SCIENTISTS (the main one played by Price) need to construct a super-race
(which they do using stolen body parts), why the constructed beings are so
incredibly strong, why they suck blood and murder people, and why this
makes them good prime-ministerial material. Marks's energetically
down-to-earth performance as the baffled police inspector almost saves the
film, but SASA works only as a (literally) disjointed series of paranoid
surreal nightmares - and, even then, poor production values and mostly
indifferent performances are as likely to elicit laughter as horror. The
radical subtext - our political masters are literally MONSTERS - had been
better done elsewhere; e.g., QUATERMASS II (1957; vt Enemy from Space).


(1888-? ) UK writer whose remarkable The Perfect World: A Romance of
Strange People and Strange Places (fixup 1922) is thought by E.F. BLEILER
almost certainly to consist of 2 separate magazine novels here published
sequentially; however, as EMS clearly attempted to weave their plots
together, we designate the outcome a FIXUP. In the first main sequence the
two young gentlemen protagonists are transported from a company town
dominated by their family coalmine into an underground cave system
populated by theocratic relics of an Old Testament quarrel; after they
finally emerge in Australia and note that the world is about to blow up,
they travel with their inventor uncle to JUPITER, where a similar
oligarchy, this time pre-Adamic, subjects the main protagonist - as had
happened already underground - to erotic inducements. He marries the
relevant princess and together they rule Jupiter in peace. In dealing with
the sinlessness of the Jovians, EMS ineffectively prefigured the work of


Unidentified pseudonym of the author of the well written Symzonia: A
Voyage of Discovery (1820), which sets a UTOPIA inside a HOLLOW EARTH.
Some commentators have assumed AS to have been Captain John Cleves SYMMES,
whose hollow-earth theories are exploited in the book. However, they are
also satirized, so a more likely candidate may be Nathaniel Ames (?
-1835), whose style in his books about the sea resembles AS's.
[JC/PN]About the author: "The Authorship of Symzonia: The Case for
Nathaniel Ames" by Hans-Joachim Lang and Benjamin Lease in New England
Quarterly (June 1975).See also: FANTASTIC VOYAGES; HISTORY OF SF.

[s] Margaret ST CLAIR.

A pseudonym used by 2 entirely separate authors.1. As A. Nelson Seaforth,
UK author George Sydenham Clarke (1848-1933), 1st Baron Sydenham of Combe,
wrote the future- WAR novel, The Last Great Naval War (1891), in which
France and the UK become involved.2. George C. FOSTER. [JC]

Pseudonym of UK naval officer and writer Geoffrey Martin Bennett
(1909-1983), whose two sf novels both deal with menaces at sea: The
Invisible Ships (1950) indeed features invisible ships, and This Creeping
Evil (1950) features sea monsters. [JC]

Austin J. SMALL.

(1920- ) US FANZINE publisher and Professor of Chemistry at the College
of Mount St Vincent, New York (he retired in 1987); as publisher from 1943
of FANTASY COMMENTATOR (which see for details), he has maintained the
journal as a significant forum for the study of sf in many of its aspects,
though concentrating on early GENRE SF. [JC]

(1934-1993) US writer known mainly for his several nonfiction works on sf
and fantasy, beginning with Stranger in a Strange Land & Other Works (1975
chap) and continuing with The Science Fiction Quizbook (1976) with Martin
Last,(1929- ) A Reader's Guide to Science Fiction (1979) with Last,
Michael Franklin and Beth MEACHAM, A Reader's Guide to Fantasy (1982) with
Franklin and Meacham, and Films of Science Fiction and Fantasy (1988).
With Brian Thomsen he edited Halflings, Hobbits, Warrows & Weefolk: A
Collection of Tales of Heroes Short in Stature (anth 1991). He is a useful
figure in the field as a practical critic and guide. [JC]See also: ISAAC

Working name of US writer Henry Hunt Searls Jr (1922- ), who began
publishing sf with "Martyr's Flight" for Imagination in 1955, and whose sf
has been primarily restricted to NEAR-FUTURE tales of the early space age.
In his first novel, The Big X (1959), a test pilot flies a plane designed
to reach Mach 8. HS's best-known tale, The Pilgrim Project (1964) - filmed
as COUNTDOWN (1968) - is about a race between the USA and the USSR to get
to the Moon first, with both countries launching flights almost
simultaneously. Melodramatically plotted, and technologically bound (with
considerable expertise) to the world of the 1950s and 1960s, HS's work is
now an artefact of an earlier (and in some ways bolder) age. From about
1980 he has concentrated on non-sf tales, some of them TECHNOTHRILLERS.
[JC]Other works: The Crowded Sky (1960); The Astronaut (1960); The
Penetrators (1965); The Hero Ship (1969); Overboard (1977), marginal;
Sounding (1982).

US tv series (1993- ). Amblin Television/Universal. Series creator Rockne
S. O'Bannon. Execprods include O'Bannon, David J. Burke, Patrick Hasburgh,
Steven SPIELBERG, TommyThompson. Supervising prods include Kerry Lenhart,
John J.Sakmar, Hans Tobeason, more. Dirsinclude Irvin Kershner, Les
Landau, Bill L. Norton, Les Sheldon, Bryan Spicer. Writers includeLenhart,
Sakmar, Michael CASSUTT, Melinda SNODGRASS, more. Stars include Roy
Scheider(Capt. Nathan Bridger), Jonathan Brandis (Lucas), Don Franklin
(Cmdr. Jonathan Ford), "Darwin" (voice: Frank Welker),Stephanie Beacham
(Dr Kristin Westphalen, season 1), Royce D. Applegate (Chief
Crocker,season 1),Edward Kerr (Lt. Brody, season 2). Two seasons to 1995,
current. An 86-min pilot (Aug1993) was followed by approximately fifty
50-min episodes in the first two seasons.seaQuest DSV (so spelled out on
screen), re-teaming the successful Jaws(1975) combination of Scheider and
Spielberg, was the Spielberg organization's second attempt to develop a
major prime-time sf tv show for NBC, the first being AMAZING STORIES,which
lasted only two seasons. Critical consensus is that the producers'
ambitions again exceed their grasp.The series, set around 25 years in the
future, postulates an Earth loosely governed by the "United Earth
Organization", wherein many nations and corporate entities have claimed
areas of the ocean for colonization or resource development. The title
refers to the submarine designed and commanded by Captain Nathan Bridger,
a flagship vessel in the tradition of STAR TREK's U.S.S. Enterprise.Also
distinctive was the introduction of "Darwin", a dolphin crew member able
to communicate with his crewmates via voder-liketechnology.Young actor
Jonathan Brandis, as boy genius Lucas Wolenczak, rapidly became a fan
favorite.Initially conceived and promoted as fairly rigorous science
fiction with an emphasis on exploration and discovery (Woods Hole
oceanographer Dr Robert Ballard was a technical consultant during the
first season, delivering educational messages over the closing
credits),the series achieved only faltering ratings and was soon embroiled
in a nearly constant cycle of retoolings and changes in creative
leadership. The direction of the stories changed,increasingly emphasizing
extra-terrestrial visitations and mystical phenomena, much to the publicly
expresseddisapproval of Scheider. Several cast members departed or were
dismissed after the first season, when it was announced that second-season
production would be moved to Florida from Hollywood.Part of seaQuest DSV's
rocky history may arise from its time slot, 8.00pm Sunday,opposite CBS's
venerablMurder, She Wrote and ABC's SUPERMAN vehicle LOIS & CLARK. Never a
solid ratings success, it showed a further marked decline in
ratingstowards the end of the second season. Prospects for a third season
appear uncertain, and further retooling is likely, but loyal fans have
mounted a well-organized lobbying campaign reminiscent of that launched
nearly 30 years earlier to preserve the original Star Trekseries.Tie-in
material has included a novelisation of the pilot by Diane DUANE and Peter
Morwood, novels by Matthew J. Costello and David BISCHOFF, and a
short-lived comic book from Nemesis Comics. [JCB]


Film (1966). Paramount/Joel/Gibraltar. Dir John FRANKENHEIMER, starring
Rock Hudson, Salome Jens, John Randolph, Will Geer. Screenplay Lewis John
Carlino, from Seconds (1963) by David ELY. 106 mins. B/w.A middle-aged
businessman (Randolph) pays a large sum to have his death faked and his
youth restored by futuristic surgery, so that he can start a new life in a
new body (Hudson). Tiring of the young swingers he now moves with, he
learns it is impossible to return to his old life. The shadowy
organization which arranged all this turns menacing at his backsliding,
and eventually has him killed, to be recycled for his body parts. The idea
was old, but the treatment, with its cold evocation of PARANOIA - all
Frankenheimer's best films feature powerful conspiracies using
technological means of manipulation (brainwashing in the case of 1962's
The MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE ) - was in advance of its time, anticipating the
sombre conspiracy movies of the 1970s. S is much helped by James Wong
Howe's moody, alienating black-and-white photography. [JB/PN]See also:



(1863-? ) US writer known only for Under the Flag of the Cross (1908), in
which, in AD2005, a valiant US Army fights off a Mongolian-Japanese
invasion with electric rifles. [JC]

Ferdinand GRAUTOFF.


(vt Sex Mission) Film (1984). Zespoly Filmowe. Dir Juliusz Machulski,
starring Olgierd psukaszewicz, Jerzy Stuhr, Bozena Stryjkowna, Boguslawa
Pawelec. Screenplay Machulski, Jolanta Hartwig, Pawel Hajny. 121 mins.
Colour.A solemn adventurer and a jolly wastrel volunteer for a CRYOGENICS
experiment and wake up 50 years later, after atomic war has (supposedly)
devastated the surface and the survivors have retreated into the usual
underground enclaves. There are no more men, and the mildly totalitarian
society is run by parthenogenetic women. The wastrel is keen on
reintroducing traditional methods of procreation, while the SCIENTIST is
more interested in demonstrating the follies of the brave new world. In
the Eastern European tradition of satirical sf, this Polish production
uses BUCK ROGERS trappings to get a few cheap laughs out of women. The
occasional sharp point is made, but S is surprisingly unwitty and obvious;
its anti- FEMINISM, latent throughout, emerges at the end when it is
revealed that society's matriarch is a manipulative male transvestite. S
is mainly redeemed by its wry performances, particularly by Stuhr,
POLAND's favourite comedian, as the lecherous lazybones. [KN]


Australian DIGEST-size magazine. 5 slim (32pp saddle-stapled) monthly
issues May-Sep 1955, published by Malian Press, Sydney; ed anon. SSF, a
companion to AMERICAN SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE, reprinted US material of
quite good quality. [FHP]

Working name of US writer Connie Leslie Sellers (1922-1992), author of at
least 100 novels invarious genres.His sf work, which is not significant,
includes F.S.C. (1963),The PleasureMongers (1964; vt Mr.Tomorrow1974) and
Red Rape(1964). [JC]

Pseudonym of UK writer and bookseller Robert Arthur Ley (1921-1968), who
began publishing sf stories with "The Haunting" for Authentic in 1953; the
best of his output of about30 tales was assembled in Time Transfer (coll
1956; with 5 stories cut 1966) and The Long Eureka (coll 1968). In the
1960s his productivity increased; he died (suddenly, of a heart attack)
just as he was gaining more and more notice. His first novel, Telepath
(1962 US; vt The Silent Speakers 1963 UK), is typical of all his best work
in the complexity of its protagonist (who must deal with his discovery of
his own limited ESP ability), the careful realization of venue, and a
sense that, although it may be intrusive, the unknown must be faced and
lived with. Later novels, quite variously expressing this quiet but
competent point of view, include: The Uncensored Man (1964), whose
protagonist is transferred via drugs into another DIMENSION where he
develops previously masked PSI POWERS and meets dubiously superior forms
of life ( SUPERMAN); The Quy Effect (1966), in which a man faces the
consequences attendant upon his invention of ANTIGRAVITY while at the same
time falling in love; Intermind (1967 US as Ray Luther; 1969 UK as AS), in
which a secret agent is injected with another person's memory to pursue a
complex case; and The Power of X (1968), which sets an art dealer -
perhaps a self-portrayal-into a world where material objects can be
perfectly duplicated, calling into question the nature of the authentic
work of art. AS's finest novel was his last. Junk Day (1970), a post-
HOLOCAUST tale set in the ruins of his native London and peopled with
engrossing character types, is perhaps grimmer than his previous work but
pointedly more energetic. [JC]See also: ESP; GENERATION STARSHIPS;

In the terminology of sf FANDOM, this expression - once colloquial but
enshrined since 1983 in the constitution of the World Science Fiction
Society, the body that administers the HUGOs - means a semiprofessional
magazine as opposed to an amateur magazine, or FANZINE. According to that
constitution a magazine with a circulation of more than 10,000 is a
professional magazine. A semiprozine must therefore have a circulation of
less than 10,000. It must also, according to the constitution, have
published at least 4 issues (at least 1 in the previous calendar year) and
fulfil 2 of the following 5 criteria: have an average press run of at
least 1000 copies; pay its contributors and/or staff in other than copies
of the publication; provide at least half the income of any one person;
have at least 15% of its total space occupied by advertising; announce
itself to be a semiprozine. Charles N. BROWN, editor of LOCUS magazine
(which has won numerous Hugos for Best Semiprozine), states additionally
in his regular commentaries on magazine publishing that the frequency of a
semiprozine should be at least quarterly, and that unlike a professional
magazine it should not have national newsstand circulation. A number of
the most important magazines of comment in the fields of sf and fantasy,
and several of the magazines that publish fiction, are or have been
semiprozines. [PN]

(1863-1939) US writer, editor and publishing aide. Under at least 27
pseudonyms he wrote perhaps 2000 stories, mostly boys' fiction, beginning
in his teens. In later life, when that market declined, he served as
managing editor for the Tousey publications, edited the weekly Motion
Picture Stories and wrote motion-picture scenarios. He remains best known
for his early work. In 1882, under the house pseudonym " NONAME", he took
over the Frank Reade, Jr. series of dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF; FRANK
READE LIBRARY), later claiming to have written "most" of the 179 stories
about Frank Reade, Jr. and "all" the comparable Jack Wright yarns; these
claims may be overstated. LPS exemplified the worst in the dime-novel
tradition: very bad writing, sadism, ethnic rancour, factual ignorance and
an exploitational mentality. On the positive side, he led the dime novel
away from eccentric inventions into a developmental stream that culminated
in modern CHILDREN'S SF. [EFB/JE]About the author: "The American Jules
Verne" (anon) in Science and Invention, Oct 1920; "Lu Senarens, Writer of
a Thousand Thrillers" by E. Alden in American Magazine, Apr 1921; "Ghosts
of Prophecies Past" by Sam MOSKOWITZ in Explorers of the Infinite (coll
1963); intro by E.F. BLEILER to The Frank Reade Library (omni, 10 vols
1979-86), which reprinted the complete FRANK READE LIBRARY.

Film (1982). Kingsmere Properties/Paramount. Dir Roger Christian,
starring Shirley Knight, Kathryn Harrold, Zeljko Ivanek, Paul Freeman.
Screenplay Thomas Baum. 91 mins. Colour.This modest melodrama, on the
borderline between sf and HORROR, tells of a hospitalized young man
(Ivanek) whose PSI POWERS of telepathic projection and TELEKINESIS cause
major disruption. As in VIDEODROME of the same year, the dividing line
between the real and the hallucinatory is invisible, to disturbing effect,
as bleeding mirrors and severed heads proliferate. It is a crisply told
story, though the cod psychiatric explanation (which hinges on a possibly
incestuous relationship of the patient with his mother, played by Knight)
is less interesting than the phenomena themselves. This was the debut
feature of the director, Christian, who had previously worked as set
decorator on STAR WARS and as joint art director on ALIEN. [PN]

(vt Time Slip) Film (1981). Toho. Dir Kosei Saito, starring Sonny Chiba,
Iasao Natsuki, Miyuki Ono, Jana Okada. Screenplay Toshio Kaneda, based on
Sengoku Jietai (1971) by Ryo Hammura ( JAPAN). 139 mins, cut to 100 mins.
Colour.Based on one of Ryo Hammura's intelligent novels, which use sf
reinterpretations to comment on Japanese history, this tells of a troop of
modern Japanese soldiers caught in a timeslip and transported back to
16th-century conflicts in the same area between local warlords. The
troop's commander, unlike the agonized ship's captain in The FINAL
COUNTDOWN (1980), has no hesitation in trying to change history so that he
and his men might somehow be returned to their own time, and sets about
conquering Japan. This action adventure plays its sf riffs confidently,
and shows visual flair in the numerous gory battle scenes in which few
soldiers (with modern technology) face many samurai (with very sharp
swords). [PN]

A term used to describe the sensation which, according to the CLICHE of
fan criticism that goes back at least to the 1940s, good sf should inspire
in the reader. In Metamorphoses of Science Fiction (1979) Darko SUVIN
summed up the attitude of many critics by describing the term as "another
superannuated slogan of much SF criticism due for a deserved retirement
into the same limbo as extrapolation". And yet . . ."Sense of wonder" is
an interesting critical phrase, for it defines sf not by its content but
by its effect (the term " HORROR" is another such). Several fan critics,
notably Alexei and Cory PANSHIN in The World Beyond the Hill (1989), have
attempted to locate the "sense of wonder" more specifically; the Panshins
found it in sf's "quest for transcendence", which elicited wonderment from
John CLUTE that the Panshins could give such emphasis to "the reified
wet-dream they think of as transcendence, but which others might call
fetish". It is true that to locate one abstraction, "sense of wonder",
within another, "transcendence", does not take us far forward, but that
does not necessarily rob the former phrase of its usefulness.The second
interesting thing about "sense of wonder" is that, by consensus, it can be
found par excellence in a number of books that are usually regarded as
rather badly written. Both E.E. "Doc" SMITH and A.E. VAN VOGT, for
example, failed to transcend the pulp style in novels which involved the
transcending of many other Earthly perspectives. The simplest escape from
the paradox - that sf's highest aspiration, the "sense of wonder", should
often be located in its lowest form, pulp prose - is to claim that those
readers who find the diamond in the dung-heap are mistaken, misled not by
Smith and van Vogt directly but by their own yearning adolescent dreams,
as fed by Smith, van Vogt and the others. This becomes another version of
the cynical old epigram that the GOLDEN AGE OF SF is 12 (or 13, or 14),
and as such may be rejected by the many readers who can still recall with
perfect clarity the feelings inspired in them by their first childhood or
adolescent encounters with these books, feelings that seem too honest and
strong to be dismissed as youthful illusion. The term "sense of wonder" is
useful precisely because it sums up these feelings accurately and
succinctly. Indeed, the principle of Occam's Razor suggests that, rather
than arguing (without evidence) that the diamond in the dung-heap was (or
is) really a bit of old quartz, it would be more useful to accept it as a
diamond, and to go on to ask the really interesting question: what was
(and is) it doing there?Twin loci classici of the "sense of wonder" are
the final sentences of van Vogt's THE WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER (1941-2 ASF;
1949 Thrilling Wonder Stories; fixup 1951) and The Weapon Makers (1943
ASF; fixup 1947; rev 1952; vt One Against Eternity 1955 dos). The first
novel ends: "He would not witness but he would aid in the formation of the
planets." The second novel ends: "This much we have learned. Here is the
race that shall rule the sevagram."The first of these examples (the second
is discussed in the entry on A.E. VAN VOGT) presents a sudden shift in
perspective, as the previously human protagonist of the novel now,
compelled by ever deeper seesaw-swings into the past and the future,
becomes an astronomical phenomenon, the phenomenon from which we all
sprang: here is the HERO as cosmological Adam. The "sense of wonder" comes
not from brilliant writing nor even from brilliant conceptualizing; it
comes from a sudden opening of a closed door in the reader's mind. (This
phenomenon may explain why generations of readers can still quote these
final lines verbatim.) In other words, the "sense of wonder" may not
necessarily be something generated in the text by a writer (which is where
the Panshins' analysis foundered, in their suggestion, for example, that
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom is a "transcendent realm"): it is created
by the writer putting the readers in a position from which they can
glimpse for themselves, with no further auctorial aid, a scheme of things
where mankind is seen in a new perspective.Cornel ROBU, in "A Key to
Science Fiction: The Sublime" (Foundation #42 [Spring 1988]) and
elsewhere, has argued that the new perspective is often a sudden
dislocation of scale, a shift to a new position along the enormous span
between cosmos and microcosm. Robu's argument that the "sublime" is the
key to "sense of wonder" takes its cue from a review by Peter NICHOLLS (in
Foundation #2 [June 1972]) of Poul ANDERSON's Tau Zero (1967 Gal; exp
1970), where, in an attempt to understand why so flatly characterized a
book could be so moving, Nicholls took refuge in defining"sense of wonder"
by quoting Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey":"And I have felt . . . a sense
sublime / Of something far more deeply interfused, / Whose dwelling is the
light of setting suns, / And the round ocean and the living air, / And the
blue sky, and in the mind of man: / A motion and a spirit, that impels. /
All thinking things, all objects of all thought, / And rolls through all
things." Another critic to use aesthetic notions of what he calls "the
natural sublime" in an sf context has been David KETTERER in "Science
Fiction and Allied Literature" (Science-Fiction Studies Mar 1976).To move
from Wordsworth to van Vogt may not quite be to move from the sublime to
the ridiculous. Van Vogt's hero poised in the archaic heavens ready to
create the planets will indeed, and literally, be far more deeply
"interfused" than the reader could possibly have expected up to that point
of the novel. Young readers of van Vogt might have been amused to know
that they would have to wait three decades, until about the mid-1970s,
before again encountering the view implied by van Vogt's sentence - but
this time lent support by the speculations of quantum physicists - that
the Universe exists as an external structure only through the
consciousness of its participants. The suggestion is not that van Vogt
seriously anticipated the quantum physicists; it is that his last sentence
invites readers to open their minds to such thoughts.Arguably, almost any
"sense-of-wonder"-producing case embedded in an sf text, no matter how
weak that text may be elsewhere, could be analysed to show a comparable
forcing of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH. That term was coined in the 1st edn of
this encyclopedia in recognition of the fact that Nicholls's earlier
"sense-of-wonder" definition in terms of the sublime was open to abuse in
the form of vaguely mystical, pantheist - or, indeed, transcendent! -
readings of sf texts. "Conceptual breakthrough", whereby the "sense of
wonder" is inspired through paradigm shifts - a variant of the shift in
perspective noted above - is a more focused term than "sublime", and
perhaps a more helpful one. (A further essay by Nicholls exploring the
links between conceptual breakthrough and "sense of wonder" is "Doors and
Breakthroughs" in Frontier Crossings [anth 1987] ed Robert Jackson.)We do
contend that, pace Suvin, the concept of "sense of wonder" may be
necessary if we are to understand the essence of sf that distinguishes it
from other forms of fiction, including most FANTASY. The diamond is real,
and cuts. But before we can use "sense of wonder" as a defining feature we
must first know more accurately what fictional elements produce it. The
discussion here does not pretend to do that, only to point in some
possibly useful directions.The task is made more difficult by the fact
that"sense of wonder" has become a debased term even within sf FANDOM,
which these days is as likely to use it ironically, spelling and
pronouncing it"sensawunna"This is in part because there are so many ways
in which sf writers can counterfeit, and have counterfeited, the "sense of
wonder", the simplest method being to introduce into the plot something
(a) alien, and (b) very, very big. BIG DUMB OBJECTS for a discussion of a
subgenre particularly subject to ersatz or automatic-pilot "sense of
wonder" of this kind - yet which often contrives to produce the genuine
article as well.As we become older and at least in our own eyes more
sophisticated, we are of course less likely to seek diamonds in
dung-heaps. Perhaps younger readers find them more readily because, while
they recognize a diamond when they see one, they haven't yet learned to
recognize a dung-heap. In this respect the "sense of wonder"is a
phenomenon of youth - but that does not make it any less real. [PN/CR]

[s] Algis BUDRYS.

There have been series in popular fiction, both within and outside GENRE
SF, at least since there have been magazines. For example, fans of Arthur
Conan DOYLE may have waited eagerly a century ago for the next Sherlock
Holmes story, or, inside sf and a bit later, the next Professor Challenger
story. Series are fun to write, fun to read, and they help sell magazines.
There were many sf series before the advent of specialized sf magazines,
examples being the Quatermain books of H. Rider HAGGARD and the much loved
Barsoom and Pellucidar stories of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, or, popular at the
time but now mostly forgotten, the Dr Hackensaw series of Clement
FEZANDIE. (In this encyclopedia we print series titles in bold type.)
There is no point here in trying to list the most popular fantasy and sf
series from, say, Robert E. HOWARD's Conan through Nelson S. BOND's Pat
Pending, but there may be a point in spelling out some of the ways sf
PUBLISHING has affected, and been affected by, series publication.In the
1930s, it became quite common to devote entire PULP MAGAZINES - or at
least their lead novels - to a single series featuring one main character
and his (or her) sidekicks. Examples include scientific detective Craig
BATTLEBIRDS (1934-5), or, more spectacularly in terms of longevity, Doc
Savage in DOC SAVAGE MAGAZINE (1933-49) or The Shadow (1931-49) or CAPTAIN
FUTURE (1940-44).When, in the late 1940s and the 1950s, SMALL PRESSES were
set up devoted to republishing classic magazine sf, it quite often
happened that their sometimes arbitrary dividing up of a series into books
set the shape by which that series was ever afterwards known. Thus Isaac
ASIMOV's Foundation series of 8 stories (mostly novelettes), published in
ASF (1942-49), appeared in book form as if 3 novels: Foundation (fixup
1951), Foundation and Empire (fixup 1952) and Second Foundation (fixup
1953). In this instance the illusion of them being novels was not
difficult to sustain, because the stories had been well planned to fit a
coherent and developing pattern.When a series of stories is collected in
book form, however, it is not always easy to decide, bibliographically,
the degree of cohesion the stories (often revised for this format) have
been given. Thus we might describe one book as "coll of linked stories"
and another as a FIXUP, the latter term being used by us to describe
stories sufficiently jelled together even in their first writing, or woven
together by rewriting, for the result to be called a novel. To take
examples, it seems fair to call George O. SMITH's Venus Equilateral (1947)
a collection of linked stories, although we describe A.E. VAN VOGT's THE
WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER (1941-2 ASF; 1949 Thrilling Wonder Stories; 1951) as
a fixup (a term its author also uses), because the degree of cohesion and
plotting towards a climax is very much greater in the latter than in the
former. But what, for example, of Gene WOLFE's THE FIFTH HEAD OF CERBERUS
(fixup 1972)? This is described by many bibliographers as a collection of
linked stories, which is true. But when one comes to examine the links,
including those that lie half-concealed beneath the surface of the text,
then the interweaving comes to appear so strong that the book, although
indeed in 3 parts, must surely be read as a single novel.These problems
about sf series whose first appearance was in magazines and original
anthologies came to seem somewhat old-fashioned during the 1980s and
1990s, because by far the greater number of sf series now being published
were appearing in books in the first instance. That, on the face of it, is
not very important, but the sinister aspect of 1980s series publishing was
the implacable way in which book series were taking over more and more of
the industry. These were often series thought up by a publisher or some
sort of entrepreneur, or even licensed out by a film studio. That is to
say, the author's primacy in writing series was beginning to lose out to
the purveyors of product concept, to whose instructions the authors wrote.
(The question of whether or not the authors retained copyright in the work
is not necessarily connected to their following of instructions, though
those authors who followed instructions but retained copyright no doubt
felt rather more dignified than those who did not.) This whole depressing
issue is touched on (from different perspectives) under the rubrics
entirely bad, however: there have been, for example, many enjoyable
original novels among the 100 or so STAR TREK ties. Even the book series
spun off from GAMES AND TOYS are not all bad, though many are; in the UK,
the company GAMES WORKSHOP persuaded several quite distinguished writers
to write novels and stories set in worlds first created for a games
format. Some of the shared-world series like WILD CARDS have produced
excellent work. But, even when the exceptions are admitted, there remains
a huge residue that few demanding readers could find anything but
dispiriting: series as formula, writing by numbers. In FANTASY writing,
for example, for every trilogy published that actually requires 3 vols for
its adequate development, there are half a dozen that are trilogies (or
even longer) for no better reason than to fill slots in the marketing
space. In HEROIC FANTASY (or SWORD AND SORCERY) the series mentality is
especially strong, as it is in SURVIVALIST FICTION and post- HOLOCAUST sf.
All this is saddening, because previously series had held a very
honourable position in the history of sf's development. Many readers of an
earlier generation had their innocent SENSE OF WONDER first awakened by E.
E. "Doc" SMITH's Lensmen stories (1934-50), and that is a comparatively
straightforward SPACE-OPERA example. In a series, there can be room for
enormous conceptual elaborations which could scarcely be confined within
the covers of a single book, as (arguably) in Frank HERBERT's Dune series,
or Larry NIVEN's Known Space series (a good example of the whole coming to
seem greater than the sum of its parts), or Ursula K. LE GUIN's Hainish
novels, or C.J. CHERRYH's Union/Alliance sequence, or Bruce STERLING's
Shaper/Mechanist series, or Brian W. ALDISS's Helliconia novels, or Gene
WOLFE's Book of the New Sun (more readily thought of as a 4-vol novel), or
Michael MOORCOCK's Jerry Cornelius books. It would obviously be possible
to extend this sequence for a very long way even while restricting it to
unusually distinguished work. Be sf in the form of HARD SF, NEW WAVE,
CYBERPUNK or SCIENCE FANTASY, it has been one of its great strengths (and
one of its unifying factors) that, unlike most MAINSTREAM fiction, it has
been able to work on such broad canvases. So far as we are aware, nobody
has made any academic analysis of the effect of series-writing on the
HISTORY OF SF, but the result would surely be a confirmation that series
developments have been at sf's very heart, certainly in the special but
vital case of future histories ( HISTORY OF SF). It may not be too great
an imaginative leap to see the whole of GENRE SF as constituting a kind of
gigantic meta-series (or multiverse), in which intellectual developments
in the form of constantly evolving protocols and motifs are passed from
writer to writer. Certainly many sf readers share an intuitive,
metaphysical sense that the entirety of genre sf somehow (ignoring
nitpicking distinctions) shares a common background, as if there were now
a real future that has been invented by consensus of the sf community. If
that seems an overstatement, then at least it can be granted that some of
sf's most heroic generic exploits have been conducted, and could only have
been conducted, in series form. All the more tragic, then, that the word
"series" in the 1980s (and still) should gradually be changing its meaning
to "multi-volume packaged commercial product". [PN]

[r] ITALY.

Working name of US screenwriter and TELEVISION producer Rodman Edward
Serling (1924-1975), best known for the tv series The TWILIGHT ZONE , for
which he won 3 HUGOS (1960-62). A paratrooper in WWII, he went to New York
in 1948 as a freelance writer, first for radio and then for tv. During the
1950s he became one of the most highly regarded tv writers, winning many
awards including 6 Emmies for such tv plays as Patterns (1955), Requiem
for a Heavyweight (1956) and The Comedian (1957). In 1959 he created,
wrote and produced the first of his The Twilight Zone anthology series, on
which he also appeared as host; his dark figure and gravelly tones became
very familiar to viewers. The series, mainly fantasy dramas with some sf,
lasted 5 years. In 1970 he tried to repeat this success with a similar
series, ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY, but it lasted only until 1972. In
addition to his tv work, which included writing many episodes for both The
Twilight Zone and Night Gallery, RS wrote a number of filmscripts such as
those for Requiem for a Heavyweight (1963; based on his tv script), John
FRANKENHEIMER's Seven Days in May (1964) and the original version (later
rewritten) of PLANET OF THE APES (1968).RS could hardly be described as an
original writer, but he was certainly clever at adapting existing ideas
and was a capable craftsman. He had the knack of producing work that, in
the context of most tv material, seemed more daring and profound than it
really was; his major flaw was slickness. Whatever his limitations, The
Twilight Zone came as a breath of fresh air to fans of fantasy and sf, who
had previously had little tv material available.RS wrote some of his
teleplays into short-story form and published several collections: Stories
from The Twilight Zone * (coll 1960), More Stories from The Twilight Zone
* (coll 1961), New Stories from The Twilight Zone * (coll 1962) - these
two almost certainly ghostwritten, possibly by Walter B. GIBSON - The
Season to Be Wary * (coll 1967), Night Gallery * (coll 1971) and Night
Gallery 2 * (coll 1972). Selections from the first 3 of these appeared in
From The Twilight Zone * (coll 1962) and all the contents of the first 3
in an omnibus, again titled Stories from The Twilight Zone * (omni 1986).
Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone * (coll 1963) and Rod Serling's Twilight
Zone Revisited * (coll 1964), ghostwritten by Walter B. Gibson, were
collected as the omnibus Rod Serling's Twilight Zone * (omni 1984). Of 3
further anthologies, Rod Serling's Triple W: Witches, Warlocks and
Werewolves (anth 1963), Rod Serling's Devils and Demons (anth 1967) and
Rod Serling's Other Worlds (coll 1978), the first 2 at least were
ghost-edited by Gordon R. DICKSON, and RS had been dead for 3 years by the
time the 3rd appeared.RS's name has continued to be used as a marketing
device. His widow, Carol Serling, who retains RS's tv rights, edited Rod
Serling's Night Gallery Reader * (anth 1987) with Martin H. GREENBERG and
Charles G. WAUGH. More importantly, she also played a prominent role as
editorial consultant in setting up Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone
Magazine (1981-9), initially monthly, which achieved prominence in the
fantasy/horror field. [JB/PN]

Pseudonym of Canadian writer Alain Lortie (1955- ), a central force in
Canadian sf, who began publishing in 1975 with the dark fantasies
"Jalbert" and "La Bouteille" ["The Bottle"] for Requiem, later serving
(from 1983) on the editorial collective of that magazine, now renamed
SOLARIS ( CANADA). His early work has been collected in Les Contes de
l'ombre ["Tales from the Shadow"] (coll 1979). His novels, marketed as
juveniles, are split into 2 main series: the Grandverger fantasies, set in
an imaginary enclave of New France - Legendes du vieux manoir ["Tales from
the Old Manor House"] (coll 1979), Le Tresor du "Scorpion" (1980; trans as
The "Scorpion" Treasure 1990), L'Epee Arhapal (1981; trans as The Sword
Arhapal 1990) and Le Cercle Violet ["The Purple Circle"] (1984) - and the
Exode or Argus sequence, about a benevolent extraterrestrial organization
keeping watch on the Earth: Organisation Argus (1979; trans David Homel as
Those Who Watch the Skies 1990), Argus Intervient (1983; trans David Homel
as Argus Steps In 1990), Argus: mission mille ["Argus: The Thousandth
Mission"] (1989) and Les Reves d'Argus ["The Dreams of Argus"] (1991).
Both series are brought together in La nef dans le nuages ["The Ship in
the Clouds"] (1989). Some of the adult stories assembled in Le Vieil Homme
et l'espace ["The Old Man and Space"] (coll 1981) also belong to the Exode
saga; the collection as a whole effectively displays DS's social and
political interests, as does the ambitious and well received Les Meandres
du temps ["The Meanders of Time"] (1983). More recently, he has begun
publishing tales set in a neverending Carnival; these have been assembled
as Boulevard des etoiles ["Stardust Boulevard"] (coll 1991) and A la
Recherche de Monsieur Goodtheim ["Looking for Mr Goodtheim"] (coll 1991).
This more recent work shows a willingness to explore new avenues, a
willingness also demonstrated by Chronoreg (1992), a complex and bleak
time-travel tale, set in an ALTERNATE WORLD Earth, and featuring a
homosexual telepathic death-haunted mercenary. [LP]Other works: La Cite
inconnue ["The Unknown City"] (1982); Ludovic (1983); Les Envoutements
["Bewitchments"] (1985); Quand vient la nuit ["As Night Falls"] (coll
1983); Aurores Boreales 2 (anth 1985); Nuits Blemes "Wan Nights" (1990);
Quatres destins ["Four Destinies"] (1990); La Magicienne bleue ["The Blue
Magician"] (1991); Le Cercle de Khaleb ["Khaleb's Circle"] (1991).

(1945- ) US writer of fantasy and sf, usually for older children,
beginning with the Winter sequence of post- HOLOCAUST fantasies invoking
King Arthur: Winter of Magic's Return (1985) and Tomorrow's Magic (1987).
Of sf interest are: A Question of Destiny (1986), a young-adult sf
thriller; Stinker from Space (1988 chap) and its sequel, Stinkers Return
(1993); Under Alien Stars (1990), set on an Earth occupied by ALIEN
invaders whose mores challenge human prejudices, and who themselves are
under attack from space; and Weirdos of the Universe, Unite! (1992), which
unconvincingly pits figures from human MYTHOLOGY against another alien
INVASION. [JC]Other works: When the Night Wind Howls (1987); The Reluctant
God (1988), a TIME-TRAVEL fantasy; Vision Quest (1989); Wizard of Wind and
Rock (1990); Being of Two Minds (1991); Weirdos of the Universe, Unite!

(1874-1958) UK-born poet and novelist, in Canada 1896-1912, where much of
his exceedingly popular verse was set. Of his several novels, The Master
of the Microbe: A Fantastic Romance (1926) is sf, featuring a deadly
plague virus developed by a vengeful German but stolen from him by a
master-criminal. The House of Fear (1927) is a werewolf tale. [JC]

(1851-1929) US journalist and writer who majored in science at Cornell
University, then studied law, and only afterwards entered journalism,
working on 2 New York newspapers before moving into freelance writing and
lecturing. His speciality was ASTRONOMY; his Other Worlds (1901) was a
significant work of popular science. In 1897 he was commissioned to write
an unofficial sequel to an equally unofficial US newspaper recasting of H.
G. WELLS's THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898), which was then making a
considerable stir as a newspaper and magazine serial, and - in the absence
of adequate copyright protection - inspiring various imitations along the
way. GPS's "sequel" was Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898 The New York
Journal; 1947; cut vt Forrest J. Ackerman Presents Invasion of Mars 1969),
a tale which quite remarkably captured the ebullient US spirit of the
time. Edison himself ( EDISONADE) is the protagonist. After the first wave
of Martians have duly perished of bacteria, he invents a disintegrating
WEAPON and an ANTIGRAVITY machine, using the latter to power 100
SPACESHIPS he has persuaded the nations of the world to build. The armada
invades MARS, and after many battles causes its polar icecap to melt,
which results in a genocidal flood. The book was one of the first
edisonades to be written for adults, and perhaps the only adult
presentation of the entrepreneurial inventor to mention his name on its
title page. In details of plot, and in its triumphal narrative tone, it
closely prefigured the SPACE-OPERA edisonades of E.E. "Doc" SMITH and his
imitators.GPS's remaining sf is intermittently vivid, but lacks the
seemingly unconscious mythopoeic potency of his first. In The Moon Metal
(1900), set in 1940, a mysterious figure supplies the world with a rare
untraceable metal which serves, for a while, as a new fiscal standard (
MONEY). "The Sky Pirate" (1909 The Scrap Book) features the
superscientific exploits of the eponymous adventurer. A Columbus in Space
(1909 All-Story Magazine; rev 1911) features another pioneering SPACE
FLIGHT, this time to VENUS. The Second Deluge (1912) is a DISASTER novel
in which the Earth is inundated to a depth of several miles as a result of
passing through a "nebula" composed of water; a latter-day Noah, having
built an ark, saves all God's creatures and visits the US West, where the
President has also been saved. This novel was reprinted 3 times: in
NOVELS (1948). GPS's last story, The Moon Maiden (1915 The Argosy; 1978
chap), is a dubiously complicated love tale in which it is revealed that
lunar beings have been guiding us upwards for millennia. In a sense, GPS
was born too soon; born 20 years later he might have become one of the
prolific masters of the new sf. [JC/MJE]See also: DISCOVERY AND INVENTION;


(1944- ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with "Isle
of Illusion" for Tales of the Witch World (anth 1987) ed Andre NORTON. Her
first novel, Reefsong (1991), features a genetically altered female
protagonist sent on an interstellar mission by the corporation which
controls her destiny. The Island Warrior sequence - comprisingDemon Drums
(1992), Storm Caller (1993) and Sorcerous Sea (1993) - is fantasy. [JC]

This entry is primarily about human sexual relationships and sexual
stereotypes as themes in sf; i.e., it is primarily about PSYCHOLOGY and
SOCIOLOGY. It discusses neither procreation nor the various inventive
methods of ALIEN sexual reproduction devised by sf writers.Traditionally
sf has been a puritanical and male-oriented literature. Before the 1960s
there was little sf that consciously investigated sexual questions but, as
with all popular literatures, what is implied is often as important as
what is openly put forward. Seen from this viewpoint, sf has been an
accurate reflector of popular prejudices and feelings about sex over the
years - especially in stories at the PULP-MAGAZINE end of the sf spectrum,
where the fantasies and TABOOS of the day are encapsulated more clearly
than in sophisticated works.An important theme of pulp sf - sex as
beastliness - appeared much earlier. Jonathan SWIFT's famous work of PROTO
SCIENCE FICTION, Gulliver's Travels (1726; rev 1735), in its 4th book
contrasts the brutish life of carnality led by the human-like Yahoos -
much given to public defecation and genital display - with the life of
reason led by the intelligent, horse-like Houyhnhnms; everyone understands
the satirical assault on the Yahoos, but fewer critics have recognized the
horses' fastidious squeamishness as being also, more subtly, under attack.
Swift's 18th-century frankness about sex was not to appear in sf again
with the same force for more than two centuries.In the 19th century,
feelings about sex were implied but seldom dealt with openly. The sexual
fears and fantasies often involved in GOTHIC SF tended to be envisioned as
powerful, irrational forces, difficult to quell. Frankenstein, or The
Modern Prometheus (1818; rev 1831) by Mary SHELLEY is more overt than most
in asking whether the artificial man's bestial urges, unfettered by a
soul, would prove devastating. This aspect of the story has been
emphasized in several film versions of FRANKENSTEIN, especially in the
parody Young Frankenstein (1974), where the monster's amorous abilities
prove as formidable as we had always suspected.Frankenstein points towards
a recurrent theme in pulp sf: fear of the ALIEN manifest (at least in the
subtext) as fear of a sexual capacity greater than ours, just as White men
stereotypically fear Black as sexual athletes too well endowed to compete
against. The menace of the alien is often seen in sexual terms in sf
ILLUSTRATIONS, which right through the magazines of the 1930s and 1940s
had a stronger sexual charge than the milk-and-water stories they
purported to illuminate.The sf pulp magazines seldom attempted to
titillate in the manner of, say, Spicy Mystery Stories - an exception was
MARVEL SCIENCE STORIES (especially in its incarnation as Marvel Tales),
which contained stories like "Lust Rides the Roller Coaster". Generally,
however, the SF MAGAZINES proved unable to link the two genres of the
spicy and the technological with any conviction. (The conjunction of flesh
and metal, however, later proved inspirational to sf COMICS artist
Jean-Claude Forest [1930- ], whose mildly erotic BARBARELLA featured a
heroine who was prepared to receive even the embrace of a ROBOT - a not
uncommon theme in the liberated 1970s, most amusingly dealt with in Robert
SHECKLEY's "Can You Feel Anything When I Do This?" [1969]. Barbarella was
successfully filmed in 1967 by Roger Vadim as a veritable compendium of
the sexual fantasies to be found in sf.)The sexual implications of sf
stories have varied remarkably little in the past 100 years, and most of
the themes were already well established in the popular literature of the
19th century. Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) by Robert Louis
STEVENSON explores the notion that the human mind contains a cheerfully
bestial component controlled by a mental censor that can - in this case
with drugs - be bypassed. Although there was more of METAPHYSICS than
science in the idea when Stevenson penned it, developments in psychology
(beginning, even as Stevenson wrote, with the work of Sigmund Freud
[1856-1939]) and later neurology showed him to have been not so very far
from the truth. Stevenson's fundamental theme, however, has a long history
in the Christian West, where the pleasures of the flesh have traditionally
been seen as sinful: it is the theme of Original Sin. Hyde was an
incarnation of "the evil that lurks in the heart of Man". Sin and
retribution remains a popular theme in HORROR and MONSTER MOVIES.Sf has
been largely written by men, and tends to reveal specifically masculine
sexual prejudices. (The female archetypes created by men are further
discussed in WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION.) An interesting early
example of gender archetype is found in THE TIME MACHINE (1895) by H.G.
WELLS. The future races discovered by the Time Traveller are the
masculine, hairy Morlocks and the effeminate, beautiful, irresponsible
Eloi, who are ultimately just cattle for the Morlocks. The two races
allegorize 19th-century sexual distinctions and class distinctions
simultaneously. One of the illustrations by Virgil FINLAY to a magazine
reprint of the story makes the point vividly.To immature men, women often
appear like an alien race, and much popular sf reflects a fear of their
threatening foreignness. The stereotype of the Amazon Queen - imperious,
cruel and desirable - is abundantly present in She (1887) and other novels
by H. Rider HAGGARD. The she-devil, a favourite recurring Victorian
literary archetype (Victorian pornography makes just as much of women
chastising men with whips as vice versa), turns up throughout pulp sf,
notably in the romances of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS and in many tales
published in PLANET STORIES.It might be expected that the image of woman
as all-engulfing Holy Prostitute and She-Fiend would be an exclusively
masculine fantasy, but - perhaps because it is at least an image of power
in a world where, during the era of the pulp magazines, women were
relatively powerless - it attracted some women writers. C.L. MOORE made a
speciality of such figures, notably in her Northwest Smith tales. The
Medusa creature in Moore's "Shambleau" (1933) is an archetype of the
female as a fantasy of sexual horror: "From head to foot he was slimy from
the embrace of the crawling horror about him . . . and the look of
terrible ecstasy that overspread [his face] seemed to come from somewhere
far within"The conjunction of womanhood and slime may have pathological
connotations, but is familiar enough in GENRE SF and elsewhere. Consider
the following passage from The Deathworms of Kratos (1975) by Richard
Avery (Edmund COOPER): "Each time she was penetrated, the queen's huge
body rippled and arched and she gave out a hissing, screaming grunt. Steam
rose from her straining body, gouts of milky fluid dripped from her
immense length, bubbling from her orifices . . ." The sexual confusions
are intense: the queen is a giant worm, and, though female, unmistakably
phallic in shape. The watchers are "sickened" but excited and, within
pages, are asking the spaceship captain for permission to pair off and
copulate. The sexual ambiguities here are of the very essence of pulp
sf.Some of the worst sexual crudities in sf, much attacked by FEMINISTS of
both sexes, are found in the male writers of HEROIC FANTASY. What was
merely a subtext in Robert E. HOWARD's Conan stories of the 1930s had
become explicit and central in John NORMAN's Gor books of the 1960s: a
male desire to exert power over women, which Norman depicts in his many
bondage and flagellation scenes in a manner clearly intended to be
sexually arousing. The visual counterpart of these writings can be seen in
the paintings of Frank FRAZETTA, whose ripe, lush beauties, when not being
menaced by scaly, phallic monsters or subdued by men, are themselves cruel
Amazons, holding the most brawny-thewed men in thrall.Miscegenation, the
mixing of races, is another common sexual theme in sf. It was often seen
in LOST-WORLD fiction from around the turn of the century to be degrading
( DEVOLUTION), as in Austyn GRANVILLE's The Fallen Race (1892), where a
primitive tribe has resulted from the bestial union of aboriginals and
kangaroos. But even during the period up to the 1920s, when racist popular
fiction was the rule rather than the exception, miscegenation could be
seen as a good thing. An early human-alien union can be found in
Burroughs's A PRINCESS OF MARS (1912; exp 1917), symbolized in the amusing
scene where John Carter stands proudly next to his wife, the princess,
looking at their child in its incubator: the child at this stage is a
large egg. For decades the sf magazines, notably Planet Stories, often
featured on their covers BEMS with lascivious expressions pursuing human
women - an obvious absurdity ( SCIENTIFIC ERRORS).Thus far we have
emphasized the sexual assumptions of society - especially male society -
as revealed in sf, but not as analysed in sf. The very nature of sf,
however, in which societies with cultures and appearances different from
our own can be readily imagined, makes it an excellent medium for asking
hard questions about our own sexual prejudices. By the 1980s, the
conservative sexual bigotry of sf had largely given way to a radical
exploration of alternative sexual possibilities (though these, too,
produced their own CLICHES). The process had first got under way in the
early 1950s, when Philip Jose FARMER and Theodore STURGEON treated the
miscegenation theme more seriously. Hitherto magazine sf, no matter what
it might coyly imply, had never been sexually explicit. Kay Tarrant,
assistant to John W. CAMPBELL Jr, the editor of ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION
(later Analog), was famous for her prudishness, and persuaded many writers
to remove "offensive" scenes and "bad language" from their stories. This
was partly in keeping with the spirit of the age and partly to protect
adolescent boys, probably ASF's main readership. Some writers made a game
of outwitting her; in his story"Rat Race" (1947) George O. SMITH got away
with mentioning a "ball-bearing mousetrap" on one page, revealing on the
next page the device: a tomcat. But both Farmer and Sturgeon were, for
their period, explicit. They recognized that, in a genre which prided
itself on imagining new and different societies, the sexual taboo was
absurdly anachronistic, particularly because it did not exist to the same
degree in conventional fiction. Sturgeon explored both three-way
relationships and human-alien relationships in a number of stories and
novels, notably Venus Plux X (1960), a savage attack on gender
stereotyping. Farmer's THE LOVERS (1952 Startling Stories; exp 1961) dealt
with inter-species love and sex, as did many of his stories, including
"Mother" (1953), in which a spaceman is inveigled into an alien womb,
where he makes his home - perhaps the ultimate in Freudian sf stories.
Both these writers questioned concepts of "normal" and "perverse"
(although there is a critical argument about the degree of crudeness,
salacity or sometimes sentimentality with which the attempt was made).By
the 1960s miscegenation was an acceptable serious theme in sf, and it was
perhaps most carefully and delicately explored in Ursula K. LE GUIN's
novel THE LEFT HAND OF DARKNESS (1969). An ordinary human is forced to
rethink the whole question of sexual roles when faced with a race (and
emotionally involved with one of its members) who are bisexual in that
they can be, at different times, either man, woman or neuter. A sensitive
treatment of love between alien races is STRANGERS (1974 New Dimensions;
exp 1978) by Gardner DOZOIS, which draws attention to the ghastly errors
that can occur from trying to understand a foreign society in terms of the
assumptions of one's own.After the pioneer work of Sturgeon and Farmer-and
also such mildly daring works as The Disappearance (1951) by Philip WYLIE,
which postulates a total but temporary division between the societies of
men and of women, "Consider Her Ways" (1956) by John WYNDHAM, which deals
with an ambiguously utopian all-women society, and The Girls from Planet 5
(1955) by Richard WILSON, which deals skittishly with a similar theme -
the breaking of the dam came with the so-called NEW WAVE in the 1960s.
Suddenly, explicit sex was commonplace in sf, in work by Brian W. ALDISS,
J.G. BALLARD, Samuel R. DELANY, Norman SPINRAD and many others. Harlan
ELLISON's consciously taboo-breaking anthology DANGEROUS VISIONS (anth
1967) printed some stories of this type.Writers of an older generation,
such as Isaac ASIMOV and Robert A. HEINLEIN, also blossomed out into the
freedom of the 1960s. In much of Heinlein's late work the central theme is
a strong plea for sexual emancipation, sometimes expressed with a kind of
embarrassing locker-room prurience. This was his emphasis from his popular
STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND (1961) onwards, most obviously in I Will Fear
No Evil (1970) - in which an old man is given new life in the body of his
young female secretary - and again in Time Enough for Love (1973) and
FRIDAY (1982).One publisher, ESSEX HOUSE, specialized in pornographic sf
(a genre that had its heyday in the late 1960s and early 1970s) including
Farmer's The Image of the Beast (1968) and A Feast Unknown (1969) as well
as books by Hank STINE and David MELTZER. Other publishers followed suit,
notably Olympia and Ophelia Press, which published sf erotica by, among
others, Charles PLATT and Barry N. MALZBERG, the latter's work being
perhaps the gloomiest pornography ever published. Most of the above were
partially serious in intent, and sometimes more emetic than erotic.
Slightly less reputable houses published pornography by Richard E. GEIS
and Andrew J. OFFUTT, and down at the bottom of the barrel could be found
books with titles like Anal Planet (1976) by Alex Forbes. (A number of
other sf writers - including both Marion Zimmer BRADLEY and Robert
SILVERBERG under pseudonyms - occasionally published non-sf erotica,
usually as a quick way of earning money.)Some critics consider that the
most distinguished work of "pornographic" sf is Crash (1973) by J.G.
Ballard, in which images of technology and images of sex are interwoven to
make an ambiguous and not necessarily disapproving comment on the nature
of technological society and its alienations. The central images of this
book are the orgasm and the car crash, the one often leading to the other.
Also of note are some of the stories in Ballard's THE ATROCITY EXHIBITION
(coll 1970; vt Love and Napalm: Export USA 1972 US).Sf is more liable than
other genres, with the exception of horror, to link sex with disgust.
Robert BLOCH, Ray BRADBURY and Sturgeon all wrote stories in which images
of sex overlap with images of violence, blood, revulsion and pain, yet
these authors are generally considered to be towards the more "liberal"
end of the sf spectrum. This dis-ease with sexuality, perhaps cultural in
origin, is also reflected in a recurrent image of overtly sexual sf: a
mind/body dualism in which the body is seen as "alien" and governing the
mind, rather than governed by it or in partnership with it.On the more
positive side, sf that consciously judges the sexual prejudices of our own
society by imagining societies with quite different sexual expectations
began - relatively speaking - to flourish from the 1970s on, though
remaining rather a small subgenre within sf as a whole. Many of these
works were written by women, especially feminist writers, most notably
Joanna RUSS, and are discussed under FEMINISM. Such writers have made
extrapolations towards cultures where troilism, homosexuality, bisexuality
or even pansexuality is the norm. Samuel R. DELANY does so in much of his
writing, notably in DHALGREN (1975) and Triton (1976) along with later
works. Thomas M. DISCH does so in 334 (1972). Sf with a homosexual or
bisexual theme is now commonplace, though Delany, for one, has suffered
censorship from book-distribution companies for dramatizing these issues.
An interesting reference work in this field is Uranian Worlds: A Reader's
Guide to Alternative Science Fiction and Fantasy (1983; rev 1990) by Eric
Garber and Lyn Paleo, which annotates 935 novels and stories of "variant
sexuality", plus films. (Sf FANDOM, too, has recognized the interest in
gay sf with the formation in 1987 of the Gaylactic Network, based in
Massachusetts, with 7 affiliated Gaylaxian groups in the USA and
Canada.)Two important writers on sexual themes, both interested in
"alternative" sexuality and both attaining prominence in the 1970s, have
been James TIPTREE Jr and John VARLEY. Tiptree (not revealed to be a woman
until 1977, when she had been publishing sf for a decade) sadly, savagely
examined the skewings of sexual impulse in much of her work; it was her
central theme, and with her anthropologist's eye she dissected it with
great power. Varley, who works with broader strokes, examines polymorphous
eroticism - with dazzle and schmaltz perhaps approaching too closely the
condition of the romp - among the several themes of his Gaean trilogy:
Titan (1979), Wizard (1980) and Demon (1984). More recently, Sexual
Chemistry (coll 1991) by Brian M. STABLEFORD deals wryly with sexual
issues, though its prime theme is GENETIC ENGINEERING.The great change in
sexual life during the 1980s was (as it still is) the AIDS epidemic, among
whose many results has been the higher premium now placed on monogamy.
Much sf of the 1980s has (either directly or metaphorically) touched on
the AIDS theme, including Unicorn Mountain (1988) by Michael BISHOP and
the surreal, sodomitical nightmares of The Fire Worm (1988) by Ian WATSON.
A distinguished short story on the theme is Judith MOFFETT's "Tiny Tango"
(1989), later incorporated into THE RAGGED WORLD: A NOVEL OF THE HEFN ON
EARTH (1991), which features, among many strange, sad images, that of an
HIV-positive woman who voyeuristically frequents male lavatories wearing a
fake penis.Sf CINEMA has also been transformed in the past two decades,
though much of its sexual explicitness in the 1970s and 1980s is merely
titillation, as in MY STEPMOTHER IS AN ALIEN (1988). The mild frissons of
ALRAUNE (1928), with its image of the soulless seductress formed by
artificial insemination, or I MARRIED A MONSTER FROM OUTER SPACE (1958),
with its theme of the bridegroom-cum- MONSTER (a traditional fear), have
given way to the women who kill with sex in INVASION OF THE BEE GIRLS
(1973) and the alien orgasm-feeders of LIQUID SKY (1982). But by far the
most sophisticated, and to some disgusting, of modern cinematic
explorations of sexuality are the films of David CRONENBERG, especially
The PARASITE MURDERS (1974; vt They Came from Within; vt Shivers), RABID
(1976), The BROOD (1979), VIDEODROME (1982), The FLY (1986) and Dead
Ringers (1989). From the parasite-induced nymphomania of the first,
through the sexual metamorphoses of the next four, to the grotesquely
cruel gynaecological technology of the last, the much-abused and
-penetrated body is both the battlefield of Cronenberg's mind/body
metaphysics and the object of his tenderness.Perhaps the strongest
anthology of sf stories with sexual themes is Alien Sex (anth 1990) ed
Ellen DATLOW; this includes Connie WILLIS's shocking, but to some
unconvincing, "All My Darling Daughters" (1985), about child and animal
abuse, which presents men as sexual sadists. Arrows of Eros (anth 1989) ed
Alex Stewart is a recent UK anthology. Strange Bedfellows: Sex and Science
Fiction (1972) ed Thomas N. SCORTIA, Eros in Orbit (1973) ed Joseph Elder
and The Shape of Sex to Come (1978) ed Douglas HILL are earlier theme
anthologies. An amusing study, with special reference to sf ILLUSTRATION,
is Great Balls of Fire! A History of Sex in Science Fiction (1977) by
Harry HARRISON. 2 anthologies of critical essays about sex in sf/fantasy
are Erotic Universe (anth 1986) and Eros in the Mind's Eye (anth 1986),
both ed Donald Palumbo. [PN]


1. (1927- ) Australian writer, long resident in the UK, whose The Coming
Self-Destruction of the United States of America (1969) features a Black
revolution that, though temporarily successful, precipitates an atomic
catastrophe.2. Early pseudonym used by S. Fowler WRIGHT. [JC]

Titles of organizations, magazines, etc., which begin "SF", meaning
"science fiction", are listed as if that acronym were spelt out in full.

(1929-1988) US writer who began publishing sf with "All the Way Back" for
ASF in 1952, and who for a few years seemed to be one of the heirs
apparent to the sf pantheon. He did not remain in the field, however, and
his name faded from its collective memory. His Civil War novel, The Killer
Angels (1974), won a Pulitzer Prize. In the early 1980s he returned to sf
for a short while with The Herald (1981), a novel set in a NEAR-FUTURE
USA, where a scientist has developed a plague with which to rid the Earth
of humanity. In Soldier Boy (coll 1982) he assembled his most memorable sf
stories, in which a slightly distanced diction is at times absorbingly
applied to straightforward genre plots involving strange planets, ALIENS
and quick revelatory ironies about the human condition. [JC]

[s] Brian W. ALDISS.


[r] Eluki BES SHAHAR.

(1892-1953) UK editor and writer in various genres whose sf novel, The
People of the Ruins: A Story of the English Revolution and After (1920),
uses SUSPENDED ANIMATION to take a man 150 years onwards from a
strife-torn 1924 into a balkanized primitive land whose descent into final
chaos his reintroduction of WWI weaponry fails to prevent. Coming so soon
after WWI, this novel may be the first to express the conservative
aftermath pessimism (ES's 1924 is ruined by labour strife) that soon
became common in UK sf. [JC]Other work: Old King Cole (1936), involving
the revival of ancient British rites.See also: END OF THE WORLD; HISTORY

William S. RUBEN.

(1926-1990) US writer in whose A Time to Remember (1986) a man travels
back via timeslip to prevent John F. Kennedy's assassination. [JC]Other
work: Simon's Soul (1977), a fantasy.

A term almost certainly devised by Gardner DOZOIS in the late 1980s to
designate a story or book which has been written on hire; that is,
assigned to an author - who will not hold copyright in the piece that s/he
writes - by a franchiser or the copyright owner of the concept being
developed. To describe a text as sharecropped is in 1995 almost certainly
to disparage it as commodity fiction, designed to fit a prearranged
marketing slot and written to order according to strict instructions from
the owner. Most pieces written for hire are in fact spun off from previous
works or concepts, and for this reason the term has often been used to
designate any tie or shared-world text, without respect to the ownership
of that text. This usage tends to reduce the term to an epithet whose
actual meaning is impossible to fix. In this encyclopedia - given that we
are not as a whole much interested in examining contractual arrangements
between authors and publishers - the term is used infrequently, and then
only to designate a condition of ownership. Any text spun off from a
previous work or concept not originated by the author of the text is here
designated a TIE (which see for further discussion). Similarly, many
sharecrops are tied to SHARED WORLDS; but the author of a shared-world
text may be the originator of that world (so the work in question cannot
properly be called a tie) and may also retain copyright in his or her own
name (so the work cannot properly be called a sharecrop). In sum, although
the three terms often overlap, they are in fact quite distinct. [JC]

Stories and novels written by different hands but sharing a setting are
in this encyclopedia called shared-world stories. They are usually (but
not always) published as contributions to original- ANTHOLOGY series, in
turn usually (but not always) edited by the creator(s) of the original
setting, who also controls the "bible". This "bible" is a set of rules
controlling a shared world by defining the roles, actors, venues, genres,
plots and significance of any story written within that world, and is
usually shaped in the first instance by the owner(s) and/or creator(s) of
the shared world in question, although it may often be augmented by later
contributors, who may or may not own a share of the enterprise. A mature
"bible" - like that for Jerry E. POURNELLE's War World - will almost
certainly accrete, over the years, an onion growth of supplementary
speculations, genealogies, tables, maps and ancillary tales; but at heart
it remains a set of instructions, a kind of genetic code, for writing
stories.It could be argued that the first shared-world anthology to make a
significant impact on the Western World was the Christian New Testament,
and that the authors of the various pieces which were eventually assembled
under that name used the Old Testament as their "bible". It is, of course,
understood that the Old Testament typologies which the authors of the New
Testament felt impelled to match served for them as profound adumbrations
of a Story which was True; but the point is made to underline the fact
that the concept of pooling a vision of the Universe did not originate (as
has been asserted by some) in the Thieves' World anthologies (published
from 1979) created by Robert ASPRIN. Beneath and beyond the commercial
shared-world enterprises of today lies a vision of (and perhaps a
nostalgia for) a human Universe in the hands of a Creator, whose Book we
obey (and share).If we place round-robin novels to one side as being forms
of collaboration, we find that the first relevant shared-world enterprises
were probably the Christmas Annual anthology/special issues produced by
popular magazines and publishers in the UK after about 1860. The most
significant shared-world anthology thus produced was probably Mugby
Junction * (anth 1866 chap) ed Charles DICKENS, a special Christmas issue
of All the Year Round, a self-contained volume entirely given over to 2
frame narratives plus 6 stories (the most famous being Dickens's own "No.
1 Branch Line, the Signalman") set at the eponymous railway stop; it
involved 5 writers, 4 of them following Dickens's instructions. Other
examples of the form include Beeton's Christmas Annual (anth 1880), which
contained Max ADELER's "Professor Baffin's Adventures", a long lost-race
tale ( LOST WORLDS) that served as the centrepiece of a series of linked
stories over-titled The Fortunate Island, and was quite probably a source
for Mark TWAIN's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889); and
some of the parodic journal Truth's Christmas Numbers, including The
Spookeries * (anth 1893 chap), Munchausen [sic] Up to Date * (anth 1894
chap), Phon-Photopsy-Grams, or Speaking Likenesses * (anth 1897 chap),
Nineteen Hundred and Seven * (anth 1900 chap) and Interview with the
Departed * (anth 1908 chap).Again ignoring round-robin collaborations, the
first shared-world anthology in GENRE SF was The Petrified Planet (anth
1952) ed Fletcher PRATT, which contained long stories by Judith MERRIL, H.
Beam PIPER and Pratt. These stories were set on the world of the title,
were written according to a primitive "bible", and were the first to
engage upon what would become a central activity of sf shared-world
writers: world-building. While almost any premise, however loose, can
become the basis of a shared world, in sf the essential shared world is
literally a world, and the "bible" serves as a manual for world-building
(or, in less rigorously constructed collaborations, for PLANETARY-ROMANCE
excursions). A World Named Cleopatra * (anth 1977) ed Roger ELWOOD from a
concept by Poul ANDERSON, Medea: Harlan's World * (anth 1985) ed Harlan
ELLISON and Murasaki * (anth 1992) ed Robert SILVERBERG and Martin Harry
GREENBERG are examples of planet-building exercises, and all stand close
to the heart of sf. Marion Zimmer BRADLEY's Darkover sequence is an
example of the planetary-romance shared world.In the meanwhile, however,
the STAR TREK tv series began to generate adaptations of individual
episodes, these first tales being simple novelizations rather than
contributions to a shared-world enterprise (although of course in script
form they adhered to series continuity); but the Star Trek owners soon ran
out of adaptable stories, and the first original novels within the world -
Mack REYNOLDS's children's book Mission to Horatius * (1968) and James
BLISH's adult novel Spock Must Die! * (1970) - soon appeared. It is not
known if Blish was tied to an extensive "bible" for the writing of this
novel, but certainly later original stories - from Spock Messiah! * (1976)
by Theodore COGSWELL and Charles A. Spano onward - were shaped according
to a "bible" that became more and more strict as the years passed. Over a
similar timespan, the approximately 140 DR WHO ties also appeared, though
many of these have been adaptations - as have been most novels tied to tv
series. (The simple distinction between an adaptation and a shared-world
story should perhaps be made explicit: an adaptation is the reworking of
an existing story or script; a shared-world tale is a narrative written
according to the set of instructions, or agreements, which generate that
particular setting.)There is a general assumption - which may or may not
be well founded - that almost all shared-world novels tied to tv or film
series are SHARECROPS, and can therefore be defined as work-for-hire
contributions to "franchised worlds". In this encyclopedia, however, our
focus is on the literary nature of shared worlds rather than on issues of
ownership, and thus we have barely used the term "franchised"; it may be
noted in passing that most franchised worlds are in fact shared-world
enterprises written to strict "bibles" by authors whose disenfranchisement
is generally all too evident.)Star Trek and Dr Who are examples of
shared-world series whose inspiration lies in media other than the written
word; the Star Wars novels of L. Neil SMITH and Timothy ZAHN belong in
this category, as does the Dark Futures sequence edited by David PRINGLE,
which constitutes one of the very few sf sequences based on a role-playing
game ( GAME WORLDS) whose authors (although the books were sharecropped)
were able to write with apparent autonomy.During the past 15 years or so,
two rough categories of shared worlds have become popular. Stories written
for the Witch World setting by hands other than Andre NORTON (or by other
hands for Bradley's Darkover) typify the class of shared-world enterprises
which are based on a setting already created by an author for his or her
own use, and subsequently made available to other writers ( CLOSED
UNIVERSE and OPEN UNIVERSE for brief analysis of the generally very
restrictive nature of that availability). Other shared worlds of this sort
include Isaac ASIMOV's Robot City, Larry NIVEN's Man-Kzin Wars, Jerry
Pournelle's War World and Fred SABERHAGEN's Berserker. The second category
concerns the shared-world setting created - either alone by its inventor,
or by creative personnel working for hire for a packager such as the Byron
PREISS enterprise, or as a communal enterprise on the part of those who
plan to write within its terms - as a pure and original shared world
without any preceding text to sanction or constrain it, and only a "bible"
for its initial guide. Asprin's Thieves' World is of this sort. Others
include: Liavek, ed Emma BULL and Will Shetterly; the Fleet, run by David
A. DRAKE and Bill FAWCETT; Temps, The Weerde and Villains ed by members of
Midnight Rose (Neil GAIMAN, Mary GENTLE, Roz KAVENEY and Alex Stewart);
WILD CARDS, supervised by George R.R. MARTIN; and Time Machine, one of
several controlled by Byron Preiss.In recent years the concept of the
shared world has generated large masses of mediocre work, often written
for hire, without joy, or taste, or thought. But that is not a universal
rule. Some shared worlds begin in comradeship and continue to demonstrate
the pleasures of sharing. The collegial shared world is a model of the sf
community at play. Good shared worlds of this sort may, we can hope, in
due course drive out the bad. [JC]

Working name of US writer John Michael Sharkey (1931-1992) for all his
sf, which he began publishing with "The Captain of his Soul" for Fantastic
in 1959. He produced about 50 stories over the next 5 years or so,
including several in the 1960s for Gal on ECOLOGY. His sf novels, The
Secret Martians (1960 dos) and Ultimatum in 2050 A.D. (1963 AMZ as "The
Programmed People"; 1965 dos), were enjoyable contributions to the genre.
The protagonist in the first book is a thoroughly likable SUPERMAN; the
second book is by contrast downbeat. After 1965 he was actively mainly as
a playwright. [JC]Other work: The Addams Family * (1965), a tv tie.

[s] Judith MERRIL.

[r] Jon J. DEEGAN.

US magazine; current; #1 Nov 1992; bimonthly; by March 1995 up to vol 3,
no. 3, whole number 15; saddle-stapled; small- BEDSHEET; full-colour;
slick. Published by Mark Hintz, ed Scott Edelman, from Herndon,
Virginia.This was the most impressive professional sf magazine launched in
the 1990s. With a cover price for two years of $2.95, it has settled to a
respectable over-60,000 circulation: higher than FSF, lower than IASFM and
ASF. The 1995 cover price is $3.95, with a 16-page insert with more
fiction on non-slick paper announced. The magazine is not dominated by
fiction. It has a good mix, most issues featuring an artwork portfolio,
articles, reviews, columns and fiction, with many comparatively short
pieces. Fiction authors have included Ben BOVA, David BRIN, Greg
Costikyan, Paul Di Filippo, Geoffrey A. Landis, Barry N. MALZBERG, Robert
REED, Mike RESNICK, Allen STEELE, Adam Troy-Castro and others. The fiction
is not generally experimental, but by no means all conservative either.
Not many of its stories have received award nominations, though a number
of good stories have been published. However it is the liveliness of the
layout, the art work, and the non-fiction pieces that probably accounts
for most of SFA's success; the covers are mostly reprint artwork, a policy
that allows for a high standard. Not only fiction is reviewed; coverage
includes comics, sf art and movies. Reviewers and columnists have included
Edelman, Terry BISSON, John BRUNNER, Robert SILVERBERG. A companion
magazine (not sf), Realms of Fantasy, was distributed at the world sf
convention with a cover date of Oct 1994, bimonthly, ed Shawna MCCARTHY;
it, too, has been well received. [PN]

Sf stories were a popular and prominent feature of such general-fiction
PULP MAGAZINES as The ARGOSY and The ALL-STORY during the first quarter of
the 20th century. They were not, however, known as sf: if there were any
need to differentiate them, the terms SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE or "different
stories" might be used, but until the appearance of a magazine
specifically devoted to sf there was no need of a label to describe the
category. The first specialized English-language pulps with a leaning
towards the fantastic were THRILL BOOK (1919) and WEIRD TALES (1923), but
the editorial policy of both was aimed much more towards weird-occult
fiction than towards sf.As specialized pulps became common it was
inevitable that there would be one devoted in some fashion to sf; it fell
to Hugo GERNSBACK actually to publish the first such magazine (if we
discount the "Twentieth Century Number" [June 1890] of the OVERLAND
MONTHLY). Gernsback's SCIENCE AND INVENTION consistently published much sf
among its otherwise nonfiction articles, and in Aug 1923 had a special
issue devoted to "scientific fiction"; in 1924 he solicited subscriptions
for a magazine to be called Scientifiction. This did not materialize, but
two years later (Apr 1926) #1 of AMAZING STORIES appeared. Gernsback's
coinage, SCIENTIFICTION, reflected his particular interest in sf as a
vehicle for prediction and for the teaching of science. In a magazine
which featured both Jules VERNE and Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, it was a label
that fitted the former's stories far more readily than the latter's.AMZ
was somewhat different in appearance from the usual pulp magazines, which
measured approximately 7in x 10in (20cm x 30cm) and were printed on
poor-quality paper with rough, untrimmed edges. AMZ adopted the larger
BEDSHEET size (approx 81/2in x 111/2in [24cm x 32.5cm]) and its pages were
trimmed. The reason for this may have been to give an impression of
greater respectability in order to have the magazine displayed on
newsstands with the more prestigious "slick" magazines; certainly this was
the result. The attempt at dignity was belied by the garishness of some of
Frank R. PAUL's cover art, while the magazine's editorial matter had a
stuffy, Victorian air. However, AMZ proved initially successful; according
to Gernsback in the Sep 1928 issue, 150,000 copies were printed monthly,
although "Very frequently we do not sell more than 125,000 copies". The
same issue gives a clue to AMZ's readership; of 22 letters printed, 11 are
avowedly from high-school pupils. It was through the letters column of AMZ
and later magazines that sf FANDOM began.When Gernsback lost control of
AMZ in 1929 through bankruptcy it remained in the hands of his assistant,
the venerable T. O'Conor SLOANE, and changed little, while the new
magazines which Gernsback then started - AIR WONDER STORIES and SCIENCE
WONDER STORIES - adopted the same format and were very much the mixture as
before. In fact, including AMAZING STORIES QUARTERLY and Science Wonder
Quarterly (later WONDER STORIES QUARTERLY), Gernsback started not just the
first English-language sf magazine but the first five. It is not
surprising that the limited Gernsbackian view of sf gained a strong hold.
The emphasis on "science" in the category label (either "scientifiction"
or "science fiction"), often quite inappropriately, is a legacy of
this.The first challenge to Gernsback's view of sf magazine publishing
came in 1930 with the appearance of Astounding Stories of Super-Science (
ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION). ASF belonged to the large Clayton magazine
chain, and was unequivocally a pulp magazine. Its editor, Harry BATES, was
unimpressed by Gernsback's achievements ("Packed with puerilities! Written
by unimaginables!" was his later assessment of AMZ), and ASF's priorities
were adventure first and science a long way second. Aficionados of AMZ
were, in turn, unimpressed by ASF's vulgarity, and certainly the Clayton
ASF produced vanishingly few stories of enduring quality. However, the
same is true of its competitors.Air Wonder and Science Wonder soon
amalgamated into WONDER STORIES; with minor exceptions (in 1931 MIRACLE
SCIENCE AND FANTASY STORIES published 2 issues; in 1934 the
semiprofessional MARVEL TALES began its short life), AMZ, ASF and Wonder
Stories constituted the US sf-magazine field until 1939. Interestingly,
not one of them finished the decade under the same ownership it had had at
the beginning. ASF was initially the only sf magazine belonging to a pulp
chain; when it was sold to another group, STREET & SMITH, in 1933, it was
because of the collapse of the whole Clayton chain. The magazine itself
had been quite successful, if undistinguished in content; under its new
management and new editor F. Orlin TREMAINE it went from strength to
strength, its popular success matched by a notable increase in quality. It
had the advantage of paying considerably better than its sf competitors
(one cent a word on acceptance, rather than half a cent a word on
publication or later - "payment on lawsuit" as the saying had it). Even
so, ASF's payment rates were only half what they had been in its Clayton
days, and represented the lowest standard pulp rates; it was a question of
the other sf magazines' paying very badly rather than ASF's paying
particularly well. This had obvious repercussions on the quality of the
writers prepared to contribute. Authors who could sell their work to
Argosy for six cents a word were not going to favour the sf magazines with
anything other than their rejects. More importantly, the prolific
professional pulp writers, turning out hundreds of thousands of words each
year in any and every category, never made the sf magazines their chief
focus of attention. The adverse result of this was that the sf magazines
published a great deal of material by writers ignorant even of the minimal
standards of professionalism of the pulp hack (hence Bates's dismay with
AMZ), but in the longer term the advantage was that the field was able to
develop itself from within. Fans of the magazines believed, with
justification, that they could do as well as the published writers. They
tried; a proportion of them succeeded. Jack WILLIAMSON, an early example
of such a writer, describes in The Early Williamson (1975) how he received
little useful encouragement from Gernsback and Sloane; things changed when
ASF under Tremaine became the first sf magazine with a dynamic editorial
policy. It reaped dividends.While ASF prospered, its competitors
floundered, losing their better writers and failing to replace them. By
the end of 1933 both AMZ and Wonder Stories had adopted the standard pulp
format. By the end of 1935 both had gone over to bimonthly publication
(the same year that ASF was contemplating twice-monthly publication). In
1936 Wonder Stories was sold, reappearing after a short gap as THRILLING
WONDER STORIES with a change of emphasis epitomized by the BEMS (bug-eyed
monsters) on the cover of #1; AMZ followed suit in 1938.The failure of the
sf magazines to establish themselves as a healthy pulp category in the
1930s is surprising in that, during that decade of the Great Depression,
the pulps provided cheap entertainment and were thus generally popular. As
a comparison, the far more specialized, peripherally associated field of
"weird menace" pulps (as described in The Shudder Pulps [1975] by Robert
Kenneth Jones) - i.e., magazines devoted entirely to stories in which
apparently strange happenings turned out to have mundane explanations -
was thriving, with such titles as Dime Mystery Magazine, Horror Stories,
Terror Tales and Thrilling Mystery. The only sf magazine to establish
itself on a regular monthly basis was also the only sf magazine with which
Gernsback had never been associated, which suggests that Gernsback's
conception of sf, and of sf-magazine publishing, failed to capture the
audience it sought. The emphasis of the early sf magazines on MACHINES, as
represented by Paul's cover art, may have alienated as many readers as it
attracted.The first boom in sf-magazine publishing came towards the end of
the 1930s. In 1938 MARVEL SCIENCE STORIES became the first fully
professional new title since Miracle in 1931; it gained some notoriety by
trying briefly to introduce to sf a little mild lasciviousness of the kind
common in other pulps. In 1939 it was followed by a rush of new titles.
AMZ and TWS had both proved successful enough under new management and
with a more lively approach to give birth to companion magazines,
Jr, who had become editor of ASF late in 1937, began in 1939 a fantasy
companion, UNKNOWN, as well as printing during that year the first stories
by Robert A. HEINLEIN, Theodore STURGEON and A.E. VAN VOGT, which heralded
the start of ASF's greatest period of dominance. Other new magazines of
came along; in 1941 COSMIC STORIES and STIRRING SCIENCE STORIES made their
appearance. However, this was not quite the flood it might seem. The
economics of magazine publishing meant that when a bimonthly magazine was
successful it was often better to start a companion title in the alternate
months than to switch to monthly publication. In this way the magazines
gained twice as much display space and twice as long a period on sale,
while the publisher could hope for an increased share of the total market
through product diversification. So Startling Stories was paired with TWS
(although TWS went monthly in 1940-41), Marvel Science Stories with
Dynamic Science Stories, Astonishing Stories with Super Science Stories,
Cosmic Stories with Stirring Science Stories and Future Fiction with
Science Fiction. Nevertheless, much more sf was needed each month, most of
it paid for at minimal rates (if at all), and many young sf fans were able
to gain invaluable early experience as writers or editors. Asimov, James
and Donald A. WOLLHEIM - all FUTURIANS - launched their careers in this
period.Inevitably, the boom oversaturated the market: some of the new
titles published only 2-3 issues. US involvement in WWII, with consequent
paper shortages, took its toll of other titles. By the middle of 1944 all
but 4 of the new titles had disappeared; nevertheless, these had all
established themselves, and for the duration of the 1940s there were 7
regular sf magazines: AMZ, ASF, Fantastic Adventures, Planet Stories,
Startling Stories, TWS and Famous Fantastic Mysteries, the latter still a
reprint magazine. ASF was in a different class from the others in terms of
both quality and appearance. In 1943 it changed to DIGEST size (approx
51/2in x 71/2in [14cm x 21.5cm]), anticipating the general trend of the
1950s. Discovering a serious adult readership for sf - and discovering and
developing the writers to provide appropriate stories - it changed its
appearance until it looked as different as possible from the sf pulps,
often seeming deliberately to cultivate a drab look. In the early 1940s
Startling Stories and TWS aimed themselves overtly at a juvenile audience
- perhaps recognizing their readership for what it was (although later,
under the editorship of Sam MERWIN Jr, the standard soared, until by 1948
Startling Stories represented the closest challenge to ASF). Their cover
art, largely the work of Earle K. BERGEY, typified the drift away from the
appeal of futuristic technology - scantily clad girls threatened by
monstrous aliens promised more undemanding entertainment, and evidently
provided the necessary sales appeal to sustain the enlarged market. Planet
Stories was more garish still, the epitome of SPACE OPERA. The ZIFF-DAVIS
magazines AMZ and Fantastic Adventures appeared crude, but prospered under
the editorship of Raymond A. PALMER. AMZ, especially, grew huge (a peak of
274pp in 1942). Palmer showed a shrewd ability to tap the market for
occultism and PSEUDO-SCIENCE, using in particular the allegedly factual
stories of Richard S. SHAVER to attain for AMZ (he claimed) the highest
circulation ever reached by an sf magazine.New magazines began to appear
again in 1947-8, although at first they were either reprint-inspired (
AVON FANTASY READER, ARKHAM SAMPLER(which also published original
stories), though in fact reprints only comprised about 25% of an issue,
the revived FANTASTIC NOVELS) or of only SEMIPROZINE (i.e.,
semiprofessional) status ( FANTASY BOOK). They were followed in 1949 by A.
MERRITT'S FANTASY MAGAZINE, the revived Super Science Stories and OTHER
WORLDS SCIENCE STORIES. However, the significant development of the period
was the appearance in 1949 of The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION
, followed in 1950 by GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION. Both magazines originated in
digest format, and from their inception were aimed at the adult audience
which ASF had shown existed. Campbell's ASF was by this time showing
evidence of stagnation, and both FSF, with its emphasis on literary
standards, and Gal, which concentrated on the SOFT SCIENCES and SATIRE,
appeared more sophisticated; they quickly established themselves alongside
ASF, so that these three became the leading magazines - a situation which,
generally speaking, continued until the late 1970s.New and revived
magazines continued to appear in profusion, and to disappear almost as
regularly. They included: Future Combined with Science Fiction Stories,
this title) and SUPER-SCIENCE FICTION in 1956; and DREAM WORLD, SATURN and
VENTURE SCIENCE FICTION in 1957. From this plethora of new titles, the
group of magazines ed Robert A.W. Lowndes - Future, Original and Science
Fiction Quarterly - managed well for a number of years on tiny budgets;
Fantastic Universe, Imagination and Imaginative Tales continued for
several years; and Infinity, Satellite and Venture were notable among the
shorter-lived magazines. Many other titles came and went after only 1-2
issues, and only Fantastic and If survived the end of the decade.
Fantastic was a digest-size companion to AMZ and Fantastic Adventures. AMZ
switched to digest size in 1953, at which point Fantastic Adventures
ceased, although Fantastic can be considered as in effect a continuation.
If would have been another 1950s casualty had not the title been sold in
1958 to Galaxy Publishing Corporation, which wanted a companion for
Gal.The new magazines that succeeded were digests; of the 6 1940s pulps
only AMZ (and, in a sense, Fantastic Adventures) survived the change in
the publishing industry. The pulp-magazine business in general died in the
early 1950s, a victim of increasing distribution problems and of the
growing tv industry, which provided a more immediate cheap home
entertainment. Weird Tales (which had pursued its own course through the
1930s-40s, publishing occasional sf) failed in 1954. Famous Fantastic
Mysteries ceased in 1953; TWS, Startling Stories and Planet Stories
survived until 1955, when they were among the last of all pulp magazines
to die.In the UK, sf magazines had gained less of a foothold before WWII.
The first was SCOOPS (1934), a short-lived BOYS' PAPER. This was followed
in 1937 by TALES OF WONDER, the most notable early UK magazine, which
survived until 1942. The first FANTASY appeared briefly in 1938-9.
However, the post-WWII revival started earlier in the UK than in the USA,
with the appearance of two magazines in 1946. Walter GILLINGS, editor of
the prewar Tales of Wonder, now edited the second, equally short-lived
FANTASY; NEW WORLDS, under John CARNELL, began in the same year. Both
ceased publication in 1947, but NW was revived in 1949. In 1950 a
companion magazine to NW, SCIENCE FANTASY, began under Gillings's
editorship. Carnell took over from #3 and continued the magazines
successfully through the decade, publishing the early work of such authors
ADVENTURES joined these two magazines; initially a reprint of the US
title, it continued after its transatlantic parent had died, publishing
original stories under Carnell's editorship. Other UK magazines of the
were also a number of minor titles, such as VARGO STATTEN SCIENCE FICTION
MAGAZINE.Six US magazines continued into the 1960s: AMZ, ASF (now retitled
Analog), Fantastic, FSF, Gal and If. AMZ and Fantastic began the decade
strongly under the editorship of Cele GOLDSMITH, who raised AMZ to a
relative prominence which it had not enjoyed since the mid-1930s (although
it was still of only secondary interest). In 1965 ZIFF-DAVIS sold AMZ and
Fantastic, and they became reprint magazines, spawning numerous companion
titles. Later they began to include original fiction once more, undergoing
a resurgence with Ted WHITE's accession to the editorship in 1969. Analog,
under new management, took on a more modern, glossy appearance -
experimenting for a while with a handsome large format - and continued to
lead the field in sales. FSF, established as the "quality" sf magazine,
maintained its reputation through two changes of editor. Gal and If had a
new editor, Frederik POHL, under whom they remained successful; in the
mid-1960s If concentrated strongly on adventure sf with a popular success
that showed itself in 3 consecutive HUGOS (otherwise shared between Analog
and FSF). Later Gal and If came under the editorship of Ejler JAKOBSSON,
who made an unconvincing, gimmicky attempt to "modernize" them. Chief
among the few attempts to launch new magazines during the decade, although
a great number of reprint titles appeared, were the short-lived GAMMA and
another companion to Gal and If, WORLDS OF TOMORROW. The most significant
event for the future of sf magazines was the publication in 1966 of the
first volume of Damon Knight's ORBIT series of ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES. It
was not the first such series - Pohl had edited STAR SCIENCE FICTION
STORIES in the 1950s - but it came at a more significant time, when the
magazines were suffering increasing problems in distribution and in many
cases falling circulations, while the paperback book industry continued to
grow strongly. Anthology series like Orbit - essentially magazines in book
format, less frequent, and without some of the readers' departments -
could obtain better distribution, would remain on sale for longer periods,
could be more selective in their choice of material, and could offer
better payment than the majority of sf magazines. In due course Orbit was
followed by other anthology series - INFINITY, NEW DIMENSIONS, NOVA, QUARK
and UNIVERSE - as well as many one-off original anthologies, most notably
DANGEROUS VISIONS. It was widely felt that the traditional sf magazine had
become an anachronism and in due course would be replaced by the paperback
anthology, just as the digest magazines had supplanted the pulps. (In the
event the magazines were not supplanted, but both the magazine market and
the original-anthology market shrank radically in the 1980s.)In the UK it
all happened rather differently. NW and Science Fantasy were taken over by
a new publisher, Roberts & Vinter, in 1964, and Carnell left. Both
magazines now adopted paperback format, although continuing to be marketed
as magazines rather than books. Science Fantasy went through various
changes of editor - and in 1966 of title, to Impulse and then SF Impulse -
before folding in 1967. NW's new editor, Michael MOORCOCK, gradually
transformed its outlook, making it more experimental and less bound to the
conventions of GENRE SF; it became known as the standard-bearer of the NEW
WAVE. In 1967 Moorcock, with Arts Council assistance, took over as
publisher of the magazine, changing it to a large (approx 8in x 111/2in
[A4]) format which allowed for more graphic adventurousness. NW
encountered moments of controversy and subsequent distribution problems;
it was banned by W.H. Smith & Sons, by far the largest retail newsagent
chain in the UK. NW eventually ceased magazine publication in 1971, though
various attempts to revive it in both book and magazine format have taken
place sporadically since. Carnell, meanwhile, had begun NEW WRITINGS IN
SF, a quarterly original anthology series which predated Orbit by two
years. In 1969 the short-lived magazine VISION OF TOMORROW
appeared.Between the mid-1970s and 1980 there were several major changes
among the established US sf magazines. At the beginning of 1975 If was
absorbed into Gal (which had acquired a new editor, Jim BAEN, in 1974).
From the beginning of 1977, Gal began to miss issues; it managed to
stagger on until Summer 1980. AMZ and Fantastic suffered slowly dwindling
circulations; even produced with minimal staff and budget, they were only
just viable. The last separate issue of Fantastic came in Oct 1980;
thereafter only AMZ survived . . . by the skin of its teeth. FSF and
Analog remained stable, Analog with by far the greater circulation and,
from 1972, a new editor, Ben BOVA, who did much to revive it from the
stagnation of the later years of Campbell's reign.In the UK NW reappeared
as an irregular paperback series (1971-6), changing editors and publishers
along the way. In 1974-6 SCIENCE FICTION MONTHLY was published, a
poster-size magazine relying heavily on the appeal of pages of full-colour
art. A projected successor, SF DIGEST, was aborted even before #1 had been
distributed.Despite the predictions that original anthologies would
replace magazines, in the USA the 1970s proved a more fertile period for
new titles than the previous decade, while several of the anthology series
failed. VERTEX, a glossy bedsheet-size magazine, was begun in 1973 and
enjoyed success until forced by paper shortages to change to a newsprint
format, dying soon after, in 1975. 1976 saw the launch of the short-lived
ODYSSEY and the subscription-based semiprozine GALILEO (1976-80). It was
at around this time that the semiprozine started making real progress;
production costs could be kept low with a small (maybe one-person)
operation, so compensating in part for distribution difficulties and
consequent low sales. Few lasted long, although besides Galileo two-
UNEARTH (8 issues 1977-9) and SHAYOL (7 issues 1977-85) - had an influence
greater than their small-scale production might suggest. 1977 saw 3
further titles: in the UK VORTEX came and went; in the USA COSMOS SCIENCE
were launched, both on apparently firm foundations. In the event the
former lasted only 4 issues, but the latter steadily improved, to overtake
all but Analog in terms of circulation, and to rival and then perhaps to
supersede the big three (Analog, AMZ and FSF) in terms of quality. While
IASFM was the major success story of the 1970s among the pure-sf
magazines, a spectacular development took place in 1978 with the launch of
a new science magazine in slick format, OMNI, by the publisher best known
previously for the sex magazine Penthouse. Omni's circulation, at well
over 800,000 in some years, was about 8 times higher than that of any sf
magazine, so it was a matter of considerable significance when Omni
decided at the outset to include some sf stories as part of its mix. This
it did with great success: although it published only 20-40 stories
annually, these were often of high quality. 1978 also saw the launch of AD
ASTRA in the UK; it lasted until 1981. Also in 1978, Jim Baen at ACE BOOKS
decided to get the best of both worlds by combining the sf magazine with
the original-anthology series, launching DESTINIES, subtitled "The
Paperback Magazine of Science Fiction and Speculative Fact", in book
format.By the 1980s it seemed that the magazines were ultimately doomed:
they could no longer compete with paperback publishers, video rentals and
so on for the consumer's dollar. Through the decade the survivors faced
steadily dropping circulations (with occasional fluctuations), and the
founding of a new magazine could be seen as an act of insane courage.
Nonetheless, new titles did appear. In the UK EXTRO lasted only 3 issues,
but INTERZONE, likewise launched in 1982, proved quite another story.
Founded by a collective (several members of which worked professionally in
sf publishing as critics or editors), it began with the slightly morose
air of yet another NW clone, with plenty of stories about ravaged
societies. But bit by bit it picked up until, a decade later, now under
the editorship and ownership of David PRINGLE, it rivals the very best US
magazines in terms of quality, although the circulation is still small. In
the USA Charles RYAN (who had edited Galileo) returned in 1986 with
ABORIGINAL SCIENCE FICTION, which continues, though floundering, in the
1990s.Of possible future significance is the proliferation of desk-top
published magazines produced by small groups of enthusiasts and aimed not
at the mass market but at a continuing specialist readership. These
magazines, partly a result of technological developments having brought
home publishing within the financial reach of people who could once not
have considered it, provide extremely valuable proving grounds for young
writers who then may move elsewhere. Among the more distinguished such
titles of the 1980s devoted to publishing fiction have been BACK BRAIN
and STRANGE PLASMA (US). Many more thus published are critical journals,
such as SCIENCE FICTION EYE (US). Other SMALL PRESSES with considerably
better financial backing have occasionally moved into the periodical
MAGAZINE (1988-91) and then its successor, Pulphouse: A Weekly Magazine,
which in late 1992 was continuing on a monthly basis. This, too, is aimed
at a specialist market. In 1992 it was reported that Pulphouse was
launching Tomorrow Speculative Fiction, ed Algis BUDRYS.By the end of
1991, the only English-language sf magazines with circulations over 20,000
were Aboriginal SF, Analog, IASFM, FSF and Omni, and only 3 of these
topped 70,000: Analog, IASFM (both sold to Dell in 1992) and Omni. All
have problems, even Omni. When seen in the context of magazine publication
generally, sales figures of this order (apart from Omni's) are minuscule,
and from the economic point of view sf has long since ceased to be of any
importance at all in periodical publishing. These magazines, however,
remain absolutely vital to sf's continued health, because it is primarily
through them that short sf - which is in a remarkably healthy state at the
beginning of the 1990s - remains alive at all. [MJE/PN]Further reading:
The Introduction ( page xix) gives an explanation of which sf magazines
are given individual entries. Early fantasy magazines and hero/villain
pulp magazines with an sf content, such as The SPIDER , are separately
listed under PULP MAGAZINES, as are general-fiction pulps like The BLUE
BOOK MAGAZINE . Further information on the publishing of sf in periodical
format can be found under BOYS' PAPERS, COMICS, DIME-NOVEL SF, FANZINES,
JUVENILE SERIES, SEMIPROZINES and MAGAZINES; the latter entry lists all
general-fiction slicks and tabloids which regularly published sf. An
excellent reference on individual sf and fantasy magazines up to 1984 is
Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Weird Fiction Magazines (1985) ed Marshall
B. TYMN and Mike ASHLEY.

1. As Science-Fiction Monthly, Australian DIGEST-size magazine, 18
numbered undated issues, Aug 1955-Feb 1957, published by Atlas
Publications, Melbourne; ed anon Michael Cannon. The fiction, reprinted
from various US magazines, was mostly routine, but included some good work
by Ray BRADBURY and others. The covers were reprinted from the same
sources. A feature from #12 was Graham Stone's column of commentary,
Science Fiction Scene.2. Name used by AUTHENTIC SCIENCE FICTION in an
early manifestation, May-Aug 1951.3. UK magazine, tabloid-size (11in x
16in [280mm x 405mm]). 28 monthly issues Feb 1974-May 1976 (2 vols of 12
issues, 1 vol of 4 issues), numbered, undated, published by New English
Library; ed Feb 1974-Jan 1975 Pat Hornsey and Feb 1975-May 1976 Julie
Davis. Born after the demise of NEW WORLDS, SFM - published by a
paperback-book company which had a big sf list - was the only UK sf
magazine of its time. It featured much full-page colour artwork, often in
the form of pull-out posters, in an effort to find a teenage audience
similar to that for pop-music magazines. Neither editor had previous
experience of sf, and at first the quality of fiction was low, though it
improved under Davis's editorship. From the beginning a feature was the
number of well researched factual articles, review pages, news pages and
interviews, with Mike ASHLEY and Walter GILLINGS regular contributors.
Featured UK authors included Robert P. HOLDSTOCK, Bob SHAW, Brian M.
STABLEFORD and Ian WATSON; reprints of well known US stories also
appeared. The juvenile policy succeeded at first, but circulation dropped
from above 100,000 to below 20,000. A plan to replace it with SF DIGEST
was aborted. A spin-off book is The Best of Science Fiction Monthly (anth
1975) ed Janet Sacks. [PN/FHP]

US BEDSHEET-size magazine. 7 issues Mar-Dec 1953, monthly for 4 months,
then bimonthly, published by Hugo GERNSBACK's Gernsback Publications, with
Sam MOSKOWITZ as managing ed. This was Gernsback's last venture in the sf
field, and attempted to recover something of the flavour of his early
pulps, including some Frank R. PAUL covers, but it was a financial
failure. Notable stories - there were few - included 2 of Philip Jose
FARMER's early novelettes, "The Biological Revolt" (Mar 1953) and "Strange
Compulsion" (Oct 1953), and 2 stories by veteran Harry BATES: "Death of a
Sensitive" (May 1953) and "The Triggered Dimension" (Dec 1953). The
magazine was well produced, #1-#5 being on slick paper, but an appeal to
nostalgia was not enough, and Gernsback retired hurt, complaining in his
final editorial that fans had become too highbrow. [BS/PN]

The SFPA was founded in 1978 by Suzette Haden ELGIN to promote a wide
range of POETRY (from sf to horror) through the publication of a bimonthly
journal, Star*Line, ed Robert FRAZIER, and the annual presentation of the
Rhysling AWARD; Rhysling was the blind poet in "The Green Hills of Earth"
(1947) by Robert A. HEINLEIN. [JC]


US PULP MAGAZINE. Summer 1940-Spring 1943 (10 issues) and May 1951-Feb
1958 (28 issues), published by Columbia Publications. #1-#2 of the 1st
series were ed Charles HORNIG, all others by Robert A.W. LOWNDES.In its
1st incarnation SFQ - a companion to SCIENCE FICTION and FUTURE FICTION -
featured a complete novel in every issue, most reprints from varied
sources; 5 were by Ray CUMMINGS. Many of the short stories were original,
and the magazine, under Lowndes, was an important market for members of
the FUTURIANS, notably C.M. KORNBLUTH under various pseudonyms. 2 undated
reprint editions of the Summer 1940 and Winter 1941-2 issues were
published in the UK in 1943. The 2nd version published a number of notable
articles, including the series Science in Science Fiction by James BLISH
(May 1951-May 1952) and "The Evolution of Science Fiction" by Thomas D.
CLARESON (Aug 1953). Notable stories included Blish's "Common Time" (Aug
1953) and Isaac ASIMOV's "The Last Question" (Nov 1956). When SFQ died in
1956 it was the last of the sf pulp magazines, and an era had come to an
end.Some stories from series 1 were reprinted in the UK as part of SCIENCE
FICTION LIBRARY (a 1960 pocketbook series). Winter 1942 was reprinted as
#15 of SWAN AMERICAN MAGAZINE in 1950. 10 numbered undated issues of
series 2 were published by Thorpe & Porter in the UK during 1952-5.

US DIGEST-format magazine, the official newsletter, mostly monthly, of
the SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION; founded 1971, current, 215
issues to Jan/Feb 1995, ed Fred Lerner (1971-4), Beverly Friend (1974-8),
Roald Tweet (1978-81), Elizabeth Anne Hull (1981-4), Richard W. Miller
(1984-7), Robert A. Collins (1987-9), Betsy Harfst (1989-92), Daryl F.
MALLETT (1993-94) and Amy Sisson (1994- ). Aside from news of specific
interest to SFRA's mostly academic members, the newsletter has published
much material of general interest, including PILGRIM-AWARD speeches, but
is most obviously of use for its book reviews, which, though very
intermittent to Aug 1987, became a regular feature from the Sep 1987 issue
(#151) onward. Books about sf and fantasy are covered very fully and well;
reviews of sf are variable in quality, but still useful. Collected reviews
from SFRAN form a substantial part of those published in SCIENCE FICTION
AND FANTASY BOOK REVIEW ANNUAL (begun 1988), whose editors, Robert A.
Collins and Robert Latham, have been stalwarts of SFRAN. Other important
SFRAN contributors have been Neil BARRON and Michael Klossner. From #194,
Jan/Feb 1992, the magazine changed its name to SFRA Review, which better
describes its function. [PN]


At the time when both magazines were being published by Roberts & Vinter,
some unsold issues of NEW WORLDS and SCIENCE FANTASY were bound up in 2s
and 3s and sold as SF Reprise, which had 6 numbers: 4 in 1966, 2 in 1967.
#1, #2 and #5 were NW; #3, #4 and #6 were Science Fantasy. [PN]

This group was formed in October 1970 to aid and encourage sf
scholarship, especially in the USA and Canada. The first chairman was
Thomas D. CLARESON. The organization has acted as a central liaison
between academics teaching sf in the USA, though academic affiliation is
not a requirement for membership, which can be active, honorary,
institutional, student or emeritus. Members receive SFRA NEWSLETTER
(retitled SFRA Review in 1992) 10 times a year; the annual SFRA Directory;
and the critical journals EXTRAPOLATION and SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES. 1977
membership was 330, 1991 membership was 313 - of whom over 50 came from
outside the USA - so it has remained much the same size. The SFRA holds an
annual conference, usually in June, at which papers are delivered and its
annual PILGRIM AWARD for services to sf scholarship and/or criticism is
announced. Since 1990 the SFRA has given a second annual award, the
Pioneer Award, for best critical essay of the year, the first 2 being won
by Veronica Hollinger (1990) and H. Bruce FRANKLIN (1991). Although SFRA
was originally envisaged as focusing primarily on sf, it has for some time
announced itself as "the oldest professional association for the study of
science fiction, fantasy and horror/Gothic literature and film, and
utopian studies". [PN]See also: SF IN THE CLASSROOM.

Variant title of 2 FANZINES - The ALIEN CRITIC and PSYCHOTIC - ed Richard


STORIES (for the 1953-5 magazine).

Academic journal, published both from the USA and from Canada, founded
Spring 1973, current, 65 issues to Mar 1995, 3 issues a year. S-FS was
co-edited from the outset by R.D. MULLEN and Darko SUVIN, with Mullen also
acting as publisher; the magazine was first published from Indiana State
University, where Mullen taught. He left at the end of 1978, and in 1979
with #17 the magazine moved to McGill University in Montreal, where it was
ed Suvin, Marc Angenot and Robert M. PHILMUS, joined by Charles Elkins
with #20 (1980). Suvin's last issue was #22 (1980) and Angenot's #25
(1982). Philmus and Elkins remained in charge until #52, Nov 1990. With
#53, 1991, Mullen resumed the editorship along with Philmus, Istvan
Csicsery-Ronay, Arthur B. Evans and Veronica Hollinger, Philmus dropping
out with #54. S-FS returned to Indiana with #56 (1992), now published at
DePauw University.S-FS is the second youngest of the 4 academic journals
FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS is younger). It does not normally review
contemporary sf, though it runs excellent reviews of books about sf. Over
the years it has probably published more good, substantial articles on sf
than any of its competitors, being especially strong on European sf, on
debate about the nature of the genre, on UTOPIAS, on FEMINISM and on
POSTMODERNISM, but very patchy on GENRE SF. There have been 2 special
issues on Philip K. DICK, 1 on Ursula K. LE GUIN, and sporadic articles on
authors like Gregory BENFORD, Pamela SARGENT and William GIBSON, but these
are in a minority, so that sometimes S-FS gives the impression of looking
anywhere rather than at the heart of its subject. Unusually for a US
journal, some of its critical material is Marxist-oriented. S-FS is a
responsible, intellectually robust journal which, while it reflects some
of the excesses of academic criticism generally (e.g., too much critical
jargon), also reflects its strengths. [PN]

US tv series (1955-7). ZIV/WRCA-TV. Prod Ivan Tors. Hosted by Truman
Bradley. Technical adviser Dr Maxwell Smith. 3 seasons, 78 25min episodes.
First 2 seasons b/w, last season colour.This anthology series, presenting
a different sf play each week, went out of its way to avoid the
sensationalism so prevalent in sf films of the period. The result was
prosaic. In 1956 the producer said, revealingly: "One of the traps into
which such a series may fall is complete dependence on science for
interest. This is avoided at the story conference by excluding the
scientists at the start and depending on the writers to come up with a
story with human interest . . . After the story is developed it is up to .
. . the research people to suggest some scientific fact on which the story
can be hung."Each episode began with dignified Truman Bradley sitting at a
desk covered with "scientific" objects (some of which were spinning, or
had flashing lights) and introducing the audience to the theme of the
story. A typical episode from 1955 involves a hurricane moving towards
Miami. A young meteorologist and his wife sit worrying about their son,
who is on a camping trip. But, just as the hurricane reaches the shore, a
high-pressure area pushes it back again. The sf element in the story
consists of the discovery that the hurricane was created by a meteor
landing in the sea. [JB]



A journal, published quarterly, which serves as the official public voice
of the former SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA (since early 1992 the
journal's title has been SFFWA Bulletin). The SFWAB was founded in 1965
and ed 1965-7 by Damon KNIGHT, as part of his activities in founding the
SFWA itself. Subsequent editors included Terry CARR (1967-8), Alexei
PANSHIN (1968-9), Barry N. MALZBERG (1969-70), George ZEBROWSKI (1970-75),
Stephen GOLDIN (1975-7), John F. CARR (1978-80), Richard Kearns (1981-2),
Pamela SARGENT with Zebrowski (1983-91), and Daniel Hatch (1991-current).
The SFWAB - unlike its sister journal, SFWA FORUM, which is restricted to
active members - sedulously eschews controversial material. Though at
times given over to projects of wider interest (like John F. Carr's 1979
special issue devoted to "Science-Fiction Future Histories") or articles
on contract law as it applies to writers, for much of the year it
concentrates on matters like the NEBULA. [JC]

A professional guild created to inform sf writers on matters of
professional interest, to promote their professional welfare, and to help
them deal effectively with publishers, agents, editors and anthologists;
in 1992 (see below) renamed the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of
America (SFFWA). The initial impulse for the SFWA came through discussions
founded by Damon KNIGHT and others; in 1965, feeling the need for a formal
body to represent sf writers, Knight founded the SFWA and served as its
first president (1965-7). Later presidents have been Robert SILVERBERG
(1967-8), Alan E. NOURSE (1968-9), Gordon R. DICKSON (1969-71), James E.
GUNN (1971-2), Poul ANDERSON (1972-3), Jerry POURNELLE (1973-4), Frederik
POHL (1974-6), Andrew J. OFFUTT (1976-8). Jack WILLIAMSON (1978-80),
Norman SPINRAD (1980-82), Marta RANDALL (1982-4; 1st woman president),
Charles SHEFFIELD (1984-6), Jane YOLEN (1986-8), Greg BEAR (1988-90), Ben
BOVA (1990-92) and Joe HALDEMAN (1992-current). Full or "active"
membership is restricted to professional writers - defined as writers who
have sold a minimum of 3 short stories or 1 full-length book of fiction
(collaborations are acceptable) to a "professional" US market, which
excludes journals of less than 12,000 circulation (an exclusion which
nullifies work in almost any literary journal). The qualification is
one-off; a writer, once he or she has become a member, need never
re-qualify.In addition to its guild activities, the SFWA sponsors the
annual NEBULA Awards and the annual anthologies resulting from them. There
are, in addition, 2 SFWA journals: The Bulletin of the Science Fiction and
Fantasy Writers of America ( SFWA BULLETIN), which is available to the
public; and SFWA FORUM, whose circulation is restricted to active members
(and some other categories of membership). As well as the Nebula
anthologies, the SFWA has been responsible for the SFWA Handbook, a
writer's guide which has gone through various editions and formats, the
most recent (and fullest) incarnation being Science Fiction Writers of
America Handbook: The Professional Writer's Guide to Writing
Professionally (anth 1990) ed Kristine Kathryn RUSCH and Dean Wesley
SMITH, which is packed with information (but lacks an index).The SFWA
membership has been given to polemics, and resignations have been
moderately commonplace. One major rift occurred in 1976 when Stanislaw
LEM's honorary membership was cancelled. Another controversy erupted in
1992, a US election year, when outgoing president Bova unilaterally
invited the conservative Republican Newt Gingrich to give the keynote
address at the annual Nebula banquet. All the same, although the SFWA has
suffered public accusations of parochialism, and although much of its
energies in recent years seems to have been devoted to increasingly arcane
attempts to revise the already labyrinthine rules governing the Nebula
Awards, it has played an important role in improving the conditions of the
sf writer's life - by, for example, negotiating with publishers to improve
the wording of contracts.The 1980s witnessed a de facto but ex jure
increase in the proportion of fantasy and horror writers in the SFWA. At
the beginning of 1992 a name change was agreed, and the SFWA became the
Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, or SFFWA. [PN/JC]See also:

Privy journal of the SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA (since early 1992
the journal's name has been SFFWA Forum). One of the few publications -
perhaps the only one - in the sf world restricted to a designated
readership, the SFWAF is circulated only to "active" SFWA members (the
term "active" being defined by the rules of that guild). Where the SFWA
BULLETIN, which is the official public journal of the SFWA, maintains a
strict public-relations approach to material, SFWAF allows (reportedly)
unfettered expressions of opinion - which are (reportedly) not always
exhilarating. [JC]

Chicago-based US specialist publisher founded by T.E. DIKTY, Erle Melvin
Korshak and Mark Reinsberg (who soon dropped out), originally to publish
books about fantasy and sf. Its first title was E.F. BLEILER's The
Checklist of Fantastic Literature (1948). The company soon expanded into
fiction publishing with such titles as John W. CAMPBELL Jr's Who Goes
There? (coll 1948), L. Sprague DE CAMP's The Wheels of If (coll 1949) and
L. Ron HUBBARD's Slaves of Sleep (1948); it turned down a Hubbard book on
DIANETICS. All these early titles featured jackets by Hannes BOK.
Subsequent publications include the first 3 vols of Robert A. HEINLEIN's
Future History series and Alfred BESTER's THE DEMOLISHED MAN (1953). In
1953 Shasta sponsored a novel competition in conjunction with the
paperback publisher Pocket Books. This was won by Philip Jose FARMER with
I Owe for the Flesh. By this time the company was in financial
difficulties; the book was never published and the prize money never paid.
(The novel later formed the basis of Farmer's Riverworld series.) Shasta
produced one or two further titles, then expired in 1957. [MJE]See also:

(1931- ) Canadian actor and writer, long resident in the USA, where he
gained fame as Captain Kirk in the STAR TREK tv series, going on to star
in all the film sequels; he also directed the disappointing STAR TREK V:
THE FINAL FRONTIER (1989), about which he wrote, with Lisbeth Shatner, The
Captain's Log: William Shatner's Personal Account of the Making of Star
Trek V, the Final Frontier (1989). Other books incorporating public
memories include Star Trek Memories (1993) with Chris Kreski and Star Trek
Movies Memories (1994), also with Kreski. In the preface to his first sf
novel, TekWar (1989) - set in a 22nd-century Los Angeles where crime is
rife, and where a wise-mouth robot resignedly helps a lanky protagonist
solve a mystery - WS acknowledges the assistance of Ron GOULART, who is
otherwise uncredited as co-author. Teklords (1991),TekLab (1991), Tek
Vengeance (1993), Tek Secret (1993) and Tek Power (1994), all also with
Goulart (uncredited), soon followed. Believe Me (1992) with Michael Tobias
is associational, with tinges of the occult. [JC]

(1907-1975) US writer, author of some sf stories (some under the house
name Paul LOHRMAN) but now remembered almost exclusively for his hoax-like
sequence of Shaver Mystery stories, presented as based on fact, published
in Raymond A. PALMER's AMAZING STORIES 1945-7, beginning with "I Remember
Lemuria" in March 1945. It brought over 2500 letters in response, and the
sequence boosted AMZ's circulation though at the same time alienating many
fans; the June 1947 AMZ was an all-Shaver issue. RS continued to release
the same sort of material briefly in Other Worlds (still as Palmer's
protege), and enjoyed a further comeback in Palmer's small-circulation The
HIDDEN WORLD in 1961. A selection of the "articles" was published as I
Remember Lemuria & The Return of Sathanas (coll 1948). Essentially the
"articles" comprise a series of messages from an underground world and,
VON DANIKEN-like, establish a new, conspiracy-oriented, highly lurid
history and cosmology in which humans (it transpires) have long been
manipulated by "deros" (detrimental robots) through various ESP powers.
Until the end of his life RS maintained that he genuinely believed what he

(1949- ) US illustrator; attended the New England School of Art and
Design. BS's earliest magazine cover was for FSF in 1979 (followed by 8
more in the next two years); also in 1979 he did one for CINEFANTASTIQUE.
By 1980 he was doing book covers; and in 1982 a series of reissues of
Harlan ELLISON books, with covers by BS at Ellison's request, began to
appear. Another interesting series of covers was for some of the Robert A.
HEINLEIN reissues of the late 1980s. BS's ILLUSTRATION, indebted to
European Surrealists and painters of the grotesque, is sophisticated:
often surreal and sometimes a touch decadent, typically shadowy with some
areas or objects glowing. [PN]

Working name of Northern Irish writer Robert Shaw (1931- ), in mainland
UK from 1973. He worked in structural engineering until the age of 27,
then aircraft design, then industrial public relations and journalism,
becoming a full-time author in 1975. BS was early involved in sf,
initially as a fan, his first book being, with Walt Willis (1919- ), The
Enchanted Duplicator (1954 chap), an allegory of fan and FANZINE
activities; he received HUGOS in 1979 and 1980 for his fan writing. He
published his first story, "Aspect", with Nebula Science Fiction in 1954,
and during the mid-1950s contributed several more stories to that magazine
and one to Authentic before ceasing to write for some years. After a
"come-back" story - ". . . And Isles Where Good Men Lie" (1965) - he
published "Light of Other Days" (1966 ASF), which gained a NEBULA
nomination and established his reputation as a writer of remarkable
ingenuity. Built around the intriguing concept of "slow glass", through
which light can take years to travel - thus allowing people to view scenes
from the past - this story remains BS's best known. He would later
incorporate it, together with two sequels, into the novel Other Days,
Other Eyes (fixup 1972; expurgated 1974).His first novel was Night Walk
(1967 US), a fast-moving chase story. A man who has been blinded and
condemned to a penal colony on a far planet invents a device that enables
him to see through other people's (and animals') eyes and thus manages to
escape. The Two-Timers (1968 US), a well written tale of PARALLEL WORLDS,
doppelgangers and murder, demonstrates BS's ability to handle
characterization and, in particular, his talent for realistic dialogue. In
The Palace of Eternity (1969 US) he still more impressively controls a
wide canvas featuring interstellar warfare, the environmental degradation
of an Edenic planet, and human transcendence; the final section of the
novel, where the hero finds himself reincarnated as an "Egon", or
soul-like entity, displeased some critics, though it is in fact an
effective handling of a traditional sf displacement of ideas from
METAPHYSICS or RELIGION. This intelligent reworking of well worn sf theses
was from the first BS's forte, as was demonstrated in his next novel, One
Million Tomorrows (1970 US), an IMMORTALITY tale whose twist lies in the
fact that the option of eternal youth entails sexual impotence.All BS's
early books - which include also Shadow of Heaven (1969 US; cut 1970 UK;
rev vt The Shadow of Heaven 1991 UK) and Ground Zero Man (1971 US; rev vt
The Peace Machine 1985 UK) - were published first (and sometimes solely)
in the USA; and their efficient anonymity of venue may result from an
attempt to appeal to a transatlantic audience. Only slowly did BS come to
write tales whose venue and protagonists were distinctly UK in feel; and
it could be argued that his best work is his most general. Orbitsville
(1975) - along with its rather less effective sequels, Orbitsville
Departure (1983) and Orbitsville Judgement (1990)-must stand, after Other
Days, Other Eyes, as his finest early inspiration. Like Larry NIVEN's
RINGWORLD (1970) and Arthur C. CLARKE's RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA (1973), the
Orbitsville books centre on the discovery of - and later developments
within - a vast alien artefact in space (a BIG DUMB OBJECT, in fact), in
this case a DYSON SPHERE. Within the living-space provided by the inner
surface of this artificial shell - billions of times the surface area of
the Earth - BS spins an exciting story of political intrigue and
exploration, which in later volumes develops, perhaps rather impatiently,
into a heavily plotted move into another universe entirely. Orbitsville
gained a 1976 BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD.A Wreath of Stars (1976) may
be BS's most original, and perhaps his finest, singleton. A rogue star,
composed entirely of antineutrinos, approaches the Earth. It passes nearby
with no immediately discernible effect. However, it is soon discovered
that an antineutrino "Earth" exists within our planet, and its orbit has
been seriously disturbed by the passage of the star. This is an ingenious,
almost a poetic, idea, to which the plot only just fails to do full
justice. Other books followed quickly: the overcomplicated Medusa's
Children (1977); Who Goes Here? (1977), and its sequel, Warren Peace
(1993), jeux d'esprit akin to Harry HARRISON's Bill, the Galactic Hero
(1965); Ship of Strangers (fixup 1978), in which the crew of the Stellar
Survey Ship Sarafand, after some routine adventures, confront a
cosmological issue; Vertigo (1978; with "Dark Icarus" added as prologue,
exp vt Terminal Velocity 1991), an effective policier set in a world
transformed by ANTIGRAVITY devices; and Dagger of the Mind (1979) and The
Ceres Solution (1981), in both of which BS's ingenuity declined, for a
period, into something close to jumble. He had meanwhile been writing
short stories - his collections include Tomorrow Lies in Ambush (coll
1973; with 2 stories added, rev 1973 US), Cosmic Kaleidoscope (coll 1976;
with 1 story omitted and 2 added, rev 1977 US), A Better Mantrap (coll
1982), Between Two Worlds (coll 1986 dos US) and Dark Night in Toyland
(coll 1989) - which again demonstrate his professional skills but tend to
lack a sense of personal involvement.However, with the Ragged Astronauts
sequence - THE RAGGED ASTRONAUTS (1986), The Wooden Spaceships (1988) and
The Fugitive Worlds (1989) - BS returned to his very best and most
inventive form, describing with joyful exactness the sensation of
emigrating, via hot-air BALLOON, up the hourglass funnel of atmosphere
that connects two planets which orbit each other. Later volumes lost some
of the freshness and elation of the first, but the series as a whole
emphasizes BS's genuine stature in the genre as an entertainer who rarely
fails to thrill the mind's eye with a new prospect. At his best, BS has
been a lover of the worlds of sf. [DP/JC]Other works: The Best of the
Bushel (coll 1979 chap) and The Eastercon Speeches (coll 1979 chap), both
humorous fan writing, and both assembled with additional material as A
Load of Old BoSh (coll 1995 chap); Galactic Tours: Thomas Cook Out of This
World Vacations (1981 US) with David HARDY; Courageous New Planet (1981
chap); Serious Scientific Talks (coll 1984 chap), humorous fan writing;
Fire Pattern (1984); Messages Found in an Oxygen Bottle (coll 1986 dos
US); Killer Planet (1989), juvenile sf; How to Write Science Fiction
(1993).About the author: Bob Shaw (anth 1981 chap) ed Paul Kincaid and
Geoff Rippington; Bob Shaw, Artist at Ground Zero (last rev 1989 chap) by
Gordon BENSON Jr, Chris Nelson and Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE.See also:

House name used by CURTIS WARREN on 4 novels by 4 different authors:
Argentis (1952) by E.C. TUBB, Ships of Vero (1952) by David O'BRIEN, Z
Formation (1953) by John Russell FEARN (signing himself Bryan Shaw) and
Lost World (1953) by Brian HOLLOWAY. All are adventure sf. [PN/JC]

David Arthur GRIFFITHS.

(1928-1978) US writer in whose routine sf novel, Envoy to the Dog Star
(1967 dos), a dog's brain travels to Sirius. [JC]

(1856-1950) Irish-born writer of novels, plays and much controversial
nonfiction; Nobel Literature Prize 1925. He lived most of his life in
England, where he remained ferociously active over a writing career
lasting 70 years. Some of his early plays - like Man and Superman: A
Comedy and a Philosophy (1903) and Androcles and the Lion (performed 1913;
as title of omni 1916) - contain fantasy elements, though deployed with a
cool Shavian sanity which repudiates any sense of escapism. Press Cuttings
(1909 chap), a play about women's rights set in the NEAR FUTURE, was close
to sf, and the destruction of the old world order in Heartbreak House (as
title of omni 1919) seemed backward-looking only because of the play's
five-year wait for publication. GBS's first genuine sf play was Back to
Methuselah: A Metabiological Pentateuch (1921 US; rev 1921 UK and several
times further to 1945 UK), a 5-part depiction of mankind's EVOLUTION from
the time of Genesis into the FAR FUTURE, when people have become
long-lived and, by AD31,920, are on the verge of suffering corporeal
transcendence into disembodied thought-entities. Hereafter GBS's plays -
which have only posthumously escaped the charge that their dissolution of
realist conventions simply demonstrated the senility of their author -
increasingly utilized sf or fantasy modes to make a series of remarkably
bleak utterances about Homo sapiens and about the chances of the species
ever doing well. The Apple Cart: A Political Extravaganza (first
English-language publication 1930), set in the UK near the end of the
century after a Channel Tunnel has been built, ironically posits
monarchism as an answer to the power of great corporations. Too True to be
Good: A Political Extravaganza (performed 1932) and On the Rocks: A
Political Comedy (performed 1933) - both assembled in Too True to be Good,
Village Wooing & On the Rocks (omni 1934) - more scathingly and
far-rangingly explore similar material, as do The Simpleton of the
Unexpected Isles: A Vision of Judgment (1935) and Geneva: A Fancied Page
of History (1939). Buoyant Billions (1948 Switzerland; with Farfetched
Fables as omni 1950) presents some terminal UTOPIAN thoughts in the guise
of fantasy.None of GBS's 19th-century novels are of genre interest, but
The Adventures of the Black Girl in her Search for God (1932 chap) is
fantasy, and some of the items assembled in Short Stories (coll 1932) are
sf. Both books were assembled with revisions as Short Stories, Scraps and
Shavings (omni 1934); The Black Girl in Search of God, and Some Lesser
Tales (coll 1946) also assembles this part of his oeuvre.It should be
noted that many of GBS's plays were "published" for the use of actors long
before their official release, and that the official release was generally
revised; moreover, during the last half century of his life - financial
independence allowing him to subsidize this activity - GBS was in the
habit of making constant unsignalled revisions to the extremely numerous
reprints of his work. We have not attempted to trace these changes.

Working name of US writer and editor Lawrence Taylor Shaw (1924-1985), an
active sf fan from the early 1940s and a member of the FUTURIANS; married
to Lee HOFFMAN 1956-9. Beginning with "Secret Weapon" for Fantasy Book in
1948 as by Terry Thor, he published some sf stories into the early 1950s,
but was primarily known for his editorial work. He was associate editor of
IF May 1953-Mar 1954. In 1955 he became editor of INFINITY SCIENCE
FICTION, which grew to be one of the leading sf magazines of its period;
and he later started a companion title, SCIENCE FICTION ADVENTURES. When
both magazines failed, in 1958, he turned to editing in other fields. He
came back to sf as editor for Lancer Books (1963-8), where he built a
successful sf line and edited the anthologies Great Science Fiction
Adventures (anth 1964) and Terror! (anth 1966). He subsequently worked for
Dell Books (1968-9) and American Art Enterprises (1969-75), founding Major
Books for the firm. In 1975 he began to work as a literary agent, but this
new career was hampered by poor health. He received a Special HUGO in
1984. [MJE/JC]


US SEMIPROZINE, 7 issues, irregular, Nov 1977-1985, small- BEDSHEET slick
format, published by Flight Unlimited, Kansas City; ed Pat CADIGAN. This
was brought out by a partnership of Arnold Fenner (publisher) and Cadigan,
now better known as a writer, whose first story, "Death from Exposure",
was published in #2 (1978) and went on to win a Balrog AWARD. S was a
development from Fenner's previous publication, Chacal, which had been
largely devoted to SWORD AND SORCERY. With good covers, and excellent
design and interior artwork - including work by Stephen FABIAN - S seemed
almost created to prove a point about magazines not having to look tacky.
It showcased good fiction, too, mixing sf and fantasy, from Michael
BISHOP, C.J. CHERRYH, Charles L. GRANT, Tanith LEE, Tom REAMY, Lisa
TUTTLE, Howard WALDROP and others. It was an astonishingly adept
performance, the most spectacular (though by no means the most regular)
sf/fantasy magazine of its era, though as a SMALL-PRESS publication it was
not indexed in the N.E.S.F.A. magazine indexes. Having proved they could
do it, Cadigan and Fenner simply stopped. [PN]

(1863-1920) US writer of dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF), prolific in many
categories but best remembered for marvel stories using a fairly
consistent "mythology" of dwarfs, subterranean eruptions, and stage
illusion masquerading as supernatural magic. Van Vincent's Vow (1892)
offers African adventures, sex-exploiting Amazons, and a socialist UTOPIA
founded by Egyptians who possess superscience. The Enchanted Diamond
(1894) is a lost-race tale ( LOST WORLDS) featuring a passage underground
between Alaska and Asia and a magical monarch. The Hidden Island (1898)
describes a vicious She-like femme fatale ( H. Rider HAGGARD), who claims
to be of Jovian descent, and a sinking island. In The Wonderful Electric
Man (1899), to prevent OVERPOPULATION couples are put to death after the
birth of their first child; if they have no children, they are put to
death anyway. Probably by CS, The Enchanted Emerald (1902) as by P.T.
Raymond describes an emerald with seemingly magical powers, plus lost
civilizations and another She-like queen in Africa. CS's work was widely
reprinted, often pseudonymously as "By the Author of 'The Wreck of the
Glaucus'". [EFB]

1. Michael (Sinclair MacAuslan) Shea (1938- ) UK writer, press secretary
to the Queen for a decade from 1978. AsMichael Sinclair he wrote a
NEAR-FUTURE thriller, The Dollar Covenant (1973); and as MS Tomorrow's Men
(1982), a DYSTOPIAN tale of the near-future UK in the grip of private
armies - the USA soon takes a hand in straightening things out.2. (1946- )
US writer, mostly of FANTASY; most of his few sf stories border on horror.
His books, which are both witty and disquieting, include A Quest for
Simbilis (1974) - derived, with permission, from Jack VANCE's The Eyes of
the Overworld (1966) - plus Nifft the Lean (coll of linked stories 1982)
and In Yana, the Touch of Undying (1985), both showing Vance's influence
less explicitly. Other books include The Color out of Time (1984), a
sequel to H.P. LOVECRAFT's The Colour out of Space (1927), Fat Face (1987
chap),Polyphemus (coll 1987) - which contains several deft sf tales,
including the title story and the horrific "The Autopsy" (1980) about
possession by an alien parasite. [JC]

(1933-1994) US writer and senior editor of Playboy magazine best known
for collaborating with Robert Anton WILSON on the Illuminatus! trilogy -
The Eye in the Pyramid (1975), The Golden Apple (1975) and Leviathan
(1975), all assembled as The Illuminatus Trilogy (omni 1984) - in which
detective, FANTASY and sf components combine in the extremely complex tale
of a vast conspiracy on the part of the Illuminati, historically a
late-18th-century German association of freethinkers but here rendered
into the gods of H.P. LOVECRAFT's Cthulhu Mythos (among other
incarnations). The Illuminati plan, more or less, to destroy the world in
their search for power; almost everything of meaning in the contemporary
world turns out somehow to signify their malign omnipresence. The
influence of Thomas PYNCHON's The Crying of Lot 49 (1966) is evident
though, where the PARANOIA of that novel was presented with haunting
conviction, the Illuminatus! books, simultaneously deadpan and hysterical,
treat conspiracy as a game. RS subsequently wrote solo contributions (see
Wilson's entry for his own continuations): The Saracen: Land of the
Infidel (1989) and The Saracen: The Holy War (1989) provide background to
the main enterprise. Time of the Dragons (1981) and Last of the Zinja
(1981), both assembled as Shike (omni 1992), are historical novels with
fantasy elements. Shaman (1991) is a fantasy. [JC]See also: HUMOUR;

(1928- ) US writer, born and educated in New York, where he set some of
his fiction, publishing his first story, "Final Examination", for
Imagination in 1952. RS's career falls into 3 periods: the 1950s, the
1960s, and afterwards. In the first period he produced short fiction
prolifically for several years in various magazines, though his supple,
witty, talkative, well crafted work was especially suited to GALAXY
SCIENCE FICTION, where much of it appeared. This work remains, perhaps,
his best known. In the second period he wrote several novels which
combined "zany" plots, metaphysical speculation and comic SATIRE. In the
third period he has rested. The Collected Short Stories of Robert Sheckley
(coll in 5 vols 1991), though incomplete, gives a good view of the entire
career.RS's first collection, UNTOUCHED BY HUMAN HANDS (coll 1954; with
differing contents 1955 UK), is one of the finest debut volumes ever
published in the field, and contains several tales which have remained
famous, including "The Monsters" (1953), the title story (1952), and the
superb "Specialist" (1953) which, with an energy and adroitness typical of
his early work, posits a Galaxy inhabited by a variety of cooperating
races who can merge their specialized functions to become, literally,
SPACESHIPS. The story describes the search for a new Pusher, a being
capable of shoving the ship to FASTER-THAN-LIGHT velocities -
unsurprisingly for the 1950s, Homo sapiens turns out to be a Pusher
species. Also in the collection is "Seventh Victim" (1953), much later
filmed as La DECIMA VITTIMA (1965), in turn novelized by RS as The Tenth
Victim * (1966); see below for its feeble continuation into a series.
Further successful collections followed swiftly: Citizen in Space (coll
1955), Pilgrimage to Earth (coll 1957), Notions: Unlimited (coll 1960),
Store of Infinity (coll 1960) and Shards of Space (coll 1962). Later
compilations include The Robert Sheckley Omnibus (coll 1973 UK) ed Robert
CONQUEST and Is THAT What People Do?: The Selected Short Stories (coll
1984). RS's stories are unfailingly elegant and literate; their mordant
humour and sudden plot reversals separate them from the mass of magazine
sf stories of the time, for the wit and surprises usually function to make
serious points about the calamitous aspects of life in the later 20th
century. At the same time, RS clearly found it worthwhile during these
early years to express the corrosive pessimism of his wit within the
storytelling conventions of sf, to dress his nihilism in sheep's clothing.
The second period began with Immortality Delivered (1958-9 Gal as "Time
Killer"; 1958; exp vt Immortality, Inc. 1959), filmed in 1992 as FREEJACK,
and continued with his best novels, The Status Civilization (1960),
Journey Beyond Tomorrow (1962; vt The Journey of Joenes 1978 UK) and
Mindswap (1966). In these books the typical Candide-like RS protagonist
began, at times unduly, to dominate. In short stories, the occasionally
venal naivete of this character did not much impair the rhythm of the
tale; but in the novels his lethargy tended to be translated into plots
which lacked drive. The typical RS full-length story is episodic,
befitting the protagonist's lack of drive, and structured as a kind of
guided tour of a particular sf milieu RS wishes to expose to satirical
view; dumped into this disconcerting circuit, his typical protagonist must
scramble about - sometimes comically - in order to survive and to gain
some orientation. The protagonist of the first novel, after dying in a car
crash, awakens 150 years hence in a whirligig USA where most forms of
psychic phenomena, including life and death, have been verified. The
Status Civilization is genuinely successful, embodying its satirical
despairs in a shaped narrative set on a prison planet, where social
hierarchies have turned topsy-turvy and conformity means being always
wicked. In Journey Beyond Tomorrow the RS protagonist is an innocent who
suffers a variety of alarming adventures after leaving his quiet
NEAR-FUTURE Pacific island; the novel takes the form of a series of
remembrances enshrined as myths 1000 years later. In Mindswap the
protagonist switches minds with a Martian and is subjected to reality
displacements galore. That was the end of RS's easy years.Dimension of
Miracles (1968) - in which the protagonist wins in error a prize which
shunts him back and forth across a Galaxy whose reality is disconcertingly
arbitrary - may be thought to signal the slow onset of the third RS
period, which was marked by novels either uneasy (like Miracles) or
absent-minded, like Dramocles: An Intergalactic Soap Opera (1983). RS also
continued his Victim sequence, begun in 1966 with The Tenth Victim, in 2
uninspired sequels, Victim Prime (1987 UK) and Hunter/Victim (1988 UK).
The best novel of the period was probably Options (1975), a tale whose sf
apparatus could be taken as a delusional frame, or understood as a series
of dramatic projections - generated by the protagonist - of the various
forms his life could be read as taking, rather after the fashion of Barry
N. MALZBERG, whose treatment of sf themes as metaphors for all-too-human
problems RS's late work most resembles. But The Alchemical Marriage of
Alistair Crompton (1958 Gal as "The Humours"; exp 1978 UK; vt Crompton
Divided 1978 US) - about the attempts of a paranoid schizophrenic to
reassemble his mind, which has been split off into three widely separated
receptacles - is also strong. The quality of RS's short fiction was less
variable, though his increasing tendency to write almost ABSURDIST stories
( FABULATION) was not perhaps to the taste of the sf market in general - a
sense reflected in the fact that many of them were first published in
slick magazines such as Playboy rather than in sf magazines, though "A
Suppliant in Space" won the Jupiter AWARD for the Best Short Story of
1973. The People Trap (coll 1968) contains a mixture of old and new
stories, but most of the fiction in Can You Feel Anything When I Do This?
(coll 1971; vt The Same to You Doubled 1974 UK) is typical of his late
work-spasmodic, hilarious, despairing. Further examples can be found in
The Robot who Looked like Me (coll 1978 UK) and The Wonderful World of
Robert Sheckley (coll 1979). It may be that RS's inability to take
seriously the simpler, more adventurous forms the genre can take, which he
regularly and affectionately parodied when young, has had a paralysing
effect on the mature writer, who sometimes sounds like a tongue-tied Kurt
VONNEGUT Jr. If this is so, it is a considerable loss to the sf field that
one of its sharpest wits can no longer pay it serious attention. [JC]Other
works: Futuropolis (1978), nonfiction; The Status Civilization, and
Notions: Unlimited (omni 1979); After the Fall (anth 1980); The People
Trap/Mindswap (omni 1981); Bill, the Galactic Hero on the Planet of
Bottled Brains * (1990) with Harry HARRISON; Watchbird (1990 chap);
Minotaur Maze (1991); Xolotl (1991 chap); Alien Starswarm (1991 chap);
Bring Me the Head of Prince Charming (1991) with Roger ZELAZNY.Crime
fiction/thrillers: 8 novels, from Calibre .50 (1961) to The Alternate

Pseudonym of Belgian-born writer Boris Beiser (1934- ), in the USA from
1941. In Earth Ship and Star Song (1979) humanity finds itself banned from
ruined Earth. The Medusa Conspiracy (1980) is a more conventional
adventure. [JC]

(1875-1943) US writer and journalist responsible for much magazine
fiction. The Abyss of Wonders (1915 Argosy; 1953) mixes Theosophy and
superscience in its tale of a lost race in the Gobi Desert ( LOST WORLDS).
[JC]Other works: The Seer (1912; vt The Prophet 1913 UK); The One Gift
(1920 Argosy; 1974 chap); The Whispering Chorus (1928).

(1935- ) UK-born physicist and writer, in the USA from the mid-1960s,
publishing the first of nearly 100 technical papers and science articles
in 1962, and the first of 80 or more sf stories, "What Song the Sirens
Sang", for Gal in 1977; many of these stories are assembled in Vectors
(coll 1979), Hidden Variables (coll 1981), Dancing With Myself (coll 1993)
and Georgia on my Mind, and Other Places (coll 1995), the title story of
which won the 1993 NEBULA and the 1994 HUGO awards for Best Novelette. His
first novel, Sight of Proteus (1978), describes in ultimately optimistic
terms the wide-ranging effects of machine-driven shapechanging
technologies which might open the way to the nearby stars; the book almost
instantly established CS's reputation for briskly argued, cleverly
plotted, sanguine HARD SF, a reputation only marginally darkened by its
first sequel Proteus Unbound (1989), which recasts material from the
earlier book. Both tales were assembled as Proteus Manifest (omni 1989;
rev vt Proteus Combined 1994); a second sequel is Proteus in the
Underworld (1995). CS's second novel, The Web Between the Stars (1979; exp
1989), famously posited a sky-hook space elevator at almost exactly the
same time as Arthur C. CLARKE presented an astonishingly similar space
elevator in THE FOUNTAINS OF PARADISE (1979); the concepts had clearly
been arrived at independently, and their similarity only underscored the
clarity of each man's scientific imagination.In the 1980s, with an
exuberance that seemed almost irresponsible in a writer of his scientific
bent, CS ranged very widely in his choice of metier. The Selkie (1982)
with David F. BISCHOFF, a SCIENCE-FANTASY novel tinged with elements of
horror, describes a MUTANT race of male "wereseals" who must mate with
human women to perpetuate their kind. My Brother's Keeper (1982) is an sf
thriller whose MCGUFFIN, astonishingly, is half of the protagonist's
brother's brain, housed in half the protagonist's head. Erasmus Magister
(coll of linked stories 1982) features Erasmus DARWIN in a series of
lightly told scientific adventures, and The McAndrew Chronicles (coll of
linked stories 1983;rev vt One Man's Universe 1994) follows the exploits
of the eponymous inventor. Between the Strokes of Night (1985) is a
"cosmogony opera" sometimes compared to novels by Greg BEAR about
exploring, understanding and transforming the Universe; in this case,
exiled from Earth, humanity finds infinite resources in "S-space" and
travels down the aisles of time to visit the Galaxy. The Nimrod Hunt
(1986; with original text restored, exp vt The Mind Pool 1993) features
intricately interesting ALIENS and CYBORGS in a SPACE-OPERA setting.
Trader's World (fixup 1988) moves from a post- HOLOCAUST venue to higher
things, including the threat of alien INVASION. Cold as Ice (1992), an
intricate and polished space opera, depicts with glad clarity a Solar
System full of highly active and scientifically curious human beings. The
Heritage Universe sequence for younger readers - Summertide (1990),
Divergence (1991) and Transcendence (1992), with a further volume
published only in German - fills much of the Universe with BIG DUMB
OBJECTS and sets in train a complex of plots hinging upon their
decipherment and use. Some of his tales are dark enough, and ironies are
frequently evident; but CS continues to seem ready to feel that the
Universe may be enjoyed. [JC]Other works (all nonfiction): Commercial
Operations in Space 1980-2000 (anth 1981) ed with John L. McLucas;
Earthwatch: A Survey of the World from Space (1981 UK); Man on Earth: How
Civilization and Technology Changed the Face of the World - A Survey from
Space (1983); Space Careers (1984) with Carol Rosin; Brother to Dragons
(1992); Godspeed (1993); The Judas Cross (1994) with David Bischoff;
Future Quartet (anth 1994); The World of 2044: Technological Development
and the Future of Society (anth 1994) with Marcelo Alonso and Morton A.

(1915- ) Russian writer known mostly for his poetry (from c1963) and
mainstream fiction. Two short novels, Tchelovek S Piatiu "Ne" (trans Alice
Stone Nakhimovsky and Alexander Nakhimovsky as "The Unman") and Devushka U
Obryva (1970; trans Antonina W. Bouis as "Kovrigin's Chronicles"), were
published in omnibus form as The Unman; Kovrigin's Chronicles (omni 1980
US). Both are - like other work assembled as Skromny Genii ["A Modest
Genius"] (coll 1974), Imia Dlia Ptitsy ["The Name for the Bird"] (coll
1976), Kruglaia Taina ["The Round Mystery"] (coll 1977) and Skazki Dlia
Unmykh ["Fairy-Tales for Smart Ones"] (coll 1985) - poetical and sometimes
ironical borderline fantasies: modern urban fairy-tales. VS's full-length
novel, Latchuga Dolzhnika ["A Debtor's Hovel"], is a mature literary work,
combining elements of sf with those of philosophical prose. [VG]See also:

[r] James TIPTREE Jr.

Pseudonym of US writer and mailman Wayne Cyril Lee (1917-1987), who began
publishing sf with "Project Asteroid" for Teens in 1966. His routine sf
adventure novel was Doomed Planet (1967). [JC]

[s] James TIPTREE Jr.

UK house name used by Hamilton & Co. (which published Panther Books) on
short fiction and full-length novels in AUTHENTIC 1951-2 and on some
routine sf novels 1952-4 by H.J. CAMPBELL, George HAY and E.C. TUBB. [JC]

(1797-1851) UK writer, daughter of the philosopher and novelist William
Godwin (1756-1836) and of the feminist and educationist Mary
Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), who died giving birth to her. MWS married
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) in 1816, 2 years after they had eloped to
the Continent, and after his first wife had committed suicide. During 1816
the Shelleys spent much time with Lord Byron (1788-1824) who (or possibly
his physician, John William Polidori [1795-1821]) suggested, after reading
some of their work, that they should each write a ghost story. Nothing
much came of Byron's or Percy Shelley's efforts, though Dr Polidori wrote
The Vampyre (1819), but MWS - who was in her teens - wrote Frankenstein,
or The Modern Prometheus (1818; rev 1831), the most famous English HORROR
novel - though perhaps not the most widely read, as its conventional
GOTHIC narrative structure, which involves stories within frames and
sentimentalized rhetoric, makes it somewhat difficult going for many
modern readers more familiar with the numerous film, tv and other
spin-offs from the original tale ( FRANKENSTEIN; FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER).
The young Swiss scientist Frankenstein is obsessed with the notion that
the spark of life may be a "spark" in some literal fashion, and hopes to
create life by galvanizing dead matter. To this end he collects human
remains, constructs a grotesque but mechanically sound body, and shocks it
into life. The awakened/created MONSTER, initially innocent but soon
corrupted by Frankenstein's growing revulsion, demands of his maker that a
mate be created for him, and when this demand is refused starts on a
rampage in which Frankenstein's wife and brother are killed. Frankenstein
begins to track the monster down to destroy it, but eventually perishes,
his mind gone, deep in the Arctic. The monster disappears across the ice
floes.The increasing critical attention Frankenstein has received in
recent years has focused on MWS herself, on her relation to her father's
rationalist philosophy, and on her life with her husband at the time of
the book's genesis. The novel itself has been analysed in terms of these
concerns, perhaps most fruitfully in studies of its relation to the idea
of the "natural man". The monster - who reads Goethe's The Sorrows of
Young Werther (1774) - is in a sense a tabula rasa, and the evil that he
does, he is shaped to do by the revulsion and persecution of others; he
has to learn to be a monster. Alternatively, he can be thought of as an
embodiment of the evil latent in mankind, in which case he need merely be
given the opportunity to be a monster. The novel has also been studied as
a defining model of the Gothic mode of fiction, and in Billion Year Spree
(1973; much exp vt Trillion Year Spree 1986 with David WINGROVE), Brian W.
ALDISS argues its importance as the first genuine sf novel, the first
significant rendering of the relations between mankind and science through
an image of mankind's dual nature appropriate to an age of science.
Aldiss's own Frankenstein Unbound (1973) treats of both MWS and her
creation. Although MWS's novel does seem vulgarly to argue that there are
things that Man is not meant to know, it is far more than an awful-warning
shot across the bows of the evils of scientism; no simple paraphrase of
this sort can adequately describe it.MWS wrote a further
PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION novel, The Last Man (1826), set at the end of the
21st century, in which a plague decimates humanity. The surviving
Americans invade Europe but, although war ends before the extinction of
humanity, the remaining British are soon reduced through strife to the
last man of the title, who much resembles MS's late husband, and who ends
the novel in a small boat sailing off to the Eastern Isles. The tale
served as a model for much subsequent work using its basic idea of a world
in which there can be a last, secular survivor. The story of most interest
assembled by Richard GARNETT in Tales and Stories by Mary Wollstonecraft
Shelley (coll 1891) is The Mortal Immortal (in The Keepsake [anth 1934];
c1910 chap US); the later Collected Tales and Stories (coll 1976 US) is
more convenient. The Mary Shelley Reader (coll 1990 US) presents the
original-and rather more sharply told - 1818 version of Frankenstein,
several short stories, and other valuable material. [JC]About the author:
There is much criticism. Mary Shelley (1959) by E. Bigland; Mary Shelley
(1972) by William A. Walling; Ariel Like a Harpy: Shelley, Mary and
Frankenstein (1972; vt Mary Shelley's Frankenstein: Tracing the Myth US)
by Christopher Small; Mary Shelley's Monster - The Story of Frankenstein
(1976) by Martin Tropp; Moon in Eclipse: A Life of Mary Shelley (1978) by
Jane Dunn; Mary Shelley (1985) by Harold BLOOM. Critical editions of
Frankenstein include those ed M.K. JOSEPH (1969), James Rieger (1974 US),
Maurice Hindle (1985), Marilyn Butler (1994), which gives the 1818 text;
and The Annotated Frankenstein (1979; rev vt The Essential Frankenstein
1993), ed Leonard Wolf, also giving the 1818 text.See also: ANDROIDS;

[s] Don WILCOX.

(1947- ) US writer about whose first appearances in print there has been
some confusion, due to the fact that he is credited with 4 stories and 4
articles in Collins Magazine (various retitled Collins, the Magazine to
Grow Up With and Collins Young Elizabethan) between 1952 and 1955, the
first short story thus credited being "Camp Greenville" in 1953; it is
understood that a family member may have placed these stories under LS's
name (he would otherwise need to be described as an author of noticeably
competent short stories from the age of 6). LS's first acknowledged work
was POETRY, and his first book was a poem, Cantata of Death, Weakmind &
Generation (1967 chap); he began to publish adult prose fictions of genre
interest only with "The Taylorsville Reconstruction" for Universe 13 (anth
1983) ed Terry CARR. Between the mid-1960s and the beginning of the 1980s,
LS lived in various parts of the world, travelled widely, became -
according to his own testimony - marginally and incompetently involved in
the fringes of the international drug trade, and in about 1972 started a
rock band which went through various incarnations over the following
years. Some of the experiences of this long apprenticeship are directly
reflected in stories like "A Spanish Lesson" (1985); but the abiding sense
of authority generated by all his best work depends upon the born exile's
passionate fixation on place. It is no accident that - aside from the
Latin American MAGIC-REALIST tradition whose influence upon him is often
suggested - the writer whom LS seems at times most to resemble is Joseph
CONRAD, for both authors respond to the places of the world with
imaginative avarice and a hallucinated intensity of portrayal; both create
deeply alienated protagonists whose displacement from the venues in which
they live generates constant ironies and regrets; and both tend to
subordinate mundane resolutions of plot to moments of terminal, deathly
transcendence. None of this constitutes a necessary or sufficient
description of an sf writer; and certainly, despite his aesthetic
influence on the genre in the years since his explosive debut (for which
he received a JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD in 1985), LS is not at heart an sf
writer.His first novel, however, is as much sf as horror. In Green Eyes
(1984) a research organization in the US Deep South has successfully
created zombies by injecting cadavers with bacteria from a graveyard. As
an sf premise, this is unconvincing; but LS presents the transformation of
dead bodies into representative human archetypes, and the escape of one of
them into bayou country, with a gripping closeness of touch; the
transcendental epiphany at the end, already characteristic of his work,
also tests true. His second novel, Life during Wartime (fixup 1987),
similarly embeds sf elements - a 21st-century setting, advanced forms of
drug manipulation - into a Latin American venue which, essentially,
absorbs these elements in a horrified, dense presentation of a Vietnam WAR
conducted, this time, in the Western Hemisphere. "R & R" (1986), which won
a NEBULA, shapes the first part of the book; and a hallucinated, obsessed
journey into the heart of darkness in search of underlying transcendence
dominates its last sections. Kallimantan (1990 UK) evokes, with extreme
vividness, Conrad himself as well as Graham Greene (1904-1991) in another
transcendental heart-of-darkness tale, set this time in Borneo and
featuring at its centre a not altogether convincing transference to an sf
ALTERNATE WORLD.LS continues to be most successful at novelette/novella
length, and several of the longer tales assembled in THE JAGUAR HUNTER
(coll 1987; with 1 story cut and 3 added, rev 1988 UK; cut 1989 US) and
The Ends of the Earth (coll 1991) are among the finest FABULATIONS
composed by a US writer in recent years; he won a 1993 HUGO Best Novella
Award for"Barnacle Bill the Spacer" (1992). A story sequence - "The Man
who Painted the Dragon Griaule" (1984) plus 2 novellas, The Scalehunter's
Beautiful Daughter (1988) and The Father of Stones (1988) - makes the same
use of the devices of high fantasy that the full-length novels made of sf:
as material to massage into thematic compost, in the heart of which dark
epiphanies may be viewed and embraced, perhaps at the cost of death. LS
has clearly felt comfortable with sf, as he uses it; and the genre has
benefited from the publication of a dozen tales which assimilate sf into a
wider imaginative world. At the time of writing, however, there is some
sense that two ships may have passed in the night. [JC]About the author: A
Checklist of Lucius Shepard (1991 chap) by Tom Joyce and Christopher P.

(1912- ) US author of an sf novel for older children, The Girl who Knew
Tomorrow (1970). Why Have the Birds Stopped Singing? (1974) is fantasy.

[s] Walter GILLINGS.

(1898-1987) US writer. His first work was the Tahara sequence - Tahara,
Boy King of the Desert (1933), Tahara Among African Tribes (1933), Tahara,
Boy Mystic of India (1933) and Tahara in the Land of Yucatan (1933) - in
which a young White boy parachutes into the Sahara and becomes king of the
Stone Age inhabitants of a LOST WORLD; subsequent novels take him and his
companions to various lands ( ATLANTIS is mentioned but not visited),
where they solve various mysteries (sometimes by ESP). HMS later became
known almost exclusively for work published in AMAZING STORIES in the
1940s, most notably The Green Man (1946) and its sequel, "The Green Man
Returns" (1947 AMZ), both assembled as The Green Man and his Return (coll
1979), in which the eponymous ALIEN tries to bring peace to a recalcitrant
Earth. [JC]

(1957- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Medium" for AMZ in 1984.
His first novel, Corpseman (1988), is an unremarkable tale of a CYBORG who
must cope with false imprisonment. More interestingly, Random Factor
(1991) combines routine sf-thriller components with an ALIEN race whose
nature must be deciphered at the interstellar station where various
species are in conflict. [JC]

[s] Robert A.W. LOWNDES.

(1915-1985) US writer who worked in Detroit for the auto industry as a
technical writer. His production of fiction was small, and First Person,
Peculiar (coll 1972) contains all the stories for which he is remembered,
most significantly "E for Effort", his first published story (1947 ASF).
It describes, humorously but with a fundamental pessimism, the
consequences of a device that permits its users to view past and present
events. Its inventor and his associate are successful at first, but are
soon defeated by government forces. Ultimately the existence of the
"camera" in the hands of the US military causes a final WAR, as the
victim-narrator has predicted. (It is understood that the story was
accepted for ASF in John W. CAMPBELL Jr's absence.) The other tales are
"Cue for Quiet" (1953), "Eye for Iniquity" (1953) and "Cure, Guaranteed"
(1954); they are clear-cut, forceful and black. The note accompanying
"Bounty" in Again, Dangerous Visions (anth 1972) ed Harlan ELLISON
revealed that TLS had suffered a mild stroke before 1971 and was unlikely
to write further. However, Alien Island (1970), his first novel, had
already been written; its sequel, Alien Main (1985) with Lloyd BIGGLE Jr,
was completed by his collaborator. Alien Island is a sometimes comic but
fundamentally melancholy tale about ALIENS secretly on Earth and the
eventual disaster that results; the sequel - set two centuries later, with
an Earth-descended alien defending the beleaguered planet - broadens and
softens the implications of the first book, but returned TLS, at the close
of his life, to the sf main. [JC]See also: MACHINES; MONEY; TIME TRAVEL.

(1929-1990) US commercial artist and, later, writer whose novels are
essentially fantasies, with the exception of the unremarkable The Space
Prodigal (1981). His fantasies are the Raum sequence - Raum (1977) and
Skraelings (1987) - plus Arcane (1978) and The Curse (1989). [JC]

(1896-1975) UK playwright, novelist and film-writer, known mainly for his
hit play Journey's End (1929), filmed in 1930 by James Whale and in 1975
as Aces High. His sf novel, The Hopkins Manuscript (1939; rev vt The
Cataclysm 1958), is a DISASTER tale set mostly in rural England where the
protagonist, Edgar Hopkins (whose manuscript is discovered hundreds of
years later by Abyssinian archaeologists), fussily eulogizes his beloved
countryside and people as the dislodged Moon crashes into the Atlantic
Ocean, causing tornadoes and tsunamis. Hopkins then records an abortive
recovery of civilization before the Moon's mineral wealth tempts the
shattered nations of Europe into terminal conflict and an Asian warlord
moves in. The science is derisory, but the elegy is strongly felt. RCS
wrote the screenplay for the 1933 film The INVISIBLE MAN . [JC]

(1942- ) UK writer with a PhD in organic chemistry; editor of Chemistry &
Industry. His sf novels are Survival (1975) and Maxwell's Demon (1976); in
the latter, ALIENS invade humans, thus putting them to sleep. [JC]

[r] Emma BULL.

Michael F. FLYNN.

(1926- ) Japanese writer, translator and critic. TS began writing sf as
Rei Kozumi while a high-school mathematics teacher - a job he quit in 1977
to become a full-time translator; he published his first short story in
1951. Later, 1969-75, he published 3 sf juveniles, including Hokkyoku-Shi
No Hanran ["Revolt in North-Pole City"] (1977). But his influence on
Japanese sf was more in his work as editor and publisher of the widely
circulated Uchujin (1957-current), the first Japanese FANZINE, in which
many stories by later-prominent sf writers - such as Sakyo KOMATSU - were
published; it reached #190 in 1991 and continues to introduce new writers.
One of the most prominent figures in the Japanese sf community, TS has
received many sf awards; the "Takumi Shibano Award", given since 1982 to
people who have performed generous work in fandom, was named after him. As
a translator he has specialized in HARD SF: most of Larry NIVEN's books as
well as works by James P. HOGAN, Poul ANDERSON, Hal CLEMENT and many more
- about 50 books in all. TS has also ed 2 anthologies of stories from
Uchujin, the first in 3 vols (1977) and the second in 2 (1987). He wrote
the entry on JAPAN in this encyclopedia. [PN]

(1865-1947) UK writer, born Shiell in Montserrat in the British West
Indies; in the UK from his late teens. He began writing fiction in the
late 1880s and continued intermittently until his death, although his
significant fantastic fiction was published 1896-1901. MPS was intensely
concerned with style per se, incorporating poetic techniques into
narrative prose; he also used sensational adventure fiction as a vehicle
for idiosyncratic ideas about ECONOMICS, science and RELIGION. As a
result, his work is not to every reader's taste, although it has been
praised highly by such critics and fellow writers as Rebecca West
(1892-1983), Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) and Dorothy L. Sayers
(1893-1957).Since MPS matured in England during the fin de siecle, it is
not surprising that his early work shows highly romantic subject matter
and an obsessive concern with decorated prose, his models being mostly
Edgar Allan POE and mid-19th-century French writers. Early work includes
extremely baroque detective short stories, in Prince Zaleski (coll 1895),
and horror fiction collected in Shapes in the Fire (coll 1896) and The
Pale Ape (coll 1911). Although these stories, written in a lapidary style,
were on the edge of being old-fashioned when they appeared, they are among
the very best examples of their sort.After his noncommercial early work,
MPS shifted to serials for the popular press. Future- WAR novels include
The Yellow Danger (1889 Short Stories as "The Empress of the Earth"; 1898)
and The Dragon (1913 The Red Magazine as "To Arms!"; 1913). Both novels,
which contain sf elements (especially The Dragon), are adventure stories
in which the Yellow Peril - i.e., Chinese hordes - overwhelms the world by
sheer quantity of manpower. Both, however, depart from the stereotyped
Yellow Peril story in seeing the quarrel between Orient and Occident as
ultimately a spiritual matter, rather than economic, as Chinese and UK
SUPERMEN strive for domination. Both novels are developed along similar
lines, basic ideas being: the horrors of war (depicted on such a colossal
scale and with such sangfroid that some have seen MPS's attitude as
callous approval); a strange mixing of Nietzschean and Tolstoyan theories
of history, in which supermen make history but are generated by their
culture; a Spencerian survival of the fittest on a racial level; and
thinly veiled suggestions of paranoia. Both books, aimed at a popular
market, are sparsely written with no attempt at stylistic decoration. A
third war novel, The Yellow Wave (1905), is a non-fantastic work based on
the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5).MPS's finest work is generally conceded to
have been The Purple Cloud (1901), the story of the last man left on Earth
after hydrocyanic acid gas liberated by volcanism has killed off mammalian
life. The doings of the protagonist, driven mad by solitude, are
brilliantly and vividly imagined. Behind the story, however, lies a mythic
cosmic struggle between opposing forces that use humans as tools. The Lord
of the Sea (1901; savagely cut 1924 US), almost as fine, is strongly based
on Le Comte de Monte-Cristo (1844-5; trans anon as The Count of
Monte-Cristo 1846 UK) by Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870). It develops a
network of mid-19th-century sensational motifs - incredible coincidences,
swapped babies, hidden identities, chance-found incredible wealth,
documents in a trunk, festering revenges, elaborate prison escapes,
frustrated romance, Napoleonic megalomania - yet, though written to an
aesthetic outdated for its time, it embodies that aesthetic with enormous
elan and vitality. The essence of the book is a concept adapted from the
work of the popular US economist Henry George (1839-1897): if certain
individuals can hog the land, others can hog the sea. Building on this
insight, one Hogarth, using the wealth plucked from a diamond-laden
meteorite, builds sea forts and claims ownership of the oceans. The Lord
of the Sea has been criticized as antisemitic, since it depicts a UK
overrun by Jewish refugees from Continental pogroms, including unpleasant
caricatures reminiscent of the stage Jew of earlier drama; other critics,
however, have rejected the accusation.MPS's other fantastic fiction
includes: The Last Miracle (1906), about a plot to discredit Christianity
with fake miraculous visions created by gigantic hologram-like devices;
"The Place of Pain Day" (1914 The Red Magazine), about a natural water
lens that shows horrors on the Moon, and "The Future Day" (1928 London
Daily Herald), about life and love in an aeronautic culture, which both
appeared in The Invisible Voices (coll 1935); and This Above All (1933; vt
Above All Else 1943), about a trio of immortals made so by Jesus, who is
alive in Tibet. MPS also occasionally ghost-wrote for Louis TRACY; the sf
novel An American Emperor (1897), as by Tracy, is in large part by MPS.
His last sf work, The Young Men are Coming (1937), deals partly with
contemporary social upheaval and partly with an interstellar visit. The
multiple-sex ALIENS are far superior to humanity and possess an incredible
superscience. The sf element is much more sophisticated and imaginative
than contemporary GENRE SF, but is buried in a welter of eccentric social
philosophy, and told in the decorated style of its author's youth. The
result is at times almost unreadable.With MPS is associated the "Kingdom
of Redonda". His sea-trader father (MPS claimed) laid claim to the small
uninhabited ISLAND of Redonda, near Antigua, and in a ceremony there
crowned young Matthew king. On MPS's death the "crown" passed to John
GAWSWORTH, who awarded titles of nobility to persons associated with
Shiel, including Sayers, West, Edward SHANKS and Dylan Thomas (1914-1953).
On Gawsworth's death the title became clouded.MPS has received some
attention outside fantastic fiction as a writer of partial Black ancestry,
and as perhaps the first UK novelist of Caribbean origin. [EFB]Other
works: The Best Short Stories of M.P. Shiel (coll 1948) ed John Gawsworth;
Xelucha and Others (coll 1975 US); Prince Zaleski and Cummings King Monk
(coll 1977 US); Xelucha and the Primate of the Rose (coll 1994 chap).About
the author: The Works of M.P. Shiel: A Study in Bibliography (1948), rev
and much exp as The Works of M.P. Shiel - Updated (in 2 vols 1980) by A.
Reynolds Morse, along with Shiel in Diverse Hands (anth 1984), also ed
Morse; "The World, the Devil, and M.P. Shiel" by Sam Moskowitz in
Explorers of the Infinite (coll 1963); "The Politics of Evolution:
Philosophical Themes in the Speculative Fiction of M.P. Shiel" in
Foundation #27 (1983) by Brian M. STABLEFORD.See also: END OF THE WORLD;

(1950- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Tinker's Damn" for
Galileo in 1977, and who wrote a substantial number of tales before
beginning to assemble them in Nine Hard Questions about the Nature of the
Universe (coll 1990) and The Edges of Things (coll 1991). His work in
short form has been various, tending at its best to a clear-edged
intensity which gives his venues, whether or not sf, a glow of
seriousness; at its less impressive, in earlier stories, there is a sense
of overindustrious journeyman plundering of recent sf writers for models.
But increasingly an engaged and sophisticated mind can be seen extracting
hard kernels of import out of those models. LS's first novel, Frontera
(1984), in which a team is sent to MARS by a large corporation to
investigate an abandoned colony, ostensibly obeys the sf-adventure rules
governing tales of that sort, but insinuates throughout a bleaker, denser
view of humanity's life in space. Deserted Cities of the Heart (1988), set
in a MAGIC-REALIST Mexico, features a complexity of plots, involving
imagined TIME TRAVEL back to the age of the Mayas, heated sexual and
political intertwinings, and moments of not entirely convinced
transcendence; but the style of the tale is shining and faceted, and its
various protagonists are vividly realized. Slam (1990), a non-sf tale
about a reformed tax-evader paroled from prison (or "slam"), competently
and copiously evokes a sense of Texas not dissimilar to that imparted by
fellow Texans like Neal BARRETT Jr and Howard WALDROP; the ambitious
Glimpses (1993) is fantasy. It is sf's loss that LS's career seems to be
moving swiftly away from the genre. [JC]Other works: Twilight Time (1984
IASFM; 1991 chap); When the Music's Over (anth 1991).See also: CYBERPUNK;

(1908-1990) US writer whose first novel, Slow Dawning (1946) as by Jane
Howes, was not sf or fantasy. She began publishing sf with "In Hiding"
(1948 ASF), the first of several stories assembled as Children of the Atom
(1948-50 ASF; fixup 1953). This concerns a number of radiation-engendered
child geniuses who initially hide their abilities from the world, then
reveal themselves, taking the risk that in trying to help normal humans
they may merely end as martyrs. The story is sensitively told, avoiding
most of the CLICHES of pulp-sf SUPERMAN stories. WHS remained active as a
story writer until the 1970s. [JC]See also: ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM IN SF;

(1954- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Word 'Random,'
Deliberately Repeated" for Clarion (anth 1973) ed Robin Scott WILSON, and
who has performed as lead singer in rock bands, including the punk band
Sado Nation. This background heavily influenced his first novel, the
DYSTOPIAN Transmaniacon (1979), in which the typical JS protagonist
appears: punk, anarchic, exorbitant, his mind evacuated of normal
constraints, death-loving. Similar characters appear in Three-Ring Psychus
(1980), which describes mass levitation ( PSI POWERS) with anarchist
rapture, and City Come A-Walkin' (1980), set in a surrealistically harsh
inner city. After writing some horror novels - to which genre his
inclinations have constantly urged him, for JS is not at heart an sf
writer - and most titles in the Traveler sequence as by D.B. DRUMM ( Ed
NAHA), he created his finest sf work in the CYBERPUNK-coloured Song Called
Youth trilogy - Eclipse (1985), Eclipse Penumbra (1988) and Eclipse Corona
(1990) - set after a realistically conceived WWIII and describing a
technologically deft resistance movement which fights a neofascist regime
to a standstill, ultimately defeating it. In another late novel, A
Splendid Chaos (1988), JS returns to a more surreal background, this time
a hazardous planet where a small group of humans must compete for survival
against unpredictable ALIENS. But the main challenge to "normal" humans
comes from some of their own species, who have been remoulded in the image
of their darkest fantasies - a horror device typical of the author, whose
best effects have always come from sparking the gap between normality and
horrific madness.Though his short work sometimes suffers burnout from
excessive intensity, the stories assembled in Heatseeker (coll 1988)
effectively demonstrate JS's solitudinous strengths, the flare of his
anger. [JC/CW]Other works: Dracula in Love (1979); The Brigade (1982);
Cellars (1982); Kamus of Kadizhar: The Black Hole of Carcosa: A Tale of
the Darkworld Detective * (1988), tied to J. Michael REAVES's Darkworld
Detective (coll of linked stories 1982); In Darkness Waiting (1988);
Wetbones (1992); New Noir (coll 1993).See also: CITIES; MUSIC; POLITICS.


[s] A. Bertram CHANDLER.

Film (1986). Turman-Foster/Tri-Star. Dir John BADHAM, starring Ally
Sheedy, Steve Guttenberg, Fisher Stevens, Brian McNamara. Screenplay S.S.
Wilson, Brent Maddock. 98 mins. Colour.Military ROBOT Number Five, a
prototype killing machine, is struck by lightning which endows it with
sentience. It escapes from evil Nova Robotics, finding refuge with nice
animal-lover Stephanie (Sheedy), who assumes it to be an ALIEN. It
educates itself and is winsome. When she finds it is a robot she turns it
in, but has second thoughts and helps save it from deactivation. SC's
assumption that, with a bit of divine aid, even a weapon will turn to
peace and love is pleasantly silly. SC is amusing but formulaic, and the
robot is nauseatingly cute; the film is much weaker than Badham's BLUE
THUNDER and WARGAMES. The displeasing sequel is Short Circuit 2 (1988),
dir Kenneth Johnson, who normally directs tv (The BIONIC WOMAN , The
INCREDIBLE HULK ), and stars Fisher Stevens again as the Indian
co-inventor of the robot, played in an offensively patronising Peter
Sellers Indian accent. This is a caper movie in which Number Five (now
Johnny Five) is duped into helping criminals out with a jewel robbery.
[PN]See also: CINEMA.




(1946- ) US aerospace engineer and writer known for his Destiny Makers
sequence-With Fate Conspire (1985), Morning of Creation (1985), Soldier of
Another Fortune (1988), Death's Gray Land (1991) and The Last Reckoning
(1991) - featuring the exploits of a Vietnam veteran transported by TIME
TRAVEL into a future where telepaths, being despised, are trying to change
history. Time wars of the usual complexity ensue. [JC]See also: ESP.


Working name of UK writer Nevil Shute Norway (1899-1960), who for many
years combined writing with work as an aeronautical engineer, specializing
in Zeppelins; after moving for health reasons in 1950 to Australia - where
he set much of his later fiction - he wrote full-time. Some of his earlier
fiction, by taking advantage of his intense and very up-to-date knowledge
of aeronautics, verges very closely on sf, and What Happened to the
Corbetts (1939; vt Ordeal 1939 US) is a genuine future- WAR tale. An Old
Captivity (1940) is the tale of a man who dreams in a coma (accurately, it
proves, and on the basis of data unknown at the time of the dream) of
Vikings in Greenland and of their life there; a later screenplay to an
unmade film, Vinland the Good (1946), treats similar material. No Highway
(1948) deals with metal fatigue as the cause of airplane disasters and was
published just before the first of the Comet jet crashes that occurred for
exactly that reason; the protagonist's daughter seems, as well, to have
ESP powers. It was filmed as No Highway in the Sky (1951).NS's two
Australian sf novels remain his best known. In the Wet (1953), the journal
of an Australian outback priest who copies down from a dying man a UTOPIAN
vision (or memory) of the British Empire cAD2000, anticipates a time when
Australia has become the leader of the Commonwealth, royalty has survived
handsomely, socialism has faded away, and the Empire is secure. Much
closer to the bone was the famous On the Beach (1957), filmed as ON THE
BEACH (1959), a near-future DISASTER tale in which nuclear war has
eliminated all life in the northern hemisphere, leaving Australia to await
the inevitable spread of radioactive contamination - delayed by global
wind-patterns - that will end human life on Earth. NS was an excellent
popular novelist; his stories demonstrate a seamless narrative skill, and
his protagonists are, unfailingly, decent men. [JC]See also: END OF THE

(1947- ) UK poet and novelist, married to Peter REDGROVE (whom see for
their sf collaborations). Her only solo novel of genre interest, The
Mirror of the Giant (1980), combines FEMINIST self-analysis with elements
of the traditional ghost story. [JC]

(1949- ) US writer who has been much more clearly associated with fantasy
than with sf, beginning with her first story, "The Fires of Her Vengeance"
in The Keeper's Price (anth 1979) ed Marion Zimmer BRADLEY, and continuing
with extended works like the impressive Heirs to Byzantium ALTERNATE-WORLD
fantasy trilogy: Byzantium's Crown (1987), The Woman of Flowers (1987) and
Queensblade (1988). Her 2 sf novels are White Wing (1985) with S.N.
LEWITT, writing together as Gordon Kendall, which is a vigorous sf
adventure, and Heritage of Flight (fixup 1989), an adventure set on an
alien planet. Though sf has not attracted her full attention, a caring
literacy attractively infuses both tales; and Habitats (anth 1984)
contains several interesting sf tales original to that volume. [JC]Other
works: Silk Roads and Shadows (1988); Imperial Lady (1989) with Andre
NORTON; The Grail of Hearts (1992); Empire of the Eagle (1993) with
Norton.As Editor: Hecate's Cauldron (anth 1982); Moonsinger's Friends
(anth 1985), in honour of Norton; Arabesques: More Tales of the Arabian
Nights (anth 1988) and its sequel, Arabesques II (anth 1989).

(1899-? ) South African writer, prolific during the 1930s; most of his
work, which was technically proficient, had something to do with airplanes
or the sea and ships. The Survivors (1932) and its sequel The Stolen
Continent (1934) describe first the violent creation of a new island in
the Sargasso Sea (its rapid surfacing beaches an ocean liner), and second
the international conflicts surrounding claims to the new territory, named
New Canada. Unthinkable (1933) depicts an arduous Antarctic expedition
whose members find, on their return north, that civilization has been
destroyed by a final WAR involving gas and other weapons. [JC]

(1914- ) US writer and sf fan who founded and issued with the illustrator
Joe Shuster (1914-1992) the FANZINE Science Fiction in October 1932, one
of the earliest occasions on which the term was used in a title; it ran
for 5 issues, publishing stories by Raymond A. PALMER and others. In the
same year he published a story, Guest of the Earth (1932 chap). Also with
Shuster he created the comic SUPERMAN, which first appeared in 1938, after
they had spent years trying to sell the idea to publishers. [JC]See also:

(1941-1972) US writer who died young of leukemia. His sf novels are Agent
of Entropy (1969) and The Unreal People (1973). The first combines SATIRE
and SPACE OPERA in a heated tale; the second is a post-holocaust
POCKET-UNIVERSE tale in which Earth's surface is uninhabitable and people
live frenetically and desperately underground. [JC]

(1958- ) US COMICS artist. His early work was heavily influenced by Neal
ADAMS, although his fine pen line was more fluid and expressive, and his
brushwork freer. His work matured, becoming more painterly and stylish, as
he graduated to GRAPHIC NOVELS. BS appears now to have deserted narrative
art for advertising, record-cover design and more upmarket illustration.
He has won many awards, including the 1987 Jack Kirby Award for Best
Artist and the 1986 Yellow Kid (Italy).He attended the Newark School of
Fine and Industrial Art, and began illustrating comic books in 1978 with a
story in The Hulk magazine featuring Moon Knight, a character who gave the
title to a comic-book series which BS drew 1980-84, developing a dramatic
narrative technique along with his energetic and increasingly
sophisticated drawing. He drew and coloured an adaptation of the 1984 film
DUNE (Marvel Super Special #36, 1984), and contributed a number of
exciting issues to MARVEL COMICS's New Mutants title 1984-6. His first
fully painted strip, which appeared in the last issue of Epic Illustrated
(1986), was "Slow Down Sir"; he went on to develop this aspect of his work
further with the graphic novel Electra Assassin (1986-7; graph 1987). His
magnum opus was Stray Toasters (graph 1988), a 4-part graphic novel
inspired by the film-maker David Lynch (1945- ). Since then his comic-book
work has been limited to the first 2 episodes of Alan MOORE's Big Numbers
(1990). [RT]Other work: Bill Sienkiewicz Sketch Book (1990).

Working name of UK writer and radio producer Lancelot de Giberne
Sieveking (1896-1972) on his later work, though his first books were
signed L. de Giberne Sieveking. He was with the BBC 1924-56; in 1955-6 he
edited the publisher Ward Lock's sf list; his literary memoir, The Eye of
the Beholder (1957), included portraits of figures of sf interest such as
H.G. WELLS. He began publishing sf with "The Prophetic Camera" for The
English Review in 1922, and his first novel Stampede! (1924)-dedicated to,
illustrated by, and in its side-of-the-mouth fantasticality derivative of
G.K. CHESTERTON-featured a Thought Machine used by anarchists to convey
telepathic commands. In The Ultimate Island: A Strange Adventure (1925)
ATLANTIS has survived in the midst of concealing fog and whirlpools, into
which maelstrom ships have for centuries been lured. LS's best known sf
work, A Private Volcano (1955), depicts the effects of a catalyst (thrown
up from a volcano) which turns all dross to gold. After outgrowing his
borrowed manners, LS became a literate writer, though sometimes uneasy in
his handling of genre effects. [JC]Other works: The Woman She Was
(1934).See also: ISLANDS.


(1954- ) US editor and writer, active in the former capacity with
Putnam/Berkley books 1977-81, with New American Library 1986-92, with
Warner Books in 1992, and with Harper Collins from 1993. Throughout his
career he has been noted for a swift and canny knowledgeability about the
sf world. With Victoria Schochet he ed the first 4 vols of the Berkley
Showcase: New Writings in Science Fiction and Fantasy anthology series (#1
and #2 1980; #3 and #4 1981) ( The BERKLEY SHOWCASE for further details).
He has also ed 2 collections: Fritz LEIBER's The Change War (coll 1978)
and Avram DAVIDSON's Collected Fantasies (coll 1982). His own writing has
been, by comparison, peripheral, consisting of an anonymous sf spoof, No
Frills Science Fiction (1981 chap), and Rogers' Rangers * (1983), a BUCK

Pseudonym of US writer John William Jackson Jr (1945- ), author of the sf
adventure novel Lord of the Red Sun (1972). [JC]

Film (1971). Universal. Dir Douglas Trumbull, starring Bruce Dern.
Screenplay Deric Washburn, Mike Cimino, Steve Bocho, from a story by
Trumbull. 90 mins. Colour.All plant life on Earth has been destroyed in
the aftermath of a nuclear HOLOCAUST; only vast orbiting spaceships like
Valley Forge, with its external hydroponic domes, still contain trees and
flowers, the hope being that these may one day be used to re-seed the
planet; but then their destruction is ordered by the totalitarian Earth
government. SR's premise is obviously fatuous - it would be cheaper to
leave the spaceships in place. Bruce Dern plays, in penitent's robes, the
only true conservationist left alive, a low-grade gardener aboard the
Valley Forge. When the order comes through to dump the vegetation he kills
his companions (with the film's tacit approval) and sets off into deep
space with the plants (apparently forgetting they have previously needed
sunlight to live). He is accompanied only by three small, cute, box-shaped
ROBOTS (in fact operated by amputees). SR is occasionally spectacular -
Trumbull was one of the special-effects supervisors on 2001: A SPACE
ODYSSEY (1968), and SR's scenes of vast spaceships floating through space
compare well with those in Stanley KUBRICK's epic - but the film is
morally dubious, scientifically unsound and sociologically implausible.

[r] Frank FRAZETTA.

(1928- ) UK writer best known for novels like Saturday Night and Sunday
Morning (1958). The General (1960) sets abstract armies clashing on an
abstract ground, perhaps not Terran. The anti-authoritarian SATIRE,
Travels in Nihilon (1971), initially reads as a DYSTOPIA, for the 5
travellers to that country despise its government and work to overthrow
it; but, by story's close, Nihilism as a political creed seems to gain the
author's guarded sanction. Snow on the North Side of Lucifer (1979) is a
poetry sequence about conflicts between God and Satan. [JC]


Working name of UK academic and editor Thomas A. Shippey (1943- ),
Professor of English Language and Medieval Literature at the University of
Leeds. In essays and reviews, which he has been publishing since the
mid-1970s, he takes a clear-headed orthodox view of the central figures of
sf and fantasy; Fictional Space: Essays on Contemporary Science Fiction
(coll 1991) assembles some of this work. The Road to Middle-Earth (1982)
is a study of J.R.R. TOLKIEN. TS also ed The Oxford Book of Science
Fiction Stories (anth 1992), in the Introduction to which he espouses
James Bradley's notion that sf is a literature whose central image is "the
creator of artefacts" or Homo "fabril". TS cowrote the theme entries on
MAGIC and HISTORY IN SF in this encyclopedia. [JC]

(1935- ) Extremely prolific US writer, author of more than 100 sf books,
more than 60 nonfiction books and a great deal of other work, including an
estimated 100-150 erotic novels as by Don Elliott and other undisclosed
pseudonyms; he has also edited or co-edited more than 60 anthologies. He
began to write while studying for his BA at Columbia University; his first
published story was "Gorgon Planet" (1954). His first novel, a juvenile,
was Revolt on Alpha C (1955). He began to publish prolifically in 1956,
winning a HUGO in that year as Most Promising New Author, and continued to
specialize in sf for 3 years. He worked for the ZIFF-DAVIS stable,
producing wordage at assembly-line speed for AMAZING STORIES and
FANTASTIC, and was a prolific contributor to such magazines as SCIENCE
FICTION ADVENTURES and SUPER-SCIENCE FICTION, using many different names.
For part of this time Randall GARRETT was a partner in this "fiction
factory"; they wrote in collaboration as Robert Randall, Gordon Aghill and
Ralph Burke (RS also used the Burke pseudonym on solo work). The most
important pseudonyms which RS used exclusively were Calvin M. Knox and
David Osborne; he also wrote sf as T.D. Bethlen, Dirk Clinton, Dan Elliot,
Ivar Jorgenson (a variant spelling of the floating pseudonym Ivar
JORGENSEN), Dan Malcolm, Webber Martin, Alex Merriman, George Osborne,
Eric Rodman, Hall Thornton and Richard F. Watson. He appeared under such
Ziff-Davis house names as Robert ARNETTE, Alexander BLADE, E.K. JARVIS,
Warren KASTEL and S.M. TENNESHAW; Blade and Tenneshaw were used also on
collaborations with Garrett, as were Richard GREER, Clyde MITCHELL,
Leonard G. SPENCER and Gerald VANCE. Silverberg wrote 1 story in
collaboration with his 1st wife Barbara; The Mutant Season (1989), a novel
developed from one of his short stories by his 2nd wife (from 1987) Karen
HABER, was published as a collaboration. Later volumes were by Haber
alone.He also published 3 "collaborations" with Isaac ASIMOV, developing
full-length novels from classic Asimov short stories: these are Nightfall
(1941 ASF; exp 1990 UK; vt The Ugly Little Boy 1992 US), Child of Time
(1958 Gal as "Lastborn"; vt "The Ugly Little Boy"; exp 1991 UK) and The
Positronic Man (in Stellar, anth 1976, ed Judy-Lynn DEL REY as "The
Bicentennial Man"; exp 1992 UK).The most notable novels of RS's early
period are Master of Life and Death (1957 dos), a novel dealing with
institutionalized measures to combat OVERPOPULATION, Invaders from Earth
(1958 dos), a drama of political corruption involved with the COLONIZATION
of Ganymede, and Recalled to Life (1958 Infinity; 1962; rev 1972), which
investigates the social response to a method of reviving the newly dead.
The Nidorian series, which he wrote with Garrett as Robert Randall - The
Shrouded Planet (fixup 1957) and The Dawning Light (1959) - is also
interesting.As the magazine market shrank, in 1959 RS virtually abandoned
sf for some years. The majority of the sf books he published 1960-66 were
rewritten from work originally done in 1957-9. His output was prodigious,
but somewhat mechanical, except for a handful of nonfiction books -
notably The Golden Dream (1967) and Mound-Builders of Ancient America
(1968), which were painstakingly researched and carefully written.A new
phase of RS's career, in which he brought the full range of his artistic
abilities to bear on writing sf, began with Thorns (1967), a stylized
novel of alienation and psychic vampirism, and Hawksbill Station (1968; vt
The Anvil of Time 1969 UK), in which political exiles are sent back in
time to a Cambrian prison camp; this full-length version should not be
confused with the novelette version, Hawksbill Station (1967 Gal; 1990
chap dos). The Masks of Time (1968; vt Vornan-19 1970 UK) describes a
visit by an enigmatic time traveller to the world of 1999. The Man in the
Maze (1969) is a dramatization of the problems of alienation, based on the
Greek myth of Philoctetes, the hero whose wound makes him both necessary
and repulsive. Nightwings (fixup 1969) is a lyrical account of the
conquest of a senescent Earth by ALIENS, which culminates with the rebirth
of its hero; it should not be confused with the Hugo-winning novella which
contributed to the fixup, Nightwings (1968 Gal; 1989 chap dos). Up the
Line (1969) is a clever TIME-PARADOX story. Downward to the Earth (1970)
is a story of repentance and rebirth, with calculated echoes of Joseph
Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" (1902) and strong religious imagery (
RELIGION). Tower of Glass (1970) also makes use of religious imagery in
its study of the obsessional construction of a new "Tower of Babel" and
the struggle of an ANDROID race to win emancipation. A TIME OF CHANGES
(1971) describes a society in which selfhood is a cardinal sin. Son of Man
(1971) is a surreal evolutionary fantasy of the FAR FUTURE. The World
Inside (fixup 1971) is a study of life under conditions of high population
density. The Second Trip (1972) is an intense psychological novel
describing the predicaments of a telepathic girl and a man who has been
newly created in the body of an "erased" criminal. The Book of Skulls
(1971) is a painstaking analysis of relationships among 4 young men on a
competitive quest for IMMORTALITY. Dying Inside (1972) is a brilliant
study of a telepath losing his power. The Stochastic Man (1975) is a
complementary study of a man developing the power to foresee the future.
Shadrach in the Furnace (1976) concerns the predicament of the personal
physician of a future dictator who finds his identity in jeopardy. After
writing the last-named, RS quit writing for 4 years, ostensibly because of
his disenchantment with the functioning of the sf marketplace, where his
books seemed to him to be suffering "assassination" as they were allowed
to go out of print after a few months; sheer exhaustion may also have been
a factor.In view of the sustained quality of this astonishing burst of
creativity, it is perhaps surprising that only one of these full-length
works won a major award in the USA - A TIME OF CHANGES ( NEBULA). Several
better novels, most notably Dying Inside, went unrewarded, perhaps because
the voters found them too intense and too uncompromising in their
depictions of anguish and desperation. RS did, however, win awards for
several shorter pieces: the novella Nightwings won a Hugo, and Nebulas
went to "Passengers" (1968), a story about people who temporarily lose
control of their bodies to alien invaders, "Good News from the Vatican"
(1970), about the election of the first ROBOT pope, and the brilliant
novella Born with the Dead (1974; 1988 chap dos), about relationships
between the living and the beneficiaries of a scientific technique
guaranteeing life after death. The novella "The Feast of St Dionysus"
(1972), about the experience of religious ecstasy, won a Jupiter award; it
became the lead title of one of his finest collections, The Feast of St
Dionysus (coll 1975), which also includes "Schwartz Between the Galaxies"
(1974). In addition to his award-winners RS published a great deal of
excellent short fiction during this second phase of his career.
Particularly notable are "To See the Invisible Man" (1963), assembled in
Earth's Other Shadow (coll 1973), "Sundance" (1969), assembled in The Cube
Root of Uncertainty (coll 1970), and "In Entropy's Jaws" (1971), assembled
in The Reality Trip and Other Implausibilities (coll 1972). Other
collections assembling material from this period include The Calibrated
Alligator (coll 1969), Dimension Thirteen (coll 1969), Parsecs and
Parables (coll 1970), Moonferns and Starsongs (coll 1971), Unfamiliar
Territory (coll 1973), Sundance and Other Science Fiction Stories (coll
1974), Born with the Dead (coll 1974), Sunrise on Mercury (coll 1975), The
Best of Robert Silverberg (coll 1976) and The Best of Robert Silverberg,
Volume Two (coll 1978), Capricorn Games (coll 1976), The Shores of
Tomorrow (coll 1976), The Songs of Summer and Other Stories (coll 1979
UK), and Beyond the Safe Zone: The Collected Short Fiction of Robert
Silverberg (coll 1986).RS returned to writing with Lord Valentine's Castle
(1980), a polished but rather languid HEROIC FANTASY set on the world of
Majipoor, where he also set the shorter pieces - including The Desert of
Stolen Dreams (1981 chap) - collected in The Majipoor Chronicles (coll of
linked stories 1982). The addition of Valentine Pontifex (1983), a sequel
to the novel, converted the series into a trilogy of sorts. In the mid
1990s, beginning with The Mountains of Majipoor (1995 UK), several new
volumes were projected. Almost all of RS's work of the 1980s was in the
same relaxed vein: the psychological intensity of his mid-period work was
toned down, and much of his sf was evidently pitched towards what RS
considered to be the demands of the market. His work of this period has
been commercially successful, but the full-length sf often seems rather
mechanical; the historical novels Lord of Darkness (1983) and Gilgamesh
the King (1984) appear to have been projects dearer to his heart. The
gypsy king in Star of Gypsies (1986), waiting in self-imposed exile for
his one-time followers to realize how badly they need him, might be
reckoned an ironic self-portrait. The best works of this third phase of
RS's career are novellas, most notably Sailing to Byzantium (1985), winner
of a 1985 Nebula, and The Secret Sharer (1988), a sciencefictionalization
of CONRAD's 1912 story of the same title. RS also won Hugo awards in this
period for the novella "Gilgamesh in the Outback" (1986), which was a
sequel to Gilgamesh the King and was integrated into To the Land of the
Living (fixup 1989), and the novelette "Enter a Soldier. Later, Enter
Another" (1989). His recent work includes the first 2 vols of the New
Springtime trilogy about the repopulation of Earth by various races (not
including humans) after a future ice age - At Winter's End (1988; vt
Winter's End 1990 UK) and The Queen of Springtime (1989 UK; vt The New
Springtime 1990 US) - a novel about humans living as exiles on a watery
world after the destruction of Earth, The Face of the Waters (1991 UK);
and Hot Sky at Midnight (fixup 1994), a tale which, set in the early years
of the 21st century, is told in a tone of searingly bleak pessimism
increasingly to be encountered in sf writers in their late prime as the
millennium approaches. Much of his short fiction of this period is
assembled in The Conglomeroid Cocktail Party (coll 1984),The Collected
Stories of Robert Silverberg: Volume One: Pluto in the Morning Light (coll
1992 UK; vt The Collected Stories of Robert Silverberg: Volume One: Secret
Sharers 1992 US) and The Collected Stories of Robert Silverberg: Volume
Two: The Secret Sharer (coll 1993 UK; cut 1993 US). He remains one of the
most imaginative and versatile writers ever to have been involved with sf.
His productivity has seemed almost superhuman, and his abrupt
metamorphosis from a writer of standardized pulp fiction into a prose
artist was an accomplishment unparalleled within the field.As an editor,
RS was responsible for an excellent series of original ANTHOLOGIES, NEW
DIMENSIONS (see listing below). In collaboration with Haber he has taken
over the UNIVERSE series once ed Terry CARR, relaunching the title with
Universe 1 (anth 1990),Universe 2 (anth 1992) and Universe 3 (anth 1994).
He has also been a prolific compiler of ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES that comprise
3 novellas, and has edited many reprint anthologies, recently doing much
of this kind of work in collaboration with Martin H. GREENBERG. RS was
OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION published a special issue devoted to him in
Apr 1974. An autobiographical essay appeared in Hell's Cartographers (anth
1975) ed Brian W. ALDISS and Harry HARRISON. [BS]Other works: The 13th
Immortal (1957 dos); Aliens from Space (1958) as by David Osborne;
Invisible Barriers (1958) as by Osborne; Lest We Forget Thee, Earth (fixup
1958 dos) as by Calvin M. Knox; Starhaven (1958) as by Ivar Jorgenson;
Stepsons of Terra (1958 dos); The Planet Killers (1959 dos); The Plot
against Earth (1959 dos) as by Knox; Starman's Quest (1959); Lost Race of
Mars (1960); Collision Course (1961); Next Stop the Stars (coll 1962 dos);
The Seed of Earth (1962 dos); The Silent Invaders (1958 Infinity as by
Knox; exp 1963 dos; with "Valley beyond Time" added, as coll 1985);
Godling, Go Home! (coll 1964); One of Our Asteroids is Missing (1964 dos)
as by Knox; Regan's Planet (1964); Time of the Great Freeze (1964); Sex
Machine (1964) as by Dan Elliot; Conquerors from the Darkness (1957
Science Fiction Adventures as "Spawn of the Deadly Sea"; 1965); To Worlds
Beyond (coll 1965); Needle in a Timestack (coll 1966; rev 1967 UK); The
Gate of Worlds (1967); Planet of Death (1967); Those who Watch (1967); The
Time-Hoppers (1956 Infinity as "Hopper"; exp 1967); To Open the Sky (fixup
1967); Across a Billion Years (1969); Three Survived (1957; exp 1969); To
Live Again (1969); World's Fair 1992 (1970); Valley beyond Time (coll
1973); Unfamiliar Territory (coll 1973); A Robert Silverberg Omnibus (omni
1981); World of a Thousand Colors (coll 1982); Tom O'Bedlam (1985);
Nightwings (graph 1985), an adaptation in GRAPHIC-NOVEL form; Project
Pendulum (1987), a juvenile; In Another Country (1990 chap dos) with C.L.
MOORE's Vintage Season (1946), to which it is a sequel; Lion Time in
Timbuctoo (1990); Letters from Atlantis (1990); Thebes of the Hundred
Gates (1991); Kingdoms of the Wall (1992 UK).Omnibuses: A Robert
Silverberg Omnibus (omni 1970 UK), assembling Master of Life and Death,
Invaders from Earth and The Time-Hoppers; Science Fiction Special (30):
Invaders from Earth; The Best of Robert Silverberg (omni 1978 UK);
Conquerors from the Darkness, and Master of Life and Death (omni 1979);
Invaders from Earth, and To Worlds Beyond (omni 1980); A Robert Silverberg
Omnibus (omni 1981), assembling The Man in the Maze, Nightwings and
Downward to the Earth; The Masks of Time/Born with the Dead/Dying Inside
(omni 1988); Three Novels: The World Inside/Thorns/Downward to the Earth
(omni 1988); The Book of Skulls/Nightwings/Dying Inside (omni
1991).Nonfiction: Drug Themes in Science Fiction (1974 chap).As Editor:
Earthmen and Strangers (anth 1966); Voyagers in Time (anth 1967), Men and
Machines (anth 1968); Dark Stars (anth 1969); Three for Tomorrow (anth
1969; UK edn credits Arthur C. CLARKE as ed); Tomorrow's Worlds (anth
1969); The Ends of Time (anth 1970); Great Short Novels of Science Fiction
(anth 1970); The Mirror of Infinity (anth 1970); Worlds of Maybe (anth
1970); The Science Fiction Hall of Fame Vol 1 (anth 1970); To the Stars
(anth 1971); Four Futures (anth 1971); Mind to Mind (anth 1971); The
Science Fiction Bestiary (anth 1971); Beyond Control (anth 1972); Invaders
from Space (anth 1972); The Day the Sun Stood Still (anth 1972); Chains of
the Sea (anth 1973); Other Dimensions (anth 1973); Three Trips in Time and
Space (anth 1973); No Mind of Man (anth 1973); Deep Space (anth 1973);
Threads of Time (anth 1974); Mutants (1974); Infinite Jests (anth 1974);
Windows into Tomorrow (anth 1974); The Aliens (anth 1976); Epoch (anth
1975) with Roger ELWOOD; The New Atlantis (anth 1975); Strange Gifts (anth
1975); Explorers of Space (anth 1975); The Crystal Ship (anth 1976); The
Aliens (anth 1976); The Infinite Web (anth 1977); Earth is the Strangest
Planet (anth 1977); Trips in Time (anth 1977); Triax (anth 1977); Galactic
Dreamers: Science Fiction as Visionary Literature (anth 1977); The
Androids are Coming (anth 1979); Lost Worlds, Unknown Horizons (anth
1978); The Edge of Space (anth 1979); Car Sinister (anth 1979) with Martin
H. Greenberg and Joseph D. OLANDER; Dawn of Time: Prehistory through
Science Fiction (anth 1979) with Greenberg and Olander; The Arbor House
Treasury of Modern Science Fiction (anth 1980; cut vt Great Science
Fiction of the 20th Century 1987) with Greenberg; The Arbor House Treasury
of Great Science Fiction Short Novels (anth 1980; cut vt Worlds Imagined
1988) with Greenberg; The Science Fictional Dinosaur (anth 1982) with
Greenberg and Charles G. WAUGH; The Best of Randall Garrett (coll 1982);
The Arbor House Treasury of Science Fiction Masterpieces (anth 1983; cut
vt Great Tales of Science Fiction 1988) with Greenberg; The Fantasy Hall
of Fame (anth 1983; vt The Mammoth Book of Fantasy All-Time Greats 1988
UK) with Greenberg; Nebula Award Winners 18 (anth 1983); The Time
Travelers: A Science Fiction Quartet (anth 1985) with Greenberg;
Neanderthals (anth 1987) with Greenberg and Waugh; Robert Silverberg's
Worlds of Wonder (anth 1987); Time Gate (anth 1989); Time Gate 2:
Dangerous Interfaces (anth 1990); Beyond the Gate of Worlds (anth 1991);
The Horror Hall of Fame (anth 1991) with Greenberg; The Ultimate Dinosaur
(anth 1992) with Byron PREISS; Murasaki (anth 1992) with Greenberg
(uncredited), assembling stories set in an elaborated crafted shared
world.Series: The Alpha sequence of anthologies, comprising Alpha One
(anth 1970), Two (anth 1971), Three (anth 1972), Four (anth 1973), Five
(anth 1974), Six (anth 1975), 7 (anth 1977), 8 (anth 1977) and 9 (anth
1978); the New Dimensions sequence of original anthologies, comprising New
Dimensions I (anth 1971), #2 (anth 1972), #3 (anth 1973), #4 (anth 1974),
#5 (anth 1975), #6 (anth 1976), #7 (anth 1977), #8 (anth 1978), #9 (anth
1979), #10 (anth 1980), #11 (anth 1980) with Marta RANDALL and #12 (anth
1981) with Randall, plus The Best of New Dimensions (anth 1979).About the
author: Robert Silverberg: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1983) and
Robert Silverberg (1983 chap), both by Thomas D. CLARESON.See also: ACE

(1958- ) US artist and writer, creator of Cerebus the Aardvark, the
abrasive and perverse eponymous star of a satirical COMIC book originally
intended as a pastiche of Robert E. HOWARD's Conan the Barbarian, and
which has lampooned a number of the leading characters of the
HEROIC-FANTASY genre. Published by DS himself, the comic book has become
so popular that Cerebus #1 (Dec 1977) is reputed now to be worth several
hundred times its original $1 cover price. Much of the series is available
in reprint assemblage, beginning with Cerebus (graph coll 1987). DS's
early style was heavily influenced by Barry Windsor-Smith. The comic book
features characters such as Elrod of Melvinbone, Bran Mak Mufin and
Wolveroach. DS's stated ambition is to complete the projected 6000pp of
Cerebus the Aardvark in AD2004. [RT]

(1904-1988) US writer whose primary occupation 1929-76 was newspaper
work, and who became a full-time writer of sf only after his retirement.
He was, however, a prolific and increasingly popular sf figure - after a
false start in 1931 - from the true beginning of his career in 1938. His
first published stories, beginning with "The World of the Red Sun" for
Wonder Stories in 1931, were unremarkable, though significantly that first
tale deals with TIME TRAVEL, which became his favourite sf device for the
importation of ALIENS into rural Wisconsin, always his favourite venue.
Apart from 1 novelette, The Creator (1935 Marvel Tales; 1946 chap), he
published no sf 1932-8; then, inspired by John W. CAMPBELL Jr's editorial
policy at ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, he began to produce such stories as
"Rule 18" and "Reunion on Ganymede" (both 1938). He swiftly followed with
his first full-length novel, Cosmic Engineers (1939 ASF; rev 1950), a
Galaxy-spanning epic in the vein of E.E. SMITH and Edmond HAMILTON. He
continued to write steadily for Campbell, and his work gradually became
identifiably Simakian - constrained, nostalgic, intensely emotional
beneath a calmly competent generic surface. Stories like "Rim of the Deep"
(1940), "Tools" (1942) and "Hunch" (1943) were signs of this development,
though the full CDS did not "arrive" until the appearance of "City" and
its sequel, "Huddling Place" (both 1944). These tales concerned the
NEAR-FUTURE exodus of mankind from the CITIES and the return to a PASTORAL
existence aided by a benign technology. As the series progresses, the
planet is abandoned by all humans except the reclusive Websters; and
Jenkins, an excellently depicted ROBOT, is left to monitor the forced
EVOLUTION of intelligent dogs, who are destined to inherit the Earth. As
CITY (fixup 1952; exp 1981) the sequence won an INTERNATIONAL FANTASY
AWARD. It remains CDS's best known work.In 1950 he found another market in
the new magazine GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION, which serialized his novel Time
and Again (1951; vt First He Died 1953). A trickily plotted time-travel
story, it proved to be very popular - though ominously prefiguring some of
his over-plotted works of the late 1970s. Also of strong interest is Ring
Around the Sun (1953), which involves the discovery of a chain of PARALLEL
WORLDS and the machinations of a secret society of mutants who are
plotting to subvert the world's economy by producing everlasting goods.
Its anti-urban and pro-agrarian sentiments were by now a standard part of
CDS's work; in stories like "Neighbors" (1954) he became sf's leading
spokesman for rural, Midwestern values. His stories in general contain
little violence and much folk humour, and stress the value of
individualism tempered by compassion - "good neighbourliness", in short.
Throughout the 1950s, he produced dozens of competent short stories, many
assembled in Strangers in the Universe (coll 1956; with 4 stories cut
1957; with 4 different stories cut 1958 UK), The Worlds of Clifford Simak
(coll 1960; with 6 stories cut 1961; with 3 stories cut, vt Aliens for
Neighbours 1961 UK; text restored in 2 vols, vt The Worlds of Clifford
Simak 1961 US and Other Worlds of Clifford Simak 1962 US) and All the
Traps of Earth (coll 1962; with 3 stories cut 1963; text restored in 2
vols, vt All the Traps of Earth 1964 UK and The Night of the Puudly 1964
UK). Two highpoints were the stories "The Big Front Yard" (1958), which
won a 1959 HUGO, and "A Death in the House" (1959). Many of these tales
appear in the retrospective Skirmish: The Great Short Fiction (coll 1977).
After 1960 CDS began to produce novels at the rate of roughly one a year.
Time is the Simplest Thing (1961) and They Walked Like Men (1962) are
workmanlike and entertaining, but WAY STATION (1963), which won the 1964
Hugo, more impressively concerns a lonely farmer given IMMORTALITY in
return for his services as a galactic station-master, his house having
been made into a way-station for aliens who teleport from star to star.
Its warmth, imaginative detail and finely rendered bucolic scenes make
this probably CDS's best novel. All Flesh is Grass (1965), Why Call them
Back from Heaven? (1967) and The Werewolf Principle (1967) are enjoyable,
if essentially repetitive. The Goblin Reservation (1968) seemed at first
glance to be innovative, striking out into new territory; but in fact it
turned out to be the old Wisconsin-valley fantasy in a new and whimsical
guise. CDS had always wrestled with such whimsy - notoriously paired with
nostalgia in many authors - and by the start of the 1970s whimsy seemed to
be winning. Its triumph may have derived from the fact that the venues for
which CDS felt genuine emotion were now 40 years gone, and the world had
irrevocably repudiated and scummed over the rural simplicities dear to his
heart; however, this cannot excuse his sentimental sidestepping of change.
Novels like Destiny Doll (1971), Cemetery World (cut 1973; text restored
1983), Enchanted Pilgrimage (1975), Shakespeare's Planet (1976),
Mastodonia (1978; vt Catface 1978 UK), Special Deliverance (1982), Where
the Evil Dwells (1982) and Highway of Eternity (1986; vt Highway to
Eternity 1987 UK), his last novel, contain only flashes of the old talent,
mingled with a good deal of sheer silliness. There were exceptions. A
Choice of Gods (1972) is an elegiac tale in which CDS reiterated the
plainsong of his favourite themes: the depopulated world, the sage old
man, the liberated robots, the "haunted" house, teleporting to the stars,
etc. A Heritage of Stars (1977), a quest novel set in a post-technological
society, is another compendium of CDS's old material. Though he seemed
generally to need the relative discipline of sf to achieve his best
effects, The Fellowship of the Talisman (1978) is an effective FANTASY.
The Visitors (1980), in which aliens once again visit Earth bearing
enigmatic gifts, may be his finest late novel, for a vein of irony is
allowed some play. The strengths of Project Pope (1981), about the
devising of an AI to serve as the ultimate pope, are somewhat vitiated by
CDS's visible reluctance to understand COMPUTERS.CDS's late short stories
are less mixed, and the tales assembled in The Marathon Photograph and
Other Stories (coll 1986 UK), including the Hugo- and Nebula-winning
"Grotto of the Dancing Deer" (1980), retain all the skill and much of the
emotional saliency of his prime. He was a man of strong moral convictions
and little real concern for ideas, and surprisingly for a man of such
professional attainments he rarely tended to stray outside his natural
bailiwick. Wisconsin in about 1925 - or any extraterrestrial venue
demonstrating the same rooted virtues - was that true home, and when he
was in residence CDS reigned as the pastoral king of his genre. He
received the NEBULA Grand Master Award in 1977. [DP/JC]Other works: Empire
(1951); The Trouble with Tycho (1961 chap dos); Worlds without End (coll
1964); Best Science Fiction Stories of Clifford Simak (coll 1967 UK); So
Bright the Vision (coll 1968 dos); Out of their Minds (1969); Our
Children's Children (1974); The Best of Clifford D. Simak (coll 1975 UK);
4 collections ed Francis Lyall, being Brother and Other Stories (coll 1986
UK), Off-Planet (coll 1988 UK), The Autumn Land and Other Stories (coll
1990 UK) and Immigrant and Other Stories (coll 1991 UK); The Creator and
Other Stories (coll 1993 UK), the title story being the same text as the
1946 pamphlet.As Editor: Nebula Award Stories 6 (anth 1971); The Best of
Astounding (anth 1978).About the author: "Clifford D. Simak" by Sam
MOSKOWITZ, in Seekers of Tomorrow (1966); Clifford D. Simak: A Primary and
Secondary Bibliography (1949) by Muriel R. Becker.See also: ANDROIDS;

(1948- ) US writer, for many years a teacher of gifted children, who
began publishing with "The River Styx Runs Upstream" for Rod Serling's The
Twilight Zone Magazine in 1982, and who was for some time best regarded as
an author of tales of HORROR, some of which - along with sf and FANTASY
stories - were assembled in Prayers to Broken Stones (coll 1990). True to
the instincts of that genre, his first novel, Song of Kali (1985),
rendered modern-day Calcutta as a moral and psychic cesspool, into which
the protagonists of the book sink very deep indeed as unleashed evil from
the world's ancient heart threatens to flood the 1980s. His second novel,
the immense Carrion Comfort (1983 Omni; much exp 1989), is also horror,
though with an sf underpinning, and as such its basic premise is un-new.
The "carrion-eaters" of the title are MUTANT humans who have acquired the
capacity to control other humans through direct psychic access to their
hind-brains, while at the same time feasting psychically on the
experiences into which they force their victims. True to the dictates of
the horror genre - to which Simmons remains astonishingly faithful for
nearly 500,000 words - his mutants soon decay into lovers of pain and
death, and the protagonists of the book must attempt to exploit divisions
among these puppet masters. Their survival seems genuinely triumphant,
though the sole surviving vampire is preparing to start WWIII.However,
despite the haunting rationality of this tale, DS's later work is of much
greater sf interest. Phases of Gravity (1989) is not sf, being instead -
if one is able to ignore a moment or two of muffled transcendence -
perhaps the first historical novel by an sf author about the space
programme, recounting the psychic rejuvenation of a grounded astronaut.
But HYPERION (1989) - which won a 1990 HUGO - and The Fall of Hyperion
(1990) - 2 vols which together, under the preferred title Hyperion Cantos
(omni 1990), clearly make a single novel - are genuine, full-blown
METAPHYSICAL sf. Over a SPACE-OPERA structure - ages after a BLACK HOLE
has destroyed Old Earth, the Galaxy is dominated by a vast human hegemony
knit together by ANSIBLE-like fatlines and farcasters that plumb
discontinuities in space - an extremely complex narrative engages with
many themes, including religious quests, TIME TRAVEL, CYBERSPACE, ECOLOGY,
bioengineering and much else. In the first volume, which is structured
after Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, 7 "pilgrims" have been called to the
planet Hyperion, where the time-travelling Shrike which guards the Time
Tombs promises some dreadful transcendence; en route they tell tales which
reveal their significant life-experiences (one of these tales,
"Remembering Siri", was first published separately in 1983), each tale
being recounted in a different sf idiom, and each contributing to the
growing mosaic of the overall story, described by John CLUTE as a space
opera about the end of things, an "entelechy opera" or tale of cosmogony.
Every member of the cast bears a secret burden, and each burden expands in
significance as the surviving protagonists arrive on Hyperion and engage
more and more deeply with the Keatsian implications of their mission (the
two sections of Hyperion Cantos take the titles of Keats's long but
incomplete poems about the displacement of the old gods, the victory of a
new pantheon). Meanwhile, wars and apocalypse and ENTROPY threaten the
entire Galaxy. The AIS that run everything turn out to inhabit the
quantum-level interstices of the farcaster net - just as does the AI who
tends to dominate Orson Scott CARD's Xenocide (1991) - and the end of the
Universe will depend upon which AI faction is able to corner for itself
the significance of Hyperion, the Shrike, and the human saintliness which
begins to invest activities there.As a compendium and culminating
presentation of GENRE SF's devices and deep impulses, Hyperion Cantos is
perhaps definitive for the 1980s. In one novel, DS became one of the
half-dozen central figures of that decade. A slight sentimentality about
children and a love of generic competence for its own sake only slightly
modify the sense of excitement generated by his arrival on the scene,
though his two 1992 novels may have calmed that excitement to some degree.
The Hollow Man (1982 Omni as "Eyes I Dare Not Meet in Dreams"; much exp
1992), though pure sf in its rationale, is structured (somewhat stiffly)
to reflect the metaphysical journey of DANTE ALIGHIERI's protagonist in La
Divina Commedia (written c1304-21), containing ample references as well to
the poetry of T.S. Eliot (1888-1965). It deals with a tortured man whose
ESP powers are explained in terms of quantum physics and Chaos-theory
mathematics; a longish horror story is implanted in its midst. Children of
the Night (1992) - which features a priest who had appeared as a child in
Summer of Night (1991), a Stephen- KING-like tale of supernatural horror -
rationalizes the vampire novel, and is a pure-sf thriller in its
AIDS-related story of Romanian vampires, led by the still-living Vlad
Dracula, whose condition turns out to be a hereditary immune deficiency
curable by the intake of human blood. The novel arguably trivializes the
agonies of post-Ceausescu Romania and of AIDS by linking them to
vampirism, and does not fully justify DS's return to themes he had already
used so forcefully in Carrion Comfort. And Fires of Eden (1994), a horror
novel with supernatural elements set in 19th and 20th century Hawaii,
quite as fully overmaster his material as initially he was inclined to.
There is an intellectual chill about all three novels, which are well
crafted but dispassionate, suggesting that for the moment at least DS is
marking time. [JC]Other works: Entropy's Bed at Midnight (1990 chap);
Banished Dreams (1990 chap); Going After the Rubber Chicken (coll 1991
chap), 3 cogent after-dinner speeches; Summer Sketches (coll 1992),
nonfiction.About the author: "The True and Blushful Chutzpah" by John
Clute, Interzone #38, 1990.See also: CLICHES; COMMUNICATIONS; CYBERNETICS;

(1943- ) US writer and medical doctor whose first sf novel, The Adam
Experiment (1978), set in an orbital space lab, features an experiment in
human procreation which runs up against the fact that ALIENS have been
monitoring Homo sapiens and will not permit us to breed off-planet.
Pandemic (1980) is a medical sf thriller; Murdock (1983), a heavily
plotted tale involving CRYOGENICS, again makes some effective use of GS's
medical expertise. [JC]


(1897-1940) UK novelist, the last and longest section of whose The Woman
on the Beast (1933) is set in 1999, when a woman anarchist becomes ruler
of the world with apocalyptic intentions, including the purificatory
abolition of all reading. [JC]


(1935- ) UK writer of much fiction and nonfiction. His The Project (1960)
comes as close to nuclear HOLOCAUST as possible - a doomsday weapon is
just about to go off as the final page ends - without actually meeting the
END OF THE WORLD head-on. AS remains best known for his Gog sequence - Gog
(1967), Magog (1972) and King Ludd (1988) - a FABULATION about the Matter
of Britain which is half sentimental SATIRE and half mythopoesis. [JC]

(1943- ) UK poet and novelist whose Lud Heat: A Book of the Dead Hamlets
(1975) is a narrative prose-poem which fabricates a numerological myth of
the geography of London; it provided a direct inspiration for Peter
ACKROYD's Hawksmoor (1985). A novel, Downriver (Or, the Vessels of Wrath):
A Narrative in Twelve Tales (1991), develops similar material in a
FABULATION which combines detective modes and NEAR-FUTURE sf visions of
the complex destiny of London. Radon Daughters: A Voyage, Between Art and
Terror, from the Mound of Whitechapel to the Limestone Pavements of the
Burren (1994) covers similar territory in an ornately constructed fantasia
based on a perhaps non-existent sequel to William Hope HODGSON's The House
on the Borderland (1908), but also includes an elaborately ironic
description of an sf convention. [JC]

Michael SHEA.

(1878-1968) US writer known primarily for his work outside the sf field,
particularly for his novels of social criticism, including The Jungle
(1905). His most notable sf work is the comedy The Millennium: A Comedy of
the Year 2000 (1914 Appeal to Reason; in 3 vols 1924), based on a play, in
which the survivors of a DISASTER recapitulate the economic stages
described by the Marxist theory of history. In Prince Hagen (1903; play
1921) a Nibelung ruler acknowledges that US capitalists are his superiors
in avarice. The Industrial Republic: A Study of the America of Ten Years
Hence (1907) is a utopian fantasy. Roman Holiday (1931) is an interesting
and curiously bittersweet account of a delusional timeslip in which an
industrialist discovers parallels between his own time and a nascent Roman
republic which cannot anticipate the indignities that history has in store
for it. US's lighter political satires include the documentary future
histories I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty (1933) and
We, People of America, and How We Ended Poverty: A True Story of the
Future (1934). He also wrote a number of religious fantasies in which
MESSIAH figures are frustrated by the injustices of the modern world: They
Call me Carpenter (1922) is a delusional fantasy starring Jesus; Our Lady
(1938) is an effective timeslip story which brings the Blessed Virgin to
contemporary California; and What Didymus Did (1954 UK; vt It Happened to
Didymus 1958 US) is a dispirited account of the failure of a reluctant
miracle-worker commissioned by Heaven to spread spiritual enlightenment in
an unappreciative world. [BS]Other works: Plays of Protest (coll 1912)
includes Prince Hagen and a play featuring a female noble savage, The
Naturewoman; Co-op: A Novel of Living Together (1936 UK); The Gnomobile
(1936), a juvenile filmed by Disney as The Gnome-Mobile (1967); A Giant's
Strength: A Three-Act Drama of the Atomic Bomb (1947), a post- HOLOCAUST

(1925- ) Russian dissident writer and literary critic who published the
manuscripts he smuggled into the West in the late 1950s and early 1960s
under the name Abram Tertz. His identity became known when the Soviet
authorities arrested him in 1966 and subjected him, along with his friend
and fellow dissident Yuli DANIEL (who wrote as Nikolai Arzhak), to a show
trial; both were imprisoned and subsequently exiled. Several of AS's
"fantastic stories" are of sf interest, most being assembled in
Fantasticheskiye Povesti (coll 1961 Paris; trans Max Hayward and R.
Hingley as The Icicle and Other Stories 1963 UK; vt Fantastic Stories 1963
US), though the most striking of all, "Pkhentz" (trans 1966; Russian text
in Fantasticheski Mir Abrama Tertza, coll 1967 US), was only later
smuggled to the West. In this story an ALIEN spaceship crashes in Russia
leaving only one survivor, who is forced to exist for years in a desperate
limbo under a false identity, passing for an ordinary citizen. "The
Icicle" (1961) features a man of whose clairvoyant powers the state makes
destructive use in its attempts to control the future. AS's finest novel,
Lyubimov (Washington 1964; trans Manya Harari as The Makepeace Experiment
1965 UK), tells with warmth and power of the transformation of a small
Russian village through the ability of one man to broadcast his will
hypnotically through space; when he loses this power, robot tanks regain
the village and he flees. The satirical implications of this allegorical
recasting of the triumph of communism in Russia are obvious. At the same
time, AS's satirical effects are mediated through an imagination deeply
Russian in its metaphysical, fundamentally religious, Slavophile bent; his
sf stories are slashing moral fables rather than political diatribes.
[JC]Other work: For Freedom of Imagination (coll trans Laszlo Tikos and
Murray Peppard 1971 US) contains speculations on the nature of sf.About
the author: On Trial: The Case of Sinyavsky (Tertz) and Daniel (Arzhak)
(1967) ed Leopold Lebedz and Max Hayward deals largely with AS, and
discusses his work in literary as well as political terms.See also:

(1902- ) German writer/film-director based in Hollywood who began to
publish adult stories in Germany as early as 1919, and whose first
English-language publication was "The Eggs from Lake Tanganyika" (1926
AMZ), a tale almost certainly translated from an earlier German version.
CS entered the film industry in 1929 as a screen-writer; his credits
include F.P.1 ANTWORTET NICHT (1932; vt F.P.1 DOESN'T ANSWER; based on his
own novel F.P.1 Antwortet Nicht [1932; trans H.W. Farrel as F.P.1 Does not
Reply 1933 US; vt F.P.1 Fails to Reply 1933 UK]). He emigrated to the USA
in 1937; his US screenplays (some co-authorships) include The Ape (1940),
The Invisible Man Returns (1940), The Invisible Woman (1940), Invisible
Agent (1942), The Wolf Man (1942), Son of Dracula (1943), Frankenstein
Meets the Wolf Man (1943), I Walked with a Zombie (1943), House of
Frankenstein (1944), The LADY AND THE MONSTER (1944; based on his novel
Donovan's Brain [1943], subsequently filmed again as DONOVAN'S BRAIN
[1953] and VENGEANCE [1963]), The Beast with Five Fingers (1946), Tarzan's
Magic Fountain (1949), RIDERS TO THE STARS (1953) and Creature with the
Atom Brain (1955). He also wrote the story for EARTH VS. THE FLYING
SAUCERS (1956; vt Invasion of the Flying Saucers). Later in his career he
also directed films, rather badly, including Bride of the Gorilla (1951),
The MAGNETIC MONSTER (1953) and Curucu, Beast of the Amazon (1956).
Although often involved with sf-oriented subjects, he never displayed much
understanding for the genre: like other German film-makers of his
generation, he was more at home with the GOTHIC (the supernatural, the
macabre and the grotesque) than with science, and such science as he
introduced tended to be for picturesque atmosphere. Donovan's Brain was
parodied in The MAN WITH TWO BRAINS (1983).CS has 35 movie credits in the
USA and 18 in Europe. Before emigrating he had 18 novels published in
Germany, F.P.1 Does Not Reply being the only one translated into English.
His novels in English, aside from Donovan's Brain - his most interesting -
are its belated sequel Hauser's Memory (1968), filmed as HAUSER'S MEMORY
(1970); Skyport (1959), The Third Ear (1971) and City in the Sky (1974),
the last dealing with rebellion in a prison satellite. Riders to the Stars
* (1953) was published as by CS and Robert Smith (1920- ), but CS's only
connection with it was the original screenplay. Hauser's Memory and The
Third Ear both feature spy-thriller plots and absurd experiments carried
out by biochemists; Gabriel's Body (1992) is an sf medical thriller.

Australian critical SEMIPROZINE, subtitled "The Australian Magazine for
readers of science fiction, fantasy and the macabre".Announced as
quarterly but slightly irregular,test issue #0 Sep 1992, #1 Mar 1993,seven
full issues to Mar 1995, A4 format, saddle-stapled, ed Garry Wyatt from
Canberra, pubGaslight Books Publications. S contains critical articles,
reviews, movie articles,checklists, annual round-ups, etc., some by
academics or professional authors, all quiteprofessionally presented, and
has confounded sceptics who doubted the market for a $7.50magazine (around
60 pages) in this area, by lasting out its first two years. The
intellectual quality,while uneven, is sometimes good. [GF]


US SEMIPROZINE, current, #1 1994, published eight times a year "on the
ancient Celtic holidays" by Claddagh Press,Portland, Oregon, five issues
to Feb 1995, ed Marybeth O'Halloran. SMALL-PRESS 16pp tabloid-format
fiction magazine, describing itself as a "magazine of speculative fiction,
humorous science fiction, fantasy and visionary fiction",but closer to
FANTASY than sf to date. In its first year it published stories by
Kristine Kathryn RUSCH, Dean Wesley SMITH, Nina Kiriki Hoffman, among
others, some of them sf. [GF]

(1892-1969) UK writer. The title novella in Triple Fugue (coll 1924)
posits a 1948 world in which Trotsky is President of Russia and lifespans
have been trebled for the rich. The Man who Lost Himself (1929) tells the
complex psychological life-story of a man from his youth to his death
sometime after the middle of the 20th century. Miracle on Sinai (1933), a
discussion novel like several of H.G. WELLS's from this period, is set in
a luxury hotel near Mount Sinai and on the Mount itself, where a glowing
cloud deposits new Tablets of the Law, which are variously interpreted; in
the final chapter a cataclysmic war begins. A Place of One's Own (1941
chap) is a ghost story. Fee Fi Fo Fum!: A Book of Fairy Stories (coll
1959) assembles SATIRES. [JC]See also: TIME PARADOXES.

US tv series (1973-8). A Silverton and Universal Production for ABC.
Executive prods Glen A. LARSON, Harve Bennett, Allan Balter. Prod Michael
Gleason, Lionel E. Siegel, Joe L. Cramer, Fred Freiberger. Based on the
novel Cyborg (1972) by Martin CAIDIN. The series began as a 90min ABC
"Wednesday Movie of the Week" in 1973; 2 more made-for-tv movies followed,
then the series: 5 seasons, 100 50min episodes. Colour.Lee Majors plays
Steve Austin, a former US Air Force astronaut who, after an accident in an
experimental aircraft, has his badly injured body rebuilt with artificial
parts (2 legs, 1 arm, 1 eye), becoming a CYBORG, though it is impossible
to tell externally which parts are artificial. His unique situation is
treated in purely comic-book terms for a presumably juvenile audience. He
becomes a latter-day SUPERMAN, able to perform feats of great strength and
move at incredible speeds, and is used as a special agent by a CIA-like
government organization. The basic premise of the series is
technologically absurd - while Austin's bionic arm might be able to
withstand lifting huge weights, the leverage would pull the rest of his
body apart. The success of the series resulted in a rather better spin-off
series, The BIONIC WOMAN . [JB]

(1952- ) US writer whose first novel, Scavengers (1980), suggests some sf
basis for a plot involving memory transfer in a corrupt world. His second,
When We Were Good (1981), evokes a powerful sense of cultural despair in
the tale of a sterile world in which genetically engineered hermaphrodites
fail to represent an emblem of hope for the terminal remnants of normal
humanity. A sense that DJS is by inclination a horror writer was
intensified by the entropic dismay evoked by Antibodies (1989), a short
accusatory trawl through Californian subcultures, where sf characters emit
pretentious twaddle about transcendence and the military-industrial
complex conspires to transform pseudo-hippies into spare computer parts;
all this is told with a sense of gnawing revulsion. Hollywood Gothic: The
Tangled Web of "Dracula" from Novel to Stage to Screen (1990), and The
Monster Show: A Cultural History of Horror (1993), are both extremely
competent nonfiction studies. [JC]See also: GENETIC ENGINEERING.


Pseudonym used by US-born crime writer Paula Gosling (1939- ), resident
in the UK, for her sf novel Mind's Eye (1981; vt The Harrowing 1980 US),
which convincingly (and often movingly) depicts the scientific testing of
a girl possessed of ESP and the realization of the consequences of the
fact that this power is transferable to others. [JGr/JC]

(1904-1990) US psychologist and writer whose cogently argued (and just as
cogently refuted) brand of behaviourism dominated that theory of
PSYCHOLOGY for many years in the USA, and provides the basic tenets for
his one work of fiction, Walden Two (1948), depicting a UTOPIA whose
inhabitants grow up as successful experiments in behavioural engineering.
The title refers, of course, to Walden, or Life in the Woods (1854) by
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862). Walden Two is conducted in the main as a
dialogue between Castle and Frazier, two colleagues of a professor named
Burris, a clear stand-in for the author himself. Frazier, who has founded
the colony, dismisses - as BFS later did himself in Beyond Freedom and
Dignity (1972) - the traditional notions of free will, and disparages
democratic forms of government; his opponent, Castle, argues for the
time-tested liberal solutions to the problems of human happiness. Burris
seems neutral, but the colony, with its creches, positive reinforcement
regimes and transparently happy residents, is obviously intended to
represent the power of Frazier's ideas. [JC]See also: SCIENTIFIC ERRORS;

James William BARLOW.

(1943- ) US writer whose first genre story was "One Ordinary Day, with
Box" in Generation (anth 1972) ed David GERROLD. She was married to
Stephen GOLDIN 1972-82, and wrote with him The Business of Being a Writer
(1982). Her debut novel Birthright (1975) speculates emotionally about
distinctions between human and ANDROID after GENETIC ENGINEERING has
become a common practice. Her other work in the genre has also been
romantic, including 2 competent STAR-TREK ties, Vulcan! * (1978) and
Death's Angel * (1981), and the separate novels Ice Prison (1976) and
Witchdame (1985), the latter being a fantasy, and seemingly #1 in a
projected series. [PN]

US DIGEST-size reprint magazine, subtitled "Classics in Science Fiction"
on #1, thereafter "Marvels in Science Fiction". 4 issues Nov 1977-Aug
1978, published by Humorama Inc., New York; ed Jeff Stevens (uncredited).
S reprinted mostly from MARVEL SCIENCE STORIES of 1950-52, material badly
dated by the 1970s and undistinguished when it had first appeared.
Production was terrible. [FHP/PN]

(1937- ) US writer who spent two decades in the UK from 1966, becoming
involved in the UK NEW-WAVE movement centred on Michael MOORCOCK's NEW
WORLDS, and co-editing with Pamela ZOLINE Ronald Reagan: The Magazine of
Poetry (2 issues 1968), in which work by both editors, J.G. BALLARD,
Thomas M. DISCH and others appeared. In the mid-1980s he returned to
Minneapolis, a town which had long supplied local colour to many of his
more severely satirical stories, whose protagonists ricochet through their
preordained and absurd lives within the vast, hyperbolic flatlands of
middle America. This mise en scene, when illuminated by his adept control
of the language and pretensions of the modern bureaucratic state, provides
a matrix for his best work, and helps make plausible the frequent
comparisons that have been drawn between him and Kurt VONNEGUT Jr; but
Vonnegut has an easier emotional flow than JTS, while JTS lacks Vonnegut's
rhetoric and avoids his excessive simplicity of effect.He began writing sf
with "The Happy Breed", published in Harlan ELLISON's DANGEROUS VISIONS
(anth 1967), though his first published story was "The Poets of Millgrove,
Iowa" for NW in 1966; his first 2 novels - The House that Fear Built (1966
US) with Disch and The Castle and the Key (1967 US) - were GOTHICS, both
as by Cassandra Knye. His first sf novel, The Reproductive System (1968;
vt MECHASM 1969 US), introduced into his typical small-town-US setting a
brilliant maelstrom of sf activity: a self-reproducing technological
device goes out of control in passages of allegorical broadness, but
everything turns out all right in the end, though not through positive
efforts of the inept cast, and a dreamlike UTOPIA looms on the horizon;
governing the conniptions of the tale is an obsessive discourse upon and
dramatization of the metamorphic relationships between human and ROBOT, a
relationship which lies at the centre of all his subsequent solo novels
and much of his short fiction. His next book, however, Black Alice (1968
US) with Disch, both as Thom Demijohn, was a mystery novel, not sf. In
JTS's next sf book, The Muller-Fokker Effect (1970), a man's character is
transferred onto COMPUTER tape, and the dissemination of several copies of
this "personality" instigates a series of absurd events ( FABULATION),
some of them extremely comic in effect, some horrifying, all mounting to a
picture of a USA disintegrated morally and physically by its own surrender
to TECHNOLOGY, the profit motive and the ethical falseness that leads to
dehumanization. In its questioning of the nature of narrative events and
of fiction itself, the book is a significant example of modern US
self-analysis at its highly impressive best. In 1970 the book gained
little response, and for a decade JTS wrote no more sf novels.Through his
career, JTS has written numerous stories whose strenuous formal ingenuity,
and whose surreal combining of a deadpan ribaldry and pathos, have made
them underground classics of the genre. The most notable of them all,
because of its length and impassioned veracity of tone, may be "Masterson
and the Clerks" (1967), in which the immolation of its protagonists in the
process of a US business is first hilariously then movingly presented;
true to the oddly uncommercial course of his career, JTS collected this
tale only much later, in Alien Accounts (coll 1982). Previous collections
- The Steam-Driven Boy and Other Strangers (coll 1973), which contains
several superb parodies of well known sf writers ( SATIRE), and Keep the
Giraffe Burning (coll dated 1977 but 1978), selections from both vols
being brought together as The Best of John Sladek (coll 1981 US) - tended
to assemble stories which, perhaps more formally brilliant than
"Masterson", lack something of its human intensity. Later stories were
assembled in The Lunatics of Terra (coll 1984), in which the comic
melancholy of his early work wears a somewhat calmer guise. During the
1970s, when most of his stories became generally available, JTS published
two detective novels, Black Aura (1974) - which contains some
borderline-sf elements - and Invisible Green: A thackeray Phin Mystery
(1977), as well as a sequence of nonfiction texts of considerable
interest. The New Apocrypha: A Guide to Strange Sciences and Occult
Beliefs (1973) - all subsequent texts modified under threat of legal
action from the Church of Scientology - scathingly anatomizes the various
cults and PSEUDO-SCIENCES that exist as a kind of fringe around the sf
reader's areas of interest, from SCIENTOLOGY to VON DANIKEN. Arachne
Rising: The Thirteenth Sign of the Zodiac (1977; vt The Thirteenth Zodiac:
The Sign of Arachne 1979 ) as James Vogh, The Cosmic Factor (1978) as
James Vogh and Judgement of Jupiter (1980) as Richard A. Tilms were hoax
demonstrations of the kind of fringe theorizing that underpins the cults
described in The New Apocrypha.JTS then returned to sf with Roderick, or
The Education of a Young Machine (1980) and Roderick at Random, or Further
Education of a Young Machine (1983), 2 texts conceived as a single novel.
The US version, also entitled RODERICK (1982 US), constituted only about
two-thirds of the original RODERICK; the publisher had intended to make a
trilogy out of the 2-vol novel, but the project foundered, and only the
single savagely truncated vol appeared. The novel represents the
autobiography of the eponymous robot and is JTS's most ambitious work to
date, conveying with considerable ingenuity and some pathos its
protagonist's Candide-like innocence and its author's OULIPO-derived
numerological sense of narrative structure. Tik-Tok (1983), a thematic
pendant which again took its structure from the arbitrary rule-generating
principles of oulipo, follows the career of a robot who, once his "asimov
circuits" go on the blink, becomes criminally ambitious. Though robots
inevitably appear, Bugs (1989 UK) was JTS's first sf novel to feature a
"normal" human protagonist; and in its tracing of the deranging
experiences of a UK immigrant to a strange Midwestern city the tale could
be seen as guardedly autobiographical.As the most formally inventive, the
funniest, and very nearly the most melancholy of modern US sf writers, JTS
has always addressed the heart of the genre, but never spoken from it. We
need his attention: he deserves ours. [JC]Other works: Red Noise (1982
chap US); Flatland (1982 chap US); The Book of Clues (1984), a series of
short detective puzzles; Blood and Gingerbread (1990 chap).About the
author: A John Sladek Checklist (1984 chap) by Chris DRUMM.See also:

UK FANZINE (1948-53) ed from Belfast by Walt Willis. Neatly hand-printed
on a small letterpress machine, and containing woodcut illustrations by
James WHITE and Bob SHAW, S is best remembered for introducing Irish
FANDOM (principally Willis, Shaw and White) to sf fandom at large; it also
contained fine pieces of humorous writing (continued in HYPHEN) and
featured fiction by authors such as Kenneth BULMER, John BRUNNER, A.
Bertram CHANDLER and Shaw. [PR]

(1879-1963) UK author whose work showed the influence of H.G. WELLS in
both Ship of Destiny (1951), where survivors of a HOLOCAUST sail across a
drowned world, and The Smashed World (1952), set 3000 years hence in a
World State which is destroyed by a reborn Napoleon. Some of HJS's effects
oddly prefigure the afterlife fantasies of Philip Jose FARMER. [JC]See

(1927- ) US writer who remains best known for acute analyses of Western
culture like The Pursuit of Loneliness (1970) and Earthwalk (1974). His
How I Saved the World (1985), about nuclear DISASTER, reiterates in
spoof-thriller guise the lessons urged in his nonfiction. [JC]

Film (1972). Vanadas/Universal. Dir George Roy Hill, starring Michael
Sacks, Ron Leibman, Eugene Roche, Sharon Gans, Valerie Perrine. Screenplay
Stephen Geller, based on Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children's Crusade
(1969) by Kurt VONNEGUT Jr. 104 mins. Colour.A middle-class, middle-aged
American (Sacks), dissatisfied with his job, marriage and life in general,
starts to experience sudden shifts in time, mainly back to when he was a
PoW in the German city of Dresden before its fire-bombing on a massive
scale by the Allies. He later experiences forward shifts in time to when
he has become a prisoner of the ALIEN Tralfamadorians, who keep him in a
zoo on their planet and provide him with a half-naked Hollywood starlet
for company. The novel's ABSURDIST disjunctions between the real horrors
of war and the minor horrors of suburban life are arguably satirical, and
certainly agonized, though arbitrary; here, with quite extraordinary
vulgarity, they become merely flippant, especially in the context of the
Tralfamadore sequences, where what is black in the book is merely
whimsical in the movie, which nevertheless won a 1973 HUGO. [JB/PN]

(1945- ) US writer of books for older children. His first novel,
Blackbriar (1972), is an occult fantasy. Titles of sf interest include:
House of Stairs (1974), an attack on behavioural science and the
experiments to which it might lead; Green Futures of Tycho (1981), set in
a familiar version of the Solar System; Interstellar Pig (1984), which
intermixes gaming ( GAMES AND SPORTS) and ALIEN themes in the tale of a
game whose pieces represent moves in a nonhuman conflict; The Boy who
Reversed Himself (1986), about travel through the DIMENSIONS at some risk
to the lad; The Duplicate (1988), in which a machine CLONES duplicates of
a teenaged boy, all of them upset; and Strange Attractors (1990; vt
Strange Attractions 1991 UK), a TIME-TRAVEL tale. WS's range is wide, and
his recalcitrant protagonists stick doggedly in the reader's memory, but
he has a tendency sometimes to accept sf devices without much bothering to
examine them, and this in turn thins the texture of reality of his tales.
[JC]Other works: Among the Dolls (1975 chap), fantasy; Into the Dream
(1979); Fingers (1983); Singularity (1985); The Spirit House (1991);
Others See Us (1993).

[r] Cornelia Atwood PRATT.

Film (1973). Rollins-Joffe Productions/United Artists. Dir Woody Allen,
starring Allen, Diane Keaton, John Beck, Mary Gregory, Don Keefer.
Screenplay Allen, Marshall Brickman. 88 mins. Colour.The plot device of
having a man from the present suddenly finding himself in the future (this
time through CRYONICS) is nearly always used to comment on contemporary
society rather than to speculate about the future ( SLEEPER AWAKES). This,
one of Allen's best slapstick SATIRES, targets Nixon, health food, beauty
contests and revolutionary politics, but it does include genuinely
futuristic sf gags involving ROBOTS and robot pets, SEX practices and
artificial food (which has to be beaten into submission before it can be
served). One of the best sequences involves an attempt to CLONE a new body
from the nose of the country's assassinated dictator, the only bit left.
Allen is the always-anxious heath-food faddist who cannot come to terms
with the future's partiality to pleasure. The film won both HUGO and

As the 19th century progressed and the planet became more and more
thoroughly explored, authors of UTOPIAS and DYSTOPIAS began to abandon
present-day LOST WORLDS and ISLANDS as venues for their ideal societies,
and instead to locate their speculations in the future, perhaps hundreds
of years hence. Almost always these speculations were framed by prologues
(and sometimes epilogues) set at the time the novel was written; this
frame served to introduce the protagonist who was to travel into the
future and act the role of inquisitive visitor to the new world. The route
he (the protagonist was almost always male) generally took seems in
retrospect an odd one. Though TIME MACHINES were available to fiction
writers before the end of the century, they were rarely used, either by
utopian/dystopian speculators or by tellers of tales. Even H.G. WELLS, who
conceived perhaps the first imaginatively plausible device in THE TIME
MACHINE (1895), did not re-use the idea, even though the notion of an
instantaneous trip through time served one essential function for the
writer who wished to illuminate the world to come: it brought the then and
the now into abrupt and glaring contrast. When Wells came to write his
first dystopia, When the Sleeper Wakes (1899; rev vt The Sleeper Awakes
1910), he fell back on the convention of the protagonist who falls asleep
in the present day and wakes again in the future. Not for the first time
in his career, he did not invent but gave definitive form to (and named,
in the vt) a significant sf theme or motif.The sleeper-awakes device
shares with TIME TRAVEL, however, the capacity to transit centuries in the
turning of a page, so that the essential function of contrast between the
then and the now can be retained in exemplary focus. The two most famous
late-19th-century utopias in the English language, Edward BELLAMY's
Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888) and William MORRIS's News from Nowhere
(1890 US), took advantage of the device to sharpen contrasts throughout.
Many less famous titles, like Ismar THIUSEN's The Diothas (1883), also
utilized it. In his Science Fiction: The Early Years (1991), E.F. BLEILER
lists about 40 further novels and stories published before 1930 - by no
means all of them utopias or dystopias - which feature an awakened
sleeper. Few have retained much popularity, although Alvarado M. FULLER's
A.D. 2000 (1890), W.H. HUDSON's A Crystal Age (1887; rev 1906), Horace
W.C. NEWTE's The Master Beast (1907; vt The Red Fury 1919) and Edward
SHANKS's The People of the Ruins (1920) remain of some interest.It is hard
to escape the sense that the sleeper-awakes structure betrayed, even
before the beginning of the 20th century, an undue fastidiousness of
imagination, and that some straightforward magic (like a time machine)
might always have been a more elegant option; even more attractive to the
imagination, of course, would have been a story which did not need a
time-frame or anchor to make its point about the worlds to come, or to
thrill its readers with the new. One of the centrally important
accomplishments of GENRE SF has been the abandonment of the anchor of the
present day, for most genre sf is set unabashedly in the future, and needs
no present-day protagonist to reassure its readers of the imaginative
reality of the new worlds. A non-genre writer like J. Leslie MITCHELL
might still hint at something along the lines of the device when he sent
the eponymous heroine of Gay Hunter (1934) 20,000 years hence, but few
sleepers-awake stories appeared in genre sf until the development of the
notion of the GENERATION STARSHIP, in the bowels of which might repose
thousands of humans in SUSPENDED ANIMATION; and, anyway, here the sleepers
tend not to be the protagonists of the tale - it is their shepherds, in
the here and now of the narrative, who generally fill that role. Only
occasionally - as in Orson Scott CARD's Hot Sleep (fixup 1979) - will a
sleeper awake from generation-starship solitude as protagonist in a
changed world. Other genre-sf examples of the device either - like Mack
REYNOLDS's Looking Backward, from the Year 2000 (1973) - are introduced as
a homage, or - as in T.J. BASS's remarkable Half Past Human (fixup 1971) -
are integrated into genre pyrotechnics that far transcend the original
simplicity of the notion. But these are eccentric examples. When, after
1926, the future became domesticated as a venue for the imagination, the
sleeper-awakes tale faded away.There are also many tales in both
19th-century sf and genre sf which feature a figure from the past who
awakens into the present. Indeed, this is a far older theme, growing
perhaps from legends like that of Sleeping Beauty and famously given new
life by Washington Irving (1783-1859) in "Rip Van Winkle" (in The Sketch
Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent [in parts 1819-20]), whose lazy protagonist
falls asleep in the Catskills for 20 years. Modern tales of this sort
rarely focus on the awakened sleeper, but on the impact that an intruder
from beyond, whose responses to us may well be inappropriate or alien,
might have upon our own world. [JC]


(1927- ) US writer who began his career in advertising. He started to
publish sf with "The Brat" for Imaginative Tales in 1955. Of his several
hundred stories, about a third have been sf or fantasy, most of them
appearing in his first decade as a writer; many are as by O.H. Leslie. He
is best known for his work in the mystery field, with a number of
thrillers from The Gray Flannel Shroud (1958), which won an Edgar,
onwards. Among them was a borderline-sf tale, The Bridge of Lions (1963);
closely connected to this kind of work was his stint as headwriter for the
US daytime suspense serial, The Edge of Night, in the late 1950s and
1960s. Other tv work included 24 episodes for Alfred Hitchcock Presents
(1955-61), The Virtue Affair for The MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. in 1965, and at
least 100 additional scripts, many of them fantasy or sf. His one sf book
has been the novelization of TWENTY MILLION MILES TO EARTH (1957; 1957),
published as #1 in the abortive AMAZING STORIES SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS
series. [JC/PN]See also: PSI POWERS.


Film (1989). Entertainment Film Productions. Prod Gary Kurtz. Dir Steven
M. Lisberger, starring Bill Paxton, Bob Peck, Mark Hamill, Kitty Aldridge,
Eleanor David, Ben Kingsley. Screenplay Tony Kayden, based on a story by
Bill Bauer. 102 mins. Colour.Unspecified ecological rape has led to great
earthquakes and geological changes all over the world. A strong, constant
"river" of wind, the Slipstream, blows always in one direction across a
scarred landscape which confusingly alternates between scenes shot in
Yorkshire and in Turkey. Eccentric remnants of civilization persist in
isolated pockets; transport is, inexplicably, by microlight aircraft. A
supposedly criminal ANDROID (Peck) is hunted by a psychotic cop (Hamill)
and protected by a young bounty hunter (Paxton). The post- HOLOCAUST
scenario is intriguing, the execution is dreadful. Kurtz, who produced
STAR WARS (1977), was attempting a come-back here, along with Star Wars
star Hamill; both failed. A few powerful moments focus on Peck's
intelligent performance as the Christlike healer-android. Lisberger's
previous sf film, TRON (1982), was not bad, and one can only wonder why
this apparently promising project suffered from murky photography,
confused editing and an incoherent and pretentious script. [PN]

A term devised, apparently by Bruce STERLING - in part as a pun on, or
echo of, MAINSTREAM - to designate stories which make use of sf devices
but which are not GENRE SF. The image is either nautical or aeronautical:
a ship or an airplane (either of which stands for genre sf) can create a
slipstream which may be strong enough to give non-paying passengers (Paul
THEROUX, say) a ride. As a description of commercial piggybacking, the
term seems apt; however, when used to designate the whole range of
non-genre sf here called FABULATION (which see for discussion), the term -
which implies a relationship of dependency - can seem derogatory. [JC]

(1851-1940) US editor and author of popular scientific works. He was
associate editor (designated managing editor for #1) of AMAZING STORIES
and of AMAZING STORIES QUARTERLY from the beginning, and carried much
responsibility for the actual running of the magazines, although they were
in the overall charge of, successively, Hugo GERNSBACK and Arthur Lynch.
He succeeded to the editorship of both journals in 1929. Amazing Stories
Quarterly ceased publication in 1934, but he retained the editorship of
AMZ until June 1938, when the ailing magazine was sold to the
Chicago-based ZIFF-DAVIS. Nearing his 80th year when he finally succeeded
to the editorship, TOS had a long white beard and an appropriately Rip Van
Winkle-like approach to the job; though he worked for 12 years on SF
MAGAZINES, he stated publicly (in a 1929 AMZ editorial) his belief that
Man would never achieve space travel. AMZ nevertheless bought the first
stories of such writers as E.E. SMITH, John W. CAMPBELL Jr and Jack
WILLIAMSON; but the combination of poor payment and slack management made
it inevitable that writers of any calibre would soon move to more
attractive markets. TOS actually lost the manuscript of Campbell's first
story, and returned Clifford D. SIMAK's first submission after 4 years'
silence, remarking that it was "a bit dated". He was more than once fooled
into publishing plagiarisms. On one occasion (Feb 1933) he printed a story
("The Ho-Ming Gland" by Malcolm R. Afford) which had already appeared in
WONDER STORIES (Jan 1931): the author had submitted the story to TOS 4
years earlier but, having heard nothing after a year, had sold it to the
rival magazine.TOS, a PhD, had been an inventor, and his son married a
daughter of a more celebrated inventor, Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931).

(1906-1974) US playwright, novelist and publisher whose interest in the
occult was reflected in his sf novels, To Walk the Night (1937; rev 1954)
and The Edge of Running Water (1939; vt The Unquiet Corpse 1946), both
later assembled as The Rim of Morning (omni 1964); along with 1 story,
"Let Nothing You Dismay" (1954), they are all the sf he wrote. The first
complexly combines horror and sf in the story of an ALIEN entrapped in a
human life as the widow of a famous physicist, in whose death she seems
implicated; the story is absorbing and polished. The second, rather
similarly, features a scientist's attempts to communicate with his dead
wife and to revive her; horrors ensue, and local prejudice exacts its
toll. WMS also ed 2 sf anthologies, Space, Space, Space (anth 1953) and
Stories for Tomorrow (anth 1954); the latter was one of the finest
collections of its period. [JC]

(1894-1963) UK writer whose Dictator (1932), set in an imaginary European
country, describes the rise of a tyranny there. Escape into the Past
(1943) features an artist's wife who escapes irrevocably into the 17th
century. [JC]

(1956- ) US writer and professor of biology, specializing in genetics,
who began publishing sf with her first novel, Still Forms on Foxfield
(1980), a tale in which most of her subsequent concerns take initial
shape. A human community of Quakers, having fled an apparently doomed
Earth and establishing on the planet Foxfield a sane and ECOLOGY-obedient
relationship with the native species, is contacted centuries later by a
technologically resurgent humanity and must now deal with the challenge to
its ways. Significantly, the book deals not with rediscovery - an old and
typically triumphalist sf theme - but with being discovered, a point of
view reiterated in her second and best known novel, A Door into Ocean
(1986), which won the JOHN W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD. The planet (in fact
a moon) is in this case water-covered and inhabited by WOMEN, who thwart a
military invasion; the book teaches some sharp FEMINIST lessons en
passant. The sequel, Daughter of Elysium (1993), broadens the terms of
discourse - several contrasting societies are portrayed - at some cost to
narrative vigour, though sharp subtle observations constantly, as before,
prickle and amuse.The Wall around Eden (1989), set on a devastated post-
HOLOCAUST Earth, provides its female protagonist with numbing challenges
of comprehension (the supervising ALIENS are invisible and their
insect-like culture may in fact have been decorticated - i.e., its central
control systems may have been destroyed) and response, with no clear
answers available in the waste. From the slightly sentimentalized burden
of her first book, JS has moved rapidly into supple command of her ample
concerns. [JC]See also: PASTORAL; UNDER THE SEA.


(1939- ) US academic and critic with a PhD in literature from Harvard. He
is Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of California,
Riverside, and Curator of the J. LLOYD EATON COLLECTION there; he is also
Director of the Eaton Program for Science Fiction and Fantasy Studies,
which is devoted to research. GES has written and edited a number of
critical books on sf, and has also translated sf-related works by Honore
de BALZAC and J.H. ROSNY aine.His critical books, all from BORGO PRESS,
are Robert A. Heinlein: Stranger in His Own Land (chap 1976; rev 1977),
The Farthest Shores of Ursula K. Le Guin (chap 1976), The Bradbury
Chronicles (chap 1977), Harlan Ellison: Unrepentant Harlequin (chap 1977),
The Delany Intersection (chap 1977), The Classic Years of Robert A.
Heinlein (chap 1977) and The Space Odysseys of Arthur C. Clarke (chap
1978).Anthologies of critical essays ed GES, most collecting papers
delivered at the annual Eaton Conference on fantasy and sf, and generally
edited collaboratively with other academics involved in the Conference,
are Bridges to Science Fiction (anth 1980) ed with George R. Guffey and
Mark ROSE, Bridges to Fantasy (anth 1982) ed with Eric RABKIN and Robert
SCHOLES, Co-Ordinates: Placing Science Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1983) ed
with Rabkin and Scholes, Shadows of the Magic Lamp: Fantasy and Science
Fiction in Film (anth 1985) ed with Rabkin, Hard Science Fiction (anth
1986) ed with Rabkin, Storm Warnings: Science Fiction Confronts the Future
(anth 1987) ed with Rabkin and Colin GREENLAND, Intersections: Fantasy and
Science Fiction (anth 1987) ed with Rabkin, Aliens: The Anthropology of
Science Fiction (anth 1987) ed with Rabkin,Mindscapes: The Geographies of
Imagined Worlds (anth 1989) ed with Rabkin, Styles of Creation: Aesthetic
Technique and the Creation of Fictional Worlds (anth 1992) with Rabkin,
Fiction 2000: Cyberpunk and the Future of Narrative (anth 1992) with Tom
SHIPPEY, Fights of Fancy: Armed Conflict in Science Fiction and Fantasy
(anth 1993) with Rabkin and Styles of Creation: Aesthetic Technique and
the Creation of Fictional Worlds (anth 1993) with Rabkin. By academic
standards, at least, GES is a controversialist. On receiving the PILGRIM
AWARD for services to sf criticism and scholarship in 1986, he argued that
"we need to get sf out of the English department" into comparative
literature, interdisciplinary studies or even as "a discipline in itself".

(1894-1929) UK adventure and thriller writer, born Austin Small Major,
though his death certificate gives AJS. He wrote 3 books of sf interest.
In Master Vorst (1926; vt The Death Maker 1926 US) an insane plan to kill
off the human race by germ warfare is thwarted in the nick of time. The
Man They Couldn't Arrest (1927) is a mystery novel incorporating unusual
devices and inventions into the plot. The Avenging Ray (1930), as Seamark,
again features a mad scientist intent upon destroying the world, his
WEAPON in this case being a "Degravitisor" DEATH-RAY. The title story of
Out of the Dark (coll 1931, assembled after the author's suicide) as by
Seamark features a were-leopard. [JC/JE]

1. The USA Any firm founded to release work of personal interest to the
publisher, and which distributes that work to readers whose interest can
also be assumed, may be called a small press. Four years before Hugo
GERNSBACK began AMAZING STORIES in 1926, The Lunar Publishing Company of
Providence, Kentucky, was founded by friends of the author of the book it
had been created in order to publish - and then folded. To the Moon and
Back in Ninety Days: A Thrilling Narrative of Blended Science and
Adventure (1922) by John Young Brown (1858-1921) was a genuine exercise in
Gernsbackian sf, featuring a ship driven by ANTIGRAVITY plus lessons in
ASTRONOMY and other sciences. It may have been the first GENRE-SF novel to
reach book form in the USA; it was certainly the first such novel to be
published for an affinity readership.Several years passed, however, before
the Lunar example was followed for sf publications; for more than a
decade, the only small-press activity of genre interest took place in the
fields of FANTASY and HORROR. The writers who formed a circle around H.P.
LOVECRAFT - they included Robert E. HOWARD, Frank Belknap LONG, Edgar
Hoffman PRICE, Clark Ashton SMITH and Donald WANDREI - all found it
difficult to publish with conventional houses, and when W. Paul Cook
(1881-1948), a friend of Lovecraft's and editor of some influential early
APAS, decided in 1925 to move into PUBLISHING they were happy to
contemplate having material released by his Recluse Press. In the event,
its sole publications of interest were Long's first book, A Man from Genoa
(coll 1926 chap), Wandrei's first book, Ecstasy (coll 1928 chap), and
Lovecraft's The Shunned House (1928 chap), only a very few copies of which
were bound. Another start-and-stop small press, The ARRA Printers run by
Conrad H. Ruppert, released 4 pamphlets in the early 1930s as a sidebar to
FANTASY MAGAZINE, including Allen GLASSER's The Cavemen of Venus (1932
chap), which seems to have been the first independent work of fiction
produced from within fandom.The most important figure in this first
flowering of the small press - although the quality of his work aroused
controversy in the field - may have been William L. CRAWFORD (whom see for
details of his long career), who began in imitation of Ruppert as a
magazine producer, and who similarly moved into books; operating as
Fantasy Pubs., his first release was Men of Avalon/The White Sybil (anth
1935 chap), which featured a story each by David H. KELLER and Clark
Ashton Smith, and he continued with Mars Mountain (1935) by Eugene George
KEY. More importantly, operating as Visionary Publishing Company, he then
released The Shadow over Innsmouth (1937) by Lovecraft. It is worth noting
that Crawford, like his predecessors, clearly found it easier to publish
fantasy than sf; it was not until after WWII that any significant sf, with
one exception, reached book form via the small presses; that exception was
Dawn of Flame and Other Stories (coll 1936) by Stanley G. WEINBAUM, a
memorial volume put together by The Milwaukee Fictioneers, a fan group
whose members included, among others, Robert BLOCH, Ralph Milne FARLEY and
Raymond A. PALMER, and which would soon be seen as of great importance.
But when in 1939 August DERLETH and Wandrei founded ARKHAM HOUSE:
PUBLISHERS - which soon became and which remains the most famous of all
small presses - they were inspired by Crawford's publication of the
Lovecraft title. The reasons for this dominance of fantasy are not
entirely clear, but probably come down to accidents of personality and
opportunity: the early small presses could be described as close-knit
"family" endeavours, and their publications were released to an extremely
narrow group of buyers; and the Lovecraft circle, active through the 1920s
and 1930s, was exactly the sort of "family" required for primitive
small-press activities. It was only after sf FANDOM became properly
organized at the end of the 1930s that sf itself was able to give birth to
the "family" firms that multiplied after WWII.It all changed after 1945.
Crawford himself began to publish sf with real frequency in 1947, when he
founded FANTASY PUBLISHING COMPANY INC. (better known as FPCI), but by
then he found himself sharing the sf world with several other new houses,
including FANTASY PRESS, founded by Lloyd Arthur ESHBACH in 1946, GNOME
PRESS, founded by David A. KYLE and Martin GREENBERG in 1948, the HADLEY
PUBLISHING COMPANY, founded by Donald M. Grant (1927- ) and Thomas G.
Hadley in 1946, PRIME PRESS, founded by Oswald TRAIN and others in 1947,
The Avalon Company, founded in 1947 by Will Sykora (1913-1994), which
published only one title, Life Everlasting and Other Tales of Science,
Fantasy and Horror (coll 1947) by David H. KELLER, and SHASTA PUBLISHERS,
founded by T.E. DIKTY (whom see for details of his long career), Erle
Melvin Korshak and Mark Reinsberg in 1947. For almost a decade from 1946
these small presses - along with a few even smaller enterprises -
dominated sf publishing. Various factors came together to explain this
dominance: general-list firms had not yet discovered the field, while at
the same time an influx of young men, all potential readers and
book-buyers, had been released from military service; a large backlog of
GENRE SF had built up in the magazines, including work by several
prominent authors who were eager to see their material in book form; the
genre was now old enough to have a past worthy of celebration, and had
gained through the workings of fandom a singularly loyal readership; and
the men (no women were importantly involved) who wished to celebrate the
genre by publishing its works were now, most of them, mature and
experienced enough to operate small publishing firms with some chance of
success. For almost a decade from 1946, the fans and writers of sf seemed
to be in control of their own house. For many still alive, those years
were the true GOLDEN AGE OF SF.By the middle of the 1950s, however, almost
all the small presses were moribund or dead, crushed by the rise of the
paperback ( ACE BOOKS; BALLANTINE BOOKS; BANTAM BOOKS) and the incursion
of general publishers (like DOUBLEDAY and Scribners) into what had become
a profitable market; in 1995, limited editions remain comparatively
difficult to market. Arkham House survived, and some small presses devoted
in the main to nonfiction - like ADVENT: PUBLISHERS from 1956, Jack L.
CHALKER's MIRAGE PRESS from 1961, Lloyd C. CURREY's and David G.
HARTWELL's Dragon Press from 1971, and Dikty's FAX COLLECTOR'S EDITIONS
and STARMONT HOUSE from 1972 - continued to produce work. But genre sf, it
seemed, had outgrown its familial dependence on fans; it had entered the
commercial world, and what small presses remained could hope only to
service the fringes of the genre, supplying readers with books of
criticism (until the academic houses began to sense that sf might be a
growth subject), fan BIBLIOGRAPHIES and indexes, and memoirs. Or so it
seemed.There is no doubt that in the 1990s general publishers still
dominate commercial sf; but from the early 1970s small presses began to
reappear, for reasons which are not entirely understood. Owlswick Press
was founded by George SCITHERS in 1973, Robert Weinberg Publications by
Robert E. WEINBERG in 1974, the BORGO PRESS by Robert REGINALD in 1975,
UNDERWOOD-MILLER INC. by Tim UNDERWOOD and Chuck MILLER in 1976, Phantasia
Press by Sid Altus and Alex Berman in 1978, Locus Press by Charles N.
BROWN in 1981 (with an emphasis on reference material), MARK V. ZIESING by
Ziesing in 1982, and Dark Harvest by Paul Mikol and Mark Stadalsky in 1983
(with an emphasis on fantasy). Many more followed, including (most
importantly) PULPHOUSE PUBLISHING, founded by Kristine Kathryn RUSCH, Dean
Wesley SMITH and others in 1988. Two fine presses (see below) were also
active: Roy A. Squires, founded by Squires (1920-1988) in 1960, and Cheap
Street, founded by Jan and George O'Nale in 1980.Though nothing can be
certain in a field which has expanded so very much, three broad sets of
explanations for the small-press renaissance can be suggested: a desire on
the part of new generations of sf aficionados to re-occupy the "family"
territory, which had for so many years been spoken for by ever-huger
publishing firms whose interest in sf was (understandably) merely
commercial; a sense that the large general-list firms tended to ignore
some writers whose sales potential was limited, and who might profitably
be published by a press with an affinity for the author or the material;
and a more general sense that small presses might profitably occupy niches
left vacant by the commercial houses.There are several such niches.
Because paperback houses became the dominant form of sf publishing after
the early 1950s, the work of many significant post-WWII authors appeared
only in the form of paperback originals, and by the 1970s a second pool of
publishable work - larger in fact than the pool of material available just
after WWII - had accumulated. Many of the small presses, therefore,
concentrated on republishing, in hardback, novels from the previous two
decades, thus putting some of the best sf into permanent form, generating
library sales for their authors, and making their oeuvres available - a
mixed blessing, perhaps - to academics. A second important niche was the
collectors' market, which could itself be divided into three sectors:
first editions, limited editions, and fine-press productions.For many sf
collectors - whose rationality on the subject is a matter of dispute - the
publication of a book as a paperback original does not constitute its
first edition as a collectable item, which status is reserved for the
first hardback publication. Small-press publishers were very quick to
understand and to profit from this bias, and the entirely responsible
republication in hardback form of fragile paperback originals soon became
somewhat tainted by fetishism, especially when limited editions became
popular.Limited editions are generally thought to be independently created
books, identifiable by some statement of limitation, which usually gives
the total number of copies produced along with a handwritten or
hand-stamped number indicating which precise copy is in the collector's
hands. They are often signed. Many collectors assume that limited editions
by definition boast at least subtle differences in typesetting, binding or
paper quality from the trade issue; unfortunately, this is not always the
case, and many are distinguishable from the trade issue by no more than a
tipped-in label designating them as special. This practice - added to the
extraordinary proliferation of limited editions of unremarkable work, plus
the quite astonishing ugliness of many small-press releases - has not
unsurprisingly led to a 1990s glut in the limited-edition market; in 1995,
limited editions remain comparatively difficult to market.In distinction
to this crassness, publishers of fine-press books like Roy A. Squires and
Cheap Street have concentrated on the individual crafting of extremely
small editions of books produced on the premises by letterpress (a
technique of printing directly from movable metal type, an expensive and
slow typesetting process otherwise rarely encountered in book-production
today). However, because such items are relatively expensive and are
purchased by a very particular kind of book collector, it cannot be argued
that fine presses represent a return to the roots of the fantasy and sf
small press. Those roots continue to be watered, though intermittently, by
the small presses cited above, and by dozens of other similar houses.
Refreshingly opinionated, though occasionally inaccurate, The
Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Critical and Bibliographic History (3rd,
hugely expanded edn 1991; various revs whose presence must be discovered,
as copyright data do not reflect them) by Jack L. CHALKER and Mark OWINGS
provides a comprehensive analysis of about 150 firms.2. Other countries
There is little to say about small-press activity in other
English-speaking countries before the past couple of decades.The
Australian Futurian Press, founded in Sydney in 1950 by Vol MOLESWORTH and
others, operated for a few years; and Donald H. TUCK formed Donald H. Tuck
in 1954 to publish the first versions of what became the essential
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968 (3 vols 1974,
1978 and 1982, all US, from Advent). Two decades later, however, with the
founding of two houses - Norstrilia Press in 1975 by Bruce GILLESPIE and
Void Publications ( VOID) by Paul COLLINS in 1978 - small presses finally
became a visible component of AUSTRALIA's sf scene. Later imprints include
Graham Stone from 1989, Aphelion Publications from 1990 and Dreamstone
from 1991. However, Norstrilia and Void stopped publishing in 1984 and the
other firms are frail. CANADA saw even less activity than Australia,
perhaps because Canadian sf fans had readily available to them the
formidable output of US small presses. Occasional imprints appeared - like
the Kakabeka Publishing Company, which published Judith MERRIL's Survival
Ship (coll 1973) and some non-sf books. More recently, the Press Porcepic
issued an anthology of Canadian sf, Tesseracts (anth 1985) ed Merril, the
first in a series, and subsequently calved a second small press, Tesseract
Books, in 1988. And United Mythologies Press was founded in 1990
essentially to print unpublished works by R.A. LAFFERTY, though it soon
began to look further afield.In the UK, small-press publishing did not
awake sustained interest among the sf community until the 1980s, the only
example of an interest from earlier being Ferret Fantasy, founded by
George LOCKE in 1972 mainly to publish bibliographical work plus
occasional reprints. However, with the founding of Kerosina Publications
in 1986 by James Goddard and several colleagues, a small flowering
occurred. Morrigan Publications was founded in 1987 by Jim and Les Escott,
Kinnell Publications in 1987 by A.E. Cunningham and Richard G. Lewis, and
Drunken Dragon Press in 1988 by Rod Milner and Rog Peyton; by 1995,
however, all these firms had either formally given up the ghost, or were
inactive. Slightly earlier, Titan Books, an arm of the Forbidden
Planet/Titan bookselling and distribution complex, was brought into
existence as a small press, but by 1990 (after 3 books) it had moved into
general publishing; in late 1992 it was in the throes of restructuring and
takeover. However, none of these firms - with the exception of Kerosina
for a year or so - has published original UK work with enough frequency to
make a significant impact. [JC]


Philip NORTON.

(1893-1961) US writer and sculptor, of most interest to the sf reader as
a fantasist whose rich style (sometimes idiomatic, sometimes "jewelled" in
the Lord DUNSANY manner) and baroque invention had a loosening effect on
the sf field, doing much to transform the interplanetary romance of the
early years of the century into the full-fledged PLANETARY ROMANCE, whose
characteristic attitude towards the FAR FUTURE and the possibilities
inherent therein was capitalized upon by Jack VANCE and others.By 1910 CAS
had sold stories to The Black Cat and The OVERLAND MONTHLY , but he
concentrated on poetry (see listing below). Although he published some
desultory fantasy before 1930, almost all his work of note within the
genre, commencing with "The Last Incantation" (1930), was written for PULP
MAGAZINES - most frequently Weird Tales, occasionally Wonder Stories -
from that date to about 1936, when he virtually stopped writing. Of most
importance as an influence on sf was "City of the Singing Flame" (1931;
1940), notable for the power of the SENSE OF WONDER it evoked. These
stories, over 100 of them, can be found in The Immortals of Mercury (1932
chap), The Double Shadow and Other Fantasies (coll 1933 chap), Out of
Space and Time (coll 1942; in 2 vols 1974 UK), Lost Worlds (coll 1944; in
2 vols vt Lost Worlds: Zothique, Averoigne, and Others 1974 UK and Lost
Worlds: Atlantis, Hyperborea, Xiccarph, and Others 1974 UK) - which
includes Sadastor (1930 Weird Tales; 1972 chap) - Genius Loci and Other
Tales (coll 1948), The Abominations of Yondo (coll 1960), Poems in Prose
(coll 1964 chap), Tales of Science and Sorcery (coll 1964) and Other
Dimensions (coll 1970; in 2 vols 1977 UK). The last 2 collections contain
most of his sf, most of it interplanetary SPACE OPERA. Subsequently, Lin
CARTER reassembled those of CAS's tales set in particular venues and
republished them as Zothique (coll of linked stories 1970), Hyperborea
(coll of linked stories 1971), Xiccarph (coll of stories, some linked,
1972) and Poseidonis (coll of linked stories 1973).CAS was not much
interested in science, or in expressing the forward thrust of conventional
sf, and it is perhaps inadvisable to think of him in sf terms. His work is
better considered in conjunction with the weird fantasies written by his
friend H.P. LOVECRAFT and by Robert E. HOWARD. His best work has not
dated. [JC/PN]Other works: The Mortuary (1971 chap); Prince Alcouz and the
Magician (1977 chap), previously unpublished early tale; The City of the
Singing Flame (coll 1981), which assembles previously collected material;
As it is Written (1982), written as CAS by De Lysle Ferree Cass; The Last
Incantation (coll 1982); The Monster of the Prophecy (coll 1983); the
Unexpurgated Clark Ashton Smith sequence, comprising The Dweller in the
Gulf (cut 1933 as "Dweller in Martian Depths"; 1987 chap), Mother of Toads
(cut 1938 Weird Tales; 1987 chap), The Vaults of Yoh-Vombis (cut 1932
Weird Tales; 1988 chap), The Monster of the Prophecy (cut 1932 Weird
Tales; 1988 chap), The Witchcraft of Ulua (cut 1934 Weird Tales; 1988
chap) and Xeethra (cut 1934 Weird Tales; 1988 chap); Nostalgia of the
Unknown: Complete Prose Poetry (coll 1988 chap); A Rendezvous in Averoigne
(coll 1988); Strange Shadows: The Uncollected Fiction and Essays (coll
1989).Poetry: The Star-Treader (coll 1912); Odes and Sonnets (coll 1918
chap); Ebony and Crystal: Poems in Verse and Prose (coll 1923), which
includes From the Crypts of Memory (1973 chap) and The Hashish-Eater, or
The Apocalypse of Evil (1989 chap); Sandalwood (coll 1925 chap); Nero and
Other Poems (coll 1937 chap); The Dark Chateau (coll 1951 chap); Selected
Poems (coll 1971); Grotesques and Fantastiques (coll 1973 chap), which
includes drawings; Klarkash-ton and Monstro Lieriv (coll 1974 chap) with
Virgil FINLAY; many further vols, usually chapbooks, have been
issued.Nonfiction: Planets and Dimensions: Collected Essays (coll 1973
chap) ed Charles K. Wolfe (brother of Gary K. WOLFE); The Black Book of
Clark Ashton Smith (coll 1979); The Devil's Notebook: Collected Epigrams
and Pensees (coll 1990 chap).About the author: Emperor of Dreams: A Clark
Ashton Smith Bibliography (1978) by Donald Sydney-Fryer.See also: ARKHAM

Most famous pseudonym of Paul Myron Anthony Linebarger (1913-1966), US
writer, political scientist, military adviser in Korea and Malaya (though
not Vietnam). A polyglot, he spent many of his early years in Europe,
Japan and China, in the footsteps of his father, Paul M.W. Linebarger, a
sinologist and propagandist for Sun Yat-sen. He was a devout High
Anglican, deeply interested in psychoanalysis and expert in "brainwashing"
techniques, on which he wrote an early text, Psychological Warfare (1948;
rev 1954). Right-wing in politics, he played an active role in propping up
the Chiang Kai-shek regime in China before the communist takeover.His
interest in China was profound - he studied there, and there edited his
father's The Gospel of Chuang Shan (1932 chap France), writing as well
several texts of his own, beginning with Government in Republican China
(1938); the style of some of his later stories reflects his attempts to
translate a Chinese narrative and structural style into his sf writing,
not perhaps with complete success, as the fabulist's voice he assumed (
FABULATION) verged towards the garrulous when opened out into English
prose. He began to publish sf with "War No. 81-Q" as by Karloman Jungahr
for The Adjutant - a high-school journal - in 1928; the tale bore some
relationship to the Instrumentality of Mankind Universe into which almost
all his mature work fitted. Before beginning to write that mature work,
however, CS served with the US Army Intelligence Corps in China during
WWII and published 3 non-sf novels: Ria (1947) and Carola (1948), both as
by Felix C. Forrest, and Atomsk: A Novel of Suspense (1949) as by
Carmichael Smith. After that date he published fiction only as CS.His
first CS story, and one of the finest of his mature tales, "Scanners Live
in Vain" (1950), appeared obscurely in FANTASY BOOK 5 years after it had
been rejected by the more prestigious sf journals (although John W.
CAMPBELL Jr had penned an encouraging rejection note from ASF), perhaps
because its foreboding intensity made the editors of the time uneasy,
perhaps because it plunges in medias res into the Instrumentality
Universe, generating a sense that much remains untold beyond the dark
edges of the tale. Scanners are space pilots; the rigours of their job
entail the functional loss of the sensory region of their brains. The
story deals with their contorted lives and with the end of the form of
space travel necessitating the contortions: it is clear that much has
happened in the Universe before the tale begins, and that much will ensue.
The Instrumentality dominated the rest of CS's creative life, which lasted
1955-66, with individual stories making up the bulk of several collections
- including You Will Never Be the Same (coll 1963), Space Lords (coll
1965), Under Old Earth and Other Explorations (coll 1970 UK) and
Stardreamer (coll 1971) - before being re-sorted into 2 definitive vols,
The Best of Cordwainer Smith (coll 1975; vt The Rediscovery of Man 1988
UK) ed John J. PIERCE and The Instrumentality of Mankind (coll 1979); and
subsequently resorted again, this time definitively, as The Rediscovery of
Man: The Complete Short Fiction of Cordwainer Smith (coll 1993). A similar
complexity obscured the publication of his only full-scale sf novel,
Norstrilia (1975), which first appeared as 2 separate novels - each in
fact an extract from the original single manuscript - as The Planet Buyer
(1964 Gal as "The Boy who Bought Old Earth"; rev 1964) and The Underpeople
(1964 Worlds of If as "The Store of Heart's Desire"; rev 1968). Along with
Quest of the Three Worlds (coll of linked stories 1966), the 2 re-sorted
collections and Norstrilia assemble all of CS's sf.The Instrumentality of
Mankind covers several millennia of humanity's uncertain progress into a
FAR-FUTURE plenitude. Before the period of "Scanners Live in Vain" a
shattered Earth is dubiously revitalized by the family of a Nazi scientist
who awake from SUSPENDED ANIMATION to found the Instrumentality, a
hereditary caste of rulers, under whose hegemony space is explored by
scanners, then by ships which sail by photonic winds, then via
planoforming, which is more or less instantaneous. Genetically modified
animals are bred as slaves ( GENETIC ENGINEERING). On the Australian
colony planet of Norstrilia, an IMMORTALITY drug called stroon is
discovered, making the planet very rich indeed and granting the oligarchy
on Earth eternal dominance, with no one but Norstrilians and members of
the Instrumentality being permitted to live beyond 400 years. (Norstrilia
deals with a young heir to much of the planet's wealth who travels to
Earth, which he has purchased, discovering en passant a great deal about
the animal-descended Underpeople.) Human life becomes baroque,
aesthetical, decadent. But a fruitful concourse of Underpeople and
aristocrats generates the Rediscovery of Man - as witnessed in tales like
"The Dead Lady of Clown Town" (1964), "Alpha Ralpha Boulevard" (1961) and
"The Ballad of Lost C'Mell" (1962), which embodies a sympathetic response
to the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s - through which disease,
ethnicity and strife are deliberately reintroduced into the painless
world. Much later an adventurer makes a Quest through Three Worlds in a
Universe seemingly benign.The Instrumentality of Mankind remains, all the
same, a fragment - as, therefore, does CS's work as a whole - for the long
conflict between Underpeople and Instrumentality, the details of which are
recounted by CS with what might be called oceanic sentiment, is never
resolved; and CS's habitual teasing of the reader with implications of a
fuller yet never-told tale only strengthens the sense of an almost coy
incompletion. This sense is also reinforced by the Chinese ancestry of
some of CS's devices, which inspired in him a narrative voice that, in
ruminating upon a tale of long ago, seemed to confer, both with the reader
and with general tradition, about the tale's meaning. Alfred Doblin
(1878-1957) ( GERMANY) has also been suggested as a significant influence,
both for his early expressionist work set in China, like Die drei Sprunge
des Wang-Lun ["The Three Leaps of Wang-Lun"] (1915), and for his surreal
metamorphic sf novels - none translated - like Wadzeks Kampf mit der
Dampfmaschine ["Wadzek's Struggle with the Steam-Machine"] (1918) and
Berge, Meere und Giganten ["Mountains, Sea and Giants"] (1924; rev vt
Giganten ["Giants"] 1931). CS's best later stories glow with an air of
complexity and antiquity that, on analysis, their plots do not not always
sustain. Much of the structuring of the series is lyrical and incantatory
(down to the literal use of rather bad poetry, and much internal rhyming)
but, beyond stroon, and Norstrilia, and Old Earth and the absorbingly
described SPACESHIPS, much of the CS Universe remains only glimpsed.
Whether such a Universe, recounted in such a voice, could ever be fully
seen is a question which, of course, cannot be answered. [JC]About the
author: Exploring Cordwainer Smith (anth 1975) ed John Bangsund, from
ALGOL Press; almost the whole of SPECULATION #33, 1976, is an analysis of
CS's work by John J. Pierce; "The Creation of Cordwainer Smith" by Alan C.
Elms, Science Fiction Studies #34 (11,3) (1984); Concordance to Cordwainer
Smith (1984 chap) by Anthony R. LEWIS; A Cordwainer Smith Checklist (1991

(1939- ) US critic and bibliographer, most of whose work in the first
category has focused upon Olaf STAPLEDON, beginning with essays like
"William Olaf Stapledon: Saint and Revolutionary" for Extrapolation in
1971, and culminating in Olaf Stapledon: A Bibliography (1984) with Harvey
J. Satty. He is best known, however, for editing the first 2 edns of
Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers (1981; rev 1986), part of a
series of genre BIBLIOGRAPHIES designed for library use; he did not
participate in the 3rd edn of 1991. The work offers coverage of about 600
sf (and fantasy) writers, some names being dropped (and others added) with
each successive edn. The brief biographical sections are generally
accurate; the critical pieces vary in quality, with some excellent short
essays being included; but the bibliographies are flawed by a murkily
inconsistent methoddology (perhaps due to the series' house style), and

(1953- ) US investment banker and writer who served as Treasurer of the
SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA 1987-90 and has written several
articles on wargame strategy ( GAMES AND TOYS). He began publishing sf
with Marathon (1982), #1 in the Marathon sequence, which continues with
Rendezvous (1988) and Homecoming (1990). The sequence is a First-Contact
tale which depicts, with very considerable cunning, the slow process of
learning and ultimate CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH attendant upon any genuine
confrontation of Homo sapiens with the Other. In this case, the Cygnan
ALIENS, who are rendezvousing with humans in interstellar space, are
intriguingly perceived through flawed human eyes. Although DAS succumbs to
some cliched presentation of sf conventions - for instance, the neurotic
AI aboard the human starship - this slow, densely realized SPACE-OPERA
epic deserves considerable notice.For some time, in conjunction with the
Cambridge Science Fiction Writers' Workshop, DAS had been building a
SHARED-WORLD portrait of Boston, Massachusetts, focusing on a period about
100 years hence when the central city has accreted into a vast defensive
cube and has seceded from the USA. His own novel, In the Cube: A Novel of
Future Boston (1993), focuses on this historical moment; a shared-world
anthology, Future Boston (anth 1994) ed DAS, ranges backwards and forwards
around the locus of the Cube. The whole enterprise demonstrates the
potency of the shared world in those cases where creators, owners and
writers are the same persons. [JC]

(1950- ) US editor and writer who remains best known for founding, in
1988, PULPHOUSE PUBLISHING, whose various enterprises he has since
dominated, in partnership with Kristine Kathryn RUSCH. With her he also ed
Science Fiction Writers of America Handbook: The Professional Writer's
Guide to Writing Professionally (anth 1990), a vade mecum full of
necessary data, though not supremely well organized. After a vignette in
The Clarion Awards (anth 1984) ed Damon KNIGHT, his first sf story was
"Adrift in the Erotic Zone" for Gem in 1985. He won an award from the
WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST for "One Last Dance", which appeared in L.
Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future (anth 1985) ed Algis BUDRYS.
His first novel, Laying the Music to Rest (1989), begins slowly, with an
attempt to exorcise a ghost from a deep lake, but soon entangles itself in
the routines of a TIME-TRAVEL conflict between warring factions; en
passant the protagonist visits the Titanic, where it seems he may be stuck
forever. There is energy and feeling in DWS's work, but also a sense of
scurry. [JC]Other work: The Moscow Mafia Presents Rat Tales (anth 1987)
with Jon Gustafson, both as Smith Gustafson.See also: SCIENCE FICTION

(1890-1965) US writer and food chemist specializing in doughnut mixes,
often called the "Father of SPACE OPERA". Because Hugo GERNSBACK appended
"PhD" to EES's name for his contributions to AMZ from 1928, he became
known as "Doc" Smith. Greatly influential in US PULP-MAGAZINE sf between
1928 and about 1945, he found his reputation fading somewhat just after
the end of WWII, when it seemed the dream-like simplicities of his
world-view could no longer attract the modern reader of GENRE SF; but the
specialty houses that became active after 1945 ( SMALL PRESSES AND LIMITED
EDITIONS) soon put his vast space-opera sagas into book form, and his name
was kept alive. Towards the end of his life, after his retirement around
1960, he began producing space operas again, and his earlier work started
to appear in paperback editions; after his death, yet another new
generation made him an sf bestseller, first in the USA and later in the
UK.EES's work is strongly identified with the beginnings of US pulp sf as
a separate marketing genre, and did much to define its essential
territory, galactic space. When in 1915 he began to write the first novel
of his Skylark series with Mrs Lee Hawkins Garby (1890-? ) - a neighbour
seconded to help with feminine matters such as dialogue - no models
existed (or, at least, none that were available to a monolingual US food
chemist) that could explain the combined exuberance and scale that The
Skylark of Space (written 1915-20; 1928 AMZ; 1946; rev with cuts 1958)
demonstrated when it finally appeared in AMAZING STORIES, 2 years after
the start of that magazine, in the same issue as Philip NOWLAN's
"Armageddon - 2419 A.D.", the story which introduced BUCK ROGERS IN THE
25TH CENTURY. (Mrs Garby retained co-author credit in the 1st book edn,
but the 1958 rev was as by EES alone.) Elements of EES's prelapsarian
exuberance may have been discernible in some of the EDISONADES which
proliferated in the USA from about 1890; and a certain cosmogonic
high-handedness is traceable to the works of H.G. WELLS and his UK
contemporaries. But it was EES who combined the two. Along with its
sequels - Skylark Three (1930 AMZ; 1948), Skylark of Valeron (1934-5 ASF;
1949) and Skylark DuQuesne (1966) - The Skylark of Space brought the
edisonade to its first full maturity, creating a proper galactic forum for
the exploits of the inventor/scientist/action-hero who keeps the world (or
the Universe) safe for US values despite the efforts of a foreign-hued
villain (Marc "Blackie" DuQuesne) to pollute those values. But the highly
personalized conflict between HERO-inventor Richard Seaton and
VILLAIN-inventor DuQuesne - who develops from the stage histrionics of the
first novel to the dominating antiheroics of the last and is perhaps EES's
most vivid creation - did not very satisfactorily motivate the vast
intergalactic conflicts of the later volumes of the series, as the scale
of everything - the potency of the WEAPONS, the power, size and speed of
the SPACESHIPS, the number of planets overawed - increased by leaps and
bounds. Nor was EES much concerned to sophisticate the chummy, clammy
idiocy of his women ( SEX; WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION) or the
hokum of the slang in which all emotions were conveyed.It was not until he
began to unveil the architectural structure of his second and definitive
SERIES that EES was able to demonstrate the thoroughness of his thinking
about space opera. And it is with the Lensmen series - or The History of
Civilization, the over-title for the 1953-5 limited-edn boxed reprint of
the original books - that his name is most strongly and justly associated.
In order of internal chronology, the sequence is Triplanetary (1934 AMZ;
rev to fit the series 1948), First Lensman (1950), Galactic Patrol (1937-8
ASF; 1950), Gray Lensman (1939-40 ASF; 1951), Second-Stage Lensmen (1941-2
ASF; 1953) and Children of the Lens (1947-8 ASF; 1954). The Vortex Blaster
(1941-2 var mags; fixup 1960; vt Masters of the Vortex 1968 US) is also
set in the Lensman Universe, probably some time before Children of the
Lens, but does not deal with the central progress of the main series, the
working out of which was EES's most brilliant auctorial coup. As published
in book form, the first 2 novels likewise stand outside the main action;
it is the final 4 that lie at the heart of EES's accomplishment. Conceived
as one 400,000-word novel, and divided into separate titles for
publication 1937-48 in ASF - from before John W. CAMPBELL Jr began editing
the journal, through the high pitch of the GOLDEN AGE OF SF (1939-42) he
supervised, and into the post-WWII period - the central Lensmen tale is
constructed around the gradual revelation of the hierarchical nature of
the Universe.Two vastly advanced and radically opposed races, the good
Arisians and the evil Eddorians, have been in essential opposition for
billions of years. The Arisians understand that their only hope of
defeating the absolute Evil represented by the Eddorians is to develop
over eons a countervailing Civilization via special breeding lines on
selected planets, of which Earth (Tellus) is one. These breeding lines
will develop beings capable of enduring the enormous stress of inevitable
conflict with the forces of Evil: the various planets and empires, known
collectively as Boskone, inimical to Civilization and secretly commanded
through a nest of hierarchies by the invisible Eddorians. We are
introduced first to the broad picture and to the idea of the Lens, a
bracelet which tenders to suitable members of the Arisian-influenced
Galactic Patrol certain telepathic and other powers; then, as the central
sequence progresses, we climb, link by link, the vast chain of command, as
seen through the eyes of the series' main protagonist, Kim Kinnison - who
with his wife represents the penultimate stage in the Arisian breeding
programme, and whose children will finally defeat the Eddorians. Kinnison
never knows that the layer just penetrated has layers behind it, and has
never so much as heard of the Eddorians; each new volume of the sequence,
therefore, begins with the revelation that the Universe is greater, and
requires greater powers to confront, than Kinnison had hitherto imagined.
In the Skylark books, Seaton's acquisition of similar powers was
distressingly unbridled; but Kinnison, as a commanding member of the
organization of Lensmen (itself hierarchical), is by contrast licensed,
and his institutionalized gaining of superpowers and special knowledge is
measured, inevitable, and kinetically enthralling. It was almost certainly
these controlled jumps in scale that fascinated most early readers of the
series and which, for many of them, represented the essence of the SENSE
OF WONDER. The Lensmen books had the shape of dreams.EES wrote some rather
less popular out-of-series books, none having anything like the force of
his major effort. A decade after his death, books he had begun or
completed in manuscript, or had merely inspired or authorized, began to
appear in response to his great posthumous popularity. Lensmen ties
included New Lensman * (1976) by William B. Ellern (1933- ) and The Dragon
Lensman * (1980), Lensman from Rigel * (1982) and Z-Lensman * (1983), all
by David A. KYLE. The Family d'Alembert series, published as by EES "with
Stephen GOLDIN", derived some material from posthumous manuscripts; the
1st vol, The Imperial Stars * (1964 If; exp 1976), was based on published
material, but subsequent volumes were essentially the work of Goldin (whom
see for details). Lloyd Arthur ESHBACH constructed in Subspace Encounter *
(1983) a sequel to the inferior Subspace Explorers (1960 ASF as "Subspace
Survivors"; exp 1965). None of these adjuncts did anything to help EES's
reputation. Today, while he must be read, it has to be in the loving
awareness that he is a creature of the dawn. [JC]Other works: What Does
this Convention Mean?: A Speech Delivered at the Chicago 1940 World's
Science Fiction Convention (1941 chap); Spacehounds of IPC (1931 AMZ;
1947); The Galaxy Primes (1959 AMZ; 1965); The Best of E.E. "Doc" Smith
(coll 1975); Masters of Space (1961-2 If; 1976) with E. Everett
EVANS.About the author: The Universes of E.E. Smith (1966) by Ron ELLIK
and Bill EVANS; "E.E. Smith" in Seekers of Tomorrow (coll 1966) by Sam

The real name of the US author who for obvious reasons writes under a
pseudonym, Gordon EKLUND. [JC]

(1927- ) US writer and crossword-puzzle compiler who began publishing sf
with "Tea Tray in the Sky" for Gal in 1952, and for about a decade
published actively in the magazines; after about 1960 she appeared there
only infrequently. She has also written as Delphine C. Lyons. Her first
novel, The Perfect Planet (1962), is set on a planet which was once a
health farm. Valley of Shadows (1968) as Delphine C. Lyons is a fantasy.
Unpopular Planet (1975) - no connection to the first book - is a
comparatively ambitious work, written in a sometimes passable imitation of
18th-century typographical (if not stylistic) practices and presenting the
memoirs, set down long after most of the events recounted, of a human from
an overpopulated future Earth whose contacts with ALIENS trying to
maintain the planet as a breeding-ground for humans and other species have
led to picaresque adventures, some of them sexual. The Copy Shop (1985) -
again an element of SATIRE is mildly evident - places aliens in New York
City; they are not noticed. [JC]See also: COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS;

(?1876-1954) US journalist and newspaper editor who was active with sf
stories in magazines like The Argosy, where several novels appeared. Only
Between Worlds (1919 Argosy; 1929), one of his weakest, reached book form;
it is a semi-juvenile tale that begins on a DYSTOPIAN Venus and concludes
on Earth, with female protagonists plotting to conquer the world. Of more
interest are "On the Brink of 2000" (1910 Argosy) and "The Treasures of
Tantalus" (1920-21 Argosy All-Story), which feature devices to see
anything happening anywhere in the world; the morality of these is
discussed, though at no great length. The FLAMMARION-inspired "After a
Million Years" (1919 Argosy) comprehends a dystopian Earth, an Edenic
Jupiter, mad scientists, telepathic powers, aliens and the virtual
extinction of humanity. Other magazine novels include "Thirty Years Late"
(1928 Argosy All-Story) and "The Girl in the Moon" (1928 Argosy
All-Story). GS was a sometimes capable writer whose ideas tended to
outclass his fiction. [RB]See also: FANTASTIC VOYAGES.

(1922- ) US writer of much popular fiction and considerable sf, under his
own name and several pseudonyms including books as Jan Hudson, Jerry
Jason, Jan Smith, George Hudson Smith, Diana Summers (not sf), Hal Stryker
and - mostly with his wife M. Jane Deer - M.J. Deer. He began publishing
sf with "The Last Spring" for Startling Stories in 1953, and became very
active after about 1960, releasing his first sf novels - Satan's Daughter
(1961), 1976 - Year of Terror (1961; vt The Year for Love c1965), Scourge
of the Blood Cult (1961), The Coming of the Rats (1961) and Love Cult
(1961 as by Jan Hudson) - in a rush. These early novels are, however,
rather negligible, and the collaborative Flames of Desire (1963) as by
M.J. Deer is post- HOLOCAUST soft pornography. But with The Four-Day
Weekend (1966) he began to strike a more sustained note, and in the
following year started a series set in the ALTERNATE WORLD of Annwn:
Druids' World (1967), Witch Queen of Lochlann (1969), Kar Kaballa (1969
dos), Second War of the Worlds (1976) and The Island Snatchers (1978). The
last 3 vols of this sequence share the same main characters and present a
complex interplay between this world and the alternative Welsh domain;
they are GHS's most telling example of the kind of fantasy-textured sf at
which he was best. Short stories of interest include "The Last Days of
L.A." (1959) and "In the Imagicon" (1966). [JC]Other works: Doomsday Wing
(1963); The Unending Night (1964); The Forgotten Planet (1965).As
M.J.Deer: A Place Named Hell (1963).As Jan Hudson: Loveswept #293: Water
Witch * (1988).As Jerry Jason: Sexodus (1963); The Psycho Makers (1965).As
Hal Stryker: NYPD 2025 (1985), the first of an apparently abortive series;
Hawkeye (1991), a TECHNOTHRILLER.

George H. SMITH.

(1911-1981) US writer and electronics engineer, most active and prominent
in the 1940s in ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, for which he wrote his first
story in 1942; "QRM - Interplanetary" began both his sf career and his
most famous endeavour, the Venus Equilateral SERIES of stories (all in
ASF) about a COMMUNICATIONS space station in the Trojan position (60deg
ahead of the planet) of the orbit of VENUS, and the various crises that
must be solved. These stories were assembled as Venus Equilateral (coll of
linked stories 1947; with 3 stories added, exp in 2 vols 1975 UK; the UK
version in 1 vol vt The Complete Venus Equilateral 1976 US). They exhibit
GOS's main strength, a fascination with technical problems and their
didactic explanation, after the fashion of Hugo GERNSBACK and the early
AMZ, as well as his main weakness, an almost complete lack of interest in
character or plot plausibility. However, though the technical
presuppositions on which he based his communications station dated very
swiftly, the sequence - featuring as it does a passel of cheerful
wisecracking engineer/troubleshooters - vividly evokes a characteristic
1940s sf point of view about the future and the kinds of problems we might
have to handle in space.GOS also wrote several SPACE OPERAS whose
technical assumptions have likewise dated - perhaps because he was
sufficiently numerate to make use of falsifiable speculations. The rocket
gimmickry, the sense of space, and the kind of protagonists featured in
his stories were - for instance - strongly reminiscent of but markedly
less entrancing than the more expansive galactic venues of E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's Lensmen series, the later vols of which were being serialized in
ASF at about the same time. The best of GOS's space operas, originally
published under his occasional pseudonym Wesley Long, is Nomad (1944 ASF;
1950 as GOS). Like most of his space epics, the story concerns an alien
INVASION of the Solar System, in this case by means of a wandering planet.
Other similar novels are Pattern for Conquest (1946 ASF; 1949) and the
inferior Hellflower (1953).Though GOS wrote several further novels before
becoming relatively inactive in 1959, he published only one other
memorable book, the vivid SUPERMAN story The Fourth "R" (1959; vt The
Brain Machine 1968). Although the story - about an artificially created
Homo superior child who must fight to remain independent until adulthood -
reflects earlier novels, such as Theodore STURGEON's The Dreaming Jewels
(1950; vt The Synthetic Man 1957), The Fourth "R" so vividly enters into
its protagonist's young mind, and so intriguingly details his strategy for
survival against a particularly unpleasant villain, that it has become a
model for tales of this kind (see also INTELLIGENCE). Another novel that
combines both invasion and superman themes is Highways in Hiding (1956;
cut vt The Space Plague 1957).Never strongly original, GOS was nonetheless
an effective expounder of ideas and an enjoyable sf novelist of the second
rank. The autobiographical notes in The Worlds of George O. (coll 1982)
warmly and modestly evoke his life in the 1940s as a colleague and friend
of John W. CAMPBELL Jr, Robert A. HEINLEIN and others; the collection
assembles the best of his short work. [JC]Other works: Operation
Interstellar (1950); Troubled Star (1953 Startling Stories; 1957); Fire in
the Heavens (1949 Startling Stories; 1958); Lost in Space (1954 Startling
Stories as "Spacemen Lost"; 1959); The Path of Unreason (1947 Startling
Stories as "Kingdom of the Blind"; rev 1958).See also: DISCOVERY AND

(1907-1976) US newspaperman and author, mostly of humorous sketches and
books, often for Saturday Evening Post. In his first sf novel, Mr Klein's
Kampf, or His Life as Hitler's Double (1939), a Jew takes over from Hitler
and declares Germany to be the new Zion. The Age of the Tail (1955), also
a comic SATIRE, depicts the effect on a NEAR-FUTURE world of all children
being born with tails. [JC]

George H. SMITH.

[r] J.U. GIESY.

(? - ) US writer in whose sf novel, Future X (1990), a Black man from a
racist 21st century discovers a TIME-TRAVEL device, returns to the time of
Malcolm X (1925-1965) with the intention of saving him from assassination,
causes his death months too early, and finds himself bound into taking his
place. But history continues as before, for there is no way, the book
seems to argue, of curing the system that killed Malcolm X in the first
place. [JC]

[r] Seth MCEVOY.

(1946- ) US writer, ex-police reserve officer, gunsmith and former state
candidate for the US LIBERTARIAN Party who began publishing sf with
"Grimm's Law" for Stellar 5 (anth 1980) ed Judy-Lynn DEL REY. The Win Bear
sequence, set in a parallel universe ( ALTERNATE WORLDS) in which a
libertarian version of the USA has become progressively decentralized ever
since its foundation, includes The Probability Broach (1980), The Venus
Belt (1981) and The Nagasaki Vector (1983), with Their Majesties'
Bucketeers (1981) set in the same universe. A second series, the North
American Confederacy sequence - Tom Paine Maru (1984), The Gallatin
Divergence (1985) and Brightsuit MacBear (1988)-shows the descendants of
the original protagonists expanding out into the Galaxy, spreading the
libertarian gospel to ALIENS and abandoned human colonies in both the
parallel universe and our own. Taflak Lysandra (1988), although set in the
same universe, is unconnected to the main series.The Crystal Empire
(1986), a somewhat confused tale of libertarian technological
inventiveness, is set in another alternate world, a Europe destroyed by a
far more devastating Black Death. The Wardove (1986), set on a terraformed
Moon long after a nuclear HOLOCAUST has made Earth uninhabitable, depicts
a state of war between anarcho-capitalists of several different species
(including humans) and a repressive government, and is unusual among LNS's
work for its general darkness of tone and comparative lack of humour.
Contrastingly, Henry Martyn (1989) is a light-hearted SPACE OPERA written
in a style strongly reminiscent of Raphael Sabatini's Captain Blood. A
further sequence - Contact and Commune (1990),Converse and Conflict (1990)
and Pallas (1993) - is set in yet another alternate world; in this
instance Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- ) has been deposed (as was soon, indeed,
to happen in the real world), Soviet hardliners have (perhaps rather
mysteriously) taken over the USA, and disturbingly alert
anarcho-capitalists (once again) begin to upset the apple cart. One of the
protagonists is (also mysteriously) descended from the inhabitants of
ATLANTIS.LNS is a writer of generally competent, fast-moving and often
amusing adventures which can be marred by preachiness and intolerance
where matters of POLITICS and morality are concerned. Almost all are
distinguished by their relentlessly upbeat mood; the more recent are often
rather poorly constructed. [NT]Other works: 3 STAR WARS ties, Lando
Calrissian and the Mindharp of Sharu * (1983), Lando Calrissian and the
Flamewind of Oseon * (1983) and Lando Calrissian and the Starcave of
ThonBoka * (1983).See also: ECONOMICS; SHARED WORLDS.

Martin Cruz SMITH.

(1942- ) US writer who became famous with the political
thriller/detective novel Gorky Park (1981), but whose first book, The
Indians Won (1970), originally published as by Martin Smith, is genuine
sf, positing an ALTERNATE WORLD in which the Native Americans - after
Sitting Bull (c1834-1893) defeated General Custer (1839-1876) - have
managed to consolidate themselves into an independent state, and in the
20th century hold the balance of power. Gypsy in Amber (1971) and its
sequel, Canto for a Gypsy (1972), both originally published as by Martin
Smith, feature a detective with ESP. The Analog Bullet (1972) utilizes the
paranormal in similar circumstances. Under the house name Nick CARTER MCS
wrote 3 borderline-sf thrillers, The Inca Death Squad * (1972), Code Name:
Werewolf * (1973) and The Devil's Dozen * (1973). As Simon Quinn he
published the non-sf Inquisitor series of novels about a Catholic
organization opposed to Satanists. In Nightwing (1977), as MCS, it is
discovered that a swarm of vampire bats is burdened with fleas which serve
as vectors for a deadly plague; it was filmed as Nightwing (1979). [JC]

(1938- ) UK writer, prolific in various genres under several pseudonyms,
including Roger C. Brandon, Robert Charles and Charles Leader. Flowers of
Evil (1981) as by Robert Charles is horror, and Nightworld (1984; vt The
Comet 1985 US), also as by Charles, is an expertly told but fairly
unadventurous sf DISASTER tale. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Christine I.S.Lowentrout (1951- ), much of whose
work has been fantasy, and much of her production under other pseudonyms,
usually for the production of TIES. As Robyn Tallis, she wrote 4 Planet
Builders ties: Rebel from Alphorion * (1989), Visions from the Sea *
(1989), Giants of Elenna * (1989) and Fire in the Sky * (1989); as
Nicholas Adams, she wrote a Horror High tie, Final Curtain * (1991); she
has written under yet other names as well. Her Wren series-Wren to the
Rescue (1990) and Wren's Quest (1993)-is fantasy for children. With David
Trowbridge (1950- ), who also edits a computer trade magazine, she has
written the Exordium sequence, which is sf, and which comprises Phoenix in
Flight (1993), Ruler of Naught (1993) and A Prison Unsought (1994). [JC]


Pseudonym for his sf novel of UK engineer Victor Bayley (1880-1972),
whose career at a high level in the Indian railway system was reflected in
much of his adventure fiction, some of which verged on fantasy, and which
he signed with his real name. In his sf novel, The Machine Stops (1936),
all metals disintegrate, casting humanity back into barbarism; one young
man attempts to fabricate a new alloy to save the race. [JC]

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

(1876-1936) UK writer, mostly of historical novels, whose first sf novel,
An Affair of State (1913), is set in a NEAR FUTURE England raddled by
social strife, whose The Council of Seven (1921) describes a totalitarian
DYSTOPIA, and whose Thus Far (1925) depicts the creation of an enormously
powerful, telepathic SUPERMAN by the application of various rays,
chemicals and, as E.F. BLEILER states, "glandular extracts from a missing
link"; Bleiler further suggests that JCS may have published an earlier
work describing the discovery of this link, but no such work has yet been
unearthed. [JC]

(1889-? ) UK writer, exceedingly prolific between the Wars, specializing
in thrillers (often with Oriental villains) and mysteries. He wrote some
sf books, including Kontrol (1928), in which a mad SCIENTIST switches a
genius brain into an athlete's body and vice versa; he is in league with a
Bolshevik agent who has built a fleet of futuristic vertical-take-off
aerial juggernauts and a UTOPIAN supercity on a secret ISLAND with an
active volcano. It is a well written sf thriller with an exuberance that
lifts it above the ordinary.The Sound-Machine (1932) likewise features a
crazed inventor; this one uses sound-waves to kill and disintegrate.
[PN]Other works: The Yellow Seven (1923); The Yu-Chi Stone (1925); Blue
Murder (1927); The White Owl (1930); The "Z" Ray (1932); The Sign of the
Scorpion (1934).See also: ISLANDS; POLITICS; WEAPONS.

(1951- ) US lawyer and writer who has been associated with Star Trek
since the publication of her first novel, Star Trek: The Tears of the
Singers * (1984). She served as Executive Script Consultant for the first
2 seasons of STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION. Of ostensibly greater sf
interest is her Circuit Trilogy - Circuit (1986), Circuit Breaker (1987)
and Final Circuit (1988) - which takes a handsome lawyer and his extremely
clever female sidekick into space, where they become involved in defending
a batch of individualistic space stations and settlements against the
hidebound bureaucracies of Earth. This point of view is not, of course, a
fresh one, and a sense that MMS was not perhaps concentrating fully on the
richer implications of her setting is strengthened by a plot structure
which eventually relegates the tough female protagonist to the sidelines -
in strict accordance with the Robert A. HEINLEIN guidelines on such
matters-as soon as she becomes pregnant. Runespear (1987) with Victor
MILAN is fantasy, as is Queen's Gambit Declined (1989).A Very Large Array:
New Mexico Science Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1987) embodies MMS's theory
that the urgent New Mexico landscape might serve to unify in some sense
the work of writers there resident; in the event, though the theory still
proves difficult to assess, the stories assembled are of admirable
quality. [JC]Other works: MMS was assistant editor to George R.R. MARTIN,
the editor, on 4 of the WILD CARDS series to date, these being #6: Ace in
the Hole: A Wild Cards Mosaic Novel * (anth 1990), #7: Dead Man's Hand *
(1990), written by Martin with John J. Miller, the 1st true novel in the
series, #8: One-Eyed Jacks: A Wild Cards Mosaic Novel * (anth 1991) and
#9: Jokertown Shuffle: A Wild Cards Mosaic Novel * (anth 1991); the next
title, #10: Double Solitaire * (1992) is another true novel, written by
MMS solo.As Melinda McKenzie: Magic to Do: Paul's Story (1985); Of Earth
and High Heaven (1985)See also: LIBERTARIAN SF.

(1905-1980) UK writer, created Baron Snow of Leicester in 1964, best
known for the long Strangers and Brothers sequence of novels, several of
which deal intimately with science and the scientific establishment. In
Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (1959), nonfiction, he famously
suggested that science and the humanities had indeed become "two
cultures", a phrase which has become part of the language. His sf novel,
New Lives for Old (1933), published anon, depicts a search for IMMORTALITY
and the negative consequences that attend its success. [JC]

(? - ) US author of The Hawks of Arcturus (1974), in which a lone
Earthman defies the eponymous ALIENS in their attempt to find the secrets
of an ancient Galaxy-ruling race. [JC]

[r] Gene SNYDER.

(1943- ) Working name of US writer and academic Eugene Vincent Snyder.
With William Jon WATKINS (whom see for details), he published 2 sf novels,
Ecodeath (1972) as E.V. Snyder and The Litany of Sh'reev (1976). His solo
works include Mind War (1980), The Ogden Enigma (1980) - in which the US
military must deal with the fact that it has repressed all evidence that a
UFO landed in 1950, a matter of urgency because the UFO now wants to go
home - Dark Dreaming (1981), Tomb Seven (1985), a fantasy, and The Sigma
Project (1988), a TECHNOTHRILLER. [JC]See also: ECOLOGY.

(1951- ) US author and journalist in whose Testament XXI (1973) a space
explorer returns to Earth a century after a nuclear HOLOCAUST to find a
balkanized land at war with itself. [JC]

(1940- ) US author of academic film criticism, notably The Limits of
Infinity: The American Science Fiction Film 1950-1975 (1980), expanded as
Screening Space: The American Science Fiction Film (1987), retaining the
unaltered text of the earlier book but adding a long final chapter,
"Postfuturism", which gives a reading of sf CINEMA developed from the
critical theories of Fredric Jameson ( POSTMODERNISM AND SF). The original
text is among the most sophisticated analyses of sf film yet published;
the added chapter is clotted, but important in its placing of recent sf
films in a Postmodernist context where, for example, computer imagery and
outer space in film are registered as flat imitations of one another, or
where we read schizophrenic narrative structures as zany comedies. VS's
FEMINISM informs her work, particularly the essay "The Virginity of
Astronauts: Sex and the Science Fiction Film" in Shadows of the Magic
Lamp: Fantasy and Science Fiction in Film (anth 1985) ed George E. SLUSSER
and Eric S. RABKIN. [PN]

Social Darwinism is the thesis that social evolution and social history
are governed by the same principles that govern the EVOLUTION of species
in Nature, so that conflict between and within cultures constitutes a
struggle for existence which is the motor of progress. Such ideas are
inherent in the socio-economic theories of Herbert Spencer (1820-1903),
who actually coined the phrase "the survival of the fittest", borrowed by
Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Darwin himself was not a Social Darwinist,
preferring to stress the survival value of cooperation in human societies.
Social Darwinism was popularized in the USA by ardent political champions
of laissez-faire capitalism, notably William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) -
whose pessimistic anticipation of a coming war between the social classes
echoed the Marxist theory of history, and presumably inspired Ignatius
DONNELLY's apocalyptic Caesar's Column (1890; early edns as by Edmund
Boisgilbert) - and the industrialist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919). Social
Darwinist rhetoric was co-opted to the justification of race hatred by the
German writer Heinrich von Treitschke (1834-1896), a major source of
inspiration for Hitler's Mein Kampf (2 vols 1925-6; trans 1939 UK) and the
political ideology of Nazism. There is, however, no logically necessary
connection between Social Darwinism and right-wing POLITICS; it is a
versatile analogy which lends itself to many differing opinions as to
which group ought to be designated "the fittest", and its arguments can be
deployed both for and against calculated eugenic selection.The most
important sf writer who might be termed a Social Darwinist was the
socialist H.G. WELLS, who had no doubt that the "laws of evolution"
discovered by Darwin applied to human society. His account of the future
evolution of society in THE TIME MACHINE (1895) is based on a Social
Darwinist logic, and in such UTOPIAS as A Modern Utopia (1905) a "struggle
for existence" is artificially maintained - here in the ascetic training
of the elite "samurai". Many of Wells's blueprints for the future assume
that a better society can emerge only out of the destruction of the
present one, by a process of rigorous winnowing; such future histories are
sketched in The World Set Free (1914), Men Like Gods (1923) and The Shape
of Things to Come (1933). When Wells finally despaired of his world-saving
mission it was the logic of Darwinian law that he invoked to condemn
society for its failure in Mind at the End of its Tether (1945). Louis
TRACY's The Final War (1896) and M.P. SHIEL's The Yellow Danger (1898) are
early future- WAR stories deploying a Social Darwinist species of racism,
the latter suggesting that there must ultimately be a war between the
different races of Homo sapiens for possession of the Earth; but Shiel
later modified his Spencerian views and espoused a curiously Nietzschean
kind of Social Darwinism most vividly displayed in The Young Men are
Coming (1937). S. Fowler WRIGHT is the UK writer of SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE who
most consistently glorified the struggle for existence and railed against
the "utopia of comforts".Opposition to Darwinist analogies is evident in
Claude FARRERE's Useless Hands (1926), a lurid warning of the ultimate
effects of applying Darwinian logic to human society, and in Raymond Z.
GALLUN's PULP-MAGAZINE story "Old Faithful" (1934), which argues that
intellectual kinship is more important than biological difference. A
fierce attack on Social Darwinism is mounted by C.S. LEWIS in his Ransom
trilogy: OUT OF THE SILENT PLANET (1938), Perelandra (1943; vt Voyage to
Venus) and That Hideous Strength (1945). The last volume - in which the
organization N.I.C.E. begins to mould UK society along Social Darwinist
lines - is the most direct.The logic of Social Darwinism has cropped up
continually, but rather inconsistently, in GENRE SF. One writer
particularly fond of invoking such ideas was Robert A. HEINLEIN. The
assumptions of Social Darwinism seem to have shaped many of his
perspectives - notably his attitude towards ALIENS, as displayed in The
Puppet Masters (1951) and STARSHIP TROOPERS (1959), the "robust"
LIBERTARIAN social theory of TANSTA AFL (There Ain't No Such Thing As A
Free Lunch) propounded in THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS (1966), and the
collection of aphorisms called "The Notebooks of Lazarus Long" in Time
Enough for Love (1973). Other libertarian sf writers make less use of this
type of supportive logic. Poul ANDERSON's political views are based on
more pragmatic grounds, and the same appears to be true of Jerry E.
POURNELLE, although his collaboration with Larry NIVEN, Lucifer's Hammer
(1977), employs some Social Darwinist arguments. Echoes of Sumner and
Carnegie frequently resound in the work of genre libertarians, as they do
more plangently in Ayn RAND's Objectivist tracts Anthem (1938) and Atlas
Shrugged (1957). L. Ron HUBBARD's Return to Tomorrow (1954) is the most
hysterically Social Darwinist work in genre sf, advocating that the human
race commit universal genocide of all alien races to secure its hegemony.
John W. CAMPBELL Jr was a notorious human chauvinist, but he made
relatively little (and rather inconsistent) use of Social Darwinist ideas
in his editorials. His variously argued defences of slavery as an
institution inspired some of the odder fiction published in ASF, including
Lloyd BIGGLE Jr's The World Menders (1971), and his opinion that mankind
needs some kind of external enemy - if not actual, then imaginary - to
maintain the competitive thrust of progress is also reflected in work by
writers from his stable, notably Mack REYNOLDS, as in Space Visitor
(1977). Lester DEL REY, whose early short stories displayed a strongly
humanist outlook, seemingly embraces a kind of Social Darwinism in The
Eleventh Commandment (1962; rev 1970).The idea that aliens should be seen
primarily as Darwinian competitors has fallen into considerable disrepute
in modern sf, but there has been a marked resurgence of Social Darwinist
thinking in recent years in SURVIVALIST FICTION, mostly brutal
action-adventure stuff in the vein of Jerry AHERN. Dean ING's Pulling
Through (coll 1983) is more level-headed, while David BRIN's The Postman
(fixup 1985) is profoundly sceptical of the Social Darwinist ethos of


Film (1989). Wild Street Pictures. Dir Brian Yuzna, starring Bill
Warlock, Devin DeVasquez, Ben Meyerson. Screenplay Woody Keith, Rick Fry.
99 mins. Colour."Society" (as in the upper classes) is an ALIEN race,
parasitic on humanity (as in the poor), that has been around as long as
humans have, but we learn this only at the end. In the tradition of 1980s
schlock/surrealist horror cinema (e.g., RE-ANIMATOR [1985]), there is
gross bad taste, but the film is unusual in the demureness of its first
hour, and in its knowing and relentless use of metaphor, both visual and
verbal. Bill is a wealthy teenage boy whose PARANOIA (he feels alienated
from his family) turns out gradually to be justified. Intimations of
incest and half-glimpsed bodily distortions deepen into the discovery by
Bill of Society's devotion to "shunting", a combination of cuddling,
tenderizing, sodomitic rape and cannibalism deplorably unpleasant for the
human victims. The alien rich are shapeshifters capable of gazing out
quizzically from their own rectums. The shock tactics of the climax struck
some viewers as more nadir than peak; certainly Yuzna lacks the intensity
of a David Lynch, and there is a strong element of gleeful childishness.
But new cinematic ground is promisingly broken. [PN]See also: MONSTER

Sociology is the systematic study of society and social relationships.
The word was coined by Auguste Comte (1798-1857) in the mid-19th century,
and it was then that the first attempts were made to divorce studies of
society employing the scientific method, on the one hand, from dogmatic
political and ethical presuppositions, on the other. Social studies in a
more general sense have, of course, a much longer history, going back to
PLATO. Sociology and sf have a common precursor in UTOPIAN philosophy,
which often used literary forms - most commonly the imaginary voyage - for
the imaginative modelling of ideal societies ( FANTASTIC VOYAGES;
PROTOSCIENCE FICTION). The evaluation and criticism of such models may be
regarded as a crude form of hypothesis-testing. As utopian fiction
evolved, more reliance was placed on literary techniques; the modelling of
characters and personal relationships became a means of evaluating the
"quality of life" in these hypothetical societies. The increasing use of
such purely literary strategies in the late 19th century is also highly
relevant to the evolution of DYSTOPIAN images of the future.Insofar as sf
involves the construction of hypothetical societies, both human and
nonhuman, it is an implicitly sociological literature and many observers -
including Isaac ASIMOV - have described the sophistication of GENRE SF
encouraged by John W. CAMPBELL Jr in terms of its becoming "more
sociological". Any assumptions which are consciously or unconsciously
deployed in the building of hypothetical societies are sociological
hypotheses, and any attempt to construct a narrative which analyses or
tracks changes within imaginary societies is a form of sociological
theorizing. This is very rarely the primary purpose of sf writers, of
course, but it is a significant aspect of their work. The investigation of
"sociological themes" in sf has to be an examination of the fruits of this
process rather than an exploration of the influence of academic sociology
itself upon sf, because such influence is clearly negligible. Even works
of sf which mirror formal sociological hypotheses - such as Keith
ROBERTS's PAVANE (coll of linked stories 1968), which recalls the thesis
of Max Weber (1864-1920) that a complicit relationship connects the
Protestant Ethic and the rise of capitalism, in its depiction of an
ALTERNATE WORLD in which modern Europe remains under Catholic domination -
almost invariably do so unconsciously. Some sf writers have borrowed
extensively from academic ANTHROPOLOGY in constructing ALIEN societies,
but almost all have preferred to rely upon their own intuitive judgements
regarding human society and social relationships.Some sf stories are quite
straightforward thought-experiments in sociology: Philip WYLIE's The
Disappearance (1951), Theodore STURGEON's Venus Plus X (1960) and Ursula
K. LE GUIN's THE LEFT HAND OF DARKNESS (1969) are notable examples
investigating issues of sexual politics, while the brief account of a
factory-society run according to the tenet of "from each according to his
ability, to each according to his need" in Ayn RAND's Atlas Shrugged
(1957) aspires to prove the impracticability of socialism. Poul ANDERSON's
"The Helping Hand" (1950) carefully compares the fortunes of two conquered
cultures, one of which accepts economic aid from its conquerors while the
other - the "control group" - does not. Many of the classics of UK
SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE - including Grant ALLEN's The British Barbarians
(1895), J.D. BERESFORD's The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911), Aldous HUXLEY's
BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932), Olaf STAPLEDON's Odd John (1935) and Eden
PHILLPOTTS's Saurus (1938) - introduce an outside observer into a society
in order to evaluate its merits and faults "objectively". If the society
is contemporary, then the observer must be an sf artefact, like Allen's
time-travelling anthropologist, Beresford's and Stapledon's SUPERMEN, and
Phillpotts's alien; if the society is exotic then an ordinary human being
will do. Such social displacements are a staple strategy of SATIRE,
another common precursor of sociology and sf; works like the fourth book
of Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's Travels (1726) and The Voyage of Captain
Popanilla (1828) by Benjamin DISRAELI can embody scathing social
criticism. Other modern sf novels using this strategy include Robert A.
Masks of Time (1968; vt Vornan-19). An interesting MAINSTREAM novel in
which sociologists investigate a cult whose MYTHOLOGY is sciencefictional
in kind is Imaginary Friends (1967) by Alison Lurie (1926- ). Stories of
the type that construct hypothetical "human studies" projects for alien
sociologists - like S.P. SOMTOW's Mallworld (1981) and Karen Joy FOWLER's
"The Poplar Street Study" (1985) and "The View from Venus" (1986)-tend to
be darkly humorous and satirical.The quasiscientific activities featured
in these kinds of sf are impracticable in the real world (although there
are analogues in cultural anthropology) both because culture-bound
sociologists find it virtually impossible to become "objective observers"
and because they cannot construct actual societies by way of experiment.
Natural scientists do not, for the most part, encounter problems of these
kinds, and so the relationship between the social sciences and speculative
fiction is markedly different from that involving the natural sciences;
that is, sociological fiction may try to accomplish what the practical
science cannot, and thus is a generator of ideas rather than a borrower.
Ideas from speculative fiction are occasionally "fed back" into ways of
thinking about the real world: Aldous HUXLEY's BRAVE NEW WORLD and George
ORWELL's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949) have had considerable influence on
attitudes to social trends and actual political rhetoric. Some modern
social theorists have built literary models to dramatize their theories,
notably B.F. SKINNER in Walden Two (1948) and Michael YOUNG in The Rise of
the Meritocracy (1958). Where Skinner's work is a utopia, Young's is a
DYSTOPIA - he promotes his own ideas by displaying the folly of opposite
ideas in action. The US sociologist Richard Ofshe (1941- ) compiled an
anthology of sf stories, with appropriate commentary, as a textbook on The
Sociology of the Possible (anth 1970); John Milstead, Martin H. GREENBERG,
Joseph D. OLANDER and Patricia S. WARRICK's Sociology through Science
Fiction (anth 1974) and Social Problems through Science Fiction (anth
1975) are similar but less competent.The simple classification of
hypothetical societies into satires, utopias and dystopias serves
moderately well for models built outside genre sf, but GENRE-SF writers
are very rarely concerned with trying to design ideal societies, and,
although they do have a tendency to offer dire polemical warnings about
the way the world is going, the extent to which their visions may be
described as satirical or dystopian has also been exaggerated. Sf writers
often try to envisage forms of society which are quite simply conceivable;
they invent for the sheer joy of invention, and often it does them some
disservice to invoke the commonplace category labels. For example,
although the first significant model of a purely hypothetical society,
H.G. WELLS's THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1901), has definite dystopian
aspects, such a classification would be too narrow, and the same is true
of many subsequent novels which take the ant-nest as their model (
HIVE-MINDS).Another interesting early example of a hypothetical society
which is really neither a satire nor a dystopia is The Revolt of Man
(1882) by Walter BESANT, the prototype of a whole subgenre of stories
depicting female-dominated societies. Its assumptions regarding the
structure and fortunes of the society clearly reveal the main tenets of
Victorian male chauvinism, and it makes an interesting comparison with
more recent explorations of the same theme, including Edmund COOPER's Five
to Twelve (1968), Robert BLOCH's Ladies' Day (1968 dos) and Thomas
BERGER's Regiment of Women (1973). This is one of the commonest themes in
social modelling. Its early phases are tracked by Sam MOSKOWITZ in When
Women Rule (anth 1972), and further relevant fictions include J.D.
BERESFORD's Goslings (1913; vt A World of Women US), Owen M. JOHNSON's The
Coming of the Amazons (1931), Philip WYLIE's The Disappearance (1951),
Richard WILSON's The Girls from Planet 5 (1955), John WYNDHAM's "Consider
Her Ways" (1956), Charles Eric MAINE's World without Men (1958; vt Alph),
Poul ANDERSON's Virgin Planet (1959) and Edmund COOPER's Who Needs Men
(1972; vt Gender Genocide). Sf stories in which the social roles
associated with the sexes are in some fashion revised have become a highly
significant instrument of ideative exploration in the hands of FEMINIST
writers. Outstanding works of this kind include Joanna RUSS's THE FEMALE
MAN (1975) and Marge PIERCY's WOMAN ON THE EDGE OF TIME (1976). In the UK
The Women's Press has an sf line, and many of the books published by the
radical lesbian Onlywomen Press are sf.Both The Revolt of Man and THE
FIRST MEN IN THE MOON show "distorted societies" constructed by altering a
single variable in a quasi-experimental fashion. Outside GENRE SF such
distortions are almost always invoked for dystopian or satirical ends, but
inside the genre distortion often seems to be an end in itself. Alien
societies have been used in sf for satirical purposes - Stanton A.
COBLENTZ made a habit of it in such works as The Blue Barbarians (1931;
1958) and Hidden World (1935; 1957; vt In Caverns Below) - but this is
comparatively rare. The most memorable nonhuman societies in sf - they are
so numerous that any list has to be highly selective - reflect a far more
open-minded kind of creativity: Clifford D. SIMAK's CITY (1944-51; fixup
1952), L. Sprague DE CAMP's Rogue Queen (1951), Philip Jose FARMER's THE
LOVERS (1952; exp 1961), James BLISH's "A Case of Conscience" (1953), Poul
ANDERSON's War of the Wing-Men (1958; vt The Man who Counts) and The
People of the Wind (1973), Brian W. ALDISS's The Dark Light Years (1964),
Isaac ASIMOV's THE GODS THEMSELVES (1972), Stanley SCHMIDT's The Sins of
the Fathers (1976), David LAKE's The Right Hand of Dextra (1977), Ian
WATSON's and Michael BISHOP's Under Heaven's Bridge (1981), Phillip MANN's
The Eye of the Queen (1982) and Timothy ZAHN's A Coming of Age (1985).
Distorted human societies are even more numerous, but some notable
examples are: Wyman GUIN's "Beyond Bedlam" (1951), Frederik POHL's and
Makers (fixup 1961), Jack VANCE's The Languages of Pao (1958), Alexei
PANSHIN's RITE OF PASSAGE (1963; exp 1968), John JAKES's Mask of Chaos
(1970), Robert SILVERBERG's A TIME OF CHANGES (1971), Samuel R. DELANY's
Triton (1976), Ludek PESEK's A Trap for Perseus (1976; trans 1980), George
ZEBROWSKI's Macrolife (1979), Bruce STERLING's SCHISMATRIX (1985), Keith
ROBERTS's Kiteworld (1985) and Philip Jose FARMER's Dayworld (1985).
Implicit in all these stories, whatever their immediate dramatic purpose,
are arguments about directions and limits of social possibility.One of the
commonest forms of sociological thought-experiment in sf is that of taking
society apart and building it up again. Many stories of this type are
discussed in the sections on DISASTER and HOLOCAUST AND AFTER; classic
examples include S. Fowler WRIGHT's Deluge (1928) and Dawn (1929), George
LEIBOWITZ (1955-7; fixup 1960). The pattern of social disintegration is
subject to detailed scrutiny in William GOLDING's Lord of the Flies
(1954), while the building of a society from scratch is satirically
featured in E.C. LARGE's Dawn in Andromeda (1956). Investigations of the
theme range in character from outright HORROR stories to ROBINSONADES,
often steering a very uneasy course between realism and romanticism.Many
particular fields within sociology are not widely reflected in sf, but
there is an abundance of stories bearing upon issues in the sociology of
RELIGION, including Heinlein's "If This Goes On . . ." (1940), Bertrand
RUSSELL's "Zahatopolk" (1954), Miller's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ,
Anderson's "The Problem of Pain" (1973) and Gerald Jonas's "The Shaker
Revival" (1970). There is no such abundance of stories relating to the
sociology of science, largely because most sf - unlike most mundane
fiction - treats religion sceptically and science reverently; but Asimov's
THE GODS THEMSELVES includes some shrewd observations on the working of
the community of SCIENTISTS, as does Howard L. MYERS's pointed comedy
"Out, Wit!" (1972). An interesting exercise in hypothetical applied
sociology is featured in Katherine MACLEAN's "The Snowball Effect" (1952),
in which a sociologist draws up an incentive scheme which permits the
Watashaw Ladies Sewing Circle to recruit the entire world (the technique
later became known in the real world as "pyramid selling"). The definitive
sf exercise in the sociology of POLITICS is Michael D. RESNICK's vivid
account of the COLONIZATION and subsequent "liberation" of Paradise
(1989). Sociologists working in the field of demography play a key role in
Hilbert SCHENCK's curious timeslip romance, A ROSE FOR ARMAGEDDON (1982),
although they rarely feature in stories of OVERPOPULATION.The marked shift
in the emphasis of genre sf away from scientific hardware towards
sociological issues has had several causes. Sheer literary sophistication
is one; the expansion of the sf audience to take in many readers (and
writers) who have little scientific education is another. It also reflects
a growing awareness of the pace of social change and of insistent
challenges to social values which were once supported by wider consensus.
Elementary features of social organization like the family are
increasingly subject to the erosions of individual liberty. Commonplace
social problems like crime ( CRIME AND PUNISHMENT) and care of the aged
and the sick are becoming magnified - ironically, by virtue of the very
success of the technologies which have been brought to bear on the
problems. The fact that social situations do and will determine the
context in which scientific inventions are and will be made and used was
frequently glossed over by early sf writers, but is now clearly
recognized. The slowly but steadily growing interest in sf may be a
symptom of wider recognition of the acceleration of social change and the
imaginative utility of sociological thought-experiments; if so, the
academic study of sf ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM) might perhaps be a matter more
suited to sociologists than to students of literature per se. [BS]See

This not very precise item of sf TERMINOLOGY, formed by analogy with HARD
SF, is generally applied either to sf that deals with the SOFT SCIENCES or
to sf that does not deal with recognizable science at all, but emphasizes
human feelings. The contrasting of soft sf with hard sf is sometimes
illogical. Stories of PSI POWERS or SUPERMEN, for example, have little to
do with real science, but are regularly regarded by sf readers as hard sf.
The NEW WAVE was generally associated with soft sf; CYBERPUNK falls
somewhere between the two. [PN]

In academic slang and sf TERMINOLOGY, the soft sciences are in the main
the social sciences, those which deal mainly with human affairs - very
often the sciences that require little or no hardware for their carrying
out. (Most would claim BIOLOGY and subsidiary fields - e.g., CLONES and
GENETIC ENGINEERING - as hard sciences [ HARD SF].) Theme entries in this
volume which deal directly or indirectly with soft sciences include
often work through statistics, and hard scientists have been known to
despise them for their lack of rigour and their occasional difficulty in
predicting quantifiable results; sociology has been particularly
criticized in this context. Sf that deals primarily with the soft sciences
is sometimes known as SOFT SF. [PN]

Working name of US writer and former journalist Gerald Allan Sohl Sr
(1913- ), active from about 1950 in sf and other genres as JS and under
various pseudonyms, including Nathan Butler and Sean Mei Sullivan. He
began publishing sf with "The 7th Order" for Gal in 1952, and soon
released The Haploids (1952), the first of several 1950s novels whose
slick surface and sharp economy of scale marked him as a professional
craftsman. These books include Transcendent Man (1953), Costigan's Needle
(1953) - which deftly depicts the colonizing of a PARALLEL WORLD - The
Altered Ego (1954) - which ingeniously treats as a problem in detection an
IMMORTALITY puzzle involving personality recordings, though without the
concept of CLONES the technology of transference was clearly unwieldy -
and Point Ultimate (1955), a fine example of 1950s PARANOIA in its picture
of Russians occupying the USA through use of a plague virus. In all these
books JS's use of science, though attractive, seems in hindsight somewhat
opportunistic, and several of them fail ultimately to make much sense of
the premises they dramatize. His sf output began to slacken by the end of
the decade, though he remained active in other areas, several non-sf
novels being published as by Butler. Of his later sf, The Odious Ones
(1959) and Night Slaves (1965), later televised, best demonstrate his
competence. From 1958 JS did considerable tv work, including scripts,
under various names, for The INVADERS , The OUTER LIMITS, STAR TREK and
The TWILIGHT ZONE . [JC]Other works: The Mars Monopoly (1956 dos); The
Time Dissolver (1957); One Against Herculum (1959 dos); The Anomaly
(1971); I, Aleppo (as "I am Aleppo" in The New Mind [anth 1973] ed Roger
ELWOOD; exp 1976); Death Sleep (1983); Kaheesh (1983) as by Nathan Butler.

(1955- ) Polish critic, translator and editor, author of the POLAND entry
in this encyclopedia. A graduate of Warsaw University, KS is well known
for his critical pieces on US-UK sf in the magazine Fantastyka. Since its
foundation in 1990 he has been editor of Fenix, the first privately owned
professional sf magazine in Poland; he is also a professional translator
of sf. [PN]

1. French-language Canadian magazine. CANADA; Luc POMERLEAU; Daniel
SERNINE.2. Russian film (1971). Mosfilm. Dir Andrei TARKOVSKY, starring
Donatas Banionis, Natalia Bondarchuk, Youri Jarvet, Anatoli Solinitsin.
Screenplay Tarkovsky, Friedrich Gorenstein, based on SOLARIS (1961; trans
1970) by Stanislaw LEM. 165 mins; first US version 132 mins. Colour.This
long, ambitious rendering of Lem's metaphysical novel is regarded by some
as one of the finest sf films made; a minority sees it as tediously
slow-moving. S changes the emphasis of the story from the intellectual to
the emotional, partly by restructuring the narrative, which in the film is
framed by elegiac and nostalgic sequences at the country house of the
young space-scientist hero's parents, focusing on the scientist's
relationship with his father; the opening passage is on Earth, the closing
passage on Solaris's recreation of Earth. The main action is set on a
space-station hovering above the planet Solaris, whose ever-changing ocean
is thought to be organic and sentient. The protagonist finds the station
in disrepair and his colleagues demoralized by the materialization of
"phantoms" (quite real and solid) of their innermost obsessions; soon he
is himself haunted by a reincarnation of his suicided wife. These phantoms
may be an attempt by Solaris to communicate. Horrified, he kills the
phantom wife, but a replica arrives that night. Ultimately he recognizes
that, no matter what her source, she is both living and lovable; but while
he sleeps she connives at her own exorcism. Solaris remains an enigma. The
philosophical questions about the limits of human understanding are not
put so sharply as in the book, but the visual images, despite occasionally
mediocre special effects, are potent - haunting leitmotivs of water,
sundering screens, technology and snow. [PN]See also: MUSIC; RUSSIA; SPACE

This scientific term has found much favour in sf TERMINOLOGY. The stars
constantly emit highly energetic particles as well as, of course, light,
which is itself composed of tiny particles, photons (although here the
word "particle" has a slightly different meaning). These particles exert a
gentle outward pressure (which is why the tail of a comet always points
away from the Sun). A low-mass spacecraft with a huge, incredibly thin
sail, perhaps made of aluminium, could take advantage of this pressure
just as a yacht uses wind - hence the proliferation of rather charming
space-sailing stories, including "The Lady who Sailed the Soul" (1960) by
Cordwainer SMITH and "Sunjammer" (1964; vt "The Wind from the Sun") by
Arthur C. CLARKE. An anthology including 4 original stories, a number of
reprints and some nonfiction is Project Solar Sail (anth 1990) ed Clarke
and (anon) David BRIN. [PN]

[s] Harlan ELLISON.

Pseudonym of Russian poet and novelist Fyodor-Kuzmich Teternikov
(1863-1927), who remains best known for his second novel, Melkii bes
(1907; best trans R. Wilks as The Little Demon 1962 UK); the title refers
to the apotheosis of numbing mediocrity, mercilessly depicted, which
devours the schoolteacher protagonist. FS's third novel, Tvorimaia legenda
(1907-13 Shipovnik, then Zemlya; cut 1914; part 1 only of cut text trans
John Cournos as The Created Legend 1916 UK; complete trans Samuel D.
Cioran of restored text in 3 vols as The Created Legend 1979 US), is sf,
though of a strange order. The 1st vol describes the life in 1905 Russia
of the protagonist who-pedagogue, inventor, sybarite and mage - clearly
represents a wish-fulfilment version of the author. The 2nd describes the
RURITANIAN kingdom of the United Isles, threatened by volcanoes and
dynastic upheavals. In the 3rd, after successfully applying to become king
- echoes of Frederick ROLFE's Hadrian VII (1904) are clear - the
protagonist escapes Russia in a spherical flying device of his own
invention and enters into his meritocratic heritage. The text as a whole
irretrievably mixes superscience, Satanism, an eroticized vision of
history, SATIRE and dream. The Sweet-Scented Name, and Other Fairy Tales,
Fables and Stories (coll trans Stephen Graham 1915 UK) and The Old House
and Other Tales (coll trans John Cournos 1916 UK) contain some fantasies.

The quarterly newsletter of the MERRIL COLLECTION OF SCIENCE FICTION,

Gardner F. FOX.

UK SEMIPROZINE, 3 issues (Spring 1980, Winter 1980, Spring 1984), small-
BEDSHEET format, published and ed Charles Partington from Manchester. This
was a short-lived but brave attempt by Partington, who had previously
edited ALIEN WORLDS, to continue the NEW WORLDS tradition. Many of the
stalwarts of NW appeared, including Brian W. ALDISS, Hilary BAILEY, John
BRUNNER, M. John HARRISON and Michael MOORCOCK. Like its more illustrious
predecessor, SE did not get the distribution it deserved. [RR]

1. US/Australian tv miniseries (1988). CPT Holdings/Hoyts for NBC.
Executive prods Frank Lupo, John Ashley. Dir Richard Colla, starring Joe
Cortese, Maryam d'Abo, George Dzundza. Written Lupo. 2 100min
episodes.This sometimes exciting, often threadbare policier pits a tough
Earth cop (Cortese) and a marooned, telepathic medical officer from an
ALIEN prison spaceship (d'Abo) - she looks both human and
beautiful-against an escaped alien "xenomorph", extremely dangerous and
capable of invading a human host (as in The HIDDEN [1988], which SIOT
strongly resembles). In romantic buddy-movie style, he teaches her Earth
customs and she teaches him monster-catching. Rick Baker's creature
effects are good; the pacing is bad; the ending is ambiguous. An edited
version (165 mins) was released on videotape.2. US tv series (1989). NBC.
8 50min episodes, the last two not aired in the USA. After the promising
if uneven pilot miniseries, the series proper, again starring Cortese and
d'Abo, was disappointing: crime-fighting cliches, unremarkable scripts,
and little use made of the extraterrestrial elements. [PN]

Working name of Thai composer and writer Somtow Papinian Sucharitkul
(1952- ), who used his surname from the beginning of his career to 1985,
when he switched to SPS, announcing that any book previously signed
Sucharitkul would be signed SPS on reprinting (although some children's
books continued to appear under the earlier form of his name). After
university education in the UK and a period in the USA, SPS began in
recent years to spend about half his time in Thailand and half in the USA.
His first publication of any genre interest was a poem, "Kith of
Infinity", which appeared in the Bangkok Press in 1967 and was assembled -
along with early stories like "Sunsteps" (1977 Unearth) - in Fire from the
Wine Dark Sea (coll 1983). He won the JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New
Writer in 1981.His first novel, Starship and Haiku (1981), is typical of
much of his work: the tale takes place in a crowded but fluid venue, with
culture shocks leading to ornate resolutions; in this case, the citizens
of a post- HOLOCAUST Earth are committing suicide, but whales contact
Japanese survivors (with whom they share a genetic heritage) and the novel
closes as a new hybrid species sets off for the stars.The Chronicles of
the High Inquest sequence - Light on the Sound (1982; rev vt The Dawning
Shadow #1: Light on the Sound 1986), The Throne of Madness (1983; rev vt
The Dawning Shadow #2: The Throne of Madness 1986), Utopia Hunters (coll
of linked stories 1984) and The Darkling Wind (1985) - again injects
whale-like sentients into a complex mix, following the interactions of the
mutilated humans who hunt them on instructions from the Inquestors, a
Galaxy-spanning race whose pretensions to moral superiority are harshly
examined as the sequence advances. In the end, the Inquestor race dies in
cataclysm, leaving a deposit of myth for later races to decipher. Other sf
of interest includes the ALTERNATE-WORLD Aquiliad sequence - The Aquiliad
(1983; vt The Aquiliad: Aquila in the New World 1988), The Aquiliad #2:
Aquila and the Iron Horse (1988) and #3: Aquila and the Sphinx (1988) -
set in a Western Hemisphere dominated by the Roman Empire; a resident time
traveller injects a malicious note of imbalance and insecurity, generating
a state of fluid near-chaos typical of SPS at his best. Sf singletons
include Mallworld (coll of linked stories 1981), in which the eponymous
venue doubles as an observation post for ALIENS fascinated by the human
race; and The Shattered Horse (1986), another alternate-world tale in
which the Trojans win.At about the time he changed his byline he also
began to move from sf into fantasy and horror, notably with the Valentine
sequence of vampire novels - Vampire Junction (1984) and Valentine (1992
UK) - and Moondance (1989), a powerful werewolf tale. It is to be hoped,
however, that he will continue to contribute sf tales which reflect his
quicksilver, sea-change imagination. [JC]Other works: 2 "V" novelizations,
The Alien Swordmaster * (1985) and Symphony of Terror * (1988); The Fallen
Country (1986), for children; Forgetting Places (1987), associational;
Riverrun (1991), first volume of the projected Riverrun or Darkling Wars
sequence, comprising Riverrun (1991), Forest of the Night (1992) and Music
of Madness (1993); Fiddling for Waterbuffaloes (1986 ASF; 1992 chap)I Wake
from a Dream of a Drowned Star City (1992 chap); The Wizard's Apprentice
(1993); Jasmine Nights (1994 UK), an associational novel with
autobiographical elements.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; ECOLOGY; GALACTIC

Michael BERLYN.

[s] Charles DE LINT.

The BLOB .


Film (1933). RKO. Dir Ernest B. Schoedsack, starring Robert Armstrong,
Helen Mack, Frank Reicher, Noble Johnson. Screenplay Ruth Rose. 70 mins.
B/w.This film was made immediately after KING KONG (1933) as a small-scale
sequel. The hero returns to Skull Island and discovers Kong's son, a 20ft
(6m) white ape with all the characteristics of a friendly puppy. Various
prehistoric monsters appear before a volcanic upheaval destroys the
island. The ape saves the hero by holding him above the flood waters.
There are good special effects by Willis H. O'BRIEN, but the film is
obviously a rush job to cash in on the success of the original, whose
mythic resonance this lacks. [JB]

(1929- ) US illustrator and writer. In Moon Missing: An Illustrated Guide
to the Future (1962) the MOON disappears and the early 1960s are
satirized. The illustrations are more satisfyingly vindictive than the
text. [PN]


(1959- ) US writer whose work, beginning with "Dress Rehearsal" for
Universe 16 (anth 1986) ed Terry CARR, has been restricted to short
stories, and who has published several stories whose surface clarity
conceals taxingly insistent examinations of readerly assumptions. Some of
this work is assembled in Rosemary's Brain and Other Tales of Weird Wonder
(coll 1992 chap). MS won a NEBULA Award for Best Story for "A Defense of
Social Contracts" (1994). [JC]

[s] Dwight V. SWAIN.


[r] Peter GEORGE.

Neil BELL.

The vast majority of the sf from what until 1991 was the Soviet Union,
especially that translated into English, was in the first instance written
and published in Russian ( RUSSIA). A small amount of Soviet sf exists in
the various languages other than Russian, notably Ukrainian, in which the
dissident writer Oles Berdnyk writes. Little of this material has been
translated into Russian, let alone English. The break-up of the USSR will
certainly in due course increase interest from both within and outside
their borders in the native writings of the new (or re-established)
nations. [PN]

(1905-1974) UK-born South African writer and newspaperman whose
Tomorrow's Comet (1949 Blue Book as "Star of Doom"; 1951 UK) treats the
END OF THE WORLD in psychological terms. [JC/PN]Other works: The Man who
was Emperor: A Romance (1946 UK).


Film (1973). MGM. Dir Richard Fleischer, starring Charlton Heston, Edward
G. Robinson, Leigh Taylor-Young, Chuck Connors, Joseph Cotten, Paula
Kelly. Screenplay Stanley R. Greenberg, based on MAKE ROOM! MAKE ROOM!
(1966) by Harry HARRISON. 97 mins. Colour.A New York police detective
(Heston) in an AD2022 marked by OVERPOPULATION investigates what appears
to be a routine murder and in the end discovers that "soylent green", the
main food for the world's population, is actually made from dead human
bodies. The plot has little to do with Harrison's book, whose
pro-contraception message it nervously avoids for fear of alienating Roman
Catholic viewers (Harrison has spoken eloquently of the perversion of his
work), but the vision of a teeming, overpopulated and festering New York
is recreated quite well. The cannibalistic denouement is purely for shock
value, and makes no rational sense; indeed Harrison coined the word
"soylent" from "soy beans" and "lentils", and the people of his future are
largely and necessarily vegetarian. Edward G. Robinson's fine performance
as a dying old man coaxed into a euthanasia clinic is touching, for he was
dying in real life as well. The film won a NEBULA. [JB/PN]


One of the reprint DIGEST-size magazines published by Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co. 6 issues Winter 1970-Summer 1971. The title was
shortened to Space Adventures after the first 2. The numbering ran,
strangely, #9-#14, apparently picking up where SCIENCE FICTION (ADVENTURE)
CLASSICS left off, and SAC would be regarded as simply a variant title
were it not that the latter resumed publication, also in Winter 1970, with
#12. Most of SA(C)'s stories were reprinted from AMAZING STORIES, from the
rather dismal period of Raymond A. PALMER's editorship. [BS]

Film (1986). ABC. Dir Harry Winer, starring Kate Capshaw, Lea Thompson,
Kelly Preston, Larry B. Scott, Leaf Phoenix, Tate Donovan, Tom Skerritt.
Screenplay W.W. Wicket, Casey T. Mitchell, from a story by Patrick Bailey,
Larry B. Williams. 108 mins. Colour.At a NASA-sponsored summer space camp,
a flight simulation in a space shuttle becomes the real thing after the
intervention of a well meaning ROBOT, and 4 teenagers and a small boy have
to replenish their oxygen from a satellite and then bring the shuttle down
again. With the help of the Force (from STAR WARS [1977]) and their own
self-reliance they manage. This implausible but patriotic advertisement
for Teamwork and the American Way has plenty of tension (and, in the wake
of the Challenger disaster, plenty of bad taste), but stereotyped
characters, mediocre process work in the space scenes and flat direction
render it routine. [PN]

Film (1958). Paramount. Dir Jack ARNOLD, starring Michel Ray, Adam
Williams, Peggy Webber, Johnny Crawford, Jackie Coogan. Screenplay Bernard
C. Schoenfeld, from a story by Tom Filer. 69 mins. B/w.This was the last
of Arnold's cycle of sf films with producer William Alland, though here
the studio is Paramount, not Universal. In this earnest but likeable moral
fable, a group of children are "taken over" by a benign ALIEN resembling a
glowing brain (which expands as the film progresses). The peace-loving
alien's aim is to use the children in the sabotage of a missile project on
which their parents are working, and it gives them special powers to help
them do this. The alien is not entirely a pacifist; it kills the brutal
father of one of the children. Arnold makes his usual evocative use of
landscape - this time a remote beach. [JB/PN]


Film (1989). Smart Egg Pictures. Dir Patrick Read Johnson, starring
Douglas Barr, Royal Dano, Ariana Richards, J.J. Anderson, Gregg Berger,
Fred Applegate. Screenplay Johnson, Scott Alexander. 100 mins. Colour.This
spoof, obviously made for younger viewers, starts promisingly with the
premise that the diminutive crew of a Martian spaceship, in the middle of
a battle, pick up the radio signal of Orson Welles's broadcast of WAR OF
THE WORLDS, and hasten to Earth to join the presumptive Martian invasion,
only to find a disinterested population (in small-town Illinois) more or
less ignoring them, or mistaking them for trick-or-treating children. The
ensuing gags seldom rise above poorly choreographed knockabout farce, with
no great ingenuity but a perceptible flavour of bigotry. [PN]


UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 8 monthly issues Mar-Oct 1954, several
undated, published by G.G. Swan, London; ed anon. SFAF published mainly
reprints from wartime issues of FUTURE FICTION and SCIENCE FICTION,
slanted towards the juvenile reader, but also new stories; the Apr 1954
issue was all new. An album of unsold copies in jumbled order was issued,
presumably as a Christmas annual. [FHP]

Flight into space is the classic theme in sf. The lunar romances of
Francis GODWIN, CYRANO DE BERGERAC et al. are the works most commonly and
readily identified as PROTO SCIENCE FICTION. In modern times, as GENRE SF
spilled out of print into the CINEMA, RADIO and TELEVISION, many of the
archetypal works produced for these media were romances of space travel.
Flight into space provides the stirring climax of the film THINGS TO COME
(1936) and the subject-matter of DESTINATION MOON (1950) and 2001: A SPACE
ODYSSEY (1968), as well as of Charles CHILTON's BBC radio serial Journey
into Space (1953) and its sequels, and tv's STAR TREK. The landing of
Apollo 11 on the MOON was seen by many as "science fiction come true". It
is natural that sf should be symbolized by the theme of space flight, in
that it is primarily concerned with transcending imaginative boundaries,
with breaking free of the gravitational force which holds consciousness to
a traditional core of belief and expectancy. The means by which space
flight has been achieved in sf - its many and various SPACESHIPS - have
always been of secondary importance to the mythical impact of the theme.
Only a handful of writers - notably Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY - embodied real
scientific ideas about the feasibility of space ROCKETS in fictional form
for didactic purposes.Actually, all the early lunar voyages are stories of
flight rather than of space flight, in that their authors took for granted
the continuity of an atmospheric "ether" (a convenience ingeniously
co-opted into modern sf by Bob SHAW in THE RAGGED ASTRONAUTS [1986] and
its sequels). No early travellers had to contend with the interplanetary
vacuum, not even the hero of Edgar Allan POE's "The Unparalleled Adventure
of One Hans Pfaall" (1835; rev 1840), although this was the first of the
traveller's tales in which the protagonist takes elaborate precautions to
provide himself with air, in recognition of the tenuousness of the
sublunar atmosphere. All romances of interplanetary flight prior to "Hans
Pfaall" are didactic - either straightforwardly, after the fashion of
Johannes KEPLER's Somnium (1634) and Gabriel Daniel's A Voyage to the
World of Cartesius (1690), or satirically, after the fashion of Daniel
DEFOE's The Consolidator (1705). Poe's story is a satire, too, although
the author advanced claims as to its verisimilitude. But it was really
Jules VERNE who made the first serious attempt at realism in De la terre a
la lune (1865; trans J.K. Hoyte as From the Earth to the Moon 1869 US) and
its sequel Autour de la lune (1870; both trans Lewis Mercier and Eleanor
King as From the Earth to the Moon 1873 UK). Hindsight invests
19th-century lunar romances with the same mythical significance that sf
has more recently lent to the notion of space travel, but the stories had
no such significance in their own day. The idea of flight into space
became the central myth of sf only once the genre had been identified and
demarcated by Hugo GERNSBACK. This was not really a strategic move on
Gernsback's part: his interest in the future and in the effect of
TECHNOLOGY on society was more catholic-with space travel as only one
among a whole series of probable developments. It was because of the kind
of impact sf made on the readers who discovered it - young, for the most
part - that space flight acquired its special significance. Many sf
readers found in sf a kind of revelation, a sudden mind-opening shock (
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH; SENSE OF WONDER): this was not the effect of any
single story but the discovery of sf as a category, a genre of fictions
presenting an infinity of possibilities. It is because of this element of
revelation, the sudden awareness of a vast range of possibilities, that
the paradigmatic examples of early sf are stories of escape from Earth
into a Universe filled with worlds: the first SPACE OPERAS, notably E.E.
"Doc" SMITH's The Skylark of Space (1928; 1946).As with other themes in
sf, the post-WWII period saw considerable sophistication of the myth of
space flight. Significantly, and perhaps contrary to popular belief, there
was relatively little development in verisimilitude outside the work of a
very few technically adept authors. The most significant post-WWII stories
related to the theme are not so much stories about space flight as
commentaries upon the myth itself; they are concerned with imaginative
horizons rather than hardware. One of the earliest examples of this kind
of commentary is Ray BRADBURY's "King of the Gray Spaces" (1943; vt "R is
for Rocket"); the classics are Robert A. HEINLEIN's "The Man who Sold the
Moon" (1950) and Arthur C. CLARKE's Prelude to Space (1951). Others
include Murray LEINSTER's "The Story of Rod Cantrell" (1949), Fredric
BROWN's The Lights in the Sky are Stars (1953; vt Project Jupiter 1954
UK), Walter M. MILLER's "Death of a Spaceman" (1954; vt "Memento Homo")
and Dean MCLAUGHLIN's The Man who Wanted Stars (fixup 1965). The mythic
significance of the theme is most obvious in a story in which "space
flight" is, from the viewpoint of the reader, purely metaphorical: James
BLISH's "Surface Tension" (1952), in which a microscopic man builds
himself a protective shell and forces his way up through the surface of a
pond into the open air. Also notable is a short story by Edmond HAMILTON,
"The Pro" (1964), in which an ageing sf writer meets up with the reality
of the myth when his son goes into space.Sf writers often became annoyed
when, following Neil Armstrong's Moon landing in 1969, they were asked
what they would find to write about in the future. In fact, a subtle
change did overcome sf during the course of the Apollo programme. Since
then, stories about space flight within the Solar System have been
"demystified", and we have a generation of stories in which spacemen
operating within a "real" context come into conflict with the myth: Barry
N. MALZBERG's The Falling Astronauts (1971), Nigel BALCHIN's Kings of
Infinite Space (1967), Ludek PESEK's Die Marsexpedition (1970 Germany;
trans Anthea Bell as The Earth is Near 1974) and Dan SIMMONS's Phases of
Gravity (1989) are examples; while J.G. BALLARD has for some time been
writing nostalgic stories which regard the space programme as a glorious
folly of the 1960s (8 are collected in the ironically titled Memories of
the Space Age [coll 1988]). Sf novels which bitterly assume that a second
break-out into space may well be necessary if the actual space programme
is allowed to fade away include The Man who Corrupted Earth (1980) by G.C.
EDMONDSON and Privateers (1985) by Ben BOVA. However, the myth of
transcending the closed world of the known and familiar is now more often
tied specifically to interstellar travel, as in 2001: A Space Odyssey,
Poul ANDERSON's Tau Zero (1967; exp 1970), Vonda MCINTYRE's Superluminal
(1984) and some of the stories in Faster than Light (anth 1976) ed Jack
DANN and George ZEBROWSKI. Star-drives which free mankind from the prison
of the Solar System take on an iconic significance in such novels as TAKE
BACK PLENTY (1990) by Colin GREENLAND and Carve the Sky (1991) by

Stories of space stations or artificial satellites appear early in sf,
the first example being Edward Everett HALE's extraordinary "The Brick
Moon" (1869) and its sequel "Life in the Brick Moon" (1870), in which the
satellite of the title consists of many brick spheres connected by brick
arches, and is launched, with people on board, by gigantic flywheels. Kurd
LASSWITZ's Auf Zwei Planeten (1897; cut trans as Two Planets 1971 US) has
Martian space stations shaped like spoked wheels floating above the poles,
but these are kept hovering by gravity-control devices of a somewhat
implausible kind. The first detailed and thoroughly scientific treatment
is in Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY's Vne zemli (written 1896-1920; 1920; trans
as "Out of the Earth" in The Call of the Cosmos 1963 Russia), a
semifictionalized didactic speculation; it deals with free fall, space
greenhouses for growing food, communication via space mirrors, and
artificial GRAVITY effected by spinning the station on its axis - indeed,
much of the spectrum of space-habitat ideas that would first begin to
appear in any profusion after WWII, at a time when space travel by ROCKETS
was generally realized to be something actually likely to happen.A highly
influential book of popular science, dealing with (among other things) the
construction of space stations was The Conquest of Space (1949) by Willy
LEY, illustrated by Chesley BONESTELL, and it was after this that the
space-station story began to appear commonly in GENRE SF. However, the
idea was not new to the genre, a celebrated earlier example being George
O. SMITH's Venus Equilateral stories, published in ASF from 1942, about a
communications space station in a Trojan position (60deg ahead of the
planet) in the orbit of Venus.The image of the space habitat presented
through the 1950s was usually (though not always) as a way station, a
stopping-off point prior to flights deeper into space. Indeed, the usual
term of the time was "space station"; another book by Ley was titled Space
Stations (1958). Such stations were envisaged as being in Earth orbit, the
first place you reach after leaving Earth. We see this image of the
stopping-off place quite often in movies, an early example being CONQUEST
OF SPACE (1955) and a later one 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), and of
course in books, as in Arthur C. CLARKE's children's novel Islands in the
Sky (1952). Other 1950s books and stories in which the space station is
totemic include Rafe BERNARD's The Wheel in the Sky (1954), Frank Belknap
LONG's Space Station No 1 (1957 dos), James E. GUNN's Station in Space
(1958) and Damon KNIGHT's psychological melodrama about the trauma of
meeting an alien, "Stranger Station" (1959).One version of the theme that
might have been expected to play a far greater role than it actually has
in genre sf is the space station as menace, as a weapons-delivery platform
in space easily able to target any point on Earth's surface. This notion
has popped up occasionally in films, such as MOONRAKER (1979) (biological
warfare) and HELLFIRE (1986) (a new energy source that can fry people). An
early novel to use the theme is C.M. KORNBLUTH's Not This August (1955; vt
Christmas Eve 1956 UK), in which it is hoped that a military space station
will evict the Russians occupying the USA.Although this Earth-orbit phase
of the space-station story has now largely been superseded, there is still
in HARD SF a sense of real nuts-and-bolts excitement when the actual
building of one is envisaged, and books are still written on the theme; e.
g., Donald KINGSBURY's The Moon Goddess and the Son (1979 ASF; exp 1986)
and Allen STEELE's Orbital Decay (1989).Soon, as the space station became
absorbed into GENRE SF as one of its primary icons, they were popping up
all over the place, not just in Earth orbit. We can obviously regard
(perhaps not very usefully) all SPACESHIPS as space habitats, not to
mention hollowed-out ASTEROIDS and, of course, GENERATION STARSHIPS. Alien
space habitats of incredible complexity may be stumbled across by human
observers, who have to make sense of their enigmatic qualities and deduce
their purpose and the lifeforms for which they were built ( BIG DUMB
OBJECTS). 3 such works are Clarke's RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA (1973), John
VARLEY's Gaean trilogy (1979-84) and Greg BEAR's EON (1985).One iconic
space-habitat motif has the space station representing the anthropological
observers in the sky, looking down at the primitives below, as in Patricia
MCKILLIP's Moon-Flash (1984), where the superstitiously regarded flash of
the title turns out to be the firing retro-rockets of spacecraft visiting
the station; a particularly good example is Brian W. ALDISS's Helliconia
trilogy (1982-5), whose observing space habitat, ironically named
"Avernus", is central to the structure of the whole long tale, its
"superior" observers standing for a civilization that is played out. The
observers in Stanislaw LEM's SOLARIS (1961; trans 1970), filmed as SOLARIS
(1971), are also played out and receive the come-uppance due to people who
try to hold themselves aloof, their space station becoming a shambles, as
the LIVING WORLD beneath reconstructs in the flesh their most feared and
desired memories and nightmares. An interesting variant of the
space-habitat story is Fritz LEIBER's A Specter is Haunting Texas (1969),
whose spectre is, in fact, the skinny body of a visitor from a space
habitat who, unable to move properly in Earth gravity, is supported by an
exoskeleton.The second boom in space-station stories was, like the first,
catalysed by a book of popular science, this time The High Frontier (1977)
by Princeton physicist Gerard K. O'NEILL (1927-1992), which vigorously
proselytized for the construction of colonies in space, either in Earth
orbit or at one of the LAGRANGE POINTS - especially L5, 60deg behind the
Moon in the Moon's orbit around Earth. The amazing long-range quality of
Tsiolkovsky's prescience has never been more evident than in the fact that
his predictions - not just of space stations, but of huge self-sufficient,
heavily populated space colonies - took more than half a century to come
to their full flowering in scientific speculation and in sf.One of the
first writers to take O'Neill's tip was Mack REYNOLDS, in Lagrange Five
(1979), The Lagrangists (1983) and Chaos in Lagrangia (1984) (the latter 2
ed Dean ING from manuscripts found after Reynolds's death). Now that the
space station was being re-envisioned as the space colony or space habitat
- a home where people might live all their lives - its iconic significance
was radically changing. The space habitat has become the locus of the new,
with everything old, washed-up and politically out-of-date being left
rotting back on Earth while the real action is in space. The second new
thing about space habitats has to do with diversity and cultural
evolution: there can be a lot of them, each giving a home to a different
political or racial or social group, so that the habitat takes over the
function of ISLANDS in earlier sf as an isolated area that can be used as
a laboratory in which to conduct thought experiments in cultural
anthropology. (Not all these motifs are post-O'Neill, of course; some -
including the idea of diverse habitats each catering for different
tastes-were prefigured in Jack VANCE's eccentric "Abercrombie Station"
[1952].)Among the many books of the past 15 years to make use of
space-habitat themes, mostly along the lines suggested above, are Colony
(1978) by Ben BOVA, Joe HALDEMAN's Worlds series, starting with WORLDS
(1981), Melinda SNODGRASS's Circuit trilogy, beginning with Circuit
(1986), Lois McMaster BUJOLD's FALLING FREE (1988), Christopher HINZ's
Paratwa series, starting with Liege-Killer (1987), and Richard LUPOFF's
The Forever City (1988). The idea is taken to its extremes in George
ZEBROWSKI's Macrolife (1979; rev 1990), in which humanity largely abandons
planetary environments in favour of star-travelling habitats.Obviously the
iconic significance of the space-habitat story is evolving rapidly, a
topic analyzed (rather differently) in "Small Worlds and Strange
Tomorrows: The Icon of the Space Station in Science Fiction" by Gary
Westfahl in Foundation #51 (Spring 1991) (Westfahl has published pieces
elsewhere on the same theme). Complex use of the motif - the space habitat
both as cultural forcing ground and as creator of instability through
cultural claustrophobia - appears in some key CYBERPUNK works, notably
William GIBSON's Neuromancer trilogy (1984-8) and Bruce STERLING's vastly
inventive SCHISMATRIX (1985), and also - to a degree - Michael SWANWICK's
Vacuum Flowers (1987). In only a decade we have seen the emphasis move
from space habitat as brave new world to space habitat as a trap that
corrupts and is prey to cultural and technological dereliction.Though
space habitats are likely to remain popular in sf because of their
peculiar usefulness in creating specific kinds of cultural scenario, in
the real world the idea seems, outside a hard core of O'Neill cultists, to
be receiving less and less support as something towards which we should
currently be working. Although the theoretical advantages of low gravity
and permanent energy supply are real, it is difficult to envisage any
remotely plausible circumstances that would make the capital cost of space
habitats, at least when considered in isolation, redeemable economically,
nor any evolutionary advantages in the small-town-mentality balkanization
(and shrinkage of the gene pool) that their building and occupation might
come to represent. [PN]

Film (1983). Delphi Productions/Columbia. Dir Lamont Johnson, starring
Peter Strauss, Molly Ringwald, Ernie Hudson, Michael Ironside. Screenplay
David Preston, Edith Rey, Dan Goldberg, Len Blum, from a story by Stewart
Harding, Jean Lafleur. 90 mins (but reported as being originally 105
mins). Made in 3D. Colour.Bedevilled with production problems, changing
directors in midstream (it was begun by Jean Lafleur), suffering from the
ominous stigma of 6 screenwriting credits, S:AITFZ is surprisingly
relaxed. Strauss is a space scavenger who comes to plague-and-pollution
ridden Terra Eleven, the post- HOLOCAUST chic of whose citizens owes much
to MAD MAX 2 (1981; vt The Road Warrior), to save three maidens. He is
joined by a fast-talking tomboy (Ringwald) and an old army buddy (Hudson),
and they fight their way past Bat People, Barracuda Women and feral
children to the showdown with CYBORG woman-despoiler Overdog (Ironside)
and his barbarian cohorts. Strauss is appealing as a down-at-heel Indiana
Jones in space, and, while the movie is derivative and meandering, it is
also often ingenious and enjoyable. The overtactfully used 3D becomes an
inconsequential irritant. [PN]

The tough and resourceful Captain "Space" Kingley was the hero of 3 UK
children's SPACE-OPERA annuals of the early 1950s. Beyond his pukka
Britishness he displayed few individual characteristics. The sequence
(which remains extremely difficult to date precisely; the dates here may
not be reliable) comprises The Adventures of Captain "Space" Kingley (coll
1952) with stories by Ray Sonin, The "Space" Kingley Annual (coll 1953)
with stories by Ernest A. Player, and "Space" Kingley and the Secret
Squadron (coll 1954) with stories by David White. All were heavily
illustrated by R.W. Jobson. [JC/RR]

SPACE 1999
UK tv series (1975-7). A Gerry Anderson Production for ITC. Created Gerry
and Sylvia Anderson. Prods Sylvia Anderson (season 1), Fred Freiberger
(season 2). Executive prod Gerry Anderson. Story consultant Christopher
Penfold. Special effects Brian Johnson. 2 seasons, 48 50min episodes in
all. Colour.This UK-made series, created by Gerry and Sylvia ANDERSON -
who had previously produced a number of tv series ( STINGRAY, THUNDERBIRDS
and others) with puppets and UFO and the film DOPPELGANGER (1969) with
real actors - was obviously inspired in part by the success of STAR TREK.
The format has a group of people - live actors again - travelling through
the Galaxy, visiting various planets and encountering strange lifeforms;
but, where the Star Trek characters travelled on a spaceship, the Space
1999 personnel do their interplanetary wandering on Earth's runaway Moon -
an unwieldy gimmick that must have caused many frustrations to the
writers. Despite good special effects and sometimes imaginative sets the
series, with its stereotyped characters and humourless scripts, was
remarkably wooden, eliciting predictable jokes about puppets. The other
major flaw was a scandalous disregard for basic science ( SCIENTIFIC
ERRORS): stars are confused with asteroids, the Moon's progress through
space follows no physical laws, and PARSECS are assumed to be a unit of
velocity. The series was cancelled in 1977, though 1 episode was delayed
until 1978. The regular cast included Martin Landau, Barbara Bain, Barry
Morse (season 1), Nick Tate, Catherine Schell (season 2), Tony Anholt
(season 2), Zienia Merton. Dirs included Ray Austin, Lee H. Katzin,
Charles Crichton, David Tomblin, Val Guest, Tom Clegg. Writers included
Christopher Penfold, Johnny Byrne, Terence Feely, Donald James and Charles
Woodgrove (pseudonym of Freiberger). The series did better in the USA than
in the UK, perhaps because of lower expectations, perhaps because of the
deliberately international cast.At the end of the 1970s 8 episodes were
cobbled together in pairs and recycled by ITC in the guise of 4 movies;
the words "Space 1999" nowhere appeared in their titles. Though we have
been unable to trace any theatrical release, at least 2 have turned up on
tv: Destination Moonbase-Alpha (1978), dir Tom Clegg (based on a 2-episode
story, The Bringers of Wonder, by Terence Feely), and Journey through the
Black Sun (1982) dir Ray Austin and Lee (based on the episodes Collision
Course by Anthony Terpiloff and The Black Sun by David Weir). The other 2
were The Cosmic Princess and Alien Attack.A book about the series is The
Making of Space 1999: A Gerry Anderson Production (1976) by Tim Heald. A
number of novelizations appeared. Brian N. BALL wrote The Space Guardians
* (1975). Michael BUTTERWORTH wrote Planets of Peril * (1977), Mind-Breaks
of Space * (1977) with Jeff Jones, The Space-Jackers * (1977), The
Psychomorph * (1977), The Time Fighters * (1977) and The Edge of the
Infinite * (1977). John Rankine (Douglas R. MASON) wrote Moon Odyssey *
(1975), Lunar Attack * (1975), Astral Quest * (1975), Android Planet *
(1976) and Phoenix of Megaron * (1976 US). E.C. TUBB wrote Breakaway *
(1975), Collision Course * (1975), Alien Seed * (1976 US), Rogue Planet *
(1976 US) and Earthfall * (1977). [JB/PN]

When RADIO was the principal medium of home entertainment in the USA,
daytime serials intended for housewives were often sponsored by
soap-powder companies; the series were thus dubbed "soap operas". The name
was soon generalized to refer to any corny domestic drama. Westerns were
sometimes called "horse operas" by false analogy, and the pattern was
extended into sf terminology by Wilson TUCKER in 1941, who proposed "space
opera" as the appropriate term for the "hacky, grinding, stinking,
outworn, spaceship yarn". It soon came to be applied instead to colourful
action-adventure stories of interplanetary or interstellar conflict.
Although the term still retains a pejorative implication, it is frequently
used with nostalgic affection, applying to space-adventure stories which
have a calculatedly romantic element. The term might be applied
retrospectively to such early space adventures as Robert W. COLE's The
Struggle for Empire (1900) but, as it was coined as a complaint about pulp
CLICHE, it seems reasonable to limit its use to GENRE SF.Five writers were
principally involved in the development of space opera in the 1920s and
1930s. E.E. "Doc" SMITH made his debut with the exuberant interstellar
adventure The Skylark of Space (1928; 1946), and continued to write
stories in a similar vein until the mid-1960s; 2 sequels, Skylark Three
(1930; 1948) and Skylark of Valeron (1934-5; 1949), escalated the scale of
the action before the Lensmen series took over, the SPACESHIPS growing
ever-larger and the WEAPONS more destructive until GALACTIC EMPIRES were
toppling like card-houses in Children of the Lens (1947-8; 1954). Once
there was no greater scale of action to be employed, Smith had little more
to offer, and his last novels - The Galaxy Primes (1959; 1965) and Skylark
DuQuesne (1966) - are mere exercises in recapitulation. In the 1970s,
however, a reissue of the Lensmen series enjoyed such success with readers
that Smith's banner was picked up by William B. Ellern (1933- ), David A.
KYLE and Stephen GOLDIN ( E.E. SMITH for details). Contemporary with
Smith's first interstellar epic was a series of stories written by Edmond
HAMILTON for WEIRD TALES, ultimately collected in Crashing Suns (1928-9;
coll 1965) and Outside the Universe (1929; 1964). Although he was a more
versatile writer than Smith, Hamilton took great delight in wrecking
worlds and destroying suns, and his name was made with space opera (he too
continued to write it until the 1960s), other early examples being "The
Universe Wreckers" (1930) and the CAPTAIN FUTURE series. In the late 1940s
Hamilton wrote The Star of Life (1947; 1959) and the memorable The Star
Kings (1949; vt Beyond the Moon), an sf version of The Prisoner of Zenda
(1894) by Anthony Hope (1863-1933). The last of Hamilton's works in this
vein were Doomstar (1966) and the Starwolf trilogy (1967-8). Even before
Smith and Hamilton made their debuts, Ray CUMMINGS was writing
interplanetary novels for the general-fiction pulps and for Hugo
GERNSBACK's SCIENCE AND INVENTION. His principal space operas were Tarrano
the Conqueror (1925; 1930), A Brand New World (1928; 1964), Brigands of
the Moon (1931) and its sequel Wandl the Invader (1932; 1961), but his
reputation was made by his microcosmic romances ( GREAT AND SMALL), and it
was to such adventures that he reverted when he turned to self-plagiarism
in later years. The two most important writers who carried space opera
forward in the wake of Smith and Hamilton were John W. CAMPBELL Jr and
Jack WILLIAMSON. Campbell made his first impact with the novelettes
collected in The Black Star Passes (1930; fixup 1953), and he went on to
write Galaxy-spanning adventures like Islands of Space (1931; 1957),
Invaders from the Infinite (1932; 1961) and The Mightiest Machine (1934;
1947). Campbell had a better command of scientific jargon than his
contemporaries, and a slicker line in superscientific wizardry, but he
began writing a different kind of sf as Don A. Stuart and subsequently
abandoned writing altogether when it clashed with his duties as editor of
ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION. Williamson flavoured space opera with a more
ancient brand of romanticism, basing characters in The Legion of Space
(1934; rev 1947) on the Three Musketeers and Falstaff; although he soon
moved on to more sophisticated varieties of exotic adventure, he never
quite abandoned space opera: Bright New Universe (1967) and Lifeburst
(1984) carry forward the tradition, and his collaborations with Frederik
POHL, such as The Singers of Time (1991), retain a deliberate but deft
romanticism which places them among the best modern examples of the
species. Another notable space opera from the 1930s is Clifford D. SIMAK's
Cosmic Engineers (1939; rev 1950).During the 1940s some of the naive charm
of space opera was lost as standards of writing rose and plots became
somewhat more complicated, and the trend was towards a more vivid and lush
romanticism. Notable examples are Judgement Night (1943; title story of
coll 1952; separate publication 1965) by C.L. MOORE and several works by
A.E. VAN VOGT, including The Mixed Men (1943-5; fixup 1952; cut vt Mission
to the Stars) and Earth's Last Fortress (1942 as "Recruiting Station"; vt
as title story of Masters of Time coll 1950; 1960 dos). By this time the
GALACTIC-EMPIRE scenario was being used for other purposes, most
effectively by Isaac ASIMOV in the Foundation series (1942-50; fixups
1951-3); by the 1950s it had become a standardized framework available for
use in entirely serious sf. Once this happened, the impression of vast
scale so important to space opera was no longer the sole prerogative of
straightforward adventure stories, and the day of the "classical" space
opera was done. But Asimov, like many others, retained a deep affection
for old-fashioned romanticism, deploying it conscientiously in The Stars
Like Dust (1951). Many of the more "realistic" space adventures of the
1950s incorporate space-operatic flourishes, including James BLISH's
Earthman Come Home (1950-53; fixup 1955), which features space battles
between star-travelling cities - although the other novels in the Okie
series have rather different priorities. The old-style space opera seemed
rather juvenile by this time, but it remained an important component of
the fiction published by the more downmarket pulps while they were still
being published, especially PLANET STORIES and THRILLING WONDER STORIES.
New life could still be breathed into it by the better writers associated
with those magazines; prominent were Leigh BRACKETT, as in The Starmen
(1952), and Jack VANCE, as in The Space Pirate (1953; cut vt The Five Gold
Bands). There were DIGEST magazines which specialized in exotic adventure
stories, including space operas - notably IMAGINATION and the 2nd of the 2
US magazines entitled SCIENCE FICTION ADVENTURES (which survived as a UK
magazine for some years after its death in the USA) - but they did not
long outlast the pulps. When it was abandoned by the magazines, space
opera found a new home in the ACE BOOKS Doubles ed Donald A. WOLLHEIM (see
also DOS). Robert SILVERBERG published a good deal of colourful material
in this format, including the trilogy assembled as Lest We Forget Thee,
Earth (fixup 1958) as by Calvin M. Knox, while Kenneth BULMER, John
BRUNNER and E.C. TUBB became UK recruits to this largely US tradition, the
last-named labouring to preserve it with his long-running Dumarest series.
Space-operatic romanticism is still widely evident, usually cleverly
combined with other elements. Examples include Gordon R. DICKSON's
long-running Dorsai series, Poul ANDERSON's Ensign Flandry series, H. Beam
PIPER's Space Viking (1963), Michael MOORCOCK's The Sundered Worlds (fixup
1965; vt The Blood Red Game), Ian WALLACE's Croyd (1967) and Dr Orpheus
(1968), Samuel R. DELANY's NOVA (1968), Alan Dean FOSTER's The Tar-Aiym
Krang (1972) and its sequels, Barrington J. BAYLEY's Star Winds (1978),
Philip Jose FARMER's The Unreasoning Mask (1981), S.P. SOMTOW's Light on
the Sound (1982) and its sequels, F.M. BUSBY's Star Rebel (1984) and its
sequels, Ben BOVA's Privateers (1985), Michael D. RESNICK's Santiago
(1986), Iain M. BANKS's Consider Phlebas (1987) and other Culture novels,
Colin GREENLAND's TAKE BACK PLENTY (1990) and Stephen R. DONALDSON's Gap
series, begun with The Gap into Conflict: The Real Story (1990), which
transfigures Wagner's Ring Cycle of real operas. It seems in no danger of
losing its popularity, given the recent winning of Hugo awards by space
RISING (1983) and Lois McMaster BUJOLD's THE VOR GAME (1990). The
crudities of the subgenre are easily parodied by such comedies as Harry
HARRISON's Bill, the Galactic Hero (1965) and Star Smashers of the Galaxy
Rangers (1973), M. John HARRISON's The Centauri Device (1974) and Douglas
ADAMS's Hitch-Hiker books, but the affection in which it is held defies
total deflation - as evidenced by the much more recent Bill, the Galactic
Hero series of SHARED-WORLD adventures. The tv series STAR TREK has given
rise to a long-running series of spinoff novels, many of which are more
space operatic than the studio budget ever permitted the tv scripts to be.
An excellent theme anthology is Space Opera (anth 1974) ed Brian W.
ALDISS; his Galactic Empires (anth 2 vols 1976) is also relevant. [BS]See

1. US tv serial (1950-55). ABC TV. Prod Mike Moser (1950-52), Helen Moser
(1953-5), dir Dik Darley, starring Ed Kemmer, Lyn Osborn, Ken Mayer,
Virginia Hewitt, Nina Bara. Written Norman Jolley. 210 25min episodes.
B/w.One of the many SPACE-OPERA serials on TELEVISION after CAPTAIN VIDEO,
and possibly the first to feature FASTER-THAN-LIGHT travel to the stars,
SP began as a 5-times-a-week 15min programme on local tv; soon after, it
went on RADIO and network tv. The patrol leader was Commander Buzz Corry.
Viewers were invited to "become space cadets of the SP" (join the fan
club) and to buy special SP cosmic smoke guns, etc. Like most such
programmes of the time SP was transmitted live, and with some ad-libbing.
Special effects were minimal, but a mild attempt was made to keep the
stories scientifically plausible.2. UK tv series (1963-4). National
Interest Picture Production/Wonderama Productions. Created/written Roberta
Leigh, prod Leigh and Arthur Provis, dir Frank Goulding. 2 seasons, 39
25-min episodes in all. This was a SPACE-OPERA series for children
produced with animated puppets, not unlike the various SuperMarionation
series made by Gerry ANDERSON, and indeed created by one of Anderson's
former colleagues. Main characters were Captain Larry Dart, Slim the
Venusian and Husky the Martian in the spacecraft Galasphere 347; also
important were Haggerty the genius inventor and Gabblerdictum the Martian
parrot. [PN]

Tv series (1994- ). A Mentorn Films and Gerry Anderson
Production.Directors include JohnGlen, Sidney Havers and Alan Birkinshaw.
First episode written by Paul Mayhew-Archer. StarringTed Shackleford, Rob
Youngblood, Simone Bendix. Current.First episode Oct 1994, 24
one-hourepisodes announced.This syndicated series is apparently based on a
singleton drama some years back entitled Space Police, but the title was
changed so as not to infringe the title copyright heldby a toy company. It
took a long time for the series to get off the ground. This is a Gerry
ANDERSON production, but unlike most of his tv shows is live action, not
puppets (though criticshave complained about the inexpressive rubber masks
worn by the aliens). Anderson hasdescribed the series as a New York cop
show transplanted to outer space. It is actually set in anunspecified
future in Demeter City, a galactic crossroads where two immigrant alien
racescomprise most of the population, an "inter-galactic melting pot,
attracting a bad element as well as the good", according to the show's
publicists. Two New York cops (Shackleford and Youngblood) are sent to
help out; Bendix is the beautiful and brilliant cop from the local force.
Some cops are aliens. Opinions differ about whether the show is
deliberately or accidentally humorous. Some think it is
tongue-in-cheek.Either way, the production values are questionable.



US DIGEST-size magazine. 8 issues May 1952-Sep 1953, published by Space
Publications; ed Lester DEL REY. The most prolific contributor was del Rey
himself, sometimes as Erik van Lhin or Philip St John. Notable stories
included T.L. SHERRED's "Cue For Quiet" (May-July 1953) and Philip K.
DICK's "Second Variety" (May 1953) and "The Variable Man" (Sep 1953). #8
began serialization of Poul ANDERSON's Brain Wave (as "The Escape"; 1954),
but it was not completed. All 8 issues were reprinted in the UK 1952-3,
numbered but undated, published by the Archer Press, London. [BS]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 2 issues, Spring and Aug 1957, published by the
Republic Features Syndicate; ed Lyle Kenyon ENGEL, with much editorial
work, uncredited, by Michael AVALLONE. The best story may have been John
JAKES's "The Devil Spins a Sun-Dream" (Spring 1957). [BS/PN]

The suggestion that people might one day travel to the MOON inside a
flying machine was first put forward seriously by John WILKINS in 1638.
There had been cosmic voyages prior to that date, and there were to be
many more thereafter ( FANTASTIC VOYAGES; SPACE FLIGHT), but few took the
mechanics of the journey seriously enough to invest much imaginative
effort in the design of credible vehicles. Edgar Allan POE's "The
Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" (1835) has an afterword
complaining about the failure of other writers to achieve verisimilitude,
but Pfaall makes his journey by BALLOON, and Poe's assumption of the
continuity of the atmosphere - a full 2 centuries after Torricelli had
concluded that the Earth's atmosphere could extend upwards for only a few
miles - is hardly scientific.Jules VERNE's travellers in De la terre a la
lune (1865; trans J.K. Hoyte as From the Earth to the Moon 1869 US) and
its sequel, Autour de la lune (1870, both trans as From the Earth to the
Moon 1873 UK) use a projectile fired from a gun rather than a vessel, and
most of those who followed in his footsteps treated their vessels as
facilitating devices, inventing various jargon terms to signify mysterious
forces of propulsion. Percy GREG's spaceship in Across the Zodiac (1880)
is powered by "apergy"; H.G. WELLS invented the antigravitic "Cavorite"
for THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1901); John MASTIN's "airship" is borne
into space by a "new gas" in The Stolen Planet (1905); and Garrett P.
SERVISS's A Columbus of Space (1909; rev 1911) employed an atomic powered
"space-car". Because their means of propulsion were so often mysterious,
spaceships in this period could easily assume the "perfect" spheroid shape
of the heavenly bodies themselves; a notable example is in Robert CROMIE's
A Plunge into Space (1890). When not round or bullet-shaped they tended to
resemble flying submarines.Spaceships were taken up in a big way by the
early sf PULP MAGAZINES, and their visual image was dramatically changed.
Frank R. PAUL and other contemporary illustrators ( ILLUSTRATION) showed a
strong preference for bulbous machines like enormously bloated aeroplanes
or rounded-off oceangoing liners with long rows of portholes. These were
often shown with jets of flame or vapour gushing out behind, but this was
as much to suggest speed as to indicate that the means of propulsion
involved might be one or more ROCKETS; similarly, the slow process whereby
hulls became streamlined and elegant fins appeared corresponded less to
any realization of the importance of rocket-power than to the development
of sleeker automobiles in the real world. Two of the more convincing early
pulp-sf spaceships are featured in Otto Willi GAIL's The Shot into
Infinity (1925; trans 1929; 1975) and Laurence MANNING's "The Voyage of
the Asteroid" (1932), but such stories were overshadowed by extravagant
SPACE OPERAS which thrived on fantastic machines with limitless
capabilities, fighting interstellar WARS with all manner of exotic WEAPONS
- the ultimate fulfilment of childhood fantasies. Classic examples include
the various Skylarks employed by E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Richard Seaton and
friends. Many pulp-sf writers still regarded spaceships as mere
facilitating devices - Edgar Rice BURROUGHS was prepared to do without
them in many of his interplanetary romances - but the pioneers of space
opera exploited the fantasies of unlimited opportunity and luxurious
seclusion which had hitherto been attached to such Earthly vessels as
Captain Nemo's Nautilus, the Crystal Boat in Gordon STABLES's The Cruise
of the Crystal Boat (1891) and the Golden Ship used in Max PEMBERTON's The
Iron Pirate (1897). Outside the pulps, the hero of Friedrich W. MADER's
Distant Worlds (1921; trans 1932) declared that his spacefaring vessel was
no mere "airship" but a world-ship with the freedom of the Universe.By the
1930s writers of HARD SF had become convinced that the first real
spaceships would be rockets, and stories about the large-scale projects
required to build them were being written as early as Lester DEL REY's
"The Stars Look Down" (1940); other notable examples include Arthur C.
CLARKE's Prelude to Space (1951) and Gordon R. DICKSON's The Far Call
(1973; exp 1978). But dominance was always retained by naive fantasies in
which spaceships could be casually built in anyone's back yard, or in
which their familiarity was simply taken for granted. Realistic stories of
the building and launching of spaceships can still be written - Manna
(1984) by Lee Correy (G. Harry STINE) is noteworthy - but we have now
become so blase about the spectacle of Saturn rockets blasting off from
Cape Canaveral and space shuttles gliding down to land at Edwards Air
Force Base that modern sf rarely bothers with matters of construction or
with maiden voyages. Tense NEAR-FUTURE melodramas involving moderately
advanced hardware can still be very suspenseful - The Descent of Anansi
(1982) by Larry NIVEN and Steven BARNES is a good example - but the vast
majority of sf stories look towards further horizons.A different kind of
realism was introduced into spaceship stories by Robert A. HEINLEIN in
"Universe" (1941), which scorned the convenience of FASTER-THAN-LIGHT
travel and established the archetypal image of the GENERATION STARSHIP.
This notion - an ironic embodiment of the motto per ardua ad astra -
quickly took over the sf version of the myth of the Ark, earlier displayed
in such novels as When Worlds Collide (1933) by Philip WYLIE and Edwin
BALMER. Notable later examples include Leigh BRACKETT's Alpha Centauri -
or Die! (1953 as "The Ark of Mars"; exp 1963) and Roger DIXON's Noah II
(1970). The spaceship became a powerful symbol of permanent escape,
invoked continually throughout the 1950s in stories of future tyranny and
the struggles of oppressed minorities. The myth of escape is taken to its
extreme in Poul ANDERSON's time-dilatation fantasy Tau Zero (1967; exp
1970), the first of several stories in which the spaceship provides its
human crew with a means to escape the end of the Universe. Such escape
motifs are, however, opposed in stories of space disaster; two interesting
stories which recast the voyage of the Titanic (1912) as sf are "The Star
Lord" (1953) by Boyd Ellanby (William Boyd [1903-1983]) and "The Corianis
Disaster" (1960) by Murray LEINSTER. Other stories developed the notion of
far-travelling starships into the idea of a starship culture. Notable
examples are Heinlein's CITIZEN OF THE GALAXY (1957) and Alexei PANSHIN's
RITE OF PASSAGE (1963; exp 1968). Relativistic effects were built into the
idea of a starship culture in L. Ron HUBBARD's Return to Tomorrow (1950;
1954), in which spacefarers become alienated from the course of history by
the time-dilatation effect of travelling at near-lightspeed.The UFO crazes
of the post-WWII years made some impact on sf imagery in the magazines.
Disc-shaped spaceships became more common in ILLUSTRATIONS, and the
interest of editors Sam MERWIN Jr - who also wrote about flying saucers in
"Centaurus" (1953)-and Raymond A. PALMER was reflected in the magazines of
which they had charge. Ufology had far more influence on the imagery of sf
CINEMA, where saucer-shaped ships became commonplace. The sleekly
streamlined ships which still dominated magazine illustration continued to
hold their ground until the 1970s; when their imagery was finally
challenged, it was by the bizarre and surreal hardware of artists like
Eddie JONES and Christopher FOSS. This movement towards a more complicated
topography - licensed by the knowledge that starships built in space for
journeys in hard vacuum had no need of streamlining - had been
foreshadowed in fiction since the 1950s. Among the more romantic
spaceships featured in the later years of magazine sf are those in
Cordwainer SMITH's Instrumentality stories, which include the
light-powered "sailing ships" in "The Lady who Sailed the Soul" (1960) and
"Think Blue, Count Two" (1963) ( SOLAR WIND). The tree-grown starships of
Jack WILLIAMSON's Dragon's Island (1951; vt The Not-Men) and the
animal-drawn starships of Robert Franson's The Shadow of the Ship (1983)
are among the most curious in sf.The men who sail or fly in them often
refer to ships and aircraft as "she", crediting them with personalities
and giving them names. Much sf transplants this tendency in perfectly
straightforward terms, but other stories carry it to its logical and
literal extreme. Human brains are frequently transplanted into spaceship
bodies to become functional CYBORGS, as in Thomas N. SCORTIA's "Sea
Change" (1956; vt "The Shores of Night"), Anne MCCAFFREY's The Ship who
Sang (coll of linked stories 1969), Cordwainer Smith's "Three to a Given
Star" (1965) and Kevin O'DONNELL Jr's Mayflies (1979). Other spaceships
acquire intelligence and personality in their own right thanks to their
sophisticated COMPUTER networks; the one in Frank HERBERT's Destination:
Void (1966) has delusions of godlike grandeur, and the one in Clifford D.
SIMAK's Shakespeare's Planet (1976) has a multiply split personality. More
often, though, the relationship between humans and spaceships maintains a
traditional naval rigour, as in many novels by the Merchant Navy writer A.
Bertram CHANDLER, Starman Jones (1953) by ex-US Navy officer Robert
Heinlein and THE MOTE IN GOD'S EYE (1974) by Larry Niven and Jerry E.
POURNELLE.Sf stories whose subject matter is the spaceship MYTHOLOGY built
up by their predecessors include Stanislaw LEM's Niezwyciezony (1964;
trans as The Invincible 1973) and Mark GESTON's Lords of the Starship
(1967). The idea that the spaceship owes much of its charisma to phallic
symbolism has been much bandied about - as reflected in Virgil FINLAY's
cover for the Oct 1963 issue of WORLDS OF TOMORROW, Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's
"The Big Space Fuck" (1972) and Norman SPINRAD's The Void Captain's Tale
(1983) - but a more convincing analogy would liken spaceships to the
"sperms" of sea-dwelling creatures which require no intromission (and
hence no phallus) but are simply released into an oceanic wilderness to
seek out the object of their fertilizing mission. This is the metaphor
contained in such novels as Jack Williamson's Manseed (fixup 1982). The
spaceship is still commonly deployed as a straightforward facilitating
device - a means to send ordinary near-contemporary characters into exotic
and fabulous situations - but even in this role it can become as
charismatic as STAR TREK's Starship Enterprise. The terminal decline in
the plausibility of the home-made spaceship in the face of the magnitude
and complexity of the actual space programme has to some extent been
compensated for by the remarkable frequency with which sf characters
serendipitously discover ALIEN spaceships; a notable example is Frederik
POHL's GATEWAY (1977) and its sequels. Alien starships are sometimes
invested with even more mystique than those constructed by humans; notable
examples include those whose one-time arrival on Earth is revealed in Ivan
YEFREMOV's "Stellar Ships" (trans 1954) and the gargantuan vessel featured
in Arthur C. Clarke's RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA (1973). Awesome alien
spaceships provide stirring climaxes for such films as CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF
THE THIRD KIND (1977) and The ABYSS (1989), but they can also perform a
much more sinister role, as in Stephen KING's novel The Tommyknockers
(1988).The power of the sf mythology of the spaceship was made evident by
the decision to bow to public pressure and name one of the experimental
space shuttles, constructed in 1977, the Enterprise.[BS]


US PULP magazine. 5 bimonthly issues Oct 1952-June 1953, published by
Standard Magazines as a companion to STARTLING STORIES et al.; ed Samuel
MINES. Its policy, identical to that of Startling Stories, was to feature
a complete novel in every issue; the most notable was The Big Jump (Feb
1953; 1955) by Leigh BRACKETT. [BS]



In sf TERMINOLOGY, a concept similar to that of hyperspace and subspace.
The term (along with "hyperspace") may first have been used by John W.
CAMPBELL Jr in Islands of Space (1931 Amazing Stories Quarterly; 1957). If
a handkerchief is folded, two otherwise separated points of it can become
adjacent; if space - more accurately, spacetime - could be warped in like
style (which it cannot), the resulting short cut would effectively enable
SPACESHIPS to travel FASTER THAN LIGHT: the topic is discussed further in
HYPERSPACE. Space warp has become such a CLICHE in sf that it allows
endless variants. One of the best known is the "warp factor" used in STAR
TREK as a measure of velocity. This is illogical on all levels.The idea of
ANTIGRAVITY is also connected with the warping of space: since GRAVITY (or
a gravitational field) is an effect dependent on the curving (or warping)
of spacetime in the presence of mass, then antigravity could be envisaged
as what would happen if you contrived to warp space the other way, an idea
proposed by Charles Eric MAINE in Count-Down (1959; vt Fire Past the
Future 1959 US). This is actually a development of that same idea proposed
by Campbell in Islands in Space; Campbell correctly recognized that to
warp spacetime would not only alter gravitational fields but be equivalent
to altering the velocity of light. Maine's negative space curvature is
anyway impossible, since it would require the existence of negative mass,
an existence prohibited on several theoretical grounds. [PN]

US DIGEST-size magazine, 8 issues Dec 1953-June 1955, 12 issues in all,
published by William L. CRAWFORD's FPCI in Los Angeles; the subtitle
"Stories of the Future" was changed to "Science Fiction" Dec 1954. The
title was taken from the UK film SPACEWAYS (1953). When S died it had
published only the first part of Ralph Milne FARLEY's "Radio Minds of
Mars"; on its resurrection by the same publisher many years later to
publish 4 more issues, Jan 1969-June 1970, it printed the serial in full.
This new version of S reprinted material from the first, but added a few
new stories. The most notable story carried by the magazine was "The
Cosmic Geoids" by John TAINE (Dec 1954-Apr 1955), though this had already
been published in book form, by the same publisher, as the lead novel of
The Cosmic Geoids, and One Other (coll 1949). An unfinished serial in the
2nd version of S was Andre NORTON's "Garan of Yu-Lac", which Crawford had
been holding since 1935; he later published it in book form as Garan the
Eternal (1972). #1-#4 were reprinted in the UK 1954-5 by Regular
Publications. [BS/PN]

Film (1953). Hammer/Exclusive. Dir Terence Fisher, starring Howard Duff,
Eva Bartok, Alan Wheatley, Andrew Osborn. Screenplay Paul TABORI, Richard
Landau, based on a 1952 radio play by Charles Eric MAINE. 76 mins. B/w.In
this first UK space movie since THINGS TO COME (1936) a scientist falsely
suspected of murdering his wife and placing her body in a satellite takes
a space trip to establish his innocence. This is an early, low-budget
Hammer melodrama of indifferent quality. Maine's novel Spaceways: A Story
of the Very Near Future (1953; vt Spaceways Satellite 1958 US), also based
on the radio play, appeared the same year as the film. [JB/PN]

UK BEDSHEET-size magazine. 3 issues, Dec 1969, Jan and Mar 1970,
published by the Martec Publishing Group; ed Derek R. Threadgall. SW
contained a mixture of sf and science and occult articles which proved not
viable. [FHP]

Modern sf appeared in Spain during the 1950s with the publishing imprint
Minotauro and the magazine Mas Alla (1953-7), both from Argentina ( LATIN
AMERICA). Spanish sf editions began in 1953, with pulp novelettes in the
Futuro and Luchadores del Espacio series, followed by Nebulae, the first
specialized Spanish imprint for sf books. During 1955-90 about 1300 sf
books were published in Spain, mostly translations from English, with only
about 50 by Spanish authors.Before the Civil War, Coronel Ignotus (the
pseudonym of Jose de Elola), Frederic Pujula, Elias Cerda and Domingo
Ventallo were the most important authors of old-fashioned speculations and
fantasies, mainly satirical and sometimes political. Ignotus was published
in one of the earliest quasi-sf MAGAZINES in the world, earlier than any
in the USA or UK: Biblioteca Novelesco-Cientifica (1921-3), each of whose
10 issues containing a single novel by Ignotus, 3 featuring interplanetary
voyages. In the 1950s George H. White (pseudonym of Pascual Enguidanos)
wrote a series of 32 sf adventure novelettes known collectively as the
Saga de los Aznar ["Aznar Saga"] series (1953-8). More interesting are
subsequent stories in the 1950s and 1960s by Antonio Ribera, Francisco
Valverde, Juan G. Atienza, Domingo Santos, Carlos Buiza and Luis Vigil
(1940- ); it was with these that modern Spanish sf really began.The 1960s
saw the first boom in sf publishing in Spain. After the short life of the
magazine Anticipacion (1966-7), the most influential of all Spanish sf
magazines began: Nueva Dimension, founded in 1968, ed Sebastian Martinez
(1937- ), Domingo Santos and Luis Vigil; it was voted the best European sf
magazine at the 1972 Eurocon in Trieste. A real milestone in Spanish sf,
ND published local authors alongside the best sf from other countries. It
lasted 148 issues, until Dec 1983.Incursions into sf have also been made
by writers who normally work outside the genre, such as Tomas Salvador
(1921- ), whose La nave ["The Ship"] (1959) is a reworking of the popular
GENERATION-STARSHIP theme, and Manuel de Pedrolo (1918-1990), who had a
big success with his novel written in Catalan, Mecanoscrit del segon
origen ["Mechanuscript of the Second Origin"] (1974), about life after a
world HOLOCAUST.Domingo Santos - the pseudonym of Pedro Domingo Mutino
(1941- ) - is the major contemporary Spanish sf writer. Some of his
stories and novels have been translated into several foreign languages.
His best known novel is Gabriel, historia de un robot ["Gabriel, The Story
of a Robot"] (1963), about the personality and coming of age of a ROBOT
not subject to the "fundamental laws" that compel other robots to
obedience. Another interesting novel is Burbuja ["Bubble"] (1965), but the
best of Santos is found in his short fiction. Meteoritos ["Meteorites"]
(coll 1965) is a classic collection, but more demanding are the stories in
Futuro imperfecto ["Future Imperfect"] (coll 1981) and No lejos de la
Tierra ["Not Far from Earth"] (coll 1986), set in the NEAR FUTURE and
often concerned with ECOLOGY and the threats that endanger the quality of
our lives.In the 1970s Gabriel Bermudez Castillo (1934- ) appeared with
well written books such as Viaje a un planeta Wu-Wei ["Travel to a Wu-Wei
Planet"] (1976) and action-adventure novels like El senor de la rueda
["The Lord of the Wheel"] (1978). Carlos Saiz Cidoncha (1939- ) has
specialized in SPACE OPERA, and in 1976 also privately published the first
history of Spanish sf; this was the embryo of his 1988 PhD thesis, the
first in Spain on such a topic.The political changes following Franco's
death in 1975 appear to have had no effect on sf publishing. Sf in Spain
has always had a restricted market, perhaps too small to bother with. Its
only political censorship under Franco may have been the prohibition in
1970 of Nueva Dimension #14, which contained a story by an Argentinian
that appeared to advocate Basque separatism.A second boom in sf publishing
took place in the 1980s, and more new authors appeared, the most gifted
perhaps being Elia Barcelo (1957- ). Her novelette "La Dama Dragon" ["The
Dragon Lady"] (1982) has been translated into several foreign languages
and is collected in Sagrada (coll 1990), the title being the feminine form
of the word for "sacred". The first Spanish woman to publish an sf book,
Barcelo is a very good stylist in a country where the usual style of sf
writing precludes it from consideration by more demanding literary
critics. Her stories are concerned with women's role in society and with
the contrast between technological and primitive cultures. Other new
authors are Rafael Marin Trechera (1959- ) with Lagrimas de Luz ["Tears of
Light"] (1982), an interstellar epic, and the collaboration of Javier
Redal (1952- ) and Juan Miguel Aguilera (1960- ) in a modern HARD-SF space
opera, Mundos en al abismo ["Worlds in the Abyss"] (1988), an unusually
science-conscious book for Spain. A

(1888-? ) UK writer and naval architect, author of 3 future- WAR novels -
The Broken Trident (1926), The Naviators (1926) and The Harbour of Death
(1927) - in all of which the UK is warned to beware remaining unduly
dependent upon her navy; the dire consequences of so doing are dramatized
in imaginary conflicts with-presciently - both Germany and Japan. [JC]



(1934- ) Canadian writer, poet and artist now resident in Denmark, author
of much non-genrepoetry, for which she won the Governor-General's Medal
for Poetry, her first volume beingAsylum Poems (coll 1958). Her sf, which
ismuch more recent, includes Moonfall (1991)which, with its sequel, The
Child of Atwar(1993), vividly explores post- HOLOCAUSTterritory. [JC]

Made-for-tv film (1983). NBC. Dir Edward Zwick, starring Christopher
Allport, David Clennon, Ed Flanders, Kathryn Walker, David Rasche.
Screenplay Marshall Herskovitz. 92 mins. Colour.An unnervingly effective
pseudodocumentary, this presents itself as tv coverage of an escalating
terrorist crisis in Charleston, where a dissident group of nuclear
scientists and peace activists threatens to set off an atomic bomb in the
dockyard unless all the nuclear weapons in the region are turned over to
them for dumping. With cutaways to White House spokesmen lying,
conflicting reports from political correspondents, interviews with
experts, on-the-spot reports, ranting demands from the terrorists and
hastily assembled background profiles on the offenders, SB is a fine
recreation of a now-familiar style of tv coverage, and in a surprisingly
rigorous manner examines the MEDIA influencing the atrocities they purport
to cover. The glimpses at the end of the detonation of the bomb - a
defusing attempt is bungled - are perhaps more effective than the
special-effects holocausts of The DAY AFTER (1983) and THREADS (1984), and
the final moments, in which other news issues creep into the schedule, are
understated but cutting. [KN]

UK FANZINE ed Peter WESTON from Birmingham 1963-73. Averaging 60pp, S was
for many years consistently the UK's best amateur magazine of comment and
criticism. Regular contributors included James BLISH, Kenneth BULMER, M.
John HARRISON, Michael MOORCOCK and Frederik POHL. Several fans whose
writing often appeared in S later became sf writers, Christopher PRIEST
and Brian M. STABLEFORD among them. The final issue, #33, though printed
1973, was not distributed until 1976. [PN]

Term used by some writers and critics in place of "science fiction". In
the symposium published as Of Other Worlds (coll 1947) ed Lloyd Arthur
ESHBACH, Robert A. HEINLEIN proposed the term to describe a subset of sf
involving extrapolation from known science and technology "to produce a
new situation, a new framework for human action". Judith MERRIL borrowed
the term in 1966, spelling out her version of "speculative fiction" in
rather more detail ( DEFINITIONS OF SF) in such a way as to de-emphasize
the science component of sf (which acronym can equally stand for
"speculative fiction") while keeping the idea of extrapolation - i.e.,
Merril's use of the term was useful for that kind of sociological sf which
concentrates on social change without necessarily any great emphasis on
science or TECHNOLOGY. Since then the term has generally appealed to
writers and readers who are as interested in SOFT SF as in HARD SF. Though
the term has proved attractive to many, especially perhaps academics who
find the term more respectable-sounding than "science fiction" and lacking
the pulp associations, nobody's definition of "speculative fiction" has as
yet any formal rigour, though the term has come to be used with a very
wide application (as by Samuel R. DELANY in his ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series
QUARK), as if science fiction were a subset of speculative fiction rather
than vice versa. Because the term "speculative fiction", as now most often
used, does not clearly define any generic boundary, it has come to include
not only soft and hard sf but also FANTASY as a whole. Many critics do not
find it a consistently helpful term but, as Gary K. WOLFE points out in
Critical Terms for Science Fiction and Fantasy (1986), critics tend to
worry more about the demarcation of genres than writers do, and, as a
propaganda weapon, the term has been useful precisely because it allows
the blurring of boundaries, which in turn permits a greater auctorial
freedom from genre constraints and "rules". [PN]

(1825-1910) Scottish-born Australian novelist whose Handfasted (written
c1879; 1984), a UTOPIA with LOST-WORLD elements set in the hidden state of
Columba somewhere in Southern California, was unpublished at the time
because of its FEMINIST views on women's autonomy; the title refers to a
traditional form of trial marriage, and in Columba single mothers are not
treated as pariahs. Less impressively, A Week in the Future (1888-9
Centennial Magazine; 1987) takes its heroine by SUSPENDED ANIMATION to the
socialist utopia that London has become in 1988. The first book is a fully
dramatised novel of real quality, but the second, only novella length,
more resembles a tract. In her later years, CHS fought for women's
suffrage. [JC/PN]See also: AUSTRALIA.

(1944- ) UK writer, rock musician and one-time art-agency director,
founding what would become Young Artists, a major UK agency for
preponderantly sf/fantasy artists. His first sf novel, The Electronic
Lullaby Meat Market (1975), in a manner somewhat reminiscent of Mick
FARREN sets a quirky thriller in a violently hyperbolic NEAR-FUTURE world
described in sex-charged terms reminiscent of the late-1960s
counterculture. After editing Echoes of Terror (anth 1980 chap) with Mike
Jarvis, JS returned to sf with A Case for Charley (1985) and Charley Gets
the Picture (1986), two idiosyncratic murder mysteries set after the
HOLOCAUST, when Nevada and Arizona have been destroyed by earthquakes and
California has been rebuilt as a vast tourist centre. He is not to be
confused with the John Spencer (1946- ) who illustrated a number of
fantasy/folklore juveniles in the early 1970s, nor with the publisher John
Spencer ( BADGER BOOKS). [JC/JGr]See also: MUSIC.

ZIFF-DAVIS house name used once by Robert SILVERBERG and Randall GARRETT
in collaboration on "The Beast With 7 Tails" (AMZ 1956), and twice by
unknown writers, 1956-7. [PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE. 118 issues Oct 1933-Dec 1943; monthly until Feb 1943,
bimonthly thereafter. Published by Popular Publications; ed Rogers Terrill
until near the end. TS, one of the hero/villain pulps, began as a
straightforward imitation of the highly successful The Shadow, telling of
a mysterious caped avenger. The first 2 novels were by R.T.M. Scott; the
remainder, credited to the house name Grant STOCKBRIDGE, were mainly by
Norvell W. PAGE with others by Emile Tepperman, Wayne Rogers and Prentice
Winchell (1915-? ). Under Page's guidance, the Spider became a more
ruthless character who stamped a spider sign on the foreheads of the
villains he killed, and the menaces he combated became more fantastic,
including a metal-eating virus and Neanderthal hordes (the 2 novels
concerned were reprinted as The City Destroyer [1935; 1975] and Hordes of
the Red Butcher [1935; 1975]). TS also contained short stories, including
the non-sf Doc Turner series by Arthur Leo ZAGAT. The character later
featured in a cinema serial, The Spider's Web (1938; 15 episodes,
Columbia, starring Robert E. Kent). Since 1969 further novels have been
reprinted in book form ( Norvell W. PAGE for details). A final Spider
title, left unpublished when the magazine folded, was reworked with new
characters as Blue Steel (1979) as by Spider Page. [MJE/FHP/PN]

(1947- ) US film-maker. Born in Cincinnati, raised in Arizona and an
amateur film-maker in his early teens, SS completed his first sf feature -
the 140min Firelight (1963) - at the age of 16; he studied English rather
than film at college in California. His first professional film was
Amblin' (1969), a slick short about hitch-hiking which was distributed as
a support feature with the very successful Love Story (1970); it secured
SS a contract with Universal Pictures' tv division. His tv debut was a
segment of the 1969 pilot for ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY, starring Joan
Crawford; in 1971 he made LA 2019, an sf-themed episode of The Name of the
Game (1968-71), and went on to tv features: Columbo: Murder by the Book
(1971), Something Evil (1972), a ghost story, and Savage (1972), a
high-tech thriller. He first attracted widespread attention with Duel
(1971), a suspenseful tv adaptation of Richard MATHESON's horror story
about a motorist pursued by a vindictive petrol tanker.Duel was
successfully released overseas as a movie, with 15 extra minutes of
characterization to bring it up to feature length, and it led to SS's
first theatrical feature, The Sugarland Express (1974), and to the
enormously successful assignment of the MONSTER MOVIE Jaws (1975), a
box-office rollercoaster about the hunting of a giant shark. After Jaws,
in which SS had little script involvement, he opted for a more personal
and visionary film, CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND (1977), which
managed on the strength of its extraordinary climactic vision of an alien
epiphany to become another major box-office success, despite a lopsided
story and an unevenness of tone SS himself tried in vain to rectify in his
EDITION (1980). The novelization Close Encounters of the Third Kind *
(1977; rev vt Close Encounters of the Third Kind: The Special Edition
1980) was published as by SS.After the critically vilified 1941 (1979), SS
made a solid return to popular acceptance with the George LUCAS-produced
Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), a tribute to the Saturday matinee serials
of the 1940s, and then scored a phenomenal hit with E.T.: THE
EXTRATERRESTRIAL (1982), which currently stands as the most commercially
successful film of all time. Sciencefictional in its subject matter but a
fairy-tale in feeling, it tells of a child's miraculous friend who happens
to be an ALIEN. Since that career high SS has made two Raiders sequels -
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) and Indiana Jones and the Last
Crusade (1989)-in between more ambitious, less obviously box-office
pictures, adaptations of novels by Alice WALKER and J.G. BALLARD,
respectively The Color Purple (1985) and Empire of the Sun (1987), and the
wistful fantasy Always (1990). His long-awaited but disappointing homage
to Disney's Peter Pan (1953) was Hook (1991), a lumbering and sentimental
rendition of a fantasy that should have had a certain delicacy in its
otherworldliness. However, he had a splendid return to form in 1993, when
he directed both the hugely popular sf extravaganza JURASSIC PARK (1993)
and the critically acclaimed drama about efforts to shelter Jews in
wartime Germany, Schindler's List (1993), which won seven Oscars including
- it was a long wait - Best Director.In addition to his work as a
director, SS has shown a commitment to genre material in his work as a
producer, coproducing and directing episodes of Twilight Zone: The Movie
(1983) and the tv series AMAZING STORIES (1985-7). He has done much to
further the careers of fellow film-makers Joe DANTE, Robert Zemeckis and
Frank Marshall, and has coproduced, usually as Executive Producer through
his Amblin Entertainment group, a wide variety of sf, fantasy and horror
productions, including Poltergeist (1982), Gremlins (1984), The Goonies
(1985), BACK TO THE FUTURE (1985), Young Sherlock Holmes (1985; vt Young
Sherlock Holmes and the Pyramid of Fear), An American Tail (1986), HARRY
AND THE HENDERSONS (1987; vt Bigfoot and the Hendersons), INNERSPACE
(1987), ,*BATTERIES NOTINCLUDED (1987), Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988),
The Land Before Time (1988), BACK TO THE FUTURE PART II (1989), BACK TO
THE FUTURE PART III (1989), Gremlins 2: The New Batch (1990), Joe vs the
Volcano (1990), ARACHNOPHOBIA (1990), An American Tail II (1991) and Cape
Fear (1991). Spielberg's Amblin also produced the prehistoric nostalgia
movie The Flintstones (1994), but SS received no production credit. In tv
Amblin produced the sf series SEAQUEST DSV (1993- ), a sort of VOYAGE TO
THE BOTTOM OF SEA for a new generation, but like Amazing Stories it has
disappointed in the ratings. Tv seems to be an area where the Spielberg
magic - or at least the Amblin magic - does not fully operate, as shown by
another series, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992), an unexpectedly
earnest show that slumped badly.Unashamedly populist and sentimental -
although not without a gleefully nasty side, as seen in Jaws, Poltergeist
and Gremlins - SS has proved himself unquestionably the most commercially
successful film-maker of all time, dominating the box office for 16 years
with a succession of hits that make up for the occasional 1941. A skilled
and in many ways sophisticated director, he is, despite his incredible
success, still young enough and powerful enough to be labelled
"promising". On the other hand, he has become one of the most powerful
figures in Hollywood. A big Hollywood story of late 1994 was the annouced
partnership between Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg, to
form a major new film studio into which Amblin Entertainment would be
merged, while retaining its own identity. This - if it is not merely a
political-industrial power ploy - could have interesting repercussions on
the whole industry. [KN/PN]See also: CINEMA; HISTORY OF SF; STEAMPUNK;

One of the best-loved items of sf TERMINOLOGY. The spindizzy is the
ANTIGRAVITY device used to drive flying cities through the Galaxy in James
BLISH's series collected as CITIES IN FLIGHT (omni 1970), though he was
using the term as early as 1950. He gave the spindizzy a wonderfully
plausible rationale, rooted in theoretical physics, in which GRAVITY
fields are seen as generated or cancelled by rotation. [PN]


(1940- ) US writer, born in New York - where he has set some impressive
fiction - and now resident in France. He began publishing sf with "The
Last of the Romany" for ASF in 1963, which he assembled with other early
work in The Last Hurrah of the Golden Horde (coll 1970), the title story
being among the most successful of the attempts made by divers authors to
write a tale using the characters and Universe of Michael MOORCOCK's Jerry
Cornelius series. The story was originally published in NW, to which NS
was a significant contributor during the 1960s, when both the US and UK
NEW-WAVE movements, though with different emphases (the UK form tending
more selfconsciously to assimilate MAINSTREAM modes like Surrealism),
argued against traditional sf, which had failed to use the hard sciences
to explore INNER SPACE, regarded as the proper territory of all genuinely
serious writing. After publishing two commercial SPACE OPERAS - The
Solarians (1966) and Agent of Chaos (1967) - NS subsequently kept faith
with that brief and the ethos which generated it.The Men in the Jungle
(1967) - which subjects its tough, urban protagonist to a complex set of
Realpolitik adventures on a distant planet - demonstrates the vigour and
occasionally slapdash bravado of what would become NS's typical style; but
it was with his next book, BUG JACK BARRON (1969), that he made his
greatest impact on the sheltered world of sf. This long novel was first
serialized in a shorter form in NEW WORLDS (1967-8), where its violent
texture and profanity rattled the excitable dovecotes of the UK "moral
establishment", leading directly to the banning of the magazine by W.H.
Smith, a newsagency chain so huge that its action was tantamount to
censorship. The equally risible parochialism of the sf world, when
confronted by this not particularly shocking novel, was demonstrated by
Sam J. LUNDWALL in his Science Fiction: What It's All About (1969; trans
exp 1971), where he described and dismissed the book as "practically a
collection of obscenities". The novel itself, whose language does not
fully conceal a certain sentimentality, deals with a NEAR-FUTURE USA
through tv figure Jack Barron and his involvement in a politically corrupt
system: the resulting picture of the USA as a hyped, SEX-obsessed,
apocalyptic world made the text seem less sf than FABULATION, where this
sort of vision is common. The sledgehammer style matched, at points, the
content.In NS's next novel, The Iron Dream (1972), the intention to offend
was gratifyingly explicit. An ALTERNATE WORLD in which Hitler, thwarted as
a politician, must make do with being an author of popular fiction is the
frame for a long sf tale from his feverish pen, "Lord of the Swastika".
This makes up most of the novel's text and gives NS the opportunity to
mock - effectively if at times unrelentingly - some of the less attractive
tendencies of right-wing sf, its fetish with gear, its fascist love of
hierarchical display, its philistinism, its brutishness, its not entirely
secret contempt for the people its HEROES defend. The "Afterword" by
"Homer Whipple" just as hilariously guys the kind of critical writing
generated by publish-or-perish academics. NS then released 2 further
collections - No Direction Home (coll 1975) and The Star-Spangled Future
(coll 1979), the latter an adroitly shaped compilation of his first 2
collections - which concisely demonstrate the range of his response to the
complexities of a rapidly changing Western world. From this point, that
world dominated - as metaphor or in realistic depiction-his work. In A
World Between (1979) the citizens of a UTOPIAN world deal with strident
threats to their middle way from technophile fascists of the right and
lesbian fascists of the left. The Mind Game (1980; vt The Process 1983),
not sf, savagely treats a manipulative "church" whose dictates and
cynicism are of a sort familiar to sf readers, and the later The Childen
of Hamelin (1991), likewise not sf, deals with contemporary people trapped
in a cult. The post- HOLOCAUST Songs from the Stars (1980) opposes a
restrictive "black" technological rule with an uplift message from a
soaring galactic civilization.NS's best 1980s novel was perhaps The Void
Captain's Tale (1983) which, with its thematic partner Child of Fortune
(1985), comprises what one might call an eroticized vision of the Galaxy.
The SPACESHIP in the first tale is driven by Eros, in a very explicit
sense; and the female protagonist of the second fertilizes-at least
symbolically - all she touches in her elated Wanderjahr among the
sparkling worlds. Little Heroes (1987) is set in a nightmarish urban
near-future USA, divided into haves and ruthlessly manipulated have-nots;
the plot turns on a combination of technology-fixing and co-optation that
cuts close to the bone, though by this date NS's weary rage had begun to
lose some of its purgative bite. However, the 4 novellas about the state
of the USA assembled in Other Americas (coll 1988) show a recovery of NS's
urban venom about the self-devouring progress of his native land into the
millennium; Russian Spring (1991), set in a near-future world dominated by
a USSR liberated by perestroika, again voluminously anatomizes the
American Dream, though the effect of the book was muffled by the real-life
collapse of the USSR in 1991; but Deus X (1993) adroitly mixed the cod
theologizings of a troubled Pope with excursions into CYBERSPACE, where
souls may - or may not - be deemed to dwell; and Vampire Junkies (1993
Tomorrow; 1994 chap) neatly contrasts the experiences of Vlad Dracul in
the 1990s with those of a hooker addicted to smack; Pictures at Eleven
(1994) is associational.Two nonfiction collections - Staying Alive: A
Writer's Guide (coll 1983) and Science Fiction in the Real World (coll
1990) - make even more explicit some of his bleak assumptions about the
course of the world to which he so vehemently belongs. [JC]Other works:
Passing through the Flame (1975), not sf; Riding the Torch (in Threads of
Time [anth 1974]; 1978 dos).As Editor: The New Tomorrows (anth 1971);
Modern Science Fiction (anth 1974).Nonfiction: Experiment Perilous: Three
Essays on Science Fiction (coll 1976 chap) ed Andrew PORTER; The Reasons
behind the SFWA Model Paperback Contract (1978 chap).See also: CLONES;



(1896-1963) French writer whose first sf novel of interest, L'agonie du
globe (1935; trans Margaret Mitchiner as Sever the Earth 1936 UK),
describes the consequences attendant upon the splitting of the planet into
two halves 50 miles (80km) apart. In La Guerre des mouches ["War of the
Flies"] (1938) mutated flies defeat humanity, keeping alive only a few
abject specimens, one of whom tells the tale. The SCIENTIST protagonist of
L'Homme elastique ["The Elastic Man"] (1938) discovers a method of
compressing atoms, allowing him (on request) to create an army of tiny
soldiers, who turn out to be examples of Homo superior ( SUPERMAN). In
L'Oeil du purgatoire ["The Eye of Purgatory"] (1945) a mad scientist
develops a bacillus which, when injected into the protagonist, allows (or
forces) him to see the future wherever he looks - a condition which
becomes purgatorial as he sees deeper and deeper into the destinies of
those around him, until eventually he is capable of perceiving little more
than corpses. [JC]See also: FRANCE.

Term used by 1980s movie-goers to describe films that display gore,
disembowelment and mutilation as a central feature. Many exploitation
films of the 1970s and 1980s fall into this category, including such
fringe sf/ HORROR movies as BAD TASTE (1987), DAY OF THE DEAD (1985),
RE-ANIMATOR (1985) and The THING (1982 remake). By no means all such films
are bad, though all may be ethically suspect in their apparent appeal to
sadistic voyeurism. [PN]


Film (1991). Challenge. Dir Tony Maylam, Ian Sharp, starring Rutger
Hauer, Kim Cattrall, Neil Duncan, Michael J. Pollard, Alun Armstrong, Pete
Postlethwaite, Ian Dury. Screenplay by Gary Scott Thompson. 91 mins.
Colour.London, AD2008. The Thames has risen and society is crumbling.
Coffee-drinking hard man Hauer and comics-reading Scots intellectual
Duncan are brawling buddy cops on the trail of a heart-eating villain who
carves astrological symbols on what's left of his victims' chests.
Proposed solutions include mutant DNA and the Devil, but in the finale the
baddie turns out to be a regulation ALIEN-style Big Monster With Teeth who
confronts Hauer on a tube train. Inexplicable events, disappearing
characters and logical lapses abound. Maylam, who directs this sf SPLATTER
MOVIE at a rapid plod, establishes a Drowned World atmosphere by pouring
water into all the sets and painting everything grey; Sharp took over for
the action climax. Despite the murkiness of this future world, Hauer stays
cool in sunglasses; Duncan's enthusiastic performance offers the sole
touch of character. [KN]


[s] Sam MERWIN Jr.

Pierre BARBET.

(1946- ) US writer and psychologist. In his first sf novel, Keepers of
the Gate (1977; rev 1978), a complicated adventure tale rather in the mode
of Keith LAUMER, the alien Proteps of Eridani turn out to be an advanced
form of Homo sapiens, and have been suppressing mankind's urge to the
stars for selfish reasons; the generic cues for revelling in such a tale
are deployed with some competence. He is best known for his Elias Kane
sequence - even the protagonist's name seems to be a homage to Isaac
ASIMOV's earlier detective Elijah Bailey - about an intelligently moody
detective and his superpowered sidekick: The Psychopath Plague (1978), The
Imperator Plot (1982) and Paradox Planet (1988). The series seems
incomplete; but, although a template interminability attends Kane's
repeated assignments, granted him by the current Imperator who rules Earth
and several colonies, the passage of time is clearly marked throughout:
the woman Kane falls in love with and marries in the 1st vol - whose
deadly plague has been induced by aliens - is murdered in the 2nd; and the
Imperator who is beheaded, but remains alive, in the 2nd - which concerns
this attempted assassination - has been succeeded in the 3rd, which is set
on a heavy-gravity colony planet. A sense of potential interestingness
pervades even the most convincingly unambitious of SGS's works. [JC]Other
works: The Janus Equation (1980 dos); Hellstone (1981); The Genesis Shield
(1985); My Soul to Take (1994), a medical sf thriller.




(vt Ssssnake!) Film (1973). Zanuck-Brown/Universal. Prod Dan Striepeke.
Dir Bernard L. Kowalski, starring Strother Martin, Dirk Benedict, Heather
Menzies. Screenplay Hal Dresner, based on a story by Striepeke. 99 mins.
Colour.In a period when most MONSTER MOVIES were spoofs, this competently
made film is unusual for playing it straight (despite the title). An
obsessed scientist (Martin) believes that only ophidians (snakes) will
survive what he sees as coming ecocatastrophe, so he works on developing
snake-like properties - e.g., cold blood - in humans, early failures being
sold to the carnival freak-show. He finally succeeds in transforming his
daughter's boy-friend (Benedict) into something like a king cobra (rather
good make-up by John Chambers). Then along comes a mongoose . . . [JB/PN]

(1948- ) UK writer, critic and academic, with a degree in BIOLOGY and a
doctorate in SOCIOLOGY, which he taught 1977-88 before turning to writing
full-time. He began his writing career early, collaborating with a
schoolfriend, Craig A. Mackintosh (together as Brian Craig), on his first
published story, "Beyond Time's Aegis" for Science Fantasy in 1965. BMS
then dropped the Brian Craig pseudonym, using it again only in the late
1980s when he undertook to SHARECROP some ties for a GAME-WORLD enterprise
( GAMES WORKSHOP and listing below). His first novel, Cradle of the Sun
(1969 dos US), a quest story set in the FAR FUTURE, is notable for its
colourful imagery. The Blind Worm (1970 dos US), hastily written, is in
the same vein. In these early works, and in most of his subsequent sf
novels, BMS put his knowledge of biology to good use, constructing a long
series of outrageous but plausible ECOLOGIES whose intricacy sometimes
overwhelmed the SPACE-OPERA formats to which he generally adhered over the
first 15 years of his career. The early Dies Irae trilogy - The Days of
Glory (1971 US), In the Kingdom of the Beasts (1971 US) and Day of Wrath
(1971 US) - mixed these usual space-opera trappings with SWORD AND
SORCERY. Based on HOMER's Iliad and Odyssey, the trilogy was dismissed as
cynical hackwork (not least by BMS himself); although the narrative has
some verve, it clearly does not attempt to pay due homage to its source.
To Challenge Chaos (1972 US), the last example of BMS's juvenilia, is an
overextravagant adventure set on the chaotic hemisphere of a planet that
intersects another dimension; short stories associated with this novel are
"The Sun's Tears" (1974), "An Offer of Oblivion" (1974) and "Captain Fagan
Died Alone" (1976).It was with the Grainger or Hooded Swan series-The
Halcyon Drift (1972 US), Rhapsody in Black (1973 US; rev 1975 UK),
Promised Land (1974 US), The Paradise Game (1974 US), The Fenris Device
(1974 US) and Swan Song (1975 US) - that BMS began to attract serious
notice in the USA, where his early work was all first published, being
marketed there as adventure sf. The Grainger novels - first-person
narratives in a Chandleresque style - concern the adventures of the pilot
of a FASTER-THAN-LIGHT spacecraft, the Hooded Swan, on a variety of
planets. In the first tale Grainger, marooned on a remote world, becomes
host to a mind parasite, a benign entity which occasionally takes over his
body and drives it to feats of endurance. In later books the increasingly
disillusioned, sardonic, pacific Grainger penetrates further biological
mysteries, but the series itself holds back from fully articulating the
subversiveness of his behaviour, and there is little sense of accumulating
burden. A second series - the Daedalus Mission books, comprising The
Florians (1976 US), Critical Threshold (1977 US), Wildeblood's Empire
(1977 US), The City of the Sun (1978 US), Balance of Power (1979 US) and
The Paradox of Sets (1979 US) - recounts to similar effect the various
experiences of the crew of the spaceship Daedalus, which has been sent out
to re-contact lost Earth colonies.Most of BMS's fiction has been confined
to series, but Man in a Cage (1975 US), an unformulaic singleton, deals
with the PSYCHOLOGY of social adaptation as dramatized through a
schizophrenic narrator selected to participate in a space-project where
"sane" men have already proved inadequate. A powerfully written but
difficult novel, it is slightly reminiscent of the best work of Robert
SILVERBERG and Barry N. MALZBERG. The Mind-Riders (1976 US), perhaps
somewhat more conventional, is narrated by a cynical boxer who performs
via an electronic simulation device while the audience "plugs in" to his
emotions. Like Grainger's wonderful spaceship, and like the false
personality which "cages" the hero of Man in a Cage, the simulator is an
armour surrounding the self, enabling the protagonist to survive in a
hostile world. The Face of Heaven (1976) -the first part of a trilogy
published in 1 vol as The Realms of Tartarus (1977 US) - is a biological
phantasmagoria concerning a UTOPIA built on a huge platform above the
Earth's surface, and the conflict with the mutated lifeforms which
proliferate below. This tale, choked with ingenious invention and
grotesqueries, and The Walking Shadow (1979) stand as BMS's most clearly
STAPLEDON-esque epics, and show a vein of contemplative wonder that he was
later - in the impressive academic study, The Scientific Romance in
Britain 1890-1950 (1985) - to characterize as an essential element tending
to distinguish UK from US sf.Further novels of interest from this period
include The Castaways of Tanagar (1981 US) and The Gates of Eden (1983
US). After beginning the Asgard trilogy with Journey to the Center (1982
US; rev 1989 UK)-which he completed with Invaders from the Centre (1990)
and The Centre Cannot Hold (1990) - BMS stopped producing fiction for some
time, concentrating on popular and scholarly studies of sf and FUTUROLOGY
like The Science in Science Fiction (1982) with David LANGFORD and Peter
NICHOLLS, The Sociology of Science Fiction (1985 US) and, with Langford,
The Third Millennium: A History of the World AD 2000-3000 (1985); he also
contributed very widely during this period to a number of journals,
including FOUNDATION, and to various scholarly anthologies, including many
of the essays in E.F. BLEILER's 2 anthologies devoted to extended studies
of individual authors: Science Fiction Writers (anth 1982 US) and
Supernatural Fiction Writers (2 vols anth 1985 US). He has served as
contributing editor to both editions of this encyclopedia.Whether or not
these years away from fiction were in themselves rejuvenating, on
returning to sf BMS produced in short order his 3 finest novels to date.
The Empire of Fear (1988) is an alternate history ( ALTERNATE WORLDS) of
Europe from the Middle Ages to the present in which immortal vampires -
whose condition is here scientifically premised - dominate the world; told
with the geographic sweep and visionary didacticism typical of the
SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE, the book successfully assimilates into sf modes some
of the vast lore of the vampire. In The Werewolves of London (1990) and
its sequels The Angel of Pain (1991) and The Carnival of Destruction, the
first two set in a 19th-century UK and the third reflecting the events of
WW1, BMS appropriates further material from other genres, creating a
sequence in which werewolves, bred by primordial godling-like creatures at
the dawn of time, participate in an apocalyptic - and thoroughly discussed
- testing of the nature of reality. With these novels, and with the sharp
tales assembled in Sexual Chemistry: Sardonic Tales of the Genetic
Revolution (coll 1991), BMS suddenly became a writer whose fiction
befitted his intelligence, for in much of his earlier work a certain tone
of chill indifference had tended to baulk the reader's identification. The
change was most welcome, and Young Blood (1992) - which could be described
as a scientific romance about the biochemical roots of human identity
within the context of an unconventional vampire tale - fully justifies the
sense that BS had entered his years of flourishing. [DP/JC]Other works:
The Last Days of the Edge of the World (1978), fantasy juvenile; Optiman
(1980 US; vt War Games 1981 UK); The Cosmic Perspective/Custer's Last
Stand (coll 1985 chap dos US); Slumming in Voodooland (1991 chap US); The
Innsmouth Heritage (1992 chap), a sequel to H.P. LOVECRAFT's "Shadow Over
Innsmouth" (1942); Firefly: A Novel of the Far Future (1994 US), a novel
mostly composed very early in BS's career, but only published now.As Brian
Craig: For Games Workshop, the Orfeo sequence of fantasies tied to the
Warhammer fantasy game-world - Zaragoz * (1989); Plague Demon * (1990);
Storm Warriors * (1991) - plus Ghost Dancers * (1991), tied to the Dark
Future sf game-world.As Editor: The Decadence anthology sequence, being
The Dedalus Book of Decadence (Moral Ruins) (anth 1990) and The Second
Dedalus Book of Decadence: The Black Feast (anth 1992); Tales of the
Wandering Jew (anth 1991); The Dedalus Book of British Fantasy: The 19th
Century (anth 1991); The Dedalus Book of Femmes Fatales (anth
1992).Nonfiction: The Mysteries of Modern Science (1977); A Clash of
Symbols: The Triumph of James Blish (1979 chap US); Masters of
Science-Fiction: Essays on Science-Fiction Authors (coll 1981 chap US);
Future Man: Brave New World or Genetic Nightmare? (1984).See also:

(1840-1910) Scottish author of children's fiction; he served as surgeon
on a whaling boat and later with the Royal Navy; some of his books were
signed Dr Gordon Stables, RN. He wrote extensively for the BOYS' PAPERS,
including The Boys' Own Paper, where he published many FANTASTIC VOYAGES
in competition with the serials of Jules VERNE; the most Verne-like were
The Cruise of the Crystal Boat (1891), a moralistic tale of aerial
adventure in an electrically powered craft, and An Island Afloat (1903).
LOST-WORLD elements appeared in some stories, notably In Quest of the
Giant Sloth (1901; vt The Strange Quest 1937) and In Regions of Perpetual
Snow (1904), and became more dominant in The City at the Pole (1906),
which envisages a temperate polar region and a Viking community and
prehistoric survivals there. His only excursion outside these themes was
his future- WAR novel, The Meteor Flag of England (1905). [JE]Other works:
The Cruise of the Snowbird (1882) and its sequel Wild Adventures Round the
Pole (1883); From Pole to Pole (1886); Frank Hardinge (1898); In the Great
White Land (1902).See also: SPACESHIPS.

(1865-1951) UK author best known for his South Sea romances, including
non-sf ROBINSONADES like, most famously, The Blue Lagoon (1908), filmed in
1948 and 1980. His LOST-WORLD novel is The City in the Sea (1926). He
wrote several weird novels: Death, the Knight, and the Lady (1897), The
Man who Lost Himself (1918), The Ghost Girl (1918) and The Sunstone
(1936). His sf proper was generally restricted to the magazines; it
includes a world- DISASTER story, "The White Eye" (1918). The Story of My
Village (1947), his only sf novel proper, depicts a plague of blindness
which stops progress short, saving the world from nuclear HOLOCAUST.
[JE]Other works: The Vengeance of Mynheer Van Lik (coll 1934).

(1948-1989) US writer of military sf novels, including the first 4 vols
of the Doomsday Warrior, some in collaboration with Ryder SYVERTSEN under
the joint pseudonym Ryder Stacy; Syvertsen continued the series solo after
JS's death (see his entry for titles). Their only non-series collaboration
appeared under their real names: The Great Book of Movie Monsters (1983).
Writing as Jan Sievert, they began, with C.A.D.S. (1985), the C.A.D.S.
sequence, carried on separately by Syvertsen and David ALEXANDER. As Craig
Sargent JS wrote the Last Ranger sequence of military-sf novels set in a
post- HOLOCAUST venue: The Last Ranger (1986), #2: The Savage Stronghold
(1986), #3: The Madman's Mansion (1986), #4: The Rabid Brigadier (1987),
#5: The War Weapons (1987), #6: The Warlord's Revenge (1988), #7: The Vile
Village (1988), #8: The Cutthroat Cannibals (1988), #9: The Damned
Disciples (1988) and #10: Is This the End? (1989). [JC]

Joint pseudonym of Jan STACY and Ryder SYVERTSEN (whom see for titles),
and solo pseudonym, after Stacy's death, of the latter. [JC]



(1950- ) UK writer who began publishing sf with "Hello Hugo" in Twisted
Circuits (anth1987) ed Mick Gowar, and whose vigorously told sf and
fantasy novels, usually forteenage readers, include The Network(1988),Dark
Toys and Consumer Goods (coll 1989),Digital Vampires (1989), The Glimpses
(1989), Smoke-stackLightning(1991) and Shapeshifter(1992). He also wrote
the illuminating ItalianWestern: The Opera of Violence (1975) with Tony
Williams. [JC]

[s] John BRUNNER.

Russian film, 1979. Mosfilm. Dir Andrei TARKOVSKY, starring Aleksandr
Kaidanovsky, Anatoli Solonitsyn, Nikolai Grinko. Production design
Tarkovsky. Screenplay Arkady and Boris STRUGATSKI, based on their Roadside
Picnic (1972; trans 1977). 161 mins. B/w and colour.The original novel
tells of a mysterious Zone in Canada where enigmatic artefacts can be
found, left there like picnic litter by aliens. Tarkovsky's somewhat
inaccessible film, set in a desolate, unnamed country which is probably to
be read as an allegorical RUSSIA, de-emphasizes the sf elements. In place
of the alien artefacts is the Room, where (maybe) one's most secret wish
will be granted. To reach the Room, one must enter the Zone (photographed
in muted colour, as opposed to the bleak b/w opening sequence set in an
industrial wasteland) - perhaps a Bermuda Triangle, perhaps an ironic gift
from a probably nonexistent God - which is a little like the alien
killer-maze in Algis BUDRYS's ROGUE MOON (1960): it is a mixture of
dereliction and greenery, waterlogged, a maze of ever-changing lethal
traps, to be traversed only in a kind of drunkard's walk, an arbitrary
zigzag. The Stalker, the shaven-headed smuggler-saint whose wretched life
flares up only within the Zone, which he loves, is guide to the Writer and
the Professor, the former seeking genius, the latter secretly planning to
bomb the Room.S is agonizingly static, punctuated by abstract
philosophical conversations with long pauses, and yet for some viewers it
has an almost unequalled hypnotic intensity. This is partly due to
Tarkovsky's lingering artist's eye, catching the beauty of ugliness as,
for example, the camera pans endlessly across a shallow lake in the Zone
whose floor is kitchen tiles, passing indifferently across coins,
syringes, icons, calendars, a gun, all looming through the weed. The Room
is reached, but left unentered and unbombed. Afterwards, at the Stalker's
home, we witness his legless daughter (the children of stalkers being
often mutated) push a glass slowly across a table by telekinesis while her
exhausted father sleeps, the only unambiguous miracle of the film. S is a
meditation on faith and cynicism, certainly pretentious, memorable for
some, and perhaps the grimmest metaphor for Russia produced by a Russian
in our generation. [PN]See also: MUSIC.

(1930-1980) Literary critic, professor of English at Western Michigan
University, author of the Beast trilogy, the last 2 books of which were
published posthumously: The Orphan (1980), The Captive (1981) and The
Beast (1982; vt The Book of the Beast UK). The books are complex,
sensitively written FABULATIONS, fitting between the generic borders of sf
and HORROR, and update the myth of the werewolf with the sf premise that
they are a chrysalis form of alien life; when two mate they will trigger a
new phase in their life-cycle. The books do not, however, feel very
sf-like, and they most come to life in the opposing tugs between the first
beast's life as beast and as human, both phases desiring autonomy. The
awkwardly structured last book of this engrossing series probably needed
an auctorial revision which it could not be given. [PN]

(1953- ) US writer in whose Wild Card Run sequence of sf adventures-Wild
Card Run (1987), Win, Lose, Draw (1988) and Double Blind (1990) - a
refreshingly tangential attitude towards plotting keeps a young female
protagonist with PSI POWERS hopscotching from planet to planet. En route
she embraces her own tangled family romance on one world, and elsewhere
confronts some AI conundra, sensing that the entire venue of her sport is
in fact a galactic experiment on their part. [JC]

US tv miniseries (1994). Laurel Entertainment/ABC Television. Exec prods
Stephen KING and Richard Rubinstein. Dir Mick Garris, teleplay by King
based on his own novel THE STAND (1978, text restored rev 1990). Starring
Gary Sinese as Stu Redman, Molly Ringwald as Frannie Goldsmith, Rob Lowe
as Nick Andros, Adam Storke as Larry Underwood, Laura San Giacomo as
Nadine, Ruby Dee as Mother Abagail, James Sheridan as Randall Flagg, Matt
Frewer as Trashcan Man and many others. Eight hours divided into four
two-hour episodes.King's enormous novel about the HOLOCAUST AND AFTER,
specifically about a plague produced by the military that wipes out most
of near-future America, was optioned as a feature film for some years, but
nobody could find a way of fitting such a huge story into conventional
film length, and the dark subject matter also worried the studios. The tv
solution was probably the best, and it is indeed a well made miniseries,
probably Garris's best piece of direction to date, and something of a
television milestone. Hovering between sf and fantasy, both book and
miniseries focus on character studies as the surviors slowly begin to
rebuild, with the democratic good guys restoring a decent sense of
community in Denver and the fascist bad guys in Las Vegas planning to nuke
them. Both groups have quasi-supernatural guardians, the old black woman
Mother Abigail standing for good, and Randall Flagg, the Dar Man, for
evil. Some sf fans feel that the supernatural subtext diminishes the
story's strength as science fiction, but the story remains an optimistic,
populist classic about the endurance of the human spirit after enormous
DISASTER, and the miniseries retains much of this strength. It is
available on videotape. [PN]


(1892-1971) UK writer, mostly of humorous material, whose sf SATIRE, Full
Moon at Sweatenham: A Nightmare (1953), takes rather clumsy potshots at a
decadent, ludicrous 1960 UK; the welfare state is guyed. [JC]Other works:
The Twelfth (1944 chap).

STANG, [Reverend] IVAN
(1949- ) US writer, given the title "Reverend" by the Church of the
SubGenius. He ed The Book of the SubGenius (anth 1983), a SATIRE on other
religions and cults in the form of densely packed clip art relating the
teachings of J.R. "Bob" Dobbs, a former encyclopedia salesman. The
crackpot literature that inspired the book is reviewed in the nonfiction
High Weirdness by Mail: A Directory of the Fringe-Made Prophets, Crackpots
& True Visionaries (1988). IS also ed Three-Fisted Tales of "Bob": Short
Stories in the SubGenius Mythos * (coll 1990), much of whose content is
sf. [NT]

(1937- ) Danish journalist, playwright and novelist who worked mainly
within the tradition of "new realism" prevalent in Denmark during the
1960s; he also wrote historical fiction. His sf novel Manden der ville
vaere skyldig (1973; trans David Gress-Wright as The Man who Wanted to be
Guilty 1982 UK) satirically assaults the welfare state and the Social
Democratic party in a NEAR-FUTURE tale of a man who accidentally kills his
wife and is treated by the state not as a criminal but as a patient,
stifling his natural need to assume some personal guilt for the deed. The
book was filmed in 1990 by Ole Roos. [ND]See also: DENMARK.

(? - ) UK writer whose Back to the Future (1947), in no way connected to
BACK TO THE FUTURE (1985) and its sequels, sends its protagonist into a
bureaucratic DYSTOPIAN future UK. [JC]

(1888-1966) US writer in whose Tomorrow's Yesterday (1949) an
archaeologist wakes up in a future where sex-roles are reversed and mental
growth is matched by physical decay. [JC]

(1829-1909) UK writer, often on economic issues, of sf interest for The
Case of The. Fox: Being his Prophecies under Hypnotism of the Period
Ending A.D. 1950. A Political Utopia (1903). Hypnosis releases the
"prophetic mental element" in a poet, Theodore Fox; the UTOPIA he
describes in a series of visions, with its Federal Europe, electrified
cars and Channel Tunnel, has few unusual elements. At the end, perhaps
dazzled, Fox kills himself. [JC]

Manning Lee STOKES.

Pseudonym of UK writer (Arthur) David Beaty (1919- ), who wrote thrillers
under his own name. Village of Stars (1960) as by PS was an unremarkable
NEAR-FUTURE nuclear- WAR thriller. [JC]

(1886-1950) UK writer and philosopher, born of well-to-do parents in the
Wirral peninsula near Liverpool, where he spent the greater part of his
life. In Waking World (1934) he admitted that he lived "chiefly on
dividends and other ill-gotten gains". The name Olaf does not indicate
foreign antecedents: his parents happened to be reading Carlyle's The
Early Kings of Norway (coll 1875) at the time. Memories of childhood in
Suez and a cultivated family background are recaptured in Youth and
Tomorrow (1946). He was educated at Abbotsholme, a progressive public
school, and at Balliol College, Oxford. For a short period he worked
without enthusiasm in the family shipping office in Port Said, an
experience he used in his highly autobiographical last novel, A Man
Divided (1950). There is scattered evidence that the international flavour
of Port Said influenced his complex ideas about "true community". His
service with the Friends' Ambulance Unit in WWI helped him formulate his
pacifism, and provided material for Last Men in London (1932). He took a
doctorate in philosophy at Liverpool University in 1925.OS began
publishing essays as early as 1908; his first book was Latter-Day Psalms
(coll 1914 chap), a small volume of privately printed verse. It is
remarkable only for showing a preoccupation at the outset with one of the
themes that would engage him for the rest of his life: the irrelevance of
a RELIGION based on hopes of IMMORTALITY and the hypothesis of an evolving
god. There was a gap of 15 years before his next book, A Modern Theory of
Ethics (1929), written when OS was 43. Here is the philosophical
underpinning for all the major ideas that would appear repeatedly in the
fiction: moral obligation as a teleological requirement; ecstasy as a
cognitive intuition of cosmic excellence; personal fulfilment of
individual capacities as an intrinsic good; community as a necessary
prerequisite for individual fulfilment; and the hopeless inadequacy of
human faculties for the discovery of truth. It was this last conviction
which provided the springboard for the writing of his fiction; all of it,
by some speculative device or other, strives to overcome the congenital
deficiencies of the ordinary human being.LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930), OS's
first novel, caused something of a sensation. Contemporary writers and
critics acclaimed it, though later it would for a time be nearly
forgotten. The book employs a timescale of 2 billion years, during which
18 races of humanity rise and fall. The story is told by one of the Last
(18th) Men working through the "docile but scarcely adequate brain" of one
of the 1st Men (ourselves). The civilization of the 1st Men (he explains)
reached its highest points in Socrates (in the search for truth) and Jesus
(in self-oblivious worship). The 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 15th, 16th and 18th Men
represent higher orders of wisdom. The emigration of the 5th Men to VENUS
is an early example of TERRAFORMING, and the construction of the 9th Men
to adapt them for Neptune ( OUTER PLANETS) is likewise for GENETIC
ENGINEERING. In the intimate and less expansive Last Men in London, one of
the Last Men returns to the time of WWI, enters into profound symbiosis
with a young human, and attempts to arouse the Race Mind.In Odd John: A
Story Between Jest and Earnest (1935) the individual SUPERMAN appears,
although his attributes are spiritual and intellectual, quite divorced
from the supermen of the COMICS and PULP MAGAZINES. John recapitulates in
his own evolution some of the characteristics of the 2nd, 3rd and 5th Men.
He and his fellow "supernormals" finally achieve something akin to the
wisdom of the 18th Men; a spiritual gain which costs them their lives:
when normal humans threaten to destroy their island, they destroy
themselves rather than fight back.STAR MAKER (1937) is often regarded as
OS's greatest work. Its cosmic range, fecundity of invention, precision
and grandeur of language, structural logic, and above all its attempt to
create a universal system of philosophy by which modern human beings might
live, permit comparison with DANTE ALIGHIERI's Divine Comedy. The narrator
is rapt from a suburban hilltop and becomes a "disembodied, wandering
viewpoint", rather like Dante's own protagonist. Over a timespan which
extends to 100 billion years, he first observes "Other Men", whose
extraordinary development of scent and taste should remind us of the
relative nature of our own perceived values; his purview then extends to
"strange mankinds", including the Human Echinoderms - whose communal
method of reproduction provides an ingenious metaphor for the ideal of
true community - and to a wide range of species far removed from mankind.
Of these ALIENS, among the most interesting are the "ichthyoids" and
"arachnoids". Over a long period of time these 2 species come together in
a symbiosis; the ichthyoids are artistic and mystical, while the
arachnoids are dexterous and practical. The development of the
relationship provides OS's most extended and detailed metaphor for the
ideal of true community, which has its microcosm in a pair of human lovers
and its macrocosm in a Universe of "minded" LIVING WORLDS. The narrator
proceeds to the "supreme moment of the cosmos" in which he faces the Star
Maker and discovers something of his pitiless nature.Paradoxically, the
book with the greatest human interest is sometimes said to be Sirius: A
Fantasy of Love and Discord (1944), the story of a dog with enhanced
INTELLIGENCE, consciousness and sensibility. The dog, with its natural
limitations, is a paradigm of our own limited capacity; but at the same
time the dog's superior gifts - e.g., in the faculty of scent - are
another reminder of human inadequacy. As in Odd John, the MUTANT being,
when faced with the violence of normals and their incomprehension, dies -
this time directly at their hands.The four works of sf described
constitute the living core of OS's fiction. Both LAST AND FIRST MEN and
STAR MAKER have their advocates as the finest sf ever written; many
critics argue that Odd John is the best novel about a superman, and that
Sirius is the best book with a nonhuman protagonist. All 4 show OS's
unwavering concern with the pursuit of truth and with the impossibility of
our species ever finding it. Each sets up a speculative device to leap
over the plodding faculties of Homo sapiens: the supernormal intelligence
of Homo superior in LAST AND FIRST MEN and Odd John, and the alternative
intelligence of alien creatures in STAR MAKER and Sirius. Along with the
quest for truth, and as a necessary accompaniment to it, there is a search
for the gateways to a "way of the spirit". These constant preoccupations
give to all OS's work a striking consistency, and it is possible to place
everything he did within a highly original scheme of METAPHYSICS.
Everything has its place in the same cosmic history that the Star Maker
coldly regards. In his avatar of Jahweh, the Star Maker was invoked at the
beginning in Latter-Day Psalms; and as the "mind's star" and "phantom
deity" he will be there at the end in the posthumous The Opening of the
Eyes (1954).Of OS's remaining fiction, perhaps The Flames (1947 chap)
deserves most attention. The "flames" are members of an alien race,
originally natives of the Sun, who can be released when igneous rock is
heated; they have affinities with the "supernormals" who occur on OS's
other worlds. There are similarities with the later-discovered Nebula
Maker (1976), apparently written in the mid-1930s as part of an early
draft for STAR MAKER and then put aside. It relates the history of the
nebulae and shows how their striving is brought to nothing by an uncaring
God. Religion is dismissed as the opium of the people in Old Man in New
World (1944 chap). Supermen reappear in Darkness and the Light (1942) and
cosmic history is recapitulated in Death into Life (1946). OS's insistence
on scrupulously considering opposed points of view, and his sceptical
intelligence, found an admirable vehicle in the imaginary conversations of
Four Encounters (1976), probably written in the later 1940s. Of OS's
remaining nonfiction, Philosophy and Living (1939), written after the best
of his fiction, is the most comprehensive work. The best introduction for
the general reader is Beyond the "Isms" (1942), whose last chapter, under
the characteristic heading "The Upshot", provides an admirable summary of
his philosophy and a clear exposition of what he means by the "way of the
spirit".OS was writing in an ancient tradition of European speculative
fiction. He called his stories "fantastic fiction of a semi-philosophical
kind". He was - at least initially - unaware of GENRE SF and was somewhat
taken aback when in the 1940s he was acclaimed by sf fans; he was even
more startled when shown the contemporary magazines which provided their
staple fodder. Ironically, the acclamation he received as an sf writer may
partially account for his total neglect by historians of modern
literature. At the same time he is sometimes ignored by sf commentators -
e.g., Kingsley AMIS in New Maps of Hell (1960 US) - presumably partly
because he did not write for the sf magazines and partly because his work
is difficult to anthologize. OS is, however, though sometimes dimly
perceived, the Star Maker behind many subsequent stories of the FAR FUTURE
and GALACTIC EMPIRES. He did much original and seminal thinking about such
Arthur C. CLARKE and James BLISH are among the few sf writers who have
expressed their indebtedness to him, though his influence, both direct and
indirect, on the development of many concepts which now permeate genre sf
is probably second only to that of H.G. WELLS. [MA/JC]Other works: New
Hope for Britain (1939); Saints and Revolutionaries (1939); Worlds of
Wonder (omni 1949 US), assembling The Flames, Death into Life and Old Man
in New World; To the End of Time (omni 1953 US), assembling LAST AND FIRST
MEN (cut), STAR MAKER, Odd John, Sirius and The Flames; Odd John, and
Sirius (omni 1972 US); Far Future Calling: Uncollected Science Fiction and
Fantasies of Olaf Stapledon (coll 1979 US) ed Sam MOSKOWITZ; Nebula Maker,
and Four Encounters (omni 1983 US); Letters Across the World: The Love
Letters of Olaf Stapledon and Agnes Miller, 1913-1919 (coll 1987
Australia; vt Talking Across the World 1987 US); numerous uncollected
articles for such scholarly journals as Mind and Philosophy.About the
author: Olaf Stapledon (1982) by P.A. McCarthy; Olaf Stapledon: A Man
Divided (1984) by Leslie A. FIEDLER; Olaf Stapledon: A Bibliography (1984)
by Harvey J. Satty and Curtis C. SMITH; Olaf Stapledon and his Critics
(1988) by Curtis C. Smith.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; APES AND CAVEMEN (IN THE

UK monthly nonfiction magazine about sf, fantasy and horror in the media
(primarily films and tv). Small- BEDSHEET slick format. Founded Jan 1978,
first published by Starburst Magazines, London, ed Dez Skinn, but soon
taken over by MARVEL COMICS and ed Alan Mackenzie until #77 (Jan 1985),
then by Roger P. Birchall to #79 and Cefn Ridout to #87. With #88 (Dec
1985) the magazine left Marvel and was taken over by Visual Imagination,
with Stephen Payne the new ed.What must have been designed as little more
than a fan magazine for kids became rather good, especially under
Mackenzie's editorship, and it was for some time in the UK the only
(fairly) reliable source for developments in fantastic films and tv. What
probably saved S, in contrast to its US equivalent STARLOG, is that it
never gave the impression of being in hock to the film studios. S had a
collection of eccentric but well informed critics, some slavishly devoted
to SPLATTER MOVIES; among the regular contributors were John BROSNAN, Tony
Crawley and Alan Jones, and sf writers like Robert P. HOLDSTOCK, David
LANGFORD and Ian WATSON made occasional appearances. During the year
following the change of ownership from Marvel the magazine became blander
and more juvenile. The magazine had reached #167 in 1992. [PN]

UK tv series (1987). BBC TV. Devised Chris Boucher, prod Evgeny Gridneff,
script ed Joanna Willett. Dirs Christopher Baker, Graeme Harper. Writers
Boucher (5 episodes), Philip Martin, John Collee. Leading players David
Calder as Nathan Spring, Erick Ray Evans, Linda Newton, Jonathan Adams as
Krivenko, the Russian commander of Moonbase. 9 55min episodes.
Colour.AD2027. Nathan Spring is the new head detective of the
International Space Police Force, an undisciplined force with poor morale
whose headquarters are on Moonbase, and whose policing area includes
manned orbital space stations. Spring whips them into shape, and they
solve crimes. The low-key realism of the series was efficient enough, but
in the end it seemed little more than just another cop show, failing to
imagine the future with any real vividness or depth. [PN]

US gaming magazine, small- BEDSHEET slick format, published first by
gaming company FASA for issues #1-#7 (which included several double
issues), 1984-5. These issues contained no fiction, but did have sf
reviews and articles. With #8 (Oct 1985) S changed hands (to Associates
International, Inc., Delaware), subtitle (becoming Stardate: The
Multi-Media Science Fiction Magazine), editors (Ted WHITE and David
BISCHOFF) and contents (one third gaming, one third film/tv and one third
fiction, including stories by William GIBSON, Jack HALDEMAN, Damon KNIGHT,
John SHIRLEY and William F. WU). It lasted 4 issues in this format,
folding after #11 (Mar/Apr 1986). [PN]

Film (1994). Le Studio Canal+ (U.S.)/Centropolis Film in association with
Carolco. Exec prod Mario Kassar; dir Roland Emmerich; screenplay Dean
Devlin & Emmerich; starring Kurt Russell, James Spader, Jaye Davidson,
Viveca Lindfors, Alexis Cruz, Mili Avital. 121 mins. Colour.Entertaining,
spectacular, big-budget ($55 million, 1,900 extras) SCIENCE-FANTASY epic,
designed to appeal to a similar audience to those of Steven SPIELBERG's
three Indiana Jones movies. The unlikely plot, harking back to pulp
fiction of the 1930s and kids' movie serials of the 1940s, has a prologue
showing a huge metallic ring, inscribed with strange symbols, dug up by
archaeologists in Egypt near the pyramids in 1928. In the present day a
young, clever Egyptologist Daniel Jackson (well played by Spader) is hired
to translate the symbology, and is amazed to find himself part of a US
military project. The ring turns out to be a "stargate", a matter
transmitter, connected to another planet in another galaxy. The VON
DANIKEN style explanation is that Earth's Egyptian civilisation and
technology were instigated by an alien, an immoral energy form capable of
inhabiting other bodies, masquerading on our Earth as the sun god Ra, but
now long gone. A military party, led by Colonel Jack O'Neil (Russell),
along with the Egyptologist, goes through the stargate, finds another
planet, Abydos, with an ancient Egyptian style of civilisation and three
moons. The inhabitants there (humans) are in thrall to the sinister Ra
(played with androgynous beauty by Jaye Davidson) who occupies something
between a spacecraft and a pyramid, and is surrounded by seemingly
superhuman god figures dressed as Anubis, Osiris and so on. The best half
of the film is the first, with a series of very well contrived riddles to
be unravelled, and much tension built up. After that, a comparatively
routine series of adventures takes place with some friction between the
intellectual "dweeb" Jackson and the tough but emotional colonel: the
quasi-Egyptians are incited to revolt, and the malicious Ra is dealt with.
The special effects are very well done (visual effects Kit West,
production design Holger Gross, digital effects Jeffrey A. Okun, Egyptian
god designs and creature effects Patrick Tatopoulos). This is a much
better film than Emmerich and Devlin's previous sf collaboration,
UNIVERSAL SOLDIER (1992), though it has no intellectual pretensions and
seems pitched at a rather young audience. [PN]

(?1883-?1969) US writer who may have published at a precocious age; in
her moral tale, The Bacillus of Beauty: A Romance of Today (1900), a lady
is infected with a beauty-enhancing germ ( BIOLOGY). Her character
subsequently deteriorates, and she dies. [JC/PN]

(1919- ) UK writer in whose Crossroads to Nowhere (1956) an anarchist
unsuccessfully confronts a future dictatorship before escaping into the
wilds, where his kind may survive. [JC]


[s] Kris NEVILLE.


US monthly nonfiction magazine about sf (and fantasy) in the media,
largely films and tv, founded 1976, current; small- BEDSHEET,
saddle-stapled; publishers have included O'Quinn Studios and Starlog
Communications, New York; editors have included Howard Zimmerman and David
McDonnell.This magazine aimed at the juvenile market has been a success
(circulation around quarter of a million), and has generated spin-off
books and posters and various companion magazines, including Fangoria
(mainstream horror) and Gorezone (cult horror and SPLATTER MOVIES).
Indeed, the horror companions have been livelier than S, which makes heavy
use of studio publicity pictures; in order to maintain good relationships
with the studios S does not review current films and is undiscriminating
throughout. Many of its articles are interviews with actors. That said,
the sheer volume of material these magazines have published makes them a
useful resource for researchers seeking production details, tv episode
guides and so forth. David GERROLD has been a columnist for S. A somewhat
more adult (on average) UK version of the same sort of magazine is
STARBURST, and a much more adult US magazine about fantastic film is
CINEFANTASTIQUE. #214 in early 1995 was the 19th anniversary issue. A
recent spin-off is Starlog Platinum Edition, which had reached #8 by early
1995. [PN]

Canadian tv series, syndicated by CTV (1973). Executive prods Douglas
Trumbull, Jerry Zeitman. Prod William Davidson. Series created Cordwainer
Bird (pseudonym of Harlan ELLISON). Technical advisor Ben BOVA. Starring
Keir Dullea, Gay Rowen, Robin Ward, William Osler. 1 season of 17 50min
episodes. Colour.This series about life on a vast GENERATION STARSHIP,
none of whose occupants know its entire extent, should have been good
given the quality of some of its creators (Trumbull, Ellison, Bova). In
fact it was dire, and only in Canada were all episodes aired. Ellison
repudiated it, and Bova wrote a roman a clef about the fiasco, The
Starcrossed (1975). Ellison's original script for episode 1 (not as
filmed) won the prestigious Writer's Guild of America Award, and was
novelized: Phoenix without Ashes * (1975) as by Ellison with Edward

(vt Space Maidens) UK/West German tv series (1976). A Portman Production
for Scottish and Global/Jost Graf von Hardenberg & Co. and
Werbung-in-Rundfunk. Prod James Gatward. Dirs Gatward, Wolfgang Storch,
Freddie Francis. Writers Eric Paice, John Lucarotti, Ian Stuart Black,
Otto Strang. Starring Judy Geeson, Dawn Addams, Pierre Brice, Gareth
Thomas, Christiane Kruger, Lisa Harrow, Christian Quadflieg, Ronald Hines,
Derek Farr. 13 30min episodes. Colour.On the planet Medusa women have
enslaved men, two of whom (Brice and Thomas) steal a spaceship and flee to
Earth. They are pursued by Medusan women, led by Fulvia (Geeson), who take
Earth hostages (Harrow and Quadflieg) in their place. The plotting was
chaotic and the role-reversal SATIRE unsubtle. The series was (by UK
standards) expensive, and audience figures did not justify the cost of a
2nd season.

1. Film (1984). Delphi Productions II/Columbia. Dir John CARPENTER,
starring Jeff Bridges, Karen Allen, Charles Martin Smith, Richard Jaeckel.
Screenplay Bruce A. Evans, Raynold Gideon (and Dean Riesner, uncredited).
115 mins. Colour.Carpenter ventured into SPIELBERG territory in this sweet
- possibly saccharine - story of a wide-eyed innocent arriving from space.
The Starman (Bridges), first seen as a ball of light, exactly recreates
himself in the image of young Jenny's dead husband, kidnaps Jenny (Allen)
in the nicest possible way, learns about human customs, is pursued by
government forces who want to study or kill him, raises a deer and Jenny
(separately) from the dead like an affably dopy Christ, impregnates Jenny,
and leaves again. Most of S is a protracted chase sequence across the USA,
and, though it has rewarding moments and touching performances from its
leads, it is too long and slight. The subtext (What would happen to Christ
if He came again? We'd crucify Him) is serious enough, but evoked only
playfully. The novelization is Starman * (1984) by Alan Dean FOSTER.2.
Columbia Television produced a spin-off 22-episode tv series, also called
Starman, which ran 1 season 1986-7. This dealt in a stereotyped manner
with the return to Earth, 11 years later, of the Starman (now played by
Robert Hays), his reconciliation with his son, his seemingly endless
search for Jenny and an equally protracted search for him by a federal
agent. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

Former US SMALL PRESS, located successively in West Linn, Oregon, and in
Mercer Island, Washington State from 1980, founded 1976 by T.E. DIKTY,
specializing in monographs on individual sf writers, along with some
BIBLIOGRAPHIESof and guides to sf magazines and book lines, and occasional
reprints of pulp and paperback fiction. SH's first book was The Annotated
Guide to Robert E. Howard's Sword & Sorcery (1970) by Robert WEINBERG, but
its best known line was the Starmont Reader's Guide series of sf
monographs, established in 1979, ed to a fairly rigid pattern by Roger C.
SCHLOBIN, originally under 100pp, but 100-170pp in later years; the final
volume was #61, Kurt Vonnegut (1992) by Donald E. Morse, some #s having
been skipped. From 1983 a series of more general studies in literary
criticism appeared, mostly related to sf/fantasy and especially HORROR,
with a number of titles by Michael R. COLLINGS, Darrell SCHWEITZER and
others, and including critical anthologies. After Dikty's death in late
1991, his daughter, Barbara Dikty, continued as publisher but, after 8
titles in 1992, shut down operations on 1 March 1993. Most of SH's and FAX
COLLECTOR'S EDITIONS nonfiction books and many unpublished manuscripts
were sold to BORGO PRESS. SH published 131 books altogether (all but two
related to sf), 2 art folios, and a fantasy map; and distributed FAX
Collector's Editions. [JC/PN]About the Publisher:"A Requiem for Starmont
House" by Robert REGINALD, in SFS 20 (November 1993).See also: SF IN THE



(? - ) US writer known only for the Farstar and Son sequence of sf
adventures: The Way to Dawnworld (1975) and The Treasure of Wonderwhat
(1977). The books have something of the quaintness of their titles. [JC]

Gerard KLEIN.

Donald S. ROWLAND.

The stars have always exerted a powerful imaginative fascination upon the
human mind. When they were thought to be mere points of light in the
panoply of heaven, it was believed by astrologers that the secrets of the
future were written there, and various cultures wove their MYTHOLOGY into
the patterns of various constellations. Not until 1718 did Edmond Halley
(1656-1742) demonstrate that the stars were not "fixed", and not until the
late 1830s were the distances of the nearer stars realistically
calculated.It was the religious imagination which first despatched
imaginary voyagers so far from Earth. The notion of the stars as suns
circled by other worlds was first popularized by Bernard le Bovyer de
FONTENELLE in Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes habites (1686; trans
J. Glanvill as A Plurality of Worlds 1929). In the 18th century Emanuel
SWEDENBORG's visions took him voyaging throughout the cosmos, and other
religious mystics followed. C.I. DEFONTENAY, presumably influenced by
Fontenelle, undertook to describe another stellar system in some detail in
Star (1854; trans 1975), but the first work which took the scientific
imagination out into the greater cosmos was Camille FLAMMARION's Lumen
(1864; exp 1887; trans 1897). The Pythagorean notion that the Universe
revolves around a single central sun is extrapolated in an oddly
allegorical manner in William Hope HODGSON's The House on the Borderland
(1908).An early SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE of interstellar adventure was Robert W.
COLE's The Struggle for Empire (1900), but it was not until the
establishment of the SF MAGAZINES that the interstellar adventure
playground was extensively exploited by such writers as E.E. "Doc" SMITH,
Edmond HAMILTON and John W. CAMPBELL Jr. Hamilton became especially
fascinated by the ultimate melodramatic flourish of exploding stars, and
was still exploiting its potential in the 1950s. This new familiarity with
the stars did not breed overmuch contempt: in all stories where stars were
confronted directly, rather than being used simply as coloured lamps to
light imaginary worlds, they remained awe-inspiring entities. Their
sustained power of fascination is evident in Fredric BROWN's The Lights in
the Sky are Stars (1953; vt Project Jupiter 1954 UK), Robert F. YOUNG's
"The Stars are Calling, Mr Keats" (1959) and Dean MCLAUGHLIN's The Man who
Wanted Stars (fixup 1965), and nowhere more so than in Isaac ASIMOV's
classic story of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH, "Nightfall" (1941), which
contradicts Emerson's allegation that "if the stars should appear one
night in a thousand years, how would Man believe and adore and preserve
for many generations the remembrance of the city of God!". Relatively few
sf stories make significant use of scientific knowledge concerning stars
and their nature. An exception is Hal CLEMENT's "Cold Front" (1946), which
links the behaviour of an odd star to the meteorology of one of its
planets. An even odder star, shaped like a doughnut, is featured in Donald
MALCOLM's "Beyond the Reach of Storms" (1964). It is, however, quite
common to find stars invested with some kind of transcendental
significance ( Hyperlink to: METAPHYSICS; RELIGION). Stars are credited
with godlike life and INTELLIGENCE in Starchild (1965) and Rogue Star
(1969) by Frederik POHL and Jack WILLIAMSON, and a collective
quasisupernatural influence is spiced with sf jargon in The Power of Stars
(1972) by Louise LAWRENCE. Such metaphysical mysticism is carried to
extremes in the first section of If the Stars are Gods (1973; fixup 1977)
by Gordon EKLUND and Gregory BENFORD, and the inspiration of sun-worship
also plays a minor part in THE MOTE IN GOD'S EYE (1974) by Larry NIVEN and
Jerry E. POURNELLE. Even HARD-SF stories based on astronomical discoveries
are not entirely immunized against residual mysticism; a proper sense of
awe is evident in Poul ANDERSON's THE ENEMY STARS (1959), the most notable
sf novel featuring a "dead star", and in his "Starfog" (1967) and World
without Stars (1967). Work done in ASTRONOMY to clarify the lifecycles of
stars helped, some decades ago, to popularize both giant and dwarf stars;
more recently it has led to a good deal of sf being written about pulsars
( NEUTRON STARS) as well as, of course, BLACK HOLES, to the extent that
both these forms of collapsar ("collapsed star") are now standard
implements in the sf writer's toolbox. [BS]See also: COSMOLOGY;

US DIGEST-size magazine. 1 issue, published by BALLANTINE Magazines, Jan
1958. This was an abortive attempt to convert Frederik POHL's STAR SCIENCE
FICTION STORIES into a magazine after its first 3 issues (1953-4) in book
format. It reverted to book format at the end of 1958. [BS/PN]

ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series (1953-9) ed Frederik POHL, published by
BALLANTINE BOOKS. SSFS was the first such series, antedating NEW WRITINGS
IN SF by 11 years, and in its example very influential. The series was
irregular; after Star Science Fiction Stories (anth 1953), #2 (anth 1953)
and #3 (anth 1954) there was a 3-year gap. In Jan 1958 Ballantine
attempted to relaunch the title in magazine format, but STAR SCIENCE
FICTION MAGAZINE lasted only 1 issue. Reverting to book format, the series
continued with Star Science Fiction Stories #4 (anth 1958), #5 (anth 1959)
and #6 (anth 1959). Star Short Novels (anth 1954) was an out-of-series
volume. The first 3 vols were of extraordinarily high quality; later
issues, while highly competent, were less inspired. Notable stories
included "The Nine Billion Names of God" by Arthur C. CLARKE (#1),
"Disappearing Act" by Alfred BESTER (#2), "It's a Good Life" by Jerome
BIXBY (#2), "Foster, You're Dead" by Philip K. DICK (#3) and "Space-Time
for Springers" by Fritz LEIBER (#4). Star of Stars (anth 1960; vt Star
Fourteen UK) collects stories from SSFS. The later Ballantine anthology
series STELLAR derived its title from SSFS. [MJE]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, a ship capable of travel between the stars - one of
the many sf neologisms which have passed into the language. GENERATION

Magazine. ALGOL.

US magazine, 4 issues Summer 1990-Spring 1991, small- BEDSHEET format,
published McAlpine publishing, Virginia; ed Richard Rowland.Though
initially receiving national distribution, S was undercapitalized. With a
subscription base of only c300, it soon folded, #4 going to subscribers
only. Mixed with fiction by new writers were stories by established names
including Jack DANN, Mike RESNICK with Lou Tabakow, Kristine Kathryn RUSCH
and Charles SHEFFIELD. [PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE, 99 issues Jan 1939-Fall 1955, published by Better
Publications Jan 1939-Winter 1955, and by Standard Magazines (really the
same company) Spring-Fall 1955; ed Mort WEISINGER (Jan 1939-May 1941),
Oscar J. FRIEND (July 1941-Fall 1944), Sam MERWIN Jr (Winter 1945-Sep
1951), Samuel MINES (Nov 1951-Fall 1954) and Alexander SAMALMAN
(Winter-Fall 1955). Leo MARGULIES was editorial director of SS and its
companion magazines during Weisinger's and Friend's editorships. The
schedule varied between bimonthly (dated by month) and quarterly (dated by
season), with a monthly period in 1952-3.SS was started as a companion
magazine to THRILLING WONDER STORIES. Whereas TWS printed only shorter
fiction, the policy of SS was to include a complete novel (albeit
sometimes very short) per issue; in its early years the cover bore the
legend "A Novel of the Future Complete in This Issue". The space left for
shorter stories was limited, and was partially filled by "Hall of Fame"
reprints - stories from the Hugo GERNSBACK-edited WONDER STORIES and its
predecessors. #1 featured Stanley G. WEINBAUM's The Black Flame (Jan 1939;
1948); other contributors in the early years included Eando BINDER, Oscar
J. Friend, Edmond HAMILTON, Henry KUTTNER, Manly Wade WELLMAN and Jack
WILLIAMSON. Hamilton's "A Yank at Valhalla" (Jan 1941; vt The Monsters of
Juntonheim 1950 UK; vt A Yank at Valhalla 1973 dos US) was a particularly
vigorous early novel. Early covers were by Howard BROWN and Rudolph
Belarski, but from 1940 onwards the covers were mostly by Earle K. BERGEY,
the artist whose style is most closely identified with SS and its sister
magazines. The characteristic Bergey cover showed a rugged hero, a
desperate heroine (in either a metallic bikini or a dangerous state of
deshabille) and a hideous alien menace.Under Margulies and, more
particularly, under Friend SS adopted a deliberately juvenile slant. This
was most clearly manifested in the patronizing shape of the character
"Sergeant Saturn", who conducted the letter column and other readers'
departments (in TWS and CAPTAIN FUTURE as well as in SS). Many readers
were alienated by this, and when Merwin became editor he phased out such
juvenilia and gradually built SS into the best sf magazine of the period,
apart from ASF. In 1948-9 it featured such novels as WHAT MAD UNIVERSE
(Sep 1948; 1949) by Fredric BROWN, Against the Fall of Night (Nov 1948;
1953; rev vt The City and the Stars 1956) by Arthur C. CLARKE and Flight
into Yesterday (May 1949; 1953; vt The Paradox Men UK) by Charles L.
HARNESS, in addition to novels by Henry Kuttner (mostly SCIENCE FANTASY)
and Murray LEINSTER and stories by Ray BRADBURY, Clarke, C.M. KORNBLUTH,
John D. MACDONALD, Jack VANCE, A.E. VAN VOGT and others.Merwin left the
magazine in 1951 (thereafter becoming a frequent contributor). By this
time SS, like other PULP MAGAZINES, was feeling the effect of the
increased competition provided by such new magazines as GALAXY SCIENCE
standard suffered to a degree, Merwin's successor, Mines, continued to
publish interesting material, such as Philip Jose FARMER's The Lovers (Aug
1952; exp 1961) - which helped earn him a HUGO as Most Promising New
Writer - and many Vance stories, notably Big Planet (Sep 1952; 1957). The
magazine adopted a new cover slogan ("Today's Science Fiction - Tomorrow's
Fact") and a more dignified appearance, but it became another victim of
the general decline of pulp magazines. In Spring 1955, as the most popular
title in its stable, it absorbed TWS and its more recent companion,
FANTASTIC STORY MAGAZINE. After 2 further issues it ceased publication,
one short of #100. Mines ed an anthology drawn from its pages, The Best
from Startling Stories (anth 1954), while a number of its "Hall of Fame"
reprints were collected in From off this World (anth 1949) ed Margulies
and Friend. A heavily cut and very irregular UK edition was published by
Pembertons in 18 numbered issues June 1949-May 1954. A 1st Canadian
reprint series ran 1945-6, and a 2nd 1948-51. [MJE]See also: GOLDEN AGE OF

US tv series (1966-9). A Norway Production for Paramount Television/NBC.
Created Gene RODDENBERRY, also executive prod. Prods Roddenberry, Gene L.
Coon, John Meredyth Lucas, Fred Freiberger (season 3). Story consultants
Steven Carabatsos, D.C. FONTANA. Writers for seasons 1 and 2 included
Jerome BIXBY, Robert BLOCH, Coon, Max EHRLICH, Harlan ELLISON, Fontana,
David GERROLD, George Clayton JOHNSON, Richard MATHESON, Roddenberry,
Jerry SOHL, Norman SPINRAD, Theodore STURGEON; the only well known writer
to work for season 3 was Bixby. Dirs included Marc Daniels, Vincent
McEveety, Gerd Oswald, Joe Pevney, Joseph Sargent, Ralph Senensky, Jud
Taylor. 3 seasons, 79 50min episodes. Colour.A phenomenon among sf tv
series, ST is set on the worlds visited by a giant SPACESHIP, the U.S.S.
Enterprise, and on the ship itself. Its crew is on a mission to explore
new worlds and "to boldly go where no man has gone before". Though the
crew supposedly number several hundred, only a few of them are ever seen
at one time, the principal characters being Captain Kirk (William
SHATNER), Mr Spock (Leonard Nimoy), Doctor McCoy (DeForest Kelley), Mr
Sulu (George TAKEI), Scotty (James Doohan), Ensign Chekov (Walter Koenig)
and Lt Uhura (Nichelle Nichols). For fans of written sf, ST can seldom
have seemed challenging in any way, as it rarely departed from sf
stereotypes, though in its first 2 seasons it was certainly adequate and
even quite strong relative to much televised sf. Although several well
known sf writers (see above) contributed to the first 2 seasons, their
work was invariably rewritten by the show's regular writers; the quality
of the scripts had dropped badly by the end of season 3. As a general rule
the SPACE-OPERA format was not used with any great imagination. A typical
episode would face the crew with ALIEN superbeings (regularly godlike when
first encountered - Roddenberry's favourite theme appears to have been
flawed GODS), MONSTERS, or cases of apparent demoniac possession -
telepathic aliens being the rule rather than the exception in ST's
universe. The formula seldom varied. Many adult viewers came to feel that
the series was bland, repetitious, scientifically mediocre and, in its
earnest moralizing, trite. The effort to please all and offend none was
evident in the inclusion of a token Russian, a token Asiatic and, together
in the person of actress Nichelle Nichols, a token Black and token woman.
The defect in this liberal internationalism was that all these characters
behaved in a traditional White Anglo-Saxon Protestant manner: only Spock
was a truly original creation.The early 2-part episode The Menagerie,
adapted from the original pilot for the series, won a 1967 HUGO for Best
Dramatic Presentation, as did Harlan Ellison's City on the Edge of Forever
in 1968. The latter is generally thought to be the best of the individual
episodes; it posed a moral dilemma which cut more deeply than usual. The
original script, which differed slightly from the filmed version, was
published in Six Science Fiction Plays (anth 1976) ed Roger ELWOOD.ST was
not particularly successful in the ratings. However, it had attracted a
hard core of devoted fans, "Trekkies", who made up in passionate
enthusiasm what they lacked in numbers. These numbers grew over the years,
in part because the series was often replayed, attracting new fans each
time. There have been many ST CONVENTIONS, some drawing very large
attendances. Perhaps Roddenberry's blend of the mildly fantastic with the
reassuringly familiar, and his use of an on the whole very likable cast,
attracted viewers precisely because its exoticism was manageable and
unthreatening. The Trekkie phenomenon became spectacular.Despite the
reservations expressed above, there is no doubt that ST was one of the
better sf tv series. Its success, though delayed, was very real and had
extraordinary repercussions in the publishing industry. ST ties began with
short-story adaptations of individual episodes; James BLISH wrote 11
collections of these 1967-75 (see his entry for details); he also,
significantly, published an original novel set in the ST world and
featuring ST characters: Spock Must Die * (1970). Another early ST novel
was Star Trek: Mission to Horatius * (1968) by Mack REYNOLDS. Soon
original ST novels became more important than the novelizations of
teleplays. As with DR WHO novels, ST novels are too numerous to be listed
here in full, though almost all, having been written by authors who are
the subject of individual entries, are listed elsewhere in this
encyclopedia. Many ST authors are not hacks and some are distinguished;
they include Greg BEAR, Theodore R. COGSWELL, Gene DEWEESE, Diane DUANE,
John M. FORD, Joe HALDEMAN, Barbara HAMBLY, Vonda N. MCINTYRE, Peter
Morwood (1956- ), Melinda M. SNODGRASS and many others. A series of
"fotonovels" - in comic-book style, but using stills from episodes instead
of drawings - was inaugurated with Star Trek Fotonovel 1: City on the Edge
of Forever * (1977; based on the Harlan Ellison script) and continued for
at least 12 issues. There are also GAMES AND TOYS, costumes, models,
calendars, puzzles, badges and, of course, MAGAZINES devoted to ST. There
are books of blueprints, technical manuals and medical manuals. ST is, in
fact, an industry. There is even a thriving trade in ST pornography ( FAN
LANGUAGE) in the underground press.The first account of ST published as a
book was The Making of Star Trek (1968) written by Stephen E. Whitfield
and credited on the cover to Whitfield and Roddenberry. Two more early
accounts of ST and its production problems were by David Gerrold: The
World of Star Trek (1973; rev 1984) and The Trouble with Tribbles (1973).
The latter includes Gerrold's ST script of the same title, together with
an account of its production. There have been many books since, including
Star Trek Concordance (1976) by Bjo Trimble, Star Trek Compendium (1981;
rev 1987) by Allan Asherman, and The Trek Encyclopedia (1988) by John
Peel. I am not Spock (1975) by Leonard Nimoy is a cautious account, not
very deep, of the actor's relation to the character he played.When it
became clear that the fuss over ST was unlikely to die down, NBC
commissioned an animated cartoon series, also called Star Trek (1973-4),
based on the original series but introducing several new characters,
including an orange, tripedal, alien navigator, Arex, and a catlike alien
communications officer, M'Rees. The voices were done by the actors from
the original series. 1 of the 22 episodes was by Larry NIVEN, and several
by Gerrold. This series in turn spawned yet more book adaptations, in the
form of the Star Trek Log series by Alan Dean FOSTER (whom see for
details), of which 10 appeared 1974-8.Rumours, counter-rumours and press
releases about proposed revivals of ST, either on tv or as a feature film,
abounded through the 1970s. In the event there were both. The 6
feature-film sequels starring the original cast, were: STAR TREK THE
COUNTRY (1991). A seventh movie spin-off, STAR TREK: GENERATIONS (1994),
showcases Kirk's heroic death, and briefly features Chekov and Scotty, but
is in essence a spin-off from ST's successor, STAR TREK: THE NEXT
GENERATION. This latter series was the first live-action television
spin-off from ST. With an all-new cast it became very successful and
popular, beginning in 1987 and running for seven seasons, ending in May
1994. Subsequent tv series have been STAR TREK: DEEP SPACE NINE (Jan 1993-
) and STAR TREK: VOYAGER (Jan 1995- ). The Paramount ST machine has not

US tv series (1993- ). Paramount. Series creators/executive prods: Rick
Berman and Michael Piller. Exec prod Ira Steven Behr. Based upon STAR TREK
created by Gene RODDENBERRY.Writers have included Piller, Behr,James
Crocker, Paul Robert Coyle, Bill Dial, Jill Sherman Donner, Peter Allan
Fields, D.C. FONTANA, Morgan Gendel, Michael McGreevey & Naren Shankar,
Joe Menosky, Kathryn Powers, Frederick Rappaport, Sam Rolfe, Alexander
Singer, Jim Trombetta, Robert Hewitt Wolfe. Directors have included Corey
Allen, Cliff Bole, Avery Brooks, David Carson, James L. Conway, Kim
Friedman, Winrich Kolbe, Les Landau, Rob Legato, David Livingston, Paul
Lynch, Robert Scheerer, Robert Wiemer. The two-hour pilot was aired in Jan
1993. Since then, 18 one-hour episodes in the first season, and a further
26 in the second. Two seasons to 1994. A third season is current in
1995.In an unusual departure for the STAR TREK franchise (the first
live-action tv spin-off was STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION and this was
the second) ST:DSN is set on a space station (newly occupied by the
Federation) orbiting a planet, not a starship. The effect of this more
enclosed and stationary world is slightly to emphasize characterisation
and personal conflict among the occupants of the station, many of whom do
not belong to Starfleet, and to reduce the number of episodes featuring
exploration and the discovery of strange alien races and artifacts.
However, the station is dramatically situated: it is close to a stable
WORMHOLE leading to an unexplored area at the other side of the galaxy,
the GammaQuadrant; the planet below is inhabited by the spiritual-natured
Bajorans first encountered in a fifth season episode of Star Trek: The
Next Generation: "Ensign Ro"; the station itself has just been vacated
bythe militaristic Cardassians, persecutors of the Bajorans who are still
in the vicinity, and as an alien construct lacks the comforts of
Federation starbases. The series is set towards the end of the time period
covered by Star Trek: The Next Generation.The regular cast are the station
commander, Benjamin Sisko, played by black actor Avery Brooks; his
non-Starfleet second in command, a Bajoran, Major Kira Nerys, played by
Nana Visitor; science officer Jadzia Dax, a Trill (humanoid and internal
slug acting in symbiosis, currently female but the previous humanoid
partner in the symbiosis was an old man), played by Terry Farrell; the
young medical officer Julian Bashir, sometimes aggressive,sometimes naive,
usually a womaniser, played by Siddig El Fadil; the non-Starfleet Security
Chief, Odo, a shape- shifting alien of unknown origin, played by Rene
Auberjonois; Chief of Operations Miles O'Brien, ahuman, played by Colm
Meaney; Quark, the opportunistic and greedy Ferengi proprietor of the
station's bar and gambling casino, one of an alien race of merchants and
entrepreneurs introduced in ST:TNG, played by Armin Shimerman; Jake Sisko,
the 14-yr-old son of the commander, played by Cirroc Lofton.As an ensemble
the cast is efficient, with Odo and Dax both being very interesting
characters, and some good "morphing" effects when Odo changes shape. The
"Q"character from ST:TNG makes several appearances. Various sinister
beings appear through the wormhole from the Gamma Quadrant, and the last
episode of the second season introduced a new alien race, the Jem'Hadar,
who live in the quadrant. But the response from STfans to the series has
been a little luke warm, and it has not come closeto rivalling the high
ratings of its immediate predecessor, in part perhaps because of
competition from the other new space-station program, the harder-edged
BABYLON-5 (1993- ). Spin-off novels had reached, by early 1995, Star Trek:
Deep Space Nine#11: Devil in the Sky (1995) by Greg Cox and John
BETANCOURT. There are also young adult book spin-offs. [PN]

Film (1994). Paramount. Prod Rick Berman; dir David Carson; screenplay
Ronald D. Moore and Brannon Braga, based on a story by Berman, Moore and
Braga; starring Patrick Stewart, Jonathan Frakes, Brent Spiner, Levar
Burton, Michael Dorn, Gates McFadden, Marina Sirtis, Malcolm McDowell,
James Doohan, Walter Koenig and William SHATNER. 117 mins. Colour.This is
the seventh film spin-off from the STAR TREK franchise, though the first
actually spun off from STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION rather than Star
Trek itself. Kirk (Shatner), Chekov (Koenig) and Scotty (Doohan) appear in
a twenty-minute prologue, in which Kirk appears to die, and then the story
proper takes place at the time Jean-Luc Picard (Stewart) is in command of
the Enterprise, 80 years later. The two Enterprise captains meet in a
virtual reality world, courtesy of a "temporal nexus", at the end. The
story melds elements thoroughly familiar to ST followers: war-crazed
Klingons; a mad, genocidal astronomer, Dr Soran (McDowell; and a strange
energy field with the power to cocoon those who enter it in re-enactments
of their most desired fantasies. In the appealingly silly sub-plot, the
android Data (Spiner) inserts an "emotions chip", and has to cope with
upwards of 272 different feelings. Kirk dies heroically again. The moral,
thumped home in the ST manner, is that it is better to face real life
rather than escape into worlds of happy delusion. The film looks good, and
makes better than usual use of the wide screen (cinematographer the
distinguished John A. Alonzo), but has an air of staleness and
predictability. Directed by a tv director, Carson, the film appears
designed to counteract the deprivation felt by fans of Star Trek: The Next
Generation, the tv series which had recently completed its seventh and
last season. [PN]

Film (1979). Paramount. Prod Gene RODDENBERRY, dir Robert WISE, starring
the lead players from the STAR TREK tv series, along with Persis
Khambatta, Stephen Collins. Screenplay Harold Livingstone, from a story by
Alan Dean FOSTER. 132 mins (released with additional material on video and
tvat 143 mins). Colour.After more than a decade of rumour and
counter-rumour, Star Trek (1966-8) was finally relaunched, and on the big
screen at that, with a very big budget. The plot, one of Roddenberry's old
favourites about the godlike thing in space, seems to have been based on
the original tv episodes The Changeling (1967) by John Meredith Lucas and
The Doomsday Machine (1967) by Norman SPINRAD, the latter about an
implacable alien force heading straight for Earth, the former about an old
Earth space probe that develops autonomous life. The response from Star
Trek fandom was disappointing - they warmed more to the cosier, more
domestic, more small-screenish movies that followed - but there is much to
enjoy in Wise's partly successful effort to meld a story of old mates
together again with a story of transcendental union between human and
MACHINE, the film ending with a daring sexual apotheosis. At times the
film becomes almost too contemplative, especially in the drawn-out,
quasimystical finale, but most of all (and traditionally) it is the
disparity between the soap-opera ordinariness of the crew and the
extraordinary events that surround them that keeps the SENSE OF WONDER
visible in the distance but never quite there where you need it.The
novelization is Star Trek: The Motion Picture * (1979) by Roddenberry.

Film (1982). Paramount. Dir Nicholas Meyer, starring the lead players
from the STAR TREK tv series, along with Kirstie Alley, Bibi Besch,
Merritt Butrick, Ricardo Montalban. Screenplay Jack B. Sowards, based on a
story by Harve Bennett and Sowards. 114 mins. Colour.This was the 2nd (and
very much cheaper) movie incarnation of Star Trek, the first being STAR
TREK THE MOTION PICTURE (1979). Montalban plays Khan, the villain,
resurrected from the tv episode Space Seed (1967), who thinks he is
Captain Ahab. Project Genesis, a TERRAFORMING project that can be used as
a weapon, is about to be set off by Khan. Kirk meets his alienated son.
Chekov is mind-controlled by an alien earwig in his ear. Spock sacrifices
himself for the greater good. The whole melodramatic, sentimental mishmash
is muddily photographed in flat tv style, but, mystifyingly, many fans
liked it better than its much more considerable predecessor.The
novelization is Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan * (1982) by Vonda N.

Film (1984). Paramount. Dir Leonard Nimoy, starring the lead players from
the STAR TREK tv series, along with Robin Curtis, Merritt Butrick,
Christopher Lloyd. Screenplay prod Harve Bennett. 105 mins. Colour.This is
the 3rd movie in the Star Trek movie series begun with STAR TREK THE
MOTION PICTURE (1979), and it follows directly on from the action of STAR
TREK II: THE WRATH OF KHAN (1982) in which Spock died and the Genesis
Planet was created. It transpires - the realization is slow - that Spock's
body has been recreated (as a rapidly ageing child) by the Genesis Planet,
while his soul is sharing McCoy's mind, rendering McCoy schizophrenic.
Kirk undertakes to get body and soul together and does so on Vulcan, first
outwitting Klingon warlord Kruge (Lloyd). Spock is absent for most of the
film, the resulting emptiness being palpable, but Nimoy made up for this
by competently directing it. Only complete non-cynics, however, could find
other than laughable this saccharine soap opera (rather than SPACE OPERA)
in which Kirk loses his son and his ship, Spock is retrospectively
canonized, and there is tear-jerking all round.The novelization is Star
Trek III: The Search for Spock * (1984) by Vonda N. MCINTYRE. [PN]

Film (1986). Paramount. Dir Leonard Nimoy, starring the lead players from
the STAR TREK tv series, along with Catherine Hicks. Screenplay Steve
Meerson, Peter Krikes, Harve Bennett, Nicholas Meyer, based on a story by
Nimoy and Bennett. 119 mins. Colour.Returning to Earth on their captured
Klingon spacecraft to stand trial for exceeding orders in various ways (
STAR TREK III: THE SEARCH FOR SPOCK [1984]), Kirk and the crew of the
(late) Enterprise are faced with an unidentified probe evaporating the
oceans in order, it is somehow deduced, to communicate with humpback
whales (now extinct). The only thing to do is to go back to 20th-century
San Francisco, get a couple of whales, and use them to talk the probe out
of destroying Earth; this they do. It is perhaps unkind to criticize the
Star Trek people for their liberalism, but why do they always choose such
safe issues? There is some lively humour connected with the crew's
attempts to come to grips with 20th-century culture. This was by consensus
the most relaxedly watchable of the series to date.The novelization is
Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home * (1986) by Vonda N. MCINTYRE. [PN]

Film (1989). Paramount. Dir William Shatner, starring the lead players
from the STAR TREK tv series, along with Laurence Luckinbill. Screenplay
David Loughery from a story by Shatner, Harve Bennett, Loughery. 107 mins.
Colour.A visibly middle-aged, overweight crew enact a tepid melodrama in
which the Enterprise is hijacked by a charismatic Vulcan healer, Sybok
(Luckinbill), in search of God, who not unlike the Wizard of Oz proves
fraudulent. (False gods are a STAR TREK cliche in both tv and film
incarnations.) The film has many anticlimaxes, especially the effortless
transit of the supposedly impermeable Great Barrier, and is notable for
embarrassingly Californian-style Vulcan therapy-"getting in touch with
your own feelings". Shatner's direction has much in common with his
acting. After mildly perking up with STAR TREK IV, the film series here
plunged again, almost fatally.The novelization is Star Trek V: The Final
Frontier * (1989) by J.M. DILLARD. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

Film (1991). Paramount. Dir Nicholas Meyer, starring the lead players
from the STAR TREK tv series, along with Kim Cattrall, David Warner,
Rosana DeSoto, Christopher Plummer, Morgan Sheppard. Screenplay Denny
Martin Flinn, Meyer, based on a story by Leonard Nimoy, Lawrence Konner,
Mark Rosenthal. 109 mins. Colour.After the disaster of STAR TREK V: THE
FINAL FRONTIER (1989), this film may have been a cynical decision to cash
in on Star Trek's 25th anniversary and squeeze the last possible dollars
out of the box-office. It is a watchable wrap-up of the series, or at
least of the series as starring the original and now elderly cast. The
story, a metaphor about Russian-US glasnost, deals with the dawn of more
peaceful relations between humans and Klingons, with Kirk's dislike of
making any such accommodation, and with an unholy alliance of right-wing
factions on both sides whose purpose is to sabotage the peace process by
assassinating leaders among the peacemakers. Plummer plays the
Shakespeare-quoting villain, Chang; strangely the film's title is a
mistake; Shakespeare's phrase "the undiscovered country" refers not to the
future, as the film has it, but to death. Like all but the first of its
predecessors, this low-budget affair has the feel of a blown-up tv
episode, but is enjoyably melodramatic.The novelization is The
Undiscovered Country * (1992) by J.M. DILLARD. [PN]

US tv series (1987-1994). Paramount. Series creator/executive prod Gene
RODDENBERRY. Co-executive prods Rick Berman, Michael Piller and later Jeri
Taylor. Supervising prods include Maurice Hurley and Michael Wagner. Dirs
include Corey Allen, Gabrielle Beaumont, Cliff Bole, Rob Bowman, LeVar
Burton, David Carson, Richard Colla, Jonathan Frakes, Winrich Kolbe, Les
Landau, Paul Lynch, Gates McFadden, Joseph L. Scanlon. Writers include
Peter Beagle, Hans Beimler, Brannon Braga, Diane DUANE, Rene Echevarria,
D.C. FONTANA, David GERROLD, Maurice Hurley, Richard Manning, Joe Menosky,
Ronald D. Moore, Michael Piller, Michael REAVES, Naren Shankar, Hannah
Louise Shearer, Melinda SNODGRASS, Jeri Taylor, Tracy Torme, Michael
Wagner. Seven seasons to 1994. There was a 2hr pilot, then 175 50min
episodes.This new Star Trek series was syndicated rather than networked,
thus giving the production company a (perhaps) greater creative freedom.
Roddenberry, who created the original STAR TREK, cowrote the pilot episode
for this new series 20 years later. Although he remained executive prod,
after two years he was no longer closely involved with the show; he died
in 1991.The series is set 80 years further on than Star Trek. It is
introduced with a slight twist on the traditional text: "to boldly go
where no one has gone before"; this demonstrated from the outset that
ST:TNG would concentrate more on eschewing possible insult than on
avoiding split infinitives, and so it has proved. The general likability
of the new cast, the fact that their characters seldom conflict with one
another (though this became less marked in the last three seasons), the
homely moralizing, the absence (usually) of real pain, the appearance of
liberalism while avoiding truly sensitive issues (though in season five
"The Outcast" raised gay-rights questions): all recall the blandness of
its much-loved original - a quality attributed by some to Roddenberry's
"bible" ( SHARED WORLDS), a very detailed list of things you can't do in
Star Trek scripts - as do many of the story-lines. But, after an uncertain
start (tensions on the set and many resignations, including those of
writers Gerrold and Fontana; an improvement late in season 1, then a
patchy season 2), ST:TNG surprised many by picking up considerable pace
and interest in season 3. It is now generally agreed to be superior to its
original, whose reruns look ever more amateurish by comparison. There was
a slump in season five, but season six was strong; season seven looked
tired at the outset, but went out with several strong episodes, even
though ST:TNG was by this time competing with STAR TREK: DEEP SPACE NINE,
the second of Star Trek's live-action tv spin-offs.It could be said that
ST:TNG is not really sf at all. That is, the events of any episode seldom
if ever arise of necessity from a truly sf idea. The sf elements are, by
and large, prettifications used to enliven fables about human ethics, and
are essential to the plot only insofar as they are enabling devices to
create moral dilemmas. Thus, for example, in the several episodes that are
variations on the theme of the immaturity of wanting to be a god, the only
necessary sf element is the temporary conferral of godlike power.Much
credit for the success of ST:TNG must go to certain cast members, notably
UK actor Patrick Stewart, ex-Royal Shakespeare Company, who plays Captain
Jean Luc Picard, the Enterprise's captain, with impressive gravitas and
vigour. Also very good is Brent Spiner as the ANDROID (and Spock
substitute) Data. Most of the rest of the cast are efficient; they include
Jonathan Frakes as First Officer Riker, Marina Sirtis as the empath
Counsellor Troi, Gates McFadden as the female medical officer Dr Crusher
(in season 2 a new medical officer appeared, played by Diana Muldaur),
Denise Crosby (season 1 only) as the tough security officer, Black actor
LeVar Burton as Geordi LaForge, the blind navigating officer with
artificially enhanced vision, Wil Wheaton as the initially teenaged Ensign
Crusher (in later seasons he was reduced to occasional guest-starring
roles rather than as a regular), and Michael Dorn as the Klingon
Lieutenant Worf of the Enterprise (galactic politics having changed in 80
years). Michelle Forbes was introduced in season five as Ensign Ro, a
Bajoran, in "Ensign Ro", the episode that was ultimately to prove the
starting point of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine. Notable among occasionally
returning guest stars have been Whoopi Goldberg as a bartender and John
DeLancie as the roguish, enigmatic "Q", the show's equivalent of Trickster
figures like Coyote or Loki or Monkey King, who has featured in some of
the better episodes. Many episodes have been released on videotape.In
retrospect, ST:TNG must be seen as a great success, at least commercially.
It attracted a large and passionate fan following, and with 15 to 20
million US viewers is the highest rated syndicated series in US tv
history. One fifth-season episode, "The Inner Light", was awarded a HUGO
in 1993. Ironically, the show's very success may have helped kill it off.
Paramount initially sold screening rights back at a time when the show's
success was very uncertain; had these rights been sold in 1993, it would
have been a very different story, and a much more profitable one. The
obvious answer was to hope that fannish loyalty was to the whole ST
franchise, not just to the program, and to start a new series. This was
done with Star Trek: Deep Space Nine in 1993, and again with STAR TREK:
VOYAGER in 1995.As with the original "classic" series, there has been a
substantial number of spin-off books, beginning with Star Trek, The Next
Generation: Encounter at Farpoint * (1987) by David GERROLD, which
novelizes episode 1, and reaching, by early 1995 Star Trek: The Next
Generation #35: The Romulan Stratagem (1995) by Robert GREENBERGER. Other
authors have included A.C. CRISPIN, Peter DAVID, David DVORKIN and Jean
LORRAH. A preliminary judgment - that there seems less in this series than
in its predecessor to stimulate the creativity of book authors - may be
premature. As expected, the series has also spawned comics and magazines.

US tv series (1995- ). Paramount Network Television. Series
creators/executive prods: Rick Berman, Michael Piller and Jeri Taylor.
Supervising prod (pilot) David Livingston.The two-hour (less advertising
space) pilot was aired in Jan 1995, and written by the executive
producers. The series is to follow. The 24th-century Federation starship
Voyager commanded by Captain Kathryn Janeway (played by Kate Mulgrew)-the
first female captain to be a regular cast member in the various ST
series-is swept away 75,000 light years from home by a godlike being known
as The Caretaker, while searching for a group of resistance fighters, the
Maquis, which has also been kidnapped. The pilot episode (replaying one of
the oldest and tiredest STAR TREK themes) deals with attempts to convince
the flawed godlike being that humans have autonomy and can cope very well
by themselves, some of the action taking place in a cornball virtual
reality resembling a midwest farmhouse. The remaining series is to deal
with attempts to shorten the trip back to Federation space, reckoned to
take around 70 years at "warp speed", with Federation crew and outlaws
working in uneasy harmony.The pilot episode suggests that despite cosmetic
changes (the tactical/security officer, otherwise resembling Spock, is an
Afro-American Vulcan, or looks like one; the captain is female) the ST
universe is much the same as ever, and the routine nature of the script,
along with the perfunctory special effects, raise serious questions about
how much artistic life there may still be in the ST concept despite its
continuing popularity. Other continuing characters are to include Robert
Beltran as First Officer Chakota (of native American descent), Roxann
Biggs-Dawson as B'Ellana Torres (a half-Klingon), Robert Duncan
McNeill-one of the better actors-as Lt. Tom Paris, Jennifer Lien as Kes,
Ethan Phillips as Neelix (comic relief), Robert Picardo as Doc Zimmerman,
Tim Russ as Tuvok (the black Vulcan Tactical/Security Officer) and Garrett
Wang as Ops/Comm Officer Harry Kim. The series is syndicated. This is the
third live-action ST tv spin-off, its two predecessors being STAR TREK:

Film (1977). 20th Century-Fox. Dir George LUCAS, starring Mark Hamill,
Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Alec Guinness, Peter Cushing. Screenplay
Lucas. 121 mins. Colour.One of the most financially successful sf films to
date, SW is an entertaining pastiche that draws upon comic strips, old
serials, Westerns, James Bond stories, The Wizard of Oz, Snow White, Errol
Flynn swashbucklers and movies about WWII - the ending, for instance, is
lifted from The Dam Busters (1955). Lucas may not have succeeded in
unifying these diverse elements into a seamless whole, but SW is always
visually interesting. The gratifyingly spectacular special effects and
martial music hypnotize the audience into uncritical acceptance of the
basically absurd, deliberately PULP-MAGAZINE-style conflict between Good
and Evil. Young Luke Skywalker (Hamill) becomes involved in a mission to
rescue a princess (Fisher) from the evil head of a decadent GALACTIC
EMPIRE.The Empire's military headquarters is the Death Star, the size of a
small moon and capable of destroying whole planets. With the help of an
old man who possesses supernatural powers (Guinness), a human mercenary
(Ford) and his alien sidekick Chewbacca, plus 2 cute ROBOTS, Luke rescues
the princess and secures information that enables a group of rebel
fighters to destroy the Death Star. He is assisted by a power of good, the
"Force", left vaguely ecumenical enough to be equally inoffensive to all.
The plot is almost precisely that of a fairy tale. The villainous hit of
the film was the Emperor's associate, the asthmatically breathing, masked,
black-clad giant, Darth Vader (voiced by James Earl Jones). The film
received a HUGO.The special effects are very sophisticated. John Dykstra,
in charge of SW's miniature photography, used an automatic matteing system
with the help of such technical innovations as a computer-linked effects
camera. While the model work was created by US effects men, the
live-action settings and effects were created by UK technicians, such as
John Barry, production designer, and John Stears, physical effects.SW's
influence was great, and not just within the CINEMA. As a direct
consequence of its success, many paperback PUBLISHING houses switched
their sf lines strongly toward juvenile SPACE OPERA. The novelization,
attributed to Lucas but rumoured to be by Alan Dean FOSTER, is Star Wars *
(1976). The two sequels are The EMPIRE STRIKES BACK (1980) and The RETURN

(1899-1976) US journalist and writer who between 1928 and 1934 wrote over
20 stories - typical but competent PULP-MAGAZINE adventures and SPACE
OPERAS - including 1 with Festus PRAGNELL (whom see for details). [JC]

(1944- ) US writer with a PhD in theatre, a subject he taught at
university level; his career began with and has remained almost wholly
dedicated to the Rod Gallowglass or Warlock sequence, in order of internal
chronology: Escape Velocity (1983), The Warlock in Spite of Himself
(1969), CS's first book, and King Kobold (1969; rev vt King Kobold Revived
1984) - the first 2 assembled as To the Magic Born (omni 1986) and all 3
assembled as Warlock to the Magic Born (omni 1990 UK) - The Warlock
Unlocked (1982) and The Warlock Enraged (1985) - both assembled with King
Kobold as The Warlock Enlarged (omni 1986) and without it as The Warlock
Enlarged (omni 1991 UK) - The Warlock Wandering (1986), The Warlock is
Missing (1986) and The Warlock Heretical (1987) - the first 2 assembled as
The Warlock's Night Out (omni 1988) and all 3 assembled as The Warlock's
Night Out (omni 1991 UK) - The Warlock Heretical (1987), The Warlock's
Companion (1988) and The Warlock Insane (1989) - all 3 assembled as Odd
Warlock Out (omni 1989) - The Warlock Rock (1990),Warlock and Son (1991),
Wizard in Absentia (1993), The Witch Doctor (1994) and M'Lady Witch
(1994). The sequence follows - with decreasing joie de vivre, and with an
increasing sense that lessons of religious import were being conveyed -
the zany adventures of Rod Gallowglass and his clumsy ROBOT sidekick, who
have found themselves on the planet of Gramarye, where MAGIC works (thinly
rationalized as an expression of PSI POWERS); they settle in and flourish.
There is some TIME TRAVEL, and many creatures of Faerie are comically
rendered. In some extremely similar out-of-series titles, A Wizard in
Bedlam (1979), and the Matt Mantrell sequence - comprising Her Majesty's
Wizard (1986), The Oathbound Wizard (1994), The Witch Doctor (1994), with
further titles projected - CS stuck to his last, but more recently he has
ventured into new territory. The Starship Troupers sequence - beginning
with A Company of Stars (1991) , We Open on Venus (1994) and A Slight
Detour (1994), and with further sequels projected - proposes to follow a
theatre company from 23rd-century New York to the stars. It is expected
that CS's own love for the theatre will bring life to these volumes. With
Bill FAWCETT he has begun to ed a SHARED-WORLD series about the Crafter
family of magicians, The Crafters * (anth 1991) and The Crafters #2:
Bellsings and Curses * (anth 1992). [JC]Other works: The Gods of War (anth
1992); Sir Harold and the Monkey King* (1993 chap), based on the
Incomplete Enchanter sequence by L. Sprague DE CAMP and Fletcher PRATT;
Wing Commander: End Run * (1994) with William FORSTCHEN; Dragon's Eye


John Russell FEARN.

L. Frank BAUM.

(1932- ) New Zealand writer whose acerbic, well crafted novels have
received considerable praise. Only one is of sf interest: Smith's Dream
(1971; rev 1973) depicts a tyrannical DYSTOPIA. [JC]

(1849-1912) UK editor (from 1871) and writer; he edited Borderland, a
journal dealing with psychic phenomena, during 1893-97, andfounded and
edited Review of Reviews in 1890. He isperhaps most notorious for an
article, "Maiden Tribute to Modern Babylon" (1885 The Pall MallGazette),
which pruriently details the deflowering of a child prostitute, but which
didhave some effect in raising the age of consent. If Christ Came
toChicago!: A Plea for the Union of All Who Love in the Service of All Who
Suffer(1894) similarly fails to escape unctuousness, but its depiction of
a religious co-operative UTOPIA has points of interest. Blastus,the
King'sChamberlain: Being the Review of Reviews Annual for 1896 (1895;
vtBlastus the King's Chamberlain: a Political Romance1898) is a tale of
NEAR FUTURE political intrigue, the second half of which is set in1900.
The Despised Sex (1903) is constructedas a report sent - by a visitor to
England - to Dione, the queen of Xanthia, a matriarchy in
centralAfrica,for whom Britain is a kind of LOST WORLD. Along with John
Jacob ASTOR and Jacques FUTRELLE, WTS went down on the Titanic. [JC]

(1951- ) US writer. Armor (1984) is a rough-edged example of military sf.
Vampire$ (1990) pits a high-tech team of vampire hunters against the
serried ranks of the foe. [JC]

Item of sf TERMINOLOGY coined in the late 1980s, on the analogy of
CYBERPUNK, to describe the modern subgenre whose sf events take place
against a 19th-century background. It is a subgenre to which some
distinguished work attaches, though in no great quantity. There are a
number of works of proto-Steampunk, some by UK writers, such as
Christopher PRIEST's The Space Machine (1976), in which H.G. WELLS himself
plays a RECURSIVE role, and Michael MOORCOCK's Oswald Bastable books,
beginning with The Warlord of the Air (1971 US), which are at once a
critique and a nostalgic expression of the technological optimism of the
Edwardian era. Oddly, though, books like these do not sort well with the
kind of book later described as Steampunk, perhaps because in essence
Steampunk is a US phenomenon, often set in a London, England, which is
envisaged as at once deeply alien and intimately familiar, a kind of
foreign body encysted in the US subconscious. Three more works of
proto-Steampunk, only borderline sf FABULATIONS, were by US writers:
William KOTZWINKLE's Fata Morgana (1977), set in 1871 Paris,
Transformations (fixup 1975) by John MELLA, and "Black as the Pit, from
Pole to Pole" (1977) by Steven UTLEY and Howard WALDROP, in which latter
recall not so much the actual 19th-century as a 19th century seen through
the creatively distorting lens of Charles DICKENS, whose congested,
pullulating 19th-century landscapes-mostly of London, though the
industrial Midlands nightmare exposed in Hard Times (1854) is also germane
- were the foul rag-and-bone shop of history from which the technological
world, and hence the world of sf, originally sprang. Somewhere behind most
steampunk visions are filthy coal heaps or driving pistons. It was a
vision that also entered the CINEMA, especially through David Lynch, first
in Eraserhead (1976) and then in The Elephant Man (1980), and even -
inappropriately enough - in much of the mise-en-scene of his sf movie DUNE
(1984). Another, rather frivolous Steampunk movie is Young Sherlock Holmes
(1985; vt Young Sherlock Holmes and the Pyramid of Fear), prod Steven
SPIELBERG. Steampunk has entered sf ILLUSTRATION through the work of UK
artist Ian MILLER. Macabre sf adventures in a Dickensian London have even
entered tv: Steampunk was anticipated several times in the UK tv series DR
WHO, notably in The Talons of Weng Chiang (1977). There was also a much
earlier proto-Steampunk sf tv series set in a 19th-century USA, the
eccentric The WILD, WILD WEST (1965-9).In sf books it was at first largely
in the work of 3 Californian friends, James P. BLAYLOCK, K.W. JETER and
Tim POWERS, that the Steampunk vision became obvious, the first being
Jeter with Morlock Night (1979), in which H.G. Wells's Morlocks travel
back in time and invade the sewers of 19th-century London. Powers followed
with a historically earlier and even more malign MAGIC-REALIST London in
THE ANUBIS GATES (1983; rev 1984 UK), and then Blaylock with HOMUNCULUS
(1986). In each of these romances a Dickensian London itself is a major
character. All three have written at least one more novel along similar
lines: Jeter's Infernal Devices: A Mad Victorian Fantasy (1987),
Blaylock's Lord Kelvin's Machine (1992) and - not precisely Steampunk, but
evoking some of the same alchemical madness - Powers's On Stranger Tides
(1987) and The Stress of her Regard (1989). In most of these works the
vision is GOTHIC and the city, despite its horrors, a kind of seedbed
where mutant life stirs even in the oldest and deepest parts, the cellars
and sewers.Other writers have worked in similar vein, perhaps closer to
rationalized fantasy than to sf proper, such as Barbara HAMBLY with her
alienated race of vampires co-existing with humans in Those who Hunt the
Night (1988; vt Immortal Blood UK) and Brian STABLEFORD with his
rationalized werewolves in The Werewolves of London (1990). It is an
irony, however, that one of the strongest Steampunk works to date should
actually have been written by the prophets of Cyberpunk, William GIBSON
and Bruce STERLING, in THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1990 UK), set in an
alternate 19th-century London even more dystopian than Dickens's (though
clearly modelled on it), the imminent collapse of which under the weight
of POLLUTION (and reason) is watched and perhaps controlled by an AI
evolved from Charles BABBAGE's calculator.It is as if, for a handful of sf
writers, Victorian London has come to stand for one of those turning
points in history where things can go one way or the other, a turning
point peculiarly relevant to sf itself. It was a city of industry,
science, technology, commerce and above all, finance (thoughthere was
actually more industry in the midlands and the north) where the modern
world was being born, and a claustrophobic city of nightmare where the
cost of this growth was registered in filth and squalor. Dickens - the
great original Steampunk writer who, though he did not write sf himself,
stands at the head of several sf traditions - knew all this. [PN]See also:

[r] Taylor CALDWELL.

House name used 1938-45 on the ZIFF-DAVIS magazines, mostly on AMAZING
STORIES, primarily by Raymond A. PALMER, and later, from 1950, by his
friend Rog PHILLIPS, who used it in OTHER WORLDS. [PN]

Richard A. LUPOFF.

(1958- ) US journalist and writer whose first story was "Live from the
Mars Hotel" for IASFM in 1988; his short fiction has been assembled as
Rude Astronauts (coll 1993 UK). He made a considerable impact on the field
with his first novel, the NEAR-FUTURE Orbital Decay (1989), set like
almost all his work in the vicinity of Earth orbit, where nuts-and-bolts
engineering problems are coped with by a refreshingly variegated cast of
employees in space. A sequel, Lunar Descent (1991), set on and above the
Moon, replays the grit and clanguor of the first novel in a lighter mood.
Though AS, like so many of his HARD-SF colleagues, has a damagingly lazy
attitude towards characterization and tends to export unchanged into
space, decades hence, the tastes and habits of 1970s humanity, he manages
to convey a verisimilitudinous sense of the daily round of those men and
women who will be patching together the ferries, ships and SPACE HABITATS
necessary for the next steps into space. Clarke County, Space (1990), set
in one of those habitats, exposes most of AS's weaknesses - cultural
provincialism, jerkily melodramatic plotting - without allowing much room
for the strengths. [JC]Other work: Labyrinth of Night (1992), about a
mission to MARS; Labyrinth of Night (1992 UK); The Jericho Iteration
(1994).See also: CLICHES; MUSIC.

House name used by Popular Publications on OPERATOR #5: during Apr
1934-Nov 1935 CS was Frederick C. DAVIS, Dec 1935-Mar 1938 Emile
Tepperman, then to the end (Nov/Dec 1939) Wayne Rogers. [PN]

(? - ) US writer (not the Linda Steele married to Michael MOORCOCK) whose
Ibis: Witch Queen of the Hive World (1985) examines human sexual politics
( FEMINISM) through the perspective of an affair between a human male and
a female of an ALIEN hive-like species ( HIVE-MINDS). [JC]

[s] Raymond A. PALMER.

House name used by Avon Books. Carter BINGHAM; FLASH GORDON; Ron GOULART.

(1900-1982) US writer and journalist, a Moscow-based foreign
correspondent, whose philosophical novel The Moon Man (1961) involves the
lunar thoughts of immortals. [PN]

[s] Samuel R. DELANY.



US ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series published by BALLANTINE BOOKS, ed Judy-Lynn
DEL REY. The first issue was just Stellar (anth 1974); subsequent issues
were Stellar Science-Fiction Stories #2 (anth 1976), #3 (anth 1977), #4
(anth 1978), #5 (anth 1980), #6 (anth 1981) and #7 (anth 1981). An
associated book was Stellar Short Novels (anth 1976), also ed del Rey. As
the title suggests, the series was envisaged as a follow-up to STAR
SCIENCE FICTION STORIES ed Frederik POHL 1953-9, also published by
Ballantine. However, S, while entertaining, concentrated more on
straightforward adventure, with the emphasis on HARD SF, and less on
SATIRE than Pohl's series had done, and few stories had the same edge;
exceptions were Robert SILVERBERG's "Schwartz Between the Galaxies" (#1),
Isaac ASIMOV's HUGO- and NEBULA-winning "The Bicentennial Man" (#2) and
"Excursion Fare" (#7) by James TIPTREE Jr. [PN]



Film (1974). Fadsin Cinema Associates/Columbia. Dir Bryan Forbes,
starring Katharine Ross, Paula Prentiss, Peter Masterson, Nanette Newman,
Patrick O'Neal. Screenplay William Goldman, based on The Stepford Wives
(1972) by Ira LEVIN. 115 mins. Colour.In this black but rather crude
SATIRE on the role of women in US society, the men of Stepford, a sleepy,
attractive Connecticut town, take part in a bizarre conspiracy - devised
by an ex-employee of Disney World and in due course discovered by a newly
arrived wife (Ross) - to replace their wives with biddable, contented
ROBOT duplicates. The finale shows the robot wives of Stepford drifting
like the living dead around a vast supermarket and swapping recipes.
Despite stodgy direction, this is an above-average PARANOIA movie,
comparable in theme if not in charisma with INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS
(1956) - not least because of Prentiss's lively performance. Though the
film's FEMINISM is superficial, it is astonishing that it was attacked as
antifeminist. Made-for-tv sequels were Revenge of the Stepford Wives
(1980), 100 mins, dir Robert Fuest, and The Stepford Children (1987), 104
mins, dir Alan J. Levi. [PN/JB]

(1943- ) US book-dealer, publisher and bibliographer, founder in 1987 of
Ultramarine Publishing Co., Inc., a SMALL PRESS which has concentrated on
releasing trade publisher's printed sheets in fine bindings. As a
bibliographer, he has compiled checklists (which he regularly revises) on
several authors, including Samuel R. DELANY, Philip K. DICK, Thomas M.
DISCH, K.W. JETER, Dean R. KOONTZ, Wilson TUCKER, Gene WOLFE and Roger
ZELAZNY (all of whom see for details). He has also compiled checklists of
some publishers of interest, including the TOR BOOKS Doubles and, together
in 1 vol, Kerosina Press and Morrigan Press. [JC]

(1952- ) UK bibliographer who regularly supplied UK publishing data to
Locus from 1986 to the beginning of 1994, and who has compiled, often in
collaboration with Gordon BENSON Jr, a number of extremely useful "working
BIBLIOGRAPHIES" of sf writers (whom see for titles), including Poul
ANDERSON (with Benson), Brian W. ALDISS, John BRUNNER (with Benson), C.J.
CHERRYH, Philip K. DICK (with Benson), Charles L. HARNESS, Harry HARRISON
(with Benson), Robert A. HEINLEIN; C.M. KORNBLUTH (with Benson), Keith
LAUMER (with Benson), Anne MCCAFFREY (with Benson), George R.R. MARTIN,
Andre NORTON, Keith ROBERTS; Bob SHAW (with Benson and Chris Nelson),
Clifford D. SIMAK, Theodore STURGEON (with Benson), James TIPTREE Jr (with
Benson), Jack VANCE, James WHITE (with Benson), Gene WOLFE (with Benson),
John WYNDHAM and Roger ZELAZNY. [JC]

(1946- ) Venezuelan-born UK writer, electronics design engineer and, as
Ames, a magazine and book illustrator. He began publishing sf with
"Holding Action" for ASF in 1971, but then published only 1 more story
before his first novel, Nightwatch (1977), in which fortifications in
space are constructed against an assumed alien INVASION which proves to be
a friendly contact. The Wall of Years (1979; rev 1980 US), more typically
of a UK writer, describes the destruction of spacetime through
interdimensional warfare, and an attempt to set things right again in a
lovingly depicted Dark Ages. [JC]See also: HISTORY IN SF.

(1959- ) US writer whose first 2 novels- The Big U (1984) and Zodiac: The
Eco-Thriller (1988)-both convey a strong sense that sf turns are just
around the next page, but neither of which can justly be read as sf. The
first is a gonzo college caper, told rather in the style of John Landis's
film, National Lampoon's Animal House (1978); the second, much more
controlled but still shaggy, carries a cast of slightly older but similar
characters through a complicated story involving pollution in the waters
around Boston, Massachusetts. Neither book adequately signalled the
bravura attack and fine control of NS's first sf novel, SNOW CRASH (1992),
in which-as it were-the sf content seems to have sopped up the excesses
that marred the earlier efforts. Set in a NEAR-FUTURE Los Angeles and
elsewhere, and infusing its CYBERPUNK ambience with a cornucopia of data
and references to American cultural icons, it depicts a land exorbitantly
devolved into private-enterprise enclaves. The plot, whose protagonists
are armed skateboard "Deliverators" of pizza and other substnaces, soon
moves into VIRTUAL REALITY territory, where the eponymous computer virus
turns out not only to affect human brains, but also, perhaps, historically
to have been instrumental in the creation of humanity's early religions.
[It might be illuminating to compare SNOW CRASH with Leo PERUTZ's Sanct
Petri-Schnee (1933; new trans Eric Mosbacher as Saint Peter's Snow 1990
UK), the eponymous virus of which novel engenders religion in humans.] The
novel then slides into chase sequences. l Interface (1994), with NS and J.
Frederick George writing together as Stephen Bury, is an energetic
near-future thriller, somewhat reminiscent of Zodiac, centring on a
presidential candidate under the control of a bio-chip, which is connected
to online polling software, so that-unless things go wrong-he can
instantly spin-doctor his behaviour. The Diamond Age; or, A Young Lady's
Illustrated Primer (1995) awaits a full response, but its examination of
NANOTECHNOLOGY seems likely to have as much effect on the field as SNOW
CRASH's explosive rendering of Cyberpunk. [JC]

(1938- ) US COMIC-book illustrator, writer and one-time stage magician
and escapologist; Jack KIRBY based his comic-book character Mr Miracle -
Super Escape Artist (1971) on JS. Influenced early in his career by Kirby,
JS rapidly developed a reputation for originality, especially with his
work for MARVEL COMICS on the sf comic-book character Nick Fury, first for
Strange Tales 1966-8 (no connection with the weird-fiction magazine
STRANGE TALES) and then for Nick Fury, Agent of Shield June 1968-Mar 1971,
and also for his work on X-MEN and Captain America. Some of his Nick Fury
covers - he painted the first 7 covers and drew the stories of #1-#3 and
#5 - were revolutionary for comic books of that time in their bold design
and utilization of Surrealist themes. JS was not so much an innovator per
se as an artist who took a number of techniques hitherto seldom (and
haphazardly) used and welded them into a new style in which the design
unit became the double-page, not just the single frame. Like Kirby's, JS's
narrative technique is strongly cinematic, but his work is more stylized
and baroque, and less straightforwardly representational. Considering the
height of his reputation, he has done remarkably few comics, but he has
been much imitated, by Philippe DRUILLET among others. JS worked
occasionally in the sf ILLUSTRATION field, producing 1 cover for AMZ, some
work for Infinity, and also paperback covers for Pyramid Books's reprints
of The Shadow.In 1970 JS left Marvel to found Supergraphics in order to
publish his projected 6-vol history of PULP MAGAZINES and comics. Of this
only the first 2 vols have appeared: The Steranko History of the Comics
(1970) and The Steranko History of the Comics Volume 2 (1971). He has
published and edited a bimonthly tabloid magazine/newspaper called
Comixscene 1974-5 and then Mediascene 1974-80; with #41 in 1980 it became
a slick movie magazine called Prevue. A planned SWORD-AND-SORCERY
comic-book project, Talen, never materialized, although previews and
sketches were published 1968. He wrote and drew: a remarkable GRAPHIC
NOVEL, Chandler (graph 1976), which can only be described as
Chandleresque; a graphic-novel version of the 1981 film OUTLAND (1981-2
Heavy Metal; graph 1982); and a 10pp strip celebrating SUPERMAN in DC
COMICS's special #400 of that title (1984). He created a unique series of
3D illustrations (i.e., for use with 3D spectacles) for Harlan
ELLISON's"'Repent, Harlequin,' Said the Ticktockman" in The Illustrated
Harlan Ellison (graph coll 1978). He is listed among the creative talents
currently working under Francis Ford Coppola on a projected movie,
Dracula. Among his many awards is the 1970 Best Illustrator of the Year
Award. [PN/JG/RT]


House name of Better Publications, used originally in the magazines
STARTLING STORIES and CAPTAIN FUTURE for 5 short Captain Future novels, 3
of which - "The Star of Dread" * (CF 1943), "Magic Moon" * (CF 1944) and
"Red Sun of Danger" * (SS 1945; vt Danger Planet 1968) - were by Edmond
HAMILTON. 2 BS Captain Future stories by Joseph SAMACHSON are "Days of
Creation" * (CF 1944; vt The Tenth Planet 1969) and "Worlds to Come" * (CF
1943). The BS pseudonym was used once more by Hamilton for "Never the
Twain Shall Meet" (1946 TWS) and once by Ray BRADBURY for "Referent" (1948
TWS). [PN]

(1954- ) US writer, essayist and editor, whose first published sf was a
short story, "Man-Made Self", in an anthology of Texan sf, Lone Star
Universe (1976) ed Geo W. PROCTOR and Steven UTLEY. His first novel,
Involution Ocean (dated 1977 but 1978), is a memoir of the baroque
adventures and moral education of a young man who joins the crew of a
whaling ship sailing a sea of dust on a waterless alien planet. Sterling
continued in this vein of moralized extravaganza with The Artificial Kid
(1980), another first-person FAR-FUTURE picaresque. While its shockproof
milieu of glamorized youth, martial arts and omnipotent technology recalls
the early work of Samuel R. DELANY, the novel also looks forward to the
CYBERPUNK subgenre, whose principles and character BS largely defined in
his polemical FANZINE Cheap Truth (c1984-6) which he wrote and edited as
by Vincent Omniveritas, and whose representative anthology Mirrorshades
(anth 1986) he edited.BS's talent for rhetoric and his pre-eminence as sf
ideologue of the 1980s may have distracted attention from his own fiction.
In SCHISMATRIX (1985), a 1-vol future HISTORY of the interplanetary
expansion and transformation of the human race, he exchanges the fantastic
exorbitance of his earlier work for a hard-edged and highly detailed
realism closely informed by scientific speculation and extrapolation.
Linked with SCHISMATRIX is the Shaper/Mechanist series of short stories
included in CRYSTAL EXPRESS (coll 1989), about a spacefaring post-humanity
divided into two factions, the Shapers, who favour bio-engineering, and
the Mechanists, who prefer prosthetics. The collection contains some of
Sterling's best and most fully realized work; he has called it "my
favourite among my books". Stories not connected to the sequence have been
assembled as Globalhead (coll 1992).Narrated by an anonymous historian
above and beyond space and time, SCHISMATRIX is a homage to Olaf
STAPLEDON, but all Sterling's novels may be seen as tours conducted around
fields of data by protagonists whose main function is to witness them for
us. This approach culminates in ISLANDS IN THE NET (1988), a NEAR-FUTURE
thriller concerned with the increasing growth and complexity of political
power in electronic communication networks. Sterling's fascination with
the inner workings of cultures foreign to his own also led to his
collaboration with William GIBSON, THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1990 UK), an
ALTERNATE-WORLD, STEAMPUNK novel in which the successful development of
Charles BABBAGE's mechanical COMPUTER in 1821 has produced a world divided
between France and an 1850s UK ruled by a radical technocracy under Lord
Byron; this UK is depicted as a DYSTOPIA whose visual squalor seems to
reflect the influence of Charles DICKENS's apocalyptic vision of an
industrialized land. And worse is to come: the eponymous computer is
clearly en route to becoming an AI, and may end up ruling the
world.Sterling is one of the most globally minded of North American sf
writers, seeing civilization as an intricate and unstable mechanism, and
pitting the search for equilibrium against our insatiable demands for
knowledge and power; such concerns centrally govern the plot of Heavy
Weather (1994), set early in the 21st century at a point when the
ecological degradation of the planet has generated storm systems of
unprecedented ferocity. His main interest continues to be the behaviour of
societies rather than individuals, and the perfection of sf as a vehicle
for scientific education and political debate. [CG]Other work: The Hacker
Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier (1992), nonfiction
about computer crime.See also: ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM IN SF; CYBORGS;

(1886-1971) US writer and newspaper publisher. His Eidolon: A
Philosophical Phantasy Built on a Syllogism (1952) tells of a virgin
birth. [PN]

[s] Paul ERNST.

(1951- ) US astronomical and sf illustrator, born in Connecticut. He has
worked in sf since 1973, when he sold a cover painting to Analog (Oct
1973), for whom he did 14 covers in all, along with 9 for Gal and 8 for
FSF, mostly in the 1970s. He has also done black-and-white interior art
for a variety of magazines including IASFM, covers for both paperback and
hardcover books, and colour work for Astronomy Magazine. In 1976 he was
one of the founders of the Association of Science Fiction/Fantasy Artists
(ASFA). RS also worked, from 1977, for Walt Disney Studios and Paramount
Pictures. In 1977 he worked on Carl SAGAN's Cosmos tv series. In 1986 he
became an illustrator for STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION, and is now a
senior illustrator and technical consultant for it. He produced The Star
Trek, the Next Generation Technical Manual * (1991) with Michael Okuda.
Now California-based, he no longer does much book or magazine
illustration. He won the HUGO for Best Professional Artist in 1977 and
1978. He is an acknowledged master of the airbrush but also uses ordinary
brushes extremely well, particularly with gouache. Though his space art is
evocative and his design sense strong, his figures are sometimes awkward.

(1923- ) Belgian writer. A particularly idiosyncratic author with a keen
sense of the absurd, JS built from 1953 a unique body of work, often only
tenuously linked to sf, where everyday situations logically degenerate
into darkly humorous nightmares. Toi, ma nuit (1956; trans Lowell Bair as
Sexualis '95 1967 US) is a witty presentation of the dawn of a new age of
sexual excess. Futurs sans avenir (coll 1971; incomplete trans Frank Zero
as Future without Future 1974 US) is a representative selection; the title
story, an astonishingly bleak DYSTOPIA set at the end of the 20th century,
is typical in its progress from grey reality through surreal black wit
down to the end of time itself. JS also wrote the script for Alain
Resnais's only sf film, JE T'AIME, JE T'AIME (1968). As the 1970s
progressed, his work showed less and less attachment to genre devices.
[MJ]Other works: La geometrie dans l'impossible ["Impossible Geometry"]
(coll 1953); La sortie est au fond de l'espace ["The Way Out is at the
Bottom of Space"] (1956), a black comedy set in space and featuring the
last human survivors of a bacterial HOLOCAUST; Entre deux mondes
incertains ["Between Two Uncertain Worlds"] (coll 1957); La geometrie dans
la terreur ["Geometry in Terror"] (coll 1958); L'employe ["The Employer"]
(1958); Univers zero ["Universe Zero"] (coll 1970); Attention, planete
habitee ["Beware, Inhabited Planet"] (1970); Contes Glaces ["Icy Tales"]
(coll 1974); Sophie, la mer, la nuit ["Sophie, the Sea, the Night"]
(1976); Le navigateur ["The Navigator"] (1977).See also: BENELUX; FRANCE;

Charlotte Perkins GILMAN.

(1955- ) US writer of a short sequence about First Contact. In Forest of
the Night (1987) the ALIENS are, as the Blakean title hints, tiger-like,
though feathered, and must be protected from settlers on their planet who
hope to hunt them down; in Dreams of Dawn (1988) they are crustaceans.
MS's heart is in the right place, but the sequence shows signs of making
it all much too easy for her young protagonists. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Gertrude Barrows Bennett (1884-?1939), who wrote
12 quite highly acclaimed fantasies in the period 1917-23; these appeared
in The ARGOSY , The ALL-STORY , THRILL BOOK and other early PULP
MAGAZINES. A similarity in style and imagery led many readers to believe
that FS was a pseudonym of A. MERRITT. The sf content is highest in her
DYSTOPIA The Heads of Cerberus (1919 Thrill Book; 1952), in which a grey
dust from a silver phial transports its inhalers to a totalitarian
Philadelphia of AD2118. Other novels include the LOST-WORLD tale The
Citadel of Fear (1918 Argosy Weekly; 1970), Claimed (1920 Argosy Weekly;
1966) in which an elemental being recovers an ancient artefact, and "The
Labyrinth" (1918 All-Story), "Avalon" (1919 Argosy), "Serapion" (1920
Argosy) and "Sunfire" (1923 Weird Tales). Short stories include "The Elf
Trap" (1919), "Friend Island" (1918) and "Behind the Curtain" (1918). Some
of her stories were reprinted in FAMOUS FANTASTIC MYSTERIES and FANTASTIC


Glen COOK.

(1886-1960) US artist and illustrator who also signed himself Stephen
Lawrence and just Lawrence. He trained as a newspaper artist and did not
begin working in the sf PULP MAGAZINES until the early 1940s. Like Virgil
FINLAY, though faster and more versatile, he was a master of pen-and-ink
stippling; he never achieved Finlay's fame. LSS's finest work may be the
dozens of interiors he did for Adventure 1943-54, though his ILLUSTRATIONS
and THRILLING WONDER STORIES are uniformly excellent. Portfolios include A
Portfolio of Illustrations by Lawrence: Reproduced from Famous Fantastic
Mysteries Magazine (nd) and A Portfolio of Ilustrations by Lawrence, 2nd
Series: Reproduced from Famous Fantastic Mysteries Magazine (nd). In the
case of magazine-cover paintings the Stephen Lawrence pseudonym was shared
between LSS and his talented son, Peter Stevens (1920- ); interior
illustrations by Stephen Lawrence were all the work of LSS. [RB]

[r] Lawrence Sterne STEVENS.

[s] Edward D. HOCH.

(1892-1973) Scottish writer. In The Empty World (A Romance of the Future)
(1936; vt A World in Spell 1939 US) survivors of a great HOLOCAUST must
attempt somehow to cope. [JC]

[r] Nick CARTER.

(1850-1894) Scottish author, best known for works outside the sf field.
As a student at Edinburgh University, he abandoned engineering for law,
but never practised. He travelled widely, suffered most of his life from
tuberculosis, and settled in Samoa in 1890. His early novel, Strange Case
of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886; the usual vt from 1896 on being The
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde), shows the influence of a Calvinist
youth on a hot, romantic temperament. An early version (which he
scrapped), resulting from a nightmare, had an evil Jekyll using the Hyde
transformation as a mere disguise. The published version has echoes of the
case of Deacon Brodie, hanged in 1788 (and also the subject of the play
Deacon Brodie, or The Double Life [1880; rev 1889] by RLS and W.E. Henley
[1849-1903]), as well as of James Hogg's Private Memoirs and Confessions
of a Justified Sinner (1824), not to mention psychological theories that
were then current. It is a Faustian moral fable which takes the form of a
tale of mystery and HORROR. It precedes Oscar Wilde's The Picture of
Dorian Gray (1891), which in some respects resembles it, by five years,
and is the prototype of all stories of multiple personality,
transformation ( APES AND CAVEMEN) and possession; in some aspects it is
also a tale of drug dependency.The plot takes the form of a spiral which
moves gingerly into the heart-of-darkness of the climax, when the already
dead Jekyll's written confession of his terrible fall is discovered and
presented to readers as the last chapter of the text. Years before the
tale begins, Jekyll (whose name RLS pronounced with a long "e") has begun
to use drugs to dissociate his libertine side (cf Freud's "id") from his
normal self. The evil self that surfaces, Hyde, in whose person (or
persona) Jekyll enjoys unspecified depravities (we are given instances
only of rage, brutality and murder), is less robust at first than the full
man. But spontaneous metamorphoses into an increasingly dominant Hyde
begin to occur, and after a temporary intermission larger and larger doses
are needed for the "recovery" of Jekyll. Eventually supplies run out and,
cornered, Hyde commits suicide. The symbolic physical changes (Hyde is
young, stunted, nimble and repulsive) seem today unconvincing melodrama,
and the silence about vices other than cruelty seems prudish, but the
psychological power of the writing, including Jekyll's agonies, is patent.
The story has been filmed many times ( DR JEKYLL AND MR HYDE) and has been
deeply influential on the development of the theme of PSYCHOLOGY in sf.RLS
wrote a deal of other stories with fantastic or supernatural elements,
many to be found in New Arabian Nights (coll in 2 vols 1882); the contents
of the 1st vol initially appeared in the magazine London in 1878 under the
general title Latter-Day Arabian Nights, and were later reprinted as The
Suicide Club, and The Rajah's Diamond (coll 1894) ( CLUB STORIES). Others
appear in: More New Arabian Nights: The Dynamiter (coll 1885) by RLS with
his wife Fanny Van de Grift Stevenson; The Merry Men, and Other Tales and
Fables (coll 1887), which contains "Thrawn Janet", Markheim (1886
Cornhill; 1925 chap), a good-angel story with a twist, Will o' the Mill
(1886; 1901 chap US) and "Olalla"; Island Nights' Entertainments (coll
1893), which contains The Bottle Imp (1891 Black and White; 1896 chap US;
vt Kaewe's Bottle 1935 chap UK); Tales and Fantasies (coll 1905), which
includes The Misadventures of John Nicholson (1887 Cassell's Christmas
Annual; 1889 chap US) and The Body-Snatcher (1884 Pall Mall Christmas
Extra; 1895 chap US); and Fables (coll 1914). Many further pamphlets
containing RLS tales were published during his lifetime and after; of
interest are The Waif Woman (written 1892; 1914 Scribner's Magazine; 1916
chap), When the Devil was Well (1921 chap US) and Ticonderoga: A Legend of
the West Highlands (1923 chap US). Though it has no fantastic elements,
Prince Otto (1885) is an interesting precursor of the RURITANIAN tale.
[DIM/JC]Other works: The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and Other
Fables (coll 1896), and many other collections whose titles feature Jekyll
and Hyde; The Short Stories of Robert Louis Stevenson (coll 1923 US); Two
Mediaeval Tales (coll 1930 chap US); The Tales of Tusitala (coll 1946);
Great Short Stories of Robert Louis Stevenson (coll 1951 US); The
Body-Snatcher and Other Stories (coll 1988 US); The Complete Shorter
Fiction (coll 1991); several series of collected works.About the author:
Frank Swinnerton's Robert Louis Stevenson (1915), though venomous, is a
necessary purgative for the early adulation; the numerous subsequent
studies are more balanced. Of special interest is Definitive Dr Jekyll and
Mr Hyde Companion (1983) by H.M. Geduld.See also: BIOLOGY; DEVOLUTION;


(1958- ) UK editor and writer who began publishing sf with "Seasons Out
of Time" for Interzone in 1982, but who has been primarily active as an
editor since.Solohe ed Arrows of Eros: Unearthly Tales of Love
andDeath(anth 1989); with Neil GAIMAN he ed the SHARED
WORLDanthology,Temps* (anth1991), featuring a clatch of SUPERHEROES in
modern Britain whom thegovernment occasionally drafts for superhero work;
the sequel, EuroTemps* (anth 1992) was ed solo by AS. [JC]

(1936- ) US writer who has specialized in psychological HORROR novels at
the edge of sf and/or fantasy, like The Mephisto Waltz (1969), filmed in
1971. Star Child (1974), arguably, and The Methuselah Enzyme (1970),
certainly, are sf. [JC]

(1895-1980) US writer who obtained his PhD from the University of
California in 1922, later became professor of English there, and
concentrated his attention - through novels, literary studies, popular
history, etc. - on the Pacific Edge of the USA. His only sf novel, EARTH
ABIDES (1949), is set in California, and tells of the struggle to survive
and rebuild after a viral plague has wiped out most of humanity. The
protagonist, Isherwood Williams, lives for many decades after the
DISASTER, breeding children with one of his rare fellow survivors, and
watching the long night begin as his descendants gradually lose all sense
of the civilization he represents; but the Earth abides. The sense of
requiem and rebirth promulgated in the novel is rendered all the more
complex for readers aware of the implications of Isherwood's nickname,
Ish, a direct reference to the historic Ishi, a California Indian who
became famous in the early years of the century as the last living
representative of his tribe, just as Ish is one of the last living
representatives of the civilization which has destroyed his namesake's
world. Ishi in Two Worlds (1961) by Theodora Kroeber (1897-1979), Ursula
K. LE GUIN's mother, serves as a telling complement. One of the finest of
all post- HOLOCAUST novels, GRS's superb elegy was the first winner of the

1. UK writer and economist (1933- ). With Peter JAY (whom see for
details) he wrote Apocalypse 2000: Economic Breakdown and the Suicide of
Democracy, 1898-2000 (1987).2. UK writer (1945- ), most of whose novels
are medical thrillers, although Monkey Shines (1983), filmed by George A.
ROMERO as MONKEY SHINES (1988), uses the sf premise that a monkey may have
her intelligence successfully augmented through the injection of human
genetic material; the experiment ends tragically. Other thrillers with sf
elements include Far Cry (1984), Blindsight (1987), Prodigy (1988), which
also includes elements of occult horror,Birthright (1990), in which a
feral child turns out to be a Neanderthal, and is threatened with human
exploitation, Belladonna (1992) and Compulsion (1994). [JC]See also:

(? - ) UK writer who, with Stanley Stewart (their relationship, along
with everything else about them, is unknown), published The Professor's
Last Experiment (1888), in which a scientifically superior Martian arrives
on Earth but is captured by a vivisectionist, who chops off the visitor's
wings. [JC]

(1965- ) US writer long in Canada but resident in the US again from 1995,
whose first novel, Passion Play (1992), depicts an American governed by
the fundamentalist religious right. The story is told by a female private
eye in standard noir style, down to the sequence of interviews with
suspects which make up the centre of the narrative; but although there are
fewer surprises at this level than perhaps desirable, SS conveys
throughout a sense of revisionist scrutiny of the conventions he follows.
This scrutiny is very much more evident in Nobody's Son (1993), a fantasy
set almost entirely after the hero has won the princess. Resurrection Man
(1995) is also a fantasy. [JC]

[r] Ritson STEWART.

[s] Gordon EKLUND.


(1945- ) US writer and neurobiologist whose first sf novel, Gloryhits
(1978) with Mark Noble, deals with a recombinant-DNA disaster. His second,
The California Coven Project (1981), similarly exploits his professional
knowledge in a NEAR-FUTURE venue. [JC]

(? - ) US writer who began publishing his characteristic HARD-SF stories
with "The Bully and the Crazy Boy" for ASF in 1980, and whose short work,
assembled in The Gentle Seduction (coll 1990), promulgates technological
solutions to neatly couched problems. David's Sling (1984) applies the
same philosophy to problems of NEAR-FUTURE political stress, as East and
West come close to blows through lack of information-flow. Valentina: Soul
in Sapphire (fixup 1984) with Joseph H. DELANEY (whom see for details) has
a similar bent. [JC]

Pseudonym of the unidentified author, presumably US, of the Tracker
military-sf series starring a USAF pilot and genius whose inventions make
his blindness irrelevant; the stories are told in a maliciously
exaggerated parody of the conventions of this sort of fiction. The
sequence so far comprises Tracker (1990), Green Lightning (1990), Blood
Money (1991), Black Phantom (1991), Firekill (1991) and Death Hunt (1991).

(1880-1932) US journalist and editor, active in the early decades of the
century with serialized novels and some stories for the Frank A. MUNSEY
magazines. His Edgar Rice BURROUGHS-inspired sf/fantasy trilogy, Polaris
of the Snows (1915-16 All-Story; 1965), Minos of Sardanes (1916 All-Story;
1966) and Polaris and the Immortals (1917 All-Story as "Polaris and the
Goddess Glorian"; 1968), features the improbably durable Tarzan-like
Polaris Janess, who spends his Antarctic childhood killing polar bears
[sic] by hand and as an adult enjoys adventures in a LOST-WORLD colony of
Greeks and with technologically advanced survivors of ATLANTIS. "The Sky
Woman" (1920 All-Story) concludes with the tragic death of a Martian woman
borne to Earth in a meteorite. The more sophisticated "Dr Martone's
Microscope" (1920 All-Story) is a homage to Fitz-James O'BRIEN's "The
Diamond Lens" (1858) and Ray CUMMINGS's "The Girl in the Golden Atom"
(1919), both of which are mentioned by name. At the same time it invokes a
surreptitious sexuality: the doctor's microscope has been used for
voyeuristic purposes. At his best CBS was a writer who transcended
PULP-MAGAZINE formulae. [RB/JC]Other works: The Island God Forgot (1922);
The Ace of Blades (1924); A Cavalier of Navarre (1925); Sword Play (1926);
The Seven Blue Diamonds (1927).See also: ESCHATOLOGY.

[r] Robert GRANT; John Boyle O'REILLY.

(1928- ) US writer who was for many years best known for work published
under his pseudonym, Lee Correy, but who in the 1980s began increasingly
to write under his own name, though his popularizing nonfiction about
space travel and satellites had always been released as by GHS, as was his
first story, "Galactic Gadgeteers" for ASF in 1951. As Correy, his
best-known sf tale is "And a Star to Steer Her By" (1953), to which his
first novel, a juvenile, Starship through Space (1954), is a sequel. There
soon followed another juvenile, Rocket Man (1955), and Contraband Rocket
(1956), about amateurs launching a SPACESHIP. GHS's preoccupation with
space travel has never, in fact, faltered, and although many years passed
before his next novel as Correy, his urgent advocacy of the space
programme remained as attractively fresh as ever. Star Driver (1980),
Shuttle Down (1981), Space Doctor (1981), Manna (1984) and A Matter of
Metalaw (1986), all as Correy, variously work to increase the sense of the
reality of space, an agenda perhaps less evident in The Abode of Life *
(1982), a STAR TREK tie. Under his own name, GHS's fiction has been less
ambitious, being restricted mainly to the NEAR-FUTURE Warbots sequence in
which humans and MACHINES clashingly interface as the US Robot Infantry
fights evil everywhere: Warbots (1988), Warbots #2: Operation Steel Band
(1988), #3: The Bastaard [sic] Rebellion (1988), #4: Sierra Madre (1988),
#5: Operation High Dragon (1989), #6: The Lost Battalion (1989), #7:
Operation Iron Fist (1989), #8: Force of Arms (1990), #9: Blood Siege
(1990), #10: Guts and Glory (1991),#11: Warrior Shield (1992) and Judgment
Day (1992). A second series, the Starsea Invaderssequence comprising First
Action(1993) and Second Contact (1994) is not dissimilar.Nonfiction works
of sf interest include Earth Satellites and the Race for Space Superiority
(1957), Rocket Power and Space Flight (1957), The Third Industrial
Revolution (1980), Shuttle into Space: A Ride in America's Space
Transportation (1978), The Space Enterprise (1980), Space Power (1981),
Confrontation in Space (1981), The Hopeful Future (1983), The Silicon Gods
(1984) and Handbook for Space Colonists (1985). [JC]

(1945- ) US writer, born Henry Eugene Stein, whose Season of the Witch
(1968) interestingly blends sf and erotica in the story of a man
biologically transformed into a woman as a punishment for rape and murder,
but who eventually finds her/his true role and contentment as a
transsexual. Other sf novels include Thrill City (1969), set in a city
devastated by WWIII, and a novelization tied to the tv series The PRISONER
, A Day in the Life * (1970). HS was editor of GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION for
2 issues in 1979. [MJ]See also: PSYCHOLOGY; SEX.

UK tv series with animated puppets (1964-65). AP Films with ATV/ITC.
Created Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. Prod Gerry Anderson. The writers were
the Andersons (3 episodes), Alan Fennell, Dennis Spooner. 39 25min
episodes. Colour.The 3rd of the SuperMarionation puppet sf series for
children ( Gerry and Sylvia ANDERSON for details) and the first in colour,
S was also one of the better. Handsome but irascible Troy Tempest pilots
the atomic submersible Stingray for WASP (World Aquanaut Security Patrol)
and is involved in a love triangle with Marina, lovely but mute daughter
of an undersea emperor, and Atlanta, wistful daughter of WASP's crusty
commander. Most weeks saw somewhat repetitive undersea menaces defeated,
primarily those associated with the evil but incompetent Titans, an
"aquaphibian" race. The miniature sets were good (special effects Derek
Meddings). Some episodes were later cobbled together as "films" which
probably never saw theatrical release but were shown abroad as tv
features. One was Invaders from the Deep (1981), made up from the episodes
Hostages of the Deep, Emergency Marineville, The Big Gun and Deep Heat,
all written by Fennell. [PN]

(1954- ) French-born Canadian writer who began publishing work of genre
interest with Snowbrother (1985 US), the 1st vol of the Fifth Millennium
fantasy sequence, which continued with The Sharpest Edge (1986 US) with
Shirley Meier (1960- ), The Cage (1989) with Meier, and Shadow's Son
(1991) with Meier and Karen Wehrstein. It was, however, with his 2nd
series, the ALTERNATE-WORLD Draka sequence - Marching through Georgia
(1988), Under the Yoke (1989) and The Stone Dogs (1990) - that SMS came to
notice because of the considerable violence (undeniable) and right-wing
convictions (apparent). In an ALTERNATE-WORLD 20th century generated in
part by the success of Charles BABBAGE's Difference Engine, a group of
British loyalists, having previously escaped the consequences of the
American Revolution by emigrating to South Africa, have established there
a racist feudalism, the Domination of Draka, which soon comes to dominate
the entire continent. In the first volume the start of WWII sees Draka
allied with the USA against the Nazis, and winning a crushing victory
against the German hordes in Soviet Georgia; subsequently, slavery is
extended to newly conquered territories. This nightmare (which SMS
presents with seeming affection) continues in subsequent volumes, with the
Domination seemingly ineradicable and a post-war conflict between the
Drakans (who have mastered GENETIC ENGINEERING) and the USA (expert in
COMPUTERS) extending into space.SMS has also contributed to Larry NIVEN's
Man-Kzin Wars SHARED-WORLD anthologies, with work in Man-Kzin Wars II *
(anth 1989), Man-Kzin Wars III * (anth 1990) and Man-Kzin Wars IV * (anth
1991), plus a novel in the sequence, The Children's Hour * (1991) with
Jerry POURNELLE. Also with Pournelle, to whose CoDominion sequence the
tale belongs, he wrote Go Tell the Spartans (1991) about Falkenberg, the
series' main protagonist. Other novels include The Forge (1991),The Hammer
(1992), The Anvil (1993) and The Steel (1993), all with David A. DRAKE,
the first volumes of The General, a military series. SMS has also ed
Fantastic World War II (anth 1990) and The Fantastic Civil War (anth
1991), both with Martin H. GREENBERG, Charles G. WAUGH and Frank McSherran
Jr, and Power (anth 1991). [JC]See also: CANADA; WAR.

US PULP MAGAZINE, changing to BEDSHEET-size for #4. 4 issues Feb 1941-Mar
1942, published bimonthly by Albing Publications for #1-#3, then by
Manhattan Fiction Publications for the final abortive revival 9 months
later; ed Donald A. WOLLHEIM. The companion magazine to COSMIC STORIES,
SSS was produced under similar adverse financial conditions: writers were
promised payment only if SSS were a success. 3 issues carried covers by
artist Hannes BOK. SSS featured many stories by FUTURIANS, including James
BLISH and C.M. KORNBLUTH (who contributed various stories under at least 3
pseudonyms), and printed Damon KNIGHT's first published story,
"Resilience". SSS was presented as two magazines in one: the second half
was separately titled Stirring Fantasy Fiction, and came complete with its
own editorial and readers' departments. [MJE/PN]

(1947- ) US writer and software engineering manager who began to publish
sf with "Early Winter" for Fantastic in 1979. His first novel, Scapescope
(1984) - HARD SF like all his work-uses his work experience at the NORAD
Cheyenne Mountain Complex to extrapolate conditions in that location two
centuries hence. Memory Blank (1986) places a classic sf protagonist - the
hero with amnesia - on an L-5 orbital colony ( LAGRANGE POINT). Death
Tolls (1987) is a detective mystery set on a terraformed MARS (see also
TERRAFORMING), and Deep Quarry (1989), set on a planet far from the Solar
System (to which JES had previously restricted himself), pits a private
eye against various mysteries in a hard-boiled style. More impressive than
any of these is Redshift Rendezvous (1990), set on a FASTER-THAN-LIGHT
starship travelling through a version of HYPERSPACE in which the speed of
light is so low (22mph [35kph]) that its passage is visible. Within this
intriguingly presented environment, a murder mystery, a hijack and other
events occur; but the appeal of the novel lies in the playing-out of the
concept - or thought experiment - at its heart. Both Manhattan Transfer
(1993), in which an alien force matter-transmits the island elsewhere for
reasons unknown, and Reunion on Neverend (1994) continue to demonstrate a
growing facility and storytelling energy. [JC]See also: IMAGINARY SCIENCE

House name used by Popular Publications, especially in The SPIDER . Most
if not all the GS stories in The Spider were by Norvell W. PAGE. It has
been suggested that Frank Gruber, Reginald T. Maitland and Emil Tepperman
also used this pseudonym. [PN]

(1834-1902) US author and editor. He worked on Scribner's Magazine before
being assistant editor of ST NICHOLAS MAGAZINE 1873-81. It was during this
period, while writing for children, that he developed the combination of
humour and fantasy featured in such works as Tales out of School (coll
1875), which includes "How Three Men Went to the Moon", and The Floating
Prince and Other Fairy Tales (coll 1881). His numerous short stories
appeared in over 20 collections, of which several were composite volumes.
His better works include "The Lady or the Tiger?" (1882), a classic puzzle
story, "The Transferred Ghost" (1882) and its sequel "The Spectral
Mortgage" (1883), and his sf story "A Tale of Negative Gravity" (1884).
Among other short sf stories were "The Tricycle of the Future" (1885) and
"My Translataphone" (1900; reprinted in The Science Fiction of Frank R.
Stockton [coll 1976] ed Richard Gid Powers).Later, when FRS turned to
novels, he continued to use sf themes occasionally, though his humorous
style remained the most prominent feature. In The Great War Syndicate
(1889) a naval WAR between the UK and USA is resolved when the British see
the advanced weaponry arrayed against them. The Adventures of Captain Horn
(1895) is a LOST-WORLD novel. The Great Stone of Sardis (1898), set in
1947, culminates in the discovery that the Earth is a gigantic diamond
with a relatively thin crust of surface soil. The Vizier of the Two-Horned
Alexander (1899) lightly recasts the Wandering Jew theme.FRS was
influential on John Kendrick BANGS and other humorous fantasists and is
regarded as a forerunner of O. Henry (1862-1910) in his use of the trick
ending. His complete works appear in The Novels and Stories of Frank R.
Stockton (23 vols 1899-1904). A posthumously written collection, The
Return of Frank R. Stockton (coll 1913), "transcribed" by the medium Miss
Etta de Camp, is surprisingly good and stylistically recognizable, though
death has clearly impaired his vision. [JE]Other works: Collections with
at least some sf/fantasy material include Ting-a-Ling (coll 1879); The
Lady or the Tiger? and Other Stories (coll 1884); The Christmas Wreck and
Other Stories (coll 1886); The Bee-Man of Orn and Other Fanciful Tales
(coll 1887); A Borrowed Month and Other Stories (coll 1887 UK); Amos
Kilbright: His Adscititious Experiences, with Other Stories (coll 1888);
The Stories of the Three Burglars (coll 1889); The Rudder Granges Abroad
and Other Stories (coll 1891); The Great Show in Kobol-Land (1891); The
Clocks of Rondaine and Other Stories (coll 1892); The Watchmaker's Wife
and Other Stories (coll 1893); Fanciful Tales (coll 1894); A Chosen Few
(coll 1895); A Story-Teller's Pack (coll 1897); Afield and Afloat (coll
1900); John Gayther's Garden, and the Stories Told Therein (coll 1902);
The Queen's Museum, and Other Fanciful Tales (coll 1906); The Magic Egg
and Other Stories (coll 1907); The Lost Dryad (1912 chap); The Fairy Tales
of Frank Stockton (coll 1990).See also: UNDER THE SEA.

(1911-1976). US writer whose work of sf interest was confined to
pseudonymous contributions to various series. As Nick Carter, he wrote The
Red Rays (1969) in the Nick Carter series; as Jeffrey Lord, he wrote #1
through #8 of the Richard Blade series: The Bronze Axe (1969), The Jade
Warrior (1969), Jewel of Tharn (1969), Slave of Sarma (1970), Liberator of
Jedd (1971), Monster of the Maze (1972), Pearl of Patmos (1973) and
Undying World (1973); and as Ken Stanton he wrote two Aquanauts titles:
Operation Sea Monster (1974) and Operation Mermaid (1974). [JC]

F. Dubrez FAWCETT.

(? - ) US writer whose post- HOLOCAUST novel, Last Fall (1987), describes
the dilemma faced by a wood-dwelling pacifistic enclave of survivors when
gun-bearing intruders arrive. The tale is notable for the quiet warmth of
its depiction of a renewed natural world. [JC]


(1905-c1987) US writer who began publishing sf with "Men with Wings" for
Air Wonder Stories in 1929, and was active in the field for the next 8
years, publishing at least 17 stories. Her 2 sf books are When the Sun
Went Out (1929 chap), a FAR-FUTURE tale which appeared in Hugo GERNSBACK's
Science Fiction series, and Out of the Void (1929 AMZ; 1967), a SPACE
OPERA. "Across the Void" (1930 AMZ), a sequel to the latter, attained
magazine publication only. [JC/PN]See also: LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS; WOMEN SF

(1899-1957) US novelist and editor, author of the thrice-filmed State
Fair (1932). His The Other Worlds (anth 1941; vt 25 Modern Stories of
Mystery and Imagination 1942 US) was the first important sf ANTHOLOGY. Its
25 stories, about half sf, half horror, were mostly from the PULP
MAGAZINES, not previously regarded as a proper source of material (of sf
at least) for respectable hardcover books. [PN]

(1928- ) UK writer, formerly a rugby player, brother of the novelist
David Storey (1933- ) and author of a SATIRE-drenched trilogy-The Rector
(1970), The Centre Holds (1973) and The Saviour (1978) - which deals with
the traumas surrounding the announced birth of a child its mother claims
to be the MESSIAH, and the 1980s upheavals centring on the ambivalent
effect of the new Jesus upon an unfit world. [JC]

[s] H.L. GOLD.




Robert Moore WILLIAMS.


(1913- ) UK doctor and writer, for many years a psychotherapist, since
1963 an author of journalism, children's books - most famously Marianne
Dreams (1958; vt The Magic Drawing Pencil 1960 US), in which physical and
mental malaises are incarnated in a fantasy world - and an sf novel,
Unnatural Fathers (1976), in which the success of an experiment to make
men capable of child-bearing causes great upheavals in a NEAR-FUTURE UK.
[JC/BS]Other works for children: Rufus (1969); The Adventures of Polly and
the Wolf (1970); Thursday (1972).

(1917-1991) UK writer who remains best known for his first novel, The
Trouble with Harry (1949), not sf, which was filmed by Alfred Hitchcock
(1889-1980) in 1955. The rumours that he wrote several of the Volsted
GRIDBAN sf novels are unverified, but certainly he did produce many
pseudonymous books over the first decade or so of his career. His openly
acknowledged work included non-sf - but remarkable - tales for the Sexton
Blake Library and several novels which used sf components to make their
points about the decline of England and the loss of youth, including
Hitler Needs You (1970), One Last Mad Embrace (1970), Little Dog's Day
(1971), which is a genuine sf DYSTOPIA, the surrealistic The Wind in the
Snottygobble Tree (1971), Morag's Flying Fortress (1976), which is a
borderline novel about sexual obsession, and Up River (1979; vt The
Screwrape Lettuce 1980), in which an appalling aphrodisiac devastates the
UK while the secret police, unnoticed, grab power. [JC]

Irwin ALLEN.


UK pocketbook magazine published by Liverpolitan, Birkenhead. The front
cover bears the variant title International Storyteller, while the spine
and title page read Storyteller. #3 was an all-sf issue, all stories
(apart from Chris BOYCE's first) by writers unknown in sf; it is dated
1964, no ed named. Other issues were not sf. [PN]

(1886-1975) US writer, best known for his Nero Wolfe detective novels,
beginning with Fer-de-Lance (1934) and continuing into the 1970s. Under
the Andes (1914 All-Story Magazine; 1984) describes, in a style very
unlike his deft mature drawl, an underground LOST WORLD of dwarf Incans.
In The President Vanishes (1934), published anon, the disappearance of the
US President causes a NEAR-FUTURE crisis. [JC]See also: DIME-NOVEL SF.

(1929- ) US editor and writer, professor of ANTHROPOLOGY at the Illinois
Institute of Technology, where he also taught sf courses, and science
editor of AMZ 1967-9. He was most active in sf in collaboration with Harry
HARRISON, editing with him Apeman, Spaceman: Anthropological Science
Fiction (anth 1968), and writing with him Stonehenge (1972), a historical
novel in which refugees from ATLANTIS - here rather conventionally
identified as the Mediterranean island, Thera (Santorini), which exploded
in Mycenaean times - help build the eponymous megalith. With Willis E.
MCNELLY he ed Above the Human Landscape: An Anthology of Social Science
Fiction (anth 1972). He was founder and first chairman of the JOHN W.
CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD.LES's critical studies perhaps represent him at
his most interesting. La science-fiction americaine: essai d'anthropologie
culturelle ["American Science Fiction: An Essay in Cultural Anthropology"]
(1972 France) was based on one of his courses. Ostensibly a RECURSIVE
tale, The Shaving of Karl Marx: An Instant Novel of Ideas, after the
Manner of Thomas Love Peacock, in which Lenin and H.G. Wells Talk about
the Political Meaning of the Scientific Romances (1982) was more
accurately a dramatized debate. In The Prophetic Soul: A Reading of H.G.
Wells' Things to Come together with his Film Treatment "Whither
Mankind?"and thePostproduction Script (1987) LES continued to argue that
H.G. WELLS - especially in his Samurai mood - produced Leninist solutions
to social problems. His Robert A. Heinlein (1987), more stridently, works
better as an assault upon H. Bruce FRANKLIN's powerful study of HEINLEIN
than as a balanced presentation of the author; the advocacy of his friend
and subject in Harry Harrison (1990) proves ineffective through lack of
judicious distance.Throughout his work, LES has been perhaps most notable
- after his erudition is acknowledged - for a gadfly vigour. [JC]See also:

(1935- ) Australian writer whose novels tend to embed deeply alienated
protagonists into venues - some remote-which are described with
anthropological precision, resulting in tales, whether non-genre or
sf/fantasy, that verge constantly upon fable. In Tourmaline (1963) the
venue is a decaying town in backwoods Australia and the time the NEAR
FUTURE; the narrative is loaded with echoes of myth and forebodings. The 5
protagonists of Visitants (1979), set in Papua, supply a mosaic of
responses to a First-Contact experience in a manner that remotely
prefigures the strategies underlying Karen Joy FOWLER's SARAH CANARY
(1991). [JC]Other works: Midnite: The Story of a Wild Colonial Boy (1967);
The Girl Green as Elderflower (1980).

UK magazine published monthly Jan 1891-Mar 1950 by George Newnes Ltd; ed
Sir George Newnes and others. TSM was cheap, though not in appearance: it
contained illustrated articles and fiction by well known authors. Its
success created many rivals. In competition with PEARSON'S MAGAZINE (begun
1896) it started to feature sf regularly, having earlier published "An
Express of the Future" (1895), a short story by Michel Verne (1861-1925),
whom the editors mistook for his father (M. - "Monsieur" - Verne),
bylining the story Jules VERNE. Foremost among TSM's sf contributors were
Grant ALLEN, H.G. WELLS, Fred M. WHITE and Arthur Conan DOYLE, whose
Sherlock Holmes stories had already given the magazine its initial
success. In sf terms it is best remembered for the serializations of
Wells's THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1900-1; 1901) and Doyle's The Lost
World (1912; 1912), The Poison Belt (1913; 1913) and "The Maracot Deep"
(1927-8). But there were many others, including L.T. Meade's (Mrs
Elizabeth Thomasina Smith [1854-1914]) and Robert Eustace's The
Brotherhood of the Seven Kings (Jan-Oct 1898; 1899). SM is an excellent
source for sf stories intensely characteristic of the late Victorian and
Edwardian period in the UK. [JE/PN]Further reading: Science Fiction By
Gaslight: A History and Anthology of Science Fiction in the Popular
Magazines 1891-1911 (1968) by Sam MOSKOWITZ; The Strand Magazine
1891-1950: A Selective Checklist (1979 chap) by J.F. Whitt; Strange Tales
from the Strand Magazine (anth 1991) ed Jack Adrian (1945- ).

Collaborative pseudonym of UK writers George Herbert Ely (1866-1958) and
C.J. L'Estrange (1867-1947) used on a large number of boys' adventure
stories, among them a series of novels about futuristic TRANSPORTATION
devices, including King of the Air, or To Morocco on an Airship (1908),
Lord of the Seas (1908), The Cruise of the Gyro-Car (1910), Round the
World in Seven Days (1910), The Flying Boat (1912) and A Thousand Miles an
Hour (1924). These were competently written with a certain Edwardian dash,
and a fair amount of imperialist cliche. HS also published future- WAR
Yellow Peril stories. [PN]Other works: The Old Man of the Mountain (1916);
The Heir of a Hundred Kings (1930).See also: UNDER THE SEA.

UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size. 2 undated issues 1946 and 1947,
published by Hamilton & Co., Stafford; ed anon. SA was an unmemorable
juvenile sf magazine. As with its companion, FUTURISTIC STORIES, it was
written entirely by Norman FIRTH under pseudonyms. [FHP]


One of the many reprint DIGEST-size magazines published by Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co.; ed anon. 6 issues, 3 in 1969 (#8-#10) and 3 in
1970 (#11-#13). The strange numbering seems to be connected with the
temporary death in 1969 of SCIENCE FICTION (ADVENTURE) CLASSICS after #8,
but SF is not simply a variant title of the latter, which began again in
1971 with #12. Also, SF concentrated on fantasy (while printing some sf),
mostly reprinted from FANTASTIC during the period of Cele GOLDSMITH's
editorship. [PN]

Film (1983). EMI Films/Orion/A Michael Laughlin Production. Dir Michael
Laughlin, starring Paul Le Mat, Nancy Allen, Diana Scarwid, Michael
Lerner, Wallace Shawn, Fiona Lewis. Screenplay William Condon, Laughlin.
93 mins. Colour.A very agreeable pastiche of movies like INVASION OF THE
BODY SNATCHERS (1956) ( PARANOIA). The prologue shows a flying saucer (
UFOS) landing in a small town in 1958. The rest of this charming SATIRE is
set in 1983, when entomologist Charlie (Bigelow) comes to learn that
Centerville (the town) is now occupied by ALIENS in human form, that his
wife (Scarwid) is an alien - he had previously regarded her blank manner
as normal - that his (half-breed) daughter is to be taken with the aliens
when they leave, and that New York is being infiltrated. The alien
anthropological survey team have adopted the appearance and manner of
small-town Americans of the Eisenhower years, and naturally appear grossly
out of place in modern New York. ( MEET THE APPLEGATES [1990] adopts a
similar premise.) Director Laughlin has his cake and eats it too by
injecting genuine suspense into a story that is also deeply funny. This is
the second of a projected but unfinished Strange trilogy from Laughlin,
the first being DEAD KIDS (1981; vt Strange Behavior). [PN]

Made-for-tv film (1975). Warner Bros. TV/ABC. Dir Robert Butler, starring
John Saxon, Kathleen Miller, Keene Curtis, James Olson, Martine Beswick,
Gerrit Graham. Screenplay Walon Green, Ronald F. Graham, Al Ramrus. 100
mins. Colour.The 1970s are littered with tv movies representing Gene
RODDENBERRY's repeated attempts at pilot episodes for new tv series,
though in this case he is not credited. This editing together of 2
never-aired episodes is a sort of sequel to GENESIS II (1973) and PLANET
EARTH (1974), sharing the same star, Saxon, with the latter. Three
astronauts, after 180 years in SUSPENDED ANIMATION, return to an Earth
devastated by a meteor storm. What is left of civilization is balkanized,
each group differing. The astronauts encounter two such groups. Eterna is
a sterile utopia, with an obsession for cleanliness, that has conquered
death; the wholesome travellers ensure that death makes a cleansing return
to Eterna before they leave. They go on to restore peace in Arboria, a
land divided by the Hunters and the Zookeepers, the latter being fanatical
conservationists ready to kill to achieve their aims. [JB/PN]

US SEMIPROZINE, small- BEDSHEET format, subtitled "speculative +
imaginative fiction", published and ed Steve Pasechnick from Cambridge,
Massachusetts. Eight irregular issues 1989-1994. This fiction magazine,
too irregular to be influential, has quite high standards; it has
published good stories by Terry DOWLING, Carol EMSHWILLER, R.A. LAFFERTY,
Paul PARK, Cherry WILDER, Gene WOLFE and others. It features an
interesting column of opinion by Gwyneth JONES. #8 (cover by Ian MILLER)
announced itself to be the final issue. [PN]

Robert Heinlein's book, Stranger in a Strange Land, was one of the first
SF novels to reach a mass market. In fact, it became such a cultural
phenomenon in the 1960s that various religious cults attempted to live
according to the precepts of the book's hero. And "Grok" buttons suddenly
became hot items.In the spring of 1968, U.C.L.A. offered a course called
"J.D. Salinger, Robert Heinlein, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and other Personal
Gurus."Reported Heinlein, "I'm sure a square, I don't even know who the
third guru is."Heinlein's bemusement at his popularity may have ended
abruptly in 1970, when it was reported that the sociopathic killer Charles
Manson had been influenced by Stranger in a Strange Land.

Made-for-tv film (1974). Lorimar/ABC TV. Dir Lee Philips, starring
Barbara Eden, George Grizzard, Joyce Van Patten, David Doyle. Teleplay
Richard MATHESON, based on his "Mother by Protest" (1953). 72 mins.
Colour.A woman (Eden) becomes pregnant - inexplicably, as her husband
(Grizzard) is certified to be sterile. It turns out that she has been
impregnated by a wandering Martian seed. At first the unpleasant
side-effects of the pregnancy drive her to an attempted abortion, but she
finally bears a healthy child who, along with a number of other Martian
babies, floats off back towards Mars. The film, whose atmosphere of
mounting PARANOIA is well achieved, belongs to the sinister-pregnancy
movie cycle set off by Rosemary's Baby (1968). [JB/PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE. 13 bimonthly issues Feb 1939-Feb 1941, published by
Better Publications Inc.; ed Leo MARGULIES or Mort WEISINGER, uncredited.
was devoted to supernatural and weird fiction, in not very successful
competition with WEIRD TALES. Most of its covers were by Earle K. BERGEY.
Its contributors included August DERLETH, Henry KUTTNER and Manly Wade
WELLMAN. Although its companion magazines always publicized each other,
they hardly mentioned SS. The magazine has remained remarkably little
known. [MJE]

US PULP MAGAZINE. 7 issues Sep 1931-Jan 1933, published by Clayton
Magazines; ed Harry BATES. ST (subtitled "of Mystery and Terror") was a
companion magazine to Astounding Stories ( ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION) and
was similar in editorial policy to WEIRD TALES; it carried very little sf.
Its contributors included Robert E. HOWARD, Clark Ashton SMITH, Jack
WILLIAMSON and others familiar to readers of ASF and Weird Tales. Its
covers were all by WESSO. Like ASF it ceased publication when the Clayton
Magazines went into liquidation, but was not revived when STREET & SMITH
acquired the rights to the Clayton magazines. Strange Tales (anth 1976) is
a facsimile collection of stories from the magazine.2. UK DIGEST
weird-story reprint magazine; 2 undated issues 1946, published by Utopian
Publications; ed Walter GILLINGS, uncredited, and featuring stories by,
among others, Robert BLOCH, Ray BRADBURY, H.P. LOVECRAFT, Clark Ashton
SMITH, Jack WILLIAMSON and John Beynon Harris (John WYNDHAM). [MJE/PN]

1. UK tv serial (1956). ATV. Prod Arthur Lane. Dir Quentin Lawrence,
starring William Lucas, David Garth, Helen Cherry, Maudie Edwards.
Teleplay Rene RAY. 7 25min episodes. Scientists discover a formula giving
access to the 4th DIMENSION and, with others, are thereby transported to
the abstractly arid Planet X.2. UK film (1958; vt The Cosmic Monster).
Eros/DCA. Dir Gilbert Gunn, starring Forrest Tucker, Gaby Andre, Martin
Benson, Wyndham Goldie. Screenplay Paul Ryder, Joe Ambor, based on The
Strange World of Planet X * (1957) by Rene Ray. 75 mins. B/w.A mad
scientist's magnetic experiments rupture Earth's ionosphere, thereby
permitting the penetration of cosmic rays (!), which create giant insects
on an area of Earth 80 miles (130km) across. The creatures are eventually
destroyed by a friendly ALIEN. The special effects were manifestly done on
a tiny budget; the film is normally regarded as mediocre. Its immediate
source was probably Ray's novelization of 1, rather than the series
itself, since the plot-lines differ. In the film, Planet X is Earth and
the Cosmic Monster is Man. [PN/JB]

(1950- ) US writer whose first sf novel, The Mall from OuterSpace (1987),
was a juvenile in which shopping malls are taken over byaliens. His
remaining sf consists of film TIES: Honey, IBlew up the Kid* (1992); Super
MarioBrothers* (1993) and Addams FamilyValues* (1993). [JC]

(1869-1930) US dime-novel writer ( DIME-NOVEL SF), entrepreneur and mass
producer of boys' books. He is chiefly important as the operator of the
Stratemeyer Syndicate, a story factory (or packager) that produced
hundreds of boys' and girls' books in such popular series as The Bobbsey
Twins, The Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew and many others. ETS prepared plot
summaries, farmed out writing to a stable of freelance writers to whom he
paid pittances, and sold the products to publishers. The Great Marvel
series as by Roy ROCKWOOD, the first 6 vols of which were written out by
Howard R. GARIS, constitutes perhaps the first clothbound sf series in any
language. The TOM SWIFT books, written by Garis 1910-32, were the most
popular boys' books of all time. Borderline series included Don Sturdy
(collaborator unknown) and Bomba, the Jungle Boy (collaborator unknown).
After ETS's death his daughter Harriet Stratemeyer ADAMS successfully
carried on the syndicate. [EFB]


(1892-1950) UK writer whose only full-scale sf novel, The Dust which is
God: An Undimensional Adventure (1907), tamely depicts a world which has
evolved religiously. In 5000 A.D.: A Review and an Excursion, Read Before
ye Sette of Odd Volumes at Oddenino's Imperial Restaurant on Jan. 24th,
1911 (coll 1911 chap) the review is of the sf genre and the excursion is a

(1943- ) A member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology SF
Society, for whom he compiled Index to the S-F Magazines, 1951-1965
(1966), a BIBLIOGRAPHY which covers the same years as Norman METCALF's
similar index; both succeed the original index for 1926-50 by Donald B.
DAY. Unlike Metcalf's, ESS's book is compiled from a computer printout,
and contains an issue-by-issue contents listing of the magazines for the
period, in addition to story and author indexes. The MIT group, now known
as N.E.S.F.A (New England Science Fiction Association) has produced
subsequent vols, starting with Index to the Science Fiction Magazines
1966-1970 (1971), with annual vols since, which, from 1971, have also
indexed the contents of original anthologies. A well known fan, EES wrote
The Complete Guide to Science Fiction Conventions (1983 chap). [PN]

Important US magazine publisher, established in the 19th century with
various dime-novel series like Good News and The Nugget Library, and
publishing early juvenile sf in the Tom Edison Jr. and Electric Bob
series. The general-fiction The POPULAR MAGAZINE (1903-31) published a
good few sf stories too. S&S was particularly famous for its Westerns,
including Ned Buntline's deeply influential Buffalo Bill Cody stories,
which helped mythologize the West. S&S were prominent in the splitting of
PULP MAGAZINES into various genres, each aiming to have a market leader,
one example being Detective Story Magazine. S&S was also the first to
carry over from dime-novel publishing the idea of a pulp magazine devoted
to a single character, with the very successful The Shadow (1931-49),
whose adventures bordered sometimes on sf ( Walter B. GIBSON), The Avenger
( Paul ERNST) and, rather closer to sf, DOC SAVAGE MAGAZINE (1933-49).When
Clayton Publishing Company, publishers of Astounding Stories ( ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION) began to flounder in 1933, S&S bought the magazine in
order to fill yet another market niche. S&S's considerable financial
backing meant that ASF could pay quite good rates, get good stories, and
compete strongly in the market, which it did. Later, S&S (and editor John
W. CAMPBELL Jr) added a fantasy companion magazine, UNKNOWN (later Unknown
Worlds). S&S's period of power coincided with the pulp boom; from 1948 the
firm was phasing out its pulp publication and, with paperback books and tv
increasingly threatening the dominance of the magazines, declining in
importance ( PUBLISHING). S&S expired in 1961; its only remaining sf
title, ASF, was sold to Conde Nast, the last S&S issue being Jan 1961.

(1950- ) US Native American writer - the suggestion has been bruited that
CS is the pseudonym of a Cherokee who does not wish to reveal his real
name, but this has not been confirmed. He has written as CS and under
other names, by himself and in collaboration; at least 40 of the 80 or
more stories claimed for him must be under unrevealed names. As CS, he
began publishing for If in 1974 with the well known "Time Deer", a
runner-up for the 1975 NEBULA; 2 other tales appeared simultaneously. From
the mid-1970s he maintained a publishing connection with a Dutch house,
and his first collection appeared initially in Dutch as Als Al Andere
Faalt (coll 1976 Netherlands), only later gaining English-language release
as If All Else Fails (exp coll 1980). His first book in English was The
Bleeding Man and Other Science Fiction Stories (coll 1977) for older
children. Intensely written, spare, though with lunges into flamboyance,
committed and often moving, his tales frequently combine prose rhythms and
subject matter connoting a Native American background with more usual sf
themes like COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS, as in "When They Find You" from
the latter vol. Though passionately couched, this work is sometimes crude
in its opposition of the total horror of the White world with the mythic
"naturalness" of the Native American: there is a sense, perhaps, of
protesting too much. Later collections include Dreams that Burn in the
Night (coll 1982) and Death Chants (coll 1988), the latter - as its title
signifies - dealing frequently with terminal moments, though at times
comically.After some children's fantasies - those published in English
include Paint Your Face on a Drowning in the River (1978), When
Grandfather Journeys into Winter (1979) and Big Thunder Magic (1990) - and
the non-genre Burn Down the Night (1982), CS published a carnival fantasy,
To Make Death Love Us (1987) as by Sovereign Falconer, and Death in the
Spirit House (1988), over which controversy reigned for some time due to
accusations by Ron MONTANA that the book had been plagiarized, very nearly
in whole, from a manuscript given by him to CS. Granting only a modicum of
Montana's case, CS mounted an elaborate defence. As part of an agreed
settlement, Montana's version of the book was eventually published as Face
in the Snow (1992), as by Montana and without reference to CS. [JC]


(1939- ) UK sf and film critic, anthologist, teacher, and director of a
film library. In 1969 he initiated one of the first adult evening classes
in sf in the UK, sponsored by the University of London ( SF IN THE
CLASSROOM), which continued until 1992. PS's Science Fiction Movies (1976)
is a witty, rather helter-skelter account of sf CINEMA, one of the best
early books on the subject (despite its lack of a filmography); his film
criticism continues to appear in Monthly Film Bulletin (now incorporated
in Sight and Sound). Antigrav (anth 1975) ed PS assembles funny sf short
fiction, including John BROSNAN's first-published story. [PN]

Working name of US writer William Bradley Strickland (1947- ), who has
concentrated mainly on fantasy, most notably perhaps in early stories like
"The Herders of Grimm" for FSF in 1984 and in the Jeremy Moon sequence -
Moon Dreams (1988), Nul's Quest (1989) and Wizard's Mole (1991) - which
conveys its protagonist into a wittily constructed dream world, where he
takes his stand. BS's first novel, To Stand beneath the Sun (1986), is an
sf adventure whose protagonist must come to terms with a world dominated
by women. Ark Liberty (1992) as by Will Bradley treats the ecocatastrophic
( ECOLOGY) near-death of Earth with melodramatic panache, pitting its
scientist hero against suicidal governments and embedding him - after his
physical death - into the eponymous undersea biome as its computer mentor
and spirit, while centuries pass. [JC]Other works: ShadowShow (1988);
Children of the Knife (1990), medical horror; Dragon's Plunder (1992);
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Star Ghost * (1994) and Star Trek: Deep Space
Nine: Stowaways * (1994).

(1945- ) US writer, much better known for horror novels like The Wolfen
(1978) and The Hunger (1981) than for his sf. War Day: And the Journey
Onward (1984) with James Kunetka (1944) is a remarkably detailed post-
HOLOCAUST tour of the USA after a 1988 nuclear conflict. Wolf of Shadows
(1985) is a juvenile set in a post-holocaust nuclear winter. Nature's End
(1986), again with Kunetka, is set in a NEAR-FUTURE world devastated by
OVERPOPULATION (see also ECOLOGY). Communion: A True Story (1987) and
Transformation: The Breakthrough (1988) purport to be nonfictional
accounts of his encounters with visiting ALIEN intelligences ( UFOS).
Communion was filmed as COMMUNION (1989). Also centred on ufology is his
sf novel Majestic (1989; rev 1990), whose subject is the so-called Roswell
Incident of 1947 (when, some claim, a UFO crashed in the New Mexico desert
and the US Government mounted an extraordinary cover-up that persists to
this day); putatively based on meticulously researched background detail,
the novel incorporates, without acknowledgement or permission, a summary
derived from secondary sources of David LANGFORD's fictional An Account of
a Meeting with Denizens of Another World, 1871 (1979 as by William Robert
Loosley, ed Langford) ( PSEUDO-SCIENCE). [JC]Other works: Black Magic
(1982); The Night Church (1983); Cat Magic (1986 as Jonathan Barry with
WS; 1987 as WS alone); The Wild (1991); Unholy Fire (1992); The Forbidden
Zone (1993).See also: PARANOIA.

Pseudonym of US writer Thomas E(dward) Renn (1939- ), author of the
unremarkable sf adventure A Promising Planet(1970 dos). [JC]

(1874-1956) Canadian writer prolific in several genres from 1894, though
he concentrated on the Canadian genre of survival tales set in the
northern wilds. The Man who Couldn't Sleep (coll 1919 US) and The Wolf
Woman (1928 US) are fantasy. Of sf interest are a film tie, The Story
without a Name * (1924) with Russell Holman, in which a DEATH RAY appears,
and The Woman who Couldn't Die (1929 US), whose Viking heroine, after
spending 900 years in an ice-floe in a LOST WORLD (inhabited by blond
Eskimos whose culture is based upon worshipping her) in northern Canada,
is resurrected through blood transfusions injected by a mad scientist,
only to fall fatally in love with one of his fellow intruders into the
lost world. [JC]


Charles Wicksteed ARMSTRONG.

[s] Algis BUDRYS.

(1925-1991) and BORIS (NATANOVICH) (1931- ) Russian writers. Before they
began to collaborate in the early 1950s, AS studied English and Japanese,
and worked as a technical translator and editor, and BS was a computer
mathematician at Pulkovo astronomical observatory. The brothers' first
books made up an interplanetary cycle: Strana bagrovykh tuch ["The Country
of Crimson Clouds"] (1959); Shest' spichek ["Six Matches"] (coll 1960);
Put'na Amal'teiu (coll 1960), the lead novella of which was trans Leonid
Kolesnikov as the title story of Destination: Amaltheia (anth 1962 USSR);
Vozvrashchenie (Polden'. 22-i vek) (coll of linked stories 1962; exp to 22
stories vt Polden', XXII vek (Vozvrashchenie) 1967; trans Patrick L.
MCGUIRE as Noon: 22nd Century 1978 US); and Stazhery (coll of linked
stories 1962; trans Antonina W. Bouis as Space Apprentice 1982 US). This
optimistic future HISTORY, set on or near Earth over a two-century period,
espouses the romance of exploration and humanity's UTOPIAN thrust forward
against the forces of Nature, and is acted out by believable vernacular
heroes.A second phase soon began, in which utopian hopefulness did not
survive unscathed. In "Dalekaia Raduga" (1963 Russia; trans Alan Myers as
Far Rainbow 1967 USSR), history, with its pain, invades human existence
through a physical catastrophe (which kills nearly all of the characters
remaining alive from the first cycle). In Trudno byt' bogom (1964; trans
Wendayne Ackerman from the German as Hard to be a God 1973 US) the
darkness of history is - more directly - demonstrated on a feudal planet,
where an observer from Earth finds it impossible to conclude that utopian
intervention on his part will do any more than stun the world into a
numbing dictatorship. But the unaltered world is dangerous and iniquitous,
with premonitions of fascism and Stalinism clearly hinting to the visitor
that, without intervention, huge tragedies will ensue. The successful
marriage of vivid historical novel and sf makes this the brothers'
paradigmatic early work. The book was filmed as TRUDNO BYT' BOGOM
(1989).Far Rainbow later appeared, along with "Vtoroe nashestvie marsian"
(1968) as Far Rainbow/The Second Invasion from Mars (coll trans Bouis [Far
Rainbow] and Gary Kern [Second Invasion] 1979 US); the second tale is a
Jonathan SWIFT-like masterpiece in which the INVASION is seen through the
journal of a philistine who blindly registers the Martians' use of
consumerism and conformity to transform humans into commodities. In this
third phase, the brothers' darkening vision tended to express itself in
VOLTAIRE-style FABULATIONS, where a formal mastery of expressionist plots
cunningly exposed the societal bewilderment and growing bureaucratic
sclerosis of their native Russia. In Ponedel'nik nachinaetsia v subbotu
(1965; trans Leonid Renen as Monday Begins on Saturday 1977 US), folktale
motifs are masterfully updated to embody in a dark picaresque the black
and white MAGIC of modern alienated science and society. The sequel,
Skazka o troike (1968 in a Russian magazine; 1972 Germany; trans Bouis as
Tale of the Troika), which appeared with "Piknik na obochine" (1972
Avrora; trans Bouis as Roadside Picnic) in Roadside Picnic/Tale of the
Troika (coll 1977 US), even more bleakly exposed the
"scientifico-administrative" bureaucracy of the time. Roadside Picnic was
turned by the brothers into 11 different scenarios for Andrei TARKOVSKY's
STALKER (1979). The two stories, as published together in English, are an
ideal introduction to this phase of their career. A final third-phase
tale, Ulitka na sklone (part 1 in Ellinskii sekret [anth 1966] as
"Kandid", part 2 1968 Baikal as "Pepper"; trans Alan Myers as The Snail on
the Slope fixup 1980 US), is constructed as two interlocked stories set in
an overpoweringly alien forest swamp; the two protagonists, Kandid and
Pepper, respond differently to the world, the first in a "naive" stream of
consciousness, the second in the guise of a Kafkaesque bureaucrat. The
Kandid sequences are remarkably eloquent. The overall title is an image of
the uncertainties of knowing: humanity climbs towards knowledge as a snail
climbs a mountain.A fourth and even more sombre phase begins with the
Maxim Trilogy - Obitaemyi ostrov (1969-71; trans Helen Saltz Jacobson as
Prisoners of Power 1978 US), "Zhuk v muraveinike" (1979-80 Znanie-sila;
trans Bouis as Beetle in the Anthill 1980 US) and "Volney gasiat veter"
(1985-6 Znanie-sila; trans Bouis as The Time Wanderers 1987 US) - in which
the sometimes consoling glow of fable is stripped from abrupt and violent
stories as the (at times) incongruously juvenile heroes confront scenes of
increasing alienation and desperation. In Gadkie lebedi (1966-7 in a
Russian magazine; 1972 Germany [edn disavowed]; trans A.E. and A.
Nakhimovsky as THE UGLY SWANS 1979 US [also disavowed]; trans as Children
of Rain c1987 USSR), the metaphysical swamp of The Snail on the Slope is
transfigured into a mysterious fog which envelops Moscow, and which seems
to engender all manner of intrusions. The fog is a signal of the death of
the old world, and a highly dubious harbinger of a new: the children of
the tale, justifying its title (a play on that of the famous fable by Hans
Christian Andersen), seem to be entering into metamorphosis and a future
which may (possibly) be bright. "Za milliard let do kontsa sveta" (1976-7
Znanie-sila; trans Bouis as Definitely Maybe: A Manuscript Discovered
under Unusual Circumstances 1978 US) again combines fable and a bleak
depiction of the social world as SCIENTISTS attempt (in a manner evocative
of the work of Stanislaw LEM) to parse an implacably unknowable "force"
which seems to be paralysing human progress.Their last works, published
only in the glasnost period, were: Khromaia sud'ba ["Lame Destiny"] (fixup
1989), which intertwines THE UGLY SWANS with other material from 1986;
Grad obrechennyi ["The Doomed City"] (written 1970-87; 1989), perhaps
their weightiest work to date; and Otiagoshchennye zlom, ili sorok let
spustia ["Burdened by Evil, or 40 Years After"] (1989), which was
evocative of the work of Mikhail BULGAKOV. Over their career, the brothers
moved from a comparatively sunny vision in which utopia could be aimed at
in the NEAR FUTURE to a sense that the tensions between utopian ethics and
the inscrutable overwhelmingness of stasis were in fact irresolvable. They
became the best Soviet sf writers, legitimate continuers of a Russian
tradition extending from Nikolai Gogol ( RUSSIA) and Shchedrin (Mikhail E.
Saltykov [1826-1889]) to Vladimir MAYAKOVSKY and Yuri Olesha (1889-1960);
and half a dozen of their novels, in their recognition that a people
without cognitive ethics devolves into a predatory bestiary, approach
major literature. After the death of Arkady in 1991, it remained uncertain
whether or not Boris would continue writing alone. [DS]Other works:
Khishchnye veshchi veka (1965; trans Leonid Renen as The Final Circle of
Paradise 1976 US);"Otel' 'U pogibshchego alpinista'" ["Hotel 'To the Lost
Climber'" (1970 Iunost'), filmed in 1979 (vt Dead Mountaineer Hotel) and
trans as The Hotel of the Lost Alpinist (a ghost title because the
English-language publisher went out of business); Escape Attempt (coll
trans 1982 US).As editors: The Molecular Cafe (anth 1968 Russia), ed anon.
About the authors: "Criticism of the Strugatskii Brothers' Work" by Darko
SUVIN, Canadian-American Slavic Studies #2 (Summer 1972); "The Literary
Opus of the Strugatskii Brothers" by Suvin, Canadian-American Slavic
Studies #3 (Fall 1974); "Future History, Soviet Style: The Work of the
Strugatsky Brothers" by Patrick L. MCGUIRE, Critical Encounters #11 ed Tom
Staicar; Soviet Fiction since Stalin: Science, Politics, and Literature
(1986) by R.J. Marsh; The Second Marxian Invasion: The Fiction of the
Strugatsky Brothers (1991) by Stephen W. Potts.See also: DISCOVERY AND



Stuart GORDON.


(1902- ) Irish writer, perceptions of whose long and controversial career
were shaped by the fact that - although averse to Nazism - he stayed in
Berlin during WWII as an Irish neutral, an experience recounted with chill
brilliance in Black List, Section H (1971 US), his most famous single
novel. Of his many books, some are fantasy, including Women and God (1931
UK), Try the Sky (1933 UK), A Hole in the Head (1977 UK) and Faillandia
(1985), the latter book set in an imaginary Ireland in the throes of a
military takeover. Pigeon Irish (1932 UK), set in a bleak battle-torn
NEAR-FUTURE Europe, is sf, as is Glory (1933 UK), in which the
world-dominating Trans-Continental Aero-Routes corporation is threatened
by intrigues. [JC]

Alistair MACLEAN.



Film (1985). Larco/New World. Prod (with Peter Sabiston) and dir Larry
COHEN, starring Michael Moriarty, Andrea Marcovicci, Garrett Morris,
Patrick O'Neal. Screenplay Cohen. 87 mins. Colour.The Stuff is an
addictive, gooey fast food which, though passive, is in all other respects
a traditional monster; this MONSTER MOVIE is, in the Cohen manner, an
atypical one. The baleful Stuff, originally found in a hole in the ground,
takes over its victims when they eat it, sometimes rendering them
homicidal. Moriarty plays with verve the industrial spy hired by other
food manufacturers to get the truth about this new commercial success, and
a satire ensues on corporate and individual greed, private right-wing
armies, conformity and the nuclear family. This is a silly, not very well
organized film that occasionally surprises with moments of truth and even
of real horror. [PN]

(1918-1985) Working name of US writer born Edward Hamilton Waldo in New
York City, later adopting his stepfather's surname and taking on a new
first name; Argyll (coll 1993 chap) prints a long anguished letter TS
wrote to his stepfather, plus an autobiographical essay from 1965, both of
which more than confirm the hints of emotional turmoil implied by these
name changes. Certainly TS early suffered or entered into several exiles:
illness cut him off from any chance he might become a gymnast; when still
a teenager he went to sea, where he spent 3 years while at the same time
making his first fiction sales (1937) to McClure's syndicate for newspaper
publication; after beginning to publish sf with "Ether Breather" for ASF
(1939) he remained active as a member of the small band of genre-sf
writers for only a few years before he abruptly stopped producing; he then
spent half a decade abroad, variously employed, before returning to his
primary career in 1946. The next 15 years saw him produce, in an almost
constant flood, virtually all the remaining stories and novels for which
he is remembered. Then, for the last 25 years of his life, except for 2-3
short periods of renewed flow, he was silent. Given that all of TS's best
work somehow or other moves from alienation to some form of transcendent
community, it might - crassly - be suggested that, in his own life, it was
story-writing itself which represented that blissful movement towards
acceptance and resolution which makes so many of his tales so emotionally
fulfilling, and that when he was silent he was in exile. Certainly there
can be no denying the green force that shoots through even the silliest
PULP-MAGAZINE conceits to which he put his mind, or the sense of achieved
and joyful tour de force generated by his best work.He had, one might say,
a binary career: either he was writing nothing or he was writing at a high
pitch. Of his approximately 175 stories, a very high proportion are as
successful as he was allowed to be in a field not well designed, during
his active years, to accommodate sf tales told with raw passion. TS was,
in fact, initially less comfortable with ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION than
with UNKNOWN, and that magazine's demise may have had something to do with
his first departure from the field. In those first 3 years, however, he
produced more than 25 stories, all in ASF and Unknown, using the
pseudonyms E. Waldo Hunter or E. Hunter Waldo on occasions when he had 2
stories in an issue; several of the 25 remain among his best known,
including "It" (1940 ASF; 1948 chap) and "Microcosmic God" (1941). Along
with A.E. VAN VOGT, Robert A. HEINLEIN and Isaac ASIMOV, TS was a central
contributor to and shaper of John W. CAMPBELL Jr's so-called GOLDEN AGE OF
SF, though less comfortably than his colleagues, as even in those early
years, while obeying the generic commands governing the creation of
Campbellian technological or HARD SF, he was also writing sexually
threatening, explorative tales like "Bianca's Hands" which, refused by US
markets, finally appeared in the UK in 1947.In the late 1940s and the
1950s TS came into his full stride, and almost all his collections sort
and resort this material. They are Without Sorcery (coll 1948; cut vt Not
Without Sorcery 1961), E PLURIBUS UNICORN (coll 1953), A Way Home (coll
1955; with 2 stories cut 1956; with 3 stories cut, vt Thunder and Roses
1957 UK), Caviar (coll 1955), A Touch of Strange (coll 1958; with 2
stories cut 1959), Aliens 4 (coll 1959), Beyond (coll 1960), Sturgeon in
Orbit (coll 1964), . . . And My Fear is Great/Baby is Three (coll 1965),
Starshine (coll 1966; 3 uncollected stories plus reprints), The Worlds of
Theodore Sturgeon (coll 1972), The Stars are the Styx (coll 1979), The
Golden Helix (coll 1979) and Alien Cargo (coll 1984). A late compilation,
A Touch of Sturgeon (coll 1987 UK) ed David PRINGLE, usefully selects from
this mass; and a definitive attempt to publish his entire short fiction
began with The Ultimate Egoist (coll 1994) ed Paul WILLIAMS. Although he
continued to contribute to ASF for several years, most of the work
assembled in these collections first appeared in newer and more flexible
markets like GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION, where he published much of his best
work after 1950. Though shibboleths ( TABOOS) still haunted editors of
GENRE SF, he clearly felt increasingly free to write stories expressive of
his sense that sexual diversity, sexual "abnormality" and love - however
manifested - constituted a set of codes or maps capable of leading maimed
adolescents out of alienation and into the light. Though most of his
explorations of this material seem unexceptionable in 1992, stories like
"The World Well Lost" (1953), about ALIENS exiled from their own culture
because of their homosexuality, created considerable stir in the 1950s (
SEX). Though the road to liberation (or transcendent community) was
sometimes solely internal, the dictates of sf and fantasy, and TS's own
romantic impulses, generated a large number of tales in which CHILDREN,
gifted with paranormal powers, must fight against a repressive world until
they meet others of their kind. TS's short stories read like instruction
manuals for finding the new world.The most famous examples of the sense of
enablement he generated, however, were his 3 best novels. The Dreaming
Jewels (1950; vt The Synthetic Man 1957) is an enjoyable and sophisticated
tale whose young protagonist, forced to run away to a circus by wicked
step-parents, gradually becomes aware of his powers, and defeats the evil
adult forces about him. MORE THAN HUMAN (fixup 1953), winner of the 1954
INTERNATIONAL FANTASY AWARD and TS's most famous single title, consists of
3 connected stories, "Baby is Three" (1952 Gal) plus 2 novellas written
around it. With very considerable intensity it depicts the coming together
of 6 deeply alienated "freaks" into a PSI-POWERED gestalt, where they
achieve true maturity. In The Cosmic Rape (1958) a HIVE-MIND from the
stars invades mankind but finds itself - to its ultimate betterment -
catalysing Homo sapiens as a racial entity into one gestalt: the sense of
homecoming generated by the final pages of this short book is deeply
touching.Though TS won both HUGO and NEBULA for one of his infrequent
later stories, "Slow Sculpture" (1970), his later career was not happy.
Venus Plus X (1960), however, bravely came as close to a traditional
UTOPIA as any US genre-sf writer had approached before the efforts of Mack
REYNOLDS. Charlie Johns awakens in Ledom (that is, Model), a melodious
unisex society, longingly and effectively depicted as having transcended
that sexual divisiveness of mankind against which TS always argued, and
finds that he has been roused so as to examine Ledom and judge its
success. Though he discovers to his distress that the androgynous bliss of
Ledom depends not on a mutation but on surgery immediately after birth,
the final message of the novel combines didactic arguments for and against
this vision of human paradise with longing for its realization. Later
stories were assembled in Sturgeon is Alive and Well . . . (coll 1971) and
Case and the Dreamer (coll 1974). Godbody (1986), a short novel on which
he had been working for some time before his death, weakly reiterates
earlier paeans to transcendence. But the continued publication of stories
from the years of his prime helped maintain an appropriate sense of TS as
a writer of very considerable stature. His influence upon writers like
Harlan ELLISON and Samuel R. DELANY was seminal, and in his life and work
he was a powerful and generally liberating influence in post-WWII US sf.
Though his mannerisms were sometimes self-indulgent, though his excesses
of sympathy for tortured adolescents sometimes gave off a sense of
self-pity, and though his technical experiments were perhaps less
substantial than their exuberance made them seem, his very faults
illuminated the stresses of being a US author writing for pay in an
alienated era and in the solitude of his craft. [JC]Other works: The Rare
Breed (1966), a Western, as are the stories in Sturgeon's West (coll
1973), 3 of which are with Don Ward; I, Libertine (1956), a historical
novel as by Frederick R. Ewing; The King and Four Queens (1956), a
detective novel; Some of Your Blood (1961), a non-sf study of a
blood-drinking psychotic; Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea * (1961), a
novelization of VOYAGE TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA (1961); an Ellery Queen
detection, The Player on the Other Side (1963) as by Ellery Queen; The
Joyous Invasions (coll 1965 UK), which includes 2 stories from Aliens 4
together with "To Marry Medusa", which was later exp as The Cosmic Rape,
both being reissued as The Cosmic Rape and "To Marry Medusa" (coll 1977);
To Here and the Easel (coll 1973 UK), all stories previously collected;
Amok Time * (graph 1978), a STAR TREK "fotonovel"; More Than Human: The
Graphic Story Version (graph 1979); Maturity: Three Stories (coll 1979);
Pruzy's Pot (1972 The National Lampoon; 1986 chap); The [Widget], the
[Wadget], and Boff (1955 FSF; 1989 dos); The Dreaming Jewels/The Cosmic
Rape/Venus Plus X (omni 1990).About the author: Theodore Sturgeon: A
Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1980) and Theodore Sturgeon (1981
chap), both by Lahna F. Diskin; Theodore Sturgeon (1981) by Lucy

[r] Kris NEVILLE.



Film (1991). New Line Cinema. Dir Burt Kennedy, starring Hulk Hogan,
Christopher Lloyd, Shelley Duvall, Larry Miller. Screenplay by Frank
Capello. 90 mins. Colour.This modest, affable sf comedy about a large,
rough, humanoid ALIEN (pro wrestling star Hogan) who crashlands on Earth
after being temporarily retired as an interstellar righter of wrongs, sets
its sights rather low, and does quite well. The primitive but effective
humour is in the wish-fulfilment fantasy of seeing one kind of nastiness -
as found in a somewhat blue-collar Californian suburb - getting its
comeuppance from a more "decent" brand of brutality. Lloyd plays the
put-upon husband who learns not to let them kick sand in his face, and
helps defeat the MONSTER disguised as a human who seeks to rule the
Galaxy. [PN]

[r] S.P. SOMTOW.


(1900-1964) UK writer, mostly for children, who began publishing work of
genre interest as Alan Griff with stories like "House of Desolation" for
Cornhill in 1934; his first sf book, a novel for adults, was Lost Men in
the Grass (1940) ( GREAT AND SMALL) as by Griff. The third novella
assembled in Masterless Swords: Variations on a Theme (coll of linked
stories 1947) is set in a future where men wage war on women. DS soon
became - and remained - best known for his juvenile sf novels, beginning
with The Star Raiders (1950) and The Death of Metal (1952); the most
notable is perhaps Village Fanfare, or The Man from the Future (1934
Cornhill as by Griff; much exp 1954), a TIME-TRAVEL tale in which a 1907
Shropshire village is visited from the future by a man looking for, and
finding, human wisdom in his past. Prisoners of Saturn (1957) is a SPACE
OPERA. Some of DS's non-sf books, like Tower of Babel (1962), have some
fantasy content. [JC]Other work: Scarlet-Dragon: A Little Chinese Phantasy
(1923 chap).See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

Donald S. ROWLAND.

(1868-1947) Canadian writer who spent much of his adult life in the UK,
and who was prolific in various genres, including detective fiction as
Sinclair Murray. His fantasies include The Jade God (1924), In the Days of
their Youth (1926), The Magic Makers (1930), Mr Absalom (1930) and ". . .
And from that Day" (1944). Of sf interest is In the Beginning (1927), a
LOST-WORLD tale set - as so often in the early 20th century - in the
Andes; this one contains ancient species and some Neanderthals (unusually
far south). In A Little Way Ahead (1929) an ordinary man, suddenly
becoming prescient, makes money on the Stock Exchange, but is doomed by
personal flaws. [JC]

Jerry SOHL.

(1927- ) UK writer, sometimes of criticism as by Sheila Bathurst. Her sf
novel Summer Rising (1975; vt The Calling of Bara 1976 US) depicts a post-
HOLOCAUST trek across a peaceful Ireland. [JC]

(1948- ) US writer and editor who began publishing sf with stories like
"My Father's Head" for Chrysalis 5 (anth 1979) ed Roy TORGESON and "The
Rauncher Goes to Tinker Town" for New Dimensions 9 (anth 1979) ed Robert
SILVERBERG, tales whose sophistication led to some disappointment when his
first-published novels turned out to be 3 "V" ties: "V": The Florida
Project * (1985), "V": The New England Resistance * (1985) and "V": To
Conquer the Throne * (1987). The published order of TS's books is,
however, deceptive, as his first-written novel, Destiny's End (1988),
suffered delays and modifications from its initially intended publisher.
The book proved to be a complexly moody depiction of humanity at the end
of its tether in an array of DYING-EARTH venues, as ALIEN races with
quasimagical technologies manipulate the course of events. The Parasite
War (1989) and The Martian Viking (1991) likewise demonstrate a nascent
vigour, and TM seems to be one of those authors whose time might, finally,
come.Two anthologies, Tropical Chills (anth 1988) and Cold Shocks (anth
1991), composed of carefully selected original and reprinted material,
mostly horror, demonstrate TM's editorial acuteness. [JC]

Boris VIAN.


The Sun, as the energy-source which permits life to exist on Earth, was
widely worshipped in the ancient world. After the Copernican Revolution it
became the hub of the Universe, but with the advent of a broader view of
the cosmos it lost some of its prestige. Some speculative writers of the
19th century considered it a world like any other and included it in
cosmic tours; examples are the anonymous Journeys into the Moon, Several
Planets and the Sun (1837) and Joel R. Peabody's A World of Wonders
(1838). Several early sf stories, assuming the Sun to be sustained by
combustion, anticipated the day when it would burn out; examples are
Camille FLAMMARION's Omega (1893-4), H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895),
George C. WALLIS's "The Last Days of Earth" (1901) and William Hope
HODGSON's The House on the Borderland (1908) ( END OF THE WORLD). Clark
Ashton SMITH recalls the imagery of Hodgson's novel in "Phoenix" (1954), a
poignant but anachronistic story about the reignition of the dying Sun (by
the time the story was written - in the 1930s - it had long been known
that the Sun produced heat by nuclear fusion), an idea ingeniously
recapitulated in Gene WOLFE's Book of the New Sun series (1980-83).
Although the Sun's surface temperature had been established
spectroscopically in the 1890s, John MASTIN was still able to imagine, in
Through the Sun in an Airship (1909), exactly such a voyage, and H. KANER
set The Sun Queen (1946) on a sunspot.J.B.S. HALDANE's "The Last Judgment"
(1927) and Olaf STAPLEDON's LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930) imagine changes in
the Sun's brilliance as crucial factors in Man's future EVOLUTION. In "Ark
of Fire" (1943) by John Hawkins the Earth is moved nearer to the Sun, with
predictable consequences for surface life. In numerous DISASTER stories
the Sun goes nova, although some humans usually manage to escape, as in J.
T. MCINTOSH's One in Three Hundred (1954). In Edmond HAMILTON's
"Thundering Worlds" (1934) the 9 planets themselves become interstellar
wanderers, accelerating towards a new star. In Arthur C. CLARKE's "Rescue
Party" (1946) ALIENS arrive to save mankind but find that their aid is
unnecessary, and in Norman SPINRAD's The Solarians (1966) the nova is
induced to destroy an alien spacefleet, while the human race makes its
escape. In Edward WELLEN's Hijack (1971) disinformation about such a nova
is used in order to trick the Mafia into hijacking a spacefleet and
blasting off for the stars. Stories which make a detailed study of
reactions to the news that the Sun may go nova include Hugh KINGSMILL's
"The End of the World" (1924) and Larry NIVEN's "Inconstant Moon" (1971).
The hero of George O. SMITH's Troubled Star (1953) discovers that aliens
want to make the Sun into a variable star so that it may serve as an
interstellar lighthouse.The notion that the Sun might be the abode of life
is developed in Stapledon's The Flames (1947) and Hamilton's "Sunfire!"
(1962). Sun-consuming lifeforms hatch out of the planets in Jack
WILLIAMSON's improbable "Born of the Sun" (1934). The idea that STARS
might be living beings has been developed on several occasions, but not
often applied to our own Sun; Gregory BENFORD's and Gordon EKLUND's "If
the Stars are Gods" (1974; incorporated into If the Stars are Gods, fixup
1977) is ambiguous in this respect. The Sun's significance as a religious
symbol is further exploited in The Day the Sun Stood Still (anth 1972) ed
Robert SILVERBERG, which features 3 novellas based on the premise that the
miracle granted to Joshua so that he could win a vital battle might be
repeated tomorrow to persuade mankind of the reality of divine power.The
Sun often figures in GENRE SF as a potential disaster area ready to
consume spaceships which stray too close; examples are Willy LEY's "At the
Perihelion" (1937 as by Robert Willey; vt "A Martian Adventure"), Hal
CLEMENT's "Sun Spot" (1960), Poul ANDERSON's "What'll You Give?" (1963 as
by Winston P. Sanders; vt "Que Donn'rez Vous?") and George Collyn's "In
Passage of the Sun" (1966). The weather technicians of Theodore L.
THOMAS's "The Weather Man" (1962), however, skim across the surface of the
Sun in "sessile boats" in order to control its radiation output. A spate
of dangerous radiation from the Sun plays a key role in Philip E. HIGH's
Prodigal Sun (1964), which was presumably written around its awful titular
pun; the Earth is saved through the creation of an artificial shielding
layer of gas in the upper atmosphere. A spectacular close encounter by a
space-station takes place in Charles L. HARNESS's Flight into Yesterday
(1949; 1953; vt The Paradox Men 1955 dos), and an even more spectacular
one in David BRIN's Sundiver (1980), the sf novel to date which deals most
extensively and most scrupulously with modern scientific knowledge about
the Sun.One curious aspect of the Sun's behaviour, the 11-year sunspot
cycle discovered by Heinrich Schwabe (1789-1875) in 1851, is
hypothetically correlated with Earthly events in Clifford D. SIMAK's
"Sunspot Purge" (1940) and Philip LATHAM's "Disturbing Sun" (1959). The
SOLAR WIND is featured in a number of sf stories. [BS]

US tv series (1988-91). An Alexander and Ilya Salkind Production, for
syndication. Executive prod Ilya Salkind, prod Robert Simmonds. Dirs
included Reza S. Badiyi, Colin Chilvers, Peter Kiwitt, David Grossman,
David Nutter, Richard J. Lewis. Writers included Fred Freiberger, Cary
Bates, Mark Jones, Toby Martin, Michael Carlin and Andrew Helfer, David
GERROLD. 3 seasons, 78 25min episodes in all. Colour.The Salkinds, who
made 3 of the SUPERMAN movies, here returned with a brisk, not very
expensive series based on the teenage years of Clark Kent at Shuster
University (Joe Shuster [1914-1991] was co-creator of Superman), where he
is studying with his childhood friend, glamorous Lana Lang. The time is,
anachronistically, the present. Cast changes were confusing: John Haymes
Newton played Superboy (woodenly) in season 1, then was replaced by Gerard
Christopher; Scott Wells played Lex Luthor in season 1, then was replaced
by Sherman Howard. Lana Lang was played by Stacy Haiduk, and cub reporter
T.J. White (son of Daily Planet editor Perry White) by Jim Calvert. At
only half an hour per episode there was not much room for complex
plotting. There was a laudable variety of villains (golems, werewolves,
other-dimensional imps, androids, aliens and succubi among them), but the
treatment was mostly routine. In season 3 Lana and Clark go to work for
the Bureau for Extra-Normal Matters. [PN]

UK tv series (1961-2). AP Films/ATV/ITC. From an idea by Gerry ANDERSON
and Reg Hill, produced by Anderson. Dirs included David Elliott, Alan
Pattillo, Desmond Saunders, Bill Harris. Writers were either Gerry and
Sylvia Anderson or Martin and Hugh Woodhouse. 2 seasons, 39 25min episodes
in all. B/w.This was the first of Anderson's SuperMarionation sf series
for children. Supercar, which can also travel under the sea and through
the air, was invented by Professor Popkiss and is driven by Mike Mercury
(or sometimes the talking monkey Mitch). Constant efforts to steal
Supercar are made by Masterspy. Some of the storylines are sf (mad
scientists, supermagnets); some are merely crime-fighting. The series was
a big success, and sold in the USA. More SuperMarionation series followed
( Gerry and Sylvia ANDERSON for details). [PN]

Film (1984). Artistry/Cantharus. Dir Jeannot Szwarc, starring Helen
Slater, Faye Dunaway, Peter O'Toole, Peter Cook, Brenda Vaccaro.
Screenplay David Odell, based on the Supergirl comic. 124 mins.
Colour.This is the last and least successful of the 4
SUPERMAN-and-spin-off films made by the Salkinds before they sold the
rights to Golan and Globus of Cannon Films, who went on to make SUPERMAN
IV. S is basically fantasy. The Omegahedron, a power source from Krypton's
Argo City, is lost and Supergirl (nee Kara) goes to Earth in search of it.
It has fallen into the hands of a sorceress, Selena (Dunaway). Female
superpowers are interestingly seen in terms of natural fertility rather
than physical strength: bunnies and flowers surround sweet teenager
Supergirl (Slater). The film has imaginative moments (the mountain
fortress that appears in the high street, the Dore-inspired Phantom Zone)
but is also incoherent and trite, and haltingly directed by a graduate
from tv, Szwarc, whose most acceptable sf film was his first, BUG
(1975).The novelization is Supergirl* (1984) by Norma Fox Mazer.[PN]

Superhero fiction is a genre invented in COMICS; since then it has
infiltrated the CINEMA, RADIO, TELEVISION and books. Sf stories of
supermen go back to the beginning of the century, but the particular
version of the superman theme that established the "superhero" pattern
began in Action Comics (June 1938) when the comic-book hero SUPERMAN made
his first appearance; he was soon given his own comic. Imitations soon
appeared, including CAPTAIN MARVEL (from 1940), Wonder Woman (from 1942),
Plastic Man (from 1944), Human Torch (from 1939), Captain America (from
1941) and so on. These characters differed from the PULP-MAGAZINE heroes
of the 1930s, like DOC SAVAGE, who, though highly trained and with access
to superscientific devices, were ordinary human beings; superheroes had
superpowers which, despite their varying sf rationalizations, were
effectively MAGIC abilities. (One hugely popular borderline superhero is
Batman, created as a character in 1939 and given his own comic in 1940: he
has no superpowers, and is in the line of descent from Doc Savage, not
Superman.) However, superheroes and HEROES of the period were alike in
that both spent much of their working hours struggling against crime -
often crime carried out by mad SCIENTISTS seeking to rule the world - and
in this important respect hero-fiction and superhero fiction formed a
continuum rather than two different genres. Also, then as now, superhero
fiction was (most of the time) only a borderline-sf genre. Most of the
action took place in a comic-book version of the real world, against
gangsters, secret agents and the like; the borderline-sf elements lay in
the origin of the superhero (Superman, for example, getting his power from
his birth on the alien planet Krypton) and secondarily in the often
superscientific devices used by the VILLAINS. (In this Encyclopedia we
have therefore been somewhat selective in choosing which superhero comics,
films and tv series should be given entries.)Having begun in the comics,
superheroes soon started appearing in other media: children's books, radio
serials and film serials at first. After intensive activity in the 1940s,
the superhero theme came to seem rather played out by the 1950s, since its
possible story variations seemed few. It was in the comics, again, that
the superhero found a new lease of life, notably in the work Jack KIRBY
did for MARVEL COMICS, and especially in his creation of The Fantastic
Four in 1961. (For many years Marvel propaganda had it that Stan LEE was
the true creator of the Marvel superheroes of the 1960s, with Kirby merely
the artist assigned to carry out instructions. The now- dominant
revisionist view is that Kirby was the presiding genius of the new
superhero format, which among other things involved enormous advances in
the techniques of comic-book ILLUSTRATION.) Superheros became humanized;
they aged, had neuroses, suffered angst; they often behaved badly;
sometimes they were corrupted by their constant battle against the tawdry
and the criminal; some superheroes chose to become supervillains instead;
sometimes they even had sex lives (unlike the prissy and celibate
Superman). In short, they became very much more interesting. These changes
did not happen overnight; they began with The Fantastic Four, but
developed in The Incredible Hulk from 1962, The Amazing Spider-Man in his
own comic from 1963, X-MEN (from 1963) and so on. The complex stories
developed in The Fantastic Four were particularly memorable (and
sciencefictional) when the Four found themselves pitted against Galactus,
and especially in those issues containing the most surreal superhero of
all, the temperamental and reviled Silver Surfer, imprisoned in Earth's
atmosphere by Galactus, riding capriciously through space on his surfboard
and sometimes saving Earth. He had his own comic for a while, The Silver
Surfer (1968-70).Superhero fiction since the 1960s, while it has remained
often repetitive and simplistic in its mass-market manifestations, has
developed, here and there, an extremely sophisticated edge-sometimes in
mass-market comics but more often in GRAPHIC NOVELS. One landmark was
Frank MILLER's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), which re-created
Batman in darker, more painful shades than ever before, but the
outstanding critique of the superhero comic from within the genre itself
is Alan MOORE's WATCHMEN, a coherent graphic novel which is (unusually) a
true novel in structure; its first publication constituted the 12 issues
of Watchmen (1986-7) from DC COMICS. This is true sf, which confronts with
great imaginative intensity the whole issue of what a society would be
like that did actually contain superheroes, and how corrupting and
fatiguing the state of superheroism might be. Also complex and
sophisticated, beginning at around the same time, is the WILD CARDS series
of original anthologies (from 1987) ed George R.R. MARTIN, in which
superheroes are called"Aces" for fear of copyright infringement. The Wild
Card stories (and the subsequent sequence of graphic books based on them)
imagine, among other things, how superheroes might interact with
historical process. A blackly comic novel which also forms a critique of
the superhero business is Michael BISHOP's Count Geiger's Blues
(1992).Sadly, the increasing intelligence and imagination displayed in
many superhero comics since the 1960s has seldom been reflected in their
tv and film equivalents. We do not include entries for the Spiderman or
Batman movies, or tv series like Batman (1966-8, very influential with its
stylized jokiness) or The Flash (1990 on), even though the latter is more
inventive than most of its kind; both are too far removed from sf proper.
Superhero tv series that do receive entries are The BIONIC WOMAN (1976-8),
(1979-82), SUPERBOY (1988-91), SUPERMAN (1953-7) and WONDER WOMAN
(1974-9). The notable thing about this list is that all but one (Sapphire
and Steel) are US; the superhero phenomenon is almost exclusively a US
phenomenon. The other notable thing is that these series are nearly all
infantile. One marginal superhero (not usually thought of in that light)
of greater interest than most of the above is Vincent, the Beast in BEAUTY
AND THE BEAST (1987-90); this may be due to George R.R. Martin, its chief
writer, who is very much alive to the mythic resonances of the superhero
genre.In the cinema, the superhero genre managed better, at least in the
SUPERMAN movies, than it normally did on tv, but beyond the Superman films
there is not a great deal of interest. Indeed, in the cinema people with
superpowers often come to a bad end, as in X: THE MAN WITH X-RAY EYES
(1963), The 4D MAN (1959), The DEAD ZONE (1983) and The LAWNMOWER MAN
(1992). The protagonists of The RETURN OF CAPTAIN INVINCIBLE (1982), The
TURTLES (1990) cannot be called hardcore superheroes, being respectively a
drunk, disgusting, robots, musclebound, cyborgized, hideously deformed and
pizza-eating adolescent reptiles, although in the new era of superheroes
(these all being films of the 1980s) this rag, tag and bobtail bunch may
represent precisely where the superhero genre now finds itself.The fact
still unrealized by much of the world of letters is that the best
superhero fictions are still to be found where they were found in the
first place: in the comics.[PN]

In the same way that theories of EVOLUTION provide an imaginative context
for sf stories about the ORIGIN OF MAN and LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS, so they
govern attitudes to superhumans. There is a significant difference,
though, between Darwin-inspired images of a "fitter"species and images
inspired by Lamarckian and Bergsonian ideas of"creative evolution", in
which the emergence of a superman might be the result of humankind's
fervent desire to become something finer. Also of some relevance-although
its direct influence on sf is minimal-is the philosophy of Friedrich
Nietzsche (1844-1900), with its heavy emphasis on the life-enhancing"will
to [creative] power" which might be brought to full flower in
the"Ubermensch", or "overman" .Early sf writers were surprisingly loth to
make the superman an outright figure of menace, even where Darwinian
thought was dominant: although they usually conceded that there was no
place for them in contemporary human society, and generally disposed of
them in one way or another, most were very much on the side of the
superhumans. The reasons are simple enough: most of the early writers
concerned were harshly critical of the contemporary human condition and
wholly in favour of"progress"; moreover, writers frequently credit
themselves with a proto- superhuman viewpoint. It is very easy to love the
notion of the superman if we believe that we might become supermen
ourselves, or at least be parent to their becoming; it is for this reason
that Bergsonian ideas are more frequently echoed in superman stories than
Darwinian ones, and some works-most notably George Bernard SHAW's Back to
Methuselah (1921)-are based on an explicit neo-Lamarckism. Both the
Darwin-inspired H.G. WELLS, in The Food of the Gods (1904), and the
Bergson-inspired J.D. BERESFORD , in The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911), are
allied with their superhuman characters, agreeing with their indictments
of the follies of contemporary man. The same is true of two other classic
SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES directly inspired by Beresford: E.V. ODLE's The
Clockwork Man (1923) and Olaf STAPLEDON's Odd John (1935)-although the
former carefully keeps its real superhumans (the makers of the eponymous
CYBORG) offstage, as does Claude HOUGHTON in This was Ivor Trent (1935)
whose hysterical climax represents the extremity of UK interbellum
disenchantment. The fascination which writers of scientific romance had
for the idea of superhumanity is displayed also in M.P. SHIEL's Ubermensch
stories, The Isle of Lies (1909) and The Young Men are Coming (1937),
Muriel JAEGER's The Man with Six Senses (1927) and Hermes Speaks (1933),
John HARGRAVE's The Imitation Man (1931), Wells's Star-Begotten (1937),
Andrew MARVELL's Minimum Man (1938), Beresford's "What Dreams May Come
..." (1941) and Stapledon's A Man Divided (1950). Guy DENT's Emperor of
the If (1926) is especially interesting in its sceptical examination of
the hypothesis that a more challenging environment would have produced a
fitter and better mankind.In France, Bergson's one-time pupil Alfred JARRY
produced a comic erotic fantasia of superhumanity in The Supermale (1902;
trans 1968) but The New Adam (1924; trans 1926) by Noelle ROGER, working
under the inspiration of religious rather than scientific ideas, presents
an emotionless ultrarationalistic superman as a straightforward figure of
menace. In the USA Philip WYLIE put an ordinary human mind into a
superhuman body in Gladiator (1930), and thus avoided the whole issue of
INTELLIGENCE, but his heroic superman decides of his own accord that there
is no place for him in human society and invites God to strike him dead;
God (no friend of evolution) obliges.In early GENRE SF the superman was
used as a figure of menace by John Russell FEARN in The Intelligence
Gigantic (1933; 1943), but Fearn gradually relented: the short version of
The Golden Amazon (1939 as by Thornton Ayre; rev 1944) is similar, but in
the novel version, and even more so in its many sequels, superwoman Violet
Ray is a comic-style caped crusader. The MUTANT superman in John TAINE's
Seeds of Life (1931; 1951) is also menacing, meeting his end in a
particularly horrible manner; but there is some attempt to analyse his
viewpoint with sympathy. In Stanley G. WEINBAUM's"The Adaptive Ultimate"
(1936) a scientist who creates a superwoman has to kill her in order to
protect the world from her ruthlessness, but again there is a tentative
expression of sympathy. Weinbaum had earlier written the posthumously
published The New Adam (1939), a painstaking account of a superhuman
growing up in the human world, treating the hypothesis objectively rather
than intending to criticize the contemporary human condition. The superman
suffers as a result of being a"feral child" among ordinary humans, but his
death does not put an end to the history of his kind. Publication of this
pioneering work was quickly followed by 2 novels that paved the way for a
glut of superhuman HEROES: SLAN (1940; 1946) by A.E. VAN VOGT and DARKER
THAN YOU THINK (1940; 1948) by Jack WILLIAMSON. In the former a persecuted
superchild grows into mature command of his latent powers as he confronts
a sea of troubles; in the latter the hero sets out to fight a species of
the genus Homo which threatens to replace Homo sapiens, but discovers that
he is one of the other species himself, and accepts the dictates of his
genes. In both stories a superman is unhesitatingly offered to the reader
for identification and, far from going to his destruction in the climax,
becomes something of a MESSIAH figure. This new pattern quickly became a
CLICHE of pulp sf. Van Vogt repeated it many times, other versions
including Earth's Last Fortress (1942 ASF as"Recruiting Station"; vt as
title story of Masters of Time [coll 1950]; 1960 dos),"The Changeling"
(1944), The World of A (1945; rev 1948; rev vt The World of Null-A 1970)
and The Pawns of Null-A (1948-9 ASF as "The Players of A";1956; rev vt The
Players of Null-A 1966) and Supermind (fixup 1977). Van Vogt abandoned
writing sf for some years when he became involved with L. Ron HUBBARD's
DIANETICS movement, which translocated this cliche into a PSEUDO-SCIENCE
which in turn transmuted into the RELIGION of SCIENTOLOGY. Williamson,
too, repeated the formula in Dragon's Island (1951; vt The Not-Men
1968).Genre sf of the late 1940s and early 1950s abounded with stories
about groups of noble superhumans-notably covert immortals (
IMMORTALITY)-misunderstood and unjustly persecuted by their stupid,
envious cousins. Great impetus was lent to the theme by the popularization
of J.B. Rhine's experiments in parapsychology ( ESP), which lent credence
to the idea that there might be supermen already among us, not yet aware
of their latent powers. Rhine provided a new archetype for the superhuman,
outwardly normal but possessed of one or more PSI POWERS. John W. CAMPBELL
Jr's interest in Rhine's research and in Dianetics helped to make
ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION home to a considerable"psi boom" in the early
1950s. Notable stories of persecuted Rhine-type supermen include Henry
KUTTNER's Baldy series, published as by Lewis Padgett (fixup 1953 as
MUTANT), Wilmar H. SHIRAS 's Children of the Atom (fixup 1953), Zenna
HENDERSON's People series, assembled in Pilgrimage (coll of linked stories
1961) and The People: No Different Flesh (coll of linked stories (1966),
and Wilson TUCKER's Wild Talent (1954). Sympathy for supermen was enhanced
by the frequent use of CHILDREN as protagonists, as in SLAN, Children of
the Atom, James H. SCHMITZ's The Witches of Karres (1949; exp 1966), Kris
NEVILLE's Bettyann (1951-4; fixup 1970) and George O. SMITH's The
Fourth"R" (1959; vt The Brain Machine 1968). (A cautionary note was
sounded by Jerome BIXBY's"It's a Good Life" [1953], in which a superchild
institutes a reign of terror directed towards the gratification of his
every infantile whim.) Physically afflicted supermen were occasionally
employed to the same sympathy-seeking end, as in Theodore
STURGEON's"Maturity" (1947) and John BRUNNER's THE WHOLE MAN (fixup 1964;
vt Telepathist 1965). Sometimes during this period there were secret
organizations of criminal supermen fighting against the good supermen, as
in James BLISH's Jack of Eagles (1951; rev vt ESP-er 1958) and George O.
Smith's Highways in Hiding (1956; cut vt Space Plague 1957), but even
where the superman appears to be used as an outright figure of menace, as
in Frank M. ROBINSON's The Power (1956), the good guy may only be waiting
for his own latent superpowers to develop in order to bring about that
menace's defeat. Similar leap-frogging accounts of confrontation include
Jack VANCE's"Telek" (1951) and Theodore Sturgeon's"... and my fear is
great..." (1953). The everyone-can-be-superman motif reached its ultimate
expression in Poul ANDERSON's Brain Wave (1954), in which the Earth passes
out of a zone of cosmic distortion which has been damping potential
intelligence throughout history, so that even idiots and animals get
smart. The attractiveness of the motif is exploited to the full by comics
SUPERHEROES like SUPERMAN and CAPTAIN MARVEL , whose superness is
concealed by mild-mannered"secret identities". Superhero COMICS were
popular throughout the 1940s and 1950s, and enjoyed subsequent boom
periods in the 1960s-following the resurgence of MARVEL COMICS, whose
heroes were more morally ambiguous, suffering wildly exaggerated versions
of teenage Angst and alienation-and in the 1980s, when GRAPHIC NOVELS lent
the format a new respectability, and when comic-book superheroes spilled
over into narrative fiction in George R.R. MARTIN's WILD CARDS series
of"mosaic novels" (fixups 1986 onwards) and in the Temps series created by
Neil GAIMAN, Alex Stewart (1st vol 1991) et al.L. Ron Hubbard is by no
means the only cult-creator to have sold a pseudo-scientific or
quasireligious version of this motif. Many other contemporary cults offer
their members supposed opportunities to cultivate transcendental powers as
well as arcane knowledge. The idea of the superman, and its development in
fiction, has always been entangled with religious notions of transcendence
and personal salvation ( ESCHATOLOGY), and the achievement of superpowers
in sf stories frequently recalls transcendental imagery of various kinds.
In extreme cases it comes to resemble an apotheosis. The transcendental
version of the superman myth is particularly obvious in certain works by
Charles L. HARNESS, including Flight into Yesterday (1949; exp 1953; vt
The Paradox Men), the memorable novella"The Rose" (1953; title story of
coll 1966) and THE RING OF RITORNEL (1968), and it forms the bases of the
classic novels MORE THAN HUMAN (fixup 1953) by Theodore Sturgeon and
CHILDHOOD'S END (1953) by Arthur C. CLARKE; the former tracks the
maturation of a gestalt of misfit superchildren, and their eventual
transcendental admission to a community of superminds, while the latter
has an entire generation of Earth's children undergoing an apotheosis to
fuse with the cosmic mind. The climax of Clarke's novel bears a striking
resemblance to the ideas put forward by the French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard
de Chardin (1881-1955) regarding the possible evolutionary future of
humanity within a Bergsonian scheme, as expressed in The Future of Man
(1959; trans 1964). A similar"cosmic mind" is featured in The Uncensored
Man (1964) by Arthur SELLINGS, and superhuman apotheoses are also found in
The Infinite Cage (1972) by Keith LAUMER and Tetrasomy Two (1974) by Oscar
ROSSITER. Images of transcendental rebirth have likewise become common, as
in several novels by Alfred BESTER: THE DEMOLISHED MAN (1953), in which a
psychopathic murderer is"cleansed" of his madness; Tiger! Tiger! (1956; vt
The Stars My Destination 1957 US), in which the superpowered protagonist
moves through time to appear to himself and others as a fire- shrouded
vision, and is eventually cleansed in his turn; and The Computer
Connection (1974; vt Extro), in which supermen recruit others to their
kind by the only process known to them, involving violent death. The
survival after death of Ubermensch characters is featured in CAMP
CONCENTRATION (1968) by Thomas M. DISCH, I Will Fear No Evil (1971) and
Time Enough for Love (1973) by Robert A. HEINLEIN, and Traitor to the
Living (1973) by Philip Jose FARMER. Religious imagery is overt in the
many works by Robert SILVERBERG which couple the notion of superhumanity
with the idea of rebirth, including To Open the Sky (fixup 1967), Downward
to the Earth (1970), Nightwings (fixup 1970), Son of Man (1971), The Book
of Skulls (1972) and"Born with the Dead" (1974). Silverberg's Dying Inside
(1972) is another fantasy of rebirth seen in terms of the loss of a
superhuman power; the decline of ephemeral superhumanity is also a
powerful motif in the classic FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON (1959; exp 1966) by
Daniel KEYES. Messianic supermen whose deaths are redemptive appear in the
2 bestselling sf novels of the 1960s, Heinlein's STRANGER IN A STRANGE
LAND (1961) and Frank HERBERT's DUNE (1965). The transcendence of
superhuman figures is by no means always quasi-Christian; the
MYTHOLOGY-rooted novels of Roger ZELAZNY delight in examining the
existential problems of godlike beings-shaped by the belief systems of,
for example, the ancient Greeks and Egyptians, and of the Hindus-and the
borderline between sf and FANTASY becomes very problematic in such works.
A notable recent portrait of transcendental superhumanity, conventionally
replete with quasireligious imagery, can be found in Jack Williamson's
Firechild (1986).The idea of the superman has in recent times become
entangled with ideas of man/machine hybridization and GENETIC ENGINEERING.
CYBORG supermen and genetically designed superhumans have become
commonplace. The notion of the emergent superhuman appearing in our
midst-possibly as a MUTANT product of radiation-is not as significant a
motif as it once was, but its various stereotypes continue to crop up.
Recent stories of superchildren include David PALMER's Emergence (1984) as
well as young-adult novels like Alexander KEY's Escape to Witch Mountain
(1968) and Virginia HAMILTON's Justice and Her Brothers (1978), all three
of which have sequels, as does a similar novel featuring an older central
character, Carole Nelson DOUGLAS's Probe (1985). Timothy ZAHN 's A Coming
of Age (1985) is a more sophisticated work in the same vein; Ann MAXWELL's
Timeshadow Rider (1986), a pioneering exercise in the sf love story, seems
rather more juvenile than the juvenile novels. A more ambivalent view of
emergent superchildren is taken in the STRUGATSKI brothers' THE UGLY SWANS
(1972; trans 1979). More sober studies in superhuman existentialism
include Wyman GUIN's The Standing Joy (1969) and Raymond Z. GALLUN's The
Eden Cycle (1974)-although Gallun's later Bioblast (1985) is far more
melodramatic. The tradition of Beresford's The Hampdenshire Wonder is
belatedly carried forward by George TURNER's Brain Child (1991), and that
of Stapledon's A Man Divided by Robert Charles WILSON's The Divide (1990).
The idea of emergent superhumanity remains highly significant in the works
of Ian WATSON, where it is intricately interwoven with the notion of
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH. Watson rarely imagines the breakthrough to
superhumanity as an easy matter, and in such early novels as THE EMBEDDING
(1973) and The Jonah Kit (1975) the attempts to achieve it fail, but in
The Martian Inca (1977), Alien Embassy (1977), Miracle Visitors (1978) and
The Gardens of Delight (1980) advancement is possible; the easier
transitions of the light-hearted Converts (1984) are less convincing.It is
arguable that no other symbol in sf has evolved quite so dramatically as
that of the superman, which has consistently pandered to the simplest and
most basic form of human wish-fulfilment while sometimes carrying out far
more sophisticated and ingenious analyses of our aspirations and our
fears.[BS]See also: PARANOIA.

1. US COMIC strip created by writer Jerry Siegel (1914- ) and artist Joe
Shuster (1914-1992), loosely based on Philip WYLIE's Gladiator (1930).
Siegel was an sf fan, creator of several early FANZINES, including Science
Fiction (5 issues from Oct 1932), in which illustrations by his friend
Shuster had appeared. Their Superman idea was originally - over a period
of years - rejected by almost every comics publisher in the USA before he
was finally allowed to make his debut in Action Comics, June 1938,
published by Detective Comics Inc, later known as DC COMICS; he got his
own comic book with Superman Comics in 1939. Shuster and Siegel did not
create many of the stories (perhaps just as well, since Shuster's
style-though it had a charming simplicity-was very stiff), but their names
continued to be used on the title pages. Under the editorship of Mort
WEISINGER the series was given a more elaborate background, and was
expanded to include additional superbeings and further comic titles. Many
writers and artists, including Alfred BESTER, Edmond HAMILTON, Henry
KUTTNER and Manly Wade WELLMAN, have contributed to the series, which
continues today.As sole survivor of a cataclysm on the planet Krypton,
raised from infancy by US fosterparents, the character's dual identity as
timid reporter Clark Kent and indestructible crime-fighter Superman has a
basic appeal to readers. His dynamic personality has transcended the
comics medium to become incorporated into contemporary Western MYTHOLOGY.
Storylines have been varied, with themes including time travel,
interplanetary journeys, alternate universes, etc., while subplots have
been woven around attempts to unmask his secret identity and to engage him
amorously.For many years the character became increasingly implausible,
leading to his lampooning in Frank MILLER's Batman: The Dark Knight
Returns (1986), where he appears in one sequence as an a raddled skeleton.
DC COMICS began to perceive a need to rationalize the character, most
notably through an epic storyline involving many of their
characters:"Crisis on Infinite Earths" (1987), written by Marv Wolfman.
Artist-writer John Byrne was engaged to take a completely new approach to
the characters. In his version, which began publication in Adventures of
Superman #424 (Jan 1987; the title had previously been simply Superman),
the first step was the elimination from the mythos of all the other
SUPERHEROES which had intruded over the years (Superboy, Supergirl, etc.).
Superman's powers and abilities were reduced and given specified limits-
e.g., he could no longer travel at the speed of light, survive in space
longer than he could hold his breath, or travel through time. His
long-time sweetheart Lois Lane discovered his secret identity, and the
couple are to be married. At the time of writing (mid-1992) the publishers
are planning to take them all the way to the altar and then show Superman
facing up to the responsibilities of marriage and child-rearing.In order
to achieve weekly appearance on the newsstands, 4 monthly titles are now
published in sequence: Superman, Superman in Action Comics, Adventures of
Superman and Superman, the Man of Steel.Superman has been the most
influential of sf comics heroes and has inspired many imitations, the most
noted being CAPTAIN MARVEL. His adventures have appeared as a syndicated
newspaper strip and as the RADIO programme, tv series, serial films and
feature films described below. The character's sex life was guyed in Larry
NIVEN 's"Man of Steel, Woman of Kleenex" (1971) and his old age in
Superfolks (1977) by Robert Mayer (1939).[JE/RT]2. US animated cartoon
series, prod Max Fleischer, dir Dave Fleischer for Paramount, 17 cartoons,
Technicolor, 1940-43.3. US RADIO series, usually pitting Superman against
criminals, 1940-52.4. Serial film (1948). Columbia. Prod Sam Katzman. Dirs
Spencer Bennet, Thomas Carr, starring Kirk Alyn (Superman), Noel Neill,
Tommy Bond. 15 episodes; later released (cut to 88 mins) as a feature
film.Although the production values were strictly Poverty Row, S was
perhaps the most successful film serial ever made. The sequel was Atom Man
Vs. Superman (1950), 15-episode serial, Columbia, with much the same cast,
in which Lex Luthor the Atom Man (Lyle Talbot) was introduced.5. US tv
series (1953-7): The Adventures of Superman . ABC TV. First season (Feb
1953) prod Robert Maxwell, Bernard Luber; from season 2 (Sep 1953) to #6
and last prod Whitney Ellsworth. 104 25min episodes. First 2 seasons b/w,
remainder in colour.Superman was played by George Reeves, a former
Hollywood leading man who had made his film debut as a suitor of Vivien
Leigh in Gone With the Wind (1939); he had first taken the role in the
film Superman and the Mole Men (1951; vt Superman and the Strange People
UK), dir Lee Sholem, 67 mins, b/w, in which Superman saves from a lynch
mob little glowing troglodytes who have emerged from a deep oil well. With
the tv series (one of whose early producers, Robert Maxwell, had also
produced on 3 and written and coproduced the 1951 movie) Reeves became
typecast in the role; when the series ended (he directed the last 3
episodes himself) he was unable to find further work in films. He
committed suicide in 1959, aged 45.Phyllis Coates played Lois Lane in the
1951 film and the first tv season only, being replaced for the rest of the
series by Noel Neill, who had played the part in the 2 Columbia serials
(4). Other cast members included Jack Larson as Jimmy Olsen and John
Hamilton as Perry White.The series was aimed primarily at children and,
though mediocre, was extremely popular. Unlike the case in the comic
strip, the stories rarely entered the realm of the fantastic: Superman was
usually pitted against mundane, often bumbling criminals. 5 theatrical
films were recut, each from 3 tv episodes, and released abroad (all 1954)
as Superman's Peril, Superman Flies Again, Superman in Exile, Superman and
Scotland Yard and Superman and the Jungle Devils.6. Musical/made-for-tv
film. A 1966 Broadway musical based on Superman and called It's a Bird!
It's a Plane! It's Superman! was turned into a film for ABC TV in 1975
with David Wilson as Superman. Dir Jack Regas. Script Romeo Miller, based
on the musical by Charles Strouse and David Newman.[JB/PN]7. Film (1978).
Dovemead/International Film Production. Dir Richard Donner, starring
Christopher Reeve, Margot Kidder, Gene Hackman, Valerie Perrine, Ned
Beatty, Jackie Cooper, Marlon Brando. Screenplay Mario Puzo, David Newman,
Leslie Newman, Robert Benton, with Tom Mankiewicz as"creative consultant";
based on a story by Puzo. 143 mins. Colour.Superman's visit to the wide
screen was long delayed, but lavishly appointed when it did come. Screen
rights to the most famous of SUPERHEROES had been bought by father-and-son
producers Alexander and Ilya Salkind. They made S, the sequels SUPERMAN II
(1980) and SUPERMAN III (1983) and the spin-off SUPERGIRL (1984), with
diminishing box-office returns, after which the rights were resold to
Golan and Globus of Cannon Films, who made SUPERMAN IV: THE QUEST FOR
PEACE (1987).Expensive difficulties, largely to do with the flying scenes,
delayed S, whose special effects vary from mostly excellent to
occasionally awful. On the whole the end product is a triumph (it was
awarded a HUGO), confidently walking the tightrope (though it stumbles
once or twice) between playing it romantically straight and putting its
tongue in its cheek, and much assisted by intelligent performances from
Reeve, who plays Superman as a kind of Innocent Abroad, and Kidder, as a
Lois Lane whose passion for Superman appears as touchingly erotic. Indeed
the Caped Crusader's career is given a resonance with other great US
myths, especially his Midwest boyhood, luminously photographed by Geoffrey
Unsworth as though in homage to the paintings of Norman Rockwell. Part of
the film's success, oddly, may be that it is UK- made, so that its USA is
given an attractively foreign, story-book quality. The plot involves
arch-villain Lex Luthor (Hackman) threatening to nuke the San Andreas
fault, thus sinking West California and making a fortune out of real
estate in what will be the new West Coast.8. The 1989-91 tv series
SUPERBOY describes Superman's teenage years at university. It was again
produced by the Salkinds.[PN]9.Another tv series permiered on ABC tv in
for details). [PN]See also: MUSIC.

Film (1980). Dovemead/International Film Production. Dir Richard Lester,
starring Christopher Reeve, Margot Kidder, Gene Hackman, Ned Beatty,
Terence Stamp, Sarah Douglas, Jack O'Halloran, Susannah York. Screenplay
Mario Puzo, David Newman, Leslie Newman (and, as"creative consultant", Tom
Mankiewicz) from a story by Puzo. 127 mins. Colour.Originally to be shot
back-to-back with SUPERMAN, SII changed directors after conflict between
the previous director, Richard Donner, and the producers, Ilya Salkind and
Pierre Spengler. SII as released is perhaps 25% Donner's work and 75%
Lester's. Certainly in its pace and its pop-art ironies it seems the work
of Lester, maker of, inter alia, the Beatles movie A Hard Day's Night
(1964). A trio of criminals exiled from the planet Krypton find their way
to Earth, which they attempt to take over using their superpowers.
Superman, who finally stops them, has first to restore his own powers,
lost through his love for Lois Lane. (Apparently the condition of
SUPERHERO, like that of priest, requires celibacy.) The protracted finale
is choreographed with skilful comic-strip glee: the mythic dignity of the
first film is lost, but enough wit takes its place-including the parallel
between an impotent Superman and an impotent USA-for the film to be good
value. Superman was to be further demystified in SUPERMAN III

Film (1983). Dovemead/Cantharus/Alexander and Ilya Salkind. Dir Richard
Lester, starring Christopher Reeve, Richard Pryor, Jackie Cooper, Marc
McClure, Annette O'Toole, Pamela Stephenson, Robert Vaughn. Screenplay
David Newman, Leslie Newman. 125 mins. Colour.Sequel to SUPERMAN (1978)
and SUPERMAN II (1980), this is a movie on a more domestic scale,
involving Clark Kent returning to the Midwest for a high-school reunion,
where he (as opposed to his colourful alter ego) is fallen in love with by
hometown girl Lana Lang (O'Toole). Abetted by his computer-genius pawn
(Pryor), an evil business tycoon (Vaughn) with conventional world-takeover
plans uses synthetic kryptonite to subvert the now thoroughly demystified
Superman, who turns bad, broods in bars, tells a woman in distress"Don't
expect me to save you, 'cos I don't do that nice stuff any more", but
finally has his conscience awakened by a sweet little boy. Closer to its
COMIC -strip origins than its 2 predecessors, and broader, SIII's best
moments are the opening scenes of escalating chaos, at least equal to Mack
Sennett's work. There are good sequences throughout, and it is clearly
better than its successors, SUPERGIRL and SUPERMAN IV: THE QUEST FOR
PEACE, if less ambitious (and even sillier) than the earlier films.The
novelization is Superman III * (1983) by William KOTZWINKLE.[PN]

Film (1987). Cannon. Dir Sidney J. Furie, starring Christopher Reeve,
Gene Hackman, Margot Kidder, Mariel Hemingway. Screenplay Lawrence Kohner,
Mark Rosenthal, based on a story by Reeve, Kohner. 93 mins.
Colour.Superman's death knell, at the box office anyway, was tolled by
Cannon's attempt to get more mileage from his exploits after he had been
jettisoned by Alexander and Ilya Salkind. Reeve agreed to play the part
again only in exchange for co-authoring the original story, hence the
anti-nuclear, anti-tabloid-journalism message. He meant well politically,
but his disjointed story, which makes sense neither scientifically nor
metaphorically (Superman throws nuclear missiles into Sun; evil Nuclear
Man is cloned by Lex Luthor from a Superman hair; Superman defeats him by
causing eclipse of the Sun and then anticlimactically throws him down
chimney), is intensely feeble, as are the special effects.The novelization
is Superman IV* (1987) by B.B. Hiller.[PN]








Film (1993). Lightmotive/Allied Filmmakers in association with Cinergi
Productions. Prod Jake Eberts and Roland Joffe; dir Rocky Morton and
Annabel Jankel; screenplay Parker Bennett &Terry Runte and Ed Solomon
based on the concept and characters created by Shigeru Miyamoto and
Takashi Tezuka of Nintendo; starring Bob Hoskins, John Leguizamo, Samantha
Mathis, Dennis Hopper and Fiona Shaw. 104 mins. Colour.US comedy adventure
film based on the hugely popular Japanese computer games, made by
Nintendo, starring Mario and Luigi: the Super Mario Brothers. Sixty-five
million years ago a meteor struck America in what is now Brooklyn,
splitting Earth into two alternate worlds, in one of which the humanoid
dominant species has descended from intelligent dinosaurs, the other being
our own world. A child from the dinosaur world is hidden in ours by her
justifiably worried mother, using a meteor fragment to open a gateway
between the two worlds. That child, now a young woman, is Daisy (Mathis),
a university student studying dinosaur remains in Brooklyn. When she is
kidnapped and returned to her own world, she is followed by two
resourceful plumbers, Mario (Hoskins) and his younger brother Luigi
(Leguizamo), who have befriended her. King Koopa (Hopper) wants her for
the meteor fragment she now wears as a pendant, for with this fragment he
can invade our world and take it over by using his DEVOLUTION gun to turn
humans into apes. (He has already devolved the old king Bowser, Daisy's
father, into fungus.) The movie is not a mere attempt to find cinematic
equivalents for the various facets of the original games that have now
developed iconic significance for the young, and is surprisingly
inventive, though it moves at perhaps too leisurely a pace. Koopa and his
sinister but intelligent mistress Lena (Shaw) carry off the acting
honours. In this well written but routinely acted and directed film, the
well-realized dystopian city of Koopa's world is amusingly like a
comic-book version of the city in BLADE RUNNER. [PN]

Gerry and Sylvia ANDERSON.

Just as it is common in sf to give empirical explanations of ancient
myths and stories of the gods ( GODS AND DEMONS; MYTHOLOGY) and to seek a
rationale for MAGIC, so too, when sf deals with supernatural creatures, it
commonly invokes quasiscientific rationalizations. Sometimes these involve
racial memory of unusual but natural creatures, or they may involve
MUTANTS (commonly) or abnormal PSYCHOLOGY (occasionally). The sf writer
does not, however, wish to demythologize all that is strange to the point
of rendering it utterly matter-of-fact. More commonly he or she retains
the horror (or the wonder) while rendering it a believable phenomenon of
the world we live in. Also, by making the condition of vampirism or
lycanthropy, for example, a natural affliction, it is often possible to
evoke pity for the MONSTER as well as its victims. 2 stories illustrating
this clearly are James BLISH 's"There Shall be no Darkness" (1950) and
Richard MATHESON 's I Am Legend (1954). The former is a werewolf story
which links lycanthropy with artistic talent, and allows the reader some
empathy with the shapeshifting killer; the latter tells of a plague which
transforms its victims into vampires, who besiege the one immune left in
the city. In both a far-fetched rationale is given, Matheson being
particularly ingenious in explaining the traditional stigmata of the
vampire in terms of symptoms of an illness.Jack WILLIAMSON wrote an
excellent werewolf story, DARKER THAN YOU THINK (1940; exp 1948), in which
lycanthropes are seen as members of a distinct race, genetically different
from Homo sapiens though superficially identical; the hero who discovers
the truth turns out to share this awful but thrilling heritage. This
story, like many others of its kind, has a symbolic relationship with
split-personality stories like Robert Louis STEVENSON's Strange Case of Dr
Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), in which the more primitive, amoral, beastlike
part of our evolutionary heritage is able to emerge and take on a shape of
its own. All such stories can ultimately be traced back to a dualistic
view of Man, manifest in Christian doctrine as the idea that humanity on
the one hand suffers from Original Sin, but on the other hand has an
aspiring spirit which is a gift from God.Guy ENDORE's The Werewolf of
Paris (1933) sees lycanthropy as a psychological distortion, perhaps
hereditary, and no literal transformation from man to wolf takes place.
Similarly Theodore STURGEON's Some of Your Blood (1961) has a tortured and
not very dangerous"vampire" who is in fact a psychotic, whose
blood-drinking, it gradually emerges, can be traced back to childhood
trauma. The protagonist of Gene WOLFE's"The Hero as Werwolf" (1975) is one
of the few still-human survivors of a utopian future where the genetically
fit have been bred into placidity and health - superhuman sheep, as it
were - while the descendants of the abandoned remainder live a tragic,
hole-and-corner life, surviving cannibalistically on the super-race
responsible for their condition. Whitley STRIEBER's The Wolfen (1978),
though primarily a thriller, provides a rigorous cryptozoological
rationale for werewolf myths in terms of a perfectly natural animal
species, but one that is rare, intelligent, furtive and hence unknown to
orthodox taxonomy.Stories of demonic possession, such as John
CHRISTOPHER's The Possessors (1965) and many others, are commonly
rationalized in terms of PSI POWERS or as a form of parasitism, usually by
an alien; several of these stories are discussed in PARASITISM AND
SYMBIOSIS. Familiars are often symbiotes also, as is the case with the
sinister little creatures who accompany the"witches" in Fritz LEIBER's
GATHER, DARKNESS! (1943; 1950).Many stories of supernatural creatures
which appear in supposedly sf collections are in fact straight FANTASY; i.
e., the supernatural status of these beings is left unquestioned. UNKNOWN
magazine published quite a few stories of this kind, as did WEIRD TALES
earlier and The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION later. The latter
published the John the Minstrel stories by Manly Wade WELLMAN (probably
his best work), whose hero is faced with a variety of supernatural
menaces, though occasionally some sf jargon is used to bring them down to
earth a little, one of the best being"O Ugly Bird!" (1951); they were
collected in Who Fears the Devil? (coll 1963). Ray BRADBURY's"Homecoming"
(1946) is a touching story of the one"normal" in a jolly, clannish family
of supernaturals. Many supernatural stories of the jokier kind can be
found in Theodore COGSWELL's The Wall Around the World (coll 1962) and
Avram DAVIDSON's Or All the Seas with Oysters (coll 1962); Davidson was
editor of FSF for a period. A number of such stories are collected in
Judith MERRIL's lively anthology Galaxy of Ghouls (anth 1955; vt Off the
Beaten Orbit 1959), which contains Walter M. MILLER's"Triflin' Man" (1955;
vt"You Triflin' Skunk"), in which the demon lover turns out to be an
ALIEN, a common explanation for supernatural manifestations.Elves and
fairies likewise often turn out to be aliens, as in Clifford D. SIMAK's
The Goblin Reservation (1968), or Neanderthal or atavistic survivals, as
in several stories discussed in MYTHOLOGY, John BLACKBURN's Children of
the Night (1966) among them. Sometimes they merely live on colonized and
then forgotten planets, as in Christopher STASHEFF's Warlock series. The
creatures out of Greek legend, including several of an apparently
supernatural variety, in Roger ZELAZNY's THIS IMMORTAL (1965 FSF as"...
And Call me Conrad"; exp 1966) are mutants. C.M. KORNBLUTH's vampire
in"The Mindworm" (1950), is a telepathic mutant created by atomic
radiation.Unicorns and dragons remain popular, unicorns for some reason
being usually allowed to remain mythic while dragons are often
rationalized as aliens. Examples of the former occur in Peter Beagle's The
Last Unicorn (1968), Harlan ELLISON's"On the Downhill Side" (1972) and
Mark GESTON's The Siege of Wonder (1976); there are many others. Dragons
appear notably in Anne MCCAFFREY's Dragonrider series, Jack VANCE's THE
DRAGON MASTERS (1963) and Avram Davidson's Rogue Dragon
(1965).Supernatural creatures generally play a prominent role in romantic
fantasy, often as symbolic of a wondrousness that may survive in odd,
untouched corners of the world while dead in our rational, urbanized,
modern civilization. They are, for example, to be found in forms both
horrific and lovely in the various LOST WORLDS of A. MERRITT, in
practically every story written by Thomas Burnett SWANN, and in SWORD AND
SORCERY generally.Ghosts are rather a special case, and are discussed in
ESCHATOLOGY. They are reconstructed in the flesh from a reading of human
minds by the sentient planet SOLARIS (1961; trans 1970) by Stanislaw LEM;
and along with zombies have a very real existence in Robert SHECKLEY's
amusing Immortality Delivered (1958; exp vt Immortality, Inc. 1959).
Sheckley often plays games with supernatural creatures; he brings
nightmares, for example, to life in"Ghost V" (1954), and the hero
of"Protection" (1956) has good reason to wish he had never accepted aid
from a ghostly alien from another DIMENSION. The poltergeists in Keith
ROBERTS's"Boulter's Canaries" (1965) are energy configurations which can
do substantial damage in the real world. Nigel KNEALE's entire career in
sf cinema and tv was devoted to rationalizing the supernatural, most
notably perhaps in the tv serial QUATERMASS AND THE PIT (1958-9), where
racial memories of the Devil and the Wild Hunt turn out to have been
transmitted by Martians. Stories of this kind are not restricted to
English-language sf, nor to genre sf. Stanislaw Lem's Sledztwo (1959;
trans as The Investigation 1974) is an interesting study of the extent to
which the unknown may be susceptible to rational explanation, in a mystery
where Scotland Yard is faced with the activities of a ghoul, whose status
as either natural or supernatural is difficult to determine.There is a
kind of class distinction among the three most popular varieties of
supernatural creature to be found in HORROR movies: vampires are
aristocratic, drinking only the most refined life essences, usually blood;
in Lucy SUSSEX's"God and Her Black Sense of Humour" (1990) it is semen. In
the iconography of horror, the vampire stands for SEX. The werewolf, who
stands for instability, shapeshifting, lack of self control, is
middle-class and lives in a dog-eat-dog world. The zombie or ghoul, who
shambles and rots (as, archetypally, in George ROMERO's sf movie The NIGHT
OF THE LIVING DEAD [1968]), is working-class, inarticulate, dangerous,
deprived, wishing only to feed on those who are better off; in the
iconography of horror the zombie stands for the exploited worker.During
the period of the Vietnam War the zombie, both in pure horror and in sf
horror, was perhaps the most popular archetype, but since then vampires
and werewolves have made a major comeback, often in sf-rationalized form.
Witty FEMINIST subtexts appear in Jody SCOTT's vampire satire I, Vampire
(1984) and Suzy McKee CHARNAS's HUGO-winning werewolf story"Boobs" (1989),
in which the lunar cycle controls menstruation and transformation into
werewolf. Tanith LEE's several werewolf stories, including"Wolfland"
(1980), Lycanthia, or The Children of Wolves (1981),"Bloodmantle" (1985)
and Heart-Beast (1992), also have womanly subtexts;"Bloodmantle" has Red
Riding Hood as a kind of victor, as she is again in Angela CARTER's
metamorphic FABULATION"The Company of Wolves" (1979), filmed in 1984.
Lee's"The Gorgon" (1983), about Medusa, may be one of the finest,
simplest, most touching of all supernatural-creature
rationalizations.Other sf (or at least sciencefictionalized) tales of
vampire and werewolf from recent years include: The Orphan (1980) and its
2 sequels, about a werewolf, by Robert STALLMAN; Vampire Tapestry (coll of
linked stories 1980) by Suzy McKee Charnas; Vampire Junction (1984) and
Valentine (1992) by S.P. SOMTOW (Somtow Sucharitkul); The Empire of Fear
(1988) by Brian STABLEFORD (vampires); Moon Dance (1989) by Somtow again
(werewolves); Carrion Comfort (1989) by Dan SIMMONS (vampires); Michael
WEAVER's trilogy collected as Wolf-Dreams (omni 1989 UK); Barbara HAMBLY's
Those Who Hunt the Night (1988; vt Immortal Blood UK) (vampires); Kim
NEWMAN's Bad Dreams (1990) (shapeshifting vampires); The Werewolves of
London (1990) and its sequel The Angel of Pain (1991) by Stableford again;
and Wolf Flow (1992) by K.W. JETER. Another important vampire title is
Nancy Collins' Sunglasses After Dark (1989), and major series have been
written by Anne Rice (vampires and mummies) and by Chelsea Quinn YARBRO,
with her Saint-Germain series (vampires) from 1978 on. All these books,
whose standard is overall rather high, lie somewhere between sf and
supernatural horror, none of them fitting purely in one genre or the
other, though Stableford quite closely approaches sf in Empire of Fear.
With so much work of this sort being produced - the cited texts are merely
a fraction of the whole - it almost seems as if a new genre is in the
making, not so much pure horror as the semirationalized"horror romance", a
kind of half-sister to the SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE.Supernatural horror made
other appearances of a more outre kind in the 1980s, three landmarks being
Alfred BESTER's Golem 100 (1980) which marries sf, diabolism and depth
psychology to produce its supernatural monster from the id; Judith
MOFFETT's"The Hob" (1988), in which the hobs or brownies from myth turn
out to be exiled aliens, a story later incorporated into THE RAGGED WORLD:
A NOVEL OF THE HEFN ON EARTH (fixup 1991); and best of all, perhaps, Tim
POWERS's strange fable of the romantic poets, The Stress of Her Regard
(1989), which memorably incarnates romantic longings and fears in the
partly rationalized figure of the Lamia.[PN]See also: GOLEM; GOTHIC SF;


US DIGEST-size magazine. 18 bimonthly issues Dec 1956-Oct 1959, published
by Headline Publications; ed W.W. Scott. Though S-SF used material by
established writers - including 36 stories by Robert SILVERBERG and 10 by
Harlan ELLISON, both using pseudonyms as well as their own names - its
contents were mediocre. [BS/PN]


US PULP MAGAZINE. 31 issues, published by Fictioneers, Inc., a subsidiary
of Popular Publications; 16 issues Mar 1940-May 1943, 3 of the 1941 issues
(Mar-Aug) being under the title Super Science Novels; ed Frederik POHL
until Aug 1941, then Alden H. Norton. The magazine was revived by Popular
Publications, continuing the old volume numeration, for 15 more issues Jan
1949-Aug 1951, ed Ejler JAKOBSSON, with Damon KNIGHT assistant ed on some
issues. In both incarnations the magazine varied between quarterly and
bimonthly.SSS, a companion to ASTONISHING STORIES, featured standard pulp
adventure sf, and in its 1st incarnation was an important market for the
FUTURIAN group, Pohl buying a good deal of material from himself
(including many of his early collaborations with C.M. KORNBLUTH). The most
notable story was Genus Homo (Mar 1941; rev 1950) by L. Sprague DE CAMP
and P. Schuyler MILLER. It also published a number of early stories by
Isaac ASIMOV and James BLISH's first story, "Emergency Refueling" (1940),
and his much superior "Sunken Universe" (1942) as by Arthur Merlyn. The
2nd incarnation published Chad OLIVER's debut story, "The Land of Lost
Content" (1950). SSS had a greater importance to the HISTORY OF SF than
the quality of its stories would suggest; it was an important training
ground.The Canadian magazine of the same title, published by Popular
Publications, Toronto, continued publication for 2 years after the first
US version ceased, publishing 21 issues in all Aug 1942-Dec 1945, the last
5 under the title Super Science and Fantastic Stories. From Aug 1942 to
Feb 1944 the Canadian SSS drew its material in alternate issues from the
US SSS and Astonishing Stories. From the Apr 1944 issue onwards some
original stories were used (11 in all), including "The Black Sun Rises"
(June 1944) by Henry KUTTNER, but mostly it ran stories from the Popular
Publications reprint magazine FAMOUS FANTASTIC MYSTERIES. The 2nd
incarnation of SSS was also reprinted in Canada 1949-51, as Super Science
Stories. There were 2 series of UK reprints: Thorpe & Porter reprinted 3
whole issues in 1949-50; and Pembertons published 14 consecutively
numbered issues of selections from both versions of the US magazine
1950-53. [BS/PN]

People may think that the concept of Superman was born on the planet
Krypton. But they’re wrong. His birth was directly inspired by a story
written by Philip Wylie in 1930 called "The Gladiator."Theodore Sturgeon’s
short story, "It," written in 1940, provided the inspiration for another
well-known character -The Swamp Thing, a monster entirely made of
vegetable matter. The Swamp Thing, created by Len Wein for DC COMICS,
became the star of several movies, including Swamp Thing, directed by Wes
Craven in 1982 and Swamp Thing II in 1989.


During the near-half century of Cold War after the dropping of the atom
bomb on Japan in 1945, nuclear HOLOCAUSTS were a commonplace plot device
in various genres of popular fiction. Some novels took readers teasingly
up to the brink without actually carrying them into the terminal moments;
Cold War thrillers of this sort are not generally treated in this
encyclopedia. A rather larger number of novels treated the final war as a
given, an assumed premise of the action of the tale, which took place
subsequent to the horror of the actual event. One subgenre of this
sizeable cohort of post-holocaust novels usually goes by the name
survivalist fiction.Though it takes much of its political extremism and
attendent social prejudices from the genuine survivalist movement which
flourished in the USA during the Cold War (see also LIBERTARIAN SF),
survivalist fiction as such has little to do with the actual concerns of
real survivalists, who tend to concentrate most of their energies on
exercises and training and hoarding and forward-planning for the
anticipated event; less thought is given to the aftermath, where
survivalist fictions are almost invariably set. The significance of
genuine survivalists is of the here and now, as an example of the pathos
of "self-reliance" in a world too complex and fragile to reward simple
solutions.Of greater potential interest to sf writers than realist stories
about survivalists is, perhaps, the apocalypse pathology ( RELIGION;
ESCHATOLOGY) detectable in the survivalist mentality. Those who live their
lives in anticipation of surviving the holocaust are almost certainly
geared to welcome its coming, and to feel that - by contrast with the
civilian hordes who ignore the tenets of the faith - they comprise an
Elect ( SUPERMAN) of true believers; and, typical of that form of
psychopathy, demonstrate extreme agility in shifting the focus of their
love or hate when conditions so demand - hence the 1990s shift of American
survivalists' loathing from Cold War enemies to the Federal government.
Survivalists, in other words, run the risk of seeing the holocaust as a
test of Faith: of feeling virtuous about the END OF THE WORLD. A novel
like Robert A. HEINLEIN's Farnham's Freehold (1964), though displaced
through TIME TRAVEL beyond the normal boundaries of survivalist fiction,
does convey the extremist mind-set of some participants in the movement,
and the "Darwinian" ruthlessness they long to ape. But Farnham's Freehold
is a tale of wish-fulfilment; the actualities of survival are clearly so
unrewarding when faced directly that almost all sf which deals with
nuclear holocaust directly treats its human protagonists as doomed. There
is, in fact, almost no genuine sf that describes a genuine survivalist
agenda without descending into fantasy; even Dean ING's Pulling Through
(1983), which is a good example of an extremely rare breed, has recourse
to a magic sports car which enables the protagonist to leap over some
otherwise terminal obstacles. Andrew J. OFFUTT's The Castle Keeps (1972)
is a scathing analysis of the effects of survivalist doctrines in any
plausible post-holocaust world.There are of course many sf tales of
survivors (like Gordon R. DICKSON's attractive Wolf and Iron [1990]) and
post-holocaust stories whose protagonists are oppressed (as in Chelsea
Quinn YARBRO's False Dawn [1978]) by predators whose resemblance to
survivalists may not be accidental; but survivalist fiction is something
very different from tales like these. From about 1980, survivalist fiction
has become established as a very particular kind of male-action story, set
in post-holocaust venues where law-and-order has disappeared, and where
there is effectively no restraint upon the behaviour of the hero, who
therefore kills before he is killed, demonstrating his fitness to survive
through acts of unbridled violence (which very frequently descend into
prolonged sessions of rape and sadism). The first full-blown example of
the subgenre is probably the Survivalist series by Jerry AHERN, which
began with Survivalist #1: Total War (1981) and which now extends to more
than 20 volumes. A second important open-ended series (survivalist
fiction, like pornography, tends to be structured as a series of
escalating repetitions of the same material) is William W. JOHNSTONE's
Ashes sequence from 1983, in which an extreme right-wing political agenda
is used to legitimize the hero's actions. Other sequences include David
ALEXANDER's Phoenix books, James BARTON's Wasteworld books, D.B. Drumm's
Traveler books (initiated by Ed NAHA, though some or most of the sequence
was by John SHIRLEY), Bob HAM's Overload books, Laurence JAMES's Death
Land books as by James Axler, Mack MALONEY's Wingman books, Victor MILAN's
Guardians books as by Richard Austin, David L. ROBBINS's Endworld books,
James ROUCH's Zone books, some episodes in Barry SADLER's Casca sequence,
and the Doomsday Warrior books written as by Ryder Stacy ( Ryder
SYVERTSEN). To this list could be added MAD MAX (1979) and its sequels,
although these are at the top of the heap; the same cannot be said of
their cheap imitators. During 1992 several book series were terminated due
to declining sales; it may be that the changing world scene had reduced
their appeal.There may be some connection between present-day survivalist
movements in the USA and survivalist fiction as here described, in that
survivalist fiction may seem to express a grotesquely decayed form of
Heinleinian relish at the defeat of "civilian" values when the "real"
world bares its teeth. But even this is to claim too much. Sadistic,
sexist, racist, pornographic, gloating and void, survivalist fiction is an
obscene parody of genuine survivalism, and a nightmare at the bottom of
the barrel of sf. [JC]See also: PARANOIA.

UK tv series (1975-7). BBC TV. Created Terry NATION (who also wrote 7
episodes in season 1). Prod Terence Dudley. Writers included Jack Ronder,
Martin Worth, Roger Parkes. Dirs included Pennant Roberts, Terence
Williams, Eric Hills. 3 seasons, 38 50min episodes in all. Colour.The
post- HOLOCAUST novel is a particularly UK subgenre of sf, and so it is
not surprising that the theme's first significant appearance on tv should
come from the BBC. The accidental release of a deadly virus kills almost
everyone; in the UK only about 7000 people are left alive. S follows the
adventures of small groups of mostly middle-class survivors, their efforts
to cope without TECHNOLOGY and their encounters with other, less
sympathetic groups. The main characters include a housewife (Carolyn
Seymour), a secretary (Lucy Fleming), an engineer (Ian McCulloch) and an
architect (Denis Lill). Initial gloom is gradually replaced by rather too
cosy an atmosphere, with aspects of a rural paradise - not only have all
those smelly cities disappeared, but also the working classes. The subtext
involves a very English political myth (which in literature goes back
beyond Richard JEFFERIES's After London [1885]) about the strengths of a
life lived close to the land. The overnight disappearance of technology
and in particular the shortage of petrol are never adequately
rationalized. Nation's partial novelization is The Survivors * (1976).

(1921-1974) US writer most famous for her first novel, Valley of theDolls
(1966); her only sf novel is the posthumous Yargo (1979), which, written
in the 1950s, and telling the tale of alover from the stars who wins the
heart of an Earth woman, rather lacks JS's later books'acidulous
presentation of the costs of indulgence and self-absorption. [JC]

The notion of suspended animation is one of the oldest literary devices
in sf, by virtue of its convenience as a means of TIME TRAVEL into the
future (see also SLEEPER AWAKES). It is used in UTOPIAN romances like L.S.
MERCIER's Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred (trans 1772), Mary
GRIFFITH's Three Hundred Years Hence (1836; 1975) and Edward BELLAMY's
Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888). It became somewhat more than a
literary convenience in H.G. WELLS's When the Sleeper Wakes (1899; rev vt
The Sleeper Awakes 1910). These stories, having other purposes in view,
gloss over the scientific means by which suspended animation might be
achieved. Edgar Allan POE's short story "The Facts in the Case of M.
Valdemar" (1845) features mesmerically induced suspended animation, while
Grant ALLEN's "Pausodyne" (1881) imagines an 18th-century scientist
inventing a gas which puts him into protracted anaesthesia. The most
popular means, however, has always been preservation by freezing (
CRYONICS). Many fantasies using the theme were inspired by the ancient
Egyptian habit of mummifying the dead; it was a relatively small
imaginative step to suppose an arcane mummification process which
preserved life and beauty, and Egyptian princesses ripe for revival are
featured in Edgar Lee's Pharaoh's Daughter (1889), Clive Holland's An
Egyptian Coquette (1898; rev vt The Spell of Isis) and Robert W.
CHAMBERS's The Tracer of Lost Persons (1906); a very much more recent
example is Anne Rice's The Mummy, or Ramses the Damned (1989). The modern
world is visited by observers preserved from even more remote eras in Erle
COX's Out of the Silence (1919; 1925; exp 1947), Olof W. ANDERSON's The
Treasure-Vault of Atlantis (1925) and Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's "The
Resurrection of Jimber Jaw" (1937). A curious novel which explores the
existential significance of the ability to suspend animation in oneself is
The Insurgents (1957) by VERCORS; and Robert A. HEINLEIN intricately
constructs The Door into Summer (1957) around 2 trips to a single future
by suspended animation.Suspended animation was co-opted into GENRE SF as
one of the standard items in its vocabulary of ideas; it was used in the
first extensive pulp exploration of future HISTORY, Laurence MANNING's The
Man who Awoke (1933; fixup 1975). Genre-sf writers found it a useful
device in another context: avoiding the intolerable timelags involved in
journeys to the stars. An early trip of this kind is featured in A.E. VAN
VOGT's "Far Centaurus" (1944), whose luckless heroes arrive to find that
FASTER-THAN-LIGHT travel has been invented as they slept. More recent
dramas involving ships populated largely by people in suspended animation
include The Black Corridor (1969) by Michael MOORCOCK and Hilary BAILEY
and The Dream Millennium (1974) by James WHITE. Stranger beings than Cox's
or Olof W. Anderson's Atlanteans could be found in suspended animation, in
a manner reminiscent of supernatural stories in which ancient GODS and
their dormant MAGIC are revived into the present by folly or evil intent.
The later work of H.P. LOVECRAFT is notable in this respect, while more
orthodox sf variations on the theme include The Alien (1951) by Raymond F.
JONES, World of Ptavvs (1966) by Larry NIVEN and The Space Vampires (1976)
by Colin WILSON.The recent popularization of cryonics as a means of
suspending animation has offered a boost to the credibility of the jargon
surrounding the literary device, and has helped increase interest in
alternative methods. These include the various works ultimately gathered
into The Worthing Saga (1978-89; fixup 1990) by Orson Scott CARD and the
fascinating Between the Strokes of Night (1985) by Charles SHEFFIELD,
which takes the notion to its logical extreme. Its deployment as a
timeslipping device is nowadays less frequent, but the motif is still
capable of further sophistication, as shown in Richard Ben SAPIR's
visitor-from-the-past story The Far Arena (1978) and Richard LUPOFF's
FAR-FUTURE story Sun's End (1984). [BS]See also: IMMORTALITY; GENERATION

US DIGEST-size magazine. 4 quarterly issues Spring 1951-Winter 1952,
published by Farrell Publishing Co., Chicago; ed Theodore Irwin. S, based
on the CBS RADIO series of the same name and including the script of 1
episode per issue, contained also a mixture of detective, weird, sf and
fantasy stories, including some reprints. Authors included Theodore
STURGEON and John WYNDHAM, and there was a new Gray Mouser story from
Fritz LEIBER, "Dark Vengeance" (Fall 1951). The unusual mixing of genres
may have accounted for S's rapid demise. [FHP/PN]

(1957- ) New Zealand-born writer and critic, in AUSTRALIA since the age
of 14. She was one of the co-editors of the anthology of sf criticism
Contrary Modes (anth 1985) with Jenny Blackford, Russell BLACKFORD and
Norman Talbot, and a co-editor of AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE FICTION REVIEW:
SECOND SERIES for its first 2 years (1986-7). At about the same time she
began publishing promising sf FABULATIONS like "The Lipton Village
Society" (1985), about alienated people creating an ALTERNATE WORLD by
force of will. This and "My Lady Tongue" (1988), about life inside (and
outside) a utopian FEMINIST lesbian community, and "God and Her Black
Sense of Humour" (1990), about immortal semen-swallowing vampires (
SUPERNATURAL CREATURES), are assembled with others in My Lady Tongue &
Other Tales (coll 1990). LS's racy, slangy narrative voice sometimes jars
with a content that seems to require a less aggressive tone. Her earlier
The Peace Garden (1989), for children, is not sf or fantasy. [PN]

[r] Jocelyn QUILP.

(1861-1945) US writer whose The Nineteenth Hole: Being Tales of the Fair
Green: Second Series (coll 1901) includes 2 tales of golfing sf ( GAMES
AND SPORTS), one set in 1999 when the game fully dominates US life. The
Doomsman (1906) depicts a medievalized post- HOLOCAUST USA where dashing
Doomsmen run a protection racket from Manhattan and an old priest keeps an
electric dynamo humming. All ends in tears. [JC/PN]

(1915-1983) US author, with Jeff SUTTON (whom see for details), of
several novels for older children. [JC]

(1913-1979) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Third Empire" for
Spaceway in 1955, and whose background - he had been a journalist, served
time in the Marines and done research in high-altitude survival - was
reflected in several of his novels, from First on the Moon (1958), his
debut, to Spacehive (1960) and Whisper from the Stars (1970). JS wrote
with a somewhat dilute clarity, his tales occasionally rising above the
routine when he dealt in NEAR-FUTURE subject matter; but even these
stories soon became fatally dated. When he attempted more far-flung
adventures his inspiration tended to flag and his plots to become
strained. His juvenile sf novels (see listing below) with his wife, Jean
SUTTON, were somewhat smoother. [JC]Other works: Bombs in Orbit (1959);
The Missile Lords (1963); The Atom Conspiracy (1963); Apollo at Go (1963);
Beyond Apollo (1966); H-Bomb over America (1967); The Man who Saw Tomorrow
(1968 dos); Alton's Unguessable (1970 dos); The Mindblocked Man (1972);
Cassady (1979).With Jean Sutton: The River (1966); The Programmed Man
(1968); The Beyond (1968); Lord of the Stars (1969); Alien from the Stars
(1970); The Boy who had the Power (1971).See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

(1932- ) Academic, sf critic and poet, born and raised in that part of
YUGOSLAVIA that is now Croatia; PhD from Zagreb University, where he
taught 1959-67; since 1968 he has lived in CANADA (until 1991 he had
Canadian/Yugoslav dual nationality), where he is a full professor of
English at McGill University, Montreal. DS has been very closely
associated with the development of academic interest in sf in the USA,
having been an active member of the SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH ASSOCIATION
and a co-editor of SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES from its inception to Nov 1980
(subsequently a contributing editor), and having lectured and published
widely on the subject. (His other field is drama, especially the work of
Bertolt Brecht.) His books about sf are Od Lukijana do Lunjika ["From
Lucian to the Lunik"] (1965 Yugoslavia), Russian Science Fiction
1956-1974: A Bibliography (1976 US); Pour une poetique de la
science-fiction (cut and trans into French from his original English by DS
1977; longer English version as Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: On the
Poetics and History of a Literary Genre 1979 US), Victorian Science
Fiction in the U.K.: The Discourses of Knowledge and of Power (1983
US)-perhaps his most important book, in its splendid blend of scholarly
research into early sf, explication of its nature and sociological
argument about its ideological setting - and Positions and Presuppositions
in Science Fiction (coll 1988 US).The last 3 books especially constitute
(among other things) one of the most formidable and sustained theoretical
attempts to define sf as a genre. This was recognized when he was awarded
the 1979 PILGRIM AWARD, while still very much in mid-career, for services
to sf scholarship. DS's writing has been unwisely dismissed by some
readers as too clotted and difficult, and it is true that his critical
prose sometimes seems more convoluted than his arguments require. But part
of the difficulty results from the praiseworthy scrupulousness and rigour
of his complex theses, for which he has had to find a terminology (new to
sf studies at least) that is very much based in European socio-formalism;
he has often been described as a "Marxist" critic but, while this is not
untrue, it is not especially helpful either, as modern structuralism and
semiotics also play an important role in his theoretical approach. DS sees
sf as a "literary genre whose necessary and sufficient conditions are the
presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main
formal device is an imaginative framework alternative to the author's
empirical environment" ( DEFINITIONS OF SF); it was DS who introduced the
term "cognition" to sf criticism. One result of DS's approach is a
contemptuous dismissal of FANTASY as lacking "cognitive believability".DS
ed Other Worlds, Other Seas: Science-Fiction Stories from Socialist
Countries (anth 1970 US), H.G. Wells and Modern Science Fiction (anth 1977
US), a collection of essays by various hands, and, with R.D. MULLEN,
Science-Fiction Studies: Selected Articles on Science Fiction 1973-1975
(anth 1976 US) and Science-Fiction Studies, Second Series: Selected
Articles on Science Fiction 1976-1977 (anth 1978 US), both from GREGG
PRESS.Of marginal relevance to sf and UTOPIAS are DS's 2 vols of poems,
some prize-winning: The Long March: Notes on the Way 1981-1984 (coll 1987)
and Armirana Arkadija (coll 1990 Yugoslavia). [PN]See also:


(1915-1992) US writer, very variously employed in jobs ranging from
migrant labourer to university lecturer to scriptwriter. His first sf
story, "Henry Horn's Super Solvent" for Fantastic Adventures in 1941,
initiated the Henry Horn series of tales about a bumblingly incompetent
would-be SCIENTIST; the others are "Henry Horn's Blitz Bomb" (1942),
"Henry Horn's Racing Ray" (1942) and "Henry Horn's X-Ray Eye Glasses"
(1942). He also wrote 3 stories in 1942 as Clark South. DVS published
several sf novels up to the end of the 1950s which did not reach book
form, the exception being The Transposed Man (1955 chap dos; with 1 story
added, as coll 1957 UK), in which a human rebel wins through to the stars.
In his later career, during which he concentrated on his work in
educational film-making - also publishing several nonfiction books on the
art of successful writing, including Creating Characters: How to Build
Story People (1990) - DVS returned occasionally to adventure tales of the
sort he clearly preferred, writing 1 Nick CARTER novel, The Pemex Chart *
(1979), and 2 further tales, The Planet Murderer (1984) as John CLEVE (in
collaboration with Andrew J. OFFUTT), and Monster (1991).In 1991, the
Oklahoma Professional Writers' Hall of Fame named him a "grand master",
along with C.J. CHERRYH. [JC]

Created by writer Len Wein and artist Berni Wrightson in DC COMICS's
House of Secrets #92 (July 1971), TST is a monster whose moss-and
muck-encrusted body is formed entirely of vegetable matter. In that
original short graphic story, as a result of a scientific "accident"
arranged by his jealous assistant Damian Ridge, Dr Alex Olsen is killed
and subsequently resurrected in mutated form as TST, destined to wreak
vengeance. Wein and Wrightson rewrote the character's early biography in
the Swamp Thing series of COMIC books for DC, running from #1 (Nov 1972)
until July 1974. According to the revised version, the unfortunate Dr Alec
Holland (note name-change) was working on a "Bio-restorative Formula" when
an explosion in his laboratory set off the chain of events described
above. These 10 issues (reprinted as Roots of the Swamp Thing Aug-Nov
1986) are regarded in the comics world as classics of GOTHIC horror.In May
1982 TST began to reappear in another comic-book series, Saga of the Swamp
Thing. In this version he initially developed as a SUPERHERO of no great
interest, but #20, Loose Ends, introduced Alan MOORE as writer. Moore
continued until #64 and, with artists Steve Bissette, John Totleben, Rick
Veitch and others, attained what is usually accepted to be his greatest
achievement to date (with the possible exception of WATCHMEN). Moore's
themes - including menstrual werewolves, serial killers, racial zombies
and, in a swipe at the gun-lobby, a house haunted by guns - were
wide-ranging, and he radically changed the basic premise: TST was now a
MONSTER who had incorporated through RNA some of Alex Holland's
personality. Moore also introduced significant ECOLOGY and ESCHATOLOGY
themes, latterly taking TST into a series of SPACE OPERA adventures. From
#30 DC found it necessary to drop the Comics Code logo from the cover,
replacing it with the words "Sophisticated Suspense"; at the same time the
title reverted to the original Swamp Thing. Since Moore's departure the
scripts have rarely reached the same quality.There have been 2 Swamp Thing
films: Swamp Thing (1982) dir Wes Craven, 91 mins, and its chaotic spoof
sequel, the occasionally hilarious The Return of Swamp Thing (1989; vt
Swamp Thing II) dir Jim Wynorski, 88 mins. Both films, neither very
successful, star stuntman Dick Durock as the monster and Louis Jourdan as
his conniving foe, Dr Arcane. [RT]

UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size, published by G.G. Swan, London. The 2
(undated) sf issues in the series, #11 (probably 1948) and #15 (probably
1949), were resettings with UK illustrations of parts of Future Fantasy
and Science Fiction (a variant title of FUTURE FICTION), Dec 1942, and of
SCIENCE FICTION QUARTERLY, Winter 1942. This was effectively a postwar
renewal, with new numbering, of the earlier SWAN YANKEE MAGAZINE series.

(? - ) US writer of a sequence of sf noir detective novels set in a world
where GENETICALLY ENGINEERED animals-called "moreaus" after H.G. WELLS's
THE ISLAND OF DR. MOREAU (1896), and also evocative of the evolved animals
in Cordwainer SMITH's Instrumentality of Man-have been bred to occupy
underclass roles in NEAR-FUTURE America. The sequence to date comprises
Forests of the Night (1993), after William Blake, and in honour of the
fact that the detective protagonist of the series comes from tiger stock,
Emperors of the Twilight (1994) and Specters of the Dawn (1994). A second
series, set in the same world but centuries later, begins with Profiteer
(1995). [JC]

(1928-1976) US poet, novelist and academic who taught English literature
at Florida Atlantic University, turning to full-time writing in the early
1960s. As an academic he published works on the poet HD (Hilda Doolittle
[1886-1961]) and others, including Wonder and Whimsy: The Fantastic World
of Christina Rossetti (1960). Much of his fiction - beginning with "Winged
Victory" for Fantastic Universe in 1958 - could be described as SCIENCE
FANTASY, as it posits a sustained ALTERNATE-WORLD version of Earth's
history; but its abiding tenor is of FANTASY. Briefly, the TBS version of
history centres on the doomed encounter of the SUPERNATURAL CREATURES of
legend - dryads, centaurs, panisci, minotaurs, et al. - with ascendant
humanity, climaxing at the time when Rome and Christianity were extending
their imperialisms across the doomed, childlike, prelapsarian world. Most
of his tales - all set well before the alternate 20th century, which TBS
clearly found impossible to imagine - fit into this history. In order of
their internal chronology they are: The Minikins of Yam (1976), set around
2500BC; the Minotaur sequence, comprising Cry Silver Bells (1977), The
Forest of Forever (1971) and The Day of the Minotaur (1966), set in
Mycenaean Crete; the Mellonia sequence, comprising Queens Walk in the Dusk
(1977), Green Phoenix (1972) and Lady of the Bees (1962 Science Fantasy as
"Where is the Bird of Fire?"; exp 1976), set in burgeoning Rome;
Wolfwinter (1972), The Weirwoods (1967) and The Gods Abide (1976), the 3
novels in which humanity's religious and political destruction of the old
ways reaches a climax; and a final scattering of nostalgia-choked tales
set in the Christian era, The Tournament of Thorns (fixup 1976),
Will-o-the-Wisp (1976 UK), The Not-World (1975) and The Goat without Horns
(1971). This litany of dying falls evoked a warm response from fantasy and
sf readers, a response not dissimilar to that evoked by the ecological sf
that began to appear around the same time ( ECOLOGY). TBS's early works
are generally stronger than the late books, where a finger-pointing
sentimentality tends to vitiate all but the most fleeting moments of loss.
[JC]Other works: The Dolphin and the Deep (coll 1968); Moondust (1968);
Where is the Bird of Fire? (coll 1970); How are the Mighty Fallen
(1974).About the author: Thomas Burnett Swann: A Brief Critical Biography
and Annotated Bibliography (1979 chap) by Robert A. Collins.See also: GODS


(1950- ) US writer who began to publish sf with "The Feast of St Janis"
for New Dimensions 11 (anth 1980) ed Marta RANDALL and Robert SILVERBERG,
and who became known, very rapidly, as an author of intensely crafted,
complex tales whose multiple layering allows his conventional sf plots and
venues to be understood as exercises in mythopoesis, somewhat after the
manner of Gene WOLFE's shorter works, though less perplexingly. MS was not
prolific in the 1980s, but his short fiction - assembled as GRAVITY'S
ANGELS (coll 1991) - ran a wide gamut, from "The Man who Met Picasso"
(1982), a slightly sentimental fable of redemption, to "Ginungagap"
(1980), a HARD-SF tale set in the ASTEROID belt whose imagery and language
comprehensively prefigure CYBERPUNK; the more recent "A Midwinter's Tale"
(1988), though making nods to both Wolfe and A.E. VAN VOGT, seems in the
end to be written in MS's mature voice - warm, cruel, contemplative,
moral.His 5 novels show a steady progress towards that voice. In the Drift
(fixup 1985), set in an ALTERNATE WORLD in which Three Mile Island did in
fact explode, describes its post- HOLOCAUST balkanized USA through a
series of linked episodes which ultimately fail to cohere sufficiently, so
that the transcendental implications of the final sequences seem forced.
Vacuum Flowers (1987), which builds upon the world foreshadowed in
"Ginungagap", very much more cogently combines a tour-of-the-Solar-System
plot-carrying the reader downward from the corporation-dominated asteroid
belt to an AI-run Earth - with a dense load of extrapolation about the
nature of identity when persona-chips can be bought and plugged in. The
protagonist, a persona bum who has hijacked an attractive new identity for
herself, runs an extremely complex gamut before turning-perhaps inevitably
in MS's work - towards transcendence. Griffin's Egg (1991 UK) applies his
by-now-expected multiplex extrapolations to the NEAR FUTURE in a tale set
on the MOON - controlled by corporations - during a period when Earth
seems at the edge of self-destruction, and a long cold hegira may be in
store for any survivors of the HOLOCAUST. The titles of both these novels
serve as metaphors for the evolving human species and as banners to
proclaim the continuation of the species under new conditions.Unlike his
first 3 books, STATIONS OF THE TIDE (1991), which won a NEBULA, takes
place centuries hence and far from Earth, on a planet quarantined from the
higher technologies now controlled by a far-flung humanity. After a
Prometheus/Caliban figure has stolen some of these technologies from the
interstellar network that monitors quarantine, the protagonist descends to
the planet, which is due to suffer a vast periodic climatic
transformation, traces the "thief", and apprehends what it is necessary
for him to apprehend - the knowledge, the meaning of life on the planet,
the meaning of his own existence, and a sense of how best (he is a
Prospero figure) to relieve himself of power and servants. The complexity
of this brief, dense, and fast-moving book is very considerable; and the
interstellar network - whose HQ takes the shape of a Renaissance Theatre
of Memory - is convincing in its own right and as a focus for MS's
continued speculations about the refractions of identity in a world where
autonomous subset personality-copies held on computers (they resemble the
"partials" in Greg BEAR's EON [1985]) do much of the work of being human.
The Iron Dragon's Daughter (1993 UK), a fantasy, taxingly examines human
action (and guilt) in fantasy worlds themselves taxingly examined. In the
1980s "debate" between "humanists" and cyberpunks, MS was variously
associated with one or both "schools". In the end-like the similarly
treated Kim Stanley ROBINSON-he was not so easily assimilated. The most
telling thing to say about MS is that he is fiercely contemporary. [JC]See

UK magazine, PULP-MAGAZINE size, published by G.G. Swan, London. There
were 3 sf and 3 weird-fiction issues in the series. The sf numbers were #3
(1941), #11 (1942) and #21 (1942), the weird numbers #6 (1942), #14 (1942)
and #19 (1942). Despite the title, SYM contained mostly original UK
stories, with a few US reprints. The sf titles were marketed as Yankee
Science Fiction. [FHP]

Irwin ALLEN; Arthur HERZOG.

Perhaps the pseudonym of UK writer and psychologist H(enry) Maurice
D(unlop) Nicoll (1884-1953). In The Blue Germ (1918) well wishing
scientists infect the world with a virus that turns folk immortal,
lethargic and blue. After the psychological effects of IMMORTALITY have
played direly upon the cast, the novel ends with the hope, or fear, that
the virus has burned itself out. [JC]


(1688-1772) Swedish scientist, philosopher and theologian. The first half
of his career was devoted to investigations into a number of scientific
fields, from mathematics and physics to geology; in 1743-5 he underwent a
visionary experience, after which most of his writings became mystical.
These later writings, which influenced the UK poet William Blake
(1757-1827) and the German idealist philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804),
and were an important forerunner to the Romantic movement, included Arcana
Caelestia (1749-56 in Latin; trans John Clowes in 13 vols as Arcana
Coelestia, or Heavenly Mysteries Contained in the Sacred Scriptures
1802-16 UK), perhaps his magnum opus, and De Telluribus (1758 in Latin;
trans John Clowes as Concerning the Earths in Our Solar System, Which are
Called Planets, and Concerning the Earths in the Starry Heaven; Together
with an Account of their Inhabitants 1787 UK). This latter volume,
commonly known as The Earths in Our Solar System . . . and the Earths in
the Starry Heaven, describes a visionary trip around the Solar System,
which is seen (in part through a system of correspondences) as having a
spiritual significance; the book also contains some scientific speculation
about the planets. After his death, ES's followers founded the New
Jerusalem Church to promote his doctrines. [PN/JC]See also: COSMOLOGY;

(1934- ) US illustrator. His first sf/fantasy work was for BALLANTINE
BOOKS, and when that publisher formed the new DEL REY BOOKS imprint in
1977 DS became their main cover artist, his ILLUSTRATION being strongly
associated with their Jack L. CHALKER covers. His style works especially
well with fantasy books: his delicate women emphasize their fantasy, and
his earthy men give a sense of reality to unreal scenes. His colourful
style is reminiscent, sometimes, of the PULP-MAGAZINE covers of the 1940s,
especially his monsters. He works mainly with acrylics. [JG/PN]

Richard E. GEIS.

Pseudonym of New Zealand writer and professor of English John Macmillan
Brown (1846-1935), Chancellor of the University of NEW ZEALAND from 1923.
Both his fiction and his nonfiction deal almost exclusively with the South
Pacific. Of sf interest is his 2-part Antarctic UTOPIA, published as
Riallaro: The Archipelago of Exiles (1901 US) and Limanora: The Island of
Progress (1903 US; rev 1931 UK), in which an ethereal man with artificial
wings is shot down in the South Pacific but survives - he's British - to
recount his long trek through a mist-enshrouded group of ISLANDS, each of
them exemplifying different modes of existence, until he finds himself in
the scientific utopia of Limanora, which GS anatomizes in extraordinary
detail. Here he is physically and psychologically reconstructed. [JC]See

(1667-1745) Irish satirist, poet and cleric. His most famous work,
perhaps the most important of all works of PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, is
Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts . . . by
Lemuel Gulliver (1726; rev 1735), better known today as Gulliver's
Travels. The work is in part pure sf, and certainly makes use of and in
some cases invents narrative strategies which are now basic to sf; its
influence, both direct and indirect, on subsequent sf has been enormous,
as for example on H.G. WELLS's The Island of Dr Moreau (1896). In each of
its 4 books Captain Gulliver finds himself marooned in an ALIEN culture.
JS's SATIRE has two main forms: sometimes the culture in which he finds
himself reflects aspects of British society in an exaggerated manner, so
as to reveal its absurdities, and sometimes - more interestingly to sf
readers - it is the differences between alien societies and ours which
serve by contrast to make us see our own culture from a new perspective.
This latter technique predominates in Book IV, "A Voyage to the Country of
the Houyhnhnms", in which Gulliver finds himself stranded in a society of
intelligent horses, who do not (for example) understand such concepts as
war, the telling of untruths, or sexual passion. The details of their
culture are more convincing than was commonly the case with satire of this
kind, and the satire itself more complex. Although the story is often read
as a forceful attack on mankind - the brutish Yahoos who live there are in
fact humans - a more interesting reading, and one more readily supported
from the text, is that Gulliver's admiring description of the life of pure
intellect is part of Swift's ironic strategy, and that the reader is to
see the horses as emotionally sterile and soulless. Swift's use of horse
and Yahoo as sticks to beat one another is a double irony of a kind that
has been much used in sf.Books I and II, in which Gulliver voyages to
Lilliput, where everyone is very small, and to Brobdingnag, where everyone
is a giant ( GREAT AND SMALL), are the best known, partly because
bowdlerized versions have become children's classics; the originals are
savage and bawdy. Book III is set in and around Laputa, an ISLAND floating
in the air and largely populated by semi-crazed scientific researchers
(the first important appearance of the mad SCIENTIST in literature); in
the distant city of Luggnagg live a group of depressing, senile immortals,
"opinionative, peevish, covetous, morose, vain, talkative, but uncapable
of Friendship and dead to all natural Affection", the Struldbruggs. Many
of the scientific experiments satirized by JS were to become staples of
later sf; though he shows their absurdity, he also has sympathy for the
imaginative enthusiasm with which they are carried out. Most of JS's work
contains such paradoxes.Another satirical strategy of JS has become
important to DYSTOPIAN writing generally: he takes an outrageous
proposition and debates it quite deadpan, as if he not only supports it
but does not seriously expect opposition. Thus he satirized the more
inhuman attitudes to poverty (then as now) in A Modest Proposal (1729
chap) by suggesting that OVERPOPULATION and starvation in Ireland could
both be cured at a stroke by using the children of the poor as food.

Working name of US writer and academic E. Robison Swigart (1941- ), whose
novels, from Little America (1977) on, have been FABULATIONS composed in a
style which might be described as flamboyantly brisk; they include A.K.A.:
A Cosmic Fable (1978), The Time Trip (1979) and The Book of Revelations
(1981). Vector (1986) and its sequel Toxin (1989) deal, within a mystery
frame, with the threat to Earth of a bio-engineered disease; and Venom
(1991) similarly poses for its investigative protagonists the problem of a
deadly poison. Perhaps more interestingly, Portal: A Dataspace Retrieval
(1988) offers a complex future HISTORY of our planet over the next 100
years, the intercourse and coming to reflective awareness of an AI named
Homer, a returned astronaut's search through an apparently abandoned Earth
for some sign of humanity, speculations about GENETIC ENGINEERING, and an
explanation of the nature of the route taken by humanity through the
eponymous exit into a transcendental state. [JC]See also: COMPUTERS.

This term - describing a subgenre of FANTASY embracing adventures with
swordplay and MAGIC - is usually attributed to Fritz LEIBER, who is said
to have coined it in 1960, but the kind of story it refers to is much
older than that. (Other terms that overlap with "sword-and-sorcery" are
HEROIC FANTASY and SCIENCE FANTASY, the overlap being considerable in the
former case, but all 3 terms have different nuances.) Earlier terms with
similar meaning are "weird fantasy" and "fantastic romance".Leiber was a
member of the Hyborian League, a fan group, founded in 1956 to preserve
the memory of the pulp writer Robert E. HOWARD, to which many professional
writers belonged; the group's FANZINE was Amra. The members believed that
Howard founded the sword-and-sorcery genre with his stories in WEIRD
TALES, especially the Conan series of swashbuckling, romantic fantasies,
beginning with "The Phoenix on the Sword" (1932), set in Earth's imaginary
past, and featuring a mighty swordsman, violently amorous, who often
confronted supernatural forces of Evil.Howard's stories were not sui
generis, however: the creation of imaginary worlds on which colourful
adventures took place was very much a feature of PLANETARY ROMANCES in the
PULP MAGAZINES, notably the Barsoom stories of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, which
began 20 years before Conan's debut. Burroughs did not feature magic to
quite the same extent as Howard (and usually rationalized it as advanced
science), but the atmosphere of the books shows a clear continuity between
the two writers. In MAINSTREAM literature, too, there was a long tradition
of picaresque adventures in imaginary worlds, though usually more modest
(and literate), and sometimes less energetic, than Howard's. The usually
quoted high points of this tradition up to the time of Howard are the
somewhat etiolated medieval fantasies of William MORRIS, the stylish
though mannered romances of Lord DUNSANY (often set in a sort of
"Faerie"), the rather more swaggering romances of E.R. EDDISON, and James
Branch CABELL's elegant, ironic and elaborate Poictesme series. All of
these influenced various of the Weird Tales sword-and-sorcery writers,
though Howard less than Clark Ashton SMITH, C.L. MOORE and Henry KUTTNER.
Moore was perhaps the best writer of this group, with her Jirel of Joiry
and her Northwest Smith stories. But there is no denying the colour and
vigour of Howard's work. The essential, new element which Howard brought
to the genre was the emphasis on brutal, heroic ambition in the HERO, who
is seen (unlike Cabell's heroes, for example) quite without irony, as
simply admirable.Sometimes sf devices are used to explain the setting of
the societies (nearly always tribal or feudal) in which such adventures
take place; they may be in ALTERNATE WORLDS, PARALLEL WORLDS, other
DIMENSIONS, LOST WORLDS, Earth's prehistoric past even before ATLANTIS, on
other planets such as MARS or VENUS, inside the HOLLOW EARTH, or even on
forgotten colonies of a GALACTIC EMPIRE. It does not really matter which;
the thing is to provide an exotic background - the more elaborately worked
out the better - to a dualistic conflict, almost invariably between Good
and Evil.Weird Tales continued to publish sword-and-sorcery stories up to
the 1940s; many did not see book publication until much later. Clark
Ashton Smith's extremely colourful, "jewelled" prose was popular; C.L.
Moore had perhaps the most baroque imagination, especially when it came to
dreaming up sinister menaces. But sword and sorcery was a very minor genre
by the 1950s, despite the activities of the Hyborian League and the
publication in book form during that decade (often by GNOME PRESS) of the
works of Howard, Moore and others. The chances are that it would never
have attained the extraordinary popularity it has today were it not for
the belated but huge success of J.R.R. TOLKIEN's The Lord of the Rings (3
vols 1954-5), and the lesser though still remarkable success of T.H.
WHITE's The Once and Future King (1958), the latter forming the basis of
the musical Camelot (1960), filmed in 1967. When these works had filtered
through to the mass market via paperback editions (not until 1965 in the
case of Tolkien) it became obvious that there was a huge appetite for work
of this kind; publishers began to fall over one another in the effort to
feed it.Tolkien's long, richly imagined work is as important to modern
sword and sorcery as Howard's, the two representing the two ends of the
genre's spectrum: Howard all amoral vigour, Tolkien all deeply moral
clarity of imagination. (Also, Howard's heroes were very big, Tolkien's
very small.) Common to both - although the two writers could not have had
the remotest influence on each other - is a powerful commitment to the
idea of worlds where magic works, and where heroism can be pitted against
Evil.By the time Tolkien was published, sword and sorcery was showing
signs of vigour elsewhere, its two finest exponents being perhaps Fritz
Leiber and Jack VANCE. Leiber, with his Fafhrd and Gray Mouser series
beginning with "Two Sought Adventure" (1939), had been one of the few to
publish sword and sorcery through the 1940s. The series is imaginative and
full of verve; Leiber's stroke of genius was to have two heroes, one huge
and powerful, one small, nimble and quick-witted. Vance's THE DYING EARTH
(coll of linked stories 1950) and its successor The Eyes of the Overworld
(coll of linked stories 1966) are dry, ironic, moving, cynical, and often
very witty indeed; they are written with precision and flourish, and,
insofar as they can be compared with anything else in the genre, recall
the work of Cabell.Other writers who have had a strong influence on the
development of the genre are L. Sprague DE CAMP and Fletcher PRATT, Poul
ANDERSON, Leigh BRACKETT (especially her Mars stories) and Lin CARTER.
Both De Camp and Carter have had a hand in adding to the Conan series, and
Carter's style in particular is more verbose than that of the original.
Carter was also from 1969 editor of BALLANTINE BOOKS's Adult Fantasy
series, which certainly did much to increase the fantasy readership among
young people, and he was a tireless proselytizer for the genre. An
unfortunate but inevitable consequence of sword and sorcery's sudden
popularity was (and continues to be) the large amount of hackwork that
came to be published in the genre.Among the stronger writers is Andre
NORTON, whose Witch World books, set in parallel worlds where magic works,
are genuinely macabre and evoke vividly the difficulties of maintaining
some kind of civilization in the face of Evil, ambition and chaos, though
like other works in the genre her books sometimes suffer from a rather
clotted, mock-medieval rhetoric. Even Robert A. HEINLEIN wrote one
sword-and-sorcery novel, Glory Road (1963), but his matter-of-factness and
preachiness render the book less than spellbinding. Sterling LANIER, Fred
SABERHAGEN and Christopher STASHEFF have all produced entertaining stories
in the genre, as has Avram DAVIDSON, with perhaps more originality.Michael
MOORCOCK is one of the relatively few UK writers to work in the genre, and
though his sword and sorcery (which he began publishing around 1963) has
been dismissed, not least by himself, as hackwork, and while he certainly
wrote too much too fast, his fantasy generally and his Elric books in
particular imported a welcome breadth to the genre: Good and Evil in
Moorcock's books are never easy to define; the forces of Chaos and the
forces of Law are alike unsentimental, self-seeking and untroubled by
human anguish. Moorcock put paid to the idea of the hero in control of his
own destiny; in his books an indifferent universe cares nothing for
heroism, but Moorcock does, and the courage shown by his heroes is the
more touching for being (usually) doomed. His sword-and-sorcery work is as
much a critique of the genre as it is a continuation of its traditions. M.
John HARRISON's The Pastel City (1971) is a more interesting than usual
variant, using the conventions of the genre with skill, but to slightly
deflationary effect.Many fine WOMEN WRITERS have been attracted to sword
and sorcery, including those noted above and C.J. CHERRYH, Jane GASKELL,
Barbara HAMBLY, Katherine KURTZ, Tanith LEE, R.A. MACAVOY, Sheri S.
TEPPER, Joan VINGE and Patricia Wrede (1953- ).Sword-and-sorcery readers
appear to welcome long - sometimes seemingly endless - series, and many
writers have obliged: John JAKES with the Brak books, Lin Carter with the
Thongor books, John NORMAN with the Gor books, and others by Alan Burt
Akers (Kenneth BULMER), Gardner F. FOX, Jeffrey LORD, Andrew J. OFFUTT,
Peter Valentine TIMLETT, Karl Edward Wagner (1945- ) and Robert Moore
WILLIAMS. Not all of these works are pure sword and sorcery; many, such as
Akers's, are more directly in the Edgar Rice Burroughs SCIENCE-FANTASY
tradition. It can be said that most of these (Jakes's and Wagner's being
perhaps the best) are routine, and that at their worst they are execrable.
By the mid-1970s sword and sorcery as a marketing term was giving way to
HEROIC FANTASY or sometimes "high fantasy". In practice, however, this
meant little (if any) change in the sort of material being published. Many
sword-and-sorcery motifs found their way into sf proper, too; e.g., the
violent Horseclans series (from 1975) by Robert ADAMS, set in a post-
HOLOCAUST future. Generally, though, the late 1970s and the 1980s saw a
greater separation between sf and sword and sorcery than before, with
fewer writers working in both fields, though Stephen DONALDSON, who had
made sword-and-sorcery history by introducing a protagonist with leprosy
in the Chronicles of Thomas Covenant the Unbeliever series (from 1977),
went on to write some sf, as did MacAvoy and, most notably of all, Tepper.
The scenarios of some sword-and-sorcery writers, such as David GEMMELL,
Hambly and Eric VAN LUSTBADER, occasionally approach the sciencefictional,
but many of the most publicized sword-and-sorcery authors of the decade -
e.g., David Eddings (1931- ), Robert Jordan (1948- ) and Tad Williams
(1957- )-have had nothing to do with sf at all.Sword and sorcery is not
sf; it is an accident of publishing history that its links with sf are so
strong, but hardly a surprising accident: both have roots in 1930s pulp
fiction, and they were for a long time often written by the same people.
Both genres, indeed, revel in the creation of imaginary worlds. The fact
that sf attempts to rationalize its mysteries while sword and sorcery
simply attributes them to supernatural powers does not, perhaps, make as
big a difference as sf purists would like to believe. Certainly
genre-crossing between the two by writers as various as Norton and Vance
has strongly influenced both genres. John CROWLEY's The Deep (1975) uses
the confusion between the genres interestingly in its actual
structure.Sword and sorcery has also moved inexorably into other media,
notably COMICS but also (seldom with much success) CINEMA, as with the
John Milius film Conan the Barbarian (1981) and George LUCAS's production
Willow (1988). More interestingly, STAR WARS (1977), Lucas's great
success, arguably owes as much to sword and sorcery as it does to sf. The
most extensive influence of sword and sorcery has been in role-playing
games, many discussed under GAMES AND TOYS, whose scenarios it has wholly
dominated ever since Gary Gygax (1938- ) and Dave Arneson created and
published Dungeons and Dragons (1974).The genre has, perhaps, too narrow a
range of interests, and the constant recurrence of the same themes is
likely to make all but the most fanatic enthusiast tire quickly, at least
with work at the lower end of the market. Much sword and sorcery is
violent, sexist and even, according to some, fascist. Norman SPINRAD
showed what he thought of the genre in The Iron Dream (1972), which
contains a heroic fantasy purportedly written by an alternate-world
Hitler. But at its best the genre welcomes wit, imagination, and
freewheeling invention; it has produced some memorable images.There are no
outstanding studies of sword and sorcery at book length. De Camp's
Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy (1976) is
useful, however, and Michael MOORCOCK's uneven Wizardry and Wild Romance:
A Study of Epic Fantasy (1987) has a number of shrewd observations.

US DIGEST-size reprint magazine. 1 issue, 1975, published by Ultimate
Publishing Co.; ed Sol Cohen, uncredited. 1 story was from WEIRD TALES,
the Conan tale "Queen of the Black Coast" (1934) by Robert E. HOWARD; the
others were from Fantastic 1961-5. [FHP]

(1956- ) US writer, almost exclusively of TIES, including the Tales of
the Concordat sequence, which is tied to a game, and which comprises Not
in our Stars * (1984), Become the Hunted * (1985), The Universal Prey *
(1985), The Presidium of Archive * (coll 1985), The Empire's Legacy *
(1988), Voyage of the Planetslayer * (1988) and Revolt and Rebirth *
(1988). Warsprite (1990) is a somewhat jumbled sf novel featuring ROBOTS
in a future Wyoming; and Web of Futures (1991) is a somewhat more
ambitious TIME TRAVEL fantasy. [JC]

(? -? ) US writer of a tie in the U.S.S.A. sequence, U.S.S.A., Book 3 *
(1987), in which high-school students continue to oppose NEAR-FUTURE
totalitarian oppression. Red Genesis (1991), #1 in the The Next Wave line
of otherwise unconnected novels from Byron PREISS Visual Productions,
deals with the colonization of MARS. [JC]SYLVESTER, JOHN Hyperlink to:
Hector HAWTON.

Hector HAWTON.


(1780-1829) US army officer with the rank of Captain, who distinguished
himself in the War of 1812, retired, and subsequently devoted his life to
propagandizing (largely through speeches, apparently charismatic) on
behalf of his theory of a HOLLOW EARTH consisting of 5 concentric spheres,
with openings at the poles. He twice petitioned Congress (1822, 1823) for
funds to mount an expedition to the (literal) interior, but failed. His
health failed, too, after many lecture tours, and he died quite young. He
did not leave any account in book form of his theories, though he did
issue a paper in 1818. Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres (1826) was by
a disciple, James McBride, and The Symmes Theory of Concentric Spheres,
Demonstrating that the Earth is Hollow, Habitable Within, and Widely Open
about the Pole: Compiled by Americus Symmes from the Writings of his
Father Captain John Cleves Symmes (1878) was by his 10th child. Although
it has been thought that the novel Symzonia (1820) by Adam SEABORN may
have been written pseudonymously by JCS, it has been pointed out (by E.F.
BLEILER) that this is unlikely since, although the book alludes to Symmes
in its title, it actually satirizes some of Symmes's ideas. These ideas
were not sui generis, and indeed belong to a long tradition of
PSEUDO-SCIENCE theorizing, one of whose important milestones was a 1692
paper by the astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742), published by the Royal
Society in London, also arguing for nested spheres (and an internal sun).
JCS's version was, however, directly influential through much of the 19th
century. [PN]See also: LOST WORLDS.

US ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series ed George ZEBROWSKI, published by Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich: Synergy: New Science Fiction #1 (anth 1987), #2 (anth
1988), #3 (anth 1989) and #4 (anth 1989). It was interesting without being
remarkable, publishing good stories by Gregory BENFORD, Chad OLIVER, Ian
WATSON and others. [PN]

(1897- ) Irish physicist and writer whose best-known nontechnical work of
nonfiction is Science, Sense and Nonsense (1951). His novel, Kandelman's
Krim: A Realistic Fantasy (1957), features a long conversation in which an
Orc, a Kea, a Unicorn and a Plumber discuss the concept of infinity and
instruct a passing Goddess in the foundations of MATHEMATICS. [BS]

(1941- ) US writer specializing in sf and fantasy adventure sequences,
the only one to appear under his own name being the Mystic Rebel series:
Mystic Rebel (1988), #2: The Dancing Dead (1988), #3: Darkness Descends
(1988), #4: