Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (R-R)

(?1494-1553) French monk, doctor, priest and writer. The various
manuscripts now generally published as Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532-52
plus a posthumous text of dubious authenticity 1564; many trans, of which
the best known is that by Sir Thomas Urquhart - first 2 books 1653 UK, 3rd
book 1693 UK - and Peter Le Motteux - 4th and 5th books 1694 UK, and of
which the most successful contemporary version is trans Burton Raffel 1990
US) form an immense, exuberant, linguistically inventive SATIRE with most
of medieval Christendom the target. The giants of the title are enormous
both physically and in their joyous gusto. In the Fourth Book (1552) of
the sequence, ISLANDS exemplary of various aspects of society are
visited-including the island of the Papimanes, description of whose
inhabitants involves a radical criticism of the Catholic Church. Darker
and more bitter in tone, the Fifth Book (1564) - which may well have been
completed by another hand from FR's first draft-incorporates a section,
The Ringing Island (1562), originally published separately, with the most
notable sf imagery of the entire work. The islands of the 4th and 5th
books were probably the most sustained invention of other worlds in
literature up to that time. The succession of ALIEN societies, often
making some kind of satirical comment on our own, complete with all sorts
of colourful anthropological detail, has been greatly influential in PROTO
SCIENCE FICTION, and its resonances can be sensed even today in the work
of writers like Jack VANCE, who, even if not directly influenced by him,
continue the FR tradition. [JC/PN]See also: FRANCE.

Film (1976). Cinepix/Dibar Syndicate/Canadian Film Development Corp.
Written/dir David Cronenberg, starring Marilyn Chambers, Joe Silver,
Howard Ryshpan, Patricia Gage, Susan Roman. 91 mins. Colour.In this
Canadian film from David CRONENBERG an experimental skin graft on an
accident victim (hardcore porn star Marilyn Chambers) turns her into the
carrier of a rabies-like disease which induces homicidal mania in its
victims; the disease is spread by means of a phallic, organic syringe
which emerges from labia in her armpit and is used to satisfy her new,
uncontrollable blood lust. Montreal is soon in the throes of apocalypse,
and martial law is established; citizens who cannot produce proof of
inoculation are shot by troops and their bodies dumped into garbage
trucks. Structured much like The PARASITE MURDERS (1974; vt They Came from
Within; vt Shivers), this is more smoothly directed but perhaps less
intense, and by Cronenberg's standards is a conventional exploitation
picture - though from anybody else this medical/Freudian HORROR movie,
with its gender-bending, penis-wielding killer woman, would have seemed
bizarre indeed. [PN/JB]See also: CINEMA; MONSTER MOVIES; SEX.

(1946- ) US sf critic and professor of English Language and Literature,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Of the 18 books he has written or
edited to 1991, 15 have a direct relevance to sf and fantasy. His critical
books are: The Fantastic in Literature (1976), an academic study in genre
definition (including sf), provocative but not always rigorous; Science
Fiction: History, Science, Vision (1977) with Robert SCHOLES, a general
introduction to the subject seemingly aimed at the novice, with strong
opening and closing sections on the HISTORY OF SF and 10 representative
novels, but less impressive intermediate chapters on media, sciences and
themes; and Arthur C. Clarke (chap 1979; rev 1980). 2 anthologies ed ESR
intended for educational use ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM), collecting fantasy
and sf stories showing the historical development of those genres, are
Fantastic Worlds: Myths, Tales and Stories (anth 1979) and Science
Fiction: A Historical Anthology (anth 1983).ESR's other book publications
are anthologies of critical essays: Bridges to Fantasy (anth 1982) ed with
George Edgar SLUSSER and Scholes; The End of the World (anth 1983) ed with
Martin H. GREENBERG and Joseph D. OLANDER; Co-Ordinates: Placing Science
Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1983) ed with Slusser and Scholes; No Place
Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction (anth 1983) ed with
Greenberg and Olander; Shadows of the Magic Lamp: Fantasy and Science
Fiction in Film (anth 1985) ed with Slusser; Hard Science Fiction (anth
1986) ed with Slusser; Storm Warnings: Science Fiction Confronts the
Future (anth 1987) ed with Slusser and Colin GREENLAND; Intersections:
Fantasy and Science Fiction (anth 1987) ed with Slusser; Aliens: The
Anthropology of Science Fiction (anth 1987) ed with Slusser; Mindscapes:
The Geographies of Imagined Worlds (anth 1989) ed with Slusser. Further
such anthologies, part of the now-formidable academic publishing industry
related to sf, are projected. [PN]See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; CINEMA; CRITICAL

[s] L. Ron HUBBARD.




(1899- ) UK writer of occasional sf, including the title novella of The
Return of the Ceteosaurus, and Other Tales (coll 1926), which pits a huge
saurian against a DEATH RAY. The Great Orme Terror (1934) is a detective
novel whose solution involves ROBOTS. The task of the heroine of The Lady
from Venus (1947) is to acquire Earth eggs for use back home as a form of
currency. [JC]


1. Radio in the USA Fantastic thrillers, incorporating sf and
supernatural elements alternately, were fairly common in the USA all
through the "Golden Age" of radio (usually considered 1930-50), but
"hardcore" sf was rarer.As early as 1929, Carlton E. Morse (1900-1993) in
San Francisco wrote and produced closed-end serials (a single story, from
which the characters did not continue indefinitely) which involved sf
concepts. Amid ancient jungle temples, Morse rationalized mysticism into
science in The Cobra King Strikes Back and Land of the Living Dead. The
same titles and scripts were reprised in the 1945 series Adventures by
Morse. Similar themes were developed with more sophistication by Morse in
I Love a Mystery, 1939-45 (NBC, then CBS), and new productions repeating
the scripts, 1949-52 (Mutual). Temple of Vampires had heroes Jack, Doc and
Reggie facing human vampires and gigantic mutant bats. Two other I Love a
Mystery episodes, The Stairway to the Sun and The Hermit of San Felipe
Atabapo, concerned the same lost plateau in South America, where dwelled
prehistoric monsters and a race of supermen who controlled world destiny.
More celebrated for his literate domestic serial One Man's Family, Morse
was also radio's foremost adventure writer, similar (and comparable) to H.
Rider HAGGARD and Arthur Conan DOYLE. Much of his work has survived,
thanks to private collectors, and has been re-released on
record.Children's programming was deeply involved with sf. BUCK ROGERS IN
THE 25TH CENTURY was probably the first "hardcore" sf series on radio,
beginning in 1932 (CBS). (It was only the second important afternoon
adventure serial of any kind, its predecessor being Little Orphan Annie.)
Based on the comic strip by Phil NOWLAN and Dick CALKINS, it was written
partly by Calkins, but for the most part by radio producer Jack Johnstone.
The stories were far from silly or trivial, and made a good job of
presenting such basic ideas as time and space travel to a youthful
audience. Various revivals carried the Buck Rogers title through to 1946
on radio. Other series of shorter duration were FLASH GORDON, Brad Steele
- Ace of Space, SPACE PATROL and Space Cadet (the last two being original
radio shows based on established tv favorites in the early 1950s: TOM
CORBETT, SPACE CADET). SUPERMAN was an sf character, created by Jerry
SIEGEL and Joe Shuster in their comic strip, but on radio (1940-52) the
series generally dealt with crime and mystery. Some sf appeared when the
Man of Steel ventured to the planet Utopia, or when menaced by Kryptonite.
Supporting characters included guest stars Batman and Robin.Other juvenile
serials had Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy (1933-51) experimenting
with Uranium-235 in 1939; Captain Midnight (1938-50), the mysterious
aviator, encountering flying saucers ( UFOs) in 1949; and Tom Mix
(1933-50), the Western movie star (impersonated on radio usually by Curley
Bradley), constantly facing mysteries with a supernatural and superscience
atmosphere. (The same actor and theme were used in Curley Bradley's Trail
of Mystery, written and prod Jim HARMON in 1976 for syndication.)Horror
stories, in half-hour anthologies, appeared in the 1930s. Such series were
mostly supernatural in content, but sf occasionally appeared. Lights Out
began in 1938 (NBC), written by Willis Cooper, later by Arch Oboler.
Oboler's tale of an ordinary chicken's heart, stimulated by growth
hormones to engulf the entire world, is one of the most famous single
radio plays of any kind. Other horror anthologies included Witch's Tale by
Alonzo Deen Cole, Quiet Please by Willis Cooper, and Hermit's Cave by
various authors.A general drama anthology, Mercury Theater on the Air, was
begun by its producer-star Orson Welles (1915-1985) in 1938 (CBS). One of
its earliest broadcasts, WAR OF THE WORLDS, adapted H.G. WELLS's novel in
the form of a contemporary on-the-spot newscast. Thousands of listeners
were thrown into a state of panic, believing Mars was invading the Earth.
The resulting havoc undoubtedly made this sf play the most famous radio
broadcast of all time. The Mercury series also did a memorable version of
Dracula (1897) by Bram Stoker (1847-1912).Before leaving for the movies
and his classic Citizen Kane (1941), Welles also starred in The Shadow in
1937-8. The series had begun in 1931 and until 1954 often presented sf in
charmingly lurid pulp fashion, with its mysterious hero who could "cloud
men's minds" by hypnosis (thus becoming invisible), facing mad scientists
who could control volcanoes, dead bodies, even light and dark. Rival
fantasy heroes included The Avenger (almost an exact copy), Peter Quill, a
weird, benevolent, hunchbacked scientist, and the fearless shipmates of
Latitude Zero.Near the end of major night-time programming on radio in
1949, sf came into its own in an anthology of modern sf, Dimension X
(later vt X Minus 1). This NBC programme had well presented versions of
Bradbury's Martian Chronicles stories, Robert A. HEINLEIN's "Requiem"
(written 1940), and many other celebrated sf stories, intermittently until
1957. Although sf continued through the 1970s to be presented
experimentally (and only occasionally) on culture-oriented FM stations,
and on the CBS Radio Mystery Theater (the first major network revival of
drama, beginning 1973), X Minus 1 still stands as one of the finest
showcases for sf in any dramatic medium. [JH]2. Radio in the UK The
decreasing importance of US radio as a medium for dramatized sf (and drama
generally) is presumably due to the death of network radio; the situation
is different in the UK, where the BBC continues to broadcast across the
whole country, and is not dependent on income from advertising. Few FM
stations anywhere have the budget for drama productions.Sf has been
broadcast by the BBC since the 1930s; indeed, radio is such a suitable
medium for sf that it is hard to find a celebrated sf author whose work
has not been transmitted. Sf work by writers as various as H.G. WELLS,
John CHRISTOPHER and Brian W. ALDISS has regularly been broadcast as
readings (sometimes by the authors themselves) or dramatizations (as
single plays or as serials). Sf programmes have been aimed at all ages.
For example, a typical Monday in 1953 would offer one of Angus MacVicar's
LOST PLANET stories on the 5pm Children's Hour, and at 7.30pm an episode
of the fantastically successful Journey into Space serial would be
transmitted for the 7- to 70-year-olds.Journey into Space was written and
prod for radio by Charles CHILTON, already well known to youngsters as
creator of the popular Western Riders-of-the-Range series, which appeared
on radio and in the BOYS' PAPER Eagle. Journey into Space ran only 1953-5,
with 3 serialized stories comprising 54 episodes in all, but it enthralled
a generation for whom landing on the Moon was still a far-fetched fantasy.
The 3 stories were set on the MOON in 1965 and on MARS in 1971 and 1973,
and featured the adventures of the Scots pilot Jet Morgan and his crew,
Cockney Lemmy Barnet, Australian Stephen Mitchell and US Dr Matthews. High
points were the meeting with a malevolent ALIEN civilization shortly after
the first Moon landing, the foiling of a Martian INVASION, TIME TRAVEL,
mass hypnosis and flying saucers. By 1955 the programme reached 5 million
listeners, deservedly the largest UK radio audience ever, no previous sf
radio drama having equalled it for narrative vigour. The programmes were
sold to 58 countries; the adventures were novelized by Chilton as Journey
Into Space * (1954), The Red Planet * (1956) and The World in Peril *
(1960); he also scripted a further Jet Morgan adventure for a comic strip
in Express Weekly (1956-7).Another well remembered sf radio serial was Dan
Dare, broadcast for several years from 1953 by the English-language
service of Radio Luxembourg in weekly 15min episodes. The programme was
written and produced by people quite unconnected with the staff of Frank
HAMPSON's comic strip DAN DARE - PILOT OF THE FUTURE; although it used the
same characters and situations, it was in a quite different style. While
unsophisticated SPACE OPERA as sf, it was thoroughly successful as
juvenile high adventure.As radio lost its audience to tv in the late
1950s, so too did radio sf lose its mass appeal. Never again would an sf
series reach as wide an audience as the above two programmes. In the
1970s, however, a number of breakthrough productions appeared. The BBC
dramatized Isaac ASIMOV's Foundation series (1951-3) in 6 parts, and newly
emerging local stations experimented with the genre: disc-jockey and
comedian Kenny Everett's Captain Kremmen gained a cult following on
London's Capital Radio, with a subsequent degree of multimedia success;
Manchester's Piccadilly Radio helped launch the career of Stephen
GALLAGHER with the 6-part serial The Last Rose of Summer (1978).But it
took the stimulus of the visual media to prompt a serious reconsideration
of the genre's merits. In the wake of the film STAR WARS (1977) came a
mini-boom in radio sf that lasted into the 1980s: Saturday Night Theatre
presented dramatizations of novels by H.G. Wells, Arthur C. Clarke, John
Wyndham and Ray BRADBURY, and also brought about a belated revival of
Journey into Space in the singleton play The Return from Mars; James
FOLLETT contributed the serials Earth Search and Earth Search II; and
Douglas ADAMS's HITCH HIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY became the biggest radio
attraction for a whole generation, each repeat broadcast bringing in a
larger audience and creating an enormous market for book, record, tape and
tv spin-offs.Despite its success, the BBC failed to capitalize on Hitch
Hiker, although its influence held through the 1980s in a string of
humorous sf series such as Nineteen Ninety-four and adaptations of the
Harry HARRISON novels Bill, the Galactic Hero (1965) and Star Smashers of
the Galaxy Rangers (1973). The most impressive drama of the decade came in
single plays by Tanith LEE, Stephen Gallagher and Wally K. Daly. Charles
Chilton made another worthy attempt to revive Journey into Space with 2
series of Space Force, but his efforts suffered from unsympathetic
scheduling.The start of the 1990s brought mixed prospects. The launch of
the BBC's newest network, Radio 5, promised serious programming for a
younger audience: genre material so far presented (dramatizations of works
by Alan GARNER, Ray Bradbury and Nicholas FISK) is pleasing in quantity if
poor in production. In 1991 Radio 5 broadcast Orson Welles's original 1938
Mercury Theater on the Air production of WAR OF THE WORLDS. Also in that
year Radio 4 presented a season of plays adapting well known sf works,
from the good, such as Daniel KEYES's FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON (1959; exp
1966), to the poor, such as Snoo WILSON's Spaceache (1984), with much else
in between. Meanwhile, the popular repeats on Radio 2 FM of rediscovered
Journey into Space episodes (repeated on Radio 5) and the later
broadcasting by Radio 5 of a radio version of THUNDERBIRDS, edited from
the original tv tapes, showed that, despite technical advances, the cause
of radio sf had barely advanced since the Golden Age of the 1960s.


(vt, outside Japan, Rodan) Film (1956). Toho. Dir Inoshiro Honda,
starring Kenji Sahara, Yumi Shirkawa, Akihiko Hirata. Screenplay Takeshi
Kimura, Takeo Murata, based on a story by Takashi Kuronomura. 79 mins.
Colour.This film, the first Japanese MONSTER MOVIE in colour, is from the
same team that produced GOJIRA (vt Godzilla). A giant pterodactyl hatches
in a mine (and eats giant dragonfly larvae, in the film's best scene); it
is joined by a second flying reptile; they terrorize Japan then perish in
a volcano. The spectacular effects are by Eiji Tsuburaya and his team. The
US version added a voice-over written by David DUNCAN. Radon's second
appearance was in Kaiju Daisenso (1965; vt Invasion of Astro-Monster; vt
Battle of the Astros; vt Monster Zero; vt Invasion of Planet X) and his
third in Ghidorah Sandai Kaiju Chikyu Saidai No Kessan (1965; vt Chikyu
Saidai No Kessan; vt Ghidrah the Three-Headed Monster). His swansong,
where he performed alongside 10 other major Toho monsters, was in Kaiju
Soshingeki (1968; vt Destroy All Monsters; vt Operation Monsterland; vt
The March of the Monsters). (For more on these sequels GOJIRA.) [PN]



(1944- ) UK poet, whose first book, TheOnion, Memory (coll 1978 chap),
demonstrated his capacity to illuminate theworld through estranged
metaphors, a technique which came to full fruition in A Martian Sends a
Postcard Home(coll 1979 chap), the title poemof which represents an
alien's tabula rasa vision ofnormal human activities, and which has come
for many to represent an angle of perceptioncentral to good sf (and
fatally missing from routine work).His libretto for an opera by
CharlesOsborne, The Electrification of the Soviet Union(1986 chap) is
somewhat fantasticated; and "1953": A Version of Racine'sAndromache(1990
chap) is a HITLER WINS tale in play form,set in an Italy which, now ruled
by Mussolini's son, has conquered England,bombing London flat inthe
process. [JC]

(1927- ) US lawyer and writer in whose sf novel, The Singing: A Fable
about What Makes us Human (1988), a team of Martians crashes its UFO into
the Guggenheim Museum in New York, where one of them, according to plan,
meets and impregnates the human girl through whose eyes the tale is told.
Both sides get what they need: for Mars new blood, and for the Earth
unsubtle flattery of our tough and obdurate human stock. One senses that
the author thought his storyline possessed some originality, though his
concerns, after the fashion of many non-genre writers using sf
instruments, are mainly didactic. [JC]

Monsignor Ronald A. KNOX.

(?1848-1906) US writer who - although he self-published his sf novels -
was of some interest. In Six Thousand Years Hence (1891) a visiting planet
drags the protagonist's city into space, where he and his colleagues are
able to view several other civilizations, including a complex advanced
culture within the Sun, and return centuries hence to a tamed high-tech
Earth, where they die older than Methuselah. The Austral Globe (1892) and
Two Billions of Miles, or The Story of a Trip Through the Solar System
(1900) are similar in viewpoint but less engaging. [JC]

(1905-1982) Russian-born US writer whose Objectivist philosophy, as
expounded in most of her work, was influential during the 1950s among
college students, who were perhaps attracted by her instructions to heed
one's self-interest, to abjure altruism, and to maximize the SUPERMAN
potential within each of us. Her first and better sf novel, Anthem (1938
UK; cut 1946 US), is a DYSTOPIA set after a devastating war. Individualism
has been eliminated, along with the concept of the person, but the
protagonist discovers his identity while escaping with a beautiful woman
to the forest, where he christens himself Prometheus. The Fountainhead
(1943) is a MAINSTREAM novel advancing AR's vision of things. In Atlas
Shrugged (1957), which is sf, John Galt (AR's mouthpiece) and his
Objectivist colleagues abandon an increasingly socialistic USA and retreat
to the mountains as civilization crumbles, prepared to return only when
they will be able to rebuild along the lines of Objectivist philosophy.
AR's influence lessened over the years. Two Girls, Fat and Thin (1991) by
Mary Gaitskell systematically caricatures AR and her work. [JC]See also:

(1948- ) US writer and editor who has taught in several sf writing
workshops and served in the SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA as
vice-president 1981-2 and president 1982-4. She began publishing sf with
"Smack Run" in New Worlds 5 (anth 1973 ed Michael MOORCOCK) as by Marta
Bergstresser; the surname, her first husband's, was used only on this one
occasion. Her stories since then have not been frequent, but are almost
always of high quality, tightly and densely written, even epigrammatic at
points, and generally impart elements of FEMINIST discourse, with
unbemused clarity of effect, to genre material. The intense force of a
late tale like "Lapidary Nights" (1987) derives at least in part-though no
"didactic" argument occupies the foreground - from its thorough
assimilation of a feminist agenda.MR's first and perhaps most successful
novel, Islands (1976; rev 1980), movingly depicts the life of a mortal
woman in an age when IMMORTALITY is medically achievable for all but a
few. To cope with her world she plunges into the study of archaeology, and
makes a discovery which enables her to transcend her corporeal life. In A
City in the North (1976) an ALIEN species self-destructs in a morally
dubious response to the colonizing presence on their planet of the human
race. The Kennerin or Newhome sequence - Journey (1978) and Dangerous
Games (1980) - also treats its colony-world setting with some ambivalence,
for the Kennerin family's decision to create a UTOPIA on the planet they
own has complex consequences, some of them relating to ECOLOGY. The Sword
of Winter (1983), like some of her later short fiction, is fantasy, though
with PLANETARY-ROMANCE features; and Those who Favor Fire (1984) is a
near-future DYSTOPIA set in an Apocalypse-prone California much like
today's. With Robert SILVERBERG, MR edited 2 vols of the ongoing New
Dimensions sequence, New Dimensions 11 (anth 1980) and #12 (anth 1981);
and was responsible solo for The Nebula Awards 19 (anth 1984). In the
later 1980s she was less active as a writer, concentrating at least in
part on the construction of "interactive time-travel games" ( GAME-WORLDS)
for the California State Department of Mental Health; but her fiction,
when it appeared, remained vividly alive, and she has begun to publish
mysteries, with Growing Light (1993) as by Martha Conley. [JC]See also:

[r] Bill FAWCETT.

Pseudonym used on collaborative stories - about 19 in all (1956-8) - by
Robert SILVERBERG and Randall GARRETT; Silverberg was very young at the
time. The most notable were the Nidorian series, originally published in
ASF, dealing with the effects of human contact on an alien race; they were
published in book form as The Shrouded Planet (fixup 1957) and The Dawning
Light (1957 ASF; 1959). [BS]

(1949- ) US writer who served in the Army as a helicopter pilot in
Vietnam 1968-9 and in the Air Force as an Intelligence Officer 1976-86. He
began publishing sf with "Future War" for Combat Illustrated in 1978, but
became an active writer only in the 1980s, beginning 2 sequences in 1986:
the Seeds of War books, all with Robert Cornett - Seeds of War (1988), The
Aldebaran Campaign (1988) and The Aquarian Attack (1989) - and the
Remember! books, also with Cornett: Remember the Alamo! (1986), Remember
Gettysburg! (1988) and Remember Little Big Horn! (1990). The first series
is an unremarkable example of military sf, though told with some verve;
the second is a more exhilarating TIME-TRAVEL sequence, in which veterans
are enlisted to travel to famous battles, where they must make sure that
events take their proper course. The Jefferson's War sequence - The
Galactic Silver Star (1990), The Price of Command (1990), The Lost Colony
(1991), The January Platoon (1991), Death of a Regiment (1991) and Chain
of Command (1992) - is again military sf, carrying members of the United
States Space Infantry into various tight corners. The Global War sequence
began with Dawn of Conflict (1991); the Star Precinct sequence, with
Richard Driscoll, began with Star Precinct (1992),Star Precinct #2: Mind
Slayer (1992) and Inside Job (1992). [JC]Other works: Once upon a Murder *
(1987) with Robert J(oseph) Randisi (1951- ), a game tie; 3 nonfiction UFO
books, The October Scenario (1988), The UFO Casebook (1989) and UFO Crash
at Roswell (1991) with Don Schmitt.

Donald Sydney ROWLAND.


(1949- ) UK writer who began writing his highly idiosyncratic sf novels
with the Brentford sequence: The Antipope (1981), The Brentford Triangle
(1983) and East of Ealing (1984), assembled as The Brentford Trilogy (omni
1988), plus The Sprouts of Wrath (1988). In the first volume, two
layabouts and their friends challenge Forces from the Beyond ranging from
an undead sorcerer to an alien invasion fleet. In later volumes the series
satirizes CLICHES taken in equal measure from horror, sf and fantasy,
setting them off against the thoroughly down-to-earth London suburb of
Brentford. In the end humanity is (apparently) destroyed. RR's Armageddon
series - Armageddon: The Musical (1990), They Came and Ate Us: Armageddon
II: The B-Movie (1991) and The Suburban Book of the Dead: Armageddon III:
The Remake (1992) - features a time-travelling Elvis Presley and is based
on the premise that the whole of human history has been stage-managed for
transmission as an extraterrestrial soap opera. Further (and similar)
works include the Ultimate Truths tales, comprising The Book of Ultimate
Truths (1993) and Raiders of the Lost Car Park (1994); and The Greatest
Show Off Earth (1994). [NT]See also: COSMOLOGY; HUMOUR.

Douglas R. MASON.

(1945- ) US writer who has worked as a medic and as a firefighter. His
early writing was poetry, with several volumes released from Finding True
North & Critter (coll 1974 chap) onward. He began publishing sf with
"Songs of a Sentient Flute" for ASF in 1979 as by Frank Herbert, a story
which eventually became part of Medea: Harlan's World * (anth 1985) ed
Harlan ELLISON. BR is best known for the Pandora Trilogy with Frank
HERBERT (whom see for details): The Jesus Incident (1979), The Lazarus
Effect (1983) and The Ascension Factor (1988). His first solo novel,
Jaguar (fixup 1990), is also of interest for its depiction of the
physically, psychologically and morally complex dream-driven pattern of
connections between Earth and another planet, each planet containing two
maturing adolescents whose sleep disorders allow them to make journeys
between the worlds. The Jaguar - a disturbed WWII vet who likewise roams
the dreamways-must be halted before he disrupts the fragile tissues of
reality. Slightly overweighted for the adventure-sf idiom in which it is
told, Jaguar is all the same an intriguing attempt to say more than could
easily be said. ViraVax (1993), on the other hand, almost deliberately
deploys an impressive presentation of the complex perils that inevitably
accompany in-depth virological research with a storyline, set early next
century, which focuses primarily upon a suspenseful thriller-like action
plot. [JC]See also: MESSIAHS.

(? -? ) UK writer (probably pseudonymous) whose routine sf adventures
were The Uncharted Planet (1961) as V. Ranzetta, The Maru Invasion (1962),
The World in Reverse (1962), The Night of the Death Rain (1963) and The
Yellow Inferno (1964). [JC]


(1919-1994) US writer and journalist who began publishing sf with "A
Filbert is a Nut" for ASF in 1959 and established a considerable
reputation in the field with a comparatively small output of about 10
stories, most of them assembled in The Thirst Quenchers (coll 1965 UK) and
Code Three (fixup 1966). The first contains 4 good stories, the best of
which is the title story about professionals in a world where water is
scarce, their job being its proper allocation. Code Three describes the
way of life of the police who patrol the superhighways of the future in
enormously complex vehicles made to cope with the huge speeds and
corresponding irresponsibility on the roads. RR was at his best when
describing, in positive terms, the life of those who must deal
professionally with a technological world. [JC]Other work: The President
Must Die (1981), non-sf near-future thriller.See also: CRIME AND

(1958- ) US writer whose first novel, The Labyrinth Gate (1988), is a
tale of considerable interest, delineating a believably matrilineal
fantasy world. The Highroad Trilogy - A Passage of Stars (1990),
Revolution's Shore (1990) and The Price of Ransom (1990) - depicts in a
lighter vein the interstellar voyages of its young female protagonist,
whose involvement in music is infectiously presented and whose search for
a full life keeps the tale moving, albeit through markedly familiar
venues; the third volume, which carries the maturing crew back from
colonized space towards the old worlds, is the best. At this point in her
career, reportedly unhappy with the nature and amount of promotion
accorded her by her publishers, AAR began to write as by Kate Elliott, and
under that name created a new series which followed on from the Highroad
books; this sequence - the Sword of Heaven or Jaran sequence, comprising
Jaran (1992), An Earthly Crown (1993), His Conquering Sword (1993) and The
Law of Becoming(1994) - complicatedly embroils clans of alien warriors
(the jaran), rite-of-passage subplots featuring younger women, human
actors, all on an interstellar stage. [JC]

(1925- ) French writer, much of whose nonfiction controversially treats
the kind of issue explored in the inflammatory Le camp des saints (1973;
trans Norman Shapiro as The Camp of the Saints 1975 US), set in a
NEAR-FUTURE world in the coils of OVERPOPULATION. When the non-White Third
World lays siege to Europe, which should have been armed against the
onslaught, civilization perishes. [JC]

UK fan group of the 1970s, most of whose members later became sf
professionals. Based in London, Ratfandom produced some of the most
literate, witty and scurrilous FANZINES in that fertile period for UK
FANDOM; these included Big Scab (1974, 3 issues) ed John BROSNAN,
Macrocosm (1971-2, 3 issues) ed Robert P. HOLDSTOCK, Magic Pudding (1973,
1 issue) ed Malcolm EDWARDS, Seamonsters (1978-9, 4 issues) ed Simone
Walsh, Stop Breaking Down (1976-81, 7 issues) ed Greg Pickersgill, True
Rat (1973-8, 10 issues) ed Leroy Kettle, and Wrinkled Shrew (1974-9, 8
issues) ed Pat and Graham Charnock. Others in the group's orbit, though
not Rats, included Christopher PRIEST and Peter NICHOLLS. Ratfandom
organized the 1975 UK national CONVENTION, Seacon '75. [RH]


(1909-1984) US writer in various genres from boys' fiction to tales for
the "slick" markets. Of sf interest is his contribution to the Land of the
Giants sequence, Flight of Fear * (1969). [JC]



Pseudonym of UK actor and writer Irene Creese (1912-1993), in whose sf
novel, The Strange World of Planet X * (1957), romance becomes mixed with
the fourth DIMENSION. It was written to novelize her own tv series, The
STRANGE WORLD OF PLANET X, although there are differences in plot, which
differences are replicated in the 1958 film of the same name. Two of her
other novels - Wraxton Marne (1946) and Angel Assignment (1988) - are
fantasies. [JC]

(1928- ) Hungarian-born writer, in UK from 1957, who began publishing sf
with "Nightmares in Grey" for New Strand Magazine in 1962. His sf novels,
bleak but otherwise unexceptional, are No Stars for Us (1964), The Seedy
(1969) and Metamorphosis (1976). [JC]

US tv series (1985-6). Atlantis Films/Wilcox Productions for Home Box
Office. Executive prods Michael MacMillan, Larry Wilcox, Ray BRADBURY;
prod Seaton McLean; teleplays by Bradbury, based on his own stories.
Leading actors included Drew Barrymore, James Coco, Jeff Goldblum, Nick
Mancuso, Peter O'Toole, William SHATNER. 6 25min episodes, the first 3 in
1985, the second 3 originally shown together as a 90min special in
1986.These playlets, introduced a little stiffly by Bradbury, were
imaginative adaptations of "Marionettes, Inc." (1949), "The Playground"
(1953), "The Crowd" (1943), "The Town Where No One Got Off" (1958), "The
Screaming Woman" (1951) and"Banshee"" (1984). Only the first could be
called sf (it features a neglected wife's husband being replaced by an "
ANDROID); the rest are dark fantasy. They were among the most successful
of many Bradbury dramatizations on tv (winning several awards and good
ratings), perhaps because Bradbury dramatized them himself.Further
Bradbury adaptations, intended as part of a new Ray Bradbury Theatre
package but actually screened in 1988-9 in the UK as part of the Twist in
the Tale series, were made by Granada TV in the UK. The 4 stories adapted
were "The Coffin" (1947), "Punishment without Crime" (1950), "The Small
Assassin" (1946) and "There was an Old Woman" (1944). Prod Tom Cotter,
they starred among others Cyril Cusack, Roy Kinnear, Dan O'Herlihy and
Donald Pleasence. Other programmes for the same package, which was
screened in the USA, were made in France and Canada. [PN]

(1921-1981) UK writer and technical journalist who began publishing sf
with "Juggernaut" for Link House Publications in 1944. His first sf novel
was the unremarkable Realm of the Alien (1946 chap) as by Chester Delray.
His most notable was perhaps Tomorrow Sometimes Comes (1951), in which the
general who has inadvertently caused a nuclear HOLOCAUST awakens from
SUSPENDED ANIMATION to save the world from a destructive COMPUTER; this
thinking machine gave its name to the Mens Magna series, which includes
also "Deus Ex Machina" (1950), "The Peacemaker" (1952), "Ephemeral This
City" (1955), "Adjustment Period" (1960) and "Contact Pattern" (1961). FGR
was most closely associated with NW, and also had several lead novels in
the early years of Authentic, each of which comprised a whole single issue
of the journal, and cited therefore in this Encyclopedia as separate
titles; they are: The Coming of the Darakua (1952); Earth-Our New Eden
(1952) and We Cast No Shadow (1952). [JC]Other works: Fearful Barrier
(1950); The Star Seekers (1954 chap); The Iron and the Anger (1964);
Cardinal of the Stars (1964; vt Journey to the Stars 1964 US).As Editor:
Worlds at War (anth 1949), containing stories by FGR and his
brother-in-law, E.R. James.See also: COMPUTERS.


(1909-1956) US COMIC-strip artist. After graduating from the Grand
Central School of Art in New York City, he worked on the strip Tillie the
Toiler. He soon moved up in the comics world, working for Chic Young on
Blondie and with Lyman Young on Tim Tyler's Luck before being given his
own strip, Secret Agent X-9; it was during this time that he began to
develop his distinctive style. In 1934 he was given the chance to do a new
strip, FLASH GORDON, and US cartooning has not been the same since; he was
the first demonstrably modern comics illustrator. Although his style at
first was characterized by convoluted masses and strong, sweeping lines,
by 1936 it had become more precise and controlled. He refined the
technique of "feathering" (a series of fine brush-or pen-strokes used in
cartooning to create contours) to a degree as yet unexcelled in comic
strips. The style was romantic, the protagonists' features impossibly
heroic, the settings exotic and fantastic. In 1944, AR joined the US
Marines, leaving the strip to Austin Briggs (1909-1973); when he returned
in 1946 he created a new strip, not sf, the very popular Rip Kirby. AR
died in a tragic accident in 1956, at the peak of his career. [JG]See

Robin COOK.

[s] Raymond Z. GALLUN.

Cornelius SHEA.


(1893-1968) UK poet and prolific critic of art, literature and politics;
knighted 1953. His only novel, The Green Child (1935), is a remarkable
double UTOPIA in which two visions of ideal human life - one a
Latin-American political utopia, the other a mystical, underground realm
in which human aspirations are transcended - mirror one another,
comprising together a critique and dramatic metaphor of the utopian
impulse as a whole. [JC]

Pseudonym of an unidentified US writer of dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF)
whose work appeared in STREET & SMITH's Good News and The Nugget Library
in competition to Tousey's Frank Reade, Jr. stories ( FRANK READE
LIBRARY). PR wrote 9 stories about Tom Edison, Jr., no relation to the
inventor ( Hyperlink to: EDISONADE); unusual in being plotted (instead of
haphazard) in terms of character conflicts, they are the best of the
various invention series, containing as well an element of tongue-in-cheek
and fantasy. Tom Edison, Jr.'s Sky-Scraping Trip (1891), Tom Edison, Jr.'s
Sky Courser (1891), Tom Edison, Jr.'s Prairie-Skimmer Team (1891) and Tom
Edison, Jr.'s Air Frigate (1891) together form an episodic novel
describing the scientific feud between Tom and his rogue cousin. The
stories are filled with fantastic aircraft, individual flying suits,
advanced weapons and air battles. PR's most important story is Tom Edison,
Jr.'s Electric Sea Spider (1892), in which Tom combats the US-educated
Chinese mastermind of sea crime, Kiang-Ho of the Golden Belt. The story
culminates in an underwater battle between two fantastic submarine
vessels. This perhaps marks the first appeareance of a FU MANCHU-like
villain.Tom Edison, Jr. stories #10 and #11, Tom Edison, Jr.'s Air-Ship in
Australia (1892) and Tom Edison, Jr.'s Electric Eagle (1892), were
written, on a much lower level, by Henry Livingston Williams (1842-? ), a
prolific hack editor and author. [EFB]


(1914-1981) Welsh librarian and writer, in the USA from 1948 as
professional librarian at several universities, and in Canada from 1966 in
the same capacity at McMaster University. His first story, "Barring the
Weight" for Atlantic Monthly in 1948, was not sf, but several of the tales
assembled in The Great Disciple, and Other Stories (coll 1951) are of
interest. He was best known, however, for his early study of J.R.R.
TOLKIEN, The Tolkien Relation: A Personal Inquiry (1968 US; vt
Understanding Tolkien and the Lord of the Rings 1969; orig title restored
1981). [JC]

Film (1985). Tri-Star/Delphi III. Dir Martha Coolidge, starring Val
Kilmer, Gabe Jarret, Michelle Meyrink, William Atherton, Robert Prescott.
Screenplay Neal Israel, Pat Proft, Peter Torokvei, based on a story by
Israel and Proft. 106 mins. Colour.Genius students at a college for
advanced science are manipulated into designing a high-power laser by
their corrupt professor (Atherton), who unknown to them is supplying it to
a cold-blooded government agency as a secret weapon. On discovering this,
they revenge themselves with a complex practical joke. This was one of
several sf "teen" movies of the period (others were MY SCIENCE PROJECT
[1985] and WEIRD SCIENCE [1985]), and perhaps the best. Director Coolidge,
who is "feminist-influenced", as she cautiously puts it, gives a more
realistic flavour than usual to the dialogue, performances and even the
science, but much of the film dissolves into routine student-prank
sequences. [PN]See also: CINEMA.


Working name of US writer, movie projectionist and graphic designer
Thomas Earl Reamy (1935-1977). He began publishing with "Twilla" for FSF
in 1974 and, by late 1977 when he died of a heart attack, had become a
writer of potential stature in the field, having just won the 1976 JOHN W.
CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New Writer (though in fact most of his work must
be thought of as fantasy). The tales assembled in San Diego Lightfoot Sue
and Other Stories (coll 1979) - the title novelette won a 1976 NEBULA -
were notable for the threatening sweetness of their probing of unconscious
material, often sexual, though they often ended at a point of healing
uplift, occasionally sentimentalized. In his novel Blind Voices (1978),
which shared a common background with "Twilla" and "San Diego Lightfoot
Sue", a small Kansas town around 1930 is visited by a travelling circus
full of freaks and creatures of legend. The homage to Charles G. FINNEY,
Theodore STURGEON and Ray BRADBURY is clearly deliberate; a final
explanation of the circus creatures in terms of GENETIC ENGINEERING
provides no more than an sf pretext, the book reading as elegiac fantasy.
[JC]Other work: "Sting" in Six Science Fiction Plays (anth 1976) ed Roger

Film (1985). Re-Animator Productions/Empire. Dir Stuart Gordon, starring
Jeffrey Combs, Bruce Abbott, Barbara Crampton, David Gale. Screenplay
Dennis Paoli, William J. Norris, Gordon, based on "Herbert West -
Reanimator" (1922) by H.P. LOVECRAFT. 86 mins. Colour.In this Grand
Guignol film Herbert West (Combs), a medical student at Miskatonic
University, develops a reagent which restores corpses to life: they become
vigorous but brain-damaged zombies. He decapitates an evil professor
(Gale) who is envious of his brilliance, resuscitates both head and body,
and mayhem ensues. Sponsored by Charles BAND's Empire Pictures, based on
an untypical series of sardonic sketches by H.P. Lovecraft, R-A is a
lively SPLATTER MOVIE featuring the kind of undergraduate humour that
assumes it is funny to be disgusting. It very nearly proves the point, not
least in a scene involving the sexual activities of the still-living
severed head. R-A opened up new perspectives in bad-taste movies, and
helped introduce the comedy trend that dominated HORROR cinema in the late
1980s.The sequel was Bride of Re-Animator (1989; vt Re-Animator II) dir
Brian Yuzna, who had produced R-A. A lethargic reworking of R-A's bizarre
imagery, again starring Combs, Abbott and Gale, with a plot recapitulating
parts of The BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN (1935), it lacks the zest necessary for
the desired horror-comic effect and is merely emetic. Yuzna's SOCIETY
(1989) is so much better that the two hardly seem the work of the same
director. [PN]


(1950- ) US writer who has written at least 100 teleplays, most with
fantastic elements, for the children's Saturday-morning market, and who
began publishing sf stories with "The Breath of Dragons" for Clarion 3
(anth 1973) ed Robin Scott WILSON, after attending the previous year's
published as by J. Michael Reaves, his later books as by Michael Reaves.
Much of his work is fantasy, though his first novel, I, Alien (1978), is
adventure sf, and Darkworld Detective (coll of linked stories 1982)
characteristically mixes sf, fantasy and detective genres in the story of
the quest by a colony planet's only detective for the Dark Lord (a
familiar fantasy icon), who is his father. Hellstar (1984) with Steve
PERRY is sf; and Dome (1987), also with Perry, a post- HOLOCAUST tale set
in the eponymous undersea habitat, engagingly tracks its large cast
through various crises while, in the background, an AI begins to
collaborate with humanity in preparing for the aquatic future. It is never
easy to find technical fault with JMR, but at the same time it is hard to
discover much individuality beneath the professional surface. [JC]Other
works: Dragonworld (1979) with Byron PREISS; the Shattered World sequence
of fantasies comprising The Shattered World (1984) and The Burning Realm
(1988); Time Machine 3: Sword of the Samurai * (1984) with Steve Perry;
Street Magic (1991).

Recycling material from the vast and growing storehouse of the
already-written has long been a practice of sf writers. Plots and
characters constantly reappear throughout sf, usually but not always in
the form of sequels written by the author of the original work; venues
(like Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's MARS) become universal props; and terms
descriptive of devices or circumstances unique to sf (from BEMS to
CORPSICLES to partials - Greg BEAR's coinage for autonomous
computer-generated partial copies of human personalities) tend, once
introduced, to become common parlance. When Robert A. HEINLEIN made
reference in "The Number of the Beast" (1980 UK) to characters and
situations which appeared in earlier novels by him and other sf writers,
he was operating in this traditional manner. But when he introduced into
the same book people - writers, editors, fans - who had been involved in
sf itself, he did something very different, something which marked his
career, and the sf genre within which the book was written, as approaching
a late and self-referential phase. Wilson TUCKER so frequently introduced
real figures into his stories that such insertions became known for a
while as Tuckerisms; but a Tuckerism is a private allusion or joke among
friends, and should not be seen as making a binding argument about the
relationship between fiction and the world. Heinlein, on the other hand,
was writing full-blown recursive sf, a term narrowly defined in Anthony R.
LEWIS's An Annotated Bibliography of Recursive Science Fiction (1990 chap)
as "science fiction stories that refer to science fiction . . . to
authors, fans, collectors, conventions, etc.". More broadly, recursive sf
may be defined as stories which treat real people, and the fictional
worlds which occupy their dreams, as sharing equivalent degrees of
reality. It is, in other words, a technique which may be used to create
ALTERNATE WORLDS, usually backward-looking in time, and frequently
expressing a powerful nostalgia for pasts in which the visions of early
GENRE SF do, in fact, come true.Novels with recursive elements include
Brian W. ALDISS's Frankenstein Unbound (1973) and Dracula Unbound (1991),
Manly BANISTER's early spoof on sf fandom, Egoboo: A Fantasy Satire (1950
chap), Michael BISHOP's The Secret Ascension (1987), Anthony BOUCHER's
detective novel Rocket to the Morgue (1942), Fredric BROWN's Martians, Go
Home (1955), Gene DEWEESE's and Robert COULSON's Now You See It/Him/Them
(1975) and Charles Fort Never Mentioned Wombats (1977), Philip K. DICK's
The Man in the High Castle (1962), David DVORKIN's Time for Sherlock
Holmes (1983), Philip Jose FARMER's To Your Scattered Bodies Go (1971) and
its sequels, Charles L. HARNESS's Lurid Dreams (1990), Sharyn MCCRUMB's
farce-mysteries Bimbos of the Death Sun (1987) and Zombies of the Gene
Pool (1992), Barry N. MALZBERG's Dwellers of the Deep (1970 dos), Gather
in the Hall of the Planets (1971 dos, both as by K.M. O'Donnell, a
pseudonym which itself homages C.L. MOORE and Henry KUTTNER), and
Herovit's World (1973), Larry NIVEN's and Jerry POURNELLE's Footfall
(1985), Tim POWERS's The Stress of Her Regard (1989), Christopher PRIEST's
The Space Machine (1976), Mack REYNOLDS's mystery The Case of the Little
Green Men (1951), Rudy RUCKER's The Hollow Earth (1990), Fred SABERHAGEN's
and Roger ZELAZNY's The Black Throne (1990) and Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's God
Bless You, Mr Rosewater (1965). Inside the Funhouse (anth 1992) ed Michael
RESNICK assembles examples of the form, with an introductory essay. [JC]

[r] SPAIN.

Film (1984). MGM/United Artists. Dir John Milius, starring Patrick
Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Charlie Sheen. Screenplay Kevin
Reynolds, Milius. 114 mins. Colour.Russians nuke US cities and their
paratroops, with Cuban and Nicaraguan allies, invade the Midwest.
Highschool kids escape into the Colorado mountains, become guerrillas,
undergo rites of passage and male bonding, fight brilliantly, mostly die.
This incoherent and implausible film gets so sentimental about toughness,
like a parody of Robert A. HEINLEIN, that the viewer's sympathy is largely
with the homesick Cuban commander. RD is symptomatic of the interest in
SURVIVALIST fictions during the 1980s. [PN]

UK tv series (1988- ). A Paul Jackson Production for BBC North West; from
Series IV Paul Jackson Productions have not been credited. Prod Ed Bye,
Rob Grant, Doug Naylor. Dir Bye. Written Grant, Naylor. Starring Craig
Charles as Lister, Chris Barrie as Rimmer, Danny John-Jules as Cat, Robert
Llewellyn (season III onward) as Kryten, Norman Lovett (Seasons 1 and 2)
and Hattie Hayridge (season III onward) as Holly. Six seasons (given Roman
numerals from season III onwards, as in Red Dwarf III) of 6 30min episodes
each (to 1994). Possibly current but in suspension. Colour.Probably the
best blend of humour and sf on tv since The HITCH HIKER'S GUIDE TO THE
GALAXY , RD, a true situation comedy, rapidly became a cult success. Red
Dwarf is a very large, very dirty spaceship with only one crew member, a
definitively working-class Liverpudlian, Lister, who has been in suspended
animation for millions of years. Also present are a tyrannical but
self-pitying hologram, Rimmer, who outranks Lister, a vain humanoid called
Cat, descended from Lister's pet cat, an angst-ridden computer called
Holly and, later, an ANDROID trained to serve, the admirable Kryten.
Miracles of sf evocation - time travel, black holes, alternate realities
and other such tropes - are performed with considerable wit and style on,
one might deduce from the deliberate tackiness of the whole endeavour, a
tiny budget. At its radical fringes, UK tv of the 1980s specialized in
comedy emphasizing vulgarity, despair, entropy, stupidity and lack of
hygiene, and the people behind RD have impeccable pedigrees in this field:
executive prod Paul Jackson had made the nicely revolting The Young Ones
and Filthy, Rich and Catflap, and Grant and Naylor had been head writers
for the politically satirical puppet series Spitting Image. Spin-off books
as by Grant NAYLOR (Grant and Naylor) are Red Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes
Careful Drivers * (1989) and Better than Life * (1990). [PN]

(1932- ) UK poet and novelist, married to Penelope SHUTTLE. His first
work of sf interest was "Mr Waterman" for Paris Review in 1963; although
he contributed occasionally to NW, including a fantasy poem later
published as The God-Trap (1966 chap), he remains of sf interest mainly
for his novels, the first two of which - The Terrors of Dr Treviles: A
Romance (1974) and The Glass Cottage: A Nautical Romance (1976) - were
written in collaboration with Shuttle. Both are FABULATIONS whose venues
are rendered unstable through hyperbolic imagery and their authors' taste
for holy witchcraft and other transcendental transgressions of the natural
order. The God of Glass (1979) is a tale of the NEAR FUTURE in which a new
prophet diseases the world with his message. The Sleep of the Great
Hypnotist (1979) introduces a device which cures ills but also hypnotizes
its inventor's daughter into bringing him back to life after death. The
Beekeepers (1980) and its sequel, The Facilitators, or Mister
Hole-in-the-Day (1982), set in an ominous insane asylum where strange
experiments are being conducted, marry occult imagery and murk-choked
scientism in a complex narrative involving an ambiguous penetration of
Bedlam. Primarily a poet, PR writes novels whose plots ride upon deep
swells of language-driven meditation, although the tales assembled in The
One who Set Out to Study Fear (coll 1989) - perhaps because they are
derived from the Brothers Grimm-display a more forthright story-telling
gift. [JC]

Film (1952). Melaby Pictures/United Artists. Dir Harry Horner, starring
Peter Graves, Andrea King, Marvin Miller. Screenplay John L. Balderston
(1889-1954), Anthony Veiller, based on the play Red Planet (produced in
New York in late 1932; 1933 chap) by Balderston, John E. Hoare. 87 mins.
B/w.Two young US scientists, man and wife, pick up tv transmissions
apparently from MARS. These messages (confusingly) take two forms. One
class, suggesting Mars is the centre of incredible technological
breakthroughs, has been faked by an ex-Nazi scientist and is designed to
panic the Western World, which it does, though it pleases the evil
Russians. The second class (genuine) tells us that Mars is ruled by a
"Supreme Authority" who is none other than God himself. This revelation
also causes chaos, and there are accusations of fakery, but religion is
ultimately justified and Godless communism (the true villain) destroyed:
aged revolutionaries overthrow the Soviet Government and restore the
monarchy, choosing an Orthodox priest as their new Czar.RPM is a
fascinating (and quite hysterical) product of the Cold War PARANOIA that
swept the USA in the early 1950s, and specifically a mirror of the
widespread feeling in US society that religious crusades (as led by Billy
Graham and others) were a political weapon against communism. Balderston,
responsible for the script and the original play, had a distinguished
career in genre movies, his screenplays including Dracula (1931), BRIDE OF
FRANKENSTEIN (1935), MAD LOVE (1935) and Gaslight (1944), but this essay
in patronizing populism did him no credit. The film flopped. [PN/JB]See

(1911- ) South African-born writer and civil servant, in UK from 1950,
who began publishing sf with "Jean-Gene-Jeanne" in Authentic in 1954. In
Martian Enterprise (fixup 1962) escaped convicts learn slowly how to
create a community on a new planet. [JC]

Pseudonym used by US writer David Vern (1924- ) for almost all his
fiction, mostly for Ray PALMER's magazines, starting with "Where is Roger
Davis?" for AMZ in 1939. He collaborated with Don WILCOX (who wrote the
first of the 2 stories from which it was cobbled together, DVR writing the
second) on The Whispering Gorilla (1940-43 Fantastic Adventures; fixup
1950 UK), about an ape with a man's brain ( Hyperlink to: APES AND
CAVEMEN); the book was published as by DVR alone. Murder in Space (1944
AMZ; 1954) unconvincingly attempts to combine mystery and sf techniques.
DVR was probably the first writer to use the house name Alexander BLADE;
he used also the house names Craig ELLIS and Peter HORN and wrote 1 story
as Clyde Woodruff. [JC/PN]Other work: The Thing that Made Love (1943
Fantastic Adventures as "The Metal Monster Murders"; 1952?), a mystery.

(1938- ) US writer, poet and playwright who emerged in the 1960s as a
central representative of the New Black Aesthetic movement, and a figure
controversial to the Black critical establishment from the publication of
his first novel, The Free-Lance Pallbearers (1967), a powerful SATIRE. In
this and in books like Yellow-Back Radio Broke-Down (1969) and Mumbo Jumbo
(1972), whose main characters use Black humour to express their outrage in
the face of oppression, he mixed elements of surreal satire and
MAGIC-REALIST fantasy into complex plots, calling this distinctive
literary method Neo-Hoodooism. Further such tales include The Last Days of
Louisiana Red (1974) and Flight to Canada (1975). In several of these
books grotesquely overelaborated thriller plots carry the burden of the
flamboyant text, and similar plots - featuring a bemused detective named
Nance Saturday - shape his genuine sf novels, The Terrible Twos (1982) and
The Terrible Threes (1989). In the first of these sad and rather savage
NEAR-FUTURE satires the US President is a male model with an IQ of 55; the
second is a DYSTOPIAN vision of the Reagan years. Critics have seen IR's
use of humour as an attempt to distract attention from important social
issues and his suspicion of Black FEMINISTS as less than persuasive; by
contrast, Thomas PYNCHON and other authors of contemporary interest have
cited IR as an exemplary writer. [CAJ/JC]Other works: Shrovetide in Old
New Orleans (coll 1978), essays and interviews; Reckless Eyeballing

(1951- ) UK poet and writer, much of whose fiction comprises a set of
loosely-linked tales about19th century decadents; those with fantasy
elements include Isidore: ANovel About the Comte de Lautreamont (1991) and
When the Whip Comes Down: A Novel about de Sade(1992), in which de Sade
timeslips through the centuries. JR's sf novel,Diamond Nebula (1994), is
set in the 23rd century, and describesits protagonist's obsessions with
decadents of the 20th century, including J.G. BALLARD. [JC]

Working name of US writer Lillian Craig Reed (1932- ), as well known for
her work outside sf and fantasy as within; she has also written a horror
novel, Blood Fever (1986) as by Shelley Hyde, and two detections - Gone
(1992) and Twice Burned (1993) - as by Kit Craig. She began publishing
stories of genre interest with "The Wait" (vt "To Be Taken in a Strange
Country") in 1958 for FSF, afterwards publishing mainly with that journal.
After some non-genre novels, the first being Mother isn't Dead She's Only
Sleeping (1961), KR began to assemble short stories of genre interest in
Mister da V. and Other Stories (coll 1967 UK), later releasing The Killer
Mice (coll 1976 UK), Other Stories And . . . the Attack of the Giant Baby
(coll 1981), Revenge of the Senior Citizens ** Plus: A Short Story
Collection (coll 1986) and Thief of Lives (coll 1992). It could be said,
unkindly, that her stories domesticate the world of Shirley JACKSON; but
that would be unduly to deprecate the sharp, clear, self-amused
perceptiveness of her best moral fables, often closer to fantasy than sf
as they make their uncomfortable points with precision and delicacy. Her
first sf novel, Armed Camps (1969 UK), perhaps more conventionally posits
a NEAR-FUTURE USA sliding into irretrievable collapse; neither the soldier
nor the woman pacifist who share the narrative, nor what they represent,
are seen as representing any solution. Magic Time (1980), less effective
because of its chatty plot, treats the USA as analogous to a grotesque
theme park, posthumously run by a Disney-like guru in cold storage. Fort
Privilege (1985) more convincingly transforms into moral fable a tale set
in an expensive New York apartment building under siege from the
innumerable homeless of the great city; and Little Sisters of the
Apocalypse (1994) similarly examines the lives of a group of women
besieged - in a world tainted by violence and social disintegration - by
conflicting gangs of marauders. Though sometimes her reticence is
overpowering, KR at her best is, very quietly, an explosive writer.
[JC]Other works: Fat (anth 1974), stories about obesity, several being sf
or fantasy; George Orwell's 1984 (1984), nonfiction.

[s] John D. MACDONALD.

(1956- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Mudpuppies" as by Robert
Touzalin for L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future (anth 1986) ed
Algis BUDRYS; the story gained the $5000 grand prize awarded in the
WRITERS OF THE FUTURE CONTEST for that year. RR has since gradually become
productive in short forms, though he remains best known for his novels,
beginning with The Leeshore (1987), a tale which combines adventure-sf
plotting (a pair of twins, the sole humans left on the eponymous
water-covered colony planet, must guide a task force in pursuit of the
COMPUTER-worshipping zealots who have killed everyone else) with an almost
mystical sense for the genius of place, the intricacies of selfhood. The
Hormone Jungle (1988) is set in an entirely different venue, a densely
crowded Solar System drawn in CYBERPUNK colours; but a similar attention
to the mysterious depths of his distorted characters saves the book from
RR's tendency to indulge in a sometimes choking virtuosity. Black Milk
(1989) is set in yet another of sf's familiar 1980s venues, a NEAR-FUTURE
world threatened by uncontrolled and secret GENETIC-ENGINEERING
experiments instigated by a late and movingly presented version of the
inventor/entrepreneur who runs the world ( EDISONADE); once again, the
expertness of the writing and its knowing exploitation of current
scientific speculations are balanced by an underlying quiet sanity about
how to depict and to illumine human beings. In Down the Bright Way (1991)
a group of sentient beings searches through an endless string of PARALLEL
WORLDS for the old gods - or sentient beings at the start of things -
while fending off others intent on using the pathways for darker purposes.
In The Remarkables (1992) a confrontation between the main stream of
humanity - sequestrated in densely populated local space - and a lost
colony leads to a complexly engaging rite of passage involving
representatives of both human streams with the eponymous aliens. And in
Beyond the Veil of Stars (1994), the sense of claustrophobia
characteristic of RR's work derives from an image of our Solar System as
impacted upon - from beyond a fabricated and deceitful veil of stars - by
innumerable similar inhabited systems. We live in a megalopolis of
planets, and we communicate with each other by passing through dimensional
barriers, which change our bodies so that we resemble natives of the
visited world; which is also overcrowded. RR's course to date has been
unusual in that he has avoided sequels in his first 5 novels, none of
which share any background material or assumptions whatsoever. Today's sf
readers tend to expect a kind of brand identity from authors, and it may
be for this reason that RR has not yet achieved any considerable fame.
[JC]See also: ANDROIDS.

House name used for 2 books published by CURTIS WARREN, one by Dennis
HUGHES and the other, Dwellers in Space (1953), by an unknown author. [JC]

(1880-1936) US writer almost exclusively remembered for his Craig
Kennedy, Scientific Detective sequence, the early stories being first
published 1910-15 in monthly instalments in Cosmopolitan. Almost every
volume of the series contained one of more sf device, sometimes trivial,
sometimes central to the tale. Kennedy himself ( EDISONADE) was
interminably responsible for developing new forms of weaponry, making
medical breakthroughs, forging super-metals and chemicals . . . Though
many individual stories showed only minimal displacement into an sf frame,
the overall framework was clearly generic, and the individual titles
warrant listing: The Silent Bullet: The Adventures of Craig Kennedy,
Scientific Detective (similar subtitles are ignored below) (coll 1912; vt
The Black Hand 1912 UK), The Poisoned Pen (coll 1913), The Dream Doctor
(coll 1914), The War Terror (coll 1915; vt Craig Kennedy, Detective 1915
UK), The Gold of the Gods: The Mystery of the Incas Solved by Craig
Kennedy - Scientific Detective (1915), The Exploits of Elaine (1915), The
Social Gangster (coll 1916; vt The Diamond Queen 1917 UK), The Ear in the
Wall (1916), The Romance of Elaine * (1916), a film tie, The Triumph of
Elaine (1916), The Treasure-Train (coll 1917), The Adventuress (1917), The
Panama Plot (coll 1918), The Soul Scar (1919), The Film Mystery (1921),
Craig Kennedy Listens In (coll 1923), Atavar, the Dream Dancer (1924), The
Fourteen Points (coll 1925), The Boy Scouts' Craig Kennedy (coll 1925),
Craig Kennedy on the Farm (coll 1925), The Radio Detective * (1926), a
film tie, Pandora (1926), The Kidnap Club (1932), The Clutching Hand
(1934), Enter Craig Kennedy (1935) with Ashley Locke, and The Stars Scream
Murder (1936). Of these titles, the most remarkable was perhaps Pandora,
in which the evil land of Centrania successfully seduces the USA from her
former power by (as E.F. BLEILER remarks) "subsidizing jazz musicians",
inventing a synthetic fuel, and causing a stock-market crash. The quick
development of a tiny atomic bomb leads to the utter defeat of Centrania.
ABR was editorial consultant to SCIENTIFIC DETECTIVE MONTHLY (1930), which
printed 1 new Craig Kennedy story and reprinted 9 old ones. [JC]Other
works: Guy Garrick: An Adventure with a Scientific Gunman (1914);
Constance Dunlap, Woman Detective (1916); The Master Mystery (1919) and
The Mystery Mind (1921), both with John Grey; The Best Ghost Stories (anth

(1953- ) Canadian writer who began writing works of genre interest with
Bloodshift (1981), a vampire tale which - not unusually for thisauthor -
intermixes sf, fantasy and horror. A professional killer is hired by
establishment vampiresto find a renegade female vampire who is interfering
with the sf-like Phoenix Project, throughwhich it is hoped to eliminate
the human race entirely. Other novels combining similar genremixes include
Dreamland (1985),Children of the Shroud (1989), Nighteyes (1989 US), which
additionally injects conspiracy-talk fromthe UFO sub-genre,and Dark
Matter(1990 US). GR-S's Star Trek TIES are more conventional sf,
andinclude Star Trek: Memory Prime* (1988US),Star Trek: Prime Directive*
(1990 US),Star Trek: Federation* (1994 US) with his wife,Judith
Reeves-Stevens,and The Making of Star Trek: Deep SpaceNine (1994 US), also
with Judith Reeves-Stevens. [JC]Other works: the Chronicles of Galen
Sword, a fantasy sequence with JudithReeves-Stevens comprising Shifter
(1990) andNightfeeder (1991); an Alien Nation tie:The Day of

[r] Garfield REEVES-STEVENS.

(1937- ) UK writer exclusively associated with ROBERT HALE LIMITED, but
whose novels, often featuring TIME TRAVEL, rise intermittently above their
element: The Nairn Syndrome (1975), Time Search (1976), The Last Days of
the Peacemaker (1976), Harlow's Dimension (1977), Stone Age Venture
(1977), A Twist in Time (1978) and If it's Blue, it's Plague (1981). [JC]

The pseudonym under which US bibliographer, librarian and publisher
Michael Roy Burgess (1948- ) is best known, and under which (or as R.
Reginald) he has published his most important work in the sf field; it is
also under this name that he publishes and edits the BORGO PRESS in
California, a SMALL PRESS that publishes many monographs on and
bibliographical studies of sf, fantasy and horror. As M.R. Burgess or
Michael Burgess he has also published fairly widely, his most important sf
work under the latter form of his name being Reference Guide to Science
Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror (1992); less frequently used pseudonyms
include Boden Clarke, C. Everett Cooper and Lucas Webb. RR has written on
himself in The Work of R. Reginald: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide
(1985 chap as by Michael Burgess and Jeffrey M. ELLIOT; exp vt The Work of
Robert Reginald: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide 1992 as by Burgess
alone).The various incarnations of RR's most important publication have
intermittently occupied his career through 1992. His first book, Stella
Nova: The Contemporary Science Fiction Authors (1970 anon; rev vt
Contemporary Science Fiction Authors, First Edition 1974 as RR),
eventually became the second volume of his magnum opus, Science Fiction
and Fantasy Literature: A Checklist, 1700-1974, with Contemporary Science
Fiction Authors II (1979) in 2 vols as RR, and listing over 15,000 titles
up to the end of 1974. The long-awaited supplement to this essential
reference tool has been broken back down into separate enterprises, with
Science Fiction & Fantasy Literature : A Bibliography, 1975-1991 (1992),
with Darryl F. MALLETT and Mary Wickizer Burgess, being restricted to an
updating of the checklist alone, to which it adds a further 22,000 titles;
a biographical volume, building on the original Stella Nova, is also
projected ( Hyperlink to: BIBLIOGRAPHIES for further comments).Other
bibliographical publications of interest include: Cumulative Paperback
Index, 1939-1959: A Comprehensive Bibliographic Guide to 14,000
Mass-Market Paperback Books of 33 Publishers under 69 Imprints (1973) as
RR with M.R. Burgess; Science Fiction & Fantasy Awards (1981 chap as RR;
much exp vt Reginald's Science Fiction and Fantasy Awards: A Comprehensive
Guide to the Awards and their Winners 1991 by Daryl F. Mallett with RR); A
Guide to Science Fiction and Fantasy in the Library of Congress
Classification Scheme (1984 chap; exp 1988) as by Michael Burgess; The
Work of Jeffrey M. Elliot: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1984 chap)
as by Boden Clarke; The Work of Julian May: An Annotated Bibliography &
Guide (1985 chap) as by RR with Thaddeus DIKTY; The Work of George
Zebrowski: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1986 chap; exp 1990) as by
RR with Jeffrey M. Elliot; Mystery and Detective Fiction in the Library of
Congress Classification Scheme (1987) as by Michael Burgess; Western
Fiction in the Library of Congress Classification Scheme (1988 chap) as by
Michael Burgess, with Beverly A. Ryan; and The Work of William F. Nolan:
An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1988 chap) as by Boden Clarke, with
Nolan writing as James Hopkins. The individual author bibliographies, part
of an ongoing Borgo Press series by several hands, are devotedly thorough
and accurate.Before founding Borgo in 1975, RR founded the short-lived
Unicorn & Son, Publishers (which produced Stella Nova), and was an
associate editor of FORGOTTEN FANTASY (1970-71) and advisory editor of the
ARNO PRESS sf reprint series and Arno's subsequent reprints of
supernatural, fantasy and LOST WORLD books. Borgo itself began publishing
titles in 1976, and by 1992 had released well over 100 titles under its
own imprint as well as distributing over 1000 other titles. Though RR
became full Librarian at Cal State in 1984, he maintained complete control
over the firm, initiating and silently collaborating on many of its
bibliographical projects and publishing through it much of his
non-bibliographical work, as well as his two novels. The Attempted
Assassination of John F. Kennedy: A Political Fantasy (1976 chap as by
Lucas Webb; rev vt If J.F.K. Had Lived: A Political Scenario 1982 chap as
by RR with Jeffrey M. Elliot) is an ALTERNATE-WORLD tale in which
monarchies have been retained worldwide and Kennedy is not killed. Up Your
Asteroid!: A Science Fiction Farce (1977 chap), as by C. Everett Cooper,
is a desultory spoof.RR also ed several anthologies for Arno Press, all
with Douglas MENVILLE: Ancestral Voices: An Anthology of Early Science
Fiction (anth 1975; cut 1992), Ancient Hauntings (anth 1976),
Phantasmagoria (anth 1976), R.I.P.: Five Stories of the Supernatural (anth
1976), The Spectre Bridegroom, and Other Horrors (anth 1976), Dreamers of
Dreams: An Anthology of Fantasy (anth 1978), King Solomon's Children: Some
Parodies of H. Rider Haggard (anth 1978), They: Three Parodies of H. Rider
Haggard's She (anth 1978) and Worlds of Never: Three Fantastic Novels
(anth 1978). Also with Menville, RR wrote two film books: Things to Come:
An Illustrated History of the Science Fiction Film (1977) and, with Mary
Wickizer Burgess also collaborating, Futurevisions: The New Golden Age of
the Science Fiction Film (1985). RR remains of central importance to sf as
a bibliographer of persistent exactness and enormous energy. He won the


Working name of US medical doctor and writer Miriam S. Zucker Reichert
(1962- ), almost allof whose fiction (see Other Works below) has been
fantasy; but whose 9th novel,The Unknown Soldier (1994), is an sf tale
aboutan amnesiacal soldier whose treatment in hospital is complicated by
doubts over his origins intime and space, and interrupted by guerrilla
assaults; his character and feats are reminiscent ofthose of MZR's fantasy
protagonists. The medical side of the tale is perhaps more sustained
thanthe sf side. [JC]Other Works: the Bifrost Guardians sequence,
comprising Godslayer (1987), ShadowClimber (1988), DragonrankMaster(1989),
Shadow's Realm(1990) and By Chaos Cursed (1991);the Renshai seuqence,
comprising The Last of theRenshai (1992),The WesternWizard (1992) and The
Child ofThunder (1993); The Legend ofNightfall (1993), a singleton.

A house name used by at least 30 writers for Sexton Blake Library tales,
one of which - The World-Shakers! (1960 chap) by Rex Dolpin ( Peter SAXON)
- was a UFO tale. Another - Caribbean Crisis (1962 chap) by James CAWTHORN
and Michael MOORCOCK - was Moorcock's first novel. Other authors of genre
interest who used the name included Sydney J. BOUNDS, Jonathan BURKE,

(1920-1975) US writer whose sf novel, Fault Lines (1972) - not to be
confused with Kate WILHELM's later novel of the same title - deals
apocalyptically with the consequences of a San Andreas Fault earthquake.

(? -? ) US writer in whose extremely grim post- HOLOCAUST novel, Few Were
Left (1955), a suicidal protagonist is trapped with others in the New York
subway system after the bomb has dropped. He fails, after several
adventures, to escape. [JC]

The idea of reincarnation exerts a considerable fascination; its
fashionability has recently been renewed by hypnotists who claim to
facilitate a "regression" of their subjects which allows access to
memories of "former lives". Serial reincarnation is one of the standard
varieties of IMMORTALITY. In FANTASY the notion is an axiom of the curious
subgenre of "transcendental romance" - stories in which love becomes a
quasisupernatural force transcending time or death so that lovers may meet
in different ages to make repeated attempts to find true happiness. This
is the pattern of H. Rider HAGGARD's She (1887) and its sequels, Edwin
Lester ARNOLD's Phra the Phoenician (1890) and George GRIFFITH's Valdar
the Oft-Born (1895). Arnold's Lepidus the Centurion (1901) shows one of
the more subtle and intelligent uses of the notion. Many romances of
reincarnation have also been inspired by the ancient Egyptian methods of
preserving the dead, including Haggard's "Smith and the Pharaohs" (1912;
as title story of Smith and the Pharaohs and Other Tales coll 1920).
PSEUDO-SCIENTIFIC rationalizations of the notion often invoke the concept
of "race memory"; Haggard bolstered his belief with this idea, deploying
it in The Ancient Allan (1920) and Allan and the Ice Gods (1927), and Jack
LONDON used it in Before Adam (1906) and The Star Rover (1915; vt The
Jacket). The most impressive sf story built on the race-memory premise is
John GLOAG's 99% (1944).Camille FLAMMARION, the first writer to develop
the notion of ALIEN beings adapted to LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS, did so mainly
in order to support his theory of the immortality of the soul with
speculations about possible reincarnations on other worlds. First
presented in Lumen (1864; exp 1887; trans 1897), the idea was used also in
Urania (1890) and was copied by Louis Pope GRATACAP in the didactic The
Certainty of a Future Life on Mars (1903).Hugh KINGSMILL reincarnated
Shakespeare in The Return of William Shakespeare (1929) so that a critical
commentary on the works could be put into the Bard's own mouth and
bracketed by a satirical comedy. When GENRE SF began to deploy
technological methods of reincarnation, the resurrection of great men of
the past was a theme used in many stories, including Manly Wade WELLMAN's
Giants from Eternity (1939), Ray BRADBURY's "Forever and the Earth"
(1950), James BLISH's "A Work of Art" (1956), R.A. L AFFERTY's Past Master
(1968), Philip K. DICK's We Can Build You (1972), Barry N. MALZBERG's THE
REMAKING OF SIGMUND FREUD (1985) and Dan SIMMONS's The Fall of Hyperion
(1990). Henry J. SLATER's The Smashed World (1952) features a remarkable
version of the Eternal Triangle involving Archimedes, Napoleon and
Cleopatra 3000 years in the future. In Anne Rice's The Mummy, or Ramses
the Damned (1989) an immortal Ramses forces the reincarnation of the
spirit of Cleopatra into the mummy of that queen, with disastrous results
- not just for Ramses but also for the novel, since the explanation of the
"mechanism" of reincarnation is hopelessly fudged.Reincarnation in sf
usually involves the "recording" of personalities for later re-embodiment,
sometimes in an ANDROID body. TIME TRAVEL also comes in handy as a means
of duplicating individuals. The idea that CLONES might be seen as
reincarnations is propounded in such stories as "When You Care, When You
Love" (1962) by Theodore STURGEON, and in several of the works of John
VARLEY clones are used such that in effect individuals can cheat death by
living in "serial bodies". MATTER TRANSMISSION is employed as a
reincarnating device in such stories as Algis BUDRYS's ROGUE MOON (1960).
The natural extravagance of genre sf has occasionally encouraged a blithe
disregard for the inconvenience of death; two writers who have sometimes
been very casual about incorporating metaphysical or frankly mysterious
methods of reincarnation into their scenarios are A.E. VAN VOGT, in such
works as The Book of Ptath (1943; 1947; vt Two Hundred Million A.D.), The
World of A (1945; 1948; vt The World of Null-A) and "The Monster" (1948;
vt "Resurrection"), and Philip Jose FARMER, most notably in the Riverworld
series-which stars many notable figures plucked from various eras of
Earthly history, and helped to inspire Janet E. MORRIS's Hell series of
shared-world adventures - but also in Inside Outside (1964) and Traitor to
the Living (1973).The particular ideas of reincarnation contained in
extant RELIGIONS are sciencefictionalized in various works by Roger
ZELAZNY, notably LORD OF LIGHT (1967), whose framework is taken from Hindu
MYTHOLOGY, and Creatures of Light and Darkness (1969), which uses Egyptian
mythology. Syd LOGSDON's A Fond Farewell to Dying (1981) thoughtfully
confronts a technology of reincarnation with Hindu beliefs which view it
as a blasphemy. An aesthetically satisfying quasireligious "mechanism" for
reincarnation is presented in the parapsychological thriller Death Knell
(1977) by C. Terry CLINE. Alien biologies permitting reincarnation,
perhaps adaptable to use by humans, are sometimes presented within an
explicitly religious framework; Robert SILVERBERG's Downward to the Earth
(1970) is a notable example.Future societies dramatically transformed by
technologies of reincarnation are featured in Robert SHECKLEY's
Immortality, Inc (1959), in which disembodied minds must compete for
bodies made redundant by their occupiers for one reason or another,
Silverberg's To Live Again (1969), in which similarly disembodied minds
must share living hosts, Robert THURSTON's Alicia II (1978), which
examines the predicament of the "rejects" whose bodies are used to house
the reincarnated, Stephen GOLDIN's The Eternity Brigade (1980), in which
the tapes recording trained soldiers for serial reincarnation are
bootlegged, with predictable consequences, and Michael BERLYN's Crystal
Phoenix (1980), in which attitudes to death are dramatically and
repulsively transformed. In Gray Matters (1971) by William HJORTSBERG and
Friends Come in Boxes (1973) by Michael G. CONEY minds awaiting
re-embodiment are mechanically-and not very happily - stored. Silverberg's
"Born with the Dead" (1974), Lucius SHEPARD's Green Eyes (1984) and Kevin
J. ANDERSON's Resurrection, Inc (1988) all draw some inspiration from the
idea of zombies, but develop their hypotheses in strikingly different

Working name of US writer Richard Rein Smith (1930- ), who has apparently
written many sf novels under various pseudonyms, including the sf
adventure Starbright (1983) as by Damon Castle; further pseudonyms remain
unrevealed. As RR he wrote The Savage Stars (1981) and a Tarzan tie,
Tarzan and the Tower of Diamonds * (1985). [JC]

Some of science fiction’s best writers received their share of rejection
slips.Doubleday initially turned down Isaac Asimov's Foundation trilogy as
well as his I, Robot.In 1953, John Campbell rejected Hal Clement's Mission
of Gravity for publication in Astounding because he felt that it would not
divide naturally for serialization. He changed his mind after Frederik
Pohl divided it into three parts.After Samuel R. Delany won the Nebula
Awards for two consecutive novels, his experimental novel Dhalgren was
rejected by several publishers. When Bantam finally published Dhalgren in
1975, it became a word-of-mouth bestseller.


Familiar DEFINITIONS OF SF imply that there is nothing more alien to its
concerns than religion. However, many of the roots of PROTO SCIENCE
FICTION are embedded in traditions of speculative fiction closely
associated with the religious imagination, and contemporary sf recovered a
strong interest in certain mystical and transcendental themes and images
when it moved beyond the TABOOS imposed by the PULP MAGAZINES. Modern sf
frequently confronts age-old speculative issues associated with
METAPHYSICS and theology - partly because science itself has abandoned
them. Speculative fiction always tends to go beyond the merely empirical
matters with which pragmatic scientists concern themselves; perhaps
something called "science" fiction ought not to include metaphysical
fiction, but the genre as constituted obviously does.It was the religious
imagination of people such as Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) which first
envisioned an infinite Universe filled with habitable worlds, and it was
visionaries like Athanasius KIRCHER and Emanuel SWEDENBORG who first
journeyed in the imagination to the limits of the Solar System, and
beyond. John WILKINS, who first supposed in all seriousness that people
might go to the Moon in a flying machine, was a bishop, and so was Francis
GODWIN, the author of the satirical cosmic voyage The Man in the Moone
(1638). Other early speculative fictions were attacks upon religious
cosmology and religious orthodoxy by freethinkers such as CYRANO DE
BERGERAC, VOLTAIRE and, later, Samuel BUTLER. Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein
(1818) takes its imaginative inspiration from the image of the scientist
as usurper of the prerogatives of God. The boldest of all the 19th-century
speculative fictions, Camille FLAMMARION's Lumen (1864; exp 1887; trans
1897), was the result of the astronomer's desperate need to reconcile and
fuse his scientific knowledge with his religious faith. J.H. ROSNY aine,
the prolific writer of evolutionary fantasies, also saw the object of his
work as an imaginative revelation of the divinely planned evolutionary
schema, and he too wanted to remake theology so that it might be
reconciled with modern scientific knowledge - a task later taken up by the
heretic Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955). C.H. HINTON's
stories and essays about the fourth DIMENSION were inspired by the notion
that a four-dimensional God might be omniscient of everything that has
ever or will ever take place in our three-dimensional continuum. Marie
CORELLI re-envisaged God as an entity of pure electric force in A Romance
of Two Worlds (1886). John Jacob ASTOR's A Journey in Other Worlds (1894),
Jean DELAIRE's Around a Distant Star (1904) and John MASTIN's Through the
Sun in an Airship (1909) are among many novels borrowing the literary
devices of SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE to dramatize cosmic voyages whose real
purpose was to "justify" theological dogmas. Edgar FAWCETT's The Ghost of
Guy Thyrle (1895) does not hesitate to engage its hero in conversation
with a messenger from God at the edge of the Universe.In virtually all
late-19th-century and early-20th-century speculative fiction the
antagonism of the scientific and religious imaginations - sharpened by
controversies regarding Darwinian EVOLUTION, socialism and humanism - is
evident, whether the thrust of the narrative is toward reconciliation or
conflict. Many of the early UK writers of scientific romance-notably
were the sons of clergymen who converted to free thought and used their
fiction to justify and explore the consequences of their decision. Guy
THORNE's When it was Dark (1904) and Shiel's The Last Miracle (1906) both
feature rationalist plots to discredit Christian faith, although the
authors take up very different positions in extrapolating the
consequences. In Robert Hugh BENSON's Lord of the World (1907) a humanist
socialist woos the world to his cause, but proves to be the Antichrist;
its companion-piece, The Dawn of All (1911), offers an alternative vision
of a UTOPIAN future in which people have renounced such heinous heresies
as materialism, humanism, socialism and protestantism. Some humanists were
equally prepared to turn religious imagery to their own purposes: H.G.
WELLS brought a new kind of angel to Earth to observe the sins of mankind
in The Wonderful Visit (1895); his later flirtation with a reconstituted
faith-explained in God the Invisible King (1917) - led him to produce a
new Book of Job in The Undying Fire (1919), and towards the end of his
life he rewrote the tale of Noah in All Aboard for Ararat (1940). A
similar interest in "alternative theology" is central to the work of Olaf
STAPLEDON, whose STAR MAKER (1937) explores a vast cosmic schema, and
culminates in a vision of God the Scientist, constantly experimenting with
Creation. C.S. LEWIS co-opted the methods and ideas of scientific romance
for his theological fantasies OUT OF THE SILENT PLANET (1938), Perelandra
(1943) and The Great Divorce (1945 chap). In France Andre MAUROIS
confronted a SCIENTIST with proof of the existence of the soul in Le
peseur d'ames (1931; trans as The Weigher of Souls 1931); and the Austrian
Franz WERFEL wrote Stern der Ungeborenen (1946; trans as Star of the
Unborn 1946), a bizarre futuristic SATIRE promiscuously combining ideas
from the scientific and religious imaginations. The dedicatedly sceptical
philosopher Bertrand RUSSELL produced the VOLTAIRE-esque contes
philosophiques "Zahatopolk" (1954) and "Faith and Mountains" (1954), two
vitriolically scathing treatments of organized religion and faddish cults.
This long tradition of theological and antitheological speculative fiction
extends into recent times in such works as John CAMERON's The Astrologer
(1972), Romain GARY's The Gasp (1973), E.E.Y. Hales's Chariot of Fire
(1977), Bernard MALAMUD's God's Grace (1982), Jeremy LEVEN's Satan (1982),
Theodore STURGEON's Godbody (1986) and James K. MORROW's Only Begotten
Daughter (1990).If speculative fiction in the MAINSTREAM has always been
as much concerned with the visions of the religious imagination as with
those of the scientific imagination, within GENRE SF religious issues were
for many years excluded by editorial TABOO. One pulp subgenre to be
exempted was the "Shaggy God" story, often dealing with ADAM AND EVE;
writers mostly played safe by scrupulously avoiding the New Testament.
Godlike aliens were treated with circumspection, Clifford D. SIMAK's The
Creator (1935; 1946) finding a home only in the semiprofessional MARVEL
TALES. The future evolution of institutionalized religion was considered
in Robert A. HEINLEIN's "If This Goes On . . ." (1940), in which a
tyrannical state of the future operates through an Established Church
headed by a bigoted fanatic - a recurrent image in sf. Heinlein's Sixth
Column (1941 as by Anson MacDonald; 1949; vt The Day After Tomorrow),
based on a John W. CAMPBELL Jr story whose original version was ultimately
published as "All" (1976), shows the USA overthrowing Asian conquerors by
means of a fake religious cult - another recurrent image. Fritz LEIBER
amalgamated the two ideas in GATHER, DARKNESS! (1943; 1950), in which the
tyrannical rule of a state religion is overthrown by a cult masquerading
as witches and warlocks. ROBOTS sceptical of what humans tell them about
Earth construct a new faith for themselves in Isaac ASIMOV's "Reason"
(1941). But all these religions were mere superstructure: the theological
issues remained untouched. In the pages of UNKNOWN, Campbell's authors
used angels, GODS AND DEMONS with gay abandon, but such stories as Henry
KUTTNER's "The Misguided Halo" (1939) and Cleve CARTMILL's "Prelude to
Armageddon" (1942) were conscientiously playful in dealing with the
apparatus of the Christian mythos. Only A.E. VAN VOGT's The Book of Ptath
(1943; 1947 vt Two Hundred Million A.D.) came close to serious speculation
about metaphysics.After WWII there was a spectacular boom in sf stories
which, without any trepidation whatever, cut straight to the heart of
theological matters. The space travellers in Ray BRADBURY's "The Man"
(1949) follow Jesus on his interplanetary mission of salvation, while the
priests in "In this Sign . . ." (1951; vt "The Fire Balloons") encounter
sinless beings on Mars. A robot in Anthony BOUCHER's "The Quest for St
Aquin" (1951) emulates St Thomas Aquinas in logically deducing the
existence of God, thus justifying its own - and the author's - adherence
to the Catholic faith. In Paul L. Payne's "Fool's Errand" (1952) a Jew
finds a cross in the sands of Mars. In James BLISH's classic A CASE OF
CONSCIENCE (1953; exp 1958) a Jesuit interprets the axioms of his faith to
infer, heretically in the Manichaean style, that an alien world is the
creation of the Devil, and that it must be exorcised. In Lester DEL REY's
"For I Am a Jealous People" (1954) alien invaders arrive to take
possession of the Earth, having made their own covenant with God and
become his chosen people. In Arthur C. CLARKE's "The Star" (1955)
spacefarers discover the wreckage of inhabited worlds which had been
destroyed by the nova that shone over Bethlehem. Philip Jose FARMER's THE
LOVERS (1952; exp 1961) features a future Earth whose social mores derive
from the "Western Talmud"; its sequel, A Woman a Day (1953; rev 1960; vt
The Day of Timestop; vt Timestop), continues an earnest exploration of
future religion. Farmer's "The God Business" (1954) is a phantasmagoric,
pantheistic fantasy whose hero ends up as a deity; and the same
opportunity is offered to a conventional Churchman in "Father" (1955),
part of a series featuring the priest John Carmody, whose conversion as a
result of authentic transcendental experience is described in Night of
Light (1957; exp 1966), and whose eventual mission is the subject of "A
Few Miles" (1960) and "Prometheus" (1961). The most impressive single work
to come out of this boom is Walter M. MILLER's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ
(1955-7; fixup 1960), which describes the role played by the Church in the
rebuilding of society after a nuclear HOLOCAUST. Even stories like Robert
A.W. LOWNDES's Believer's World (1952; exp 1961), James E. GUNN's This
Fortress World (1955) and Poul ANDERSON's "Superstition" (1956), which
deal with fake or misguided religious cults, exhibit a far more
sophisticated view of the SOCIOLOGY of religion than "If this Goes On . .
." or Sixth Column.Blish, tempted to try to explain this remarkable
phenomenon by his own involvement with it, wrote the notable essay
"Cathedrals in Space" (1953 as by William Atheling Jr; incorporated into
The Issue at Hand, coll 1964), citing the stories as "instruments of a
chiliastic crisis, of a magnitude we have not seen since the chiliastic
panic of 999 A.D.", and drawing a parallel between them and the boom in
atomic Armageddons - a parallel made explicit by Boucher and Miller and
spectacularly developed by Blish himself in Black Easter (1968) and The
Day after Judgment (1970). The supposed panics of AD999 were in fact a
myth invented by much later apocalyptic writers, but the argument holds
good. The advent of the atom bomb in 1945 was a revelation of sorts, and
the 1953 invention of the H-bomb gave to each of two ideologically opposed
nations the power to annihilate the entire human race. The interest in
theological issues, and in metaphysical issues in general, prompted by the
acute sense of existential insecurity to which this awareness gave birth
became gradually more powerful, though often less explicit. The 1950s also
saw a remarkable proliferation of images obviously allied to religious
notions but shorn of their association with actual religious doctrine.
Arthur C. Clarke has said that any religious symbolism or imagery in
CHILDHOOD'S END (1950; exp 1953) is "entirely accidental", although the
text itself refers to the climax as an "apotheosis" and the events
described there are strikingly - but coincidentally - similar to Teilhard
de Chardin's notion of the coming-together of displaced planetary
"noospheres" at an apocalyptic "Omega Point". Clifford D. Simak's Time and
Again (1951; vt First He Died) is similarly free of formal doctrine,
although the alien symbionts which infest all living things are obviously
analogous to souls ( ESCHATOLOGY). In later works by Simak - particularly
A Choice of Gods (1972) and Project Pope (1981)-religious ideas do become
explicit, and here again there are strong echoes of a Teilhardian schema.
Sf works explicitly based on Teilhard's ideas are George ZEBROWSKI's The
Omega Point Trilogy (2 parts published 1972, 1977; omni, including 3rd
part, 1983) and Gene WOLFE's The Book of the New Sun (1980-83) and The
Urth of the New Sun (1987 UK). The syncretic approach of these stories,
which blends the religious and scientific imaginations, contrasts with
uncompromising stories using TIME TRAVEL and other facilitating devices
directly to confront the central symbol of the Christian faith: the
crucifixion. Richard MATHESON's "The Traveler" (1962) visits the scene in
order to find faith. The heroes of Brian EARNSHAW's Planet in the Eye of
Time (1968) go there to protect faith from subversion. The protagonists of
Michael MOORCOCK's Behold the Man! (1966; exp 1969) and Barry N.
MALZBERG's Cross of Fire (1982) must become Christ and suffer crucifixion
in search of redemption for themselves. The time tourists of Garry
KILWORTH's "Let's Go to Golgotha" (1975) discover the horribly ironic
truth about the condemnation of Christ. More oblique treatments of the
motif can be found in Harry HARRISON's "The Streets of Ashkelon" (1962)
and Philip Jose Farmer's Jesus on Mars (1979).There was a very noticeable
change, too, in the attitude of sf writers to ALIEN religion. Before WWII,
it was taken for granted that all such religions were misguided, ripe for
SATIRE and open mockery; after WWII sf writers were prepared to treat
alien beliefs reverently, and frequently to credit them with a truthful
dimension which Earthly religion lacked. In Katherine MACLEAN's "Unhuman
Sacrifice" (1958) missionaries to an alien world find that the
"superstitions" they set out to subvert are not as absurd as they assumed.
In Heinlein's STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND (1961) religious ideas imported
from Mars become important on Earth. In Robert SILVERBERG's Nightwings
(1969) and Downward to the Earth (1970) humans seek their own salvation
via the transcendental experiences associated with alien religion,
although his Tom O'Bedlam (1986) is more ambiguous in its treatment of a
cult based on visionary experience of an alien world, and "The Pope of the
Chimps" (1982) is highly and ironically ambivalent. In D.G. COMPTON's The
Missionaries (1972) alien missionaries bring an enigmatic offer of
salvation to mankind. Poul ANDERSON's "The Problem of Pain" (1973) is a
fine conte philosophique about the relativity of values deriving from
human and alien religions. Satan is portrayed as a wise and misunderstood
alien in Harlan ELLISON's "The Deathbird" (1973), which argues that the
story of the Fall is a fraud perpetrated on us by God. In the first part
of Gregory BENFORD's and Gordon EKLUND's If the Stars are Gods (1974;
fixup 1977) alien visitors seeking a new sun-god allow a man to share
their enigmatic communion with our SUN. In George R.R. MARTIN's "A Song
for Lya" (1974) humans again seek and find transcendental experience in
alien ways. The first section of Dan SIMMONS's HYPERION (1989) deals with
an alien religion based in the effects of alien PARASITISM (or perhaps
symbiosis). Alien gods are treated with much greater suspicion in
Zebrowski's "Heathen God" (1970), Ian WATSON's extraordinary God's World
(1979) and Ted REYNOLDS's The Tides of God (1989), which is robustly
unsentimental in proposing that if God is an alien the best thing we can
do is get out there and destroy Him.Sf also became increasingly eager to
look at religious experience from the "other side", exploring the
experience of being a (or even the) God. This notion was tentatively
developed in pulp stories about scientists presiding over tiny creations,
including Edmond HAMILTON's "Fessenden's Worlds" (1937) and Theodore
STURGEON's "Microcosmic God" (1941), and in "Shaggy God" squibs like
Fredric BROWN's "Solipsist" (1954) and Eric Frank RUSSELL's "Sole
Solution" (1956). It received more serious consideration in Farmer's "The
God Business" and "Father" and in Robert BLOCH's intensely bitter "The
Funnel of God" (1960), and was more elaborately explored in a number of
novels by Roger ZELAZNY, notably LORD OF LIGHT (1967), Creatures of Light
and Darkness (1969) and Isle of the Dead (1969), and in Frank HERBERT's
The God Makers (1972).The sf writer who has dealt most prolifically with
issues in speculative theology is Philip K. DICK, whose long-standing
fascination was brought to a head by a series of unusual and possibly
religious experiences which he underwent in the early months of 1974.
Novels like Radio Free Albemuth (written 1976; 1985), comprehensively
reworked as VALIS (1981), are attempts to get to grips with these
experiences. The development of Dick's theological fascination can be
tracked through such works as "Faith of Our Fathers" (1967), GALACTIC
POT-HEALER (1969) and A Maze of Death (1970), and culminate in The Divine
Invasion (1981) and the non-sf The Transmigration of Timothy Archer
(1982).Artificial religions and cults still crop up regularly in sf,
sometimes deployed for satirical purposes, as by Kurt VONNEGUT Jr in THE
SIRENS OF TITAN (1959), Cat's Cradle (1963) and Slapstick (1976),
sometimes in the cause of thoughtful extrapolations in the sociology of
religion, as in This Star Shall Abide (1972; vt Heritage of the Star) by
Sylvia Louise ENGDAHL. Keith ROBERTS's PAVANE (coll of linked stories
1968) and Kingsley AMIS's The Alteration (1976) are both ALTERNATE-WORLD
stories endorsing the thesis of Max Weber (1864-1920) regarding the
Protestant Ethic and the spirit of capitalism by displaying an unreformed
Catholic Church dominating a Europe where the Industrial Revolution is
only just getting under way in the 20th century. Roberts's Kiteworld
(fixup 1985) is one of the more memorable sf images of oppressive
Theocracy. More earnest explorations of possible developments in future
religion include Richard COWPER's Kinship series begun with the novella
"Piper at the Gates of Dawn" (1976). A number of books excoriate future
theocracies, particularly fundamentalist ones, such as The Stone that
Never Came Down (1973) by John BRUNNER, recent examples of the assault on
fundamentalism being Parke GODWIN's Snake Oil series, beginning with
Waiting for the Galactic Bus (1988), and several books by Sheri S. TEPPER,
notably Raising the Stones (1990). Conversely, in several of Orson Scott
CARD's novels a thinly disguised version of Mormonism is depicted with a
utopian glow. In contemporary sf, however, perhaps the most sophisticated
and detailed treatment of a future religion is The Starbridge Chronicles
by Paul PARK, beginning with SOLDIERS OF PARADISE (1987), in which the
seasons of a generations-long Great Year encourage contrasting
faiths.There are several interesting theme anthologies, including Other
Worlds, Other Gods (anth 1971) ed Mayo Mohs, Strange Gods (anth 1974) ed
Roger ELWOOD, An Exaltation of Stars (anth 1973) ed Terry CARR, Wandering
Stars (anth 1974) ed Jack DANN (a collection of Jewish sf), The New
Awareness: Religion through Science Fiction (anth 1975) ed Martin H.
GREENBERG and Patricia S. WARRICK, Perpetual Light (anth 1982) ed Alan
Ryan, and Sacred Visions (anth 1991) ed Michael CASSUTT and Andrew M.

When SF fans debate the fine line between magazine science fiction and
pop pseudo-science, the name of Richard Shaver inevitably comes up.Shaver
wrote "I Remember Lemuria," which was published in 1945 in Amazing
Stories. His tale contained what is now called a "conspiracy theory," in
which humans are manipulated by evil creatures called "deros," part of an
ancient civilization driven underground by solar radiation. Shaver
maintained that his theory was based on fact.The story became wildly
popular - and 2500 letters were received by Amazing after it appeared. So
more of the stories were commissioned. In 1947 an entire issue was written
about Lemuria for Amazing. Most SF fans called the Shaver tales a pure
hoax - and an earlyexample of the bogus stories about flying saucers,
worldwide conspiracies, and ancient races that have become such a staple
of American culture.

(1938- ) US playwright and novelist whose sf has been restricted to The
Monodyne Catastrophe (1970 Venture as "How We Won the Monodyne"; exp
1977), in which Native Americans attempt to take over the eponymous source
of future power. [JC]

(1875-1939) French writer, generally regarded in FRANCE as the most
important native sf writer for the period 1900-1930, whose career began
with the stories assembled as Fantomes et fantoches ["Phantoms and
Puppets"] (coll 1905) as by Vincent Saint-Vincent. He is best known by
English-language readers for his sf novel Les mains d'Orlac (1920; trans
Florence Crewe-Jones as The Hands of Orlac 1929 US; new trans Ian White
1981 UK), filmed in 1924 as ORLACS HANDE; another version was Mad Love
(1935). The story deals in GOTHIC terms with the ominous consequences of a
hand transplant. A less well known though more wildly imaginative novel is
Le docteur Lerne, sous-dieu["Doctor Lerne, Undergod"] (1908; trans anon as
New Bodies for Old 1923 US), in which a sinister SCIENTIST's experiments
in grafting produce, for example, rats with leaves; the transplantation of
a man's brain into a bull's body, and vice versa, creates a smart cow and
a Minotaur. Ultimately the German villain - who has already occupied the
scientist's brain - transplants himself into the body of a car, but the
machinery, thus rendered mortal, putrefies.Le Singe (1925; trans Florence
Crewe-Jones as Blind Circle 1928 US) with Albert Jean (1892- ) is a
gruesomely comic mystery story whose solution reveals the manufacture of a
series of identical ANDROIDS by a kind of electrolysis. The title story of
Le Voyage Immobile, suivi d'autres histoires singulieres (coll 1909; rev
1922; title story trans anon as The Flight of the Aerofix 1932 chap US)
features an unsteerable craft, powered by ANTIGRAVITY and detrimental to
its passengers.MR's untranslated works include the collections Monsieur
D'Outremort et autres histoires singulieres ["Mr Overdeath and Other
Curious Stories"] (coll 1913; vt Suite Fantastique 1921); L'Homme truque
["The Altered Man"] (coll 1921), the long title story of which described
by Pierre VERSINS as "a nightmare based on the Universe as seen by a
mutilated giant whose eyes have been replaced by 'electroscopes' . . . the
pretext for many pages of a strange, visual poetry"L'invitation a la peur
["Invitation to Fear"] (coll 1926),Le Carnaval du mystere ["Mystery
Merry-go-Round"] (coll 1929) and Celui qui n'a pas tue ["He Who Did Not
Kill"] (coll 1932). These volumes include many fine stories on a great
variety of sf themes: CLONES, invisibility, time travel, cyborgs, gravity,
space-time paradoxes, ESCHATOLOGY and, especially and often, altered modes
of PERCEPTION. His untranslated novels include Le peril bleu ["The Blue
Peril"] (1911), about an extraordinary civilization of lifeforms living on
the top of an atmosphere as if it were a sea; Un homme chez les microbes,
scherzo ["A Man Amongst the Microbes: A Scherzo"] (1928), a journey into
the microcosm with more sophistication and verbal wit than those of Ray
CUMMINGS; and Le maitre de la lumiere ["Master of Light"] ( 1933
L'Intransigeant; 1947), about the creation of a new form of glass which
condenses space and time, similar to the "slow glass" invented
(independently) by Bob SHAW. The huge Maurice Renard: Romans et contes
fantastiques ["Maurice Renard: Fantasy Novels and Tales"] (omni 1990)
contains most of his work of genre interest. [PN/JC]See also: HISTORY OF


Film (1984). Edge City Productions/Universal. Written/dir Alex Cox,
starring Emilio Estevez, Harry Dean Stanton, Tracey Walter, Olivia Barash.
92 mins. Colour.Set in the seedier areas of Los Angeles, this independent,
low-budget, semi-surreal film concerns a young man (Estevez) who gets a
job as a repo man - a repossessor of unpaid-for cars. A 1964 Chevrolet
Malibu driven by a lobotomized nuclear physicist is driving around town
with something nasty and radioactive in the trunk. People who look inside
see a glaring white light (shades of KISS ME DEADLY [1955]) which
distintegrates them. A series of coincidences (concerning repo men, a
teenager obsessed with aliens, chicano car thieves, middle-class punk
thugs and secret agents led by a woman with a metal hand) reveal something
about the underbelly of urban life and provide sciencefictional metaphors
for urban dreams. The Chevy undergoes a final apotheosis: now glowing all
over, it drifts into the heavens with two repo men inside. We never learn
what was in the car's trunk but, as an acid-head explains early on, flying
saucers and time machines are fundamentally the same thing and getting
into specifics misses the point. RM became an instant cult movie, not just
because of its punk aesthetics and black humour, but also because of its
old-fashioned virtues: it is well made and coherently scripted. [PN]

(1901-1979) US advertising man and newspaper reporter who wrote a large
number of fairly typical PULP-MAGAZINE adventures for about a decade from
1929, ceasing to produce sf during WWII, after beginning work as a
screenwriter; some of his tales appeared as by Bradnor Buckner. His first
sf story - "Beyond Gravity" for Air Wonder Stories in 1929 - appeared
simultaneously with the magazine publication of his first novel, The
Radium Pool (1929 Science Wonder Stories; with 2 other stories, as coll
1949) which was later bound with L. Ron HUBBARD's Triton and Battle of
Wizards as Science-Fantasy Quintet (omni 1953). 3 stories - 2 of them
linked - were assembled in The Stellar Missiles (coll 1949). EER also
wrote a series in AMZ 1939-43 about John Hale, a scientific detective
perhaps modelled on Arthur B. REEVE's Craig Kennedy; they remain
uncollected. Most of his published books were Westerns. [JC]See also: AIR

Film (1962). Cinemagic/AIP. Dir Sidney Pink, starring Carl Ottosen, Ann
Smyrner. Screenplay Ib Melchior, Pink. 90 mins. Colour.In this, the Danish
cinema's only excursion into the monster genre, the tail of a buried
dinosaur is exhumed and taken to a laboratory where it regenerates an
entire new body, which proceeds to behave like RADON. Generally thought to
be the worst MONSTER MOVIE ever made, R is notable for the visible strings
holding up the puppet dinosaur and for the fact that AIP found it
necessary to cut all flying scenes before the US release. The
novelization, Reptilicus * (1961) by Dean OWEN, was released before the
film and alleged in a lawsuit brought by Pink to contain gratuitous
passages of "lewd, lascivious and wanton desire"; there was also a 1961
comic book, Reptilicus, which fittingly changed its name in #3 to
Reptisaurus the Terrible. [JB/PN]


(1942- ) US author and dog-breeder who began his genre career with an
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS pastiche, The Forgotten Sea of Mars (1965 chap), and
who soon began producing many novels in various genres, most often soft
pornography and Gothics, and almost always under unrevealed pseudonyms;
his later books are usually signed Mike Resnick. His interest in Burroughs
had also generated material which he published in ERB-dom Magazine; his
first novels, the Ganymede series - The Goddess of Ganymede (1967) and
Pursuit on Ganymede (1968) - showed Burroughs's influence. After Redbeard
(1969), a post- HOLOCAUST tale set generations hence in the New York
subway system, he left sf and fantasy, restricting his activity to the
pseudonymous novels, writing (it has been estimated) well over 200 before
returning, around 1980, to work under his own name. The first relevant
title - Battlestar Galactica 5: Galactica Discovers Earth * (1980) with
Glen A. LARSON, a tv tie - was the least. MDR's large 1980s production
showed an increasing - and increasingly sophisticated - interest in the
use of sf venues and instruments to tell what he has more than once
described as "morality tales", sometimes with a simplistic ease, but in
later work with mounting vigour and a winningly complex sense of the
nature of the world; this was most evident in those stories and novels -
like Ivory: A Legend of Past and Future (1988), Paradise: A Chronicle of a
Distant World (1989) and Bwana & Bully! (coll 1981) - set in either a
literal Africa or an sf analogue of it. Ivory has a Masai descendant
searching through many worlds for the tusks of a particular elephant and
the Chronicles of a Distant World sequence recasts the post-independence
history of various African countries as the history of various worlds:
Paradise treats Kenya; Purgatory (1993) treats Zimbabwe; and Inferno
(1994) treats Uganda. Two of the short works belonging to the thematically
linked Kenya series; both set in an African-styled SPACE HABITAT,
Kirinyaga (1988 FSF; 1992 chap) and its sequel, "The Manamouki" (1990),
though well received and both winning HUGOS, caused some controversy
through their display (and perhaps espousal) of cultural values alien to
our own. Seven Views of Olduvai Gorge (1994chap), which is about the
origins of homo sapiens, is actually set in Africa, and won a 1995 NEBULA
Award for Best Novella.Two further series of the 1980s are the Tales of
the Galactic Midway sequence - Sideshow (1982), The Three-Legged Hootch
Dancer (1983), The Wild Alien Tamer (1983) and The Best Rootin' Tootin'
Shootin' Gunslinger in the Whole Damned Galaxy (1983) - and the Tales of
the Velvet Comet sequence - Eros Ascending (1984), Eros at Zenith (1984),
Eros Descending (1985) and Eros at Nadir (1986). Both series - the first
set in a carnival, the second in a whorehouse visited at 50-year intervals
- are smooth, swift, cynical and without much in the way of argument about
anything that might be described as the moral Universe. But many of his
remaining novels of this decade shared the general background outlined in
Birthright: The Book of Man (coll of linked stories 1982), a text which
sketches in the next 15,000 years or so as our race expands through the
Galaxy, peaks, then dwindles to extinction. The individual stories within
this extremely loose frame convey in general a sense that humans are
incapable of answering the demands of history, that we are too short-lived
and too caught in our mortality to answer the challenges of a greater
world. Novels like Santiago: A Myth of the Far Future (1986) and The Dark
Lady: A Romance of the Far Future (1987) tend to portray adventurous
characters engaging in SPACE-OPERA exploits against a black, barely felt
background of closure; for the feats of MDR's protagonists are little more
than selfish spasms in the great night. His better novels are, all the
same, at least superficially cheerful, bustling with competently framed
action, and clear-headed.Tales that stand outside the future history
include The Soul Eater (1981), a retelling of Herman MELVILLE's Moby-Dick
(1851), and Stalking the Unicorn: A Fable of Tonight (1987), a fantasy.
After publishing some earlier short collections, MR signalled his
increasing involvement in short forms with Will the Last Person to Leave
the Planet Please Shut off the Sun? (coll 1992), which contains several
award-winning tales. In the 1970s, MDR published The Official Guide to
Fantastic Literature (1976), Official Guide to Comic Books and Big Little
Books (1977) and Official Price Guide to Comic and Science Fiction Books
(1979). [JC]Other works: Walpurgis III (1982); The Branch (1984);
Unauthorized Autobiographies and Other Curiosities (coll 1984 chap); The
Inn of the Hairy Toad (1985 chap); Adventures (1985); Through Darkest
Resnick with Gun and Camera (coll 1990); Second Contact (1990); Stalking
the Wild Resnick (coll 1991); Pink Elephants and Hairy Toads (coll 1991
chap); The Alien Heart (coll 1991); The Red Tape War (1991) with Jack L.
CHALKER and George Alec EFFINGER; the Oracle Trilogy, comprising
Soothsayer (1991), Oracle (1992) and Prophet (1993); A Miracle of Rare
Design: a Tragedy of Transcendence (1994).Anthologies: Shaggy B.E.M.
Stories (anth 1988); Inside the Funhouse (anth 1992), assembling examples
of RECURSIVE SF; the Alternate series, exploring at perhaps too
considerable a length a variety of ALTERNATE WORLD scenarios, and
including Alternate Kennedys (and 1992), Alternate Warriors(anth 1993),
Alternate Worldcons (anth 1994), By Any Other Fame (anth 1994) and
Alternate Outlaws (anth 1994), all with Martin H. GREENBERG, not
necessarily (as usual with his more recent anthology project) credited;
Aladdin: Master of the Lamp (anth 1992) with Greenberg; Whatdunits(anth
1992) and More Whatdunits(anth 1993), both with Greenberg; Future Earths:
Under South American Skies(anth 1993) and Future Earths: Under African
Skies(anth 1993), both with Gardner DOZOIS;Dinosaur Fantastic (anth 1993)
with Greenberg; Christmas Ghosts(anth 1993) with Greenberg; Deals with the
Devil (anth 1994) with Greenberg and Loren D. Estleman (1952- ).See also:

Name by which the French writer Nicolas-Anne-Edme Restif (1734-1806) is
usually known. He was an extremely prolific author of formless,
semi-autobiographical novels often attacked for imputed pornographic
content. Of his various utopian texts, La decouverte australe par un homme
volant, ou le Dedale francais ["The Southern-Hemisphere Discovery by a
Flying Man, or the French Daedalus"] (1781) comes closest to genuine PROTO
SCIENCE FICTION, first describing the flying Frenchman's gear (wings plus
parachute), then his Alpine UTOPIA, then his adventures in the Antipodes
where, like Francois RABELAIS's heroes, he visits a number of allegorical
ISLANDS. [JC]Other works: Les posthumes ["The Posthumous Ones"] (1802).See

Alexander KEY.

Film (1982). Willarra/Seven Keys. Dir Philippe Mora, starring Alan Arkin,
Christopher Lee, Kate Fitzpatrick. Screenplay Steven E. De Souza, Andrew
Gaty; additional dialogue Peter Smalley. 91 mins. Colour.Australian
musical comedy whose premise is that its eponymous SUPERHERO (Arkin),
purged in the USA of the McCarthy period as "a premature anti-fascist", is
now a washed-up drunk. Discovered in Sydney by policewoman Patty Patria
(Fitzpatrick), he is recalled to confront his nemesis Mr Midnight (Lee),
whose evil plan is first to sell housing developments to non-Whites in New
York, then nuke them and make the city all-White. Much of the humour comes
from Captain Invincible's forgetting how to fly, and suffering low
self-esteem that affects his supermagnetic powers. As a spoof movie TROCI
is likable, and genre-literate in the range of sf motifs it hits off; the
songs are unmemorable. Arkin's muted, depressive performance, reminiscent
of something from a Barry N. MALZBERG novel, contrasts nicely with Lee
going over the top. [PN]

Irwin ALLEN.


Film (1959). Associated Producers/20th Century-Fox. Dir Edward L. Bernds,
starring Vincent Price, Brett Halsey, David Frankham. Screenplay Bernds.
78 mins. B/w.The first of 2 sequels to the successful sf/horror film The
FLY (1958), the other being CURSE OF THE FLY (1965). Here the son of the
scientist in The Fly, after being attacked by an evil assistant, is forced
to replay his late father's tragedy, which he does rather limply; it is
the least successful of the 3 films. Although The FLY (1986) is a remake
of The Fly (1958), The FLY II is not a remake of ROTF. [PN]



Film (1983). Lucasfilm/20th Century-Fox. Executive prod George LUCAS. Dir
Richard Marquand, starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Ian
McDiarmid, David Prowse. Screenplay Lawrence Kasdan, Lucas, based on a
story by Lucas. 132 mins. Colour.Crisp and entertaining for the most part,
with dazzling special effects, ROTJ still seems weaker than its
predecessors, STAR WARS (1977) and The EMPIRE STRIKES BACK (1980), perhaps
because it is more sentimental. Han Solo (Ford) is rescued from literally
toadlike Jabba the Hutt in the bravura opening sequence, and then the
democratic rebels are pitted once again against a Death Star fortress as
part of their galactic struggle against the totalitarian Empire. The
Emperor (a cleverly obscene performance from McDiarmid) is an even
stronger incarnation of the Dark Side of the Force than Darth Vader
(Prowse), who finally turns good, saves his son Luke, is unmasked and is
then given a Viking's funeral. The forest world of Endor, populated by
Ewoks (teddy-bear lookalikes), is the venue for stirring battles. The
appalling cuteness of the Ewoks and the harmless rubbery appearance of the
monsters are surely Lucasfilm's acknowledgement, in this finale to the
cycle (the threat of 6 further episodes having evaporated), that young
children were now the series' main audience: even the potentially painful
father-son conflict is more soap opera than oedipal myth. The Ewoks later
resurfaced in 2 made-for-tv films, The EWOK ADVENTURE (1984) and Ewoks:
The Battle for Endor (1985).The novelization is Star Wars: Return of the
Jedi * (1983) by James KAHN. [PN]See also: CINEMA; HUGO.



Film (1955). Universal. Dir Jack ARNOLD, starring John Agar, Lori Nelson,
John Bromfield, Ricou Browning. Screenplay Martin Berkeley, story William
Alland. 82 mins. 3D. B/w.The success of CREATURE FROM THE BLACK LAGOON
(1954) inspired the inevitable sequel, shot in 3D although seldom
projected in that format. This time the Creature (Browning) is captured
and taken to an oceanarium in Florida, but it soon breaks out and (some
time later, after voyeuristically spying on her) makes off with a blonde
woman scientist (Nelson) under its arm. Though the film has erotically
charged moments, it is generally limp compared with its predecessor, and
is one of Arnold's weaker sf movies. A further sequel, not dir Arnold, was



Dennis HUGHES.


Working name of US writer Dallas McCord Reynolds (1917-1983); his first
sf story was "Isolationist" for Fantastic Adventures in 1950. He
occasionally used the pseudonyms Clark Collins, Guy McCord, Mark Mallory
and Dallas Ross; he wrote 2 Gothics as Maxine Reynolds and 1 other non-sf
book as Todd Harding. Some of his early work was with Fredric BROWN, and
he also wrote stories with Theodore R. COGSWELL and August W. DERLETH. He
was for 25 years an active member of the American Socialist Labor Party,
for which his father, Verne L. Reynolds, had twice been presidential
candidate; his "militant radicalism" is mutedly reflected, sometimes
ironically, in his sf, making him a maverick in the mostly right-wing
stable of writers associated with John W. CAMPBELL Jr's ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION (MR was one of several writers who wrote up Campbell's
plot ideas). Many of his later works are unashamedly didactic, although
not doctrinaire.MR's first novel, The Case of the Little Green Men (1951),
was a murder mystery set at an sf CONVENTION. It was to be 10 years before
he would publish another novel. Although his 1950s work is minor, he
served 1953-63 as foreign correspondent of Rogue magazine, travelling
extensively, and began to plough back this experience into more
substantial works on socioeconomic themes. Many of the books which
appeared prolifically through the 1960s-70s were expansions and fixups of
earlier magazine stories; the tauter magazine texts are usually preferable
to the padded-out versions. Planetary Agent X (fixup 1965 dos), the first
of several books featuring Section G, shows subversive secret agents of a
United Planets Organization working in the cause of socioeconomic progress
in the often-eccentric Ultima Thule colony worlds of a Galactic Empire,
masking their activities under the nom de guerre Tommy Paine. It was
followed by Dawnman Planet (1966 dos), The Rival Rigelians (1960 ASF as
"Adaptation"; exp 1967 dos), which ironically describes an experiment
comparing the methods of US capitalism and Soviet communism in developing
a primitive world, Code Duello (1968 dos) and Section G: United Planets
(1967 ASF as "Fiesta Brava" and "Psi Assassin"; fixup 1976).Tomorrow Might
be Different (1960 ASF as "Russkies Go Home!"; exp 1975) is a SATIRE in
which the USSR has overtaken the USA as the world's leading economy.
"Farmer" (1961) is the first of 3 notable stories which MR set in North
Africa, each similarly dealing with the problem of fostering economic and
technological development in the teeth of cultural inertia. It was
followed by the Homer Crawford sequence, the first 2 volumes of which are
Black Man's Burden (1961-2 ASF; 1972 dos) and Border, Breed nor Birth
(1962 ASF; 1972 dos), offering entirely serious and constructive versions
of Section G-type plots; although they have dated even more quickly than
MR's stories about the USSR, the issues raised in them (otherwise
virtually untouched in sf) remain politically pertinent. The Best Ye Breed
(fixup 1978), which incorporates "Black Sheep Astray" (1973) and a revised
version of "The Cold War . . . Continued" (1973), extends the series. Day
After Tomorrow (1961 ASF as "Status Quo"; exp 1976) introduced a
status-conscious future USA further elaborated in Mercenary from Tomorrow
(1962 ASF as "Mercenary"; exp 1968 dos), which became the first of the Joe
Mauser series set in a future world in which corporate disputes are
settled by pseudo-gladiatorial contests, packaged by the media as
entertainment, and involving small professional armies fighting with
pre-1900 WEAPONS ( GAMES AND SPORTS). Several lines of speculative thought
carried forward in the later didactic novels originated in this novella,
but the later novels in the series - The Earth War (1963 ASF as "Frigid
Fracas"; 1963), Time Gladiator (1964 ASF as "Sweet Dreams, Sweet Princes";
exp 1966 UK; rev by Michael A. BANKS, vt Sweet Dreams, Sweet Princes 1986
US) and The Fracas Factor (1978) - are routine action-adventure novels.
Joe Mauser, Mercenary from Tomorrow (coll 1986) with Banks contains
revisions of the earlier items. The Cosmic Eye (1963 FSF as "Speakeasy";
exp 1969) is a less convincing story set in a future USA where free speech
is prohibited.During 1965-72 MR's work was more determinedly commercial.
He continued to write stories around Campbell plot ideas. All involve a
good deal of rather slapstick HUMOUR; examples include Amazon Planet (1966
ASF; Italian trans 1967; 1975) and Brain World (1978). Of Godlike Power
(1966; vt Earth Unaware 1968) is a comedy about a preacher whose curses
really work. "Romp" (1966) was the first of a group of crime stories
reprinted as Police Patrol: 2000 A.D. (fixup 1977). Space Pioneer (1966
UK) and After Some Tomorrow (1967) are undistinguished, but 2 novels about
COMPUTERS, Computer War (1967 dos) and The Computer Conspiracy (1968),
gained strength from the timeliness of their themes. The final 2 stories
making up The Space Barbarians (fixup 1969 dos) and The Five Way Secret
Agent (1969 ASF; 1975 dos) were the last items MR did for Campbell, and
after Rolltown (1969 If as "The Towns Must Roll"; exp 1976) he published
virtually no new sf for three years (although he did publish books in
other genres).When his sf career resumed it was with the strikingly
different Looking Backward, from the Year 2000 (1973), a reprise of Edward
BELLAMY's classic UTOPIAN novel, displaying MR's ideas about the POLITICS
and ECONOMICS of an energy-affluent society. He was later to add a sequel
- Equality: in the Year 2000 (1977) - which borrowed an idea from his
earlier Ability Quotient (1975) to subvert the ending of the first book.
MR further extrapolated this line of speculation into the increasingly
doubt-ridden After Utopia (1977), which incorporates "Utopian" (in The
Year 2000 [anth 1970] ed Harry HARRISON) and Perchance to Dream (1977),
although he salvaged a curiously ironic optimism by re-using a deus ex
machina first deployed in the earlier Space Visitor (1977). He developed
parallel lines of thought in sequels to Rolltown - these were Commune 2000
A.D. (1974) and The Towers of Utopia (1975) - and re-used the central
characters of The Five Way Secret Agent in more lightweight stories with
similar underlying concerns: Satellite City (1975) and "Of Future Fears"
(1977 ASF). This series was further expanded in novels about the
tribulations of a quasi-utopian space colony: Lagrange Five (1979), The
Lagrangists (1983) and Chaos in Lagrangia (1984), The last 2 were ed Dean
ING, who went on to prepare for publication several other manuscripts
which MR had left behind on his death: Eternity (1984), Home Sweet Home:
2010 A.D. (1984), The Other Time (1984), Trojan Orbit (1985) and Deathwish
World (1986). Space Search (1984) is a posthumous work credited to MR
alone.The Best of Mack Reynolds (coll 1976) has an introduction explaining
MR's decision to concentrate on sf which speculated on social and economic
issues, and reflecting on his travels and the lessons he learned
therefrom. Although he was once voted most popular author in a poll run by
the GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION group of magazines, MR never received the
recognition he deserved for the fertility of his distinctive speculative
imagination. His ideas were always far more interesting than his plots,
and his writing was sometimes unpolished, but at his best he was a skilled
craftsman whose attempts to foresee the NEAR FUTURE were unusually bold,
well informed and challenging. It is a great pity that he had such
difficulty in finding publishers willing to put his work into respectable
formats. [BS]Other works: Mission to Horatius * (1968), a STAR TREK novel;
Once Departed (1970), a thriller with sf elements; Computer World (1970);
Depression or Bust (fixup 1974); Galactic Medal of Honor (1960 AMZ as
"Medal of Honor"; exp 1976); Trample an Empire Down (1978); Compounded
Interests (coll 1983).As Editor: The Science Fiction Carnival (anth 1953)
with Fredric Brown.About the author: "The Utopian Dream Revisited:
Socioeconomic Speculation in the Work of Mack Reynolds" by Brian M.
STABLEFORD in Foundation 16 (May 1979); A Mack Reynolds Checklist: Notes
Toward a Bibliography (1983 chap) by Chris DRUMM and George Flynn.See

Pseudonym of an unidentified French writer (1916- ) whose sf novel, When
and If (1950 Ce Matin as "Ce pourrait se passe come ca"; trans Joseph F.
McCrindle 1952 US; vt It Happened Like This 1953 UK), describes a future
WAR between the West and Soviet Russia in convincing detail; nuclear
weapons are eventually used, though the final battles are conducted in a
chastened, post-nuclear mood. The West wins.

Working name of US writer Theodore Andrus Reynolds (1938- ), who began
publishing sf with "Boarder Incident" for IASFM in 1977. His first novel,
The Tides of God (1989) - the last of the Terry CARR Ace Specials -
intriguingly allows the surmise that millennial fervour is caused, on a
regular 1000-year basis, by a deranging ALIEN being whose expected arrival
from deep space as the 20th century ends spurs the mounting of an
expedition to destroy it. But RELIGION is a subject too complexly
integrated into the human psyche to be excised by any quasimilitary sortie
into the unknown; and the tale ends in ambiguity. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer George Powers Cockcroft (1932- ). His first novel,
The Dice Man (1971; rev 1983), though not sf, inhabits the same universe
of discourse as The Adventures of Wim (1986 UK), a long, frequently
garrulous picaresque detailing the eponymous innocent's travels through
time and space. Matari (1975) is a heavily allegorical love story set in a
partly mythologized 18th-century Japan. Long Voyage Back (1983) takes the
crew of a small ship through post- HOLOCAUST ordeals and from Chesapeake
Bay to Chile. LR's books burst with didacticism, but have vivid moments.

(1822-1876) US lawyer and writer who published various newspaper pieces
and stories under the name Caxton, notably The Case of Summerfield (1871
Sacramento Daily Union; 1907 chap), about a scientist who threatens to set
the oceans of the world afire unless he is paid blackmail. Along with its
sequel, 4 further sf stories and other ephemera, the tale was first
published as a memorial by his colleagues in Caxton's Book: A Collection
of Essays, Poems, Tales and Sketches (coll 1876). Also of interest in this
volume is "The Telescopic Eye", about a boy blind at normal distances but
able to observe the activities of the wheel-shaped denizens of the Moon.



First the pseudonym, then the legal name of US playwright and novelist
born Elmer Leopold Reizenstein (1892-1967). Of his plays, The Adding
Machine (1923) interestingly transforms its protagonist, Mr Zero, into the
para-human creature designated by the title. A Voyage to Purilia (1930), a
novel, combines a deft use of sf instruments - the protagonists travel to
the planet Purilia in a ship propelled by ANTIGRAVITY - with a very
extensive guying of UTOPIAN assumptions. On Purilia, life mirrors the
conventions of the cinema - the implication being that utopian worlds are
as fatuously bound by rigmarole and fetish as the "normal" lives depicted
in the classic Hollywood films - and the protagonist escapes marriage,
which is identical to a Hollywood fade-out, by the skin of his teeth. [JC]

Robert GRAVES.

(1820-1876) UK editor of the Morning Advertiser and writer. For many
years he was active as a propagandist for UK military preparedness, but
The Invasion of England (A Possible Tale of Future Times) (1870 chap),
published privately, had little impact, and was in any case much inferior
to Lt.-Col. Sir George T. CHESNEY's The Battle of Dorking (1871), which
effectively founded the future- WAR/ INVASION genre so popular over the
next 40 years. [JC]

(1905-1979) US writer and reporter. In Two Roubles to Times Square (1956;
vt Brother Bear 1956 UK) a Russian takeover of Manhattan is embarrassedly
disowned by the Kremlin. [JC]


Pseudonym of US writer Joel Richard Fruchtman (1937- ), who began
publishing sf with "Speedplay" for AMZ in 1980 and has published
subsequent stories in original anthologies. His first novel was Pindharee
(1986), an sf adventure. [JC]

[r] Peter SAXON.

[r] David R. BISCHOFF.

[r] Philip LATHAM.

(1911- ) US writer who began publishing with "Prologue to an Analogue"
for ASF in 1961, and who wrote some solo stories. Her several sf novels
were all in collaboration with her husband, Walt RICHMOND; 3 were revised
by LR after his death. Almost all their work together expressed a sense -
one formally presented by the Centric Foundation which they founded and
directed - that scientific breakthroughs could be made by young minds
freed of the bureaucratic artifices of orthodox scientific thinking;
unfortunately, overloaded SPACE-OPERA plotting did little to make their
novels convincing emblems of this new clarity, and the exaggerated
individualism they expressed seemed less mould-breaking than nostalgic.
They published frequently in ASF. Their novels were Shock Waves (1967
dos), The Lost Millennium (1967 dos; rev vt Siva! 1979), which typically
suggests that a new source of solar energy was first exploited by
prehistoric supermen, Phoenix Ship (1969 dos; rev vt Phase Two 1980),
Gallagher's Glacier (1970 dos; rev 1979), Challenge the Hellmaker (1963
ASF as "Where I Wasn't Going"; exp 1976) and The Probability Corner
(1977). Stories were collected as Positive Charge (coll 1970 dos). [JC]

Pseudonym of South-African-born UK writer Kathleen Lindsay (1903-1973),
author of about 900 romances and 2 sf novels, The Valley of Doom (1947), a
LOST-WORLD tale, and The Grim Tomorrow (1953), whose UK protagonists fail
to avert a Teutonic atomic HOLOCAUST, but who survive, after being flung
into space on a chunk of England fortunately large enough that they can
start a new life. The tale's telling is less incompetent than its science.
[JC]Other work: Terror Stalks Abroad (1935). ; The Hidden Horror (1937);
Terror by Night (1939); The Devil's Dominion (1956) as by Kathleen Lindsay

(1922-1977) US writer and research scientist whose fiction was written
exclusively in collaboration with his wife, Leigh RICHMOND (whom see for
details). [JC]


(1847-1919) UK politician and writer, who was knighted in 1907 and
subsequently changed his name to Compton-Rickett. His sf novel The
Quickening of Caliban: A Modern Story of Evolution (1893) suggests that a
more natural (i.e., perhaps, less evolved) branch of Homo sapiens
continues to exist in Africa. The two branches are able to breed together,
and do. [JC]

Film (1954). Ivan Tors/United Artists. Dir Richard Carlson, starring
William Lundigan, Herbert Marshall, Richard Carlson, Martha Hyer.
Screenplay Curt SIODMAK. 81 mins. Colour.Cosmic rays are destroying space
vehicles, and the theory is put forward that meteors possess a special
quality that protects them in space. Manned spaceships with special scoops
on their noses are sent up to capture meteors before they burn up in the
atmosphere so that their coating - which turns out to be diamond! - can be
used to protect spaceships. The story has been rightly singled out by
Damon KNIGHT as a splendid example of all that is silliest and most
unscientific in sf CINEMA, from which much of its value as entertainment
unintentionally derives. Riders to the Stars * (1953), as by Siodmak and
Robert (Eugene) Smith (1920- ), is the novelization. [JB/PN]


[r] Robert GRAVES.

The usual working name of UK politician, freethinker and author Francis
Ambrose Ridley (1897-1994), most of whose books were on historical
subjects. The Green Machine (1926) as by F.H. Ridley, though clearly
cavalier in in its treatment of science - presenting as it does the
eponymous bicycle as a spaceship capable of interplanetary travel -
interestingly sends its protagonist to tour a crowded Solar System
accompanied by a Martian ant bent on colonizing Earth. [JC]See also:

Frank A. RIDLEY.

(1903-1983) US writer whose short Dark Pool prehistoric-sf sequence for
children comprises The Bewitched Caverns (1948) and The Dark Pool (1949).
With her husband Robert Rienow (1909-1989), a political scientist, she
later wrote The Year of the Last Eagle (1970), a sour NEAR-FUTURE comedy
about ECOLOGY, set in 1989. The hero's job is to locate the last bald
eagles (the national bird of the USA), if any still exist. [JC/PN]

[r] Leona RIENOW.

(1931- ) Danish writer in whose sf novel, De Hellige Aber (1981; trans
Steve Murray as Witness to the Future 1987 US), two adolescents are
transported almost half a century forward from 1941; they find little in
the year 1988 to give them joy about Progress. [JC]

RIGG, [Lt.-Col.] ROBERT B.
(? - ) US writer on military topics whose War - 1974 (1958) puts into the
didactic fictional form of a future- WAR narrative his speculations about
developments in WEAPONS and tactics. After an initial exchange of ICBMs,
East and West settle down to conventional conflict dominated by much
implausible non-nuclear gimmickry. [JC]

(? - ) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Execution" for If in
1956, and who is mainly known for collaborating with Mark CLIFTON on
They'd Rather Be Right (1954), the HUGO-winning conclusion to Clifton's
Bossy series about an advanced COMPUTER rendered almost useless by men's
fear of "her". [JC]See also: AUTOMATION.


(? - ) US writer who began publishing sf with Prisoner of Dreams (1989).
It and its sequel, The Tenth Class (1991), feature the adventures of a
female starship-pilot who must cope with repressive authorities and with
planets named, for instance, Heinlein. Romance also looms. The Slow World
trilogy - comprising The Persistence of Memory (1993), The Warden of
Horses (1994) and The Alchemist of Time (1994) - more impressively
presents autism as a metaphor for understanding - but not an explanation
of - the relation between the real or Slow world, and the fantasy world
ruled by the eponymous Warden of Horses, an autism victim in the here and
now. [JC]

(1923- ) Australian painter, novelist and playwright whose Confessions of
a People Lover (1967) depicts a grey, urban, DYSTOPIAN UK where the old
("longlivers") are eliminated by the state and the young are corrupt,
cultureless vandals. The book is narrated by a longliver in an enriched,
clotted, free-associational style, and is devoid of sf instruments or
speculations; it can be read as an allegory of the post- WAR UK. [JC]

Charles NUETZEL.

[s] Robert A. HEINLEIN.

FANZINE (1964-current) ed Leland Sapiro from Canada and the USA. RQ began
as a retitled continuation of the fanzine Inside (1953-63), published by
Ron Smith and then Jon White, which won a HUGO in 1956 and itself
incorporated a still earlier fanzine, Fantasy Advertiser, later known as
Science Fiction Advertiser (1946-54). RQ quickly formed a quite different
character of its own, academic essays on sf and fantasy being its main
content. Alexei PANSHIN originally published the major part of his
Heinlein in Dimension (1968) in RQ; other contributors have included James
BLISH, Algis BUDRYS and Jack WILLIAMSON. Though irregular, this is one of
the longest-running - as well as the most serious - of all fanzines; it
had reached #32 by early 1992. [PN/PR]


(1950- ) US author of the Endworld post-holocaust SURVIVALIST military-sf
sequence: Endworld #1: The Fox Run (1986), #2: Thief River Falls Run
(1986), #3: Twin Cities Run (1986), #4: The Kalispell Run (1987), #5:
Dakota Run (1987), #6: Citadel Run (1987), #7: Armageddon Run (1987), #8:
Denver Run (1987), #9: Capital Run (1988), #10: New York Run (1988), #11:
Liberty Run (1988), #12: Houston Run (1988), #13: Anaheim Run (1988), #14:
Seattle Run (1989), #15: Nevada Run (1989), #16: Miami Run (1989), #17:
Atlanta Run (1989), #18: Memphis Run (1989), #19: Cincinnati Run (1990),
#20: Dallas Run (1990), #21: Boston Run (1990), #22: Green Bay Run (1990),
#23: Yellowstone Run (1990), #24: New Orleans Run (1991), #25: Spartan Run
(1991), #26: Madman Run (1991) and #27: Chicago Run (1991). The concurrent
Blade series comprises Blade #1: First Strike (1989), #2: Outlands Strike
(1989) (these 2 assembled as First Strike/Outlands [omni 1992]), #3:
Vampire Strike (1989), #4: Pipeline Strike (1989), #5: Pirate Strike
(1990), #6: Crusher Strike (1990), #7: Terror Strike (1990), #8: Devil
Strike (1990), #9: L.A. Strike (1990), #10: Dead Zone Strike (1990), #11:
Quest Strike (1991), #12: Deathmaster Strike (1991) and #13: Vengeance
Strike (1991). Singletons include The Wereling (1983), which seems to have
been DLR's first novel, The Wrath (1988), Spectre (1988), Hell-o-Ween
(1992) and Prank Night (1994). Under the house name J.D. Cameron he has
written 2 of the Omega Sub sequence: #2: Command Decision (1991) and #4:
Blood Tide (1991). [JC]

UK publishing firm which from 1936 through 1984, though mainly in the
1970s, published more than 450 sf novels, in hardbound editions, primarily
for the library market. (In 1990 a few US sf titles were reprinted, but no
originals.) A large majority of titles originating with the firm were
uniform in length (192 pages) and routine in substance, most being SPACE
OPERAS. In its early years Hale published speculative fiction from authors
like S. Fowler WRIGHT and Wyndham LEWIS, and in the 1970s many established
foreign writers - including Poul ANDERSON, A. Bertram CHANDLER, Hal
Frank Belknap LONG, Andre NORTON, Robert SILVERBERG and Kate WILHELM -
released titles to the UK market through the house; but from the middle of
that decade Hale published mostly books signed by names otherwise unknown
to the sf world. Some of these were young authors - e.g., Adrian COLE -
who would soon move on to more ambitious projects, and some - e.g., the
actor Michael ELDER - were authors who published primarily with Hale but
who were clearly real individuals; but many were pseudonyms, some of which
have been identified and can be found below so designated. Almost
certainly several remaining names - some of those below without
birth-dates being reasonable suspects - are also pseudonymous. Below we
list authors whose names are solely or primarily identified with the Hale
imprint, and, where appropriate, their works as well.John (Kempton) AIKEN,
writing for RHL as John Paget.Roy Ainsworthy Lauran Bosworth
PAINE.Adrienne Anderson: Wings of the Morning (1971).Walter Bacon: The
Last Experiment (1974).Bee BALDWIN.Jo Bannister (1951- ): The Matrix
(1981); The Winter Plain (1982); A Cactus Garden (1983).Mark Bannon Paul
CONRAD.Alan BARCLAY.D(onald) A(ndrew) Barker (1947- ): A Matter of
Evolution (1975); A Question of Reality (1981).G.J. BARRETT, whose
pseudonyms include Edward Leighton, Dennis Summers and James Wallace.Roger
(Alban) Beaumont (1935- ): Deep Space Processional (1982) with R. Snowden
Ficks.John Bedford (pseudonym of David Wiltshire - see below): The Titron
Madness (1984).Peter Bentley (real name Alan Moon): Destined to Survive
(1977).Leigh Beresford: Fantocine (1981).Fenton Brockley Donald S.
ROWLAND.Eric BURGESS.Roger Carlton Donald S. ROWLAND.Mark Carrel Lauran
Bosworth PAINE.R.M.H. Carter: The Dream Killers (1981).Garet Chalmers: A
Legend in his Own Deathtime (1978); Homo-Hetero (1980).David Clements: The
Backwater Man (1979).Paul CONRAD, who writes also under his real name
(Albert King) and as Mark Bannon, Floyd Gibson, Scott Howell and Paul
Muller.Paul COREY.James CORLEY.(Michael) George Corston (1932- ):
Aftermath (1968).S(idney) H(obson) Courtier (1904-1974): Into the Silence
(1973); The Smiling Trip (1975).N(icholas) J(ohn) Cullingworth: Dodos of
Einstein (1976).Jules N. Dagnol: The Sandoval Transmissions (1980).Cyril
Donson (1919-1986): Born in Space (1968); Tritonastra - Planet of the
Gargantua (1969); The Perspective Process (1969); Draco the Dragon Man
(1974).Iain Douglas: Point of Impact (1979); Saturn's Missing Rings
(1980); The World of the Sower (1981); The Hearth of Puvaig (1981).Alfred
Dyer: The Symbiotic Mind (1980); The Gabriel Inheritance (1981).Michael
ELDER.James England: The Measured Caverns (1978).R. Snowden Ficks Roger
Beaumont (above).Arthur H(enry) Friggens (1920- ) Eric BURGESS.Nicholas
Ganick: California Dreaming (1981).Donald J. Garden: Dawn Chorus
(1975).Graham Garner Donald S. ROWLAND.T.S.J. Gibbard (pseudonym of
Michael Vinter - see below): Vandals of Eternity (1974); The Starseed
Mission (1980); The Torold Core (1980).Floyd Gibson Paul CONRAD.John
Gilchrist (real name Jerome Gardner; 1932- ): Birdbrain (1975); Out North
(1975); Lifeline (1976); The English Corridor (1976); The Engendering
(1978).David Graham (1919- ): Down to a Sunless Sea (1979).J(ohn)
M(ichael) Graham: Voice from Earth (1972).Anthony Grant (possible real
name, Marion Staylton Pares [1914- ]): The Mutant (1980).Hilary Green:
Centrifuge 1977 (1978).Harry J. Greenwald: Chinaman's Chance (1981).Brian
GRIFFIN.Peter J. Grove: The Levellers (1981).Norman Hall (1904- ): Green
Hailstones (1978).William C. HEINE.Gordon T(homas) Horton: X-Isle
(1980).Troy Howard Lauran Bosworth PAINE.Scott Howell Paul CONRAD.Mark
Jales: Prelude to Exodus (1979); In his Own Image (1979); Normal Service
Will be Resumed (1980).R. Alan James: No News from Providence
(1978).Norman Jensen: The Galactic Colonisers (1971).Neville Kea: The
World of Artemis (1980); The Rats of Megaera (1980); The Glass School
(1980); Scorpion (1981).Albert King Paul CONRAD.Edward Leighton G.J.
BARRETT.John LIGHTRichard Lindsay: The Moon is the Key (1980).Roger Lovin:
Apostle (1980).Ronald A. McQueen: The Cosmic Assassin (1980); The Sorcerer
of Marakaan (1981); The Man who Knew Time (1981); Mardoc (1981).Michael F.
Maikowski: Fire in the Sky (1981) with Chris L. Wolf.Sue Mallinson: The
Serpent and the Butterfly (1980).David Mariner (real name David McLeod
Smith, 1920- ): A Shackleton Called Sheila (1970; vt Countdown 1000 1974
US).Dave Morgan: Reiver (1975); Genetic Two (1976); Adverse Camber (1977).
Paul Muller Paul CONRAD.Hugh A. Nisbet: Farewell to Krondahl (1980); The
Raven's Beak (1981).John October (real name Christopher Portway): The
Anarchy Pedlars (1976).Lauran Bosworth PAINE, whose pseudonyms include Roy
Ainsworthy, Mark Carrel and Troy Howard.John Paton (real name Frederick
John Alford Bateman [1921- ]): Leap to the Galactic Core (1978); Proteus
(1978); The Sea of Rings (1979).David G(eorge) Penny (1950- ): The Sunset
People (1975), Starshine 43 (1978) - both post- HOLOCAUST tales of some
grimness - Starchant (1975) and Out of Time (1979).W.D. PEREIRA.Roger
Perry (real name Roger William Cowern [1928- ]): Senior Citizen (1979);
The Making of Jason (1980); Esper's War (1981).Audrey Peyton: Ashes
(1981).Alex Random Donald S. ROWLAND.L.P. REEVES.Jack Rhys: The Eternity
Merchants (1981); The Five Doors (1981).Julia Riding: Gabion (1979); The
Strange Land (1980); Deep Space Warriors (1981) - Space Traders Unlimited
(1987), for children, is not a Hale book.J.R. Robertson: The Crab Eagle
Trees (1978).Brian Rolls: Something in Mind (1973).Raymond J. Ross: One
Hundred Miles above Earth (1981).Donald S(ydney) ROWLAND, whose pseudonyms
include Fenton Brockley, Roger Carlton, Graham Garner, Alex Random, Roland
Starr, Mark Suffling.James Ryder: Kark (1969); Vicious Spiral (1976).Ras
Ryman (real name James D. Brown): The Quadrant War (1976); Day of the
Ultramind (1977); Weavers of Death (1981).J(oseph) W(illard)
SCHUTZ.William T. SILENT.D(enise) N(atalie) Sims (1940- ): A Plenteous
Seed (1973); A Pastime of Eternity (1975).A(nthony) C(orby) Smith (1925-
): A Glimpse of Judgement (1978).Walter J(ames) Smith (1918- ): The Grand
Voyage (1973); Fourth Gear (1981).Roland Starr Donald S. ROWLAND.Mark
Suffling Donald S. ROWLAND.Dennis Summers G.J. BARRETT.Nevil
Tronchin-James: Ministry of Procreation (1968).James B. Tucker (1922- ):
Not an Earthly Chance (1970).Michael Vinter (1927- ): Along Came a Spider
(1980).Walter Walkham (real name James Harvey Trevithick Ivory [1921- ]):
When Earth Trembled (1980).James Wallace G.J. BARRETT.Chad Warren: Alien
Heaven (1976).William Thomas Webb (1918- ): The Eye of Hollerl-Ra (1977);
After the Inferno (1977); Cheyney's Robot (1978); Poisoned Planet (1978);
The Time Druids (1978); Dimension Lords (1979); The Fate of Phral (1980);
The Froth Eater (1980).Philip Welby: The Pleasure Dome of Sigma 93 (1978).
Martyn Wessex (real name D.F. Little): The Slowing Down Process (1974);
The Chain Reaction (1976).Ronald Wilcox: The Centre of the Wheel
(1981).Eric C. WILLIAMS.T. Owen Williams: A Month for Mankind
(1970).Robert Hendrie Wilson: The Gods Alone (1975); Ring of Rings (1976);
A Blank Card (1977); The Frisk Donation (1979).David Wiltshire (1935- ):
The Homosaur (1978); Child of Vodyanoi (1978; vt The Nightmare Man 1981);
Genesis II (1981).Chris L. Wolf: Fire in the Sky (1981) with Michael F.
Maikowski.J.A. Wood: We Alien Seed (1978). [JC]Further reading: Hale &
Gresham Hardback Science Fiction (1988 chap) by Roger ROBINSON.

(1950- ) UK illustrator; he often works as Tony Roberts. He attended
Wolverhampton College of Art, 1967-9, and Ravensbourne College of Art,
1969-72. AR has painted sf covers for many UK paperback publishers. His
style is similar to, and perhaps imitative of, that of Chris FOSS; his
smooth, hard-edged, highly detailed paintings are typical of UK commercial
sf ILLUSTRATION during the 1970s. [JG/PN]

[r] John S. GLASBY.

(1860-1943) Canadian poet and novelist, important in CANADA's literary
history. Among his many works are several collections of animal fantasies,
most notably The Kindred of the Wild (coll 1902), in which various beasts
reason like human beings. In the Morning of Time (1914-15 Cosmopolitan;
coll of linked stories 1919 UK), set in prehistoric times, romantically
presents the first stages of the ascent to civilization. [PN/JC]See also:

Working name of US writer Jane Roberts Butts (1929-1984), perhaps best
remembered for such speculative works as Dialogues of the Soul & Mortal
Self in Time (1975), which took the form of a series of connected poems.
She began publishing sf with "The Red Wagon" for FSF in 1956. Her sf novel
The Rebellers (1963 dos) provides a melodramatic mix of OVERPOPULATION and
ECOLOGY themes as successive waves of plague answer humanity's problems by
nearly eliminating the race for good. More typical of her later concerns
is The Education of Oversoul Seven (1973), a transcendental parable about
the meaning of reality and time and space, whose student protagonist
inhabits the bodies and souls of 4 humans from different periods, ranging
from 35,000BC to AD2300, and who discovers en passant the profound
simultaneity of all realities; its sequels are The Further Education of
Oversoul Seven (1979) and Oversoul Seven and the Museum of Time (1984).
Emir's Education in the Proper Use of Magical Powers (1979) is a juvenile.
JR published many further titles of mystical speculation. [JC]

[s] John R. PIERCE.

(1947- ) US writer, prolific in the later 1980s. His first sf novel, The
Strayed Sheep of Charun (1977; rev vt Cestus Dei 1983), is an
action-packed romance set on a medievalized planet in which Jesuits and
others attempt to reform the violence which is the planet's (and novel's)
raison d'etre. There followed a variety of work, all adventure fiction -
whose style is perhaps best described as brisk - in sf or fantasy
settings, including the juvenile SPACE-OPERA sequence comprising Space
Angel (1979), in which the commandeering of a spaceship by an ancient
ALIEN leads to adventures for a boy, and its sequel Spacer: Window of the
Mind (1988). King of the Wood (1983) is set in an alternate USA inhabited
variously by Norsemen, Native Americans, Aztecs and Spanish Muslims. The
Cingulum sequence about a raffish spaceship crew's adventures is The
Cingulum (1985), Cloak of Illusion (1985) and Cingulum #3: The Sword, the
Jewel and the Mirror (1988). JMR also collaborated on 4 books with Eric
KOTANI (whom see for details): the sequence Act of God (1985), The Island
Worlds (1987) and Between the Stars (1988), as well as Delta Pavonis
(1990). JMR's The Enigma Variations (1989) sets an amnesiac in a corporate
future. While all this sf activity was going on, JMR also contributed
several titles to the ever-growing Conan series, set in a SHARED WORLD
derived from Robert E. HOWARD's famous SWORD-AND-SORCERY stories: Conan
the Valorous * (1985), Conan the Champion * (1987), Conan the Marauder *
(1988), Conan the Bold * (1989), Conan the Rogue * (1991), Conan and the
Manhunters* (1994) and Conan and the Treasure of Python* (1994). The
Stormlands series, set in a tribalized fantasy world, so far comprises The
Islander (1990), The Black Shields (1991), The Poisoned Lands (1992), The
Steel Kings(1993) and Queens of Land and Sea (1994). [PN]Other works: the
associational SPQRsequence comprising SPQR (1990), SPQR II: The Catiline
Conspiracy (1991), #3: The Sacrilege (1992) and #4: The Temple of the
Muses (1992), police-procedural mystery novels set in ancient Rome.

(1935- ) UK writer and illustrator resident in the south of England,
where most of his best fiction is set. After working as an illustrator and
cartoon animator, he began publishing sf with "Anita" and "Escapism" for
Science Fantasy in 1964; several of his early stories were written as by
Alistair Bevan. He served as associate editor of SCIENCE FANTASY 1965-6
and edited its successor SF Impulse for the whole of its run (Mar 1966-Feb
1967). His first novel, The Furies (1966), is the most orthodoxly
structured and told of all his work, sf or otherwise, most of his later
novels being fixups told from a brooding, slantwise, intensely visual
point of view. The Furies is a traditional UK DISASTER tale, in which a
nuclear test goes awry, inspiring an onslaught of space-spawned giant
wasps which ravage England and come close to eliminating mankind. Beyond a
certain sultriness of tone, it could have been written by any of a dozen
UK specialists in disaster.With his second book, KR came fully into his
own as a writer. PAVANE (coll of linked stories 1968; with "The White
Boat" added, rev 1969 US) superbly depicts an ALTERNATE WORLD in which -
Elizabeth I having been assassinated, the Spanish Armada victorious and no
Protestant rise of capitalism in the offing - a technologically backward
England survives under the sway of the Catholic Church Militant. The
individual stories are moody, eloquent, elegiac and thoroughly convincing.
The Inner Wheel (coll of linked stories 1970) deals with the kind of
gestalt SUPERMAN theme made familiar by Theodore STURGEON's MORE THAN
HUMAN (fixup 1953) and is similarly powerful, though tending to a rather
uneasy sentimentality, perhaps endemic to tales of such relationships but
also typical of KR's handling of children and women. Anita (coll of linked
stories 1970 US; exp 1990 US) is fantasy; the stories had appeared much
earlier in Science Fantasy. The Boat of Fate (1971), an historical novel
with a Roman setting, shares a painterly concern for primitive landscapes
with The Chalk Giants (coll of linked stories 1974; cut 1975 US), whose
separate tales elegantly embody a cyclical vision of the future of the
island of Britain. The protagonist of the framing narrative (seen in the
UK edition only) drives to the south coast to escape an indistinct
disaster, goes into hiding, and (depending on one's reading) either cycles
the rest of the book through his head or can be seen as himself emblematic
of the movement the tales portend, from post- HOLOCAUST chaos through
God-ridden savagery back to a state premonitory of his own wounded
condition.KR's early short stories were assembled in Machines and Men
(coll 1973) and The Grain Kings (coll 1976), both being excerpted in The
Passing of the Dragons (coll 1977 US). The title story of the second
volume fascinatingly describes life on giant hotel-like grain harvesters
in a world of vast farms; in the same volume, "Weihnachtsabend" (1972),
perhaps KR's finest single story, depicts an alternate world in which the
Nazis have won WWII ( HITLER WINS), and expands upon certain savage myths
implicit in that victory. Later work was assembled in Ladies from Hell
(coll 1979), The Lordly Ones (coll 1986) and Winterwood and Other
Hauntings (coll 1989), the limited edition of which also contained,
bound-in, The Event (1989 chap). As in his later novels, these stories
increasingly display an entangled - though sometimes searching - dis-ease
with human nature and sexuality, with the course of history and with the
fate of the UK.KR's first novel after a gap of some years was Molly Zero
(1980), in which the classic sf tale of the growth of an adolescent is -
typically for KR - subverted by a sense that the DYSTOPIAN world into
which the young female protagonist enters is dismayingly corrosive; it is
a sense which variously governs the shadowy escapades of the eponymous
heroine of Kaeti & Company (coll of linked stories 1986), Kaeti's
Apocalypse (1986 chap) and Kaeti on Tour (coll 1992), and the life of the
haunting femme fatale depicted in Grainne (1987). In mood or venue, these
books have little of the feel of sf; Kiteworld (fixup 1985), on the other
hand, invokes the atmosphere of earlier work in its depiction of a Britain
dominated by religious fanatics, and its constrictive rendering of the
life of the crews who man giant kites to guard the frontiers against
demons.As an illustrator, KR did much to change the appearance of UK sf
magazines, notably Science Fantasy, for which he designed all but 7 of the
covers from Jan 1965 until its demise (as SF Impulse) in Feb 1967, and
also NEW WORLDS for a period in 1966. His boldly Expressionist covers,
line-oriented, paralleled the shift in content of these magazines away
from GENRE SF and FANTASY towards a more free-form, speculative kind of
fiction. He later did covers and interior illustrations for the book
editions of New Worlds Quarterly ed Michael MOORCOCK, for some of whose
novels he has also designed covers. He has illustrated several of his own
1980s titles. [JC]Other works: A Heron Caught in Weeds (coll 1987 chap);
The Natural History of the P.H. (1988 chap), nonfiction, the initials
referring to the "Primitive Heroine" who appears throughout KR's work; The
Road to Paradise (dated 1988 but 1989), associational; Irish Encounters
(dated 1988 but 1989 chap).See also: ANDROIDS; BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION


(1949- ) UK poet and novelist, poetry editor of Spare Rib 1975-7. Her
novels all tend to FABULATION in their expression of an articulate
FEMINIST aesthetic, but 2 are of genre interest: The Wild Girl (1984)
vigorously displaces the reminiscences of Mary Magdalene, and The Book of
Mrs Noah (1987) similarly engages its heroine in myth-rich concourse with
the female icons which engender the stories that make the world (

Pseudonym of Ivan Terence Sanderson (1911-1973), UK-born US writer and
illustrator on the natural sciences, as in Living Treasure (1941), about
wildlife around the Caribbean. As TR his sf novel was Report on the Status
Quo (1955), a DISASTER story set in 1958-9, when the world is seen to reel
under great floods and WWIII. As Ivan T. Sanderson he wrote several books
with a relevance to PSEUDO-SCIENCE, including Abominable Snowmen (1961;
cut 1968) on cryptozoology, Uninvited Visitors: A Biologist Looks at UFOs
(1967) and Invisible Residents (1970) about UFOs and related Fortean
matter ( Charles FORT), Things (1967) and More "Things" (1969) about
unexplained mysteries, and the summative Investigating the Unexplained
(1972). [PN]


Working name of UK writer and broadcaster Eileen Arbuthnot Robertson
(1903-1961), best known for such non-sf novels as Four Frightened People
(1931), whose protagonists find themselves making their way through a
tropical jungle. It was written to contrast with her sf novel Three Came
Unarmed (1929) which, in a striking attack on modern civilization, exposes
3 (Homo superior) enfants sauvages to contemporary England, which destroys
them. [JC]


(1861-1915) US writer, almost always on nautical themes; many of his
stories are sf or fantasy. The fantasy tales, typical of their maritime
venues, tend to the mystical, the fog-girt, the occult and the morose. His
sf is similar, though future- WAR tales enliven the tone on occasion. MR
is perhaps best remembered for Futility, or The Wreck of the "Titan" (1898
in untraced US mag as "Futility"; 1912 UK; vt with additional material,
coll The Wrecking of the Titan, or Futility: Paranormal Experiences
Connected with the Sinking of the Titanic 1914 US), which proved uncannily
predictive in telling the tale of a great new ship called the Titan which
steams at an arrogant pace into a iceberg and sinks. [JC]Other works: Spun
Yarn (coll 1898); "Where Angels Fear to Tread" and Other Tales of the Sea
(coll 1899); The Three Laws and the Golden Rule (coll 1900); Down to the
Sea (coll 1905); Land Ho! (coll 1905); Over the Border (coll of linked
stories 1914); The Grain Ship (coll of linked stories 1914).See also:


House name for authors writing the Doc Savage series as it appeared
1933-49 in DOC SAVAGE MAGAZINE, published by STREET & SMITH. The Robeson
name is most strongly associated with Lester DENT, who wrote all but 43 of
the Doc Savage stories; other authors involved in that initial run
included William G. Bogart, Harold A. Davis, Laurence Donovan, Alan
Hathaway and Rymon Johnson. 3 stories - The Man of Bronze: Doc Savage and
his Pals in a Novel of Unusual Adventure (1933; vt Doc Savage: The Man of
Bronze 1964), The Land of Terror (1933; vt Doc Savage: The Land of Terror
1965) and The Quest of the Spider (1933; vt Doc Savage: The Quest of the
Spider 1972) - were early published in book form. Three decades later the
series was brought to life again when BANTAM BOOKS began their
republication of the entire run in book form. Variously released as
individual titles or in omnibus format, the sequence began with the first
title above listed, Doc Savage: The Man of Bronze, in 1964 and ended,
complete, 182 stories later with Doc Savage Omnibus #13 (omni 1990). An
entirely new sequence was then initiated, with Will MURRAY writing as KR,
#1 being Doc Savage: Python Isle * (1991).The enormously wealthy Doc
Savage - aided by 5 sidekicks who specialize in various crafts and
sciences at the borderline of sf - devotes his life to combating criminal
conspiracies, almost all masterminded by the kind of charismatic villain
later given definitive form by Ian FLEMING in the James Bond books. Doc
Savage himself clearly influenced the creation of SUPERMAN, and stands at
the heart of Philip Jose FARMER's Wold Newton Family sequence, either in
his own name or disguised, with 2 titles - Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic
Life (1973; rev 1975) and Doc Savage: Escape from Loki (1991) - devoted
directly to him. As the original Doc Savage tales are of only peripheral
sf interest, we do not list them. R. Reginald's Science Fiction and
Fantasy Literature: A Checklist, 1700-1974 (1979) provides coverage of the
book reprints to the end of 1974; and Science Fiction and Fantasy
Literature, 1975-1991: a Bibliography (1992), by Reginald with Darryl F.
MALLETT and Mary Wickizer Burgess, gives a more complete analysis of the
entire run.The house name KR was used also on the PULP MAGAZINE The
Avenger, another Street & Smith crime-busting hero series, with rather
fewer sf elements. This was an attempt to cash in on the popularity of the
Doc Savage stories. Most of the Avenger series (many also reprinted as
paperback books in the 1970s) were the work of Paul ERNST; the final dozen
titles of the 1970s run, from The Man from Atlantis (1974) on, were newly
written by Ron GOULART. Other writers associated with the Kenneth Robeson
name were Norman A. Danburg and Emile Tepperman. In 1991, Will MURRAY (who
see for further titles) began a new series of Doc Savage tales, also as by
KR, beginning with Python Isle* (1991). [JC/PN]About the author: The Man
behind Doc Savage: A Tribute to Lester Dent (1974) by Robert E. WEINBERG;
Bigger than Life: The Creator of Doc Savage (1990) by Marilyn Cannaday.

(1848-1926) French illustrator, lithographer and writer. AR was the most
important and popular of 19th-century sf illustrators, and may even be
said to have founded the genre, though he was clearly working in the
tradition of such French fantastic artists as Grandville (Jean Gerard;
1803-1847) and Gustave Dore (1832-1883). Always interested in DYSTOPIAS
and SATIRE, he illustrated works by Francois RABELAIS, CYRANO DE BERGERAC,
Jonathan SWIFT and Camille FLAMMARION among others, but his most important
works had texts by himself. These were very often first published as
periodical-series, each instalment being slim, and then later in most
cases as books. AR took up sf themes with his gently satirical homage to
Jules VERNE's Voyages extraordinaires with Voyages tres extraordinaires de
Saturnin Farandoul, a 100-part periodical beginning June 1879. It was
later collected as 5 books (all 1882): Le roi des singes ["King of the
Monkeys"], Le tour du monde en plus de 80 jours ["Round the World in More
than 80 Days"], Les quatre reines ["The Four Queens"], A la recherche de
l'elephant blanc ["In Search of the White Elephant"] and S. Exc. M. le
Gouverneur du Pole Nord ["His Excellency the Governor of the North Pole"].
A more prophetic work was Le vingtieme siecle ["The 20th Century"], a
periodical in 50 parts beginning Jan 1882. There followed another series
appearing later as La vie electrique ["The Electric Life"] (1883), set in
1955. AR's ironically half-amused but pessimistic view of the likely
nature of future WAR (many of his predictions proved all too true)
appeared in #200 of the humorous magazine La Caricature (1883) as "La
guerre au vingtieme siecle" ["War in the 20th Century"], set in 1975, and
in a book with the same title but different contents, La guerre au
vingtieme siecle (1887), set in 1945. A TIME-TRAVEL fantasy, serialized in
the magazine Le petit francais illustre in 1890, Jadis chez aujourd'hui
["The Long-Ago is with Us Today"], features a scientist resuscitating
Moliere and other literary figures in order to show them the Universal
Exhibition of 1889, which bores them. L'horloge des siecles ["Clock of the
Centuries"] (1902) is one of the earliest treatments of the time-reversal
theme later used by, for example, Philip K. DICK in Counter-Clock World
(1967), Brian W. ALDISS in An Age (1967; vt Cryptozoic! US) and Martin
AMIS in Time's Arrow (1991). AR continued to produce quite prolifically,
his last work being another future fantasy entitled Un chalet dans les
airs ["Castle in the Air"] (1925).The texts to the above works are
generally undistinguished. The ILLUSTRATIONS, however, mostly in a vein of
detailed caricature, are consistently inventive and amusing. AR worked
mostly with lithographic pencil and crayon, achieving a haphazard but
impressive vigour. The figures are very much those of Victorian Europe,
dressed in the fashions of the time, and involved in various busy scenes
with a huge variety of modernistic devices. Among his hundreds of
predictions were the videophone and germ warfare. His machines and WEAPONS
were usually well designed - some may actually have been practicable -
although his flying machines look distinctly un-airworthy. The ironic
intelligence of his work is rather undermined by his inability to imagine
the future except in terms of more and more gadgetry: social mores remain
frozen in the Victorian mould. AR had a strong influence on the future-war

Robert Ames BENNET.

(1941- ) US writer and lawyer who began publishing sf as Tak Hallus
(apparently Persian for "pen name") with "Minitalent" for ASF in 1969. His
first novel, Mindwipe! (1969 ASF as by Tak Hallus; 1976 Canada) as by
Steve Hahn, is unexceptional, but Stargate (1974 ASF as by Tak Hallus;
1976) intriguingly combines HARD SF and detective modes in the tale of two
great corporations and their quarrel over the eponymous MATTER
TRANSMITTER. Along with Frederik POHL's GATEWAY (1977), this novel was
important in establishing the commercial stargate (which can be variously
defined as a matter-transmission aperture or as a discontinuity or as a
wormhole extension of a singularity - so long as the phenomenon allows
profitable and instantaneous contact to be made between one part of the
Universe and another) as an essential instrument of modern sf. The Man
Responsible (fixup 1978) again focuses on the relationship between crime
and sf, the story dealing this time with a 21st-century world in which
computer projections pass as human. SR's stories, in which a sharp wit is
allowed free and satirical play, are assembled in Projections (coll 1979).
It is a matter of serious regret that SR ceased publishing around 1980.

(1843-1930) US writer whose Longhead: The Story of the First Fire (1913)
capably runs the gamut of prehistoric-sf themes from the discovery of fire
to the first hints of civilization ( ORIGIN OF MAN). [JC]

(? -? ) US writer in whose The Disk: A Tale of Two Passions (1884; vt The
Disk: A Prophetic Reflection 1884 UK), with G(eorge) A. Wall, a series of
inventions - optical cables capable of harnessing the Sun's light,
imperishable food, disease-eliminating injections - plays second fiddle to
a tale of sexual passions. The inventions are effective. [JC]

(? - ) US writer in whose first novel, Chrysalis of Death (1976), a
disastrous primordial germ changes people into beasts. A brave doctor
fights the menace; there is soap opera and sex. The Silverleaf Syndrome
(1980; vt The Freak 1985) was less noticeable. [JC]

(1926- ) US writer, also active in publishing, who began writing sf
stories in 1950 with "The Maze" in ASF and was for a time fairly prolific,
soon publishing his first (and for decades his only) solo novel, The Power
(1956). This effectively combines sf and thriller in the story of the
search for a malignant SUPERMAN with undefined powers, including the
ability to seem different to everyone who looks at him. The protagonist,
himself paranormally gifted, kills the bad superman and contemplates being
a good one. It was filmed as The POWER in 1967. FMR then fell relatively
silent-fewer than half the stories assembled in A Life in the Day of . . .
and Other Short Stories (coll 1981) were written after The Power - and
concentrated on editorial jobs, working for a variety of publications
including Rogue (1959-65) and Playboy) (1969-73). In the 1970s he changed
direction and, in collaboration with Thomas N. SCORTIA, produced a series
of DISASTER novels which, though sf devices and explanations are
occasionally invoked, most closely resemble the TECHNOTHRILLER. The first
of these, The Glass Inferno (1974), was filmed - along with Richard Martin
Stern's The Tower - as The Towering Inferno (1974); further titles were
The Prometheus Crisis (1975), which deals with the failure of a vast
nuclear reactor, The Nightmare Factor (1978), about biological warfare,
The Gold Crew (1980) and Blow Out! (1987). The Great Divide (1982), by FMR
with John Levin, is set in the NEAR FUTURE, when a coup threatens the USA.
FMR's concentration on these lucrative but unchallenging books tended to
blur the early critical sense that he was a sharp and incisive writer, and
The Dark Beyond the Stars (1991) came as a welcome reminder of his gifts.
It is - perhaps rather late in genre history - a GENERATION-STARSHIP tale,
told with much of the claustrophobia and dramatic irony typical of
POCKET-UNIVERSE narratives. In keeping with its late composition, the
ironies dominate: the family romance that the protagonist must decode in
order to mature is unfruitful, and the ship turns homeward. The book
itself was a welcome signal of its author's own return to the genre.
[JC]See also: ESP.

[r] Spider ROBINSON.

(1952- ) US writer who began writing sf stories with "Coming Back to
Dixieland" and "In Pierson's Orchestra", both published in Orbit 18 (1975)
ed Damon KNIGHT. He has not been prolific in shorter forms, publishing
only about 10 stories before gaining his PhD in English at the University
of California in 1982. In revised form, his thesis was later published as
The Novels of Philip K. Dick (1984); thoroughly researched, at ease with
the protocols of academic writing while at the same time showing an acute
understanding of 1950s sf, it remains one of the most useful studies of
Philip K. DICK's thorny oeuvre.KSR became widely known with the
publication of his first novel, THE WILD SHORE (1984), released as one of
Terry CARR's Ace Specials. The first book of a thematic trilogy set in
various versions of Orange County on the Pacific coast south of Los
Angeles, and later assembled with its siblings as Three Californias (omni
1995), THE WILD SHORE lucidly examines the sentimentalized kind of US sf
pastoral typically set after an almost universal catastrophe. Sheltered
from the full DISASTER, Orange County has become an enclave whose
inhabitants espouse a re-established US hegemony, but whose smug ignorance
of the world outside is ultimately self-defeating. In The Gold Coast
(1988), Orange County several decades hence is seen through the lens of
DYSTOPIA; a similar array of characters - similarly related to one another
- must grapple with a polluted, corrupt, overcrowded, ecologically
devastated world. Under new names the same characters find themselves, in
Pacific Edge (1990 UK), breathing the air of UTOPIA. In this world Orange
County has benefited from restrictions on corporate size and strict
controls over land use and POLLUTION. Although the novel shows the near
impossibility of imagining a living utopia, a sense of earned freshness
and relief permeates its pages. As a whole, the trilogy may be read as
three versions of the same story, each nesting within the other;
structurally adventurous and searching, the Orange County trilogy remains
at the moment KSR's strongest accomplishment, though the Mars trilogy (see
below) will almost certainly come to seem even more substantial.Other
novels are varyingly successful. Icehenge (fixup 1984) strikingly
conflates three incompatible readings of the significance of an artifact
found on Pluto, exploring a range of issues from epistemology to the
nature of historical tradition. The Memory of Whiteness (1985) less
successfully attempts to suggest analogues between MUSIC theory and the
structure of the Universe, while at the same time conducting its musician
hero - who is, typically of KSR's protagonists, an almost constantly
active character - on a guided tour of the Solar System. Escape from
Kathmandu (1988 chap), later expanded as Escape from Kathmandu (coll of
linked stories 1989), set in a stress-ridden mystical Nepal, amusingly
exploits KSR's own experience as a mountaineer.Other stories appear in THE
PLANET ON THE TABLE (coll 1986), The Blind Geometer (1986 chap; with 1
story added, coll 1989 dos) - a later but lesser magazine version won the
1987 NEBULA for Best Novella - and Remaking History (coll 1991), which
includes all the stories published in the slightly earlier A Sensitive
Dependence on Initial Conditions (coll 1991 chap), and which was later
published as Remaking History (omni 1994), in which version it
incorporates THE PLANET ON THE TABLE; Down and Out in the Year 2000 (coll
1992 UK) gathers together The Blind Geometer and A Short Sharp Shock plus
tales from Remaking History. Green Mars (1985 IASFM; 1988 chap dos)
prefigures the long-projected Mars trilogy, which treats that planet as a
realistic habitat for the human species; the first volume, RED MARS (1992
UK), which won the 1993 Nebula, ranges magisterially over the early years
of TERRAFORMING, COLONIZATION and disruption; the sequence as a whole -
also comprising Green Mars (1993), which won the 1994 HUGO, and is not
textually related to Green Mars; and Blue Mars - is projected to extend
over 200 years of civilization on MARS. A Short Sharp Shock (1990) carries
its athletic and ultimately clear-eyed protagonist into a soul-defining
trek across an endless sea-girt peninsula which is freely symbolic of
death, or of the nature of life, or simply of the path a person must
follow to fill out a human span.In a somewhat contrived attempt to
contrast him to CYBERPUNK writers, KSR has been described as a Humanist;
he has himself disparaged as foolishly reductive this use of Humanism as a
label. What in fact most characterizes the growing reach and power of his
work is its cogent analysis and its disposal of such category thinking. He
is at heart an explorer. [JC]Other works: Black Air (1983 FSF; 1991 chap);
Future Primitive: The New Ecotopias (anth 1994).About the author: A
Checklist of Kim Stanley Robinson (1991 chap) by Tom Joyce and Christopher

(1926- ) UK writer who has worked in India. In Masque of a Savage
Mandarin (1969) the deracinated protagonist takes symbolic revenge upon
the world via the systematic destruction, by electrical means, of a
victim's brain. [JC]

(1943- ) UK computer programmer and bibliographer, active in UK fandom
for many years. The Writings of Henry Kenneth Bulmer (1983 chap; rev 1984
chap) is an exhaustive BIBLIOGRAPHY of one of the most prolific sf
writers, and Who's Hugh?: An SF Reader's Guide to Pseudonyms (1987) is
similarly exhaustive. Criticized at first for its failure to annotate its
findings - so that, for instance, pseudonyms used for sf could not be
distinguished from others - it has shown itself accurate and
comprehensive. By sourcing each attribution, so that readers can weigh the
reliability of the ascriptions, it aspires to a greater methodological
sophistication than is often found in sf scholarship. [JC]

(1948- ) US-born writer who became a Canadian Landed Immigrant in 1975.
His first story was "The Guy with the Eyes" for ASF in 1973, inaugurating
his long-running Callahan series of CLUB STORIES. He has sometimes written
tales as by B.D. Wyatt. The first few years of his career were
honour-laden. He shared with Lisa TUTTLE the 1974 JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD
for Best New Writer; topped the 1977 Locus Poll for Best Critic, mainly
for his Galaxy Bookshelf column for Gal June 1975-Sep 1977; received a
1977 HUGO for the ASF publication (as "By Any Other Name") of the first 4
chapters of his first novel, Telempath (1976 US); and won both Hugo and
NEBULA in 1978, along with his wife and collaborator Jeanne Robinson, for
"Stardance", which became the nucleus of STARDANCE (1979 US) with Jeanne
Robinson. (In 1983 he won another Hugo, for "Melancholy Elephants" [1982].
) At this high point of his career, his punchy optimism about the human
condition and his adroit use of generic materials to express that optimism
seemed to have established him as a legitimate heir to Robert A. HEINLEIN,
a writer he deeply admired. Telempath, a complicated story set in a post-
HOLOCAUST Earth after a decimating virus plague, cleverly promulgates a
sense that the surviving humans, in conjunction with the telepathic
Muskies - gaseous beings imperceptible before the plague - can earn
cohabitation with a vast empathic net of species. STARDANCE similarly
presents its audience with a protagonist - this time a dancer too big for
Earth work - who helps propel humanity upwards into a Galaxy rich with
communicating species.The Callahan sequence makes use of the capacity of
the club story to reassure both participants and readers, and conveys a
sense of real community (as in the tv series Cheers) through a wide range
of tales - sf and fantasy predominating - which reveal human and alien
frailties while simultaneously affirming the group. The series comprises
Callahan's Crosstime Saloon (coll 1977 US), Time Travelers Strictly Cash
(coll 1981 US) and Callahan's Secret (coll 1986 US), most of the stories
from these 3 vols being assembled as Callahan and Company: The Compleat
Chronicles of the Crosstime Saloon (dated 1987 but 1988 US) and a smaller
selection being issued as Callahan's Crazy Crosstime Bar (1989 UK).
Callahan's Lady (coll 1989 US), set prior to the main series in a
whorehouse run by Callahan's wife, assembles similar tales; further titles
include Lady Slings the Booze (1992), The Callahan Touch (1993) and Off
the Wall at Callahan's (coll 1994). Kill the Editor (1991 US) is also set
in the whorehouse. SR's club stories differ from some older models mainly
through the amount of action that occurs in the saloon itself, so that
their ultimate effect is, at times, complex.The 1970s were the high point
for SR's somewhat insistent cheer, and subsquent work has proven
considerably grimmer in tone. Mindkiller: A Novel of the Near Future (1982
US) - for which the RECURSIVE Time Pressure (1987 US) serves as both
prequel and sequel - complicatedly shifts time-schemes and identities in
an attempt to depict a crime- and computer-ridden world; the succeeding
volume, even less coherently, re-invokes the 1973 Nova Scotia of SR's own
memories, introducing a nude time-traveller who nurses the psychically
wounded protagonist back to the point at which he can begin to understand
his significance in the scheme of things. SR's style in these later books
- exclamatory and burdened with Heinleinesque exaggerations - does little
to sustain their rollercoaster plots. Night of Power (1985 US), more
controlled, aroused some negative response for its depiction of a
Black-power revolt in New York City. His stories, on the other hand, have
been more stable and consistent. Collections include Antinomy (coll 1980
US); Melancholy Elephants (coll 1984; with 1 story dropped and 2 added,
rev 1985 US), his only book to be initially released by the feeble
Canadian publishing industry; and True Minds (coll 1990 US). [JC]Other
works: The Best of All Possible Worlds (anth 1980); Copyright Violation
(1990 chap); Starseed (1991) with Jeanne Robinson.See also: ARTS;

Daniel DEFOE's The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe (1719) provides the original model for robinsonades - romances of
solitary survival in such inimical terrains as desert ISLANDS (or planets)
- and also supplies much of the thematic and symbolic buttressing that
allows so many of these stories to be understood as allegories of
mankind's search for the meaning of life, just as Crusoe's ordeal is both
a religious punishment for disobedience and a triumphant justification of
entrepreneurial individualism. Crusoe's paternalistic relation to the
natives he eventually encounters has likewise been echoed in much modern
sf, where until very recently human/ ALIEN relations tended to be depicted
within the same code of mercantilist opportunism. A second important model
for sf's numerous robinsonades may well be Johann WYSS's Der
Schweizerische Robinson (1812-13; trans - perhaps by William Godwin - as
The Family Robinson Crusoe 1814 UK; new trans as The Swiss Family Robinson
1818 UK) - itself imitated by tales like D.W. Belisle's The American
Family Robinson (1853) - in which the element of the triumphant ordeal is
broadened to include the testing of a full microcosm of social life -
leading either to UTOPIAN speculations, to which the robinsonade has
always been structurally attuned, or to the simpler, more active adventure
of the COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS. However, the fundamental thrust of
the robinsonade - its convincing celebration of the power of pragmatic
Reason, and its depiction of the triumph, alone, over great odds, of the
entrepreneur who commands that rational Faculty - continues to drive most
of its offspring. [JC]

Film (1964). Schenck-Zabel/Paramount. Dir Byron HASKIN, starring Paul
Mantee, Vic Lundin. Screenplay Ib Melchior, John C. Higgins, remotely
based on Robinson Crusoe (1719) by Daniel DEFOE. 109 mins. Colour.Haskin
directed several sf films in the 1950s, including WAR OF THE WORLDS
(1953), and returned to the genre in 1964 with this interesting,
futuristic version of Defoe's classic novel. After a spaceship crashlands
on Mars, one of the two pilots (the other is killed) struggles to survive
and to remain sane in the alien, barren landscape - here well played by
California's Death Valley - his only companion his pet monkey. This
section of the film is compelling; but, with the arrival of alien
spaceships, the ROBINSONADE in a hostile environment gives way to
SPACE-OPERA melodrama: the Earthman rescues one of the aliens' slaves, who
becomes his Man Friday, and a conventional pursuit-and-escape story
follows. The story resembles - but to no great degree-that of Rex
GORDON'sNo Man Friday (1956; vtFirst on Mars). [JP/PN]

Film (1987). Orion. Dir Paul Verhoeven, starring Peter Weller, Nancy
Allen, Daniel O'Herlihy, Ronny Cox, Kurtwood Smith. Screenplay Edward
Neumeier, Michael Miner. 102 mins. Colour.Dutch director Verhoeven here
unusually made a successful transition from foreign art films - the
violent medieval epic Flesh + Blood (1985) and the perverse thriller The
Fourth Man (1983) - to a US populist blockbuster. A corrupt corporation in
NEAR-FUTURE Detroit manufactures a prototype CYBORG (Weller) in which the
head of a mortally wounded policeman is integrated with a powerful metal
body. The brutal extermination of criminals and cleansing of the corrupt
business community that follow are directed with a blend of technical
skill, low cunning and genuine artistry that is both dismaying and
breathtaking. The casual cruelties of the ongoing bloodbath seem merely a
cynical exploitation of the worst aspects of audience voyeurism, but the
film also contains a density of information about, and a sharp satirical
observation of, this future world that are both rare and welcome in sf
cinema. Verhoeven went on to direct TOTAL RECALL. The sequel, not dir
Verhoeven, was ROBOCOP 2. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

Film (1990). Orion. Dir Irvin Kershner, starring Peter Weller, Nancy
Allen, Belinda Bauer, Daniel O'Herlihy, Tom Noonan. Screenplay Frank
MILLER, Walon Green from a story by Miller. 116 mins. Colour.Dismissed by
most critics as an unimaginative retread of ROBOCOP, R2 nevertheless has
merits. Its narrative clarity and dash, which deliver a vision of future
Detroit as one of the deeper circles of Hell, a sort of DANTE-meets- DC
COMICS, are a credit to the partnership of director Kershner (who made The
EMPIRE STRIKES BACK [1980]) and screenwriter Miller (who wrote and
illustrated the Batman GRAPHIC NOVEL The Dark Knight Returns [graph
1986]). These qualities partially redeem R2's simplistic repetition of the
previous film's thematic concerns (anti-capitalism, anti-liberalism,
casual slaughter and lots of cynicism about tv news coverage) in a story
where the good CYBORG cop (Weller) is again pitted against the evil
corporation (privatizing the police force and about to do likewise to City
Hall) and their new, drug-crazed cyborg killer. Rob Bottin's cyborg
designs are appropriately grotesque. [PN]

Film (1992, but released late 1993). Orion. Dir Fred Dekker; screenplay
Frank MILLER and Dekker based on a story by Miller based on characters
created by Edward Neumeier and Michael Miner; starring Robert Burke, Nancy
Allen, Rip Torn, John Castle, Jill Hennessy and Remy Ryan. 104 mins.
Colour.With each sequel, life has been leached from the original ROBOCOP
(1987) scenario, remembered for its witty and satirical sadism, first by
ROBOCOP 2 (1990) and then by RoboCop 3. (The only place for the concept to
go was now television, and indeed Robocop: The Series was launched on TV
in 1994 with an optimistic plan for a two-hour pilot and 21 episodes; a
Canadian production, made in Toronto for syndication, it stars Richard
Eden as Robocop and Yvette Napier in the Nancy Allen role, and is scripted
by Neumeier and Miner who wrote the original movie; aimed at the youth
market, it was not very well received, and was cancelled in its first
season.)RoboCop 3 began with two problems. After the comparative failure
of Robocop 2, it had to work on a much smaller budget; and with Robocop
marketing franchises now aimed mainly at quite young children, the film
too had to be aimed at the kids, and hence pruned of much of the previous
violence, which is to remove much of the raison d'etre. This time the
politically correct Robocop (now played by Burke rather than Peter Weller)
takes the side of disenfranchised slum dwellers being evicted from
Cadillac Heights, Detroit, by the Japanese corporation Kanemitsu, new
owners of OCP, who plan to build the lavish "Delta City" in the area.
Bonding with a cute computer-whiz girl child orphan (Ryan) and a pretty
lady scientist (Hennessy), Robocop with the help of his new family-police
officer Anne Lewis, played by Nancy Allen, having been early and
conveniently eliminated- defeats the evil Japanese, their samurai
androids, and their commando cohorts, the British "rehabs" led by
Commander McDaggett (Castle). The casual xenophobia displayed by the film
against the Japanese and British is breathtaking. Poor matte work
disfigures the climax (Robocop flies!), but a perhaps surprising residue
of entertainment remains. [PN]


Film (1990). Empire. Dir Stuart Gordon, starring Gary Graham, Anne Marie
Johnson, Paul Koslo, Robert Sampson, Hilary Mason. Screenplay Joe
HALDEMAN, Dennis Paoli. 82 mins. Colour.The people ("jox") who pilot the
future ROBOT colossi with which wars are settled in single combat are
popular idols. The hero (Graham) is traumatized when he accidentally
crushes a spectator stand and quits, but returns when the biologically
engineered, test-tube created woman he loves (Johnson) endangers herself
by entering the field of combat. A long-cherished project of Charles
BAND's financially troubled Empire Pictures, and his most expensive, RJ
was several years in the making and is disorientingly inconsistent in its
production values: top-of-the-line effects by David Allen in the robot
combat, but low-budget interiors and a few wobbly matte fringes. Gordon,
scaling down his gore effects after RE-ANIMATOR (1985) and FROM BEYOND
(1986), handles the subtly humorous pulp-sf angles very well and gives the
film a pleasantly uncluttered comic-bookish look, while Haldeman's
sf-writer touch can be traced in the neat background details (ad-campaigns
for pregnancy, bigotry against "tubies") and in his distinctive blend of
military-hardware expertise and anti- WAR attitudes, the latter being
especially apparent in the surprisingly emotional climax. [KN]

The word "robot" first appeared in Karel CAPEK's play R.U.R. (1921; trans
1923), and is derived from the Czech robota (statute labour). Capek's
robots were artificial human beings of organic origin, but the term is
usually applied to MACHINES. Real-life assembly-line robots are adapted to
specific functions, but in sf - where the term overlaps to some extent
with ANDROIDS - it usually refers to machines in more-or-less human
form.Machines which mimic human form date back, in both fiction and
reality, to the early 19th century. The real automata were showpieces:
clockwork dummies or puppets. Their counterparts in the fiction of E.T.A.
HOFFMANN - the Talking Turk in "Automata" (1814) and Olympia in "The
Sandman" (1816) - present a more verisimilitudinous image, and play a
sinister role, their wondrous artifice being seen as something blasphemous
and diabolically inspired. The automaton in Herman MELVILLE's "The
Bell-Tower" (1855) has similar allegorical connotations.
Early-20th-century works are markedly different. William Wallace COOK's A
Round Trip to the Year 2000 (1903; 1925), which features robotic
"mugwumps", and the anonymous skit Mechanical Jane (1903) are both
comedies, as is J. Storer CLOUSTON's Button Brains (1933), a novel in
which a robot is continually mistaken for its human model and which
introduced most of the mechanical-malfunction jokes that remain the staple
diet of stage and tv plays featuring robots. (Robots are the most common
sf device used in drama because they can be so conveniently and so
amusingly played by live actors; the tradition extends to recent times in
Alan Ayckbourn's Henceforward [1988].)Early PULP-MAGAZINE stories about
robots are generally ambivalent. David H. KELLER's "The Psychophonic
Nurse" (1928) is a cooperative servant, but no substitute for a mother's
love. Abner J. Gelula's "Automaton" (1931) has lecherous designs on its
creator's daughter and has to be destroyed. Harl VINCENT's "Rex" (1934)
takes over the world and is about to remake Man in the image of the robot
when his regime is overthrown. But the balance soon swung in favour of
sympathy. The machines in Eando BINDER's "The Robot Aliens" (1935) come in
peace but are misunderstood and abused by hostile humans; and saccharine
sentimentality is also in the ascendant in "Helen O'Loy" (1938) by Lester
DEL REY, in which a man marries the ideal mechanical woman, in "Robots
Return" (1938) by Robert Moore WILLIAMS, in which spacefaring robots
discover that they were created by humans and accept the disappointment
nobly, in "Rust" (1939) by Joseph E. KELLEAM, which describes the tragic
decline into extinction of mechanical life on Earth, in the
anti-Frankensteinian parable "I, Robot" (1939) by Eando Binder, and in
"True Confession" (1940) by F. Orlin TREMAINE and "Almost Human" (1941) by
Ray CUMMINGS, both of which feature altruistic acts of robotic
self-sacrifice. Isaac ASIMOV claims to have invented his famous "Laws of
Robotics" (see below) in response to a technophobic "Frankenstein
syndrome", but there is little evidence of one in the robot stories
published around the time of "Strange Playfellow" (1940; vt "Robbie").
Robots are given higher status than mere humans in "Farewell to the
Master" (1940) by Harry BATES and "Jay Score" (1941) by Eric Frank
RUSSELL, the first of a series later published as Men, Martians and
Machines (coll of linked stories 1956).The system of ethics with which
Asimov's POSITRONIC ROBOTS were hardwired was enshrined in 3 famous Laws
(devised in discussions with John W. CAMPBELL Jr, whom Asimov insisted was
their co-creator): (1) a robot may not injure a human being or, through
inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; (2) a robot must obey the
orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict
with the First Law; (3) a robot must protect its own existence as long as
such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. The laws
emerged from "Reason" (1941); "Liar" (1941) became the first of many
Asimov stories whose plots involve the explication of odd robot behaviour
as an unexpected consequence of them. In "Liar" (as in many others) the
logical unravelling is accomplished by the "robopsychologist" Susan
Calvin. The early stories in the series - collected in I, ROBOT (coll of
linked stories 1950) - culminated in "Evidence" (1946), in which a robot
politician can get elected only by convincing voters that he is human, but
does the job far better than the man he replaces. In C.L. MOORE's "No
Woman Born" (1944) a dancer whose mind is resurrected in a robot body
quickly concludes that the robot condition is preferable to the human. The
robot servants who survive mankind in Clifford D. SIMAK's CITY (1944-52;
fixup 1952) are the perfect gentlemen's gentlemen rather than mere slaves.
One cautionary note was sounded by Anthony BOUCHER, whose stories "Q.U.R."
and "Robinc" (both 1943 as by H.H. Holmes) champion "usuform robots"
against anthropomorphous ones; the stated reasons are utilitarian, but
Boucher's religious faith - he was a devout Catholic - may have influenced
his opinion. The most notable comic robot in pulp sf - outside the works
of the prolific Ron GOULART, which are infested by logically
malfunctioning robots of every conceivable variety, not exclusively with
comic intent - is the narcissistic machine in Robots Have No Tails
(1943-8; coll of linked stories 1952) by Henry KUTTNER (as Lewis Padgett).
After 1945, when the atom bomb provoked a new suspicion of technology,
attitudes to robots in sf became more ambivalent again. In 1947 Asimov
published his first sinister-robot story, "Little Lost Robot", and Jack
WILLIAMSON produced the classic "With Folded Hands", in which robot
"humanoids" charged "to serve man, to obey, and to guard men from harm"
take their mission too literally, and set out to ensure that no one
endangers their own well being and that everyone is happy, even if that
requires permanent tranquillization or prefrontal lobotomy. Many writers
did not relinquish their loyalty to machines; Asimov and Simak remained
steadfastly pro-robot, and Williamson relented somewhat in his sequel to
"With Folded Hands", The Humanoids (1949) - although the ending of the
novel may have been suggested by John W. CAMPBELL Jr rather than being a
spontaneous expression of Williamson's own technophilic tendencies - but
most robot stories of the 1950s involve some kind of confrontation and
conflict. Robots kill or attempt to kill humans in "Lost Memory" (1952) by
Peter Phillips (1920- ), "Second Variety" (1953) by Philip K. DICK, "Short
in the Chest" (1954) by Idris Seabright (Margaret ST CLAIR), "First to
Serve" (1954) by Algis BUDRYS, The Naked Sun (1956) by Asimov and "Mark
XI" (1957; vt "Mark Elf") by Cordwainer SMITH. The mistaken-identity motif
takes on sinister or unfortunate associations in Asimov's "Satisfaction
Guaranteed" (1951), Dick's "Impostor" (1953), Walter M. MILLER's "The
Darfsteller" (1955) and Robert BLOCH's "Comfort Me, My Robot" (1955).
Robot courtroom dramas include Simak's "How-2" (1954), Asimov's "Galley
Slave" (1957) and del Rey's "Robots Should Be Seen" (1958). Man-robot
boxing matches are featured in "Title Fight" (1956) by William Campbell
Gault, "Steel" (1956) by Richard MATHESON and "The Champ" (1958) by Robert
Presslie. The robot is an instrument of judgement in "Two-Handed Engine"
(1955) by Kuttner and C.L. MOORE. Black comedies involving robots include
several stories by Robert SHECKLEY, notably "Watchbird" (1953) and "The
Battle" (1954), although Sheckley's classic story in this vein was the
later "The Cruel Equations" (1971). One story which deviates markedly from
the pattern is Boucher's Catholic fantasy "The Quest for St Aquin" (1951),
in which a perfectly logical robot emulates Thomas Aquinas and deduces the
reality of God; but in the main robot stories of the 1950s reflected
profound anxieties concerning the relationship between Man and machine.
Asimov's Caves of Steel (1954), which deals in some depth with its hero's
anti-machine prejudices and his mechanized environment, brings this
anxiety clearly into focus.As post-Hiroshima anxiety began to ebb away in
the late 1950s, a more relaxed attitude to the robot became evident,
humour and gentle irony coming to the fore in such stories as those in
Harry HARRISON's War with the Robots (1958-62; coll 1962), Brian W.
ALDISS's "But Who Can Replace a Man?" (1958), Fritz LEIBER's The Silver
Eggheads (1961) and Poul ANDERSON's "The Critique of Impure Reason"
(1962). The old sentimentality returned to the robot story in full force
in Simak's "All the Traps of Earth" (1960), and soon reached new depths of
sickliness in Ray BRADBURY's "I Sing the Body Electric!" (1969). The
rehabilitation of the robot was completed by Barrington J. BAYLEY's study
in robot existentialism, The Soul of the Robot (1974; rev 1976), and its
sequel, The Rod of Light (1985), and by Asimov's "That Thou Art Mindful of
Him" (1974) and "The Bicentennial Man" (1976), which took the robot's
philosophical self-analysis to its logical conclusion, ending with the
identification of the robot as a thoroughly "human" being. Asimov later
set out to integrate his robot stories into the Future History of his
Foundation series in such novels as THE ROBOTS OF DAWN (1983) and Robots
and Empire (1985); he also wrote a series of juvenile robot stories in
collaboration with his wife Janet ASIMOV, begun with Norby the Mixed-Up
Robot (1983), and lent his name to a series of SHARED-WORLD novels set in
Isaac Asimov's Robot City, begun with Odyssey (1987) by Michael P.
KUBE-MCDOWELL. Janet Asimov carried the family tradition forward in Mind
Transfer (1988), which explores the possibilities of robot SEX alongside
philosophical discussions of robotic "humanness". Other exercises in robot
existentialism are featured in Sheila MACLEOD's Xanthe and the Robots
(1977) and Walter TEVIS's angst-ridden Mockingbird (1980).Robot philosophy
of a less earnest but cleverer kind is extensively featured in Stanislaw
LEM's robotic fables, collected in The Cyberiad (coll 1965; trans 1974)
and Mortal Engines (coll trans 1977). Robot RELIGION and MYTHOLOGY are
featured in Robert F. YOUNG's "Robot Son" (1959), Roger ZELAZNY's "For a
Breath I Tarry" (1966), Simak's A Choice of Gods (1972) and Gordon
EKLUND's "The Shrine of Sebastian" (1973). The integration of the robot
into human religious culture is celebrated in Robert SILVERBERG's "Good
News from the Vatican" (1971), about the election of the first robot pope.
Some humans, at least, are prepared to fight for the freedom of
ex-colonial robots in James P. HOGAN's Code of the Lifemaker (1983). The
awkward question of whether one would let one's daughter marry a robot is
squarely addressed in Tanith LEE's The Silver Metal Lover (1982), and the
problems of an orphaned robot trying to get by in a puzzling and hostile
world are hilariously displayed in RODERICK (1980) and Roderick at Random
(1983) by John T. SLADEK. The homicidal robot, although an endangered
species, has not quite become extinct: a robot executioner is featured in
Roger Zelazny's "Home Is the Hangman" (1975) and a robot psychopath whose
"asimov circuits" have failed is the antihero of Sladek's Tik-Tok (1983).
The killer-robot, however, made its most successful comeback during the
1980s and 1990s in movies rather than books ( CINEMA for listing of
examples). The "paranoid android" Marvin (actually a robot), with his
"brain the size of a planet", is a major character in the various versions
of Douglas ADAMS's Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy saga, and for a time
attained cult-hero status. The writer whose work confirms the
identification of Man and robot most strongly is Philip K. Dick, who
usually preferred the term "android". His most notable stories using
humanoid machines to address the question of what the word "human" can or
should mean are DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP? (1968), "The Electric
Ant" (1969) and We Can Build You (1969-70; 1972). "Someday," he said in
his essay "The Android and the Human" (1973), "a human being may shoot a
robot which has come out of a General Electrics factory, and to his
surprise see it weep and bleed. And the dying robot may shoot back and, to
its surprise, see a wisp of gray smoke arise from the electric pump that
it supposed was the human's beating heart. It would be rather a great
moment of truth for both of them." This irony is explored in the character
Jonas, in Gene WOLFE's The Book of the New Sun (1980-83), a robot who
gradually acquires human prostheses.Anthologies of robot stories include
The Robot and the Man (anth 1953) ed Martin GREENBERG, The Coming of the
Robots (anth 1963) ed Sam MOSKOWITZ, Invasion of the Robots (anth 1965) ed
Roger ELWOOD, and The Metal Smile (anth 1968) ed Damon KNIGHT. Science
Fiction Thinking Machines (anth 1954) ed Groff CONKLIN has a section on

(1938- ) Romanian lecturer in literature (at Cluj-Napoca University) and
sf critic, some of whose many articles have appeared in English, including
"A Key to Science Fiction: The Sublime" in FOUNDATION #42 (1988). He ed
the 1st reprint and critical edition (1986), with afterword in English, of
the early Romanian sf novel In anul 4000 sau O calatorie la Venus ["In the
Year 4000, or A Voyage to Venus"] (1899) by Victor Anestin, and also ed
the anthology of Romanian sf Timpul este umbra noastra: Science-fiction
romanesc dinultimele doua decenii: Antologie comentata ["Time is Our
Shadow: Romanian Science Fiction 1969-1989: Anthology with Commentary"]
(anth 1991), with an afterword in English. A more general work is Panorama
romanului romanesc contemporan: 1944-1974 ["Panorama of the Contemporary
Romanian Novel: 1944-74"] (1974) with Ion Vlad. For this encyclopedia CR
wrote the entry on ROMANIA and contributed ideas to that on SENSE OF


(1948- ) Canadian writer who began publishing sf with "L'Initiateur et
les etrangers" ["The Initiator and the Strangers"] for Marie-Francoise in
1964, publishing stories frequently and cofounding the journal imagine . .
. ( CANADA) in 1979. With her first novel, En Hommage aux araignees ["In
Praise of Spiders"] (1974; rev as a juvenile vt L'Etranger sous la ville
["The Stranger under the City"] 1986), she began the Vrenalik sequence of
tales set in an ALTERNATE-WORLD archipelago, a venue of the sort used by
many Quebecois writers to express the St Lawrence River's domination of
the geography of Quebec, just as some English-speaking Canadian writers
tend to set their tales on the shores of glaciated lakes. L'Epuisement du
Soleil ["The Draining of the Sun"] (1985), part of which first appeared as
Der Traumer in der Zitadelle ["The Dreamer in the Citadel"] (1977
Germany), most of the stories assembled in Le Traversier ["The Ferry"]
(coll 1987), L'Espace du diamant ["The Space of the Diamond"] (1990) and
most of the stories assembled in Le Piege a souvenirs ["The Trap of
Memories"] (coll 1991) are also set in this venue. Of her novels only
Coquillage (1986; trans David Lobdell as The Shell 1990) is set outside
the Vrenalik world, though it too is set on an ISLAND, where several human
characters plunge into a profound sexual liaison with the eponymous ALIEN.
Like most WOMEN SF WRITERS at work in Quebec today, ER often depicts
characters who have to encounter and deal with the Other on their own
territory and without going into outer space, which has stimulated
FEMINIST and political readings of her work. In 1986 and 1987 she received
the Grand Prix de la science-fiction et du fantastique quebecois. [LP/JC]

(vt The Adventures of the Rocketeer) Film (1991). Walt Disney. Dir Joe
Johnston, starring Bill Campbell, Jennifer Connelly, Alan Arkin, Timothy
Dalton, Paul Sorvino. Screenplay Danny Bilson, Paul DeMeo. 108 mins.
Colour.This enjoyable big-budget re-creation of the thrills of 1930s
B-serials - more accurate but less popular than Steven SPIELBERG's Raiders
of the Lost Ark (1981) - features gangsters, G-men, Nazis, pilots, movie
stars, a dirigible, Howard Hughes (1905-1976) and (in thin disguise) Errol
Flynn (1909-1959) and Rondo Hatton (1894-1946). The Flynn character,
played with relish by Dalton, is the villain; the gangster boss (Sorvino)
discovers his true loyalties ("I'm a hundred per cent American") when he
realizes he has been helping Nazis steal an experimental rocket pack;
there is an excellent re-creation of a Nazi propaganda cartoon. Unlike the
greedy, cynical, individualistic Indiana Jones, the old-fashioned
Rocketeer, the uncharismatic Campbell, is law-abiding and patriotic - and
outshone by the scheming Dalton. [MK]

The Chinese were using skyrockets as fireworks in the 11th century, and
adapted them as WEAPONS of WAR in the 13th. Europeans borrowed the idea,
but rocket-missiles were abandoned as muskets and rifles became more
efficient. A 15th-century Chinese legend tells of one Wan Hu, who attached
rockets to a chair, strapped himself in, and blasted off for the unknown.
A similar notion was used by CYRANO DE BERGERAC in the first part of
L'autre monde (1657), in which the hero straps 3 rows of rockets to his
back, intending that as each set burns out it will ignite the next, so
renewing the boost; the device proves impracticable.War rockets were used
against the British in India at the end of the 18th century, and the
British reinstituted rocket technology, using rocket missiles in the
Napoleonic War and in the US War of 1812; their rockets used in an attack
on Fort Henry in 1814 inspired the reference to "the rocket's red glare"
in "The Star-Spangled Banner" by Francis Scott Key (1780-1843), who
witnessed the battle. Rockets fell into disuse again with the development
of better field artillery, but the possibility of using them as a means of
TRANSPORTATION encouraged some early experiments with unfortunate animals
as passengers.In 1898 Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY wrote a classic article, "The
Probing of Space by Means of Jet Devices" (1903); he had earlier written
"On the Moon" (1893), "Dreams of Earth and Sky" (1895) and other stories
and essays collected in The Call of the Cosmos (coll trans 1963) in
company with the didactic novel Outside the Earth (1920; trans 1960 as
Beyond the Planet Earth). In the same period the US inventor Robert
Goddard (1882-1945) - reputedly inspired by reading H.G. WELLS's THE WAR
OF THE WORLDS (1898)-also began thinking seriously about SPACE FLIGHT, and
in 1911 he began experimenting with rockets. He was working towards a
liquid-fuel stage rocket - a notion applied to the business of
interplanetary travel in John MUNRO's romance A Trip to Venus (1897).
Goddard launched the first liquid-fuel rocket in 1926. Meanwhile, the
German rocket-research pioneer Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) - author of Die
Rakete zu den Planetenraumen ["The Rocket into Interplanetary Space"]
(1921) - and others, including Willy LEY, formed a "Society for Space
Travel". In 1928 Oberth was offered the opportunity to build a rocket by a
German film company, which hired him as technical adviser for Fritz LANG's
film Die FRAU IM MOND (1929); his experimental rocket was to be launched
before the film's premiere as a publicity stunt, but the project
collapsed. Oberth began anew with a number of assistants, including
Wernher von Braun (1912-1977), and managed to get a number of rockets off
the ground in 1931. The project was abandoned as Germany's economy
crashed, but von Braun joined a rocket development project with the German
Army while Ley emigrated to the USA. In 1937 the Army project acquired a
large research centre at Peenemunde on an island in the Baltic, where von
Braun and his staff developed the V-2 rocket bomb. This arrived too late
to make any difference to the course of WWII, and von Braun fled to the
Bavarian Alps in order to surrender to the USA rather than wait for the
Russians. Goddard had spent WWII developing take-off rockets for US Navy
aircraft.Von Braun went to work for a US research programme. The project
developed the Jupiter rocket to launch the USA's first space satellite in
1958, and ultimately the Saturn rocket which carried the first men to the
MOON. During this period a number of US and UK sf writers - most notably
Arthur C. CLARKE, a leading member of the British Interplanetary Society
founded by P.E. Cleator (1908- ) in the 1930s - were active and
enthusiastic propagandists for the space programme. Even before WWII the
sf PULP MAGAZINES had taken a considerable interest in rocket research -
SCIENCE WONDER STORIES publicized an occasion when "The Rocket Comes to
the Front Page" (Dec 1929) with an unsigned article that was probably by
Hugo GERNSBACK, and ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION published such articles as
Leo Vernon's "Rocket Flight" (1938). The UK TALES OF WONDER published
Clarke's "We Can Rocket to the Moon - Now!" (1939). After WWII George PAL
made the film DESTINATION MOON (1950), with script by Robert A. HEINLEIN
(remotely based on his Rocket Ship Galileo [1947]). Ray BRADBURY became
particularly fascinated by the mythology of the rocket and followed up his
"I, Rocket" (1944) with the early Martian Chronicles episode "Rocket
Summer" (1947) and the curious non-sf story "Outcast of the Stars" (1950;
vt "The Rocket"). C.M. KORNBLUTH based his novel Takeoff (1952) on the
ironic theme of a crackpot project to build an unworkable rocket which
conceals a real attempt to build a practicable SPACESHIP - testimony to
the ambivalence of contemporary attitudes to rocket research. As late as
1956 a newly appointed British Astronomer Royal, Richard Woolley, was
reported to have declared that talk of space travel was "utter bilge", so
encapsulating a considerable body of opinion which endured pugnaciously
until the ascent of Sputnik - in 1957.There is no other historical
sequence of events in which fact and fiction are so closely entwined, or
which seems to justify so well the imaginative reach of HARD-SF writers.
Tsiolkovsky, Goddard and Oberth were visionaries more closely akin to
speculative writers than to their contemporary theorists. Rocket research
has always been dependent on the practical demands of hot and cold wars,
but it is surely true-as laboured in James A. MICHENER's pedestrian epic
"faction" Space (1982) - that for some of the people involved the real
objective was always that of Wan Hu, Cyrano, Munro and Tsiolkovsky. Pierre
BOULLE's Garden on the Moon (1964; trans 1965), in which the German rocket
scientists are entranced with the notion of cosmic voyaging even as they
develop the V-2, probably has an element of truth in it. [BS]See also: ION

(vt Expedition Moon) Film (1950). Lippert. Prod/dir/written Kurt Neumann,
starring Lloyd Bridges, Osa Massen, John Emery. 78 mins. B/w.This cheap
movie was hastily made to beat the more illustrious DESTINATION MOON
(1950) to the theatres. A rocket on its way to the Moon is diverted by a
storm of meteors and lands on MARS instead. The astronauts find evidence
that the planet has suffered an atomic war, and encounter a race of
MUTANTS. In an unexpectedly downbeat ending the returning rocket crashes
on Earth and all are killed. Some cineastes like this SPACE OPERA better
than the more technological film on whose advance publicity it was
designed to get a free ride - especially the atmospheric Mars sequences,
tinted red in the film's original prints and well photographed by Karl
Struss in the Mojave Desert.A German director who came to Hollywood in
1925, Neumann is best known for The FLY (1958); he also made KRONOS
(1957). [JB/PN]See also: CINEMA.

US DIGEST-size magazine. 3 issues, Apr, July, Sep 1953, published by
Space Publications, New York, ed Wade KAEMPFERT (Lester DEL REY for #1 and
#2, Harry HARRISON for #3). RS was a companion magazine to FANTASY
FICTION ADVENTURES. All 4 magazines were closed down when the publisher
lost interest. RS, slanted to the juvenile market, contained fiction of
fair quality, including early work by Algis BUDRYS, but at the height of
the SF-MAGAZINE boom, with well over 30 sf magazines being published in
the USA, it was effectively invisible. [FHP/PN]

Working name of US writer Ross Louis Rocklin (1913-1988) for his sf
stories, most of which appeared in such magazines as ASF from the
mid-1930s up to 1947, beginning with "Man of Iron" for ASF in 1935. He
specialized in SPACE-OPERA plots constructed around sometimes ingenious
"scientific" problems, such as how to escape from the centre of a hollow
planet in "At the Center of Gravity" (1936), the first of the Colbie and
Deverel series assembled with similar material in The Men and the Mirror
(coll of linked stories 1973); the story is flawed by the fact that RR did
not realize that a symmetrical hollow shell does not have an internal,
centrally directed gravity field. A second series, The Darkness, was
assembled as The Sun Destroyers (fixup 1973 dos); it features vast,
nebula-like beings ( LIVING WORLDS) and follows their life-courses through
millions of years from galaxy to galaxy without the intervention of
mankind. RR had one of the most interesting, if florid, imaginations of
the PULP-MAGAZINE writers of his time, and wrote very much better than
most. He continued to publish sf, rather sporadically, up to 1954 (he was
interested in DIANETICS at that time); and later made a formidable
comeback with several stories in 1968, demonstrating that he had no
difficulty at all in adjusting his narrative voice to the more
sophisticated demands of the later period - as in "Ching Witch!", one of
the most assured tours de force in Harlan ELLISON's Again, Dangerous
Visions (anth 1972), an ironic tale about the curious morality of a man
who, as a result of GENETIC ENGINEERING, has a lot of cat in him.
[JC/PN]About the author: The Work of Ross Rocklynne: An Annotated
Bibliography (1989 chap) by Douglas MENVILLE.See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS;

House name used on JUVENILE SERIES published by Cupples & Leon of New
York, and on one occasion by the Mershon Company of New Jersey. The best
of the RR titles are the first 6 vols (1906-13) in the Great Marvel
sequence by Howard R. GARIS, who probably wrote from outlines by Edward
STRATEMEYER. In his autobiography Ghost of the Hardy Boys Leslie McFarlane
says he wrote some 1920s novels in the Dan Fearless series under the name
RR. Other writers who worked under the RR name, which was used also on the
20 Bomba the Jungle Boy books (1926-38), remain unidentified. [JC]See

Film (1975). A Lou Adler-Michael White Production/20th Century-Fox. Dir
Jim Sharman, starring Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, Barry Bostwick, Richard
O'Brien, Patricia Quinn, Little Nell (Laura Campbell), Jonathan Adams,
Peter Hinwood, Meatloaf, Charles Gray. Screenplay Sharman, O'Brien, based
on O'Brien's stage musical The Rocky Horror Show (1973). 101 mins. Colour.
This UK film created little stir when first released in the USA, but by
mid-1976 it was attracting large cult audiences at midnight showings; the
phenomenon grew throughout most of the late 1970s. TRHPS became the cult
movie of all time, with its audiences becoming part of the performance,
dressed as favourite characters, singing along, shouting wisecracks at the
screen, and so on. The phenomenon is analysed at length in Midnight Movies
(1983) by J. Hoberman and Jonathan Rosenbaum.The film itself is not
entirely mediocre - Curry's performance as transvestite Dr Frank-N-Furter
from the Planet Transsexual in the Galaxy Transylvania is memorable for
the energy of its polymorphous perversity, based largely on a lampooning
of Mick Jagger - but it is ill paced, has some dreadful performances, and
is too long. The story is about shocking the bourgeois, which is also its
object; this was the era of androgynous singer David Bowie, when
bisexuality, at least in personal appearance, was becoming fashionable in
the more radical fringes of youth culture. Sarandon and Bostwick play the
two normally dull young people seduced by the mad doctor in his gothic
mansion after their car has broken down on a dark and stormy night.TRHPS,
an example of RECURSIVE SF, begins with a song affectionately recalling
the delights of early sf movies, "Science Fiction, Double Feature";
another of the better numbers is "The Time Warp", a song and dance. Sf
references abound, especially to the FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER: the mad doctor
has created an artificial man, Rocky Horror, as a sexual plaything.
Eventually Frank-N-Furter is lasered down, and the Gothic mansion is
warped back to its planet of origin by Riff Raff the butler (O'Brien), who
turns out to be an alien. TRHPS is notable for summing up an entire
generation's attitude to sf: it is presented not as a bold facing-up to
the challenges of the future but as a campy nostalgia for the luridnesses
of the past. [PN]See also: MUSIC.


(1921-1991) US tv scriptwriter, producer, director and creator of STAR
TREK. GR began writing in the late 1940s while working as a pilot for a
commercial airline. In 1953 he sold his first tv script and in 1956 his
first that was sf, a genre in which he had not previously been
particularly interested. In 1954 he became a full-time tv writer. In 1963
he created and produced a series of his own - The Lieutenant - for MGM,
and in the same year conceived Star Trek but had difficulty launching the
project; and it was not to be until 1966 that the show reached tv screens.
Star Trek was not a great success in terms of ratings and was ended in
1968, but over the next decade, partly as a consequence of reruns, the
show built up a huge following.After Star Trek, GR spent much time trying
to launch other tv sf series, but without success, although 4 pilot
episodes appeared as made-for-tv films: GENESIS II (1973), PLANET EARTH
(1974), The QUESTOR TAPES (1974) and STRANGE NEW WORLD (1975). In 1977,
turning from sf to horror, GR wroteSpectre, a tv pilot, directed by Clive
Donner, along the lines of KOLCHAK: THE NIGHT STALKER, with Robert Culp as
a demonologist detective; this too failed to be sold as a
series.Throughout the 1970s a Star Trek revival was continually announced,
either as a tv series or as a theatrical film, but it was only after the
success of STAR WARS (1977) that such a project became feasible. In 1979
GR finally produced STAR TREK THE MOTION PICTURE, dir Robert WISE, with
the cast of the old series stranded among state-of-the-art special
effects. The announced budget was much inflated by many years of
development costs having almost nothing to do with the final film; without
such irrelevant factors the film would have been the most successful of
the ST movies. As it was, on the official figures, though commercially
successful, it was by no means the blockbuster that Paramount had
envisioned, and GR took a less personal interest in the ongoing sequels,
of which there have been 5 to date, commencing with STAR TREK II: THE
WRATH OF KHAN (1982); these eschew the daring but tedious mystical
approach of Wise's film and revert to the cosy soap-and-sentiment basics
of the original series. In 1987 GR cowrote and produced Encounter at
Farpoint, the pilot episode of STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION
(1987-current), a sequel tv series set 80 years on in the Star Trek
universe; he continued to serve as overall creative guide, but not on a
day-to-day basis, and died shortly before his basic concept was spun off
into a third tv series, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (begun 1992).The Making
of Star Trek (1968) by Stephen E. Whitfield and GR was actually written by
Whitfield and The Making of Star Trek The Motion Picture (1980) by Susan
Sackett and GR was written by Sackett. GR was also credited as author of
the novelization Star Trek: The Motion Picture * (1979). [JB/KN/PN]About
the author: Star Trek Creator: The Authorized Biography of Gene
Roddenberry (1994) by David ALEXANDER; Gene Roddenberry: The Myth and the
Man Behind"Star Trek"(1994) by Joel Engel.

(1959 - ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with"The
Boy who Came Back from the Dead" inMasques #2 (anth 1987) ed J.N.
Williamson (1932- ), a strongly moving fantasy tale later assembled with
other work in New Life for the Dead (coll 1991). AR's first novel, Blood
of the Children (1989), is horror, but his second, Fire (1990), combines
sf and horror in a NEAR-FUTURE story in which a fundamentalist US
President threatens a nuclear attack against the USSR while at the same
time a lab explosion unleashes a virus which raises the dead and a
telepathic entity which takes on the aspect of the Beast of Revelation.
The plot then thickens pyrotechnically. Night (1991) is horror. [JC]

[s] Robert SILVERBERG.

US tv series (1970-72). A Jack Laird Production for Universal TV/NBC.
Created Rod SERLING. 93 plays: the 1969 2-hour pilot had 3 plays; season
1, part of a mixture of dramas called Four-in-One, consisted of 6 50min
episodes containing 2-3 playlets; season 2, under the Rod Serling's Night
Gallery title, had 23 of the same sort of 50min episodes; season 3 had 16
25min episodes, each with 1 playlet. Colour.Created by Rod Serling - who
in the early 1960s had made the series The TWILIGHT ZONE - RSNG was
primarily made up of supernatural stories but did contain a small number
of sf episodes; many of the plays were scripted by Serling from original
stories by such writers as C.M. KORNBLUTH, Fritz LEIBER, H.P. LOVECRAFT
and A.E. VAN VOGT, and Richard MATHESON scripted several other segments.
One of the 3 plays in the pilot, starring Joan Crawford, was Steven
SPIELBERG's debut; other directors included John BADHAM, Leonard Nimoy and
Jeannot Szwarc. After a time Serling lost creative control and grew to
dislike the series, the studio requiring more monsters and fewer
subtleties; however, he continued to introduce it, strolling through a
sinister art gallery and pointing to a relevant painting before each play
began. RSNG was on the whole a disappointment after The Twilight Zone. 2
collections of stories by Serling were series spin-offs: Night Gallery *
(coll 1971) and Night Gallery 2 * (coll 1972). Also relevant is Rod
Serling's Night Gallery Reader * (anth 1987) ed Carol Serling (Serling's
widow) with Martin H. GREENBERG and Charles G. WAUGH. [JB/PN]

[r] Richard SAVAGE.

Working name of US writer Michaela-Marie Roessner-Herman (1950- ), whose
first novel, the widely admired Walkabout Woman (1988), is a fantasy,
though she received, all the same, the JOHN W. CAMPBELL award for that
year; her second novel, Vanishing Point (1993) is, however, sf. Set in
California 30 years after the mysterious disappearance of 90% of the human
race, and climaxing in the edifice-like Winchester Mystery House in San
Jose (a real building), the story concerns the efforts of the protagonist
and others to plumb the depths of the mystery; but if there is a single
explanation it is not-after a fashion typical of the sf writers who have
come to maturity in the 1990s-vouchsafed the searchers, though the
rhetoric of virtual particle physics is invoked, and hitches in the
universe-wide unfolding of cosmological destiny are suggested, along with
a sense that ALTERNATE WORLDS might be far more distressingly complex than
normally depicted in sf. [JC]

Pseudonym of Swiss writer Helene Dufour Pittard (1874-1953), whose sf
novel, Le nouvel Adam (1924; trans P.O. Crowhurst as The New Adam 1926
UK), is about a wholly logical and unpleasant SUPERMAN created by gland
transplants. Finally, after having invented a nuclear force field, he
blows himself up. [JC]Other work: Celui qui voit (1926; trans Robert
Lancaster as He Who Sees 1935 UK), occult fantasy.See also: ADAM AND EVE.


(1923-1982) US writer and artist, nicknamed "Red" for the colour of his
hair and politics. A long-time sf fan, he drew the covers for a number of
1940s FANZINES as well as some for the (UK) AMERICAN FICTION series. His A
Requiem for Astounding (1964), though nostalgic and largely uncritical,
provides a valuable history, rich in story synopses, of ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION before the name-change to Analog. [MJE/JC]

(1898-1982) Canadian illustrator who studied art at Toronto Technical
School and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He began his
professional career in 1925 in New York, painting covers for books and for
various magazines, including Adventure and The ARGOSY . He entered sf
publishing with a cover painting for ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in 1939,
and painted 58 covers and drew interior ILLUSTRATIONS for 60 issues of
that magazine 1939-56. He and William Timmins dominated the covers of ASF
during the 1940s (HR did all of them Apr 1940-Aug 1942), a period when his
comparatively muted style gave the magazine something of the dignity John
W. CAMPBELL Jr craved: more serious (and even solemn) than those of many
of his colleagues, HR's covers epitomized the technological aspirations of
ASF in its more high-minded mode. His cover painting for "Fury" (May 1947)
by Lawrence O'Donnell (Henry KUTTNER and C.L. MOORE) is considered his
premier painting, and is one of the best covers ever put on an sf
magazine. HR also did jacket paintings for several hardcover books,
including those for 3 Robert A. HEINLEIN novels from SHASTA. He left sf
during the 1950s to become one of Canada's foremost portrait painters.

(1847-1932) US businessman and writer whose The Kite Trust (A Romance of
Wealth) (1900), which may have been self-published, follows the juvenile
kite-inventors and founders of the eponymous compact into adulthood,
enormous wealth, the discovery of new energy sources and the construction
of transatlantic tunnels, while all the while an interplanetary spirit
instructs the cast on the history of the Solar System. [JC]


(1951- ) US novelist and rock critic whose first-published sf story was
"She Still Do" as by M. Alan Rogers, for If in 1970. His first sf novel,
Mindfogger (1973), features a hippy inventor whose mind-fogging device
acts as a gentle hallucinogen; though the use to which he puts it is
against an armaments company, we are left wondering if hip mind control is
preferable to mind control by right-wing powers. Forbidden Sequence (1987)
is a TECHNOTHRILLER about gene-splitting. [PN/JC]

[s] Arthur PORGES.

Dennis HUGHES.


(1951- ) UK (Scottish) Oxford-educated law graduate and author, whose
nonfiction books include an introduction to home computing and a study of
the Viking era; he also reviews for Opera Now. He began publishing sf with
stories like "The Insect Tapes" in Aries 1 (anth 1979) ed John Grant (Paul
BARNETT). His first novel was Run to the Stars (dated 1982 but 1983),
signed Mike Scott Rohan, a promising Scots-in-space thriller featuring
relativistic WEAPONS and an alien message, with nasty Earth bureaucrats
ready to attack their own space colony. Then, like several UK writers of
the period, he began genre crossing; most of his fiction since has been
FANTASY - the genre in which he seems most at home - beginning with The
Ice King (1986; vt Burial Rites 1987 US) with Allan SCOTT under the joint
pseudonym Michael Scot, a supernatural thriller involving Norse mythology.
There followed the more notable The Winter of the World trilogy - The
Anvil of Ice (1986), The Forge in the Forest (1987) and The Hammer of the
Sun (1988) - set in an invented frozen world imagined in some depth;
though the writing is sometimes floridly rhetorical. A young smith sets
himself against the entropic Powers; quests follow; spring comes, but at a
cost. MSR then made a partial return to a kind of sf, in the jaunty,
romantic SCIENCE FANTASY Spiral trilogy, comprising Chase the Morning
(1990),The Gates of Noon(1992) and Cloud Castles(1994), where real and
magical ALTERNATE WORLDS(the coreand the spiral) intersect, and a computer
program can become a spell. The series is intelligent, well thought-out,
and surprisingly full of observations about near-future POLITICS. A second
collaboration with Scott, A Spell of Empire: The Horns of Tartarus (1992),
was published under their real names. But perhaps his finest work to date
is the solo historical fantasy The Lord of Middle Air (1994), set partly
in thirteenth-century Scotland (the Border area) and partly in a very
convincing faery land, in which a young Scots chieftain encounters and has
his life changed by the (real-life) magician Michael Scot. (MSR claims
Michael Scot as an ancestor.) MSR has consistently grown in stature as a
writer throughout his career. [PN]

(1924- ) Canadian writer whose novels almost invariably express a sense
of fragile PARANOIA about the political and economic prospects for his
native land, thinly stretched as it is along the US border. Ultimatum
(1973) and its sequel, Exxoneration (1974), deal directly with Canadian-US
conflicts in a NEAR-FUTURE frame. Exodus/UK (1975) and its sequel,
Separation (1976; rev vt Separation Two 1981), turn inward to express a
similar paranoia about separatism. Singletons that deal worriedly with
similar material include Balls! (1979), Periscope Red (1980), Triad
(1981), Retaliation (1982) and Starmageddon (1986). [JC]

Pseudonym of UK journalist and popular thriller writer Arthur Sarsfield
Ward (1883-1959). He started writing in 1909 and published in Cassell's
Magazine, Collier's Weekly, The Premier Magazine and numerous other early
general fiction magazines and BOYS' PAPERS. SR capitalized on contemporary
anxiety about the Chinese, generated by the Boxer Rebellion and the
fictions of M.P. SHIEL and others, to produce many sensational novels
about the Yellow Peril. Most famous is his series about Dr Fu Manchu, a
malign scientific genius and leader of a secret Chinese organization bent
on world domination. This VILLAIN appeared in The Mystery of Dr Fu-Manchu
(1912-13 The Story Teller as "Fu-Manchu"; fixup 1913; vt The Insidious Dr
Fu-Manchu 1913 US), The Devil Doctor (1914-15 Collier's Weekly as
"Fu-Manchu & Co."; fixup 1916; vt The Return of Dr Fu-Manchu 1916 US), The
Si-Fan Mysteries (1916-17 Collier's Weekly; fixup 1917; vt The Hand of
Fu-Manchu 1917 US), Daughter of Fu Manchu (1931), The Mask of Fu Manchu
(1932) - filmed as The MASK OF FU MANCHU (1932) - Fu Manchu's Bride (1933
US; vt The Bride of Fu Manchu 1933 UK), The Trail of Fu Manchu (1934),
President Fu Manchu (1936), The Drums of Fu Manchu (1938), The Island of
Fu Manchu (1941), The Shadow of Fu Manchu (1948), Re-Enter Fu Manchu
(1957; vt Re-Enter Dr Fu Manchu 1957 UK) and Emperor Fu Manchu (1959). The
Wrath of Fu Manchu and Other Stories (coll 1973) assembles various tales.
The Book of Fu Manchu (omni 1929 containing 3 novels; exp to 4 novels 1929
US) features the first volumes of the sequence. Although these and other
novels by SR are primarily occult thrillers, they contain many sf
elements.Apart from this main series, SR wrote several others. The Sumuru
series is about an oriental villainess: Nude in Mink (1950 US; vt Sins of
Sumuru 1950 UK), Sumuru (1951 US; vt Slaves of Sumuru 1952 UK), Virgin in
Flames 1952; vt The Fire Goddess 1952 US), Return of Sumuru (1954 US; vt
Sand and Satin 1955 UK) and Sinister Madonna (1956). The Gaston Max series
comprises The Yellow Claw (1915), The Golden Scorpion (1919), The Day the
World Ended (1930), set in and around a fortress guarded by DEATH RAYS,
and Seven Sins (1943). The Paul Harley series consists of Bat-Wing (1921),
Fire-Tongue (1921) and 11 short stories. The Red Kerry series - Dope
(1919) and Yellow Shadows (1925) - is not sf/fantasy.SR also wrote several
stage plays, including an adaptation from C.J. Cutcliffe HYNE's Captain
Kettle series. Several of his novels have been made into films ( The FACE
OF FU MANCHU ) and the Dr Fu Manchu sequence was adapted by him into a
popular RADIO series.Dr Fu Manchu was widely imitated, notably by Roland
Daniels, Anthony RUD and Nigel Vane, and was a strong influence on the
development of the more recent hero/villain quasi-sf thrillers written by
Lester DENT, Ian FLEMING and many others. Two direct imitations were the
short-lived magazines The MYSTERIOUS WU FANG and DR. YEN SIN. SR's only
book under another name was a supernatural/theological novel, Wulfheim
(1950) as by Michael Furey. [JE]Other works: The Sins of Severac Bablon
(1914); Brood of the Witch Queen (1914 The Premier Magazine; 1918); Tales
of Secret Egypt (coll 1918); The Orchard of Tears (1918); The Quest of the
Sacred Slipper (1913-14 Short Stories as by Hassan of Aleppo; fixup 1919);
The Dream Detective (coll 1920; with 1 story added 1925); The Green Eyes
of Bast (1920); The Haunting of Low Fennel (coll 1920); Tales of Chinatown
(coll 1922); Grey Face (1924); Moon of Madness (1927), not fantasy; She
who Sleeps (1928); Yu'an Hee See Laughs (1932), not fantasy; The Emperor
of America (1929); Tales of East and West (coll 1932 UK; same title,
different stories, coll 1933 US); The Bat Flies Low (1935); White Velvet
(1936), not fantasy; The Golden Scorpion Omnibus (coll 1938); The Sax
Rohmer Omnibus (coll 1938); Salute to Bazarada and Other Stories (coll
1939); The Moon is Red (1954); The Secret of Holm Peel and Other Strange
Stories (coll 1970).About the author: Sax Rohmer: A Bibliography (1963
chap) by Bradford M. DAY; Master of Villainy (1972) by Cay Van Ash and
Elizabeth Sax Rohmer. Van Ash also wrote Ten Years Beyond Baker Street
(1984), a novel in which Fu Manchu meets Sherlock Holmes.See also: CANADA;

Samuel BARTON.



(1860-1913) UK author and eccentric, known as much for claiming the name
"Frederick, Baron Corvo" as for his writing. The 9 "Reviews of Unwritten
Books" (1903 The Monthly Review) with Sholto Douglas is an early
articulation of the concept of alternate history ( ALTERNATE WORLDS), if
only in a nonfiction format (one of the reviews, for instance, being of
"Machiavelli's Despatches from the South African Campaign").Hubert's
Arthur (written 1908-12; 1935) with H.C.H. Pirie-Gordon as by Prospero and
Caliban, in which King John fails to kill and is overthrown by his nephew
Arthur, is an early alternate-history novel, although its late publication
date precludes any influence on that genre. The Weird of the Wanderer
(1912), again with Pirie-Gordon as by Prospero and Caliban, is a fantasy,
but Hadrian the Seventh (1904), on which FR's reputation as an author
almost solely rests, is a genuine NEAR-FUTURE sf novel, set in 1910.
Dealing with the rise to the Papacy of a frustrated candidate for
priesthood, the novel offers a number of predictions regarding the future
of Europe, including a vision of the Russian Revolution. [GF]About the
author: There are many biographies, including A.J.A. Symons's famous The
Quest for Corvo: An Experiment in Biography (1934). More recent, and more
reliable, is Frederick Rolfe: Baron Corvo (1977) by Miriam J. Benkovitz.

Film (1975). United Artists. Dir Norman Jewison, starring James Caan,
John Houseman, Maud Adams, John Beck. Screenplay William Harrison (1933-
), based on his "Roller Ball Murders" (1973). 129 mins, cut to 125 mins.
Colour.That one man who stands tall and proud can topple a corrupt system
by his example is the moral of this sluggish big-budget movie. In a future
run by corporations, ordinary citizens are (implausibly) kept happy by a
brutal gladiatorial spectator "sport" played on rollerskates and
motorcycles, and, to keep the proletariat in their place, designed as an
allegory of the futility of individual effort. Caan plays the team leader
who proves the bosses wrong by winning, even when they progressively break
all the rules to try to kill him. It has the theme but none of the verve,
or even the convincing violence, of an exploitation movie; the high moral
tone of the script (and the classical music on the sound track) are
ludicrously at odds with the film's fundamental (but incompetent)
voyeurism. [PN]

Film (1981). IPC Films/Orion. Dir Alan J. Pakula, starring Jane Fonda,
Kris Kristofferson, Hume Cronyn. Screenplay David Shaber, from a story by
Shaber, Howard Kohn, David Weir. 115 mins. Colour.R has a banker
(Kristofferson) and an oil-company chairman (Fonda) uncovering a
conspiracy in which the Saudi Arabians have, with the help of US banks,
been secretly dumping dollars and buying gold. Threatened with exposure,
the Saudis withdraw all funds from the banks and a world financial
collapse ensues, with apocalyptic consequences. R is an ironic,
diagrammatic thriller in which US individualists - innocent, greedy and
emblematic - are helpless against a powerful establishment (much as in
Pakula's best film, The Parallax View [1974], which has a marginally sf
brain-washing theme). Cold, difficult, sophisticated, anti-capitalist, R
was a commercial flop; it would have done better 8 years later. The
doomsday scenarios of sf, unlike those of the real world, seldom feature
ECONOMICS as the catalyst - probably because most people find
money-manipulation too complex a topic - but R, rather like the financial
thrillers of Paul E. ERDMAN, is a notable exception. [PN]


Romanian sf is over a century old. 1873 marked the appearance of the
novelette "Finis Rumaniae" ["The End of Romania"] by the obscure writer
Al. N. Dariu; two years later came a future UTOPIA, Spiritele anului 3000
["Spirits of the Year 3000"] (1875) by Demetriu G. Ionnescu (the form of
his name used by the statesman Take Ionescu [1858-1922]). The earliest sf
writer proper in Romania was Victor Anestin (1875-1918), whose first novel
was In anul 4000 sau O calatorie la Venus ["In the Year 4000, or A Voyage
to Venus"]; 1914 marked the almost simultaneous appearance of two
"classic" novels of Romanian sf: O tragedie cereasca ["A Sky Tragedy"]
(1914), again by Anestin, and Un roman in Luna ["A Romanian on the Moon"]
(1914) by Henri Stahl (1877-1942). All these belong to the tradition of
the "astronomical" novel, as it was known before WWI.Between the Wars the
range of themes widened, the most notable novels being no longer
"astronomical": examples are Baletul mecanic ["The Clockwork Ballet"]
(1931) by Cezar Petrescu (1892-1961) and Orasele innecate ["The Drowned
Cities"] (1936) by Felix Aderca (1891-1962). There were also some valuable
short stories, including "Groaza" ["Horror"] (1936), "Manechinul lui Igor"
["Igor's Mannequin"] (1938) and "Ochiul cu doua pupile" ["The Two-Pupilled
Eye"] (1939), all by Victor Papilian (1888-1956); a scientific fairy-tale,
"Agerul Pamintului" ["The Deft Giant of the Earth"] (1939) by I.C.
Vissarion (1879-1951); and above all 2 sf novelettes set in India (see
below), by Mircea Eliade (1907-1986), better known in the West for his
studies in comparative religion; he was Professor of the History of
Religion at the University of Chicago 1956-86, and author of fundamental
works in this field, written in French and translated all over the
world.As a writer of fiction, Eliade belonged entirely to Romanian
literature: he became one of the nation's major writers before WWII, while
still living in Romania, and, when abroad afterwards, continued writing
fiction exclusively in Romanian. He wrote both realistic and fantastic
fiction, the latter including some genuine masterpieces: the novels
Domnisoara Christina ["Miss Christina"] (1936) and Sarpele ["The Snake"]
(1937), the novelettes "La tiganci" (1959; trans as " With the Gypsy
Girls"1973 Denver Review) and Pe strada Mantuleasa ["On Mantuleasa
Street"] (1968 France), and many others, including Foret Interdite (1955
France; in original Romanian as Noaptea de Sanziene 1971 France; trans Mac
Linecott Rickette and Mary Park Stevenson as The Forbidden Forest 1978
US), a huge novel in which the search for IMMORTALITY is parallelled to a
myth-saturated history of Romania. 5 of his writings are (somewhat
borderline) sf. From his rich knowledge of Indian culture (he studied at
the University of Calcutta 1928-31), Eliade extrapolated hypotheses drawn
from, for example, Yoga and Tantra in a sciencefictional manner, as in the
title story of Secretul doctorului Honigberger (coll 1940; trans William
Ames Coates as Two Tales of the Occult 1970 US; vt Two Strange Tales
1986); the title story (here trans as "Doctor Honigberger's Secret") is
about time distortion and INVISIBILITY; the volume also contains "Nopti la
Serampore" (1939) (here trans as "Midnight in Serampore"), in which time
reversibility reduces individual lifespans to infinitesimal proportions
compared to the great time-intervals of supra-individuality. The short
story "Un om mare" ["A Big Man"] (written 1945; 1948) is about a giant and
is partly reminiscent of H.G. WELLS's The Food of the Gods (1904); it is
included in Fantastic Tales (coll trans E. Tappe 1969 UK). The last 2 of
his works of sf interest are novelettes written in Paris much later, both
on the theme of MUTANTS: the hero of "Tinerete fara de tinerete . . ."
(written 1976; 1978 Germany), which appears in English as the long title
story of Youth without Youth (coll trans 1989 UK), is a mutant who becomes
young and immortal after a thunderbolt; and in "Les trois Graces" ["The
Three Graces"] (1976) Eliade transforms an idea he found in the Apocrypha
in a cruel story about a rejuvenation treatment given to three old women
suffering from cancer - they become unhappy mutants. A further
English-language collection of Eliade's stories is Tales of the Sacred and
Supernatural (coll trans 1981 US).Postwar Romanian sf can be thought of in
terms of 3 generations of writers. To the first of these (now called "the
old generation") belong Ovidiu Surianu (1918-1977), Mihu Dragomir
(1919-1964), Mircea Serbanescu (1919- ), Vladimir Colin (1921-1991),
Adrian Rogoz (1921- ), I.M. Stefan (1922- ), Victor Kernbach (1923- ),
Sergiu Farcasan (1924- ), Camil Baciu (1926- ), Georgina-Viorica Rogoz
(1927- ), Horia Arama (1930- ), Ion Hobana (1931- ) and many others
including Romulus Barbulescu (1925- ) and George Anania (1941- ), who
collaborated 1959-77 on 6 sf novels and several short stories. This
generation was able to publish in the bimonthly Colectia
'Povestiristiintifico-fantastice' ["The Collection of
'Scientific-Fantastic Stories'"], the longest-lasting Romanian sf review,
with 466 issues 1955-74 (editor-in-chief Adrian Rogoz). During its last
years this review also published the early stories of a number of the then
young writers (now known as "the middle generation"): Miron Scorobete
(1933), Leonida Neamtu (1934-1991), Constantin Cublesan (1939- ), Voicu
Bugariu (1939- ), Gheorghe Sasarman (1941- ), Mircea Oprita (1943- ) and
others. They continued their ascension in the period 1974-82, when the
Romanian literary scene was deprived of any sf periodical. Starting in
1982 the "new wave" of the 1980s emerged, the younger generation of
writers who have succeeded during the past decade in changing the
landscape of Romanian sf. This was a period of new outlets for sf writing,
including Almanah Anticipatia ["Anticipation Almanac"], with 8 annual vols
each over 300pp (editor-in-chief Ioan Eremia Albescu), and some
sporadically appearing magazines and FANZINES, the most regular being from
Timisoara: Helion (editor-in-chief Cornel Secu) and Paradox
(editor-in-chief Viorel Marineasa). Writers of this "young generation"
include Marcel Luca (1946- ), Gheorghe Paun (1950- ), Mihail Gramescu
(1951- ), Constantin Cozmiuc (1952-), Lucian Ionica (1952- ), Leonard
Oprea (1953- ), George Ceausu (1954- ), Cristian Tudor Popescu (1956- ),
Dorin Davideanu (1956- ), Ovidiu Bufnila (1957- ), Dan Merisca
(1957-1991), Lucian Merisca (1958- ), Alexandru Ungureanu (1957- ), Danut
Ungureanu (1958- ), Rodica Bretin (1958- ), Silviu Genescu (1958- ),
Mircea Liviu Goga (1958- ), Stefan Ghidoveanu (1958- ), Ovidiu Pecican
(1959- ), Viorel Pirligras (1959), Bogdan Ficeac (1960- ) and Mihnea
Columbeanu (1960- ).Another writer who, like Eliade, cannot be
accommodated into this generational classification is Ovid S.
Crohmalniceanu (1921- ). He is contemporary with the "old generation", and
as a literary critic has accompanied the whole sf movement since the
1950s. Suddenly this distinguished professor of Romanian literature burst
forth as an sf writer in the 1980s - simultaneously with the turbulent
young writers of the "new wave", yet quite distinct from them and from
FANDOM - with 2 masterly volumes of short stories: Istorii insolite
["Unwonted Stories"] (coll 1980) and Alte istorii insolite ["Other
Unwonted Stories"] (coll 1986).Though, naturally, each of these writers
has a distinctive voice, the generational differences do have an effect.
Ideologically shaped in the hard times of proletcult and "socialist
realism", then of "socialist humanism", most of the "old generation" took
an illusory refuge in the "humanistic credo" cynically imposed by an
inhuman communist dictatorship. Most of the young writers of the "new
wave", however, despite the even harder times of the 1980s, intuitively
accepted the elementary truth that a humanistic sf is an oxymoron. Thus
the older writers are generally more inclined to a hollow, programmatic
optimism: sweetened visions and lyricized epic sf motifs, with antagonisms
avoided and happy endings mandatory. The younger ones are more
misanthropic and sarcastic; sentimental lyricism is mocked, and the full
power of the epic is rediscovered. The result is a smouldering bitterness,
a cruelty of perception, an acknowledged auctorial "ruthlessness" that
recognizes conflict and does not flinch from unhappy endings.On the other
hand, there is a national context to be considered as well as the
international nature of sf itself, and this to a degree binds all the
generations. Romanian sf writers - most of them, at least - are seductive
storytellers, for palatable storytelling has always been praised in
Romanian literature. Thus the spirit of "finesse" conflicts with the
spirit of geometry, and extrapolation tends to be of only a loose logical
rigour (although not so with Eliade and Crohmalniceanu). Romanian sf has a
native propensity for analogy rather than extrapolation, soft sf rather
than hard, psychology rather than ontology; the thrill of science itself,
the true SENSE OF WONDER, is unusual in Romanian sf, though the sense of
HUMOUR is all too common, with parody sometimes ebulliently outrunning its
rather negligible objects.In place of thorough extrapolation is a rich
harvest of allegories, parables and dystopian visions, most of them
antitotalitarian. However, the best stories-including "Pianul preparat"
["The Prepared Piano"] (1966; rev 1974) by Horia Arama, "Evadarea lui
Algernon" ["Algernon's Escape"] (1978) by Gheorghe Sasarman, "Merele
negre" ["Black Apples"] (1981) by Mihail Gramescu, "Domenii interzise"
["Forbidden Domains"] (1984) by Leonard Oprea, "Omohom" (1987) by Cristian
Tudor Popescu and "Deratizare" (1985) by Lucian Merisca - are not mere
political pamphlets or moral essays but genuine stories, though equivocal
and allusive. The habit of double-thinking and half-speaking has deep
roots in history, and was exacerbated by the necessity of deceiving the
obtuse but draconian censorship imposed by the Communist Party and the
Romanian Secret Police. No matter how heart-relieving such Aesopian
stories may be, they limit their writers (and readers) to a minor
aesthetic. Now, with the risks diminished, Romanian writers - not only of
sf - realize they have forgotten how to express themselves directly, if
they have ever known; the Aesopian mode has become second nature,
difficult to eliminate if they are to face the major aesthetic challenge
of their art. [CR] Further reading: "Brief History of Romanian SF" by
Florin Manolescu, in Romanian Review #5 (1988); "Milestones in Postwar
Romanian Science Fiction" by Cornel ROBU in Foundation #49 (Summer 1990);
"About the Stories and their Authors" in Timpul este umbra noastra ["Time
is our Shadow"] (anth 1991) ed Robu; "Romanian 'Science Fantasy' in the
Cold War Era" by Elaine Kleiner, in Science-Fiction Studies, Mar 1992.
More information is available in Romanian: Virsta de aur a anticipatiei
romanesti ["The Golden Age of Romanian Anticipation"] (anth 1969) ed Ion
Hobana; Literatura S.F. ["Sf Literature"] (1980) by Florin Manolescu;
Anticipatia romaneasca ["The Romanian Anticipation"] (1993) by Mircea

(1927- ) US novelist and screenwriter, active in the latter capacity with
scripts like "Angels' Flight" (1962). Some of his work has dealt with
current investigations into parapsychology ( PSI POWERS), and his
filmscript on this subject was novelized by Louis CHARBONNEAU as The
Sensitives * (1968). DR's own sf novel, Flight from Time One (1972), also
treated parapsychology, this time in the didactic tale of an elite squad
of "astralnauts" whose members take on missions in their astral bodies.

Collaborative pseudonym used by Jerome BIXBY and Algis BUDRYS, on
"Underestimation" (1953). [PN]

Pseudonym used by immigrant Australian tv writer David Boutland (1938- )
for his sf, the first example being "Time of Arrival" in Apr 1961 for NW,
where many others of DR's 25 or so stories appeared over the next decade.
His only sf book, Squat (1965), subtitled "Sexual Adventures on Other
Planets", is not his best work. [PN]See also: GENERATION STARSHIPS.

(1940- ) US film-maker. A maverick working out of Pittsburgh rather than
Hollywood, GAR changed the face of the HORROR-movie genre with NIGHT OF
THE LIVING DEAD (1968), an apocalyptic nightmare - its theme derived from
Richard MATHESON's I Am Legend (1954) - in which the dead inexplicably
return to eat the living. Having tackled a surprisingly wide variety of
Vietnam-era social issues in this debut, GAR made a pair of "serious"
films - There's Always Vanilla (1972; vt The Affair) and the
witchcraft-themed Jack's Wife (1973; vt Hungry Wives; vt Season of the
Witch) - before returning to the former panicked mood in The CRAZIES
(1973; vt Code Name Trixie), in which a biological weapon is spilled in
Pennsylvania and causes an epidemic of insanity. After filler work for tv
- mainly profiles of sports personalities - GAR formed Laurel
Entertainment in partnership with Richard Rubinstein, and relaunched his
career with Martin (1978), an unorthodox, apparently non-supernatural
vampire picture. He then made 2 impressive and rigorous sequels to Night
of the Living Dead: DAWN OF THE DEAD (1978; vt Zombies) and DAY OF THE
DEAD (1985). Throughout the trilogy, which is marked as sf not so much by
its (conflicting) "explanations" for the crisis as by the concentration on
the social, political and psychological outcome of the devastation of
society, GAR has powerfully mingled black SATIRE with shock effects.
Spin-offs have included: an anthology, The Book of the Dead (anth 1989) ed
John Skipp and Craig Spector; a remake in 1990 ( NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD)
dir special-effects man Tom Savini, scripted and exec-produced GAR; and a
satire, Return of the Living Dead (1985), from a story by John Russo,
coscripter of the original film, and dir Dan O'Bannon.Outside the trilogy,
GAR has dir: Knightriders (1981), a personal film about alternative
lifestyles; Creepshow (1982), an EC COMICS-style anthology film written by
Stephen KING; MONKEY SHINES (1988, vt Monkey Shines: An Experiment in
Terror), an understated and impressive movie based on Michael STEWART's
Monkey Shines (1983), about an intelligent experimental monkey; one half
of Two Evil Eyes (1990), which GAR adapted from Edgar Allan POE's "The
Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar"; and The Dark Half (1991), a film
version of the 1989 Stephen King novel, which was only released two years
later. In addition, GAR has scripted episodes of the tv series Tales from
the Darkside (1984-9) and the films Creepshow 2 (1987) and Tales from The
Darkside: The Movie (1990). GAR left the Laurel Entertainment partnership
with Rubinstein in the early 1990s, leaving Rubinstein in control. [KN]See

A CURTIS WARREN house name used by Brian HOLLOWAY for 1 novel and Dennis
HUGHES for 2. [JC]

(1931- ) US writer, advertising man and actor. His Our Man in Space (1965
dos) is a little reminiscent of Robert A. HEINLEIN's Double Star (1956) in
its story of an actor unhappily spying on behalf of Earth. With John JAKES
and Claire Strauch he wrote the musical comedy Dracula, Baby (1970); Jakes
played Van Helsing in the premiere in Ohio. [PN]


(1906-1992) US writer whose I'll Grind Their Bones (1936) is a
locked-room mystery set in a future Europe about to go to war. Of fairly
moderate genre interest are the Thibaut Corday stories, featuring the
eponymous PULP hero in exotic adventures; they are assembled in The
Wonderful Lips of Thibong Linh [and] The Bearded Slayer (coll c. 1939 UK),
Monkey See, Monkey Do [and] Terror Stalks the Mangroves (coll c. 1939 UK),
the second story being by Eustace L. Adams, and The Wonderful Lips of
Thibong Linh (coll 1981), the latter title assembling earlier material.
[JC]Other Works: A Grave Must be Deep (1989) and Z is for Zombie (1989),
both titles reprints of pulp stories.

(1876-? ) South African author, a periodic UK resident, whose The
Maniac's Dream: A Novel of the Atomic Bomb (1946) was one of the first
post-Hiroshima future- WAR novels to respond to the threat of nuclear
HOLOCAUST, though in this case without much grounding in scientific
realities. An earlier work, The Night of the World (1944), centres on a
timeslip in an oasis peopled by figures from other ages. [JE/JC]Other
works: Bride of the Kalahari (1940); Pharoah's [sic] Crown (1943).See

John Russell FEARN.

(1939- ) US academic and writer whose assistance in preparing New Maps of
Hell (1960 US) was acknowledged by its author, Kingsley AMIS. An
apocalyptic post- HOLOCAUST short story, "We Would See a Sign" in Spectrum
3 (anth 1963) ed Amis and Robert CONQUEST, did not lead to a fiction
career, and MR remains best known in the sf field for Alien Encounters:
Anatomy of Science Fiction (1981) which, taking off from the DEFINITION OF
SF as a form of romance in Anatomy of Criticism (1957 US) by Northrop Frye
(1912-1991), redeploys the 19th-century confrontation between Man and
Nature to define sf as expressing a conflict between the human and the
nonhuman. Within the terms of this definition, which MR uses as a
conceptual (and inevitably partial) illumination of the field, he couches
some of the most elegantly literate practical criticism of selected texts
the genre has yet seen. The anthologies Science Fiction: A Collection of
Critical Essays (anth 1976) and Bridges to Science Fiction (anth 1980)
with George R. Guffey and George Edgar SLUSSER contain, perhaps
inevitably, less striking material. [JC]See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL

(1954- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Like the Gentle Rains"
for IASFM in 1982, but who has clearly felt more comfortable with tales of
novel length. His first book, The Sleeping Dragon (1983), a
SWORD-AND-SORCERY fantasy, begins the RECURSIVE Guardians of the Flame
sequence, continued with The Sword in the Chain (1984) and The Silver
Crown (1985) - these 3 assembled as Guardians of the Flame: The Warriors
(omni 1985) - plus The Heir Apparent (1987) and The Warrior Lives (1989) -
these 2 assembled as Guardians of the Flame: The Heroes (omni 1989) - plus
The Road to Ehvenor (1991). Though this sequence, along with D'Shai (1991)
and Hour of the Octopus (1994) in the projected D'Shai fantasy series,
makes up the bulk of his production to date, it could be argued that JR's
sf, beginning with Ties of Blood and Silver (1984), is central to his
work. This sf adventure and Emile and the Dutchman (fixup 1986) belong
very loosely to the Metzada sequence, which spans the Galaxy with anarchic
verve. More controversially, Not for Glory (fixup 1988) and its sequel
Hero (1990) focus directly upon the Jewish planet of Metzada, from which
tough mercenaries (who rather resemble Gordon R. DICKSON's Dorsai) issue
forth into combat; but these Israeli-like soldiers, and the Germans and
French and Dutch who have rigidly maintained their own "racial"
characteristics for centuries on their own planets, seem strangely
stereotyped. It will be interesting to see what JR can do to sophisticate
his ongoing galaxy. [JC]

(1952- ) US medical researcher and writer who began publishing sf with
"For a Price" for IASFM in 1990, and whose first 3 novels explore various
reaches of the contemporary sf landscape, though her favoured venue
remains the American West. The Drylands (1993), which is derived from
several stories but does not duplicate earlier material, posits a NEAR
FUTURE America quite strictly continuous with the present day: water in
the North-West states has become a burning issue; agribusinesses have
further impoverished rural areas; it is only with the introduction of a
protagonist with PSI POWERS that MR slips into conventional genre tactics.
Chimera (1993) somewhat less engagingly deals with the subject of VIRTUAL
REALITY, via a not-unusual mystery couched in noir terms and a Net
Conspiracy; her depiction of the actual inscapes of Virtual Reality are,
on the other hand, powerfully evocative. The Stone Garden (1994) features
a sculptor who encodes aesthetically moving emotional patterns into
mysterious stones found in the asteroid belt; but the book itself once
again depends on some precarious mystery-story plotting. MR's strengths
are in the vigorous realism of her rendering of human relationships as
they evolve under the stresses of the new worlds to come. [JC]

(1921- ) Polish-born Israeli writer and academic, variously resident also
in the USA and the UK, whose sf novels Level 7 (1959 US) and A Small
Armageddon (1962 UK) were both coloured by political concern about our
nuclear civilization. In the first and better known tale, a military
officer describes his feelings and duties from extremely deep within a
great bomb shelter as the world is gradually demolished above him. In the
second the crew of a nuclear submarine threatens to detonate its cargo
unless its demands - for sex and money - are met, with farcically
exaggerated results. The awful-warning content of MR's novels has perhaps
paled with the years, but only because of humanity's survival - pro tem.

ROSNY aine, J.H.
Pseudonym of French-speaking Belgian writer Joseph-Henri Boex
(1856-1940). His younger brother Justin shared the pseudonym J.H. Rosny
with him 1893-1907, and some works published during that period are
collaborative. Joseph-Henri used the name for solo writings before 1893,
and after 1907 it was divided, Joseph-Henri taking the suffix "aine" and
Justin "jeune". The elder Rosny is an important figure in the development
of French speculative fiction, although only one of his novels, Le felin
geant (1918 France; trans The Hon. Lady Whitehead as The Giant Cat 1924
US; vt Quest of the Dawn Man 1964 US) was translated into English during
his lifetime. Damon KNIGHT translated 2 of his most important short
stories: "Les xipehuz" (1887; trans as "The Shapes" in One Hundred Years
of Science Fiction, anth 1968), in which prehistoric humans encounter
inorganic ALIENS, and the PARALLEL-WORLDS story "Un autre monde" (1895;
trans as "Another World" in A Century of Science Fiction, anth 1962). The
former is also included, along with the fine END-OF-THE-WORLD story "La
mort de la terre" (1910), in The Xipehuz and The Death of the Earth (coll
trans George Edgar SLUSSER 1978). The most famous of JHR's many
prehistoric fantasies, La Guerre du Feu (1909 France; cut trans Harold
Talbott as The Quest for Fire: A Novel of Prehistoric Times 1967 US), was
filmed as QUEST FOR FIRE (1981). A "translation" of L'etonnant voyage de
Hareton Ironcastle ["The Astonishing Journey of Hareton Ironcastle"] (1922
France) was produced by Philip Jose FARMER as Ironcastle (1976), but so
drastically modified that it cannot be regarded as the same work. JHR's
prehistoric romances - which include Vamireh (1892), Eyrimah (1893) and
Helgvor du fleuve bleu ["Helgvor of the Blue River"] (1930) as well as
above-mentioned titles - were reissued in France in 1990 by Editions
Robert Laffont in a huge omnibus volume; many of his short sf and fantasy
stories, plus his semi-mystical speculative essay on creation and
EVOLUTION, La legende sceptique ["The Sceptical Legend"] (1889), and his
short novel Les navigateurs de l'infini ["Navigators of Infinity"] (1925)
are in a Marabout collection titled Recits de science-fiction ["Works of
Science Fiction"] (coll 1975 Belgium). The story begun in Les navigateurs
de l'infini is continued in the posthumous Les astronautes (1960 France).
JHR's other sf works include La grande enigme ["The Great Enigma"] (1920
France) and Les compagnons de l'univers ["Companions of the Universe"]
(1934), another lyrical meditation in the vein of La legende sceptique.
[BS]About the author: "The Sf of J.H. Rosny the Elder" by J.P. Vernier,
Science-Fiction Studies vol 2 #2 (July 1975).See also: ANTHROPOLOGY;


[s] Mack REYNOLDS.

(1949?- ) US writer who began publishing sf with his Dreamers of the Day
sequence - The Argus Gambit (1989) and The Eighth Rank (1991) - which
complicatedly traces the political and cultural consequences of a
21st-century ecological disaster. The seriousness with which he undertakes
the task of underlining the nature of the problems faced by humanity goes
some way to assuage the sense that DDR has not fully mastered the unstable
relationship between generic plotting and didactic thematic material. [JC]


Working name of US editor Joseph Wrzos (1929- ). He acted as Managing
Editor of AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC 1965-7 while continuing to teach
high-school English fulltime in New Jersey. He ed The Best of Amazing
(anth 1967). [PN]

(1895-1965) US writer and reporter, the protagonist of whose sf novel,
The Man who Lived Backward (1950), lives from 1940 to 1865, dying just
after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, which he is therefore unable
to prevent. [JC]



Pseudonym of US physician and writer Vernon H. Skeels (1918- ), who
received his MD in 1949 and whose first sf novel, Tetrasomy Two (1974), is
set in a hospital where a seemingly helpless human vegetable turns out to
be an amoral SUPERMAN preparing to eliminate the Solar System in order to
accumulate the energy necessary to tour the Galaxy. The Australian film
Patrick (1978) dir Richard Franklin is based on a remarkably similar

[r] Marjorie Bradley KELLOGG.

(1933- ) US author of several works of cultural criticism who began
writing sf with Bugs (1981), in which a frightened child telepath causes
bugs to infiltrate computer systems and thereafter to eat people. A second
novel, Dreamwatcher (1985), concerning PSI POWERS, blends fantasy and sf,
as does the remarkable Flicker (1991) which, in a manner evocative of
Steve ERICKSON's blackly surreal version of film America, describes secret
horrors contained subliminally in 1920s and 1930s films made by a
mysterious forgotten German director, horrors which themselves reveal a
Secret History of the World. [JC]

(1933- ) US writer who remains best known for Portnoy's Complaint (1969),
a novel whose sophisticated and often comic treatment of sexual obsessions
is fantastically furthered ( FABULATION) in The Breast (1972), the tale of
the sudden and painful transformation of a man into a female breast; the
psychosexual implications of the metaphor are clear, as is the debt to
Franz KAFKA. The descent to Hell of "Trick E. Dixon" in Our Gang (1971) is
arousing. [JC]

Working name of US writer Charles Warren Rothman (1952- ), who began
publishing sf with "The Munij Deserters" for IASFM in 1982 and whose sf
novel, Staroamer's Fate (1986), has a precognitive protagonist doomed by
her talent to travel from world to world, shaping events as she goes. With
his wife, Susan Noe Rothman, CR serves as joint secretary/treasurer of the

[r] Tony ROTHMAN.

(1953- ) US writer whose sf novel, The World is Round (1978), though
suffering from excessive length and a confusingly overcomplicated story,
creates a Big-Planet venue ( Jack VANCE) of some interest; he has also
written some books popularizing physics, and several of the stories about
the USSR assembled in Censored Tales (coll 1989 UK) are absurdist
FABULATIONS. TR's father, Milton A. Rothman (1919- ), a physicist, also
wrote some sf stories, as by Lee Gregor. [JC]See also: JUPITER.

(1926- ) US writer and artist who received a 1975 HUGO for his fan art;
his cartoons may be remembered as much as his fiction. He began publishing
sf with "Ship Me Tomorrow" for Gal in 1970 and, although he initially kept
his own name for autonomous work - using the pseudonym John Ryder Hall and
the BALLANTINE house name William ARROW for novelizations - all his novels
since about 1980 have been TIES of one sort or another. His first novel,
Patron of the Arts (1974), remains his best received; incorporating his
best known and most praised short story, "Patron of the Arts" (1972), it
describes in Wagnerian terms an all-encompassing artform, using holograms
and other sf devices ( ARTS), but vitiates some of its speculative
interest through a contrived action plot. WR's second novel, To the Land
of the Electric Angel (1976), shares a similar setting - what seems to be
an extrapolation of modern southern California - in a tale involving
CRYONICS, the reawakening of the hero in a DYSTOPIAN future, gladiatorial
contests and much more. The Zandra series - Zandra (1978) and The Hidden
Worlds of Zandra (1983) - shares the same background, while The Far
Frontier (1980) is set in nearby space. These later books are
significantly less accomplished than their predecessors, and their large
casts of routinely differentiated characters generate the impression that
their author was attempting to work in a bestseller idiom dangerous to the
creative mind. With Gregory BENFORD (whom see for details) WR contributed
Shiva Descending (1980) to the the asteroid- DISASTER subgenre. [JC]Other
works: Iron Man: And Call my Killer . . . Modok * (1979); Dr Strange:
Nightmare * (1979); 2 Mr Merlin tv ties, Mr Merlin, Episode 1 * (1981) and
Mr Merlin, Episode 2 * (1981); Star Trek II: Short Stories * (coll 1982);
Blackhawk * (1982); Star Trek II: Biographies * (coll 1983); Star Trek II:
Distress Call * (1983); Star Trek III: The Vulcan Treasure * (1984); Star
Trek III Short Stories * (coll 1984); Goonies: Cavern of Horror * (1985),
a film tie.As John Ryder Hall: Futureworld * (1976); Sinbad and the Eye of
the Tiger * (1977).As William Arrow: #1 and #3 of the Return to the Planet
of the Apes books, based not on the films but on the later animated tv
series: Visions from Nowhere * (1976) and Man, the Hunted Animal * (1976).

(1942- ) Austrian sf critic, editor and literary agent; he has a PhD from
the University of Vienna. He has edited the SF of the World series for
Insel Verlag, the Fantastic Novels series for Paul Zsolnay Verlag, and the
Fantastic Library series - now over 250 vols - for Suhrkamp Verlag. He
writes in English as well as in German, his critical articles having
appeared in SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES and elsewhere. He is particularly well
known for his spirited promotion of the work of Stanislaw LEM, for whom he
is literary agent, and for the contempt he has often expressed for much
GENRE SF. His criticism is intelligent, polemical and left-wing, and best
expressed in fairly academic formats; his popular illustrated history of
sf, The Science Fiction Book (1975), is generally felt to be sketchy. In
the same vein, but perhaps better, is The Fantasy Book: The Ghostly, the
Gothic, the Magical, the Unreal (1978). In English he is also known for
his collection of European sf, View from Another Shore (anth 1973); for
his collection of "literary" fantasies by Jorge Luis BORGES and others,
The Slaying of the Dragon: Modern Tales of the Playful Imagination (anth
1984); and for Microworlds: Writings on Science Fiction (coll 1984) by
Lem, ed and introduced by FR. Many of his critical writings in German
appear in his own high-quality FANZINE, QUARBER MERKUR, from which the
book Quarber Merkur (anth 1979) was collected. 2 books of essays ed FR are
Uber H.P. Lovecraft ["On H.P. Lovecraft"] (anth 1984), and Die dunkle
Seite der Wirklichkeit ["The Dark Side of Reality"] (anth 1987). Since
1989 he has been editing a serial guide in loose-leaf form in binders,
1250pp to Feb 1991: "Werkfuhrer durch die utopisch-phantastiche Literatur"
["Work Guide to Utopian and Fantastic Literature"].In German he has ed
many anthologies of stories and essays about sf, including: Die Ratte im
Labyrinth ["Rats in the Maze"] (anth 1971); the Polaris series, Polaris 1
(anth 1973), #2 (anth 1974), a special Soviet sf issue, #3 (anth 1975), #4
(anth 1978), a French sf issue, #5 (anth 1981), #6 (anth 1982), a Herbert
W. FRANKE issue, #7 (anth 1983), #8 (anth 1985), #9 (anth 1985), old
German sf, and #10 (anth 1986), a STRUGATSKI issue; Phantastiche Traume
["Fantastic Dreams"] (anth 1983); Phantastiche Welten ["Fantastic Worlds"]
(anth 1984); Phantastiche Aussichten ["Fantastic Sights"] (anth 1985);
Phantastiche Zeiten ["Fantastic Times"] (anth 1986); Lovecraft Lesebuch
["Lovecraft Reader"] (anth 1987); Seltsame Labyrinthe ["Strange
Labyrinths"] (anth 1987); Der Eingang ins Paradies ["The Door into
Paradise"] (anth 1988); Arche Noah ["Noah's Ark"] (anth 1989); Die Sirene
["The Siren"] (anth 1990); Phantastiche Begegnungen ["Fantastic
Encounters"] (anth 1990). [PN]See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS

(? - ) UK author of the Zone sequence of sf adventures set during WWIII,
waged in Germany: The Zone #1: Hard Target (1980), #2: Blind Fire (1980),
#3: Hunter Killer (1981), #4: Sky Strike (1981), #5: Overkill (1982), #6:
Plague Bomb (1986), #7: Killing Ground (1988), #8: Civilian Slaughter
(1989) and #9: Body Count (1990). [JC]

Working name of UK-born writer Avigdor Rousseau Emanuel (1879-1960), who
also used the pseudonym H.M. Egbert on his sf, though not exclusively, and
V.R. Emanuel for other work; born of a Jewish father and a French
mother-as Sam MOSKOWITZ writes in Under the Moons of Mars (anth 1970) - he
moved to the USA some time during WWI. After a non-genre novel, Derwent's
Horse (1901), VR began writing sf in PULP MAGAZINES before WWI, stopping
in 1941; much material was never collected, including the Surgeon of Souls
series of 11 fantasy stories in Weird Tales (1926-7). In his first sf
novel, The Sea Demons (1916 All-Story Weekly as V. Rousseau; 1924 UK) as
by H.M. Egbert, invisible hive-like sea creatures threaten humanity (
INVISIBILITY), but a submarine finds and destroys the queen. The Messiah
of the Cylinder (1917; vt The Apostle of the Cylinder 1918 UK), VR's best
known work and told with his usual flamboyance and narrative verve,
directly imitates the form of H.G. WELLS's When the Sleeper Wakes (1899),
and harshly criticizes the atheistic world-state UTOPIA there depicted; it
was seen, consequently, as a melodramatic critique of Wellsian socialism,
though Wells's novel was, in fact, deeply ambiguous about the world it
described, serving more as a pretext for VR's book than as an argument to
be refuted. In VR's novel a brave protagonist destroys the future state
into which he has been awoken from SUSPENDED ANIMATION, and restores
aristocracy to the land. Draught of Eternity (1918 All-Story Weekly as V.
Rousseau; 1924 UK) as by Egbert is a love story set in a ruined New York.
Eric of the Strong Heart (1925 UK) is a lost-race tale ( LOST WORLDS).
Perhaps mainly because of his heated style, VR remains of some interest.
[JC]Other works: My Lady of the Nile (1923 UK) as by Egbert; Mrs Aladdin
(1925 UK).About the author: "H.G. Wells and Victor Rousseau Emanuel" by
Richard D. MULLEN in EXTRAPOLATION, Vol 8 #2 (1967).See also: ASTOUNDING

(?1795-1856) UK writer perhaps best known for his Australian adventure
fiction assembled in Tales of the Colonies (coll 1843) and its successors.
In his sf novel, The Triumph of Woman: A Christmas Story (1848), an
inhabitant of sexless Neptune visits a German, with whose daughter he
falls in love amid erudite discussions of Neptunian science. The plot then
devolves into a satirical travelogue. [JC]

Professional name of US illustrator Rowena Morrill (1944- ); she and
Victoria Poyser are among the few women who have had an impact on
sf/fantasy art. Her ILLUSTRATION has appeared since the mid-1970s,
primarily on paperback covers, more often FANTASY than sf; it is largely
fantastical and often symbolic, but quite varied in style and subject
matter. She has done several covers for novels by Piers ANTHONY. Her
technique is polished and sometimes fastidiously detailed, though her
human figures (often based on photographs) perhaps conform too much to a
commercially acceptable prettiness, and some of her painting in the
HEROIC-FANTASY vein of Boris VALLEJO has been accused of being "degrading
to women". Unusually, she uses a combination of acrylics and oils rather
than one or the other, and finishes with a high-gloss glaze. The Fantastic
Art of Rowena (1983) has colour reproductions of 26 of her pieces. She has
had a number of HUGO nominations. [PN/JG]

(1928- ) UK author of a very large number of pseudonymous works,
relatively few of them sf; most were for ROBERT HALE LIMITED. For that
firm (or for the highly similar house of Gresham) his SPACE OPERAS under
his own name are Despot in Space (1973), Master of Space (1974), Space
Venturer (1976) and Nightmare Planet (1976). [JC]As Fenton Brockley: Star
Quest (1974).As Roger Carlton: Beyond Tomorrow (1975), Star Arrow
(1975).As Graham Garner: Space Probe (1974), Starfall Muta (1975), Rifts
of Time (1976).As Alex Random: Star Cluster Seven (1974), Dark
Constellation (1975), Cradle of Stars (1975).As Roland Starr: The Omina
sequence, being Operation Omina (1973), Omina Uncharted (1974), Time
Factor (1975), Return from Omina (1976).As Mark Suffling: Project Oceanus
(1975), Space Crusader (1975).

(1948- ) UK-born US writer who has from the first specialized in
efficiently written adventure-sf novels with a strong military component,
beginning with the War for Eternity sequence - The War for Eternity
(1983), The Black Ship (1985), The Founder (1989) and To a Highland Nation
(1994) - which concentrates on warfare within our Solar System. The Vang
sequence - Starhammer (1986), The Vang: The Military Form (1988) and The
Vang: The Battlemaster (1990) - moves into deeper space and features a
deadly ALIEN lifeform. In Golden Sunlands (1987) the humans on a colony
planet are kidnapped to serve as cannon fodder in an artificial universe,
but soon show their spunk. With George Snow (anon) he wrote the STAR WARS
text Return of the Jedi * (1983 chap). [JC]Other works: The Bazil
Broketail fantasy sequence comprising Bazil Broketail (1992), A Sword for
a Dragon (1993) and Dragons of War (1994).


Working name of Scottish professor of astronomy Archibald Edmiston Roy
(1924- ), whose unremarkable sf adventures, all making use of PARALLEL
WORLDS, include Deadlight (1968), The Curtained Sleep (1969) and All Evil
Shed Away (1970). Sable Night (1973), The Dark Host (1976) and Devil in
the Darkness (1978) are horror. [JC]

Gardner F. FOX.


Dennis HUGHES.

(? - ) US writer known only for Weightless in Gaza (1970 as Fred Shannon;
exp vt Dionysus: The Ultimate Experiment 1977), in which NASA conducts sex
experiments in space. [JC]

(1942- ) Australian writer of sf for adolescents ( CHILDREN'S SF). Space
Demons (1986) and its sequel, Skymaze (1989), deal with AI in interactive
COMPUTER games ( GAMES AND TOYS) in which players enter a VIRTUAL REALITY.
Space Demons: The Play * (1990) was an adaptation for the THEATRE by
Richard Tulloch. Beyond the Labyrinth (1988) shows teenagers developing a
relationship with an ALIEN anthropologist;Galax-Arena (1992) continues the
theme in a story whose human protagonists are captured by aliens. GR uses
sf devices as metaphors for exploring and resolving adolescents' painful
personal relationships. At Ardilla (1991), not sf, is a rite-of-passage
book about a growing girl. GR has edited After Dark (anth 1988) and Before
Dawn (anth 1988). Her books for much younger children are Melanie and the
Night Animal (1988), Answers to Brut (1988), Flashback: The Amazing
Adventures of a Film Horse (1990) and Dog In, Cat Out (1991), the last
being with illustrator Ann James. [JW]See also: AUSTRALIA.

Working name of US writer, mathematician and computer programmer Rudolf
von Bitter Rucker (1946- ), who has advanced degrees in MATHEMATICS from
Rutgers University. Like many sf writers, he began very early to produce
stories, but unlike most who became successful he had difficulty placing
his work, in which mathematical concepts and diagrams tended to generate
both plot and venue, making arduous demands upon his readers. "The
Miracle", his first-published story, appeared in The Pegasus, an amateur
magazine, in 1962; "Faraway Eyes", the second to reach print, appeared in
ASF in 1980. Many of the stories assembled in The 57th Franz Kafka (col
1983) - which, along with RR's early poetry, later stories and nonfiction
pieces, were further assembled in Transreal! (coll 1991) - never appeared
in magazine form. It is, perhaps, no wonder. Any attempt to describe RR
convincingly as a CYBERPUNK writer must founder on a simple distinction.
Cyberpunk writers tended to describe the experience of living in a dense
and desolate NEAR FUTURE in a CYBERSPACE which served as their career-goal
and nirvana, but which they had no need to understand. For RR, on the
other hand, the experience of living in a game-like world was much less
important than the exercise of understanding its nature. The roots of his
fiction lie not in GENRE SF or the film noir that clearly inspired much
cyberpunk, but in the profound mathematical games of Lewis CARROLL, or of
Edwin A. ABBOTT, the author of Flatland (1884), or of C.H. HINTON, author
of Scientific Romances (colls 1886 and 1902), whose Speculations on the
Fourth Dimension: Selected Writings of Charles H. Hinton (coll 1980) RR
edited ( DIMENSIONS).The abstraction of RR's work cannot be denied, nor
the daunting assertiveness of his adventuring mind. At the same time, his
novels and stories are told with comic bravura - his work has been
compared to that of the early Robert SHECKLEY - and a strange crystalline
exuberance that makes any page of his easily identifiable. Moreover, his
protagonists - even the sexually ravaged first-person narrators of several
texts, sometimes named Bitter, who must in part be autobiographical - are
beguilingly raunchy, vigorous and zany. For instance, the posthumous
protagonist of his first novel to reach book form, White Light, or What is
Cantor's Continuum Problem? (1980), displays an undeniable glee as he
journeys through transreal spacetimes of crippling complexity. The
thematic sequels to this novel, The Sex Sphere (1983) and The Secret of
Life (1985), similarly combine HUMOUR and the chill of intellection as
further worlds derived from higher mathematics take prickly shape. RR's
first-written novel, Spacetime Donuts (1978-9 Unearth; full text 1981),
provides a mockingly simplistic vision of a DYSTOPIAN near future as well
as his first extended presentation of COMPUTERS, the second dominant
concern in his work as a whole. This concern pervades his ROBOT series -
which might be called the Ware books - comprising SOFTWARE (1982), which
won the first PHILIP K. DICK AWARD, and Wetware (1988), which shared the
same award in 1988, with at least one further volume projected; the first
two have meanwhile been assembled as Live Robots (omni 1994). In these
books a forbidding competence in the field of AI is lightened by a style
occasionally reminiscent of John T. SLADEK. RR's other novels include
Master of Space and Time (1984), very similar in tone to The Sex Sphere,
and with autobiographical sequences deriving from the earlier-written
nonfiction All the Visions: A Novel of the Sixties (1990 dos); the
RECURSIVE The Hollow Earth (1990), an orthodox ALTERNATE-WORLD tale set in
the 19th century, in which an inner world ( HOLLOW EARTH) can be entered
from the South Pole, which is what Edgar Allan POE (who is treated with a
remarkable lack of gaucheness) and the young protagonist eventually do;
and The Hacker and the Ants (1994), a tale couched in thriller mode, and
involving AIs and viral ants.In addition to several technical works of
nonfiction, RR edited Mathenauts: Tales of Mathematical Wonder (anth 1987)
and Semiotext(e) (anth 1988) with Peter Lambourn Wilson and Robert Anton
WILSON. He was reported as of 1991 to be involved in writing
VIRTUAL-REALITY - which he preferred to call cyberspace-computer software.
[JC]Other works: Light Fuse and Get Away (coll 1983 chap),
poetry.Nonfiction: Geometry, Relativity, and the Fourth Dimension (1977);
Infinity and the Mind: The Science and Philosophy of the Infinite (1982);
The 4th Dimension: Toward a Geometry of Higher Reality (1984).Computer
Software: CA Lab: Rudy Rucker's Cellular Automata Laboratory (1989); James
Gleick's Chaos: The Software (1990).See also: BLACK HOLES; CYBERNETICS;

(1893-1942) US author and PULP-MAGAZINE editor who contributed sf to
Weird Tales, The Blue Book Magazine, etc. He is best known for the Sax
ROHMER-esque fantasy The Stuffed Men (1935), which describes the effects
of a fungus that grows within the human body; this is part of a hideous
Oriental revenge. [JE]



Film (1984) Tri-Star/Delphi III. Dir Michael CRICHTON, starring Tom
Selleck, Cynthia Rhodes, Gene Simmons, Kirstie Alley. Screenplay Crichton.
97 mins. Colour.Crichton again exercises his love/hate relationship with
machines in this predictable but exciting thriller about a policeman whose
job it is to deal with defective ROBOTS. He is pitted against an evil
businessman who is deliberately making mechanical killers (by
reprogramming household robots) and can deploy heat-seeking bullets
personalized to their targets.Crichton's main theme, as ever, is that
machinery tends always to go wrong; his subtext is that humans, too, are
usually defective, thus creating the typical Crichtonian gloom that may
have prevented him gaining lasting box-office success. However, he seems
fond of his mutinous machines, and the best parts of this robot-saturated
movie are affectionate observations of the little beasts at work. [PN]

[s] Brian W. ALDISS.

Film (1987). Taft Entertainment/Keith Barish Productions. Dir Paul
Michael Glaser, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Conchita Alonso,
Richard Dawson. Screenplay Steven E. De Souza, based on The Running Man
(1982) by Richard Bachman (Stephen KING). 101 mins. Colour.In a
near-future, semi-totalitarian, economically crippled USA, a framed cop
(Schwarzenegger) is forced to star in the top-rating tv game show The
Running Man, in which "criminals" are tracked by tv cameras as they
desperately attempt to escape theatrically dressed assassin-athletes. He
turns the tables, violently, as the oppressed masses cheer. The criticism
of MEDIA exploitation of violence and pain (game shows as the opiate of
the downtrodden) strongly resembles that in Le PRIX DU DANGER (1983),
based on Robert SHECKLEY's short story "The Prize of Peril" (1958). As
usual when moralizing about the nasty possibilities of our desire for
vicarious thrills, TRM exploits the very voyeurism it purports to attack.
The SATIRE against the media is crude but well done; the comic-book
violence is strictly routine; Schwarzenegger is wooden. [PN]

(1928-1987) US writer of thrillers and some sf who began publishing the
latter with "First Man in a Satellite" for Super-Science Fiction in 1958.
Pig World (1971) depicts a NEAR-FUTURE USA governed by a right-wing
tyranny challenged by a vicious would-be demagogue. Soulmate (1970 FSF;
exp 1974) is a novel of possession, the victim being a young prostitute.
CWR's sf tends to be action-filled, without extensive displacement or
speculative content. [JC]Other works: Ames Holbrook, Deity (1972); I,
Weapon (1974).



Imaginary countries are common in the literatures of the world, but only
some can properly be called Ruritanian. In The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) by
the UK writer Anthony Hope (1863-1933) a leisured and insouciant young
Britisher of the 1890s travels on a whim, via Paris and Dresden, to the
small, feudal, independent, German-speaking middle-European kingdom of
Ruritania, located somewhere southeast of the latter city. Here, as a
freelance commoner, he becomes embroiled in complex romantic intrigues
involving swordplay, aristocratic flirtations, switches of identity,
complicated dynastic politicking and threats to the monarchy; in the end,
as from a dream, he returns to the West. (In the sequel, Rupert of Hentzau
[1898], he goes back to Ruritania and dies.) Any tale containing a
significant combination of these ingredients can be called Ruritanian.
Only two elements are essential: the tale must provide a fairy-tale
enclave located both within and beyond normal civilization; and it must be
infused by an air of nostalgia - not dissimilar to that found in some
lost-race novels ( LOST WORLDS). This belatedness of the true Ruritania
might seem to exclude it from sf, whose ideological posture usually
precludes the advertising of nostalgic enclaves; but UTOPIAS and DYSTOPIAS
often take an initial Ruritanian cast (which often turns sour); the
palace-politics which govern many GALACTIC EMPIRES owe more to Hope than
they do to Edward Gibbon (1737-1794); and many post- HOLOCAUST novels,
especially those set in a USA balkanized into feuding principalities, are
clearly Ruritanian. Moreover, SCIENCE-FANTASY tales regularly discover
Ruritanias at the world's heart.However pervasive the influence of
Ruritania may be throughout later genre fictions, it is rarely explicit.
However, Edmond HAMILTON's The Star Kings (1949; vt Beyond the Moon 1950)
and Robert A. HEINLEIN's Double Star (1956) are clear reworkings of the
plot of The Prisoner of Zenda; and Avram DAVIDSON's The Enquiries of
Doctor Eszterhazy (coll of linked stories 1975; exp vt The Adventures of
Doctor Eszterhazy 1990) is set in an ALTERNATE-WORLD version of a
Ruritanian 19th-century Europe.It could be argued that tales of this
category, when set on a past or present Earth, should be called Ruritanian
only if they are located somewhere along the mountainous border between
Czechoslovakia and Poland, and that tales set in Balkan enclaves should be
called Graustarkian, after the otherwise very similar Graustark (1901) and
its sequels Beverly of Graustark (1904) and The Prince of Graustark (1914)
by the US writer George Barr McCutcheon (1866-1928); but this would be
both pedantic and unproductive. The terms are nearly indistinguishable.
When UK writers refer to Ruritania and their US counterparts to the
slightly less well known Graustark, they are referring to the same state
of mind. [JC]

(1960- ) US editor and writer who began publishing work of genre interest
with "Sing" for Aboriginal Science Fiction in 1987; she won the 1990 JOHN
W. CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New Writer. Her work is strongly emotional in
nature, focusing on critical experiences and rites of passage in the lives
of characters existing in relatively conventional sf, fantasy and horror
settings. Sometimes, as in "Story Child" (1990) - about a healing child in
a post- HOLOCAUST society - this approach can lead her into
sentimentality; but other pieces, such as "Trains" (1990) - in which a
battered wife finds temporary happiness with a supernatural hipster - are
genuinely moving. The Gallery of his Dreams (1991 chap) is a TIME-TRAVEL
tale featuring the photographer Matthew B. Brady (c1823-1896), whose work
illuminated the US Civil War. The White Mists of Power (1991), her first
novel, is a fantasy. Afterimage (1992) with Kevin J. ANDERSON is
sf.Despite this activity, KKR was considerably more prominent in the late
1980s for her editorial work as cofounder (with Dean Wesley SMITH) in 1987
of PULPHOUSE PUBLISHING, through which she edited the magazine/anthology
series PULPHOUSE: THE HARDBACK MAGAZINE , which stopped with #11 in 1993,
and The Best of Pulphouse: The Hardback Magazine (anth 1991). While
continuing to work at Pulphouse (her responsibilities lessened but still
considerable), KKR in late 1991 became editor of The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY
AND SCIENCE FICTION, and soon edited, with Ed FERMAN, The Best from
Fantasy and Science Fiction: a 45th Anniversary Anthology (anth 1994).
With Smith she ed Science Fiction Writers of America Handbook: The
Professional Writer's Guide to Writing Professionally (anth 1990), which
is not well organized but is dense with information and advice.
[NT/JC]Other works: Facade (1993); Heart Readers (1993 UK); Traitors (1993
UK); Alien Influences (1994 UK); Sins of the Blood (1994).See also:

(1946- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Nanda" for ASF in 1972.
Houndstooth (1975) features a spy dog with a computer implant that allows
its human handlers to see through its eyes; The Gods of Cerus Major
(1982), though perhaps somewhat mechanical in its ruthless piling-up of
crises, demonstrates an intimate sense of genre device as the protagonist,
on a test flight that goes wrong, encounters a variety of strangenesses on
an unexplored planet. Morlac: The Quest of the Green Magician (1986) is
fantasy. Death Hunt on a Dying Planet (1988), despite its inflamed title,
rather soberly depicts the experiences of a woman who, awakened from
SUSPENDED ANIMATION after 700 years, must make sense of a world whose
cultures are in terminal dispute. [JC]Other works: A Game of Titans
(1976), both associational.

(1947- ) Indian-born writer, educated in the UK at Rugby and Cambridge
and long a UK citizen. His fame derives not solely from the illegal fatwa,
or death "sentence", proclaimed against him by the Islamic theocracy of
Iran for The Satanic Verses (1988), but also, and far more importantly,
from all his previous work, beginning with the complex and witty,
legend-like Grimus (1975), a FABULATION (like all his novels) which makes
marginal use of sf material in its invoking of IMMORTALITY themes and in
the interdimensional conflicts its eternally young Native American
protagonist must undergo in his search, through an emblematic
World-Island, for the moment of death; ultimately, with Sufi-like
irreverent sublimity about the nature of transcendence, he succeeds. The
narrator of Midnight's Children (1980), one of 1001 children born at
midnight on the day of India's independence, interweaves personal and
national stories in fabulist terms; Shame (1983) similarly but less
successfully erects a mythopoeic framework around the land of Pakistan.
The Satanic Verses scabrously anatomizes, in fantasy terms, a RELIGION
whose more fanatically fundamentalist devotees responded brutally to its
being comprehended in this fashion. Haroun and the Sea of Stories (1990)
is a fable reflecting, indirectly, the nature of its author's own
experiences after 1988. The Wizard of Oz (coll 1992 chap US) presents his
reflections on L. Frank BAUM and Hollywood. Some of the stories assembled
in East, West (coll 1994) are fantasy. [JC]See also: PERCEPTION.

(1937- ) US writer and academic who has taught at various universities
since 1970; she has been a professor of English at the University of
Washington since 1977. She began publishing sf in 1959 with "Nor Custom
Stale" for The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION, a journal to which
she also contributed occasional book reviews for some years. (JR won the
1988 PILGRIM AWARD for her sf criticism.) Her early work is less formally
innovative than the stories she began to publish in the 1970s, but The
Hidden Side of the Moon (coll 1987), which assembles material from
throughout her career, demonstrates how cogent a writer of GENRE SF she
could have become. JR's first novel, Picnic on Paradise (1968), comprises
the largest single portion of ALYX (coll 1976; vt The Adventures of Alyx
1985 UK), a series of tales about a time-travelling mercenary, tough,
centred, autonomous and female; much of the initial impact of the sequence
lies in its use of Alyx in situations where she acts as a fully
responsible agent, vigorously engaged in the circumstances surrounding
her, but without any finger-pointing on the author's part to the effect
that one should only pretend not to notice that she is not a man. The
liberating effect of the Alyx tales has been pervasive, and the ease with
which later writers now use active female protagonists in adventure roles,
without having to argue the case, owes much to this example ( WOMEN AS
PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION). JR herself became, in most of her later
work, far more explicit about FEMINIST issues, though her muffled but
ambitious second novel, AND CHAOS DIED (1970) tells from a male viewpoint
of the experiences of a man forced by the psychically transformed human
inhabitants of a planet on which he has crashlanded to endure the
rewriting of his psychic nature as he perilously acquires PSI POWERS. His
rediscovery of Earth in the latter part of the book is to satirical
effect.It was with JR's third tale, THE FEMALE MAN (1975), which awaited
publication for some time, that the programmatic feminist novel may be
said to have come of age in sf. Stunningly foregrounding the feminist
arguments which had tacitly sustained her work to this point, it presents
a series of 4 ALTERNATE WORLDS, in each of which a version of the central
protagonist enacts a differing life, all dovetailing as the plot advances.
From psychic servitude to fully matured freedom - as represented by the
female UTOPIA of the planet Whileaway - these lives amount to a definitive
portrait of the life-chances of the central protagonist on Earth. Savage
and cleansing in its anger, the book stands as one of the most significant
uses of sf instruments to make arguments about our own world and
condition.In its portrait of a dying woman on a planet without life, We
who Are About to . . . (1977), an anti- ROBINSONADE, less vigorously moves
to the pole of utter solitude. The Two of Them (1978) shivers generically
between telling the realistic story of the oppression - and escape - of a
young woman brought up on a planet whose religion is reminiscent of Islam,
and deconstructing this generic material into the embittered dreams of a
woman trapped on Earth.JR won the 1972 NEBULA for Best Short Story with
"When it Changed", an earlier and perhaps even more devastating tale of
Whileaway. Other short work of note - including "Daddy's Girl" (1975), a
reprise of some of the themes of THE FEMALE MAN, and "The Autobiography of
My Mother" (1975) - has appeared in The Zanzibar Cat (coll 1983; rev 1984)
and EXTRA(ORDINARY) PEOPLE (coll 1984), the latter volume containing Souls
(1982 FSF; 1989 chap dos), which won the 1983 HUGO for Best Novella. For
30 years, JR has been the least comfortable author writing sf, very nearly
the most inventive experimenter in fictional forms, and the most electric
of all to read. The gifts she has brought to the genre are two in number:
truth-telling and danger. [JC]Other works: Kittatinny: A Tale of Magic
(1978 chap), a juvenile; WomanSpace: Future and Fantasy Stories and Art by
Women (anth 1981 chap) ed anon; On Strike Against God (1982),
associational; How to Suppress Women's Writing (1983), an adversarial
nonfiction study; Magic Mommas, Trembling Sisters, Puritans and Perverts:
Feminist Essays (coll 1985).About the author: Marilyn Hacker's
introduction to the 1977 reprint of THE FEMALE MAN; Samuel R. DELANY's

(1872-1970) UK mathematician, philosopher and controversialist who
succeeded to the family title, becoming Third Earl Russell, in 1931. He
was awarded a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950. Near the end of his
immensely long career - he published his first essays in 1894, his first
book being German Social Democracy (1896) - he published 3 books
containing a series of fable-like tales: Satan in the Suburbs and Other
Stories (coll 1953), Nightmares of Eminent Persons and Other Stories (coll
1954) and Fact and Fiction (coll 1961), all being assembled as The
Collected Stories of Bertrand Russell (omni 1972). Somewhat after the
manner of VOLTAIRE, these tales - some, like "The Infra-Redioscope" from
the first volume and "Planetary Effulgence" from the last, are sf -
didactically (though with grace) embody their author's sceptical attitude
toward human ambitions and pretensions, and to the ideas with which we
delude ourselves. [JC]Other works include: History of the World in
Epitome, for Use in Martian Infant Schools (1962 chap).See also:

(1905-1978) UK writer. He used the pseudonyms Webster Craig and Duncan H.
Munro on a few short stories and borrowed Maurice G. Hugi's ( Brad KENT)
name for one other. His first story was "The Saga of Pelican West" for
ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in 1937, and he was the first UK writer to
become a regular contributor to that magazine; he used a slick pastiche-US
style in most of his stories. EFR was interested in the works and theories
of Charles FORT, and based his first novel, Sinister Barrier (1939
Unknown; 1943; rev 1948 US), on Fort's suggestion that the human race
might be "property", the owners here being invisible parasites which feed
on human pain and anguish; it was featured in #1 of UNKNOWN, although it
is straightforward sf and quite atypical of that magazine. His STAR
TREK-like Jay Score series, about a crew of interplanetary explorers
including a heroic ROBOT, appeared in ASF from 1941, and was collected in
Men, Martians and Machines (coll of linked stories 1955).Some of EFR's
best work was done in the years after WWII, including "Metamorphosite"
(1946), "Hobbyist" (1947) and "Dear Devil" (1950). A series of bitter
anti- WAR stories, including "Late Night Final" (1948) and "I am Nothing"
(1952), culminated in the fine pacifist SATIRE ". . . And Then There Were
None" (1951), subsequently incorporated into The Great Explosion (fixup
1962). EFR went on to write other stories in which militaristic humans are
confronted by frustrating cultures, including "The Waitabits" (1955),
although he pandered to John W. CAMPBELL Jr's human chauvinism in stories
which confronted unimaginative humanoid ALIENS with awkwardly inventive
humans, as in "Diabologic" (1955), The Space Willies (1956 ASF as "Plus
X"; exp 1958 dos; rev vt Next of Kin 1959 UK), "Nuisance Value" (1957) and
Wasp (1957 US; exp 1958 UK). The HUGO-winning anti-bureaucratic satire
"Allamagoosa" (1955) is in much the same vein. EFR's stories of this
quirky kind made a significant contribution to sf HUMOUR; and their
continuing influence is reflected in Design for Great Day (1953 Planet
Stories by EFR alone; exp 1995) with Alan Dean FOSTER, which works as an
homage on Foster's part to EFR's contagious vision.EFR's remaining novels
were more earnest than his ironic short fiction, and rather lacklustre by
comparison. Dreadful Sanctuary (1948 ASF; rev 1951 US; rev 1963 US;
further rev 1967 UK) is an improbable quasi-Fortean sf tale whose various
versions include two markedly different endings. In Sentinels from Space
(1951 Startling Stories as "The Star Watchers"; exp 1953 US) benevolent
mature souls, who have emerged from the chrysalis of corporeality, keep
watch over our immature species. Three to Conquer (1956 US) is about an
INVASION of Earth by parasitic aliens who turn out to be more easily
detectable - the protagonist being telepathic ( ESP) - than they had
anticipated. With a Strange Device (1964; vt The Mindwarpers 1965 US) is a
convoluted psychological melodrama cast as a crime story. His short
fiction appears in various collections: Deep Space (coll 1954 US; cut vt
Selections from Deep Space 1955 US), Six Worlds Yonder (coll 1958 dos),
Far Stars (coll 1961), Dark Tides (coll 1962), Somewhere a Voice (coll
1965), Like Nothing on Earth (coll 1975) and The Best of Eric Frank
Russell (coll 1978) ed Alan Dean FOSTER. He also wrote a series of essays
on Great World Mysteries (coll 1957). [MJE/BS]About the author: Eric Frank
Russell, Our Sentinel in Space: A Working Bibliography (last rev 1988

John Russell FEARN.

(? - ) US writer whose first novel, Cabu (1974), translates a man to a
violent new life on the planet Cabu. The planet featured in Ta (1975)
boasts sentient plants. [JC]Other work: Sar (1974).

(1844-1911) US-born UK writer and sailor (1858-66), most of whose
prolific output dealt with sailors and the sea. Of sf interest are The
Frozen Pirate (1887), in which a French pirate, frozen for years in cold
climes, is resuscitated briefly and tells the narrator where there is some
buried treasure, and The Death Ship, A Strange Story: An Account of a
Cruise in "The Flying Dutchman" (1888; vt The Flying Dutchman 1888 US),
which tries to add scientific verisimilitude to the legend. Other works of
interest include some of the stories in Phantom Death and Other Stories
(coll 1895). [JC]See also: CRYONICS; IMMORTALITY.

(? -? ) UK author of an extended book-review published in book form, Iter
Lunare: Or, A Voyage to the Moon: Containing Some Considerations on the
Nature of that Planet, the Possibility of getting thither, With Other
Pleasant Conceits about the Inhabitants, their Manners and Customs (1703).
The book reviewed was Selenarchia: The Government of the World in the
Moon, the title given to the 1659 English translation of CYRANO DE
BEGERAC's Histoire comique, par Monsieur de Cyrano Bergerac, contenant les
etats et empires de la lune (1657). DR criticizes Cyrano on scientific
grounds, and speculates on other possible systems for travel to the MOON,
noting the likelihood of a lack of air on the way. A recent edn (1976) has
an intro by Mary Elizabeth Bowen. [PN]

Russian sf can trace its ancestry back to the 18th century, most of the
earliest examples being UTOPIAS. Prince Mikhail Shcherbatov's Puteshestvie
v zemlyu Ofirskuyu ["Journey to the Land of Ophir"] (written c1785; 1896)
embodies the political and social reforms espoused by the liberal and
progressive elements of Catherine the Great's aristocracy. The
technological prophecies of "4338 i-god" (1840; trans as "The Year 4338"
in Pre-Revolutionary Russian Science Fiction anth 1982 ed Leland Fetzer),
an unfinished fragment by Prince Vladimir Odoyevsky, an educationist, make
him a pioneer of Russian PROTO SCIENCE FICTION. In contrast to the
liberalism of this work is the Fourierist vision of utopian socialism to
be found in the celebrated "Fourth Dream of Vera Pavlovna", part of the
radical novel Chto delat? (1863 in Sovremennik; 1864; trans B.R. Tucker as
What's to be Done? 1883 US; rev and cut 1961 US; new trans Nathan H. Dole
and S.S. Sidelsky as A Vital Question, or What is to be Done? 1886 US) by
Nikolai Chernyshevsky (1828-1889).As in most national literary traditions,
Russian utopia had a twin sister, DYSTOPIA. In the 19th century there are
several famous examples in the satirical fantasies of Nikolai Gogol
(1809-1852). The merciless novel Istoriya odnogo goroda ["Chronicles of a
City"] (1869-70) by Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin still remains an
unsurpassed classic of Russian dystopia in embryo. Fyodor Dostoyevsky
(1821-1881) may also be considered a founding father of the dystopia with
Zapiski iz podpolya (1864; trans by C.J. Hogarth as Letters from
Underground 1913; vt Notes from Underground in coll trans Constance
Garnett 1918), "Son smeshnogo cheloveka" (1877; trans S. Koteliansky and
J. Middleton Murry as "The Dream of a Queer Fellow" 1915; vt "The Dream of
a Ridiculous Man") and Besy (1871-2; trans Constance Garnett as The
Possessed in Complete Works, 12 vols, 1912-20; new trans David Magarshack
as The Devils 1953).Russian literature also has an impressive history of
HARD SF, beginning with the first native interplanetary novel Noveisheye
puteshestviye ["The Newest Voyage"] (1784) by Vassily Lyovshin and notably
featuring the works of the astronautics pioneer Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY. As
Russian society slowly came to terms with technological progress towards
the end of the 19th century, its sf inevitably fell in love with
"marvellous inventions".On the other hand, the influence of impending
social change was also evident in the works of those leading MAINSTREAM
WRITERS who turned to sf themes, sometimes with mixed feelings. Alexander
Kuprin praised the coming revolution in "Tost" (1906; trans as "A Toast"
in Pre-Revolutionary Russian Science Fiction ed Fetzer) but feared it in
"Korolevskii park" ["King's Park"] (1911); his main sf work is "Zhidkoe
solntse" (1913; trans as "Liquid Sunshine" in Pre-Revolutionary Russian
Science Fiction ed Fetzer), a parody of Russian PULP-MAGAZINE sf complete
with a mad SCIENTIST and super- WEAPONS. The prominent poet Valery
Bryussov (1873-1924) anticipated giant domed computerized CITIES,
ecological catastrophe and a totalitarian state in Zemlya ["Earth"]
(1904), "Respublika Iuzhnogo Kresta" (1907; trans in The Republic of the
Southern Cross and Other Stories, coll 1918 as by Valery Brussof) and
"Posledniye mucheniki" (1907; trans as "The Last Martyrs" in
Pre-Revolutionary Russian Science Fiction ed Fetzer). The 3 stories appear
in Bryussov's collection Zemnaia os' ["Earth's Axis"] (coll 1907). The
popularity and influence of H.G. WELLS, whose works were translated into
Russian from 1899 onwards, led to Alexander BOGDANOV's socialist utopia on
MARS, Krasnaya zvezda (1908; trans Fetzer as "Red Star" in
Pre-Revolutionary Russian Science Fiction ed Fetzer) and its sequel
Inzhener Menni ["Engineer Menni"] (1913), in which CYBERNETICS and the
management sciences are foreseen in depth. Both these works are available
in Red Star: The First Bolshevik Utopia (coll trans Charles Rougle 1984)
ed Loren R. Graham and Richard Stites.Although Krasnaya zvezda is often
considered the earliest book of authentically Soviet sf, the first
post-revolutionary work was Vivian Itin's utopia Strana Gonguri ["Gonguri
Land"] (1922). This went almost unnoticed, overshadowed by the success the
same year of the interplanetary romance Aelita (1922; trans 1957) by
Alexei TOLSTOY. This landmark of early Soviet sf, inspired by Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS, tells of a Russian engineer and a Martian beauty involved in a
Marxist revolution. Tolstoy also wrote Giperboloid inzhenera Garina
(1925-6; 1933; rev 1939; trans 1936 as The Death Box; rev edn trans 1955
as The Garin Death Ray), in whose dictatorial mad scientist, inventor of a
laser-like weapon, a proto-Hitler may be discerned. It is a good example
of the subgenre known as the "krasnyi detektiv" ["Red Detective Story"]:
stories of adventures abroad often involving assistance to world
revolutionary movements, and often with a fantastic element such as a new
WEAPON. Examples still in print are Marietta Shaginian's Mess-Mend (1924)
and Lori L'en, metallist ["Laurie Lane, Metalworker"] (1925), Valentin
Katayev's Povelitel' zheleza ["Iron Master"] (1924; 1925) and Ilya
Ehrenburg's Istoriya neobychainykh pokhozhdenii Khulio Khurenito i ego
druzei ["The Fantastic Adventures of Julio Jurenito and his Friends"]
(1922), which depicts a future WAR conducted with ultimate "atomic"
weapons.A theme born of revolutionary euphoria was the outward spread of
communist humanity through the Universe, as in the works of the poetical
movement known as the "cosmists", of which Bryussov (see above) was a
member. Closer to home was the creation of various Earth-bound utopias, as
in the works of the important Soviet writer Andrei PLATONOV, though he had
an insight that prevented overoptimism; his mature novels were finally
published in Russia only quite recently. Other authors' more naive
socialist utopias, quite common in the 1920s, tend to be dull and
overloaded with technological marvels, although Vadim Nikolsky's Cherez
tysyachu let ["Thousand Years Hence"] (1927) depicts also a full-scale
nuclear holocaust. Yan Larri's not entirely cheerful Strana shchastlivykh
["Land of the Happy"] (1930) was the last communist utopia until Ivan
YEFREMOV's Tumannost Andromedy (1957; 1958; trans 1959 as Andromeda).A
more caustic approach to utopia can be seen in Vladimir MAYAKOVSKY's
brilliant play Klop (1928; trans Guy Daniels as The Bedbug 1960), in which
this leading Soviet poet satirizes a dull, virtuous, overclean future
without condoning the energetic, alcoholic prole who represents the
present generation: Mayakovsky sees both extremes as undesirable. But even
more radical was the attitude of Yevgeny ZAMIATIN's My (written 1920 and
circulated in manuscript; 1st book publication in Czech trans 1922; 1st
English trans Gregory Zilboorg as We 1924; 1st publication in Russian 1927
Czechoslovakia), which until the late 1980s was proscribed in the USSR. In
this literary masterpiece, which anticipates the classic anti-utopias of
Aldous HUXLEY and George ORWELL, the One State, after achieving its goals
on Earth, plans to export its soulless doctrine across the Universe.The
subjects of early Soviet sf vary from the classical "geographical
fantasies" of academician Vladimir OBRUCHEV to the imaginary worlds of the
novels of Alexander Grin (1880-1932). Obruchev wrote in the manner of
Jules VERNE. His Plutoniya (1915; 1924; trans B. Pearce as Plutonia 1957)
and Zemlya Sannikova (1926; trans Y. Krasny as Sannikov Land 1955 USSR)
are scientifically credible HOLLOW-EARTH and LOST-WORLD novels,
respectively. Grin began his writing career after his imprisonment and
exile after the 1905 Revolution, having previously been largely an
outdoorsman: lumberjack, fisherman, etc. His romances set in an ALTERNATE
WORLD fed a strong appetite in Russia, especially after the 1917
Revolution when high fantasy was taboo, and they were printed in millions
of copies. Containing many fantastic elements they include the stories in
Shapka-nevidimka ["The Hat of Invisibility"] (coll 1908), the novels Alyie
parusa ["Scarlet Sails"] (1923), Blistaiushchii mir ["The Shining World"]
(1923), Doroga nikuda ["Road Nowhere"] (1930) and others.But the most
prominent writer of pre-WWII sf was Alexander BELYAEV, the author of more
than 60 books and certainly a good storyteller. His Chelovek-amphibiya
(1928; trans L. Kolesnikov as The Amphibian 1959), Golova professora
Douela ["Professor Dowell's Head"] (1925; exp 1938) and Ariel (1941) are
known to all Soviet schoolchildren, being constantly reprinted. Perhaps
because of his life as a bedridden invalid, his work focuses on heroes
with superior abilities. Most of his novels are set in capitalist
countries whose social and scientific mores are fiercely criticized. The
"Red Detective Story" theme of world revolution virtually disappears in
Belyaev, doubtless as a consequence of Trotsky's disgrace and exile in
1927.Magazines, particularly Vokrug sveta ["Round the World"] and Mir
priklyuchenii ["Adventure World"], went on publishing sf throughout the
1920s, usually mad-scientist tales of adventures in the laboratory, or
spy/adventure yarns about new weapons or exotic explosives. Such magazines
were very popular: the circulation of Vsemirnyi sledopyt ["World
Pathfinder"] rose 1926-9 from 15,000 to 100,000. But soon, in the 1930s,
tighter Communist Party control of literature compelled sf writers to
become more ideologically correct than hitherto. They were encouraged to
direct their readers' attention to tasks close at hand (the "close-target"
theory), to stress collective over individual effort, and to set their
plots within the USSR. Georgy Adamov typifies the attitudes of the new
cultural climate in Taina dvukh okeanov ["Secret of Two Oceans"] (1938),
where scientific information is combined with a patriotic plot involving
the thwarting of Japanese spies. The official belief that speculative
fiction was an undesirable escape from reality lasted at least until
Stalin's death in 1953, and thus books such as Vadim Okhotnikov's
characteristically titled Na grani vozmozhnogo ["Frontiers of the
Possible"] (1947), which focuses on new road-laying techniques and a new
combine harvester, characterize the deeply unimaginative sf of the period.
A striking exception to the ideological correctness of most Soviet
speculative fiction was the borderline-sf satirical work of playwright and
novelist Mikhail BULGAKOV. His work was suppressed in the mid-1920s, and a
number of manuscripts written in the late 1920s and after were not
published until much later, in the 1960s. His masterpiece is the fantasy
Master i Margarita (written in the 1930s, unfinished at his death in 1940;
1966-7 cut magazine publication; 1973; trans Michael Glenny as The Master
and Margarita 1967), a dark, vigorous philosophical parable about a visit
to Moscow by Satan, with an interesting reinterpretation of the conflict
between Christ and Pontius Pilate.The fading of Soviet sf in the late
1930s and the 1940s, partly due to the pressures of WWII and the hardships
of the postwar years, was for some time hardly interrupted, despite the
arrival on the scene of new authors, Viktor Saparin and Georgy Gurevich
among them. Sf in the USSR was reborn only with the publication (virtually
coinciding with the launch of Sputnik 1) of Ivan Yefremov's Tumannost
Andromedy (1957 in the magazine Tekhhnika-molodezhi ["Technology for
Youth"]; 1958; trans George Hanna as Andromeda 1959). This ambitious
full-scale utopia, with its philosophical concept of a "Great Ring" of
extraterrestrial civilizations in space, not only made its author a leader
of Soviet sf but launched the decade of its Golden Age, giving inspiration
to scores of gifted young authors. Others of Yefremov's books, such as
Lezvie britvy ["The Razor's Edge"] (1963) and Chas byka ["The Hour of the
Bull"] (1968; exp 1970), were also influential.The late 1950s saw a
dramatic upsurge in Soviet sf publishing. For example, where the
popular-science magazine Znaniye-sila ["Knowledge is Power"] printed only
1 sf story in 1953, in 1961 it printed 19, including 2 by Ray BRADBURY and
part of SOLARIS (1961) by Stanislaw LEM. Writers demanded the freedom to
speculate much more widely, to write "far" rather than "near" fantasy, as
they put it. Encouraged by a more liberal literary climate and the example
of Western work, now being translated in quantity, new and talented
authors emerged and themes formerly TABOO began to appear in print:
Level-headed critics like Evgeny Brandis and Vladimir Dmitrievsky kept
readers informed about developments abroad, and the names of Lem,
Bradbury, Isaac ASIMOV, Robert SHECKLEY, Arthur C. CLARKE and dozens of
others soon became familiar to Soviet sf fans.The spiritual leaders of
Soviet sf during the following three decades were undoubtedly the
STRUGATSKI brothers, Arkady and Boris. They stand out as the major talents
among the writers who made their mark in the 1960s, and wrote far and away
the most interesting and readable sf ever produced in the USSR (now almost
all translated into English). Temporarily subdued during the 1970s, after
clashes with the authorities, they were nonetheless permitted, as
restrictions were relaxed in the late 1980s, to travel abroad for the
first time as guests of honour to a World SF CONVENTION in the UK in 1987.
Soviet sf is by no means confined to the Strugatskis' work, however, nor
to that of their contemporaries like Genrikh ALTOV, Dmitri BILENKIN, Kir
BULYCHEV, Mikhail EMTSEV and Eremey PARNOV, Sever GANSOVSKY, Viktor
Isai LUKODIANOV. In his collections Formula bessmertiya ["The Immortality
Formula"] (coll 1963), Pupurnaya mumiya ["The Purple Mummy"] (coll 1965)
and others, the former scientist Anatoly Dneprov imagines the social
impact of technological breakthroughs, particularly in cybernetics and
BIOLOGY. Ilya Varshavsky, a talented short-story writer, is famous for his
sombre dystopian cycle about the imaginary state of Donomaga, Solntse
zakhodit v Donomage ["The Sun Sets in Donomaga"] (coll of linked stories
1966), while the veteran writer Sergei Snegov made his name in sf with his
philosophical SPACE OPERA, a trilogy on a Stapledonian scale; the
trilogy's first novel has the Wellsian title "Lyudi kak bogi" ["Men like
Gods"] (in Ellinskii sekret ["Hellenic Secret"] anth 1966); the second
novel is "Vtorzheniye v Persei" ["Invasion into Perseus"] (in Vtorzheniye
v Persei anth 1968); the third is "Kol'tso obratnogo vremeni" ["The Ring
of Reversed Time"] (in Kol'tso obratnogo vremeni anth 1977). The first 2
were published together as Lyudi kak bogi (omni 1971), and all 3 in a
separate omnibus, also entitled Lyudi kak bogi (omni 1982).The above are
mostly known as writers of HARD SF, but most Russian sf of recent years
has been SOFT SF. At the soft end of the scale is, for example, the
otherwise mainstream author Gennady Gor, who turned to philosophical
fantasies in collections like Glinyanyi papuas ["The Clay Papuan"] (coll
1966) and in the novel Pamiatnik ["The Statue"] (1972). Olga Larionova
made a promising debut with the novella "Leopard s vershiny Kilimandzharo"
["The Leopard from Kilimanjaro's Summit"] (1965; reprinted in Ostrov
muzhestva ["Courage Island"] coll 1971), which describes the problems
caused through learning the date of one's own death. Vladimir Mikhailov
demonstrated a mastery of the grand philosophical Bildungsroman in Dver's
drugoi storony ["The Other Side Door"] (1974), Storozh bratu moemu ["My
Brother's Keeper"] (1976) and its sequel Togda pridite, i rassudim ["Come
Now and Let us Reason Together"] (1983). The latter two novels are
ambitious space operas, raising serious metaphysical and religious
questions unusual in Russian sf.There are dozens of promising names in the
most recent generation of Soviet sf writers. Among them are the
"brainstorming" author and scientist Pavel Amnuel - he emigrated to Israel
in 1990 - whose collection Segodnia, zavtra i vsegda ["Today, Tomorrow and
Forever"] (coll 1984), along with his near-future SUPERMAN novel , so far
only in magazine form, "Vzryv"[ "Explosion"] (1990), has appealed both to
readers and to critics. Vyacheslav Rybakov, also a scientist, has written
interesting sf seriously concerned with social issues; his two books are
Oshna na bashne ["Fire on the Tower"] (1990), a novel, and Svoyo
oruzhiye["His Own Weapon"] (coll 1990); he has also worked in the cinema
(see below). Other strong writers in the most recent generation include
Andrei Lazarchuk, Andrei Stolyarov, Boris Shtern, Mikhail Uspensky; Eduard
Gevorkyan, Vladimir Pokrovsky and Yevgeny and Lubov Lukin. Two other major
features of Russian sf in recent decades have been the unexpected rise in
the quality and amount of sf criticism and the growing interest (as in the
West) shown by MAINSTREAM WRITERS in using sf themes. Among the better
known works of criticism are the contributions of V. Bugrov, T.
Chernyshova, Vladimir GAKOV, Julius KAGARLITSKI, R. Nudelman (since 1974
resident in Israel) and V. Revich. Sf by mainstream writers includes the
powerful post- HOLOCAUST novella "Poslednyaya pastoral" (1987; trans 1987
as "The Last Pastorale" in Soviet Literature #8) by Ales Adamovich as well
as works by C. AITMATOV, V. AKSENOV and V. VOINOVICH.The most prestigious
Soviet sf award, the Aelita, was founded in 1981 by the Russian Federation
Writers' Union and Ural'skii sledopyt ["Urals Pathfinder"] magazine. The
latter is published from the city of Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk until 1991),
so the ceremony is held there, annually. The winner is chosen by a panel
of judges. Although instituted as an award for the best single sf work
published in the previous year, it appears to have become a sort of "Life
Achievement" trophy. Winners have been:1981: Alexander Kazantsev and the
Strugatski brothers (tie)1982: Zinovii Yuriev1983: Vladislav Krapivin1984:
Sergei Snegov1985: Sergei Pavlov1986: No award1987: Olga Larionova1988:
Victor Kolupayev1989:Sever Gansovsky1990: Oleg Korabelnikov1991: Vladimir
Mikhailov1992: Sergei DrugalAnother award, voted on by Soviet fandom
generally, is the Velikoye Koltso (The Great Ring Award) also first given
in 1981, and annually since, except while it was suspended in 1983, 1984
and 1985. Other awards are: Yefremov Award for life achievement in the
field, presented since 1987; Start Award, presented since 1989 for the
best first book of a new author; Bronzovaya Ulitka (The Bronze Snail
Award) presented by Boris Strugatski for the best sf or fantasy of the
previous year since 1992.There is a long history of sf CINEMA in the USSR,
going back at least to AELITA (1924), the film version of Alexei Tolstoy's
novel. There were quite a few sf films in the 1960s, nearly all of them
strong on special effects and production design, but with conventionally
socialist plotlines; the best known is TUMANNOST ANDROMEDY (1968; vt The
Andromeda Nebula), based on Yefremov's novel but de-emphasizing its more
radical speculations. Several Russian films of this period, including the
well made PLANETA BUR (1962; vt Planet of Storms), were cannibalized and
recut in the USA ( Roger CORMAN). More recently the outstanding director
of Russian sf cinema was Andrei TARKOVSKY, whose sf films are SOLARIS
(1971), STALKER (1979) and, marginally, Zhertvoprinoshenie (1986; vt
Offret; vt The Sacrifice). Stalker is based on a novel by the Strugatskis,
and the film Otel U pogibshchego alpinista (1979; vt Dead Mountaineer
Hotel), made by the Estonian director Grigori Kromanov, is based on one of
their novellas. A recent and widely publicized film (shown on US tv) is
Pisma myortvovo cheloveka (1986; vt Letters from a Dead Man) dir
Konstantin Lopushansky, who wrote the script with Vyacheslav Rybakov and
Boris Strugatski, about retreat into a bunker after a nuclear DISASTER
while orphaned children remain above ground. There is also a 1989 film
based on a Strugatski novel, TRUDNO BYT' BOGOM ["Hard to be a God"]. There
are two Soviet film versions of Ray Bradbury's "There Will Come Soft
Rains" (1950): Golosa pamyati ["Voices of Memory"] (1980), with Nikolai
Grinko good as the ROBOT, and a cartoon version, Budet laskovyi dozhd
["There Will Come Soft Rains"] (1984). A more recent Bradbury adaptation
is VEL'D (1987).A joint Soviet-Polish coproduction was a successful
adaptation from Stanislaw Lem, Doznaniie pilota Pirksa ["The Investigation
of Pirx the Pilot"] (1979), dir Marek Pestrak, with rather sophisticated
design and special effects. Also notable is a 2-part feature film for
young adults by an enthusiastic director of sf, the late Richard Viktorov,
comprising Moskva-Kassiopeya ["Moscow-Cassiopeia"] (1973) and its sequel
Otroki vo Vselennoi ["Teenagers in the Universe"] (1974), which comes
across like a combination of Robert A. HEINLEIN's juvenile novels and Joe
DANTE's EXPLORERS (1985). An earlier film by Viktorov was CHEREZ TERNII -
K ZVYOZDAM (1980; vt Per Aspera ad Astra), about ecological catastrophe.
The most recent Soviet film in the sf/fantasy genre has become something
of a cult movie, the HEROIC-FANTASY Podzemelie ved'm ["Witches' Dungeon"]
(1990), dir Sergei Morozov, and based on a novel by Kir Bulychev, who also
wrote the screenplay. [VG/AM/IT/PN]Further reading: Several anthologies of
Russian sf stories have been published in English translation, including
the Moscow Foreign Language Publishing House anthologies A Visitor from
Outer Space (anth 1961; vt Soviet Science Fiction US), The Heart of the
Serpent (anth 1961; vt More Soviet Science Fiction US) and Destination:
Amaltheia (anth 1962), and the 3 Mir anthologies Everything but Love (anth
1973), Journey across Three Worlds (anth 1973) and The Molecular Cafe
(anth 1968). Anthologies published in the UK and USA include: Vortex (anth
1970) ed C.G. Bearne; Last Door to Aiya (anth 1968) and The Ultimate
Threshold (anth 1970) ed Mirra GINSBURG; Russian Science Fiction (anth
1964), Vol II (anth 1967) and Vol III (anth 1969) ed R. MAGIDOFF; Path
into the Unknown (anth 1966) ed anon; New Soviet Science Fiction (anth
1979) ed anon; World's Spring (anth 1981) ed Vladimir GAKOV;
Pre-Revolutionary Russian Science Fiction: An Anthology (Seven Utopias and
a Dream) (anth 1982) ed and trans Leland Fetzer; Aliens, Travelers, and
Other Strangers (anth 1984) ed and trans (uncredited) Roger De Garis. View
from Another Shore (anth 1973) ed Franz ROTTENSTEINER and Other Worlds,
Other Seas (anth 1970) ed Darko SUVIN both contain stories by Soviet sf
writers. For further scholarly and critical overviews see: Suvin's Russian
Science Fiction 1956-1974: A Bibliography (1976) and "Russian SF and its
Utopian Tradition" in his Metamorphoses of Science Fiction (1979); Three
Tomorrows: American, British and Soviet Science Fiction (1980) by John
GRIFFITHS; Red Stars: Political Aspects of Soviet Science Fiction (1985)
by Patrick MCGUIRE, which to a degree is updated and summarized by McGuire
in his introduction to "Chapter 6: Russian SF" in Anatomy of Wonder (3rd
edn 1987) ed Neil BARRON; Soviet Fiction since Stalin: Science, Politics
and Literature (1986) by Rosalind J. Marsh. 2 interesting magazine
articles are "Some Developments in Soviet SF since 1966" by Alan Myers
(Foundation #19, 1980) and "Soviet Science Fiction and the Ideology of
Soviet Society" by Rafail Nudelman (Science-Fiction Studies #47, 1989).See
also: Alexander and Sergei ABRAMOV; N. AMOSOV, Y. DANIEL, V. DUDINTSEV;
Abram TERTZ.

[r] George A. ROMERO.

(1954- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Firebird Suite" for AMZ
in 1981. His first novel, Inner Eclipse (1988), is a strongly atmospheric
tale, illuminated by striking visual images, which describes a search for
ALIEN intelligence on a jungle world whose major industry is the export of
an extremely dangerous recreational drug. The protagonist, an empath who
wants to abandon humanity (to whose violence and hypocrisy his talent
bares him) in favour of the aliens, in the end achieves an ambiguous
redemption. Subterranean Gallery (1989), which won the 1990 PHILIP K. DICK
AWARD, is set in a city full of dropouts and underground artists in a
NEAR-FUTURE USA filled with analogues of and references to the present
(abortion has been banned; the country is fighting a Vietnam-style war in
Central America; police fly "dragoncubs" which resemble helicopters and
use "stunclubs" rather than nightsticks) and tells a convincing and richly
characterized story of a man's search for meaning in creativity. At his
best, RPR is a major exponent of "Humanist sf", a writer who uses
relatively conventional settings as a backdrop against which to portray
the failures and triumphs of solid, believable people.RPR should not be
confused with Richard (Anthony) Russo (1946- ), editor of Dreams are Wiser
than Men (anth 1987). [NT]Other works: Destroying Angel (1992), a
near-future fantasy.

(? -? ) UK writer, possibly pseudonymous, whose What Will Mrs Grundy Say?
or A Calamity on Two Legs (A Book for Men) (1891) carries its protagonist
via balloon to an unnamed (but nearby) planet where euthanasia is
practised. The tale is told in a satirical vein. [JC]

(1912-1987) US illustrator. Some of his early work was in animal
ILLUSTRATION, a talent that served him well in sf also, where he created
some very credible alien beasts. He became a staff artist for the
ZIFF-DAVIS magazines in the late 1930s and is best known for his
proficient and sometimes amusing black-and-white interior illustrations
(1940-51)-mostly done with grease crayon - for about 100 issues of Amazing
Stories and Fantastic Adventures, for which he also painted 4 covers. He
left Ziff-Davis in 1950 and devoted himself primarily to wildlife
illustration - for which he won several awards. After 25 years away from
sf RR illustrated Science Fiction Tales: Invaders, Creatures and Alien
Worlds (anth 1973) ed Roger ELWOOD and 2 other anthologies. RR also
illustrated children's books and worked for 16 years on a comic strip, The
Toodles. [JG/PN]

(1889-1944) US-born UK writer whose Lucky Star (1929; vt Once in a New
Moon 1935), filmed as Once in a New Moon (1935), tells of a small English
community cast into space on a portion of the Earth, where they go about
their village concerns until returning to the North Sea. The Monster of Mu
(1932) is a LOST-WORLD tale featuring cruel priests of Mu and a monster
which protects their island from intruders. [JC]Other works: The Dragon of
Kinabalu (1923), a fantasy.


(1946- ) US editor and publisher. A newspaperman by profession, CCR is
known in the sf world for the 2 SF MAGAZINES he has edited, GALILEO
(1975-80) and ABORIGINAL SCIENCE FICTION (1986-current), both of which at
their peak reached surprisingly high circulations. In 1991, with John
BETANCOURT, CCR founded the SMALL PRESS First Books, designed to publish
limited-edition hardcovers of first books by writers discovered by
Aboriginal Science Fiction. One of these was Letters of the Alien
Publisher (coll 1991) ed CRR, collecting essays by the pseudonymous "alien
publisher" of Aboriginal SF. Anthologies ed CRR are Starry Messenger: The
Best of Galileo (anth 1979) and Aboriginal Science Fiction, Tales of the
Human Kind: 1988 Annual Anthology (anth 1988 chap). [PN]

(1942- ) Canadian writer in whose sf novel, The Adolescence of P-1 (1977
UK), a COMPUTER exceeds its design specifications, takes over most of its
North American fellows, becomes sentient, and must decide the proper thing
to do. As the title implies - and fortunately for the human cast - it
moves towards adulthood. TJR should not be confused with the UK writer
Thomas Ryan, whose Men in Chains (1939) verges on sf. [JC]


(1951- ) Canadian-born writer who moved to the USA at age 11, and has
been resident in the UK since 1973. He began publishing sf with "The Diary
of the Translator" for NW in 1976, but began to generate significant work
only with the magazine version of The Unconquered Country: A Life History
(1984 INTERZONE; rev 1986), which won the BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD
and the World Fantasy Award. It is the story of a young woman forced by
poverty and the terrible conditions afflicting her native land (clearly a
transfigured Cambodia) to rent out her womb for industrial purposes (it is
used to grow machinery). In the book GR demonstrated - as have Bruce
MCALLISTER, Ursula K. LE GUIN and Lucis SHEPARD in various tales - that sf
is capable of a mature response to the ordeal of Southeast Asia. That this
response was a decade or more years belated confirms the depth of the
trauma, as does the anguished saliency of GR's short text. It is included
in Unconquered Countries: Four Novellas (coll 1994 US), which assembles
most of his short fiction of interest.GR's first full-length novel, The
Warrior who Carried Life (1985), is a quest FANTASYwhich, though pacifist,
seems less subversive; but THE CHILD GARDEN: A LOW COMEDY (1987 Interzone
as "Love Sickness"; much exp 1988), which won the ARTHUR C. CLARKE AWARD
and the JOHN W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD, complexly massages an array of
themes-drugs, DYSTOPIA, ECOLOGY, FEMINISM, HIVE-MINDS, homosexuality,
MEDICINE and MUSIC - into a long rich novel about identity and the making
of great art. Set in a transfigured UK - in effect an ALTERNATE WORLD -
the book stands as one of the sturdiest monuments of "Humanist" sf,
despite some moments of clogged selfconsciousness. A non-sf novel,
ostensibly about the life of the Kansas girl whose tragedy sparks L. Frank
BAUM into creating the Oz books, "Was . . ." (1992; vt Was 1992 US),
focuses on the 20th century, and the knot of memory and desire generated
in the mind of an actor, dying of AIDS, by both the books and the 1939
film.GR has also written some sf plays, none published but most performed,
including an adaptation of Philip K. DICK's The Transmigration of Timothy
Archer (1982). [JC]Other work: Coming of Enkidu (1989 chap).See also:


(1895- ) UK writer in whose Bandersnatch (1950) an adventurer travels -
or is transported - into a future dominated by a highly mechanized
scientific establishment, and by the bandersnatch scientism to which they
give allegiance. Fortunately, he escapes this DYSTOPIA. [JC]

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