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(1899-1977) Russian-born US novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
Raised in Russia until the Revolution, and then educated at Cambridge, he
lived between the wars in Germany and France, emigrated to the USA in 1940
- at which point he began to write in English rather than Russian - and
from 1959 lived in Switzerland. His first books of poetry date from the
teens of the century, his first novel from 1926, though he came to world
fame only after the publication, many books later, of Lolita (1955
France). Several of his novels can be read precariously in terms of their
fantasy or sf elements - including Korol', Dama, Valet (1928 Germany;
trans Dmitri Nabokov and VN as King, Queen, Knave 1968 US), which features
automata; the afterlife fantasy Soglyadatay (1930 France; trans Dmitri
Nabokov and VN as The Eye 1965 US); Priglashenie na kasn' (1938 France;
trans Dmitri Nabokov and VN as Invitation to a Beheading 1959 US), a fable
which ends in a state beyond death; the DYSTOPIA Bend Sinister (1947); and
Pale Fire (1962 US), which transforms RURITANIAN manias into deeply
intricate parable. But VN's FABULATIONS tend to an austere
self-referentiality, and are not easily pigeonholed. (It has also been
suggested that all VN's novels from Pnin [1957] to Transparent Things
[1972] contain attempts at communication from dead characters to the
living.)Nevertheless Izobretenie Val'sa (1938 France; rev text trans
Dmitri Nabokov as The Waltz Invention 1966 US) is a genuine sf play; its
eponymous protagonist, having invented a kind of atomic device, demands to
rule his country or he will cause apocalypse. Some of the stories
assembled in Nabokov's Dozen (coll 1958) as well as "Poseshchenie muzeya
(1939; trans as "The Visit to the Museum" 1963) and "The Vane Sisters"
(1959), both found in Nabokov's Quartet (coll 1966 US), and "Lance"
(1952), found in Nabokov's Congeries (coll 1968 US), are of sf or fantasy
interest. Ada, or Ardor: A Family Chronicle (1969 US) has likewise been
treated as sf, though perhaps not fruitfully. Certainly Ada depicts an
ALTERNATE WORLD, whether or not this Anti-Terra has been created by
protagonist Van Veen as a counterpoint to and justification of incest; the
book can therefore be read with some interest for its rendering of sf
elements, though the novel itself comprises much, much more. However
individual texts might be defined, VN was concerned in all his work to
shape versions of the creative act. The materials he used were subjunctive
to the shaping, not vice versa, as in sf. [JC]"See also: HISTORY OF SF;

(1950- ) US writer and journalist, at one time the Los Angeles-based
movie correspondent for the New York Post; since July 1986 he has run the
regular movie and tv Nahallywood column in SF CHRONICLE. His nonfiction
books, aimed at a popular market, include: Horrors - From Screen to Scream
(1975); The Science Fictionary: An A-Z Guide to the World of SF Authors,
Films and TV Shows (1980), a small, selective encyclopedia that is
reliable if brief on film and tv, but devotes far too little space to
authors; The Films of Roger Corman: Brilliance on a Budget (1982); and The
Making of Dune (1984).EN's first sf novel was The Paradise Plot (1980), a
humorous mystery novel set on a SPACE HABITAT at Lagrange 5 ( LAGRANGE
POINT); the sequel was The Suicide Plague (1982). In 1984, as D.B. DRUMM
(which may be a house name), he began writing the Traveler sequence of
SURVIVALIST FICTION set in a depleted post- HOLOCAUST USA: #1: First, You
Fight (1984), #2: Kingdom Come (1984), #3: The Stalkers (1984), #4: To
Kill A Shadow (1984), #5: Road War (1985), #6: Border War (1985), #7: The
Road Ghost (1985), #8: Terminal Road (1986), #9: The Stalking Time (1986),
#10: Hell on Earth (1986), #11: The Children's Crusade (1987), #12: The
Prey (1987) and #13: Ghost Dancers (1987). The first of these is
definitely by Naha, but most subsequent numbers are thought to be the work
of John SHIRLEY.EN has also written 3 film novelizations - Robocop *
(1987), Ghostbusters II * (1989) and Robocop 2 * (1990) - and 2 horror
novels, Breakdown (1988) and Orphans (1989). [PN]


Item of terminology borrowed by sf writers from theoreticians of future
TECHNOLOGY, and quite popular in sf from the late 1980s. It seems to have
been first used by K. Eric Drexler in 1976, and popularized by him in his
book on the subject, Engines of Creation (1987).Nanotechnology - the term
loosely combines "nano", the SI (metric system) prefix denoting 10(-9),
with "technology" - means the technology of the very small indeed. The
term microtechnology encompasses MACHINES of the order of a micrometre
across; nanotechnology envisages machines very much smaller than that,
perhaps of molecular size. Indeed, its working components would be atoms;
the nanomachine might be like "motorized DNA". Drexler called these
theoretical tiny machines "assemblers". As to the uses of these
molecule-size ROBOTS, there is little that cannot be imagined: scraping
fatty deposits from the insides of hardened arteries, brain surgery on
individual neurons, food-making, ore-mining . . . The suggestions have
been endless. Assemblers would be of a size small enough to conduct the
most delicate operations within human cells - although Kim Stanley
ROBINSON has suggested it might be better to image, rather than tiny
medics, 10 million molecule-sized steamrollers charging up one's
capillaries to perform brain surgery. Assemblers would also necessarily be
capable of self-replication, which raises two questions: could they be
considered a lifeform?; and could they get out of control,
self-replicating until all available building materials were used up?
Their number would increase exponentially: if a single assembler took 15
minutes to double, then at the end of 10 hours of doubling there would be
68 billion of them, and in just over 2 days the assemblage would outmass
the Sun.Whether or not their construction is a realistic prospect is
another question. Certainly it has been much discussed, and a number of
laboratories have worked on some of the preliminary problems. The scanning
tunnelling microscope, developed at the IBM laboratories in Zurich, has
been used (April 1990) to manipulate individual atoms - even, in an
episode of startling chutzpah, spelling out (using 35 xenon atoms) the IBM
logo. Now that we have reached the stage of manipulating individual atoms,
perhaps the construction of molecule-machines is not so impossible after
all, though it is still a long way from achievement. Nevertheless,
preliminary designs are already under way in the real world. A lively
account of the development of theories about nanotechnology can be found
in Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition (1990) by Ed Regis.The
concept of nanotechnology, not always named as such, appears regularly in
1990s sf. One of the most distinguished works to which it is fundamental
is Queen of Angels (1990) by Greg BEAR. The intelligent briefcase around
whose actions and fate Michael SWANWICK's eccentric tale STATIONS OF THE
TIDE (1991) pivots is, according to his acknowledgements, a work of
"nanotechnics". Perhaps more significant is the number of HARD-SF works in
which the existence of nanotechnology is merely taken for granted, forming
part of the overall background of futuristic technology. [PN]

(1906- ). US editor and writer, associated with STREET & SMITH, for whom
he edited The Shadow from 1932 to 1943. He was also involved in developing
the figure of Doc Savage for the firm, writing the initial treatment which
was published, long afterwards, as Doc Savage, The Supreme Adventurer
(1980 chap), and editing the actual journal, DOC SAVAGE, from 1933 to
1943. He was responsible for the successful choice of Lester DENT as
principal author of the series; Dent wrote most of the Doc Savage stories
published under the Kenneth ROBESON housename (see this entry and the
entry for the magazine itself for fuller details on the series). [JC]

(1894-1985) US writer, author of over 40 novels from Peter Kindred (1919)
to Heaven and Hell and the Megas Factor (1975), in which latter (as so
often in his work) good and evil - in this case God and Satan - confer and
put aside their differences, smilingly. Much of his fiction reflects a
wistful, melancholy, sometimes satirical sense of fantasy; and it is
perhaps ironic that he is best remembered for perhaps the harshest of his
tales, Portrait of Jennie (1940), in which he uses J.W. DUNNE's time
theories to frame the sentimental tale of a young girl not of this Earth
whose love for a human artist reaches fruition only at the moment of her
death. The Barly Fields (omni 1938) - which contains The Fiddler in Barly
(1926), The Woodcutter's House (1927), The Bishop's Wife (1928) and its
sequel There is Another Heaven (1929), and The Orchid (1931) - fairly
represents the soft-edged work of his early years. Later came some
Arthurian fantasies, including The Fair (1964), which sustains a
sublimated elegiac tone in its depiction of a maiden's adventures there,
and The Elixir (1971). The Mallott Diaries (1965) deals with Neanderthal
survivals in Arizona, and The Summer Meadows (1973) movingly explores the
nature of love in a fantasy quest for significant and telling moments in
its protagonists' lives. Of direct sf interest is The Weans (1956 Harper's
Magazine as "Digging the Weans"; 1960 chap), a satirical archaeological
report on the long-destroyed US civilization. RN's reputation is submerged
at present, but on revaluation he may be seen as a significant creator of
humanistic fantasy. [JC]Other works: Jonah (1925; vt Son of Ammitai 1925
UK; vt Jonah, or The Withering Vine 1934 US); Road of Ages (1935), an
unusual political fantasy in which the Jews are sent into a new Exile; The
Enchanted Voyage (1936); Journey of Tapiola (1938) and Tapiola's Brave
Regiment (1941), assembled as The Adventures of Tapiola (omni 1950); They
Went on Together (1941); The Sea-Gull Cry (1942); But Gently Day (1943);
Mr Whittle and the Morning Star (1947); The River Journey (1949); The
Married Look (1950; vt His Wife's Young Face 1951 UK); The Innocent Eve
(1951), which is assembled in Nathan 3 (omni 1952) along with The River
Journey and the associational The Sea-Gull Cry (1952); The Train in the
Meadow (1953), an afterlife fantasy; Sir Henry (1955);The Rancho of the
Little Loves (1956); So Love Returns (1958); The Wilderness Stone (1961);
The Devil with Love (1963); Stonecliff (1967); Mia (1970).About the
author: Robert Nathan: A Bibliography (1960 chap) by Dan H. Laurence.See

(1930- ) UK screenwriter involved in the inception of the long-running
BBC TELEVISION series DR WHO; he created in 1963 its most famous villains,
the DALEKS, the story of which he subsequently told in The Official Doctor
Who and the Daleks Book (1988) with John Peel, the relevant episodes
appearing as Doctor Who: The Scripts: The Daleks * (coll 1989) with John
McElroy. In 1975 TN created a post- HOLOCAUST series, SURVIVORS, also for
BBC TV, which rather unsuccessfully attempted to capture on tv the flavour
of the English DISASTER novel; his novelization is The Survivors * (1976).
Rebecca's World (1975), illustrated with bravura by Larry Learmonth, is a
fable for young children about ECOLOGY. In 1978 TN created a further sf
series for tv, BLAKE'S SEVEN; he wrote all 13 episodes of this SPACE
OPERA's 1st season as well as 6 later episodes, but by the time of its
weak 4th (and last) season in 1981 his association with it had ceased.



Joint pseudonym of UK scriptwriters and authors Rob Grant and Doug
Naylor, who worked for 3 years as head writers for Spitting Image, a
satirical tv series using a combination of puppets and live action, and
who wrote the RED DWARF tv series, which weds black humour and SPACE
OPERA; some of the scripts have been published as Primordial Soup: Red
Dwarf Scripts (coll 1993). As GN they have published 2 novelizations: Red
Dwarf: Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers * (1989) and Better than Life *
(1990), both assembled, with additional material, as Red Dwarf Omnibus
(omni 1992). [JC]

Little did Norman Spinrad know that he was such an inspiring writer. His
novel, The Iron Dream, was published in 1972, and the plot was not exactly
realistic. It was set in an alternate universe where Hitler had emigrated
to the United States as a young man, eventually becoming a pulp fiction
writer. In Spinrad's book, Hitler ended up writing an SF novel called"Lord
of the Swastika." Obviously the German authorities didn’t get the satire.
Spinrad's book was banned in Germany in the early 1980s, under provisions
of postwar anti-Nazi laws.

[s] Jerome BIXBY.

ANTHROPOLOGY and especially ORIGIN OF MAN for prehistoric romances; APES
AND CAVEMEN for Neanderthal survivals.

Images of the near future in sf differ markedly from those of the FAR
FUTURE in both content and attitude. The far future tends to be associated
with notions of ultimate destiny, and is dominated by metaphors of
senescence; its images display a world irrevocably transfigured. It is
viewed from a detached viewpoint; the dominant mood is - paradoxically -
one of nostalgia, because the far future, like the dead past, can be
entered only imaginatively, and has meaning only in terms of its emotional
resonances. The near future, by contrast, is a world which is imminently
real - one of which we can have no definite knowledge, which exists only
imaginatively and hypothetically, but which is nevertheless a world in
which (or something like it) we may one day have to live, and towards
which our present plans and ambitions must be directed. The fears and
hopes reflected in our images of the near future are real, however
overpessimistic or overoptimistic they may seem ( OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM).
In order to plan our lives we must all possess such images, and the fact
that they are fictions does not mean that they are unimportant. Literary
representations of the near future both reflect and nourish those
images.Just as fictions of the far future could not emerge until there was
an appreciation of the true timescale of the Earth and the forces involved
in long-term change, so fictions dealing with the near future could not
emerge until it was generally realized that an individual's lifetime might
see changes of considerable import. An awareness that habits and
strategies designed to deal with the past and the present might not be
adequate to deal with one's personal future emerged rather more slowly
than an awareness of the geological timescale, and was handicapped by a
dogged ideative resistance. It is doubtful whether many people, even
today, have really cultivated a genuine appreciation of the scope of the
change that might overtake the world in the space of their own lifetimes.
The difficulty of making such an adjustment was the subject of Alvin
TOFFLER's bestselling work of popular FUTUROLOGY, Future Shock (1970).The
near future is implicitly threatening; whatever innovations it produces
must invalidate - however temporarily - the past experience on which our
present consciousness is based. At a time when no one believed in the
possibility of fundamental change, this threat was ineffective, not
because innovations never occurred but because they were unanticipated and
the processes producing them were unperceived. In today's world change is
so rapid we cannot fail to perceive it, despite our most fervent efforts
to ignore it. In such a historical situation it is easy to understand the
popularity of dogmas of conservatism and conservationism, and the acuity
of sensations of personal and social insecurity. It is also easy to
understand the rapid growth of a literature which both reflects these
anxieties and offers palliative reassurances.In much early futuristic
fiction there is no trace of either near or far future in the senses
outlined above; events take place in a disconnected, generalized
imaginative space which is comprehensively distanced by its dating.
Examples include the anonymous The Reign of King George VI 1900-1925
(1763), L.S. MERCIER's Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred
(1771; trans 1772) and Jane LOUDON's The Mummy! A Tale of the 22nd Century
(1827). The earliest near-future speculations are warnings about the
consequences of specific political practices; I.F. CLARKE's bibliography,
The Tale of the Future (3rd edn 1978), lists inter alia a 1644 pamphlet on
the dangers of restoring the monarchy and an 1831 pamphlet warning of the
effects of the Reform Bill. The idea of historical change independent of
strategic action on the part of governing bodies did not come until the
late 19th century.The first class of near-future fantasies to emerge was
the WAR-anticipation genre in the UK, which began with a political debate
concerning the need for rearmament. George T. CHESNEY's classic
drama-documentary The Battle of Dorking (1871) headed a tradition of
speculative stories exploring the probable effects of new TECHNOLOGY on
the business of warfare which eventually led writers like George GRIFFITH
and H.G. WELLS to produce literary nightmares of war remade by submarines,
tanks, aeroplanes and atomic bombs. Griffith died before the outbreak of
WWI, but most of his readers did not; Wells lived just long enough to
witness the advent of the real atom bomb. The anxieties reflected in this
early class of near-future fantasies were entirely justified, and the
notion of "a war that will end war", in Wells's phrase - an idea already
popularized in such jingoistic extravaganzas as Louis TRACY's The Final
War (1896)-was enthusiastically borrowed by the promoters of WWI as a
means of selling it to the populations which became involved.A somewhat
different set of images was presented by another subgenre which emerged in
the same period, celebrating the modern wonders of a newly emergent era of
technological DISCOVERY AND INVENTION. Significantly, there are few
genuine UTOPIAS in this class, most ideal societies being cast forward by
at least a century, as in Edward BELLAMY's Looking Backward, 2000-1887
(1888); and even the fervently optimistic Hugo GERNSBACK subtitled his
Ralph 124C 41+ (1911-12; 1925) "A Romance of the Year 2660". Technological
wonder stories located within the personal future of their readers were
mostly concerned with the future of TRANSPORTATION, connected to the
war-anticipation genre by virtue of rejoicing in the conquest of the air.
Jules VERNE is the archetypal early writer of near-future sf, although his
imitators often took a more cavalier view of imminent possibility than he
did; where Verne went Around the World in 80 Days (1873; trans 1874),
Andre LAURIE went from New York to Brest in Seven Hours (1888; trans
1890). Sf writers were slower to take account of the AUTOMATION of
industry than they were to foresee new opportunities in LEISURE. When
Gernsback attempted to capture the scattered aspects of technological
enthusiasm and bind them all together into a medium of communication which
would hopefully "blaze a trail, not only in literature, but in progress as
well" he was still a man ahead of his time, despite the precedents set by
Verne and Wells. He saw SCIENTIFICTION as a means not only of anticipating
the transformation which the world was undergoing through the acceleration
of technological progress, but also of making a crucial contribution to
it. He was an inventor himself, passionately involved with contemporary
technology and particularly with the development of radio. In the
editorials which he wrote for his early sf PULP MAGAZINES he talked about
atomic energy, radar, tv and space travel. His near-future anticipations
were by no means unjustified; most of his readers were in their teens in
the 1920s, and so lived to see Gernsback's hypothetical technologies made
actual. GENRE SF undertook to deal with all aspects of the future, but it
was in its generalization of images of the near future that it was really
new. The impact of sf upon young readers in the 1920s and 1930s may have
been partly due to a consciousness of the immediacy of change as well as
to the vastness of sf's imaginative horizons. That said, most early pulp
sf was located in numinous eras beyond the personal horizon, and its grasp
of the extent to which technological change would alter the quality of
life was decidedly weak. Outside the genre, the wide-eyed optimism and
ludicrously uninhibited melodrama of most pulp sf seemed childish; in the
less prolific but far more earnest tradition of the UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE,
the anxieties attendant on the awareness of change were much more
prominently represented. The balance began to be redressed when John W.
CAMPBELL Jr took over ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in the late 1930s and
began to ask for more carefully considered appraisals of future
possibility. Many authors understandably preferred the freedom of more
distant future realms, where they could set melodramatic SPACE OPERAS
against the gaudy background of a GALACTIC EMPIRE, but a new generation of
sf writers were prepared to tackle the problems of the near future, and in
a more realistic fashion. The late 1930s and early 1940s produced several
notable stories dealing with the advent of NUCLEAR POWER, and Robert A.
HEINLEIN attempted to construct a detailed future HISTORY mapping the
interplay of technological innovation and political response. The
destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the first atom bombs brought into
the world a sensation of existential insecurity unparalleled in modern
history (it is perhaps more easily comparable with such events as the
slaughter of the population of Europe by the Black Death in the 14th
century). To those professionally involved in the sf field, like Campbell
and Donald A. WOLLHEIM, it seemed that sf had been "justified" by the
unveiling of the atom bomb, and that from 1945 on everyone would have to
acknowledge the power of technological change to transform the world. But
such advances in sf's popularity and esteem were limited, and there also
emerged within the genre a powerful sense of nostalgia for that GOLDEN AGE
when sf had been aware of change only as a succession of miracles and
make-believe adventures.The response of sf authors to the new intellectual
climate was varied. Straightforward PREDICTIONS of imminent atomic doom
were abundant ( END OF THE WORLD; HOLOCAUST AND AFTER; WAR), but a more
eccentric response was the widespread creation of distorted future
societies in which some contemporary power-group had "taken over" and
formed an oppressive regime; the archetype of this species is THE SPACE
MERCHANTS (1953) by Frederik POHL and C.M. KORNBLUTH. These stories of
distorted societies are often labelled SATIRES, and do indeed have a
satirical edge, but there is also an element of actual anticipation in
them, and they reflect a genuine fear of the swamping of individual
ambitions by large-scale bureaucratic institutions.The baroque and
slightly surreal mode of this kind of imaginative exercise gradually gave
way to a more acute awareness of real processes of change in the
contemporary world, and of their dangers. In the 1960s OVERPOPULATION,
POLLUTION and resource crises ( POWER SOURCES) became standard features of
sf's images of the near future. Stories on these subjects often have a
hint of panic about them, and there was a distinct apocalyptic note about
the sf of the 1960s and 1970s. Images of the near future produced outside
the genre became virtually indistinguishable in attitude from those
produced within it (although the near-future novels produced by MAINSTREAM
WRITERS tended to work with an impoverished vocabulary of ideas). Insofar
as it deals with the near future, genre sf is primarily a literature of
anxiety; optimism and colourful adventurism remain the prerogatives of
fiction set in a more distant future, in which the particular problems of
Spaceship Earth are often reduced to irrelevance.Our awareness of
impending ecocatastrophe ( ECOLOGY) has been complicated in the 1970s and
1980s by the advent of two new species of technology which promise
dramatic transformations of the way we live. The COMPUTER revolution has
pressed forward much faster than most sf writers of the 1950s and 1960s
anticipated; CYBERPUNK fiction represents a somewhat belated but suitably
intense response to this developing situation, and its rhetoric is feeding
back into the real situation much as the rhetoric of the future-war story
fed back into the actual build-up to WWI. Second, while the cracking of
the genetic code and the subsequent advent of GENETIC ENGINEERING have not
yet begun to transform the everyday environments of the home and
workplace, the inherent possibilities hold the promise of a new
technological revolution which might overturn many of our assumptions
about the nature of MACHINES (see also NANOTECHNOLOGY). Within the last
few years the assumptions which sf writers have made about the POLITICS of
the future have been devastated by the collapse of communism in Eastern
Europe, and this too has ensured that virtually all extant sf images of
the near future, however recent, are now almost redundant. Those which
seem most pertinent are those which anticipate the greatest
confusion.Bruce STERLING's ISLANDS IN THE NET (1988) is perhaps the most
compelling recent image of the near future, overtaking Frederik Pohl's The
Years of the City (1985), which has already begun to seem tentative. David
BRIN's far more optimistic Earth (1990) is a worthy attempt to celebrate
heroic attempts to cope with ecocatastrophe but ultimately founders on the
rock of its outrageous deus ex machina, while Greg BEAR's Queen of Angels
(1990) obtains its conviction by focusing tightly on the particular
predicaments of a handful of characters. The vast majority of sf writers
are either narrower still in the focus of their concerns or content to
farm the much greener pastures of hypothetical futures which lie safely
beyond the personal event-horizon. This is probably inevitable. The near
future is an uncomfortable imaginative space for writers and readers to
inhabit, and it is entirely understandable that those who venture into it
should go equipped with blinkers, armoured by some protective obsession
which obviates the necessity of dealing with the near future-world as a
whole.The faster the pace of technological change becomes, the more
horrifying a prospect the near future seems. It could not be otherwise.
Our personal ambitions are tied to our expectations, which - if they are
not mere castles in the air - are based in our experience of the past. The
innovations which the future will surely bring are much more likely to
threaten these ambitions than to aid them (even though they may compensate
by making possible new ambitions) and are therefore bound to be sources of
acute anxiety. The rate of technological change will certainly not slow
down - unless DISASTER overtakes the entire cultural/industrial complex
and renders all ambitions beyond mere survival redundant - and there now
seem no grounds for hoping, as some apologists for sf once did, that
assiduous study of images of future possibility will help us adapt
ourselves to the acceleration of that change. Despite the increasing
number of sf titles published each year, realistic speculative fiction
about the near future is scarce and will undoubtedly remain so. Such
fiction is too frightening to be popular; even those readers who like to
be frightened prefer to gain their excitement from the obsolete workings
of the supernatural imagination, which are utterly without consequence for
the way they must live their lives. [BS]

(1915- ) US writer and professor of English at Pennsylvania Military
College. His series of stories about Professor Cleanth Penn Ransom and
Professor Archibald MacTate, mathematician and philosopher respectively,
appeared in FSF from "The Poetry Machine" in 1950 up to 1963. 7 of these
stories were assembled with 4 unconnected tales (and very thinly
"novelized") as The Sinister Researches of C.P. Ransom (coll 1954); they
concern the two professors' attempts to formalize a union between science
and the arts. Their efforts, though doomed, are told without malice.
Uncollected stories are "The Embarrassing Dimension" (1951), "The
Maladjusted Classroom" (1953), "The Cerebrative Psittacoid" (1953), "The
Gastronomical Error" (1953) and "The Hermeneutical Doughnut" (1956
Fantastic Universe). The professors' names disconnectedly represent
several US poets and critics associated with the New Criticism: Cleanth
Brooks, Archibald MacLeish, John Crowe Ransom, Allen Tate and Robert Penn
Warren. [JC/PN]See also: DIMENSIONS; HUMOUR.

Sf award given by the SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA (now the Science
Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America) since 1966. The idea of funding
such an award from the royalties of an annual anthology of award-winning
short fiction was proposed in 1965 by the SFWA's then secretary-treasurer,
Lloyd BIGGLE Jr. The awards are made in the spring and, unlike the HUGOS,
are dated by the year of publication of the award-winning stories; thus
the 1965 awards, the first, were made in 1966. The award takes the form of
a metallic-glitter spiral nebula suspended over a rock crystal, both
embedded in clear lucite; the original design by J.A. LAWRENCE was based
on a drawing by Kate WILHELM and has been followed ever since.The original
4 classes of award, all for professional writing, have remained unchanged;
a 5th class, for Best Dramatic Presentation, was added in 1974, changed to
Best Dramatic Writing in 1976, and then immediately dropped. Several
special awards, taking the form of plaques or citations, have also been
made; the only special category listed here is the Grand Master Award made
from time to time by the Nebula committee for lifetime achievement in sf
writing; it goes always to writers who are senior in both status and
years.The 4 writing categories are Novel (over 40,000 words), Novella (17,
500-40,000 words), Novelette (7500-17,500 words) and Short Story (under
7500 words). Voting is by SFWA members, using a final ballot paper made up
from members' nominations. From 1970 a preliminary ballot of all nominated
works was circulated early in the year, the entries receiving the most
votes being entered on the final ballot. In 1980 procedures were changed
(not for the first or last time): the year of a work's eligibility became
the previous calendar year (not December 1 to November 30 as had earlier
been the case); more importantly, perhaps, a Nebula jury system was set
up, with each year's panel of judges allowed to add one item to the final
ballot in each category. For some time authors have been allowed the
option of choosing a one-year-later, usually mass-market, edition of their
books to be eligible, rather than the original edition: many authors
prefer to be judged on the basis of a widely read paperback rather than on
the original hardcover.The procedures for Nebula awards have been more
consistent than those for Hugos, but lobbying among the SFWA membership
has received much criticism over the years, with some critics maintaining
that the awards sometimes reflect political as much as literary ability.
It may be partly as a result of this that the proportion of SFWA members
voting is often not very high.Although the Nebulas have occasionally gone
to rather more experimental writing than ever wins a Hugo, there has not
been a great deal of difference between the choices. It might have been
expected that the Nebula, inasmuch as it is given by a consensus of
professional writers, would place a stronger emphasis on literary skills,
but there is no evidence that this has been so. Neither Hugo nor Nebula
has been given to non-genre sf or fantasy, and both have mostly gone,
quite disproportionately, to US recipients. While the Nebula has certainly
been awarded to some fine works, many critics have argued that the whole
AWARDS system, in sf at least, is more a publicity exercise than a
consistently well judged measure of value.Anthologies of Nebula-winning
short fiction, along with a selection of the runners-up, are published
annually in the Nebula Award Stories series, each volume ed by an SFWA
member. These books sometimes contain critical essays and accounts of the
year in sf, as well as winners of the Rhysling Award for sf POETRY.
Volumes to date are Nebula Award Stories 1965 (anth 1966; vt Nebula Award
Stories 1 UK) ed Damon KNIGHT, Nebula Award Stories Two (anth 1967; vt
Nebula Award Stories 2 UK) ed Brian W. ALDISS and Harry HARRISON, Three
(anth 1968) ed Roger ZELAZNY, Four (anth 1969) ed Poul ANDERSON, Five
(anth 1970) ed James Blish, Six (anth 1971) ed Clifford D. SIMAK, Seven
(anth 1972) ed Lloyd Biggle Jr, Eight (1973) ed Isaac ASIMOV, Nine (anth
1974) ed Kate Wilhelm, Ten (anth 1975) ed James E. GUNN, Eleven (1976 UK)
ed Ursula K. LE GUIN (Eleven appeared in 1977 in the USA; from then until
1983 the year of publication was 2 years behind the year for which the
awards were given), Twelve (anth 1978) ed Gordon R. DICKSON, Thirteen
(anth 1979) ed Samuel R. DELANY, Fourteen (anth 1980) ed Frederik POHL,
Fifteen (anth 1981) ed Frank HERBERT, Sixteen (anth 1982) ed Jerry E.
POURNELLE, Seventeen (anth 1983) ed Joe W. HALDEMAN, 18 (anth 1983) ed
Robert SILVERBERG (with these latter, both published in the same year, the
books went back to trailing the award year by only 1 year), 19 (anth 1984)
ed Marta RANDALL, 20 (anth 1985) ed George ZEBROWSKI, 21 (anth 1986) ed
Zebrowski (again the gap increased to 2 years), 22 (anth 1988) ed
Zebrowski, 23 (anth 1989) ed Michael BISHOP, 24 (anth 1990) ed Bishop and
25 (anth 1991) ed Bishop.In 1969 the concept of SFWA members voting on
stories was extended retroactively to cover those stories (but not novels)
considered the all-time best prior to 1965. The chosen short stories were
published as SCIENCE FICTION HALL OF FAME (anth 1970) ed Robert SILVERBERG
and the novellas in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame Volume Two A (anth
1973; vt The Science Fiction Hall of Fame Volume Two UK) and The Science
Fiction Hall of Fame Volume Two B (anth 1973; vt The Science Fiction Hall
of Fame Volume Three UK) ed Ben BOVA. [PN]Novels:1965: Frank HERBERT,
BABEL-17 (tie)1967: Samuel R. Delany, THE EINSTEIN INTERSECTION1968:
RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA1974: Ursula K. Le Guin, The Dispossessed1975: Joe
HALDEMAN, THE FOREVER WAR1976: Frederik POHL, MAN PLUS1977: Frederik Pohl,
GATEWAY1978: Vonda N. MCINTYRE, DREAMSNAKE1979: Arthur C. Clarke, THE
Claw of the Conciliator1982: Michael BISHOP, NO ENEMY BUT TIME1983: David
CARD, ENDER'S GAME1986: Orson Scott Card, Speaker for the Dead1987: Pat
MURPHY, The Falling Woman1988: Lois McMaster BUJOLD, FALLING FREE1989:
Elizabeth Ann Scarborough, The Healer's War1990: Ursula K. Le Guin,
Tehanu: The Last Book of Earthsea1991: Michael SWANWICK, STATIONS OF THE
MARSNovellas:1965: Brian W. ALDISS, "The Saliva Tree", and Roger ZELAZNY,
"He who Shapes" (tie)1966: Jack VANCE, "The Last Castle"1967: Michael
MOORCOCK, "Behold the Man"1968: Anne MCCAFFREY, "Dragonrider"1969: Harlan
ELLISON, "A Boy and his Dog"1970: Fritz LEIBER, "Ill Met in Lankhmar"1971:
Katherine MACLEAN, "The Missing Man"1972: Arthur C. Clarke, "A Meeting
with Medusa"1973: Gene Wolfe, "The Death of Dr Island"1974: Robert
Silverberg, "Born with the Dead"1975: Roger Zelazny, "Home is the
Hangman"1976: James TIPTREE Jr, "Houston, Houston, Do You Read?"1977:
Spider and Jeanne ROBINSON, "Stardance"1978: John VARLEY, "The Persistence
of Vision"1979: Barry B. LONGYEAR, "Enemy Mine"1980: Suzy McKee CHARNAS,
"Unicorn Tapestry"1981: Poul ANDERSON, "The Saturn Game"1982: John KESSEL,
"Another Orphan"1983: Greg BEAR, "Hardfought"1984: John Varley, "PRESS
ENTER"1985: Robert Silverberg,"Sailing to Byzantium"1986: Lucius
SHEPARD,"R & R"1987: Kim Stanley ROBINSON,"The Blind Geometer"1988: Connie
WILLIS, "The Last of the Winnebagos"1989: Lois McMaster Bujold,"The
Mountains of Mourning"1990: Joe Haldeman,"The Hemingway Hoax"1991: Nancy
KRESS, "Beggars in Spain"1992: James MORROW, "City of Truth"1993: Jack
Cady,"The Night We Buried Road Dog"Novelettes:1965: Roger Zelazny, "The
Doors of his Face, the Lamps of his Mouth"1966: Gordon R. DICKSON, "Call
Him Lord"1967: Fritz Leiber, "Gonna Roll the Bones"1968: Richard WILSON,
"Mother to the World"1969: Samuel R. Delany, "Time Considered as a Helix
of Semi-Precious Stones"1970: Theodore STURGEON, "Slow Sculpture"1971:
Poul Anderson, "The Queen of Air and Darkness"1972: Poul Anderson, "Goat
Song"1973: Vonda McIntyre, "Of Mist, and Grass, and Sand"1974: Gregory
Benford and Gordon EKLUND, "If the Stars are Gods"1975: Tom REAMY, "San
Diego Lightfoot Sue"1976: Isaac Asimov, "The Bicentennial Man"1977:
Raccoona Sheldon (James Tiptree Jr), "The Screwfly Solution"1978: Charles
L. GRANT, "A Glow of Candles, A Unicorn's Eye"1979: George R.R. MARTIN,
"Sandkings"1980: Howard WALDROP, "The Ugly Chickens"1981: Michael Bishop,
"The Quickening"1982: Connie Willis, "Fire Watch"1983: Greg Bear, "Blood
Music"1984: Octavia E. BUTLER, "Bloodchild"1985: George R.R. Martin,
"Portraits of his Children"1986: Kate WILHELM, "The Girl who Fell into the
Sky"1987: Pat MURPHY, "Rachel in Love"1988: George Alec EFFINGER,
"Schrodinger's Kitten"1989: Connie Willis, "At the Rialto"1990: Ted
Chiang, "Tower of Babylon"1991: Mike CONNER, "Guide Dog"1992: Pamela
SARGENT, "Danny Goes To Mars"1993: Charles SHEFFIELD, "Georgia on my
Mind"Short Stories:1965: Harlan Ellison, "'Repent Harlequin!' said the
Ticktockman"1966: Richard MCKENNA "The Secret Place"1967: Samuel R.
Delany, "Aye, and Gomorrah . . ."1968: Kate Wilhelm, "The Planners"1969:
Robert Silverberg, "Passengers"1970: no award1971: Robert Silverberg,
"Good News from the Vatican"1972: Joanna RUSS, "When it Changed"1973:
James Tiptree Jr, "Love is the Plan, the Plan is Death"1974: Ursula K. Le
Guin, "The Day Before the Revolution"1975: Fritz Leiber, "Catch that
Zeppelin!"1976: Charles L. Grant, "A Crowd of Shadows"1977: Harlan
Ellison, "Jeffty is Five"1978: Edward BRYANT, "Stone"1979: Edward Bryant,
"giANTS"1980: Clifford D. SIMAK, "Grotto of the Dancing Deer"1981: Lisa
TUTTLE, "The Bone Flute"1982: Connie Willis, "A Letter From the
Clearys"1983: Gardner DOZOIS, "The Peacemaker"1984: Gardner Dozois,
"Morning Child"1985: Nancy Kress, "Out of All Them Bright Stars"1986: Greg
Bear, "Tangents"1987: Kate Wilhelm, "Forever Yours, Anna"1988: James
MORROW, "Bible Stories for Adults, No. 17: The Deluge"1989: Geoffrey A.
Landis, "Ripples in the Dirac Sea"1990: Terry BISSON, "Bears Discover
Fire"1991: Alan BRENNERT, "Ma Qui"1992: Connie Willis, "Even the
Queen"1993: Joe Haldeman, "Graves"Dramatic presentation/writing:1973:
SOYLENT GREEN (presentation)1974: SLEEPER (presentation)1975: Young
Frankenstein ( FRANKENSTEIN) (writing)Grand Master Award:(The years given
are the years in which the award was made)1975: Robert A. HEINLEIN 1976:
Jack WILLIAMSON1977: Clifford D. Simak1979: L. Sprague DE CAMP1981: Fritz
Leiber1984: Andre NORTON1986: Arthur C. Clarke1987: Isaac Asimov1988:
Alfred BESTER1989: Ray BRADBURY1991: Lester DEL REY1993: Frederik PohlSee

UK large- DIGEST-size magazine. 41 issues Autumn 1952-Aug 1959, published
by Crownpoint Publications, Glasgow, Autumn 1952-Apr 1955, and by Peter
Hamilton Sep 1955-Aug 1959; ed Peter Hamilton. Issues were numbered
consecutively after Vols 1 and 2 of 4 nos each; what should have been Vol
3 #1 was actually marked #9. Publication was quite irregular except for
July 1957-Feb 1959, which was monthly apart from the omission of Nov and
Dec 1957.N was the first and so far only Scottish sf magazine, and was
part of the 1950s UK sf magazine revival, one of the most important titles
along with NEW WORLDS and SCIENCE FANTASY. N was subsidized by its editor,
an enthusiastic fan, still a teenager when the magazine began. It always
ran a news section, including a column by the celebrated Irish fan Walt
Willis (1919- ), editor of HYPHEN and SLANT. But although N was fannish it
was by no means juvenile; Hamilton was serious-minded and prepared to
experiment with difficult stories and to encourage young writers. Brian W.
ALDISS, Bob SHAW and Robert SILVERBERG all had their first published
stories in N. Other contributors included Harlan ELLISON, Eric Frank
RUSSELL, Kenneth BULMER and E.C. TUBB, the latter being the most prolific.
Early issues each contained a novel with a small number of short stories,
but the novel-an-issue policy was later dropped. The handsome and
distinctive front covers were the work of various artists, including
Gerard QUINN and Eddie JONES. N was popular with writers; Hamilton was
able to keep it going as very much a one-man show, never very profitably,
for 7 years. Some later issues went on sale in the USA. [PN/FHP]


Working name of US microbiologist and author Carolyn A. Neeper (1937- )
for her fiction, which consists primarily of the ambitious A Place Beyond
Man (1975), which somewhat uneasily combines a HARD-SF rendering of the
physics and biology of her interplanetary venues with a contemplative
sweep characteristic of the SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE. Confronted with the
looming ecological self-destruction of Earth, the two other sentient
species of our Solar System must decide what course to follow; the
consequent lessons are earnestly put. [JC]


(1883-1973) UK educationist who gained fame for revolutionary theories
about the teaching of children and who cofounded the International School
- first on the Continent, then (from 1921) at Summerhill in the UK - to
put them into practice. Fictionalized accounts like A Dominie's Log (1915)
popularized his arguments, and his sf novel, The Last Man Alive (1938),
was read aloud to his pupils. The DISASTER it recounts is readable but
unoriginal. [JC]

(1935- ) US academic of importance in the field of sf and fantasy
scholarship for editing (anon: both books were created under the umbrella
editorship of Frank N. Magill [1907- ]) the 5-vol Survey of Science
Fiction Literature (anth 1979) and the 5-vol Survey of Modern Fantasy
Literature (anth 1983); each contains about 500 essays, averaging about
2000 words, on individual books and series. Although (inevitably) some
essays are weak or wrong-headed, many are strong and original, and the two
surveys present between them an indispensible series of critical responses
to the literature. [JC]

Working name of Radell Faraday Nelson (1931- ), who also writes as R.F.
Nelson, R. Faraday Nelson and Ray Faraday Nelson, and once under the house
name Jeffrey Lord ( Lyle Kenyon ENGEL). He has been active in both sf and
detective genres, publishing his first sf story, "Turn off the Sky", in
FSF in 1963. He worked as a gagwriter for cartoonist Grant Canfield, and
for a time collaborated with Michael MOORCOCK in smuggling Henry Miller
books from France into the UK; Moorcock was caught, RN forced to cease. RN
holds a secure place in the hearts of sf FANDOM (he used to be a fan
artist) for having invented the propeller beanie which in fan cartooning
is always emblematic of the sf fan.RN's first sf novel was The Ganymede
Takeover (1967) with Philip K. DICK, a tale in which Dickian
preoccupations are somewhat dampened by implausibly foregrounded action
sequences. His second, Blake's Progress (1975 Canada; rev vt Timequest
1985 US), accords the poet/painter William Blake (1757-1827) the capacity
to travel through time, along with his wife Kate; she is by far the better
painter of the two, though her husband signs her works. History is
altered, the novel being in part an ALTERNATE-WORLDS story. In its full
revised form it is a highly energetic vision of the poet, and RN's best
work. Then Beggars Could Ride (1976 Canada) and its sequel, The Revolt of
the Unemployables (1978), depict an ecological UTOPIA of small,
self-contained but interacting units, in which a protagonist tries to sort
himself out. RN's most recently published novel is #1 in the projected
Timebinder sequence, The Prometheus Man (1982), in which a rigid and
therefore DYSTOPIAN meritocracy has transformed the USA into a land of
employables (not numerous) and the Uns, or unemployables (the great
majority). The plot revolves around a marriage broken by the system as
well as an assortment of gurus, tycooons and revolutionaries; it does not
fully resolve. At least one sequel is reportedly awaiting publication.
Though sometimes over-easily applied, RN's iconoclasm is all the more
welcome for its surprising rarity in the sf field. [JC]Other works: The
Ecolog (1977 Canada); Dimension of Horror * (1979) as Jeffrey Lord, #30 in
the Richard Blade series.See also: INVASION; PHILIP K. DICK AWARD;


Film (1993). Shah/Jensen and Imperial Entertainment. Prod Ash R. Shah,
Eric Karson and Tom Karnowski; dir Albert Pyun; screenplay Rebecca
Charles; starring Olivier Gruner, Tim Thomerson, Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa and
Merle Kennedy. 96 mins. Colour.This very violent, low-budget,
straight-to-video, exploitation action-adventure movie, directed by
straight-to-video specialist Pyun, has one element of sf interest. At a
time when, despite all the publicity given to them, CYBERPUNK themes are
barely impinging on the "respectable" end of the film business, parts of
poverty row are embracing them. In N, bio-enhanced gangsters, anti- CYBORG
terrorist groups, machine cops, a lovely dead woman encoded on a data
chip, and third world police forces take part in an almost unfathomable
series of shoot-outs in the information-saturated world of 2027, where the
largest information cartel consists of US/Japan. Hawaii is passed off as
Java, and ethnic Chinese unconvincingly represent Indonesians. Though the
acting is below par, the dialogue is largely four-letter words and nothing
in the plot goes beyond cyberpunk stereotypes, at least the attempt was
made. [PN]




(1926- ) Czech psychiatrist, doctor and writer, born in Prague. He
started by writing dramatic sketches but soon turned to detective stories
and satirical sf, continuing the tradition of Karel CAPEK. One of the best
Czech sf writers ( CZECH AND SLOVAK SF) - though he has written less since
the late 1960s - and aside from Capek the best known in the West, JN
writes subtly ironic variations on common sf themes, poking fun at human
weaknesses, and is not afraid to satirize his own social system (as in
"Inventor of His Own Undoing", in all the English-language collections
noted below). His 3 early collections of short stories are Tarzanova smrt
["Tarzan's Death"] (coll 1958), Einsteinuv mozek ["Einstein's Brain"]
(coll 1960) and Vyprava opacnym smerem ["Expedition in the Opposite
Direction"] (coll 1962), not to be confused with the later Vypravy opacnym
smerem ["Expeditions in the Opposite Direction"] (coll 1976), which
assembles early work, some previously collected, as does Einsteinuv mozek
a jine povidky ["The Einstein Brain and Other Stories"] (coll 1987). A
mystery novel of fantasy interest is Bludy Erika N. ["The Ravings of Erika
N."] (1974), which draws on some of Erich VON DANIKEN's ideas.A later
stage of psychiatry-related sf novelettes and novels begins, in book form,
with Ridicsky prukaz rodicu ["Parents' Driving Licence"] (coll of 3 linked
novelettes 1979). Others are Minehava podruhe ["Minehava for the Second
Time"] (coll of 3 linked novelettes 1981) and the novel Hledam za manzela
muze ["I am Looking for a Man to be a Husband"] (1986). These are less
well known in the West, but the title story of the second collection has
been translated in cut form as "The Return of Minnehawa or Marian Kolda's
Psychoscope" in Panorama of Czech Literature, No 8 (anth 1986
Czechoslovakia) ed Nesvadba, an anthology of modern Czech fantasy and sf
with biographical pieces on the authors.JN's stories have been a fertile
source of inspiration for the Czech film industry. Films based on his work
include Tarzanova smrt (1962; vt The Death of an Apeman) dir Jaroslav
Balik, screenplay by JN and Balik, a tragicomic new adventure of Tarzan;
Blbec z Xeenemunde (1962; vt The Idiot of Xeenemunde) dir Balik,
screenplay by JN and Balik, another tragicomedy, this time about a halfwit
scientist who kills Nazis; Ztracena tvar (1965; vt The Lost Face) dir
Pavel Hobl, screenplay by Hobl and JN, a slapstick story set in the 1930s
about a doctor who can perform miracles of disguise with plastic surgery
and organ transplants; Zabil jsem Einsteina, panove! (1969; vt I killed
Einstein, Gentlemen) dir Oldrich Lipsky, screenplay by Lipsky, Milos
Macourek and JN, an overfarcical TIME-TRAVEL comedy involving a society in
1999 where women are sterile and bearded because of radiation from nuclear
war; Slecna Golem (1972; vt Miss Golem) dir Balik, screenplay by Balik and
JN, about the creation of an artificial woman by cloning; Upir z Feratu
(1981; vt The Vampire from Ferat) dir Juraj Herz, based on JN's story
known in English as "Vampires Ltd.", about a racing car that uses the
blood of drivers rather than petrol as fuel. Another film based on a JN
story is ZITRA VSTANU A OPARIM SE CAJEM (1977; vt Tomorrow I'll Wake up
and Scald Myself with Tea).JN's intricately plotted, absurdly logical
stories have been translated into many languages and widely anthologized.
English-language editions of JN's stories are Vampires Ltd. (coll 1964
trans Iris Urwin, Prague) and In the Footsteps of the Abominable Snowman
(coll 1970; vt The Lost Face US). All but the first and third stories of
the latter collection are also in the former, which also contains 5
stories not in the latter. [JO/SC/FR/PN]Other works: Dialog s doktorem
Dongem ["Dialogue with Dr Dong"] (1964), a contemporary novel about
Vietnam; Tajna zprava z Prahy ["Secret Report from Prague"] (censored text
1978; text restored 1992).


Item of TERMINOLOGY in ASTRONOMY, and much used in sf. In an ordinary
star, such as the Sun, the gravitational pressure tending to make it
collapse is balanced by the outward pressure created by the continuous
nuclear fusion within it. As a star's fuel burns out, GRAVITY takes over.
A star of mass less than the Chandrasekhar limit - a value calculated by
Indian physicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910- ) to be about 1.4 times
the mass of our Sun - would usually contract under the force of gravity
into a very dense White Dwarf, with a radius of maybe only a few thousand
kilometres; but a further, more extreme compression is possible, as under
pressure the empty space within the atoms of the star's matter is
annihilated, the electrons being crushed down to the atomic nucleus, there
to fuse with the protons of the nucleus to form neutrons. The resulting
degenerate matter - neutronium - is incredibly dense because of the loss
of the intra-atomic emptiness: a neutron star having the same mass as our
Sun would have a radius of about 10km (6 miles). Its surface gravity would
be so strong that no "mountain" (i.e., surface irregularity) could exist
on it higher than about 5mm (0.2in); and, initially at least, it would
rotate very rapidly owing to the conservation of angular momentum (i.e.,
for the same reason as ice skaters can increase their rate of spin by
pulling in their limbs).Beginning in 1968, radio telescopes discovered
many celestial sources which emitted regular bursts of microwave radiation
with very short periods (from only a couple of seconds down to tiny
fractions of a second) between pulses. These objects were named pulsars,
and were soon shown almost certainly to be neutron stars. Their powerful
electromagnetic fields channel the radiation associated with the pulsar
into two continuous beams which, because of the object's rapid rotation,
we see (assuming we are in a suitable line-of-sight) in the form of
pulses, much as we might see the light from the rotating lamp of a
lighthouse. The period of a pulsar's pulses (i.e., its rate of rotation)
can be used as a measure of the pulsar's age - the rotation slows with
time - and there is excellent correlation between such measures and the
ages of pulsars whose dates of formation are known (notably the pulsar at
the core of the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the supernova observed in
AD1054).The tidal forces created in proximity to such a star would be
lethal, as imagined in Larry NIVEN's story "Neutron Star" (1966), in which
a spaceship pilot who has ventured too close is almost ripped apart
because, in such an intense gravitational field, the length of his body
represents a significant distance, and so the force exerted by GRAVITY on
his feet is considerably stronger than that exerted on his head; it is
this difference in pull that so nearly proves fatal to him. In Gregory
BENFORD's The Stars in Shroud (1978) a neutron star's gravity is exploited
by spacecraft whipping round it to accelerate into new courses - a more
extreme version of the manoeuvre whereby space-probes in the Solar System
exploit the gravitational fields of the larger planets. The most extreme
neutron-star stories may be Robert L. FORWARD's DRAGON'S EGG (1980) and
its sequel Starquake! (1985), which have an ALIEN race - who live on a
hugely accelerated timescale - evolving on the unfriendly surface of such
a star, and ultimately making contact with human observers.Stellar
collapse for stars with a mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit can,
it is theorized, lead to a different and even more bizarre form, the BLACK



(1925-1980) US writer of fiction who worked for many years as a technical
writer specializing in plastics technology, and through his connection
with the Epoxylite Corporation co-authored several texts on epoxy resins.
He began publishing sf with "The Hand from the Stars" for Super Science
Stories in 1949, and for several years was a prolific contributor to FSF
and other magazines; he wrote some fantasy as by Henderson Starke. His
short fiction was assembled in Mission: Manstop (coll with some stories
updated 1971) and in the posthumous The Science Fiction of Kris Neville
(coll 1984) ed Barry N. MALZBERG and Martin H. GREENBERG, much of it
demonstrating his notable strengths as a writer: concision, clarity of
style and a capacity to develop the sometimes routine initial material of
a story so that its implications expanded constantly, rather in the manner
mastered, with more recognition than KN ever received, by James TIPTREE
Jr. "Hunt the Hunter" (1951), for instance, begins as a simple hunt on an
alien planet but expands subtly but quickly into a study in power politics
whose trick ending very neatly turns the meaning of the whole tale in upon
itself. Another early story, "The Toy" (1952), powerfully structures a
very sharp lesson in ANTHROPOLOGY within an apparently routine tale about
humans oppressing "inferior" aliens. One of his very few late stories,
"Ballenger's People" (1967), counts as sf only through its moderately
futuristic form of urban transport; the tale itself describes, with superb
concision, the complex internal politics of a deranged mind.KN's best
known story is probably "Bettyan" (1951) which, with a sequel, "Overture"
(1954), eventually became Bettyann (fixup 1970). It tells the story of a
young girl whose adolescent sense that she really belongs somewhere else
is, in classic sf fashion, confirmed by her discovery first that she is
adopted, and second that she is a child of creatures from the stars. She
is then forced to decide between heredity and environment, a choice whose
implications are developed in a recent sequel, "Bettyann's Children"
(1973) with Lil Neville, KN's wife and frequent late collaborator. Among
the fiction KN wrote with her is a 1975 novel published only in Japanese
whose title translates as "Run, the Spearmaker".KN's comparative silence
for two decades before his death, a silence obscured by the book
publication of old material (some of it revamped), was much to be
regretted, for his intelligence was acute and his artistic control over
his material was always evident. He was one of the potentially major
writers in the genre who never came to speak in his full voice. [JC]Other
works: The Unearth People (1964); The Mutants (1953 Imagination as "Earth
Alert"; exp 1966); Special Delivery (1952 Imagination; 1967 chap dos);
Peril of the Starmen (1954 Imagination; 1967 chap dos); Invaders on the
Moon (1970) with Mel Sturgis (left uncredited through a publishing
decision against which KN protested).See also: LIVING WORLDS; SUPERMAN.




(1835-1909) Canadian-born writer, in the USA from 1853, of texts on and
studies of astronomical and mathematical subjects. In his sf novel His
Wisdom, the Defender (1900) future historians tell how a professor
discovers a source of limitless energy, invents ANTIGRAVITY and, after
creating a private army - equipping it with futuristic armour-takes over
the world from the air and prohibits war. In "The End of the World" (1903
McClure's Magazine) a black body from space hits the Sun, devastating the
world. The few who survive realize that eons must pass before civilization
may rise again. [JC]See also: WEAPONS.


ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series (1971-1981) ed Robert SILVERBERG. New
Dimensions I (anth 1971) appeared when original anthology series were
proliferating in the USA, with such titles as INFINITY, QUARK and
UNIVERSE. ND was one of the longest-lasting titles from this period,
although it had to change publishers several times (#1-#3 DOUBLEDAY, #4
Signet, #5-#10 Harper & Row, #11-#12 Pocket Books) in order to keep going:
New Dimensions I (anth 1971), #2 (anth 1972), #3 (anth 1973), #4 (anth
1974), #5 (anth 1975), #6 (anth 1976), #7 (anth 1977), #8 (anth 1978), #9
(anth 1979), #10 (anth 1980), #11 (anth 1980) with Marta RANDALL and #12
(anth 1981) with Randall. An associated anthology was The Best of New
Dimensions (anth 1979).ND was one of the more experimental anthology
series, and introduced a number of new writers. Its regular contributors
included Gardner DOZOIS, George Alec EFFINGER, Felix GOTSCHALK and James
TIPTREE Jr. #2 contained "Eurema's Dam" by R.A. LAFFERTY, which shared a
HUGO as Best Short Story; #3 contained 2 Hugo-winning stories: "The Girl
who was Plugged In" by Tiptree and "The Ones who Walk Away from Omelas" by
Ursula K. LE GUIN; #11 had "Unicorn Tapestry" by Suzy McKee CHARNAS, which
won a NEBULA as Best Novella. Many other stories were award nominees; ND
was one of the best original anthology series. [MJE/PN]


(1897-1968) UK writer, mostly of espionage thrillers (some as by Don
Betteridge) and detective mysteries, the two genres being perhaps most
successfully combined in Maginot Line Murder (1939). The entertainment
value of his sf is somewhat minimal, as he used the form primarily to
provide platforms for his arguments about WAR, WEAPONS and the political
nature of peace. In Armoured Doves (1931) SCIENTISTS combine to end war,
as does the hero of Secret Weapon (1941), whose invention of an atomic
bomb ends WWII; later, in The Flying Saucer (1948), the same scientist
continues his peace campaign by creating an imaginary Martian threat
against the world. BN, who appears as himself in this book, acknowledged
that its source was Andre MAUROIS's Le Chapitre Suivant (1927 chap; trans
as The Next Chapter 1928 chap UK). Further novels combining politics and
future-war themes include Shoot! (1949), The Blue Ants: The First
Authentic Account of the Russian-Chinese War of 1970 (1962) and Draw the
Dragon's Teeth (1967). The Wishful Think (1954) is a borderline-sf story
about politicized ESP. [JC]Other works: The Cavalry Went Through (1930);
Hosanna (1933); The Boy who Could Fly (1967).

(? - ) UK research chemist and writer who collaborated with Kenneth
BULMER on a long series of science articles for NW and Nebula 1955-61
under the name Kenneth Johns. [JC]

(1959- ) UK writer and broadcaster who remains as well known for his film
criticism as for his fiction, though the latter has become increasingly
dominant in his output. His film books - Nightmare Movies: Wide Screen
Horror Since 1968 (1984 US; rev vt Nightmare Movies: A Critical History of
the Horror Film, 1968-1988 1988 UK) and Wild West Movies (1990) - express
a generically savvy, sophisticatedly wry vision of their subject matters,
a vision also articulated in the weekly reviews he has conducted on tv
since 1989. KN began publishing sf with "Dreamers" for Interzone in 1984,
rapidly establishing a name for liquidly dense tales of the NEAR FUTURE -
or ALTERNATE-WORLD versions of the earlier 20th century - which combine a
more or less standard CYBERPUNK idiom with an acute sensitivity to the
dream world of the movies, in particular the film noir tradition already
mined by authors like William GIBSON; many of these tales appear in The
Original Dr. Shade and Other Stories (coll 1994). KN's almost excessive
sensitivity to the icons of Hollywood helps distinguish him from his sf
models. His first novel, The Night Mayor (1989), potently intensifies the
VIRTUAL REALITY claustrophobias of cyberpunk through a plot whose villain,
the criminal Daine, has escaped into a MAGIC-REALIST, glowing,
alternate-world mental construct peopled by personas from detective films
of the 1940s, from which haven he must be flushed by the protagonists. The
book clearly and deliberately harks back to Philip K. DICK's darker
investigations of the nature of reality and to Roger ZELAZNY's THE DREAM
MASTER (1966), though KN's rather impersonal polish may have kept his tale
from fully expressing the epistemological vertigo of some of its greater
models; and certainly his use of tropes out of the dream-life of US film
is, at times, soothingly nostalgic. His second novel, Bad Dreams (1990),
replicates much of this material in terms of HORROR, again diminished in
its visceral effect by a sense that the author has good-humouredly
distanced himself from the products of his imagination. Jago (1991), a
full-blown horror tale, once again features an antagonist capable of
exercising coercive control over his opponents' inner worlds, in this case
by transfiguring their dream self-images into reality, so that - for
instance - a farmer anguished by drought and debt becomes a Green Man.
Anno Dracula (1992) is set in a RECURSIVE alternate-world 19th-century
England which has been transformed by the marriage of Vlad Tepes, Count
Dracula, to Queen Victoria.The Quorum (1994) is again horror: four
ambitious young men (there are roman a clef elements in their depiction)
sell their souls to the devil, who manifests himself as a newspaper
magnate.At the same time as writing novels that eat at the consensual
world while suggesting that reality could still be addressed in something
like comfort, KN also produced, as Jack Yeovil, a series of ties for GAMES
WORKSHOP which leapt unashamedly into the explicitly easier environment of
the GAME-WORLD. Drachenfels * (1989), Beasts in Velvet * (1991) and
Genevieve Undead * (coll of linked stories 1993) are fantasies constructed
for the Warhammer enterprise; but the Demon Download sequence - written in
the Dark Future series, and comprising "Route 666" * (in Route 666 [1990]
ed David PRINGLE), Demon Download * (1990), Krokodil Tears * (1991),
Comeback Tour (The Sky Belongs to the Stars) * (1991) and Route 666*
(1994) - contains elements of genuine sf, ruthlessly blended into a
NEAR-FUTURE/alternate-world/fantasy/horror/punk mix. Both game-worlds and
horror as a genre tend to view CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGHS as breakers of the
dream, and it is not yet certain that KN is much inclined to engage
himself - or Jack Yeovil, under which name has also appeared Orgy of the
Blood Parasites (1994) - in the displacements necessary to compose full
and unadulterated sf.KN wrote many of the CINEMA and tv entries for the
2nd edition of this encyclopedia. [JC]Other works: Ghastly Beyond Belief:
The Science Fiction and Fantasy Book of Quotations (anth 1986) edited with
Neil GAIMAN; Horror: 100 Best Books (anth 1988) ed with Stephen Jones,


US SEMIPROZINE, full title New Pathways into Science Fiction and Fantasy
(Mar 1986-Jan 1991); BEDSHEET-format, bimonthly to #6, later quarterly,
then irregular, ed and published Michael G. Adkisson from Texas, 19 issues
to Jan 1991. Lively, but struggling for readership, NP mixed fiction,
features and COMIC strips, all at the radical end of the sf spectrum,
including commentary by MISHA and fiction by Carter SCHOLZ, Lewis SHINER,
John SHIRLEY and others, and sometimes experimental, as in a number of
reprints from Brian W. ALDISS's Enigmas series of short stories. We can
trace no issues later than 1991. [PN]

(1870-1949) UK novelist and controversialist on political matters whose
The Master Beast: Being a True Account of the Ruthless Tyranny Inflicted
on the British People by Socialism, A.D. 1888-2020 (1907; vt The Red Fury:
Britain Under Bolshevism 1919) lives fully up to its subtitle, telling of
a young socialist at the turn of the 20th century who first experiences a
German INVASION of an unprepared UK, then, after awakening ( SLEEPER
AWAKES) from suspended animation, experiences the enormity of a century of
socialist rule, with women freed for immorality, George Bernard Shaw
(1856-1950) canonized, and thought-control universal. The Ealing Miracle:
A Realistic Story (1911) is a fantasy in which two women exchange
personalities at the behest of a Christlike stranger and learn about love
and deprivation. [JC]



(? - ) UK writer whose The Forgotten Race (1963) depicts with awkward
sincerity the attempts of Venusians and Martians-both survivors of the
atomic HOLOCAUST which destroyed the fifth planet - to persuade the humans
of Earth not to repeat the tragedy. [JC]

(1884-1951) Irish writer who began writing sf with 2 future- WAR novels,
War (1914) - prefaced by Robert Hugh BENSON and introduced by Rudyard
KIPLING - and The North Afire (1914). Later works include The Golden Cat
(1930), The Beggar and Other Stories (coll 1933), which contains a story
about guided missiles, "The Joke that Ended War", and Dr Odin (1933),
about an attempt to perfect a Nordic "master race". His Savaran series
includes two LOST-WORLD stories, "The Great Quest" in I, Savaran (coll
1937) and Savaran and the Great Sands (1939 The Passing Show as "The Devil
Comes Aboard"; 1939). He contributed sf to various early magazines,
including PEARSON'S MAGAZINE, and to the US PULP MAGAZINES, but only a
small proportion has been reprinted in book form. [JE]

ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series, subtitled "The Campbell Award Nominees", #1-#2
from Harcourt Brace & Jovanovich/Jove, #3-#4 from Berkley Books, final vol
from BLUEJAY BOOKS; ed George R.R. MARTIN. Each vol contained original
novellas written (a few years later in most cases) by the 4-6 finalists
from a particular year of the JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD for the best new sf
or fantasy writer. The books, which contained stories from the award
winners for 1973 to 1977 respectively, were New Voices in Science Fiction
(anth 1977; vt New Voices I: The Campbell Award Nominees 1978 US), New
Voices II (anth 1979), New Voices III (anth 1980), New Voices 4 (anth
1981) and The John W. Campbell Awards Volume 5 (anth 1984). Eventually the
publication year fell too far behind the year of the award, and this
interesting series lost its point and came to a close. The best-known
story published in the series is John VARLEY's "Blue Champagne" (1981) in
#4. [PN]

This term, as applied to sf, is borrowed from film criticism, where it
was much used in the early 1960s as a translation of the French nouvelle
vague to refer to the experimental cinema associated with Jean-Luc Godard
(1930- ), Francois Truffaut (1932-1984) and others. (It was also applied
to music around 1977 as a synonym for Punk.) The term was first applied to
UK sf writers in a 1961 book-review column by P. Schuyler MILLER, and then
used - probably first by Christopher PRIEST - to describe the sort of
fiction being published in NEW WORLDS. It came to be used more by sf
proselytizers than by the writers concerned - especially by Judith MERRIL,
in her anthology England Swings SF (anth 1968; cut vt The Space-Time
Journal 1972 UK) and elsewhere.The kind of story to which the term refers
is in fact rather older than the (late-1960s) term, which anyway has never
been defined with any precision. The first writers whose work was later
subsumed under the New Wave label were UK, notably Brian W. ALDISS and
J.G. BALLARD. These two were publishing stories in NW while it was still
under the editorship of John CARNELL, but it was not until Michael
MOORCOCK took over with the May/June 1964 issue that the kind of
imagistic, highly metaphoric story, inclined more towards psychology and
the SOFT SCIENCES than to HARD SF, that both men wrote (in quite different
styles) was given a setting where it seemed at home.Traditional GENRE SF
had reached a crisis point in both the UK and the USA by the middle 1960s;
too many writers were working with the same few traditional sf themes, and
both the style and content of sf were becoming generally overpredictable.
Many young writers entering the field came to feel, either instantly, like
Thomas M. DISCH, or after some years' slogging away at conventional
commercial sf, like Harlan ELLISON and Robert SILVERBERG, that genre sf
had become a straitjacket; though widely supposed to emphasize change and
newness, sf had somehow become conservative. Young Turks, of course,
conventionally exaggerate the sins of their seniors, but this time they
had a real case. It was not as if the market were shrinking; on the
contrary, hardcover publishers were more willing than ever to add sf to
their lists. There was no reason to suppose that publishers would not be
grateful for sf becoming rather more flexible in style and content.By
1965, then, sf was ripe for change. In fact, many of the so-called sf
experiments of the period were not experiments at all, but merely an
adoption of narrative strategies, and sometimes ironies, that had long
been familiar in the MAINSTREAM novel. In the event, some of the sf
writers who felt they now had the freedom to experiment, especially
Ballard and perhaps (rather later) Moorcock, were to add something new to
the protocols of prose fiction generally; the New Wave may have taken from
the Mainstream, but it gave something back in return (this is now a truism
of POSTMODERNIST criticism, but it was by no means clear at the time), and
certainly New-Wave sf did more than any other kind of sf to break down the
barriers between sf and mainstream fiction.Because it was never a formal
literary movement-perhaps more a state of mind than anything else-New-Wave
writing is difficult to define. Perhaps the fundamental element was the
belief that sf could and should be taken seriously as literature. Much of
it shared the qualities of the late-1960s counterculture, including an
interest in mind-altering DRUGS and oriental RELIGIONS, a satisfaction in
violating TABOOS, a marked interest in SEX, a strong involvement in Pop
Art and in the MEDIA LANDSCAPE generally, and a pessimism about the future
that ran strongly counter to genre sf's traditional OPTIMISM, often
focused on the likelihood of DISASTER caused by OVERPOPULATION and
interference with the ECOLOGY, as well as by WAR, and a general cynicism
about the POLITICS of the US and UK governments (notably the US
involvement in Southeast Asia and elsewhere). The element of DYSTOPIA in
New-Wave writing was particularly dramatic in the case of John BRUNNER,
much of whose earlier work had been relatively cheerful SPACE OPERA.
New-Wave sf often concerned itself with the NEAR FUTURE; but it often
turned inward, too, and one of the buzzwords of the period was INNER
SPACE.Moorcock's NW published most of the notable figures of the New Wave
at one time or another, including the work of several US writers who lived
for a time in the UK, such as Samuel R. DELANY, Disch, James SALLIS, John
T. SLADEK and Pamela ZOLINE. Other US NW contributors often subsumed under
the New-Wave label were Ellison, Norman SPINRAD and Roger ZELAZNY; other
UK contributors were Barrington J. BAYLEY, M. John HARRISON, Langdon JONES
and Charles PLATT, and one would add Christopher PRIEST, although he was
less closely associated with NW.Despite the various excesses of NW, whose
stories sometimes embraced ENTROPY with a fervour reminiscent of Edgar
Allan POE's "The Masque of the Red Death" (1842), there is no doubt that
it was influential on sf PUBLISHING generally, and it was not long at all
before various US markets were adopting a far less exclusive attitude to
what they would or would not publish, a symptom being the appearance of
and QUARK, which included a good quota of experimental work - indeed, they
demonstrated clearly (though the point hardly needed to be made) that as
much US sf as UK had come to be New Wave in style and content.All this
naturally horrified some of sf's more conservative spokesmen, as a glance
at sf histories written by David KYLE, Sam MOSKOWITZ and Donald A.
WOLLHEIM will demonstrate. Wollheim commented, in The Universe Makers
(1971), that "the readers and writers that used to dream of galactic
futures now got their kicks out of experimental styles of writing, the
free discussion of sex, the overthrow of all standards and morals (since,
if the world is going to end, what merit had these things?)". It is easy
to feel some sympathy with the conservative viewpoint in one respect; with
few exceptions the New-Wave writers avoided HARD SF, and it must have
seemed to some observers of the scene as if the very thing that most
centrally defined sf by its presence-the science (to simplify) - was
disappearing.But in fact the battle was quickly over (though hard sf never
quite regained its former position of prominence). The better New-Wave sf
writers were soon accepted by sf readers generally, and often found an
audience outside sf as well; the bad writers (some were terrible) mostly
fell by the wayside. By the 1970s there no longer seemed very much point
to the term, although newly prominent figures like Gardner DOZOIS, Barry
N. MALZBERG, Joanna RUSS, James TIPTREE Jr and Gene WOLFE clearly wrote in
a style that would have been called New Wave only a year or so earlier.
Later in the decade all sorts of quite different new writers emerged who
had clearly absorbed the positive lessons of the New Wave, along with some
of its attitudes, ranging from Michael BISHOP and John VARLEY in the USA
to Ian WATSON in the UK.There can be no doubt that during the late 1960s
genre sf found new freedoms, while the market showed a greater readiness
to accept sophisticated writing. As with all ideological arguments, one
uses whatever ammunition comes conveniently to hand, and it suited many
friends (and foes) to see the New Wave as a kind of homogeneous,
monolithic politico-literary movement. It was never that in the minds of
most of its writers, many of whom resented being categorized. Disch
commented, in an open letter published in 1978: "I have no opinion of the
'New Wave' in sf, since I don't believe that that was ever a meaningful
classification. If you mean to ask - do I feel solidarity with all writers
who have ever been lumped together under that heading - certainly I do
not."It was common during the 1970s and 1980s, especially for those (like
Disch) who resisted stereotyping, to dismiss the importance of the New
Wave, or even to deny that it ever existed. From the perspective of the
1990s, however, it seems fair to say that the New Wave was real and
liberating; New-Wave excesses-including its sometimes miasmic gloom - have
largely dropped away in subsequent sf, while the New Wave's grasp of the
complexities of the world has remained. The 1960s were indeed a maturing
period for genre sf; if we see the 1960s as sf's puberty, then we also
have an explanation of why some of it, at the time, was so irritating
(especially in its tone of voice): most adolescents are. One reason why
the perspective of the 1990s is useful is that we have, meanwhile, been
able to observe yet another New Wave in action: CYBERPUNK.Two of the many
anthologies of New Wave sf are The New SF (anth 1969) ed Langdon Jones and
The New Tomorrows (anth 1971) ed Norman Spinrad. A book on the subject is
The Entropy Exhibition: Michael Moorcock and the UK "New Wave" (1983) by
Colin GREENLAND. [PN]See also: ARTS.

The leading UK sf magazine (an ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series for two sections
of its chequered career), publishing 218 issues over an intermittent
career of nearly 50 years ([July] 1946-current), but including a 12-year
hiatus; 12 of these issues have been in book form. NW, though it had
volume numbers up to #177, has always been numbered consecutively (in its
magazine incarnations), the numeration not beginning again with each
volume number. #1-#5 were undated.3 PULP-size issues were published
irregularly by Pendulum in 1946-7 under the editorship of an sf fan, John
CARNELL (NW was a development from a pre-WWII FANZINE [1936-9] called
first NOVAE TERRAE and then New Worlds, the last 4 issues of which were ed
Carnell). #1 was issued twice with different covers; #1 with the original
cover had not sold well, but it did better the second time round (the
second version used the same cover as #2).Nova Publications, a publishing
group formed by UK sf fans who used to meet at the White Horse pub in
London, revived this somewhat tentative 1946-7 magazine in 1949 as a
DIGEST. Carnell remained in charge until #141 (Apr 1964), after which the
title was taken over by Roberts & Vinter, publishers of Compact Books, who
issued it in a pocketbook (paperback-size) edition, ed Michael MOORCOCK.
After #172 (Mar 1967) it was published by Moorcock under the auspices of
the Arts Council in a stapled 8in x 11in (approx A4) format, rising to
BEDSHEET-size with #179. In this incarnation NW suffered financial
difficulties, compounded when the leading UK retail-newsagent chain, W.H.
Smith & Sons Ltd, refused to carry copies for various reasons, in
particular the use of "obscene" language in Norman SPINRAD's BUG JACK
BARRON (Dec 1967-July 1968; 1969). The last issue to be properly released
was #200 (Apr 1970), though in 1971 #201, a special final, "Good-Taste"
issue with retrospective index went out to subscribers. During this period
Moorcock relaxed his control over the editorship, various members of his
coterie taking a hand in the issues released in 1969; Charles PLATT was
editor #197-#200. For the greater part of the period from #22 to #200 the
magazine maintained a monthly schedule with only occasional lapses.In 1971
the title was revived again, this time as a series of original anthologies
(numbered from #1 again, although the original numeration was tacitly
maintained) published in paperback by Sphere Books (#1-#8) and Corgi Books
(#9 and #10). These were New Worlds #1 (anth 1971; vt New Worlds Quarterly
1 1971 US) ed Moorcock; #2 (anth 1971; vt New Worlds Quarterly 2 1971 US)
ed Moorcock; #3 (anth 1972; vt New Worlds Quarterly 3 1972 US) ed
Moorcock; #4 (anth 1972; vt New Worlds Quarterly 4 1972 US) ed Moorcock;
#5 (anth 1973) ed Moorcock; #6 (anth 1973; vt New Worlds Quarterly 5 1974
US) ed Moorcock with Charles Platt; #7 (anth 1974) ed Hilary BAILEY with
Platt; #8 (anth 1975) ed Bailey; #9 (anth 1975) ed Bailey; and #10 (anth
1976) ed Bailey.When the book series was cancelled, NW was defunct, but
the fervour of its supporters brought about yet another resuscitation in
1978, with #212 ed Moorcock in a FANZINE-style format, and #213-#216 ed by
various supporters professionally published, the last 2 being in 1979.
This final incarnation, published by Charles Partington in Manchester, was
more a generalized underground magazine than an sf magazine; it contained
many satirical graphics. #214 was titled in Russian. #215 ed David BRITTON
was marked "limited edition of one thousand copies".In 1991 David S.
GARNETT, with Moorcock's approval and with Moorcock as Consulting Editor,
initiated yet another incarnation of NW, this time in anthology book form,
as New Worlds (anth 1991), New Worlds 2 (anth 1992), New Worlds 3 (anth
1993) and New Worlds 4 (anth 1994) all ed Garnett, published by GOLLANCZ.
These volumes were numbered #217, #218, #219 and #220 according to the
original sequence, which was again explicitly acknowledged. The financial
results were disappointing, and Gollancz cancelled after the fourth,
leaving Garnett currently looking for a new publisher.Under Carnell NW was
the primary force in shaping a tradition in UK magazine sf, and under
Moorcock its name became the banner of what was dubbed the NEW WAVE.
Carnell provided a stable domestic market for the leading UK writers and
played a considerable role in the careers of Brian W. ALDISS, J.G.
BALLARD, John BRUNNER, Kenneth BULMER, Colin KAPP, E.C. TUBB and James
WHITE. He encouraged a species of sf more sober in tone than much US
material, with the emphasis on problem-solving; an excellent example of
the species is James White's Sector General series. In publishing
ambitious work by Aldiss and most of Ballard's early work Carnell began a
shift in emphasis toward psychological and existential sf ( FABULATION;
PSYCHOLOGY), which also showed in his choice of reprints from US authors:
Philip K. DICK's Time Out of Joint (Dec 1959-Feb 1960; 1959) and Theodore
STURGEON's Venus Plus X (Jan-Apr 1961; 1960). Most of the US magazines
were also shifting their emphasis away from the "hardware" of sf, but
retained a kind of brashness not evident in NW save in the work of those
authors most heavily influenced by pulp sf.Moorcock's editorship was a
good deal more flamboyant than Carnell's, and he was as polemical in the
material which provided the environment for the fiction as John W.
CAMPBELL Jr had been in ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION during the early 1940s,
though to very different ends, juxtaposing fiction with factual social
comment, visual collage, even concrete poetry, in a deliberate attempt to
lose the GENRE-SF image and to place speculative fiction in a context of
rapid social change, and radical art generally. Apart from his own
avant-garde material (often written as James Colvin), he promoted
inventive UK writers like Barrington J. BAYLEY, Langdon JONES, David I.
MASSON and, later, Ian WATSON, and recruited some US writers - notably
Thomas M. DISCH and John T. SLADEK. Moorcock's early Jerry Cornelius
pieces appeared in NW, as did his NEBULA-winning "Behold, the Man" (Sep
1966; exp as BEHOLD THE MAN 1969). The large-size version serialized, in
addition to Spinrad's BUG JACK BARRON (noted above), CAMP CONCENTRATION by
Disch (July-Sep 1967; 1968), and featured 2 more Nebula-winning short
pieces: Samuel R. DELANY's "Time Considered as a Helix of Semi-Precious
Stones" (Dec 1968), which also won a HUGO, and Harlan ELLISON's "A Boy and
His Dog" (Apr 1969). Under Moorcock NW established in its review columns a
particularly trenchant style of criticism which continued in the paperback
anthologies, much of it written by John CLUTE and M. John HARRISON. It
cannot be said that Moorcock's programme met with wide-ranging approval,
especially among those readers attuned to the more modest and traditional
aspects of Carnell's policy, and it certainly lacked Carnell's sense of
balance, but its contribution to sf in the 1960s was considerable-the
paths beaten by the NW writers are now much more generally in
use.Garnett's annualNW anthology of the 1990s could not find a secure
market niche, though the contents were impressive, featuring good stories
by, among others, Storm CONSTANTINE, Paul Di Filippo, Ian MCDONALD, Kim
NEWMAN and Moorcock himself, and also an annual round-up of the year's sf
by John CLUTE. Although Garnett sensibly avoided nostalgia for the
1960s/1970s, the enterprise seems to have been doomed anyway.A US edition
of NW, with Hans Stefan SANTESSON credited as editor, ran for 5 issues
Mar-July 1960, selected mainly from the 1959 NW with some stories from
other sources. Some unsold issues of the Roberts & Vinter NW were bound up
in twos and threes and sold under the title SF REPRISE, these being SF
Reprise 1 (anth 1966) containing #144/#145; SF Reprise 2 (anth 1966)
containing #149/#150; and SF Reprise 5 (anth 1967) containing
#149-#151.There were many derived anthologies. Carnell ed The Best From
New Worlds Science Fiction (anth 1955), and his Lambda 1 and Other Stories
(anth 1964; UK and US contents vary) was also selected from NW. Moorcock
ed The Best of New Worlds (anth 1965), Best S.F. Stories from New Worlds
(anth 1967), Best Stories from New Worlds 2 (anth 1968; vt Best S.F.
Stories from New Worlds 2 US), Best S.F. Stories from New Worlds 3 (anth
1968), Best S.F. Stories from New Worlds 4 (anth 1969), Best S.F. Stories
from New Worlds 5 (anth 1969), Best S.F. Stories from New Worlds 6 (anth
1970), Best S.F. Stories from New Worlds 7 (anth 1971) and Best S.F.
Stories from New Worlds 8 (anth 1974), as well as the retrospective New
Worlds: An Anthology (anth 1983). These series anthologies also sometimes
used stories from SCIENCE FANTASY Impulse. The first 6 of the 8 Best S.F.
Stories from New Worlds vols were also published in the USA. [BS/PN]See


ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series begun 1964 by John CARNELL after he
relinquished the editorship of NEW WORLDS and SCIENCE FANTASY; it was
published by Dennis Dobson to #20, then by Sidgwick & Jackson. The UK
paperback editions (all published by Corgi) sometimes preceded hardcover
publication, and in the case of #30, the last in the series, there was no
hardcover. NWISF carried on the tradition of Carnell's New Worlds:
predominantly middle-of-the-road sf, leavened with occasional more
adventurous pieces and saved from staleness by his willingness to publish
new writers. Regular contributors included not only Colin KAPP (chiefly
with his Unorthodox Engineers series), Douglas R. MASON (under his own
name and as John Rankine), John Rackham (J.T. PHILLIFENT) and James WHITE
(including stories in his Sector General series), but also Keith ROBERTS,
while M. John HARRISON and Christopher PRIEST both published early short
stories in its pages. NWISF was intended to be a quarterly, but later its
appearances became erratic. New Writings in SF 1 (anth 1964) was followed
by #2 (anth 1964), #3 (anth 1965), #4 (anth 1965), #5 (anth 1965), #6
(anth 1965), #7 (anth 1966), #8 (anth 1966), #9 (anth 1966), #10 (anth
1967), #11 (anth 1967), #12 (anth 1968), #13 (anth 1968), #14 (anth 1969),
#15 (anth 1969), #16 (anth 1970), #17 (anth 1970), #18 (anth 1971), #19
(anth 1971), #20 (anth 1972) and #21 (anth 1972), this last being
published after Carnell's death. 9 vols of this series were published in
the USA by BANTAM BOOKS 1966-72, with some difference in contents after
the first 6: the US #7 drew from the UK #7, #8 and #9; US #8 drew from UK
#10, #11 and #12; US #9 drew from UK #12, #13, #14 and #15.The series
remained alive after Carnell's death, its editorship being taken over by
Kenneth BULMER from #22 (anth 1973). This brought about no substantial
change in policy, although one feature of Bulmer's NWISF was Brian W.
ALDISS's Enigmas series. New authors to debut in the later issues included
David LANGFORD, Charles Partington ( NEW WORLDS; SOMETHING ELSE) and
Cherry WILDER, and early stories by Robert P. HOLDSTOCK and Ian WATSON
also appeared around this time. Bulmer edited #23 (anth 1973), #24 (anth
1974), #25 (anth 1975), #26 (anth 1975), #27 (anth 1976), #28 (anth 1976),
#29 (anth 1976) and #30 (anth 1978). At this point the market for
ANTHOLOGIES was looking even gloomier than usual in the UK, and the series
ended.Seldom groundbreaking but always reliable, NWISF did not have any
impact comparable to the major original-anthology series in the US (e.g.,
ORBIT, UNIVERSE), which mostly began somewhat later. Associated
anthologies are The Best from New Writings in SF: First Selection (anth
1971) ed Carnell and 3 omnibus volumes: New Writings in SF: Special 1
(anth 1975), containing #21 and #23; #2 (anth 1978), containing #26 and
#29; and #3 (anth 1978), containing #27 and #28. [MJE/PN]

US critical magazine, published Dragon Press, Pleasantville, New York; ed
(in 1995) by Kathryn CRAMER, L.W. CURREY, Samuel R. DELANY, David G.
HARTWELL, Robert J. Killheffer, Gordon Van Gelder and Donald G. Keller;
current; monthly, beginning with the trial issue (#0) Aug 1988 and #1 Sep
1988. It had reached #79 by Mar 1995. Too highbrow and professional - many
of its staff being sf/fantasy writers and publishers - to be called a
FANZINE, too informal to be called an academic journal, NYROSF is a
somewhat unusual critical SEMIPROZINE. It publishes general articles of
remarkably varying quality on sf, as well as some of the best long reviews
in the field. Its tone is far from homogeneous; it moves disconcertingly
(and fast) from chatty to pompous, and there is something to irritate
everyone. But, as one might expect from the very well informed staff
producing its 24 large-format pages a month with astonishing regularity,
it is also irreplaceable. Certainly its coverage of GENRE SF and FANTASY
is both wider and deeper than anything in the academic journals with the

One of the last lands discovered by Europeans, New Zealand was a
convenient setting for moral and UTOPIAN tales. The anonymous Travels of
Hildebrand Bowman, by Himself (1778 UK) anticipates Samuel BUTLER's
satirical Erewhon (1872) and Erewhon Revisited (1901). Utopian fiction by
New Zealanders includes Anno Domini 2000, or Woman's Destiny (1889 UK) by
the NZ Premier Sir Julius VOGEL, a dreary novel of a UK/US empire formed
through dynastic marriage, and Godfrey SWEVEN's difficult novel sequence
Riallaro: The Archipelago of Exiles (1901 US) and Limanora: The Island of
Progress (1903 US), the latter described by E.F. BLEILER as "probably the
greatest of all early utopian novels". Some 19th-century works, mostly
published in England, are extrapolated from a remark of Lord Macaulay
(1800-1859) in Critical and Historical Essays (coll 1843): ". . . when
some traveller from New Zealand shall, in the midst of a vast solitude,
take his stand on a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the ruins of St
Paul's." The UK writer Francis Carr's Archimago (1864), partly set in a
ruined London of 1964, is an example.A more popular taste is seen in the
end-of-the-century boom in romance. The Great Romance (1881) by "The
Inhabitant" is NZ's first space story. The heroes in Ajor's The Secret of
Mt Cook (1894) revive frozen people; in Hedged with Divinities (1895) by
Edward Tregear (1846-1931) all men die; the subject of The Elixir of Life
(1907 UK) by William Satchell (1860-1942) is self-evident.A puritan
realist mode dominates NZ MAINSTREAM fiction and criticism, yet writers
within the tradition often use sf and fantasy tropes. Robyn Hyde's
Wednesday's Children (1937 UK) is fantasy; Maurice GEE has written
fantasies for children; M.K. JOSEPH wrote the speculative The Hole in the
Zero (1967 UK) and The Time of Achamoth (1977); Janet FRAME's metafictions
Scented Garden for the Blind (1963) and Living in the Maniototo (1979 US)
are fantastic; and the dystopian Smith's Dream (1971) - filmed as Sleeping
Dogs (see below) - by C.K. STEAD tells of a future military dictatorship.
Current writers such as Russell Haley, Marilyn Duckworth (1935- ) and
Rachel McAlpine (1940- ) are adept at using sf devices for mainstream
audiences.Works marketed as sf include Adrian Geddes's The Rim of Eternity
(1964), in which aliens invade, Colin GIBSON's tale of nuclear winter, The
Pepper Leaf (1971 UK), and the novels of Hugh COOK, which are fantasy.
Peter Hooper's fantasies and Craig HARRISON's thrillers have escaped the
genre label. Phillip MANN and Cherry WILDER (who now lives in Germany) are
the best-known contemporary NZ sf writers, along with Sandi HALL. NZ sf in
the CINEMA started with the now lost A Message from Mars (1909), based on
Richard Ganthony's popular 1899 UK stage play, which he and Lester LURGAN
novelized (1912), the play itself being published much later (1924). There
was no further NZ sf film until the successful Sleeping Dogs (1977) dir
Roger Donaldson, a NEAR-FUTURE political thriller envisaging a
totalitarian government. The industry flourished from this time until the
mid-1980s with government subsidies, its sf titles including the routine,
post- HOLOCAUST Battletruck (1982), the violent, lunatic
brain-surgeon-and-his-experimental-subjects story Death Warmed Up (1984),
the sf thriller DEAD KIDS (1981; vt Strange Behavior) and The QUIET EARTH
(1985); then subsidies were withdrawn. Subsequent films, such as the
deliberately disgusting BAD TASTE (1987) and the TIME-TRAVEL fantasy The
Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey (1988), plus tv shows such as Space Knights
(1988), seem to show that, in the visual media, NZ sf and fantasy must
cross genre boundaries if they are to be viable. [MM]

US COMIC-book series (1981-91), 80 issues, published first by Capital
Comics and later by First Comics, created by writer Mike Baron and artist
Steve Rude. Set in the 25th century, when Earth is the political hub of
the interstellar society known as the Cohesive Web and humanity just one
of many intelligent races, the comic had as title character a superpowered
agent of vengeance, driven to kill tyrants and criminals by targeting them
with dreams. N explored the moral ambiguity of execution and the often
logical motivations behind the atrocities of those killed by the hero; but
it also had a lighter side, much humour deriving from Nexus's problems in
dealing with his homeworld, Ylum. N began with 3 black-and-white issues,
changed to colour with #4, was cancelled by Capital with #6 and picked up
by First Comics from #7 a year later, in 1985. Declining sales - partly
due to long absences by Rude and the poor reception given to the fill-in
artists - led to N's demise in 1991. First Comics have published reprints
of #1-#26; spin-offs have been Nexus Legends (1989-91; 4 issues) and the
one-shot Nexus Files. [RH]


(1939- ) Australian writer and editor, critic and historian of sf,
resident in the UK 1970-88, co-editor of this volume. He became first
Administrator of the SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION 1971-7, and edited its
journal FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION 1974-8, part of this
work being republished as Foundation Numbers 1-8: March 1972-March 1975
(anth 1978). PN ed Science Fiction at Large (anth 1976; vt Explorations of
the Marvellous 1978), collecting essays written for a 1975 sf symposium by
Philip K. DICK, Thomas M. DISCH, Alan GARNER, Ursula K. LE GUIN, himself
and others. His major work, of which he was General Editor and John CLUTE
Associate Editor, has been The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1979); vt
The Science Fiction Encyclopedia US; rev 1993 with Clute and PN
co-editors), for which he won the first Non-Fiction HUGO (1980), also
winning a PILGRIM AWARD in that year for services to sf scholarship. The
Science in Science Fiction (1983), ed PN and written with David LANGFORD
and Brian M. STABLEFORD, is a study of sf's scientific content. Fantastic
Cinema (1984; vt The World of Fantastic Films 1984 US), PN's first solo
book, is a critical history of sf, horror and fantasy films; it was
shortlisted for the British Film Institute Award for Best Film Book. PN
has also worked as an academic in English literature (1962-8, 1971-7),
scripted tv documentaries, been Harkness Fellow in Film-making (1968-70)
in the USA, worked as a publisher's editor (1982-3), often broadcast film
and book reviews on BBC Radio from 1974 and published much sf criticism -
generally waspish but unsnobbish - in newspapers and magazines. [PN]See


(1893-1944) UK poet and playwright whose lyrical talent did not survive
the end of WWI; he wrote plays and verse epics thereafter. The Smile of
the Sphinx (1920 chap), a fantasy, was later revised and assembled in
Romances of Idea, Volume One: Fantastica: Being the Smile of the Sphinx
and Other Tales of Imagination (coll 1923). The largest item in that
volume is the book-length "Golgotha & Co", set some time after a second
world war and assaulting capitalist dreams of the Earthly paradise; the
Wandering Jew (who is also a defiant Antichrist) appears and the Messiah
is recrucified (off-stage). No second volume of the "Romances" appeared.
Wings Over Europe: A Dramatic Extravaganza on a Pressing Theme (1929 US)
with Maurice Browne (1881-1955), a play, features the son of a UK prime
minister who gains the secret of atomic energy but is killed in an
accident before he can do the harm he intends. [JC]Other work: Under the
Yew (1928 chap), a marginal fantasy.



(1886-1968) UK diplomat, MP and writer, married to V. SACKVILLE-WEST,
knighted in 1953. His sf novel Public Faces (1932), set in 1939, describes
the international conflicts aroused through the UK knowing how to make
atomic bombs, developing a ballistic missile, destroying part of Florida
in error, and insisting on world nuclear disarmament. [JC]See also: END OF

(1894-1981) US scholar and university professor, with a PhD from Yale.
Her useful pioneering study in PROTO SCIENCE FICTION was Voyages to the
Moon (1949) - subtitled "Discourse on Voyages to the Moon, the Sun, the
Planets and Other Worlds generally, written by divers authors from the
earliest times to the time of the First Balloon Ascensions made during the
years 1783-84 with remarks on their sources and an epilogue about a few
selected later works of this kind; to which is appended a Bibliography of
133 works up to the year 1784 with an added listing of 58 books and
articles dealing with the theme itself and with related sciences". The
works dealt with are primarily English. MHN was the second winner of the


US FANZINE (1962-current) ed from New Hampshire by Ed Meskys alone for
the first 5 issues, when it was a small, personal fanzine, then with
Felice Rolfe and Anne Chatland from #6, Chatland dropping out after #8.
Under Meskys and Rolfe, N established itself as a large and variegated
magazine containing a mixture of articles, but with particular emphasis on
FANTASY. Al Halevy's "Glossary of Middle Earth" was first published in N.
N ceased publication with #20 in 1968, then was revived with #21 in 1977.
Currently Meskys, now blind, is listed as editor-in-chief and Mike Bastraw
as editor and designer.Contributors to N have included Piers ANTHONY,
Isaac ASIMOV, Anthony BOUCHER, Algis BUDRYS, Avram DAVIDSON, Philip K.
Roger ZELAZNY. N won the HUGO for Best Fanzine in 1967. [PR/RH]


(1948- ) US writer who began publishing sf with his Stryker
sequence-Timelapse (1988) and Clouds of Magellan (1991)-which engages its
thrillerish protagonist first in a complicated TIME-PARADOX tale whose
villain tricks him into falling in love with his own mother, and second in
a traditional search for the long-gone ALIEN "Builders" responsible for an
enormous artifact ( BIG DUMB OBJECTS) called The Wheel. Strikezone (1989),
an associational thriller, again shows DFN's competence but also a
disturbing tendency to rifle his genres for material without showing much
concern for establishing a bailiwick of his own. [JC]

(vt Blood Beast from Outer Space) Film (1965). Armitage Films. Dir John
Gilling, starring John Saxon, Maurice Denham, Patricia Haines, Alfred
Burke. Screenplay Jim O'Connolly, from The Night Callers (1960) by Frank
R. CRISP. 84 mins. B/w.Very-low-budget UK film, made with some genuine
style by Gilling, who had previously made good horror films for Hammer.
However, the story - an ALIEN aims to provide women (whom he finds by
advertising for models) for genetic experiments back home on Ganymede - is
pure pulp. The alien is tracked down by two SCIENTISTS (he strangles the
female one, well played by Haines) who have come across his energy
transmitter. The film should not be confused, under its US title, with the
US NIGHT OF THE BLOOD BEAST (1958) or the British The Blood Beast Terror
(1967). [PN]


(vt Island of the Burning Damned) Film (1967). Planet. Dir Terence
Fisher, starring Christopher Lee, Peter Cushing, Patrick Allen, Sarah
Lawson, Jane Merrow. Screenplay Ronald Liles, Pip Baker, Jane Baker, based
on The Night of the Big Heat (1959) by John LYMINGTON. 97 mins, cut to 94
mins. Colour.An island off the UK coast experiences a freak heatwave,
during which there are a number of mysterious killings involving fire. The
culprits turn out to be ALIENS who resemble giant fried eggs and are
attracted to any source of heat. At the climax the few survivors are saved
when a thunderstorm destroys the aliens: water, it seems, dissolves them.
Lymington's pulp novel was certainly not rational sf, but it built up an
atmosphere of claustrophobic tension which the film lacks. [JB]

Film (1958). Balboa/AIP. Dir Bernard Kowalski, starring Michael Emmet,
Angela Greene, John Baer. Screenplay Martin Varno, based on a story by
Gene Corman. 65 mins. B/w.In this typically cheap 1950s Corman production
(the executive producer was Roger CORMAN; his brother Gene produced it
from his own story), a rocket pilot has cells implanted in his body by a
deeply unconvincing-looking ALIEN who returns to Earth with him. Embryos
grow inside him, making him the first (but not the last) effectively
pregnant movie astronaut. Several plot twists suggest an attempt to cash
in on the popularity of The QUATERMASS XPERIMENT (1955). [JB/PN]

Film (1984). Atlantic 9000/Film Development Fund. Dir Thom Eberhardt,
starring Catherine Mary Stewart, Kelli Maroney, Robert Beltran, Mary
Woronov. Screenplay Eberhardt. 100 mins cut to 95 mins for UK release.
Colour.This likable exploitation movie, witty throughout, opens with the
light from a comet (an idea stolen from John WYNDHAM's Day of the Triffids
[1951]) destroying almost everybody by turning them into red dust or, in
less severe cases, cannibal zombies. Two spunky teenage girls survive,
team up with a truck driver, raid department stores for fashionable
clothes, destroy the evil government agency that wants to kill them for
serum, do disco dances and shoot submachine guns. As one might expect from
the producers of Valley Girl (1984), the women are shown as self-reliant,
intelligent, unmotivated and vain. [PN]

Film (1972). Lyles/MGM. Dir William F. Claxton, starring Stuart Whitman,
Janet Leigh, Rory Calhoun, DeForest Kelley. Screenplay Don Holliday, Gene
R. Kearney, based on The Year of the Angry Rabbit (1964) by Russell
BRADDON. 88 mins. Colour.Braddon's satirical novel was set in Australia,
but the film dropped the SATIRE and switched the setting to Arizona. A
test rabbit full of experimental hormones breaks loose and breeds with
local rabbits. Suddenly hordes of gigantic carnivorous rabbits are
attacking people, eating horses and demolishing houses. The film is
endearing for its unintentional humour, enhanced by the commendably
serious if wooden performances of all concerned, rabbits included.

1. Film (1968). Image 10 Productions/Walter Reade-Continental. Dir George
A. ROMERO, starring Duane Jones, Judith O'Dea, Karl Hardman, Keith Wayne.
Screenplay John A. Russo. 96 mins, cut to 90 mins. B/w.This unrelenting
and downbeat HORROR film, Romero's astonishing debut, tells of a horde of
walking, cannibalistic corpses who lay siege to an isolated house. Their
revival is explained by "space radiation" brought to Earth on an aborted
rocket launch, but the absurdity of this barely detracts from the
concentrated Gothic PARANOIA of the action, whose intensity won the film a
cult following, especially from those who saw the savagery - and
helplessness - of both ordinary people and zombies (whose bite infects the
victim with zombiism) as symbolic of the horrors of the Vietnam War. NOTLD
was independently financed and made during weekends by a small group based
in Pittsburgh. The sequels, making up a Living Dead trilogy, are DAWN OF
THE DEAD (1978) and DAY OF THE DEAD (1985).2. Film (1990). 21st
Century/George Romero/Menahem Golan/Columbia. Dir Tom Savini, starring
Tony Todd, Patricia Tallman, Tom Towles, McKee Anderson, William Butler,
Katie Finneran. Screenplay George ROMERO, based on the 1968 screenplay by
Romero and Russo. 89 mins. Colour.It was a risky and possibly cynical
undertaking to remake, in colour, the 1968 b/w classic. However, while the
original remains the stronger, this was an accomplished feature-film debut
for Savini, best known for his ghoulish special make-up on Romero's zombie
movies. Generally the story-line of the original is followed closely, but
there is a greater emphasis on the female character, Barbara (Tallman),
who does not succumb so quickly to frozen fear as did her original. The
1968 film made a virtue of its ramshackle production values, with a cinema
verite style resulting from a shoestring budget; the greater smoothness of
the remake makes it strangely less compelling - more obviously a movie.





Made-for-tv film (1975). ABC TV. Dir Joseph Sargent, starring Vic Morrow,
Cliff De Young, Michael Constantine, Paul Shenar. Screenplay Nicholas
Meyer, Anthony Wilson, based partly on the text of the original 1938 radio
play WAR OF THE WORLDS by Howard Koch. 100 mins, cut to 78 mins.
Colour.The film recreates the 1938 Orson Welles broadcast of an updated
version of H.G. WELLS's THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898) which, due to its
news-bulletin format, caused many US citizens to believe that a Martian
invasion was actually taking place. When the film concentrates on events
inside the broadcast studio it is fascinating, conjuring up a realistic
picture of work in 1930s US RADIO; but when it shows the resulting panic
it degenerates into a routine DISASTER movie with hackneyed characters
reacting in predictable ways. [JB]

[s] P. Schuyler MILLER.



Film (1955). Holiday Film Productions. Dir Michael Anderson, starring
Edmond O'Brien, Michael Redgrave, Jan Sterling, Donald Pleasence.
Screenplay William P. Templeton, Ralph Bettinson, based on NINETEEN
EIGHTY-FOUR (1949) by George ORWELL. 91 mins. B/w.After the success of a
1954 BBC TV production of NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR, scripted by Nigel KNEALE
and starring Peter Cushing (the second - live - performance won the
biggest UK tv audience since the Queen's coronation) it was inevitable
that a film would follow. But, for all its technical limitations, the BBC
adaptation was superior to the lifeless film, which starred a badly
miscast O'Brien as Winston Smith; Anderson has a lame track record with sf
( LOGAN'S RUN). This version of the celebrated totalitarian nightmare
focuses on the love affair between Smith and Julia, and leaves Orwell's
grim SATIRE foggy and simplified. Two endings were shot, one for the USA
and one for the UK. The former followed the book, with Winston and his
lover successfully brainwashed and now devoted supporters of Big Brother;
the UK version had them overcoming their conditioning, defiantly dying in
a hail of bullets, and incidentally vitiating Orwell's theme.For the 1984

Film (1984). Umbrella-Rosenblum/Virgin Cinema Films. Dir Michael Radford,
starring John Hurt, Richard Burton, Suzanna Hamilton, Cyril Cusack.
Screenplay Radford, Jonathan Gems, based on NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949) by
George ORWELL. 110 mins. Colour.This second film version ( 1984 for the
first) is better acted and more intelligent than its predecessor, but
still stresses the romantic interest, substituting an orthodoxly liberal
lovers-against-the-system sadness for Orwell's sheer savagery and irony.
It was eight weeks into shooting before Burton was cast as the treacherous
O'Brien, Smith's torturer, and he seems a little cut off from the rest of
the film. [PN]

UK tv serial (1977-8). BBC TV. Prod Prudence Fitzgerald. Regular cast
included Edward Woodward, Barbara Kellerman, Robert Lang, Tony Doyle, Lisa
Harrow. Most episodes written Wilfred Greatorex (1921- ), who devised the
series, or Edmund Ward. 16 55min episodes. Colour.Reflecting the fears of
the middle classes in the 1970s, this serial, set in a socialist UK of
1990, warns of what could happen if the welfare state continued in its
present direction. The country is run by the PCD, an all-powerful
bureaucracy that incorporates the trade-union movement within its
machinery; the only people free of its control are a select elite
possessing Privilege Cards. The story concerns the efforts of a lone
journalist (Woodward) to outwit the system in such ways as helping people
to escape to the USA, still a bastion of freedom. 1990's political
statement, which Orwell made much more powerfully in NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR
(1949), plays second fiddle to the thriller elements. The novelization by
Maureen Gregson (with Greatorex also credited) is 1990 * (1977). [JB]


(vt Bronx Warriors; vt 1990: Bronx Warriors) Film (1982). Deaf Film
International. Dir Enzo G. Castellari, starring Mark Gregory, Vic Morrow,
Chris Connelly, Stefania Girolami, Fred Williamson. Screenplay Castellari,
Dardano Sacchetti, Elisa Livia Briganti. 84 mins. Colour.Inspired by
Walter Hill's The Warriors (1979) and John CARPENTER's ESCAPE FROM NEW
YORK (1981), this Italian film is set in a future-Hell New York overrun by
street gangs, with a psychotic law-enforcer (Morrow) trying to rescue a
corporate princess (Girolami) from a biker hero named Trash (Gregory).
Essentially silly, it has three exploitation veterans (Morrow, Connelly,
Williamson) to make up for its pouting hero, and throws in an array of
intriguing minor characters - a sadomasochist Morticia-Addams figure, a
tap-dancing gang of killer Broadway chorines, subway troglodytes - and
some pleasantly melodramatic excesses. Its sequel is Fuga dal Bronx (1983;
vt Bronx Warriors 2), and Castellari also made a similar post- HOLOCAUST
actioner, inspired by MAD MAX 2 (1981), I nuovi barbari (1983; vt The New
Barbarians; vt Warriors of the Wasteland). The slew of similar Italian
cheapies included L'ultimo guerriero (1983; vt The Final Executioner),
Bronx lotta finale (1984; vt Endgame) and Il guerriero del mondo perduto
(1984; vt Warrior of the Lost World). [KN]

(vt The Submersion of Japan; vt Tidal Wave US) Film (1973). Dir Shiro
Moritani, starring Keiju Kobayashi, Hiroshi Fujioka, Tetsuro Tamba, Ayumi
Ishida. Screenplay Shinobu Hashimoto, based on Nippon Chinbotsu (1973; cut
trans as Japan Sinks 1976) by Sakyo KOMATSU. 140 mins, cut to 110 mins,
then to 81 mins. Colour.This film is more sophisticated than the usual
Japanese DISASTER or MONSTER MOVIE, and involves natural rather than
fantastic forces. Changes within the Earth's core result in the chain of
islands which make up Japan sinking beneath the ocean over a period of two
years. Other countries are not eager to accept millions of homeless
Japanese citizens, although Australia offers its Northern Territory as a
new Japanese homeland. The film has been praised for the elegiac feeling
aroused by the dying of Japan and her culture, but not especially for its
special effects (by Teruyoshi Nakano), which though spectacular are less
than wholly convincing.Tidal Wave is the title of the tawdry 1974 version
released to universal execration by Roger CORMAN's New World company. It
was cut to 81 mins and little more than the special effects remains; it
includes specially shot US footage written and directed by Andrew Meyer
and starring Lorne Greene and Rhonda Leigh Hopkins. [JB/PN]


(1849-1921) Scottish writer and illustrator, in England or Australia from
1865, author of at least 45 novels, some of which are fantasy or sf,
beginning with The "Jolly Roger" (1892), which features a supernatural
wind and a hidden pirate island. In Valdmer the Viking: A Romance of the
Eleventh Century by Sea and Land (1893) Vikings find a technologically
superior LOST WORLD in the Arctic north of North America. The Great
Secret: A Tale of Tomorrow (1895), like much of HN's work, mixes genres,
here combining posthumous spirits and a this-worldly undersea excursion to
ATLANTIS. The Empire Builders (1900) sets its lost world in Africa.
[JC]Other works: The Haunted Station, and Other Stories (coll 1893);
Stories Weird and Wonderful (coll 1900); A Crafty Foe (1901); A Colonial
King (1905).

Working name of US writer Laurence van Cott Niven (1938- ). He was born
in California, where he set many of his stories, and gained a BA in
mathematics from Washburn University, Kansas. From his first publication,
"The Coldest Place" for If in 1964, he set his mark on the US sf field,
winning four short-fiction HUGOS, and both Hugo and NEBULA in 1971 for
RINGWORLD (1970), a capstone title in his seminal Tales of Known Space
sequence, which he began with "The Coldest Place" and has added to ever
since. In the novels and stories of this sequence, and in some of his
other work, he was seen for some time as HARD SF's last best hope; and
there can be no doubt that hard-sf writers dominant in the 1980s, like
Greg BEAR, and some of those reaching for eminence in the 1990s, like Paul
J. MCAULEY and Roger MacBride ALLEN, owe much to the scope of LN's
inventiveness, the sense he conveys of technological ingenuity as being
ultimately beneficial, and his cognitive exuberance.The Tales of Known
Space, a title LN himself selected for the sequence, is a wide-ranging,
complex, unusually well integrated future HISTORY which, within an
essentially optimistic and technophilic frame, provides an explanatory
structure for the expansion of humanity into space, one notable from the
first for the complexity of the Universe into which it introduces the
burgeoning human race. ALIEN races - not normally found in the first
generation of future histories, those created in ASF under the influence
of the homocentric John W. CAMPBELL Jr - have dominated Known Space for
eons, beginning with the Thrintun, extinct a billion years ago with the
exception of one deadly Thrint held in a stasis field (one of LN's
numerous terminological coups) and released with deadly effect in his
first novel, World of Ptavvs (1966). Millions of years closer to the
present, humanity's ancestors, the Pak, spread their seed through the
local arm of the Galaxy. Protectors are the "adult" form of Homo sapiens,
the yam necessary to transform humans into full-grown Paks not being
available on Earth; the Pak protagonist of Protector (1967 Gal as "The
Adults"; exp 1973), set in human times, has travelled from afar at
terribly slow sublight speeds to take care of us and protect us against
other Protectors who find our slightly evolved species loathsome. The
novel spans many years; its complex, casually-alluded-to background
demonstrates the value of a coherent sequence in buttressing SPACE-OPERA
conventions, though at the same time, as LN himself once admitted, the
Universe-changing plot of Protector made it difficult to maintain internal
consistency within Known Space stories set after the Pak incursion. Less
dangerously, A Gift From Earth (1968) sticks to less transformative
material, being set on a planet colonized from Earth whose inhabitants,
descended from the ship's lowly passengers, rebel against the ruling caste
descended from its crew; the story is interfused with arguments for
personal and entrepreneurial liberty whose connection, as in much US sf,
is taken as axiomatic. Centuries of relative peace follow, until the start
of the Man-Kzin Wars, treated by LN as a sort of sideshow; the relevant
stories were delegated mainly to others in four SHARED-WORLD anthologies,
The Man-Kzin Wars * (anth 1988), The Man-Kzin Wars II * (anth 1989), III *
(anth 1990), IV * (anth 1991), V (anth 1992) and VI (anth 1994). Finally,
the tales and novels of Known Space culminated in RINGWORLD and its
immediate sequel Ringworld Engineers (1979), which feature the alien
Puppeteers, who are fleeing the explosion at the Galaxy's core which will
within some millennia make space uninhabitable, and who enlist human aid
to explore the eponymous BIG DUMB OBJECT - a million miles wide, 600
million miles around - which circles a distant star. This ring, created by
Pak ancestors, houses much life and serves as a final home for Teela
Brown, whose genetically programmed good luck is the culmination of a long
and secret Puppeteer breeding programme; the inevitability of her good
fortune might have significantly reduced the chance of LN's writing any
successful Known Space stories set after her maturity, which is perhaps
why she is killed off in the sequel.In the interstices of this joyfully
complicated galactic structure, humanity enters space, solves problems in
discovery of a FASTER-THAN-LIGHT hyperdrive for interstellar travel, copes
with CORPSICLES and organlegging and a myriad other new challenges, and by
the beginning of the fourth millennium has reached a mature plateau.
Titles in which Known Space activities are dramatized include: NEUTRON
STAR (coll 1968); The Shape of Space (coll 1969), much of which is
re-assembled in Convergent Series (coll 1979); All the Myriad Ways (coll
1971); Inconstant Moon (coll 1973 UK; cut 1974), which was assembled from
The Shape of Space and All the Myriad Ways; Tales of Known Space: The
Universe of Larry Niven (coll 1975), which includes explanatory charts;
and The Long ARM of Gil Hamilton (coll of linked stories 1976) and its
immediate sequel The Patchwork Girl (1980); and Crashlander (coll
1994).Most of LN's first decade as a writer was occupied with Known Space,
with the exception of the tales assembled in The Flight of the Horse (coll
1973)-including the 5 stories of the Svetz series of TIME-PARADOX comedies
- A Hole in Space (coll 1974) and, with David GERROLD, The Flying
Sorcerers (1971), a tale of a low-tech people who think that high
technology is MAGIC. His next - and commercially his most successful move
- was to collaborate with Jerry POURNELLE on THE MOTE IN GOD'S EYE (1974),
a giant, spectacular SPACE-OPERA epic with all the trappings-interstellar
shenanigans, aliens with unhealthy proclivities they must keep hidden,
galactic aristocracies, intricate solutions to hard-sf problems . . . The
book is essentially a development of Pournelle's CoDominium series, and
may fruitfully be read in that context. Several critics have taken the
book to task for what they regard as its human chauvinism, the discrepancy
between its imaginative plot and its old-fashioned characterization, and
its conservative political stance; but the combination of Pournelle's
ability to shape novel-length plots (an ability his partner has always
lacked) and LN's brilliant conceptual knack make for an enticing book. The
sequel, The Gripping Hand (1993; vt The Moat Around Murcheson's Eye 1993
UK), lacks the drive of the original, concentrating on heavy-handed
spacewar shenanigans which have been fatally overtaken by events, as the
problem of the Moties's breeding pattern is solved before any of the
battles actually occur.Further collaborations with Pournelle ensued.
Inferno (1975) reworks DANTE ALIGHIERI's Inferno, an act notable for its
apparently conscious vulgarity, interesting in its theological explanation
of evil - that God's "sadism" is in fact designed to encourage self-help
among the damned - and amusing in its placing of anti- NUCLEAR-POWER
propagandists in Hell. Lucifer's Hammer (1977) is a long, ambitious
DISASTER novel which sophisticatedly marries sf techniques with the
bestseller idiom familiar from the many disaster films of the early 1970s.
In Oath of Fealty (1981) a Los Angeles arcology - without the aid of an
ineffective, bureaucratic government - defends its wealthy inhabitants
from ECOLOGY freaks and terrorists. The internal government of this
arcology being a conveniently infallible hierarchy culminating in one
brilliant man in constant communication with a great COMPUTER, no
significant dissent is necessary, or heard. Footfall (1985), about an
alien INVASION of Earth, became an example of RECURSIVE SF through its
enlisting of a readily identifiable group of sf writers to brainstorm
solutions to the threat from space. The Legacy of Heorot (1987 UK), with
Pournelle and Steven BARNES, replays the Beowulf saga on a colony planet:
the natives of the planet have the unenviable role of the dragon. Fallen
Angels (1991), with Pournelle and Michael FLYNN - in which the US
Government betrays its own astronauts - once again treats
environmentalists as villains in a planetary drama of the NEAR FUTURE.LN
has increasingly made use of collaborators; in fact, in later years he has
written only 4 solo novels outside the Known Space canon: A World Out of
Time (fixup 1976), a complexly contemplative look through one
protagonist's eyes at millions of years of human history; The Magic Goes
Away (1977), a fantasy in which MAGIC is treated as a non-renewable
resource; and The Integral Trees (1984) and its immediate sequel The Smoke
Ring (1987), both linked to A World Out of Time. The Dream Park sequence -
Dream Park (1981), The Barsoom Project (1989) and Dream Park: The Voodoo
Game (1991 UK; vt The California Voodoo Game 1992 US), all with Barnes -
is set in a GAME-WORLD environment (see also VIRTUAL REALITY) in the 21st
century, with the eponymous corporation involved in running complex
role-playing games as well as enterprises in the real world and on Mars.
Other collaborations include The Descent of Anansi (1982) and Achilles'
Choice (1991), both with Barnes. LN's late collections - likeNiven's Laws
(coll 1984), Limits (coll 1985), N-Space (coll 1990), Playgrounds of the
Mind (coll 1991) and Bridging the Galaxies (coll 1993) - have tended
increasingly to re-sort earlier material. It cannot be denied that the
fresh inventive gaiety characteristic of LN's early work has not survived
the passing of the years, nor that the political agendas ( POLITICS)
exposed in the collaborations have become more rancorous over the same
period. He will perhaps be best remembered for the Tales of Known Space,
the most energetic future history ever written, for his bright and
profligate technophilia, for his astonishingly well conceived aliens, and
for his early joy. [JC]Other works: The Time of the Warlock (coll 1984),
fantasies; The Magic May Return * (anth 1981) and More Magic * (anth
1984), shared-world successor anthologies to The Magic Goes Away.About the
author: The Many Worlds of Larry Niven (last rev 1989 chap) by Chris


Film (1970). Symbol/MGM. Dir Cornel Wilde, starring Nigel Davenport, Jean
Wallace, Anthony May, Lynne Frederick. Screenplay Sean Forestal, Jefferson
Pascal, based on The Death of Grass (1956) by John CHRISTOPHER. 96 mins
cut to 80 mins. Colour.Cereal crops all die and society breaks down. A
family journeys across chaotic England, battling armed groups of marauders
who are searching for food, and reach sanctuary in the Lake District.
Wilde had previously dealt well with the stripping away of civilized
instincts in The Naked Prey (1966), so this story must have attracted him,
but NBOG has an amateurish quality, reinforced by poor acting, though the
depiction of anarchy is zestful. The film is disjointed, partly due to
drastic cutting before release. [JB/PN]See also: HOLOCAUST AND AFTER;


(1947- ) Now the legal name of the US writer who, under her earlier legal
name, Ruth S(wycaffer) Noel, published 2 studies of J.R.R. TOLKIEN: The
Mythology of Middle-Earth (1977) and The Languages of Tolkien's
Middle-Earth (1980). Her 3 novels as AAN rather mercilessly tumble
together fantasy, sf and thriller modes into spoof plots, through which
some excitements emerge willy-nilly. The Duchess of Kneedeep (1986) is a
humorous fantasy with ROBOTS. Speaker to Heaven (1987), set in post-
HOLOCAUST California, conflates PSI POWERS and MAGIC. Murder on Usher's
Planet (1987), evoking Edgar Allan POE, sends its investigator
protagonists to a planet containing a secret, which they uncover. [JC]

(1903-1984) US writer and journalist, author of 2 sf novels: I Killed
Stalin (1951), a NEAR-FUTURE thriller in which WWIII is staved off by the
deed described in the title, and We who Survived (1959), which depicts the
life of the survivors of the sudden onslaught of a new ice age. [JC]

(vt Penal Colony; vt The Prison Colony; vt Escape From Absalom) Film
(1994). Pacific Western/Allied Filmmakers/Columbia Tristar. Prod Gale Ann
HURD; dir Martin Campbell; screenplay Michael Gaylin, Joel Gross, based on
The Penal Colony (1987) by Richard Herley; starring Ray Liotta, Lance
Henriksen, Stuart Wilson, Kevin Dillon, Kevin J. O'Conner, Don Henderson,
Ian McNeice, Jack Shepherd, Michael Lerner and Ernie Hudson. 115 mins.
Colour.Curiously, this is one of two future-privatised-prison movies
released in 1993/94 and shot in Australia, the other being the
fractionally better FORTRESS. Despite Hurd's impeccable credentials as an
independent producer of action sf movies, this is a messy
internationalised adaptation of a very British original novel. Apart from
the first five minutes, there is nothing futuristic about this world of
2022 (1997 in the novel) in which private corporations run prisons, and
the hardest cases are dumped on a high-security island (actually
Queensland rainforest) to rot. Two tribes exist on the island, the
civilised Insiders and the barbarian and psychotic Outsiders. (Among the
myriad visible sources are ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK, LORD OF THE FLIES and MAD
MAX.) Captain Robbins (Liotta), imprisoned for killing his superior
officer as a protest against the slaughter by US forces of 342 women and
children, is the hero who battles the evil Outsiders, helps the Insiders,
and eventually escapes to tell the world about governmental cover-ups,
corrupt prisons and wartime slaughters. Narrative glitches abound, and
little attempt is made to confront questions of future penology; there is,
however, a genuine bid to characterise the two societies that have arisen
on the island, and there are surprisingly contemplative moments in what is
otherwise an adolescent action POW escape movie. But how could the
corporation running this corrupt system possibly make money from it, since
its elaborate security systems are clearly incredibly expensive? [PN]

(1928- ) US writer and editor who trained and for a time practised as a
commercial artist; he also raced cars, publishing several books on the
subject. He became a full-time writer in 1956. Of his 55 books since then,
at least 30 have related directly to sf or fantasy. WFN first became
active in sf as a fan, cofounding the San Diego Science Fantasy Society,
editing a fanzine, the Rhodomagnetic Digest, publishing The Ray Bradbury
Review, and serving as managing editor of #1-#3 of GAMMA (1963-4). He
published his first sf story, "The Joy of Living", in If in 1954,
subsequently writing some short stories and criticism as by Frank Anmar
and F.E. Edwards. His first sf book, Impact 20 (coll 1963), assembles some
of his early work. His second, for which he remains best known, Logan's
Run (1967) with George Clayton JOHNSON, begins the Logan sequence, which
continued with Logan's World (1977) and Logan's Search (1980), both by WN
alone; all 3 are assembled as Logan: A Trilogy (omni 1986). The premise of
the books is melodramatic: after a strange act of nuclear terrorism a
youth culture takes over, instituting the rule that all those over 21 must
be killed to combat OVERPOPULATION; the protagonist, first an enforcer and
then posing as a fugitive, escapes Earth with a genuine female rebel,
returning (now authentically rebellious) in the later volumes to confront
the COMPUTER controlling Earth. The first volume was unsuccessfully filmed
as LOGAN'S RUN (1976) and adapted as a short-lived tv series. Written in
part as an homage to Dashiell Hammett's Sam Spade (WFN's Hammett: A Life
on the Edge [1983] is an effective biography), the Sam Space sequence,
about an sf detective, comprises Space for Hire (1971), Look Out for Space
(1985) and3 for Space (coll 1992). WFN's later short fiction, some of it
of high quality, was assembled in Alien Horizons (coll 1974), Wonderworlds
(coll 1977 UK) and Things Beyond Midnight (coll 1984).WFN has also been
active as an anthologist, mostly of reprinted material, though The Future
is Now (anth 1970) assembles original stories. He also compiled a detailed
bibliography of Ray BRADBURY, with copious annotations: The Ray Bradbury
Companion (1975). [JC/PN]Other works: The Work of Charles Beaumont (1985
chap; rev 1991 chap); How to Write Horror Fiction (1990); Helltracks
(1991), a horror novel; Blood Sky (1991 chap); Helle on Wheels (1993).As
Editor: The Fiend in You (anth 1962) with Charles BEAUMONT, WFN anon; Man
Against Tomorrow (anth 1965); The Pseudo-People (anth 1965; vt Almost
Human 1966 UK); 3 to the Highest Power (anth 1968); A Wilderness of Stars
(anth 1969); A Sea of Space (anth 1970), no connection to the Sam Space
books; The Human Equation (anth 1971); Science Fiction Origins (anth 1980)
with Martin H. GREENBERG; Urban Horrors (anth 1990) with Greenberg; The
Bradbury Chronicles (anth 1991) with Greenberg.About the author: The Work
of William F. Nolan: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1988) by Boden
Clarke (R. REGINALD) and James Hopkins (WFN himself).See also: ANDROIDS.

House name for the Frank Tousey publishing firm, used in the late 19th
century for boys' fiction in several genres, including mysteries and
Westerns as well as sf. Of most sf interest were the Frank Reade, Jr.
tales ( FRANK READE LIBRARY; Luis SENARENS) and the slightly later Jack
Wright tales ( Luis SENARENS). Authors whose sf work appeared as by
"Noname" include Harold Cohen (1854-1927), Francis Worcester DOUGHTY,
Senarens and possibly Cecil Burleigh and Frederic Van Rensselaer Dey
(1861-1933). [EFB]

(1957- ) UK writer whose first novel, Vurt (1993), places in NEAR-FUTURE
Manchester a CYBERPUNK tale, complete with Mean-Streets idiom and a driven
(though occasionally tangled) narrative line; Vurt itself is a
reality-shifting drug. The novel won the 1994 ARTHUR C. CLARKE Award. A
second novel, Pollen (1995), has similar virtues. [JC]


Norbert WIENER.

(? - ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with "The
Final Quarry" for FSF in 1970, assembling his short work in Starsongs and
Unicorns (coll 1978). His novel, The Ultimate Solution (1973), depicts a
Nazi-dominated New York ( HITLER WINS), a state of affairs made possible
by the assassination of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933, as a
consequence of which the USA remained too long a noncombatant in WWII.
Slavery has been reinstituted. [JC]

(1933- ) UK journalist, tv personality and writer whose sf novel is End
Product (1975), a NEAR-FUTURE story in which Blacks are lobotomized at
birth and provide the civilized world with ample meat. The allegorical and
political messages of the novel, though highly loaded, tend to clash. [JC]

(? - ) US writer whose routine sf novel The Under-People (1969) is not to
be confused with The Underpeople (1968) by Cordwainer SMITH. [JC]

Pseudonym used for his fiction by US writer and philosophy teacher John
Frederick Lange Jr (1931- ). His fiction mainly comprises a series of
borderline-sf PLANETARY ROMANCES set on Gor, a planet sharing Earth's
orbit but - because it is on the other side of the Sun - always invisible
to us. This astrophysical impossibility is never argued in the texts,
which might consequently read as either antiquarian sf or fantasy were it
not that the development of the series precludes any reading of Gor as an
exercise in sf nostalgia while at the same time demonstrating its great
remove from category FANTASY. In Tarnsman of Gor (1966), as the series
begins, Earthman Tarl Cabot abruptly finds himself on Gor, where - after
the fashion of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom novels - he undergoes
numerous adventures, alarms, fights and romances of a SWORD-AND-SORCERY
nature. However, as the series progresses, the plots begin to revolve
around a singularly invariant sexual fantasy in which a proud woman-often
abducted for the purpose from Earth - is humiliated, stripped, bound,
beaten, raped, branded and enslaved, invariably discovering in the process
that she enjoys total submission to a dominant male, and can derive proper
sexual satisfaction only from this regime. Later volumes feature
interminable discussions which end, invariably, in an affirmation of the
Gorean status quo. The sequence, now terminated, includes: Outlaw of Gor
(1967) and Priest-Kings of Gor (1968), both assembled with Tarnsman of Gor
as Gor Omnibus (omni 1972 UK); Nomads of Gor (1969); Assassin of Gor
(1970); Raiders of Gor (1971); Captive of Gor (1972); Hunters of Gor
(1974); Marauders of Gor (1975); Tribesmen of Gor (1976); Slave Girl of
Gor (1977); Beasts of Gor (1978); Explorers of Gor (1979); Fighting Slave
of Gor (1980); Rogue of Gor (1981); Guardsman of Gor (1981); Savages of
Gor (1982); Blood Brothers of Gor (1982); Kajira of Gor (1983); Players of
Gor (1984); Mercenaries of Gor (1985); Dancer of Gor (1985); Renegades of
Gor (1986); Vagabonds of Gor (1987); and Magicians of Gor (1988).
Imaginative Sex (1974), a nonfiction text, details some Gor-like games for
Earthlings. JN's two out-of-series novels are Ghost Dance (1969) and Time
Slave (1975). Unless the new Telnarian Histories sequence - beginning with
The Chieftain (1991), The Captain (1993) and The King (1993) - strikes a
new note, JN will be remembered - and widely detested - for Gor alone.
[JC]See also: DAW BOOKS; SEX.




(? - ) US writer whose Time Warriors sequence of military-sf adventures -
Time Warriors #1: Fuse Point (1991), #2: Forbidden Region (1991) and #3:
The Guardian Strikes (1991) - sends its protagonist, accompanied by a
barbarian named Brom, back and forth through time into various conflicts.

Pseudonym used by Australian novelist Charles Bernard Cronin (1884-1968)
for his sf work; he used other pseudonyms in other genres. As EN he
published sf in Australian journals such as the Melbourne Herald and The
Bulletin. "The Satyr" (1924 Melbourne Herald; vt "Three Against the Stars"
Argosy 1938 US) tells of invaders from another DIMENSION; it was not
published in book form. The eponymous villain of Toad (1924 Melbourne
Herald as "The Green Flame"; 1929 UK) has invented an ingredient which
sets water aflame, and threatens to use it against first Australia and
then the world.The Ant Men (1955 US) is a LOST-WORLD juvenile about giant
intelligent ants. [JC]

[s] Thomas P. KELLEY.

Initially the working name of Alice Mary Norton (1912- ), but for some
years now her legal name. A librarian for two decades before turning to
full-time writing, she was one of the few sf figures of any stature to
enter the field via CHILDREN'S SF, and, though much of her work is as
adult in theme and difficulty as most general sf, she was for many years
primarily marketed as a writer for children and adolescents. In the 1970s
and 1980s, however, as her work changed in emphasis from sf to fantasy and
as her popularity continued to grow, new novels and reprints alike were
released primarily into the general market.AN began to publish in the
1930s with The Prince Commands (1934) which, like her slightly later WWII
espionage trilogy - The Sword is Drawn (1944), Sword in Sheath (1949; vt
Island of the Lost 1953 UK) and At Swords' Point (1954) - was not of
direct genre interest. She came to sf proper only in 1947 with "The People
of the Crater" for Fantasy Book, as by Andrew North, a pseudonym she used
also for 3 novels; the story was included in Garan the Eternal (coll 1972)
which, along with High Sorcery (coll 1970), The Many Worlds of Andre
Norton (coll 1974; vt The Book of Andre Norton 1975), ed Roger ELWOOD, and
Perilous Dreams (coll 1976), assembled most of her relatively small output
of short fiction.AN's career can, very roughly, be divided into two equal
periods: the two decades from 1950 when she concentrated on sf novels,
most of them gathered into series which were in turn treated as loose
units in a broadly conceived common galactic superseries; and the two
decades from 1970 when, after the success of the Witch World
SCIENCE-FANTASY sequence, she produced numerous further fantasies.
Throughout both periods, her most typical protagonists have been young
women or men who must undergo some form of rite de passage into a sane
maturity; in so doing, they characteristically discover that the true
nature of the Universe lies not in what it might become (hence the lack of
CONCEPTUAL-BREAKTHROUGH novels in her oeuvre) but in its history, and in
the talismans and icons associated with that history. The Universe
revealed in these numerous books - from her first sf novel, Star Man's
Son, 2250 A.D. (1952; vt Daybreak-2250 A.D. 1954 dos; vt Star Man's Son
1978), to her most recent - is a colourful, complex and rewarding
environment for her typical protagonists to come to terms with; though any
advanced technology there deployed- FASTER-THAN-LIGHT space travel, for
instance, and at one time or another almost every other instrument of
SPACE OPERA - serves mainly to add verisimilitude to AN's romantic SENSE
OF WONDER, and to a style in which science and TECHNOLOGY are in fact
treated perfunctorily (if at all) and more often than not as inimical to
humanity and its friends. Close - sometimes telepathic - rapports might
exist among people, or between human and beast as in Catseye (1961), but
rarely or never are human beings called to shape their lives in the
service of transcendent or objective goals. AN's instincts, in other
words, have never been those of the natural sf author; however, in the
sense that her books never violate her audience's legitimate expectations,
AN has always been an orthodox writer.The sf novels, mostly told against
the shared galactic backdrop, were widely varied, featuring a multitude of
space-opera themes and plots, along with several comparatively intimate
studies of humans and ALIENS and beasts, and their relationships under
various circumstances. Series include: the Central Control sequence,
comprising Star Rangers (1953; vt The Last Planet 1955 dos) and Star Guard
(1955); the Astra or Company of Pax sequence, comprising The Stars are
Ours! (1954) and Star Born (1957); the Dane Thorson or Solar Queen
sequence, comprising Sargasso of Space (1955 as by Andrew North; 1969 as
by AN), Plague Ship (1956 as by North; 1969 as by AN), Voodoo Planet (1959
dos as by North; 1968 as by AN), Postmarked the Stars (1969) and Redline
the Stars (1993) with P.M. GRIFFIN; the Blake Walker sequence, comprising
The Crossroads of Time (1956 dos) and Quest Crosstime (1965; vt Crosstime
Agent 1975 UK); the Ross Murdock sequence, comprising The Time Traders
(1958), Galactic Derelict (1959), The Defiant Agents (1962), Key out of
Time (1963) and Firehand (1994) with P.M.Griffin; the Hosteen Storm
sequence, comprising The Beast Master (1959; cut 1961) and Lord of Thunder
(1962); the Forerunner sequence, comprising Storm over Warlock (1960),
Ordeal in Otherwhere (1964), Forerunner Foray (1973), Forerunner (1981)
and Forerunner: The Second Venture (1985); the Janus sequence, comprising
Catseye (1961), Judgment on Janus (1963) and Victory on Janus (1966); the
Moon Singer sequence, comprising Moon of Three Rings (1966), Exiles of the
Stars (1971), Flight In Yiktor (1986) and Dare to Go A-Hunting (1990); the
Murdoc Jern sequence, comprising The Zero Stone (1968) and Uncharted Stars
(1969); and the Star Ka'at sequence for younger readers, all written with
Dorothy Madlee (1917-1980), comprising Star Ka'at (1976), Star Ka'at World
(1978), Star Ka'ats and the Plant People (1979) and Star Ka'ats and the
Winged Warriors (1981).Though begun in the 1960s, the Witch World sequence
is essentially FANTASY - though it often uses such sf tropes as
dimensional gates and force fields - and lacks any connection with the
shared background; it soon became both her best known series and a model
for her later work. Set centrally in the matriarchal land of Estcarp on an
otherwise unnamed planet, and pleasingly sensitive to FEMINIST issues,
these tales engage personable young protagonists in SWORD-AND-SORCERY
adventures which tend to end well. Variously connected, the series titles
include Witch World (1963), Web of the Witch World (1964) and Year of the
Unicorn (1965), all 3 assembled as Annals of the Witch World (omni 1994),
plusThree Against the Witch World (1965), Warlock of the Witch World
(1967), Sorceress of the Witch World (1968), Spell of the Witch World
(coll 1972), The Crystal Gryphon (1972), The Jargoon Pard (1974), Trey of
Swords (1977), Zarsthor's Bane (1978), Lore of the Witch World (coll
1980), Gryphon in Glory (1981), Horn Crown (1981), 'Ware Hawk (1983),
Were-Wrath (1984 chap), Gryphon's Eyrie (1984) with A.C. CRISPIN,
Serpent's Tooth (1987 chap), The Gate of the Cat (1987), an internal
sequence comprising Witch World: The Turning: Storms of Victory (1991) and
Flight of Vengeance (1992) with P.M. Griffin and On Wings of Magic (coll
of linked stories 1994) with Patricia Matthews and Sasha Miller, and
Songsmith (1992) with Crispin. There were also 4 SHARED-WORLD anthologies
edited or authorized by AN: Tales of the Witch World * (anth 1987), Tales
of the Witch World II * (anth 1988), Four from the Witch World * (anth
1989) and Tales of the Witch World III * (anth 1990).Though her style has
matured over the years, and her plots have tended to darken somewhat, from
first to last an AN story will show the virtues of clear construction, a
high degree of narrative control, protagonists whose qualities allow easy
reader-identification and a Universe fundamentally responsive to virtue,
good will and spunk. Her disinclination to publish short material in the
sf magazines and her labelling for decades as a juvenile writer both
worked to delay proper recognition of her stature, though her actual sales
have been very considerable for decades. It has only recently been borne
in upon the sf world that AN's 100 or more books - most of them in print -
are for very many readers central to what the genre has to offer.
[JC]Other works:Non-sf includes:Follow the Drum (1942); Rogue Reynard
(1947); Scarface (1948); Huon of the Horn (1951); Murders for Sale (1954;
with Grace Allen Hogarth, together as Allen Weston; vt Sneeze on Sunday
1992 as AN and Hogarth); Ten Mile Treasure (1981); Stand and Deliver
(1984). Sf and fantasy:Sea Siege (1957); Star Gate (1958; exp 1963);
Secret of the Lost Race (1959 dos; vt Wolfshead 1977 UK); Shadow Hawk
(1960); The Sioux Spaceman (1960 dos); Star Hunter (1961 dos); Eye of the
Monster (1962 dos); Night of Masks (1964); The X Factor (1965); the Magic
fantasies, comprising Steel Magic (1965; vt Grey Magic 1967), Octagon
Magic (1967) and Fur Magic (1968), all assembled as The Magic Books (omni
1988); Operation Time Search (1967); Dark Piper (1968); Dread Companion
(1970); Ice Crown (1970); Android at Arms (1971); Breed to Come (1972);
Dragon Magic (1972); Here Abide Monsters (1973); Iron Cage (1974); Outside
(1974); Lavender-Green Magic (1974); Merlin's Mirror (1975); The White
Jade Fox (1975); The Day of the Ness (1975) with Michael Gilbert; No Night
without Stars (1975); Knave of Dreams (1975); Wraiths of Time (1976); Red
Hart Magic (1976); The Opal-Eyed Fan (1977); Quag Keep (1978); Yurth
Burden (1978); Seven Spells to Sunday (1979); Voorloper (1980); Moon
Called (1982); Wheel of Stars (1983); Ride the Green Dragon (1985) with
Phyllis Miller (1920- ); Imperial Lady: A Fantasy of Han China (1989) with
Susan M. SHWARTZ; Wizards' Worlds (coll 1989); Elvenbane: An Epic High
Fantasy of the Halfblood Chronicles (1991) with Mercedes Lackey (1950- );
The Jekyll Legacy (1990) with Robert BLOCH; Black Trillium (1990) with
Marion Zimmer BRADLEY and Julian MAY, the second sequel to which, by AN
alone, being Golden Trillium (1993); The Mark of the Cat (1992), based on
the cat drawings of Karen Kuykendall; Empire of the Eagle (1993) with
Susan Shwartz; Brother to Shadows (1993); The Hands of Llyr (1994).As
Editor: Bullard of the Space Patrol (coll of linked stories 1951) by
Malcolm JAMESON; Space Service (anth 1953); Space Pioneers (anth 1954);
Space Police (anth 1956); Gates to Tomorrow: An Introduction to Science
Fiction (anth 1973) ed with Ernestine Donaldy; Small Shadows Creep (anth
1974); Baleful Beasts and Eerie Creatures (anth 1976); the Ithkar
fantasies, all with Robert ADAMS, comprising Magic in Ithkar #1 (anth
1985), #2 (anth 1985), #3 (anth 1986) and #4 (anth 1987); Cat-fantastic
(anth 1989), Cat-fantastic II (anth 1991) and Cat-fantastic III (anth
1994), all with Martin H. GREENBERG.About the author: "Andre Norton: Loss
of Faith" (1971) by Rick Brooks in The Many Worlds of Andre Norton (coll
1974); intro by Sandra Miesel to the GREGG PRESS reissue (1977) of the
Witch World series; Andre Norton: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography
(1980) by Roger C. SCHLOBIN; Andre Norton: Grand Master of the
Witch-World: A Working Bibliography (1991 chap) by Phil

(? -? ) UK clergyman and writer, active in the former capacity 1871-1924.
As Artegall Smith he published one sf novel, Sub Sole, or Under the Sun:
Missionary Adventures in the Great Sahara (1889), in which the Wandering
Jew reveals to Artegall Smith the wonders of an underground LOST WORLD
peopled by the Lost Tribes of Israel, who have created there a scientific
civilization. Smith soon converts them and marries the girl of his choice.
Unusually for UK fiction before 1940, Jews are treated with some respect.

(1869-1942) US author of many Westerns and some sf, beginning with The
Vanishing Fleets (1908), in which a group of scientists, having invented
an ANTIGRAVITY device, use it to shift the world's fleets mysteriously
about, terrifying the bellicose nations into disarming. In his second sf
novel, The Toll of the Sea (1909; cut vt The Land of the Lost 1925 UK),
the Pacific figures again, this time changing its shape and uncovering a
LOST WORLD inhabited by advanced descendants of ATLANTIS. In The Flame
(1916) another antigravity device allows its user to force Germany into
early surrender. RN was notable both for his didacticism and for a strong
narrative imagination. [JC]Other works: The Caves of Treasure (1925).

Kenneth BULMER.


(1920-1983) UK traveller and writer who concentrated on Westerns and
nonfiction works about exploration. Of some genre interest is the Jacare
series of jungle tales, loosely derived from Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Tarzan
and mostly sf or fantasy: The Untamed (1951), The Caves of Death (1951),
The Temple of the Dead (1951), The Skull of Kanaima (1951), The Island of
Creeping Death (1952), Drums along the Amazon (1953), which was
associational, and Cry of the Beast (1953). Night of the Black Horror
(1962) is a singleton sf adventure. Among VN's other titles was Island of
the Voodoo Dolls (1969) as by Paul Dangerfield. [JC/SH]

(1945- ) US bookseller and writer who has normally published as Warren
Norwood, sometimes as Warren C. Norwood; due to a publisher's error, some
titles were published as by Warren G. Norwood. After a number of years in
bookselling, during which period he published some not particularly
distinguished poetry, WCN began his sf career with the Windhover Tapes
sequence - The Windhover Tapes: An Image of Voices (1982), #2: Flexing the
Warp (1983), #3: Fize of the Gabriel Ratchets (1983) and #4: Planet of
Flowers (1984) - attempting with some success to compose SPACE OPERAS
whose baroque inturnings are themselves of some narrative interest; but
calling the human protagonist of the series Gerard Hopkins Manley and
referring to Hopkins (1844-1889) with some frequency - while implying that
Manley himself is ignorant of any connection with the poet - does suggest
a disconnectedness deep within the structure of the sequence. The Tapes
themselves constitute a record kept by the sentient starship Windhover;
they detail Manley's quite various adventures on several planets as
troubleshooter and anthropologist. A second series, the Double Spiral War
sequence - Midway Between (1984), Polar Fleet (1985) and Final Command
(1986) - is less chaotic but also less interesting. The Seren Cenacles
(1983) with Ralph Mylius (1945- ) likewise suffers from inattentive bursts
of energy; though Shudderchild (1987), set in a genuinely complicated
multistate post- HOLOCAUST USA, is engagingly compact and full of action,
and True Jaguar (1988), a fantasy, delves intriguingly into Mayan lore.In
1988 WCN publicly announced that he had been diagnosed as having terminal
pancreatic cancer; in 1991 he said that he had entered remission, and also
indicated his wish to acknowledge assistance in completing the Time Police
sequence, a Byron PREISS package comprising Time Police: Vanished! (1988),
#2: Trapped! (1989) and #3: Stranded! (1989), with Mel Odom (1950- ) given
co-author credit on the final volume; WCN's wife had extensively outlined
the second and third volumes and Odom had done the writing work on both.
The sequence itself is a fairly unremarkable reworking of the Time Patrol
recipe created by Poul ANDERSON and others. Given the enforced hiatus at
the end of nearly a decade of intense productivity, it is difficult to
know whether or not WCN will eventually harness his knowledge and drive to
stories that move beyond the slightly unfocused exuberance of his first
work. [JC]

[s] Harlan ELLISON.

1. Film (1957). Los Altos/Allied Artists. Prod and dir Roger CORMAN,
starring Paul Birch, Beverly Garland, Jonathan Haze, Dick Miller.
Screenplay Charles B. Griffith, Mark Hanna. 67 mins. B/w.A sombre humanoid
alien (Birch), whose dark glasses conceal blank white eyes, seeks human
blood and victims to send by matter transmitter to his home planet, whose
inhabitants' blood is being "turned to dust" by radiation from continuing
nuclear war. Low-budget nonsense - a typical Corman film of the period -
cheaply made, NOTE is nevertheless well scripted and surprisingly
powerful; unusually, it shows some sympathy for the lonely, pedantic
alien.2. Film (1988). Miracle. "Roger CORMAN presents" a film dir Jim
Wynorski, starring Arthur Roberts, Traci Lords, Lenny Juliano. Screenplay
R.J. Robertson, Wynorski, based on that of the 1957 film. 76 mins. Colour.
Though fairly true to the original script, and played moderately straight
apart from a plethora of large-breasted women, this Corman-inspired remake
cannot cope with cultural and cinematic changes over the intervening three
decades, and what was once mildly serious now emerges as high camp; hence
it was promoted as a spoof. [PN]See also: MONSTER MOVIES.

(1910- ) UK poet, novelist and academic, perhaps best known for The
Emperor's Clothes (1953), in which she mounted articulate and scathing
attacks on the religious pretensions of such writers as T.S. Eliot
(1888-1965) and C.S. LEWIS. Her sf novel, The Dry Deluge (1947), describes
the founding of an underground UTOPIA devoted to the achievement of

(1928-1992) US writer and physician; much of his nonfiction has been in
the field of popular MEDICINE - Intern (1965) as by "Doctor X" being a
great success. He began publishing sf with "High Threshold" for ASF in
1951, and gained a reputation as a reliable creator of CHILDREN'S SF
novels. His first, Trouble on Titan (1954), features rebellion and
conflict within a SPACE-OPERA Solar System, as do others of his juveniles,
like Raiders from the Rings (1962), where conflict between an oppressive
Earth regime and libertarian Spacers is finally halted by the intervention
of superior, peaceful ALIENS. In Rocket to Limbo (1957), mankind's destiny
is explained to us by alien observers. Star Surgeon (1960) interestingly
posits an Earth which, while being the main medical centre of all the
inhabited worlds, is still in the position of having to apply to join the
Galactic Confederation. The vision of these juveniles is appropriately
optimistic, and technologies - especially medical ones - are there for
humanity's benefit. AEN's adult novels are also straightforward,
frequently making somewhat simple points about bureaucracies and
tyrannies, as in The Invaders are Coming! (1959) with J(oseph) A. Meyer
and in several stories - some genuinely funny - assembled in Tiger by the
Tail (coll 1961; vt Beyond Infinity 1964 UK). Several others make use of
his medical knowledge: brain surgery figures in A Man Obsessed (1955 dos;
rev vt The Mercy Men 1968), part of a series also including "Nightmare
Brother" (1953) and "The Expert Touch" (1955); Rx for Tomorrow (coll 1971)
collects stories about medicine in general; The Bladerunner (1974)-which
was adapted by William S. BURROUGHS as Blade Runner (A Movie) (1979 chap),
neither book having anything to do with Ridley SCOTT's BLADE RUNNER (1982)
(although Scott obtained permission from AN for use of the title) - deals
with the medical implications of OVERPOPULATION in a framework of coercive
sterilization; and The Fourth Horseman (1983) deals with a NEAR-FUTURE
plague. A sense of fundamental decency permeates AEN's fiction; and,
though sometimes too easily achieved, the victories of decency over
bigotry cannot, for the market upon which AEN concentrated, be seriously
faulted. [JC]Other works: Junior Intern (1955), not sf; Scavengers in
Space (1959); Nine Planets (1960), science fact; The Counterfeit Man and
Others (coll 1963); The Universe Between (1951; fixup 1965), which
incorporates his first story; PSI High and Others (coll 1967).See also:

US ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series (1970-74) ed Harry HARRISON, published by
Delacorte (#1) and then Walker & Co., with paperbacks from Dell (#1, #2,
#3) and then Manor Books. All had UK editions also. Its 4 vols were Nova 1
(anth 1970), #2 (anth 1972), #3 (anth 1973; vt The Outdated Man 1975) and
#4 (anth 1974). This was a catholic series, the contents ranging from
old-fashioned sf adventure stories by such writers as Gordon R. DICKSON
through humour by John T. SLADEK to experimental pieces by younger
authors. Tom REAMY made his first sale (though not his debut) here with
"Beyond the Cleft" (1974). The most regular contributors were Brian W.
ALDISS, Barry N. MALZBERG, Robert SHECKLEY and, unusually, Naomi
MITCHISON. It was an entertaining series, but had no great impact.

The earliest true FANZINE in the UK (1936-9), 33 issues, ed Maurice K.
Hanson, first for the Nuneaton chapter of the SCIENCE FICTION LEAGUE, and
then, from #10, for the pre-WWII Science Fiction Association, the UK's
first national sf organization. NT was given over primarily to discussion
of sf and FANDOM, the only fiction it carried being parodies or based on
fan doings. In Sep 1937 Hanson moved to London, and from #17 John CARNELL
and Hanson's flatmate Arthur C. CLARKE were listed as assistant editors.
Hanson's other flatmate, William F. TEMPLE, replaced Carnell with #25, but
after #29 Hanson handed NT to Carnell, who issued a further 4 issues -
numbered 1 to 4 - under the anglicized title New Worlds, which had always
appeared on the title page alongside the Latin version. The title was
revived after WWII by Carnell as a professional magazine of fiction, NEW

Christopher PRIEST.



Everyone knows examples of books that were made into films. In science
fiction, it often happens the other way around. Novelizations are novels
adapted from movie scripts and published in conjunction with the release
of a film.The Quatermass Xperiment was a big success as a novelization in
1959 - it was based on the 1955 Hammer film about an ancient Martian
spaceship excavated in modern London. Theodore Sturgeon wrote the book
version of A Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea in 1961.By the mid-sixties,
movies and television were often novelized, including borderline SF shows,
such as The Man From U.N.C.L.E. and The Prisoner. Some novelizations, like
the ones for Star Trek, remained popular long after the show was

(1888-1940) US writer whose first sf story, "Armageddon 2419" - published
in the same 1928 issue of AMAZING STORIES that featured the inception of
E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Skylark saga - introduced Anthony "Buck" Rogers to the
world, helping to inaugurate the reign of full-grown interstellar SPACE
OPERA in US sf. This and a subsequent story, "The Airlords of Han" (1929),
were put together long after PFN's death as Armageddon 2419 AD (1928-9
AMZ; fixup 1962). The Buck Rogers saga takes its hero, via SUSPENDED
ANIMATION, to a corrupt 25th-century USA under the thumb of the tyrannous
Hans, where Rogers soon becomes a central figure in the successful revolt.
His exploits were retold and then extended through space in BUCK ROGERS IN
THE 25TH CENTURY, the first sf COMIC strip, scripted by PFN and drawn by
Dick CALKINS; it ran 1929-67. PFN worked on it until his death, which also
cut short a new series he had begun in ASF. An adaptation of a tale from
the comic - each page of text faced with a Calkins illustration - appeared
as Buck Rogers 25th Century AD and the Planetoid Plot (1936), and the
first 426 daily strips were published in book form as Buck Rogers in the
25th Century, Great Classic Newspaper Comic Strips, No. 1 (graph coll
1964), #2 (graph coll 1965), #7 (graph coll 1967) and #8 (graph coll

(1880-1958) UK poet and man of letters, best known during his life for
extremely long epic poems like Drake (2 vols 1906-8) and The Torchbearers
(3 vols 1922-30), the latter depicting the march of science. He wrote some
fantasy and horror - in the form of narrative poems in Tales of the
Mermaid Tavern (coll 1914) and in the form of prose tales in Walking
Shadows: Sea Tales and Others (coll 1918) and The Hidden Player (coll
1924). Beyond the Desert: A Tale of Death Valley (1920 chap US) and The
Devil Takes a Holiday (1955) are fantasies. The Secret of Pooduck Island
(1943) is a juvenile. Of sf interest is a post- HOLOCAUST novel, The Last
Man (1940; vt No Other Man 1940 US), in which a doomsday ray stops all
human hearts, petrifying the corpses. A few survivors - man, woman and
(male) evil SCIENTIST-finally reach Assisi, which has been miraculously
saved. AN was a fervent Roman Catholic (converted in 1930), an ardent
anti-Modernist, an early Japanophile and a defender of VOLTAIRE and
Charles Parnell (1846-1891). In several novels Gordon R. DICKSON has
praised his lyric poetry. [JC]See also: CLUB STORY; END OF THE WORLD;

(1870-1959) US businessman and writer whose The Pallid Giant: A Tale of
Yesterday and Tomorrow (1927; vt Gentlemen: You are Mad! 1946) places in
an ominous NEAR-FUTURE context the discovery of records of a long-dead
ancient race, which destroyed itself with DEATH RAYS. Before the last
moments, however, its scientists had through GENETIC ENGINEERING set the
ape on an upward course. But now, in the 20th century, death rays have
just been invented. The narrator warns the world. [JC]

(? - ) UK writer whose sf novel, A Secret Property (1985), depicts an
alien INVASION without great originality. [JC]

The National Fantasy Fan Federation, formed in the USA 1941, the
brain-child of Damon KNIGHT. After a succession of short-lived and
factional US fan associations in the 1930s, the N3F proved a stable and
enduring national organization. However, despite its long existence, it
has maintained only a very low level of membership and activity and has
contributed little to sf or FANDOM. It continues to publish The National
Fantasy Fan, a newsletter which first appeared under the title Bonfire in
1941. [PR]


The claim that sf is a realistic, extrapolative literature is often
supported by the citing of successful PREDICTIONS, among which atomic
power and the atom bomb are usually given pride of place. When the news of
the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was released in 1945, John W.
CAMPBELL Jr, editor of ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, was exultant, claiming
that now sf would have to be taken seriously. Campbell was entitled to
congratulate himself: it was largely due to his editorial influence that
sf writers of the early 1940s had concerned themselves so deeply with
atomic power.It could, however, be argued that anticipating the advent of
atomic power was not such a tremendous imaginative leap. The notion of
"splitting the atom" goes back to antiquity as a philosophical problem
raised in the consideration of atomic theories from Democritus (fl 5th
century BC) and Epicurus (c341-270BC) onwards. It was not until the end of
the 19th century, however, that any evidence relating to the actual
structure of atoms became accessible. In 1902 Ernest Rutherford
(1871-1937) and Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) demonstrated that certain
heavy atoms-including those of uranium and radium - were in a state of
continuous spontaneous decay, emitting various types of energetic
radiation. The popularization of this and related discoveries had an
influence on SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE comparable only to that of evolutionary
theory; the first title to reflect this opportunity was probably Robert
CROMIE's The Crack of Doom (1895). The power of radioactivity - in many
applications, some of them bizarre - quickly became commonplace in sf,
especially in relation to WAR. Einstein's famous equation linking mass and
energy (E = mc2

(1934- ) US self-styled hack writer; in various genres, under a variety
of names, he wrote over 70 paperback novels. He became active in sf in the
1960s, publishing "A Very Cultured Taste" for Jade #1 in 1960. Lost Valley
of the Damned (1961 as by Alec River; exp vt Jungle Jungle 1969 as CN) was
routine. Lovers: 2075 (1964) as by Charles English, was, like Queen of
Blood (1966), mildly erotic, and marketed as such. Images of Tomorrow
(coll 1969) assembled satirical tales. Warriors of Noomas (1969) and its
sequel Raiders of Noomas (1969) were romantic adventures heavily
influenced by Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, as was Swordsmen of Vistar (1969). The
last 4 titles were all published by Powell Books, whose sf line CN edited,
as was The Slaves of Lomooro (1969) as by Albert Augustus Jr. [JC]Other
works: If this Goes On (anth 1965); Last Call for the Stars (1970).


(1924- ) South African writer and statistician, most of whose work was in
collaboration with his wife Rhoda (Gwylleth) Nunes (1938- ). They
published their first sf story, "The Problem", in Science Fantasy in 1962,
and were active for the next two decades. Inherit the Earth (1963 Science
Fiction Adventures as by Claude and Rhoda Nunes; exp 1966 dos US) was
published as by CN alone, as his wife participated less than usual in the
rewrite; in it the telepathic ANDROIDS who inhabit Earth after a nuclear
HOLOCAUST has driven humanity to the stars hope one day to teach their
makers how to live in peace. Recoil (1971 US) was published as by both; in
a rather archaic style it tells of telepathic ALIENS and their attempts to
influence humans, specifically a group of children. The Sky Trapeze (1980
UK), by CN alone, again concentrated on the powers of the mind, this time
in an alien venue. [JC]


Film (1963). Jerry Lewis Productions/Paramount. Dir Jerry Lewis, starring
Lewis, Stella Stevens, Dell Moore, Kathleen Freeman, Howard Morris.
Screenplay Lewis, Bill Richmond. 107 mins. Colour.Even those who do not
normally enjoy the heavily overstated comedy of Lewis, which depends a lot
on gesticulation and face-pulling, admit this to be one of his best films;
it is a remake as a campus comedy of DR JEKYLL AND MR HYDE, with Lewis
playing both Professor Kelp, the nerd who takes the potion, and the
revoltingly smooth, sexually charged lounge lizard and crooner, Buddy
Love, whom he intermittently becomes; the film is an imaginative act of
spite against Lewis's former partner and co-star Dean Martin, recognizable
even in this broad parody. Not only is it funny, it hits off the subtext
of Robert Louis STEVENSON's original rather well. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

[r] L. Sprague DE CAMP; Robert E. HOWARD.

[s] Lee HARDING.

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