Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (K-K)

(1957- ) US writer, rock musician and illustrator; he did the cover for
INTERZONE #9 and the vigorous though somewhat derivative collage
illustrations for Dream Protocols (coll 1992 chap) by sf poet Lee
Ballentine (1954- ); he has also contributed articles to SCIENCE FICTION
EYE and Whole Earth Review. His first published sf was "The Fire Catcher"
(Interzone 1985; Omni 1986). Not wholly assimilated influences like
CYBERPUNK and J.G. BALLARD give an element of pastiche to his early work,
including his novel Metrophage (1988), but the latter transcends it in a
vigorous and inventive tale of a mean-streetwise drug pusher's problems in
a NEAR-FUTURE Los Angeles that is being eaten alive by urban decay, police
corruption and corporate cynicism. It reads like a supercharged arcade
game that appals even its creator.Covert Culture Sourcebook: A Guide to
Fringe Culture (1993) surveys similar territory from a non-fiction point
of view. [PN]

House pseudonym (pronounced Kemfer) used by the editors of ROCKET
STORIES: Lester DEL REY on the first 2 issues and Harry HARRISON on the
#3. [PN]

(1883-1924) Czech novelist, not usually or profitably considered a writer
of fantasy or sf, though some of his stories - such as In der Strafkolonie
(1919 chap; trans 1933; trans Willa and Edwin Muir as title story in The
Penal Colony coll 1948 US; vt In the Penal Settlement 1949 UK) and Die
Verwandlung (1915; trans A.L. Lloyd as The Metamorphosis 1937 chap UK) -
present through a prose of hallucinated transparency a world radically
displaced from normal reality ( FABULATION). The former tells of an
execution machine which incises moral slogans on the victim's body; the
latter is a horrifying allegory of alienation in which a young man is
transformed overnight into a huge beetle. Other fables are included in The
Great Wall of China (coll trans Willa and Edwin Muir 1933 UK) and The
Transformation and Other Stories: Works Published during Kafka's Lifetime
(coll trans Malcolm Pasley 1992 UK), which presents a new version of Die
Verwandlung plus other material whose release FK sanctioned. His most
famous works - none finished and all published posthumously (and despite
his apparent wishes that they be destroyed on his death) - are his three
novels: Amerika (written 1911-14; 1927; trans Willa and Edwin Muir 1938
UK), Der Prozess (written 1914-15; 1925; trans Willa and Edwin Muir as The
Trial 1937 UK) and Das Schloss (written 1921-22; 1926; trans Willa and
Edwin Muir as The Castle 1930 UK). Though all share a vision of the
menacing absurdity of the world ( ABSURDIST SF), when read in
chronological order of writing they present an illuminating sequence from
the persecuted innocence of Amerika's protagonist (literally displaced
into a surrealistic New World) to the confidence-man ingenuities of K.,
the protagonist of The Castle, who seems almost capable of forcing the
20th-century world to give him meaning and a room. FK's work is Modernist,
its fable-like quality indefinably dreamlike; his influence, which has
been enormous, permeates much of modern sf's attempts to get at the
quality of life in dislocated, totalitarian, surrealistic or merely
inscrutable venues. [JC]About the author: The literature on FK is
enormous. A recent study of interest is Franz Kafka (1990) by Pietro

(1946- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Faith-of-the Month" for
ASF in 1982, and who won a 1993 HUGO Best Novelette Award for"The
Nutcracker Coup" (1992). Her first sf book was a STAR TREK tie, Uhura's
Song * (1985), reckoned to be one of the better novels attached to that
enterprise. Her second novel, Hellspark (1988), carries some of the same
digestible competence into an sf adventure whose heroine (attended by a
sentient AI) must defend the inhabitants of a valuable planet from a
predatory corporation, helped in her task by her very considerable
competence in kinesics and LINGUISTICS. More interesting is Mirabile (coll
of linked stories 1991), a loosely linked portrait of the eponymous
planet, colonized by humans who import flora and fauna whose DNA has been
genetically engineered to provide the new colony with all sorts of
lifeforms. However, the records (of what will sprout from what) have been
lost, and the heroine must cope with a variety of comic crises. [JC]

(? - ) US writer whose occasional sf stories, from "The Mathenauts" for
If in 1964, have sometimes dealt vigorously and amusingly with MATHEMATICS
as a subject, and tend to feature extroverted mathematicians as
protagonists. NK also wrote The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick (1972; exp

(1926- ) Russian critic and professor of European drama at the State
Theatrical Institute in Moscow. JK, one of the leading Russian critics to
have a strong interest in sf, published the first and most comprehensive
study in the then USSR of an individual sf author: Herbert Wells (1963;
trans as The Life and Thought of H.G. Wells 1966 UK; considerably rev and
exp vt Vggiadyvaias v Griadusheie ["Staring into the Future"] 1989). He
later edited a 15-vol set of Wells's collected works (1965). Tchto Takoie
Fantastika? ["What is the Fantastic?"] (1974) is a popular history of the
genre, and has been translated into several languages (not English). JK
won, unusually, the Chief Award of the Polish Ministry of Culture, and,
again unusually, in 1972 the PILGRIM AWARD for services to sf studies.

(1947- ) US physician and writer who began publishing sf with "Mobius
Trip" in 1971, but who has been most active as a novelist, usually of film
adaptations. His New World trilogy - World Enough, and Time (1980), Time's
Dark Laughter (1982) and Timefall (1987) - initially depicts a
fantasy-like FAR-FUTURE Earth in which GENETIC ENGINEERING on the part of
the self-destructing human race has generated vampires, centaurs,
semi-sentient cats, ANDROIDS and other creatures, all of which roam
through a transfigured California. The first volume floridly introduces
the cast, with some Grand Guignol episodes. The second, perhaps the most
interestingly baroque, carries its human protagonist through a love
affair, the begetting of a goddesslike child who wantonly transfigures the
world in her death-throes, and his return (with the child's mother)
through time to Eden. The third volume, set in Colombia, fails to bring
the complex structure of the sequence into clear focus, though the power
of the JK's imagery remains vivid in the reader's mind. The Echo Vector
(1988) is a medical thriller that verges on sf. JK's novelizations are
competent. [JC]Film novelizations: Poltergeist * (1982) and its sequel,
Poltergeist II: The Other Side * (1986); Star Wars: Return of the Jedi *
(1983), novelizing RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983); Indiana Jones and the Temple
of Doom * (1984); The Goonies * (1985).See also: MESSIAHS.




[r] JAPAN.

1. Variant title of the film KAMIKAZE 1989 (1982).2. Film (1986). Les
Films du Loup/ARP/Gaumont. Dir Didier Grousset, starring Richard
Bohringer, Michel Galabru, Dominique Lavanant, Riton Liebman, Kim Massee,
Harry Cleven. Screenplay Luc Besson, Grousset. 89 mins. Colour.An
amusingly black film with a serious point, K tells of a brilliant
unemployed scientist, obsessed with tv, who invents a ray-gun which, when
pointed at the screen, can kill anyone appearing live on it. When slimy
presenters on French afternoon tv start getting blasted mid-announcement,
a rumpled flic (Bohringer), with the help of a roomful of boffins, sets
out to hunt the killer. This French film is something of a throwback to
the international 1970s cycle of sf-tinged PARANOIA movies. Like The
Parallax View (1974) and Winter Kills (1979), or the home-grown Ecoute
Voir (1979), K mixes bizarre assassination hardware and computerized
complications with the traditional down-at-heel strengths of the policier
as it follows its two central characters down their own labyrinths.
Galabru is outstanding as the murderer, starting out as a sympathetic
loser but becoming a psychopath who whites his face and dresses up as a
Mishima-style samurai. [KN]

(vt Kamikaze; vt Kamikaze '89) Film (1982). Regina Ziegler/Trio/Oase/ZDF.
Dir Wolf Gremm, starring Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Boy Gobert, Gunther
Kaufmann, Nicole Heesters, Franco Nero. Screenplay Robert Katz, Gremm,
based on Mord pa 31 (1965; trans as Murder on the 31st Floor 1966) by Per
WAHLOO. 106 mins. Colour.In the Germany of 1989 people have no problems.
They are entertained around the clock by a gigantic multimedia
corporation, operating from a 30-floor building. Police Lieutenant Jansen
(Fassbinder), investigating a bomb threat against the corporation,
discovers the existence of a 31st floor where idealistic journalists are
developing plans to make people more intellectual. Their plans are never
realized: the corporation keeps an eye on all free-thinkers. Fassbinder's
very physical performance, his last (he died in 1982), is all that makes
this worth seeing more than once. The rest of this playful West German
adaptation of Wahlooo's DYSTOPIAN novel mixes sf and mystery elements with
no great individuality. Fassbinder had earlier directed an sf film, the
made-for-tv WELT AM DRAHT (1973). [JK]

Pseudonym of US writer Robert J. Antonick (1939- ), whose sf novels
Earthrim (1969 dos), a heavily plotted melodrama set on a tyrannized
Earth, and The HEROD Men (1971), both feature adventure plots somewhat
awkwardly presented. [JC]

(1941- ) US writer, translator and book editor, best known until the late
1980s for his brilliant translations from the Polish of works by Stanislaw
LEM, among them a pyrotechnic rendering of the novella "Kongres
Futurologiczny" (1971 Poland) as The Futurological Congress (1974 US),
many of whose wordplays are of necessity MK's. The Cosmic Carnival of
Stanislaw Lem (coll 1981), which MK assembled, contains excerpts from
previously translated novels plus some stories. MK's own novels reflect,
perhaps, his immersion in the Eastern European tradition. STRANGE INVASION
(1989) describes, with dissecting humour, an alien tourist invasion of
Earth. In Between Dragons (1990) subjects a fantasy-game-like universe to
an equally wry analysis. Captain Jack Zodiac (1991), in a fashion
reminiscent of the way post- HOLOCAUST traumas were surreally ignored in
The BED-SITTING ROOM , exposes its zany cast to a USA gone terminally
insane after the Bomb has been dropped. [JC]


House name used by ZIFF-DAVIS on 4 stories 1958-9 in AMZ and Fantastic;
at least 1, unidentified, was by Robert BLOCH. [PN]

(1896-1973) Romanian-born UK writer and civil servant who published his
own books from Llandudno in Wales. Of them, two full-length novels stand
out: People of the Twilight (1946), a PARALLEL-WORLDS tale, and The Sun
Queen (1946), which features instantaneous TRANSPORTATION and a race of
beings dwelling within the SUN. [JC]Other works: Squaring the Triangle
(coll 1944 chap); Fire-Watcher's Night (coll 1944 chap); Hot Swag (coll
1945 chap); The Cynic's Desperate Mission (coll 1946 chap); Ape-Man's
Offering (coll 1946 chap); The Naked Foot (coll 1946 chap); The Terror
Catches Up (coll 1946 chap); Ordeal by Moonlight (coll 1947 chap).


(1904-1977) US writer best known for such works outside the sf field as
Andersonville (1955), a long novel set during the US Civil War, the area
of his deepest concern. That war is also the setting for If the South had
Won the Civil War (1961), the ALTERNATE-WORLDS thesis of the title being a
favourite crux for US writers in the genre. [JC]


(1947- ) US marketing executive and writer who began publishing sf with
Khyren (1988), in which the protagonist finds herself transported from her
conventional existence into a world where female worth is measured by
fertility; the FEMINIST implications of the tale are not heavily
underlined. ABK's second novel, set in the same universe, is World Spirits
(1992). [JC]

(1928- ) UK writer and worker in electronics. He began publishing sf with
"Life Plan" for NW in 1958, where his best work soon appeared, including
"Lambda 1" (1962), which gave its title to the John CARNELL collection,
Lambda 1 (anth 1964), and Transfinite Man (1964 US; vt under the 1963 mag
title The Dark Mind 1965 UK), in which a fierce unkillable SUPERMAN
protagonist pits himself against the corrupt Failway [sic] Terminal in
duels extending through various DIMENSIONS - access to which the Terminal
attempts to control. Despite CK's otherwise unextraordinary plotting, the
combination of invulnerability and rage in the tale generates a sense of
nearly uncontrollable energy, imparting to this one book something of the
exhilaration of Keith LAUMER and a touch of the complexity of Alfred
BESTER, whose Gully Foyle - from Tiger! Tiger! (1956 UK) - is clearly
evoked. The enjoyable The Wizard of Anharitte (1972), though less
energetic, features an intriguing sf power struggle on a backward planet,
with the protagonist (who finds himself on the wrong side) repeatedly
frustrated by the "wizard's" ingenious technological trickery.CK's later
publications include a sequence of problem-solver tales assembled as The
Unorthodox Engineers (coll of linked stories 1979), a short series
comprising The Patterns of Chaos (1972) and The Chaos Weapon (1977 US),
the former featuring a SUPERHERO implausibly capable of manipulating
chaos, and the Cageworld sequence of SPACE OPERAS centred on a DYSON
SPHERE: Cageworld (1982; vt Search for the Sun! 1983 US), The Lost Worlds
of Cronus (1982) and The Tyrant of Hades (1982). [JC]Other works: The
Wizard of Anharitte (1973); The Survival Game (1976 US); Manalone (1977);
The Ion War (1978 US); The Timewinders (1980).See also: NEW WORLDS; NEW

[s] Poul ANDERSON.


(1898-1956) US journalist and novelist, a pseudonymous author for many
years of the Nancy Drew detective series and others. War in the Atomic
Age? (1946 chap) compresses into very few pages a sequence of 21st-century
superscience duels between the USA and Galaxia - they include atomic
warfare, FORCE FIELDS, biological WEAPONS and underwater ROBOT tanks. The
USA wins hands down. In his sf fantasy, Zotz! (1947), a man - given the
ancient power to kill by pointing his hand and saying "Zotz!" - is
frustrated by bureaucracy in his attempts to help the USA win WWII; the
effect is mildly satirical. [JC]


(1887-1938) Hungarian writer and translator, best known for his work
outside the sf field, mostly humorous SATIRES first published in
newspapers; he also translated works by Jonathan SWIFT and Mark TWAIN,
among others, into Hungarian. His two continuations of Swift's Gulliver's
Travels (1726) - Utazas Faremidoba (1916) and Capillaria (1921) - were
assembled as Voyage to Faremido/Capillaria (omni trans Paul TABORI 1965
Hungary). The first carries FK's version of Gulliver to a ROBOT society,
the second to one ruled by women. Sharp-tongued and convincingly Swiftian,
they are impressive introductions to his melancholy, sometimes savage view
of the 20th century. His career, and his prescient use of robots as
symbols of the dawning new age, were similar to Karel CAPEK's, but he
pulled fewer punches. FK was a dangerous writer. [JC]See also: FANTASTIC

(1922- ) US writer whose sf novel One (1953; vt Escape to Nowhere 1955)
is a notable MAINSTREAM use of sf modes as a way of expressing DYSTOPIAN
views about the future. Though distinctly less convincing than such
predecessors as Arthur KOESTLER's Darkness at Noon (1940) and George
ORWELL's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949), it does present a salutarily grim
and sharply described vision of a totalitarian future USA and the brutal
mind-control that must be imposed if the state is to survive. Part of the
novel's interest lies in its sometimes sympathetic insight into the mind
of inquisitor as well as victim. The Day of the Monkey (1955) is a
fantasy. [JC]See also: POLITICS.


ZIFF-DAVIS house name used on magazine stories by Chester S. GEIER and
possibly others 1948-50, and by Robert SILVERBERG in 1957. [JC]

(1924-1987) US writer best known outside the genre. He began publishing
sf with "The York Problem" for If in 1955. His one sf novel, The
Reassembled Man (1964; exp vt Edward Berner is Alive Again! 1975; vt The
Three Lives of Edward Berner 1976 UK) depicts without excessive
originality the transformation by aliens of a human into a sexually
supercharged SUPERMAN. [JC]

(? -? ) German writer. His sf novel, Die Welt ohne Gedachtnis (trans
Winifred Ray as Contagion to this World 1933 UK), begins conventionally
enough with a deformed SCIENTIST, thwarted in love, determining to revenge
himself on the world by releasing dangerous bacteria he has developed;
these turn out to have a memory-erasing effect on humans. The scientist's
love-affair forgotten, the novel becomes a post- HOLOCAUST vision in which
the remnants of mankind mutate into a roving race of giants in harmony
with Nature. The scientist grows old and - remarkably - dies forgiven.

Name under which French-born, much travelled UK writer born Helen Woods
Edmonds (1901-1968) wrote her fiction from 1940, having previously signed
herself under her married name, Helen Ferguson; the orphaned protagonist
of Let Me Alone (1930) and A Stranger Still (1935) is named Anna Kavan,
and Edmonds eventually became AK by deed poll. Her life, which ended in
suicide, was tragically complicated by heroin addiction, and in most of
her work fantasy and mental illness surreally intermingle. She was well
known for work outside the sf field, though her last work, the sf novel
Ice (1967), is as familiar to readers as anything she wrote. It depicts,
through compulsively intense imagery which links her with Franz KAFKA and
the Surrealists generally, a post- HOLOCAUST search for a woman through a
world increasingly shadowed by an approaching ice age. An earlier novel,
Eagles' Nest (1958), traverses the same quest landscape, though in fantasy
terms. Later editions of Ice carry an introduction by Brian W. ALDISS, in
which he claims AK as one of the great sf writers; he also edited the
posthumous My Madness: The Selected Writings of Anna Kavan (coll 1990).
[JC]Other works: Asylum Piece and Other Stories (coll 1940); House of
Sleep (1947 US; vt Sleep has his House 1948 UK); A Bright Green Field
(coll 1958); Julia and the Bazooka (coll 1970); My Soul is in China (coll


(1949- ) UK critic, editor and writer. Her sf criticism, beginning in the
late 1970s (before 1980 as by Andrew Kaveney), has appeared in specialist
journals like FOUNDATION and in non-genre outlets like the Washington Post
and Books and Bookmen; it is marked by a seemingly off-hand general
erudition and a knowing sharpness about the field. Much of her non-sf
writing has concentrated on issues like FEMINISM, gay rights and
censorship. She began publishing sf with "A Lonely Impulse" in Temps:
Volume One * (anth 1991), "devised by" Neil GAIMAN and Alex Stewart. She
edited Tales from the Forbidden Planet (anth 1987) and More Tales from the
Forbidden Planet (anth 1990) as well as three SHARED-WORLD anthologies:
The Weerde * (anth 1992),Villains * (anth 1992) andThe Weerde: Book 2
(anth 1993), all with Mary GENTLE. [JC]See also: BIG DUMB OBJECTS;

Charles DE LINT.

(1938- ) US writer, usually of fantasy and horror, noted here primarily
for the Masters of Solitude sf sequence: The Masters of Solitude (1978)
and Wintermind (1984), both written with Parke GODWIN (whom see for
details). The supernatural novel A Cold Blue Light (1983), also with
Godwin, is less successful; and its sequel, Ghosts of Night and Morning
(1987), by MK alone, is neither sf nor supernatural. Early in his career,
MK wrote some stories with Brother Theodore (Theodore Gottlieb, long
thought to be an MK pseudonym). [JC]Other works: The Umbrella/Fillmore
fantasy sequence, comprising The Incredible Umbrella (fixup 1979) and The
Amorous Umbrella (1981); The Possession of Immanual Wolf and Other
Improbable Tales (coll 1981); Fantastique (1992), a fantasy elaborately
constructed around Hector Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique.As Editor:
Brother Theodore's Chamber of Horrors (anth 1975) with Brother Theodore;
Fiends and Creatures (anth 1975); Ghosts (anth 1981) with Saralee Kaye;
Masterpieces of Terror and the Supernatural (anth 1985) with S. Kaye;
Devils and Demons (anth 1987) with S. Kaye; Weird Tales: The Magazine that
Never Dies (anth 1988) with S. Kaye; Witches and Warlocks (anth 1990);
Haunted America: Star-Spangled Supernatural Stories (anth 1991); Lovers
and Other Monsters (anth 1992); Fantastique (1992).

(vt Who Would Kill Jessie?) Film (1965). Filmove studio Barrandov. Dir
Milos Macourek, Vaclav Vorlicek, starring Jiri Sovak, Dana Medricka, Olga
Schoberova, Karel Effa, Juraj Visny. Screenplay Macourek, Vorlicek. 80
mins. B/w.This very funny Czechoslovak film was conceived for children,
but the makers realized that the idea had satirical potential. An
overworked professor (Sovak) becomes obsessed with a newspaper comic strip
featuring a voluptuous heroine, Jessie (Schoberova), who is constantly
being pursued by two villains - a malicious cowboy (Effa) and a
displeasing analogue of SUPERMAN (Visny). He dreams a lot about Jessie.
The straitlaced wife of the professor (Medricka), also a scientist, has
invented a dream-manipulator with which she hopes to eradicate her
husband's lascivious dreams, but it malfunctions and the three comic-book
characters materialize in their apartment, causing upheaval. This
exhilarating, well made film deserves wider distribution. [JB/PN]


(1881-1966) Australian-born writer, in the UK most of his life, author of
the nonfiction Rapid Transit in the Future (only 2nd edn recorded, 1911).
His UTOPIA, Erone (1943; rev 1945), an old-fashioned love-story set in a
rather sentimentalized communist society on Uranus, had some popular
success, though now forgotten. A short pamphlet, The Great Calamity (1948
chap), itemizes the destruction of most of the world. [JC]

(1926- ) UK writer, almost exclusively of detective novels, notably those
featuring Inspector Ghote of the Bombay CID. His two sf novels are The
Strong Man (1971), a DYSTOPIAN tale of a dictator and the ambiguous
consequences of his removal, and A Long Walk to Wimbledon (1978), in which
a man treks laboriously across London to visit his wife just after a
DISASTER has devastated the capital. [JC]

Arthur H. LANDIS.

(1919- ) UK broadcaster and writer. A Sign of the Times (1955) is set in
the NEAR FUTURE, where regimentation rules along lines familiar in
post-WWII UK fiction. [JC]

Harriet S. ADAMS.

(1904-1969) US writer, mostly of detective novels and film and tv
scripts. In his sf novel, World without Women (1960) with Leonard PRUYN,
the few remaining women find themselves in DYSTOPIAN circumstances. [JC]

[s] Horace L. GOLD.

House name used for 2 routine sf adventures published by CURTIS WARREN:
Ionic Barrier (1953) by Dennis HUGHES and Tri-Planet (1953), whose
authorship has not been ascertained. [JC]

(1913-1975) US writer and civil servant, an occasional contributor to the
sf field since publishing his first story, "Rust", in ASF in 1939. His
first novel, Overlords from Space (1956 dos), is a routine tale in which
ALIEN conquerors of Earth are defeated at last. The Little Men (1960) and
its sequel, Hunters of Space (1960), whose characters are derived from
European MYTHOLOGY, traces the fight between Jack Odin and the villainous
Grim Hagen, first under the Earth, then in space; various princesses and
dwarfs attend. In When the Red King Woke (1966), which may be sf, a
mysterious monarch sleeps off-planet in a bubble; as readers of Lewis
CARROLL might expect, when the king awakes the planet dies. [JC] See also:

(1939- ) Australian lecturer in English and now full-time writer. Born in
London, VK spent 20 years in Africa before emigrating to New Zealand
(1973) and then Australia (1976). VK's major theme in the sf and FANTASY
(he makes no sharp distinction between the two genres) for adolescents for
which he is best known is the tension between cyclic/seasonal time and
linear time. His sf includes The Green Piper (1984), Taronga (1986) and
The Makers (1987); his fantasy includes Master of the Grove (1982) -
Australian Children's Book of the Year - Baily's Bones (1988), The Red
King (1989), Brother Night (1990),Del-Del (1991), To the Dark Tower
(1992), and also his early novels Forbidden Paths of Thual (1979) and The
Hunting of Shadroth (1981). Papio (1984) is an adventure story. His post-
HOLOCAUST novel for adults, The Beast of Heaven (1985), won a Ditmar AWARD
for best Australian sf. He has written four non-sf books for adults.

(1880-1966) US writer, physician and psychiatrist, deeply involved in the
last capacity in WWI work on shell shock; he published a great deal of
technical work in his professional role. As a writer of fantasy and sf he
was active but unpublished for many years before the period 1928-35, his
first sf sale being "The Revolt of the Pedestrians" ( DYSTOPIA) to AMZ in
1928. For the next decade he appeared widely in Weird Tales and other PULP
MAGAZINES, including AMAZING STORIES, where he published "The Metal Doom"
(1932), in which advanced civilization ends when all metal begins to rust.
He fell out of wide public notice with the onset of the GOLDEN AGE OF SF,
whose optimism about the workability of the Universe he clearly did not
share. He remained active in FANDOM, however, and - it is rumoured - wrote
a large number of stories, some of which appeared in the 1940s; others
were published in the 1970s in response to the continuing appeal of his
apparently primitive fiction.DHK's sf is probably inferior to his horror
and fantasy work. The Thing in the Cellar (1932 Weird Tales; 1940 chap),
for instance, works almost as a hydraulic metaphor (in the Freudian
manner) of the relationship between the upstairs daylight of consciousness
and the blind tide of unconsciousness beneath our floors. It is much
superior to the sf story published as his first book, The Thought
Projector (1930 chap).His sf was conservative - against the spirit of the
age - in its presentation of the risks inherent in all science; the
eponymous detective of the Taine of San Francisco sequence of sf stories
(1928-47) generally operates so as to conceal, rather than expose, the
truth behind things. Much of DHK's sf concerns dilemmas created by GENETIC
ENGINEERING - the stories in Brian M. STABLEFORD's Sexual Chemistry (coll
1991) are readable as a direct rebuttal to DHK's unvarying pessimism - and
tends to end in arbitrary apocalypse. His novels are similar. In his
first, The Human Termites (1929 Science Wonder Stories; 1979 chap), the
human race is almost seen off by invading social insects. Other early
novels have not reached book form. In "Life Everlasting" (1934 AMZ), which
appears in Life Everlasting and Other Tales of Science, Fantasy and Horror
(coll 1947), the human race must choose between IMMORTALITY and fertility.
The second (and considerably longer) title in The Solitary Hunters; and
The Abyss (coll 1948) again demonstrates, by detailing the terrible
consequences of any removal of human repressions, DHK's sense of the
fragility of the psychic order.Several of his full-length books were story
collections, with some sf included in a preponderantly fantasy mix. They
include At the Sign of the Burning Hart (coll of linked stories 1938
France; with appendix added, vt At the Sign of the Burning Hart: A Tale of
Arcadia 1948 US), which is UTOPIAN, Tales from Underwood (coll 1952), The
Folsom Flint and Other Curious Tales (coll 1969), The Street of Queer
Houses and Other Tales (coll 1976) and The Last Magician: Nine Stories
from "Weird Tales" (coll 1978 chap). [JC]Other works: Wolf Hollow Bubbles
(?1934 chap); Men of Avalon (1935 chap dos); The Waters of Lethe (1937
chap); The Television Detective (1938 chap); The Devil and the Doctor
(fixup 1940), in which Satan is a HERO-figure; The Eternal Conflict (1939
Les Primaires, part only; 1949); The Homunculus (1949); The Final War
(1949 chap); The Lady Decides (1950); A Figment of a Dream: A New
Allegorical Fantasy (1962 chap).See also: AIR WONDER STORIES; AUTOMATION;

(1879-1951) German writer whose sf novel, Der Tunnel (1913; trans anon as
The Tunnel 1915 UK), tells the epic story, sometimes in heartfelt terms,
of the construction of a transatlantic tunnel. It was the basis of the
German film Der TUNNEL (1933) and its UK remake, The TUNNEL (1935).

(1928- ) US novelist, for some time also an advertising copywriter. He
began publishing sf with "Dreamtown, U.S.A." for If in 1955. Several of
his sf novels likewise concentrate on societies which invidiously dominate
their inhabitants by psychological means, as in his second, Odyssey to
Earthdeath (1968). His first, The Counterfeits (1967), as by Leo F.
Kelley, similarly puts sociological sf into a routine adventure frame. An
oddly affectless baroque style sometimes jars against the stories he
tells, pretending an urgency it fails to convey through plots of a
fashionable grimness; but he has been a readable contributor to the genre.
[JC]Other works: Time Rogue (1970); The Accidental Earth (1970); The Coins
of Murph (1971); Brother John * (1971); Time: 110100 (1972; vt The Man
from Maybe 1974 UK); Mindmix (1972); Mythmaster (1973); The Earth Tripper
(1973); a series of short juveniles, comprising Time Trap (1977 chap),
Star Gold (1978 chap; vt Alien Gold 1983), Backward in Time (1979 chap),
Death Sentence (1979 chap), Earth Two (1979 chap), Prison Satellite (1979
chap), Sunworld (1979 chap), Worlds Apart (1979 chap), Night of Fire and
Blood (1979 chap), Dead Moon (1979 chap), King of the Stars (1979 chap),
On the Red World (1979 chap), Where No Sun Shines (1979 chap), Vacation in
Space (1979 chap) and Good-bye to Earth (1979 chap).As Editor: Themes in
Science Fiction (anth 1972); Fantasy, the Literature of the Marvelous
(anth 1973); The Supernatural in Fiction (anth 1973).

(?1905-1982) Ex-prizefighter and, in his own description, "King of the
Canadian pulp writers", author mostly of adventure fiction and "true
crime", as well as of the sf novel "A Million Years in the Future" (1940
Weird Tales), which never reached book form. Four fantasy novels are I
Found Cleopatra (1938 Weird Tales; cut 1946), The Face that Launched a
Thousand Ships (fixup 1941), Tapestry Triangle (1946 UK), featuring an
immortal Chinese and a race of Amazons, and The Gorilla's Daughter (1950).
He contributed under pseudonyms, including Gene Bannerman, Roy P. Devlin
and Valentine North, to the Canadian UNCANNY TALES and wrote 40 scripts
for Out of the Night, a radio programme specializing in supernatural
tales. [PN/JC]See also: CANADA; WEAPONS.

(1937- ) US writer whose celebrated short novel A Different Drummer
(1959) is a borderline-sf fable telling of Black history in an imaginary
southern state of the USA, and ending with a mass emigration of all Blacks
from the state in 1957. [PN]Other works: Dem (1967); Dunsford Travels
Everywhere (1970).See also: POLITICS.

(1946- ) US scenery designer and writer who published her first three
novels as by M. Bradley Kellogg to avoid confusion with another Marjorie
Kellogg, but from 1991 used her full name. Her first novel, A Rumor of
Angels (1983), is unexceptional, but the Lear's Daughters sequence - The
Wave and the Flame (1986) and Reign of Fire (1986), both written with NASA
climatologist William B(rigance) Rossow (1947) and assembled as Lear's
Daughters (omni 1987) - somewhat more interestingly devotes much attention
to the ECOLOGY and violent climatic extremes of a potential colony planet,
though the conflict between the advocates of exploitation and those of
alliance with the pacific cave-dwelling weather-predicting natives lacks
originality. MBK's fourth novel, Harmony (1991), is a large and ambitious
tale set on an Earth dominated by centuries of POLLUTION, with almost all
humans now living in large, strictly controlled domes. But some artists -
here MBK again shows an untoward softness of mind - have somehow managed
to live in the open, and the book moves slowly towards a wholesome
resolution of the conflict between ensuring safety and embracing the
world. [JC]

(1914- ) US writer who began to publish sf with "The Light Bender" for
Wonder Stories in 1931, and who rapidly became known for SPACE-OPERA tales
of some bleakness, though later titles were infused with an idealistic
glow. He stopped writing sf in 1935, turning to non-genre fiction and
political histories, and it was not until 45 years later that his sf work
became available again, with the release of Starship Invincible (coll
1979). FKK cofounded the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions
in 1959, and the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation in 1982. [JC]

(1899-1969): UK writer and publisher, founder with his brother, Hector
Kelly, of Everybody's Books, and later of RobinHood Press and Hector Kelly
Ltd, for which he wrote many crime novels - being best known for those as
by Darcy Glinto - and westerns, along with some sf and horror. In the
1960s, he wrote crime under the house name Hank JANSON. As Eugene Ascher
he wrote the Lucius Carolus series of occult detective novels: There Were
No Asper Ladies (1944; vt To Kill a Corpse 1959), Uncanny Adventures (coll
1944 chap), and The Grim Caretaker (1944 chap). As Preston Yorke he wrote
The Astounding Crime (1943 chap), The Gamma Ray Murders (1943), which was
sf, and other crime tales. Space-Time Task Force (1953), also as by Yorke,
was set in the distant future, where the robot-like "syntho-selectives"
who rule Earth turn to the Primitives, who are true humans, to defend
against an alien invasion. [SH]

(1951- ) US writer who began to publish after attending his first CLARION
SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' WORKSHOP in 1974. With "Dea Ex Machina" for Gal
in 1975, the first of about 40 tales to 1992, he began very quickly to
establish himself as an author whose work contained, within a sometimes
sober demeanour, considerable pyrotechnical charge. In the selfconscious
1980s controversy between CYBERPUNK and "Humanist" modes of sf discourse,
he was located with the latter, but like most "Humanists" he has disavowed
the distinction - and indeed published a story, "Solstice" (1985), in
Bruce STERLING's Mirrorshades (anth 1986). Some of his short work is
collected in Heroines (coll 1990). He is perhaps best known for Freedom
Beach (fixup 1985) with John KESSEL - an author with whom he has also
collaborated on separate stories. In the book several characters find
themselves in an interzone in which "reality" and dreamwork wed surreally,
and must make sense of their surroundings. The control they exercise can
be seen as allegorical of the creative act.Of greater interest are JPK's
solo novels, Planet of Whispers (1984) and Look into the Sun (1989), which
start the open-ended Messengers Chronicles. Whatever message is carried by
the various species who link the Galaxy into a communications network has
not been revealed so far. The first tale, set on the planet Aseneshesh,
explores in voluminous detail the native race of near-immortal bearlike
beings whose mental workings are derived from the attractive hypotheses
developed by Julian Jaynes in The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown
of the Bicameral Mind (1976). In Jaynes's book, and in JPK's novel,
pre-conscious sentients - i.e., preliterate humans, including Homer -
"hear" right-brain "whispers" which they understand to be the voices of
the gods, and in this fashion hallucinate normative diktats which shape
their culture. No humans appear in the novel. In the second volume, set
partly on a depleted Earth, a young architect is recruited by Messengers
to travel to Aseneshesh, being engineered en route into the semblance of
an Asenesheshian, with a computer-implant substituting for the right-brain
voice of God. Aseneshesh is vividly depicted in the two books, in a
PLANETARY-ROMANCE style reminiscent at times of Jack VANCE; but the
plotting has a slow rigour typical of all JPK's work, an incremental power
which transcends the FIXUP structure of Wildlife (1991 IASFM as "Mr. Boy";
fixup 1994), a complex and - at points - singularly cruel analysis of the
relationship between a child artificially re-engineered each time he nears
puberty and his extraordinary mother. JPK stands at the verge of
recognition as a major writer. [JC]See also: CHILDREN IN SF; GODS AND

(1935- ) Extremely prolific US poet; a professor of English. His novel
The Scorpions (1967) has been read as sf because of its baroque rendering
of a psychiatrist's conviction that a rich patient does in fact have
contact with the Scorpions, a race of ultraviolet people. However, like
Cities (1971 chap), the book is more plausibly viewed as a FABULATION,
depicting US life after the fashion of Harry Mathews (1930- ) and Thomas
PYNCHON. In the 1980s RK began to publish short fiction in the same vein,
collected in A Transparent Tree: Fictions (coll 1985). [JC]

(1848-1916) UK writer in whose Doctor Baxter's Invention (1912) it proves
possible to transfer insanity and homicidal behaviour from one person to
another via blood transfusions. [JC]


An associate of William L. HAMLING (whom see for details) and recipient
of a 1961 fan-writing HUGO. [JC]



Pseudonym of UK writer Margaret Maud Brash (1880-? ), author of Unborn
Tomorrow (1933), a futuristic DYSTOPIA describing dehumanization,
regimentation and subsequent revolution in the UK under communism. [JE]See

[r] Andrew LANG.

(1935- ) Australian writer best known for Bring Larks and Heroes (1967
UK) and for Schindler's Ark (1982 UK), vtSchindler's Listwhich won the
Booker Prize, but who has several times edged into generic displacements
to contain a remarkably intense and occasionally visionary imagination.
His first novel, The Place at Whitton (1964 UK), is horror. Blood Red,
Sister Rose (1974 UK) is an historical fantasy. Victim of the Aurora
(1977), which can be read as a detection, feels like sf in that it depicts
Antarctica exactly as an sf writer might depict an alien planet. Ned Kelly
and the City of the Bees (1978 UK) is juvenile sf. The eponymous human
foetus in Passenger (1979 UK) has been transformed by laser-scan into a
conscious and articulate being. [JC]

Pseudonym of Scottish writer James Ewing Peebles (1928-1968), best known
for such works outside the sf field as Tunes of Glory (1956). His
borderline sf novel is The Mind Benders * (1963), which applies MAINSTREAM
tactics to a story about brainwashing and the psychological consequences
of overexposure to experimental conditions of sensory deprivation. The
book was written from his script for the 1963 film of the same name.

Working name of US writer Patricia Kennealy-Morrison (1946- ), "married"
to rock singer Jim Morrison (1943-1971); she appeared in a cameo role in
Oliver Stone's film The Doors (1991). Her sf oscillates - in a manner
common to much 1980s work - between fantasy and sf, in the end seeming
more the former than the latter. However, her Keltiad sequence - The
Copper Crown (1985), The Throne of Scone (1986) and The Silver Branch
(1988) - is set in space, being an expansive SPACE-OPERA reworking of the
Arthurian Cycle. A second sequence, the Tales of Arthur, beginning with
The Hawk's Gray Feather (1990) and The Oak Above the Rings (1994) as by
Patricia Kennealy-Morrison, is set 1000 or so years before the first; the
tale is set on a single world and a PLANETARY-ROMANCE idiom dominates, so
it is hard to read the book as sf. The marriage of modes, however, remains
of genuine potential interest. [JC]

Patricia KENNEALY.


(1951- ) US writer, in the UK since 1985; married to Christopher PRIEST
from 1988. Her sf stories, beginning with "Salamander" for ASF in 1977,
combine generic sharpness of address and a "literary" density. "Her Furry
Face" (1983), perhaps her best-known single work, exemplifies this duality
of effect in a striking presentation of love between species, human and
primate ( APES AND CAVEMEN); it was assembled, with very various
companions, in Faces (coll 1986). The Journal of Nicholas the American
(1986) depicts with alarming exactitude the anguish of paranormal empathy
( ESP), which drives the young man who inherits the gift almost to
insanity. [JC]Other work: Saint Hiroshima (1987), associational.

(? -? ) UK metaphysical writer whose curious sf work, written as by "The
Author of Space and Spirit" is The Triuneverse: A Scientific Romance
(1912). Set in the future, after the destruction of Mars and other events,
it has only a thin narrative, being mainly taken up with cosmological
speculations about the fabric of the Universe. [JC]See also: COSMOLOGY;

House name used on 4 routine sf adventures published by CURTIS WARREN, 3
by Dennis HUGHES and Out of the Silent Places (1952) by Maurice G(aspard)
Hugi (1904-1947). [JC]

Pseudonym used on the Pete Manx series in Thrilling Wonder Stories
(1939-44), individually by Arthur K. BARNES (4 stories) and Henry KUTTNER
(6 stories), and on the 2 they wrote in collaboration: "Roman Holiday"
(1939) and "Science is Golden" (1940). [PN]

[s] Robert A.W. LOWNDES.

Kenneth BULMER.


(1908- ) UK author, mostly of nonfiction studies and memoirs. Summervale
(1935) is a tale in which a man is transformed into a dog. The framing
narrative of The Story of the Poor Author (coll of linked stories 1959) is
sf; it involves SPACESHIPS. [JC]

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

(1571-1630) German astronomer, one-time assistant to Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) and later imperial mathematician and astrologer to the Holy
Roman Emperor Rudolph II. JK's contribution to ASTRONOMY - most notably
his 3 laws of planetary motion - provided vital groundwork for Newton's
cosmological synthesis. In 1593 JK prepared a dissertation on the
heliocentric theory, which explained how events in the heavens would be
seen by an observer stationed on the MOON; a new draft, in which the
observer is conveniently placed on the Moon by a demon conjured up by his
mother, was prepared in 1609 (the manuscript was stolen in 1611 and JK
later had to defend his own mother against an accusation of witchcraft, a
charge which may have been encouraged by the literary device). Between
1620 and 1630 he annotated the essay extensively, but he died while it was
being prepared for publication; it finally appeared as Somnium (1634 in
Latin; definitive trans in Kepler's "Somnium" by Edward Rosen 1967; a cut
trans had earlier appeared in Beyond Time and Space, anth 1950 ed August
W. DERLETH). The last section constructs a hypothetical ECOLOGY for the
Moon, a significant pioneering exercise in the imagination of LIFE ON

(1909- ) South African-born writer, in Canada from 1959, whose When Smuts
Goes: A History of South Africa from 1952 to 2010 (1947) takes a gloomy
view of the apartheid-ridden future of that country. It is a respectable -
though minor - contribution to the future- HISTORY genre. [JC]See also:


(1944- ) US writer, best known for her substantial contributions to
modern fantasy (see Other Works below); she became of interest as an
author of sf with Polar City Blues (1990), which is set on a desert world
populated by a wide ethnic mix of humans, and boxed in by 2 conflicting
interstellar empires. The main characters, good and ill, have PSI POWERS,
which allies the tale with KK's shaman-dominated fantasies; but there is a
genuine hard-edged sf-like feel, and consequentiality, to the novel.
Resurrection (1992) is a novella set in a NEAR-FUTURE (or perhaps
ALTERNATE WORLD) San Francisco, where a brain-damaged protagonist, after
suffering lengthy rehabilitation after a near-fatal crash, must sort out
her distressed perception that something is profoundly awry. The tale is
due to appear as well in Freeze Frames (coll of linked stories, dated 1994
but 1995). [JC]Other Works: the Kingdom of Deverry sequence, comprising
Daggerspell (1986; rev 1993), Darkspell (1987; rev 1994), The Bristling
Wood (1989; vt Dawnspell: The Bristling Wood 1989 UK) and The Dragon
Revenant (1990; vt Dragonspell: The Southern Sea 1990 UK); and the
connectedWestlands Cycle,comprising A Time of Exile(1991), A Time of Omens
(1992UK),A Time of War: Days of Blood and Fire(1993 UK; vt Days of Blood
and Fire: A Novel of theWestlands 1993 US) and A Time of Justice: Days of
Airand Darkness (1994 UK; vt Days of Air andDarkness 1994 US); Weird Tales
from Shakespeare(anth 1994) with Martin H. GREENBERG.


(1911-1968) UK writer-born in the county of Middlesex, despite stories
that he was born in Russia-active from the mid-1930s, very prolific in
shorter forms; known mainly for such work outside the sf field as Night
and the City (1938) and They Die with their Boots Clean (1941). Many of
his numerous short stories are sf or fantasy, and had their original book
appearance in collections such as The Horrible Dummy and Other Stories
(coll 1944), The Battle of the Singing Men (coll 1944 chap),Neither Man
nor Dog (coll 1946), Sad Road to the Sea (coll 1947), The Brighton Monster
(coll 1953), Men without Bones (coll 1955 UK; with differing contents, rev
1962 US), The Ugly Face of Love (coll 1960), The Terribly Wild Flowers
(coll 1962) and The Hospitality of Miss Tolliver (coll 1965). Two US
compilations, On an Odd Note (coll 1958 US) and Nightshade and Damnations
(coll 1968 US), the latter ed Harlan ELLISON, conveniently abstract some
of GK's fantasies and sf from his other short stories, which often take
the shape of anecdotes told to a narrator (sometimes identified as GK
himself), so that much of his work tends to verge upon the tall-tale or
CLUB-STORY genre; The Best of Gerald Kersh (coll 1960) is more general. In
"Whatever Happened to Corporal Cuckoo?" (1953) the corporal tells GK of
his 500 years of soldier life following a mysterious cure given to him
about 1537 ( IMMORTALITY). "Voices in the Dust of Annan" (1947) is a post-
HOLOCAUST tale starring fairies. In "Men without Bones" a tropical
explorer tells us of a species of loathsome invertebrates, adding the
hypothesis that we are really Martians.GK's novels are perhaps less
impressive. The Weak and the Strong (1945) grotesquely carries its cast -
trapped underground - into claustrophobic fantasy realms, and An Ape, a
Dog, and a Serpent: A Fantastic Novel (1945) fabulates a history of
film-making with borderline sf elements. The Great Wash (1953; vt The
Secret Masters 1953 US) is an sf novel in which the usual narrator - GK -
becomes gradually involved in a plot to inundate most of the world and to
rule the remains on authoritarian lines. The subplot of Brock (1969)
revolves around a new form of nuclear explosive. But GK's strengths as an
author are everywhere evident: a strong and vivid sense of character, a
colourful style and a capacity to infuse his stories with a deep emotional
charge (sometimes sentimentalized). He has strong admirers. [JC]See also:

(1923- ) US doctor of medicine and writer whose sf novel, with Jacob HAY
(whom see for details), is Autopsy for a Cosmonaut (1969; vt Death of a
Cosmonaut 1970 UK). [JC]

(1950- ) US academic and writer who began publishing sf with "The Silver
Man" for Galileo in 1978, and whose short fiction rapidly established him
as an author of cunningly pastiche-heavy, erudite stories. His two best
known early tales - both assembled with other work in Meeting in Infinity:
Allegories & Extrapolations (coll 1992) - are probably "Not Responsible!
Park and Lock It!" (1981) and Another Orphan (1982 FSF; 1989 chap dos),
which won a NEBULA in 1982; in both, an urgent extremism of metaphor tends
to enforce allegorical readings. This extremism with the materials of
genre sf also dominates much of JK's first novel, Freedom Beach (1985)
with James Patrick KELLY, a tale whose characters find themselves
occupying allegorical venues construed according to the styles of various
authors, from Aristophanes to Groucho Marx. Of greater interest, perhaps,
is his first solo novel, GOOD NEWS FROM OUTER SPACE (fixup 1989), a
sustained but dizzying look at the human animal as the millennium
approaches, identity crises eat into men and women, the dead are medically
reawoken, and dreams of redeeming ALIENS raddle the large cast. There are
echoes of Philip K. DICK, but a gonzo Dick, and of Barry N. MALZBERG's
allegorized urban desolation (and black wit) - but JK's desolation, very
frighteningly and very movingly, is populous with human faces, however
fractured. JK seems to be one of the writers capable of bending the tools
of sf inward upon the human psyche. [JC]See also: END OF THE WORLD; The

Pseudonym of UK teacher and writer Geoffrey Robins Corsher (1911- ), some
of whose stories for children have been published under his own name. Of
sf interest is The Pale Invaders (1974), a post- HOLOCAUST tale set in the
FAR FUTURE and describing the impact upon an isolated valley culture of
the discovery of technologies which reveal much hitherto hidden history.
The Awakening Water (1977) has less impact. [JC]

(1942- ) UK-born Canadian academic (with a DPhil from the University of
Sussex) based at Concordia University, Montreal. His New Worlds for Old:
The Apocalyptic Imagination, Science Fiction, and American Literature
(1974) interestingly, though in rather academic terminology, links
apocalyptic themes in US MAINSTREAM literature with similar obsessions in
genre sf. The Rationale of Deception in Poe (1979) covers the whole of
Edgar Allan POE's writing, including the PROTO SCIENCE FICTION; a briefer
work on Poe is Edgar Allan Poe: Life, Work, and Criticism (chap 1989).
Frankenstein's Creation: The Book, the Monster, and Human Reality (1979)
is another of DK's later works which, to a degree, enlarge on the thesis
of his first. DK's critical work is widely respected and by no means
"one-note", but it does often return to the idea of "metaphorical
transcendence". The Science Fiction of Mark Twain (coll 1984) ed DK
contains 120pp of Introduction and critical apparatus. DK attracted much
attention with Imprisoned in a Tesseract: The Life and Work of James Blish
(1987). Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy (1992US) is an important
critical and historical survey of both English and French Canadian sf
literature, and includes a bibliography. [PN]See also: CANADA; CRITICAL

[r] John BROSNAN.

(1934- ) UK writer, author of a historical novel, Memorial to the Duchess
(1968) as by Jocelyn Kettle, and of the sf novel The Day of the Women
(1969), in which sex-role reversal is instituted - and deplored. [JC]

(1904-1979) US writer who began publishing novels for children with The
Red Eagle (1930), and who moved into CHILDREN'S SF with the Sprockets
sequence: Sprockets: A Little Robot (1963), Rivets and Sprockets (1964)
and Bolts - A Robot Dog (1966). These books were not likely, however, to
seize a wide audience, and it was only with the Witch Mountain sequence -
Escape to Witch Mountain (1968) and Return from Witch Mountain * (1978) -
that AK's easy sentimentality was attached to a narrative strong enough to
bear it, as two orphan children on the run gradually come to realize that
they are in fact ALIENS with powers (and memories) foreign to their
ignorant hosts. Both stories were filmed by Walt Disney, in 1975 and 1978
respectively, both dir John Hough. An earlier alien orphaned on Earth had
featured in The Forgotten Door (1965). Other singletons of interest
include The Golden Enemy (1969), set thousands of years hence when the
descendants of the survivors of nuclear HOLOCAUST must face their human
nature, and Flight to the Lonesome Place (1971), where a young
mathematical genius flees his oppressors into a space to which only he can
understand the route. [JC]Other works: The Incredible Tide (1970); The
Preposterous Adventures of Swimmer (1973); The Magic Meadow (1975);
Jagger, the Dog from Elsewhere (1976); The Sword of Aradel (1977); The
Case of the Vanishing Boy (1979).See also: SMALL PRESSES AND LIMITED

(1907-1976) US author whose sf collection, Mars Mountain (coll 1936),
published by William L. CRAWFORD's semi-professional company Fantasy
Publications, was the first full-length book to appear from any US
publishing house specializing in sf, and so the precursor of great things
to come. Otherwise the 3 stories assembled are unremarkable. [JC]

(1927- ) US writer and university lecturer in English. He began his sf
career as associate editor of MARVEL SCIENCE FICTION, Feb-Nov 1951, and it
was in that magazine that his first published story, "Precedent" appeared
(1952). He is known mainly for one excellent novel, FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON
(1959 FSF; exp 1966), winner of a 1960 HUGO in its magazine form and of a
1966 NEBULA for the full-length book version, on which was based the film
CHARLY (1968). It is the story, largely in the first person, of Charlie
Gordon, whose INTELLIGENCE, starting at IQ 68, is artificially increased
to genius level ( MEDICINE; SUPERMAN). The mouse Algernon has preceded him
in this course, but Algernon soon dies, and Gordon's main contribution to
science is his working out of the "Algernon-Gordon Effect", by which
"artificially induced intelligence deteriorates at a rate of time directly
proportional to the quantity of the increase". The last pages of the
novel, detailing the loss of Charlie's faculties, are extremely moving.
His treatment as an object of scientific curiosity throughout his ordeal
underlines the book's points about deficiencies in the scientific method
as applied to human beings. The Touch (1968; vt The Contaminated Man 1977
UK), a borderline-sf tale about the psychological consequences of an
industrial accident involving radioactive contamination, has received less
attention. After a long silence in the sf field, a new novel from DK was
projected for the early 1990s. [JC]See also: ALIENS; CINEMA; CONCEPTUAL

(1943- ) UK writer whose sf novels, The Battle of Disneyland (1974) and
The Second Coming (1979), apply the tools of sf SATIRE, without excessive
energy, to a NEAR-FUTURE USA. [JC]





(1921- ) US literary agent and writer, married to James BLISH 1947-63,
who began to publish professionally in the early 1950s, writing at least 1
story with Blish; her first solo sf story, "Kangaroo Court", did not
appear until much later, in Orbit 1 (anth 1966) ed Damon KNIGHT. She
edited 3 strong ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES: Millennial Women (anth 1978; vt The
Eye of the Heron, and Other Stories 1980 UK), Interfaces (anth 1980) with
Ursula K. LE GUIN, and Edges (anth 1980), also with Le Guin. As a literary
agent from 1965, she became known for her FEMINIST views and - although
she did not handle only WOMEN WRITERS - for representing a highly capable
range of feminist authors, including Carol EMSHWILLER, Le Guin, Josephine

(1941- ) US-born writer, in Canada from 1967, who began publishing sf
with The Empire of Time (1978 US), the first volume of the Chronoplane
Wars sequence. This sequence - which continued with The Fall of the
Republic (1987 US) and Rogue Emperor: A Novel of the Chronoplane Wars
(1988 US) - is dominated by the discovery in a savagely declining
NEAR-FUTURE USA of the I-Screens, through which travel to a series of
ALTERNATE WORLDS is possible. Each Earth is located uptime or downtime of
our base reality but, ominously, uptime is uninhabitable, seemingly
because of the effects of an alien INVASION; the protagonist gradually
uncovers a seamy truth. Perhaps more interestingly, Icequake (1979) and
its sequel Tsunami (1983) - the latter set in Vancouver - depict an Earth
very much closer to home, with the ozone layer gone and the Antarctic
icecap beginning to melt disastrously. Eyas (1982) moves into the very FAR
FUTURE, where the eponymous primitive gingers his tribe into readiness for
the dawn of a new age. Brother Jonathan (1985 US) describes the effect of
experiments which permit human-animal interfaces, these soon being invaded
by AIs in typical CYBERPUNK fashion. Lifter (1986 US) is a fairly
unserious tale about ANTIGRAVITY and Gryphon (1989 US) somewhat
unadventurously deals with an alien invasion. CK's work can be analysed in
terms of its Canadianness, its emphasis on themes of survival ( CANADA);
but he slips too often into generic dogpaddling for this kind of analysis
to be entirely fruitful. [JC]Other works: Wonders, Inc. (1968), a
juvenile; Greenmagic (1992), a fantasy.

Made-for-tv film (1974). Universal TV/ABC. Dir Jerry London, starring
Clint Walker, Carl Betz, Neville Brand. Teleplay Richard Mackillop,
Theodore STURGEON, based on Sturgeon's "Killdozer" (1944). 74 mins.
Colour.Though derived from Sturgeon's own well known story about a huge
bulldozer that becomes possessed by a seemingly ALIEN force - actually a
semi-intelligent entity fabricated, aeons earlier, by a pre-human
terrestrial civilization - this tv movie does not live up to its
potential. The story is a tightly constructed description of the battle
between the machine and a group of men on a Pacific island; the film pads
this material out with cliched emotional conflicts between the human
characters. [JB]

(1942- ) US writer and Chief Technologist at the Department of Radiology,
Kansas State University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital. She began
publishing sf with "Caveat Emptor" for ASF in 1970, and since then has
published about 30 stories, perhaps most notably the tales assembled as
Aventine (coll of linked stories 1982), set in an artist's colony in a
decadent future whose resemblance to that depicted in J.G. BALLARD's
Vermilion Sands (1971 US) led some critics to brand it as merely
derivative, though others accepted it as a homage. Her first novel, A
Voice out of Ramah (1979) - set on a planet where 90 per cent of males are
ritually slaughtered at puberty - is typical of much of her work in its
plumping for unexceptionable presentations of various issues ( FEMINISM in
this case) while at the same time tending to stumble over the generic
working-out of those presentations. The Doppelganger Gambit (1979) and its
sequels, Spider Play (1986) and Dragon's Teeth (1990), are police
procedurals starring Janna Brill and Mama Maxwell and set in a USA that
must be wary of COMPUTERS; and Blood Hunt (1987) and its sequel Bloodlinks
(1988) are police-procedural fantasies dealing with a cop's confrontation
of the fact that he has become a vampire. In both series there is a
recurring sense that unexamined plots have tended to dominate proceedings.
LK's singletons are various. The Monitor, the Miners, and the Shree (1980)
amiably deals with the issue of human exploitation of alien planets.
Deadly Silents (1981) again involves the police, though this time on
another world. The Leopard's Daughter (1987) is a vibrant fantasy set in
Africa. [JC]Other work: Liberty's World (1985).See also: ARTS; CRIME AND


(1941- ) UK writer who began to publish sf and fantasy stories and novels
in the mid-1970s on retiring after 18 years' service as a cryptographer in
the RAF; raised partly in Aden, he has travelled and worked in the Far
East and the Pacific. He published his first sf story, "Let's Go to
Golgotha"with the Sunday Times Weekly Review in 1974, having won the
associated competition, and some of his many stories have been assembled
as The Songbirds of Pain (coll 1984), In the Country of Tattooed Men (coll
1993) and Hogfoot Right and Bird-Hands (coll 1993 US). He has written
novels as Garry Douglas. His first sf novel, In Solitary (1977), is set on
an Earth whose few remaining humans have for over 400 years been dominated
by birdlike ALIENS, and deals with a human rebellion whose moral impact is
ambiguous; the novel is the first of several combining generic
adventurousness-indeed opportunism, for GK seldom accords his full
attention to the raw sf elements in his tales - and an identifiably
English dubiety about the roots of human action. Consequences of such
action in a GK novel are seldom simple, rarely flattering. The Night of
Kadar (1978) places humans whose culture has an Islamic coloration, and
who are hatched from frozen embryos on an alien planet where they must
attempt to understand their own nature. Split Second (1979) similarly
isolates a contemporary human in the mind of a Cro-Magnon. Gemini God
(1981) again uses aliens to reflect the human condition. A Theatre of
Timesmiths (1984) isolates a human society in an ice-enclosed city (
POCKET UNIVERSE) as computers fail and questions about the meaning of
human life must be asked. Cloudrock (1988) pits brothers - GK often evokes
kinship intimacies - against themselves and each other in a further
pocket-universe setting. Abandonati (1988), set in a desolate NEAR-FUTURE
London, reflects grittily upon the implications for the UK of the last
decades of this century. GK's non-genre novels (see listing below) follow
the same pattern; of them, Witchwater Country (1986), among his finest
works, has autobiographical elements. At the end of the 1980s, in an
apparent break with his sf career, he began to publish animal fantasies:
Hunter's Moon: A Story of Foxes (1989; vt The Foxes of First Dark 1990
US), Midnight's Sun: A Story of Wolves (1990) and Frost Dancers: A Story
of Hares (1992), in all of which he scrutinized nonhuman terrestrial life
with an unblinking eye. He has also moved into contemporary HORROR with
Angel (1993) and its sequel, Archangel (1994). Much of his short fiction
is uneven; but in his novels GK has developed into an observer whose
reports are both subtle and frank. [JC]Other works: Spiral Winds (1987),
In the Hollow of the Deep-Sea Wave: A Novel and Seven Stories (coll 1989)
and Standing on Shamsan (1992), all containing some fantasy elements; a
juvenile series comprising The Wizard of Woodworld (1987) and The Voyage
of the Vigilance (1988); Trivial Tales (coll 1988 chap); The Rain Ghost
(1989), Dark Hills, Hollow Clocks: Stories from the Otherworld (coll
1990), The Drowners (1991), a ghost story, The Third Dragon (1991),
associational, Billy Pink's Private Detective Agency (1993), The Electric
Kid (1993) and The Phantom Piper (1994), all juveniles.As Garry Douglas:
Highlander * (1986), a film novelization; The Street (1988), horror.See

(1937- ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with "The
Prince and the Physician" for Medical Opinion & Review in 1969, and who
has been moderately productive in short forms ever since. She has written
young-adult adventure novels under the house name Dayle Courtney and a
Gothic, Secret of the Abbey (1980) as by Alix Andre. Her sf novel is Flyer
(1975), a meditative tale of an Earth occupied by MUTANTS who fly and
swim. Dracula Began (1976) is horror. [JC]

(1956- ) US writer whose work of sf interest - though she has published
some fantasy stories - is restricted to the Nuala sequence: Fire Sanctuary
(1986), Fires of Nuala (1988) and Hidden Fires (1991). Threatened by
mutations (caused by high radioactivity in the planetary crust) and by
intergalactic war, the inhabitants of the eponymous long-lost colony
planet must cope with intrigues, spies, dynastic disputes and an extremely
harsh climate. The plots are sometimes congested, but KEK's sense of local
colour and her capacity to create genuinely engaging characters have made
the sequence into something more than routine. [JC]


Ernest L. MCKEAG.

(1948- ) UK writer whose Bruno Lipshitz and the Disciples of Dogma (1976)
rather uneasily juggles a number of ingredients in a complex plot: an
ALIEN invasion, a strange RELIGION, interpersonal conflicts and dollops of
adventure. [JC]


(1947- ) US writer of HORROR fiction. With over 80 million books in print
already-his first book was published less than 20 years ago-he is probably
the most successful bestseller novelist in history; the example of his
success has revolutionized the horror-fiction business, which is
considerably more flourishing in 1990 than it was in 1975.At first he was
attracted to sf, beginning with the unpublished novel The Aftermath
(written when he was 16) and, commercially, with "The Glass Floor" for
Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. Night Shift (coll 1978) collects much
of his early short fiction, his main market then being Cavalier; it
includes some grisly sf in the pulp style. He was perhaps diverted from a
conventional sf career by the response of Donald A. WOLLHEIM to his first
novel submission: "We here at Ace Books are not interested in negative
Utopias."SK has since concentrated on horror/fantasy with occasional sf
grounding, as exemplified by the focus on PSI POWERS, notably TELEKINESIS,
in his first published novel, Carrie (1974), successfully filmed as CARRIE
(1976). Other paranormal talents feature in The Dead Zone (1979)
(precognition) and Firestarter (1980) (pyrokinesis), both also filmed (
The DEAD ZONE and FIRESTARTER). While SK does not have the analytical
approach of the HARD-SF writer, and is not especially interested in
"explanations" of his GOTHIC creations, he has a down-to-earth quality
which gives even his purely supernatural fiction a true sf "feel"; he
eschews the nebulous; he describes and specifies with some exactness.Under
his own name SK has written two further novels which are sf by any measure
(though both incorporate elements from other genres). The earlier and
better is THE STAND (abridged from manuscript 1978; with text largely
restored, rev 1990 UK), a long and intelligent story of the HOLOCAUST AND
AFTER in the USA, beginning with the accidental release of a germ-warfare
virus by the US military; in the second half of the book a supernatural
struggle between powers of light and darkness weakens the impact from an
sf point of view, but the novel remains a very superior example of its
genre, clearly owing something to George R. STEWART's EARTH ABIDES (1949),
but not imitative of it. THE STAND (1994) is an unusually strong tv
miniseries that deals well with this long and complex story. The
Tommyknockers (1987) is gothic horror dressed in sf clothes, a lurid,
eminently readable tale of an alien SPACESHIP buried for millions of years
and now dug up, and of the effects it has on people nearby: sudden
technological brilliance, physiological changes and a melding into a group
mind. A four-hour ABC tv miniseries dramatization, also called The
Tommyknockers, was broadcast in May 1993, and is available on
videotape.The Talisman (1984), with Peter Straub, is an uneasy
collaboration in which two very strong individual voices seem to muffle
one another; primarily a fantasy quest, it uses the sf device of PARALLEL
WORLDS, as does the ongoing Dark Tower fantasy series by SK alone: to date
The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger (1982), #2: The Drawing of the Three (1987)
and #3: The Waste Lands (1991); different in tone from most of SK's work -
and perhaps more demandingly inventive than usual - these have an
undeniable mythic charge, partly because of the alienated-adolescent theme
that runs through them. As the series continues, and especially in the
third volume, it has looked more like sf and less like pure FANTASY, both
in its post-holocaust imagery and in its use of a self-aware AI as a major
threat to the protagonists.SK wrote four early novels (the first three
before Carrie came out) subsequently published as paperback originals as
by Richard Bachman: Rage (1977), The Long Walk (1979), Roadwork (1981),
and The Running Man (1982). Shortly after the publication of a fifth,
Thinner (1984), Bachman's cover was blown, and an omnibus edition of the
first four out-of-print Bachman titles was published as The Bachman Books:
Four Early Novels by Stephen King (omni 1985; vt The Bachman Books: Four
Novels by Stephen King UK). The Long Walk and The Running Man are both
fringe sf about futuristic sadistic sports events, the first a marathon
walk where those who fall behind are shot, the second duelling to the
death as a tv game show; the latter was filmed as The RUNNING MAN
(1987).It is generally held that most films based on SK's novels, stories
and original screenplays are poor. In fact Carrie, The Shining (1980), The
Dead Zone (1983), Cujo (1983), Stand By Me (1986) and Misery (1990) are
all strong films, although SK dislikes the second. The Shawshank
Redemption (1994), neither sf nor horror, is a fine prison buddy movie
based on a novella from Different Seasons. Fantasy/horror films aside from
those already mentioned are Salem's Lot (tv miniseries 1979), Creepshow
(1982), Christine (1983), Cat's Eye (1984), Children of the Corn (1984),
Silver Bullet (1985), Creepshow II (1987), Pet Sematary (1989), Graveyard
Shift (1990) and It (tv miniseries 1990). Return to Salem's Lot (1987) dir
Larry COHEN is "based on characters created by Stephen King". Tales from
the Darkside: The Movie (1990), an anthology film based on the tv series
of the same name, contains an adaptation of SK's "The Cat from Hell"
(1977). The eight-hour tv anthology miniseriesThe Golden Years of Stephen
King(1991) was a ratings flop, and was re-released on videotape in 1992
with a new ending and cut to 236 mins.The Dark Half (1991 but released
1993 because of Orion Pictures' financial problems), dir George ROMERO, is
a valiant attempt to dramatize a not wholly satisfactory original. SK
rightly repudiated the sf film The LAWNMOWER MAN (1992), allegedly based
on a short story by him, as having nothing to do with his work, and won a
lawsuit demanding that his name be removed from the credits. He wrote an
original screenplay for the uneven vampire film Sleepwalkers (1992; vt
Stephen King's Sleepwalkers). Children of the Corn II: The Final
Sacrifice(1992) is a sequel to a film based on an SK story, but otherwise
has no connection with him. Stephen King's "Sometimes They Come Back"
(1993) is a 97-min tv movie adaptation dir Tim McLoughlin. Needful Things
(1994), 120 mins, dir Fraser C. Heston is less satisfyingly apocalyptic
than the original novel.One film adaptation of a story by SK - "Trucks"
(1973) - was directed by King himself from his own screenplay: Maximum
Overdrive (1986). Though not as bad as some critics stated, it flopped
commercially. Technically sf, it has Earth passing through the tail of a
comet that mysteriously gives self-awareness to MACHINES (trucks,
lawnmowers, hairdryers, electric carving knives, etc.), which then revolt
against humans. This paranoid fantasy is crudely made with very broad
stereotypes, but at least one sequence, of a boy cycling through a quiet
township littered with bodies, suggests latent cinematic talent.SK's
occasional critical commentaries, the reverse of academic in style, are
usually observant and interesting. Danse Macabre (1981), a study of horror
in books, films and comics, won a HUGO for Best Nonfiction Book in
1982.SK's pungent prose, his sharp ear for dialogue, his disarmingly
laid-back, frank style, along with his passionately fierce denunciations
of human stupidity and cruelty (especially to CHILDREN), put him among the
more distinguished of "popular" writers. [PN]Other works: 'Salem's Lot
(1975); The Shining (1977); The Monkey (1980 chap); Cujo (1981); The Raft
(1982 chap); The Plant (1982 chap); Creepshow (coll 1982); Different
Seasons (coll 1982); Pet Sematary (1983), one of SK's finest works;
Christine (1983; text differs slightly in UK edition); Cycle of the
Werewolf (1983; exp as coll with film screenplay "Silver Bullet" 1985);
The Eyes of the Dragon (1984; rev 1987); Skeleton Crew (coll 1985; exp by
1 story 1985); It (1986; the 1st edn was the German translation as Es
[1986]); Misery (1987); My Pretty Pony (1988 chap); Dolan's Cadillac (1989
chap); The Dark Half (1989 UK); Four Past Midnight (coll 1990); Needful
Things (1991); Gerald's Game (1992); Nightmares and Dreamscapes (coll
1993); Insomnia (1994).Nonfiction includes: Nightmares in the Sky (1988),
a book of photographs by "F-Stop Fitzgerald" with minimal contribution by
SK; Bare Bones: Conversations on Terror with Stephen King (coll 1988);
Feast of Fear: Conversations with Stephen King (coll 1989).About the
author: Fear Itself: The Horror Fiction of Stephen King (coll 1982) ed Tim
UNDERWOOD and Chuck MILLER; Stephen King: The Art of Darkness (1984; rev
1986) by Douglas E. Winter; The Stephen King Companion (coll 1989) ed
George Beahm; many others, including at least 10 from STARMONT HOUSE.See

(1948- ) US archaeologist and writer, married to Paula E. DOWNING. He
began publishing sf with his first novel, Retread Shop (1988), a somewhat
congested but pleasingly vivid tale of the upbringing of a young human in
the SPACE HABITAT of the title, and of his complicated dealings with alien
merchants and crises of various sorts. The energy of the telling
constitutes a forecast of much further work. [JC]

Pseudonym of UK writer, artist and teacher Rex Thomas Vinson (1935- ),
who worked in Cornwall and began publishing sf with "Defence Mechanism"
for New Writings in SF No 9 (anth 1966) ed E.J. CARNELL. His more
successful novels, like Light a Last Candle (1969 US) and Candy Man (1971
US), tend to combine elements of epic and grotesque sf adventure with a
characteristically English darkness of emotional colouring and a tendency
towards downbeat conclusions. [JC]Other works: Another End (1971 US); Time
Snake and Superclown (1976).

Film (1977). Arachnid Productions/Dimension. Dir John "Bud" Cardos,
starring William SHATNER, Tiffany Bolling, Woody Strode. Screenplay
Richard Robinson, Alan Caillou, from a story by Jeffrey M. Sneller,
Stephen Lodge. 95 mins, cut to 90 mins. Colour.In its modest way, this is
one of the better films in the revenge-of-Nature cycle ( MONSTER MOVIES).
Near a small town in Arizona, tarantulas whose ECOLOGY has undergone
changes because of crop-dusting sprays are migrating north in large
numbers and apparently acting with communal intelligence ( HIVE-MINDS).
Starting small and building to local apocalypse, the film is crisply made,
the masses of spiders (normal size) are believable, and the end, though
clearly echoing Hitchcock's The BIRDS (1963), offers a genuine minatory
thrill with its vision of a whole town cocooned in spider-silk, its
occupants now preserved as food. Shatner plays the vet trying to puzzle
out why the normally solitary spiders are acting in concert. [PN]

Working name of UK writer Louise (variously Luise) Olga Elisabeth
King-Hall (1897- ), whose Fly Envious Time (1944) posits a NEAR-FUTURE
world in which eugenics dominates and women have achieved full equality;
WWIII follows rather rapidly, in 1999. Her brother was Stephen KING-HALL.

(1893-1966) UK naval officer, writer and politician; brother of Lou
KING-HALL. His military experiences (1914-29) influenced his work as a
writer, especially the long series of admonitory newsletters he published
from 1936 for 30 years, first as the K-H News Service and later under
other names. Posterity (1927 chap), a play, is fantasy; it appears also in
Three Plays and a Plaything (coll 1933) along with "The Republican
Princess", a RURITANIAN spoof. In Post-War Pirate (1931) a submarine uses
a newly invented gas to disable shipping. Bunga-Bunga (1932) is a SATIRE
set on an ISLAND where anything is permitted. Number 10 Downing Street
(1948), a play which depicts an occupied UK, takes place in the mid-1950s.
His last novel, Men of Destiny (1960; vt Moment of No Return 1961 US), is
again set in the NEAR FUTURE. [JC]

1. Film (1933). RKO. Dir Merian C. Cooper, Ernest B. Schoedsack, starring
Fay Wray, Robert Armstrong, Bruce Cabot. Screenplay James A. Creelman,
Ruth Rose, from a story by Cooper, with credit also given to Edgar
WALLACE. Special effects designed and supervised by Willis H. O'BRIEN. 100
mins. B/w.The classic MONSTER MOVIE. On a remote island inhabited by
unfriendly natives and prehistoric MONSTERS, of which the most powerful is
a giant APE called Kong, a young actress (Wray) from a visiting film unit
is kidnapped by tribesmen and offered to Kong, a gift which he eagerly
accepts. She is rescued and Kong is captured and taken to New York, where
he is exhibited, escapes, rampages, recaptures the girl (for whom he
appears to cherish strong feelings), and makes a last defiant stand on top
of the Empire State Building before being machine-gunned down by a
squadron of biplanes.Although KK is an early film, its special effects are
still very convincing today, many being the product of the technique of
stop-motion photography that had been pioneered by O'Brien in The LOST
WORLD (1925). The classic status of KK, which has become one of the great
mythopoeic works of the 20th century, has probably to do with the
ambiguous feelings - much as with its fairy-tale model, "Beauty and the
Beast" - created by the film towards Kong himself: terror at his savagery;
admiration for his strength, naturalness and effortless regality in his
primeval surroundings; and pity for his squalid end - the most memorable
of all cinematic images of Nature destroyed in the city. This ending is
also an image of the great destroyed by the small: the humans are dwarfed
by the ape and indeed by the city they have created, a feeling emphasized
by the ambience of the Great Depression, with a bored, impoverished
populace ready to grasp at any ersatz marvel but panicking when it finds
itself faced with the real thing. Yet another polarity is that of
innocence destroyed by sophistication, a feeling enhanced by the crucial
story-element of Kong's capture being to do with the shooting of a movie.
The narrative moves with elan, and the film has been almost as popular
with critics as with the general public. There is a GRAPHIC NOVEL version
of the tale: King Kong: The Greatest Adventure Story of All Time * (graph
1970) illus Alberto Giolitti.The disappointing sequel was SON OF KONG
(1933). Another Willis O'Brien giant ape, not quite so big, starred in
MIGHTY JOE YOUNG (1949; vt Mr Joseph Young of Africa).2. Film (1976). Dino
De Laurentiis/Paramount. Dir John Guillermin, starring Jessica Lange, Jeff
Bridges, Charles Grodin, Ed Lauter. Screenplay Lorenzo Semple Jr, based on
the 1933 screenplay. 134 mins. Colour.In this lavish and heavily
publicized remake, it is an oil-company executive who leads the expedition
to Kong's island. Kong is taken back to the USA in an oil supertanker. His
last stand is on top of the World Trade Center, and he is shot dead by a
group of helicopter gunships.This version did not use model animation and
was therefore more restricted - and indeed more primitive - in its
effects: most shots of Kong show a man in an ape suit. The original
set-piece battles between Kong and prehistoric monsters are gone. The
vigorous narrative of the original is here slowed down by didactic,
moralizing scenes in a manner which suggests that the new Hollywood has a
much lower opinion of the intelligence of the public than the old one did.
The delicate balance of the original between pity and terror is here
shifted towards pity, and Kong is softened. Tragedy becomes at best
pathos, yet many scenes remain moving, and the startlingly vulgar heroine
(now feminist and tough, no longer a limp screamer) has a more interesting
role than her original. In a flurry of self-contradiction, KK seems
designed to be spoof, tragedy, nostalgia-epic, spectacle and allegory
about "the rape of the environment by big business" - all rolled into one.



(1929- ) US-born academic and writer, in Canada from 1948, a teacher of
mathematics at McGill University from 1956 until his retirement in 1986.
He began publishing sf with "Ghost Town" for ASF in 1952; although he
produced relatively little for nearly 30 years, his intermittent
appearances in ASF, with both fiction and nonfiction, were generally
noticed. What could not have been noted - because of the sparseness of his
production and the wide-ranging nature of his underlying construct - was
that almost everything he wrote shared a common future HISTORY, somewhere
into the middle of which his first novel, COURTSHIP RITE (1982 US; vt Geta
1984 UK), fitted smoothly; indeed, the polished sweep and exuberance of
this large epic PLANETARY ROMANCE must have owed something to DK's long
familiarity with its sustaining Universe. The planet Geta is a venue which
amply contains: several warring cultures for whom all aspects of life are
agonistic; complicated group marriages; an elaborate ethical and
ecological justification of cannibalism in a world of terrible scarcity (
ECOLOGY); and the highly productive worship of a God in the sky (in fact,
in a standby orbit, the starship that seeded the world) who rewards
worship by raining down computer chips full of precious data. The plot,
involving the forced courtship of a woman from another culture by members
of a group marriage, is perhaps less convincing than the background; but
the pace is sufficient to intrigue and to engage even those readers who
might be dubious about the Libertarian assumptions underlying certain
elements of the unrelenting agons of Geta.DK's second novel, The Moon
Goddess and the Son (1979 ASF; exp 1986), is set so early in his Future
History that the NEAR-FUTURE setting of certain parts of the tale seems
directly extrapolative of current thinking about space technologies. The
HARD-SF arguments, about the design and construction of space stations
capable of grappling space freighters into dock, are as gripping as this
sort of narrative can sometimes be; and later sections, featuring the
eponymous Diana a generation or so further on, adequately point a way
forward into romance. A third novel, "The Survivor", forms the bulk of
Man-Kzin Wars IV * (anth 1991) in the Larry NIVEN Man-Kzin Wars
SHARED-WORLD enterprise; it is bleak and exorbitant, and constitutes a
self-sufficient tale.DK is a writer whose energy is conspicuous, and whose
imagined Universe does not lack ambition. At the time of writing, further
connective tissue is still wanting, but can be hoped for. [JC]See also:


Working name of UK writer and anthologist Hugh Kingsmill Lunn
(1899-1949), who remains best known for An Anthology of Invective and
Abuse (anth 1929). The Dawn's Delay (coll 1924) contains "The End of the
World", of interest for its vision of a Solar System populated by various
species, and "W.J.", about a future WAR in 1966-72. The Return of William
Shakespeare (1929) presents within a sketchy sf frame the thoughts and
activities of a Shakespeare reconstituted in the 20th century ( ARTS;
REINCARNATION). In revised form both of these volumes were assembled as
The Dawn's Delay (omni 1948). With Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-1990), HK
wrote two SATIRES rendering NEAR-FUTURE doings in the form of newspaper
stories: Brave Old World: A Mirror for The Times (1936) and Next Year's
News (1938). A much-loved figure, HK appears in novels and reminiscences
of writers like William GERHARDI and Lance SIEVEKING. [JC]See also: END OF

1. Full name Jeremy Hervey Spencer Kingston (1931- ), UK writer, mostly
of plays. His novel, Love Among the Unicorns (1968), a surreal fantasy set
in South America, features a LOST WORLD.2. Pseudonym under which John
Gregory BETANCOURT wrote Robert Silverberg's Time Tours #6: Caesar's Time
Legion * (1991). [JC]

Edmund COOPER.

(1870-1929) UK writer in various genres whose The Fearsome Island (1896),
most of which takes the form of a recently discovered 16th-century
manuscript, describes its protagonist's experiences after being
shipwrecked on an unknown ISLAND full of alarms and delights - including a
huge mechanical man, an ominous castle which has many perilous marvels,
and a Caliban-like native. The maker of all this, it turns out, is a cruel
Spanish inventor who left his homeland long ago on a pre-Columbian
expedition to the Americas. Some of the stories in Within the Radius (coll
1901) are sf. [JC]

UK tv series (1981). London Weekend Television. Created and written by
Nigel KNEALE. Prod and dir Les Chatfield; starring Tony Haygarth, Patsy
Rowlands, Colin Jeavons, Prunella Gee. 7 25min episodes. Colour.This most
recent of Kneale's many sf plays and series for tv was a sitcom, fuelled
apparently by a certain animus against sf FANDOM, about two lunatic fans
living seedy urban lives, one of whom (Haygarth) has a fat wife (Rowlands)
and a fat dog, and is entranced by an ALIEN from Mercury (Gee) in the
guise of a beautiful customer at his electrical repair shop. He has
adventures with her (she wearing a variety of sexy catsuits) and helps
ward off an INVASION of Earth by the alien Xux. The scripts lacked the
precision required for decent farce, and the invasive canned laughter did
not help. Kneale's belief that sf fans are typologically identical with
UFO cultists, and that both have an obsessive need for alien glamour to
lighten their ghastly lives, was offensive to some viewers. [PN]

(? - ) UK author, possibly pseudonymous, of 2 future- WAR novels. The New
Dominion (1908) pits the USA triumphantly against Japan and The Shadow of
Glory (1910) visualizes a worldwide conflict, mainly naval. [JC]

(1865-1936) UK poet, short-story writer and novelist, known mainly for
such works outside the sf field as Plain Tales from the Hills (coll 1888
India) and Kim (1901). He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907.
Before the age of 27, RK wrote a considerable number of stories containing
elements of fantasy and horror. Some, like "The Strange Ride of Morrowbie
Jukes" (1885), are to be found in The Phantom 'Rickshaw, and Other Tales
(coll 1888 India; rev 1890 UK), the title story of which is also fantasy;
others appear in Life's Handicap, Being Stories of Mine Own People (coll
1891) and Many Inventions (coll 1893), which includes "The Lost Legion"
(1892). The Brushwood Boy (1895; 1899 chap) is fantasy, as are the various
linked and unlinked stories assembled in The Jungle Book (coll 1894) and
The Second Jungle Book (coll 1895), while Just So Stories for Little
Children (coll 1902) contains classic children's fables. "They" (1905
chap) is a ghost story. Puck of Pook's Hill (coll 1906) and its sequel,
Rewards and Fairies (coll 1910), contain a series of stories about the
formation and growth of Britain as told by Puck to two children. In
several of his late stories, all of which are complex, elliptic, highly
crafted and deeply pessimistic, RK made some ambiguous use of supernatural
principles of explanation; of these, "A Madonna of the Trenches" and "The
Wish House", both from 1924, are assembled along with "The Gardener" in
Debits and Credits (coll 1926), which has a claim to being his finest
collection. These tales are not comfortably amenable to either sf or
fantasy reading, but they demonstrate the power of hinted supernatural
themes in writing of high virtuosity. The Complete Supernatural Stories of
Rudyard Kipling (coll 1987) conveniently assembles this category of his
output, as does Kipling's Fantasy (coll 1992) ed John BRUNNER. Thy Servant
a Dog: Told by Boots (1930 chap), not included in either collection, is an
animal fantasy of almost perverse fervour.Sf proper appears infrequently
in RK's work, though "The Finest Story in the World" (1891), whose
narrator encounters a case of REINCARNATION, and "A Matter of Fact"
(1892), about a modern sea-serpent sighting - both assembled in Many
Inventions - are arguably sf, as are "The Ship that Found Herself" (1895)
and "007" (1897) from The Day's Work (coll 1898). Other early tales
include "Wireless" (1902; in Traffics and Discoveries [coll 1904]), in
which amateur-radio experiments make communication possible between a shop
assistant and John Keats; "The House Surgeon", in Actions and Reactions
(coll 1909), explains a ghost in terms of PSI POWERS; "In the Same Boat"
(1911), in A Diversity of Creatures (coll 1917), suggests a prenatal cause
for bouts of irrational dread; "The Eye of Allah", in Debits and Credits,
describes the ALTERNATE HISTORY that is almost generated when a microscope
falls into the hands of medieval English churchmen; and "Unprofessional"
(1930), assembled in Limits and Renewals (coll 1932), suggests that
planetary "tides" may affect human tissue.RK's most notable and
unmistakably sf stories are perhaps With the Night Mail: A Story of 2000
A.D. (1905 McClure's Magazine; 1909 chap US) and its sequel, "As Easy as
A.B.C." (1912), which was collected in A Diversity of Creatures. Both
tales revolve about the Aerial Board of Control, or A.B.C., which
dominates the world. The first is a dramatized travelogue, depicting some
incidents on a dirigible journey from London to Quebec, and is accompanied
by an appendix of futuristic advertisements; in the second - a somewhat
DYSTOPIAN vision of centralized government probably based on Wellsian
models - agents of the A.B.C. fly to Chicago to deal with a revolt of the
local underclass, whose demands for a return of democracy have generated
attacks by the rest of the population. The A.B.C. - though not necessarily
the political views it stands for - has influenced writers as far apart as
Michael ARLEN and Rex WARNER. Although its reprint of With the Night Mail
is incomplete, Kipling's Science Fiction (coll 1992; vt The Science
Fiction Stories of Rudyard Kipling 1994) ed John Brunner is otherwise
thorough in its coverage of this part of RK's work.Although RK was not an
sf writer by inclination, his intense, somewhat feverish talent makes even
the least characteristic of his works of more than peripheral interest to
the sf reader. [JC]About the author: Literature on RK is extensive.
Charles Carrington's Rudyard Kipling (1955) is the definitive biography,
while J.M.S. Tompkins's The Art of Rudyard Kipling (1959) very competently
surveys both prose and poetry. RK's own posthumous, sanitized
autobiographical fragment, Something of Myself (1937), is of some
interest. Angus WILSON's The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling (1977)
combines biography and criticism in a sustained, intense study. Also
interesting is Rudyard Kipling and his World (1977) by Kingsley AMIS.See

Pseudonym of UK writer John Charles Hynam (1915-1974). He was a regular
contributor to the UK sf magazines during 1955-61, publishing over 30
stories in that time. His first two stories appeared in Dec 1954: "Dimple"
in Science Fantasy and "Trojan Hearse" in NW. The latter was a
collaboration with Dan MORGAN, with whom he also published a SPACE-OPERA
series - A Thunder of Stars (1968), Seed of Stars (1972 US), The Neutral
Stars (1973 US) and, by JK alone, Where No Stars Guide (1975) - about the
Space Corps team of the Venturer Twelve. [JC]

(1917-1994) US comic-book illustrator, born Jacob Kurtzberg. One of the
giants in the COMICS industry, he began his 50+-year career in 1935
working on newspaper comic strips (with a break in 1936, animating Popeye
cartoons for Max Fleischer). He later broke into the comic-book field,
creating Captain America with Joe Simon in 1941 for Timely Comics (later
MARVEL COMICS); he also worked on CAPTAIN MARVEL. His main claim to fame,
however, was his work in the 1960s for Marvel Comics, by then under the
direction of Stan LEE. In 1961 JK created The Fantastic Four (a group of
SUPERHEROES), one of the most popular series in the history of the genre.
He also created, or helped create, dozens of other superheroes, including
The Incredible Hulk, which helped launch Marvel to the top of the
business. He left the Lee organization in 1970 and for a while worked for
DC COMICS, where he produced an interesting group of four interconnected
superhero comics, including New Gods (referred to as "Kirby's Fourth
World"), before returning to Marvel. JK's style is blocky, almost
primitive, but with a power and sense of drama that many other comics
artists lack. His use of motion-picture techniques (such as still-frame
storytelling) and dramatic perspectives has influenced most of today's
comics artists. His work is reproduced in Origins of Marvel Comics (1974),
Son of Origins of Marvel Comics (1975) and Bring on the Bad Guys (1976),
all ed Stan Lee, and in many more recent and accessible collections,
including #2-#4, #6-#8, #13 and #14 of the Marvel Masterworks series (1986
onwards). [JG/RH/PN]

(1928- ) UK illustrator, trained at Liverpool School of Art. JK's work in
sf began with covers for the 1956 paperback of Ian FLEMING's Moonraker
(1955) and for Authentic Science Fiction. Most of his art has been for
paperback covers, for publishers including Corgi, Panther and New English
Library and, in the USA, ACE BOOKS, BALLANTINE BOOKS, DAW BOOKS and Lancer
Books. His style is colourful and intricate, and often designed on a small
scale: the painting is frequently no larger than the book cover itself.
His trademark is the grotesquerie of his creations. He belongs to a
tradition derived more obviously from grotesque fantasists like Arthur
Rackham than from sf illustrators. JK's work has been strongly identified,
in the 1980s and since, with both hardcover and paperback editions of the
novels of Terry PRATCHETT, with whom he shares a cover credit for the
richly illustrated Eric (1990) - even Pratchett imitators often get JK
covers. A portfolio of his work is Voyage of the Ayeguy (1981). The Josh
Kirby Poster Book (1989), in large format and introduced by Pratchett,
contains 13 posters. JK's most substantial and recent book is In the
Garden of Unearthly Delights (1991), 159 paintings by JK with intro by
Brian W. ALDISS. [JG/PN]See also: FANTASY.

(1602-1680) German priest and scientist who predicted the germ theory of
disease. For his relevance to sf, MARS, MERCURY, OUTER PLANETS, RELIGION
and VENUS, in each of which entries there is reference to AK's
speculative, visionary round-trip to the planets, Itinerarium Exstaticum
["A Journey in Rapture"] (1656 Rome). [PN]


(? - ) UK writer whose sf novel, Unrest of Their Time (1938), used
contrasting colours of type to represent the simultaneity of lives lived
in different periods by the one protagonist. [JC]

(1923- ) UK poet and writer whose first book, The Cosmic Shape:An
Interpretation of Myth and Legend with Three Poems and Lyrics (coll1946)
with Ross Nichols, is at times foggy, but at times illuminating. The True
Mistery of the Passion (1961) is a fantasy play;Tales of Hoffmann (coll
trans 1966) is a goodselection; and Queens Have Died Young and Fair: A
Fable of theImmediate Future(1993) is an sf SATIRE whoseimprecations
encompass sex, politics, and culture. [JC]

(1914-1989) German writer best known for his novels about WWII. His
NEAR-FUTURE sf novel, Keiner Kommt Davon (1957; trans Richard Graves as
The Seventh Day 1959 US; vt No One Will Escape 1960 UK), deals with the
period directly preceding WWIII and with the atomic HOLOCAUST that then
kills off the cast. [JC]

Film (1955). Parklane. Prod and dir Robert Aldrich, starring Ralph
Meeker, Albert Dekker, Paul Stewart, Maxine Cooper, Gaby Rogers, Chloris
Leachman. Screenplay A.I. Bezzerides, based remotely on Kiss Me Deadly
(1952) by Mickey Spillane. 105 mins. B/w.This extraordinary film noir, now
recognized as one of the greatest of its period, substitutes a boxful of
radioactivity - a kind of surrogate atom bomb - for the packet of
narcotics everyone seeks control of in Spillane's original. In a sadly
tarnished world, the lethal Pandora's Box takes on a glamour which
literally shines out - destroying the world - at the apocalyptic climax.
Painful and furious, KMD gives an extraordinarily abrasive quality to the
stereotypes of the private-eye genre, but it is the box itself that
dominates the movie, growing from an apparent MCGUFFIN into an icon of a
menacing future, the object of worship in an impoverished present which,
by implication, yearns for the hard white light that abolishes all
shadows. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

[r] David A. DRAKE.

[r] William TENN.

(1937- ) French writer, anthologist, critic and editor. An economist by
profession, GK is one of the few European sf writers known in the USA. He
has used the pseudonyms Gilles d'Argyre, Francois Pagery and Mark Starr.
His first stories, heavily influenced by Ray BRADBURY, appeared in 1955
when he was only 18 years old, and he soon made a major impact on the
field in France, publishing over 40 delicately crafted stories 1956-62 (60
by 1977), while also establishing himself as a forceful and literate
critic of the genre with a series of 30 penetrating essays in various
publications. His first novel, Le gambit des etoiles (1958; trans C.J.
Richards as Starmaster's Gambit 1973 US), a clever and wide-ranging
adventure yarn, shows the increasing influence that US GENRE SF was having
on GK, a trend which comes strongly to the fore in novels like Le temps
n'a pas d'odeur (1963; trans P.J. Skolowski as The Day before Tomorrow
1972 US) and Les seigneurs de la guerre (1971; trans John BRUNNER as The
Overlords of War 1973 US); these, though well conducted and interesting,
lack the poetic invention of his early work. From 1969, GK edited the
Ailleurs et Demain imprint for publisher Robert Laffont, where he was
instrumental in introducing some of the major modern US-UK sf writers to
the French public while also encouraging the better local authors -
Philippe CURVAL, Michel Jeury, Christian LEOURIER, Andre Ruellan and
Stefan WUL. Many of GK's works feature an imagery and even a structure
influenced by chess. [MJ]Other works: Agent galactique ["Galactic Agent"]
(1958) as by Mark Starr; Embuches dans l'espace ["Ambushes in Space"]
(1958 as by Francois Pagery); Les perles du temps ["Pearls of Time"] (coll
1958); Chirurgiens d'une planete ["Planet-Surgeons"] (1960) as by Gilles
d'Argyre; Les voiliers du soleil ["Sailors of the Sun"] (1961) as by
d'Argyre; Le long voyage ["The Long Journey"] (1964) as by d'Argyre; Les
tueurs du temps (1965; trans C.J. Richards as The Mote in Time's Eye 1975
US), as by d'Argyre in France, GK in USA; Le sceptre du hasard ["The
Sceptre of Chance"] (1966) as by d'Argyre; Un chant de pierre ["Stone
Song"] (coll 1966); La loi du talion ["The Law of Retaliation"] (coll
1973); Histoires comme si ["Stories as If"] (coll 1975); Anthologie de la
science-fiction francaise (anth in 3 vols 1975, 1976, 1977) with others;
Le Livre d'or du Gerard Klein ["The Book of Gold of Gerard Klein"] (coll

(1891-1946) US songwriter, author and literary agent, active in music
before beginning to write popular fiction in several genres, predominantly
fantasy, in the early 1920s, most notably for Weird Tales and The Argosy.
With the exception of marginal sf tales like "The Bride of Osiris" (1927)
and space adventures such as "Race Around the Moon" (1939), most of his
genre work is HEROIC FANTASY, and is generally thought to have been
written in competition with (and slavishly derived from) Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS's PLANETARY ROMANCES. The Robert Grandon sequence is typical:
comprising The Planet of Peril (1929), The Prince of Peril (1930) and The
Port of Peril (1932 Weird Tales as "Buccaneers of Venus"; 1949), it
carries the swashbuckling Grandon to VENUS, where he rises from slavery to
marry a princess; the later adventures expand upon this. Linked to this
series through the character of Dr Morgan - a scientist who makes
interplanetary transfers easy - are The Swordsman of Mars (1933 Argosy;
1960) and its sequel, The Outlaws of Mars (1933 Argosy; 1960). In Maza of
the Moon (1930) the P'an-ku who rule the MOON bomb Earth after Earth bombs
them. Call of the Savage (1931 Argosy as "Jan of the Jungle"; 1937; vt Jan
of the Jungle 1966) and its sequel Jan in India (1935 Argosy; 1974) again
ape Burroughs, the target this time being Tarzan. In his later years,
OAK's time was almost entirely taken up by his literary agency. Violently
coloured, crudely racist and sniggeringly sexist, his tales represent pulp
fiction at its worst, but they retain a raw compulsiveness. [JC]Other
works: The Man who Limped and Other Stories (coll of linked stories 1946);
Tam, Son of the Tiger (1931 Weird Tales; 1962); Bride of Osiris and Other
Weird Tales (coll 1975 chap).See also: COMICS; MARS; PUBLISHING.

(1922- ) UK author and screenwriter, married to Judith Kerr (1923- ), a
well known children's author. After attending the Royal Academy of
Dramatic Art and working as an actor, NK began writing short stories, 26
of which - some horror or fantasy - appear in Tomato Cain and Other
Stories (coll 1949). Since then most of his writing work has been for
TELEVISION and film, often using sf themes, most commonly consisting of
scientific rationalizations of ancient motifs from HORROR fiction and
MYTHOLOGY. His first major tv success was in 1953 with a serial, The
QUATERMASS EXPERIMENT . In 1954 he successfully adapted George ORWELL's
NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR (1949) for BBC TV; it caused much controversy. Two
more Quatermass serials for BBC TV were QUATERMASS II (1955) and
QUATERMASS AND THE PIT (1958-9). All three were adapted into feature films
by Hammer Films, as The QUATERMASS XPERIMENT (1955; vt The Creeping
Unknown), QUATERMASS II (1957; vt Enemy from Space) and QUATERMASS AND THE
PIT (1968; vt Five Million Years to Earth). NK coscripted the second of
these films, and scripted the third. The tv scripts were published as The
Quatermass Experiment: A Play for Television in Six Parts * (1953 BBC TV;
rev 1959), Quatermass II: A Play for Television in Six Parts * (1955 BBC
TV; rev 1960) and Quatermass and the Pit: A Play for Television in Six
Parts * (1958-9 BBC TV; rev 1960). NK also scripted FIRST MEN IN THE MOON
(1964) and the horror film The Witches (1966), adapted from novels by H.G.
WELLS and Peter Curtis respectively.Three further tv plays, "The Road"
(1963), "The Year of the Sex Olympics" (1969) and "The Stone Tape" (1972)
have been collected in The Year of the Sex Olympics and Other TV Plays
(coll 1976). The first is an 18th-century ghost story in which the ghosts
are apparitions of 20th-century TECHNOLOGY; the second deals satirically
with a future tv-watching population and improved methods of apathy
control; the third again combines Gothic horror with messages across time.
In 1971 "The Chopper", about a biker's ghost, was televised as part of the
OUT OF THE UNKNOWN series. The 1975 ATV tv series Beasts was scripted by
NK, the beasts in question ranging from psychological to supernatural.In
1979 Quatermass returned, this time to ITV, in a new tv serial (4 parts)
entitled QUATERMASS. An edited-down version, retitled The Quatermass
Conclusion, was intended for cinema release, but in the UK was released
only on videotape. It had in fact been written a decade earlier for BBC
TV, and its plot (featuring mystically inclined flower children about to
be harvested by ALIENS via messages beamed through stone circles) seemed
curiously old-fashioned. The book version by NK, Quatermass (1979), which
appeared concurrently, is not a novelization, and diverges in detail from
the tv series. A more sinister version of the same theme appears in NK's
script for the film HALLOWEEN III: SEASON OF THE WITCH (1983), in which
microchips made out of a Stonhenge monolith are used to booby-trap
children's Halloween masks with a hideous destruction device, this being
the plot of a madman who wishes (as perhaps NK does) that the true meaning
of Halloween had not been vulgarized.It had now become clear from NK's
sf/horror work that he had little interest in, or even knowledge of, sf
proper, a genre about which he has consistently expressed contempt (sf
being "very disappointing and horribly overwritten" and sf fans, he said
in a 1979 interview, being either fat with wispy wives or wispy with fat
ones); it is interesting, for example, that the two films he repudiated as
having vulgarized his scripts, Quatermass II - which he has kept from
circulation for years - and Halloween III, are among the better ones. With
hindsight, there is a clear pattern in NK's work of ordinary people being
seen as stupid and ignorant, and ready prey for the supernatural or
sciencefictional forces that will almost inevitably attempt to control
them. There is a seigneurial, Edwardian element in this, a recoiling from
the vulgar. It is worth labouring the point, because he is certainly a
much better than average scriptwriter - the Quatermass series especially
is exemplary - and his scripts have been, paradoxically, very influential
on sf, at least at the GOTHIC and irrational margin of the genre where sf
meets fantasy and horror (and particularly among film and tv producers,
who never expect sf to make sense anyway).NK's revulsion against what he
saw sf as standing for came into gloomy focus with the 1981 tv series
KINVIG, which attempts to call forth derisory laughter at the granting
(through the introduction of a very beautiful ALIEN) of two sf fans'
romantic longings for mysteries in a mundane world; it is a sitcom notable
for its contemptuous treatment of the leading characters. [PN]See also:

(1911-1993) US journalist and novelist, most of whose books are political
thrillers, not excepting his borderline-sf books. Seven Days in May
(1962), with Charles W. BAILEY, later filmed ( John FRANKENHEIMER),
describes an attempted military coup in the USA. Night of Camp David
(1965) tells of a NEAR-FUTURE President of the USA who goes mad and almost
destroys the country. In Trespass (1969), set in 1973, a Black activist
group takes over White properties and upsets the FBI. [JC/PN]


(1922- ) US writer and editor; his third marriage was to Kate WILHELM.
Like many sf writers, DK became involved in sf FANDOM at an early age, and
by 1941 was a member of the FUTURIANS in New York, where he shared an
apartment with Robert A.W. LOWNDES and met James BLISH, C.M. KORNBLUTH,
Frederik POHL and others. (In The Futurians: The Story of the Science
Fiction "Family" of the 30's that Produced Today's Top SF Writers and
Editors [1977] he published a candid history of the group and its era.)
His first professional sale was a cartoon to AMZ. His first story was
"Resilience" (1941) in STIRRING SCIENCE STORIES, edited by another
Futurian, Donald A. WOLLHEIM; but DK's career as a short-story writer lay
fallow for several years. In 1943 he became an assistant editor with
Popular Publications, a PULP-MAGAZINE chain. Later he worked for a
literary agency, then returned to Popular Publications as assistant editor
of SUPER SCIENCE STORIES. In 1950-51 he was editor of WORLDS BEYOND, but
the magazine ran for only 3 issues; later he edited IF for 3 issues
1958-9.DK made his initial strong impact on the field as a book reviewer,
and is generally acknowledged to have been the first outstanding GENRE-SF
critic. His very first piece - a fanzine review (in Larry SHAW's Destiny's
Child) of the 1945 ASF serial version of A.E. VAN VOGT's The World of A
(1948) - remains perhaps his best known; it is in any case one of the most
famous works of critical demolition ever published in the field, inspiring
considerable revisions in the published book, and being credited (perhaps
a touch implausibly) for van Vogt's eventual slide from pre-eminence. DK
later reviewed books for a number of amateur and professional magazines,
expressing throughout a sane and consistent insistence on the relevance of
literary standards to sf. His early reviews were collected in In Search of
Wonder (coll 1956; rev 1967), and won him a HUGO in 1956. He stopped
reviewing entirely when FSF declined to print a negative response to
Judith MERRIL - the review of The Tomorrow People (1960) which appears in
In Search of Wonder. In 1975 he received a retrospective PILGRIM AWARD
including occasional collaborations with Blish, once using the
collaborative pseudonym Donald Laverty, and 3 times as Stuart Fleming -
were of only mild interest until the release in 1949 of his ironic END OF
THE WORLD story "Not With a Bang" in one of the first issues of FSF. This
magazine, and GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION even more so, now provided markets in
which DK could develop his urbane and darkly humorous short
stories-including the famous "To Serve Man" (1950), "Four in One" (1953),
"Babel II" (1953), "The Country of the Kind" (1955) and "Stranger Station"
(1956) - though as the decade advanced, and as his perspectives on the
human enterprise darkened, even these markets proved too narrow, and he
was forced to publish some of his finest work in lesser journals, where
his scouring, revisionary, anatomical rewrites of the genre's already
sclerotic conventions could appear in safe obscurity. DK's reputation as a
writer has primarily rested on the short stories published during the
1950s and, to a lesser extent, the 1960s; they are adult and sane and have
not dated. His best work has been assembled in various collections,
including Far Out (coll 1961), In Deep (coll 1963; cut 1964 UK), Off
Center (coll 1965 dos; exp vt Off Centre 1969 UK), Turning On (coll 1966;
exp 1967 UK) and Rule Golden (coll 1979); later collections like Late
Knight Edition (coll 1985), One Side Laughing: Stories Unlike Other
Stories (coll 1991) and God's Nose (coll 1991) tend to mix early and later
work.From the first, novels presented something of a difficulty for DK.
Most of them - like his first, HELL'S PAVEMENT (fixup 1955; vt Analogue
Men 1962), a DYSTOPIAN story of a future society with humanity under
psychological control, Masters of Evolution (1954 Gal as "Natural State";
exp 1959 chap dos) and The Sun Saboteurs (1955 If as "The Earth Quarter";
1961 dos) - were expanded from stories, losing in the process the
compressed drivenness of his short work. Of them all, only The People
Maker (1959; rev vt A for Anything 1961 UK) and the late The World and
Thorinn (fixup 1981), a scintillating picaresque derived from some 1960s
tales, seem comfortably to fill the longer format; and by the mid-1960s he
appeared to have turned his attention permanently elsewhere.Like Frederik
Pohl, DK became adept at all aspects of the writing business, having
worked as magazine editor, short-story writer, novelist and critic. He now
involved himself in formalizing the professional collegiality so important
to the sf field, first by cofounding, with Blish and Merril, the MILFORD
SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' CONFERENCE in 1956, which he ran (soon with
Wilhelm) for over 20 years, later participating in its spiritual
offspring, the CLARION SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS' WORKSHOP writing seminar,
for which he edited The Clarion Writers' Handbook (anth 1978; rev as
Creating Short Fiction 1981; rev under that title 1985); and second by
being responsible for founding the SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA,
serving as its first president 1965-7. At about the same time he began to
issue well conceived reprint ANTHOLOGIES like A Century of Science Fiction
(anth 1962), First Flight (anth 1963; vt Now Begins Tomorrow 1969; exp vt
First Voyages 1981 with Martin H. GREENBERG and Joseph D. OLANDER),
Tomorrow x 4 (anth 1964), A Century of Great Short Science Fiction Novels
(anth 1964) and many others. He also translated a number of French sf
stories, some for publication in FSF, and collected them as 13 French
Science-Fiction Stories (anth 1965). But his greatest editorial
achievement during these years was the ORBIT series of ORIGINAL
ANTHOLOGIES that he began in 1966, and which would become the
longest-running and most influential series of that sort yet seen in the
field; among writers strongly identified with Orbit were Gardner DOZOIS,
R.A. LAFFERTY, Kate WILHELM and Gene WOLFE.In the 1980s, after the end of
Orbit, DK became more active as a writer again, though without making a
huge impression on a new generation of readers. But if The Man in the Tree
(1984) seems unduly slack and irony-poor in its presentation of a
contemporary MESSIAH figure, DK returned to something like form, though
without quite the energy of earlier efforts, in the wickedly UTOPIAN
sequence comprising CV (1985), The Observers (1988) and A Reasonable World
(1991), about ALIEN parasites who turn out not to be the
PARANOIA-justifiying plague of 1950s sf but moralistic symbionts who
enforce something like rational behaviour upon humanity's leaders; in the
third volume, a plethora of sf devices and utopian appeals somewhat
weakens the pleasurable sting, but the series as a whole seems young at
heart, and DK's cognitive energy remains clearly evident - as also
demonstrated by the autumnal ironies of Why Do Birds (1992), in which the
world is brought to an end. There is still a sense that he may have a mind
to continue to shock the sf world. In 1995, he was granted the NEBULA
Grand Master Award. [MJE/JC]Other works: Beyond the Barrier (1964); The
Rithian Terror (1953 Startling Stories as "Double Meaning"; exp 1965 dos);
Mind Switch (1965; vt The Other Foot 1966 UK); Three Novels (omni 1967; vt
Natural State and Other Stories 1975 UK); World without Children, and The
Earth Quarter (coll 1970) including The Sun Saboteurs as "The Earth
Quarter", its magazine title; Two Novels (omni 1974) presenting The
Rithian Terror and The Sun Saboteurs, both under their magazine titles;
THE BEST OF DAMON KNIGHT (coll 1976); Better than One (coll 1980) with
Kate Wilhelm; Rule Golden/Double Meaning (omni 1991) presenting the
collection Rule Golden plus The Rithian Terror as Double
Meaning.Nonfiction: Charles Fort: Prophet of the Unexplained (1970);
Turning Points: Essays on the Art of Science Fiction (anth 1977), critical
essays.As Editor: Beyond Tomorrow (anth 1965); The Dark Side (anth 1965);
The Shape of Things (anth 1965); Cities of Wonder (anth 1966); Nebula
Award Stories 1965 (anth 1966); Science Fiction Inventions (anth 1967);
Worlds to Come (anth 1967); The Metal Smile (anth 1968); One Hundred Years
of Science Fiction (anth 1968); Toward Infinity (anth 1968); Dimension X
(anth 1970; in 2 vols, the 2nd vol vt Elsewhere x 3 1974 UK); A Pocketful
of Stars (anth 1971); First Contact (anth 1971); Perchance to Dream (anth
1972); Science Fiction Argosy (anth 1972); Tomorrow and Tomorrow (anth
1973); The Golden Road (anth 1973); A Shocking Thing (anth 1974); Happy
Endings (anth 1974); Science Fiction of the Thirties (anth 1975); Monad 1:
Essays on Science Fiction (anth 1990),Monad 2: Essays on Science Fiction
(anth 1992) and Monad 3: Essays on Science Fiction (anth 1994).The Orbit
anthologies: Orbit 1 (anth 1966); Orbit 2 (anth 1967); Orbit 3 (anth
1968); Orbit 4 (anth 1968); Orbit 5 (anth 1969); Orbit 6 (anth 1970);
Orbit 7 (anth 1970); Orbit 8 (anth 1970); Orbit 9 (anth 1971); Orbit 10
(anth 1972); Orbit 11 (anth 1972); Orbit 12 (anth 1973); Orbit 13 (anth
1974); Orbit 14 (anth 1974); Orbit 15 (anth 1974); Orbit 16 (anth 1975);
Orbit 17 (anth 1975); Best Stories from Orbit: Volumes 1-10 (anth 1975);
Orbit 18 (anth 1976); Orbit 19 (anth 1977); Orbit 20 (anth 1978); Orbit 21
(anth 1980).About the author: "All in a Knight's Work" by James Blish,
Speculation 29, 1971; "Knight Piece" by DK in Hell's Cartographers (anth
1975) ed Brian W. ALDISS and Harry HARRISON.See also: ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM


(1895-1972) US writer and pesticide chemist for the Department of
Agriculture until his retirement in 1963. He was not a prolific writer,
publishing only 11 stories altogether, the first of which was the novella
"Frontier of the Unknown" for ASF in 1937. He made his main contribution
by collaborating with James BLISH on A Torrent of Faces (1967). This novel
- whose UNDER-THE-SEA sequences and amphibious Tritons (genetically
engineered humans; GENETIC ENGINEERING) are taken from NLK's first story
and from "Crisis in Utopia" (1940 ASF) - depicts an ambiguously UTOPIAN
Earth whose trillion people ( OVERPOPULATION) must face up to the
challenge of an approaching meteor. [JC]See also: ASTEROIDS.


Christopher EVANS.

(1891- ) UK writer whose Jim McWhirter (1933), set in 1953, advances
towards a not unusual socialist UTOPIA via a sequence of very violent
catastrophes, including an emission of poison gases from within the crust
of the Earth. [JC]



(1888-1957) UK Roman Catholic priest (converted 1917, ordained 1919) and
extremely prolific writer. Among his many books are several then-popular
detective novels, volumes of parodies, a new translation of the
Testaments, and some genre work. A Still More Sporting Adventure! (1911)
with Charles R.L. Fletcher (1857-1934), published anon, takes two women
back in time to spy on Queen Dido in Carthage, thus parodying An Adventure
(1911) by Charlotte Moberly and Eleanor Jourdain, a bestselling nonfiction
tale of the authors' experiences via supposed timeslip in Versailles.
Absolute and Abitofhell (1915 chap), as by R.A.K., is a fantasy poem about
Noah's Ark; with further material, some of genre interest, it was
republished in Essays in Satire (coll 1928). Memories of the Future: Being
Memoirs of the Years 1915-1972 Written in the Year of Grace 1988 by Opal,
Lady Porstock (1923) satirizes the type of evolutionary UTOPIA most
closely identified with H.G. WELLS. The story is perhaps too cleverly
told, and its imitation of the genteel memoir too exact in places. Other
Eyes than Ours (1926), which features an apparatus for communicating with
the dead, is in fact hoax sf, the device having been concocted to bring an
obsessive to his senses; The Rich Young Man: a Fantasy (1928 chap) is a
Christian fantasy. [JC]

Thomas M. DISCH; John T. SLADEK.

(1919- ) German-born writer and tv producer, in Canada from 1935, three
of whose novels are of some sf interest. In The French Kiss: A Tongue in
Cheek Political Fantasy (1969), set in a NEAR-FUTURE Canada threatened -
as usual - by separatism, a reincarnated colleague of Napoleon muses on De
Gaulle's similarity to the long-dead Emperor. The Leisure Riots: A Comic
Novel (1973) suggests that, in 1980, the enforced leisure of the executive
class will trigger riots. In The Last Thing You'd Want to Know (1976) a
"witch" becomes US President, sweeping all before her except one tortured
ex-Nazi. EK was sometimes amusing, but fatally inattentive to questions of
verisimilitude. [JC]

(1905-1983) Hungarian-born author and journalist who narrowly avoided
execution in the Spanish Civil War and spent the rest of his life in the
UK and France, becoming a naturalized UK citizen in 1940. All his books
after the famous DYSTOPIA Darkness at Noon (trans Daphne Hardy 1940) were
written in English. Several of the speculative, philosophical works of his
later career have a direct interest for sf readers and have probably been
influential on sf writers. They include The Sleepwalkers: A History of
Man's Changing Vision of the Universe (1959), The Act of Creation (1964),
The Case of the Midwife Toad (1971) - about the "Lamarckian" inheritance
of acquired characteristics ( EVOLUTION; PSEUDO-SCIENCE) - and The Roots
of Coincidence (1972). His play, Twilight Bar: An Escapade in Four Acts
(written 1933; English version 1945), is a UTOPIAN fantasia set on a
world- ISLAND visited by ALIENS who threaten to destroy human life unless
we better ourselves immediately. The Age of Longing (1951), is NEAR-FUTURE
sf, a discussion novel set in France; it distils his intimate experience
with European thought and POLITICS into a prediction of the nature of our
response to a threatened INVASION from the East. The Call Girls: A
Tragi-Comedy (1972) is a discussion novel on sf-related themes. AK was an
important speculative thinker, many of whose ideas challenged (sometimes
with some success) "orthodox" scientific and social thought. He several
times expressed contempt for sf. [JC]See also: THEATRE.

(1928- ) Czech poet, playwright, novelist and, since his emigration in
1968, emigre activist. Though his early poetry had been pro-communist, his
politics changed and his work remained unpublished in Czechoslovakia in
the period 1968-89; some was published there in 1990. His sf novel, which
deals with the political persecution of a man who can control ANTIGRAVITY,
is Bila kniha o kauze Adam Juracek, profesor telocviku a kresleni na
Pedagogicke skole v K., kontra Sir Isaac Newton, profesor fyziky na
univerzite v Cambridge (written 1970 and circulated in samizdat form; 1978
Canada; trans Alec Page as White Book: Adam Juracek, Professor of Drawing
and Physical Education at the Pedagogical Institute in K., vs. Sir Isaac
Newton, Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge 1977 US).

US tv series (1974-5). Francy Productions for Universal TV/ABC. Created
Jeff Rice. Executive prod Darren McGavin. Prod Paul Playton, Cy Chermak.
Story consultant David Chase. 20 50min episodes. Colour.This fondly
remembered series was a spin-off from a successful made-for-tv movie, The
Night Stalker (1972), prod Dan Curtis and written Richard MATHESON, about
a vampire in contemporary Las Vegas. This led to a feature-length sequel,
The Night Strangler (1973), also written by Matheson, about a youth serum
produced from murdered women. The tv series was partly sparked off by the
enthusiasm of McGavin, star of the two movies, who became K:TNS's
executive producer. He again played the reporter, Kolchak, who each week
uncovered some fantastic threat. Unable to persuade anyone in authority of
its existence, he was usually obliged to combat the menace alone. Most
episodes featured supernatural creatures; sf-related episodes were "They
Have Been, They Will Be, They Are" ( ALIEN intervention), "The Energy
Eater" (invisible creature feeds on radioactivity), "Mr. R.I.N.G."
(government-created killer ROBOT), "The Primal Scream" (cells from the
Arctic grow into a prehistoric ape-creature) and "The Sentry" (lizardlike
monster). The series was entertaining and atmospheric, but too unvarying
in its rigidly formulaic stories. [JB]

(1936- ) Russian writer who made a striking debut in 1966, soon becoming
a leading author of SOFT SF; his work has been likened to that of Ray
BRADBURY. His lyrical short stories are assembled in Slutchitsia Zhe S
Tchelovekom Takoie! ["What Can Happen to a Man?"] (coll 1972), Katcheli
Otshel'nika (coll 1974; trans Helen Saltz Jacobson with somewhat differing
contents as Hermit's Swing 1980 US) and Poiushii Les ["The Singing
Forest"] (coll 1984). VK's only novel is the controversial and somewhat
unsuccessful Firmenny Poezd "Fomitch" ["The 'Fomitch' Special Train"]
(1979). [VG]

(1944- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "When it Worked" for New
Libertarian Notes in 1976. Much of his subsequent output has emphasized
material and points of view that could be characterized under the
LIBERTARIANISM rubric. After publishing Saucer Sluts (1980), and
collaborating with Andrew J. OFFUTT under the joint pseudonym John CLEVE
for two Spaceways sf adventures, #13: Jonuta Rising! (1983) and #17: The
Carnadyne Horde (1984), VK released his first novel of substance, The
Jehovah Contract (1985 Germany, trans as Der Jehova-Vertrag; 1987 US), in
which a Los Angeles private eye is commissioned, in 1999, to kill God; the
ensuing events might be considered blasphemous by some readers. In
Solomon's Knife (1989) abortions are averted through a medical technique
which allows the transfer of foetuses into the wombs of infertile women
who want a child. The Prometheus Meltdown (1990) is a round-robin
libertarian tale whose other contributors were Brad LINAWEAVER, J. Neil
SCHULMAN, Robert SHEA, L. Neil SMITH and Robert Anton WILSON. [JC]


(1931- ) Japanese novelist and essayist regarded as the premier sf writer
of his country. His main novels consistently deal with large subjects: the
destiny of the Universe and Homo sapiens's place within it. They are
highly regarded for their panoramic vision and the encyclopedic knowledge
they display. A graduate of Kyoto University, SK worked at many jobs from
factory manager to comedy writer. His first sf was the novelette "Chi Niwa
Heiwa Wo" ["Peace on Earth"] (1961); nominated later for the Naoki Award,
Japan's most prestigious literary prize, it was reprinted in Chi Niwa
Heiwa Wo (coll 1963) along with other early short fiction. His most
popular work is the DISASTER novel Nippon Chinbotsu (1973; trans Michael
Gallagher, cut by one-third, as Japan Sinks 1976 US; vt Death of the
Dragon 1978). It sold about four million copies in JAPAN and was filmed by
Toho Eiga as NIPPON CHINBOTSU (1973) with a very limited release in the
West as The Submersion of Japan; the film was later rereleased in the West
as Tidal Wave (1974), cut to two-thirds and with new scenes added by
producer Roger CORMAN. In the novel the Japanese archipelago begins to
slide inexorably into the Japan Trench. Beyond its well worked-out
geological basis, Japan Sinks is effective as an obviously deeply felt
elegy for Japan herself in all her physical and cultural fragility: the
story has no heroes or villains, the main focus of our attention being the
dying of the country.SK's novel Sayonara Jupiter ["Goodbye Jupiter"]
(1982) was also filmed by Toho Eiga, in 1984 (vt, tastelessly, Bye-Bye
Jupiter), prod and dir SK himself, who also wrote the screenplay. It
features a scheme to turn Jupiter into a small Sun to render the outer
Solar System habitable; the book predated Arthur C. CLARKE's 2010: Odyssey
Two (1982), which uses the same central image. SK's most recent novel,
Kyomu Kairo ["Gallery of Nothingness"] (1987), has an immortal "Artificial
Existence" (developed in an AI laboratory) riding a spaceship to research
a mysterious"SS"(super-structure), a cylinder 1.2 light years in diameter
and 2 light years in length, which suddenly appears 5.8 light years from
Earth ( BIG DUMB OBJECTS). SK's other main works include Nippon
Apache-Zoku ["Japanese Apache"] (1964), Fukkatso No Hi ["The Day of
Resurrection"] (1964), filmed as FUKKATSO NO HI (1981; vt Virus), Hateshi
Naki Nagare No Hateni ["At the End of Endless Flow"] (1966), an
extraordinary tale of PARALLEL WORLDS and human EVOLUTION, Tsugu Nowa
Dareka? ["Who Succeeds Humanity?"] (1972), which won the Sei'un AWARD, and
Shuto Shoshitsu ["The Disappearance of Tokyo"] (1985), which won the
Nippon SF Taisho.SK is active also as a journalist and publicist - for
example, as a consultant for and organizer of Expos. In 1970 he conducted
the "International SF Symposium", recognized as the first truly worldwide
gathering of sf authors, including 5 delegates from the USSR as well as
Brian W. ALDISS, Arthur C. CLARKE and Frederik POHL. [TSh/JC]

(vt The End of August at the Hotel Ozone) Film (1966). Ceskoslovensky
armadni film. Dir Jan Schmidt, starring Ondrej Jariabek, Beta Ponicanova,
Magda Seidlerova, Hana Vitkova. Screenplay Pavel Juracek. 87 mins.
B/w.This Czech film is set in a desolate landscape 15 years after a
nuclear HOLOCAUST. A band of brutalized women survivors live primitively
(in what looks to Western eyes like an art-film version of an exploitation
movie), not really understanding the occasional remnants they come across
of the old world. One such survival is a deserted hotel; another is its
proprietor, who alas for him is too old to be of any use to them. The
film's bleakness is monotonous. [PN]

(1945- ) US writer of much fiction under various names. He began his
career with a number of sf novels; since 1975 he has concentrated on
HORROR, becoming one of the bestselling authors in that genre, and a
figure of genuine significance for his well crafted and very various work,
though he lacks Peter Straub's panache and Stephen KING's compelling sense
of locality. Much of his horror output first appeared (see listing below)
as by Brian Coffey, Deanne Dwyer, K.R. Dwyer, Leigh Nichols, Anthony
North, Richard Paige and Owen West; from the 1980s, these titles when
reprinted are acknowledged as by DRK or Dean Koontz (on many of his more
recent books the middle initial is omitted). Sf titles have appeared also
as by David Axton, John Hill and Aaron Wolfe.DRK began publishing work of
genre interest in 1966 with "Kittens" for Writers & Readers and sf proper
in 1967 with "Soft Come the Dragons" for FSF, which with other stories was
collected in Soft Come the Dragons (coll 1970 dos). His first novel, Star
Quest (1968 dos), was followed by at least 20 more sf novels within half a
decade. The sensibility that would find horror congenial quickly revealed
itself in a tendency to write stories in which, cruelly and effectively,
the boundaries of human identity were stretched. Monstrous children - who
classically embody a horror at the potential aliens beneath the human skin
- appear in Beastchild (1970; text restored 1993) and Demon Seed (1973),
filmed as DEMON SEED (1977); and MUTANTS and CYBORGS and ROBOTS appear
throughout, notably in books like Anti-Man (1970) and A Werewolf Among Us
(1973). As an sf writer, DRK managed frequently to transcend the plotting
conventions he seemed to obey and the forced "darkness" of imagery and
style to which he was prone, and to create worlds of invasive mutability.
Of those novels written within a more normal sf frame, Nightmare Journey
(1975) stands out; though overcomplicated, it impressively depicts a world
100,000 years hence when humanity, thrust back from the stars by an
incomprehensible ALIEN intelligence, goes sour in the prison of Earth,
where radioactivity has speeded mutation, causing a religious
backlash.DRK's large body of work contains some surprises; there are comic
novels like The Haunted Earth (1973), drolleries like Oddkins (1988), and
several fantasies. Some of his horror novels - like Night Chills (1976)
and Lightning (1988) - are plotted around sf premises, but the use of
these is clearly subordinate to the mode within which they fit as arbitary
enabling devices; they are best discussed as HORROR. In the end, the
effect of his work is oddly diffuse. After 50 books, the portrait of the
artist remains blurred. [JC]Other works: The Fall of the Dream Machine
(1969 dos); Fear that Man (1969 dos); Dark Symphony (1970); Dark of the
Woods (1970 dos); Hell's Gate (1970); The Crimson Witch (1971); A Darkness
in My Soul (1972); Warlock! (1972); Time Thieves (1972 dos); The Flesh in
the Furnace (1972), Starblood (1972); Hanging On (1973); After the Last
Race (1974); The Vision (1977); Whispers (1980); Phantoms (1983); Darkness
Comes (1984 UK; vt Darkfall 1984 US); Twilight Eyes (1985; exp 1987 UK);
STRANGERS (1986); Watchers (1987); The House of Thunder (1988 UK); The
Shadow Sea (1988); Midnight (1989); The Bad Place (1990); Cold Fire
(1991); Three Complete Novels (omni 1991), assembling The Servants of
Twilight (under its vt Twilight), Darkfall and Phantoms; Hideaway (1992);
Lightning/Midnight/The Bad Place (omni 1992 UK); Three Complete Novels
(omni 1992), containing Shattered, Whispers and Watchers; Dragon Tears
(1993); Trapped (graph 1993) adapted by Ed Gorman, illus Anthony Bilau; Mr
Murder (1993 UK); Dean Koontz Omnibus (omni 1993 UK), containing Cold
Fire, The Face of Fear and The Mask;Three Complete Novels (omni 1993),
containing Lightning, The Face of Fear and The Vision: Dark Rivers of the
Heart(1994); Three Complete Novels (omni 1994), containing STRANGERS, The
Voice of the Night and The Mask; Dean Koontz Omnibus (omni 1994),
containing Hideaway and The Vision: Winter Moon(1994); Strange Highways
(coll 1995).As David Axton: Prison of Ice (1976); rev vt Icebound 1995 as
DK), sf.As Brian Coffey: Blood Risk (1973); Surrounded (1974); Wall of
Masks (1975); The Face of Fear (1977; 1978 UK as K.R. Dwyer; 1989 UK as
DRK); The Voice of the Night (1980; 1989 UK as DRK).As Deanne Dwyer: Demon
Child (1971); Legacy of Terror (1971); Children of the Storm (1972); The
Dark of Summer (1972); Dance with the Devil (1973).As K.R. Dwyer: Chase
(1972; 1988 UK as DRK); Shattered (1973; 1989 UK as DRK); Dragonfly
(1975).As John Hill: The Long Sleep (1975), sf.As Leigh Nichols: The Key
to Midnight (1979; 1990 UK as DRK); The Eyes of Darkness (1981; 1989 as
DRK); The House of Thunder (1982; 1988 as DRK); Twilight (1984; vt The
Servants of Twilight 1985 UK; under original title, 1988 US as DRK);
Shadowfires (1987; 1990 as DRK).As Anthony North: Strike Deep (1974), not
sf/fantasy.As Richard Paige: The Door to December (1985; 1987 UK as Leigh
Nichols; 1991 UK as DRK; rev 1994 US).As Owen West: The Funhouse * (1980;
with new afterword 1992 as DK), film novelization; The Mask (1981; 1988 as
DRK).As Aaron Wolfe: Invasion (1975 Canada), sf.Nonfiction: Writing
Popular Fiction (1972); How to Write Best Selling Fiction (1981), which
incorporates parts of the earlier book.About the author: A Checklist of
Dean R. Koontz (last rev 1990 chap) by Christopher P. STEPHENS.See also:

(1923-1958) US writer. A member of the FUTURIANS fan group, he published
prolifically during the years 1940-42 in magazines edited by fellow
Futurians Donald A. WOLLHEIM and Frederik POHL. His first sf publication
was "Stepsons of Mars" with Richard WILSON, writing together as Ivar
TOWERS, for Astonishing Stories in 1940; his first solo sf story was "King
Cole of Pluto" for Super Science Stories as S.D. GOTTESMAN, also in 1940.
He used many other pseudonyms, both for solo work and for work written in
collaboration with Pohl (and sometimes others, including Robert A.W.
LOWNDES); these included Arthur COOKE, Cecil Corwin, Walter C. Davies,
Kenneth Falconer, Paul Dennis Lavond and Scott MARINER. (He also wrote 1
non-sf novel in the early 1950s as Simon Eisner and 4 as Jordan Park.)
After WWII, in which he served as an infantryman and was decorated, CMK
went into journalism. He resumed writing sf in 1947, using his own name,
and quickly established himself as a brilliant short-story writer. His
classic works include "The Little Black Bag" (1950), about the misuse of a
medical bag timeslipped from the future ( MEDICINE), and the controversial
SATIRE "The Marching Morons" (1951), about a future where the practice of
birth control by the intelligentsia has had a spectacularly dysgenic
effect ( INTELLIGENCE). Such stories as "With These Hands" (1951) and "The
Goodly Creatures" (1952) are delicate and sensitive, but much of his work
is deeply ingrained with bitter irony. "The Cosmic Charge Account" (1956)
is a black comedy about a little old lady who finds the power to remake
her environs. "Shark Ship" (1958) is an early alarmist fantasy about
is one of the better studies of a world in which the Nazis won WWII (
HITLER WINS).CMK wrote two routine novels in collaboration with Judith
MERRIL as Cyril JUDD: Outpost Mars (1952: rev vt Sin in Space 1961), about
the colonization of MARS, and Gunner Cade (1952), about a future in which
WAR is a spectator sport ( GAMES AND SPORTS). His first solo sf novel,
Takeoff (1952), is a weak NEAR-FUTURE story about the building of the
first Moon ROCKET; but when CMK began working again in collaboration with
Frederik Pohl they produced a classic, THE SPACE MERCHANTS (1952 Gal as
"Gravy Planet"; 1953), about a world run by advertising agencies in the
service of capitalist consumerism. This became the archetype of a whole
generation of sf novels which showed the world of the future dominated by
one particular institution or power group. Two other collaborations with
Pohl - the episodic satirical comedy Search the Sky (1954; rev by Pohl
1985) and Gladiator-at-Law (1955) - belong to the same subspecies. The
last novel CMK wrote with Pohl was Wolfbane (1957; rev by Pohl 1986), in
which the Earth is moved out of its orbit by ALIENS who capture humans in
order to use their bodies in a vast COMPUTER complex. CMK and Pohl also
wrote two non-sf novels, A Town is Drowning (1955) and Presidential Year
(1956). Collaborative stories continued to appear for four years after
CMK's premature death, and Pohl wrote some more stories from CMK's ideas
in the early 1970s, one of which - "The Meeting" (1972) - won a HUGO. Some
of the collaborative short stories are reprinted in the overlapping
collections The Wonder Effect (coll 1962), Critical Mass (coll 1977)
Before the Universe (coll 1980) and Our Best (coll 1986). CMK's other solo
novels are undistinguished: The Syndic (1953) ironically depicts a future
USA run by organized gangsterism in a semi-benevolent fashion; Not this
August (1955; vt Christmas Eve 1956 UK; exp by Pohl under first title
1981) describes a revolution in a future USA which has been conquered by
communists.The best of CMK's short work is collected in The Explorers
(coll 1954; with 1 story cut and 4 added, vt The Mindworm and Other
Stories 1955 UK), A Mile Beyond the Moon (coll 1958; paperback omits 3
stories) and The Marching Morons (coll 1959). Eclectic selections from
these volumes are Best SF Stories of Cyril M. Kornbluth (coll 1968) and
The Best of C.M. Kornbluth (coll 1976), the latter ed Pohl. A selection of
early stories originally signed Cecil Corwin is Thirteen O'Clock and Other
Zero Hours (coll 1970) ed James BLISH. CMK's essay "The Failure of the
Science Fiction novel as Social Criticism" (in The Science Fiction Novel
coll 1959 intro by Basil DAVENPORT) is an important early piece of sf
criticism, sharply pointing out the genre's shortcomings. His widow, Mary
Kornbluth, compiled Science Fiction Showcase (anth 1959) as a memorial.
[BS]Other work: Gunner Cade, Plus Takeoff (omni 1983).See also:

[r] Piers ANTHONY.

(1879-1950) Polish-born aristocrat (a count) sent after WWI to the USA as
an artillery expert. He remained, and wrote a quasiphilosophical text,
Science and Sanity (1933), which became the basic handbook of the GENERAL
SEMANTICS movement, later to prove so influential on the writer A.E. VAN
VOGT. With the support of a Chicago millionaire, AK set up the Institute
of General Semantics in 1938. [PN]About the author: Fads and Fallacies in
the Name of Science (1957; rev exp vt of In the Name of Science 1952) by

(1933-1991) Polish writer whose harrowing experiences as a child in WWII
are reflected in his first novel, The Painted Bird (1965; rev 1976), a
hallucinated picaresque set in the surrealistic landscape of
war-devastated Poland; its child protagonist - like JK himself - is driven
mute by his experiences. JK regained the power of speech at the age of 15,
moved to the USA in 1958, and wrote all his fiction in English. Most of
his novels are shaped as mosaics of deracination ( FABULATION), and tales
like Cockpit (1975) displace these chips of reality in an sf direction.
His nearest approach to sf proper, Being There (1970), treats the US
political system as one from which any meaning has been evacuated; its
vacant-minded protagonist, named Chance, reflects through his media-shaped
emptiness the desires and delusions of the world, while at the same time
being selected to run for high office; it was filmed as Being There
(1979). JK's later years were not happy. Illness, accusations that he had
made excessive and unacknowledged use of helpers's work (F. Gwynplaine
MACINTYRE, for instance, ghost-wrote part of Pinball (1984), giving one of
the characters his own middle name), distressingly close examinations of
the background behind the childhood experiences he claimed to have
suffered, and (it may be) the fatalism that has often afflicted survivors
of the Holocaust attended him. He committed suicide. [JC]About the author:
Jerzy Kosinski: The Literature of Violation (1991) by Welch D. Everman.See

Pseudonym used by US astrophysicist and writer Yoji Kondo (1933- ) for
all his fiction. He has been professor of astrophysics at the University
of Oklahama (1972-7), the University of Houston (1974-7), the University
of Pennsylvania (from 1978) and concurrently the George Mason University
(from 1989), with over 100 scientific papers to his credit. He has edited
the journal Comments on Astrophysics since 1979, was President of the
International Astronautical Union Commission on Astronomy from Space
1985-8, and received a NASA Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement
in 1990. Compared with the evident achievements of his academic career,
his fiction has been quite deliberately lightweight, though vigorously
speculative within those limits, consisting in general of adventures
substrated by HARD-SF concerns. He is perhaps best known for a NEAR-FUTURE
sequence written in collaboration with John Maddox ROBERTS: Act of God
(1985), The Island Worlds (1987) and Between the Stars (1988). The action
is at times congested, and is somewhat unrelentingly military in
orientation, but the vision that unfolds of a bustling and expanding Solar
System frequently exhilarates. Delta Pavonis (1990), also with Roberts, is
again an sf adventure; and Supernova (1991) with Roger MacBride ALLEN,
probably his most interesting novel to date, recounts with gripping
verisimilitude the scientific process involved in discovering that a
nearby star is due to go nova and flood Earth with hard radiation - which
happens. [JC]Other works: Requiem: New Collected Works by Robert A.
Heinlein (coll 1992) ed as Yoji Kondo.


(1938- ) US writer who began his career with several novels for children
(see listing below); his genre-crossing FABULATIONS - some of them making
use of sf material - created something of a literary stir in the 1970s.
These early tales for adults - like Hermes 3000 (1972), Fata Morgana
(1977), set in the Paris of 1871 and plausibly describable as proto-
STEAMPUNK, and Herr Nightingale and the Satin Woman (1978) - tend to treat
genre boundaries as thresholds through which characters pass from more or
less everyday realities into fantastic or sf-like worlds which rewrite
those realities in allegorical terms, sometimes feyly. Doctor Rat (1976),
on the other hand, never shifts from one plane, and seems all the more
extraordinary for that consistency. The tale is mostly narrated by an
elderly laboratory rat, his mind jumbled by too much maze-running, who
sees himself as an active collaborator with the human experimenters; the
destiny of the animal world, he feels, is that it be subjected to such
experiments for the ultimate good. Crises in the ECOLOGY, however, drive
the brutalized animals to form a global consciousness, and war ensues
between Man and animals; Doctor Rat heroically quells revolt in the lab,
until eventually he is the only animal left alive.WK is best known in the
sf world for some excellent film ties. They include E.T., The
Extra-Terrestrial, in his Adventure on Earth * (1982) - which appeared at
the same time as a text for younger readers, E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial
Storybook * (1982 chap) - and E.T., The Book of the Green Planet * (1985;
cut for younger readers 1985 chap), based on a story by Stephen SPIELBERG
( E.T.: THE EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL) and designed to work as a bridge between
the first E.T. film and its yet-unmade successor. It too was accompanied
by a text for younger readers, E.T., The Storybook of the Green Planet: A
New Storybook * (1985 chap), probably derived from the cut version of the
main title. A further tie, Superman III * (1983), is perhaps less
memorable.At the same time WK continued to produce fabulations, including
Christmas at Fontaine's (1982), Great World Circus (1983), Queen of Swords
(1984), The Exile (1987), in which a contemporary US actor is transported
back to Nazi Germany, where he gets involved in black-market activities,
and The Midnight Examiner (1989), a perhaps overbroad comedy in which a
journalist - an ideal kind of protagonist for the typical WK novel -
becomes tangled in a world of Mafia revenges, voodoo and other sorceries.
Short work has been assembled in Elephant Bangs Train (coll 1971), Trouble
in Bugland: A Collection of Inspector Mantis Mysteries (coll 1983) -
Sherlock Holmes pastiches for younger readers - Jewel of the Moon (coll
1985), Hearts of Wood and Other Timeless Tales (coll 1986 chap) - mostly
fairytales - and The Hot Jazz Trio (coll 1989), which contains 3 long
stories, each involving a transgressive journey from "normal" reality into
other worlds, including the Land of the Dead. Because he crosses genres
with such ease, WK could fairly be accused of frivolity; but the charge
itself seems frivolous when his harsher texts are looked at square.
[JC/PN]Other works for children: The Fireman (1969); The Ship that Came
Down the Gutter (1970); Elephant Boy: A Story of the Stone Age (1970); The
Oldest Man and Other Timeless Stories (coll 1971); The Supreme, Superb,
Exalted, and Delightful, One and Only Magic Building (1973); The Leopard's
Tooth (1976 chap); The Ants who Took away Time (1978 chap), in which the
Solar System must be searched for the ant-dismembered Watch which keeps
Time together; Dream of Dark Harbor (1979); The Nap Master (1979); The
Empty Notebook (1990).

[r] Sharon JARVIS.

[r] Takumi SHIBANO.




(1918-1983) US illustrator. A lifelong resident of New York, he studied
at Burne Hogarth's School of Visual Arts after WWII and started his career
at EC COMICS, where he became friends with Frank FRAZETTA. A great deal of
his art, heavily influenced by the work of J. Allen ST JOHN and also by
the Australian artist Norman Lindsay (1879-1969), was published in the
SWORD-AND-SORCERY fanzine Amra ( George H. SCITHERS), where it came to the
attention of Donald A. WOLLHEIM of ACE BOOKS. Ace were planning to reprint
many of the works of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, and Krenkel's style fitted
perfectly. RGF did about 20 of these Burroughs covers, and because of
their popularity won a 1963 HUGO as Best Professional Artist; when he
could not meet all the deadlines, he got Wollheim to ask Frazetta onto the
project, thus launching Frazetta's sf career. Krenkel also did covers for
DAW BOOKS, some interior work for sf magazines and, most celebratedly,
cover and interior illustrations for several Robert E. HOWARD collections
published by Donald M. Grant. Though his covers were good, it was with his
pen-and-ink work, his first love, that he was most at home; it is both
delicate and spirited. All his best work was in the field of HEROIC
FANTASY. A book of his work is Cities & Scenes from the Ancient World
(1974). [JG/PN]See also: COMICS.

(1948- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Earth Dwellers" for
Gal in 1976, and whose first novels were fantasies like The Prince of
Morning Bells (1981), a quest tale during which, surprisingly, the young
princess involved ages into an old woman before the close, and The Golden
Grove (1984), which, again surprisingly, treats Greek myth with something
of the iron darkness it merits. After a further fantasy novel, The White
Pipes (1985), and an intermittently rewarding collection, Trinity and
Other Stories (coll 1985), which includes the NEBULA-winning "Out of All
Them Bright Stars" (1985), NK moved forthrightly into sf with her fourth
novel, the slow-moving but cumulatively impressive AN ALIEN LIGHT (1988),
set on a planet inhabited by two sets of irreconcilably opposed humans,
the descendants of the people from a starship that crashed there centuries
earlier after a battle with the ALIEN Ged. All knowledge of this history
has been lost, and the Ged set up a huge technological honey-trap to
entice humans inside for study, as they have found the territoriality and
attendant aggressiveness of Homo sapiens baffling. What they learn from
the two sets of stranded humans does not lead them to feel that they will
win the war against a species whose savagery seems ultimately unopposable.
Brain Rose (1990), just as impressively, presents an extremely grim
NEAR-FUTURE Earth whose inhabitants are harassed by an AIDS-like disease
which eats memory; the protagonists of the tale sign up for medically
dubious Previous Life Access Surgery ( MEDICINE), which is intended
somehow to counter the dimming out of the world itself through a "genuine"
return to the past. Beggars in Spain (1991), a novella, is set within a
framework familiar to most sf readers: a group of specially bred children
who need no sleep must band together to defend themselves against the
jealousy and oppressive behaviour of normal humans. But within this frame
NK embeds speculations about not only GENETIC ENGINEERING but also the
ethical consequences of "superiority" ( SUPERMAN) in a world which demands
an "ecology of help" to survive; the novella version won a NEBULA, and the
full-length version, Beggars in Spain (1992) which expands the novella
into an ironic saga set partly in space, is almost certainly her best work
yet; with Beggars & Choosers (1994), the sequence has begun to acquire the
scope - and to encounter some of the difficulties of focus - of genuine
Future HISTORY. Her recent fiction - much of which makes virtuoso use of
sf devices, but from an angle of vision which gives the impression that
the author deems them irremediably belated - appears in The Aliens of
Earth (coll 1993). There seem few subjects that NK, in an already
fascinating career, will be unable to assimilate. [JC]Other Works:The
Price of Oranges (1992 chap).See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; ISAAC ASIMOV'S

(1952- ) US writer whose Space Mavericks series of SPACE OPERAS - The
Space Mavericks (1980) and Children of the Night (1981) - carries its
protagonists through various adventures but not to their destination
planet: the conclusion to the series was never published, due to
difficulties experienced by MKK's publisher, Leisure Books. [JC]


Film (1957). Regal/20th Century-Fox. Prod and dir Kurt Neumann, starring
Jeff Morrow, Barbara Lawrence, John Emery. Screenplay Laurence Louis
Goldman, from a story by Irving Block. 78 mins. B/w.A scientist is
possessed by an alien lifeform of pure energy. Shortly afterwards (the
incidents are connected) an "asteroid" (actually a flying saucer) deposits
a huge mechanical creature on a Mexico beach. When activated, it moves
across the countryside, crushing anything and anyone in its path: its aim
is to destroy power stations and absorb their energy, too much of which
ultimately causes it to explode after it has been deliberately
short-circuited. The script of this low-budget MONSTER MOVIE is mediocre,
but Kronos itself is such an unusual monster that it stands out among all
the giant reptiles, giant insects, etc., of the 1950s sf boom. Prod/dir
Kurt Neumann's other sf films include ROCKETSHIP X-M (1950) and the very
successful The FLY (1958). [JB/PN]

Pseudonym of US writer Michael Paul McDowell (1954- ), who attached his
wife's name, Kube, in 1975; some years later this proved useful when both
he and Michael M. McDowell were writing scripts for the tv series Tales
from the Darkside. His first published sf story, "The Inevitable
Conclusion" for AMZ in 1979, also marked the inception of his Trigon
Disunity sequence, comprising his first three novels - Emprise (1985),
Enigma (1986) and Empery (1987) - along with other tales like "Antithesis"
(1980). Though failing to rise above some of the less attractive
assumptions held by popular writers in the sf field about the comical
incompetence of politicians compared to the world-changing nerve of
scientific entrepreneurs ( EDISONADE), the series triumphs through the
expansive exuberance of its premise: that an earlier wave of humanity had
long ago colonized the Galaxy, and that the apparent ALIENS whose probing
has reawakened contemporary humanity's interest in the stars - and
revitalized a decaying planet - are in fact our own cousins; the final
volume moves, less convincingly, into a vision of the human species
melding its differences through a form of communion. Alternities (1988)
similarly combines efficient action, in this case among a number of
ALTERNATE WORLDS, and marginally vapourish speculations about the human
species; but THE QUIET POOLS (1990), MPK-M's best novel to date,
successfully coordinates action and thought in a story about the ambiguous
nature of humanity's drive outwards to the stars, carried through the
troubled consciousness of a man who is genetically incapable - just as
most of humanity has always been - of denying the planet, of leaping into
space. The book's genetic determinism, which is much too explicit to have
been inadvertent, is both bleak and bracing. Rather more baldly, Exile
(1992) takes the sclerotic China of 1988's Tiananmen Square massacre as a
model for the construction of a rigid, terraformed colony world in the
throes of a tragic confrontation with its own youth. MPK-M has become,
quite suddenly, one of the authors to watch. [JC]Other works: Photon:
Thieves of Light * (1987) as Michael Hudson, a tv adventure tie; Isaac
Asimov's Robot City #1: Odyssey * (1987), the first of the tied ROBOT
sequence.See also: COMMUNICATIONS.


(1928- ) US film-maker, resident in the UK. Born in New York, the son of
a doctor, he early became obsessed with photography; Look magazine hired
him as soon as he left school. Motion pictures became his dominant
interest, and he left Look after four years to make two short films with
his own money and then two feature films, Fear and Desire (1953) and
Killer's Kiss (1955), borrowing the production money from relatives. By
then he had also become a fully qualified cameraman. In 1956 he made The
Killing, which attracted the attention of critics, and his reputation was
further enhanced by Paths of Glory (1957); he directed most of Spartacus
(1960). In 1961 he moved to the UK and, with Lolita (1962), began the
cycle of films that have made him internationally famous. In 1963 he made
LOVE THE BOMB, and at the end of 1965 he started work on 2001: A SPACE
ODYSSEY, which he completed in 1968. His next film was also sf - the
controversial A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971). Breaking away from sf but
remaining true to his concerns, SK's continued his slim output with Barry
Lyndon (1975), from W.M. Thackeray's novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon (1844;
1852), The Shining (1980), from Stephen KING's bestselling The Shining
(1977), and Full Metal Jacket (1987), from The Short Timers (1979), a
Vietnam novel by Gustav Hasford (1947- ). Having avoided direct
involvement in Peter Hyam's 2010, the sequel to 2001, SK is currently
(1992) planning a return to sf with an adaption of Brian W. ALDISS's
"Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" (1969).SK is one of the few film-makers
who has succeeded in maintaining control over all aspects of his films
(Spartacus was the exception), and his personal style is stamped on all
his work, its most obvious characteristic being a cool and ironic wit. His
films manifest a formidable intelligence, unusual in a maker of
high-budget spectaculars. SK is reported to have an almost obsessive
desire for perfection, which shows itself in a fastidious attention to
detail. Critics have emphasized the intellectual authority of SK's work -
though some see him as merely cold-bloodedly stylish - but he is also, and
perhaps primarily, a consummate showman. His sf work is notable for
distasteful, ultimately impotent protagonists dwarfed or cowed by
enigmatic, dehumanizing TECHNOLOGY; but his main theme, older than sf,
appears to be Original Sin. [JB/KN/PN]See also: CINEMA; COMMUNICATIONS;

(1923- ) Hungarian publisher and critic who, beginning in the 1960s, was
a powerful force in the renaissance of Hungarian sf, even during a period
of Hungarian history not conducive to literary experiment (though the
situation was liberalized in the 1970s). In 1968 PK took over as
controller and editor of the publisher Mora's brand-new sf imprint Kozmosz
Fantasztikus Konyvek, which was and remains the most important sf
publisher in HUNGARY in terms of both original Hungarian sf and
translations. In 1972 Mora followed this paperback series with the
magazine Galaktika, ed PK, first as a quarterly and now as a monthly with
a circulation of about 50,000; it has several times won awards as the best
sf magazine in Europe. He also introduced sf into the Hungarian Writers'
Association (no easy task in a country whose literati and academics have
often regarded sf with revulsion), has been from the outset (1972)
connected with the Eurocons (trans-European sf CONVENTIONS), and is a
director of WORLD SF. Like all impresarios he has been criticized, but he
has done more for Hungarian sf than any other individual. He has published
a variety of essays on sf, many in Hungarian, some in English, and is the
author of the entry on HUNGARY in this encyclopedia. [PN]

[r] Whitley STRIEBER.

Pseudonym of UK writer J. Adams (? -? ), whose sf novel, A Fortune from
the Sky (1903), features several inventions that are all linked to
"panergon", which is capable of generating a profitable sky-writing ray
but which its inventor soon uses, more conventionally, as a DEATH RAY.
Soon the UK is ringed with victims, mostly innocent ones. In the end,
world peace is enforced. [JC]



(1938- ) US writer who began publishing sf in 1964 with "Elementary" with
Laurence M. JANIFER for FSF and Ten Years to Doomsday (1964) with Chester
ANDERSON. The latter is a lightly written alien- INVASION novel, full of
harmless violence in space and on other planets. MK then participated in
the writing of an unusual trilogy comprising The Butterfly Kid (1967) by
Anderson, The Unicorn Girl (1969) by MK and The Probability Pad (1970) by
T.A. WATERS. The books all feature the various authors as characters. The
Unicorn Girl deals with a number of sf themes in a spoof idiom which is
sometimes successful; MATTER TRANSMISSION and invasions abound. Although
MK has perhaps gained most recognition for his suspense novel A Plague of
Spies (1969), which won an Edgar Allan Poe Scroll from the Mystery Writers
of America, his later sf has admirers for its briskness and its bright
touristic promenades through various venues.Transmission Error (1970) is
an adventure set on a colourful planet. Pluribus (1975), a post- HOLOCAUST
novel, though breaking no new ground makes effective use of its US
locations. The Whenabouts of Burr (1975) is an ALTERNATE-WORLDS tale
featuring Aaron Burr (1756-1836). The Princes of Earth (1978), a crowded
juvenile, takes its young backwater-planet protagonist to school on Mars.
The Last President (1980) with S.W. Barton (pseudonym of Barton Stewart
Whaley [1928- ]) posits the survival of a Nixon-like President in office
and his subsequent destruction of democracy. Star Griffin (1987), another
tale whose main flaw is crowdedness, sets its protagonist a series of
detective puzzles on an overpopulated Earth choked with sects, some of
which may be opposing the development of a FASTER-THAN-LIGHT vehicle.
Perchance (1989) initiates a projected sequence of humorous TIME-TRAVEL
tales, to be called The Chronicles of Elsewhen. Unlike many lesser (and
some more significant) writers, MK puts the themes and venues of sf to
work in a professional manner, with no radical innovations but always
imparting a sense of secure competence. [JC]Other works: The War, Inc
series, sf, comprising Mission: Third Force (1967), Mission: Tank War
(1968) and A Plague of Spies; Tomorrow Knight (1976); two Sherlock Holmes
pastiches, being The Infernal Device * (1979) and Death by Gaslight *
(1982); Psi Hunt (1980); First Cycle (coll 1984) with H. Beam PIPER; a
fantasy series set in the Lord Darcy universe created by Randall GARRETT,
comprising Ten Little Wizards * (1988) and A Study in Sorcery * (1989),
the latter again invoking Sherlock Holmes; Button Bright (1990),
borderline sf.

(1924-1988) Finnish palaeontologist and writer; his fiction appeared in
Swedish. His sf novels - Den svarta tigern (1978 Sweden; trans BK as Dance
of the Tiger 1980 US with foreword by Stephen Jay Gould) and Mammutens
raddare (1984 Sweden; trans BK as Singletusk 1986 US) - fascinatingly
apply late-20th-century speculations about EVOLUTION to the old subgenre
of prehistoric sf ( ANTHROPOLOGY; ORIGIN OF MAN), offering the suggestion
that blond and burly Neanderthals fell fatally in love with their Black,
beautiful, neotenous Cro-Magnon neighbours, bringing them home to engage
in sterile matches. Neoteny can be defined as an indefinite prolongation
of childlike behaviour and physical proportions; the notion that our
ancestors rose to preeminence through cuteness is intriguing. [JC]

(1944- ) US writer employed in various fields including oceanography and
cancer research, as well as a stint as instructional designer for the Los
Angeles Police Department. Her fiction, basically FANTASY, has been
dominated from the beginning by the unfolding Chronicles of the Deryni
sequences, all set in a highly detailed, coherent ALTERNATE WORLD whose
society is hierarchical and in many of its aspects medieval Welsh. By
internal chronology they are: The Legends of Camber of Culdi, comprising
Camber of Culdi (1976), Saint Camber (1978) and Camber the Heretic (1980);
The Heirs of Saint Camber, comprising The Harrowing of Gwynedd (1989), The
Chronicles of the Deryni (omni 1985) - which assembles her first novel,
Deryni Rising (1970), Deryni Checkmate (1972) and High Deryni (1973) -
King Javan's Year (1992) and The Bastard Prince (1994); and The Histories
of King Kelson, comprising The Bishop's Heir (1984), The King's Justice
(1985) and The Quest for Saint Camber (1986). These chronicles tell the
history of a group of humans whose witchlike PSI POWERS, the explanation
for which hovers between sf and mysticism, cause them to be persecuted by
a medieval Church. The first novel is perhaps the best, but the whole is
generally much above average for HEROIC FANTASY and is well characterized,
although sometimes archaic and modern language clash. Appended to the
series are 2 supplementary volumes: The Deryni Archives (1986) and Deryni
Magic: A Grimoire (1991). Her other work of interest includes The Legacy
of Lehr (1986), juvenile sf. [JC/PN]Other works: Lammas Night (1983); the
Adam Smith sequence comprising The Adept (1991) with Deborah Turner Harris
(1951- ),The Adept: The Lodge of the Lynx (1992) with Harris, and The
Adept: The Templar Treasure (1994) with Harris.See also: DEL REY BOOKS;

(1915-1958) US writer. His interest in WEIRD TALES early led him to
correspond with H.P. LOVECRAFT and others; his first sale to the magazine
was a poem, followed by "The Graveyard Rats" (1936). His stories for it
included a Robert E. HOWARD-like SWORD-AND-SORCERY series collected as
Elak of Atlantis (1938-41; coll of linked stories 1985). He began to
publish sf stories in 1937 with "When the Earth Lived" for TWS. His early
sf work included a series about the movie business of the future:
"Hollywood on the Moon" (1938), "Doom World" (1938), "The Star Parade"
(1938), "The Energy Eaters" (1939) and "The Seven Sleepers" (1940), the
last two in collaboration with Arthur K. BARNES. (He and Barnes also wrote
together as Kelvin KENT.) HK achieved a certain notoriety with the
slightly risque stories he wrote for MARVEL SCIENCE STORIES, notably "The
Time Trap" (1938). He used many pseudonyms in this part of his career, and
even more after marrying C.L. MOORE in 1940, when the two wrote very many
stories in collaboration; these names included Paul Edmonds, Noel Gardner,
Keith Hammond, Hudson Hastings, Robert O. Kenyon, C.H. Liddell, K.H.
Maepen, Scott Morgan and Woodrow Wilson Smith. HK also published stories
under various house names, including James Hall and Will Garth, as though
he wrote "Dr Cyclops" (1940 Thrilling Wonder Stories) under his own name a
novelette confusingly unconnected with the novelization as by Will Garth
(probably Alexander SAMALMAN) of that same year's film DR CYCLOPS; HK's
tale was reprinted as the title story of Dr Cyclops (anth 1967) ed anon (
Will GARTH for more details).After their marriage in 1940, most of HK's
and Moore's works were to some extent joint efforts - it is said that each
could pick up and smoothly continue any story from wherever the other had
left off. Moore seems to have been the more fluent and perhaps the more
assiduous (indeed, talented) writer, but HK's wit, deftly audacious
deployment of ideas and neat exposition complemented her talents very
well. During WWII they became part of John W. CAMPBELL Jr's stable of
writers working for ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION. It was then that they
devised their best known pseudonyms, Lewis Padgett and Lawrence O'Donnell,
much of their best work appearing initially under these names. The Padgett
stories are ingenious and slickly written, often deploying offbeat HUMOUR.
HK was the sole author of the Padgett Galloway Gallegher series collected
as Robots Have No Tails (1943-8; coll of linked stories 1952 as by
Padgett; 1973 as HK; paperback as by HK; vt The Proud Robot: The Complete
Galloway Gallegher Stories 1983 UK). Other notable Padgett stories include
"The Twonky" (1942), filmed as The TWONKY (1952), and the classic "Mimsy
Were the Borogoves" (1943), about educative toys timeslipped from the
future. Two Padgett short novels, Tomorrow and Tomorrow & The Fairy
Chessmen (1946-7; coll 1951; 1st story published separately as Tomorrow
and Tomorrow 1963 UK; 2nd story published separately vt Chessboard Planet
1956 US and vt The Far Reality 1963 UK), are intensely recomplicated tales
in the tradition of A.E. VAN VOGT, whose influence is also evident in the
Baldy series about persecuted SUPERMEN, assembled as MUTANT (1945-53;
fixup 1953 as by Padgett; 1954 UK as HK). Most of the O'Donnell stories
were Moore's work, including the remarkable "Clash By Night" (1943), whose
sequel Fury (1947 as by O'Donnell; 1950; vt Destination Infinity 1958 US)
was a collaboration.HK and Moore wrote many colourful novels for STARTLING
STORIES during the 1940s. "When New York Vanished" (1940) and The Creature
from beyond Infinity (1940 as "A Million Years To Conquer"; 1968) are
slapdash sf probably by HK alone, but subsequent works - which became
archetypes of the hybrid genre SCIENCE FANTASY - neatly fused HK's
vigorous plotting with Moore's romanticism. These included The Dark World
(1946 as by HK; 1965 as by HK), Valley of the Flame (1946 as by Keith
Hammond; 1964 as by HK), "Lands of the Earthquake" (1947 as by HK), The
Mask of Circe (1948 as by HK; 1971), The Time Axis (1949 as by HK; 1965),
Beyond Earth's Gates (1949 as "The Portal in the Picture" by HK; 1954 dos
as by Padgett and Moore) and Well of the Worlds (1952 as by HK; as a
GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION NOVEL by Padgett 1953; vt The Well of the Worlds as
by HK 1965 US). The first, second and fifth were combined in The Startling
Worlds of Henry Kuttner (omni 1987). Earth's Last Citadel (1943 Argosy as
by HK and Moore; 1964 as by Moore and HK) also belongs to this sequence,
although one other Startling Stories novel, "Lord of the Storm" (1947 as
by Hammond), does not. For Startling's companion THRILLING WONDER STORIES
HK wrote the humorous Hogben series about an ill assorted family of MUTANT
hillbillies: "Exit the Professor" (1947), "Pile of Trouble" (1948), "See
You Later" (1949) and "Cold War" (1949). In 1950 HK and Moore went to
study at the University of Southern California; they wrote a number of
mystery novels thereafter but very few sf stories. HK graduated in 1954
and went on to work for his MA, but died of a heart attack before it was
completed.During his career HK rarely received the credit his work
merited, and was to an extent overshadowed by his own pseudonyms. His
reputation as one of the most able and versatile of modern sf writers has
risen steadily since. His influence on the young Ray BRADBURY was
considerable, and many later writers have acknowledged their debt to him.
His short stories are distributed over numerous overlapping collections: A
Gnome There Was (coll 1950 as by Padgett), Ahead of Time (coll 1953), Line
to Tomorrow (coll 1954 as by Padgett), No Boundaries (coll 1955 as by HK
and Moore), Bypass to Otherness (coll 1961), Return to Otherness (coll
1962), The Best of Kuttner, Volume 1 (coll 1965 UK) and Volume 2 (coll
1966 UK), THE BEST OF HENRY KUTTNER (coll 1975) with intro by Ray
Bradbury, Clash by Night and Other Stories (coll 1980 UK as by HK and
Moore), Chessboard Planet and Other Stories (coll 1983 UK as by HK and
Moore) and Secret of the Earth Star and Others (coll 1991). Another early
sword-and-sorcery series was collected in Prince Raynor (1939 Strange
Stories; coll 1987 chap), while 3 early non-sf stories are in Kuttner
Times Three (coll 1988 chap). [MJE/BS]See also: ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM IN


(1919- ) US sf fan, writer, illustrator, owner of several radio stations,
and publisher. DK is a member of "first fandom", having been active in the
field since 1933. Until the 1970s his writing activities were only
occasional. His first published sf was "Golden Nemesis" for Stirring
Science Stories in 1941. In 1948, with Martin GREENBERG, he founded the
fan publishing company GNOME PRESS, which maintained what were probably
the highest standards of any of the SMALL PRESSES of the period; DK
designed several of the book jackets. For much of the 1970s DK was
resident in the UK, where he wrote two well and lavishly illustrated
coffee-table-style books on sf, the first dealing primarily with the
HISTORY OF SF and the second with sf's dominant themes: A Pictorial
History of Science Fiction (1976) and The Illustrated Book of Science
Fiction Ideas and Dreams (1977). Both are descriptive rather than
analytic, and the main interest of their texts, which are conservatively
skewed towards HARD SF of the so-called GOLDEN AGE OF SF, is in their well
informed data about sf PUBLISHING.When E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Lensman books
were reissued in the early 1980s, new novels were published by other
hands, continuing and infilling the series. DK, who had been a friend of
Smith, wrote 3 of these: The Dragon Lensman (1980), Lensman from Rigel
(1982) and Z-Lensman (1983). The second, perhaps the most interesting, is
about an ALIEN who has progressed to the level of Second Stage Lensman. DK
succeeded to a degree in capturing the flavour of Smith, but not his

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