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SF&F encyclopedia (J-J)

(1956- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Beneath the Shadow of
her Smile" for IASFM in 1985, and who has since been fairly prolific in
short forms, several stories being set in a future Boston, comprising a
central element of Future Boston (anth 1994) ed David Alexander SMITH,
which is in fact a BRAIDED novel; other stories appear in The Breath of
Suspension (coll 1994 ). In its darkly suave competence, his first novel,
Carve the Sky (1991), demonstrates the benefits of this work. The story,
which opens on a clement, richly complex, low-tech Earth, soon begins to
argue that a viable human culture might consciously wish to inhabit a
PLANETARY-ROMANCE venue, and indeed so legislate. Later portions of the
tale, set on an outward-bound spaceship and introducing an elaborate set
of metaphors linking art ( ARTS) to the structure of the Universe, are
marginally less impressive. His second novel, A Deeper Sea (1989 ASFM; exp
1992), is a very much harsher exploration of a NEAR FUTUREvenue: a savage
world war in which dolphins with implants are extensively (and brutally)
used to reconnoitre and to destroy. The denouement once again invokes an
outward-bound spaceship, and is rich in images of escape and resolution.
His third novel, Nimbus (1993), is a noir tale, involving mind/machine
interfaces, also in a near future Earth venue. AB's work is both rounded
and exploratory, and this - in conjunction with his disinclination to
write sequels - generates the sense that an important sf career has gotten
well underway. [JC]See also: SPACE FLIGHT.

(1920?- ) Canadian author of several unremarkable NEAR-FUTURE sf novels,
mostly for ROBERT HALE LIMITED: Epicenter (1976 UK), Supersonic (1976 UK),
Rage Under the Arctic (1977 UK), The Night Manhattan Burned (1979 US) and
Spill! (1979 UK). [JC]

(1919-1965) US short-story writer and novelist, married from 1940 to the
literary critic Stanley Edgar Hyman (1919-1970), with whom she wrote (but
was solely credited for) Life Among the Savages (1953) and Raising Demons
(1957), two light memoirs of family life whose effect was radically
dissimilar to that of her fiction, none of which is sf in any orthodox
sense. Much of her work - like her first story, "Janice" (1937) -
comprises psychological studies of women at the end of their tether. She
became famous for one story, "The Lottery" (1948), which established her
reputation as an author of GOTHIC fiction; the ritual stoning which
climaxes the tale is perhaps more easily explicable in terms of HORROR
than of sf, but the New England in which the event occurs betrays the
profile of a land suffering the aftermath of the some vast CATASTROPHE.
Most of the remaining stories assembled in The Lottery, or The Adventures
of James Hardis (coll 1949) are fantasies of alienation. Unnamed but
tangible catastrophe is the explicit subject of The Sundial (1958), in
which 12 of her New England characters await the END OF THE WORLD. The
Haunting of Hill House (1959), filmed as The Haunting (1963) by Robert
WISE, is a superb ghost story. [JC]Other works: Hangsaman (1951); We Have
Always Lived in the Castle (1962); Come Along with Me (coll 1968); The
Lottery; The Haunting of Hill House; We Have Always Lived in the Castle
(omni 1991).

(1908- ) US writer; also editor of several journals, including the
Minnesota Quarterly. His insinuatingly evocative short fiction is mainly
of horror and fantasy interest, much of it appearing in Weird Tales,
though he also produced some sf, mostly SPACE OPERA. He began publishing
with "The Haunted Ring" for Ghost Stories in 1931, and collected some of
his large output in Revelations in Black (coll 1947; vt The Tomb from
Beyond 1977 UK), Portraits in Moonlight (coll 1964), Disclosures in
Scarlet (coll 1972),East of Samarinda (coll 1989) and Smoke of the Snake
(coll 1994). [JC]

(1930- ) US writer whose work, much of it taking on a MAGIC-REALIST glow,
generally depicts the nature and fate of the urban Jew, especially in New
York. His more fable-like tales, many of which appear in The Egg of the
Glak and Other Stories (coll 1969), are not dissimilar to some of Bernard
MALAMUD's. The title story (1968) and "In Seclusion" (1968), with which he
began publishing stories in the sf magazines, typically demonstrate HJ's
sharply sardonic use of sf elements to make moral points about man's
inhumanity to man in a cold world. Beautiful Soup: A Novel for the 21st
Century (1993) is an sf SATIRE about NEAR FUTURE life in urban and
suburban America - a mode more frequently found in 1950s and 1960s titles
- and follows the life of a man who loses his official identity when he is
imprinted with a barcode in a supermarket accident. [JC]

(1929- ) South African novelist, in the UK from the early 1950s. Moral
fervour and a harsh eloquence about his tortured homeland characterize
novels like The Trap (1955). The Confessions of Joseph Baisz (1977) is set
in a tyrannical DYSTOPIA, and Her Story (1987) is an examination in sf and
feminist terms of a desolate post- HOLOCAUST environment. [JC]

(1888-? ) UK journalist and editor, author of one sf novel, And A New
Earth (1926), which combines the UTOPIAN and future- WAR genres: an
elitist, eugenic society is forced to defend itself with advanced weaponry
against the major powers. Civilization is destroyed by a comet, and post-
HOLOCAUST culture develops again very slowly. [JE]

Pseudonym of US writer Michael Eckstrom (? - ), responsible for the
Starship Orpheus sequence of sf adventures: Return from the Dead (1982),
Cosmic Carnage (1983) and Alter Evil (1983). [JC]

(c1893-? ) UK writer who took an English degree at Oxford and was a minor
member of a group of women writers including Winifred HOLTBY and Dorothy
L. Sayers (1893-1957). Her first sf work, The Question Mark (1926),
depicts a UTOPIAN UK of 200 years hence (as witnessed by a waker from a
cataleptic trance; SLEEPER AWAKES) and shows strongly the influences of H.
G. WELLS and William MORRIS. In The Man with Six Senses (1927) a weakly
youth, endowed with unrefined ESP talents, is helped towards maturity by a
sympathetic girlfriend; the promise of originality shown in this novel was
never realized, perhaps because of discouraging sales. Hermes Speaks
(1933) follows the consequences, in the worlds of POLITICS and ECONOMICS,
of adherence to the prophecies of a fake medium. Retreat From Armageddon
(1936), a peripheral future- WAR novel in which a group of people withdraw
from the ensuing conflagration to a remote country house where they
philosophize on Man's shortcomings, is notable for its advocacy of GENETIC
ENGINEERING. It, too, met with little success, and MJ stopped writing
fiction. [JE]About the author: Dangerous by Degrees: Women at Oxford and
the Somerville College Novelists (1989) by Susan J. Leonardi.See also:

(1934- ) US attorney, editor and bibliographer. In the latter capacity he
has concentrated on fantasy and horror, beginning with Horror and
Unpleasantries (1982), an ARKHAM HOUSE bibliography, later incorporated
into his The Arkham House Companion (1989). His guides to WEIRD TALES-The
Collector's Index to Weird Tales (1985) with Fred Cook - and to DAW BOOKS
- Future and Fantastic Worlds (dated 1987 but 1988) - are also useful
tools, as is Double Trouble: A Bibliographic Chronicle of Ace Mystery
Doubles (1992). He has edited Sensuous Science Fiction from the Weird and
Spicy Pulps (anth 1982), Selected Tales of Grim and Grue from the Horror
Pulps (anth 1987) and The Weirds: A Facsimile Selection of Fiction from
the Era of the Shudder Pulps (anth 1987). [JC]

Working name of US writer Joseph Michael Jahn (1943- ), most of whose
work of sf interest has been in ties for the tv series The SIX MILLION
DOLLAR MAN : Wine, Women, and War * (1975), The Rescue of Athena One *
(1975), The Secret of Bigfoot Pass * (1976) and International Incidents *
(1977). The Invisible Man * (1975) is another tv tie. MJ has also
contributed Omega Sub * (1991) and City of Fear * (1991) to the Omega Sub
sf adventure series under the house name J.D. CAMERON. The Olympian Strain
(1980) and Armada (1981) are singletons. [JC]


(1932- ) US writer best known for sf and fantasy before his Bicentennial
series of novels, which traces the fictional history of a US family over
the past 200 years; it achieved extraordinary bestsellerdom, undoubtedly
justifying, at least financially, his decision to retire from the genre.
Most of his shorter work, beginning with "The Dreaming Trees" for
Fantastic Adventures in 1950, was written by the 1960s - a good selection
appearing as The Best of John Jakes (coll 1977) ed Martin H. GREENBERG and
Joseph D. OLANDER - and he published his last sf novel in 1973. He
generally displayed competence, but his early work lacked bite and his
later novels, though sharper, were published in some obscurity. He was in
any case from the first actively involved in other genres, and published
at least 20 books, including several historicals as by Jay Scotland,
before When the Star Kings Die (1967), the first volume in the Dragonard
series of SPACE OPERAS, marked his full-scale entry into the field. The 3
novels in the sequence - the others are The Planet Wizard (1969) and
Tonight We Steal the Stars (1969 dos) - follow the adventures of the
Dragonard clan as they guard II Galaxy and its corporate "star kings"
against various perils. His second series, the Brak the Barbarian
SWORD-AND-SORCERY epic, includes Brak the Barbarian (coll of linked
stories 1968), Brak the Barbarian versus the Sorceress (1963 Fantastic as
"Witch of the Four Winds"; exp 1969; vt Brak the Barbarian - The Sorceress
1970 UK; vt The Sorceress 1976 UK), Brak the Barbarian versus the Mark of
the Demon (1969; vt Brak the Barbarian - The Mark of the Demons 1970 UK;
vt The Mark of the Demons 1976 UK), Brak: When the Idols Walked (1964
Fantastic Stories; exp 1978) and The Fortunes of Brak (coll 1980). The
deep debt of these stories to Robert E. HOWARD's Conan tales was
acknowledged in the publication of Mention my Name in Atlantis (1972), an
amusing pastiche of the subgenre.Out of the several sf novels JJ published
1969-73, three stand out. Six-Gun Planet (1970) depicts a deliberately
archaic colony planet called Missouri complete with ROBOT gunfighters,
just as in the later film WESTWORLD (1973). Black in Time (1970) presents
vignettes from Black history dramatized through a TIME-TRAVEL plot device.
On Wheels (1973), set about a century hence, tautly depicts a mobile US
subculture whose members live, breed and die on wheels, whether in large
trailers or on their own vehicles, never leaving the Interstate highway
system, never dropping below 40mph (65kph). Their god is the Texaco
Firebird, which they see only at the moment of death. As SATIRE the story
is simple but gripping, like most of JJ's best work. [JC]Other works: The
Asylum World (1969); The Hybrid (1969); Secrets of Stardeep (1969) and
Time Gate (1972), both juveniles, later brought together as Secrets of
Stardeep, and Time Gate (omni 1982); The Last Magicians (1969); Mask of
Chaos (1970); the Gavin Black novels, being Master of the Dark Gate (1970)
and Witch of the Dark Gate (1972); Monte Cristo #99 (1970); Conquest of
the Planet of the Apes * (1974); Excalibur! (1980) with Gil Kane.See also:

(1941- ) Canadian writer whose only sf novel, The Mind Gods (1976 UK),
confronts on another planet a materialist, tolerant society with a
repellent spiritual creed. With some subtlety the outcome is shown to be
not altogether, morally, on the side of the liberals. [PN]

(1911-1986) Finnish-born editor, in the USA from 1926. He became a
PULP-MAGAZINE writer in the 1930s and joined the staff of one of the pulp
chains, Popular Publications, in 1943. He briefly had responsibility for
already in the process of closing down due to paper shortages and Frederik
POHL's departure. EJ remained with the company and became editor on its
revival in 1949 of Super Science Stories, a position he retained until the
magazine again (and finally) ceased publication in 1951; Damon KNIGHT was
his assistant for part of this period. EJ returned to SF-MAGAZINE editing
in 1969, when he took over the editorship of GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION and IF
- again in succession to Pohl. With the assistance of Judy-Lynn DEL REY
and Lester DEL REY, he attempted to make the magazine more contemporary
and trendy, with mixed results, though Robert SILVERBERG praised his work.
He was succeeded as editor by Jim BAEN in mid-1974. During EJ's editorship
the following anthologies were published (his name did not appear on their
title pages): The Best from Galaxy Vol I (anth 1972) ed The Editors of
Galaxy Magazine; The Best from If (anth 1973) ed anon; The Best from
Galaxy Vol II (anth 1974) ed The Editors of Galaxy Magazine; The Best from
If Vol II (anth 1974) ed The Editors of If Magazine. [MJE]

(1944- ) UK writer, critic, publisher, bookseller, translator and
anthologist. He was educated in France and writes in both French and
English. After some time as a company director in the flavour industry, he
turned to publishing, becoming Managing Director of Virgin Books (1980-83)
and then taking up directorships of Zomba and Rainbird. Since 1988 he has
run the Murder One bookshop, London, specializing in mysteries; since 1991
this has incorporated the New Worlds sf outlet. As a writer he has
published about 25 books, those in English mostly concerning rock music
and the mystery field. Generally more at ease in short-story length, in
both French and English, he began publishing fiction of genre interest in
English with "Lines of White on a Sullen Sea" for NW in 1969, which took
place in the Jerry Cornelius SHARED WORLD opened by Michael MOORCOCK for
contributors to the magazine. MJ's sf has tended to be marginal, and his
preoccupation with doomed love, music, sex and death has more often been
expressed in mainstream fiction. A prolific anthologist in France (9
vols), he has also edited several English-language anthologies: Travelling
towards Epsilon: An Anthology of French Science Fiction (anth trans Beth
Blish and MJ 1977), Twenty Houses of the Zodiac: An Anthology of
International Science Fiction (anth 1979), Lands of Never (anth 1983) and
Beyond Lands of Never (anth 1984), the latter two being original
fantasy.Most of his later anthology releases have been in the mystery
field, though The Mammoth Book of Erotica (anth 1994) contains material of
genre interest. With Malcolm EDWARDS he wrote The Complete Book of Science
Fiction and Fantasy Lists (1983; rev vt The SF Book of Lists 1983 US), and
with Edward JAMES he edited The Profession of Science Fiction (anth 1992),
a selection of pieces taken from the journal FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF
SCIENCE FICTION. As Charlotte Stone he wrote Cheon of Weltanland: The Four
Wishes (1983 US). [MJ/PN/JC]


Pseudonym used for his fiction by US academic Bernard (Joseph) James
(1922- ), whose sf novels Greenhouse (1984) and its sequel, Milwaukee the
Beautiful (1987), are set in a Wisconsin gradually isolated from the rest
of a balkanized USA by the greenhouse effect. In the first DJ riskily
assumes that the effect will be gravely consequential by 1997; but the
second, set further in the future, agilely explores the implications of a
Latin American invasion of independent Milwaukee. [JC]

(1947- ) UK academic and editor who began teaching at University College,
Dublin, in 1970, and moved to York University in 1978, where he became
Director of the Centre for Medieval Studies in 1992; he was appointed
Professor of History at the University of Reading, as of September 1995.
He has been the editor of FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION since
1986; in that capacity he has compiled an Index to Foundation, 1-40 (1988)
and edited with Maxim JAKUBOWSKI The Profession of Science Fiction (anth
1992), which assembles autobiographical pieces first published in the
journal. Science Fiction in the Twentieth Century (1994), though designed
as an introductory survey to the field, has much to say which is of use to
his fellow scholars as well. [JC]

[s] James E. GUNN.

(1942- ) UK paperbacks editor and then writer active under his own name
and under at least 9 pseudonyms and house names, including Jonathan May,
in various genres including Westerns, thrillers, historical romances and
soft-core pornography. Over one four-year period he averaged about a book
a month. As LJ he began publishing sf with "And Dug the Dog a Tomb" for
New Worlds Quarterly 3 (anth 1972), an sf development of Samuel Beckett's
Waiting for Godot (trans 1954), though under his own name he is best known
for a series of paperback SPACE OPERAS featuring Simon Rack and his
Galactic Security Service Comrades: Earth Lies Sleeping (1974), Starcross
(1974; vt War on Aleph 1974 US), Backflash (1975), Planet of the Blind
(1975) and New Life for Old (1975). These are swiftly told but otherwise
unremarkable. The Dark Future series of post- HOLOCAUST adventures for a
young-adult audience includes The Revengers (1992),Beyond the Grave
(1992),The Horned God (1992) and The Plague (1992). For adults and as
James Axler he wrote the SURVIVALIST-FICTION Death Lands post-holocaust
military-sf series: Death Lands #1: Red Holocaust (1986 Canada), #2:
Pilgrimage to Hell (1987 Canada), #3: Neutron Solstice (1987 Canada), #4:
Crater Lake (1987 Canada), #5: Northstar Rising (1988 Canada), #6: Pony
Soldiers (1988 Canada), #7: Dectra Chain (1988 Canada), #8: Ice and Fire
(1988 Canada), #9: Red Equinox (1989 Canada), #10: Time Nomads (1989
Canada), #11: Latitude Zero (1991 Canada), #12: Seedling (1991 Canada) and
#13: Dark Carnival (1992 Canada). As James McPhee he wrote the similar
Survival 2000 sequence, dealing with events after an ASTEROID strikes
Earth: Survival 2000 #1: Blood Quest (1991), #2: Renegade War (1991) and
#3: Frozen Fire (1991). [JC]Other works: Electric Underground - A City
Lights Reader (anth 1973); the Witches sequence, all as by James Darke,
comprising The Prisoner (1983), The Trial (1983), The Torture (1983), The
Escape (1984), The Feud (1986) and The Plague (1986).

[s] (1) Lester DEL REY; (2) James CAWTHORN.

(1920- ) UK writer whose detective novels, beginning with Cover Her Face
(1962) and generally featuring Commander Adam Dalgliesh of Scotland Yard,
comprise a literate, conservative, elegiac defense of traditional English
life; her one sf novel, The Children of Men (1992), carries that bent of
mind into a 21st century Britain crippled by universal human infertility
and dominated by a dictatorial "Warden". The ending-couched in guardedly
Christian terms-offers some chance of redemption. [JC]





(1891-1945) US writer who began producing fiction only after cancer
forced him to retire from a nonwriting life which had included a career in
the US Navy. He began publishing sf with "Eviction by Isotherm" for ASF in
1938, and wrote prolifically until his death. His books were all
posthumously published. Atomic Bomb (1944 Startling Stories as "The Giant
Atom"; rev 1945) is a NEAR-FUTURE story of an atomic explosion. Bullard of
the Space Patrol (1940-45 ASF; coll of linked stories 1951; omitting "The
Bureaucrat" cut 1955) is a set of SPACE-OPERA tales for juveniles ed Andre
NORTON. In Tarnished Utopia (1943 Startling Stories; 1956) two people
awaken from SUSPENDED ANIMATION to find themselves in conflict with a

(1891-1986) UK novelist, the first woman to gain a BA from Leeds
University (1912), known mainly for family-chronicle novels such as those
assembled as The Triumph of Time (omni 1932). Her sf novels derive from
her interest in the POLITICS of change, and extrapolate extremist
political "solutions" into the NEAR FUTURE. In the Second Year (1936)
projects a fascist UK. In Then We Shall Hear Singing (1942) a victorious
German Reich dominates an unnamed country, but is unable to eliminate the
resistance of the individual consciousness ( HITLER WINS). Set after an
off-stage atomic HOLOCAUST, The Moment of Truth (1949) describes a UK
ruled by communists. Only in The World Ends (1937) as by William Lamb does
SJ permit herself some elegiac tranquillity: in this novel the world ends
quietly (but thoroughly) flooded, and a patriarchy comes into being. [JC]

Working name of UK writer and illustrator Frederick Thomas Jane
(1865-1916), best known for founding the Jane's Fighting Ships series
(from 1898). Blake of the "Rattlesnake", or The Man who Saved England
(1895) is a NEAR-FUTURE story in which, through a series of engagements,
modern torpedoes save the UK from the Russians and the French.
Artificially created according to an ancient Egyptian formula, the
protagonist of The Incubated Girl (1896) upsets the contemporary UK with
her soulless purity, her vegetarianism and her goddesslike charisma. To
Venus in Five Seconds: An Account of the Strange Disappearance of Thomas
Plummer, Pillmaker (1897) takes its kidnapped narrator to VENUS, where he
sets off a conflict between the natives - intelligent giant insects - and
the ancient Egyptians who have been resident there for some time,
including his lady kidnapper; the humorous effects in this tale are
clearly intentional. The Violent Flame: A Story of Armageddon and After
(1899) features a mad SCIENTIST who brings about the END OF THE WORLD -
which, Gaia-like, is a living entity - with a disintegrator ray. The
narrator and his wife survive to be a new ADAM AND EVE. FTJ's fiction,
though crude, conveys a genuine speculative impact; his ILLUSTRATIONS, not
only of his own work but also of future-war novels by George GRIFFITH and
E. Douglas FAWCETT, focus on WAR and WEAPONS, though some more interesting
sequences, like "Guesses at Futurity" (1894-5 Pall Mall Magazine), show a
wide-ranging visual sense of things to come. He was also of note as an
illustrator of some of Arthur Conan DOYLE's Sherlock Holmes stories.

(1933- ) US writer - in several genres - and performing musician. Born
Larry Mark Harris - a name used on his fiction until 1963 - he reverted to
the old family name, which had been discarded by an immigration officer
when LMJ's grandfather had gained entry to the USA from Poland. Some of
his non-sf books - mostly erotica - appeared under the pseudonyms Alfred
Blake and Barbara Wilson. His first sf publication was "Expatriate" for
Cosmos in 1953. Much of his sf has been written in collaboration,
including early works with Randall GARRETT and some later ones with S.J.
TREIBICH. With Garrett he wrote a bawdy mythological fantasy, Pagan
Passions (1959), as by Randall Garrett and Larry M. Harris, for the Beacon
Books series of GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS and 3 novels as Mark
PHILLIPS featuring confrontations between a secret-service agent and
various PSI-POWERED individuals: Brain Twister (1959 ASF as "That Sweet
Little Old Lady"; 1962), The Impossibles (1960 ASF as "Out Like a Light";
1963) and Supermind (1960-61 ASF as "Occasion for Disaster"; 1963).LMJ's
first solo novel was Slave Planet (1963). The Wonder War (1964), though
credited to Janifer alone, appears from the dedication to have been
written in collaboration with Michael KURLAND. You Sane Men (1965; vt
Bloodworld 1968) describes a world where sadism is the aristocratic way of
life. A Piece of Martin Cann (1968) features psi-assisted psychotherapy.
LMJ's most ambitious novel is Power (1974), a study of the POLITICS of
rebellion; similar themes are tackled in Reel (1983). The lively Knave
series - Survivor (1977) and its sequels Knave in Hand (1979) and Knave
and the Game (coll of linked stories 1987) - feature an interplanetary
troubleshooter, Knave, who is somewhat in the mould of Keith LAUMER's
Retief. LMJ's 3 novels with Treibich, the Angelo di Stefano series, are
comedies: Target: Terra (1968), The High Hex (1969) and The Wagered World
(1969). A collection of his short fiction is Impossible? (coll 1968). LMJ
edited the anthology Masters' Choice (anth 1966; vt in 2 vols SF: Master's
Choice 1968 UK; vt 18 Greatest Science Fiction Stories 1971 US). [BS]See
also: MUSIC.

Initially a personal pseudonym of Stephen FRANCES but eventually a house
name used by other UK writers for various publishers. Authors writing as
HJ included Harry Hobson (1908- ), Harold Ernest Kelly (1900-1969), James
MOFFATT, Victor NORWOOD and Colin Simpson. Most HJ titles were thrillers.
[JC]See also: ADAM AND EVE.

US feminist sf FANZINE (1975-90) ed from Madison, Wisconsin, by Jan
Bogstad, Jeanne Gomoll and Diane Martin (#1-#3 by Bogstad, #4-#17 by
Bogstad and Gomoll, #18-#26 by Martin). Janus (which became Aurora with
#19) was born as FEMINISM began making itself felt in sf in the mid-1970s.
It carried articles by Samuel R. DELANY, Suzette Haden ELGIN, Joanna RUSS
and Jessica Amanda Salmonson (1950- ), and interviews with Octavia E.
BUTLER, Suzy McKee CHARNAS, Jo CLAYTON, Elizabeth A. LYNN, Clifford D.
SIMAK, John VARLEY, Joan D. VINGE and Chelsea Quinn YARBRO. Through
reviews and articles, J/A examined critically the depiction of sexuality
in sf, WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION, sf by women, women in fandom
and the feminist SMALL PRESSES. Right up to its demise it worked to
prevent the contribution of WOMEN SF WRITERS being ignored. In the
penultimate issue Gomoll wrote an "Open Letter to Joanna Russ" pointing
out that the dismissal of 1970s sf by CYBERPUNK writers was the sort of
attempt to erase the contribution of women that Russ had highlighted in
How to Suppress Women's Writing (1983). Many, such as Delany and Sarah
LEFANU, who used J/A extensively in her own researches into sf and
feminism, agreed. J/A is likely to remain one of the best sources for
research into the discourse between sf and feminism that took place in the
1970s and 1980s. [RH]

[s] Algis BUDRYS.

(1849-1913) US novelist who was also active as a journalist. His
lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) novel, The Aztec Treasure House (1890),
didactically describes a surviving remnant of the Aztec empire. In The
Women's Conquest of New York (1894), published anon, Tammany Hall
misguidedly enfranchises females, who run amok until threatened with
physical violence by their aroused spouses. In the Sargasso Sea (1898) is
a ROBINSONADE in which a shipwrecked sailor survives aboard his disabled
vessel in a maze of seaweed, finds a treasure trove, and escapes. In Great
Waters (coll 1901) contains fantasies. [JC]See also: ANTHROPOLOGY.

It seems that the continuing attention the Japanese people give to their
ancient legends and fantastic stories has made them receptive to modern
fantasies and sf, and the rationalization of a chaotic Universe which such
stories offer. Appropriately, the history of Japanese sf begins during the
1870s, a period of violently rapid modernization in Japan, with
translations of the works of Jules VERNE. The native Japanese sf writers
of this era, such as Shunro Oshikawa (1877-1914), show his strong
influence. One of Oshikawa's most popular books is Kaitei Gunkan
["Undersea Warship"] (1900), a future- WAR novel about a conflict between
Japan and Russia, which effectively predicted the actual war of 1904-5.
Between the two World Wars, new writers of straight sf and fantasy began
to appear, the most popular and capable among them being Juza Unno
(1897-1949), who wrote stories influenced by the newly developing US sf;
stories of his such as Chikyu Tonan ["The Stolen Earth"] (1936) and
Yojigen Hyoryu ["Marooned in the 4-D World"] (1946) were, although not
highly regarded as literature, loved by young readers.It was only after
WWII, however, that sf became widely popular. A few ambitious publishers
attempted series of translated sf stories, though most of these
experiments failed due to limited sales. Notable among them were a series
of 7 anthologies from Amazing Stories (all 1950) and 20 volumes of the
Gengensha SF Series (1956-7); these began the process of establishing an
sf audience in Japan. This audience was soon catered for by the first
successful venture, the Hayakawa SF Series (1957-74), published by
Hayakawa Publishing Co., which issued 318 volumes, mostly of translations
but also including about 50 Japanese originals; another paperback series,
Hayakawa SF Bunko (1970-current), reached its 940th volume in 1991 (all
translations), including reprints from the earlier series. The same
company's Hayakawa JA Series of original works (1973-current) has reached
about 340 volumes. Hayakawa has also published hardback sf series. In
competition with Hayakawa, the Tokyo Sogensha Co. began its own
translation series (1963-current), which has reached some 300 volumes;
early on it featured Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom books and E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's works. Asahi Sonorama's series of Japanese originals
(1975-current) numbers over 500, most of them sf. Sanrio Co. published
almost 200 titles in Sanrio SF Bunko (1978-84). Other publishers, such as
Kadokawa Shoten, Kodansha, Shinchosa, Shueisha and Seishinsa, publish both
translated and original sf or fantasy on a smaller scale. The NEW WAVE in
the 1960s and CYBERPUNK in the 1980s affected Japanese sf and stimulated
several writers to work in these styles.In 1957 the FANZINE Uchujin
["Cosmic Dust"] was founded, and began publishing original Japanese work;
nearly half of the sf writers in Japan today started there. With 190
issues and a circulation of about 1000, Uchujin remains Japan's leading
fanzine. In 1960 the first successful professional sf magazine in Japan
was launched by Hayakawa: SF Magazine began as a reprint vehicle for FSF,
but shortly began to publish original material, which soon predominated.
SF Magazine proved a success, celebrating its 400th issue in Oct 1990 with
a lavish special issue. The second professional sf magazine, Kiso-Tengai
["Fantastic"], began in 1975 and has folded twice, each time being revived
by a fresh publisher; by 1990 it had reached almost 100 issues. SF
Adventure (1979-current), published by Tokuma Shoten, has reached its
145th issue, and Shishioh ["Lion King"] (1985-current), published by Asahi
Sonorama, has reached its 69th. Three Japanese versions of US magazines,
(1979-81), STARLOG (1979-87) and OMNI (1982-9), and two quarterly
SEMIPROZINES, SF-ISM (1981-5) and SF No Hon ["SF Books"] (1982-6), also
attracted readers, but not enough to survive. Though magazine circulation
figures are classified in Japan, the best estimate is that the top
magazine sells about 50,000 copies.Today, in the early 1990s, about 400
Japanese original and 150 translated sf books are published each year
(excluding reprints, game books and juveniles), a figure that varies
according to criteria for distinguishing between sf and non-sf. (The term
"sf" is in Japanese rather inclusive, embracing much that an occidental sf
purist would reject. The numbers cited therefore include light fantasies,
which have recently been popular.) Though the borderline between hardback
and paperback publication is difficult to determine in the Japanese
system, probably about a quarter of these are hardbacks. Paperbacks
generally sell about 20-30,000 copies in the first print run, though there
are many exceptions. As in other countries, most Japanese sf readers are
of secondary-school/university age.Japanese FANDOM began to reveal itself
in 1962 with the first Japanese sf CONVENTION in Tokyo, attended by about
200 fans; the 30th convention, i-con, was held in Kanazawa,
Ishikawa-Prefecture, in 1991 with about 1700 attendees; the 1983
convention, Daicon-4, held in Osaka, was the biggest to date, with about
4000. The site selection for conventions is presided over by the
Federation of Science Fiction Groups of Japan, founded 1965, which also
regulates the voting for the Sei'un AWARDS, the Japanese equivalent of the
HUGOS, established in 1970. The categories are: Novel (Japanese and
translation), Short Story (Japanese and translation), Media Presentation,
Comics, Nonfiction, and Artist. The Nippon SF Taisho ("Taisho" means "Big
Award"), the Japanese equivalent of the NEBULA, begun in 1980, is given to
the single most prominent product of Japanese sf in the preceding year.The
first Japanese sf film was GOJIRA (1954; vt Godzilla). It was followed by
many other MONSTER MOVIES such as RADON (1956; vt Rodan), MOSURA (1961; vt
Mothra), DAIKAIJU GAMERA (1966; vt Gamera) and GOJIRA 1985 (1985; vt
Godzilla 1985), and also by straight sf offerings like CHIKYU BOEIGUN
(1957; vt The Mysterians), BIJO TO EKITAI NINGEN (1958; vt The H-Man),
NIPPON CHINBOTSU (1973; vt The Submersion of Japan; cut vt Tidal Wave),
FUKKATSU NO HI (1981; vt Virus) and SENGOKU JIEITAI (1981; vt Time Slip).
Most of these were from Toho-Eiga or Kadokawa-Eiga Co. (Eiji Tsuburaya
[1901-1970], who worked with Toho-Eiga, was famous for his special
effects.) Monster and sf-adventure series flooded TELEVISION, too, but
were less successful than animated tv series like Tetsuwan Atom (1963-5;
vt Astroboy), the first of them, and Gatchaman (1972-4) and Uchusenkan
Yamato ["Space Battlecruiser Yamato"] (1974-5). Many of these series have
also been shown abroad. Recently, full-length animated feature films, such
as Hayao Miyazaki's Kaze no Tano no Nausika (1984; vt Nausica) and Tonari
no Totoro (1988; vt My Neighbour Totoro) and Katsuhiro OTOMO's AKIRA
(1987), have been highly regarded by the general public as well as sf
fans. Most such animations are derived from COMICS (by the same authors),
comics being an important form of publication not only for children but
also for young adults in Japan.Among Japanese sf authors, the best known
abroad is Kobo ABE, author of Dai-Yon Kampyoki (1959; trans as Inter Ice
Age 4 1970); he is, however, fundamentally a writer of mainstream
literature. Other stories by popular MAINSTREAM WRITERS have been highly
regarded in sf circles. Two such, by Hisashi Inoue in 1981 and Makoto
Shiina in 1990, won the Nippon SF Taisho in their respective years. The
reputation of Haruki MURAKAMI - whose work includes Hitsuji o meguru boken
(1982; trans Alfred Birnbaum as A Wild Sheep Chase 1989 US) and Sekai no
owar to hard-boiled wonderland (1984; trans Alfred Birnbaum as Hard-Boiled
Wonderland and the End of the World 1991 US)-is also spreading
widely.Osamu TEZUKA, the writer/artist for Astroboy, is regarded as a kind
of Japanese Walt Disney: he produced the first animated film series for tv
in Japan and is a top name in sf and other comics. Other important
writer/artists in comics are Fujio Fujiko (1933- ), Shotaro Ishinomori
(1938- ), Reiji Matsumoto (1938- ), Go Nagai (1945- ) and Katsuhiro Otomo.
Shin'ichi HOSHI has written more than 1000 short stories, with many
translated into other languages. His "Bokkochan" (1958; trans FSF June
1963) was the first Japanese sf story to be translated into English.
Hoshi's work was critical in the popularization of sf in the early days in
Japan. Sakyo KOMATSU is a sort of symbol of Japanese sf. Many of his
novels are panoramic in scope, dealing in broad strokes with the destiny
of the Universe and with Homo sapiens's place in it. He is best known
abroad as the author of Nippon Chinbotsu (1973; cut trans 1976 as Japan
Sinks), which sold about 4 million copies in Japan alone and, as mentioned
above, was filmed. Yasutaka Tsutsui (1934- ) is noted for his sharply
satirical comic situation fantasies - sometimes called slapstick sf - such
as Vietnam Kanko Kosha ["The Vietnam Sightseeing Co."] (1967), but his
recent bestselling stories are considered mainstream rather than sf. Ryo
Hammura (1933- ) won the Naoki Award - the most prestigious Japanese
literary prize - in 1974. He is best known for his earlier fantasy books,
which created a fictitious history of ancient Japan, but a more recent
bestseller, Misaki Ichiro no Teiko ["The Resistance of Ichiro Misaki"]
(1988), is centrally sf, describing the tragedy of a SUPERMAN. Hammura
also wrote the novel on which was based the film SENGOKU JIETAI. Ryu
Mitsuse (1928- ) combines a HARD-SF surface with poetic form in such
perceptive novels as Hyakuoku no Hiru to Sen'oku no Yoru ["Ten Billion
Days, a Hundred Billion Nights"] (1967), an sf variation on the Buddhist
theme of transience. Taku Mayumura (1934- ) is noted for his serious
attempts to create a future history ( HISTORY IN SF), a representative
work being Shiseikan ["Governors of the Worlds"] (1974), a book in a
series describing the rise and fall of a galactic government.Among the
younger authors, Masaki Yamada (1950- ) is a born sf writer, one of the
second generation of Japanese sf authors. His first story, the novella
"Kami-Gari" ["God Hunters"] (1974), deals with the fight against the
unseen and ruthless government of Almighty God. Baku Yumemakura (1951- )
became a bestselling sf writer through violent adventure novels, but his
recent Jogen no Tsuki o Taberu Shishi ["The Lion that Ate the Crescent
Moon"] (1989) is highly poetic and symbolic; he won both the Sei'un Award
and the Nippon Sf Taisho with this novel. Chohei Kambayashi (1953- ) could
be called a typical VIRTUAL-REALITY writer. His novel Sento-Yosei Yukikaze
["Fairy Fighter Yukikaze"] (1984) deals with the man-machine interface
when a ROBOT fighter plane fights an alien machine race. Yoshiki Tanaka
(1952- ) writes a variety of historical fantasies. The most popular among
them is Ginga Eiyu Densetu ["The Legend of Galactic Heroes"] (1982), which
tells of a space war and is based on the ancient Chinese story "Three
Kingdoms".Among women sf writers, perhaps Motoko Arai (1960- ) is the most
typical, with her rather easy-to-read style of fantasy. Quite different is
Mariko Ohara (1959- ), who writes CYBERPUNK stories. Kaoru Kurimoto (1953-
) is prolific in the field of HEROIC FANTASY. Many other women writers of
light fantasy have enjoyed popularity in recent years.A study in English
is Japanese Science Fiction: A View of a Changing Society (1989) by Robert
Matthew. Several of the writers mentioned above are represented in
translation in The Best Japanese Science Fiction Stories (anth 1989 US) ed
John L. Apostolou with Martin H. GREENBERG. The most important
bibliographer of Japanese sf is Fujio Ishihara, whose major bibliographies
are (using an English version of their Japanese titles) SF Grand Annotated
Catalogue 1946-70 (1982) and SF Grand Annotated Catalogue 1971-1980 (five
vols 1989-1991); these works are in Japanese. [TSh/PN].

(1873-1907) French writer who carried the fruits of his scientific
education into his surreal avant-garde writing, particularly the influence
of the French evolutionary philosopher Henri Bergson (1859-1941). AJ's
famous play Ubu roi (1896; trans 1951 UK) and its several sequels -
including Ubu enchaine (1900; trans B. Keith and G. Legman as King Turd
1953 UK) - helped found the THEATRE of the absurd, and he created the
mock-science of 'pataphysics ( IMAGINARY SCIENCE), which studies
exceptions rather than laws and aspires to provide imaginary solutions to
practical problems. H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895) inspired him to
write the speculative essay "How to Construct a Time Machine" (1899) (
TIME TRAVEL). His most sciencefictional work is Le surmale (1901; trans
Barbara Wright as The Supermale 1964 UK; rev 1968), a comic fantasy
featuring a SUPERMAN who, nourished on superfood, wins an extraordinary
bicycle race against a six-man team and performs astonishing feats of
erotic endurance before perishing in the passionate embrace of an amorous
MACHINE. Also of interest is the disorganized and extravagant
"neoscientific romance" Gestes et opinions du docteur Faustroll,
'Pataphysician (1911; trans as "Exploits and Opinions of Dr Faustroll,
'Pataphysician" in Selected Works of Alfred Jarry ed Roger Shattuck and
Simon Watson-Taylor, coll 1965 UK). There are minor fantastic elements in
his hallucinatory first novel, Les jours et les nuits (1897; trans Alexis
Lykiard as Days and Nights 1989 in an edition which also includes the
mythological extravaganza L'autre Alceste [1947 chap] trans Simon
Watson-Taylor as "The Other Alcestis") and in his bawdy historical romance
Messaline (1901; trans John Harman as Messalina 1985 UK). AJ's influence
on modern sf writers ( ABSURDIST SF; FABULATION) is best exemplified by J.
G. BALLARD's "The Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy Considered as a
Downhill Motor Race" (1967), which echoes AJ's "Commentair pour servir a
la construction pratique de la machine a explorer le temps" (1900), most
familiar in trans as "The Crucifixion of Christ Considered as an Uphill
Bicycle Race" (1965). [BS]Other works: Caesar-Antichrist (1895; trans
Antony Melville as Caesar Antichrist 1992 UK).

ZIFF-DAVIS house name used 1942-58 on AMZ, Fantastic Adventures and
Fantastic for over 45 stories, primarily by Robert Moore WILLIAMS, who
used the name as a personal pseudonym until the 1950s, when Paul W.
FAIRMAN, Harlan ELLISON and Robert SILVERBERG - 1 identified story each -
also wrote as EKJ. [JC]

(1943- ) US writer whose fiction has all been written with collaborators
under joint pseudonyms. As Jarrod Comstock she published with Ellen M.
Kozak the These Lawless Worlds sequence of mildly erotic sf: The Love
Machine (1984) and Scales of Justice (1984). As Johanna Hailey she
published with Marcia Yvonne Howl (1947- ) three elf fantasies: Enchanted
Paradise (1985), Crystal Paradise (1986) and Beloved Paradise (1987). As
H.M. Major she published with Kathleen Buckley the Alien Trace sf
sequence, equally mild in its eroticism: The Alien Trace (1984) and Time
Twister (1984). As SJ, she edited Inside Outer Space: Science Fiction
Professionals Look at their Craft (anth 1985). [JC]

George H. SMITH.

Working name of US writer Francis Anthony Jaworski (1916- ), who has
written an estimated 10,000 "how to" articles for service magazines. He
has appeared infrequently in sf magazines from 1963, his first story being
"Patriot" for ASF; three tales were included in the Judith MERRIL Year's
Best S-F series of anthologies. The Eli Pike series of sf novels - The
Rim-World Legacy (1967; exp as coll vt The Rim-World Legacy and Beyond
1991), Scor-Sting (1990) and The Ice Beast (1990) - comprises 3 capably
framed intrigues on RIMWORLDS, where Pike must maintain some sort of
order. The series manages, despite the quarter-century gap between
episodes, to remain fresh. [JC]


(1937- ) UK writer, economist and former diplomat who served as the UK
Ambassador to the USA 1977-9. His future HISTORY, Apocalypse 2000:
Economic Breakdown and the Suicide of Democracy (1987) with Michael
STEWART, was inefficient as fiction but acute about the pleasures and
miseries of late capitalism. [JC]

Maurice RENARD.

[r] Mike ASHLEY.

(1848-1887) UK naturalist and novelist. The son of a farmer, he showed
remarkable powers of observation when writing about Nature, describing it
in a poetic style from an animist viewpoint that was devoid of
sentimentality. This was particularly noticeable in his first fantasy
novel, Wood Magic: A Fable (1881; cut vt Sir Bevis: A Tale of the Fields
1889); semi-autobiographical, it features a young boy who has the ability
to communicate with animals, birds and plants, and was primarily concerned
with the social and political structure of the local animal kingdom and
the struggles of a contender for the throne. A sequel, the famous Bevis:
The Story of a Boy (1882), appeared a year later, but with the emphasis on
the pleasures and intrigues of childhood rather than the hero's
supernatural abilities.For the last six years of his life RJ's health was
severely in decline, and his thoughts turned to the future and to
speculation. The result was After London, or Wild England (1885), a post-
HOLOCAUST novel which describes, from the viewpoint of a future historian,
an England reverted to rural wilderness: the novel's first part describes
the lapse into barbarism, the specific reasons for the disaster being
deliberately kept vague, and the second details the medieval-style society
that has come into being and tells of a voyage of discovery on a great
inland lake that now covers the centre of England. After London is a
first-class example of Victorian sf and proved very popular at the time;
its influence can be traced through W.H. HUDSON's A Crystal Age (1887) to
John COLLIER's Tom's A-Cold (1933; vt Full Circle: A Tale US). RJ's
earlier political SATIRE, Jack Brass: Emperor of England (1873), can
loosely be construed as fantasy. [JE]See also: CITIES; HISTORY OF SF;


UK COMIC strip created by writer Eric Souster and artist Sidney Jordan
(1930- ). Some scripts were written by William Patterson and many of the
later ones by Jordan. JH first appeared in 1954 in the London Daily
Express, and ceased in 1974. During its lifetime it was the UK's leading
sf comic strip. The overall scenario depicted Earth as a primitive planet
on the periphery of a highly advanced galactic civilization, whose deposed
emperor, Chalcedon, was a frequent adversary. Individual stories, of which
there were over 60, contained standard sf concepts interspersed with plots
based on theories similar to those of Erich von DANIKEN (Vishnu and Shiva
as interplanetary visitors, Aladdin's lamp as a dead space-pilot's
communicator, etc.). The storylines were original for a comic strip, and
kept abreast of contemporary technological progress. Softcover reprints
have been published as Jeff Hawke Book 1 (graph coll 1985) and Jeff Hawke
Book 2: Counsel for the Defence (graph coll 1986), with covers by Brian
BOLLAND, who also worked briefly on the strip; hardcover collections have
appeared in Italy. JH also appeared briefly in 1955-6, drawn by Ferdinando
Tacconi, in the children's colour comic Express Weekly. [JE/RT]

[r] Murray LEINSTER.

(1946- ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with
"Tadcaster's Doom" for FSF in 1986, and who during the next few years
published over 30 often pyrotechnical stories, several of which described
a world dominated by "bugs" - personalities in electronic storage. Some of
the best of these stories are assembled as The Bug Life Chronicles (coll
1989). PCJ's first novel, Tower to the Sky (1988), set in the same
universe, explosively depicts a human campaign in 3700CE to escape the
crowded Solar System and the Gatekeepers who bar us from the stars, via
the eponymous skyscraper; this contains much of humankind within it, is
tall enough to reach into space, and is convertible into a starship. PCJ's
exuberance is intermittently chaotic, but he now seems to be exercising
greater control over his material; the next years may see work of very
considerable worth. [JC]

(? -?1969) UK writer, one of several who became active as mass-producers
of genre fiction for UK paperback houses and who remained reticent about
personal details during their careers. From about 1945 to the year in
which it is thought he may have died, JWJ seems to have written over 100
novels under at least 40 pseudonyms, mostly thrillers and Westerns. He
began to publish his routine but occasionally engaging sf with two novels
as Edgar Rees Kennedy, Conquerors of Venus (1951) and The Mystery Planet
(1952). Working for CURTIS WARREN, he then published: under the house name
Neil CHARLES, Para-Robot (1952); under the Gill HUNT name, Station 7
(1952) and Zero Field (1952); and under the King LANG name, Spaceline
(1952). After Invasion from Space (1954) as Matthew C. Bradford, however,
he ceased producing sf for some time, returning in the mid-1960s with the
marginal Supercar in the Black Diamond Trail (1965) as JWJ. Generally as
John Theydon, a name he had used since 1946 for non-sf tales, he then
published a sequence of STINGRAY tv ties - Stingray * (1965), Stingray:
Danger in the Deep * (1965) as JWJ, and Stingray and the Monster * (1966)
- a sequence of THUNDERBIRDS tv ties - Thunderbirds * (1966), Calling
Thunderbirds * (1966), Thunderbirds: Ring of Fire * (1966), Thunderbirds:
Lost World * (1966) as JWJ, and Lady Penelope: The Albanian Affair *
(1967) - and a sequence of Captain Scarlet tv ties ( CAPTAIN SCARLET AND
THE MYSTERONS) - Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons * (1967; vt Captain
Scarlet 1989) and Captain Scarlet and the Silent Saboteur * (1967). JWJ's
last known sf book, again as Theydon, was another tv tie, The Angels and
the Creeping Enemy * (1968). [JC]


(1932- ) Norwegian writer, active since 1955. His DYSTOPIAN sf novel, Epp
(1965; trans anon 1967 UK), describes in chillingly grey, fragmented prose
a world where people live isolated from one another in cells and file
reports on their similarly treacherous, alienated "neighbours". [JC]

(1873-1950) Danish poet, novelist and essayist, awarded the Nobel Prize
for Literature in 1944. He is best known for Den Lange Rejse (6 vols
1908-22 Denmark; all but vol 5 trans Arthur G. Chater, vols 1-2 as The
Long Journey: Fire and Ice 1922 UK, vols 3-4 as The Cimbrians: The Long
Journey II 1923 UK, and vol 6 as Christopher Columbus: The Long Journey
III 1924 UK; vol 5, Skibet ["The Ship"] [1912], remains untranslated), an
epic myth spanning humanity's development from its origins in a temperate
Scandinavian Eden before the Ice Age through to the threshold of modern
times with the explorations of Christopher Columbus. The translated
portions were later released in 1 vol as The Long Journey (omni 1933 US).
JVJ also published several collections of "myths" that remain
untranslated. [JE]See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; ORIGIN OF MAN.

(1953- ) US writer who began publishing sf with her first novel, the
Ardel sequence comprisingFreeMaster (1990), Mentor (1991) and Healer
(1993), in which an unscrupulous interstellar corporation is baulked from
exploiting a mineral-rich planet inhabited by ALIENS with PSI POWERS. Of
greatest interest are the detailed descriptions of the strange BIOLOGY of
the Ardellans, which help give the sequence its PLANETARY-ROMANCE flavour.


[r] Janet ASIMOV.

(1863-1938) UK schoolteacher and writer, prolific in various popular
genres from 1895; some of his books are of sf interest. Half- RURITANIA,
half- DYSTOPIA, the imaginary land-locked Asian country in The Keepers of
the People (1898) has been ruled for generations by Englishmen; the novel
encroaches on sf from several angles. The Horned Shepherd (1904) and No.
19 (1910; vt The Garden at 19 1910 US) are both fantasies, the first about
a new incarnation of a god which has also been Pan, the second about the
attempts of a magus (who resembles Aleister Crowley [1875-1947]) to summon
Pan. In The Moon Gods (1930), a lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) tale,
20th-century aviators discover a Carthaginian city in the African desert.

Oscar J. FRIEND.

(1935- ) Swedish writer whose translated sf novels - En levande sjal
(1980; trans Rika Lesser as A Living Soul 1988 UK) and Efter Floden (1982;
trans Lone Thygesen Blecher and George Blecher as After the Flood 1986 US)
- are both DYSTOPIAS, the latter a post- HOLOCAUST tale of some ferocity.

(1936- ) German editor and writer, winner of the 1987 Harrison AWARD for
achievements in international sf. He began to publish sf with "Die
Anderen" ["The Others"] in 1959, but first became strongly involved with
the genre in 1969 when, while working as co-editor of Kinders
Literaturlexikon he edited as a freelancer the Science Fiction fur Kenner
series for Lichtenberg Verlag. In 1973 he took over Heyne Verlag's sf
publishing line, a job he retains (1992) and in which he has been
responsible for introducing many important works to the German market. He
has also edited more than 100 anthologies, from 1970 on, many containing
material translated from the English. WJ's first novel was Der Letzte Tag
der Schopfung (1981; trans Gertrud Mander as The Last Day of Creation 1982
UK), in which a US group uses TIME TRAVEL to acquire Middle Eastern oil,
evading the problems posed by modern-day local governments; TIME PARADOXES
ensue. In Midas (1987; author's trans 1990 UK), set on a NEAR-FUTURE Earth
which has suffered severe ecological damage, a primitive
matter-replication technique has been discovered, but the copies of humans
thus produced are crude and cannot live longer than a few months. WJ's
writing is humanist in orientation and strongly (on occasion
overbearingly) ironic in tone, but is sometimes betrayed by a certain lack
of subtlety and originality. [NT]See also: CLONES; GERMANY; POWER SOURCES.

[s] Stanley G. WEINBAUM.

Film (1967). Parc/Fox Europa. Dir Alain Resnais, starring Claude Rich,
Olga Georges-Picot, Anouk Ferjac. Screenplay Resnais, Jacques STERNBERG.
94 mins, cut to 82 mins. Colour.A failed suicide is co-opted into a
dangerous scientific experiment; he is to be sent back into the past for
one minute. The experiment has proved safe for mice, but humans are
conscious of time and memory in a way that animals are not, and the
protagonist is trapped in a series of not-quite-random time oscillations
around the point of an unhappy love affair. Where Resnais's previous study
of time and memory, Last Year at Marienbad (1961), was a triumph for the
cameraman, this film is a triumph for the editor. Some of the oscillations
last only seconds, some minutes, sometimes replaying the same scene (with
subtle variations) several times over, sometimes visiting fantasy events
as if this second time around they were real - memory, with its
distortions, carrying the same metaphysical weight as fact. The TIME
MACHINE itself is organic and womb-like, and from it the hero emerges into
the amniotic fluid of the sea. This is a very striking sf film, though
only almost incidentally sf; it uses the idea of TIME TRAVEL to explore
the extent to which we can, or cannot, withdraw ourselves from our own
pasts, and hence from the processes of time. The screenwriter, Sternberg,
is an sf writer of distinction and sophistication. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

(vt The Jetty; vt The Pier) Short film (1963). Argos/Arcturus Films.
Produced, written and dir Chris Marker, starring Helene Chatelain, Jacques
Ledoux, Davos Hanich. 29 mins. B/w.This celebrated French short film is
often seen as a breakthrough in sf narration that has yet to be equalled.
With voice-over narration and composed entirely of still photographs
(though there is one brief sequence - a close-up of a girl winking - that
gives the impression of movement) the film is nearer in theme and approach
to the NEW-WAVE sf of the 1960s than to traditional TIME-TRAVEL stories in
the CINEMA or in literature. Set in a post- HOLOCAUST Paris where the
concept of passing time is disappearing and the principle of
cause-and-effect is therefore being lost, this subtle and complex film
shows an attempt being made to send back in time a man obsessed by his
memory of a woman's face, since the existence of memory suggests that time
still exists for him. He is also sent into the future where he finds the
remembered face is a witness to his own death. [JB/PN]

(1950- ) US writer of importance as an author of horror novels, the
highly charged claustrophobia of his style fitting the essential affect of
that genre rather better than it does sf. His early work, generally
conceived in sf terms, gives off an air of hectic congestion which
sometimes interferes with the presentation of ideas, the articulation of a
barrier through which to penetrate; for him, as for most HORROR writers,
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGHS tend to end in tears. Nevertheless, his first
published novel, Seeklight (1975 Canada), fascinatingly combines
tried-and-true narrative conventions (its protagonist is the scion of an
ex-leader, whose rivals need to kill the lad) with exorbitant
reality-twists (a sociologist intermittently uses advanced technology to
intervene and to make queries about the action). The Dreamfields (1976
Canada) similarly juxtaposes contrasting realities, in this case a land of
dreams occupied by ALIENS but dominated by sick human teenagers. Morlock
Night (1979) is a sequel to H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895) which
both extends the original story and, by conveying a Morlock invasion
backwards in time to the sewers of late 19th-century-London, may well
constitute the first significant STEAMPUNK novel, long before the flush
period of that subgenre in the late 1980s. But Soul Eater (1983), KWJ's
first outright horror novel, is more accomplished than any of these.KWJ's
most significant sf may lie in the thematic trilogy comprising Dr Adder
(1984) - his first novel (written 1972), long left unpublished because of
its sometimes turgid violence - The Glass Hammer (1985) and Death Arms
(1987 UK). Philip K. DICK read Dr Adder in manuscript and for years
advocated it; and it is clear why. Though the novel clearly prefigures the
under-soil airlessness of the best urban CYBERPUNK, it even more clearly
serves as a bridge between the defiant reality-testing PARANOIA of Dick's
characters and the doomed realpolitiking of the surrendered souls who
dwell in post-1984 urban sprawls. In each of these convoluted tales, set
in a devastated Somme-like NEAR-FUTURE USA, KWJ's characters seem to
vacillate between the sf traditions of resistance and cyberpunk quietism.
In worlds like these, the intermittent flashes of sf imagery or content
are unlasting consolations.Although sometimes technically sf, KWJ's later
novels have altogether abandoned the consolations of sf. Dark Seeker
(1987) is a horror novel about DRUGS which invokes Charles Manson.
Infernal Devices: A Mad Victorian Fantasy (1987) is another steampunk
tale, quite hilarious at points, but not reassuring in its use of sf
devices that its protagonist signally misunderstands. Mantis (1987) is
again horror, as are In the Land of the Dead (1989 UK), The Night Man
(1990) and Wolf Flow (1992). Only Madlands (1991), set in a parodic,
ENTROPY-choked Disneyland-like Los Angeles, and Farewell Horizontal
(1989), set in the FAR FUTURE, are sf, and their technical adventurousness
does not dispel the sense that KWJ is making a slow farewell to the genre.
[JC]Other works: Alien Nation #2: Dark Horizon * (1993); Star Trek: Deep
Space Nine #3: Bloodletter * (1993).About the author: A Checklist of K.W.
Jeter (1991 chap) by Tom Joyce and Christopher P. STEPHENS.See also: CRIME




It's well known that many female SF writers had to use pseudonyms in
order to get work published. It’s less known that Jewish SF writers were
pressured to use less Jewish-sounding names for their bylines.John W.
Campbell, editor of Astounding, even tried to convince Isaac Asimov to
adopt a less "foreign-sounding" byline. However, Campbell was among the
few who allowed writer Horace Gold to use his own name on his stories.The
reason? Gold had taken the pseudonym "Clyde Crane Campbell" and John
Campbell didn’t want someone with his own name in the pages of Astounding.


In 1969 the late Donald Wilson, University Librarian at the University of
California, Riverside Library (now the Tomas Rivera Library), purchased a
COLLECTION of 7500 volumes of sf and fantasy from the estate of J. Lloyd
Eaton MD. Eaton had for several decades collected many rare and unusual
monographs of sf, including such items as Varney the Vampire (1847) and
Frank AUBREY's King of the Dead (1903), ceasing his active interest in the
field about 1956. For the first decade after its purchase, the collection
remained in storage, uncatalogued and inaccessible to researchers. In 1978
Robert REGINALD and George Edgar SLUSSER successfully proposed an annual
conference centred on the Eaton Collection, and in 1979 Slusser was
appointed Curator. Simultaneously the Rivera Library began actively
cataloguing the newer parts of the collection, while making retrospective
purchases of missing items and adding current materials. Cataloguing of
the old books was completed with a federal grant in the late 1980s;
unfortunately, the Dictionary Catalog of the J. Lloyd Eaton Collection of
Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, University of California,
Riverside (3 vols 1982) was compiled long before the task had been
completed.The collection now includes 100,000+ items, having been
supplemented with the acquisition of the Douglas MENVILLE collection
(10,000 paperbacks and esoterica), the Terry CARR collection (20,000
FANZINES), the Rick Sneary (1927-1990) collection (40,000 fanzines) and
the manuscripts of several contemporary sf writers, plus 10,000 superhero
COMICS, 10,000 boys' books, 500 shooting scripts of sf and fantasy films,
the Michael CASSUTT collection of screenplays and teleplays, and some
foreign-language material. Access to this, the largest academic library
collection of fantastic literature, is available to legitimate scholars
and to members of the university community. [RR]

JOE 90
UK tv series (1968-9). A Century 21 Production for ITC/ATV. Devised by
Gerry and Sylvia ANDERSON, prod David Lane (with Reg Hill as executive
prod). Script editor Tony Barwick. Dirs included Peter Anderson, Leo
Eaton, Alan Perry, Desmond Saunders. Writers included Barwick, Shane
Rimmer, Gerry and Sylvia Anderson. 30 25min episodes. Colour.This was the
last and one of the least popular of the sf animated-puppet series made
for children in "SuperMarionation" by the Andersons - though TERRAHAWKS
(1983-6), in which the puppets were electronically operated in a process
Anderson called "Supermacromation", was still to come. The hero, Joe, is a
9-year-old boy whose scientist father has devised a method of transferring
specialist brain patterns into his mind, armed with which (looking
innocent) he becomes a test pilot, a brain surgeon and so on, working as a
special agent for the World Intelligence Network. J90 collapsed after 1
season, perhaps because it appeared more childish than most of its
immediate predecessors in the SuperMarionation tv shows. There were two
novelizations: Joe 90 and the Raiders * (1968) by Tom Sullivan and Joe 90
in Revenge * (1969) by Howard Elson. [PN]

Pseudonym of Swedish scientist and writer Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven
(1908-1995), winner of the 1970 Nobel Prize for Physics. His sf novel,
Sagan om den stora datamasknen (1966; trans as The Big Computer: A Vision
1968 UK; vt The Tale of the Great Computer: A Vision 1968 US; vt The End
of Man? 1969 US) purports to be a history of Earth written in the future
by a COMPUTER (or perhaps by a human). Its drily witty fundamental premise
is that mankind is merely an intermediate step in the EVOLUTION of
MACHINES. [JC/PN]Other works: Varlden-spegelvarlden: Kosmologi och
antimateria (1966 trans as Worlds-Antiworlds: Antimatter in Cosmology 1966
US), as by H. Alfven, nonfiction.See also: AUTOMATION; CYBERNETICS;


George LOCKE.

Pseudonym used for collaborations between Kenneth BULMER and John NEWMAN
on a long series of science-fact articles for NW and Nebula 1955-61. [JC]


(1893-1968) UK writer who began producing boys' action adventures in
1930; his total output exceeded 200 volumes. He became famous in
particular for the 80 or more Biggles novels, of which two - Biggles Hits
the Trail (1935) and Biggles - Charter Pilot: The Adventures of Biggles &
Co on a World-Wide Cruise of Scientific Investigation (1943) - have some
sf content. Of WEJ's other works, of particular sf interest is the "Tiger"
Clinton sequence: Kings of Space (1954), Return to Mars (1955), Now to the
Stars (1956), To Outer Space (1957), The Edge of Beyond (1958), The Death
Rays of Ardilla (1959), To Worlds Unknown (1960), The Quest for the
Perfect Planet (1961), Worlds of Wonder (coll 1962) and The Man who
Vanished into Space (1963). These novels feature "Tiger" Clinton, his son
Rex and Professor Brane, the first humans in space, who meet strange new
races and become caught up in interplanetary war. [AC/JC]

(1949- ) US writer whose second novel, Fiskadoro (1985), is set in post-
HOLOCAUST Key West, where an aged inhabitant confuses the desolate USA
with Vietnam, where she lived during the US action. For sf readers, that
is likely to be the only innovation apparent in this intensely conceived
tale, but it is striking. [JC]

(1929- ) US writer who wrote 3 sf stories for GAMMA 1963-5 and was
co-author with William F. NOLAN of Logan's Run (1967), which was filmed as
LOGAN'S RUN (1976) and inspired a tv series. Scripts and Stories Written
for The Twilight Zone (coll 1977) and Writing for The Twilight Zone (coll
1981) assemble scripts created for that programme. He also wrote at least
one script for STAR TREK. [JC]See also: OVERPOPULATION.

(1944- ) US writer who began publishing sf with his first novel, Daystar
and Shadow (1981), in which a post- HOLOCAUST USA is depicted. More
interesting, though the voltage of innovation remains low, is Trekmaster
(1987), set on a rediscovered colony planet whose inhabitants are divided
over the issue of reunion with the Galactic Federation; included are some
dynastic romance, a rite of passage and a cohabiting ALIEN species.
Further novels in the same general vein, though showing an increasing
competence, are Mindhopper (1988), Habu (1989) and A World Lost (1991).

Working name of US bibliographer Kenneth R. Johnson (? - ), whose main
work, undertaken with Jerry BOYAJIAN, has been a series of indexes to the
SF MAGAZINES: Index to the Science Fiction Magazines 1977 (1982 chap),
1978 (1982 chap), 1979 (1981 chap), 1980 (1981 chap), 1981 (1982 chap),
1982 (1983 chap) and 1984 (1985 chap). Both authors also began an
associated enterprise comprising Index to the Semi-Professional Fantasy
Magazines, 1982 (1983 chap) and Index to the Semi-Professional Magazines,
1983 (1984 chap). With Hal W. HALL and George Michaels he compiled The
Science Fiction Magazines: A Bibliographical Checklist of Titles and
Issues through 1983 (1983 chap).KJ is not to be confused with the UK
horror writer Kenneth R(ayner) Johnson (? - ), author of Zoltan, Hound of
Dracula * (1977; vt Hounds of Dracula 1977 US; vt Dracula's Dog 1977 US),
The Succubus (1979) and The Cheshire Cat (1983 US). [JC]

(1905- ) UK writer whose In the Time of the Thetans (1961) features
unpleasant Thetans, who resemble starfish. [JC]

(1878-1952) US writer in various genres. The protagonist of The Coming of
the Amazons: A Satiristic Speculation on the Scientific Future of
Civilization (1931) finds on awakening in AD2181 from SUSPENDED ANIMATION
that women rule and that a simple sex-role reversal accounts for
humiliating changes in masculine behaviour. He resists vigorously, but
without success. Unlike most stories on this theme, the book treats women
with some sympathy. [JC]

(1709-1784) UK poet, critic, lexicographer and author of one novel, The
Prince of Abissinia: A Tale (1759; rev 1759; vt The History of Rasselas,
Prince of Abissinia: An Asiatic Tale 1768 US; vt The History of Rasselas,
Prince of Abissinia: A Tale 1787 UK), written to pay for his mother's
funeral (he got ps100 for the first printing). It is of interest to the
student of PROTO SCIENCE FICTION for its sustained meditation on the
nature of and chances of obtaining human happiness (see also UTOPIAS;
DYSTOPIAS). The initial setting of the tale is a secret valley, from which
Rasselas hopes to escape in a flying machine (in the event it fails - SJ's
spirit was inimical to unsustained flights of fancy); also featured is an
astronomer who believes himself responsible for weather control. The book
is an archetypal example of the important sf theme of CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH. The most attractive 20th-century critical edition was ed
1927 by R.W. Chapman; a useful recent critical edition was ed 1977 by
Geoffrey Tillotson and Brian Jenkins. [JC/PN]See also: ASTRONOMY;

(? -? ) UK writer, mostly of novels for older children, including The
Mountain Kingdom (1888), a Jules VERNE-style LOST-WORLD tale whose young
protagonists travel into the Kingdom of the Smoking Mountains (in Tibet),
which is inhabited by descendents of ancient Greeks; our heroes thwart a
rebellion against the monarch. The Paradise of the North (1890; cut 1894)
similarly uncovers a lost world, but this time at the North Pole and
inhabited by Norsemen. The White Princess of the Hidden City (1898)
uncovers yet another, now in Central America and inhabited by Whites whose
claim to the Americas - in accordance with 19th-century fantasies of
racial justice - is found to antedate that of the Amerindians. [JC]

(1938- ) US writer who has written at least 85 novels since his first in
1980, being best known for Westerns; he has also written some horror. His
Ashes sequence of SURVIVALIST-FICTION military post- HOLOCAUST sf novels
comprises Out of the Ashes (1983), Fire in the Ashes (1984), Anarchy in
the Ashes (1984), Blood in the Ashes (1985), Alone in the Ashes (1985),
Wind in the Ashes (1986), Smoke from the Ashes (1987), Danger in the Ashes
(1988), Valor in the Ashes (1988), Trapped in the Ashes (1989), Death in
the Ashes (1990), Survival in the Ashes (1990),Fury in the Ashes (1991),
Courage in the Ashes (1992), Terror in the Ashes (1992), Battle in the
Ashes (1993), Vengeance in the Ashes (1993), Flames from the Ashes (1993),
Treason in the Ashes (1994) and D-Day in the Ashes (1994). The premise of
the first volume is, perhaps, surprisingly frank: shocked by the
imposition of gun control, a group of patriotric US citizens bring about
the nuclear holocaust in the expectation that a better world will,
phoenix-style, be born. The remaining volumes of the sequence attempt to
demonstrate how right they were. [JC]Other works: The Devil series,
comprising The Devil's Kiss (1980), The Devil's Heart (1983), The Devil's
Touch (1984) and The Devil's Cat (1987); Wolfsbane (1982); The Uninvited
(1982); Crying Shame (1983); Nursery (1983); Sweet Dreams (1985); Cat's
Cradle (1986); Jack-in-the-Box (1986); Rockinghorse (1986); Baby Grand
(1987) with Joseph E. Keene; Sandman (1988); Carnival (1989); Cat's Eye
(1989); Darkly the Thunder (1990); Watchers in the Woods (1991); The
Devil's Laughter (1992); Them (1992); Bats (1993); Night Mask (1994).

Award for the best new sf writer of the year, selected by votes of sf
fans and presented at the World Sf CONVENTION during the HUGO ceremony.
Sponsored by Conde-Nast, publishers of Analog, the JWCA was instituted in
1972 in tribute to John W. CAMPBELL Jr, its celebrated editor, who died in
1971. Davis Publications continued the sponsorship when Analog passed into
their hands. The anthology series NEW VOICES, ed George R.R. MARTIN, was
devoted to printing original novellas (written a few years later) by, in
each volume, a given year's finalists; it ceased after 5 vols. Several of
the winners were at the time of receiving the JWCA primarily fantasy
writers. [PR/PN]Winners:1973: Jerry POURNELLE1974: Lisa TUTTLE and Spider
ROBINSON1975: P.J. Plauger1976: Tom REAMY1977: C.J. CHERRYH1978: Orson
Scott CARD1979: Stephen R. DONALDSON1980: Barry B. LONGYEAR1981: Somtow
Sucharitkul (S.P. SOMTOW)1982: Alexis GILLILAND1983: Paul O. WILLIAMS1984:
R.A. MACAVOY1985: Lucius SHEPARD1986: Melissa SCOTT1987: Karen Joy
FOWLER1988: Judith MOFFETT1989: Michaela Roessner1990: Kristine Kathryn
RUSCH1991: Julia Ecklar1992: Ted Chiang1993: Laura Resnick1994: Amy
ThomsonSee also: WOMEN SF WRITERS.

Created by Harry HARRISON and Brian W. ALDISS, this is given annually in
July for the best sf novel of the previous year published in English,
selected by a committee of academic critics and sf writers. The membership
of the jury has undergone a number of changes, and the award has been
variously administered from first the USA, then the UK, Ireland, Sweden
and then back to the USA at the University of Kansas at Lawrence in 1979,
since when the committee has been chaired by James E. GUNN. The selections
have at times been criticized as overintellectual; the first was judged by
some to be untrue to the memory of Campbell. (In response, one judge
commented that it was no good trying to guess what Campbell would have
chosen; the only honest thing to do was to choose for oneself: "You can't
second-guess the dead.") The award, which has not been well publicized,
got off to a shaky start, but there is certainly room for an award voted
on by a small panel of experts, as opposed to fans (the HUGO) or writers
(the NEBULA). The winning books have generally been in interesting
contrast to the Hugo and Nebula winners, and include distinguished work
that might otherwise have largely escaped notice. [PN]Winners:1973: Barry
N. MALZBERG, Beyond Apollo; special trophy for excellence in writing to
MERLE, Malevil (tie)1975: Philip K. DICK, Flow My Tears, the Policeman
Said1976: Wilson TUCKER, The Year of the Quiet Sun (special retrospective
award)1977: Kingsley AMIS, The Alteration1978: Frederik POHL, GATEWAY1979:
Michael MOORCOCK, Gloriana1980: Thomas M. DISCH, ON WINGS OF SONG1981:
W. ALDISS, HELLICONIA SPRING1984: Gene WOLFE, The Citadel of the
Autarch1985: Frederik Pohl, The Years of the City1986: David BRIN, The
Postman1987: Joan SLONCZEWSKI, A Door Into Ocean1988: Connie WILLIS,
Lincoln's Dreams1989: Bruce STERLING, ISLANDS IN THE NET1990: Geoff RYMAN,
The Child Garden1991: Kim Stanley ROBINSON, Pacific Edge1992: Bradley
Brother to Dragons1994: No award

(1825-1904) Very prolific Hungarian novelist, the dominant literary
figure of 19th-century HUNGARY, frequently translated and still very
highly regarded. Many of his 100 or more novels are violent historical
tales, full of catastrophic incident. Az aranyember (1872; trans Mrs H.
Kennard as Timar's Two Worlds 1888 UK), which contrasts a hectic and
hysterical urban life with an idyllic UTOPIA established on an "ownerless
island" in the Danube, is not really sf, despite the title of its first
English translation. MJ did, however, write a number of anticipations in
novels and in short fiction, few of which have been translated into
English but many into German. Tales from Jokai (coll trans R. Nisbet Bain
1904 UK) contains "The City and the Beast" (1858), which deals with
ATLANTIS and its destruction, plus three contes cruels. An untranslated
novel, Oceania (1846), is also about Atlantis. The most important sf by
MJ, likewise untranslated into English, is A jovo szazad regenye ["The
Novel of the Next Century"] (1872), a dazzlingly inventive 3-vol novel of
the future. Egesz az eszaki polusig ["All the Way to the North Pole"]
(1876) is also sf, featuring SUSPENDED ANIMATION; Ahol a penz nem Isten
["Where Money is not a God"] (1904) is a utopian ROBINSONADE; Fekete
gyemantok (1870; trans A. Gerard as Black Diamonds 1896) has a scientist
seeking to create a utopia; it is partly set in an Arctic sea.
[PN/JC]Other work: Told by the Death's Head (trans 1902 of Egy hirhedett
kalandor a tizenhetedil szazadbol 1904).

(1917-1981) UK writer who served as an officer in the Royal Navy in WWII
and was variously employed afterwards. He began publishing sf with the
first - and best - volume of his Colossus trilogy, Colossus (1966),
effectively filmed as COLOSSUS, THE FORBIN PROJECT (1969). In both book
and film, Charles Forbin has helped to create a master COMPUTER designed
to coordinate all the defences of the Western World; however, the Soviets
have been building a similar computer, Guardian. In an impressive scene,
the two computers exchange information. Soon Colossus gains consciousness
and takes over the world. The sequels, The Fall of Colossus (1974 US) and
Colossus and the Crab (1977 US), expand from the first volume (in the
process diluting its admonitory impact) by introducing complicated plots,
religious sects that worship Colossus, and irritated Martians; ultimately
everything comes to a transcendental stop. Some of DFJ's other novels are
of interest. In Implosion (1967) most women have become sterile, those who
remain fertile being tied to a grimly DYSTOPIAN regime. Denver is Missing
(1971 US; vt Don't Pick the Flowers 1971 UK) subjects the city to
geological devastation. Earth Has Been Found (1979 US; vt Xeno 1979 UK)
burdens an unsuspecting Earth with an alien INVASION. All these later
novels succumb with excessive ease to a slick gloominess, caught in which
his characters show little scope for action or development, and by the end
of his career his work had lost most of its initial glum panache.
[JC]Other works: The Floating Zombie (1975); Bound in Time (1981).See

(1934- ) UK writer whose name is sometimes incorrectly rendered as Diana
Wynne-Jones, although not on her books; probably the premier UK writer of
children's FANTASY today. She began her writing career as a playwright,
with three plays produced in London 1967-70, then published her first
novel (for adults and not sf), Changeover (1970). Her second, Wilkin's
Tooth (1973; vt Witch's Business 1974 US), was for children (as opposed to
teenagers), as were her next half-dozen or so. She hit her stride with her
third novel, The Ogre Downstairs (1974), which is very funny indeed about
the results of children playing with a magic alchemy set while at the same
time dealing honestly and movingly with some quite difficult human
problems. DWJ went on to write stories which, no matter how indirect or
devious their plots, always maintain an extraordinarily clearsighted
directness about sometimes painful human relationships.All her work for
children is fantastic, and most is shot through with HUMOUR; some is
fantasy with sf elements (precognition, ALTERNATE WORLDS); some is
borderline sf; some is sf proper. Dogsbody (1975), borderline sf, features
the incarnation of the star Sirius, exiled for an alleged murder, into the
body of a terrestrial dog. The Homeward Bounders (1981) features a child
trapped in a seemingly endless series of PARALLEL WORLDS. Perhaps DWJ's
best sf novel is Archer's Goon (1984), a splendidly convoluted mystery
involving TIME PARADOXES, alternate worlds, PARANOIA, writer's block and a
cheerful thug; it was dramatized by the BBC as a six-part tv serial in
1992. A Tale of Time City (1987), her most overtly sciencefictional story,
concerns a city outside time having trouble with the fabric of reality as
it sends patrollers up and down the time-stream.Fine fantasies from the
1970s include: Eight Days of Luke (1975), which has Norse gods amusingly
manifest on Earth; the Dalemark sequence, comprising Cart and Cwidder
(1975), Drowned Ammet (1977), The Spellcoats (1979) - one of her best
books, being set in the mythic prehistory of the other two - and The Crown
of Dalemark (1993); and Power of Three (1976), which regards humans from
an alien (or fairy) perspective.Through the 1980s DWJ's target audience
seemed, mostly, to become older. This is the case with The Time of the
Ghost (1981), perhaps her darkest work, and especially of her moving
reworking of the old ballad "Tam Lin" in Fire and Hemlock (1985). Other
good books of the period include the intricate Howl's Moving Castle (1986)
and its sequel Castle in the Air (1990). Her best-known series is the
Chrestomanci sequence: Charmed Life (1977), The Magicians of Caprona
(1980), Witch Week (1982) and The Lives of Christopher Chant (1988 US);
Chrestomanci is an enchanter who polices MAGIC across the parallel worlds.
Black Maria (1991; vt Aunt Maria 1991 US) has children trapped in a
seaside town held under the magical sway of their appalling aunt.Hidden
Turnings (anth 1989) is an ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGY of fantasy stories for
teenagers. A new departure is DWJ's fantasy for adults A Sudden Wild Magic
(1992 US), in which an alternate world planet has been using Earth as a
testing ground, thus generating much of the strife and tragedy of Earth's
history. [PN]Other works:Who Got Rid of Angus Flint? (1978 chap); The Four
Grannies (1980 chap); Warlock at the Wheel, and Other Stories (coll 1984),
containing a Chrestomanci story; The Skivers' Guide (1984); Wild Robert
(1989 chap); Chair Person (1989 chap); Hexwood (1993); Fantasy Stories
(anth 1994), containing reprints.See also: CHILDREN'S SF; GODS AND DEMONS;

(1935- ) UK illustrator. One of the most prolific UK sf artists, EJ is
also one of the few in the field to be self-taught. His first professional
work was published in 1958 in Nebula and NW. He illustrated part-time
until 1969, when he became art director for VISION OF TOMORROW. He has
done sf covers for many publishers in the UK and Germany - notably Sphere
Books in the UK and Bastei Verlag, Fischer and Pabel in Germany - as well
as elsewhere, including the USA. His style is representational and uses
rich, glowing colours; he is best known for SPACESHIPS and other forms of
space hardware. [JG]

(? - ) UK writer of The Dome (1968), in which the eponymous brain is in
charge of a future city. [PN]

(1952- ) UK writer who became best known in the 1980s for three complex
adult sf novels, though most of her books have been juveniles, beginning
with Water in the Air (1977), a fantasy. From her fourth novel, Dear Hill
(1980), she has written sf and fantasy exclusively. Ally Ally Aster (1981)
and The Alder Tree (1982), both as by Ann Halam, exploit Norse and Gothic
material. King Death's Garden (1986), as by Halam, is a darkly subtle,
smoothly stark ghost story set in Brighton, where GJ lived. Set in post-
HOLOCAUST Inland, which is governed on deep-ecology lines by women, the
Zanne series - The Daymaker (1987), Transformations (1988) and The
Skybreaker (1990), all as by Halam - is bracingly sf. Young rebellious
Zanne slowly learns to control her innate rapport with the forbidden
high-tech artifacts of the old patriarchal world-destroying hegemony, and
becomes, willy-nilly and by protracted stages, an active agent in the sane
preservation of Inland. GJ's only 1980s juvenile under her own name, The
Hidden Ones (1988), is a contemporary urban fantasy. In Dinosaur Junction
(1992), as Halam, the young protagonist is confronted with dilemmas
relating to TIME TRAVEL and meets a dinosaur.GJ's first novel for adults,
DIVINE ENDURANCE (1984), remains her most widely admired. Like the Zanne
books, it is set in a post-holocaust land governed by a matriarchy, but
neither setting nor premise are presented with the clarity appropriate in
a juvenile text. No dates are given, but GJ's enormously complex Southeast
Asia venue has a dying-Earth ( FAR FUTURE) feel; and the matriarchical
society she depicts is riven by profound ambivalences. The protagonist, a
female android named Chosen Among the Beautiful, and the eponymous cat
which accompanies her, dangerously agitate the scene by arriving in it,
and a civil conflict begins to devastate the long polity of the land. The
hard melancholy and sustained density of the book are unique in recent sf.
Technically a sequel, Flowerdust (1993) - the title refers to a drug -
expands a background episode from the first book.Escape Plans (1986)
attempts some of the same density of effect through an acronym-heavy style
and a bruising presentation of the COMPUTER-run DYSTOPIAN world in which
the action takes place, but the sacrificial descent from other-world
luxury of the female protagonist and her implication in an inevitable
revolt have little of the resonance of her predecessor's structurally
identical gift of self. Kairos (1988), along with the first two books
-Flowerdust is a sidebar title, and should not be considered part of the
pattern being described - makes up a kind of thematic trilogy featuring
profoundly divided women who descend into the world and redeem it - is set
in a NEAR-FUTURE UK degenerating into fascism or anarchy. The title of the
book is a theological term designating the moment of fullness in time when
Christ appears, and clearly glosses the dramatic centre of each volume of
the implied trilogy. In this case the female protagonist descends into the
disintegrating UK's netherworld through ingesting a drug, Kairos, which
literally recasts reality around her. The world she creates is cleansed of
the grosser forms of evil. WHITE QUEEN (1991) moves beyond the pattern of
the previous books, confronting its protagonists (and the planet) with an
INVASION of ALIENS who themselves rewrite human perceptions of, and
therefore the rules that bind, reality. In 1992 the book shared the first
James Tiptree, Jr. Award with Eleanor ARNASON's A WOMAN OF THE IRON PEOPLE
(1991). A sequel, North Wind (1994), reworks the basic thematic material
some decades further into the ambivalent engagement of human and alien.In
her adult novels GJ is a writer of nearly unforgiving intensity, and on
occasion an incompetent story-teller; her very occasional short fiction,
assembled as Identifying the Object (coll 1993 chap US), confirms a sense
that she is most comfortable at lengths which give her room to think hard,
and perhaps recklessly. But the rewards for understanding her are so
considerable that the task of learning how to do so seems light enough.
[JC]Other works: The Influence of Ironwood (1978) and The Exchange (1979),
associational juveniles.See also: AUTOMATION; CYBORGS; INTERZONE; WOMEN AS

(1942- ) UK short-story writer, editor and musician, strongly associated
with NEW WORLDS during its NEW-WAVE period both as contributor - he
published all his sf stories there, beginning with "Storm Water Tunnel" in
1964 - and in various editorial capacities. His most memorable work, most
of it experimental in form and characterized by a strongly angular
narrative style, appears in The Eye of the Lens (coll 1972). LJ's wide
taste as an editor was demonstrated in The New SF (anth 1969); he also
collaborated with Michael MOORCOCK in assembling The Nature of the
Catastrophe (anth 1971), which contained a number of Jerry Cornelius
stories from NW written by Moorcock and others. The first published
version of Mervyn PEAKE's Titus Alone (1959) had been heavily edited
because of Peake's degenerative illness, and LJ was responsible for the
reconstruction work resulting in the posthumous 1970 publication of the
definitive version of the book. [JC]See also: ARTS; MUSIC.

(? - ) UK writer and lecturer in human communication studies. In The Day
They Put Humpty Together Again (1968; vt Transplant 1968 US)
prosthetic-surgery techniques are used to wire an artist's head to a
criminal's libidinous torso. Through the Budgerigar (1970) is a fantasy.

(1922- ) UK writer best known for his many novels outside the sf field
and for journalism with the political magazine New Statesman. On the Last
Day (1958) is a NEAR-FUTURE story about attempts during WWIII to build a
new intercontinental missile. [JC]

(1909-1988) US writer who until his retirement in 1973 worked as a New
York State unemployment insurance claims investigator. His first story,
"The Death's Head Meteor" (the first sf story to use the word "astronaut")
for Air Wonder Stories in 1930, shares with almost all his fiction a very
generalized common background, a future HISTORY-one of the earliest seen
in US genre sf - which is given some explanation in "Time's Mausoleum"
(1933), a story from the Professor Jameson series. Against a background of
epic advances and conflicts in the 24th and 26th centuries, Professor
Jameson arranges for his corpse to be preserved indefinitely in orbit.
After millions of years, long after all other humans have died, he is
woken by the ROBOT Zoromes, which encase his brain in metal and give him
the chance to travel the Universe in search of knowledge and adventure. He
embraces the opportunity. The first Jameson story, "The Jameson
Satellite", dates from 1931. Most of the pre-WWII stories in the series
appeared in AMZ, and most of the somewhat inferior later instalments in
Super Science Stories and Astonishing Stories. The first 16 stories of the
sequence were collected much later as The Planet of the Double Sun (coll
1967), The Sunless World (coll 1967), Space War (coll 1967), Twin Worlds
(coll 1967) and Doomsday on Ajiat (coll 1968 including 2 previously
unpublished stories). The stories that did not reach book form are "The
Cat-Men of Aemt" (1940), "Cosmic Derelict" (1941), "Slaves of the Unknown"
(1942), "Parasite Planet" (1949), "World without Darkness" (1950), "The
Mind Masters" (1950) and "The Star Killers" (1951); of the 7 further
hitherto-unpublished stories "Exiles from Below" appeared in the
SEMIPROZINE Astro-Adventures in 1987.NRJ was a vigorous, straightforward
writer whose style and concerns were typical of the first blossoming of sf
at the end of the 1920s. [JC]See also: CYBORGS; IMMORTALITY; UNDER THE

(1915-1994) US writer, very active for about 15 years after he first
appeared in ASF in 1941 with "Test of the Gods". He was virtually silent
in the 1960s; some novels appeared in the 1970s. His best-known short
story is the witty "Noise Level" (1952), an archetypal ASF tale of
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH, scientific advance taking place through
destruction of a previous paradigm: SCIENTISTS are told that ANTIGRAVITY
exists, and so proceed to invent it. The story had two sequels, "Trade
Secret" (1953) and "The School" (1954). During his most prolific - and
most exciting - period he wrote 1 story, "Utility" (1944), under the
pseudonym David Anderson. Two collections, The Toymaker (coll 1951) and
The Non-Statistical Man (coll 1964), gather much of this work.RFJ's first
novel, also from that time, is probably his best. Renaissance (1944 ASF;
1951; vt Man of Two Worlds 1963) is a long, complicated PARALLEL-WORLDS
adventure with an exciting narrative - WAR, superscience and echoes of
nuclear HOLOCAUST - and a number of lively variations on favourite sf
themes. The Alien (1951), the story of the discovery of an ancient ALIEN
artifact in the ASTEROID belt, likewise displays strong narrative drive.
This Island Earth (1949-50 TWS; fixup 1952) begins with beleaguered ALIENS
secretly using human scientists in order to resist an enemy in an
intergalactic war which threatens to engulf Earth. The protagonist finally
persuades them that, by allowing their tactics to be dictated by vast
COMPUTERS, they have become predictable to the enemy. But he may be too
late. The film version, THIS ISLAND EARTH (1954), begins well but loses
interest when it diverges - perhaps inevitably-from the book.RFJ's 1950s
juveniles are also good. They are Son of the Stars (1952), Planet of Light
(1953) and The Year when Stardust Fell (1958).After The Secret People
(1956; vt The Deviates 1959) and The Cybernetic Brains (1950 Startling
Stories; 1962) RFJ became comparatively inactive, and more recent novels,
like Syn (1969) and Weeping May Tarry (1978), the latter with Lester DEL
REY, show a much diminished energy. Though not generally an innovator in
the field, RFJ, during his first period of activity, produced solid, well
crafted HARD-SF adventures. [JC/PN]Other works: Voyage to the Bottom of
the Sea * (1965), a tie to the tv series VOYAGE TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA;
Moonbase One (1971); Renegades of Time (1975 Canada); The King of Eolim
(1975 Canada); The River and the Dream (1977 Canada).See also: ASTOUNDING

[r] Richard GLYN JONES.

(1934- ) US journalist (with Time-Life) and writer whose sf novel, Blood
Sport: A Journey up the Hassayampa (1974; vt Ratnose 1975 UK), follows a
man and his son up the Hassayampa River, along whose banks the future, the
present and the past exist simultaneously, together with every imaginable
culture as well as the villain Ratnose, against whom the protagonists must
prove themselves. [JC]

(1942- ) US poet and novelist, best known for the FEMINIST energy of her
first novel, Fear of Flying (1971). Her only tale of genre interest,
Serenissima (1987), is a timeslip fantasy with some sf language
inattentively buttressing the premise. The protagonist, haunted amid the
playfully sketched glitterati of the Venice film festival, slips back to
the 16th century ( TIME TRAVEL), where she meets a vacationing Shakespeare
and has sex with him. Dying, she is - anticlimactically - reborn in the
here and now. [JC/JG]


Floating PSEUDONYM first used in the ZIFF-DAVIS magazines AMAZING STORIES
Its main user was Paul W. FAIRMAN (whom see for details), who employed it
for 3 books: Ten from Infinity (1963; vt The Deadly Sky 1971; vt Ten
Deadly Men 1976), Rest in Agony (1963; vt The Diabolist 1972) and Whom the
Gods Would Slay (1951 Fantastic Adventures; 1968). One of Fairman's
stories as by IJ, "Deadly City" (1953 If), was filmed as TARGET EARTH!
(1954). Other writers who may have used the name IJ include Harlan
ELLISON, Randall GARRETT and Robert SILVERBERG, although IJ should not be
confused with Ivar Jorgenson, a later pseudonym of Silverberg's. [BS]

[s] Robert SILVERBERG.

(1914-1981) UK-born and Oxford-educated New Zealand writer and professor
of English; his first novels were not sf. The Hole in the Zero (1967 UK)
begins as an apparently typical SPACE-OPERA adventure into further
dimensions at the edge of the Universe, but quickly reveals itself as a
linguistically brilliant, complex exploration of the nature of the four
personalities involved as they begin out of their own resources to shape
the low-probability regions into which they have tumbled. Ultimately the
novel takes on allegorical overtones. As an examination of the
metaphorical potentials of sf language and subject matter, it is a
significant contribution to the field. In 1969 MKJ also produced a
scholarly edition of Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein(1818). [JC]Other works:
The Time of Achamoth (1977).See also: FANTASTIC VOYAGES; NEW ZEALAND.


US academic critical journal sponsored by the International Association
for the Fantastic in the Arts, current, theoretically quarterly but
irregular after the first 4 issues (1988), with a further 6 issues during
1989-1991. Then the schedule became more regular, and the journal had
reached #21 (Vol 6, no 1) by 1994. Vol 1 #1-#4 published M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
, New York, subsequent issues by Orion Publishing, New York. Executive ed
Carl B. YOKE; other eds Marshall B. TYMN, Roger SCHLOBIN and Robert A.
Collins and later Charles A. Meyer.This comparatively recent addition to
the specialist academic journals dealing with sf ( EXTRAPOLATION;
FOUNDATION; SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES) has, on the whole, been vigorous and
(mostly) eschews excessive critical jargon. Because its remit includes the
whole range of the fantastic, including not only sf but also FANTASY,
HORROR and FABULATION, it has a certain amplitude the others lack -
usefully so in a period of literary history when generic boundaries are
rapidly dissolving - but by the same token it sometimes appears unfocused.
However, some of the issues have been thematic, vol 1 #4 being about
POSTMODERNISM, vol 2 #2 about CINEMA, vol 2 #3 about Doris LESSING and vol
3 #1 about art, for example. The portfolios of fantastic art have been
largely disastrous, but otherwise JOTFITA seems a promising addition to
the field. [PN]

Semi-annual SEMIPROZINE from a SMALL PRESS in paperback-book form
("bookazine"), Winter 1989-Summer/Fall 1990, 3 issues only, published and
ed from California and Colorado by Andy Watson and MARK V. ZIESING. This
hip, elegant and short-lived periodical ran fiction by a mixture of
interesting new writers and better known names (like Paul Di Filippo,
Colin GREENLAND, Rudy RUCKER and Lewis SHINER), interviews (William
BURROUGHS and others) and commentary by Lucius SHEPARD and others on
politics, rock'n'roll, movies and even sf. At 363pp, the last issue was
very big. Some stories are sf. If the term NEW WAVE were still used, this
would have been a new-wave magazine. [PN]


SPACE 1999.

Film (1959). 20th Century-Fox. Prod Charles Brackett. Dir Henry Levin,
starring Pat Boone, James Mason, Arlene Dahl, Thayer David, Peter Ronson,
Diane Baker. Screenplay Walter Reisch, Brackett, based on Voyage au centre
de la terre (1864) by Jules VERNE. 132 mins. Colour.A lively and literate
screenplay (cowritten by producer Brackett, one of the Hollywood giants),
vigorous if stereotyped characterization, good performances and a charming
duck called Gertrud make this superior among the numerous Verne
adaptations of the 1950s. There is a real SENSE OF WONDER in some of the
underground sequences - which involve labyrinthine caverns, a great ocean
at the centre of the HOLLOW EARTH, the remains of ATLANTIS and statutory
dinosaurs (iguanas with fins attached) - though the special effects are
uneven. The escape from the centre riding a lava jet on an Atlantean altar
of serpentine up a presumably 3,900-mile (6,250km) volcanic shaft is
merely absurd; but, despite plot changes - including a rival expedition
led by a satisfyingly villainous Icelander played by David - JTTCOTE, set
in the 1880s, is true in spirit to its stirring original. [PN]

Film (1967). Borealis/Dorad. Dir David L. Hewitt, starring Scott Brady,
Gigi Perreau, Anthony Eisley, Abraham Sofaer. Screenplay David Prentiss.
82 mins. Colour.Hewitt had been co-screenwriter and special-effects
director of The TIME TRAVELERS (1964), dir Ib Melchior, and JTTCOT is a
remake of the earlier film. A pointless, low-budget exercise, certainly no
better than the original, it does contain an additional sequence - a
battle against a dinosaur - set in the past. [PN]


Pseudonym of F.J. Stimson. Robert GRANT.

Film (1978). Waley-Malin Production/Megalovision. Written and dir Derek
Jarman, starring Jenny Runacre, Little Nell, Toyah Willcox, Jordan,
Orlando, Richard O'Brien, Ian Charleson, Adam Ant. 104 mins. Colour.This
was the first solo film by Jarman, one of the doyens of gay, experimental
and gender-bending cinema in the UK. The film, which displays a strong
sense of irony about the glories of England, was made to be released just
in time for Queen Elizabeth II's Jubilee celebrations. Queen Elizabeth I
(Runacre) is given the power to glimpse the future. This is (for us) a
NEAR-FUTURE London which is decayed, punk and anarchic, though retaining a
certain youthful energy (most characters being in their early 20s). The
forced decadence of the action is more middle-class Chelsea than
streetwise, and the film - with all its orgies, its castrations, its
shootings and its music arranged by Brian Eno - is theatrical high camp.

Pseudonym used for their 2 collaborative novels by C.M. KORNBLUTH and
Judith MERRIL (both of whom see for further details): Outpost Mars (1952;
rev vt Sin in Space 1961) and Gunner Cade (1952). [BS]

Judge (Joe) Dredd is an ultra-tough, mean, ruthless, granite-jawed lawman
of the future Mega-City One. The strip of which he is the HERO (or maybe
antihero) was created by Pat Mills, John Wagner and Carlos Ezquerra
(artist). It first appeared in 2,000 AD #2 (5 Mar 1977), drawn by Mike
McMahon, and more than 800 issues later continued to dominate that COMIC.
In a world after the atomic HOLOCAUST, the millions of survivors are
crowded into vastly overpopulated Mega- CITIES whose soaring crime rate is
dealt with by the Judges, a breed of genetically selected men and (rarely)
women. Dressed in black leather with massively chunky insignia and
exaggerated elbow-, knee- and shoulder-pads, riding heftily armoured
motorcycles with ultra-wide wheels, these law officers have the power to
dole out on-the-spot sentences ranging from multi-credit fines to life
sentences in far-flung penal colonies. Early stories featured an
occasional sidekick, Walter the Wobot, a ROBOT valet with a speech defect.
The story-lines, mostly by John Wagner and Alan Grant (variously credited
to them under their own names and a number of their pseudonyms), quickly
established a high standard of plotting and characterization, with a
significant thread of grittily humorous social SATIRE. From this fertile
source flowed a rich succession of original ideas that served to establish
JD as one of the most popular comic-strip characters ever created. Among
the Wagner-Grant collaborations has been "The Apocalypse War" (25
episodes, 1982), as by T.B. Grover. Throughout, both storytelling and
characterization have been enriched by a strong element of continuity
introduced by Pat Mills, who has also written a number of the stories,
including 19 episodes of "The Cursed Earth" (25 episodes, 1978). Artists
on JD have included Brian BOLLAND, Esquerra, Ian Gibson, John Higgins, Can
Kennedy, Brendan McCarthy, McMahon, Colin MacNeil, Ron Smith and a host of
others.A few of JD's colleagues have become prominent enough to feature in
spin-off strips of their own: Judge Anderson of PSI Division, a female
Judge with PSI POWERS; Judge Death, a Judge from another DIMENSION where
all lifeforms have been sentenced to death, a verdict he has been
empowered to enforce throughout the universes; and Judge Armour, JD's
equivalent in the city called Brit Cit.The phenomenal popularity of JD has
led to a proliferation of spin-off publications, including among others 2
monthly black-and-white reprint titles (Best of 2,000 AD Monthly, which
does not focus on JD, and The Complete Judge Dredd, which does) and more
recently a monthly Judge Dredd, The Megazine, with mostly full-colour
painted artwork, published in different formats for the UK and US editions
and featuring serial stories, some starring JD, which cross over with the
parent comic. Reprint books have been published by Titan Books in the The
Chronicles of Judge Dredd series (begun 1981) and the Judge Dredd Graphic
Paperbacks series (begun 1988), with further material constantly being
added; there are also annuals, yearbooks and other titles.A separate
company, Eagle Comics, was set up to exploit JD in the USA, reprinting his
early 2,000 AD adventures but in colour and adapted for the US comic-book
format; the practice was taken over by Quality Comics. Both enterprises
overcame the problem of incompatible page proportions by stretching the
image on a laser copier; this had the effect of making all the characters
appear tall and skinny. JD took a further ponderous step across the
international stage with the publication of a DC COMICS/Fleetway
collaboration, Judgement on Gotham (graph 1991), featuring a Judge
Dredd/Batman team-up; this was written by the Wagner-Grant team and
painted by the talented high-flier Simon Bisley. In 1993 series of novels
featuring JD was begun with The Savage Amusement * (1993) by David Bishop,
Deathmasques * (1993) by Dave Stone and Dreddlocked * (1993) by Stephen
Marley, and it was reported that a film, starring Sylvester Stallone, was
in production. [RT]See also: GAMES AND TOYS.





(1895- ) German writer whose early works reflected his experiences in
WWI. Auf den Marmorklippen (1939; trans Stuart Hood as On the Marble
Cliffs 1947 UK as by Ernst Juenger) - though its status as a classic of
resistance to Nazism has been somewhat shaken by analysis of its
broodingly passive austerity regarding political action - is a peculiarly
resonant allegory of the destruction of a civilized country by an
incursion of vandal-like conquerors. Glaserne Bienen (1957; trans Louise
Bogan and Elizabeth Mayer as The Glass Bees 1960 US as by Ernst Juenger)
also applies an allegorical mode to the story of the creation and use of
ROBOT bees for industrial work. Heliopolis (1949), an ironical UTOPIA,
remains untranslated. [JC]Oher Works: Aladins Problem(1983; Joachim
Neugroschel as Aladdin's Problem 1992 US).See also: GERMANY.

Jupiter's importance in sf is derived from its status as the largest
planet in the Solar System and also the most accessible - because nearest
to Earth - of the GAS GIANTS. Its four major moons - Ganymede, Callisto,
Io and Europa - were discovered by Galileo, but it was not until 1892 that
the US astronomer Edward Barnard (1857-1923) discovered the fifth. About a
dozen others have been discovered in the 20th century. The visible
"surface" of Jupiter is an outer layer of a very dense, deep atmosphere
and is thus fluid, though it does have one enigmatic feature that has
endured at least since 1831: the Great Red Spot.Jupiter was included in
various interplanetary tours inspired by the religious imagination, and is
prominent in several 19th-century interplanetary novels, including A World
of Wonders (1838) by Joel R. Peabody, the anonymously published The
Experiences of Eon and Eona (1886; by J.B. Fayette) and John Jacob ASTOR's
A Journey in Other Worlds (1894), in which it is a "prehistoric" version
of Earth, replete with dinosaurs, etc. It is a parallel of Earth in A
Fortnight in Heaven (1886) by Harold Brydges (1858-1939) and in the
anonymous To Jupiter via Hell (1908). As astronomical discoveries were
popularized, however, the credibility of an Earthlike Jupiter waned
rapidly. The last significant novel to use a Jovian scenario for
straightforward UTOPIAN modelling was Ella SCRYMSOUR's The Perfect World
(1922), though pulp-sf writers squeezed a little more melodramatic life
out of the notion. Edmond HAMILTON's "A Conquest of Two Worlds" (1932)
tells the harrowing tale of the human invasion of Jupiter, and Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS sent John Carter there to fight the eponymous "The Skeleton Men
of Jupiter" (1943).Many exotic romances set beyond the orbit of Mars
employ the satellites of Jupiter. Ganymede is featured in E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's Spacehounds of IPC (1931 AMZ; 1947) and in Leigh BRACKETT's "The
Dancing Girl of Ganymede" (1950), and Io features in two notable early
pulp-sf stories: Stanley G. WEINBAUM's "The Mad Moon" (1935) and Raymond
Z. GALLUN's "The Lotus Engine" (1940). John W. CAMPBELL Jr required
contributors to ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION to pay more attention to what
was actually known about the planets. Early applications of this new
realism to Jupiter are "Heavy Planet" (1939) by Lee Gregor (Milton A.
Rothman; Tony ROTHMAN) and "Clerical Error" (1940) by Clifford D. SIMAK.
Simak revisited Jupiter in his curious "Desertion" (1944), in which humans
undergo biological metamorphosis in order to enjoy a paradisal existence
there. Isaac ASIMOV set one of his earliest stories, "The Callistan
Menace" (1940), in the neighbourhood, then turned his attention to Jupiter
itself in "Not Final!" (1941), in which hostile aliens are discovered
there, and in "Victory Unintentional" (1942), in which Jovians fail to
realize that their visitors are ROBOTS rather than men. Two classic
magazine sf stories dealing with conditions on Jupiter are James BLISH's
"Bridge" (1952 ASF; incorporated into They Shall Have Stars fixup 1956; vt
Year 2018!), in which a colossal experiment to test hypotheses tests also
the psychological resilience of the experimenters, and Poul ANDERSON's
"Call Me Joe" (1957), about the everyday life of an artificial
centaur-like creature designed for the Jovian environment. Anderson later
made use of a similar background in Three Worlds to Conquer (1964) - the
worlds being Jupiter, Ganymede and Earth - in which Ganymede comes into
focus as a possible site for a colony, a notion developed also by Robert
A. HEINLEIN in Farmer in the Sky (1950), Anderson again in The Snows of
Ganymede (1955 Startling Stories; 1958) and Robert SILVERBERG in Invaders
from Earth (1958). Blish, however, recognized that such COLONIZATION would
require considerable GENETIC ENGINEERING (which he called PANTROPY), as
displayed in "A Time to Survive" (1956 FSF; incorporated into THE SEEDLING
STARS, fixup 1957).Although it has become obvious that humans could never
live on Jupiter, the idea of a descent into its atmosphere continues to
attract attention. Such descents are featured in Isaac Asimov's Lucky
Starr and the Moons of Jupiter (1957 as by Paul French; vt The Moons of
Jupiter), the brothers STRUGATSKI's "Destination: Amaltheia" (1960; trans
1962), Arthur C. CLARKE's "A Meeting With Medusa" (1971) and its
elaboration as The Medusa Encounter (1990) by Paul PREUSS, Ben BOVA's As
on a Darkling Plain (1972) and Gregory BENFORD's and Gordon EKLUND's "The
Anvil of Jove" (1976; incorporated into If the Stars are Gods, fixup
1977). Several of these stories cling to the hope that Jupiter might
harbour alien life of some kind, albeit nothing remotely humanoid, as does
Benford's juvenile novel Jupiter Project (1975; rev 1980). By far the most
spectacular use to which Jupiter has recently been put, however, is in
Arthur Clarke's 2010: Odyssey Two (1982), in which it is elevated to the
status of a second sun by monolithic di ex machina in order to give a
crucial boost to evolution on Europa - an idea echoed in Charles L.
HARNESS's Lunar Justice (1991). Europa (as revealed by the Voyager probes)
is also the centre of attention in Charles SHEFFIELD's Cold as Ice (1992).
A relevant theme anthology is Jupiter (anth 1973) ed Frederik and Carol


Film (1993). Amblin Entertainment/Universal. Dir Steven SPIELBERG, prod
Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen; screenplay Michael CRICHTON and
David Koepp, based on JURASSIC PARK (1990) by Crichton; starring Sam
Neill, Laura Dern, Jeff Goldblum, Richard Attenborough, Bob Peck, Joseph
Mazello and Ariana Richards. 127 mins. Colour.A theme park on an island
off the coast of Costa Rica has been stocked with dinosaurs cloned from
DNA that was found within mosquitos preserved in amber. A male
palaeontologist Dr Alan Grant (Neill), a woman palaeobotanist Dr Ellie
Sattler (Dern) and a male mathematical expert in chaos theory Ian Malcolm
(Goldblum) are invited by the entrepreneur who had the place built, John
Hammond (Attenborough), to give their opinions of his success. Also
present are Hammond's two grandchildren, Tim and Lex (Mazello and
Richards). A criminal scheme from the chief of the park's computer systems
combines with an oncoming storm so that the security systems break down
while all these characters but Hammond, along with a nasty lawyer, are on
a tour of the park in automated cars whose power fails. The dinosaurs are
loose, the characters are stranded in the wind, rain and darkness, and a
tyrannosaurus rex is not far away. The rest of the film is a jolly
roller-coaster ride with only subsidiary characters getting killed (unlike
the book), and an astonishing display of convincing dinosaur
animation-these dinosaurs will be definitive in the history of special
effects-climaxing back in the park's headquarters with velociraptors out
to get the kids. This, unsurprisingly from Spielberg, the man who directed
E.T.: THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL (1982), cost $60 million to make, was the
blockbuster of its year and, internationally, the highest grossing film
ever made. Although it easily won a HUGO in 1994, and was hugely enjoyed
by almost everyone, it did not escape criticism.Nearly all intellectual
toughness has been leached out of Crichton's original novel: the Luddite
chaos theoretician who explains why things are bound to go wrong when
technology is on the loose has nearly all his lines cut in the film, which
leaves him little to do; the theme-park designing capitalist, rather nasty
in the book, is rendered as cuddly as Santa Claus; a miscellaneous
collection of narrative loose ends points towards what must have been
gargantuan script difficulties never adequately resolved. In rendering the
film not too scary for kids and not too critical of the entertainment
business, the film is softened. The relationships play it cute, notably
child-hating Grant having to take care of the two children, and becoming a
sentimentalist. There has been much discussion of who first had the idea
of cloning dinosaurs from DNA; it appeared in an exploitation film of the
same year, Carnosaur (1993), based on the 1984 horror novel by Harry Adam
Knight (John BROSNAN) which predates Crichton's, but in fact it has been a
repeated theme in sf, an early example being "The Hunting Season" (1951
ASF) by Frank M. ROBINSON. But a more direct and obvious source for both
book and movie is Crichton's own film WESTWORLD (1973), which was also
about a theme park whose inhabitants-in this case robot gunslingers-become
homicidal. But criticisms cannot harm this state-of-the-art sf
extravaganza, for the heroic abilities of the myriad special-effects
designers and the cinematographer (Dean Cundey), far outweigh the
shortcomings of the script for nearly all viewers. After all, it is
primarily a film for children. [PN]

Film (1930). Fox. Dir David Butler, starring El Brendel, Frank Albertson,
Maureen O'Sullivan, John Garrick. Screenplay David Butler, Ray Henderson,
G.G. DeSylva, Lew Brown. 113 mins. B/w.The failure of this expensive sf
blockbuster - one of a flood of musicals that appeared after the advent of
sound in movies - may help explain why Hollywood kept clear of sf subjects
(except in the context of horror) for so long afterwards, but it was the
whimsicality of the silly story, rather than its sf content, that led to
JI's failure. A man is struck by lightning while playing golf in 1930 and
wakes to find himself in New York in 1980. Thereafter he acts as comic
relief. There follow a stowing-away on a spaceship, a beautiful Martian
princess, and a romantic-triangle plot between two 1980 men and a 1980
woman (who like everyone else in 1980 have numbers rather than names), all
interspersed with banal musical numbers. The special effects are good for
their period, and the sets by art directors Stephen Goosson and Ralph
Hammeras are spectacular, in particular the huge, futuristic model, which
cost $250,000 to build, of New York City. This city of the future is
imaginatively designed and just as memorable as its obvious progenitor,
the one in METROPOLIS (1926). [JB]See also: MUSIC.


When dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF) declined and disappeared in the 1900s -
partly because of public outcry against their supposed evil effect on
boys, and partly because of increasing competition from the PULP
MAGAZINES, which had become comparable in price - the torch of juvenile sf
was taken up by a new format, illustrated hardcover juvenile book series,
and the ideas in these began to range more widely. The Great Marvel series
(9 books 1906-35) by Roy ROCKWOOD - the first hardcover sf series on
record - began featuring interplanetary explorations and discoveries with
Through Space to Mars, or The Longest Journey on Record (1910), and was
surpassed in quality as juvenile-series sf only by Carl H. CLAUDY's later
Adventures in the Unknown series (1933-4), the 4 vols of which told of
TIME TRAVEL, journeys into the fourth DIMENSION and discoveries of ALIEN
intelligences on MARS and in the Earth's crust. Although their plots were
at least as strong as those of the contemporary GERNSBACK magazine
stories, they proved less popular than the tales of the Earthbound TOM
SWIFT (1910-41). In the years 1910-40 there were dozens of other book
series aimed at teenage boys and many had themes of scientific invention -
natural enough at a time when Edison and Ford were two of the greatest US
heroes ( EDISONADE) - but those named above are the most fondly
remembered.In the 1930s juvenile series began to appear in a new format,
the Big Little Books, squat, card-bound 3in x 4in (7.5cm x 10cm upright)
volumes which alternated full-page illustrations with text pages. Derived
from the COMICS, they included novelizations of BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH
CENTURY, FLASH GORDON and SUPERMAN. Their demise came in the late 1940s,
at which time Robert A. HEINLEIN's juveniles were becoming successful,
heralding a new wave of hardcover CHILDREN'S SF series, some of which were
novelized adventures derived from popular TELEVISION series.Tom Swift (or,
more accurately, his son) reappeared in the 1950s together with TOM
CORBETT: SPACE CADET, Rip Foster and others, all united by their
interplanetary settings, a feature shared by Isaac ASIMOV's Lucky Starr
series (1952-8; originally as by Paul French) and by E.C. ELIOTT's Kemlo
series (1954-63). [JE/PN]

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