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SF&F encyclopedia (H-H)

Working name of Karen Lee Haber Silverberg (1955- ), US writer and
anthologist, married to Robert SILVERBERG since 1987. She began publishing
work of genre interest with "Madre de Dios" for FSF in 1988, and came to
general notice with the Fire in Winter sequence, which traces the fortunes
of a family of PSI-POWERED mutants and their threatened subculture in a
21st-century USA: The Mutant Season (1989) with Silverberg, The Mutant
Prime (1990), Mutant Star (1992) and Mutant Legacy(1993). Silverberg's
influence was initially evident - the first volume was derived from his
"The Mutant Season" (1973) - but KH soon established her own identity as a
sharp, warm teller of tales. A singleton, Thieves Carnival (1990 chap
dos), prequels Leigh BRACKETT's The Jewel of Bas (1944 Planet Stories;
1990 dos), with which it was paired as a TOR BOOKS Double. With
Silverberg, KH co-edited the new sequence of UNIVERSE anthologies,
carrying on from Terry CARR's original series: Universe 1 (anth 1990),
Universe 2 (anth 1992) and Universe 3(anth 1994). [JC]


(1910- ) British Army officer (retired) and writer, whose The Third World
War: August 1985 (1978; rev 1982) and The Third World War: The Untold
Story (coll 1982), both written with the help of a think-tank of soldiers,
journalists and diplomats, together describe the course of a (largely)
conventional war betweeen (mostly) NATO and the Warsaw Pact in a mock
historical style. The books represent an attempt to alert the public to
the dangers posed by war against the Soviet bloc, and remain interesting
largely because of the authenticity and detail of their descriptions of
what such a conflict might actually have been like. [NT]

(1923-1977) US journalist and writer whose successful novel, The Joy
Wagon (1958), uses a borderline-sf treatment of COMPUTERS in a sharply
comic send-up of the US electoral system. The computer runs for President
and almost wins. [JC]See also: POLITICS.


US specialist SMALL PRESS, 1947-8, based in Providence, Rhode Island,
owned by Thomas P. Hadley. It grew out of (or was a renaming of) Buffalo
Book Co., under which name it published The Time Stream (1931 Wonder
Stories; 1946) by John TAINE and The Skylark of Space (1928 AMZ; 1946) by
E.E. "Doc" SMITH. A very short-lived company, HPC was notable for
publishing John W. CAMPBELL Jr's first book, The Mightiest Machine (1934-5
ASF; 1947), A.E. VAN VOGT's The Weapon Makers (1943 ASF; 1947; rev vt One
Against Eternity 1952) and L. Ron HUBBARD's Final Blackout (1940 ASF;
1948). The company was bought out by Donald M. Grant (1927- ) and became
the Grandon Company; later, under his own name, Grant became an important
small-press publisher of fantasy. [MJE/PN]

(1856-1925) UK civil servant, lawyer, agricultural expert and writer. HRH
spent the years 1875-81 in the Colonial Service in South Africa, where he
gained much of the material for his fiction. On his return to the UK he
read for the bar while at the same time beginning to produce novels and
other work. With his third and fourth novels, King Solomon's Mines (1885)
and the even more successful She: A History of Adventure (1886-7 The
Graphic; cut 1886 US; text restored 1887 UK; The Annotated She [1991 US]
ed Norman Etherington is a variorum text with erratic additional notes),
HRH was catapulted into fame, and soon left the bar; he was knighted in
1912. These novels of anthropological sf remain his most famous; they
established a pattern he would follow for the rest of his career. That
pattern might be described as a central model for Edgar Rice BURROUGHS and
the SCIENCE-FANTASY subgenre whose popularity attended the latter's
revival in the 1960s: it is a pattern in which realistic portraits of the
contemporary world (in HRH's case South Africa) are combined with
backward-looking displacements (in his case invoking LOST WORLDS,
IMMORTALITY and REINCARNATION) to give a general effect of deep nostalgia.
HRH was fascinated by ruins, ancient civilizations and primitive customs.
His allied interest in the PSEUDO-SCIENCE of Spiritualism link him to such
contemporaries as Bulwer LYTTON and Marie CORELLI, though in fact his
central literary friendships were with Andrew LANG and Rudyard KIPLING; he
shared with the latter a fin de siecle sense - which proved entirely
accurate - that the British Empire was on the wane. His prose was
sometimes overblown, but he was a gifted storyteller with a powerful
imagination and the ability to create memorable heroic figures, like the
Zulu Umslopogaas, whose early life is the subject of the remarkable Nada
the Lily (1892 US).Umslopogaas appears also in HRH's principal sequence,
the novels about white hunter Allan Quatermain which gave Africa to the
world as a haven in the mind's eye. Here the Quatermain books are given in
order of internal chronology, the dates of their settings preceding the
titles: 1835-8 Marie (1912); 1842-69 Allan's Wife (1887), which was
incorporated into Allan's Wife and Other Tales (coll 1889); 1854-6 Child
of Storm (1913); 1859 Maiwa's Revenge (1888); 1870 The Holy Flower (1915;
vt Allan and the Holy Flower 1915 US); 1871 Heu-Heu, or The Monster
(1924); 1872 She and Allan (1921 US); 1873 The Treasure of the Lake (1926
US); 1874 The Ivory Child (1916); 1879 Finished (1916 US); 1879 "Magepa
the Buck" in Smith and the Pharaohs and Other Tales (coll 1920); 1880 King
Solomon's Mines; 1882 The Ancient Allan (1920); 1883 Allan and the Ice
Gods: A Tale of Beginnings (1927); 1884-5 Allan Quatermain: Being an
Account of his Further Adventures and Discoveries in Company with Sir
Henry Curtis, Bart., Commander John Good, and one Umslopogaas (1887; cut
vt Allan Quatermain and the Lost City of Gold * 1986, the text being
shaped into a film novelization). A heavily cut version of She was
published a decade later (1896 UK); the abridgement may have been done by
W(illiam) T(homas) Stead (1849-1912), who edited the series in which it
appeared.Not all these books could be described as science fantasy, but
all project that sense of desiderium - the longing for that which is lost
- that lies at the heart of true science fantasy; and those titles written
late in HRH's career - like The Ancient Allan, a tale of love-death set in
Egypt, and Allan and the Ice Gods, in which Quatermain is thrown back in
time by means of a drug and inhabits the body of a paleolithic man - tend
to express their author's potent (but submerged) sexuality in venues so
remote that a suppressed libidinousness can become, occasionally, almost
explicit.It is, however, in the Ayesha sequence that HRH's Victorian
libido found easiest release from the chains of the present. In She: A
History of Adventure (rewritten for the movies by Don Ward as She: The
Story Retold * 1949 US), Ayesha: The Return of She (1905; vt The Return of
She: Ayesha 1967 US), She and Allan, which provides a link with the
Quatermain series, and Wisdom's Daughter: The Life and Love Story of
She-Who-Must-Be-Obeyed (1923), HRH created, in the immortal and subversive
Ayesha, what has come to seem an abiding emblem of that longing for
"primitive" transcendence that typically marks the end of eras. The sudden
ageing of Ayesha in the first volume of the sequence (later volumes dally
inconsequentially with her earlier life) has an effect both tragic and
petty. The World's Desire (1890), with Andrew Lang, a pendant to the main
series, carries Odysseus into new adventures, during which he discovers
that Helen of Troy and Ayesha are one. A knotted eroticism also infuses
When the World Shook: Being an Account of the Great Adventure of Bastin,
Bickley, and Arbuthnot (1919), a novel plotted in part by Kipling (who
later helped HRH with Allan and the Ice Gods): the three eponymous
Victorians find the high priest of ATLANTIS in SUSPENDED ANIMATION; having
caused the first Flood, he is about to start another; his daughter,
likewise discovered, causes ructions in the hearts of the three.HRH can
seem both heated and evasive to modern readers, but read in context he is
a figure of very considerable power, a stirrer in deep waters.
[DP/JC]Other works: Cleopatra: Being an Account of the Fall and Vengeance
of Harmachis, the Royal Egyptian, as Set Forth by his Own Hand (1889 US);
Beatrice (1890); Eric Brighteyes (1891); Montezuma's Daughter (1893); The
People of the Mist (1894); Heart of the World (1895); The Wizard (1896);
Swallow: A Tale of the Great Trek (1899 US); Elissa, the Doom of Zimbabwe:
Black Heart & White Heart (coll 1900 US; rev vt Black Heart and White
Heart and Other Stories; title story of US edition only, vt Elissa, or The
Doom of Zimbabwe 1917 UK); Lysbeth: A Tale of the Dutch (1901 US); Stella
Fregelius: A Tale of Three Destinies (1903 US); Pearl-Maiden: A Tale of
the Fall of Jerusalem (1903); The Brethren (1903); Benita (1906; vt The
Spirit of Bambatse 1906 US); The Yellow God: An Idol of Africa (1908 US);
The Ghost Kings (1908; vt The Lady of the Heavens 1908 US); The Lady of
Blossholme (1909); Morning Star (1910); Queen Sheba's Ring (1910); Red Eve
(1911); The Mahatma and the Hare: A Dream Story (1911); The Wanderer's
Necklace (1914); Moon of Israel: A Tale of the Exodus (1918); The
Missionary and the Witch-Doctor (1920 chap US); The Virgin of the Sun
(1922); Queen of the Dawn: A Love Tale of Old Egypt (1925); Mary of Marion
Isle (1929; vt Marion Isle 1929 US); Belshazzar (1930). There are various
omnibuses.About the author: Bibliography of the Works of H. Rider Haggard
(1947) by J.E. Scott; The Cloak that I Left (1951) by Lilias Rider
Haggard; Rider Haggard: His Life and Work (1960) by Morton Cohen; The
Wheel of Empire (1967) by Alan Sandison; Rider Haggard (1984) by Norman

Pseudonym of Richard Clayton (1907- ), UK civil servant whose political
thrillers, usually featuring Colonel Russell (retired in later volumes) of
the Secret Service, sometimes extrapolate on current political trends,
after the fashion of their genre. Slow Burner (1958) has some sf content
relating to the atomic-power process described by the title. The
skulduggery in Venetian Blind (1959) concerns Negative Gravity, "a prize
beyond price. The conquest of space, the ultimate weapon"; it proves
chimerical. The Bitter Harvest (1971) deals with germ warfare. [JC]



(1935- ) US writer, born, educated and based in New York, where he has
set much of his fiction. The humour expressed in his novels is Yiddish in
style (IH is himself a Jew), especially in his first sf novel, The Tsaddik
of the Seven Wonders (1971). IH writes a fluent though sometimes rather
disarranged kind of comic sf, of which The Wilk are Among Us (1975; rev
1979) is a representative example, with its amusingly overcomplicated
plot, its frenetic spoofing of the ALIENS-in-our-midst theme, and its
general failure to take hold of its materials. Nightmare Express (1979), a
comparatively ambitious ALTERNATE-WORLD detective novel, and a later
mystery series set in the 21st century - The Mutants are Coming (1984) and
Out of Sync (1990) - maintain a similar tone. His attempts to amalgamate
Yiddish humour and sf themes are of technical interest. [JC]Other works:
The Return (1973); Transfer to Yesterday (1973); three novels featuring a
detective named Dunjer, being Interworld (1977), Outerworld (1979 dos) and
Specterworld (1991); two novels featuring the Siscoe and Block detective
team, being The Identity Plunderers (1984) and The Hand of Ganz (1985).

1. Richard (Douglas) Haigh (1924-1991). UK civil servant and author of
one routine SPACE OPERA for ROBERT HALE LIMITED, The Golden Astronauts
(1980). 2. Richard Haigh. UK author (probably pseudonymous) of a series of
horror novels,The Farm (1984) and The City (1986), both featuring
man-eating pigs. [JC]

(1921-1979) UK author of two sf novels remarkable for their clumsiness
and their apparent ignorance of basic physical laws. In Space Train (1962)
a farmer builds a rocket-powered train which, as a consequence of
sabotage, takes off into space. There he encounters interplanetary crabs
before returning to Earth. Galaxies Ahead (1963) is similarly implausible.

Sharon JARVIS.

(1898-1986) Regarded along with Nobel-prize winning author Najib Mahfuz
as the most important modern Egyptian writer, author of over 50 books of
short stories, novels, dramas and essays, some of sf interest. In 1947 he
published his first sf short story, "Fi sana malyun" ["In the Year
Million"]. His most interesting sf works are plays. In Rihla ila al-ghad
(1950; trans as "Voyage to Tomorrow" 1981) he uses relativistic TIME
TRAVEL during interstellar flight, in something of a homage to H.G. WELLS.
Two one-act plays have sf themes: Shair ala al-qamar (1972; trans as "Poet
on the Moon" 1981) and Taqrir qamari["Moon Account"] (1972). The first
uses sf metaphor in a story about the struggle of Art to assert its place
in society; the second tells of two extraterrestrials writing a report
about life on Earth. English translations of "Voyage to Tomorrow" and
"Poet on the Moon" can be found in Plays, Prefaces and Postscripts (2
vols, coll 1981). His essays about the future in Hadith maa al-kawkab
["Conversation with the Planet"] (coll 1974) have sf relevance, as do some
other works. [JO]See also: ARABIC SF; THEATRE.

Gwyneth JONES.

(1932-1980) US medical doctor and writer whose The Wanting of Levine
(1978) depicts a 1988 US presidential campaign which ends in the election
of the Jewish politician Levine, whose wry wisdom may bring the nation
back from the violent civil strife that has already begun to balkanize the
land. [JC]

(1894-1969) UK writer, married to J.B.S. HALDANE and sister-in-law of
Naomi MITCHISON. Her sf novel, Man's World (1926), set in a 21st-century
society which divides women into whores and sainted breeders ( Hyperlink
to: WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION), takes an ambivalent attitude
towards the eugenic thinking ( GENETIC ENGINEERING) responsible for such a
state, but eventually seems to suggest that the social cost of improving
the human stock by fiat has been too high. The racism delineated - Whites
have risen to new biological heights while Blacks are systematically
poisoned - is also ambivalent in the telling. Two fantasies are Melusine,
or Devil Take Her! (1936), about the survival of witches in Christian
Europe, and The Shadow of a Dream (1952). [JC]

(1892-1964) UK biologist, brother of Naomi MITCHISON. He dabbled in sf in
an incomplete and posthumously published novel, The Man with Two Memories
(1976), about a man's mental link with an inhabitant of another world.
JBSH's bold speculative essays heavily influenced significant works by
other writers. Daedalus, or Science and the Future (1924), the first of
the long-running series of Today & Tomorrow pamphlets, is a classic
anticipation of GENETIC ENGINEERING, and provided the image of the future
sarcastically extrapolated by Aldous HUXLEY in BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932). The
semifictional "The Last Judgment" in Possible Worlds (coll 1927) provides
an evolutionary prospectus for the human race which was extensively
elaborated by Olaf STAPLEDON in LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930). JBSH's wife
Charlotte HALDANE drew heavily on his ideas for Man's World (1926). "On
Being the Right Size", also from Possible Worlds, discusses problems of
scale in sf (e.g., giants 10 times human size but with - unworkably - the
same proportions). My Friend Mr Leakey (coll of linked stories 1937) is a
book of fantasies for children. [BS]About the author: J.B.S.: The Life and
Work of J.B.S. Haldane (1968) by Ronald W. CLARK.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY;

(1941- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Garden of Eden" for
Fantastic in 1971. His 50 or so stories have tended to avoid the more
serious SPACE-OPERA themes, sticking generally to GAMES-AND-SPORTS tales
about ROBOT football players, precognitive STARS, and the like. His first
novel, Vector Analysis (1978), sets problems in space and sees them
solved. His second, Perry's Planet * (1980), is a Star Trek tie, and his
third, with his wife Vol Haldeman and Andrew J. OFFUTT, all signing as
John CLEVE, is Spaceways #11: The Iceworld Connection (1983). There is No
Darkness (fixup 1983) with his brother Joe HALDEMAN, amusedly pits a hick
from the hinterlands of a colony planet against some interstellar
difficulties, leading picaresquely to the saving of the Universe. Bill,
the Galactic Hero on the Planet of the Zombie Vampires * (1991) with Harry
HARRISON is slapstick. But not all JCH's work has been determinedly light;
some of his earlier stories - like "Songs of Dying Swans" (1976), about
the death of some genetically altered humans - show genuine aesthetic
skills, a sense of bluff cunning which came more and more to the fore in
the 1980s. He remains perhaps most at ease in collaborations; his
contributions to Slow Dancing Through Time (coll 1990), an assembly of
stories written by various authors in collaboration with Gardner DOZOIS,
are among his best work. Echoes of Thunder (1991 chap dos) with Jack DANN
is also of interest. [JC]See also: MATHEMATICS.

(1943- ) US writer who took a BS in physics and astronomy before serving
as a combat engineer in Vietnam (1968-9), where he was severely wounded,
earning a Purple Heart; later, in 1975, he took an MFA. The range of
degrees was an early demonstration of the complexity of his interest in
the HARD SF with which he has sometimes been identified; and his
experiences in Vietnam have marked everything he has since written,
including his first book, War Year (1972), a non-sf novel set there. He
began publishing sf with "Out of Phase" for Gal in 1969, and came to
sudden prominence with the critical and popular success of his first sf
novel, THE FOREVER WAR (1972-4 ASF; fixup 1974), which, with "You Can
Never Go Back" (1975), makes up a series whose description of the life of
soldiers in a future WAR counterpoints and in some ways rebuts Robert A.
interstellar travel is effected by "collapsar jumps", which are
subjectively instantaneous but which in fact take many years to
accomplish, so that they work as a kind of one-way TIME TRAVEL; sent by
this means to fight in engagement after engagement on different planets,
soldiers are doomed to total alienation from the civilization for which
they are fighting, and if they make too large a jump face the risk of
coming into battle with antiquated weaponry. Their deracination is savage,
their camaraderie cynically manipulated. As a portrait of the experience
of Vietnam the book is remarkable. It won a Ditmar ( AWARDS), a NEBULA and
a HUGO; the first volumes of a GRAPHIC-NOVEL version are The Forever War 1
(graph 1991) and The Forever War 2 (graph 1991), both illustrated by
Marvano.Mindbridge (1976), a novel whose narrative techniques are
suggested by its dedication to John Dos Passos (1896-1970) and John
BRUNNER, is composed in alternating sequences of straight narration,
reportage, excerpts from books (some written long after the events
depicted), graphs and other devices. The story itself is a not
unconventional space epic, with MATTER TRANSMISSION, telepathy-inducing
"toys"-actually small aquatic animals - abandoned by an extinct race of
godlike aliens, and so forth. All My Sins Remembered (fixup 1977) returns
to the existential chaos of Earth, and introduces an enduring model of the
JH protagonist: a competent hero whose identity is threatened from
without, by the manipulations of worldly powers, and from within, by the
need to make sense of an existence without ultimate meaning. In JH's
novels, making sense of things is itself an act of heroism. As his most
typical books revolve around this task - and are resolved in its often
ambiguous accomplishment - it is not surprising that he has rarely written
sequels. Once the goal has been reached, the story ends.The only exception
to this pattern is the Worlds sequence comprising WORLDS (1981), Worlds
Apart (1983) and Worlds Enough and Time (1992). These books, which also
differ from his typical work in featuring a female protagonist, are
distinguished by the broad compass of their portrayal of a NEAR-FUTURE
Earth under the threat of nuclear HOLOCAUST, which is soon realized. In
the surviving SPACE HABITATS-each a small world representative of a
different kind of civilization - some sense must be made of the human
enterprise: the relict planet must be preserved and, in the third volume,
humanity must attempt to reach the stars. JH's other novels of the 1980s
are only intermittently successful. Tool of the Trade (1987), a
TECHNOTHRILLER, repeats in a damagingly affectless manner the themes of
earlier books; and Buying Time (1989; vt The Long Habit of Living 1989 UK)
weakens a central tale about the purchasing of IMMORTALITY by a
displeasing failure to address the kind of society in which this might be
acceptable, or the kind of human who might pursue the goal. But THE
HEMINGWAY HOAX (1990), the magazine version of which won a Nebula as Best
Novella, movingly entangles its typical JH protagonist in a complex set of
dilemmas (and ALTERNATE WORLDS) which test to the utmost his capacity to
retain moral choice, to remain even approximately whole.JH's stories,
assembled in Infinite Dreams (coll 1979) and Dealing in Futures (coll
1985), are of subsidiary interest to his novels - though "Tricentennial
"(1976) won a Hugo, and "Graves" (1993) won a Nebula - but sometimes
illustrate with clarity the themes which drive them. Throughout his career
there has been a sense - not usual in US sf - that JH thinks of his novels
as necessary acts in a lifelong enterprise, a moral theatre whose meaning
will be defined only when he finishes. It is perhaps for this reason that
he is not good at repeating himself, that those books in which he attempts
to do so are surprisingly bad, and that after two decades his readers
continue to await each new title - each new act in the existential drama -
with very substantial interest. [JC]Other works: Two borderline sf Attar
spy novels, Attar's Revenge (1975) and War of Nerves (1975), under a
Pocket Books house name, Robert Graham; two Star Trek novels, Planet of
Judgment * (1977) and World without End * (1979); There is No Darkness
(1983) with his brother Jack C. HALDEMAN II (whom see for details); More
than the Sum of his Parts (1985 Playboy; 1991 chap).As Editor: Cosmic
Laughter (anth 1974); Study War No More (anth 1977); Nebula Award Stories
Seventeen (anth 1983); three anthologies with Martin Harry GREENBERG and
Charles G. WAUGH, being Body Armor: 2000 (anth 1986), Supertanks (anth
1987) and Space-Fighters (anth 1988).About the author: Joe Haldeman (1980)

(1822-1909) Prolific US writer, contributing editor to The Atlantic
Monthly, Unitarian preacher and abolitionist; he is best known today for
the title story (1863) of The Man without a Country and Other Tales (coll
1868). Sybaris and Other Homes (coll 1869), describing a UTOPIAN colony of
Sybarites uncovered on an ISLAND off the coast of Italy, is of sf
interest. A second utopian fiction, Ten Times One is Ten: The Possible
Reformation (1871), as by Frederick Ingham, is constructed as a fantasy of
socially beneficial haunting; it first appeared (1870) in EEH's own
journal Old and New, which he founded to espouse the ideals embodied in
the tale. Hands Off (1881 Harper's New Monthly Magazine; 1895 chap)
interestingly places two time-travelling spirits in Biblical Egypt, where
as an experiment they construct an ALTERNATE WORLD in which the patriarch
Joseph excapes captivity, with disastrous results. Of primary interest to
sf readers are "The Brick Moon" (1869) and its short sequel, "Life in the
Brick Moon" (1870)-both revised into one story in His Level Best and Other
Stories (coll 1872), later reprinted in The Brick Moon and Other Stories
(coll 1899), and published independently as The Brick Moon (1971 chap) -
which comprise probably the first attempt to describe an artificial Earth
satellite, along with its accidental launching into orbit and the attempts
of those stranded upon it to survive. [JC]Other works: Back to Back: A
Story of Today (1878; exp vt How They Lived in Hampton: A Study of
Practical Christianity Applied in the Manufacture of Woollens 1888), a
utopian speculation in story form.About the author: "The Real Earth
Satellite Story" in Explorers of the Infinite (1963) by Sam MOSKOWITZ.See


Leonard G. FISH.

[s] Richard WILSON.

Pseudonym of an unidentified UK writer who wrote also as Dryasdust, under
which name he is perhaps best known for the 3-vol Tales of the Wonder Club
(coll 1899-90; each vol subsequently published as by MYH vt Tales of the
Wonder Club: First Series 1903; Second Series 1904; Third Series 1905).
Most of the stories assembled are supernatural. The Wizard's Mantle (1890;
rev 1903 as by MYH) also appeared initially as by Dryasdust. Further
titles, all as by MYH, and some including suggestions of sf, were The
Spirit Lovers (coll 1903), A Weird Transformation (1904), about a
reanimated corpse, The Woman in Black (1906), Zoe's Revenge (1908), The
Poet's Curse (1911) and The Poison Ring (1912). [JC]

(c1885-1933) US writer who claimed to have written over 600 stories in
various pulp genres, mainly Westerns. He began publishing sf and fantasy
with "Almost Immortal" for All-Story Weekly in 1916. "The Rebel Soul"
(1917 All-Story Weekly) and its sequel, the book-length "Into the
Infinite" (1919 All-Story Weekly), typically infuse
immortality-through-vampirism and TIME TRAVEL with pulp cliches, not
always ineffectively; in their concern with the nature of human
personality all three are derivative of Robert Louis STEVENSON's Strange
Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886 chap). Possibly confused by the
collaborative process, The Blind Spot (1921 Argosy; 1951) with Homer Eon
FLINT cloaks a central plot-involving an interdimensional gateway into a
PARALLEL WORLD - in layers of unresolved melodrama. Cruelly, Damon KNIGHT
quoted extensively from it in a critical piece (reprinted as part of
Chapter 3 of In Search of Wonder [coll 1956; exp 1967]) to demonstrate its
infelicities. A sequel, The Spot of Life (1932 Argosy; 1964), was by AH
alone; it offers scientific explanations for the gateway (or blind spot)
plus doses of dynastic politicking in the parallel world. People of the
Comet (1923 Weird Tales; 1948), a weaker tale, is a variant on the theme
of solar-system-as-atom in a greater macrocosm ( GREAT AND SMALL). [JC]See

(1909-1992) US writer and editor who served as assistant editor of
Astounding Stories of Super Science ( ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION) under
Harry BATES 1930-33, also collaborating with Bates as a writer under the
pseudonyms H.G. WINTER and, more famously, Anthony GILMORE; as Gilmore
they produced the popular Hawk Carse series, which reached book form as
Space Hawk (coll of linked stories 1952). DWH also wrote some stories
under his own name as well as one under an unidentified pseudonym for
Weird Tales. After F. Orlin TREMAINE took over from Bates, DWH continued
as assistant editor for a time before being promoted to the editorship of
the magazine Mademoiselle. In "Gold on Gold", in What Will They Think of
Last? (1976), H.L. GOLD claimed that it was DWH rather than Tremaine who
actually ran ASF. [MJE]

(? - ) US writer, author of Pretender (1979) with Piers ANTHONY. [JC]

(1941- ) US bibliographer, Special Formats Librarian at Texas A & M
University Library. His useful series of BIBLIOGRAPHIES began with SFBRI:
Science Fiction Book Review Index, 1970 (1971 chap), and volumes relating
to each year have been published in each succeeding year up to Vol 15,
1984 (1985 chap); since then, each volume now titled Science Fiction and
Fantasy Book Review Index, there have been Vol 16, 1985 (1988 chap), Vol
17, 1986 (1988 chap) and Vol 18, 1987 1990 chap). Three retrospective
books collecting and revising these are Science Fiction Book Review Index
1923-1973 (1975), Science Fiction Book Review Index 1974-1979 (1981) and
Science Fiction and Fantasy Book Review Index 1980-1984 (1985), the last
with Geraldine L. Hutchins. All are most useful to the researcher:
comprehensive and accurate, they contain also a great deal of data about
sf magazine publication. On this latter subject HWH has published A
Checklist of Science Fiction Magazines (1972 chap) and The Science Fiction
Magazines: A Bibliographical Checklist of Titles and Issues through 1982
(1983 chap).A second series of reference works began with Science Fiction
Research Index, Vol 1 (1979 chap) and Vol 2 (1982 chap), running to date
to Vol 7 (1987) and Vol 8 (1990 chap). A collection of the first 6 vols
plus additions is the monumental Science Fiction and Fantasy Reference
Index, 1878-1985: An International Author and Subject Index to History and
Criticism (2 vols 1987), to which vols 7 and 8, which bring the story up
to 1987, are the initial supplements. Subsequent supplements are included
in the annual bibliographies ed Charles N. BROWN and William G. CONTENTO:
Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror: 1988 (1989), 1989 (1990), 1990 (1991)
and 1991 (1992). There are, of course, omissions - it is not possible to
examine the review pages of every newspaper in the world - but these works
are the best available for determining the location of reviews and
articles on anything from CYBERPUNK through NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD to
TOLKIEN.The continually expanding computer database in which HWH has
stored all this material also contains information on the location of
important sf/fantasy book and magazine COLLECTIONS, and HWH has published
various articles on this subject - one written with Neil BARRON in Anatomy
of Wonder: A Critical Guide to Science Fiction, Third Edition (1987) ed
Barron - and one book, Science/Fiction Collections: Fantasy, Supernatural
& Weird Tales (1983).HWH is on the editorial board of EXTRAPOLATION.
[PN]Other works: Chad Oliver: A Preliminary Bibliography (1985 chap; rev
vt The Work of Chad Oliver 1990); The Work of Louis L'Amour: An Annotated
Bibliography and Guide (1991).See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL WORKS

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

William ROTSLER.


(1941- ) US writer and high-school teacher whose first novel, Exit
Sherlock Holmes (1977; rev 1977 UK), purports to be a lost Watson
manuscript telling more about the relationship of Holmes and Moriarty. As
in David DVORKIN's later Time for Sherlock Holmes (1983), TIME TRAVEL
fuels the plot. [JC]

(1935- ) Australian poet and writer, Chairperson since 1991 of the
Australia Council, a body responsible for government arts policy and
funding. His long, vivid, humorous, baroque fourth novel, Kisses of the
Enemy (1987), is set in the NEAR FUTURE in an Australia now a republic. A
campaign of cultural subversion unsettles a nation that has hitherto
offered little resistance to its rape by foreign opportunists. Several of
his other novels - including Just Relations (1982), The Second Bridegroom
(1989) and The Grisly Wife (1993)- contain fantasy elements. [PN]

(1929- ) UK writer in whose sf novel, The Open Cage (1970), an escaped
con returns to a violently altered and apocalyptic world. [JC]

(1942- ) UK-born writer, journalist and feminist activist, resident
variously in Canada, Zambia, NEW ZEALAND, Australia, the USA and Mexico.
In New Zealand she belonged to the "Broadsheet" collective, founded the NZ
Women's Party, and publicly announced her lesbianism. In the NEAR-FUTURE
The Godmothers (1982 UK), her first novel, two groups of women in a well
realized feminist AD2095 oppose patriarchal oppression. Wingwomen of Hera
(1987 US), the first volume of the projected Cosmic Botanists sequence, is
less didactic: the collision of patriarchal and feminist values is
background for a strong plot with convincing societies and characters. SH
writes well; and refreshingly believes that a feminist future does not
necessarily imply UTOPIA. [MMacL]

(1913-1984) US academic and writer whose UTOPIA, Sedge (1963), contrasts
a community which isolates itself from civilization for hundreds of years
with the increasingly frenetic world beyond the gates. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer whose Angilin: A Venite King (1907) is among several
novels by early writers that prefigure the PLANETARY ROMANCES of Edgar
Rice BURROUGHS, though without the flair. The planet in question is VENUS;
the protagonist is an Earthman who transports his psyche there in an
attempt to find his dead love; the plot is ornate and dynastic, and
features airships. [JC]



Film (1983). Dino De Laurentiis. Prod Debra Hill, John CARPENTER. Dir
Tommy Lee Wallace, starring Tom Atkins, Stacey Nelkin, Dan O'Herlihy.
Screenplay Wallace (but primarily by Nigel KNEALE, uncredited). 98 mins.
Colour.Not at all a true sequel to the "stalk and slash" Halloween films,
this is a horror film with an sf rationale. Crazed Irish entrepreneur
Cochran (O'Herlihy), infuriated by Halloween's commercial degradation,
plans to restore to it its proper mystical significance. Using microchips
manufactured from a stolen Stonehenge monolith, he manufactures and sells
huge numbers of Halloween masks that will hideously destroy their child
wearers when triggered by an electronic pulse relayed through tv
advertisements. Kneale had his name taken off the credits, disgusted at
this becoming more and more like a SPLATTER MOVIE, but a true eeriness
remains to balance the physical horrors (not all of which are merely
arbitrary), especially in the dark-suited, polite ANDROID killers and in
the menacing sleepy streets of the company town. Directed by a Carpenter
protege, this film has the enjoyably grisly flavour of Carpenter's own.


Working name of UK writer Hardinge Goulburn Giffard, Second Earl of
Halsbury (1880-1943). His future- WAR novel, 1944 (1926), depicts a
cataclysmic conflict in which the USSR attacks the UK from the air,
leaving only a few survivors. The protagonist, a modern Noah, prepares to
leave the shattered island by ark, but is told that the USSR has been
itself obliterated, and returns to build a new UK. [JC]

(? - ) US author of the Overload sequence of post- HOLOCAUST series of
military-sf adventures comprising Overload #1: Personal War (1989), #2:
The Wrath (1989), #3: Highway Warriors (1989), #4: Tennessee Terror
(1989), #5: Atlanta Burn (1990), #6: Nebraska Nightmare (1990), #7:
Rolling Vengeance (1990), #8: Ozark Payback (1991), #9: Huntsville Horror
(1991), #10: Michigan Madness (1991), #11: Alabama Bloodbath (1991) and
#12: Vegas Gamble (1991). [JC]

(1951- ) US author, primarily of FANTASY, based in Southern California.
She entered genre publishing with the Darwath Trilogy fantasy sequence,
published by DEL REY BOOKS: The Time of the Dark (1982), The Walls of Air
(1983) and The Armies of Daylight (1983). In these a historian and a biker
from Los Angeles find themselves in a struggle between Good and Evil in a
PARALLEL WORLD where MAGIC works; the conventional fantasy situation is
invigorated to a degree by the lively treatment. Her Sun Wolf fantasy
sequence, to date open-ended, is more original in both style and matter:
The Ladies of Mandrigyn (1984), The Witches of Wenshar (1987)-reissued
together as The Unschooled Wizard (omni 1987) - and The Dark Hand of Magic
(1990). These novels have, without preaching, an attractive element of
FEMINISM in their depiction of the women in their medieval fantasy world,
some of whom are mercenaries, others at least potentially self-reliant.In
the Windrose series - The Silent Tower (1986) and The Silicon Mage (1988),
and Dog Wizard (1993), the first two assembled as Darkmage (omni 1988) -
BH, who had previously used occasional sf ideas in her fantasy, produced a
true genre-bending sequence in its apposition of science and magic by
placing two parallel worlds (one ours) in phase in a story involving an
evil sorcerer's consciousness embedded in a COMPUTER as "a series of
subroutines". BH's sole pure sf novel to date is Those who Hunt the Night
(1988; vt Immortal Blood UK 1988), which was marketed as HORROR. It is a
good whodunnit in the STEAMPUNK manner, set in Victorian England, about a
skilled investigator hired to protect vampires - rationalized as a race
parallel to humanity but with somewhat different ethics - from whoever is
murdering them. Magicians (persecuted) behave once again rather as
displaced SCIENTISTS in the initial world of the projected Sun-Cross
sequence: The Rainbow Abyss (1991 UK) and The Magicians of Night (1992),
both volumes being assembled as Sun-Cross (omni 1992) The second book,
with savage irony, transports one of these true magicians into our own
world among the occultists and pseudo-scientists clustered around Hitler
in Nazi Germany.BH has created her own corner of the FANTASY market,
characteristically pressing occasional sf ideas into the service of her
fundamentally fantastic themes, but without pushing too hard against
fantasy/sf genre constraints. Her books - by no means potboilers, and
sometimes painful - are normally vigorous, interesting and alert within
her self-imposed format. [PN]Other works: The Quirinal Hill Affair (1983;
vt Search the Seven Hills 1987), an historical whodunnit; Ishmael *
(1985), Ghost Walker * (1991) and Crossroad * (1994), all STAR TREK ties;
Dragonsbane (1986), fantasy; Beauty and the Beast * (1989) and Beauty and
the Beast: Song of Orpheus * (1990), novelizing tv episodes from BEAUTY
AND THE BEAST; Stranger at the Wedding (1994; vt Sorcerer's War 1994 UK);
Bride of the Rat God (1994).See also: HISTORY OF SF.

Pseudonym under which UK novelist, playwright, actress and feminist
Cicely Mary Hamill (1872-1952) published all her adult work, though her
children's fiction, including some stories for the Sexton Blake series,
was written as by Scott Rae and by Max Hamilton. Her best-known plays are
eloquently suffragist; they include How the Vote was Won (1909 chap) with
Christopher St John (circa 1875-1960), in which the outcome predicted by
the title is achieved when those women without means go on strike. Her sf
novel, Theodore Savage: A Story of the Past or the Future (1922; rev vt
Lest Ye Die 1928), bitterly depicts a future WAR in whose aftermath the
people of the UK, driven out of the cities, revert to superstitious
barbarism. The ironically named protagonist lives to a great age in a
small village full of savages who think of pre-collapse artifacts as
obscene. CH is one of the first - and among the darkest - of those UK sf
novelists whose vision of things was shaped by WWI, which they saw as
foretelling the end of civilization. [JC]Other works:Little Arthur's
History of the Twentieth Century (1933).See also: END OF THE WORLD;


(1904-1977) US writer, married to Leigh BRACKETT from 1946. With E.E.
"Doc" SMITH and Jack WILLIAMSON, he was one of the prime movers in the
development of US sf, sharing with those writers in the creation and
popularization of classic SPACE OPERA as it first appeared in PULP
MAGAZINES from about 1928. His first story, "The Monster-God of Mamurth"
for Weird Tales in 1926, which vulgarized the florid weird-science world
of Abraham MERRITT, only hinted at the exploits to come, though EH found
SCIENCE FANTASY a fertile vein, collecting this story and others in his
first book, The Horror on the Asteroid & Other Tales of Planetary Horror
(coll 1936 UK). Only two years later, with the publication of "Crashing
Suns" (1928 Weird Tales), he was writing genuine space opera of the sort
with which he soon became identified: the Universe-spanning tale in which
an Earthman and his comrades (not necessarily human) discover a cosmic
threat to the home Galaxy and successfully - either alone, or with the aid
of a space armada, or both-combat the ALIENS responsible for the threat.
Science or pseudo-science served as a magically enabling doubletalk for
the easier presentation of interstellar action, and the scope, colour and
dynamic clarity of this liberated action did much to define the SENSE OF
WONDER for a generation of readers, who rewarded EH with several nicknames
in recognition of his gift, variously "World-Destroyer", "The World
Wrecker", or "World-Saver Hamilton".Though not technically part of the
series, "Crashing Suns" is structurally identical to the six Interstellar
Patrol stories, which followed immediately; when they were (with the
exception of "The Sun People" [1930]) finally reprinted in the 1960s, this
story was properly included, giving its title to the second volume.
Outside the Universe (1929 Weird Tales; 1964) and Crashing Suns (coll
1965) represent, with faults and virtues grandly magnified, the heart of
EH's early work - and the heart, therefore, of space opera. Others of his
works contributing to the creation of the form include The Metal Giants
(1926 Weird Tales; 1932 chap), "The Comet Doom" (1928) and "The Universe
Wreckers" (1930). The main failure of EH's work is a lack of cohesion,
through the lack of any sense of strategic plotting; that lack would of
course be remedied in the work of E.E. Smith. EH persisted with the format
through the 1930s, with gradually diminishing success, occasionally under
pseudonyms including Robert Castle, Hugh Davidson, Robert Wentworth and
the house name Will GARTH; and-dangerously for his career - occupied much
of his time in the early 1940s with the smoother but significantly less
lively Captain Future series, published 1940-50 by Standard Magazines in
CAPTAIN FUTURE (1940-44) and afterwards in Startling Stories (1945-6 and
1950-51).Not all the Captain Future stories were by EH. Five were signed
with the house name Brett STERLING, of which two were by EH and three -
"Worlds to Come" (1943), "Days of Creation" (1944) and The Tenth Planet
(1944 CF; 1969) - were by Joseph SAMACHSON, with one further title - The
Solar Invasion (1946 Startling Stories; 1969) - being by Manly Wade
WELLMAN. Each tale was written to a rigorous formula in which the
super-scientist protagonist, backed by three aides (one ROBOT, one ANDROID
and one brain in a box), brings an interstellar villain to justice. EH's
Captain Future titles eventually released in book form are Danger Planet
(1945 Startling Stories as "Red Sun of Danger"; 1968, as by Sterling),
Outlaw World (1946 Startling Stories; 1969), Quest Beyond the Stars (1942
Captain Future; 1969), Outlaws of the Moon (1942 Captain Future; 1969),
The Comet Kings (1942 Captain Future; 1969) - which was probably the
outstanding tale among them - Planets in Peril (1942 Captain Future;
1969), Calling Captain Future (1940 Captain Future; 1969), Captain
Future's Challenge (1940 Captain Future; 1969), Galaxy Mission (1940
Captain Future as "The Triumph of Captain Future"; 1969), The Tenth Planet
(1944 Captain Future as "Magic Moon"; 1969, as by Sterling), The Magician
of Mars (1941 Captain Future; 1969) and Captain Future and the Space
Emperor (1940 Captain Future; 1969). 11 further novels remain in magazine
form: "Captain Future and the Seven Space Stones" (1941), "Star Trail to
Glory" (1941), "The Lost World of Time" (1941), "The Face of the Deep"
(1943), "The Return of Captain Future" (1950), "Children of the Sun"
(1950), "The Harpers of Titan" (1950), "Pardon My Iron Nerves" (1950),
"Moon of the Unforgotten" (1951), "Earthmen no More" (1951) and
"Birthplace of Creation" (1951). From "The Return of Captain Future"
(1950) onwards these tales were novelettes, usually around 10,000 words.
The original idea for Captain Future had come from Mort WEISINGER, a
senior editor with the Standard Magazines group. Later, in 1941, Weisinger
shifted over to DC COMICS, and took many of his top writers with him,
including EH, who worked for some time in the mid-1940s as a staff writer
on SUPERMAN, along with Henry KUTTNER and others.Unfortunately for EH, his
work in comics and his involvement with Captain Future (which was aimed
primarily at teenaged boys) made it initially somewhat difficult for him
to be accepted after WWII as the competent and versatile professional he
had in fact been for years, a writer with a much wider range than was
generally realized, one who had already produced several stories whose
comparatively sober verisimilitude prefigured post-WWII requirements.
After his marriage to Brackett in 1946 his output diminished, but its
quality increased, a fact obscured by the publication in book form over
the next years of material from his early career - like Tharkol, Lord of
the Unknown (1939 Startling Stories; 1950 UK), in which Martians invade
Earth for its water - and by his habitual rehashing of space-opera
conventions in old-fashioned epics like The Sun Smasher (1954 Universe;
1959 dos), Battle for the Stars (1956 Imagination as by Alexander BLADE;
exp 1961) and Fugitive of the Stars (1957 Imagination; rev 1965 dos). His
final series, the Starwolf tales about tough interstellar adventurer
Morgan Chane, is similarly antiquated in premise, but told in a clean-cut
trimmed-down language which has won it supporters. The sequence comprises
The Weapon from Beyond (1967), The Closed Worlds (1968) and World of the
Starwolves (1968), all three being assembled as Starwolf (omni 1982).At
the same time, however, EH was writing novels which, though in the
space-opera tradition, were more carefully composed and darker in texture.
It is for these novels, plus The Monsters of Juntonheim (1941 Startling
Stories as "A Yank at Valhalla"; 1950 UK; vt A Yank at Valhalla 1973 dos
US), that he is now mainly remembered. The best is probably The Haunted
Stars (1960), in which well characterized humans face a shattering mystery
on the MOON: the secret of star travel left by long-dead ALIENS, along
with dark warnings. The Star Kings (1949; vt Beyond the Moon 1950), whose
plot reflects The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) by Anthony Hope (1863-1933) (
RURITANIA), is grander in scope but less impressively written; its sequels
are collected in Return to the Stars (coll of linked stories 1970), and
both volumes are assembled as Chronicles of the Star Kings (omni 1986 UK).
Other titles of interest from this flourishing period are City at World's
End (1951), The Star of Life (1947 Startling Stories; rev 1959) and The
Valley of Creation (1948 Startling Stories; rev 1964), a strongly written
SWORD-AND-SORCERY tale with an sf denouement.EH shared with his long-time
colleague Jack Williamson a capable and flexible attitude towards the
post-WWII genre and its markets (in contrast to the third great originator
of US space opera, E.E. Smith, who was a generation older). Through his
ability to evolve a cleaner and more literate style to meet these new
demands, and to apply this style to his old generic loves, EH wrote novels
at the end of his career that read perfectly idiomatically as novels of
the 1960s, as evidenced also in two compendiums of his shorter work:
What's It Like Out There? and Other Stories (coll 1974) and the posthumous
The Best of Edmond Hamilton (coll 1977) ed Leigh Brackett. In the end, it
can be said of EH that he took space opera seriously enough to make it
good. [JC]Other works: Tiger Girl (1945 chap UK); Murder in the Clinic
(coll 1946 chap UK); Doomstar (1966); The Lake of Life (1937 Weird Tales;
1978 chap).As Editor: The Best of Leigh Brackett (anth 1977).About the
author: Leigh Douglass Brackett and Edmond Hamilton: A Working
Bibliography (1988 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr.See also: AIR WONDER STORIES;

(1904-1962) UK writer best known for plays like Rope (1929) and for
several acute and supple novels of hopelessness in the UK of the 1930s.
His sf novel Impromptu in Moribundia (1939) further explores this milieu
through its dreamlike exploration of another planet where Earth's customs
are seen inverted, as in a distorting mirror. Hangover Square (1941) is a
split-personality murder mystery. [JC]

[r] P.J. BEESE.

(1936- ) US writer, mostly of juveniles, and of very considerable
interest in that field for the exploratory intensity of her work, from
Zeely (1967) on, and for the depth of her presentation of the complex
experience of being Black in the USA. Several of her early tales, like
M.C. Higgins, the Great (1974) and Sweet Whispers, Brother Rush (1982),
are fantasies. Of particular sf interest is the Justice Cycle - Justice
and her Brothers (1978), Dustland (1980) and The Gathering (1981) -
describing the slow growth of a sibling gestalt into an entity which may
well prefigure a higher form of humanity. The relationship between the
siblings, as Justice begins to realize that she must take control over her
identical-twin elder brothers, is developed with great skill. [JC]Other
works: The Magical Adventures of Pretty Pearl (1983); The People Could
Fly: American Black Folk-Tales (coll 1985); The Dark Way: Stories from the
Spirit World (coll 1990).See also: SUPERMAN.


[s] Richard A. LUPOFF.

(1921- ) US writer and editor. Active as an sf fan in the late 1930s and
early 1940s, he published a number of stories, the first of which, "War
with Jupiter" with Mark Reinsberg, appeared in AMAZING STORIES in 1939.
WLH later went to work for ZIFF-DAVIS under Raymond A. PALMER, and was
managing editor of AMZ and FANTASTIC ADVENTURES 1948-50. In 1951 he became
editor and publisher of IMAGINATION, having bought the title from Palmer.
He added a companion, IMAGINATIVE TALES, and continued both until late
1958. In 1955 he started an early men's magazine, Rogue. In the late 1960s
his publishing company Greenleaf Classics, which specialized in erotic
novels, ran badly foul of US pornography laws for publishing an
illustrated edition of a Congressional investigation of pornography, an
offence for which he was imprisoned along with his co-publisher Earl Kemp
(1929- ), compiler of the pamphlets Who Killed Science Fiction?: An
Affectionate Autopsy (anth 1960 chap) and Why is a Fan? (anth 1961 chap).
Greenleaf Classics and its associated imprints (Adult Books, Candid
Reader, Companion Books, Ember Library, Idle Hour Books, Late House
Library, Leisure Books, Nightstand Books, Pleasure Readers and Regency
Books) published over 50 titles of sf pornography; they are listed in The
Science Fiction Collector 4 (1977) ed J. Grant Thiessen and in Donald H.
TUCK's The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968,
Volume 3: Miscellaneous (1982). Greenleaf published several of the early
works of Harlan ELLISON. [MJE/PN]


[r] JAPAN.

(1918-1985) UK artist who almost singlehandedly brought the UK COMIC
strip into the scientific age. When the Rev. Marcus Morris and FH
originated the Eagle comic in 1949-50, FH created the sf strip DAN DARE -
PILOT OF THE FUTURE for its full-colour front pages. What made the strip
so revolutionary was FH's genius for colour, draughtsmanship and
characterization, and his ability to create authentic future technology.
He brought the comic strip closer to the CINEMA than any other UK artist
before him, with panoramas, close-ups and a great feeling for movement and
sequence. Until 1959, together with a team of artists, scriptwriters and
scientific advisers, FH controlled the cult spaceman on his adventures
across the Solar System. He abandoned Dan Dare to draw an impressive life
of Christ in comic-strip form, The Road of Courage (1959-60; graph 1981);
apart from a short stint on Lady Penelope for TV21 in 1964, this was his
last comic strip. Indeed, dogged by ill health and bitter about his shabby
treatment by Eagle's publishers, he produced very little published work at
all after this, although he illustrated seven books for very young
children for the publisher Ladybird Books and produced two sf spreads for
MARVEL COMICS's UK Spider-Man title in 1976. He received the Italian
Yellow Kid award in 1975. [ABP/RT]See also: RADIO.

(1868-1922) US martial arts specialist and writer, mostly for boys, who
remains of sf interest for the Conquest of the United States sequence -
The Invasion of the United States, or Uncle Sam's Boys at the Capture of
Boston (1916), In the Battle for New York, or Uncle Sam's Boys in the
Desperate Struggle for the Metropolis (1916), At the Defense of
Pittsburgh, or The Struggle to Save America's "Fighting Steel" Supply
(1916) and Making the Stand for Old Glory, or Uncle Sam's Boys in the Last
Frantic Drive (1916) - set around 1920 and depicting the invasion of the
USA by a Germany already victorious in Europe. Slightly advanced airplanes
are in evidence, as is much action. Germany loses. [JC]

(1957- ) US writer and critic who began publishing fiction with "Prince
of Flowers" for Twilight Zone Magazine in 1988. Her first novel,
WINTERLONG (1990), set on Earth some hundreds or thousands of years hence,
combines sf and fantasy materials in a way made familiar by writers of
PLANETARY ROMANCES from Jack VANCE through Gene WOLFE to Richard GRANT
(with whom she lives). The tale features baroque bioengineering, mythical
resonances and ornate psychopathologies intensely glimpsed; the prose is
occasionally very powerful, but the book is rather too long. A second
volume set in the same universe, Aestival Tide (1992), showed a formidable
improvement in its pacing , though necessarily abjuring some of the
interwoven density of mood in the previous volume; the central city where
the action occurs is superbly decadent, and the artificial woman,
manufactured of glass and metal as a storage vehicle for human culture, is
well-conceived. In the third volume, Icarus Descending (1993), the baroque
superstructure of the dying world continues to collapse, accompanied by a
revolt of the "geneslaves" who have been present throughout.EH's fourth
novel, Waking the Moon (1994 UK; cut 1995 US), is a fantasy of history.

(1945- ) UK writer known in the sf world only for Meanwhile (1977), an
intricately comic FABULATION crammed to bursting point with devices from
the whole spectrum of sf and fantasy, all introduced by a sharply
knowledgeable hand. [JC]

Film (1990). Cinecom/Bioskop. Dir Volker Schlondorff, starring Natasha
Richardson, Faye Dunaway, Aidan Quinn, Elizabeth McGovern, Victoria
Tennant, Robert Duvall. Screenplay Harold Pinter (1930- ), based on THE
HANDMAID'S TALE (1985) by Margaret ATWOOD. 108 mins. Colour.A near-future
USA, some time after a right-wing coup, is now a patriarchal,
fundamentalist, totalitarian state, suppressive of all liberal thought and
especially of women, who have no rights at all. The heroine is a
"handmaid", one of the few women whose reproductive systems have survived
the (very vaguely specified) ravages of chemical pollution and radiation
from power-plants. A handmaid's duty is to bear children to important men,
conception taking place at ceremonies where she is sandwiched between
piously thrusting husband and demure wife; the baby is taken by the wife.
This US/German adaptation was perhaps doomed to failure. The believability
of Atwood's original novel depends largely on texture, on irony, on the
watchful but partially submissive consciousness through which its events
are filtered: novels of this kind are notoriously difficult to film.
Stripped of this fineness of observation, THT's lurid future is so
diagrammatic - despite excellent performances - that suspension of
disbelief becomes impossible. The most terrifying aspect of the novel, the
wounded complicity with which many of its women consent to their own
dehumanization, is weakened by making the film's heroine (Richardson) an
active revolutionary who finally cuts the throat of her owner, played by
Duvall, whose portrayal of nearly unconscious hypocrisy - he sees himself
as a kind man - is the best thing in the film. [PN]




(1901-1985) Irish writer, in the UK from around the time he began - with
Drift (1930) - to publish his many novels and collections. His only sf,
What Farrar Saw (1946; rev as coll, vt What Farrar Saw and Other Stories
1984), set in a NEAR-FUTURE land much like war-depleted England, presents
a country choked by both an invidious class system and huge traffic jams,
which serve as a metaphor for social sclerosis. The jams are cleared with
bombs, but the system seems intact. [JC]

(?1910- ) US writer in whose The Tandar Saga (1964) the natives of Tandar
cruise space looking for habitable planets. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer whose first sf novel, The Betrothal of James (1898),
attempts to extract some humour from the fact that female cats must be
sacrificed in the production of a rejuvenation pill. Thuka of the Moon
(1906), a fantasy in which lunar deities amuse themselves by creating
various humanlike beings, awkwardly prefigures Philip Jose FARMER's World
of Tiers POCKET-UNIVERSE sequence. In The Electric Man (performed 1906;
1910 chap), a play, a primitive ROBOT is mistaken for the hero, with
farcical consequences. [JC]

(1950- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "A Red, White and Blue
Fourth of July" in 2076: The American Tricentennial (anth 1976) ed Edward
BRYANT, and who published stories fairly frequently in the late 1970s. His
first novel, War Games (1980 as "Sergeant Pepper" in The Berkley Showcase
#5 ed Victoria Schochet; exp 1981), is a surprisingly searing military-sf
vision; it is set in the loose Hybrid universe, as is his second, Dream
Games (1985 Omni as "Dreams Unwind"; exp 1985), which less interestingly
describes a rebellion against a COMPUTER-controlled DYSTOPIA. Further
volumes of the Hybrid series are anticipated. [JC]

(? - ) US writer who published numerous sf stories and popular science
articles in the PULP MAGAZINES from 1929 to at least 1948, beginning with
"The Undersea Tube" for AMZ in 1928; this details the failure of a subway
under the Atlantic. She probably attended the University of California Los
Angeles for graduate work in science. Her stories, which revolve around
hard-science explanations or technological problems, tend to include many
diagrams. The Ancient Atlantic (1969), nonfiction, deals with the
geological and mythic history of the Atlantic Ocean. [JD]

Working name of UK writer Victor Joseph Hanson (1920- ), author of a
number of some routine sf published over a brief span:The Twisters (coll
1963), Creatures of the Mist (1963), Claws of the Night (1964) and The
Grip of Fear (coll 1964). [JC]


(1858-1919) US writer, most of whose novels variously depict life in the
South. "In the Year Ten Thousand" (1892 Arena) is a UTOPIAN sketch
espousing vegetarianism. His sf novel, The Land of the Changing Sun
(1894), is a LOST-WORLD tale featuring an underground utopia/dystopia,
Alpha, founded 200 years earlier under the Arctic by a group of inventive
Englishmen, who espouse a rigid eugenic regime, and who heat and light
their habitat with an artificial sun, which moves on tracks and changes
colour pleasingly. Intruding magma threatens their world, and they decide
to evacuate Alpha in advanced submarines. [JC]See also: HISTORY OF SF.

(1941- ) UK writer who has concentrated on the sf of PARANOIA, generally
rooted in the notion that ALIENS are either investigating our planet or
governing us, or both. The Projekt Saucer sequence - in order of internal
chronology, Projekt Saucer #1: Inception (1991 US), Phoenix: Projekt
Saucer #2 (1995) and Genesis (1980; vt Projekt Saucer #2: Genesis 1991 US;
vt Genesis: Projekt Saucer #3 1995 UK) - connects UFOS and superscience in
a global conspiracy. Otherworld (1984) collapses under the burden of
attempting to make stylistic bricks out of material of this sort, but The
Light of Eden (1987; vt Eden 1987 US) more successfully follows the
psychiatric examination of some humans who gradually make it clear that
they are not in fact hallucinating an alien presence in the land. Dream
Maker (1991) suggests that UFOs in need of energy from human minds are
sucking holes in the ozone layer. [JC]

(1941- ) UK local government officer and sf researcher. PH is the world
authority on the works of John Russell FEARN, whose literary estate he
represents and with whom he has posthumously collaborated, completing
several stories. His bibliographical study of Fearn is The Multi-Man (1968
chap). PH is an expert in publishing data relating to UK GENRE SF,
especially in magazine form, and has contributed research to several UK
books about sf. He edited the magazine VISION OF TOMORROW for its 12
issues, Aug 1969-Sep 1970, as well as, anon, 3 anthologies: Eternal
Rediffusion (anth 1973 chap), Flight on Titan (anth 1973 chap) and Passage
to Saturn (anth 1973 chap). His work as a whole has been summarized in 2
linked volumes, Vultures of the Void: A History of British Science
Fiction, 1946-1956 (1992 US) and British Science Fiction Paperbacks,
1949-1956 (1992 US), both with Steve HOLLAND. [PN/JC]

[r] Carter SCHOLZ.

(1937- ) Australian freelance photographer and writer who began
publishing sf with "Displaced Person" for Science Fantasy in 1961; he
eventually expanded this story as Displaced Person (1979; rev vt Misplaced
Persons 1979 US). Aimed - like The Weeping Sky (1977) and Waiting for the
End of the World (1983), which are equally impressive - at a teenage
audience, it memorably imprisons its protagonist in a world turning to
grey just as the grim solitude of his own life becomes painfully manifest.
This use of sf plots to explore character became a kind of trademark of
the LH novel. During the 1960s, sometimes writing as Harold G. Nye, he
concentrated on magazine work, twice winning a Ditmar AWARD, in 1970 for
"Dancing Gerontius" (1969) and in 1972 for the magazine version of his
first novel, Fallen Spaceman (1971 If; rev 1973; rev 1980 US), a juvenile.
His adult novels - A World of Shadows (1975 UK) and Future Sanctuary (1976
Canada) - have been perhaps less notable than his juveniles, though the
last impressively anatomizes a desolate NEAR-FUTURE Australia. His other
juveniles include The Children of Atlantis (1976), The Frozen Sky (1976),
Return to Tomorrow (1977) and The Web of Time (1980 UK); they are sombre
and clear. LH has edited Beyond Tomorrow: An Anthology of Modern Science
Fiction (anth 1976; cut 1977 UK), The Altered I: An Encounter with Science
Fiction (anth 1976), which presents some of the productions of an sf
workshop in Australia presided over by Ursula K. LE GUIN, and Rooms of
Paradise (anth 1978). [JC]See also: CHILDREN'S SF; PSYCHOLOGY.

Pseudonym of US writer Robert Tine (? - ), author of the Outrider
SURVIVALIST sequence: The Outrider (1984), #2: Fire and Steel (1984), #3:
Blood Highway (1984), #4: Bay City Burnout (1985) and #5: Built to Kill
(1985). As usual, the HOLOCAUST is vengefully enjoyed. [JC]

Item of sf terminology coined by P. Schuyler MILLER in ASF (Nov 1957) and
since then widely used by sf FANDOM and readers; it has sometimes
overlapped in meaning with "hardcore sf", often used in the 1960s and
1970s to mean the kind of sf that repeats the themes and (to a degree) the
style of the GENRE SF written during the so-called GOLDEN AGE OF SF.
Though still sometimes used in a way that implies the element of nostalgia
associated with "hardcore sf", the term"hard sf" now seems to refer to
something rather simpler, as summarized by Allen STEELE (in "Hard Again"
in NEW YORK REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION, June 1992): "Hard sf is the form of
imaginative literature that uses either established or carefully
extrapolated science as its backbone." Steele goes on to regret the
association in many readers' minds of hard sf with "a particular political
territory - usually located somewhere on the far right", an association
which, while certainly sometimes justifiable, has cultural origins that
cannot easily be elucidated. The commonly used distinction between hard
and SOFT SCIENCES runs parallel to that between hard and SOFT SF. Theme
entries in this volume which deal with the so-called hard sciences
include, but are not restricted to, ASTRONOMY, BLACK HOLES, COMPUTERS;
TECHNOLOGY and WEAPONS. All but the most puristic reader would probably
material for hard sf. But it is possible to write a kind of hard sf about
almost anything, as can be exemplified by Brian M. STABLEFORD's
rationalizing treatment of vampires in The Empire of Fear (1988). Hard sf
should not, however, wilfully ignore or break known scientific principles,
yet stories classified as "hard sf" often contain, for example, ESP,
SCIENCE). While a rigorous definition of "hard sf" may be impossible,
perhaps the most important thing about it is, not that it should include
real science in any great detail, but that it should respect the
scientific spirit; it should seek to provide natural rather than
supernatural or transcendental explanations for the events and phenomena
it describes. [PN]


Film (1990). Palace/Millimeter/A Wicked Films Production. Dir Richard
Stanley, starring Stacey Travis, Dylan McDermott, John Lynch, William
Hootkins. Screenplay Stanley, based (it was admitted after a threatened
lawsuit) on a 1980 JUDGE DREDD story. 94 mins, but many prints shortened
to avoid adults-only rating. Colour.In a radioactive city in an apparently
post- HOLOCAUST near future, a dope-smoking sculptress is given a military
robot's head to incorporate into a steel sculpture. It reincorporates
itself using pieces of the sculpture, thereby taking the film from the
technopunk- DYSTOPIA genre into the Luddite killer- ROBOT genre. The
24-year-old director, Stanley, had a track record in so-called Industrial
Music rock videos, and the eclectic, pack-rat junk sensibility which this
suggests (a bit of Andrei TARKOVSKY here, a bit of Dario Argento there, a
bit of CYBERPUNK everywhere) surprisingly transcends cliche in the images
if not the script. Though H is basically a simple low-budget SPLATTER
MOVIE, it is unusually inventive in its design and in several of the
characters, notably Hootkins as a rotund sadistic voyeur. The crazed robot
is a Mark 13, and the film's epigraph is adapted from (where else?) the
Gospel According to St Mark, Chapter 13: "No flesh shall be spared."
[PN]See also: CINEMA.

(1936- ) UK illustrator, known as much for his astronomical paintings in
the accurate tradition of Chesley BONESTELL as for his sf work. DH learned
his craft at the Margaret Street College of Art in Birmingham, and was
soon painting for the British Interplanetary Society. Some of his best
early work was to illustrate a nonfiction book by Patrick MOORE, Sun,
Myth, and Men (1954); DAH later illustrated and cowrote with Moore
Challenge of the Stars (1972). His work has appeared on magazine and book
covers, most notably (beginning 1971) many covers for FSF, the magazine
for which he developed his famous "Space Gumby", a green alien which lent
humour to his vivid astronomical scenes. He was an important artist for
VISION OF TOMORROW, and worked also for Science Fiction Monthly, If and
Gal. Other book credits include Galactic Tours (1981) with Bob SHAW and
artwork for Atlas of the Solar System (1982) and Visions of Space (1989).

(1945- ) UK expert on rock music and film, on both of which subjects he
has published widely, having been founding editor of Studio Vista's
Rockbooks series and of the magazine Music Business. Among his notable
books on film those most relevant to sf are The Aurum Film Encyclopedia:
Science Fiction (1984; vt Science Fiction: The Complete Film Sourcebook
1985 US; vt The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction Movies 1986 ; rev 1991)
and The Aurum Film Encyclopedia: Horror (1985; vt The Encyclopedia of
Horror Movies 1987 US; rev projected 1993), both of which he edited and
partly wrote. Well edited, containing detailed credits and critical
annotations on well over 1000 films each, these books are-despite
inevitable small errors and on rare occasion weird judgments - about the
most readable and useful reference works in book form on their subjects (
CINEMA). There are more comprehensive filmographies available, but PH's
are much the most comprehensive to contain critical comment. The Science
Fiction volume - whose 1991 updating was largely the work of Kim NEWMAN -
is the only current (1992) book to be more comprehensive in the field than
this encyclopedia. [PN]

(1894-1982) UK writer and illustrator. At age 17 he became the chief
cartoonist for the London Evening News; he also illustrated several books
of interest, including a 1909 edition of Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's
Travels (1726) and Black Tales for White Children (coll 1914) by C.H.
Stigland. His work was all in black-and-white, with effects that ran from
the forceful to the jagged. He became involved in the Boy Scout movement
during WWI, then left it to found a rival organization, the Kibbo Kift,
whose principles he advocated in a quasi- UTOPIAN novel, Young Winkle
(1925); he invented an automatic aircraft navigator; and he was involved
in Social Credit, a theory that advocated the redistribution of resources
to increase purchasing power. Of his nonfiction, The Life and Death of
Paracelsus (1951) is of note. His sf novel, The Imitation Man (1931),
depicts the life of an artificially created homunculus with the power of
ESP who causes a good deal of furore but soon dies. [JC]See also:

Thomas M. DISCH.

(1927- ) UK author with a training in physics. His sf novels - The
Symmetrians (1966), which concerns a DYSTOPIAN response to nuclear
HOLOCAUST, and The Flowers of February (1970) - are straightforward but
uninspired. [JC]

[s] Robert Moore WILLIAMS.

Working name of US writer and RADIO producer James Judson Harmon (1933-
), who began publishing sf with "The Smuggler" for Spaceway in 1954, and
who became active in the magazine field. A nonfiction book, The Great
Radio Heroes (1967), discusses SUPERMAN and other programmes and
characters of sf interest. A similarly well documented nostalgic study is
The Great Movie Serials: Their Sound and Fury (1972) by JH and Donald F.
GLUT. JH also contributed a number of articles to RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY.

(1915- ) US patent attorney and writer, born in Texas. His first
published story was "Time Trap" for ASF in 1948, a convoluted time-loop
story involving the working of tremendous forces off-stage and a
quasitranscendental experience as the hero goes back in time to remake the
world. His subsequent output shows a remarkable consistency in echoing and
developing these themes. His first two novels, Flight into Yesterday (1949
Startling Stories; exp 1953; vt The Paradox Men) and THE RING OF RITORNEL
(1968), feature cycles in time and HEROES who undergo transcendental
metamorphoses in order to manipulate their own destinies and that of the
human race; both novels are shamelessly melodramatic, and have an obvious
kinship with the work of A.E. VAN VOGT. Shorter works in the same vein
include "The New Reality" (1950) - sf's best ADAM AND EVE story - and
"Stalemate in Space" (1949; vt "Stalemate in Time"). The first phase of
his career (1948-53) may well have ended because of his failure to sell
the remarkable novella "The Rose" (1953 AUTHENTIC SCIENCE FICTION; title
story of The Rose [coll 1966 UK], which also includes "The New Reality"
and "The Chessplayers") to a US market. This striking allegory of the
opposed worldviews of science and the ARTS is a memorable exemplar of the
particular kind of SUPERMAN story which represents future human EVOLUTION
in metamorphic terms. Its reprinting in the 1960s was the result of the
interest in CLH's work of Michael MOORCOCK, who reprinted several CLH
stories in NEW WORLDS, and this may have been responsible for Harness's
second burst of creativity, which produced THE RING OF RITORNEL and
several shorter works drawing on his experience as a lawyer, including "An
Ornament to his Profession" (1966) and "The Alchemist" (1966). (CLH had
earlier drawn on this experience in writing whimsical articles and stories
for ASF as Leonard Lockhard, sometimes working in collaboration with
Theodore L. THOMAS.)CLH returned to sf writing for a third time with the
futuristic infernal romance Wolfhead (1977-8 FSF; 1978), one of several sf
novels to borrow heavily from DANTE ALIGHIERI and to recast the myth of
Orpheus and Eurydice. He has been moderately prolific since then, aided by
his retirement from legal work in 1981. The Catalyst (1980) is one of
several CLH stories featuring quasimiraculous scientific discoveries made
in frank defiance of supposedly rational procedures. The transcendental
time-looping of his earlier novels is reiterated in Firebird (1981), Krono
(1988), and - in an un-space-operatic fashion - in Lurid Dreams (1990),
whose out-of-body time traveller meets up with Edgar Allan POE. Redworld
(1986) is an eccentric Bildungsroman set on a peculiar alien world, which
may be in part a transfiguration of the author's early life. His fondness
for outrageously melodramatic courtroom dramas in which absolutely
everything is rigged against the defendant, first displayed in "Probable
Cause" (1968), is echoed in The Venetian Court (1982) and Lunar Justice
(1991).CLH is an original, stylish and imaginatively audacious writer
whose relative neglect is difficult to understand. His most recent books
may not have quite the scope and exuberant panache of his earlier efforts,
but it is nevertheless unfortunate that the works of such a colourful and
highly readable writer should still be condemned, with one recent
exception, to appear only as ephemeral paperback originals. Despite his
one-time fashionability in the UK, none of his recent works has been
published there. [BS]About the author: Charles L. Harness: Attorney in
Space: A Working Bibliography (1992 chap) by Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE.See


(1927- ) US volcanologist and writer, often of nonfiction pieces for
journals like ASF. His only sf novel, Gypsy Earth (1982), is a full-flung
SPACE OPERA in the manner of the pre-WWII masters of that form, pitting
valiant Terrans against vast invading spacefleets, which they initially
destroy. The modernity of the tale was perhaps revealed by the destruction
of Earth partway through; but survivors in the eponymous hollow ASTEROIDS
wreak revenge, and humanity survives. [JC]

(1880-1960) UK author with Claude GRAHAME-WHITE of two sf juveniles, The
Air-King's Treasure (1913) and The Invisible War-Plane: A Tale of Air
Adventure in the Great Campaign (1915). In the latter an airship is
concealed by paint which (it is claimed) neither absorbs nor reflects
light. Much later HH wrote two solo works of semifictional FUTUROLOGY,
Winged World (1946) and Dawn of the Space Age (1946). [PN]

(? - ) US writer who began publishing sf with Petrogypsies (1985 in Far
Frontiers ed John F. CARR and Jerry POURNELLE; exp 1989), an essentially
comic novel set in what seems to be an ALTERNATE WORLD where oil
exploration is done by bio-constructs piloted by "gypsies", whose skills
dominate the venue. [JC]See also: POWER SOURCES.

(? -? ) US writer whose sf novel, The Mortgage on the Brain, Being the
Confessions of the late Ethelbert Craft, MD (1905), describes an
electric-shock treatment which alters personality beneficially and
undermines many then-conventional views of the nature of the mind. The
story is a melodramatic hotchpotch, but is of interest in its reference to
the ego, which is described (as in the title) as holding no more than a
mortgage on its habitat: this idea has found sophisticated support in
late-20th-century studies of the workings of the mind. [JC]See also:

(1919- ) US writer, author of The Immortalist (1969), a work of
speculative nonfiction. His sf novel, Paradise 1 (1977), set in the 21st
century, tells of potential IMMORTALITY and of a continuing struggle to
wrest humanity free of its contract with death. [JC]

(1891-1968) US writer (known also as Mrs F.C. Harris), the first woman to
publish sf in the specialized 1920s PULP MAGAZINES, beginning with "A
Runaway World" for Weird Tales in 1926. "The Fate of the Poseidonia"
(1927) won third prize in an AMZ contest. She experimented with a female
point of view in "The Fifth Dimension" (1928), and her stories generally
feature strong women, most notably Sylvia, airplane pilot and mechanic in
"The Ape Cycle" (1930). Her work often dealt with beings on the borders of
humanity - CYBORGS and ape-people ( APES AND CAVEMEN) in particular. She
assembled her work in Away from Here and Now (coll 1947). [JD]

Working name of UK writer and editor James Thomas Harris (1856-1931), who
spent some years as a lawyer in the USA and who is now best known for his
erotic autobiography, My Life and Loves (1922-7), which first appeared in
5 privately published volumes. In Pantopia (in Undream'd of Shores [coll
1924] as "The Temple of the Forgotten Dead"; much exp 1930 US) a young man
is shipwrecked somewhere in the South Atlantic, finding himself on a
utopian ISLAND whose Spanish-speaking socialist inhabitants make use of
radar, lasers and atomic power, and who as a matter of course do what is
good for their race in a natural fashion. Unfortunately, also as a matter
of course, they execute strangers. Luckily the hero is saved by a
privileged maiden, and both eventually escape. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer whose uneasily fin-de-siecle sf novel, A Romance in
Radium (1906), follows the investigative journey to Earth of a feathered
female ALIEN, a member of an angel-like species from 100,000,000 miles
away; her people are confused as to why earlier visitors stayed on our
planet and became mortal. The answer is SEX - or, as JHH puts it,
marriage. Angels, it seems, cannot get enough of marriage. [JC]

[r] John WYNDHAM.


[r] Laurence M. JANIFER.

Pseudonym used by US writer and academic Donald William Heiney (1921-
1993) for all his fiction which, though composed in a smooth and
accessible style, tends significantly to foreground any elements of
fantasy ( FABULATION) with which it may deal. Bull Fever (1973) treats a
modern family romance in terms of the myth of the Minotaur. The Balloonist
(1976) recounts a failed 1897 BALLOON expedition to the North Pole in
terms reminiscent of Jules VERNE's Voyages extraordinaires; indeed, the
book is dedicated to Verne. The Little People (1986) takes its title from
the myth of faerie, though in a delusional frame. Glowstone (1987) posits
a kind of ALTERNATE WORLD in which a woman strongly reminiscent of Marie
Curie (1867-1934) makes identical scientific discoveries. Screenplay
(1982), a TIME-TRAVEL tale, deposits its hero in a film-noir dream of
1920s Hollywood. Several of the stories assembled in The Cathay Stories
and Other Fictions (coll 1988) carry a contemporary Marco Polo backwards
in time to the increasingly fabulous world of the original (1254-1324).

(1953- ) US writer who began publishing sf with his first novel, The
Broken Worlds (1986), an attractive picaresque adventure. Shadows of the
White Sun (1988) seems at first assessment almost too complex - it is set
in a FAR-FUTURE Solar System dominated by revenant star-sailors whose
descendents occupy seven SPACE HABITATS called the Hypaethra, orbiting the
Sun, while a computer-created ANDROID race occupies the planet Veii in
exchange for ritual tribute paid to the Despot who dominates the habitats.
But embedded within this surround are a convincing murder mystery, a trek
and an examination of character. Echoes of both Frank HERBERT and Gene
WOLFE are detectable, not to RH's discredit. Complications of venue and
plot affect The Schizogenic Man (1990) more seriously, with a 21st-century
balkanized, computer-run, city-state USA where lives change according to
periodic lotteries, and a TIME-TRAVEL plot that further shuffles the
reality cards; the novel was the 1991 runner-up for the PHILIP K. DICK
AWARD. RH's work has yet to come fully into focus, but there is a sense
that this may happen very soon. [JC]

[r] Michael MOORCOCK

(1870-1926) UK writer whose first novels of sf interest, Dacobra, or The
White Priests of Ahriman (1903) and The Princess of Thora (1904 US; vt Dr
Silex 1905 UK as JBH-B), were signed Harris Burland. The first tale sets
in an occult frame a wide range of supernatural subjects including
IMMORTALITY; the second, a LOST-WORLD novel, features a race of lost
Normans who have developed into SUPERMEN in an enclave at the North Pole.
The Gold Worshipers (1906 US), as JBH-B, returns to one of the subjects of
the first novel - the transubstantiation of metals - in a congested tale
of greed, gold-making and amply reimbursed remorse. [JC]Other works:
Workers in Darkness (1908), borderline.

(1942- ) UK-born NEW ZEALAND playwright and writer whose work embodies
consistently anti-racist themes. Broken October: New Zealand 1985 (1976)
posits political terrorism and racial conflict resulting in a US-backed
military takeover. In The Quiet Earth (1981), filmed as The QUIET EARTH
(1985), a GENETIC-ENGINEERING disaster depopulates the planet. The insane
protagonist realizes, in a moment of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH that
vindicates his PARANOIA, that he has caused the DISASTER. Days of
Starlight (1988) pits scientists against the US military after a
holographic recorder of Earth's history is discovered. Technically
excellent, CH's work is sometimes uninvolving. [MMacL]

(1925- ) US writer, born Henry Maxwell Dempsey (though his father changed
his name to Harrison soon after HH's birth), now usually resident, after
many years of travelling, in Ireland. HH began his career as a commercial
artist about 1946, working chiefly in comics as an illustrator and writer,
often in collaboration with Wallace A. WOOD, supplying illustrations as
well to magazines like GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION and eventually having a
stint as art director of Picture Week. At the same time - being from an
early age an sf enthusiast and friendly with many writers through his
membership of the Hydra Club, a New York group of sf professionals - he
began to think about writing. Damon KNIGHT, then editor of WORLDS BEYOND
and one of the Hydra Club members, commissioned some illustrations from HH
for that magazine; he then - far more importantly - bought HH's first
story, "Rock Diver", which appeared in Worlds Beyond in 1951. HH's short
fiction appeared regularly from then, sometimes as by Felix Boyd or Hank
Dempsey. In 1953 HH served as editor of ROCKET STORIES for 1 issue (#3)
under the house name Wade KAEMPFERT. In later years, HH was also for short
periods in charge of the magazines Impulse ( SCIENCE FANTASY), AMAZING
STORIES and FANTASTIC.In 1957, from Mexico, HH sold his first story to
John W. CAMPBELL Jr for ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, thereby initiating a
long and close relationship with both editor and magazine. This was his
first tale featuring the interstellar-criminal-turned-law-enforcer
Slippery Jim DiGriz, the Stainless Steel Rat, HERO of a set of fast-moving
adventures with a broad leavening of HUMOUR: The Stainless Steel Rat
(fixup 1961 US), The Stainless Steel Rat's Revenge (1970 US) and The
Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World (1972 US) - all assembled as The
Adventures of the Stainless Steel Rat (omni 1977) - plus The Stainless
Steel Rat Wants You! (1979 US), The Stainless Steel Rat for President
(1982 US), A Stainless Steel Rat is Born (1985 US) and The Stainless Steel
Rat Gets Drafted (1987 UK). (HH did the jacket illustrations for the UK
hardcover editions of the second and third books.) HH always remained a
stout defender of Campbell, even though as editor and critic his attitude
often seemed diametrically opposed to Campbell's increasingly stiff-necked
social and political views. He edited Campbell's Collected Editorials from
Analog (coll 1966), was filmed at a working lunch with Campbell and Gordon
R. DICKSON, a session which resulted in the Harrison-Dickson collaborative
novel The Lifeship (1976 US; vt Lifeboat 1978 UK), and after Campbell's
death edited a memorial anthology, Astounding (anth 1973; vt The John W.
Campbell Memorial Anthology 1974 UK).HH's first published novel appeared a
year before The Stainless Steel Rat: Deathworld (1960 US; vt Deathworld 1
1973 UK). Its highly kinetic description of the COLONIZATION of a planet
crammed with hostile life established him as a vigorous writer of
intelligent action adventures. Further volumes in the Deathworld series
are Deathworld 2 (1964 US; vt The Ethical Engineer 1964 UK) and Deathworld
3 (1968 US), all three being assembled as The Deathworld Trilogy (omni
1974 US); "The Mothballed Spaceship" (1973) was an associated short story.
The third series begun by HH in his early years (though the second volume
was not to appear for three decades) was the Bill, the Galactic Hero
sequence, starting with Bill, the Galactic Hero (1965 US), a sharp
extended lampoon of aspects of stories by Robert A. HEINLEIN, Isaac ASIMOV
and even HH himself. The later volumes of the series declined,
unfortunately, into undirected slapstick: Bill, the Galactic Hero: The
Planet of the Robot Slaves (1989 US; vt Bill, the Galactic Hero on the
Planet of Robot Slaves 1989 UK), Bill, the Galactic Hero on the Planet of
Bottled Brains (1990 US) with Robert SHECKLEY, Bill, the Galactic Hero on
the Planet of Tasteless Pleasure (1991) with David F. BISCHOFF, Bill, the
Galactic Hero on the Planet of the Zombie Vampires (1991) with Jack C.
HALDEMAN II, and Bill, the Galactic Hero on the Planet of Ten Thousand
Bars (1991; vt Bill, the Galactic Hero on the Planet of the Hippies from
Hell 1992 UK) with Bischoff.Most of HH's singletons are also of interest.
They include: a group of stories exploring the ROBOT theme, War with the
Robots (coll 1962 US); the examination of MATTER TRANSMISSION in One Step
From Earth (coll 1970 US); a parody of E.E. SMITH in Star Smashers of the
Galaxy Rangers (1973 US); Captive Universe (1969 US), an unusual
GENERATION-STARSHIP story using a background of Aztec culture ( CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH; POCKET UNIVERSE); Tunnel through the Deeps (1972 US; vt A
Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! 1972 UK), a PARALLEL-WORLD novel in which
the American Revolution failed and the British Empire still flourishes;
and Skyfall (1976 UK), a fairly conventional DISASTER novel. Some,
however, like Invasion: Earth (1982 US), seem to parody nothing but their
author's own attempts to parody bad SPACE OPERA. In contrast, MAKE ROOM!
MAKE ROOM! (1966 US) is a serious - indeed, impassioned - novel of
OVERPOPULATION, gravely told and well formed. It formed the basis of the
film SOYLENT GREEN (1973), though much of its substance was lost in
transition; the film nevertheless won the 1973 NEBULA for Best Dramatic
Presentation.Later series of interest include the To the Stars sequence -
Homeworld (1980 US), Wheelworld (1981 US) and Starworld (1981 US), all
three being assembled as To the Stars (omni 1981) - which combine muscular
sf-adventure plotting with sharp narrative analyses of UK and US life. Far
more important, however, is the Eden series - West of Eden (1984 US),
Winter in Eden (1986 US) and Return to Eden (1988 US) - an ambitiously
conceived ALTERNATE-WORLD sequence based on the assumption that the
dinosaurs did not suffer extinction and, in the due course of time, have
evolved into saurians skilled at biotechnology. Their encounter with a
savage humanity, and the irreconcilable differences between two
intelligent species warring for Lebensraum, is intrinsically interesting,
tightly and informatively told, and dramatically gripping as the slowly
approaching Ice Age adds intensity to the strife and the sense of peril.
Along with his earliest sf adventures and Make Room! Make Room!, the Eden
books are by a considerable margin HH's best work.For many years HH's
close professional association with Campbell was balanced by his even
closer personal and professional association with Brian W. ALDISS, a
figure dauntingly averse to the Campbellian vision. Together they founded
the critical magazine SF Horizons, whose two issues served as a litmus
test for sf criticism; they edited an annual Best SF anthology (see
listing below); they collaborated on other anthologies, such as Nebula
Award Stories Two (anth 1967 US),All About Venus (anth 1968 US; exp vt)
Farewell, Fantastic Venus! A History of the Planet Venus in Fact and
Fiction (anth 1968 UK; cut vt 1968 US), The Astounding-Analog Reader,
Volume One (anth 1972 US; vt in 2 vols as The Astounding-Analog Reader,
Volume One 1973 UK and The Astounding-Analog Reader, Volume Two 1973 UK)
and The Astounding-Analog Reader, Volume Two (anth 1973 US); and they
assembled the Decade series - Decade: The 1940s (anth 1975), Decade: The
1950s (anth 1976) and Decade: The 1960s (anth 1977).HH has been hard to
pin down. He has lived everywhere. He was an author of the hardest of
hard-sf adventure novels while at the same time mercilessly spoofing the
conventions - and politics - of that literature. He is deeply American,
and deeply expatriate. He might spend the rest of his career writing
bad-joke spin-offs from his own earlier work, or he might compose his
masterpiece. After 40 years, there is still no knowing. [MJE/JC]Other
works: Planet of the Damned (1962 US; vt Sense of Obligation 1967 UK) and
its sequel, Planet of No Return (1981 US); Vendetta for the Saint * (1964
US) as Leslie CHARTERIS; Plague from Space (1965 US; vt The Jupiter Legacy
1970 US); Two Tales and 8 Tomorrows (coll 1965 UK); The Technicolor Time
Machine (1967); The Man from P.I.G. (1968 US; with additional story as
coll vt The Men from P.I.G. and R.O.B.O.T. 1974 UK), a juvenile; The
Daleth Effect (1970 US; vt In Our Hands, the Stars 1970 UK); Prime Number
(coll 1970 US); Spaceship Medic (1970 UK); Stonehenge (1972 US; exp vt
Stonehenge: Where Atlantis Died 1983 US) with Leon E. STOVER; Montezuma's
Revenge (1972 US) and Queen Victoria's Revenge (1974 US), linked
associational novels; The California Iceberg (1975 UK); The Best of Harry
Harrison (coll 1976 US; rev 1976 UK); Great Balls of Fire: A History of
Sex in Science Fiction Illustration (1977 UK), nonfiction; Spacecraft in
Fact and Fiction (1979) with Malcolm EDWARDS, nonfiction; Mechanismo
(1978), nonfiction; Planet Story (1979 UK); The QE II is Missing (1980
UK), associational; A Rebel in Time (1983 US).As Editor: Apeman, Spaceman:
Anthropological Science Fiction (anth 1968 US) with Leon E. Stover; the
Author's Choice anthologies, in which authors chose their own favourites
and said why, comprising Backdrop of Stars (anth 1968 UK; vt SF: Authors'
Choice 1968 US), SF: Author's Choice 2 (anth 1970 US), #3 (anth 1971 US)
and #4 (anth 1974 US); the Best SF annual series, all with Brian W.
Aldiss, comprising Best SF: 1967 (1968 US; vt The Year's Best Science
Fiction No 1 1968 UK), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 2 (anth 1969 UK;
exp vt Best SF: 1968 1969 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 3 (anth
1970 UK; vt Best SF: 1969 1970 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 4
(anth 1971 UK; vt Best SF: 1970 1971 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction
No 5 (anth 1972 UK; vt Best SF: 1971 1972 US), Best SF: 1972 (anth 1973
US; vt The Year's Best Science Fiction No 6 1973 UK), Best SF: 1973 (anth
1974 US; cut vt The Year's Best Science Fiction No 7 1974 UK), Best SF
1974 (anth 1975 US; cut vt The Year's Best Science Fiction No 8 1975 UK)
and The Year's Best Science Fiction No 9 (anth 1976 US; vt Best SF: 1975
1976 US); Blast Off: S.F. for Boys (anth 1969 UK; rev vt Worlds of Wonder
1969 US); Four for the Future: An Anthology on the Themes of Sacrifice and
Redemption (anth 1969 UK); the Nova series of original sf stories,
comprising Nova 1 (anth 1970), #2 (anth 1972 US), #3 (anth 1973 US; vt The
Outdated Man 1975 US) and #4 (anth dated 1974 but 1975 US); The Year 2000
(anth 1970 US); The Light Fantastic (anth 1971 US) and Ahead of Time (anth
1972 US), the latter with Theodore J. Gordon; A Science Fiction Reader
(anth 1973 US) with Carol Pugner; Science Fiction Novellas (anth 1975 US)
with Willis E. MCNELLY; Hell's Cartographers (anth 1975 UK) with Brian W.
Aldiss; There Won't Be War (anth 1991) with Bruce MCALLISTER.About the
author: Harry Harrison (last rev 1985 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr; Harry
Harrison (1990) by Leon STOVER.See also: ANTHOLOGIES; ANTHROPOLOGY; ARTS;

(1923- ) UK writer whose sf novel, The Catacombs (1962), depicts with
some irony a post- HOLOCAUST world in which "Crishuns", having persuaded
themselves that they warrant special attention, await salvation. [JC]

(1907-1991) UK writer in various genres, mostly not sf. He wrote an early
film novelization, The Bride of Frankenstein * (1936) as Michael Egremont,
and some of the stories assembled in Transit of Venus (coll 1936) are of
fantasy interest. His first and most interesting sf novel, Higher Things
(1945), is clearly influenced by H.G. WELLS. An impoverished young man,
caught in the trammels of a clerical position but with dreams of higher
things, finds in himself the power to levitate, which he does at crucial
moments in his rather melancholy life to escape his and the world's
muddles. He then makes a long (probably delusional) flight to confront the
Dictator (Hitler) and to discuss with him the world's fate, a
middle-period Wellsian excursion which is succeeded by a Wellsian quietus:
the protagonist, haunted by PARANOIA, decides to escape the world entirely
in a levitated, airtight gondola. The Darkened Room: An Arabesque (1951)
is like Higher Things set in the mythical town of Rowcester; it features a
cat kept artificially alive to further a blackmail scheme. The Brain
(1953) devotes itself to a mushroom cloud which becomes sentient.
[JC]Other works: The Exploits of the Chevalier Dupin (coll 1968 US) and
Murder in the Rue Royale (coll 1972) are collections of mystery stories
extending the canon of Edgar Allan POE's seminal detective.See also: PSI

(1945- ) UK writer and rock-climber, closely identified in the 1960s with
NEW WORLDS, where he published his first sf story, "Baa Baa Blocksheep",
in 1968, and for which he later wrote some of the best tales using the
Jerry Cornelius template, or icon, from the series created by Michael
MOORCOCK. He also wrote considerable criticism for NW, usually as Joyce
Churchill, and served for some time as its literary editor. Typical work
from this period was assembled in The Machine in Shaft Ten and Other
Stories (coll 1975), which reveals its NEW-WAVE provenance in narrative
discontinuities and subheads after the fashion of J.G. BALLARD. His first
novel, The Committed Men (1971; rev 1971 US), is an impressive post-
HOLOCAUST story set in a fractured England, centring physically on the
ruins of the motorways, and generating a powerful sense of entropic
dismantlement. His third, The Centauri Device (1974 US), is a
significantly disgruntled SPACE OPERA, perhaps his least successful book,
and one which demonstrates MJH's persistent discomfort with the escapist
conventions of this sort of sf. Unsurprisingly, the doomsday device of the
title duly blows up the Galaxy.As the first volume of his Viriconium
sequence, though much simpler than later instalments, his second novel,
The Pastel City (1971), is of greater interest. It is a FAR-FUTURE science
fantasy set on a bleak Dying Earth, whose description plays on
SWORD-AND-SORCERY imagery, though nothing happens of a magical nature.
Viriconium itself is both the land - conveyed with a growing capacity to
portray in words the physical world - and the city at the end of time
which dominates it. The second volume of the sequence, A STORM OF WINGS
(1980 US), rewrites its predecessor in language whose intensity is both
surreal and topographically exact, so that an orthodox tale of alien
INVASION becomes a series of bleak tableaux vivants as witnessed through
the insectoid perceptions of the invaders. In Viriconium (1982; vt The
Floating Gods 1983 US), the final novel of the sequence, is far more
abstract, rendering the fin de siecle transports of its plot in language
of a fixating painterly density. The UK versions of the stories assembled
as Viriconium Nights (coll 1984 US; much rev 1985 UK) - and later brought
together with In Viriconium as Viriconium (omni 1988) - focus even more
intensely upon the task of seeing their dying landscapes with utter
exactitude, so that the inhabitants of the city present their failed
artistries in terms less and less reassuring to any sense that they are
able to inhabit a fantasy world; this sense of the closing of the world
was intensified in The Luck in the Head (1983 Interzone text alone, as
MJH; text rev as graph 1991) with Ian MILLER, which darkly re-viewed a
tale from the UK collection. The reality of things seen comes, in the end,
to be the only reality to which MJH will give allegiance in the sequence;
all else is unearned.The central lesson to be extracted from his work -
that any personal escape from the world must be earned by attending to
that very world, for only when self and city and rockface are seen with
true sight do we know what it is we wish to leave - is reiterated in most
of the stories assembled in The Ice Monkey and Other Stories (coll 1983),
some of which are sf tales of a striking and obdurate coldness, and in The
Course of the Heart (1992), where a partial fulfilment of the longing
enacts a stringent penalty. In Climbers (1989), an associational novel
about rock-climbing, the lesson is driven home with something like
ferocity. The protagonists of this book are losers and obsessives, and the
land they climb is dreadful with the weight of being; in a sense,
therefore, the book truly defines the end of the Viriconium sequence and
the preceding sf tales, because for MJH the only difference between the
lords and ladies in science fantasy and climbers clinging to a rock in the
real world is that the latter know where they are. [JC]Other works:
Fawcett on Rock (1987) as by Ron Fawcett, nonfiction.See also: CITIES;


(vt Bigfoot and the Hendersons UK) Film (1987). Amblin/Universal. Dir
William Dear, starring John Lithgow, Melinda Dillon, Joshua Rudoy, David
Suchet, Don Ameche, Kevin Peter Hall. Screenplay Dear, William E. Martin,
Ezra D. Rappaport. 111 mins. Colour.This amiable, well made film is sf
only in that it deals with a lost race ( LOST WORLDS). Harry is a Bigfoot,
an 8ft (2.4m) intelligent hairy anthropoid, a shy native of the US
Northwest. He is knocked down by the car of and then temporarily adopted
by the Henderson family of Seattle. Made by Steven SPIELBERG's production
company, Amblin Entertainment, HATH is effectively a variation on the
theme of his E.T.: THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL (1982), in which the innocent
ALIEN, healer of human hurt, pursued by the unthinking mob, is this time a
father - rather than a child-figure. The occasional tartness of the film's
wit compensates for the its almost excessive sweetness; this proved to be
a commercial miscalculation.The novelization is Harry and the Hendersons *
(1987; vt Bigfoot and the Hendersons 1987 UK) by Joyce THOMPSON. There has
also been a tv sitcom based on the film. [PN]See also: APES AND CAVEMEN

(1920- ) US special-effects supervisor, long based in the UK, associated
with many sf and fantasy films. As a boy his main interests were sculpture
and palaeontology. The desire to see his own clay figures move on the
screen, aroused by KING KONG (1933), stimulated his interest in
photography and special effects. While Willis H. O'BRIEN, who had animated
King Kong, was preparing to make MIGHTY JOE YOUNG (1949), RH approached
him, showed sample footage of his work on 16mm, and was hired as his
assistant on this film and on the subsequent abortive project El Toro
Estrella, about a boy, a bull and a dinosaur. RH and O'Brien then went
their separate ways, though they later teamed up briefly to work on the
dinosaur sequences in the pseudo-documentary Animal World (1956).RH
supervised the effects in The BEAST FROM 20,000 FATHOMS (1953), which was
a success. He then formed a partnership with producer Charles H. Schneer
that continued through his active career. Their first film together was IT
SAUCERS (1956) and 20 MILLION MILES TO EARTH (1957). By then the sf film
boom was in decline and they decided that their next project would be a
mythic fantasy. In 1958 they made The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad, the first
animation film of its type in colour. It proved a huge financial success
and similar fantasies followed: The Three Worlds of Gulliver (1960),
MYSTERIOUS ISLAND (1961) and Jason and the Argonauts (1963). Then there
was a shift back to sf with FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1964), ONE MILLION
YEARS BC (1966) and The VALLEY OF GWANGI (1969).In the 1970s and 1980s
their output fell and they returned to the format of their best-loved
films, The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad and Jason and the Argonauts. Their
three further films in the same vein were The Golden Voyage of Sinbad
(1973), Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger (1977) and Clash of the Titans
(1981). In the latter (an adaptation of the Perseus legend) they
attempted, by using distinguished actors in supporting roles, to counter
criticisms that their films had become 5min dollops of monster-fighting
stitched together with 15min stretches of pointless running about and bad
acting. It remained a relative disappointment, not helped by the inclusion
of an insufferable mechanical owl patterned on LucasFilm's R2D2 in STAR
WARS (1977) - a film which, ironically, was deeply influenced by RH's
earlier fantasies. The alien craft of Earth vs. the Flying Saucers and the
Ymir of 20 Million Miles to Earth probably stand as RH's best animation,
and Jason and the Argonauts as his best film. While his effects were very
influential state-of-the-art stuff in the 1950s and 1960s, he proved
reluctant to adapt to the 1980s and 1990s boom in computer-assisted
animation; Film Fantasy Scrapbook (1972; rev1974; further rev 1981)
expresses his sense of things. He has gracefully retired, now sculpting
figures from his films and acting as spiritual godfather to his
pupils-cum-successors, Jim Danforth, David Allen and Phil Tippett. He
appears, thinly disguised, as "Roy Holdstrom" in Ray BRADBURY's A
Graveyard for Lunatics (1990). [JB/KN]


[s] Harlan ELLISON.

(1812-1885) Dutch polymath, immensely prolific in scientific fields such
as biology, medicine and geology. His one sf novel, Anno 2065 (1865 as by
Dr Dioscorides; trans anon as Anno Domini 2071 1871 UK), posits a liberal
world 200 years hence which is at peace, has new sources of power, and is
highly industrious. [JC]

(1895-1972) UK novelist and short-story writer known mainly for his works
outside the sf field, especially for The Go-Between (1953) and for the
trilogy comprising The Shrimp and the Anemone (1944), The Sixth Heaven
(1946), which has some slight fantasy content, and Eustace and Hilda
(1947). His ghost stories - some of the finest from this century - were
variously collected in Night Fears and Other Stories (coll 1924), The
Killing Bottle (coll 1932), The Travelling Grave and Other Stories (coll
1948 US), The White Wand (coll 1954), Two for the River (coll 1961) and
Miss Carteret Receives and Other Stories (coll 1971); these and more were
assembled in The Complete Short Stories of L.P. Hartley (coll 1973 in 2
vols). His sf novel, Facial Justice (1960), deals sourly but sensitively
with personal dilemmas after humanity has re-emerged from underground
after a nuclear DISASTER. Many of the precepts of the subsequent DYSTOPIA
satirize the welfare state and English socialism. For women, true equality
involves a literal equality of physical appearance, with poignant effects.
It has been argued that, when the female protagonist unmasks the dictator
responsible, showing her to be an ancient and envious hag, the author
reveals a fundamental misogyny; the point is moot. [JC]See also: HISTORY

(c1600-1660) Polish-born scientist, chemist and writer, in the UK from
about 1625. SH was the author of a Royalist UTOPIA, A Description of the
Famous Kingdome of Macaria (1641). A facsimile edition was published in
1961 in the USA. [JC]

(1887-1969) US writer whose Lunarchia: That Strange World Beneath the
Moon's Crust (1937) began a projected interplanetary sequence in the Edgar
Rice BURROUGHS vein with the discovery of a colourful civilization within
the Moon. No further volumes appeared. [JC] Other work: The Giant of the
Sierras (1945), which may be a non-fiction study.

(1934- ) UK writer associated, like Brian W. ALDISS, with the Oxford
Mail, of which he was features editor. His sf novels, Binary Divine (1969)
and Earthjacket (1970), take a dark view of Earth's crowded, DYSTOPIAN,
urbanized future. [JC]

(1941- ) US editor, publisher and critic, with a PhD from Columbia in
Comparative Medieval Literature. His first publication of genre interest
is SF-I: A Selective Bibliography (1971 chap) with L.W. CURREY, both
writing as Kilgore TROUT; he also assisted Currey in the latter's seminal
Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors: a Bibliography of First Printings of
their Fiction and Selected Nonfiction(1979). He published and edited The
Little Magazine (1965-88), a literary magazine, and since 1988 has been
reviews editor of The NEW YORK REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION , published by
Dragon Press, the SMALL PRESS of which he was partner 1973-8 and is now
proprietor. He edited the short-lived COSMOS SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY
MAGAZINE 1977-8.His substantial influence in the sf world has been mainly,
however, as an editor and/or advisor for various commercial sf publishers,
including Signet (1971-3), Berkley/Putnam (1973-8), GREGG PRESS (1975-86)
- an academic publisher of important sf reprints - Pocket Books/Simon &
Schuster (1978-83), where he was responsible for their important TIMESCAPE
BOOKS sf imprint, TOR BOOKS (1984-current), where he is consulting sf
editor, Arbor House (1984-8) and William Morrow (1988-91). His career - a
tightrope walk - testifies to the difficulties DGH has partly conquered in
reconciling the conflicting demands of art and commerce, especially during
his tenure with Pocket Books' Timescape programme, where he published many
distinguished titles, including Gene WOLFE's Book of the New Sun tetralogy
(1980-3).The anthologies DGH has edited include: The Battle of the
Monsters and Other Stories (anth 1976) with L.W. CURREY, 19th-century sf;
the Christmas sequence of ghost and other supernatural stories,
comprisingChristmas Ghosts (anth 1987) with Kathryn CRAMER, Spirits of
Christmas (anth 1989) with Cramer, Christmas Stars(anth 1992), Christmas
Forever (anth 1993) and Christmas Magic(anth 1994) The Dark Descent (anth
1987; vt in 3 vols , The Dark Descent #1: The Colour of Evil 1990 UK; #2:
The Medusa in the Shield 1990 UK and #3: A Fabulous, Formless Darkness
1991 UK), horror stories; Masterpieces of Fantasy and Enchantment (anth
1988) and Masterpieces of Fantasy and Wonder (anth 1989), both with
Cramer; The World Treasury of Science Fiction (anth 1989); Foundations of
Fear: an Exploration of Horror (anth 1992), The Ascent of Wonder: The
Evolution of Hard Science Fiction (anth 1994) with Cramer, which contains
intriguingly contrasting definitions of HARD SF in the editors' comments
and in the introduction by Gregory BENFORD; and Northern Stars: The
Anthology of Canadian Science Fiction (anth 1994; exp 1985) with Glenn
Grant. DGH won a World Fantasy AWARD in the Special Award/Professional
category in 1988, and has 7 times been nominated for a HUGO as Best
Editor. He has written a number of critical essays on sf; and his Age of
Wonders: Exploring the World of Science Fiction (1984) is wide-ranging,
informal and anecdotal, treating sf and FANDOM as both a literary and a
sociological phenomenon. [PN]See also: PHILIP K. DICK AWARD.

(1913-1981) US writer whose collection of stories, Air Force! (coll
1959), concentrates on that branch of the armed services, but with a
NEAR-FUTURE setting which includes manned satellites and the like. [JC]

Gardner F. FOX.

(1945- ) US writer whose sf novel, Warhaven (1987), the first volume of a
projected trilogy, puts its young protagonist through a series of trials,
at the end of which he has clearly prepared himself to become one of the
Guardians who covertly supervise a variety of spacefaring races.
Throughout, his solutions to problems tend, unusually, to dodge the use of
force. [JC]

(1899-1984) US film director. His film career began in 1919 when he
became an assistant cameraman for Louis J. Selznick. He directed 4 films
in 1927, but later worked mostly as a cinematographer; he supervised the
special-effects department for Warner Bros. 1936-47. In 1947 he began
directing again with I Walk Alone, a Hal Wallis production. In 1952 he
formed a creative partnership with producer George PAL, directing several
films for him. The first of these was WAR OF THE WORLDS (1953); it was
followed by The Naked Jungle (1954), CONQUEST OF SPACE (1955) and The
POWER (1968), the latter codirected with Pal. Other sf movies directed by
(1964). He also directed many tv episodes, including several in The OUTER
LIMITS . BH's background in special effects meant that he never neglected
them in his films, unlike many other sf film-makers of the 1950s. His work
as a director was likable - as in Disney's Treasure Island (1950) - but
uninspired: War of the Worlds derives impact from its spectacle, but most
of his other sf films are merely competent. Probably his most interesting
and personal film, on which he had a fair degree of control, was Robinson
Crusoe on Mars. He retired in 1967. [JB]

(1913-1977) US fan and sf writer who frequently worked in collaboration
with others, notably A. Fedor (with whom he published his first story,
"The End of Tyme" for Wonder Stories in 1933), Emil PETAJA, whose
pseudonym E. Theodore Pine he once shared, and Ray BRADBURY, with whom he
collaborated on Bradbury's first professional story, "Pendulum" (1941).
His best-known story is the novelette "He who Shrank" (1936) ( GREAT AND
SMALL). An sf novel, The Stars Will Wait (1968), is unremarkable. [JC]

(1937- ) US academic and scholar of sf, based at Kent State University,
1985-6, and became managing editor of the journal EXTRAPOLATION with the
Summer 1986 issue, co-editor with the Winter 1987 issue, and editor with
the Spring 1990 issue. He was a pioneer in the early 1980s of "academic
tracks" in world sf- CONVENTION programming. Books by DMH relating to sf
are Erasmus Darwin (1973 chap), The Comedian as the Letter D: Erasmus
Darwin's Comic Materialism (1973 Netherlands), Comic Tones in Science
Fiction: The Art of Compromise with Nature (1982), Hal Clement, Reader's
Guide 11 (1982 chap) and Isaac Asimov, Reader's Guide 40 (1991 chap).
Collections of critical essays ed DMH are Patterns of the Fantastic:
Academic Programming at Chicon IV (anth 1983), Patterns of the Fantastic
II (anth 1984) and, with Carl B. YOKE, Death and the Serpent: Immortality
in Science Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1985). With Sue Strong Hassler (1938-
), he also edited Arthur Machen & Montgomery Evans: Letters of a Literary
Friendship, 1923-1947 (coll 1994). [PN]See also: CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL

(1932- ) US personnel specialist and writer whose routine sf novels are
The Glass Cage (1969), Destination: Terra (1970), The Dream Squad (1970),
A Message from Earth (1970), Intergalac Agent (1971) and The Multiple Man
(1972). [JC]

(? -? ) US writer whose sf novel, The First American King (1904), carries
two protagonists - the more important being a brilliant inventor - by
SUSPENDED ANIMATION to the USA of AD1975. They find it to be a RURITANIAN
empire assaulted from within by Federated Nihilists, who eventually take
power and establish - in singularly unstrict accordance with their name -
a benevolent welfare state. Rather unusually, GGH approves, and the novel
ends peacefully. [JC]

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

(1884-1957) US nutritionist, editor and writer, sometimes on agricultural
subjects - The Dollar Hen (1909) is a nonfiction text about hens. With
striking accuracy, his future- WAR sf centres on conflict between either
Japan or Germany and the rest of the world. Set around 1950, "In the
Clutch of the War-God: The Tale of the Orient's Invasion of the Occident"
(1911 Physical Culture) effectively espouses the cause of eugenical Japan
against a bigoted USA, which loses the war but becomes healthy. Set around
AD2150, and far more impressive, City of Endless Night (1919 True Story as
"Children of 'Kultur'"; rev 1920) describes a Germany partly defeated
after centuries of warfare, but remaining impregnable underground within a
great dome which shelters Berlin. Here a proto-Nazi DYSTOPIA has taken
shape, with under-races genetically distinguished from one another (and
from the sybaritic ruling class) by a ruthless breeding programme;
thought-control is universal. The imagery of this striking novel links it
with the German Expressionist cinema and films like Fritz LANG's
METROPOLIS (1926), as well as to dystopian fictions like HUXLEY's BRAVE

Pseudonym of US writer Dave Foley (1910-1973), whose sf novel, The Day
the Earth Froze (1963), was one of a series published by Monarch Books on
similar themes, including Charles FONTENAY's The Day the Oceans Overflowed
(1964) and Christopher ANVIL's The Day the Machines Stopped (1964). [JC]


(1862-1946) German playwright and novelist, winner of the 1912 Nobel
Prize for Literature, whose greatest plays were performed before the turn
of the century and whose novels were written later. Of sf interest is Die
Insel der grossen Mutter, oder Das Wunder von Ile des Dames: Eine
Geschichte aus dem Utopischen Archipelagus (1924; trans Willa and Edwin
Muir as The Island of the Great Mother 1925 US). The subtitle - "The
Miracle of the Ile des Dames: A Tale from the Utopian Archipelago" -
fairly describes the complex mood of GH's ROBINSONADE, which portrays a
matriarchal ISLAND society founded after a shipwreck, and follows the
young men who, upon being exiled to another part of the Isle of Women,
soon revolt, ending an ideal world. [JC]Other works:Hanneles Himmelfahrt
(1893; trans 1894 UK) and Die versunkene Glocke (1896; trans C.H. Meltzer
as The Sunken Bell 1898 UK) and Till Eulenspiegel (1928), fantasy
playsAtlantis (1912; trans Adele and Thomas Seltzer 1912 US), which has
nothing to do with Atlantis, but contains supernatural elements.

Made-for-tv film (1970). Universal/NBC TV. Dir Boris Sagal, starring
David McCallum, Susan Strasberg, Lilli Palmer, Robert Webber, Leslie
Nielsen. Screenplay Adrian Spies, based on Hauser's Memory (1968) by Curt
SIODMAK. 100 mins. Colour.Siodmak's 1968 novel is an updated but equally
absurd variation on the theme of his novel Donovan's Brain (1943), which
was filmed three times ( DONOVAN'S BRAIN; The LADY AND THE MONSTER ;
VENGEANCE): a dead man's mind somehow exerts influence on the living. This
time DNA material taken from the brain of a dead German Nazi scientist in
order to preserve his scientific knowledge is injected into a young US
Jewish scientist (McCallum). The conflicts created within the hero's mind
by this experiment in memory-transfer have dramatic potential, mostly
wasted as the film degenerates into a conventional thriller about the CIA
versus the Russians. At the end, Hauser's memory now dominating the hero,
a melodramatic revenge takes place. [JB]


(1910- ) UK archaeologist and writer, known mainly for such works outside
the sf field as The Land (1951). She was married to J.B. PRIESTLEY. Fables
(coll 1953; vt A Woman as Great as the World and Other Fables 1953 US)
includes "The Unites", a long exemplary tale which combines fantasy and
DYSTOPIAN sf: God sends down an investigative angel to find out why humans
have grown silent. The angel reports that, although Homo sapiens has
degenerated into a breed of hive-dwelling automata through too sedulous a
striving after equality, dissidents have begun to recreate human conflict
and difference. God seems pleased. Providence Island: An Archaeological
Tale (1959) is a fairly late example of anthropological sf (
ANTHROPOLOGY), in which an expedition comes across survivors from the
Magdalenian culture of the late Paleolithic living within an extinct
volcano on a Pacific ISLAND. They have highly developed empathic and PSI
POWERS, developed as a kind of cultural alternative to technological
prowess; they use these powers to fend off US nuclear tests. A Quest for
Love (1980) is a REINCARNATION fantasy. [JC]See also: LOST WORLDS.

Working name of UK writer Martin Hawkins (? - ) for his INVASION novel,
When Adolph Came (1943), featuring an ALTERNATE WORLD in which the Germans
conquer the UK ( HITLER WINS). An underground movement soon begins to turn
the tables. [JC]

(1912-1990) US writer who spent most of his career producing Westerns,
usually in collaboration with his elder brother, John Hawkins. In the
1980s WH wrote tv scripts and the Borg and Guss sequence of humorous sf
adventures - Red Flame Burning (1985), Sword of Fire (1985), Blaze of
Wrath (1986) and Torch of Fear (1987) - starring Harry Borg and his
sidekick Guss the lizard-man in an alternate-universe ( ALTERNATE WORLDS)
Galaxy. [JC]


(1804-1864) US writer known primarily for his work outside the sf field.
One of the formative figures in US literature, NH was intrigued throughout
his writing career by themes we would now call sf. His extensive notebooks
outline dozens of projected sf works, some of which he was able to
complete, while others he worked on unsuccessfully until his death. A long
line of doctors, chemists, botanists, mesmerists, physicists and inventors
parade their marvellously creative and destructive skills through his
fiction, even the most apparently fantastic events being given
naturalistic explanations. Thus much of his writing at least borders on
sf.In three of his four major romances, sf elements run as a main
undercurrent. A secret medical experiment controls the plot of The Scarlet
Letter (1850); the main action of The House of the Seven Gables (1851)
derives from hypnotism ( PSYCHOLOGY) and a strange inherited disease; all
the major events in The Blithedale Romance (1852) flow from a major topic
of 19th-century sf, mesmeric control. A SCIENTIST's quest for the elixir
of life is the subject of Dr Heidegger's Experiment (1837 Salem Gazette;
1883 chap) and two unfinished, posthumously published romances, all
possibly differing draft attempts at the same basic story: the title story
of The Dolliver Romance and Other Pieces (1864 The Atlantic Monthly as
"The Dolliver Romance"; coll 1876), and Septimius: A Romance (1872 UK; vt
Septimius Felton, or The Elixir of Life 1872 US). Some stories, such as
"The Man from Adamant" (1837), come directly from pseudo-scientific
curiosities NH encountered as editor of The American Magazine of Useful
and Entertaining Knowledge.NH's short work of interest appeared in
Twice-Told Tales (coll 1837; exp in 2 vols 1842), Mosses from an Old Manse
(coll 1846) and The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales (coll 1852).
Three of his early stories had profound influences on subsequent
19th-century sf, and all three still stand as masterpieces of the genre.
In "The Birthmark" (1843) a lone genius who has invented numerous
scientific marvels commits the fatal error of attempting to remove the one
blemish which keeps his wife from being perfect, a tiny birthmark which
makes this lovely woman disgusting to him. "The Artist of the Beautiful"
(1844) describes the creation of an automaton butterfly which, for another
lone inventive genius, substitutes for love, sex and biological
procreation. In "Rappaccini's Daughter" (1844) a scientist attempts to
make his only child impervious to the evils of the world by filling her
with secret poisons, but is foiled by his arch-rival. Part of the enduring
power of these three tales comes from their deep penetration into the
psychology of a group of men emerging in NH's society, the
technical-scientific elite. NH's sf extends the achievements of Mary
SHELLEY's Frankenstein (1818) into the dawn of the age of modern science
and the literature that is part of that age's culture, modern sf.
[HBF]Other works: Doctor Grimshawe's Secret (1883); The Ancestral Footstep
(1883); The Ghost of Doctor Harris (1900 chap); The Dolliver Romance, and
Kindred Tales (coll 1900); The Complete Short Stories of Nathaniel
Hawthorne (coll 1959), assembling 72 tales; The Snow Image and Uncollected
Tales (coll 1974) ed E.F. BLEILER; Young Goodman Brown and Other Short
Stories (coll 1992).See also: ARTS; BIOLOGY; CLICHES; GAMES AND TOYS;

(1901- ) UK writer and Humanist, at one time managing director of the
Rationalist Press Association. The Col. Max Masterson sequence - Tower of
Darkness (1950), Blue-Eyed Buddha (1951), Black Emperor (1952) and The
Lost Valley (1953) - verges on sf, the final volume being a lost-race (
LOST WORLDS) tale. Operation Superman (1951) is an old-fashioned yarn
about a man whose INTELLIGENCE has been much heightened by shock-treatment
experiments in a Nazi concentration camp. As John Sylvester, he wrote two
sf novels for adolescents, Master of the World (1949) and The Flying
Saucer (1952).As John Sylvester, he wrote two sf novels for adolescents,
Master of the World (1949) and The Flying Saucer (1952). [JC/PN]

Working name of UK writer, editor and sf enthusiast Oswyn Robert
Tregonwell Hay (1922- ), who began publishing sf in the early 1950s with
Flight of the "Hesper" (1951), Man, Woman and Android (1951), This Planet
For Sale (1952) and, as by King LANG, Terra! (1953). Turning to editing,
he produced Hell Hath Fury (anth 1963), a collection of stories from
UNKNOWN; The Disappearing Future (anth 1970); Stopwatch (anth 1974), an
original anthology with stories by John BRUNNER, Ursula K. LE GUIN,
Christopher PRIEST, A.E. VAN VOGT and others; The Edward De Bono Science
Fiction Collection (anth 1976), a selection of stories chosen to
illustrate De Bono's theories of "lateral thinking"; The Necronomicon
(anth 1978), a hoax assemblage of texts, dominated by Colin WILSON,
arguing that a certain manuscript was passed obscurely from the
Renaissance alchemist John Dee on down to H.P. LOVECRAFT, with The R'lyeh
Text (anth 1993) projected to continue in the same vein; and the Pulsar
sequence of original anthologies, Pulsar 1 (anth 1978) and Pulsar 2 (anth
1979), with stories from Robert HOLDSTOCK and Ian WATSON as well as older
figures like van Vogt. The first volume of a long-meditated collection,
The John W. Campbell Letters, Volume One (coll 1986 US) ed Perry A.
CHAPDELAINE, Tony Chapdelaine and GH, was welcomed for the light it shed
on numerous moments of sf history; a second volume is projected ( John W.
CAMPBELL Jr). From the end of the 1960s, GH worked to establish some
formal organization to promote sf in the UK, and was instrumental in the
establishment of the SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION, espousing in that role
his continuing sense that sf provides an armamentarium of tools for coping
with the future. [MJE/JC]

(1920-1976) US writer whose sf novel, Autopsy for a Cosmonaut (1969; vt
Death of a Cosmonaut 1970 UK), with John M. KESHISHIAN, describes a
NEAR-FUTURE space crisis in which NASA attempts a space rendezvous with a
Soviet satellite suspected of harbouring a nuclear warhead. [JC]

Working name of Australian writer and farmer John Warwick Dalrymple-Hay
(1928- ). In his sf novel, The Invasion (1968 UK), a NEAR-FUTURE war
begins after a US test missile devastates China, whose retaliation
includes the waging of atomic WAR on the coastal cities of Australia.
Inland survivors band together to resist the invaders. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer and Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, known for
his writings on New Zealand matters. His first sf novel, The Doom of the
Great City, Being the Narrative of a Survivor, written A.D. 1942 (1880),
retains interest for the vividness with which it depicts the collapse of
London through the onslaught of a poisonous fog ( POLLUTION), though the
piety of the reportage is vicious. Three Hundred Years Hence, or A Voice
from Posterity (1881), which is more substantial (but even less pleasant),
is a future HISTORY told as a series of smug lectures delivered in AD2180,
long after the White races have committed genocide on all Blacks and
Orientals, and created a technological and political paradise on Earth.

(1848-1918) UK painter, playwright and writer whose sf novel, The Great
Revolution of 1905, or The Story of the Phalanx (1893), describes from a
1930s perspective the successful efforts of the socialist middle-class
"Phalanx" to take over the UK. [JC]


(? -? ) UK writer, prolific author of adventure novels for three decades
after about 1860, whose sf novel, The Cloud King, or Up in the Air and
Down in the Sea (1865), features a balloon trip to an African LOST WORLD
in which low gravity seems to help keep the natives from ageing. [JC]See

(?1693-1756) UK actress, publisher and most prolific female writer of her
time. Much of her work was scandalous, containing thinly veiled
characterizations of notable contemporaries. The Adventures of Eovaai,
Princess of Ijavea: A Pre-Adamitical History (1736; vt The Unfortunate
Princess 1741) is an allegorical political SATIRE set before the
destruction of Earth's second moon and featuring, among many accounts of
sorcery, the visitation by mechanical means of an extraterrestrial (this
was several years before the appearance of VOLTAIRE's Micromegas [1751]).
EH also wrote Memoirs of a Certain Island Adjacent to the Kingdom of
Utopia (2 vols 1725-6), an anonymously published allegorical UTOPIA built
around a series of sexual scandals, and The Invisible Spy (1755) as by
"Explorabilis", in which an INVISIBILITY belt is used to eavesdrop on
society gossip. The anonymous satirical LOST-WORLD novel Memoirs of the
Court of Lilliput (1727) was (perhaps wrongly) attributed to her by
Alexander Pope in 1729. [JE]About the author: The Life and Romances of Mrs
Eliza Haywood (1915) by G.F. Whicker.

(1944- ) US writer whose Finnbranch Trilogy makes use of some sf devices,
though primarily a Celtic fantasy about a hero - and underworld god -
named Finn, told in a dense, difficult style which nevertheless has very
considerable power. The first 2 vols, Yearwood (1980) and Undersea (1982),
are moderately orthodox, though recounted with unconventional intensity,
but the third, Winterking (1985), is set in an ALTERNATE-WORLD version of
a contemporary USA riven by the numinous presence of gods and threatened
by terminal transformation; in this respect the book resembles John
CROWLEY's Little, Big (1981). All 3 vols have been assembled as The
Finnbranch (omni 1986 UK). The Wealdwife's Tale (1993) is fantasy. [JC]See

(1894-1993) US journalist and author in whose sf novel, The Great Idea
(1951; vt Time Will Run Back 1952 UK), the communist Wonworld society of
the future is transformed back into a free-market capitalist society, the
agent of change being the dictator's son. The communism of this society is
more Soviet than Marxist. [JC]See also: DYSTOPIAS; ECONOMICS.

[s] Margaret ST CLAIR.


[r] M.H. ZOOL.

(1907-?1969) US editor who, in collaboration with J. Francis MCCOMAS,
compiled the 35-story, 1000pp Adventures in Time and Space (anth 1946; cut
vt Selections from Adventures in Time and Space 1954; recut vt More
Adventures in Time and Space 1955; text restored, vt Famous
Science-Fiction Stories 1957), which remains a definitive anthology of
magazine sf up to 1945 and is credited with considerable influence in
helping to give GENRE SF literary respectability. RJH later pioneered the
original sf ANTHOLOGY with New Tales of Space and Time (anth 1951) and 9
Tales of Space and Time (anth 1954), which included notable stories by
such writers as Isaac ASIMOV, Anthony BOUCHER and Ray BRADBURY.

Working name of UK author and speculative journalist H(enry) F(itzgerald)
Heard (1889-1971), which he used for both fiction and nonfiction in the
UK; in the USA, where he lived after 1937, he wrote his fiction as H.F.
Heard. He is perhaps best remembered for his association with Aldous
HUXLEY in investigations of the Vedanta cult and for such speculative
studies as The Ascent of Humanity (1929) and The Third Morality (1937).
His UFO popularization The Riddle of the Flying Saucers: Is Another World
Watching? (1950; rev 1953), was well received, although time has passed it
by. Some of his detective and horror fictions featuring Mr Mycroft-A Taste
for Honey (1941; vt A Taste for Murder 1955), Reply Paid (1942) and The
Notched Hairpin (1949) - are borderline-sf pastiches of Arthur Conan
DOYLE's Sherlock Holmes stories; Murder by Reflection (1942) features a
killing done by radiation poisoning. The title story of The Great Fog and
Other Weird Tales (coll 1944; vt The Great Fog: Weird Tales of Terror and
Detection 1946; with 2 stories added and 1 dropped, rev under first title
1947 UK) is a DISASTER tale, the mould-derived Great Fog destroying all
civilization. In the title story of The Lost Cavern (coll 1948) a man is
held captive by intelligent bats. Set in the 19th century, The Black Fox:
A Novel of the 'Seventies (1950 UK) is a supernatural tale, the fox being
Anubis. Doppelgangers: An Episode of the Fourth, the Psychological,
Revolution, 1997 (1947), which is sf, rather laboriously sets up a
conflict among three factions, each of whose philosophies is in didactic
opposition to the others'. Gabriel and the Creatures (1952; vt Wishing
Well 1953 UK) recasts some of GH's evolutionary speculation in sf form for

[r] Gerald HEARD.

Film (1981). Universal. Dir Allan Arkush, starring Bernadette Peters,
Andy Kaufman, Randy Quaid. Screenplay John Hill. 79 mins. Colour.Obviously
disliked by its distributors, who trimmed it by 10 minutes before release
(not enough action) and then allowed it to sink almost without trace, this
film is a mildly amusing, perhaps over-cute, extremely silly comedy about
two domestic ROBOTS (male and female) who escape from the repair shop and
fall in love. It oscillates between gentle SATIRE and over-the-top
sentimentality. The robots (Peters and Kaufman in all-over plastic) are
well realized. [PN]

Pseudonym of US writer Peter Fine (1938- ), whose novels The Mind
Brothers (1967), Assassins from Tomorrow (1967) and Men who Die Twice
(1968) comprise the routine thriller-like Mind Brothers sf series. [JC]

George C. WALLIS.

Glossy BEDSHEET-size US colour COMIC-strip magazine inspired by the
French magazine METAL HURLANT and reprinting English-language versions of
mainly sf and fantasy material from this and other French, Italian and
Spanish sources alongside similar matter by select US contributors.
Published monthly Apr 1977-Dec 1985, quarterly from the Winter (i.e.,
January) 1986 issue and then bimonthly from Mar 1989, HM has built a
reputation for high quality in both presentation and content; in an
editorial during 1985 it claimed a readership of over 2 million. Monthly
issues carried serialized material in episodes of varying length, causing
an often uncomfortable segmentation of some stories; the change to
quarterly publication introduced a policy of presenting only complete
stories and full-length GRAPHIC NOVELS. HM's list of contributors reads
like a roster of the world's best artists and writers of comic-strip sf,
and the following is only a selection: Enki BILAL, Vaughn BODE, Caza,
Howard V. CHAYKIN, Richard CORBEN, Guido Crepax, Philippe DRUILLET,
Fernando Fernandez, Juan Giminez, Jean GIRAUD (Moebius), Jeff Jones, Rod
Kierkegaard, Tanino Liberatore, Milo Manara, Georges Pichard, Jose Ribera,
Aleuteri Serpieri, Jacques Tardi, Daniel Torres and Berni Wrightson. In
addition to the regular issues there have been several "Specials",
including Son of Heavy Metal (1983), Heavy Metal's Even Heavier Metal
(1984), Bride of Heavy Metal (1986) and Best of Heavy Metal (1986). HM has
also published a line of graphic novels, most of which previously appeared
as serials in the magazine.The animated film Heavy Metal (1981) dir Gerald
Potterton displayed animated improvisations on themes and characters
featured in HM. A live-action sequel, Heavy Metal's Burning Chrome, was
planned but never realized. [RT]

(1894-1964) US journalist, novelist, playwright, film scriptwriter and
publisher, associated with Bohemian literary circles before becoming
prominent in Hollywood night-life in the early 1930s. His writings are
particularly notable for their cynicism, iconoclasm and irony. Many of his
short stories border on SCIENCE FANTASY, most vividly "The Adventures of
Professor Emmett" (in A Book of Miracles coll 1939) ( HIVE-MINDS); some
were influenced by the works of Charles FORT. BH is best known in the sf
field for Fantazius Mallare (1922) and its sequel The Kingdom of Evil
(1924), an erotic and supposedly decadent account of a descent into
madness; the first volume was successfully prosecuted for obscenity on the
grounds of its illustrations (by Wallace Smith). [JE]Other works: Eleven
Selected Great Stories (coll 1943); Miracle in the Rain (1943); The
Collected Stories of Ben Hecht (coll 1945).



Dennis HUGHES.

(1919- ) Canadian writer in whose NEAR-FUTURE The Last Canadian (1974; vt
Death Wind 1976 US; vt The Last American 1986 Canada) a plague survivor
flees northwards into ice and snow. [JC]

(1907-1988) US writer, educated at the University of Missouri and the US
Naval Academy, Annapolis. After serving as a naval officer for five years,
he retired due to ill-health in 1934, studied physics at UCLA for a time,
then took a variety of jobs before beginning to publish sf in 1939 with
"Lifeline" for ASF, a magazine whose GOLDEN AGE he would profoundly shape,
just as he rewrote US sf as a whole in his own image. RAH may have been
the all-time most important writer of GENRE SF, though not its finest sf
writer in strictly literary terms; his pre-eminence from 1940 to 1960 was
both earned and unassailable. For half a century he was the father -
loved, resisted, emulated - of the dominant US form of the genre.He came
to the role naturally. Unlike most of John W. CAMPBELL Jr's pre-WWII
recruits to ASF, he entered the field as a mature man, already in his 30s,
with one genuine career (the military) honourably behind him. He was
smart, aggressive, collegial, competent and highly inventive. And he
worked fast. By 1942 - when he stopped writing to do his WWII service as
an engineer at the Naval Air Experimental Station, Philadelphia - he had
already published almost 30 stories, including three novels which would
only later be released in book form. Moreover, it had soon been made clear
that those stories published under his own name - like "Requiem" (1940),
"The Roads Must Roll" (1940), "Blowups Happen" (1940) and the short novel
"If This Goes On . . ." (1940; rev 1953) - fitted into a loose Future
History, the schema for which Campbell published in ASF in 1941. As a
device for tying together otherwise disparate stories, and for
establishing a privileged (and loyal) group of readers familiar with the
overall structure into which individual units were magically inserted,
RAH's outline of the future was an extraordinarily acute idea. It was
imitated by many other writers (with considerable success by Poul ANDERSON
and Larry NIVEN, to name but two), but for many years only RAH's and
perhaps Isaac ASIMOV's similar scheme - by priority, and by claiming
imaginative copyright on the imagined future - were able to generate a
sense of genuine CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH. RAH himself largely abandoned
his Future History after 1950 (if the RECURSIVE novels of his last years
are discounted for the moment); all the short stories in the sequence were
soon assembled in book form as The Man who Sold the Moon (coll 1950; with
2 stories cut 1951), The Green Hills of Earth (coll 1951) and Revolt in
2100 (coll 1953). Two early novels also belonged to the series:
Methuselah's Children (1941 ASF; rev 1958), which concerns an extended
family of near-immortals, and Orphans of the Sky (fixup 1963 UK) -
assembling Universe (1941 ASF; 1951 chap) and "Common Sense" (1941 ASF) -
which contains an innovative presentation of the GENERATION STARSHIP
concept. With Methuselah's Children, the three collections were
republished - "Let There Be Light" (1950) being omitted and "Searchlight"
(1962) and "The Menace from Earth" (1957) added - in THE PAST THROUGH
TOMORROW (omni 1967; with Methuselah's Children omitted, cut 1977 UK).Not
all of RAH's early writing consisted of Future History stories, although
most of his non-series work was initially published under the pseudonyms
Anson MacDonald, Lyle Monroe, John Riverside and Caleb Saunders, including
the novels Sixth Column (1941 ASF as MacDonald; 1949 as RAH; vt The Day
After Tomorrow 1951) and BEYOND THIS HORIZON (1942 ASF as MacDonald; 1948
as RAH). In Sixth Column an Asiatic INVASION of the USA is defeated by a
resistance - disguised as a RELIGION - which uses superscientific gadgets
to accomplish "miracles". The original idea came from Campbell, who had
incorporated it in the then unpublished novella "All" (in Campbell's The
Space Beyond [coll 1976]). BEYOND THIS HORIZON describes a future society
of material plenty where people spend their time seeking the meaning of
life ( GENETIC ENGINEERING). Some of RAH's best stories belong to this
period: "And He Built a Crooked House" (1941), about an architect who
inadvertently builds into another dimension; "By His Bootstraps" (1941 as
by MacDonald), a superb TIME-PARADOX fantasia; and "They" (1941), a
fantasy about solipsism. "Waldo" (1942 as by MacDonald), about a crippled
inventor who lives in a satellite, gave rise to a significant item of
TERMINOLOGY, the real-life equivalents of the protagonist's remote-control
lifting devices subsequently being known as WALDOES. These stories, and
the later non-series stories, are collected in various volumes: Waldo and
Magic, Inc. (coll 1950; vt Waldo: Genius in Orbit 1958), Assignment in
Eternity (coll 1953; in 2 vols, vt Assignment in Eternity 1960 UK and Lost
Legacy 1960 UK), The Menace from Earth (coll 1959), The Unpleasant
Profession of Jonathan Hoag (coll 1959; vt 6 X H 1961), The Worlds of
Robert A. Heinlein (coll 1966) and Requiem: New Collected Works (coll
1992) ed Eric KOTANI.In a style which exuded assurance and savvy, RAH's
early writing blended slang, folk aphorism, technical jargon, clever
understatement, apparent casualness, a concentration on people rather than
gadgets, and a sense that the world described was real; it was a kind of
writing able to incorporate the great mass of necessary sf data necessary
without recourse to the long descriptive passages and deadening
explanations common to earlier sf, so that his stories spoke with a
smoothness and authority which came to seem the very tone of things to
come. His characters were competent men of action, equally at home with
their fists and a slide-rule ( EDISONADE) and actively involved in the
processes and procedures (political, legal, military, industrial, etc.)
which make the world turn. Described in tales whose apparent openness
concealed very considerable narrative craft, these characters seemed
genuinely to inhabit the worlds of tomorrow. By the end of his first three
years of writing, RAH had domesticated the future.In the years 1943-6 RAH
published no fiction, but in 1947 he expanded his career - and the
potential reach of genre sf as a marketable literature - in two new
directions: he sold a number of short stories to the Saturday Evening Post
and other "slick" magazines; and he published - with Scribner's, a highly
respectable mainstream firm - the first US juvenile sf novel to reflect
the new levels of characterization, style and scientific plausibility now
expected in the field. Rocket Ship Galileo (1947) is not an outstanding
work (its young heroes confront and defeat a gaggle of conspiring Nazis on
the Moon) but it was the first in a series that represents the most
important contribution any single writer has made to CHILDRENS' SF. (It
also formed the basis of a film, DESTINATION MOON [1950], scripted by RAH.
) Space Cadet (1948), the second in the series, renders RAH's own
experiences at Annapolis in sf terms. With the third, Red Planet: A
Colonial Boy on Mars (1949; text restored 1989), which recounts the
adventures of two young colonists and their Martian "pet", RAH came fully
into his own as a writer of sf for teenagers. A strong narrative line,
carefully worked-out technical detail, realistic characters and brisk
dialogue are the leading virtues of this and most of his later juveniles,
which include Farmer in the Sky (1950), Between Planets (1951), THE
ROLLING STONES (1952; vt Space Family Stone 1969 UK), Starman Jones
(1953), The Star Beast (1954), Tunnel in the Sky (1955), Time for the
Stars (1956), CITIZEN OF THE GALAXY (1957) and Have Space Suit - Will
Travel (1958). The last three of these, along with Starman Jones and The
Star Beast, rank among the very best juvenile sf ever written; their
compulsive narrative drive, their shapeliness and their relative freedom
from the didactic rancour RAH was beginning to show when addressing adults
in the later 1950s all make these books arguably his finest works.After
1950 RAH wrote very little short fiction - the most notable piece is the
time-paradox tale "All You Zombies" (1959) - concentrating for some years
on the highly successful stream of juveniles, although never abandoning
the adult novel. The Puppet Masters (1951; text restored 1989) is an
effective if rather hysterical INVASION story, and a prime example of
PARANOIA in 1950s sf. Double Star (1956), about a failed actor who
impersonates a galactic politician ( RURITANIA), won a HUGO, and is
probably his best adult novel of the 1950s, although the mellow and
charming The Door into Summer (1957), a TIME-TRAVEL story, is also much
admired; all three books were assembled as A Heinlein Trio (omni 1980).His
next novel, however, was something else entirely. STARSHIP TROOPERS
(1959), originally written as a juvenile but rejected by Scribner's
because of its violence, is the first title in which RAH expressed his
opinions with unfettered vigour. A tale of interstellar WAR, it won a 1960
Hugo but also gained RAH the reputation of being a militarist, even a
"fascist". The plot as usual confers an earned adulthood upon its young
protagonist, but in this case by transforming him from a pacifist into a
professional soldier. This transformation, in itself dubious, is rendered
exceedingly unpleasant (for those who might demur from its implications)
by the hectoring didacticism of RAH's presentation of his case.
Father-figures, always important in his fiction, tended from this point on
to utter unstoppable monologues in their author's voice, and dialogue and
action become traps in which any opposing versions of reality were
hamstrung by the author's aggrieved partiality.But this, for good and for
ill, was the fully unleashed Heinlein. His next novel, STRANGER IN A
STRANGE LAND (1961; text restored 1990), a stronger work which won him
another Hugo, is even more radical. Valentine Michael Smith, of human
stock but raised on Mars, returns to Earth armed with his innocence and
the PSI POWERS bequeathed to him by the Martians. After meeting Jubal
Harshaw and being tutored by this ultimate surrogate-father and know-all
voicebox for RAH himself, Valentine begins his transformation into a
MESSIAH-figure, demonstrates the nature of grokking - a term which RAH
created for this book, and which can be defined as gaining, more or less
instantly, deep spiritual understanding - and eventually "discorporates",
a form of dying which is painless and which can be freely imposed upon
others. This costless discorporation of human beings marks the book as a
FANTASY, and not, perhaps, as one very markedly adult; and it was
unfortunate for Sharon Tate that its dreamlike smoothness (a smoothness
even more winningly evident in the much longer restored version) could, if
his claims are to be credited, be translated into this-worldly action by
the sociopathic murderer Charles Manson. However, among those capable of
understanding the nature of a fiction, it has proved to be RAH's most
popular novel, in the later 1960s becoming a cult-book among students (who
were drawn to it, presumably, by its iconoclasm and by RAH's apparent
espousal of free love and mysticism), and remains by far the best of the
books he wrote in his late manner.There followed 2 minor works, Podkayne
of Mars: Her Life and Times (1963), an inferior juvenile which proved to
be his last, and Glory Road (1963), a largely unsuccessful attempt at
SWORD AND SORCERY. Farnham's Freehold (1964), another long and opinionated
novel of ideas, invokes rather unpleasantly a Black despotism in the USA
of the FAR FUTURE (see also POLITICS; SURVIVALIST FICTION), and begins to
fully articulate a theme that obsessed the late RAH: the notion of the
family as utterly central. From this time onward, hugely extended
father-dominated families, sustained by incest and enlarged by mating
patterns whose complex ramifications required an increasing use of time
travel and ALTERNATE WORLDS, would tend to generate the plots of his
novels. Before he plunged fully into this final phase, however, RAH
published THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS (1966), which won a 1967 Hugo and
marked a partial return to his best form. About a revolution among
Moon-colonists - many historical parallels being made evident with the War
of Independence - it is of value partly because it shows the nature of
RAH's political views very clearly. Rather than being a fascist, he was a
right-wing anarchist, or "libertarian" ( LIBERTARIANISM), much influenced
by SOCIAL DARWINISM.But the fact that RAH's politics are a prime concern
in discussions of his later novels points to the sad decline in the
quality of dramatization in his sf. As Alexei PANSHIN, his most astute
earlier critic, pointed out, RAH once dealt in "facts" but latterly he
dealt only in "opinions-as-facts". And as these opinions-as-facts were
uttered in RAH's voice by domineering monologuists, his last novels
increasingly conveyed a sense of flouncing solitude, and were frequently
described - with justice - as exercises in solipsism; for, no matter how
many characters filled the foreground of the tale, his casts ultimately
proved either cruelly disposable or members of the one enormous
intertwined family whose begetter bore the countenance, and spieled the
tracts, of the author. I Will Fear No Evil (1970) is an interminable novel
about a rich centenarian who has his mind transferred to the body of his
young secretary; it brought into the open the espousal of free sex (and
inevitable babies begat upon wisecracking women who long to become gravid)
first evident in STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND. Time Enough for Love, or The
Lives of Lazarus Long (1973), a late coda to the Future History series,
was perhaps the most important of the late books in that it established
the immortal Long, a central character in Methuselah's Children, as RAH's
final - and most enduring - alter ego. Other novels which revolve around
Lazarus Long include "The Number of the Beast" (1980 UK), The Cat who
Walks through Walls (1985) and To Sail Beyond the Sunset (1987). FRIDAY
(1982) and Job: A Comedy of Justice (1984) similarly gathered other works
from RAH's prime into the late fold. The final effect of these novels - in
direct contrast to their joke-saturated telling - was one of embitterment.
By devaluing everything in the Universe except for the one polymorphic
family, RAH effectively repudiated the genre whose mature tone he had
himself almost singlehandedly established, and the USA whose complex
populism he had so vividly expressed. In the end, the father of sf
abandoned his children.RAH was guest of honour at three World SF
Conventions, in 1941, 1961 and 1976. His works remained constantly in
print. He has repeatedly been voted "best all-time author" in readers'
polls such as those held by LOCUS in 1973 and 1977, and in 1975 he was
recipient of the First Grand Master NEBULA. His death in 1988 was deeply
felt. [DP/JC]Other works: The Discovery of the Future . . . Speech
Delivered by Guest of Honor at 3d World Science Fiction Convention (1941
chap); Tomorrow, the Stars (anth 1951); The Robert Heinlein Omnibus (omni
1958 UK), containing The Man who Sold the Moon and The Green Hills of
Earth, which is not to be confused with A Robert Heinlein Omnibus (omni
1966 UK), containing BEYOND THIS HORIZON, The Man who Sold the Moon and
The Green Hills of Earth; Three by Heinlein (omni 1965; vt A Heinlein
Triad 1966 UK), containing The Puppet Masters and Waldo and Magic, Inc.;
The Best of Robert Heinlein (coll 1973 UK; vt in 2 vols as The Best of
Robert Heinlein 1939-1942 1977 UK and The Best of Robert Heinlein
1947-1959 1977 UK); The Notebooks of Lazarus Long (1978 chap), being
extracts from Time Enough for Love; Expanded Universe (coll 1980),
including much nonfiction; Grumbles from the Grave (coll 1989) ed Virginia
Heinlein, a first selection of letters with other material; Starship
Troopers/The Moon is a Harsh Mistress/Time Enough for Love (omni 1991);
Tramp Royale (written 1953-4; 1992), travel memoir; Take Back Your
Government: A Practical Handbook for the Private Citizen Who Wants
Democracy to Work (1992), a pragmatic nonfiction text written in the
1940s.About the author: "One Sane Man: Robert A. Heinlein" by Damon
KNIGHT, in In Search of Wonder (1956; rev 1967); "Robert A. Heinlein" by
Sam MOSKOWITZ, in Seekers of Tomorrow (1966); Heinlein in Dimension (1968)
by Alexei Panshin; "First Person Singular: Heinlein, Son of Heinlein" by
James BLISH, in More Issues at Hand (1970); Robert A. Heinlein: A
Bibliography (1973 chap) by Mark OWINGS; Robert A. Heinlein: Stranger in
his Own Land (1976; much rev 1977) by George Edgar SLUSSER; The Classic
Years of Robert A. Heinlein (1977) by Slusser; Robert A. Heinlein (anth
1978) ed J.D. OLANDER and Martin H. GREENBERG; Robert A. Heinlein: America
as Science Fiction (1980) by H. Bruce FRANKLIN; "Robert A. Heinlein" by
Peter NICHOLLS, in Science Fiction Writers (1982) ed E.F. BLEILER; A
Robert A. Heinlein Cyclopedia: A Guide to the Persons, Places, and Things
in the Fiction of America's Most Popular Science Fiction Author(1992) by
Nancy Bailey Downing. A. Heinlein.See also: ALIENS; ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM

Robert A. Heinlein was such a successful science fiction writer that many
people don’t realize he got a very late start in his field.Heinlein’s
first job was as a Navy officer, but that career ended when he contracted
tuberculosis. In the five years between Heinlein's discharge and the start
of his writing career in 1939, at age 32, he engaged in many colorful and
apparently unsuccessful business ventures. At the height of the
Depression, he became a mining speculator and found himself the owner of a
silver mine in Colorado. He later tried to sell the mine, but a
prospective buyer was machine-gunned to death before the deal could close.
Luckily for his public, Heinlein managed to extricate himself from his
business deals. And he went on to become one of the most important science
fiction writers of his generation.

Robert Heinlein did some of his best work in the 1940s and 50s. His
enormous success moved him from writing for pulp magazines to writing for
high-class publishers like Scribners.Heinlein recommended a cover artist
named Hubert Rogers to his editor at Scribners, Alice Dalgliesh. Dalgliesh
said that Rogers was "too closely associated with a cheap magazine" -
meaning Astounding, which published many of Heinlein’s stories.To prove
her point, Dalgliesh showed him a story from the magazine, which happened
to be written by Heinlein himself and published under a pseudonym. "I
chuckled and said nothing," said Heinlein later." It was not my place to
educate her."

Film (1986). Manley. Written and dir William Murray, starring Kenneth
McGregor, Sharon Mason, Julie Miller, Jon Maurice, Joseph White. 89 mins.
Colour.In 1997 a revolutionary power source, Hellfire, is a controversial
issue. Terrorists destroy a space station in an attempt to stop the
project which, while it could produce pollution-free energy, also - as in
Fire Pattern (1984) by Bob SHAW and Torched (1986) by James Blackstone
(John BROSNAN) - tends to produce spontaneous human combustion. A private
eye (McGregor) is hired by a cool blonde (Miller) to investigate her
murderous tycoon brother, who controls Hellfire. Stereotyped hardboiled
underworld events are foregrounded, while an understated but quite
effective future vision serves as background. Director Murray is clumsy
with actors and action scenes alike, and, while the sparkly combustion
trick is quite impressive, the futuristic vehicles are unconvincing.

(1947- ) US writer who served in the British Merchant Navy and the
Israeli armed forces, experiences transmuted in A Dove of the East and
Other Stories (coll 1975), which contains some fantasies. He is best known
for his only genre work, Winter's Tale (1983), an epic fable set in an
imaginary New York. The novel attempts to be a fantastic history of the
city in the 20th century, celebrating the forces which gave birth to it,
and catapulting it towards an ambiguously redemptive apocalypse at the end
of the century. MH employs sf images and ideas (such as extraordinary
MACHINES and TIME TRAVEL), but at heart the book remains a fairytale,
concerned more with MAGIC than with science. [PR]Other works: Swan Lake
(1989 chap), fantasy based on the ballet.

(1900-1953) Extremely prolific Australian writer who began publishing sf
novels with The Living Dead (1942) and was associated during WWII with the
Australian firm Currawong Publishers in the release of native sf, US
imports being banned at the time. He wrote one novel, Time Marches Off
(1942 chap), as Paul de Wreder. [JC]Other works: Subterranean City (1942
chap); King of the Underseas (1942 chap); Other Worlds (1942 chap); From
Earth to Mars (1943 chap); In Aztec Hands (1944 chap); The Weird House

(1955- ) UK writer who began publishing work of genre interest with "The
Alchemist" in 1981 for that year's issue of the Faber & Faber Introduction
series of anthologies. Her first novel, Pzyche (1982), places an
uncomfortable and virginal female protagonist on a mineral-rich,
art-obsessed planet, where she unappreciatively undergoes a series of
adventures. [JC]

(1841-1901) UK writer best known in the USA for the Jack Harkaway boys'
stories from 1871, but responsible for many other tales. His sf novel, The
Commune in London, or Thirty Years Hence (1871 chap), is an anti-Communard
version of the 1871 uprising in Paris as translated into a shocked UK.

(1917-1983) US writer and schoolteacher who frequently used her teaching
experience in Arizona and elsewhere as a base for her stories; perhaps
significantly, given her treatment of ALIENS as emblems of our better
selves, during WWII she taught interned Japanese-Americans in a relocation
camp. Her first story was "Come on, Wagon!" for FSF - the magazine with
which she is mostly strongly associated - in 1951; soon after, with
"Ararat" (1952), she began publishing in FSF the series of stories about
The People which comprises her central achievement. Put together with
framing devices as PILGRIMAGE: THE BOOK OF THE PEOPLE (fixup 1961) and The
People: No Different Flesh (coll of linked stories 1966) - and assembled
as The People Collection (omni 1991 UK) - the sequence recounts over a
long timespan the arduous experiences of a group of aliens with PSI POWERS
who have been shipwrecked on Earth and must try to survive as well and
fully as possible; although outwardly indistinguishable from humans, they
are morally superior. A further story, "The Indelible Kind" (1968),
appears with unconnected stories in Holding Wonder (coll 1971); this
collection, along with The Anything Box (coll 1965), assembles most of
ZH's stories independent of The People. The same decorous warmth infuses
all her work, sometimes overly reducing tensions and contrasts, but
usually demonstrating her humane talent to advantage, though her
wholesomeness can be vitiating. [JC]See also: CHILDREN IN SF; ESP; The

(1870-? ) UK writer whose first novel of genre interest, Tenebrae (1898),
features the depredations of a monstrous spider. Bonanza: A Story of the
Outside (1901) is a tale of the Arctic Gold Rush in which prospectors
stumble across a valley protected by a magnetic FORCE FIELD. The Feast of
Bacchus (1907) is a horror fantasy. As John Trevena, EGH wrote two novels
of interest: Furze the Cruel (1907), a fantasy, and The Reign of the
Saints (1911), an sf tale set 200-300 years in the future at a point when
an internally divided UK is threatened by revolutionary strife. [JC]

[s] Lester DEL REY.

(1926- ) US writer and Indiana Judicial Circuit Court judge 1975-88,
active as an author of suspense novels, one of which, The Poison Summer
(1974), was named in the New York Times Best of the Year List in 1974. He
began publishing sf with "Treasure City" for Planet Stories in 1952, and
appeared with some frequency in the field, sometimes as J.L. Hensley and
once, in collaboration with Alexei PANSHIN, as Louis J.A. Adams. Much of
his best work appears in Final Doors (coll 1981), including two
collaborations with Harlan ELLISON. His work is vigorous and
action-oriented, possibly to a fault in his only sf novel, The Black Roads
(1976 Canada), a chase story set in a post- HOLOCAUST USA whose integral
web of roads is dominated by a tyrannous organization; a rebellion is in
the works. [JC]

(1890-1971) UK humorist, writer and politician, prolific for 60 years
after he began publishing light verse in Punch, some of it fantastic,
around 1910. The Red Pen (1927 chap), the libretto for a radio opera with
music (not included) by Geoffrey Toye (1889-1942), is a NEAR-FUTURE story
in which artists arrange for the nationalization of the arts. Number Nine,
or The Mind-Sweepers (1951) and its loose sequel, Made for Man (1958),
also set in the near future, are political SATIRES, good-tempered except
on the matter of divorce, in which area APH's liberal instincts caused him
to disagree profoundly with Church of England doctrines. A late example of
his long-extended Misleading Cases sequence, "Reign of Error?" in Bardot
M.P.? (coll 1964), addresses the legal question of the criminal
responsibility of a COMPUTER. [JC]

(1912-1991) UK writer with a master's degree in science who began
publishing sf in US magazines with "The World Without" for Wonder Stories
in 1931 and was fairly active in the 1930s. Crisis! - 1992 (1935 Wonder
Stories as "The Perfect World"; 1936) deals with the ominous passage of
another planet close to Earth's orbit, and with what humans discover when
they land on it: the planet is actually a giant SPACESHIP. The book was
prefaced by M.P. SHIEL. During WWII BH wrote several very short,
moderately exuberant SPACE OPERAS: Hand of Glory: Strange Adventures in
the Pennines (?1943 chap); Thieves of the Air (?1943 chap) with Festus
PRAGNELL; Strange Romance (1943 chap) and The Red-Haired Girl (1944 chap).
With Walter GILLINGS as director, BH financed and founded Utopia
Publications, which published some sf, including the AMERICAN FICTION
series and STRANGE TALES. [JC/PN]

(1947- ) US writer, son of Frank HERBERT, who began publishing sf with
his third book and first novel, Sidney's Comet (1983), a comic SATIRE -
the eponymous comet being composed of human garbage - set in the 27th
century; the sequel, The Garbage Chronicles (1985), is also perhaps
somewhat desultory. Both feature, inter alia, amusing parodies of his
father's stylistic quirks. Sudanna, Sudanna (1985), set on a surreally
conceived planetoid, describes the lives of its resident
bureaucracy-ridden ALIENS in a tone that determinedly shifts from HUMOUR
to gravity and back. Man of Two Worlds (1986), with Frank Herbert, frolics
rather cumbrously with reality games, and its presentation of ALIENS who
dream us up is not always coherent, though the final pages, when humans
dream back, are more exhilarating. Prisoners of Arionn (1987) again
juxtaposes aliens (conceived with an elaborate though somewhat skittish
lightness of touch) and human society (in this case San Francisco) in a
plot which uneasily details the former's kidnapping of the latter, while
at the same time examining with genuine insight some family relationships.
If BH was in fact wrestling with genres in an attempt to intermingle them
fruitfully, an inadequate control over narrative structure was proving
detrimental to the attempt. This sense of virtuous effort and only partial
success persists through The Race for God (1990) and Memorymakers (1991)
with Marie Landis (?1935- ). It is, all the same, of continuing interest
to follow his career; he is an author who, at any point it seemed, might
get the note right. [JC]Other work: The Notebooks of Frank Herbert's Dune
(1988), ed; Songs of Muad'Dib: The Poetry of Frank Herbert (coll 1992),

[s] Bill RANSOM.

(1920-1986) US writer born in Tacoma, Washington, and educated at the
University of Washington, Seattle. FH worked as a reporter and editor on a
number of West Coast newspapers before becoming a full-time writer. He
lived in Washington State.He began publishing sf with "Looking for
Something?" for Startling Stories in 1952. During the next decade he was
an infrequent contributor to the sf magazines, producing fewer than 20
short stories (which nevertheless constituted a majority of his short
fiction; he never made a significant impact with work below novel length).
At this time he also wrote one novel, THE DRAGON IN THE SEA (1955 ASF as
"Under Pressure"; 1956; vt 21st Century Sub 1956; vt Under Pressure 1974),
a much praised sf thriller containing complex psychological investigations
aboard a submarine of the future. His emergence as a writer of major
stature commenced with the publication in ASF in 1963-4 of "Dune World",
the first part of his Dune series. It was followed in 1965 by "The Prophet
of Dune"; the two were amalgamated into DUNE (fixup 1965), which won the
first NEBULA for Best Novel, shared the HUGO, and became one of the most
famous of all sf novels.DUNE is a novel of extraordinary complexity. It
encompasses intergalactic POLITICS of a decidedly feudal nature, the
development of PSI POWERS, RELIGION - specifically the reluctant but
inevitable evolution of its protagonist into a MESSIAH - and WAR. Its
primary impact, however, lay in its treatment of ECOLOGY, a theme which it
brought into the forefront of modern sf readers' and writers' awareness.
The desert planet Arrakis, with its giant sandworms and its Bedouin-like
human inhabitants, the Fremen, clinging to the most precarious of
ecological niches through fanatical scrupulousness in water conservation,
is possibly the most convincing PLANETARY-ROMANCE environment created by
any sf writer. With its blend (or sometimes clash) of complex intellectual
discourse and Byzantine intrigue, DUNE provided a template for FH's more
significant later work. Sequels soon began to appear which carried on the
arguments of the original in testingly various manners and with an
intensity of discourse seldom encountered in the sf field. Dune Messiah
(1969) elaborates the intrigue at the cost of other elements, but Children
of Dune (1976) recaptures much of the strength of the original work and
addresses another recurrent theme in FH's work - the EVOLUTION of Man, in
this case into SUPERMAN; both these novels, along with the original, were
assembled as The Great Dune Trilogy (omni 1979 UK). God Emperor of Dune
(1981) followed, then Heretics of Dune (1984 UK) and Chapter House Dune
(1985 UK; vt Chapterhouse: Dune 1985 US), these three being assembled as
The Second Great Dune Trilogy (omni 1987 UK). The last volume of the
sequence is comparatively desultory, but God Emperor of Dune and Heretics
of Dune, like the enormously extended development section in the first
movement of a great symphony, work and rework the initial material into
more and more elaborate presentations of the initial themes. As a whole,
the sequence almost fully justified FH's decision - certainly astute in
marketing terms - to so comprehensively draw out his original inspiration.
Although Dune dominated his career from 1965-much later a film based on
it, DUNE (1984), was released - FH began in the mid-1960s to publish other
novels and series with admirable regularity. The Green Brain (1966)
features mutated insects which achieve corporate intelligence (
HIVE-MINDS). Destination: Void (1966; rev 1978), a clotted novel on a
CYBERNETICS theme, concentrates on the construction of an AI aboard a
starship, where it comes to the conclusion that it is God ( GODS AND
DEMONS). The Pandora sequence, all written with Bill RANSOM - The Jesus
Incident (1979), The Lazarus Effect (1983) and The Ascension Factor (1988)
- follows on from Destination: Void, exploring in exhaustive detail the
implications of the earlier book while placing in a PLANETARY-ROMANCE
frame the complex and developing relationship between God-"protected"
human stock and the natives of Pandora. The Eyes of Heisenberg (1966) is
about GENETIC ENGINEERING and IMMORTALITY, and The Heaven Makers (1968;
rev 1977) again copes with immortality. The Santaroga Barrier (1968),
describing a higher order of INTELLIGENCE evolved within an isolated,
near- UTOPIAN community, served to emphasize the thematic centrality of
intelligence throughout FH's work, in which consistent attempts are made
not only to suggest different, or evolved, types of intelligence but to
describe them in detail. Among contemporary sf writers only Ian WATSON has
addressed this theme as frequently and as convincingly. ALIEN intelligence
(see also LIVING WORLDS) is examined in Whipping Star (1970; rev 1977)
and, more searchingly, in its sequel The Dosadi Experiment (1977) which,
while orchestrating a plot of multi-levelled intrigue, describes several
different alien species in detail, examines the effect of an experiment in
extreme OVERPOPULATION, and gifts its hero and heroine with advanced PSI
POWERS, including total mind transference.FH's other sf novels include:
The God Makers (1960 Fantastic as "The Priests of Psi"; exp 1972), in
which a god is reified through human endeavours; the rather surly The
White Plague (1982), in which a man driven into mad misogyny destroys the
women of the world; and the minor Man of Two Worlds (1986) with his son
Brian HERBERT. More important than any of these, however, is Hellstrom's
Hive (1973), which derives its title from the film The Hellstrom Chronicle
(1971) but otherwise has little connection with it. Arguably FH's most
successful novel after DUNE, this presents in persuasive detail an
underground colony of humans selectively bred, on insect-hive principles,
into various specializations. In this society the individual's existence
is of minor importance; the continuation of the hive as a functioning
entity is paramount. The novel points up the contradictions of a society
which in its own terms is a successful utopia, but which from an outside
human viewpoint is horrific.Much of FH's work makes difficult reading. His
ideas were genuinely developed concepts, not merely decorative notions,
but they were sometimes embodied in excessively complicated plots and
articulated in prose which did not always match the level of thinking, so
that much of his writing seemed dense and opaque. His best novels,
however, were the work of a speculative intellect with few rivals in
modern sf. [MJE/JC]Other works: The Worlds of Frank Herbert (coll 1970 UK;
with 1 story added 1971 US); Soul Catcher (1972), a non-sf novel; The Book
of Frank Herbert (coll 1973); The Best of Frank Herbert (coll 1975 UK; cut
vt The Best of Frank Herbert: 1952-1970 1976 UK; text restored vt in 2
vols as The Best of Frank Herbert 1952-1964 1977 UK and The Best of Frank
Herbert 1965-1970 1977 UK); Direct Descent (fixup 1980); The Priests of
Psi (coll 1980 UK); Eye (coll 1985).Nonfiction: Survival and the Atom
(coll 1952); New World or No World (anth 1970), an environmental
anthology; Threshold: The Blue Angels Experience (1973); Without Me,
You're Nothing: The Essential Guide to Home Computers (1980) with Max
Barnard; The Maker of Dune: Insights of a Master of Science Fiction: Frank
Herbert (coll 1987) ed Tim O'Reilly; The Notebooks of Frank Herbert's Dune
(1988) ed Brian Herbert; Songs of Muad'Dib: The Poetry of Frank Herbert
(coll 1992), ed.About the author: Frank Herbert (1980) by David M. Miller;
Frank Herbert (1981) by Timothy O'Reilly; The Dune Encyclopedia (anth
1984) ed Willis E. MCNELLY; Dune Master: A Frank Herbert Bibliography
(1988) by Daniel J.H. Levack.See also: ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION;

Pseudonym of the unidentified UK author of The World Grown Young (1891),
a placidly tendentious record of NEAR-FUTURE reforms imposed benevolently
from above upon a grateful UK by its richest citizen. Attacks by Russia
and the USA are routinely defeated. [JC]

[r] Paul VAN HERCK.


(1879-1949) UK medical researcher and author of The Polyphemes: A Story
of Strange Adventures Among Strange Beings (1906). The beings, giant
intelligent Moon-worshipping ants from a Pacific island, just fail to
conquer the world, despite their use of "X Magnetism" to power flying
machines which bomb Europe. [JC]

Sf began to produce a distinctive kind of hero well before the beginning
of the 20th century. As might be expected, sf writers - most of whom
expressed interest (sometimes monitory) in the advancement of science -
soon found models for heroic action in SCIENTISTS (or, perhaps more
accurately, inventors). From early in its history, the US dime novel (
DIME-NOVEL SF) featured young protagonists who invented their way out of
dire straits in a thousand tales, and who soon took on many of the
advertised characteristics of the most charismatic US inventor/scientist
of the 19th century, Thomas Alva Edison ( EDISONADE for details); well
into the 20th century, heroes on the edisonade model figured large in
GENRE SF, generally in SPACE OPERA between the World Wars, although the
influence of the Edison myth can be detected also in Robert A. HEINLEIN's
Competent Man.At the same time, it cannot be denied that in much sf the
figure of the scientist remained far too remote and enigmatic to stand as
a hero, and it was only rarely - as in H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE
(1895) - that adult sf featured scientists in roles that gave them the
opportunity to assume protagonist burdens of heroism. Over against the
heroes of the edisonade, sf very frequently featured young heroes who had
become entangled with matters of superscience entirely by accident: a
certain bewildered astonishment was a constant feature of the role. FLASH
GORDON and BUCK ROGERS are heroes of this type, as is John Star, hero of
Jack WILLIAMSON's The Legion of Space (1934; 1947). And whether or not
their creators deemed them to be inventor/scientist heroes - as C.M.
KORNBLUTH argued in "The Failure of the Science Fiction Novel as Social
Criticism" (1959) - the worldview of E.E. SMITH's heroes and all their
kind is that of small children, and their adventures are daydreams which
proceed according to the pattern of make-believe games. This pattern,
common to almost all action-adventure fiction, stands out particularly
clearly in PULP-MAGAZINE sf simply because the scope of the make-believe
is so great. Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom novels are perhaps the
ultimate in literary daydreams, and the enduring attraction of such
fantasies is shown by the constant proliferation of their imitators.
Edmond HAMILTON's CAPTAIN FUTURE stories and the PERRY RHODAN adventures
are examples of more strictly sciencefictional variants.In the 1940s John
W. CAMPBELL Jr used his influence as editor of ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION
to urge sf writers to modify the standard pulp hero by putting much
greater emphasis on problem-solving aptitude and engineering skill.
Archetypes of this new image included the staff of George O. SMITH's Venus
Equilateral (1942-5 ASF; fixup 1947), who were forever scribbling
equations and designs on the tablecloths in Joe's Bar. It might be argued
that this was very limited progress, and that the new image appealed to
the worldview of the adolescent in the process of learning, upgrading
mental competence at the expense of physical prowess, but really coming no
nearer to genuine characterization. Certainly there is a great deal of sf
which is attractive to the adolescent - and particularly to the alienated
adolescent, bound more closely to a private mental world - and, just as E.
E. Smith's Lensmen relate to their Arisian mentors in the same way that
children relate to adults, a similar relationship, but at a later stage,
is reflected in Poul ANDERSON's Flandry series, in which the hero's
flamboyant behaviour and contempt for imperial decadence relates very well
to the mood of adolescent rebellion. The conscientiously unorthodox
Campbell had a particular fondness for scientist-heroes who were
determined paradigm-breakers, and this was shared by many of his writers.
Even nonscientist heroes are frequently portrayed in magazine sf as
diehard rebels against stultifying orthodoxy, and the iconoclast who
demonstrates by his delinquency that he is fit for membership in the
social elite is an annoying sf CLICHE. Although there were few true
antiheroes in sf before, say, the emergence of Michael MOORCOCK's Jerry
Cornelius in The Final Programme (1965-7 NW; 1968) - Harry HARRISON's
Stainless Steel Rat (in The Stainless Steel Rat [1961] and its sequels)
being too lovable a rogue to qualify, though there is a good case to be
made that the evolution of E.E. SMITH's Blackie DuQuesne from Skylark of
Space (1928) to Skylark DuQuesne (1966) neatly encapsulates the growth of
the concept - there was a long pre-existent tradition of heroic
bloody-mindedness in magazine sf.As a more mature approach to
characterization began to appear in sf during the 1940s, the heroic
stature of its protagonists inevitably began to be compromised. True
heroes are implicitly unrealistic characters of more-than-human
dimensions, and the pulp SUPERHEROES who had existed on the fringe of sf,
like DOC SAVAGE, were largely diverted into the world of the COMICS, where
SUPERMAN became the archetype of a vast legion of caped crusaders. In the
sf pulps, too, superhumans became heroes, following a prototype
established by A.E. VAN VOGT in SLAN (1940 ASF; 1946). The vanVogtian hero
is always adrift in a hostile world whose circumstances are beyond his
understanding, but he is possessed of awesome, temporarily dormant powers
whose ultimate flowering will enable him spectacularly to prevail. This
slightly schizoid stereotype became increasingly common, and also more
elaborate and extravagant. Later works in this vein frequently feature
heroes who exhibit an odd combination of vulnerability and godlikeness;
several examples can be found in the work of Roger ZELAZNY (see also
PARANOIA). It is, of course, the function of heroes to appease the
psychological forces within us that must necessarily be repressed in the
day-to-day routine of adult intercourse with the world, and there is
really no need to worry - as the psychoanalyst Fredric Wertham (1895-1981)
did in The Seduction of the Innocent (1954) - that the fascination of
children and sf fans with superheroes might be perverted or fascistic. The
utility of social outsiders in heroic roles is also, inevitably, reflected
in the increasingly common use of ALIENS as heroes, and sometimes MACHINES
(although ROBOTS and sentient COMPUTERS pose problems when employed as
foci for reader-identification). These trends too began in the 1940s but
became more pronounced in subsequent decades. The most extreme cases of
"outsider" heroes are perhaps to be found in CYBORG stories which use
brains-in-boxes as viewpoint characters.Despite the processes of
sophistication which have reduced many of its protagonists to a more human
scale, modern sf has carried forward the trends which were set in the
1940s, albeit in more selfconscious - and often frankly humorous - ways.
The noble rebel against oppressive authority remains commonplace, his
activities celebrated with awesome sentimentality in such novels as
Michael D. RESNICK's Santiago (1986). The oppressed child-become-superhero
has also been provided with a striking new archetype in Orson Scott CARD's
ENDER'S GAME (1977 ASF; exp 1985), although Card's anxiety about the
propriety of this genocidal power-fantasy led him to pad out the expanded
version with much philosophical debate and to produce sequels in which
Ender becomes a kind of saintly redeemer. Comic-book superhero fantasy has
moved back into a closer alliance with written fiction, reflected in such
projects as George R.R. MARTIN's WILD CARDS series of multi-authored
"mosaic novels" or BRAIDS. It is noticeable that modern comic-book
superheroes are very often social outsiders, the TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA
TURTLES providing a striking example. The market-encouraged overlap
between sf and HEROIC FANTASY has helped to maintain much older kinds of
hero despite acute problems of plausibility. Sciencefictional
transfigurations of Greek and other hero-myths are surprisingly numerous,
most notable among them R.A. LAFFERTY's Space Chantey (1968) and Tim
POWERS's Dinner at Deviant's Palace (1985), and Grail Quests are also
featured in such novels as Samuel R. DELANY's NOVA (1968). Antiheroes have
been very much in fashion in recent times thanks to the CYBERPUNK
movement, but the parallel fashionability of militaristic sf ( WAR) has
resulted in a wide spectrum of heroic types which ranges from steadfastly
honourable soldiers through mercenaries to determined followers of a
SURVIVALIST ethos. Female heroes were almost unknown in sf before 1960,
although sweet-natured "heroines" were to be found in abundance, but as
more and more female writers have moved into sf this imbalance has been
spectacularly redressed; a great deal of contemporary sf has now taken on
the burden of appeasing the frustrations of women in much the same way
that 1940s sf appeased the frustrations of adolescent boys. Although the
path of progress was first mapped by feminist writers like Joanna RUSS,
creator of the troubled-but-competent Alyx, female heroes are now so
numerous in certain roles - notably that of starship pilot - that such
assignments no longer seem propagandistic. SCIENTISTS, for the most part,
are still out in the cold, rarely afforded even moderate heroic status: an
accurate but sad reflection of contemporary social attitudes. [BS/JC]See

In the TERMINOLOGY of sf/fantasy readers, this term began in the late
1970s to overtake SWORD AND SORCERY as the name of the subgenre which we
choose - perhaps arbitrarily - to discuss under the latter head. The two
terms (which both continue in common but diminished usage into the 1990s)
are close but not identical in meaning. However, the nuances that
distinguish them differ according to the writer (or blurb-writer) who uses
them, though perhaps "Heroic Fantasy" comprehends a greater range of
possible fictions. There is probably no argument about the twin poles of
Heroic Fantasy (or Sword and Sorcery) being the gentlemanly works of
J.R.R. TOLKIEN and the far-from-gentlemanly works of Robert E. HOWARD,
especially his Conan series. Other terms applied both critically and
commercially to fantasy have proliferated; they include Adult Fantasy,
High Fantasy, Epic Fantasy, Quest Fantasy and SCIENCE FANTASY, but none
are susceptible to any rigorous definition that would correspond to the
variations in actual usage. By the 1990s the compulsion felt by publishers
to label their books generically had slackened - it may have proved
counterproductive - and many works of Heroic Fantasy now have merely the
word FANTASY on the cover, or no descriptive word at all. [PN]See also:

[r] Christopher BLAYRE.

(1868-1938) US academic and writer best known for The Master of the Inn
(1908), whose eponymous hero cures the mentally ill by making them work
hard and contemplate, too. His one sf novel, Sometime (1933), set 1000
years hence, describes the visit of some Africans to a post-ice-age North
America, where the races have finally bred together, sexual prudishness
has been cast off at last, and the CITIES have been abandoned. RH clearly
approves all these changes. [JC]

(vt L'Atlantide; vt Lost Atlantis; vt The Mistress of Atlantis) Film
(1932). Nero Film. Dir G.W. Pabst (1885-1967), starring Brigitte Helm and
(German version) Gustav Diessl, (French version) Jean Angelo, (English
version) John Stuart. Screenplay Ladislaus Vajda, Hermann Oberlander,
based on L'Atlantide (1919) by Pierre BENOIT. 87 mins. B/w.This German
film is based on Benoit's lurid popular novel about Antinea, the Queen of
ATLANTIS (in this case a city beneath the North African desert), who lures
a succession of men to their doom and displays their mummified bodies in a
bizarre trophy room. The similarities between this and H. Rider HAGGARD's
She (1887) are obvious.L'Atlantide has been filmed several other times:
the first was a tedious 1921 French version dir Jacques Feyder; in 1948 a
kitsch US version, Siren of Atlantis (vt Atlantis; vt Queen of Atlantis),
was dir Arthur Ripley, Greg R. Tallas, Douglas Sirk and John Brahm,
starring Maria Montez; and in 1961 a French/Italian coproduction, Antinea,
L'Amante della Citta Sepolta (vt Atlantis, the Lost Kingdom) - not to be
confused with ATLANTIS, THE LOST CONTINENT prod George PAL in 1960 - was
dir Edgar G. Ulmer and Giuseppe Masini. The Pabst film is superior to
these others, not only for its visual flair but also for Brigitte Helm's
striking performance as the queen (she is also remembered for her dual
role as heroine and evil robot in METROPOLIS [1926]). It is, however,
slow-moving, and no one could take this pulp romance seriously.Three
versions, in German, French and English, were made simultaneously with
Helm starring in all, although otherwise the casts were different. [JB/PN]

(1893-1956) US editor, publisher, story writer and poet. A man of great
energy and relatively little talent, HH edited such sf PULP MAGAZINES as
though most of his editorial work was not sf-related. His early writing,
all negligible, appeared under various pseudonyms; but Night (coll 1923),
a POETRY collection, has superb artwork by Elliott DOLD, and Pulpwood
Editor (1937) is an informative (albeit anecdotal) look at the
pulp-magazine world. [RB]See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS; INTELLIGENCE;

(1914-1993) US novelist and journalist, perhaps best known for his early
report, Hiroshima (1946). His White Lotus (1965) is an ALTERNATE-WORLDS
story in which China conquers the USA and makes slaves of White Americans,
including the teenager renamed White Lotus. The Child Buyer (1960) is a
NEAR-FUTURE story - told in the form of a courtroom drama - in which
corporations bid for effective ownership of child prodigies. My Petition
for More Space (1974) is a radically DYSTOPIAN rendering of an enormously
regimented Earth bedevilled by OVERPOPULATION problems - the protagonist
lives in a tiny cubicle and petitions, vainly, for an extra foot in each
direction. [JC]

(1920- ) US writer whose sf novel, Shareworld (1972; vt The Crash of 2086
1976), takes a DYSTOPIAN view of the stock market dominating the entire
world and anticipates a final and definitive Crash. [JC]

(1845-1924) Austrian economist and author of the influential socialist
UTOPIA, Freiland: Ein Sociales Zukunftsbild (1890; trans Arthur Ransom -
not Arthur Ransome [1884-1967] - as Freeland: A Social Anticipation 1891
UK) and its sequel, Eine Reise nach Freiland1893; trans anon as A Visit to
Freeland, or The New Paradise Regained 1894 UK; vt A Trip to Freeland 1905
US). These offer little in the way of fictional pleasures in the bland
portrayal of their African setting, but most unusually manage to depict an
ideal society in terms that sound genuinely livable. It may be the case
that they fail satisfactorily to suggest a convincing relationship between
private and public control of production ( ECONOMICS), but all the same
the books inspired a Freeland Society in the USA, and some local colonies
were actually established. [JC]See also: AUSTRIA.

(? -? ) UK writer active at the end of the 19th century. The protagonist
of his sf novel, David Dimsdale, M.D.: A Story of Past and Future (1897),
awakens in 1920 ( SLEEPER AWAKES) to find ubiquitous electrical advances
plus the daughter of the woman he'd loved in 1895. He ends up marrying the
daughter. [JC]

(1920-1979 ) UK writer who moved to Australia in 1951; he is author of an
estimated 3500 short stories in various genres. His sf work is minor; it
includes a future- UTOPIA tale, Strange Hunger (1946), and some of the
stories assembled in The Queer-Looking Box (coll 1944 chap), Murder Medley
(coll 1945 chap), Horror Medley (coll 1946 chap) and Creeps Medley (coll
1946 chap). [SH]


(1927- ) US writer and editor who has also worked with the Peace Corps
and as a political manager. His first sf novel, The Swarm (1974),
convincingly posits an ecological catastrophe when the African honey-bee
mutates and invades North America ( ECOLOGY; HIVE-MINDS). Partly based on
fact (African bees have indeed bred with South American bees to form a
large and belligerent hybrid), the novel is well researched and written,
as are Earthsound (1975), in which a seismologist attempts to warn
sceptical New Englanders of an approaching earthquake and is thought to be
merely hysterical, and Heat (1977; rev 1989), which is an early attempt to
deal with the greenhouse effect. In later novels, AH moved less
convincingly towards SATIRE. In IQ 83 (1978) an attempt to retune DNA
predictably backfires, and the America series - Make Us Happy (1978) and
Glad to Be Here (1979) - takes him shakily into the realms of DYSTOPIA.
[PN/JC]Other works: Aries Rising (1980); The Craving (1982).See also:

[r] Andre MAUROIS.

(1912-1974) UK editor and writer in whose wry and somewhat Surrealist sf
novel, The Purple Armchair (1961), the ALIEN who resembles an armchair and
is purple must decide whether or not the human race - caught in a
near-future DYSTOPIA dominated by COMPUTERS - should survive. Eventually
the "chair" says no. [JC]

(1877-1962) German-born writer, a Swiss citizen from 1923. His long
career culminated with the publication of his largest novel, Das
Glasperlenspiel (1943; trans M. Savill as Magister Ludi 1949 US; preferred
trans Richard and Clara Winston as The Glass Bead Game 1969 US); it was
largely as a result of this novel that HH was awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize
for Literature. Set in a future land closely resembling Europe, it is a
complex UTOPIA whose structure revolves around the eponymous game. For the
inhabitants of the community of Castilia, under the guidance of Joseph
Knecht, their Magister Ludi (or Master of Games), the undescribed
aesthetic and intellectual disciplines of the game culminate in
experiences that - by analogy with the music of J.S. Bach - serenely
resolve the dissonances of the outside world. Knecht's biography
constitutes the bulk of the novel, and his poems and essays are published
in an appendix. Through these texts, which are suffused with allusions to
and renderings of the world-transcending subtleties and graces of the
Castilian mind-plays, Knecht's life has a sometimes exalting effect on the
reader, though Knecht himself must eventually repudiate the game for a
more humane vision of utopia.HH's great popularity in translation in the
1960s and 1970s derives more directly, however, from earlier and more
accessible works, like Siddharta (1922; trans Hilda Rosner 1954 UK) and
Der Steppenwolf (1927; trans Basil Creighton as Steppenwolf 1929 UK; trans
rev 1963), in which Jungian depth psychology, Indian mysticism and
Weltschmerz are perhaps overpalatably combined; these and others of his
novels can be read - unwisely - to emphasize any fantasy elements, for at
their core they are meditations on transcendence. [JC]Other works: Demian
(1919; trans W.J. Strachan 1958 UK); Die Morgenlandfahrt (1932; trans
Hilda Rosner as The Journey to the East 1956 chap UK); Strange News from
Another Star (coll trans 1972 US) and Pictor's Metamorphoses and Other
Fantasies (coll trans Rika Lesser 1982 US), collecting his fantasies, some
of which are sf.See also: ARTS.

[r] Jules VERNE.




(? -? ) UK writer whose World D (1935), as told to him by "Hal P.
Trevarthen, Official Historian of the Superficies", describes the creation
of an UNDER-THE-SEA culture, Helioxenon; the detail is considerable,
sometimes Catholic. On the jacket the novel was credited to Trevarthen.

[r] Randall GARRETT.


(1901-1982) US writer, editor and broadcaster, most of whose significant
work lay in the field of cultural studies, initially from a Marxist
standpoint, though from 1939 he became disillusioned with any form of
communism. His first novel, The First to Awaken (1940) with Richard M.
Bennett, was a SLEEPER-AWAKES tale whose protagonist reaches the year
AD2040 via SUSPENDED ANIMATION and finds there a literately described and
mutedly sane socialist UTOPIA. [JC]

Film (1988). New Line-Heron Joint Venture/Third Elm Street Venture. Dir
Jack Sholder, starring Kyle MacLachlan, Michael Nouri, William Boyett.
Screenplay Bob Hunt. 97 mins. Colour.A quiet stockbroker goes on a
homicidal spree. We learn his body is temporarily occupied by a homicidal
slug-like ALIEN, which moves from body to body but is soon recognizable
from its behaviour. Police detective Beck (Nouri) works with an FBI man
(MacLachlan) who turns out to be an alien cop in a human body. Finally,
after six body changes, the Ferrari-driving alien killer is defeated. TH
is a fast-moving, violent, well made formula film with no intellectual
ambitions but an interesting, ambiguous ending. The story is sufficiently
close to that of Hal CLEMENT's Needle (1950; vt From Outer Space 1957) as
to make one wonder why he received no screen credit. The oddly coupled
human/alien cop team was to become an instant film cliche: ALIEN NATION
and I COME IN PEACE. The sequel, The Hidden II (1993), went straight to
video; dir and written Seth Pinsker, starring Raphael Sbarge and Kate
Hodge, 90 mins, it reprises ten minutes of the original before moving to a
time 15 years later, with Hodge playing the daughter of Detective Beck and
more evil alien spawning to be prevented. [PN]See also: MONSTER MOVIES.

US magazine PULP MAGAZINE-size, 16 issues, Spring 1961-Winter 1964,
published and ed Raymond A. PALMER. This was a quarterly publication,
handling SHAVER-Mystery and flying-saucer ( UFOS) material, and purporting
to be science fact rather than science fiction. #1 elaborated on the
Shaverian "Mantongue" language. Circulation had by the end dropped from
10,000 to 2000; the issue marked Winter 1964 was in fact released in 1966.

(1914- ) UK writer, variously employed for a number of years before
beginning to publish sf in 1955 with "The Statics" for Authentic Science
Fiction; he contributed to UK magazines, especially NEBULA SCIENCE
FICTION, for several years before publishing his first sf novel The
Prodigal Sun (1964 US), which set the model for most of those to follow.
His sense of the world is pessimistic, but he overlays that sense with
plots of an epic cast. In this first novel, characteristically, an
Earthman possessing powers enhanced through his upbringing by an ALIEN
race returns to his grim home planet, rousing it. Other novels combining
social comment and adventure include No Truce with Terra (1964 dos US),
The Mad Metropolis (1966 dos US; vt Double Illusion 1970 UK) and These
Savage Futurians (1967 dos US). The Time Mercenaries (1968 dos US)
interestingly places a 20th-century submarine into a time when mankind has
lost its genetic capacity to fight; the resurrected crew (having been
artificially preserved) dutifully saves mankind from aliens. Though
constrained by his dystopian sense of the possibilities of Man's future,
PEH has been capable of writing enjoyable adventures, though without fully
stretching his dark imagination. His later work, written largely for
ROBERT HALE LIMITED, was less engaging. [JC]Other works: Reality Forbidden
(1967 dos US); Twin Planets (1967 US); Invader on my Back (1968);
Butterfly Planet (1971); Come, Hunt an Earthman (1973); Sold-For a
Spaceship (1973); Speaking of Dinosaurs (1974); Fugitive from Time (1978);
Blindfold from the Stars (1979).See also: SUN.

Film (1990). Davis-Panzer/Lamb Bear Entertainment. Dir Russell Mulcahy,
starring Christopher Lambert, Sean Connery, Virginia Madsen, Michael
Ironside, Allan Rich. Screenplay Peter Bellwood, from a story by Brian
Clemens and William Panzer, based on characters created by Gregory Widen.
100 mins. Colour.This is a sequel to Highlander (1986), which was a pure
fantasy about two immortals, one good (with amnesia) and one bad, who
battle through the centuries. The sequel begins in 1999 with the
sword-wielding immortal Scotsman (Lambert again) saving humanity by
building a shield to replace the destroyed ozone layer. Moving forward to
AD2034 we find a corporate DYSTOPIA in the subtropical twilight (shot in
Argentina) beneath the shield, which is now maintained only for corporate
profit, the ozone layer being in much better condition, though this is
kept secret. The protagonist - who turns out to be an ALIEN - oscillates
unnervingly between youth and age, mortality and IMMORTALITY, before
disposing of the shield and the alien warlord (Ironside) who has
temporarily become a partner of the corporate villains. Rumoured
production problems and budget cuts may explain the incoherence of what
could have been much more fun. [PN]

Film (1929). Gaumont. Dir Maurice Elvey, starring Benita Hume, Jameson
Thomas, Basil Gill, James Carew. Screenplay L'Estrange Fawcett, based on a
play by Noel Pemberton-Billing. 95 mins, cut to 69 mins. B/w.This
forgotten curiosity, one of the earliest UK sound movies, was quite a big
film in its day, when it was seen as a kind of English METROPOLIS (1926)-a
comparison that does not for an instant hold water. Set in the world of
1940 (a Channel tunnel, tv, aeroplanes landing on London skyscrapers), it
envisages a tense political situation between United Europe, to which
England belongs, and a United America. The Peace League saves the world
from war by assassinating the leader of United Europe. The production
design is singularly unstriking and the story absurd. [PN]


(1942- ) US writer whose first novel, Jeremiah 8:20 (1970), is a raucous
FABULATION about the Apocalypse. Her second, Let's Fall in Love (1975),
spoofs sex, pornography and politics in a vaguely fantastic 1970s milieu.
The Eleven Million Mile High Dancer (1985; vt Amanda and the Eleven
Million Mile High Dancer 1988 UK), equally flamboyant in diction, carries
its female astronaut protagonist into metaphysical (and
Theory-of-Indeterminacy-and-Zen-evoking) contact with the eponymous
representation of the nature of the Universe. [JC]

(1935- ) Canadian-born writer and editor, in the UK from 1959. Most of
his early books were nonfiction, The Supernatural (1965) with Pat
Williams, and Magic and Superstition (1968) being of interest to a genre
audience. His involvement in sf and fantasy began through his editing of
anthologies like Window on the Future (anth 1966) and Way of the Werewolf
(anth 1966); he served as Associate Editor of NW in 1967-8. He began a
long sequence of novels for younger and older children ( CHILDREN'S SF)
with Coyote the Trickster (1975) with Gail Robinson. Several series
ensued: the Last Legionary sequence of SPACE OPERAS - Galactic Warlord
(1979), Deathwing over Veynaa (1980), Day of the Starwind (1980), Planet
of the Warlord (1982) and Young Legionary: The Earlier Adventures of Keill
Randor (1982), all but the last (a prequel) being assembled as The Last
Legionary Quartet (omni 1985) - which builds effectively on an
interplanetary revenge quest; the Huntsman sequence - The Huntsman (1982),
Warriors of the Wasteland (1983) and Alien Citadel (1984) - set on an
Earth enslaved by alien invaders; and the ColSec sequence - Exiles of
ColSec (1984), The Caves of Klydor (1984) and ColSec Rebellion (1985) -
whose young protagonists strive for freedom after being shipwrecked on an
unknown planet. His only adult sf novels, The Fraxilly Fracas (1989) and
its sequel, The Colloghi Conspiracy (1990), are also space opera - as is
the ongoing Apotheosis Trilogy, comprising The Lightless Dome (1993) and
The Leafless Forest (1994) - and share with his juveniles an engaging
briskness, though psychological depths tend to remain unplumbed. [JC]Other
works: The Exploits of Hercules (1978); Have Your Own Extra-Terrestrial
Adventure (1983 chap); the Talents series of fantasies, comprising Blade
of the Poisoner (1987) and Master of Fiends (1987); Penelope's Pendant
(1990); World of the Stiks (1994).For younger children: Moon Monsters
(1984 chap); How Jennifer (and Speckle) Saved the Earth (1986 chap);
Goblin Party (1988 chap); Penelope's Pendant (1990); The Tale of Trellie
the Troog (1991 chap).As Editor: The Devil his Due (anth 1967); Warlocks
and Warriors (anth 1971); Tribune 40 (anth 1977), not sf or fantasy; The
Shape of Sex to Come (anth 1978), sf stories about SEX; Alien Worlds (anth
1981); Planetfall (anth 1986).

(1915- ) UK writer who began publishing sf with "The Last Generation" for
NW in 1954, and who published some stories of interest, most notably the
DYSTOPIAN "Atrophy" (1965 in New Writings in SF #6, ed John CARNELL). His
novels - the rather desultory SPACE OPERA Pity about Earth (1968 dos US),
The GC Radiation (1971) and The Quark Invasion (1978), the latter two
being written for ROBERT HALE LIMITED - are of less interest. [JC]



[r] Glen A. LARSON.

(? - ) US writer whose sf novel, Cold Creek Cash Store (1986), presents
an unremarkable vision of a post- HOLOCAUST refuge in California. [JC]

(? - ) Writer, probably UK, whose novel A New Earth and a New Heaven
(1936) is of exceedingly moderate sf interest for its advocacy of a
garden-city subtopian future, but which comes somewhat to life on its
protagonists' visit to a LOST WORLD - in the heart of Australia - whose
inhabitants are in touch with MARS. [JC]

(1926- ) US sf critic and professor of English who has been based at
Southern Illinois University. In 1961 he gave, at Colgate, one of the
first university-level classes in sf in the USA ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM).
His academic study The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the
Anti-Utopians (1967) deals primarily with such MAINSTREAM WRITERS of
Yevgeny ZAMIATIN; it has become a standard reference. A later work ed MRH
is Shadows of Imagination: The Fantasies of C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien and
Charles Williams (anth 1969). His sf criticism, which includes a number of
essays, was all published in the 1960s and 1970s. He won the PILGRIM AWARD
in 1992. [PN]


(1900-1954) UK writer, in the USA from 1935, known mainly for slightly
sentimental mainstream novels like Good-bye Mr Chips (1934). His romantic
LOST-WORLD novel, Lost Horizon (1933), is set in the hidden Tibetan valley
of Shangri-La (his coinage), and deals with IMMORTALITY. The book is
emotionally moving, and was extremely popular; it has been filmed twice (
LOST HORIZON). [JC]Other works: Nothing So Strange (1947 US),
associational, about an experimental scientist and the Manhattan

(? - ) UK writer whose The Island Forbidden to Man (1946) seemed to
espouse the feminist UTOPIA hinted at in the title ( FEMINISM), but did
not give it long for this world. [JC]

(1920- ) UK lecturer in Russian studies and writer whose sf novel Up
Jenkins! (1956) satirically presents a UK split in two, the northern half
remaining more or less free, the southern half, People's Britain, being
ruled in totalitarian fashion. The SATIRE of People's Britain is deft.

(1853-1907) UK author whose many essays about the fourth and other
DIMENSIONS in space and time are collected along with some works of
fiction in Scientific Romances (coll 1886) and Scientific Romances: Second
Series (coll 1902). His interest was partly inspired by Edwin ABBOTT's
Flatland (1885), and he wrote a novel of his own set on a circular
two-dimensional world, An Episode of Flatland (1907). His other sf story
is "Stella", in Stella and An Unfinished Communication (coll 1895;
reprinted as part of Scientific Romances: Second Series), a short novel
about an invisible girl which antedated H.G. WELLS's The Invisible Man
(1896). "An Unfinished Communication" is a metaphysical fantasy which
represents life after death as freedom to move in the fourth dimension
(time) through the moments of life, "unlearning" and re-evaluating. "The
Persian King", in Scientific Romances, is a curious allegory applying
mathematical logic to Christian ideas of atonement. Interest in CHH's work
has recently been revived by virtue of the attention paid to it in stories
and essays by Rudy RUCKER. [BS]See also: ESCHATOLOGY; INVISIBILITY;

(1951- ) US writer who made a considerable impact with the Paratwa
sequence: Liege-Killer (1987) - which won the Compton Crook/Stephen Tall
AWARD for Best First Novel - Ash Ock (1989) and The Paratwa (1991). From
the first, the sequence has given off a sense of professional polish and
hurry, densely packing a wide variety of 1980s adventure-sf conventions
into an intensely realized post- HOLOCAUST setting dominated by SPACE
HABITATS which contain those who escaped before the end of life on Earth.
Technology is controlled, but pressure is building; and when the Paratwa -
pre-holocaust, genetically primed assassins - begin to reappear, CH soon
engages a large cast in violent action, as the villains are hunted down
and their masters (the Ash Ock) are exposed. It could not be claimed that
the second and third volumes of the sequence show any deep originality,
but the impersonal vigour of the narrative strikes a responsive note. A
singleton, Anachronisms (1988), also demonstrates CH's canny adherence to
demanding genre models in the tale of a corporation-owned survey ship -
packed with CYBORGS, ESPERS, obsessed SCIENTISTS, a paramilitary cadre,
and Realpolitik-driven AIs - which must face the threat of a seemingly
undefeatable ALIEN which assaults them from an about-to-be-exploited
planet. The parallels with the movies ALIEN (1979) and ALIENS (1986) are
too explicit not to have been meant as a homage, and demonstrate that the
sophisticated models of action in space deployed by those films had become
necessary to high-quality, cutting-edge written adventure sf. CH is an
alert follower. [JC]

(1850-?1920) UK writer involved in 19th-century temperance movements and
Christian socialism. His Toddle Island; Being the Diary of Lord Bottsford
(1894), an Erewhonian UTOPIA set on an ISLAND in the Pacific, rather
effectively satirizes much of UK intellectual life. [JC]

[r] Edgar Rice BURROUGHS.

The real history of the world and the many alternative histories which
might have replaced it ( ALTERNATE WORLDS) are extensively featured in sf
stories of TIME TRAVEL and PARALLEL WORLDS, but sf writers have also drawn
much inspiration from history in designing hypothetical futures.
Sometimes, like Charles L. HARNESS in Flight into Yesterday (1949
Startling Stories; exp 1953; vt The Paradox Men) and James BLISH in CITIES
IN FLIGHT (1950-62 var mags; omni 1970), they have made use of actual
theories-from Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) in the former case, Oswald
Spengler (1880-1936) in the latter - which have claimed to detect
authentic cyclic patterns in history; more commonly, though, they have
simply borrowed the past as a convenient template. Thus Miles J. BREUER
and Jack WILLIAMSON replayed the story of the American Revolution as the
story of the revolt of the MOON's colony against its Earthly masters in
The Birth of a New Republic (1930 AMZ; 1981); Robert A. HEINLEIN later did
this more convincingly in THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS (1966). Isaac
ASIMOV gave to this process of borrowing a new gloss of sophistication in
the first phase of his Foundation series (1942-50 ASF; in 3 vols 1951-3;
as THE FOUNDATION TRILOGY omni 1963) by inventing his own futuristic
science of PSYCHOHISTORY, by which Edward Gibbon's retrospective analysis
of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is transmuted into Hari
Seldon's prophetic analysis of the decline and fall of the GALACTIC
EMPIRE. Seldon's Plan, however, can change these deterministic prophecies
by social engineering. Interestingly, a later novel by Asimov, The End of
Eternity (1955), argues as strongly against social engineering as the
Foundation series argued for it.Toynbee eventually recanted the cyclic
theory outlined in A Study of History (12 vols 1934-61), and the earlier
quasideterministic theories of Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) and
Spengler's Decline of the West (1918-22) never quite attained academic
respectability, but the attractions of such theories to sf writers are
obvious. Blish's fascination with Spengler became deep, respectful and
altogether serious, and A.E. VAN VOGT drew inspiration from Spengler in
The Voyage of the Space Beagle (fixup 1950). Toynbeean ideas continued to
echo various writers' works, including Frederik POHL's and C.M.
KORNBLUTH's "Critical Mass" (1961), in which they are quoted directly,
Frank HERBERT's DUNE (fixup 1965), which seems to draw on Toynbee's
picture of the Janissary-supported Turkish courts of the later Middle
Ages, and Larry NIVEN's A World out of Time (1967), which uses the
Toynbee-derived notion of "water-monopoly empires" - i.e., empires founded
on irrigation control. Philosophers of history who dealt in NEAR-FUTURE
climaxes rather than recurrent cycles - G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) and Karl
Marx (1818-1883) are the most obvious examples - have naturally been of
less interest to sf writers.The PULP MAGAZINES inherited from the dime
novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF) a striking "mythologized" version of the USA's
recent past in the Western genre, which glorified the "frontier spirit".
This myth (see also SOCIAL DARWINISM) was transferred to sf, where it
became the animating force of countless stories about the exploration of
the Solar System and the COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS. The reflection of
this mythical version of US history has maintained a tenacious hold over
the images of the future contained in GENRE SF, and has been elaborated in
various ways, sometimes painfully naive and sometimes quite extraordinary.
(The phenomenon is not, of course, restricted to fiction; the idea of
space as a "high frontier" requiring conquest by bold pioneers informs
much actual political rhetoric, and may be regarded as NASA's guiding
myth.) It is not only US history per se which is reflected in stories of
space pioneering; US writers have been perfectly willing to adapt
"relevant" bits of more distant history, producing such images as those in
Poul ANDERSON's The High Crusade (1960), H. Beam PIPER's Space Viking
(1963) and Ben BOVA's Privateers (1985). Anderson has been a particularly
prolific and artful borrower of entrepreneurial models from the past,
taking in explorers, privateers, merchant princes and all manner of
military empire-builders.Unlike US genre sf, UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE was
heavily influenced by more pessimistic metaphysical notions of eternal
recurrence. As citizens of an empire in decline rather than descendants of
mythical pioneers, UK writers inherited a rather different attitude to the
past, reflected in such elegiac and defeatist fantasies of cyclic history
as Edward SHANKS's The People of the Ruins (1920), Cicely HAMILTON's
Theodore Savage (1922) and John GLOAG's "Pendulum" (c1930) and Tomorrow's
Yesterday (1932). J.B. PRIESTLEY's Time plays dealt more delicately and
not quite so darkly with similar philosophical ideas. Olaf STAPLEDON
adopted a more robust view of future history in his classic LAST AND FIRST
MEN (1930), toying with cyclicity but eventually discarding it in favour
of a more open-ended philosophy of progress, but even he could not shake
off a pessimistic conviction that whatever civilizations rise up must
ultimately decline and fall. The pulp-sf writers were sometimes suspicious
of the idea of progress, but in general they had much more faith in the
notion that contemporary civilization was destined to thrive and expand
for some considerable time; such future histories as Laurence MANNING's in
The Man who Awoke (1933 Wonder Stories; fixup 1975) and the far more
elaborate patterns drawn in the future-history series of Heinlein and
Anderson are conspicuously open-ended. Relatively few pulp visionaries
imagined that any significant and irreversible rot was likely to set in
before the Galactic Empire had attained a glorious zenith. ( GALACTIC
EMPIRES for the argument that the open framework supplied by Asimov's
Foundation series proved so comprehensive as to render unnecessary the
sort of future history worked out with such pains by Heinlein and in
rather less detail by later writers.)In somewhat similar fashion, UK
writers of scientific romance have often tended to see the past as
something inelastically resistant to change. William GOLDING's inventor in
"Envoy Extraordinary" (1956; play version The Brass Butterfly 1958) fails
ignominiously to interest the Roman Empire in gunpowder, the steam engine
and the printing press, just as the scientist in Ronald W. CLARK's Queen
Victoria's Bomb (1967) finds that his invention arouses little excitement
in Victorian England. (It was, of course, the UK that produced Herbert
Butterfield [1900-1979], the historian who wrote the clever satire The
Whig Interpretation of History [1931] in an attempt to expose the
absurdity of belief in progress, and also the folly of that kind of
history written, perhaps unwittingly, to flatter a society's image of
itself; many works of sf, even though set in the future, are open to the
criticism of "whiggery".) In sharp contrast, the hero of L. Sprague DE
CAMP's classic pulp timeslip story LEST DARKNESS FALL (1939 Unknown
Worlds; 1941; rev 1949) averts the Dark Ages by means of a series of small
and subtle technological fixes, and many genre writers felt it necessary
to set up corps of "time police" to protect history from casual spoliation
by careless or evil-minded time-travellers. Examples include Anderson's
The Guardians of Time (fixup 1960) and The Corridors of Time (1965),
Barrington J. BAYLEY's The Fall of Chronopolis (1974) and Diana Wynne
JONES's A Tale of Time City (1987); however, Fritz LEIBER's Change War
series includes one story, "Try and Change the Past" (1958), whose basic
point is the impossibility of changing history at all.It was not until the
spectre of the Bomb caught up with US sf writers that tragic images of
historical recurrence - like that in Walter M. MILLER's classic A CANTICLE
FOR LEIBOWITZ (1955-7 FSF; fixup 1960), which portrays a future Dark Age
in which learning has once more retreated to the monasteries - began to
appear in some quantity. More pessimistic philosophies of history, like
the one deployed in Kornbluth's "The Only Thing We Learn" (1949) and the
one detected by John F. CARR in the stories he collected for H. Beam
PIPER's posthumous Empire (coll 1981), also began to infect genre sf in
this period. More recently, the aftermath of world-scale HOLOCAUST has
been much more widely exploited as a setting for historical "replays" in
such novels as Paul O. WILLIAMS's Pelbar Cycle, begun with The Breaking of
Northwall (1981), and Kim Stanley ROBINSON's THE WILD SHORE (1984).
However, the progressive optimism of US sf has generally been maintained,
being unrepentantly and exuberantly displayed in such fantasies of history
as D.R. BENSEN's ironic And Having Writ . . . (1978) and Poul Anderson's
THE BOAT OF A MILLION YEARS (1989). Anderson and other US writers in the
same vein have always taken it for granted that liberal democracy is the
evolutionary ideal of all political systems.Although UK sf has absorbed
much of the imaginative drive of US sf since the importation of the genre
label, its more thoughtful exponents have always maintained a relatively
modest and sceptical attitude to the dynamics of history, as displayed in
such novels as Brian W. ALDISS's An Age (1967; vt Cryptozoic! US and later
UK edns), Andrew STEPHENSON's The Wall of Years (1979) and Ian WATSON's
Chekhov's Journey (1983). [TS/BS]

Sf is an impure genre ( DEFINITIONS OF SF) which did not finally take
shape until the late 19th century, although all its separate elements
existed earlier. If the labelling of any earlier story as sf depended only
on the presence of sf elements there would be many such. The Babylonian
Epic of Gilgamesh, for example, has a FANTASTIC VOYAGE and a great
world-flood, and in those respects it qualifies; but such retrospective
labelling is not very useful, since there is no sense at all in which we
can regard sf as a genre conscious of being a genre before the 19th
century. Sf proper requires a consciousness of the scientific outlook, and
it probably also requires a sense of the possibilities of change, whether
social or technological. A cognitive, scientific way of viewing the world
did not emerge until the 17th century, and did not percolate into society
at large ( FUTUROLOGY) until the 18th (partly) and the 19th (to a large
extent); a sense of the fragility of social structures and their potential
for change did not really become widespread until the political
revolutions of the late 18th century. These questions are discussed
further under PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, in which entry a number of early
scientific fictions, from Johannes KEPLER through CYRANO DE BERGERAC and
Jonathan SWIFT, along with even earlier writers, are treated.The main
elements which eventually, in varying proportions, became melded into sf
are as follows: (1) the FANTASTIC VOYAGE; (2) the UTOPIA (along with the
Anti-Utopia and the DYSTOPIA); (3) the conte philosophique, or
Philosophical Tale ( SATIRE); (4) the GOTHIC; (5) the TECHNOLOGICAL and
SOCIOLOGICAL Anticipation, especially as it developed into the US
tradition of the tale of DISCOVERY AND INVENTION in the dime novels (
DIME-NOVEL SF; EDISONADE). As with sf, these constituent genres are not
generically pure: for instance, the Fantastic Voyage is combined with the
Dystopia in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726; rev 1735); the
Gothic is combined with the Anticipation in The Mummy! (1827) by Jane
LOUDON.The two figures most important to sf in the early 19th century were
Mary SHELLEY and Edgar Allan POE, both of whom wrote Gothic romances
informed with a degree of scientific speculation, standing out in this
respect from isolated, freakish speculations such as Captain Adam
SEABORN's Symzonia (1820), one of the earliest of the many novels based on
the idea of a HOLLOW EARTH, and A Voyage to the Moon (1827) by Joseph
ATTERLEY. By the middle of the century a number of US writers, in
particular, were making use of sf elements in their work, notably
Nathaniel HAWTHORNE, Herman MELVILLE and Fitz-James O'BRIEN, as was Lord
LYTTON in the UK. In the 1860s Jules VERNE began to publish something more
strongly resembling modern sf than anything written by his predecessors.
His books were described as "Extraordinary Voyages" by his publisher; many
of them deal directly with the impact of NEAR-FUTURE technology. After
Verne, and to some extent because of his success, the sf trickle became a
torrent.The next figure whose work had a truly transformative impact on
early sf was H.G. WELLS, in many of whose stories which began to be
published in the 1890s the Gothic, the Utopia and the Anticipation are
closely bound together and reworked into a form which all readers today
recognize as inarguably sf. Most sf since Wells's has adhered more or less
closely to the Wellsian balances between abstract speculation and
characterization and between scientific and sociological
speculation.Though Wells's achievement was great, it is too simple by far
to imagine as earlier accounts of the genre did to a greater or lesser
extent that sf jumped straight from Verne to Wells and then exploded into
the form we know today. Wells had many contemporaries who wrote sf, and
many predecessors; between the publication of Verne's first sf novel, Cinq
semaines en ballon (1863; trans as Five Weeks in a Balloon, or Journeys
and Discoveries in Africa, by Three Englishmen 1869 US), and Wells's
first, THE TIME MACHINE (1895 US; rev 1895 UK), the genre had been
consolidating and expanding. Notable titles from the period are, in
chronological order: The Steam Man of the Prairies (1868) by Edward S.
ELLIS, "The Brick Moon" (1869) by Edward Everett HALE, The Battle of
Dorking (1871 chap) by George T. CHESNEY, The Coming Race (1871) by
Lytton, Erewhon (1872) by Samuel BUTLER, Recits de l'infini (1872 France;
trans as Stories of Infinity: Lumen 1873) by Camille FLAMMARION, Frank
Reade and his Steam Man of the Plains (as "The Steam Man of the Plains"
1876; 1892) by Harry Enton ( FRANK READE LIBRARY), She (1887) by H. Rider
HAGGARD, Across the Zodiac (1880) by Percy GREG, Flatland (1884) by Edwin
A. ABBOTT, After London (1885) by Richard JEFFERIES, L'Eve future (1886;
trans as The Eve of the Future 1981 US) by VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM,
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) by Robert Louis STEVENSON,
"Les xiphuz" (1887; trans as "The Shapes") by J.H. ROSNY an, A Crystal Age
(1887) by W.H. HUDSON, Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888) by Edward
BELLAMY, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889) by Mark TWAIN,
A Plunge into Space (1890) by Robert CROMIE, News from Nowhere (1890) by
William MORRIS, Olga Romanoff (1894) by George GRIFFITH, A Journey to Mars
(1894) by Gustavus POPE, and The Call of the Cosmos (1895 Russia; trans
1963) by Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY. The above list is highly selective; it is
only as a result of recent bibliographical research carried out by many
scholars including Tom CLARESON, I.F. CLARKE, Lyman Tower SARGENT, Darko
SUVIN and pre-eminently Everett F. BLEILER in Science-Fiction: The Early
Years (dated 1990 but 1991) that we have become able to see how radically
incomplete it is. Bleiler lists 618 sf works (stories and novels) for this
same period 1863-95. Despite the comparative lack of well remembered names
among the authors of sf in that period, it is now clear that the last
three decades of the 19th century were the seed-bed for the modern genre.
Wells did not spring from nowhere; he refined an existing tradition.In the
1880s and after, many new and inexpensive MAGAZINES appeared, and quite a
few of them published sf stories, as did the dime novels ( DIME-NOVEL SF)
in the USA and the BOYS' PAPERS in the UK a little later, and with the
advent of the PULP MAGAZINES (as opposed to the "slicks") in the late
1890s the market for magazine sf expanded still more. These changes meant
that sf was for the first time finding a truly popular audience, but one
whose expectations of literature were often crude; the prime demand was
for an action-packed story. By Wells's time a rift between the SCIENTIFIC
ROMANCE and pulp sf was beginning to open.Several of the pre-Wells titles
listed above initiated subgenres which were to prove popular. The Steam
Man of the Prairies inaugurated sf in dime-novel format, usually featuring
boys involved in the creation and use of marvellous inventions (these were
the years when Thomas Alva Edison [1847-1931] was becoming a national hero
in the USA; EDISONADE). Sf dime novels continued until the 1900s, at which
time they were gradually replaced by such JUVENILE SERIES as TOM SWIFT and
by the stories in the new PULP MAGAZINES. H. Rider Haggard's She, a great
success, led to the massive popularity of the LOST-WORLD romance; this
continued with some vitality into the 1930s, and is not quite extinct even
today. George T. Chesney's The Battle of Dorking ushered in the era of the
future- WAR story, which often featured INVASION, perhaps the most popular
of all the fringe sf genres in the late 19th century. Wells's THE WAR OF
THE WORLDS (1898) popularized the extraterrestrial invasion. Future-war
stories remain popular today, especially in interstellar venues, but their
great era ended with the start of WWI, which so devastatingly failed to
fulfil future-war writers' expectations of a vivid and rapidly concluded
conflict.The earlier potted histories of sf that jumped from Verne (1863)
to Wells (1895) tended to do the same for the years between Wells and AMZ
(1926), as if the intervening years were comparatively empty. Yet the
period 1895-1926 is considerably more packed than even 1863-95. There is
not space here to give titles; authors whose sf largely appeared in the
first instance in magazines include Frank AUBREY, Edgar Rice BURROUGHS,
William Wallace COOK, Ray CUMMINGS, George Allan ENGLAND, Ralph Milne
FARLEY, Homer Eon FLINT, Austin HALL, Murray LEINSTER, A. MERRITT, Victor
ROUSSEAU and Garrett P. SERVISS; those primarily remembered for book
publication include Edwin Lester ARNOLD, J.D. BERESFORD, Karel CAPEK, J.J.
HARBEN, Milo HASTINGS, William Hope HODGSON, Fred T. JANE, Rudyard
VIVIAN, Edgar WALLACE, S. Fowler WRIGHT and Yevgeny ZAMIATIN.From an sf
point of view, the most important magazines before the arrival of the
specialist sf magazines were those published by Frank A. MUNSEY in the USA
and, in the UK, PEARSON'S MAGAZINE and PEARSON'S WEEKLY. Many reputations
were made in the magazines, the most influential being that of Edgar Rice
Burroughs; his first work was "Under the Moons of Mars", which appeared in
1912 in Munsey's ALL-STORY MAGAZINE as by Norman Bean and later in book
form, expanded as A PRINCESS OF MARS (1917), under his own name.
Burroughs's great popularity did much to skew magazine sf away from
scientific and social speculation towards the PLANETARY ROMANCE adventures
in colourful and usually primitive other-worldly landscapes in effect
creating the genre which would later become known as SCIENCE FANTASY.By
1926 the split between mainstream and genre sf was becoming pronounced;
mainstream sf is explained in detail in MAINSTREAM WRITERS OF SF, but here
we can briefly say that it is sf by writers (often already established as
authors of non-sf novels and stories) working outside the traditions of
magazine sf, and who often (though not always) appear to be ignorant of
the very existence of those traditions. At worst, this leads to an
inordinate amount of re-inventing the wheel; at best, writers like Olaf
STAPLEDON or John GLOAG or Aldous HUXLEY or Andr MAUROIS have been free to
write serious books for adults without the constrictions imposed by
PULP-MAGAZINE editors aiming at a predominantly juvenile and not
especially literate readership. But it is only with hindsight that we can
refer to these authors as mainstream: because "science fiction"as a
marketing label was not a term widely used in the USA in the 1930s and was
hardly used at all in the UK before the 1950s, we can hardly be surprised
if writers in the UK failed to adhere to sf's generic protocols. Is there
any point in calling a river the main stream before the tributary
exists?However, Olaf Stapledon did not write in a vacuum, any more than
had his predecessor H.G. Wells. Brian M. STABLEFORD, in Scientific Romance
in Britain 1890-1950 (1985), makes a powerful case for the Scientific
Romance, tales characterized by a moderate gloom ( OPTIMISM AND
PESSIMISM), long temporal perspectives ( EVOLUTION) and a paucity of
HEROES. Arguably many Scientific-Romance authors-who tend to be regarded
by modern critics (especially in the USA) as mainstreamwere in fact
conscious of writing in an sf tradition, but one rather different from
that developing in the US magazines: it was UK-based, and it was nurtured
in hardcover books rather than magazines, but for all practical purposes
it was indeed an sf tradition. In the UK it is only since the 1940s that
the magazine GENRE-SF tradition and the Scientific Romance tradition have
really merged, in the work of Arthur C. CLARKE, John WYNDHAM and others.
GENRE SF was usually published in the first instance in magazine format
(at least until the paperback book revolution of the 1950s). The first
English-language magazine devoted wholly to sf was AMAZING STORIES,
founded in 1926 by Hugo GERNSBACK; it was subtitled "The Magazine of
Scientifiction" ( SCIENTIFICTION). Many SF MAGAZINES followed, although
not in large numbers before the 1940s. The usual modern term "science
fiction" was hardly used before the early 1930s, and did not pass into
general parlance before John W. CAMPBELL Jr took over the editorship of
ASF. But genre sf was becoming readily distinguishable as a separate
entity. Until the 1960s the perception of middle-class readers was that sf
by authors like Aldous HUXLEY, George ORWELL and George R. STEWART was
"respectable" (they would probably not have described it as sf) while
genre sf was not. Perhaps to rectify this sort of prejudice, most of the
earlier books about sf heavily emphasized genre sf, and in so doing
distorted the history of sf as a whole. A high proportion (although less
than half) of the authors represented in this volume are not genre-sf
writers, and those who published before, say, 1955, might not even have
understood the "sf" label had it been applied to their work, which it
almost invariably was not (and in many cases is not today). The standard
histories usually give a passing nod to Huxley and Orwell, but the sheer
scale of sf publication outside the magazine tradition is still not
generally realized-works by writers as diverse as John COLLIER and L.P.
HARTLEY, William GOLDING, C.S. LEWIS, Oscar LEWIS, Sinclair LEWIS and
Wyndham LEWIS, Vladimir NABOKOV and Rex WARNER and Herman WOUK.In the
1930s, indeed, magazine sf was at rather a low ebb, though at this time
the new subgenre of SPACE OPERA was being developed almost entirely within
the magazines. The extraordinary growth in sf publishing since WWII has
caused us to forget its relative unimportance up to the end of the 1930s.
Out of many hundreds of specialized pulp magazines, only a few were
devoted to sf; it is unlikely that, in those days, sf had more than 2-3
per cent of the pulp market. Many magazine-sf writers turned their hand to
any of half a dozen pulp genres. It was not until a generation of sf
specialists began publishing in the magazines at the end of the decade
that the so-called Golden Age of (magazine) sf began. There were
specialist forerunners of course, notable among them being John W.
CAMPBELL Jr (often writing as Don A. Stuart), Edmond HAMILTON, E.E. "Doc"
SMITH, John TAINE, Stanley G. WEINBAUM and Jack WILLIAMSON; but little of
it is as enjoyable to read now as once it was. Magazine sf of the 1930s is
important mainly for what it led to, especially when Campbell took over
the editorship of ASF in Oct 1937 (for the detailed story ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION and GOLDEN AGE OF SF), and magazine sf began to become
mature; during 1938-46 many of its most celebrated writers Isaac ASIMOV,
Alfred BESTER, James BLISH, Arthur C. CLARKE, Robert A. HEINLEIN, Frederik
POHL, A.E. VAN VOGT and many others made their dbuts.The sf that was
published in the magazines during the Golden Age was to be the basis of
the sf book-publishing boom which in both hardcovers and paperback, first
by specialist SMALL PRESSES and then by mass-market publishers was a
phenomenon of the 1950s and has continued unabated ever since. At first
the majority of these sf books reprinted their material directly from the
magazines. The gradual shift of emphasis from magazine to book publication
(until the late 1960s, unlike the case in any other branch of literature,
prior publication in a magazine was still the rule rather than the
exception) won genre sf a much larger readership than ever before; by the
1970s sf constituted around 10 per cent of all English-language fiction
published, and with the growing readership came a greater public
acceptance of sf as "respectable". Sf book publishing is discussed under
the rubrics SF PUBLISHING and ANTHOLOGIES.The increase in maturity of
genre sf during the 1940s was only relative. Most sf publishers from 1926
seem to have assumed that their main readership was made up of teenage
boys, as is obvious in both editorial and advertising material right
through the era of the sf PULP MAGAZINES at least to 1950 and after. The
publisher Donald A. WOLLHEIM is on record as believing this, and we can
see confirmation in the remarkable but adventure-story-oriented sf lists
he edited from the 1950s, first at ACE BOOKS and later at DAW BOOKS. A
similar targeting of the young readership has been adopted successfully by
DEL REY BOOKS. On the other hand, Jim BAEN, editor of GALAXY SCIENCE
FICTION in the mid-1970s, believes surveys support him in showing that the
readership reaches its median age in the mid-20s. No market surveys yet
carried out have been extensive or reliable enough to prove the point one
way or the other, though it has long been obvious that there is actually
more than one sf market. Whatever the truth of the matter, the belief that
the readership was young and primarily male was sufficient to discourage
genre sf from including complex or experimental writing; the vocabulary of
the pulp magazines, while vigorous, was mostly undemanding. Before the
cultural shifts of the 1960s, which affected all fiction publishing, genre
sf normally observed TABOOS about SEX, bad language and RELIGION. Even in
the 1970s these taboos were ingrained deeply enough to cause some able
writers to abandon sf altogether, or to talk publishers into printing
their books without the ghetto-izing "sf" label on the cover.The
domination of Campbellian sf within the genre began to falter with the
inauguration of two important new magazines, The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND
SCIENCE FICTION in 1949 and GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION in 1950. The former
emphasized literacy and style to an extent unprecedented in sf-magazine
publishing, and the latter specialized in witty SATIRE, often sociological
rather than technological, written by such important writers as Alfred
and, occasionally, Philip K. DICK. During the 1950s and 1960s, the
emphasis of genre sf shifted from the hard sciences (engineering,
astronomy, physics, etc.) to the SOFT SCIENCES (sociology, psychology,
etc.). Stories of PSI POWERS and ESP had been popular ever since the first
appearance of A.E. van Vogt's SLAN (1940 ASF; 1946; rev 1951), but they
absolutely boomed in the 1950s; the market eventually became saturated (as
it did at about the same time with flying-saucer stories; UFOS), and the
psi story subsided to a lower though constant level in the 1960s. The
1950s were also notable for the first real sf boom in the movies ( CINEMA;
MONSTER MOVIES), though the films were rather different from most written
sf of the period. The most obvious change in 1950s sf is surprisingly
seldom discussed: the shift in protagonists from highly trained,
self-reliant and in control of events to baffled, ordinary and subject to
manipulation by the powerful in society.As worries about POLITICS, ECOLOGY
and OVERPOPULATION grew in the 1960s, an already perceptible shift away
from simple optimism began to accelerate ( OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM). This
move is much connected in readers' minds with the advent of the NEW WAVE,
though this was never an easily definable movement indeed, it was not an
organized movement at all and its outward signs lay as much in a greater
willingness to adopt more complex narrative strategies as in any generally
downbeat attitude. But pessimism in sf certainly did increase in the late
1960s, reflecting massive cultural changes taking place in Europe and the
USA, as did left-wing political attitudes; most previous genre sf had
either been dead to POLITICS or had adopted a stance interpreted by many
as right-wing ( LIBERTARIANISM; SOCIAL DARWINISM). The late 1960s were
also notable for seizing on the idea of ENTROPY as a useful all-purpose
metaphor.Isaac Asimov, looking back from 1981, described magazine sf of
1926-38 as "adventure dominant", that of 1939-50 as "technology dominant",
and that of 1950 on as "sociology dominant". James E. Gunn preferred to
describe the Campbell years as "science-dominant", and added a fourth
category, "style dominant", for the period beginning in the mid-1960s.
John CLUTE's shorthand account, given in 1992, is rather different: "In
1942 . . . the inner tale of sf was a tale of empire . . . in 1952, it was
hubris . . . in 1962, solipsism . . . in 1972, retribution . . . in 1982,
memory . . . in 1992, the inner tale of sf is a tale of exogamy." This,
though an initially cryptic-seeming formulation, is one for which most
readers would find it surprisingly simple to provide supporting
examples.By the 1960s sf was being read so much more widely than before
that its ideas, and its iconography generally, had begun dramatically to
feed back into mainstream fiction previously the intellectual traffic had
been mostly the other way. While some writers, such as Kurt VONNEGUT Jr,
J.G. BALLARD and Michael MOORCOCK, succeeded (to varying degrees) in
shrugging off the sf taint, other writers were embracing sf, so that,
although it might be controversial to claim some of the works of Angela
CARTER, Romain GARY, Russell HOBAN, Thomas PYNCHON and Angus WILSON (and
many others) as pure sf, there is little question that their thrillers,
romances or fabulations drew on sf among their more obvious sources.Since
1960 there has been a complex cross-fertilization of genres. While, at the
intellectual end of the spectrum, FABULATIONS have been making more and
more use of sf images and themes, at the popular end fantasy, horror and
DISASTER novels have borrowed heavily from sf, as has the bestseller
(itself now a definable genre). As an example of the latter, The Crash of
'79 (1976) by Paul E. ERDMAN is pure sf extrapolation, though it uses the
conventional narrative strategies of the bestseller in its tale of
NEAR-FUTURE disaster in POLITICS and ECONOMICS. Barbara HAMBLY and David
GEMMELL are only two of the writers who import sf elements into their
fantasies. At the beginning of the 1990s, generic labelling is less
insistent than it was a decade earlier, and bookshops regularly place sf
on the same shelves as fantasy and horror (as, indeed, they have for a
long time); in some cases the books are by the same authors.With
hindsight, it might seem that sf as a separate, definable genre was a
phenomenon of, say, 1926-65. By the 1990s hard sf, arguably the heart of
the genre in an earlier era, had shrunk to a comparatively small section
of the overall sf market. A significant cultural change took place in 1992
when the SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA officially agreed to admit
fantasy and horror writers to their ranks (in practice, many had been
there for years), the organization changing its name to the Science
Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America. Many of the stories in Gardner
DOZOIS's Year's Best Science Fiction anthologies are so far removed from
their generic roots that they would not appear out of place in, say, The
New Yorker. At the same time, a Postmodernist ( POSTMODERNISM AND SF)
nostalgia for sf of an earlier, simpler period became apparent from the
number of pastiche works published by sf writers in the 1980s and 1990s
that referred selfconsciously and often to the genre's own history. (Three
early examples are Michael MOORCOCK's Dancers at the End of Time sequence,
Brian W. ALDISS's Frankenstein Unbound [1973] and Christopher PRIEST's The
Space Machine [1976].) The ages of development and consolidation have
passed, it sometimes seems, to be replaced by an age of rococo decoration.
While these developments have been more obvious since the late 1980s, they
are no more than a culmination of a genre-mixing process that has been
continuing since the New Wave of the 1960s. An important strand in this
has been the commercial success of sf, largely catalysed by films, notably
2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), STAR WARS (1977), and Steven SPIELBERG's
(1982). The result of this success was a much greater awareness in the
1980s of sf as a commercial "product" to be packaged like any other, and
aimed at the juvenile end of the market. The 1980s rapidly became a
bibliographer's nightmare, with the proliferation of various BRAIDS and
TIES, many of them SHARECROPS: tv and film novelizations and spin-offs,
SERIES, SHARED WORLDS, GAME-WORLDS and so on. Most of these categories had
existed earlier, but never on the massive scale of the 1980s and the
present. Though patient readers could find good work within them, the
commercial imperatives generating them led all too obviously to an
absolute deluge of hack work, far greater than had been visible in sf book
publishing previously. Many sf authors have argued that this mass of
"product" is drowning out the individuality of what publishers call the
midlist: that portion of their booklist that sells reliably if not in huge
numbers, and without much in the way of promotionthe portion to which
books by most of the better sf authors belong. Fortunately, apocalyptic
premonitions of sf's imminent death by drowning seem (as usual) premature;
if anything, greater numbers of exciting sf writers emerged in the 1980s
than in the 1970s. Sf, by marrying outside the genre (one of the meanings
of "exogamy" in Clute's terms), is more likely to disappear by a
generalized cultural absorption than through neglect. At the beginning of
the 1980s LOCUS was listing about 180 new English-language genre-sf novels
each year; by the end of the decade the figure was about 280 (the Locus
figures are likely to be on the low side). This is not necessarily a proof
of the genre's health, but it certainly does not look like a symptom of
terminal illness.By the end of the 1980s the sf-film boom was wavering
and, as ever, sf on tv was still not having the good fortune that eager
producers intending to ride on the film boom of the early 1980s kept (and
still keep) hoping for, generally destroying all hope of real success by
playing it safe and producing programmes of staggering banality. The few
surviving professional sf magazines had dwindling circulations, even ISAAC
ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE (founded 1977), which could be regarded
as the only new US sf magazine to approach the high quality of what had
been the big three: ASF, FSF and Galaxy. In another part of the sf
landscape the news was more cheerful: as desktop publishing, using
comparatively cheap home computers, became possible, there was in the
mid-1980s a proliferation of SEMIPROZINES, some containing fiction, some
containing criticism, and some both. These magazines, even though usually
of quite small circulation, soon proved something of a nursery and a
debating ground for many young writers; this compensated, to a degree, for
the shrinking of the professional-magazine market.The most exciting sf
event of the 1980s was the advent of CYBERPUNK (with William GIBSON and
Bruce STERLING cast as its prophets); despite the obvious hyperbole with
which it was greeted by the media publicity machines, cyberpunk certainly
represented a real invigoration of the genre and came closer than anything
else in the period to revitalizing hard sf as well. [PN]Further reading: A
very much fuller account of sf's history can be gained by following up the
various cross-references in the above entry. Many ANTHOLOGIES of sf from
specific periods are available, and book reprint series have brought older
works back into the light. Numerous books on the history of sf are

(1922- ) Indian-born UK writer and cartoonist whose Percy books - Percy
(1969) (filmed in 1971 as Percy) and Percy's Progress * (1972), filmed in
1974 - find mirth in penis transplantation. Venus 13: A Cautionary Space
Tale (1972) also deals lightly with sex, depicting the complications that
surround a eugenic mating in a space satellite. [JC]

Tv series (1981). BBC TV. Written and created by Douglas ADAMS, prod Alan
J.W. Bell, associate prod John Lloyd, starring Simon Jones as Arthur Dent,
David Dixon as Ford Prefect, Mark Wing-Davey as Zaphod Beeblebrox and
Sandra Dickinson as Trillian. 6 35min episodes, re-edited to 7 episodes
for first US release. Colour.This tv serial began life in 1978 as a
6-episode radio series (officially numbered Fit the First through Sixth)
followed the same year by a one-off Fit the Seventh, with 5 more episodes
in 1980 (2 cowritten with its producer John Lloyd, who also received a
production credit on the tv series). This had built up a massive (for
radio) cult following; commercially released recordings of the radio
broadcasts sold widely. Adams then turned his scripts into the bestselling
novels The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1979) and The Restaurant at
the End of the Universe (1980), with two further volumes later. The tv
version was largely based on the first 6 radio episodes, only slightly on
the subsequent 6; many scenes from the radio series were not included in
the books. Adams had substantial tv experience, having been a script
editor on DR WHO. The tv series was very funny indeed (although less liked
by many aficionados than the original radio version) and was notable for
the sophisticated graphics with which the eponymous talking Guidebook
itself was animated. The series belongs to a very English school of
comparatively deadpan (and somewhat cruel) absurd humour, based on the
implicit premise that the Universe is arbitrary and unkind, especially to
the English, and suffers from galloping ENTROPY. Although US tv seldom
produces work of this sort, the programme was successful there also,
although not to the same extent as in the UK. It is often replayed, and is
available on video, slightly expanded, with average episodes of 40 rather
than 35 mins. [PN]

For nearly half a century it has been an enjoyable creative exercise to
imagine what kind of ALTERNATE WORLD might have evolved had Germany won
WWII, and many novels and stories have been written to explore that
assumption. But the first Hitler-wins tales were not exercises in
reconstructing history; Swastika Night (1937) by Murray Constantine (
Katharine BURDEKIN), was not set in an alternate world, and nor were the
several others published 1939-45. Any Hitler-wins story published before
the end of WWII falls under the general category of the future- WAR or
INVASION tale, and was almost certainly designed as a dreadful warning of
the consequences of defeat. Examples include Loss of Eden (1940; vt If
Hitler Comes 1941) by Douglas Brown (1907- ) and Christopher Serpell, Then
We Shall Hear Singing (1942) by Storm JAMESON, Grand Canyon (1942) by Vita
SACKVILLE-WEST, When the Bells Rang (1943) by Anthony ARMSTRONG and Bruce
Graeme (1900-1982), and When Adolf Came (1943) by Martin HAWKIN. A
subcategory - novels in which Hitler seems about to win, but loses an
important battle or secret at the last moment - includes many borderline
tales of warfare and espionage; among the serious examples are detailed
fictional prognoses like Fred ALLHOFF's Lightning in the Night (1939
Liberty; 1979), which predicts a US readiness to use nuclear weapons
against Germany as a final resort.The death of Hitler in 1945 marked the
end of the real WWII in Europe, but for any number of reasons - the
astonishing intensity of the evil he represented; the dreadful clarity of
the consequences had the Allies failed; the melodramatic intensity of the
conflict itself, with the whole war seeming (then and later) to turn on
linchpin decisions and events; and (shamingly) the cheap aesthetic appeal
of Nazism, with its Art Deco gear, its brutal elites, its Blitzes and
Panzer strikes, its secrecy and paranoia - WWII very soon became a focus
for speculative thought, and it was only a few months before the first
alternate-world Hitler-wins tale was published (in HUNGARY): Laszlo
Gaspar's Mi, I. Adolf ["We, Adolf 1"] (1945). The first significant
example in English was SARBAN's THE SOUND OF HIS HORN (1952), which
sinuously intertwines sadism and aesthetics into a vision of decadence
with roots in Germany's mythic past. This book may have influenced - and
certainly served as a tonal precedent for - several works both within the
field, like Keith ROBERTS's "Weihnachtsabend" (1972), and outside it, as
in non-alternate-history novels of Germany like Gabriel Fielding's The
Birthday King (1962) and Michel Tournier's Le Roi des Aulnes (1970; trans
Barbara Bray as The Erl-King 1972 UK).The most famous single Hitler-wins
sf tale is probably Philip K. DICK's THE MAN IN THE HIGH CASTLE (1962), in
which Hitler's victory becomes a kind of poisonous backdrop for a complex
tale; and the most telling commentary on the moral underside of the
subgenre is Norman SPINRAD's The Iron Dream (1972), in which the young
Hitler, a failure at politics, becomes a pulp novelist whose tale Lord of
the Swastika exploits, to savagely ironic effect, some of the responses of
many readers to tales of "genuine" Nazi triumph.Half a century after the
end of WWII, new Hitler-wins stories are less common, but the number
written during this intervening period has been remarkable. They include
Hilary BAILEY's "The Fall of Frenchy Steiner" (1964), Otto BASIL's Wenn
das der Fuhrer wusste (1966; cut trans Thomas Weyr as The Twilight Men
1968 US), Greg BEAR's "Though Road No Whither" (1985), David BRIN's "Thor
Meets Captain America" (1986), Len DEIGHTON's SS-GB (1978), J.R. DUNN's
"Crux Gammata" (1992), David DVORKIN's Budspy (1987), Gordon EKLUND's "Red
Skins" (1981), Harlan ELLISON's STAR TREK teleplay "The City on the Edge
of Forever" (shown 1967), Gary Gygax's and Terry Stafford's Victorious
German Arms: An Alternate Military History of World War II (1973 chap),
Robert Harris's Fatherland (1992), James P. HOGAN's The Proteus Operation
(1985), Trevor HOYLE's Q: Through the Eye of Time (1977), the film IT
HAPPENED HERE (1966), C.M. KORNBLUTH's "Two Dooms" (1958), Fritz LEIBER's
THE BIG TIME (1961), Brad LINAWEAVER's Moon of Ice (1988), Norman
Longmate's (1931- ) If Britain had Fallen * (1974), based on a 1972 BBC
programme, Kenneth Macksey's Invasion: The German Invasion of England,
July 1940 (1980), Richard MEREDITH's Run, Come See Jerusalem (1976), in
which the Nazis do eventually lose, though only after nuking Chicago,
Frederic MULLALLY's Hitler has Won (1975), Eric NORDEN's The Ultimate
Solution (1973), Andre NORTON's The Crossroads of Time (1956)and And All
the King's Men (1990) by Gordon Stevens (1945- ).An interesting theme
anthology is Hitler Victorious (anth 1986) ed Gregory BENFORD and Martin
Harry GREENBERG, which contains several of the stories listed above. Peter
FLEMING's Invasion 1940 (1957; vt Operation Sea Lion 1957 US) describes in
great detail the preparations Germany made to invade the UK in 1940,
speculating in the last chapter on what might have happened had a
successful invasion occurred. WWII, Fleming suggests, might in that event
have been won by Hitler. [JC]

A hive-mind is the organizing principle of the community in those insect
species of which the basic reproductive unit is the hive, organized around
a single fertile female, the queen. The term is used more loosely in some
sf stories, often referring to any situation in which minds are linked in
such a way that the whole becomes dominant over the parts.Because the
organization of social-insect communities is so very different from that
of mammal communities, while showing a degree of structural complexity
comparable only to human societies, ants and their kindred have always
held a particular fascination for sf writers, and the ant-nest is the most
obvious model for an ALIEN society. Early expressions of this fascination
include "The Empire of the Ants" (1905) by H.G. WELLS, "The Adventures of
Professor Emmett" (1939) by Ben HECHT, "The Ant with the Human Soul"
(1932) by Bob OLSEN, "Doomsday Deferred" (1949) by Will F. Jenkins (Murray
LEINSTER) and "Come and Go Mad" (1949) by Fredric BROWN. Wells's THE FIRST
MEN IN THE MOON (1901) was the first of many to depict an alien
hive-society. Giant ants and wasps are among the standard figures of
menace employed by sf writers; notable examples are found in Ralph Milne
FARLEY's The Radio Man (1924 Argosy; 1948), Frank A. RIDLEY's The Green
Machine (1926), Alfred Gordon BENNETT's The Demigods (1939), the film
THEM! (1954) and Keith ROBERTS's The Furies (1966). Real-world scares
concerning "killer bees" have been reflected in such novels as Arthur
HERZOG's The Swarm (1974) and the associated Irwin ALLEN film. "The Empire
of the Ants" and other stories portray hive-insects as serious contenders
to end human domination of Earth, but Frank HERBERT's The Green Brain
(1966) imagines a multispecies insect hive evolving in order to protect
the world's ecological balance against the short-sighted policies of
humankind.Most sf novels which imagine hivelike human societies find the
idea repugnant, and it is often cited as the ultimate totalitarian
DYSTOPIA; examples include The Human Termites (1929 AMZ: 1979) by David H.
KELLER, The Riddle of the Tower (1944) by J.D. BERESFORD and Esme
Wynne-Tyson and Morrow's Ants (1975) by Edward HYAMS. L. Sprague DE CAMP's
wry Rogue Queen (1951) features the revolutionary overthrow of a hivelike
state. Some recent sf writers have been more conscientiously ambivalent -
examples include T.J. BASS's Half Past Human (1971), Frank Herbert's
Hellstrom's Hive (1973) and Robert SILVERBERG's The Queen of Springtime
(1989) - but their eventual verdict remains negative. Less hivelike
group-minds are not uncommon in sf stories dealing with ESP, and the idea
that some kind of group-mind represents the evolutionary destiny of the
species crops up frequently; it figures extensively as an image of
transcendental social harmony in Olaf STAPLEDON's Last and First Men
(1930) and Star Maker (1937), and is memorably developed in Theodore
STURGEON's More than Human (1953) and "To Marry Medusa" (1958; exp vt The
Cosmic Rape 1958) and in Arthur C. CLARKE's Childhood's End (1953). The
loss of individuality is, however, still seen as a horrific prospect in
such novels as Enemies of the System (1978) by Brian W. ALDISS and Dusha
Mira (1964; trans Antonina W. Bouis as World Soul 1978 US) by Mikhail
EMTSEV and Eremei PARNOV.The ambivalence with which many recent sf stories
regard hive-minds derives mainly from the association of group-minds with
the notion of transcendent EVOLUTION, but there has also been a tendency
for recent sf writers calculatedly to question the assumptions made by
their forerunners. Thus, whereas in Starship Troopers (1959) Robert A.
HEINLEIN was content to assume that human individualism and alien
hive-organization must fight a fundamental Darwinian struggle for
existence, Joe HALDEMAN was prepared to suggest in The Forever War (1974)
that mankind might be greatly enriched by making peace with the aliens.
The alien hive-minds in Barrington J. BAYLEY's "The Bees of Knowledge"
(1975) and Keith LAUMER's Star Colony (1981) are treated with some
respect, and Orson Scott CARD followed up the genocidal Ender's Game (1977
ASF; exp 1985) with Speaker for the Dead (1986), in which the
guilt-stricken hero searches for a suitable home for the last surviving
alien queen. The most detailed and sympathetic sf image of an alien
hive-society is that in Serpent's Reach (1982) by C.J. CHERRYH; another
clever deployment is in Linda STEELE's Ibis (1985), an ironic account of a
love affair between an alien female and a human male. The actual genetic
politics of hive-organization - revelation of which has been the greatest
triumph of the sociobiology of Edmund O. Wilson (1929- ) - whereby the
misnamed "queen" stands revealed as a helpless sex-slave forced to work to
the genetic advantage of her sisters, has not yet found significant

(1941- ) US writer, much of whose work - like his first novel, Alp
(1969), or his third, Toro! Toro! Toro! (1974) - is FABULATION. Gray
Matters (1971), which is sf, grounds its fantastic episodes in a future
UTOPIA where people are reborn ( REINCARNATION) from entombment as
"Cerebromorphs" within an enormous CYBERNETIC complex only when they have
achieved some transcendence of their personal identities. Falling Angel
(1978), filmed as Angel Heart (1987), grippingly marries detection and
horror in a secret-sharer tale of striking grimness. [JC]Other works:
Symbiography (1973); Tales and Fables (coll 1985 chap).




Most people know what happened when Orson Welles read The War of the
Worlds on radio in 1938. Hearing of an invasion by Martians, many
listeners headed for the hills. But this wasn’t the first time that the
public fell for a science fiction tale.In 1838 the New York Sun published
a series of articles about the eminent astronomer, Sir John Herschel.
Using a new and powerful telescope, one article said, Herschel could see
that the moon was populated by humanoid figures with batlike wings. The
reports caused a sensation. Eventually the newspaper admitted that one of
its reporters had fabricated what became known as "The Moon Hoax."Nine
years later, the New York Sun published as true Edgar Allen Poe’s story
about a hot air balloon that had blown across the Atlantic Ocean. Although
the "Balloon Hoax" was exposed as false in less than one day, the story
influenced French writer Jules Verne when he wrote Five Weeks in a Balloon
and Around the World in Eighty Days.

(1925- ) US-born writer and illustrator, in the UK from 1969. After
serving in WWII, he worked in advertising and tv until the mid-1960s,
becoming a full-time writer in 1967. Most of his many titles are
children's books, about 50 of them being illustrated texts for younger
children, like the first, What Does It Do and How Does It Work? (1959),
and (to mention only one of many stunning fables) La Corona and the Tin
Frog (1974 Puffin Annual; 1979 chap). Although not sf, his early
masterpiece for children cannot go unnoticed: the potent allegorical
burden of The Mouse and his Child (1967) may in fact have hampered its
acceptance by the younger readers for whom it was ostensibly written, for
the epic quest of a clockwork mouse and his son for a secure haven - where
they will no longer need to undergo the existential trauma of needing to
be rewound - is metaphorically dense and abidingly melancholy, and the
Dolls' House they eventually reach does not absolve them from their own
form of mortality. In other words, The Mouse and his Child, like all the
greatest children's books, is best read twice: as a child, and again
later.It was not until the 1970s that RH began to write the adult novels
for which he has become best known, beginning with The Lion of Boaz-Jachin
and Jachin-Boaz (1973), a FABULATION in which the raw Being of the
long-dead lion of the world is embraced by the eponymous father and son in
a moment of unity. Both Kleinzeit (1974) and Turtle Diary (1976) offer
worlds displaced by language, though not on analysis literally fantastic.
But RH's next novel, RIDDLEY WALKER (1980), for which he received the JOHN
W. CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD in 1982, is a genuine-and quite extraordinary -
sf novel, set 2000 or so years after the HOLOCAUST in southern England,
just as the barbarian societies of the land have rediscovered the use of
gunpowder. It is a situation much explored in the sf of the latter half of
the 20th century, and RH's penetration of the moral and cultural
complexities involved is acute; but what distinguishes the book from other
attempts to represent something like a full sense of how it might actually
seem to inhabit such a world is its language ( LINGUISTICS), a remarkably
inventive and internally consistent presentation of an evolved and living
tongue. The often-quoted first sentence of the novel gives something of
the flavour: "On my naming day when I come 12 I to gone front spear and
kilt a wyld boar he parbly ben the las wyld pig on the Bundel Downs any
how there hadnt ben none for a long befor him nor I aint looking to see
none agen." In this tongue, legends - like the tale of the "Littl Shynin
Man the Addom" - seem told in a timeless present tense, and Riddley
Walker's own groping progress towards an understanding of the dangers of a
return to the old ways also seems told for the first time.Subsequent
novels have been fabulations of intriguing complexity, while some of the
tales assembled in The Moment under the Moment (coll 1992) are of moderate
genre interest. Pilgermann (1983) allows its 11th-century protagonist to
inhabit various eras in a kind of ghost form. The Medusa Frequency (1987)
heavily foregrounds the myths of Orpheus and Medusa in the tale of a
20th-century novelist who, like the twinned parent and son of RH's first
adult novel, strives to find the moment, or the tongue, or the tale, that
will join together in Being all that is asunder. But the later novel stops
short of finding that Story. Only in RIDDLEY WALKER do the levels seem, at
moments, to inhabit one another - do story and the world trick the eye
into seeming one. [JC]See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; DEVOLUTION; HISTORY OF SF.


(1930- ) US writer best known for his crime novels and stories. With the
short story "Co-Incidence" (1956), as by Irwin Booth, he began publishing
detection-oriented sf, later using as well the pseudonyms Stephen
Dentinger, Pat McMahon and R.L. Stevens. The numerous stories featuring
detective Simon Ark, who claims to be 2000 years old - some collected in
The Judges of Hades and Other Simon Ark Stories (coll 1971), City of Brass
and Other Simon Ark Stories (coll 1971) and The Quests of Simon Ark (1984)
- are marginal sf or fantasy. EDH's sf series featuring Earl Jazine of the
Computer Cops mixes sf and detection in action tales of 21st-century
crises involving computer crimes. The series includes "Computer Cops"
(1969), The Transvection Machine (1971), The Fellowship of the HAND (1973)
and The Frankenstein Factory (1975). Within his range, EDH is a briskly
competent storyteller. [JC]

(1926- ) UK writer, pilot, composer and sound engineer. His first novel,
The Cummings Report (1957) as by James Brogan, was not sf. He began
publishing sf with Chain Reaction (1959), which concerns itself, as does
almost all of his fiction, with the relationship between Man and the
machine technology he has created, in this case through a mystery plot
about radiation sickness spread by food. His next three novels were
aviation stories, sharing the same general theme, but since The Main
Experiment (1964) he has written only sf, almost always in the form of
novels with NEAR-FUTURE scenarios. These include Fistful of Digits (1968),
which introduces self-programming computers to an obsessive tale about
loss of individuality, and The Silent Voice (1977), about the human
brain's capacity to receive radio waves directly - to potentially ominous
effect. The Chromosome Game (1984), set 200 years after a nuclear
HOLOCAUST, grimly argues that human nature will soon, once again,
disastrously express itself in the old way. CH-W's novels combine social
and cultural concerns typical of UK post-WWII writers with somewhat
melodramatic plotting and stiff characterization of a rather
male-chauvinist variety; the effect is sometimes sharp, but more often
uneasy. [JC]Other works: The Egg-Shaped Thing (1967; the UK hardcover
edition is definitive); 98.4 (1969); Panic O'Clock (1973); Cowards'
Paradise (1974; UK paperback slightly rev); The Prayer Machine (1976); The
Thinktank that Leaked (1979).See also: GENETIC ENGINEERING; PARANOIA.

(1916- ) UK academic, Professor of English at Sussex University from
1964. His continuation of Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's Travels (1727), A
New Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms (1969 chap), is a SATIRE on
the 1960s upheavals in higher education in the UK. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Roger Sherman Tracy (1841-1926). His sf novel, The
White Man's Burden: A Satirical Forecast (1915), is set in AD5000, by
which period the warlike and primitive White races have been restricted to
North America while, in Black-dominated Africa, anarchism and scientific
genius have generated a UTOPIAN world. A White invasion suffers
ignominious defeat, and the narrator - a (White) interloper from the 20th
century - returns to his own time. Considering its period, the book is
remarkable for declining to treat Blacks as inherently inferior to Whites.
[JC]See also: POLITICS.

[s] Algis BUDRYS.

(1877-1918) UK writer who ran away to sea in his youth and was deeply
affected by his experiences aboard ship: he never lost a profound
fascination, reflected in all his poetry and most of his stories and
essays, for the mysteries of the sea. His fantastic sea stories - the
first was "From the Tideless Sea" (1906 The London Magazine) - owe an
obvious debt to the traditions of supernatural fiction, but he derived his
horrific imagery mainly from the scientific imagination; notable examples
are "The Voice in the Night" (1907), in which castaways are transformed by
a fungus they have been obliged to eat, and "The Stone Ship" (1914), in
which an ancient wreck is raised to the surface by a volcanic eruption,
bringing many weird creatures with it. In his first novel, The Boats of
the "Glen Carrig" (1907), a ship's crew is marooned on an island near a
land of floating seaweed inhabited by bizarre and terrible lifeforms. His
second, The House on the Borderland (1908; recent paperback edns cut), is
a remarkable visionary fantasy in which a man living in a house which
apparently co-exists in two worlds undertakes an allegorical spiritual
odyssey through time and space, witnessing the destruction of the Solar
System. The Ghost Pirates (1909) also juxtaposes the known world with an
alien counterpart as a ship "slips" into intermediacy and its crew witness
strange and frightening manifestations. His last-published novel, The
Night Land (1912), describes in a peculiar mock-archaic style an epic
FAR-FUTURE journey across the face of a much altered and monstrously
populated Earth. The allegorical aspect of WHH's novels embodies a
conviction that horrid evil forces move beneath the surface of reality,
sometimes becoming vilely manifest in creatures such as the spirit which
possesses the SCIENTIST in the blasphemous fantasy "Eloi, Eloi, Lama
Sabachthani" (written 1912; 1919 as "The Baumoff Explosion") and the
entity manifested in "The Hog", the last of his Carnacki series of stories
featuring an occult detective, gathered as Carnacki the Ghost-Finder (coll
1913; exp 1947).Some of his short stories were collected in Men of the
Deep Waters (coll 1914), The Luck of the Strong (coll 1916) and Captain
Gault (coll 1917), though the last has no fantastic material. The best
were reprinted in the ARKHAM HOUSE collection Deep Waters (coll 1967 US);
Arkham had earlier reprinted all four of his novels in The House on the
Borderland and Other Novels (omni 1946 US). Some of his stories were
further reprinted in Masters of Terror, Volume One: William Hope Hodgson
(coll 1977), and some unreprinted stories were assembled in Out of the
Storm (coll 1975), which features also a biography of WHH by Sam MOSKOWITZ
that draws heavily on research conducted by R. Alain Everts, whose Strange
Company issued in 1988 a set of 15 booklets containing stories by WHH in
their magazine versions (some had been revised for book publication).
Other booklets containing previously unreprinted stories are the British
Fantasy Society's William Hope Hodgson: A Centenary Tribute 1877-1977
(coll 1977 chap) and Demons of the Sea (coll 1992 chap) ed Sam Gafford;
the latter also contains 3 of WHH's essays, including the futuristic
SATIRE "Date 1965: Modern Warfare" (1908).For some reason, possibly
involving US copyright protection, WHH arranged for privately printed
editions of drastically condensed versions of several of his books. The
short version of The Night Land, initially issued in Poems and The Dream
of X (coll 1912 chap), has been separately reprinted as The Dream of X
(1977 chap), while the abridgement of three Carnacki stories in Carnacki,
the Ghost Finder, and a Poem (coll 1910 chap) is reprinted alongside the
condensed novel from The Ghost Pirates, a Chaunty and Another Story (coll
1909 chap) in Spectral Manifestations (coll 1984 chap). Ian Bell, the
compiler of Spectral Manifestations, has also edited a collection of
essays about WHH, Voyages and Visions (anth 1987 chap). [BS]See also:

Working name of US sf fan and writer Shirley Bell Hoffman (1932- ); she
was married for a time to Larry T. SHAW. LH is probably better known for
her Westerns than for her sf, which she began publishing with a short
novel, Telepower (1967 chap), following it with The Caves of Karst (1969),
Always the Black Knight (1970) and Change Song (1972). The last-named is,
typically of her work, a polished, unpretentious adventure in which a
juvenile protagonist on an unspecified planet, similar to but probably not
Earth, succeeds in acquiring self-knowledge along with adult power. In and
Out of Quandry (coll 1982 chap dos) is a short collection of essays and
tales, mostly humorous ( QUANDRY). [JC]See also: UNDER THE SEA.

(1776-1822) German composer, painter, lawyer, judge and writer. About
1808 he changed his third given name from Wilhelm to Amadeus in homage to
Mozart, and for many years he thought of himself primarily as a musician,
being intensely involved in all aspects of MUSIC from composition to
criticism. His first story, "Gluck", was not written until 1809, so that
it was only in the last 15 years of his life that he turned to the artform
in which he did his most significant work: his tales. These expressed a
grotesque Romanticism more effectively than those of any other writer of
his time and, variously translated and assembled, have strongly influenced
European literature. His only completed novel, Die Elixiere des Teufels
(1813-16; trans R.P. Gillies as The Devil's Elixir 1824 UK; vt The Devil's
Elixirs 1963), typically concerns itself with a monk seduced by the Devil.
Collections of his shorter works are Fantasiestucke ["Fantasy Pieces"]
(coll 1814-15), Nachtstucke ["Night Pieces"] (coll 1816-17) and Die
Serapionsbruder (coll 1818-21; trans Alexander Ewing in 2 vols as The
Serapion Brethren 1886 and 1892, both UK); early English translations from
various sources include Hoffman's Strange Stories (coll trans anon 1855
US), Hoffmann's Fairy Tales (coll trans L. Burnham 1857 US) and Weird
Tales of E.T.W. [sic] Hoffmann (coll trans T.J. Bealby in 2 vols 1885 UK);
convenient recent assemblies include E.F. BLEILER's The Best Tales of
Hoffmann (coll of old trans 1967 US), Selected Writings of E.T.A. Hoffmann
(coll trans Leonard J. Kent and Elizabeth C. Knight in 2 vols 1969 US) and
Three Marchen of E.T.A. Hoffmann (coll trans Charles E. Passage 1971 US).
Three of ETAH's stories formed the basis of the opera Tales of Hoffmann
(1881) by Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880), which was filmed in 1951.ETAH,
like his celebrated successor in the GOTHIC, Edgar Allan POE, was
interested in contemporary science, and especially in the psychological
theories of Emanuel SWEDENBORG and the animal magnetism espoused by Franz
Mesmer (1734-1815); his stories in this vein have influenced later sf. His
best-known story, "Der Sandmann" ["The Sandman"] (1816), features the
sinister spectacle-maker Dr Coppelius and the beautiful automaton he
builds, with which the hero falls in love. Predating Mary SHELLEY's
Frankenstein (1818), this story is an important forerunner of ROBOT and
ANDROID stories. It formed the basis of the ballet Coppelia (1870) by Leo
Delibes (1836-1891). [JC/PN]See also: GAMES AND TOYS; GERMANY; HORROR IN


(1955- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Rape of Things to
Come" for AMZ in 1982. His first novel, Cortez on Jupiter (1990), uses the
subversive tone of CYBERPUNK to tell the tale of a countercultural street
artist looking for fulfilment, travelling from the usual hyperbolic
NEAR-FUTURE Southern California by jagged stages to JUPITER, where he
confronts without blinking an ALIEN species with whom it has been death
for more mundane souls to speak. High Aztech (1992) is set in the
Tenochtitlan (aka Mexico City) of AD2045. There is an explosiveness about
the tale, and about EH's short fiction, which marks him as a figure of
interest for the 1990s. [JC]

(1941- ) UK-born systems-design engineer and writer, in the USA from 1977
and a full-time author from 1979. His first novel (and first publication),
Inherit the Stars (1977), aroused interest for the exhilarating sense it
conveys of scientific minds at work on real problems and for the genuinely
exciting scope of the sf imagination it deploys. The book turned out to be
the first volume in the Minervan Experiment sequence, being followed by
The Gentle Giants of Ganymede (1978) and Giants' Star (1981), all three
being assembled as The Minervan Experiment (omni 1981; vt The Giants
Omnibus 1991). Much later, the sequence continued with Entoverse (1991), a
tale that laboriously expands the initial premise through the use of a
parallel universe in which, rather oddly for a writer pugnaciously
associated with the HARD-SF wing of the genre, only MAGIC can cope with
the strangeness of the physical world - in the earlier volumes of the
sequence the reader was safely in the hands of an author who brooked no
such nonsense. The sequence is in fact a hard-sf fable of humanity's
origins - we are the direct descendants of the highly aggressive
inhabitants of the destroyed fifth planet, who would have conquered the
Galaxy had they not blown themselves up - and espouses a vision of the
Universe in which other species must learn to cope with the knowledge that
we will, some day, come into our inheritance. Although JPH could not
maintain the flow of speculative thought that drove the first volumes, the
sequence stands as his best work.Other novels variously succeed in
presenting HEROES - generally clumped into male-bonded affinity groups -
and scientific problems of a similar nature. In The Genesis Machine (1978)
one of these heroes averts the END OF THE WORLD. In Voyage from Yesteryear
(1982) a colony world, governed according to the kind of Trickster
Libertarianism of old and honoured ASF writers like Eric Frank RUSSELL,
effortlessly faces down and flummoxes an attempt by Earth to re-establish
control. In Code of the Lifemaker (1983) a ROBOT civilization on Titan is
saved from similarly corrupt Earth corporations. But in Endgame Enigma
(1987) a NEAR-FUTURE Russian threat to dominate the world via armed
satellite is recounted with leaden flippancy, and this brought to the fore
a problem JPH has presented to his readers from the first. Though most of
them either share or accept his right-wing POLITICS, and tolerate his
editorial intrusions about personal betes-noires like the ECOLOGY
movement, JPH's extreme awkwardness as a stylist and creator of character
has made his books difficult, at times, actually to read. When he abandons
his strengths - his hard-edged sense of how SCIENTISTS think, and his
joyful capacity to stretch the terms of SPACE OPERA - this gaucheness is
difficult to ignore. It is to be hoped that he will return to the game of
thought. [JC]Other works: The Two Faces of Tomorrow (1979); Thrice Upon a
Time (1980); The Proteus Operation (1985), a HITLER-WINS story; Minds,
Machines & Evolution (coll 1988); The Mirror Maze (1989); The Infinity


(1684-1754) Danish playwright, essayist and historian. Born in Bergen,
Norway, LH studied at Copenhagen and settled permanently in Denmark, where
he was appointed professor at Copenhagen University, first of philosophy,
later of metaphysics and of Latin rhetoric, and finally of history (1730).
A prolific author, he published several voluminous poems, 32 comedies and
the satirical novel Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (1741 in Latin; exp
1745; trans anon as A Journey to the World Under-Ground. By Nicolas
Klimius 1742 UK; vt The Journey of Niels Klim to the World Underground
1960 US; vt A Journey to the World Underground 1974 US). This is a
satirical UTOPIAN novel, deriding LH's contemporary world and inspired
primarily by Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's Travels (1726; rev 1735), Thomas
MORE's Utopia (Part 2 1516 in Latin; both parts 1551 in English) and
Montesquieu's Lettres persanes (1721). One of the most influential
18th-century SATIRES, it describes the FANTASTIC VOYAGE of Niels Klim
through a hole in a mountain (the name Holberg can be translated as
"hollow mountain") into a HOLLOW EARTH, where he finds a minute sun
circled by the planet Nazar, whose inhabitants show a societal pattern
diametrically opposed to that of the contemporary stereotype: WOMEN are
the dominant sex and males perform only menial tasks. It is notable that
Holberg's novel was considered dangerously radical in Denmark; the English
translation preceded publication in Danish by 47 years. [J-HH]See also:

[s] Jack VANCE.

(1948- ) UK writer with an MSc in medical zoology from the London School
of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He spent 1971-4 in medical research
before becoming a full-time writer, though he had published his first
story, "Pauper's Plot", for NW as early as 1968. He wrote much of his
short fiction in the following years. Among the more notable stories are
the novelettes "Travellers" (1976), a TIME-TRAVEL tale, and "The Time
Beyond Age" (1976); others are collected in In the Valley of the Statues
(coll 1982). After the mid-1970s his writing broke into two superficially
incompatible categories. Under the house names Ken BLAKE and Richard KIRK,
and as Robert Black, Chris Carlsen, Steven Eisler and notably Robert
Faulcon, he published (see listing below) at least 20 novels,
novelizations and works of popular sf "nonfiction", almost all of them
hasty commercial efforts but infused, nevertheless, with a black intensity
of action that gave even cliched SWORD-AND-SORCERY plots something of a
mythic intonation. At the same time, under his own name, he began to
publish sf novels like Eye Among the Blind (1976) and Earthwind (1977), in
both of which he uneasily attempted to accommodate the compulsive
mythologizing of his dark fantasies to "normal" sf worlds. The result was
a series of books whose narrative energies seem hampered by decorum: the
interplay between ALIENS and alienation in Eye Among the Blind is
effective but ponderously expressed; Earthwind utters slow-moving hints at
the powers of a "chthonic" atavism; and Where Time Winds Blow (1981), the
best of these early books, ornately but without much movement posits an
environment suffering arbitrary transfigurations through time-shifts.With
the publication of Mythago Wood (1984), however, RH's two careers suddenly
and thankfully converged in a tale whose elaborate proprieties of
rationale are driven by narrative energies and an exuberance of language
previously restricted in crude form to his Berserker novels, written as
Chris Carlsen. Much expanded from his short 1981 fantasy of the same
title, Mythago Wood is FANTASY rather than sf only if it is wrong to
consider the creation of a rational model for conceiving racial archetypes
a proper subject for sf. The frame of the tale is indeed obdurately
rational, and the "mythagoes" discovered - and transmuted - by the
contemporary protagonist are appropriate expressions of what might be
called the unconscious tale of the race: they are that tale made animate,
and each mythago bears a name or names - and enacts the nature - of those
archetypes that embody, for Britons, the permutations of that tale. The
wood from which they come - like the interior lands for which the
protagonists of much UK fantasy long - is huger inside than out, and in
describing it RH engages in language of a metaphoric density rarely
encountered in marketable fiction. The book won the 1986 World Fantasy
AWARD. Its sequel, Lavondyss: Journey to an Unknown Region (1988), only
increases the intensity of the cooperation between rational discourse and
Sehnsucht (a term C.S. LEWIS employed to describe the melancholy longing
for "something that has never actually appeared in our experience", and by
which he meant to designate the impulse behind certain kinds of fantasy).
The longing of the protagonists of Lavondyss to enter the "unknown region"
where archetypes shape themselves into the human story is absolute, and it
gives the book much of its potency as an explication of mythopoeisis.
Several of the stories assembled in The Bone Forest (coll 1991) serve as
pendants to the central novels; and The Fetch (1991), a fantasy, traverses
similar terrain. In transforming the Matter of Britain into archetypal sf,
RH has re-assembled old material, and old generic devices, into a new
territory for fiction. [JC]Other works: Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
(1978), Consultant Editor; Necromancer (1978), paranormal horror; Elite:
The Dark Wheel * (1984 chap), novella based on a computer game; Bulman *
(1984) and One of Our Pigeons is Missing * (1984), associational tv
novelizations; The Emerald Forest * (1985), novelizing the John Boorman
film.As Ken Blake (house name): Cry Wolf * (1981), The Untouchables *
(1982), Operation Susie * (1982) and You'll be All Right * (1982),
associational titles in the The Professionals series.As Robert Black:
Legend of the Werewolf * (1976) and The Satanists * (1977), both
novelizing films.As Chris Carlsen: The Berserker series, comprising Shadow
of the Wolf (1977), The Bull Chief (1977) and The Horned Warrior (1979).As
Steven Eisler: The linking texts for 2 vols of reprinted illustrations,
being Space Wars Worlds and Weapons (1979) and The Alien World (1980).As
Robert Faulcon: The Night Hunter sequence, comprising The Stalking (1983)
and The Talisman (1983), both assembled as The Stalking (omni 1987), The
Ghost Dance (1984) and The Shrine (1984), both assembled as The Ghost
Dance (omni 1987), and The Hexing (1984) and The Labyrinth (1987), both
assembled as The Hexing (omni 1988).As Richard Kirk (house name):
Swordsmistress of Chaos * (1978) with Angus WELLS, writing together as
Kirk, A Time of Ghosts * (1978) and Lords of the Shadows * (1979), being
titles in the Raven series.Nonfiction: Alien Landscapes (1979), Tour of
the Universe: The Journey of a Lifetime - The Recorded Diaries of Leio
Scott and Caroline Luranski (1980), Magician: The Lost Journals of the
Magus Geoffrey Carlyle (1982), Realms of Fantasy (1983) and Lost Realms
(1985), all written with Malcolm EDWARDS, all primarily picture books.As
Editor: Stars of Albion (anth 1979) with Christopher PRIEST; the Other
Edens series of original anthologies, all with Christopher EVANS,
comprising Other Edens (anth 1987), Other Edens II (anth 1988) and Other

[r] M.H. ZOOL.


(1943- ) US writer whose numerous historical novels, beginning with The
Firedrake (1966), have explored with striking vividness many of the
genuine "alternate worlds" on Earth. One of these, still-born as a tale
set in Mongol China, became the sf novel Floating Worlds (1976), a
formidably long and complex SPACE OPERA involving conflict in the Solar
System between Inner and Outer Planets. A wide range of contrasting
societies, on an anarchist Earth and on the OUTER PLANETS themselves,
provide a convincing background for the presentation of characters of
unusual complexity. The protagonist is a woman, subtly drawn, ambivalent
in her motivations, highly believable; on the Outer Planets, the
description of the floating cities ( GRAVITY) is likewise believable, and
involving.Though not sf, Home Ground (1981), which puts an sf writer into
a UTOPIAN commune, makes its points in the RECURSIVE mode which has become
familiar within the genre. Pillar of the Sky (1985) combines historical
research and fantasy in a story centred on Stonehenge. [JC]See also: WOMEN

(1962- ) UK bibliographer and critic who has also scripted some COMICS,
including a 1989 story for The Cursed Land and a 1990 story for Computer
Killer. His main work has been in the almost infinitely perplexing field
of post-WWII UK paperback publishers and authors, and he has done much to
clarify the two decades after 1945, a period rife with pseudonymous
titles, ephemeral publications, fly-by-night publishers and reticent
authors. His bibliographical studies, most of them short but illuminating,
include Scion and Dragon Books (1984 chap), Modern Fiction (1984 chap),
Curtis Warren and Grant Hughes (1985 chap), John Spencer and Badger Books
(1985 chap), Gaywood Press, Compact Books and Hank Janson Publishers (1986
chap), Piccadilly Novels (1986 chap), Digit Books (1986 chap), Brown
Watson (1986 chap), R. & L.W. Locker/Harborough/Archer (1987 chap),
Viking/WDL/Consul (1987 chap), Hamilton & Panther (1987 chap), The Sexton
Blake Library (1988 chap), Paul Renin: A Bibliographical Checklist (1990
chap), The Gramol Group (1990 chap) and The Mike Western Story (1990
chap). The Trials of Hank Janson (1991) and The Fleetway Companion (anth
in 2 vols 1992) were more commodious presentations of this material. His
work as a whole has been summarized in two linked volumes, Vultures of the
Void: A History of British Science Fiction, 1946-1956 (1992 US) and
British Science Fiction Paperbacks, 1949-1956 (1992 US), both with Philip
HARBOTTLE. He has contributed several entries to this encyclopedia. [JC]

(? - ) UK writer of whom nothing is known beyond the fact that he wrote
sf novels under a number of CURTIS WARREN house names: Destination Alpha
(1952) as Berl CAMERON, Titan's Moon (1952) as Neil CHARLES, Southern
Exploration (1953) as Adam Dale, Trans-Mercurian (1952) as King LANG, "A"
Men (1952) as Rand LE PAGE, Beyond Geo (1953) as Arn ROMILUS, and Lost
World (1953) as Brian SHAW. He also wrote two sf novels for the firm under
personal pseudonyms: The Mortals of Reni (1953) as Von Gruen and Red Storm
(1952) as Brian Storm. [JC]

The concept of the Earth as a hollow, spherical shell with a habitable,
internal concave surface accessible through polar openings or caves, or by
mechanical bores, has long been a significant motif in sf. The idea's dual
origins, from RELIGION and PSEUDO-SCIENCE, are still potent. Traditionally
Hell was sited inside the Earth, a notion that persisted at least until
the 18th century, when a theologian proposed that Earth's rotation was
caused by the damned scrambling to escape from Hell. In pseudo-science the
astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742), to account for magnetic phenomena,
suggested in a paper published by the Royal Society in 1692 that Earth
(and the other planets) consisted of concentric, nested spheres
surrounding a small central sun, with, possibly, openings at the poles.The
first important use of Halley's concept came in Ludvig HOLBERG's Nicolaii
Klimii iter subterraneum (1741 in Latin; exp 1745; trans anon as A Journey
to the World Under-Ground. By Nicolas Klimius 1742 UK; vt The Journey of
Niels Klim to the World Underground 1960 US; vt A Journey to the World
Underground 1974 US), in which a young Norwegian falls through the Earth's
crust to the hollow interior, where he has adventures on an inner planet
and on the concave shell among nonhuman intelligent beings. Derivative
from Holberg's work is Giacomo CASANOVA's Icosameron (1788; cut trans
Rachel Zurer as Casanova's 'Icosameron' 1986 US), which is concerned,
inter alia, with ALIEN lifeforms inside the Earth.The largest impetus to
modern hollow-Earth fiction came from a persuasive US soldier, John Cleves
SYMMES, who revitalized and publicized Halley's theory of concentric
spheres and polar openings. Symzonia (1820) by Adam SEABORN (an
unidentified pseudonym), a pleasant early IMAGINARY VOYAGE, satirizes
Symmes's ideas; it also comments, a clef, on the political structures of
Europe and the USA. It has been suggested that Edgar Allan POE's "MS Found
in a Bottle" (1833) and The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838) are
indebted to Symmes and Symzonia, but it is more probable that Poe had in
mind the caves and water engine involved in the traditional Abyss of
Waters.Much the best known hollow-Earth stories are Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's
Pellucidar novels: At the Earth's Core (1914 All-Story; 1922), Pellucidar
(1915 All-Story-Cavalier; 1923) and several sequels. Based loosely on
Symmes, these stories develop Burroughs's usual themes: Gibson-girl
romance, frustrated sexual assaults and dominance (here empire-building
among naive natives) against a background of palaeontological survivals.
While the earlier stories are rational in their assumptions, later ones
slip into supernaturalism involving REINCARNATION and Hell. For Burroughs
the Moon, too, is hollow, as in The Moon Maid (1923-25 Argosy-All-Story;
1925).The concept of the hollow Earth has otherwise been used for the most
varied fictional purposes. In a dystopian attack on FEMINISM, Pantaletta
(1882 US) by "Mrs J. Wood" (probably a man), the world within is run by
arrogant dominant woman who have changed even personal pronouns to avoid
sexism. "Vera Zarovitch"'s ( Mary E. Bradley LANE) Mizora (1880-81
Cincinatti Commercial; 1890 US), on the other hand, posits a feminist,
socialist UTOPIA, where males are no longer biologically necessary. In
Nequa (1900) by Jack ADAMS the themes are sexual equality, altruism and
socialism. The "single tax" proposed by the US economist Henry George
(1839-1897) offers the leitmotif for Byron Welcome's From Earth's Centre
(1894 US), and an odd mixture of occultism, anarchism and Fourierist
socialism supports the story thread of M. Louise Moore's Al Modad (1892
US). John Uri LLOYD's Etidorhpa (1895) describes occult advancement as the
narrator progresses to the centre; George W. Bell's Mr Oseba's Last
Discovery (1904 New Zealand) promotes New Zealand real estate by comparing
that country to the edenic interior; and "My Bride from Another World"
(1904 Physical Culture) by "Rev. E.C. Atkins" plugs for Bernarr
MACFADDEN's hygienics - nudism, vegetarianism and back-to-Nature.
Plutoniia (1915; 1924; trans as Plutonia 1957) by the great Russian
geologist Vladimir Afanasevich OBRUCHEV is frankly written as a simple
introduction to palaeontology. Obruchev adds a new supposition: the Earth
solidified hollow, and a comet knocked a hole in the shell, permitting
access.Fantastic adventure with less message characterizes Charles Willing
BEALE's The Secret of the Earth (1899), William R. BRADSHAW's occult The
Goddess of Atvatabar (1892), Frank Powell's lurid boys' thriller The
Wolf-Men (1905 UK), Roy ROCKWOOD's boys' book Five Thousand Miles
Underground (1908), William J. Shaw's Under the Auroras (1888 US), Fred
THORPE's serialized DIME NOVEL "In The World Below" (1897 Golden Hours)
and Park Winthrop's "The Land of the Central Sun" (1903 Argosy).A
religious note is not uncommon. In the later stories of the paranoid
Shaver mystery ( Richard S. SHAVER) the inner world is a Hell; however,
edenic stories, in which creation took place inside the Earth, like
Casanova's Icosameron, are more frequent. There is an internal city called
Eden in Willis George EMERSON's The Smoky God or, A Voyage to the Inner
World (1908). In William A. Miller's The Sovereign Guide (1989 US) Eden
still exists, though overgrown, as does the tomb of ADAM AND EVE.
Seaborn's Symzonia and Beale's The Secret of the Earth both consider
surface humans as descendants of exiles from the interior.The
gravitational peculiarities of a hollow Earth are seldom utilized.
Exceptions are Clement FEZANDIE's "A Journey to the Center of the Earth"
(1925 Science and Invention) and Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY's "Dreams of Earth
and Sky" (1895; trans in The Call of the Cosmos coll 1963).In most cases
the writers cited do not take the hollow-Earth concept seriously. On the
whole, the hollow Earth is simply a convenient alien place for odd
adventures or panaceas, but it would be easy enough to work out a
psychoanalytic or other metaphoric interpretation of the motif.True
hollow-Earth stories should not be confused with stories set in deep
cave-systems, another very common theme. Two of the most famous
underground stories of this type are LYTTON's The Coming Race (1871; vt
Vril: The Power of the Coming Race 1972 US) and Jules VERNE's Voyage au
centre de la terre (1863; exp 1867; trans anon as Journey to the Centre of
the Earth 1872 UK). A third example, not often thought of as being such,
and especially prone to the psychoanalytic interpretation, is Lewis
CARROLL's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).Hollow-Earth stories
still show up occasionally in the modern period. Among the more
interesting are "Black as the Pit, from Pole to Pole" (1977 New Dimensions
7) by Howard WALDROP and Steven UTLEY, Richard A. LUPOFF's Circumpolar!
(1984) and Rudy RUCKER's The Hollow Earth (1990). Nothing is ever crystal
clear in a novel by James P. BLAYLOCK, but The Digging Leviathan (1984)
appears also to be marginally a hollow-Earth story. It is interesting that
all these tales are couched as nostalgic pastiche (and often close to
MAGIC REALISM), as if merely to mention a hollow Earth today were to evoke
a wondrous past time. [EFB]

A late working name of US writer Joan Carol Holly (1932-1982), who before
1970 signed herself J. Hunter Holly. JHH had a degree in psychology and
conducted creative-writing workshops as well as doing her own work; a
benign brain tumour, removed in 1970, interrupted her career 1966-70, and
she later suffered further ill health. She began publishing sf with a
novel, Encounter (1959), in which Man and inimical ALIEN confront one
another. Much of her work - including The Flying Eyes (1962), The Dark
Planet (1962) and The Time Twisters (1964)-involves melodramatic alien
INVASIONS and other traumatic encounters. Among her better stories,
written after her illness, are "The Gift of Nothing" (1973) and "Psi
Clone" (1977). Keeper (1976 Canada) and Shepherd (1977 Canada) make up a
short DYSTOPIAN series in which one man opposes an oppressive regime. JHH
wrote straightforward adventure novels whose dark undertones were of
interest. [JC]Other works: The Green Planet (1960); The Gray Aliens (1963;
vt The Grey Aliens 1964 UK); The Running Man (1963); The Dark Enemy
(1965); The Mind Traders (1966); The Assassination Affair * (1967), #10 in
the MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. series; Death Dolls of Lyra (1977).See also: WOMEN


(1940- ) Danish novelist who works in various modes, from realism to
KAFKA-inspired modernism. His one sf work, Termush, Atlanterhavskysten
(1967; trans Sylvia Clayton as Termush 1969 UK), tells of the
psychological problems encountered by a group of rich survivors dwelling
in their luxury shelter after a nuclear HOLOCAUST. While bona fide sf,
Termush is also a parable of the alienation of modern, materialistic Man.


[s] Harry BATES.

(? - ) US writer whose sf novel, Anvil of the Heart (1983), presents with
some poignance one of the potential nightmares attendant upon the
successful GENETIC ENGINEERING of the human species: the slow death of the
last pre-altered humans as their children confront a new world. [JC]

[s] Anthony BOUCHER.

This is part of a giant cluster of themes which has always played a
central role in sf, both GENRE SF and MAINSTREAM. It is impossible to
dissect out the different aspects of this cluster so that they are
mutually exclusive; hence there is some overlap between this entry and
ADAM AND EVE (many sf tales deal with a second genesis after catastrophe),
ANTHROPOLOGY (the emphasis is often on tribal patterns forming in a
brutalized and diminished population), EVOLUTION and DEVOLUTION
(evolutionary change has since the 18th century been linked with natural
catastrophe), ENTROPY (holocaust is one of the more dramatic aspects of
everything running down), HISTORY IN SF (human-inspired disasters are
often seen as part of a Toynbeean or Spenglerian process of historical
cycles), the END OF THE WORLD (holocaust on a major scale), ECOLOGY
(interference with nature is often seen as the bringer of disaster),
MEDICINE (the agent of holocaust is often plague), MUTANTS (the use of
nuclear weapons is often seen as leading to massive mutation in plants,
animals and humans), NUCLEAR POWER (the most popular agent of holocaust in
is all too often written by men for men, featuring men shooting other men
after civilization's convenient collapse). The catastrophe variants are
summarized under DISASTER; particular aspects of catastrophe are discussed
in most of the above entries. Here we concentrate on the many stories
whose focus is not so much the disaster itself but the kind of world in
which the survivors live, and which they make for themselves.The aftermath
of holocaust may be the most popular theme in sf; this encyclopedia
mentions at least 400 examples at novel length. The genre is as old as sf
itself: a convenient starting point is Mary SHELLEY's second sf novel, The
Last Man (1826), in which plague crosses Europe from the Middle East,
leaving one survivor in Rome who is possibly the last man. Natural
catastrophe, too, strikes in Herrmann LANG's The Air Battle: A Vision of
the Future (1859), in which European civilization is destroyed by flood
and earthquake, but a benevolent North-African federation brings peace to
the world, Black leading White back to social order.The novel in which the
post-holocaust story takes on its distinctive modern form is Richard
JEFFERIES's After London (1885), in which the author's strategy is to set
the novel thousands of years after the catastrophe has taken place; in
this way an interesting, alienating perspective is gained. The hero takes
his own society (as in most later stories in this vein it is
quasimedieval) for granted; he endeavours to reconstruct the nature of the
fallen civilization that preceded it, and also the intervening years of
barbarism. Ever since Jefferies's time the post-holocaust story has tended
to follow this pattern; for every book whose hero lived through the
holocaust itself - John CHRISTOPHER's The Death of Grass (1956; vt No
Blade of Grass US), filmed as NO BLADE OF GRASS (1970), and Robert MERLE's
Malevil (1972 France; trans 1974), filmed as MALEVIL (1981), being
examples - there are several whose story begins long after the disaster is
over but while its effects are still making themselves felt. Though such
stories continue to fascinate, there has been surprisingly little
variation in the basic plot: disaster is, in the average scenario, seen as
being followed by savage barbarism and a bitter struggle for survival,
with rape and murder commonplace; such an era is often succeeded by a
rigidly hierarchical feudalism based very much on medieval models. When
the emphasis falls on struggle and brutality, as it very often does, we
have in effect an awful-warning story. But often the new world is seen as
more peaceful and ordered, more in harmony with Nature, than the bustle
and strife of civilization. Such stories are often quasi- UTOPIAs in
feeling and PASTORAL in their values. There is no denying the attraction
of such scenarios: they tempt us with a kind of life in which the
individual controls his or her own destiny and in which moral issues are
clear-cut.In mature versions of the post-holocaust story there is usually
an emotional resonance developed from a tension between loss and gain,
with the simplicities of the new order not wholly compensating for the
half-remembered glories and comforts of the past. This is the case with
George R. STEWART's EARTH ABIDES (1949), and may explain why, despite its
occasionally fulsome prose, that novel has attained classic status.The
first two decades of the 20th century saw no particular boom in the genre,
but at least two works are still well remembered: Jack LONDON's The
Scarlet Plague (1914) and S. Fowler WRIGHT's Deluge (1928) (sequelled by
Dawn [1929]); in both cases the catastrophe is natural. This was so of
most holocaust stories in those days of comparative innocence. Even after
WWI, mankind's capacity for self-destruction was seldom seen as efficient
enough to operate on a global scale. Other relevant stories of the period
are Garrett P. SERVISS's The Second Deluge (1912), George Allan ENGLAND's
Darkness and Dawn (1914), an unusually optimistic story of reconstruction,
J.J. CONNINGTON's Nordenholt's Million (1923) and P. Anderson GRAHAM's
cranky racist The Collapse of Homo Sapiens (1923).Connington's book made
much of the reconstruction of TECHNOLOGY; from this point on the
relationship of technology to the post-holocaust world, and the often
ambiguous feelings of the latter towards it, became prominent. Thomas
Calvert MCCLARY's Rebirth (1934 ASF; 1944) is a casually callous account
of a SCIENTIST so disgusted by what he self-righteously regards as the
decadence of modern civilization that he invents a ray which causes
everyone to forget all acquired knowledge, including how to talk: starting
from instinct, the smartest and toughest re-educate themselves in
technology in about 10 years; most die. Edwin BALMER's and Philip WYLIE's
When Worlds Collide (1933), with its reconstruction sequel After Worlds
Collide (1934), has a scientific elite escaping a doomed Earth in a giant
rocket and rebuilding on a new planet, at the same time fighting off
communists; it was filmed as WHEN WORLDS COLLIDE (1951). Stephen Vincent
BENET's "The Place of the Gods" (1937; vt "By the Waters of Babylon")
blends superstitious fear and plangent nostalgia in telling of a barbarian
boy's response to the technological wonders of a ruined city; its
sentimentality was to become a recurrent note in many such tales after
WWII: it ends, "We must build again." Many of the authors cited have not
been closely connected with GENRE SF. The post-holocaust theme,
particularly in the UK, has had a strong attraction for MAINSTREAM
writers, perhaps because it offers such a powerful metaphor for exploring
Man's relation with his social structures: it pits art against Nature. Two
strong UK examples from the 1930s are Alun LLEWELLYN's The Strange
Invaders (1934) and John COLLIER's Tom's A-Cold (1933; vt Full Circle
USA); both evoke the atmosphere of a fallen society with considerable
intensity of feeling. An interesting French novel published during WWII
was Ravage (1943; trans Damon KNIGHT as Ashes, Ashes 1967 US) by Rene
BARJAVEL, in which the disappearance of electricity turns France
rural.After the Hiroshima bombing a new period began in which,
unsurprisingly, the post-holocaust story came to seem less fantastic; it
also became more popular, and developed a distinctively apocalyptic
atmosphere, a heavy emphasis on a supposed antitechnological bias among
the survivors, and a concentration on the results of nuclear power in
general and radiation in particular. The mood was darker in that imagined
catastrophes were now primarily manmade. Man became pictured as a kind of
lemming bent on racial suicide - through nuclear, biological and chemical
warfare in stories of the 1940s and 1950s, and through POLLUTION,
OVERPOPULATION and destruction of Earth's ecosphere in many stories since
the 1960s.Among the darker scenarios set after nuclear war are: Judith
MERRIL's Shadow on the Hearth (1950); Wilson TUCKER's The Long Loud
Silence (1952); Ward MOORE's "Lot" (1953) with its sardonic sequel "Lot's
Daughter" (1954), the uncredited bases for PANIC IN YEAR ZERO (1962);
Mordecai ROSHWALD's Level 7 (1959); Pat FRANK's Alas, Babylon (1959), more
optimistic than the others about the possibility of re-ordering society;
Alfred COPPEL's Dark December (1960); and Fritz LEIBER's extremely savage
"Night of the Long Knives" (1960; vt "The Wolf Pair"), which can be found
in The Night of the Wolf (coll 1966). Novels which place a greater
emphasis on the kinds of society developed after the holocaust are: Algis
BUDRYS's False Night (1954; text reinstated and exp, vt Some Will not Die
1961; rev 1978), a very grim book; Margot BENNETT's The Long Way Back
(1954), in which civilized Africans send a colonizing expedition to
legendary Great Britain, where they find Whites still living in caves;
Dark Universe (1961) by Daniel F. GALOUYE, set in an underground POCKET
UNIVERSE; Edgar PANGBORN's DAVY (1964), The Judgment of Eve (1966) and The
Company of Glory (1975); Brian W. ALDISS's Non-Stop (1958; vt Starship
USA) and Greybeard (1964), the latter dealing with life after mass
sterility has struck humanity; Philip K. DICK's DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF
ELECTRIC SHEEP? (1968), where pollution has destroyed the animal kingdom,
and which, much changed, was the basis of the film BLADE RUNNER (1982);
and John BOWEN's After the Rain (1958), dealing with the psychology of the
survivors of a great flood.Paramount among such books is Walter M.
MILLER's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ (fixup 1960), an ironic black comedy
about the ways in which a post-holocaust civilization's history
recapitulates the errors of its predecessor. The story is set largely in
an abbey, where fragments of half-understood technological knowledge have
been kept alive by the Church. The book is vivid, morose and ebulliently
inventive; it has been very influential.Miller's vision of technology as
being (though morally neutral) at once saviour and destroyer is echoed in
several books, including some already cited, in which an antitechnological
majority, usually medieval in social structure and rigidly conservative in
outlook, is unable to suppress the scientific curiosity of young
malcontents; two good examples are Leigh BRACKETT's The Long Tomorrow
(1955) and John WYNDHAM's Re-Birth (1955 US; rev vt The Chrysalids UK).
(The English disaster novel at this time was dominated by Wyndham and by
John CHRISTOPHER, both writing several post-holocaust novels.) At a more
popular, adventure-story level, several writers have picked up the idea
(found also in the Brackett and Wyndham novels) of a secret enclave of
scientifically advanced technocrats in an otherwise primitive world. Such
is the situation in Piers ANTHONY's trilogy collected as Battle Circle
(omni 1977), which began with Sos the Rope (1968). A film pitting
barbarians against an island of technology is ZARDOZ (1973), where the
sympathy, as often happens, is with the barbarian. In stories of this type
technology is generally feared, since it was through technology that
mankind almost destroyed itself; a furtive technology is pitted against
MAGIC in a FAR-FUTURE post-holocaust venue in Fred SABERHAGEN's trilogy
consisting of The Broken Lands (1968), The Black Mountains (1971) and
Changeling Earth (1973), but here, despite a tenuous rationale, the tone
of the story is more that of SWORD AND SORCERY than of sf proper. Indeed,
many sword-and-sorcery stories are set in a post-holocaust period when
mankind has taken the route of magic rather than science; the rather silly
idea is presumably that if we give up depending on technology we may be
able to work miracles instead. In one of the commonest variants the magic
is rationalized: the post-holocaust society develops PSI POWERS.With the
increased publicity given to the so-called counterculture in the late
1960s (reflected in sf by the NEW WAVE), post-holocaust stories of rather
a different kind became popular. Hell's-Angels-style motorcycle gangs roam
a ruined world in two colourful romances, Roger ZELAZNY's Damnation Alley
(1969), badly filmed with many changes as DAMNATION ALLEY (1977), and
Steve WILSON's The Lost Traveller (1976); the same idea is used more
subtly in a grimmer work, Brian W. Aldiss's Barefoot in the Head (fixup
1969), as motorcyclists roll through the debris of a Europe half-destroyed
by the use of psychedelic drugs as weapons. J.G. BALLARD's oeuvre is made
up largely of post-holocaust stories; he has evoked catastrophes of all
sorts, manmade and natural, sudden and protracted, and often his
protagonists act in psychic collaboration with the forces that threaten
humanity's security. Scarred motorways continue to link up the decaying
communities of M. John HARRISON's forceful first novel, The Committed Men
(1971), which has something of a Ballardian bleakness but a rather tougher
survival mentality in the protagonists. Other notable post-holocaust
stories of the late 1960s and the 1970s are HEROES AND VILLAINS (1969) by
Angela CARTER, "The Snows are Melted, the Snows are Gone" (1969) by James
TIPTREE Jr, "The Lost Continent" (1970) by Norman SPINRAD, The End of the
Dream (1972) by Philip Wylie, returning to a theme he first worked with 40
years earlier, Hiero's Journey (1973) by Sterling LANIER, Winter's
Children (1974 UK) by Michael CONEY, Earthwreck! (1974) by Thomas N.
1978, text largely restored and rev 1990 UK) by Stephen KING, and
DREAMSNAKE (fixup 1978) by Vonda N. MCINTYRE.A fine story from this period
was "A Boy and his Dog" (1969) by Harlan ELLISON, interestingly filmed as
A BOY AND HIS DOG (1975). Indeed, the 1960s, and more prolifically the
1970s, saw many variations on the post-holocaust theme in the CINEMA aside
from those already mentioned, including ON THE BEACH (1959), The WORLD,
UOMO DELLA TERRA (1964; vt The Last Man on Earth); KONEC SRPNA V HOTELU
OZON (1966; vt The End of August at the Hotel Ozone), NIGHT OF THE LIVING
DEAD (1968), The BED-SITTING ROOM (1969), GAS-S-S-S (1970), GLEN AND RANDA
(1970), The OMEGA MAN (1971), NIPPON CHINBOTSU (1973; vt The Submersion of
Japan; vt Tidal Wave), The ULTIMATE WARRIOR (1975), JUBILEE (1978),
QUINTET (1979) and MAD MAX (1979); UK tv took up the idea with SURVIVORS
(1975-7). The success of Mad Max not only produced two sequels but began a
whole cycle of post-holocaust colourful-barbarian action thriller films
that continued right through the 1980s, including 1990: I GUERRIERI DEL
BRONX (1982; vt Bronx Warriors) and CITY LIMITS (1984). In fact the 1980s
was a period in which the post-holocaust venue became primarily used as a
conveniently barbaric backdrop for feats of romantic adventure and,
perhaps more worryingly, for the macho acts of rapine and savagery that
characterize SURVIVALIST FICTION, which became very popular at this time.
Although the post-holocaust genre remained popular in the 1980s film
industry, and produced a strange variety of films, it produced no great
ones, perhaps the most telling being George A. ROMERO's DAY OF THE DEAD
(1985). Others were FUKKATSO NO HI (1980; vt Virus), MEMOIRS OF A SURVIVOR
(1981), Le DERNIER COMBAT (1983; vt The Last Battle), RED DAWN (1984),
NIGHT OF THE COMET (1984), The QUIET EARTH (1985), SLIPSTREAM (1989) and
HARDWARE (1990).Earlier, post-holocaust venues had by the 1970s become
popular in CHILDREN'S SF, a particularly good book being Z for Zachariah
(1975) by Robert C. O'BRIEN. Too often, however, such books were designed
to teach moral lessons of the currently approved kind, often
simplistically; the typical holocaust of 1980s children's books features
ecological spoliation brought about by evil capitalists, one of the
livelier examples being Scatterlings (1991) by Isobelle CARMODY.While
post-holocaust scenarios in films (and in COMICS, where they became
extremely popular) were tending to trivialize the genre, it remained an
important and still very popular element in serious sf in book form.
Interesting and rather admirable are the 7 Pelbar books of Paul O.
WILLIAMS, beginning with The Breaking of Northwall (1981), in which
fragmented societies in a rural post-holocaust USA begin slowly to knit
themselves together. Another good series was Richard COWPER's Corlay
trilogy (1976-82), a contemplative PASTORAL work set in England centuries
after low-lying areas have been covered by the rising sea. William
BARNWELL's Blessing trilogy (1980-81) features a fantastic quest in a
world recovering after a holocaust deliberately brought about for
metaphysical reasons. Storm CONSTANTINE's Wraeththu trilogy (1987-9)
presents luridly but with some flair a hermaphroditic race arising in a
devastated world. Notable single novels from the 1980s and since include
Voices in Time (1980) by Hugh MACLENNAN, In the Drift (fixup 1984) by
Michael SWANWICK, The Postman (1985) by David BRIN, Wolf in Shadow (1987;
vt The Jerusalem Man 1988 US) by David GEMMELL, The Sea and Summer (1987;
vt Drowning Towers 1988 US) by George TURNER, The Wall around Eden (1989)
by Joan SLONCZEWSKI, WINTERLONG (1990) by Elizabeth HAND and BONE DANCE: A
FANTASY FOR TECHNOPHILES (1991) by Emma BULL. But the outstanding
post-holocaust novel of the decade was probably RIDDLEY WALKER (1980) by
Russell HOBAN, in which the nature of the future civilization is vividly
evoked through its devolved language ( LINGUISTICS).Life after the
holocaust is a theme that continues to grip the imagination. The idea of
destroying our crowded, bureaucratic world and then rebuilding afresh
offers an exciting psychic freedom. The rusting symbols of a technological
past protruding into a more primitive, natural, future landscape are among
the most potent of sf's icons. [PN]

John Russell FEARN.

(1898-1935) UK writer who espoused, in South Riding (1936) and other
novels and essays, the informed, complex FEMINISM which was also reflected
in her near-future SATIRE, The Astonishing Island (1933): the island
satirized is not Tristan da Cunha, from which the bewildered protagonist
hails, but the UK. [JC]


(1878-? ) UK writer in various genres, author of 7 novels of sf interest.
In The Earthquake: A Romance of London in 1907 (1906) the ruined capital
is taken in hand by an aristocratic Prime Minister. In The Man who Stole
the Earth (1909), which begins as a RURITANIAN pot pourri of politics and
romance, a love-lorn inventor bombs most of Europe into submission in his
drive to wed the daughter of the King of Balkania, forcing the world, en
passant, into a state of peace. The Prime Minister's Secret (1910) is
marginal sf. Helen of All Time (1910) rather remarkably compresses into
one volume an advanced airship ( TRANSPORTATION) and the REINCARNATION of
Helen of Troy. The Man who Dreamed Right (1910), though suffering from
WH-W's general tendency to overpack his tales to the point of parody,
rather movingly depicts an innocent man whose dreams predict the future,
and who is destroyed at the hands of the world's rulers (including Teddy
Roosevelt), all desperate to corner his power. The World Stood Still
(1912) not entirely plausibly describes the catastrophic effect on the
world when its financiers go on strike; and The Woman who Saved the World
(1914) concerns NEAR-FUTURE terrorism. [JC]


[r] William Benjamin HOME-GALL.

(1861-1936) UK writer, much of whose work was boys' fiction, including
Beyond the Northern Lights (1903) as by Reginald Wray, a LOST-WORLD tale
set near the North Pole. The Dweller in the Half-Light (1923), also as by
Wray, is fantasy for adults. WBH-G's son, Edward Reginald Home-Gall
(1899-1975), was the most prolific of all authors of boys' stories next to
Frank Richards (usual pseudonym of Charles Hamilton [1876-1961]), and was
responsible for two Human Bat tales: "Caught in the Spider's Web" (1950)
and The Human Bat v. the Robot Gangster (1950). [JC]

(c800BC) The most famous of early Greek poets, generally supposed to be
the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey; these were probably not written
down until the 6th century BC, and come to us in much later versions. The
Odyssey is not, of course, sf, but stands paradigmatically at the head of
the Mediterranean was a tabula rasa, just as the worlds of outer space are
today; to say that the Odyssey is a kind of first-millennium-BC template
for PLANETARY ROMANCE may be to confuse the sublime with the ridiculous,
but its aspiring spirit, always seeking to learn what is over the next
horizon, testifies to the longevity of those human feelings which today
are fed into the reading and writing of sf. [PN]See also: MUSIC;

(vt Homunculus der Fuhrer) Serial film (1916). Deutsche Bioscop. Dir Otto
Rippert, starring Olaf Fonss, Friedrich Kuhne. Script Otto and Robert
Neuss, based on a story by Robert Reinert. 6 episodes; total length 401
mins. B/w.This 6-part silent German serial, the most popular of the WWI
period, tells of an artificial man created by a scientist (Kuhne) who
wants to make a perfect creature of pure reason. But the result,
Homunculus (the Danish actor Fonss), resents the fact that he is not a
real human being (and has no soul); after being driven from country to
country he becomes the dictator of a large, unnamed nation and plans to
conquer the world, being finally destroyed by a convenient bolt of
lightning. H contains seminal themes of the GOTHIC variety, foreshadowing
many sf/ HORROR films: the archetypal mad SCIENTIST, the inherent evil of
TECHNOLOGY and scientific progress, superhuman ANDROIDS, conquest of the
world and a fiery, apocalyptic climax. [JB]


Film (1992). Walt Disney. Exec prods Albert Band, Stuart Gordon; dir
Randal Kleiser; screenplay Thom Eberhardt, Peter Elbling, Garry
Goodrow,based on a story by Goodrow, based on characters created by
Gordon, Brian Yuzna and Ed NAHA; starring Rick Moranis, Marcia Strassman,
Robert Oliveri, Daniel and Joshua Shalikar, Lloyd Bridges, John Shea, Keri
Russell. 89 mins. Colour.The sequel to the good and successful HONEY, I
SHRUNK THE KIDS (1989), this has the same family, headed by nutty inventor
Wayne Szalinski (Moranis) in more trouble. Or the same trouble reversed.
Two-year old son Adam (played with some charm by the Shalikar twins) is
accidentally subjected to a growth ray; he grows first to seven feet, then
to 14 feet,then to 50 feet. Soon he has a tantrum, and is on his way to
trample Las Vegas. Depressingly formulaic and one-note, though with
several funny moments, the film has nothing like the metaphoric and
psychological resonance of its predecessor, and its larger budget seems to
have persuaded all concerned to be too careful, notably Moranis, who tones
down the madness as if he expects to be taken as a role model for good
fatherhood. It is a case of small is beautiful rather than bigger is
better. The film, perhaps grudgingly, gives a credit-buried in the end
titles-to Kit REED, whose "Attack of the Giant Baby" (1976 FSF) could be
said to have got there first. [PN]

Film (1989). Walt Disney. Dir Joe Johnston, starring Rick Moranis, Matt
Frewer, Thomas Brown, Amy O'Neill, Robert Oliveri. Screenplay Ed NAHA, Tom
Schulman, from a story by Stuart Gordon, Brian Yuzna and Ed Naha. 93 mins.
Colour.Eccentric inventor Szalinski (Moranis) builds a miniaturizing
machine which is accidentally activated, shrinking his own two children
and those of his macho next-door neighbour. Swept up in the trash they
emerge in the garden, have adventures, fall tentatively in love (the two
eldest), return, almost get eaten in a bowl of breakfast cereal, and are
ultimately regrown. There is some timid metaphor about kids whose parents
make them feel small, and about the jungle of suburbia (in this case the
untidy lawn literally becomes a jungle), but it is not so disturbing a
film as INCREDIBLE SHRINKING MAN. The special effects sequences are well
done and the film is fun. [PN]


(?1944- ) US writer of an sf adventure, The Hunters (1978) with Burt
WETANSON, and of Dr Chill's Project (1987; vt Dr Chill 1989 UK), an sf
juvenile involving PSI POWERS. [JC]

(1935- ) US writer, all of whose novels of sf interest have been
juveniles for older children. First were Children of Morrow (1973) and its
sequel, Treasures of Morrow (1976), a post- HOLOCAUST sequence which, in
describing a reactionary state and its pro- TECHNOLOGY successor, plumps
cautiously for the latter; the books demonstrate a smoothly searching
style and a grasp of character. HMH soon showed her competence with a wide
range of venues and themes. The Delikon (1977), again set on Earth,
investigates a political revolution. The protagonist of The Rains of
Eridan (1978), set on an ALIEN world where scientific stations are
assaulted by waves of seemingly unnatural fear, uncovers the mystery
without betraying the methods and goals of science. Return to Earth
(1980), set a millennium hence on Earth, humanizes a thriller plot through
its close portrayal of a growing friendship between an old man and a young
girl - friendship between generations being unusually evident in HMH's
work. The two young protagonists of This Time of Darkness (1980) transcend
the bleak POCKET-UNIVERSE society in which they have been raised. Another
Heaven, Another Earth (1981) intriguingly presents a complex vision of
human limitations on a colony planet which is demonstrably inimical to
life. Throughout, HMH shows a deft attentiveness to the problem of
engaging her readership in tales of worlds whose solidity precludes easy
triumphs for young protagonists, but which gives them a chance to achieve
an enlightened freedom; always there is a sense that in the end the
lessons awaiting readers in her texts are unequivocally meant to be
learned. Her novels are, in the best sense, didactic. [JC]Other works: The
Lost Star (1979); This Time of Darkness (1980); The Bell Tree (1982); The
Shepherd Moon: A Novel of the Future (1984); Orvis (1987; vt Journey
through the Empty 1990 UK); The Dawn Palace: The Story of Medea (1988);
Away is a Strange Place to Be (1990); Only Child (1992).See also:

Harriet S. ADAMS.

[r] William F. NOLAN; Robert REGINALD.

Some say that science fiction writers and editors are strong
individualists; others call them eccentrics. There is no doubt that Horace
Gold was one of the latter.Gold founded Galaxy magazine in 1950. Because
he was profoundly agoraphobic, he conducted all of this business from his
apartment. Isaac Asimov remembers that the first time he visited him, Gold
left the room abruptly in the middle of a conversation. Asimov was
perplexed and started to leave.On the way out, the phone rang. When Asimov
was called to the phone, he discovered that Gold was on the line. Since
Gold couldn’t stand the company of a stranger, he decided to call Asimov
from his bedroom. And that’s how the meeting proceeded.Besides his
penchant for odd meetings, Gold was also known for writing very insulting
rejection letters, even to writers he liked. In his collection Earth is
Room Enough, Asimov published a parody of Gold in one of three poems
entitled Rejection Slips.

Sheri S. TEPPER.

(1888-1954) UK writer, most of whose 150 novels are thrillers, some
importing sf devices in the form of fantastic inventions and/or MCGUFFINS.
Some of the Paul Vivanti sequence - specifically The Mystery of No. 1
(1925; vt The Order of the Octopus 1926 US), The Screaming Skull, and
Other Stories (coll 1930; cut c1945), The Worst Man in the World (1930),
Lord of Terror (1935) and Virus X (1945) - are of interest in their
admixture of occult and fragmentary superscience elements, with DEATH RAYS
making an appearance or two. The title story in The Man who Shook the
Earth (coll 1933) features an attempt to blackmail the world by a
SCIENTIST who has discovered the secret of atomic energy. [JC]Other works:
The Formula: A Novel of Harley Street (1933; vt The Charlatan 1934 US);
The Vampire (1935); The Evil Messenger (1938); The House with the Light
(1948); The House of the Uneasy Dead (1950); The Face of Stone (1952).

House name used in ZIFF-DAVIS magazines by Henry KUTTNER once, for "50
Miles Down" (Fantastic Adventures 1940), and by David Vern ( David V.
REED) twice, also in 1940. [JC/PN]

[s] Richard Henry HORNE.

(1803-1884) UK writer credited by William WILSON as the author of what
is, according to Wilson's DEFINITION OF SF, an exemplary work of
"Science-Fiction": The Poor Artist, or Seven Eye-sights and One Object
(1871), a didactic novella in which a struggling artist achieves success
by reproducing seven different images of a coin as perceived by various
woodland creatures. RHH signed some of his other work R. Hengist Horne.

(1874-? ) UK astronomer, meteorologist and writer who specialized in
popular-science texts. Though published as boys' fiction, By Aeroplane to
the Sun: Being the Adventures of a Daring Aviator and his Friends (1910)
offers a numerate and complex vision of a high-tech NEAR FUTURE, featuring
picturephones, tv and electric cars, and describing the protagonists'
usual tour of the Solar System with prescient realism. The ship operates
by a kind of ION DRIVE; its inhabitants, some of whom are women, use
pressure suits when necessary; and the planets themselves, as well as the
cool SUN, offer a wide range of challenges. Their Winged Destiny: Being a
Tale of Two Planets (1912; vt The World's Double: Being a Tale of Two
Planets 1913) expands the scope of the earlier book, sending its
astronauts from a possibly doomed Earth to its double in orbit around
Alpha Centauri. Both novels demonstrate the speed with which the advance
of science - DWH was of course no amateur - was engendering radical
changes in the venues and plotting conventions that went to make up GENRE
SF long before the founding of AMAZING STORIES in 1926. [JC]

(1916- ) US editor whose career began in 1933 when, as a young sf fan, he
started a FANZINE called The Fantasy Fan and happened to send a copy of it
to Hugo GERNSBACK. By coincidence, Gernsback was at that time looking for
a new managing editor for WONDER STORIES, and was so impressed by CDH's
editorial that he decided to offer him the post. At 17, CDH became the
youngest-ever sf magazine editor, attending evening classes at the same
time until he finished high school. He edited Wonder Stories Nov 1933-Apr
1936, when the magazine was sold to another publisher and became THRILLING
WONDER STORIES. CDH did not give up his fan activities, continuing The
Fantasy Fan on a monthly basis until early 1935. At Gernsback's
instigation he began the SCIENCE FICTION LEAGUE, a club centred on Wonder
Stories. CDH initiated a "new-story" policy in an attempt to emulate the
"thought-variant" stories published by F. Orlin TREMAINE in ASF; but this
did not achieve many notable results-although he did publish Stanley G.
WEINBAUM's first story, "A Martian Odyssey" (1934), to great acclaim. He
published one story of his own under the pseudonym Derwin Lesser, used
again in articles he contributed to the magazine SCIENCE FICTION, which he
edited from its inception in Mar 1939. He also edited two companion
magazines achieved any distinction; they were taken over (and the first 2
titles amalgamated) by Robert A.W. LOWNDES in 1941. A convinced pacifist,
CDH was a conscientious objector to WWII, and in 1942 was assigned to a
public-service forestry camp. He left in 1943 and was imprisoned later the
same year as an absolute objector to all forms of wartime service. [MJE]




The often propounded notion that sf is a literature of rational,
scientifically based extrapolation is in most instances false. Much sf is
anti-science, for reasons partly historic and perhaps partly intrinsic.
The famous remark of the Spanish painter Goya (1746-1828) that the Sleep
of Reason breeds Monsters is inarguable in its most obvious meaning: when
rationality is in abeyance, terrible things happen. But the phrase seems
to allow a rather different interpretation, one of great significance to
sf: that it is science itself which, when it dreams, dreams monsters; in
other words, the link between the bright light of science and the darkness
of monstrousness is a link of blood and kinship. Certainly much sf might
lead us to suppose that this apparent paradox is true.Brian W. ALDISS
argued in Billion Year Spree (1973) that sf "was born from the Gothic
mode" in the 19th century ( GOTHIC SF), and that was also one of the
birthplaces of horror fiction; certainly many of sf's early manifestations
were horrible indeed, with E.T.A. HOFFMANN's malign ROBOT-maker Coppelius,
Hyde, Nathaniel HAWTHORNE's poison-saturated daughter of the scientist
Rappaccini, and Edgar Allan POE's rotting M. Valdemar being celebrated but
not untypical examples.In the flurry of fantastic fiction published in
magazines and PULP MAGAZINES between, say, 1880 and 1930, occult and
supernatural fiction and sf were so closely related as to be disentangled
only with the greatest difficulty, and sometimes not very convincingly.
Ambrose BIERCE, Algernon BLACKWOOD, Arthur Conan DOYLE, William Hope
HODGSON, Arthur MACHEN and A. MERRITT are only a few of the very many
writers of that half-century whose work hovered between sf's light and
horror's darkness. Even during and after the 1930s, when pulp fiction was
being more and more categorized into separate groups, we find that it was
not just the sf magazines like AMZ and ASF that published sf: much sf, of
an often horrific kind, continued to appear in WEIRD TALES, a magazine
largely devoted to supernatural fiction. Even H.P. LOVECRAFT wrote some
borderline sf. In the ordinary world, science, then as now, came in two
guises: on the one hand it offered a gleaming, safe future; on the other
it carried us to the brink of apocalypse. Its medical research might
unleash new diseases, its robots run amok, its intellectualism generate a
race with huge brains and withered bodies, its physics create death rays
or atomic bombs. Science was ungodly; it might even awaken the dead.Sf is,
even now, by and large written by ordinary people rather than scientists.
This was almost exclusively so in the 1930s, and it is no wonder that much
of the sf of those early years gave science a bad press. Many people agree
that sf should be about science, but that has never meant that sf should
like science. The anti-scientism of much 1930s sf (also visible at the
more reputable end of the spectrum in the work of writers like C.S. LEWIS)
did no more than reflect the fears of the 1930s, fears that are in no wise
abated in the 1990s. Public anxieties aroused by science and technology
are bound to manifest themselves in fiction, especially horror fiction;
this is natural and unsurprising. The only surprising thing about it is
that so many commentators on the genre are surprised by it. These
commentators have, of course, endeavoured to banish sf/horror from the sf
genre, and some have actually contrived DEFINITIONS OF SF intended to do
just this. Wishing, however, does not make it so; and the fact is that the
supposed splitting in the 1920s and 1930s of the fantastic-fiction
tradition into separate genres of sf, horror and FANTASY never really took
place - or, at least, that the process was never completed.This failure to
exorcise the demons from sf is most visible in sf CINEMA. To this day
maybe half of all sf movies are horror movies. Of the 250 or so films
given entries in this encyclopedia that could be cited to demonstrate the
case, a few dozen or so of the most prominent should be sufficient. In the
1920s we had DR JEKYLL AND MR HYDE, METROPOLIS, ALRAUNE (vt Unholy Love;
vt Daughter of Destiny) and ORLACS HANDE (vt The Hands of Orlac); in the
ISLAND OF LOST SOULS; in the 1940s (when there was almost no sf cinema at
all) we had DR CYCLOPS and The LADY AND THE MONSTER ; the 1950s offered
rich pickings with The THING , The BEAST FROM 20,000 FATHOMS , INVADERS
very many others; things slowed down a little in the 1960s with VILLAGE OF
COMA, PIRANHA, The BROOD and, most notably of all, ALIEN; in the 1980s
1990s we have had TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY and ALIEN3. All of these are
sf. All of these can be described as horror.There is something going on
here beyond anxieties about science. It is the theme (discussed in detail
under GOTHIC SF and again under MONSTER MOVIES) of the incursion of the
irrational into an apparently calm and ordered venue - an intrusion that
in the real world we all fear with good reason; for this fear (which is
for some an active desire) we may need a catharsis in harmless fictional
form. It is a theme for which the metaphoric flexibility of sf is
peculiarly well adapted to cater. The worldview of PARANOIA is one that sf
has often adopted.Horror itself, as a separate genre, has roots older than
those of sf, and had begun to develop its distinctive patterns by the time
of the Romantic movement in the very early 19th century - a little earlier
than sf. Like sf it was by the 1930s widely if incorrectly considered as
distinct from other literary genres. Horror did not, however, become a
major genre in the mass market until the late 1970s and early 1980s - a
boom that partly resulted from Stephen KING's popularity - and later in
the 1980s it began to seem as if the horror wave had already crested. It
is a genre defined not by its content but by its presumptive effect - this
is why it so readily overlaps with other genres which are identified by
their content; we know that horror-sf is common, and lately there has been
a mini-boom in horror Westerns. Various critical attempts have been made,
seldom very convincingly, to distinguish between horror and weird fiction,
or horror and terror, or even horror and the New Gothic. (The term horror
is regarded by some as an unpleasant lowest-common-denominator word for
the genre, hence the occasional search for something that sounds more
respectable, such as "dark fantasy"; but some contrary writers glory in
even less attractive terms, like the current "splatterpunk" [see also
SPLATTER MOVIES]. Regardless of what terms critics use, the predominant
marketing term remains "horror".) Horror fiction can be either
psychological horror - often psychopaths cutting up women with sharp
instruments, sometimes the inner landscapes of maimed minds - or
supernatural horror, or very often both, stories in the second category
being (perhaps) no more than an externalization of the demons conjured up
within the first.When sf collides with horror it is, curiously enough,
usually via the supernatural category, though very often in a rationalized
of quasiscientific explanation is given - as in Richard MATHESON's I Am
Legend (1954) and Brian M. STABLEFORD's The Empire of Fear (1988), both
vampire novels - for apparently unnatural, and often horrible,
manifestations. (The term MONSTER is sometimes reserved for more overtly
sciencefictional horrors, like the carnivorous killer in Alien.) Just as
sf often uses horror motifs, so too does horror sometimes use sf motifs,
as in Joe R. Lansdale's The Drive-In 2: Not Just One of Them Sequels
(1989), in which a "big red comet" causes carnivorous dinosaurs to
manifest in a metamorphosed Texas. Lansdale is one of the many interesting
writers lacking entries in this encyclopedia because their use (if any) of
sf tropes is so inexplicable; but his borderline case does serve to show
up the insecurity any scholar must feel in attempting to dissect horror,
fantasy and sf out from each other.There seems little point in listing
here sf authors whose work contains major horror components; such a list
would be not only unmanageably long but also rather arbitrary, for such
genre-crossing occurs in work of very varied literary ambition and for a
variety of purposes, some horror-sf stories being admonitory fables,
others exercises in the provision of rollercoaster thrills, still others
tales of mental breakdown and the hallucinatory worlds such illness can
produce. As argued above, horror cannot easily be defined by content, only
by its desired effect, which may be a matter of auctorial tone, or of
lethal subtext. Coagulations of horror with sf have come from authors as
various as Ray BRADBURY and Thomas M. DISCH, Charles BEAUMONT and Dan
SIMMONS, Clark Ashton SMITH and L. Ron HUBBARD, Frank Belknap LONG and
Dean R. KOONTZ, Gerald KERSH and K.W. JETER. The theme of CHILDREN IN SF,
in particular, is a hothouse for such crossovers.With sf cinema it is
possible to be very much more specific: the auteur directors who have
specialized in blending sf with horror are first and foremost David
CRONENBERG and then, still importantly, Larry COHEN, Roger CORMAN, George
A. ROMERO and Ridley SCOTT, in turn followed perhaps by Charles BAND,
James CAMERON, John CARPENTER, Michael CRICHTON and Joe DANTE, along with
the important film-writer Nigel KNEALE.There are many books and magazines
about horror. A particularly useful quarterly magazine that sometimes
considers horror-sf crossover books - and a better informed and more
intelligent review than many magazines in the field - is Necrofile: The
Review of Horror Fiction ed Stefan Dziemianowicz, S.T. Joshi and Michael
Morrison, published by Necronomicon Press, Rhode Island, USA, since Summer
1991. [PN]

(1882-1949) UK drama critic and novelist whose Man Alone (1940) describes
the experiences of the last man on Earth as he wanders through London
after the final DISASTER. Castle Cottage (1940) is a ghost story and The
Cool of the Evening (1942) a rather gentle ADAM-AND-EVE fable set at the
close of Adam's life. [JC]


(1926- ) One of the pioneers of Japanese sf. SH, who has specialized in
the short-short story, became the first full-time sf writer in JAPAN. His
stories were influential on the younger generation, and he was largely
responsible for the popularization of sf and its way of thinking. He has
developed a writing style that gives an sf flavour even to his non-sf
works, and which is appropriate to his attacks on everyday values.
Although he is sometimes called the Japanese Ray BRADBURY, his writings
are more satirical than poetic: comparison with Fredric BROWN might be
closer to the mark. A graduate of Tokyo University, he helped Takumi
SHIBANO found Uchujin, the first Japanese FANZINE, in 1957; his first
professional sale, "Sekisutora" ["Sextra"] (1957), had originally been
published in Uchujin #2. His best known story is "Bokkochan" (1958; trans
under same title FSF 1963); it also appeared in Jinzo Bijin ["A Man-Made
Beauty"] (coll 1961). By 1983 he had published over 1000 stories,
including two sf/fantasy novels: Muma No Hyoteki ["Target of Nightmare"]
(1964), in which a ventriloquist is controlled by his doll, and Koe No Ami
["Net of the Voice"] (1970), in which a telephone network becomes
conscious and takes control of human society. Other works have included
historical novellas, collections of unconventional short essays, and
fictionalized documentaries including biographies of his father and
grandfather. An important multivolume retrospective is Hoshi Shin'ichi No
Sakuhinshu ["The Complete Works of Shin'ichi Hoshi"] (coll 1974). Two
books of English translations are The Spiteful Planet and Other Stories
(coll trans 1978 Tokyo) and There was a Knock (coll trans 1984 Tokyo), the
latter collecting short-short stories. [TSh]

(1933- ) US writer and editor. RH began publishing sf with "Feet of Clay"
for If in 1958 as by Phillip Hoskins. He worked as a literary agent
1967-8, and served as senior editor with Lancer Books 1969-1972. His first
published novel, Evil in the Family (1972) as by Grace Corren, is a
TIME-TRAVEL fantasy. The Shattered People (1975) is FAR-FUTURE sf, pitting
a primitive culture against a technological civilization which has been
exploiting it. The Stars sequence - Master of the Stars (1976 Canada), To
Control the Stars (1977) and To Escape the Stars (1978) - is based loosely
on RH's "The Problem Makers" (1963), and describes a cluster of galactic
civilizations, connected by a system of ancient stargates, over a period
of eons. Legacy of the Stars (1979) as by John Gregory is an sf adventure
unconnected to the sequence. RH's books make no claims to be anything more
than entertaining action adventures.As an anthologist, RH is of primary
importance as editor of the INFINITY series of original anthologies:
Infinity #1 (anth 1970), #2 (anth 1971), #3 (anth 1972), #4 (anth 1972)
and #5 (anth 1973). [PN/JC]Other works: Tomorrow's Son (1977);
Jack-in-the-Box Planet (1978), juvenile sf; The Attic Child (1979) as by
Grace Corren; The Night Runner: The Gemini Run * (1979) as by Michael
Kerr.Other works as editor: First Step Forward (anth 1969); The Stars
Around Us (anth 1970); Swords against Tomorrow (anth 1970); The Far-Out
People (anth 1971); Tomorrow One (anth 1971); Wondermakers (anth 1972);
Strange Tomorrows (anth 1972); The Edge of Never (anth 1973), fantasy;
Wondermakers 2 (anth 1974); The Liberated Future (anth 1974); The Future
Now: Saving Tomorrow (anth 1977); Against Tomorrow (anth 1979).

[r] Rex GORDON.

Pseudonym of Claude Houghton Oldfield (1889-1961), a UK writer known
primarily outside the sf field. He declared that all his work was based on
the thesis that modern civilization must collapse "because it no longer
believes it has a destiny"; thus his novels of ideas occasionally stray
into the surreal, the supernatural or the sciencefictional. His one
borderline-sf novel is This was Ivor Trent (1935), which examines the
effect upon a writer of a vision which reveals to him a man of the future.
His first novel, Neighbours (1926), is an intriguing study in abnormal
PSYCHOLOGY whose narrator makes an obsessive study of his "next-door
neighbour", unaware of the fact that he is merely an alienated facet of
his subject's mind. Some of CH's later works also feature eccentric
psychologies, but their fantastic elements are minimal. Julian Grant Loses
his Way (1933) is a bitterly misanthropic character-study cast in the form
of a posthumous fantasy. Three Fantastic Tales (coll 1934 chap) contains 3
brief philosophical fantasies. [BS]See also: SUPERMAN.

(1858-1938) US political figure - in his refusal of official duties
rather like an earlier Bernard Baruch (1870-1965)-involved with President
Woodrow Wilson in setting up the League of Nations. Philip Dru,
Administrator: A Story of Tomorrow, 1920-1935 (1912) is a surprisingly
wide-ranging exercise in political sf. After a cartel of corrupt business
tycoons attempts to suborn the US Government, Dru instigates a new Civil
War, wins, and in place of the old US Government establishes a radical
UTOPIA that features universal suffrage and other "socialist" innovations.
He then saves the rest of the world. [JC]

(1900-1988) UK writer who remains best known for Rogue Male (1938), the
first of a run of thrillers whose intensely stoic lone protagonists
condemn the political world, seeking authenticity in the soil and in
autonomous acts, like the attempted assassination of Hitler which forms
the premise of this book. GH's first novel, The Terror of Villadonga
(1936; rev vt The Spanish Cave 1936 US), for older children, describes the
discovery of a prehistoric sea-beast. The Third Hour (1937) sends its
protagonist to South America in search of UTOPIA. The Dance of the Dwarfs
(1968) is set in the Amazon basin, where feral prehistoric survivals cause
some horrific damage. The Cats to Come (1975) is a fantasy about a future
Earth ruled by cats. Hostage: London; The Diary of Julian Despard (1977)
is a NEAR-FUTURE thriller. The Sending (1980) is a dark fantasy. Summon
the Bright Water (1981) is a SCIENCE-FANTASY tale invoking ATLANTIS.
Arrows of Desire (1985), set in a crumbling post- HOLOCAUST UK, expresses
once again, and for the final time, GH's profound doubt that humanity
could ever govern itself with dignity. [JC]


(1865-1959) UK writer, brother of the poet A.E. Housman (1859-1936) and
best known for his plays and for several volumes of fantasy stories,
including Gods and their Makers (coll 1897; with stories added, vt Gods
and Their Makers and Other Stories coll 1920), What Next? Provocative
Tales of Faith and Morals (coll 1938),Strange Ends and Discoveries (coll
1948) and The Kind and the Foolish: Short Tales of Myth, Magic and Miracle
(coll 1952). Some of his work for children, such as his first book, A Farm
in Fairyland (coll 1894), and some of his plays, such as Possession
(1921), are also of fantasy interest, as is his novel Trimblerigg (1924).
Closer to an sf interest are his two RURITANIAN tales, John of Jingalo:
The Story of a Monarch in Difficulties (1912; vt King John of Jingalo 1912
US) and its sequel The Royal Runaway, and Jingalo in Revolution (1914); in
both novels there is a running commentary on UTOPIAN social solutions,
particularly with regard to WOMEN's rights. [JC]Other works: All-Fellows:
Seven Legends of Lower Redemption (coll 1896) and The Cloak of Friendship
(coll 1905), both assembled with 1 additional story as All-Fellows and the
Cloak of Friendship (omni 1924); The House of Joy (coll 1895) and The
Field of Clover (coll 1898), both recast, with A Farm in Fairyland, as
Moonshine and Clover (coll 1922) and A Doorway to Fairyland (coll 1923);
The Blue Moon (coll 1904); Ironical Tales (coll 1926); What O'Clock Tales
(coll 1932), juvenile fables.

Pseudonym of US writer Houston Force Lumpkin III (1938- ), who produced
sf books with some intensity for a few years. Generally unremarkable,
though competent, his works began with Alien Perspective (1978) and an
sf-adventure sequence comprising Gods in a Vortex (1979) and Wingmaster
(1981). He then wrote a series of novels tied to the TALES OF TOMORROW tv
series: Tales of Tomorrow #1: Invaders at Ground Zero * (1981), #2: Red
Dust * (1981), #3: Substance X * (1981) and #4: Ice from Space * (1982).
He was also responsible for Swamp Thing * (1982) with Len Wein, a SWAMP
THING film tie. [JC]

(1955- ) US writer whose first sf novel, the SPACE OPERA Derelict (1988),
is reminiscent of ALIEN (1979). [JC]

(1913-1987) US writer who began publishing sf with "It" for Planet
Stories in 1952. His sf novel, The Eskimo Invasion (fixup 1967), set
(rather unusually) in Canada, comprises a speculative view of
OVERPOPULATION problems through a story about a group of Eskimos
transformed into an apparently benign, fast-breeding new species. [JC]

(? - ) US editor who produced 7 anthologies 1962-4 for Belmont books, and
nothing since: The Weird Ones (anth 1962; IH uncredited), Escape to Earth
(anth 1963), Novelets of Science Fiction (anth 1963), Rare Science Fiction
(anth 1963), 6 and the Silent Scream (anth 1963), Way Out (anth 1963) and
Things (anth 1964). [PN]

(1906-1936) US writer. REH wrote no sf - although Almuric (1939 Weird
Tales; 1964) is a PLANETARY ROMANCE in the manner of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS
- but his association with H.P. LOVECRAFT and WEIRD TALES helped to
maintain the sf community's interest in his extravagant SWORD-AND-SORCERY
stories. His few contributions to Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos do not bring
out the sf elements. He was the real parent and inspiration of the
sword-and-sorcery (or HEROIC FANTASY) genre (although earlier writers have
been retrospectively recruited to it by historians), which existed as an
enclave of the sf marketplace until FANTASY became a marketing category in
the late 1960s, after which REH's work enjoyed a spectacular posthumous
boom. His first professionally published story was "Spear and Fang" for
Weird Tales in 1925; he quickly became an amazingly prolific writer of
vigorous adventure fiction in several pulp genres.REH's most celebrated
works are those which comprise the Conan the Barbarian series; 17 of these
appeared in Weird Tales 1932-6, and 4 more were published posthumously.
The series has been extended vastly, first by the fan Bjorn Nyberg (1929-
), whose pastiche novel was edited by L. Sprague DE CAMP; then De Camp
turned several other unpublished REH stories into Conan stories, and he
and Lin CARTER wrote many more around fragments and outlines as well as
creating pastiches of their own. Further adventures have been produced by
Andrew J. OFFUTT, Robert Jordan (1948- ) and Steve PERRY, among others.
The popularity of the series was further enhanced by the film Conan the
Barbarian (1981) starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, although it de-emphasized
the fantasy element. The bibliography of the series is inordinately
complicated, but the whole of the authentic canon can be found in 5 GNOME
PRESS vols: in order of internal chronology, The Coming of Conan (coll
1953; includes 2 non-series stories, 2 revisions and some supplementary
material), Conan the Barbarian (coll 1955), The Sword of Conan (coll
1952), King Conan (coll 1953) and Conan the Conqueror (1935 Weird Tales as
"The Hour of the Dragon"; 1950; rev vt The Hour of the Dragon 1977). Gnome
also issued the De Camp/Nyberg The Return of Conan (1957; vt Conan the
Avenger1978) and the De Camp revisions in Tales of Conan (coll 1955).
Lancer published 11 vols of a 12-vol set, later completed and reissued by
ACE BOOKS: again in order of internal chronology, these are Conan (coll
1967), Conan of Cimmeria (coll 1969), Conan the Freebooter (coll 1968),
Conan the Wanderer (coll 1968), Conan the Adventurer (coll 1966), Conan
the Buccaneer (1971; by De Camp and Carter), Conan the Warrior (coll
1967), Conan the Usurper (coll 1967), Conan the Conqueror (1967), Conan
the Avenger (1968), Conan of Aquilonia (coll 1977; by De Camp and Carter)
and Conan of the Isles (1968 by De Camp and Carter). Two omnibuses -The
Conan Chronicles (omni 1989UK) and The Conan Chronicles 2 (omni 1990 UK) -
assemble the first 6 titles of this sequence. Using the original magazine
texts, Donald M. Grant issued handsome illustrated editions of many of the
REH stories including The People of the Black Circle (1974), A Witch Shall
Be Born (1975), The Tower of the Elephant (coll 1975), Red Nails (1975),
Rogues in the House (coll 1976), The Devil in Iron (coll 1976), Queen of
the Black Coast (coll 1978), Pool of the Black One (coll 1986) and The
Hour of the Dragon (1989). A Berkley paperback series advertised as "the
authorized edition" and ed Karl Edward Wagner includes The Hour of the
Dragon (1977), The People of the Black Circle (coll 1977) and Red Nails
(coll 1977). The Conan Chronicles (omni 1989). Two MARVEL COMICS based on
the character are Conan the Barbarian and The Savage Sword of Conan.Other
REH sword-and-sorcery series include one set in Conan's imaginary
prehistoric world, collected in King Kull (coll 1967, ed and with
additional material by Lin Carter. Others are collected in Bran Mak Morn
(coll 1969; cut vt Worms of the Earth 1987) and Red Shadows (coll 1968; vt
in 3 vols as The Moon of Skulls 1969, The Hand of Kane 1970 and Solomon
Kane 1971).REH wrote at high speed and his work is unsophisticated, but it
is vigorous, fast-paced and easy to read. His suicide - after learning of
his mother's imminent death - brought to a premature end what might have
been an extraordinarily productive career. [MJE/BS]Other works: Skull-Face
and Others (coll 1946; vt in 3 vols as Skull-Face and Others 1976 UK, The
Valley of the Worms, and Others 1976 UK and The Shadow Kingdom 1976 UK);
Always Comes Evening (coll 1957), poetry; The Dark Man and Others (coll
1963; cut vt Pigeons from Hell 1976); Wolfshead (coll 1968); Tigers of the
Sea (coll 1976); The Book of Robert E. Howard (coll 1976); The Second Book
of Robert E. Howard (coll 1976); The Robert E. Howard Omnibus (coll 1977);
Sword Woman (coll 1977); Black Canaan (coll 1978); The Gods of Bal-Sagoth
(coll 1979); Lord of the Dead (coll 1981); Cthulhu: The Mythos and Kindred
Horrors (coll 1987) ed David A. DRAKE; Shadows of Dreams (coll 1989),
poetry.About the author: The Last Celt (1976) by Glenn Lord,
bio-bibliography by the agent of REH's estate; The Annotated Guide to
Robert E. Howard's Sword & Sorcery (1976 chap) by Robert E. WEINBERG; The
Ultimate Guide to Howardia 1925-1975 (1976) ed Wayne Warfield; Dark Valley
Destiny: The Life of Robert E.Howard (1983) by L. Sprague De Camp; The
Dark Barbarian: The Writings of Robert E. Howard: A Critical Anthology
(1984) ed Don Herron.See also: ARKHAM HOUSE; ATLANTIS; FANZINE; GODS AND

Lauran Bosworth PAINE.

[s] Frederik POHL.


(1837-1920) US writer, best known for his many realist novels from 1870
onwards. His UTOPIAN sequence, A Traveler from Altruria (1892-3
Cosmopolitan; 1894) and Through the Eye of the Needle (Part One 1894
Cosmopolitan; exp 1907), is a deceptively mild-mannered assault on the
pretensions of late-19th-century US democracy and culture, seen from the
perspective of a dreamlike visitor from Altruria, a land where the
principles of Christianity and of the US Constitution, taken literally,
result in an ethical form of socialism. In the second volume the visitor
returns to Altruria with his US bride, and both send letters back
describing that land, whose nature is somewhat influenced by the work of
Edward BELLAMY, more so by that of William MORRIS. Capitalism has been
replaced by a genuine altruistic "neighbourliness", and the two books
attack hypocrisy and the more ruthless forms of capitalism in a manner
both unmistakable and highly telling, even though gently put. Letters of
an Altrurian Traveler (1893-4 Cosmopolitan; 1961) assembles bridging
material WDH published only in magazine form; The Altrurian Romances (omni
1968) reprints everything. Much the same narrative technique reappears
movingly in The Seen and Unseen at Stratford-on-Avon (1914), whose revived
but ghostly Shakespeare, addressing the 20th-century narrator, sweetly
defends his right to be considered the author of his own plays; the book
is an answer to Mark TWAIN's Is Shakespeare Dead? (1909) which, after the
fashion of the time, argues Francis BACON's authorship. Questionable
Shapes (coll 1903) and Between the Dark and the Daylight (coll 1907),
neither sf, assemble (along with other work) CLUB STORIES in which the
psychologist Wanhope scientifically debunks the ghost stories of his
fellow members. [JC]Other works: The Undiscovered Country 1880); The
Leatherwood God (1916).As Editor: Shapes that Haunt the Dusk (anth 1907)
with Henry Mills Alden.

Wilmar H. SHIRAS.

[r] Sharon JARVIS.


(1915- ) UK astronomer and writer, famed in the former capacity for his
maverick views on many subjects, including a long-held advocacy of the
Steady State theory of the creation of the Universe, a concept replaced
after much acrimony by the currently orthodox Big Bang theory. A possible
consequence of his combative attitude towards theory and his colleagues
was the apparent weariness which afflicted him in 1973, the year of his
knighthood, when he resigned his posts at Cambridge University as Plumian
professor of ASTRONOMY and experimental philosophy, and as director of the
Cambridge Institute of Theoretical Astronomy, which he had founded. He
subsequently much increased the rate of his writing, both fiction and
nonfiction. The first in the latter category, and his first book, The
Nature of the Universe (1950), had eloquently popularized his COSMOLOGY in
1950s terms, as had what is possibly his most important popularization,
Frontiers of Astronomy (1955); later works, like Astronomy and Cosmology
(1975 US), Astronomy Today (1975; vt Highlights in Astronomy 1975 US) and
The Universe According to Hoyle (1982 US), aggressively updated those
arguments. More unusual postulates about the nature of the Universe were
presented - with Chandra Wickramasinghe (1939- ) - in books such as
Lifecloud: The Origin of Life in the Universe (1979), Diseases from Space
(1979), Evolution from Space (1981) and Cosmic Life-Force (1988), which
argue that complex organic molecules, including viruses, form in the
nuclei of comets and are deposited on Earth during close encounters or
impacts; they join the gene pool, making EVOLUTION possible. Ice: The
Ultimate Human Catastrophe (1981) argues that a new Ice Age is imminent.It
could be argued that FH's formidable reputation and powers as a scientific
intellect have obscured the true nature of his sf, none of which is told
with anything like a strict adherence to scientific principles, plausible
or speculative. His first novel, The Black Cloud (1957) postulates the
arrival of a sentient cloud of gas from space which - in a manner
reminiscent of the work of Edmond HAMILTON- proceeds to blot off the Sun's
rays from Earth, killing the scientists who attempt full-scale
COMMUNICATION with it, because such an intense exposure to the cloud's
mentality overwhelmingly displaces their human conception of reality. In
later novels offers of transcendence would affect FH's SCIENTISTS like
catnip, giving them the chance both to escape "orthodox" science and to
demonstrate an impatient contempt for civilian dealings: his books, which
typically read as mystical romps into the transcendental, are of absorbing
interest for their aggressive presentation of the argument that
science-educated people are more fit to govern than arts-educated people,
partly because numeracy is a necessary qualification for rulers but also
because civilians face life through a tangle of disenabling emotions. FH's
work, therefore, when it is not expressive of a holiday escapism, is
consistently political ( POLITICS) in orientation.Ossian's Ride (1959),
his second novel, is told initially in a manner reminiscent of John Buchan
(1875-1940) or Geoffrey HOUSEHOLD: a protagonist, on the run in
rough-and-tumble Ireland from a posse of incompetent agents, gradually
uncovers an underlying sf plot - at which point the book changes course
utterly. Stranded ALIENS plan to transform Earth into a rationalized,
high-tech, skyscraper-packed UTOPIA, by force if necessary: they offer to
recruit the protagonist, who joins them gladly. With John ELLIOT, FH next
published A for Andromeda * (1962) and Andromeda Breakthrough * (1964),
adapted from their tv serials with those titles (which see). With the
exception of one further solo novel, October the First is Too Late (1966),
an emotionally disjointing excursion through time-slipped areas of Earth,
and a collection of stories, Element 79 (coll 1967), FH for some 20 years
concentrated exclusively on collaborative work; Comet Halley (1985)
noticeably lacked the drive of his collaborations. The obvious power of
his personality is reflected in the fact that the novels written with
Elliot, and the more important ones with his son Geoffrey HOYLE, differ in
no significant way from the early solo efforts.In the first novel with
Geoffrey, Fifth Planet (1963), an alien intelligence offers, as usual, a
challenge-and an ultimate marriage of minds - to a scientist who must
attempt to make sense of events on Achilles, a grassy, wandering planet.
Rockets in Ursa Major (1962 as unpublished children's play by FH; rev
1969) and its sequel, Into Deepest Space (1974 US), are spasmodic SPACE
OPERAS involving an ALIEN-guided trip through a BLACK HOLE. The
protagonist of The Incandescent Ones (1977 US), trapped on a DYSTOPIAN
Earth, finds to his relief that he is an ANDROID, and thus entitled to
discorporate into the higher consciousnesses who inhabit Jupiter. The
Westminster Disaster (1978) welcomes a terrorist-inspired nuclear
destruction of London, with the buildings of Whitehall coming "down like
so many rotten fruit". But most interesting perhaps is The Inferno (1973),
in which an explosion at the galactic core wipes out all human life except
for small groups, mainly in Scotland, which an impatient scientist comes
to rule: as wish-fulfilment, the tale is perhaps more self-revealing than
many "civilian" authors would dare to pen; the power of the book,
nevertheless, is very considerable. By this point, FH and his son had
become adept at a style whose apparent disjointedness concealed an
intensity which scathed the mundane world. In his best work, FH
demonstrates not the power of scientific method but the personal allure of
transcendental intoxication. His appeal is straightforward. In his hands,
sf does not explain. It releases. [JC/PN]Other works: The Small World of
Fred Hoyle: An Autobiography (1986).With Geoffrey Hoyle: Seven Steps to
the Sun (1970); The Molecule Men and The Monster of Loch Ness: Two Short
Novels (coll 1971); the Professor Gamma series of juvenile novels,
comprising The Energy Pirate (1982 chap), The Frozen Planet of Azuron
(1982 chap), The Giants of Universal Park (1982 chap) and The Planet of

(1941- ) UK writer, author of several sf novels with his father, Fred
HOYLE (whom see for details). 2010: Living in the Future (1972) is a
nonfiction exercise in FUTUROLOGY for children. [JC]

(1940- ) UK writer who has, most unusually, been able to apply an erudite
surrealism to works directed towards a mass market. He had not, however,
yet mastered this technique for his first novel, The Relatively Constant
Copywriter (1972), a dourly joky FABULATION which he self-published. He
remains best known for his Q series-Q: Seeking the Mythical Future (1977),
Q: Through the Eye of Time (1977) and Q: The Gods Look Down (1977)-set in
a variety of ALTERNATE WORLDS and detailing the work and crises of its
overall protagonist, a Myth Technologist who, in the second volume, must
cope with the re-creation, on an alternate world, of an experimental Adolf
Hitler whose existence threatens to leak into our own familiar Earth (
HITLER WINS). TH's mature range was demonstrated by the publication in the
same year, 1979, of This Sentient Earth (1979 US; vt Earth Cult 1979 UK),
an unremarkable sf adventure, and The Man who Travelled on Motorways
(1979), an intensely crafted hegira through the apocalyptic inscapes of a
UK approaching the end. The Last Gasp (1983 US; rev 1990) is a salutary
dreadful-warning tale about terminal POLLUTION, implying very clearly that
humanity's behaviour could be described as lemming-like. Vail (1984), once
again focusing on motorways, presents a NEAR-FUTURE UK in DYSTOPIAN terms.
K.I.D.S. (1987; vt Kids 1990 US) is a horror tale which climaxes in
nuclear HOLOCAUST. It may be that, in finding several audiences, TH has
failed to find any one audience that properly recognizes him; but he still
has readers, and they continue to look for his work. [JC]Other works:
Three BLAKE'S SEVEN tv ties, being Blake's Seven * (1977; vt Terry
Nation's Blake's 7: Their First Adventure 1988 US), #2: Project Avalon *
(1979; vt Terry Nation's Blake's 7: Project Avalon 1988 US) and #3:
Scorpio Attack * (1971; vt Terry Nation's Blake's 7: Scorpio Attack 1988
US); The Rock Fix (1977); The Stigma (1980).

(1875-1946) US writer, a popularizer of ECONOMICS topics and author of
Intrigue on the Upper Level: A Story of Crime, Love, Adventure and Revolt
in 2050 A.D. (1934), in which a primitive, hierarchical, gangster-run
capitalist society is riven by discontent among the lower orders, and is
eventually overthrown. [JC]

(1933- ) US writer whose sf novel, Borrowed Time (1984), attempts with
some success to suggest analogies and crossings between various ALTERNATE
WORLDS and the bicameral human brain. [JC]


(1911-1986) US writer in many genres, including sf and fantasy, and
subsequent quasireligious figure whose founding of DIANETICS and in 1952
the Church of SCIENTOLOGY led to much controversy, which continues. He
began publishing sf with "The Dangerous Dimension" for ASF in 1938, and
remained active until, more than a decade later, he transferred his
creative gifts to the RELIGION he founded. He wrote under his own name and
as Kurt von Rachen, Rene Lafayette and Frederick Engelhardt; other names
remain unrevealed. Though there is no hard and fast line, his fantasy,
much of it published in Unknown, was frequently as by LRH, and his sf,
mostly in ASF, was frequently pseudonymous (although at least 12 items,
some of them full-length though yet-unreprinted novels, appeared in ASF as
by LRH). Certainly LRH was for John W. CAMPBELL Jr, in the throes of
creating his GOLDEN AGE OF SF, a worthwhile and prolific contributor to
the two journals, though he was not a member of that small group - L.
Sprague DE CAMP, Robert A. HEINLEIN and Isaac ASIMOV being the prime
movers-who were rewriting the rules of generic plausibility in terms which
survived for many years. Retrospective attempts to elect LRH to that
central role are best seen as gestures of loyalty from those sympathethic
to his later career.His best-known early sf novel, Final Blackout (1940
ASF; 1948), grimly describes a world devastated by many wars in which a
young army officer becomes dictator of the UK, which he organizes to fend
off a decadent USA. It cannot be denied that the book veers extremely
close to the fascism its text explicitly disavows. But sf was clearly not
LRH's forte, and most of his work in the genre reads as tendentious or
laboured or both. As a writer of fantasy, however, he wrote with an
occasionally pixilated fervour that is still pleasing, and sometimes
reminiscent of the screwball comedies popular in the 1930s cinema. Slaves
of Sleep (1939 Unknown; 1948), with its sequel "The Masters of Sleep"
(1950), his best-known fantasy, is laid in the Arabian Nights environment
set aside for him by Campbell as his exclusive bailiwick in Unknown. The
darkly PARANOID Fear (1940 Unknown; 1957) was perhaps rather stronger and
more original, and demonstrated a powerful capacity to hook the reader
into worlds where normal logic is distressingly maladaptive; it appeared
also as one of the 2 novellas in Typewriter in the Sky/Fear (1940 Unknown
for "Typewriter in the Sky"; coll 1951) and as one of the 2 novellas in
Fear & The Ultimate Adventure (1939 Unknown for "The Ultimate Adventure";
coll 1970). "Typewriter in the Sky", a slyly effective self-referential
FABULATION, may be his most permanently memorable work. Return to Tomorrow
(1950 ASF as "To the Stars"; 1954) is a remarkably ruthless SPACE OPERA (
SOCIAL DARWINISM). The Ole Doc Methuselah stories, as by Rene Lafayette,
have been assembled as Ole Doc Methuselah (1947-50 ASF; coll 1970). He
wrote other series, too, notably the Conquest of Space series (as
Lafayette) in Startling Stories, all but the last story in 1949:
"Forbidden Voyage", "The Magnificent Failure", "The Incredible
Destination", "The Unwilling Hero", "Beyond the Black Nebula", "The
Emperor of the Universe" and "The Last Admiral" (1950). As Kurt von Rachen
he wrote the Kilkenny Cats series, all in ASF: "The Idealists" (1940),
"The Kilkenny Cats" (1940), "The Traitor" (1941), "The Mutineers" (1941)
and "The Rebels" (1942). In general his early work, though composed with
delirious speed, often came to haunt his readership, and its canny
utilization of SUPERMAN protagonists came to tantalize them with visions
of transcendental power.The vulnerability of the sf community - from
Campbell and A.E. VAN VOGT down to the naivest teenage fans - to this lure
of transcendence may help account for the otherwise puzzling success first
of Dianetics, then of Scientology itself, which gained many early recruits
from sf; for, both as technique and as religion, these very US bodies of
doctrine centrally posited a technology of self-improvement, a set of
instructions to follow in order to liberate the transcendent power within
one ( EDISONADE). LRH became very wealthy on the proceeds of his intuition
concerning "spiritual technology", and departed the sf field for many
years, not to return until the publication of Battlefield Earth: A Saga of
the Year 3000 (1982), an enormously long space opera composed in an idiom
that seemed embarrassingly archaic. This was followed by the Mission Earth
"dekalogy", a 10-vol sequence whose farcical overemphases fail to disguise
an overblown tale that would have been more at home in the dawn of the
PULP MAGAZINES; it comprises The Invaders Plan (1985), Black Genesis
(1986), The Enemy Within (1986), An Alien Affair (1986), Fortune of Fear
(1986), Death Quest (1987), Voyage of Vengeance (1987), Disaster (1987),
Villainy Victorious (1987) and The Doomed Planet (1987). The posthumous
publication of some of these books has led to speculation as to their true
authorship. The sequence was released by LRH's own firm, Bridge
Publications, and was heavily promoted, reflecting LRH's - and his
intellectual heirs' - apparent desire to re-establish his reputation in
the sf world. At the same time, he inaugurated the WRITERS OF THE FUTURE
CONTEST and the Writers of the Future workshops for new authors, some of
whom have reported benefits ( Algis BUDRYS for further discussion); the
associated anthology series is L. RON HUBBARD PRESENTS WRITERS OF THE
FUTURE. In the early 1990s, much of LRH's early work was scheduled for
reissue from Bridge Publications; and in 1992 it was announced that an
underground crypt had been constructed near Petrolia, California, by an
arm of the Church of Scientology known as the Church of Spiritual
Technology, to house "the religious works of L. Ron Hubbard and other key
religious works of mankind". [JC/PN]Other works: Buckskin Brigades (1937;
rev 1987; further rev 1987), associational; Death's Deputy (1940 Unknown;
1948) and The Kingslayer (coll 1949; vt Seven Steps to the Arbiter 1975),
also bound together as From Death to the Stars (omni 1953); Triton and
Battle of Wizards ("Triton" 1940 Unknown; "Battle of Wizards" 1949 Fantasy
Book; coll 1949), also bound with Ed Earl REPP's The Radium Pool (coll
1949) as Science Fantasy Quintet (anth 1953); The Case of the Friendly
Corpse (1941 Unknown; 1991); The Automagic Horse (1994 chap).Nonfiction:
Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (1950) and very many others
of this type, including This is Scientology: The Science of Certainty
(1955 UK), Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought (1956 UK) and The
Phoenix Lectures (1968 UK). See also: ALIENS; ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION;

(? - ) US author of two unremarkable sf adventures, Alpha-II (dated 1979
but 1980) and Space Ark (1981). [JC]

George H. SMITH.


(1841-1922) UK naturalist and writer, born in Argentina. His fine quasi-
UTOPIAN novel of the FAR FUTURE, A Crystal Age (1887 anon; signed, with a
new preface, 1906) depicts small, self-sufficient, matriarchally organized
households living in harmony with Nature. The protagonist, tragically,
cannot adapt to their PASTORAL way of life. A similar quasisupernatural
harmony with the Amazonian forest is enjoyed by the wild girl Rima - the
last of her race - in the affectingly powerful novel Green Mansions
(1904); she is ultimately destroyed by the local Indians, who are no more
in tune with Nature than is the unhappy civilized protagonist. Both
stories are remarkable anticipations of modern ecological mysticism (
ECOLOGY). "Marta Riquelme", in El Ombu (coll 1902), is an equally feverish
fantasy in which the eponymous woman undergoes sorrow-induced
metamorphosis into a bird. A Little Boy Lost (1905) is a children's
fantasy which further develops Hudson's peculiar fascination with maternal

[r] Ford Madox FORD.

(? - ) UK writer, one of several authors of paperback originals for
obscure houses in the late 1940s and 1950s who have remained reticent - or
indifferent - about revealing much about themselves as individuals. DH was
among the most prolific, producing some 60 known sf novels in less than
half a decade. Like John S. GLASBY and the even more prolific R.L.
FANTHORPE, DH made use of a wide range of sf themes with considerable
invention, especially on some of his later fantasy stories, which often
feature allegorical and/or dream sequences; but the books themselves were
slackly written, albeit with some improvement over the years. This
carelessness was entirely understandable given the sweat-shop conditions
of his employment. [JC]Works include:As Dennis (or Denis) Hughes: The
Earth Invasion Battalion (1950); Murder by Telecopter (1950); Formula 695
(1950); War Lords of Space (1950); Moon War (1951).As Marvin Ashton:
People of Asa (1953).As Ray Barry: Death Dimension (1952); Blue Peril
(1952); Gamma Product (1952); Humanoid Puppets (1952); Ominous Folly
(1952).As George Sheldon Browne (or Brown): Destination Mars (1951); The
Planetoid Peril (1952); The Yellow Planet (1954).As Berl CAMERON (house
name): Maid of Thuro (1952); Lost Aeons (1953).As Dee Carter: Blue Cordon
(1952); Chloroplasm (1952); Purple Islands (1953).As Neil CHARLES (house
name): Twenty-Four Hours (1952); The Land of Esa (1953); Beyond Zoaster
(1953); Pre-Gargantua (1953); World of Gol (1953); Research Opta (1953).As
Lee ELLIOT(house name): Bio-Muton (1952).As Marco Garon (house name): The
Rex Brandon jungle fantasies, loosely derived from Tarzan, comprising
Jungle Allies (1951), Death Warriors (1951), Black Fury (1951), White Gold
(1951), Black Sport (1951), Bush Claws (1951), Silent River (1951), Veldt
Warriors (1951), Leopard God (1952), Snake Valley (1952), Fire Tribes
(1952) and Mountain Gold (1952) ( Marco GARRON).As Irving Heine: Dimension
of Illion (1955 chap).As Gill HUNT (house name): Elektron Union (1951);
Hostile Worlds (1951); Planet X (1951); Space Flight (1951); Spacial Ray
(1951).As Von KELLAR (house name): Ionic Barrier (1953).As Brad KENT
(house name): Biology "A" (1952); The Fatal Law (1952); Catalyst (1952).As
John Lane: Maid of Thuro (1952); Mammalia (1953).As Rand LE PAGE (house
name): Asteroid Forma (1953).As Grant Malcolm: The Green Mandarin Mystery
(1950).As G.R. Melde: Pacific Advance (1954).As Van REED (house name):
House of Many Changes (1952).As Russell Rey: The Queen People (1952);
Valley of Terror (1953).As William Rogersohn: North Dimension (1954);
Amiro (1954).As Arn ROMILUS (house name): Brain Paleo (1953); Organic
Destiny (1954).As E.R. Royce: Experiment in Telepathy (1954).

(? - ) US writer who began publishing sf with "In the Name of the Father"
for FSF in 1980. His first novel, The Long Mynd (1985), depicts a post-
HOLOCAUST world which has been brought into being by PSI POWERS. Master of
the Fist (coll of linked stories 1989) repeats significant elements of the
first venue. [JC]

(1925- ) UK-born writer, from 1952 in CANADA, where she has won several
awards in recognition of her novels for older children, including the
Canada Council Children's Literature Prize in 1982 and 1983. Her first sf
novels, Crisis on Conshelf Ten (1975) and its sequel, Earthdark (1977 UK),
utilize an UNDER-THE-SEA and a Lunar setting to explore in a humane
fashion the crises of adolescents in venues which, typically of her work
in general, encompassingly keep them alive, but at a cost. This irony of
survival - it is an irony likely to evoke an acute response from young
readers - is very much sharpened in the Isis sequence, for which MH
remains best known: The Keeper of the Isis Light (1980 UK), The Guardian
of Isis (1981 UK) and The Isis Pedlar (1982 UK). The protagonist of the
sequence, a deeply isolated orphan teenager, is initially alone on the
planet Isis except for a guardian ROBOT. It is only when human settlers
arrive that she discovers that she has been bio-engineered into a kind of
reptile for survival purposes, and must from this point adjust to her job
as warden and to her solitude. Other series include the DYSTOPIAN Arc One
sequence - Devil on My Back (1984 UK) and The Dream Catcher (1986 UK) -
and Sandwriter (1985 UK) and its sequel, The Promise (1989).Singletons of
interest include: The Tomorrow City (1978 UK), which again demonstrates
the costs of survival through the story of a young girl who is blinded by
the great COMPUTER designed by her father to protect her environment;
Beyond the Dark River (1979 UK), a post- HOLOCAUST tale set in the
prairies of northern Canada; Ring-Rise, Ring-Set (1982 UK), again set in a
threatened Canada; and Invitation to the Game (1990), in which the
implicit PARANOIA of some of MH's earlier work becomes frighteningly
articulate, as a seemingly benevolent 21st-century government transports
unemployable adolescents to an unknown destination, where they will be
very happy. [JC]Other works: The Beckoning Lights (1982); Space Trap
(1983); The Crystal Drop (1992).See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

(1930- ) Working name of UK poet Edward James Hughes for all his writing.
Best known for volumes of dark, violent verse such as Crow (coll 1970; rev
1971), which like all his work features representations of other species
in terms hinting at mythic metamorphoses, he has been Poet Laureate since
1984. Of sf interest is his children's sequence, comprisingin The Iron
Man: A Story in Five Nights (1968; vt The Iron Giant 1968 US), and The
Iron Woman (1993 chap), in the first volume a frightening but friendly
iron man defends the world against a dragon from space, ultimately
persuading it to sing the music of the spheres, a sound which soothes
humanity's terrible lust for war and causes peace; it was made into a
musical ( MUSIC), The Iron Man (1989) by Pete Townshend (1945- ). Also for
children, What is the Truth? A Farmyard Fable for the Young (1984 chap)
and Ffangs the Vampire Bat and the Kiss of Truth (1986 chap), both written
in a style that intermingles verse and prose, are complex tales mixing
didactic concerns with flights of sf hyperbole. Much of his verse for
children, variously collected in volumes like Moon-Whales (coll 1976 US;
rev 1988 UK), is fantasy. [JC]

Working name of US writer Hugh Zachary (1928- ) for almost all his sf; he
uses his real name for other work, and has written as well under various
pseudonyms, including Evan Innes, Peter Kanto, Pablo Kane and Marcus Van
Heller. His novels in the sf field are expertly devised and readable and
frequently surprisingly dark in their implications. The Book of Rack the
Healer (1973) and its sequel Thunderworld (1982) explore with some
complexity first a post- HOLOCAUST USA, then a planet whose ALIEN
population renders humanity's survival problematic. The Legend of Miaree
(1974) again subjects alien races to a reading which is pessimistic about
the chances of species survival. Tide (1974) and The St Francis Effect
(1976) are more routine but Seed of the Gods (1974) sharply parodies the
Erich VON DANIKEN books. Other novels, like The Stork Factor (1975), For
Texas and Zed (1976) and Tiger in the Stars (1976 Canada), variously
exploit SPACE-OPERA themes, sharing with his first books an inventive
knack for aliens. Without undue emphasis, elements of a shared background
link several of these titles - Killbird (1980), for instance, is clearly
set in the same universe as The Legend of Miaree - and ZH's work gives a
general sense of only casually developed potential, along with very
considerable unevenness: Sundrinker (1987), another tale of aliens,
features as protagonist a mobile plant, arguing the plausibility of the
premise with some force; while The Dark Side (1987) is a conventional
space opera. In the end, ZH gives the air of being a professional writer
less than fully attentive to the genre. [JC]Other works: Pressure Man
(1980); Gold Star (1983); Closed System (1986); Life Force (1988); Mother
Lode (1991); Deep Freeze (1992); The Omnificence Factor (1994).As Evan
Innes: The America 2040 sequence of SPACE-OPERA adventure SHARECROPS
comprising America 2040 (1986), #2: The Golden World (1986), #3: The City
in the Mist (1987), #4: The Return (1988) and #5: The Star Explorer
(1988).As Pablo Kane: A Dick for All Seasons (1970).As Peter Kanto: Of his
numerous sex novels under this name, The World where Sex was Born (1969),
Rosy Cheeks (1969), Taste of Evil (1969) and Unnatural Urges (1969) are of
some interest.As Marcus Van Heller: The Ring (1968).As Hugh Zachary: Gwen,
in Green (1974); The Revenant (1988).



The almost invariably used term, in honour of Hugo GERNSBACK, for the
Science Fiction Achievement Award; it has been an official variant of the
formal title since 1958. Hugos were first awarded at the 1953 World SF
CONVENTION; the idea was then dropped for a year (1954), but since 1955
the awards have been annual. They have always been the amateur or fan
awards as opposed to, say, the NEBULA or PHILIP K. DICK AWARD, which are
voted on by different categories of professional reader. The original
idea, from fan Hal Lynch, was based on the National Film Academy Awards
(Oscars). The award takes the form of a rocketship mounted upright on
fins. The first model was designed and produced by Jack McKnight; from
1955 a similar design by Ben Jason has normally been used. The rockets
have been cast since 1984 (except 1991) in Birmingham, UK, at the foundry
of prominent fan Peter WESTON; in 1992 they were gold-plated to celebrate
the 50th Worldcon.Awards are made in several classes, which have varied in
definition and number from year to year. They are given primarily for
fiction, but classes for editing, artwork, film and tv, fan writing and
illustration have also been included; moreover, occasional unclassified
special awards have been given. The rules governing awards are made, and
often remade, at Worldcon business meetings, held annually. Winners in
each class are chosen by ballot; since 1960 the voters have been limited
annually to members of the forthcoming Worldcon (anyone can buy membership
without actually attending the convention). The occasional special awards,
however, are made by Worldcon committees. Voting on Hugos is always
carried out postally before the convention begins; counting is done using
the single transferable ballot, often known as the Australian ballot
(after the system used in Australian lower-house elections), the least
successful contender's votes being redistributed, using second or
subsequent preferences, after each count, until one candidate has a clear
majority. There was no nominating procedure up to 1958. Since 1959 there
have been ballots for nominations, distributed to fans generally until
1963, when they were limited to the membership of the current and previous
year's Worldcon, except in 1965 and 1967.World conventions are held over
Labor Day Weekend in September, and Hugos are given for publication or
activity in the preceding calendar year. Hence, for example, a novel which
wins a 1998 Hugo will have been published in 1997 (though, if it also wins
a Nebula, the latter will be known confusingly as the 1997 Nebula). "No
award" votes have for many years been permitted, and have resulted
occasionally in void classes. Since 1963, story series and tv series have
been excluded from the short-fiction and drama classes; thus in 1968 five
individual STAR TREK episodes were nominated for the drama award, while in
1962 Brian W. ALDISS was able to win the short-fiction award with a
series, the Hothouse stories.The definitions of the various categories of
short fiction have varied. There was no short-fiction award in 1953. In
the years 1955-9 there were only two classes of short fiction: novelette
and short story. These were amalgamated 1960-66 as "short fiction"; few
short stories were nominated during this period. In 1967 the novelette
class was reintroduced, and a new class, novella, was included from 1968.
In 1970-72 the only two classes were short story and novella. Since 1973
there have again been three classes of short fiction. Since the early
1970s a novella has been defined as being 17,500-40,000 words, a novelette
as 7500-17,500 words, a short story as any fiction shorter than a
novelette and a novel as any fiction longer than a novella.Since 1971, the
drama category has included recordings. In 1973 the professional-magazine
class changed to a professional-editor class, to acknowledge the
increasing importance of original ANTHOLOGIES. In 1980 the new category of
nonfiction book was added, the first award being given to the first
edition of this encyclopedia, and subsequent awards have gone to books of
criticism, scholarship, artwork, reminiscence and science fact: a category
in which GRAPHIC NOVELS compete with encyclopedias is perhaps too much of
a grab-bag; the 1989 Worldcon committee did choose specifically to exclude
A Brief History of Time (1988 US) by Stephen Hawking (1942- ), causing
some slight controversy. Since 1984 the new category of SEMIPROZINE has
been included, for publications midway between FANZINES and professional
magazines.The Hugos have for many years been subject to criticism on the
grounds that awards made by a small, self-selected group of hardcore fans
do not necessarily reflect either literary merit or the preferences of the
sf reading public generally; hardcore FANDOM probably makes up less than 1
per cent of the general sf readership. Certainly Hugos have tended to be
given to traditional HARD SF, and have seldom been awarded to experimental
work, but they have been, on the whole, surprisingly eclectic. While many
awards have gone to (good but) conservative writers like Poul ANDERSON,
Robert A. HEINLEIN, Clifford D. SIMAK and Larry NIVEN, they have also been
given to such doyens of the NEW WAVE as Harlan ELLISON, Roger ZELAZNY and
James TIPTREE Jr, and to a number of works of literary excellence which
quite fail to conform to the standard patterns of genre expectation, such
as Walter M. MILLER Jr's A CANTICLE FOR LEIBOWITZ (1959) and Ursula K. LE
GUIN's The Dispossessed (1974). Neither was Fritz LEIBER's eccentric THE
BIG TIME (1958; 1961), which won the award before going into book format,
a traditionalist selection. The rival award, the NEBULA, is chosen by
professional writers, but there is no evidence that they have consistently
selected works of superior literary merit; indeed, some critics would
argue the contrary case, that the Hugo voters have proved themselves
marginally the more reliable judges. Though good books are often ignored,
and in some years individual awards have seemed strange, the track record
of the Hugos has been, on the whole, quite honourable. Another cavil is
that both Hugo and Nebula, being US-centred, are notably chauvinistic, and
awards to non-US writers have been rare. Nevertheless, despite all the
criticisms to which both awards are readily subject, they are of real
value to their recipients in increasing book sales.Up-to-date listings of
the rules under which Hugo awards are made can be found in the programme
booklets for each Worldcon, as Article II of the Constitution of the World
Science Fiction Society. Much of the Hugo-winning short fiction is
available in a series of anthologies edited by Isaac ASIMOV (whom see for
details). [PN]Novels:1953: Alfred BESTER, THE DEMOLISHED MAN1955: Mark
CLIFTON and Frank RILEY, They'd Rather be Right1956: Robert A. HEINLEIN,
Double Star1957: no award1958: Fritz LEIBER, THE BIG TIME1959: James
HIGH CASTLE1964: Clifford D. SIMAK, WAY STATION1965: Fritz Leiber, THE
WANDERER1966: Roger ZELAZNY, ". . . And Call Me Conrad" and Frank HERBERT,
DUNE (tie)1967: Robert A. Heinlein, THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS1968:
RAMA1975: Ursula K. Le Guin, The Dispossessed1976: Joe HALDEMAN, The
Forever War1977: Kate WILHELM, Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang1978:
Frederik POHL, GATEWAY1979: Vonda N. MCINTYRE, Dreamsnake1980: Arthur C.
C.J. CHERRYH, Downbelow Station1983: Isaac Asimov, Foundation's Edge1984:
David BRIN, Startide Rising1985: William GIBSON, Neuromancer1986: Orson
Scott CARD, Ender's Game1987: Orson Scott Card, Speaker for the Dead1988:
David Brin, The Uplift War1989: C.J. Cherryh, CYTEEN1990: Dan SIMMONS,
Hyperion1991: Lois McMaster BUJOLD, The Vor Game1992: Lois McMaster
Bujold, Barrayar1993:Vernor VINGE, A FIRE UPON THE DEEP and Connie WILLIS,
DOOMSDAY BOOK*1994: Kim Stanley ROBINSON, Green MarsShort fiction to
1972:1955Novelette: Walter M. Miller Jr, "The Darfstellar"Short Story:
Eric Frank RUSSELL, "Allamagoosa"1956Novelette: Murray LEINSTER,
"Exploration Team"Short Story: Arthur C. Clarke, "The Star"1957No
award1958Short Story: Avram DAVIDSON, "Or All the Seas with
Oysters"1959Novelette: Clifford D. Simak, "The Big Front Yard"Short Story:
Robert BLOCH, "That Hell-Bound Train"1960Short Fiction: Daniel KEYES,
"Flowers for Algernon"1961Short Story: Poul ANDERSON, "The Longest
Voyage"1962Short Fiction: Brian W. ALDISS, the Hothouse series1963Short
Fiction: Jack VANCE, "The Dragon Masters"1964Short Story: Poul Anderson,
"No Truce with Kings"1965Short Fiction: Gordon R. DICKSON, "Soldier, Ask
Not"1966Short Fiction: Harlan ELLISON, "'Repent, Harlequin!' said the
Ticktockman"1967Novelette: Jack Vance, "The Last Castle"Short Story: Larry
Niven, "Neutron Star"1968Novella: Anne MCCAFFREY, "Weyr Search" and Philip
Jose Farmer, "Riders of the Purple Wage" (tie)Novelette: Fritz Leiber,
"Gonna Roll Those Bones"Short Story: Harlan Ellison, "I Have no Mouth and
I Must Scream"1969Novella: Robert SILVERBERG, "Nightwings"Novelette: Poul
Anderson, "The Sharing of Flesh"Short Story: Harlan Ellison, "The Beast
that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World"1970Novella: Fritz Leiber,
"Ship of Shadows"Short Story: Samuel R. DELANY, "Time Considered as a
Helix of Semi-Precious Stones"1971Novella: Fritz Leiber, "Ill Met in
Lankhmar"Short Story: Theodore STURGEON, "Slow Sculpture"1972Novella: Poul
Anderson, "The Queen of Air and Darkness"Short Story: Larry Niven,
"Inconstant Moon"Novellas from 1973:1973: Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Word for
World is Forest"1974: James TIPTREE Jr, "The Girl who Was Plugged In"1975:
George R.R. MARTIN, "A Song for Lya"1976: Roger Zelazny, "Home is the
Hangman"1977: Spider ROBINSON, "By Any Other Name" and James Tiptree Jr,
"Houston, Houston, Do You Read?" (tie)1978: Spider and Jeanne ROBINSON,
"Stardance"1979: John VARLEY, "The Persistence of Vision"1980: Barry B.
LONGYEAR, "Enemy Mine"1981: Gordon R. Dickson, "Lost Dorsai"1982: Poul
Anderson, "The Saturn Game"1983: Joanna RUSS, "Souls"1984: Timothy ZAHN,
"Cascade Point"1985: John Varley, "PRESS ENTER "1986: Roger Zelazny,
"Twenty-four Views of Mount Fuji, by Hokusai"1987: Robert Silverberg,
"Gilgamesh in the Outback"1988: Orson Scott Card, "Eye for Eye"1989:
Connie WILLIS, "The Last of the Winnebagos"1990: Lois McMaster Bujold,
"The Mountains of Mourning"1991: Joe Haldeman, "The Hemingway Hoax"1992:
Nancy KRESS, "Beggars in Spain"1993: Lucius SHEPARD, "Barnacle Bill the
Spacer"1994: Harry TURTLEDOVE, "Down in the Bottomlands"Novelettes from
1973:1973: Poul Anderson, "Goat Song" 1974: Harlan Ellison, "The
Deathbird"1975: Harlan Ellison, "Adrift Just Off the Islets of Langerhans:
Latitude 38deg 54' N, Longitude 77deg 00' 13" W"1976: Larry Niven, "The
Borderland of Sol"1977: Isaac Asimov, "The Bicentennial Man"1978: Joan D.
Vinge, "Eyes of Amber"1979: Poul Anderson, "Hunter's Moon"1980: George
R.R. Martin, "Sandkings"1981: Gordon R. Dickson, "The Cloak and the
Staff"1982: Roger Zelazny, "Unicorn Variation"1983: Connie Willis, "Fire
Watch"1984: Greg BEAR, "Blood Music"1985: Octavia E. BUTLER,
"Bloodchild"1986: Harlan Ellison, "Paladin of the Lost Hour"1987: Roger
Zelazny, "Permafrost"1988: Ursula K. Le Guin, "Buffalo Gals, Won't You
Come Out Tonight"1989: George Alec EFFINGER, "Schrodinger's Kitten"1990:
Robert Silverberg, "Enter a Soldier. Later, Enter Another"1991: Michael D.
RESNICK, "The Manamouki"1992: Isaac Asimov, "Gold"1993: Janet KAGAN, "The
Nutcracker Coup"1994: Charles SHEFFIELD, "Georgia on my Mind"Short Stories
from 1973:1973: R.A. LAFFERTY, "Eurema's Dam", and Frederik Pohl and C.M.
KORNBLUTH, "The Meeting" (tie)1974: Ursula K. Le Guin, "The Ones who Walk
Away from Omelas"1975: Larry Niven, "The Hole Man"1976: Fritz Leiber,
"Catch that Zeppelin"1977: Joe Haldeman, "Tricentennial"1978: Harlan
Ellison, "Jeffty is Five"1979: C.J. Cherryh, "Cassandra"1980: George R.R.
Martin, "The Way of Cross and Dragon"1981: Clifford D. Simak, "Grotto of
the Dancing Deer"1982: John Varley, "The Pusher"1983: Spider Robinson,
"Melancholy Elephants"1984: Octavia E. Butler, "Speech Sounds"1985: David
Brin, "The Crystal Spheres"1986: Frederik Pohl, "Fermi and Frost"1987:
Greg Bear, "Tangents"1988: Lawrence WATT-EVANS, "Why I Left Harry's
All-Night Hamburgers"1989: Michael D. Resnick, "Kirinyaga"1990: Suzy McKee
CHARNAS, "Boobs"1991: Terry BISSON, "Bears Discover Fire"1992: Geoffrey
Landis, "A Walk in the Sun"1993: Connie Willis, "Even the Queen"1994:
Connie Willis, "Death on the Nile"Nonfiction book:1980: Peter NICHOLLS,
editor, The Science Fiction Encyclopedia1981: Carl SAGAN, Cosmos1982:
Stephen KING, Danse Macabre1983: James E. GUNN, Isaac Asimov: The
Foundations of Science Fiction1984: Donald H. TUCK, The Encyclopedia of
Science Fiction and Fantasy: Volume 3: Miscellaneous1985: Jack WILLIAMSON,
"Wonder's Child: My Life in Science Fiction"1986: Tom Weller, Science Made
Stupid1987: Brian W. Aldiss with David WINGROVE, Trillion Year Spree1988:
Michael WHELAN, Michael Whelan's Works of Wonder1989: Samuel R. Delany,
The Motion of Light in Water1990: Alexei and Cory PANSHIN, The World
Beyond the Hill1991: Orson Scott Card, How to Write Science Fiction and
Fantasy1992: The World of Charles Addams1993: Harry WARNER, Jr., A Wealth
of Fable: An Informal History of Science Fiction Fandom in the 1950s (this
was a professional edition of a mimeographed work dated 1976)1994: John
CLUTEand Peter Nicholls, editors, The Encyclopedia of Science
FictionDramatic presentation:1958: Outstanding movie, The INCREDIBLE
SHRINKING MAN 1960: The TWILIGHT ZONE 1961: The Twilight Zone1962: The
Twilight Zone1963: no award1965: Special drama, DR STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I
TREK)1968: "City on the Edge of Forever" (Star Trek)1969: Drama, 2001: A
SPACE ODYSSEY1970: Dramatic, news coverage of Apollo XI1971: no award1972:
Frankenstein1976: A BOY AND HIS DOG1977: no award1978: STAR WARS1979:
SUPERMAN1980: ALIEN1981: The EMPIRE STRIKES BACK 1982: Raiders of the Lost
Ark 1983: BLADE RUNNER1984: RETURN OF THE JEDI1985: 20101986: BACK TO THE
FUTURE1987: ALIENS1988: The Princess Bride1989: Who Framed Roger
Rabbit1990: Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade1991: Edward
Scissorhands1992: TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY1993: "The Inner Light" ( STAR
TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION)1994: JURASSIC PARKProfessional magazine:1953:
ASF1957: US, ASF; UK, NEW WORLDS1958: FSF1959: FSF1960: FSF1961: ASF1962:
ASF1963: FSF1964: ASF1965: ASF1966: IF1967: If1968: If1969: FSF1970:
FSF1971: FSF 1972: FSFProfessional editor:1973: Ben BOVA1974: Ben
Bova1975: Ben Bova1976: Ben Bova1977: Ben Bova1978: George H.
SCITHERS1979: Ben Bova1980: George H. Scithers1981: Edward L. FERMAN1982:
Edward L. Ferman1983: Edward L. Ferman1984: Shawna MCCARTHY1985: Terry
CARR1986: Judy-Lynn DEL REY (declined by Lester DEL REY)1987: Terry
Carr1988: Gardner DOZOIS1989: Gardner Dozois1990: Gardner Dozois1991:
Gardner Dozois1992: Gardner Dozois1993: Gardner Dozois1994:Kristine
Kathryn RUSCHPublisher:1964: ACE BOOKS1965: BALLANTINE BOOKSProfessional
artist (early awards differently named): 1953 Interior Illustrator: Virgil
FINLAY Cover Artist: Ed EMSHWILLER and Hannes BOK (tie)1955Illustrator:
Frank Kelly FREAS 1956 Illustrator: Frank Kelly Freas 1957 No
award 1958 Illustrator: Frank Kelly Freas 1959 Illustrator: Frank Kelly
Freas 1960 Illustrator: Ed Emshwiller 1961 Illustrator: Ed Emshwiller
1962: Ed Emshwiller 1963: Roy G. KRENKEL 1964: Ed Emshwiller 1965: John
SCHOENHERR 1966: Frank FRAZETTA 1967: Jack GAUGHAN 1968: Jack Gaughan 1969:
Jack Gaughan1970: Frank Kelly Freas1971: Leo and Diane DILLON1972: Frank
Kelly Freas1973: Frank Kelly Freas1974: Frank Kelly Freas1975: Frank Kelly
Freas1976: Frank Kelly Freas1977: Rick STERNBACH1978: Rick Sternbach1979:
Vincent DI FATE1980: Michael WHELAN1981: Michael Whelan1982: Michael
Whelan1983: Michael Whelan1984: Michael Whelan1985: Michael Whelan1986:
Michael Whelan1987: Jim BURNS1988: Michael Whelan1989: Michael Whelan1990:
Don MAITZ1991: Michael Whelan1992: Michael Whelan1993: Don Maitz1994: Bob
EGGLETONOriginal artwork (new category from 1992):1992: Michael Whelan,
cover for The Summer Queen(1991) by Joan D. Vinge, published by Warner
Questar1993: James GURNEY, Dinotopia (1992), published by Turner1994:
Stephen Hickman, Space Fantasy Commemorative Stamp Booklet, published by
US Postal ServiceSemiprozine:1984: Charles N. BROWN, ed LOCUS1985: Charles
N. Brown, ed Locus1986: Charles N. Brown, ed Locus1987: Charles N. Brown,
ed Locus1988: Charles N. Brown, ed Locus1989: Charles N. Brown, ed
Locus1990: Charles N. Brown, ed Locus1991: Charles N. Brown, ed Locus1992:
Charles N. Brown, ed Locus1993: Andrew Porter, ed SCIENCE FICTION
CHRONICLE1994: Andrew Porter, ed Science Fiction ChronicleFan
magazine/amateur publication/fanzine:1955: James V. Taurasi and Ray Van
Houten, eds FANTASY TIMES1956: Ron Smith, ed Inside and Science Fiction
Advertiser1957: James V. Taurasi, Ray Van Houten and Frank Prieto, eds
Science Fiction Times ( FANTASY TIMES)1959: Terry Carr and Ron ELLIK, eds
FANAC1960: F.M. and Elinor BUSBY, Burnett Toskey and Wally Weber, eds Cry
of the Nameless1961: Earl KEMP, "Who Killed Science Fiction?"1962: Richard
Bergeron, ed WARHOON1963: Richard and Pat LUPOFF, eds XERO1964: George
SCITHERS, ed Amra1965: Robert and Juanita COULSON, eds YANDRO1966: Camille
Cazedessus Jr, ed ERB-dom1967: Ed Meskys and Felice Rolfe, eds NIEKAS1968:
George Scithers, ed Amra1969: Richard E. GEIS, ed SCIENCE FICTION
REVIEW1970: Richard E. Geis, ed Science Fiction Review1971: Charlie and
Dena Brown, eds Locus1972: Charlie and Dena Brown, eds Locus1973: Michael
Glicksohn and Susan WOOD Glicksohn, eds Energumen1974: Andy Porter, ed
ALGOL, and Richard E. Geis, ed The ALIEN CRITIC (tie)1975: Richard E.
Geis, ed The Alien Critic1976: Charlie and Dena Brown, eds Locus1977:
Richard E. Geis, ed Science Fiction Review1978: Charlie and Dena Brown,
eds Locus 1979: Richard E. Geis, ed Science Fiction Review1980: Charlie
and Dena Brown, eds Locus1981: Charlie and Dena Brown, eds Locus1982:
Charlie and Dena Brown, eds Locus1983: Charlie and Dena Brown, eds
Locus1984: Mike Glyer, ed FILE 7701985: Mike Glyer, ed File 7701986:
George "Lan" Laskowski, ed Lan's Lantern1987: David LANGFORD, ed
ANSIBLE1988: Pat Mueller, ed Texas SF Enquirer1989: Mike Glyer, ed File
7701990: Leslie Turek, ed The Mad 3 Party1991: George "Lan" Laskowski, ed
Lan's Lantern1992: Dick and Nicki Lynch, eds Mimosa1993: Dick and Nicki
Lynch, eds Mimosa1994:Dick and Nicki Lynch, eds MimosaFan writer:1967:
Alexei PANSHIN1968: Ted WHITE1969: Harry WARNER, Jr1970: Bob (Wilson)
TUCKER1971: Richard E. Geis1972: Harry Warner, Jr1973: Terry Carr1974:
Susan WOOD1975: Richard E. Geis1976: Richard E. Geis1977: Richard E. Geis
and Susan Wood (tie)1978: Richard E. Geis1979: Bob SHAW 1980: Bob
Shaw1981: Susan Wood1982: Richard E. Geis1983: Richard E. Geis1984: Mike
Glyer1985: David Langford1986: Mike Glyer1987: David Langford1988: Mike
Glyer1989: David Langford1990: David Langford1991: David Langford1992:
David Langford1993: David Langford1994: David LangfordFan artist:1967:
Jack GAUGHAN1968: George BARR1969: Vaughn BODE1970: Tim Kirk1971: Alicia
Austin1972: Tim Kirk1973: Tim Kirk1974: Tim Kirk1975: William ROTSLER1976:
Tim Kirk1977: Phil Foglio1978: Phil Foglio1979: William Rotsler1980:
Alexis GILLILAND1981: Victoria Poyser1982: Victoria Poyser1983: Alexis
Gilliland1984: Alexis Gilliland1985: Alexis Gilliland1986: joan
hanke-woods1987: Brad Foster1988: Brad Foster1989: Brad Foster and Diana
Gallagher Wu (tie)1990: Stu Shiffman1991: Teddy Harvia1992: Brad
Foster1993: Peggy Ranson1994: Brad FosterOther Hugo awards:1953#1 Fan
personality: Forrest J. ACKERMANExcellence in fact articles: Willy LEYNew
sf author or artist: Philip Jose Farmer1956Feature writer: Willy LeyMost
promising new author: Robert SilverbergBook reviewer: Damon KNIGHT1958Most
outstanding actifan (active fan): Walter A. Willis1966Best all-time
series: Isaac Asimov, Foundation seriesBest Other Forms:A category added
by the Committee in 1988 and voted on, so it was not a Special Committee
Award (see below). It was won by Alan MOORE and Dave GIBBONS for a GRAPHIC
NOVEL, WATCHMEN. However, this particular award has mysteriously
disappeared from subsequent official lists of past Hugo Winners, so its
status is not clear.Special Committee Awards:Not strictly Hugo awards,
these have been given from time to time to people as various as Hugo
Gernsback for being "The Father of Science Fiction" in 1960, Pierre
VERSINS for his L'Encyclopedie de l'Utopie et de la science fiction in
1973 and Chesley BONESTELL for his illustrations in 1974. We do not list

(1905-1975) Canadian-born US writer, married from 1939 to A.E. VAN VOGT,
who collaborated with her on most of her work, either in its original
magazine form or by expanding it for book publication. She began
publishing sf with "The Flight that Failed" for ASF in 1942, and made her
greatest impact with the Arthur Blord series, later assembled by van Vogt
as Planets for Sale (1943-6 ASF; fixup 1954) with EMH alone credited; the
1965 ed credits both authors; and with the magazine version of The Winged
Man (1944 ASF; exp van Vogt 1966 with both authors credited). The
collection Out of the Unknown (coll 1948) was credited to both writers,
and consisted of 6 stories, 3 each, according to their original bylines.
EMH ceased writing sf and fantasy when she became involved in DIANETICS.


(1859-1932) UK writer raised in New Zealand, and who may have been born
there; he lived in the UK at least from 1886, when The Mystery of a Hansom
Cab (1886) made his name. It was followed by about 140 further books, most
of them novels, some being fantasy and a few sf, including The Year of
Miracle: A Tale of the Year One Thousand Nine Hundred (1891), a DISASTER
novel in which the UK is depopulated by a plague. The Island of Fantasy
(1892) is a marginal UTOPIA set on a Mediterranean island. The Nameless
City: A Romany Romance (1893), The Expedition of Captain Flick (1896) and
The Mother of Emeralds (1901) are LOST-WORLD novels, the first featuring a
secret Gypsy land, the second set in the Indian Ocean and featuring
ancient Greeks, and the third set in Peru, where Incans have developed an
underground civilization based on electricity. [JC]Other works: The
Gentleman who Vanished: A Psychological Phantasy (1890; vt The Man who
Vanished 1892 US); Aladdin in London (1892); Chronicles of Faeryland (coll
1892); The Harlequin Opal (1893); The Dwarf's Chamber, and Other Stories
(coll 1896); For the Defense (1898 US); The Devil-Stick (1898); The
Scarlet Bat (1905); The Green Mummy (1908);The Sacred Herb (1908); The
Blue Talisman (1912); A Son of Perdition: An Occult Romance (1912); Mother
Mandarin (1912).

There is a false belief that sf and humour do not mix. Certainly sf has
produced many bad jokes - Arthur C. CLARKE's Tales From the White Hart
(coll of linked stories 1957) is entirely devoted to them - but from the
beginning it has also produced many good ones. Much sf humour takes the
form of social SATIRE, and stories of this kind are discussed mainly in
that entry. While the discussion below naturally includes satires also, it
focuses on sf that elicits laughter rather than a wry smile.The wittiest
sf writers of the late 19th century were probably Mark TWAIN, Samuel
BUTLER, Ambrose BIERCE and H.G. WELLS. The humour of Twain's A Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889), like so much humour generally, is
rooted in self-confident prejudice: Twain clearly found the bumbling
incompetence of the Middle Ages irresistibly funny. Butler's satire in
Erewhon (1872) often consists of topsy-turvy analogies, as in the
comparison between UK churches and Erewhonian banks, pointing up the
self-interest Butler supposed to be the motive for religious devotion.
Bierce's short stories often have a grim and macabre humour. Wells's, on
the other hand, are often jolly, as in "The Truth about Pyecraft" (1903).
Other early works of sf humour are Mr Hawkins' Humorous Inventions (coll
of linked stories 1904) by Edgar FRANKLIN and Button Brains (1933) by J.
Storer CLOUSTON, a novel that introduced several ROBOT jokes which have
since been overused.Also working in the 1930s was John COLLIER, whose
short stories amuse through the sometimes poisonous sharpness of their
language and a cruel sense of the ironies of life. Roald DAHL and - to a
degree - Gerald KERSH were to write rather similar stories later on, but
these writers, working in the tradition of VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM's
Contes cruels ["Cruel Stories"] (coll 1883), were primarily fantasists who
used sf themes only occasionally.Occasional humorists have consistently
popped up in GENRE SF, and with the advent of the magazine UNKNOWN in 1939
they had a platform. Unknown specialized in whimsical fantasy, sometimes
dealing with SUPERNATURAL CREATURES, very often set in ALTERNATE WORLDS.
Anthony BOUCHER was an important contributor, and many of his stories of
this type are collected in The Compleat Werewolf (coll 1969). Even better
remembered are the Harold Shea stories by L. Sprague DE CAMP and Fletcher
PRATT, later collected as The Complete Enchanter (coll 1975): propelled
back into versions of a mythic or literary past, Shea has a terrible time
coming to terms with the local customs in worlds where MAGIC works. The
early 1940s also saw a whole series of broad but accomplished jokes by
Eric Frank RUSSELL, usually featuring cunning protagonists who deflate the
pretensions of the brutal, the stupid and the pompous in various
interplanetary venues. Examples from a slightly later period, when Russell
had perfected his wisecracking style, are ". . . And Then There Were None"
(1951), Wasp (1957) and The Space Willies (1956 ASF; exp 1958; vt Next of
Kin UK). From the same period come many of Fredric BROWN's amusing
stories, like "Placet is a Crazy Place" (1946), in which the eponymous
planet meets itself during its orbit, creates hallucinations, is
undermined by heavy-matter widgie birds and becomes the locale for
horrendous puns. Brown's outrageous inventions have appeared in many
collections, including Angels and Spaceships (coll 1954; vt Star Shine)
and Nightmares and Geezenstacks (coll 1961). A less well known funny sf
book of that period is The Sinister Researches of C.P. Ransom (coll of
linked stories 1954) by Homer NEARING Jr.Humorous genre sf is more common
in short stories than at novel length. Three of sf's premier humorists
worked commonly and perhaps at their best in this form, with the result
that, perhaps, their full stature has not been generally recognized: Henry
KUTTNER, William TENN and Robert SHECKLEY. Kuttner's humour may have dated
the most quickly, but "The Twonky" (1942 as by Lewis Padgett) is a classic
(filmed in 1952 as The TWONKY), as are his Hogben stories (1947-9) and the
Galloway Gallegher series, collected as Robots Have No Tails (1943-8 ASF;
coll 1952). Tenn's style is more polished; but it is Sheckley who for many
years remained the most consistent humorist of them all. Nothing is ever
quite what it seems in Sheckley's urbane stories, and, with an
inventiveness that lasted through the 1950s and 1960s, he depicted the
naive but sometimes successful struggles of little men against an
unimaginably absurd and rather menacing cosmos. Philip K. DICK, although a
fundamentally more serious writer, had something of the same quality, and
most of his novels have a rich sense of the various comic ways in which
the life of the future might thwart us; he is especially well known for
robots that talk back.Both Dick and Sheckley often published in GALAXY
SCIENCE FICTION, a magazine that, notably under Horace GOLD, encouraged
wit, satire and a moderately demanding literacy in its writers, who also
included Frederik POHL and Alfred BESTER, both of whom were as much at
home with the humorous story as with the serious sf for which they are
best remembered. Bester's "The Men who Murdered Mohammed" (1958), a wry
and funny TIME-PARADOX story, appeared in FSF, the home of Reginald
BRETNOR's appalling Ferdinand Feghoot series of vignettes with punning
punch-lines.Most well known sf authors have tried their hand at humour at
one time or another, sometimes rather heavy-handedly, as in Keith LAUMER's
Retief series or Gordon R. DICKSON's and Poul ANDERSON's Hoka series. More
successful in this line has been Harry HARRISON, who has often amusingly
parodied the excesses of genre sf, as in the Stainless Steel Rat stories
and in Bill, the Galactic Hero (1965). A wry, Irish humour of sharp
observation comes often from Bob SHAW, who also has a good line in
pastiche; his comic novel Who Goes Here? (1977) straight-facedly produces
a spaceship which has a matter transmitter at each end, and thus can be
driven by being repeatedly transmitted through its own length.Comic sf of
the 1960s and 1970s tended strongly towards satire, and its comedy -
especially that of the NEW WAVE - was often black. Nearly all of John T.
SLADEK's work is of this sort; it tends more towards irony than farce
(although he has also written raucously funny farce, notably in parody),
blending comedy with nightmare in tales that often deal with technology
running amok and mankind being manipulated. His one-time collaborator
Thomas M. DISCH is one of the most formidable of sf's wits and stylists,
though again it is the wry smile rather than the outright laugh that is
evoked. Michael MOORCOCK often deals in a comedy of unexpected
juxtapositions, as in his Dancers at the End of Time series, where
time-travellers constantly misunderstand one another's customs. In the
same period, however, Ron GOULART became known for knockabout, satiric
farce. Gaining notoriety late in the 1960s, R.A. LAFFERTY is offbeat in
quite another way. His bizarre, quasi-surrealist humour depends strongly
on the exuberant idiosyncracy of his language; his flamboyantly tall
stories are seen by some as morally stringent, dismissed by others as
empty games. His work has never fitted the conventions of genre sf,
floating somewhere between sf and fantasy. The same could be said of the
Illuminatustrilogy (1975) by Robert SHEA and Robert Anton WILSON, a
rambling story of conflicting conspiracies and secret cults which
persuasively argues for the accuracy of a paranoid ( PARANOIA) view of
POLITICS; a sometimes bloodshot view of the vagaries of human behaviour is
expressed through farce, wisecracks and general lunacy.One of the least
plausible of all comic sf novels is Piers ANTHONY's Prostho Plus (1971),
featuring a kidnapped Earth dentist forced to practise on a hideous
variety of alien teeth; it is carried off, against all the odds, with
verve. Anthony subsequently became known for comic fantasy rather than
comic sf, his tone being in the tradition set by De Camp and Pratt in
their Unknown stories. Along with Christopher STASHEFF's Warlockseries,
Anthony's novels set a trend, in the 1970s and 1980s, for novels sited in
alternate fantasy worlds featuring slapstick, agonizing puns, and a
Twain-like juxtaposition of modernisms with archaisms. Alan Dean FOSTER,
Craig Shaw Gardner, Robert ASPRIN and many others have worked in this
subgenre, which has proved commercially very successful, though it
includes more dire undergraduate humour than is digestible for grown-up
readers. The first great success story of written sf humour in the 1980s -
a decade not generally notable for funny sf - was Douglas ADAMS. Other
producers, on a much smaller scale, were Rudy RUCKER and Howard WALDROP in
the USA and (more recently) Robert RANKIN in the UK.Humour notoriously
translates badly, and the wit of Stanislaw LEM in such works as Cyberiada
(coll 1965; trans as The Cyberiad 1974) and "Kongres Futurologiczny"
(1971; trans as The Futurological Congress 1974), while attested by his
Polish readership as being full of subtle ironies and linguistic
fireworks, appears rather crude in the English-language versions.Sf humour
has been a mainstay of both the small and large screens. In the USA,
humorous tv series have included MY FAVORITE MARTIAN, MY LIVING DOLL, MORK
AND MINDY and ALF, most of these being sitcoms in which human foibles
become all too clear when seen from an alien perspective. A very selective
list of humorous sf movies from the USA would include The ABSENT-MINDED
which should, perhaps, include as well the films of Larry COHEN and David
CRONENBERG which, though mostly sf/horror, are also shot through with dark
humour, as are some SPLATTER MOVIES, like RE-ANIMATOR. No clear conclusion
can be drawn from the list, which contains few really good films and few
really bad. It does contain a notable amount of pastiche and parody,
something that normally occurs fairly late in the history of any genre,
and it is interesting to note that the majority of the films listed are
quite recent; many are aimed at a younger audience.The story is a little
different in the UK, where sf humour for the big screen is rare and, when
it does appear, usually poor, as in MORONS FROM OUTER SPACE. But there is
a long tradition of light-hearted humour in UK tv, which bubbled up
strongly in much of the long-running DR WHO series. It did not, however,
reach cult proportions until the tv version of the radio success The HITCH
HIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY appeared in 1981. This was written by Douglas
Adams, whose Hitch Hiker books, developed from the radio series, became
bestsellers. Behind the extremely funny absurdity of the series there
seems to be a mournfully nihilist view of life on Earth (and in the
cosmos), where nothing means very much at all, and we are all shuttlecocks
racketed around by fate or, if it comes to that, ENTROPY. A similar view
of the soft white underbelly of human existence reappeared in 1988 in the
(also very successful) tv series RED DWARF, a SPACE OPERA with an
unbelievably small cast, only one of them indubitably both human and
alive.There is one line of development visible among the variety of
authors named in this entry: sf humour has by and large been pessimistic.
The ordinary guy battered by circumstance, trying to find meaning or
justice in a Universe where these commodities may be nonexistent, is a
character running through from Collier via Sheckley, Dick and Sladek to
reach perhaps its apotheosis in Adams. Indeed Kurt VONNEGUT Jr, probably
the most famous of all sf humorists, fits squarely into this tradition.
In, for example, THE SIRENS OF TITAN (1959) and Cat's Cradle (1963) - and
with a somewhat more brittle and fatalistic air in Slaughterhouse-5 (1969)
- Vonnegut contrives scenarios at once witty, sardonic and nihilistic,
though in the earlier books the nihilism is softened by the affection he
shows for the absurd and doomed ambitions of his protagonists. Some see
Vonnegut as a fierce wit in the tradition of Jonathan SWIFT; others find
his black comedies increasingly facile, repetitive, and disfigured by the
literary equivalent of nervous tics. So it goes.David LANGFORD's parodic
bent infiltrates much of his fiction, though it is most clearly expressed
in The Dragonhiker's Guide to Battlefield Covenant at Dune's Edge: Odyssey
Two (coll 1988), which assembles parodies of various writers and
tendencies. But the great UK comic success of the 1980s is Terry
PRATCHETT, whose Discworld books climb to the top of bestseller lists with
satisfying regularity, and who writes work both joyful and delightful,
allowing the little man his triumphs as well as his agonies. Most readers
would call these books fantasies, but they are, after all, set on a planet
other than Earth. It is, one must confess, a very flat planet, and perched
on the back of a giant turtle . . . [PN]

Sf in the modern sense evolved tentatively in Hungary in the 1870s,
although it had had forerunners. The end of the 18th century was
characterized by the popularity of FANTASTIC VOYAGES and UTOPIAS. French
and other sources inspired Tarimenes utazasa ["The Voyage of Tarimenes"]
(1804) by Gyorgy Bessenyei (1747-1811). The hero, who gets to an unknown
country, not only describes the perfect order of the state but also
presents a copy of its constitution. Another important fantastic utopia
was Utazas a Holdba ["Voyage to the Moon"] (1836) by Ferenc Ney
(1814-1899), a novel in which travellers find that the Moon has everything
they miss on Earth: the possibility of happiness and the happiness of
equality. Janos Munkacsy (1802-1841), in his Hogy all a vilag a jovo
szazadban? ["How Stands the World in the Next Century?"] (1838), describes
the wonderful future development of TRANSPORTATION and many social
changes: deadly WEAPONS are put aside and conflicts between states are
settled by competitive poetry recitals. The first Hungarian SPACE OPERA
was Vegnapok ["The Final Days"] (1847) by Miklos Josika (1794-1865). This
apocalyptic novel had an immense success. The story takes place on Earth
in a FAR-FUTURE ice age.Mor JOKAI is justly regarded as the greatest
author produced by Hungary. He was very prolific - his collected works run
to several hundred volumes. His most important works of fantasy and sf are
Oceania about a romantic ATLANTIS, Fekete gyemantok (1870; trans A. Gerard
as Black Diamonds 1896), set in a North Polar sea, Egesz az eszaki polusig
["All the Way to the North Pole"] (1876), in which ancient patriarchs and
fairy-like ladies are revived from frozen hibernation to facilitate the
author's criticism of contemporary society, and Ahol a penz nem Isten
["Where Money is not a God"] (1904), describing the life of a happy island
community, and hinting at the possibility of the fall of the
Austro-Hungarian empire. Along with these sometimes Edgar Allan POE-like
fantasies comes Jokai's most significant sf novel, A jovo szazad regenye
["The Novel of the Next Century"] (1872), whose story is founded in the
invention of a marvellous new material, "ichor". Airplanes made of ichor
serve the heroes, who dominate global communications and trade; declaring
war on anarchistic Russia, they fight the last war of mankind and create
eternal peace. The novel then moves onto the cosmic scale: a comet menaces
Earth but is fought off by mankind, the Moon is colonized and the Solar
System is conquered.Jokai's disciple Titusz Tovolgyi (1838-1918) wrote a
surprisingly interesting novel about the future socialist state: Az uj
vilag ["The New World"] (1888). Elsewhere, besides sociopolitical novels
there were fantasies of markedly scientific foundation, like Repulogepen a
Holdba ["On an Airplane to the Moon"] (1899) by Istvan Makay (1870-1935),
another Jokai disciple, which, antedating H.G. WELLS, describes a society
of cave-dwelling Selenites. Barna Arthur ["Arthur Barna"] (1880) by
Gusztav Beksics (1847-1906) has an African volcano spreading flowing gold
over the country, with the consequent bankruptcy of trusts, banks and
states.In the first half of the 20th century the authors gathering around
the journal Nyugat ["West"] were attracted almost without exception to the
fantastic, and with them sf reached artistic heights once more; they
include Dezso Kosztolanyi (1885-1935), Geza Csath (1888-1919), Geza Laczko
(1884-1953), Gyula Szini (1876-1932), Laszlo Cholnoky (1879-1929), Bela
Balazs (1884-1949) and Margit Kaffka (1880-1918). Unfortunately, only two
names are known in the English-speaking world: Frigyes KARINTHY and Mihaly
BABITS.Karinthy wrote a good many stories about TIME TRAVEL, DISASTER, PSI
POWERS and so on, but these are surpassed by his philosophical novels.
Utazas Faremidoba (1916) and Capillaria (1921), which have been assembled
as Voyage to Faremido/Capillaria (omni trans Paul TABORI 1965 Hungary;
1966 US), are sardonic sequels to Jonathan SWIFT's stories of Gulliver and
his travels. The former deals with problems of AI and the latter describes
the conflict between men and women in an UNDER-THE-SEA empire. Mennyei
riport ["A Report from the Heavens"] (1937), the surprising story of a
journey to the next world, is an important precursor of modern sf.The
novels of the poet Mihaly Babits stand out for their literary merit and
for the interest of their ideas. In Golyakalifa ["Storks' Caliph"] (1916;
trans as King's Stork 1948 Hungary; retrans anon as The Nightmare 1966),
his first novel, he created a world of pure fantasy; the protagonist is a
young man living a surreal double life. Another novel, Elza pilota, avagy
a tokeletes tarsadalom ["The Pilot Elza, or The Perfect Society"] (1933),
is a description of an episode in an age of eternal war, its protest
against fascism being pointed at a time when fascism was spreading
rapidly.Utazas Kazohiniaban ["A Voyage in Kazohinia"] (1941 censored; text
restored 1946) by Sandor Szathmary (1897-1974) is a bitter, Swiftian (and
Karinthyan) SATIRE describing a new journey of Gulliver. Kazohinia is
divided into two parts, one where exaggerated rationalism prevails, the
other ruled by the uncontrolled power of the instincts.In the Fall of 1945
Laszlo Gaspar (? - ) produced his short novel Mi, I. Adolf ["We, Adolf 1"]
(1945), subtitled "If the Germans had Won". In this postwar nightmare,
fascism rules by terror and weaponry, and all peoples are slaves of the
Germans ( HITLER WINS).The two decades after WWII did not favour Hungarian
sf - Soviet sf, along with the theoretical views it espoused, dominated
the sf published in Hungary-and only one item from this period is
memorable: Az ibolyaszinu feny ["The Violet Light"] (1956) by Peter Foldes
(1916- ), a juvenile adventure that presents interesting ideas. In 1968,
however, the publishing house Mora began a paperback sf series under the
imprint Kozmosz Fantasztikus Konyvek. In 1972 Mora followed this with the
magazine Galaktika, ed Peter KUCZKA, which started as a quarterly and is
now a monthly, with a circulation of 50,000. Its younger stablemate (since
1985) is Robur, a bimonthly sf magazine for juvenile readers, with a
circulation of 80,000-100,000. Other publishers now publish sf, though the
Mora book series, also long under the editorship of Kuczka, remains the
most significant.Today 25-30 authors in Hungary are engaged in sf,
although many of them work also in other genres. Among the older authors
is Maria Szepes (1908- ), who in Tukorajto a tengerben ["Mirror Door in
the Sea"] (1976), Surayana elo szobrai ["Living Statues of Surayana"]
(1971) and Napszel ["Sunwind"] (1983) draws her figures of fantasy with
great psychological force. She introduced ESP motifs to Hungarian sf,
mainly through her first and most influential novel, A voros oroszlan
["The Red Lion"] (1946), the story of an alchemist living through the
centuries and from sin to redemption. Ivan Boldizsar (1912-1988) belonged
to the same generation; his Szuletesnap ["Birthday"] (1959) is a
TIME-TRAVEL novel. The most famous book of Istvan Elek (1915- ) is a
juvenile adventure, Merenylet a vilagurben ["An Attempt in Space"] (1967).
Jozsef Cserna (1899-1975) wrote a number of admonitory stories about
nuclear WAR, the destruction of the ECOLOGY and other dangers menacing
mankind.Next comes the generation of writers now in their 50s and 60s,
like Gyula Fekete (1922- ), an excellent novelist in the realistic
tradition. His sf works are all utopian and educational, whether set on
unknown islands or on distant planets. In A szerelmesek bolygoja ["Planet
of Lovers"] (1964) he deals satirically with juvenile morals and
life-values; in Triszex ["Trisex"] (1974) he predicts changes in family
life and in human relationships. His most famous work is A kek sziget
["The Blue Island"] (1976), a harmonious UTOPIA. Gyula Hernadi (1926- ) is
a restless, experimenting author; he blends surrealism with real and
fictitious documents. His significant novels are Az erod ["The Fortress"]
(1971), Az elnokasszony ["Madame President"] (1978) and Hasfelmetszo Jack
["Jack the Ripper"] (1982). Zoltan Csernai (1925- ) is one of the most
popular sf writers. His main focus is on encounters between ALIENS and
humans in the past and present; this provides the background to his
trilogy Titok a vilag tetejen ["Secret on the Top of the World"] (1961),
Az ozonviz balladaja ["The Ballad of the Flood"] (1964) and Atlantisz
["Atlantis"] (1968). His Boldogsagcsinalok ["Producers of Happiness"]
(1974) is an interesting psychological novel. Among his several short
stories, "Kovek" ["Stones"] (1974) is perhaps the best of all Hungarian sf
short stories; it has been much translated. Peter Zsoldos (1930- ) is an
sf author in the US-UK tradition, his recurrent subjects being SPACE
FLIGHT and ROBOTS. His best novels are Feladat ["The Task"] (1971),
Ellenpont ["Counterpoint"] (1973), Tavoli tuz ["A Distant Fire"] (1969), A
Viking visszater ["Return of the Viking"] (1967) and A holtak nem vetnek
arnyekot ["The Dead Cast No Shadows"] (1983). Ervin Gyertyan (1925- )
prefers a humorous, satirical attitude Kibernerosz ["Cyberneros"] (1963)
and Isten ovd az elnokot! ["God Save the President!"] (1971), paying
special attention to the differences between Man and MACHINE, and also to
the nature of identity. Two sf works by Miklos Ronaszegi (1930- ), A
rovarok lazadasa ["Revolt of the Insects"] (1969) and Ordogi liquor
["Liquor of the Devil"] (1972), were published as juveniles, although
there is nothing juvenile about their themes: the first analyses the
mechanisms of fascism and the second unveils ways in which modern society
dehumanizes and manipulates.Novels of adventure and scientific inspiration
have been written also by Klara Feher (1922- ), Laszlo Nemes (1920- ) and
Tibor Dane (1923-). Dezso Kemeny (1925- ) melds sf with the crime story.
Az utolso ember ["The Last Man"] (1982) by Peter Bogati (1924-), a
ROBINSONADE about the last survivor of world HOLOCAUST, bears comparison
with better-known treatments of the subject. Laszlo Andras (1919-1988),
Gyorgy Nemes (1910- ), Andras Kurti (1922- ) and Rudolf Weinbrenner
(1923-1987) are all writers who have enriched Hungarian sf with one or two
books. A rather different coloration can be found in A Kozmosz tizenotodik
torvenye ["The Fifteenth Law of the Cosmos"] (1984) by Mihaly Gergely
(1921- ), a novel in which alien visitors try to force humanity into peace
and intelligent cooperation.Perhaps the most important member of the
younger generation is Peter Szentmihalyi Szabo (1945- ). His collection of
short stories A sebezhetetlen ["The Invulnerable"] (coll 1978) tries out
every voice and technique of sf; A tokeletes valtozat ["The Perfect
Variety"] (1983) is a DYSTOPIA about contradictory social systems in the
distant future. Two very prolific younger authors are Laszlo L. Lorincz
(1939- ) and Istvan Nemere (1944- ). Lorincz's collection of short stories
A nagy kupola szegyene ["The Shame of the Great Dome"] (coll 1982) deals
with CRIME AND PUNISHMENT and with problems of social isolation. His
novels, such as A hosszu szafari ["The Long Safari"] (1984) and A
foldalatti piramis ["The Underground Pyramid"] (1986), are much
appreciated for their exciting plots, richness of ideas and beautiful
style. Nemere's most successful novels (out of about 60) are A kozmosz
korbacsa ["The Whip of the Cosmos"] (1982), Az acelcapa ["The Steel
Shark"] (1982) and A neutron akcio ["The Neutron Project"] (1982).One
MAINSTREAM WRITER who has occasionally turned to sf is Peter Lengyel, who
wrote the prizewinning Ogg masodik bolygoja ["Ogg's Second Planet"]
(1969). [PK]


House name used 1950-52 by the UK paperback publisher Curtis Warren. The
authors who have used the name (for titles see their entries) are John
Because it was Brunner's first book, Galactic Storm (1951) has become the
best-known of the GH titles; it is not, however, significantly less
routine than its stablemates. [JC]

Once the main pseudonym and now the adopted legal name of the US writer
born S.A. Lombino (1926- ), who remains best known as Ed McBain, under
which byline he has written at least 50 laconic police procedurals as well
as some action-detections in the John D. MACDONALD mould. As EH he is most
famous for novels like The Blackboard Jungle (1954), and his later career
has had little to do with sf, most of his work in the genre appearing -
under his own name and as Richard Marsten and Hunt Collins - in the 1950s.
This early output included a number of magazine sf stories, published
1953-6-some of which were assembled in The Last Spin (coll 1960 UK) and
Happy New Year, Herbie (coll 1963) - and the screenplay for Alfred
Hitchcock's The BIRDS (1963). His first three sf novels were juveniles:
the protagonist in Find the Feathered Serpent (1952) utilizes his father's
TIME-TRAVEL device to return to - and to participate in - the founding of
the Mayan empire; Rocket to Luna (1953), as by Richard Marsten, puts
students on the first trip to the Moon; and Danger: Dinosaurs! (1953), as
by Marsten, again takes its heroes by time-travel into an exciting era.
His first adult sf novel, Tomorrow's World (1954 If as "Malice in
Wonderland" as by EH; exp 1956; vt Tomorrow and Tomorrow 1956), as by Hunt
Collins, takes a somewhat satirical look at a future dominated by
organized DRUG addicts. In a marketing decision somewhat at odds with EH's
normal practice, the book was later published unchanged (1979 UK) as by Ed
McBain: it is certainly not in the McBain style. Nobody Knew They Were
There (1971) is set in 1974, but is a tale of campus violence only
marginally displaced into sf. The plot of Ghosts (1980), one of his
extensive series of 87th Precinct police-procedural novels as by Ed
McBain, surprisingly hinges on parapsychological manifestations ( ESP), to
the detriment of its merit as a detection. EH's long inactivity as an sf
writer has been the genre's loss. [JC]See also: LEISURE; PULP MAGAZINES.

[s] Theodore STURGEON.

(1899- ) UK writer first active before WWII, his publishing career having
begun with Simplified Conjuring for All (1923); he was in fact a
professional conjuror. A humorous fairy tale, "The Bad Barons of
Crashbania", appeared with Gertrude Monro Higgins's "Kings and Queens" as
half a chapbook (coll 1932 chap). He lived in South Africa 1949-70, a
period during which he published nothing. His classic CHILDREN'S SF series
about Professor Branestawm and his inventions - The Incredible Adventures
of Professor Branestawm (coll 1933), Professor Branestawm's Treasure Hunt
(coll 1937), Stories of Professor Branestawm (coll 1939), The Peculiar
Triumph of Professor Branestawm (coll 1970), Professor Branestawm up the
Pole (coll 1972), Professor Branestawm's Great Revolution (coll 1974),
Professor Branestawn 'round the Bend (coll 1977) and Professor
Branestawm's Perilous Pudding (coll 1979) - delightfully involves the
professor and his extraordinary devices in various exploits and
entanglements. There followed a compilation, The Best of Branestawm (coll
1980), and a series of booklets: Professor Branestawm and the Wild Letters
(1981 chap), Professor Branestawm's Pocket Motor Car (1982 chap),
Professor Branestawm's Mouse War (1982 chap), Professor Branestawm's
Crunchy Crockery (1983 chap) and Professor Branestawm's Hair-Raising Idea
(1983 chap). The initial titles inspired a 1969 UK tv series. NH also
wrote a number of tales for younger children, many of them revolving
around the King and Queen of Incrediblania. [JC]

(1872-1958) US writer whose sf novel The Vicarion (1926; exp 1927)
features a device which gives sight of the past. As a consequence, murders
can be solved, politics cleaned up and the true events of history
understood at last. [JC]See also: MACHINES.

(1930- ) UK Conservative politician and writer, in the former capacity
serving his government for an extended period at Cabinet level. His sf
novels are, perhaps understandably, NEAR-FUTURE thrillers in which the UK
must survive threats from within and without ( POLITICS). Send Him
Victorious (1968) with Andrew Osmond (1938- ) features threats of
political upheaval from within. The Smile on the Face of the Tiger (1969)
sees China demanding Hong Kong back from her imperial masters (a plot
which has, of course, become part of history). Scotch on the Rocks (1971)
describes a Scottish liberation movement (and may be prophetic). [JC]Other
works: Truth Game (1972).

(1955- ) US film producer who cut her teeth on Roger CORMAN's New World
Pictures' exploitation movies; she was production manager on BATTLE BEYOND
THE STARS (1980) and coproduced the car-chase movie Smokey Bites the Dust
(1981) with Corman. She came to prominence with the excellent low-budget
independent film The TERMINATOR (1984), whose screenplay was cowritten by
her and her then husband James CAMERON (also a graduate of the Corman
school of low-budget film-making skills): both were in their 20s; he
directed and she produced. This was sufficient to get them the high-status
job of producing and directing ALIENS (1986), which they did with panache.
They next worked together on The ABYSS (1989), whose screenplay (by
Cameron) contained roman a clef elements in its story of the break-up of a
marriage between two highflying professionals; they had separated
personally by then, and to a degree professionally, although GAH worked as
executive producer on TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY (1991), perhaps the most
expensive film ever made. (The actual producer was B.J. Rack.) GAH's
expertise with genre movies was underwritten by two sf films she produced
apart from Cameron, ALIEN NATION (1988) and TREMORS (1990), the latter
being an especially craftsmanlike work. Among the non-sf and marginal sf
features she has produced are Bad Dreams (1988), horror; The Waterdance
(1992), drama about paraplegics; Raising Cain (1992), confused Brian de
Palma thriller of some sf interest with its strange experiments in the
PSYCHOLOGY of child-raising. More recently GAH returned to sf to produce
the disappointing NO ESCAPE (1994), a future prison movie set on a
tropical island. Although it is difficult to gauge the creative influence
of producers as opposed to directors, GAH's track record is impressive;
most of her films (even the low-budget ones) are polished and look good,
and she seems to have an affinity with sf subjects. [PN]

(1926-1987) US writer who wrote occult books for younger readers - like
Strange Curses (coll 1975) and By Blood Alone (1979) - the Man from T.O.M.
C.A.T. soft-porn quasithriller sequence as by Mallory T. Knight,
comprising The Man from T.O.M.C.A.T. #1: The Dozen Deadly Dragons of Joy
(1967), #2: The Million Missing Maidens (1978), #3: The Terrible Ten
(1967), #4: The Dirty Rotten Depriving Boy (1967), #5: Tsimmis in Tangier
(1968), #6: The Malignant Metaphysical Menace (1968), #7: The Ominous Orgy
(1969), #10: The Peking Pornographer * (1969) and The Bra-Burner's Brigade
(1971). The Invisibles sequence, comprising The Invisibles (1971) and The
Mind Master (1973), were sf stories about a mad SCIENTIST who conducts
experiments on human subjects. Kingdom of the Spiders * (1977) was a film

(1960- ) UK writer who published 4 volumes of stories at a very early age
- Thumbprints (coll 1978), Fools' Gold (coll 1979), Torn Air (coll 1980)
and The Paradise Equation (coll 1981) - and then moved into journalism.
The deftness and quiet humaneness of his work seemed better than
precocious, and it came as welcome news in the late 1980s that he was
turning his attention again to sf. [JC]

(1894-1963) UK novelist and man of letters whose fame was freshest in the
1920s, a decade which his work, conveying as it did an overwhelming sense
of psychic aftermath, captured precisely; his best fiction, like Point
Counter Point (1928), was written then. From 1937 he lived in the USA. He
is today almost certainly remembered most widely for his seminal DYSTOPIA,
BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932), a book which established such words as "soma"
(originally from Sir Thomas MORE's Utopia [1517]) and "feelie" in the
English language, and which contributed to social and literary thought a
definite model of pharmacological totalitarianism. (Soma is a kind of
psychedelic drug used as a social control; the feelies are multisense - or
" VIRTUAL REALITY" - movies, developed for the same reason.) BRAVE NEW
WORLD depicts a future Earth in which the expression of dissonant emotions
and acts is rigorously controlled from above, ostensibly for the
betterment of all, though in fact the motives of those in power are, as
always, self-serving. Babies, prior to being decanted, are chemically
adjusted to grow to assume the body-type and intelligence required at that
moment by society, and as a result enter into the appropriate castes, from
Alpha to Epsilon ( GENETIC ENGINEERING). Sex and all other relationships
are casual, without dissonance or affect. As in any dystopia, the story
both illustrates and exposes this plastic paradise, and presents
opportunities for discussion about it. One protagonist goes to a Savage
Reservation (where, as a kind of control, a few old-style humans are
permitted their exemplary culture) and there rescues a woman in trouble;
he returns with her and her Savage son to the central society. To this she
proves unable to adjust: after causing general disgust through her display
of visible diseases and her horrifying descent into age, she overdoses
despairingly on soma. Her son does little better, though the fracas he
causes gains him and two discontented citizens an interview with Mustapha
Mond, one of the 10 World Controllers, who argumentatively justifies the
price paid for stability. When the unconvinced Savage attempts to live
alone and so to replicate the conditions necessary for the creation of
high art, he is soon driven by the mass MEDIA into committing suicide.As
argument and as SATIRE, BRAVE NEW WORLD is a compendium of usable points
and quotable jibes - the substitution of Ford for God being merely the
best known - and has provided material for much subsequent fiction. Its
pessimistic accounting of the sterility and human emptiness of utopian
communities shaped by a reductive scientism has caused the book to be read
as a decisive refutation of those UTOPIAS of H.G. WELLS - e.g., Men Like
Gods (1923)-whose strident OPTIMISM about scientific utopianism even Wells
himself could not manage to support with much imaginative conviction.
Brave New World Revisited (coll 1958), later assembled with its
predecessor (omni 1960), is a nonfiction series of essays on the themes of
the novel from the perspective of 25 years later.After moving to the USA,
AH wrote two novels in which utopia/dystopia debates are continued. Ape
and Essence (1948), powerfully dystopian, is set in AD2108 after an atomic
and bacteriological final WAR. From New Zealand, which has been left
untouched, a researcher visits the USA, where he discovers a literally
devilish society: human nature and science have gone savagely wrong, and
females - now contemptuously known as "vessels" - come into oestrus for
only two weeks in the year, after Belial Day. The pessimism of the book is
unalleviated, and its presentation, as a kind of ideal filmscript,
horrific and disgusted. Island (1962) presents a utopian alternative to
the previous books, though without much energy. Pala - the ISLAND in
question - is set safely in the Indian Ocean, and has long enjoyed a
mildly euphoric existence, sustained spiritually by religious practices
derived from Tantric Buddhism, and physically by moksha, a sort of benign
soma, whose psychedelic effects smooth the rough edges of the world. But
the book itself is powerless to convince.Of AH's other work, After Many a
Summer Dies the Swan (1939; vt After Many a Summer 1939 UK), in which a
Californian oil magnate rediscovers an 18th-century longevity compound and
its macabre consequences ( APES AND CAVEMEN for other tales that evoke
images of DEVOLUTION), and Time Must Have a Stop (1944), one of whose
protagonists undergoes posthumous experiences, are both of genre interest.
AH was at his most striking in those of his novels, some technically sf,
which treated their fictional content as subservient to the matters being
discussed and illuminated. The literacy of his style, and the apparent
sophistication of his transcendental thought, have perhaps impressed
traditional sf readers and critics more than he deserved. There is no
denying, however, the extreme importance of the example of his thought in
the intellectual development of the genre. [JC]About the author: There are
many critical studies. Lilly Zahner's Demon and Saint in the Novels of
Aldous Huxley (1975) provides clear analysis and an adequate bibliography.
Other studies include Aldous Huxley: A Study of the Major Novels (1968) by
Peter Bowering, and Aldous Huxley, Satire and Structure (1969) by Jerome

(1910-1975) UK writer, prolific in various genres, fiction and
nonfiction, from before WWII; he was also active as a translator. Although
not widely known as a writer of sf or fantasy, he published several novels
of sf interest. Not in Our Stars (1949) depicts the discovery of a fungus
of use in biological warfare. The Astrologer (1950) is an early novel on
the ecological theme of soil exhaustion, and the DISASTER its protagonist
tries to avert by denying men sex, like Lysistrata. The Final Agenda
(1973) places a worldwide organization of anarchists in power in a
NEAR-FUTURE venue, and traces with considerable sympathy their attempts to
found an ecological UTOPIA. Morrow's Ants (1975) is about the creation of
a HIVE-MIND. Typically of writers not identified with the genre, ESH tends
to use sf components in a didactic fashion, although in his case to
considerable effect. [JC]Other works: The Wings of the Morning (1939), a
Wellsian discursive novel set just before a future WAR; Sylvester (1951;
vt 998 1952 US); The Last Poor Man (1966); The Death Lottery (1971);
Prince Habib's Iceberg (1974).See also: ASTRONOMY; ECOLOGY; SCIENTISTS.

(1949- ) Canadian writer, generally of TECHNOTHRILLERS, beginning with
The Wave (1979 US) and continuing with titles like Styx (1982 US), Jericho
Falls (1988 UK), Crestwood Hills (1988 US), Egypt Green (1989 US) and
White Lies (1990 US). The last features a mentally suspect NEAR-FUTURE US
President who puts out a contract on himself. [JC]


(? -? ) UK writer known only for the remarkable Vampires Overhead (1935),
in which comet-hopping vampires invade Earth, causing general devastation;
the tale is told with very considerable vigour. It was included in a list
prepared in 1983 by Karl Edward Wagner for Twilight Zone of the 13 best sf
HORROR novels. [JC]

Miranda MILLER.

(1866-1944) UK writer. He utilized his ample travelling experience in
creating the popular Captain Kettle series which appeared in PEARSON'S
MAGAZINE, in book form beginning with Honour of Thieves (1895; vt The
Little Red Captain 1902), and later in the cinema; Captain Kettle on the
Warpath (coll 1916), The Rev. Captain Kettle (coll 1925), Mr Kettle, Third
Mate (1931) and Ivory Valley (1938) are the only volumes to contain sf
elements. He is best known for The Lost Continent (1900), set in ATLANTIS
at the time of its destruction. CJCH began writing sf with Beneath Your
Very Boots (1889), a LOST-WORLD tale set in caves under England, following
it up with a ROBINSONADE, The New Eden (1892), later turning to future WAR
with Empire of the World (1910; vt Emperor of the World 1915) and to the
Wandering-Jew theme with Abbs, His Story through Many Ages (1929). This
diversity of ideas was even more prevalent in his short stories,
particularly The Adventures of a Solicitor (coll of linked stories 1898)
as by Weatherby Chesney, which contains stories about INVISIBILITY,
ROBOTS, SPACE FLIGHT and rejuvenation, together with several GOTHIC and
weird fantasies. CJCH, one of the most prolific writers of early magazine
sf, is now almost forgotten. [JE]Other works: The Recipe for Diamonds
(1893); The Stronger Hand (coll 1896); The Adventures of an Engineer (coll
of linked stories 1898) as by Weatherby Chesney; The Foundered Galleon
(1898-9 Scraps as by Weatherby Chesney and Alick Jones;1902) as by
Weatherby Chesney; Atoms of Empire (coll 1904); Red Herrings (coll 1918);
West Highland Spirits (coll 1932); Man's Understanding (coll 1933), some
sf; Wishing Smith (1939).See also: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT; WEAPONS.

US publisher based in Westport, Connecticut. HP's relevance to sf is
through its photographically reproduced reprint series, Classics of
Science Fiction; HP was the first publisher to undertake such a series,
preceding ARNO PRESS, GARLAND and GREGG PRESS. The series editor was Sam
MOSKOWITZ, who also provided introductions to many of the volumes; the
books selected were primarily drawn from the late 19th and early 20th
centuries. The first series, published 1974, had 23 vols; the second,
published 1976, had 19 vols. HP also brought back into print 6 anthologies
and collections of criticism by Moskowitz. [MJE/PN]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, a kind of specialized space through which SPACESHIPS
can take a short cut in order to get rapidly from one point in "normal"
space to another far distant. The term was probably invented by John W.
CAMPBELL Jr in Islands of Space (1931 Amazing Stories Quarterly; 1957). It
is now so thoroughly incorporated into the conventions of GENRE SF that
few sf writers feel called upon to explain its meaning, although Robert A.
HEINLEIN gave a particularly clear account in Starman Jones (1953).
Hyperspace is often seen as a space of higher DIMENSION through which our
three-dimensional space can be folded or crumpled, so that two apparently
distant points may almost come into contact. Sometimes, as in Frederik
POHL's "The Mapmakers" (1955), hyperspace is seen as a POCKET UNIVERSE, a
kind of visitable map with a one-to-one correspondence to our own Universe
(with all points hopefully arranged in the same order). In "FTA" (1974) by
George R.R. MARTIN, although hyperspace exists, travel by it takes longer.
In Redshift Rendezvous (1990) by John E. STITH a starship has to cope with
the fact that the velocity of light in hyperspace is 22mph (35kph);
relativistic effects thus occur at very modest velocities.The prohibitions
in Relativity theory against travelling FASTER THAN LIGHT are not really
circumvented with devices like SPACE WARPS or hyperspace, since it is
actually FTL journeys and not FTL velocities that are prohibited, a point
often not appreciated by sf writers; if an FTL journey takes place via
hyperspace, the fact remains that the arrival might be witnessed by
observers elsewhere in the Universe as preceding the take-off, and
Relativity prohibits the principle of causality being broken by the
reversal of cause and effect.A relevant article is "Hyperspace" by David
LANGFORD in The Science in Science Fiction (1982) by Peter NICHOLLS, Brian
M. STABLEFORD and Langford. More recently, a scientific book on the
subject is Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes,
Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension (1994) by Michio Kaku, professor of
theoretical physics at the City College of the City University of New
York. [PN/TSu]

Northern Irish FANZINE (1952-65) ed from Belfast by Walt Willis, with
Chuck Harris and later Ian McAuley; probably the most famous of humorous
fanzines. The quality and style of H's writing made it not only one of the
most admired fanzines of its time but also gave it considerable prestige
and influence in FANDOM. Contributors included Robert BLOCH, Damon KNIGHT,
Bob SHAW, William F. TEMPLE and James WHITE. There was a single-issue
revival in 1987. [PR/RH]


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