Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (G-G)

(1939- ) Canadian writer best known for her Cat's Pawn sequence - Cat's
Pawn (1987 US) and Cat's Gambit (1990 US) - in which a human protagonist
becomes involved with the eponymous catlike alien Orioni, themselves
involved in a desperate war against the invading Kazi, who dominate much
of the Galaxy by the end of the second volume, which ends on an unusual
downbeat, suggesting that further volumes may be projected. The
Loremasters (1988 US), a singleton, less impressively pits a civilized
enclave against a horde of barbarians on an energy-starved future Earth.

[s] Raymond A. PALMER.

(1896-1956) German writer of popular fiction, two of whose astronautical
novels were published in Hugo GERNSBACK's Science Wonder Quarterly: Der
Schuss ins All (1925; trans Francis Currier 1929 as The Shot into
Infinity; 1975 US) and its sequel, Der Stein vom Mond (1926 trans Francis
Currier 1930 as "The Stone from the Moon"). Hans Hardts Mondfahrt: Eines
abenteuerliche Erzahlung (1928; trans anon as By Rocket to the Moon: The
Story of Hans Hardt's Miraculous Flight 1931 US) is a juvenile. All three
aim at a technical realism unusual for the time. [JC]See also: GERMANY;

(1960- ) UK writer, in the USA from 1992, who has specialized in the
scripting of fantasy and sf comics and GRAPHIC NOVELS, but who began
publishing work of genre interest with a story, "Featherquest", for
Imagine in 1984. His first book, Ghastly Beyond Belief (anth 1985) with
Kim NEWMAN, presents various kinds of bad writing to be found in sf and
fantasy. His first visual book was Violent Cases (graph 1987) with Dave
MCKEAN, a dark urban fantasy in graphic-novel form. He then began to write
comics in earnest, with extended stints as scripter for The Sandman
(1988-current) and Miracle Man (1990-current), the latter being a genuine
sf comic with a UTOPIAN turn ( CAPTAIN MARVEL). The Sandman stories - one
of which, "A Midsummer Night's Dream" (1990), won a 1991 World Fantasy
Award for Best Short Story-have been published in book form as The
Sandman: The Doll's House (graph coll 1990) with Mike Dringenberg and
Malcolm Jones III, The Sandman: Preludes and Nocturnes (graph coll 1991)
with Dringenberg, Jones and Sam Kieth, and The Sandman: Dream Country
(graph coll 1991) with various artists; a long tale, which transmutes
dark-fantasy material evocative of the work of Jonathan Carroll (1949- ),
was contained in 6 further issues (1991-2) of the comic and is projected
for book release as A Game of You (graph 1992) with Shawn McManus and
Colleen Doran. His further graphic novels are Black Orchid (graph 1991)
and Signal to Noise (1989-90 The Face; rev as graph 1992), both with Dave
McKean, and The Books of Magic (graph coll 1993 US) with various artists.
Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch (1990;
rev 1991 US) with Terry PRATCHETT is a comic fantasy novel about the Four
Horsemen, who do not quite end the world. Unlike graphic novelists such as
Alan MOORE, NG has tended to combine draconian verbal economy with an
ample romanticism, so that his tales carry, sometimes effortlessly, a
burden of half-uttered resonances. He cowrote the entry on the GRAPHIC
NOVEL for this encyclopedia. [JC]Other works: Don't Panic: The Official
Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy Companion (1988; rev 1992); Now We Are
Sick: A Sampler (anth 1986 chap) ed with Stephen Jones (1953- ), booklet
produced to publicize and sell rights in the next book; Now We Are Sick
(anth 1991 chap) ed with Stephen Jones, assembling original poems; Temps
Volume l (anth 1991) ed with Alex Stewart (1958- ).See also: CRIME AND

Originally the collective pseudonym of Russian writers Vladimir Gopman,
Andrei Gavrilov and Mikhail Kovalchuk (VLADIMIR Gopman, Andrei GAvrilov,
and Mikhail KOValchuk). For the purposes of this encyclopedia, in which he
has revised or written many of the entries on Russian sf, including
RUSSIA, this is the pseudonym of Kovalchuk writing solo. Russian critic
and editor Mikhail (Andreevich) Kovalchuk (1951- ) is a trained physicist
who began publishing sf criticism in 1976, soon giving up his science
career for professional journalism. His three critical works on sf are
Vitok Spirali["The Curve of a Spiral"] (1980) which was written by all
three authors,Tchetyre Puteshestviiaa Na Mashine Vremeni ["Four Trips in
the Time Machine"] (1983) and Ultimatum ["The Ultimatum"] (1989), the last
being an historical study of the relationship between fact and fiction in
the nuclear arms race. Among his various anthologies, of interest to
English-speaking readers is World's Spring (anth 1979 Sweden). A
contributor to various English-language reference editions, he has revised
or written many of the entries on Russian sf in this encyclopedia.

US tv series (1980). Universal MCA/ABC-TV. Creator, executive prod Glen
A. LARSON. Most episodes written by Larson. Regular cast included Lorne
Greene, Kent McCord, Barry Van Dyke, Robyn Douglass. 3 pilot 50min
episodes followed by 7 50min episodes.The pilot, Galactica Discovers
Earth, a three-part made-for-tv film sequel to the tv series BATTLESTAR
GALACTICA, was successful enough to convince ABC-TV to commission a new
series. Rushed into production, aimed at an early-evening time slot where
special rules applied about what children can watch, and underrehearsed,
it flopped badly and was soon jettisoned. In the pilot, Galactica finds
Earth too undeveloped to fight off the Cylons and attempts are made via
TIME TRAVEL to improve the situation. The remaining episodes are all set
on Earth and feature Cylon attacks. The pilot, dir Sidney Hayers, with
sections of 2 further episodes, was theatrically released as Conquest of
the Earth (1980). Generally the series was shown on tv abroad as if part
of Battlestar Galactica. [PN]

In The Universe Makers (1971) Donald A. WOLLHEIM attempts to distil from
the range of futuristic visions presented by magazine sf a basic pattern -
a "cosmogony of the future" - in which stages 3-5 (there are 8 in all)
describe "the rise and fall of the Galactic Empire", which is thus
enshrined as the central myth of GENRE SF. ("Empire" is here used with a
general, almost metaphorical meaning, rather than in its politically
definitive sense.) The galactic empire was a necessary invention: an
imaginative framework which could accommodate any number of "Earth-clone"
worlds on which writers might deploy ordinary human characters in
confrontation with any imaginable social and biological system. Very many
modern sf stories are designed to fit into such a framework, taking
advantage of the fact that it has become established as a convention which
needs no explanation.Much of the credit for the establishment of the
convention must go to Isaac ASIMOV, whose Foundation series (1942-50;
fixups 1951-3) set the most influential example, although it is possible
to trace the idea back to earlier roots. As long ago as 1900 Robert W.
COLE had imagined Victoria's glorious British Empire extending its
dominion to the stars, so that ours should not be the only sun never to
set upon it. Confederations of worlds within the Solar System were common
in pulp sf from its inception, and these were extended into the Galaxy in
such novels as Galactic Patrol (1937-8; 1950) by E.E. "Doc" SMITH. Asimov,
however, was the writer who provided the essential historical framework
for such a concept. He did so by relatively straightforward analogy with
past empires, reversing the analytical historical perspective of such
works as The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88)
by Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) to produce the predictive science of
PSYCHOHISTORY. With a single flourish, a whole prospectus for the future
of the human race-allowing virtually limitless possibilities so far as
events on a finer scale were concerned - was established. Asimov used the
convenient historical pattern himself as a background for other works,
including The Stars Like Dust (1951) and The Currents of Space (1952).
Robert A. HEINLEIN's painstaking attempt to develop a future HISTORY step
by step became an empty endeavour after the Foundation series, and later
efforts seem distinctly half-hearted. James BLISH's Cities in Flight
(1955-62) succeeds more through its key image of the star-travelling
CITIES than through its framework, derived from the philosophy of cyclic
history developed by Oswald Spengler (1880-1936). Poul ANDERSON, who
developed his own scheme for use in his Technic History series and many
other stories and novels, was able to take a great deal for granted
because Asimov had prepared the way.Writers of the 1940s who employed the
galactic-empire framework include C.L. MOORE, in Judgment Night (1943;
1952), Edmond HAMILTON, in The Star Kings (1947; 1949 vt Beyond the Moon)
and - most extravagantly - A.E. VAN VOGT in such stories as "Recruiting
Station" (1942; in Masters of Time coll 1950). Van Vogt was not at all
hesitant about borrowing the entire apparatus of historical empires, and
replayed the most melodramatic phase of Roman history - presumably
borrowed via Robert GRAVES's I, Claudius (1934) - in his Linn series,
Empire of the Atom (1946-7; fixup 1957) and The Wizard of Linn (1950;
1962). The background proved particularly useful in the colourful brand of
adventure sf featured by PLANET STORIES, and it was very extensively used
therein, notably by Leigh BRACKETT, Alfred COPPEL and Poul Anderson (in
his early SPACE OPERAS). During the 1950s SCIENCE FICTION ADVENTURES, the
magazine closest in editorial philosophy to Planet Stories, likewise made
extensive use of it, particularly in stories written for the US version by
Robert SILVERBERG and for the UK version by Kenneth BULMER.In addition to
Anderson, several other post-WWII writers have made consistent and
elaborate use of a galactic civilization as a reservoir for unusual
worlds. These include Jack VANCE, notably in The Languages of Pao (1958),
THE DRAGON MASTERS (1963) and in virtually all of his work during the
1960s and 1970s, John BRUNNER, notably in Endless Shadow (1964) and The
World Swappers (1959), Cordwainer SMITH, in his Instrumentality series,
and E.C. TUBB, in his Dumarest series. Few writers have, however,
concerned themselves in any but the most superficial way with the
sociopolitical structure of the galactic community. Anderson has done
significant work in this vein, and so has Gordon R. DICKSON, notably in
the Dorsai series, but most are prepared to leave the community in a state
of disorganization or nebulous harmony. Only rarely do works appear in
which there actually is a powerful, autocratic, imperial system of
government - the most conspicuous modern example is the film STAR WARS
(1977) and its sequels - and the word "empire" is often substituted by
"league", "federation" or some other such variant. Most works of this kind
are either US or (like the German PERRY RHODAN series) products of
cultural coca-colonization, and the political model employed for galactic
civilization is very often the US system writ large - an ideal summed up
by the final line of Asimov's The Stars Like Dust and conscientiously
supported by innumerable episodes of STAR TREK. It is interesting to note
the relative unwillingness of genre-sf writers, even when they take the
entire Galaxy for their setting, to create new political or economic
modes, although Iain M. BANKS's galactic culture in Consider Phlebas
(1987), The Player of Games (1988) and USE OF WEAPONS (1990) is
refreshingly alien to the US model. Galactic empires are almost always
ruled by humans, and human empires are often at war with ALIEN empires. An
amusing antidote to this conventional human chauvinism is The Zen Gun
(1983) by Barrington J. BAYLEY, in which men become so effetely decadent
that their erstwhile underlings, the pigs, take over.It is more or less
taken for granted in post-WWII works that any galactic federation will
have a relatively untamed frontier, almost always called "the rim" (
GALACTIC LENS). First popularized by A. Bertram CHANDLER's long-running
Rim Worlds series, the galactic empire's equivalent of the Wild West
features fairly prominently in modern SPACE OPERA, notably in C.J.
CHERRYH's relatively sophisticated stories of that type, which include
Merchanter's Luck (1982) and Rimrunners (1989). In such stories freelance
starship pilots take the place of cowboy gunfighters; in recent years such
roles have very frequently been filled by female characters, partly as a
result of the influence of Star Trek in recruiting female readers and
writers into the sf community.Any list of post-WWII sf novels using the
galactic-empire framework is bound to be highly selective, but some of the
more notable stories which actually deal with issues relating to the
community rather than to specific worlds within it are: Star Bridge (1955)
Heinlein, Starmaster's Gambit (1957 France; trans 1973) by Gerard KLEIN,
WAY STATION (1963) by Clifford D. SIMAK, Empire Star (1966) by Samuel R.
(1968) by Alexei PANSHIN, Voyage to Dari (1974) by Ian WALLACE, Beyond
Heaven's River (1980) by Greg BEAR, Light on the Sound (1982) by S.P.
SOMTOW, Star of Gypsies (1986) by Silverberg, and the Hyperion books
(1989-90) by Dan SIMMONS.The definitive theme anthology is Galactic
Empires (anth 2 vols 1976) ed Brian W. ALDISS. [BS]See also: COLONIZATION

This term, from ASTRONOMY, makes frequent appearance in sf. It refers to
the fact that our Galaxy is (like many others) approximately lens-shaped -
it is a disc containing spiral arms, but like a lens it has a central
bulge. Our own position in the Galaxy is quite a long way from the core;
when we look towards the centre of the "lens", the direction in which the
stars are clustered most thickly, we see the so-called Milky Way. Towards
the outer rim of the "lens", stars are comparatively sparse, not only in
terms of the numbers lying in our line of sight but also in fact. Many sf
writers have set stories on planets circling such stars. Such worlds were
dubbed Rim Worlds by A. Bertram CHANDLER, and the term (often as
"Rimworld") has since become commonplace in sf. [PN]

[s] Alfred COPPEL.






US DIGEST-size magazine, Oct 1950 to a single undated issue in 1980.
Published by World Editions (Oct 1950-Sep 1951), Galaxy Publishing Corp.
(Oct 1951-May 1969), Universal Publishing and Distributing Corp. (July
1969-Sep/Oct 1979), Avenue Victor Hugo (1980); ed H.L. GOLD (Oct 1950-Oct
1961), Frederik POHL (Dec 1961-May 1969), Ejler JAKOBSSON (July 1969-May
1974), James BAEN (June 1974-Oct 1977), John J. PIERCE (Nov 1977-Mar/Apr
1979), Hank STINE (June/July-Sep/Oct 1979), Floyd Kemske (1980). The
monthly schedule from the beginning to Dec 1958 was broken only by the
omission of Dec 1955. It was bimonthly Feb 1959-Apr 1968. June 1968-Apr
1971 the schedule was monthly, except that June 1969 and Jan 1970 were
omitted, and Aug/Sep 1970 and Oct/Nov 1970 were single issues. May/June
1971-July/Aug 1973 the schedule was bimonthly, returning to a shaky
monthly schedule Sep 1973-June 1978, the issues for May, Nov and Dec 1975
being omitted, as were those for Apr, June, Aug 1976; Dec 1977-Jan 1978
was a single issue. After June 1978, the final issues were Sep 1978,
Nov/Dec 1978, Mar/Apr 1979, June/July 1979, Sep/Oct 1979 and one 1980
issue released in summer. Curiously, the title was revived in 1994 by E.J.
Gold, son of the original editor. The new Galaxy, ed Gold, published by
the Institute for the Development of the Harmonious Being, Inc., Nevada
City, California, published six bimonthly issues in 1994 in small-bedsheet
(A4) format, and two more to Mar/Apr 1995. Volume numeration started again
at the beginning.The first publisher of Gal was an Italian company which,
having incurred heavy losses trying to launch another magazine in the USA,
approached H.L. Gold for alternative suggestions. He proposed an sf
magazine, and Gal came into existence. From the outset, Gal's payment
rates equalled the best in the field - a minimum of three cents a word -
and it adopted the digest format already taken by its most successful
SCIENCE FICTION . These two with Gal were the most important sf magazines
of the 1950s through to the mid-1970s.The new magazine was an immediate
success. ASF was at this time following John W. CAMPBELL Jr's new-found
obsession with DIANETICS and was otherwise more oriented towards
TECHNOLOGY. Gold's editorial policy was comparatively free-ranging: he was
interested in PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY and SATIRE and other HUMOUR, and the
magazine reflected this. Like Campbell, he worked closely with his writers
(mostly by telephone, as he was confined to his apartment by acute
agoraphobia) and is said to have had a hand in the conception of many of
the famous stories he published, notably Alfred BESTER's THE DEMOLISHED
MAN (Jan-Mar 1952; 1953). In its first year Gal included such stories as:
Clifford D. SIMAK's "Time Quarry" (Oct-Dec 1950), in book form Time and
Again (1951); Fritz LEIBER's "Coming Attraction" (Nov 1950); Damon
KNIGHT's "To Serve Man" (Nov 1950); Isaac ASIMOV's "Tyrann" (Jan-Mar
1951), in book form The Stars Like Dust (1951); Ray BRADBURY's "The
Fireman" (Feb 1951), in book form FAHRENHEIT 451 (exp 1953); C.M.
KORNBLUTH's "The Marching Morons" (Apr 1951); Edgar PANGBORN's "Angel's
Egg" (June 1951); Wyman GUIN's "Beyond Bedlam" (Aug 1951); and Robert A.
HEINLEIN's The Puppet Masters (Sep-Nov 1951; 1951).The magazine maintained
a comparable quality through its early years, and in 1953 shared the first
HUGO for Best Magazine with ASF, while Bester's THE DEMOLISHED MAN, in its
Gal version, won the first Hugo for Best Novel. Although the magazine's
fiction encompassed a considerable variety of styles and preoccupations,
the approach most identified with Gold's magazine is the irony and social
satire of such authors as Knight, Leiber, Pohl and Robert SHECKLEY. With
the Mar 1952 issue, Willy LEY began his science column, For Your
Information, which he continued until his death in 1969. Groff CONKLIN was
book reviewer from the beginning to Oct 1955.A weakness of the early Gal
was that the cover art was mainly crude and undistinguished. The June 1951
issue, however, featured the first cover by Emsh (Ed EMSHWILLER), whose
humorous approach was well suited to the magazine's contents and became
identified with it. Further stories which appeared in Gold's Gal included:
Pohl and Kornbluth's "Gravy Planet" (June-Aug 1952), in book form THE
SPACE MERCHANTS (1953); Theodore STURGEON's "Baby is Three" (Oct 1952),
part of MORE THAN HUMAN (fixup 1953); Asimov's The Caves of Steel (Oct-Dec
1953; 1954); Pohl and Kornbluth's Gladiator-at-Law (June-Aug 1954; 1955);
Bester's The Stars My Destination (Oct 1956-Jan 1957; 1956; vt Tiger!
Tiger! UK); Pohl and Kornbluth's Wolfbane (Oct-Nov 1957; 1959); Leiber's
Hugo-winning THE BIG TIME (Mar-Apr 1958; 1961); Avram DAVIDSON's
Hugo-winning "Or All the Sea with Oysters" (May 1958); and Sheckley's
"Time-Killer" (Oct 1958-Feb 1959), in book form Immortality Delivered
(1958; exp vt Immortality, Inc. 1959). A prize contest sponsored by Gal
drew no worthwhile entries, so Frederik Pohl and Lester DEL REY were
prevailed upon to collaborate on a "prize-winning" novel, which appeared
as Preferred Risk (June-Sep 1955; 1955:) by Edson MCCANN. Gal had a
short-lived fantasy companion, BEYOND FANTASY FICTION, in 1953-5, and in
1959 its publishers acquired IF, which Gold also edited. In Sep 1958 the
title changed to Galaxy Magazine, after which it varied between the two
(with a period when it was called simply Galaxy). Beginning with the Feb
1959 issue it changed to bimonthly publication, with more pages per issue.
In 1961 Gold was forced to retire following a car accident. He was
succeeded as editor of Gal and If by Frederik Pohl. Pohl widened the
magazine's policy still further, to include more fantasy-oriented
material. Jack VANCE and Cordwainer SMITH became regular contributors,
Vance with such stories as THE DRAGON MASTERS (Aug 1962; 1963), which won
a Hugo, The Star King (Dec 1963-Feb 1964; 1964) and THE LAST CASTLE (Apr
1966; 1966), which also won a Hugo, and Smith with "The Boy who Bought Old
Earth" (Apr 1964; exp vt The Planet Buyer 1964), "The Dead Lady of Clown
Town" (Aug 1964) and many others. Larry NIVEN was one of Pohl's
discoveries, and Frank HERBERT and Robert SILVERBERG became further
regular contributors. Other notable stories from his editorship include:
Simak's "Here Gather the Stars" (June-Aug 1963), in book form Way Station
(1963); Gordon R. DICKSON's "Soldier, Ask Not" (Oct 1964), which won a
Hugo; Harlan ELLISON's "'Repent, Harlequin,' Said the Ticktockman" (Dec
1965) and "The Beast that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World" (June
1968), both of which won Hugos and the former also a NEBULA; Poul
ANDERSON's "To Outlive Eternity" (June-Aug 1967), in book form Tau Zero
(1970); and Silverberg's "Hawksbill Station" (Aug 1967) and "Nightwings"
(Sep 1968), which won a Hugo. As Gold was notorious for unnecessary
editorial tampering with the stories he published, so was Pohl famed for
indiscriminately altering their titles. Algis BUDRYS began a notable
book-review column in 1965.Pohl's Gal was consistently an interesting
magazine, but it was less successful, with sf fans at least, than his If,
which under Pohl won three consecutive Hugos. Pohl also commenced three
came and went swiftly; WORLDS OF TOMORROW was more durable.In June 1968
Gal resumed monthly publication. The following year it changed ownership
and editorship again. Ejler Jakobsson gave Gal the subtitle "The Best in
Pertinent Science Fiction", and the appearance was revamped in a seeming
attempt to give the magazine more contemporary appeal; for a time it
included a comic strip, Sunpot, by Vaughn BODE. One notable occurrence
during Jakobsson's editorship was the featuring of two consecutive serials
by Robert Silverberg: Downward to the Earth (Nov 1969-Mar 1970; 1970) and
Tower of Glass (Apr-June 1970; 1970). Theodore Sturgeon took over as book
reviewer (Jan 1972-July 1975), his column proving less lively than might
have been expected. On the whole, the magazine failed to develop under
Jakobsson's editorship, and it reverted to a bimonthly schedule with the
May/June 1971 issue, though a patchy monthly schedule began again Sep
1973. In June 1974 he was succeeded by James Baen.In Jan 1975, Gal
absorbed If. After a period in the doldrums, 1976 saw a revival in the
magazine's fortunes. Contributors included Niven, John VARLEY and Roger
ZELAZNY. Pohl's Gateway (Nov 1976-Mar 1977; 1977) was a notable serial
which won both Hugo and Nebula. The magazine featured book reviews by
Spider ROBINSON (from Aug 1975) and a science column by Jerry POURNELLE.
However, despite the strength of the fiction, distribution faltered, and
the monthly schedule was adhered to only patchily in 1975, 1976 and
1977.Baen left in 1977 to become sf editor of ACE BOOKS, and was succeeded
by John J. Pierce, who sadly presided over Gal's slow collapse - payment
rate dropping, good authors hard to find except for the ever-loyal Pohl -
to be followed briefly by Hank Stine (2 issues). Then Gal was sold to the
publishers of GALILEO; ed Floyd Kemske, it lasted for only 1 more issue
(in large format). The mess is witnessed by the fact that Pohl's
serialized novel Jem (Nov-Dec 1978-1980; 1979) took two years to
serialize, under three editors, finishing long after the book had been
published.The new Galaxy Magazine founded in 1994 by E.J. Gold, son of the
original editor, and published by a SMALL PRESS, publishes New Age
non-fiction material, reprint sf stories and new sf stories in what may be
a commercial mix. There is reprint artwork, and most of the fiction is
very short; much of the new fiction by little-known writers.There have
been numerous anthologies of stories from Gal, for details of which see
the entries for its first four editors. Galaxy Magazine: The Dark and the
Light Years (1986) by David L. Rosheim is good on hard facts about the
magazine but very restricted on interpretation and context.A UK edition,
from Strato Publications, began in Jan 1953 (reprinting the Oct 1952 US
edition). It was labelled vol 3 #1. #2 reprinted the preceding US issue
(Sep 1952). The UK edition continued to follow the original, erratically
at first, and from #7 began to shorten the US edition. It continued to be
numbered continuously (dropping the "vol 3" after #12) until #94 (Feb
1961). From #72 (Feb 1959) it was an exact reprint of the US edition with
a different title page. From Dec 1961 only the cover was different, and
from Dec 1962 the US edition was imported. A second UK edition, published
by Gold Star Publications, ran for 5 issues in 1967, reprinting six months
after the US original (Jan/Feb 1967 UK was June 1966 US), printing US
editions complete apart from the changed date. Then, again, the US edition
was distributed. In 1972 a third UK edition began, from Universal-Tandem
Publishing Co., who overprinted the US edition with price and issue
number: the May/Jun 1972 issue was #1, and a total of 25 numbered issues
were published, ending with #25, Jan 1975. However, the numbering was not
continuous; it ran #1-#10, #11, #11, #12, #12, #12, #14, #17-#25.
Thereafter the US edition was distributed. [MJE/PN]See also: GOLDEN AGE OF

A companion series to GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION. The first 31 issues of
these numbered books, which resembled magazines, were published
irregularly, 1950-57, in DIGEST format, and a further 4, 1957-9, were
issued in standard paperback format. #1-#7 (1950-51) were published by
World Editions, #9-#35 (1952-9) by Galaxy Publishing Corp. The series was
then taken over by Beacon Books, a publisher specializing in mild
pornography, which brought out 11 further issues, #36-#46 (1959-61), still
in paperback format, usually with lurid covers and suggestive titles.The
original series featured several classics of magazine sf, including
Sinister Barrier (1939 Unknown; 1943) by Eric Frank RUSSELL (#1), Legion
of Space (1934 ASF; 1947) by Jack WILLIAMSON (#2) and LEST DARKNESS FALL
(1939 Unknown; 1941) by L. Sprague DE CAMP (#24). Notable novels from
outside the genre, often abridged, included The Amphibians (1924) and The
World Below (1929) by S. Fowler WRIGHT (#4 and #5) and Odd John (1935) by
Olaf STAPLEDON (#8). There were also some original novels, including
Prelude to Space (1951) by Arthur C. CLARKE (#3) and Empire (1951) by
Clifford D. SIMAK (#7). Original novels with a sexy slant published in the
Beacon Books series include Flesh (1960) by Philip Jose FARMER (#41) and
The Male Response (1961) by Brian W. ALDISS (#45), while such innocuous
works as A.E. VAN VOGT's The House that Stood Still (1950) and Cyril
JUDD's Outpost Mars (1952) were retitled, respectively, The Mating Cry
(rev vt 1960) (#44) and Sin in Space (rev vt 1961) (#46).In 1963 there
appeared a second companion series to Gal, Galaxy Magabooks, each volume
consisting of two short novels by a single author. There were only 3
issues: #1 and #2 came in 1963; the later #3 was And My Fear is Great/Baby
is Three (1965 dos) by Theodore STURGEON. Award Books issued a number of
paperbacks as "Galaxy Science Fiction Novels" in the early 1970s, but
these did not constitute a series. [BS]

US BEDSHEET-size magazine. 16 issues Sep 1976-Jan 1980, with #11/12, May
1979, being a double issue. Planned as quarterly, but bimonthly to Sep
1978, then irregular, with the last 4 issues bimonthly. Published by
Avenue Victor Hugo, Boston, Massachusetts; ed Charles C. RYAN.Published on
a small budget, G hoped to survive through subscription sales rather than
newsstand distribution. 8000 copies of #1 were printed and sold. In
magazine terms this is small, but the circulation steadily increased, at
least initially. Printed on cheap newsprint, and using a number of stories
by little-known writers, G began quietly but showed signs of improvement
by #3. The great Renaissance scientist was evoked in the title because G
was planned to emulate his "indomitable spirit . . . [and] undying quest
for knowledge". Almost half of G, like most 1970s sf magazines, was
devoted to science-fact articles, reviews, interviews etc. Contributors
included Brian W. ALDISS, Ray BRADBURY (poetry), Robert CHILSON, Hal
CLEMENT (science fact), John KESSEL, Connie WILLIS and Larry NIVEN, the
latter with a serialization of The Ringworld Engineers (1979; 1980). G
became quite a good magazine, but perished because of distribution
problems. [PN]

(1954- ) UK scriptwriter and author who first came to prominence with sf
scripts, notably the RADIO series "The Last Rose of Summer", which he
adapted as his first novel, The Last Rose of Summer (1978) - from which
derived Dying of Paradise (1982) and its sequel, The Ice Belt (1983), both
as by Stephen Couper - and episodes for DR WHO, two of which he novelized:
Doctor Who and Warrior's Gate * (1982) and Doctor Who - Terminus * (1983),
both as by John Lydecker. In the 1980s SG began to establish a reputation
as one of the UK's most successful HORROR writers, though some of his
books have strong sf overtones. Chimera (1982) is a variation on the
Frankenstein myth in which the monster is a hybrid apeman ( APES AND
CAVEMEN) created by a government research project in DNA manipulation (
GENETIC ENGINEERING); it was serialized on UK tv in 1991. Oktober (1988)
is about an experimental drug that allows the protagonist to control other
people's nightmares. While often lacking originality of ideas, SG's work
is marked by strong characterization, good plotting and extensive
background detail, particularly when police-procedural material is being
presented. [AC/PR]Other works: Saturn 3 * (1980), novelizing the movie
SATURN 3 (1980), and based on its screenplay by Martin AMIS; Follower
(1984); Valley of Lights (1987); Down River (1989); Rain (1990); The Boat
House (1991) and Nightmare, With Angel (1992).

(1897-1976) US journalist, screenwriter and novelist, sports editor of
the New York Daily News for 12 years, known mainly for such works outside
the sf field as The Snow Goose (1941 chap), a sentimental novella
extremely popular in the wartime UK. The Foolish Immortals (1953) is an
eternal-youth novel. [JC]Other works: The Abandoned (1950); Love of Seven
Dolls (1954); Ludmila: A Story of Liechstenstein (1954 chap
Liechtenstein); Thomasina: The Cat who Thought She was God (1957); The
Silent Miau (1964); The Man who was Magic: A Tale of Innocence (1967); The
Manxmouse (1968);The House that Wouldn't Go Away (1979 UK); The Best of
Paul Gallico (coll 1988).

(1911-1994) US author and technical writer, now retired. He was born and
educated in Wisconsin, and has been a considerable traveller since. He
began publishing sf stories at the age of 19 in 1929 with "The Space
Dwellers" in Science Wonder Stories and "The Crystal Ray" in Air Wonder
Stories. In the 1930s he published frequently in F. Orlin TREMAINE's ASF,
his most famous contributions being the Old Faithful series: "Old
Faithful" (1934), "The Son of Old Faithful" (1935) and "Child of the
Stars" (1936), the first of these novelettes featuring a sympathetically
conceived Martian - much in contrast to the then dominant sf convention
that ALIENS were to be depicted as monstrous - and the other two featuring
that Martian's descendants. Along with other stories, the three were
collected in The Best of Raymond Z. Gallun (coll 1978). During his
prolific years - he published most of his 120 plus stories during 1929-42
- RZG also used the pseudonyms Arthur Allport, Dow Elstar, E.V. Raymond
and William Callahan in his magazine fiction, publishing his first book,
The Machine that Thought (1939 Science Fiction Stories; c1940-42 chap) as
Callahan. His style was rough-hewn, but he plotted his work with vigour
and packed it with ideas, often decidedly original: from a very early
date, many of his stories show an interest in BIOLOGY and GENETIC
ENGINEERING not widely shared by his contemporaries. He became inactive in
the 1940s and, though he has published again since about 1950, he has
never regained the popularity of his early years, although one of his
finest stories, reprinted in the Best volume, was "The Restless Tide"
(1951 Marvel Science Fiction). He published nothing 1961-74, but remained
intermittently active through the 1980s.RZG's first novel, "Passport to
Jupiter" (1950 Startling Stories), never appeared as a book. The style of
the first to do so, People Minus X (roughly based on "Avalanche", 1935 ASF
as by Dow Elstar; 1957), continued to reflect his many years of writing in
a four-square idea-oriented style for the PULP MAGAZINES, and
unsurprisingly derives its energy from the concepts which flood it,
including body-miniaturization, body-recording, the transfiguration of
human volunteers into space-resistant ANDROIDS, and much more. The Planet
Strappers (1961) is more routine, but The Eden Cycle (1974) is a carefully
written, slow-moving study of humans who, having received from aliens the
gift of IMMORTALITY and a capacity to reinhabit imaginatively - through a
kind of VIRTUAL REALITY - various epochs of world history ( HISTORY IN
SF), find themselves less and less capable of responding to their
experiences.RZG is a writer - along with Edmond HAMILTON and Stanley G.
WEINBAUM - whose writing reflected the expectations of magazine readers of
the early 1930s; and like Hamilton (Weinbaum died early) his development
after 1945 was tied, for good and for ill, to those early days. Late
novels, like Skyclimber (1981), set on MARS, and Bioblast (1985), about
the early years of a mutant SUPERMAN, may therefore lack some essential
degree of appeal to today's audiences because they are crude, because they
avoid sex, because their protagonists are unsubtle. But the sense of
purpose persists, as does a humane vigour - as a late memoir, Starclimber:
The Literary Adventures and Autobiography of Raymond Z. Gallun (1991) ed
Jeffrey M. ELLIOT, amply conveys. RZG is the best of those pre-1939 sf
writers who failed to remain well known into the current nostalgic period.
[JC]About the author: The Work of Raymond Z. Gallun: An Annotated
Bibliography & Guide (1993) by Jeffrey M. Elliot.See also: ASTOUNDING

(1920-1976) US writer who was born and died in New Orleans, Louisiana; a
naval test pilot during WWII, he subsequently worked as a journalist,
though the delayed effect of war injuries forced him to retire in 1965. He
began to publish sf with "Rebirth" for Imagination in 1952, and appeared
frequently in the magazines for about a decade with such tales as "Tonight
the Sky Will Fall" (1952) and "The City of Force" (1959), characterized by
a combination of a strong HARD-SF structure and a treatment of
psychological concerns that was sometimes a touch uneasy. Twice he wrote
(1953-4) as Louis G. Daniels. Stories from this period are collected in
The Last Leap and Other Stories of the Super-Mind (coll 1964 UK) and
Project Barrier (coll 1968 UK); neither volume appeared in the USA.DFG's
first novel, Dark Universe (1961), a POCKET-UNIVERSE tale (see also
CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH), remains his most popular and is probably his
best (it was nominated for a HUGO). Long after a nuclear HOLOCAUST, the
survivors' descendants live sightless far underground. Their culture -
from daily routine through cosmological concerns - is grippingly and
originally conceived, though the book closes with a somewhat anticlimactic
escape from darkness into a new age of "enlightenment". His next novels,
Lords of the Psychon (1963), based roughly on "City of Force" (1959),
Counterfeit World (1964 UK; vt Simulacron-3 1964 US) and The Lost
Perception (1966 UK; vt A Scourge of Screamers 1968 US), share the same
technical ingenuity and a continuing interest in worlds where the
PERCEPTION of reality is controlled and restricted, where indeed the
worlds themselves are arbitrary constructs, Counterfeit World being
particularly interesting in this respect. In a sense it is a novel-length
reworking of Frederik POHL's "The Tunnel Under the World" (1954), both
being about construct-worlds designed for market research; it was filmed
for tv in Germany in 1973 by Rainer Werner Fassbinder as WELT AM DRAHT
(1973; vt World on a Wire). DFG's last novel, The Infinite Man (1973), was
less successful.DPG was never really able to capitalize on the promising
beginning he had made as an sf writer. It may be that his war injuries
kept him from a longer and more fruitful career. [JC]See also: GREAT AND


A giant prehistoric turtle who starred in a number of MONSTER MOVIES from
the Daiei Studios. The first of these was DAIKAIJU GAMERA (1966), in the
entry for which are detailed also the other Gamera films. [JGr]

This entry deals with games as a theme within sf. Games based on sf are
treated under GAMES AND TOYS.Just as sf's concern with the ARTS has been
dominated by stories about the decline of artistry in a mechanized mass
society, so its concern with sports has been much involved with
representing the decline of sportsmanship. There is a marked tendency in
contemporary sf to assume that the audience-appeal of futuristic sports
will be measured by their rendering of violence in terms of spectacle: the
film ROLLERBALL (1975) is perhaps the clearest expression of this
notion.There are two forms of stereotyped competitive violence which are
common in sf: the gladiatorial circus and the hunt. The arena is part of
the standard apparatus of romances in the Edgar Rice BURROUGHS tradition,
and extends throughout the history of sf to such modern variants as that
found in the Dumarest series by E.C. TUBB (1967 onwards). Combat between
human and ALIEN is the basis of Fredric BROWN's popular "Arena" (1944) and
a host of similar stories, while many visions of a corrupt future society
foresee the return of bloody games in the Roman tradition-Frederik POHL's
and C.M. KORNBLUTH's Gladiator-at-Law (1955) is a notable example. The
BattleTech SHARED-WORLD series (see also Robert THURSTON) moves the
formula on to a galactic stage. Ordinary hunting is extrapolated to take
in alien prey in such stories as the Gerry Carlyle series by Arthur K.
BARNES (1937-46; coll 1956 as Interplanetary Hunter), and a familiar
variant has mankind as the victim rather than the hunter; examples include
THE SOUND OF HIS HORN (1952) by SARBAN, Come, Hunt an Earthman (1973) by
Philip E. HIGH and many works by Robert SHECKLEY, ranging from "Seventh
Victim" (1953) and "The Prize of Peril" (1958) to such recent novels as
Victim Prime (1986 UK) and Hunter/Victim (1987 UK). A notable series of
relevant theme anthologies is the 3-vol Starhunters series (1988-90) ed
David A. DRAKE. The oft-presumed equivalence between the spectator-appeal
of sport and that of dramatized violence reached its peak in Norman
SPINRAD's "The National Pastime" (1973) and the film DEATH RACE 2000
(1975).An opposing trend is one which suggests that the people of the
future might substitute rule-bound war games for actual wars, thus
avoiding large-scale slaughter of civilians. The idea was first mooted by
George T. CHESNEY in The New Ordeal (1879); sf versions of it include
"Mercenary" (1962; exp vt Mercenary from Tomorrow 1968) and its sequel The
Earth War (1963) by Mack REYNOLDS and the Gamester War series begun with
The Alexandrian Ring (1987) by William R. FORSTCHEN, and also a number of
films, including GLADIATORERNA (1968) and ROBOT JOX (1990).The sf sports
story is almost entirely a post-WWII phenomenon, although the pre-WWII
pulps did feature Clifford D. SIMAK's "Rule 18" (1938) - in which one of
the ever-popular "all-time great" teams is actually assembled - and one or
two rocket-racing stories, such as Lester DEL REY's "Habit" (1939); and
much earlier van Tassel SUTPHEN had included a couple of golfing-sf
stories in his The Nineteenth Hole: Second Series (coll 1901). Many early
post-WWII stories are accounts of man/machine confrontation ( MACHINES;
ROBOTS). Examples include the golf story "Open Warfare" (1954) by James E.
GUNN, the boxing stories "Title Fight" (1956) by William Campbell Gault
and "Steel" (1956) by Richard MATHESON, the chess story "The 64-Square
Madhouse" (1962) by Fritz LEIBER, and the motor-racing story "The Ultimate
Racer" (1964) by Gary Wright, who also wrote a fine bobsled-racing sf
story in "Mirror of Ice" (1967). The changing role of the automobile in
post-WWII society provoked a number of bizarre extrapolations, including
H. Chandler ELLIOTT's violent "A Day on Death Highway" (1963), Roger
ZELAZNY's story about a car-fighting matador, "Auto-da-Fe" (1967), and
Harlan ELLISON's "Along the Scenic Route" (1969). Other popular sf themes
are often combined with sf sports stories. Gambling of various kinds
appears in many ESP stories, for obvious reasons, and superhuman powers
are occasionally employed on the sports field, as in Irwin Shaw's
"Whispers in Bedlam" (1973) and George Alec EFFINGER's "Naked to the
Invisible Eye" (1975). Stories which examine the possible impact of
biotechnology on future sports include Howard V. Hendrix's "The Farm
System" (1988) and Ian MCDONALD's "Winning" (1990). Full-length novels
about future sport are relatively rare; examples include The Mind-Riders
(1976) by Brian M. STABLEFORD, about boxing, and The New Atoms Bombshell
(1980) by Robert Browne (Marvin Karlins [1941- ]), about baseball.Games
are used as a key to social advancement and control in a number of
stories, including The Heads of Cerberus (1919; 1952) by Francis STEVENS,
World out of Mind (1953) by J.T. MCINTOSH, SOLAR LOTTERY (1955; vt World
of Chance) by Philip K. DICK and Cosmic Checkmate (1962) by Katherine
MACLEAN and Charles V. DE VET. Some sf stories produce future or alternate
worlds where games are fundamental to the social fabric, as in Hermann
HESSE's Das Glasperlenspiel (1943; trans M. Savill as Magister Ludi 1949
US; preferred trans Richard and Clara Winston as The Glass Bead Game 1969
US) and Gerald MURNANE's The Plains (1982); a vicious games-based culture
is successfully attacked by the protagonist of Iain M. BANKS's space opera
The Player of Games (1988). In other novels by Philip K. Dick, including
The Game-Players of Titan (1963) and THE THREE STIGMATA OF PALMER ELDRITCH
(1965), games function as levels of pseudo-reality. Sf writers who have
shown a particular and continuing interest in games or sports include
Barry N. MALZBERG, who often uses surreal games to symbolize frustrating
and ultimately unbeatable alienating forces - as in the apocalyptic
Overlay (1972) and Tactics of Conquest (1974), and in the
quasi-allegorical The Gamesman (1975) - George Alec EFFINGER, who also
uses game situations as symbols of the limitations of rationality and
freedom, notably in "Lydectes: On the Nature of Sport" (1975) and "25
Crunch Split Right on Two" (1975), and Piers ANTHONY, who often uses games
to reflect the structures of his plots, notably in MACROSCOPE (1969), Ox
(1976), Steppe (1976) and Ghost (1988). The game which has most frequently
fascinated sf writers is chess, featured in Charles L. HARNESS's "The
Chessplayers" (1953) and Poul ANDERSON's "The Immortal Game" (1954) as
well as Malzberg's Tactics of Conquest. John BRUNNER's The Squares of the
City (1965) has a plot based on a real chess game, and Ian WATSON's
Queenmagic, Kingmagic (1986) includes a world structured as one (as well
as worlds structured according to other games, including Snakes and
Ladders!). Gerard KLEIN built the mystique of the game into Starmaster's
Gambit (1958; trans 1973). A version of chess crops up in the work of
Edgar Rice Burroughs - in The Chessmen of Mars (1922) - and a rather more
exotic variant plays an important role in The Fairy Chessmen (1951; vt
Chessboard Planet; vt The Far Reality) by Lewis Padgett (Henry KUTTNER and
C.L. MOORE). An anthology of chess stories is Pawn to Infinity (anth 1982)
ed Fred SABERHAGEN.In recent years the rapid real-world evolution of
electronic arcade games and home-computer games has sparked off a boom in
stories where such games become too real for comfort. Notable examples
include "Dogfight" (1985) by Michael SWANWICK and William GIBSON, Octagon
(1981) by Saberhagen, TRUE NAMES (1981; 1984) by Vernor VINGE, ENDER'S
GAME (1978; exp 1985) by Orson Scott CARD, God Game (1986) by Andrew M.
GREELEY and Only You Can Save Mankind (1992) by Terry PRATCHETT (see also
VIRTUAL REALITY). Stories of space battles whose protagonists are revealed
in the last line to be icons in a computer-game "shoot 'em up" may have
succeeded Shaggy God stories ( ADAM AND EVE) as the archetypal folly
perpetrated by novice writers (although Fredric Brown's similarly plotted
"Recessional" [1960], where the protagonists are chessmen, has been much
anthologized). Many computer-game scenarios are, of course,
sciencefictional, as are many of the scenarios used in fantasy
role-playing games ( GAMES AND TOYS; GAME-WORLDS).When it comes to
inventing new games, sf writers have had very limited success. There have
been one or two interesting descriptions of sports played in gravity-free
conditions, but these are usually incidental to the real concerns of the
stories in which they occur; stories set in SPACE HABITATS frequently
include descriptions of "flying" games played in the vicinity of the
rotational axis. Sling-gliding, in which glides are accelerated by massive
steel whips, is a plausible and dangerous sport featured in The Jaws that
Bite, the Claws that Catch (1975; vt The Girl with a Symphony in her
Fingers) by Michael G. CONEY. The sport of hussade, which plays a major
part in Jack VANCE's Trullion: Alastor 2262 (1973), is unconvincing. The
board-game vlet in Samuel R. DELANY's Triton (1976) is cleverly presented,
but the details of play are necessarily vague. This game was first written
about by Joanna RUSS in "A Game of Vlet" (1974).Games and sports are also
very common in FANTASY and SCIENCE FANTASY, especially that set in post-
HOLOCAUST or primitive worlds, as in Piers Anthony's early trilogy
(1968-75) collected as Battle Circle (omni 1977), or Eclipse of the Kai *
(1989) by Joe Dever and John Grant ( Paul BARNETT), which features
vtovlry, a rugby analogue played triangularly and with throwing-axes.
Indeed, the metaphoric nuances of games enliven fantasy of all sorts, from
the croquet and card games in Lewis CARROLL's Alice books to Sheri S.
TEPPER's True Game series; in both cases the arbitrary and obsessive
nature of games-playing becomes an image of life itself.A relevant theme
anthology is Arena: Sports SF (anth 1976) ed Barry N. Malzberg and Ed

For games as a theme within sf GAMES AND SPORTS. This entry deals with
games and toys based on sf.Sf games have quite a long history. The first,
fairly quiet, phase comprised board games or card games based on a
successful film, tv series or comic strip. The second phase, the
commercial explosion in sf and fantasy games (and toys), dates back only
to the 1970s, and came about as a consequence of three factors: the
introduction in 1974 of Dungeons and Dragons (D&D), a very successful
role-playing game (RPG); the introduction of the home computer, which only
at the very end of the 1970s developed any real market penetration (though
an early sf computer strategy game, Star Trek, was on display at the
Worldcon in Australia in 1975) and the increasing realization by business
people of the fortunes to be made by marketing products associated with
successful films and tv shows, everything from bars of soap through books
and comics to games and toys. The first massive campaign of this sort in
the sf field was associated with the film STAR WARS (1977). (However, sf
computer games played on the huge, old, cumbersome mainframes of the
period, antedate by a decade or more the sf games played on home
computers. The game Spacewarwas invented at MIT - Massachusetts Institute
of Technology - in the 1960s, and was the subject of an article by Albert
W. Kuhfeld in ASF, July 1971.)The first phase. Sf scenarios lend
themselves readily to strategy games or war games (the latter being a
specialized case of the former), often played on boards marked out in
various grid patterns. Board games of this sort can be traced back to
chess and Wei-ch'i, but miniature wargaming effectively began with H.G.
WELLS, as described in his books Floor Games (1911) and Little Wars: A
Game for Boys (1913); he was probably, despite his denials, influenced by
Kriegspiel, a military training tool then used in Germany. The immediate
ancestor of sf games is Gettysburg (1958), designed by Charles Roberts,
the first board game dedicated to simulating a single military event. It
led to a plethora of such games, including simulations of imaginary
events.Once speculative warfare was admitted by gamers to be legitimate,
the field was open to games like Lensman (1971), based on E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's series of novels. Featuring space combat, it was largely a variant
on existing naval simulations, with the addition of such sf tropes as
FORCE FIELDS and tractor beams. Later games include: Robert Heinlein's
Starship Troopers (1976), a clever and complex development from Robert A.
HEINLEIN's original scenario, John Carter of Mars (1979), based on Edgar
Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom books, and DUNE (1979), based on Frank HERBERT's
novel. One of the earlier sf games - though probably not the first - with
an original scenario (that is, not based on a book or film) was Cosmic
Encounter (1977), a strategy card game in which players, as alien species
with differing powers, competed to extend their "sphere of influence". An
early fantasy board game was War of the Ring (1978), based on J.R.R.
TOLKIEN's The Lord of the Rings (1954-5).The second phase. Until the
mid-1970s most games inspired by sf and fantasy were essentially glosses
on existing forms, substituting Mars for Mayfair or Nazgul for Nazis. Then
new game-forms appeared, notably role-playing games, which took their
inspiration from fantasy and sf at a much more fundamental level. Dungeons
and Dragons (1974), the first published RPG, inspired by Tolkien's books
and other fantasy sources, was created by Gary Gygax (1938- ) and Dave
Arneson. D&D was soon popular with students and sf fans, and by 1981 their
company, TSR Inc., was earning $20 million a year. In RPGs a referee (or
"dungeon master") acts as story-teller, prepares - or describes according
to parameters set out by the games company - an environment through which
the players move, and presents the players with a series of problems such
as monsters, booby traps and complicated puzzles. The players control
"characters", defined in terms of various ratings, and roll dice to see
whether they have succeeded or failed. Players tend to feel intense
identification with their characters.Other companies saw the potential of
the market and launched their own fantasy RPGs, but the earliest were
little more than variations on the D&D theme. Runequest (1978), published
by Chaosium, was the first really innovative successor, providing a
detailed and consistent fantasy GAME-WORLD, complete with history, human
and nonhuman races, religions and politics. Meanwhile sf RPGs were being
launched, such as Traveller (1977), published by GDW Inc., and it too
later added its own detailed background; its predecessors were
Metamorphosis: Alpha, Flying Buffalo's Starfaring, Space Quest and Space
Patrol. Set in a SPACE-OPERA universe, Traveller would feel familiar to
readers of such writers of HARD SF as Poul ANDERSON and Jerry POURNELLE.By
now it was clear that game referees were prepared to buy accessory
materials, such as rules supplements, prepared adventures, pads for
recording details of characters, etc., and would buy more material for an
existing game in preference to a new game. Games not supported by such
accessories soon stopped selling. An early RPG trend was increasing
complexity of rules. Chivalry and Sorcery (1977), published by Fantasy
Games Unlimited, tried to simulate every detail of medieval life, and play
slowed to a crawl under the burden of dice rolling and rules consultation
needed for every action. Advanced Dungeons and Dragons (1978-9), published
by TSR, much more successfully added several hundred thousand words to the
D&D rules.Most 1970s RPGs used invented game-worlds, or left their
backgrounds vague, but in the 1980s many RPGs were licensed from popular
sf and fantasy works. Among these were Call of Cthulhu (1981), published
by Chaosium, based on H.P. LOVECRAFT's horror stories, Stormbringer
(1981), published by Chaosium, based on Michael MOORCOCK's novels, Star
Trek (1983), published by FASA, based on the tv series, Marvel Super
Heroes (1984), published by TSR, based on MARVEL COMICS, RINGWORLD (1984),
published by Chaosium, based on Larry NIVEN's novel, Star Wars (1987),
published by West End Games, based on STAR WARS, Buck Rogers XXVc: The
25th Century (1988), published by TSR, based on the comic strip BUCK
ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY, Humanx Commonwealth (1989), published by Steve
Jackson Games, based on the series of books by Alan Dean FOSTER, Uplift
(1990), published by Steve Jackson Games, based on the novel by David
BRIN, and Aliens (1991), published by Leading Edge Games, based on the
film ALIENS.Sf games in original settings range from the Wellsian
STEAMPUNK Space 1889 (1989), published by GDW, through the humorously
DYSTOPIAN Paranoia (1984), published by West End Games, through space
opera such as Spacemaster (1986), published by Iron Crown Enterprises, to
the increasingly popular CYBERPUNK setting: Shadowrun (1989), published by
FASA, Dark Conspiracy (1991), published by GDW, and Cyberpunk (1991),
published by R. Talsorian.The first mass-market UK RPGs also appeared in
the 1980s, all from GAMES WORKSHOP. Golden Heroes (1984) was an
unsuccessful SUPERHERO RPG. Judge Dredd (1985), based on JUDGE DREDD, did
better, as did Warhammer Fantasy (1986). No other UK RPG manufacturer has
achieved much success. All the most important RPG companies are US,
notably TSR, Chaosium, FASA, Steve Jackson Games, GDW and West End Games.
TSR probably sells more RPG material than all the others combined.Some
RPGs are PBM (play by mail); these may be administered and refereed by
commercial organizations, which charge a fee and often use a computer
database.However, PBM is not well suited to role-playing games; most PBM
games are strategic war games.Many RPG manufacturers use a core game
system for several genres, so that players need learn only one set of
rules. By far the most prolific is GURPS (1988; Generic Universal Role
Playing System), from Steve Jackson Games, which has supplements in every
genre from fantasy, sf and horror to Wild West, pirates and modern
warfare, and leases rights from a range of sources, including Witch World
(1988), based on the novels by Andre NORTON, Riverworld (1989), based on
the novels by Philip Jose FARMER, Wild Cards (1989), based on the WILD
CARDS original anthologies, themselves inspired by an RPG played by
several of the authors, and The Prisoner (1991), based on The PRISONER .
(This company gained considerable notoriety when computers, manuscripts
and materials for Cyberpunk were seized by the FBI, who believed that the
company was preparing "a handbook for computer crime".) Similarly
Chaosium's Runequest system was modified for Call of Cthulhu,
Stormbringer, RINGWORLD and other RPGs. GDW's near-future war RPG Twilight
2000 (1987) was the basis for their hard-sf 2300 AD (1989) and other
games. West End Games also have a generic system, TORG (1990).It seems
likely that the early 1990s will see a major shake-out of RPG
manufacturers, since there are too many games chasing too few customers;
there are currently at least 10 horror RPGs and six cyberpunk variants. At
any given time there are likely to be several RPG magazines in production,
but they tend to be short-lived. The oldest and most regular are Dragon
from TSR, White Dwarf from Games Workshop and Challenge from GDW. Dragon
and Challenge often publish fiction.An important RPG variant is the Live
Role-Playing Game, in which players dress as their characters, fight with
blunt or padded weapons, and explore real caves or fake ruins. Numerous
groups are involved in these activities.A growing branch of publishing,
especially for children, is the role-playing gamebook, the book itself
being the game. Such books, often part of series like the Fighting Fantasy
Gamebook series, offer branching narratives where at various points the
reader is invited to make a choice, as between, say, "Go left" and "Go
right", with a different scenario following according to the choice made.
Usually the reader has first defined, by rolling dice or otherwise. the
various attributes (skill, stamina, good fortune, etc.) that s/he carries
to the game. Successful authors in the field include Steve Jackson (1951-
; not the US Steve Jackson of Steve Jackson Games), Ian Livingstone and
Joe Dever (1956- ). Although most such books are fantasy, some are sf, as
for example Dever's Freeway Warrior series.In the 1970s, at the same time
as the rise of RPGs, the COMPUTER game Adventure (vt Colossal Cave),
designed by Crowther and Wood, was the prototype for computer games that
used simple typed commands to explore the secrets and eliminate the
obstacles of a "world" described in lively detail by the computer. At
first the only players were computer professionals and students who had
access to the mainframe computers then required for play, but the games
became much more widely popular in the early 1980s as the first
mass-market personal computers appeared. The original Adventure was easily
converted to most machines, and soon new games added larger vocabularies,
better parsing (conversion of typed input into game instructions) and more
complicated worlds. Zork (1982), published by Infocom, typified these
adventures early on, but more recent "adventure games" of this sort are
very much more sophisticated. In the USA, Infocom produced a number of
good adventure games with sf scenarios, including Planetfall (1984),
Starcross (1984), the dystopian A Mind Forever Voyaging (1985) and-based
on Douglas ADAMS's best-selling novel - THE HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE
GALAXY (1984). Also notable was the sf Silicon Dream trilogy from Level 9
in the UK, beginning with Snowball (1983). Several multiple-player games
appeared, the most successful being MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) (1982),
played over computer networks or via modem.By the late 1980s many of the
concepts used in RPGs had found their way into computer adventures, which
were beginning to use animated graphics, sound and more flexible control
methods. Several RPGs were converted to computer form, notably Advanced
Dungeons and Dragons, in Pool of Radiance (1989) published by SST, and
later games. Computer adventures of the late 1980s and the 1990s often
involve as many as 4-6 characters, much like those in RPGs, and these
sometimes act independently of the player's instructions.While most RPGs
stay in production for several years, the shelf life of most computer
games is measured in months, and they become obsolete as systems evolve.
Despite complaints from the minority of players who had enjoyed the
language-oriented input and output of earlier computer adventure games,
almost all computer adventures now rely on highly detailed graphics, and
often include music and electronically generated speech. Unfortunately,
these embellishments mean that a game which runs on one type of computer
must be completely rewritten to run on another. Conversion is usually
expensive and difficult, and a game which is famous on one or two systems
may be unknown elsewhere. A new trend is rapid growth in the sheer size of
programs: some adventures are supplied on seven or more floppy disks. The
huge King's Quest 5 (1990), published by Sierra, is most conveniently
purchased as a CD-ROM disk.While sf scenarios are at their most
interesting (and their closest to written sf) in these so-called
"adventure" games, they are even more common in "arcade" games. Where
adventure games require skill at problem-solving (and sometimes language
skills), arcade games put a premium on the dexterity of the player or
players with joystick or pushbutton controls, and often involve
manoeuvring small screen figures on moving platforms or around various
moving threats, and shooting down moving obstacles (which in early arcade
classics were space invaders or asteroids). Such scenarios - though
visually much more elaborate - are still common in the arcade games
produced, for example, by the Japanese computer-games company Nintendo. A
classic game mixing strategy (trading between planetary systems) and
arcade skills (space combat) is Elite (1984 UK), originally published by
Acornsoft and now available in diverse versions, including Nintendo. The
modern computer adventure game commonly contains elements of play
(requiring timing and dexterity) taken from arcade games; sometimes these
games are known as "arcade adventures".Games presently under development
will present their players with a VIRTUAL-REALITY scenario; their players
will wear helmets, gloves, etc., in which visual display units and WALDO
sensors will be incorporated. The subjective experience approximates the
feeling of being placed in and able to interact with a real alternate
world. Such developments are still at comparatively early stages (although
of course they have been commonplace in sf since the 1940s).There has
naturally been considerable cross-fertilization between RPGs and computer
adventures on the one hand, and sf and fantasy in other media on the
other. While many RPGs are based either on literary sources or on tv or
film, it is now not unusual for the fiction to be based on the game.
Several sf games have appeared with novels set in the worlds they present
as part of the games package. TSR's games have spawned numerous novels,
comics and a tv cartoon series. Novel TIES have been based on RPGs,
especially D&D and computer adventures, such as Zork. Several well known
authors have emerged from hobby writing, including John M. FORD. For more
on this aspect of publishing GAME-WORLDS, themselves a specialized aspect
of SHARED WORLDS.Games playing itself has become a common activity in sf
scenarios in films and books (it is used to conscript a space pilot in The
LAST STARFIGHTER [1984], for example), especially those directed at
adolescents. Space Demons (1986) by Gillian RUBINSTEIN is not untypical in
sucking its protagonists into a ruthless computer-games world, much as in
the film TRON (1982). (See also CYBERSPACE.)There are many active RPG
fans, and this group has a considerable overlap with sf and fantasy FANDOM
generally. Annual CONVENTIONS include Origins and Gencon, in the USA, and
the UK's Gamesfair, and are usually commercially organized (unlike most sf
conventions). FANZINES tend to be short-lived and irregular. There is not
nearly so much fan activity among computer-games enthusiasts.RPGs have
frequently come under fire from religious fundamentalists and other
pressure groups, who appear to believe that their depictions of MAGIC and
SUPERNATURAL CREATURES are likely to deprave and corrupt. Any suicide by
an RPG player may be blamed on the genre, despite evidence suggesting that
suicide rates among RPG players are lower than average. It can be argued
that such games are psychologically disruptive, sometimes distracting
their players from education and other matters which should take a higher
priority, but this is true of most hobbies. It can equally be argued,
especially with some of the sf games (which may require, for example, a
good working knowledge of physics and chemistry), that games-playing can
be educational.From a commercial point of view, sf toys are more important
than sf games, and they have at least as long a history. Wind-up toy
robots had become popular by the mid-1950s, but they can be regarded as
simply the latest incarnation of the "automata" that were being built as
toys as early as the 18th century and celebrated in PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION
stories such as "Der Sandmann" (1816; trans as "The Sandman") by E.T.A.
HOFFMANN and "The Artist of the Beautiful" (1844) by Nathaniel
HAWTHORNE.Marketing campaigns for toys connected to hit movies like Star
Wars made many millions of dollars and became the target of angry
opposition from parents and educators when, in the 1980s, they became
connected to the sort of tv shows often viewed by children on a Saturday
morning - usually animated cartoons or animated puppet programmes. Three
notable offenders were the sf tv programmes Transformers, He-Man and
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, all of which, whatever their virtues as
entertainment, could be seen as 25-minute advertisements designed to
encourage children to put pressure on their parents to buy toys which
would enable them, in play, to reproduce the on-screen adventures (see
MUTANT NINJA TURTLES). An additional criticism, perhaps less securely
based, is that many such programmes, including these three, encourage
childen to indulge in fantasies of violence. The commercial clout of these
product-advertising programmes - not all of them sf (Care Bears is a
non-sf example) - can be enormous, spawning major industries. The USA and
Australia are among the worst offenders; the UK has some regulations
designed to minimize this sort of
advertising-masquerading-as-entertainment to a captive audience of
children, and some European countries have banned such programmes
altogether. [MR/BF/ZB/PN]Further reading: On games, Heroic Worlds: A
History and Guide to Role-Playing Games (1991) by Lawrence Schick, and
Adventure Games for Microcomputers: An Annotated Directory of Interactive
Fiction (1991) by Patrick R. Dewey; on toys, Zap! Ray Gun Classics (1991)
by Leslie Singer.

UK company specializing in fantasy-adventure role-playing games and
models ( GAMES AND TOYS) whose subsidiary, GW Books, under the editorship
of David PRINGLE (with Neil Jones 1990-91), between 1989 and 1991 produced
a range of novels and story collections in three series relating to three
of the company's games: Warhammer ( HEROIC FANTASY), Warhammer 40,000
(heroic fantasy/ SPACE OPERA) and Dark Future( ALTERNATE-WORLD/
CYBERPUNK/car action). Writers who contributed novels included Brian Craig
(Brian M. STABLEFORD), David Ferring (David S. GARNETT), Ian WATSON and
Jack Yeovil (Kim NEWMAN), while the collections, ed Pringle (one with Neil
Jones), featured work by these authors and, among others, S.M. Baxter,
Myles Burnham (Eugene Byrne), Ralph T. Castle (Charles PLATT), Storm
CONSTANTINE, Charles Davidson (Charles Stross), Sean Flynn (Paul J.
MCAULEY), Nicola Griffith, Neil Jones and William King. Ranging from the
conventional to the very offbeat, GW Books' output was superior to the
highly successful stream of games-related fictions from the TSR stable (
GAME-WORLDS), perhaps because Pringle, editor of INTERZONE, drew on the
contributors to that magazine. In 1992 it was announced that rights in
these works had been bought by Box Tree Books. GW has also published many
games manuals and two art books, one featuring Les Edwards, the other John
Blanche and Ian MILLER. [KN]

These are worlds designed by the manufacturers of games, almost always
role-playing games (or gamebooks) or computer adventure games ( GAMES AND
TOYS). In the case of RPGs the parameters of the "world" (the fictional
setting in which the game takes place) will be set out in the handbooks
which form the central part of the game package; in the latter, much of
the world's setting is described on screen by the computer program itself,
and additional information may be given in the associated printed
material. Since the mid-1980s it has been common for the more successful
games of either sort to generate associational material, which may include
stories, novels and COMIC books set in the world of the game. Thus George
Alec EFFINGER's The Zork Chronicles * (1990) is set in a world first
described in the computer adventure game Zork (1982 US), published by
Infocom, and subsequently the setting for several other Infocom games.The
US games company TSR Inc. has been especially prolific in commissioning
books associated with their role-playing games, though these are usually
fantasy rather than sf - as books set in game-worlds tend generally to be.
An example is TSR's Forgotten Realms Fantasy Adventure: Pool of Radiance *
(1989) by James M. Ward and Jane Cooper Hong. The role-playing game
Shadowrun (1989 US), published by FASA, has generated a game-worlds
series, set in a world where fantasy and CYBERPUNK elements are uneasily
married, of which one is Secrets of Power: Volume 2: Shadowrun: Choose
Your Enemies Carefully * (1991) by Robert N. Charrette. The BattleTech
novels by Robert THURSTON are more straightforwardly sf, specifically
SPACE OPERA. These are merely arbitrary examples of what is now a
widespread phenomenon: it constitutes, for example, a sizeable proportion
of the Roc sf/fantasy list of Penguin Books. Since game-worlds series
books are often written by a variety of authors who are seldom the same
people who invented the world in the first place, the game-world can be
seen as a special case of the SHARED WORLD.Authors whose book publications
are solely set in game-worlds do not necessarily receive entries in this
volume; many are absent. Nonetheless, though much fiction set in
game-worlds is hack work, some is not. For example, the novels in the
Demon Download subseries by Jack Yeovil (Kim NEWMAN), set in GAMES
WORKSHOP's Dark Future world, are good, original works in the CYBERPUNK
mode.Many games are set in worlds previously established in book form, as
with Riverworld (1989), published by Steve Jackson Games, based on the
novels by Philip Jose FARMER. This volume does not accept such settings as
true game-worlds, which must have originated in a games format. [PN]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 5 issues 1963-5, published by Star Press, N.
Hollywood; ed William F. NOLAN for 3 issues, then Jack Matcha and Charles
E. FRITCH. The fiction in this magazine - a blend of sf and fantasy - was
of good quality, many stories being by Californian writers with film
connections, like Charles BEAUMONT and Richard MATHESON, and there were
some fine covers by Morris Scott Dollens and John Healey. Its irregularity
of publication sped its demise. [FHP/PN]

(1904-1968) Russian-born physicist involved in the development of quantum
theory at Gottingen and later a colleague of Niels Bohr (1885-1962) and
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937). After 1935 he lived in the USA, holding the
chair of theoretical physics at George Washington University. After
important work on stellar evolution, he turned to investigating the Big
Bang, becoming the most ardent proselytizer for that theory of the
Universe's origins, in contradiction to the then important Steady State
theory advocated by, notably, Fred HOYLE. Beyond his technical work, GG is
known for his 10 or more scientific popularizations, beginning with The
Birth and Death of the Sun (1940) and including One Two Three . . .
Infinity (1947; rev 1960). His three books about Mr Tompkins are
particularly attractive: Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (coll 1939 chap UK) and
Mr Tompkins Explores the Atom (coll 1944 chap UK), both being assembled as
Mr Tompkins in Paperback (omni 1965 UK), and Mr Tompkins Learns the Facts
of Life (coll 1953 chap UK; exp with Martynas Ycas vt Mr Tompkins inside
Himself 1967). Couched in narrative form, these books gracefully and
intelligently explore the wonders of science, with Tompkins magically
visiting embodied demonstrations of the scientific world, and even
exploring his own body. Though technically juvenile, the books have a wide
appeal. GG also wrote at least one sf story for adults, "The Heart on the
Other Side" (1931), written to celebrate Bohr's 70th birthday and later
published in The Expert Dreamers (anth 1963) ed Frederik POHL. [JC]See


(1899-? ) French novelist. His Le dernier Blanc (1945; trans A.M. as The
Last White Man 1948 UK) depicts, on familiar lines, the chemical warfare
of the future featuring a toxin deadly only to whites. Other borderline sf
works include Apres les hommes ["After Men"] (1963), involving an ethical
ferromagnetic race, and La ville invisible ["The Invisible Town"] (1953).
En pays singulier ["In a Remarkable Country"] (coll 1949) contains some
sf. [JC/PN]

(1910-1991) US writer, usually of thrillers, whose Brain 2000 (1980) is
an sf spoof in which the extraction of oil from parts of the world causes
gravitational and orbital disturbances. A smart child solves all our
problems. [JC]

(1878-1955) US businessman and writer whose sf novel, The Tunnel Thru the
Air, or Looking Back from 1940 (1927), features a protagonist whose
Fundamentalist belief in the Bible gives him sufficient predictive prowess
to dodge a great depression (which WDG dates 1928-32), while at the same
time impelling him to invent various superweapons, which are used to
defend the USA against her external enemies. New York is then renamed the
City of the Lord. All ends happily. [JC]

(1918-1990) Russian writer, a dominant figure of the 1960s and 1970s,
well known for his radio plays, some of them sf, and also well regarded
for his HARD-SF short stories and novellas, which were assembled in Shagi
V Neizvestnoie ["Steps into the Unknown"] (coll 1963), Shest' Geniev ["Six
Geniuses"] (coll 1965), Tri Shaga K Opasnosti ["Three Steps towards
Danger"] (coll 1969), Idyot Tchelovek ["Man is Coming"] (coll 1971) and
Tchelovek, Kotoryi Sdelal Baltiiskoie More ["The Man who Made the Baltic
Sea"] (coll 1981). Some of his better stories appear in World's Spring
(anth 1979 Sweden) ed Vladimir GAKOV, and further stories were assembled
as The Day of Wrath (coll trans Alexander Repyev 1989 Russia). A novel,
Vinsent Van-Gog ["Vincent Van Gogh"] (1971) is a TIME-TRAVEL tale raising
general philosophical questions about the artist's destiny. [VG]

(1908-1980) US writer, mostly of nonfiction, and USAF editor. His sf
novel, Not in Solitude (1959; rev 1961), fictionalizes a first voyage to
MARS and describes the probable environment faced by the travellers. [JC]

(1919- ) US writer in whose borderline sf novel, The Movement (1969),
exaggerated late-1960s-style confrontations between US students and police
lead to a full-scale uprising with retaliatory bombing by the government.

(1890-? ) The wife of a school-friend of E.E. "Doc" SMITH, with whom she
collaborated on The Skylark of Space: The Tale of the First Inter-Stellar
Cruise (written 1915-20; 1928 AMZ; 1946; cut rev 1958), for which she was
credited. The 1958 abridgement of this famous SPACE OPERA may have
eliminated most and perhaps all of her contribution, as she was no longer
listed as co-author. [JC]


(1889-1970) US lawyer and writer, most famous for the Perry Mason
detective novels, beginning with The Case of the Velvet Claws (1933). He
was extremely prolific and, although he spent almost no time at all on sf,
managed to produce enough fiction to fill The Human Zero: The Science
Fiction Stories of Erle Stanley Gardner (coll 1981) ed Martin H. GREENBERG
and Charles G. WAUGH. The tales, which first appeared in The Argosy around
1930, are efficient but unmemorable pulp sf, and now seem both dim and
mechanical. [JC]See also: APES AND CAVEMEN (IN THE HUMAN WORLD).


1. (1926- ) UK writer who was a minister for several years before
becoming an agnostic, a drama critic, and the creator of the Boysie Oakes
sequence of spy thrillers spoofing Ian FLEMING's James Bond books, most
famously in The Liquidator (1964); one Boysie Oakes tale, Founder Member
(1969), involves its hero in a SEX experiment in space. More recently, JG
has written a number of novels continuing the James Bond saga itself.
Among his many other novels, mostly thrillers, Golgotha (1980; vt The Last
Trump 1980 US), is a NEAR-FUTURE thriller whose apocalyptic imagery may
owe something to JG's early theological training. [JC]2. Full name John
Champlin Gardner (1933-1982), US writer and academic who achieved
popularity with his large contemporary novel, The Sunlight Dialogues
(1972). His third work of fiction, Grendel (1971), is a mordant retelling
of the Beowulf legend from the MONSTER's point of view, and renders - more
pointedly than Thomas Burnett SWANN's similar elegies - Anglo-Saxon Man's
triumphs as allegorical of the rise of the cruel, modern, industrial
world. Further works that contain fantastic elements include Jason and
Medeia (1973), a fantasy novel in verse, several tales assembled in The
King's Indian: Stories and Tales (coll 1974), In the Suicide Mountains
(1977), a juvenile based on Russian folk themes, and Freddy's Book (1980).
Mickelsson's Ghosts (1982) attempts to subsume the ghost story and other
narrative conventions into a mundane frame. Though clearly attracted to
various supernatural and classical traditions, JG had little apparent
interest in the sf or fantasy genres, which are scantly treated in On
Moral Fiction (1978), in which he argued for a traditional viewpoint,
abjuring what he saw as POSTMODERNIST nihilism. He died in a motorcycle
accident. [GF/JC]About 2: World of Order and Light: The Fiction of John
Gardner (1984) by G.L. Morris.See also: MYTHOLOGY.

(1914- ) US mathematician, conjurer, journalist and author; his BA is in
philosophy from the University of Chicago. His In the Name of Science
(1952; rev vt Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science 1957) is an
iconoclastic and amusing nonfiction book about PSEUDO-SCIENCE: cults, fads
and hoaxes existing on the fringes of science, with chapters on
HOLLOW-EARTH and flat-Earth theories, pyramidology, UFOS and other
subjects. Of particular interest to sf readers may be its references to
Sir Arthur Conan DOYLE, Charles FORT, L. Ron HUBBARD, Richard SHAVER. More
recent works in the same debunking line are Science: Good, Bad and Bogus
(coll 1981) and Notes of a Fringe-Watcher (1988). MG's The Ambidextrous
Universe (1964; exp 1979; rev 1982), on the other hand, concerns serious
science; moving from simple questions of symmetry to profound problems of
physical philosophy, it is one of the finest works of scientific
popularization.From 1956 until 1981 MG wrote the Mathematical Games column
in Scientific American, and a number of collections of these pieces have
been published in book form, including The Unexpected Hanging and Other
Mathematical Diversions (1969) and Mathematical Carnival (1975). His The
Numerology of Dr Matrix (coll 197?; exp vt The Incredible Dr Matrix 1976;
exp vt The Magic Numbers of Dr Matrix 1985) brings together a number of
spoof stories from that column about the eponymous numerologist and rogue,
a practitioner of several of the shady cults described in MG's earlier
book. Also of note are his The Annotated Alice (1960), a densely glossed
edition of Lewis CARROLL's two Alice books - it is supplemented by More
Annotated Alice (1990) - and The Annotated Snark (1962), a similar
treatment of Carroll's The Hunting of the Snark (1876 chap).From the
MATHEMATICS column there, with puzzles often posed in the form of sf
stories; many of these have been collected as Science Fiction Puzzle Tales
(coll 1981) and Puzzles from Other Worlds (coll 1984). A further volume
collecting sf, fantasy and other stories (not simply puzzle stories) is
The No-Sided Professor (coll 1987). Collections of essays, some with an sf
connection, are Order and Surprise (coll 1983) and Gardner's Whys and
Wherefores (coll 1989). Logic Machines and Diagrams (1958; rev 1982) also
refers to sf. [PN/JE]See also: DIMENSIONS; PARANOIA.

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

(1873-1962) US writer known mainly for such work outside the sf field as
his Uncle Wiggily series, whose 15,000 episodes were widely syndicated.
For the Edward STRATEMEYER Syndicate he wrote, under the house pseudonym
Roy ROCKWOOD and according to plot outlines from Stratemeyer, the first 6
vols of the Great Marvel series: Through the Air to the North Pole (1906),
Under the Ocean to the South Pole (1907), Five Thousand Miles Underground
(1908), Through Space to Mars (1910), Lost on the Moon (1911) and On a
Torn-Away World (1913); 3 later volumes are of unknown authorship. These
tales were of considerable imaginative power, not emulated by his
contributions to the TOM SWIFT series, for which he wrote - again to
Stratemeyer synopses - the first 35 (of 38) episodes under the house name
Victor APPLETON, from Tom Swift and his Motor-Cycle, or Fun and Adventure
on the Road (1910) to HRG's last, Tom Swift and his Giant Magnet, or
Bringing up the Lost Submarine (1932). (R. REGINALD's Science Fiction and
Fantasy Literature: A Checklist, 1700-1974 [1979] gives all 35 titles.)
[JC/EFB]Other works: Many juveniles, including Tom of the Fire Cave
(1927); the Rocket Riders books, Rocket Riders Across the Ice, or Racing
against Time (1933), Rocket Riders over the Desert, or Seeking the Lost
City (1933), Rocket Riders in Stormy Seas, or Trailing the Treasure Divers
(1933) and Rocket Riders in the Air, or A Chase in the Clouds (1934).

Garland Publishing, Inc., New York, is a US specialist publisher of a
wide range of reference works and facsimile reprints, only some of which
are related to sf. In 1975 G published the Garland Library of Science
Fiction: 45 titles, selected by Lester DEL REY, issued in durable
editions. The series was criticized, partly for some idiosyncratic
choices-unexceptional novels by Stanton A. COBLENTZ, H. Beam PIPER and
George O. SMITH - but chiefly for choosing inferior versions of the books
to reproduce. Intended as an accompanying critical history by Del Rey was
The World of Science Fiction: 1926-1976: The History of a Subculture
(1979), which in the event appeared from DEL REY BOOKS first and then from
G in 1980. Among G's very occasional books of genre interest since that
time have been The Literature of Fantasy: A Comprehensive, Annotated
Bibliography of Modern Fantasy Fiction (1979) by Roger C. SCHLOBIN,
Science Fiction and Fantasy Series and Sequels: A Bibliography, Volume 1:
Books (1986) by Tim Cottrill, Martin H. GREENBERG and Charles D. WAUGH,
and Horror Literature: A Reader's Guide (1990) and Fantasy Literature: A
Reader's Guide (1990), both ed Neil BARRON. [MJE/PN]

Francis W. DOUGHTY.

(1934- ) UK writer, primarily for children; he has lived all his life
near Alderley Edge, Cheshire, the setting for nearly all his fiction. AG
is widely thought one of the finest, though most difficult, children's
writers of his generation. Most of his work is FANTASY, rooted in his
knowledge of local archaeology and MYTHOLOGY. His first two books form a
short series for younger children: The Weirdstone of Brisingamen (1960; vt
The Weirdstone 1961 US) and The Moon of Gomrath (1963); his third, Elidor
(1965), which has been assembled with the first two as Alan Garner Omnibus
(omni 1994), can be read as borderline sf. The mood here darkens in a
story of teenagers faced with a threat (and a quest) from an ALTERNATE
WORLD, which impinges menacingly on their own. AG's first fully mature
work is The Owl Service (1967), in which a bitter Welsh legend re-enacts
itself among modern children, faced with fully adult problems of love,
jealousy and death. AG's theme has always been a kind of TIME TRAVEL, but
the time is inner and psychic; his stories rework archetypal patterns,
usually involving pain, loss, desire, rage and the need for an almost
unattainable courage.AG's next book, Red Shift (1973), is in no
conventional sense a children's book (see also CHILDREN'S SF). In
compressed, elliptical prose, primarily dialogue, he reverts to the theme
of the past working out its problems in the present, as a time shift,
focused on a Neolithic axe-head, moves the protagonist backwards and
forwards in a choppy and wrenching way between alter egos in the twilight
of the Roman Empire in Britain, the Civil War of the 17th century and now.
AG's last fiction of note is a sparely written, quasi-autobiographical
tetralogy for rather younger children: The Stone Book (1976 chap), Tom
Fobble's Day (1977 chap), Granny Reardun (1977 chap) and The Aimer Gate
(1978 chap), later published together as The Stone Book Quartet (omni
1983; vt The Stone Quartet US). Though these books are neither sf nor
fantasy, the old themes recur. [PN]Other works: The Breadhorse (1975
chap), for younger children;The Lad of the Gad (1981).Retold folktales:
The Hamish Hamilton Book of Goblins (coll 1969); Alan Garner's Fairy Tales
of Gold (coll 1980; rev vt Fairytales of Gold 1989 illus Michael Foreman);
Alan Garner's Book of British Fairy Tales (coll 1984); A Bag of Moonshine
(coll 1986).As Editor: The Guizer: A Book of Fools (anth 1975), which in
addition to tales by others contains many folktales retold by AG.About the
author: A Fine Anger: A Critical Introduction to the Work of Alan Garner
(1981) by Neil Philip; "Inner Time" by Alan Garner in Science Fiction at
Large (anth 1976; vt Explorations of the Marvellous) ed Peter NICHOLLS.See

Donald Sydney ROWLAND.

Bryan BERRY.

(1892-1981) UK writer, member of the famous Garnett family which includes
his grandfather, Richard GARNETT, his father, Edward GARNETT, and his
mother, the translator Constance Garnett (1862-1946); DG was also an
intimate member of the Bloomsbury Group. His first novel under his own
name is also his most famous, the fantasy Lady into Fox (1922 chap); like
its inferior successor, VERCORS' Sylva (1961; trans 1962), this is an
allegory of metamorphosis, in this instance from demure wife into vixen,
with tragic results. A FEMINIST reading of the book is both elucidating
and inescapable; it was famously parodied by Christopher Ward (1868-1943)
in Gentleman into Goose (1924 chap). A Man in the Zoo (1924) is also
fantasy. The Grasshoppers Come (1931) fascinatingly combines aviation and
allegory in a borderline-sf tale. Two by Two: A Story of Survival (1963)
retells the story of Noah (quite possibly a portrait of DG's friend T.H.
WHITE) and the Flood. DG translated Andre MAUROIS's A Voyage to the Island
of the Articoles (1927; trans 1928 UK). The White/Garnett Letters (coll
1968), which he edited, are of great value to students of both his work
and White's. [JC]Other works: A Terrible Day (1932); Purl and Plain, and
Other Stories (coll 1973); The Master Cat: The True and Unexpurgated Story
of Puss in Boots (1974).

(1947- ) UK writer with a BSc in economics, author of more than 50 books,
many of them novels, in various genres and under various names. To
differentiate himself from the elder David GARNETT he created a middle
initial, and in the USA signed his early books Dav Garnett; he has
published novels also as David Lee and David Ferring. Though his sf has
always been action-oriented and dominated by SPACE-OPERA conventions, his
first book, Mirror in the Sky (1969 US), guys those traditions with
disillusioned but moderate spite; Stargonauts (1994) enjoyably broadens
the assault into slapstick. His third novel, Time in Eclipse (1974) -
written like its 1970s successors for ROBERT HALE LIMITED - is a
comparatively ambitious effort set on a war-torn Earth whose guardian is
an amnesiac obscurely bound to a vast COMPUTER. Much of his work is marred
by haste, so that the anarchic subtexts pervading his most routine tales
can seem unintended. Their subversiveness, however, is certainly
deliberate. As editor, DSG was responsible for an original story anthology
series, Zenith: The Best in New British Science Fiction (anth 1989) and
Zenith 2: The Best in New British Science Fiction (anth 1990); when the
sequence was terminated, he initiated - with the approval of Michael
MOORCOCK - a new incarnation of NEW WORLDS, this time in anthology form,
the sequence comprising New Worlds (anth 1991),New Worlds 2 (anth 1992),
#3 (anth 1993) and #4 (anth 1994); further installments are unlikely. DSG
also ed The Orbit Science Fiction Yearbook 1 (anth 1988), #2 (anth 1989)
and #3 (anth 1990), distinguished from other year's-best anthologies by
its smaller size and greater concentration on critical material, each
volume including essays on the sf scene by Brian W. ALDISS, John CLUTE and
DSG himself. [JC]Other works: The Starseekers (1971 US); The Forgotten
Dimension (1975); Phantom Universe (1975); Cosmic Carousel (coll 1976).As
David Lee: Destiny Past (1974).As David Ferring: The Hills Have Eyes Part
2 * (1984), novelizing a horror film; the Konrad trilogy set in the
Warhammer fantasy gaming world ( GAMES WORKSHOP), comprising Konrad *
(1990), Shadowbreed * (1991) and Warblade *(1993).See also: ANTHOLOGIES;

(1868-1936) UK writer and man of letters, son of Richard GARNETT, husband
of Constance Garnett, father of David GARNETT. His greatest fame was as an
enormously influential publishers' reader for several UK firms; among the
writers whose careers he significantly helped were Joseph CONRAD, E.M.
FORSTER and W.H. HUDSON. The sf SATIRES assembled in Papa's War (coll
dated 1918 but probably 1919) reveal a freethinking, controversial,
clear-headed teller of tales and allegories. [JC]

(1835-1906) UK librarian and writer, Chief Keeper at the British Museum,
father of Edward GARNETT, grandfather of David GARNETT. His The Twilight
of the Gods and Other Tales (coll 1888; exp 1903) is a well known
collection of fables and other fantasies, some of which touch on sf
themes. [JC]

Marco GARRON; Dennis HUGHES.

(1927-1987) US writer whose first publication was a Probability Zero
vignette in ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in 1944. He went on to become a
prolific writer for that magazine in the 1950s and early 1960s. He was at
one time part of the ZIFF-DAVIS stable writing for AMAZING STORIES and
FANTASTIC, when he and his sometime collaborator Robert SILVERBERG ran a
"fiction factory" together. He used the pseudonyms David Gordon and Darrel
T. Langart as well as numerous house names; he has frequently been listed
as having written the ASF stories signed Walter Bupp, although these are
now known to have been by John BERRYMAN. His most notable collaborations
with Silverberg were the Nidor series, The Shrouded Planet (fixup 1957)
and The Dawning Light (1958), which appeared as by Robert Randall; other
collaborations were signed Gordon Aghill and Ralph BURKE, and some stories
signed under house names Alexander BLADE, Richard GREER, Ivar JORGENSEN,
Clyde MITCHELL, Leonard G. SPENCER, S.M. TENNESHAW and Gerald VANCE may be
further RG/Silverberg collaborations. He also collaborated with Laurence
M. JANIFER, usually as Mark PHILLIPS, under which name they produced a
trilogy of PSI-POWER stories: Brain Twister (1959 ASF as "That Sweet
Little Old Lady"; 1962), The Impossibles (1960 ASF as "Out Like a Light";
1963), and Supermind (1960-61 ASF as "Occasion for Disaster"; 1963).RG's
most impressive solo work is the series of stories first published in ASF
between 1964 and 1976 - reprinted in Too Many Magicians (1967), Murder and
Magic (coll 1979) and Lord Darcy Investigates (coll 1981), and finally
assembled in Lord Darcy (omni 1983) - featuring the exploits of the
detective Darcy in an ALTERNATE WORLD where MAGIC works according to
Frazerian laws whose implications are being gradually unravelled by the
scientific method. RG's earlier sf books were Unwise Child (1962; vt
Starship Death 1982), about a sentient machine, and Anything You Can Do .
. . (1963) as by Darrel T. Langart, about a battle between a superhuman
and an ALIEN. RG was fond of producing parodies in verse and prose: he
"Parodies Tossed" (1956) for SCIENCE FICTION QUARTERLY, and he guyed the
Feghoot shaggy-dog stories (written for FSF by Reginald BRETNOR as Grendel
Briarton) in the adventures of Benedict Breadfruit, written for AMZ as
Grandall Barretton. With Janifer he wrote a bawdy comic fantasy in which
the deities of Classical MYTHOLOGY return to preside over a high-tech
future, Pagan Passions (1959). His best humorous work was collected in
Takeoff! (coll 1980) and Takeoff Too (coll 1987); a more eclectic
selection was assembled in The Best of Randall Garrett (coll 1982) ed
Silverberg. Always a devout man - despite the occasional wildness of his
lifestyle - RG virtually dropped out of sf writing for a long period in
the 1970s, and took Holy Orders for a while. He eventually abandoned the
priesthood and married his third wife, Vicki Ann Heydron, with whom he
plotted the Gandalara series of heroic fantasies; these appeared as
collaborations, although in fact Heydron wrote them while RG was
hospitalized in the wake of a serious attack of viral meningitis. The
series comprises The Steel of Raithskar (1981), The Glass of Dyskornis
(1982), The Bronze of Eddarta (1983), The Well of Darkness (1983), The
Search for Ka (1984), Return to Eddarta (1985) and The River Wall (1986).
The first 3 were assembled as The Gandalara Cycle, Volume 1 (omni 1986)
and the second 3 as The Gandalara Cycle, Volume 2 (omni 1986). [BS]See

A CURTIS WARREN house name used exclusively for jungle novels derived
from Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Tarzan of the Apes sequence; most were sf or
fantasy. Under the spelling Marco Garron appeared the Azan the Apeman
series - The Lost City (1950), The Missing Safari (1950), Tribal War
(1951), White Fangs (1951), King Hunters (1951) and Jungle Fever (1951) -
which so closely mimicked Tarzan that after the first 6 releases the
Burroughs estate was able to gain an injunction banning any further
publications; it is possible they were written by D.A. GRIFFITHS. Writing
as Marco Garon (note spelling), Dennis HUGHES (whom see for details)
published a second series, the Rex Brandon novels, sufficiently remote
from Tarzan to avoid further legal action. [JC]

House name used on the ZIFF-DAVIS magazines by Paul W. FAIRMAN (1 story,
"Nine Worlds West", Fantastic Adventures Apr 1951), David Wright O'BRIEN
and perhaps others. In all, there were 13 CG stories 1942-55. [PN]

(1946- ) US teacher and writer whose The Great Quill (1973) is set in a
baroquely degenerate post- HOLOCAUST England; there are satirical effects.

Blond, square-jawed, musclebound, time-travelling COMIC-strip character
created for the London Daily Mirror by artist Steve Dowling (1904-1986)
and BBC producer Gordon Boshell as the UK's answer to FLASH GORDON.
Scripted by Don Freeman, G first appeared, floating ashore on a raft, on
24 July 1943, and soon became a kind of fantasy troubleshooter. In The
Seven Ages of Garth (Sep 1944-Jan 1946) Freeman introduced G's
Doctor-Zarkov equivalent, Professor Lumiere, whose magic word "karma"
allowed G to jump bodies (and episodes) at the point of death.The finest
scripts were written 1953-66 by Peter O'Donnell (1920- ), who introduced
G's eternal lover Astra in The Last Goddess (1965). Jim Edgar provided
moderately imaginative scripts throughout the next two decades on three
basic themes: TIME TRAVEL, journeys to distant planets, and earthbound
adventures that usually had sf elements. Angus Allan provided a few
scripts in the late 1980s.Steve Dowling retired in 1969 and his assistant,
John Allard, took over as artist. In 1971 the Daily Mirror secured the
services of Frank Bellamy (1919-1976), one of the finest strip
illustrators of his day, whose beautifully rendered drawings made G the
most attractive-looking UK newspaper strip then published. On Bellamy's
sudden death the art chores were taken on by Martin Asbury; for some years
Asbury's art was polished, enthusiastic and inventive, but it suddenly
deteriorated in the mid-1980s and today seems hurried and shoddy. Tim
Quinn has recently started to do the scripting.The Daily Mirror published
several collections, including The Last Goddess (graph coll 1966), The
"Daily Mirror" Book of Garth 1975 (graph coll 1975) and 1976 (graph coll
1976). Other early books were Garth - Man of Mystery (graph 1946) and
Garth (1958 graph dos). Single-story collections were published by John
Dakin/The Newspaper Strip Society: Bride of Jenghiz Khan (graph 1979), The
Spanish Lady (graph 1980), Sapphire (graph 1980), Night of the Knives
(graph 1980), The Doomsmen (graph 1981) and Mr Rubio Calls (graph 1981). 2
collections of Bellamy stories were published by Titan: The Cloud of
Balthus (graph coll 1985) and The Women of Galba (graph coll 1985).

House name used on Thrilling Wonder Stories, Startling Stories and
Mort WEISINGER and possibly others. The film novelization of DR CYCLOPS,
Dr Cyclops * (1940) as by WG, has been attributed to Kuttner, who
confusingly wrote a TWS short story of that title in the same year, and to
Manly Wade WELLMAN, who did not write it. It was almost certainly by
Alexander SAMALMAN. [PN/JC]

(1934-1980) US writer whose career has been in advertising. His two sf
novels with Edmond G. Addeo (1907-1980) are The FORTEC Conspiracy (1968)
and The Talbot Agreement (1968). In the former, a crashlanded alien ship
infects Earth with a deadly disease; the latter novel is borderline sf
with espionage elements.The Crystal Skull (1974) is a non-fiction work
about the occult. [JC]

Pseudonym of French writer and diplomat Romain Kacewgari (later changed
to Kassevgari) (1914-1980) born in Tiflis, Georgia, of Polish parents. In
WWII he was active in the French Resistance. RG was much praised for such
novels outside the sf field as Les racines du ciel (1956; trans Jonathan
Griffin as The Roots of Heaven 1958 US), for which he was awarded the Prix
Goncourt. An early and untranslated sf novel, Tulipe (1946), is about the
Blacks taking over Earth. In his later work he utilizes generic material
usually to point up ethical issues, and La danse de Gengis Cohn (1967;
trans by RG as The Dance of Genghis Cohn 1968 US), with its sequel, La
tete coupable (1968 trans by RG as The Guilty Head 1969 US), are certainly
FABULATIONS. Rather similar to the inferior On A Dark Night (1949) by
Anthony WEST, they depict a supernatural transference of a victim's
personality into the body of a Nazi. In Genghis Cohn it is Cohn himself, a
Yiddish comedian, who, as a dybbuk, enters the mind of the SS officer who
ordered the massacre in which Cohn was shot. The novel takes place in the
late 1960s, with the former officer, now a police superintendent, obsessed
by his dybbuk, who torments him, and with Germany itself tormented by an
incursion of allegorical figures representative of her spiritual plight.
Gloire a nos illustres pionniers (coll 1962; trans Richard Howard as
Hissing Tales 1964 US) contains some sf, notably the title story. In The
Gasp (1973 US; in French as Charge d'ame 1978 France) it turns out that
the elan vital which escapes from the body at the moment of death can be
used in warfare. RG was a sharp, clear-headed and passionate novelist of
considerable stature. [JC]Other work: The Talent Scout (ms? trans John
Markham Beach 1961 US).See also: ESCHATOLOGY; HISTORY OF SF; POWER

Item of sf TERMINOLOGY invented by James BLISH; it proved so useful that
it is now often used by astronomers. It refers to the fact that four of
the planets of our Solar System are not comparatively small and dense,
like Earth and MARS, but extremely large, and consist mainly of substances
like hydrogen, helium, methane and ammonia. Even in the cold at the outer
edge of our Solar System, these planets are of low density, being
essentially globes of gas and liquid. The four gas giants - often called
the Jovian Planets - in our Solar System are JUPITER, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune ( OUTER PLANETS). The fact that there are two kinds of planet in
the Solar System is of great interest to scientists constructing theories
of its evolution; it is believed that gas-giant planets have been detected
orbiting a few nearby stars. [PN]

Working name of UK writer Jane Gaskell Lynch (1941- ), whose dozen books
include Strange Evil (1957), herfirst, written when she was 14; it
features fairies from another world, claustrophobic conflicts in that
world, and an aura of Gothic pubescence throughout. King's Daughter (1958)
is set in ancient ATLANTIS, where a cache of even more ancient nerve gas
is discovered; the book is remotely connected, through a shared character,
with the Cija sequence of Atlantean tales - The Serpent (1963; vt in 2
vols The Serpent 1975 and The Dragon 1975), Atlan (1965), The City (1966)
and Some Summer Lands (1977). The non-Atlantean Princess Cija is involved,
via forced marriage, in complex conflicts between northern forces and the
quasihuman dwellers of the island state. As things fall apart, sex and
sorcery abound, but the princess eventually reaches home again. In genre
terms the series uneasily marries sf and the popular romance; it is full
of vigorous and exuberant invention and occasionally overheated prose. The
Shiny Narrow Grin (1964) is a comedy about vampires. A Sweet Sweet Summer
(1969) scathingly exposes an anarchic NEAR-FUTURE England to the gaze of
invading extraterrestrials. Sun Bubble (1990) has elements of fantasy.


Full title: Gas-s-s, or It Became Necessary to Destroy the World in Order
to Save It(vt Gas! or It Became Necessary to Destroy the World in Order to
Save It) Film (1970). San Jacinto/AIP. Prod and dir Roger CORMAN, starring
Robert Corff, Elaine Giftos, Bud Cort, Talia Coppola. Screenplay George
Armitage. 79 mins cut to 77 mins. Colour.In Corman's belated attempt to
cash in on the hippy/counterculture movements of the 1960s, a poison gas
makes everyone over 25 die of old age and the young inherit the USA. There
is topsy-turvy chaos in this black comedy, with conservative Middle
Americans going on a rampage of destruction while Hell's Angels attempt to
protect the old way of life (golf links, etc.), but a cheerfully workable
society begins to emerge. Edgar Allan POE occasionally appears on a
motorcycle, with the Raven perched on his shoulder and Lenore on pillion.
The film was made with Corman's legendary speed and cheapness, and with a
general sense of expansive euphoria. AIP disliked it, re-editing it
drastically without Corman's knowledge, so he went on to set up his own
production/distribution company, New World. [JB]See also: CINEMA.

UK SEMIPROZINE, irregular, 3 issues to date, published by Richard
Newcombe, #1 1989 in paperback book format ed Maureen Porter, subsequent
issues (1990 and 1991) A4 format ed Paul Cox, no publication dates given.
TG is primarily a fiction magazine (stories by son and father Sean and
Barrington J. BAYLEY, Storm CONSTANTINE, Kim NEWMAN, Andy Sawyer, Brian M.
STABLEFORD, Ian WATSON, James WHITE and others), but carries a regular
film column by Newman. [RH]

Working name of US writer Richard C. Gauger (? - ), who began publishing
sf with "The Vacuum-Packed Picnic" for Omni in 1979. His sf novel,
Charon's Ark (1987), pleasingly depicts the hijacking of a 747 full of
students, who are taken to the moon of Pluto. Charon turns out to be an
Ark, its function being to carry life across the Galaxy: it needs new crew
members. [JC]

Working name of US illustrator John Brian Francis Gaughan (1930-1985). JG
made his first professional sale while still in school at the Dayton Art
Institute; he went full-time in the mid-1950s. Prolific in both covers and
interior art, he was most closely associated with GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION,
for which he was Art Editor 1969-72 and painted 38 covers over the years;
he also did 29 covers for If, 11 covers for FSF, 7 for IASFM and others
for many other magazines. But, although his cover work was more than
competent, it was his spare, often nearly abstract black-and-white
interior ILLUSTRATIONS that dominated the field in the 1960s. He worked
for paperback and hardcover book publishers, too, most notably ACE BOOKS.
Famous for his generosity in donating artwork to FANZINES, he is the only
illustrator to have won HUGOS for both Best Fan Artist and Best
Professional Artist in the same year (1967); he won the Professional
Artist award again in 1968 and 1969. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s his
work became less in demand and he was in increasingly poor health, as a
result producing very little sf work. [JG]See also: ASTOUNDING

(1953- ) French-born US writer whose first sf novel, An Apology for Rain
(1974), traces the travels of a woman in search of her brother through a
surreal USA. It was followed by Algorithm (1978), a further linguistic
allegorizing of quest motifs, and the more conventionally framed Dream of
Glass (1993). [JC]

Pseudonym of UK editor and writer (Terence Ian) Fytton Armstrong
(1912-1970) for most of his work of genre interest, though he signed some
work with his real name. He was a close colleague of M.P. SHIEL, creating
a Shiel checklist in the bibliographical Ten Contemporaries (1932) and
editing The Best Short Stories of M.P. Shiel (coll 1948; a John COLLIER
checklist appears in Ten Contemporaries (Second Series) (1933). His poetry
was traditional, and his occasional stories are of relatively little
interest; his importance to sf and fantasy lies primarily in the large
anthologies he assembled in the 1930s, including Strange Assembly (anth
1932), Full Score (anth 1933) as Fytton Armstrong, New Tales of Horror by
Eminent Authors (anth 1934), Thrills, Crimes and Mysteries (anth 1935),
Thrills (anth 1936), Crimes, Creeps and Thrills (anth 1936) and
Masterpiece of Thrills (anth 1936). [JC]

(1952- ) UK teacher and writer who began publishing sf with "Wishbone" in
Gollancz-Sunday Times Best SF Stories (anth 1987) ed anon. Her first
novel, Mindsail (1990), very promisingly describes an alien planet to
which the passengers of a crashed human starship have had to adjust,
gradually evolving into fragmented and warring societies in the process.
Romance elements - the female protagonist's rather prolonged search for a
husband - interfere to some extent with the revelations, but the book
leaves a vivid memory trace.The Brooch of Azure Midnight (1991), an sf
tale with some of the tone of the "gate romance" common to FANTASY from
the time of H.P. LOVECRAFT, confronts an expanding Terran culture with the
challenge and opportunity of wormhole access to the stars. Dancing on the
Volcano(1993) less successfully. [JC]

L. Edgar WELCH.

(1910- ) Canadian writer and civil servant whose horror/sf novel, Spawn
of the Vortex (1957), plays on the nuclear-testing PARANOIA of the 1950s.
Underwater tests activate a horde of MONSTERS who advance upon the USA.

(? -? ) UK writer whose sf novel, The Gland Stealers (1922), deals
lightly with physical rejuvenation achieved - apparently - by
transplanting glands from apes into the bodies of elderly humans. [JC]See

(1954- ) US writer with extensive training in American prehistory;
married to W. Michael GEAR. Her first sf, the Powers of Light trilogy - An
Abyss of Light (1990), Treasure of Light (1991) and Redemption of Light
(1991) - was published as by Kathleen M. O'Neal. With an occasionally
oppressive relentlessness about the moral and theological issues involved,
it presents an intergalactic conflict between humans and the ALIEN
Magistrates who have established a coercive "peace" in terms inescapably
evocative of the Jewish experience during the 20th century; moments of
awkwardness failed to muffle the impressive intensity of the long tale.
With W. Michael Gear (whom see for details), and writing now as KO'NG, she
has begun the Ancient Americans sequence, projected to cover the entire
prehistory of North America. Sand in the Wind (1990), solo, is an
historical novel. [JC]

(1955- ) US writer with extensive training in American archaeology;
married to Kathleen O'Neal GEAR. He began publishing sf with the competent
Spider sequence - The Warriors of Spider (1988), The Way of Spider (1989)
and The Web of Spider (1989), plus The Artifact (1990), which serves as a
prequel - about the conflict between a newly discovered lost-colony
offshoot of humanity and the reactionary Directorate which attempts to
control human space. The former, who are of Native American stock and
worship a god called Spider, are sexually and culturally irresistible to
the women who first discover them, but WMG fortunately has too many
complex interstellar doings to present for sentimental romancing to
dominate the proceedings. The Ancient Americans sequence, all written with
Kathleen O'Neal Gear - People of the Wolf (1990), People of the Fire
(1991),People of the Earth (1992), People of the River (1992), People of
the Sea (1993) and People of the Lakes (1994), with 4 further volumes
planned - has, because of its carefully plausible venue, little fantasy or
sf content beyond occasional reference to true visions derived from proper
shamanistic practice; but of course the prehistoric-sf subgenre was always
likely, as our knowledge of the past gained definition, to be transformed
into fictionalized history. Other sf novels include Starstrike (1990) and
the Forbidden Borders sequence - Forbidden Borders: Requiem for the
Conqueror (1991),#2: Relic of Empire (1992) and Countermeasures (1993) -
about an Earth prevented by a GRAVITY barrier from reaching more than a
few nearby star systems. [JC]

(1931- ) US author of lesbian- FEMINIST works - including A Feminist
Tarot (1976) with Susan Rennie - and Professor of Speech and Communication
Studies at San Francisco State University. Her sf book, one of the most
extreme of those that envisage men and women as effectively different
races, is The Wanderground: Stories of the Hill Women (coll of linked
stories 1980). It is set in the outlaw, all-women, UTOPIAN hill
communities of a future when men are restricted to the CITIES and
dependent on TECHNOLOGY, while women (in a somewhat New Age manner) have
developed PSI POWERS through harmony with Nature. Even the Gentles, men no
longer driven by violence, know that "maleness touched women only with the
accumulated hatred of centuries". [PN]See also: PASTORAL.

(1948- ) UK writer whose first published novel, Dying in Other Words
(1981), is a morbid experimental work which could be interpreted as having
ghostly elements. In The Burning Book (1983) an ordinary contemporary
family's problems are overshadowed by auctorial asides reminding the
reader of the fragility of human life, as demonstrated by Hiroshima,
Nagasaki and the HOLOCAUST that will occur at the end of the novel. Where
are the Snows? (1991) takes her protagonists from the early 1980s through
to a pessimistically drawn 21st century. [PH]Other works: Light Years
(1985); Grace (1989).

(1931- ) NEW ZEALAND writer best known for a trilogy of non-genre novels:
Plumb (1978 UK), Meg (1981 UK) and Sole Survivor (1983 UK). His juvenile
fantasies - Under the Mountain (1979), later a tv series, and The World
Around the Corner (1980) - are routine quests. More complex is the World
of O trilogy - The Halfmen of O (1982), The Priests of Ferris (1984) and
Motherstone (1985) - which moves from unquestioning use of sf/fantasy
conventions to a less certain view of morality: the human saviours of the
ALTERNATE WORLD of O realize that its inhabitants must discover their own
solution to the problem of good and evil, even at the price of their
sentience. MG's virtues include a strong sense of character and place.

(1921-1991) US writer and editor, very active in the ZIFF-DAVIS stable
(for AMZ and Fantastic Adventures) in the 1940s, where he published a
large amount of routine material under his own name and pseudonyms
including Guy Archette and the house names Alexander BLADE, P.F. COSTELLO,
Warren KASTEL, S.M. TENNESHAW, Gerald VANCE and Peter WORTH. "Forever is
too Long" (1947 Fantastic Adventures) is book-length, as is "Outlaw in the
Sky" (1953 AMZ) as by Archette, which is essentially a Western with a few
sf transpositions. CSG was an advocate of the Richard SHAVER "mystery" and
founded a club in his honour, editing the Shaver Mystery Magazine on its
behalf. Although he was one of the most prolific of PULP-MAGAZINE writers,
his stories have never been collected in book form, and only one,
"Environment" (1944), has been anthologized. [JC]See also: COLONIZATION OF

US PULP MAGAZINE. 110 issues Oct 1933-June 1944. Monthly to Apr 1941,
bimonthly thereafter. Published by Popular Publications; ed Rogers Terrill
and, later, Alden H. Norton (1903-1987). All the novels were the work of
one of the most prolific of all pulp authors, Robert J. Hogan (1897-1963),
who also wrote under pseudonyms the short stories which filled out each
issue. Hogan, who wrote The MYSTERIOUS WU FANG and other magazines as
well, was under editorial instruction to send in his material as he wrote
it, without any revision; the amount of editing subsequently necessary is
described by Damon KNIGHT in Hell's Cartographers (anth 1975), ed Brian W.
ALDISS and Harry HARRISON. G-8 is the leader of a US fighter squadron in
WWI, which combats a wide variety of fantastic enemy menaces. Only some of
the novels were sf, and the magazine was not as futuristic as its

(1927- ) US writer, editor and sf fan, best known since 1953 for
producing and contributing significantly to a fanzine, PSYCHOTIC, and
later a semiprozine, The ALIEN CRITIC , both of which were, confusingly,
at different times known as Science Fiction Review. He has published other
FANZINES. His vigorously anti-highbrow judgements were for a long time
influential in the sf field; between 1969 and 1983 he 6 times won a HUGO
for Best Fanzine and a further 7 times for Best Fan Writer.His first
published story was "Flight Game" for Adam in 1959. He concentrated
thereafter on pornographic fiction, with well over 100 titles, both soft
and hardcore. Not many had sf or fantastic themes. Exceptions are the Roi
Kunzer books - The Sex Machine (1967) and The Endless Orgy (1968) - and
the singletons Raw Meat (1969), The Arena Women (1972) and, as by Peggy
Swenson, A Girl Possessed (1973). Three further erotic sf novels by REG
were self-published, mimeographed limited editions: Canned Meat (1978),
Star Whores (1980) and The Corporation Strikes Back (1981). More recently,
writing with Elton P. Elliott as Richard Elliott, he wrote the John Norris
thrillers set on a NEAR-FUTURE Earth suffering from sun-flares caused by a
star-wars snafu - Sword of Allah (1984) and The Burnt Lands (1985) - as
well as the singletons The Master File (1986) and The Einstein Legacy
(1987). [JC/PN]See also: SEX.


(1948- ) UK journalist and then full-time author, primarily of HEROIC
FANTASY. His first FANTASY series, The Drenai Saga, consists of Legend
(1984; vt Against the Horde 1988 US), The King Beyond the Gate (1985),
Waylander (1986),Quest for Lost Heroes (1990), Waylander II: In the Realm
of the Wolf (1992) and The First Chronicles of Druss the Legend (coll
1993), the first 3 being collected, along with an additional story, as The
Drenai Tales (omni 1991). DAG's inclusion in this volume is largely due to
his second series, the Sipstrassi novels, which are SCIENCE FANTASY: Wolf
in Shadow (1987; vt The Jerusalem Man 1988 US), Ghost King (1988), Last
Sword of Power (1988) and The Last Guardian (1989), all 4 being assembled
as Stones of Power: The Sipstrassi Omnibus (omni 1992). The components of
the series are linked by the Sipstrassi stones of healing and/or
destruction, whose source is ATLANTIS. The middle two volumes, which have
Arthurian resonances, are set in Britain during and after the Roman
occupation, but the framing works are set in a post- HOLOCAUST venue 300
years after Earth's axis has been tilted by an Immanuel VELIKOVSKY-style
DISASTER; echoes of Erich VON DANIKEN's PSEUDO-SCIENCE books also abound.
The Dying Earth setting ( FAR FUTURE) is well achieved; there is TIME
TRAVEL between Atlantis and its future; ESP, GENETIC ENGINEERING and
IMMORTALITY are other themes.DAG's subsequent works have been: Knights of
Dark Renown (1989), featuring PARALLEL WORLDS; the Macedon sequence of
historical fantasies set in an ALTERNATE-WORLD Greece at the time of
Alexander, to date comprising Lion of Macedon (1990) and Dark Prince
(1991), in the second of which Aristotle (who else?) knows the secret of
portals through time and space that lead to parallel worlds; Morningstar
(1992), which introduces a bard and an ambiguous hero faced with
necromancy and Vampyre Kings; and Bloodstone (1994). DAG is accomplished
and tough-minded, and interestingly varies (but not too much)
stereotypical generic situations. [PN]See also: HISTORY OF SF; MAGIC.

A quasiphilosophical movement founded in Chicago in 1938 by Count Alfred
KORZYBSKI, whose Science and Sanity (1933) was the basic handbook of the
movement. GS had a surprising success, peaking in the 1940s and 1950s. It
teaches that first unsanity and later insanity are caused by adherence to
an Aristotelian worldview, by which is meant the use of the two-valued
either-or logic which Korzybski saw as being built into Indo-European
language structures. From this simple beginning - with much of which
linguistic philosophers, including Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), would
be unlikely to differ very profoundly - was developed a confused and
confusing psychotherapeutic system which, like L. Ron HUBBARD's DIANETICS,
promised to focus the latent abilities of the mind. It may have seemed to
its more naive adherents that GS held out the promise of turning Man into
SUPERMAN by teaching non-Aristotelian (null-A or A) habits of thought. The
movement, whose critics saw it as a PSEUDO-SCIENCE, probably had some
influence on the development of Dianetics, but its best-known repercussion
in sf was the composition of two novels by A.E. VAN VOGT featuring a
non-Aristotelian superman hero, Gilbert Gosseyn (often read as a pun on
"go sane"): The World of A (1945 ASF; rev 1948; rev with intro 1970; vt
The World of Null-A) and The Pawns of Null-A (1948-9 ASF as "The Players
of A"; 1956; vt The Players of Null-A UK). [PN]

For writers unwilling to power their starships with FASTER-THAN-LIGHT
drives or to make use of a relativistic time contraction, there is a real
problem in sending ships between the stars: the length of the voyage,
which would normally span many human lifetimes. The usual answers are to
put the crew into SUSPENDED ANIMATION, as in James WHITE's The Dream
Millennium (1974), to send germ cells only, as in Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's "The
Big Space Fuck" (1972), or to use a generation starship, whereby the human
beings who reached the destination would be the remote descendants of the
original, long-dead crew, intervening generations having lived and died
aboard the journeying vessel.It was probably Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY who
first saw the necessity for using generation starships in the COLONIZATION
OF OTHER WORLDS; he presented the idea in "The Future of Earth and
Mankind", which was published in a Russian anthology of scientific essays
in 1928 but may have been conceived even earlier. Tsiolkovsky here argued
for the construction in the future of space-going "Noah's Arks": he
envisaged such journeys as taking many thousands of years.The first
GENRE-SF use of the notion was probably Don WILCOX's "The Voyage that
Lasted 600 Years" (1940) in AMZ. Here the captain of the ship is in
hibernation, but wakes every 100 years to check on progress. Each time he
wakes he finds great social changes among the successive descendants of
the crew, and a sinking into brutality accompanied by plague. His
successive appearances render him an object of superstitious awe to the
tribesmen on board. The theme of social change and degeneration
inaugurated by Wilcox was to become the dominant motif of such stories.
(In Seekers of Tomorrow [1966] Sam MOSKOWITZ claims the first
generation-starship story to be Laurence MANNING's "The Living Galaxy"
[1934], which is set in a small, self-powered world and so does not fully
embody the concept.)The other dominant theme was presented in the
following year in an altogether more famous story, "Universe" (1941) by
Robert A. HEINLEIN, and in its sequel in ASF the following month, "Common
Sense" (1941); the two were published in book form as Orphans of the Sky
(fixup 1963 UK). In this classic generation-starship story the crew have
forgotten that they are on a ship and have descended to a state of rigidly
stratified and superstitious social organization; the unusually
intelligent hero discovers the truth in a traumatic CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH. Indeed generation-starship stories remained paradigmatic for
the conceptual-breakthrough theme, and are important, too, in
rite-of-passage stories showing the growth from puberty to adulthood (
POCKET UNIVERSES). Brian W. ALDISS, who loved the idea but thought it
crudely developed by Heinlein, devoted his first novel, Non-Stop (1958; vt
Starship US), to a very successful reworking of the same theme. Other
stories in which surviving generations think of the ship as a world and
not a mode of transport are "Spacebred Generations" (1953; vt "Target
Generation") by Clifford D. SIMAK, "Ship of Shadows" (1969) by Fritz
LEIBER, in which the ship is not strictly a starship, though the
degenerated society is similar, and Harry HARRISON's amazing Captive
Universe (1969), in which the crew and colonists have been transformed, in
an act of insane CULTURAL ENGINEERING, into medieval monks and Aztec
peasants.Some stories begin at the outset of or after the end of a
generation-starship voyage. Arthur C. CLARKE's early story "Rescue Party"
(1946) has Earth evacuated in the face of a coming nova, the evacuees
heading confidently towards the stars in a giant fleet of primitive
generation rocketships. Brian M. STABLEFORD's Promised Land (1974) tells
of a society of colonists whose social structure is based on that
developed over generations in the starship on which they arrived.An
interesting variant which appears in several stories, most notably John
BRUNNER's "Lungfish" (1957; vt "Rendezvous with Destiny" USA), has the
ship itself taking on the role in its occupants' minds of surrogate
mother; even on reaching their destination they will not leave the womb.
This theme is also prominent in the Simak story mentioned above.The
generation-starship idea has been used little outside genre sf, though a
spectacular exception is the epic poem Aniara (1956; trans 1963) by the
Nobel Prize-winning Swedish poet Harry MARTINSON. An opera by Karl-Birger
Blomdahl (1916-1968), Aniara, based on the poem, was performed in 1959.
The story pits human values against inhuman technology on a generation
starship.Among the more interesting stories about social changes on
generation starships are the Aldiss, Harrison, Heinlein, Leiber and Simak
tales already cited, along with: The Space-Born (1956) by E.C. TUBB; RITE
OF PASSAGE (1968) by Alexei PANSHIN (though, since the starship in
question can travel also through HYPERSPACE, this is not a pure example of
the subgenre); The Ballad of Beta-2 (1965) by Samuel R. DELANY; Rogue Ship
(1947-63; fixup 1965) by A.E. VAN VOGT; Seed of Light (1959) by Edmund
COOPER; The Star Seekers (1953) by Milton LESSER, which features a
four-way division of society in a hollowed-out asteroid; Alpha Centauri -
or Die! (1953 Planet Stories as "Ark of Mars"; fixup 1963 dos) by Leigh
BRACKETT; 200 Years to Christmas (1961) by J.T. MCINTOSH, which features a
competently thought-out but conventional cyclic history within the ship;
"Bliss" (1962) by David ROME; and Noah II (1970 US; rev 1975 UK) by Roger
DIXON.Some enterprising variants on the theme are found. In Arthur
SELLINGS's "A Start in Life" (1951) a plague decimates the ship, leaving
two 5-year-old survivors to be raised by ROBOTS. Judith MERRIL's "Wish
Upon a Star" (1958) features a ship originally crewed by 20 women and four
men, with a resultant matriarchal society. Chad OLIVER's "The Wind Blows
Free" (1957) takes the birth-trauma theme to its logical conclusion with a
story about a man who, goaded to near-madness by the claustrophobic
society of the ship, opens an airlock only to find that the ship landed on
a planet some centuries back.Harlan ELLISON wrote the script for a
generation-starship tv series, The STARLOST , made in Canada,
disastrously, in 1973. Ellison repudiated the series as it stood, and used
his derisive pseudonym Cordwainer Bird in the credits; his original script
for the pilot episode appears as "Phoenix without Ashes" in Faster than
Light (anth 1976) ed Jack DANN and George ZEBROWSKI, and was also
novelized as Phoenix without Ashes * (1975) with Edward BRYANT.From the
mid-1970s the theme has been used only sparsely. An interesting variation
is found in Damien BRODERICK's idea-packed The Dreaming Dragons (1980), in
which a generation TIME MACHINE is uncovered beneath Ayers Rock in the
Australian desert. In Pamela SARGENT's juvenile novel Earthseed (1983) the
generation starship is a hollowed-out asteroid occupied by teenagers. In
Kevin O'DONNELL Jr's Mayflies (1979) the lives of humans seem ephemeral
(hence the title) by contrast with the near-immortal human brain, embedded
in the ship's computer, which (only partially) controls those lives; and
the voyage accomplished in Frank M. ROBINSON's The Dark Beyond the Stars
(1991) is ultimately circular. The most ambitious recent attempt to invest
the theme with new energy is contained in Gene WOLFE's Book of the Long
Sun, whose first 3 vols - Nightside the Long Sun (1993), Lake of the Long
Sun (1994) and Calde of the Long Sun (1994) - are set entirely within a
generation starship called the Whorl. [PN]

Made-for-tv film (1973). CBS-TV. Dir John Llewellyn Moxey, starring Alex
Cord, Mariette Hartley, Percy Rodriguez, Ted Cassidy. Screenplay Gene
RODDENBERRY. 90 mins. Colour.Produced by Roddenberry, the creator of STAR
TREK, this was a pilot for a tv series that was never made. After a
SUSPENDED-ANIMATION experiment goes wrong, a scientist wakes in a future
world which is suffering from the aftermath of a nuclear HOLOCAUST.
Ordinary humans are ruled tyrannously by MUTANTS. Aided by his primitive
vitality, the hero helps overcome the rulers. A similar format was used by
Roddenberry in two further attempts to launch series; these were released

In his remarkable prophetic essay Daedalus, or Science and the Future
(1924) J.B.S. HALDANE looked forward optimistically to a day when
biologists have "invented" a new species of alga to solve the world's food
problem, and in which "ectogenetic" children born from artificial wombs
can be strategically modified by eugenic selection. Nothing was known in
1924 about the biochemistry of genetics, so Haldane spoke mainly in terms
of "selective breeding", but he nevertheless anticipated not merely some
of the possible practical applications of direct genetic manipulation but
also the likely response of the popular imagination. He observed that
there is always extreme resistance against "biological inventions" because
they are initially perceived as blasphemous perversions. Following the
decipherment, in the late 1950s, of the genetic code carried by DNA
molecules, the genetic engineering of bacteria has become commonplace, and
contemporary sf reflects the strength of this resistance in no uncertain
terms. Despite the strong tradition of technophilia which exists in HARD
SF, there is still relatively little sf championing the cause of genetic
engineering.The careful "engineering" of living creatures by surgery is
featured in a few early sf stories, most notably H.G. WELLS's The Island
of Dr Moreau (1896), but it was not until Haldane wrote his essay that
more ambitious projects of human engineering were featured - in Olaf
STAPLEDON's LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930), and in Aldous HUXLEY's satirical
development of ideas from Daedalus in BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932), in which
ectogenetic embryos are nutritionally and environmentally controlled to
fit them for life as "alphas", "betas" or "gammas". Julian Huxley
(1887-1975), brother of Aldous and friend of Haldane and Wells, wrote a
notable horror-sf story along the same lines: "The Tissue-Culture King"
(1927). Haldane's sister, Naomi MITCHISON, later extrapolated ideas from
Daedalus in a sceptical way in Not by Bread Alone (1983). In the early sf
PULP MAGAZINES David H. KELLER wrote several stories about
quasiblasphemous tampering with human form and nature, most notably
"Stenographer's Hands" (1928), about a eugenic experiment to breed the
perfect typist, with reduced initiative and a wasted body but jolly
capable hands. An early pulp-sf story involving true genetic engineering
was "Proteus Island" (1936) by Stanley G. WEINBAUM, which echoes its
model, The Island of Dr Moreau, in presuming that "the nature of the
beast" cannot be changed as easily as its physical form. Artificial
organisms designed for particular purposes appear in minor roles in
several stories, a notable example being the "familiars" employed by the
fake witches in Fritz LEIBER's GATHER, DARKNESS! (1943 ASF; 1950), and,
once A.E. VAN VOGT had used "gene transformation" to create superhumans in
SLAN (1940 ASF; 1946), vague and unspecified forms of genetic engineering
became standard methods of creating the pulp-sf SUPERMAN. The most
adventurous use of genetic engineering in 1940s sf was in Robert A.
HEINLEIN's BEYOND THIS HORIZON (1942 ASF as by Anson MacDonald; 1948), the
first story to describe (not altogether convincingly) a society which
routinely uses eugenics and genetic engineering to ensure the physical and
mental fitness of the population, and to address the moral questions thus
raised.The first sf writer to cultivate a more accurate understanding of
possible genetic engineering techniques, and the first to confront these
possibilities with a far-reaching but disciplined imagination, was James
BLISH. Titan's Daughter (1952 in Future Tense as "Beanstalk"; exp 1961)
features a race of giant humans created by stimulated polyploidy
(spontaneous polyploidy - doubling of the chromosome complement - is not
uncommon in plants, and usually results in giantism) and echoes Wells's
The Food of the Gods (1904). Blish moved on to consider the possible
utility of genetic engineering in adapting humans for the COLONIZATION OF
OTHER WORLDS in his PANTROPY series, written around the novelette "Surface
Tension" (1952) - about microscopic humans engineered for life in small
pools of water - and collected in THE SEEDLING STARS (fixup 1956). The
final section of the book looks forward to the day when Earth, much
changed by time, will itself become an alien environment to be re-seeded
with "adapted men". This idea, of specially engineering individuals to
"conquer" alien worlds, was taken up by other writers of the period,
including Philip K. DICK in The World Jones Made (1956) and Poul ANDERSON
in "Call me Joe" (1957). The idea that an engineered race might be
necessary to undertake SPACE FLIGHT itself was later developed by Samuel
R. DELANY in "Aye, and Gomorrah . . ." (1967). Other stories from the
1950s dealing with experiments in genetic engineering are Masters of
Evolution (1954 as "Natural State"; exp 1959) by Damon KNIGHT and "They
Shall Inherit" (1958) by Brian W. ALDISS. The notion of modifying animals
into human form was developed extensively by Cordwainer SMITH in his
stories of the Underpeople, who cannot breed true, having been modified by
somatic engineering - a modification of the genes in the specialized cells
of a differentiated embryo or an adult organism which does not affect the
germ plasm. (The different implications of somatic engineering and the
engineering of egg cells are not always appreciated by users of the theme.
)Interest in genetic engineering was inevitably renewed in the 1960s,
although many early stories concentrated on the very modest notion of
producing CLONES. Alarmism was rife: the UK tv series DOOMWATCH, whose
purpose was overtly propagandistic, helped to awaken many people to some
of the implications of biological engineering. Its first episode became
the basis for the novel Mutant-59 * (1972) by Kit PEDLER and Gerry DAVIS,
about the "escape" of a bacterium engineered to metabolize plastic, and
many other episodes also featured biological engineering of various kinds.
The idiosyncratic note of horror struck by many of the scripts recurs in
many subsequent tv plays, including two about the possibility of creating
"transgenic" hybrids of human and ape ( APES AND CAVEMEN): First Born
(1989), notionally based on Maureen DUFFY's satire Gor Saga 1981), and
Chimera (1991), adapted by Stephen GALLAGHER from his own novel Chimera
(1982).The first attempts to use genetic-engineering techniques to cure
genetic deficiency diseases have already been made, and the possibility of
eliminating such diseases has become a commonplace background element in
sf. The notion that a radiation-affected world might desperately require
such processes of repair is ironically developed in David J. SKAL's When
We were Good (1981) and Christopher HODDER-WILLIAMS's post- HOLOCAUST The
Chromosome Game (1984). The use of somatic engineering for cosmetic
purposes is the focus of such stories as "Cinderella's Sisters" (1989) and
"Skin Deep" (1991) by Brian M. STABLEFORD. The possibility of further
altering the human condition by genetic engineering remains much more
controversial. The plight of ordinary humans growing old in a world
already inherited by their engineered superchildren is explored in Anvil
of the Heart (1983) by Bruce T. HOLMES. Other alarmist tales in a similar
vein include Robin COOK's Mutation (1989) and Geoff RYMAN's The Child
Garden (1989), which feature very different developments of the assumption
that programmes of improvement involving genetic-engineering techniques
might have unforeseen and unfortunate side-effects. Relatively modest
functional modifications of humans include adaptation for aquatic life and
for life in low gravity: Inter Ice Age 4 (1959; trans 1970) by Kobo ABE is
the most notable novel dealing with the former theme, Lois McMaster
BUJOLD's FALLING FREE (1988) the most notable dealing with the latter (and
also raises interesting questions about the obsolescence of functional
modifications). Frank HERBERT was consistently interested in the more
bizarre variations of the theme, as displayed in The Eyes of Heisenberg
(1966) and Hellstrom's Hive (1973), although the superman-breeding
programme in DUNE (1965) is a pedestrian affair of long-range eugenics.
Genetic-engineering techniques are fundamental to the Protean futures of
many stories by John VARLEY, including THE OPHIUCHI HOTLINE (1977) and
"Options" (1979), a story of promiscuous sex-changes. The widespread use
of such techniques is also a premise of Bruce STERLING's Shaper &
Mechanist stories, culminating in the novel Schismatrix (1985), and of
C.J. CHERRYH's monumental Cyteen (1988). Charles SHEFFIELD's series begun
with Sight of Proteus (1978) is more extravagant, and the technology
involved is highly fanciful.Exotically engineered human societies
established on other worlds are featured in several sf novels, the most
notable being the hermaphrodite society in Ursula K. LE GUIN's THE LEFT
HAND OF DARKNESS (1969). More recent COLONIZATION stories involving
genetic engineering include The Warriors of Dawn (1975) and The
Gameplayers of Zan (1977) by M.A. FOSTER, Manseed (1982) by Jack
WILLIAMSON, and The Garden of the Shaped (1987) by Sheila FINCH.As
real-world genetic engineering makes rapid progress, sf writers have
acquired a better sense of what actually goes on in the laboratory,
reflected in such stories as Richard S. Weinstein's "Oceans Away" (1976),
which deals with the creation of intelligent cephalopods, and John
GRIBBIN's Father to the Man (1989), one of the most intelligent stories
about an artificial half-human being. There is still, however, a marked
tendency for the strategic endeavours of scientists to be unceremoniously
set aside in favour of the miracles of MUTATION, as they are in Greg
BEAR's BLOOD MUSIC (1985). It cannot be said that sf writers have as yet
explored the real potential which genetic-engineering technologies hold
for the radical remaking of the human world, but a beginning of sorts is
made by the speculative future history The Third Millennium (1985) by
Brian Stableford and David LANGFORD, and by Stableford's various spinoff
short stories, some of which are collected in Sexual Chemistry: Sardonic
Tales of the Genetic Revolution (coll 1991). [BS]See also: BIOLOGY;

Pseudonym of US writer William James Roe (1843-1915) for his sf and
fantasy; he also produced some non-genre work under his own name and as G.
I. Cervus. He was a freethinker - a disposition of mind found with
surprising infrequency among 19th-century sf writers - and in Inquirendo
Island (1886) he dramatized in unmistakable terms his negative feelings
about Christianity. The protagonist, shipwrecked on the eponymous
mid-Atlantic ISLAND, discovers that its inhabitants have constructed a
topsy-turvy RELIGION, which they follow with pious zeal, out of their
ancestors' bad memories of their own shipwreck and out of idolatry
directed towards the arithmetic text which is the only printed book to
have survived. Bellona's Husband (1887) takes its protagonists via
spaceship to MARS, where they find a humanlike society distinguished from
ours mainly by the fact that Martians live backwards in time; this may be
the earliest example of the notion of time reversal being given
full-fledged narrative form. Both novels stand out by virtue of the
pungency of their thought and their story-telling clarity. [JC]Other
works: The Last Tenet Imposed upon the Khan of Thomathoz (1892), a

By this term, used widely in this encyclopedia, we mean sf that is either
labelled science fiction or is instantly recognized by its readership as
belonging to that category - or (usually) both. The implication is that
any author of genre sf is conscious of working within a genre with certain
habits of thought, certain "conventions" - some might even say "rules" -
of storytelling. These conventions are embedded primarily in a set of
texts which are generally agreed to contain them. This might seem to be a
circular definition, as though one were saying that genre sf is a set of
conventions located in genre-sf stories; but it is in fact a spiral. A
text published in 1930 may describe something - say a form of MATTER
TRANSMISSION - so well that in 1935 the description has become recognized
as a model or convention; and in 1940 a second text may be published which
shows its agreement with the convention by repeating it, with variations
which themselves enrich it. Partly this spiral is created by sf readers,
and partly it governs the expectations of those who so define themselves,
and who establish their sense of the true nature of genre sf from many
sources: from the spiral of books and stories certainly, but also from
film, tv and personal interactions ( FANDOM; CONVENTIONS), and finally
from an abiding sense shared by most members of the sf "community" that
genre sf is an intrinsic part of US history and literature. In its
narrowest sense, then, a genre-sf tale will be a story written after 1926,
published (or theoretically publishable) in a US SF MAGAZINE or specialist
for its signals that it is honouring the compact between writers and
readers to respect the protocols embedded in the texts which make up the
canon. (The term "protocols" has been used in this way by several scholars
of sf, notably Samuel R. DELANY and Mark ROSE.)To work variations on these
protocols is clever (and indeed required); but to abandon them is to leave
home. For many years, leaving home in this fashion (as, for instance, Kurt
VONNEGUT Jr was deemed to have done) was considered a form of treason; for
some writers and readers, this attitude remains. Similarly, works of
fiction which use sf themes in seeming ignorance or contempt of the
protocols-often works from so-called MAINSTREAM WRITERS OF SF - frequently
go unread by those immersed in genre sf; and, if they are read, tend to be
treated as invasive and alien . . . and incompetent. This snobbery (which
reverses that very frequently expressed about genre sf by the mainstream)
is perhaps unfortunate as a general rule, though in many particular
instances it is fully justified.Though this encyclopedia focuses primarily
on genre sf, and though genre sf is central to our sense of the nature of
sf as a whole, we also conceive non-genre sf as an essential part of the
picture. This encyclopedia therefore includes much of it; other works,
such as The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1988) ed James E. GUNN,
have been unwilling to trespass far in this direction, and have proved in
practice (and occasionally by precept) unwilling to accord genuine sf
status to work written outside the protocols and outside North America.
The question as to whether or not international non-genre-based sf is true
sf has, moreover, become inflamed and politicized; and to discuss
non-genre sf in an encyclopedia of sf has at times been regarded by some
critics, especially in the USA, as a radical ideological decision. The
editors of this volume are content to pay as much attention to these views
as they warrant, and agree that if it is ideological to regard, say,
Murray Constantine ( Katharine BURDEKIN) and George R. STEWART (non-genre
sf) as being just as important to the HISTORY OF SF as, for example,
Arthur Leo ZAGAT and Miles J. BREUER (genre sf), then this is indeed an
ideological encyclopedia.In the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s literary academics
have very often talked about genre. By "genre" they almost invariably
refer, as Gary K. WOLFE puts it in Critical Terms for Science Fiction and
Fantasy (1986), to "a group of literary works with common defining
characteristics" and "major formal, technical or even thematic elements
that unite groups of works". This academic approach, which rightly tends
to draw very heavily upon genre sf for examples, is likely to generate
formal DEFINITIONS OF SF which fairly closely resemble the sets of
protocols for writing genre sf. It is almost certainly right that this is
so. But it seems no partially satisfactory definition of sf (there is no
fully satisfactory definition of sf) has yet been written so as to include
only genre sf. Some critics - like, famously, Darko SUVIN - have attempted
to define the genre of sf in terms which would in fact logically exclude
most genre sf from serious consideration. The point we would make here is
this: when we use the term "genre sf" in this encyclopedia, we are not
making a short-cut definition of the genre of sf; we are referring to
those sf works which honour the contract.This topic is raised, directly
and by implication, at many points in this volume, including the entries
mentioned above, and in the article on PULP MAGAZINES. [PN/JC]

(1956- ) UK writer who began publishing with a fantasy for young adults,
A Hawk in Silver (1977; rev 1985 US), and who came to general notice with
her Orthe sequence - GOLDEN WITCHBREED (1983) and Ancient Light (1987) -
which, despite the fantasy ring of the first title, is sf. The protagonist
of both volumes, a woman diplomat/entrepreneur in the complexly defined
employ of an Earth dominated by vast corporations, comes to Orthe in an
attempt to open the planet to exploitation, but discovers the densely
described humanoid Orthean culture a seeming match for the desires of her
masters. Her trek across Orthe, which takes much of GOLDEN WITCHBREED and
which is replicated in feel in Ancient Light, gives the sequence the
typical plot-structure and landscape of PLANETARY ROMANCE, though MG is,
in fact, far less entranced by scene-setting than are the creators of the
modern form (e.g., Jack VANCE). The final import of the sequence - despite
the sf pleasures entailed in the discovery of an ancient race whose
technological hubris once seared the world, and of a huge ancient artifact
( BIG DUMB OBJECTS) - is anything but conducive to any sense that Orthe is
a planetary Secret Garden. The protagonist is older in the second volume,
Orthean culture has been fatally touched by the allure of human
TECHNOLOGY, disturbances transform the old comity, which is now torn by
ethnic conflicts, and the revanchist descendants of the ancient Golden
Witchbreed do finally use the secret weapon which gives that second volume
its title. The Secret Garden - which lies at the heart of the true
planetary romance - becomes, in MG's hands, the Third World.Some of the
stories assembled in Scholars and Soldiers (coll 1989) are sf, but in the
late 1980s MG turned to FANTASY, and in the White Crow sequence - Rats and
Gargoyles (1990),The Architecture of Desire (1991) and Left to his own
Devices (coll 1994) - created an ALTERNATE WORLD or multiverse whose
scenery and idiom were superficially reminiscent of Michael MOORCOCK's
metaphysical romances; but MG was far more interested than Moorcock in the
arguments that might sustain such a universe, deriving a rationale to
sustain them - like John CROWLEY before her - from Renaissance
Neoplatonism. In the first novel, it is seen that the world is sustained
in the memory of a cabal of gods. In the second, set in an alternate
England which mirrors Cromwellian times, the female protagonist begins, at
great cost to herself and others, to outgrow the toys of MAGIC; MG has
always been an author of FEMINIST inclinations, and she presents the sins
committed by the White Crow in this novel as non-gender hubris and
complacency. Less urgently, the third volume - whose long title story is
set in a NEAR FUTURE but decidedly alternate London - expands the scope
but comes fairly close to treating the Temporal Adventuress exploits of
the heroine as self-justifying. It still may be hoped that the harsh,
flexible urgency of MG's fantasies will shape an equally complex new sf
vision. [JC]Other works: The Weerde #1 * (anth 1992) ed with Roz KAVENEY;
Villains! * (anth 1992) ed with Kaveney; Grunts! (1992), a parodic

(1931- ) US writer whose NEAR-FUTURE sf novel, The Last Days of the Late,
Great State of California (1968), vividly depicts a San Andreas Fault
DISASTER, though its ecological arguments, blaming Man for the destruction
of the state, are somewhat laboured. [JC]



(1924-1966) UK writer and ex-RAF officer whose life and career seem to
have been obsessed by nuclear WAR and its consequences. His best-known sf
novel, Two Hours to Doom (1958; vt Red Alert 1958 US) as by Peter Bryant,
was a straightforward story in which a preventive war, inaugurated by a
general, almost leads to worldwide HOLOCAUST, and he may have had some
mixed feelings about its satirical transmogrification into Stanley
LOVE THE BOMB (1963), in which doomsday is neither averted at the last
moment nor entirely unwelcomed. Dr Strangelove: or, How I Learned to Stop
Worrying and Love the Bomb * (1963) was credited solely to PG, though the
influence of Terry Southern (1924- ), who co-wrote the filmscript, is
everywhere evident. A further sf novel, Commander-1 (1965), follows the
desperate struggles of survivors after a nuclear war. PG's suicide
followed soon after, during the composition of yet another novel on the
same theme, to have been entitled Nuclear Survivors. [JC]See also: END OF


Legal name during his publishing career of UK writer William Gaerhardie
(1895-1977); he partially reverted to Gaerhardie in his later, inactive
years. He is best known for works outside the sf field like Futility
(1922). His END-OF-THE-WORLD novel Jazz and Jasper: The Story of Adam and
Eva (1928; vt Eva's Apple: A Story of Jazz and Jasper 1928 US; vt My
Sinful Earth 1947 UK; vt Doom 1974) depicts a Lord Beaverbrook figure and
his entourage in their complex lives and later, after a huge cataclysm,
hurtling through space on a chip of rock which is all that remains of
Earth. The Memoirs of Satan (1932) with Brian Lunn (Hugh KINGSMILL's
brother) is fantasy. [JC]

[r] Jack BERTIN.

This entry covers the whole of Germany, including the former GDR (East
Germany). There is a separate entry for AUSTRIA, with which there is a
small and inevitable overlap: many books by Austrian writers were in fact
published in Germany, and many Austrians have lived in Germany - some,
indeed, working in the German publishing industry.The roots of German sf
can be traced back to the 17th century, when the astronomer Johannes
KEPLER's Somnium (1634 in Latin; trans into German as Traum von Mond 1898;
trans E. Rosen as Kepler's "Somnium" 1967) reflected, in semifictional
form, on life on the Moon. Considered a masterpiece of its time is the
picaresque novel Der abenteuerliche Simplizissimus (1669; trans A.T.S.
Goodricke as The Adventurous Simplicissimus 1912 UK; retrans H.
Weissenborn and L. Macdonald 1963 UK) by Johann Jakob Christoffel von
Grimmelshausen (1622-1676), which contains, inter alia, episodes about
utopian societies and plans as well as a journey to the Moon.The 18th
century saw publication of Wunderliche Fata einiger Seefahrer (4 parts
1741-43), usually known as Insel Felsenburg ["Felsenburg Island"], by
Johann Gottfried Schnabel (1692-1752). This book, very popular at the
time, combined elements of the UTOPIA, the ROBINSONADE and the episodic
adventure novel, and could be regarded as the earliest German forerunner
of adventure sf. Further utopian novels of the 18th and early 19th century
are Dreyerley Wirkungen: Eine Geschichte aus der Planetenwelt ["Triple
Effects: A Story from the World of Planets"] (1789) and Urani: Konigin von
Sardanopalien im Planneten Sirius ["Urania: Queen of Sardanopolis in the
Planet Sirius"] (1790) - both by Johann Friedrich Ernst Albrecht
(1752-1814), who normally wrote "knight-and-robber" novels - and Die
schwarzen Bruder ["The Black Brotherhood"] (1791-5) by Heinrich Zschokke
(1771-1848), a sensationalist trilogy about a secret society; its third
novel is set in the 24th century, when humanity is used as a kind of
livestock for ALIENS. Another early work is Ini: Ein Roman aus dem 21.
Jahrhundert ["Ini: A Novel from the 21st Century"] (1810) by Julius von
Voss (1768-1832). Important to the development of German sf is the story
"Der Sandmann" (1816; trans as "The Sandman") by E.T.A. HOFFMANN, the most
important author of the Schwarze Romantik ["Black Romantic"] movement in
Germany. The story, which has been reprinted innumerable times, tells of
Dr Coppelius, who constructs an automaton in the shape of a human being;
it is one of the first ROBOT stories.But the real pioneer of German sf was
Kurd LASSWITZ, a teacher at the Gymnasium Ernestinum in Gotha, who wrote
the most important classical German sf novel, Auf zwei Planeten (1897; cut
1948; cut again 1969; trans Hans J. Rudnick, much cut, as Two Planets 1971
US). It is the story of a confrontation of human and Martian cultures, the
latter being technically and ethically superior. Lasswitz, who regarded
ethical development as dependent on scientific and technological
development, included impressive technical predictions: a
spokewheel-shaped space station, rolling roadways, synthetic materials,
solar cells and much more. Influenced by the German idealist philosopher
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), his work was didactic and focused on
philosophical conceptions for the future. He published a number of short
stories and novellas, several of which have been translated into English,
and two further sf novels, less popular, which remain untranslated. These
are Aspira (1906) and Sternentau ["Star Dew"] (1909).Wholly different, but
no less remarkable, are the many works of sf by the scurrilous visionary
Paul Scheerbart (1863-1915), who in Lesabendio (1913) and the story
collection Astrale Noveletten ["Astral Novelettes"] (coll 1912), for
example, populated the cosmos with grotesque and tremendously imaginative
beings reminiscent of the creations of the later writer Olaf STAPLEDON.
Much of Scheerbart's work has been reissued in Germany. This is not the
case with the interesting In Purpurner Finsternis ["In Purple Darkness"]
(1895) by M(ichael) G(eorg) Conrad (1846-1927), an sf utopia mainly set in
a labyrinth of caves, and critical of Germany under Kaiser Wilhelm.German
FANTASTIC VOYAGES and adventures of the Jules VERNE type arrived with the
novels of Robert Kraft (1869-1916) and F.W. MADER. Kraft, touted by his
publishers as "the German Jules Verne", wrote in addition to countless
adventure novels and sea novels the 10-issue dime-novel series Aus dem
Reiche der Phantasie ["From the Realms of Imagination"] (1901), whose
protagonist's adventures include trips to the Stone Age and the Moon. (It
was probably the first DIME-NOVEL SF series in Germany. This form of
publication, Groschenhefte, saddle-stapled booklets very similar to one of
the several popular dime-novel formats in the USA, continued very much
longer in Germany than it did in the USA - see below.) Typical of Kraft's
book publications are Im Panzermobil um die Erde ["Round the World in a
Tank"] (1906), Im Aeroplan um die Erde ["Round the World in a Plane"]
(1908), Der Herr der Lufte ["Lord of the Air"] (1909), Die
Nihilit-Expedition ["The Nihilit Expedition"] (1909) - a lost-race ( LOST
WORLDS) novel - and Die neue Erde ["The New Earth"] (1910), a post-
HOLOCAUST novel. F.W. Mader wrote juvenile adventure novels, often set in
Africa and reminiscent of H. Rider HAGGARD, and sometimes, as in Die
Messingstadt ["City of Brass"] (1924), with utopian as well as fantastic
elements. His space adventure Wunderwelten (1911; trans Max Shachtman as
Distant Worlds: The Story of a Voyage to the Planets 1932 US) is one of
the most important sf novels of the Kaiser's period.Other German sf
writers popular in the first two decades of the 20th century include: Carl
Grunert (1865-1918), author of Der Marsspion und andere Novellen ["The
Martian Spy and Other Novelettes"] (coll 1908); Albert Daiber, author of
Vom Mars zur Erde ["From Mars to Earth"] (1910); Oskar Hoffmann (1866-? ),
whose many works included the dime-novel series MacMilfords Reisen im
Universum ["MacMilford's Voyages into the Universe"] (1902-3); and Robert
Heymann (1879-? ), author of Der unsichtbare Mensch vom Jahr 2111 ["The
Invisible Man of the Year 2111"] (1909). Finally, there was the classic
novel Der Tunnel (1913; trans anon as The Tunnel 1915) by Bernhard
KELLERMANN (rendered Bernard Kellerman in the English translation), about
the building of a tunnel between England and the Continent; it was filmed
as Der TUNNEL (1933).One of the most successful sf series of the time in
the field of dime novels/pulp adventures, and one of the earliest purely
sf periodicals anywhere, was Der LUFTPIRAT UND SEIN LENKBARES LUFTSCHIFF
(1908-11), totalling 165 adventures.Between the two World Wars an
especially German type of sf came into being, namely the
scientific-technical Zukunftsroman (future novel), a term which gave its
name to the genre, being only gradually replaced, from the early 1950s
onward, by the foreign designation "science fiction", which was eventually
naturalized. By far the most popular author of the Zukunftsroman - the
spectrum of whose themes was fixed much more strictly than that of US-UK
"science fiction" - was unquestionably Hans Dominik (1872-1945), whose
nearly 20 books - his first novel was Die Macht der Drei ["The Power of
the Three"] (1922)-sold several million copies in total. Dominik's books
are clumsy and badly written, but they survive on the frisson given by
their technically oriented adventure, and were probably also successful
because their distinctly nationalistic overtones - the German engineer
being seen as superior to all others in the world - suited the spirit of a
Germany in which National Socialism was on the rise. Other representatives
of the Zukunftsroman were Rudolf H(einrich) Daumann (1896-1957),
St(anislaw) Bialkowski (1897-? ), Karl August von Laffert (1872-1938),
Hans Richter (1889-1941) and Walther Kegel (1907-1945). A further popular
author in this line was Freder van Holk, a pseudonym of Paul Alfred Muller
(1901-1970), who also published as Lok Myler; under these pseudonyms he
wrote the successful dime-novel series Sun Koh, der Erbe von Atlantis
["Sun Koh: Heir of Atlantis"] (1933-6), with 150 issues, and Jan Mayen
(1935-9), with 120 issues. The former deals with an Atlantean in modern
London, planning, with supertechnology, to control ATLANTIS when it
reappears. Sf of this type had great influence on the first postwar
generation of German sf authors.Among the more interesting novels of
prewar German sf are those of Otto Willi GAIL, whose works include Hans
Hardts Mondfahrt (1928; trans anon as By Rocket to the Moon: The Story of
Hans Hardt's Miraculous Flight 1931). Before writing, he consulted the
German rocket pioneer Max Valier and was able to give a technically exact
(according to the knowledge of the time) description of a flight to the
Moon and of other space plans since realized. Another writer who like Gail
had some of his work translated into English and published in Hugo
GERNSBACK's sf magazines was Otfried von Hanstein (1869-1959). The five
novels concerned included Mond-Rak 1: Eine Fahrt inns Weltall (1929; trans
Francis Currier as "Between Earth and Moon" 1930 Wonder Stories
Quarterly).But perhaps the sf writer of the period best known abroad was
Thea VON HARBOU, who had collaborated with her husband, film director
Fritz LANG, on the screenplays of several sf films including the great
classic METROPOLIS (1926) and also Die FRAU IM MOND (1929). Von Harbou's
turgid novelizations were Metropolis * (1926; trans anon 1927 UK) and Frau
im Mond * (1928; trans Baroness von Hutten as The Girl in the Moon 1930
UK; cut vt The Rocket to the Moon, from the Novel, The Girl in the Moon
1930 US), the latter being published in Germany before the film was
released. An unusual theme is dealt with in Druso: Oder die gestohlene
Menschheit ["Druso, or The Stolen Mankind"] (1931; trans Fletcher PRATT as
"Druso" 1934 Wonder Stories) by Friedrich Freksa (1882-1955), a novel
about superhumans that reaches far into the future, but which is sadly
marred by racist and fascist undertones. This is almost opposite,
politically, to Utopolis (1930) by Werner Illing (1895-1979), which is a
socialist utopia in which workers defeat rebellious capitalists.Utopolis,
however, is at the more literary end of the spectrum. It was one of
several impressive sf novels published by non-genre authors between the
wars. Among the others were Tuzub 37 (1935) by Paul Gurk (1880-1953), a
strange "green" dystopia in which a flayed and totally concreted Nature
rises up against the mankind who did this, and Balthasar Tipho (1919) by
Hans Flesch (1895-1981), a strong apocalyptic novel. The most celebrated
of the writers who occasionally experimented with sf themes was Alfred
Doblin (1878-1957), who went into exile in France in 1933 and then the USA
in 1941. Two of his books are surreal, metamorphic sf of very considerable
power: Wadzek's Kampf mit der Dampfturbine ["Wadzek's Struggle with the
Steam-Machine"] (1918) and Berge, Meere und Giganten ["Mountains, Seas and
Giants"] (1924; rev vt Giganten ["Giants"] 1931). In the latter, somewhat
earlier than Olaf Stapledon, with whom he has been compared, Doblin deals
with GENETIC ENGINEERING as a means of evolving the capacities of a future
race of humans. His work was a potent influence on Cordwainer SMITH's sf.
All of these works, however, stand somewhat outside what most readers
would regard as sf proper.There were further stories of the future from
more "literary" German writers after WWII, though the one best known in
the English-speaking world was in fact by an Austrian, Franz WERFEL: Stern
der Ungeborenen (1946 Austria; trans Gustave O. Arlt as Star of the Unborn
1946). Others were Die Stadt hinter dem Strom (1947; trans P. de
Mendelssohn as The City Beyond the River 1953) by Hermann Kasack
(1896-1966), a political satire with futuristic sequences, which was made
into an opera; Heliopolis (1949) by Ernst JUNGER; and Nein: Die Welt der
Angeklagten ["No: The World of the Accused"] (1950) by Walter Jens (1923-
), set in a totalitarian DYSTOPIA reminiscent of George ORWELL's NINETEEN
EIGHTY-FOUR (1939). In a much less solemn vein is Die Gelehrtenrepublik
(1957; trans Michael Horovitz as The Egghead Republic: A Short Novel from
the Horse Latitudes 1979 UK) by Arno SCHMIDT, with its MUTANTS and its
language games. Several German writers, much affected by the horrors of
WWII and especially the shock of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, wrote
post- HOLOCAUST novels; these included Wir fanden Menschen ["We Found
Men"] (1948) by Hans Worner (1903- ), Blumen wachsen im Himmel ["Flowers
Grow in the Heavens"] (1948) by Hellmuth Lange (1903- ), Helium (1949) by
Ernst von Khuon (1915- ) and Die Kinder des Saturn ["The Children of
Saturn"] (1959) by Jens Rehn, whose real name was Otto Jens Luther
(1918-1983).The world of GENRE SF began changing after WWII. The first US
sf in translation was issued from 1951 onwards by the publishers Gebruder
Weiss in their hardcover line, Die Welt von Morgen, whose first
publications, from 1949 on, had been reprints of Hans Dominik; later on,
and importantly, they published the juveniles of Robert A. HEINLEIN and
Arthur C. CLARKE. The first adult HARD SF bound in hard covers was in the
short-lived Rauchs Weltraum-Bucher series, all 1953, from Karl Rauch
publishers, ed Gotthard Gunther (1900-1985), one being an anthology ed
Gunther, Uberwindung von Raum und Zeit ["Conquest of Space and Time"]
(anth 1953), and the other three being books by John W. CAMPBELL Jr, Jack
WILLIAMSON and Isaac ASIMOV. Each had a long, critical afterword by
Gunther. This line made the term "science fiction" known to German readers
for the first time, and is now legendary to fans and collectors. In terms
of copies sold at the time, it was a flop.The division of Germany into
East and West after WWII also influenced the development of genre sf.
While in the GDR literature generally, and therefore sf, had to serve
socialism, in the FRG sf publishing at first saw itself in terms of the
traditional Zukunftsroman. Thus reprints were issued of Dominik's work and
of dime-novel series by Freder van Holk/Lok Myler.A specialized form of
publishing turned out to be significant for sf: cheaply produced hardbacks
with millboard covers, issued in small print runs for commercial
circulating libraries. Before the circulating libraries fell victim in the
late 1950s and early 1960s to the altered leisure-time behaviour of the
readership, more than 500 sf novels were published in this format. Even
though most of them were trash, they nevertheless prepared the way for a
growing generation of native German authors, as well as publishing
translations into German for the first time of books by E.E. "Doc" SMITH,
A.E. VAN VOGT, Philip K. DICK, Clifford D. SIMAK and others.The second and
more important pathway into postwar German sf writing was provided by the
publishers of pulp adventures. The long and continuous German tradition of
publishing dime-novel booklets is only now, in the 1990s, fading away.
Some reprints of prewar sf of this kind have already been mentioned, but
it was above all the three publishers Pabel, Lehning and Moewig who
dominated in this field. In 1953 Pabel started the pulp line
Utopia-Zukunftsromane, later supplemented by Utopia-Grossband,
Utopia-Kriminal and the first German sf magazine, Utopia-Magazin. In 1956
Lehning followed up with reprints of circulating-library titles in its
pulp line Luna-Utopia-Roman, and in 1957 Moewig joined the scene with
Terra, followed by Terra-Sonderband and Galaxis, a German edition of
GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION. It was Pabel which succeeded in popularizing the
term "science fiction" in Germany. At the beginning of the
Utopia-Zukunftsromane line the stories consisted of serial adventures in
the Jim Parker series, but later they shifted to novels independent of
series, and from 1955 on also translations (mostly short novels) of Murray
LEINSTER, Eric Frank RUSSELL and many others. Quite a number of the best
and most popular US sf novels and novellas appeared amid all this material
published by Pabel and the other companies, but most were translated
rather badly and, as the format was limited to a fixed number of pages,
often drastically cut, a practice that continued in German sf translations
for a long time, since early paperbacks, too, had a rigidly restricted
page count.It was Walter Ernsting (1920- ), first at Pabel and later at
Moewig, who could be regarded as the engine that propelled the growing sf
industry. He wrote sf adventures under the pseudonym Clark DARLTON; along
with K.H. SCHEER he soon became the most popular author of German
adventure sf, and as an editor he was responsible for altering publishers'
policies (in part towards the publication of more of the UK-US type of
sf), editing both Utopia-Magazin and the pulp publishing lines (the
immediate predecessors of paperback publishing as understood in the
English-speaking world) Utopia-Grossband and Terra-Sonderband, the latter
continuing as the paperback line Terra-Taschenbuch. Ernsting is, of
course, most famous for founding Perry Rhodan with Scheer in 1961. It is
the most popular pulp-adventure sf series in the HISTORY OF SF; to 1991
more than 1600 short novels had been published in it, not to mention
numerous reprints, paperbacks, hardcovers and the spin-off Atlan series,
which itself has published a massive number of titles. The Perry Rhodan
print-run - it is published weekly - is around 200,000 copies for the
first edition. The series was and still is written by a team ( PERRY
RHODAN for further details).Another important editor was Gunther M.
Schelwokat (1929-1992), who edited much of the sf production of Moewig and
(after they had both come under the same ownership) Pabel. Because of the
power he had in selecting new authors for the various lines and series, he
has been called the John W. Campbell of the German pulps.Further pulp
series include Mark Powers, Ad Astra, Ren Dhark, Rex Corda, Raumschiff
Promet, Die Terranauten and Zeitkugel, all coming and going in the past
few decades, most of them trying (and failing) to repeat the success of
Perry Rhodan with similar concepts. However, on a smaller scale, the Orion
series is still thriving, originally in the pulp format but now in
paperback reprints; its novelizations and ongoing novels, about 145 of
them, many by Hans Kneifel (1936- ), are based on the successful German tv
SPACE OPERA series Raumpatrouille - Die phantastichen Abenteuer des
Raumschiffes Orion ["Space Patrol - The Fantastic Adventures of the Space
Ship Orion"], which began, like STAR TREK, in 1966, and which, also like
Star Trek, slowly built up a considerable fan following.Until the 1960s,
paperbacks were the exception rather than the rule in German publishing,
being brought out only by smaller publishers. Genre sf mainly remained a
feature of the pulp scene and seemed to be unsaleable outside that milieu.
This changed when, in 1960, the publishing house Goldmann began a
hardcover sf line (with the Austrian-born Herbert W. FRANKE as consulting
editor) and then, from 1962, a paperback line that continues today. In
1960, too, the publisher Heyne began, at first sporadically but then
vigorously, to publish sf. Heyne developed into one of the bestselling
publishers of paperbacks generally, not just in sf; but sf remained a
central part of its publishing programme and today, with Wolfgang JESCHKE
as editor, it is undisputed leader of the sf market, publishing over 100
paperbacks a year, mostly translations. Just as Ernsting and Schelwokat
forced the pace of sf pulp-adventure publishing in Germany, so Jeschke was
the person most responsible for sf's development as a paperback literature
in Germany. With his line of sf paperbacks, including sub-lines like
Classics and Bibliothek der Science Fiction, and his ability to select the
best work, Jeschke fulfilled his intention of presenting the whole
spectrum of sf from all over the world. Another notable paperback line was
Fischer Orbit (1972-4), based on Damon KNIGHT's ORBIT anthologies and
extended to include novels and collections, mainly of US origin, but
including the first collection of new and classic German sf stories,
Science Fiction aus Deutschland ["Science Fiction from Germany"] (anth
1974), ed H.J. ALPERS and Ronald M. Hahn (1948- ).In the late 1960s and
the 1970s, publishers like Marion von Schroder, Lichtenberg, Insel and
Hohenheim began hardcover or quality paperback sf lines, but all were
finally cancelled, including Hohenheim's project to publish a 15-vol
hardcover series, ed H.J. Alpers and Werner Fuchs (1949- ), to chronicle
sf history with the best stories of the best authors; only 6 vols
appeared. Indeed, after the boom that lasted from the late 1970s to the
early 1980s, during which Bastei-Lubbe, Knaur, Moewig, Pabel and Ullstein
all began new paperback lines or extended existing ones, there was a
severe contraction. Today only Heyne, Goldmann and Bastei-Lubbe remain
competitive.Unlike the English-language countries, Germany has no
magazine-based tradition of short-story publication. There had been a
magazine of the fantastic, Der Orchideengarten ["The Garden of Orchids"]
(1919-21), but it was only in the 1950s, with Utopia-Magazin (1955-9; 26
issues) and Galaxis (1958-59; 15 issues), that the first sf magazines were
published. Later attempts to establish magazines, mostly from smaller
publishers, failed. Perry Rhodan did not successfully make the transition
from pulp weekly booklet to magazine in Perry Rhodan Magazin. Other
publications in magazine format were Comet, 2001, Star SF and a German
edition of OMNI, but all finally failed. However, forums for short stories
do remain, mainly occasional anthologies from Heyne, ed Wolfgang Jeschke.
Earlier there had been the Kopernikus series, a kind of magazine in
paperback (1980-88; 15 vols) ed H.J. Alpers from Moewig; the Polaris
series from Insel/Suhrkamp (1973-85; 8 vols) ed Franz ROTTENSTEINER; and a
series of paperbacks (1980-84) from Goldmann, ed Thomas LeBlanc (1951-
).Let us turn from publishing to writing, and look at the major German sf
authors since WWII. We can start in the 1950s in the field of pulp
adventure with the work of Walter Ernsting (writing as Clark Darlton) and
K.H. Scheer. The former reached Erich VON DANIKEN territory before von
D-niken did with his tales of past extraterrestrial visits to Earth, and
was best known for his TIME-TRAVEL stories. Scheer specialized in
military-technological space opera. In the 1960s Herbert FRANKE came to
prominence as the first German-language sf writer to tackle really
ambitious themes. Later, in the 1960s and 1970s, he was joined (at first
just in the field of short stories) by Jeschke. Also of interest is Otto
BASIL, who like Franke was an Austrian, with his ALTERNATE-WORLD novel
Wenn das der Fuhrer wuste (1966; cut trans Thomas Weyr as The Twilight Man
1968 US). This story of Nazi Germany's victory in WWII, followed by a
postwar decay of the Third Reich after Hitler's death as his heirs
struggle for power, can be compared to The Man in the High Castle (1962)
by Philip K. DICK.In the 1970s Carl Amery (1922- ), a leading German
MAINSTREAM WRITER, turned his attention to sf themes, inspired by Walter
M. MILLER's A Canticle for Leibowitz (1960). With 3 excellent books,
original in both their idiom (Bavarian) and their concepts, he played
variations on the themes of time travel, the fall of Western culture, and
alternate worlds; these were Das Konigsprojekt ["The King Project"]
(1974), the short novel Der Untergang der Stadt Passau ["The Fall of the
City of Passau"] (1975), and An den Feuern der Leyermark ["At the Fires of
the Leyermark"] (1979), Leyermark being an old name for Bavaria. Franke
wrote further remarkable novels, notably Zone Null (1970; trans 1974 US)
and Ypsilon Minus (1976).In the 1980s Wolfgang Jeschke raised his profile,
proving himself an excellent novelist with Der letzte Tag der Schopfung
(1981; trans Gertrud Mander as The Last Day of Creation 1981 US) and Midas
(1989; trans 1990 US). Thomas R.P. Mielke (1940- ), up to then an almost
unnoticed pulp writer, surprised everybody with the thematically bizarre
novel Das Sakriversum ["The Vestryverse"] (1983), in which he described
how two mutated tribes, who for centuries have kept themselves hidden in
the roof-vault of a cathedral, survive a war waged with neutron bombs.
With Die Parzelle ["The Piece of Land"] (1984) Werner Zillig (1949- )
wrote a remarkable novel about countercultures which realize their utopian
and radical ideas in protected areas. Die Enkel der Raketenbauer
["Grandchildren of the Rocket-Builders"] (1980) by Georg Zauner (1920- )
is a cutting, ironic novel about a postnuclear Bavaria. A notable
dystopian novel is Erwins Badezimmer oder Die Gef-hrlichkeit der Sprache
["Erwin's Bathroom, or The Perilousness of Language"] (1984) by Hans
Bemmann (1922- ); and Richard Hey (1926- ) published in Im Jahr 95 nach
Hiroshima ["In the Year 95 after Hiroshima"] (1982) an outstanding
post-holocaust novel dealing with a new ice age and the vanishing of
European culture. Other authors worth notice include Rainer Erler (1933),
mainly a tv screenwriter and director, Reinmar Cunis (1933-1989) and
Michael Weisser (1948- ). Known primarily for short stories are Thomas
Ziegler (the pen-name of Rainer Zubeil [1956- ]), Karl Michael Armer
(1950- ), Horst Pukallus (1949- ), Gerd Maximovic (1944- ), Peter
Schattschneider (1950- ) ( AUSTRIA) and Ronald M. Hahn, the latter mostly
with SATIRES.In the postwar GDR, sf was expected to serve socialism and to
be subordinate to the concepts of party functionaries, and was anyway for
a long time regarded with suspicion. The first East German sf novel was
Die goldene Kugel ["The Golden Ball"] (1949) by Ludwig Turek (1898-1975).
During the whole of the 1950s in the GDR only 11 sf books, plus 50 or so
short stories scattered here and there, were published. In the 1950s and
1960s authors like Eberhard Del'Antonio (1926- ), the Brazilian-born
Carlos Rasch (1932- ), Gunther Krupkat (1905- ) and Karl-Heinz Tuschel
(1928- ), and in the 1970s and 1980s Klaus Fruhauf (1933- ), Rainer
Fuhrmann (1940- ), Peter Lorenz (1944- ), Michael Szameit (1950- ) and
others wrote an upright, arid, often didactic sf that was miles away,
thematically and in literary quality, from all international standards.
But from the 1970s onward the GDR also began to produce weightier voices,
with Heiner Rank (1931- ), Gerhard Branstner (1927- ), Gert Prokop (1932-
), Erik Simon (1950- ) and several collaborative teams: Alfred Leman
(1925- ) and Hans Taubert (1928- ); Johanna (1929- ) and Gunter (1928- )
Braun; and Karlheinz (1950- ) and Angela (1941- ) Steinmuller. Die
Ohnmacht der Allm-chtigen ["The Impotence of the Omnipotent Ones"] (1973)
by Heiner Rank, Der Irrtum des Grossen Zauberers ["The Error of the Great
Sorcerer"] (1972) and Unheimliche Erscheinungsformen auf Omega XI
["Strangely Shaped Apparitions on Omega XI"] (1974), both by Johanna and
Gunter Braun, and Andymon (1982) and Pulaster (1986), both by Karlheinz
and Angela Steinmuller, are examples of sf books that are full of ideas
and well written, and need not fear international comparison.In the GDR,
translated sf was very largely from RUSSIA and other socialist countries;
Western sf was seldom published and Western adult fantasy never. There
were few East German sf paperbacks; most books were hardcovers from Das
Neue Berlin and Neues Leben, as well as pulp booklets from the Das neue
Abenteuer and kap lines. Only in recent years has the term "science
fiction" been used, and it appeared on only one line of books, a
short-running paperback series. Ekkehard Redlin (1919- ), as editor of Das
Neue Berlin, was an important influence on East German sf, and later both
Olaf R. Spittel (1953- ) and especially Erik Simon had a huge influence on
the scene. With Die Science-fiction der DDR: Autoren und Werke: Ein
Lexicon ["Sf in the GDR: Authors and Works: A Dictionary"] (1988), these
two wrote what is effectively a small encyclopedia of East German sf (a
shorter version had appeared earlier, in 1982). Simon, who also edits for
Das Neue Berlin, has edited an annual, with stories and critical essays,
entitled Lichtjahr ["Lightyear"] (5 vols 1980-86).Sf publishing in the
united Germany of today has few book lines, is dominated by Heyne, and is
in general the domain of US-UK authors. Outside the Perry Rhodan pulps, no
German sf author is able to earn his or her living from sf alone; the one
marginal exception is Wolfgang E. Hohlbein (1953- ), a bestselling author
of, primarily, fantasy. In recent years some SMALL PRESSES have published
sf, either in limited editions or in attempts to break into the upmarket
area of hardcovers and quality paperbacks. Among them are Corian, Fantasy
Productions, Fabylon, Laurin and Edition Phantasia. Besides the book
market, sf writers can look to a small market for high-quality radio
plays, which has been supported over the years by radio editors and
directors like Horst Krautkr-mer, Andreas Weber-Sch-fer and, above all,
Dieter Hasselblatt (1926- ).There has been quite a lot of critical and
scholarly literature about sf in Germany. The SEMIPROZINE Science Fiction
Times, which began in 1958 as a straight translation of the US Science
Fiction Times, itself a variant title of FANTASY TIMES, began to publish
original German material in the early 1960s. It is now the longest-lasting
critical journal in Germany; also important in this respect is Franz
Rottensteiner's QUARBER MERKUR. There have been several academic studies
of sf, sometimes written from a sociological or political viewpoint. Begun
in 1985, Phantastichen Literatur, ed Joachim Korber, is a continuously
updated bibliographical resource for both sf and fantasy from Corian.
Standard references include Lexicon der Science Fiction Literatur (1980;
rev 1988; new edn projected for 1992) and Reclams Science Fiction Fuhrer
(1982), the former from Heyne, the latter from Reclam, both ed Hans
Joachim Alpers, Werner Fuchs and Ronald M. Hahn, with Wolfgang Jeschke as
a further editor of the Heyne books.Sf cinema had a good start in Germany
in the silent period with the serial HOMUNCULUS (1916), Fritz LANG's DR
MABUSE, DER SPIELER (1922) and METROPOLIS (1926), and Robert Wiene's
ORLACS HANDE (1925). Indeed, the German film industry continued strongly
into the early 1930s, with sf and fantastic themes quite popular. Other sf
films of this period are ALRAUNE (1928), Die FRAU IM MOND (1929), F.P.1
ANTWORTET NICHT (1932), Die HERRIN VON ATLANTIS (1932; vt Lost Atlantis),
Der TUNNEL (1933), and GOLD (1934). German sf cinema in the postwar period
has been, on the whole, disappointing, and the films deserving of entries
are comparatively few: Die TAUSEND AUGEN DES DR MABUSE (1960), Der GROSSE
VERHAU (1970; vt The Big Mess), Rainer Erler's OPERATION GANYMED (1977),
and KAMIKAZE 1989 (1982). Fassbinder's made-for-tv movie WELT AM DRAHT
(1973; vt World on a Wire) is also of substantial interest. [HJA]

(1884-1967) Luxembourg-born writer and editor who emigrated to the USA in
1904. Intensely interested in electricity and radio, he designed batteries
and by 1906 was marketing a home radio set. In 1908 he launched his first
magazine, Modern Electrics, where he later published his novel Ralph 124C
41+ (1911-12 Modern Electrics; fixup 1925). While deficient as fiction,
the tale clearly shows his overriding interest in sf as a vehicle of
PREDICTION, being a catalogue of the marvellous TECHNOLOGY of the 27th
century. Modern Electrics later became Electrical Experimenter, for which
he wrote a series of apocryphal scientific adventures of Baron Munchausen
(sic): "How to Make a Wireless Acquaintance" (1915), "How Munchausen and
the Allies Took Berlin" (1915), "Munchausen on the Moon" (1915), "The
Earth as Viewed from the Moon" (1915), "Munchausen Departs for the Planet
Mars" (1915),"Munchausen Lands on Mars" (1915),"Munchausen is Taught
Martian" (1915), "Thought Transmission on Mars" (1916), "Cities of Mars"
(1916), "The Planets at Close Range" (1916), "Martian Amusements" (1916),
"How the Martian Canals are Built" (1916) and "Martian Atmosphere Plants"
(1917). The series was reprinted in AMZ in 1928. In 1920 another
title-change brought into being SCIENCE AND INVENTION, in which HG
regularly printed sf. The Aug 1923 issue was devoted to what he then
termed "scientific fiction". The following year HG solicited subscriptions
for an sf magazine to be called Scientifiction; but it was not until April
1926 that there appeared the first issue of AMAZING STORIES, the first
true sf magazine in English. HG was publisher and editor, although much of
the actual editorial work was done by T. O'Conor SLOANE, his elderly
associate editor. AMZ was an immediate commercial success, and in 1927 HG
published AMAZING STORIES ANNUAL, which in turn spawned AMAZING STORIES
QUARTERLY. In 1929, however, his Experimenter Publishing Company was
forced into bankruptcy, almost certainly by Bernarr MACFADDEN, and HG lost
control of the journals he had founded, though he immediately bounced back
by founding another company and starting 4 more magazines: AIR WONDER
DETECTIVE MONTHLY, the first 2 being amalgamated the following year as
WONDER STORIES. His empire declined through the 1930s (though other
projects prospered), with Scientific Detective Monthly (which changed its
name to Amazing Detective Tales) lasting less than a year, WONDER STORIES
QUARTERLY (as Science Wonder Quarterly had become) ceasing publication in
1933, and Wonder Stories being sold in 1936 to become THRILLING WONDER
STORIES. In 1939 he published 3 issues of an early sf COMIC, Superworld
Comics, and in 1953 he published his last sf magazine, SCIENCE FICTION
PLUS, with HG named as editor but with Sam MOSKOWITZ as managing editor;
it ran for 7 issues. A rather different HG publication, Sexology, enjoyed
more lasting success.Opinions vary on the beneficence of HG's influence on
GENRE SF. Moskowitz has termed him the "Father of Science Fiction" (in
"Hugo Gernsback: 'Father of Science Fiction'" in Explorers of the Infinite
[1963]), while Brian W. ALDISS said of his emphasis on supposed scientific
accuracy that it had "the effect of introducing a deadening literalism"
into the field (in Trillion Year Spree by Aldiss and David WINGROVE
[1986]). HG gave the genre a local habitation and a name; but he bestowed
upon his creation a provincial dogmatism and an illiteracy that bedevilled
US sf for years. The Science Fiction Achievement Awards are named the
HUGOS in his honour; and he himself was given a special Hugo in 1960.
[MJE]Other works: Ultimate World (1971).See also: ASTOUNDING

Publishing company. SCIENCE FICTION PLUS.

Pseudonym of UK writer William Oliver Greener (1862-? ) for most of his
work, both fiction and nonfiction, though at least one thriller appeared
under his real name. His first novel of any interest, Rufin's Legacy: A
Theosophical Romance (1892), features a Russian female spy who uses her
astral body nefariously. Phantasms: Original Stories Illustrating
Posthumous Personality and Character (coll 1895) assembles fantasies about
a psychic investigator. The Warstock: A Tale of To-Morrow (1898) is a
genuine sf novel in which a group of brilliant inventors establishes in
Morocco an advanced city-state called Cristalia, seemingly armoured
against invasion. But Germany, using fifth-columnists, takes over, though
without reckoning on the eponymous weapon, a device which randomly
triggers ammunition dumps worldwide. The scientists then reoccupy the city
and prepare to rule the world from their technological meritocracy. [JC]

Pseudonym of US author and scriptwriter Jerrold David Friedman (1944- ),
who was raised in Southern California, gaining a BA in theatre arts there.
His earliest commercial sales were tv scripts, the first of them a well
known STAR TREK episode, "The Trouble with Tribbles" (1967), which became
the subject of one of his two books about the series, The Trouble with
Tribbles (1973), which includes the script plus a nonfiction narrative.
The other, The World of Star Trek (1973; rev and co-credited to "The
Editors of Starlog Magazine" 1984), perceptively analyses the strengths
and weaknesses of the show, and recounts its travails in the world of
network tv; he also wrote one Star Trek tie, The Galactic Whirlpool *
(1980). A contribution to the Star Trek: The Next Generation book
sequence, Encounter at Farpoint * (1987), followed after several years; he
briefly worked on the tv series STAR TREK: THE NEXT GENERATION.DG's first
novel, The Flying Sorcerers (1971) with Larry NIVEN, is a lively attempt
to give a scientific rationale to a variety of incidents - which to the
observers seem like MAGIC - when an explorer is stranded on a primitive
planet. His first solo novel, Space Skimmer (1972), deals with a man's
search for a vanished GALACTIC EMPIRE and its spaceships, described in the
title. Perhaps his best-known work is When Harlie was One (fixup 1972; rev
vt When H.A.R.L.I.E. was One (Release 2.0) 1988), which deals with the
evolution of artificial INTELLIGENCE in a COMPUTER, discussing many of the
problems of life with an air of profundity not wholly justified by the
content (the revised version improves the telling, but does not
significantly sophisticate DG's rendering of AI). With a Finger in my I
(coll 1972) assembles some of his occasionally precious short stories; the
title story (1972) is a fantasy about solipsism and PERCEPTION showing a
strong if slightly undergraduate sense of verbal play. Yesterday's
Children (1972; exp 1980; vt Starhunt 1987) is a SPACE OPERA, with
conflict between a captain and first officer on a starship. The Man who
Folded Himself (1973) deals in jerky, short-sentenced prose with a hero
who meets other versions of himself, doubled through TIME PARADOX, and
makes love to several of them in an orgy of reciprocal narcissism.
Moonstar Odyssey (1977) deals with an extraterrestrial hermaphroditic
society whose members do not have to settle into one sex until after
adolescence. In both books, a superficial obedience to "Californian"
concepts of the free lifestyle revert to more traditional readings of
human morality.In the 1980s - a decade during which he did extensive work
for tv - DG's writings lost some of their freshness, and his dependency on
earlier sf models for inspiration became more burdensome. The War Against
the Chtorr sequence - A Matter for Men (1983; rev 1989), A Day for
Damnation (1984; exp 1989) and A Rage for Revenge (1989), with the first
versions of the first 2 titles assembled as The War Against the Chtorr:
Invasion (omni 1984) - mixes countercultural personal empowerment riffs a
la HEINLEIN with violent action scenes as the worm-like Chtorr continue to
assault Earth, with no end in sight. Other novels, like The Galactic
Whirlpool (1980) and Enemy Mine * (1985) with Barry B. LONGYEAR - the
novelization of ENEMY MINE, a film based on a Longyear story - show a
rapid-fire competence but are not innovative. Chess with a Dragon (1987)
is an amusing but conceptually flimsy juvenile. There is a growing sense
that DG might never write the major novel he once seemed capable of - not
because he has lost the knack, but because he refuses to. [JC]Other works:
Battle for the Planet of the Apes * (1973); Deathbeast (1978); Voyage of
the Star Wolf (1990).As Editor: Several 1970s anthologies with Stephen
GOLDIN (uncredited): Protostars (anth 1971), Generation: An Anthology of
Speculative Fiction (anth 1972), Science Fiction Emphasis 1 (anth 1974),
Alternities (anth 1974) and Ascents of Wonder (anth 1977); Norman Jacobs &
Kerry O'Quinn Present Starlog's Science Fiction Yearbook, Vol 1 (anth
1979) with Dave Truesdale.See also: CLONES; CYBERNETICS; FANTASY; GRAVITY;

(1946- ) US writer and attorney whose remarkable first novel Lords of the
Starship (1967) was published while he was still a student at Kenyon
College. This work, which establishes the dark mood of all his fiction and
is like its immediate successors set in a weary, war-torn FAR-FUTURE
Earth, describes a dilapidated, decadent, centuries-long attempt to
construct an enormous SPACESHIP whose completion would transform the
fortunes of everyone involved and mark a phase of rebirth. The project is,
however, a shambles and a sham, and the novel closes in ENTROPY and
despair. Out of the Mouth of the Dragon (1969) conveys the same mood,
introducing prosthetic weaponry that turns many of his characters
virtually into CYBORGS without making them any more capable of
transforming ancient ways, ancient obsessions. Cultures, weapons, ideas
and their embodiments in doom-ridden characters and decaying cities also
permeate his third novel, The Day Star (1972), and his fourth, The Siege
of Wonder (1976), in which all the themes of his previous books are
wrapped up in the perversion and death of a magical unicorn. MSG then fell
silent for nearly 20 years: Mirror to the Sky (1992)Mirror to the Sky
(1992) - a rare sf examination of the ARTS, in which certain paintings
crafted by visiting ALIENS enforce their vision on human viewers - may
mark, however, his welcome return to active work. [JC]See also: MAGIC;





Film (1957). Clover/Columbia. Dir Fred F. Sears, starring Jeff Morrow,
Mara Corday, Morris Ankrum. Screenplay Samuel Newman, Paul Gangelin. 76
mins. B/w.A giant bird from outer space decides to build a nest on Earth.
It is conveniently protected by an ANTIMATTER shield, so that attempts to
kill it at first prove futile, but eventually the field is nullified by
scientists shooting mu-mesons and all ends happily - though not for the
bird. This is a much-loved terrible film, mainly because of the bird:
quite appallingly designed, it is possibly the most laughter-provoking
creature in the history of MONSTER MOVIES. [JB/PN]


Film (1975). Group 75/Transcentury. Dir Bill Rebane, starring Steve
Brodie, Barbara Hale, Alan Hale, Leslie Parrish. Screenplay Robert Easton,
Richard L. Huff. 76 mins. Colour.Noted by one critic, Michael Weldon, as
the MONSTER MOVIE with the worst special effects since The GIANT CLAW
(1957), this is fondly remembered as the one where the giant spider was
built out of a modified Volkswagen. The spiders, whose eggs are mistaken
for diamonds by a greedy farmer, emerge from a BLACK HOLE (yes) near a
small Midwest town, which they terrorize. The script has wonderfully
highbrow moments. "It all fits - Einstein's general theory of relativity -
everything!" cries Steve Brodie, the tough guy who laconically copes with
the situation. The best spider movie of the period was KINGDOM OF THE
SPIDERS (1977), and the best since then has been ARACHNOPHOBIA (1990).



Working name of prolific, award-winning UK COMIC-strip artist David
Chester Gibbons (1949- ); using a bold, firm line style, he specializes in
the SUPERHERO genre. Born in St Albans, Hertfordshire, he trained as a
surveyor and began his artistic career providing ILLUSTRATIONS and strips
for fanzines. He turned professional in 1973, drawing The Wriggling
Wrecker for the D.C. Thompson comic Wizard. Further strips with an sf
flavour followed until, in 1975, he began work on the Nigerian superhero
Powerman, his monthly 16pp episodes alternating with those by Brian
BOLLAND to produce a fortnightly publication schedule. DG was one of the
initial team of artists on 2,000 AD, drawing Harlem Heroes and Robusters
and co-creating Rogue Trooper with writer Gerry Finley-Day. DG drew a
number of DR WHO episodes for the UK division of MARVEL COMICS, and in
1981 began a long association with the US publisher DC COMICS, drawing The
Creeper, 12 issues of Green Lantern and a SUPERMAN tale called "For the
Man who Has Everything", written by Alan MOORE. His greatest achievement
to date, also written by Moore, has been the phenomenally successful
WATCHMEN (12-vol series 1986-7; graph 1987 US; with additional material
1988 US); this ALTERNATE-WORLD superhero story, rich in semiotics, won a
special category for Best Other Forms in the 1988 Hugo Awards ( HUGO for
discussion of this category). DG's next major project was Give Me Liberty
(graph 1990), written by Frank MILLER. DG has recently begun to establish
himself as a writer with a Superman/Batman team-up (1991), a Batman vs
Predator comic book (1992) and World's Finest (1993), all for DC. [RT]See

(1886-1939) US writer, mostly of war stories; well known as a war
correspondent. The Red Napoleon (1929) is a future- WAR tale featuring a
modern-day Mongol dictator, Karakhan, who conquers much of the world,
miscegenating as he goes in a deliberate onslaught upon the racist White
nations. He is eventually defeated by the USA. In 1941, in Bermudan exile
with the dying Karakhan, Gibbons - who appears as his journalist self
throughout - recounts these events with some sympathy. [JC]See also:

Pseudonym of Joseph Walter Cove (1891-? ), a UK writer whose sf novel,
Late Final (1951), deals with a post-WWIII England. [JC]Other works:
Parable for Lovers (1934).

(? - ) NEW ZEALAND writer whose second novel, The Pepper Leaf (1971), is
a NEAR-FUTURE sf tale set in New Zealand. Fearful of nuclear catastrophe,
a small group of vegetarian nudists expose themselves to survival
conditions, and their cruel interactions, described in a tense, allusive
style, provide a model for, or allegory of, the human condition in
extremis. [JC]

(1936- ) US Skylab astronaut whose sf novel, Reach (1989), set in the
more remote NEAR FUTURE, argues for a continuation of the space programme
via the story of an expedition sent to discover the nature of an ALIEN
lifeform. This proves unfriendly; but the case for human exploration of
our potential domain is presented with commendable clarity. In the Wrong
Hands (1992), set on the 21st century Moon, describes a GENETIC
ENGINEERING initiative gone awry, due to the rather old-fashioned lunacy
of the scientist involved. [JC]


(1897-1985) US newspaper journalist, editor and writer who founded and
ran Tales of Magic and Mystery (1927-8) - where he published his first
piece of genre interest, "The Miracle Man of Benares", in 1927 - as well
as True Strange Stories (1929) for Bernarr MACFADDEN, and FANTASTIC
SCIENCE FICTION (1952); this latter lasted only 2 issues, and is not to be
confused with FANTASTIC, also founded 1952. Variously prolific, he remains
best known under the house name Maxwell Grant - though "pseudonym" would
perhaps be a more accurate term, as WBG wrote almost 300 novels as Grant,
most for the celebrated pulp magazine The Shadow(325 issues 1931-49),
whose hero - originating in a 1930 radio series - is a mysterious
vigilante who often walks by night. WBG wrote most (not all) of these, but
only 25 or so contain sf themes, those later republished as books being
Charge, Monster (1934; 1977), The Silent Death (1978) and The Death Giver
(1978). Other Shadow episodes republished in book form include The Living
Shadow (1933), The Shadow and the Voice of Murder (1940), Return of the
Shadow (1963) as WBG, The Weird Adventures of the Shadow (coll 1966) as
WBG, and (all first published in The Shadow) The Weird Adventures of the
Shadow: Grove of Doom (1933; 1969), The Eyes of the Shadow (1931; 1969),
The Shadow Laughs! (1931; 1969), The Death Tower (1932; 1969), The Ghost
Makers (1932; 1970), Hidden Death (1932; 1970), Gangdom's Doom (1931;
1970), The Black Master (1932; 1974), The Mobsmen on the Spot (1932;
1974), Red Menace (1931; 1975), Silent Seven (1932; 1975), Hands in the
Dark (1932; 1975), Double "Z" (1932; 1975), The Crime Cult (1932; 1975),
The Romanoff Jewels (1932; 1975), The Crime Oracle (1936; 1975), Teeth of
the Dragon (1937; 1975), Kings of Crime (1932; 1976), Shadowed Millions
(1933; 1976), Green Eyes (1932; 1977), The Creeping Death (1933; 1977),
The Shadow's Shadow (1933; 1977), Fingers of Death (1933; 1977), Murder
Trail (1933; 1977), Grey Fist (1934; 1977), Charg, Monster (1934; 1977)
and Zemba (1935; 1977). The Shadow titles published as by WBG include The
Mask of Mephisto and Murder by Magic (coll 1975), A Quarter of Eight and
The Freak Show Murders (coll 1978), Crime Over Casco and The Mother Goose
Murders (coll 1979), The Shadow Scrapbook (coll 1979), Jade Dragon and
House of Ghosts (coll 1981) and The Shadow and the Golden Master (coll of
linked stories 1984). WBG also wrote Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone *
(coll 1963; cut vt Chilling Stories from Rod Serling's The Twilight Zone
1965) and Twilight Zone Revisited * (coll 1964). [JC]

(1948- ) US-born writer, in Canada since 1968, when he moved north after
being rejected by his draft-board. After some time in Toronto - where a
significant proportion of his fellow expatriates had come to Canada in
protest against the Vietnam War - he moved in 1972 to Vancouver, a Pacific
Rim city where attention was uneasily focused upon increasingly dominant
Japan across the waters. (It could be argued that the Vancouver attitude
toward imperial Japan, and to its Hong Kong "sidekick", provides a model
for the numb, colonized acquiescence to a new world order so
characteristic of occidentals in the Neuromancer trilogy which made WG
famous.) WG began publishing sf with "Fragments of a Hologram Rose" for
Unearth in 1977, and by 1983 had produced most of the fiction later
assembled in BURNING CHROME (coll 1986 US); some of these tales, like
"Johnny Mnemonic" (1981) and the 1982 title story, were set in the
Neuromancer universe, and were, therefore, early examples of what would
soon become known as CYBERPUNK (which see for detailed examination of the
movement).WG did not invent cyberpunk, nor has he ever claimed to have
done so. Bruce BETHKE's "Cyberpunk" (1983) supplied the name, and Gardner
DOZOIS, in a 1983 article, defined the movement by applying the term to
works set in COMPUTER-driven, high-tech NEAR-FUTURE venues inhabited by a
slum-bound streetwise citizenry for whom the new world is an environment,
not a project. In terms of traditional US sf, this was heresy, and WG's
enormous success as an sf writer must have seemed an ominous harbinger of
the death of traditional sf. His novels treat traditional sf instruments
and themes as unforegrounded figures in the complex mosaic of urban life;
he shifts the grounds of sf displacement inwards from cyber (as it were)
to punk; the world his novels describe is old, and whether or not it can
be understood - in WG's work it generally cannot - its inhabitants are
consumers, not makers. The essential displacement from which they suffer -
like so many protagonists of Modernist and POSTMODERNIST literature - is
the loss of an integrated self. For the inhabitants of WG's world,
selfhood has emptied itself into the instruments of the world, and in book
after book - like cases of flesh - his characters are found hacking the
wilderness for Cargo.Canadian sf - from A.E. VAN VOGT down through Gordon
R. DICKSON and beyond - has always tended to lock its protagonists into
grey wilderness environments impenetrable to CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH,
where they survive as displaced souls, longing for transcendence. As a
Canadian writer, therefore - through his own displacing act of emigration
- WG was well placed to write the definitive cyberpunk book. All he needed
to add to the new territory he had embraced was - in his remarkably fluent
and attentive prose - gear, brand-names, Japanese corporations and mean
streets. But in the end the void of the wilderness interpenetrates the
things of the world, and generates a sense that they are ultimately vain.
The Neuromancer trilogy - NEUROMANCER (1984 US), Count Zero (1986 UK) and
Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988 UK) - is all about escaping the flesh.The
protagonist of NEUROMANCER - which won the HUGO, NEBULA, and PHILIP K.
DICK AWARDS - is a matrix cowboy or outlaw hired to link a digital version
of his mind into CYBERSPACE itself (cyberspace being a worldwide computer
matrix of information experienced by any plugged-in sentience as an
infinitely complex and chambered VIRTUAL-REALITY labyrinth) and, once
"inside", to steal data. The "outside" world of the book is a near-future
USA (although never named as such) dominated by Japanese corporations, one
of which may be his employer. The plot itself harks back, as does much of
the imagery, to the classic mean-streets California thrillers of Raymond
Chandler (1888-1959) and Ross Macdonald (pseudonym of Kenneth Millar
[1915-1983]); and, true to those models - and to what might be called WG's
Canadian pessimism about changing the world - none of the characters of
NEUROMANCER have anything but an eavesdropping relationship to the true
roots of power. The story eventually moves from Earth into near space,
where complex orbiting arcologies house the AIs which, perhaps, secretly
run the world; but the protagonist does not covertly long to run the world
in their stead. His longing is to transcend the flesh which pulls him back
from the bliss of cyberspace. The second and third volumes of the
sequence, though more sophisticated as novels, inevitably fail to advance
much further - in traditional sf terms-towards working out the
implications of the Neuromancer world, which remains a wilderness. The AIs
of the first volume have suffered a traumatized, cataclysmic coming to
self-awareness, and now haunt cyberspace in the guise of voodoo godlings.
A wide range of characters appears throughout Count Zero and Mona Lisa
Overdrive, but they share an underlying paralysis; and, as a novelist
burdened with the task of creating new tales, WG inevitably pays a price
for his refusal to countenance any normal sf sorting-out of the world.
Hints given at the end of the last volume of a sudden interstellar growth
of perspective singularly fail to convince.Cyberpunk in WG's hands, then,
was an assault on future HISTORY. Neuromancer in particular was treated by
much of its huge readership as a manual for surviving in style. That WG is
uncannily sensitive to manners and idioms may have, for many of his
readers, obscured the underlying bleakness of his vision. After spending
some time writing filmscripts in Hollywood, however, he allowed that
bleakness to come unmistakably to the fore in THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1990
UK) with Bruce STERLING. The book is a sustained work of RECURSIVE SF -
Benjamin DISRAELI and characters from his work appear throughout - a
STEAMPUNK evocation of an ALTERNATE WORLD 19th-century UK dominated by the
supposition that in about 1820 Charles BABBAGE succeeded in his attempt to
construct the title's COMPUTER. The world that explodes into reality as a
consequence of Babbage's triumph is, in THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE, a cruel and
polluted DYSTOPIA, a land dominated by calculation, measurement and
severely "practical" reason. Vast arterial roads ransack a choking London;
huge masonical edifices house the new totalitarian bureaucracy which
operates the Engines; and a conscious AI is a-borning. Though the book is
at points unduly narrow in conception, and congested as a tale, its
ultimate effect is very considerable.Virtual Light (1993), though entirely
competent, is a markedly less ambitious portrait of NEAR FUTURE
California, viewed through the lens of a thriller plot complete with
MCGUFFIN; the vision of the Oakland Bay Bridge transformed into a niche
colony for social rejects and rebels is, however, enthralling. In the
sense that he tells tales involving human choices within
world-encompassing frameworks overwhelming beyond their capacity to
transform, WG could plausibly be seen as a paradigm moralist for the new

(1877-1948) US physiotherapist and PULP-MAGAZINE writer, author of many
stories, most not sf, in Argosy and All-Story Weekly 1914-34. All for His
Country (1914 Cavalier; 1915), which combines plot-material from the
future- WAR genre and from the EDISONADE, pits a young inventor's
radium-powered gravity-defying plane against the treacherous Japanese;
ominously, JUG also accuses Japanese-Americans from California of
betrayal. The Jason Croft or Palos trilogy - Palos of the Dog Star Pack
(1918 All-Story Weekly; cut 1965), The Mouthpiece of Zitu (1919 All-Story
Weekly; cut 1965) and Jason, Son of Jason (1921 Argosy; cut 1966) -
features Croft's adventures on Palos, a planet of Sirius. Derivative of
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Martian stories, these novels are also highly
practical, for Croft triumphs not through his own strength but because of
an encyclopedic knowledge of Earth's technologies of destruction. JUG's
further sf includes a UTOPIA, "In 2112" (1912 Cavalier), written with his
frequent collaborator, the Utah lawyer Junius Smith (1883-1945), and a
number of humorous stories about the eccentric Dr Xenophon Xerxes Zapt.
JUG's sf - tempered as it is by a devout belief in astrology - has dated
and is now of merely historical interest, but for years he was considered
second only to Burroughs as an author of interplanetary romances. [RB/JC]




Working name of Swiss artist and theatre and film designer - but not
illustrator - Hansruedi Giger (1940- ). He began developing his
distinctive style in the early 1970s. Strikingly grotesque, morbid,
necrophile, it draws heavily on the Surreal and the decadent traditions,
his acknowledged influences including Arnold Bocklin (1827-1901),
Hieronymus Bosch (1460-1516), Salvador Dali (1904-1989) and Antonio Gaudi
(1852-1926), and there are clear resemblances also to the paintings of Max
Ernst (1891-1976). It is perhaps from Ernst and Gaudi that he first took
his main trademark, the combination of organic with machine-like forms,
which has been termed "biomechanoid". The first two books of his work were
A Rh+ (1971) and H.R. Giger (1976), but it was the third, H.R. Giger's
Necronomicon (1977; trans 1978 UK; exp 1991) - the title pays appropriate
homage to H.P. LOVECRAFT - which drew the attention of the US and UK
public to his work.Among these readers were the producers of the film
ALIEN (1979), who invited HRG to help in the alien designs. (They had also
heard of his weird 1975 designs for the unmade Jodorowski version of DUNE.
) The spectacular results, done from working drawings subsequently
published as a portfolio, Alien (portfolio 1978), and in H.R. Giger's
Alien (1979; rev vt Giger's Alien Film Design 1989), revolutionized the
look of sf cinema to a degree it would be difficult to overstate; it has
since been much imitated in many films, including SATURN 3 (1980),
LIFEFORCE (1985) and even VIDEODROME (1982), though it is doubtful if HRG
has profited from this. The idea that alien MACHINES might not look like
ours - along with the very idea of the organic machine - was inventive,
and in sf-cinema terms an important step away from anthropomorphism.
(Some, though, would argue that the incorporation into HRG's aliens and
their artefacts of penis and vagina shapes is as anthropomorphic as you
can get.) HRG was unhappy with the execution of his designs for the film
Poltergeist II (1986). Considering the fame of his film work, it is
surprising he has done so little.He continued through the 1980s with very
much the same kind of airbrushed painting in ink and acrylics:
death/sex/machine imagery of staggering banality according to some,
shocking Surrealism according to others; and his seminal influence in the
sf field now seems to have been almost accidental, though it is not the
first time Surrealism has influenced sf. His 1980s work can be seen in
H.R. Giger: N.Y. City (1981 chap), H.R. Giger: Retrospektive, 1964-1984
(1984), Giger's Necronomicon Two (1986),H.R. Giger's Biomechanics (1988;
trans Clara H-richt Frame 1990 US) and ARh+ (1991; text trans Karen
Williams 1992US). [PN]Other works: Portfolios of interest include: Ein
Fressen fur de Psychiater (portfolio 1966); Biomechanoid (portfolio 1969);
Trip- Tychon (portfolio 1970); Passagen (portfolio 1971); Second
Celebration of the Four (portfolio 1977); Erotomechanics (portfolio 1980);
N.Y.City (portfolio1982), not the same as the book.See also: FANTASY;


(1926- ) US writer whose sf novel, Aiki (1986), sets a gladiatorial
martial-arts tale in 21st-century New York. [JC]

(1912- ) UK writer whose first novel, The Landslide (1943), is a
PARALLEL-WORLDS fantasy of some complexity in which primeval eggs, exposed
by the titular slide, begin to hatch. His second, Monkeyface (1948),
movingly explores the familiar territory of the self-aware ape ( APES AND
CAVEMEN). His best-known sf novel, Ratman's Notebooks (1968; vt Willard
1971 US), is fundamentally a horror tale. Ratman conceives a special
relationship with rats, comes precariously to dominate and commune with
them, and leads their vengeful incursions on the world at large; but there
is a comeuppance. The book was filmed as Willard (1971). [JC]


[s] Andrew J. OFFUTT.

[s] Walter GILLINGS.

[s] Eando BINDER.

(1920- ) US teacher and writer whose sf novel, The Liquid Man (1969),
features a scientist and a problem in undesired metamorphosis, the nature
of which is clear from the title. In The Crooked Shamrock (1969), the heir
to the British throne is abducted by an Irish gang, and raised to
adulthood by them before becoming king. [JC]

(1947- ) Australian educational-books editor, critic and from 1969
publisher of a FANZINE (current), SF COMMENTARY, where much of his writing
on sf has appeared. Some of this was reprinted in Philip K. Dick: Electric
Shepherd (critical anth 1975) ed BG, published by Norstrilia Press, a
SMALL PRESS named in honour of Cordwainer SMITH and founded by BG with
Carey Handfield and Rob Gerrand; Norstrilia, now long silent, published
more than 20 books, many of sf relevance. A later fanzine (from 1984) is
The Metaphysical Review, which also carries occasional critical pieces. BG
has received 9 Ditmar AWARDS for fan writing and publishing and 2 William
Atheling Jr Awards for criticism. [PN]See also: AUSTRALIA.

(1932-1993) UK writer best known for her work outside the sf field,
including the esteemed screenplay for Sunday, Bloody Sunday (1971). Her sf
novel, One by One (1965), depicts a NEAR-FUTURE London hit by a
devastating plague. [JC]

(1931- ) US cartoonist and writer who won HUGOS as Best Fan Artist in
1980, 1983, 1984 and 1985; he also won the JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD for Best
New Writer of 1982. As an official in the US Federal Government 1956-82,
serving mainly as a chemist and specification writer, AAG was well
situated to spoof bureaucracy, though his first sf books, the Rosinante
trilogy - The Revolution from Rosinante (1981), Long Shot for Rosinante
(1981) and The Pirates of Rosinante (1982) - significantly stop short of
depicting all forms of government as intrusion. Set on a space station
chafing at bureaucratic interference from faraway Earth, the sequence
amusedly depicts first the successful revolt, then the dawning realization
of the occupants that their COMPUTERS have taken control. The End of the
Empire (1983) features, contrastingly, a protagonist who works to defend a
GALACTIC EMPIRE against a comically conceived LIBERTARIANISM, on the
grounds that too little government is no less damaging than too much.
AAG's second series, the Wizenbeak sequence - Wizenbeak (1986),The Shadow
Shaia (1990 and The Lord of the Troll-Bats (1992) - is fantasy, featuring
a comical wizard who had appeared in cartoon form in previous years. AAG's
books of cartoons, where Wizenbeak can also be found, include The Iron Law
of Bureaucracy (graph coll 1979), Who Says Paranoia Isn't "In" Anymore
(graph coll 1985) and The Waltzing Wizard (graph coll 1990). [JC]

(1912-1979) UK journalist and editor, active in FANDOM from the early
1930s; he published (1937-8) 7 issues of an historic FANZINE,
Scientifiction. This activity led to his editing the first true UK sf
magazine, TALES OF WONDER (1937-42). Immediately after WWII he joined the
author Benson HERBERT to create the Utopian Publications imprint, which
issued sf, fantasy and some soft-core pornography in cheap paperback
format; this included the AMERICAN FICTION and STRANGE TALES series. WG
then edited the 3 issues of FANTASY (1946-7). After its demise he produced
the professional-looking fanzine FANTASY REVIEW (1947-50); when, in 1950,
he was given the editorship of the new professional magazine SCIENCE
FANTASY, the fanzine was incorporated as a section of the first 2 issues.
John CARNELL took over editorship of Science Fantasy with #3 (Winter
1951/2), and WG dropped out of sf activities for some years. He then
produced another fanzine, Cosmos, for 3 issues in 1969, and also appeared
regularly in VISION OF TOMORROW (1969-70) with a series about the HISTORY
OF SF in the UK, and again as a columnist in SCIENCE FICTION MONTHLY
(1974-6), where he also had a column as Thomas Sheridan - the pseudonym
under which he had years earlier published the first of his 3 sf stories,
"The Midget from Mars" for Tales of Wonder in 1938. Another story, "Lost
Planet" (Fantasy 1946), was published as by Geoffrey Giles. [PN]See also:

Pseudonym of US writer Inez Haynes Irwin (1873-1970), whose sf novel,
Angel Island (1914), conveys an almost surreal FEMINIST message with
considerable competence. After five men are shipwrecked on the eponymous
island (in the ROBINSONADE tradition) and tame the beautiful winged women
who inhabit it by clipping their wings and breeding with them, the tale
gradually makes explicit a kind of consciousness of outrage on the part of
the caged beings. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer, mostly of travel books published 1869-93. His sf
novel, The Amphibion's [sic] Voyage (1885), is a tale shaped suspiciously
like a travelogue, but manages to evoke some interest for the eponymous
land-and-sea vehicle, which carries its passengers into encounters with a
sea monster or two. [JC]


(1860-1935) US editor, writer and lecturer, and an important figure in
the history of US FEMINISM. Although by no means negligible, her later
fiction was clearly dedicated to the promulgation of a copious flow of
radical thought. However, her first story, The Yellow Wall Paper (1892 New
England Magazine; 1899 chap) as by Charlotte Perkins Stetson, was long
read as a relatively straightforward tale of horror; it took no
substantial task of decoding for later readers to understand that the
powerful delusional imagery of the tale reflects the intolerable stress
felt by its autobiographical protagonist at being forced to act out the
role of a compliant and sequestrated female. CPG divorced her husband in
1894, after having moved to California; she then spent half a decade
lecturing before remarrying. The rest of her life was productive. She
founded, edited, and wrote almost the entire contents of The Forerunner,
an issues-oriented journal which ran 1909-16; here first appeared many of
the stories assembled decades later as The Yellow Wallpaper and Other
Writings (coll 1989). This volume does not include the book-length
feminist UTOPIA "Moving the Mountain" (1911 The Forerunner), set in 1940
after women have decided that enough is enough and have taken over running
the USA on a basis of humane, socialist equality. More famously, Herland
(1914 The Forerunner; 1979), along with its sequel "With Her in Ourland"
(1916 The Forerunner), depicts an isolated parthenogenetic society 2000
years hence. Three men stumble into this gentle, humorous, wise utopian
venue; one idolatrously reveres women, one is a male chauvinist, and the
third narrates. In the sequel, a woman from Herland visits the USA, which
she finds worthy of very considerable comment. An autobiography, The
Living of Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1935), was published after CPG, aged
75, had discovered she had cancer and committed suicide. [JC]About the
author: To Herland and Beyond: The Life and Work of Charlotte Perkins
Gilman (1990) by Ann J. Lane.See also: POLITICS.

Alfred COPPEL.

Collaborative pseudonym used in Astounding Stories of Super-Science by
Harry BATES and Desmond W. HALL, respectively editor and assistant editor
of that magazine, for the enthusiastically received Hawk Carse series, put
into book form as Space Hawk (1931-2 ASF; fixup 1952). Carse and his Black
assistant, Friday, are intrepid space adventurers dedicated to driving the
Yellow Peril, in the form of the evil Dr Ku Sui, from the spaceways. Bates
later revived the character, without Hall, in "The Return of Hawk Carse"

Charles GILSON.

(1878-1943) UK writer, best known for fantasies like The Cat and the
Curate (1934 US), in which a cat is transformed into a seductive Middle
Eastern lady, and for LOST-WORLD tales like The Lost Island (1910) and, as
by Barbara Gilson, Queen of the Andes (1935). Other novels with sf
elements, generally for a juvenile market, include The Pirate Aeroplane
(1913), The Realm of the Wizard King (1922) and The City of the Sorcerer
(1934). [JC]

(1919- ) Russian-born US editor, writer and translator. She began her
translating career with a version of Mikhail BULGAKOV's "The Fatal Eggs"
for FSF in 1964, and later translated an abridged version of his Master i
Margarita as The Master and Margarita (1967). Other translations include a
collection of stories by Yevgeny ZAMIATIN, The Dragon: Fifteen Stories by
Yevgeny Zamyatin (coll trans from various sources 1967), a new version of
his We (1920; 1972), and a juvenile sf novel by Lydia OBUKHOVA, Lilit
(trans as Daughter of Night 1974). She has edited and translated the
stories for 3 collections of Soviet sf ( RUSSIA; SOVIET UNION): Last Door
to Aiya (anth 1968), The Ultimate Threshold (anth 1970) and The Air of
Mars and Other Stories of Time and Space (juvenile anth 1976). MG also
edited The Fatal Eggs and Other Soviet Satire (anth 1965), which contains
several fantasies. She has written books for very young children. [JC/PN]

(1933-1986) US writer known within the sf field for several competent
film ties: Resurrection * (1980), Gremlins * (1984) ( Joe DANTE),
Explorers * (1985) ( EXPLORERS) and Back to the Future * (1985) ( BACK TO


(1938- ) French artist (now resident in the USA); staggeringly prolific,
remarkably inventive and influential, he is better known in the sf field
as Moebius. With his loose, eloquent line style, JG is considered one of
Europe's major talents, and his work has influenced an entire generation
of fantasy and sf artists. Born in Fontenoy-sous-Bois, near Paris, he
displayed from childhood a love of illustration. His early influences were
classic US COMIC strips and the engravings of Gustave Dore (1833-1883). He
attended the Ecole des Arts Appliques 1954-6, and then wrote and drew a
Western comic strip before being drafted into the French army. On
discharge in 1960 he worked as an assistant to the Belgian comics artist
Joseph Gillain (1914-1980) and later illustrated a series of
encyclopedia-like books. It was at this time that he created the sobriquet
Moebius, which he first attached to a series of dark-humoured comic
strips. In 1963 he met writer Jean-Michel Charlier (1924-1989), and
together they created the Western series Lieutenant Blueberry for the
magazine Pilote; this work was collected in 29 vols (1965-90; 1977-9 UK),
of which 26 were drawn by JG as "Gir".In the late 1960s he began
illustrating, as Moebius, a line of French sf books and magazines and
created a number of groundbreaking sf strips. In 1975 he cofounded the
magazine METAL HURLANT ["Screaming Metal"] with fellow-artist Philippe
DRUILLET and writer Jean-Pierre Dionnet (1947- ). For this magazine he
created Le bandard fou ["The Horny Goof"] (1975), Le garage hermetique de
Jerry Cornelius ["The Airtight Garage of Jerry Cornelius"] (from 1975),
Arzach (1976), The Long Tomorrow (1976), scripted by Dan O'Bannon, and Les
aventures de John Difool ["The Adventures of John Difool"] (1982-9), a
multi-part epic written by film-maker Alejandro Jodorowski: L'Incal noir
["The Dark Incal"] (graph 1982), L'Incal lumiere ["The Bright Incal"]
(coll 1983), Ce qui est en bas ["What's Below"] (graph 1984), Ce qui est
en haut ["What's Above"] (graph 1985), Le cinquieme essence I ["The Fifth
Essence: I"] (graph 1987), Le cinquieme essence II (graph 1988) and Les
mysteres de l'Incal ["The Mysteries of the Incal"] (graph 1989). The Incal
stories have been translated into English as Incal #1 (1988 UK/US), #2
(1988 UK/US) and #3 (1988 UK/US).Keeping track of JG's Moebius material is
a bibliographer's nightmare. Books in French include Gir 30 x 40 (graph
1974), Le bandard fou ["The Horny Goof"] (graph 1975), Arzach (graph
1976), John Watercolor et sa redingote qui tue ["John Watercolor and his
Killer Overcoat"] (graph 1976), L'homme, est il bon? ["Is Man Good?"]
(graph 1977), Cauchemar blanc ["White Nightmare"] (graph 1978), Le garage
hermetique ["The Airtight Garage"] (graph 1979), Tueur des mondes ["World
Killer"] (graph 1979), Moebius 30 x 30 (graph 1979), Double evasion (graph
1981), L'Homme programme ["The Programmed Man"] (graph 1981), Le
disintegre reintegre ["The Disintegrated Reintegrated"] (graph 1982),
Memoire du futur ["Memory of the Future"] (graph 1983), Sur l'etoile
["Upon a Star"] (graph 1983), Venise celeste ["Heavenly Venice"] (graph
1984), L'Univers de Gir ["Gir's Universe"] (graph 1985), Starwatcher
(graph 1986), Le saga du crystal ["Crystal Saga"] (graph 1987), Les
jardins d'Aedena ["The Gardens of Aedena"] (graph 1987), Made in LA (graph
1988), La citadel aveugle ["The Blind Citadel"] (graph 1989), Nineteen
Eighty-eight (graph 1990), Les vacances du Major ["Major's Holiday"]
(graph 1990) and La deesse ["The Goddess"] (graph 1990). Collected works
in English include Moebius 1: Upon a Star (graph coll 1986 US), #2: Arzach
and Other Fantasy Stories (graph coll 1986 US), #3: The Airtight Garage
(graph coll 1987 US), #4: The Long Tomorrow and Other Science Fiction
Stories (graph coll 1988 US), #5: The Gardens of Aedena (graph coll 1988
US), 6: Pharagonesia and Other Strange Stories (graph coll 1988 US), #7:
The Goddess (graph coll 1989 US) and a collection of graphics,
illustrations and sketches under the title The Art of Moebius (graph coll
1989 US).In 1985 JG relocated to Santa Monica, California, and set up
Starwatcher Graphics to publish his posters, graphics and other fine-art
pieces, and to promote himself as a conceptual designer. He illustrated
one two-episode Silver Surfer story, in a surprise team-up with Stan LEE:
Parable (1988-9 US). He also illustrated an ecological story for a special
"Earth Day" issue of Concrete (1991 US). Meanwhile spin-off series in
comic-strip form from his creations such as The Airtight Garage and Incal
have been published as collaborative ventures with other artists and
writers; these contribute, from a fabric of interlocking themes, to the
creation of a Moebius universe. They include The Elsewhere Prince (1990
US), The Man from Ciguri (1990-91 US), The Onyx Overlord (4-issue
comic-book series beginning 1992 US) and Legends of Arzach (6-issue series
of short stories accompanied by colour artwork commissioned from leading
artists in the comics medium, beginning 1992 US).JG has also been
influential in designing for and storyboarding films. Alejandro Jodorowski
hired him in 1976 to storyboard his projected film adaptation of Frank
HERBERT's novel DUNE (fixup 1965), a venture eventually abandoned through
lack of funding. JG designed spacesuits and uniforms for Ridley SCOTT's
ALIEN (1979). He designed the animated feature Les maitres du temps ["The
Time Masters"] (1982) dir Rene Laloux, based on L'orphelin de Perdide
["The Orphan from Perdide"] (1958), the novel by Stefan WUL, and worked on
Disney's TRON (1982) and on Nemo, a Japanese animated film (based on
Winsor MCCAY's Little Nemo in Slumberland), in production in 1992. He
designed the creature for James CAMERON's 1989 film The ABYSS .A French
postage stamp designed by and in honour of JG was issued in 1988.



(1845-1915) US writer whose sf novel, A Thousand Miles an Hour (1913),
might stand as a compendium of misunderstood science; examples are the
concept of an airplane whose vertical screw allows it to remain still
while the world turns, and the notion that gravity stops 40 miles up. [JC]

(vt The Peace Game; vt The Gladiators) Film (1968). Sandrews/New Line.
Dir Peter WATKINS, starring Arthur Pentelow, Frederick Danner, Kenneth Lo,
Bjorn Franzen. Screenplay Nicholas Gosling, Watkins. 105 mins, cut to 91
mins. Colour.Watkins uses his customary cinema-verite approach in this
Swedish film about a NEAR FUTURE in which, as a surrogate for full-scale
war, small teams of soldiers fight it out under the guidance of a
COMPUTER. He generates considerable righteous indignation over this,
rather pointlessly in that such a system does not exist in reality and is
unlikely ever to do so. The battle games are not well staged and the film
lacks the impact of Watkins's other sf films, which include The WAR GAME
(1965), PRIVILEGE (1966) and PUNISHMENT PARK (1971). A very similar theme
was much later used in ROBOT JOX (1990). [JB/PN]



(1928- ) UK writer, chemist and astronomer, Fellow of the Royal Society
of Astronomy, author of popularizing texts in that field and of a large
number of stories and novels in various genres for pulp publishers of the
1950s and 1960s. Like R.L. FANTHORPE - alongside whom he supplied BADGER
BOOKS with most of their sf and fantasy titles - and Dennis HUGHES, he
severely curtailed his production when market conditions changed,
publishing only one sf novel, Project Jove (1971 US), after 1970, although
in about 1990 he began to publish short stories once again. Like his
colleagues, JSG wrote mainly under a range of pseudonyms and house names,
beginning with Satellite B.C. (1952), Time and Space (1952) and Zero Point
(1952), all these titles being collaborations with Arthur ROBERTS, sharing
the house name Rand LE PAGE; JSG's most frequently used personal pseudonym
was A.J. Merak. Though much of his work, either solo or in collaboration,
was hasty and unremarkable, JSG was entirely capable of more memorable
work, especially perhaps in some early stories which showed the influence
of A.E. VAN VOGT. [JC] Other works:As John Adams: When the Gods Came
(1960).As R.L. Bowers: This Second Earth (1967). As Berl CAMERON(house
name): Cosmic Echelon (1952) with Arthur Roberts; Sphero Nova (1952) with
Roberts.As J.B. Dexter: The Time Kings 1958). As Victor LA SALLE (house
name): Dawn of the Half-Gods (1953); Twilight Zone (1954).As Rand Le Page:
See above.As Paul LORRAINE (house name): Zenith-D (1952) with Arthur
Roberts.As John C. Maxwell: The Time Kings (1958).As A.J. Merak: Dark
Andromeda (1954); Dark Conflict (1959); The Dark Millennium (1959); No
Dawn and No Horizon (1959; vt The Frozen Planet 1969 US); Barrier Unknown
(1960); Hydrosphere (1960).As John E. MULLER (house name): Alien (1961);
Day of the Beasts (1961); The Unpossessed (1961).As J.L. Powers: Black
Abyss (1960).As Karl ZEIGFREID (house name): The Uranium Seekers (1953);
Dark Centauri (1954).

(1923- ) Australian writer whose sf novel A Change of Mind (1959 UK)
concerns a hypnotic mind-transference between two men, with much emotional
activity - and melodrama - consequent upon the changeover. GM has also
written a series of nonfiction books, beginning with Windows of the Mind:
The Christos Experiment (1974), describing experiments purporting to
involve a form of psychic TIME TRAVEL a la J.W. DUNNE. [JC]See also:

(? - ) US writer and sf fan, briefly active in the 1930s, and who is now
remembered as the author of The Cavemen of Venus (1932 chap), a story in
pamphlet form which seems to have been the first independent fiction
published by the soon-to-be-active fan press. It was published by Conrad

Wilfred Glassford MCNEILLY.

Film (1971). UMC. Dir Jim McBride, starring Steven Curry, Shelley
Plimpton, Woodrow Chambliss, Garry Goodrow. Screenplay Lorenzo Mans,
Rudolf WURLITZER, McBride. 94 mins. Colour.The film opens with a shot of a
naked man and woman walking hand-in-hand through a dreamlike setting, but
it soon becomes clear that this is not the Garden of Eden but a post-
HOLOCAUST USA. The young couple drift through the shattered debris of
civilization in a search for the mythical city of Metropolis, encountering
other survivors along the way; Randa (Plimpton) dies in childbirth, but
Glen (Curry) continues his quest. Though made independently for very
little money (shot on 16mm and later blown up to 35mm), GAR is more
interesting than most of its kind due to McBride's ingenuity in creating
an evocatively desolate and sometimes beautiful setting out of existing
landscapes; the film is austere but hopeful. McBride has not done much
commercial work, but he did go on to make the excellent thriller The Big
Easy (1986). [JB/PN]

(1896-1981) UK writer, primarily in the fields of social history,
architecture and design. His first sf novel, Tomorrow's Yesterday (1932),
strongly influenced by H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895) and Olaf
STAPLEDON's LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930), is a satirical criticism of
contemporary society as viewed by our successors, a race of cat people who
have mastered TIME TRAVEL. Time manipulation featured prominently in
several of JG's short stories and, through a drug capable of unlocking
ancestral memories, in the novel 99% (1944). His other novels, again with
strong satirical overtones, are chiefly concerned with the effect of new
discoveries on society. In The New Pleasure (1933) a chemical is used to
heighten the sense of smell; in Winter's Youth (1934) a rejuvenation
process adds 30 years to one's life; and in Manna (1940) a fungus that
appeases hunger creates a lethargic population. Tomorrow's Yesterday was
reprinted, with slight revisions, in First One and Twenty (coll 1946),
which also incorporates 10 stories from It Makes a Nice Change (coll
1938). Other fantasy stories appear in Take One a Week (coll 1950).After a
long period away from the field, JG published a series of historical
fantasy novels, Caesar of the Narrow Seas (1969), The Eagles Depart (1973)
and Artorius Rex (1977), which attracted comparison with the works of
Susan COOPER. [JE]Other works: Artifex, or The Future of Craftsmanship
(1926 chap), nonfiction; Sacred Edifice (1937); Slow (1954).About the
author: "The Future Between the Wars: The Speculative Fiction of John
Gloag" by Brian M. STABLEFORD in Foundation (1980).See also: BIOLOGY; END

(1880-? ) UK writer, long resident in France, remembered almost
exclusively for The Orphan of Space (1926), which lamely prefigures C.S.
LEWIS's Ransom trilogy in the conceit that Earth is a diseased planet
barred from the higher spheres. The plot concerns the collaboration of a
kind of spirit of Gaia with the ghost of a long-dead Chinese scientist to
pass the secret of atomic energy on to the protagonists in 1935, so that
they can cleanse the planet of its ailment. Some of RG's other novels were
vanity-published. [JC]Other works: The Coming Invasion (1903 chap); The
Crystal Globe (1922); The Magic Mirror (1923); Burning Sands (1928
France); The Ghastly Dew (1932), a future- WAR tale in which the Channel
Tunnel is a threat; The Egyptian Venus (1946).

(1944- ) US writer whose first publications of interest were nonfiction
studies like The Frankenstein Legend (1973) and The Dracula Book (1975),
and who also wrote filmscripts. His first novel, Bugged (1974), is
fantasy; his second, Spawn (1976 Canada), is an sf tale featuring
intelligent dinosaurs. What seems to have been an extensive interest in
the subject led to the New Adventures of Frankenstein sequence -
Frankenstein Lives Again (1977; exp 1981), Terror of Frankenstein (1977),
Bones of Frankenstein (1977 UK) and Frankenstein Meets Dracula (1978 UK) -
as well as to a further nonfiction title, The Frankenstein Catalog (1984),
a useful bibliographical companion to the subject. DFG has also written a
tie, The Empire Strikes Back * (1980), novelizing The EMPIRE STRIKES BACK
; this text was also published as The Empire Strikes Back: The Illustrated
Edition * (1980) and assembled in The Star Wars Trilogy * (omni 1987)
along with the two other relevant novelizations, by Alan Dean FOSTER
(writing as George LUCAS) and James KAHN. [JC]

(1946- ) UK illustrator and publisher. He graduated from Sheffield
University and went on to postgraduate work in experimental psychology.
With no formal art training, he began illustrating with underground COMIC
strips and became, along with Mal DEAN, the most important illustrator for
NEW WORLDS under the editorship of Michael MOORCOCK. He was designer for
the last few issues, and also for the succeeding paperback book series.
His work shows surprising and inventive contrasts between dark and light
spaces, and a striking sense of design. He has also done book covers. In
the 1980s he set up a SMALL PRESS in London, Xanadu Publishing, which
produced Science Fiction: The 100 Best Novels (1985) by David PRINGLE and
other genre-related titles. [PN]

(1929- ) UK journalist and writer whose sf novels - both routine pulp
productions typical of UK publishing at the time - are Search the Dark
Stars (1961), under the BADGER BOOKS house name John E. MULLER, and Plan
for Conquest (1963). Though he preferred sf, AAG wrote mostly Westerns.

(1898-1976) US editor who, as an employee of the Frank A. MUNSEY chain of
PULP MAGAZINES, was made editor in 1939 of the new magazine FAMOUS
FANTASTIC MYSTERIES. She edited all 81 issues of the magazine, which
eventually ceased publication in 1953, as well as two companion magazines:
FANTASTIC NOVELS, published 1940-41 and again 1948-51, and A. MERRITT'S
FANTASY MAGAZINE, published 1949-50. All three were devoted to reprinting
old stories. [MJE]

US specialist SMALL PRESS founded in 1948 by Martin GREENBERG and David
A. KYLE. It was the most eminent of the fan publishers of sf, and produced
more than 50 books, surviving into the early 1960s. It published many of
the major sf authors, and in some cases, as with Robert E. HOWARD's Conan
series (published in 6 books 1950-55) and Isaac ASIMOV's Foundation series
(published in 3 books 1951-3), was responsible for the manner in which
their stories were collected into book form. Other authors included Arthur
C. CLARKE, Robert A. HEINLEIN and C.L. MOORE. An associated imprint was
Greenberg: Publisher, and in 1958 GP bought out the stock of FANTASY
PRESS. Most of GP's books were hardcover, but some saw simultaneous
softcover editions. GP was important in the transitional period between
GENRE SF as a magazine phenomenon and its arrival in mass-market book

(1933- ) US Air Force officer, technical writer, and author of a
borderline-sf novel, Condition Green: Tokyo (1967). His first published sf
was "Master of None" (ASF 1962). Asimov Analyzed (1972), published by
MIRAGE PRESS, is perhaps too respectful toward its subject, and is now out
of date. [PN]

(1881-? ) UK writer of several light novels, the first of which, Amazing
Spectacles (1931), boasts some sf content: a pair of spectacles allows its
wearer to see through clothing. [JC]Other works: Keep it Dark! (1932).

(1874-1936) US writer in whose sf novel, The Man who Ended War (1908),
the inventor of a radioactive metal-disintegrating beam (a nuclear weapon
of sorts, probably the first in world literature) threatens to destroy the
world's warships, one by one, if the great powers refuse to disarm. They
resist and he carries out his threat, finally killing himself with his own
beam, thereby protecting the secret of its manufacture. [JC]Other works:
Dave Morrell's Battery (1912).

(1949- ) Canadian writer whose sf, mostly aimed at the young-adult
market, includes The Vandarian Incident (1981), Alien War Games (1984),
The Last War (1986) - a post- HOLOCAUST tale - More than Weird (1987) and
I Spent my Summer Vacation Kidnapped into Space (1990 US). To date none
has markedly striven to stand out from the routine. [JC]

The word "God" (or "Gods") is one of the commonest of all nouns in sf
story and novel titles. Although this frequency is partly fuelled by the
interest in RELIGION that has characterized sf from its earliest days, we
must seek further to explain the sheer scale of the phenomenon.The sf
writer is a creator of imaginary worlds; in that sense his activity is
godlike. It is, then, natural that he or she should especially enjoy
fantasies (some might say delusions of grandeur) about superbeings with
the ability to create and manipulate whole worlds. But it is not only
power fantasies that feed into sf stories about gods; just as important
are fantasies of impotence (sf's fascination with the uses of power
extending as often to the manipulated as to the manipulators) in which we
ourselves are the puppets of (or have even been created by) godlike
beings. The idea that we are property - a favourite notion of Charles
FORT's - feeds strongly into sf tales of PARANOIA, which are often stories
of gods to whom we are subject; one of the commonest forms of METAPHYSICS
in sf is to ask whether the universe is wholly arbitrary, or whether its
patterns of meaning are somehow planned (though not by us), which brings
us full circle back to religion again.A particularly common form of the
"we are property" story tale is the retelling of the story of ADAM AND EVE
(which see for examples) in terms of what Brian W. ALDISS has termed
"Shaggy God" stories: recastings of biblical myth into an sf framework. A
common variant is that in which some sort of alien power or god seeds
Earth with mankind (Adam and Eve in the first instance), or transmutes the
existing ape-people, as in the film 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, where the
alien/god takes the form of a black monolith. Such stories were given a
new lease of life during the 1970s and early 1980s by the enormous
popularity of PSEUDO-SCIENCE books by Erich VON DANIKEN, who saw ancient
alien astronauts as having visited Earth eons ago, bearing technological
gifts, and now remembered in race memory as gods. The modern sf version of
this motif has strange, enormous alien artefacts ( BIG DUMB OBJECTS) made
- often in space - by a now forgotten race of alien Builders for their own
godlike purposes, but seeming to us like incomprehensible sacred
relics.Although sf analogues to the One God are comparatively rare in
GENRE SF, even in its early days, quite a few works of earlier borderline
sf consider the nature of the Christian God. Marie CORELLI apparently
considered religious experience to be electric in nature, and in A Romance
of Two Worlds (1886; rev 1887) postulated a God who manifests himself
electrically. In A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS (1920), David LINDSAY created
analogues of the more conventional Christian and Jewish images of God,
only to dismiss them in every case as false and cheap in a universe where
only pain and personal striving are meaningful. (Analogues of Christ are
very much more common in sf than those of God the Father, and are
discussed under MESSIAHS.)God-stories in sf are nearly always
rationalized, seldom mystical. Many stories are based on the notion that a
highly advanced society might seem godlike to a more primitive one, and in
many tales of COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS the narrative turns on the
difficulties and responsibilities of being seen in this light; an example
is Trudno byt' bogom (1964; trans as Hard to be a God 1973) by the
brothers STRUGATSKI. Conversely, other stories present humans as
confronted by some form of galactic intelligence which is so high in the
order of life as to seem godlike. A very early work by Clifford D. SIMAK,
The Creator (1935; 1946), features a world-creating alien; the same
author's A Choice of Gods (1972) proposes a godlike galactic principle.
Eric Frank RUSSELL's "Hobbyist" (1947) envisages a god who created life in
the Galaxy for mere aesthetic pleasure. A benevolent being does the same
thing in Olaf STAPLEDON's STAR MAKER (1937) in an altogether more serious
treatment of the theme; like several sf writers Stapledon wished to
dispense with the anthropomorphic aspects of Christianity while preserving
a sense of cosmic meaning and pattern. Not all galactic intelligences are
benevolent; James TIPTREE Jr has a godlike galaxy-destroyer in Up the
Walls of the World (1978). Arthur C. CLARKE proposes a ravening "mad mind"
in The City and the Stars (1948; exp 1956), but that was created by
Man.The Clarke novel raises an interesting notion that recurs quite often,
in many forms, from the technological to the quasi-mystical: that a lower
form of life might be able to create a higher. A number of stories concern
computers that attain godlike powers (see COMPUTERS for a list), sometimes
alone and sometimes through a transcendental fusion with their operators,
as in Catchworld (1975) by Chris BOYCE. A recent example of the
computer-god story on an epic scale is Dan SIMMONS's 2-vol Hyperion Cantos
sequence - HYPERION (1989) and The Fall of Hyperion (1990) - in which
human-created AI networks become the secret manipulators of all things,
among their tools being other god-avatars (including the paingod Shrike);
the books' titles (and structures) reflect Keats's famous poems about the
fall of the old gods and the rise of the new. Indeed the Hyperion sequence
became overnight the definitive "gods in sf" story, playing almost every
imaginable variant on the theme.More metaphysical methods of god-creation
are just as common. A.E. VAN VOGT, whose career has largely been devoted
to creating SUPERMAN figures, devised the ultimate (though not the most
interesting) variant in The Book of Ptath (1943; 1947; vt Two Hundred
Million A.D. 1964; vt Ptath 1976), in which a god is created through the
force of his followers' prayers, his power being proportional to their
number - a vision which governs the most serious of Terry PRATCHETT's
Discworld novels, Small Gods (1992). Gods are created in the flesh in
Philip Jose FARMER's Night of Light (1957; exp 1966) through the
transcendental union of very good (or very bad) men once every seven
years, when the local sun emits a mysterious radiation. In Frank HERBERT's
The God Makers (1972) humans deliberately create a god using a blend of
mystical, psychological and technological means. In this case Herbert's
writing was not equal to his theme; and, indeed, god-stories generally
meet severe literary problems in attempting to render transcendental
experience through GENRE-SF stereotypes. One of the most interesting
variants on the theme of the artificially created god is found in Philip
K. DICK's A Maze of Death (1970), in which a series of mystifying false
realities are created, ultimately involving salvation through a godlike
Intercessor; only late in the novel is it revealed that the realities and
their god are all part of a construct imposed by the computer of a
crippled starship.The focus of interest in most sf god-stories is,
paradoxically, not religious, though, in the case of Dick and some others,
metaphysical questions about reality are certainly raised. More common are
god-stories about the exercise of power or the burden of responsibility,
or both. The theme is an old one, for the work of the SCIENTIST has been
seen by many as a usurpation of powers that are properly God's; such is
the case in Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein (1818; rev 1831), where a
scientist creates life but cannot create a soul to go with it. A number of
variants have been sardonic. James Branch CABELL features several
demiurges (world-makers) in his Poictesme fantasies - notably The Silver
Stallion (1926), where Creation occurs through the boredom of a god whose
cosmic perspective leads readily to a detachment seen by its victims as
sadistic. This image of less-than-perfect god-creators became almost a
CLICHE in genre sf. Robert SHECKLEY, for example, has often proposed
rather harassed and incompetent gods, overworked and put upon, as in
Dimension of Miracles (1968), and Douglas ADAMS echoed this in his Hitch
Hikers' Guide to the Galaxy books. More seriously, in "Microcosmic God"
(1941) Theodore STURGEON has an irresponsible scientist playing god to a
miniature world, whose inhabitants he cruelly goads into accelerated
technological development. Ursula K. LE GUIN examines the metaphysical
aspects of the fallible-god theme, in a manner reminiscent of Dick's work,
in The Lathe of Heaven (1971). All these works emphasize questions of
responsibility.The "delusions of grandeur" aspect of god stories became,
starting in the 1960s, the speciality of two very notable sf writers:
Philip Jose Farmer and Roger ZELAZNY. Zelazny's "gods" are often, in fact,
technologically advanced superhumans, who for not always explained reasons
are able to take on "aspects" of godhood, often analogous to those of the
gods of legend; the Greek myths in THIS IMMORTAL (1966), the Hindu
pantheon in LORD OF LIGHT (1967) and the Egyptian pantheon in Creatures of
Light and Darkness (1969). His Isle of the Dead (1969) features a feud
between gods, and his Amber series features reality changes brought about
by quasi-gods in worlds which are constantly changing copies of some
Platonic original, beyond which some more ultimate god-figure might be
hidden. Many (if not most) of Farmer's books deal with gods, notably the
two series set on artificial worlds: the Tierworld series and the
Riverworld series. The latter series is the archetype of the "we are
property" theme, in which resuscitated humans are the playthings of the
gods, and the former emphasizes the all-too-human qualities of the gods
that do the manipulating. Artificial worlds of this type can usefully be
called POCKET UNIVERSES (which see for further examples), and have become
an sf staple. Farmer and Zelazny regularly and ironically undercut their
god-themes with the use of a colloquial and streetwise tone, juxtaposing
the sublime with the ridiculous, and this habit has permeated many
subsequent examples of the pocket-universe novel. Two writers who have
adopted this sort of tone in pocket-universe stories, in which
protagonists are manipulated by god figures like pieces on a games board
(or perhaps are gods without knowing it), are Piers ANTHONY (sometimes)
and Jack L. CHALKER, the latter so devoted to the theme that it embraces
almost the whole of his massive output.One pocket-universe variant is the
novel set in a VIRTUAL REALITY (which see for examples) generated by human
or artificial intelligences. In the last two books of his Neuromancer
trilogy (1986-88) William GIBSON has the virtual reality of CYBERSPACE
actually occupied by gods within the machine itself, these taking the form
of voodoo deities. (The sf voodoo theme, in which archetypal aspects of
human behaviour are incarnate - somewhere in the hindbrain? - as gods, may
well become a new cliche, one of its more interesting manifestations being
in Greg BEAR's Queen of Angels [1990].)Philip K. Dick's obsession with
godhood runs through much of his work, and indeed entered his life. Our
Friends from Frolix 8 (1970) and GALACTIC POT-HEALER (1969) both feature
alien quasi-gods and their effect on humans. The Three Stigmata of Palmer
Eldritch (1965), as the title suggests, is about a god-being, once a
businessman but now inhuman and metallic, who is able to bring about
menacing reality-changes that seem almost to be beyond good and evil.
Dick's nightmares of ordinary people being cosmically manipulated carry an
emotional charge much more intense than genre sf is normally able to
produce. Towards the end of his career, theology became his over-riding
theme to an extravagant degree, as in The Divine Invasion (1982).Much more
straightforward gods appear in that small group of books whose genesis
goes back to the idea in medieval astrology that each of the planets has a
tutelary spirit. Such is the case in C.S. LEWIS's trilogy about Ransom,
whose inspiration is directly Christian. The aliens in the novella "If the
Stars are Gods" (1974), the title story of the fixup novel of the same
name (1977) by Gordon EKLUND and Gregory BENFORD, believe that the
universe is controlled by gods located in suns (an idea to be found in
William Blake's poetry); the amusing Dogsbody (1975) by Diana Wynne JONES
is another to make use of the notion. A more sciencefictional version of
the same theme is in the living stars of Frank Herbert's Whipping Star
(1970) and its sequel The Dosadi Experiment (1977). Indeed Herbert is,
like Dick, a writer for whom godlike figures are the central theme in a
majority of his work, most celebratedly in the figures of Paul Atreides
(something of a maimed god) in the Dune Messiah (1969) and his son Leto,
who is transformed in Children of Dune (1976) and further in God-Emperor
of Dune (1981).Further sf god-novels of note include (some at the fantasy
end of the spectrum): The Man who was Thursday: A Nightmare (1908) by G.K.
CHESTERTON, in which a recruiter of secret agents turns out to be God; The
Circus of Dr Lao (1935) by Charles FINNEY, in which demigods are caged in
a circus; most novels by Thomas Burnett SWANN and (though sometimes
obscurely) most novels by Gene WOLFE, including There are Doors (1988);
Harlan ELLISON's Deathbird Stories: A Pantheon of Modern Gods (coll 1975;
rev 1984); STRATA (1981) by Terry Pratchett, as well as his Discworld
sequence; Courtship Rite (1982) by Donald KINGSBURY; Winterking (1984) by
Paul HAZEL; Planet of Whispers (1984) by James Patrick KELLY, in which
whispers from the right side of the brain are interpreted as the voice of
God; Waiting for the Galactic Bus (1988) by Parke GODWIN, in which aliens
take the roles of God and the Devil; The Ring (1988) by Daniel Keys MORAN,
a Wagner-pastiche in which the gods are genetically engineered
superbeings; Neverness (1988) by David ZINDELL, which has a godlike entity
whose being is made up of many star systems and who can be reached only by
solving mathematical theorems; Rats and Gargoyles (1990) by Mary GENTLE;
The Werewolves of London (1990) by Brian M. STABLEFORD; and The Face of
the Waters (1991) by Robert SILVERBERG (who has written earlier
god-novels, too), in which God is a planetary consciousness.Gods are
comparatively rare in sf CINEMA, two exceptions being the appalling RED
PLANET MARS (1952), where God turns out to be real and in charge of Mars,
and GOD TOLD ME TO (1976; vt Demon), where God the son is reincarnated as
a hermaphrodite who tells his subjects to commit mass murder.The concept
of demons and devils is equally common in sf, but usually at a quite
trivial level: they tend, as in non-horror FANTASY generally, to be seen
simply as frightening and malicious entities derived from medieval
Christian ideas of Hell, and are quite often played for laughs. There are
many demonology stories with sf elements, such as the time-warping demon
in Anthony BOUCHER's "Snulbug" (1941) and the other-dimensional alien
blood-drinker in Henry KUTTNER's "Call Him Demon" (1946). Norvell W.
PAGE's "But without Horns" (1940) uses demonic imagery in a story of a
telepathic MUTANT. Demons proper often appear in SWORD AND SORCERY;
demonic creatures of darkness were all in a day's work to Robert E.
HOWARD's Conan. Particularly unpleasant aliens are often given demonic
form (sometimes with talk about racial memory) in genre-sf stories, as in
van Vogt's second published story, "Discord in Scarlet" (1939; in The
Voyage of the Space Beagle fixup 1950) - which may have been the
(unacknowledged) source of the film ALIEN - and Keith LAUMER's A Plague of
Demons (1965), both truly nasty creations. A famous twist on the theme is
found in Arthur C. Clarke's Childhood's End (1950; exp 1953), in which
mankind is confronted by aliens shaped exactly like the Devil (racial
precognition of their arrival explains his bat-winged image in Christian
mythology) but turn out to have mournfully paternalistic natures. Several
sf-oriented fantasies by HARD-SF writers have imagined that Hell and its
demons are real, and created a kind of quasi-scientific rationale for
them. An early example is Robert A. HEINLEIN's "The Devil Makes the Law"
(1940; with vt as 2nd title story of Waldo and Magic, Inc. coll 1950);
more recent examples are Operation Chaos (1956-9 FSF; fixup 1971) by Poul
ANDERSON and the DANTE ALIGHIERI pastiche Inferno (1975) by Larry NIVEN
and Jerry POURNELLE. Demons are, of course, by no means peculiar to
Christianity, though in some other mythologies they are hardly to be
distinguished from malign or death-dealing gods, as in the demonic
green-eyed boy god who haunts the degenerate CYBERPUNK future of Elizabeth
HAND's Winterlong (1990).The strong prevalence of god (and devil) themes
in sf strongly suggests that, as a genre, sf is not quite the hard-headed,
extrapolative literature its proponents sometimes claim. On the other
hand, at a time when many actual physicists publish books attempting to
reconcile COSMOLOGY or quantum mechanics with the idea of God, it is
hardly surprising if sf writers do the same. [PN]See also: GOTHIC SF;

(vt Demon) Film (1976). Larco. Prod and dir Larry Cohen, starring Tony Lo
Bianco, Deborah Raffin, Sandy Dennis, Richard Lynch. Screenplay Cohen. 89
mins. Colour.It is as well that Larry COHEN has his own production
company, Larco, since it is impossible to imagine any other company taking
on so eccentric a project. This is perhaps the most baroque sf movie ever
made. A devout Catholic detective (Lo Bianco) investigates separate
instances of mass murder linked by the assassins' confessions that God had
told them to do it. Another link is the enigmatic Bernard (Lynch),
revealed only at the end to be the hermaphroditic product of a virgin
birth - he has a vagina - fathered by a sort of cross between an alien
from a flying saucer ( UFOS) and a pentecostal fire. Now a MESSIAH, he is
responsible for the various murders, having used PSI POWERS to programme
the murderers. He offers to bear a child to the (childless) detective, who
has only recently learned, to his dismay, that he himself is also the
product of an alien-fathered virgin birth. Other directors faced with this
bizarre material would have concentrated on the monstrous Bernard; Cohen
typically turns it around into a study of the detective's feelings of
religious guilt. For all its sophisticated religious symbolism, the film
is structured as if it were a conventional policier. [PN]See also: CINEMA;

(1562-1633) English bishop and writer, most noted for his striking
description of a lunar UTOPIA in the posthumously and anonymously
published The Man in the Moone, or A Discourse of a Voyage Thither by
Domingo Gonsales, the Speedy Messenger (1638). The flight to the
low-gravity MOON, accomplished in a flying machine drawn by "gansas" (wild
geese) who winter there, is described with some realism; FG cautiously
allows that Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) may have been right in some of
his theories. (Domingo Gonsales reappears as a character in sf in work by
CYRANO DE BERGERAC.) FG's book was reprinted many times in the following
centuries - apparently often cut - and was perhaps the most influential
work of PROTO SCIENCE FICTION. It is available in The Man in the Moone: An
Anthology of Antique Science Fiction (anth 1971) ed Faith K. Pizor and T.
Allan Comp. [PN]See also: FANTASTIC VOYAGES.


(1929- ) US writer who began publishing work of genre interest with
"Unsigned Original" for Brother Theodore's Chamber of Horrors (anth 1977)
ed Marvin KAYE "and Brother Theodore". PG has since been more or less
equally associated with fantasy and sf, though most of the stories
assembled in The Fire when it Comes (coll 1984) are the former, the title
novella winning a 1982 World Fantasy Award. As an sf writer, PG remains
best known for the first two volumes of the Masters of Solitude sequence,
both with Marvin Kaye: Masters of Solitude (1978) and Wintermind (1982); a
projected third volume has yet to appear. Set in a post- HOLOCAUST USA,
the first volume depicts a conflict between rural followers of a diseased
mutant form of Christianity and a city in which a science-based worldview
is encapsulated; in the second, a personal drama and an interesting
half-breed protagonist intensify the grain of narrative, but peculiarly
diminish the sense, given off by the earlier book, of a large sf occasion.
A Cold Blue Light (1983), also with Kaye (whom see for the sequel), is a
ghost story which confusingly mixes sf and supernatural rationales. PG's
second sf sequence, written solo, the Snake Oil series - Waiting for the
Galactic Bus (1988), The Snake Oil Wars, or Scheherazade Ginzberg Strikes
Again (1989) - is an erratically amusing but ultimately very
dark-complected SATIRE on RELIGION and US society at large, refracted
through the behaviour of the two ALIENS who were responsible for breeding
Homo sapiens in the first place, and have now taken on the roles of God
and Devil; the assault on Christian fundamentalism is explicit. Though a
writer whose flamboyance sometimes unhinges his plots, PG remains a figure
whose relative obscurity is fully undeserved. [JC]Other works: The
Firelord Arthurian fantasy sequence, comprising Firelord (1980), Beloved
Exile (1984) and The Last Rainbow (1985); A Memory of Lions (1983),
associational; A Truce with Time (1988), contemporary fantasy; Invitation
to Camelot (anth 1988); Sherwood (1991) and Robin and the King (1993), two
Robin Hood fantasies.See also: GODS AND DEMONS.

Working name of US writer Thomas William Godwin (1915-1980), whose life
and career were afflicted by disease and misfortune: family tragedies
caused him to leave school after third grade, kyphosis misshaped his spine
and truncated his military career, and he was an alcoholic. He published
the first of approximately 30 sf stories, "The Gulf Between", in ASF in
1953, and soon after wrote his most famous tale, "The Cold Equations"
(1954), in which a girl stowaway on a precisely payloaded spaceship must
be jettisoned by the one-man crew because to transport her extra mass
would require more fuel than the starship carries, so making disaster
inevitable and dooming also the colony to which the ship is heading. TG's
first two novels, The Survivors (1958; vt Space Prison 1960) and its
sequel The Space Barbarians (1964), tell of the abandoned human survivors
of an alien prison planet who wait 200 years for revenge, then undergo
SPACE-OPERA adventures involving a demoralized Earth and telepathic allies
but ultimately demonstrating - in the approved ASF fashion - humanity's
inextinguishable spirit. A similar bias governs Beyond Another Sun (1971),
an anthropological sf novel in which aliens observe Man on another planet.
TG wrote relatively little, and almost always within the expansionist
tradition fostered by John W. CAMPBELL. What he did write, however,
exhibited a fine clarity of conception and considerable narrative verve,
though his characterizations were sometimes sentimental. [JC]About the
author: "Tom Godwin: A Personal Memory" (1990) by Diane Godwin Sullivan,

The anglicized version of GOJIRA.

Film (1954). Ivan Tors/United Artists. Dir and ed Herbert L. Strock,
starring Richard Egan, Constance Dowling, Herbert Marshall. Screenplay Tom
Taggart, from a story by Tors. 85 mins. 3-D. Colour.In this slow-moving
film, originally in 3-D, experiments are being carried out on human
subjects in a secret underground laboratory to determine whether manned
space flight is possible. Various pieces of equipment start to behave in a
lethal fashion: a man loses his life in a centrifuge, another is frozen to
death in a high-altitude chamber, a third is killed by high-frequency
sound. Finally two experimental ROBOTS, Gog and Magog, go berserk. These
accidents turn out to be the work of a foreign power which has taken over
the lab's COMPUTER by means of instructions transmitted from a high-flying
aircraft. The film's style is similar to that of the tv series SCIENCE
FICTION THEATRE (1955-7), also produced by Tors. [JB/PN]



(vt Godzilla, King of the Monsters; vt Godzilla) Film (1954 Japan; exp
with new footage 1956 US). Toho/Embassy. Dir Inoshiro Honda, starring
Takashi Shimura, Akira Takarada, Akihiko Hirata (and Raymond Burr in US
version). Screenplay Takeo Murata, Honda, based on a story by Shigeru
Kayama. 98 mins cut to 81 mins for US release. B/w.This was the first of a
long series of Japanese ( JAPAN) films featuring Gojira (anglicized as
Godzilla), a 400ft (120m) amphibious dinosaur that breathes fire; the name
is a portmanteau word from "gorilla" and "kujira" ["whale"]. The film was
bought by a US company which released it internationally in 1956 as
Godzilla, King of the Monsters (vt Godzilla), replacing segments featuring
a Japanese reporter by footage starring Raymond Burr. This first Gojira
film was basically a conventional MONSTER MOVIE (nuclear radiation revives
a prehistoric monster in the Pacific Ocean and it proceeds to devastate
Tokyo), but over the years the sequels have become increasingly esoteric,
not to say silly. Originally Toho Studio's special effects (supervised
until his death in 1970 by Eiji Tsuburaya) for the Gojira series were
fairly impressive, but they became more perfunctory. Unlike Willis H.
O'BRIEN's and Ray HARRYHAUSEN's monsters - achieved with stop-motion
animation of puppets - Gojira was created using either a man in a suit or
small mechanized models.Between Gojira and GOJIRA 1985 (1985) there were
14 other Gojira films: Gigantis (1955; vt Gojira No Gyakushu) released in
English as Gigantis the Fire Monster (1959; vt Godzilla Raids Again; vt
The Return of Godzilla), with the monster's name changed; King Kong Tai
Gojira (1962), released in English as King Kong vs. Godzilla, very
successful financially; Mosura Tai Gojira (1964; vt Gojira Tai Mothra),
released in English as Godzilla vs. The Thing (vt Godzilla vs. Mothra),
featuring the likeable giant moth from MOSURA (1961) and thought by some
to be the best of the series; Kaiju Daisenso (1965), released in English
as Invasion of Astro-Monster (vt Battle of the Astros; vt Monster Zero; vt
Invasion of Planet X), in which Gojira and RADON for the first time are
weapons of rather than threateners of Earth; Ghidorah Sandai Kaiju Chikyu
Saidai No Kessan (1965; vt Chikyu Saidai No Kessan), released in English
as Ghidrah, the Three-Headed Monster, in which Gojira, Radon and Mosura
defend Earth from the nastiest of Toho's monsters, previously introduced
in Kaiju Daisenso; Nankai No Daiketto (1966), dir Jun Fukuda, released in
English as Ebirah, Horror of the Deep (vt Godzilla vs. the Sea-Monster),
in which giant crab Ebirah is defeated, the first of the series not to be
directed by Honda; Gojira No Musuko (1967), dir Fukuda, released in
English as Son of Godzilla, a comical children's film; Kaiju Soshingeki
(1968), dir Honda, released in English as Destroy All Monsters (vt
Operation Monsterland; vt The March of the Monsters), in which all 11 Toho
monsters to date are feebly on display; Oru Kaiju Daishingeki (1969), dir
Honda, released in English as Godzilla's Revenge, too much a rerun of old
footage; Gojira Tai Hedora (1971), dir Yoshimitsu Banno, released in
English as Godzilla vs. The Smog Monster (vt Godzilla Versus Hedora), in
which the emphasis changes from anti-nuclear-weaponry-and-radiation to
anti-pollution, and Gojira has become an undignified, friendly buffoon;
Gojira Tai Gaigan (1972), dir Fukuda, released in English as War of the
Monsters (vt Godzilla on Monster Island), in which pollution-ridden aliens
try to take over Earth; Gojira Tai Megaron (1973), dir Fukuda, released in
English as Godzilla vs. Megalon, in which Megalon is a giant cockroach;
Gojira Tai Mekagojira (1974), dir Fukuda, released in English as Godzilla
vs. the Bionic Monster (vt Godzilla vs. the Cosmic Monster), in which
Gojira battles his alien-controlled cyborg double; Mekagojira No Gyakushu
(1975), dir Honda to celebrate Gojira's 20th birthday, released in English
as Terror of Mechagodzilla (vt The Escape of Megagodzilla; vt Monsters
from the Unknown Planet), a partial return to form, in which aliens again
use bad monsters in an invasion of Earth fought off by good monsters.

(vt Godzilla 1985) Film (1985). Toho/New World. Dir Kohji Hashimoto, R.J.
Kizer, starring Raymond Burr (in US version), Keiju Kobayashi, Ken Tanaka.
Screenplay Shuichi Nagahara, Lisa Tomei, from a story by Tomoyuki Tanaka.
120 mins, cut to 91 mins USA and 87 mins UK. Colour.The original
screenplay from GOJIRA (1954) is not credited, but this is effectively a
remake of the first film; although it purports to be a sequel, it ignores
the other 14 sequels as if they had never happened. Again the radioactive
giant dinosaur attacks ships, then destroys Tokyo. Again footage starring
Burr as a reporter is spliced in for the US market (the US/UK versions are
half an hour shorter than the Japanese). The plotting is dire; its main
genuflection to modernity is the Japanese opposition to US and Russian
insistence that Gojira should be nuked. The dialogue and characterization
of this MONSTER MOVIE are laughable; but the special effects are better
than the first time around. [PN]

(vt L'Or) Film (1934). UFA. Dir Karl Hartl, starring Hans Albers,
Friedrich Kayssler, Lien Deyers, Michael Bohnen, Brigitte Helm. Screenplay
Rolf E. Vanloo. 120 mins. B/w.This German film was made by much the same
team that had made F.P.1 ANTWORTET NICHT two years earlier, but is more
spectacular and also more nationalistic. German scientists are hired by a
megalomaniac Scottish tycoon who wishes to build a nuclear reactor to
transmute base metal into gold. The ethics of the heroes eventually
prevail, and the successful prototype is destroyed. The laboratory
sequences, with dazzling electrical effects, are impressive, but the film
as a whole is somewhat leaden.A French-language version, L'or, dir Serge
de Poligny, was made at the same time with a different cast, though
Brigitte Helm, the love interest, appeared in both. [JB/PN]

(1914- ) Canadian-born writer and editor, in the USA from an early age,
though retaining dual nationality. HLG began his sf career with several
sales to Astounding Stories in the mid-1930s, the first being "Inflexure"
(1934). At that time he wrote under the pseudonyms Clyde Crane Campbell
and Leigh Keith, a gambit necessitated, he has said, by antisemitism on
the part of the publishers. After a hiatus, he returned to the magazine
under his own name with "A Matter of Form" (1938), becoming a regular
contributor to UNKNOWN with such stories as "Trouble with Water" (1939),
an enjoyable humorous MAGIC story, and "None but Lucifer" (1939), a
collaboration with L. Sprague DE CAMP. He was later assistant to Mort
WONDER STORIES (1939-41), from which he moved on to true-detective
magazines, COMICS and radio scripts. During these years he occasionally
used two further pseudonyms, Richard Storey in 1943 and Dudley Dell in
1951.In 1950 he started GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION, which from the outset he
made one of the leading sf magazines, and for the editing of which he
remains best known - indeed, notorious. Afflicted with acute agoraphobia
as a result of his wartime experiences, HLG worked from his apartment,
doing much of his work by telephone. The emphasis of Gal reflected his
interests in PSYCHOLOGY and SOCIOLOGY, as well as HUMOUR, and like John W.
CAMPBELL Jr - with whom in 1953 he shared the first HUGO to be given for
editing a professional magazine - he was credited with suggesting many
ideas which his contributors turned into famous stories; he also earned a
reputation for overediting. An interesting companion magazine, BEYOND
FANTASY FICTION, which he also edited, lasted 10 issues 1953-5. He edited
GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION NOVELS, an sf and fantasy reprint series of
variable quality, in the same format as Gal. Later still he became editor
of IF when it was taken over by Gal's owner. He retired from editing both
Gal and If in 1961.Over the period of his editorship, HLG compiled a
number of anthologies from the pages of Gal: Galaxy Reader of Science
Fiction (anth 1952; cut to 13 out of 33 stories 1953 UK), Second Galaxy
Reader of Science Fiction (anth 1954; with 11 stories removed, cut vt The
Galaxy Science Fiction Omnibus 1955 UK), The Third Galaxy Reader (anth
1958), Five Galaxy Short Novels (anth 1958), The Fourth Galaxy Reader
(anth 1959), The World that Couldn't Be and 8 Other Novelets from Galaxy
(anth 1959), Bodyguard, and Four Other Short Novels from Galaxy (anth
1960), The Fifth Galaxy Reader (anth 1961), Mind Partner and 8 Other
Novelets from Galaxy (anth 1961) and The Sixth Galaxy Reader (anth 1962).
He also edited one independent anthology, The Weird Ones (anth 1962).Some
of HLG's stories were collected in The Old Die Rich (coll 1955). What Will
They Think of Last? (1976) is a selection of his editorials from Gal with
an autobiographical postscript. [MJE]See also: QUESTAR.

It has been said, cynically, that the Golden Age of sf is 14.Certainly
there is no objective measure by which we can say that the sf of any one
period was notably superior to that of any other. Nonetheless, in
conventional usage (at least within FANDOM) older readers regularly refer
quite precisely to the years 1938-46 as sf's Golden Age, and younger
readers, though not necessarily convinced, had not yet jettisoned the term
when the first edition of this encyclopedia was published in 1979. In 1992
it is not a term so often used, though books like The World Beyond the
Hill: Science Fiction and the Quest for Transcendence (1989) by Alexei and
Cory PANSHIN still argue for the primacy of this period as a peak in sf's
development.There is little argument about when the Golden Age began. The
term is nearly always used of genre magazine sf ( GENRE SF), and it is
almost always seen as referring to the period ushered in by John W.
CAMPBELL Jr's assumption of the editorship of ASTOUNDING STORIES in Oct
1937. (By 1938 he had altered the title to Astounding Science-Fiction.)
Within a few years Campbell had managed to take over not only many of the
best (and youngest) working writers of the period, such as L. Ron HUBBARD,
Clifford D. SIMAK, Jack WILLIAMSON, L. Sprague DE CAMP, Henry KUTTNER and
C.L. MOORE (the last three often in his companion magazine UNKNOWN), but
to develop such new writers as Lester DEL REY, Eric Frank RUSSELL (who had
a couple of stories in ASF before Campbell arrived), Theodore STURGEON and
especially the big three, Robert A. HEINLEIN, Isaac ASIMOV and A.E. VAN
VOGT. These writers dominated genre sf until their younger contemporaries
and Frederik POHL, after sometimes protracted apprenticeships, emerged as
new forces in the late 1940s and early 1950s. But, as soon as these new
names are evoked, it becomes clear that it is difficult to say in what
sense the Golden Age could be said to have stopped in 1946, or anywhere in
the 1940s. Certainly Campbell's ASF was in the latter 1940s receiving
quite high-class competition from STARTLING STORIES, and a few years later
FICTION, and by the 1950s it was coming to be seen as a force for
conservatism in magazine sf rather than its spearhead. The "end" of the
Golden Age may have had more reality, then, for devotees of ASF than for
sf readers in general.Certainly 1938-46 was a period of astonishing
activity (among comparatively few writers), the time when most of the
themes and motifs of sf were taking their modern shape, which in some
cases proved almost definitive and in others continued to be reworked and
modified, as is the way of genres. It was also the great age of the PULP
MAGAZINES (most of which were dead or transfigured into DIGESTS by early
in the 1950s), the period in which genre sf belonged primarily to
magazines rather than books, which gave the magazine readers something of
a sense of belonging to a kind of secret brotherhood (not a sisterhood:
the Golden Age stories were by and large written by men for young male
readers.)A balanced reading of genre sf since Campbell would probably see
it as becoming progressively more mature; it would also see (as sf became
more popular) much mechanical reworking of the Golden Age themes by hack
writers, whose increasing numbers may have partly obscured the steady
improvement in the upper echelons of the genre. Certainly there were slack
periods, the late 1950s being one such and the late 1970s another, but
only with tunnel vision and nostalgia could the claim seriously be made
that the period of WWII marked a high point in sf that has never been
reached again. Indeed, by the 1980s the Golden Age "classics" of sf, which
until then had been reprinted constantly, began to drift quietly from the
marketplace as they proved less and less accessible to succeeding
generations of readers.It is interesting to turn to one of the anthologies
of the Golden Age period - perhaps Adventures in Time and Space (anth
1946) ed Raymond J. HEALY and Francis MCCOMAS, or the relevant sections of
The Astounding-Analog Reader (anth in 2 vols 1973) ed Harry HARRISON and
Brian W. ALDISS, or The Science Fiction Hall of Fame (anth 1970) ed Robert
SILVERBERG-and see how banal the writing and retrospectively creaky the
plot devices even of the supposed classics often seem. Isaac Asimov's
"Nightfall" (1941) retains the potency of its original idea, but the
working out is laboured; Lester del Rey's "Helen O'Loy" (1938) is
sentimental and patronizingly sexist. The soaring ideas of Golden Age sf
were all too often clad in an impoverished pulp vocabulary aimed at the
lowest common denominator of a mass market. It would not hurt to remember,
also, that the Golden Age was an almost purely US phenomenon, restricted
to the not very large readership of a tiny handful of ephemeral magazines.
This is not to devalue it; but to keep things in proportion we should
remember that elsewhere (in the UK, and in the USA outside the magazines)
non-genre sf books of real literary quality were being published and had
already been published which had nothing to do at all with what Campbell
was offering.But, when all the caveats have been stated-including the
almost undeniable counterclaim that sf now is by and large better written
than it was then-there is a residue of truth in the Golden Age myth. For
older readers, certainly, there has been nothing since then to give quite
the same adrenalin charge (not too far removed from the SENSE OF WONDER).
It may be a matter of context. Today we expect sf to present us with
amazing concepts (as it still, sometimes, does), but in the 1940s this
stuff seemed (except for unusually sophisticated readers, which the pulps
were not aimed at anyway) to spring miraculously from nowhere at all. In
the years 1938-46 the wild and yearning imaginations of a handful of genre
writers - who were mostly very young, and conceptually very energetic
indeed - laid down entire strata of sf motifs which enriched the field
greatly. In those years the science component of sf became spectacularly
more scientific and the fiction component more assured. It was a quantum
jump in quality, perhaps the greatest in the history of the genre, and, in
gratitude to that, perhaps the term Golden Age should be enshrined.As,
indeed, it has been by the authors of many histories and commentaries on
the genre, from James E. GUNN to Donald A. WOLLHEIM: the Golden Age does
not lack defenders. [PN]


(1947- ) US writer, married to Kathleen SKY 1972-82. He began publishing
sf with "The Girls on USSF 193" for If in 1965 and was runner-up for a
NEBULA for Best Short Story with "The Last Ghost" (1971). His early novels
- his first, Herds (1975 Canada), was like its immediate successors
written for LASER BOOKS - were stereotyped adventures, and he was better
known for an ongoing series of E.E. "Doc" SMITH spin-offs, the Family
D'Alembert sequence. The first volume, The Imperial Stars * (1964 If; exp
1976) was directly based on a Smith story about the members of a large
family who spend their lives saving the Galaxy from a variety of threats;
subsequent volumes - Stranglers' Moon * (1976), The Clockwork Traitor
(1977), Getaway World * (1977), Appointment at Bloodstar * (1978; vt The
Bloodstar Conspiracy 1978 UK), The Purity Plot * (1978), Planet of
Treachery * (1982), Eclipsing Binaries * (1983), The Omicron Invasion *
(1984) and Revolt of the Galaxy * (1985) - were derived from the initial
premise. Aside from these, his later work is more varied. The Eternity
Brigade (1980) is an interestingly nightmarish vision of warfare among
various mercenary soldiers whose personalities have been reincarnated (
REINCARNATION). A World Called Solitude (1981) is a somewhat overburdened
drama of identity. The light Rehumanization of Jade Darcy sequence, with
Mary Mason, begins in Jade Darcy and the Affair of Honor (1988) at a cafe
called Rix's on an entrepot planet much like, one supposes, Morocco in
1942; the series continues with Jade Darcy and the Zen Pirates (1990). SG
cannot be called an original force in sf, but he seldom violates his brief
of providing well crafted entertainments. He has been editor of SFWA
BULLETIN. [JC]Other works: Caravan (1975 Canada); Scavenger Hunt (1976
Canada) and its sequel, Finish Line (1976 Canada); Assault on the Gods
(1977); Mindflight (1978); a Star Trek novel: Trek to Madworld * (1978);
And Not Make Dreams Your Master (1981); The Business of Being a Writer
(1982) with Kathleen SKY, nonfiction; the Parsina Saga, comprising Shrine
of the Desert Mage (1988), The Storyteller and the Jann (1988) and
Crystals of Air and Water (1989), fantasy.As Editor: SG anonymously
collaborated with David GERROLD on several 1970s anthologies - Protostars
(anth 1971), Generation: An Anthology of Speculative Fiction (anth 1972),
Science Fiction Emphasis 1 (anth 1974), Alternities (anth 1974) and
Ascents of Wonder (anth 1977). He also edited The Alien Condition
(1973).See also: ALIENS; ESP; SPACE OPERA.

(1895-1958) UK writer, several of whose popular novels are on Jewish
themes. The Doomington Wanderer (coll 1934; vt This Wanderer 1935 US; cut
in 2 vols vt The Call of the Hand and Other Stories 1944 chap UK and The
Vicar of Dunkerly Briggs 1944 chap UK) contains several romantically
couched fantasy tales. The Pursuer (1936) sets a psychological parable of
a man obsessed by his Conradian "shadow" in an ALTERNATE WORLD very
similar to our own, while Honey for the Ghost (1949) tells a similar tale
of possession as a ghost story. [JC]Other works: The Miracle Boy (1927), a
religious fantasy; Pale Blue Nightgown: A Book of Tales (coll 1944),
fantasies; The Frightening Talent (1973).

(1911-1993) UK writer, awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for Literature. He
wrote a pre-WWII book of Poems (coll 1934), but remained a provincial
schoolmaster until the publication of his first and best-known novel, Lord
of the Flies (1954), later filmed twice as LORD OF THE FLIES (1963, 1990),
a superficially simple story about a group of schoolchildren trapped on an
ISLAND when their plane is shot down while evacuating them from a nuclear
HOLOCAUST. Left alone, the boys - who bear the same names as the schoolboy
heroes in R.M. Ballantyne's The Coral Island (1858) - soon revert (
DEVOLUTION) to tribal savagery. Beyond its obvious allegorizing
repudiation of its model, the novel constitutes a complex utterance about
the darkness of the human condition and the shapes human nature takes when
"free" to do so.WG's second novel, The Inheritors (1955), written in part
as a reaction to H.G. WELLS's "The Grisly Folk" (1921), could be seen as
anthropological sf ( ANTHROPOLOGY; ORIGIN OF MAN); it views through the
eyes of a Neanderthal the morally ambiguous triumph of Cro-Magnon Man.
Pincher Martin (1956; vt The Two Deaths of Pincher Martin 1957 US) is as
much sf as Ambrose BIERCE's "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge", with
which it has frequently been compared. A castaway on a tiny rock in the
ocean, Pincher seems to be surviving with desperate defiance; but, as the
ending makes clear, the rock he clings to is the same shape as a diseased
tooth he touches constantly with his tongue, and his "survival" may well
be no more than a last flicker of pre-purgatorial consciousness. WG's
contribution to Sometime, Never (anth 1956) ed anon, a book including also
stories by John WYNDHAM and Mervyn PEAKE, is "Envoy Extraordinary", a long
tale subsequently made into a play, The Brass Butterfly (1957 US; rev 1958
UK), about Alexandrian Greek inventor Phanocles' attempts to get his steam
engine, gun, pressure-cooker and printing-press accepted by the Roman
emperor, who in refusing these gifts proves philosophically wiser than the
inventor. The story also appears in The Scorpion God (coll 1971) along
with two fantasies.WG's relation to sf is as tangential as his relation to
the conventional mainstream novel; especially in his early works, he
treads the line between allegory and novel with astonishingly fruitful
results. [JC]About the author: Critical literature on WG is extensive and

James E. GUNN.

(1933- ) US editor of SF MAGAZINES who in 1956-8 was assistant editor and
then managing editor of AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC under Paul W.
FAIRMAN, becoming editor of both in Dec 1958; she held this position until
June 1965, when the magazines were sold and ceased for a time to publish
original stories. Under her editorship the quality of both improved
markedly; she was prepared to encourage experiment and was particularly
sensitive to new writers. Among the authors whose first published stories
appeared in her magazines were Thomas M. DISCH, Roger ZELAZNY and Ursula
K. LE GUIN; the latter said of CG, in THE WIND'S TWELVE QUARTERS (coll
1975), that she was "as enterprising and perceptive an editor as the
science fiction magazines ever had". CG married in 1964, becoming Cele G.

(1943- ) US research psychologist and writer whose fiction - including
The Whispering Sea (1976), The Shadow, and Other Strange Tales (coll 1977
chap), Terror by Night, and Other Strange Tales (coll 1977) and Invasion:
2200 A.D. (1979) - was designed for "reluctant readers". With Roger ELWOOD
he produced the anthology Spine-Chillers: Unforgettable Tales of Terror
(anth 1978). [JC]

(1953- ) US writer who began writing work of genre interest with The Red
Magician (1982), a fantasy based on Hungarian motifs and venues and set
during the Holocaust; it won the American Book Award for that year. With
considerable intensity, and in a style which treats sf and fantasy
material through a MAGIC-REALIST looking-glass, LG has since then
consistently submitted her protagonists - who are in any case generally
alienated from mainstream life - to deeply alienating venues which are
themselves threatened with radical transformation. The Dream Years (1985)
- alternating sequences of which are set in a 1920s Paris succumbing to
the tenets of Surrealism, and at the crisis point of the Events of 1968 -
is a timeslip romance which conflates the artistic movement for a
transformed reality with the later moment in history when it seemed, for
an instant, that the world might shift. A Mask for the General (1987), set
in a DYSTOPIAN 21st-century USA, depicts an opposition between the General
who rules the land and the mask-makers who tap tribal depths, who create
totem visages for their friends and enemies, and who wish to transform the
General into one of them, human again, no longer alienated. The alienation
suffered by the protagonists of Tourists (1989; rev 1994) - which is
unconnected to an early short story, "Tourists" (1984 IASFM) - is
superficially more conventional, for the land of Amaz in which they find
themselves caught - as emissaries of a USA which represents a version of
reality no longer valid in this new world - seems at first glance no more
than a typical Middle Eastern backdrop. But the US family's search for a
1000-year-old document of seeming archaeological interest swerves
dizzyingly into an attempt to trace a course between two converging
topologies of reality, and to survive the clash. Though readable in sf
terms, Tourists displays much of the same feel for the labyrinth of the
Orient that found more fantastic expression in The Arabian Nightmare
(1983) by Robert Irwin (1946- ). Some of LG's relatively few short sf
stories were assembled in Daily Voices (coll 1989), and her short fantasy
stories were assembled in Travelers in Magic (coll 1994). Her 1990s work
has in fact been heavily concentrated in that genre; both Strange Devices
of the Sun and Moon (1993) and Summer King, Winter Fool (1994) are
fantasies, both being impressively original. [JC]See also: ARTS; TIME

The medieval Jewish legend of the Golem comprises a set of
PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION stories about the maker and the made. Several well
known rabbis and Judaic scholars of the Middle Ages and early Renaissance
had Golem stories ascribed to them, the most elaborate cycle being that
connected with Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel (1512-1609), the Maharal of
Prague, a controversial and admired sage and community leader. "His"
version of the Golem, Joseph, is an automaton made from the sand and mud
lining the Vltava River. To animate him, the rabbi orders one of his
assistants to make a circuit of the figure 7 times, entrusting him with
combinations of letters to utter as he does so; subsequently the rabbi and
his assistants recite Genesis ii.7, which refers to the creation of Man as
a single entity, and the Golem comes to "life". This Prague version of the
legend contains explicit discussions of the Golem as artificial human
being and as human instrument: a being without past or future. Three
uniquely human faculties are denied it: inclination, either to good or
evil; the soul associated with language; and the power to engender. It is
used to inspect the streets of the Prague ghetto.The tale of the Golem is
important to sf not because of any primacy it might claim regarding the
concept of an artificial creature but because it is a narrative, and
because it centrally concerns the making of the most complex tool
imaginable: something (or someone) who looks, and superficially acts, like
us. It is a study in how we shape the environment to meet our needs, and
how we relate to that changed environment while dead labour assists in the
structuring of live labour. It augments Joanna RUSS's curiously neglected
suggestion that work is one of the central concerns of sf.Several earlier
tales and fragments of tales, including some Talmudic references, have
survived. One significant version of the legend is associated with a rabbi
of Chelm near Lublin in Poland; in this variant there is a fear that the
creature may grow, and it is destroyed. The Chelm version gave rise to
Christian developments of the material into what might be called the
Promethean GOTHIC: tales in which a nameless rabbi manages to deactivate
the creature, but is himself smothered in its fall.Of 20th-century
responses to the fable, the most famous is probably Gustav MEYRINK's Der
Golem (1914; cut trans Madge Pemberton as The Golem 1928 US; full version
of trans 1976 US). In He, She and It (1991; vt Body of Glass 1992 UK)
Marge PIERCY retells the tale to enforce an analogy between the Golem and


UK publishing house, properly styled Victor Gollancz Ltd, famous (until
its sale to the US company Houghton Mifflin in 1990) as one of the last
family companies in UK publishing; in 1992 Houghton Mifflin sold the firm
to the Cassell group of companies, where it became an imprint. Its early
strength was in political polemic; its main postwar strengths were
detective fiction and sf: from the early 1960s to the late 1980s it was
the premier UK publisher of sf books in hardcover, both native and US. In
the past half decade it has faced greater competition, but it is still
(1995) one of the market leaders. Its earlier history as a publisher, with
some gripping stuff from the files, is told in Gollancz: The Story of a
Publishing House: 1929-1978 (1978) by Sheila Hodges.Victor Gollancz
(1893-1967), the firm's founder in 1928, had always been interested in the
fantastic; though he was never to publish any sf by H.G. WELLS, one of his
inaugural books was Wells's The Open Conspiracy (1928), and within a year
he was publishing reissues of several works by M.P. SHIEL and a new novel
by E.H. VISIAK. In the 1930s came Charles FORT's Lo! (1931), which flopped
badly, the first translation of Franz KAFKA's Der Prozess (written
1914-15; 1925; trans Willa and Edwin Muir as The Trial 1937), sf novels by
Murray Constantine (Katharine BURDEKIN), Andrew MARVELL, Joseph O'NEILL,
R.C. SHERRIFF, Francis STUART and others, and five novels by Charles
WILLIAMS. One of G's most valued authors was George ORWELL, but in 1944
Victor Gollancz turned down Animal Farm (1945), seeing its anti-Stalinism
as inappropriate at a time when Russia, the UK's ally, was suffering
during the war. Later he also rejected Orwell's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR
(1949).Though this was an unpromising beginning to the postwar period, G
did publish a number of good sf titles in the 1950s, both non-genre and
GENRE SF, the latter including a 1954 edition of Theodore STURGEON's MORE
THAN HUMAN (1953); none, however, was labelled as "science fiction". This
term and the sf list proper (20 or so books a year) were introduced by
Hilary Rubinstein, Victor Gollancz's nephew, after Gollancz had in 1961
published Kingsley AMIS's study of sf, New Maps of Hell (1960 US). Most of
the early big names were US: Hal CLEMENT, Harry HARRISON, Robert A.
HEINLEIN, Frederik POHL, Robert SHECKLEY, Clifford D. SIMAK and others.
The first important UK writer to be added was J.G. BALLARD, with The
Drowned World (1962). For the next two decades Gollancz's plain yellow
jackets with black typography came to seem almost synonymous with
UK-published hardcover sf. (Since the mid-1980s pictorial jackets have
been phased in for most of the major sf and fantasy authors.) Other
important UK writers joining Gollancz were Arthur C. CLARKE, Richard
COWPER, Keith ROBERTS, Bob SHAW and Ian WATSON, with later additions
including Robert P. HOLDSTOCK, Paul J. MCAULEY, Phillip MANN and Terry
PRATCHETT, several of whom made their debuts with Gollancz. Subsequent US
authors included Philip K. DICK, William GIBSON, Ursula K. LE GUIN and
Robert SILVERBERG. The children's list included Peter DICKINSON. After
Rubinstein left in 1963, John Bush took over the list until the early
1980s, when Malcolm EDWARDS took over (spending larger sums on books than
Gollancz had previously allowed), being followed by Richard Evans in 1989.
Gollancz sf editors have normally held very senior positions in the
company, sf providing a major contribution to the company's profit. [PN]

[r] Christopher EVANS.

(1885-1969) UK thriller and adventure writer and playwright. His first sf
novel, The Eye of Abu (1927) as by Alan Dare, was an Atlantean ( ATLANTIS)
LOST-WORLD novel relating the discovery of the Fountain of Youth. As GG he
followed this with The Monster of Grammont (1927), marginally sf, The
Emperor of Hallelujah Island (1930), about a kingdom of criminals, A
Message from Space (1931) and Doctor Zil's Experiment (1953), in which
survivors of a world-destroying DISASTER undergo various tribulations.

(1952- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Wanting to Talk to You"
for IASFM in 1991, and whose first novel, Queen City Jazz (1994), is a
sophisticated and explosively inventive variation on the post- HOLOCAUST
tale central to American sf since World War 2. The protagonist is-unknown
to herself-a CLONE who leaves her isolated, fundamentalist community in a
quest to restore to life her murdered boyfriend and her telepathic dog.
She goes to Cincinnati, Ohio, one of several


[s] Randall GARRETT.


[s] Donald A. WOLLHEIM.


Most frequently used pseudonym of UK writer S(tanley) B(ennett) Hough
(1917- ) for his sf work, although under his own name he has published
Mission in Guemo (1953), the borderline-sf thriller Extinction Bomber
(1956) and Beyond the Eleventh Hour (1961), a story of nuclear HOLCOAUST
in which all the major nations of the world except the UK and India
destroy themselves. As RG, he began publishing sf with Utopia 239 (1955),
whose protagonists escape a nuclear holocaust by TIME TRAVEL into the
future, where a sexually liberated UTOPIA uses its high technology to
survive the consequences of the final war. No Man Friday (1956; vt First
on Mars 1957 US), a ROBINSONSADE which is perhaps RG's strongest book,
retells Crusoe's adventures on MARS, in quietly convincing terms, though
the science is sometimes shaky; the film ROBINSON CRUSOE ON MARS (1964)
does not credit RG, though the storyline bears notable resemblances. First
to the Stars (1959 US; vt The Worlds of Eclos 1961 UK) is thematically
similar: a crash-landed man and woman try to survive and breed without any
cultural aids at all. First Through Time (1962 US; vt The Time Factor 1964
UK) is a time-travel thriller that asks most of the standard questions
about predestination. Throughout his career RG showed a strong grasp of
human motivation that jarred against a rather superficial use of sf themes
and scientific knowledge in general; his underlying pessimism about
humanity has seemed as a consequence rather underargued. [JC]Other works:
Utopia Minus X (1966 US; vt The Paw of God 1967 UK); The Yellow Fraction
(1969 US); Creative Writing (nd but c1983 chap) as by S.B. Hough,

[s] Stuart GORDON.

[s] John Russell FEARN.

Pseudonym of Scottish writer Richard Gordon (1947- ), who also writes as
Alex R. Stuart and published his first sf story -"A Light in the Sky" for
NW in 1965 - as Richard A. Gordon. His first sf novel, Time Story (1972),
describes a criminal's attempt to flee retribution via TIME TRAVEL. In his
Eyes books - One-Eye (1973 US), Two-Eyes (1974 US) and Three-Eyes (1975
US), assembled as The Eyes Trilogy (omni 1978) - the MUTANT One-Eye
triggers the forces of chaos in an apocalyptic post- HOLOCAUST land where
humanity fights a losing battle against genetic decay; in increasingly
elaborated prose (SG's main fault as a writer is an inadequate control
over imagery) the trilogy proceeds to a complex self-confrontation of
mankind. Smile on the Void: The Mythhistory of Ralph M'Botu Kitaj (1981
US) ponderously guys late-20th-century susceptibilities in the "biography"
of an almost certainly fake MESSIAH. Fire in the Abyss (1983 US), though
terribly overcrowded, impressively plants the Elizabethan sailor Sir
Humphrey Gilbert (1537-1583) via time travel into an apocalyptically
dissolving present-day. The Watchers trilogy - Archon (1987), The Hidden
World (1988) and The Mask (1988) - is another extremely complex
time-travel fantasy, in the opposite direction, as 20th-century personal
traumas intersect, in medieval and Reformation France, with the cultural
ills of the present and the NEAR FUTURE. SG's language has baroque vigour
and his plots are increasingly inventive; he lacks mainly a capacity to
moderate and therefore give verisimilitude to the rush of notions.
[JC]Other works: Suaine & The Crow-God (1975).As Alex R. Stuart: Several
novels, of which The Outlaws (1972), The Devil's Rider (1973) and The Bike
from Hell (1973) have fantasy/sf components.

(1905-1985) UK anthropologist and writer whose Nobody Talks Politics
(1936) is a SATIRE on UK POLITICS of the 1930s as seen through the eyes of
a young man woken from a 10-year trance. Its Epilogue is set in the NEAR

Film (1960). King Bros/MGM. Dir Eugene Lourie, starring Bill Travers,
William Sylvester, Vincent Winter. Screenplay John Loring, Daniel Hyatt,
based on a story by Lourie and Hyatt. 78 mins. Colour.A prehistoric
reptile is captured off a small island in the Irish Sea, taken to London
and put on show. But the 65ft (20m) creature turns out to be a mere
infant, as everyone discovers when its 150ft (45m) mother comes to collect
it, demolishing bits of London in the process. We are allowed to
sympathize with the monsters and cheer their escape. Good use is made of
locations, and there are interesting special effects by Tom Howard. The
monsters are achieved by the cheap man-in-a-suit technique, but are
effective nonetheless. Lourie had once worked as an art director for Jean
Renoir, and his latter-day reputation as director of sea-going MONSTER
MOVIES was a sad come-down ( The BEAST FROM 20,000 FATHOMS ; BEHEMOTH, THE
SEA MONSTER), but G is atmospheric and crisply made. The novelization,
with wholly irrelevant soft-core pornographic additions, is Gorgo * (1960)
by Carter BINGHAM. [JB/PN]


In current usage a "Gothic" is a romantic novel which has a strong
element of the mysterious or the supernatural and which usually features
the persecution of a woman in an isolated locale; but this restricted and
specialized use of the word has nothing to do with sf. The term "Gothic"
entered critical terminology with the publication of The Castle of Otranto
(1765), subtitled "A Gothic Story", by Horace Walpole (1717-1797). As in
architecture, the word originally referred to a medieval style. Although
the Middle Ages had for much of the 18th century been thought of as
barbaric, a nostalgia had now developed for the romantic splendours of an
idealized Middle Ages that never existed. Gothic novels in imitation of
Walpole's ghostly tale became quite common as the century drew to a close;
indeed their popularity was closely allied to the growth of Romantic
literature generally.The Gothic may be seen as a reaction to the emphasis
on reason which prevailed in the Enlightenment, the intellectual world of
the 18th century. In a world ruled by Order, where Isaac Newton
(1642-1727) had explained the mechanics of the Solar System, Carolus
Linnaeus (1707-1778) had shown how plants and animals could be logically
classified, Adam Smith (1723-1790) had written of the apparently immutable
laws of ECONOMICS, and sermons in church regularly pictured God as a kind
of master watchmaker who had wound the Universe up and left it to tick
like a perfectly regulated mechanism, some room needed to be left for
mystery, the marvellous, the evil, the inexplicable. The movement was
probably given impetus at the beginning of the 19th century by science
itself becoming remystified through all the work being done on the strange
forces of electromagnetism, and also by a crumbling social stability, as
signalled by many political revolutions across the Western World.Such is
the background against which Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein (1818; rev 1831)
should be read. With this book, along with the contemporary works of
E.T.A. HOFFMANN and a little later Edgar Allan POE, the use of science in
fiction was becoming assimilated into a literary movement which emphasized
mystery over knowledge, and the dangers of Man trespassing in a territory
rightfully God's. The linking of science with the Gothic may have been
partly a historical accident, and the balance was soon to be partly
rectified by the sometimes laboured common sense of Jules VERNE (even he
produced a Gothic hero, in Captain Nemo), but it certainly had
repercussions in sf which have by no means died away. Brian W. ALDISS, in
his critical work Billion Year Spree (1973; rev with David WINGROVE as
Trillion Year Spree 1986), argues that sf "is characteristically cast in
the Gothic or post-Gothic mould". That may be putting it too strongly, but
Aldiss's view is certainly a useful antidote to the commoner views that sf
is a literature either of technology or of UTOPIAS and
anti-utopias.Certainly from Mary Shelley's day to now, much sf has been
devoted to secrets, to inexplicable violence and wildness lurking beneath
the veneer of civilization and to the ALIEN and the monstrous bursting in
on us from the outside; Gothic sf emphasizes danger, and attacks the
complacency of those of us who imagine the world to be well lit and
comfortable while ignoring that outside all is darkness. Gothic sf
characteristically clothes these fears in quasiscientific talk, but in
spirit it is quite opposed to the outlook of the SCIENTIST. The prototype
is perhaps Robert Louis STEVENSON's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
(1886) - which, in its story of a respectable doctor whose alter ego is a
brutish sensualist and a living monument to the reality of Original Sin,
can be read as an allegory of the violent subconscious struggling with the
conscious mind - for the archetypal Gothic story is the tale of the Thing
in the Cellar, in which an everyday world of surface conceals the menacing
depths (and subtexts). Other sf writers of the 19th century who worked in
the Gothic mode were Bulwer LYTTON, Ambrose BIERCE and Arthur MACHEN.In
the 20th century, the Gothic mode was largely hived off into the genre of
occult/horror, but it never lost its kinship with sf. WEIRD TALES was the
archetypally Gothic PULP MAGAZINE, and several of its authors wrote sf
too. H.P. LOVECRAFT, of course, is as pure an instance of the Gothic
writer as can be found in this century, but some of the same qualities can
be found in writers who were much more closely associated with sf than
Lovecraft ever was. About two-thirds of all sf films ( CINEMA), especially
MONSTER MOVIES, are pure Gothic. PARANOIA in sf nearly always falls into
the Gothic mode.The Gothic idea of the Promethean or Faustian mad
scientist ( CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH; SCIENTISTS) punished for assuming the
creative powers belonging to the gods or God (sometimes for creating
artificial life without a soul) was central to sf early in this century,
as in the films ALRAUNE (1928) and FRANKENSTEIN (1931). Other sf variants
of Gothic images are the renegade ROBOT (along with all
ghost-in-the-machine stories), most Luddite stories, most stories of
manipulation by beings who may be GODS AND DEMONS, nearly all stories
rationalizing SUPERNATURAL CREATURES, most stories about ambiguous ALIEN
artefacts; indeed, to put it more widely still, most stories in which the
Universe proves unamenable to rational (or "cognitive") understanding.It
is so easy to find Gothic elements in even the most celebrated writers of
sf that there is little point in listing actual books containing them. Sf
writers whose work is consistently Gothic are, among many others: John
HOLDSTOCK, K.W. JETER, Stephen KING, Nigel KNEALE, Dean R. KOONTZ, Richard
Curt SIODMAK, Lisa TUTTLE and Chelsea Quinn YARBRO; it is no coincidence
that nearly all of these have written HORROR fiction as well. But there
are strong Gothic elements in other sf writers whose work is considered
less borderline. These include - again, among a hundred others - Brian W.
Aldiss, Alfred BESTER, James BLISH, Algis BUDRYS, Richard COWPER, Samuel
R. DELANY, Philip K. DICK, Thomas M. DISCH, Philip Jose FARMER, William
GIBSON, George R.R. MARTIN, Michael MOORCOCK, Geoff RYMAN, Fred
Sheri S. TEPPER, Jack VANCE, Howard WALDROP, Gene WOLFE, John WYNDHAM and
Roger ZELAZNY. If the case for the prevalence of Gothic sf is correct,
then we must see it as so deeply engrained that it cannot be considered a
mere sport or mutant form of the genre.There has always been a tension in
sf between the Classical desire for order and understanding - for the
Universe that can be known - and the Romantic desire (which fits the
observable facts to date) that the Universe should continue to surprise
us, hold secrets and malignities. This latter desire (or fear, or both) is
the Gothic, and its coexistence with the Classical or cognitive, in most
major sf writers of our century, is not a paradox; the place where the two
forces meet (Classical and Romantic, cognitive and Gothic) might almost be
described as the central place where sf happens, the seeding-ground for
its fertility. If this is the case, then Brian Aldiss's above-noted
comment ( DEFINITIONS OF SF) is not as eccentric as some have found it;
moreover, those definitions that see sf as exclusively cognitive (like
Darko SUVIN's) are missing the point; they are prescriptive, not
descriptive. Sf remains a Romance literature. Its vaunted SENSE OF WONDER
arises as much from its Gothic as from its scientific elements, and will
continue to do so as long as the Thing in the Cellar keeps lashing its
tail. [PN]See also: FANTASY; HISTORY OF SF.

(1926- ) Canadian writer probably best known for her POETRY. She took an
MA with the University of Toronto in English language and literature, and
married a professor of computer science, whom she credits for assistance
on her second sf novel. She began publishing sf with "A Grain of Manhood"
for Fantastic in 1959 and gained considerable praise for her first novel,
Sunburst (1964 US), which treats feelingly of the growth of a connected
group of MUTANT children, of their harrowing difficulties, of the gestalt
concord they arrive at, and of their coming to (a somewhat overplotted)
accord with the surrounding world. Complexities of kinship and identity
also pervade her Sven Dahlgren books - O Master Caliban! (1976 US) and
Heart of Red Iron (1989 US) - which take place on a planet set aside for
environmental experiments. In the first the young four-armed Dhalgren must
confront and defeat the sentient ROBOTS which have seized power from his
scientist father; in the second he must calibrate the needs of various
ALIEN races and come to terms with his own humanity. PG's stories - some
of the best are assembled in Son of the Morning and Other Stories (coll
1983 US) - also tend to investigate questions of human nature through sf
tropes, like PSI POWERS, that are congenial to that sort of exploration. A
second series, the Starcats books - A Judgement of Dragons (1980 US),
Emperor, Swords, Pentacles (1982 US) and The Kingdom of the Cats (1985 US)
- features interstellar travel and other sf trappings attuned to SCIENCE
FANTASY needs. With Douglas BARBOUR she edited Tesseracts(2) (anth 1987),
a series - #1 ed Judith MERRIL - designed to showcase Canadian sf. [JC]See
also: CANADA.

(1929- ) US writer and psychologist who began publishing sf with "Outer
Concentric" and "The Examination" for New Dimensions 4 (anth 1974) ed
Robert SILVERBERG. In a relatively short time he established a reputation
as an author of high linguistic energy whose stories emoted a ruthless
savvy about the future. Many of his tales are narrated through stunning
linguistic displays of the emotional and physiological ways of being that
humans display in isolation and in their relations to the social world;
these ways of being are constantly articulated by the protagonists in a
flow of brilliant jargon, with the result that existence and the
LINGUISTIC perception of existence become identical. The effect is
exhilarating and also rather terrifying. FCG's first novel, Growing Up in
Tier 3000 (1975), is set in a world very similar to that of many of the
tales, and deploys a similarly searching sense of the surface of events
and of identities, though its plot moves with some difficulty: in an
energy-quarantined, savagely competitive, complexly automated DYSTOPIAN
future society, young children show their readiness to take over from
their elders (in a reductio ad absurdum of the Whorfian hypothesis that
language structure determines our conceptualization of the world) by
understanding the languages necessary for survival in the hyperkinetic
new. At least two further novels have been written and await publication;
but the aggressive ingenuity of his style, and the oddly high-strung
gallantry of his attitude to the futures in store for the human race -
that they are to be endured with grace, but never "won" - make his work
unlikely to reach a wide market. [JC]See also: CITIES; FABULATION; TABOOS.

Pseudonym used on magazine stories by C.M. KORNBLUTH 1940-42, once solo,
5 times with Frederik POHL, and twice with both Pohl and Robert A.W.

(1886-1948) Yugoslav writer, editor and lawyer whose sf novel, The Key to
the Great Gate(manuscript trans Fred Bolman and Ruth Morris from the
Serbo-Croat 1947 US), was first composed in an Italian concentration camp
(the manuscript was destroyed and had to be reconstructed later). An
imprisoned SCIENTIST, having learned how to expand and contract the
Einsteinian spacetime continuum, dazzles and befuddles his Nazi guards,
gradually becoming an effective symbol of human dignity and the freedom of
the spirit. The book is also funny, in a fashion possibly evocative, for
readers not familiar with Serbo-Croat literature, of writers like Karel

(1933- ) US writer, born in California, where he lived until the late
1960s and which he has made the setting (whether or not literally so) for
much of his sf. After graduation he worked in an advertising agency; he
has put on record the influence of this experience on the forming of his
concise, polished style. He published his first sf, "Letters to the
Editor", in FSF in 1952, and wrote many stories before the appearance of
his first sf novel, The Sword Swallower (1968), which features the
Chameleon Corps of shapeshifting agents; the book - like much of his
ensuing work - is set in a SPACE-OPERA venue called the Barnum System
which much resembles Southern California: urbanized, helter-skelter,
crazed and balkanized, the planets of this system, where the Corps
originates, are populated in large part by traditional comic stereotypes
or humours, deftly drawn. Again like many of its successors, the novel
features a gangly detective on the trail of a complex crime ( CRIME AND
PUNISHMENT); his need to search out clues and suspects takes him
(conveniently) through a wide spectrum of scenes and characters.
Similarities of plot and setting (and numerous cross-references) dog any
anatomizer of series in the RG universe, but other books specifically
connected to the Barnum System include The Fire-Eater (1970), Death Cell
(1971), The Chamelon Corps and Other Shape Changers (coll 1972), Plunder
(1972), Shaggy Planet (1973), Flux (1974), Spacehawk, Inc. (1974), A Whiff
of Madness (1976), The Wicked Cyborg (1978), Daredevils, Ltd (1987),
Starpirate's Brain (1987) and Everybody Comes to Cosmo's (1988); the Star
Hawk sequence of novels - Empire 99 (1980) and The Cyborg King (1981),
based on the COMIC strip illustrated by Gil Kane - are also set in Barnum.
Along with the remarkable AFTER THINGS FELL APART (1970), these books
share a swiftness of telling, a constant hilariousness and a cogency;
elsewhere, jokes sometimes seem to guide the storylines, which can be
flimsy.Much of RG's work is, in fact, journeyman, though even in the most
desultory tale his smooth dialogue-driven style is always recognizable. In
the mid-1970s and 1980s he wrote under various pseudonyms (including the
house names Kenneth ROBESON and Con Steffanson, as well as personal
pseudonyms like Chad Calhoun, R.T. Edwards, Ian R. Jamieson, Josephine
Kains, Jillian Kearny, Howard Lee, Zeke Masters, Frank S. Shawn and Joseph
Silva) a large number of novelizations and other routine work (see listing
below for titles of genre interest). As RG, his Vampirella series -
Bloodstalk * (1975), On Alien Wings * (1975), Deadwalk * (1976), Blood
Wedding * (1976), Deathgame * (1976) and Snakegod * (1976) - put a
character derived from stories published in Vampirella, a comic book which
ran from 1969 to 1983; his versions were thinly humorous. The Wild Talents
sequence, which includes A Talent for the Invisible (1973 and Hello,
Lemuria, Hello (1979), and the Gypsy sequence about an identity-quest,
which includes Quest of the Gypsy (1976) and Eye of the Vulture (1977),
similarly lacked their author's full attention.A darker, sharper, more
attentive aspect of the RG vision of California-as-Barnum can be seen in
those of his novels - Wildsmith (1972), among others - which feature the
highly humanized, eccentric, wilful ROBOTS which are perhaps his most
enduring creation. Quite remarkably comic in their deadpan obsessiveness
and pernickety sang-froid, they serve also as genuinely effective icons of
a time - the NEAR FUTURE - and a place - either Southern California itself
or the world which it portends - caught in the throes of convulsive
change.The slightness of RG's plotting does at times make his satirical
intent difficult to perceive; an underlying saliency can be detected more
clearly, perhaps, in collections like What's Become of Screwloose? and
Other Inquiries (coll 1971), Broke Down Engine and Other Troubles with
Machines (coll 1971), Nutzenbolts and More Troubles with Machines (coll
1975) and Skyrocket Steele Conquers the Universe and Other Media Tales
(coll 1990) - the last being connected with the novel Skyrocket Steele
(1980). Odd Job No. 101 and Other Future Crimes and Intrigues (coll 1975),
Calling Dr Patchwork (1978), Big Bang (1982) and Brainz, Inc. (1985) make
up the Odd Jobs sequence, whose interest diminishes with extension.Though
he is prolific and acute, it can still be said of RG that his dark wit and
adroit handling of plot and theme have not yet been directed to a project
of a scope sufficient to give those talents full play. [JC]Other works:
Gadget Man (1971); Clockwork's Pirates (1971 dos); Ghost Breaker (coll
1971 dos); Hawkshaw (1972); The Tin Angel (1973), later assembled with
Flux as Flux and The Tin Angel (omni 1978 UK); Shaggy Planet (1973); When
the Waker Sleeps (1975); The Hellhound Project (1975); The Enormous
Hourglass (1976); Challengers of the Unknown * (1977); Crackpot (1977);
The Emperor of the Last Days (1977); The Panchronicon Plot (1977); Nemo
(1977); Capricorn One * (1978) ( CAPRICORN ONE); Dr Scofflaw (1979 dos);
Hail Hibbler (1980); The Robot in the Closet (1981); Brinkman (1981);
Upside Downside (1982); 3 Battlestar Galactica novels, all with Glen A.
LARSON, Greetings from Earth * (1983), Experiment in Terra * (1984) and
The Long Patrol * (1984); Hellquad (1984); The Prisoner of Blackwood
Castle (1984); Suicide, Inc. (1985); Galaxy Jane (1986); The Curse of the
Obelisk (1987); The Tijuana Bible (1989). The introduction to William
SHATNER's extremely Goulart-like TekWar (1989) thanks RG for his help;
this book and its two sequels, TekLords (1991) and TekLab (1991), have
been attributed to RG.As Josephine Kains: The Devil Mask Mystery (1978);
The Curse of the Golden Skull (1978); The Green Lama Mystery (1979); The
Whispering Cat Mystery (1979); The Witch's Tower Mystery (1979); The
Laughing Dragon Mystery (1980);The Witch's Tower Mystery (1980), a non-sf
tale with RECURSIVE elements.As Howard Lee: Two Kung Fu novels: Chains
(1973) and Superstition (1973).As Frank S. Shawn: Books in the Phantom
series: The Veiled Lady * (1973); The Golden Circle * (1973); The Mystery
of the Sea Horse * (1973); The Hydra Monster * (1973); The Goggle-Eyed
Pirates * (1974); The Swamp Rats * (1974).As Kenneth Robeson (house name):
Books in the The Avenger series: The Man from Atlantis * (1974); Red Moon
* (1974); The Purple Zombie * (1974); Dr Time * (1974); The Nightwitch
Devil * (1974); Black Chariots * (1974); The Cartoon Crimes * (1974); The
Death Machine * (1974); The Blood Countess * (1975); The Glass Man *
(1975); The Iron Skull * (1975); Demon Island * (1975).As Con Steffanson
(house name): Books in the Flash Gordon series: The Lion Men of Mongo *
(1974); The Plague of Sound * (1974); The Space Circus * (1974).As Joseph
Silva: The Island of Dr Moreau * (1977) ( The ISLAND OF DR MOREAU );
Stalker from the Stars * (1977) with Lein Wein and Mary Wolfman; Holocaust
for Hire * (1979), a Captain America novel. The pseudonym plays on the
name of one of RG's many private eyes, Jose Silvera.As Editor: The
Hardboiled Dicks (anth 1965); Lineup Tough Guys (anth 1966); The Great
British Detective (1982); The Encyclopedia of American Comics (1990), for
which he also wrote about half the entries.Nonfiction: The Assault on
Childhood (1972); Cheap Thrills: An Informal History of the Pulp Magazines
(1972); An American Family (1973); The Adventurous Decade: Comic Strips in
the Thirties (1976); Focus on Jack Cole (1986 chap); The Great Comic Book
Artists (1986) and The Great Comic Book Artists Volume 2 (1988); Ron
Goulart's Great History of Comic Books (1986); The Dime Detectives (1988).

[s] Michael A. BANKS.

(1844-1925) UK illustrator and writer, creator of a large number of
sharply satirical political cartoons in the decades before WWI. "Who
Killed Cock Robin?", and Other Stories for Children Young and Old (coll
1896) assembled various parodic animal fables, among which "The Great
Beetle War" comes closest to sf. Explorations in the Sit-tee Desert, Being
a Comic Account of the Supposed Discovery of the Ruins of the London Stock
Exchange some 2000 Years Hence (1899 chap) is a surprisingly effective and
pointed SATIRE written from a post- HOLOCAUST viewpoint. [JC]

(1855-1938) UK writer of numerous works in which he espoused an agnostic
philosophy. His sf novel, The Agnostic Island (1891), exposes some
Christian missionaries to a society which threatens their beliefs. [JC]

(1902-1972) US academic, author of The Imaginary Voyage in Prose Fiction:
A History of its Criticism and a Guide for its Study, with an Annotated
Check List of 215 Imaginary Voyages from 1700 to 1800 (1941; reissued by
ARNO PRESS 1975). Though in no sense a book about sf per se, it is one of
the most important and reliable tools for the researcher into 18th-century
FANTASTIC VOYAGES, about which few books have been written. [PN]See also:

(1898-? ) UK writer whose sf novel, Beyond Mars (1956), treats, perhaps
rather primitively, space travel to the Moon and beyond by use of

(1954- ) US writer. Her first novel, Woman of Fire (1988; vt Eyes in the
Fire 1989 US), is fantasy. Her second, the post- HOLOCAUST Plainsong (1990
US), is an unsentimental PASTORAL tale about the arrival of a new Messiah
in a plague-devastated land. Her third novel is Fire Queen (1990); her
fourth, And Then Put Out the Light (1993), is a ghost story. [JC]

[r] Anthony ARMSTRONG.



(? -1925) UK writer on rural themes whose post- HOLOCAUST novel, The
Collapse of Homo Sapiens (1923), written in the apocalypse-obsessed
aftermath of WWI, identifies the fall of mankind with the defeat of the UK
by an alliance of coloured powers, which themselves soon disintegrate,
leaving the world to shrink and degenerate. The traveller who is moved
through time to witness this disaster puts much of the blame for the UK's
unreadiness upon trade-union nihilists. [JC]



Sinclair LEWIS.

(1879-1959) UK author of two sf juveniles with Harry HARPER (whom see for
details): The Air-King's Treasure (1913) and The Invisible War-Plane: A
Tale of Air Adventure in the Great Campaign(1915). [JC]



(1942- ) US writer who has restricted himself since the late 1970s almost
exclusively to horror and fantasy fiction (see listing below), mainly
under his own name (sometimes in the form C.L. Grant), though he has
written books as by Felicia Andrews, Steven Charles, Simon Lake, Lionel
Fenn and Geoffrey Marsh. He began publishing work of genre interest with
"The House of Evil" for FSF in 1968, but really became active only after
the mid-1970s with the release of his first novels, the Parric family
series of post- HOLOCAUST tales: The Shadow of Alpha (1976), Ascension
(1977) and Legion (1979). Set in a balkanized USA ravaged by a PlagueWind
and beset with petty dictators and crazed ANDROIDS, all three novels -
they form part of a much longer, uncompleted sequence - are told in a
somewhat heated style possibly derived from the example of Samuel R.
DELANY, and perhaps more suitably applied, as CLG has seemingly decided,
to other genres. Further novels containing sf elements include The Ravens
of the Moon (1979), but the precepts of horror fiction are generally
dominant. Of his horror, the best known titles fit into the Oxrun Station
sequence. He has edited two notable series - Shadows and two of the Night
Visions anthologies - and a useful manual, Writing and Selling Science
Fiction (anth 1976). His "A Glow of Candles, a Unicorn's Eye" won the 1978
Best Novelette NEBULA. [JC]Fantasy and horror titles:Oxrun Station: The
Hour of the Oxrun Dead (1977); The Sound of Midnight (1978); The Last Call
of Mourning (1979); The Grave (1981); The Bloodwind (1982); a 19th-century
trilogy internal to the Oxrun sequence and comprising The Soft Whisper of
the Dead (1982), The Dark Cry of the Moon (1986) and The Long Night of the
Grave (1986); Nightmare Seasons (fixup 1982); The Orchard (1986); Dialing
the Wind (1989).Singletons: A Quiet Night of Fear (1981); Tales from the
Nightside (coll 1981); A Glow of Candles and Other Stories (coll 1981);
The Nestling (1982); Night Songs (1984); The Teaparty (1985); The Pet
(1986); For Fear of the Night (1988); In a Dark Dream (1989); Stunts
(1990); Fire Mask (1991); Something Stirs (1991); Raven (1993); Jackals
(1994); The X Files: Goblins *(1994), tied to the tv series.As Felicia
Andrews: Mountainwitch (1980).As Steven Charles: The Private Academy
sequence of sf/horror novels for a young-adult audience, comprising
Nightmare Session (1986), Academy of Terror (1986), Witch's Eye (1986),
Skeleton Key (1986), The Enemy Within (1987) and The Last Alien (1987).As
Lionel Fenn: The Quest for the White Duck sequence of comic fantasies,
comprising Blood River Down (1986), Web of Defeat (1987), Agnes Day (1987)
and The Seven Spears of the W'dch'ck (1988); the Kent Montana series of
comic sf tales, which invoke Hollywood icons through the adventures of a
failed actor, comprising Kent Montana and the Really Ugly Thing from Mars
(1990), Kent Montana and the Reasonably Invisible Man (1991);Kent Montana
and the Once and Future Thing (1991), The Mark of the Moderately Vicious
Vampire (1992) and 668: The Neighbor of the Beast (1992); the Diego
series, featuring a gunslinger who travels through time, and comprising
Once Upon a Time in the East (1993), By the Time I Get to Nashville (1994)
and The Semi-Final Frontier (1994).As Simon Lake: The Midnight Place
sequence comprising Midnight Place: Daughter of Darkness (1992), #2:
Something's Watching (1992), #3: Death Cycle (1993) and #4: He Told Me To
(1993).As Geoffrey Marsh: The Lincoln Blackthorne thrillers, The King of
Satan's Eyes (1984), The Tale of the Arabian, Knight (1986), The Patch of
the Odin Soldier (1987) and The Fangs of the Hooded Demon (1988).As editor
(series): The Shadows anthologies, comprising Shadows (anth 1978; vt
Shadows II 1987 UK), #2 (anth 1979), #3 (anth 1980), #4 (anth 1981; vt
Shadows 1987 UK), #5 (anth 1982), #6 (anth 1983), #7 (anth 1984), #8 (anth
1985), #9 (anth 1986) and #10 (anth 1987), the entire series being
showcased in The Best of Shadows (anth 1988) and Final Shadows (anth
1991); of the Night Visions anthologies, Night Visions 2 (anth 1985; vt
Night Visions: Dead Image 1987; vt Night Terrors 1989 UK) and Night
Visions 4 (anth 1987; vt Night Fears 1989 UK) uncredited for the UK
versions; the Greystone Bay anthologies, comprising The First Chronicles
of Greystone Bay * (anth 1985), Doom City * (anth 1987),The SeaHarp Hotel
* (anth 1990) and In the Fog: the Final Chronicle of Greystone Bay (anth
1993).As editor (singletons): Nightmares (anth 1979); Horrors (anth 1981);
Terrors (anth 1983); The Dodd, Mead Gallery of Horror (anth 1983); vt
Gallery of Horror 1983 UK; Midnight (anth 1985); After Midnight (anth




STREET & SMITH house name under which Walter B. GIBSON (whom see for
details) wrote some 300 novels, usually about The Shadow. He was followed
by Dennis LYNDS (whom also see). [JC]

(1952- ) US writer; he lives with Elizabeth HAND. RG began writing work
of genre interest with "Drode's Equations" for New Dimensions 12 (anth
1981) ed Marta RANDALL, and came to rapid prominence with three novels of
mixed sf/fantasy provenance, set in the same post- HOLOCAUST land, almost
certainly the USA, but transfigured by time and events. The first,
Saraband of Lost Time (1985), is set much the deepest into this venue, so
far into the future that the rather shambling plot mainly serves the
PLANETARY-ROMANCE function of guiding the reader through the world, whose
contours have reminded some critics of M. John HARRISON's Viriconium. The
rich array of protagonists featured in Rumours of Spring (1987) is
reminiscent of the same source, though RG seems quite visibly to have
taken more pleasure in creating characters than Harrison ever has; the
plot involves a quest, hampered by spiritual ENTROPY, for the Gaian spirit
of the forest which is beginning to assault the desultory evening cultures
of humankind. Beyond Harrison, authors freely used as models by RG include
James P. BLAYLOCK and John CROWLEY; but the amalgam has a recognizable
flavour of its own. View from the Oldest House (1989) casts its net even
more widely, bringing in allusions to figures from Milton to James Joyce
to Archibald MacLeish to Thomas PYNCHON, in addition to all the above; the
story itself, set in a NEAR-FUTURE, HOLOCAUST-haunted version of the same
domain, tends to founder in these labyrinths of reference, just as its
protagonist founders in his search for a self. A fourth novel, Through the
Heart (1992), sharpens in sf terms RG's abiding venue: North America after
the Fall, and won the 1993 PHILIP K. DICK AWARD. [JC]See also:

(1852-1940) US novelist chiefly remembered for Unleavened Bread (1900).
With John Boyle O'REILLY (1844-1890), an Irish writer who escaped
Australian exile to live in the USA, J.S. of Dale (a pseudonym of US
lawyer Frederick Jessup Stimson [1855-1943]) and J.T. Wheelwright
(1856-1925), also a New England lawyer, RG wrote The King's Men: A Tale of
To-morrow (1884), set in a republican UK around the 1940s, during a period
of Royalist rebellion (like that of Bonnie Prince Charlie 200 years
earlier). There is a great deal of tangled action, and some sf artillery.
Republicanism triumphs. [JC]

(? -? ) 19th-century US author, resident for some years in Australia. His
racy, bigoted lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) novel The Fallen Race (1892), one
of the earliest sf books set in Australia, shares the belief in a great
inland sea which in real life led to the disappointment or death of many
explorers. Stranded in the desert, a doctor finds a lost race developed,
absurdly, from the primeval union of aboriginals and kangaroos; its
people, almost spherical in shape, are ruled by a White (human) queen. The
protagonist outwits a palace revolution, survives the amorous attentions
of a female spheroid, establishes - through technological knowhow and
CULTURAL ENGINEERING - a middle-class UTOPIA, and marries the queen.
[PN]Other works: If the Devil Came to Chicago (1894) with W. Wilson Knott,
a reformist fantasy about vice.See also: SEX.

To speak of the graphic novel is to speak of a particular kind of COMIC
book, but to do so after about 1985 is to risk applying what has become a
marketing term to questions of definition, transforming a practical
distinction into what looks superficially like a separate genre.The
graphic novel proper is a self-contained narrative in comic-book form. It
is almost never, in other words, part of an ongoing series like Fantastic
Four (from 1961), though there are exceptions, like Dave SIM's Cerebus the
Aardvark (from 1977), a connected series of stories projected to extend to
300 issues. It should be noted, too, that many graphic novels are
initially published episodically in comic-book format, whether or not
originally conceived as a single narrative, only subsequently reaching the
state which readers tend to recognize as that of a graphic novel; that is,
a large (often quarto-sized), usually perfect-bound volume of anywhere
from 50 to 300 pages.Through the 20th century, many books have been
published which present a fictional tale primarily or solely through a
sequence of pictures; the first important artist to become involved in
graphic storytelling was probably Frans Masereel (1889-1972), whose
nonverbal narratives in woodcut - culminating in Die Stadt (1925; as The
City 1988 UK) - vividly encapsulated a 1920s sense of the new century in
imagery reminiscent of the medieval Dance of Death. Books like Szegeti
Szuts's My War (1931), might also seem to constitute part of a tradition
which led directly to the graphic novels of the 1970s, but this is almost
certainly misleading. Though many graphic-novel writers and illustrators
are clearly aware of various forms of visual narrative - including recent
painterly experiments in visual narration like A Humument: A Treated
Victorian Novel (1980) by Tom Phillips (1937- ) - the graphic novel itself
derives from the very specific conventions of the comic, in particular
from the extraordinarily sophisticated, cinema-derived narrative
techniques which have been developed over the decades by comic-book
artists, and which distinguish the comic from all other forms of visual
storytelling. Masereel may have collaborated on film work (with directors
like Abel Gance [1889-1981]), but only after having created his novels in
terms which were cognate with but which did not borrow directly from the
early CINEMA. No more is a recent figure like Glen Baxter a graphic
novelist, as we are using the term. His The Billiard Table Murders: A
Gladys Babbington Morton Mystery (1990) is certainly a visual novel; but
Baxter is a cartoonist rather than a comic-book artist, and his visual
pages are frozen images which highlight and comment upon the narrative
action, whereas in a true graphic novel the images carry the action. The
difference is as between night and day.Though comic-derived tales - like
He Done Her Wrong: The Great American Novel: And Not a Word in it - No
Music, Too (1930) by Milt Gross (1895-1953) - were not uncommon from an
early date, the term "graphic novel" was coined, possibly by the author
himself, to describe what was itself in fact a collection of linked
stories, A Contract with God (graph 1978) by Will Eisner (1917- ), but it
did not become a widely used label until the release of a strangely ill
matched trio - Maus (1980-85 Raw; graph 1987) by Art Spiegelman (1948- ),
WATCHMEN (1986-7; graph 1987) by Alan MOORE and Dave GIBBONS, and Batman:
The Dark Knight Returns (1986; graph 1986) by Frank MILLER - raised the
profile of the serious narrative comic book and, in large part because of
the low prestige of the comic-book medium, instigated a commercial need
for a distinguishing term ("Adult Comic" had already been taken by comics
with explicit sexual content).Today, however, many so-called graphic
novels are no more than costly collections of entirely routine SUPERHERO
tales and the like. Among titles that, by contrast, deserve to be noticed
are Ed the Happy Clown (1986; graph 1989) by Chester BROWN, The Magician's
Wife (1986 France; graph 1987 US) by Jerome CHARYN and Francois Boucq,
Violent Cases (graph 1987) by Neil GAIMAN and Dave MCKEAN, the various
graphic novels serialized in LOVE AND ROCKETS - including Human
Diastrophism (graph 1989) by Gilbert Hernandez (1957- ) and Ape Sex (graph
1989) by Jaime Hernandez - Elektra: Assassin (1986-7; graph 1987) by Frank
Miller and Bill SIENKIEWICZ, V for Vendetta (1982-5; graph 1990) by Alan
Moore and David Lloyd, A Small Killing (graph 1991) by Moore and Oscar
Zarate and The Complete New Statesmen (graph 1990) by John Smith (1967- )
with Jim Baikie, Duncan Fegredo and Sean Phillips.The term may have become
a commercial tag, but its very existence represented an opportunity for
ambitious comic-book artists and writers to begin to test the boundaries
of their medium, to demonstrate the organized complexity possible in the
interplay between the conventions of written narrative and visual
storytelling. The best graphic novels are more than the sum of their
parts; they are visions of the world which cannot be paraphrased into any
other medium. [NG/JC]

(1851-1917) US naturalist and writer whose first sf novel, The Certainty
of a Future Life on Mars: Being the Posthumous Papers of Bradford Torrey
Dodd (1903), remains his best known. Dying in the conviction that dead
humans transcendentally ascend to a Martian REINCARNATION as embodied
spirits, the narrator's father is soon communicating from there by radio
with his son. Martian society, he reports, is UTOPIAN - with natives of
the planet as servants - and Mars itself has canals; an essay on MARS by
the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910) closes the
volume. A Woman of the Ice Age (1906) is a turgid prehistoric romance. The
Evacuation of England: The Twist in the Gulf Stream (1908) pins its
expectations of catastrophe on the completion of the Panama Canal; the
ensuing mini Ice Age persuades the UK monarchy to transplant itself to
Australia. The Mayor of New York: A Romance of the Days to Come (1910) is
set in AD2000, when "suicidariums" gently gas the willing and anarchism
threatens the independent state of New York. In The New Northland (1915) a
lost race ( LOST WORLDS) of Hebrew-speaking dwarfs inhabits a clement
hollow in the Arctic, where their possession of vast amounts of radium
seals their fate, for the protagonist decides that these riches must be
exploited. LPG's range was wide, incorporating much material which has
become central to sf, but his books are overlong, choked by his compulsive
didacticism, and consequently unreadable today. [JC]Other works: The End:
How the Great War was Stopped (1917), a fantasy in which the risen dead
terrify the living into stopping the war.


(1871-1935) German historian and writer, known in English for two
pseudonymous works of fiction. In "1906" - Der Zusammenbruch der alten
Welt (1905; trans G. Herring as Armageddon 190- 1907 UK) as by Seestern,
the USA instigates a future WAR with Germany which is catastrophic for
Europe but beneficial for Russia and the USA. Bansai! (1908; trans anon as
Banzai! 1908 Canada) as by Parabellum pits the USA against the Japanese,
with results initially disastrous for the USA, though the invading armies
of the East are eventually driven all the way back past the Rocky
Mountains to the sea. [JC]See also: INVASION.

(1951- ) US writer and (since 1978) a Certified Sign Language
Interpreter. He began publishing sf with The Alchemists (1984); it and its
sequel, The Pathfinders (1986), make up the first 2 volumes of the
Autumnworld Mosaic sequence, set in a Galaxy abandoned by superior ALIENS
after they have passed their technologies on to the human race, which
proceeds to conquer the neighbouring planetary systems, sometimes to the
detriment of existing inhabitants. The first novel describes an attempt on
the part of a human group to thwart the "expansionists" on a planet
occupied by nonsentient humanoids; the second involves a damaging plunge
into the "dark beyond space" where as-yet-unrevealed mysteries of
cosmogony reside. Further volumes are projected. The Fading Worlds series
- A Key for the Nonesuch (1990) and Return of the Breakneck Boys (1991) -
is a SCIENCE-FANTASY adventure set in a mysterious GAME-WORLD-like arena,
into which the protagonist initially stumbles when he uses a borrowed key
to gain access to, as he thinks, a toilet. Further volumes of this series,
too, are projected. GG continues to seem a polished writer who has not
quite yet unleashed what seems a considerable talent. [JC]Other works:
Hook *(1992), a version of the film for young adults; various ties to
Batman, the Animated Series, including Batman, the Animated Movie: Mask of
the Phantasm * (1994), and 4 linked texts: Batman, the Animated Series:
Shadows of the Past* (1993), #2: Duel to the Death * (1994) and #3: The
Dragon and the Bat *(1994).

[r] E.V. LUCAS.

(1895-1985) UK poet, novelist and critic, best known for an active poetic
career, extending from the beginning of WWI into the 1970s, and for such
novels as I, Claudius (1934). His tendentious claim that he wrote fiction
solely for commercial reasons does little to explain the high quality of
all but his first novel, the RURITANIAN extravaganza No Decency Left
(1932) with Laura Riding (1901-1991), together writing as Barbara Rich.
The Golden Fleece (1944; vt Hercules, My Shipmate 1945 US) is an erudite
fantasy of considerable power. His UTOPIAN sf novel Watch the North Wind
Rise (1949 US; vt Seven Days in New Crete 1949 UK) complexly dramatizes
some ideas concerning the nature of POETRY and its ideal relation to the
world that he had earlier expounded in The White Goddess (1947 US), a
nonfiction study. Seven Days is framed as a possible dream of its
protagonist, a poet called into the future by the Poet-Magicians who rule
utopian New Crete, and whose worship of the White Goddess benefits from
her literal existence; but the book provides no clear-cut advocacy of the
utopia it describes, and indeed it becomes clear that the Goddess has
arranged for the poet's intrusion precisely so that he may - like so many
visitors to utopias - unbalance what has become a sterile society. The
escapist, timeless nature of New Crete, and the mediocre poetry it
produces, are depicted with considerable ambivalence by RG, who allows no
"winners" in his quest for a view of the world that will appropriately
balance the opposing forces of whole-witted time-fulness and half-witted
utopia. [JC]Other works: The Shout (1929 chap).About the author: There is
much critical literature about RG in general. On Seven Days in New Crete
the following are useful: Fritz LEIBER's "Utopia for Poets and Witches" in
RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY 4 (1970), Robert H. Canary's "Utopian and Fantastic
Dualities in Robert Graves's Watch the North Wind Rise" in SCIENCE-FICTION
STUDIES 4 (1974) and Peter Briggs's "Watch the North Wind Rise" in Survey
of Modern Fantasy Literature (anth 1983) ed Frank N. Magill.See also:

Marion Zimmer BRADLEY.

The force of gravity is the most inescapable and unvarying fact of
terrestrial life, and when writers first sent characters into SPACESHIPS
and on to other planets the phenomenon of low gravity, or of no gravity at
all, figured prominently among the wonders of space. Many early authors
did not realize that complete weightlessness is a consequence of free
fall, but this soon became a fact to be taken for granted in describing
SPACE FLIGHT, and now few writers bother to emphasize it. A delightful
account of the attractions of weightlessness was given by Fritz LEIBER in
"The Beat Cluster" (1961); a more straightforward introduction is
contained in Arthur C. CLARKE's Islands in the Sky (1952). In Bob SHAW's
THE RAGGED ASTRONAUTS (1986) the most difficult part of interplanetary
travel by BALLOON (no free fall here) between two mutually orbiting
planets only 5000 miles (8000km) or so apart, and with a common
atmosphere, is the transition of the weightless zone where the two
gravitic pulls cancel out.Weightlessness in practice is more likely to be
a nuisance than anything else. The favoured method of providing
"artificial gravity" in a spaceship or SPACE HABITAT is to spin the ship
about an axis to generate a centrifugal force acting outward from the
axis, so that the vessel's wall becomes the "floor". The visual paradoxes
associated with a "gravity" that acts outwards on the inside of a hollow
object were exploited in the film 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), in Arthur
C. CLARKE's Rendezvous with Rama (1973), and in Harry HARRISON's Captive
Universe (1969). Few writers apart from Clarke mention the Coriolis force,
a sideways force on a moving object which also results from a spinning
system, and makes things tend to move in circles; it might be a severe
disadvantage in a very large spinning spaceship. The Coriolis force is not
encountered if the gravity is provided by a constant linear acceleration,
nor if the problem is solved outside known science by having recourse to
gravity generators such as SPINDIZZIES.Centrifugal force also comes into
play on rapidly rotating planets, where it combines with the force of
gravity to define the direction of the vertical. Since the surface of a
planet tends to be generally at right angles to the combined centrifugal
and gravitational forces, the centrifugal force can be treated for most
practical purposes as a part of the gravity, having the effect of
decreasing the gravity at the equator (where it is already likely to be
lower because of the shape of the planet), as in Hal CLEMENT's Mission of
Gravity (1954). This novel tells of the very high gravity on the massive,
rapidly rotating, discus-shaped planet of Mesklin, and of the effect of
these conditions on the psychology of the planet's intelligent lifeforms.
In our Solar System high gravity, nowhere near as extreme as Mesklin's,
can be found on JUPITER; this is described in Poul ANDERSON's "Call Me
Joe" (1957), James BLISH's "Bridge" (1952) - the story which describes the
development of spindizzies - and Arthur C. Clarke's "A Meeting with
Medusa" (1971), from which was developed The Medusa Encounter (1990) by
Clarke and Paul PREUSS.Much stronger gravitational forces than these can
be expected near the very massive but small objects composed of collapsed
matter ( NEUTRON STARS; PHYSICS). Not just the gravitational field's
overall strength is important: the variations in its strength between
different locations can exert forces even on an object in free fall. These
are called "tidal forces" (the tides on Earth, caused by the difference
between the Moon's gravitational pull on opposite sides of Earth, provide
the most familiar example). Tidal forces feature in Larry NIVEN's "Neutron
Star" (1966) and "There is a Tide" (1968). A collapsing star of sufficient
mass (about three times that of the Sun) would pass through the
neutron-star stage to become a BLACK HOLE - some high-gravity stories of
the 1970s and 1980s are discussed under that heading - and there has been
a large amount of sf set around (or even within) such venues.The wish for
a method of manipulating gravity has been a rich source of IMAGINARY
SCIENCE, indeed ANTIGRAVITY has been something of a philosopher's stone to
sf writers, and is discussed in some detail in that entry. The attraction
of antigravitational themes grows from a kind of resentment at the
inescapable restraints gravity imposes on us in the real world. Cecelia
HOLLAND deals in rather cavalier manner with gravity in Floating Worlds
(1976), the worlds of the title being cities floating above Saturn and
Uranus. David GERROLD's Space Skimmers (1972) exploits an imaginary
gravitic effect (using gravity as a kind of point applied to a surface)
which yields an attractive spaceship designed as if by M.C. Escher.
Walkers on the Sky (1976) by David J. LAKE owes more to wish fulfilment
than to science, but does offer a technological explanation for the
behaviour summarized in the title.Gravity as a theme has naturally been in
the main the province of HARD-SF writers like Hal Clement and Larry Niven.
Working very much in their tradition are the physicist Robert L. FORWARD,
who has written two interesting novels about a lifeform living in
intensely high-gravity conditions on the surface of a neutron star -
Dragon's Egg (1980) and its sequel Starquake! (1985) - and Stephen BAXTER,
whose Raft (1991) is set in an ALTERNATE UNIVERSE where gravity, instead
of being (to simplify) the weakest of the fundamental forces, as it is in
our Universe, is one of the strongest; the results are described with
elan. [TSu/PN]

(1934- ) Scottish painter, playwright and author who began publishing
work of genre interest with "The Yellow Dream" for Collins Magazine for
Girls and Boys in 1950; this tale was gathered, along with a wide variety
of sf fables and FABULATIONS, in Unlikely Stories, Mostly (coll 1983). His
first and most substantial novel was Lanark: A Life in Four Books (1981),
a vast tale whose burly narrative voice shoulders aside questions of genre
as impertinences; the protagonist is born, lives and dies in Glasgow,
whence, transformed into an alter ego named Lanark, he is transported to
the regimented subterranean DYSTOPIA of Unthank, which is of course Hell
but which also - as he enters the "Epilogue" - becomes the text of Lanark,
through which he wages his way. 1982 Janine (1984) is a metaphysical
fantasy, with some of the same embedded entwinings of life and book. The
Fall of Kelvin Walker: A Fable of the Sixties (1985) and Something Leather
(1990) are associational, as are the tales assembled in Lean Tales (coll
1985), which also includes work by James Kelman and Agnes Owens. McGrotty
and Ludmilla, or The Harbinger Report (1975 as BBC radio play; 1990) is a
mildly poisonous SATIRE of UK life and politics set in a moderately
displaced ALTERNATE WORLD, and Poor Things: Episodes from the Early Life
of Archibald McCandless M.D. Scottish Public Health Offices (1992; rev
1993) fabulates the Frankenstein story ( FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER) and
FEMINISM. A History Maker (1994) sets an eccentric tale of border warfare
with England in the Scotland of the 23rd century. Though published by
mainstream houses, most of AG's books have been designed by him in his own
unmistakable style, so that his oeuvre is unique inside and out. [JC]See
also: CITIES.

(1910-1980) US writer in whose complex sf novel Murder in Millennium VI
(1951) a homicide case shakes a matriarchal DYSTOPIA thousands of years
hence - murder being inexplicable to the inhabitants of this world. The
focus of interest in the novel is the gradual unveiling of the fact that a
gradual transition - not back to patriarchy but to some synthesis - is
under way. There is a detailed analysis in In Search of Wonder (1956) by
Damon KNIGHT, the admiring tone of which has not been universally shared.

Gardner F. FOX.

(1902-1975) US writer in whose awkwardly written Runts of 61 Cygni C
(1970) humans encounter approximately humanoid aliens and lots of kinky
sex on the planet 61 Cygni C. [JC]Other works: Hydra (1969) as by James A.
Grazier, a juvenile.


One of the commonest fantastic devices in literature and legend is the
alteration of scale. MYTHOLOGY and folklore abound with giants and
miniature humans, and different perspectives dependent upon changes of
scale are central to many of the SATIRES recognized today as works of
PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, most notably Jonathan SWIFT's Gulliver's Travels
(1726) and VOLTAIRE's Micromegas (1750 Berlin; 1752 France; trans 1753).
Mark TWAIN's uncompleted works include "Three Thousand Years among the
Microbes" (written 1905; 1967), in which a germ called Huck inhabits the
body of a tramp, recalling Morgan ROBERTSON's earnest medical fantasy "The
Battle of the Monsters" (1899). Modern satires using distortion of scale
in other ways include Joe Orton's Head to Toe (1971), J.G. BALLARD's "The
Drowned Giant" (1965; vt "Souvenir") and Jessamyn WEST's The Chilekings
(1967). The first SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE of the microcosm was "The Diamond
Lens" (1858) by Fitz-James O'BRIEN, in which a scientist discovers a tiny
humanoid woman in a water-drop. The tactic of shrinking human beings to
insect-size in order that they may observe the small-scale wonders of the
natural world is common in didactic sf, ranging from Alfred Taylor
SCHOFIELDEN's Travels in the Interior (1887; as by Luke Courteney) through
Edwin PALLANDER's The Adventures of a Micro-Man (1902) and Bob OLSEN's
"The Ant with the Human Soul" (1932) to Donald SUDDABY's Lost Men in the
Grass (1940) as by Alan Griff. More ambitious didactic microcosmic
fantasies can be found in George GAMOW's Mr Tompkins Explores the Atom
(1944). Adventure stories in which humans are pitted against giant insects
and monstrous spiders are commonplace, ranging from Sara Coleridge's
curious fantasy Phantasmion (1837) through the stories assembled in Murray
LEINSTER's The Forgotten Planet (1920-53; fixup 1954) to the series begun
with Spider World: The Tower (1987) by Colin WILSON; a duel with a spider
is the high-point of the film The INCREDIBLE SHRINKING MAN (1957) based on
Richard MATHESON's The Shrinking Man (1956).The idea that there might be
worlds within worlds was popularized by the Rutherford-Bohr model of the
atom as a tiny "solar system" with electrons orbiting the nucleus. The
notion that all the atoms of our Universe might be solar systems in their
own right, and all of our Universe's solar systems themselves atoms in a
macrocosm, was developed by several writers, appearing first in The
Triuneverse (1912) by R.A. KENNEDY. The PULP-MAGAZINE writer who made the
theme his own was Ray CUMMINGS, whose works in this vein include the
microcosmic romances The Girl in the Golden Atom (1919-20; fixup 1921),
The Princess of the Atom (1929; 1950) and Beyond the Vanishing Point
(1931; 1958) and the macrocosmic romance Explorers into Infinity (1927-8;
1965). Other pulp writers who borrowed the theme from Cummings include
Harl VINCENT, for "The Microcosmic Buccaneers" (1929), S.P. MEEK for
"Submicroscopic" (1931), Donald WANDREI for "Colossus" (1934), Jack
WILLIAMSON for "The Galactic Circle" (1935) and Festus PRAGNELL for The
Green Man of Kilsona (1935 as "The Green Man of Graypec"; 1936; vt The
Green Man of Graypec 1950 US). Numerous other pulp-sf stories featured
miniaturized men, including "A Matter of Size" (1934) by Harry BATES, "He
who Shrank" (1936) by Henry L. HASSE, whose protagonist is both giant and
miniature man while shrinking through a whole series of
worlds-within-worlds, "Fury from Lilliput" (1949) by Murray LEINSTER,
"Chaos in Miniature" (1952) by H.J. CAMPBELL, and the classic "Surface
Tension" (1952) by James BLISH. Despite the inherent logical flaws in the
notion (to do with the relationships between mass, strength and organic
complexity) the idea of human miniaturization has retained sufficient
fascination to encourage writers to continue to fudge the issue; it crops
up in such novels as Atta (1953) by Francis Rufus BELLAMY, Cold War in a
Country Garden (1971) by Lindsay GUTTERIDGE and The Men Inside (1973) by
Barry N. MALZBERG, and in such films as DR CYCLOPS (1940), The Incredible
Shrinking Man, FANTASTIC VOYAGE (1966) and INNERSPACE (1987). The process
of fudging can be ingenious, sometimes recruiting the notion of the
expanding Universe, as in the playful "Prominent Author" (1954) by Philip
K. DICK and Land of Dreams (1987) by James P. BLAYLOCK. An interesting
attempt to accommodate the microcosmic romance to more modern atomic
theory is "Nor Iron Bars" (1957) by James Blish. An intriguing
recomplication of the theme involves the depiction of miniature worlds
whose time-flow is more rapid than ours, as in "Pygmy Planet" (1932) by
Jack Williamson, "Microcosmic God" (1941) by Theodore STURGEON, Edge of
Time (1958) by David Grinnell (Donald A. WOLLHEIM) and DRAGON'S EGG (1980)
by Robert L. FORWARD, which is set on a NEUTRON STAR, the rapid time-flow
being a relativistic consequence of the huge surface GRAVITY. Miniature
worlds constructed for specific purposes are featured in "The Tunnel under
the World" (1954) by Frederik POHL and Counterfeit World (1964 UK; vt
Simulacron-3 1964 US) by Daniel F. GALOUYE.Giants are usually treated less
sympathetically than very tiny characters, for obvious reasons; the
oversized heroes of The Food of the Gods (1904) by H.G. WELLS and Titan's
Daughter (1961) by James Blish are notable exceptions. The giant ALIENS in
Raymond F. JONES's The Alien (1951) and Blish's The Warriors of Day (1953)
are menacing, although the one in Joseph L. GREEN's Gold the Man (1971; vt
The Mind Behind the Eye) isn't. In films which invert the theme of The
Incredible Shrinking Man, including The AMAZING COLOSSAL MAN (1957) and
Attack of the 50-Foot Woman (1958), the central characters become figures
of menace, although the charismatically gargantuan star of KING KONG
(1933) has always generated sympathy, as has his one-time saurian rival
GOJIRA. When human beings must live as scavengers in worlds populated by
alien giants, as in Kenneth BULMER's Demon's World (1964; vt The Demons),
William TENN's OF MEN AND MONSTERS) (1963 Gal as "The Men in the Walls";
exp 1968) and the tv series LAND OF THE GIANTS, they are the obvious
heroes, but when humans are the giants sympathy usually attaches to the
tiny aliens, even when - as in A. Bertram CHANDLER's "Giant Killer" (1945)
- they are not humanoid. The notion of social stratification based on more
moderate differences of size is cleverly developed in the fantasies of
Sharon Baker (1938-1991) set on the planet Naphar, including Quarrelling,
They Met the Dragon (1984).John CHRISTOPHER's The Little People (1967) is
the most sciencefictional of the many notable juvenile fantasies which
feature tiny races living fugitive lives in the human world; others
include T.H. WHITE's Mistress Masham's Repose (1946) and the two series
begun with The Borrowers (1952) by Mary Norton (1903-1992) and Truckers
(1989) by Terry PRATCHETT. By far the best modern fantasy to include
aspects of microcosmic romance is John CROWLEY's Little, Big (1981), and
it is to the realms of FANTASY that most of the themes dealing with
microcosms and macrocosms really belong. [BS]See also: COSMOLOGY;


One of the many reprint DIGEST-size magazines published by Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co. employing the reprint rights acquired when Cohen
bought AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC. 21 issues were released, quarterly
Oct 1965-Spring 1971, the first 12 under the title Great Science Fiction,
#13-#16 as Science Fiction Greats and #17-#21 as SF Greats.The contents
were mostly short stories by well known authors, reprinted from the period
when Cele GOLDSMITH edited AMZ and Fantastic. #13 was devoted entirely to
Robert SILVERBERG and #14 entirely to Harlan ELLISON. This was one of
Cohen's better publications, for he was selecting from an interesting
period in the history of his source magazines. [BS]


(1928- ) US Roman Catholic priest and writer, several of whose books have
been nonfiction texts on matters of faith; among the rest are detective
novels (sometimes with paranormal elements) and some fantasy and sf,
beginning with Nora Maeve and Sebi (1976 chap), a short fantasy tale, and
The Magic Cup (1979), a fantasy set in medieval Ireland. God Game (1986)
depicts a priest introduced by COMPUTER to a fantasy GAME-WORLD. The Final
Planet (1987) features the Irish Catholic captain of a desperately
wandering starship called Iona from the planet Tara, who must descend to a
very secular planet to see if colonists are admissible, almost (but never
quite) bedding a female scientist en passant. Angel Fire (1988) is a
SCIENCE-FANTASY novel about an Irish-descended Nobel Prize-winning
scientist - he has been honoured for the already discredited "punctuated
equilibrium" theory of EVOLUTION - blessed with a literal guardian angel,
who protects him very well. Sacred Visions (anth 1991) ed with Michael
CASSUTT (and Martin H. GREENBERG anon) assembles a wide range of stories

Pseudonym of UK industrialist and writer Henry Vincent Yorke (1905-1973),
author of several laconic but richly thought-through novels from Blindness
(1926) to Doting (1952). His one sf tale, Concluding (1948), set 50 years
hence in a DYSTOPIAN socialist UK, presents through imagery and dialogue a
complex vision of a world in which humanity and Nature are irretrievably
dissevered. [JC]


Pseudonym of US writer Ira Greenblatt (? - ), in whose Time Beyond Time
(1971) the hero is either killed by lightning or caught in a "time-nexus"
and cast into a disease-free ATLANTIS, where he finds himself immortal and
becomes embroiled in many exciting adventures. [JC]

[r] Sarah LEFANU.

(1931- ) US writer of sf and technical journalism who began publishing sf
in 1962 with "The Engineer" in NW. An Affair with Genius (coll 1969 UK)
assembles some of his better early work. Although many of his 70 stories
to date (not all sf) have appeared in the USA - along with popular-science
articles in ASF that demonstrate the lucid gift of exposition visible also
in his fiction - it was in the UK that he first established his name, and
there that most of his books were first published. The Loafers of Refuge
(1962-3 NW; fixup 1965 UK), his first novel, chronicles the gradual coming
together, to their mutual benefit, of colonizing humans and humanlike
natives on the planet Refuge, mainly through the mediation of the
protagonist ( COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS). JG's best novel to date is
probably his second, Gold the Man (1971 UK; vt The Mind Behind the Eye
1972 US), which deals very competently (though not in depth) with a
variety of themes from SUPERMAN to ALIENS and INTELLIGENCE. Gold is Homo
sapiens born with about 4oz (120g) of extra association neocortex. As an
adult he is asked to "operate" a brain-damaged giant invader from inside
its head ( GREAT AND SMALL). Returning, thus incorporated, to the alien's
blandly UTOPIAN home planet, he works out the reason for the imminent
destruction of its sun: sentient sunspots. All ends well. Further novels
include Conscience Interplanetary (1965-71 var mags, fixup 1972 UK), the
uneven story of a Conscience whose job it is - in an unhappy replay of the
protagonist's role in The Loafers of Refuge - to adjudicate as to the
INTELLIGENCE of alien species before allowing human beings to exploit
their planets. [JC]Other works: Star Probe (1976 UK); The Horde (1976

(1927- ) UK academic and writer, long resident in the USA. Some of his
early studies of the linkages between culture and literature, like
"Science and Sensibility" (in Science and the Shabby Curate of Poetry coll
1964) and Children of the Sun (1976), express a remote interest in GENRE
SF; later works, like The Robinson Crusoe Story (1990) and Seven Types of
Adventure Tale: An Etiology of a Major Genre (1991), though their interest
remains mainly associational, show a mind increasingly sensitive to the
structures underlying genre writing. His one attempt at fiction, The Earth
Again Redeemed: May 26 to July 1, 1984, on This Earth of Ours and its
Alter Ego: A Science Fiction Novel (1977), uneasily posits an ALTERNATE
WORLD where the Roman Catholic Church has blocked the development of
science, and where a visiting CYBORG from our own ruined timeline detects
clear signs of coming disaster. [JC]See also: ANTIMATTER.

Pseudonym of unidentified UK writer of the sf discussion novel, A
Thousand Years Hence; Being Personal Experiences as Narrated by . . .
(1882). Though the featured tour of the future turns out to have been a
dream, the novel invokes a wide range of sf notions, from ESP to

(? - ) Canadian writer and musician whose The Great Leap Backwards (1968)
depicts a future where COMPUTERS have taken over the cities, leaving the
countryside in a natural state. [JC]

(1918-1987) UK author, scholar, critic and translator (from classical
Greek), with a special interest in FANTASY. Among his many works those
most relevant to sf studies are C.S. Lewis (1963), C.S. Lewis: A Biography
(1974) with Walter Hooper, and Into Other Worlds: Space-Flight in Fiction,
from Lucian to Lewis (1957). The latter is one of the earlier books on sf,
but is primarily pitched at a rather anecdotal and trivial level. His
Andrew Lang (1946) throws light on an author whose relationship to sf has
been almost forgotten ( Andrew LANG); a later study, Andrew Lang (1962
chap), is less thorough. RLG's allegorical and old-fashioned fantasy, From
the World's End (1948), is about visionary dreams in an old house. The
Land Beyond the North (1958) carries Jason and the Argonauts ultimately to
a sacrifice at Stonehenge. [PN]Other works (nonfiction): Tellers of Tales
(1946); The Story of Lewis Carroll (1949); Fifty Years of Peter Pan
(1954); J.M. Barrie (1960 chap). As Editor: The Diaries of Lewis Carroll
(2 vols 1953); Modern Fairy Stories (anth 1955); Fairy Stories (coll 1958)
by Mary Molesworth; Thirteen Uncanny Tales (anth 1970); A Book of
Magicians (anth 1973; vt A Cavalcade of Magicians US); Strange Adventures
in Time (anth 1974); The Complete Fairy Tales of George MacDonald (coll
1977); The Unknown Conan Doyle (coll 1984) with John Michael Gibson. This
list is selective; RLG as editor and reteller produced almost 100 books
for children.See also: PROTO SCIENCE FICTION.

(1944- ) US writer whose first sale was the first volume in the Wandor
SWORD-AND-SORCERY sequence (see listing below), though his first published
work was a volume in the similar Richard Blade sequence (see listing
below) under the house name Jeffrey Lord. His sf has generally been
written in collaboration, notably 2 vols in the Janissaries sequence of
military novels with Jerry POURNELLE, Janissaries: Clan and Crown (1982)
and Janissaries III: Storms of Victory (1988). Others include: Jamie the
Red (1984) with Gordon R. DICKSON; a continuation of H. Beam PIPER's
Paratime Police/Lord Kalvan books with John F. CARR, Great King's War *
(1985); and The Book of Kantela (1985) with Frieda Murray (RJG's wife).
The Peace Company series of military sf novels - Peace Company (1985),
These Green Foreign Hills (1987) and The Mountain Walks (1989) - are by
RJG alone, as is the Starcruiser Shenandoah sequence, comprising Squadron
Alert (1989), Division of the Spoils (1990), The Sum of Things (1991),
Vain Command (1992), The Painful Field (1993) and Warriors for the Working
Day (1994). In these works it is difficult to pin down any strongly
individual tone. [JC]Other works: The Wandor books, comprising Wandor's
Ride (1973), Wandor's Journey (1975), Wandor's Voyage (1979) and Wandor's
Flight (1981); Throne of Sherran: The Book of Kanetal (1985); novels tied
to Robert E. HOWARD's Conan, Conan the Valiant * (1988), Conan the
Guardian * (1991),Conan the Relentless * (1992), Conan and the Gods of the
Mountain * (1993) and Conan at the Demon's Gate * (1994).As Jeffery
Lord,#9 through #37 of the -#1 through #8 were by Manning Lee STOKES; #30
was by Ray NELSON- Richard Blade series, Kingdom of Royth (1974), Ice
Dragon (1974), Dimension of Dreams (1974), King of Zunga (1975), The
Golden Steed (1975), The Temples of Ayocan (1975), The Towers of Melnon
(1975), The Crystal Seas (1975), The Mountains of Brega (1976), Warlords
of Gaikon (1976), Looters of Tharn (1976), Guardians of the Coral Throne
(1976),Champion of the Gods (1976), The Forests of Gleor (1977), Empire of
Blood (1977), The Dragons of Englor (1977), The Torian Pearls (1977), City
of the Living Dead (1978), Master of the Hashomi (1978), Wizard of Rentoro
(1978), Treasure of the Stars (1978), Gladiators of Hapanu (1979), Pirates
of Gohar (1979), Killer Plants of Binaark (1980), The Ruins of Kaldac
(1981), The Lords of the Crimson River (1981), Return to Kaldac (1983) and
Warriors of Laittan (1984).As John CLEVE: Spaceways #15: Starship Sapphire
(1984) with Andrew J. OFFUTT, writing together as Cleve.As Editor: 2 vols
in the War World SHARED-WORLD anthologies created by Jerry Pournelle: The
Burning Eye * (anth 1988) and Death's Head Rebellion * (anth 1990), both
with John F. Carr.

(1942- ) US writer who came to notice for her Terrilian Sequence of
sadomasochistic novels in the manner of John NORMAN, with which the
advertising copy explicitly linked them. The sequence is The Warrior
Within (1982), The Warrior Enchained (1983), The Warrior Rearmed (1984),
The Warrior Challenged (1986) and The Warrior Victorious (1988); they
differ from Norman's in being set on a more plausible planet. Other series
directed to the same market include the Jalav/Amazon Warrior sequence -
The Crystals of Mida (1982), An Oath to Mida (1983), Chosen of Mida
(1984), The Will of the Gods (1985) and To Battle the Gods (1986) - and
the Diana Santee, Spaceways Agent sequence: Mind Guest (1984) and Gateway
to Xanadu (1985). The Far Side of Forever sequence - The Far Side of
Forever (1987) and Hellhound Magic (1989) - is more traditional fantasy.
Other titles include Lady Blade, Lord Fighter (1987), projected to
initiate a series, The Revel Prince (1987), Mists of the Ages (1988), also
projected to start a series, and Dawn Song (1990), No Haven for the Guilty
(1990), Silver Princess, Golden Knight (1993) and The Hidden Realms
(1993). [JC]

Neil BELL.

(1947- ) Canadian teacher and writer who began publishing work of genre
interest with "Of Children in the Foliage" in Aurora: New Canadian Writing
1979 (anth 1979) ed Morris Wolfe; the story was gathered with further lean
and subtle tales in The Woman who is the Midnight Wind (coll 1987). In his
short fiction TMG, like many Canadian writers, tenders a vision which
might be called melancholy humanism. His first novel, Barking Dogs (1988
US), on the other hand, opens that vision out but, to do so, forcibly
transforms Toronto into a mean-streets venue suitable for displays of
high-tech weaponry displays by a vengeful cop. In Children of the Rainbow
(1992) a descendant of the Bounty mutineers undergoes TIME-TRAVEL stress
and imprisonment. [JC]See also: CANADA.

(1918- ) US publisher and anthologist, not to be confused with Martin H.
GREENBERG. In 1948 he cofounded with David A. KYLE and others GNOME PRESS,
one of the small but important early publishers of GENRE SF in hardcover
format. MG edited 7 anthologies for Gnome, of which Coming Attractions
(anth 1957) consisted of sf-related nonfiction articles. The others were
Men Against the Stars (anth 1950; cut vt 9 Stories from Men Against the
Stars 1963), Travelers of Space (anth 1951), with 16 illustrations by Edd
CARTIER, Journey to Infinity (anth 1951), Five Science Fiction Novels
(anth 1952; with novels by Fritz LEIBER and A.E. VAN VOGT omitted, cut vt
The Crucible of Power 1953 UK), The Robot and the Man (anth 1953) and All
About the Future (anth 1955). Most are loosely thematic. [PN]See also:

(1941- ) US anthologist and academic, not to be confused with Martin
GREENBERG. He has a doctorate in Political Science (1969) and has taught
at the University of Wisconsin - Green Bay since 1975, currently holding
the position of Professor of Regional Analysis, Political Science, and
Literature and Language. Most of his own writing, like Bureaucracy and
Development: A Mexican Case Study (1970), has been in the field of
political science; his sf writing has been restricted to two reference
tools, Index to Stories in the Thematic Anthologies of Science Fiction
(1978) with Joseph D. OLANDER and Marshall B. TYMN, and Science Fiction
and Fantasy Series and Sequels: A Bibliography - Volume 1: Books (1986)
with Tim Cottrill (1958- ) and Charles G. WAUGH.It is as an anthologist -
primarily of sf and fantasy, although he has also edited many anthologies
in other genres - that MHG has become a dominant figure, working both solo
and with colleagues, usually Olander and Waugh, either separately or
together, and with the occasional collaboration of MHG's wife, Rosalind M.
Greenberg. Team anthologies - anthologies put together by two or more
professional anthologists who divide up the various tasks involved, which
include everything from story research and selection through copyright
searches down to selling the actual book - were not unknown before MHG
began to work, but he very quickly established himself in a commanding
position, and by 1995 had published well in excess of 450 anthologies,
primarily assembling reprint and original material of interest to sf and
fantasy readers; in many recent titles his contribution has been
anonymous, and it is increasingly difficult to maintain an accurate
checklist of his output. His efficiency as an anthologist is self-evident,
and the quality of the product is rarely negligible, though some titles
show a lack of daring in their selection of contents: this flatness stands
in odd contrast to the imaginativeness of most of the concepts presented,
for it is clear that MHG has a high talent for conceiving hook themes and
titles.Most of the huge array is made up of fiction anthologies, but
several nonfiction titles have appeared, including the Writers of the
Twenty-First Century series of anthologies reprinting critical articles on
major writers, all ed with Olander: Isaac Asimov (anth 1977), Ray Bradbury
(anth 1980), Arthur C. Clarke (anth 1977), Philip K. Dick (anth 1983),
Robert A. Heinlein (anth 1978) and Ursula K. Le Guin (anth 1979). Other
nonfiction anthologies include Fantastic Lives: Autobiographical Essays by
Notable Science Fiction Writers (anth 1981), The End of the World (anth
1983) with Olander and Eric S. RABKIN, The Legacy of Olaf Stapledon (anth
1989) with Charles Elkins and Patrick A. McCarthy, and No Place Else:
Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction (anth 1983) with Olander and
Rabkin.Of the fiction anthologies, many have been edited by MHG either
alone or with his team (by which term we refer not to contractual
relationships - about which we claim no knowledge - but to the text
partnerships so clearly in evidence), but in addition a large number also
credit as co-editor a "name" writer - often a fiction author associated
with the subject of the book in question. Although it is probable that
some of these "name" editors did little more than approve contents
assembled by the team, most of the MHG/"name" anthologies are genuine
collaborative efforts. For this reason, and because there is little profit
in duplicating long ranks of titles, we list all MHG/"name" anthologies
(of which there are nearly 200) in the entries for the "name" writers
involved rather than below. Of MHG's collaborators (some are academics who
are not part of the MHG team) we treat the following as "name" writers:
Robert ADAMS (6 titles), Poul ANDERSON (5, MHG anon in 1), Piers ANTHONY
(1), Isaac ASIMOV (127+), Gregory BENFORD (6), Robert BLOCH (1; MHG anon),
Orson Scott CARD (1; MHG anon), Terry CARR (1), Arthur C. CLARKE (1; MHG
anon), David A. DRAKE (4), Alan Dean FOSTER (1), Andrew M. GREELEY (1,
with Michael CASSUTT, MHG anon), Damon KNIGHT (1), Barry N. MALZBERG (2),
Richard MATHESON (1), Walter M. MILLER (1), William F. NOLAN (3), Andre
NORTON (2), Frederik POHL (4), Bill PRONZINI (1), Fred SABERHAGEN (1),
Robert SILVERBERG (10), S.M. STIRLING (2), Robert E. WEINBERG (1), Connie
WILLIS (1) and Jane YOLEN (5), of which only the Yolen titles are listed
below.The first MHG anthologies, beginning with Political Science Fiction
(anth 1974) with Patricia WARRICK, were clearly designed to appeal to
teachers; opinions were strongly divided about the usefulness of some of
their accompanying critical apparatus. The Through Science Fiction
educational sequence includes: Introductory Psychology Through Science
Fiction (anth 1974; exp 1977) with Harvey Katz and Warrick; Anthropology
Through Science Fiction (anth 1974) with Carol Mason and Warrick;
Sociology Through Science Fiction (anth 1974) with Joseph D. Olander and
Warrick; School and Society Through Science Fiction (anth 1974) with
Olander and Warrick; American Government Through Science Fiction (anth
1974) with Olander and Warrick; The New Awareness: Religion Through
Science Fiction (anth 1975) with Warrick; Run to Starlight: Sports Through
Science Fiction (anth 1975) with Olander and Warrick; Social Problems
Through Science Fiction (anth 1975) with John Milstead, Olander and
Warrick; The City: 2000 A.D.: Urban Life Through Science Fiction (anth
1976) with Ralph S. Clem and Olander; Marriage and the Family Through
Science Fiction (anth 1976) with Val Clear, Olander and Warrick; Criminal
Justice Through Science Fiction (anth 1977) with Olander; No Room For Man:
Population and the Future Through Science Fiction (anth 1979) with Ralph
S. Clem and Olander; Dawn of Time: Prehistory Through Science Fiction
(anth 1979) with Silverberg and Olander. They were not addressed to a wide
audience.Later titles, which tended to appeal to more general markets,
lacked pedagogical aids and began to feature the name collaborators listed
above. The topical range of these anthologies is enormous, and many of
them are cited in relevant theme entries throughout this encyclopedia. We
list them below in the following order: first, MHG alone; next, MHG with
non-team collaborators; finally, MHG with team collaborators (sometimes
plus non-team collaborators). Each subdivision of the listing is in
chronological order. [JC]Other works:MHG alone: The Classic Philip Jose
Farmer 1952-1964 (coll 1984) and The Classic Philip Jose Farmer 1964-1973
(coll 1984); The Best of Margaret St Clair (coll 1985); The Best of Marion
Zimmer Bradley (coll 1985; cut 1990 UK); Ursula K. Le Guin: Five Complete
Novels (omni 1985) ed anon; Amazing Stories: Visions of Other Worlds (anth
1986); The Best Science Fiction of Isaac Asimov (coll 1986) ed anon;
Amazing Science Fiction Anthology: The Wonderful Years, 1926-1935 (anth
1987), The War Years, 1936-1945 (anth 1987) and The Wild Years, 1946-1955
(anth 1987); The Best of Pamela Sargent (coll 1987); Bart Science Fiction
Triplet #1 (anth 1988), only vol published; Foundation's Friends: Stories
in Honor of Isaac Asimov (anth 1989); The Asimov Chronicles: Fifty Years
of Isaac Asimov (coll 1989; vt in 6 vols as The Asimov Chronicles #1 1990,
#2 1990, #3 1990, #4 1991, #5 1991 and #6 1991); The Further Adventures of
Batman * (anth 1989), The Further Adventures of Batman #2: Featuring the
Penguin (anth 1992) and #3: Featuring Catwoman (anth 1993), and The
Further Adventures of the Joker * (anth 1990); Mummy Stories (anth 1990);
The Diplomacy Guild (anth 1990); Christmas on Ganymede, and Other Stories
(anth 1990); The Leiber Chronicles (coll 1990); The Fantastic Adventures
of Robin Hood (anth 1991); Fantastic Chicago (anth 1991); Isaac's Universe
#1: The Diplomacy Guild * (anth 1991) and #2: Phases in Chaos * (anth
1991); New Stories from The Twilight Zone * (anth 1991); Nightmares on Elm
Street: Freddy Krueger's Seven Sweetest Dreams * (anth 1991); After the
King: Stories in Honor of J.R.R. Tolkien (anth 1992); Dracula, Prince of
Darkness (anth1992); The Super Hugos (anth 1992); The Further Adventures
of Superman (anth 1993); A Newbery Halloween (anth 1993); Frankenstein:
the Monster Wakes (anth 1993); Nebula Award Winning Novellas (anth
1994).MHG with non-team collaborators:MHG with John L. Apostolou: The Best
Japanese Science Fiction Stories (anth 1989).MHG (anon) with Barbara
Brenner, Seymour Reit and Howard Zimmerman: The Bank Street Book of
Science Fiction (anth 1989); The Bank Street Book of Fantasy (anth
1989).MHG with Alan BRENNERT (anon): Stories from the New Twilight Zone *
(anth 1991).MHG with John W. CAMPBELL Jr: Astounding Science Fiction, July
1939 (anth 1981) - the July 1939 issue of ASF in facsimile.MHG with Edward
L. FERMAN: The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, April 1965 (anth
1981) - the Apr 1965 issue of FSF in facsimile.MHG with Ed Gorman:
Stalkers: All New Tales of Terror and Suspense (anth 1989); Solved (anth
1991); The Dean Koontz Companion (anth 1994) with Gorman and Bill Munster.
MHG (anon) with Robert McCammon: Under the Fang (anth 1991).MHG with
Francis M. Nevins: Hitchcock in Prime Time (anth 1985).MHG (anon) with
Byron PREISS: The Ultimate Werewolf (anth 1991); The Ultimate Dracula
(anth 1991); The Ultimate Frankenstein (anth 1991).MHG with Patrick L.
Price: Fantastic Stories: Tales of the Weird & Wondrous (anth 1987).MHG
with Stanley SCHMIDT: Unknown Worlds: Tales from Beyond (anth 1988).MHG
and Robert E. WEINBERG with Stefan R. Dziemianowicz: Weird Tales: 32
Unearthed Terrors (anth 1988); Rivals of Weird Tales: 30 Great Fantasy &
Horror Stories from the Weird Fiction Pulps (anth 1990); Famous Fantastic
Mysteries: 30 Great Tales of Fantasy and Horror from the Classic Pulp
Magazines Famous Fantastic Mysteries and Fantastic Novels (anth 1991); A
Taste for Blood (anth 1993) with Dziemianowicz alone; Sea-Cursed (anth
1994) with Dziemianowicz and T Liam McDonald.MHG with Jane Yolen:
Werewolves (anth 1988); Things that Go Bump in the Night (anth 1989);
Vampires (anth 1991).MHG with team collaborators:MHG with Rosalind M.
Greenberg: Phantoms (anth 1989); Horse Fantastic (anth 1991); Christmas
Bestiary (anth 1992).MHG and R.M. Greenberg with Charles G. Waugh: 14
Vicious Valentines (anth 1988).MHG with Joseph D. Olander: Tomorrow, Inc.:
SF Stories about Business (anth 1976); The Best of John Jakes (coll 1977);
Time of Passage (anth 1978); Science Fiction of the Fifties (anth
1979).MHG and Olander with Patricia Warrick: Science Fiction: Contemporary
Mythology: The SFWA-SFRA Anthology (anth 1978).MHG and Olander with
Charles G. Waugh: Mysterious Visions: Great Science Fiction by Masters of
the Mystery (anth 1979).MHG with Charles G. Waugh: Love, 3000 (anth 1980);
The Human Zero: The Science Fiction Stories of Erle Stanley Gardner (coll
1981); The Fantastic Stories of Cornell Woolrich (coll 1981); The Best
Science Fiction of Arthur Conan Doyle (coll 1981); Hollywood Unreel:
Fantasies about Hollywood and the Movies (anth 1982); The Fantastic Saint
(coll 1982); The Arbor House Celebrity Book of Horror Stories (anth 1982);
Cults! An Anthology of Secret Societies, Sects, and the Supernatural (anth
1983); Alternative Histories: Eleven Stories of the World as it Might Have
Been (anth 1986); The Alternate Asimovs (coll 1986) ed anon; Baker's
Dozen: 13 Short Horror Novels (anth 1987); Battlefields beyond Tomorrow:
Science Fiction War Stories (anth 1987); House Shudders: An Anthology of
Haunted House Stories (anth 1987); Vamps: An Anthology of Female Vampire
Stories (anth 1987); East Coast Ghosts (anth 1989); Cults of Horror (anth
1990); Devil Worshippers (anth 1990); Back from the Dead (anth 1991);
Robot Warriors (anth 1991); A Newbery Christmas (anth 1991); Animal
Brigade 3000 (anth 1994); Commando Brigade 2000 (anth 1994).MHG and Waugh
with Frank D(avid) McSherry Jr (1927- ): Baseball 3000 (anth 1981);
Treasury of American Horror Stories (anth 1985); Strange Maine (anth
1986); Cinemonsters (anth 1987); Nightmare in Dixie (anth 1987); Pirate
Ghosts of the American Coast (anth 1988); Red Jack (anth 1988); Yankee
Witches (anth 1988); the Haunting, Spine-Chilling Stories sequence,
comprising Dixie Ghosts (anth 1988), Eastern Ghosts (anth 1990), New
England Ghosts (anth 1990), Western Ghosts (anth 1990) and Ghosts of the
Heartland (anth 1990); Haunted New England (anth 1988); Fantastic World
War II (anth 1990) with MHG and Waugh anon; Civil War Ghosts (1991);
Hollywood Ghosts (anth 1991); Great American Ghost Stories (anth 1991);
The Fantastic Civil War (anth 1991) with MHG and Waugh anon.MHG and Waugh
with Carol Serling: Rod Serling's Night Gallery Reader * (anth 1987).MHG
and Waugh with Jenny-Lynn Waugh: 101 Science Fiction Stories (anth
1986).MHG and Waugh with Jane Yolen: Dragons and Dreams (anth 1986);
Spaceships and Spells (anth 1987).See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS; AMAZING

[r] Michael Jan FRIEDMAN.


(1928- ) US writer in various genres, noted for expansive historical
fantasies. Waters of Death (1967), Succubus (1970; as by Campo Verde 1977)
and The Stars Will Judge (1974; vt Star Trial 1977) apply a lush though
highly readable psychologizing style to routine sf matters. As Bruce
Duncan he wrote Mirror Image (1968 chap dos), a minor work. [JC]Other
works: The UFO Report (1967), nonfiction; The Others (1969); The Ancient
of Days (1973); A Play of Darkness (1974); To Savor the Past (1975); Aton
(1975); The Face of Him (1976);Julius Caesar is Alive and Well (1977); The
Gods' Temptress (1978), a fantasy; The Fate of an Eagle (1990); the Depth
Force series of military-sf novels, comprising Depth Force(1984), Depth
Force #2: Death Dive (1984), #3: Bloody Seas (1985), #4: Battle Stations
(1985), #5: Torpedo Tomb (1986), #6: Sea of Flames (1986), #7: Deep Kill
(1986), #8: Suicide Run (1987), #9: Project Discovery (1988), #10: Death
Cruise (1988), #11: Ice Island (1988), #12: Harbor of Doom (1989), #13:
Warmonger (1989), #14: Deep Rescue (1990) and #15: Torpedo Treasure

Working name of UK writer Terence Greenhough (1944- ) for most of his
fiction, though he used the pseudonym Andrew Lester for the routine novel
The Thrice-Born (1976), about persecuted hermaphrodites on a distant
planet. TG began publishing sf with "The Tree in the Forest" for Science
Fiction Monthly in 1974. His first novel, Time and Timothy Grenville
(1975), typically of this writer somewhat discursively exploits an uneasy,
oppressive relation between the world at large and its protagonist in a
story of complex TIME TRAVEL and ALIENS, in which Earth itself proves to
be at stake. [JC]Other works: The Wandering Worlds (1976); Thoughtworld
(1977); The Alien Contract (1980).

(1954- ) UK writer and academic who took a PhD in sf at Oxford,
publishing his thesis in revised form as The Entropy Exhibition: Michael
Moorcock and the UK "New Wave" (1983). This text also includes extensive
examinations of the works of Brian W. ALDISS and J.G. BALLARD and gives
competent readings of these and other authors, though it (understandably)
fails to provide anything like a definitive modelling of the notoriously
portable field and slippery topic of the NEW WAVE and its prime organ, NEW
WORLDS. CG later edited, with Eric S. RABKIN and George E. SLUSSER, Storm
Warnings: Science Fiction Confronts the Future (anth 1987 US). Beyond some
further critical pieces - and Death is no Obstacle (1992), a book-length
interview with Michael MOORCOCK, mostly about the latter's work - his
interest had by this point shifted towards fiction, though he was to take
on the position of Reviews Editor for FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE
FICTION in 1990.CG began publishing works of genre interest with "Miss
Otis Regrets" for Fiction Magazine in 1982. His first novel, Daybreak on a
Different Mountain (1984), a fantasy, wrestles mildly with an
ENTROPY-laden plot and venue, and with a range of New Wave influences
forgivable in a book coming from a scholar's loaded mind. Two further
fantasies set in different parts of the same world, The Hour of the Thin
Ox (1987) and Other Voices (1988), gradually demonstrated a sharpening,
meticulously intelligent, cold, quiet narrative voice, and plots which
carefully picked at some of the unthinking assumptions, general to
FANTASY, about war and peace, prejudice and love. Of much greater sf
interest was his fourth novel, TAKE BACK PLENTY (1990), a devotedly
exuberant SPACE OPERA and the first of the Plenty sequence, which won the
involves much tried-and-true material - from the MARS where the tale
begins to the tough female space-tramp who runs her own ship and is in all
sorts of trouble, and on to the ALIENS who dominate human space - and
indeed there are moments when CG seems all too knowing. But the neatly
calipered parodies are accomplished with love, lacking any trace of the
disdain that has tended to disfigure much UK space opera; and the high
jinks are genuinely earned. In the Garden: The Secret Origin of the Zodiac
Twins (1991 chap) is a short prequel, and Seasons of Plenty (1995) is the
projected sequel. Harm's Way (1993) approaches STEAMPUNK in its depiction
of an ALTERNATE WORLD solar system bathed in a sea of Aether, so that
great sailing ships dominate the spacelanes; but is, in the end, more
satisfactorily to be read as fantasy. CG has become, quite suddenly, one
of the dominant figures of his generation of sf writers. He contributed
the entry on Bruce STERLING to this encyclopedia. [JC]Other works:
Magnetic Storm (graph 1984) with Martyn Dean and Roger DEAN; Interzone:
The First Anthology (anth 1985) ed with John CLUTE and David PRINGLE.See

(?1917- ) US writer who began publishing sf with his first novel,
Timejumper (1980), an adventure incorporating an unusually subtle
presentation of the rite of passage central to the sf genre. His further
novels share a common galactic background, though it is clear he is
interested in that background not to challenge it with cosmogonies and
alarums but in order to add verisimilitude to tales of humans caught
off-balance in the vast Universe, and attempting to cope. The Tartarus
Incident (1983) lovingly describes an accident which dumps an untrained
group of humans on the planet of the title. The Pandora Stone (1984) is a
tale of detection involving an AI and a return to an almost deserted
Earth, where wisdom still resides. Starjacked! (1987) and Clarion (1988)
cover similar ground, perhaps rather hurriedly. [JC]


(1930- ) US writer whose NEAR-FUTURE sf novel, The Spook who Sat by the
Door (1969), features a Black uprising in a near-contemporary USA. [JC]See


US specialist publishing house, based in Westport, Connecticut, whose
books are largely academic and sometimes bibliographical; it has a special
interest in sf, and is one of the major academic publishers in this area.
GP has published commentaries on sf by Martha A. Bartter (1989), Thomas D.
CLARESON (1984), Bud Foote (1990), Donald M. HASSLER (1982), John J.
PIERCE (1987 and 1989), Gary K. WOLFE (1986) and others, and anthologies
of critical essays on sf ed Michael R. COLLINGS, Thomas P. Dunn and
Richard D. Erlich, Martin H. GREENBERG, Robert E. Myers, Donald Palumbo,
Robert Reilly, Carl B. YOKE and others, many in GP's Contributions to the
Study of Science Fiction and Fantasy series, which began in 1982 and has
(by 1992) published over 40 volumes. Some of the anthologies have been
selected from conference proceedings of the annual International
Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts. Other GP books are the splendid
Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Weird Fiction Magazines (1985) ed Marshall
B. TYMN and Mike ASHLEY, and A Biographical Dictionary of Science Fiction
and Fantasy Artists (1988) by Robert E. WEINBERG, both standard
references. GP has also published complete runs of many famous sf
magazines (mostly PULP MAGAZINES) in microfiche, including AMZ, Planet
Stories and Startling Stories. [PN]See also: SF IN THE CLASSROOM.

ZIFF-DAVIS house name used once by Robert SILVERBERG and Randall GARRETT,
on the story "The Great Klandar Race" (AMZ 1956), and twice during 1956-7
by others (unidentified). [PN]

Working name of Irish surgeon Thomas Greer (1846/7-1904) for his writing;
he lived in the UK from about 1880. In his A Modern Daedalus (1885) an
Irish lad invents a one-man flying device which straps to the shoulders.
The UK Government attempts to persuade him to use it against Ireland.
Though he longs simply for peace, UK military action forces him onto the
side of the revolutionaries, and a squadron of Irish fliers gains
independence for their oppressed island home. [JC]

(1836-1889) UK poet, novelist and historian, son of the prolific essayist
William Rathbone Greg (1809-1881); PG also wrote as Lionel G. Holdreth.
His first work of genre interest was "Guy Neville's Ghost" for Blackwood's
in 1865; the nonfiction The Devil's Advocate (1878) contains some
speculative material. He was author of an important early sf novel, Across
the Zodiac: The Story of a Wrecked Record (1880) ( FANTASTIC VOYAGES),
which is perhaps most significant for its detailed depiction of the
protagonist's journey to MARS through the use of apergy, an ANTIGRAVITY
force (the concept provided a model for many later novels) which he uses
to propel his SPACESHIP, whose construction is carefully described. Once
on Mars, a more orthodox detailing of UTOPIA ensues: the Martians'
version, though technologically advanced and benignly monarchical, suffers
from scientific literalism (wrong thoughts are criminal) and dubious
sexual morality (women are bought and sold). Finding himself allied to an
opposing group of telepaths who believe in family life, the protagonist is
embroiled in a final conflict and loses friends and wife, though the
telepaths win the war. He escapes to his spaceship and the novel ends
abruptly. Across the Zodiac remains readable. [JC/BS]See also: HISTORY OF

US publisher of reprints in hardcover, a subsidiary of G.K. Hall & Co.
The Gregg Press Science Fiction Reprint Series, ed David G. HARTWELL with
Lloyd W. CURREY as associate editor, included a variety of novels and
collections dating from the 18th century until recent times. Among them
were several new volumes, including ALYX (coll 1976; vt The Adventures of
Alyx 1985 UK) by Joanna RUSS. GP also published books of critical material
about sf drawn from such academic journals as SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES and
FOUNDATION. The GP reprints - many of which represented the first
hardcover editions of out-of-print paperback originals - were regarded by
critics as the best of the several sf reprint hardcover series, all aimed
primarily at libraries; new and often lengthy introductions to the fiction
reprints, by leading critics and authors, were a useful feature. 1978 was
a peak year for the series, with 61 titles published. In 1980 it became
clear that the backlist inventory was too large, and the roster of new
publications was radically cut down. During 1980-84 Currey alone edited
the GP Masters of Science Fiction and Fantasy author bibliographies, which
covered 18 writers in 14 volumes. GP stopped publishing sf in 1984, and
disappeared on being absorbed into Macmillan in Spring 1991. [PN/MJE]

[s] Tony ROTHMAN.


(? - ) Pseudonym of the UK author of Meccania, the Super State (1918), a
futuristic DYSTOPIA describing a German mechanical and totalitarian
society taken to its logical extreme. It contrasts interestingly with the
portrait of a dystopian Germany in Milo HASTINGS' City of Endless Night
(1920). [JE]See also: HISTORY OF SF; POLITICS.

Film. Joe DANTE.

August W. DERLETH.

[s] Robert A.W. LOWNDES.


(1946- ) UK writer known mostly for his very numerous science
popularizations. Most of his novels have been in collaboration and have
tended to a certain narrative predictability, though the science content
has always been impressively presented. Sixth Winter(1979) with Douglas
(William) Orgill (1922-1984) is a HARD-SF tale dealing with the coming of
a new ice age. Brother Esau (1982), again with Orgill, charts the events
following the discovery of the Yeti. Double Planet (1988) and its remote
sequel Reunion (1991), both with Marcus CHOWN, are set in the same
universe, though 1000 years apart. In the first, astronauts must intercept
a comet thought to be on collision course with Earth; in the second the
lunar population comes under the influence of a cult claiming to hold the
secret to the replenishment of the MOON's atmosphere. JG's only solo
novel, Father to the Man (1989), arguably his best book, is a readable and
witty tale of a geneticist hero pitted against a world of spreading
religious fundamentalism. Ragnarok (1991) with D.G. COMPTON is a
NEAR-FUTURE cautionary tale in a traditional vein: a SCIENTIST threatens
to end human civilization unless peace is declared; almost inadvertantly,
Ragnarok does indeed occur. Innervisions (1993) is a weak POCKET UNIVERSE
tale. [MB]Other works: Very many science books, including: The Jupiter
Effect (1974) and Beyond the Jupiter Effect (1983), both with Stephen
Plagemann ( Immanuel VELIKOVSKY); White Holes: Cosmic Gushers in the
Universe (1977); In Search of Schrodinger's Cat (1984); Blinded by the

Pseudonym initially used by E.C. TUBB for 3 novels written for Scion
Publications: Alien Universe (1952), Reverse Universe (1952) and Debracy's
Drug (1953). Tubb then used the name on 2 novels for the Milestone Press -
Planetoid Disposals, Ltd (1953) and Fugitive of Time (1953) - but Scion
objected and reclaimed the name, which was used thereafter by John Russell
FEARN (whom see for titles). [BS]

House name of Modern Publications, used by John Russell FEARN on the sf
novel Liquid Death (1953) and on non-sf works by F. Dubrez FAWCETT. [JC]


(1941- ) UK writer who published two unremarkable sf novels for ROBERT
HALE LIMITED, The Nucleation (1977) and The OMEGA Project (1978). He is
better remembered for the competent Apertures: A Study of the Writings of
Brian Aldiss (1984) with David WINGROVE. [JC]

(1947- ) US writer known initially as the author of the untaxing Star
Commandos military-sf sequence set in an interstellar venue: Star
Commandos (1986), Star Commandos #2: Colony in Peril(1987), #3: Mission
Underground (1988), #4: Death Planet (1989), #5: Mind Slaver (1990), #6:
Return to War (1990), #7: Fire Planet (1990), #8: Jungle Assault (1991)
and #9: Call to Arms (1991). PMG has also published several fantasy
stories, including material contributed to Andre NORTON's Witch World
sequence, such as "Oath-Bound" in Tales of the Witch World *(anth 1987) ed
Norton and Witch World: The Turning: Storms of Victory * (1991) with
Norton; of greater sf interest was Redline the Stars (1993) with Norton,
which revisits the latter's Solar Queen sequence. [JC]

(1943-1986) US academic and writer who began publishing sf with his first
novel, The Makeshift God (1979), an overwritten and overlong but notably
intelligent romance of origins, set initially in a drab Arab-dominated
marginally pre- CYBERPUNK USA, and then on a planet which houses
mysteriously significant data about the deep human past. Century's End
(1981) takes another blackly satirical look at the NEAR FUTURE of Earth,
generating comparisons between RMG and writers like Kurt VONNEGUT Jr and -
more relevantly - John T. SLADEK. In The Blind Man and the Elephant (1982)
RMG tackled a theme dear to Sladek, the consequences of thrusting a
tabula-rasa personality into a meat-grinder world - in Sladek's case it is
usually a young ROBOT that loses its innocence; in RMG's it is a
fast-maturing and monstrous experiment in cloning. The novel closes, after
some very funny passages, in a state of utter despair. RMG's final novel,
The Timeservers (1985), returns to the relative extroversion of his first
in the story of a young soldier's confrontation with CLONES, far stars and
telepathic ALIENS. RMG's premature death halted a career which could have
soared. [JC]See also: END OF THE WORLD; MONSTERS.

Working name of UK traveller, journalist and writer George Chetwynd
Griffith-Jones (1857-1906), the son of a clergyman and one of the most
influential sf writers of his time. He appeared frequently in the pre-sf
MAGAZINE, writing as GG or, for some short stories, as Levin Carnac. He
was instrumental in the transformation of the future- WAR novel to a more
sensational form, capitalizing on contemporary political anxiety; and he
helped make up a literary coterie, including William LE QUEUX, M.P. SHIEL
and Louis TRACY, which specialized in the genre.GG first established
himself with The Angel of the Revolution (1893 Pearson's Weekly; rev 1893)
and its sequel Olga Romanoff (1893-4 Pearson's Weekly as "The Syren of the
Skies"; rev 1894). In the first a revolutionary organization equipped with
aerial battleships creates a reformed society under the government of a
world federation; the second, set 125 years later, describes the upheaval
which transforms this UTOPIAN state to one of total anarchy. Both are
remarkable for their foresight of battle tactics in air warfare and for
their anticipation of radar, sonar and nuclear weapons. They include
elements which would only later become commonplace, notably the struggle
by international cartels for world domination and the apocalyptic visions
of Armageddon on Earth and of DISASTER from the heavens by comet. These
elements can be found also in The Outlaws of the Air (1894-5 Short
Stories; rev 1895), Gambles with Destiny (coll 1898), The Great Pirate
Syndicate (1898 Pick-Me-Up; rev 1899), The Lake of Gold (1903), A Woman
Against the World (1903), The World Masters (1903), The Stolen Submarine
(1904), The Great Weather Syndicate (1906), The World Peril of 1910 (1907)
and The Lord of Labour (1911).From early in his career GG was overshadowed
by H.G. WELLS, a fact which caused him to diversify his work, in search of
critical acclaim. Such praise never came, although he produced notable
examples of several themes: IMMORTALITY featured in Valdar the Oft-Born
(1895 Pearson's Weekly; rev 1895) and Captain Ishmael (1901), the latter
also being an early example of the PARALLEL-WORLDS theme; the LOST-WORLD
theme in The Romance of Golden Star (1895 Short Stories as "Golden Star";
rev 1897), The Virgin of the Sun (1898) and A Criminal Croesus (1904);
SPACE FLIGHT in A Honeymoon in Space (1900 Pearson's Magazine as "Stories
of Other Worlds"; exp 1901); the fourth DIMENSION in The Mummy and Miss
Nitrocris (fixup 1906; vt The Mummy and the Girl UK); telepathy in A
Mayfair Magician (1905; vt The Man with Three Eyes UK); RELIGION in The
Missionary (1902); and the supernatural in Denver's Double (1901), The
White Witch of Mayfair (1902) and The Destined Maid (1908).GG's influence
on contemporary UK sf was extensive, from E. Douglas FAWCETT's Hartmann
the Anarchist (1893) through to Cyril Seymour's Comet Chaos (1906) and
John MASTIN's The Stolen Planet (1906), and can still be seen today, as in
Michael MOORCOCK's 19th-century pastiches. (Since GG's anti-US stance
precluded US publication of many of his works, his influence there has
been negligible.) Several of his novels have been reprinted in recent
times, as well as a collection of unreprinted stories, The Raid of "Le
Vengeur" (coll 1974) ed George LOCKE. [JE]Other works: Briton or Boer?
(1897); The Gold Finder (1898); The Justice of Revenge (1901); The Sacred
Skull (1908).About the author: "War: Warriors of If" in Strange Horizons:
The Spectrum of Science Fiction (1976) by Sam MOSKOWITZ.See also:

(?1800-1877) US horticultural writer and novelist whose early futuristic
UTOPIA, Three Hundred Years Hence (1950), originally appeared as one of
the stories in Camperdown, or News from our Neighbourhood (coll 1836),
published as by An Author of our Neighbourhood. In an extremely early use
of the SLEEPER-AWAKES convention, the tale takes its protagonist 200 years
forward into an automated, urban world where women are emancipated,
slavery is abolished, drunkards are pilloried, good hygiene is enforced,
dogs are extinct and Shakespeare is expurgated. It is a bluestocking
world, but one created with a substantial force of imagination. [JC/PN]See

(1960- ) UK writer resident in the US from 1989 who began publishing work
of genre interest with "An Other Winter's Tale" for Network in 1987, and
who attracted wide attention with her first novel, Ammonite (1993), a late
and sophisticated traversal of the themes-and the venues through which
those themes have typically been expressed-of FEMINISM in sf. Her female
protagonist, who is both agent and victim of an interstellar, imperialist,
capitalistic, male-dominated government, is charged to investigate a
planet inhabited only by women, because a mysterious virus kills off any
males who land there. The protagonist gradually comes to understand the
lesbian culture of the planet Jeep-which at points resembles the culture
of Whileaway used by Joanna RUSS in more than one work-and her own
sexuality. While men do occupy the background (ie surrounding space) and
threaten to sterilize Jeep for fear of the virus, the overall feel of
Ammonite is that of lessons about human nature learned, and taught,
without grievance. [JC]

(? - ) UK writer whose obscurity is only marginally lessened by the
knowledge that, while working for CURTIS WARREN, he invited E.C. TUBB to
write his first novels. Under the house name Gill HUNT DAG wrote Vega
(1951) and Fission (1952); under the house name King LANG he wrote Gyrator
Control (1951), Astro-Race (1951), Task Flight (1951), Rocket Invasion
(1951) and Projectile War (1951); and under the house name David Shaw he
wrote Laboratory "X" (1950), Planet Federation (1950) and Space Men
(1951). Though unconfirmed, there is a strong possibility that DAG was the
author of 6 Tarzan-derived novels under the house name Marco GARRON. [JC]

(1934- ) UK writer in whose sf novel, The Survivors (1965), an assorted
group of folk hang on in a Cornish cave after China starts WWIII. A
nonfiction (and significantly unliterary) study, Three Tomorrows:
American, British and Soviet Science Fiction (1980), treats the genre as a
forum, defined according to the sociological principles of Karl Mannheim
(1893-1947), for predictive utterances that illustrate national
characters. [JC]

Ambrose BIERCE.



L. Edgar WELCH.

(1884-1918) UK writer, killed in WWI. His sf novel, A Drop in Infinity
(1915), carries its unwilling protagonists via a mad SCIENTIST's device
into an empty but congenial PARALLEL WORLD. A lengthy ROBINSONADE evolves
during which the protagonists become reconciled to their lot, have
children, survive a crisis and find themselves finally isolated from
Earth. [JC]


(? - ) UK writer whose long series of Peter Mohune novels were mostly
crime stories; the last two, however, concern themselves with the
implications of nuclear power. In The Fourth Seal (c1947) Mohune comes
across a secret society which has privately developed atomic fission. In
The Purple Twilight (1948) he travels to MARS in search of the descendents
of ATLANTIS, finding instead telepathic members of a dying Martian race,
who tell him they themselves destroyed Atlantis in self-defence, but later
fell into an arms race leading to the nuclear civil war that sterilized
them all. When Mohune returns to Earth he finds a similar arms race
developing, with similar sterilizing weapons. He tells of his experiences
- in vain. [JC]

(vt The Big Mess) Film (1970). Kairos Film. Prod and dir Alexander Kluge,
starring Siegfried Graue, Vincenz Starr, Maria Sterr, Silvia Forsthofer.
Screenplay Kluge, Wolfgang Mai. 86 mins. B/w and colour.This West German
comedy is by a director - a leading light of the German New Wave - whose
apprenticeship was with Fritz LANG. It is an amusing DYSTOPIA set in
AD2034, when the Galaxy has been opened up to entrepreneurs, and monopoly
capitalism - in this case the Suez Canal Company - is rampant. DGV focuses
on two not especially bright astronauts caught in the muddle of the
system, who smuggle, wreck spaceships for scrap or do deals with insurance
companies. The imagery of working stiffs in ramshackle spacecraft points
forward to ALIEN (1979). [PN]

Film (1993). Columbia. Dir and co-prod Harold Ramis; screenplay Danny
Rubin and Ramis, based on a story by Rubin; starring Bill Murray, Andie
MacDowell,Chris Elliott. 101 mins. Colour.Phil Connors (Murray) is a
cynical and unhappy tv weatherman, dejected at having to cover for the
fifth time the annual Groundhog Day ceremony in the small town of
Punxsutawney. The groundhog predicts six more weeks of winter, and indeed
the tv crew is snowed in that night. When Connors wakes next morning, it
is for him the same day - Groundhog Day - in Punxsutawney all over again.
And again, after he has gone to bed, the next day. And again for a very
long time. Although most people take the film as fantasy, the idea of a
day endlessly repeated in a time loop is actually quite familiar in genre
sf. The difference here is that Connors has free will, and can do with the
day what he likes. At first he is irresponsible, later suicidal. He
oscillates between nasty and smarmy nice. He attempts (unsuccessfully) to
seduce his idealistic producer Rita Hanson (MacDowell) by learning all
about what she likes and dislikes over a long series of the same day. What
makes the film wonderful is the absolute integrity with which the
ramifications of the simple idea are explored, and the crispness of the
editing and performances throughout. It becomes clear that the day will go
on forever unless, perhaps, Connors learns how to get the day right. It is
quite astonishingly well made, for it could so easily have gone wrong; the
subtle differences-all catalysed by Connors-from day to day are superbly
rendered and quite gripping. Ideas of death darkly interpose themselves
between Connors and his infinitely slow learning process,itself a kind of
metaphor for real life. It is not even a simple story of redemption, for
some of Connors' unpleasantness remains, mercifully, intact at the end,
and it is arguable that he finally gets the day right more out of the
pressure of tedium than because he has learned to love this simple (but
kind of boring) town. No one will ever make a better-or funnier-time loop
film than this. It should have won a HUGO, but it was JURASSIC PARK year.


(1897-1948) German-born Canadian writer, born Felix Paul Greve. His
output included realistic novels, rural studies and the sf SATIRE Consider
Her Ways (written 1913-23; 1947), which presents the notes of an amateur
scientist in telepathic contact with three ants, members of an exploratory
team from South America. Their comments on the nature of Man and human
society are pointed, and the picture of ant society is remarkably
detailed. The novel has never received due attention. [JC]See also:


(? -? ) UK writer of whom nothing is known except that he was the author
of A Mexican Mystery (1888) and its sequel, The Wreck of a World (1889),
which trace the coming to a kind of consciousness of the MACHINES of
Earth; they then breed other machines and revolt, driving humanity from
the continental USA by about 1950. [JC]

(1910- ) UK writer, variously employed, who began publishing sf with "The
Sphere of Death" for AMZ in 1931, but whose career consisted mainly of
desultory magazine publications until his first novel for ROBERT HALE
LIMITED, Shellbreak (1968), in which a man awakens in AD2505 armed with
knowledge that helps him to topple a corrupt dictatorship. The Heels of
Achilles (1969) presents a world in which the dead have come mysteriously
to life. [JC]



(1914- ) Influential US critic and novelist, who has taught at Amherst
College, Harvard University and Stanford University. He has long been an
advocate of US experimentalist fiction. His sf novel Night Journey(1950)
depicts an idealistic soldier against the background of a useless
NEAR-FUTURE European WAR. The loss of his illusions is rendered with
psychological acuity. [JC]

[s] Donald WANDREI.


(1915-1989) US pharmacologist, advertising executive and writer who began
publishing sf with "Trigger Tide" as Norman Menasco for ASF in 1950,
though his career can be said really to have begun with "Beyond Bedlam"
(1951) which, like most of his best work of the 1950s and early 1960s,
appeared first in Gal and was subsequently included in Living Way Out
(coll 1967; exp vt Beyond Bedlam 1973 UK). "Beyond Bedlam" is a brilliant
novelette describing an Earth about 1000 years hence where drugs enforce a
strictly regulated schizophrenia ( PARANOIA) in every human being in a
five-days-on, five-days-off routine, each body being inhabited alternately
by two personalities, the balance between whom nullifies Man's
subconscious aggressions, thus eliminating the "paranoid wars" of the
"ancient Moderns". But passion and art likewise disappear. The good and
evil of this system are explored with a literacy and verisimilitude that
make it a genuinely interesting variation on Aldous HUXLEY's vision of
drug-enforced stability in BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932). Similar hyperbolic
distortions of the "normal" world govern stories like "My Darling Hecate"
(1953) and "The Delegate from Guapanga" (1964). The Standing Joy (1969), a
PARALLEL-WORLDS story set in a nostalgically rendered other Earth,
features a SUPERMAN, a good deal of harmless SEX and a general sense of
missed focus. WG will be remembered for the power of his early stories.



(1923- ) US writer, critic and teacher, born in Kansas City and educated
at the University of Kansas, where he is now a professor of English and
journalism and Director of the Center for the Study of Science Fiction. He
began publishing sf with "Communications" for Startling Stories in 1949 as
Edwin James, a disguise he dropped for good in 1952 after 10 stories.
Throughout his career, JEG's favoured form has been the short story or
novelette; his best book-length fictions have been either collaborations
or assemblages of shorter material. He has also published considerable sf
criticism, beginning with excerpts from his MA thesis in Dynamic Science
Fiction (1953-4) and continuing with the brief The Discovery of the
Future: The Ways Science Fiction Developed (1975). More notable is a
competent illustrated survey of sf, Alternate Worlds: The Illustrated
History of Science Fiction (1975), although it inevitably suffers from
superficiality in its attempt at comprehensive coverage of later years,
with many writers appearing only as names in paragraph-long lists. For
this critical work JEG won the 1976 PILGRIM AWARD. More recently, he
edited The New Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1988), a shortish and
film-dominated text which is in no way a sequel to or otherwise connected
with the first edition of The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1979) ed
Peter NICHOLLS.JEG's first two books were SPACE OPERAS. This Fortress
World (1955) pits its protagonist against a repressive future religion.
Star Bridge (1955), with Jack WILLIAMSON, shows through a sometimes
pixilated intricacy of plotting the mark of its senior collaborator's
grasp of the nature of good space opera. Everyone, it turns out, is being
manipulated, for the salvation of mankind, by an immortal Chinese with a
parrot. Station in Space (coll of linked stories 1958) assembles several
uninteresting early tales about how Man is tricked into space exploration
for his own good. The Joy Makers (fixup 1961) describes, in JEG's dark,
ponderous, cumulatively impressive manner, a society whose members are
controlled by synthetic forms of release that corrode their sense of
reality. In The Immortals (fixup 1962), JEG's best known work, a mutation
confers IMMORTALITY upon a group of people who become collectively known
as Cartwrights; as their condition is transmissible to others by blood
transfusion, they are forced underground by the understandable desire of
mortal men to attain immortality. The hospital setting of the book adds
verisimilitude. As The IMMORTAL (1969), it became a made-for-tv series,
which JEG novelized as The Immortal * (1970).JEG's second novel to gain
general esteem, The Listeners (fixup 1972), makes productive use of its
episodic structure in depicting the installation of an electronic
listening post to scan for radio messages from the stars, and the 100-year
wait that ensues. JEG's somewhat morose style (in his better moments he
evokes a kind of sense of the melancholy of wonder) nicely underlines the
complex institutional frustrations and rewards of this long search.
Indeed, his forte seems to lie in the narrative analysis of stress-ridden
administrations and their administrators; and his best work is usually set
in organizations or among groups of people forced to cooperate. Women (
WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION), however, tend to be excluded from
the higher purposes of such organizations, and are sometimes depicted
balking at the sacrifices men must make to reach the stars. Nevertheless,
JEG has made a considerable success of his chosen length and venue, and
his later works - particularly Crisis! (fixup 1986) - can ruminate
absorbingly on the administration of humanity's problems to come.
[JC]Other works: Future Imperfect (coll 1964); The Witching Hour (coll
1970); The Burning (fixup 1972); Breaking Point (coll 1972); Some Dreams
are Nightmares (coll 1974), containing short stories from Station in
Space, The Joy Makers and The Immortals; The End of the Dreams: Three
Short Novels About Space, Happiness and Immortality (coll 1975),
containing long stories from Station in Space, The Joy Makers and The
Immortals; The Magicians (1954 Beyond as "Sine of the Magus"; exp 1976);
Kampus (1977); The Dreamers (1977 in Triax ed Robert SILVERBERG as "If I
Forget Thee"; exp 1980; vt The Mind Master 1982); Tiger! Tiger! (written
1952; 1984 chap); The Unpublished Gunn (coll 1992 chap).Nonfiction:
Teacher's Manual: The Road to Science Fiction (1980 chap) with Stephen H.
Goldman (1943-1991), who also served as Associate Editor for JEG's New
Encyclopedia and was its major contributor; Isaac Asimov: The Foundations
of Science Fiction (1982), for which he received a 1983 HUGO; Inside
Science Fiction: Essays on Fantastic Literature (coll 1992).As Editor: The
4 vols of The Road to Science Fiction sequence, comprising From Gilgamesh
to Wells (anth 1977), From Wells to Heinlein (anth 1979), From Heinlein to
Here (anth 1979) and From Here to Forever (anth 1982).About the author: A
James Gunn Checklist (1984 chap) by Chris DRUMM.See also: ALIENS;

(1891-1973) Scottish writer and civil servant, author of many novels, the
first being Grey Coast (1926). It and some others - like Morning Tide
(1931), The Last Glen (1932), Second Sight (1940) and The Silver Bough
(1948) - contain fantasy elements of interest. The Green Isle of the Great
Deep (1944), a sequel to Young Art and Old Hector (1942), describes the
experiences of an old man and a young boy in an underground realm which
turns out to be a sterile and totalitarian land of the dead: their
protests to God are successful. The Well at World's End (1951), whose
title acknowledges a debt to William MORRIS, sums up NMG's style, which is
rich and sometimes sentimental, and his abiding concern, which is the
evocation of an idealized Scotland. [JC]

(1957- ) US writer who has been strongly identified with FANTASY because
of Song of the Dwarves (1988), its sequel Revenge of the Valkyrie (1989),
plus Make Way for Dragons! (1990), sequelled by Human, Beware! (1990) and
Dragons on the Town (1992), both sequences humorous. The Starwolves
sequence - The Starwolves (1988), Starwolves: Battle of the Ring
(1989),Starwolves: Tactical Error (1991) and Starwolves: Dreadnought
(1992) - is rousing SPACE OPERA, opposing human warriors to a sentient
space fortress. Dragonlord of Mystara * (1994) is tied to a game. [JC]



Patrick BAIR.

(1958- ) US illustrator, raised in California, studied at the Art Center
College of Design in Pasadena. JG made his sf debut with a cover for FSF
in 1982, but his real baptism of fire that year was working as one of only
two background painters on the animated SWORD-AND-SORCERY film Fire and
Ice (1982). JG, who works in oils, primarily paints book covers; he has
also done historic and prehistoric paintings for National Geographic. His
style is one of the most painterly in sf since the retirement of John
SCHOENHERR; in a field that emphasizes surface slickness, JG is
refreshing. His influences are eclectic, but include Norman Rockwell
(1894-1978). His popular Dinotopia: A Land Apart from Time (1992) is an
art book, with text also by JG, telling of a 19th-century LOST WORLD in
which humans coexist with intelligent dinosaurs. See also:

(1923- ) UK writer. His sf series featuring Matthew Dilke - Cold War in a
Country Garden (1971), Killer Pine (1973) and Fratricide is a Gas (1975) -
calls upon themes from espionage to ECOLOGY to buttress far-fetched tales
of a government agent miniaturized with some companions ( GREAT AND SMALL)
to test the chances of counteracting OVERPOPULATION by resettling the
world with a miniaturized mankind. [JC]


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