Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (F-F)

(1930- ) US illustrator who worked in electronics until 1973.
Self-trained as a freelance sf illustrator, he worked as a fan artist in
the late 1960s. At the age of 43 he graduated to the professional SF
MAGAZINES, mostly AMZ and Fantastic, with both cover art and interiors; he
was less active in the 1980s than the 1970s. His art is distinctive, with
a strong sense of formal design; it is for his dramatic interior
black-and-white work, reminiscent of Virgil FINLAY's and prepared on
textured coquille board, that he is best known. Book covers and interior
illustrations include work for SMALL PRESSES such as Donald M. Grant,
Byron PREISS and UNDERWOOD-MILLER. Books devoted to SEF's work include
Letters Lovecraftian: An Alphabet of Illuminated Letters Inspired by the
Works of the Late Master of the Weird Tale, Howard Phillips Lovecraft
(1974), Fantastic Nudes (1976) and Fantastic Nudes: 2nd Series (1976),
which are collected with other material in Fantasy by Fabian (1978), The
Best of Stephen Fabian (1976), More Fantasy by Fabian (1979) and Fabian in
Color (1980). Many of these are ed and published Gerry de la Ree (?
-1993), who also published much of Virgil Finlay's work. SEF has seven
times been nominated for a HUGO. [PN/JG]See also: FANTASY.

We do not intend to make here - or to quote - any sustained theoretical
argument about the nature of fabulation as the term was conceived by
Robert SCHOLES in The Fabulators (1967) and amplified in his Structural
Fabulation (1975). Our starting point must be GENRE SF, our central
concern throughout this encyclopedia. In the entry on MAINSTREAM WRITERS
OF SF we contrast the writers of genre sf, and the circumstances under
which they write, with writers and their circumstances in what has come to
be known as the mainstream. Here, we contrast the inherent nature of genre
sf with the inherent nature of the central literature of the postmodern
world ( POSTMODERNISM AND SF for a more sharply focused view of
Postmodernism as a movement and a condition of mind). In using the single
term "fabulation" instead of several - over and beyond Postmodernism, a
critical roster might include ABSURDIST SF, Fictionality, MAGIC REALISM,
SLIPSTREAM SF and Surfiction - we know we are offering a grossly
oversimplified snapshot of the modern literary environment (or nests of
environments). But the alternative would be to make a thousand individual
choices, often inevitably controversial, as we attempted to label each
non-"realistic" non-genre sf novel according to its precise place in an
ever-shifting mosaic of prescriptive definitions. One term will have to
do.Over the course of the 20th century, sf readers have grown used to
thinking of genre sf as substantially different (in manner, in substance
and in intention) from the great stream of realistic novels which
increasingly dominated the English-speaking literary since the middle of
the 18th century, a dominance which was challenged only in the first
decades of our own era. Helped along by critics from within the genre,
like Alexei and Cory PANSHIN in their contentious The World Beyond the
Hill (1989), sf readers have further grown accustomed to thinking that it
was genre sf itself that dethroned the mimetic novel from its position of
dominance in 1926, and that the continued popularity of "realistic"
fiction has been a kind of confidence game. We feel that something like
the reverse is true: that genre sf - which we repeat is our central
concern throughout this encyclopedia - is essentially a continuation of
the mimetic novel, which it may have streamlined but certainly did not
supplant; and that the onslaught of Modernism (and its successors) on the
mimetic novel was also an onslaught upon the two essential assumptions
governing genre sf.The first assumption is that both the "world" and the
human beings who inhabit it can be seen whole, and described accurately,
in words. The writers who created the great novels of the 19th century
wrote in that assumption, and their novels were written as though they
opened omniscient windows into reality. What the novel said and what was
true were the same thing. Writers of genre sf have never abandoned this
assumption. The explorations of Henry James (1843-1916) in the inherent
unreliability of words - and the consequent unreliability of narrators -
awoke no appreciative response in the mind of Hugo GERNSBACK, and it was
not until the 1970s and 1980s that sf or fantasy was published (by writers
like Jonathan Carroll, Samuel R. DELANY and Gene WOLFE) which accepted, 70
years late, the Jamesian intuition. In the world outside, however, after
WWI, serious literary critics and readers almost universally granted the
case of Modernist writers - nearly all of them the spiritual children of
Henry James - that the "real" world could never be grasped whole, but that
it was the high and difficult task of writers to forge fallen words into a
semblance of the world, and to take an artificer's joy in the task of
construction.The second assumption is that the "world"-whether or not it
can be seen whole through the distorting glass of words - does in the end
have a story which can be told. That story might be the knotty and
problematical revelation of the truth of the Christian faith as unfolded
in the later work of T.S. Eliot (1888-1965); or the March of Progress that
Alexei and Cory Panshin claim to have traced, beginning with the
planet-bound storytellers of the 19th century whose descendants bounded
ever upwards toward the GOLDEN AGE OF SF, exploring the Galaxy en passant.
What underlying story is being told is less important than the fact that,
for writers of genre sf, some form of "meta-narrative" lies beneath the
tale, ensuring the connectivity of things. The huge proliferation of
future HISTORIES and novel sequences in genre sf does not simply reflect
market strategies; it also represents a belief that the world is tellable.
It is that belief, whether held by Modernists like T.S. Eliot (and Gene
Wolfe) or pure genre writers like E.E. "Doc" SMITH, that has been called
into question by the various Postmodernist movements, and which lies at
the heart of most fabulations.We can now say what we mean in this
encyclopedia by a "fabulation": a fabulation is any story which challenges
the two main assumptions of genre sf: that the world can be seen; and that
it can be told. We have chosen to use the term "fabulation" because it
seems to us the best blanket description of the techniques employed by
those writers who use sf devices to underline that double challenge, and
whose work is thus at heart profoundly antipathetic to genre sf. A typical
fabulation, then, is a tale whose telling is foregrounded in a way which
emphasizes the inherent arbitrariness of the words we use, the stories we
tell (Magic Realism, for instance, can be seen as a subversion of the
"official" stories which are told by "rational" means and authorities),
the characters whose true nature we can never plumb, the worlds we can
never step into. (An unfriendly critic might say that fabulations are all
means and no substance; but that is perhaps to miss the Postmodernist
point that all previous stories were likewise, albeit secretly, all means
and no "substance".) By foregrounding the means of telling a tale,
fabulations articulate what might be called the fableness of things: the
fableness of the world itself in some Magic Realism; the fableness of the
political and social world in some Absurdist sf; the fableness of the
aesthetic object in Postmodernism as a whole; and - finally - the
fableness of fables in Fabulation itself.Authors whose works (or some of
whose works) are, in our terms, fabulations include Paul ABLEMAN, Paul
Jerome CHARYN, Barbara COMYNS, Robert COOVER, Arthur Byron COVER, Tom DE
Katherine DUNN, Umberto ECO, George Alec EFFINGER, Carol EMSHWILLER, Steve
Russell HOBAN, Trevor HOYLE, Harvey JACOBS, Langdon JONES, Franz KAFKA,
Robert KELLY, Jerzy KOSINSKI, William KOTZWINKLE, Joseph MCELROY, Sheila
O'BRIEN, John Cowper POWYS, Christopher PRIEST, Thomas PYNCHON, Peter
REDGROVE, Philip ROTH, Salman RUSHDIE, James SALLIS, Josephine SAXTON,
Arno SCHMIDT, Lucius SHEPARD, John T. SLADEK, Norman SPINRAD, Stefan
Alice WALKER, Rex WARNER, William WHARTON, Gene WOLFE, Stephen WRIGHT,
Rudolf WURLITZER and Pamela ZOLINE. [JC]See also: OULIPO.


Film (1965). Anglo-Amalgamated. Dir Don Sharp, starring Christopher Lee,
Nigel Green, Tsai Chin, Howard Marion-Crawford, James Robertson Justice.
Screenplay Harry Alan Towers, based on the characters created by Sax
ROHMER. 96 mins. Colour.The first of a series of films produced by Harry
Alan Towers in which Christopher Lee portrayed the oriental master-fiend,
Tsai Chin played Fu's insidious daughter (renamed Lin Tang from Rohmer's
Fah Lo Suee) and a succession of square-jawed heroes-Nigel Green, Douglas
Wilmer, Richard Greene-played Sir Denis Nayland Smith of Scotland Yard.
This first entry is by far the best of the batch, shot imaginatively on
Irish locations which stand in for England and Tibet in the 1920s, and
with devices reminiscent of the old movie serials, such as a gas which
kills an entire village and a superexplosive, both deployed in Fu's scheme
to control the world. Sharp's direction is fast-paced, with full rein
given to the mild sadomasochism of the originals as victims are whipped or
confined to cabinets which slowly fill with Thames water. This is a richly
entertaining pastiche of the old style, although less delirious than The
MASK OF FU MANCHU (1932), in which Fu was played by Boris Karloff. Sharp
stayed with the series for Brides of Fu Manchu (1966), which was almost up
to standard, but after the inferior Vengeance of Fu Manchu (1967), dir
Jeremy Summers, the series was turned over to international hack Jesus
Franco for the disastrous Castle of Fu Manchu (1968) and Blood of Fu
Manchu (1968; vt Kiss and Kill). [KN]

(1889-1963) South African judge and writer, Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of South Africa 1956-9. In his sf novel Ninya (1956 UK) survivors of
a crash landing on the Moon encounter many strange adventures. [JC]

Film (1966). Anglo-Enterprise and Vineyard/Universal. Dir Francois
Truffaut, starring Julie Christie, Oscar Werner, Cyril Cusack, Anton
Diffring. Screenplay Truffaut, Jean-Louis Richard, based on FAHRENHEIT 451
(1953) by Ray BRADBURY. 112 mins. Colour.Bradbury's angry parable is about
a future in which all books are banned. The hero (Werner) is a member of
the Fire Brigade, whose function is not to put out fires but to burn
books. He first questions the regime and then rebels totally, incinerating
the fire chief instead of the books, escaping from the city and joining a
rural community whose members are each memorizing a book, word for word,
in order to preserve it. The film is more ambiguous than the book and, so
to speak, lacks its fire; Truffaut seems not altogether to accept
Bradbury's moral simplicity. This is particularly evident at the end, with
the book people murmuring aloud the words they are committing to memory,
while plodding about the snow-covered landscape like zombies. The words
may be saved but literature itself seems dead. The film is well
photographed by Nicolas Roeg, later the celebrated director of, among
others, The MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (1976). [JB/PN]See also: CINEMA;

Film (1964). Max E. Youngstein-Sidney Lumet. Dir Sidney Lumet, starring
Henry Fonda, Dan O'Herlihy, Walter Matthau, Frank Overton, Fritz Weaver.
Screenplay Walter Bernstein, based on Fail-Safe (1962) by Eugene L.
BURDICK and Harvey WHEELER. 111 mins. Colour.A mistaken US nuclear attack
on Moscow nearly initiates WWIII, a quandary resolved only by the US
President's decision to bomb New York as an apologetic gesture. FS had the
misfortune to be released soon after DR STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED TO
STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1963), and the public preferred the
vigorous black farce of Stanley KUBRICK's film to the wordy, low-key
documentary style of Lumet's. The unlikely premise is lent conviction by
some good performances, but this "message" film is at once too
diagrammatic and too like soap opera in such simplistic portrayals as
Hawkish Professor, Liberal President and Conscience-Stricken Air-Force
General. [PN]

(1948- ) UK writer and FEMINIST whose one sf novel, Benefits (1979),
presents a DYSTOPIAN vision of the fate of women in the 21st century, as
advances in reproductive technologies permit greater male control, in fear
and loathing, over the female half of the race. [JC]See also: WOMEN SF

(1916-1977) US editor and writer in several genres, including crime
stories and erotica. His first published sf story was "No Teeth for the
Tiger" for AMZ in 1950, and for some years thereafter he was a regular
contributor to the ZIFF-DAVIS magazines under his own name, the pseudonyms
Robert Lee and Mallory Storm, and various house pseudonyms, including E.K.
JARVIS, Clee GARSON and Paul LOHRMAN; he also published books as by
F.W.Paul (see below). He was the first editor of IF, Mar-Nov 1952, but
departed after 4 issues to join the Ziff-Davis staff. He left Ziff-Davis
in 1954 but returned in Dec 1955 and became editor of AMAZING STORIES and
FANTASTIC from May 1956, a position he held until Sep 1958. He launched
the short-lived DREAM WORLD in 1957. He was the principal user of the Ivar
JORGENSEN pseudonym, publishing under that name Ten from Infinity (1963;
vt The Deadly Sky 1970; vt Ten Deadly Men 1975), Rest in Agony (1963; vt
rev 1967 as PWF;The Diabolist 1973 as PWF) and Whom the Gods Would Slay
(1951 Fantastic Adventures; 1968). Two of his magazine stories were
filmed: "Deadly City" (1953 If as Jorgensen) as TARGET EARTH! (1954) and
"The Cosmic Frame" (1953 AMZ) as Invasion of the Saucer Men (1955; vt
Invasion of the Hell Creatures). Several of his books were novelizations
of tv scripts, including The World Grabbers * (1964), based on an episode
from One Step Beyond, and City under the Sea * (1965), based on the film
City under the Sea (1965; vt War Gods of the Deep). Other books issued
under his own name were the sf novel I, the Machine (1968) and the
horror-story collection The Doomsday Exhibit (coll 1971). He wrote one
pseudonymous novel in collaboration with Milton LESSER, The Golden Ape
(1957 AMZ as "Quest of the Golden Ape" as by Adam CHASE and Ivar
Jorgensen; 1959 as by Chase).PWF wrote several juvenile novels based on
outlines by Lester DEL REY and published under del Rey's byline, including
The Runaway Robot (1965), Tunnel through Time (1966), Siege Perilous
(1966; vt The Man without a Planet 1969) and Prisoners of Space (1968).
Rocket from Infinity (1966), The Infinite Worlds of Maybe (1966) and The
Scheme of Things (1966) may also have been by PWF but have not been
acknowledged as such. He wrote one juvenile, The Forgetful Robot (1968),
under his own name. [BS]Other works: A Study in Terror * (1966; vt
Sherlock Holmes Versus Jack the Ripper 1967 UK) as by Ellery Queen; The
Frankenstein Wheel (1972); The Girl With Something Extra* (1973), a tv
tie.As by F.W.Paul: novels in the Man from S.T.U.D. sequence: The Orgy at
Madame Dracula's (1968) (#2), Sock it to me, Zombie! (1968) (#3), Rape is
a No-No (1969) (#6), The Planned Planethood Caper (1969) (#7) and The Lay
of the Land (1969) (#8), with #s 2,3 and 8 assembled as The Man from
S.T.U.D. vs the Mafia (omni 1972).See also: UNDER THE SEA.


Julian MAY.



US PULP MAGAZINE which published 81 issues, Sep/Oct 1939 (vol 1 #1)-June
1953 (vol 14 #4). It was originally part of the Frank A. MUNSEY chain but
was sold to Popular Publications, which published it from Mar 1943. Mary
GNAEDINGER was editor throughout.Although it published a few original
stories, FFM was basically a reprint magazine - perhaps the most
distinguished; it was originally founded to reprint science fantasy from
the Munsey pulps. After the sale to Popular it switched to the reprinting
of novels and stories not previously published in magazines. The first few
monthly issues used much short material, with novels serialized, but,
after going bimonthly in Aug 1940, FFM presented a complete novel in every
issue. The early issues featured novels by such Munsey regulars as Ray
CUMMINGS, George Allan ENGLAND, A. MERRITT and Francis STEVENS. Novels
reprinted from original hardback editions included several by H. Rider
and S. Fowler WRIGHT. Through offering access to such material FFM allowed
many pulp-sf fans to broaden their acquaintance with non-pulp material -
extending even to such authors as G.K. CHESTERTON and Franz KAFKA. The
quality of illustration was also exceptionally high - Virgil FINLAY did
much of his best work for the magazine, including 27 covers; 26 covers
were by Lawrence Sterne STEVENS. During the WWII years publication was
sometimes irregular.A Canadian reprint edition ran Feb 1948-Aug 1952; this
was the second Canadian reprinting of FFM, the first being the Canadian

US DIGEST-size magazine. 9 issues, Winter 1966 (vol 1 #1) to Spring 1969
(vol 2 #3). One of the reprint magazines ed R.A.W. LOWNDES for Health
Knowledge Inc., it used material from the PULP MAGAZINES of the 1930s plus
16 original short stories by Greg BEAR, Miriam Allen DEFORD, Philip K.
DICK and others. The most notable of its reprints was Lawrence MANNING's
The Man who Awoke series (1933 Wonder Stories; Summer 1967-Summer 1968).
To issues 2-6 Lowndes contributed a series of editorials, Standards in
Science Fiction, later reprinted as Three Faces of Science Fiction (1973).

US FANZINE, ed from Berkeley by Terry CARR and Ron ELLIK (1958-61) and
subsequently (1961-3) by Walter Breen. Fanac was a small but frequent
publication carrying information on sf writers and events and news of sf
fans and their activities. Its informal and humorous style was popular and
became a model for later fanzines. Contributors included well known fans
and professional writers. Fanac won the HUGO for Best Fanzine in 1959.

(1952- ) US writer who began publishing genre material with two GRAPHIC
NOVELS based on the work of C.J. CHERRYH: Gate of Ivrel: Claiming Rites *
(graph 1987) and Gate of Ivrel: Fever Dreams * (graph 1988). In her own
right JSF wrote the Cantrell sequence of SPACE OPERAS set in a
Cherryhesque habitat-dominated Galaxy - Groundties (1991),Uplink (1992)
and Harmonies of the 'Net (1992) - and featuring the protagonist's
attempts to deal with a COMPUTER-generated crisis on a colony planet
inhabited by the descendants of Native Americans. The tales are
high-pitched in tone, complex and promising. JSF was credited with artwork
on #13-#16 of the Elfquest comic-book series by Wendy and Richard Pini,
published by Donning Starblaze; her name was removed from the credits of
the revised graphic-novel version issued by Marvel Epic. [JC]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 1 issue, Fall 1936, published by Shepard &
Wollheim; ed Donald A. WOLLHEIM. FTOTAS contained a mixture of weird, sf
and fantasy stories, including work by August DERLETH, David KELLER and H.
P. LOVECRAFT, as well as the first publication of Robert E. HOWARD's poem
"Solomon Kane's Homecoming". FTOTAS was, strictly speaking, a SEMIPROZINE,
rather like the earlier MARVEL TALES - which is to say that, despite the
print run being only 200, the magazine was for sale - although it seems to
have found no adequate distribution. [FHP/MJE]

The active readership of sf and fantasy, maintaining contacts through
FANZINES and CONVENTIONS. Fandom originated in the late 1920s, shortly
after the appearance of the first SF MAGAZINES. Readers contacted each
other, formed local groups (some of which, notably the SCIENCE FICTION
LEAGUE, were professionally sponsored), and soon began publication of APAS
and other amateur magazines, which came to be known collectively as
fanzines. The first organized convention was held in Leeds, UK, in 1937
and the first World SF Convention in New York in 1939 (although it gained
its name from the holding in that year of the World's Fair in New York).
From the 1920s to the 1950s, when sf was a minority interest, the number
of people in fandom was small, probably no more than 500 at any one time.
Since the 1960s, however, the number has steadily increased to over 10,000
- though this figure, of course, represents no more than a tiny fraction
of the wider sf readership. Fandom is, like GENRE SF, primarily a US
phenomenon, though other English-speaking countries quickly adopted the
concept. Continental Europe, Japan and elsewhere followed much later; but
increasing translation of and interest in sf has now spread fandom to some
30 countries, from Mexico to Norway. It is made up of both readers and
writers of sf; many authors started as fans and many fans have written sf,
so there is no absolute distinction between the two groups. Fans
themselves are mainly young and male with higher education and a
scientific or technical background, but exceptions are numerous and the
stereotype is becoming less pronounced. Many more women entered fandom in
the 1970s and 1980s.Fandom is not a normal hobbyist group. It has been
suggested that, if sf ceased to exist, fandom would continue to function
quite happily without it. That is an exaggeration; but it indicates the
difference between sf fans and ostensibly similar groups devoted to
Westerns, romances, detective fiction, etc. The reason may lie in the fact
that sf is a speculative literature and consequently attractive to readers
actively interested in new ideas and concepts, in addition to those idly
seeking entertainment. Early fans took part in rocketry, radical politics
and quasi-utopian experiments; later fans seem to find fanzines,
conventions and the interaction of fandom itself a sufficient outlet for
their energies and ideas. Though fandom has a tradition and history, even
a FAN LANGUAGE, fans are notably independent; relatively few belong to
national organizations such as N3F or the BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION
ASSOCIATION, and many publish individual and independent fanzines, a fact
that at least one outside sociologist - Fredric Wertham (1895-1981) in The
World of Fanzines (1973)-has found remarkable and even "unique".There is a
fannish word "fiawol", an acronym for "fandom is a way of life": the joke
is not altogether untrue. Just as sf is unrestricted in the scope of its
interests, so too are fans and fandom. Fandom is thus a collection of
people with a common background in sf and a common interest in
communication, whether through discussion, chatter, correspondence or
fanzine publishing. The result is more nearly a group of friends, or even
a subculture, than a simple fan club or a literary society.There have
always been divergent interest groups within fandom, and during the 1980s
these tended to split more obviously. The most basic division, perhaps, is
between those fans whose main love is written sf and the so-called media
fans, who prefer sf in the form of CINEMA, TELEVISION or COMICS. Even
among fans of written sf, fanzine fans and convention fans have become
separate groups, though there is substantial overlap; comics fans have
their own conventions, and there are other special-interest groups in
media fandom who may be primarily interested in, for example, STAR TREK
(the "Trekkies") or DR WHO; there is even a games fandom, with a
particular interest in role-playing games ( GAMES AND TOYS).Various
aspects of US fan history are covered in, among others, The Immortal Storm
(1954) by Sam MOSKOWITZ, All our Yesterdays (1969) and A Wealth of Fable
(1976 in mimeo form) by Harry WARNER Jr, The Futurians (1977) by Damon
KNIGHT and The Way the Future Was: A Memoir (1978) by Frederik POHL. The
fullest history of UK fandom takes the form of a fanzine, Then, written
and published by Rob Hansen: the 180pp of #1, #2 and #3 (1988-91) cover
the story to the end of the 1960s; more are projected. [PR/PN]See also:


(1927- ) UK writer of literary bent whose DYSTOPIA, Revolution Island
(1979), was one of the last UK visions of a union-dominated left-wing
future. It was published just before the incoming administration of
Margaret Thatcher (1979-90) put an end, for this century, to the relevance
of this sort of warning. [JC]

Sf enthusiasts, in common with other groups, have evolved their own
terminology and usage. This language comprises words and phrases used in
the writing of sf itself and also the more arcane and whimsical jargon of
FANDOM and FANZINES.Most sf readers are familiar with the shorthand of
their literature, and words like "spaceship", "robot", "time-machine" and
even "ftl drive", "spacewarp" and "ray-gun" need little or no glossing.
These words, however, originated in sf and required explanation when first
coined ( TERMINOLOGY). Only the growth in popularity of sf has led to the
acceptance of such terms as part of everyday English. The language of
fandom, however, has a more restricted use and thus is less familiar. Much
of it was initially associated with fanzines, including the specialized
art of duplicating them, and much of it resulted from simple contraction:
"corflu", for example, was nothing stranger than correcting fluid (for
stencils). It is a sign of the march of time - and of the very widespread
use of COMPUTER networks in fandom-that terms like "corflu" have gained an
air of ancient quaintness; another sign of the times is that contemporary
fans tend to accept neologisms from the world of computing rather than to
generate their own. Of more general interest are words which describe fan
attitudes and behaviour. Examples are: "egoboo" (from "ego-boost"), the
satisfaction gained from praise or recognition, such as seeing one's name
in print; "mundane", a non-fan; "slash fiction", fan-generated stories
about sexual intimacy between famed fictional characters, almost always
male, the best known examples being the Kirk/Spock slash tales; and
acronym- based terms like "to gafiate"(from Get Away From It All - to
leave fandom; the phrase originally meant to get away from mundane reality
and to enter fandom). Some of these contractions, acronyms and neologisms
fill a linguistic need ("slash fiction" describes a phenomenon not
otherwhere comprehended); others simply enrich the sense of affinity that
fandom - like any other grouping of this sort - was partly created to
foster. In general, fan argot is anything but freemasonical, and never
amounts to anything like a secret code to baffle outsiders. For fans,
outsiders are identifiable not so much by their failure to use certain
terms as by their tendency to misuse others. The best example of this is
perhaps "sf", the usual contraction used by sf fans; journalists and other
nonsympathetic outsiders can readily be identified by their use of the
repugnant "SCI-FI"; older fans sometimes use the contracted adjective
stfnal, short for "scientifictional" ( SCIENTIFICTION).Various guides to
fan language have been published (by fans) in the USA and UK. Wilson
TUCKER's Neofan's Guide (1955; rev 1973; rev 1984) is a useful
introduction, and Roberta Rogow's Futurespeak: A Fan's Guide to the
Language of Science Fiction (1991), though erratic, covers much new
ground. [PR/JC]


US DIGEST-size magazine, companion to AMAZING STORIES; published by
ZIFF-DAVIS (Summer 1952-June 1965), Ultimate Publishing Co. (Sep 1965-Oct
1980); ed Howard BROWNE (Summer 1952-Aug 1956), Paul W. FAIRMAN (Oct
1956-Nov 1958), Cele GOLDSMITH (Dec 1958-June 1965; as Cele G. Lalli from
July 1964), Joseph ROSS (Sep 1965-Nov 1967), Harry HARRISON (Jan-Oct
1968), Barry N. MALZBERG (Dec 1968-Apr 1969), Ted WHITE (June 1969-Jan
1979), Elinor Mavor (Apr 1979-Oct 1980; initially under the pseudonym Omar
Gohagen). From Nov 1980 Fantastic was merged with AMZ. After the title was
bought by Sol Cohen's Ultimate Publishing Co. in 1965 it mainly published
reprints until mid-1968; the reprint policy was finally phased out
completely under White soon after he took over from Malzberg. For much of
its early life F was bimonthly, but at its height - in the Goldsmith
period - it went monthly, beginning with Feb 1957. The Ultimate Publishing
version began in Sep 1965 as a bimonthly, but the magazine went onto a
quarterly schedule in 1976. The title underwent numerous minor changes,
appearing as Fantastic Science Fiction (Apr 1955-Feb 1958), Fantastic
Science Fiction Stories (Sep 1959-Sep 1960), Fantastic Stories of
Imagination (Oct 1960-June 1965) and Fantastic Stories at various periods.
Browne originally intended F to attract a wider audience than AMZ, and
published tales under bylines famous outside the sf field, including
Raymond Chandler, Truman Capote, Mickey Spillane and Evelyn WAUGH (the
Spillane byline was probably not authentic). After 1953, when it absorbed
the much older FANTASTIC ADVENTURES, F deteriorated to become a downmarket
sf magazine indistinguishable from AMZ. But from 1958, under the more
adventurous editorship of Goldsmith, it improved dramatically, becoming
arguably the best fantasy magazine existing. Fritz LEIBER revived his
Fafhrd and Gray Mouser for an issue containing only his stories (Nov
1959), and the series remained an irregular feature. Authors whose first
published stories appeared in F include Thomas M. DISCH, Ursula K. LE GUIN
and Roger ZELAZNY. David BUNCH was a regular (and controversial)
contributor. Following a bad period in the mid-1960s after the magazine
was sold, F improved again under White, featuring a notable series of
articles by Alexei and Cory PANSHIN, Science Fiction in Dimension
(1970-73), publishing much early work by Gordon EKLUND and some excellent
covers by Stephen FABIAN. New Conan stories by L. Sprague DE CAMP and Lin
CARTER helped to boost circulation a little, but the magazine's situation
remained financially precarious despite the fact that "adult fantasy" had
been spectacularly revived as a paperback genre. Its deterioration after
White quit was rapid and deservedly terminal.Although the words "science
fiction" appeared on the cover at different times for four or five years,
F was always mainly known for fantasy, being particularly strong in SWORD
AND SORCERY.An undated bimonthly UK reprint ran for 8 issues, published by
Strato Publications Dec 1953-Feb 1955. An anthology of stories from F is
The Best from Fantastic (anth 1973) ed Ted White. [BS]

US PULP MAGAZINE published by ZIFF-DAVIS as a companion to AMAZING
STORIES. 128 issues May 1939-Mar 1953. FA began as a bimonthly,
BEDSHEET-size, but maintained a monthly schedule from vol 2 #1 (Jan 1940)
for most of its existence, shrinking to PULP-MAGAZINE size in June 1940.
To Dec 1949 it was ed Raymond A. PALMER, and from then until May/June 1953
(when it merged with the one-year-old Ziff-Davis DIGEST magazine
FANTASTIC) by Howard V. BROWNE. William L. HAMLING was managing editor Nov
1947-Feb 1951.The bulk of FA's contents were provided by a small stable of
Chicago writers using a variety of house pseudonyms, although Palmer did
publish several stories by Edgar Rice BURROUGHS 1939-42 and some material
by established sf and fantasy writers-Robert BLOCH was a frequent
contributor. The magazine was at its best under Browne's editorship in
1950-51, when it published Theodore STURGEON's first novel, The Dreaming
Jewels (Feb 1950; 1950), and notable long stories by Lester DEL REY,
Walter M. MILLER and William TENN. FA hardly bears comparison with its
rival ASF's short-lived but excellent companion UNKNOWN, but sf writers
given carte blanche to write pure fantasy for FA did often produce
readable fiction with a distinctive whimsical and ironic flavour. The
mass-produced material it published was of quite negligible interest.In
1941-3 and 1948-51 unsold issues were bound up in threes and sold as
Fantastic Adventures Quarterly, there being 8 such in the first series,
Winter 1941-Fall 1943, and 11 in the second, Summer 1948-Spring 1951.
There were 2 UK editions: the first released 2 short (32pp) numbered
issues in 1946, the second reprinted 24 numbered issues 1950-54, abridged
from US issues dated Mar 1950-Jan 1953. [BS]


One of the many reprint DIGEST-size magazines issued by Sol Cohen's
Ultimate Publishing Co., which in 1965 had bought rights to the ZIFF-DAVIS
sf magazines. Its only issue, containing stories reprinted from FANTASTIC
ADVENTURES 1949-52, was released in 1970. [BS/PN]

US tv series (1977). Bruce Lansbury Productions/Columbia Pictures TV/NBC.
Prod Leonard Katzman. Writers included Michael Michaelian, Kathryn
Michaelian Powers and the story editor, D.C. FONTANA. Dirs included Andrew
V. McLaglen (pilot episode), Vincent McEveety. Starring Carl Franklin,
Roddy McDowall, Jared Martin. One season, pilot episode of 75 mins plus 9
50min episodes. Colour.The pilot episode has explorers entering the
Bermuda Triangle, an ocean area in which planes and ships are reputed to
disappear; but, after an effectively eerie opening in which their boat is
consumed by a pulsating green cloud, it becomes evident that they are
still within the borders of tv-formula-land. Reaching an island that
"isn't on the map", they meet a 23rd-century human, Varian (Martin), and
discover that the landscape consists of segments of past and future time
and space, an idea perhaps inspired by Fred HOYLE's October the First is
Too Late (1966). This concept allows the protagonists to encounter a new
(stereotyped) culture every week, each within walking distance. Silly and
somewhat repetitive adventures take place. The series was quickly dropped.

US bimonthly reprint PULP MAGAZINE, companion to FAMOUS FANTASTIC
MYSTERIES, which it somewhat resembled. 5 issues July 1940-Apr 1941,
published by the Frank A. MUNSEY Corp.; it was revived by Popular
Publications to publish 20 more issues Mar 1948-June 1951, with the
numeration of the second series following directly on from that of the
first. It was ed in both incarnations by Mary GNAEDINGER.FN used a great
deal of material by A. MERRITT. #1 featured The Blind Spot (1921; 1951) by
Austin HALL and Homer Eon FLINT, serialization of which had begun in
Famous Fantastic Mysteries, and all subsequent issues except the last
featured a complete novel. Other authors whose work was reprinted included
Ray CUMMINGS and George Allan ENGLAND.2 issues of a UK edition appeared in
1950 and 1951, the second (undated) issue confusingly appearing as #1.
There were 17 issues of a Canadian reprint, Sep 1948-June 1951, identical
to the US issues. [BS/PN]


US BEDSHEET-size magazine, ed Walter B. GIBSON, the prolific pulp writer
and creator of The Shadow. Only 2 issues appeared, #1 (Aug 1952) published
by Super Science Fiction Publications, #2 (Dec 1952) by Capitol Stories,
both of Connecticut.This inferior magazine, whose stories featured
simplistic and chauvinistic adventure, should not be confused with
FANTASTIC, also begun in 1952, which for Apr 1955-Feb 1958 was likewise
titled Fantastic Science Fiction. [BS/PN]


UK juvenile pocketbook series published by Stanley Baker Ltd. There were
6 issues, all in 1954. [BS]




US reprint PULP MAGAZINE, 23 issues Spring 1950-Spring 1955, the title
changing after #4 to Fantastic Story Magazine; published by Best Books, a
subsidiary of Standard Magazines. Sam MERWIN Jr was editor until Fall
1951, being succeeded by Samuel MINES and then by Alexander SAMALMAN for
the last 2 issues.Most of the reprints were from STARTLING STORIES and
THRILLING WONDER STORIES; early issues carried a good deal of material
from Hugo GERNSBACK's WONDER STORIES. FSQ used a few original stories,
including Gordon R. DICKSON's first, "Trespass!" (1950), written with Poul
ANDERSON, and occasionally went outside the chain for reprints - e.g.,
publishing A.E. VAN VOGT's SLAN (1940 ASF; 1946; rev 1951) in the Summer
1952 issue. Most issues carried a complete novel. There was a Canadian
edition of the first 4 numbers. [BS]

US DIGEST-size magazine, last 6 issues PULP-MAGAZINE size. 69 issues
June/July 1953-Mar 1960, published by Leo MARGULIES's King-Size
Publications to July 1959, then by Great American Publications. FU began
as a bimonthly, but went monthly in Sep 1954 and held to that schedule for
most of its life except Nov 1958-Sep 1959, when it was again bimonthly. Ed
Sam MERWIN Jr June-Nov 1953; Beatrice Jones Jan-Mar 1954; Leo Margulies
May 1954-Aug 1956; Hans Stefan SANTESSON Sep 1956-Mar 1960.FU's material
spanned the entire fantasy spectrum; in effect it became the poor man's
MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION. There was no interior artwork
until July 1959. Two important stories were "Who?" (1955) by Algis BUDRYS,
which formed the basis of his WHO? (1958), and "Curative Telepath" (1959)
by John BRUNNER, which formed the basis of his THE WHOLE MAN (1964; vt
Telepathist UK). 16 of the best stories from its pages were published in
The Fantastic Universe Omnibus (anth 1960) ed Santesson. [BS/PN]

Film (1966). 20th Century-Fox. Dir Richard Fleischer, starring Stephen
Boyd, Raquel Welch, Edmund O'Brien, Donald Pleasence. Screenplay Harry
Kleiner, based on a story by Otto Clement and J. Lewis (i.e., Jerome)
BIXBY. 100 mins. Colour.A submarine and its crew of medical experts - plus
a double-agent saboteur (Pleasence) - are miniaturized and injected into
the bloodstream of an important scientist in order to remove by laser a
blood-clot from his brain. In the finale - a race to escape before they
revert to full size while still inside the body-they exit via a tear duct
with only seconds to spare. The special effects by L.B. Abbott, Art
Cruickshank and Emil Kosa Jr are impressive, as are the sets-duplicating
in giant size various organs of the body, such as the heart, lungs and
brain - designed by art director Dale Hennesy with spectacular
histological surrealism. This vivid spectacle, however, does not
compensate for the ham acting, the irrelevance of Ms Welch's lingered-on
breasts, and the puerile melodrama. The novelization was Fantastic Voyage
* (1966) by Isaac ASIMOV. A film using a very similar theme is Joe DANTE's

The fantastic voyage is one of the oldest literary forms, and remains one
of the basic frameworks for the casting of literary fantasies. Of the
prose forms extant before the development of the novel in the 18th
century, the fantastic voyage is the most important in the ancestry of sf
( PROTO SCIENCE FICTION). Among others, Johannes KEPLER's Somnium (1634),
Francis BACON's New Atlantis (1627), Tommaso CAMPANELLA's City of the Sun
(1623) and CYRANO DE BERGERAC's Other Worlds (1657-62) all take this form,
as do the oldest of all works which can be claimed as ancestors of sf: the
Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, from the third millennium BC, and HOMER's
Odyssey, from the first.The fantastic voyage continued to dominate
speculative fiction and the SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE long after the rise of the
novel, whose basic pretence was the painstaking imitation of experience
(what the critic Ian Watt calls "formal realism"). It is partly because of
this formal separation of speculative literature from the development of
19th-century social literature that there remains something of a gulf
between speculative fiction and the literary MAINSTREAM today. The first
sf story cast in the form of a novel was Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein
(1818), but there were very few comparable works written in the succeeding
century. The bulk of Jules VERNE's imaginative work falls in the category
of voyages imaginaires, and many of H.G. WELLS's scientific romances adopt
a similar form. Among the important fantastic voyages which today may be
classified as sf are: The Man in the Moone (1638) by Francis GODWIN,
Gulliver's Travels (1726) by Jonathan SWIFT, Nicolai Klimii iter
subterraneum (1741 in Latin; exp 1745; trans as A Journey to the World
Under-Ground 1742 UK) by Ludwig HOLBERG, A Short Account of a Remarkable
Aerial Voyage and Discovery of a New Planet (1813) by Willem BILDERDIJK,
Symzonia (1820) by Adam SEABORN, A Voyage to the Moon (1827) by Joseph
ATTERLEY, Voyage au centre de la terre (1863; exp 1867; trans as Journey
to the Centre of the Earth 1872 UK) and Vingt mille lieues sous les mers
(1870; trans as Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea 1872 UK) by Jules
Verne, and Across the Zodiac (1880) by Percy GREG. These voyages took
their heroes over the Earth's surface, into worlds underground and beneath
the sea, to the Moon and to other planets. Important new scope for the
fantastic voyage was revealed in the last few years of the 19th century by
H.G. Wells in THE TIME MACHINE (1895), which opened up the limitless
vistas of the future to planned tourism, and by Robert W. COLE in The
Struggle for Empire (1900), the first major interstellar adventure story.
These new imaginative territories were to prove immensely significant for
20th-century imaginative literature. The fantastic voyage has, of course,
also remained central within the literature of the supernatural
imagination, much of which was also ill adapted to the form of the novel.
As supernatural fantasy has been influenced and infiltrated by the
scientific imagination it has been the fantastic voyage, far more than any
other narrative form, that has provided a suitable medium for "hybrid"
works; thus a considerable number of 20th-century fantastic voyages are
difficult to classify by means of the standard genre borderlines. In this
no-man's-land within the territories of imaginative literature exist
virtually all the works of writers such as William Hope HODGSON, Edgar
Rice BURROUGHS and A. MERRITT, and various individual novels of note:
Frigyes KARINTHY's Gulliverian Voyage to Faremido and Capillaria (1916 and
1922; trans omni 1966), David LINDSAY's A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS (1920),
Ruthven TODD's The Lost Traveller (1943), the title story of John Cowper
POWYS's Up and Out (coll 1957), The Phantom Tollbooth (1961) by Norton
Juster (1929- ) and Michel Bernanos's The Other Side of the Mountain
(1967; trans 1968).When Hugo GERNSBACK first demarcated sf as a genre in
the 1920s he co-opted Verne, Wells and Merritt, and also Ray CUMMINGS,
author of fantastic voyages into the atomic microcosm ( GREAT AND SMALL).
It was not long before E.E. "Doc" SMITH's The Skylark of Space (1928;
1946) took PULP-MAGAZINE sf, at FASTER-THAN-LIGHT speeds, into the greater
Universe beyond the limits of the Solar System. Other milieux were quickly
introduced. Edmond HAMILTON's "Locked Worlds" (1929) adapted the notion of
PARALLEL WORLDS from supernatural fantasy, and the first pulp sf voyages
into a future replete with ALTERNATE WORLDS were undertaken in Jack
WILLIAMSON's THE LEGION OF TIME (1938; 1952). A significant refinement in
the interstellar fantastic voyage, the GENERATION STARSHIP, was introduced
a few years later, most significantly in Robert A. HEINLEIN's "Universe"
(1941).Voyages into the "inner spaces" of the human mind had also long
been commonplace in supernatural fantasy, but a sciencefictional jargon of
support for such adventures was slow in arriving. Notable early examples
are "Dreams are Sacred" (1948) by Peter Phillips and "The Mental
Assassins" (1950) by Gregg Conrad (Rog PHILLIPS).Most of these milieux
were reachable only by means of literary devices whose practicability was
highly dubious if not flatly impossible. Space travel was the one
hypothetical variant of the fantastic voyage into which it was possible to
introduce rigorous attempts at realism ( SPACESHIPS), although the
technologies involved have inevitably became dated with the passage of
time. Notable attempts from various periods include Verne's De la terre a
la lune (1865) and Autour de la lune (1870), Konstantin TSIOLKOVSKY's
Beyond the Planet Earth (1920 Russia; trans 1960), Laurence MANNING's
"Voyage of the Asteroid" (1932) and Arthur C. CLARKE's Prelude to Space
(1951). The purely facilitative character of devices like TIME MACHINES
and interdimensional portals should not, however, be deemed to disqualify
them as means to be deployed in serious speculative fictions; indeed, they
are vitally necessary.The opening up of these vast imaginary territories
gave sf writers limitless scope for invention. There is no speculation -
whether physical, biological, social or metaphysical - that cannot somehow
be made incarnate and given a space of its own within the conventions of
sf. Voyages into fluid worlds where anything and everything may happen -
where the characters become helpless victims of chaos or godlike creators
- may be envisaged, as in M.K. JOSEPH's The Hole in the Zero (1967), as
may voyages into mathematical abstraction like "The Mathenauts" (1964) by
Norman KAGAN. Sf has drawn up a framework of conventions and a vocabulary
of literary devices which not only makes such adventures conceivable but
renders them relatively comfortable. It is a potential that sf writers
have, for various reasons, been greatly inhibited from exploiting to the
full, but they have - whatever their failings-established significant
signposts within all these hypothetical realms.At its simplest the
fantastic voyage is a set of episodes whose function is simply to present
a series of dramatic encounters, but it is rare to find the form used with
no higher ambition than to offer a pleasant distraction. Many voyages
which pretend to be doing that - like Lewis CARROLL's Alice books -
actually present worlds whose bizarre aspects reflect the real world
ironically and subversively. The same is true even of many relatively
crude pulp sf stories like Francis STEVENS's The Heads of Cerberus (1919;
1952), Garret SMITH's Between Worlds (1919; 1929), John TAINE's The Time
Stream (1931; 1946) and Stanton A. COBLENTZ's Hidden World (1935 as "In
Caverns Below"; 1957), and in such unconvincing films as VOYAGE TO THE
BOTTOM OF THE SEA (1961) and FANTASTIC VOYAGE (1966). In very many cases
the fantastic voyage has allegorical implications, which are most obvious
when the voyage is also a quest, as it very often is in modern genre
fantasy, which tends to follow the paradigm of J.R.R. TOLKIEN's The Lord
of the Rings (3 vols 1954-5). The quest may be for a person, an object or
a place, but the movement through a hypothetical landscape is usually
paralleled by a growth towards some kind of maturity or acceptance in the
protagonist's mind. The growth is towards self-knowledge or CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH in the psychologically oriented variants which lie within or
close to the borders of sf; examples include Rasselas (1759) by Samuel
JOHNSON, Non-Stop (1958; vt Starship US) by Brian W. ALDISS, The Drowned
World (1962) by J.G. BALLARD and INVERTED WORLD (1974) by Christopher
PRIEST. In stories of this kind the relationship between the environment
of the story and the inner space of the protagonists's psyche is often
complex and subtle; in the work of Philip K. DICK, from Eye in the Sky
(1957) to A SCANNER DARKLY (1977), characters are continually forced to
undertake nightmarish journeys into milieux where the distinction between
real and unreal is hopelessly blurred and their personal inadequacies are
painfully exposed.Any list of notable fantastic voyages in modern sf is
necessarily highly selective, but some of the most important and
interesting which have appeared since 1926 are as follows: The World Below
(1929) by S. Fowler WRIGHT, OUT OF THE SILENT PLANET (1938) by C.S. LEWIS,
The Voyage of the Space Beagle (1939-50; fixup 1950) by A.E. VAN VOGT, Big
Planet (1952; 1957) by Jack VANCE, "Surface Tension" (1952) by James
BLISH, MISSION OF GRAVITY (1954) by Hal CLEMENT, The City and the Stars
(1968) by Samuel R. DELANY, Picnic on Paradise (1968) by Joanna RUSS,
Space Chantey (1968) by R.A. LAFFERTY, Tau Zero (1970) by Poul ANDERSON,
Downward to the Earth (1970) and Son of Man (1971) by Robert SILVERBERG,
RINGWORLD (1970) by Larry NIVEN, The Infernal Desire Machines of Dr
Hoffman (1972; vt War of Dreams) by Angela CARTER, Hiero's Journey (1973)
by Sterling E. LANIER, Orbitsville (1975) by Bob SHAW, GALAXIES (1975) by
Barry N. MALZBERG, ENGINE SUMMER (1979) by John CROWLEY, The Hitch Hiker's
Guide to the Galaxy (1979) and The Restaurant at the End of the Universe
(1980) by Douglas ADAMS, The Book of the New Sun (1980-83) by Gene WOLFE,
The Void Captain's Tale (1983) and Child of Fortune (1985) by Norman
SPINRAD, The Travails of Jane Saint (1986) by Josephine SAXTON and
HYPERION (1989) by Dan SIMMONS. [BS]

There is no DEFINITION OF SF that excludes fantasy, other than
prescriptive definitions so narrow that, were they applied, this
encyclopedia would be reduced to 10 per cent of its present length. We are
talking about problems of definition raised by not a minority but a
majority of all genre writings. Among the GENRE-SF writers at least some
of whose work would be excluded are Terry BISSON, Ray BRADBURY, Orson
Scott CARD, John CROWLEY, Avram DAVIDSON, Samuel R. DELANY, Thomas M.
DISCH, Harlan ELLISON, Philip Jose FARMER, Ursula K. LE GUIN, Fritz
and Roger ZELAZNY - many of the ablest and most popular writers in the sf
field. Most or all of these writers (and several hundred more names could
easily be added) have written occasional works that would be accepted by
almost all readers as fantasy, but that is not the point; rather it is
that any definition of sf that insists upon limiting true sf to scientific
or "cognitive" modes of thought, and extrapolation from known realities,
would exclude the whole body of their work. It is not that Delany or Le
Guin are unscientific; indeed, they are not. But the science is not the
whole story; their work is deeply imbued with fantasy motifs, fantastic
modes of thought, narrative connections deriving from the logic of myth,
metaphors from magical or religious belief, narrative resonances evoking a
backward corridor of time long preceding the ages of science and
technology. Certainly most of us can and do accept nearly all the above as
true sf writers, but that is because most of us are not wedded to
prescriptive definitions of sf. In the real world, we recognize that both
sf and fantasy, if genres at all, are impure genres. They are not
homogeneous. Their fruit may be sf but the roots are fantasy, and the
flowers and leaves, perhaps, something else again.It is, of course, quite
simple to erect a theoretical system that distinguishes the genres, though
in practice it is not especially helpful, for the reasons given above. The
usual way is to regard fantasy as a subset of fiction, a circle within a
circle. (The bit between inner and outer circles is mimetic fiction, which
cleaves to known reality. Mimetic or "realistic" fiction is itself fairly
recent; the distinctions being made here could not have been made before
the 18th century.) Within the inner circle of fantasy - the fiction of the
presently unreal - is a smaller circle still, a subset of a subset, and
this is sf. It shares with fantasy the idea of a novum: some new element,
something that distinguishes the fiction from reality as presently
constituted. A novum could be a vampire or a colonized planet. The
sub-subset that is sf insists that the novum be explicable in terms that
adhere to conventionally formulated natural law; the remainder, fantasy,
has no such requirement.To cut the definition to an irreducible minimum:
mimetic fiction is real, fantasy is unreal (but FABULATION); sf is unreal
but natural, as opposed to the remainder of fantasy, which is unreal and
supernatural. (Or, simpler still, sf could happen, fantasy
couldn't.)Several things follow from this sort of argument. The first is
that all sf is fantasy, but not all fantasy is sf. The second is that,
because natural law is something we come to understand only gradually,
over centuries, and which we continue to rewrite, the sf of one period
regularly becomes the fantasy of the next. What we regard as natural or
possible depends upon the consensus reality of a given culture; but the
idea of consensus reality itself is an ideal, not an absolute: in practice
there are as many realities as there are human consciousnesses. A reader
who believes in astrology will allow certain fictions to be sf that an
astronomer would exclude. Although the point is seldom made, it could be
said that the particular consensus reality to which sf aspires is that of
the scientific community.In this encyclopedia we do not use the word
"fantasy" in the sense suggested in the previous three paragraphs: that
is, as a supergenre which includes sf. This is because we have practical
problems to contend with: the hardest part in determining which authors
should and should not be given entries in this encyclopedia was deciding
which fantasy authors were sufficiently sf-like to be included (see
Introduction for further discussion). To make any sort of distinction at
all, we had to regard "fantasy" as the contents of the middle circle
excluding the sf circle, in which the novum is supernatural; in other
words, "fantasy", as we use the word throughout this book, is fiction
about the impossible. Even then, the distinction is quite extraordinarily
difficult; again and again the sf fruit has roots of fantasy; even HARD SF
regularly uses fantastic or IMAGINARY SCIENCE.Although academics,
especially those specializing in genre studies, have written many volumes
attempting to make the sort of distinction we speak of, the sf community
has been decidedly pragmatic and has generally ducked the issue. To take
two major AWARDS, the HUGO and the NEBULA, and one less known, the PHILIP
K. DICK AWARD, it is sometimes not realized that there is nothing in their
constitutions to prevent them being given to works of fantasy rather than
sf; indeed, they often are. Hugo-winners include Fritz Leiber's "Ill Met
in Lankhmar" (1970) and Robert BLOCH's "That Hell-Bound Train" (1958);
Nebula-winners include Pat MURPHY's The Falling Woman (1986) and Ursula K.
Le Guin's Tehanu: The Last Book of Earthsea (1990); Philip K. Dick
award-winners include Tim Powers' THE ANUBIS GATES (1983) and Patricia
Geary's Strange Toys (1987). There are many more such.Or take the genre
magazines, and consider how many have titles deliberately including both
SCIENCE FICTION , SCIENCE FANTASY, and a number of others. Or consider
that the genre newspaper LOCUS, along with the annual bibliographies it
publishes, gives full coverage to sf, fantasy and horror and makes no
clear distinction between them. Consider that the most recent academic
journal about sf deliberately titles itself to include fantasy also:
JOURNAL OF THE FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS. (We do not wish to start any hares
about whatever differences may be discernible between Fantasy and the
Fantastic.) Or consider the Italian word for sf, "fantascienza", which
combines the two genres in the word itself; the Russian word is
"fantastika". Indeed, consider that the general thrust of the European
(though not UK) literary tradition is to regard fantasy and sf as two
aspects of the same phenomenon; it is notable that several European
authors of such entries in this encyclopedia as ROMANIA are more inclusive
about what constitutes sf than this encyclopedia is as a whole. (European
theoretical critics, however, can be very exclusive in their definitions;
Tzvetan TODOROV muddied the waters in Introduction a la litterature
fantastique [1970; trans as The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a
Literary Genre 1973], which sees the fantastic, not very helpfully, as
occupying the area where the reader hesitates between imputing a rational
or a supernatural explanation to the events described, which would exclude
most fantasy from "the fantastic"; and another celebrated European critic,
Darko SUVIN, has claimed that the commercial linking of sf and fantasy,
whether in marketing or in critical terms, is "a rampantly pathological
phenomenon". Suvin is the best known of those critics who have offered the
kind of prescriptive definition of sf noted above.)In the face of this
widespread conspiracy to ignore generic boundaries wherever possible (a
conspiracy to which most bookshops belong) it may seem quixotic to attempt
distinctions at all. Yet we feel that a book calling itself The
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction must make at least some attempt to prevent
"sf proper" from being wholly swamped by the necessarily much larger
number of entries (especially author entries) that a wholly inclusive
policy about fantasy would entail.The task is not impossible, though
necessarily subjective. The most important thing perhaps - difficult to
pin down because it involves style as well as content - is to regard
fantasy as sf-like when it adopts a cognitive approach to its subject
matter, even if that subject matter is MAGIC. Although both are given
entries in this book, most people would agree that Ursula Le Guin's
Earthsea books are more sciencefictional in tone - even though set in
worlds where magic works and where dragons exist - than, say, H.P.
LOVECRAFT's stories of the Cthulhu Mythos, though the latter are in fact
explicable in sf terms where the former are not; that is, Lovecraft's
Elder Gods, spawned in space or in other worlds, can be seen as enormously
powerful ALIEN invaders. In practice, though, Lovecraft's readers seldom
give his work an sf reading of this sort, because his tone is
fundamentally and unmistakably GOTHIC and anti-rational: Le Guin is an
explainer, Lovecraft prefers the weird, the sinister and the inexplicable.
In other words, supernatural fantasy approaches the condition of science
fiction when its narrative voice implies a post-scientific consciousness.
Conversely, sf (like, for example, much of that by Andre Norton or, in a
different way, by Ray Bradbury) approaches the condition of fantasy when
its narrative voice implies a mystical or even anti-scientific
consciousness.Authors who use fantasy elements in sf regularly rationalize
their fundamentally GOTHIC motifs, Anne MCCAFFREY's dragons being an
excellent example: many further examples are given in the entries on GODS
these all being areas where sf and fantasy commonly collide. Conversely,
when writers of HARD SF like Robert A. HEINLEIN, Poul ANDERSON and Larry
NIVEN write fantasy, as they often have done, it is amusing to note how
the old habits persist; they regard the marvellous and the magical with a
rationalist scrutiny, treating MAGIC (which see) rather as Le Guin does,
as if it were a science. The distinction between magic and science is not
wholly clear at the best of times; Arthur C. CLARKE has commented that any
sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". Larry
Niven and David " GERROLD's The Flying Sorcerers (1971) is constructed
around this precept.A story parodying the transmutation of fantasy into sf
by use of scientific jargon is Isaac ASIMOV's "Pate de Foie Gras" (1956),
an sf version of "The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs". When the
rationalization of fantasy elements is merely cursory (substituting, say,
an ALTERNATE WORLD reached through a Dimensional Gate for something
resembling what Alice found down the rabbit burrow) we would be inclined
to call the result fantasy still, though others would call it sf. This
kind of fiction perhaps began with Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom books in
the early decades of this century, in which an unexplained superscience
tends to stand in for magic. A convenient term for these stories is
SCIENCE FANTASY, and they are discussed under that rubric; many "science
fantasy" stories are also PLANETARY ROMANCES (which see).One reason why so
much fantasy rather resembles sf is its use of many sciencefictional
motifs (though it has to be said that the range of motifs is much narrower
than that found in sf proper, since not much fantasy contains anything
other than occult technology; there are few ROBOTS and CYBORGS and
SPACESHIPS). Theme entries in this book representing the most notable sf
and borderline-sf motifs of this sort are ALTERNATE WORLDS, ATLANTIS,
commonplace in fantasy, most of them commonplace in sf also. Indeed, sf
set in worlds where psi powers work can often be read as it if were
fantasy; such, towards the sf end of the spectrum, are Marion Zimmer
BRADLEY's Darkover novels and, towards the fantasy end, Christopher
STASHEFF's The Warlock in Spite of Himself (1969) and its sequels. A
sophisticated variant is The Deep (1975) by John CROWLEY, which adroitly
plays upon the generic expectations of the reader in such a way that what
appears to be HEROIC FANTASY comes to seem, retrospectively, pure
sf.Fantasy itself is not homogeneous; various terms are used, often not
very precisely, to characterize its various kinds. An interesting
distinction, made by Marshall B. TYMN, Kenneth J. Zahorski and Robert H.
Boyer in the introduction to Fantasy Literature: A Core Collection and
Reference Guide (1979), is between high fantasy, set in a fully realized
secondary world, and low fantasy, which features supernatural intrusions
into our own world. Most HORROR fiction takes the latter form; most SWORD
AND SORCERY (or HEROIC FANTASY) takes the former. Although this
encyclopedia contains many examples of both high and low fantasy, it is
probably high fantasy (in this definition) that is the closest to sf: high
fantasy and sf typically create imaginary worlds (alternate to our own).
Thus Frank HERBERT's DUNE (1965) and J.R.R. TOLKIEN's The Lord of the
Rings (1954-5), though the one is sf and the other high fantasy, have in
the imaginative intensity of their detailed world-creation a great deal in
common (but PLANETARY ROMANCE for an argument that the two styles of
fiction differ essentially in that one is set on a planet, the other in a
landscape). The kind of fantasy which creates such detailed,
self-consistent alternate worlds, whatever we call it, is certainly the
kind most written by sf writers "on vacation". Such is Poul Anderson's
Three Hearts and Three Lions (1953; exp 1961) and Jack Vance's THE DYING
EARTH (coll 1950). Such worlds were never peculiar to sf writers, however.
Further back, many of the works of Lord DUNSANY are effectively set in a
coherent, alternate universe, as are those of E.R. EDDISON and James
Branch CABELL, all three being quite unconnected to genre sf when they
wrote, though all three have since had repercussions in sf that go beyond
the merely stylistic. An even more notable work of fantasy is the
Gormenghast sequence (1946-59) by Mervyn PEAKE; this may not be set in a
fully fledged alternate world, but it does contain all the conceptual
creativity that another writer might have lavished on an entire planet
focused upon one emblematic building and its occupants.In its marketing,
sword-and-sorcery fiction was for some time sold very much as if it were a
form of sf - perhaps in part because many of the same writers have been
involved in both genres, like L. Sprague DE CAMP, C.L. MOORE, Henry
KUTTNER, Leigh BRACKETT, Jack Vance and Fritz Leiber; the term "sword and
sorcery" is said to have been coined by Leiber. The archetypal
sword-and-sorcery writer at the pulp end of the spectrum was Robert E.
HOWARD in his Conan series of the 1930s, mostly in Weird Tales (1932-6);
while not sf, these stories were set in a coherent and quite carefully
imagined world (presented as an enormously archaic version of our own).
Sword and sorcery (the term is often used in a derogatory manner, which
partly explains its gradual displacement by the term HEROIC FANTASY) is
generally a form of high fantasy.The overlap of supernatural-horror
fiction with sf is rather smaller than the overlap of high fantasy with
sf, though still very substantial indeed; this area of overlap is
discussed under the rubrics GOTHIC SF and HORROR IN SF.In children's
fiction ( CHILDREN'S SF) the interweaving of sf with fantasy motifs is
intrinsic and can seldom be untwined, as is especially obvious in UK and
Australian work, such as that of Alan GARNER, Diana Wynne JONES, Victor
KELLEHER, William MAYNE and Robert WESTALL.So far we have stressed the
ways in which sf and fantasy get mixed up together. In fact the position
of the genre analyst is by no means hopeless, for distinctions between
high fantasy (or even fantasy generally) and sf are quite real, however
elusive, and they extend very much further than fantasy-equals-impossible
versus sf-equals-possible. Such distinctions always work better, of
course, at the ends of the spectrum rather than at its centre, where
apparent opposites become merged (or balanced) together. At the extreme
fantasy end of the spectrum the imaginary worlds tend, strongly, to be
conceptually static; history is cyclical; the narrative form is almost
always the quest for an emblematic object or person; the characters are
emblematic too, most commonly of a dualistic (even Manichean) system where
good confronts evil; most fundamentally of all, the protagonists are
trapped in pattern. They live in a determinist world, they fulfil destiny,
they move through the steps of an ancient dance. At the extreme sf end of
the spectrum the stories are set in kinetic venues that register the
existence of change, history is evolutionary and free will operates in a
possibly arbitrary universe whose patterns, if they exist at all, may be
only those imposed upon it (or, according to some quantum theorists,
created in it) by its human observers. If there is truth in this argument,
then it follows that the important distinction between fantasy and sf is
more philosophical than technological, a matter of METAPHYSICS.There is
one final group of fantasists, the fabulators ( FABULATION), who create
fantastic changes (often quite minor) in everyday reality, often
ironically or for purposes of SATIRE, rather than for the creation of
frissons of horror or romantic adventure. Such a work is Franz KAFKA's Die
Verwandlung (1916; trans as The Metamorphosis 1937), in which a man is
turned into a beetle. Many such works stem from traditions of fable and
ABSURDIST literature, sometimes taking the form of MAGIC REALISM. John
BARTH, Angela CARTER, Richard CONDON and Thomas PYNCHON are only four of
the several hundred such writers who receive entries in this encyclopedia,
including some whose associations with genre sf have been rather closer,
like Barry N. MALZBERG, Kurt VONNEGUT Jr, and Robert SHEA and Robert Anton
WILSON, whose Illuminatus trilogy (1975) puts a range of fantasy and sf
devices to absurdist ends in a black comedy proposing PARANOIA as the most
fully appropriate response to modern life.In the 1970s fantasy (and its
variant labels like Epic Fantasy, Heroic Fantasy and so forth) became an
important area of book marketing. Some alarmist observers believed that
the density of fantasy publication was such that sf as a viable, separate
marketing category was doomed. In fact, sf has proved able to weather the
storm, but fantasy publishing continues strongly into the 1990s, only
slightly abated, especially in the area of trilogies and series whose
points of reference (sometimes approaching plagiarism) continue in the
main to be Robert E. Howard and, especially, J.R.R. Tolkien. One effect of
fantasy's publishing success (and to a lesser degree that of horror) may
have been to make genre-crossing, which was always common, even more
popular. K.W. JETER and George R.R. MARTIN move from sf to horror; Terry
PRATCHETT, Michael Scott ROHAN, Robert HOLDSTOCK and others from sf to
fantasy; Stephen KING, contrariwise, moves sometimes from horror to sf;
James P. BLAYLOCK contrives, dizzyingly, to occupy all such worlds
simultaneously, as do John Crowley and arguably Gene Wolfe; fantasy
writers like John M. FORD or Barbara HAMBLY or David GEMMELL invent
sf-like worlds; supposedly hard-sf writer Orson Scott Card is repeatedly
drawn to PASTORAL fantasy; William GIBSON, Elizabeth HAND, even Greg BEAR,
and Sheri S. TEPPER turn from high fantasy to sf; Brian M. STABLEFORD
turns to SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES about vampires and werewolves. In the face of
this insouciance on the part of the makers of sf and fantasy, the wise
critic will eschew rigid prescription. Beyond the very various
distinctions already suggested, no consistent demarcation-line between sf
and fantasy should be extractable from a reading of this encyclopedia.
Certainly none was intended. [PN]

Title used on two early UK sf magazines. The first was a PULP magazine
published by George Newnes Ltd., ed T. Stanhope Sprigg. It produced 3
issues 1938-9. The second, subtitled "The Magazine of Science Fiction",
was a saddle-stapled DIGEST issued by the Temple Bar Publishing Co., ed
Walter GILLINGS. It too lasted 3 issues, Dec 1946 and Apr and Aug 1947.
Eric Frank RUSSELL and John Russell FEARN were featured in both series,
and the second magazine featured 3 early stories by Arthur C. CLARKE (2
pseudonymous, as by E.G. O'Brien and Charles Willis). The second magazine
was killed by paper restrictions, but Gillings was able to use some of his
backlog of stories when he became the first editor of SCIENCE FANTASY in
1950. [BS/PN]


The often-used short form of the title of The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND
SCIENCE FICTION , often referred to, in this encyclopedia and elsewhere,
as FSF. [PN]

1. Magazine, BEDSHEET-format for 2 issues, then various DIGEST-size
formats. 8 issues July 1947-Jan 1951; irregular. Published by FANTASY
PUBLISHING COMPANY INC.; ed Garrett Ford (pseudonym of William L.
CRAWFORD). FB was generally an undistinguished and erratic magazine. Some
issues appeared in three different editions with different covers. FB is
best remembered for publishing in #1 The People of the Crater", the first
sf story by Andre " NORTON (as Andrew North) and, in #6 (Jan 1950), Paul
Linebarger's first story as Cordwainer SMITH, "Scanners Live in Vain".
When it ceased publication it left incomplete a Murray LEINSTER serial,
"Journey to Barkut"; this later appeared in full in STARTLING STORIES (Jan
1952), and in book form as Gateway to Elsewhere (1954).2. US SEMIPROZINE,
BEDSHEET-format. 23 issues Oct 1981-Mar 1987, ed Dennis Mallonee and Nick
Smith from California, bimonthly, then quarterly from #4. Unlike the first
FB, to which it was unconnected, this published almost no sf,
concentrating on fantasy and horror. Its authors included R.A. L AFFERTY,
Alan Dean FOSTER and Ian WATSON. Circulation seldom rose above 3000.

US FANZINE (1943-current), ed from New York by A. Langley SEARLES The
Winter 1993-94 issue, no 45/46, was called "50th Anniversary Double
Issue". The original run of 26 issues, 1943-53 - quarterly before 1950 and
then irregular - featured well written, scholarly articles about
contemporary fantasy writers and an impressive series of bibliographies.
FC was notable at this time for publishing the series of articles about
FANDOM by Sam MOSKOWITZ that later became The Immortal Storm (1954) and
for the original material it carried by A. MERRITT, Henry KUTTNER, David
H. KELLER, H.P. LOVECRAFT and William Hope HODGSON. FC was suspended in
1953 but revived in 1978 with #29 (facsimiles of #27-#28, which had been
set up in 1953 but not published, were released in 1986). Up to 1950 FC
appeared quarterly, thereafter irregularly. Its current incarnation was
annual to 1990, semiannual thereafter. Regular contributors to the current
version include Moskowitz and Mike ASHLEY. FC remains strong in
scholarship about early sf and fantasy. [RH]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 2 issues, May and Nov 1950, published by
Magabook, ed Curtis Mitchell. "Old and New Fantasy Stories but Always the
Best" was the slogan of this shortlived magazine, whose stories were
largely reprinted from general PULP MAGAZINES of the 1930s and early
1940s. It also offered prizes for reports of true fantastic experiences
and of haunted houses. #2 was retitled Fantasy Stories, carried a lengthy
UFO feature ("Flying Saucer Secrets Blabbed by Mad Pilot", as the cover
put it), and was three months late. #3 never materialized.The final 3
issues of the 1950s FANTASY MAGAZINE, an unconnected publication, were
also titled Fantasy Fiction. [MJE]


1. US DIGEST-size magazine. 4 issues, Feb, June, Aug, Nov 1953, all but
#1 under the latter title, published by Future Publications, New York, ed
Lester DEL REY, under his own name for #1-#3 and under the house name
Cameron Hall for #4. All issues had covers by Hannes BOK. #1 featured a
Conan novelette revised by L. Sprague DE CAMP from Robert E. HOWARD's
unpublished "The Black Stranger". The contents, of quite good quality,
were almost exclusively fantasy, much of it rather in the style of
UNKNOWN.2. Fantasy Magazine was a vt 1934-7 of a celebrated FANZINE,
Science Fiction Digest, founded 1932, of which Julius SCHWARTZ was one of
the editors. This in turn had incorporated The Time Traveller, often
regarded as the first true fanzine (#1, Jan 1932), which Schwartz had
published with Mort WEISINGER. FM published original fiction, factual
articles, reviews, gossip and biographical pieces. [BS/PN]


An early US SMALL PRESS specializing in sf/fantasy, historically
important in the growth of genre-sf PUBLISHING before sf was discovered by
mass-market book houses. It was founded by Lloyd Arthur ESHBACH in 1946,
based in Reading, Pennsylvania. It published a number of works in
hardcover by such authors as John W. CAMPBELL Jr, L. Sprague DE CAMP, E.E.
"Doc" SMITH, Stanley G. WEINBAUM and Jack WILLIAMSON. It folded in 1958 at
a time when small-press publishing was in crisis. Eshbach sold the company
and its stock to Donald M. Grant Publisher. [MJE/PN]

US SMALL PRESS based in Los Angeles and specializing in sf/fantasy,
generally known by its initials FPCI. One of the many semiprofessional
publishing enterprises of William L. CRAWFORD, FPCI was one of the less
notable companies to start issuing magazine sf in book form in the late
1940s and the 1950s. Its authors included L. Sprague DE CAMP, L. Ron
HUBBARD, Olaf STAPLEDON, John TAINE and A.E. VAN VOGT, but only lesser
works of theirs. Crawford also published the magazines FANTASY BOOK and
later SPACEWAY and Witchcraft and Sorcery (formerly Coven 13) under the
FPCI imprint, in addition to various occult titles and books by Emil
PETAJA and others.The pre-WWII incarnation of the company, then known just
as Fantasy Publishers, had brought out the magazines MARVEL TALES and
UNUSUAL STORIES; and an associated company, Visionary Publishing Co., had
published The Shadow over Innsmouth (1936) by H.P. LOVECRAFT. [MJE/PN]

1. UK FANZINE, ed Walter GILLINGS. 18 issues 1947-50. Gillings,
previously editor of several UK SF MAGAZINES - TALES OF WONDER (1937-42),
STRANGE TALES (1946) and FANTASY (1946-7) - found himself needing an
outlet for his energies after the demise of the latter title and began FR,
which was almost identical in format and content to his earlier fanzine
Scientifiction (7 issues 1937-8) and later fanzine Cosmos (3 issues 1969).
It carried reviews and sf news items, and was professional in appearance.
For its last 3 numbers the title changed to Science-Fantasy Review. When
in 1950 Gillings was given the editorship of SCIENCE FANTASY, the new
sister magazine to Nova Publications' NEW WORLDS, he incorporated
Science-Fantasy Review into its first 2 issues as a news-chat section;
this disappeared when John CARNELL assumed the editorship of Science
Fantasy with #3.2. US monthly critical SEMIPROZINE, founded as Fantasy
Newsletter by Paul C. Allen in Rochester, NY, as, literally, an 8pp
newsletter in June 1978, but becoming a magazine in Jan 1980, ceasing
publication in Oct 1981. It was revived at once, however, by Robert
Collins, director of the International Conference on the Fantastic in the
Arts at Florida Atlantic University. The magazine, which had always
published interesting features, gained much strength when amalgamated at
the beginning of 1984 with SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY BOOK REVIEW (Neil
BARRON, editor of the latter, becoming review editor) with a new title,
Fantasy Review, but a continuation of the previous numeration. (The logo
showed SF & Fantasy Review for several months, with the "SF" very small;
it was soon dropped.) FR had the widest (though not necessarily deepest)
sf-book-review coverage in the US and probably the world, covering fantasy
and horror as well as sf. Later review editors were Carol McGuirk and Rob
Latham. Quite handsomely produced, FR had the usual difficulty in finding
a commercially viable market for a magazine of the standard desired by the
editor, and folded with #103, July/Aug 1987. The review section lives on
less usefully in annual form, beginning 1988, as SCIENCE FICTION AND
FANTASY BOOK REVIEW ANNUAL, with Collins and Latham co-editors. [PN]


US FANZINE (1941-69) ed James V. Taurasi Sr (1917-1991), briefly by Sam
MOSKOWITZ during WWII, Taurasi again, and Frank Prieto Jr from 1966.
Published erratically until 1946, FT thereafter established itself as a
straightforward sf and fantasy newsletter containing news, notes and
reviews. In 1957 its title changed to Science Fiction Times, and
publication continued under this title until #465, in 1969. Though its
contents were mostly routine records of events, the magazine did attract
some attention from publishers and authors; James BLISH was its book
reviewer for a time (c1956). FT won the HUGO for Best Fanzine in 1955 and
1957. Its news-reporting function was effectively taken over by LOCUS. A
short-lived Spanish edition, Tiempo de Fantasia, was published in 1949,
and a successful German version, SF Times, began publication in 1958, at
first as a straight translation, later - especially under the editorship
of Hans Joachim ALPERS - as a serious German fanzine in its own right (


(1935- ) UK writer who became a schoolteacher and preacher. From 1954 to
1965 RLF was an sf writer of remarkable productivity, towards the end of
that period producing novels on a weekly schedule for BADGER BOOKS and
associated imprints, for which he was paid ps25 a volume, dictating his
tales into a battery of tape-recorders for transcription by members of his
family or by friends. The rushed endings of many of his novels were a
result of this practice, as he often did not know how close he was to his
allotted word-length until batches of typing had been completed; if a tale
had reached its length while still in mid-plot, it would be truncated
forthwith. It has been claimed of RLF that he was the world's most
prolific writer in the genre. His first story, written at the age of 16,
was "Worlds without End" as by Lionel Roberts for FUTURISTIC SCIENCE
STORIES in 1952. His first novel, Menace from Mercury (1954), was
published under the house name Victor LA SALLE; other house names under
which he would work were John E. MULLER and Karl ZEIGFREID. Within a few
years he was responsible for the vast majority of Badger's sf and
supernatural output, both novels and collections of stories, some of the
former and all of the latter being included in the numbered series
Supernatural Stories. (RLF's practice with stories was generally to
provide all the contents of a particular issue, using several pseudonyms
in addition to his own name, creating in effect a series of collections.
It is as collections that these titles are listed in this entry, under the
title and name story listed on the cover, though in fact this title might
not actually appear within, and pseudonymous work by other authors
occasionally appears in collections otherwise by RLF; we have here
violated our normal practice of designating such books as anthologies.)
After Badger Books folded, RLF fell silent, though he made a brief
comeback as a fiction writer with The Black Lion (1979), written in
collaboration with his wife, Patricia Fanthorpe (1938- ); it is a
not-unsuccessful fantasy, the first of a projected (but still incomplete)
trilogy.One series of some interest, published under the Bron Fane
pseudonym, chronicles the adventures of the Bulldog Drummond-like Val
Stearman and the immortal La Noire: "The Seance" (1958), "The Secret Room"
(1958), "Valley of the Vampire" (1958), "The Silent Stranger" (1959), "The
Other Line" (1959), "The Green Cloud" (1959), "Pursuit" (1959), "Jungle of
Death" (1959), "The Crawling Fiend" (1960), "Curtain Up" (1960), "The
Secret of the Lake" (1960), "The Loch Ness Terror" (1961), "The Deathless
Wings" (1961), "The Green Sarcophagus" (1961), "Black Abyss" (1961),
"Forbidden City" (1961), "The Secret of the Pyramid" (1961), "Something at
the Door" (1961), "Forbidden Island" (1962), "Storm God's Fury" (1962),
"Vengeance of the Poltergeist" (1962), "The Persian Cavern" (1962), "The
Chasm of Time" (1962), "The Voice in the Wall" (1962), "Cry in the Night"
(1962), "The Nine Green Men" (1963), "The Man who Never Smiled" (1963),
"Return Ticket" (1963), "The Room that Never Was" (1963), "The Walker"
(1963), Softly By Moonlight (1963), "The Thing from Sheol" (1963), "The
Man who Knew" (1963), Unknown Destiny (1964), "The Warlock" (1964), The
Macabre Ones (1964), "The Troll" (1964), "The Walking Shadow" (1964), "The
Lake Thing" (as Pel Torro, 1964), "The Accursed" (1965), "The Prodigy"
(1965), U.F.O. 517 (1965), "Girdle of Fear" (1965), "Repeat Programme"
(1966) and "The Resurrected Enemy" (1966).Apart from those listed below in
connection with book titles, RLF's pseudonyms included Neil Balfort,
Othello Baron, Oben Lerteth, Elton T. Neef, Peter O'Flinn, Rene Rolant,
Robin Tate and Deutero Spartacus. All but the last are partial anagrams of
his name. [MJE]Other works:As R.L. Fanthorpe: Resurgam (coll 1957); Secret
of the Snows (coll 1957); The Flight of the Valkyries (coll 1958); The
Waiting World (1958); Watchers of the Forest (coll 1958); Call of the
Werewolf (coll 1958); The Death Note (coll 1958); Mermaid Reef (coll
1959); Alien from the Stars (1959); Fiends (1959); Space-Borne (1959); The
Ghost Rider (coll 1959); Hyperspace (1959); Doomed World (1960); The Man
who Couldn't Die (coll 1960); Out of the Darkness (1960); Satellite
(1960); Asteroid Man (1960); Werewolf at Large (coll 1960); Hand of Doom
(1960); Whirlwind of Death (coll 1960); Flame Mass (1961); Fingers of
Darkness (coll 1961); Face in the Dark (coll 1961); Devil from the Depths
(coll 1961); Centurion's Vengeance (coll 1961); The Golden Chalice (1961);
The Grip of Fear (coll 1961); Chariot of Apollo (coll 1962); Hell has
Wings (coll 1962); Graveyard of the Damned (coll 1962); The Darker Drink
(coll 1962); Curse of the Totem (coll 1962); Space Fury (1962); Goddess of
the Night (coll 1963); Moon Wolf (coll 1963); Avenging Goddess (coll
1964); Death has Two Faces (coll 1964); The Shrouded Abbot (coll 1964);
Bitter Reflection (coll 1965); Neuron World (1965); The Triple Man (1965);
Call of the Wild (coll 1965); Vision of the Damned (coll 1965); The Sealed
Sarcophagus (coll 1965); The Unconfined (1966); Stranger in the Shadow
(coll 1966); Curse of the Khan (coll 1966); Watching World (1966); The
Story of St Francis of Assisi (1989), nonfiction; Three of the Earliest SF
Stories by Lionel Fanthorpe (coll 1991 chap); Collection of Documents
Referring to Lionel Fanthorpe's Early Writings (coll 1991 chap).As Erle
Barton: The Planet Seekers (1964).As Lee Barton: The Unseen (1963); The
Shadow Man (1966).As Thornton Bell: Space Trap (1964); Chaos (1964).As Leo
Brett: The Drud (coll 1959); The Return (coll 1959); Exit Humanity (1960);
The Microscopic Ones (1960); The Faceless Planet (1960); March of the
Robots (1961); Black Infinity (1961); Mind Force (1961); Nightmare (1962);
Face in the Night (1962); The Immortals (1962); The Frozen Tomb (coll
1962); They Never Come Back (1963); The Forbidden (1963); From Realms
Beyond (1963); Phantom Crusader (coll 1963); The Alien Ones (1963); Power
Sphere (1963).As Bron Fane: The Crawling Fiend (coll 1960); Juggernaut
(1960; vt Blue Juggernaut 1965 US); Last Man on Earth (1960); Rodent
Mutation (1961); Storm God's Fury (coll 1962); The Intruders (1963);
Somewhere Out There (1963); The Thing from Sheol (coll 1963); Nemesis
(1964); Suspension (1964); The Walking Shadow (coll 1964).As L.P. Kenton:
Destination Moon (1959).As Victor La Salle (house name): Victor LA
SALLE.As John E. Muller (house name): A 1000 Years On (1961); The Mind
Makers (1961); The Ultimate Man (1961); Forbidden Planet (1961); The
Uninvited (1961); Crimson Planet (1961); The Venus Venture (1961; 1965 US
as by Marston Johns); The Return of Zeus (1962); Perilous Galaxy (1962);
The Eye of Karnak (1962); Infinity Machine (1962); Uranium 235 (1962); The
Man who Conquered Time (1962); Orbit One (1962; 1966 US as by Mel Jay);
Micro Infinity (1962); Beyond Time (1962; 1966 US as by Marston Johns);
Vengeance of Siva (1962); The Day the World Died (1962); The X-Machine
(1962); Reactor XK9 (1963); Special Mission (1963); Dark Continuum (1964);
Mark of the Beast (1964); The Exorcists (1965); The Negative Ones (1965);
The Man from Beyond (1965); Spectre of Darkness (1965); Beyond the Void
(1965); Out of the Night (1965); Phenomena X (1966) and Survival Project
(1966).As Phil Nobel: The Hand from Gehenna (coll 1964).As Lionel Roberts:
The Incredulist (coll 1954); Guardians of the Tomb (coll 1958); The Golden
Warrior (coll 1958); Dawn of the Mutants (1959); Time Echo (1959; 1964 US
as by Robert Lionel); Cyclops in the Sky (1960); The In-World (1960); The
Face of X (1960; 1965 US as by Robert Lionel); The Last Valkyrie (1961);
The Synthetic Ones (1961); Flame Goddess (1961).As Neil Thanet: Beyond the
Veil (1964); The Man who Came Back (1964).As Trebor Thorpe: The Haunted
Pool (coll 1958); Five Faces of Fear (1960); Lightning World (1960);
Voodoo Hell Drums (coll 1961).As Pel Torro: Frozen Planet (1960); World of
the Gods (1960); The Phantom Ones (1961); Legion of the Lost (1962); The
Strange Ones (1963); Galaxy 666 (1963); Formula 29X (1963; vt Beyond the
Barrier of Space 1969 US); The Timeless Ones (1963); Through the Barrier
(1963); The Last Astronaut (1963); The Face of Fear (1963); The Return
(1964; vt Exiled in Space 1969 US); Space No Barrier (1964; vt Man of
Metal 1969 US); Force 97X (1965).As Olaf Trent: Roman Twilight (coll
1963).As Karl Zeigfreid (house name): Gods of Darkness (1962); Walk
through Tomorrow (1963); Android (1962); Atomic Nemesis (1962); Zero Minus
X (1962); Escape to Infinity (1963); Radar Alert (1963); World of Tomorrow
(1963; vt World of the Future 1964 US); The World that Never Was (1963);
Projection Infinity (1964); No Way Back (1964); Barrier 346 (1965); The
Girl from Tomorrow (1965).

A fanzine is an amateur magazine produced by sf fans. The term "fanzine",
coined by Russ Chauvenet in 1941, has been borrowed and used by comics
collectors, wargamers, "underground" publishers and other non-sf
enthusiasts. The fastest-growing category in the mid-1980s was the soccer
fanzine.The first known fanzine was The Comet (May 1930) ed Raymond A.
PALMER for the Science Correspondence Club, followed by The Planet (July
1930) ed Allen Glasser for the New York Scienceers. However, both of these
were mainly about science, although the second did include reviews of the
professional sf magazines. Some regard the first true fanzine-certainly
the first major one - as The Time Traveller (#1, Jan 1932) ed Julius
SCHWARTZ and Mort WEISINGER. Schwartz, with others, went on to publish
Science Fiction Digest ( FANTASY MAGAZINE). These and other early fanzines
were straightforward publications dealing exclusively with sf or amateur
science, and were produced by local fan groups founded in the USA by the
more active readers of contemporary professional SF MAGAZINES. However, as
interest grew and sf fans formed closer contacts and friendships,
individual fans began publishing for their own amusement, so that fanzines
became more diverse and their contents more capricious; fan editors also
began to exchange fanzines and to send out free copies to contributors and
letter-writers. Thus fanzines abandoned any professional aspirations in
exchange for informality and an active readership-characteristics that
persist to the present and distinguish fanzines from conventional hobbyist
publications. From the USA the idea spread to the UK, where Maurice Hanson
and Dennis Jacques started NOVAE TERRAE (later ed E.J. CARNELL as the
forerunner of NEW WORLDS) in 1936. Since then fanzine publishing has
proliferated and many thousands of titles have appeared. Probably 500-600
fanzines are currently in production, the majority in North America but
with substantial numbers from the UK, Australia and Western Europe, and
occasional items from Japan, South America, South Africa, New Zealand,
Turkey and Eastern Europe.Many modern sf writers started their careers in
FANDOM and published their own fanzines; Ray BRADBURY, for example,
produced 4 issues of Futuria Fantasia (1939-41), which contained inter
alia his first published stories. Other former fanzine editors include
James BLISH, Kenneth BULMER, John CHRISTOPHER, Harlan ELLISON, Damon
KNIGHT, C.M. KORNBLUTH, Charles Eric MAINE, Michael MOORCOCK, Frederik
POHL, Robert SILVERBERG and Ted WHITE. Some still find time to publish:
Wilson TUCKER, for example, has continued to produce Le Zombie since 1938.
Fan editors are of course free to produce whatever they like, and so
fanzines vary dramatically in production, style and content. Normally they
are duplicated, photocopied or printed, consisting of anything from a
single sheet to 100+ pages, and with a circulation of from 5 to 5000
copies, though the tendency in the 1980s has been to call fanzines with a
circulation of over 1000 SEMIPROZINES. The smaller fanzines are often
written entirely by the editor and serve simply as letter substitutes sent
out to friends; others have limited distribution within amateur press
associations such as FAPA and OMPA. The larger fanzines, with an average
circulation of 200-500, fall into three main categories, with considerable
overlap: those dealing with sf (containing reviews, interviews, articles
and discussions); those dealing with sf fans and fandom (containing
esoteric humour); and those dealing with general material (containing
anything from sf to Biblical engineering). (A further category consists of
fanzines exclusively publishing amateur fiction; these are not listed in
this volume unless widely enough circulated to be regarded as
semiprozines.) On the fringe there are specialist fanzines catering for
FANTASY and SWORD-AND-SORCERY fans, others devoted to cult authors such as
J.R.R. TOLKIEN, H.P. LOVECRAFT and Robert E. HOWARD, and yet others which
deal with sf films or tv series such as STAR TREK. Since 1955 there has
been a Best Fanzine category in the HUGO Awards, and since 1984 a Best
Semiprozine category also.A selection of 36 important fanzines - some now
regarded as semiprozines - from different periods of fandom receive full
entries in this volume: ALGOL, The ALIEN CRITIC , ANSIBLE, AUSTRALIAN SF
The VORTEX, WARHOON, XERO and YANDRO. Data on another dozen or so fanzine
titles are available by following up cross-references. The majority of the
above are critical magazines, and many are listed again under CRITICAL AND

The commonly used acronym for the Fantasy Amateur Press Association,
formed in 1937 in the USA by Donald A. WOLLHEIM to facilitate distribution
on an APA basis of FANZINES published by and for members; it was the first
of many such groups. Early contributors included E.J. CARNELL, Robert A.W.
LOWNDES, Sam MOSKOWITZ, Frederik POHL, Wilson TUCKER and Richard WILSON.
Current members include Moskowitz, F.M. BUSBY and Robert SILVERBERG. [PR]

(1935- ) US writer whose first sf novel, Earth (1972), is a competent
adventure. Her second, Complex Man (1973), is a sequel set on another
planet. [JC]

US "magazine" in paperback-book format; it could also be regarded as an
original anthology series. Quarterly, published by Baen Books, ed Jerry
POURNELLE and Jim BAEN and (uncredited) John F. CARR; 7 issues, from Far
Frontiers (anth 1985) at the very beginning of that year to Far Frontiers
Vol VII (anth Winter 1986). At this point Baen revived (as solo editor)
his very similar Destinies series of magazines/anthologies as New
Destinies with #1 in Spring 1987 ( DESTINIES), and Far Frontiers came to
an end. Something of a shop-window for upcoming Baen Book publications, FF
featured several book excerpts. Its emphasis was on HARD SF, sometimes
militaristic, and on good science-fact articles; authors of the latter
included Robert L. FORWARD, John GRIBBIN, Pournelle and G. Harry STINE.
Authors of stories included Greg BEAR, David BRIN, John DALMAS, Dean ING,
Vernor VINGE and Timothy ZAHN. [PN]

Fred Polak's The Image of the Future (1973) identifies two distinct
categories of images of the distant future, which he called the "future of
prophecy" and the "future of destiny". Prophets, although they refer to
the future, are primarily concerned with the present: they issue warnings
about the consequences of present actions and demand that other courses of
action be adopted. Their images are images of the historical future which
will grow out of human action in the present day ( NEAR FUTURE). To the
second category of images, however, present concerns are usually
irrelevant; these are images of the ultimate future, taking the
imagination as far as it can reach. Such visions are related to
ESCHATOLOGY and often feature the END OF THE WORLD; others depict a world
where everything has so changed as to have become virtually
incomprehensible, or a world which has attained some ultimate UTOPIAN
state of perfection.Scientifically inspired images of the far future could
not come into being until the true age of the Earth and therefore the
scope of possible change were understood - an understanding first
popularized by Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) in Principles of Geology
(1830). Even then it was not until the establishment of the theory of
EVOLUTION that writers found a conceptual tool which made it possible for
them to imagine the kinds of changes which might plausibly take place.
W.H. HUDSON's A Crystal Age (1887), which belongs to the utopian school,
embraces an evolutionary philosophy of a curiously mystical kind, and such
traces of mysticism are retained by very many representations of the far
future. Most early images of the far future accepted estimates of the
likely age of the Sun based on the tacit, natural but false assumption
that its heat was produced by combustion; the far-future Earth is thus
represented as a cold, dark and desolate place from which life is slowly
disappearing. We find such imagery in H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE
(1895), George C. WALLIS's "The Last Days of Earth" (1901) and William
Hope HODGSON's The House on the Borderland (1908). Hodgson's The Night
Land (1912) is bizarre as well as bleak, offering a phantasmagorical
vision of a decaying world inherited by frightful monsters. The optimistic
far-future vision which concludes George Bernard SHAW's Back to Methuselah
(1921) is predicated on the assumption that mind can and will cast off the
confining shackles of matter. More elaborate but no less striking imagery
is featured in the concluding section of Guy DENT's Emperor of the If
(1926), in which our insane descendants are no longer human in form or
ability but remain all too human in psychological terms. S. Fowler
WRIGHT's The World Below (incorporating The Amphibians [1924]; 1929) is
equally ambitious, and contrives to transcend the images of decay and
desolation associated with so many other visions. These works were quickly
followed by Olaf STAPLEDON's monumental attempt to track the entire
evolutionary future of mankind, LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930), partly based on
a blueprint provided by J.B.S. HALDANE in "The Last Judgment" (1927).
Other than millenarian fantasies, which claim that the future of destiny
is imminent, very few novels link the two images of the future defined by
Polak within a coherent historical narrative; LAST AND FIRST MEN is by far
the most outstanding example, although Camille FLAMMARION's Omega (trans
1894) had earlier brought the two into rather awkward juxtaposition.The
early sf PULP MAGAZINES featured several far-future visions of the end of
the world, but had little to compare with the imagery of the UK SCIENTIFIC
ROMANCES. One notable story that presents the extinction of mankind's
remote descendants as one more stage in a continuing process of change is
"Seeds of the Dusk" (1938) by Raymond Z. GALLUN, in which a much-changed
Earth is "invaded" and "conquered" by spores from another world. Gallun's
"When Earth is Old" (1951) has time travellers negotiating with sentient
plants to assure the rebirth of the species. The quest for some such
rebirth is a common motif in far-future stories, and time travellers from
the present frequently contrive to turn the evolutionary tide that is
sweeping humanity towards extinction, as in such stories as John W.
CAMPBELL Jr's "Twilight" (1934 as by Don A. Stuart). The idea of
reigniting a senescent Sun in order to give Earth and mankind a new lease
of life is poignantly deployed in Clark Ashton SMITH's "Phoenix" (1954)
and extravagantly developed in Gene WOLFE's Book of the New Sun tetralogy
(1980-83). Such notions arise from false analogies drawn between the life
of an individual and that of a species, alleging that species may "age"
and become "senescent". The popularity of such ideas in sf is not
surprising, given the influence of similar analogies between individuals
and cultures in the work of philosophers of history like Oswald Spengler
(1880-1936). Spengler's ideas were a strong influence on James BLISH,
whose most memorable accounts of the far future are "Watershed" (1957) and
Midsummer Century (1972). Images of an aged world that has returned to its
"second childhood" are sometimes as affectionate as rose-tinted images of
human retirement; the classic example is John CROWLEY's ENGINE SUMMER
(1979).Clark Ashton Smith set the most lushly exotic of all his series in
Zothique, the "last continent" - a bizarre and decadent world in which
magic flourishes. The stories, all written in the 1930s, were eventually
collected in Zothique (coll 1970). Zothique offered Smith more imaginative
freedom than his distant-past scenario Hyperborea precisely because it was
irredeemably decadent. A similar but less fervent series of fantasies is
Jack VANCE's THE DYING EARTH (coll 1950), whose later sequels include The
Eyes of the Overworld (fixup 1966), which contains a stronger strain of
picaresque comedy. A. MERRITT never used the far future as a setting, but
his lavish descriptions of exotic landscapes influenced a number of
far-future fantasies; Henry KUTTNER and C.L. MOORE, who wrote a series of
Merritt-influenced novels in the 1940s, offered a Merrittesque far future
in Earth's Last Citadel (1943; 1964).The classic pulp sf story of the far
future is Arthur C. CLARKE's Stapledon-influenced Against the Fall of
Night (1948; 1953; rev vt The City and the Stars 1956). Its imagery is
stereotyped - a bleak, derelict Earth with cities whose handsome,
incurious inhabitants are parasitic upon their machines - but its
perspectives widen dramatically to take in the whole cosmos, where mankind
may yet seek a further and more glorious destiny. This was to become a
central myth of sf, and many images of GALACTIC EMPIRE include nostalgic
portraits of stagnant backwater Earth. These are not, of course, images of
the future of destiny but rather attempts to perpetuate and magnify the
historical image - as is obvious in the many epics which construct
galactic history by analogy with Earthly history.Images of far-future
Earth became more varied in the sf of the 1950s; notable examples include
a number of highly stylized and semi-allegorical vignettes by Fritz
LEIBER, including "When the Last Gods Die" (1951) and "The Big Trek"
(1957), as well as many fine stories by Brian W. ALDISS, including the
later items in The Canopy of Time (coll 1959; rev vt Galaxies Like Grains
of Sand), "Old Hundredth" (1960), the stories making up The Long Afternoon
of Earth (fixup 1962 US; exp vt Hothouse UK), "A Kind of Artistry" (1962)
and "The Worm that Flies" (1968). As with all the stories in this
category, these tend towards FANTASY, and some controversy was stirred up
by a particularly memorable image in The Long Afternoon of Earth, in which
gigantic cobwebs stretch between the Earth and the Moon, whose faces are
now perpetually turned to one another. Other innovative uses of far-future
settings can be seen in John BRUNNER's elegiac adventure story The 100th
Millennium (1959; rev vt Catch a Falling Star 1968), Samuel R. DELANY's
exotic romance The Jewels of Aptor (1962), Jack Vance's elegant political
allegory THE LAST CASTLE (1966), Michael MOORCOCK's angst-ridden The
Twilight Man (1966; vt The Shores of Death) and Crawford KILIAN's exotic
romance of maturation Eyas (1982).Michael Moorcock's fondness for
far-future settings encouraged him to break new ground in his Dancers at
the End of Time trilogy (1972-6) and various other works associated with
it. In this series, whose tone ranges from extravagant SATIRE to perverse
sentimentality, the ultimate future is inhabited by humans with godlike
powers who must perpetually seek diversion from the tedium of their
limitless existence. Other writers who have made frequent and significant
use of far-future imagery in recent times include Robert SILVERBERG, in
such works as the surreal Son of Man (1971) and "This is the Road" (1973),
Doris PISERCHIA, in such works as A Billion Days of Earth (1976) and Earth
in Twilight (1981), and Michael G. CONEY in The Celestial Steam Locomotive
(1983), Gods of the Greataway (1984) and other associated works.There are
no anthologies dealing specifically with this theme, and it is worth
noting that Harry HARRISON's attempt to compile a companion volume to his
near-future anthology The Year 2000 (anth 1970), to be entitled The Year
2,000,000, failed to attract sufficient suitable submissions. The theme
does not lend itself readily to conventional plot and character
development. [BS]See also: DEVOLUTION; ENTROPY; MYTHOLOGY.

(1883-1955) UK writer, prolific (often as Anthony Swift) in the detective
genre and as a playwright. The RURITANIAN Mountain Mystery (1935) depicts
the small country of Weldheim, which loses itself to history after WWI,
becoming a kind of LOST WORLD. Death of a World (1948) depicts the arrival
of aliens on a dead Earth and their reading of the diary (which makes up
the bulk of the text) kept by a last survivor of the nuclear DISASTER that
ended all life ( END OF THE WORLD). [JC]Other works: The Invisible
Companion and Other Stories (coll 1946 chap), fantasies.

Pseudonym of US writer and teacher Roger Sherman Hoar (1887-1963) for all
his sf work except two 1938 stories published in AMZ as by Lt John Pease.
He was educated at Harvard and had a remarkably varied career, which
included teaching such subjects as mathematics and engineering, inventing
a system of aiming large guns by the stars, and serving as a Massachusetts
state senator. His early work in the pulp-sf field was written in obvious
imitation of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS and was contributed to The ARGOSY -
notably his most famous series, the Radio Man series, featuring Miles
Cabot, which began with The Radio Man (1924 Argosy; 1948; vt An Earthman
on Venus 1950) and continued with The Radio Beasts (1925 Argosy; 1964),
The Radio Planet (1926 Argosy; 1964), "The Radio Man Returns" (1939 AMZ)
and "The Radio Minds of Mars" (1955 Spaceway, part 1 only; part 2 in
Spaceway 1969). Other "radio" stories - including novels which did not
reach book form, such as "The Radio Flyers" (1929 Argosy) and "The Radio
Gun-Runners" (1930 Argosy) - are out of series. The tales, at first
absurdly boosted by The Argosy as scientifically accurate, are devoted to
the adventures of Cabot, mostly on VENUS, the Radio Planet, and still have
admirers. Along with another novel, The Hidden Universe (1939 AMZ; with
"We, the Mist" as coll 1950), The Radio Man was later assembled as Strange
Worlds (omni 1953). RMF was a rough-hewn, traditional SENSE-OF-WONDER
writer, and as a consequence became relatively inactive with the greater
sophistication of the genre after WWII. [JC/PN]Other works: Dangerous Love
(fixup 1946 chap UK); The Immortals (1934 Argosy; 1947 chap UK); The
Omnibus of Time (coll 1950).See also: ALIENS; COMICS; ESCHATOLOGY; HISTORY

(1918- ) US writer. Although a voracious reader of sf in his youth, PJF
was a comparatively late starter as an author, and his first story,
"O'Brien and Obrenov" for Adventure in 1946, promised little. A part-time
student at Bradley University, he gained a BA in English in 1950, and two
years later burst onto the sf scene with his novella THE LOVERS (1952
Startling Stories; exp 1961; rev 1979). Although originally rejected by
SCIENCE FICTION, it gained instant acclaim and won PJF a 1953 HUGO for
Most Promising New Author. It concerned XENOBIOLOGY, PARASITISM and SEX,
an explosive mixture which was to feature repeatedly in PJF's best work.
After writing such excellent short stories as "Sail On! Sail On!" (1952)
and "Mother" (1953), PJF became a full-time writer. His second short
novel, A Woman a Day (1953 Startling Stories; rev 1960; vt The Day of
Timestop 1968; vt Timestop! 1970), was billed as a sequel to THE LOVERS
but bore little relation to the earlier story. "Rastignac the Devil"
(1954) was a further sequel. PJF then produced two novels, both of which
were accepted for publication but neither of which actually saw print at
the time, the first due to the folding of STARTLING STORIES (it eventually
appeared as Dare [1965]). The second, I Owe for the Flesh, won a contest
held by SHASTA PRESS and Pocket Books, but the Pocket Books prize money
was used by Shasta founder Melvin Korshak to pay bills, Shasta foundered,
and the manuscript was lost (the idea eventually formed the basis of the
Riverworld series; see below). This double disaster forced PJF to abandon
full-time authorship, a status to which he did not return until
1969.Nevertheless, he produced many interesting stories over the next few
years, such as the Father Carmody series in The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND
SCIENCE FICTION , published in book form as Night of Light (1957 FSF; exp
1966) and Father to the Stars (coll of linked stories 1981), featuring a
murderous priest who becomes ambiguously involved in various theological
puzzles on several planets. The best of the sequence is Night of Light, a
nightmarish story of a world where the figments of the unconscious become
tangible. Other notable stories of this period include "The God Business"
(1954), "The Alley Man" (1959) and "Open to Me, My Sister" (1960; vt "My
Sister's Brother"). The last named is the best of PJF's biological
fantasies ( BIOLOGY); like THE LOVERS, it was repeatedly rejected as
"disgusting" before its acceptance by FSF.PJF's first novel in book form
was The Green Odyssey (1957), a picaresque tale of an Earthman escaping
from captivity on an alien planet; the intricately colourful medieval
culture of this planet, the high libido of its women, the mysteries buried
within the sands of the desert over which the hero must flee, and the
admixture of rapture and disgust with which the hero treats the venue -
all go to make this novel, along with Jack VANCE's Big Planet (1952
Startling Stories; cut 1957; full text 1978), a model for the flowering of
the PLANETARY ROMANCE from the 1960s on. It was the first of many
entertainments PJF has written over the years. Later novels in a not
dissimilar vein include The Gate of Time (1966; exp vt Two Hawks from
Earth 1979), The Stone God Awakens (1970) and The Wind Whales of Ishmael
(1971), the last-named being an sf sequel to Herman MELVILLE's Moby-Dick
(1851). Flesh (1960; rev 1968) is more ambitious: a dramatization of the
ideas which Robert GRAVES put forward in The White Goddess (1947 US), it
presents a matriarchal, orgiastic society of the future. Rather
heavy-handed in its humour, it was considered a "shocking" novel on first
publication. Inside Outside (1964), a novel about a scientifically
sustained afterlife, also contains some extraordinary images and grotesque
ideas which resonate in the mind, though the book suffers from a lack of
resolution. The novella "Riders of the Purple Wage" (1967) - later
collected in The Purple Book (coll 1982) and Riders of the Purple Wage
(coll 1992) - won PJF a 1968 Hugo; written in a wild and punning style, it
is one of his most original works. It concerns the tribulations of a young
artist in a UTOPIAN society, and has a more explicit sexual and
scatological content than anything PJF had written before. "The Oogenesis
of Bird City" (1970) is a related story.The novels assembled as The World
of Tiers (omni in 2 vols 1981; vt World of Tiers #1 1986 UK and #2 1986
UK) show PJF in a lighter vein, though the architectural elaborateness of
the universe in which they are set prefigures Riverworld. The original
volumes are The Maker of Universes (1965; rev 1980), The Gates of Creation
(1966; rev 1981), A Private Cosmos (1968; rev 1981), Behind the Walls of
Terra (1970; rev 1982) and The Lavalite World (1977; rev 1983). The
sequence unfolds within a series of POCKET UNIVERSES, playgrounds built by
the masters - who are perhaps gods, originally humanoid - whose technology
is unimaginable. The most notable character is the present-day Earthman
Paul Janus Finnegan (his initials, PJF, show that this ironic observer
serves as a stand-in for the author: it is a signal repeated often in
later work); he is also called Kickaha, under which significantly Native
American name he acts out the role of a trickster hero indulging in merry,
if bloodthirsty, exploits. The books sag in places, but have moments of
high invention; and the Jungian models upon which the main characters are
constructed supply one key to the understanding of Red Orc's Rage (1991),
a novel which RECURSIVELY dramatizes the use of the previous titles in the
series as tools in role-playing therapy for disturbed adolescents. In a
late addition to the primary sequence, More Than Fire (1993), some of the
cosmological puzzles are resolved, and the conflict between Kickaha and
Red Orc takes on an increasingly Jungian air, with each being seen as the
other's shadow.At about the same time, ESSEX HOUSE, publishers of
pornography, commissioned PJF to write three erotic fantasy novels, taking
full advantage of the new freedoms of the late 1960s. The Image of the
Beast (1968), the first of the Exorcism trilogy, is an effective parody of
the private eye and Gothic horror genres. It was followed by a perfunctory
sequel, Blown, or Sketches Among the Ruins of my Mind (1969), both being
run together into one novel as The Image of the Beast (omni 1979); the
third Exorcism volume, Traitor to the Living (1973), was not published by
Essex House. The Essex House contract was completed with A Feast Unknown:
Volume IX of the Memoirs of Lord Grandrith (1969), the first volume of the
Lord Grandrith/Doc Caliban series, followed by Lord of the Trees (1970
dos) and The Mad Goblin (1970; vt Keepers of the Secrets 1985 UK), the
latter two being assembled as The Empire of the Nine (omni 1988 UK). A
Feast Unknown is a brilliant exploration of the sado-masochistic fantasies
latent in much heroic fiction, and succeeds as SATIRE, as sf and as a
tribute to the creations of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS and Lester DENT. It
concerns the struggle of Lord Grandrith (Tarzan) and Doc Caliban (Doc
Savage) against the Nine, a secret society of immortals. It is a narrative
tour de force.All three books point to an abiding concern (or game) that
would occupy much of PJF's later career: the tying of his own fiction (and
that of many other authors) into one vast, playful mythology. Much of this
is worked out in the loose conglomeration of works which has been termed
the Wold Newton Family series, all united under the premise that a
meteorite which landed near Wold Newton in 18th-century Yorkshire
irradiated a number of pregnant women and thus gave rise to a family of
mutant SUPERMEN. This family includes the characters involved in the Lord
Grandrith/Doc Caliban books, as well as several other texts devoted to
Tarzan, though excluding Lord Tyger (1970), which is about a millionaire's
attempt to create his own ape-man and is possibly the best written of
PJF's novels ( APES AND CAVEMEN). Central to Wold Newton is Tarzan Alive:
A Definitive Biography of Lord Greystoke (1972), a spoof biography in
which PJF uses Joseph Campbell's ideas (from The Hero With a Thousand
Faces [1949]) to explore the nature of the HERO's appeal. The appendices
and genealogy, which link Tarzan with many other heroes of popular
fiction, are at once a satire on scholarship and a serious exercise in
"creative mythography". Tarzan appears again in Time's Last Gift (1972;
rev 1977), a preliminary novel for a subseries about Ancient Africa,
employing settings from Burroughs and H. Rider HAGGARD. Hadon of Ancient
Opar (1974) and Flight to Opar (1976) continue the series. Other works
which contain Wold Newton material include "Tarzan Lives: An Exclusive
Interview with Lord Greystoke" (1972), "The Obscure Life and Hard Times of
Kilgore Trout" (1973), Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life (1973; rev 1975),
The Other Log of Phileas Fogg (1973), "Extracts from the Memoirs of 'Lord
Greystoke'" (1974), "After King Kong Fell" (1974), The Adventure of the
Peerless Peer (1974), Ironcastle (1976), a liberally rewritten version of
J.H. ROSNY aine's L'etonnant voyage de Hareton Ironcastle (1922), and Doc
Savage: Escape from Loki: Doc Savage's First Adventure (1991). Other
characters incorporated into the sequence include Sherlock Holmes, Jack
the Ripper, James Bond and Kilgore Trout, a Kurt VONNEGUT character under
whose name PJF also published Venus on the Half-Shell (1975). As a whole,
the series parlays its conventions of "explanation" into something close
to chaos.Though these various books perhaps best express his playfully
serious manipulations of popular material to express a sense of the
Universe as chaotically fable-like, PJF gained greatest popular acclaim
with his Riverworld series, set on a planet where a godlike race has
resurrected the whole of humanity along the banks of a multi-million-mile
river. The series is made up of TO YOUR SCATTERED BODIES GO (1965-6 Worlds
of Tomorrow; fixup 1971), The Fabulous Riverboat (1967-71 If; fixup 1971),
The Dark Design (1977), Riverworld and Other Stories (coll 1979), The
Magic Labyrinth (1980), Riverworld War: The Suppressed Fiction of Philip
Jose Farmer (coll 1980), The Gods of Riverworld (1983) and River of
Eternity (1983), the last being a rediscovered rewrite of the lost I Owe
for the Flesh. The first of these won a 1972 Hugo. Such historical
personages as Sir Richard Burton (1821-1890), Samuel Clemens (Mark TWAIN)
and Jack LONDON explore the terrain and relate to one another in their
search to understand, in terms mundane and metaphysical, the new universe
which has tied them together. As surviving characters begin to overdose on
the freedoms (or powers) they have discovered in themselves, the plots of
the later volumes become increasingly chaotic, perhaps deliberately, a
tendency not reversed in two late anthologies of work by other authors set
in the Riverworld universe: Tales of Riverworld *(anth 1992) and Quest to
Riverworld* (anth 1993), both ed PJF.After The Unreasoning Mask (1981), an
extremely well constructed SPACE OPERA about a search for God, who
comprises the Universe but is still a vulnerable child, PJF embarked on
the Dayworld series, whose premise derives from "The Sliced-Crossways
Only-on-Tuesday World" (1971): in a vastly overcrowded world, the
population is divided into seven, each cohort spending one day of the week
awake and the rest of the time in "stoned" immobility. In Dayworld (1985),
Dayworld Rebel (1987) and Dayworld Breakup (1990), this premise becomes
increasingly peripheral in a tale whose complications invoke A.E. VAN
VOGT. Here, as in all his work, PJF is governed by an instinct for
extremity. Of all sf writers of the first or second rank, he is perhaps
the most threateningly impish, and the most anarchic. [DP/JC]Other works:
Strange Relations (coll 1960); The Alley God (coll 1962); Fire and the
Night (1962), associational; Cache from Outer Space (1962 dos; rev as coll
with "Rastignac the Devil" and "They Twinkled like Angels" vt The Cache
1981); The Celestial Blueprint and Other Stories (coll 1962 dos); Tongues
of the Moon (1961 AMZ; exp 1964); Reap: The Baycon Guest-of-Honor Speech
(1968 chap); Love Song (1970), associational; Down in the Black Gang, and
Others (coll 1971); The Book of Philip Jose Farmer, or The Wares of Simple
Simon's Custard Pie and Space Man (coll 1973; rev 1982); Dark is the Sun
(1979); Jesus on Mars (1979); Flesh, and Lord Tyger (omni 1981);
Greatheart Silver (coll of linked stories 1982); A Barnstormer in Oz
(1982); Stations of the Nightmare (1974-5 in Continuum #1-#4 ed Roger
ELWOOD; coll of linked stories 1982); The Classic Philip Jose Farmer (coll
1984 in 2 vols); The Grand Adventure (coll 1984).As Editor: Mother Was a
Lovely Beast: A Feral Man Anthology of Fiction and Fact about Humans
Raised by Animals (anth 1974).About the author: "Philip Jose Farmer" by
Sam MOSKOWITZ, in Seekers of Tomorrow (1966); "Thanks for the Feast" by
Leslie A. Fiedler, in The Book of Philip Jose Farmer (1973); Philip Jose
Farmer (1980) by Mary T. Brizzi; Magic Labyrinth of Philip Jose Farmer
(1984 chap) by E.L. Chapman; Philip Jose Farmer: Good-Natured Ground
Breaker: A Working Bibliography (2nd edn 1990 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr

[s] David Wright O'BRIEN.

Australian sf magazine (1985), DIGEST-format, 3 issues, published from
Western Australia by Far Out Enterprises, ed anon Pamela Klacar. Subtitled
"Australia's own sf/fantasy magazine", FO! published fiction of an
amateurish nature by unknown writers. Though (astonishingly) given
national distribution, it soon silently disappeared. [PN]

[s] John D. MACDONALD.

(1943- ) UK writer and ex-rock musician, first active in a band, the
Deviants, 1967-70; he then edited the underground paper IT 1970-73 and
founded the underground comic Nasty Tales-prosecuted for obscenity in a
well known trial - in which, with Chris Rowley and Chris Welch, he
produced a comic strip with sf content, Ogoth the Wasted. His first sf
novel was The Texts of Festival (1973), set in a surrealistic post-
HOLOCAUST England; this novel and his subsequent Jeb Stuart Ho trilogy -
The Quest of the DNA Cowboys (1976), Synaptic Manhunt (1976) and The
Neural Atrocity (1977)-radiate a late-1960s aura of apocalyptic, hip
hyperbole, sometimes effectively. The Last Stand of the DNA Cowboys (1989)
is a loose sequel. The world of the trilogy especially is almost
deliriously polymorphic, full of images out of Westerns and other genres
and references to dope, rock and the hippy subculture generally, and can
be seen as a clear precursor of CYBERPUNK, though without COMPUTERS, and
laced throughout with the kind of drug use which later writers like
William GIBSON were able to avoid through the various delights of
CYBERSPACE.MF's next novels were similar in texture. Both The Feelies
(1978; rev 1990 US), a left-oriented SATIRE whose premise resembles that
of John D. MACDONALD's "Spectator Sport" (1950), and the dithery The Song
of Phaid the Gambler (1981; rev vt in 2 vols as Phaid the Gambler 1986 US
and Citizen Phaid 1987 US) seemed paralysed by their 1960s provenance.
After Protectorate (1984) his work began to seem derivative of the
cyberpunk writers who had followed him. Corpse (1986; vt Vickers 1988 US),
The Long Orbit (1988 US; vt Exit Funtopia 1989 UK) and Armageddon Crazy
(1989 US) have in common violent action, desolate NEAR-FUTURE venues and
spiritual malaise. Their Master's War (1988 US) concerns the ruthless use
of helpless species in an unending interstellar conflict. [JC]Other works:
Mars - The Red Planet (1990 US); Necrom (1991).

Pseudonym of French writer Frederic Charles Pierre Edouard Bargone
(1876-1957), author mainly of "colonial" novels after the model of Pierre
Loti (1850-1923). His sf books are La maison des hommes vivants (1911;
trans Arthur Livingston as The House of the Secret 1923 US) and, more
notably, Les condamnes a mort (1920; trans Elisabeth Abbott as Useless
Hands 1926 US; 1973 US as by Charles Bargone), whose harsh
social-Darwinist terms render a 1990s workers' revolt as bleakly pathetic:
when the "useless hands" go on strike, they are disintegrated by a new
weapon and machines take over their jobs. [JC]Other works: Black Opium
(coll trans Samuel Putnam 1929 US), tales linked by reference to opium.See

(1914- ) US writer best known for his work outside the sf field:
historical novels under his own name and detective novels and thrillers as
E.V. Cunningham. The Unvanquished (1942) and Spartacus (1951), both as HF,
are perhaps his most familiar titles. He began publishing sf with "Wrath
of the Purple" for AMZ in 1932, but did not actively produce sf until the
later 1950s, when he started a long association with FSF. His sf and
fantasy stories have been collected in The Edge of Tomorrow (coll 1961),
The General Zapped an Angel (coll 1970) and A Touch of Infinity (coll
1973); all the stories in the latter two volumes were reassembled as Time
and the Riddle: Thirty-One Zen Stories (coll 1975). His work is sharply
political in implication - he was a member of the Communist Party 1943-56,
being imprisoned for contempt of Congress in 1947 - and eschews most of
the cruder satisfactions of genre fiction. Harlan ELLISON, among others,
has expressed high praise for HF's stories, but admiration, though
widespread, is not universal. Some critics have seen their occasionally
religiose moralizing as cloying and their ideative content as trite.
Phyllis (1962), as by E.V. Cunningham, is a borderline novel in which a US
and a Soviet scientist come together to try to force their governments to
ban the bomb by threatening to explode two themselves. In "The Trap", a
novel-length tale which occupies most of The Hunter and The Trap (coll
1967), the US Government secretly attempts to raise exceptional children
in a monitored environment; when the Department of Defense attempts to
view the results the children, now telepathic, close themselves off from
the world to breed Homo superior. [JC]Other works: Tony and the Wonderful
Door (1968; vt The Magic Door 1980), a juvenile.See also: SATIRE.

(1948- ) US composer and writer, son of Howard FAST, who wrote music
before coming to sf with "Decay" for FSF in 1975. His first novel, The
Secrets of Synchronicity (1977; vt Prisoner of the Planets 1980 UK), is a
complex SPACE OPERA which, unusually for the form, treats an expanding
capitalism as inherently repressive of true freedom. In Mortal Gods (1978)
a similar enemy maintains control over a culture shaped by the
possibilities of GENETIC ENGINEERING. The tone of his writing, which is
generally light, and his plotting, which is contrived, tend to obscure the
political arguments underlying his work. [JC]Other works: The Inner Circle
(1979); The Beast (1981), a fantasy.

According to Relativity the velocity of light is limiting: no matter how
objects alter their velocity relative to one another, the sum of their
velocities can never exceed the ultimate constant c (the velocity of light
in a vacuum); moreover, the measurement of c is unaffected by the velocity
of the measurer. The apparently paradoxical implications of this statement
are avoided because objects travelling at high velocities relative to one
another are subject to different frames of measurement, by which each
appears to the other to be subject to a distortion of time. As a
consequence, SPACESHIPS which make interstellar journeys at velocities
close to light-speed relative to their points of origin are subject to a
time-dilatation whereby the travellers age more slowly than the people
they left at home. A good popularization of such ideas can be found in
George GAMOW's book of scientific fables Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (coll
1939 chap).Some "relativistic" effects of FTL travel are described in
Camille FLAMMARION's pre-Einsteinian cosmic fantasy Lumen (1887; trans
1897), but other early sf writers, including the pioneers of pulp
SPACE-OPERA, ignored such matters, even after Relativity theory had come
into being. As the intellectual respectability of such ignorance declined,
however, the limiting velocity of light increasingly became an awkward
inconvenience to writers of interstellar adventure stories, necessitating
the development of a series of facilitating devices - often involving
"space-warps", interdimensional dodges into HYPERSPACE or "subspace", or,
more recently, TACHYON drives or BLACK-HOLE-related "wormholes" - to
enable the sciencefictional imagination to retain GALACTIC EMPIRES and
their effectively infinite supply of earthlike ALIEN worlds ripe for
COLONIZATION. Faster-than-light communication systems like James BLISH's
DIRAC transmitter and Ursula K. LE GUIN's ANSIBLE require similar
justificatory fudges. Such literary devices cannot, in fact, succeed in
setting aside the logical difficulties which arise if Einstein's theory is
true, but FTL drives of various kinds are so very useful in avoiding the
inconveniences of GENERATION STARSHIPS that many writers of HARD SF insist
on clinging to the hope that the theory may be imperfect in such a way as
to permit an exploitable loophole. Faster than Light (anth 1976), a theme
anthology ed Jack DANN and George ZEBROWSKI, includes, as well as the
stories, several essays combatively arguing the case. Other writers,
however, have found the time-dilatation effects associated with
relativistic star-travel a rich source of plot ideas.John W. CAMPBELL Jr
was the writer who laid the groundwork for such facilitating devices as
the space-warp (in Islands of Space, 1931; 1957) and hyperspace (in The
Mightiest Machine, 1934; 1947), where the term made its debut; where he
led legions followed. Stories which work harder than most to make such
notions plausible include Robert A. HEINLEIN's Starman Jones (1953),
Murray LEINSTER's The Other Side of Nowhere (1964), A. Bertram CHANDLER's
Catch the Star Winds (1969) and David ZINDELL's Neverness (1988).
Memorable imagery relating to hypothetical means of FTL travel can be
found in James Blish's tales of cities-become-starships by courtesy of the
SPINDIZZY, CITIES IN FLIGHT (omni 1970), and in Kenneth BULMER's "Strange
Highway" (1960) and Bob SHAW's The Palace of Eternity (1969). Some
memorable imagery attempting (mistakenly, as it later turned out) to
envisage real relativistic visual effects can be found in Frederik POHL's
"The Gold at the Starbow's End" (1972; exp as Starburst 1982). Many sf
stories suggest that the pilots of FTL spaceships may have to be specially
adapted to the task, sometimes by cyborgization ( CYBORGS), becoming
more-or-less alienated from their own kind; notable examples include
Cordwainer SMITH's "Scanners Live in Vain" (1950), Gerard F. CONWAY's
Mindship (1974), Joan COX's Star Web (1980), Vonda MCINTYRE's Superluminal
(1984), Melissa SCOTT's trilogy begun with Five Twelfths of Heaven (1985),
and Emma BULL's Falcon (1989). Norman SPINRAD's The Void-Captain's Tale
(1983) deals ironically with sf symbolism of this general kind, featuring
a phallic spaceship powered by a libidinous "psychological drive".Sf
stories which play with time-dilatation effects include Fredric BROWN's
flippant "Placet is a Crazy Place" (1946), L. Ron HUBBARD's earnest Return
to Tomorrow (1950; 1954), Blish's "Common Time" (1953), Heinlein's Time
for the Stars (1956), which deploys, literally, the celebrated "twins
paradox", Vladislav Krapivin's "Meeting my Brother" (trans 1966), Joe
HALDEMAN's THE FOREVER WAR (fixup 1975), Larry NIVEN's A World Out of Time
(fixup 1976), Tom Allen's "Not Absolute" (1978) and George TURNER's
Beloved Son (1978). Such effects are taken to spectacular extremes in Poul
ANDERSON's Tau Zero (1970), whose protagonists are permitted to outlive
the Universe, and in Pohl's and Jack WILLIAMSON's even more expansive The
Singers of Time (1991).The elementary changes have now been rung, but
there is probably further scope for intriguing time-dilatation plots. One
such is Redshift Rendezvous (1990) by John E. STITH, set on a starship in
a version of hyperspace in which the velocity of light is so low
(22mph/35kph) that its passage is visible, and relativistic phenomena are
obvious at walking speed. In the mean time, FTL facilitating devices will
undoubtedly continue to do sterling work for the extravagantly inclined sf
writer. [BS]

Made-for-tv film (1994). Home Box Office. Prod Frederick Muller and Ilene
Kahn, dir Christopher Menaul, screenplay Stanley Weiser and Ron
Hutchinson, based on the novel Fatherland (1992) by Robert Harris, Staring
Rutger Hauer and Miranda Richardson. 106 mins. Colour.The year is 1964,
the place Berlin, in an ALTERNATE WORLD in which HITLER WINS the Second
World War. The USA, which stayed out of the war against Germany and is now
led by President Joseph Kennedy senior, is holding talks about detente
with Adolf Hitler on the day of Hitler's 75th birthday, April 20th. Hitler
needs American friendship, because Germania's (sic) guerilla war with
Russia (still led by Stalin) is dragging on. The SS now act as a police
force. SS officer March (Hauer) and German-born American journalist
Charlie (Richardson) have separately stumbled across a series of murders
designed to keep a dreadful wartime secret concealed, and after a time
they work together to solve the mystery, in constant danger from the
virulent Gestapo. The secret turns out to be the Holocaust. If the mass
murder of the Jews (and Gypsies) is revealed, detente will crumble. Apart
from the fundamental (and perhaps tasteless) absurdity of the film
supposing that so abominable a happening, known to many thousands, should
have remained a secret for more than twenty years, this is a well-staged
and well-performed political thriller, interesting in its examination of
the ways in which a police state can contrive to show the world an
apparently acceptable face. The film was shot in Prague. [PN]

(1943- ) US writer whose sf novels, including Crown of Infinity (1968)
and The Age of Ruin (1968), are routine works, the first a SPACE OPERA,
the second a post- DISASTER odyssey. The Peacemakers series, in which
alien invaders are fought to a negotiated truce, comprises The Warriors of
Terra (1970) and Siege of Earth (1971). [JC]


(1957- ) US copywriter and author who began publishing sf with "The
Jackalope's Tale" for Wyoming Rural Electric News in 1983. His first
novel, A Death of Honor (1987), is an sf mystery set in a 21st century
moderately displaced in the direction of CYBERPUNK, where a Constitutional
Amendment has entitled victims of crime to pursue the perpetrators; the
mystery itself is worked out with extremely satisfying care. His second
novel, The Company Man (1988), enters even more familiar cyberpunk
territory by featuring a protagonist who steals data for a large
corporation which partially runs the decaying world, and who soon faces a
moral crisis. In the Angel's Luck trilogy - Desperate Measures (1989),
Precious Cargo (1990) and The Essence of Evil (1990) - JCF created a
romping SPACE OPERA whose spiralling intricacies of plot, as the freelance
protagonists who run the starship Angel's Luck get into deeper and deeper
waters, are recounted with the rigorous plot-control for which he has
become known and with a sly sustaining humour. As a professing Christian,
JCF has an avowed allegiance to what he has called "old-fashioned
virtues"; so far, however, his tales show no signs of doctrinal purpose.

Working name of US anthologist, packager and writer William Brian Fawcett
(1947- ). His fiction has generally been collaborative: examples include
Cold Cash Warrior (1989) with Robert ASPRIN and Lord of Cragslaw * (1989)
with Neil Randall, a novel tied to the Guardians of the Three sequence,
Lord of Cragslaw * (1989) (for details of books with David A. DRAKE and
Christopher STASHEFF, see their entries). Solo, BF has been responsible
for the SwordQuest fantasy sequence: Quest for the Unicorn's Horn (1985),
Quest for the Dragon's Eye (1985), Quest for the Demon Gate (1986) and
Quest for the Elf King (1987). As anthologist, he created the War Years
sequence of ties, including War Years #1: The Far Stars War * (anth 1990),
#2: The Siege of Arista * (anth 1991) with Stasheff, and #3: The Jupiter
War * (anth 1991). Also with Stasheff, he ed The Crafters (anth 1991) and
The Crafters #2: Bellsings and Curses (anth 1992), and with Robert
SILVERBERG he ed Time Gate (anth 1989) Further solo anthologies include
Cats in Space (anth 1992) and the Bolo sequence set in the universe
created by Keith LAUMER: Bolos: Honor of the Regiment * (anth 1993) and
Bolos #2: The Unconquerable (anth 1994). [JC]See also: SHARED WORLDS.

(1847-1904) US writer, known primarily for his work outside the sf field.
Most of his 40 or so novels belong to the realist school associated with
his contemporary William Dean HOWELLS, but (like Howells) BF also wrote
imaginative works. He provided a manifesto for a species of fiction which
he called "realistic romance", which is very similar to some DEFINITIONS
OF SF: "Stories where the astonishing and peculiar are blent with the
possible and accountable. They may be as wonderful as you will, but they
must not touch on the mere flimsiness of miracle. They can be excessively
improbable, but their improbability must be based upon scientific fact,
and not upon fantastic, emotional and purely imaginative groundwork." This
statement is from the introduction to The Ghost of Guy Thyrle (1895), a
novel whose hero discovers a drug which separates his soul from his body
and must undertake a voyage into the further reaches of the cosmos when
his uninhabited body is cremated. Earlier and more modest works in the
same vein are Douglas Duane (1887), a personality-exchange story, Solarion
(1889), a novel about a dog with artificially augmented intelligence, and
The Romance of Two Brothers (1891), which features a problematic elixir of
life. The New Nero (1893), a study in abnormal psychology concerning a man
who believes himself to be a mass murderer, is of borderline interest.
Some of EF's POETRY is also relevant, most notably "In the Year Ten
Thousand" in Songs of Doubt and Dream (coll 1891). An early supernatural
story of some note is "He, She and It" (1871). He copyrighted several
unpublished manuscripts, some of which appear to have been sf. [BS]About
the author: "The Realistic Romances of Edgar Fawcett" by Brian M.
STABLEFORD, Foundation #24 (Feb 1982).See also: COSMOLOGY; EVOLUTION;

(1866-1960) UK writer and mystical thinker, long resident in Switzerland.
His first (and best-known) sf novel, Hartmann the Anarchist, or The Doom
of the Great City (1893), illustrated by Fred T. JANE, features a 1920s
anarchist revolution against a wicked, capitalist UK, with London being
destroyed by airships; but, in the face of opposition and gripped by
guilt, the rebel Hartmann eventually destroys himself and the Attila, his
fearsome airship, and all is well. The HOLLOW EARTH featured in Swallowed
by an Earthquake (1894), a juvenile, is non-Symmesian ( John Cleves
SYMMES) and uncompellingly cluttered with prehistoric reptiles. The Secret
of the Desert, or How We Crossed Arabia in the "Antelope" (1895) is about
a secret amphibious tank which crosses Arabia, finding there a lost race (
LOST WORLDS) of Phoenicians. [JC]


(1891-1968) UK writer active in various genres under his own name and
several others from 1923; non-sf pseudonyms included Cass Borelli, Henri
Dupres, Madame E. Farra, "GRIFF", Eugene Glen, Duke Linton, Coolidge
McCann, Elmer Eliot Saks, Ben Sarto and Hank Spencer. Much of his output
consisted of such thrillers as Miss Otis Comes to Piccadilly (1946), as by
Ben Sarto, and its many quite popular successors. The Wonderful Isle of
Ulla-Gapoo (1946) is a mild fantasy. FDF's only known sf novel proper is
Hole in Heaven (1954), about a human body possessed by an
other-dimensional ALIEN. Air-Gods' Parade (1935), as by Simpson Stokes,
and The Dubious Adventures of Baron Munchhausen (1948) may be of some
interest. [JC]

US SMALL PRESS established by T.E. DIKTY with Darrell C. Richardson in
1972, and devoted to publishing material from and about PULP MAGAZINES.
Its publications include several collections of obscure Robert E. HOWARD
stories, two anthology series in facsimile under the titles Famous
Fantastic Classics and Famous Pulp Classics, and The Weird Tales Story
(1977), a large volume written and ed Robert E. WEINBERG. An associated
and more prolific company, also founded by Dikty, is STARMONT HOUSE. [MJE]


(1902-1961) US poet and novelist, known mainly for mysteries like The Big
Clock (1946), a tale whose atmosphere adumbrates the film-noir tonality of
later US fantasy. Within a mystery frame, The Loneliest Girl in the World
(1951) is borderline sf. KG's only sf novel proper is Clark Gifford's Body
(1942), which gravely and literately portrays a future US civil war. [JC]

(1908-1960) UK writer; extremely prolific, he used many pseudonyms.
During the 1930s he wrote for magazines, including the US PULP MAGAZINES,
but during WWII he switched to books. He became a central figure in the
post-WWII paperback boom, writing numerous Westerns, crime stories and
probably some romances as well as his sf, most of which appeared under the
names Vargo Statten and Volsted GRIDBAN (the latter pseudonym being taken
over from E.C. TUBB). In the pulps he wrote many stories as Thornton Ayre
and Polton Cross, and also used the names Geoffrey Armstrong, Dennis
Clive, John Cotton and Ephriam Winiki; his sf books and crime stories with
sf elements include items signed with the personal pseudonyms Spike
Gordon, Conrad G. Holt, Laurence F. Rose, John Russell and Earl Titan, and
the house names Astron DEL MARTIA, "GRIFF", Paul LORRAINE and Brian
SHAW.JRF's first GENRE-SF work was the early SUPERMAN story The
Intelligence Gigantic (1933 AMZ; 1943). It was followed by the extravagant
Liners of Time (1935 AMZ; 1947) and its sequel "Zagribud" (1937 AMZ; cut
vt Science Metropolis by Vargo Statten 1952); he subsequently wrote a good
deal for ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION while it was edited by F. Orlin
TREMAINE, contributing numerous "thought-variant" stories, some of which
he later expanded into Vargo Statten novels, including Nebula X (1946 as
"The Multillionth Chance" by JRF; rev 1950), The Sun Makers (1937 as
"Metamorphosis" by JRF; rev 1950), The Avenging Martian (1938 as "Red
Heritage" by JRF; rev 1951), The Renegade Star (1935 as "The Blue
Infinity" by JRF; rev 1951), The Inner Cosmos (1937 as "Worlds Within" by
JRF; rev 1952), To the Ultimate (1936 as "Mathematica" and "Mathematica
Plus" by JRF; rev 1952) and The Dust Destroyer (1934 as "The Man who
Stopped the Dust" by JRF; rev 1953).Four Thornton Ayre novelettes in
FANTASTIC ADVENTURES featuring the superwoman - or Golden Amazon - Violet
Ray were extensively revised into the novel The Golden Amazon (1939-43;
1944), which was reprinted in the Toronto Star Weekly to such acclaim that
23 sequels followed, the last appearing posthumously there in 1961. Those
which have subsequently appeared in book form are: The Golden Amazon
Returns (1945; 1949; vt The Deathless Amazon 1953 Canada), The Golden
Amazon's Triumph (1946; 1953), The Amazon's Diamond Quest (1947 as
"Diamond Quest"; 1953), The Amazon Strikes Again (1948; 1954), Twin of the
Amazon (1948; 1954), Conquest of the Amazon (1949; 1973 chap) and Lord of
Atlantis (1949; 1991 chap). Two other series are Edgar Rice BURROUGHS
imitations: the Clayton Drew interplanetary romances Emperor of Mars
(1950), Warrior of Mars (1950), Red Men of Mars (1950) and Goddess of Mars
(1950); and the Anjani sequence of Tarzan imitations signed Earl Titan:
The Gold of Akada (1951) and Anjani, the Mighty (1951). JFR also wrote the
book of the notable 1954 schlock-horror film The CREATURE FROM THE BLACK
LAGOON , The Creature from the Black Lagoon * (1954) as Vargo
Statten.Scion, publishers of Vargo Statten, created the VARGO STATTEN
SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE, although JRF did not become its editor
immediately; it underwent several title changes in the course of its short
life.JRF's writing was unpolished and his use of ideas imaginatively
reckless, but his best work is vigorous and occasionally vivid. His works
have sometimes proved popular in translation; he enjoyed something of a
boom in Italy in the 1970s. [BS]Other works as JRF: Slaves of Ijax (1947
chap); Operation Venus (1950); From Afar (1982 chap); No Grave Need I
(1984 chap); The Slitherers (1984 chap).As Hugo Blayn: What Happened to
Hammond? (1951).As Dennis Clive: Valley of Pretenders (c1942 chap US); The
Voice Commands (c1942 chap US).As Polton Cross: Other Eyes Watching
(1946).As Astron del Martia (house name): The Trembling World (1949).As
Spike Gordon: Don't Touch Me (1953).As Volsted Gridban: The
Dyno-Depressant (1953); Magnetic Brain (1953); Moons for Sale (1953);
Scourge of the Atom (1948 as "After the Atom" by JRF; rev 1953); the
Herbert sequence, comprising A Thing of the Past (1953) and The Genial
Dinosaur 1954); Exit Life (1941 as "The World in Wilderness" by Thornton
Ayre; rev 1953); the Adam Quirke sequence, comprising The Master Must Die
(1953) and The Lonely Astronomer (partly based on "Death at the
Observatory" 1938 by JRF; 1954); The Purple Wizard (1953); The Frozen
Limit (1954); I Came - I Saw - I Wondered (1954).As "Griff" (house name):
Liquid Death (1953).As Conrad G. Holt: Cosmic Exodus (1953 chap).As Paul
Lorraine (house name): Dark Boundaries (1953).As Laurence F. Rose: The
Hell-Fruit (1953 chap).As John Russell: Account Settled (1949).As Brian
Shaw (house name): Z-Formations (1953).As Vargo Statten: Annihilation
(1950); The Micro-Men (1950); Wanderer of Space (1950); 2000 Years On
(1950); Inferno! (1950); The Cosmic Flame (1950); Cataclysm (1944 as "The
Devouring Tide" by Polton Cross; rev 1951); The Red Insects (1951); The
New Satellite (1951); Deadline to Pluto (1951); The Petrified Planet
(1951); Born of Luna (1951); The Devouring Fire (1951); The Catalyst
(1951); The Space Warp (1952); The Eclipse Express (1952); The Time Bridge
(1942 as "Prisoner of Time" by Polton Cross; rev 1952); The Man from
Tomorrow (1950 as "Stranger in our Midst" by JRF; rev 1952); The G-Bomb
(1941 as "The Last Secret Weapon" by Polton Cross; rev 1952); Laughter in
Space (1939 as "Laughter out of Space" by Dennis Clive; rev 1952); Across
the Ages (1952 as "Glimpse" by JRF; 1952 chap); The Last Martian (1952
chap); Worlds to Conquer (1952 chap); De-Creation (1952 chap); The Time
Trap (1952 chap); Ultra Spectrum (1953); Black-Wing of Mars (1953 as
"Winged Pestilence" by JRF; 1953); Man in Duplicate (1953); Zero Hour
(1952 as "Deadline" by JRF; 1953); The Black Avengers (1953); Odyssey of
Nine (1953); Pioneer 1990 (1940 as "He Conquered Venus" by JRF; rev 1953);
The Interloper (1953); Man of Two Worlds (1953); The Lie Destroyer (1953);
Black Bargain (1953); The Grand Illusion (1953); Wealth of the Void
(1954); A Time Appointed (1954); I Spy (1954); The Multi-Man (1954); 1,000
Year Voyage (1954); Earth 2 (1955).About the author: The Multi-Man (1968

(1955- ) US critic and writer whose essays and book reviews have appeared
throughout the 1980s in various journals from the Washington Post to
FOUNDATION. Sometimes adversarial, unfailingly intelligent, they represent
a cold-eyed view of a genre he loves by a critic immersed in its material.
Although he began publishing sf with "The Light at the End of the
Penumbra" in Ascents of Wonder (anth 1977) ed David GERROLD, GF did not
become active as an author of fiction for about a decade. His first novel,
The Oxygen Barons (1990), served therefore as a sort of debut, surprising
some by turning out to be a HARD-SF tale of a terraformed Moon (
TERRAFORMING). In what seems a perfectly standard fashion, colonists and a
giant corporation are at loggerheads; it is only the labyrinth of the plot
that exposes the novel as other than orthodox. [JC]


(? - ) US writer whose Nick Seafort series, beginning with Midshipman's
Hope (1994), depicts the life and adventures of a young cadet on a
spaceship whose rituals are extremely like that of a planet-bound, even
19th century, navy: specifically the navy in which C.S. FORESTER's Horatio
Hornblower serves. Three further volumes are expected. [JC]



(1942- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Longshanks" for Galileo
2 in 1976. Her first novel, Godsfire (1978), depicts an ALIEN planet
inhabited by felines who dominate the local humans but who have never seen
their sun because of the unending rain. Almost too well constructed -
almost facile in its zestful plotting - the book demonstrated CF's
technical skill, her romantic inclinations and a tendency to slough off
hard solutions. Her next book, The Sunbound (1981), for instance, failed
to produce a protagonist capable of hewing to CF's intricate plot demands
without seeming an arbitrary creation, yet the family romance at the
tale's heart required characters who could be intrinsically believed in.
Of her later solo singletons, Downtime (1985) interestingly combined a
longevity intrigue in a distant solar system, aliens, and romance, but The
Khan's Persuasion (1991) once again demonstrated a gap between the quality
of her sf perceptions and the easy flow of the plotty romance idiom
through which she presents characters. CF's two collaborations with Connie
WILLIS, Water Witch (1982) and Light Raid (1989), benefit from Willis's
significantly harsher mind but are still somewhat heavily plotted.
[JC]Other works: Eclipses (1983); Double Nocturne (1986); Iceman
(1991).See also: WEAPONS.

Although a genre defined and long dominated by men, sf has a particular
affinity with feminism. This became clear in the 1970s with the
publication of such challenging books as THE FEMALE MAN (1975) by Joanna
RUSS, WALK TO THE END OF THE WORLD (1974) and Motherlines (1978) by Suzy
the most obvious attractions of sf to women writers - feminist or not - is
the possibilities it offers for the creation of a female HERO. The demands
of realism in the contemporary or historical novel set limits which do not
bind the universes available to sf. Although the history of sf reveals few
heroic, realistic, or even original images of women ( WOMEN AS PORTRAYED
IN SCIENCE FICTION), the genre had a potential recognized by the women
writers drawn to it in the 1960s and 1970s. The desire to write (or read)
about women who wield swords, pilot spaceships or simply lead lives from
which the threat of male violence is absent might be seen as escapist, but
such imaginings can also be read as part of a political agenda. As Pamela
SARGENT wrote in a letter to Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, Fall
1977, "Science-fiction writers are limited only by human potential, not
human actualities. Sf can serve to show women, and men, how large that
potential can be." And Suzy McKee Charnas remarked in the same journal:
"Women's realities are still highly circumscribed by various forms of
oppression . . . One place for us to imagine new strengths, goals, and
ways of being human is in the world of fantasy, where we can work around
our present limitations in ways that may help to point us . . . out of and
beyond those limitations."Despite the reputation sf has as a
mind-expanding, possibly subversive, always questioning form, these
strengths were seldom brought to bear on the subject of male/female
relationships, sexual roles or the idea of "woman's place" prior to the
rise of the Women's Liberation Movement. As Kingsley AMIS pointed out in
New Maps of Hell (1960 US), "Though it may go against the grain to admit
it, science-fiction writers are evidently satisfied with the sexual status
quo." He was referring, of course, to male sf writers. With a very few
exceptions (e.g., Philip WYLIE's The Disappearance [1951], Theodore
STURGEON's Venus Plus X [1960] and John WYNDHAM's "Consider Her Ways"
[1956]), the men who tried to imagine alternatives to patriarchy did so
only to "prove" how nasty and impossible life would be without the
"natural" dominance of woman by man. (For more novels featuring
women-ruled societies SOCIOLOGY.)One of the major challenges of modern
feminism has been to the idea that gender roles and relations are in some
way permanent, arising from a natural and immutable law. In The Dialectic
of Sex: The Case for Feminist Revolution (1970) Shulasmith Firestone
located the site of women's oppression in their role as child-bearers and
-rearers, and argued that feminist revolution would not be possible until
women were freed not only from the sole responsibility for child-rearing
(which should be taken by society as a whole) but also, by technology,
from the tyranny of reproduction. Although the idea that women might have
to give up the physical act of child-bearing in order to achieve a truly
egalitarian society has never achieved wide popularity, the force of
Firestone's argument is powerfully illustrated in Marge Piercy's WOMAN ON
THE EDGE OF TIME, and its influence can be traced also in the writings of
Charnas, Russ and Sally Miller GEARHART.Not all work by women writers is
feminist - not even when it concentrates on the "woman question" - and
there are different interpretations of what comprises feminist sf. The
only specifically labelled feminist sf list from any publisher is the one
established by The Women's Press in the UK under the direction of Sarah
LEFANU in 1985. Anything published by The Women's Press, sf included, is
considered, by definition, feminist, and is often ghettoized in bookshops.
Yet many of the books on this list were first published in the USA and
even in the UK by nonfeminist houses either as straightforward sf, as for
example A Door into Ocean (1986) by Joan SLONCZEWSKI, or as mainstream
literature, like The Book of the Night (1984) by Rhoda Lerman (1936- ).
The Women's Press list also includes books by writers who had not
previously been seen as, and would not define themselves as, feminist
writers, such as Josephine SAXTON and Tanith LEE.Diane Martin, an editor
of the fanzine Aurora (where sf stands for "speculative feminism" -
JANUS/AURORA), in 1990 proposed, with tongue slightly in cheek, "The
Martin Scale" as a tool for measuring the feminist content of a work of sf
or fantasy:Level One: Doubts about patriarchy/women escaping victimization
(e.g., most Andre NORTON novels)Level Two: Men and women as equals (e.g.,
DREAMSNAKE [1978] by Vonda MCINTYRE)Level Three: Women are better than men
on some levels (e.g., FrostFlower and Thorn [1980] by Phyllis Ann
Karr)Level Four: Women are uniformly better than men (e.g., Jessica Amanda
Salmonson's Tomoe Gozen saga)Level Five: Can't live with 'em/can't live
without 'em (e.g., "The Women Men Don't See" [1973] by James TIPTREE
Jr)Level Six: Men are tragically flawed and pitiable (e.g., Native Tongue
[1984] by Suzette Haden ELGIN)Level Seven: Men as slaves (e.g., B-movies
like Amazon Women on the Moon [1987]; Joe DANTE)Level Eight: Separatism is
necessary for survival (e.g., THE GATE TO WOMEN'S COUNTRY [1988] by Sheri
S. TEPPER)Level Nine: Positive depiction of lesbian/feminist utopias (e.g.
, The Shore of Women [1986] by Pamela Sargent)Level Ten: Parthenogenesis
and/or scenes of actual castration (e.g., Motherlines [1978] by Suzy McKee
Charnas)In what is probably the most thoughtful and accessible survey of
the topic, In the Chinks of the World Machine: Feminism and Science
Fiction (1988; vt Feminism and Science Fiction 1989 US) by Sarah Lefanu,
the author makes a distinction between feminist sf and "feminized sf". The
latter, she argues, while it challenges established sexism by valuing
women and feminine values over men and masculinity, and has been an
important influence on the development of sf as a whole, does not dispute
the man/woman paradigm or question the construction of gender as more
radical feminist writings do. Feminist ideas are able to flourish within
sf despite reader resistance because, she claims, sf at its best "deploys
a sceptical rationalism as its subtext" and "feminism is based upon a
profound scepticism: of the 'naturalness' of the patriarchal world and the
belief in male superiority on which it is founded".A forerunner to modern
feminist sf can be seen in the spate of utopian stories written by women
as part of the movement for women's rights which began in the 19th
century. Unlike the utopias of male writers, these fictions always
question the sexual status quo and foreground the position of women,
sometimes - as in Mary E. Bradley LANE's Mizora (1890) and Charlotte
Perkins GILMAN's Herland (1914; 1979) - by depicting an all-women society
and showing its superiority to societies in which men rule.The utopian
tradition in women's writing was forgotten in subsequent decades until its
rediscovery by feminist scholars in the 1970s, and there is some worry
that, however well established women writers may seem now, the same fate
may befall feminist sf. Russ has described many of the ways in which
women's work is discounted in How to Suppress Women's Writing (1983); and,
in "An Open Letter to Joanna Russ" in Aurora 25 (1987), Jeanne Gomoll
expressed her feeling that her own experiences of FANDOM and sf in the
1970s were being rewritten by men choosing to ignore the impact of
feminism and characterize a whole decade as "boring" because their
personal interests were not always given priority. To many, women as well
as men, the revolution is over, equality has been won, and we are living
in a post-feminist age. In addition, the label "feminist" has never been
either safe or comfortable; while it had in the 1970s - particularly in
the USA - a certain novelty value, by the mid-1980s to be called a
feminist writer was to be announced as writing for a limited audience of
like-minded readers.On the positive side, the impact of feminism can be
seen even in much nonfeminist sf. Men as well as women writers are more
interested in creating believable female characters; and, as a ground for
"thought experiments" relating to gender, social relations and new ways of
being human - topics central to feminism - sf is extremely fertile.
[LT]Further reading: Future Females: A Critical Anthology (anth 1981) ed
Marlene S. Barr; Feminist Futures: Contemporary Women's Speculative
Fiction (1984) by Natalie M. Rosinski; Women Worldwalkers: New Dimensions
of Science Fiction and Fantasy (anth 1985) ed Jane B. Weedman; Writing
Beyond the Ending: Narrative Strategies of Twentieth-Century Women Writers
(1985) by Rachel Blau DuPlessis; Feminist Utopias (1989) by Francis

(? -? ) UK author known solely for his sf novel Lady Ermyntrude and the
Plumber: A Love Tale of MCMXX (1912). After the passage of the Great
Compulsory Work Act and the suppression of the House of Lords, everybody
must work to live. [JC]

Charles L. GRANT.

Working name of US writer Bradley Michael Ferguson (1953- ). His two Star
Trek ties are Crisis on Centaurus * (1986) and A Flag Full of Stars *
(1991). He has also written one independent title, The World Next Door
(1990), in which a post- HOLOCAUST Earth is set as an ALTERNATE WORLD to
our own. [JC]


(1947- ) UK writer who began publishing sf with "The Monroe Doctrine" for
Interzone in 1983, and through the 1980s released several sharply
conceived tales, revealing more than once a deep interest in US life.His
first book, Bars of America (coll 1986), not sf, is a collection of tales
and musings set in the heart of that country. His first sf novel, Putting
Out (1988), presents a NEAR-FUTURE US political race in terms of the
semiotics of dressing, with all the sensitivity to signs so often found in
exiles, voluntary or forced. Double Helix Fall (1990), also linguistically
inventive and darkly obsessed with the USA's visions of its own demise,
presents - in the guise of a homage to the world and style of Philip K.
DICK - an original rendering of that sense of demise, for in the USA of
this novel it has become a matter of political and religious orthodoxy
that to be born is to die, and that the world into which one dies is a
stratified Hell. A ROBOT detective helps, in the nick of time, to loosen
the death-grip. [JC]

(1937- ) US editor, son of Joseph W. FERMAN; ELF formally took over the
editorship of The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION in Jan 1966, a
post in which he remained until June 1991, having previously been managing
editor since Apr 1962 under Avram DAVIDSON and then his father. Under
ELF's editorship FSF generally prospered: for many years it was one of
only two sf magazines - ASF being the other, with both now being joined by
ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE - to have maintained a regular
schedule, and its circulation has remained fairly stable. FSF won the HUGO
for Best Magazine five years in succession (1969-72) under ELF and, after
that category was dropped, ELF won the replacement Hugo for Best Editor in
1981, 1982 and 1983. It would be fair to say that, although the magazine
has lost much of its distinctive flavour of the 1950s, larger market
forces and changes in the nature of the genre have had much to do with
that diminution of specialness. In 1991 ELF appointed Kristine Kathryn
RUSCH as editor, retaining the post of publisher.During his long stay at
the helm, ELF edited various anthologies drawn from the magazine,
including several volumes of the Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction
series (see listing below). There were also four anniversary volumes:
Twenty Years of the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (anth 1970)
with Robert P. MILLS, The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction: A Special
25th Anniversary Anthology (anth 1974), The Magazine of Fantasy and
Science Fiction: A 30-Year Retrospective (anth 1980) ,The Best from
Fantasy & Science Fiction: A 40th Anniversary Anthology (anth 1989) and
The Best from Fantasy & Science Fiction: A 45th Anniversary Anthology
(anth 1994), the last with Rusch. With Barry N. MALZBERG ELF collaborated
on a notable original anthology, Final Stage (anth 1974; rev 1975), a
reprint collection, Arena: Sports SF (anth 1976) and Graven Images: Three
Original Novellas of Science Fiction (anth 1977). [MJE/JC]Other works:
Once and Future Tales from the Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction
(anth 1968); The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, April 1965 (anth
1981) with Martin H. GREENBERG; The Best Fantasy Stories from the Magazine
of Fantasy & Science Fiction (anth 1986); The Best Horror Stories from the
Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (anth 1988; in 2 vols US 1989; vt
The Best of Modern Horror: Twenty-Four Tales from the Magazine of Fantasy
and Science Fiction 1989 UK) ed with Anne Devereaux Jordan.The Best from
Fantasy and Science Fiction: The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction:
15th Series (anth 1966); 16th Series (anth 1967); 17th Series (anth 1968);
18th Series (anth 1969); 19th Series (anth 1971); 20th Series (anth 1973);
22nd Series (anth 1977); 23th Series (anth 1980); 24th Series (anth 1982).

(1906-1974) US publisher and editor, born in Lithuania. After a long
career with the magazine American Mercury, JWF became involved with The
MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION from its inception, was listed Aug
1954-Oct 1970 as Publisher and Dec 1964-Dec 1965 as Editor, a position to
which his son, Edward L. FERMAN, succeeded him. He also founded VENTURE
SCIENCE FICTION as a companion to FSF; it ran 1957-8 under the editorship
of Robert P. MILLS, with a second series being published 1969-70 under the
editorship of Edward L. Ferman. JWF edited an anthology of stories from
Venture: No Limits (anth 1964). [MJE/PN]


(1865-1959) US writer and playwright based initially in New York, though
he lived and travelled in the Middle East in later life, and died in
Belgium. His sf novel, Through the Earth (1898), is about a
transportation-tube through the planet from New York to Australia, which
gives its first passenger an experience in free fall but suffers from
melting at the Earth's core and must be abandoned. The sequel, A Trip to
Venus, still awaits publication. It is likely that CF's early work, with
its didactic bias, was appreciated by Hugo GERNSBACK, and his Dr Hackensaw
series ( EDISONADE) appeared first in Gernsback's SCIENCE AND INVENTION in
43 instalments, from "The Secret of Artificial Respiration" (1921) to the
novel "A Journey to the Center of the Earth" (1925), with two concluding
stories published the next year in AMZ. [JC]See also: APES AND CAVEMEN (IN

(1881-? ) Soviet writer, resident in the USA, who translated his own
uneven sf novel into English as The New City: A Story of the Future (1925;
trans and rev 1937). It depicts first Soviet then US society with strongly
DYSTOPIAN views of both. [JC]

(? - ) US writer whose SETI (1990) pits its teenaged hero against both US
and Soviet governments in the race to make First Contact. He does
surprisingly well. [JC]See also: ALIENS.



(1917- ) US critic whose piercing and mythopoeic views on the
relationship between US culture and literature were first expressed in
Love and Death in the American Novel (1960), where he describes sf as a
"typically Anglo-Saxon" form, although later, in Waiting for the End (coll
1964), he states that "Even in its particulars, the universe of science
fiction is Jewish". He has long espoused the work of such sf writers as
Samuel R. DELANY. In Dreams Awake (anth 1975) assembles material of
interest, and Olaf Stapledon: A Man Divided (1983) is an invigorating if
sometimes eccentric examination of STAPLEDON. His fiction, like The
Messengers will Come no More (1974), tends to FABULATION. [JC]See also:

Manly Wade WELLMAN.

Film (1957). Amalgamated/MGM. Dir Arthur Crabtree, starring Marshall
Thompson, Terence Kilburn, Kim Parker, Peter Madden, Kynaston Reeves.
Screenplay Herbert J. Leder, based on "The Thought-Monster" (Weird Tales
1930) by Amelia Reynolds Long. 74 mins. B/w.This is one of the two sf/
HORROR films made by Amalgamated in the UK (the other was FIRST MAN INTO
SPACE [1958], also starring Marshall Thompson) but set in North America.
FWAF is much more interesting than the other, despite the absurdity of its
basic premise. An elderly SCIENTIST (Reeves) accidentally creates, with
his new thought-wave amplifier, a number of creatures consisting of pure
energy. Invisible at first, they commit a series of murders by sucking out
their victim's brains through holes made at the base of the neck; but in
the final sequences, when the creatures have trapped the protagonists in a
remote house, they gradually materialize as disembodied brains with
trailing spinal cords and twitching tendrils. The lunatic climax has a
quality of genuine nightmare, with the brains - animated in imaginative
stop-motion photography by Florenz von Nordhoff and K.L. Ruppel - leaping
and plopping about like demonic frogs. This is the ultimate in
anti-intellectual movies. [JB/PN]See also: MONSTER MOVIES.

(1939- ) Irish archaeologist and writer whose fourth novel, The Fourth
Mode (1989), sensitively depicts a small town and the natural life
surrounding it as a nuclear holocaust first threatens, then arrives. [JC]

FILE 770
US FANZINE of the 1980s, ed from Los Angeles by Mike Glyer, bimonthly for
most of its life. A newsletter covering FANDOM, with emphasis on North
America, it was begun when the previous US "newszine" (fanzine devoted to
items of news), Karass, ed Linda Bushyager, folded. The focus of F770,
much of whose contents are written in Glyer's no-nonsense style, is
convention news and reports. It won HUGOS for Best Fanzine in 1984, 1985
and 1989, and Glyer won the Hugo for Best Fan Writer in 1984, 1986 and
1988. [RH]


Film (1980). Bryna Company/United Artists. Dir Don Taylor, starring Kirk
Douglas, Martin Sheen, Katharine Ross, James Farentino. Screenplay David
Ambrose, Gerry DAVIS, Thomas Hunter, Peter Powell, based on a story by
Hunter, Powell, Ambrose. 105 mins. Colour.An aircraft carrier on
manoeuvres off Hawaii in 1980 is caught in a strange storm which turns out
to be a time-warp. The vessel is deposited in the same spot in 1941, just
before the attack on Pearl Harbor. Action is eschewed for interminable
ethical debate about altering history, as the captain (Douglas) agonizes
whether or not to shoot down the Japanese planes which will shortly bomb
the US naval base; a second time-warp renders decision unnecessary. The
film is wholly pointless, ill acted, and a complete waste of a perfectly
good ship, the Nimitz, which the US Navy had allowed the production
company (Kirk Douglas and family) to use. [PN]

(vt The Last Days of Man on Earth) Film (1973). Goodtimes
Enterprises/Gladiole Films/MGM-EMI. Dir Robert Fuest, starring Jon Finch,
Jenny Runacre, Sterling Hayden, Harry Andrews, Hugh Griffith, Julie Ege,
Patrick Magee, Derrick O'Connor. Screenplay Fuest, based on The Final
Programme (1968) by Michael MOORCOCK. 89 mins. Colour.In this first film
to feature Moorcock's polymorph protagonist, Jerry Cornelius, style
triumphs over content. Originally a set-designer, Fuest is best known for
The Abominable Dr Phibes (1971), an extravagantly theatrical horror-film
spoof, and for the many episodes that he directed of The AVENGERS . TFP
looks impressive, but not much of Moorcock's creation remains. Cornelius's
father has died, leaving a hidden microfilm on which is the final
(computer) programme of the title. Those involved in the hunt for the film
include Jerry (Finch), his evil brother (O'Connor), and the awesome Miss
Brunner (Runacre), who has a tendency to consume her lovers, bones and
all. The Moorcock original was not as strong as the other three books of
his Jerry Cornelius tetralogy, but none the less was sophisticated in its
ironies, which Fuest here reduces (literally in one case) to a series of
knowing winks. When Moorcock defines his characters in terms of their
personal style, this is often a form of criticism; for Fuest, by contrast,
strong style is apparently to be admired. The apotheosis of the book is
rendered farcical in the film, which substitutes a grinning Neanderthal
for Moorcock's original hermaphroditic MESSIAH. [PN/JB]

(1935- ) UK-born writer, in the USA from 1962 or earlier, who began
publishing sf with "The Confession of Melakos" for Sou-wester in 1977. Her
first novel, Infinity's Web (1985), rather confusedly describes the lives
of five versions of one protagonist who live in various ALTERNATE WORLDS,
and who gradually gain a sense of the mutual web they inhabit. Though far
more devoted to generic pleasures than Joanna RUSS in THE FEMALE MAN
(1975), whose structure is superificially similar, the novel still
generates a clear and telling FEMINIST perspective. Her professional
training in linguistics permeates her second novel, Triad (1986), another
very full story, involving a woman-run Earth government, a female mission
to a planet where several ALIEN races seem to congregate, and pirates. She
is now, perhaps unfairly, best known for the Shaper Exile sequence - The
Garden of the Shaped (1987), Shaper's Legacy (1989) and Shaping the Dawn
(1989) - as the first volume at least of this PLANETARY ROMANCE is
awkwardly written, dumping three separate genetic versions of human stock
upon a new planet, and sorting them out in terms of an unconvincing
biological determinism. The second volume is more toughly argued, but the
third moves too easily into the plot arabesques common to this subgenre.
SF is still (1992) in the wings, but gives the impression she is capable
of stepping into full view at any time. [JC]See also: GENETIC ENGINEERING.

(vt The End of the World) Film (1931). L'Ecran d'Art. Dir Abel Gance,
starring Gance, Victor Francen, Colette Darfeuil, Sylvie Grenade, Jeanne
Brindeau, Samson Fainsilber. Screenplay Gance, suggested by a story by
Camille FLAMMARION. 105 mins, cut to 91 mins, cut to 54 mins. B/w.This
tells of a comet's approach to Earth and of the upheavals (natural and
cultural) that ensue. There are orgies, and the rise of a totalitarian
leader (Francen), obviously approved by the director, who would soon prove
sympathetic to fascism. As with most of Gance's films, which were usually
independently produced, it took many years to complete. LFDM was made as a
silent film, but sound effects were later added by the producers, who
sacked Gance and cut the film's length. (Gance was still working on one
version in 1949.) A shortened 54min English version, repudiated by Gance,
was released in 1934; it was supervised by V. Ivanoff and the script was
adapted by H.S. Kraft. The film is extravagant, and fits one description
of Gance's work as hovering "between the ludicrous and the majestic"; a
more unkind critic might see it as somewhere between the grandiose and the
banal. [PN/JB]

(1949- ) US author whose first novel, Molly Dear: The Autobiography of an
Android, or How I Came to my Senses, Was Repaired, Escaped my Master, and
Was Educated in the Ways of the World (1988), rewrites Daniel DEFOE's Moll
Flanders (1722) as the memoirs of a 21st-century ANDROID to satirical
effect. Her innocence - assisted by memory wipes - resembles that of
VOLTAIRE's Candide, or almost any of John T. SLADEK's child ROBOTS in a
cruel world. Some of the points about Molly's legal enslavement are
sharply made. [JC]


Sf in Finland, now over a century old, has been diverse, with few
clear-cut lines of development. The earliest story was the serial
"Muistelmia matkaltani Ruskealan pappilaan uuden vuoden aikoina vuonna
1983" ["Memoirs of My Trip to the Vicarage of Ruskeala around New Year
1983"] (1883, in the newspaper Aura) by Evald Ferdinand Jahnsson. Apart
from a few children's stories, early Finnish sf took the form of future,
sometimes socialist, UTOPIAS. The Moon was reached by an icy ball in
"Matka kuuhun" ["Voyage to the Moon"] (1887) by Tyko Hagman, but the first
true sf was the novella "Tahtien tarhoissa" ["Among the Stars"] (1912) by
Arvid Lydecken, which was about Helsinki in AD2140, a Martian attack, a
voyage to Mars and the beginning of peaceful coexistence on Earth after
Mars has been destroyed by impacting asteroids.Fear of Bolshevism during
WWI produced several imaginary- WAR novels, the first being the excellent
Ylos helvetista ["Up from Hell"] (1917) by Konrad Lehtimaki. In
Suur-Isanmaa ["The Great Fatherland"] (1918) by Kapteeni Ter-s, Finland
defeats Russia, forces the UK's surrender and becomes a superpower.
Kohtalon kolmas hetki ["Fate's Third Moment"] (1926) by Aarno Karimo tells
about a war in 1967-8 between Finland and the Soviet Union, which nation
(in a defence union with the Mongols) is totally devastated by strange
Finnish inventions. A typical hero of the period would be a
scientist-inventor. The most curious of these "engineer novels" is
Neljannen ulottuvuuden mies ["Man of the Fourth Dimension"] (1919) by H.R.
Halli, in which a new chemical substance enables its users to see and walk
through solid objects. The best book of this period, Viimeisella hetkella
["At the Last Moment"] (1922), also by Halli, creates a daring time
perspective into Earth's distant future.There were fewer sf books in the
1930s. Among the more notable are The Diamondking of Sahara (1935),
written in English by Sigurd Wettenhovi-Aspa, and Undred fran krateron
["The Wonder of Crater Island"] (1939), written in Swedish by Ole Eklund.
There were 30 sf books published in the 1940s. The most popular were the
Atorox series by Outsider (pseudonym of Aarne Haapakoski) whose eponymous
character was a ROBOT: Atorox, ihmisten valtias ["Atorox, Lord of Humans"]
(1947), Atorox kuussa ["Atorox on the Moon"] (1947), Atorox Marsissa
["Atorox on Mars"] (1947), Atorox Venuksessa ["Atorox on Venus"] (1947),
Atorox Merkuriuksessa ["Atorox on Mercury"] (1948) and Atoroxin paluu v.
2948 ["The Return of Atorox in AD2948"] (1948). The most remarkable book
of the period, however, was Volter Kilpi's Gulliverin matka Fantomimian
mantereelle ["Gulliver's Travel to the Continent of Fantomimia"] (1944),
where Gulliver leaves the 18th century for the 20th.The term"science
fiction" itself came to Finland in 1953 with translations of US books, and
the 1950s saw growing enthusiasm for sf; the publisher Otava held a
competition, "Adventures in the World of Technology", whose winner was
Armas J. Pulla with Lentavalautanen sieppasi pojat ["The Boys Were
Snatched by a Flying Saucer"] (1954), in which antlike Martians intend to
invade Earth. Other books of the decade were juvenile adventures. Sf
writers of the 1950s, each with several books, include Osmo Ilmari and
Antero Harju, and Ralf Parland (who wrote in Swedish).The 1960s were poor
years for Finnish sf. The only notable novel of the period was Paikka
nimelta Plaston ["A Place Called Plaston"] (1968) by Erkki Ahonen, set on
a planet whose devolved inhabitants live in herds, controlled by
COMPUTERS. Ahonen's subsequent books, Tietokonelapsi ["The Computer
Child"] (1972), about a human embryo's excised brain interfaced with a
computer, and Syva matka ["Deep Voyage"] (1976), about the evolution of
consciousness on another planet, are Finland's most important sf novels.
Further books worth mentioning from the 1970s are: Viimeinen uutinen ["The
Last News"] (1970) by Risto Kavanne, about NEAR-FUTURE power politics;
Rosterna i den sena timmen ["Voices in the Late Hours"] (1971) by Bo
Carpelan, about the feelings of people under the threat of nuclear war;
and Aurinkotuuli ["Wind from the Sun"] (1975) by Kullervo Kukkasjarvi
(1938- ).The first Finnish sf magazine, Spin, began as a FANZINE in 1977.
It was followed by Aikakone ["Time Machine"] (1981), Portti ["The Gate"]
(1982), Tahtivaeltaja ["Star Wanderer"] (1982) and Ikaros (1986). Besides
translations, these magazines publish short fiction by Finnish writers,
who before had had to be content with occasional publication in mainstream
periodicals. Aikakone has grown to the point that it singlehandedly
supports its own fandom and sf milieu, with new young authors appearing.Of
these Portti is the largest, followed by Tahtivaeltaja and then by
Aikakone.Recent Finnish sf is represented by Auruksen tapaus ["The Case of
Aurus"] (1980) by Jukka Pakkanen, a vision of the future; Amos ja
saarelaiset ["Amos and the Island People"] (1987) by the well known
MAINSTREAM writer Hannu Salama, telling in a stylistically compact way of
the world after a nuclear WAR; Katajanukke ["The Juniper Doll"] (1988), a
first novel by Pekka Virtanen; and Messias ["Messiah"] (1989) by Kari
Nenonen, the story of Christ's cloning from the Shroud of Turin and of the
consequences. The anthologies Jainen vaeltaja ["The Ice Wanderer"] (anth
1986), Atoroxin perilliset ["The Heirs of Atorox"] (anth 1988) and
Tahtipuu ["Startree"] (anth 1990) contain mainly short stories by new
Finnish writers - among the best of whom are Johanna Sinisalo, Ari
Tervonen and Eeva-Liisa Tenhunen - selected from magazines and writing
competitions. The annual Finnish award for best short story is the Atorox
. AWARD, whose winners up to 1993 included four wins by Johanna Sinisalo.
Finnish FANDOM is quite active; there have been four national conventions,
known as "Finncons", all in Helsinki, held in 1986, 1989, 1991 and
1993.Tales from Finnish mythology, as collected from legends and ballads
to form the epic poem Kalevala from 1828 to 1849, have not only nourished
Finnish writers - as in Pekka Virtanen's "Kanavat" ["Canals"] (1985),
Veikko Rekunen's "Viimeinen laulaja" ["The Last Singer"] (1985) and Ernst
Lampen's Taivaallisia tarinoita ["Heavenly Stories"] (coll 1918) - but
have also influenced the works of writers abroad, as for example Emil
PETAJA's four-novel Kalevala sequence - Saga of Lost Earths (1966), The
Star Mill (1966), The Stolen Sun (1967) and Tramontane (1967) - as well as
his The Time Twister (1968) and, by L. Sprague DE CAMP and Fletcher PRATT,
Wall of Serpents (1953-4; 1960). [JI]See also: SCANDINAVIA.

(1914-1971) US illustrator. VF worked in both colour and black-and-white,
but is best known for the latter, where his unique, painstaking stippling
gained him fame although, because of the slow process involved, not
fortune. Nonetheless he was prolific. His earliest work was an interior
illustration for Weird Tales in 1935. Though it was in black-and-white
interior work that he excelled - several thousand pieces - he also painted
many covers, including 16 for Weird Tales and 24 for Famous Fantastic
Mysteries. His work appeared also in A. Merritt's Fantasy Magazine,
Fantastic Novels, Fantastic Story Quarterly and about 27 other sf/fantasy
magazines. He often added sparkling bubbles to his illustrations, partly
as a decorative device and partly to modestly conceal parts of naked
women. He was stronger in fantasy than sf, excelling (it was a common
paradox) in the two extremes of the glamorous and the macabre, both
meticulously executed. His early work was more abstractly stylized than
the later, and suggested a toughness which later became smoothed under an
expert commercial veneer. Possibly the greatest craftsman in the history
of sf ILLUSTRATION, VF revolutionized its quality. The HUGO system arrived
a little late for VF; though he was nominated 7 times, he won only once,
in the very first year, 1953 - the only award ever given for Best Interior
Illustration. He had only small success doing book covers, mostly 1949-58,
which his style did not really suit. Sadly, the collapse in SF-MAGAZINE
publishing in the mid-1950s - with the surviving magazines being DIGESTS
rather than PULP MAGAZINES and so having fewer illustrations - forced VF
away from sf as his main market, and through the late 1950s and the 1960s
he worked largely on astrological illustrations. Many portfolios and books
of his work have been published, the first being A Portfolio of
Illustrations by Virgil Finlay (coll 1941) published by Famous Fantastic
Mysteries. Books include Virgil Finlay (1971) ed Donald M. GRANT, and The
Book of Virgil Finlay (1975) and Virgil Finlay Remembered (1981) ed Gerry
de la Ree (1924 -1993), these latter being 2 out of 12 books of and about
Finlay's art ed de la Ree. [JG/PN]See also: COMICS; FANTASY; SEX;

(1912- ) UK novelist and journalist who published widely. Of some sf
interest are three novels based on the time theories of J.W. DUNNE: The
Lunatic, the Lover, and the Poet (1948), Twenty-Seven Stairs (1949) and
Time Marches Sideways (1950), the latter a love story set in London.
Captive on the Flying Saucers (c1950) and Freaks against Supermen (c1951),
both conventional sf stories, gain some interest from their mild erotic
content. [JC]See also: TIME TRAVEL.

(1905-1984) US newspaperman and writer, based in Arizona, who spent the
years 1927-9 with the US infantry in Tientsin, China; an oriental
influence pervades most of his work. His novels and stories, though
FANTASY rather than sf, have been influential throughout the field,
especially his famous The Circus of Dr Lao (1935), filmed insensitively as
The Seven Faces of Dr Lao (1963). CGF's work was a strong influence on Ray
BRADBURY in particular, as the latter's anthology, The Circus of Dr Lao
and Other Improbable Stories (anth 1956), demonstrates. The novel depicts
the effect upon a small Arizona town of Dr Lao's circus, which is full of
mythical beasts and demigods, all of whom actually live within his tents:
they are simultaneously pathetic and awe-inspiring, and the townspeople
soon find themselves acquiring unwanted self-knowledge as they confront
the caged GODS. The erotic intensity of these confrontations is
remarkable. The Magician out of Manchuria (1976 UK) - which first appeared
under that title in The Unholy City (omni 1968) along with a revised
version of The Unholy City (1937) - is set in China, and agreeably
lightens the message of Lao. The Unholy City itself is a somewhat unwieldy
allegory. The Ghosts of Manacle (coll 1964) assembles much of CGF's short
fiction. [JC]Other works: Past the End of the Pavement (1939),
associational.See also: MYTHOLOGY.

Working name of US author Walter Braden Finney (1911- ), whose career
began when he was 35; he published his first work in the genre, "Such
Interesting Neighbors" for COLLIER'S WEEKLY, in 1951. Although he is as
well known for sf as for anything else, he did not specialize in the
field, adapting his highly professional skills to mysteries and general
fiction as well. Stories from his first years as a writer of sf can be
found in The Third Level (coll 1957; vt The Clock of Time 1958 UK) and
later ones in I Love Galesburg in the Springtime: Fantasy and Time Stories
(coll 1963) - both asembled as About Time: Twelve Stories (omni 1986) -
and Forgotten News: The Crime of the Century and Other Lost Stories (coll
1983). Many are evocative tales of escape from an ugly present into a
tranquil past, or into a PARALLEL WORLD, or wistful variants of the theme
when the escape fails. His best-known work is The Body Snatchers (1955; vt
Invasion of the Body Snatchers 1973; rev 1978), twice filmed as INVASION
OF THE BODY SNATCHERS: in 1956 by Don Siegel and in 1978 by Philip
Kaufman. The book - perhaps less plausibly than the film
versions-horrifyingly depicts the INVASION of a small town by interstellar
spores that duplicate human beings, reducing them to dust in the process.
The menacing spore-people who remain symbolize, it has been argued, the
loss of freedom in a 1950s USA obsessed by the problems of "conformism".
JF's further books were smoothly told, more involving, perhaps less
pertinent. The Woodrow Wilson Dime (1960 Saturday Evening Post; exp 1968)
is a PARALLEL-WORLDS novel. Time and Again (1970) sets a time traveller in
the New York of 1882, which is meticulously evoked. Marion's Wall (1973)
movingly displaces the ghost of a 1926 film star into the present day.
Generally, in a JF story, sf or fantasy devices open the door into new
worlds and are then forgotten. The worlds thus made available are, all the
same, engrossing. [JC]Other works: Both The Woodrow Wilson Dime and
Marion's Wall appear with The Night People (1977) in 3 by Finney (omni
1987).See also: TIME TRAVEL; UTOPIAS.

UK tv series (1962-3). AP Films for ATV/ITC. Created by Gerry and Sylvia
ANDERSON; prod Gerry Anderson. Dirs included Alan Pattillo, John Kelly,
Bill Harris. Writers included the Andersons, Alan Fennell, Anthony
Marriott, Dennis Spooner. 1 full season and 1 part season. 39 25min
episodes. B/w.This was the second of the Andersons' "SuperMarionation"
animated-puppet sf series for children, the first being SUPERCAR and the
third being STINGRAY; it was the last made in black-and-white and the
first to be networked in full in the USA (on NBC). Steve Zodiac is a space
pilot, part of World Space Fleet (based in the Pacific Ocean); his
spacecraft XL5 patrols other star systems. This is a true SPACE OPERA, in
its way a predecessor of STAR TREK. Sidekicks include Venus, a glamorous
blonde space doctor, Professor Mat Matic, a Genius, and Robert the Robot.
Stories involved, inter alia, space pirates, a glass-surfaced planet and
Ice Men. Planetary transport was by jetmobile. Derek Meddings's special
effects, mostly achieved through use of clever models, are good. [PN]

Film (1982). Warner Bros. Dir Clint Eastwood, starring Eastwood, Freddie
Jones, Nigel Hawthorne, Warren Clarke. Screenplay Alex Lasker, Wendell
Wellman, based on Firefox (1977) by Craig THOMAS. 136 mins. Colour.The sf
aspect of the film is a new Russian fighter, the MIG 31 or "Firefox",
which can fly at Mach-5 and operates through electronic translation of the
pilot's brain patterns (thought control). Eastwood is the US pilot
smuggled into the USSR to steal it and fly it out. The movie is split in
two, the difficult voyage in disguise to the Soviet air base being tense
and well accomplished, the flight back out (with a STAR WARS-style
dogfight) merely silly, especially since the much-discussed thought
control turns out to have no real plot function at all. The film never
even considers that such a raid might precipitate WWIII. [PN]

Film (1993). Paramount. Dir Robert Lieberman, screenplay Tracy Torme
based on The Walton Experience by Travis Walton, starring D.B. Sweeney,
Robert Patrick, Craig Sheffer and James Garner. 109 mins. Colour.Based on
a supposedly non-fictional account of the abduction by aliens of one
member of a six-man forest-clearing team in Arizona, the film concentrates
on local suspicions that the other five may have murdered him, and the
inability of anyone to believe their fantastic story. When the kidnapped
man is found a week later, naked and traumatised, it is now generally
believed that a hoax has taken place. A lie-detector test proves
inconclusive. However, by showing staccato flash-back memories of the
partly-amnesiac victim, the film removes any ambiguity: aliens were indeed
involved, we are given to believe. The flash-back scenes set on the alien
spacecraft are well achieved, and in their way as good as those in
COMMUNION (1989), an earlier abduction movie of which this is a sort of
blue-collar reprise. The film's low-key documentary style gives an
impression of honesty, despite the implausibility of the basic premise.

Film (1984). Universal. Dir Mark L. Lester, starring David Keith, Drew
Barrymore, Freddie Jones, Heather Locklear, Martin Sheen, George C. Scott.
Screenplay Stanley Mann, based on Firestarter (1980) by Stephen KING. 114
mins. Colour.The novel is not one of King's best, but it hardly deserved
this messy adaptation. A young girl, Charlie (Barrymore), has pyrotic
powers and can start fires by mental concentration alone. Naturally, a
CIA-like organization ("the Shop") wishes to exploit her powers as a new
WEAPON, and just as naturally she incinerates them in a final (rather
small) holocaust. Scott plays the evil Native-American assassin who wishes
to absorb Charlie's powers. The film is pure CLICHE from beginning to end,
and not very competent at that level. Far superior in the teenage PSI
POWERS line is the very similar The FURY (1978) and, of course, CARRIE
(1976), both dir Brian De Palma, and the latter also based on a King
novel. [PN]




Film (1958). Amalgamated/MGM. Dir Robert Day, starring Marshall Thompson,
Marla Landi, Robert Ayres, Bill Edwards. Screenplay John C. Cooper, Lance
Z. Hargreaves, from "Satellite of Blood" by Wyott Ordung. 77 mins.
B/w.This is the second of two sf films made by Amalgamated in the UK that
pretend to be set in the USA (the other was FIEND WITHOUT A FACE [1957]).
FMIS seems to imitate The QUATERMASS XPERIMENT (1955; vt The Creeping
Unknown): a test pilot ejects from his high-flying aeroplane and returns
to Earth enveloped in a repulsive, crusty substance that turns him into an
inhuman, blood-drinking monster (the blood giving him the oxygen he needs!
). As in the Quatermass film, there are moments of pathos, but FMIS is
generally derivative and routine. Released around the time of the first
orbital satellites, FMIS, with its deceptive title, must have lured
audiences expecting something scientific and quasidocumentary; indeed,
despite its lurid content, it is soberly and stiffly directed. [JB/PN]

Film (1964). Columbia. Prod Charles H. Schneer. Dir Nathan Juran,
starring Edward Judd, Martha Hyer, Lionel Jeffries. Screenplay Nigel
KNEALE, Jan Read, from THE FIRST MEN IN THE MOON (1901) by H.G. WELLS. 107
mins, cut to 103 mins. Colour.This watered-down version of Wells's classic
novel is for the most part low farce, with too much random slaughtering of
Selenite aliens, but still contrives to be entertaining. An eccentric
Victorian inventor who has developed an ANTIGRAVITY material flies to the
Moon in a spherical "spaceship". He and his companions are captured by
insect-like Moon people but eventually escape, inadvertently leaving
behind cold-germs which destroy the Moon's population. Ray HARRYHAUSEN's
Moon creatures are rather good, as are the sets.A previous version of
FMITM was made in 1919 by British Gaumont, dir J.V. Leigh. [JB/PN]

When early writers wanted their characters to explore space, the idea of
rockets just never came up. Even Jules Verne had his heroes blasted out of
giant cannons, the sudden acceleration of which would have flattened them
into jelly.It was the Russian scientist and science fiction writer
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who first realized how space flight would actually
work. The year was 1883 and Tsiolkovsky was 26 years old when he first
proposed the radical idea that jet propulsion could send a vehicle into
space.Tsiolkovsky also came up with the concept of liquid propulsion.
Until then, rockets had been filled with gunpowder. He even imagined the
multiple stages of a rocket's liftoff.Way ahead of his time, Tsiolkovsky’s
SF work is virtuallyunknown today. But his importance to the history of
spacetravel - and to science fiction - is clear.

Working name of UK writer Norman Firth (1920-1949), who began his career
during WWII writing pulp Westerns and thrillers. He wrote stories
variously as Rice Ackman, Earl Ellison, Leslie Halward and perhaps other
names; his first sf publication was almost certainly "Obscene Parade"
(1946 Weird Story Magazine). His first novel, Terror Strikes (1946 chap),
is of some interest through its extremely close resemblance to H.G.
WELLS's The Invisible Man (1897). Spawn of the Vampire (1946 chap) is a
hastily concocted horror tale. NF wrote the entire contents of FUTURISTIC
STORIES (1946) and STRANGE ADVENTURES (1946-7). He was a writer of
potential worth, but died (of TB) at the age of 29 before proving it. [SH]

(?1903-?1974) Canadian writer whose Let Out the Beast (1950) is a post-
HOLOCAUST-reversion-to-savagery book in which it is the protagonist who -
unusually - becomes the feared enemy of those engaged in trying to rebuild
civilization. [JC]

(1923? - ) UK author of some short fiction under his own name and as by
David Campbell, and of several minor sf adventures: Planet War (1952) as
by Fysh, After the Atom (1953) as by Victor LA SALLE, and Beyond the Solar
System (1954) as by Claude Haley. [SH]

(? - ) US writer whose sf novel The Great Brain Robbery (1970) is a
rather lightweight adventure in which an ALIEN tries to steal a student's
unusual brain. [JC]

(1940- ) US writer. During a 20 year career writing IBM computer manuals,
he began publishing sf with "Triggerman" for Gal in 1973. His first novel,
Sunstop 8 (1978), is a SPACE OPERA; his second, The Blue Ice Pilot (1986),
features a space war made possible by developments in CRYONICS. [JC]

(1895-1968) US writer, raised in a Mormon family; his best-known single
novel, Children of God (1939), is about the Mormons. His Testament of Man
sequence covers the whole of human history, extending into many volumes
the basic strategy which shapes several novels by F. Britten AUSTIN, the 6
vols of Johannes V. JENSEN's The Long Journey (1922-4) and other
early-20th-century celebrations of the drama of EVOLUTION. Of sf interest
in the Testament are the first 5 titles, which deal with prehistory:
Darkness and the Deep (1943), The Golden Rooms (1944), Intimations of Eve
(1946), Adam and the Serpent (1947) and The Divine Passion (1948), which
comprise a formidable attempt at sustained anthropological sf. [JC]See

Pseudonym of UK author David Higginbottom (1923- ), who writes
exclusively for children. His first sf tale was Space Hostages (1967), in
which his tastes for HARD-SF backgrounds and realistically flawed
protagonists were competently expressed. The former reaches full
expression in tales like Trillions (1971) and Antigrav (1978). A Rag, a
Bone, and a Hank of Hair (1980), on the other hand, gravely and movingly
concentrates on its emotionally torn protagonist, a young genius in an
arid far-future DYSTOPIA commanded to observe a small family of
reconstructed "primitives", who have been drugged into repeating the same
fake 1940 day over and over again, so that he may garner experimental data
about raw humans. In the end, both family and protagonist are killed by
the masters of the terrible world. NF is a smooth writer, but the world he
envisages - as demonstrated in A Hole in the Head (1991), a harrowing tale
of the Earth at the brink of ecological catastrophe - is fraught.
[JC]Other works: Grinny (1973); High Way Home (1973); Little Green
Spacemen (1974 chap); The Witches of Wimmering (1976); Wheelie in the
Stars (1976 chap); Time Trap (1976); Escape from Splatterbang (1978 chap;
vt Flamers 1979 chap); Monster Maker (1979); the Starstormers sequence,
comprising Starstormers (1980), Sunburst (1980), Catfang (1981), Evil Eye
(1982) and Volcano (1983); Robot Revolt (1981); Sweets from a Stranger
(coll 1982); On the Flip Side (1983); You Remember Me! (1984); Dark Sun,
Bright Sun (1986); Living Fire (coll 1987); Mindbenders (1987); Backlash
(1988); The Talking Car (1988 chap); The Telly is Watching You (1989); The
Worm Charmers (1989); The Back-Yard War (1990 chap); The Model Village
(1990); Extraterrestrial Tales (omni 1991) assembling Space Hostages,
Trillions and On the Flip Side; Pig Ignorant (1991); The Puffin Book of
Science Fiction (anth 1993).See also: CHILDREN'S SF; RADIO.

[s] Robert BLOCH.

L. Frank BAUM.

[s] Murray LEINSTER.

(1919-1983) US writer of politically oriented fiction and other works who
became a naturalized Irish citizen. His first sf novel, The Iron Hoop
(1949), describes an occupied city in WWIII. When the Kissing Had to Stop
(1960) depicts in Anglophobe terms the self-destruction of a UK dominated
by a Communist-inspired government. Less known but more remarkable, The
Golden Age (1975) treats the post- HOLOCAUST recuperation of the UK in
terms of the myth of Orpheus. [JC]Other works: The Rat Report (1980).

(c1904- ) US writer, long active as a journalist. His sf novel, The Man
with Two Bodies (1952), offers parapsychological explanations for the
mysteries suggested by the title. [JC]

Film (1951). Columbia. Prod, written, dir Arch Oboler, starring Susan
Douglas, William Phipps, James Anderson, Charles Lampkin, Earl Lee. 93
mins, cut to 89 mins (UK). B/w.The first "after the bomb" film, F concerns
five US survivors - a mountaineer, a pregnant girl, a token Black, a
cashier and an adventurer. This is a gloomy art film with low-budget,
grainy photography, a scientifically bogus explanation for the five's
survival, much talking, a racial murder and two deaths from radiation, but
the theme itself retains some power. Oboler had worked extensively in
radio before entering the film industry in 1945 with Strange Holiday and
Bewitched, both based on his own radio plays. F is basically a sermon
against the prejudices and insanities that may lead to atomic war. [JB/PN]


A term first used by A.E. VAN VOGT to describe a book made up of
previously published stories fitted together - usually with the addition
of newly written or published cementing material - so that they read as a
novel. Aware that fixups are immensely more common in GENRE SF than in any
other literature in the world, we borrowed the term for the 1979 edition
of this encyclopedia, and continue to use it now; an example is van Vogt's
own THE WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER (fixup 1951). We do, however, recognize that
it is not always an easy description to apply with accuracy. It is, for
instance, sometimes impossible to know whether or not a series of
connected stories has in fact been extracted from an already-written book,
which for some would make it impossible to describe that book as a fixup;
some readers and authors, in other words, feel that the term can be
applied only to novels assembled from previously existing work.We
disagree. A book which is written so as to be broken up for prior magazine
publication may well, in our view, constitute a perfectly legitimate
example of the form, though we do recognize that when we call such a text
a fixup we are making a critical judgment as to the internal nature - the
feel - of that text. We should perhaps emphasize, therefore, that the term
is not, for us, derogatory. In fact, the fixup form may arguably be ideal
for tales of epic sweep through time and space. It is perhaps no accident
that Robert A HEINLEIN's seminal GENERATION-STARSHIP tale, "Universe"
(1941), ultimately became part of Orphans of the Sky (fixup 1963 UK). [JC]

Working name of Irish writer William David Flackes (1921-1993), who spent
much of his career as a journalist reporting on Irish matters; he won an
OBE (Order of the British Empire) in 1981. His sf was a sideline, and not
of much interest. It includes (almost certainly) 2 novels as by Clem
Macartney: Ten Years of Oblivion (1951) and Dark Side of Venus (1951).
Under his own name, he wrote Duel in Nightmare Worlds (1952). [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer George Henry Weiss (?1898-1946), who appeared in
Weird Tales and then began publishing sf with "The Machine Man of
Ardathia" for AMZ in 1927. He published 20 or so typical pulp-sf stories
over the next decade, some of his later work being in collaboration with
Forrest J. ACKERMAN. He was a comparatively careful writer. In his
posthumously published sf tale, The Night People (1947 chap), an escaped
convict takes a drug-induced trip to another planet. [JC]See also:

(1842-1925) French astronomer and writer. One of the first major
popularizers of ASTRONOMY, he took great delight in the flights of
imagination to which his studies in COSMOLOGY inspired him. In 1858, the
year he entered the Paris Observatory as a student, he wrote an
unpublished scientific romance, Voyage extatique aux reegions lunaires,
correspondence d'un philosophe adolescent. His two major fascinations were
the possibilities of LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS and of life after death, and
these interests are reflected by his earliest major works: La pluralite
des mondes habites ["The Plurality of Inhabited Worlds"] (1862) and Les
habitants de l'autre monde ["The Inhabitants of the Other World"] (1862),
the latter being "revelations" transmitted by the medium Mlle Huet. His
most important work in the popularization of science was Astronomie
populaire (1880; trans as Popular Astronomy 1894). He dramatized ideas
from his earlier nonfiction book Les mondes imaginaires et les mondes
reels (1864; trans as Real and Imaginary Worlds 1865 US) in three of his
Recits de l'infini (coll 1872; trans S.R. Crocker as Stories of Infinity
1874 US): "The History of a Comet", "Lumen" and "In Infinity". The second,
consisting of a series of dialogues between a man and a disembodied spirit
which is free to roam the Universe at will, includes observations about
the implications of the finite velocity of light and many images of
otherworldly life adapted to ALIEN circumstances. These stories were
revised and expanded for separate publication as Lumen (1887; trans A.M.
and R.M., with some new material, 1897 US). Notions taken from these
dialogues were embodied in the REINCARNATION romances Stella (1877 France)
and Uranie (1889; trans Mary Serrano as Uranie 1890 US; new trans Augusta
Rice Stetson as Urania 1891 US). CF's boldest SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE, however,
is La fin du monde (1893-4; trans anon as Omega: The Last Days of the
World 1897 US), an epic of the future. Although it is as much essay as
story, this is a notable work, akin to H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE
(1895) and William Hope HODGSON's The House on the Borderland (1908) in
presenting a striking vision of the END OF THE WORLD. CF's scientific
reputation was injured by his passionate interest in Spiritualism (in
later life he was an intimate of Arthur Conan DOYLE), but his was a major
contribution to the popularization of science and to the literature of the
scientific imagination. [BS]See also: ESCHATOLOGY; EVOLUTION; FAR FUTURE;

1. US COMIC strip created by artist Alex RAYMOND for King Features
Syndicate. FG appeared in 1934, at first in Sunday, later in daily
newspapers. Its elaborately shaded style and exotic storyline made it one
of the most influential sf strips. It was taken over in 1944 by Austin
Briggs, then in 1948 by Mac Raboy, and since then has been drawn by Dan
Barry (with contributions from artists Harvey Kurtzman and Wally WOOD and
writer Harry HARRISON) and Al Williamson, and more recently written by
Bruce Jones and illustrated by Gray MORROW. Various episodes have been
released in comic-book form - including a 9-part series from DC COMICS
written and drawn by Dan Jurgens (1988) - and also in book form. It
continues today.The scenario of FG is archetypal SPACE OPERA. Most
episodes feature Flash locked in combat with the villain, Ming the
Merciless of the planet Mongo. Flash's perpetual fiancee, Dale Arden, and
the mad SCIENTIST Hans Zarkov play prominent roles. (In later episodes
Zarkov's craziness was played down and he became a straightforward
sidekick to Flash.) The decor shifts between the futuristic ( DEATH RAYS,
rocketships) and the archaic (dinosaurs, jungles, swordplay) with a fine
contempt for plausibility, rather in the manner of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's
romances. Although begun quite cynically in conscious opposition to the
earlier BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY, FG quickly developed its own
individuality, emphasizing a romantic baroque against the cool
technological classicism of its predecessor, to which it is artistically
very much superior.The strip was widely syndicated in Europe. When, during
WWII, the arrival of various episodes was delayed, the strip was often
written and drawn by Europeans. One such writer was Federico Fellini
(1920- ).The FG comic strip has had many repercussions in other media. It
led to a popular radio serial, to a short-lived pulp magazine ( FLASH
GORDON STRANGE ADVENTURE MAGAZINE), and in the late 1930s to several film
serials starring Buster Crabbe; later came a tv series and a film (see
below). A full-length film parody, FLESH GORDON, appeared in 1974.The
radio serial exactly paralleled the Sunday comic strip, so you could see
in the paper the monsters you'd heard on the radio.An early FG novel was
Flash Gordon in the Caverns of Mongo (1937) by Raymond. A paperback series
of five FG short novels, based on the original strips, with Alex Raymond
credited, consisted of Flash Gordon 1: The Lion Men of Mongo * (1974),
Flash Gordon 2: The Plague of Sound * (1974), Flash Gordon 3: The Space
Circus * (1974), Flash Gordon 4: The Time Trap of Ming XIII * (1974) and
Flash Gordon 5: The Witch Queen of Mongo * (1974). The first four were
"adapted by Con Steffanson", a house name; #1-#3 were the work of Ron
GOULART; #4 was by Carson Bingham (Bruce Bingham CASSIDAY) and #5, also by
Bingham, was published under his name.2. Serial film. 13 2-reel episodes
(1936). Universal. Dir Frederick Stephani, starring Buster Crabbe, Jean
Rogers, Charles Middleton, Frank Shannon, Priscilla Lawson. Screenplay
Stephani, George Plympton, Basil Dickey, Ella O'Neill, based on the comic
strip. B/w.The film FG was the nearest thing to PULP-MAGAZINE space opera
to appear on the screen during the 1930s. Flash, Dale and Zarkov go to the
planet Mongo in Zarkov's backyard-built spaceship to find the cause of an
outbreak of volcanic activity on Earth. Ming the Merciless (a wonderfully
hammy performance from Middleton) is behind it all and plans to invade
Earth. Our heroes spend the next 12 episodes surviving various exotic
hazards before outwitting Ming in the final reel. Though more lavish than
the average serial (the budget was a record $350,000), FG has the cheap
appearance of most: unconvincing special effects, sets and costumes
borrowed from a variety of other films, and plenty of stock footage.
However, it remains great fun, romantic and fantastical. Ill edited
versions of the first and second halves were released theatrically as
Spaceship to the Unknown (1936) (97 mins) and Perils from the Planet Mongo
(1936) (91 mins).The follow-up was Flash Gordon's Trip to Mars (1938),
dirs Ford Beebe, Robert F. Hill, with the same leading actors - Ming is
back again - and Beatrice Roberts as the evil queen who turns humans to
"clay people". 15 two-reel episodes. Screenplay Ray Trampe, Norman S.
Hall, Wyndham Gittens, Herbert Dolmas. The setting is changed from Mongo
to Mars. The 99min edited-down version was The Deadly Ray from Mars
(1938).The final FG movie serial was Flash Gordon Conquers the
Universe(1940; vt Flash Gordon: Space Soldiers Conquer the Universe), dir
Ford Beebe, Ray Taylor, with the same leadingactors except that Carol
Hughes replaced Jean Rogers as Dale Arden.12 two-reel episodes. Screenplay
George H. Plympton, Basil Dickey, Barry Shipman. This, the weakest of the
three, kills off Ming (again) at the end. According to one account the
true title shown on the original episodes was Flash Gordon: Space Soldiers
Conquer the Universe; the soldiers would have been Ming's, and Flash is
trying to stop him. This would explain the oddity of the usually accepted
title, since Flash was not a universe-conqueror by disposition.The 87min
edited-down version was Purple Death From Outer Space (1940).The three FG
film serials continue to have a cult following and are regularly revived
on tv and in the cinema.3. US tv series (1951) from DuMont, starring Steve
Holland. It was low-budget and universally execrated, lasting only one
season.4. Film (1980). Columbia/EMI/Warner. Prod Dino De Laurentiis. Dir
Michael Hodges, starring Sam J. Jones, Melody Anderson, Topol, Max Von
Sydow, Brian Blessed, Timothy Dalton. Screenplay Lorenzo Semple Jr, based
on the early episodes of the comic strip by Raymond. 115 mins. Colour.As a
producer, De Laurentiis has always had a weakness for over-the-top,
fantastic parodies (sometimes successful, as in DIABOLIK [1967] and
BARBARELLA [1967]) but here his instincts let him down badly. Apart from
the fetishistic costumes (leather, spikes, etc.) there is little of
interest in this tongue-in-cheek, lurid fantasy, which tries to make a
comic-strip virtue of wooden acting. The plot is largely derived from the
1936 film serial, and the rushed special effects similarly recall the
ludicrousness of that film. The romantic elements are subjugated to a
rather listless kinkiness. [PN/JB]See also: CINEMA.


US BEDSHEET-size PULP MAGAZINE. 1 issue, Dec 1936, published by C.J.H.
Publications; ed Harold HERSEY. The featured novel was "The Master of
Mars" by James E. Northfield. FGSAM, intended to be a monthly juvenile
magazine, was notable for its coloured interior illustrations in a
comic-strip format. A failed attempt to cash in on the popularity of the
comic strip FLASH GORDON, its sole issue is now a rare collector's item.


(1884-1915) UK poet, playwright and novelist best known for Hassan
(1922), a fantasy play with an Arabian Nights flavour. His only novel, The
King of Alsander (1914), was also a fantasy. He is of sf interest for The
Last Generation: A Story of the Future (1908 chap), whose narrator is
spirited into times moderately close to the present where he witnesses the
self-willed extinction of the human race through a refusal to breed more
children into this vale of tears. The narrator is then taken much further
forward, where he discovers that apes (see APES AND CAVEMEN) are destined
to become the masters of the planet and "try again". This tale was later
collected along with some fantasies in Collected Prose (coll 1920).

[s] Frederik POHL.

William Henry Fleming BIRD.

(1908-1964) UK writer, brother of Peter FLEMING. Neither the use of
advanced technological gadgetry nor the fantastic plots of his enormously
successful James Bond sequence of thrillers makes them genuine sf. The
closest any of them comes to an sf plot is Moonraker (1955), whose
eponymous rocket is rather ahead of its time. Many of IF's novels have
been filmed, usually with additional sf-like gadgetry and completely
reworked plots. The first of these films was DR NO (1962); YOU ONLY LIVE
TWICE (1967) featured Bond crushing an attempt at world domination which
involved the kidnapping of orbital satellites. MOONRAKER (1979) involves
an orbital satellite and the Space Shuttle. [JC/PN]See also: ISLANDS;

(1907-1971) UK travel writer and novelist, brother of Ian FLEMING. He is
known mainly for such travel books as Brazilian Adventure (1933). In his
spoof sf novel, The Flying Visit (1940), Adolf Hitler parachutes into the
UK with amusing results. The tale was reprinted, along with a fantasy,
"The Man with Two Hands", in With the Guards to Mexico! and Other
Excursions (coll 1957). The Sixth Column: A Singular Tale of our Time
(1951), a satirical political thriller set in an implied NEAR FUTURE,
verges on sf. [JC]Other works: Some of the tales in A Story to Tell (coll
1942) are fantasies; Invasion 1940 (1957; vt Operation Sea Lion 1957 US),
a nonfiction study of German preparations to invade the UK, speculatively
presents a successful assault ( HITLER WINS).

[s] Damon KNIGHT.



Film (1974). Mammoth/Graffiti. Dir Michael Benveniste, Howard Ziehm,
starring Jason Williams, Suzanne Fields, John Hoyt. Screenplay Benveniste,
William Hunt. 90 mins, cut to 84 mins, cut to 78 mins. Colour.This
burlesque of FLASH GORDON began as a cheap soft-porn film, but became
relatively expensive as the special effects became more elaborate. Work on
it continued for nearly two years and many special-effects technicians
were involved, some uncredited; they included Jim Danforth, Dave Allen,
Rick Baker, Greg Jein, George Barr and Dennis Muren. Several of the
effects sequences include model animation of a high standard, in
particular the climax, when a monster, the Great God Porno, clutching the
heroine, scales a building in the manner of KING KONG while muttering a
series of surly asides. A duel with an animated insect-creature rivals the
best of Ray HARRYHAUSEN's work. The makers were so pleased with the
effects that they cleaned it up a bit, and it was released without the
feared X-rating. Most of the jokes are variants on the undergraduate ploy
of inserting sexual references - e.g., there is a penisaurus - into a
context that was originally downright puritanical. [JB]

Fletcher PRATT.

(1863-1935) UK writer of popular fiction, much of it for boys. The
Wonderful City (1894), for instance, carries its youthful protagonist to a
doomed lost race ( LOST WORLDS) in Central America. Morrison's Machine
(1900), an adult tale, analyses the relationship of scientific Man to the
MACHINES he was creating at the turn of the century ( SCIENTISTS). The
Three Days' Terror (1901), like The Ransom for London (1914), deals with
NEAR-FUTURE threats to the stability of the UK. [JC]Other works: The
Air-Ship, and Other Stories (coll 1903); The Wheatstack, and Other Stories
(coll 1909); Many Engagements (coll 1923); The Matheson Formula (1929 US);
The House in Tuesday Market (1930); The Man in No. 3, and Other Stories of
Crime, Love and Mystery (coll 1931).

Film (1986). Producers Sales/New Star Entertainment/Walt Disney. Dir
Randal Kleiser, starring Joey Cramer, Veronica Cartwright, Cliff De Young,
Howard Hesseman, Paul Mall. Screenplay Michael Burton, Matt MacManus,
based on a story by Mark H. Baker. 89 mins. Colour.Made for children, this
might - one would think - be rather disturbing for them. A 12-year-old
(Cramer) returns home after a fall and finds the wrong people living
there. The police take him to where his family now live, where he learns
that it is eight years later, that he has been missing, presumed dead, and
that his kid brother has become his post-pubertal big brother. Tests
reveal that our hero has strange brainwaves, some of which are read by a
computer as a picture of a flying saucer, just like one that has recently
been found but has proved unopenable. The boy locates the saucer and meets
inside it the robotic alien Max (Mall), who clearly recognizes him,
addressing him as The Navigator, an aspect of his recent past which is
news to him, since he lost his memory after the saucer's crashlanding.
Because he has been travelling at FASTER-THAN-LIGHT speeds to the alien's
planet and back, the boy has not grown noticeably older. Unhappy at his
role in this unnerving future, he persuades Max to return him (normality
comfortingly restored) back through time to 1978. This film presents what
is actually rather a nightmare scenario, and carries it off with
considerable aplomb for the first half; but it sinks quickly into routine
post- E.T.: THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL scenes once the flying saucer and alien
have been introduced. [PN]


(1892-1924) US writer (born Flindt) whose work appeared mainly in the
Frank A. MUNSEY magazines from the teens of the century. His first sf
story was "The Planeteer" for All-Story Weekly in 1918; it deals with
sexual rivalry and personal ambition in a Bellamistic ( Edward BELLAMY)
society. Its sequel, "The King of Conserve Island" (1918), describes the
corruption and collapse of the socialist world under the propaganda
attacks of a reactionary, capitalist society. The Dr Kinney stories
examine the implications of various political ideas: "The Lord of Death"
(1919) describes the ultimate Spencerian survival of the fittest on
MERCURY; "The Queen of Life" (1919) is based on the opposite point of
view, preservation of life for its own sake and Malthusianism on a VENUS
characterized by superscience; "The Devolutionist" (1921) covers the
ambivalences of an efficient, more or less benevolent dictatorship and a
bumblingly anarchistic or democratic underground; and the final story,
"The Emancipatrix" (1921), contrasts a hive world and primitive humans on
a ring-shaped planet. In the last two stories, the alien contact takes
place by means of an apparatus acquired from Venus. HEF's writing style
and PULP-MAGAZINE habits did not always adequately express his deep
interest in the emergence of behavioural and historical patterns from
various political and social philosophies. The series was much later
assembled as The Devolutionist and The Emancipatrix (1921 Argosy; coll of
linked stories 1965) and The Lord of Death and The Queen of Life (1919
All-Story Weekly; coll of linked stories 1965).HEF is remembered in part
for the mystery of his death (having picked up a hitchhiker - who turned
out to have had a criminal record - he was found dead in his crashed car)
and rather more for his sf novel with Austin HALL (whom see for details),
The Blind Spot (1921 Argosy; 1951). However, the Dr Kinney stories are his

Made-for-tv film (1980). BBC TV. Dir Alan Gibson, starring Peter Firth,
Caroline Langrishe, Pippa Guard, Patrick Magee. Teleplay Gibson, Jeremy
Paul. 95 mins. Colour.This was an unexpected success, winning several
awards. Hide (Firth) travels back in a flying saucer ( UFOS) from the
somewhat austere AD2130 to contemporary London to do historical research.
A Candide-figure, he is confused but cheerful about what he finds, falls
in love, and (of course) becomes his own great-great-great-grandfather.
This film is unusual in not being pessimistic about modern life, and uses
its future perspective cleverly to provide a sort of instant nostalgia for
the present day. The sequel, Another Flip for Dominick (1982), 85 mins,
made by and starring the same people, has Hide revisiting the past in
search of a missing colleague; it is less memorable. [PN]



1. Film (1958). 20th Century-Fox. Dir Kurt Neumann, starring Al (David)
Hedison, Patricia Owens, Vincent Price. Screenplay James Clavell, based on
"The Fly" (1957) by George LANGELAAN. 94 mins. Colour.A scientist
experimenting with MATTER TRANSMISSION accidentally gets mixed with a fly
and ends up with its head and arm (or leg). He has retained his own brain,
however, and with the help of his wife tries to reverse the procedure. But
the complementarily deformed fly refuses to be caught, and the scientist
is driven to commit suicide by putting his head in a steam press. The
final sequence shows the fly, with tiny scientist's head and arm, trapped
in a spider's web and screaming "Help me!" (which makes one wonder where
the fly's brain ended up). An absurd film whose ludicrous excesses are
amusing, and lavishly produced for a horror/ MONSTER movie, it was a
financial success and spawned two low-budget sequels, RETURN OF THE FLY
(1959) and CURSE OF THE FLY (1965). [JB]2. Film (1986). Brooksfilms/20th
Century-Fox. Dir David CRONENBERG, starring Jeff Goldblum, Geena Davis,
John Getz. Screenplay Charles Edward Pogue, Cronenberg, based on the
Langelaan story. 100 mins, cut to 96 mins. Colour.This blackly comic
remake is radically more sophisticated and more horrific than its
original. In this version the (this time unmarried) scientist's accident
leads to a melding of genetic material, and his transformation into fly is
gradual and protracted. With it comes a sexual and creative potency and a
capacity for destruction hitherto only latent in the idealistic, repressed
Seth Brundle, movingly acted by Goldblum. As usual Cronenberg confronts
the vulnerable and ephemeral nature of the human body by imagining it
metamorphosed; where other people use words to create metaphor, Cronenberg
uses the flesh, ambiguously evoking exultation and disgust, the grotesque
and the beautiful. [PN]See also: CINEMA; SEX.

Film (1989). Brooksfilms/20th Century-Fox. Dir Chris Walas, starring Eric
Stoltz, Daphne Zuniga, Lee Richardson. Screenplay Mick Garris, Jim Wheat,
Ken Wheat, Frank Darabont, based on a story by Garris. 104 mins.
Colour.This is a genuine sequel to the 1986 remake of The FLY , not just a
lame excuse for more horrific "fly" effects. Chris Walas, the skilled
technician who created those effects for the earlier film, here made his
directorial debut, and surprised many by doing so assured a job of it.
Seth Brundle's girlfriend, made pregnant by him in the previous film, dies
after giving birth to a "monster"; beneath the larva-like casing is an
apparently normal baby. At age 5, however, the child has a near-adult
appearance and superintelligence. His adoptive father, head of Bartok
Industries, is secretly determined to exploit both Brundle's son and his
MATTER-TRANSMISSION device, realizing that the genetic melding the device
allows gives him a handle for controlling "the form and function of all
life". The subtext is more reassuring than in CRONENBERG's earlier film,
and TFII becomes a retelling of Beauty and the Beast, with a crude but
satisfying comeuppance for Bartok at the end. Though Cronenberg is the one
popularly supposed to show disgust for the flesh, it is Walas whose more
conventional affection for normality has the effect of reducing the son's
metamorphosis to a mere occasion for horror. This deeply conservative film
is less subtle than its predecessor, though it has interesting Freudian
reverberations, and many people will prefer Walas's emphasis on the
corruption of an external agency (Industry) to Cronenberg's emphasis on
the tragic divisions of the Self. [PN]See also: CINEMA; MONSTER MOVIES.


In 1947, U.S. businessman Kenneth Arnold was flying his plane near Mt.
Rainier in Washington when he reported a strange sight - nine "discs" in
the sky. He described their pattern as being "like a saucer would be if
you skipped it across the water." And that's how the term "flying saucer"
was born.The flying saucer craze was to become a part of 1950s culture.
More recently, tales of Unidentified Flying Objects, or UFOs, pop up
everywhere. Some viewers have claimed that they were prodded and poked by
the aliens within. SF writers, for the most part, find such stories
unbelievable. What interests them is the public’s obsession with the
phenomenon of spaceship sightings and first contact experiences.


(1947- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Slan Libh" in ASF in
1984, and who soon became identified as one of the most sophisticated and
stylistically acute 1980s Analog regulars, some of his work appearing as
by Rowland Shew. His first novel, In the Country of the Blind (1990), is
an alternate-history thriller based on the premise that Charles BABBAGE's
early-19th-century COMPUTER did in fact work, and is being used by a
secret society to predict (and therefore to control) events. A
20th-century woman hacker discovers the conspiracy and exposes its
databases by use of a computer worm. Babbage's computer, by coincidence,
features similarly in THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1990 UK) by William GIBSON
and Bruce STERLING. MFF's second novel was Fallen Angels (1991) with Larry
NIVEN (whom see for details) and Jerry POURNELLE. His third, The Nanotech
Chronicles (1991), presents, with all MFF's engagingly lurid competence, a
tale which exploits current speculations about the future of molecular
engineering. MFF is on the verge of becoming a central creator of HARD SF.


A possible pseudonym of a probable Scotsman whose Meda: A Tale of the
Future (1891), though the events it recounts turn out to be a dream,
remains of interest for the imaginative scope of the AD5575 depicted, in
which large-headed brainy "Scotonians" are fed by ambient electricity,
possess ANTIGRAVITY, and represent the end of a long (and detailed)
world-history, including a comet HOLOCAUST. The protagonist begins to have
erotic longings, and awakens. [JC]

(1939- ) UK writer of fiction and technical material; most of his sf work
has been for BBC TV or BBC RADIO. His sf work, which is not remarkable,
includes: The Doomsday Ultimatum (1976); Ice (1978); Earth Search (1981),
based on his BBC radio serial; Torus (1990); Trojan (1991), about a
computer virus from Mars. [JC]

Working name of UK writer Kenneth Martin Follett (1949- ), most famous
for thrillers like Storm Island (1978; vt The Eye of the Needle 1978 US),
but who, under pseudonyms, has also written some sf. The Power Twins and
the Worm Puzzle: A Science Fantasy for Young People (1976) as by Martin
Martinsen was a juvenile; Amok: King of Legend (1976) as by Bernard L.
Ross was marginal fantasy; Capricorn One * (1978) as by Ross was one of
two novelizations - the other being by Ron GOULART - of the film CAPRICORN
ONE (1978). [JC]

(1939- ) US writer, primarily for tv; she was associated with STAR TREK
as its story editor, eventually writing Vulcan's Glory * (1989) for the
series of novelizations. She was later involved with the two tv series The
FANTASTIC JOURNEY and LOGAN'S RUN. The Questor Tapes * (1974) is based on
a series pilot written by Gene RODDENBERRY and Gene L. Coon, who created
Star Trek, and released as The QUESTOR TAPES. It tells of the creation of
an ANDROID who eventually plans to combat evil in secret. The pilot did
not lead to a series. DCF has written a number of tv episodes in addition
to her work as a story editor. [JC]See also: WAR OF THE WORLDS.

(1917- ) US newspaperman and writer, born in Brazil and raised in
Tennessee, spending his life there. He was a member of the If stable from
the publication of his first story, "Disqualified", in 1954, and wrote
three somewhat routine sf novels: Twice Upon a Time (1958 dos), Rebels of
the Red Planet (1961 dos), an intrigue set on Mars, and The Day the Oceans
Overflowed (1964), in which the manner of their doing so is scientifically
ill motivated. Epistle to the Babylonians (1969), nonfiction, deals in
part with the philosophy of science. [JC]

(1657-1757) French man of letters whose work pointed forward to the Age
of Reason; nephew of the dramatist Corneille. He wrote much, and one of
his most important books became a seminal influence on PROTO SCIENCE
FICTION: Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes habites (1686; trans J.
Glanvill as The Plurality of Worlds 1929). This is one of the earliest
works ever written popularizing science, notably ASTRONOMY, for the
layman, which it does by wittily presenting its speculations - many about
the possibility of LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS - in the form of conversations
after dinner between the author and a marquise. In 1697 he became
permanent secretary of the the Academie des Sciences, a post he held for
44 years. [PN]See also: COSMOLOGY; FRANCE; STARS; VENUS.

Film (1976). AIP. Prod and dir Bert I. Gordon, starring Marjoe Gortner,
Pamela Franklin, Ralph Meeker, Ida Lupino. Screenplay Gordon, based on a
"portion" of The Food of the Gods and How it Came to Earth (1904) by H.G.
WELLS. 88 mins. Colour.Set on an island off the coast of British Columbia,
FOTG tells of a miraculous foodstuff which oozes from the ground and
causes gigantism in all infant creatures that eat it ( GREAT AND SMALL).
Animated wasps, plastic caterpillars and out-of-focus chickens (all huge)
are wholly unconvincing, but the giant rats (ordinary rats shot in
miniature sets) are marginally plausible - which is more than can be said
for most of the actors and all of the script, though Meeker is effectively
creepy as the wicked industrialist out to exploit the Food. Nothing of the
Wells novel survives in this rat-drowning epic, which purports to be a
revenge-of-Nature film - like so many from its ECOLOGY-conscious period.

(1882-? ) US writer whose sf novel, The Radio Gunner (1924), depicts a
future WAR set in 1937 between Northern Europe, in alliance with the USA,
and the Constantinople Coalition. AF's predictive powers were poor and his
eponymous hero, who knows how to locate radios, fails to enthrall. [JC]

Film (1956). MGM. Dir Fred McLeod Wilcox, starring Walter Pidgeon, Anne
Francis, Leslie Nielsen, Warren Stevens. Screenplay Cyril Hume, based on a
story by Irving Block and Allen ADLER. 98 mins. Colour.Although Wilcox was
new to sf cinema (his best-known film was Lassie Come Home, [1943]), FP is
one of the most attractive movies in the genre. Some of the more
interesting resonances of FP stem from its being an updated version of
Shakespeare's The Tempest (c1611). Prospero is Morbius, an obsessive
scientist living alone with his daughter Altaira (the virginal Miranda
figure) on the planet Altair IV. Ariel is a charming metal creature, Robby
the Robot (who became so popular - the first ROBOT star since METROPOLIS -
that another film, The INVISIBLE BOY [1957], was made as a special vehicle
for him). The film opens with a spaceship landing to investigate the fate
of a colony whose sole survivors are Morbius and Altaira. The crew is
menaced by an invisible Caliban, which proves to be a "Monster from the
Id" and eventually destroys its unwitting creator, Morbius; holocaust
follows. Altaira is saved.The plot, mixing the tawdry and the potent, is
very sophisticated for the time - astonishingly so for a film originally
designed for a juvenile audience, especially in the intimations of
incestuous feelings of the father for the daughter. The dialogue is slick
and unmemorable. The best sequences involve a tour of the
still-functioning artefacts, spectacular and mysterious, dwarfing the
humans passing among them, of an awesomely powerful vanished race, the
Krel. The visual treatment of FP was unsurpassed until 2001: A SPACE
ODYSSEY, made 12 years later. Despite its flaws, it remains one of the few
masterpieces of sf cinema.Forbidden Planet * (1956), based on the film,
was by W. J. Stuart (Philip MACDONALD). [PN]See also: INTELLIGENCE;

(vt MUTANT) Film (1982). New World. Dir Allan Holzman, starring Jesse
Vint, June Chadwick, Dawn Dunlap, Linden Chiles, Fox Harris, Raymond
Oliver. Screenplay Tim Curnen. 86 mins. Colour.This cheap imitation of
ALIEN (1979), from Roger CORMAN's New World exploitation factory, is
distinguished by its gleefully sleazy nature and amusing cynicism. An
outer-space troubleshooter (Vint) is awakened from cryo-sleep ( CRYONICS),
casually informed that he is now younger than his son, and despatched to a
remote planet where a genetically engineered organism has run amok.
Although generally predictable, this is fast-paced and does produce one
astonishing coup by having its MONSTER, which replicates the cell
structure of anything it devours, defeated when a terminally ill scientist
feeds it his own cancerous liver, an organ he has removed during
anaesthetic-free self-surgery. Vint's grimy hero imports a bit of welcome
humour, and the film makes good use of the generically required
exploitation elements, intercutting a formulaic sex scene with oddly
poignant vignettes of the space-station staff whiling away the time at the
end of the Universe. Some of FW's sets and effects crop up again in
ANDROID (1982). [KN]


In sf TERMINOLOGY - unlike physics, where it has a different meaning - a
force field (sometimes a force shield) is usually an invisible protective
sphere or wall of force. Throughout the 1930s and 1940s the force field
performed sterling service, notably in E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Skylark and
Lensmen series, where force fields under attack glow red and orange and
then all the way up through the spectrum until they reach violet and black
and break down. Force fields are also a sovereign remedy against DEATH
RAYS and usually bullets, too, though not against swords in Charles L.
HARNESS's Flight into Yesterday (1953; vt The Paradox Men dos), in which
the efficacy of the shield is directly proportional to the momentum of the
object it resists; this property of force fields gives Harness a good
excuse to introduce swordplay (where the momentums are relatively small)
into a technologically advanced society - an example that other writers
were not slow to follow. Robert SHECKLEY's "Early Model" (1956) tells of a
force field so efficient that it renders its wearer almost incapable of
carrying out any action at all that might conceivably endanger him. The
eponymous device in Poul ANDERSON's Shield (1963) can recharge its
batteries by soaking up the kinetic energy of the bullets it stops. But
these are comparatively late examples, when the concept was sufficiently
familiar in sf to allow parody and sophisticated variations.It is the
essence of an sf force field that by a kind of judo it converts the energy
of an attacking force and repels it back on itself. Few writers, however,
were able to give - or concerned to try to give - a convincing rationale
for forces being conveniently able to curve themselves around an object
and to take on some of the properties of hard, resistant matter. A well
ground mirror might more plausibly carry out the same function, at least
against death rays. The true rationale for the force field and for its
close relations, the tractor beam (which pulls objects towards the beamer)
and the pressor beam (which pushes them away), is that - like FASTER THAN
LIGHT travel - they help tell stories. [PN]


(? -? ) UK writer whose A Time of Terror: The Story of a Great Revenge
(A.D. 1910) (1906; vt A Time of Terror: The Story of a Great Revenge (A.D.
1912) 1908) pits the UK, aided by a valiant underground organization,
against the Kaiser's invading forces. The Raid of Dover: A Romance of the
Reign of Woman, A.D. 1940 (1910) was fairly mild-mannered. [JC]

(1873-1939) UK writer and editor, born (Joseph Leonard) Ford (Hermann)
Madox Hueffer into a literary family of German descent. In protest at
German behaviour in WWI he changed his name to FMF, though typically he
refrained from doing so until hostilities had ended; both original books
and reprints after 1919 are signed FMF. A versatile man of letters,
founder/editor of the English Review and the Transatlantic Review, he is
best known for The Good Soldier (1915) and the four Tietjens novels
assembled as Parade's End (omni 1950 US). His first book, The Brown Owl
(1892), was a children's fantasy. The Inheritors: An Extravagant Story
(1901) with Joseph CONRAD (whom see for details) is sf. Fantasies include
Mr Apollo (1908), The "Half Moon": A Romance of the Old World and the New
(1909), a complex story of 17th-century witchcraft, and Ladies whose
Bright Eyes (1911), a TIME-TRAVEL tale. The Simple Life Limited (1911), as
by Daniel Chaucer, attacks utopianism. FMF inserted into the murkily
RURITANIAN The New Humpty-Dumpty (1912), also as by Daniel Chaucer, a
rather savage caricature of H.G. WELLS, who appears as Herbert Pett, a
"cockney" Great Thinker and philanderer, with a high-pitched voice, who
fatally intermixes sex and revolution. Vive le Roy (1936 US) delineates a
struggle for power in a future monarchical France. [JC]

William L. CRAWFORD.

(1957- ) US writer. He is author of some children's fiction under an
unrevealed pseudonym. He began publishing sf under his own name with
"This, Too, We Reconcile" for ASF in 1976. His Alternities Corporation
sequence appeared in magazines 1979-81. His first novel, Web of Angels
(1980), can be seen in retrospect as a quite remarkable rendering of the
basic venues exploited by CYBERPUNK some years later, though its
traditional rite-of-passage plot bears little resemblance to the
quest-for-Nirvana structure given definitive form by William GIBSON in
NEUROMANCER (1984). Beyond that basic distinction in dynamic thrust,
however, and beyond JMF's failure (or disinclination) to make use of
film-noir icons and the hegemony of corporate Japan, the eponymous
commmunication/data web much resembles CYBERSPACE, though intergalactic in
scope; the cowboy hacker protagonist hired out to a merchant prince is
also familiar, as are the Web's automatic defence systems - Geisthounds -
which hunt him remorselessly. JMF's second novel, The Princes of the Air
(1982), is a florid SPACE OPERA whose detail is more enthralling than its
span. The Dragon Waiting (1983) is an ALTERNATE-WORLD fantasy set in an
unChristianized (and dragonless) medieval Europe; it won the 1984 World
Fantasy AWARD. The Final Reflection * (1984), Star Trek: Voyage to
Adventure * (1984) (as Michael J. Dodge) and How Much for Just the Planet?
* (1987) are STAR TREK ties; The Scholars of Night (1988) is an
associational thriller; Casting Fortune * (coll 1989), set in the Liavek
SHARED-WORLD enterprise, contains in "The Illusionist" a book-length tale
of theatrical MAGIC; and Fugue State (1987 in Under the Wheel ed Elizabeth
Mitchell; rev1990 dos) is a complex sf exploration of an imprisoned
psyche. GROWING UP WEIGHTLESS (1993) - which tied for the 1994 PHILIP K.
DICK AWARD with Jack WOMACK's Elvissey (1993) - depicts life on the Moon
in terms that seem realistic, for the human settlement there lives under
strait conditions, and has a difficult relationship with Earth; but the
rite of passage into adulthood at the tale's centre is not innovative. Two
decades into his career, there remains some sense that JMF remains
unwilling or unable to create a definitive style or mode; but his
originality is evident, a shifting feisty energy informs almost everything
he writes, and that career is still young. [JC]Other works: On Writing
Science Fiction (The Editors Strike Back!) (anth 1981) with Darrell


(1899-1966) UK writer best known for his work outside the sf field,
especially the Horatio Hornblower novels (from 1937). In addition to
several sf stories - including the substantial HITLER-WINS novella, "If
Hitler had Invaded England" (1960), which was posthumously collected in
Gold from Crete (coll 1971) - he published a novel, The Peacemaker (1934
US), about a pacifist mathematician and schoolteacher who tries to force
peace on the world through his invention of a magnetic disruptor that
stops machinery. He fails. [JC]Other works: Poo-Poo and the Dragons (1942
US), a juvenile fantasy.See also: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT; DISCOVERY AND

Film (1992). Warner Bros. Exec prods Edward S. Feldman and Jeffrey
Abrams, prod Bruce Davey, dir Steve Miner, starring Mel Gibson, Jamie Lee
Curtis, Elijah Wood, Isabel Glasser and George Wendt. Screenplay Abrams.
101 mins. Colour.In 1939, when his girl friend (Glasser) lapses into
apparently terminal coma after being hit by a car, grief-stricken test
pilot McCormick (Gibson) volunteers for a one-year experiment in CRYONICS
conducted, conveniently, by his best friend (Wendt). The friend dies, and
the secret experiment sits unnoticed in a military warehouse until 1992,
when two small boys accidentally open the cryonic chamber, and McCormick
revives, apparently still a sexy youngish man. He copes well with life 53
years on, and while being pursued by federal agents he forms a
relationship with a feisty but somewhat depressed nurse (Curtis). Soon,
however, it becomes clear that McCormick is ageing very rapidly.
Fortunately he has previously taught the nurse's small son (Wood) to fly
old bombers, since he becomes too old to operate the one he steals to
elude the feds. The boy lands them safely at the house of his one-time
girl friend, who, it transpires, has recovered from her coma but is now
aged around eighty. The two wrinkled old persons embrace, in a culminating
scene that elicits embarrassment rather than the intended tears. A
romantic weepie, a thriller, a comedy, a boys' adventure film: the mix is
ill judged. The sf elements are among the better things, especially the
reversal of the usual stereotype, where McCormick is able, quite
plausibly, to adjust rapidly to a much changed world. [PN]

US DIGEST-size magazine. 5 issues Oct 1970-June 1971, published by Nectar
Press, Hollywood, ed Douglas MENVILLE. FF reprinted some ancient fantasy
stories, but the long novel serialized in #1-#4, The Goddess of Atvatabar
(1892) by William R. BRADSHAW, was probably too dated to be successful
even in the nostalgia market. A second serial, Hartmann, the Anarchist
(1893), by E. Douglas FAWCETT, began in #5. With his associate editor, R.
REGINALD, Menville went on to publish in book form the Forgotten Fantasy
Library (1973-80), 24 vols of reprint material. [FHP/PN]

(1932- ) US writer whose sf novels are for a young-adult audience. They
began with Call Back Yesterday (1981) and its sequel, Doomsday Plus Twelve
(1984), a studiedly and effectively admonitory presentation of nuclear
HOLOCAUST as an event having little to do - contra much wish-fulfilment
SURVIVALIST FICTION - with post-Bomb opportunities for self-fulfilment. In
the first volume, a teenaged US girl's flirtation in the Middle East sets
off, through a chain of stupidities, the final war; in the second, 12
years later, a young girl persuades the remnants of the US Army not to try
to attack a benevolent Japan, which has had nothing to do with the war.
Cry Havoc (1988), somewhat less interestingly, features the creation of
killer dogs through GENETIC ENGINEERING gone awry. [JC]

(? -? ) UK writer known only for the early sf UTOPIA, A Dream of Reform
(1848), which tamely introduces the usual visitor to a mildly socialist
planet designed on anti-industrial lines. The book is thus a vague
precursor to the work of William MORRIS. [JC]

Pseudonym of an unidentified Australian writer in whose Here (Away from
it All) (1969 UK; vt Here 1970 US) the residents of a Mediterranean island
must deal with the consequences of the HOLOCAUST. [JC]

(1950- ) US writer who has generally concentrated on series, beginning
with the Ice Prophet sequence - Ice Prophet (1983), The Flame upon the Ice
(1984) and A Darkness upon the Ice (1985) - set on Earth at some point in
the future after an ecological disaster has caused the planet to become
icebound. In this world technology has, according to the orthodox sf
assumptions, been foolishly banned, and the eponymous prophet heralds a
revival of science; but the intricacies of the realpolitik which doom him
personally, and the beauties of the ice world itself, go some way to keep
the sequence from being unduly familiar. The Gamester War novels - The
Alexandrian Ring (1987), The Assassin Gambit (1988) and The Napoleon Wager
(1993) - show a similar competence and a whole-hearted involvement in the
most far-reaching dictates that SPACE OPERA can demand on those who treat
its premises seriously, featuring a race of intergalactic overlords who
permit the citizens of Earth and many other planets to engage in vast
GAME-WORLD-like conflicts and to import, through TIME TRAVEL, figures like
Alexander the Great to fight wagered wars on the enormous ringworld that
serves as arena. The Crystal series, written with Greg Morrison - The
Crystal Warriors (1988) and The Crystal Sorcerers (1991) - is fantasy. The
Lost Regiment sequence - Rally Cry! (1990), Union Forever (1991),Terrible
Swift Sword (1992) and Fateful Lightning (1993) - reworks the basic
structure of the Gamester War books, this time from the perspective of a
Civil War Union troop transported through time to a medieval planet
secretly dominated by remote aliens. Into the Sea of Stars (1986) is a
singleton, as is Star Voyager Academy (1994); Wing Commander III: Fleet
Action* (1994) is part of a multi-author series tied to a computer game,
and Magic: The Gathering Arena* (1994) is tied to a trading-card game. WRF
is a genre writer of shining efficiency, and is technically capable of the
most ambitious work. [JC]See also: GAMES AND SPORTS.

(1879-1970) UK writer of essays and novels, the best known being A
Passage to India (1924). The Celestial Omnibus, and Other Stories (coll
1911) assembles several fantasies of interest, but EMF's importance to sf
lies wholly in his short story "The Machine Stops" (1909), collected in
The Eternal Moment (coll 1928), which includes further fantasies. Both
books were assembled as Collected Short Stories (coll 1947; vt Collected
Tales 1974 US). Cast in the form of a warning look at the distant future,
rather in the mode of H.G. WELLS's THE TIME MACHINE (1895), "The Machine
Stops" directly attacks, as many critics noted and as EMF himself
acknowledged, the rational World State that Wells promulgated in A Modern
Utopia (1905). In the hivelike underground society EMF envisions, freedom
and (paramountly) the value of the individual human's personal relations
with others of his kind have been eliminated. When the state collapses -
when the machine stops - the depersonalized ciphers underground perish,
while above, on the surface, a few genuine humans survive. In any study of
the relation of DYSTOPIA to UTOPIA, the story is of vital interest.

(1938- ) UK writer who gained fame with his first novel, The Day of the
Jackal (1971), and whose books are generally political thrillers. The
Shepherd (1975 chap), however, is a sentimental timeslip fantasy about a
WWII pilot, and both The Devil's Alternative (1979) and The Negotiator
(1989) are NEAR-FUTURE thrillers, the first predicting the failure of the
Russian harvest, the second predicting (wrongly) a Soviet-generated
crisis. [JC]

(1874-1932) US journalist and author. Working from extensive notes
collected mainly from newspapers, magazines and scientific journals, CF
compiled a series of books containing information on "inexplicable"
incidents and phenomena. Though characterized as an anti-scientist, CF
reserved his attacks for the "scientific priestcraft" and their dogmatic
"damning" of unconventional or unwanted observations. CF's own belief was
simply a monistic faith in the unity of all things, and this forms the
principal connection between his apparently unrelated groups of data. His
books are written in an eccentric style and are interspersed with wilfully
absurd theories and ideas. The first two, both still (1992) unpublished,
were called simply X and Y; X proposes that Earth is controlled from MARS
and Y supports the HOLLOW-EARTH hypothesis. The Book of the Damned (1919)
and New Lands (1923) are largely concerned with astronomical and
meteorological events, while Lo! (1931) and Wild Talents (1932) are more
interested in human and animal phenomena. The four published books are
crammed with data, and the sheer bulk of information is impressive;
however, there is no attempt to evaluate the numerous reports cited, so
that silly-season urban legends and hoax stories are jumbled in with a
too-sparse leavening of more reliable accounts. Reading CF therefore feels
much like eating a stew of dubious provenance: the taste is good but one
worries about what went into it. CF himself was perfectly aware that much
of his data was, to say the least, doubtful; of The Book of the Damned he
wrote: "This book is fiction, like Gulliver's Travels, The Origin of
Species, Newton's Principia, and every history of the United States."
Moreover, he was reluctant to invent theories (other than whimsical ones)
to account for his data - a humility that distances his books from the
sketchy fantasies of later writers such as Erich VON DANIKEN.After CF's
death, compilation of data was continued by the Fortean Society, founded
in 1931 by a group that included Ben HECHT, John Cowper POWYS, Alexander
Woollcott (1887-1943) and Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945), and in the
journals Doubt (US) and Lo! (UK). Information is currently collected by
the International Fortean Organization, who publish INFO Journal, and by
the UK publication Fortean Times. Prominent modern Forteans include
William F. Corliss, John Michell and Robert J.M. Rickard.CF's list of
bizarre observations and events (from astronomical heresies to
teleportation cases), together with his demand for original and undogmatic
interpretation, influenced and stimulated many sf writers. CF's most
enthusiastic sf follower was Eric Frank RUSSELL, who considered him "the
only real genius sf ever had"; Russell's Sinister Barrier (1943) and
Dreadful Sanctuary (1951) are based on Fortean ideas. Damon KNIGHT,
another author influenced by CF, published a standard biography, Charles
Fort, Prophet of the Unexplained (1970). The influence of CF's ideas on sf
was particularly strong in the magazines ed John W. CAMPBELL Jr, Unknown
and ASF. Fortean elements rarely appear in more recent written sf, though
Patrick TILLEY's Fade-Out (1975) is one exception, and films such as CLOSE
ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND (1977), with its discovery of the famous
"lost" Flight 19, maintain the tradition. [PR/JGr]See also: ASTOUNDING

Film (1992, but released 1993). Fortress Films/Village Roadshow
Pictures/Davis Entertainment Production. Dir Stuart Gordon; screenplay
Steve Feinberg, Troy Neighbors; starring Christopher Lambert, Kurtwood
Smith, Loryn Locklin, Lincoln Kilpatrick, Clifton Gonzalez Gonzalez,
Jeffrey Combs, Tom Towles, Vernon Wells. 95 mins. Colour.In a near-future
and apparently semi-fascist USA it is illegal to have more than one child,
and ex "Black Beret" soldier John Brennick (Lambert) and his pregnant wife
(Locklin), having lost one child, get caught attempting to cross the
border into Mexico. Both are imprisoned (in different areas) in the
Fortress, a privately run 30-storey, futuristic, underground prison in the
desert. The director is a demented cyborg, the gaolers are androids grown
from redundant babies, the prisoners carry explosive balls in their
stomach which explode during escape attempts and things look bad. In an
escalating series of exploitation-movie over-the-top lunacies, a breakout
is achieved, but not before pregnant Mrs Brennick is threatened with fatal
Caesarean by circular saw. The film has only one redeeming feature, a
sense that exploitation sf-cinema is fun, and its various unpleasantnesses
are achieved with commendable vigour and bad taste. Lambert's performance
is dire. This Australian/American co-production was the first of two sf
future-prison break-out movies with military heroes to be made in
Australia within two years, the other being No Escape, a more humane but
less watchable film. [PN]

(1932- ) US physicist and writer, senior scientist at Hughes Research
Laboratories and one of the most devoted HARD-SF authors of the 1980s. He
began publishing sf with "The Singing Diamond" in Omni (1979), and made a
very considerable impact with his first novel, DRAGON'S EGG (1980), which,
along with its sequel Starquake! (1985), is set in a most intriguing venue
- a NEUTRON STAR whose surface GRAVITY is 67,000,000,000 gees - and
concentrates on the immensely enjoyable ALIEN cheela who inhabit this
venue, living and evolving at an enormous rate (a generation passes in 37
minutes). The human scientists who visit the cheela of Dragon's Egg
inadvertently civilize them over a 24-hour period. In the sequel the
cheela, now evolved far beyond their glacial human teachers, very quickly
explore the entire Galaxy, though the catastrophe of the title soon
complicates the plot, leading to further rapid-fire EVOLUTION, invention
and mind-play.RLF's second successful novel, The Flight of the Dragonfly
(1982-3 ASF as "Rocheworld"; exp 1984; exp 1985; orig full version
restored, vt Rocheworld 1990), posited a second world of almost equal
fascination. On the eponymous dumb-bell-shaped double-planet is placed an
alien race whose individuals are characterized more strongly than are the
humans involved in an exploratory mission there. (Despite the striking
resemblance in storylines and the titles, this novel is unrelated to the
earlier series.) Once again the self-confident articulacy of RLF's
scientific mind dominates proceedings, and the novel concludes (as did his
first) with a symposium which analyses the ideas underlying the book.
However, the unfortunate corollary to this style of novel-writing is that,
when no scientific conceit governs the structure of the tale, character
and plot can prove, as in RLF's case, a poor substitute. Martian Rainbow
(1991), which has no such central world-building conceit to govern it,
consequently fails to convince in its simplistic rendering of a Russian-US
conflict on Mars, or in the cardboard triumphalism of its human cast. More
than almost any other hard-sf writer, RLF dazzles within his bailiwick and
embarrasses outside it. [JC]Other works: Timemaster (1992), a LIBERTARIAN
tale.Nonfiction: Future Magic (1988); Mirror Matter: Pioneering Antimatter
Physics (1988 ) with Joel Davis.See also: ASTRONOMY; PLANETARY ROMANCE;

(1946- ) UK illustrator. CF studied architecture at Cambridge University,
and has worked in sf ILLUSTRATION since 1970, primarily as a cover artist;
he uses brush and airbrush to excellent effect. He is best known in sf
circles for his hardware, particularly his SPACESHIPS: intricate,
asymmetrical, almost Gothic, these have been deeply influential not only
on other UK illustrators but also on film designers. Ever since STAR WARS
(1977), most movie spacecraft look as if they have been designed by CF,
even though they have not - although he did work as a concept artist on
ALIEN (1979). (Paradoxically, outside sf, CF is better known in commercial
illustration for his detailed figure studies; he did the many romantically
erotic drawings for Alex COMFORT's The Joy of Sex [1972] and More Joy of
Sex [1973].) CF's smooth, airbrushed, representational style, demonstrated
on hundreds of covers, spearheaded a revolution in UK sf paperback design
in the 1970s, and had many imitators. It was what the market wanted, and
after a decade had become almost tedious in its predictability - though
that was the publishers' fault, not CF's. His sf work is often a
celebration of technology - monstrous spaceships or vast robots, beautiful
and deadly, rear up over landscapes and skyscapes where humans are absent
or tiny - yet the effect is bracing. Science Fiction Art (1976), with an
introduction by Brian W. ALDISS, is a portfolio of his work; others are
21st Century Foss (1978) and The Chris Foss Portfolio (1990). Diary of a
Spaceperson (1990) is unusual and not wholly successful in combining the
erotic with the scientific in what purports to be the illustrated diary
(written by CF) of a spacewoman who has sexual congress with an alien
plant. [PN] See also: TECHNOLOGY.

(1946- ) US writer, raised in Los Angeles; interestingly, he has listed
Carl Barks (1901- ), the long-unacknowledged creator of the best COMIC
strips and books in the Disney stable, as one of his formative influences
(on his depiction of older characters). ADF began publishing sf with "Some
Notes Concerning a Green Box" for The Arkham Collector in 1971, and has
collected short stories in With Friends Like These . . . (coll 1977), its
companion, . . . Who Needs Enemies? (coll 1984), and The Metrognome and
Other Stories (coll 1990). ADF is best known, however, for a prolific and
generally competent output of novels and novelizations.Several of his best
books fit into a loose double sequence of novels set in a multifarious
Galaxy dominated by the Humanx Commonwealth, a venue well suited as an
arena for SPACE OPERAS and encounters with ALIEN races. The central
sequence follows the life of young Flinx, an orphan with PSI POWERS and
the friendship of a highly potent pet alien named Pip, and comprises (in
order of internal chronology): For Love of Mother-Not (1983); a connected
trilogy made up of ADF's first novel, The Tar-Aiym Krang (1972), Orphan
Star (1977) and The End of the Matter (1977); Bloodhype (1973); and Flinx
in Flux (1988). A second, looser sequence consists of Nor Crystal Tears
(1982); Midworld (1975); a connected trilogy made up of Icerigger (1974),
Mission to Moulokin (1979) and The Deluge Drivers (1987), the three
comprising his best work to date; Voyage to the City of the Dead (1984);
and Sentenced to Prism (1985). Sometimes reminiscent of the earlier work
of Poul ANDERSON, the sequence is expansive and colourful, though tending
to melodrama and prone to the fable-like use of such sf and fantasy
elements as ESP and dragons.Individual novels have tended more to a
clear-headed commercial exploitation of various genre categories, though
Cachalot (1980), whose whale-like aliens are of interest, The Man who Used
the Universe (1983) and Cyber Way (1990) perhaps stand out.Of ADF's
numerous novelizations, the most notable are possibly Dark Star * (1974),
based on DARK STAR (1974), Star Wars * (1976), as by George LUCAS, the
director of STAR WARS (1977), Alien * (1979), based on ALIEN (1979),
Aliens: A Novelization * (1986), based on ALIENS (1986), and Alien

(1893-? ) UK writer whose first novel of genre interest, The Lost Garden
(1930), is a fantasy in which survivors of ATLANTIS experience world
history up to the present. In Full Fathom Five (1930) prehistoric episodes
are linked by REINCARNATION to scenes set in the present. Awakening (1932)
subjects the contemporary (and the future) world to the perspective of a
soldier awakening from suspended animation. Cats in the Coffee (1938),
under the nom de plume Seaforth, presents through reincarnation a
retrospective vision of prehistory, and We Band of Brothers (1939), also
as by Seaforth, combines future- WAR events and elucidatory conversations
between a man of the deep future and a man of the deep past. The Change
(1963) is routine. In almost all his work, conventional plots are twisted
to make room for perspectives on the nature of human history; in this
sense, GCF illuminates a central strategy of the UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE.

(1939- ) US writer, former data-systems analyst and sequentially a
Russian linguist and ICBM launch-crew commander to the US Air Force; he is
also a semiprofessional photographer. After some poetry, published
privately as Shards from Byzantium (coll 1969 chap) and The Vaseline
Dreams of Hundifer Jones (coll 1970 chap), he began to publish sf with the
ambitious Ler trilogy about a race of genetically created SUPERMEN. The
Gameplayers of Zan (1977), a very long novel formally constructed on the
model of an Elizabethan tragedy, describes a period of climactic tension
between the ler and the rest of humanity, and is set on Earth. The
Warriors of Dawn (1975), published first but set later, is a more
conventional SPACE OPERA in which a human male and a ler female are forced
to team up to try to solve a complexly ramifying problem of interstellar
piracy. The Day of the Klesh (1979) brings the ler and the eponymous race
of humans together on a planet where they must solve their differences.
The books are slow in the telling, but impressively detailed in their
construction of ler culture and language. The Morphodite sequence which
followed comprises The Morphodite (1981), Transformer (1983) and Preserver
(1985), and similarly uses devices of genetic manipulation to buttress
complex plots, though in this case the shape-changing,
revolution-fomenting protagonist dominates the tale as trickster and
superman. Waves (1980) rather sluggishly recalls Stanislaw LEM's SOLARIS
(1961) in a tale of political intrigue on a planet whose ocean is
intelligent. The four novellas collected in Owl Time (coll 1985) are told
in challengingly various modes, and derive strength from their mutual
contrast. MAF's career to date could be seen as a prelude to the major
book which should bring him the acclaim he merits. [JC]See also: GENETIC

Kendell Foster CROSSEN.

(1869-1929) US author of two borderline sf novels, The Eve of War (1904)
and The Lost Expedition (1905). [JC]

UK semi-academic journal, published by the SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION of
North East London Polytechnic (now known as the University of East London)
from Mar 1972, and more recently, since 1993 when the SFF moved, of the
University of Liverpool, current, 61 numbers to summer 1994, 3 numbers a
year. #1-#4 ed Charles BARREN, #5-#13 ed Peter NICHOLLS, #14-#19 ed
Malcolm EDWARDS, #20-#36 ed David PRINGLE, #37 onwards ed Edward JAMES.
Much of the journal's flavour has resulted from the work of long-running
features editor Ian WATSON, who held that position from #10 (1976) to #51
(1991). The most influential reviews editors have perhaps been John CLUTE
(#20-#47) followed by Colin GREENLAND (from #47). Other members of the
editorial board have included Kenneth BULMER, George HAY and Christopher
PRIEST. Under James's editorship the editorial address has been the
University of York, where he teaches.F:TROSF has a distinctive flavour
regarded by US readers as typically UK, though in fact some of its editors
have been foreigners. After a shaky beginning, it soon became perhaps the
liveliest and indeed the most critical of the big three critical journals
- the others being EXTRAPOLATION in the USA and SCIENCE FICTION STUDIES in
Canada - though lacking the academic authority of at least the latter.
Since there is very little formal use of sf in UK universities, there is
no academic base to provide a rigidly scholarly features section. The real
strengths of F:TROSF have always been its book reviews and its willingness
to publish articles about current sf; it has been weaker in theoretical
and historical studies. Nevertheless, it has provided a platform for
serious sf criticism in the UK. Its contributors - often professional
writers of fiction rather than academics - have tended to be more
aggressively judgmental, and more intent upon defining a critical canon
for sf, than their politer US colleagues. All of this may explain why its
readership appears to be less academic than that of the other scholarly
journals, consisting more of fans and sf writers. The US scholar Gary K.
WOLFE sees F:TROSF, not wholly unadmiringly (and only in part
incorrectly), as partaking of "certain traditions of fan scholarship".
From the beginning a feature of F:TROSF has been the Profession of Science
Fiction series (45 to date) of autobiographical pieces by sf writers; a
selection of Profession essays appeared later as The Profession of Science
Fiction (anth 1992) ed Edward James and Maxim JAKUBOWSKI. The first 8
issues of F:TROSF were republished in book form as Foundation, Numbers 1
to 8: March 1972-March 1975 (1978) with intro by Peter Nicholls. [PN]

(vt The Evil Force UK; vt Master of Terror US) Film (1959).
Fairview/Universal. Coproduced and dir Irwin Shortess Yeaworth Jr,
starring Robert Lansing, Lee Meriwether, James Congdon. Screenplay
Theodore Simonson, Cy Chermak, from an idea by Jack H. Harris. 85 mins.
Colour.A small, interesting film made by the same producer/director team,
Jack H. Harris and Yeaworth, that had already made The BLOB (1958).
Lansing plays a scientist who uses his brother's research on the
amplification of brainwaves and finds that as a result he can
interpenetrate with solid matter - walk through walls, etc. The
unfortunate side-effect is that he draws on the lifeforce of others (an
idea used again in LIFEFORCE [1985]), which renders them instantly dead of
old age. There is a love triangle, and some brooding angst from Lansing,
who oscillates between delight in his new power and guilt. [PN]

Film (1952). Hammer. Dir Terence Fisher, starring Barbara Payton, Stephen
Murray, John Van Eyssen. Screenplay Paul TABORI, Fisher, based on The
Four-Sided Triangle (1939 AMZ; exp 1949) by William F. TEMPLE. 81 mins,
cut to 71 mins. B/w.A scientist builds a machine capable of duplicating
human beings. He duplicates the woman he loves but who is in love with
another man, only to have the duplicate, too, fall in love with that other
man. This is a low-budget film and suffers from it; there appear to be no
prints now in circulation. [JB]


(1950- ) US writer with degrees in political science and north Asian
studies. She began publishing sf with "Recalling Cinderella" in L. Ron
Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol I (anth 1985) ed Algis BUDRYS,
and caused considerable stir in the sf field with the quality of the work
assembled in her first collection, ARTIFICIAL THINGS (coll 1986), which
helped gain her the 1987 JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD for Best New Writer. Her
short stories - later collections are Peripheral Vision (coll 1990 chap)
and Letters from Home (anth 1991 UK), which contains separate tales by
her, Pat CADIGAN and Pat MURPHY - gave a first and entirely deceptive
appearance of reticence, but soon revealed steely ironies, an insistence
on the essential solitude of her protagonists (which evoked FEMINIST
arguments about alienation but did not dwell upon the specifics of
oppression or male-female discord) and an urgent hilarity. Some stories,
like "Face Values", are pure sf; others shift into fantasy or FABULATION,
giving ambiguous cues as to any "proper" reading.This sure-footed refusal
to give her readers much epistemological security - much sense that her
worlds could be firmly apprehended - also governed the telling of KJF's
first novel, the remarkable SARAH CANARY (1991), which - along with John
FOWLES's A Maggot (1985) - may be the finest First Contact novel (
COMMUNICATIONS) yet written. A strange female figure - woman or alien, no
one knows, or can even formulate the question - arrives in the state of
Washington in 1873 and is dubbed Sarah Canary, because of the birdlike
sounds she makes. In attempting to deal with her, the Chinese worker to
whom she has attached herself is exposed to a long array of those living
beings that the sciences of the 19th century have attempted to control
through "knowledge": Indians, Blacks, the insane, immigrants, women,
animals, artists, confidence men. Sarah Canary, who stands for them all in
the indescribable melody of her Being, finally disappears, never having
said a word. As an emblem of the enigma behind the idea of First Contact
she is perhaps definitive. As a dramatization of the self-deluding
imperialisms of knowledge, SARAH CANARY is equally convincing. [JC]Other
work: The War of the Roses (1985 IASFM; 1991 chap).See also: INTERZONE;

S. Fowler WRIGHT.

(1926- ) UK writer who remains perhaps most famous for his first novel,
The Collector (1963), but whose second novel, The Magus (1965 US; rev 1977
UK), especially in the conciser revised version, more powerfully explores
the labyrinths of obsession and manipulation underlying, in all of JF's
work, the rigmaroles of daylight reality. In this novel a series of
seemingly supernatural contrivances separates the unpleasant protagonist
from his love and from any security, causing him to learn something about
himself before happiness is allowed to reign; rational explanations in the
end from the Daedalus-like magus do little to attenuate a sense of
magic-realist entrapment. Of JF's other novels, A Maggot (1985) is sf. Set
in the 18th century, it superlatively explores the epistemology of First
Contact - the study of the possible nature of human PERCEPTIONS of
something genuinely ALIEN, genuinely Other - by telling a version of the
life-story of the mother of Ann Lee (1736-1784), historical founder of the
Shaker religion; the woman's response to the insoluble knot of PERCEPTIONS
visited upon her when she inadvertently stumbles upon some time
travellers, possibly from Earth's future, is a literal seed-bed (she is
pregnant at the time) for Enthusiasm. [JC]Other works: Mantissa (1982).

(1911-1986) US lawyer and author, who began writing in 1937 for DC
COMICS, including SUPERMAN. Arguably his most important work was for
COMICS: though it is claimed that he published at least 160 books under
various names, this pales beside his 4000 or more comic-book stories; he
created The Flash as well as the first SUPERHERO team, the Justice Society
of America, in 1940. In the 1960s he was one of those responsible for
reviving many of the superheroes from the 1940s and also created new
characters, like The Atom and Adam Strange. He began publishing sf/fantasy
in non-graphic form with "The Weirds of the Woodcarver" for Weird Tales in
1944. He used several pseudonyms at this time, including Jefferson Cooper,
Jeffrey Gardner and James Kendricks, though not for sf. He was an active
contributor to Planet Stories from 1945, and soon established a reputation
for historical romances like The Borgia Blade (1953), not beginning to
publish sf novels, either under his own name or under his later pseudonyms
Rod Gray, Simon Majors and Bart Somers, until Five Weeks in a Balloon* **
(1962), which novelizes the film of the Jules VERNE novel. GFF's first sf
novel proper is Escape Across the Cosmos (1964), in which a man fights a
menace from another DIMENSION; it was plagiarized as Titans of the
Universe in various 1978 editions, variously as by Brian James Royal,
James Harvey and Moonchild. His best is probably The Arsenal of Miracles
(1964 dos), which combines SPACE OPERA, GALACTIC EMPIRES and a
romantically conceived hero who prefigures the interest in HEROIC FANTASY
which dominated GFF's later output. His sf series are the two fantasy-like
Alan Morgan adventures - Warrior of Llarn (1964) and Thief of Llarn (1966)
- and, as by Bart Somers, the Commander Craig space operas: Beyond the
Black Enigma (1965) and Abandon Galaxy! (1967). GFF was an efficient
storyteller with no visible pretensions to significance or thematic
originality. [JC/PN]Other works: The Hunter out of Time (1965); The Druid
Stone (1967), as by Simon Majors; the Kothar series of heroic-fantasy
novels, comprising Kothar - Barbarian Swordsman (coll of linked stories
1969), Kothar of the Magic Sword! (1969), Kothar and the Demon Queen
(1969), Kothar and the Conjuror's Curse (1970) and Kothar and the Wizard
Slayer (1970); Conehead (1973); the Kyrik heroic-fantasy series,
comprising Kyrik: Warlock Warrior (1975), Kyrik Fights the Demon World
(1975), Kyrik and the Wizard's Sword (1976) and Kyrik and the Lost Queen
(1976); Carty (1977).As Rod Gray (house name): Of the soft-porn Lady from
L.U.S.T. sequence, those by GFF and of some sf interest are The Poisoned
Pussy (1969), Laid in the Future (1969), Blow my Mind (1970) and The
Copulation Explosion (1970).

(1856-1941) UK writer whose sf novel, Our Own Pompeii: A Romance of
Tomorrow (1887), a fairly mild-mannered SATIRE of high society, features a
pleasure city on the Riviera which proves too expensive to run. [JC]


Film (1932). UFA. Dir Karl Hartl, starring Hans Albers, Sybille Schmitz,
Paul Hartmann, Peter Lorre. Screenplay Walter Reisch, Kurt SIODMAK, based
on F.P.1 Antwortet Nicht (1932) by Siodmak. 111 mins. B/w.F.P.1 has been
described as being in the tradition of METROPOLIS (1926) and Die FRAU IM
MOND (1929), but Karl Hartl was no Fritz LANG. It is a slow-moving film
about the construction of a giant floating runway (Flugzeug Platform 1) to
be moored in mid-Atlantic for refuelling transatlantic flights, but is
actually more concerned with a tedious love triangle. The story is about
an intrepid aviator who sees flight as a near-mystical experience, and
about sabotage and noble renunciations - all pulp materials, but with none
of the slickness or verve of similar Hollywood films of the period. At
great expense a flying platform was actually built for the film, on the
island of Oie. The same production team made GOLD (1934).An English
version ( FP1 DOESN'T ANSWER) and a French one, starring Charles Boyer,
were made of F.P.1 at the same time as the German version. [JB/PN]

Film (1932). UFA. Technical credits as for FP1 ANTWORTET NICHT, but
starring Conrad Veidt, Jill Esmond and Leslie Fenton. 90 mins. B/w.This is
the shorter English-language version of the German film, and was shot at
the same time. The acting is better than in the German version. [PN]

(1924- ) New Zealand writer , some of whose stories - especially those
assembled in Snowman, Snowman: Fables and Fantasies (coll 1963 US) and You
Are Entering the Human Heart (coll 1983) - are fantasy. The most intense
of her several novels explore the world through the telling perceptions of
protagonists categorized as psychiatrically disturbed, situations
frequently described in terms that utilize the languages of the fantastic.
Intensive Care (1970 US) is told in part through the eyes of a young woman
defined as mentally deficient in a post- HOLOCAUST world where those so
described are killed after being experimented upon. The Carpathians (1988
UK) is a fantasy set in an imaginary country. [JC]

The history of France's relationship with sf is one of long flirtation,
marked through the centuries by episodic outbursts of passion and, in
recent times, by an increasing shift from authorship to readership, from
the active to the passive role, as more and more people become avid
consumers of the US/UK sf tradition. A few remarkable French writers of sf
have emerged, but, although the 1970s were an active period for French sf,
no truly indigenous school of writing has yet taken shape.A quest for
"great ancestors" in the corpus of French literature would be endless.
Many texts-some vintage classics, some long-forgotten oddities-show that
FANTASTIC VOYAGES, the search for UTOPIA, and speculation about other
worlds and alien forms of society were constant preoccupations. People
tend to overlook the fact that the last parts of Francois RABELAIS's
Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532-64; trans 1653-94), especially L'isle
sonante ["The Ringing Island"] (1562), are clearly set in the future and
almost constitute an early style of SPACE OPERA with their processing of
foreign languages, customs and landscapes.One century later, interest in
the otherworldly asserted itself in works such as CYRANO DE BERGERAC's
Histoire comique contenant les etats et empires de la lune (1657; trans as
A Voyage to the Moon 1659) and Bernard le Bovyer de FONTENELLE's
Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes habites (1686; trans J. Glanvill as
The Plurality of Worlds 1929), but it is in the 18th century that we
encounter the most direct forerunner of sf in its modern sense, in the
form of the conte philosophique, or philosophical tale. Conditions were
then ideal for the emergence of something akin to sf: the Siecle des
Lumieres was one of universal curiosity, of philosophical audacity and
political revolution; it gave birth to all-encompassing spirits such as
that of Denis Diderot (1713-1784) and saw the writing of the Encyclopedie
(1751-2), which merged the two aspects of culture, literary and
scientific, the divorce of which would be one of the main sources of the
decline of French sf in our time.The conventions of the conte
philosophique - which generally takes the shape of a fantastic voyage -
are predecessors to those of sf: the voyage to the far island symbolizes
what we now imagine in interplanetary travel, and the islanders themselves
stand for what are now aliens, while the study of their civilizations
serves as a mirror/criticism of our institutions. Conversely, the satire
of French (= European) society as seen through foreign eyes was a device
that had already been used by Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755) in his
Lettres persanes ["Persian Letters"] (1721).The genre could be illustrated
by numerous stories (Pierre VERSINS states that "at the beginning of the
18th century, at least one speculative work was published each year"), but
among its landmarks were VOLTAIRE's Micromegas (Berlin 1750; France 1752),
Louis-Sebastien MERCIER's L'an deux mille quatre cent quarante (1771;
trans as Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred 1772), RESTIF DE LA
BRETONNE's La decouverte australe ["The Southern-Hemisphere Discovery"]
(1781) and Giacomo CASANOVA di Seingalt's Isocameron (1788), an early
story of travel to the centre of the Earth. Such was the vogue of
speculation that in 1787 a publisher started a list of Voyages imaginaires
which ran to 36 volumes and may be considered the first sf series
ever.Perhaps the most significant sf figure of the early 19th century was
Felix Bodin, whose Le Roman de l'avenir ["The Romance of the Future"]
(1834) consists of a long theoretical discussion of the nature of
futuristic fiction, this being a preface to a fragmentary or unfinished
novel about a future, in which mechanized warfare appears. As Paul K.
ALKON demonstrates in Origins of Futuristic Fiction (1987), Bodin's book
presents an aesthetic which - significantly for sf - refers not only to a
genre which takes the future as its subject but to one that itself will
exist only in the future. The remainder of the 19th century would seem to
be entirely dominated by the formidable silhouette of Jules VERNE, but it
was a very active period in other respects too, carrying on the elan of
the preceding era. Scientific achievements and the Industrial Revolution
gave birth to popular novels in the same way that philosophical turmoil
had produced its share of contes. Verne himself stands apart because he
was the first writer to be systematic about it and build his whole work
according to a vast design, as described by his publisher Hetzel in 1867:
"His aim is to sum up all knowledge gathered by modern science in the
fields of geography, geology, physics, astronomy, and to remake, in his
own attractive and picturesque way, the history of our Universe." From
then to his death in 1905, Verne gave Hetzel the 64 books which make up
his Voyages extraordinaires, subtitled "Voyages dans les mondes connus et
inconnus" ["Voyages into the Known and Unknown Worlds"]. Jacques Van Herp
(1923- ), who himself wrote a large number of works of CHILDREN'S SF as
Michel Jansen, has argued that the huge success Verne enjoyed, basically
among adolescents, drove serious critics and historians away from him, so
that - in France anyway - one may trace back to Verne the lame academic
quarrel about whether sf, or "anticipation", is high literature or not.
Indeed, that question had never been raised before; it took a bourgeois
system of education (see below) to institute class-struggle among books.
Verne's work went the way of Robinson Crusoe or Treasure Island: that of a
sort of universal reputation which does not preclude underestimation or
misunderstanding. Until recently, Verne was ignored by the universities,
but fascinated such diverse minds as those of Raymond Roussel (who called
him "le plus grand genie litteraire de tous les siecles" ["the greatest
literary genius of all time"]), Michel BUTOR and Michel Foucault
(1926-1984).Among Verne's contemporaries in the field, one should at least
mention the astronomer Camille FLAMMARION and his Recits de l'infini
(1872; trans as Stories of Infinity: Lumen - History of a Comet in
Infinity 1874) and the novelist cum draftsman Albert ROBIDA, who was no
less prolific than Verne, whom he parodied in his Voyages tres
extraordinaires de Saturnin Farandoul (1879; for book publication ROBIDA)
which purportedly took their hero "into all the countries known and even
unknown to Mr Jules Verne". Robida proved himself a visionary as well as a
humorist in his Le vingtieme siecle ["The Twentieth Century"] (1882), La
vie electrique ["The Electric Life"] (1883) and "La guerre au vingtieme
siecle" ["War in the 20th Century"] (La caricature 1883).By the turn of
the century, however, the one name Verne had to contend with was that of
J.H. ROSNY aine, a writer who possibly deserves as much consideration. The
Rosnys, two brothers of Belgian extraction, started together a writing
career that was eventually to win them seats in the Academie Goncourt, but
we are concerned only with the numerous stories and the 17 novels of Rosny
aine (the elder brother), which run from the prehistoric, such as La
guerre du feu ["The War of Fire"] (1909), through the cataclysmic La mort
de la terre ["Death of the Earth"] (1910) to the futuristic Les
navigateurs de l'infini ["Navigators of the Infinite"] (1925). Rosny aine
consistently brought to the field, besides a solid scientific culture, a
breadth of vision at times worthy of Olaf STAPLEDON.The period ranging
from the 1880s to the 1930s, largely predating the US boom of the 1920s,
was the true golden age of French sf: we might call it France's pulp era.
Not that there ever existed any specific sf magazines, but
wide-circulation periodicals such as Journal des voyages and La science
illustree - and, later, Je sais tout, L'Intrepide and the very important
Sciences et voyages - regularly ran stories and serialized novels of
"anticipation". Sf was thus lent a degree of respectability by being
introduced as an extension of travel and adventure stories. In the general
title given to his work, Jules Verne had proceeded similarly from "known"
to "unknown" worlds.Apart from isolated works by nonspecialists such as
L'Eve future (1886; trans as The Eve of the Future 1981 US; new trans as
Tomorrow's Eve 1982 US) by VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM, L'ile des pingouins
(1908; trans as Penguin Island 1909) by Anatole FRANCE and Le Napus, fleau
de l'an 2227 ["The 'Disappearance': Scourge of the Year 2227"] (1927) by
Leon Daudet (1868-1942), this period gave birth to a host of popular
writers: Paul d'Ivoi, Louis BOUSSENARD, then Gustave Le Rouge, Jean de La
Hire, Andre Couvreur, Jose Moselli, Rene Thevenin, etc. All were not of
equal worth, but three names are outstanding: Maurice RENARD, author of
the amazing Le docteur Lerne (1908; trans as New Bodies for Old 1923),
which he dedicated to H.G. WELLS; Jacques SPITZ, whose best novel was
L'oeil du purgatoire ["The Eye of Purgatory"] (1945) and whose earlier
L'agonie du globe (1935; trans as Save the Earth 1936) was given a UK
edition; and Regis Messac (1893-1943), whose Quinzinzinzili (1935) and La
cite des asphyxies ["City of the Suffocated"] (1934) exhibit a sinister
mood and grim humour that deserve to gain him a new audience today.WWII
put an end to this thriving period, and during the 1940s only one writer
of note appeared: Rene BARJAVEL, with Ravage (1943; trans as Ashes, Ashes
1967) and Le voyageur imprudent (1944; trans as Future Times Three 1971).
At the end of WWII two factors were to bear heavily on the future of sf in
France. The first was the growing separation, at school, in the
universities and in all thinking circles, between les litteraires and les
scientifiques. This made for a lack of curiosity on the part of aspiring
novelists about science and its possible effects on the shapes of our
lives, and drove many talents away from the genre, which was definitely
viewed as teenager-fodder. France had, as it were, ceased to dream about
its own future - and about the future generally. Second, whatever interest
in these matters existed was satisfied from another source, the USA. In
the years following WWII the French public discovered all at once jazz, US
films, thrillers and the US GOLDEN AGE OF SF. One key personality of the
period was Boris VIAN, novelist, songwriter, film buff and jazz musician,
who translated both Raymond Chandler and A.E. VAN VOGT. This was the time
of the creation of Le club des savanturiers by Michel Pilotin, Vian,
Raymond Queneau and Audiberti. In 1951, Queneau wrote an introductory
essay in Critique: "Un nouveau genre litteraire: les sciences-fictions"
["A New Literary Genre: SF"], followed two years later by Michel Butor,
with "La crise de croissance de la science-fiction" (1953 Cahiers du Sud;
trans as "SF: The Crisis of its Growth", Partisan Review 1967; reprinted
in SF: The Other Side of Realism [anth 1971] ed T. CLARESON).Sf was again
fashionable but mainly in translated form. Between 1951 and 1964, the
Rayon fantastique series published 119 titles, mostly US; it was followed
in 1954 by Presence du Futur, which still exists today. By the end of the
decade some French names were appearing on the list of the former (Francis
Carsac [pseudonym of Francois Bordes (1919-1977)], Philippe CURVAL and
Albert Higon, pseudonym of Michel Jeury [1934- ]) and the latter (Jacques
STERNBERG, Jean Hougron), but for the most part French authors were
published, often under pseudonyms, in the less prestigious Fleuve noir
series, created in 1951. The best of these were Stefan WUL, B.R. Bruss
(Roger Blondel), Kurt Steiner (Andre Ruellan) and Gilles d'Argyre (Gerard
KLEIN).In 1953 Editions Opta launched the French editions of Gal and FSF,
Galaxie and Fiction, whose contents differ notably from those of their US
models. These two would remain for many years the principal outlet for US
stories and a springboard for new French talents, including critics. But
such were few and far between. The initial impetus given by the discovery
of US sf in the 1950s slowed down during the following decade. One
magazine which devoted more space to indigenous authors, Satellite, had a
brief life. Among the new writers, Michel Demuth, Alain Doremieux and
Gerard Klein were soon absorbed by editorial responsibilities and their
output consequently became irregular.The most personal voice during this
period and the succeeding years has been that of Philippe Curval who, from
Le ressac de l'espace ["The Breakers of Space"] (1962) through Cette chere
humanite ["This Dear Humanity"] (1976), has consistently maintained a high
standard while never imitating the US model. Beside him we should again
mention Michel Jeury, who resumed writing (under his own name) with Le
temps incertain (1973; trans Maxim Jakubowski as Chronolysis 1980 US), and
Daniel Drode (1932-1984), whose only novel was Surface de la planete
["Surface of the Planet"] (1959). Mainstream writers occasionally tackled
sf: Pierre BOULLE with La planete des singes (1963; trans as Planet of the
Apes 1963; vt Monkey Planet UK); Robert MERLE with Un animal doue de
raison (1967; trans as The Day of the Dolphin 1969) and Malevil (1972;
trans 1974); and Claude Ollier, an adept of the nouveau roman, with La vie
sur Epsilon ["Life on Epsilon"] (1972).In the 1970s the situation
underwent new changes, once more due to a definite influence: that of the
UK NEW WAVE and in particular post- NEW-WORLDS sf. J.G. BALLARD's later
work, along with that of such US writers as Thomas M. DISCH, Harlan
ELLISON, Norman SPINRAD and, above all, Philip K. DICK, had a tremendous
impact on the new generation of readers who lived through the 1968 student
uprising and saw the possibilities of making powerful political statements
in speculative form. Several young authors who began writing in the
mid-1960s (Daniel WALTHER, Jean-Pierre Andrevon, Jean-Pierre Hubert)
readily took that route, and were followed by a batch of newcomers, with
Dominique Douay, Pierre Pelot and Philippe Goy the best among
them.Nevertheless, the effervescence of the late 1970s did not survive
into the 1980s. Lack of enthusiasm on the part of the public?
Overabundance of books? Difficulties linked to general publishing
problems? It was the beginning of a critical period in which the number of
sf imprints, about 40 during the late 1970s, diminished to a half-dozen.
The so-called "New French SF", sometimes inordinately politicized, was the
first victim of this crisis. Partly because of its excesses, readers and
editors grew weary of French sf authors, who then tried to explore
different paths and attract recognition through other means. Some, mostly
newcomers, reacted by turning to a form-oriented sf - that is, to a
greater preoccupation with style, poetry and experimental writing
(Emmanuel Jouanne, Antoine Volodine) - to the point where they sometimes
forgot the true nature of the genre. Others were tempted into expressing
their personal universes, often powerfully fantastic in kind. Among these
were Jean-Marc Ligny, Jacques Barberi, Francis Berthelot and particularly
Serge Brussolo who, in less than 10 years, made his mark with some 40
novels - including such definite masterpieces as Aussi lourd que le vent
["As Heavy as the Wind"] (1981), Carnaval de fer ["Iron Carnival"] (1983)
and La nuit du bombardier ["Night of the Bomber"] (1989) - and became the
most original and most popular sf writer of his generation. Finally, a
third category of authors put their craft into the service of a
"neo-classical" sf which invited the reader to reflect upon contemporary
issues ( ECOLOGY, the media, COMPUTERS, genetics, cultural intermingling)
though without giving up the traditional lures of exoticism and adventure.
They include G.-J. Arnaud and his long series La compagnie des glaces
["The Ice Company"], which has run since 1981, Bernard Simonay with Phenix
(1986) and Joel Houssin with Les Vautours ["The Vultures"] (1986) and
Argentine (1989), all books which have found a large audience and won
awards.Today French sf shows a paradoxical face: it includes many talented
writers, usually well detached from the UK-US influence, whether
long-established authors or newcomers to the genre such as Richard Canal,
Pierre Stolze, Raymond Milesi and Colette Fayard. But, on the other hand,
the dwindling of publishing imprints, magazines and columns - or their
outright disappearance (Fiction ceased in 1989) - gives the unfortunate
impression that the domain is definitely in peril. Thus, the best French
authors - notably those with a long career behind them - are now inclined
to abandon sf and turn to horror ( HORROR IN SF) which, courtesy of
Stephen KING, has become increasingly popular (Andrevon, Brussolo), or to
mainstream literature (Sternberg, Jeury, Pelot, Andrevon, Curval,
Volodine), or to screenplays (Ruellan, Pelot, Houssin), a far more
lucrative field.One would think that the existence of an active,
passionate FANDOM - thanks to which the French sf milieu has been holding
its own CONVENTIONS since 1974 - would have given a boost to the national
production, but such is not the case. French fandom remains self-centred,
and is more devoted to its own byzantine arguments than to the task of
working efficiently to enlarge sf's public recognition. In other words,
fans complain about their preferred literature being locked up in a
ghetto, but never do anything really helpful to change that. Only a
handful of critics - sometimes translators, editors or writers themselves
(Curval, Jeury, Klein) - have tried and are still trying to publish in
mainstream magazines or newspapers regular columns or interviews meant to
defend and exemplify sf (French or not) to the general public, who are
often ill informed about the genre. [RL/JCh]Further reading: Encyclopedie
de l'utopie, des voyages extraordinaires et de la science-fiction (1972
Switzerland) by Pierre Versins; Histoire de la science-fiction moderne
(1973) by Jacques SADOUL; Panorama de la science-fiction (1973 Belgium) by
Jacques Van Herp; the preface by Gerard KLEIN to Sur l'autre face du monde
& autres romans scientifiques de "Science et voyages" (anth 1973) ed A.
Valerie; Malaise dans la science-fiction (1977) by Klein; also useful are
4 anthologies of French sf short stories, Les Mondes francs, L'Hexagone
hallucine, La Frontiere eclatee and Les Mosaiques du temps (1988-90) ed
Klein, Ellen Herzfeld and Dominique Martel.

Working name of Anatole-Francois Thibault (1844-1924), French writer
active from the early 1860s until his death. His essayistic "pagan"
SATIRES seem perhaps less relevant now than formerly, their amused
rationality failing to bite with sufficient savagery into targets like
official religion and sexual prudery. Of sf interest are Sur la pierre
blanche (1905; trans Charles E. Roche as The White Stone 1910), in which a
group of intellectuals prognosticates a White Peril (the Yellow races
being at risk) and the rise of Socialism; and L'ile des pingouins (1908;
trans A.W. Evans as Penguin Island 1909 UK), in which humanity's
evolutionary course is allegorized satirically through the transformation
into humans - after they have been baptised in error - of a race of
penguins, who repeat human history. In La revolte des anges (1914; trans
Mrs Wilfrid Jackson as The Revolt of the Angels 1914 UK), a fantasy and
AF's finest novel, an angel - corrupted by the world of books - realizes
that his fallen brethren were in the right. AF won the Nobel Prize for
Literature in 1921. [JC]Other works: Thais (1890; trans, almost certainly
by Charles Carrington, 1901 France); L'Etui de Nacre (coll 1892; trans
Henry Pene du Bois as Tales from a Mother-of-Pearl Casket 1896 US; vt
Mother of Pearl 1908 UK); Le Puits de Sainte Clare (coll 1895; trans,
almost certainly by Charles Carrington, as The Well of St Clare 1903
France); Honey-Bee (trans Mrs John Lane 1911 UK), a tale first published
with other fantasies in Balthazar (coll 1889; trans Mrs John Lane 1909
UK); Les Sept Femmes de la Barbe-Bleu, et autres contes merveilleux (coll
1909; trans Mrs D.B. Stewart as The Seven Wives of Bluebeard, and Other
Marvellous Tales 1920 UK).See also: ECONOMICS; FRANCE; UTOPIAS.

(1917-1989) UK publisher and pulp writer who lived in Spain from the
early 1950s. In the mid-1940s he founded his own publishing company,
Pendulum Publications, which released a variety of genre fiction,
including sf. The editor of his sf line, Frank ARNOLD, introduced SDF to
John CARNELL, a meeting that led to the birth of NEW WORLDS in 1946; but
after only 3 issues the company was sold (and liquidated).SDF then founded
his own self-named company. For it he penned a series of fast-moving
US-style thrillers as by Hank JANSON; they achieved remarkable success at
the time. Also for it he created the house name Astron DEL MARTIA (which
see), but soon sold the name to Gaywood Press to help finance his move to
Spain. Later he wrote three sf novels as by Hank Janson: The Unseen
Assassin (1953), a routine tale in which an alien disease threatens to
wipe out humanity, Tomorrow and a Day (1955), a stronger post- HOLOCAUST
tale, and One Against Time (1956 as by Janson; 1969 as by Del Martia), a
TIME-TRAVEL tale pitting a mathematician against the World Council from a
future threatened by his genius. SDF's later novel, The Disorientated Man
(1966; vt Scream and Scream Again 1967 US) as by Peter SAXON, a mad-
SCIENTIST tale filmed in 1969 as SCREAM AND SCREAM AGAIN, was heavily
revised by W. Howard BAKER. [SH]About the author: The Trials of Hank
Janson (1991) by Stephen HOLLAND.


Working name of UK author and academic Richard Francis (1945- ), who
added a fictitious "H" to distinguish himself from Dick Francis, the
thriller writer. RHF's first novel, Blackpool Vanishes (1979), tells the
quirky, extremely English story of what happens when microscopic ALIENS
kidnap the town of Blackpool. In Whispering Gallery (1984) the discovery
of a "missing link" between bacteria and viruses becomes complicated when
it turns out that the new strain can serve - defectively - as a weapon,
and - all too efficiently - as a fuel.Swansong (1986) is a mildly
fantastic SATIRE on Margaret Thatcher's UK, the Falklands War and the
brutally unexpected disasters of both personal and political history.
[NT]See also: UFOS.

(1907-1964) US journalist and author; a government official during WWII,
he later served with the UN. Though his three sf novels are well known
within the field, PF was not generally identified as an sf author. His
first novel, Mr Adam (1946), exploits the fears of contamination felt in
the USA after Hiroshima. All men but one are sterilized by a nuclear
DISASTER; the experiences of the sole fertile male are rather feebly
rendered as comical, providing grounds for a SATIRE on government
procedures. Forbidden Area (1956; vt Seven Days to Never 1957 UK) also
deals - more grimly - with the atomic question, in a thriller plot
involving sabotage and near- HOLOCAUST. In his most famous novel, Alas,
Babylon (1959), the disaster is again nuclear, but this time it is not
averted. In a part of Florida that has survived the holocaust, the
inhabitants of a small town manage, perhaps rather implausibly, to cope (
PASTORAL; ROBINSONADE) and modestly to flourish; domestic verisimilitude
and apocalypse mingle here attractively, and the book was both made into a
play and televised. PF's work draws its clear emotional force from the
deep fears of nuclear devastation many Americans suffered, with some
cause, during the 1950s. [JC]

(1884-1952) UK writer known mainly for his work outside the sf field,
most notably his Byronesque verse novel One of Us (1912) and dozens of
popular romances. The Seeds of Enchantment (1921) is a lost-race ( LOST
WORLDS) fantasy which features contrasting UTOPIAS in the wilds of
Indochina. His posthumous sf novel, Unborn Tomorrow: A Last Story (1953),
depicts a 50th-century Roman Catholic world where a beam which destroys
all explosives has enforced a happy return to a pre-industrial lifestyle.
[JC]Other work: Son of the Morning (1949).

(1927- ) Austrian-born writer and scientist who, after receiving a
doctorate in Vienna in 1950, moved to Munich, where he taught cybernetic
aesthetics at the University of Munich. After publishing considerable
nonfiction in the 1950s, mostly on either speleology or computer graphics,
he also began publishing sf, at first speculative short stories like those
assembled in Der grune Komet ["The Green Comet"] (coll 1960), Fahrt zum
Licht: Utopische Kurzgeschichten ["Journey to Light: Utopian Short
Stories"] (coll 1963), Einsteins Erben ["Einstein's Heirs"] (coll 1972)
and Zarathustra kehrt zuruck ["Zarathustra Returns"] (coll 1977). He has
also published several novels beginning with Das Gedankennetz (1961; trans
Christine Priest as The Mind Net 1974 US). Der Orchideenkafig (1961; trans
Christine Priest as The Orchid Cage 1973 US) complexly depicts, in HWF's
typically speculative, somewhat dry manner, the profound transformative
effects of a mysterious planet on its human explorers. Zone Null (1970;
trans 1974 US) sets up between a future Free World and an apparently
defeated and deserted Zone Null a metaphysical questioning of the true
aims of society and of the intermingled values of both opposed sides. In
Transpluto (1982), which is typical of his later work, a mysterious planet
hornswoggles a team of Earthmen, keeping them from leaving the Solar
System. HWF is one of the first contemporary German sf writers whose work
ranks with that in English and other European languages. [JC]Other works:
Die Glasfalle ["The Glass Trap"] (1961); Die Stahlwuste ["The Steel
Desert"] (1962); Planet der Verlorenen ["Planet of the Lost"] (1963) as by
Sergius Both; Der Elfenbeinturm ["The Ivory Tower"] (1965); Ypsilon Minus
(1976); Ein Kyborg namens Joe ["A Cyborg Named Joe"] (coll 1978); Sirius
Transit (1979) as by Sergius Both;Schule fur Ubermenschen ["School for
Supermen"] (1980); Paradies 3000 ["Paradise 3000"] (coll1981); Keine Spur
vom Leben ["No Trace of Life"] (coll 1982), collecting radio plays; Die
Kalte des Weltraums ["The Coldness of Space"] (1982); Tod eines
Unsterblichen ["Death of an Immortal"] (1982); Endzeit ["End of Time"]
(1985); Der Atem der Sonne ["The Breath of the Sun"] (1986); Zentrum der
Milchstrasse ["The Centre of the Milky Way"] (1990); Spiegel der Gedanken
["Mirror of Thought"] (coll 1990).See also: AUSTRIA; GERMANY.

(1930- ) US film director. A graduate of the 1950s school of live tv
drama, JF first attracted attention as a film-maker with melodramas
centred on youth and social issues: The Young Stranger (1956), The Young
Savages (1961), All Fall Down (1961) and The Birdman of Alcatraz (1962).
However, in his direction of The MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (1962), Seven Days
in May (1964) and SECONDS (1966), all based on successful novels, JF
revealed a distinctive fantastic vision, rooted in the realities of the
USA of the 1950s and 1960s, which would be a great influence on the 1970s
run of post-Watergate conspiracy movies, like Alan J. Pakula's The
Parallax View (1974) and William Richert's Winter Kills (1979). Seven Days
in May, in which the USA is threatened by a military coup, and The
Manchurian Candidate are political fantasies focusing on the
precariousness of the presidency, while Seconds, one of the scariest films
of the 1960s, is a nightmare about rejuvenation. These exercises in unease
are confidently shot in black-and-white with the Expressionist imagination
of a top-drawer TWILIGHT ZONE episode, and feature a brilliant oddball
casting of his stars. JF's films at this stage are a vision of a
grey-suited corporate USA gone wrong, with recurrent themes of
brainwashing, surveillance, assassination and Kafkaesque bureaucracies,
many of which returned in his still-underrated comic-book gangster fantasy
99 & 44/100% Dead (1974; vt Call Harry Crown) and the large-scale
terrorist thriller Black Sunday (1977). He had a commercial success with
The French Connection II (1975), but his return to sf with PROPHECY
(1979), a hokey, expensive MONSTER MOVIE, was a major disappointment, and
his more recent films have tended to be bland adaptations of best-selling
thrillers. [KN]See also: CINEMA; PARANOIA.

Film (1931). Universal. Dir James Whale, starring Boris Karloff, Colin
Clive, Mae Clarke, Edward van Sloan, Dwight Frye. Screenplay Garrett Fort,
Robert Florey, Francis Edward Faragoh, based on an adaptation by Florey
and John L. Balderston of the play by Peggy Webling, based in turn on
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (1818) by Mary SHELLEY. 71 mins.
B/w.This remains the most famous of the Frankenstein films, although it
was not the first. (The Edison Company made a 16min version in 1910; it
was dir J. Searle Dawley and starred Charles Ogle as the Monster. A second
version, also US, was the 70min Life without Soul in 1915, dir Joseph W.
Smiley.) Dr Frankenstein is a SCIENTIST who builds an artificial man using
parts from stolen bodies. He succeeds, with the aid of an electrical
storm, in bringing the creature to life but, because his assistant has
provided the brain of a criminal rather than that of a "normal" man (a
clumsy plot device which has nothing to do with Shelley's novel), the
creation proves difficult to control. Eventually the FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER
escapes, accidentally kills a small girl, and is pursued and apparently
slain by angry villagers (originally the Monster killed Frankenstein, too,
but the studio substituted a happy ending).The film remains a semi-classic
today. With his atmospheric lighting, smooth tracking shots and numerous
low-angle shots that were never obtrusive but made effective use of the
high-ceilinged sets - particularly Frankenstein's laboratory - Whale
succeeded in making a HORROR film of some grandeur, with an undertone of
ironic humour. Much of the credit must go to Karloff for his fine
(unspeaking) performance as the pathetic Monster, considerably helped by
Jack Pierce's famous make-up; Karloff's success here doomed him to horror
roles for the rest of his life.There have been numerous sequels and
remakes. The sequel BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN (1935), also dir Whale, is the
best film he ever made. Other, increasingly awful, sequels from Universal
were Son of Frankenstein (1939), Ghost of Frankenstein (1942),
Frankenstein Meets the Wolfman (1943), House of Frankenstein (1945) and
Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein (1948). In 1957 the UK company
Hammer Films remade the original, calling it Curse of Frankenstein (vt
Birth of Frankenstein), and then made The Revenge of Frankenstein (1958),
The Evil of Frankenstein (1964), Frankenstein Created Woman (1966),
Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed (1969) and The Horror of Frankenstein
(1970), ending with Frankenstein and the Monster from Hell (1973). Five of
these were dir Terence Fisher, and nearly all featured Peter Cushing's
interestingly tense and upright performance as Baron von Frankenstein.
Andy Warhol produced in Italy a 3-D SPLATTER-MOVIE pornographic version
(remarkably tasteless on all counts) dir Paul Morrissey (or possibly an
uncredited Antonio Margheriti): Carne per Frankenstein (1973; vt Flesh for
Frankenstein; vt Andy Warhol's Frankenstein). A successful parody/homage
movie was Young Frankenstein (1974), dir Mel Brooks. Other versions of the
story, mostly exploitation films, were made in Italy and Spain. Two more
US titles are Frankenstein 1970 (1958), dir Howard W. Koch and starring an
ageing Boris Karloff, and Frankenstein Meets the Space Monster (1965; vt
Mars Invades Puerto Rico), which is not about Frankenstein at all. There
are many more.An interesting attempt to recreate Mary Shelley's original
novel, including its finale in the Arctic (all previous films had changed
the story), is the 3-hour made-for-tv film Frankenstein: The True Story
(1973), Universal/NBC, dir Jack Smight, from a script by Christopher
Isherwood and Don Bachardy, starring James Mason, David McCallum and
Michael Sarrazin. It was theatrically released, cut to 123 mins. The
teleplay was published as Frankenstein: The True Story * (1973), by
Isherwood and Bachardy. FRANKENSTEIN UNBOUND (1990) is based on the 1973
RECURSIVE SF book by Brian ALDISS, but it does incorporate much of
Shelley's original, including interesting Arctic scenes. Another tv movie
version, made for cable tv, and moderately true to the book, though not
very interestingly so, is Frankenstein (1993), 150 mins, dir David Wickes,
with Randy Quaid as the creature. By far the most distinguished of any
version from the last two decades of the 20th century is MARY SHELLEY'S
FRANKENSTEIN (1994), dir Kenneth Branagh, which is sensitive to the nature
of the original yet prepared to use somewhat more modern metaphors to
illuminate it, but even this is an uneven work.A book about versions of
the story is Hideous Progenies: Dramatizations of Frankenstein from Mary
Shelley to the Present (1990) by Steven Earl Forry. [JB/PN]See also:

The term is in general use, not only in sf TERMINOLOGY but in common
parlance, to mean a MONSTER that ultimately turns and rends its
irresponsible creator. Note that in the original novel Frankenstein was
the name of the creator and not of the monster, though in popular usage it
is often assumed that the monster itself is Frankenstein. In critical
talk, Frankenstein is often equated with Prometheus and Dr Faustus, two
other legendary figures who were guilty of hubris in their quest for
knowledge, and struck down. [PN]See also: FRANKENSTEIN; HORROR IN SF;


(vt Roger Corman's Frankenstein Unbound) Film (1990). Warner Brothers.
Dir Roger CORMAN, starring John Hurt, Raul Julia, Bridget Fonda, Nick
Brimble, Katherine Rabett, Jason Patric, Michael Hutchence. Screenplay
Corman, F.X. Feeney, based on Frankenstein Unbound (1973) by Brian W.
ALDISS. 85 mins. Colour.This philosophical (about the dangers of the
Promethean impulse) TIME-TRAVEL horror/fantasy was the first film directed
by Corman for 20 years. A 21st-century scientist (Hurt) is time-warped
into 19th-century Switzerland. On one side of Lake Geneva the
Byron/Shelley menage is living; on the other the plot of Mary SHELLEY's
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (1818) is being played out. Hurt
gets involved with both sets of characters and winds up whisking MONSTER
and maker off to an ice-age future for a splattery plot resolution, laced
with conservative lectures about the evils of science. Some of the
plentiful laughs may be intended, given that Aldiss's playful novel is in
part a comedy, though Fonda is ridiculous as the dainty but promiscuous
Mary. There are some cheapskate effects, but Raul Julia is good as the mad
visionary; the angry-at-the-world FRANKENSTEIN MONSTER (Brimble) comes
with impressive details like scarred eyeballs; and the GOTHIC horror
set-pieces are directed with unselfconscious panache. [KN]

Working name used for his publications by US writer Edgar Franklin
Stearns (1879-1958), whose Mr Hawkins' Humorous Inventions (coll of linked
stories 1904), all reprinted from The ARGOSY , features the eponymous
inventor/scientist comically failing to make a series of devices, such as
the pumpless pump, work properly; the series continued to 1915 in various
of the Frank A. MUNSEY magazines. [JC]See also: HUMOUR.

(1934- ) US critic, John Cotton Dana Professor of English and American
Studies at Rutgers. In 1961 HBF gave at Stanford one of the earliest
university courses in sf in the USA. In 1972 he was dismissed by Stanford
for giving speeches protesting the university's involvement in the Vietnam
War - a case well known to those interested in questions of academic
freedom. His Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth
Century (anth 1966; rev 1968; exp and rev 1978) has been one of the most
influential of sf ANTHOLOGIES, in drawing attention to the sheer volume of
19th-century sf. A later HBF anthology, containing sf about nuclear
weapons, is Countdown to Midnight (anth 1984). HBF's two other books about
sf are Robert A. Heinlein: America as Science Fiction (1980) and War
Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination (1988). The former
relates HEINLEIN's career to contemporary US history from a Marxist
perspective; the latter is a pungent and important study about the US
preoccupation with super- WEAPONS in fact and fiction, and the way in
which the fact has been influenced by the fiction. HBF has published many
other critical articles on sf and is among the genre's most respected
commentators. He received the PILGRIM AWARD in 1983. He has been a
consulting editor of SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES since its inception. [PN]See

(1943- ) US writer known principally for his ALTERNATE-WORLD series, the
Adventures of Conrad Stargard: The Cross-Time Engineer (1986), The
High-Tech Knight (1989), The Radiant Warrior (1989), The Flying Warlord
(1989) and Lord Conrad's Lady (1990), with further volumes projected. The
series features a Polish-US engineer, Stargard, who in the first volume is
transported to medieval Poland via TIME TRAVEL. He settles down quite
happily to the task of reshaping his native land into a country capable of
surviving the next perilous decades, being overseen all the while by the
time-travellers who have mistakenly conveyed him there. By changing the
technology of medieval Poland, Stargard is of course changing timelines -
in perfectly orthodox sf-adventure fashion - but the author's clear
indifference to the plotting rigours expected in tales of this sort
increasingly detracts from the flow of the story. Copernick's Rebellion
(1987) deals with GENETIC ENGINEERING in a NEAR-FUTURE Polish setting,
where LAF's inability to create women (though he is strong on breasts) is
seriously irritating. [JC]

US DIME-NOVEL SF series, BEDSHEET size. 191 issues (#188-#191 are
reprints of #1-#4) 24 Sep 1892-8 Aug 1898, weekly to 8 June 1894 (#82),
biweekly from then on. Cost 5cents. Published by Frank Tousey, Publisher,
New York. (Partial reissue 1902-4, partial UK reprint.) All issues were
printed on very poor paper and seldom survive in good condition; the
1902-4 reissue, with coloured covers, is sometimes considered more
desirable than the first printing.This was the earliest serial publication
devoted solely to sf, with more issues than all of Hugo GERNSBACK's sf
magazines put together, each containing a single or a half story about
Frank Reade (4 stories) or Frank Reade, Jr. (179 stories). All but the
last were attributed to"NONAME" on their appearance in the FRL. About
one-quarter of the stories were reprints from other Tousey BOYS' PAPERS
(The Boys of New York, The Five Cent Wide Awake Library, Happy Days); the
remainder were originals. As a whole, they comprise the most significant
US dime-novel series, and in their exuberance (and stereotyped action),
their humour (and their racism), their inventiveness (and the merciless
repetition of similar inventions and WEAPONS), they represent the best and
worst of the tradition.It is impossible to attain final bibliographical
certainty about a series of this sort, but E.F. BLEILER's The Frank Reade
Library (omni 10 vols 1979-86), which reprints the entire sequence, casts
as much light as can ever be hoped for. It is not known, for instance, how
many authors wrote as "Noname", a house pseudonym used for mysteries and
Westerns as well as sf, though it is certain that the first Frank Reade
story - Frank Reade and his Steam Man of the Plains (1876 The Boys of New
York as by Harry Enton; 1892 as Frank Reade Library #12 as by "Noname") -
was by Harold Cohen (1854-1927), who normally wrote as Enton. The tale was
almost certainly commissioned by Frank Tousey in emulation of Edward S.
ELLIS's The Steam Man of the Prairies (1868). Three more Frank Reade
episodes followed (the first two written by Cohen), all involving
steam-driven TRANSPORTATION devices whose main use (it is one of the less
attractive features of the sequence, many of whose episodes were set in
the US West) seemed to be that of slaughtering large numbers of Native
Americans.In 1882, Frank Reade, Jr., son of Frank Reade, took over the
action, beginning with Frank Reade, Jr., and his Steam Wonder (1882 The
Boys of New York; 1893 as Frank Reade Libary #20). The popularity of these
stories presumably inspired Tousey to institute The Frank Reade Library
itself in 1892. The first 50 issues or so generally reprinted tales from
1880s Tousey magazines; the remaining issues, beginning 1893, were mostly
original titles. It is probable that most of the Frank Reade, Jr. stories
were written by Luis SENARENS, and en masse they suffered visibly from
this hugely prolific author's carelessness, cheap jingoism, racist
stereotyping and lackadaisical plotting. But, tedious or not, the sequence
managed to make use of most of the sf venues and devices available at the
close of the 19th century; in particular, airships and submarines and
various other means of TRANSPORTATION - which served simultaneously as
devastating weapons and means of near-magical travel ( EDISONADE) - almost
always featured prominently in the adventures of the indefatigable boy
inventor. Significant issues include #48, Frank Reade, Jr., Exploring a
River of Mystery (1890 Five Cent Wide Awake Library; 1893), not by
Senarens, which has fantastic geography and travels in Africa and is based
on Henry Stanley's books or newspaper dispatches, and #133: The Island in
the Air (1896), probably by Senarens, perhaps the first consideration of
Roraima (in British Guiana) as a LOST WORLD, almost certainly a source for
The Lost World (1912) by A. Conan DOYLE. More typical, however, is the
long episodic novel Frank Reade, Jr., and his Queen Clipper of the Clouds
(1889 The Boys of New York; 1893) by Senarens.The Frank Reade Library,
however, does not contain all the adventures of the inventive Reade
family. There are at least two uncollected stories about Frank Reade, Jr.
and one about Frank Reade (Sr.). The last, Franke Reade, the Inventor,
Chasing the James Boys with his Steam Team (1890), stands apart from the
series and is the only Frank Reade story not attributed to "Noname". The
third member of the Reade family, Frank Reade, III, stars in Young Frank
Reade and his Electric Air Ship (1899) and perhaps in other unlocated
stories. [EFB/JC]

(1888-1974) UK writer and civil servant. Most of his work, like his first
novel, The Flying Draper (1924; rev 1931), utilizes fantasy or sf devices
- in the initial case self-levitation - to create allegorical or
philosophical arguments; the unmistakably Wellsian draper, for instance,
finds that the ability to fly enforces "higher" thoughts. In Flower
Phantoms (1926) an orchid responds to the protagonist's nubility by
showing her the secrets of sex. In Beetle's Career (1951), which is sf, a
super-weapon is shown to have beneficial side-effects. In the Venus
quartet - A Visit from Venus (1958), Jupiter in the Chair (1958), Trout's
Testament (1960) and City of the Sun (1961) - various inhabitants of the
Solar System confer about a number of mildly pressing topics. In an
elegant, generally painless manner, RF concentrated throughout his career
on novels of controlled wit, mild SATIRE and admissible sentiment; only
occasionally would these entertainments move into the darker regions.
[JC]Other works: Landscape with Figures (1925), an oriental fantasy; Miss
Lucifer (1939); The Fiery Gate (1943); Sun in Scorpio (1949); A Work of
Imagination: (The Pen - the Brush - the Well) (1974), a novel of
occultism.See also: PSYCHOLOGY.

(1952- ) US editor who founded the energetic sf news and reviews journal
THRUST in 1973, renaming it Quantum with #36 (1990), and remaining its
editor and (from #5) its publisher until the double issue #43/44, when he
voluntarily terminated the journal by merging it with SCIENCE FICTION EYE.

(vt By Rocket to the Moon; vt The Girl in the Moon; vt The Woman in the
Moon) Film (1929). UFA. Dir Fritz LANG, starring Gerda Maurus, Willy
Fritsch, Gustav von Wangenheim, Fritz Rasp, Klaus Pohl. Screenplay Lang,
Thea VON HARBOU, based on Frau im Mond (1928; trans as The Girl in the
Moon 1930 UK; cut vt The Rocket to the Moon 1930 US) by von Harbou. 156
mins, cut to 107 mins, cut to 97 mins. B/w.After the success of
METROPOLIS, Fritz Lang's next sf film was a disappointment. Overlong (in
its original form) and melodramatic, it concerns an ill matched group of
people travelling to a MOON which seems little different from the Swiss
Alps, airlessness and low gravity being ignored: the explorers are able to
amble about picking up chunks of precious metal and jewels (the trip
having been arranged by industrialists who believe, correctly, that the
Moon is rich in gold). The build-up to the take-off, however, is much more
convincing; Lang used rocket experts Hermann Oberth (1894-1989) and Willy
LEY as technical advisers, and the model rocket they produced was
prophetic in its design - it was even constructed in two stages. The
blast-off itself was also impressive, with good camera-work by Oskar
Fischinger and effects by Konstantin Tschetwerikoff. Later the Nazis
withdrew the film from distribution and destroyed the rocket model, afraid
that its accuracy would give away secrets about their own development of
military ROCKETS. [JB/PN]See also: CINEMA; GERMANY.

(1933- ) UK novelist, journalist and playwright, best known for such work
outside the sf field as the novel Towards the End of the Morning (1967; vt
Against Entropy 1967 US), which despite its vt is not sf. The Tin Men
(1965) is a SATIRE on the computerization of human consciousness. A Very
Private Life (1968) describes a sanitized Earth with mankind divided into
those who live inside germ-free enclaves and those who live outdoors; some
ambivalence is expressed throughout as to whether what is being described
is a DYSTOPIA or simply a mise en scene: MF lacks, in other words, the
ready animus so often found in MAINSTREAM WRITERS when they appropriate sf
tropes - almost always imprudently - for satirical purposes. [JC]Other
works: Sweet Dreams (1973), an afterlife fantasy.See also: AUTOMATION;

Pseudonym of UK writer James Ian Arbuthnot Frazer (1912-1966), whose
first sf novel, Acorned Hog (1933), satirizes a socialist NEAR FUTURE
United Kingdom, and whose second, A Shroud as Well as a Shirt (1935),
describes a succession of political conflicts which lead finally to a
world war. Blow, Blow Your Trumpets (1945) is a comic satirical fantasy
set in the time of Noah, and explains the necessity of the Flood. [JC]

(1928- ) US illustrator, born Frank Frazzetta. A New Yorker, he studied
at the Brooklyn Academy of Fine Arts and was then active almost
exclusively in COMICS 1944-63, working on both BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH
CENTURY and FLASH GORDON and spending 9 years on Li'l Abner. By the time
he came to prominence as a comics illustrator, working on Creepy for
Warren Publications (from 1965) and later Vampirella, he had already been
introduced (in 1964) to paperback-book-cover ILLUSTRATION by his friend
Roy G. KRENKEL, first for ACE BOOKS and then for Lancer Books. He quickly
became known (like Krenkel) for HEROIC-FANTASY illustrations, especially
(from 1966) for his covers for Lancer's reissue of Robert E. HOWARD's
Conan books. Some of his work was sf. He won his only HUGO for Best
Professional Artist in 1966, but the lack of further Hugos did not imply a
diminution in popularity - on the contrary, although his following was
largely, presumably, among FANTASY rather than sf fans. Around this time
FF set up, with his wife, a company to sell posters he had designed; later
he also painted for a number of calendars. Portfolios produced at this
time included the two volumes entitled Burroughs Artist Frank Frazetta
(portfolio 1968 and 1973). A further breakthrough was the publication of
The Fantastic Art of Frank Frazetta (1975), which was followed by Frank
Frazetta Book Two (1977) and then Three (1978), Four (1980) and Five
(1985). Later volumes include Small Wonders: the Funny Animal Art of Frank
Frazetta (1992) and Illustrations Arcanum (1994). By the 1980s, however,
FF's fame extended well beyond narrow genres: his work was spread over
many commercial areas, and his output of specifically fantasy/sf
illustration became very small - although it did include the Death Dealer
novels by James R. Silke with FF, from 1988, based on an idea (and covers)
by FF, as well as covers for the L. RON HUBBARD PRESENTS WRITERS OF THE
FUTURE series of original anthologies. Film work by FF includes Fire and
Ice (1982), an animated SWORD-AND-SORCERY feature film, produced by Ralph
Bakshi and FF, partly designed by FF.FF's vigorous paintings of heavily
muscled heroes, often fighting, are notable for their dynamic sense of
movement (in contrast, perhaps, to work by Boris VALLEJO and other later,
smoother illustrators who are often referred to as having inherited FF's
mantle); he is famous, too, for his lush wide-hipped women, often chained
or menaced but equally often shown as threatening Amazon Queens. His work
has been accused of sexism and criticized as cheaply melodramatic, but at
its best it is undeniably spirited and powerful. In the heroic-fantasy
mode, FF has been one of the most influential illustrators of the century.
[PN]See also: SEX.

(1951- ) US editor and writer, most active as a poet, whose several
published volumes include Peregrine (coll 1978), Perception Barriers (coll
1987),Co-Orbital Moons (coll 1988) and, perhaps most notably, Chronicles
of the Mutant Rain Forest (coll 1992 chap) with Bruce BOSTON. He has
edited 2 vols of sf POETRY, The Rhysling Anthology: Best Science Fiction
Poetry of 1982 (anth 1983 chap) and Burning with a Vision: Poetry of
Science and the Fantastic (anth 1984), and is a past editor of Star*Line,
the newsletter of the SCIENCE FICTION POETRY ASSOCIATION. As an author of
fiction, he began relatively late, his first sf story, "Across Those
Endless Skies", appearing in In the Field of Fire (anth 1987) ed Jack DANN
and Jeanne Dann. He is perhaps most noted for the extended "The Summer
People", his contribution to Nantucket Slayrides (coll 1989), the other
stories in which are by Lucius SHEPARD. RF wrote the POETRY entry in this

(1922- ) US illustrator, the most popular sf artist in the history of the
field; the list of his accomplishments is staggering. Since he entered the
field in 1950 he has painted hundreds of covers for 28 magazines, most
famously for ASF from 1953 (interior work also) but including also FSF,
Planet Stories and If, as well as for many book publishers, including ACE
BOOKS, GNOME PRESS, DAW BOOKS and all the covers for LASER BOOKS. The
gritty realism of his and Ed EMSHWILLER's work in the 1950s redefined sf
art during that period. He also painted many covers for Mad Magazine and
designed the astronauts' shoulder patch for the Skylab 1 mission. His art
has been collected in a portfolio from ADVENT: PUBLISHERS, Frank Kelly
Freas (portfolio 1957), and in 3 books, Frank Kelly Freas: The Art of
Science Fiction (1977), Frank Kelly Freas: A Separate Star (1984) and The
Astounding Fifties (1971) (1990). Much of his work, sometimes reminiscent
of that of Edd CARTIER, is relaxedly humorous, featuring vigorous
vagabonds, amiable aliens and a selection of jaunty scoundrels. He has won
numerous awards, including 10 HUGOS for Best Professional Artist.

(1920- ) US actress and writer whose sf novel, Joshua Son of None (1973),
one of the earliest novels to deal with cloning ( CLONES), depicts the
intrigue surrounding the childhood and adolescence of Joshua Francis
Kellogg, cloned in 1963 from the body of John F. Kennedy. [JC]Other works:
The Immortals (1976), borderline sf.


Film (1992). Morgan Creek/Ronald Shusett/Warner Bros. Dir Geoff Murphy,
starring Emilio Estevez, Mick Jagger, Rene Russo, Anthony Hopkins,
Jonathan Banks. Screenplay Steven Pressfield, Ronald Shusett, Dan Gilroy,
based on Immortality, Inc. (1958; exp 1959) by Robert SHECKLEY. 108 mins.
Colour.From the producers of TOTAL RECALL (1990) and the New Zealand
director of The QUIET EARTH (1985), this disappointing adaptation
jettisons much that was interesting in the original book, including the
metaphysical speculation about the relation of mind to body and the
"scientific" explanations of ghosts, zombies and a technological
IMMORTALITY. This is a thriller set 20 years in the future, when rich
people with ailing bodies transfer their personalities into healthy bodies
hijacked from the past (including our present). Jagger is rather good as
the sinister and ubiquitous bodysnatcher who grabs a racing-car driver
(Estevez) just as he is about to die violently. Joe Alves's mildly
CYBERPUNK production design owes a lot to BLADE RUNNER (1982). [PN]



(1948- ) US editor, married to Joan D. VINGE since 1980. In the late
1970s and early 1980s he was with Dell Books, where he ed anon the Binary
Star books, each comprising two titles bound sequentially ( DOS): Binary
Star #1 containing Destiny Times Three (1978 dos) by Fritz LEIBER and
Riding the Torch (1978 dos) by Norman SPINRAD, #2 containing The Twilight
River (1979 dos) by Gordon EKLUND and The Tery (1979 dos) by F. Paul
WILSON, #3 containing Dr Scofflaw (1979 dos) by Ron GOULART and Outerworld
(1979 dos) by Isidore HAIBLUM, #4 containing Legacy (1980 dos) by Joan D.
VINGE and The Janus Equation (1980 dos) by Steven G. SPRUILL, and #5
containing Nightflyers (1981 dos) by George R.R. MARTIN and TRUE NAMES
(1981 dos) by Vernor VINGE. In 1983 he founded BLUEJAY BOOKS, whose strong
but underfunded list was forced to cease trading in 1986. [JC]

(1947- ) UK publisher and writer, who also worked for five years as an
assistant to the film director Stanley KUBRICK. His One Hundred Years of
Science Fiction Illustration: 1840-1940 (1974) has a well chosen selection
of sf ILLUSTRATIONS, many - unusually - from the 19th century, with a full
chapter on Albert ROBIDA. [PN]

(1943- ) US writer whose The Elixir (1986) was a GOTHIC-SF/fantasy story
of Nazi Germany, where Hitler's secret weapon is the eponymous aid to
IMMORTALITY. His U.S.S.A.: a Novel (1987) is unrelated to the shared-world
sequence with the same overall title. [JC] Other works: Circle of Death
(1988). [JC]

(1956- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Max Weber's War" for AMZ
in 1987. His sf novel, A Small Colonial War (1990) which, along with its
sequel, Fire in a Faraway Place (1993), replays the Boer War on a colony
planet, although without Kaffirs. The Imperial military forces,
predictably, find the transplanted post- HOLOCAUST Afrikaners tough
meat.McLendon's Syndrome (1994) is a space opera featuring a vampire whose
allergies - sunlight, for instance - replicate the conventions of
supernatural fictions about vampires. [JC]

(1908-1989) US writer who also taught. Her career as a playwright began
early, with Three Cornered Moon (1933), which was later filmed, but she
began publishing sf only in 1963, with "The Short and Happy Death of
George Frumkin" for FSF. Her fine sf novel The Revolving Boy (1966)
strikingly tells the story of a child sensitive from his unique birth in
free fall to signals, possibly intelligent in origin, from beyond the
Solar System. He reveals his sensitivity by being forced to adjust himself
- revolving balletically - so that his body is aligned in the direction
from which the signals come. [JC]

(1878-1938) Austrian writer best known for his seminal Cultural History
of Modern Times (1927-32), a text which effectively inaugurated the
discipline of cultural history. As a Jew, his position became intolerable
when the Nazis invaded Austria, and he committed suicide. His wry homage
to H.G. WELLS, Die Ruckkehr mit der Zeitmaschine (apparently written
c1935; 1946 Germany; trans Eddy C. Bertin as The Return of the Time
Machine 1972 US), complete with a spoof correspondence between himself as
narrator and Wells's secretary, purports to reprint the Time Traveller's
narrative of his later journeys. The story, told with a literate wit
reminiscent of some of Karel CAPEK's lighter work, depends on complex
mathematical doubletalk for its demonstration of the ultimate futility of

(1955- ) US writer, mostly notably of STAR TREK and STAR TREK: THE NEXT
GENERATION ties, though he has also written a singleton, The Glove of
Maiden's Hair (1987), a fantasy set in contemporary New York, and the
Vidar fantasy sequence about a son of Odin: The Hammer and the Horn
(1985), The Seekers and the Sword (1985) and The Fortress and the Fire
(1988). MJF's Star Trek novels are Double, Double * (1989), Legacy *
(1991),Faces of Fire * (1992), The Disinherited * (1992) with Robert
GREENBERGER and Peter DAVID, and Shadows on the Sun * (1993). His Star
Trek: The Next Generation novels are A Call to Darkness * (1989), Doomsday
World * (1990) with Carmen CARTER, Peter DAVID and Robert Greenberger,
Fortune's Light * (1991),Reunion * (1991) Relics*(1992), All Things Good .
. . *(1994) and Requiem * (1994). [JC]

(1885-1959) US writer and explorer, most of whose work appeared in PULP
MAGAZINES, including the McKay, Knoulton and Ryan sequence of lost-race
(see LOST WORLD) tales set in South America and featuring the exploits of
Americans, who eventually establish a kingdom somewhere close to Peru.
Those published as books - The Pathless Trail (1922), Tiger River (1923),
in which men are transformed into beasts by a strange Circean wine, The
King of No Man's Land (1924) and Mountains of Mystery (1925) - were
marginal as sf; but "In the Year 2000" (1928 Adventure), which never
reached book form, is set after a world war in which White men have
triumphed. [JC]

Richard WORMSER.

(1897-1963) US writer and editor who worked for the Standard Magazine
during 1941-4, a period when these magazines were most specifically aimed
at adolescents. The editorial director at the time was Leo MARGULIES, with
whom OJF later edited 3 anthologies (see below). After the death of Otis
Adelbert KLINE in 1946, OJF became head of Kline's literary agency. He was
intermittently active as a writer from before 1920, concentrating on
horror, Western and detective tales, sometimes as Owen Fox Jerome, his
first sf story proper being "Of Jovian Build" for Thrilling Wonder Stories
in 1938. His first novel, The Hand of Horror (1927) as by Jerome, was a
horror tale involving hynotism. His sf books - The Kid from Mars (1940
Startling Stories; 1949), Roar of the Rocket (1940 TWS; 1950 chap
Australia) and The Star Men (1963) - are unremarkable but entertaining.
[MJE/JC]Other works: From Off this World (anth 1949), My Best Science
Fiction Story (anth 1949) and The Giant Anthology of Science Fiction (anth
1954; cut vt Race to the Stars 1958), all with Leo Margulies.See also:

[r] Eric BURGESS.

(1927- ) US writer and editor who began publishing sf with "The
Wallpaper" for Other Worlds in 1951. He edited the magazine GAMMA 1963-5.
His stories, written for a variety of markets but sharing a certain
glibness and snappiness of effect, are collected in Crazy Mixed-Up Planet
(coll 1969) and Horses' Asteroid (coll 1970). Many are spoofs. [JC]

(1945- ) US academic and writer whose sf novel, The Hour of Blue (1990),
presents the strangely consoling notion that Gaia herself is beginning to
respond defensively to humanity's rape of the planet, and that the forests
in Maine (the state where RF himself teaches) are transforming themselves.

Film (1972). American International. Dir George McCowan, starring Ray
Milland, Sam Elliott, Joan van Ark, Lynn Borden. Screenplay Robert
Hutchison, Robert Blees. 90 mins. Colour.A cheerful exploitation movie,
its director's debut and part of the 1970s Revenge-of-Nature boom (
MONSTER MOVIES), F is a rather well made ecological fable in which
upper-crust layabouts living on a bayou are disposed of by frogs, spiders,
leeches, snakes and snapping turtles (all normal size, but in large
numbers), apparently as a payback for Mankind's ill treatment of Nature: a
sort of amphibian The BIRDS (1963). [PN]

Film (1986). Taryn/Empire. Executive prod Charles BAND. Dir Stuart
Gordon, starring Jeffrey Combs, Barbara Crampton, Ken Foree, Ted Sorel,
Carolyn Purdy-Gordon. Screenplay Dennis Paoli, based on "From Beyond"
(1934) by H.P. LOVECRAFT. 85 mins. Colour.With three of the same leading
players, the same production team, and one of Lovecraft's fringe sf
stories as its original, this is effectively a sequel to RE-ANIMATOR
(1985), and was made as a direct result of that film's success.
Lovecraft's idea was that stimulating the pineal gland might open a window
to another DIMENSION peopled by MONSTERS. The film adds an element of
sexual stimulation to that (psychiatrists in bondage gear, etc.), a not
unreasonable reading of Lovecraft's lurid but repressed imaginings, but
the main variation is the glee and (occasional) wit with which the
disgusting monsters from beyond are set into action. Though an
undergraduate-style exercise in SPLATTER-MOVIE bad taste, FB is less gory
than Re-Animator. [PN]

Film (1958). Waverly/RKO. Dir Byron HASKIN, starring Joseph Cotton,
George Sanders, Deborah Paget. Screenplay Robert Blees, James Leicester,
adapted from Jules VERNE's De la terre a la lune (1865) and Autour de la
lune (1870), the two published together in English translation as From the
Earth to the Moon (1873). 100 mins. Colour.Using a new explosive, a
projectile carrying human passengers is fired at the Moon from a huge
cannon. Paget plays a pretty stowaway. The film, shot in Mexico, is
slow-moving and has painful dialogue; it is perhaps the dullest sf movie
ever made. There are no scenes on the Moon. A comic version, bearing no
relation to Verne's novel, was the UK Jules Verne's Rocket to the Moon
(1967; vt Those Fantastic Flying Fools) dir Don Sharp, in which a series
of farcical misadventures - the rocket lands in Russia, not on the Moon -
keeps the story effectively Earthbound. [PN/JB]

(1951- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Rubbish" for FSF in
1984, and most ofwhose work for a decade was governed by its fantasy tone,
including his first novel, Lyrec (1984), which does evoke PARALLEL WORLDS
but within a structure of story that does not permit an sf reading; his
later sequence,based on Celtic mythology and comprising Tain(1986) and
Remscela(1988), is pure fantasy. The Pure Cold Light(1993), on the other
hand,is sf, though its plot does play on after-death experiences in
amanner peculiarly stretching of the sf frame; overall,though, the book is
a remarkably ingenious tale of government and corporation conspiracies
involving possible ALIENS, CYBERPUNKriffs in the wastes of NEAR-FUTURE
Philadelphia, a femaleprivate investigator, and a drug - Orbitol - whose
reality-challenging effects are reminiscent ofsome passages in the work of
Philip K. DICK. Literary allusions abound, and wit,and excesses of
narrative energy; but because the basic tale veers into the incredible and
thecamp, it seems clear that what GF needs in future is a premise capable
of taxing hisinventiveness. [JC]

Zebra Books house name, used almost exclusively by US writer Raymond
Obstfeld (1952- ) for the Warlord sequence of post- HOLOCAUST sf
adventures with a survivalist message: The Warlord (1983), The Warlord #2:
The Cutthroat (1984), #3: Badland (1984), #4: Prisonland (1985) and #5:
Terminal Island (1985). #6: Killer's Keep (1987) was written as JF by Rich
Rainey. A singleton film tie, Invasion U.S.A. * (1985), was by Obstfeld.

Acronym, often used in sf TERMINOLOGY, for FASTER THAN LIGHT.

(1929- ) Mexican diplomat and writer whose acerbic MAGIC REALISM - a more
worldly version of that idiom than found in the works of his coeval,
Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1928- ) - has featured in stories and novels from
the 1950s on. They include: Aura (1962; trans Lysander Kemp1965 chap US),
a ghost story which incorporates elements of vampirism; La Cabeza de la
Hidra (1978; trans Margaret Sayers Peden as The Hydra Head 1978 US), set
just before the outbreak of WWIII in Mexico; Terra Nostra (1975; trans
Margaret Sayers Peden 1976 US), a vast FABULATION about the entire Earth
(though centred in an ALTERNATE-WORLD Paris); Cristobal nonato (1987;
trans Alfred MacAdam and CF as Christopher Unborn 1989 US), a NEAR-FUTURE
lament for Mexico and the world narrated by a child still in the womb; and
Constancia y otras novelas para virgenes (coll 1989; trans Thomas
Christensen as Costancia; and Other Stories for Virgins 1990 UK/US), a
series of complexly elaborate fables. [JC]See also: LATIN AMERICA.

[r] Piers ANTHONY.


(vt Virus) Film (1981). Haruki Kadokawa Films. Dir Kinji Fukasaku,
starring Masao Kusakari, Chuck Connors, Glenn Ford, Olivia Hussey, George
Kennedy, Henry Silva, Robert Vaughn. Screenplay Koji Takada, Gregory
Knapp, Fukasaku, from Fukkatsu No Hi (1964) by Sakyo KOMATSU. 155 mins,
cut to 108 mins. Colour.It is difficult to judge this reputedly expensive
Japanese DISASTER film, which was very successful in Japan, because the
export version was severely cut - but one cannot believe it was ever very
good. A germ-warfare virus is stolen and accidentally released; only those
in very cold areas survive. Then the crazed US Chief of Staff (Silva) sets
off a nuclear strike. In the Antarctic, 864 shivering male survivors share
8 women. The story is told as flashback, with a Japanese (Kusakari)
looking like a bearded scarecrow about to walk, implausibly, from
Washington DC to the Antarctic. (In the Japanese version he makes it.) The
characters are appallingly stereotyped. This is a simplistic melodrama
with nothing serious to say. [PN]

(1851-? ) US writer whose sf novel, A.D. 2000 (1890; vt Back to Life A.D.
2000 1911), wakes its protagonist ( SLEEPER AWAKES) in the UTOPIAN culture
of AD2000. A single party rules North America, and electrical inventions
(after a great disaster with "aluminum bronze", electricity has become the
chief source of power) dominate the exiguous storyline. [JC]

US ORIGINAL-ANTHOLOGY series published by BANTAM BOOKS since 1988,
created by Lou ARONICA, 3 issues to date (Spring 1992): Full Spectrum
(anth 1988), ed Aronica with Shawna MCCARTHY, #2 (anth 1989), ed Aronica
with Pat Lobrutto, McCarthy and Amy Stout, and #3 (anth 1991), ed Aronica
with Betsy Mitchell and Stout. These are fat, prestigious volumes - an
unusual publishing ploy at a time when conventional wisdom says sf
ANTHOLOGIES sell badly - presumably designed to publicize the Bantam
Spectra sf line and to announce that Bantam remains a leader in the sf
market. To date their only major award-winner has been "Bible Stories for
Adults, No. 17: The Deluge" (1988) by James MORROW, which won a NEBULA,
but a high count of FS stories have been shortlisted for awards, and FS
itself won a Locus Award for Best Anthology in its first year. FS
publishes a fairly high proportion of "literary" stories and a low
proportion of HARD SF, and mixes well known authors with promising
unknowns. [PN]

For a listing of some of the films in which Sax ROHMER's oriental
supervillain, armed with the weapons of superscience, appeared, The FACE

(1952- ) Canadian writer whose two sf novels, Brandyjack (1976) and its
sequel, Rebels of Merka (1976) - the only titles published by LASER BOOKS
actually to have been written by a Canadian - were unremarkable SPACE
OPERAS. In the 1980s AF began to publish short fiction in US magazines.

Pseudonym of Chicago-based US illustrator Joseph Wirt Tillotson (? - ),
used by him on sf cover paintings (although some of his black-and-white
work appeared under his own name). For some time a staff artist for
ZIFF-DAVIS magazines, RF painted 25 covers for AMZ 1938-44 and 7 for
Fantastic Adventures. In the 1950s, away from Ziff-Davis, he contributed
to the Chicago magazines Imagination and Other Worlds. He might have been
better known had he worked also for New York-based publishers, but he
always restricted himself to Chicago. One of the more prominent sf
illustrators of the 1930s and 1940s, RF used very bright colours to
compensate for poor reproduction processes. His melodramatic style - the
very essence of PULP-MAGAZINE sf - perfectly complemented the lurid
Ziff-Davis fiction. [JG/PN]



Film (1978). Frank Yablans Presentations/20th Century-Fox. Dir Brian De
Palma, starring Kirk Douglas, John Cassavetes, Charles Durning, Amy
Irving, Fiona Lewis, Andrew Stevens. Screenplay John Farris, based on his
The Fury (1976). 118 mins. Colour.After his success with CARRIE (1976), it
seems cynical of director De Palma to have made another film about
destructive teenage PSI POWERS so quickly. This one has an intricate plot
with standard ingredients: the secret government agency experimenting with
WEAPONS (in this case, human weapons), the paranoid ( PARANOIA) sense that
everything is manipulated by this agency, the FRANKENSTEIN theme of the
monster that turns on its creator, and (a Frankenstein subtheme) Freudian
hostility between children and parents. The two teenagers who can
telekinetically cause blood to spurt from every available orifice of those
they attack (or even to explode them) are both corrupted by their power,
one deeply, one mildly. The film is a vivid string of fireworks, with De
Palma as usual manipulating audience response with bravura, but not
creating anything that is more than the sum of its exploitative parts.

(1875-1912) US writer and theatrical manager, on the editorial staff of
the Boston American; he went down with the Titanic. The stories assembled
in his Thinking Machine books about the scientific detective Augustus S.F.
X. Van Dusen - The Thinking Machine (coll 1907; vt The Problem of Cell 13
1917) and The Thinking Machine on the Case (coll 1908) - are properly
detections, though Van Dusen's methods verge on sf. The Thinking Machine
(coll 1959) ed Tony Simon contains "The Problem of Cell 13" and 2 other
stories. Larger selections have been ed E.F. BLEILER as Best "Thinking
Machine"Detective Stories (coll 1973) and Great Cases of the Thinking
Machine (coll 1976). The Diamond Master (1909; exp with "The Haunted Bell"
as coll c1912), which is sf, revolves melodramatically around the
artificial manufacture of diamonds; the added novella is a supernatural
tale involving Van Dusen. [JC]

There are relevant entries throughout, but especially CYBERPUNK; END OF






US magazine. 17 issues Nov 1939-July 1943, 48 further issues May/June
1950-Apr 1960. Published by Blue Ribbon Magazines, later Double Action
Magazines and (from Apr 1941) Columbia Publications; ed Charles D. HORNIG
(Nov 1939-Nov 1940) and Robert A.W. LOWNDES (Apr 1941-Apr 1960). FF began
as a companion magazine to SCIENCE FICTION, with similar editorial
policies. It absorbed its parent magazine in Oct 1941, changing its title
to Future Combined with Science Fiction. Under Lowndes's editorship it
began to feature stories by such fellow FUTURIANS as James BLISH, C.M.
KORNBLUTH and Donald A. WOLLHEIM, often under pseudonyms. It also carried
some of the earliest magazine covers done by Hannes BOK. The title changed
again to Future Fantasy and Science Fiction in Oct 1942, and finally to
Science Fiction Stories in Apr 1943. The 2 issues of this final wartime
incarnation are virtually identical in appearance to Science Fiction, but
as they continue the numbering of FF they are considered part of its
run.FF was one of the many magazines to fall victim to wartime paper
shortages, but it was revived under the same editor in 1950 as Future
Combined with Science Fiction Stories, which became Future Science Fiction
Stories in Jan 1952 and, finally, Future Science Fiction in May 1952. It
changed from PULP to DIGEST size in June 1954. It was one of several
respectable but mediocre magazines edited on shoestring budgets by Lowndes
during the 1950s. The volume numbering was taken over by The ORIGINAL
SCIENCE FICTION STORIES with its Jan 1955 issue (vol 5 #4), suggesting the
death of Future Science Fiction; however, the latter reappeared a little
later in 1955, apparently unhurt, with #28. (The numeration of Columbia's
magazines has baffled generations of collectors.) There were 2 UK reprint
runs of FF, 14 issues 1951-4 in pulp format, and 11 digest issues 1957-60.



1. Variant title of FUTURE FICTION in its 1950s incarnation.2. Australian
DIGEST-size magazine. 6 numbered, undated issues (2 in 1953, 3 in 1954, 1
in 1955) published by Frew Publications, Sydney, plus 2 (1967) published
by Page Publications, NSW; ed anon. The Frew series used a mixture of US
reprints, 13 new US stories and 4 new Australasian stories; the Page
series reprinted #4 and #6 from the Frew publications, renumbering them #1
and #2. A companion magazine to both versions was POPULAR SCIENCE FICTION.



US historical SEMIPROZINE, three issues in 1992, ed Jim Emerson, pub Jim
Mladenovic from Convoy, Ohio, small- BEDSHEET format, saddle-stapled. This
ambitious venture was sadly soon aborted. Subtitled "A Visual Guidebook To
Science Fiction History", each issue was to cover the history of one year
in sf; this began in the first issue with 1926, and ended in the third
with 1928. Thus about 65 issues never came out. Articles,bios, checklists,
movie lists, chronologies - all well researched - were interspersed with
magazine illos and photographs somewhat smudgily reproduced. [PN]

Film (1976). AIP. Dir Richard T. Heffron, starring Peter Fonda, Blythe
Danner, Arthur Hill. Screenplay Mayo Simon, George Schenck. 104 mins.
Colour.An inferior sequel to WESTWORLD (1973), set in the same theme park,
Delos, F lacks the unity and impact of Michael CRICHTON's original film.
In a newly built area of Delos, devoted to dramatizing the future, there
are several diverting scenes irrelevant to the main plot, which is one of
PULP-MAGAZINE sf's oldest: a mad SCIENTIST (revealed at the end to be
himself a ROBOT) creates robot duplicates of influential people to enable
him to rule the world. His plan is uncovered by two journalists reporting
the grand opening. F is rather ill organized and crude. The novel
Futureworld * (1976) was adapted by John Ryder Hall (William ROTSLER) from
the screenplay. [JB]

UK FANZINE (1938-40), ed from Leeds by J. Michael Rosenblum. A
continuation of the Leeds SCIENCE FICTION LEAGUE's Bulletin (1937), The
Futurian was a small printed publication featuring fiction, poems and
articles by leading sf fans of the day, including Arthur C. CLARKE, Ralph
Milne FARLEY, John Russell FEARN, David H. KELLER, Frederik POHL and
William F. TEMPLE. Other important pre-WWII UK fanzines were John
CHRISTOPHER's The Fantast, Jonathan BURKE's and Charles Eric MAINE's
Satellite, Donald Mayer's Tomorrow (incorporating Walter GILLINGS's
Under the title Futurian War Digest (1940-45), Rosenblum's fanzine became
a focal point for UK fandom during the WWII years when sf and amateur
publishing faced considerable difficulties. It was revived as The New
Futurian 1954-8. [PR]

A New York sf group active 1938-45, notable for radical politics and the
conviction that sf fans should be forward-looking and constructive; the
name came from J. Michael Rosenblum's UK fanzine, The FUTURIAN . Though
deeply involved in FANZINE publishing and internal fan politics, The
Futurians also brought together many young fans who hoped to become sf
writers. Members included Isaac ASIMOV, James BLISH, C.M. KORNBLUTH, David
KYLE, Robert A.W. LOWNDES, Frederik POHL - who describes this period in
The Way the Future Was: A Memoir (1978) - Richard WILSON and Donald A.
WOLLHEIM; also associated with the group were Hannes BOK, Damon KNIGHT -
who in The Futurians (1977) published an informal history of the group -
Judith MERRIL and Larry T. SHAW. [PR/PN]

The Futurians sounds like a group of aliens who were transmitted through
Time. But, in fact, they were teenagers who shared a house in 1939 and who
also shared a love of science fiction. Their ranks eventually included
Isaac Asimov, Frederik Pohl, Damon Knight, and James Blish.The Secret
Service raided their Brooklyn home one night after neighbors, suspicious
of their mimeograph machines and strange visitors, reported them as
counterfeitors. What they found were law-abiding, if slightly obsessed, SF


UK pocketbook-size magazine. 16 issues, numbered, undated, 1950-58,
published by John Spencer, London; ed John S. Manning (pseudonym of
publishers Sol Assael and Michael Nahum). FSS was one of 4 almost
identical low-quality juvenile sf magazines - all of minimal interest -
published by Spencer; the others were TALES OF TOMORROW, WONDERS OF THE
SPACEWAYS and WORLDS OF FANTASY. #1-#15 appeared 1950-54; #16 did not
appear until 1958. (For more information on Spencer's publications BADGER

UK pulp-size magazine. 2 undated issues, 1946, published by Hamilton &
Co., Stafford; ed anon. FS was poor-quality, juvenile, and of little
interest. As with its companion magazine, STRANGE ADVENTURES, the Entire
contents were written by Norman FIRTH. [FHP]

The word "futurology" is a neologism coined in 1943 by a refugee German
professor of sociology, Ossip K. Flechtheim, then teaching in a US
college. He argued for a concerted effort by sociologists, historians,
psychologists, economists and political scientists to examine social and
technological trends as a means of learning the true shape of coming
things. He sent his proposals to Aldous HUXLEY, who took them up with
enthusiasm, and thereby conveyed the word into the language. Now
futurologists are everywhere except perhaps in the very poorest countries.
History shows that human beings are ab origine future-directed animals.
Ever since Homo erectus began the long trek out of Africa and into
Eurasia, the horizon-watchers have known that their survival might well
depend on what they found over the hill, in the no-man's time of the day
after. But the literature of proposals and projections about future things
appears as a mere blip at the end of civilization's 10,000-year record. It
is strange, too, that UTOPIAS, DYSTOPIAS, forecasts, projections and sf
are in origin, and still largely, a Western intellectual activity. All
these future-oriented activities may have begun with the first modern
utopias to present the other-history of the better society. Thomas MORE's
Utopia (Part Two 1516 in Latin; trans Ralphe Robynson with the later Part
One 1551) and Francis BACON's New Atlantis (1627; 1629) contained
ideologies which had already worked their benign effects in the could-be
of imagined lands, and might serve as guides for achieving a more perfect
way of life in the real world of a reformed England. In the beginning,
then, the future was another place, and the VIRTUAL REALITY of
word-generated social systems and behaviour patterns in the utopias made
for a most effective connection between today and tomorrow.There was still
a long way to go before considered forecasts. The world had to wait for
the new ideas about the progress of mankind that, in the mid-18th century,
were to mark out the base for a calculus of probabilities. In his very
influential Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human
Mind (1750) Anne Robert Jacques Turgot (1727-1781), then a student at the
Sorbonne, provided the historical evidence that allowed him to indicate
the main lines of human progress. Since, he argued, mankind had advanced
from primitive beginnings to the glorious days of Louis XV, it followed
that the human race would "go on advancing, although at a slow pace,
towards greater perfection". The details of this march forward awaited the
work of men like Adam Smith (1723-1790), who in his Wealth of Nations
(1776) reduced the entirety of ECONOMICS, industry and commerce to a
Newtonian universe of actions and reactions.At around this time the great
divide between fiction and prediction began to narrow, as the first tales
of the future spread their message of the centuries ahead. The most
important was Louis-Sebastien MERCIER's L'an 2440 (1771; trans as Memoirs
of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred 1772), which described a better
future world in which the social ideals of the Enlightenment had
prevailed: constitutional monarchs, deism the universal religion,
education for all. The most telling register of expected change was in the
technology of the future: a Suez Canal, rapid BALLOON transportation
between continents, and "all sorts of machines for the relief of Man in
laborious works".Still the would-be predictors awaited the theories and
techniques that would help them provide for the whole of society what Adam
Smith had provided for a part. New means of assessment and measurement
swiftly arrived. In 1798 Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) published his
notorious Essay on the Principle of Population, in which he
pessimistically linked the future of humanity to the potentially
geometrical growth of population and the merely arithmetical growth of the
rations that sustained it, a situation that could be balanced only if vast
numbers died. A tremendous debate about humankind's future followed,
partly because this early example of Future Shock had coincided with the
publication by Edward Jenner (1749-1823) of his paper on the Causes and
Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, which provided the first marvellous
promise that the future would be different. By that time James Watt's
steam engine was providing power on an unprecedented scale, and the
Industrial Revolution was on the point of transforming the world.It seems
strange, with change so rapidly manifesting itself, that it was almost a
century before straightforward forecasts like Dans cent ans ["In 100
Years"] (1892) by Charles Richet (1850-1935) came to be published. But in
the 19th century the "certainty factor" persuaded everyone that change and
technological development could be accommodated within the known social
system. The same, but better, was the slogan - or, in the Tennysonian
phrase, the great world would "spin for ever down the ringing grooves of
change". So people invented new methods to measure the changes they
considered most important. The first decennial census of 1801 began the
continuing measure of population; the Belgian mathematician Lambert
Quetelet (1796-1874) adopted the Laplace probability theory to produce the
crucial concept of the Average Man. Also significant was the first attempt
to analyse the new literature of the future in Le roman de l'avenir ["The
Novel of the Future"] (1834) by Felix Bodin ( FRANCE). Another sign was
the inauguration of the British Association for the Advancement of Science
in 1831.The flood of forecasting literature did not take place until
around 1890, beginning with sustained discussion about the next great WAR
(a discussion catalysed by the War of 1870). Its first major prediction
was the work of Polish banker and statistician Ivan Gottlieb de Bloch
(1836-1902), who produced the classic analysis in The War of the Future in
its Technical, Economic and Political Relations (1897). His findings,
ignored by the generals, led him to forecast a great war of entrenchment.
Soon forecasts became part of popular writing: weekly magazines
occasionally featured articles with illustrations of flying machines,
motor cars and television. Some two dozen books were published at this
time about the future, including George Ermann on the imperial German
future in Deutschland im Jahre 2000 ["Germany in the Year 2000"] (1891),
the influential Esquisse de l'organisation politique et economique de la
societe future (1899; trans P.H. Lee Warner as The Society of To-Morrow
1904) by Gustave de Molinari (1819-1911), and the collection by Edward
Carpenter (1844-1929) of the expectations of 10 eminent socialists in
Forecasts of the Coming Century (coll 1897). The most widely read of them
all in the Anglo-Saxon world was the series of articles by H.G. WELLS in
Fortnightly Review in 1900, published as Anticipations (1901).The next
advances in the investigation of the future followed two major innovations
between the two world wars. In the 1920s the publishing house Kegan Paul,
Trench & Trubner brought out a series of 86 monographs in their Today and
Tomorrow series, in which scientists, sociologists, philosophers,
theologians and others set down their expectations of the future. One was
J.B.S. HALDANE's Daedalus, or Science and the Future (1924), which
accurately forecast advances in biology that gave Aldous Huxley important
ideas for BRAVE NEW WORLD (1932). The series was widely reported and did
much to publicize thinking about the future. More important, however, was
the first major state initative in this regard. The US President, Herbert
Hoover, in 1930 appointed a National Resources Committee "to examine and
report upon recent social trends in the United States with a view to
providing such a review as might supply a basis for the formulation of
large national policies looking to the next phase in the nation's
development". The committee, drawing on the resources of field-survey
techniques formulated at the University of Chicago, presented their
conclusions in their report Recent Social Trends (1932), which provided a
model for the USA and an example to the rest of the world.The development
of techniques for investigating the future accelerated during WWII,
especially the Operational Research procedures borrowed from the UK by the
US Army Air Force. These proved so successful in the air war that General
Henry Arnold established a research centre to investigate possible
developments in warfare. This had the codename RAND (Research and
Development), and in 1948 the project team set up an independent
non-profit organization known as the RAND Corporation. It had immense
influence on military planning and on presidential decisions about the
manufacture of nuclear weapons; it was the first "think tank", and from it
came the System Development Institute and the Hudson Institute. The latter
gained world notoriety when Herman Kahn (1922-1983) published books such
as On Escalation (1968) that took the hardest of looks into the future.
Indeed, this was a period of rapid growth in futurology, with a great many
books and journals published on the subject. Kahn's books were among the
best-known, but futurology's limitations as a science can be seen very
clearly in his Things to Come (1972), a book about what to expect in the
1970s and 1980s. The index has no entries for oil, gasoline, energy,
resources or power; Kahn's only remark about the Arabs is to say that,
because the West is their only market, we need expect no problems of
supply. Sf writers, too, were unsuccessful in predicting the energy
crisis, but few as blandly and so close to the time when it happened as
this.A very influential, albeit flawed, work of futurology was the report
of the Club of Rome on OVERPOPULATION and diminishing resources, excerpts
from which were published as The Limits to Growth (1972). Alvin TOFFLER's
book Future Shock (1970) was a bestselling work of SOCIOLOGY rather than
futurology; it documented the increasing rate of change in the 20th
century, but was comparatively cautious in making specific predictions
about the future. At the other extreme were books of popularization like
The Next Ten Thousand Years (1974) by Adrian BERRY, a work of
technological optimism packed with "what-ifs" and predictions rather than
futurology per se. There are many of these.The modern "science" of
futurology is the forecasting of the future (usually the NEAR FUTURE) by
projection and extrapolation from current trends, statistics, population
figures, political groupings, availability of resources, economic data,
etc. It cannot be called a science proper, since too many of the factors
involved are imponderable (and often unknown), but its tools are
statistical analysis and the computer simulation of various models.It may
seem that the futurologist and the sf writer are involved in the same
trade, but they share a certain unease about one another. Futurologists
work primarily on what can be quantified, and to a large degree their
projections depend on the future being the same as the past. Population
projections for the UK, for example, were for a long time too high because
demographers were unable to quantify the factors that persuade people to
have fewer children. Sf writers are not actually in the prediction
business, but when they deal with the near future they normally write a
"what-if?" scenario, which may involve discontinuities with the past. In
practice, this is only to say that the factors sf writers deal with
include a good deal of guesswork and invention. What makes sf writers
unreliable as predictors is the nature of that "what if?". It may appeal
to the writer because of its intrinsic interest or its function as a
warning symbol, rather than for its likelihood. Writers often do not
believe in it themselves; they are writing stories, not prophecies. Also,
the sf writer is often ignorant of the mechanisms, such as those of
ECONOMICS, which must play an important role in any realistic story of
future cause and effect.Where sf writers have an advantage is in the
ability to adopt a multidisciplinary approach; they are often good at what
is sometimes known as lateral thinking. In a sense the advantage sf
writers have is their very irresponsibility: they cannot be held
accountable for the nature of their scenarios; the details do not have to
be justified. This allows sf writers to survey a far greater range of
possibility than the comparatively restricted futurologist. The writer can
take the unexpected into account, and history tells us that the unexpected
does indeed often happen. Sf itself may give direction to change, through
a process of self-fulfilling prophecy, by presenting images of the future
which grip people's minds; e.g., the US space programme, which could not
have been funded without popular support, or the multistorey apartment
blocks that were built by local authorities in such disastrously great
numbers in the UK after WWII, designed by a generation of architects
reared on the utopian-sf visual imagery of the 1920s.Neither futurologists
nor sf writers have done very well at PREDICTION, though perhaps the
writers' emphasis on the lives of individuals seems more humane than the
futurologists' statistical projections about the masses. Many examples of
sf about the general area also covered by futurology can be found under
one notable writer who has written novels of this kind. Often, of course,
Brunner and others are not so much predicting as trying to avert; they
hope their ghastly scenarios will be influential as a kind of
early-warning system. Arthur C. CLARKE, on the other hand, has used much
optimistic futurological speculation in both his factual books and his
fiction.Sf itself has also produced futurologists as characters, the best
known being the exponents of PSYCHOHISTORY in Isaac ASIMOV's Foundation
series. [IFC/PN]

(1918- ) US writer whose first sf story, "Locked Out", appeared in ASF in
1940 but who became active, mainly with stories in ASF, only after WWII
army service. By 1967, when he became inactive, he had published nearly 60
stories. His Bureau of Slick Tricks tales (ASF 1948-52) are typical of
John W. CAMPBELL's need for stories in which humans inevitably outwit
thick-skulled (often bureaucratic) ALIENS. In his novel, D-99 (fixup
1962), which continues the series, Department 99 of the Terran government
has the job of finagling citizens out of jams on other planets and
flummoxing thicker species. The tone is fortunately light. [JC]

Leonard G. FISH.

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