Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (E-E)

(1929- ) UK author of the fine chase thriller And Mistress Pursuing
(1966) and a complex sf thriller, Planet in the Eye of Time (1968), which
encompasses, via TIME TRAVEL, the period of the crucifixion ( MESSIAHS;
RELIGION) and addresses the problems of a dying Galaxy. His later work
within the genre has all been for children. The Dragonfall series includes
Dragonfall Five and the Space Cowboys (1972), Dragonfall Five and the
Royal Beast (1972), Dragonfall Five and the Empty Planet (1973),
Dragonfall Five and the Hijackers (1974), Dragonfall Five and the Master
Mind (1975), Dragonfall Five and the Super Horse (1977) and Dragonfall
Five and the Haunted World (1979). The Star Jam Pack series, featuring an
interstellar rock group, includes Starclipper and the Song Wars (1985),
Starclipper and the Snowstone (1986) and Starclipper and the Galactic
Final (1987). [JC]Other works: The Rock Dog Gang (1987); Planet of the
Jumping Beans (1990 chap).


Film (1964). Lippert/Planet. Dir Terence Fisher, starring Willard Parker,
Virginia Field, Dennis Price. Screenplay Henry Cross, from a story by
Harry Spalding. 62 mins. B/w.This is the first of three sf films that
Terence Fisher (best known for his Hammer Horror films) made during the
1960s; the others were ISLAND OF TERROR (1966) and NIGHT OF THE BIG HEAT
(1967). The UK has been invaded by alien-controlled robots. Survivors are
besieged by corpses animated by the robots, so that the film is an
inferior forerunner to NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD (1968). Like the other
films in the series, all similar in theme, TEDS is handicapped by a clumsy
script, a tiny budget and a director uninterested in sf. [JB]

Film (1988). De Laurentiis/Kestrel. Dir Julien Temple, starring Geena
Davis, Jeff Goldblum, Jim Carrey, Damon Wayans, Julie Brown. Screenplay
Brown, Charlie Coffey, Terrence E. McNally. 100 mins. Colour.Three
fur-covered humanoid aliens crash their spaceship in a swimming pool in
the San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles. They meet a Valley girl (Davis), who
arranges for them to be shaved and trendily dressed. They learn about
local customs. This very light comedy with songs (good words, so-so tunes)
was made by a UK director who downplayed the alienness of the aliens (they
are good at dancing, piano playing and sex) in favour of the alienness of
the San Fernando Valley, photographed in lurid primary colours and
observed with all the astonished voyeurism of some tyro anthropologist
confronted by pygmy headhunters. EGAE is slight, but much funnier than MY
STEPMOTHER IS AN ALIEN (1988), on a very similar theme. [PN]See also:

Film (1974). Universal. Dir Mark Robson, starring Charlton Heston, Ava
Gardner, George Kennedy, Lorne Greene, Genevieve Bujold. Screenplay George
Fox, Mario Puzo. 123 mins. Colour.We include this as a representative
member of a class of marginally sf films, DISASTER movies, which normally
deal with events that, while they have not yet happened, plausibly might
in the NEAR FUTURE. In practice the feeling of most disaster films is not
sciencefictional, their point being to generate an emotional thrill
through the disaster itself rather than to investigate causes and effects.
This example, commercially very successful, shows the destruction of Los
Angeles by a major earthquake, and as usual focuses on a small group who
struggle to survive. Technically the film is adroit, though the human
relationships are stilted and stereotyped. It is a showcase for some of
Hollywood's best special-effects men, many of whom were persuaded to come
out of retirement to work on it; one of them, Clifford Stine, had created
the effects in Universal's series of sf/horror films in the 1950s,
including The INCREDIBLE SHRINKING MAN (1957). The film's gimmick was the
introduction of "Sensurround", a system intended to disturb audiences with
low-frequency vibrations generated by powerful electro-acoustic horns
placed at the front and rear of the theatre. [JB]

(vt Invasion of the Flying Saucers) Film (1956). Clover/Columbia. Prod
Charles H. Schneer. Dir Fred F. Sears, starring Hugh Marlowe, Joan Taylor.
Screenplay George Worthing Yates, Raymond T. Marcus, based on a story by
Curt SIODMAK. 83 mins. B/w.This film was suggested by Flying Saucers from
Outer Space (1953) by Donald E. Keyhoe (1897-1988), and was made to cash
in on the UFO mania of the period. After a simple misunderstanding, there
are spectacular scenes of destruction as aliens in saucers attempt to
defeat Earth using ray-guns. The militaristic story is ill written and
badly paced. Though done on a small budget, Ray HARRYHAUSEN's elegant
special effects - the only reason for watching the film - are impressive,
particularly in the climactic battle sequence, when flying saucers drop
out of the sky and crash into famous Washington landmarks. [JB]

Robert POTTER.


Pseudonym of US writer Edward P. Malerich (1940- ), author of The Miscast
Gentleman (1978), a mildly intriguing TIME-TRAVEL tale, and The Pirate of
Hitchfield (1978). [JC]

(1942- ) US writer who is also employed in computer science and
engineering research. He began publishing sf with "Superflare" as Coleman
Brax for FSF in 1980, using that pseudonym for some further magazine
stories; with Clare BELL, with whom he lives, both writing as Clare
Coleman, he has collaborated in the Ancient Pacific sequence ( Clare
BELL). His early novels - like the sequence comprising Masters of Glass
(1985), Iskiir (1986) and The Fisherman's Curse (1987) - are fantasy.
Swimmers Beneath the Night (1987), set on a water-covered planet and
critical of the science which has populated it with bioengineered
settlers, is sf. With Spirits of Cavern and Hearth (1988) he reverted to
fantasy and to his favourite venue, a world vibrant with spirits. [JC]

(1944- ) US critic, writer and biology teacher (he holds a PhD in
theoretical biology) who is best known for the Reference Library
book-review column he has written for ASF since 1979, where he covers a
wide range of titles with strict fairness, though not often granted the
room to delve deep. His first story was "Next" for Adam in 1974, and he
has since published at least 50 tales in magazines, sometimes as Sam
Atwood. His sf novels Sparrowhawk (1990), Greenhouse (1991), Woodsman
(1992), A Tower of the Gods (1993) and Seeds of Destiny (1994) all focus
on an Earth rather mechanically dominated by a biological revolution, with
genimals - genetically engineered animals - replacing cars and indeed
almost anything imaginable; by the fifth volume, the bioengineering
Gypsies have been driven into space by the Engineers, who are
machine-oriented, and a conflict between the two principles - it is one
common to late-century sf - begins to wage throughout the galaxy.
Reversals of this sort are generally effected for purposes of SATIRE, but
it is clear that for TAE the perils and pleasures of the invention have
been sufficient. [JC]



Company founded in 1945 by M.C. Gaines (1896-1947), creator of the format
of the modern COMIC book and original partner in DC COMICS. The initials
stood for both Educational and Entertaining Comics. After Gaines's death
the company passed to his son, William M. Gaines (1922-1992), who revamped
the line to his own taste. Educational Comics was wound down and
Entertaining Comics was transformed into a line of anthology titles that
included two sf comic books - Weird Science and Weird Fantasy - which were
the poorest sellers, but which survived because of his personal support.
Various artists drew the sf stories, which ranged from the cliched and
absurd to the surprisingly good; most were written by editor Albert B.
Feldstein, though some were by Otto Binder ( Eando BINDER). Feldstein also
"borrowed" stories from authors such as Anthony BOUCHER, Ray BRADBURY,
Fredric BROWN, John COLLIER and Richard MATHESON. In 1952 Bradbury noted
the unauthorized adaptations but, enjoying them, simply wrote and
requested payment, which Gaines forwarded. This led to official
adaptations of Bradbury stories.In 1954 increasing concern about juvenile
delinquency and the "harmful influence" of comic books led to the two sf
titles combining as Weird Science-Fantasy. Such minor measures failed to
stem the flow of criticism, and EC abandoned its entire comic-book line in
1955 to concentrate on MAD Magazine.EC influenced various creators,
including the underground comics artists of the 1960s and several writers,
notably Stephen KING, but the main influence was from EC's horror titles,
not their sf titles. A number of collections of EC material have appeared,
including two collections of Bradbury adaptations by Albert B. Feldstein:
The Autumn People (coll 1965), horror, and Tomorrow Midnight (coll 1966),
sf.Russ Cochran's The Complete EC Library reprints the entire run in large
hardcovers, and Gladstone Comics are reissuing most of the titles as
monthly reprints. [ZB/BF]

(1931- ) US writer, mainly of works of natural history, for which he has
five times been nominated for the Pulitzer Prize. His sf novel, The HAB
Theory (1976), is based on the neo-Velikovskian idea of poleshift (
PESUDO-SCIENCE; Immanuel VELIKOVSKY): lay theoreticians realize that the
Earth is about to flip over on its axis with the obvious catastrophic
consequences, but of course the ivory-tower bastions of Orthodox Science
refuse to listen. The HOLOCAUST duly afflicts an underprepared humanity.
The Mesmerian Annals - The Dark Green Tunnel (1984) and The Wand (1986) -
are juvenile fantasies. [JC/JGr]

(1932- ) Italian academic and writer, famed for his work in history,
philosophy, literary criticism and semiotics. While his novels are not
explicitly sf, he shares with much of the best of the genre a central
concern with both the nature of ideas and the moral significance of the
methods by which we determine what is true. Il Nome della Rosa (1980;
trans William Weaver as The Name of the Rose 1983 US/UK) is a medieval
detective story (and a story about detection), an exploration of the
detective's empirical approach to the world and the importance of humour,
set against the fanatical certainties of medieval Christianity. Il Pendolo
di Foucault (1988; trans William Weaver as Foucault's Pendulum 1989 US)
tells the story of a group of Italian intellectuals who, appalled by the
stupidity of the books on mysticism and occult history that they publish
for a living, decide to construct their own conspiracy theory of history,
and discover that the human PERCEPTION of reality is more subtle than they
had anticipated ( FABULATION). UE's fiction is remarkably inventive,
sophisticated and humorous, expressive of a profound love for life over
sterile abstraction. [NT/PhR]Other works: Travels in Hyperreality (coll
trans William Weaver et al 1987 US), journalism and essays.See also:

Ecology is the study of organisms in relation to their environment. It is
a relatively new discipline, the first notable work on the subject being
Animal Ecology (1927) by Charles Elton (1900-1990). The complexity of the
environmental relationships which determine the success, or even the
survival, of populations has been realized only within the last
half-century. The same period has seen a dramatic increase in the world's
population and the virtual destruction of the natural environment in many
populous areas, and such issues as the protection of food chains and
increasing the efficiency of ecological systems have become extremely
important.As is to be expected with respect to a scientific discipline no
older than GENRE SF, there are very few early stories with ecological
themes. W.H. HUDSON's fantasies of a mode of human life harmonized with
Nature - particularly A Crystal Age (1887) - can be seen, with hindsight,
as related to the theme, but their inspiration was mystical rather than
scientific. An early story on an ecological theme is J.D. BERESFORD's "The
Man who Hated Flies" (1929), a parable about a perfect insecticide which
precipitates an ecocatastrophe by obliterating the pollinators of many
plant species. Early sf writers were often oblivious to the simplest
matters of ecology in their pictures of LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS, providing
abundant carnivorous species without the herbivore populations required to
sustain them; Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's image of Mars is a cardinal example.
The only early PULP-MAGAZINE writer whose work showed anything more than a
rudimentary consciousness of the subject was Stanley G. WEINBAUM. After
WWII, however, writers began to use a good deal more ingenuity in their
representations of ALIEN ecology, and produced numerous puzzle stories in
which explorers on other worlds have to figure out peculiar relationships
in the local fauna and flora. Examples are William TENN's "The Ionian
Cycle" (1948), several stories by Clifford D. SIMAK - notably "You'll
Never Go Home Again" (1951; vt "Beachhead") and "Drop Dead" (1956) - James
H. SCHMITZ's "Grandpa" (1955), Brian W. ALDISS's PEST (Planetary
Ecological Survey Team) series (1958-62) and a series by Jack SHARKEY
begun with "Arcturus Times Three" (1961). More sophisticated examples are
Richard MCKENNA's "Hunter Come Home" (1963), Neal BARRETT's Highwood
(1972) and John BOYD's The Pollinators of Eden (1969). Jack VANCE's
"Winner Loses All" (1951) is an interesting oddity with no human
characters. Michael G. CONEY has deployed ecological puzzles in a number
of novels, including Syzygy (1973) and Hello Summer, Goodbye (1975; vt
Rex).Inevitably, the COLONIZATION OF OTHER WORLDS has come to be seen more
and more in ecological terms. Ecological planning is necessarily of
central concern in stories dealing with TERRAFORMING. Thus an elementary
strategy of ecological control is the key to the invasion of the land
areas of VENUS in Fury (1950; vt Destination Infinity) by Henry KUTTNER,
and in many novels about the colonization of MARS - e.g., Kim Stanley
ROBINSON's RED MARS (1992 UK). The great majority of ecological-problem
stories involving colonization derive their problems through slight
distortion of ecological systems on Earth, or through simple analogy.
Relatively few authors have been willing to take on the job of attempting
to construct an alien ecology in some detail, although Johannes KEPLER
made some interesting observations about the ways in which life might
adapt to a lunar habitat in his Somnium (1634). Notable modern examples
include numerous stories by Hal CLEMENT, including Cycle of Fire (1957)
and Close to Critical (1958; 1964), Brian W. Aldiss's The Long Afternoon
of Earth (fixup 1962 US; exp vt Hothouse UK), Poul ANDERSON's Fire Time
(1974), Alan Dean FOSTER's Midworld (1975), Gordon R. DICKSON's Masters of
Everon (1979), Aldiss's Helliconia trilogy (1982-5), Donald KINGSBURY's
COURTSHIP RITE (1982), Larry NIVEN's The Integral Trees (1983) and its
sequel The Smoke Ring (1987), Paul J. MCAULEY's FOUR HUNDRED BILLION STARS
(1988) and Sheri S. TEPPER's Grass (1989).The precariousness of the human
ecological situation has gradually but inevitably become one of the major
themes of sf. The possibility of a worldwide DISASTER caused by
soil-exhaustion is explored in A.G. Street's Already Walks Tomorrow (1938)
and Edward S. HYAMS's The Astrologer (1950), both of which 2point out that
ecological planning will be made difficult by the tendency of politicians
to think about only the short term. Significant cautionary tales about
ecological catastrophes include Ward MOORE's Greener than You Think
(1947), in which a species of grass out-competes all other plant life, and
John CHRISTOPHER's The Death of Grass (1956; vt No Blade of Grass), in
which a blight affecting grass species destroys most of the world's crops.
Early magazine sf stories which focus on mankind's future ecological
problems include Damon KNIGHT's "Natural State" (1954; vt Masters of
Evolution 1959) and C.M. KORNBLUTH's "Shark Ship" (1958).Ecocatastrophe
stories picked up considerable impetus in the 1960s from a number of
nonfictional warnings that things could only get worse as a result of
OVERPOPULATION and POLLUTION. The alarmist Paul Ehrlich (1932- ), author
of The Population Bomb (1968), used a quasidocumentary fictional framework
for a brief summary of his predictions in "Ecocatastrophe" (1969). The
greenhouse effect was later added to the list, followed by the decay of
the ozone layer, leading to such extreme ecocatastrophe stories as
Ecodeath (1972) by William Jon WATKINS and E.V. (Gene) SNYDER, The
Nitrogen Fix (1980) by Hal Clement and Nature's End (1986) by Whitley
STRIEBER and James Kunetka, and such all-inclusive ones as David BRIN's
Earth (1990). Many ecocatastrophe stories are notable for their bitter
irony - most sf writers who use the theme seem to feel that we will get no
more than we deserve if we destroy our environment and poison ourselves -
but even writers who are neither angry nor despairing tend to accept that
an ongoing ecological crisis will be one of the most obvious features of
the NEAR FUTURE.Intensification of ecological awareness helped to lend a
new subtlety and sophistication to the disaster story, which spawned a new
subspecies dealing with the delicate aesthetics of corrosive changes in
mankind's physiological and psychological relationship with the
environment. Gerald HEARD's "The Great Fog" (1944) is an early example;
others are The Year of the Cloud (1970) by Theodore L. THOMAS and Kate
WILHELM, George Alec EFFINGER's "And Us, Too, I Guess" (1973) and George
TURNER's The Sea and Summer (1987; vt Drowning Towers). The most detailed
exploration of such possibilities has been carried out by J.G. BALLARD in
such novels as The Wind from Nowhere (1962), The Drowned World (1962), The
Burning World (1964; vt The Drought) and THE CRYSTAL WORLD (1966).Stories
concerned with the ecology of alien worlds have recently tended to take on
a strong element of mysticism. In the real world the word "ecology" has
acquired quasicharismatic status, encouraged by vulgarizations of the
"Gaia hypothesis" enunciated by James Lovelock (1919- ); this points out
that the ecosphere has certain built-in homeostatic mechanisms and that
evolving earthly life created the atmospheric environment in which it now
exists. For many people "ecology" has come to symbolize a lost sense of
harmony with the world at large, and various commune movements have tried
to make ecological awareness an antidote to alienation. The word
"symbiosis" ( PARASITISM AND SYMBIOSIS) is often invoked in this context.
In sf, ecological mysticism is very obvious in such parables as Robert F.
YOUNG's The Last Yggdrasil (1959 as "To Fell a Tree"; exp 1982), such
evocations of the Eden myth as Mark CLIFTON's Eight Keys to Eden (1960)
and such curious biological allegories as Jacqueline LICHTENBERG's Dushau
(1985) and its sequels. It is central to the mystical ritualization of
water relations featured in Robert A. HEINLEIN's STRANGER IN A STRANGE
LAND (1961) and Frank HERBERT's DUNE (1965). In Piers ANTHONY's Omnivore
(1968) ecological relationships themselves are transformed into a mystical
pattern. This mysticism is evident also in many stories set on Earth,
including Frank Herbert's The Green Brain (1966), Hilbert SCHENCK's At the
Eye of the Ocean (1980), Norman SPINRAD's Songs from the Stars (1980),
Somtow Sucharitkul's ( S.P. SOMTOW) Starship and Haiku (1984) and Scott
Russell SANDERS's Terrarium (1985).Two anthologies featuring
ecocatastrophe stories are Saving Worlds (anth 1973; vt The Wounded
Planet) ed Roger ELWOOD and Virginia KIDD, and The Ruins of Earth (anth
1971) ed Thomas M. DISCH. [BS]

The word "economics" derives from a Greek word signifying the art of
household management. Its modern usage has been extended by analogy to
pertain to the management of the industry and finances of nations.
Medieval economic "theory" was dominated by ethical considerations, and
evaluative judgments still remain entangled with the science; economics
thus has the capacity to arouse powerful passions in spite of its frequent
designation as "the dismal science". This is very evident in fiction
dealing with economic systems. Thomas MORE's Utopia (1516; trans 1551) is
largely a treatise on economic matters, and much subsequent UTOPIAN
literature has been concerned with economic theory's relationships with
political power and social justice.The idea that economics should attempt
to shed its ethical entanglements and be reformulated in terms of "natural
laws" was popularized by "The Grumbling Hive", the poem which formed the
headpiece of The Fable of the Bees, or Private Vices, Publick Benefits
(1714) by Bernard de Mandeville (1670-1733). The poem and the tract
advanced the thesis that, if the market were allowed to find its own
equilibrium while individuals attempted to maximize their profits in open
competition (no matter how greedily), the community as a whole would
benefit. This notion was later taken up by Adam Smith (1723-1790) in The
Wealth of Nations (1776). In the 19th century the rise of various
socialist movements, latterly armed with their own Marxist theory of
economics, brought a good deal of ideological conflict into economic
thought at both academic and popular levels. This conflict is very evident
in a great deal of 19th-century utopian fiction. Voyage en Icarie (1840)
by Etienne Cabet (1788-1856) and The Happy Colony (1856) by Robert
Pemberton were among the earliest socialist utopias, although their
arguments are moral rather than scientific. Theodore HERTZKA's Freiland
(1890; trans 1891) and its sequel were among several novels exploring the
pros and cons of a mixed economy, but there are relatively few
19th-century laissez-faire utopias. By the end of the century the argument
was becoming confused by the interest which utopian novelists were taking
in AUTOMATION and TECHNOLOGY, but economic egalitarianism remained a
central issue in such technological utopias as Edward BELLAMY's Looking
Backward, 2000-1887 (1888) and the many ideological replies produced in
its wake. Like many other US socialists, Bellamy took more inspiration
from Henry George (1839-1897) - author of Progress and Poverty (1879) -
than from Marx. (George's influence is also very strong in the works of M.
P. SHIEL, and his ideas can still be found echoing in the writings of
Barrington J. BAYLEY.) Despite Marx's 20th-century status as a figurehead
there are surprisingly few outrightly Marxian utopias; the best example is
Sur la pierre blanche (1905; trans as The White Stone1910) by Anatole
FRANCE.Relatively few 20th-century utopias give more priority to economic
considerations than to political or technological issues; notable
exceptions are Robert ARDREY's World's Beginning (1944) and Henry
HAZLITT's The Great Idea (1951; vt Time Will Run Back). The longest and
most extravagant economic tract cast as fiction this century is Ayn RAND's
Atlas Shrugged (1957), a pioneering work of Libertarian apologetics in
which the world's capitalists go on strike in protest against the forces
of creeping socialism ( LIBERTARIANISM). Marxist economic theory is more
prominently featured in DYSTOPIAS like Jack LONDON's The Iron Heel (1907)
and in SATIRES like Upton SINCLAIR's The Millennium (1924). Sharper and
more flamboyant economic satire can be found in Archibald MARSHALL's
Upsidonia (1915), about a world where the profit motive operates in
reverse, and in Leon STOVER's The Shaving of Karl Marx (1982), which slyly
suggests that the policies which Lenin instituted after the Russian
Revolution have far more in common with the ideas of H.G. WELLS than with
those of Marx.The early PULP-MAGAZINE sf writers were not much concerned
with economics, tending to take the historical continuity of the American
Dream for granted, although Fred MACISAAC's "World Brigands" (1928) is an
interesting story from the nonspecialist pulps in which the burden of WAR
debt leads to a war between the USA and its former allies. When John W.
CAMPBELL Jr took over ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, economic issues were
returned to the sf agenda. They were taken up by Robert A. HEINLEIN, whose
"The Roads Must Roll" (1940) is about a strike called by "Functionalists"
- proponents of the theory that the greatest economic rewards should go to
the people with the most vital jobs. Heinlein's "Let There be Light . . ."
(1940 as by Lyle Monroe) includes cynical asides about the suppression of
innovations by power groups who have a heavy investment in existing
technologies - a notion whose variants include items of modern folklore as
well as the themes of stories; "Logic of Empire" (1941) has some similarly
cynical comments on the economics of slavery; and "The Man who Sold the
Moon" (1950) concerns the struggle to finance the first Moon voyage.
Heinlein's economic theorizing was comprehensively updated in THE MOON IS
A HARSH MISTRESS (1966), which helped to popularize the acronym tanstaafl
("there ain't no such thing as a free lunch"); his uncompromising
Libertarianism - which has echoes of SOCIAL DARWINISM - set an important
example within the genre, instituting a tradition vigorously carried
forward by Poul ANDERSON, Jerry POURNELLE, G.C. EDMONDSON and L. Neil
SMITH, among others, and led to the founding of the Prometheus AWARD.Other
pulp stories in which the emphasis on economic considerations is central
include "The Iron Standard" (1943) by Lewis Padgett (Henry KUTTNER and
C.L. MOORE), in which Earthmen force reluctant aliens to help them by
disrupting their economy and threatening the power structure of a static
society, and "The Helping Hand" (1950) by Poul Anderson, a neat parable
about the economics of "foreign aid". Economic issues are also to the fore
in Anderson's series about interstellar trader Nicholas van Rijn and his
associates, notably "Margin of Profit" (1956) and the novelettes collected
as Trader to the Stars (coll 1964). Oddly enough, the other writer of the
1950s strongly associated with Campbell who showed a very strong interest
in economics was Mack REYNOLDS, whose parents were devout socialists and
whose ideas were strongly influenced by the three-times socialist
candidate for the US Presidency Eugene Debs (1855-1926). Reynolds's
efforts range from the wry "Subversive" (1962), the satirical Tomorrow
Might Be Different (1960 as "Russkies, Go Home!"; exp 1975) and the
melodramatic "Ultima Thule" (1961; in fixup Planetary Agent X 1965) to the
fascinating thought-experiment described in The Rival Rigelians (1961 as
"Adaptation"; exp 1967), in which visiting Earthmen divide an alien
world's nations in order to compare the power of free enterprise and
Marxist planning as forces of social evolution. Reynolds went on to write
a series of utopian novels cast in a Bellamyesque mould, beginning with
Looking Backward, from the Year 2000 (1973) and Equality in the Year 2000
(1977).A rather different approach to economic issues was manifest in the
magazine GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION, where the emphasis was on satirical
irony. The author who best embodied the outlook of the magazine - and who
eventually became its editor-was Frederik POHL, whose economic fantasies
stand in sharp contrast to those of Heinlein, Anderson and Reynolds. In
his collaboration with C.M. KORNBLUTH, THE SPACE MERCHANTS (1953), the
economy of the USA has been driven to extremes of conspicuous consumption
in order to maintain economic growth, and the advertising industry has
become the linchpin of government. In "The Midas Plague" (1954) the
situation is further exaggerated, every citizen having a burdensome
consumption quota as the nation strives to cope with the abundance of
machine-produced goods. In "The Tunnel under the World" (1955) an
artificial world exists only to test advertising pitches. In another
collaboration with Kornbluth, Gladiator-at-Law (1955), the stock market is
supreme, manipulated by corporations run by reclusive super-geriatrics. A
further notable Gal satire is "Cost of Living" (1952) by Robert SHECKLEY,
in which the middle class can maintain its standard of living only by
mortgaging the future income of its children. Satirical economic fantasies
are seen also in the work of Damon KNIGHT, whose HELL'S PAVEMENT (fixup
1955; vt Analogue Men) features consumption quotas in a future USA ruled
by commercial interests, and whose The People Maker (1957 as "A for
Anything"; exp 1959; rev vt A for Anything 1961 UK) explores the
socio-economic consequences of the invention of a matter-duplicator. The
latter makes an interesting contrast with two other stories on the same
theme: George O. SMITH's "Pandora's Millions" (1945), in which
civilization collapses as a result, and Ralph Williams' "Business As
Usual, During Alterations" (1958), in which it doesn't. The manipulation
of consumers in pursuit of economic stability is investigated also in more
impressionistic stories, including Rosel George BROWN's "Signs of the
Times" (1959) and J.G. BALLARD's "The Subliminal Man" (1963).Although the
satirical tradition has been carried forward by such novels as Pohl's solo
sequel to THE SPACE MERCHANTS, The Merchants' War (1984), the dominant
species of economic speculation in contemporary US sf is Libertarian
polemic, as seen in such novels as G.C. Edmondson's The Man who Corrupted
Earth (1980) and Ben BOVA's Privateers (1985), both of which imagine
entrepreneurs boldly taking charge of the conquest of space after
pusillanimous US governments have given up on it. The vulnerability of the
modern world to economic catastrophe is a minor theme in several sf
novels, including The Visitors (1980) by Clifford D. SIMAK, in which
generous aliens do the damage, and Wolf and Iron (1990) by Gordon R.
DICKSON, in which we have done it to ourselves. Stories of ecocatastrophe
( ECOLOGY) often include commentaries on the economic problems associated
with OVERPOPULATION and "underdevelopment"; The Sea and Summer (1987 vt
Drowning Towers) by George TURNER is a notable example. The evolving
economic problems of the Third World have also been brought into sharp
focus by Bruce STERLING in "Green Days in Brunei" (1985) and Islands in
the Net (1988). Now that communism seems on the wane, Libertarian polemics
will presumably become less strident and alarmist, and the problems
involved in the economic rescue of formerly communist nations may begin to
attract as much attention from those writers seriously interested in the
NEAR FUTURE as the problems of Third World poverty.A relevant anthology is
Tomorrow, Inc.: SF Stories about Big Business (anth 1976) ed Martin Harry


(1882-1945) UK civil servant, writer and scholar of Old Norse. His first
work of fiction and most considerable single work, The Worm Ouroboros
(1922), is an erudite HEROIC FANTASY written in archaic English; the
initial protagonist, Lessingham, is transported from Earth to a fantasy
MERCURY, where it will be his function to observe mighty conflicts,
heraldic battles and quests, and magical turns of plot, all destined to
recur forever, as the title implies. The Zimiamvian trilogy, whose
internal chronology reverses that of publication, is made up of The
Mezentian Gate (1958), posthumously assembled, A Fish Dinner in Memison
(1941 US) and Mistress of Mistresses: A Vision of Zimiamvia (1935). Beyond
the presence of Lessingham, who has become (like all the cast) an avatar
of the divine, the sequence's main connection with The Worm Ouroboros is
that it is set in the (Platonic) heaven of the earlier novel. The tales
are discursive, metaphysical, learned, linguistically adventurous and
engrossing. ERE's influence on the sf genre, as with writers like Lord
DUNSANY and J.R.R. TOLKIEN, lies mainly in the powerful example of his
language and the sustained "otherness" of his creation. [JC]Other works:
Styrbiorn the Strong (1926); Egil's Saga: Done into English Out of the
Icelandic with an Introduction, Notes, and an Essay on Some Principles of
Translation (trans 1930).About the author: "Superman in a Bowler: E.R.
Eddison" in Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy
(1976) by L. Sprague DE CAMP; "The Zimiamvian Trilogy" by Brian Attebery
in Survey of Modern Fantasy Literature (anth 1983) ed Frank Magill.See

Daedalus was the first inventor hero, but he was also a bureaucrat; and
when he built the labyrinth he did so as a wage-slave or sharecropper, on
hire to the king. For that reason this entry, which is about a US dream of
freelance heroism, cannot be spent defining the "daedalusade". As used
here the term "edisonade"-derived from Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) in
the same way that " ROBINSONADE" is derived from Robinson Crusoe - can be
understood to describe any story which features a young US male inventor
hero who uses his ingenuity to extricate himself from tight spots and who,
by so doing, saves himself from defeat and corruption and his friends and
nation from foreign oppressors. The invention by which he typically
accomplishes this feat is not, however, simply a WEAPON, though it will
almost certainly prove to be invincible against the foe and may also make
the hero's fortune; it is also a means of TRANSPORTATION - for the
edisonade is not only about saving the country (or planet) through
personal spunk and native wit, it is also about lighting out for the
Territory. Once the hero reaches that virgin Territory, he will find yet a
further use for his invention: it will serve as a certificate of
ownership. Magically, the barefoot boy with cheek of tan will discover
that he has been made CEO of a compliant world; for a single, revelatory
maxim can be discerned fueling the motor heart of the edisonade: the
conviction that to tinker with is to own.Daedalus could never, therefore,
have starred in an edisonade. Could Thomas Alva Edison himself have done
so? Why should we head this entry with his name, rather than that of
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), who inspired Weldon COBB's To Mars with Tesla
(1901), or Hiram Maxim (1840-1916), who inspired George GRIFFITH's The
Outlaws of the Air (1895)? It certainly might be claimed that Edison was
no more inventive than either of these figures; and he certainly worked
for hire. Edison's life and career, when examined, hardly add up to an
appropriate model for E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Richard Seaton, the inventor-hero
of the Skylark series, who seems almost definitively to embody the dream
we are attempting to describe. In his early years, true enough, Edison was
a practical professional, a tinkerer of genius, and the inventor (or
inspired improver) of a wide range of implements, most of them electrical,
from the phonograph to the lightbulb. But, beginning in the 1880s, he
transformed himself into an advertiser of genius whose main subject was
himself, and from this point the mythopoeic power of the Edison name
outstripped that of his rivals, no mean publicists themselves. For nearly
half a century, the senatorial Sage of Menlo Park waxed ever greater in
the public imagination, writing articles, making speeches, chairing
commissions, granting oracular interviews whose subject was, very
frequently, weapons he claimed to be about to unveil which would make the
USA utterly invincible and war impossible. From 1890 he claimed more than
once - or those whom he may have hired to ghost some of his articles
claimed - that he had invented devices of war which did not, in fact,
exist outside his imagination, or which had been created by others
(perhaps his employees). It may be of interest to note that the language
in which these claims were made bore a strong resemblance to the urgent
telegraphese Mark TWAIN fell into whenever he was expounding a technical
notion; much of A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court (1889) is so
couched, and the resemblance between the Boss protagonist of that novel
and the self-image of Edison expressed in his writings is most striking.
In his later years Edison was, in short, something of a fraud; he may have
served as a model when L. Frank BAUM was creating the Wizard of Oz. But
this, one might argue, could be precisely the point. It might be relevant
to note that not only are edisonades dreams which come true for the
protagonist but they also embody the shaping fantasies of that
protagonist, who is not in the end as innocent as he seems. Like Edison
himself, the hero of the edisonade is at some level, conscious or
unconscious, an impostor or confidence-man.The first proto-edisonade was
probably the first dime novel ( DIME-NOVEL SF) to feature a boy inventor,
Edward S. ELLIS's The Steam Man of the Prairies (1868), and the first
edisonade proper was the Tom Edison, Jr. sequence of dime novels (1891-2)
by Philip READE. Young orphan Tom (ostensibly unrelated to Thomas Alva)
responds to the challenge of his enemies by inventing a succession of ever
more impressive devices, most of which double as weapons and forms of
self-propelling transport. In these and other similar tales, the presence
of the US frontier as a barrier to be penetrated is nearly always evident,
though sometimes only subliminally; and the topological similarity between
penetrating a frontier and penetrating knowledge through CONCEPTUAL
BREAKTHROUGH is nowhere more clearly expressed than in the boys'
edisonades written at a time when the USA's literal frontiers were only
just snapping shut.Oddly enough, however, the first adult novel to make
use of Edison was not by a US author at all. VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM's
L'Eve future (1886; trans as The Eve of the Future 1981 US; new trans as
Tomorrow's Eve 1982 US) introduces a character, Thomas Alva Edison, who
rescues a handsome young lord from despair at his fiancee's crassness by
providing an impeccable ANDROID duplicate. It may be that Edison the
"electrician" was given so significant a role in this tale because
electricity itself had an almost occult significance for late-19th-century
romantics like Villiers, who in a sense created a decadent version of the
edisonade before any adult edisonades had in fact been written. The first
adult US example did not, in fact, appear for over a decade. It was not
until the newspaper publication of Garrett P. SERVISS's Edison's Conquest
of Mars (1898 The New York Journal; 1947), a tale of quite extraordinary
thematic clarity, that the native edisonade took on its mature shape - in
complete ignorance of Villiers' oblique use of the fabulous inventor.
Written as a direct - and consciously US - response to the defeatist
implications of H.G. WELLS's THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898), the tale
depicts Edison himself inventing weapons of great power in an unfettered
and spunky response to the continuing threat from the external enemies.
Armed with a disintegrating weapon and ANTIGRAVITY, and accompanied by
most of the world's best SCIENTISTS, Thomas Alva heads to Mars, where he
commits triumphant genocide before granting the survivors colonial status.
It should be noted that Edison's inventions and his conquest of Mars are
both consequences of the actions of others: he and the USA he represents
are innocents; they are forced to respond to a wicked world with the
Trickster effrontery of their native genius; and afterwards they are
forced to become owners of what their genius has conquered.Between Serviss
and E.E. Smith, many edisonades repeated the basic story in plots which
often represented a US version of the European future- WAR novel. Three
can stand as examples. In J.S. BARNEY's L.P.M.: The End of the Great War
(1915) a US scientist called Edestone invents enough weapons to defeat the
corrupt and aggressive nations of Europe, and to establish a world
government; in J.U. GIESY's All for His Country (1915) a young US
inventor's gravity-defying airplane is sufficient to defeat Japanese
aggressors; and in Cleveland Langston MOFFETT's The Conquest of America
(1916) Edison himself reappears as a repository of anti-socialist US
virtue and the creator of an invention sufficient to see off the
aggressive Germans. In all cases, the aggression is from without; the
weapons are invented by a free spirit who is not on hire to a corrupt
government; and in the end the world is passed into the ownership of
innocent Americans who had wished only to be left alone to enjoy their
virgin paradise.This basic story has been an essential shaper of US
realpolitik for more than a century, and its manifestations are far
broader than those encompassed by the relatively simple edisonade, whose
precarious concentration on a tangibly implausible model hero seemed to
guarantee its early death as a literary form, though the most famous
juvenile edisonade sequence of al - the Tom Swift stories, extending
through four series from 1910 into the 1990s - demonstrates how
long-lasting and evocative the model has been. But the 43 Doctor Hackensaw
stories (1921-5) by Clement FEZANDIE, though amusingly varied in their
presentation of the Doctor's scientific feats, seemed more an epilogue
than a way forward. As a form suitable for adult reading, the seemingly
moribund edisonade was saved by SPACE OPERA. E.E. Smith's Skylark sequence
gave Edison the Galaxy as playground and estate, provided an infinity of
frontiers to penetrate, territories to stumble into and to claim, and
entrepreneurial empires to build in all innocence. The Smithian edisonade
remains central to entertainment space opera to this day.It might seem,
however, that GENRE SF as a whole outgrew the edisonade by about 1940,
when John W. CAMPBELL Jr's GOLDEN AGE OF SF was at its height, and for a
few years at least it looked as though hillbilly Tricksters with the Touch
had become comic turns whose proper place was in the less serious pages of
Unknown and in the light-fingered grasp of such writers as L. Sprague DE
CAMP. But a glance at the central male role model promulgated by the core
authors of the Golden Age might disabuse readers of this assumption, for
the Competent Man is Thomas Alva Edison in sheep's clothing, disguised
mainly by his genuine proficiency (because writers like Robert A. HEINLEIN
were the first sf authors able actually to convey the feel and describe
the process of Higher Tinkering) and by his ability to explain himself.
But, in being able to explain himself, the Competent Man of the 1940s, as
created by Heinlein and his followers, soon began to advocate his line of
thought; as soon as this happened, innocence fled.For, the moment the
frank lad of the primitive edisonade begins to have to justify himself,
Huck Finn the Trickster becomes a flim-flam man or, even worse, a prophet.
L. Ron HUBBARD's Church of Scientology is in truth the Church of Edison.
The overbearing protagonist of Heinlein's later novels is in truth the
Sage of Menlo Park after one too many interviews. Only the unexamined
edisonade is worth reading. Once looked at with an eye to the main chance,
it turns sour, self-serving and entrepreneurial, and we find ourselves in
the land of some HARD-SF writers of the 1980s, whose protagonists are
never poor, and never lose, and never give; nor would it perhaps be
stretching the term too far to find in the ruthless protagonists of much
SURVIVALIST FICTION ghostly and solipsistic echoes of the edisonades of a
more innocent time - when the hero did not have to understand the
consequences of his triumphs. Much worse than a Thomas Alva Edison who
doesn't know the score is a Thomas Alva Edison who does. [JC]Further
reading: War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination (1988) by

(1891-1989) UK writer of several adventure novels and of some NEAR-FUTURE
sf novels, beginning with The North Sea Mystery (1930), which features
land-launched torpedoes which threaten to sink the entire Royal Navy. In
The Riddle of the Straits (1931), a WAR story set in 1935, the UK and
Japan find themselves pitted against the USSR and the USA; a Channel
Tunnel saves the UK from embargo. In Red Invader (1933), Russia and
Germany are once again involved, this time in intrigues against the UK. In
The Professor's Last Experiment (1935; rev vt The Secret Voyage 1946) a
vast war is halted when the protagonist broadcasts a "radiation" wave
which stops all the engines of conflict. After WWII, HE continued in the
same vein with The Clockmaker of Heidelberg (1949), featuring a new form
of submarine propulsion, as well as a neo-Nazi germ-warfare plot centred
in Brazil. A sequel, The Rockets (Operation Manhattan) (1951), hints at
the violent end of all civilization. [JC]Other works: Wind in the East
(1933); The Death Ship, or The Tragedy of the "Valmiera" as Related by
Chief Officer James Stanley (1933).

[s] Henry KUTTNER.

Working name of Mexican-born US writer and translator Jose Mario Garry
Ordonez Edmondson y Cotton (1922- ) for all his writing except his
Westerns, which are as by Kelly P. Gast, J.B. Masterson and Jake Logan. He
published his first sf, "Blessed are the Meek", in ASF in 1955, and was
active in the magazines for the next decade, particularly in FSF, where
his Mad Friend stories appeared. Assembled as Stranger than You Think
(coll of linked stories 1965 chap dos), they describe the effects their
narrator's mad friend manages to elicit from the world about him, and his
explanations thereof. GCE's first novel, The Ship that Sailed the Time
Stream (1965 dos; rev 1978) and its sequel, To Sail the Century Sea
(1981), are amusingly and graphically told FANTASTIC-VOYAGE tales
involving a US ship and its inadvertent TIME TRAVELS. They remain his most
successful books.Chapayeca (1971; vt Blue Face 1972), set in Mexico, and
T.H.E.M. (1974), are both fluently written but less exhilarating to read.
More impressively, The Aluminum Man (1975) confronts some Native Americans
- depicted with great sympathy, as always in GCE's work - with a
crash-landed ALIEN looking for fuel. The Man who Corrupted Earth (1980)
fails to carry over the complex cynicism of Mark TWAIN's "The Man that
Corrupted Hadleyburg" but is in its own right an amusing presentation of
the notion that free enterprise can conquer space when governments falter
at the task ( ECONOMICS; LIBERTARIANISM). After writing a paranoid
singleton, The Takeover (1984) with C.M. Kotlan, in which Russians briefly
conquer the USA through nuclear blackmail, GCE produced, also with Kotlan,
a complex sf sequence - The Cunningham Equations (1986), The Black
Magician (1986) and Maximum Effort (1987). The entangled thriller
conventions dominant in this trilogy feverishly pit genetic
transformations of the human species against the dubious intercession of
AIs in the long process of growth, amid constant references to Yaqui
Indian culture. The mix is perhaps too rich for coherence. In the end, it
is his constant engagement with the region and the people of his early
years that lifts GCE's work above routine entertainment. [JC]Other works:
#12 in the Spaceways sequence: Star Slaver (1982) as John CLEVE (with

[s] Harlan ELLISON.


The Futurians, a group of writers who grew up during the Depression, were
mostly poor and few of them went to college. In fact, many SF writers have
been self-educated.Frederik Pohl, who never attended college, enjoyed a
career as both an editor and an authority on numerous subjects. In fact,
he wrote the entry on the Roman Emperor Tiberius for the Encyclopedia
Britannica.Jack Dann, as a young writer n the 1970s, appeared more
impressive as an SF writer than as a potential student. He was turned down
for Cornell's summer school program but ended up teaching there
instead.Most publishing companies don't hire non-college graduates for
their editorial positions. But Tor Books, one of SF's biggest publishers,
has as one of its Senior Editors Patrick Nielsen Hayden, a high-school

(?1945 - ) US writer whose Next Stop - Mars! (1960) sends another first
space flight to that planet; the stories assembled in Dreams, Tales, &
Lullabies: Stories from my Grandfather's House (coll 1985) are
unremarkable. [JC]

[s] William F. NOLAN.


(1949- ) UK editor and critic, educated at Cambridge, where he graduated
in anthropology. Long active in UK sf FANDOM, he edited the BRITISH
SCIENCE FICTION ASSOCIATION journal VECTOR 1972-4, worked as sf editor for
GOLLANCZ 1976-7, and was administrator of the SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION
1978-80 and editor of its journal FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE
FICTION #13-#19; he was a contributing editor to the first (1979) edition
of this encyclopedia. He was one of the two principal members of the board
which founded and for some time edited INTERZONE; though he became less
active after the fourth issue, he remains an Advisory Editor.
Constellations (anth 1980) assembled juvenile sf; Gollancz/Sunday Times SF
Competition Stories (anth 1985), which he edited anonymously, assembled
the best material from that competition. In the early 1980s he returned to
Gollancz, whose sf list he improved and where he rose rapidly in
influence, becoming Publishing Director. He left Gollancz in 1989 to join
Grafton Books, a division of HarperCollins, of which he remains Publishing
Director, Trade Fiction, responsible among other things for the sf/fantasy
list. MJE was President of WORLD SF in 1990-1991.In the late 1970s MJE
began work, always in collaboration, on the text of a series of books -
mostly picture-books - about sf and fantasy. With Robert P. HOLDSTOCK he
produced a series of sf and fantasy coffee-table books with fairly brief
texts: Alien Landscapes (1979), Tour of the Universe: The Journey of a
Lifetime - The Recorded Diaries of Leio Scott and Caroline Luranski
(1980), Magician: The Lost Journals of the Magus Geoffrey Carlyle (1982),
Realms of Fantasy (1983) and Lost Realms (1985). None of these could be
taken very seriously, though the first has interesting artwork. Another
collaborative illustrated book was Spacecraft in Fact and Fiction (1979)
with Harry HARRISON. MJE's most interesting book, a collaboration with
Maxim JAKUBOWSKI and this time not a picture-book, is The Complete Book of
Science Fiction and Fantasy Lists (1983; rev vt The SF Book of Lists 1983
US), compiled for the trivia buff and often very funny, but also
containing - if the reader can cope with the absence of an index - a great
deal of solid information about sf not easily found elsewhere. [PN]See

Collaborative pseudonym of Terry CARR and Ted WHITE, used on one minor
novel, Invasion from 2500 (1964). [JC]

(1946- ) UK writer and civil servant whose sf novel, Terminus (1976),
rather ponderously sets in motion a political conflict in a 22nd-century,
post- HOLOCAUST Eurafrica which a sado-masochist secret society is
attempting to dominate. The hero's discovery of an ancient city on MARS
confuses all issues. [JC]

(1947- ) US writer long resident in New Orleans. He entered sf writing
via the 1970 CLARION SCIENCE FICTION WRITER'S WORKSHOP, having 3 stories
in the workshop's first anthology, Clarion (anth 1971), ed Robin Scott
WILSON. His first published story was "The Eight-Thirty to Nine Slot" for
Fantastic in 1971. Some early work was written as by John K. Diomede or
Susan Doenim. Within a very short time GAE established himself as a writer
of stylish, surrealistic sf stories, becoming a regular contributor to
such series anthologies as ORBIT, NEW DIMENSIONS and UNIVERSE as well as
the major magazines; and, despite a steady production of novels, he was
for at least a decade most admired for this work, much of which was
assembled in Mixed Feelings (coll 1974), Irrational Numbers (coll 1976),
Dirty Tricks (coll 1978), Idle Pleasures (coll 1983) and The Old Funny
Stuff (coll 1989); "Schrodinger's Kitten" (1988), not yet collected, won
both HUGO and NEBULA for Best Novelette.At the same time, What Entropy
Means to Me (1972), GAE's first novel, did gain praise from Theodore
STURGEON and Robert SILVERBERG among others, and was nominated for a
Nebula. It is an elaborate, multi-layered work, combining elements of
SPACE OPERA, family romance and quest fable within a self-referential
discourse about the impulsions and restraints of creation. Relatives
(fixup 1973), less well received, fails to unify its disparate parts,
which tell of one man in three PARALLEL WORLDS. Nightmare Blue (1975) with
Gardner DOZOIS and Those Gentle Voices: A Promethean Romance of the
Spaceways (1976) were dithering attempts to disguise a lack of creative
impetus through demonstrations of professional skill. For some time, it
seemed that he would always remain a better short-story writer than
novelist, the knowledgeable, witty master of a sly tone and unlikely
subject matter, with a particular interest in various kinds of games (
GAMES AND SPORTS), but failing to fulfil his promise. His very
considerable capacity to dazzle - and an adroit use of parallel-world
conventions, with characters dodging into changed identities with
frivolous inevitability - led undoubtedly to a body of work unduly packed
with exercises."Many of my stories interlock," he once said, "and some day
I will figure out a kind of chronology and key to the business." Perhaps
fortunately, he has never published anything of the sort, and the wise
absurdities ( FABULATION) of his best work have never been tampered with.
After two moderately successful novels - Death in Florence (1978; vt
Utopia 3 1980) and Heroics (1979) - he began the 1980s with the darkly
DYSTOPIAN The Wolves of Memory (1981), whose surreal mise-en-scene
effortlessly draws the book's brooding hero into the depths. In the
self-referential dance of motif and character of The Nick of Time (1985)
and its sequel, The Bird of Time (1986), he at last successfully
manifested at novel length his long-felt need to present TIME TRAVEL as a
form of play. Appalling ill health and other disasters severely afflicted
him during these years, but When Gravity Fails (1987), A Fire in the Sun
(1989) and The Exile Kiss (1991), the first three books of the Marid
Audran sequence, are perhaps his most successful books to date. In these
novels, the technological and electronic complexities of the 21st-century
Middle East are fully as dazzling as the dervish of alternating realities
so dominant in GAE's previous work. In attempting to flourish in this
CYBERPUNK hive, the protagonist of the series becomes an
Everyman-survivor, an example for those of GAE's readers who expect
someday to live there. A career that seemed underachieving has become one
of major interest. [JC/DP]Other works: Novelizations of scripts from the
tv series PLANET OF THE APES: Man the Fugitive * (1974), Escape to
Tomorrow * (1975), Journey into Terror * (1975) and Lord of the Apes *
(1976); Felicia (1976) and Shadow Money (1988), both non-genre; Look Away
(1990 chap); The Zork Chronicles * (1990), humorous novelization of a
fantasy game; The Red Tape War: A Round-Robin Science Fiction Novel (1991)
with Jack L. CHALKER and Michael D. RESNICK; Maureen Birnbaum, Barbarian
Swordsperson: The Complete Stories (coll 1993).See also: DISASTER;

[r] Ivan Antonovich YEFREMOV.

(? - ) US writer in whose Ivory sequence - comprising TheGate of Ivory
(1989), Two-BitHeroes (1992) and Guilt-Edged Ivory(1992) - various
quasi-independent stories,some of them fantasy, take placein the PLANETARY
ROMANCE setting provided by the planet Ivory. [JC]

(1961- ) Australian writer who began publishing work of genre interest
with his first novel, An Unusual Angle (1983), a fantasy, and whose first
short stories were also fantasy. From the mid-1980s, however, he has
increasingly concentrated on sharply written sf with an emphasis on
BIOLOGY and CYBERNETICS, assembled in 2 collections, Axiomatic (coll 1995
UK) and Our Lady of Chernobyl (coll 1995); the best of them - tales like
"The Caress" (1990) and "Learning to Be Me" (1990) - raised considerable
expectations for his first sf novel, Quarantine (1992 UK), which
effectively, and literally, encapsules a near-future private-eye plot, of
the sort familiar to readers of CYPERPUNK, within a solar system enclosed
by a vast enigmatic Bubble. The unfoldings of the plot, and of its
implications about human identity in a world (or worlds) controllable at
the quantum level through COMPUTER-augmented brain functions, is extremely
intricate; this multifacetedness also marks Permutation City (1994 UK),
which searchingly examines the implications - in terms involving
mathematics, computer science and cosmology - behind the construction of
binding VIRTUAL REALITIES. GE has become a dauntingly successful
investigator of the new worlds-microscopic and macrocosmic - with which sf
increasingly finds itself required to deal. [JC]See also: INTERZONE.

(? - ) US writer whose sf novel, The Perseus Breed (1988), features the
mysterious disappearance of certain women over a number of years. [JC]


(1960- ) US illustrator who has worked in the sf field since 1984 when he
did his first book cover, for BAEN BOOKS. He has worked for a number of
publishers since then. For his paintings he normally uses acrylic. He has
quite a wide range - fantasy and horror as well as sf - but is especially
known for his space and spaceship paintings, which are at once
interestingly detailed and sweepingly romantic. His popularity has been
growing since the late 1980s, and he has received several nominations for
the Best Professional Artist category of the HUGO AWARDS (beginning in
1988); he won his first Hugo in 1994. He is one of a number of artists now
publishing electronically. Event Horizons (1994) is a disk containing 22
images by BE. [PN]

(1927- ) UK soldier and writer who began to publish novels with the
Garnett sequence - A Piece of Resistance (1970), Last Post for a Partisan
(1971) and The Judas Mandate (1972) - about UK post-nuclear- HOLOCAUST
resistance to the Russians who occupy the islands; in the end, a
government-in-exile is formed and the invaders, drained by a China war,
retreat. State Visit (1976) is about the assassination of the Queen in
order to prevent German reunification. CE specializes in spy thrillers.


(1909-1983) US writer initially active as an author of RADIO plays for
various series, including The Shadow. His first novel, The Big Eye (1949),
which was the first release in DOUBLEDAY's sf line, concerns an attempt by
astronomers to terrify humanity into world peace by announcing that a
visiting planet is due to hit Earth; the planet misses narrowly. The Edict
(1971) is based on ME's own screenplay for the film Z.P.G. and deals with
an embargo on births. The Reincarnation of Peter Proud (1974), filmed in
1974 to his own screenplay, is a quest novel whose protagonist attempts to
track down information about his former self, the murder of whom recurs in
his dreams; his adventures continue in Reincarnation in Venice (1979; vt
The Bond 1980 UK). ME was a proficient writer who tended to use sf
protocols as much to alarm as to illuminate. [JC]Other works: Dead is the
Blue (1964), a borderline-sf nuclear-submarine story; The Savage is Loose
* (1974), for which film (1974; dir George C. Scott) he also wrote the
screenplay; Shaitan (1981), fantasy.


Australian SEMIPROZINE, published from North Perth, Western Australia, by
Eidolon Publications, quarterly (but later somewhat irregular) from #1,
Autumn 1990 (published in May 1990), current, 16 issues to early 1995, ed
Jeremy G. Byrne, Keira McKenzie, Robin Pen, Richard Scriven, Jonathan
Strahan, Chris Stronach to #6 (Oct 1991), thereafter only Byrne, Scriven
and Strahan.This elegant, A5 desk-top published perfect-bound magazine has
the appearance of an academic critical journal, but in fact publishes
mainly sf/fantasy fiction, with some articles and reviews. It is available
through subscription rather than from newsstands. E has had surprising
success, with fiction on the whole superior to that of its east-coast
rival, AUREALIS, and won a 1991 Ditmar ( AWARDS) for Best
Fanzine/Semiprozine. It has published stories by Harlan ELLISON, George
TURNER, Terry DOWLING, Greg EGAN, Leanne Frahm, Rosaleen LOVE, Philippa
Maddern and Sean MCMULLEN, among others. [PN]

(1926- ) US writer who published his first sf story, "Tunnel 1971", in
Saturn in 1957. His NEAR-FUTURE novel The Day New York Went Dry (1964)
depicts a water shortage in that city which comes to a crisis in the
drought of 1967. A hurricane then saves the city and its politicians. [JC]

(1919- ) US writer and for many years Co-Director of the Electronics
Laboratory at Rockefeller University. He began publishing sf with "The
Mynah Matter" as Lawrence Eisenberg for Fantastic Stories in 1962, and
became known for his comic sequence of stories about Emmett Duckworth;
many of these were assembled in his only collection, The Best Laid Schemes
(coll 1971). As an inventor whose devices crucially misfire, Duckworth
might seem a cheap target, but LE presents his recurring disasters with
winning sympathy. The stories describing the relationship of humans to the
ALIEN Sentients were very much darker in import, though never
unrelentingly so. After the beginning of the 1980s, LE became relatively
inactive. [JC]

(1945- ) US writer whose work has been exclusively in collaboration with
his wife, Phyllis EISENSTEIN, beginning with "The Trouble with the Past"
for New Dimensions 1 (anth 1971) ed Robert SILVERBERG; although only about
5 stories are bylined with both names, their collaborative efforts extend
throughout her work. [JC]

(1946- ) US writer, whose first sf was "The Trouble with the Past"
(1971), written in collaboration with her husband, Alex EISENSTEIN, in New
Dimensions 1 (anth 1971) ed Robert SILVERBERG. She and her husband have
written other stories together, and he is influential also on work signed
only by PE. Her first novel, Born to Exile (1971-4 FSF; fixup 1978), is a
deft, romantic, episodic fantasy about a witch minstrel who can teleport.
There followed perhaps her best work, Sorcerer's Son (1979), also fantasy,
an oedipal quest involving magical apprenticeship. Her next two books were
sf romances, Shadow of Earth (1979) and In the Hands of Glory (1981). The
former is a racy ALTERNATE-WORLD story in which the heroine has to cope
with the male chauvinism of a US Midwest belonging to a world in which the
Spanish Armada won. PE's praiseworthy narrative facility in this
productive period may have left her other capacities as a writer somewhat
unstretched. She slowed down, for a time publishing only short fiction and
in no great quantity, then returned seven years later with two fantasy
sequels: The Crystal Palace (1988), sequel to Sorcerer's Son, and In the
Red Lord's Reach (1989), sequel to Born to Exile. Both were marked by a
change of pace to something almost languid, more reflective and metaphoric
than before, with some gain and some loss. [PN]See also: MAGIC.



(1945- ) US writer, born in Seattle, where he now lives. He published his
first sf, "Dear Aunt Annie", a NEBULA nominee, with Fantastic in 1970. In
the early and productive years of his career he published dozens of
stories in sf magazines (none have been collected), writing as Wendell
Stewart once; until his work as E.E. SMITH (see below), he published all
his books under his own name. His work was initially various though
uneven. Both his first novel, The Eclipse of Dawn (1971), and his fourth
and best solo effort, All Times Possible (1974), anatomize with
pessimistic force the US political landscape and share an interest in the
psychology and tactics of leadership. The sf elements in the first -
mainly some intrusive ALIENS - tend to jar, but the PARALLEL-WORLDS
structure of All Times Possible intensifies and darkens the picture of
political realities at work through the second quarter of the 20th
century. Although a sometimes careless writing style and a tendency to
prolixity mar these books, they are still significant contributions to the
theme of POLITICS in sf. A Trace of Dreams (1972) is also a novel of some
weight, but some other modestly exploratory works are comparatively
commonplace: Inheritors of Earth (1951 Future Combined with Science
Fiction Stories as "Incomplete Superman"; exp 1974), with Poul ANDERSON,
stumblingly expands the latter's original story; Beyond the Resurrection
(1973) and The Grayspace Beast (1976) lack the eloquence necessary to give
full life to the concepts they present.GE collaborated with Gregory
BENFORD (whom see for details) on the series of stories which eventually
became If the Stars Are Gods (fixup 1977), the title story of which, in
its original form, won a 1974 Nebula for Best Novelette; it is GE's most
sustained work (and one of Benford's finest as well). Find the Changeling
(1980), also with Benford, less impressively recounts the hunt on a
colony-world for a shape-changing alien. Subsequent novels show a
lessening of energy. The Lord Tedric series of SPACE OPERAS is not
remarkably successful. The first volume, Lord Tedric (1954 Universe
Science Fiction; exp 1978) - was expanded from an original story by E.E.
"Doc" Smith and was published as a collaboration, though GE was not
credited in the UK edition; Space Pirates (1979) and Black Knight of the
Iron Sphere (1979; vt The Black Knight of the Iron Sphere 1979 UK), both
entirely by GE, were published as collaborations in the USA and as by
Smith alone in the UK; the final volume, Alien Realms (1980), appeared
under the Smith name in both countries. After The Garden of Winter (1980)
GE fell silent for some years, returning to the scene with a juvenile, A
Thunder on Neptune (1989). [JC]Other works: Serving in Time (1975 Canada);
Falling toward Forever (1975 Canada); Dance of the Apocalypse (1976
Canada); two Star Trek ties, The Starless World * (1978) and Devil World *
(1979); The Twilight River (1979 dos).See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS; GODS AND

(1931- ) Scottish actor and writer in various genres, some of whose
earlier novels, written in the 1950s, deal with theatrical themes. He
began writing sf with Paradise is Not Enough (1970) for ROBERT HALE
LIMITED, and thereafter produced a number of fairly routine adventures for
that firm. Most notable are the Barclay SPACE-OPERA adventures involving
COLONIZATION and its perils: Nowhere On Earth (1972), which also deals
with problems of OVERPOPULATION, and its sequels The Perfumed Planet
(1973; vt Flight to Terror 1973 US), Down to Earth (1973), The Seeds of
Frenzy (1974) and The Island of the Dead (1975). His other connected books
are Mindslip (1976) and its sequel Mindquest (1978) and Oil-Seeker (1977)
and its sequel Oil-Planet (1978). ME's ambitions do not generally extend
beyond entertainment, though a dour DYSTOPIAN bent of thought is sometimes
allowed to surface. [JC]Other works: The Alien Earth (1971); The
Everlasting Man (1972); A Different World (1974); Centaurian Quest (1975);
Double Time (1976).

Collaborative pseudonym used by Australian writers and critics Marjorie
Faith Barnard (1897-1987) and Flora Sydney Patricia Eldershaw (1897-1956)
for four well regarded mainstream novels 1929-37; nearly all the writing
was done by Barnard - who had published a solo book as early as 1920 -
with Eldershaw being the critical editorial eye. A fifth novel, also
published as by MBE and the most distinguished work under this pseudonym,
was by Barnard alone: Tomorrow and Tomorrow (cut 1947; text restored vt
Tomorrow and Tomorrow and Tomorrow 1983 UK) is a political novel whose
framing story is set in the 24th century, where a historical novelist
living in the Tenth Commune (once the Riverina) has written a book about
Australia from 1924 to c1950, the years of Depression and WWII. The novel
within a novel, entitled Little World Left Behind, is a striking picture
of an Australia well known to Barnard, seen as if from a future
perspective. As she had finished writing the book by 1944, the later
events of WWII and its supposed aftermath - including the burning of
Sydney by its anguished inhabitants - are pure sf, as is the future in
which the novelist lives, a blighted, indifferent UTOPIA. Indeed the whole
novel is very sophisticated, very unusual sf, part of whose subject is the
elusiveness of HISTORY and its relation to fiction.The book's publisher,
unknown to Barnard, submitted it before publication to the censor, who saw
it as politically subversive and therefore mutilated the latter part, thus
bearing witness to the same repressive forces that give the novel its
theme; later editions have the text restored. [PN]See also: AUSTRALIA.

(1888-1982) US languages teacher and writer, best known for the
sf-fantasy trilogy he wrote with George S. VIERECK (whom see for details):
My First Two Thousand Years: The Autobiography of the Wandering Jew
(1928), Salome: The Wandering Jewess (1930; cut vt Salome: 2000 Years of
Love 1954) and The Invincible Adam (1932). Prince Pax (1933 UK), also with
Viereck, provides an idealistic RURITANIAN king with a high-tech WEAPON:
world peace, on his terms, ensues. [JC]See also: ADAM AND EVE;

(? - ) UK writer whose first sf book was a juvenile, The Shadow of the
Gloom-World (1977). His second, The Fishers of Darksea (1982), is an
ambitious adult tale set in an Eskimo culture with a tradition of
shamanism; the visions endured by the protagonist are ironically revealed
to be merely circumstantial, for the tribe has been genetically adapted to
handle radioactive ore, and the MONSTERS seen in shamanic trance are
merely human overseers, suitably shielded. [JC]



Working name of US poet, author and teacher Patricia Anne Suzette Wilkins
Elgin (1936- ) for her sf. She combines writing with a professional
specialization in LINGUISTICS, having a PhD in linguistics from the
University of California, San Diego; she was a professor of linguistics at
San Diego State University 1972-80, now emeritus, and has published widely
in her specialist field. Her sf began in 1969 with "For the Sake of Grace"
in FSF, which was incorporated into At the Seventh Level (1972), part of
an ongoing series featuring the interstellar adventures of Trigalactic
Intelligence Service agent Coyote Jones; with The Communipaths (1970 dos)
and Furthest (1971), it was assembled as Communipath Worlds (omni 1980).
Further titles, Star-Anchored, Star-Angered (1979) and Yonder Comes the
Other End of Time (1986), did little to lessen the somewhat distressing
discrepancy between the ramshackleness of the Coyote Jones plots and the
terse eloquence of their descriptions of the meaning-systems of and
COMMUNICATION with alien cultures, in which the condition of women
(particularly in Furthest) is described with sufficient point that the
books are used as FEMINIST texts.A second series, the Ozark trilogy -
Twelve Fair Kingdoms (1981), The Grand Jubilee (1981) and And then
There'll be Fireworks (1981), assembled as The Ozark Trilogy (omni 1982) -
cannot be said to solve her inability to find plots of a sufficient
knottiness to hold her attention (the young heroine of the series, whose
magic secretly rules the planet Ozark, is in a coma for much of the final
volume); but SHE's linguistic inventiveness, and her light-hearted
detailing of the magic-based Ozark culture, give the books a charm they do
not convey in synopsis. (Yonder Comes the Other End of Time is also set in
this milieu.) Far more interesting, though still fumblingly plotted, is
SHE's third series, the Native Tongue trilogy, comprising Native Tongue
(1984), The Judas Rose (1987) and Earthsong (1994), which is based on a
lame initial premise - a 1991 Amendment to the US Constitution declares
women inferior to men on the basis of "scientific" evidence - which fails
to significantly hamstring the heart of the book: tightly narrated tales
of the creation of a "womanlanguage" for self-protection (though the
tongue itself is only fleetingly presented). The caricatured
unpleasantness of almost all men, which both heightens and trivializes the
first volume, becomes less significant in the second; superior ALIENS have
arrived, and the fragile carapace of male superiority gets short shrift;
and in the third volume, women are forced by an alien quarantine - Earth
has been sealed off because the human species is so violent - to work out
an end to the "hunger" which leads to typical male behaviour. But the
pleasures and lessons of SHE's texts continue to lie more in texture than
in premise.In 1978, SHE founded the SCIENCE FICTION POETRY ASSOCIATION.
[JC]See also: POETRY.


Film (1986). Altar/Empire. Prod Charles BAND. Dir Peter Manoogian,
starring Andrew Prine, Denise Crosby, Patrick Reynolds, Conan Lee, Roy
Dotrice. Screenplay Paul DeMeo, Danny Bilson. 96 mins, cut to 91 mins.
Colour.Enjoyable exploitation frolic whose plot defies precis, but
involves a mad SCIENTIST (he wants to be a Roman emperor) in the jungle
with a TIME MACHINE, the weary CYBORG Mandroid (his unhappy creation), the
tough heroine Colonel Nora, the ROBOT SPOT (a dead ringer for R2D2), the
martial artist Kuji, riverboats, prehistoric humans and a FORCE FIELD.
Screenwriters Bilson and DeMeo also wrote producer Band's two best films,
TRANCERS (1984) and ZONE TROOPERS (1985). [PN]

Pseudonym of UK writer Reginald Alec Martin (1900- ), whose Kemlo
sequence of CHILDREN'S SF novels had a powerful emotional impact on many
of their youthful UK readers, shaping the thoughts towards sf of an entire
generation of them. The sequence is: Kemlo and the Crazy Planet (1954),
Kemlo and the Zones of Silence (1954), Kemlo and the Sky Horse (1954),
Kemlo and the Martian Ghosts (1954), Kemlo and the Craters of the Moon
(1955), Kemlo and the Space Lanes (1955), Kemlo and the Star Men (1955),
Kemlo and the Gravity Rays (1956), Kemlo and the Purple Dawn (1957), Kemlo
and the End of Time (1957), Kemlo and the Zombie Men (1958), Kemlo and the
Space Men (1959), Kemlo and the Satellite Builders (1960), Kemlo and the
Space Invaders (1961) and Kemlo and the Masters of Space (1963). Kemlo and
his friends, living with their parents in SPACE HABITATS, are young
adolescents of the first generation to be born in space, and can therefore
breathe vacuum. Despite this implausibility, the tales of the children's
adventures are surprisingly enjoyable for their type and vintage - the
space-station settings, with families and above all children routinely Up
There, were innovative (at least in children's sf); the characters seemed
real, rather than being grim-jawed adult male heroes or indestructible
precocious superbrats; and the books as a whole compare favourably with
those being produced at about the same time by, for example, Captain W.E.
JOHNS. A second, much shorter series, the Tas books, stopped after Tas and
the Space Machine (1955) and Tas and the Postal Rocket (1955). [JC/DRL]See



[s] Basil WELLS.

[r] E.E. SMITH.

(1938-1968) US computer programmer, author and well known sf fan,
co-editor with Terry CARR of a HUGO-winning FANZINE, FANAC (1958-61). RE
was co-author of The Universes of E.E. Smith (1966) with Bill EVANS (whom
see for details). Under the joint pseudonym Fredric Davies he wrote with
Steve Tolliver The Man From U.N.C.L.E. #14: The Cross of Gold Affair *
(1968). RE died in a car accident the day before he was to have been
married. [PN]

(1947- ) US academic-professor of political science at North Carolina
Central University - and writer who has published prolifically in several
areas. Much of his work in sf has been in collaboration with Robert
REGINALD, including the second version of Reginald's The Attempted
Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1977 chap) as by Lucas Webb, which JME
helped to revise into a format designed to be used in teaching, retitling
it If J.F.K. Had Lived: A Political Scenario (exp 1978 chap). Also with
Reginald (the latter as Michael Burgess) JME compiled The Work of R.
Reginald: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1985 chap). Other
BIBLIOGRAPHIES include The Work of George Zebrowski: An Annotated
Bibliography & Guide (1986 chap; exp 1990) with Reginald, The Work of Jack
Dann: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1990) and The Work of Pamela
Sargent: An Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1990 chap). JME also ed
Starclimber: The Literary Adventures and Autobiography of Raymond Z.
Gallun (1991), and collaborated in Adventures of a Freelancer: The
Literary Exploits and Autobiography of Stanton A.Coblentz (1993).
[JC]Other works: A sequence of interview books comprising Science Fiction
Voices #2: Interviews with Science Fiction Writers (coll 1979 chap), #3
(coll 1980 chap) and #4 (coll 1982 chap); Literary Voices #1 (coll 1980
chap); The Future of the Space Program: Large Corporations & Society:
Discussions with 22 Science-Fiction Writers (coll 1981 chap) and Fantasy
Voices: Interviews with American Fantasy Writers (coll 1982 chap); also
Kindred Spirits: An Anthology of Gay and Lesbian Science Fiction Stories
(anth 1984).About the author: The Work of Jeffrey M. Elliot: An Annotated
Bibliography & Guide (1984 chap) by Boden Clarke (Robert REGINALD).

(1918- ) UK writer, primarily for tv, who collaborated with Fred HOYLE on
subsequent novelizations under the same titles (1962 and 1964
respectively). He is not to be confused with the John Elliott (note
spelling) who wrote the anti-Chinese/Soviet political thriller Dragon's
Feast (1970), itself a work of borderline sf. [JC]

House name used for three sf novels published by CURTIS WARREN, one each
by William Henry Fleming BIRD and Dennis HUGHES and one - Overlord New
York (1953) - by an as yet unidentified author. [JC]

(1914-1973) US writer and editor, active mainly in the sf field in the
early 1950s, beginning with "Fearsome Fable" for FSF in 1951. His sf
novels - Asylum Earth (1952 Startling Stories; 1968) and The Rivet in
Grandfather's Neck (1970) - are routine adventures. [JC]See also:

[r] Robert SILVERBERG.

[r] Richard E. GEIS.

(1918-1980) US writer and academic, many of whose short stories were sf
or fantasy. He is best remembered for the title story in Among the Dangs
(coll 1960), which deals with an imaginary South American tribe and has
been widely reprinted within and outside the genre; his essay "Discovering
the Dangs", in Conversions: Literature and the Modernist Deviation (coll
1971), discusses, biographically and theoretically, the creation of an sf
text. Two other stories from that collection, including the anti-racist
parable "The NRACP", and five of those assembled in An Hour of Last Things
(coll 1968), most notably "Into the Cone of Cold", are also sf. Although
it has been listed in sf bibliographies, David Knudson (1962) is in fact
an associational novel dealing with nuclear guilt and the aftereffects of
radiation poisoning. [JC/GF]

(1910-1978) Canadian-born US physician, university teacher of medicine
and writer, in whose sf novel, Reprieve from Paradise (1955), Polynesians
have established a worldwide culture after an atomic HOLOCAUST. Their
civilization is described in sometimes amusing detail, though an enforced
breeding plan soon sours the picture. The introduction of an Antarctic
UTOPIA then complicates matters further. [JC]See also: GAMES AND SPORTS;

(1931- ) UK writer since 1962 of sophisticated novels of domestic
passion. Her sf novel, The Summer People (1980), places in a NEAR-FUTURE
world one of her typical casts, who decide it would be a good idea, while
society collapses off-stage, to remain ensconced in their holiday resort
for the time being. An Arthurian sequence for older children - The King
Awakes (1987) and The Empty Throne (1988) - arouses the once and future
king into a post- HOLOCAUST UK. The Sadness of Witches (1987) is a tale of
the occult. City of Gates (1992) is set in a Jerusalem guest-house which
exists, via time-loops, in every relevant epoch. [JC]


Christopher EVANS.

Richard E. GEIS.

(1917-1991) Australian-born playwright, tv scriptwriter and novelist,
resident in the USA from 1948, becoming a US citizen. Several of his
novels, many of which have Australian settings, have been televised. His
novel Fairyland (1988) is about growing up gay in Australia. His only sf
is Going (1975), about life and love in a slightly DYSTOPIAN future in
which euthanasia at age 65 is compulsory. The heroine, close to this age,
reflects on her life. [PN]

(1947- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Fire in the Sky" in
Vertex in 1974, and who subsequently wrote two modest but readable sf
adventures, Death Jag (dated 1979 but 1980) with Jeff Slaten, and
Worldmaker (1985). [JC]

House name used 1940-43 in AMZ by David Vern ( David V. REED) and Lee
Rogow. [JC]

(? - ) UK writer briefly active in the early 1960s with "Stress" for NW
in 1961 and the routine A Thousand Ages (1961). [JC]

(1840-1916) US teacher, editor and author of boys' books, popular
history, miscellaneous work and a very large number of US dime novels,
mainly Westerns, under his own name and many pseudonyms. His enormous
bibliography, though studied exhaustively by Denis Rogers (in various
issues of Dime Novel Round-Up), remains unsettled. ESE established the
dime novel as a commercial field with Seth Jones (1860), and instigated
DIME-NOVEL SF through his adaptation of the historical Newark Steam Man
into a Western: The Steam Man of the Prairies (1868; vt The Huge Hunter,
or The Steam Man of the Prairies 1876; vt Baldy's Boy Partner, or Young
Brainerd's Steam Man 1888); sf soon became one of the popular dime-novel
genres. ESE's use of the Steam Man (not a ROBOT, simply a man-shaped
mobile steam engine which cannot go into reverse) was uninspired, with
little recognition of the potential of the device. The Steam Man has been
conveniently reprinted in E.F. BLEILER's Eight Dime Novels (anth 1974)
with a full introduction to the field. Of ESE's huge body of work, a few
others are of some interest: Land of Mystery (1889), a lost-race ( LOST
WORLDS) tale, The Monarch of the Air (1907), a fantastic aeronautics story
as by Seward D. Lisle (an anagram pseudonym), and The Dragon of the Skies

(1850-1919) UK poet and writer whose sf novel, Zalma (1895), features the
protracted NEAR-FUTURE attempts of the eponymous wrong-side-of-the-bed
Russian-Spanish princess to revenge herself on the heir to the throne of
England, who has for unclear reasons swiftly annulled their morganatic
marriage. Anthrax-bearing balloons are brought into play, and the tale
closes on a possible Europe-wide socialist upheaval. [JC]See also:

(1934- ) US writer, the most controversial and among the finest of those
writers associated with sf whose careers began in the 1950s. He was born
and raised in Ohio, attending Ohio State University for 18 months before
being asked to leave, one of the reasons for his dismissal being rudeness
to a creative-writing professor who told him he had no talent. HE had
already become deeply involved in Cleveland fandom, producing material for
and later taking over the Cleveland SF Society's magazine, Science-Fantasy
Bulletin (later Dimensions). In a profile contributed to the FSF Special
Harlan Ellison Issue (July 1977), Robert SILVERBERG, his near
contemporary, vividly portrayed the young HE as insecure, physically
fearless, extraordinarily ambitious and hyperkinetic, dominating any room
he entered. Much the same could be said about the short stories which made
him famous (initially in sf circles, later outside them) and won him a
remarkable number of awards - 7 HUGOS and 3 NEBULAS - for these tales have
almost unfailingly reflected and magnified their author's character and
concerns.By 1955 HE was in New York, living in the same rooming house as
Silverberg and producing numerous stories. His first professional sf
appearance came early in 1956 with "Glowworm" for Infinity Science
Fiction, and he soon began to publish very prolifically indeed, with well
over 150 stories and pieces in a variety of genres by the end of 1958.
Much of this initial production is coarse and derivative, mixing strong
early influences like Nelson Algren (1909-1981) with models derived from
successful magazine writers of the time. In these years, HE used a number
of pseudonyms: in fanzines, Nalrah Nosille; for short stories in crime,
sex and other genre magazines, Sley Harson (in collaboration with Henry
SLESAR), Landon Ellis, Derry Tiger, Price Curtis and Paul Merchant; in sf
magazines the house names Lee ARCHER (one story), E.K. JARVIS (one story)
and Clyde MITCHELL (one story) and the personal pseudonyms Jay Charby,
Wallace Edmondson, Ellis Hart, Jay Solo and, from 1957, Cordwainer Bird, a
name which after 1964 he used to designate material that (generally
through conflict with tv producers) he partially disclaimed.Not long after
reaching New York, HE assumed a false identity and ran as a member of a
gang from Red Hook, Brooklyn, called the Barons. This 10-week stint gained
him material which he used directly in the first of his infrequent novels,
Rumble (1958; vt Web of the City 1975), which early demonstrated, in the
vigour and violence of its urban imagery, the ambivalent hold of the city
on his imagination. HE is one of the relatively few writers of his
generation to deal constantly and impassionedly with the turbulent
complexities of the modern US city (an engagement furthered in sf, decades
later, by the CYBERPUNK movement). More material drawn from contemporary
urban life may be found in The Deadly Streets (coll 1958; exp 1975), The
Juvies (coll 1961), Gentleman Junkie and Other Stories of the Hung-up
Generation (coll 1961; rev 1975) and Rockabilly (1961; rev vt Spider Kiss
1975), as well as in the autobiographical street-gang study Memos from
Purgatory: Two Journeys of Our Times (1961). None of this material is
technically sf, but HE has consistently deprecated the making of
distinctions between generic and non-generic writing in his own
works.After serving in the US Army, HE moved to Chicago in 1959 as editor
of Rogue Magazine, where later he was also involved in the creation of
Regency Books. By 1962 he was in Los Angeles, where he has remained.
During this time, while continuing to write for many markets, he was
beginning to establish a maverick reputation within sf, though his first
sf books - The Man with Nine Lives (fixup 1960 dos) and A Touch of
Infinity (coll 1960 dos) - display an uneasy conformity to the constraints
of late-1950s magazine sf. Ellison Wonderland (coll 1962; vt Earthman, Go
Home 1964; with new introduction and with "The Forces that Crush" deleted
and "Back to the Drawing Boards" added, rev 1974; rev 1984) is likewise
uneasy, containing stories whose conventional premises are shaken apart by
the violent rhetoric of their telling. HE was still very much feeling his
way; of major sf writers, he was among the earliest to find his voice-raw
thrusts of emotion rattle even the most "commercial" of his early stories
- but among the slowest to find forms and markets through which to project
it.After much struggle, by 1963 HE had established himself as a successful
tv writer, contributing scripts to such series as Route 66, The Alfred
Hitchcock Hour and The Untouchables, with considerable work for Burke's
Law as well as two scripts for The OUTER LIMITS in 1964 - one of these,
"Demon with a Glass Hand" (1964), won the Writers' Guild of America Award
for Outstanding Script - two scripts for The MAN FROM U.N.C.L.E. in
1966-7, and a STAR TREK episode, "The City on the Edge of Forever" (1967),
which won a Hugo for Best Dramatic Presentation in 1967 and a Writers'
Guild of America Award for Most Outstanding Script, Dramatic Episode, of
1967-8. A later foray into tv - his attempt to create a series based on
the concept of a GENERATION STARSHIP - was something of a fiasco. The
series, The STARLOST, was Canadian-made and lasted only one season, 1973;
and so many changes were made to HE's original concept that he disowned
the programme, signing the pilot episode Cordwainer Bird. The original
script (not the one filmed) received a Writers' Guild of America Award for
Best Dramatic Episode Script (HE is the only scenarist to have won the
award three times), and was later novelized as Phoenix without Ashes *
(1975) with Edward BRYANT. A thinly disguised account of the whole affair
formed the plot of a roman a clef by Ben BOVA, The Starcrossed (1975).
More recently, HE served as creative consultant for the first season of
the revived The TWILIGHT ZONE. In the introduction and ancillary material
appended to I, Robot: The Illustrated Screenplay (1987 IASFM; rev 1994)
with Isaac ASIMOV, he recounts in considerable detail a later imbroglio
with Holywood filmmakers, though the screenplay itself makes clear how
difficult it would have been to translate Asimov's archaic concepts -
including the exploration of the solar system by mannish though obedient
robots - onto the contemporary screen.At around the same time that he
began his tv career, HE began publishing the short stories that have made
his name. Many of them appear in his books of the late 1960s: Paingod and
Other Delusions (coll 1965; with "Sleeping Dogs" added exp 1975) and I
Have No Mouth & I Must Scream (coll 1967; rev 1983), both assembled as The
Fantasies of Harlan Ellison (omni 1979); From the Land of Fear (coll
1967); Love Ain't Nothing but Sex Misspelled (coll 1968; with 9 stories
removed and an intro, 1 story and 2 articles added 1976), which mixes sf
and non-sf, though the 2nd edn retains mainly non-genre material; The
Beast that Shouted Love at the Heart of the World (coll 1969; with "Along
the Scenic Route", "The Place with no Name" and "Shattered Like a Glass
Goblin" cut 1976 UK), the US edition being a corrupt text; and Over the
Edge: Stories from Somewhere Else (coll 1970). Alone Against Tomorrow:
Stories of Alienation in Speculative Fiction (coll 1971; UK edn in 2 vols
as All the Sounds of Fear 1973 and The Time of the Eye 1974, the latter
containing new intro) represents HE's first attempt (of several) to
re-sort his material, and provides a good summary of his best 1960s work.
Further attempts at sorting include Approaching Oblivion: Road Signs on
the Treadmill toward Tomorrow (coll 1974), which contains a moving
autobiographical analysis of the roots of his writing; and the superb
Deathbird Stories: A Pantheon of Modern Gods (coll 1975; rev 1984), which
reassembles many of his best stories into a kind of cycle about Man's
relation to the GODS and horrors within and without him. ("Pretty Maggie
Moneyeyes", maybe his most moving tale, is again reprinted here, finding
at last a fit context. This story of the quasidelusional rapport between a
gambler and a female spirit trapped within a slot machine definitively
expresses what might be called an Ellisonian pathos about the sadness and
rage of men and women, lovers, victims, users: solitaries all, in a gashed
world.) But Deathbird Stories was not a true retrospective, and the
confusion caused by the release of many and frequently revised titles,
often with overlapping contents, was cleared up only with the publication
of THE ESSENTIAL ELLISON: A 35-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE (coll 1987; rev 1991), a
huge and gripping overview of his entire career.From the mid-1960s on, HE
began to amass a large number of Hugos and Nebulas: both were awarded in
1966 for "'Repent, Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman" (1965), later
published with James STERANKO as "Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman
(graph 1978 chap); a 1968 Hugo (Short Story) for "I Have No Mouth, and I
Must Scream" (1967), a most scarifying expression of the true dehumanizing
consequences of nuclear war; a 1969 Hugo (Short Story) for "The Beast that
Shouted Love at the Heart of the World" (1968); a 1974 Hugo (Best
Novelette) for "The Deathbird" (1973); and a 1969 Nebula (Best Novella)
for "A Boy and his Dog" (1969). This last was made into a successful film
( A BOY AND HIS DOG), itself awarded a 1976 Hugo, shared by HE, for Best
Dramatic Presentation. He also won a 1975 Hugo for Best Novelette for
"Adrift Just off the Islets of Langerhans, Latitude 38deg 54' N, Longitude
77deg 00' 13" W", an Edgar from the Mystery Writers of America for "The
Whimper of Whipped Dogs" (1973), a 1978 Nebula and Hugo for Best Short
Story for "Jeffty is Five" and a 1986 Hugo for Best Novelette for "Paladin
of the Lost Hour" (1985).It was during these prime years that HE also
began editing his famous series of NEW-WAVE sf ANTHOLOGIES with DANGEROUS
VISIONS (anth 1967; vt in 3 vols Dangerous Visions #1 1969, #2 1969 and #3
1969) and Again, Dangerous Visions (anth 1972; vt in 2 vols Again,
Dangerous Visions I 1973 and II 1973); these books were striking for the
general excellence of their contents and for the extensive, deeply
personal annotations supplied by HE. For this success - and self-exposure
- he was to pay. A third volume, The Last Dangerous Visions, was announced
at the start of the 1970s but still (1995) awaits publication. A series of
illnesses impaired HE's fitness for the huge task of annotating what had
soon become an enormous project; and an inherent stubbornness seemed to
prevent him from closing the enterprise down after its time - the high
tide of the 1960s New Wave movement, created in part by the first volume
of the series - had inevitably passed.For several years, HE had in
addition to his fiction and his screenwriting activities begun to produce
a considerable body of nonfiction - essays, reviews, polemics, culture
cartoons, memoirs. Much of this material has now been published in book
form. The Glass Teat: Essays of Opinion on the Subject of Television (coll
1970) and The Other Glass Teat (coll 1975) engage trenchantly with their
subject; Sleepless Nights in the Procrustean Bed (coll 1984) collects
general essays, as does An Edge in My Voice (coll 1985), both containing
severe assaults on hypocrisies of government (and individuals); Harlan
Ellison's Watching (coll 1989) contains film criticism; and The Harlan
Ellison Hornbook (coll 1990) is a sequence of sometimes fairly ratty
confessional essays.From about 1970, though the quality of his work was by
no means inferior, HE began to publish markedly fewer stories; and from
about 1980 an understandable inclination to cultural melancholia began to
be noticed. New titles, some as distinguished as anything from earlier
decades, were assembled in Strange Wine (coll 1978), Shatterday (coll
1980), Stalking the Nightmare (coll 1982), Angry Candy (coll 1988) and
Mind Fields: The Art of Jacek Yerka/The Fiction of Harlan Ellison (coll
1994), generating a sense of the painful maturity of an author
passionately engaged not only with himself - an engagement whose dangerous
allure he has never denied - but with the essential gestures of rage and
love and self-betrayal that mark our species. He has increasingly engaged
his large energies as a writer in creating parable after parable - only
some of them couched in anything like a conventional sf idiom - that
illuminate the late years of the century, sometimes luridly, always with a
genuine and redeeming pain. For all the scattershot rawness of his wilder
work, at the end of the day - as All the Lies that Are My Life (1980) and
Mefisto in Onyx (1993) tormentedly expose - HE is a representative speaker
of the things that count. [JC]Other works: Sex Gang (1959) as by Paul
Merchant; Doomsman (1958 Imagination Science Fiction as "The Assassin";
1967 chap dos); Partners in Wonder: Harlan Ellison in Collaboration with .
. . (coll 1971), collaborations with various writers; No Doors, No Windows
(coll 1975); The City at the Edge of Forever * (graph 1977), a Star Trek
fotonovel; The Illustrated Harlan Ellison (graph coll 1978); The Book of
Ellison (anth 1978) with Andrew PORTER, publication of which HE claims was
"unauthorized"; Medea: Harlan's World (anth 1985), one of the earlier
SHARED-WORLD anthologies, and perhaps the best; Night and the Enemy (graph
1987) with Ken Steacy; Eidolons (1988 chap); Footsteps (1989 chap); Vic
and Blood: The Chronicles of a Boy and His Dog (graph coll of linked
stories 1989) with Richard CORBEN; Run for the Stars (1957 Science Fiction
Adventures; rev 1991 chap dos), in a TOR BOOKS Double published in
anthology format; Dreams with Sharp Teeth (omni 1991) containing I Have No
Mouth and I Must Scream, Deathbird Stories and Shatterday, all texts
corrected.About the author: FSF Special Harlan Ellison Issue (July 1977);
Harlan Ellison: Unrepentant Harlequin by George Edgar SLUSSER (1977);
Harlan Ellison: A Bibliographical Checklist (1973; 2nd edn in Fantasy
Research & Bibliography #1-#2 1980-81) compiled by Leslie Kay Swigart -
the latter title is unusually thorough and comprehensive and, given its
coverage of HE's intensely productive early years, remains useful.See

(1901-1957) UK actor and writer, author of about 30 detective novels as
John Bude. In The Steel Grubs (1928) a Dartmoor convict finds some ALIEN
eggs, which hatch into ferrophage grubs that eat first the iron bars of
his cell and then much of First Industrial Revolution England. This Siren
Song (1930) features some MCGUFFIN inventions. The Lumpton Gobbelings
(1954), his most famous title, describes an invasion by Little People of
the village of Lumpton, scandalizing the villagers. [JC]


(1948- ) Scottish writer of at least two gardening books who began
publishing sf with "Spinning the Green" in Despatches from the Frontiers
of the Female Mind (anth 1985) ed Jen Green and Sarah LEFANU. Her sf
sequence, the Incomer series - The Incomer (1987) and A Sparrow's Flight
(1989) - applies a FEMINIST perspective to the post- HOLOCAUST story of
the arrival of a wandering musician in a far-northern village and his
winter-long residence there, and to further examinations of the
post-patriarchal, post-technological world that is slowly revealed.
[JC]Other Works: An Apple from a Tree (coll 1991), fantasies.


[s] Raymond Z. GALLUN.

Working name of UK tv comedian, playwright and novelist Benjamin Charles
Elton (1959- ), well known for the contumely of his stand-up verbal
SATIRE. His first sf novel, Stark (1989), is set in a NEAR-FUTURE
Australia threatened by a typical late-20th-century entrepreneur, and by
the END OF THE WORLD through POLLUTION, which the industrialists
responsible hope to evade by leaving the planet to its victims - us. In
"Gasping: the Play" (1990), a UK corporation, after oxygen is privatized,
sells "designer air." Gridlock (1991) less successfully dramatizes a
sudden UK-wide traffic jam; This Other Eden (1993), also set in the near
future, tends to recapitulate earlier themes. [JC]See also:

(1933- ) US editor who produced a number of reprint ANTHOLOGIES in the
1960s, mostly in collaboration with Vic Ghidalia (1926- ) or Sam
MOSKOWITZ, and who burst into prominence in the early 1970s when, with
indefatigable salesmanship, he sold a huge number of ORIGINAL ANTHOLOGIES
-about 80 in all (including a number of short books for young children),
according to his claim - to a variety of publishers. At one time it was
estimated that RE alone constituted about a quarter of the total market
for sf short stories, and such dominance led to criticism of his
restrictions on the free use of SEX and RELIGION as themes. Notable among
his many anthologies were: Future City (anth 1973); Saving Worlds (anth
1973; vt The Wounded Planet 1974) with Virginia KIDD; the Continuum
sequence, whose 4 vols -Continuum #1 (anth 1974), #2 (anth 1974), #3 (anth
1974) and #4 (anth 1975) - featured 8 different 4-part series; and Epoch
(anth 1975) with Robert SILVERBERG. Collections ed RE included The Many
Worlds of Poul Anderson (coll 1974) and The Many Worlds of Andre Norton
(coll 1974). RE was also responsible for the short-lived magazine ODYSSEY,
the LASER BOOKS series of sf adventures from Canada, and Starstream Comics
(1976). Later, as the oversaturated anthology market contracted, he
diversified into editing the sf lines of various publishers -
Bobbs-Merrill, Pinnacle and Pyramid, in addition to Laser. As a devout
Christian, RE also wrote evangelical and inspirational works, and in the
late 1980s several novels that were similarly inspirational, including the
Angelwalk sequence - Angelwalk: A Modern Fable (1988) and Fallen Angel
(1990) - and some singletons: The Christening (1989), The Frankenstein
Project (1991), Wise One (1991) and Darien: Guardian Angel of Jesus
(1994). [MJE/JC]Other works (as editor): Alien Worlds (anth 1964) and
Invasion of the Robots (anth 1964), both ghost-edited by Sam Moskowitz;
Strange Signposts (anth 1966); The Human Zero (anth 1967) with Moskowitz;
The Time Curve (anth 1968); Alien Earth (anth 1969) with Moskowitz; Other
Worlds, Other Times (anth 1969) with Moskowitz; The Little Monsters (anth
1969) and More Little Monsters (anth 1973), both with Vic Ghidalia; Beware
the Beasts (anth 1970) with Ghidalia; The Horror Hunters (anth 1971) with
Ghidalia; Young Demons (anth 1971) with Ghidalia; Signs and Wonders (anth
1972); And Walk Now Gently through the Fire (anth 1972); The Venus Factor
(anth 1972) with Ghidalia; Androids, Time Machines and Blue Giraffes (anth
1973) with Ghidalia; Demon Kind (anth 1973); Frontiers I: Tomorrow's
Alternatives (anth 1973) and Frontiers II: The New Mind (anth 1973);
Monster Tales: Vampires, Werewolves and Things (anth 1973); Omega (anth
1973); The Other Side of Tomorrow (anth 1973); Science Fiction Adventures
from Way Out (anth 1973); Science Fiction Tales: Invaders, Creatures and
Alien Worlds (anth 1973); Showcase (anth 1973); Strange Things Happening
(anth 1973); Children of Infinity (anth 1973); Future Quest (anth 1973);
Flame Tree Planet: An Anthology of Religious Science-Fantasy (anth 1973);
Ten Tomorrows (anth 1973); The Berserkers (anth 1974); Chronicles of a
Comer (anth 1974); Crisis (anth 1974); The Extraterrestrials (anth 1974);
Future Kin (anth 1974); Horror Tales: Spirits, Spells and the Unknown
(anth 1974); The Graduated Robot and Other Stories (anth 1974); The
Learning Maze (anth 1974); More Science Fiction Tales: Crystal Creatures,
Bird-Things and other Weirdies (anth 1974); Survival from Infinity (anth
1974); The Far Side of Time (anth 1974); The Long Night of Waiting (anth
1974); Strange Gods (anth 1974); Vampires, Werewolves, and Other Monsters
(anth 1974); Beware More Beasts (anth 1975) with Ghidalia; Dystopian
Visions (anth 1975); Future Corruption (anth 1975); The Gifts of Asti
(anth 1975); In the Wake of Man (anth 1975); Tomorrow: New Worlds of
Science Fiction (anth 1975); The 50-Meter Monsters and Other Horrors (anth
1976); Visions of Tomorrow (anth 1976); Futurelove (anth 1977) ed anon,
perhaps because it dealt in part with sexual matters; A World Named
Cleopatra (anth 1977); Spine-Chillers: Unforgettable Tales of Terror (anth
1978) with Howard GOLDSMITHFor younger children (ed anon): The Graduated
Robot (anth 1973 chap); Adrift in Space (anth 1974 chap); Journey to
Another Star (anth 1974 chap); The Killer Plants (anth 1974 chap); The
Mind Angel (anth 1974 chap); The Missing World (anth 1974 chap); Night of
the Sphinx and Other Stories (anth 1974 chap); The Tunnel (anth 1974

Working name of US journalist and writer David Eli Lilienthal (1927- ),
perhaps best known for such psychological thrillers as The Tour(1967).
Some of the stories in Time Out (coll 1968) contain fantasy elements. His
first sf novel, Seconds (1963), had some initial success and was made into
the John FRANKENHEIMER film SECONDS (1966), financed by and starring Rock
Hudson (1925-1985). Both book and film revolve around an organization
which transforms middle-aged men into young, Rock-Hudson-like he-men. At
first the change is exciting, but soon the nightmares start. The
protagonist of DE's second sf novel, A Journal of the Flood Year (1992),
discovers that a huge wall designed to reclaim part of the American
continental shelf from the Atlantic has begun to leak, but the rigidly
stratified world, of which the wall is a potently rendered symbol,
attempts to block any awareness of the oncoming and inevitable DISASTER.

Film (1976). Cine Artists. Dir Ralph Nelson, starring Rock Hudson, Diane
Ladd, Barbara Carrera, Roddy McDowall. Screenplay Anita Doohan, Jack W.
Thomas, based on a story by Thomas. 105 mins. Colour.In this variation on
the FRANKENSTEIN theme, a scientist (Hudson), while experimenting on a
premature foetus with a growth hormone, creates in weeks a fully developed
25-year-old woman (Carrera). She has a virtually blank mind, and the
scientist, like Pygmalion, moulds her personality and introduces her into
society. The result is an intelligent but morally crippled creature whom
he ultimately destroys. Despite its modern hardware, the film is really a
reworking of the old GOTHIC theme - as in the German silent films
HOMUNCULUS (1916) and ALRAUNE (1928) - about the basic evil of beings who
are created by unnatural means and are therefore without souls. It is not
a good film. The novelization is Embryo * (1976) by Louis CHARBONNEAU.

(1944- ) Nigerian-born writer, in the UK from 1962, author of a number of
semi-autobiographical novels which vividly describe the lives of African
women in the industrial UK during the years of its decline. The Rape of
Shavi (1983), set in the NEAR FUTURE, describes the effect upon the
African country of Shavi when a horde of refugees from a European nuclear
HOLOCAUST descends like locusts. Kehinde (1994) is a fantasy. [JC]

(1856-1918) US writer, mostly of Westerns, whose lost-race ( LOST WORLDS)
novel The Smoky God, or A Voyage to the Inner World (1908) is set in a
HOLLOW-EARTH Eden, on the John Cleves SYMMES model, where a race of
long-lived giants worships the interior sun.[JC]

Film (1980). Lucasfilm/20th Century-Fox. Executive prod George LUCAS. Dir
Irvin Kershner, starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford, Carrie Fisher, Billy
Dee Williams, Frank Oz. Screenplay Leigh BRACKETT, Lawrence Kasdan, based
on a story by Lucas. 124 mins. Colour.A first viewing of this blockbuster
sequel to STAR WARS (1977) sweeps the viewer along with the colour and
spectacle of its various space-opera venues: frozen and swampy planets,
hide-and-seek among asteroids, and a climax in the sky station of Cloud
City. A repeated screening reveals its weakly episodic nature, where
heroic freedom fighters struggle repetitively against the Galactic Empire.
Luke Skywalker (Hamill) is coached in spiritual control by a green puppet,
Yoda, operated by Frank Oz of tv's Muppets, in a sequence more banal than
metaphysical. After too much pointless action and not enough character
exploration, a genuine mythic (and Freudian) charge is belatedly evoked
when evil Darth Vader reveals himself during a duel with good Luke to be
his father, and in one or two scenes we are allowed to recognize in Luke a
potential for harm, lending the film a much needed moral complexity.
Brackett was dying of cancer as she drafted the script (she received a
posthumous HUGO for it), which was heavily revised by Kasdan, but
nevertheless and despite its faults TESB retains distant echoes of the
florid and witty grandeur of her own SPACE OPERAS. The Star Wars trilogy
was completed with The RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983). A book about the film is
Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of the Making of The Empire Strikes Back
(1980) by Alan Arnold (1922- ). The novelization is The Empire Strikes
Back * (1980) by Donald F. GLUT. [PN]


(1921- ) US writer who began to publish sf with "This Thing Called Love"
for Future in 1955. She was married from 1949 to Ed EMSHWILLER, with whom
she occasionally collaborated; but from the beginning of her career the
razor-sharp exactness of her language and the subversive power of the
themes she expressed with such dangerous precision have marked her as a
unique voice. Though she published much of her early work in FSF, and
later in Damon KNIGHT's ORBIT and similar anthologies, she has never been
identified as a GENRE-SF writer. Her language is too much in the
foreground for that; and the unrelenting clarity with which she
deconstructs the narrative and thematic conventions central to the genre (
FABULATION) has disqualified almost all of her stories from being read
simply as tales. In her hands, sf conventions become models of our deep
estrangement from ourselves (especially women; WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN
SCIENCE FICTION) and from the world. Early stories can be found in Joy in
Our Cause (coll 1974). Verging on the Pertinent (coll 1989) assembles
corrosively elegant non-genre work. THE START OF THE END OF IT ALL (coll
1990 UK; rev 1991 US) collects stories as close to sf or fantasy as she is
likely to compose. CE's first novel, Carmen Dog (1988 UK), is a FEMINIST
fable which draws obvious but very deftly pointed lessons from the
transformation of women into dogs and dogs into women. [JC]Other works:
Venus Rising (1992 chap).

Working name of US illustrator and film-maker Edmund Alexander Emshwiller
(1925-1990); he often signed his sf artwork "Emsh". He studied art at the
University of Michigan, the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, and the Art
Students League in New York. Astonishingly prolific, Emsh did cover and
interior art, beginning with Gal in 1951, for more than two dozen
magazines including AMZ, FSF (which he dominated through the 1950s) and
Startling Stories, along with hundreds of book covers, both hardback and
paperback; his work for ACE BOOKS alone would have made his reputation. He
and Frank Kelly FREAS were the undisputed rulers of the sf-art realm
during the 1950s and early 1960s, and among the few sf artists of the time
able to make a decent living from their work. EE shared the first HUGO for
Best Cover Artist with Hannes BOK in 1953; he won further Hugos in 1960,
1961, 1962 and 1964; the only other cover artists to win Hugos in that
period were Freas and Roy G. KRENKEL.EE also painted abstract
expressionist canvases for gallery exhibition and worked in experimental
16mm movie-making. Dance Chromatic (1959), his first film, and Thanatopsis
(1962) are still remembered. He turned to full time moviemaking in 1964,
thereafter doing only occasional sf artwork as a favour to friends. His
38min Relativity (1966) is regarded by many critics as one of the greatest
short films ever made. This second career was notably distinguished, the
Museum of Modern Art being one of many bodies to recognize its importance.
In 1971 he began working with videotape, then a very new medium; and he
was artist-in-residence at the Television Laboratory, WNET/13 in New York,
winning yet more awards. He later (1981-6) became provost of the School of
Film and Video at the California Institute of the Arts. EE was married to
Carol EMSHWILLER.As an sf artist, EE worked fast and skilfully, seeming
equally at home in every sf illustrative mode, whether dramatic, symbolic
or humorous. His style was vigorous but polished-seeming, though his
actual lines (especially in interior artwork) tended to be rough, assured
and full of character. While there is no denying his talent, he may have
worked too speedily: from the perspective of the 1990s, little of his sf
artwork seems especially memorable, and nobody then or now seems to have
bothered to produce a book of his work. But in the 1950s he represented a
definite step up from the colourful crudeness of most ILLUSTRATION for the

(1930- ) Russian scientist and writer whose most significant work has
been accomplished in collaboration with Eremei PARNOV, also a trained
scientist. They began their career with HARD-SF stories in 1961,
publishing titles like Uravneniie s Blednogo Neptuna (coll 1964; title
story trans Helen Saltz Jacobson as "The Pale Neptune Equation" in New
Soviet Sf, anth 1979 US), Padeniie Sverkhnovoi ["The Fall of the
Supernova"] (1964), Zelenaia Krevetka ["The Green Shrimp"] (1965), Tri
Kvarka ["Three Quarks"] (1969) and others. "'Vozvratite Liubov'!" (1966;
trans Arthur Shkarovsky as "Bring Back Love" in Everything but Love anth
1973 Russia) was a remarkable first (and accurate) prediction of the
neutron bomb. In More Diraka ["The Dirac Sea"] (1967) the scientist's
moral responsibility is discussed, while Dusha Mira (1964; trans Antonina
W. Bouis as World Soul 1978 US) combines Frankensteinian horrors with
detailed speculation on the collective consciousness. Their most
sophisticated novel, Klotchia T'my Na Igle Vremeni ["Turfs of Darkness on
the Needle of Time"] (1970), is a TIME-TRAVEL fantasy with, as
protagonist, a historian engaged in the study of all "reincarnations" of
fascism through the ages. EP and Parnov discontinued their partnership in
1970. [VG]See also: HIVE-MINDS.

Film (1992; vt California Man). Hollywood Pictures/Touchwood Pacific
Partners I/Warner Bros. Prod George Zaloom, dir Les Mayfield, starring
Sean Astin, Brendan Fraser and Pauly Shore. Screenplay Shawn Schepps,
based on a story by Schepps and Zaloom. 88 mins. Colour.Limp version of
the old story of the caveman who is dug up and resuscitated, as previously
seen in TROG (1970), SCHLOCK (1973) and ICEMAN (1984) among others; see
also APES AND CAVEMEN. This made-for-teenagers movie, clearly calculated
to appeal to the same audience as that for BILL & TED'S EXCELLENT
ADVENTURE (1989) and Wayne's World(1992), portrays two high-school nerds
who dig up a frozen cave man (Fraser) after an earthquake disturbs the
soil in a swimming-pool excavation, thaw him, and enrol him at their
school (after a wash and haircut) as a "Lithuanian" friend. The cave man's
simple high spirits win him many friends, and the high-school hard man is
publicly humiliated by him. The film's various attempts at satire are
uninventive. The second nerd (Shore), however, is always amusing, largely
because of the vigour of his esoteric teen vocabulary. [PN]


Film (1982) Alive Enterprises/MGM-UA. Dir Alan Rudolph, starring Robert
Urich, JoBeth Williams, Paul Dooley, Hoyt Axton, Peter Coyote. Screenplay
Rudolph, John Binder, from a story by Judson Klinger, Richard Woods. 92
mins. Colour.This exploitation movie, made in the wake of sensationalist
reports emerging from rural areas of the US Midwest about mutilated
cattle, features a vacationing New York detective (Urich) uneasily teaming
with a local woman sheriff in Colorado (Williams), first to investigate
dead cattle falling from the sky and later to probe the roles of local
conservative extremists and a paramilitary group. The explanation is
nerve-gas testing, part of a rightwing conspiracy with implied official
backing. This is a post-Watergate PARANOIA movie made by a well regarded
director who did rather better in other films. [PN]


Together with UTOPIAS and cautionary tales, apocalyptic visions form one
of the three principal traditions of pre-20th-century futuristic fantasy.
Visions inspired by the religious imagination go back into antiquity (
MYTHOLOGY; RELIGION), but the influence of the scientific imagination did
not make itself felt in literature until the late 19th century, and the
end-of-the-world theme maintained many of its religious overtones until
very recently. The phrase itself has become looser in meaning; once the
Comte du Buffon (1707-1788) had in Epochs of Nature (1780) popularized the
notion that a whole series of "worlds" had occupied the Earth's surface,
the finality of any particular end of the world became dubious. A wide
spectrum, within which no firm dividing line can be drawn, extends from
authentically apocalyptic visions to accounts of large-scale DISASTER; it
would therefore be over-pedantic in this discussion to construe "world" as
"planet".The earliest SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES of world's end were the products
of Romanticism: the anti-progressive The Last Man, or Omegarus and Syderia
(1806) by Jean-Baptiste Cousin de Grainville (1746-1805) and Mary
SHELLEY's gloomy Great Plague story The Last Man (1826). Thomas Campbell
(1777-1844) also wrote a poem on the "Last Man" theme, and Thomas Hood
(1799-1845) parodied it. Plagues were to remain one of the standard
literary means of depopulating the world and destroying society, but the
cosmic-disaster story rapidly became a particular favourite of scientific
romance. Edgar Allan POE's "The Conversation of Eiros and Charmion" (1839)
is an early comet-strike story, but many more followed Camille
FLAMMARION's popularization of the idea in various magazine articles of
the 1890s. Notable examples include George GRIFFITH's Olga Romanoff (1894)
and H.G. WELLS's "The Star" (1897). These are NEAR-FUTURE stories, but
FAR-FUTURE stories of the ultimate end of life on Earth began to appear in
the same period. Flammarion's own apocalyptic fantasy La fin du monde
(1893-4; trans as Omega:The Last Days of the World 1897 US) allows the
Earth to survive its brush with a comet, but leaps ahead to describe the
freezing of the world when the Sun cools. Wells did likewise in THE TIME
MACHINE (1895), and Gabriel TARDE's Underground Man (1896; trans 1905)
imagines a much more rapid cooling. A similarly long-range view is taken
in George C. WALLIS's "The Last Days of Earth" (1901). The visionary
sequence in William Hope HODGSON's The House on the Borderland (1908)
makes the death of the Earth a minor incident in a grander scheme - an
implication of irrelevance which is also used with telling effect in J.D.
BERESFORD's "A Negligible Experiment" (1921) and Olaf STAPLEDON's STAR
MAKER (1937).End-of-the-world stories are frequently ambivalent, their
writers often taking delight in contemplation of the destruction of
everything that they hate. Robert CROMIE's The Crack of Doom (1895) - one
of many tales of threatened apocalypses which are aborted in the nick of
time - gives the scientist who wants to put an end to the human story
abundant space to present his case. Wells thought that large-scale
destruction was a necessary prelude to utopian regeneration, and M.P.
SHIEL's The Purple Cloud (1901), in which Earth is depopulated by a cloud
of cyanogen gas, contrives nevertheless to end with a triumphant
affirmation of the progressiveness of EVOLUTION. John DAVIDSON's "The
Salvation of Nature" (1887) is far more cynical, as is James Elroy
FLECKER's "The Last Generation" (1908), in which mankind accepts
extinction voluntarily. 20th-century religious apocalyptic
fantasies-notable among them R.H. BENSON's Lord of the World (1907) - tend
to revel in the expectation that an imminent end of the world will put a
well deserved end to apostasy and decadence. There was a dramatic
resurgence of apocalyptic scientific romance after WWI, among them many
bitter parables arguing that modern men and women thoroughly deserved to
lose all the gifts of civilization because of their stupid inability to
refrain from warfare. Notable examples include Edward SHANKS's The People
of the Ruins (1920), Cicely HAMILTON's Theodore Savage (1922; rev vt Lest
Ye Die 1928), Neil BELL's The Seventh Bowl (1930 as by Miles), John
GLOAG's Tomorrow's Yesterday (1932) and J. Leslie MITCHELL's Gay Hunter
(1934).In fictions of this subgenre the impending end of the world is
often foreseen (sometimes mistakenly) by the characters involved, and
there are many stories in which those armed with foresight set out to make
what preparations they can (usually derided by their neighbours - but they
laughed at Noah, too). Examples include The Second Deluge (1912) by
Garrett P. SERVISS, Nordenholt's Million (1923) by J.J. CONNINGTON, When
Worlds Collide (1933) by Philip WYLIE and Edwin BALMER and "Ark of Fire"
(1937-8) by John Hawkins. There are many stories in which only a few
people are able to escape atomic war, in shelters, or to escape into space
when the Sun goes nova; examples include Death of a World (1948) by J.
Jefferson FARJEON and One in Three Hundred (1954) by J.T. MCINTOSH. A more
subtle version explores the effect on various characters of the knowledge
(again sometimes mistaken) that the world will end. Early examples are
William MINTO's The Crack of Doom (1886) and Hugh KINGSMILL's "The End of
the World" (1924); more recent ones are "The Last Night of the World"
(1951) by Ray BRADBURY, "The Last Day" (1953) by Richard MATHESON and On
the Beach (1957) by Nevil SHUTE.The early sf PULP MAGAZINES featured
numerous luridly bleak visions of the end of the human race, and of the
Earth itself, including Donald WANDREI's "The Red Brain" (1927), Amelia
Long's "Omega" (1932) and L.H. Morrow's "Omega - The Man" (1933), but such
stories appeared alongside others which were confident that mankind could
outlast the Earth, if necessary, and need not be unduly troubled by the
prospect of its end - a notion rarely met outside the magazines, although
a notable exception is J.B.S. HALDANE's "The Last Judgment" (1927).
Humanity lives on beyond the death of Earth in John W. CAMPBELL Jr's
"Voice of the Void" (1930) and Arthur C. CLARKE's supremely smug "Rescue
Party" (1946) - but Campbell also wrote stories in which mankind became
extinct and Clarke's "The Nine Billion Names of God" (1953) makes an
apocalyptic joke out of the smugness of Western Man. The theme continued
to evoke mixed emotions no matter what new twists were given to it. Edmond
HAMILTON's "Requiem" (1962) is a poignant story which regrets the
commercial exploitation of the Earth's death as a spectacular tv show for
a Galaxy-wide audience.The idea that we might easily destroy ourselves and
our world as our WEAPONS of war become ever more powerful gained ground
steadily throughout the 1920s and 1930s. The atomic bomb in H.G. Wells's
The World Set Free (1914) is fairly feeble, but the one in Harold
NICOLSON's Public Faces (1932) is more like the real thing. The "ultimate
deterrent" or "Doomsday weapon" was introduced (and used) in The Last Man
(1940; vt No Other Man) by Alfred NOYES. Such anxiety became extreme in
Alfred BESTER's "Adam and No Eve" (1941), in which atomic destruction
requires evolution to begin all over again in the sea. After Hiroshima the
possibility of imminent atomic holocaust was clear to everyone, and lent
new pertinence to apocalyptic thinking. It seemed entirely likely that the
world would end with a bang and not a whimper after all, despite the broad
sexual pun in the title of Damon KNIGHT's last-man-meets-last-woman story,
"Not with a Bang" (1950). Notable examples of atomic- HOLOCAUST stories
include Shadow on the Hearth (1950) by Judith MERRIL, The Long Loud
Silence (1952) by Wilson TUCKER and Level 7 (1959) by Mordecai ROSHWALD.
The depth of the anxiety is perhaps better reflected by SATIRES and black
comedies than by earnest speculation; notable examples of bitterly ironic
apocalypses include Ward MOORE's Greener than You Think (1947), L. Sprague
DE CAMP's "Judgment Day" (1955), Kurt VONNEGUT Jr's Cat's Cradle (1963)
and Peter GEORGE's Dr Strangelove (1963). Fritz LEIBER's ironically
despairing vignettes, including "A Pail of Air" (1951), "The Moon is
Green" (1952) and "A Bad Day for Sales" (1953), are particularly effective
in combining poignancy with irony. The urgency of the anxiety is reflected
also in bleakly downbeat stories whose nihilistic temper is most unusual
for a pulp-descended genre; examples include Robert A. HEINLEIN's "Year of
the Jackpot" (1952), E.C. TUBB's "Tomorrow" (1954) and Robert SILVERBERG's
"Road to Nightfall" (1958). The post-WWII decade also produced sf's
boldest novel about the end of the Universe: James BLISH's The Triumph of
Time (1958; vt A Clash of Cymbals).This pattern of ironic despair, bitter
satire and grimly pessimistic "realism" extended into the 1960s and 1970s,
when many more causes for the sense of imminent doom were popularized,
including OVERPOPULATION and POLLUTION. Notable apocalyptic black comedies
from this period include The Genocides (1965) by Thomas M. DISCH and "The
Big Flash" (1969) by Norman SPINRAD. "When We Went to See the End of the
World" (1972) by Robert Silverberg is more slickly ironic. A savage sense
of despair is evident in "We All Die Naked" (1969) by James Blish and in
The End of the Dream (1972) by Philip Wylie. A note of ironic innovation
was struck by Poul ANDERSON's After Doomsday (1962), the first ever
whodunnit in which the Earth itself is the murder victim; equally ironic
in its own way is the ingenious "Inconstant Moon" (1971) by Larry NIVEN,
in which a sudden increase in the Moon's brightness reveals to those who
can deduce its meaning that the Sun has gone nova and that dawn will bring
destruction.The increasing familiarity and plausibility of the idea of an
imminent apocalypse has promoted the production of surreal apocalyptic
visions both inside and outside the genre. Examples include the title
story of Up and Out (coll 1957) by John Cowper POWYS, Ice (1967) by Anna
KAVAN, both stories in Apocalypses (coll 1977) by R.A. LAFFERTY, God's
Grace (1982) by Bernard MALAMUD and Galapagos (1985) by Kurt Vonnegut Jr.
A similar spirit is detectable in those CYBERPUNK stories which use the
obliteration or radical metamorphosis of Earthly civilization almost as a
throwaway idea; examples include Bruce STERLING's SCHISMATRIX (1985) and
Michael SWANWICK's Vacuum Flowers (1987). The end of the Universe is
similarly relegated to throwaway status in Charles SHEFFIELD's Between the
Strokes of Night (1985). An authentic emotional depth is, however,
conserved by such poignantly bitter accounts as Hilbert SCHENCK's A ROSE
FOR ARMAGEDDON (1982), Frederik POHL's "Fermi and Frost" (1985) and James
K. MORROW's heart-rending THIS IS THE WAY THE WORLD ENDS (1986).The end of
the Cold War may soothe anxieties about nuclear war, and the anticipated
hysteria which forms the basis of such sardonic millenarian fantasies as
Russell M. GRIFFIN's Century's End (1981) and John KESSEL's GOOD NEWS FROM
OUTER SPACE (1989) is not to be taken seriously, but there has recently
been a boom in cosmic-disaster stories occasioned by the fashionability of
the celebrated question: "If we're not alone in the Universe, where are
they?" Apocalyptic "explanations" of this presumed enigma include Across
the Sea of Suns (1984) by Gregory BENFORD and The Forge of God (1987) by
Greg BEAR.A theme anthology is The End of the World (anth 1956) ed Donald
A. WOLLHEIM. A notable collection of essays on apocalyptic literature is
The End of the World (anth 1983) ed Eric S. RABKIN, Martin H. GREENBERG
and Joseph D. OLANDER. [BS]See also: ENTROPY; FAR FUTURE.



(1901-1970) US writer and translator, some of whose realistic FANTASY
novels can in a marginal sense be considered as sf ( PSYCHOLOGY). The best
known is The Werewolf of Paris (1933), set in the shambles of 1871 Paris,
where a French soldier is succumbing to lycanthropy; this represents on a
human scale the civic trauma of the body politic as the Commune falls.
Methinks the Lady (1945), a courtroom drama, explains its central female
Jekyll-and-Hyde character in Freudian terms. Though having relatively
little influence on the sf field, SGE was a highly effective purveyor of
sexual fantasies; he did not mince words. He collaborated on the scripts
of the films The DEVIL-DOLL and Mad Love (a version of ORLACS HANDE).
[JC]Other works: The Man from Limbo (1930).See also: GOTHIC SF;


Film (1985). Kings Road Entertainment/20th Century-Fox. Dir Wolfgang
Petersen, starring Dennis Quaid, Louis Gossett Jr. Screenplay Edward
Khmara, based on Enemy Mine (1979 IASFM; 1989 chap dos) by Barry B.
LONGYEAR. 108 mins, cut to 93 mins. Colour.During a space battle between
humans and the reptilian (and hermaphroditic) Dracs, two pilots, one from
each species, crashland on an inimical planet. The human (Quaid) and the
Drac (Gossett) first try to kill one another, but soon reach an uneasy
rapprochement, which warms into mutual respect and affection. When the
Drac dies giving birth, the man raises the infant. It is later captured by
illegal slaver/miners, its adoptive father being left for dead. However,
he returns with assistance, the miners are defeated, and the child is
saved. This uneven film works quite well on the intimate level, with
excellent small moments of culture clash and mutual education; Gosset's
performance is memorably good. On the larger scale, the effects creating
the planetary surface and, at the end, the Drac planet are striking. But
the film's earnest liberalism is both preachy and slickly sentimental,
with too many scenes designed to evoke tearful, kneejerk responses; and
overall it seems more selfconscious than the much earlier ROBINSON CRUSOE
ON MARS (1964), the Crusoe-Friday parts of which its plot somewhat
resembles. The novelization is Enemy Mine * (1985) by Barry B. Longyear
and David GERROLD. [PN]See also: CINEMA.


(1933- ) US writer, employed in the field of computer programming
1957-67. Her novels, though marketed as juveniles, appeal as well to
adults for their intelligence and humanity. Enchantress from the Stars
(1970) and its sequel The Far Side of Evil (1971) are perhaps her
best-known works. The first describes, with suggestive analogues between
traditional and technological versions of crucial events (to a savage, all
technology is MAGIC), the early career of Elena, who is in the
Anthropological Service and must protect the "primitive" culture of one
planet from a technologically more advanced culture from a neighbouring
world. The second continues her career on another planet, which SLE
describes as a totalitarian DYSTOPIA. A second series consists of This
Star Shall Abide (1972; vt Heritage of the Star 1973 UK), Beyond the
Tomorrow Mountains (1973) and The Doors of the Universe (1981). The
societal design in these books, set on a planet with an imposed RELIGION,
takes, not unusually, the shape of a pyramid, with benign but hidden
representatives of an alien race ruling the world; more surprising is
SLE's refusal to dismantle - after the time-honoured pattern - this
hierarchy. [JC/PN]Other works: Journey Between Worlds (1970).As Editor:
The Universe Ahead: Stories of the Future (anth 1975) with Rick Roberson;
Anywhere, Anywhere: Stories of Tomorrow (anth 1976).Nonfiction: The
Planet-Girded Suns: Man's View of the Other Solar Systems (1974); The
Subnuclear Zoo: New Discoveries in High Energy Physics (1977) with Rick
Roberson.See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

(1916-1964) US author, with Emanuel S. PILLER, of one of the very first
Cold War dreadful-warning nuclear- WAR novels, The World Aflame: The
Russian-American War of 1950 (1947), in which the USA's monopoly of the
A-bomb - and use of it in a first strike - proves insufficient to crush
the Red hordes; a despairing humaneness invests the final pages. LE also
edited a nonfiction anthology, New Worlds of Modern Science (anth 1956).

(1915-1986) Canadian editor, book packager and writer; he edited UNCANNY
TALES 1940-43 in Canada, and SPACE SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE and Tales of
the Frightened in 1957. He also produced the Richard Blade
SWORD-AND-SORCERY sequence, writing an unknown number of the titles under
the house name Jeffrey Lord (most were by Roland J. GREEN). Through his
packaging firm, Book Creations Inc., LKE created the Kent Family
Chronicles, which made their author, John JAKES, famous. [JC]

[s] L. Ron HUBBARD.

(1933- ) US librarian and writer whose first sf novel, ARSLAN (1976; vt A
Wind from Bukhara 1979 UK), established a strong underground reputation in
its first incarnation as a paperback original; a hardbound edition has
since been released. Arslan, a young warlord from NEAR-FUTURE Turkestan,
has enigmatically conquered both the USA and the USSR. He personally
occupies the small Illinois town of Kraftsville, mentally and physically
seducing a teenage boy while at the same time driving the book's
protagonist into a state of powerful ambivalence about the cunning rape of
his land. The book is subtle, seductive and very frightening. The House in
the Snow (1987) is a juvenile of marginal interest. Wheel of the Winds
(1988), a complex tale set on an alien planet and told from an alien
perspective, perhaps inevitably lacks the hypnotic grip of ARSLAN, but the
deadpan narrative "face" of this superficially cold novel conceals layers
of passion. The main CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGHS offered by the novel will be
those experienced by the reader. Rainbow Man (1993) incorporates a sharp
SATIRE on RELIGION into a tale whose star-hopping female protagonist
displays an implausible and incorrigible innocence in the face of
extremely clear warnings; but in the end does manage to escape the
fundamentalist planet. [JC]


(1877-1936) US explorer and author of, inter alia, 5 sf novels and over a
dozen magazine serials and short stories from 1905 on; these appeared
predominantly in Frank A. MUNSEY's magazines, where he was one of the more
popular writers of the pre-1926 period, ranking as the closest rival in sf
to Edgar Rice BURROUGHS. His stories were occasionally derivative: his
serial "The House of Transformation" (1909) and his short story "The Thing
from - Outside" (1923) are reminiscent of, respectively, H.G. WELLS's The
Island of Dr Moreau (1896) and Algernon BLACKWOOD's "The Willows"
(1907).Several themes recur in his writings. IMMORTALITY and the elixir of
youth appear in his LOST-WORLD serial "Beyond White Seas" (1909-10) and in
another serial, "The Elixir of Hate" (1911), which presents more
sophisticated characterization and ethical analysis than appears elsewhere
in his PULP-MAGAZINE work. Socialist thought, in the mode of Jack LONDON,
shapes the anticapitalist stances of The Air Trust (1915) and The Golden
Blight (1912 Cavalier; 1916); the first centres on a monopoly on air, the
second on a ray that temporarily changes gold to ash. The latter has
strong racist overtones, as does his most popular work, a long post-
HOLOCAUST novel set in a devastated USA about 1000 years hence, Darkness
and Dawn (1912-13 Cavalier as 3 separate serials, "Darkness and Dawn",
"Beyond the Great Oblivion" and "The Afterglow"; fixup 1914; rev in 5 vols
as Darkness and Dawn 1964, Beyond the Great Oblivion 1965, The People of
the Abyss 1966, Out of the Abyss 1967, and The Afterglow 1967).Other works
of interest include "The Empire of the Air" (1914), a serialized novel of
INVASION by immaterial beings from the fourth DIMENSION, and "June 6,
2016" (1916), a short story with elaborate future gadgetry and a feminist
twist. The Flying Legion (1920) is a heist story of the NEAR FUTURE
involving advanced weaponry and the theft from Mecca of Islam's most
sacred relic. "The Fatal Gift" (1915), a serial, deals with the production
of a superwoman by plastic surgery. Lesser works are: "The Time Reflector"
(1905), about an invention for viewing the past; "A Message from the Moon"
(1907), in which advertising matter is projected onto the Moon; "My Time
Annihilator" (1909), ostensibly about TIME TRAVEL to the past but really
about madness; "He of the Glass Heart" (1911), featuring an artificial
heart; and "Drops of Death" (1922), a scientific detective story. "The
Tenth Question" (1916), a mathematical puzzle story ( MATHEMATICS), was
later rewritten by Stanley G. WEINBAUM as "Brink of Infinity" (1936).
[JE/EFB]Other works: Keep Off the Grass (1919).See also: CITIES;


(1952- ) US writer whose NEAR-FUTURE sf novel, Body Mortgage (1989),
tells in a CYBERPUNK idiom the tale of a Chicago private eye on the track
of a body-parts scam in the immediate run-up to the millennium. RE's
obvious competence would show more clearly, perhaps, in a more fully
original setting. [JC]See also: MEDICINE.

[s] Charles NUETZEL.

(1946- ) US industrial chemist and writer whose first novel, Encounter
Program (1977), attempts to deal with a late-century sf problem - how to
cope with ALIENS when we encounter them - in the language of SPACE OPERAS
published 50 years earlier, when the problem was easier to solve. Beta
Colony (1980) commits similar errors of register. [JC]


In its strict meaning, "entropy" is a thermodynamics term, first used by
the German physicist Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888) in 1850 to describe the
amount of heat that must be put into a closed system to bring it to a
given state. The Second Law of Thermodynamics - often stated in terms of
work as "it is impossible to produce work by transferring heat from a cold
body to a hot body in any self-sustaining process" - can alternatively be
rendered: "Entropy always increases in any closed system not in
equilibrium, and remains constant for a system that is in equilibrium."To
put it less technically: whenever there is a flow of energy some is always
lost as low-level heat. For example, in a steam engine, the friction of
the piston is manifested in non-useful heat, and hence some of the energy
put into it is not turned into work. There is no such thing as a
friction-free system, and for that reason no such thing as a perfect
machine. Entropy is a measure of this loss. In a broader sense we can
refer to entropy as a measure of the order of a system: the higher the
entropy, the lower the order. There is more energy, for example, tied up
in complex molecules than in simple ones (they are more "ordered"); the
Second Law can therefore be loosely rephrased as "systems tend to become
less complex". Heat flows, so ultimately everything will tend to stabilize
at the same temperature. When this happens to literally everything - in
what is often called the heat-death of the Universe - entropy will have
reached its maximum, with no order left, total randomness, no life, the
end. (There is, however, an argument about whether the concept of entropy
can properly be related to the Universe as a whole.) Of course, the amount
of usable energy in the Universe, primarily supplied by the stars, is
unimaginably huge, and the heat-death of the Universe is billions of years
away. Isaac ASIMOV's amusing "The Last Question" (1956) has a
supercomputer, which for aeons has been worrying about the heat-death,
reversing entropy at the last possible moment. The scientist Freeman
DYSON, in "Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe"
(Review of Modern Physics July 1979), confronts the same question with a
similar optimism and, one must assume, rather better mathematics. Local
images of entropy, like the huge red Sun at the end of H.G. WELLS's THE
TIME MACHINE (1895), long antedate the general use of the word; indeed,
dying-Earth stories generally ( END OF THE WORLD) can be seen as entropy
stories, both literally and metaphorically.Although "entropy" has been a
technical term for a long time, it is only since the early 1960s that it
has, in its extended meaning, become a fashionable concept (although the
word sometimes popped up in sf earlier, as in House of Entropy [1953] by
H.J. CAMPBELL as Roy SHELDON). Since the 1960s, to the annoyance of some
scientifically minded people, the extended concept of increasing entropy
includes holes wearing in socks, refrigerators breaking down, coalminers
going on strike, and death. These are indeed all examples of increasing
disorder in a technical though not necessarily a moral sense. Life itself
is a highly ordered state, and in its very existence is an example of
negative entropy (negentropy). It is as if, though the Universe is running
down, there are whirlpools of local activity where things are winding up.
All forms of information, whether in the form of the DNA code or the
contents of this encyclopedia, can be seen as examples of negentropy. It
is natural, then, that a popular variant on the entropy story is the
DEVOLUTION story.Entropy has become a potent metaphor. It is uncertain who
first introduced the term into sf, but it is likely that Philip K. DICK,
who makes much of the concept in nearly all his work, was the first to
popularize it. He spells it out in DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP?
(1968), where entropy, or increasing disorder, is imaged as "kipple":
"Kipple is useless objects, like junk mail or match folders after you use
the last match or gum wrappers or yesterday's homeopape. When nobody's
around, kipple reproduces itself . . . the entire universe is moving
towards a final state of total, absolute kippleization."It was, however,
in NEW-WAVE writing, especially that associated with the magazine NEW
WORLDS, that the concept of entropy made its greatest inroads into sf.
J.G. BALLARD has used it a great deal, and did so as early as "The Voices
of Time" (1960), in which a count-down to the end of the Universe is
accompanied by more localized entropic happenings, including the
increasing sleepiness of the protagonist. Pamela ZOLINE's "The Heat Death
of the Universe" (1967), about the life of a housewife, is often quoted as
an example of the metaphoric use of entropy. Another example is "Running
Down" (1975) by M. John HARRISON, whose protagonist, a shabby man who
perishes in earthquake and storm, "carried his own entropy around with
him". The concept appears in the work of Thomas M. DISCH, Barry N.
leitmotiv, and also in nearly all the work of Brian W. ALDISS, which
typically displays a tension between entropy and negentropy, between
fecundity and life on the one hand, stasis, decay and death on the other.
Outside GENRE SF, Thomas PYNCHON has used images of entropy many times,
especially in GRAVITY'S RAINBOW (1973). George Alec EFFINGER's What
Entropy Means to Me (1972) is not in fact a hardcore entropy story at all
(apart from a tendency for things to go wrong), but Robert Silverberg's
"In Entropy's Jaws" (1971) is a real entropy story and a fine one,
exploring the metaphysics of the subject with care. Although it was in the
1960s and 1970s that the entropy-story peaked, the image is still used, as
in Dan SIMMONS's Entropy's Bed at Midnight (1990 chap).Colin GREENLAND
once wrote a critical book called The Entropy Exhibition: Michael Moorcock
and the UK "New Wave" (1983), and it is indeed Moorcock who has perhaps
made more complex use of entropy and negentropy than any other sf writer,
and not just in The Entropy Tango (fixup 1981); the two concepts run right
through his Dancers at the End of Time and Jerry Cornelius sequences.
Jerry Cornelius seems for a long time proof against entropy, and keeps
slipping into alternate realities as if in hope of finding one whose
vitality outlives its decay, but like a Typhoid Mary he carries the plague
of entropy with him, and ultimately, especially after the death of his
formidably vital and vulgar mother, succumbs to it himself, becoming
touchingly more human, though diminished.In all of these works, entropy is
a symbol or metaphor through which the fate of the macrocosm, the
Universe, can be linked to the fate of societies and of the individual - a
very proper subject for sf. Negentropy versus entropy is usually seen as
an unequal battle, David against Goliath, but sickness, sorrow, rusting,
cooling and death contrive to be held at bay, locally and occasionally, by
passion and movement and love. Looked at from this perspective, entropy is
one of the oldest themes in literature, the central concern, for example,
of Shakespeare, Donne, Milton and - especially - Charles DICKENS. [PN]

(1932- ) Canadian writer, formerly consulting economist to the European
Coal and Steel Community and a senior banker in Switzerland. Some of his
thrillers are genuine NEAR-FUTURE sf of an interesting kind. Sf writers
usually imagine future changes that are technological or political, seldom
ECONOMIC. Like the CYBERPUNK authors, though more "bestseller" than
cyberpunk in style, PEE recognizes the supra-national importance of giant
cartels in the world of tomorrow (and today). His thrillers involve the
manipulation of financial institutions; they portray a financial world of
frightening instability in which economic collapse followed by global
disorder and war could be catalysed by the actions of only a few
unscrupulous persons. After the success of The Billion Dollar Killing
(1973) and The Silver Bears (1974), both set more or less in the present,
PEE wrote three NEAR-FUTURE novels: The Crash of '79 (1976), The Last Days
of America (1981) and The Panic of '89 (1986), in each of which world
catastrophe is only a year or two ahead. In the first, oil money
destabilizes the US banking system and then the world's, and there are
prophetic observations about Iran. [PN]Other works: The Palace (1987).See

Working name of US writer Stephen Michael Erickson (1950- ), active as a
journalist for some years before his first novel, Days Between Stations
(1985), quickly established his reputation as an author of dark,
journey-haunted, surreal FABULATIONS about the USA and the 20th century.
Labyrinthine figurations of apocalypse dominate his grey and hyperbolic
landscapes; but a powerful sense of geography, notable also in the first
Surrealists, gives each of his novels a local habitation. Days Between
Stations, set mainly on an allegorically split river, features the
attempts of two sensually linked people to make sense of their pasts;
Rubicon Beach (1986) is a more specific allegory of the USA, as are Tours
of the Black Clock (1989) and the semidocumentary Leap Year (1989). Arc
d'X (1993) traces the consequences of the relationship between Thomas
Jefferson and Sally Hemings, a black slave who becomes his mistress,
through a variety of ALTERNATE WORLDS, at least one of which is described
through scenes set in 1999. Although sf instruments sometime protrude
through the texture of these tales, they are in no telling sense works of
genre. [JC]


[s] Forrest J. ACKERMAN.


(1899-1985) US writer, mostly of short fiction for pulp markets,
sometimes under his own name and sometimes (once in Weird Tales) under the
pseudonym Paul Frederick Stern; he should not be confused with the Paul
Ernst (1886-? ) who wrote 1930s detective novels. His first published
story may have been "The Temple of Serpents" for Weird Tales in 1928, and
he remained extremely active throughout the 1930s, writing for sf, fantasy
and hero magazines. In the last capacity, under the house name Kenneth
ROBESON, he was responsible for much of the contents of The Avenger,
writing all 23 novel-length stories for that magazine in 1939, each
featuring The Avenger, a SUPERHERO who fought a wide range of villains;
the Robeson house name had already been made popular by Lester DENT in DOC
SAVAGE MAGAZINE, and it was in an attempt to cash in on the success of the
name that it was offered for PE's use.These tales all appeared in book
form in the 1970s as Justice, Inc * (1972), The Yellow Hoard * (1972), The
Sky Walker * (1972), The Devil's Horns * (1972), The Frosted Death *
(1972), The Blood Ring * (1972), Stockholders in Death * (1972), The Glass
Mountain * (1973), Tuned for Murder * (1973), The Smiling Dogs * (1973),
River of Ice * (1973), The Flame Breathers * (1973), Murder on Wheels *
(1973), Three Gold Crowns * (1973), House of Death * (1973), The Hate
Master * (1973), Nevlo * (1973), Death in Slow Motion* (1973), Pictures of
Death * (1973), The Green Killer * (1974), The Happy Killers * (1974), The
Black Death * (1974), The Wilder Curse * (1974) and Midnight Murder *
(1974), the last being from 1940. (Subsequent The Avenger novels in the
1970s series were originals written by Ron GOULART, also as Robeson.) PE's
Doctor Satan series in Weird Tales is fantasy along conventional
hero-villain lines; five of these stories were reprinted as Dr Satan (coll
1974 chap) ed Robert E. WEINBERG. His sf stories - the first of which were
"The Black Monarch" (1930 Weird Tales) and "Marooned under the Sea" (1930
ASF)-include "The Microscopic Giants" (1936) and "Nothing Happens on the
Moon" (1939). PE was less prolific after the 1930s. [PN/JC]See also:


[r] Ian CAMERON.

(1788-1870) UK writer, mostly of religious texts, whose anonymously
published SATIRES, Armata: A Fragment (1816 or 1817 - the date is
controversial) and The Second Part of Armata(1817) - the two texts are
most commonly found bound together in various printings which are,
however, all dated 1817 - describes a society on another planet rather
similar to Earth and reachable via our South Pole, to which it is
attached. [JC]

(1894-1985) UK popular novelist, active for much of the century, whose
one sf novel, Woman Alive (1935), flips the more usual last-man-alive
theme in a story of the last woman alive, after all other females have
died of a post-war plague in 1985. [JC]


Film (1981). Avco Embassy/International Film Investors/Goldcrest. Dir
John CARPENTER, prod Larry Franco and Debra Hill, starring Kurt Russell,
Lee Van Cleef, Donald Pleasence, Ernest Borgnine, Harry Dean Stanton,
Adrienne Barbeau, Isaac Hayes. Screenplay Carpenter, Nick Castle. 99 mins.
Colour.The idea is wonderful. In 1997 the whole of Manhattan Island is a
penal colony, surrounded by minefields and unscalable walls and inhabited
by criminal scum and crazies. In this inferno lands the US President (a
creepy performance from Pleasence) after a plane crash. War-hero and
criminal Snake Plissken (Russell), implanted with 24-hour-fused explosives
to ensure his voluntary return, is sent in to get the President out.
Looking like an attempt to recapture some of the brilliance of Carpenter's
first major thriller, Assault on Precinct 13 (1976), the film instead
loses itself in routine though colourful macho confrontations; it is a
little reminiscent of the exploitation formula of the MAD MAX sequence,
and is not helped by Russell's inexpressive performance. [PN]

Film (1971). Apjac/20th Century-Fox. Dir Don Taylor, starring Roddy
McDowall, Kim Hunter, Bradford Dillman, Natalie Trundy, William Windom.
Screenplay Paul Dehn, based on characters created by Pierre BOULLE. 97
mins. Colour.This is the third of the five PLANET OF THE APES films. When
the late UK screenwriter Paul Dehn - author of Quake, Quake, Quake (coll
1961), a series of parody verses, illustrated by Edward Gorey, on the
aftermaths of the nuclear age - had been working on the second ( BENEATH
THE PLANET OF THE APES [1970]) he had been told it would be the last, so
he decided to end the film by destroying the whole world with an atomic
explosion. Four months later he received a telegram from Fox saying: "Apes
exist, sequel required." His ingenious answer was to send three of the
apes by TIME TRAVEL back to before the world exploded. They arrive in the
contemporary USA and immediately become the centre of a violent
controversy which results in their deaths, but not before the female who
featured in the first two films has given birth to a baby ape. This
mixture of SATIRE and action/adventure is much more sentimental than its
hard-edged predecessors, but more entertaining than those that followed.
The novelization is Escape from the Planet of the Apes * (1974) by Jerry


Alexander KEY.

Eschatology is the class of theological doctrine pertaining to death and
the subsequent fate of the soul, and to the ultimate fate of the world.
Stories of the FAR FUTURE and the END OF THE WORLD can be categorized as
eschatological, but are considered separately; this section deals mainly
with the idea of personal survival after death.Ancient Egyptian RELIGION
included an inordinately complex set of eschatological beliefs (explored
in sf in Roger ZELAZNY's Creatures of Light and Darkness [1969]) which
influenced most subsequent eschatologies. Christian eschatology is, of
course, basically dualistic, contrasting Heaven and Hell, but it has
variants which are more complex, incorporating Purgatory and Limbo, and
including an involved demonology. A common strategy employed by sf writers
writing pure FANTASY (as for instance in the magazine UNKNOWN) is to
import a judicious measure of common sense into settings derived from
classical MYTHOLOGY or the Christian demonological schema, usually with
comic results - although unorthodox horror stories sometimes result.The
growth of the SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE in the late 19th century coincided with
the growth of the Spiritualist movement. The Spiritualists popularized an
eroded version of Christian eschatology with some added jargon involving
the "astral plane" and like concepts. Spiritualist beliefs influenced
several early sf writers, including Camille FLAMMARION and Arthur Conan
DOYLE; Doyle's later works - particularly The Land of Mist (1926) and "The
Maracot Deep" (in The Maracot Deep and Other Stories coll 1929) - are
markedly affected. There is an abundance of Spiritualist fiction, but
whether any of this can be considered sf is dubious, despite the
pseudo-scientific endeavours of Johann Zollner (1834-1882), author of
Transcendental Physics (1865), and other psychic theorists. The most
heavily sciencefictionalized of these Spiritualist fantasies is Allen
UPWARD's The Discovery of the Dead (1910), which recounts the revelations
of a "necroscope". An early pulp-sf writer who dabbled in Spiritualist
fiction was Ralph Milne FARLEY, as in Dangerous Love (1931; 1946). More
interesting is David LINDSAY's interstellar fantasy A VOYAGE TO ARCTURUS
(1920), which inverts conventional Spiritualist ideas and routine
eschatological aspirations, imagining an intrinsically painful destiny.The
idea that scientists might one day prove the existence of the elusive soul
and build traps for it is featured in Charles B. STILSON's curious
"Liberty or Death!" (1917; vt "The Soul Trap"), and is developed more
ambitiously in The Weigher of Souls (1931) by Andre MAUROIS. Maurois may
have borrowed his inspiration from the fantasy Spirite (1865; trans 1877)
by Theophile Gautier (1811-1872), and his example inspired in its turn
Romain GARY's satirical soul-trapping story The Gasp (1973), in which the
inexhaustible energy of the soul is quickly exploited as an industrial
resource. In all these examples, as in most stories in which people
supposedly trespass on divine prerogatives, no good comes of it all. Nor
does it in Maurice RENARD's Le docteur Lerne, sous-dieu (1908; trans as
New Bodies for Old 1923 US), when an experiment in metempsychosis ends
with the imprisonment of a person's soul in the engine of a motor car. An
experiment in communication with the dead ends tragically in The Edge of
Running Water (1939; vt The Unquiet Corpse) by William M. SLOANE. A
curious corollary of the conviction that "there are things Man is not
meant to know" is the profusion of afterlife fantasies in which characters
realize only at the story's end that they have been dead since its
beginning; two which transcend the banality of the plot are Ray BRADBURY's
"Pillar of Fire" (1948) and Flann O'BRIEN's The Third Policeman
(1967).C.S. LEWIS's theological fantasy The Great Divorce (1945)
acknowledges that some of the ideas used in formulating its image of
Heaven are borrowed from sf, but sf writers were slow to develop the
hypothesis that future TECHNOLOGY might succeed in securing the life after
death that God and Nature had failed to provide. Robert SHECKLEY's
melodrama of technological REINCARNATION, Immortality Delivered (1958; exp
vt Immortality, Inc. 1959), is an early example which skates lightly over
the experience of disembodied existence and the question of ultimate
destiny. Thomas M. DISCH's ON WINGS OF SONG (1979) features a technology
which grants out-of-body experiences to almost everyone, but Disch is
likewise coy about the possibility of universal life after death. A
similar hesitancy is seen in the many stories which Philip Jose FARMER has
devoted to eschatological matters, including Inside Outside (1964),
Traitor to the Living (1973) and the Riverworld series. More ambitious and
more convincing stories of technological afterlife include Robert
SILVERBERG's "Born with the Dead" (1974), Lisa TUTTLE's "The Hollow Man"
(1979) and Lucius SHEPARD's account of biotechnological zombies, Green
Eyes (1984). Silverberg had earlier written To Live Again (1969) on a less
interesting eschatological theme; here the personas of living persons are
regularly "recorded" so that, after the death of the body, the most recent
recording can be introduced into the mind of a host. Similar recording
processes are featured - without the consequent overcrowding of skulls on
which Silverberg focuses - in other stories of reincarnation, including
nasty-minded Crystal Phoenix (1980).Some writers have sciencefictionalized
the Christian notion of the soul, imagining it as an alien symbiont (
PARASITISM AND SYMBIOSIS) which invests living beings and survives their
deaths. Clifford D. SIMAK, in Time and Again (1951; vt First He Died
1953), makes no attempt to describe the life led by such symbionts when
apart from their hosts, but Bob SHAW, in The Palace of Eternity (1969), is
more ambitious, equating the pseudoastral plane with the extradimensional
HYPERSPACE employed by the starships to transcend Einsteinian limitations.
In Deane ROMANO's Flight from Time One (1972) the astral plane is no
sooner discovered by science than exploited, but the novel follows the
exploits of "astralnauts" without saying anything about the spirits of the
departed. Rudy RUCKER's WHITE LIGHT (1980) is much more courageous and
ingenious in following the venerable example of C.H. HINTON by recruiting
mathematical speculations about infinity (and Cantor's extrapolated
hierarchy of infinities on infinities) to construct a metaphysics which
includes an afterlife. Harlan ELLISON's "The Region Between" (1970) is a
bold surreal melodrama featuring soul-predation. A particularly poignant
story in which science ultimately reveals that human personalities do live
on after death is Richard COWPER's "The Tithonian Factor" (1983), which
considers the plight of those who have already accepted an inferior
technology of IMMORTALITY. Special eschatologies are sometimes devised for
individual characters: death as metamorphosis is often featured in the
work of Charles L. HARNESS and the later work of Robert A. HEINLEIN, and
is notable in Thomas M. DISCH's CAMP CONCENTRATION (1968). ALIENS often
fare better than humans in this breed of sf, having some kind of afterlife
built into their BIOLOGY; examples can be found in Poul ANDERSON's "The
Martyr" (1960), George R.R. MARTIN's "A Song for Lya" (1974) and Nicholas
Yermakov's The Last Communion (1981) and its sequels. Some writers have
developed this line of thought on a grander scale, moving eschatological
speculation to a level which takes in entire species, or even the entire
Universe. Arthur C. CLARKE's CHILDHOOD'S END (1953) features the
transcendent "apotheosis" of mankind's superior descendants, producing an
image very similar to that evoked by the heretical Jesuit and evolutionist
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955); Teilhard's ideas are overtly
invoked in George ZEBROWSKI's The Omega Point Trilogy (omni 1983).Although
they are not sf, mention must be made of a recent group of quasi-Dantean
fantasies by sf writers. Inferno (1975) by Larry NIVEN and Jerry POURNELLE
was the apparent inspiration for a series of SHARED-WORLD anthologies and
novels "created" by Janet E. MORRIS, begun with Heroes in Hell (anth 1986)
and The Gates of Hell (1986); Robert Silverberg's contributions featuring
Gilgamesh were subsequently reassembled in To the Land of the Living
(fixup 1989). A much more earnest and varied theme anthology - one of the
best of its kind - is Afterlives (anth 1986) ed Pamela SARGENT and Ian
WATSON, whose contributions, mostly original to the volume, range over the
entire spectrum of eschatological fantasy and sf. Outstanding among the sf
stories are Gregory BENFORD's "Of Space-Time and the River", Rudy Rucker's
"In Frozen Time" and Watson's own "The Rooms of Paradise"; Watson is also
the author of the very eschatological novel Deathhunter (1981). [BS]See


(1910- ) US writer and publisher, and an sf enthusiast from an early age.
Though his work as a publisher has always - and probably rightly - been
deemed his main contribution to the field, a splurge of novels in the
1980s, after he had been inactive as a writer for many years, has focused
some attention on his auctorial work. He began publishing sf with "The Man
with the Silver Disc" for Scientific Detective in 1930, and for some years
wrote fairly prolifically for the PULP MAGAZINES; the best of this early
work was assembled in The Tyrant of Time (coll 1955), a volume published
by his own FANTASY PRESS, which he had formed in 1946; it was probably the
best of the SMALL PRESSES founded after the war to put into book form the
novels and stories that had been accumulating in magazines since the
founding of AMAZING STORIES in 1926. In 1952 he began a short-lived
companion imprint, Polaris Press. For Fantasy Press LAE edited the first
published book about modern sf: Of Worlds Beyond: The Science of Science
Fiction Writing (anth 1947), a symposium of essays by such authors as John
W. CAMPBELL Jr, Robert A. HEINLEIN and A.E. VAN VOGT. Over My Shoulder:
Reflections on a Science Fiction Era (1983), told in memoir form, is a
history of the sf specialist presses from the 1930s to the 1950s.In the
1980s LAE turned again to fiction. He edited P. Schuyler MILLER's Alice in
Wonderland parody, Alicia in Blunderland (1933 Science Fiction Digest as
by Nihil; 1983), and he sorted out and completed a manuscript left by his
old friend E.E. "Doc" SMITH, publishing it as Subspace Encounter (1983) by
Smith, ed LAE. His major work of the decade, the Gates of Lucifer sequence
- The Land Beyond the Gate (1984), The Armlet of the Gods (1986), The
Sorceress of Scath (1988) and The Scroll of Lucifer (1990) - does not
forge its way into new territory, though the facility which LAE displays
in putting his protagonist through various paces in various mythic venues
is notable in an author so long inactive. Like Jack WILLIAMSON's, his
career has extended throughout almost the entire history of the modern
GENRE SF, which he continues to grace in his supporting role. [JC/MJE]See

An acronym (for extra-sensory perception) popularized by the pioneering
exercise in parapsychology Extra-Sensory Perception (1934) by J.B. Rhine
(1895-1980), which attempted to repackage folkloristic notions of "second
sight" or a "sixth sense" in scientific jargon. Definitions of the term
"ESP" vary, but it may be taken to include clairvoyance, telepathy and
precognition; many modern sf stories deal also with a restricted kind of
telepathy, empathy, in which only feelings and not thoughts may be
perceived. Stories about new senses and eccentric augmentations of
existing ones are covered in the article on PERCEPTION. Rhine's
investigations of ESP eventually broadened out to take in a fuller
spectrum of wild talents; for stories about psychokinesis, teleportation
and mental fire-raising PSI POWERS.The late 19th century saw a boom in
occult romances featuring various kinds of extra-sensory perceptions;
attempts by the Society for Psychical Research and other bodies to account
for such phenomena in scientific terms helped bring many such romances
close to the sf borderline, and encouraged more thoughtful consideration
of the implications of possessing these powers. A Seventh Child (1894) by
"John Strange Winter" (Henrietta Stannard [1856-1911]), Kark Grier: The
Strange Story of a Man with a Sixth Sense (1906) by Louis TRACY and The
Sixth Sense (1915) by Stephen McKenna (1885-1967) are trivial, but they
helped pave the way for Muriel JAEGER's The Man with Six Senses (1927),
the first attempt to extrapolate such a hypothesis carefully and
painstakingly - and to conclude that it might better be reckoned a curse
than a blessing. Some early pulp-sf stories were also cautionary tales,
including Edmond HAMILTON's "The Man who Saw the Future" (1930) and "The
Man with X-Ray Eyes" (1933).The notion that new powers of ESP might be
developed in the course of humankind's future EVOLUTION, although treated
sceptically by H.G. WELLS, was developed by several of the UK writers he
influenced, including J.D. BERESFORD in The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911) and
Olaf STAPLEDON in LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930). It also became a standard
theme in GENRE SF, where in the late 1930s Rhine's work began to attract
interest along with that of Charles FORT, whose Wild Talents (1932) had
dealt extensively with ESP. ESP quickly became part of the standard
repertoire of the pulp SUPERMAN, much encouraged by A.E. VAN VOGT's SLAN
(1940 ASF; 1946), in which a new race of telepaths struggles against the
prejudices of ordinary mortals - a theme further explored in such later
novels as Henry KUTTNER's MUTANT (1945-52 ASF; fixup 1953) and George O.
SMITH's Highways in Hiding (1956). John W. CAMPBELL Jr, the editor of
ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION, was eventually to become a fervent admirer of
Rhine, and ESP stories featured very prominently in the post-war
"psi-boom" which he engineered. Important products of this boom included
James BLISH's Jack of Eagles (1952; vt ESP-er 1958), Wilson TUCKER's Wild
Talent (1954) and Frank M. ROBINSON's The Power (1956). The variant title
of the first-named is a significant use of the term ESPER (found also in
Lloyd BIGGLE Jr's The Angry Espers [1961 dos]), which had first been
popularized in THE DEMOLISHED MAN (1953) by Alfred BESTER, a bold
pioneering attempt to depict a society into which espers are fully
integrated. Because the psi-boom years coincided with the early years of
the Cold War, Campbell's writers paid a good deal of attention to the
utility of telepathy in espionage - a frequent theme in the solo and
collaborative works of Randall GARRETT. Telepaths still occasionally find
such employment in such works as Stephen GOLDIN's Mindflight (1978),
Daniel Keys MORAN's Emerald Eyes (1988) and especially the Sensitives
series by Herbert Burkholz (1932- ) - The Sensitives (1987) and Strange
Bedfellows (1988) - but probably do more socially useful work as
psychotherapists, like those in John BRUNNER's THE WHOLE MAN (1958-9
Science Fantasy; fixup 1964; vt Telepathist UK) and Roger ZELAZNY's THE
DREAM MASTER (1966). ESP is sometimes invoked as a solution to the problem
of COMMUNICATION with ALIENS, although the logic of this is somewhat
suspect (thought is largely couched in language); one of the more
intelligent exercises in this vein is Edward LLEWELLYN's Word-Bringer
(1986).Sf writers, ever on the side of progress, usually side with
ESP-powered supermen against those who hate and fear them. Theodore
STURGEON's work includes many stories in which an ESP-based psychological
community is seen as a possible and highly desirable solution to ordinary
human alienation; examples include The Dreaming Jewels (1950; vt The
Synthetic Man), MORE THAN HUMAN (fixup 1953) and ". . . And My Fear is
Great" (1953). Other genre-sf writers who showed a consistently thoughtful
and positive interest in ESP-talented characters while the psi-boom
gradually lost its impetus included Zenna HENDERSON, in the long-running
People series collected in Pilgrimage (coll of linked stories 1961) and
The People: No Different Flesh (coll of linked stories 1966), James H.
SCHMITZ, in the Telzey Amberdon series and Agent of Vega (coll 1960),
Arthur SELLINGS, most notably in Telepath (1962) and The Uncensored Man
(1964), Frank HERBERT, especially in the series begun with DUNE (1965),
Marion Zimmer BRADLEY in the Darkover series, and Dan MORGAN in the
trilogy begun with The New Minds (1967).In Sturgeon's stories ESP often
compensates for other inadequacies - a common theme strikingly displayed
in such stories as Gene WOLFE's "The Eyeflash Miracles" (1976) and John
VARLEY's "The Persistence of Vision" (1978). In more extreme Sturgeon
stories, particularly MORE THAN HUMAN and The Cosmic Rape (1958), the
acquisition of telepathic powers becomes a kind of transcendental
breakthrough. Similarly transcendental ideas of psionic "cosmic community"
cropped up occasionally in the work of Clifford D. SIMAK, notably in Time
is the Simplest Thing (1961). Not all sf stories, however, place ESP in a
positive light. The kind of telepathic "gestalt-mind" featured in MORE
THAN HUMAN is given more sceptical treatment in The Inner Wheel (1970) by
Keith ROBERTS. The possible embarrassments of telepathy are pointed out in
Walter M. MILLER's "Command Performance" (1952; vt "Anybody Else Like
Me?"). Such novels as Andra MAUROIS's La machine a lire les pensees (1937;
trans as The Thought-Reading Machine 1938 UK) suggest that ESP abilities
might be utterly insignificant (though the Emotional Registers in the
latter book are purely mechanical devices), but other stories tend to an
opposite extreme; even Sturgeon, in his empath story "Need" (1961),
recognized that an ability to sense other people's pain might constitute
an appalling burden. Numerous tales, notably Lester DEL REY's Pstalemate
(1971) and Jack DANN's THE MAN WHO MELTED (1984), propose that people
endowed with ESP might very readily become insane, and the well adjusted
esper generally has to be credited with an ability to screen out unwanted
images, thoughts and feelings lest he or she should lose his or her true
self, as the hero of Roger ZELAZNY's Bridge of Ashes (1976) routinely
does. Unfortunate consequences of ESP endowment are elaborately described
in such novels as Joanna RUSS's AND CHAOS DIED (1970), Mike DOLINSKY's
Mind One (1972), Robert SILVERBERG's Dying Inside (1972) and Leigh
KENNEDY's The Journal of Nicholas the American (1986). Partly as a result
of these sceptical analyses, the idea that ESP might play a crucial role
in future human evolution has lost much of its fashionableness, although
it is a subsidiary element in Storm CONSTANTINE's not-altogether-earnest
Wraeththu trilogy (1987-9).Sf stories which isolate some aspect of ESP for
specific consideration usually deal (as do most of the above examples)
with telepathy, but there is also a notable tradition of stories dealing
specifically with precognition, and with the apparent paradoxes which
arise from having knowledge of the future. Characters whose foresight of
the future is perversely impotent extend from the hero of J.D. Beresford's
"Young Strickland's Career" (1921) to the heroine of C.J. CHERRYH's aptly
titled "Cassandra" (1978); and Philip K. DICK's "precogs", including the
one in The World Jones Made (1956), rarely get much joy out of their
abilities. Brian M. STABLEFORD's "The Oedipus Effect" (1991) borrows Karl
Popper's term for the effects which predictions have on the outcome of
situations in order to examine the paradoxicality of precognitive talents.
Robert Silverberg's The Stochastic Man (1975) considers precognition in
much the same sceptical way that his Dying Inside had examined telepathy.
Precognition of a patchy and teasingly perverse kind is a common element
in thrillers on the sf borderline; a notable example is Stephen KING's The
Dead Zone (1979).Despite the inconsistency displayed by supposedly
talented subjects and the fact that several of his best performers were
ultimately exposed as frauds, Rhine's intellectual descendants have
managed to cling to sufficient credibility to support the production of
numerous thrillers which deploy ESP without admitting to being sf;
examples include Mind out of Time (1958) by Angela TONKS and The Mind
Readers (1965) by Margery Allingham (1904-1966), though the latter uses a
mechanical device for mind-reading rather than ESP proper.
Parapsychological research labs are a common setting for stories on this
borderline. Lifestyle fantasists who pass themselves off as clairvoyants
or "psychics" are sometimes avid to help the police solve crimes; their
negligible success rate is, of course, much improved by their fictional
counterparts. Barry N. MALZBERG's and Bill PRONZINI's Night Screams (1979)
is an ironic reflection of the phenomenon, which remains a popular theme
in the CINEMA and TELEVISION.Two theme anthologies are 14 Great Tales of
ESP (anth 1969) ed Idella Purnell Stone and Frontiers II: The New Mind
(anth 1973) ed Roger ELWOOD. [PN/BS]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, a person who is able to use one or other of the powers
of ESP; ESP is usually regarded as including such "passive" powers as
telepathy (mind-reading) and perhaps precognition and clairvoyance; and
occasionally also the "active" psychic abilities - those that interact
with the world of matter, such as TELEKINESIS. However, most sf writers
reserve the terms PSIONICS or PSI POWERS for the full spectrum of such
abilities, reserving "ESP" for telepathy. James BLISH's novel Jack of
Eagles (1952) was given the variant title ESP-er in a 1958 reprint. [PN]

A short-lived (1968-9) Los Angeles publishing imprint, a subsidiary of
Milton Luros's Parliament News, Inc., specializing in highbrow erotica.
Many Essex House novelists were young serious writers (several of them
poets), and some used scenarios drawn from sf and fantasy, including
future DYSTOPIAS, as settings for their pornography. About half the 42
titles published by EH were sf/fantasy; they included novels by Philip
Jose FARMER, Richard E. GEIS, David MELTZER (perhaps the most
distinguished), Michael Perkins (1942- ) and Hank STINE, of which a number
were ambitious, some literary, and most somewhat joyless - even emetic-and
redolent of 1960s radicalism. The unusual aspirations of this imprint are
generally attributed to its young editor, Brian Kirby, who also edited the
pornographic books of the sister imprint, Brandon House. [PN]Further
reading: "Essex House: The Rise and Fall of Speculative Erotica" by Maxim
JAKUBOWSKI in Foundation #14 (1978); The Secret Record: Modern Erotic
Literature (1976 US) by Michael Perkins.See also: SEX.


(1952- ) US writer whose three sf novels - The Watchers of Space (1980),
Stranger from the Stars (1983) and The Crystal City (1985) - are
juveniles, but whose stories, beginning with "Clotaire's Balloon" (1984),
tend to be richly coloured, wry fantasies. She has also written some sf
and fantasy POETRY. [JC]

US BEDSHEET-size SEMIPROZINE. 4 issues July 1972-1975, 2 issues 1979-80;
published and ed Stephen Gregg from South Carolina. ESF was well produced
(two covers by Stephen FABIAN) and contributors included David R. BUNCH,
Barry N. MALZBERG and Roger ZELAZNY, as well as early work by Ed BRYANT
and Glen COOK, with some emphasis on experimental fiction and poetry. Like
most such magazines it seems to have been undercapitalized and to have had
inadequate distribution. [FHP/PN]


Film (1982). Universal. Dir and coprod Steven SPIELBERG, starring Dee
Wallace, Henry Thomas, Peter Coyote, Robert McNaughton, Drew Barrymore.
Screenplay Melissa Mathison. 115 mins. Colour.10-year-old Elliott (Thomas)
meets an alien, "E.T.", who has been accidentally left outside Los Angeles
when his spacecraft and its crew - which we infer includes his parents -
is forced to depart rapidly to avoid a search party sent out by a human
task force. Elliott and E.T., who demonstrates various PSI POWERS, become
friends. E.T. wants to "phone home", and builds a communications device
out of household objects. But he soon begins to sicken in our fallen
world, as does Elliott, now emotionally linked to E.T. As the task force
finally targets the alien traces they are searching, and invades Elliott's
home (where he lives with his two siblings and his mother: the father has
left home for good), E.T. becomes terminally ill. After the apparent death
of the alien child, Elliott recovers and discovers that, like Jesus, E.T.
is not in fact dead (or is resurrected). With the help of Elliott and his
friends, and proving in the nick of time that he can still levitate
bicycles, E.T. escapes the adults, returns to the rendezvous, is reunited
with his kind; and leaves.Almost certainly the most commercially
successful film ever made, E.T. confidently alternates finely controlled
sentiment and humour, the choreography of all this being almost flawless.
But for some it is not a film that grows in the memory; for them the
loneliness of the lizard-like but soft-eyed E.T., whose parents have left
him, and of Elliott (another E...T), remains merely sad in a curiously
unreverberant way. Countering this response, however, is the luminosity of
the film, and a sense that its presentation of the epiphanies of childhood
is truly joyful. The careful structuring of emotional release can be seen
in the handling of adult males. They are first seen (only from the waist
down) as hulking and affectless, but turn out to be concerned and
sympathetic as E.T. sickens drastically; and the most empathetic of them
is clearly destined to marry the deserted mother. Elliott's elder brother
undergoes a similar transformation earlier in the film. There are echoes
throughout of J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan (1904), as envisioned in the Walt
Disney film Peter Pan (1953); this was also to be the source of
Spielberg's later Hook (1991). [JC]See also: CINEMA; HISTORY OF SF.



Working name of US chemist and writer William Harrington Evans
(1921-1985) for his sf studies, which began with bibliographical and other
work in the 1940s and 1950s, mostly in The Fanzine Index, a journal he
published with Bob Pavlat through 1952, and which was later assembled into
a single volume, Fanzine Index: Listing Most Fanzines from the Beginning
through 1952, including Titles, Editors' Names, and Data on Each Issue
(1965). With Francis T. Laney he published the early Howard Philips
Lovecraft (1890-1937): A Tentative Bibliography (1943 chap). BE's work in
the sf field culminated in an extensive introduction to E.E. "Doc" SMITH,
The Universes of E.E. Smith (1966), on which he collaborated with Ron
ELLIK. Most of the book is a concordance of themes and characters, though
there is some critical content. BE did the Skylark series, Ellik the
Lensman books. [JC]

(1951- ) Welsh-born UK teacher and writer who has published sf and
fantasy novels under his own name and as Christopher Carpenter, Nathan
Elliott, Robert Knight and John Lyon, and some non-genre fiction as by
Evan Christie and Alwyn Davies. His first publications, released more or
less simultaneously, were the rather bad Plasmid * (1980) as by Robert
Knight, a film tie to an untraceable (and perhaps unmade) movie, and the
impressive Capella's Golden Eyes (1980), an extremely English version of a
CONCEPTUAL-BREAKTHROUGH tale, set on a colony planet inhabited also by
reclusive ALIENS - English because of the mundane detailing of life on
Gaia, because the protagonist has no real access to the roots of power or
change, and because any chances for conceptual breakthrough are in any
case co-opted by a plot in which Gaia's first masters are simply replaced
by a Chinese management team from Earth. The Insider (1981), set in a
NEAR-FUTURE UK, depicts the plight of an alien symbiont forced to
transform its new human host into an "alienated" outcast from society. In
Limbo (1985) further intensifies CE's characteristic insistence on the
isolation of human beings in a world they can neither comprehend nor
control, an insistence not significantly modified by the more intensive
use of local colour and expansive plotting in Chimeras (coll of linked
stories 1992), about an artist's complex and ambiguous relationship to the
eponymous new art form ( ARTS). Aztec Century (1993) It remains to be seen
whether CE will be able to accommodate his desolate visions within GENRE
SF, which is characteristically outward-thrusting, or whether - as seems
may be the case - he will find it increasingly uncongenial.With Robert P.
HOLDSTOCK, CE has edited OTHER EDENS, a strong anthology series comprising
Other Edens (anth 1987), #II (anth 1988) and #III (anth 1989). He
responded to the controversy surrounding the extensive presence of
organizations linked to SCIENTOLOGY at the 1987 World Science Fiction
Convention (held in Brighton, UK) by editing Conspiracy Theories (anth
1987 chap), in which a variety of views were expressed, most of them
critical of that presence. [JC]Other works:As Christopher Carpenter: The
Twilight Realm (1985).As Nathan Elliott: The Hood Army Trilogy, comprising
Earth Invaded (1986), Slaveworld (1986) and The Liberators (1986),
juvenile sf; the Star Pirates sequence, also juveniles, comprising Kidnap
in Space (1987), Plague Moon (1987) and Treasure Planet (1987).As John
Lyon: The Summoning (1985).Nonfiction: Science Fiction as Religion (1981
chap) with Stan Gooch (1932- ); The Guide to Fantasy Art Techniques (1984)
with Martyn Dean, a picture book; Lightship (1985), text to visuals by Jim
BURNS; Writing Science Fiction (1988 chap US); Dream Makers: Six Fantasy
Artists at Work (1988) with Martyn Dean, a picture book; Airshow (graph
coll 1989), text to visuals by Philip Castle.See also: PARASITISM AND

(1893-1958) US sf fan and writer. He began in the latter capacity late in
life and had mixed success, though there is no doubt of the affection in
which other Californian sf writers and fans held him, as evinced in the
many tributes to him from writers such as E.E. "Doc" SMITH and A.E. VAN
VOGT included in a compilation of his macabre fantasy stories, Food for
Demons (coll 1971). This was originally conceived as a homage to the man,
and set up and printed, though not bound, as early as 1959; it contains
his best work. EEE's novels were digestible but routine. The adventures of
ESPER spy George Hanlan in Man of Many Minds (1953) and its sequel, Alien
Minds (1955), are without much bite; and EEE's juvenile, The Planet
Mappers (1955), is also very mild. He collaborated with E.E. Smith, whom
he admired greatly, on one story, which Smith expanded into the novel
Masters of Space (1961-2 If; 1976). [JC]

(1910- ) UK writer, born in Wales, who began publishing sf with "Pebbles
of Dread" for TWS in 1940, and who wrote one sf adventure, The Black
Sphere (1952) as by Victor LA SALLE. A later collection, Shadows in
Landore (coll 1979), was self-published. [SH]

Angus WELLS.

(1894-1977) South-African-born UK civil servant and, especially after his
retirement in 1956, editor and writer. His first book of sf relevance was
the nonfiction The World of Tomorrow (1933), about possible future
inventions, partly illustrated with reproductions of artwork from sf
magazines, and thus - almost accidentally - the first anthology of sf
ILLUSTRATION. He later specialized in the works of Jules VERNE, many of
which he translated and edited for the Fitzroy edition of Verne's work in
translation, beginning in 1958; some of these were reprinted by ACE BOOKS.
Unfortunately, in editing Verne IOE occasionally abridged him cruelly,
rendering him more of a simple boys'-action writer than was in fact the
case. IOE wrote Jules Verne and his Work (1965) and edited Science Fiction
through the Ages 1 (anth 1966) and Science Fiction through the Ages 2
(anth 1966), the first volume of which is restricted to pre-20th-century
sf. He also edited Jules Verne - Master of Science Fiction (coll 1956),
which assembles extracts from Verne's novels. [PN]


Film (1991). Orion. Dir Duncan Gibbons, starring Gregory Hines, Renee
Soutendijk. Screenplay Gibbons, Yale Udoff. 98 mins. Colour.Soutendijk is
good, both as Eve, a Defense Department scientist, and as Eve VIII, the
military ROBOT that she creates in her own image. Armed with endless
firepower and a nuclear bomb, the robot destroys the men Eve secretly
hates, several male chauvinists and the police who try to stop her. Some
critics see Eve VIII as a female "terminator" ( The TERMINATOR [1984]),
but she also recalls the Id Monster of FORBIDDEN PLANET (1956). EOD's
supposed FEMINISM is unsubtle and suspect: a scene in which Eve VIII first
teases and then castrates a loutish man is so extreme that it may in fact
be intentionally misogynist. Nevertheless, Eve VIII - beautiful, elegant,
stony-faced, murderous and bulletproof - is one of the most effective
villains of recent years. Hines's performance as a military troubleshooter
is mediocre. [MK]

Full title: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Sex (but Were
Afraid to Ask)Film (1972). Jack Rollins and Charles H. Joffe
Productions/United Artists. Dir Woody Allen, starring Allen, Gene Wilder,
Louise Lasser, John Carradine, Burt Reynolds, Tony Randall. Screenplay
Allen, suggested by the nonfiction Everything You Always Wanted to Know
about Sex, but Were Afraid to Ask by David Reuben. 88 mins. Colour.This
engaging collection of filmed anecdotes satirizes various sexual
obsessions and movie genres; two episodes can charitably be defined as sf.
One involves a giant, mobile female breast that breaks out of a mad
SCIENTIST's laboratory and ravages the countryside, in the manner of a
1950s MONSTER MOVIE. The other dramatizes a seduction attempt by comparing
the interior processes of the human body to those of a mechanized
production line, with white-suited technocrats running things from the
"Brain Room" while brawny, hard-hatted workers cope with the heavy
equipment of the penis. Allen plays one of a group of sperm cells
nervously waiting to go into action in the manner of paratroopers about to
be dropped into enemy territory. Allen soon returned to sf satire with
SLEEPER (1973). [JB]


There is, inevitably, an intimate connection between the development of
evolutionary philosophy and the history of sf. In a culture without an
evolutionary philosophy most of the kinds of fiction we categorize as sf
could not develop. Like the idea of progress, evolutionary philosophy
flourished in late-18th-century France, and it was first significantly
represented in literature by RESTIF DE LA BRETONNE's evolutionary fantasy
La decouverte Australe par un homme volant ["The Southern-Hemisphere
Discovery by a Flying Man"] (1781), an allegorical treatment of ideas
partly derived from the Comte du Buffon (1707-1788). In the
early-19th-century Philosophie zoologique (1809), the Chevalier de Lamarck
(1744-1829) developed a more elaborate evolutionary philosophy,
introducing the key notion of adaptation, and paved the way for Charles
Darwin (1809-1882) and his theory of natural selection, promulgated in The
Origin of Species (1859). Because we have fallen into the habit of
labelling various theoretical heresies "Lamarckian", it is easy to forget
that for most of the 19th century Lamarck was the more influential writer,
especially in France. In the UK, Darwin was ardently championed by T.H.
Huxley (1825-1895) and the sociologist Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), and
his ideas took much firmer hold in the UK than elsewhere. Thus there was a
sharp divergence of emphasis between French and UK evolutionary sf, and
this lasted well into the 20th century. The writers who pioneered the
tradition of French evolutionary fantasy were Camille FLAMMARION, most
notably in Lumen (1887; trans 1897) and Omega (trans 1894), and J.H. ROSNY
aine in his many prehistoric fantasies, in "Les Xipehuz" (1887; trans as
"The Shapes" 1968) and in "La mort de la terre" (1910; trans as "The Death
of the Earth" 1978). Jules VERNE's only evolutionary fantasy, La grande
foret, le village aerien (1901; trans I.O. Evans as The Village in the
Treetops 1964 UK), is also Lamarckian.Lamarck's successor, Henri Bergson
(1859-1941), whose theory of "creative evolution" made much of the notion
of the elan vital - which Lamarck had rejected - seems to have provided
the seed of one of the most important UK evolutionary fantasies, J.D.
BERESFORD's The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911), but for the most part UK
writing was dominated by the implications of Darwinian theory and the
catch-phrases by which it was vulgarized: "the survival of the fittest"
and "the struggle for existence". H.G. WELLS was taught by T.H. Huxley in
the early 1890s, and remained ever-anxious that the qualities which had
shaped human nature for survival in the struggle for existence might
prevent our ever achieving a just society - a fear powerfully reflected,
in different ways, in THE TIME MACHINE (1895), The Island of Dr Moreau
(1896), The War of the Worlds (1898) and The Croquet Player (1936 chap).
(An interesting antidote to Wellsian pessimism is administered in one of
the several sequels to The Time Machine: David LAKE's The Man who Loved
Morlocks * [1981].) The ominous spectres arising from the harsher versions
of Darwinian philosophy also feature strongly in Erewhon (1872) by Samuel
BUTLER (who also wrote several anti-Darwinian tracts) and intrude upon
most of the speculative fiction of Grant ALLEN (who wrote several
pro-Darwinian tracts). The political implications of the careless
transplantation of Darwinian ideas into theories of social evolution (
SOCIAL DARWINISM) were such that Wells's one-time fellow-Fabian George
Bernard SHAW renounced Darwinism in favour of neo-Lamarckism on political
grounds, and his play Back to Methuselah (1921) was published with a long
introductory essay explaining this renunciation. Similar steps were taken
by T.D. Lysenko (1898-1976), in the name of Soviet communism, and Luther
Burbank (1849-1926), in the name of US fundamentalism. It was not widely
realized that the implications of Darwinism were not necessarily as harsh
as vulgar Darwinians tended to assume. An interesting allegorical
popularization of a more humane Darwinism is Gerald HEARD's Gabriel and
the Creatures (1952; vt Wishing Well 1953). The influence of Darwinian
ideas can be seen in such US works as Edgar FAWCETT's The Ghost of Guy
Thyrle (1895) and Austin BIERBOWER's From Monkey to Man (1894); the latter
is an early attempt to present Genesis as an allegory of evolution.Human
evolution was explored by writers in terms of its probable past (
ANTHROPOLOGY; ORIGIN OF MAN) and possible future. Wells's classic essay,
"The Man of the Year Million" (1893), imagined mankind as evolution might
remake us, with an enormous head and reduced body, eyes enlarged but ears
and nose vestigial - an image which became a stereotype adopted by many
other writers. It became a cliche in early PULP-MAGAZINE sf, although most
writers took a dim view of the "fitness" of such individuals, and usually
represented them as effete entities doomed to extinction; "Alas, All
Thinking!" (1935) by Harry BATES is a graphic example. Few pulp writers,
though, had much idea of the actual implications of Darwinism, and they
produced very few extrapolations which could stand up to rigorous
examination - a state of affairs which still persists. Most sf writers
contemplating the evolutionary future of mankind have been inordinately
taken with the idea of sudden, large-scale mutations of a kind in which
modern Darwinians do not believe ( MUTANTS). Many stories appeared in
which mutagenic radiation accelerated evolution to a perceptible pace,
including John TAINE's The Iron Star (1930) and Seeds of Life (1931; 1951)
and Edmond HAMILTON's "Evolution Island" (1927). Hamilton's fiction also
showed a persistent interest in the pseudo-scientific notion of retrograde
evolution ( DEVOLUTION), which had earlier been luridly featured in George
Allan ENGLAND's Darkness and Dawn (1914) and which crops up also in Olaf
STAPLEDON's curiously un-Darwinian Last and First Men (1930). In
Hamilton's "The Man who Evolved" (1931) a man who bathes himself in
mutagenic radiation first turns into the man-of-the-year-million
stereotype and then regresses, ending up as a blob of undifferentiated
protoplasm. Equally pseudo-scientific, though more interesting, is Edgar
Rice BURROUGHS's "extrapolation" of Haeckel's law ("ontogeny recapitulates
phylogeny") in The Land that Time Forgot (1918; 1924); in this romance the
recapitulation takes place during active life rather than embryonically.
Similar schemes are credited to alien life-systems in Theodore STURGEON's
"The Golden Helix" (1954) and James BLISH's A Case of Conscience (1958).Sf
of the 1920s and 1930s was frequently pessimistic about the long-term
evolutionary prospects of mankind, but bold success stories are featured
in J.B.S. HALDANE's "The Last Judgment" (1927) and Laurence MANNING's The
Man who Awoke (1933; fixup 1975). The former influenced and the latter was
influenced by the most detailed and most extravagant of all evolutionary
fantasies, Stapledon's Last and First Men. This extraordinary study of
mankind's many descendant species, extending over a timespan of billions
of years, exhibits an odd combination of optimism and pessimism further
extrapolated on the grander stage of Star Maker (1937), whose
experimentally inclined God-figure is working His way through an evolving
series of Creations. Those sf stories in which the human evolutionary
story does not end with eventual extinction or with the acquisition of a
stabilizing IMMORTALITY usually propose, like Shaw in Back to Methuselah,
that there will eventually be a transcendence that frees human
intelligence from its association with frail flesh, and that our ultimate
descendants will be more-or-less godlike entities of "pure thought" - an
idea which echoes continually through E.E. "Doc" SMITH's work and crops up
briefly but rather disturbingly in Robert A. HEINLEIN's Methuselah's
Children (1941; rev 1958). A particularly memorable pulp sf evocation of
this sort of motif is Eric Frank RUSSELL's "Metamorphosite" (1946). Even
when mankind fails to stay the distance - as in John W. CAMPBELL Jr's "The
Last Evolution" (1932), where it is our machines, not their creators,
which ultimately achieve the state of "pure consciousness"-this is
conventionally seen as the logical end-point of evolution, as it still is
in such novels as The Singers of Time (1990) by Frederik POHL and Jack
WILLIAMSON and Eternal Light (1991) by Paul J. MCAULEY. Given that images
of the next stage in human evolution ( SUPERMAN) usually invoke
pseudo-scientific notions about mental powers ( ESP) based on Cartesian
illusions about mental ghosts in bodily machines, the idea that evolution
tends towards disembodiment is a natural and psychologically plausible
extrapolation, though arguably rather silly. The post-WWII boom in stories
of human mental evolution produced a number of stories which invoked the
notion of a universal evolutionary schema. The most notable were Arthur C.
CLARKE's Childhood's End (1953), which shows a whole generation of Earthly
children undergoing a kind of metamorphic apotheosis to fuse with the
"cosmic mind", and two stories by Theodore Sturgeon: More than Human
(fixup 1953) and The Cosmic Rape (1958), which deploy similar imagery on a
smaller scale, using the idea of collective mental gestalts. Another
interesting example of such a schema is to be found in the material
linking the short stories in Galaxies like Grains of Sand (1959; full text
restored 1979) by Brian W. ALDISS, which proposes that the next step in
human evolution might be complete somatic awareness and control. A more
modest schema of human evolution, past and future, underlies Gordon R.
DICKSON's Childe Cycle novels, and is elaborated in some detail in his The
Final Encyclopedia (1984). A remarkable philosophical allegory surreally
re-examining many ideas about mankind's possible future evolution is
Robert SILVERBERG's Son of Man (1971). The most widely seen (but by no
means most widely understood) symbolic representation of evolutionary
apotheosis is that contained in the final frames of the film 2001: A SPACE
ODYSSEY (1968).Last and First Men also includes in its multifaceted
discussion of future human evolution the possibility - first raised in
Haldane's essay Daedalus, or Science and the Future (1923) - that humans
might take charge of their own physical evolution by means of what is
nowadays termed GENETIC ENGINEERING, but this line of inquiry was not
widely explored until much later. Damon KNIGHT's Masters of Evolution
(1954 as "Natural State"; exp 1959) features the anti-technological
"muckfeet", who have allegedly progressed beyond the need for machines and
cities in acquiring biological control of their environment, but stories
of this kind, inspired by a growing interest in ECOLOGY and a corollary
antipathy towards CITIES (see also DYSTOPIAS; MACHINES), have been heavily
outnumbered by those which - following Aldous HUXLEY's example in Brave
New World (1932) - consider the idea of tampering with human nature
implicitly horrific. Examples include Frank HERBERT's The Eyes of
Heisenberg (1966) and T.J. BASS's Half Past Human (1971), the latter
featuring a "human hive" - an image invoked in many stories as a highly
unfortunate but nevertheless probable destiny for evolving human society (
HIVE-MINDS), most notably in J.D. BERESFORD's and Esme Wynne-Tyson's The
Riddle of the Tower (1944). The idea that our future evolution might
involve turning ourselves into CYBORGS - memorably pioneered by E.V.
ODLE's remarkable The Clockwork Man (1923)-has usually been treated with
similar unenthusiasm. The idea of any future metamorphosis of the human
species, however modest, is repugnant to many whose aesthetic standards
are not unnaturally defined by our present ideals: even to those who abhor
anything that might smack of Nazism, the desirable notion of "men like
gods" inevitably conjures up an image of serried ranks of Aryan matinee
idols. One sf writer who has tried particularly hard to escape this
imaginative straitjacket is Ian WATSON, whose exuberant adventures in
evolutionary possibility extend to bizarre extremes in The Gardens of
Delight (1980) and Converts (1984).A surprising number of sf stories look
forward-often with a curious inverted nostalgia - to the time when
mankind's day is done and we must pass on our legacy to the inheritors of
Earth (or of the Universe). Usually the inheritors are machines, as in
Lester DEL REY's "Though Dreamers Die" (1944) and Edmond Hamilton's "After
a Judgment Day" (1963), but sometimes they are animals, as in Del Rey's
"The Faithful" (1938), Clifford D. SIMAK's City (1944-51; fixup 1952) and
Terry BISSON's "Bears Discover Fire" (1990). Olof JOHANESSON, in The Tale
of the Big Computer (1966; trans 1968; vt The Great Computer), plots an
evolutionary schema in which the function of mankind is simply to be the
means of facilitating machine evolution; while L. Sprague DE CAMP's and P.
Schuyler MILLER's ironic Genus Homo (1941; 1950), Neal BARRETT Jr's
puzzle-story Aldair in Albion (1976), Dougal DIXON's fascinating
picture-book After Man: A Zoology of the Future (1981) and Kurt VONNEGUT
Jr's Jeremiad Galapagos (1985) all describe new species which take up the
torch of evolutionary progress after mankind's demise. Such stories have
strong ideative links with extravagant ALTERNATE-WORLD stories which
contemplate alternative patterns of earthly evolution, notably Guy DENT's
Emperor of the If (1926), Harry HARRISON's West of Eden (1984) and its
sequels - in which primitive men must compete with intelligent descendants
of the dinosaurs - and Stephen R. BOYETT's The Architect of Sleep (1986),
in which it is raccoons rather than apes that have given rise to sentient
descendants.Accounts of ALIEN evolution are separately considered in the
section on LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS, but mention must be made here of the
frequent recruitment of the ideas of convergent evolution and parallel
evolution to excuse the dramatically convenient deployment of humanoid
aliens. Writers conscientious enough to construct a jargon of apology for
such a situation often argue that the logic of natural selection permits
intelligence to arise only in upright bipeds with binocular vision and
clever hands, and that, had such bipeds not evolved from lemurs, they
might instead have evolved from catlike or even lizardlike ancestors.
There are, however, relatively few stories which actually turn on
hypotheses of this kind; examples include Philip LATHAM's "Simpson"
(1954), one of several stories about humanlike aliens who are not as
similar to us as they seem, and Lloyd BIGGLE's The Light that Never Was
(1972), which addresses the question of whether "animaloid" species are
necessarily inferior to "humanoid" ones.Alternative life-systems capable
of Lamarckian evolution are featured in a few stories, including
Barrington J. BAYLEY's "Mutation Planet" (1973) and Brian M. STABLEFORD's
"The Engineer and the Executioner" (1975; rev 1991).The Butlerian idea
that machines may eventually begin to evolve independently of their makers
has become increasingly popular as real-world COMPUTERS have become more
sophisticated; images of such evolutionary sequences have become more
complex, as in James P. HOGAN's Code of the Lifemaker (1983). Several
recent images of universal evolutionary schemas - notably the one featured
in Gregory BENFORD's Across the Sea of Suns (1984) and the trilogy begun
with Great Sky River (1988) - imagine a fundamental ongoing struggle for
existence between organic and inorganic life-systems. The beginnings of
such a division are evident in Bruce STERLING's series of stories
featuring the Shapers and the Mechanists, which culminates in Schismatrix
(1985). A related but somewhat different Universe-wide struggle for
existence is revealed in the concluding volume of Stableford's Asgard
trilogy, The Centre Cannot Hold (1990), and an even stranger one is first
glimpsed in The Angel of Pain (1991), the second volume of another
Stableford trilogy.Mutational miracles still abound in modern sf, in such
apocalyptic stories of future evolution as Greg BEAR's Blood Music (1985),
and there is a strong tendency to mystify evolution-related concepts such
as " ECOLOGY" and "symbiosis" ( PARASITISM AND SYMBIOSIS) in a fashion
which is at best interestingly metaphorical and at worst hazily
metaphysical. Patterns of evolution on alien worlds ( LIFE ON OTHER
WORLDS) are often placed in the service of some kind of Edenic mythology,
and this is true even in the work of writers well versed in the biological
sciences. Perhaps this is not unduly surprising in an era when religious
fundamentalists are still trying to fight the teaching of Darwinism in US
schools, and to have equal time given to "Creation Science". Some
evolutionary philosophers have not yet given up hope of producing a
crucial modification of the Darwinian account of evolution which is more
aesthetically appealing; the latest to attempt it has been Rupert
Sheldrake in The Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation
(1981), an idea adapted to sf use by Paul H. COOK in Duende Meadow (1985).
Given the continued success of Darwinism as a source of explanations,
however, it is lamentably unfortunate that so few sf stories have deployed
the theory in any reasonably rigorous fashion. [BS]See also: BIOLOGY.

(1856-1908) Danish writer whose Two-Legs (trans Alexander Teixeira de
Mattos 1906 US) narrates the rise of Man from the significantly jaundiced
viewpoint of the animals over which he would soon have dominion. Two other
books of genre interest have not been translated into English. [JC]

(1871-1943) German writer, spy in Mexico and the USA in WWI, and early
member of the Nazi Party. SUPERMEN predominate in his fiction, much of
which remains untranslated. He is noted mainly for a series of novels
about Frank Braun - anthropologist and Ubermensch - some of which are sf.
The young hero of Der Zauberlehrling (1907; trans Ludwig Lewisohn as The
Sorcerer's Apprentice 1927 US) hypnotizes his "inferior" Italian mistress
into a spurious sainthood - complete with stigmata - which in the end he
makes real by helping crucify her. In Alraune (1911; trans S. Guy ENDORE
1929 US), which was filmed 5 times 1918-52 ( ALRAUNE), Braun uses
artificial insemination to breed from the dregs of society - a sex
criminal and a prostitute - the soulless eponymous female whose name
reflects in German her likeness to a mandrake root, and whose vampirical
powers prove almost fatal to him. In Vampir (1921; trans Fritz Sallagher
as Vampire 1934 US; vt Vampire's Prey 1937 UK) Braun appears as a macabre
alter ego of the author, spying in Mexico during WWI while at the same
time becoming a vampire. [JC]Other works: Blood (coll trans Erich Posselt
and Sinclair Dombrow 1930 US), contes cruels.

Theodore STURGEON.


(vt Caravan of Courage) Made-for-tv film (1984). Lucasfilm/Korty Films
for ABC TV. Executive prod George LUCAS. Dir John Korty, starring Eric
Walker, Aubree Miller. Screenplay Lucas. 120 mins, cut to 97 mins. Colour.
When the family spaceship crashes on an alien moon, the parents are
captured by a monster and their two children cared for by Ewoks, the
teddy-bear aliens first seen in RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983). After a long
trek, the children and Ewoks save the parents. TEA is disappointing by
adult standards, but children like it - and it is a children's film. The
special effects are surprisingly poor considering Lucasfilm's STAR WARS
experience. Lucas's story is vestigial and the Ewoks, though clearly
intended to be cute, are charmless; Philip STRICK described their faces as
"a fixed, unblinking mask set in a rictus of amiability". TEA was released
theatrically overseas as Caravan of Courage. A second tv movie, Ewoks: The
Battle for Endor (1985), though slightly better, had no theatrical
release. [PN]

George LUCAS.



US SEMIPROZINE, possibly current, pub and ed quarterly from Baltimore by
Steven E. Fick, small- BEDSHEET format, three issues published through
Summer 1994. Epublishes fiction mostly by newer writers, but including
some well-known figures such as John BRUNNER, as well as non-fiction
features. A professionally produced magazine with eclectoic design (each
story set in a different font) and an announced print run high for a
semiprozine, E began intrepidly, proclaiming in advertisements: "Tired of
the liberal bias in the stories you read? Expanse doesn't hug trees, isn't
afraid to use a raygun and boldly promotes human imperialism." Despite its
energetic debut, its fourth issue had not appeared by April 1995. [GF/PN]




Film (1985). Edward S. Feldman/Paramount. Dir Joe DANTE, starring Ethan
Hawke, River Phoenix, Jason Presson. Screenplay Eric Luke. 109 mins.
Colour.Three schoolboys, tipped off by a dream, employ a computer to help
create a sphere that can move very quickly and is impervious to gravity;
they use it to power a spacecraft they build out of junk. Far above Earth
they find a spaceship with, inside it, two aliens - their view of humanity
entirely gleaned from old tv programmes - who turn out likewise to be kids
on a joyride. This strange film was apparently aimed at pre-teens, but the
grotesque aliens (more like cartoons than extraterrestrials) and their
tv/radio obsession seem directed far more at adults. Perhaps because of
this uncertainty about the audience, E, the most personal of Dante's
films, was a box-office failure. Despite its self-indulgence it has
wonderful moments, captures well that sense of dream and yearning in
children known to sf fans of whatever age as the SENSE OF WONDER, and
deftly pinpoints many points of collision between the child's world and
the adult's. [PN]See also: CINEMA.


Critical magazine, ed Thomas D. CLARESON from its inception in Dec 1959;
Clareson was joined by Donald M. HASSLER from the Winter 1987 issue, and
Hassler became sole editor from the Spring 1990 issue; 2 numbers a year at
first, quarterly since Spring 1979; current. It had reached Vol. 35, no 4,
by the Winter 1994 issue. It began as The Newsletter of the Conference on
Science-Fiction of the MLA (the MLA being the Modern Languages
Association). E was first published from the English Department of the
College of Wooster, Ohio, and since Spring 1979 has been published by the
Kent State University Press, Ohio.E was very much the product of one
person, Clareson (although it had a large editorial board), without whose
enthusiasm it might not have survived. He continued as Emeritus Editor
until his death in 1993. It was the first of the academic journals about
sf; its successors have included FOUNDATION: THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE
THE FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS. E is a journal more notable for feature
articles than for reviews, polemics or ongoing debate. While its standard
has been variable - there have certainly been flat spots - the same can be
said of the other critical magazines. In its long career it has published
articles of all kinds, though generally concentrating more on scholarship
than on criticism. A long-running feature (until 1981) was the annual
survey, "The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy", compiled
first by Clareson and later by Marshall B. TYMN and Roger C. SCHLOBIN; it
continued as a separate publication from Kent State from 1982. E's
existence as the earliest public platform for sf studies significantly
advanced them; historically important, E continues to be relevant and
sometimes stimulating, although too few of its articles are of interest
outside a rather narrow academic community. E's rare first 10 years'
issues - constituting vols 1-10 - were reprinted in book form by GREGG
PRESS as Extrapolation: a Science-Fiction Newsletter, Vols 1-10 (anth
1978) ed Clareson, and vols 11-13, covering 1969-1972, were reprinted by
Johnson Reprint Corporation as Extrapolation: A Science-Fiction Newsletter
(anth 1973), also ed Clareson. [PN]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, usually known by its acronym, ESP (which see for
details). [PN]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, a creature (usually intelligent) from beyond TERRA.
When used as a noun, and occasionally in its adjectival mode, the word may
be shortened to "et" or "ET" (pronounced "eetee"). ALIENS; LIFE ON OTHER

Northern Irish magazine, A4 format, Feb-July 1982, 3 issues, published
bimonthly by Specifi Publications, ed Paul Campbell. During its brief
existence - terminated when its bank manager dishonoured an overdraft
arrangement - E published fiction by Brian W. ALDISS, Garry KILWORTH,
Christopher PRIEST, Bob SHAW, John T. SLADEK, Ian WATSON, James WHITE and
others (notably Ian MCDONALD's first story), along with interviews, essays
and book reviews. [RH]



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