Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.


SF&F encyclopedia (C-C)

(1879-1958) US writer, mostly of mannered, witty and in later life
sometimes rather enervated fantasies set in a Land of Fable Europe and
elsewhere; in some cases long after they were first published, he
assimilated a large number of these fantasies as episodes in the Biography
of the Life of Manuel. The imaginary kingdom of Poictesme is a central
thread running through the more than 20 volumes of the series, and ties
the whole - however arbitrarily - into a consistent purview. The stated
(but not chronologically consistent) proper ordering of the sequence is:
Beyond Life (1919); Figures of Earth (1921); The Silver Stallion (1926);
The Music from Behind the Moon (1926) and The White Robe (1928), both
assembled along with The Way of Ecben (1928) as The Witch-Woman (omni
1948); The Soul of Melicent (1913; rev vt Domnei 1920); Chivalry (1909;
rev 1921); Jurgen (1919); The Line of Love (coll of linked stories 1905;
rev 1921); The High Place (1923); Gallantry (1907; rev 1928); Something
about Eve (1927); The Certain Hour (1916); The Cords of Vanity (1909; rev
1920); From the Hidden Way (1916; rev 1924); The Jewel Merchants (1921);
The Rivet in Grandfather's Neck (1915); The Eagle's Shadow (1904; rev
1923); The Cream of the Jest (1917); The Lineage of Lichfield (1922);
Straws and Prayer-Books (1924). A second series - Smirt (1934), Smith
(1935) and Smire (1937), assembled as The Nightmare has Triplets (omni
1972) - carries the eponym (who is three in one) ever downwards, through
universes and incarnations: the effect is ironical.JBC suffered from
over-attention after the prosecution of Jurgen (most implausibly) for
obscenity, and after his subsequent fame and neglect his more recent
advocates - like James BLISH, who was for some time editor of the Cabell
Society journal Kalki - perhaps argued too strenuously for his
rehabilitation. By now, however, his place in US fiction is secure though
not central. His relevance to sf proper derives from his engagingly
haughty use of sf tropes - alternate worlds, DYSTOPIAS and UTOPIAS, TIME
TRAVEL, and even the building of planets. [JC]Other works: Taboo (1921
chap); These Restless Heads (1932); The King was in his Counting House
(1938); Hamlet had an Uncle (1940); The First Gentleman of America (1942);
There Were Two Pirates (1946) and a linked tale, The Devil's Own Dear Son
(1949).About the author: James Branch Cabell (1962) by Joe Lee Davis;
James Branch Cabell: A Complete Bibliography (1974) by James N. Hall ,
which includes A Supplement of Current Values of Cabell Books by Nelson
BOND ; James Branch Cabell: Centennial Essays (anth 1983) ed M. Thomas
Inge and Edgar E. MacDonald.See also: FANTASY; GODS AND DEMONS; SWORD AND

[s] David Wright O'BRIEN.

Working name of US writer Patricia Oren Kearney Cadigan (1953- ), who
began publishing sf with "Death from Exposure" for SHAYOL in 1978; this
SEMIPROZINE, which she edited throughout its existence (1977-85), was
remarkable both for the quality of stories it published and for its
production values. She later assembled much of her best shorter work in
Patterns (coll 1989), where its cumulative effect is very considerable;
later stories appear in Home by the Sea (coll 1992) and Dirty Work (coll
1993). From the beginning, PC has been a writer who makes use of her
venues - usually NEAR-FUTURE, usually urban, and usually Californian
though often intensified by a sense of windswept, prairie desolation - as
highly charged gauntlets which her protagonists do not so much run as
cling to, surviving somehow. It was an effect also to be found in the
stories assembled in Letters from Home (coll 1991 UK) with Karen Joy
FOWLER and Pat MURPHY, each contributing her own tales.Unfortunately PC's
first novel, Mindplayers (fixup 1987), failed to sustain the intensity of
her shorter work, treating in simplistic fashion a vision of the human
mind as constituted of sequences of internal psychodramas into which a
healer may literally enter, given the proper tools. The idea, which had
been intensely and punishingly examined by Roger ZELAZNY in THE DREAM
MASTER (1966), is not in any sense sophisticated by the can-do METAPHYSIC
underlying the premise as PC described it 20 years later. Her next novel,
Synners (1991), on the other hand, takes full advantage of its
considerable length to translate the street-wise, CYBERPUNK involvedness
of her best short fiction into a comprehensive vision-racingly told,
linguistically acute, simultaneously pell-mell and precise in its
detailing - of a world dominated by the intricacies of the human/ COMPUTER
interface; it won the ARTHUR C. CLARKE award in 1992. The plot, which is
extremely complicated, deals mainly with a disease of the interface, where
computer viruses which pass for AIs are beginning to cause numerous human
deaths. Like William GIBSON's cyberpunk novels - and unlike Bruce
STERLING's - Synners offers no sense that the CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGHS
that proliferate throughout the text will in any significant sense
transform the overwhelming urbanized world, though there is some hint that
the system may begin to fail through its own internal imbalances. But at
the heart of Synners is the burning presence of the future. PC's third
novel, Fools (1992) - which won the Arthur C. Clarke award in 1995, the
first time it has been awarded twice to one writer - exercises a virtuoso
concision on similar material, through examining a near future environment
in which memories are marketable and promiscuously insertable, and
individual brains become arenas in which various selves engage in
agonistic fugues with each other. One of the most acutely intelligent of
1980s writers, PC currently seems to be learning from everything.
[JC]Other works: My Brother's Keeper (1988 IASFM; 1992 chap).See also:

(1932- ) US writer, almost exclusively of horror, although one novel, The
Man who Could Make Things Vanish (1982), is a genuine sf DYSTOPIA set in a
very bleakly conceived NEAR-FUTURE right-wing USA; and "The Night We
Buried Road Dog" (1992) won a NEBULA award for Best Novella. [JC]Other
works: The Well (1980); The Jonah Watch (1981); McDowell's Ghost (1981);
Inagehi (1994); Street (1994).

(1927- ) US writer, pilot and aerospace specialist, who has written over
80 nonfiction books, some for the juvenile market, mostly on aviation and
space exploration, beginning with Jets, Rockets and Guided Missiles (1950;
rev vt Rockets and Missiles 1954) with David C. Cooke and continuing with
texts like War for the Moon (1959; vt Race for the Moon 1960 UK) and I am
Eagle (1962) with G.S. Titov, the Soviet astronaut. MC's own firm, Martin
Caidin Associates, was designed to provide information and other services
to radio and tv in the areas of his special knowledge; he founded the
American Astronautical Society in 1953. He began publishing sf with The
Long Night (1956), in which a US city is fire-bombed, and gained
considerable success with Marooned (1964), later filmed as MAROONED (1969)
with Gregory Peck. Like much of his fiction, Marooned deals with
realistically depicted NEAR-FUTURE crises in space, in this case the need
to rescue astronauts trapped in orbit; it has been credited with inspiring
the 1975 US-USSR Apollo-Soyuz joint mission. Four Came Back (1968) deals
with human difficulties (and a mysterious plague) aboard a space platform.
A series of CYBORG adventures - Cyborg (1972), Operation Nuke (1973), High
Crystal * (1974) and Cyborg IV (1975)-served as inspiration and basis for
the successful tv series The SIX MILLION DOLLAR MAN and its spin-off The
BIONIC WOMAN ; a later story, ManFac (1981) also presents an enforced
intimacy between human and machine in unambiguously positive terms. MC's
stories combine considerable storytelling drive with expertly integrated
technical information, and tend to be rather more convincing, therefore,
than the tv and film derivations they have inspired. [JC]Other works: No
Man's World (1967); The Last Fathom (1967); The God Machine (1968); The
Mendelov Conspiracy (1969; vt Encounter Three 1978); Anytime, Anywhere
(1969); The Cape (1971); Almost Midnight (1971); Maryjane Tonight at
Angels Twelve (1972); Destination Mars (1972); When War Comes (1972);
Three Corners to Nowhere (1975); Whip (1976); Aquarius Mission (1978);
Jericho 52 (1979); Star Bright (1980); Killer Station (1985); The Messiah
Stone (1986) and its sequel, Dark Messiah (1990); Zoboa (1986); Exit Earth
(1987); Prison Ship (1989); Beamriders! (1989; vt Beamriders 1990 UK); and
two Indiana Jones ties: Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates * (1994) and
Indiana Jones and the White Witch * (1994)See also: COMPUTERS;

(1853-1931) UK writer of what were enormously bestselling novels in the
late 19th century but were almost forgotten by his death. The Mahdi, or
Love and Race (1894) depicts a NEAR-FUTURE uprising at the behest of the
eponymous leader of the faithful. The Eternal City (1901), printed in a
first edition of 100,000, sets a complex near-future intrigue alight in a
Pope-dominated Rome. The White Prophet (1909), again marginally displaced
into the future, is set in Egypt, where intrigue is rife. A play, The
Prime Minister (written c1911; 1918), set in the future, depicts romance
threatening policy. [JC]

(1956- ) UK-born writer, in Thailand from 1990, who began publishing sf
with "Toxine" in Interzone: The 4th Anthology (anth 1989) ed John CLUTE,
Simon Ounsley and David PRINGLE; his early short fiction, almost always
densely post- CYBERPUNK in idiom and setting, was assembled as "The
Allure" and published, trans Hisashi Asakura, in Japanese (coll 1991
Japan). His first 2 novels-Dead Girls (dated 1992 but 1993 UK) and Dead
Boys (1994 UK)-mix horror and sf in depicting a world, loosely connected
to that of "Toxine" and others of his stories, which has been transformed
by NANOTECHNOLOGY into an over-heated, inordinately complex dazzlement of
an environment. Dead Girls centres on a "nanotech doll" or gynoid who
generates an AIDs-like disease in the humans she bloodsucks for their
genes, and is herself invasively disrupted by a bio-weapon "dust" which
scrambles the fractal programmes that enable her to operate. The novel
continues with excursions into the "cyberspace" within her deranged brain,
and much else; it is funny, ornately erotic, and frequently inspired. Dead
Boys, perhaps less sustainedly, continues the examination of a
not-unlikely 21st century. [JC]

(1900-1985) US popular novelist whose first sf novel, The Devil's
Advocate (1952), though set in 1970, is in effect a right-wing
denunciation of the New Deal of the 1930s. Her second effort, Your Sins
and Mine (1955), is fundamentally FANTASY, in that the devastating drought
inflicted by the Lord upon the world for its sins can be removed by
assiduous prayer. She was also responsible for fantasies like The Listener
(1960) and its sequel, No One Hears but Him (1966), and Dialogues with the
Devil (1967). The Romance of Atlantis (1975), with Jess Stearn, is based
on a novel she first wrote when aged 12; TC claimed that it in turn was
based on her childhood dreams of her previous incarnation ( REINCARNATION)
as an empress in ATLANTIS. [JC]


(1911- ) US writer of several MAINSTREAM novels set mostly on the US East
Coast. After an sf allegory, "In the Absence of Angels" (1951), which
associates the military occupation of the USA with a poet's own
imprisonment, came her sf novel Journal from Ellipsia (1965), which
depicts a somewhat metaphysical ALTERNATE WORLD where everything - as in
E.M. FORSTER's famous dictum - connects with everything, especially the
transcendental sex that permeates the narrative. [JC]Other work: Mysteries
of Motion (1983).

Working name of US COMIC-strip illustrator Richard T. Calkins
(1895-1962), who was born in Grand Rapids and studied at the Art Institute
in Chicago. In 1929 Philip NOWLAN scripted and DC illustrated BUCK ROGERS
IN THE 25TH CENTURY, a comic strip based on Nowlan's "Armageddon: 2419 AD"
(1928 AMZ) and "The Airlords of Han" (1929 AMZ), later published together
as Armageddon - 2419 AD (1962). Though DC's style was stiff and amateurish
by today's standards, the strip was extremely popular in the 1930s and
1940s. Its quality improved when Rick Yager joined him in some of the
chores from the 1930s; Yager succeeded DC at his retirement in 1948. The
artwork was never sophisticated, but DC's strong, simple lines were well
suited to fast-paced narrative. A selection of Buck Rogers adventures has
been reissued as The Collected Works of Buck Rogers in the 25th Century
(coll 1969; rev 1977) ed Robert C. Dille. [JG/PN]See also: ILLUSTRATION;

Raymond Z. GALLUN.

(1929- ) US environmentalist and writer whose own Banyan Tree Books
published his first novel, Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William
Weston (1974 American Review as "First Days in Ecotopia"; exp 1975), after
it had been refused by several professional houses; it was reported in the
mid-1980s to have sold more than 300,000 copies, which should come as no
surprise given the reasoned seductiveness of the UTOPIA premised in its
pages. As of 1999, Washington, Oregon and Northern California have been in
secession from the rest of the USA for almost two decades. The reporter
William Weston is allowed within the borders to make contact with (and if
possible to subvert) the Ecotopians. He finds irresistible the balance of
life there, the manner in which the new state has tamed the juggernaut of
TECHNOLOGY, and the refusal of its citizens to cost the world more than
they give the world; and he, too, becomes an Ecotopian. Ecotopia Emerging
(1981) is both a prequel and a kind of sequel to the previous book - a
prequel in its long and persuasively detailed presentation of the
Ecotopian route to secession, and the enormous power engendered by the
(sf-like) discovery of a cheap solar-energy catalyst; but a "sequel" by
virtue of treating the earlier book as being itself the inspiration for
the emergence, in our world, of a "real" Ecotopia. Unfortunately for what
may be guessed to have been EC's real-life hopes, a decade has passed
since his second attempt at arousal.Nonfiction texts which elaborate on
some of the procedures and theories of the fiction include The Ecotopian
Encyclopedia for the 80s: A Survival Guide for the Age of Inflation (1980)
and A Citizen Legislature (1985). [JC]

[s] Thomas Calvert MCCLARY.

(1900-1940) US writer whose sf novel, The Man Inside: Being the Record of
the Strange Adventures of Allen Steele Among the Xulus (1936), describes
some strange hypnotic experiments conducted in darkest Africa. [JC]

(1923-1985) Italian novelist, born in Cuba, active since the end of WWII,
at first with realist works but soon with GOTHIC, surrealist romances of
great vigour and impact like Il Visconte dimezzato (1952) and Il Cavaliere
inesistente (1959)-trans together by A. Colquhoun as The Non-Existent
Knight and The Cloven Viscount 1962 UK) - and Il Barone rampante (1957;
trans A. Colquhoun as Baron in the Trees 1959 UK), three thematically
linked fables later assembled as I nostri antenati (omni 1960; in the
Colquhoun trans as Our Ancestors 1980 US). A more recent venture in the
same idiom is Il Castello dei Destini incrociati (coll of linked stories
1973; trans William Weaver as The Castle of Crossed Destinies 1977 US).
Beneath the FABULATION-drenched protocols of these stories - the
nonexistent knight, for instance, being an empty suit of armour with a
"passion" for the formalities and ceremonies that keeps it "alive"- lies a
concern for fundamental problems of being. IC's works closest to sf are
the two linked volumes Le Cosmicomiche (coll of linked stories 1965; trans
William Weaver as COSMICOMICS 1968 US) and Ti con zero (coll of linked
stories 1967; trans William Weaver as t zero 1969 US; vt Time and the
Hunter 1970 UK); both volumes feature and are told by the presence called
Qfwfq, who is the same age as the Universe. The various stories express in
emblematic form speculations and fables about the nature of life,
EVOLUTION, reality and so forth; they are witty, moving and, after their
strange fashion, effectively didactic. One of the stories in The Watcher
and Other Stories (1952-63; coll trans William Weaver 1971 US), "Smog"
(1958), a remarkable POLLUTION tale, is sf. Le citta invisibili (1972;
trans William Weaver as Invisible Cities 1974 US) frames fragmented
versions of Marco Polo's narrative of his voyages with a remarkable set of
meditations ostensibly triggered by the distant, surrealistic CITIES he
visits. Se una notte d'inverno un viaggiatore (1979; trans William Weaver
as If on a Winter's Night a Traveler 1981 US) stunningly transfigures the
conventions and momentums of narrative into a Bunuelesque labyrinth. IC's
powers of invention were formally ingenious; at the same time he was an
extremely lucid writer. His use of sf subjects and their intermixing with
a whole array of contemporary literary devices made him a figure of
considerable interest for the future of the genre. [JC]Marcovaldo ovvera
le stagioni in citta (1976; trans William Weaver as Marcovaldo; or the
Seasons in the City1983 US); Gli, amori difficili (coll 1984; trans
William Weaver and others as Difficult Loves 1984 US); Sotto il sole
giaguaro (coll 1986; trans William Weaver as Under the Jaguar Sun 1988

House name used for sf novels published by CURTIS WARREN and written by
John S. GLASBY, Brian HOLLOWAY, Dennis HUGHES, David O'BRIEN and Arthur

(1912- ) Canadian-born US writer whose career has been exclusively
devoted to children's literature, and who received the National Book Award
in 1974 for one of her finer fantasies, The Court of the Stone Children
(1973); its sequel was To the Green Mountains (1975). She remains perhaps
best known for the sf Mushroom Planet sequence with which she began her
career: The Wonderful Flight to the Mushroom Planet (1954), Stowaway to
the Mushroom Planet (1956), Mr Bass's Planetoid (1958), A Mystery for Mr
Bass (1960) and Time and Mr Bass (1967). At the heart of the series is Mr
Bass, whose mysterious filter permits his young friends - who have built
him a SPACESHIP for the purpose of travelling there - to perceive the
planet Basidium. Though perhaps slightly wholesome, the adventures of Bass
and his companions on Basidium became, with justice, extremely popular.
[JC]Other works: The Terrible Churnadryne (1959); The Mysterious Christmas
Shell (1961); The Beast with the Magical Horn (1963); A Spell is Cast
(1964); Beyond Silence (1980), a timeslip fantasy.

Pseudonym of UK writer Donald Gordon Payne (1924- ), author of The Lost
Ones (1961; vt The Island at the Top of the World 1974 US) and The
Mountains at the Bottom of the World (1972 US; vt Devil Country 1976 UK).
The former, under what became as a result the later UK vt, was filmed by
Disney in 1973. The mechanics of IC's plots derive from LOST-WORLD
conventions generally - and, in the case of the second novel, from Conan
DOYLE specifically. Star-Raker (1962), as by Donald Gordon, is a
straightforward adventure. With George Erskine, he wrote two Counter Force
tales, Beware the Tektrons (1988) and Find the Tektrons (1988). Payne has
also written mainstream fiction as James Vance Marshall. [JC/PN]Other
work: The White Ship (1975).

(1956- ) US film-maker. Originally a special-effects man and art director
with Roger CORMAN's New World - where he worked on BATTLE BEYOND THE STARS
(1980), ANDROID (1982) and several others including ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK
(1981) for which New World did the special effects - JC made an
inauspicious debut as director with Piranha II: Flying Killers (1981; vt
Piranha II: The Spawning; PIRANHA). However, he made a major impression
with his second film, The TERMINATOR (1984), a TIME-TRAVEL thriller with a
killer ROBOT. This low-budget success secured JC - and his then wife and
producer-writer partner Gale Anne HURD - the plum assignment of ALIENS
(1986), the follow-up to Ridley SCOTT's ALIEN (1979). Having improved on
the original - especially in his 150min director's cut, later released on
video - with this humanistic action movie of alien warfare, JC achieved a
free hand with The ABYSS (1989), the most expensive of several underwater
sf movies released at that time, and managed four-fifths of an excellent
film before fumbling with a climactic deep-sea close encounter; it was a
box-office disappointment. The half-hour longer The Abyss: Special Edition
director's cut, (1992) is not notably superior. Following this JC
separated personally from Hurd - who had in the meantime produced ALIEN
NATION (1988) and TREMORS (1990) - although the couple stayed together to
direct and produce TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY (1991), a huge-budgeted
box-office success, perhaps the most violent pacifist movie ever made.
Critical response to Cameron's comedy thriller True Lies (1994), not sf
but again starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, was mixed. [KN/PN]See also:

A house name used by BPVP ( Byron PREISS) for the Omega Sub sequence of
post- HOLOCAUST military-sf adventures about the crew of a nuclear sub
which survives the final war. The series comprises Omega Sub #1: Omega Sub
* (1991) by Mike JAHN, #2: Command Decision * (1991) by David ROBBINS, #3:
City of Fear * (1991) by Jahn, #4: Blood Tide * (1991) and #5: Death Dive
* (1992) and Raven Rising (1992), all by Robbins. [JC]

(1927- ) US writer. His borderline sf novel, The Astrologer (1972), like
The Child (1976) by John Symonds (1914- ), deals with a new Virgin Mary
and a new Virgin Birth, in this case discovered via astrological means (


(1924- ) US illustrator and writer, active in comic books in the 1950s.
His sf, which was unremarkable, included two Swinging Spy tales-The Spy
with the Blue Kazoo (1967) and The Sky who Came in from the Copa (1967) -
as by Dagmar, and Cybernia (1972), as LC, which expresses COMPUTER
paranoia through the tale of a town in the grips of a mad brain. The
Darklings (1975), as by Julie Cameron, is fantasy. [JC]

(1568-1639) Italian philosopher, admitted into the Dominican order at the
age of 15. Like Francis BACON he attacked the reliance of contemporary
science on the authority of Aristotle, advocating observation and
experiment as the proper routes to knowledge in Philosophia Sensibus
Demonstrata (1591; in Latin). His important UTOPIA, Civitas Solis (1st MS
1602; 2nd MS 1612; 1623 in Latin; 3rd MS 1637; cut trans Henry Morley as
The City of the Sun in Ideal Commonwealths, coll 1885, ed Morley) was
written while he was imprisoned by the Spanish Inquisition, accused of
having led a revolt in his native Calabria, then under Spanish rule. The
book describes a city with seven concentric circular walls which is ruled
by a philosopher-king, the Hoh or Metaphysicus; property is held in common
and the elements of science are inscribed on the walls for educational
purposes; flying machines and ships without sails are mentioned in

[s] H.L. GOLD.

[s] Leonard G. FISH.

(1925- ) UK research chemist, writer and editor. He was active during the
early 1950s as a fan. After writing some science articles he gradually
branched out into the world of sf, as well as selling line drawings to
many magazines, including Amateur Photographer and Television Weekly. He
scripted the Daily Herald cartoon series Captain Universe and served as
technical editor and then editor 1952-6 of AUTHENTIC SCIENCE FICTION,
contributing many scientific articles to the magazine, which in general
improved under his editorship. He also edited Tomorrow's Universe (anth
1953), Sprague de Camp's New Anthology (coll 1953 UK), Authentic Science
Fiction Handbook (1954 chap), mostly containing definitions of scientific
terms, and Authentic Book of Space (anth 1954), which last was a mixture
of articles and stories. Increased pressure of research work forced him to
leave the field in 1956; he gained a PhD in Chemistry in 1957, and from
that point concentrated on writing textbooks.His own fiction was not,
perhaps, of substantial interest, but his work was never incompetent.
Novels published under his own name include The Last Mutation (1951), The
Moon is Heaven (1951), a RECURSIVE tale which includes a portrait of
Arthur C. CLARKE, World in a Test Tube (1951), Beyond the Visible (1952),
Chaos in Miniature (1952), Mice - Or Machines (1952), Another Space -
Another Time (1953), Brain Ultimate (1953), The Red Planet (1953) and Once
Upon a Space (1954). Under the house name Roy SHELDON he wrote the Magdah
sequence - Mammoth Man (1952), Two Days of Terror (1952), Moment out of
Time (1952) and The Menacing Sleep (1952) - and the Shiny Spear sequence -
Atoms in Action (1953) and House of Entropy (1953). It is probable, though
not certain, that he also wrote most or all of the remaining Roy Sheldon
novels (with the exception of The Metal Eater, 1954, which was by E.C.
TUBB): Gold Men of Aureus (1951), Phantom Moon (1951), Energy Alive
(1951), Beam of Terror (1951), Spacewarp (1952) and The Plastic Peril

John W. Campbell, the well-known editor of AstoundingStories and
Astounding Science Fiction, was also well-known for planting story ideas
in the minds of his authors.Isaac Asimov said that Campbell gave him the
idea for "Nightfall," one of the most famous stories in science fiction.
He also creditsCampbell with codifying the Three Laws of Robotics.
Campbell also gave Robert Heinlein some good advice. Heinlein's first
novel,Sixth Column, is based on an idea of Campbell's.After becoming
editor of Astounding in 1937, Campbell retired from his own writing
career. When asked why he didn’t continue to write his own science fiction
stories, Campbell replied that he had a dozen stories in progress all over
the world. They weren’t written by him but, in many ways, they were his.

(1910-1971) US writer and editor who took a degree in physics in 1932
from MIT and Duke University. JWC was a devotee of the SF MAGAZINES from
their inception, and sold his first stories while still a teenager,
beginning with "Invaders from the Infinite" to AMAZING STORIES; however,
the manuscript was lost by editor T. O'Conor SLOANE, so it was his second
sale, "When the Atoms Failed" (1930), that became his first published
story.In the early 1930s JWC quickly built a reputation as E.E. "Doc"
SMITH's chief rival in writing galactic epics of superscience. The most
popular of these was the Arcot, Morey and Wade series, in which the heroes
faced a succession of battles of ever-increasing size fought with a
succession of wonderful weapons of ever-decreasing likelihood. Initially
published in various magazines from 1930, they were put into book form as
The Black Star Passes (fixup 1953), Islands of Space (1931 Amazing Stories
Quarterly; 1957) and Invaders from the Infinite (not his first, lost
story) (1932 Amazing Stories Quarterly; 1961); all were assembled as A
John W. Campbell Anthology (omni 1973). Also well received was The
Mightiest Machine (1934 ASF; 1947), but three sequels featuring its hero
Aarn Munro were rejected by ASF's editor F. Orlin TREMAINE, eventually
appearing in The Incredible Planet (coll 1949).The second phase of JWC's
career as a writer began with "Twilight" (1934), a tale of the FAR FUTURE
written in a moody, "poetic" style, the first of a number of stories, far
more literary in tone and varied in mood, published under the pseudonym
Don A. Stuart. From now on, JWC wrote little sf under his own name,
preferring to concentrate on the highly popular Stuart stories; exceptions
included the Penton and Blake series published in TWS in 1936-8 and
collected in The Planeteers (coll 1966 dos), and, on one occasion, the use
of the name Karl Van Campen for a story in an issue of ASF that already
contained a Stuart story and part of a JWC novel. He was by now becoming
closely identified with Tremaine's ASF, where all the Stuart stories
appeared; these included the Machine series: "The Machine", "The Invaders"
and "Rebellion" (all 1935). In 1936 he began, under his own name, a series
of 18 monthly articles on the Solar System, and from 1937 he also
published a number of articles as Arthur McCann. The climax of his
popularity came with a Stuart effort, The Thing from Another World (1938
ASF as "Who Goes There?"; 1952 chap Australia), a classic sf horror story
about an Antarctic research station menaced by a shape-changing ALIEN
invader, which was first filmed, without the shape-changing, as The THING
(1951), and later, also as The THING (1982), with the basic premise
restored. Far more famous under its original title than under the
film-influenced book retitling, "Who Goes There?" was perhaps the climax
of his fiction-writing career, and close to its end; Don A. Stuart's last
stories appeared in 1939. Two collections were assembled to take advantage
of that fame: Who Goes There?(coll 1948; vt The Thing and Other Stories
1952 UK; vt The Thing from Outer Space 1966 UK) and - with differing
contents - Who Goes There? (coll 1955). In September 1937 JWC was
appointed editor of Astounding Stories, a post he would retain until his
death (the magazine being retitled ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION in 1938 and
Analog in 1960); henceforth he wrote almost no fiction.JWC brought to his
editorial post the fertility of ideas on which his writing success as both
JWC and Don A. Stuart had been based, together with a determination to
raise the standards of writing and thinking in MAGAZINE sf. New writers
were encouraged and fed with ideas, with remarkable success. By 1939, JWC
had discovered Isaac ASIMOV, Lester DEL REY, Robert A. HEINLEIN, Theodore
STURGEON and A.E. VAN VOGT, though the two latter writers had already been
publishing for some time in other genres. L. Sprague DE CAMP, L. Ron
HUBBARD, Clifford D. SIMAK and Jack WILLIAMSON, already established sf
writers, soon became part of JWC's "stable". Henry KUTTNER and C.L. MOORE
became regular contributors from 1942. These were the authors at the core
of JWC's " GOLDEN AGE OF SF" - a period corresponding roughly to WWII -
when ASF dominated the genre in a way no magazine before or since could
match. Most of these authors, and many others, acknowledged the profound
influence JWC had on their careers, and the number of acknowledged sf
classics which originated in ideas suggested by him would be impossible to
assess. Asimov persistently credited JWC with at least co-creating the
articulation of the Three Laws of Robotics ( Isaac ASIMOV; ROBOTS). A
startling example of the pervasiveness of his influence can be found in
The Space Beyond (coll 1976); it contains a hitherto unpublished JWC
novella, "All", which forms the basis of Robert A. Heinlein's Sixth Column
(1949).In addition to editing ASF, JWC initiated the fantasy magazine
UNKNOWN, which from its birth in 1939 to its premature death (caused by
paper shortages) in 1943 was equally influential in its field.Although the
writing had been on the wall ever since about 1945, the period of ASF's
dominance can be said to have ended, quite abruptly, with the appearance
FICTION in 1950. By this time JWC's domineering editorial presence had
become restricting rather than stimulating and several of his central
authors had left the stable (sometimes acrimoniously); comparatively few
major writers after 1950 began their careers in his magazine.
Nevertheless, between 1952 and 1964 he won 8 HUGO awards for Best Editor.
Much of his interest and energy became focused in his editorials, many of
which showed an essentially right-wing political stance. Some are
reprinted in Collected Editorials from Analog (coll 1966) ed Harry
HARRISON; and the characteristic flavour of his mind comes across, perhaps
even more clearly, in The John W. Campbell Letters, Volume 1 (anth 1986)
assembled by Perry A. CHAPDELAINE, Tony Chapedelaine and George HAY. He
flirted with various kinds of PSEUDO-SCIENCE, notably Hubbard's DIANETICS,
which was loosed on an unsuspecting world through an article in ASF. The
bellicose appetite for knowledge of his early years, and the revelation
that Competent Men might be able to figure the world's plumbing, narrowed
into an incapacity to brook dissent. However, the magazine remained
popular and commercially successful, winning 7 HUGO awards under JWC's
editorship. His death in 1971 was marked by an unprecedented wave of
commemorative activity: two awards were founded bearing his name (the JOHN
anthology was published - Astounding: John W. Campbell Memorial Anthology
(anth 1974) ed Harry Harrison - and an Australian symposium about him -
John W. Campbell: An Australian Tribute (anth dated 1974 but 1972) ed John
Bangsund - appeared. Such a response was justified; although in later
years he had turned his back on most developments in sf, during the first
two decades of his career he had created two significant writing
reputations under two separate names, and had come to bestride the field
as an editor. More than any other individual, he helped to shape modern
sf. [MJE]Other works: The Moon is Hell! (coll 1951; later UK edns contain
only the title story); Cloak of Aesir (coll 1952); The Ultimate Weapon
(1936 ASF as "Uncertainty"; 1966 dos); The Best of John W. Campbell (coll
1973 UK) and - with different contents - The Best of John W. Campbell
(coll 1976).As Editor: From Unknown Worlds (anth 1948); The Astounding
Science Fiction Anthology (anth 1952; with 8 stories cut, vt in 2 vols as
The First Astounding Science Fiction Anthology 1954 UK and The Second
Astounding Science Fiction Anthology 1954 UK, these 2 vols being reissued
with all cuts restored, 1964 and 1965 UK; with 15 stories cut 1956 US,
this version being reissued, vt Selections from the Astounding Science
Fiction Anthology 1967; with 15 stories and an article cut, vt Astounding
Tales of Space and Time 1957 US); Prologue to Analog (anth 1962), Analog 1
(anth 1963) and Analog 2 (anth 1964), all three assembled as Analog
Anthology (omni 1965 UK); Analog 3 (anth 1965; vt A World by the Tale
1970); Analog 4 (anth 1966; vt The Permanent Implosion 1970); Analog 5
(anth 1967; vt Countercommandment and Other Stories 1970); Analog 6 (anth
1968); Analog 7 (anth 1969); Analog 8 (anth 1971).About the author: The
Magic That Works: John W.Campbell and the American Response to Technology
(1994) by Albert I.Berger.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; AUTOMATION; COMPUTERS;

1. Sf in English. The first serious Canadian sf work was James DE MILLE's
posthumously published A Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder
(1888 US). In this UTOPIAN satire, set in a LOST WORLD, Western values are
inverted (criminals are regarded as diseased, the ill are imprisoned,
dying is deemed more desirable than living). Successors of De Mille were
Grant ALLEN and Robert BARR (the latter Scottish-born), expatriate
Canadian writers who published early sf in London and New York rather than
in Montreal or Toronto.Many major Canadian literary figures have written
some fantasy or sf. Sir Charles G.D. ROBERTS was the author of In the
Morning of Time (1919 UK), a well presented prehistoric romance. In "The
Great Feud", assembled in Titans, and Other Epics of the Pliocene (coll
1926 UK), E.J. Pratt (1882-1964) created a long narrative poem set in
prehistoric Australasia. The popular humorist Stephen LEACOCK included
short sf SATIRES in The Iron Man and the Tin Woman, with Other Such
Futurities (coll 1929 US) and Afternoons in Utopia (coll 1932 US). A
curious and powerful critique of modern society by Prairie novelist
Frederick Philip GROVE is Consider Her Ways (written 1913-23; 1947), which
describes the march of 10,000 worker ants across the North American
continent, including how they spend their last winter in the poetry
section of the New York Public Library.Among Canadian contributors to US
PULP MAGAZINES were H. BEDFORD-JONES, John L. Chapman, Leslie A. Croutch
(1915-1969), Chester D. Cuthbert, Francis FLAGG, Thomas P. KELLEY and
Cyril G. Wates. Import restrictions during WWII created a climate for the
so-called CanPulps - original and reprint pulp magazines with
idiosyncratic editorial features. A.E. VAN VOGT, the Manitoba-born
mainstay of the GOLDEN AGE OF SF, wrote 600,000 words of sf (notably
"Black Destroyer", the Weapon Shops stories and SLAN) in Canada before
moving to Los Angeles in 1944. Other notable expatriates are Laurence
MANNING and Gordon R. DICKSON.Contemporary MAINSTREAM authors have
contributed fantastic literature. Irish-born Brian MOORE published sf in
Catholics (1972 UK), fantasy in The Great Victorian Collection (1975) and
supernatural horror in The Mangan Inheritance (1979). William Weintraub
dramatized the plight of Montreal's Anglophone minority in a sovereign
Francophone Quebec in his biting satire The Underdogs (1979). Hugh
MACLENNAN's Voices in Time (1980) is an ambitious, impressive,
multi-levelled study of social breakdown in post- HOLOCAUST Montreal.
DISASTER remains the sole theme of Richard ROHMER, lawyer, commissioner,
general and author of fast-moving novels about near-future threats to
national sovereignty, ecology, etc.Gwendolyn MacEwen (1941-1987), Margaret
ATWOOD and Phyllis GOTLIEB, in addition to writing memorable prose, have
composed vivid sf poems ( POETRY) tinged with fantasy and horror; in
particular, MacEwen's poetry collection The Armies of the Moon (coll 1972)
deserves an international readership, as do her stories assembled in Noman
(coll 1972) and Noman's Land (coll 1985). Atwood's THE HANDMAID'S TALE
(1985), diffidently filmed by director Volker Schlondorff in 1990 ( The
HANDMAID'S TALE ), is the most influential and internationally known sf
novel written by a Canadian. But "Canada's premier sf novelist" during the
1960-80 formative period in the genre's growth, according to critic David
KETTERER, was Phyllis Gotlieb. Her first novel, Sunburst (1964 US),
appears on high-school curricula, and mainstream anthologists have
reprinted her short fictions, notably those in Son of the Morning and
Other Stories (coll 1983 US); yet she remains better known at home as a
poet. One reason is that her prose is demanding, intricate and
psychologically probing; it frequently focuses on the problems of
telepathic beings and intelligent animals.High artistic and professional
standards were set in the 1970s by immigrants to Canada: Michael G. CONEY,
Monica HUGHES and Edward LLEWELLYN from the UK, and William GIBSON,
Crawford KILIAN, Donald KINGSBURY, Judith MERRIL, Spider ROBINSON and
Robert Charles WILSON from the USA. Merril, the country's leading "sf
personality", has been active in promoting FEMINISM (a sense of gender)
and sf (a SENSE OF WONDER) among mainstream writers and educators (see
first national sf anthology was Other Canadas (anth 1979) ed John Robert
COLOMBO; it gives historical representation to stories, novel excerpts,
poems, film scripts and criticism. John Bell and Lesley Choyce
anthologized past and present fiction from the Atlantic region in Visions
from the Edge (anth 1981). Merril edited Tesseracts (anth 1985), the first
collection of current Canadian sf writing in English with some
translations from French; Phyllis Gotlieb and Douglas BARBOUR compiled
Tesseracts(2) (anth 1987), and Candas Jane DORSEY and Gerry Truscott
Tesseracts(3) (anth 1990). In the main, Canadian sf in English is more
literary, concerned with COMMUNICATION, and less high-tech than most US
sf. Characters and settings specifically identified as Canadian began to
appear in genre fiction in the 1980s, a development notable in the novels
of fantasists like Charles DE LINT, Guy Gavriel Kay and Tanya Huff. The
Bunch of Seven, a Toronto-based group including Huff and expanded to nine
writers in all, is most notable for the fiction, including SHARED-WORLDS
fiction, of Shirley Meier, Karen Wehrstein and S.M. STIRLING. Among the
Toronto (and Ontario) sf writers of achievement are Wayland DREW, Terence
M. GREEN, Robert J. SAWYER and Andrew WEINER. Especially active in Alberta
are Candas Jane Dorsey and J. Brian Clarke. Among the critics in Montreal
who contribute to SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES are Darko SUVIN, David Ketterer,
Robert M. PHILMUS and Marc Angenot. Other influential critics include
Douglas Barbour of Edmonton, the late Susan WOOD of Vancouver and the
expatriate John CLUTE.Toronto has hosted two world sf CONVENTIONS, in 1948
and 1973. Each year the designated national convention hosts the Canadian
Science Fiction and Fantasy Achievement Awards, known as Caspers 1980-90
but then retitled the Auroras to avoid further association with Casper the
Friendly Ghost, a US cartoon character. The first Casper - nicknamed the
Coeurl because of its catlike appearance - was awarded to A.E. van Vogt,
in whose "Black Destroyer" (1939) the original Coeurl appeared. The
Speculative Writers Association of Canada, founded by Dorsey and others in
Edmonton in 1989, issues a bimonthly newsletter called SWACCESS.
Ketterer's Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy (1992 US) surveys the
field as a whole, covering both French- and English-language literatures.
In it he estimated that there were in all about 1200 works of Canadian sf
and fantasy. [JRC]2. Sf in French. The great majority of Francophone sf
authors live in Quebec; there are very few in other provinces. Quebec sf
can be divided into two periods. Before 1974 there was no sf published
under that label, although Jules-Paul TARDIVEL's Pour la Patrie (1895;
trans as For My Country 1975) was a UTOPIA set in a 1945 Quebec. Some
established MAINSTREAM authors (like Yves Theriault [1915- ] and Michel
Tremblay [1942- ]) occasionally touched on the themes of GENRE SF and
FANTASY. Such works ranged from 19th-century voyages extraordinaires in
the Jules- VERNE tradition to adventure novels with sf trappings; some
juvenile sf was also published in the 1950s and 1960s. Despite these, no
true sf tradition existed and no lasting sf FANDOM had been established.In
1974 Norbert Spehner began publishing the FANZINE Requiem, which rapidly
grew into a literary magazine centred on sf and fantasy, publishing
fiction as well as essays and reviews and becoming the focus for a nascent
sf milieu. In 1979 Requiem became SOLARIS, while another important
magazine, imagine . . ., was created by Jean-Marc Gouanvic, followed as
editor by Catherine Saouter, Gouanvic again and, in 1990, Marc Lemaire.
Meanwhile, in 1983, Spehner had passed SOLARIS on to a collective led by E


(1911-1986) UK writer, two of whose many thrillers are borderline sf. In
The Finger of Saturn (1973) a group of individuals who claim to have come
from space attempt to return there. The Doomsday Carrier (1976) features
an escaped chimpanzee infected with an artificially induced contagion. The
Crimson Chalice, an Arthurian FANTASY sequence, comprises The Crimson
Chalice (1976), The Circle of the Gods (1977) and The Immortal Wound
(1978), all assembled as The Crimson Chalice (omni 1980). [JC]

Charles PLATT.

(1952- ) US illustrator known for his pale, delicate style, for the
Art-Nouveau-inspired, ethereal women he often paints, and for his use of
stylized costume details. His fame is out of proportion to the amount of
work (mostly book covers) he has published, though he works also under
pseudonyms. Although he has often been nominated for the HUGO and
regularly scores highly in the LOCUS poll, his work is almost exclusively

[r] Karel CAPEK.

(1890-1938) Czech writer whose copious production included plays, novels,
stories, imaginative travel books and at least two volumes written to
publicize President Tomas Masaryk (1850-1937) of Czechoslovakia in his
formidable old age. After publishing several volumes of stories (not all
translated), including Trapne povidky (coll 1921; trans Francis P.
Marchant, Dora Round, F. P. Casey and O. Vocadloas as Money and Other
Stories 1929 UK), he began to produce the plays for which he remains
perhaps best known, in particular R.U.R. (1920; trans as R.U.R. (Rossum's
Universal Robots): A Fantastic Melodrama by Paul Selver with Nigel
Playfair 1923 UK; US trans Paul Selver alone 1923 differs) and, with his
painter/writer brother Josef (who died in Belsen in 1945), Ze zivota hmyzu
(1921; trans Paul Selver as And So Ad Infinitum (The World of the Insects)
1923 UK; selected vt trans Owen Davis as The World We Live In 1933 US;
most commonly known as The Insect Play). R.U.R. introduced the word ROBOT
(at Josef's suggestion) to the world. In Czech it means something like
"serf labour", and in the play it applies not to robots made of metal, as
we have come to think of them, but to a worker-class of persecuted
ANDROIDS. The play itself, if understood as a lurchingly hilarious
vaudeville, can nearly transcend its portentous symbolism and the
neo-Tolstoyan bathos of its life-affirming conclusion. In The Insect Play,
which is far more adroit, various arthropods go through vaudeville
routines explicitly related to cognate activities on the part of humans,
to scathing effect. But it is only with the new translation by Tatian
Firkusny and Robert T. Jones of Act Two in unexpurgated form-in Toward the
Radical Center: A Karel Capek Reader (coll 1990 US) ed Peter Kussi - that
the reader can begin to assess the full impact of this extraordinary work.
A further play, Vec Makropulos (1922; unauthorized trans Randal C. Burrell
as The Makropoulos Secret 1925 US; authorized trans Paul Selver of rev
textThe Macropoulos Secret 1927 UK), similarly cloaks in comic routines
the terrifying story of the alluring, world-weary, 300-year-old
protagonist, the secret of her longevity, and her ambivalently conceived
death (a new translation, by Robert T. Jones and Yveta Synek Graff, also
in Toward the Radical Center, does something to reveal the frightening
pace of the play). The work is most familiar as the basis of an opera by
Leos Janacek (1854-1928). A later collaboration with Josef, Adam stvoritel
(1927; trans Dora Round as Adam the Creator 1927 UK), was less successful;
and Bila nemoc (1937; trans Paul Selver and Ralph Neale as Power and Glory
1938 UK; new trans Michael Henry Heim as "The White Plague" in Cross
Currents 7, 1988 US) has been available to an English-speaking readership
in anything like its original form only since 1988.Of greater interest to
the sf reader was the first of KC's sf novels, Tovarna na absolutno (1922;
trans Sarka B. Hrbkova as The Absolute at Large 1927 UK/US), like most of
his fiction a deceptively light-toned SATIRE. A scientist invents the
Karburator, an atomic device which produces almost free power through the
absolute conversion of energy, a process which unfortunately also releases
the essence of God, causing a spate of miracles and other effects;
ultimately there is a devastating religious WAR. Its immediate successor,
Krakatit (1924; trans Lawrence Hyde 1925 UK; vt An Atomic Phantasy:
Krakatit 1948), hearkens back to the fever-ridden brio of his stories and
plays from the early 1920s, and serves to culminate this first - and in
some ways most energetically dark - period of KC's creative life. Krakatit
is both a quasi-atomic explosive and - by analogy - the sexual abyss into
which its inventor, Prokop, topples. Neither the world nor Prokop emerges
unscathed from the consequent acid bath of reality - reality-to-excess.
These novels are set in middle Europe, and the teasing of apocalypse so
conspicuous in them works to transmit some sense of KC's sensitive
political consciousness, identifiably Central European in its inherent
assumptions about the precariousness of institutions and the dubiousness
of their claimed benevolence.This almost allergenic awareness of the
fragility of 20th-century civilization is perhaps best summed up in KC's
last sf novel, Valka s Mloky (1936; trans M. and R. Weatherall as WAR WITH
THE NEWTS 1937 UK; new trans Ewald Osers 1985 UK), in which a strange,
apparently exploitable sea-dwelling race of "newts" is discovered in the
South Pacific - where Rossum's robots also "lived". The newts are
immediately enslaved by human entrepreneurs; but the resulting dramas of
class struggle and social injustice are rendered with a high ashen
ambivalence, for the newts, having gained the necessary human
characteristics and a "newt Hitler" to guide them, turn against their
masters and flood the continents in order to acquire lebensraum. It is the
end for Homo sapiens. The book, told in the form of a chatty,
typographically experimental feuilleton, chills with its seeming levity
(and with its prefigurations of the end of Czechoslovakia two years
later).In the end, KC is perhaps less memorable for his sf innovations -
they are indeed slender - than for the heightened humaneness that so
illuminates his tales of displaced and ending worlds. [JC]Other works:
Though it has been listed as sf, Povetron (1934; trans as Meteor 1935 UK),
is neither sf nor fantasy; Tales from Two Pockets (coll cut trans 1932 UK;
full trans Norma Comrada 1994 US) assembles Povidky z jedne kapsy ["Tales
from One Pocket"] (coll 1929) and Povidky z druhe kapsy ["Tales from the
Other Pocket"] (coll 1929). Further stories are collected in Devatero
Pohadek (coll 1932; trans as Fairy Tales 1933 UK; new trans Dagmar
Herrmann, vt Nine Fairy Tales1990 US), for older children, and Kniha
apokryfu (coll 1945; trans Dora Round as Apocryphal Stories 1949 UK).About
the author: Karel Capek (1962) by William E. Harkins.See also: AUTOMATION;

Machines that seem like humans....that's been a theme of science fiction
since its earliest days. But the word “robot” wasn’t coined until
1920.Karel Capek, a Czech writer, published a play called R.U.R., which
stands for "Rossum's Universal Robots." The word "robot" comes from
"robota," which means "work" in Czech. Although Capek's robots were
near-human creatures who were exploited for their labor value, "robot"
went on to signify machines in human form.The word didn't catch on in
English until the 1930s, and the first use of the word "robot" in the
United States was probably in Eando Binder's 1935 story, "The Robot
Aliens"... which may also be the first story in which the word "alien" is
used to describe an extraterrestrial.

(1950- ) US writer whose most significant work has been in collaboration
with William BARTON (whom see for details). His solo novel, Burster
(1990), examines the stresses afflicting those aboard a GENERATION
STARSHIP which has left an Earth that was possibly at the brink of
destruction. [JC]

(1911-1969) UK writer who also worked for many years as an editor and
administrator in film and tv production, ending his career as head of the
Film Department of Independent Television News. From 1942 he wrote fairly
copiously in various genres, including detective stories. His first sf was
the Antigeos trilogy - The Other Side of the Sun (1950), The Other Half of
the Planet (1952) and Down to Earth (1954) - some parts of which were
serialized on BBC RADIO. The sequence deals with the discovery of an
Earth-like planet, hidden directly behind the Sun, whose UTOPIAN life
leaves itself open to exploitation by villainous humans. Into the Tenth
Millennium (1956) concerns three people who travel into the future
utilizing a drug which slows down body metabolism; they emerge into a
utopian world of great charm and interest - Capon's utopias are less
stuffy and preachy than most - but the woman cannot make the necessary
psychological adjustment. Most of PC's sf was for children, including The
World at Bay (1953), The Wonderbolt (1955), Phobos, the Robot Planet
(1955; vt Lost, a Moon 1956 US) and Flight of Time (1960). PC wrote well
and created unusually solid future worlds. [PN]See also: CHILDREN'S SF;

Film (1977). Capricorn One Associates/Associated General/ITC. Dir Peter
Hyams, starring Elliott Gould, James Brolin, Brenda Vaccaro, Sam
Waterston, O.J. Simpson, Hal Holbrook. Screenplay Hyams. 124 mins. Colour.
The premise of this PARANOIA movie - made at a time, in the wake of
Watergate, when secret-political-conspiracy films had become commonplace -
is that a supposedly manned mission to Mars cannot carry a crew because of
a malfunction in the life-support system. Fearing a public-relations
disaster and a cut in funding, NASA decides to fake the mission: an
unmanned craft is sent and a remote film-set is used in place of Mars, the
"astronauts" being blackmailed into taking part in the deception. But,
after the real spacecraft burns up in the atmosphere on its return to
Earth, the astronauts are officially "dead", and will probably be murdered
to keep them quiet. Escapes, desert chases and confusions follow. The
provocative theme of appearance vs reality in a media-dominated world
could have been interesting, but Hyams raises the issue only to ignore it
in favour of routine spectacle. That NASA should have cooperated in making
the film is mystifying. Unusually, the film was novelized twice: in the
USA as Capricorn One * (1977) by Ron GOULART, and in the UK as Capricorn
One * (1978) by Bernard L. Ross (Ken FOLLETT). [JB/PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE, 17 issues Winter 1940-Spring 1944, quarterly (but Fall
1943 missing). Published by Better Publications; ed Leo MARGULIES with
Mort WEISINGER (1940-41) and Oscar J. FRIEND (1941-4). A companion
attempt to establish a SPACE-OPERA equivalent to the popular SUPERHERO
pulps ( DOC SAVAGE MAGAZINE and the like). Each issue ran a complete novel
about tall, cheerful, red-headed Curt Newton, alias Captain Future,
"Wizard of Science" or "Man of Tomorrow" according to the magazine's
successive subtitles. With his trio of assistants, "Grag, the giant, metal
robot; Otho, the man-made, synthetic android; and aged Simon Wright, the
living Brain", he thwarted a succession of evil (and, more often than not,
green) foes. All but two of the novels were written by Edmond HAMILTON
(whom see for details), twice under the house name Brett STERLING. They
were later reprinted in paperback form. After CF had become a casualty of
WWII paper shortages, the character continued to appear intermittently in
Startling Stories to 1946, and again 1950-51. CF also serialized some
abridged reprints from WONDER STORIES and published a few short stories,
including Fredric BROWN's debut, "Not Yet the End" (1941). Like its
companion magazines at that period, CF was unabashedly juvenile in its
appeal. [MJE/PN]

US PULP MAGAZINE; 1 issue, May 1938, published by Ace Magazines; no
editor named. The (short) novel contained in this issue, "Python-Men of
the Lost City", was by Chester Hawks. Hazzard, an imitation of Doc Savage
( DOC SAVAGE MAGAZINE) with great mental powers and a similar group of
assistants, combats a master criminal. The lead novel was reprinted in
facsimile in 1974 by Robert E. WEINBERG. [FHP]

The hero of a long-running series of boy's stories ( BOY'S PAPERS)
written by Murray Roberts (the pseudonym of Robert Murray Graydon) and
published in Modern Boy, a weekly magazine published by Amalgamated Press
through the 1930s. Very British, CJ wore white ducks, smoked cigars and
worked out of Titanic Tower in the mid-Atlantic. In the course of battling
for good he survived robots, giant insects, runaway planets and an Earth
plunged into darkness. His exploits deeply affected the impressionable
mind of a young Brian W. ALDISS, among others of that generation. Some CJ
stories, including The World in Darkness (1935), were republished as
issues of the Boys' Friend Library. [PN]

US COMIC-book character. Created and initially drawn by C.C. Beck, CM
first appeared in 1940 in Fawcett's Whiz Comics (1940-53) and then
contemporaneously in Fawcett's Captain Marvel Adventures (1941-53); Jack
KIRBY and Mac Raboy were among its many illustrators. Foremost among its
scriptwriters was Otto Binder ( Eando BINDER), who developed CM's
distinctive whimsical humour. Newsboy Billy Batson, on speaking the magic
word "Shazam!" - an acronym for Solomon, Hercules, Atlas, Zeus, Achilles,
Mercury - becomes CM, an invincible SUPERHERO. CM was successful enough in
the late 1940s to be given a whole Marvel Family, including CM Jr, Mary
Marvel (CM's sister), Uncle Marvel and even Hoppy the Marvel Bunny.CM bore
some resemblance to SUPERMAN, and thus became the subject of a lawsuit
brought by National Periodical Publications (later DC COMICS); this was
contested until, for financial reasons, Fawcett capitulated in 1953. In
the UK the reprints of CM published by L. Miller had been sufficiently
successful to warrant continued independent publication under a new name,
Marvelman (346 issues, 1954-63), drawn by Mick Anglo Studios; the hero had
a new crew-cut hairstyle and a new magic word, "Kimota!" ("Atomik!"
backwards). The series was reprinted in the first 5 issues of Miracleman
(beginning 1985). Artists included Don Lawrence, Ron Embleton and George
Stokes. Under this new name, the character much later ran into
difficulties when Quality Communications obtained permission to resurrect
him in Warrior, with an adult script by Alan MOORE (1984). MARVEL COMICS
threatened legal action because of the use of the word "Marvel" in the
title. So Marvelman was renamed Miracleman, otherwise continuing unchanged
and subsequently appearing in the USA from Eclipse, for whom he is
currently (1991) scripted by Neil GAIMAN.Earlier a small company called
Lightning Comics had tried to revive the original CM character but, owing
to National's assumed ownership of the copyright, had found it necessary
to rework the concept, first as Todd Holton, Super Green-Beret (1967;
magic word turns boy into soldier) and then, more amazingly, as Fatman the
Human Flying Saucer (1967; magic word turns boy into UFO), this latter
being drawn by C.C. Beck, who had created the original CM. Neither
character lasted long; however, the incident served to apprise both DC
National and Marvel that there was a dilemma. Marvel quickly created
another Captain Marvel in Marvel Superheroes #12 (1968); this was a more
conventional superhero. As long as Marvel continued to publish the
exploits of this character, Marvel reasoned, DC could not revive their own
1940s CM without causing an undesirable confusion. However, this prospect
did not deter DC, who resurrected the original CM in a comic called
Shazam! (1972-8), later continued as Shazam: The New Beginning (1987).
Nevertheless, Marvel Comics continue to maintain a token CM simply in
order to stop DC publishing a comic book with the word "Marvel" in the
title; thus, even though Marvel's CM was killed off in the GRAPHIC NOVEL
The Death of Captain Marvel (graph 1982) written and drawn by Jim Starlin,
yet another CM was created to replace him.There was, very briefly, a
further CM. Captain Marvel Presents the Terrible 5 (MF Enterprises 1966)
was one of the worst comics of all time. This CM's magic word was
"Split!", the saying of which caused a part of his body to detach itself.
Needless to say, writs flew. [RT]

(vt Jet Jackson, Flying Commando) US tv series (1954-6). Screen Gems/CBS.
Prod George Bilson. Pilot episode dir D. Ross Lederman, written Dana
Slade. 25 mins per episode. B/w.Richard Webb played Captain Midnight (or
Jet Jackson, depending on where the series was shown) in this early
children's tv series; Sid Melton played his bumbling assistant, Ikky; Olan
Soule played his scientist friend Tut. Midnight was a super-scientific
crime-fighter who each week would zoom in his sleek jetplane from his
mountaintop HQ to combat a new evil. The first episode concerned the theft
of a powerful radioactive element by foreign agents; they are spotted by a
member of Midnight's network of juvenile helpers, the Secret Squadron, and
he tracks them down using a Geiger counter. The scripts were poor even by
the juvenile standards of the mid-1950s, and CM was visually ludicrous.
Storylines often featured atomic weapons and radioactivity, this being
very much a product of the Cold-War period. CM is not to be confused with
the 15-episode 1942 Columbia film serial (based on a RADIO serial) of the
same name; this too had sf elements. [JB]


Film (1969). Omnia/MGM. Dir James Hill, starring Robert Ryan, Chuck
Connors, Nanette Newman, Luciana Paluzzi. Screenplay Pip and Jane Baker,
R. Wright Campbell, based on the character created by Jules VERNE. 106
mins. Colour.Towards the end of the 19th century a ship sinks in a violent
storm. A few survivors find themselves on board a mysterious underwater
vessel, the Nautilus, under the command of the legendary Captain Nemo.
They are taken to Nemo's underwater city (likeably Victorian in design),
where his oxygen-creator transmutes rocks into gold as a side-effect. A
morality tale about greed ensues. This UK film is distinctly inferior to
Disney's 20,000 LEAGUES UNDER THE SEA (1954). [PN/JB]

UK tv series (1967-68). A Century 21 Production for ITC. Created Gerry
and Sylvia ANDERSON. Prod Reg Hill. Script ed Tony Barwick. Writers
included Barwick (most episodes), Shane Rimmer. Dirs included Brian
Burgess, Ken Turner, Alan Perry, Bob Lynn. One season, 32 25min episodes.
Colour.This was the 5th sf tv series made by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson in
SuperMarionation - i.e., with puppets. Not quite as good as THUNDERBIRDS,
report people who were 11 years old at the time, but pretty exciting all
the same, and the most sophisticated of all in terms of both narrative and
special-effects techniques. Captain Scarlet and his colour-coded Spectrum
agents fought against the Martian Mysterons, who could kill and then
resuscitate people as Martian agents. Captain Scarlet himself had, as a
result of an early brush with Mysterons, developed the ability to
regenerate after death. CSATM is rather darker than other Anderson series
because of the need to work a death into the plot each week. Eight
episodes were cobbled together to make two made-for-tv feature films,
Captain Scarlet vs The Mysterons (1967) and Revenge of the Mysterons from
Mars (1981). [PN]

1. US tv serial (1949-53 and 1955-6). DuMont. Prod Larry Menkin. DuMont
was a New York tv company; in the early years of tv many programmes came
from New York. CV, a 30min children's programme that went out 5 nights a
week, was the first sf on tv. Written by Maurice Brockhauser, it starred
Richard Coogan (replaced in 1950 by Al Hodge) as Captain Video, who 300
years from now, with the aid of his Video Rangers, battled various threats
from outer space. Many early scripts were written by Damon KNIGHT, C.M.
KORNBLUTH and Robert SHECKLEY.CV was shot live in a small studio and on a
low budget, with the result that much of the spectacle had to be provided
by the imaginations of young viewers; it also incorporated filmed
material, such as short Westerns and cartoons, which were introduced by
the Captain himself. In 1953 the serial format was dropped; CV was
retitled The Secret Files of Captain Video and became a weekly adventure
with self-contained stories, but it folded that same year. In 1955 Hodge
returned as Captain Video in a weekly 60min children's show, which he also
produced. Though still wearing his uniform, which looked like a cross
between a marine's and a bus driver's, he merely acted as the show's host,
introducing stock adventure-film footage and undemanding shorts of an
"educational" nature which he would then discuss with the studio audience
of children. In 1956 CV ended his career with Captain Video's Cartoons,
the Master of Time and Space reduced to announcing the funnies. There was
a comic book based on CV.2. In 1951 Sam Katzman produced a cinema serial
of 15 parts based on the tv serial. Dir Spencer Bennet, Wallace A.
Grissell, written by Royal K. Cole, Sherman L. Lowe, Joseph F. Poland,
George H. Plympton, it starred Judd Holdren in the title role and
contained robots. [JB]

US PULP MAGAZINE; 3 bimonthly issues, Nov 1949-Mar 1950, published by
Recreational Reading Corp., Indiana, ed anon Alden H. Norton. Each issue
contained a novel written by prolific pulp author G.T. Fleming-Roberts. As
a result of a radiation overdose, Captain Zero (alias "The Master of
Midnight") becomes involuntarily invisible at night; he uses his unwanted
gift to operate against the underworld. When invisible he speaks in
italics. This, the last of the hero pulps, was closer to detective fiction
than sf. An almost identical edition was published simultaneously in
Canada. [FHP/MJE]

(? - ) US writer who began writing sf with, for ASF in 1983, "The
Vampires who Loved Beowulf", a story which makes up part of her first
novel, Seven Worlds (fixup 1986), whose protagonist, a tough female Space
Exploratory Forces agent, is entrusted with the task of improving
COMMUNICATIONS between humans and other species. The sequel, The Snows of
Jaspre (1989), written for young adults, places that protagonist into a
political and ecological crisis on the eponymous planet. Water Song (1987)
and The Faces of Ceti (1991), singletons, likewise examine planets in
crisis. I Remember, I Remember (1991 chap), a novella, recounts the
sensations of a woman who awakens on a "coldship" without any memory of
how she entered SUSPENDED ANIMATION. [JC]


(1951- ) US writer who exploded onto the sf scene with his first
published story, "Ender's Game" for ASF in 1977; it was nominated for a
HUGO and served as the germ for the Ender series, the first two volumes of
which, published 1985 and 1986, each won both Hugo and NEBULA, the first
time the two major prizes had been swept in successive years by one
author. After a highly promising start at the end of the 1970s - he won
the 1978 JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD - he entered a period during the early
1980s when his career seemed to be drifting; but by the end of 1986 he had
clearly established himself as one of the two or three dominant figures of
recent sf. That dominance remains (1992) unshaken.No secret lies behind
this success, for OSC has always been entirely explicit about the two
factors which have shaped his career. The first is Mormonism. The gift of
faith, in his case, has been a complex offering. Born and raised as a
Mormon, OSC came to adulthood in a family-oriented, tight-knit community
whose sense of historical uniqueness was confirmed in various ways: by
recurrent persecution from without, while being intermittently threatened
by scandal within; by The Book of Mormon, a holy book constructed as a
nest of mythopoeic, justificatory narratives through which are expounded a
pattern of truly unusual historical hypotheses rich in storytelling
potential, not least among these the belief that Native Americans are the
Lost Tribes of Israel; and by a tradition - both written and oral -
dominated by messiah-like figures of great charisma who lead their people
from exile into a promised land. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that
OSC's tales have concerned themselves from the first with matters of
family and community in narratives constructed so as to unfold a mythic
density at their hearts, and featuring lonely and manipulative
MESSIAH-figures who - if they die - die sacrificially. The second factor
behind OSC's career is the compulsion to tell stories. If he has a genius,
it is for that. (And, if he has a fatal flaw, it resides in that
compulsion.) Like Stephen KING, whose capacity for hard work he shares, he
is a maker of tales.Unlike King, however, OSC did not begin as a natural
writer of novels, most of his pre-sf work being in the form of short plays
for Mormon audiences and much of his early work at book length being
expansions of short stories. "Ender's Game" and the other stories
assembled in Unaccompanied Sonata (coll 1981) - not to be confused with
the release of the title story alone as Unaccompanied Sonata (1979 Omni;
1992 chap) - demonstrate a compulsive rightness of length (though at times
the chill cruelty of the telling unveils a sadism over which the author
seemed to have little control), but the first novels were incoherently
told, if absorbing in parts. Because of OSC's habitual reworking of his
early work, the bibliography of his first sequence, the Worthing
Chronicle, is complex. Some of the stories in Capitol: The Worthing
Chronicle (coll of linked stories 1979) are journeyman work, and appear
only in that first volume; both Capitol and its companion, Hot Sleep
(fixup 1979), were withdrawn from circulation only a few years later in
order to make market room for The Worthing Chronicle (1983), a text which
reworked beyond recognition the earlier material. Finally, in The Worthing
Saga (omni 1990), The Worthing Chronicle (apparently unchanged) was
assembled along with 6 of the 11 stories originally published in Capitol
plus 3 previously uncollected tales. Of all these versions, the most
unified is very clearly the 1983 novel, which presents the long epic of
Jason Worthing as a sequence of dreams - or scriptures - transmitted by
Jason himself to young Lared, who transcribes them for his fellow
colonists on a planet which, ages before, their ancestors settled under
Worthing's guidance. These dreams - which are in fact some of the contents
of the earlier versions of the long tale, here contoured and condensed
into myth-like parables - tell Lared of Jason Worthing's pain-racked and
interminable life as messiah and godling. Lared also learns why Jason
removed all capacity to experience deep pain from his "children", and why,
now, he has given them pain once more. Compact, multi-layered, mythopoeic
and ultimately very strange, The Worthing Chronicle of 1983 remains one of
OSC's finest and most revealing works.A Planet Called Treason (1979; rev
vt Treason 1988) is a much inferior singleton, though its protagonist is
illuminatingly similar to Jason Worthing; but Songmaster (fixup 1980; rev
1987) is a fine rite-of-passage tale whose protagonist, a typical OSC
child, is alienated from his family, is blessed with an extraordinary
talent (in this case MUSIC), and grows into a messianic role for which he
seems preordained.OSC's career then seemed to drift. Hart's Hope (1983)
was a FANTASY, obscurely published; The Worthing Chronicle appeared
without much notice; and A Woman of Destiny (1984; text restored vt Saints
1988) was a historical novel about the founding of Mormonism which, in the
cut 1984 version, seemed misshapen. Finally, however, the Ender books
began to appear. The series comprises ENDER'S GAME (1977 ASF; much exp
1985), Speaker for the Dead (1986), both volumes being assembled as
Ender's War (omni 1986), plus Xenocide (1991), with a fourth volume
projected. As the sequence begins, Ender Wiggin is a young boy who, along
with his siblings, is the result of an experiment in eugenics ( GENETIC
ENGINEERING) authorized by the government of Earth, which is apprehensive
that the ALIEN Buggers will return from interstellar space and continue
what seems a xenocidal assault upon humanity, and is convinced that only
humans with superior abilities will be capable of defeating the foe. Ender
is taken to a military academy, where he is subjected in the Battle Room
to an escalating sequence of challenges to his extraordinary tactical and
strategic abilities; eventually, at what seems to be a final game (the
tale does here prefigure much of the VIRTUAL-REALITY imagery brought to
the fore in the 1980s by writers under the influence of CYBERPUNK), Ender
defeats the "imaginary" foe only to find that he has in fact been guiding
genuine human space-fleets into enemy territory, and that by winning
absolutely he has committed xenocide on behalf of the human race.When it
is discovered that the Buggers had long comprehended that humans were
sentient beings and had had no intention of continuing any conflict, the
grounds for Speaker for the Dead are laid. In the company of his chaste
sister (his demagogic brother meanwhile takes over the government of
Earth), and carrying a cocooned Bugger Hive Queen (the last of all her
race), Ender travels from star to star for thousands of planetary years
(except in Xenocide OSC, unusually, obeys Einsteinian constraints on
interstellar travel) as a Speaker for the Dead, a person who sums up a
dead person's life in a terminal ceremony, and by so doing heals the
community of his or her death. The action takes place on the planet
Lusitania, and concentrates upon the local alien race, the Pequeninos,
whose strange BIOLOGY is not yet understood - its unravelling of which is
fascinatingly prolonged. The novel concludes with the Pequeninos seemingly
understood, the Hive Queen happy in a cave where she will breed Buggers,
and Ender seeming to have expiated xenocide and become a messiah; but the
human Galactic Federation is preparing to destroy Lusitania for fear of a
deadly plague. Xenocide carries the plot onwards, though not to a
conclusion, introducing many new characters, including a talkative AI in
love with Ender. The plot of these two novels is much complicated by OSC's
attempt, not fully successful, to envision a complex Lusitanian family for
Ender to transform, and has frequent recourse to PULP-MAGAZINE-style
highlighting of eccentricities to distinguish one sibling from another;
nor is his depiction of a Chinese world - run by MUTANTS dominated by
artificially induced obsessive-compulsive disorders - fully convincing.
But even incomplete, and despite its not infrequent dependence upon
trivializing tricks of plot, the Ender saga stands as one of the very few
serious moral tales set among the stars. It is also enthrallingly
readable.OSC's third sequence - the Tales of Alvin Maker comprising
Seventh Son (1987), Red Prophet (1988) and Prentice Alvin (1989), all
assembled as Hatrack River (omni 1989), and with at least three further
volumes projected - returns to Earth, to an ALTERNATE-WORLD version of the
USA. On the basis of the first three volumes, it seems to come as close as
humanly possible to the telling of an sf tale as Mormon parable, for the
life of Alvin Maker clearly encodes the life of Joseph Smith (1805-1844),
the founder of the Mormon Church. The early 19th-century USA in which he
grows up has never experienced a Revolution; certain forms of MAGIC are
efficacious; and Alvin may become a Maker, one who can delve to the heart
of things and transform them. As the sequence progresses, the Indian
Nations set up a demarcation line, which is observed, along the
Mississippi; and Alvin seems due to become a Maker. Of greater sf
relevance are Wyrms (1987), another rite-of-passage tale about the
assumption of role and set on a planet of some interest, The Folk of the
Fringe (coll of linked stories 1989), a moderately heterodox vision of a
Mormon post- HOLOCAUST civilization; The Abyss * (1989), which very
effectively novelizes The ABYSS (1989); the Homecoming sequence,
comprising The Memory of Earth (1992), The Call of Earth (1993), The Ships
of Earth (1994) - the first 3 vols being assembled as Homecoming: Harmony
(omni 1994) - Earthfall (1995) and Earthborn (1995). In its use of
religious motifs to characterize the start of its protagonists' return to
Earth 40,000,000 years after the last humans had left their home planet,
this latter is a tale whose Mormon subtext extends very close to the
surface. Later stories are collected in Cardography (coll 1987), and
almost all OSC's independent short work, some of it written as Byron
CARD (coll 1990; with the 5th section cut, vt in 4 vols asThe Changed Man
(coll 1992), Flux (coll 1992), Monkey Sonatas (coll 1993) and Cruel
Miracles (coll 1993).In a little less than 2 decades, OSC has written
enough work for a lifetime, has transformed pulp idioms into religious
myth with an intensity not previously witnessed in the sf field, and has
created a dozen worlds it would be impossible for any reader to forget. If
he has had a significant failing - beyond a cruel insistence upon the
moral strictures of his faith, writing at one point that adultery and
homosexuality were equal (and dreadful) sins - it resides in his
strengths. The surety of faith, the muscle of a honed storytelling urgency
which has led him to write at times as though he genuinely believed that
clarity and truth were identical, the bruising triumphalism of sf as a
mode of knowing: all have led this extraordinarily talented author to
sound, on occasion, as though he thought the fictions he wrote were
scooped from the mouth of a higher being. [JC]Other works: Eye for Eye
(1987 IASFM; 1991 chap dos); Lost Boys (1992); the proposed Mayflower
trilogy with Kathryn H. Kidd, of which Havelock (1994) has appeared.As
editor: Dragons of Light (anth 1980); Dragons of Darkness (anth 1981);
Future on Fire (anth 1991) with (anon) Martin H. GREENBERG.Nonfiction:
Characters and Viewpoints (1988); How to Write Science Fiction and Fantasy
(1990) - winner of the 1991 Hugo for Best Nonfiction Book.About the
author: In the Image of God: Theme, Characterization and Landscape in the
Fiction of Orson Scott Card (1990) and The Work of Orson Scott Card: An
Annotated Bibliography & Guide (1995), both by Michael R. COLLINGS.See

(1954- ) US author of several STAR TREK ties including Dreadnought! *
(1986) and its direct sequel Battlestations! * (1986), Final Frontier *
(1988) and Star Trek, the Next Generation: Ghost Ship * (1988). [JC]

(1943- ) Australian writer, once in advertising, an experience that
pervades his work. PC's high reputation is mainly for mainstream novels
like Oscar and Lucinda (1988), which won the Booker Prize. However, a
streak of ironic FANTASY has run through his work from the beginning,
occasionally taking the form of sf. Bliss (1981) and Illywhacker (1985)
can both be regarded as fantasies (if you believe their unreliable
narrators), the first about a man who dies and goes to Hell (much like
Earth), the second a funny and touching picaresque which, although it is
told by a liar, may in part be true; he practises INVISIBILITY and claims
to span a century of Australian history, bits of which he recounts. And
both The Tax Inspector (1991) and The Unusual Life of Tristran Smith
(1994) - which is set in an imaginary country - are FABULATIONS. PC's sf
fabulations in short forms, droll, morbid and scarifying by turns, are
contained in two early collections, The Fat Man in History (coll 1974) and
War Crimes (coll 1979); a selection from both was published, confusingly,
as The Fat Man in History (coll 1980 UK; vt Exotic Pleasures 1981 UK).
Among them, "Do You Love Me?" has a world subject to reality leakages,
"The Chance" features a "Genetic Lottery" in which humans can get new
bodies while keeping their memories, and "Exotic Pleasures" has ALIEN
birdlife which transmits pleasure when touched and may destroy us all.


(? - ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Dinner at Helen's" in
Strange Bed Fellows (anth 1972) ed Thomas N. SCORTIA. His first sf novel,
Sunrise West (1981), features an attempt by multispecies commune-dwellers
to survive in a post- HOLOCAUST USA. Elysium (1982), set thousands of
years later, expounds a moderately LIBERTARIAN view of the perils of
allowing ECOLOGY-minded liberals too long a hegemony. [JC]

Donald Sydney ROWLAND.

(1958- ) Australian author of sf for adolescents. Her novels are set in
post- HOLOCAUST venues. The first two belong to the still unfolding
Obernewtyn Chronicles: Obernewtyn (1987) and The Farseekers (1990). The
third and most challenging is separate from this series: Scatterlings
(1991). IC writes vigorously and colourfully, but the sf ideas are all
very familiar: teenaged misfit heroines with PSI POWERS learn about
themselves while pitted against unfeeling, dictatorial societies. Each
story revolves around a CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH as the true nature of the
world unfolds. [PN]See also: CHILDREN'S SF; PASTORAL.

[s] George GRIFFITH.


(1912-1972) UK editor, anthologist and literary agent who worked usually
as John Carnell and sometimes as E.J. Carnell; he was known to his friends
as Ted. A prominent member of UK FANDOM, JC took over the editorship of
NOVAE TERRAE , an early FANZINE, in 1939, retitling his issues (#29-#33)
New Worlds. He began his professional career as editor in 1946 when NEW
WORLDS was revived as a professional SF MAGAZINE. After only 3 issues the
publisher failed, but JC with help from fandom was able to renew the title
in 1949 with his own company, Nova Publications; he also took over from
Walter GILLINGS as editor of the Nova Publications title SCIENCE FANTASY
from #3 onwards. The third Nova Publications title, also ed JC, was the UK
reprint edition of Larry SHAW's SCIENCE FICTION ADVENTURES. The first 5 UK
issues of this, Mar-Nov 1958, were all US reprints, but from the Jan 1959
issue it became an original UK magazine. It ceased publication with the
May 1963 issue, but the other two titles continued under JC until
mid-1964, when they were taken over by Roberts & Vinter under new editors.
JC then established a series of original ANTHOLOGIES, NEW WRITINGS IN SF,
comprising New Writings in SF 1 (anth 1964), #2 (anth 1964), #3 (anth
1965), #4 (anth 1965), #5 (anth 1965), #6 (anth 1965), #7 (anth 1966), #8
(anth 1966), #9 (anth 1966), #10 (anth 1967), #11 (anth 1967), #12 (anth
1968), #13 (anth 1968), #14 (anth 1969), #15 (anth 1969), #16 (anth 1970),
#17 (anth 1970), #18 (anth 1971), #19 (anth 1971), #20 (anth 1972), and
#21 (anth 1972), the last being published after his death. Nine volumes of
this series, with contents differing from those in the UK numeration, were
published in the USA by BANTAM BOOKS 1966-72. JC, who formally set up the
E.J. Carnell Literary Agency in 1964, was agent for most UK sf writers. He
was cofounder of the INTERNATIONAL FANTASY AWARD. He was scrupulous,
worked hard and profited little. His contribution to UK sf was enormous.
For over a quarter of a century he was an early and often first publisher
of an entire generation of UK and Irish sf writers. Although his own
preference was for conservative HARD SF and sf adventure - he published a
lot of it by writers such as John CHRISTOPHER and later Kenneth BULMER and
E.C. TUBB - he also gave active encouragement to many of the writers who
were later to become strongly associated with Michael MOORCOCK's NW,
writers of the NEW WAVE including Brian W. ALDISS, J.G. BALLARD, John
BRUNNER and Moorcock himself, whose succession to the editorship of NW JC
supported. JC also edited a handful of reprint anthologies: Jinn and
Jitters (anth 1946), No Place Like Earth (anth 1952), Gateway to Tomorrow
(anth 1954), Gateway to the Stars (anth 1955), The Best from New Worlds
Science Fiction (anth 1955), Lambda 1 & Other Stories (anth 1964 US; with
1 story dropped and 2 added 1965 UK), Weird Shadows from Beyond (anth
1965) and Best of New Writings in SF (anth 1971). [PN]



(1944- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Cantaloupes and
Kangaroos" in Clarion III (anth 1973) ed Robin Scott WILSON. His first sf
novel, The Man in the Darksuit: A Futuristic Mystery (1980), depicts with
concise and surrealistic hilarity a mean-streets urban future and a
mystery concerning the owner of the eponymous INVISIBILITY-conferring
outfit. Devine War (1986), set on a colony planet, even more complicatedly
spends considerable energy on interstellar POLITICS and on a malevolent AI
called Heathcliffe, as the eponymous female agent tries to bring her
husband's killer to justice. DRC is an author who does not deserve
obscurity, though the edgy, foregrounded cleverness of his work may
continue to limit his success. [JC]


Christopher EVANS.

(1907-1988) US writer in whose Moonspin (1967) a foreign power gains
control of Earth's weather. An earlier novel, Nile Fever (1959), is not
sf. [JC]

(1948- ) US film-maker. At USC Film School JC collaborated with
writer-actor-director Dan O'Bannon on DARK STAR (1974), a student effort
expanded successfully into a feature that attracted attention for its
ABSURDIST humour and classical suspense, following the adventures of a
spaceship crewed by near-insane astronauts and dangerously unstable
sentient bombs. That calling card enabled JC to make Assault on Precinct
13 (1976), a very accomplished "urban Western", and to sell his
(eventually rewritten) script for The Eyes of Laura Mars (1978); this in
turn won him an assignment to write and direct Halloween (1978), an
enormously influential "stalk and slash" movie. JC is usually classed as a
HORROR director, his supernatural work including The Fog (1980), Christine
(1983) from Stephen KING's novel, and Big Trouble in Little China (1986),
but - perhaps influenced by Nigel KNEALE, who wrote HALLOWEEN III: SEASON
OF THE WITCH for JC - he often mixes elaborate sf concepts with GOTHIC
horror.JC's sf films as a director include: ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK (1981), a
cynical futuristic adventure; The THING (1982), a remake of the 1951
Howard Hawks production that returns to John W. CAMPBELL's paranoid
original story for its creature-clogged theme; STARMAN (1984), a mellow
and impersonal mix of The Sugarland Express (1973) with The MAN WHO FELL
TO EARTH (1976), Jeff Bridges starring as a benign ALIEN visitor; PRINCE
OF DARKNESS (1978), a horror movie cross-breeding quantum physics and
demonology, whose credits acknowledge Kneale; THEY LIVE (1989), a witty
and socially conscious pastiche of 1950s alien-invader motifs; and MEMOIRS
OF AN INVISIBLE MAN (1992), from the 1987 novel by H.F. SAINT, a bland
comedy thriller in the mould of Starman, distinguished by state-of-the-art
INVISIBILITY effects. Since then JC has directed the first two parts of a
three-part tv horror anthology miniseries, Body Bags (1993). In 1994 a new
JC film,In the Mouth of Madness, was premiered at a film festival; this
horror film somewhat in the manner of H.P. LOVECRAFT is due for general
release in 1995. He is credited with contributions to The PHILADELPHIA
EXPERIMENT (1984) and Black Moon Rising (1986), both based on scripts he
wrote in the 1970s. A composer, JC has worked on the scores for most of
his films, some of them rather good. [KN]Further reading: Order in the
Universe: The Films of John Carpenter (1990) by Robert C. Cumbow.See also:

(1905-1976) UK writer whose Colonists in Space (1954) and its sequel,
Salamander War (1955), routinely deal with colonizing humans and their
conflicts with the original salamander inhabitants of the planet Bel. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Marj Krueger (1941- ), a former nuclear physicist
for NASA who began to publish sf with "Alienation" for ASF in 1976, and
whose major work to date is probably her first novel, Leviathan's Deep
(1979), in which star-travelling Terrans (much like 1950s Americans,
particularly in their sexual politics) confront a female from a
technologically primitive but culturally sophisticated humanoid race whose
males are genuinely inferior. The ALIEN protagonist, in whose voice the
tale is told, is depicted with flair, sympathy and a sense of her real
differences from a human woman ( WOMEN AS PORTRAYED IN SCIENCE FICTION).
The Rabelais sequence - Navigator's Sindrome (1983), The Treasure in the
Heart of the Maze (1985) and Rabelaisian Reprise (1988), with a fourth
volume, Knight of a Thousand Eyes, projected - begins with a mildly
humorous adventure, with added moral bite, about the search for a female
interstellar Navigator lost on the planet Rabelais, where the powerful
play out decadent fantasies on quasi-slaves bound to them by "contractual
obligation". The series continues in much the same vein. In the late
1980s, JC began to appear occasionally in best-of-the-year collections
with such stories as "Chimera" (1989), a hard-edged tale of revenge and
genetic manipulation set in a nightmarish future heavily influenced by
CYBERPUNK. While she is not the most inventive of recent writers, JC's
stories are solidly crafted, well characterized and readable. [NT]

(1906-1977) US writer, for long periods resident in the UK, where many of
his famous early detective novels, such as The Three Coffins (1935 US; vt
The Hollow Man 1935 UK), Death Watch (1935) and The Ten Teacups (1937) as
by Carter Dickson, and others are evocatively set (although a number of
his noteworthy early borderline-fantasy detections, such as The Waxworks
Murder [1932], are set in France). After his inspiration regarding
intricate locked-room mysteries and the like began to flag, and after a
pious biography of DOYLE, The Life of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1949), JDC
began to write mysteries of a fantastic coloration, in several of which
modern detectives are transferred (by a form of TIME TRAVEL) into the
England of an earlier era, where they are involved in murders. These books
are The Devil in Velvet (1951), set in the 17th century, Fear is the Same
(1956) as by Carter Dickson, set in the 18th, and Fire, Burn! (1956), set
in the 19th. An earlier novel, The Burning Court (1937 UK), does not
entirely rationalize the supposition that reincarnated beings lie at the
heart of the mystery. Some of the tales in The Department of Queer
Complaints (coll 1940) and The Door to Doom (coll 1980) are fantasies.

(1944- ) US writer who began publishing sf with The Ophidian Conspiracy
(1976), an unpretentious SPACE OPERA which demonstrated considerable
imagination but a stylistic gaucheness; both characteristics mark his
subsequent novels, The Pain Gain (1977) and Carnifax Mardi Gras (1982
Fantasy Book as "Dance of the Dwarfs"; exp 1982), though the latter shows
a saving exuberance. Memorial work on H. Beam PIPER resulted in his
editing The Worlds of H. Beam Piper (coll 1983) and writing a continuation
in novel form of Piper's Paratime Police/Lord Kalvan sequence, Great
King's War * (1985) with Roland J. GREEN.From the beginning of the 1980s,
most frequently in association with Jerry POURNELLE, JFC has been most
active as an editor. With Pournelle, he edited (not always with title-page
credit) Black Holes (anth 1978); the Endless Frontier sequence, comprising
The Endless Frontier (anth 1979), Volume 2 (anth 1985) and Cities in Space
(anth 1991); The Survival of Freedom (anth 1981); the There Will Be War
sequence of military ANTHOLOGIES, comprising There Will Be War (anth
1983), Vol II: Men of War (anth 1984), Vol III: Blood and Iron (anth
1984), Vol IV: Day of the Tyrant (anth 1985), Vol V: Warrior (anth 1986),
Vol VI: Guns of Darkness (anth 1987), Vol VII: Call to Battle (anth 1988),
Vol VIII: Armageddon! (anth 1989) and Vol IX: After Armageddon (anth
1990); The Science Fiction Yearbook (anth 1985) with Jim BAEN and
Pournelle; the Far Frontiers original anthology series, with Baen and
Pournelle (JFC uncredited), comprising Far Frontiers (anth 1985), #2 (anth
1985), #3 (anth 1985), #4 (anth 1986), #5 (anth 1986), #6 (anth 1986) and
#7 (anth 1986); and the Imperial Stars reprint anthologies, Imperial
Stars, Vol 1: The Stars at War (anth 1986), Vol 2: Republic and Empire
(anth 1987) and Vol 3: the Crash of Empire (anth 1989).Also with
Pournelle, JFC created and edited the War World sequence of SHARED-WORLD
anthologies: War World, Volume 1: The Burning Eye * (anth 1988) with
Roland J. Green, Volume 2: Death's Head Rebellion * (anth 1990) with
Green, and Volume 3: Sauron Dominion * (anth 1991); Codominium: Revolt on
War World * (anth 1992) is set prior to the main sequence. These volumes,
which carry Pournelle's CoDominium sequence into broader waters, have
proved one of the more effective examples of a shared-world enterprise. As
editor of the SFWA BULLETIN (1978-80), JFC devoted an entire issue (vol
14, #3) to a series of studies of "Science-Fiction Future Histories".

(1909-1994) US writer, whose first (teenage) stories appeared in Weird
Tales, beginning with "The Composite Brain" (1925), which is sf. He is the
author of one fantasy novel filled with an erotic nostalgia for death, The
Room Beyond (1948), and of Beyond Infinity (coll 1951), four warmly
realized stories set on Earth in the mid-20th century but with sf content.

(1937-1987) US writer and editor. He became an sf fan in 1949 and,
throughout the 1950s (and later), enjoyed a long and prolific career as
such; one of his fanzines, FANAC, co-edited with Ron ELLIK, won a HUGO in
1959, and TC eventually won his second Hugo as Best Fan Writer in 1973.
Some of this writing was assembled as Fandom Harvest (coll 1986) and
Between Two Worlds (coll 1986 chap dos), the latter being published with
similar material by Bob SHAW.In the early 1960s TC began to work as an
editor and to write fiction, his first story being "Who Sups with the
Devil" in 1962 for FSF, where most of his early stories appeared; most of
it was assembled in The Light at the End of the Universe (coll 1976). He
was never prolific as a fiction writer, but the stories in that collection
are thoughtful and distinctive. They include "Brown Robert" (1962), a neat
TIME-TRAVEL variant, "The Dance of the Changer and the Three" (1968), an
ambitious attempt to render an ALIEN culture by telling one of its myths,
and "Ozymandias" (1972), which draws an effective parallel between modern
CRYONICS techniques and the funeral practices of ancient Egypt. There were
also two minor novels - Invasion from 2500 (1964) with Ted WHITE under the
joint pseudonym Norman EDWARDS, and Warlord of Kor (1963 chap dos) - as
well as one ambitious and substantial work, Cirque (1977), a religious
allegory, elegiac in mood, set in the FAR FUTURE. Because he was not very
prolific, TC's writing is in general somewhat undervalued.It was as an
editor that he became and remained best known. In 1964-71 he worked with
Donald A. WOLLHEIM at ACE BOOKS, where he was responsible for the highly
successful Ace Special series, whose most famous original publications
were probably R.A. LAFFERTY's Past Master (1968) and Ursula K. LE GUIN's
THE LEFT HAND OF DARKNESS (1969), and which included several further
titles of strong merit. He co-edited seven annual best-of-the-year
ANTHOLOGIES with Wollheim (whom see for titles), beginning with World's
Best Science Fiction: 1965 (anth 1965; vt World's Best Science Fiction:
First Series 1970 UK), and initiated the UNIVERSE series of original
anthologies (see listing below) with Universe 1 (anth 1971). After leaving
Ace and becoming a freelance editor, TC continued to produce a
best-of-the-year anthology on his own in competition with Wollheim's,
commencing with The Best Science Fiction of the Year (anth 1972) and
continuing through 1987 (see listing below); during its run, this series
was generally regarded as the best of the annual compilations. Universe
continued, although it changed publishers more than once; and with The
Year's Finest Fantasy (anth 1978) TC started a FANTASY annual (see listing
below), which was less successful. Of a wide variety of reprint and
original anthologies, the most notable was perhaps The Ides of Tomorrow
(anth 1976), with fine stories by Brian W. ALDISS, George R.R. MARTIN and
others.In the 1980s TC returned to Ace Books on a freelance basis to edit
a second series of Ace Specials, this time restricted to first novels. The
impact of this sequence was perhaps even greater than the first, for it
included in its first 18 months William GIBSON's NEUROMANCER (1984), Kim
Stanley ROBINSON's THE WILD SHORE (1984), Carter SCHOLZ's and Glenn
Harcourt's Palimpsests (1984), Lucius SHEPARD's Green Eyes (1984), Michael
SWANWICK's In the Drift (1985) and Howard WALDROP's Them Bones (1984). In
1985-6 he won his third and fourth Hugos, both as Best Editor. What
perhaps marked TC most distinctively was his quite extraordinary capacity
to commission or purchase work which, once published, seemed inevitable.
His authors seemed to speak to the heart of their times. [MJE/JC]Other
works as editor: Science Fiction for People who Hate Science Fiction (anth
1966); The Others (anth 1969); On Our Way to the Future (anth 1970); This
Side of Infinity (anth 1972); An Exaltation of Stars (anth 1973); Into the
Unknown (anth 1973); Worlds Near and Far (anth 1974); The Fellowship of
the Stars (anth 1974); Creatures from Beyond (anth 1975); Planets of
Wonder (anth 1976); The Infinite Arena (anth 1977); To Follow a Star: Nine
Science Fiction Stories about Christmas (anth 1977); Classic Science
Fiction: The First Golden Age (anth 1978); Beyond Reality (anth 1979);
Dream's Edge (anth 1980); A Treasury of Modern Fantasy (anth 1981) with
Martin H. GREENBERG; 100 Great Fantasy Short Short Stories (anth 1984)
with Isaac ASIMOV and Greenberg; The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume
4 (anth 1986).New Worlds of Fantasy: New Worlds of Fantasy (anth 1967; vt
Step Outside Your Mind 1969 UK); #2 (anth 1970); #3 (anth 1971).Universe:
The sequence continued with Universe 2 (anth 1972), #3 (anth 1973), #4
(anth 1974), #5 (anth 1975), #6 (anth 1976), #7 (anth 1977), #8 (anth
1978), #9 (anth 1979), #10 (anth 1980), #11 (anth 1981), #12 (anth 1982),
#13 (anth 1983), #14 (anth 1984), #15 (anth 1985), #16 (anth 1986) and #17
(anth 1987), plus The Best from Universe (anth 1984).Best Science Fiction
of the Year: The sequence continued with The Best Science Fiction of the
Year 2 (anth 1973), #3 (anth 1974), #4 (anth 1975), #5 (anth 1976), #6
(anth 1977), #7 (anth 1978), #8 (anth 1979), #9 (anth 1980), #10 (anth
1981), #11 (anth 1982), #12 (anth 1983), #13 (anth 1984; cut vt Best SF of
the Year #13 1984 UK), Terry Carr's Best Science Fiction of the Year #14
(anth 1985; vt Best SF of the Year #14 1985 UK), Terry Carr's Best Science
Fiction of the Year #15 (anth 1986; vt Best SF of the Year #15 1986 UK)
and #16 (anth 1987; vt Best SF of the Year #16 1987 UK).Finest Fantasy:
The sequence continued with The Year's Finest Fantasy #2 (anth 1979), #3
(anth 1981), #4 (anth 1981) and #5 (anth 1982).Best SF Novellas: The Best
Science Fiction Novellas of the Year #1 (anth 1979) and #2 (anth 1980).See

(1869-? ) UK writer, active as late as 1929. Paul le Maistre (1901) is
not sf, the invention at the heart of the book being an improved plough,
but 2010 (1914) is a racist and reactionary UTOPIA with high technologies
(amply described), a comet, a sterility-inducing plague and a future WAR
in which Oriental invaders are defeated when the plague is redirected at
their women. It was published anonymously. [JC]

Lauran Bosworth PAINE.

Film (1976). Red Bank/United Artists. Dir Brian De Palma, starring Sissy
Spacek, Piper Laurie, John Travolta, Amy Irving, Nancy Allen. Screenplay
Lawrence D. Cohen, based on Carrie (1974) by Stephen KING. 98 mins.
Colour.This was the breakthrough film for a director who had worked with
fantastic subjects before, notably with Sisters (1972) and Phantom of the
Paradise (1974). Only borderline sf, more centrally a HORROR film, C tells
of a repressed and innocent child (Spacek), just entering puberty, whose
powers of TELEKINESIS awaken partly in response to the dreadful religious
bigotry of her mother and specifically to brutal teasing at high school.
Widely praised and commercially successful, C is pyrotechnically directed,
especially in those scenes where Carrie strikes back at her tormentors.
Undoubtedly impressive, the film is, however, more simplistic about its
fantasy of impotent-victim-becoming-potent-avenger than was its source
novel. De Palma went on to make another film about PSI POWERS, The FURY
(1978). [PN]See also: CINEMA.

(1939-1978) and NANCY (1933-? ) US writing team in whose sf novel, The
Siren Stars (1971), the first intelligent messages from another star
present a dire challenge. Rather ponderously, a clean-cut team of Earth
scientists deals with the problem. The book-length sequel was "Minotaur in
a Mushroom Maze" (1976 ASF). [JC]See also: CYBERNETICS.

(1938- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Night-Eyed Prayer" for
AMZ in 1971, though his later "After You've Stood on the Log at the Center
of the Universe, What is There Left To Do?" (1974) was more notable.
Time's Fool (1981) is an unremarkable though moderately appealing sf
adventure. [JC]

Pseudonym of UK mathematician and writer Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
(1832-1898), whose famous children's stories, Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There
(1871), an early example of the novel whose "moves" are based on a game of
chess, have had a profound impact on a wide range of writers. It has been
argued by Brian W. ALDISS, among others, that the underlying logic of
these "nonsense" adventures has provided a significant model for much of
sf's typical reorderings of reality - certainly in most sf novels whose
heroes' PARANOIA about reality turns out to be justified. Both novels were
assembled much later, and very usefully, as The Annotated Alice: Alice's
Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (omni 1960 US; rev
vt More Annotated Alice 1990 US) ed Martin GARDNERGilbert Adair's Alice
Through the Needle's Eye * (1984) was, interestingly, not a Wonderland
parody but a genuine continuation.LC's mathematical and logical fantasies,
as found in A Tangled Tale (1886), have also had repercussions in sf.
[JC]Other works include: Phantasmagoria and Other Poems (coll 1869); The
Hunting of the Snark: An Agony in Eight Fits (1876 chap), Sylvie and Bruno
(1867 Aunt Judy's Magazine as "Bruno's Revenge"; exp 1889) and its sequel
(also derived from the story), Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893); The Wasp
in a Wig (1977 chap), a portion of Through the Looking-Glass cut at proof
stage and lost until 1977.About the author: The Life and Letters of Lewis
Carroll (1898) by Stuart Dodgson Collingwood; Victoria through the
Looking-Glass (1945; vt Lewis Carroll 1954 UK) by Derek Hudson; Aspects of
Alice (1971) ed Robert Phillips.See also: FANTASTIC VOYAGES; HOLLOW EARTH;

Film (1974). Salt Pan/Australian Film Development Corp/Royce Smeal.
Written and dir Peter Weir, starring Terry Camilleri, John Meillon, Kevin
Miles. 88 mins. Colour.From a director who later made several impressive
fantasy films, including Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975) and The Last Wave
(1977), both of which edge close to sf at points, TCTAP is an
idiosyncratic exploitation movie about a small town in which young people
drive murderously redesigned cars (some covered in spikes) up and down the
roads at high speed, rapidly disposing of any visitors via crashes and
then cannibalizing the wreckage; any survivors are turned over to the
local mad doctor who uses them as experimental subjects. An air of
automotive apocalypse is produced, as in Jean-Luc Godard's otherwise very
different WEEKEND (1967). In TCTAP, a witty, smaller-scale work, the town
that lives by the car dies by the car. TCTAP points forward to the MAD MAX
movies, also Australian, which similarly feature killer cars, gladiatorial
sports and diseased societies. [PN]

(1940-1992) UK writer best known for her work outside the sf field,
though all her novels and tales are characterized by an expressionist
freedom of reference to everyday "reality" which often emerges as fantasy.
She won the John Llewelyn Rhys Memorial Prize for her second novel, The
Magic Toyshop (1967), and the Somerset Maugham Award for Several
Perceptions (1968). Her first tale to engage in a recognizably sf
displacement of reality, HEROES AND VILLAINS (1969), does so with a
similar freedom, for AC was one of the few UK writers of genuine
FABULATIONS, of POSTMODERNIST works in which storytelling conventions are
mixed and examined, and in which the style of telling is strongly
language-oriented. HEROES AND VILLAINS is set in a post- HOLOCAUST England
inhabited by (a) dwellers in the ruins of cities, whose society is rigidly
stratified into Professors and the Soldiers who guard them and, (b)
Barbarians who live in the surreal mutated forests that cover the land.
Like much of her work, the novel uses GOTHIC images and conventions to
examine and to parody the concerns of its protagonists and the desolate
world they inhabit. In the story of Marianne, a Professor's daughter, who
leaves the ruined city for a Barbarian life where she undergoes a violent
erotic awakening, AC definitively entangles sex and decadence (or female
freedom).Erotic complexities, shamans and deliquescent urban landscapes
proliferate in such later novels as The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor
Hoffman (1972; vt The War of Dreams 1974 US), which is a quest into dream,
The Passion of New Eve (1977), which is a baroque picaresque through a
holocaust-enflamed USA, and Nights at the Circus (1984), in which a
grandly fabulated, densely conceived phantasmagorical world surrounds the
tale of a "deformed" woman performer whose wings are real, whose womanhood
is no deformity. AC's stories were collected as: Fireworks (coll 1974; rev
1987), assembled with the non-genre Love (1971; rev 1987) as Artificial
Fire (omni 1988 Canada); The Bloody Chamber (coll 1979), a series of
contes dissective of female sexuality; and Black Venus (coll 1985; rev vt
Saints and Strangers 1986 US), which includes Black Venus's Tale (1980
chap). Though she was never associated with the sf NEW WAVE, it was
perhaps through the widening of the gates of perception due to that
movement that readers of sf were induced to treat AC's difficult but
rewarding work as being of interest to a genre audience. She died very
much too young. [JC]Other works: Moonshadow (1982 chap) with Justin Todd,
a juvenile; Come unto These Yellow Sands: Four Radio Plays (coll 1985);
The Virago Book of Fairy Tales (anth 1990; vt The Old Wives' Fairy Tale
Book 1990 US); The Second Virago Book of Fairy Tales (anth 1992);
Expletives Deleted (coll 1992), nonfiction.As translator:The Fairy Tales
of Charles Perrault (trans 1977); Sleeping Beauty and Other Favourite
Fairy Tales (trans and ed 1982).See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; DISASTER;

Pseudonym of UK military historian, novelist and editor Richard
(Alexander) Hough (1922- ) for his stories and nonfiction books for
juveniles, beginning with an sf title, The Perilous Descent into a Strange
Lost World (1952; vt Into a Strange Lost World 1953 US). Other sf novels
for older children have included The Deadly Freeze (1976) and Buzzbugs
(1977). Nightworld (1987) is an animal fantasy. [JC]

(1954- ) US writer who has been primarily associated with STAR TREK,
writing one solo tie for Star Trek itself, Dreams of the Raven * (1987),
and three for Star Trek, the Next Generation, The Children of Hamelin *
(1988), with Michael Jan FRIEDMAN, Peter DAVID and Robert Greenberger,
Doomsday World * (1990) and Devil's Heart * (1993). Earlier she published
a short fantasy fable, The Shy Beast (1984 chap). [JC]

Dennis HUGHES.

Working name of US writer and editor Linwood Vrooman Carter (1930-1988),
most of whose work of any significance was done in the field of HEROIC
FANTASY, an area of concentration he went some way to define in his
critical study of relevant texts and techniques, Imaginary Worlds (1973).
Much of his own heroic fantasy derives, sometimes too mechanically, from
the precepts about its writing which he aired in this book. As an editor,
he was most active about 1969-72, when as consultant for BALLANTINE BOOKS
he conceived their adult FANTASY list and presented many titles under that
aegis, bringing to the contemporary paperback market writers such as James
Branch CABELL, Lord DUNSANY and Clark Ashton SMITH. With Cabell, he merely
reprinted some titles; but with H.P. LOVECRAFT, Dunsany and Smith he
reassembled material under his own titles (for details see their entries).
Most of his criticism has been closely linked to his strong interest in
fantasy of this sort; it includes Tolkien: A Look Behind "The Lord of the
Rings" (1969) and Lovecraft: A Look Behind the "Cthulhu Mythos" (1972). LC
began publishing sf with "Masters of the Metropolis" for FSF in 1957 with
Randall GARRETT; and with L. Sprague de Camp he adapted and expanded many
stories, especially Conan infills, like Conan the Swordsman * (1978) and
Conan the Liberator * (1979), which Robert E. Howard had left unpublished
or unrealized, and created others (for further details L. Sprague DE CAMP;
Robert E. HOWARD).As an author in his own right, LC tended to concentrate
on pastiches of the kind of heroic fantasy to which he was devoted. His
first novel, The Wizard of Lemuria (1965; rev vt Thongor and the Wizard of
Lemuria 1969), begins a long and (as it turned out) typical series of
fantasies about the exploits of Thongor in various venues, continuing with
Thongor of Lemuria (1966; rev vt Thongor and the Dragon City 1970),
Thongor Against the Gods (1967), Thongor in the City of Magicians (1968),
Thongor at the End of Time (1968) and Thongor Fights the Pirates of
Tarakus (1970). Like succeeding series (see listing below), the Thongor
tales represent a swift though somewhat exiguous fantasizing of routine
pulp protocols. Though these fantasies were often set (like Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS's) on various florid worlds, and could be thought of as
PLANETARY ROMANCES, they were not in any committed sense sf in tone; LC's
output of sf proper is relatively scant. The Great Imperium sequence - The
Star Magicians (1966 dos), The Man without a Planet (1966 dos), Tower of
the Medusa (1969), Star Rogue (1970) and Outworlder (1971) - comes
attractively closer; and the Mars series - The Man who Loved Mars (1973),
The Valley where Time Stood Still (1974), The City Outside the World
(1977) and Down to a Sunless Sea (1984) - has moments of poignance where
sf and SCIENCE FANTASY grant perspectives by overlapping. Overproduction
blurred LC's image (though illness slowed him down considerably in later
years), giving weight to the feeling that he sometimes paid inadequate
attention to the quality of his products or to assuring their
individuality. His work as an editor eclipses his own writings in
importance. [JC]Other works:Series: The Thoth sequence, comprising The
Thief of Thoth (1968 chap) and The Purloined Planet (1969 chap dos), which
is sf; the Chronicles of Kylix, comprising The Quest of Kadji (1971) and
The Wizard of Zao (1978); the Gondwana Epic, comprising The Warrior of
World's End, (1974), The Enchantress of World's End (1975), The Immortal
of World's End (1976), The Barbarian of World's End (1977), The Pirate of
World's End (1978) and, first published but the concluding volume, Giant
of World's End (1969); the Callisto sequence, comprising Jandar of
Callisto (1972), Black Legion of Callisto (1972), Sky Pirates of Callisto
(1973), Mad Empress of Callisto (1975), Mind Wizards of Callisto (1975),
Lankar of Callisto (1975), Ylana of Callisto (1977) and Renegade of
Callisto (1978); the Green Star Rises sequence, comprising Under the Green
Star (1972), When the Green Star Calls (1973), By the Light of the Green
Star (1974), As the Green Star Rises (1975), In the Green Star's Glow
(1976) and As the Green Star Rises (1983); the DOC SAVAGE-like Zarkon
sequence, comprising Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown, in The Nemesis of Evil
(1975; vt The Nemesis of Evil 1978), Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown, in
Invisible Death (1975; vt Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown and his Omega Crew:
Invisible Death 1978), Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown, in The Volcano Ogre
(1976; vt Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown and his Omega Crew: The Volcano Ogre
1978), Zarkon, Lord of the Unknown, in The Earth-Shaker (1982) and Horror
Wears Blue (1987); the Zanthodon sequence, comprising Journey to the
Underground World (1979), Zanthodon (1980), Hurok of the Stone Age (1981),
Darya of the Stone Age (1981) and Eric of Zanthodon (1982); the Terra
Magica sequence, comprising Kesrick (1982), Dragonrouge (1984),
Mandricardo (1986) and Callipygia (1988).Singletons: Destination Saturn
(1967) with David Grinnell (Donald A. WOLLHEIM); The Flame of Iridar (1967
chap dos); Tower at the Edge of Time (1968); Beyond the Gates of Dream
(coll 1969); Lost World of Time (1969); Outworlder (1971); The Black Star
(1973); Time War (1974); Dreams from R'lyeh (coll 1975 chap), poetry; Tara
of the Twilight (1979); Lost Worlds (coll 1980); Kellory the Warlock
(1984); Found Wanting (1985).As Editor: Dragons, Elves and Heroes (anth
1969); The Young Magicians (anth 1969); The Magic of Atlantis (anth 1970);
Golden Cities, Far (anth 1970); The Spawn of Cthulhu (anth 1971); New
Worlds for Old (anth 1971); Discoveries in Fantasy (anth 1972); Great
Short Novels of Adult Fantasy (anth 1972) and Great Short Novels of Adult
Fantasy II (anth 1973); the Flashing Swords series, comprising Flashing
Swords 1 (anth 1973), #2 (anth 1973), #3: Warriors and Wizards (anth
1976), #4: Barbarians and Black Magicians (anth 1977) and #5: Demons and
Daggers (anth 1981); the Year's Best Fantasy series, comprising The Year's
Best Fantasy Stories 1 (anth 1975), #2 (anth 1976), #3 (anth 1977), #4
(anth 1978), #5 (anth 1980) and #6 (anth 1980); Kingdoms of Sorcery (anth
1976); Realms of Wizardry (anth 1976); the Weird Tales series, comprising
Weird Tales 1 (anth 1980), #2 (anth 1980), #3 (anth 1981) and #4 (anth
1983).Nonfiction: Royal Armies of the Hyborean Age: A Wargamer's Guide to
the Age of Conan (1975 chap) both with Scott Bizar; Middle-Earth: The
World of Tolkien (1977) with David Wenzel (1950- ), pictures with

Fictional sleuth, and house name for many of the titles in which he
appears. Created by John Russell Coryell (1848-1924) in The Old
Detective's Pupil, or The Mysterious Crime at Madison Square Garden (1886)
on the model of Allan Pinkerton (1819-1884), founder of the famous
detective agency, NC featured in many subsquent US dime novels, including
several of sf interest ( DIME-NOVEL SF) by Frederick Van Rensselaer Dey
(1861-1922) writing as Chickering Carter - the name of one of Carter's
numerous assistants - published in the New Nick Carter Weekly in 1907, the
most notable being "The Index of Seven Stars, or Nick Carter Finds the
Hidden City", "An Amazonian Queen, or Nick Carter Becomes a Gladiator" and
"The Seven-Headed Monster, or Nick Carter's Midnight Caller". Other
authors of Nick Carter tales before WWII included John Chambliss, Philip
Clark, William Wallace COOK, Frederick William Davis, George Charles Jenks
(1850-1929), whose normal pseudonym was W.B. Lawson, Johnston McCulley
(1883-1958) and Eugene Taylor Sawyer. Magazines such as the Nick Carter
Detective Library were supplemented by radio, film and tv incarnations,
over the course of which Carter himself became noticeably tougher and more
murderous, his resemblance to Sexton Blake being correspondingly less
marked in more recent years. The Nick Carter series of soft-porn thrillers
from the 1960s rarely slipped into sf, and never with much point; typical
of titles verging on sf were (all as by Nick Carter) The Human Time Bomb:
A Killmaster Spy Chiller (1969),The Red Rays (1969) by Manning Lee STOKES,
Living Death (1969) by Jon Messmann, Operation Moon Rocket (1970) and The
Death Strain (1971). It is understood that among the authors about this
time were, in addition to Messmann, Michael AVALLONE, Dennis LYNDS, Martin
Cruz SMITH and Richard WORMSER. A decade later, a further batch of sf
titles was produced, again all as by NC, including The Doomsday Spore
(1979) by George Warren, The Q-Man (1981) by John Stevenson, The Solar
Menace (1981) and Doctor DNA (1982), both by Robert E. VARDEMAN, The Last
Samurai (1982) by Bruce Algozin and Deathlight (1982) by Jerry AHERN. [JC]

(1926- ) US social historian and writer who began publishing sf with "The
Last Objective" for ASF in 1946. His occasional stories over the next
decades showed that, had he wished, he could have made writing his primary
career. In The Creation of Tomorrow: Fifty Years of Magazine Science
Fiction (anth 1977) he demonstrated an intimate and sophisticated
knowledge of the field. With Gregory BENFORD he has published a short
novel, Iceborn (1989 in Synergy 3 ed George ZEBROWSKI, as "Proserpina's
Daughter"; exp 1989 chap dos). [JC]See also: POLITICS.


Working name of US illustrator Edward Daniel Cartier (1914- ). After
graduation in 1936 from the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York, EC was
hired by STREET & SMITH to work on their PULP MAGAZINES, notably The
Shadow. His skills were noticed by John W. CAMPBELL Jr, who began using
him in the new magazine UNKNOWN, for which EC did many black-and-white
interiors from #1 onwards and, from Dec 1939, five covers. For many
readers EC's combination of whimsy and menace summed up the quality of
that magazine. He quickly became very popular, perhaps because the
humorous feel of his work was then so unusual in sf ILLUSTRATION. He left
in 1941 to fight in WWII, was wounded in the Battle of the Bulge, and
returned to illustration in 1946. Thereafter his main markets were
SMALL PRESSES, like FANTASY PRESS and GNOME PRESS, which often reprinted
ASF material in book form. EC later went back to college, graduated in
fine arts, and left sf illustration around 1954 to work in graphic design.
He will be remembered for the wit and boldness of his black-and-white work
for the Street & Smith magazines. [JG/PN]See also: COMICS; FANTASY.

(1908-1964) US author and journalist; co-inventor of the Blackmill system
of high-speed typography. His early work appeared in Unknown, including
his first story, "Oscar" (1941), and several short FANTASY novels; one of
these, "Hell Hath Fury" (1943), was featured in the George HAY anthology
of the same title (1963). During the 1940s he was also active in US sf
magazines, publishing in all about 40 stories, including the Space Salvage
series in TWS, later collected as The Space Scavengers (coll of linked
stories 1975). He is remembered for a famous story in ASF, "Deadline"
(1944), which described the atomic bomb a year before it was dropped. US
Security subsequently descended on ASF but was persuaded (truthfully) by
John W. CAMPBELL Jr that CC had used for his research only material
available in public libraries. CC's prediction made sf fans enormously
proud, and the story was made a prime exhibit in the arguments about
PREDICTION in sf. In this NEAR-FUTURE fable the evil Sixa (i.e., Axis)
forces are prevented from dropping the Bomb, and the Seilla (Allies)
decline to do so, justly fearing its dread potential. [JC]About the
author: "The Manhattan Project's Confrontation with Science Fiction" (1984
ASF) by Albert Berger.See also: NUCLEAR POWER; RELIGION.

(1949- ) US writer who began publishing sf with ". . . Of No Return" for
Fiction Magazine in 1974. His first novel, Seas of Ernathe (1976 Canada),
showed early signs of a love of plot and thematic complexity which would
take him some time, and several novels, to control. Star Rigger's Way
(1978), for instance, combines quest routines, new starflight
technologies, various planets and transcendental ALIENS in a tale whose
final effect is incoherent, though promising; nor is Panglor (1980)
significantly better behaved. But The Infinity Link (1984) is a large and
ambitious recasting of his abiding material-space epic venues, striving
human protagonists in transcendental communion with aliens or AIs - into
the tale of a human woman telepathically linked with a passing
interstellar race. The Rapture Effect (1987) brought the ARTS into the
mix, suggesting in the end that a secret war between a human-built AI and
its distant alien counterpart might be resolved, finally, through the
mediation of some ambitious human artists. And in the Starstream sequence
- From a Changeling Star (1989) and Down the Stream of Stars (1990) - JAC
created at last a galactic environment of sufficient richness to contain a
still somewhat overexuberant imagination. In the first volume, a
"starstream" has opened up between Earth space and the centre of the
Galaxy, allowing for intercourse and settlement; the plot, which is
extremely complicated, involves its protagonist in a quest inwards to
regions where stars are numerous, by the end of which, killed and rekilled
and reborn, he is saved by the overseeing AI which narrates the second
volume. NANOTECHNOLOGIES are described; poetries and epiphanies and space
wars proliferate. Dragons in the Stars (1992), and its sequel Dragon
Rigger (1993), return to the Star Rigger universe; and a new series, the
Chaos Chronicles begins with Neptune Crossing (1994), in which another AI
enlists a lone human to save Earth from a comet whose course is only
predictable through the AI's use of Chaos Theory. JAC seems to be
thoroughly enjoying his worlds. [JC]Other work: Roger Zelazny's Alien
Speedway #1: Clypsis (1987).See also: MUSIC.

(1725-1798) Venetian writer, variously employed; best known for his
Memoires (posthumously published in 12 vols 1826-38), the
single-mindedness of which caused his name to pass into the language . He
wrote primarily in French, the language of his FANTASTIC-VOYAGE novel,
Icosameron, ou Histoire d'Edouard et d'Elizabeth Qui Passerent
Quatre-Vingte Un Ans chez les Megamicres Habitans Aborigenes du Protocosme
dans l'Interieur de Notre Globe (1788; cut trans Rachel Zurer as
Casanova's "Icosameron" or the Story of Edward and Elizabeth who Spent
Eighty-One Years in the Land of the Megamicres, Original Inhabitants of
Protocosmos in the Interior of the Globe 1986 US). The protagonists spend
81 years in a world in the HOLLOW EARTH inhabited by the androgynous and
oviparous Megamicres ("big/littles" - small in stature and large in
spirit), who have been there from before the Fall - this land being an
analogue of Eden - avoiding Original Sin, but soulless (cf James BLISH's A
CASE OF CONSCIENCE, 1958). They describe their society to the two
shipwrecked wanderers at some length (the novel occupies 5 vols, each
350pp or more), and the wanderers (brother and sister, though they mate in
the Eden they discover) in turn tell their tale, in dialogue form, to a
group of English aristocrats; they have left millions of descendants
inside the Earth, and transformed society there. The book is quite
realistic in tone, and contains a great deal of scientific speculation and
anticipation, notably about electricity, and a fair amount of social
SATIRE. It was probably influenced by VOLTAIRE's Micromegas (France 1752),
and more directly by Ludvig HOLBERG's Nicolaii Klimii Iter Subterraneum
(1741 in Latin; trans as A Journey to the World Underground 1742).

[r] Adolfo BIOY CASARES.

(1907-1990) US writer of a remarkable book-length sf poem, At Midnight on
the 31st of March (1938), set in a New England village suddenly isolated
by some unidentified DISASTER from the rest of the USA, and consequently
cast upon its own closely observed resources. What seemed, on its 1990
republication, to read as tocsin nostalgia for an impossible rapport with
mythic roots may have read in 1938 as a clarion call. [JC]

(1922- ) US writer born in Germany and educated in different countries
(hence multilingual), resident in the USA from 1948. He has published in
various fields, his first sf story, "The Mask" (1952), appearing in Weird
Tales. His sf novel, The Peacemakers (1960), depicts conflicting societies
after WWIII; a former soldier tries to become dictator. [JC]

House name used on the ZIFF-DAVIS magazines 1943-8 by Leroy YERXA and


(1947- ) US editor and writer, married to Gardner DOZOIS. She began
publishing sf with "Spring-Fingered Jack" for Fears (anth 1983) ed Charles
GRANT. Her fiction in collaboration with Dozois was assembled in Slow
Dancing through Time (coll 1990), which includes a collaboration with both
Dozois and Jack M. DANN. Also with Dozois, she edited Ripper! (anth 1988;
vt Jack the Ripper 1988 UK). [JC]See also: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT.

(1920- ) US editor and writer, who worked as editor with various
PULP-MAGAZINE publishers before going freelance in 1954, usually
publishing under pseudonyms. His sf works are ties: "Gorgo" * (1960) as by
Carson Bingham, "Flash Gordon 4: The Time Trap of Ming XIII" * (1974), as
by Con STEFFANSON, "Flash Gordon 5: The Witch Queen of Mongo" * (1974) as
by Bingham and Flash Gordon: The War of the Cybernauts * (1975) as by
Bingham. The first, based on the film GORGO (1959), is notable for the
added sex scenes, a custom of Monarch's film adaptations. Additional
titles include Nightmare Hall (1973) as by Annie Laurie McMurdie, and
Queen of the Looking Glass (1978) as by Annie Laurie McAllister. Under his
own name, he adapted for the US market Dieter Wuckel's Science Fiction:
eine illustrierte literaturgeschichte (1986 Germany; trans Jenny Vowles as
The Illustrated History of Science Fiction 1989 US). His Modern Mystery,
Fantasy, and Science Fiction Writers (anth 1993), a compilation of
critical responses to 88 authors, was not very thorough. [PN/JC]

(1954- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "A Second Death" for AMZ
in 1974, and whose numerous tv credits include serving as staff writer for
The TWILIGHT ZONE in 1986 and story editor for MAX HEADROOM in 1987. His
sf novel, Star Country (1986), set in a balkanized post- HOLOCAUST USA,
competently dovetails two stories, one concerning an escaped ALIEN, the
other a commune which has attempted to turn its collective back on the
world. His Who's Who in Space: The First 25 Years (1987; exp vt Who's Who
in Space: The International Space Year Edition 1993) provides biographies
of a wide range of people involved in the first years of humanity's move
off-planet. Sacred Visions (anth 1991) with Andrew M. GREELEY is an
anthology, by no means pious, of sf about and/or reflecting RELIGION.
[JC]Other works: Dragon Season (1991), a fantasy.

(1897-1987) French speleologist and writer whose sf novel, Mission centre
terre (1964; trans Antonia Ridge and rev as Mission Underground 1968 UK),
sends explorers several miles into the Earth in a specially designed
craft. [JC]Other works: La terre ardente (1950); Muta, fille des
cavernes["Muta, Daughter of the Caverns"] (1965)and Dans la nuit des temps
["In the Night of Time"] (1966), two prehistoric romances.

[r] SPAIN.


(1898- ) UK writer whose first sf novel, Satellite E One (1954), deals
awkwardly with the scientific details surrounding the construction of a
space satellite. His second, Vanguard to Venus (1957), identifies UFOS as
the ships of descendants of spacefaring ancient Egyptians. [JC]

[s] Edmond HAMILTON.


US general-fiction PULP MAGAZINE published by the Frank A. MUNSEY Co., ed
Robert H. Davis. It evolved from The SCRAP BOOK and appeared monthly Oct
1908-Jan 1912, became The Cavalier Weekly, 6 Jan 1912-9 May 1914, then
merged with All-Story Weekly to form All Story Cavalier Weekly ( The
ALL-STORY ). Although comparatively short-lived, TC published two
celebrated sf works: Garrett P. SERVISS's The Second Deluge (1911-12;
1912) and George Allan ENGLAND's Darkness and Dawn (1912-13 as 3 separate
novels; fixup 1914; in 5 vols with editorial changes 1964-7). Among the
numerous short stories were works by Edgar FRANKLIN, J.U. GIESY (with
Junius B. Smith) and John D. Swain. Several stories from TC were reprinted


(1929- ) UK illustrator, critic and writer. He entered sf around 1954,
early becoming friendly with Michael MOORCOCK through a shared interest in
Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, and working with him on Tarzan Adventures, a COMIC
book ed Moorcock. As Philip James he wrote The Distant Suns (1969 The
Illustrated Weekly of India; exp 1975) with Moorcock. As JC he wrote book
reviews for NW, but was best known as an illustrator, his work appearing
often in NW but also in comics and on occasional book covers. At his best
his naive, rough lines work vividly; sometimes they simply seem too crude.
His SWORD-AND-SORCERY illustration is uneven. Books in GRAPHIC-NOVEL form
are Stormbringer (graph 1975), The Jewel in the Skull (graph 1978), The
Crystal and the Amulet (graph 1986), all existing works by Moorcock
adapted by JC, the latter based on Sorcerer's Amulet (1968; rev 1977; vt
The Mad God's Amulet), the second of the Runestaff books. He co-scripted
with Moorcock the 1975 film The LAND THAT TIME FORGOT . The critical book
Fantasy: The 100 Best Books (1988) by JC and Moorcock is, according to
Moorcock's Introduction, mostly by JC, and is notable for the heavy
emphasis it places on early FANTASY, only 24 of the 100 works discussed
being post-1955. [PN]

[s] W.H. RHODES.


Kendell Foster CROSSEN.

(1893-1955) UK author whose only novel, The Death Guard (1939), was
virtually forgotten until its 1992 reissue. It describes the development
of the "Flesh Guard", a race of laboratory-created vegetal humanoids, at
the time of the emergence of a fascist dictatorship in the UK, and depicts
a future WAR as the Earth's major nations react to the horror of such an
army in the hands of an extremist government. The book contains several
themes later developed by L. Ron HUBBARD and James BLISH, and is at times
reminiscent of William Hope HODGSON. [JE]See also: POLITICS.


(1944- ) US writer and editor, though now very much better known for his
fiction. He was active as a fan from an early age, and producer of a
successful FANZINE, Mirage. As editor, he founded and edited the MIRAGE
PRESS, which specialized in sf scholarship. His own work in that area
began with The New H.P. Lovecraft Bibliography (1962 chap; rev vt The
Revised H. P. Lovecraft Bibliography 1974 chap with Mark OWINGS) and In
Memoriam: Clark Ashton Smith (anth 1963 chap), continuing with some
studies and guides with Owings, who is sometimes listed as a pseudonym of
JLC, a confusion arising from his sole crediting for The Necronomicon: A
Study (1967 chap), which was in fact collaborative. They also worked
together on Mirage on Lovecraft (1965 chap) and The Index to the Science
Fantasy Publishers (1966 chap; rev vt Index to the SF Publishers 1979
chap). After the solo An Informal Biography of $crooge McDuck (1971
Markings; 1974 chap), JLC moved his attention to fiction, only returning
to his earlier interest 20 years later with a new edition of his 1979
Index, which though technically a revision of the earlier work was in fact
10 times its length, and can logically be treated as either a vt or a new
title: The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Critical and Bibliographic
History (1991; with subsequent various unascribed revs), still with
Owings; the similarly identified The Science-Fantasy Publishers:
Supplement One, July 1991-June 1992 (1992) and the Science-Fantasy
Publishers: Supplement One: July 1991- June 1993 (1993) continue the
coverage (see also BIBLIOGRAPHIES).His first novel, an ambitious singleton
SPACE OPERA, A Jungle of Stars (1976), proved typical in that its opposing
aliens (who are both ex-gods) represent in their conflict a form of
populist argument about alternative utopian worldviews, and in that its
plot concentrates on members of mortal races who have been recruited to do
the superbeings' fighting for them in a kind of world-arena. This
underlying articulacy and the plot-device of recruitment also mark his
most successful single novel, Dancers in the Afterglow (1978), a complex
and melancholy tale of oppression and enforced metamorphosis on a
conquered colony planet, in which questions of power and morality are
again asked with some ease, and the human need for freedom is answered
(and at the same time deeply assaulted) by transformation tropes out of
SCIENCE FANTASY and nightmare. Dancers contains in embryo almost all of
the next decade or so of JLC's prolific career, most of which has been
given over to the construction of large series. The first, the Well World
sequence, begins with his second fiction title, Midnight at the Well of
Souls (1977), and continues with The Wars of the Well - in 2 vols: Exiles
at the Well of Souls (1978) and Quest for the Well of Souls (1978)-The
Return of Nathan Brazil (1980), Twilight at the Well of Souls: The Legacy
of Nathan Brazil (1980), , Echoes of the Well of Souls (1993), Shadow of
the Well of Souls (1994) and Gods of the Well of Souls (1994). In this
series the dominant pattern of the JLC multi-volume tale can be seen. Into
a world which reveals itself in the shape of a game-board disguised as a
DYSTOPIA, recruited and metamorphosed mortals are introduced to find their
way, usually stark-naked, to the heart of the labyrinth, where wait the
godlings, and, perhaps, as a reward, the true form they have always
secretly wished to assume (the 1990s volumes of the sequence replicate
this pattern). It is a pattern open to facile abuse (several of JLC's
fantasy series, as listed below, exhibit a strange monotony) but which
remains exhilarating and innovative in his other major sf series, The Four
Lords of the Diamond (omni 1983), which assembles Lilith: A Snake in the
Grass (1981), Cerberus: A Wolf in the Fold (1982), Charon: A Dragon at the
Gate (1982) and Medusa: A Tiger by the Tail (1983). The Quintara Marathon
sf series - Demons at Rainbow Bridge (1989), The Run to Chaos Keep (1991)
and The Ninety Trillion Fausts (1991) - further rehearses this material.
Of JLC's infrequent singletons, The Identity Matrix (1982) and Downtiming
the Night Side (1985) perhaps stand out; his short fiction, also
infrequent, is represented by Dance Band on the Titanic (coll 1988). JLC
is a novelist of considerable flair, with an ear acutely attuned to the
secret dreams of freedom mortals tend to dream, but is prone to gross and
compulsively repetitive overproduction. He will not be remembered for his
second thoughts. [JC]Other works: The Soul Rider science-fantasy sequence,
comprising Spirits of Flux and Anchor (1984), Empires of Flux and Anchor
(1984), Masters of Flux and Anchor (1985), The Birth of Flux and Anchor
(1985) - an sf prequel - and Children of Flux and Anchor (1986); the
Dancing Gods sequence, comprising The River of Dancing Gods (1984), Demons
of the Dancing Gods (1984), Vengeance of the Dancing Gods (1985) and Songs
of the Dancing Gods (1990); the Rings of the Master sequence, comprising
Lords of the Middle Dark (1986), Pirates of the Thunder (1987), Warriors
of the Storm (1987) and Masks of the Martyrs (1988); the Changewinds
fantasy sequence, comprising When the Changewinds Blow (1987), Riders of
the Winds (1988) and War of the Maelstrom (1988), which JLC claims make up
a single long novel; an ALTERNATE-WORLDS detective series, G.O.D. Inc,
comprising The Labyrinth of Dreams (1987), The Shadow Dancers (1987) and
The Maze in the Mirror (1989).Singletons: The Web of the Chozen (1978); A
War of Shadows (1979); And the Devil Will Drag You Under (1979); The
Devil's Voyage (1981), mainly about the ship that carried the A-bomb used
on Hiroshima to its rendezvous and which was subsequently sunk and its
crew eaten by sharks, but also about the security scare caused by Cleve
CARTMILL's "Deadline", published in 1944 in John W. CAMPBELL's ASF; The
Messiah Choice (1985); The Red Tape War: A Round-Robin Science Fiction
Novel (1991) with Michael RESNICK and George Alec EFFINGER; Hotel
Andromeda (anth 1994), as editor.See also: GODS AND DEMONS; INVASION;




(1859-1911) US writer and newspaper editor of considerable political
sophistication, which shows itself in the conclusion to his sf novel,
6,000 Tons of Gold (1894). After the eponymous treasure trove has
unbalanced the world's finances, and only dubiously assisted the needy, a
cabal of the wise decides to dump it into the deep sea. [JC]See also:

(1903-1969?) US writer whose two borderline sf novels, Red January (1964)
and China Strike (1967), both feature US pre-emptive strikes against the
enemy - in the first case Cuba, about to blackmail the USA, and in the
second China, on the verge of dropping a cobalt bomb on her. Neither gets
away with it. [JC]

(1865-1933) Popular US writer, author of over 70 novels in various
genres, for the first decade or so of his career mostly fantasies,
thereafter mainly historical and romantic works. His first successful work
was The King in Yellow (coll 1895; cut vt The Mask 1929). The eponymous
"King in Yellow" is not a person but a verse play in book form, which (not
unlike several much discussed works of recent sf) drives its readers to
despair, madness and even suicide ( PSYCHOLOGY). Of the four King in
Yellow tales in the book, "The Repairer of Reputations" is of particular
sf interest, being set in 1920, after a war, in a USA that has legalized
suicide. Several other volumes featuring connected stories followed,
including The Maker of Moons (coll 1896; title story only 1954 chap) and
two sf collections, In Search of the Unknown (coll of linked stories 1904)
and its thematic sequel, Police!!! (coll of linked stories 1915), in each
of which a philandering zoologist searches for unknown beasts ( BIOLOGY),
finds them and loses them, along with various girls. The Gay Rebellion
(1911 Hampden Magazine; coll of linked stories 1913) consists of comical
SATIRES in which women revolt but reform and marry properly. RWC's use of
sf material is slick and casual, though nightmares sometimes intrude; a
teasing, tamed decadence that had marked RWC from the beginning became
routinized in his later work, which was presented with professional polish
but little conviction. [JC]Other works: The Mystery of Choice (coll 1897);
The Tracer of Lost Persons (coll of linked stories 1906); The Tree of
Heaven (coll 1907); Some Ladies in Haste (1908); The Green Mouse (1910);
The Hidden Children (1914); Quick Action (1914) and its sequel, Athalie
(1915); The Dark Star (1917); The Slayer of Souls (1920); The Talkers
(1923); The King in Yellow and Other Horror Stories (coll 1970) ed with



(1912-1984) UK-born writer who served in the Merchant Navy from 1928; in
1956 he emigrated to Australia, where he commanded merchant ships under
Australian and New Zealand flags until his retirement in 1975. This long
professional experience permeated his writing, and many of his novels
feature SPACESHIPS and flotillas whose command structures are decidedly
naval. ABC began publishing stories in ASF in 1944, on John W. CAMPBELL's
invitation, with "This Means War", and concentrated on short fiction for
almost two decades, often under the pseudonym George Whitley (in the USA
and the UK), less frequently as Andrew Dunstan and S.H.M. (both only in
Australia). But he published no books during this time, and maybe for that
reason he was until the 1960s less well known than he perhaps deserved,
even though some of his best stories date from this period. For some time
he was known mainly as the author of "Giant Killer" (1945), a
POCKET-UNIVERSE tale which dominates the work posthumously assembled in
From Sea to Shining Star (coll 1990), and whose solitary prominence
suggests that - although he published nearly 200 stories - ABC was not
entirely comfortable in shorter forms.After reaching the rank of chief
officer, ABC stopped writing for some time. He began again with a spate of
tales in the late 1950s, and finally published his first novel at the
beginning of the new decade. Thereafter he concentrated on full-length,
albeit short, books, most of which have dealt, directly or indirectly,
with his central venue, the various Rim Worlds set like isolated islands
along the edge of the Galaxy ( GALACTIC LENS; RIMWORLD) during a period of
human expansion. Not all these novels are serially connected, though all
have a common background (which includes terminology and a set of
frequently mentioned planets, like Thule and Faraway); John Grimes, the
protagonist of the central sequence, appears also in some non-series
novels. The two Derek Calver books - The Rim of Space (1961 US), ABC's
first novel, and The Ship from Outside (1959 ASF as "The Outsiders" ; exp
1963 dos US) - make up a kind of trailer for the more numerous stories
grouped about the figure of Grimes. In these books, Calver, following
something like the same course Grimes will, comes to the Rim Worlds,
eventually becomes captain of his own starship, Lorn Lady, loses her,
sails on other star tramps, and engages in far-flung adventures.Grimes is
mentioned in this short series, and the John Grimes/Rim World series
massively expands upon a very similar career and life. Grimes himself
dominates two main sequences. The first chronologically (though most of it
was written later) traces his career in the Federation Survey Service up
to and beyond the point that he shifts loyalties to the Rim. Their
internal order is as follows: The Road to the Rim (1967 dos US); To Prime
the Pump (1971 US); The Hard Way Up (coll 1972 dos US), which also appears
with the first novel as The Road to the Rim (omni 1979 US); False
Fatherland (1968; vt Spartan Planet 1969 US); The Inheritors (1972 dos
US), which involves GENETIC ENGINEERING; The Broken Cycle (1975 UK); The
Big Black Mark (1975 US); The Far Traveller (1977 UK); Star Courier (1977
US); To Keep the Ship (1978 UK); Matilda's Stepchildren (1979 UK); Star
Loot (1980 US); The Anarch Lords (1981 US); The Last Amazon (1984 US); The
Wild Ones (1984); Catch the Star Winds (coll of 1 novel and 1 story 1969
US). The second sequence advances Grimes further into his second career
with the Rim Runners and the Rim Worlds Naval Reserve. Begun earlier and
not written with any internal order in mind, it includes, in order of
publication: Into the Alternate Universe (1964 dos US) and Contraband from
Other-Space (1967 dos US), both assembled as Into the Alternate Universe
(omni 1979 US); The Rim Gods (coll of linked stories 1969 dos US) and The
Dark Dimensions (1971 dos US), both assembled as The Dark Dimensions (omni
1978 US); Alternate Orbits (coll 1971 dos US), assembled with False
Fatherland as The Commodore at Sea (omni 1979 US); The Gateway to Never
(1972 dos US) - crudely reassembled out of sequence as The Inheritors
(omni 1978 US), having been originally published dos-a-dos with the novel
of that title-and The Way Back (1976 UK). Through these books Grimes's
somewhat melancholy temperament and con-sistent ingenuity often remind one
of C.S. FORESTER's Horatio Hornblower, an influence ABC acknowledged
(though Grimes's sexual forthrightness strikes a new note); but it is of
course more than Hornblower's character that is drawn from the earlier
genre. The Grimes/Rim World sequence is very clearly a transposition -
much more directly than is usually the case - of ships into spaceships,
seas into the blackness between the stars, and ports into home-planets.
Much of the warmth and detail of ABC's work derives from this direct
translation of venues, and Grimes himself establishes a loyalty in his
readers rather similar to that felt by readers of Hornblower. Indeed,
ABC's SPACE OPERAS are among the most likeable and well constructed in the
genre, and his vision of the Rim Worlds - cold, poor, at the antipodean
edge of intergalactic darkness, but full of all the pioneer virtues - are
the genre's homiest characterization of that corner of space opera's
galactic arena.Two singletons merit some notice. The Bitter Pill (1974)
sourly depicts a totalitarian DYSTOPIA on Earth, and the ultimately
successful attempts its leading characters make to wrest Mars free of
oppression; and Kelly Country (1976 Void; exp 1983) places a war for
Australian independence in a PARALLEL-WORLDS setting.ABC received the
Australian Ditmar ( AWARDS) in 1969, 1971, 1974 and 1976. [JC]Other works:
Bring Back Yesterday (1961 dos US); Rendezvous on a Lost World (1961 dos
US; vt When the Dream Dies 1981 UK); The Hamelin Plague (1963 US); Beyond
the Galactic Rim (coll 1963 dos US); the Christopher Wilkinson novels,
comprising The Coils of Time (1964 dos US) and The Alternate Martians
(1965 dos US); Glory Planet (1964 US); The Deep Reaches of Space (1946 ASF
as "Special Knowledge"; rev 1964 UK), whose protagonist is ABC's main
pseudonym, George Whitley; the Empress series of space operas, placed in
an ALTERNATE-WORLDS universe similar to Grimes's and comprising Empress of
Outer Space (1965 dos US), Space Mercenaries (1965 dos US) and Nebula
Alert (1967 dos US); The Sea Beasts (1971 US); Up to the Sky in Ships
(coll 1982 chap dos US); To Rule the Refugees (1983 Japan); Frontier of
the Dark (1984 US); Find the Lady (1984 Japan).About the author: Arthur
Bertram Chandler, Master Navigator of Space: A Working Bibliography
(latest edn 1989 chap) by Gordon BENSON Jr.See also: AUSTRALIA;

In the early 19th century this term described a pamphlet on any of a wide
range of subjects - from sermons to sensational tales, often illustrated
with woodcuts - sold not through bookshops but by "chapmen", who hawked
their wares. In the later 19th century, the term began to acquire a
contrived antiquarian air, and was used to designate a small book or
pamphlet produced for collectors. Although the fake antiquarianism
attached to the term has since faded, chapbooks in the sf field are
usually produced by SMALL PRESSES as limited editions containing a short
story or novella - although the short stories produced as individual
volumes by PULPHOUSE PUBLISHING are clearly intended to appeal to a
readership beyond merely collectors. In this encyclopedia ( How to Use
this Book [pages xxxi-xxxiv] for further details) we have arbitrarily and
for the sake of convenience used the abbreviation "chap" to designate any
book of fewer than 100 pages. [JC]

(1925- ) US writer, mathematician, research psychologist and director of
an author's publishing co-op. His first published sf was "To Serve the
Masters" for If in 1967. His first sf novel, Swampworld West (1974),
routinely explores a COLONIZATION scenario involving problems between
native ALIENS and Earth colonists. His more recent books, The Laughing
Terran (1977 UK) and Spork of the Ayor (1969 If; fixup 1978 UK), like
their predecessor, suffer from awkward prose and sf stereotypes. In the
1980s he began with George HAY an enormous project in The John W. Campbell
Letters; published to date is The John W. Campbell Letters, Volume 1 (coll
1986) and The John W. Campbell Letters with Isaac Asimov and A.E.Van Vogt
(coll 1993). [JC/PN]See also: DIANETICS.

[s] Philip Jose FARMER.

(? -? ) US writer whose sf novel, Doctor Jones' Picnic (1898), published
in San Francisco, takes the doctor on a BALLOON trip to the North Pole; en
route he cures cancer. [JC]See also: DISCOVERY AND INVENTION.

(1924- ) US writer and journalist who, after writing some radio plays at
the end of the 1940s, took an MA at the University of Detroit and taught
there for some years before beginning to publish sf novels with No Place
on Earth (1958), about a coercive DYSTOPIA. He produced sf for several
years thereafter, publishing: Corpus Earthling (1960), about invading
telepathic Martian parasites who eventually pass on their ESP powers to
mankind; The Sentinel Stars (1963), another dystopia, this time about
doomed revolts in a regimented future; Psychedelic-40 (1965; vt The
Specials 1965 UK); and Antic Earth (1967 UK; vt Down to Earth 1967 US).In
all these novels LC tends towards claustrophobic situations in which his
rather conventional protagonists explore themselves through action
scenarios. LC has written novels in other genres, including Westerns (as
Carter Travis Young) and mysteries. [JC]Other works: The Sensitives *
(1968), from the filmscript by Deane ROMANO; Barrier World (1970); Embryo
* (1976), novelizing EMBRYO (1976); Intruder (1979), marginal sf.

[s] Harlan ELLISON.

(1907- ) UK writer, variously employed for many years before writing his
three routine sf novels, Light of Mars (1959), The Other Side of Night
(1960) and The Living Gem (1963). [JC]

House name used by CURTIS WARREN for sf novels written by Brian HOLLOWAY,
Dennis HUGHES and John W. JENNISON. [JC]

Robert Charles SMITH.

Charles L. GRANT.

Film (1968). Selmur and Robertson Associates. Dir Ralph Nelson, starring
Cliff Robertson, Claire Bloom, Lilia Skala, Dick van Patten. Screenplay
Stirling Silliphant, based on FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON (1966) by Daniel KEYES.
106 mins. Colour.Enthused with the idea of playing a character who goes
from subnormality to super-genius and then back again, Cliff Robertson
formed his own production company and, after setbacks, made C and won an
Academy Award for his excellent performance. Much of the pathos of the
original is evoked in 30-year-old Charly's progression, after experimental
surgery, from amiable idiocy to high INTELLIGENCE, his falling in love
with his teacher (Bloom), his further development to genius, and the
horror of his final regression. But it is a sentimental story to start
with, and Nelson milks it for all it is worth, both happiness (glamorized
like a tv commercial) and sadness, and Charly's genius phase is severely
marred by the platitudes about society that Silliphant's script requires
him to speak. Nonetheless, C seriously addresses ideas about intelligence
and feeling, and is more ambitious than most sf films of its time. [JB/PN]

(1939- ) US writer and former teacher, with an MA in that field. She
began publishing sf with a series the first two vols of which were later
assembled as Walk to the End of the World, and Motherlines (omni 1989 UK):
WALK TO THE END OF THE WORLD (1974), Motherlines (1978) and The Furies
(1994). The first volume presents an elaborately structured, neurotic,
urban, post- HOLOCAUST, misogynist DYSTOPIA in which women ("fems") serve
as scapegoats for humanity's near self-destruction. The second offers a
feminist ( FEMINISM) alternative beyond the city, a matriarchal
high-plains world where women on horseback ride free and scapegrace. In
the third volume, the continuing protagonist of the sequence leads a band
of "free fems" back to the disintegrating dystopia, where revenges are
exacted, and a maturely ambivalent conclusion offers neither the solace of
easy forgiveness between the sexes, nor hope for any simplistic solution
to the problem of human violence between the sexes and in other spheres.
The books aroused considerable interest for the extreme clarity of the
positions argued. This extremity, it soon became clear, stemmed from an
habitual failure to repeat herself which perhaps cost SMC some market
security, though her next book was extremely successful: Vampire Tapestry
(coll of linked stories 1980) recounts the life and thoughts of a vampire
anthropologist whose experiences, in the end, lie within the human range;
the third of the stories thus assembled, "Unicorn Tapestry", won the 1980
NEBULA award. Dorothea Dreams (1986) is a ghost story in which modern
Albuquerque, New Mexico (where SMC lives), intersects with Revolutionary
France, bringing its protagonist sharply into an awareness of her human
obligations to the world. The Sorcery Hall trilogy - The Bronze King
(1985), The Silver Glove (1988) and The Golden Thread (1989) - features
juvenile protagonists banded together to protect mundane reality from the
malefic otherworld; it is a traditional theme, but crisply told, and
further underlines the clear lines of thought - and moral
persuasiveness-permeating her work. A short story, "Boobs", won the HUGO
for 1989. [JC]Other works: Listening to Brahms (1986 Omni; 1991 chap);
Moonstone and Tiger Eye (coll 1992 chap); The Kingdom of Kevin Malone
(1993), a complex fantasy for younger readers.About the author: "Utopia at
the End of a Male Chauvinist Dystopian World" by Marleen Barr in Women and
Utopia (anth 1983) ed Barr; Suzy McKee Charnas; Octavia Butler; Joan D.
Vinge (1986) by Marleen Barr.See also: ISAAC ASIMOV'S SCIENCE FICTION

(1907-1993) US writer born as Leslie Charles Bowyer Yin in Singapore,
educated in the UK, legally changed his name to LC in 1928, and became a
US citizen in 1946. He remains known almost exclusively for the Saint
novels featuring Simon Templar, a long series which began - after a few
previous heroes had been discarded - with Meet the Tiger (1928 UK; vt The
Saint Meets the Tiger 1940 US). Of these only The Last Hero (1930 UK; vt
The Saint Closes the Case 1941 US) features any device or displacement of
an sf nature, though several short stories featuring Templar are sf; these
have been assembled as The Fantastic Saint (coll 1982) ed Martin Harry
GREENBERG and Charles G. WAUGH. LC edited The Saint's Choice of Impossible
Crime (anth 1945). [JC]About the author:The Saint: A Complete History in
Print, Radio, Film and Television of Leslie Charteris' Robin Hood of
Modern Crime, Simon Templar, 1928-1992 (1993) by Burl Barer.

(1937- ) US writer who was born and educated in New York, which city he
gradually transformed in his fiction into a MAGIC-REALIST venue whose
mythopoeic resonances and exorbitant happenings hover at the edge of
generic displacements (and beyond), and strongly prefigure the fabulated
New Yorks of writers like John CROWLEY and Mark HELPRIN. Few of his 20 or
so books are actually fantasy or sf, though most are FABULATIONS; but
Darlin' Bill (1980) creates an almost totally imaginary West and
Pinocchio's Nose (1983) carries its stymied protagonist into the 21st
century, where he finally learns to relax, though the world itself is
battered. [JC]Other works: The Magician's Wife (graph 1986 Belgium; first
English version 1987 US) with Francois Boucq, a fantasy in GRAPHIC-NOVEL
form; Billy Budd, K.G.B. (graph trans Elizabeth Bell 1991) with Boucq.

Pseudonym used usually by Milton LESSER alone, but once in collaboration
with Paul W. FAIRMAN on The Golden Ape (1959), based on "The Quest of the
Golden Ape" (1957 AMZ) as by Adam Chase and Ivar JORGENSEN, the latter
being a house name associated in that spelling with Fairman. [JC]

(1948- ) US writer initially associated with ASF for stories like his
first, "Seven Scenes from the Ultimate Monster Movie" in 1984. He began to
publish novels with the Game sequence of sf adventures set in a feudalized
interplanetary venue: The Game of Fox and Lion (1986) and Crucible (1991).
Intrigues, GENETIC ENGINEERING, and a dash of RELIGION generate a
moderately engaging narrative. Shapers (1989), about an amnesia victim who
awakens in a strange world, also invokes sf tradition. [JC]

Ford Madox FORD.


Working name of US writer Sidney Aaron Chayefsky (1923-1981), most famous
for his work as a tv dramatist; Marty (produced 1953) marks for many a
culmination (and a sign of the passing) of the Golden Age of US tv drama.
The Tenth Man (theatrical production, 1959) was a Dybbuk fantasy. His sf
novel, Altered States (1978) ( METAPHYSICS), propounds the highly dubious
Lamarckian concept ( EVOLUTION; PSEUDO-SCIENCE) that a person's altered
consciousness would alter her/his genetic makeup, in this case re-invoking
an inward primordial being (see also APES AND CAVEMEN); it was filmed in

(1950- ) US writer/illustrator, mainly of COMICS. HC's first professional
work (1973) was the art for MARVEL COMICS's War of the Worlds (a sequel to
H.G. WELLS's novel!) and DC COMICS's Sword of Sorcery (which featured
Fritz LEIBER's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser). Much of his work has been sf.
He was writer/artist on Cody Starbuck and Iron Wolf before drawing the
bestselling adaptation of STAR WARS for Marvel in 1976. HC teamed up with
Samuel R. DELANY to produce the GRAPHIC NOVEL Empire (graph 1978), and the
following year he worked with Michael MOORCOCK on The Swords of Heaven,
the Flowers of Hell (graph 1979), a story in Moorcock's Eternal Champion
series. The first vol of his graphic-novel version (adaptation by Byron
PREISS) of Alfred BESTER's Tiger! Tiger! (1956; vt The Stars My
Destination US) appeared as The Stars My Destination Vol 1 (graph 1979);
the second vol, though advertised, was not in fact published until it
appeared, with the contents of the first, in The Stars My Destination
(graph 1992). After working on Marvel's Micronauts, HC painted a number of
covers for sf and fantasy paperbacks, returning to comics in 1983 as
writer/artist for First Comics's AMERICAN FLAGG! - perhaps his major work
- and later on Time(2). He revitalized The Shadow for DC (some critics,
such as Harlan ELLISON, disapproving of his innovations) in 1986 and
Blackhawk in 1988. After the pornographic Black Kiss (1988-9) HC
increasingly concentrated on writing, as in Twilight for DC and Fafhrd and
the Gray Mouser for Marvel. Moorcock speaks of HC's "considerable
intelligence and . . . excellent eye". [RH]See also: HEAVY METAL.

(vt Per Aspera ad Astra) Film (1980). Maxim Gorki Studio. Dir Richard
Viktorov, starring Elena Metyolkina, Vadim Ledogorov, Uldis Lieldidzh,
Vatzlav Dvorzhetsky. Screenplay Kir BULYCHEV, Viktorov. In 2 parts, 40 min
and 78 min. Colour.This pretentious, rather naive, Soviet young-adult sf
movie typifies many of Bulychev's themes and approaches. It begins well,
with a "space Mowgli"-the alien girl Niia - being found by an Earth
expedition on a derelict space station; she is unexpectedly well played by
a nonprofessional, Metyolkina, a fashion model. Later we have the grim
story of her planet, Dessa, where ecological catastrophe has taken place.
The capitalist tyranny on the polluted planet is contrasted with a future
communist paradise on Earth, which sends a mission of help at the request
of Dessa's "progressive forces": the Ecological Space Ambulance team, very
specifically not an armed "brotherly" intervention, but peaceful. The high
points of the film are its relaxed humour, something Bulychev is good at,
and the impressively devastated landscapes of Dessa. [VG]See also: RUSSIA.

(1949- ) US part-time lawyer, part-time illustrator, raised in Oklahoma,
brother of sf writer C.J. CHERRYH. Largely self-taught, DAC is a classic
realist, working with acrylics and alkyds. He has done a number of book
covers, especially for DAW BOOKS, including covers for his sister's work;
his art is regularly displayed at sf CONVENTIONS. In 1988 he became
President of the Association of Science Fiction/Fantasy Artists (ASFA),
and was instrumental in strengthening that struggling organization. He has
several times been nominated for a HUGO. A book of his work is
Imagination: The Art & Technique of David A. Cherry (1987). [JG]

Working name of US writer Carolyn Janice Cherry (1942- ), who taught for
some years (1965-76) before becoming a full-time writer; she is the sister
of David A. CHERRY. Since 1976 - when she won the JOHN W. CAMPBELL AWARD
for most promising writer - she has produced more novels than stories,
publishing several before her first story, "Cassandra" (1977). Her first
novel was Gate of Ivrel (1976), initiating the Morgaine series - continued
in Well of Shiuan (1978) and Fires of Azeroth (1979), the trilogy being
assembled as The Book of Morgaine (omni 1979; vt The Chronicles of
Morgaine 1985 UK), and the much later Exile's Gate (1988) - a romantic
HEROIC-FANTASY quest epic whose interplanetary venue and underlying
rationality prophetically underpin a hectic and perhaps rather florid
imagination.In all her work - which runs a gamut from SHARED-WORLD
fantasies to HARD SF - an almost unfailingly creative tension can be
sensed between argument and fantastication; and her underlying instinct
for construction has been confirmed in the late 1980s by a retroactive and
ongoing coordination of more and more of her work - singletons and series
both - under the aegis of her sf-grounded Union-Alliance Future HISTORY,
which embraces most of the home Galaxy through the third and fourth
millennia, during which period the Alliance, structured around the
Merchanter cultures which operate the huge interstellar freighters
necessary for trade, manages to survive at the heart of the more ruthless,
expansionist Union. A third force whose influence is felt throughout human
space is Earth itself, hugely populous, dominated by aggressive
supra-planetary corporations, still the heartland of Homo sapiens.
Unusually, the sequence is not planet-based, much of the significant
action of the central texts taking place in artificial environments,
including a wide variety of spaceships, Merchanter freighters (each huge
vessel housing an autonomous culture), satellites, waystations and
self-sufficient habitats. The "Gehenna Doctrine", which prohibits the
cultural contamination of newly discovered planets and therefore serves as
a vital structuring device for the series, justifies the focus of those
central texts while at the same time - for the Doctrine is often honoured
in the breach - providing an enormously malleable frame: thus highly
disparate tales may be fitted into the overarching sequence - almost to
the point where singletons with no apparent connection to the sequence,
including some PLANETARY ROMANCES, might still be thought to belong within
the whole because their isolation from any other book proves that the
Gehenna Doctrine is working.The Union-Alliance structure, rough at the
edges as it might be, serves primarily to hold and sort background
material - a necessary aid for an author whose better work almost
invariably offers too much material, too many ALIEN races intersecting too
complexly for easy comprehension, a stricture true even of early novels
like Hunter of Worlds (1977), in which three cultures express themselves
in harrowing detail in too few pages; a sense of bustling, impatient
cognition pervades the otherwise garish tale of an alien mercenary race
fatally involved with Homo sapiens. But with her second series - Kesrith
(1978), Shon'jir (1978) and Kutath (1979), all three assembled as The
Faded Sun Trilogy (omni 1987 UK) - the Union-Alliance dichotomy, here
presented late in its history when the antipathetic Union has begun to
seem more attractive, works to order the profusion of material. Unlike the
great majority of sf writers, the most consistent complaint about her work
must be that individual stories are too short, though the Merchanter
novels perhaps most central to the overall series use their galactic
space-based venues with considerable skill to articulate busy narrative
lines. Along with Heavy Time (1991) and Hellburner (1992), a 24th-century
pre-Alliance series that currently, in terms of internal chronology, kicks
the entire sequence off, these novels - Serpent's Reach (1980), DOWNBELOW
STATION (1981), which won the 1981 HUGO, Merchanter's Luck (1982), CYTEEN
(1988; vt in 3 vols as The Betrayal 1989, The Rebirth 1989 and The
Vindication 1989), which won the 1988 Hugo, and Rimrunners (1989)-are
perhaps her best and most central work, generating a remarkable sense of
the living density of space-born life. CYTEEN is a book of enormous girth
set on the intricate Union home planet and dense with speculative plays on
genetics ( CLONES), identity, family and power; while Rimrunners,
unusually for CJC, fits into its normal length a shapely closet drama
about life and survival below decks on an armed spaceship.Closely
associated with these books in tone and hard-edged complexity are
Union-Alliance novels like Hestia (1979), Wave without a Shore (1981),
Port Eternity (1982), Forty Thousand in Gehenna (1983) and Voyager in
Night (1984). The Chanur Saga, made up of The Pride of Chanur (1982; text
restored 1987), Chanur's Venture (1984), The Kif Strike Back (1985),
Chanur's Homecoming (1986) and Chanur's Legacy (1992), another deft and
crowded depiction of alien psyches in a complexly threatened interstellar
venue, has also been fitted into the overall series. As the years have
passed, individual stories within the structure have tended, very roughly,
to shift their concern from honour (a focus typical of the "shame
cultures" found in preliterate societies on Earth and endemic to much
SPACE OPERA) to the responsibities of power (a problem central to literate
"guilt cultures").The lineaments of the Union-Alliance series remain
unclear, but the sense grows that for CJC the Universe, and everything
imaginable within its particoloured quadrants, is both evanescent and full
of marvel; and that sentient species must revere whatever habitats remain
to them after the terrible years of species growth and species destruction
hinted at in those books set early in the Universe. It is a vision which,
after so many busy books, will take some time to settle, though within
terms she has already cued us to anticipate. [JC]Other works:Series: The
Arafel books, comprising Ealdwood (1981; rev vt The Dreamstone 1983) and
The Tree of Swords and Jewels (1983), both assembled as Arafel's Saga
(omni 1983; vt Ealdwood 1991 UK); the Merovingen Nights BRAIDED series
(several titles being shared-world BRAIDED anthologies ed CJC, and all
remotely connected to the Union-Alliance overview), comprising Angel with
the Sword (1985), Merovingen Nights #1: Festival Moon * (anth 1987), #2:
Fever Season * (anth 1987), #3: Troubled Waters * (anth 1988), #4:
Smuggler's Gold * (anth 1988), #5: Divine Right * (anth 1989), #6:
Floodtide * (anth 1990) and #7: Endgame * (anth 1991); the Heroes in Hell
SHARED-WORLD enterprise, co-created with Janet E. MORRIS and comprising
Heroes in Hell * (anth 1985), The Gates of Hell * (1986) and Kings in Hell
* (1987), both with Morris, and Legions of Hell * (fixup 1987); the Sword
of Knowledge shared-world enterprise (all vols in fact written by the
various "collaborators"), comprising A Dirge for Sabis (1989) with Leslie
Fish, Wizard Spawn (1989) with Nancy Asire (1945- ) and Reap the Whirlwind
(1989) with Mercedes Lackey; the Rusalka sequence, comprising Rusalka
(1989), Chernevog (1990) and Yvgenie (1991).Singletons: Brothers of Earth
(1976); Sunfall (coll of linked stories 1981); Cuckoo's Egg (1985);
Visible Light (coll 1986), which contains the 1978 Hugo-winning
"Cassandra"; Glass and Amber (coll 1987); The Paladin (1988).About the
author: C.J. Cherryh: A Working Bibliography (1992 chap) by Phil


(1830-1895) UK officer, founder in 1868 of the Royal Indian Civil
Engineering College at Staines, Member of Parliament from 1892, and author
of some fiction, including the famous The Battle of Dorking (1871 chap;
principal vt The Fall of England? The Battle of Dorking: Reminiscences of
a Volunteer 1871 chap US) published anon. After great success in
Blackwood's Magazine, and publication as a small book the same year, this
tale virtually founded the future- WAR/ INVASION genre of stories which
attained great popularity in the UK as she neared the height of her
insecure Empire in the latter years of the 19th century - an earlier and
inferior tale, Alfred Bate RICHARDS's The Invasion of England (A Possible
Tale of Future Times) (1870 chap, privately printed), had had little
effect. GTC's story warns against UK military complacency and incompetence
in its bleak narrative of confusion and folly at home while the German
army mounts an efficient invasion by surprise attack. The Battle of
Dorking was remarkably successful, being immediately reprinted in Canada
and the USA, and translated into several European languages, including
German, each European nation soon developing its own version of the
invasion theme - which saw its greatest popularity, understandably, in the
years immediately preceding WWI. A second tale, The New Ordeal (1879),
which posited the obsolescence of war through innovations in weaponry and
its replacement by tournaments, proved less popular. [JC]About the author:
Voices Prophesying War 1763-1984 (1966) by I.F. CLARKE (Chapter 2).See

C.J. Cutcliffe HYNE.

(1869-1924) US writer whose The Jingo (1912) satirizes simultaneously the
lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) story and US know-how in a tale about a salesman
selling his modern products to an obscure Antarctic civilization.
[PN]Other works: The Cash Intrigue: A Fantastic Melodrama of Modern
Finance (1909); The Ball of Fire (1914) with Lillian Chester.

(1907-? ) US writer known for his series about Kioga, a Tarzan-like
Native American raised by bears on an island within the Arctic Circle:
Hawk of the Wilderness (1935 Blue Book; 1936); Kioga of the Wilderness
(1936-7 Blue Book; 1976); One Against a Wilderness (1937 Blue Book; coll
of linked stories 1977) and Kioga of the Unknown Land (1938 Blue Book;
1978). [JC]

(1874-1936) UK writer and illustrator of his own books and many by
Hilaire BELLOC - with whom he was long associated, to use George Bernard
SHAW's nickname, as The Chesterbelloc. A posthumous collection, Daylight
and Nightmare (coll 1986), which assembles fantasy and some sf stories
from 1897 through 1931, may demonstrate the range of his emblem-haunted
imagination as a teller of tales, but most of his numerous works fall into
various other categories - GKC in general exemplified the Edwardian man of
letters and wrote on almost everything, in every conceivable form, from
poetry through the famous Father Brown detective stories to Catholic
polemics on to "weekend" essays and literary criticism and history. His
first novel, The Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904), sets the nostalgic,
medievalizing, anti-Wellsian, surreally Merrie-Englande tone of most of
his sf novels, which tended, in one way or another, to idealize a
dreamlike England; in their arguments about its desirability they comprise
a series of UTOPIAS, though often only by implication.His finest novel,
The Man who was Thursday: A Nightmare (1908), is a fantasy set in the
Babylon-like London so alluring to writers of the fin de siecle: various
secret agents disguised as anarchists are shown to have been recruited to
man the frontiers of the world by their greatest foe, who turns out to be
not only their legitimate boss but in fact God. The book - dramatized by
his brother's widow, Mrs Cecil Chesterton, and Ralph Neale as The Man Who
Was Thursday (1926) - has been an acknowledged influence upon such
Catholic writers as R.A. L AFFERTY and Gene WOLFE; and the magic-carpet
London so lovingly created by GKC and his confreres arguably marks a
significant stepping-stone - along with Robert Louis STEVENSON's New
Arabian Nights (coll 1882) - between the world of Charles DICKENS and that
of STEAMPUNK. [JC]Other works: The Ball and the Cross (1909 US); The
Flying Inn (1914), featuring what seems a Turkish conspiracy (but is
actually the scheme of an English politician) to impose Prohibition on
England, attended by a Turkish INVASION; The Man who Knew too Much (coll
1922); The Return of Don Quixote (1927); Tales of the Long Bow (coll of
linked stories 1925), which culminates in a NEAR-FUTURE revolution; a
RURITANIAN novella, "The Loyal Traitor", in Four Faultless Felons (coll
1930); "The Three Horsemen of Apocalypse", in The Paradoxes of Mr. Pond
(coll 1937), which Jorge Luis BORGES admired; The Surprise (written c1930;
1952), a play.About the author: The literature on GKC is very extensive. A
bibliography is G.K. Chesterton: A Bibliography (1958) by John Sullivan; a
recent study is Gilbert: The Man who was G.K. Chesterton (1990) by Michael

(? -? ) UK writer active at the end of the 19th century. The Marble City:
Being the Strange Adventures of Three Boys (1895) features a South Pacific
LOST WORLD whose inhabitants boast high attainments. Nevertheless the
three heroes soon make their escape, enriched. [JC]

(1910-? ) UK writer in whose Future Imperfect (1946) women run the world,
leaving men behind, though romantic elements intervene. [JC]

(1902-1985) US writer and translator from the French of many works. The
Man who Would be God (1959), meant as a self-defence against the
accusation (1953) that he had committed treason with Robert Oppenheimer
(1904-1967), the "father of the atomic bomb", almost inadvertently
addresses the unfortunate megalomania of a nuclear physicist who wishes to
save the world from itself. [JC]


(vt The Mysterians; vt Earth Defense Force) Film (1957). Toho/MGM. Dir
Inoshiro Honda, starring Kenji Sahara, Akihiko Hirata, Yumi Shirakawa.
Screenplay Takeshi Kimura, based on a story by Jojiro Okami. 89 mins.
Colour.This Japanese sf pulp epic is about ALIEN invaders, their own
planet destroyed by nuclear holocaust, who land in Japan seeking women for
breeding purposes. Its memorable images, best observed at midnight in a
drive-in cinema, include a giant birdlike robot crashing out of a
mountainside, flying saucers, and lethal rays shooting in all directions.
The special-effects extravaganza is by Eiji Tsuburaya, creator of the
eponymous monster of GOJIRA (vt Godzilla). The story makes very little
sense. As Bill WARREN points out in Keep Watching the Skies! Volume II
(1986), Japanese special effects are not meant to be realistic, and they
certainly are not here, but in their lurid theatricality they are a
satisfying introduction to the world of SPACE OPERA. This was the first
Japanese sf film not to be a MONSTER MOVIE. [JB/PN]See also: CINEMA.



(1870-1922) Irish nationalist, military theoretican and author of The
Riddle of the Sands (1903), which describes an exploratory sea journey
along the German coast and the uncovering of the secret plans for a German
INVASION of the UK. The novel spawned many imitations, none meeting the
power of the original, and was made into a lacklustre film in 1979. His
warnings to the UK Government were continued later in two nonfiction works
which exposed the folly of reliance on cavalry as an effective force
against machine guns. EC was executed for treason (he was almost certainly
guiltless) by the fledgling Irish Free State. [JE]See also: WAR.

In his essay "The Embarrassments of Science Fiction" (in Science Fiction
at Large ed Peter NICHOLLS anth 1976; vt Explorations of the Marvellous)
Thomas M. DISCH asserts, tongue only partly in cheek, that sf is a branch
of children's literature-because most lovers of the genre begin reading it
in their early teens, and because many sf stories are about children.
Whether or not sf is essentially juvenile in its appeal, there is no doubt
that many of its writers are fascinated by childhood and its thematic
corollaries: innocence and potentiality.There are many types of sf story
about children, but four particularly popular variants are of special
interest. The first is the story of children with benign PSI POWERS.
Examples are: A.E. VAN VOGT's SLAN (1940 ASF; 1946), about a nascent
community of telepathic SUPERMEN; Theodore STURGEON's The Dreaming Jewels
(1950; vt The Synthetic Man), about a strange boy adopted by a carnival,
and MORE THAN HUMAN (1953), about a gestalt consciousness composed of
children; Wilmar H. SHIRAS's Children of the Atom (fixup 1953); John
WYNDHAM's The Chrysalids (1955; vt Re-Birth US), about telepathic MUTANT
children after an atomic war; and such later works in a similar vein as
Richard COWPER's Kuldesak (1972) and "The Piper at the Gates of Dawn"
(1976). The abilities of these children seem benign because the stories
are usually narrated from the child's point of view. The societies
depicted in these tales may persecute the children, but the latter
generally win through and constitute their own, "higher" societies, with
the reader's approval.The second type is the reverse of the first: the
story of monstrous children, frequently with malign psychic powers.
Examples are: Ray BRADBURY's "The Small Assassin" (1946), about a baby
which murders its parents; Richard MATHESON's "Born of Man and Woman"
(1950), about a hideously mutated boy; and Jerome BIXBY's "It's a Good
Life" (1953), about an infant who terrorizes a whole community with his
awesome paranormal abilities. J.D. BERESFORD's The Hampdenshire Wonder
(1911; vt The Wonder US) is an early example of this sort of story, in
that the child prodigy is seen entirely from the outside and thus takes on
a frightening aspect. In tales of this type, society is usually threatened
by the child and the reader is encouraged to take society's side. Brain
Child (1991 US) by George TURNER is difficult to characterize, as its
superchildren, created by an INTELLIGENCE-enhancing experiment in
biological and psychological engineering, appear as both appalling and
attractive. The purely monstrous child became a CLICHE of HORROR fiction,
especially in the 1980s, a decade when, perhaps for some
as-yet-undiagnosed sociological reason, sf itself showed a distinct
falling off in the number of stories devoted to superchildren.The third
type, which overlaps the first two, concerns children in league with
aliens, to good or ill effect. Examples include Henry KUTTNER's "Mimsy
Were the Borogoves" (1943), in which alien educational toys provide two
children with an escape route from their parents; Ray Bradbury's "Zero
Hour" (1947), in which children side with alien invaders; Arthur C.
CLARKE's CHILDHOOD'S END (1953), in which the alien "Overlords" supervise
the growth of a new generation, whose capacities are unknowable by
ordinary humans and may be exercised among the stars; Edgar PANGBORN's A
MIRROR FOR OBSERVERS (1954), in which Martians compete for control of a
child's mind; and John Wyndham's The Midwich Cuckoos (1957; vt Village of
the Damned 1960 US), about the alien impregnation of Earthwomen and the
terrifying powers of the amoral children they bear, and his later novel
Chocky (1963 AMZ; exp 1968), about a boy with an alien "brother" living in
his head. Zenna HENDERSON's stories about the People, most of which are
collected in Pilgrimage (coll 1961) and The People: No Different Flesh
(coll 1966), belong here since they are largely concerned with sympathetic
aliens who appear to be normal human children (their alien parents usually
make only fleeting appearances). Jack WILLIAMSON's The Moon Children
(1972) and Gardner DOZOIS's "Chains of the Sea" (1973) also belong in this
category. Greg BEAR's Anvil of Stars (1992) features a community of
adolescent children - but no adults - on a starship, undergoing tuition by
aliens for making war against genocidal superbeings. This novel is
interesting in its creation of an all-adolescent culture.The fourth type
of story is concerned not so much with a conflict between the child and
adult society as with the child's attempts to prove himself worthy of
joining that society. Much of Robert A. HEINLEIN's relevant work falls
into this "initiation" category-e.g., his early story "Misfit" (1939),
about a boy whose prodigious mathematical ability enables him to save the
spaceship in which he is a very junior crew member. Most of Heinlein's
teenage novels, from Rocket Ship Galileo (1947) to Have Space-Suit - Will
Travel (1958), fit this pattern, as does the later Podkayne of Mars
(1963). Precocious children, adults before their time, also feature in
James H. SCHMITZ's Telzey stories, such as "Novice" (1962), in Alexei
PANSHIN's RITE OF PASSAGE (1968), and in much of Samuel R. DELANY's work.
Delany's novels - e.g., NOVA (1968) - are characteristically, in Algis
BUDRYS's words, about "the progress of the Magic Kid . . . the divine
innocent whose naive grace and intuitive deftness attract the close
attention of all". The "Magic Kid", who gains the acceptance of adult
society through sheer charm (rather than discipline in the manner of
Heinlein), has appeared in the work of other writers, as in John VARLEY's
"In the Bowl" (1975). More in the Heinlein tradition are a number of 1980s
novels by Orson Scott CARD, whose stories regularly feature the transition
from a troubled adolescence to a maturity forced by circumstance, most
famously in ENDER'S GAME (1977 ASF; exp 1985) and again in The Memory of
Earth (1992). However, many of the books listed above in this category
feature post-pubertal teenagers rather than children proper. Such
protagonists are so common in sf, their rite of passage being one of sf's
basic themes, that there is little point in prolonging the list, although
it is worth mentioning Doris PISERCHIA, who in books like Earthchild
(1977) seems to use sf imagery precisely because it provides objective
correlatives for pubertal anguish.As in literature generally, the child's
point of view has frequently been used by sf writers because it is a
convenient angle from which to see the world anew. Thus, Kingsley AMIS
makes good use of his choirboy hero in the ALTERNATE-WORLD novel The
Alteration (1976). Ray Bradbury transmutes his own childhood experience
into the nostalgic and horrific FANTASY of THE MARTIAN CHRONICLES (1950;
vt The Silver Locusts 1951 UK) and Something Wicked This Way Comes (1962).
Gene WOLFE repeatedly uses a child's-eye view to haunting effect in such
tales as "The Island of Dr Death and Other Stories" (1970), "The Fifth
Head of Cerberus" (1972) and "The Death of Dr Island" (1973), and
childhood memories haunt and shape the memoir structure of several of his
novels such as Peace (1975) and The Book of the New Sun (1980-3). Harlan
ELLISON's fantasy "Jeffty is Five" (1977), about a boy who is perpetually
five years old, uses the child's viewpoint to make a statement about the
apparent decline in quality of US popular culture. William GIBSON's Mona
Lisa Overdrive (1988) is at its most successful and moving when filtering
the bewildering events of its voodoo-in- CYBERSPACE story through the
consciousness of the one of its four protagonists who is an actual child,
the Japanese girl Kumiko. There are numerous other examples.An interesting
subgenre is the story that opposes a world of childhood and a world of
adulthood as if they were, anthropologically, two different cultures whose
clash is bound to cause pain. This is the fundamental strategy of much of
Stephen KING's horror fiction and also his sf. It forms a particularly
grim element in James Patrick KELLY's "Home Front" (1988), in which kids
interact, eat hamburgers, and get drafted for an endless, meaningless war
occurring offstage.Although sf about children was not especially common in
the 1980s in book form, it was popular in the cinema. Obviously relevant
films include E.T.: THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL (1982), EXPLORERS (1985),
D.A.R.Y.L. (1985), FLIGHT OF THE NAVIGATOR (1986) and a variety of "teen"
movies, a number of which are listed in the CINEMA entry.Anthologies
devoted entirely to stories about children include Children of Wonder
(anth 1953; vt Outsiders: Children of Wonder 1954) ed William TENN,
Tomorrow's Children (anth 1966) ed Isaac ASIMOV, Demon Kind (anth 1973)
and Children of Infinity (anth 1973) ed Roger ELWOOD, Analog Anthology
Number 3: Children of the Future (anth 1982; vt Analog's Children of the
Future) ed Stanley SCHMIDT, and Children of the Future (anth 1984) ed
Asimov, Martin Harry GREENBERG and Charles G. WAUGH. [DP/PN]

(vt Horror!) Film (1963). MGM. Dir Anton M. Leader, starring Ian Hendry,
Alan Badel, Barbara Ferris, Bessie Love. Screenplay Jack Briley, based on
The Midwich Cuckoos (1957) by John WYNDHAM. 90 mins. B/w.This UK film is
not a sequel to the successful VILLAGE OF THE DAMNED (1960); it is a
remake, though much more remotely based on Wyndham's novel. This time the
setting is urban. Once again, children are born with mysterious powers.
They are gathered in London for investigation from different parts of the
world. Where in the first film the children were malevolent, here they are
treated more sympathetically; they remain children despite their
superhuman qualities, and their destruction is a consequence of human fear
and ignorance, not any hostile actions of their own. Moody use is made of
the shadowy, ruined church where much of the action takes place. Though
low-key and made with almost too much UK restraint, COTD is sadder and
more pungent than its predecessor in its story of (literal) alienation.

Sf written with a specifically juvenile audience in mind is almost as old
as the genre itself. The Voyages extraordinaires of Jules VERNE, over 60
novels published between 1863 and 1920, were largely marketed as for
adolescent boys, though they found an adult readership also.
Contemporaneous with Verne's works were the early DIME NOVELS in the USA,
also in the main written for children, and it was not long before BOYS'
PAPERS with a strong sf content came along, followed by such JUVENILE
SERIES as Victor APPLETON's TOM SWIFT stories. The juvenile series written
under the floating pseudonym Roy ROCKWOOD, The Great Marvel Series,
published much sf between 1906 and 1935. These topics are discussed in
greater detail under separate entries in this encyclopedia, as is
children's sf written for the COMICS.From 1890 to 1920 at least, and to
some extent later on, most children's sf was aimed at boys rather than
girls and was largely dedicated to the themes of the LOST WORLD, future
writer of the celebrated Oz books, wrote an early work in the latter
category - The Master Key: An Electrical Fairy Tale (1901) - but of course
fantastic inventions had already played an important role in the stories
featuring Frank Reade, Jr ( FRANK READE LIBRARY).Children's sf has been
and is written for a variety of age groups. Here we generally regard sf
written for children of 11 and under as outside our range, although
nostalgic reference must be made to the following: the splendidly bizarre
Doctor Dolittle in the Moon (1928) by Hugh Lofting; the Professor
Branestawm books by Norman HUNTER, beginning with The Incredible
Adventures of Professor Branestawm (1933), all featuring the ridiculous
adventures of the eponymous eccentric scientist; the minor children's
classic My Friend Mr Leakey (coll of linked stories 1937) by the biologist
J.B.S. HALDANE, a fantasy combining elements of magic and sf; a better
known classic series for younger children, the seven Narnia books by C.S.
LEWIS, beginning with The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) and
ending with The Last Battle (1956) - these stories are basically religious
allegory cum FANTASY, but contain such sf elements as PARALLEL WORLDS and
TIME TRAVEL; and The Twenty-One Balloons (1946) by William Pene DU BOIS,
an amusing Pacific-island scientific UTOPIA.As noted, the above are
primarily for younger children, but they point up a difficulty which
exists also in sf stories for older children: the fact that there is
little generic purity in children's literature. Much children's fantasy
contains sf elements, and conversely much children's sf is written with a
disregard for scientific accuracy, whether from hauteur or from ignorance,
which effectively renders it fantasy. Time travel, for example, has long
been an important theme in children's literature, going back at least as
far as The Cuckoo Clock (1877) by Mrs Mary Molesworth (1839-1921), and
continuing to the present day, through A Traveller in Time (1939) by
Alison Uttley (1884-1976), several of the Green Knowe stories by Lucy
Boston (1892-1990) and, perhaps the greatest of such novels, Tom's
Midnight Garden (1958) by Philippa Pearce (1920- ); this latter is the
moving and subtle story of a boy who travels back in time, always to
slightly more recent periods, to find the 19th-century child with whom he
falls in love growing older, and away from him; finally, in an
overwhelming surprise ending, she meets him in the present day. But in all
these examples the time travel is an essentially magic device used in the
service of fantasy.Indeed, sadly for sf purists, most sf works of
distinction since the 1960s have been at the fantastic end of the sf
spectrum. A fine piece of such peripheral sf is Earthfasts (1966) by
William MAYNE, one of the best children's writers of the period, in which
an 18th-century drummer boy emerges from the ground to be met by a
sceptical, scientifically inclined present-day youth.There may be a
sociological reason for the comparative scarcity of good HARD SF for
children in the recent period, or it may simply be the arbitrary
preference of the handful of writers who led the renaissance of juvenile
fiction that has taken place since the 1960s. Certainly their creative
imagination has fed as fiercely on MYTHOLOGY as on 20th-century
breakthroughs in scientific understanding - breakthroughs that in the
period of the Cold War, with the ever-present threat of nuclear DISASTER,
seemed equivocal in their results. Signs of the renaissance are many:
children's books generally and books for adolescents specifically are less
patronizing; they more commonly contain a sardonic or even ironic realism;
they have become, overall, more subtle, more evocative, more various, more
original and more ready to confront problems of pain, or loss, or even
sexual love. The new realism is evident even with those writers of HEROIC
FANTASY who have followed in the footsteps of J.R.R. TOLKIEN; notable
among them are Joy Chant (1945- ) and especially Patricia MCKILLIP,
although the latter, whose spectacular debut years were devoted to
fantasy, seems to write better the further she keeps her distance from sf.
The key theme in children's sf is MAGIC, and several important children's
works are discussed in that entry. Sometimes the magic is given a kind of
pseudo-scientific rationale, with talk of dimensional gates and so on, as
in Andre NORTON's many Witch World books, some of which are among her best
work; e.g., Warlock of the Witch World (1967). (Norton has also written
many colourful books for adolescents which are towards the hard-sf end of
the spectrum, sometimes dealing with relations between ALIENS and humans.)
Ursula K. LE GUIN's Earthsea books, beginning with The Wizard of Earthsea
(1968), have combined sf and fantasy by making her magic obey such
rigorous laws that it may be seen as a kind of IMAGINARY SCIENCE; it
adheres, for example, to the law of conservation of energy.Many critics
regard the Earthsea books as the finest sf work for children of the
postwar period. Some of Alan GARNER's novels would also rank very high.
Apart from using teenage protagonists, Garner's Red Shift (1973) is an
adult book in every respect, narrating a battle against intellectual and
physical impotence considerably more demanding than would be found in most
supposedly adult romances. It qualifies as marginal sf through its
consistent use, from the title onwards, of scientific metaphor and because
it depends structurally on a form of psychic time travel (focused on a
neolithic stone axe).More recently the work of Diana Wynne JONES has also
been consistently distinguished, more playful than Le Guin's and more
ebullient than Garner's, but as fully aware as either of the difficulties
of life both for children and for grown-ups. Much of her work, which
treats generic boundaries with disdain, is more fantasy than sf. The more
sciencefictional books include The Homeward Bounders (1981), Archer's Goon
(1984) and A Tale of Time City (1987), which, with varying degrees of
sciencefictional rigour, all revolve around causal paradoxes and problems
created by travel through time or between alternate worlds, and often with
more narrative sophistication than is common in sf for adults. The
lunacies of book marketing have never been more clear than in the
consignment of such distinguished works as the above, and many others, to
what Le Guin has called "the kiddylit ghetto". The paradox is visible in
the fact that occasionally US editions of UK children's books have been
marketed as for adults, and vice versa.Other important children's sf
writers at the fantasy end of the spectrum whose works are discussed in
greater detail under their own entries are Susan COOPER, Peter DICKINSON,
Tanith LEE, Madeleine L'ENGLE and T.H. WHITE. Australia seems to produce
such writers more liberally than it does their counterparts for adults:
interesting work has been produced by Isobelle CARMODY, Lee HARDING,
Victor KELLEHER and Gillian RUBINSTEIN. Most Kelleher novels are
impossible to pigeonhole with any confidence as either sf or fantasy; they
have elements of both, and do not appear to suffer as a result.
Rubinstein's tone falters - it is a sadly common symptom of writers of
sf/fantasy for adolescents - when she approaches pure sf motifs, such as
the visiting ALIEN in Beyond the Labyrinth (1988), but her books remain
hard-edged and angry.When we turn to hard sf, most work for children has
been less distinguished. Carl CLAUDY wrote some exciting books in the
1930s. More recent writers of some quality whose production has been in
significant part for children are Paul CAPON, John CHRISTOPHER, John Keir
CROSS, Tom DE HAVEN, Sylvia Louise ENGDAHL, Nicholas FISK, Douglas HILL,
Ludek PESEK, Donald SUDDABY, Jean and Jeff SUTTON, Hugh WALTERS, Robert
WESTALL, Leonard WIBBERLY and Cherry WILDER. Between them even these more
recent writers span close to 40 years of hard-sf adventure writing for
children. Christopher, Engdahl, Fisk, Hoover, Pesek, Westall and Wilder
are probably the most important names here, along with Andre Norton.
Between them they have written much thoughtful and stimulating work, but
the extent of the list is disappointing when set alongside the quantity,
range and variety of adult sf from the same period. The difficulty is, of
course, that the intellectual level of a book is not necessarily expressed
by a marketing label. Much adult sf - the works of E.E. "Doc" SMITH or
Isaac ASIMOV, for example - is of great appeal to older children, and is
to some extent directed at them. To the degree that older children are
able to enjoy adult sf that is well within their reading capacity, the
size of the potential market in sf specifically labelled as juvenile
obviously dwindles.By far the most celebrated case of the unreal
distinction between "juvenile" and "adult" concerns Robert A. HEINLEIN,
almost half of whose novels were originally marketed for children. They
have been re-released for many years now as if for adults. There are 13 in
all, among the best being Starman Jones (1953), The Star Beast (1954) and
CITIZEN OF THE GALAXY (1957). Heinlein's direct style, his solid science,
the naturalness and ease with which he creates a societal background with
just a few strokes, all help to make his juveniles among his best works;
but their basic strength comes from the repeated theme of the rite of
passage, the initiation ceremony, the growing into adulthood through the
taking of decisions and the assumption of a burden of moral
responsibility. This theme Heinlein made peculiarly and at times
brilliantly his own; his is the most consistently distinguished of all
hard sf written for young readers.Heinlein is exceptional in that there
was no falling-off in quality when he wrote for children. Other sf writers
could not quite manage the trick. Isaac Asimov's Lucky Starr books are
well below his best; James BLISH's juveniles are generally disappointing,
with the exception of A Life for the Stars (1962), the second of the
Cities in Flight tetralogy; Ben BOVA, Arthur C. CLARKE, Gordon R. DICKSON,
Harry HARRISON, Evan HUNTER and Robert SILVERBERG all write better for
grown-ups, although Hunter's children's books are unusual and interesting.
Alan E. NOURSE, on the other hand, seems more relaxed when writing for
younger people, and some of his best work is in his future- MEDICINE
books.A more recent writer, Robert C. O'BRIEN, wrote two distinguished sf
works for children. The witty and sympathetic Mrs Frisby and the Rats of
NIMH (1971), about experimental rats which have developed super-
INTELLIGENCE, is for younger children, and in the talking-animal line is
preferred by some aficionados to Richard Adams's more celebrated Watership
Down (1972). O'Brien's Z for Zachariah (1975) is a post- HOLOCAUST novel
for older children; humane, touching and sometimes frightening. Also
excellent, and very funny, is the Book of the Nomes trilogy by Terry
PRATCHETT, beginning with Truckers (1989), about aliens trying to live
invisibly in a human world.Certain sf themes crop up again and again in
recent sf for adolescents. Post-holocaust stories and stories of rebellion
against totalitarian societies (which often practise degrading forms of
social engineering) are both very common, as in the work of John
Christopher, whose sf for children deservedly won him a new readership
when he ceased writing sf DISASTER novels for adults. Stories about
contact between humans and aliens are often used to impress on children an
attitude of cultural open-mindedness which has a clear bearing on problems
of racism, sexism and other isms of the real world. Cherry Wilder's Torin
series is of this kind, but Wilder knows better than to preach. This is
more than can be said of much modern juvenile sf, which has perhaps
become, from the mid-1970s, the most ethically intransigent and
propagandist since the juvenile fiction of the Victorian era. The familiar
voice of the children's author calling for universal harmony can,
paradoxically, come to seem hectoring; the list of "antis" is often and
easily extended by many children's authors - nostalgically looking back to
the seemingly more self-reliant lifestyles of a past age - to include
anti-technology and anti-science ( ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM IN SF).The theme
of PSI POWERS is often found in conjunction with work of this sort. It
appeals strongly to children, whose sense of weakness and entrapment in a
world where they are by and large subject to adult control, whether wisely
or not, can be eased by intimations of an inner superiority - and
sensitivity - that may be available to them. Typically psi powers (from
within) are seen as opposed, and morally preferable, to scientific and
technological powers (from without). Isobelle Carmody's Scatterlings
(1991), for example, has an urban scientific elite, remnants of those who
polluted and nearly destroyed Earth through greed, opposed to the rural,
tribalized but radiation-resistant and honest folk descended from the
greenies and working-class outcasts the original scientists exploited.
ECOLOGY-conscious people versus corrupted technocrats; country versus
town; psi powers versus science: these had, by 1990, become the dominant
themes of adolescent sf as a whole. The ecology theme now appears almost
as a religious motif in sf, and indeed, in the Gaea-worshipping form it
sometimes takes, it has already become a secular religion in the real
world.An important commercial area of sf publishing for juveniles is
series books, often based on films or tv shows. The STAR TREK books and
the DR WHO books are two of the longest-running and most successful (the
former series is not specifically marketed for children, but the latter
is); they contain less hackwork than most of their competition in this
sort of area.Some distinguished writers of juvenile fiction, like Philippa
Pearce, are not given separate entries in this volume, even though their
work may contain some sf imagery: we do not have the space to give
comprehensive coverage to children's writers, and our emphasis is on sf
rather than fantasy. But many writers of sf for adolescents do receive
entries, often because they have also written sf for adults or because,
like Alan Garner, their work is likely to have repercussions in adult sf.


Working name of US writer Robert Dean Chilson (1945- ). His first sf
story was "The Mind Reader" (1968) in ASF.Of his novels, which generally
fail to step beyond the routine, As the Curtain Falls (1974) is a
FAR-FUTURE adventure with some highly coloured moments, The Star-Crowned
Kings (1975) is a SPACE OPERA about a member of a subject race who has
latent ESP powers, and Rounded with Sleep (1990) confronts its hero with
an Earth in the guise - and under the computerized control - of a
fantasy-role-playing game ( GAMES AND TOYS). The Shores of Kansas (1976),
perhaps (along with his first) RC's most interesting work, tells of a man
with a natural, consciously controlled talent for TIME TRAVEL and his
resulting psychological problems. [JC/PN]Other works: Isaac Asimov's Robot
City, Book 5: Refuge * (1988); Men like Rats (1989).

(1927- ) UK RADIO producer and scriptwriter whose three sf novels
comprise a juvenile trilogy based on his BBC radio serials about Jet
Morgan and his companions as they protect Earth against Martians and other
menaces ; the books are Journey Into Space * (1954), The Red Planet *
(1956) and The World in Peril * (1960). He also wrote further Jet Morgan
adventures for a COMIC strip in Express Weekly 1956-7. [JC]See also: MOON;

(1863-? ) Belgian-born UK writer, apparently active as late as 1943. His
first sf novel, Woman Unsexed (1892), melodramatically depicts a 1925
world ruined by women's right to work. The Lost Children (1931) visits the
LOST WORLD to which the children of Hamelin followed the Pied Piper; there
they have founded a UTOPIA. Talking Totem (1938) is a fantasy. [JC]

Film (1979). IPC Films. Dir James Bridges, starring Jane Fonda, Jack
Lemmon, Michael Douglas, Wilford Brimley. Screenplay Mike Gray, T.S. Cook,
Bridges. 122 mins. Colour.Made by the production company with which Jane
Fonda was associated (Indochina Peace Campaign), this is the first of two
crusading borderline-sf films starring her, the other being ROLLOVER
(1981). Here she plays a tv reporter hoping to do more "hard" news stories
who stumbles across an "event" (crisis) caused by cost-cutting engineering
in a nuclear power plant; this could (and almost does) lead to meltdown
and the radioactive pollution of Southern California. Corporate bosses
attempt, violently, to suppress the potential expose. What looked at first
like mere science fiction looked a lot more like science fact only weeks
later, with the nuclear disaster at Three Mile Island - an apposite if
unfortunate coincidence that made TCS a commercial hit. The subgenre of
the near-future technological-disaster film (see, for example, ENDANGERED
SPECIES and WARGAMES) is a kind of fringe sf, though usually made in the
manner of the conspiracy thriller. TCS is well crafted and well acted.

Chinese literature has a long tradition of the fantastic that prepared
the way for, and leads up to, modern Chinese sf. It is believed that the
earliest actual sf publication in China was the serialization in 1904 in
the magazine Portrait Fiction of "Yueqiu zhimindi xiaoshuo" ["Tales of
Moon Colonization"] by Huangjiang Diaosuo. Around 130,000 Chinese words
long, this novel describes a group of Earthlings settling on the Moon.
Another important sf work of the early period is Xu Nianci's "Xinfalu
xiansheng tan" ["New Tales of Mr Absurdity"] (1905), which deals with the
separation of body and soul. Lao She's Maocheng ji ["Cat Country"] (1933;
reprinted 1947) remains one of the most significant Chinese sf novels;
this DYSTOPIA about catlike Martians is in fact a biting satire of the Old
China under its reactionary rule. Lao She wrote this novel without being
aware of the genre, but at much the same time Gu Junzheng was consciously
writing sf, even acknowledging the influence of Jules VERNE and H.G.
WELLS. His Heping de meng ["Dream of Peace"] (coll 1940) prints four of
his sf short stories. Like Hugo GERNSBACK, Gu Junzheng advocated the
popularization of science through sf, and all his stories try to stimulate
readers' interest in science and technology.The People's Republic of China
was founded in 1949. Soon after that, Soviet sf works were translated into
Chinese in great numbers. Also as a result of Soviet influence, the
Chinese Youth Press systematically published selections of Verne's sf
throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s. From 1949 through the 1960s,
almost all Chinese sf stories were for juvenile readers. Representative
works include Zheng Wenguang's "Cong Diqiu dao Huxing" ["From Earth to
Mars"] (1954), Yu Zhi's "Shizong de gege" ["The Missing Elder Brother"]
(1957), Xiao Jianheng's "Buke de qiyu" ["Pup Buke's Adventures"] (1962)
and Liu Xinshi's "Beifang de yun" ["Northern Clouds"] (1962).During the 10
years of the notorious "Cultural Revolution" not a trace of sf could be
found in China. However, 1978-83 saw a remarkable resurgence of sf
creation. Among nearly 1000 titles are Jin Tao's "Yueguangdao" ["The
Moonlit Island"] (1980), Tong Enzheng's "Shanhudao shang de siguang"
["Death Ray on a Coral Island"] (1978), Zheng Wenguang's Feixiang Renmazuo
["Forward to Sagittarius"] (1979), Meng Weizai's Fangwen shizongzhe
["Calling on the Missing People"] (1981), Wang Xiaoda's "Shenmi de bo"
["The Mysterious Wave"] (1980), Wei Yahua's "Wenrou zhixiang de meng"
["Conjugal Happiness in the Arms of Morpheus"] (1981) and Ye Yonglie's
Heiying ["The Black Shadow"] (1981).Sf during this period also found
expression in other media, such as films, tv, radio broadcasts and comic
books. In films, Shanhudao shang de siguang ["Death Ray on a Coral
Island"], based on Tong Enzheng's story, was released in 1980, and Ji
Hongxu's Qianying ["The Hidden Shadow"] in 1982. On tv, "Zuihou yige
aizheng sizhe" ["The Last Man who Dies of Cancer"] by Zhou Yongnian, Zhang
Fengjiang and Jia Wanchao and "Yinxing ren " ["The Invisible Man"] by Wu
Boze were both dramatized in 1980. Xiongmao jihua ["The Panda Project"] by
Ye Yonglie was dramatized on tv in 1983. The same author's An dou ["Veiled
Strife"] (1981) and Mimi zhongdui ["The Secret Column"] (1981) were
broadcast on radio daily as serials in 1981. And in comic books, Ye
Yonglie's sf detective series, 12 booklets with 8 million copies printed,
was published by Popular Science Press in 1982 under the series title The
Scientific Sherlock Holmes.1978-83 also saw widespread publication of
foreign sf in China. Among the famous sf writers from many parts of the
world who were introduced to the Chinese reading public were Mary SHELLEY,
CRICHTON, Clifford D. SIMAK, Frederik POHL, Arthur C. CLARKE, Brian W.
ALDISS, Alexander BELYAEV and Sakyo KOMATSU.However, the 1983 political
drive against "spiritual pollution" hurt sf writers so badly that their
already small contingent quickly shrank. Since then Chinese sf has
developed only slowly. There is just one mainland magazine devoted to sf,
Kehuan Shijia ["SF World"]. In Taiwan there is the sf magazine Huanxiang
["Mirage"], ed and published by Dr Zhang Xiguo, a computer specialist who
teaches at the University of Pittsburgh in the USA but shows much concern
about the development of Chinese sf; there are about a dozen titles under
his name. Another major sf writer in Taiwan is Huang Hai, best known for
his high literary quality and for his scientific speculation. His first
publication, "Hangxiang wuya de lucheng" ["A Boundless Voyage"], appeared
in 1968. His best works are reckoned to be 10101 ["The Year 10101"] (1969)
and Xinshiji zhelu ["Voyage to a New Era"] (1972).The most productive sf
writer in Hong Kong is Ni Kuang, who often writes under the pseudonym Wei
Shili. His sf works number about 25 titles, but most are marginal, being
SWORD AND SORCERY - indeed, some critics doubt if his works belong to the
sf genre at all.There are 15 Chinese members of WORLD SF, whose 1991
annual meeting was held in Chengdu. An introduction to Chinese sf for
English readers is Science Fiction from China (anth 1989 US) ed WU DINGBO
and Patrick Murphy, which contains several of the stories mentioned above.

Film (1974). Alpine-Churubusco/Metromedia. Dir Sutton Roley, starring
Jackie Cooper, Richard Jaeckel, Alex Cord, Bradford Dillman. Screenplay H.
B. Cross, Joe Reb Moffly, based on a story by Cross. 99 mins. Colour.This
US/Mexico coproduction is a small-scale, inventive little exploitation
movie whose plot-line is purest PARANOIA. In a government test on stress
reactions, 11 people are hoaxed into believing that nuclear war is
devastating the world. These "chosen survivors" are forced by the army
into an elaborate bomb-shelter deep beneath the desert. Once locked in,
they learn - this seems not to be part of the experiment - that lethal
vampire bats have been trapped inside with them. Character conflicts and
bat attacks ensue in an unpretentious piece from a director more commonly
associated with tv. [PN/JB]

(1959- ) UK writer, currently reviews editor for New Scientist, whose sf
novels, both in collaboration with John GRIBBIN, are Double Planet (1988),
a competent HARD-SF tale about a conflict of political interests over a
comet which may or may not be about to strike the Earth, and its remote
sequel, Reunion (1991), set 1000 years later, in which the lunar
population has come under the influence of a cult claiming to hold the
secret of how to replenish the MOON's atmosphere: the book is the story of
a woman's fight against this church. [MB]Other works: Stars and Planets
(1987), a children's book on astronomy.

Working name of UK writer Christopher Samuel Youd (1922- ), active as an
sf fan before WWII, in which he served; he began publishing sf proper with
"Christmas Story" for ASF in 1949, writing as Christopher Youd. His first
novel, The Winter Swan (1949), again as by Youd, was a fantasy. His first
sf book, The Twenty-Second Century (coll 1954; with 1 story dropped and 1
added, rev 1962 US) as JC, assembles his early work; but, after the
success of his first sf novel, The Year of the Comet (1955; vt Planet in
Peril 1959 US), and the even greater impact of his second, The Death of
Grass (1956; vt No Blade of Grass 1957 US), he concentrated for some years
on adult novels, soon becoming perceived as John WYNDHAM's rival and
successor as the premier writer of the post-WWII UK DISASTER novel in the
decade 1955-65.The disaster which changes the face of England (and of the
world) in The Death of Grass (filmed in 1970 by Cornel Wilde as NO BLADE
OF GRASS) is, as the title makes clear, an upset in the balance of Nature
which causes the extinction of all grass and related food plants, with
catastrophic effects. Where Wyndham's novels featured protagonists whose
middle-class indomitability signalled to the reader that the crisis would
somehow come out right in the end, JC's characters - as witness John
Custance's gradual hardening and deterioration of personality in this
novel - inhabit and respond to a darker, less secure universe. It is a
harshness of perspective characteristic of most of his work at this time:
The World in Winter (1962; vt The Long Winter 1962 US), A Wrinkle in the
Skin (1965; vt The Ragged Edge 1966 US) and Pendulum (1968 US) all deal
decks similarly stacked against political or environmental complacency,
and their protagonists concentrate on the grim business of staying alive
and making a life fit to live in a post- HOLOCAUST world stripped of
culture and security.When JC turned to other kinds of stories his touch
was less assured, though Sweeney's Island (1964 US; vt Cloud on Silver
1964 UK) plausibly updates the traditional ISLAND theme as the eponymous
tycoon creates a DYSTOPIAN microcosm under stress. However, in 1967 JC
successfully inaugurated a fresh phase of his sf career, this time in the
juvenile market, with the Tripods sequence: The White Mountains (1967),
The City of Gold and Lead (1967) and The Pool of Fire (1968), assembled as
The Tripods Trilogy (omni 1980 US); a prequel, When the Tripods Came (1988
US), followed much later. In these books, the alien tripods control all
adults. However, the young protagonists avoid their thrall, discover their
secret and save Earth (whose adults revert to their distressing old ways).
Other juveniles followed: The Lotus Caves (1969), The Guardians (1970) -
which appropriately won the Guardian award for best children's book of the
year - Dom and Va (1973), much expanded from In the Beginning (1972 chap),
a tale for smaller children, Wild Jack (1974 US), Empty World (1977), the
Fireball trilogy - Fireball (1981), New Found Land (1983) and Dragon Dance
(1986) - set in a PARALLEL-WORLD version of Roman Britain and elsewhere
and A Dusk of Demons (1993), set in a post-holocaust Scotland. The Prince
in Waiting (1970), Beyond the Burning Lands (1971) and The Sword of the
Spirits (1972), assembled as The Swords of the Spirits Trilogy (omni 1980
US; vt The Prince in Waiting Trilogy 1983 UK), is FANTASY. As with his
adult sf, most of JC's juveniles are set in a post- DISASTER situation, in
which the romantic individualism of young protagonists finds itself pitted
against some kind of conformist or even brainwashed system, sometimes
symbolized as a struggle between the country and the city. They have been
remarkably and deservedly popular. [JC/PN]Other works: The Caves of Night
(1958 US), marginal; The Long Voyage (1960; vt The White Voyage 1961 US),
a juvenile; The Possessors (1964 US); The Little People (1966 US).About
the author: Christopher Samuel Youd, Master of All Genres: A Working
Bibliography (1990 chap) by Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE.See also: CHILDREN'S SF;

US original anthology series, 1977-83, 10 vols, ed Roy TORGESON. The
first 7 were paperback originals from Zebra Books; the remaining 3 had
hardcover first editions from DOUBLEDAY. They were Chrysalis 1 (anth
1977), #2 (anth 1978), #3 (anth 1978), #4 (anth 1979), #5 (anth 1979), #6
(anth 1980), #7 (anth 1980), #8 (anth 1980), #9 (anth 1981) and #10 (anth
1983). Torgeson's editorial policy was eclectic, perhaps too much so; he
published sf, fantasy and horror by a mixture of new and established
writers. The series title was intended to suggest something developing and
changing and about to give birth to beauty. Although C published a number
of interesting stories, including four each by Orson Scott CARD and
Australian writer Leanne Frahm, it never developed a very strong
personality, and it is perhaps surprising (though admirable) that it
lasted as long as it did. [PN]

[s] M. John HARRISON.

(1916- ) UK writer whose A Short History of the Future (1955), like John
ATKINS's Tomorrow Revealed (1955), is an imaginary HISTORY, in this case
set about AD7000, and similarly draws on genuine contemporary sources,
mainly George ORWELL, into an unusually witty accounting of the course of
history; in RCC's version, history comes in great cycles. [JC]

Working name of Catherine Mathilda Cicellis (1926- ),French-born writer
of Greek descent who writes in English. Her sf novel The Day The Fish Came
Out * (1967), which novelizes The DAY THE FISH CAME OUT (1967), is about
an H-bomb and the consequences of its loss off a Greek island; it is not
up to the standard of her serious work. [JC]

[r] SPAIN.

US film magazine, specializing in sf, fantasy and horror CINEMA, and
occasionally tv; published and ed Frederick S. Clarke from Illinois. Fall
1970-current. It had reached Vol 26, no 4, by June 1995. Slick BEDSHEET
format, well illustrated in both colour and b/w. The production schedule
has varied from 4 to 6 numbers a year, currently bimonthly. This is by far
the most useful US fantastic-cinema magazine, being less juvenile in
orientation and (apparently) less dependent on the studios for pictorial
material, and thus more independent in its judgments, than magazines like
STARLOG. Critical standards range from merely eccentric to excellent.
Coverage is good on films with wide theatrical release, but patchy on
films that go straight to video release and on tv programmes, with good
coverage of tv STAR TREK programmes, rather weak coverage of most other tv
shows.. Features range from interviews through articles on production
problems and on how special effects are worked to occasional
retrospectives (usually good) on famous genre movies of the past. Reviews
became briefer and weaker in the 1990s, with many films and tv shows
omitted altogether (and many credits misspelled or simply not given), so
that C's usefulness as a comprehensive magazine of record was becoming
dubious. [PN]

The basis on which films and film-makers have been selected for inclusion
in this volume is discussed in the Introduction.From the outset, the
cinema specialized in illusion to a degree that had been impossible on the
stage. Sf itself takes as its subject matter that which does not exist,
now, in the real world (though it might one day), so it has a natural
affinity with the cinema: the illusory qualities of film are ideal for
presenting fictions about things that are not yet real. The first sf
film-maker of any consequence - indeed, one of the very first film-makers
- was Georges MELIES, who used trick photography to take his viewers to
the Moon in Le VOYAGE DANS LA LUNE (1902; vt A Trip to the Moon). What
they saw there - chorus girls and lobster-clawed Selenites - was not
exactly high art, but it was, for the time, wonderful. The ability of sf
cinema to evoke wonders, for which it is often criticized as being a
modern equivalent of a carnival freak show, is also its strength. Wonders
themselves may pall, or be dismissed as childish, but nevertheless they
are at the heart of sf; sf, no matter how sophisticated, by definition
must feature something new, some alteration from the world as we know it
(though of course newness can easily become mere novelty). Film, from this
viewpoint, is sf's ideal medium.But from another point of view film is far
from the ideal medium. Sf as literature is analytic and deals with ideas;
film is the opposite of analytic, and has trouble with ideas. The way film
deals with ideas is to give them visual shape, as images which may carry a
metaphoric charge, but metaphors are tricky things, and, while the ideas
of sf cinema may be potent, they are seldom precise. Also, film is a
popular artform which, its producers often believe, is unlikely to lose
money by underestimating the intelligence of the public. So, on its
surface, sf cinema has often been simplistic, even though complex currents
may trouble the depths where its subtexts glide.In fact, sf cinema in the
silent period did become surprisingly sophisticated, though to the modern
eye, which prefers the illusion of photographic realism, the theatrical
Expressionism of much early sf cinema - especially in Russia and Germany -
is as strange a convention as having people talk in blank verse. Two
important early sf films came from those countries and that convention,
AELITA (1924) from Russia and METROPOLIS (1926) from Germany. Nonetheless,
Metropolis - the first indubitable classic of sf cinema - is, for all the
apparent triteness of its story, striking even today, with its towering
city of the future, its cowed lines of shuffling workers, its chillingly
lovely female ROBOT. Fritz LANG, who made it, also made one of the first
space movies, Die FRAU IM MOND (1929; vt The Woman in the Moon). The debut
film of Rene Clair (1898-1981), one day to be a very famous director, was
also sf: PARIS QUI DORT (1923; vt The Crazy Ray), but this was an
altogether lighter piece, a charming story of Parisians frozen in
time.Many people remember the sf-movie booms of the 1950s and the late
1970s, but the first sf boom, that of the 1930s, is often forgotten.
Though some sf films were made in Europe at this time, it was in the USA
that the most influential were produced: JUST IMAGINE (1930), FRANKENSTEIN
KONG (1933), DELUGE (1933), The INVISIBLE MAN (1933), The BRIDE OF
(1936). Just Imagine is a forgotten futuristic musical, and Deluge is a
DISASTER movie which, like the earlier French La FIN DU MONDE (1931; vt
The End of the World), is primarily interested in the effect of apocalypse
on human morals. King Kong is of course an early and classic monster
movie, with a sympathetic monster. Similarly, Lost Horizon is the most
famous LOST-WORLD film, though the theme has never been very important in
sf movies.It is interesting that the remainder - all six of them good
films, and mostly well remembered - have in common the over-reaching
scientist destroyed by his own creation. This theme, which could be called
the Promethean theme (after the hero who stole fire from the Gods - a
literal parallel in the case of the Frankenstein films, where scientists
steal lightning to create new life), remains a central theme in sf cinema
today; it is a familiar paradox that much sf cinema is anti-science, even
anti-intellectual ( ANTI-INTELLECTUALISM IN SF), and (especially in the
1930s) cast in the GOTHIC mode, which typically sees the limitation of
science as being its reliance on Reason in a world of mysteries not
susceptible to rational analysis - indeed, most of the SCIENTISTS who
appear in the above films are seen as literally mad. This is true also of
several European films of the time, including the archetypally Gothic
German film ALRAUNE (1930; vt Daughter of Evil). It is, of course, a
CLICHE of early sf generally and of sf in the cinema especially that
scientists are mad, so much so that we seldom pause to analyse the oddness
of this. It is as if these films were telling us that the brain, the seat
of reason, is so delicate an instrument that its overuse leads to the very
opposite, unreason. Although all these films are undeniably sf, they are
generally and rightly categorized as HORROR. Also archetypal of the sf
cinema is their clear Luddite subtext: the results of science are
terrifying. This pessimistic view gave way to OPTIMISM later in the 1930s,
but returned with new vigour when the real-world results of scientific
advance - the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki-proved to be so
terrifying. The Bomb was the image that was to loom behind the MONSTER
MOVIES of the 1950s, especially - not surprisingly - those made in
JAPAN.In the later 1930s few sf films were made, the most obvious new
theme being SPACE OPERA, though this was mainly confined to cheerful
juvenile serials such as FLASH GORDON (1936, with sequels in 1938 and
1940) and BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY (1939). The one adult film made
about the conquest of space, the hifalutin', rhetorical and romantic
THINGS TO COME (1936), was from the UK; although it flopped, with
hindsight we can see it as a milestone of sf film-making. While ultimately
optimistic, its vision of the future has many dark aspects, and in this
respect the movie is the inheritor of the DYSTOPIAN theme of
Metropolis.The 1940s, by contrast, were empty years for sf cinema, though
they started well with the sinister DR CYCLOPS (1940), whose villain
shrank people. Medical sf/horror was well represented by The LADY AND THE
MONSTER (1944), about a sinister excised brain kept alive by science. More
typical was comic sf, mostly weak, as in the ever more slapstick sequels
to the Frankenstein and Invisible Man movies, both unnatural beings
winding up as co-stars, in 1948 and 1951 respectively, with Bud Abbott and
Lou Costello. The PERFECT WOMAN (1949) is a UK comedy interesting in its
exploitation of sf to sexist ends: its underclothes fetishism would have
been unthinkable had its robot heroine, played by a real woman, been a
real woman. Prehistoric fantasy, which continues as a minor genre today,
had a good start with ONE MILLION B.C. (1940). There was not much else.The
sf-movie boom of the 1950s, which figures largely in our cultural
nostalgia today - even among viewers too young to have seen the originals
when they first came out - was largely made up of MONSTER MOVIES (which
see for details), but the theme of space exploration hit the screens even
earlier and was also popular. (There were few monster movies before 1954,
the first being The THING in 1951.) The first 1950s space film to be
released was ROCKETSHIP X-M, which was rushed out in 1950 to capitalize on
the pre-publicity for DESTINATION MOON; it was the latter, however, that
was successful. It was followed by such spacecraft-oriented films as The
(1956), and EARTH VS. THE FLYING SAUCERS (1956). In six of these, probably
more for budgetary than for ideological reasons, the spacecraft bring
ALIENS to Earth; all are monstrous except for the Christlike alien in The
Day the Earth Stood Still, who dies and rises again before (in a manner
more appropriate to the Old Testament than the New) threatening Earth with
destruction if it does not repent its sins. In the remainder the urge for
the conquest of space is apparent (as it was coming to be in the real
world, with the first orbital satellite, Sputnik 1, launched in 1957),
although the religious subtext of much 1950s sf cinema is found also in
When Worlds Collide (a Noah's space-ark is used to save a remnant of
humanity from God's wrath made manifest as cataclysm) and The Conquest of
Space (the captain of a spacecraft goes mad because he believes space
travel is an intrusion into the sphere of God). The only full-blooded
space operas of the period appeared moderately late on, with This Island
Earth and Forbidden Planet, but even in these tales the central image is
of the destruction that can be wrought by science.One of the most
memorable sf films of the 1950s boom is at first glance not sf at all: the
Mickey Spillane film noir KISS ME DEADLY (1955), dir Robert Aldrich
(1918-1983), in which the central object is a box which, when opened,
emits a fiery light and unleashes destruction on the world. The film
effortlessly and pessimistically links by metaphor the petty spites and
bestialities that disfigure individuals with the greater capacity for
destruction symbolized by the Pandora's Box which, in this case, appears
to unbind, like the Bomb, a cleansing radioactivity to greet the fallen
world.The monster movie, of course, is even more obviously fearful of
science: its text is "science breeds monsters". Political PARANOIA, a
quite different theme (and one to be developed further in the 1960s) also
found a niche in much 1950s sf, especially in those films in which
creatures that look just like us on the outside turn out on the inside to
be monsters or alien puppets (often identifiable as metaphoric stand-ins
for such other secret worms in the apple of Western society as communist
agents). Invaders from Mars (1953), one of the earliest and best of these
( MONSTER MOVIES and PARANOIA for other films on this theme), added a
touch of Freudian fear to the paranoid brew by making Mummy and Daddy
among the first humans to be rendered monstrous and emotionless by alien
control. The most famous example is INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS (1956),
in which, as in most of its kind, the slightly diagrammatic fear of
communism is surely secondary to the fear of the loss of affect: the
monstrous quasi-humans have no emotions; they are like cogs in a
remorseless machine. It is interesting that, although with hindsight we
see the Eisenhower years precisely as years of conformity, it was fear of
that very conformity that played so prominent a role in the US popular
culture of those years.Where in the 1940s only a handful of sf films were
made, in the 1950s there were 150 to 200, their numbers increasing in
inverse proportion to their quality: although the years 1957-9 had more sf
movies than the years 1950-56, they were mostly B-movies from "Poverty
Row", which, despite the fact that they include such old favourites as
and The MONOLITH MONSTERS (all 1957) and The FLY , The BLOB and I MARRIED
A MONSTER FROM OUTER SPACE (all 1958), leave an overall impression of sf
cinema as both sensationalist and tacky. The year 1959, however, while
producing genre movies that were mostly forgettable exploitation material,
also produced three films which, while obviously intended for a mainstream
audience, had an sf theme: JOURNEY TO THE CENTER OF THE EARTH, The WORLD,
THE FLESH AND THE DEVIL and ON THE BEACH. At last some sf themes ( LOST
WORLDS, the HOLOCAUST AND AFTER and the END OF THE WORLD), it seemed, were
sufficiently familiar to general audiences to risk the involvement of
big-name stars: James Mason, Harry Belafonte and Gregory Peck. None of
these films was especially good, but as sociological signposts each has
some importance.Another phenomenon of the 1950s was the rise of Japanese
sf cinema, built largely on the success of GOJIRA (1954; vt Godzilla), a
monster movie. Many further monster movies followed, nearly all from Toho
studios, which began working in the space-opera and alien-invasion genres
later, as with CHIKYU BOIEGUN (1957; vt The Mysterians).By the later 1950s
the major studios were abandoning genre sf, and most memorable productions
of the period were made by such low-budget independent producers as Roger
CORMAN; the earlier 1950s, by contrast, had been dominated by studios like
Universal, Warner Bros. and Paramount, which had sometimes used specialist
producers like George PAL or even, in the case of Universal, developed
their own specialist sf director, Jack ARNOLD. For the decades since then
it has been arguable that much of the inventive energy of sf cinema has
continued to bubble up from the marshes of "Poverty Row".Sf films were
quite numerous through most of the 1960s, without many clear lines of
evolution being visible, although individual films sometimes showed real
creativity (but see below for developments in the cinema of paranoia, and
for the new wave of DYSTOPIAN films). Hollywood remained fairly uneventful
so far as sf was concerned through the years 1960-67, with silly,
colourful films like The TIME MACHINE (1960), The ABSENT-MINDED PROFESSOR
(1961) and FANTASTIC VOYAGE (1966). Jerry Lewis made a surprisingly
effective sf campus comedy out of the Jekyll and Hyde theme, The NUTTY
PROFESSOR (1963). Roger Corman's low-budget, independent sf features
became less common, but one of the last was one of the best: X - THE MAN
WITH THE X-RAY EYES (1963). By far the best commercial movie in the genre
belonged to it only marginally: Alfred Hitchcock's The BIRDS (1963). A
revenge-of-Nature film which began a whole trend, this is a particularly
surreal monster movie whose paranoid element - intimate sharers of our own
world becoming the monsters - showed that the paranoia theme was
continuing strongly in sf cinema, as it has ever since, but with a shift
in emphasis. In the 1950s the monster movie had been comparatively
innocent, and - not surprisingly with the Cold War being at its height and
Hollywood itself about to become subject to investigations designed to
weed out left-wingers - regularly featured monsters from outside normal
experience; foreigners, so to speak. These films often opened with scenes
of tranquillity - children playing, farmers hoeing, lovers strolling. The
subsequent violence was almost a metaphor for the irrational forces which
peaceful US citizens feared might enter their lives, forces beyond their
control, such as (in real life) the Bomb or invasion. By contrast, the
subtext of The Birds can, with hindsight, be seen as changing the focus of
unease away from the alien monster towards the domestic monster. In the
1960s, elements of decay and division in Western society, especially US
society, were becoming more obvious, and 1960s sf reflected this. Working
like Hitchcock on the margins of sf cinema, John FRANKENHEIMER was perhaps
the most distinguished Hollywood director of 1960s politically paranoid
sf, with The MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (1962), Seven Days in May (1964) and
SECONDS (1966). Conspiracy-theory paranoia of the most extreme kind is the
occasion for black comedy in Theodore Flicker's The PRESIDENT'S ANALYST
(1967), in which the Telephone Company is out to rule the world. Even
George Pal, of all people, had a very effective exercise in paranoia with
The POWER (1967), a story of amoral superhumans disguised as ordinary
people. Stanley KUBRICK, working outside the Hollywood system, made his
memorably black and funny sf debut with DR STRANGELOVE OR: HOW I LEARNED
TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1964), and Hollywood exile Joseph
Losey made his nightmare of alienation and radioactivity, The DAMNED
(1961), in the UK. In all of these, it is our own society that is
frightening, not some alien import.The 1960s were, famously, a decade of
radicalism and social change, but the English-speaking cinema was slow to
reflect this, being more interested in the miniskirt than in, say, the
growing power of young people as a political force. Movies of youth
revolution like PRIVILEGE [1967], WILD IN THE STREETS [1968] and GAS-S-S-S
[1970] came only at the end of the decade, in a perhaps cynical attempt to
cash in on the flower-power phenomenon, and there were never many of them.
Spy movies were immensely popular - a phenomenon perhaps reflecting the
idea of a society riddled with secrets and conspiracies - but there is
nothing remotely radical or even modern about the James Bond series of
films inaugurated with DR NO (1962) and going on to include many other
borderline-sf films like YOU ONLY LIVE TWICE (1967); indeed, their central
image of mad SCIENTISTS out to rule the world derives from the pulp sf of
the 1920s and 1930s (see also CRIME AND PUNISHMENT). In Europe, however,
especially in France, the so-called New Wave cinema was indeed
revolutionizing the medium with lasting effect. Many New Wave directors
made marginal sf films, typically incorporating sf tropes into a
supposedly future but apparently contemporary setting. These included
Chris Marker with La JETEE (1963), Jean-Luc Godard with ALPHAVILLE (1965)
and WEEKEND (1968), Francois Truffaut with FAHRENHEIT 451 (1966) and Alain
Resnais with JE T'AIME, JE T'AIME (1967), all eccentric and interesting;
Truffaut was perhaps the odd man out, as the director least comfortable
with future scenarios. The exploitation cinema in Italy had no critical
agenda of reform like the New Wave in France, but it had plenty of
intelligence and inventiveness, though the results were often extremely
uneven; much of the Italian work was HORROR, but this often overlapped
with sf, as in Mario Bava's TERRORE NELLO SPAZIO (1965; vt Planet of the
Vampires). Further east, both RUSSIA and Czechoslovakia ( CZECH AND SLOVAK
SF) made quite a few sf films, including Russia's PLANETA BUR (1962; vt
Planet of Storms) and Czechoslovakia's IKARIE XB-1 (1963). The sf business
in the UK was normally a matter of low-budget B-movies, but some
respectable films emerged - e.g., The DAY THE EARTH CAUGHT FIRE (1961),
WATKINS's The WAR GAME (1965). This last was made for tv but banned from
tv for giving too realistic a picture of nuclear HOLOCAUST; even today it
comes across at least as powerfully as The DAY AFTER (1983), made for US
tv two decades later.The single most important year in the history of sf
cinema is 1968. Before then sf was not taken very seriously either
artistically or commercially; since then it has remained, much of the
time, one of the most popular film genres, and has produced many more good
films. Simply to list the main sf films of 1968 gives some idea of the
OF THE APES and 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY. (Less important were COUNTDOWN, The
ROMERO's Night of the Living Dead is the exception here in being a
low-budget, independent production, but, while it was seen by some
contemporaries as being merely another milestone in making the cinema of
horror more luridly graphic and disgusting - a key moment in the evolution
of the SPLATTER MOVIE - its image of humans reduced to deranged,
cannibalistic zombies has an undeniable metaphoric power and even a dark
poetry, and it was revolutionary in its discomforting refusal to offer any
solace throughout, nor any happy ending. The other four films were
commercially reputable products, and interesting for different reasons.
Barbarella is second-generation, spoof sf, the sort of film that can be
made only when genre materials have already been thoroughly absorbed into
the cultural fabric. Charly won its financier and star, Cliff Robertson,
the first Oscar for Best Actor given to a performance in an sf movie, a
good measure of sf's increasing respectability; the film was based on
Daniel KEYES's FLOWERS FOR ALGERNON (1959 FSF; exp 1966). Planet of the
Apes and 2001: A Space Odyssey are good films - the latter arguably one of
the great classics of the genre - both notable for their commercial
success and for their use of nonpatronizing screenplays that demanded
thought from the audience. Though there were plenty of bad films still to
come, sf cinema now had to be taken seriously, definitely by the money-men
and to a degree by the critics.To jump ahead for a moment, it would be
another decade before the commercial potential of sf cinema was thoroughly
confirmed, partly in response to the technical developments in special
effects that took place during that period. In 1977 STAR WARS, a smash
hit, inaugurated a new boom in space-opera movies, and in the same year
CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND also did very well with its blend of
sentiment and UFO mysticism, inaugurating the friendly- ALIEN theme which
the film's director, Steven SPIELBERG, was to exploit with even greater
effect in E.T.: THE EXTRATERRESTRIAL (1982). Another money-maker that
began a trend was SUPERMAN (1978), which led to a succession of
ever-more-disappointing SUPERHERO movies. These films remain among the
most financially successful ever made. In 1971 the cinema of the fantastic
(sf, horror, fantasy, surrealism) accounted for about 5 per cent of US
box-office takings; by 1982 this figure had risen amazingly to approach 50
per cent, and it remained as high as about 30 per cent in 1990.Though
special effects were to usher in a period of sf cinema whose spectacle was
more overwhelming than its intelligence, in the late 1960s no vast teenage
audience had as yet accumulated to drag down the genre with the commercial
demand that it should remain always suitable for kids. A majority of the
sf films of 1969-79 were downbeat and even gloomy, and even in the
adventure films their heroes were hard pressed just to survive, let alone
survive cheerfully. The three main themes were the dystopian, the Luddite
and the post- HOLOCAUST.Luddite films included practically everything made
or written by Michael CRICHTON, notably WESTWORLD (1973), The TERMINAL MAN
(1974) and COMA (1978). He has a gift for cinematic narrative, but his
tireless replaying of the theme made him seem something of a one-note
director. (John BADHAM, in the 1980s, would be another director to make a
career out of Luddite sf movies, with WARGAMES [1983], BLUE THUNDER [1983]
and SHORT CIRCUIT [1986].) Other films about the triumph of technology and
the subsequent enslavement of humanity (whether actual or metaphorical)
included: COLOSSUS, THE FORBIN PROJECT (1969), computer takes over;
SLEEPER (1973), machines run amok; KILLDOZER (1974), a bulldozer goes mad;
FUTUREWORLD (1976), robots take over; DEMON SEED (1977), computer as
rapist and voyeur; The CHINA SYNDROME (1979), nuclear power station almost
blows up; La MORT EN DIRECT (1979), intrusive journalist whose eyes are
cameras. In DARK STAR (1974), the feature-film debut of John CARPENTER and
one of the wittiest sf films yet made, a computerized bomb undertakes
phenomenological arguments with the crew of a starship.Dystopian films
ranged from the terrible - SILENT RUNNING (1971), we've destroyed all
plant life; ROLLERBALL (1975), sport is the opium of the people; LOGAN'S
RUN (1976), everyone over 30 is killed - through the interesting if
exaggerated - SOYLENT GREEN (1973), overpopulation; The STEPFORD WIVES
(1974), robot wives replace human wives - to the excellent - THX 1138
(1970), the debut of George LUCAS; A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971),
brainwashing; The MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (1976), the corrupting influence
of human society on an alien; STALKER (1979 Russia), alien leavings turn
out to be fairy gold in a trash-heap world.Life after the holocaust had
been an occasional theme in sf cinema for some time. Stories of survivors
and the detritus they live among were becoming more numerous by the 1970s;
the iconography of disaster cinema regularly includes a few rusting or
ivy-clad ruins of 20th-century civilization, as in GLEN AND RANDA (1971),
Logan's Run (1976) or, with more bravura, A BOY AND HIS DOG (1975). The
ULTIMATE WARRIOR (1975) fights in the rubble, and BENEATH THE PLANET OF
THE APES (1970) mutants live in it. In ZARDOZ (1974) the greater part of
the population has reverted to superstitious barbarism. We see this
reversion taking place in MAD MAX (1979) and its two entertaining
designer-barbarism sequels. Other examples from the 1970s include The
and DAMNATION ALLEY (1977). This is a theme that suits low-budget movies,
which nearly all these are, since the real world produces settings of
extraordinary dereliction in profusion.In the 1970s the low-budget,
independent exploitation-movie end of the film business was quite busy
making sf movies of other kinds, too, usually borderline-sf/ HORROR,
including SCREAM AND SCREAM AGAIN (1969), DEATH LINE (1972; vt RAW MEAT),
George A. Romero's The CRAZIES (1973), BLUE SUNSHINE (1977), PIRANHA
(1978) - a witty partnership between screenwriter John SAYLES and director
Joe DANTE - and PHANTASM (1979). But the two outstanding independent
directors of exploitation sf in the 1970s (and after) were Larry COHEN and
David CRONENBERG. The deeply eccentric social satirist Cohen is the
inventor of the monster baby, in IT'S ALIVE (1973), where it is played by
a doll pulled along by a string, and the Christ-figure, in GOD TOLD ME TO
(1976; vt DEMON), who is an alien-fathered hermaphrodite. Cronenberg,
whose biological metamorphoses almost constitute a new cinematic genre,
has become perhaps the most important director associated with sf cinema;
his work of the 1970s consists of chaotic, horrific comedies, including
The PARASITE MURDERS (1974; vt They Came from Within; vt Shivers), RABID
(1976) and The BROOD (1979).One of the most complex and moving sf films to
date is SOLARIS (1972), the first sf film of Andrei TARKOVSKY, with its
delicate meshing of images from inner and outer space. Other films of the
decade that at least stimulated discussion - none is outstanding-are
PICTURE (1979). More influential than any of these was the very successful
and much imitated ALIEN (1979), the first sf feature by Ridley SCOTT, but
this was part of the big-budget sf-feature boom of the late 1970s,
discussed above, and belongs in spirit more to the 1980s than the 1970s.An
interesting film of 1978, INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS, was a successful
remake of the classic 1956 film. Along with KING KONG (1976) this
introduced a series of sf remakes in the 1980s which, contrary to cliche,
contain a good deal of interesting work. The time was ripe for remakes
because, in the post Star Wars period, sf was proving such a hot area of
Hollywood movie-making. If you've had a success once, what more natural
than to try to repeat it? The two best remakes were probably John
Carpenter's The THING (1982) and David Cronenberg's The FLY (1986). Also
better than expected were The BLOB (1988) and The FLY II (1989). Others,
mostly poor, were BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY (1979), FLASH GORDON
(1980), GOJIRA 1985 (1985; vt Godzilla 1985), INVADERS FROM MARS (1986),
EARTH (1988).A less welcome phenomenon of the 1980s was the number of
successful films to which sequels were made almost as a matter of course,
almost never as good as their originals, an observation that spans a
variety of films including Critters 2: The Main Course, It's Alive III:
Island of the Alive, HIGHLANDER II: THE QUICKENING, Bronx Warriors II,
2010, Phantasm II, Re-Animator 2, Robocop 2, Short Circuit 2, Toxic
Avenger 2 and Future Cop 2. Indeed, the list includes the most expensive
film ever made, TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY (1991), which, though quite
good, is less uncompromising than its predecessor. Two sequels better than
their originals are MAD MAX 2 (1981; vt The Road Warrior) and PREDATOR 2
(1990). As of 1992 there have been five Planet of the Apes films, six Star
Trek films and four Superman films (plus SUPERGIRL, etc.) in the cycle
begun by Superman (1978). The Japanese, however, probably have the record
with their endless Gojira and Gamera films, two series that began in the
1950s ( GOJIRA; DAIKAIJU GAMERA).The disappointment of the 1980s and the
early 1990s was that, sf boom or no sf boom, many spectacular productions
were the filmic equivalent of fast food, offering no lasting satisfaction.
Also, too much US product seemed to more astringent foreign tastes to be
suffused with an oversweet sentimentality, especially following the
success of Spielberg's E.T. Films tainted in this way, some of them
otherwise quite good, included RETURN OF THE JEDI (1983), with its Ewoks,
STARMAN (1984), with its Christlike alien, COCOON (1985), with its
rejuvenated oldies, EXPLORERS (1985), with its cute alien kids, INNERSPACE
(1987), with a wimp finding true manhood with the help of a miniaturized
macho astronaut, * BATTERIES NOT INCLUDED (1987), with nauseating baby
flying saucers, STAR TREK V: THE FINAL FRONTIER (1989), the nadir of the
geriatric-buddy movie, and The ABYSS (1989), whose threatening aliens turn
out to be real friendly Tinker Bells.At the very beginning of the 1980s,
films of some interest included ALTERED STATES (1980), BATTLE BEYOND THE
STARS (1980), especially The EMPIRE STRIKES BACK (1980), ESCAPE FROM NEW
YORK (1981), OUTLAND (1981) and MEMOIRS OF A SURVIVOR (1981). But by far
the most influential sf film was the superbly designed BLADE RUNNER
(1982), Ridley Scott's second sf feature, whose shabby, lively,
media-saturated city of the near future was an early manifestation of
CYBERPUNK; a more knowing Japanese version of the cyberpunk ethos - by
then almost an sf CLICHE - would be found years later in the animated film
AKIRA (1990). Curiously, not many commercial films between these two
partook full-bloodedly of cyberpunk thinking, though several small
independent productions (see below), including VIDEODROME (1982) and
HARDWARE (1990), did so. However, the cyberpunk theme of VIRTUAL REALITY -
the notion of consensual hallucination, or of humans entering CYBERNETIC
systems and reading their networks (or being read by them) not just as
maps but as the territory itself - became quite popular in cinema. A far
from comprehensive list includes the made-for-tv movie The LATHE OF HEAVEN
(1980; based on the 1971 novel by Ursula LE GUIN), TRON (1982), BRAINSTORM
(1983), DREAMSCAPE (1984) and The LAST STARFIGHTER (1984).There are many
other examples of thematic clusters in the 1980s. Hollywood (and other
film centres) had seldom been so narcissistically absorbed - often
stupidly - by its own previous productions, with each box-office
breakthrough spawning multiple imitations. Hundreds of films featured a
slow camera track along a giant spaceship (2001, Star Wars) or an alien
parasite bursting bloodily from a human body (Alien).A big hit, starting
at the beginning of the decade with SATURN 3 (1980), ANDROID (1982) and
RUNAWAY (1984), was the killer-robot movie, mostly after the success of
ROBOCOP (1987); examples are Hardware (1990), CLASS OF 1999 (1990),
ROBOCOP 2 (1990), ROBOT JOX (1990) and EVE OF DESTRUCTION (1991), but the
best by far was The TERMINATOR (1984), which in turn spawned Terminator 2:
Judgement Day (1991).More seriously gruesome, but not without soap-opera
elements, was the spate of nuclear-death films beginning with The DAY
AFTER , SPECIAL BULLETIN and TESTAMENT (all 1983), the first two made for
tv. They were followed by, among others, THREADS (1985), also made for tv,
and the cartoon feature WHEN THE WIND BLOWS (1986).A subgenre of the 1980s
was a bastard form, the teen-sf movie, of which the three best were
probably REAL GENIUS (1985), BILL & TED'S EXCELLENT ADVENTURE (1988) and
EARTH GIRLS ARE EASY (1988), along with the Back to the Future series (see
below). Others were DEAD KIDS (1981), CITY LIMITS (1984), NIGHT OF THE
INVADERS (1989). TIME-TRAVEL movies made a big comeback in the 1980s, many
of them ( Introduction) being not technically sf since their means of time
travel was fantastic. Among the genuine sf the best are BACK TO THE FUTURE
(1985) and its two sequels, all directed by Robert Zemeckis. Bill & Ted's
Excellent Adventure (1988) and its sequel, Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey
(1991), are both charming. Others are the entertaining The PHILADELPHIA
EXPERIMENT (1984) and two disappointments, The FINAL COUNTDOWN (1980) and
MILLENNIUM (1989).After the success of CARRIE (1976), based on Stephen
KING's 1974 novel about a persecuted schoolgirl with PSI POWERS, films
about paranormal abilities, though never becoming overwhelmingly popular,
nevertheless remained as a persistent subgenre. The best is probably
Cronenberg's remorseless SCANNERS (1980). Others include The FURY (1978),
The SENDER (1982), The DEAD ZONE (1983), also directed by Cronenberg, and
the dire FIRESTARTER (1984).The oddest subgenre was probably the
alien-human buddy movie. ENEMY MINE (1985), one of the earlier ones, is
set on another planet, but many examples are set on Earth. Not just two
but four of them feature partnerships between alien and Earth police:
ALIEN NATION (1988), The HIDDEN (1988), SOMETHING IS OUT THERE (1988; a tv
miniseries released on videotape as a feature film) and I COME IN PEACE
(1989; vt Dark Angel).Other 1980s and 1990s films of interest but not
fitting neatly into any of the above categories were HALLOWEEN III: SEASON
OF THE WITCH (1983), STRANGE INVADERS (1983), DUNE (1984), BRAZIL (1985),
and The ROCKETEER (1991). Aliens and Brazil are the most distinguished of
these, the former directed by James CAMERON, the most important sf
director to emerge during the 1980s, the latter a perhaps too lovingly
designed dystopia. Monkey Shines, also memorable, showed that George A.
Romero was still a director of real power.Once again, however, the lesson
of the 1970s was in the main repeated. If you want to see what the
commercial cinema will be doing next decade, take a good close look at
what the low-budget cinema, even the exploitation cinema, is doing right
now. For every film as inventive as Blade Runner produced by companies
with access to very large sums of money, there are half a dozen thrown up
by the shoestring independents. In the latter category, the 1980s produced
Scanners (1980), ALLIGATOR (1981), Android (1982), LIQUID SKY (1982),
Videodrome (1982), Der LIFT (1983), The BROTHER FROM ANOTHER PLANET
(1984), The Terminator, REPO MAN (1984), TRANCERS (1984), The STUFF
(1985), RE-ANIMATOR (1985), FROM BEYOND (1986), MAKING MR RIGHT (1987),
THEY LIVE (1988) and SOCIETY (1989). If sf cinema were represented by
these films alone it would have to be diagnosed as in vigorous health,
though somewhat disreputable and threatening in appearance.But, alas, by
the late 1980s the increasingly floundering commercial film industries of
the USA and the UK seemed caught in a desperate spiral of attempting to
recapture past splendours by dint of colourful (and expensive) violence
while giving ideological offence to none. Thus even death and destruction
become anodyne. By 1990 the commercial sf cinema-especially in the USA -
seemed to have lost not just whatever integrity it had had but also its
common sense. As grave financial problems began to spread through
Hollywood, it seemed possible to predict that 1991 might prove to have
been the last year of insanely inflated film budgets. [PN]This indeed
proved to be the case. Even the big sf hit of the next few years, Steven
Spielberg's entertaining but silly dinosaur theme-park movie, JURASSIC
PARK (1993), did not have a stratospheric budget. There were few big sf
glamour spectaculars 1992-1994; others included the very watchable
STARGATE (1994), and, on a rather smaller scale, several movies about
future musclemen, DEMOLITION MAN (1993) with Stallone, TIMECOP (1994) with
Van Damme and - a smaller budget again - UNIVERSAL SOLDIER (1992) with Van
Damme and Lundgren. Cut-rate spectacle was also the order of the day with
Kirk's (William SHATNER's) presumptive last gasp in the STAR TREK movies:
STAR TREK: GENERATIONS (1994), and with the once adult Robocop series, now
aimed largely at a younger audience on the evidence of ROBOCOP 3
(1993).One continuing paranoiac rivulet of films deals with humans
kidnapped by aliens in UFOs; this theme received a shot in the arm back in
the 1980s with COMMUNION (1989), based on Whitley STRIEBER's supposedly
factual best-seller, and continued with a neat little film called FIRE IN
THE SKY (1993), but it was in tv, not movies, that this particular theme
had its apotheosis, with the cult success THE X-FILES (1993- ).Despite the
long history of failure in this sub-genre, producers insisted on making
yet more supposedly humorous sf movies, which included the dire ENCINO MAN
(1992, vt California Man), equally unfunny CONEHEADS (1994) and the
slightly better HONEY, I BLEW UP THE KID (1992); gentler and funnier than
any of these was THE METEOR MAN (1993); there was a slight sense of strain
about the mixture of comedy and drama in Joe DANTE'S MATINEE (1993), which
examines the cultural roots of sf/horror pics in scary real-life events,
in this case the Cuban missile crisis. A successful French black comedy
set after the HOLOCAUST was DELICATESSAN (1990).It became obvious in the
1990s that films spinning off from successes in other media, notably
GAMES, COMICS and TELEVISION - and even including RADIO - was a growing
part of the business, in part nostalgia driven, and unlikely to go away.
From radio and the PULPS came The Shadow (1994). From the world of games
came SUPER MARIO BROS(1993), and Double Dragon, Street Fighter and Mortal
Kombat are on the way. Comics - which had already fed into films with
movies like Flash Gordon, deeply influenced or begat many more films in
the 1990s, most of them fantasy rather than sf, including the two vastly
successful Batman movies, Timecop, The Mask (1994), The Crow, (1994), the
Japanese TETSUO (1989) and many Japanese anime, with JUDGE DREDD and Tank
Girl having film spin-offs in production as of 1995. From television
nostalgia came The Beverly Hillbillies(1993) and The Flintstones (1994),
among others; and also, of course, the continuing run of Star Trek movies.
One problem with most of these genres is that they have narrative
conventions (generally) as rigid and stagey as those of a Japanese noh
drama, and this static quality runs counter to what sf does best, which is
kinesis: opening out, dealing with change and transformation.Although the
exploitation-movie end of the market is often highly inventive, there was
not much evidence of this in cheap and bloody futuristic thrillers like
FRIEND, or two (rather better) future-prison escape movies, FORTRESS
(1993) and NO ESCAPE (1994 , vt Penal Colony, vt The Prison Colony, vt
Escape from Absalom).In this period remakes and spin-offs from earlier
films included the so-so tv movie ATTACK OF THE 50 FT. WOMAN (1993), the
rather good but black BODY SNATCHERS (1993), and for intellectuals who
like their action both bloody and operatic, the strange but
semi-successful Kenneth Branagh film, MARY SHELLEY'S FRANKENSTEIN
(1994).Time travel remained a popular theme - several titles belonging to
this category having already been mentioned - and while the weepie
melodrama FOREVER YOUNG (1992) may have disappointed, there were two small
gems in the period. The first was a small-scale but spirited time-paradox
film DISASTER IN TIME (1991, vt Grand Tour: Disaster in Time, vt
TIMESCAPE), which proved that not everything made for cable tv is awful.
The second was a comedy set in a small American town, GROUNDHOG DAY
(1993), an almost faultless and very amusing study in predestination vs
free will as mediated by a time-loop. [PN]Further reading: The following
reading list is highly selective. An early but still useful reference work
on sf cinema is the 3-vol Reference Guide to Fantastic Films: Science
Fiction, Fantasy & Horror 1 (vol 1 1972, vol 2 1973, vol 3 1974) compiled
by Walt LEE. There is much information, with some rather brief and
disappointing capsule comments, in Horror and Science Fiction Films: A
Checklist (1972), Vol II (1982) and Vol III (1984) by Donald C. Willis.
Although it does not cover as many titles as these two, The Aurum Film
Encyclopedia: Science Fiction (1984; rev 1991) ; rev vt The Overlook Film
Encyclopedia: Science Fiction 1994 US) ed Phil HARDY is far more than a
listing with credits; the best 1-vol guide, it is the fullest coverage of
sf cinema to contain detailed description and critical analysis (generally
very good), and, with upwards of 1400 films described in the revised
editions, covers at least twice as many sf movies as any other critical
book on the subject. Even more useful to the researcher is a run of the
journal Monthly Film Bulletin, published by the British Film Institute,
which gives (even after its incorporation during 1991 into its sister
journal, Sight and Sound) full credits for all films it covers (all films
released in the UK), and normally more complete critical discussion than
anything available in book form; its sf critics include Kim NEWMAN, Philip
STRICK and Tom Milne. This was the secondary source most consulted for
films from the 1960s onwards in the compilation of this encyclopedia; its
critical appreciations of sf films from earlier periods are briefer and
far more conservative, and it does not cover the silent period (Hardy's
book does). One other reference work extraordinarily useful for its period
is Keep Watching the Skies! American Science Fiction of the Fifties:
Volume I 1950-57 (1982) and Volume II 1958-62 (1986) by Bill WARREN.The
quality of most general discussions of sf cinema in books is not high;
many are coffee-table books of little value, or are aimed at a juvenile
fan market. An early study of some interest (despite irritating factual
errors) is the pioneering Science Fiction in the Cinema (1970) by John
BAXTER, the first book to attempt some kind of critical sorting of its
subject matter. Science Fiction Movies (1976) by Philip Strick is witty,
well informed and critically astute, but does not linger long enough on
individual films. John BROSNAN's Future Tense: The Cinema of Science
Fiction (1978; rev vt The Primal Screen: A History of Science Fiction Film
1991) contains judgments, albeit at greater length, that will already be
familiar to readers of the first edition of this volume, for which Brosnan
wrote many of the film entries. Peter NICHOLLS's Fantastic Cinema (1984
UK; vt The World of Fantastic Films US) is an illustrated survey, only
partially devoted to sf, which attempts to establish a critical canon for
fantastic films. Omni's Screen Flights/Screen Fantasies: The Future
According to Science Fiction Cinema (anth 1984) ed Danny Peary is probably
the best collection of essays and interviews on sf cinema. Harlan
Ellison's Watching (coll 1989) by Harlan ELLISON collects most of his film
criticism from 1965 on, much of it about sf movies. Academic and
theoretical books on sf cinema - there are not many - have generally
disappointed, and occasionally been crippled by a technical jargon that is
the reverse of precise, as in some of the essays in Alien Zone: Cultural
Theory and Contemporary Science Fiction Cinema (coll 1990) ed Annette
Kuhn; a rather more accessible collection of critical essays is Shadows of
the Magic Lamp: Fantasy and Science Fiction in Film (coll 1985) ed George
E. SLUSSER and Eric S. RABKIN. But of these academic books the most
challenging may be Vivian SOBCHACK's Screening Space: The American Science
Fiction Film (1986), a radical expansion of her earlier The Limits of
Infinity (1980); it is worth persevering with, jargon and all, for the
intellectual strength it brings to bear in its attempt to define sf cinema
in a POSTMODERNIST context. Finally An Illustrated History of the Horror
Film (1967) by Carlos Clarens and Nightmare Movies (1984; rev vt Nightmare
Movies: A Critical History of the Horror Film, 1968-88) by Kim Newman are
two stimulating books that have a good deal to say, en passant, about sf

The city is the focal point of our civilization, and images of the city
of the future bring into sharp relief the expectations and fears with
which we imagine the future of civilization. Disenchantment with
metropolitan life was evident even while UTOPIAN optimism remained strong,
and became remarkably exaggerated in DYSTOPIAN images of the future. The
growth of the cities during the Industrial Revolution created filthy slums
where crime, ill-health and vice flourished, and a new kind of poverty
reigned; thus even the most devoted disciples of progress can and do
lament the state of the industrial city, which has little in common with
such utopian city-states as Tommaso CAMPANELLA's City of the Sun (1637) or
the cities of L.S. MERCIER's Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred
(1771; trans 1772). Speculative thinkers who were not utopians found the
evolution of the great cities a powerful argument against progress - a
view strongly advanced in After London (1885) by Richard JEFFERIES, in
which the cities have died but their remains still poison the Earth.In
much early sf the city is the same place of contrasts that it was in
reality, with the rich and poor living in close but separate worlds,
architectural grandeur masking squalor. This is evident in Caesar's Column
(1890) by Ignatius DONNELLY, in "A Story of the Days to Come" (1897) and
When the Sleeper Wakes (1899) by H.G. WELLS, and in Fritz LANG's film
METROPOLIS (1926). Wells, the most determined prophet of technological
supercivilization, frequently imagined the destruction of the present-day
cities as a prelude to utopian rebuilding. (Many of the real-life urban
utopian schemes of the late 19th century demanded that cities be built
anew, cleansed of their manifest evils.) However, the splendid vision of
the city as an architectural miracle which had inspired early utopians was
a vision ever-present in early PULP MAGAZINE sf, thanks largely to the
artwork of Frank R. PAUL, who was far better at drawing wonderful cities
than human beings; his distinctive images contributed much to the flavour
of Gernsbackian sf.Modern sf has made extravagant use of three stereotyped
images of the future city: one exaggerates the contrast between the city
and a surrounding wilderness, often enclosing the city in a huge plastic
dome, polarizing the opposition between city life and rural life; a second
displays once-proud cities fallen into ruins, decaying and dying; and the
third presents a vivid characterization of the future-city environment in
which humans move in the shadow of awesomely impersonal and implicitly
hostile artefacts.The theme of stories of the first kind - for which E.M.
FORSTER's "The Machine Stops" (1909) provided a prototype - is usually
that of escape from the claustrophobic, initiative-killing comfort to the
wilderness, which offers evolutionary opportunity through the struggle to
survive. Simple expositions of the theme include The Hothouse World (1931;
1965) by Fred MACISAAC, The Adventure of Wyndham Smith (1938) by S. Fowler
WRIGHT, Beyond the Sealed World (1965) by Rena VALE, From Carthage then I
Came (1966; vt Eight against Utopia) by Douglas R. MASON, Magellan (1970)
by Colin ANDERSON, Wild Jack (1974) by John CHRISTOPHER, The Crack in the
Sky (1976) by Richard LUPOFF and Terrarium (1985) by Scott Russell
SANDERS. More sophisticated variants include The City and the Stars (1956;
exp from Against the Fall of Night [1948; 1953]) by Arthur C. CLARKE, The
World Inside (1971) by Robert SILVERBERG, The Eye of the Heron (1978;
1982) by Ursula K. LE GUIN and Out on Blue Six (1989) by Ian MCDONALD.
Interesting inversions of the schema can be found in Harlan ELLISON's "A
Boy and His Dog" (1969) and Greg BEAR's Strength of Stones (fixup
1981).Images of the ruined city are often remarkable for their exaggerated
romanticism. Early examples include Jefferies's After London, George Allan
ENGLAND's Darkness and Dawn (1914) and Stephen Vincent BENET's "By the
Waters of Babylon" (1937). The ruins themselves may become charismatic and
symbolic, as exemplified by the torch of the Statue of Liberty in The
Torch (1920; 1948) by Jack BECHDOLT. There is a surprisingly strong vein
of similar romanticism in GENRE SF. Much of Clifford D. SIMAK's work -
especially the episodic CITY (1944-51; fixup 1952) - rejoices in the
decline and decay of cities, as do Theodore STURGEON's "The Touch of Your
Hand" (1953), J.G. BALLARD's "Chronopolis" (1960) and "The Ultimate City"
(1976), Charles PLATT's The City Dwellers (1970 UK; vt Twilight of the
City 1977 US) and Samuel R. DELANY's DHALGREN (1975). This rejoicing is
not usually based on any naive glorification of living wild and free; more
often it reflects a hope that human beings will some day outgrow the need
for cities. The probable inescapability of city life is, however,
ironically reflected in two curious stories of nomadic cultures which must
carry their cities with them: Christopher PRIEST's INVERTED WORLD (1974)
and Drew MENDELSON's Pilgrimage (1981).The third stereotype involves not
merely the representation of city life as unpleasant or alienating but a
strategic exaggeration of the city's form and aspects to stress its
frightening and claustrophobic qualities. The "caves" of Isaac ASIMOV's
The Caves of Steel (1954) are literally as well as metaphorically
claustrophobic. Cities which cover the entire surface of planets are
commonplace: Asimov's Trantor, in the Foundation trilogy (1942-50;
1951-3), set an important example. The impersonality of the megalopolis is
ingeniously exaggerated in such stories as J.G. Ballard's "Build-Up"
(1957; vt "The Concentration City") and R.A. LAFFERTY's "The World as Will
and Wallpaper" (1973), and stories in this vein are often outrightly
surreal-examples are Fritz LEIBER's "You're All Alone" (1950; exp vt The
Sinful Ones 1953) and Ted WHITE's "It Could Be Anywhere" (1969). In
extreme cases the city may become personalized, as in Robert Abernathy's
"Single Combat" (1955), Robert SHECKLEY's "Street of Dreams, Feet of Clay"
(1968), Harlan Ellison's "The Whimper of Whipped Dogs" (1973) and John
SHIRLEY's City Come a-Walkin' (1980).The stress of life in a crowded
environment is the subject of many stories of OVERPOPULATION, notably
Thomas M. DISCH's 334 (fixup 1972 UK) and Felix C. GOTSCHALK's Growing Up
in Tier 3000 (1975). Such novels tend to visualize the city of the future
as a conglomerate of vast tower-blocks. Silverberg dubs these urbmons;
Philip K. DICK calls them conapts; more recently the term "arcology" has
become widespread. Some writers, however, preserve a more optimistic view
of life in such edifices, notably Mack REYNOLDS in The Towers of Utopia
(1975) and Larry NIVEN and Jerry POURNELLE in Oath of Fealty
(1981).Outside the GENRE-SF establishment, attempts to characterize the
city and identify its alienating forces are mostly grimly realistic, but
some tend to the fabular; examples include Le citta invisibili (1972;
trans as Invisible Cities 1974) by Italo CALVINO, in which Marco Polo
offers Kublai Khan an account of the great range of the possible products
of civilization, Les geants (1973; trans as The Giants 1975) by J.M. LE
CLEZIO, in which the central image is that of the great shopping-centre
Hyperbolis, and Alasdair GRAY's stories "The Start of the Axletree" (1979;
vt "The Origin of the Axletree") and "The End of the Axletree" (1983).One
striking exception - in which the city becomes the symbol of escape and
freedom rather than the oppressive environment to be escaped - is in the
novels making up James BLISH's Cities in Flight series (omni 1970), in
which ANTIGRAVITY devices, SPINDIZZIES, lift whole cities from the Earth's
surface to roam the Universe (although even this dream comes to a dead end
in one section of Earthman Come Home [fixup 1955], the part first
published in 1953 as "Sargasso of Lost Cities"). And the charismatic
quality of cities is paid adequate homage in sf stories which celebrate
the sleazy decadent grandeur of various imaginary cities. These include:
the eponymous cities of Edward BRYANT's Cinnabar (coll 1976) and Terry
CARR's Cirque (1977); M. John HARRISON's fabulous city of Viriconium,
first glimpsed in The Pastel City (1971) but far more elaborately
portrayed in A STORM OF WINGS (1980), In Viriconium (1982; vt The Floating
Gods) and Viriconium Nights (coll 1985); and C.J. CHERRYH's Merovingen,
displayed in Angel with the Sword (1985). Brian W. ALDISS's The Malacia
Tapestry (1976) is similarly ambivalent about the splendour and sickness
of cities.The possible futures of specific real cities are sometimes
tracked by sf writers with interest and respect; examples include the
Chicago of The Time-Swept City (1977) by Thomas F. MONTELEONE and the New
York of Frederik POHL's Years of the City (1984). C.J. Cherryh's Sunfall
(coll 1981) sets stories in far-futuristic versions of six major cities.
Michael MOORCOCK's work - including his non-sf - uses many different
images of London.In both sf writing and sf art, the city is one of the
most important recurrent images, and carries with it one of the richest,
densest clusters of associations to be found in the whole sf iconography.
Relevant theme anthologies include Cities of Wonder (anth 1966) ed Damon
KNIGHT, Future City (anth 1973) ed Roger ELWOOD, and The City: 2000 A.D.
(anth 1976) ed Ralph Clem, Martin Harry GREENBERG and Joseph OLANDER.

(vt One Hour to Doomsday) 1. Made-for-tv film (1970). 20th Century-Fox TV
Productions for NBC TV. Dir Irwin ALLEN, starring Stuart Whitman, Robert
Wagner, Joseph Cotton, Rosemary Forsyth, Richard Basehart, Robert Colbert,
Sugar Ray Robinson. Screenplay John Meredyth Lucas from a story by Allen.
100 mins, cut to 93 mins. Colour.Released outside the USA as a feature
film called One Hour to Doomsday, this was a pilot for a tv series that
was never made. In an incoherent jumble of over-familiar sf situations,
the citizens of 21st-century Pacifica have to contend with a super-H-bomb
to be exploded somewhere within their underwater city, invasion by an
"unfriendly foreign power", a sea monster, rebellion, the theft of a
shipment of gold from Fort Knox, and imminent destruction by the impact of
a planetoid approaching Earth. This is Irwin-Allen plotting at its most
typical, foretelling the DISASTER movies which would become his
speciality. All ends happily. [JB/PN]2. UK tv serial for children (1962).
ABC TV. Written John Lucarotti. Prod Guy Verney. 7 25min episodes. B/w.
This told of a reporter and his young sidekick kidnapped to the underwater
base of a mad scientist intent on world control.CBTS was the sequel to
Plateau of Fear (1961). ABC TV. Written Malcolm Stuart Fellows, Sutherland
Ross. Prod Guy Verney. 6 25min episodes. B/w. Thriller set in the Andes
where a reporter and young sidekick investigate a strange beast thought
responsible for attacks on a nuclear power plant; the true villain is a
general who wants the plant for military purposes.The sequel to CBTS was
Secret Beneath the Sea (1963). ABC TV. Written John Lucarotti. Prod Guy
Verney. 6 25min episodes. B/w. Again in the undersea city of Aegira, the
plot revolves around an ex-U-boat commander (from the earlier story) and
rare metals vital for space research. [SH]

Film (1984). Sho Films/Videoform/Island Alive. Dir Aaron Lipstadt,
starring John Stockwell, Darrell Larson, Kim Cattrall, Rae Dawn Chong.
Screenplay Don Opper, from a story by Lipstadt and James Reigle. 85 mins.
Colour.Disappointing exploitation movie from the writer and director of
the first-rate ANDROID (1982). Fifteen years after the USA has been almost
wiped out by plague, two biker gangs in the sort of trendy post- HOLOCAUST
fashions associated with the MAD MAX movies live in the City, basing their
culture on comic books. A manipulative quasigovernmental agency attempts
to murder the whole of one gang and conscript the other (the sociology of
this being wholly unbelievable), but the kids win out with the help of
kind old Black man James Earl Jones, so that the City is left safe in the
hands of comics-reading Youth. [PN]

(1916- ) US writer whose first sf novel, A World Unknown (1975), is of
some interest for its portrayal of an ALTERNATE-WORLD USA dominated by a
Latin civilization that has never been influenced by Christianity - Jesus
having never existed. In The Orange R (1978), mutants known as "Roberts"
are forced to live in the radioactive wastelands of a DYSTOPIAN future
America. [JC]

Working name of US writer Christopher Simon Claremont (1950- ). He first
became known through his revitalization from 1975 of MARVEL COMICS's
X-MEN, a title which had been temporarily retired but now became the
bestselling comic in the field; CC scripted the title until he left Marvel
in 1993 to begin work with Dark Horse comics. The series deals with a
constantly expanding group of mutant SUPERHEROES, several female, whose
relationships and conflicts are densely complicated, and who inspire
sympathy both because they are adolescents with typical family problems
and because society tends to reject them. CC's style, though consistent
with the Marvel Group's experimental house-style, is often rather clumsy,
and manifestly represents an earlier phase in the rapid evolution of the
comic book than that of GRAPHIC-NOVEL writers like Frank MILLER and Alan
MOORE. God Loves, Man Kills (graph 1982) was an original tale; The Uncanny
X-Men (graph 1987) was assembled from the comic. The three Nicole Shea
novels - FirstFlight (1987), Grounded! (1991; vt Grounded 1991 UK) - cover
much of the same emotional and stylistic territory, tracing the adventures
of a NASA astronaut in a NEAR-FUTURE Solar System. [NT/JC]Other works: As
with many writers and illustrators involved in the fast-moving and hectic
world of comics publishing, CC's bibliography is anything but easy to fix;
the following titles have been confirmed: Wolverine (1985; graph coll
1988) with Frank MILLER; The Savage Land (graph 1990); and various X-Men
graphic presentations, including X-Men: Asgardian Wars (graph 1990);
X-Men: From the Ashes (graph 1990); Dragon Moon (1994) with Beth Fleisher,
a fantasy.

(1926-1993) US editor, critic and professor of English. By the time he
took his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania, (1956) he had published
his first sf criticism (Science Fiction Quarterly 1954). He was perhaps
best known for editing EXTRAPOLATION continuously from its founding in Dec
1959 to Winter 1989, at which point he handed over the reins to his then
co-editor, Donald M. HASSLER; the rare first 10 years' issues of this
journal, the oldest established academic journal about sf, were reprinted
in Extrapolation; A Science Fiction Newsletter, Vols 1-10 (anth 1978) ed
TDC; although inconveniently packaged - there are no running heads, and
pagination is not continuous - its contents remain valuable. He was also a
pioneer in editing ANTHOLOGIES of sf criticism in book form: SF: The Other
Side of Realism (anth 1971); Voices for the Future: Essays on Major
Science Fiction Writers Vol 1 (anth 1976) and its sequels Vol 2 (anth
1979) and Vol 3 (anth 1983), the latter with Thomas L. Wymer; and Many
Futures, Many Worlds: Theme and Form in Science Fiction (anth 1977). His
SF Criticism: An Annotated Checklist (1972) began a specialist research
series which would be continued by Marshall B. TYMN and Roger SCHLOBIN.
TDC also edited a story anthology with notes, intended to be used in
education: A Spectrum of Worlds (anth 1972).TDC's most important research
was in early US sf. He wrote the chapter "The Emergence of the Scientific
Romance" in Neil BARRON's Anatomy of Wonder: Science Fiction (1976; rev
1981; rev 1987), revised in later editions as "The Emergence of Science
Fiction: The Beginnings to the 1920s". He was general editor of GREENWOOD
PRESS's (somewhat incomplete) microfilm reprint series of sf PULP
MAGAZINES and, also from Greenwood, the large, wide-ranging collection
Early Science Fiction Novels: A Microfiche Collection (coll 1984). Perhaps
his two most important works are Science Fiction in America, 1870s-1930s:
An Annotated Bibliography of Primary Sources (1984) and Some Kind of
Paradise: The Emergence of American Science Fiction (dated 1985 but 1986).
The latter - a historical and thematic survey rather than a critical study
- is a breakthrough book in an area that was previously codified poorly
and erratically; one of TDC's strategies, perhaps necessary in so little
known a field, is the inclusion of much plot synopsis. This is precisely
the strength of the former book, too, whose annotations are of real use to
researchers who may find copies of the original works difficult to locate.
In TDC's more recent book, Understanding American Science Fiction: The
Formative Period, 1926-1970 (1990), the subject matter is much more
familiar.TDC was chairman of the first Modern Language Association Seminar
on sf in 1958, and first President of the SCIENCE FICTION RESEARCH
ASSOCIATION, 1970-76. In recognition of his services to the academic study
of sf he received the PILGRIM AWARD in 1977. [PN]Other works: SF: A Dream
of Other Worlds (chap 1973); Robert Silverberg (chap 1983); Robert
Silverberg: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1983); Frederik Pohl

This long-standing workshop enrols beginning writers who are interested
in writing sf. It consists of intensive writing and discussion sessions
under the direction of known sf writers, who have included Orson Scott
CARD, Terry CARR, Samuel DELANY, Thomas M. DISCH, Harlan ELLISON, Karen
Lewis SHINER and Kate WILHELM. The first three sessions were held at
Clarion State College in Pennsylvania in the summers of 1968-70. In 1971
"Clarion East" was held in Tulane University and "Clarion West" in
Seattle. Clarion West soon folded, but was later re-established in Seattle
(8 sessions to 1991). In 1972 Clarion East moved to Michigan State
University, where it remains (as just Clarion; 24 sessions to 1991).
Clarion has been more successful than many writers' workshops and has
produced notable alumni, including Ed BRYANT, F.M. BUSBY, Octavia E.
BUTLER, Gerard F. CONWAY, George Alec EFFINGER, Vonda N. MCINTYRE, Kim
Stanley ROBINSON, Lucius SHEPARD and Lisa TUTTLE. The original director of
Clarion was Robin Scott WILSON, who also edited the first three
anthologies of students' and teachers' work: Clarion (anth 1971), #II
(anth 1972) and #III (anth 1973). Clarion SF (anth 1977) was ed Kate
Wilhelm; The Clarion Awards (anth 1984) ed Damon Knight covers the
previous six years of Clarion. [PN]


(1916-1987) UK writer and journalist, active mainly with nonfiction since
before WWII. He began publishing sf with "The Man who Went Back" for the
London Evening Standard in 1949, but has not been a prolific contributor
to the genre. His first sf novel, Queen Victoria's Bomb: The Disclosures
of Professor Franklin Huxtable, MA, Cantab. (1967), achieved some success,
and was one of the numerous contributions to the subgenre of sf works that
exhibit nostalgia for a previous generation's view of the future; it could
be regarded as a precursor to STEAMPUNK. The Bomb that Failed (1969; vt
The Last Year of the Old World 1970 UK) is a kind of sequel, in which a
failed nuclear test at Alamagordo changes history. [JC]Other works
(nonfiction): The Huxleys (1968); J.B.S.: The Life and Work of J.B.S.
Haldane (1968); Einstein: The Life and Times (1971); The Life of Bertrand
Russell (1975), all nonfiction.See also: ALTERNATE WORLDS; NUCLEAR POWER.

(1917- ) UK author, resident since 1956 in Sri Lanka. Born in Minehead,
Somerset, after leaving school ACC came to London in 1936 to work as a
civil-servant auditor with HM Exchequer. He was active in fan circles
before WWII, in which he served (1941-6) as a radar instructor with the
RAF, rising to the rank of flight-lieutenant. After WWII he entered King's
College, London, in 1948 taking his BSc with first-class honours in
physics and mathematics.ACC's strong interest in the frontiers of science
was evident early. He was chairman of the British Interplanetary Society
1946-7, and again 1950-53. His first professionally published sf story was
"Loophole" for ASF in Apr 1946, though his first sale was "Rescue Party",
which appeared in ASF in May 1946. In his early years as a writer he three
times used the pseudonym Charles Willis, and wrote once as E.G. O'Brien.
These four stories all appeared in UK magazines 1947-51. Four of ACC's
early stories, written for FANZINES (1937-42), were reprinted in The Best
of Arthur C. Clarke 1937-71 (coll 1973 UK; reissued in 2 vols, 1977, the
first being inaccurately titled 1932-1955) ed Angus WELLS; a 1930s poem
and essay appear in The Fantastic Muse (coll 1992 chap). ACC also worked
as adviser for the comic DAN DARE - PILOT OF THE FUTURE for its first six
months in 1950.ACC's early stories are very much GENRE SF, neatly
constructed, usually turning on a single scientific point, often ending
with a sting in the tail. Some are rather ponderously humorous. His first
two novels were published in 1951: Prelude to Space (1951 US; rev 1953 UK;
rev 1954 US; vt Master of Space 1961 US; vt The Space Dreamers 1969 US),
being GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION NOVEL #3, and The Sands of Mars (1951). Both
suffer from the rather wooden prose which ACC later fashioned into a more
flexible instrument, though he was never able to escape an occasional
stiffness in his writing. They are, in effect, works of optimistic
propaganda for science ( OPTIMISM AND PESSIMISM), with human problems
rather mechanically worked out against a background of scientific
discovery. It was with the science that ACC's imagination flared into
life. Islands in the Sky (1952 US) followed the same pattern; it is a
juvenile about a boy in an orbital space station.A new note appeared in
Expedition to Earth (coll 1953 US). This includes the short story "The
Sentinel", which had appeared in 10 Story Fantasy in 1951 as "Sentinel of
Eternity". A simple but haunting story, it tells of the discovery of an
ALIEN artefact, created by an advanced race millions of years earlier,
standing enigmatically on top of a mountain on the Moon. Many years later
this story became the basis of 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), for which ACC
wrote the script with Stanley KUBRICK. The novelization, 2001: A Space
Odyssey * (1968 US; with 2 related stories added, rev as coll 1990 UK),
was written by ACC alone on the basis of the script after the film had
been made. An account of ACC's connection with the film can be found in
his The Lost Worlds of 2001 (1972 US), which also prints alternative
script versions of key scenes.With "The Sentinel" came the first clear
appearance of the ACC paradox: the man who of all sf writers is most
closely identified with knowledgeable, technological HARD SF is strongly
attracted to the metaphysical, even to the mystical; the man who in sf is
often seen as standing for the boundless optimism of the soaring human
spirit, and for the idea (strongly presented in John W. CAMPBELL Jr's ASF)
that there is nothing humanity cannot accomplish, is best remembered for
the image of mankind being as children next to the ancient, inscrutable
wisdom of alien races. There is something attractive, even moving, in what
can be seen in Freudian terms as an unhappy mankind crying out for a lost
father; certainly it is the closest thing sf has yet produced to an
analogy for RELIGION, and the longing for God.Although this theme is well
seen in "The Sentinel", and even better seen in the iconography of the
film 2001: A Space Odyssey, at the end of which mankind is seen literally
as a foetus, ACC gave it its most potent literary expression in two more
books from 1953 which are still considered by many critics to be his
finest, and in which he comes closest to continuing the tradition of the
UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE. They are Against the Fall of Night (1948 Startling
Stories; 1953 US; exp and much rev vt The City and the Stars 1956 US) -
also assembled with "The Lion of Comarre" (1949 TWS) as The Lion of
Comarre and Against the Fall of Night (coll 1968 US) - and CHILDHOOD'S END
(1950 NW as "Guardian Angel"; exp 1953 US; rev 1990 UK).Both the original
and the longer versions of Against the Fall of Night are readily
available. Indeed, the shorter version was republished in Beyond the Fall
of Night (omni 1990 US misleadingly credited - since it appears from the
cover to be a single novel - to ACC and Gregory Benford; vt Arthur C
Clarke - Against the Fall of Night/Gregory Benford - Beyond the Fall of
Night UK 1991), along with a sequel, very different in tone and theme, by
Gregory BENFORD. The longer version, The City and the Stars, is one of the
strongest tales of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH in genre sf. Alvin, a young man
in the enclosed utopian city of Diaspar, on Earth in the FAR FUTURE,
becomes impatient at the TECHNOLOGY-mediated stasis of the perfect life,
and after many adventures makes his way outside the city to Lys, another
UTOPIA but of a different kind, which stresses closeness to Nature.
Ultimately Alvin finds an alien spaceship left behind millennia ago,
visits the stars, and finally discovers the true nature of the cosmic
perspective which has been hidden from both Lys and Diaspar. The final
passages blend a sense of loss and of transcendence with an almost
mystical intensity. ACC began working on this story as early as 1937, and
it is clearly central to all his thinking and feeling; it is perhaps his
most memorable work, and distinctly superior to the more awkward earlier
version. It owes something to the evolutionary perspective of Olaf
STAPLEDON, whose works ACC greatly admired, as does CHILDHOOD'S END, in
which mankind reaches transcendence under the tutelage of satanic-seeming
aliens, eventually to fuse with a cosmic overmind which is an apotheosis
forever to be denied both to their parents, who are ordinary humans, and
to the alien tutors.ACC continued to publish sf with some frequency over
the next decade, with Earthlight (1951 TWS; exp 1955 US), Reach for
Tomorrow (coll 1956 US), The Deep Range (1954 Star SF #3; exp 1957 US),
Tales from the White Hart (coll of linked stories 1957 US), The Other Side
of the Sky (coll 1958 US), A Fall of Moondust (1961 US), Tales of Ten
Worlds (coll 1962 US), Dolphin Island (1963 US), a juvenile, and Glide
Path (1963 US), ACC's only non-sf novel, about the development of radar.
The most interesting of these are The Deep Range, about NEAR-FUTURE
farming UNDER THE SEA, containing some of ACC's most evocative writing,
and A Fall of Moondust, a realistic account - in the light of theories
about the Moon's surface now known to have been mistaken - of an accident
to a surface transport on a lightly colonized Moon. ACC's "The Star"
(1955), a short story of great pathos describing the discovery that the
star put in the sky by God to prefigure the Birth at Bethlehem was a
supernova that destroyed an entire alien race, won a HUGO.By the 1960s
most of ACC's creative energies had gone into writing nonfiction books and
articles, many of them - not listed here - about undersea exploration; he
was an enthusiastic skin-diver himself, one reason for his residence in
Sri Lanka. His popularizations of science, which won him the UNESCO
Kalinga Prize in 1962, are closely related to his fiction, in that the
stories often fictionalize specific ideas discussed in the factual pieces.
His most important nonfiction works, interesting still though some are
rather out-of-date, are: Interplanetary Flight (1950; rev 1960), The
Exploration of Space (1951; rev 1959; original text with new intro 1979),
The Exploration of the Moon (1954), The Young Traveller in Space (1954; vt
Going into Space US; vt The Scottie Book of Space Travel UK; rev with
Robert SILVERBERG vt Into Space 1971 US), The Making of a Moon: The Story
of the Earth Satellite Programme (1957; rev 1958 US), Voice Across the Sea
(coll 1958 UK; rev 1974 UK; much rev, vt How the World was One: Beyond the
Global Village 1992 UK), The Challenge of the Space Ship (coll 1959 US),
Profiles of the Future (coll 1962; rev 1973; rev 1984), Man and Space
(1964; with the Editors of Life), Voices From the Sky (coll 1965 US), The
Promise of Space (1968), Beyond Jupiter: The Worlds of Tomorrow (1972 US;
with Chesley BONESTELL), Report on Planet 3 and other Speculations (coll
1972), The View from Serendip (coll 1977 US), 1984: Spring: A Choice of
Futures (coll 1984 US) and Ascent to Orbit: A Scientific Autobiography:
The Technical Writings of Arthur C. Clarke (coll 1984 US). ACC's early
professional experience as assistant editor of Science Abstracts 1949-50,
before he became a full-time writer, has amply paid off. The Exploration
of Space won a nonfiction INTERNATIONAL FANTASY AWARD in 1952. His science
writing is lucid and interesting; his only rival as an sf writer of
significance who is also of importance as a scientific journalist is Isaac
ASIMOV. ACC became well known all over the world when he appeared as
commentator on CBS TV for the Apollo 11, 12 and 15 Moon missions.A good
retrospective collection of stories, all but one reprinted from
collections listed above, is The Nine Billion Names of God (coll 1967 US).
Since 1962 only a small amount of fiction by ACC has appeared in sf
magazines, though two of his most interesting stories date from this
period: "Sunjammer" (1965; vt "The Wind from the Sun"), which is about the
SOLAR WIND, and A Meeting with Medusa (1971 Playboy; 1988 chap dos US),
winner of a NEBULA in 1972 for Best Novella, the story of a CYBORG
explorer meeting ALIEN life in the atmosphere of JUPITER. Both stories are
reprinted in The Wind from the Sun (coll 1972 US; with 3 vignettes added
rev 1987 US), his sixth and most recent collection (not counting reprint
volumes). The most comprehensive, though by no means complete, selection
of ACC's short fiction is the misleadingly titled More than One Universe:
The Collected Stories of Arthur C. Clarke (omni 1991 US), collecting Tales
of Ten Worlds, The Other Side of the Sky, The Nine Billion Names of God
and The Wind from the Sun, with several stories dropped.After the success
of 2001: A Space Odyssey, ACC became perhaps the best-known sf writer in
the world, and in the USA by far and away the most popular foreign sf
writer. A few years later he signed a contract, for a sum of money larger
than anything previously paid in sf publishing, to write three further
novels. These turned out to be Rendezvous with Rama (1973 UK), Imperial
Earth: A Fantasy of Love and Discord (cut 1975; with 10,000 words restored
1976 US) and The Fountains of Paradise (1979 UK; with exp afterword 1989).
All were bestsellers; all had a mixed critical reception, though
Rendezvous with Rama scooped the awards: the Hugo, Nebula, JOHN W.
the book deserved it, and to what extent the awards merely celebrated the
return of a much loved figure to the field after many years' comparative
silence is unclear. All the old ACC themes are there in the story of a
huge, apparently derelict alien spaceship which enters the Solar System,
and its exploration by a party of humans. As an artefact, the spaceship is
a symbol of almost mythic significance, enigmatic, powerful and
fascinating ( BIG DUMB OBJECTS; DISCOVERY AND INVENTION), and the book
derives considerable power from its description. The human
characterization, on the other hand, is rather reminiscent of boys'
fiction from an earlier era. Imperial Earth tells of relations between
Earth and the OUTER PLANETS, and contains a rather meandering intrigue
involving CLONES; there are some interesting speculations about BLACK
HOLES. Fountains of Paradise, a much better book than Imperial Earth - it
won the 1980 Hugo for Best Novel - tells of the construction on Earth of a
space elevator 36,000km high, and combines ACC's favourite themes of
technological evolution and mankind's apotheosis with moving directness;
it is the most considerable work of the latter part of ACC's career.The
1980s and 1990s provided an astonishing coda to all of this. They have -
in terms of the number of books appearing with ACC's name on the
cover-been unexpectedly productive, unexpectedly because ACC was well into
his 60s, and had previously announced that Fountains of Paradise would be
his last work of fiction. However, soon there appeared 2010: Odyssey Two
(1982 US), a sequel to 2001: A Space Odyssey. This was made into a film
directed by Peter Hyams, 2010 (1984). Neither book nor film is as
distinguished as the original, but the book is better than the film. It
was followed by 2061: Odyssey Three (1988 UK), which being open-ended
suggests that the Odyssey saga of alien intervention may not yet be
complete. A little earlier ACC had published The Songs of Distant Earth
(1986 US), which greatly expands on the story of the same title published
in If in 1958. Quietly and without much action it recounts the meeting of
an isolated human colony on a remote planet with one of the last
spaceships to leave a doomed Earth, and the cultural clashes that
follow.In the mid-1980s ACC had developed a debilitating and continuing
illness affecting the nervous system, but despite this he maintained
considerable literary activity. His illness meant that much of his work
was necessarily collaborative. While some of this was found disappointing
by the critics, and even reviled, there is considerable gallantry in his
having made the effort at all, more especially as the profit, it has been
said, is intended to shore up various charitable enterprises ACC has
founded, in order to render them financially secure after his death. The
collaborative enterprises have included Cradle (1988 UK) with Gentry LEE
and, also with Lee, three sequels to RENDEZVOUS WITH RAMA: Rama II (1989
UK), The Garden of Rama (1991 US) and Rama Revealed (1993). Most of the
writing seems to have been Lee's, whose style is less compact and more
stereotyped than ACC's. All these books have moments of embarrassing prose
reminiscent of popular romance, though they are progressively more
confidently written. A more interesting partnership was that between
Gregory Benford and Clarke, the former (as noted above) writing a sequel
to the latter's 1948 novella Against the Fall of Night. ACC has also
franchised out ( SHARED WORLDS) the Venus Prime series to Paul PREUSS
(whom see for titles), each novel having some basis in an ACC short story.
The series begins with Arthur C. Clarke's Venus Prime, Volume 1: Breaking
Strain (1987), based on ACC's "Breaking Strain" (TWS 1949). The
fact-and-fiction anthology Project Solar Sail (anth 1990 US) has a cover
which says it is ed ACC, but a reading of the title page suggests the true
ed, here "Managing Editor", was David BRIN.During the period since 1988
there have been, moreover, two books by ACC alone. The first is Astounding
Days: A Science Fictional Autobiography (1989), consisting of enjoyable
reminiscences of his own literary life, with a good amount of material on
other writers, both these topics being often seen in relation to the
magazine ASTOUNDING SCIENCE-FICTION. The second, somewhat surprisingly
after all the collaborations, was another solo novel, The Ghost from the
Grand Banks (1990 UK), an interesting tale of an attempt to raise the
Titanic in the early 21st century; it is indubitably Clarkean, though
itself a little ghostlike, much of the story pared to the bone, though
typically containing a technical (and neatly symbolic) diversion into the
mathematics of the Mandelbrot set. The Hammer of God (1992 Time Magazine;
exp 1993), which hangs a number of speculations on a thin narrative
involving an asteroid bent on colliding with Earth, is also telegraphic in
effect.ACC is patron of the SCIENCE FICTION FOUNDATION, and at the
ceremony proclaiming the housing of its research collection with the
University of Liverpool, he received an honorary doctorate from the
University, by videolink. He has received many awards, including the
Association of Space Explorers' Special Achievement Award. He has
presented a number of tv programmes, including the series Arthur C.
Clarke's Mysterious World at the beginning of the 1980s. He received a
Nebula Grand Master Award in 1986.For many readers ACC is the very
personification of sf. Never a "literary" author, he nonetheless writes
always with lucidity and candour, often with grace, sometimes with a cold,
sharp evocativeness that has produced some of the most memorable images in
sf. He is deservedly seen as a central figure in the development of
post-WWII sf, especially in his liberal, optimistic view of the possible
benefits of technology (though one that is by no means unaware of its
dangers), and in his development of the Stapledonian theme of cosmic
perspective, in which mankind is seen as reaching out like a child to an
alien Universe which may treat us as a godlike father would, or may
respond with cool indifference. [PN]Other works: Across the Sea of Stars
(omni 1959 US of 18 short stories from previous colls and the novels
CHILDHOOD'S END and Earthlight); From the Ocean, From the Stars (omni 1961
US of The Deep Range, The Other Side of the Sky and The City and the
Stars); Prelude to Mars (omni 1965 US of 16 stories from previous
collections plus Prelude to Space and The Sands of Mars); An Arthur C.
Clarke Omnibus (omni 1965 UK of Childhood's End, Prelude to Space and
Expedition to Earth); An Arthur C. Clarke Second Omnibus (omni 1968 UK of
A Fall of Moondust, Earthlight and The Sands of Mars); Of Time and Stars
(coll 1972 UK), a collection for children, all reprinted from previous
collections; Four Great SF Novels (omni 1978 UK); The Sentinel (coll 1983
US), reprints; Tales From Planet Earth (coll 1989 UK) ed anon by Martin H.
GREENBERG, the only previously uncollected story being "On Golden Seas"
(1987 Omni).Nonfiction: Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World (1980) and
Arthur C. Clarke's World of Strange Powers (1985), both with Simon Welfare
and John Fairley, both tv-series spin-offs largely written by Welfare and
Fairley; The Odyssey File (1985 UK) with Peter Hyams, communications
exchanged between author and director about the making of the film 2010;
Arthur C. Clarke's July 20, 2019: A Day in the Life of the 21st Century
(1986 US), illustrated; Arthur C. Clarke's Chronicles of the Strange and
Mysterious (1987), again with Welfare and Fairley; The Fantastic Muse
(coll 1992 chap), fanzine material from the 1930s; How the World Was One:
Beyond the Global Village (coll 1992; vt How the World Was One: The
Turbulent History of Global Communications 1993), partially based on
Voices Across the Sea (1958 US); By Space Possessed: Essays on the
Exploration of Space (coll 1993), mostly assembled from previous books;
The Snows of Olympus: A Garden on Mars (1994), which advocates the
terraforming of Mars.As Editor: Time Probe (anth 1966 US); The Coming of
the Space Age (anth of nonfiction pieces 1967); Science Fiction Hall of
Fame, Vol 4 (anth 1981 as ed by ACC; vt Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Vol
III: Nebula Winners 1965-69 US 1981 as ed by ACC with Geo W. PROCTOR -
Proctor did the actual editing).About the author: Arthur C. Clarke (anth
1977) ed Joseph D. OLANDER and Martin Harry GREENBERG; Arthur C. Clarke:
Starmont Readers' Guide No 1 (chap 1979) by Eric S. RABKIN; Arthur C.
Clarke: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1984) by David N. SAMUELSON;
The Odyssey of Arthur C. Clarke: An Authorized Biography (1992) by Neil

For pulp SF writers of the early 20th century, global communication was
just a dream. Then in 1945, Arthur C. Clarke, a 28-year-old radar
instructor with the RAF, published a paper suggesting that satellites
orbiting the Earth could be used to relay radio signals around the
globe.He noted that a satellite orbiting 22,250 miles above the equator
would take exactly 24 hours to go around the Earth and would therefore
appear to hang motionless in the sky. A satellite in such an orbit could
create a communication link between continents and across oceans. Clarke's
paper proposed using manned satellites and radios powered by vacuum tubes,
although actual communications satellites today are unmanned and use
transistors - which were unknown when Clarke wrote his paper.Clarke's
imaginative powers were later directed to science fiction, and he went on
to become one of the best-known and best-loved writers in SF history.
Today he lives on the island of Sri Lanka, connected to the global village
through a communications satellite located in what is now called "Clarke

[r] Kenneth BULMER.


(1918- ) Intelligence officer and code-cracker during WWII, and retired
Professor of English (from 1964) at the University of Strathclyde in
Glasgow. His first major publication was the BIBLIOGRAPHY The Tale of the
Future: From the Beginning to the Present Day: A Checklist of those
Satires, Ideal States, Imaginary Wars and Invasions, Political Warnings
and Forecasts, Interplanetary Voyages and Scientific Romances - All
Located in an Imaginary Future Period - that have been Published in the UK
between 1644 and 1960 (1961; rev 1972; rev 1978); the third edition
carries the story to 1976. This work is very useful but not always
reliable, being occasionally weak on variant titles and plot summaries,
and is far from comprehensive. These weaknesses lie primarily in the
period from 1940 on, and IFC-whose work in the earlier period was
pioneering-has since publicly regretted the fact that he did not stop at
the year 1939.IFC's next important contribution to sf studies was Voices
Prophesying War 1763-1984 (1966; rev vt Voices Prophesying War: Future
Wars 1763-3749 1992), by a long way the most comprehensive account of the
future- WAR story. This was followed by The Pattern of Expectation:
1644-2001 (1979), which ranges widely through the literature of the future
from its earliest days to the most recent forecasts of FUTUROLOGY, and
takes in much work which tends to be ignored by historians of genre sf.
This book broke new ground in the history and sociology of ideas, focusing
on the interrelation between differing expectations and PREDICTIONS of the
future in different historical periods and the characteristic future
images they yielded, in pictures as well as in words. In most respects it
supersedes W.H.G. ARMYTAGE's Yesterday's Tomorrows (1967). [PN]See also:

Charles PLATT.


Working name of Helen Worrell Clarkson McCloy (1904-1993), most of whose
works are detective novels written as Helen McCloy. Her sole sf work, The
Last Day: A Novel of the Day After Tomorrow (1959), tellingly describes a
nuclear HOLOCAUST from the viewpoint of an isolated woman, whose island
retreat proves in the end no refuge against the consequences of final war.

Film (1990). Lightning/Original/Vestron. Prod and dir Mark L. Lester,
starring Bradley Gregg, Traci Lin, John P. Ryan, Pam Grier, Patrick
Kilpatrick, Stacy Keach, Malcolm McDowell. Screenplay C. Courtney Joyner,
based on a story by Lester. 98 mins. Colour. In the USA of 1999 most
CITIES have no-go "Free Fire" zones ruled by teenage gangs, and many
schools are closed. As an experiment, the Department of Educational
Defense uses ex-military ANDROIDS for teachers, re-opening a school in
Seattle. The androids - even the attractive Black "chemistry teacher from
Hell" (Grier) - revert to military conditioning and run amok with
disciplinary measures against the drug-taking, gang-warring students,
killing many. This violent, amusingly over-the-top exploitation movie
features every killer- ROBOT cliche found in movies from WESTWORLD (1973)
to The TERMINATOR (1984), but for a low-budget film Eric Allard's
mechanical effects are good, and the direction is capable. The sequel is
Class of 1999 II: The Substitute(1993), dir Spiro Razatos, screenplay Mark
Sevi, starring Sasha Mitchell, Nick Cassavetes, Caitlin Dulany, Jack
Knight and Rick Hill, 87 mins. This is a more modest film, quite well
made, with an interesting plot twist that calls into question the science
fictionality of the whole thing. The story tells, or appears to, of yet
another battle 'droid masquerading as a substitute teacher and wreaking
havoc among particularly unpleasant and violent high-school students. [PN]

CLASS OF 1999.

(1879-1957) US author of some 20 sf stories, all for the magazine
American Boy. Four were revised and expanded into a series of juvenile
novels with the general heading Adventures in the Unknown: The Mystery Men
of Mars (1933), A Thousand Years a Minute (1933), The Land of No Shadow
(1933) and The Blue Grotto Terror (1934). This was probably the most
vigorous and imaginative juvenile sf book series up to that time. Two of
these stories in their original magazine form, together with "Tongue of
the Beast" (1939), appeared in The Year after Tomorrow (anth 1954) ed
Lester DEL REY, Carl Carmer (1893-1976) and Cecile Matschat. [JE]See also:

(1939- ) US writer, most of whose work consists of a long series of
science-fantasy SPACE OPERAS of extended quests in highly coloured venues.
The sequence divides into the Diadem books - Diadem from the Stars (1977),
which romantically sets out the epic adventures of a young girl
electronically attached to the power-bestowing diadem of the title, as she
searches for the planet which is the home of her mother's
super-race,Lamarchos (1978), Irsud (1978), Maeve (1979), Star Hunters
(1980), The Nowhere Hunt (1981), Ghosthunt (1983), The Snares of Ibex
(1984) and Quester's Endgame (1986) - and the volumes dedicated to
Shadith's Quest: Shadowplay (1990), Shadowspeer (1990 and Shadowkill
(1991). The speculative element in these titles does not significantly
figure; but the differing venues, reminiscent of the worlds of Leigh
BRACKETT, are depicted with some richness. Shadow of the Warmaster (1988)
is an sf novel with thriller elements. [JC]Other works: The Duel of
Sorcery books, comprising Moongather (1982), Moonscatter (1983) and
Changer's Moon (1985), followed by the connected Dancer's sequence,
comprising Dancer's Rise (1993), Serpent Waltz (1994) and Dance Down the
Stars (1994); A Bait of Dreams: a Five-Summer Quest (fixup 1985); the
Skeen sequence, comprising Skeen's Leap (1986), Skeen's Return (1987) and
Skeen's Search (1987); Drinker of Souls (1986), Blue Magic (1988) and A
Gathering of Stones (1989), these three assembled as The Soul Drinker
(omni 1989), followed by the Wild Magic trilogy, comprising Wild Magic
(1991), Wildfire (1992) and The Magic Wars (1993).


[r] The AVENGERS .

[r] Mark TWAIN.

Working name used for his sf by US writer Harry Clement Stubbs (1922- );
he uses his surname for science articles and paints as George Richard. He
holds degrees in astronomy, chemistry and education, and was long employed
as a highschool science teacher. From the beginning of his career HC was
associated with ASF, where his first story, "Proof", appeared in 1942, at
the peak of the GOLDEN AGE OF SF. His work has from the first been
characterized by the complexity and compelling interest of the scientific
(or at any rate scientifically literate) ideas which dominate each story.
He is not noted as a stylist, nor is his interest in character depiction
very strong. Many of his books can for pages read like a dramatized
exposition of ideas, absorbing though at times disconcerting for the novel
reader. This is certainly the case with Needle (1949 ASF; exp 1950; vt
From Outer Space 1957), his first novel, a rather ponderous alien-
INVASION story with detection elements and a juvenile protagonist in a
tale where the invader is a police-parasite chasing another (malign)
parasite that has possessed the boy's father; the boy, with the good alien
in tow, helps to drive the bad alien from his Dad. It is a highly loaded
theme, but is told without any of the necessary resonance, nor does its
sequel, Through the Eye of a Needle (1978), written as a juvenile, manage
to cope any better with the human implications of its material.HC's most
famous - and far better - work is contained in his main series, a loose
sequence consisting of MISSION OF GRAVITY (ASF 1953; cut 1954; text
restored with additions and 1 added story, as coll 1978), Close to
Critical (1958 ASF; 1964) and Star Light (1971). The third volume is a
direct sequel to the first, while some of the characters in the second
appear in the third as well, Elise ("Easy") Rich in Close to Critical
being the "Easy" Hoffman of Star Light, 25 years older. MISSION OF
GRAVITY, one of the best loved novels in sf, is set on the intriguingly
plausible high-gravity planet of Mesklin, inhabited by HC's most
interesting ALIENS. The plot concerns the efforts of the Mesklinite
Captain Barlennan and his crew to assist a human team in extracting a
vital component from a crashed space probe; the humans cannot perform the
feat, because Mesklin's GRAVITY varies from an equatorial 3g to a polar
700g. Barlennan's arduous trek is inherently fascinating, but perhaps even
more engaging is HC's presentation of the captain as a kind of Competent
Man in extremis, a born engineer, a lover of knowledge. These
characteristics permeate the texts of everything that HC writes, even
those stories whose protagonists are no more than pretexts for the
unfolding of the genuine text - which is the physical Universe itself.HC's
most successful novels apply the basic plot of MISSION OF GRAVITY to
fundamentally similar basic storylines - a character, usually human, must
cope with an alien environment, with or without the help of natives, as in
Iceworld (1953), Cycle of Fire (1957) and the stories assembled in Natives
of Space (coll 1965) and Small Changes (coll 1969; vt Space Lash 1969).
HC's only collaboration, "Planet for Plunder" (1957) with Sam MERWIN Jr,
demonstrates his fascination with alien environments and viewpoints, as he
initially wrote the story entirely from a nonhuman standpoint; Merwin,
acting for Satellite Magazine, where it appeared, wrote an additional
10,000 words from a human standpoint.HC brought a new seriousness to the
extrapolative HARD-SF physical-sciences story, and his vividness of
imagination - his sense that the Universe is wonderful - has generally
overcome the awkwardness of his narrative technique. He is a figure of
importance to the genre. [JC]Other works: Ranger Boys in Space (1956), a
juvenile; Some Notes on XI Bootis (1960 chap), a lecture; First Flights to
the Moon (anth 1970), nonfiction; Ocean on Top (1967 If; 1973); The Best
of Hal Clement (coll 1979); The Nitrogen Fix (1980); Intuit (coll of
linked stories 1987), four Laird Cunningham tales; Still River (1987);
Isaac's Universe: Fossil* (1993), tied to the works of Isaac ASIMOV.About
the author: Hal Clement (1982) by Donald M. HASSLER; Hal Clement,
Scientist with a Mission: A Working Bibliography (1989 chap) by Gordon


Pseudonym used mainly by Andrew J. OFFUTT for several erotic sf novels
and for the first 6 vols of the 19-vol Spaceways sequence; most of the
rest were jointly authored. Offutt's collaborators included G.C.
EDMONDSON, Roland GREEN, Jack C. HALDEMAN, Robin Kincaid, Victor KOMAN,
Geo W. PROCTOR and Dwight V. SWAIN.

Sf cliches have developed, perhaps, partly out of a need for
identification of stories as genuine sf - readers know where they are with
a time-space warp - but mainly out of the lazy and parsimonious recycling
of ideas at every level. The most obvious are cliche gadgets ( BLASTER,
aquarium, FORCE FIELD, food pill, ANTIGRAVITY shield, translating machine,
judiciary COMPUTER), but major sf cliche themes are also old friends
(daring conquest of the Galaxy; scientist goes too far; witch-hunt for
telepaths; post- HOLOCAUST barbarism; triumph of Yankee knowhow). A list
of sf cliche characters might begin with mad SCIENTISTS (Frankenstein to
Dr Strangelove), though scientists may also be either young, muscular and
idealistic or else elderly, absentminded and eccentric. Cliche WOMEN AS
PORTRAYED IN SF normally have no character above the neck ( SEX). Some are
sexy and helpless (often lab assistants or daughters of elderly
scientists, rescued from danger by young scientists), break into
hysterical laughter and need a slap, faint during critical fight scenes,
and twist their fragile ankles during the flight through the jungle.
Others are sexy and threatening (Amazon Queens from She to Wonder Woman)
or sexy but ignorant tomboys (as in FORBIDDEN PLANET). Since the advent of
FEMINISM, however, women are less commonly weak ("She flexed her mighty
thews"). Cliche CHILDREN IN SF are hardly more variable: some are MUTANT
geniuses, possess magical or PSI POWERS, or prove mankind's only link with
alien invaders by virtue of their innocence. With "The Small Assassin"
(1946), Ray BRADBURY began a new line of sf cliche kids who, after
menacing mankind in many of his stories, turned up to menace again in John
WYNDHAM's The Midwich Cuckoos (1957; vt Village of the Damned) and in the
film IT'S ALIVE! Sf cliche MACHINE characters must be comic (in many Isaac
ASIMOV stories), horrifying (from the GOLEM to the DALEKS) or sometimes
both (from Nathaniel HAWTHORNE's dancing partner in "The Artist of the
Beautiful" [1844] to HAL in 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY [1968]); they are seldom
allowed as much thought or emotion as even BEMS or other minatory
extraterrestrials. Among MONSTERS, giantism, dwarfism, scales, hair,
slime, claws and tentacles prevail. H.G. WELLS first used octopuses in
"The Sea Raiders" (1897); other writers kept the loathsome tentacles
waving for half a century, up to and beyond IT CAME FROM BENEATH THE SEA
[1955].Sf cliche plots and plot devices are so numerous that any list must
be incomplete. We have the feeble old nightwatchman left to guard the
smouldering meteorite crater overnight ("I'll be all right, yessirree");
the doomed society of lotus-eaters; civilization's future depending upon
the outcome of a chess game, the answer to a riddle, or the discovery of a
simple formula ("a one-in-a-million chance, but so crazy it just might
work!"); shapeshifting aliens ("one of us aboard this ship is not human");
invincible aliens ("the billion-megaton blast had no more effect than the
bite of a Sirian flea"); alien invaders finally stopped by ordinary water
(as in films of both The DAY OF THE TRIFFIDS [1963] and The Wizard of Oz
[1939]); the ANDROID spouse who cuts a finger and bleeds machine-oil; the
spouse possessed or hypnotized by aliens ("darling, you've been acting so
strangely since your trip to Ganymede"); the disguised alien sniffed out
by "his" pet dog, who never acted this way before; destruction of giant
computer brain by a simple paradox ("when is a door not a door?"); robot
rebellion ("yes, 'Master'"); a Doppelganger in the corridors of time ("it
was - himself!"); Montagues and Capulets living in PARALLEL WORLDS; evil
Master of the World stopping to smirk before killing hero; everyone
controlled by alien mind-rays except one man; Oedipus kills
great-great-grandad; world is saved by instant technology ("it may have
looked like just a hunk of breadboard, a few widgets and wires - but
wow!"); a youth elixir - but at what terrible price?; thick-headed
scientist tampers unwittingly with elemental forces better left in the
hands of the Deity; IMMORTALITY tempts Nature to a terrible revenge;
monster destroys its creator; dying alien race must breed with earthling
models and actresses; superior aliens step in to save mankind from
self-destruction (through H-bombs, POLLUTION, fluoridation, decadence); Dr
X's laboratory ( ISLAND, planet) goes up in flames ...Pulp can always be
recycled.But, then again, it is always possible to add new pulp to old, as
happened in the 1980s, when new cliches appeared while most of the old
ones continued. They were mostly found in films, but some were in books,
too: kids playing with computers start or wage actual wars without knowing
it; Japanese advertising appears everywhere from posters to retinas;
GENETIC ENGINEERING produces warring subcultures; expanding BLACK HOLES at
the galactic centre are the legacy of wars between superbeings; kids
TIME-TRAVEL into the past and invent rock'n'roll; alien cops buddy up with
Earth cops to nab alien criminals; unemotional teachers and scientists
turn out to be killer android/robots; vast alien artefacts prove to have
extensions infinite in time and/or space or to lead somewhere else ( BIG
DUMB OBJECTS); future people obsessed with 1950s rock'n'roll (Stephen
KING, Allen STEELE); God is an AI; an alien virus turns us all into
cannibalistic zombies; transplant technology leads to sex orgies (severed
heads have cunnilingus, penis grafts increase libido). An old cliche that
returns more regularly than Halley's Comet, but especially at around the
same time, has gigantic objects in space impacting with Earth. Two
promising new cliches that could not have been predicted are spacefaring
trees (Stephen BAXTER, Larry NIVEN, Dan SIMMONS) and romantic poets such
as Keats, Byron and Shelley meeting either separately or together with
monsters, AIs and so on (Brian W. ALDISS, William GIBSON, Tim POWERS, Dan
Simmons and others). [JS/PN]

(1906-1963) US writer and businessman, for many years occupied in
personnel work, putting together many thousands of case histories from
which he extrapolated conclusions after the fashion of Kinsey and Sheldon;
these conclusions MC reportedly used to shape the arguments of his sf,
most of which was published in ASF, beginning with "What Have I Done?"
(1952).Much of his fiction is comprised of two series. The Bossy sequence
- "Crazy Joey" (1953) with Alex Apostolides (1924- ), "Hide! Hide! Witch!"
(1953) with Apostolides, and They'd Rather be Right (1954 ASF; edited
version 1957; vt The Forever Machine 1958; text restored under original
title 1982) with Frank RILEY - concerns an advanced COMPUTER named Bossy
who is almost made ineffective by the fears of mankind about her, even
though she is capable of conferring IMMORTALITY. They'd Rather be Right
won the 1955 HUGO award for Best Novel. MC's second series, the Ralph
Kennedy sequence - "What Thin Partitions" (1953) with Alex Apostolides,
"Sense from Thought Divide" (1955), "How Allied" (1957), "Remembrance and
Reflection" (1958) and When They Come from Space (1962) - is rather
lighter in tone, focusing initially on Kennedy's dealings with psi
phenomena ( PSI POWERS) in his role as the investigative personnel
director for a cybernetics firm, and moving on in the novel which
concludes the series to deal with a typical ASF target, inflated Federal
bureaucracy. The long-suffering Kennedy is appointed "extraterrestrial
psychologist" and is forced to cope with a team of aliens which is
mounting hoax INVASIONS.MC's only out-of-series novel is Eight Keys to
Eden (1960), in which an E-man, or Extrapolator, is sent to the colony
planet of Eden to extricate it from an apparently insuperable problem: the
problem turns out to be normal human civilization, not the paradise.
Despite a slightly awkward prose style and an occasionally heavy wit, MC's
novels and stories - a convenient selection is The Science Fiction of Mark
Clifton (coll 1980) under the editorship and advocacy of Barry N. MALZBERG
- convey a comfortable lucidity and optimism about the relation between
technology and progress; his attempts to apply the tone of HARD SF to
subjects derived from the SOFT SCIENCES reflect ASF's philosophical bent
in the 1950s under John W. CAMPBELL Jr's editorial guidance. [JC]See also:

(1935- ) US writer of, among others, three borderline-sf novels - Damon
(1975), about MUTANT superchildren, Death Knell (1977), which deals
interestingly with REINCARNATION, and Cross Current (1979), and one sf
tale, Mindreader (1981), whose protagonist, while in hiding, unremarkably
uses ESP to save the rest of us. [JC]See also: REINCARNATION.

(1918- ) US writer and book-collector who never worked as a full-time
author. Since beginning to publish her shapely stories in 1952 with
"Minister without Portfolio" for FSF she was as strongly associated with
that magazine as was Zenna HENDERSON. A Cupful of Space (coll 1961)
reflects this association in the frequency of stories included which wed a
literate tone to a sometimes sentimental cuteness. [JC]See also: WOMEN SF

[s] Robert SILVERBERG.


John Russell FEARN.

(1890-1979) US writer, apparently the senior collaborator with Eric
Boetzel on The Light in the Sky (1929), an sf tale set in a LOST WORLD
under Mexico, where Aztecs retreated after the genocidal onslaught of the
Spanish and have constructed, over the centuries, a culture dominated by
high science, telepathy, and - apparently - human sacrifice. The immortal
Aztec genius behind the throne is in fact benevolent, and plans to benefit
humankind; but the usual terminal DISASTER puts an end to this. [JC]

Film (1971). Polaris/Warner Bros. Dir Stanley KUBRICK, starring Malcolm
McDowell, Patrick Magee, Warren Clarke, Michael Bates, Aubrey Morris.
Screenplay Kubrick, based on A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1962) by Anthony BURGESS.
137 mins. Colour.This controversial adaptation of Burgess's novel about
mind control tells of Alex (McDowell), a teenage thug in a tawdry NEAR
FUTURE - dehumanizing and luridly presented - who is cured of his violent
ways by a sadistic form of aversion therapy. It was the (arguable)
glamorizing of Alex's anarchic sex and violence (in contrast to the book)
that provoked so much angry reaction in the media, though otherwise
Kubrick's adaptation is moderately faithful. The film is not in fact
amoral, though its moral is controversial: ACO is a religious allegory
with a FRANKENSTEIN theme - it warns humankind not to try to compete with
God - but Burgess reverses the theme, showing it to be as evil to unmake a
monster, by removing his free will, as to make one. ACO is an intensely
visual tour de force, deploying clinically a spectrum of powerful
cinematic effects. As in Kubrick's 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, some sequences
were rendered even more disturbing by the use of MUSIC contrasting wildly
with the visual content, most famously in Alex's rendition of "Singing in
the Rain" while kicking in the ribs of the husband of a woman he is about
to rape.ACO received the 1972 HUGO for Best Dramatic Presentation. [JB/PN]

A clone is a group of individuals comprising the asexually produced
offspring of a single individual. A pair of identical twins is a clone
because the twin cells are produced by the asexual fission of the
fertilized ovum. Asexual reproduction is very common among protozoa and
some groups of invertebrates, but is much rarer in vertebrates. The
possibility of cloning humans by transplanting the nucleus of a somatic
cell from a donor into an ovum which can then be replaced in a host womb
has attracted much attention, although no such operation has yet been
performed in the real world.Clones of various kinds have long been common
in sf, though not always recognized or labelled as such. The replication
of individuals by matter-duplicator ( MATTER TRANSMISSION), as in William
F. TEMPLE's Four-Sided Triangle (1949), Fletcher PRATT's Double Jeopardy
(1952) and Primo LEVI's "Some Applications of the Mimer" (1966; trans
1990), is a kind of cloning, as is replication via TIME PARADOX, as in
Robert A. HEINLEIN's "By His Bootstraps" (1941) and David GERROLD's The
Man who Folded Himself (1973). The mechanism by which Gilbert Gosseyn was
given so many genetically identical bodies in A.E. VAN VOGT's The World of
A (1945; 1948; vt The World of Null-A) is unclear, but a series of clone
members is the result. All-female societies whose members reproduce by
parthenogenesis, as in Poul ANDERSON's Virgin Planet (1959) and Charles
Eric MAINE's World without Men (1958; rev vt Alph 1972), also consist of
clones. Ironically, the first sf story prominently to display the term -
The Clone (1965) by Theodore L. THOMAS and Kate WILHELM - is irrelevant to
the theme, the eponymous monster being an all-consuming cell-mass produced
by pollution-induced mutation.Long before the word "clone" became popular,
sf writers had considered the possibility of duplicating people for
eugenic purposes. Poul Anderson's "UN-Man" (1953) refers to its cloning
process as "exogenesis". Here and in John Russell FEARN's The Multi-Man
(1954 as by Vargo Statten) the idea is used as a gimmick, and the possible
consequences of such technological development are left unexplored. A more
ambitious application of the notion is found in "When You Care, When You
Love" (1962) by Theodore STURGEON, in which a rich woman attempts to
reproduce her dead lover by growing him anew from one of the cancer cells
which have destroyed him. Among the nonfiction books that popularized the
term was Gordon Rattray Taylor's The Biological Time-Bomb (1968), which
commented on the implications of experiments carried out by F.C. Steward
in the early 1960s on the cloning of plants: "It is not mere
sensationalism to ask whether the members of human clones may feel
particularly united, and be able to cooperate better, even if they are not
in actual supersensory communication with one another." This possibility
has been widely explored in such stories as Ursula K. LE GUIN's "Nine
Lives" (1969), Pamela SARGENT's Cloned Lives (1976), Kate Wilhelm's WHERE
LATE THE SWEET BIRDS SANG (1976) and Fay WELDON's The Cloning of Joanna
May (1989), in which intimate human relations are explored in depth and
with some sensitivity. Stories of this kind often exaggerate the probable
psychological effects of growing up as one of a clone (after all,
identical twins have been doing it for centuries!). Even though clones are
genetically identical, each member inhabits from the moment of
implantation an environment subtly different from its fellows; it is a
very naive kind of genetic determinism that leads writers occasionally to
argue that an adult donor and his or her environmentally differentiated
clone-offspring may be reckoned "identical". One of the few sf novels
fully to recognize this is Ira LEVIN's The Boys from Brazil (1976), in
which neo-Nazis raise a batch of clones derived from Hitler but can make
only absurdly inadequate attempts to reproduce the kind of environment
that made Hitler what he was.The concept of clone-identity in the stories
cited above is best considered as a metaphor, enabling the authors to pose
questions about the nature of individuality and the narcissistic aspects
of intimate relationships. Other works which employ the notion in such a
fashion include Gene WOLFE's THE FIFTH HEAD OF CERBERUS (1972), Jeremy
LEVEN's Creator (1980) and C.J. CHERRYH's extraordinarily elaborate CYTEEN
(1988). This kind of theme seems to be particularly attractive to female
writers; others to have written significant clone stories include Naomi
MITCHISON, author of the DYSTOPIAN Solution Three (1975), Nancy FREEDMAN,
whose Joshua, Son of None (1973) is about the cloning of John F. Kennedy,
and Anna Wilson, whose Hatching Stones (1991) suggests that human males
might lose all interest in ordinary sexual reproduction if they were able
to raise clone-duplicates of themselves instead.Male authors have tended
to use cloning in more conventional action-adventure stories, exploiting
its potential for establishing dramatic confrontations. Richard COWPER's
Clone (1972) is a satirical account of events following a child's recovery
of his memory of being one of a batch of superpowered clones. In Norman
SPINRAD's The Iron Dream (1972) the narcissistic aspect of clonal
reproduction is recruited by Hitler in his sf power-fantasy "Lord of the
Swastika"; as the Earth dies, ships blast off for the stars to populate
the Galaxy with duplicates of the pure-bred Aryan members of the SS.
Cloning is used in Arthur C. CLARKE's Imperial Earth (1975) to perpetuate
a dynasty of space pioneers. Ben BOVA's The Multiple Man (1976) is a
thriller in which the clonal duplicates of the US President keep turning
up dead - a murder mystery recalling Maurice RENARD's and Albert Jean's Le
singe (1925; trans as Blind Circle 1928). John VARLEY's "The Phantom of
Kansas" (1976) is another clone-based murder mystery; his THE OPHIUCHI
HOTLINE (1977) deploys the idea more ingeniously. Michael WEAVER's
Mercedes Nights (1987) features a conspiracy devoted to the cloning of a
famous sex-object; the conspirators in Wolfgang JESCHKE's Midas (trans
1990) stick mostly to cloning famous scientists.The idea of another self -
an alter ego or Doppelganger - has always been a profoundly fascinating
one, and recurs insistently in occult FANTASY and PSYCHOLOGY. Recent
speculation about the cloning of humans has made the notion available to
sf writers for detailed and intensive examination, and the stories thus
inspired are of considerable psychological interest. [BS]See also:

UK tv miniseries (1991). Granada/ITV. Prod Gub Neal, dir Philip Saville,
screenplay Ted Whitehead, from The Cloning of Joanna May (1989) by Fay
WELDON. Starring Patricia Hodge as Joanna May, Brian Cox as Carl May,
Billie Whitelaw as Mavis, Siri Neal as Bethany, and Emma Hardy, Helen Adie
and Laura Eddy as the three clones.Weldon's comic-romantic melodrama about
an obsessive business tycoon who effectively clones his wife, then
repudiates her when she is unfaithful - with the aim of taking one of the
three clones as his new wife when they have grown up - is already painted
in broad strokes. The three-hour tv dramatization is even broader, though
not unwitty, with finely over-the-top performances all round. [PN]

This term is in no sense a synonym for POCKET UNIVERSE, a literary term
which describes a particular kind of story; nor is it here used in its
cosmological sense. A closed universe is a work or series whose characters
and venues remain strictly under its author's control, and which is not
open to fans or others to make uncopyrighted use of in FANZINES. In this
sense, a SHARED-WORLD enterprise may still be a closed universe, if its
owners restrict its use to other professionals on a contractual
basis-indeed, most are. It should perhaps be assumed by sf readers that
any work of art is a closed universe unless otherwise signposted. [JC]See

Film (1977). Columbia. Dir Steven SPIELBERG, starring Richard Dreyfuss,
Francois Truffaut, Teri Garr, Melinda Dillon, Cary Guffey, Bob Balaban.
Screenplay Spielberg. 135 mins. Colour.After STAR WARS came the second
major sf film production of 1977, at over twice the cost but with a story
which, while lacking the comic-book appeal of Star Wars, perhaps cuts
deeper in its evocation, rare in sf CINEMA, of a SENSE OF WONDER. A power
company technician (Dreyfuss) witnesses a series of UFO appearances and
develops an obsession with them which is almost religious in its nature
and intensity. He becomes convinced that aliens plan to land one of their
craft on an oddly shaped mountain in Wyoming. A parallel plot concerns a
secret group of scientific and military experts also engaged in uncovering
the secret of the UFOs. The film ends in a barrage of special effects when
the spacecraft arrives; communication between the two species is achieved
by means of bursts of light and music. The hero enters the mother ship,
much as Tam Lin once entered the Fairy Mound, and is taken to the Heavens
in a glowing apotheosis; the elfishness of the slim aliens supports a
reading in which UFO occupants are mythically equivalent to fairies.
CEOTTK has flaws, but remains an intensely evocative work, certainly one
of the half dozen best sf films to date. Despite the pressure from
Columbia to produce a financial blockbuster, Spielberg did not take the
easy way out but made an intelligent and relatively complex film,
maintaining the high standards he had set himself in Duel (1971) and Jaws
(1978). The special effects are excellent. A different version, CLOSE
1980.The novelization, Close Encounters of the Third Kind * (1977), is as
by Spielberg. [JB]See also: HISTORY OF SF; LINGUISTICS; MUSIC.

Film (1980). Credits as for CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND. 132 mins.
This slightly shorter, re-edited version of SPIELBERG's huge 1977 success,
which contains some new footage, represents a curious piece of cinematic
history. Many critics saw it as inferior to the original, though the idea
was that Spielberg now had so much commercial clout that he could, at
last, release the film exactly as he had always wanted it. New material
includes a scene where Neary, the UFO-obsessed power worker, makes his
family hysterical; a surrealistic shot of an ocean liner left stranded by
puckish aliens in the Gobi Desert; and a sequence inside the mother ship
(so-so special effects) with an ill-judged soundtrack of "When You Wish
Upon a Star" from Walt Disney's Pinocchio (1940). The new Neary sequences
darken the film; the new ending, in contrast, lightens it by emphasizing
its fairy-tale aspect. Whatever, the new version, which is the one now
normally shown, made a lot of money. [PN]


(1870-1944) Scottish magistrate and usually humorous author. JSC began
writing works of genre interest with Tales of King Fido (coll 1909), a
Graustarkian fantasy ( RURITANIA). His books of genre interest include
Two's Two (1916), an F. ANSTEY-like fantasy about an embodied alter ego;
Button Brains (1933), about a ROBOT that is taken for the human upon which
it was modelled, with comic consequences; The Chemical Baby (1934),
marginal as the baby turns out to be natural; Not Since Genesis (1938), a
satirical look at the European nations faced by a meteoritic DISASTER; and
The Man in Steel (1939), a TIME-TRAVEL tale. [JE/JC]See also: ANDROIDS;

It is almost certainly no coincidence that volumes of club stories should
have become popular in the UK towards the end of the 19th century. The
classic club story may be described as a tall tale told by one man to
other men in a sanctum restricted to those of similar outlook, who agree
to believe in the story for their mutual comfort; and it was precisely
during the fin de siecle, and the years leading up to WWI, that the great
march of history began to seem problematical to socially dominant white UK
males, whose sense of reality now began to fray under the assault of
women, and Darwin, and dark rumours of Freud, and Marx, and Zola, and
Flaubert . . . and Henry James. Though it is no more a true club story
than Joseph CONRAD's "Heart of Darkness" (1902) or Chance (1914), James's
"The Turn of the Screw" (1898) is indeed a tale told at a club, and it is
indeed a tall tale. But James uses the convention of the story told within
a frame to underline the unreliability of his narrator, and to make
forever problematical the "true" reading of his tale; "The Turn of the
Screw" is a preview of the epistemological insecurities of the dawning new
world. The conventional club story, on the other hand, by foregrounding
the security of the sanctum itself, sidesteps the question of the
believability of the tall tale (and sidesteps most of the 20th century as
well). In the conventional club story, that tale is accepted by the males
to whom it is addressed not for its intrinsic plausibility but as part of
a shared conspiracy to maintain an inward-looking, mutually supportive
consensus.The great counterexample to this model is - perhaps inevitably -
the work of H.G. WELLS, who often imitated popular modes of storytelling
in his early writings, but almost always to subversive effect. THE TIME
MACHINE (1895 USA; exp 1895 UK) does certainly exhibit some club-story
features - a group of men gather together to hear the Time Traveller tell
his tall tale - but in this case the ambience is far from consolatory, and
the Traveller's dark report from the future seems all the darker when it
is evident that his hearers may be forced to believe it. Some of Wells's
early short stories, too, are club tales - notably "The Truth about
Pyecraft" (1903) - though in name only. It should come as no surprise that
the most typical club stories were composed by men of a very different
cast of mind than Wells's, and that most club stories are conservative in
both style and content. Though precursors to the convention can be adduced
almost indefinitely - from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Boccaccio's
Decameron to Charles Dickens's Master Humphrey's Clock (1840-41) - the
first collection to express the ambience of the genuine club story is
perhaps Robert Louis STEVENSON's New Arabian Nights (coll 1882 in 2 vols;
1st vol only vt The Suicide Club, and The Rajah's Diamond 1894) and its
successor, More New Arabian Nights: The Dynamiter (coll 1885) with Fanny
Van de Grift Stevenson. As early a work as Jerome K. Jerome's After Supper
Ghost Stories (coll 1891), although set not in a club but around the table
after Christmas Eve dinner, parodies the club-story format and the tales
told therein. Some of the exploits recounted in Andrew LANG's The
Disentanglers (coll of linked stories 1902) are of sf interest, though
more frequently - as in G.K. CHESTERTON's The Club of Queer Trades (coll
1905) - early examples of the form read more like lubricated SATIRE than
fantasy. Alfred NOYES's Tales of the Mermaid Tavern (coll 1914) is a set
of narrative poems told in Shakespeare's pub; while sequences like P.G.
WODEHOUSE's Mulliner books (from 1927) heavily emphasize the tall-tale
element, and The Salzburg Tales (coll 1934) by Christina Stead (1902-1983)
evoke Boccaccio. Of greater genre interest are SAKI's The Chronicles of
Clovis (coll 1907), John Buchan's The Runagates' Club (coll 1928), the
five Jorkens books by Lord DUNSANY, beginning with The Travel Tales of Mr
Joseph Jorkens (coll 1931) and continuing for two decades, and T.H.
WHITE's Gone to Ground (coll of linked stories 1935), which - as these
tales are told by survivors of a final HOLOCAUST - stretches to its limit
the capacity of the form to comfort.In "Sites for Sore Souls: Some
Science-Fictional Saloons" (1991 Extrapolation), Fred Erisman suggests
that sf club stories - or in his terms saloon stories - respond to a human
need for venues in which an "informal public life" can be led. Although
Erisman assumes that the paucity of such venues in the USA is reflected in
the UK, and therefore significantly undervalues the unspoken but clearly
felt ambience of the pub in Arthur C. CLARKE's cosily RECURSIVE Tales from
the White Hart (coll 1957 US), his comments are clearly helpful in
understanding the persistence of the club story in US sf. Beginning with
L. Sprague DE CAMP's and Fletcher PRATT's Tales from Gavagan's Bar (coll
1953; exp 1978), it has been a feature of magazine sf for nearly half a
century - perhaps partly because imaginary US saloons and the genuine
affinity groups that generate and consume US sf are similar kinds of
informal public space. Further examples of the club story in the USA are
assembled in Isaac ASIMOV's several volumes of Black Widowers tales,
starting with Tales of the Black Widowers (coll 1974), Sterling LANIER's
The Peculiar Exploits of Brigadier Ffellowes (coll 1972) and The Curious
Quests of Brigadier Ffellowes (coll 1986), Larry NIVEN's Draco Tavern
tales, which appear mostly in Convergent Series (coll 1979) and Limits
(coll 1985), and Spider ROBINSON's Callahan books, starting with
Callahan's Crosstime Saloon (coll 1977). There are many others; some
individual stories are assembled in Darrell SCHWEITZER's and George
SCITHERS's Tales from the Spaceport Bar (anth 1987) and Another Round at
the Spaceport Bar (anth 1989). [JC]

(1940- ) Canadian novelist and sf critic; in the UK from 1969. His first
professional publication, a long sf-tinged poem called "Carcajou Lament",
appeared in Triquarterly in 1959. He began publishing sf proper with "A
Man Must Die" for NW (1966), where much of his earlier criticism also
appeared; further criticism and reviews have appeared in FSF, Washington
Post, Omni, Times Literary Supplement, New York Times, NEW YORK REVIEW OF
SCIENCE FICTION, INTERZONE, Los Angeles Times, Observer and elsewhere.
Selections from this work appear in Strokes: Essays and Reviews 1966-1986
(coll 1988 US) and Look at the Evidence: Essays and Reviews (coll 1995).
In 1960 he was Associate Editor of Collage, an ill fated Chicago-based
"slick" magazine which in its 2 issues did manage to publish early work by
Harlan ELLISON and R.A. LAFFERTY. He served as Reviews Editor of
FOUNDATION 1980-90, and was a founder of Interzone in 1982; he remains
Advisory Editor of that magazine and since 1986 has contributed a review
column. JC's criticism, despite some studiously flamboyant obscurities,
remains essentially practical; it has appeared mostly in the form of
reviews, some of considerable length. He was the Associate Editor of the
first edition of this encyclopedia (1979) and is Co-Editor of the current
version, for which he shared a 1994 HUGO with Peter NICHOLLS. In 1994 he
also received a PILGRIM AWARD. SF: The Illustrated Encyclopedia (1995) is
a narrative survey unconnected to this encyclopedia. His novel, The
Disinheriting Party (1973 NW; exp 1977), is not sf. [JC]Other works as
editor: The Aspen Poetry Handbill (portfolio 1965 chap US), associational;
Interzone: The 1st Anthology (anth 1985) with Colin GREENLAND and David
PRINGLE; Interzone: The 2nd Anthology (anth 1987) with Greenland and
Pringle; Interzone: The 3rd Anthology (anth 1988) with Pringle and Simon
Ounsley; Interzone: The 4th Anthology (anth 1989) with Pringle and Simon
Ounsley; Interzone V (anth 1991) with Lee Montgomerie and Pringle.See

(1897-1973) US writer, primarily associated throughout his career with
the New Yorker, on which he worked, and to which he contributed many
stories. He is primarily of interest to the sf field for his first novel,
The Eater of Darkness (1926 France), which, written before he had fully
assimilated the sometimes restrictive urbanity of New Yorker style, quite
brilliantly applies a wide arsenal of literary devices, some of them
surrealistic, to the exaggeratedly spoof-like tale of a master criminal
and his absurd super- WEAPON, which sees through solids and applies
remote-control heat to kill people invisibly; beneath the spoofing and the
cosmopolitan style lies a sense of horror. The Hour after Westerly and
Other Stories (coll 1957) contains some fantasy of interest, though in
general his later work lacks some of the fire of his first book. [JC]Other
works: The Farther Shore (1955).See also: MATHEMATICS.

(? -? ) US businessman and writer who specialized in dime novels (
DIME-NOVEL SF), working mainly c1866-c1902. Tales of sf interest include A
Wonder Worker, or The Search for the Splendid City (1894 Golden Hours;
1907), which combines travel and invention after a fashion typical of the
genre, and two EDISONADES, At War With Mars, or The Boys who Won (1897),
and To Mars With Tesla, or The Mystery of Hidden Worlds (1901), the latter
featuring, in place of Thomas Alva Edison, his great rival Nikola Tesla
(1856-1943). Amusingly, the lad who carries most of the action goes by the
name of Young Edison. [EFB/JC]

(1849-1903) UK writer, of some interest for Master of his Fate (1890),
whose protagonist, tortured by the need to drain the life energy of others
to maintain his own IMMORTALITY, confesses all to an expert in the field
of animal magnetism; and then kills himself. The Tyrants of Kool-Sim
(1896) is a LOST-WORLD tale featuring dwarfs with poisonous blood and
brave British lads who prevail. [JC]

(1896-1982) US novelist and polemically traditionalist poet. He began his
career in the early 1920s, after gaining an MA in English literature, with
book reviews for New York papers and a volume of poems, The Thinker and
Other Poems (coll 1923); he also wrote considerable nonfiction. He began
publishing sf with The Sunken World (1928 AMZ Quarterly; 1948), a UTOPIA
set in a glass-domed ATLANTIS, in which satirical points are made against
both the egalitarian Atlanteans and the contemporary USA, though the
obtuse narrator (of the sort found in most utopias) tends to blur some of
these issues. SAC was never a smooth stylist, nor an imaginative plotter,
as all his five novels for AMZ Quarterly tend to show, though at the same
time he had a strong gift for the description of ingeniously conceived
ALIEN environments, so that he was often regarded as one of the writers
best capable of conveying the SENSE OF WONDER so rightly valued by the
readers of US PULP-MAGAZINE sf between the two world wars. The Sunken
World was followed by After 12,000 Years (1929 AMZ Quarterly; 1950),
"Reclaimers of the Ice" (1930 AMZ Quarterly), The Blue Barbarians (1931
AMZ Quarterly; 1958) and "The Man from Tomorrow" (1933 AMZ Quarterly).
Other novels from the same general period, like The Wonder Stick (1929), a
prehistoric tale, and Hidden World (1935 Wonder Stories as "In Caverns
Below"; 1957; vt "In Caverns Below" 1975), share similar virtues and
faults. Hidden World, for instance, is another SATIRE, set in an
underground venue, with fascinating descriptions but cardboard characters.
Later novels, like Under the Triple Suns (1955), failed to show much
stylistic development, and were not successful. [JC]Other works: The
Pageant of Man (1936); Youth Madness (c1944 chap); When the Birds Fly
South (1945); Into Plutonian Depths (1931 Wonder Stories Quarterly; 1950);
The Planet of Youth (1932 Wonder Stories; 1952 chap); Next Door to the Sun
(1960); The Runaway World (1961); The Moon People (1964) and its sequel,
The Crimson Capsule (1967; rev vt The Animal People 1970); The Last of the
Great Race (1964) and The Lost Comet (1930 AMZ as "Reclaimers of the Ice";
cut 1964), both apparently severely edited; The Lizard Lords (1964); Lord
of Tranerica (1939 Dynamic Science Stories; 1966); The Day the World
Stopped (1968); The Island People (1971).About the author:Adventures of a
Freelancer: the Literary Exploits and Autobiography of Stanton A. Coblentz
(1993) by SAC with Dr. Jeffrey M. ELLIOT.See also: ASTEROIDS; FANTASTIC

[r] Warren B. MURPHY.

(1926- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "How High on the Ladder"
for Fantasy Book in 1950, writing as Leo Paige. As S. Kye Boult from 1971,
and also under his own name from 1973, he began to publish in Analog the
hard-edged sf adventures, like "Whalekiller Grey" (1973) as WEC, for which
he became known. After Solo Kill (1972 Analog; exp 1977) as by Boult, he
used his own name exclusively. Class Six Climb (1980), told from the
viewpoint of a giant god-tree, is perhaps his most sustained effort. He
was inactive during the 1980s, but new work is (1992) projected. [JC]

Film (1985). Fox-Zanuck-Brown. Dir Ron Howard, starring Don Ameche,
Wilford Brimley, Hume Cronyn, Jack Gilford, Steve Guttenberg, Maureen
Stapleton, Jessica Tandy, Gwen Verdon, Tahnee Welch. Screenplay Tom
Benedek from a story by David Saperstein. 117 mins. Colour. ALIENS
disguised as humans come to Earth to revive their kinfolk who were
abandoned millennia ago in cocoons on the ocean floor; the swimming pool
prepared for their revival is discovered and used by occupants of a
neighbouring old people's home, who are (to a degree) rejuvenated by it.
Some leave Earth for a new life with the aliens. C was aptly described by
critic Tom Milne as "Peter Pan for the senior citizen". Directed with
intermittent panache, it oscillates between the whimsical, the genuinely
touching and the merely vulgar. A saccharine sequel with a soap-opera
plot, Cocoon: The Return (1988), dir Daniel Petrie, is dispiriting. [PN]





(1918-1987) US writer and academic, an ambulance driver on the Republican
side in the Spanish Civil War. He began publishing sf in 1952 with what
proved to be one of his most successful stories, "The Specter General" for
ASF. In this long, amusing tale - much in the vein Keith LAUMER was later
to make his own - a long-forgotten maintenance division of the Galactic
Protectorate reinvigorates a decadent Space Navy. In 1959, he founded and
edited a FANZINE for professional writers called Publications of the
Institute of Twenty-First Century Studies but universally pronounced
PITFCS; it ran through 1962, with a final number in 1979; became quickly
famed for the informative frankness of its contents; and was assembled as
PITFCS: Proceedings of the Institute for Twenty-First Century Studies
(anth 1992). TRC's two volumes of stories, The Wall around the World (coll
1962) and The Third Eye (coll 1968), contain most of his fiction; his work
is polished, enjoyable and, though it sticks closely to fantasy and sf
genre formats, gives off a sense that it was written for pleasure. "The
Wall around the World" (1953) was one of TRC's most popular stories; the
tale of a boy who lives in a place where MAGIC seems to work, and
discovers the true, POCKET-UNIVERSE nature of his world, is an archetypal
rendering of the experience of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH. [JC/PN]Other
works:Spock, Messiah! * (1976) with Charles A. Spano, a STAR TREK
novel.See also: SHARED WORLDS.

(? - ) US writer whose first novel of genre interest was The Night of the
Toy Dragons (1977). His The Taking of Satcon Station (1982) with Jim BAEN
is an engagingly over-the-top application of private-eye idioms and plots
(Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcon [1930] being much in evidence) to
the NEAR FUTURE and near space, the eponymous satellite being the focus
for the climax. Blood on the Moon (1984) is similar but grimmer. [JC]

(1938- ) US film-maker. A cult figure as much for the wildness of his
ideas as for the sporadic brilliance of his direction, LC has never tried
to graduate to the mainstream in the way contemporaries like David
CRONENBERG or Brian De Palma have, and turns out as many curate's eggs as
low-budget masterpieces. Originally a tv writer, he early discovered
PARANOIA in his creation of the Western show Branded (1965-6) and the sf
show The INVADERS (1967-8), both featuring on-the-run protagonists,
perhaps modelled on The Fugitive (1963-7). He continued to write for tv,
including prestigious series like The Defenders and Columbo, turning also
to film writing with Westerns and suspense dramas. He made his directorial
debut with the ABSURDIST thriller Bone (1972; vt Dial Rat for Terror; vt
Beverly Hills Nightmare). Nearly all his films are written, prod and dir
by LC and made by his own production company, Larco, which he founded in
1965.He made the superior Black action movies Black Caesar (1973; vt The
Godfather of Harlem) and Hell up in Harlem (1973) before discovering the
sf MONSTER MOVIE with IT'S ALIVE (1974), a compound of ecological,
familial and 1950s sf ideas about a mutant killer baby on the loose in Los
Angeles. LC has subsequently developed the theme in two sequels, IT LIVES
AGAIN (1978; vt It's Alive II) and It's Alive III: Island of the Alive
(1986), and alternated between sf, HORROR and suspense in a series of
gritty, oddball pictures: GOD TOLD ME TO (1976; vt Demon), in which a
modern "Jesus" is shown to have been a hermaphrodite homicidal maniac from
outer space; The Private Files of J. Edgar Hoover (1976), a fascinating
political-psychological autopsy of Hoover's USA; Full Moon High (1982), a
werewolf comedy; Q (1983; vt The Winged Serpent; vt Q: The Winged
Serpent), an ingenious different take on the giant-monster theme; Blind
Alley (1984), a Hitchcockian thriller; Special Effects (1984), a
psycho-horror drama in a film milieu; The STUFF (1985), a sloppy but
amiable parody of The BLOB (1958) in which the formless monster disguises
itself as an addictive fast food; Return to Salem's Lot (1987), a clever
variant on the village-of-vampires concept; Wicked Stepmother (1989), a
farcical witch story; and The Ambulance (1990), a striking slice of
medical paranoia and urban nightmare.Energetic and often lopsided, LC's
films benefit from unusual characterizations, wayward plotting, cleverly
cast familiar faces and a determination not to do things the accepted way.

Working name of Canadian novelist Matthew Cohen (1942- ), best known for
short stories and novels set among disturbed urbandwellers in contemporary
Ontario. Too Bad Galahad (1972 chap), however, is an Arthurian FABULATION,
and several of the stories assembled in Columbus and the Fat Lady (coll
1972) and Night Flights (coll 1978) are fantasy. The Colours of War (1977)
is a NEAR-FUTURE tale of civil strife for which the Ontario countryside
serves as a not ungrim backdrop. [JC]

Made-for-tv film (1973). Spelling Goldberg/ABC. Dir Jerrold Freedman,
starring Eli Wallach, Robert Culp. Teleplay Christopher Knopf. 73 mins.
Colour.Interesting, atmospheric but ponderous yarn with a bizarre premise
about two quarrelsome scientists, one emotional (Wallach) and one
dispassionately rational (Culp), in a remote Arctic station. Their
experimental chimpanzees ( APES AND CAVEMEN) turn the tables and start
conducting stress tests on the scientists themselves. [PN]

(1949- ) UK writer, most of whose books lace fantasy and horror venues
with sf devices, but which in the final analysis read essentially as
fantasies. He began publishing work of genre interest with "Wired Tales"
for Dark Horizons in 1973, and several stories soon followed about a not
entirely unusual Cursed Warrior named The Voidal, culminating perhaps in
The Coming of the Voidal (1977 chap). The quasi-sf Dream Lords FANTASY
sequence - A Plague of Nightmares (1975 US), Lord of the Nightmares (1975
US) and Bane of Nightmares (1976 US) - was followed by the fantasy Omaran
Saga - A Place among the Fallen (1986), Throne of Fools (1987), The King
of Light and Shadows (1988) and The Gods in Anger (1988). The Star Requiem
sequence, which is sf - Mother of Storms (1989), Thief of Dreams (1989),
Warlord of Heaven (1990) and Labyrinth of Worlds (1990) - demonstrates in
a PLANETARY-ROMANCE setting AC's moderate familiarity with sf tropes (like
the flight of a remnant of humanity from genocide, and the relentless
search for that remnant by genocidal aliens) and a smooth style broken by
intermittent moments of inattention. For collaborative stories he has also
signed himself Adrian Bryant. [JC]Other works: Madness Emerging (1976),
which combines sf and horror, as does Paths in Darkness (1977); Longborn
the Inexhaustible (1978 chap); The LUCIFER Experiment (1981); Wargods of
Ludorbis (1981); Moorstones (1982) and The Sleep of Giants (1983), both
juveniles; Blood Red Angel (1993).See also: ROBERT HALE LIMITED.

(1943- ) US tv scriptwriter and journalist. His sf sequence featuring
Sten, a rebel who becomes a military hero in the defence of a GALACTIC
EMPIRE under threat, comprises Sten (1982), The Wolf Worlds (1984), Court
of a Thousand Suns (1985), Fleet of the Damned (1988), Revenge of the
Damned (1989), The Return of the Emperor (1990),Vortex (1993) and Empire's
End (1993), all written with Chris Bunch. The Far Kingdoms (1993), and its
sequel, The Warrior's Tale(1994), both also with Bunch, are fantasy. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Thomas Dixon (1930- ), author of The Funco File
(1969), in which a world-dominating COMPUTER is pitted against anarchic
opposing forces. His other titles of genre interest are Subi: The Volcano
(1957), a savage tale set in an Asia dominated by a WAR much like that in
Vietnam a decade later, and Blood Knot (1980). The Quick (1989) is an
extremely expert and iconoclastic exercise in military sf. [JC]

(? -? ) US author. In his eccentrically interesting The Auroraphone: A
Romance (1890), messages from Saturn are received on the eponymous
instrument; life there is UTOPIAN in many ways, although a ROBOT revolt is
under way. A later message includes recordings, for the benefit of the
enthralled terrestrial listeners, of famous events on Earth, including the
Battle of Gettysburg. [PN]

(1910-1977) US writer, formerly a professional soldier. He began
publishing sf in 1951 with the first of a series, "Philosophical Corps",
in ASF, which ceased there in 1956 before reappearing much later with
"Here, There Be Witches" (1970 ASF) and "Philosophical Corps!" (1970 ASF).
The Philosophical Corps (1951-5 ASF: fixup 1961) is based on the first
story and two others; the remaining stories are "These Shall Not Be Lost"
(1953), "Exile" (1954), "Millennium" (1955), "Final Weapon" (1955) and
"The Missionaries" (1956). The philosopher protagonist of the series,
Commander A-Riman, brooks no nonsense from aliens and the like, whom he
re-educates in course of his SPACE-OPERA adventures. A second novel, "The
Best Made Plans" (ASF 1959), has not reached book form. [JC]

(? -? ) UK author. His first novel, The Struggle for Empire: A Story of
the Year 2236 (1900), took the future- WAR novel to its logical
conclusion. In a UTOPIAN future the Anglo-Saxon Federation has expanded
into other solar systems when interstellar warfare breaks out between
Earth and a superior race from the Sirius system. The descriptions of
space battles, and of an Earth surrounded by a barrage of space torpedoes
and mines while scientists struggle to perfect the ultimate weapon, make
it the equal of many of the SPACE-OPERA stories of the 1930s. RWC's later
novels are anticlimactic. His Other Self (1906) is a mildly humorous tale
of a physical alter ego; The Death Trap (1907) is a mundane though harsh
account of an invasion of the UK; The Artificial Girl (1908) is not of

(1933- ) US sf fan and bibliographer, compiler of A Checklist of
Science-Fiction Anthologies (1964), reissued in facsimile - it was
originally stencilled - by ARNO PRESS in 1975. It has now been superseded
and updated by William CONTENTO's indexes of ANTHOLOGIES. [PN]

Clare BELL.

(? -? ) US writer of two sf novels, Seeker from the Stars (1967) and The
Null-Frequency Impulser (1969), both routine adventure stories with ALIENS
and superscience providing much of the action. [JC]


[s] Donald WANDREI.

Science fiction writers love to collaborate. Some have collaborated for
fun, some as a creative experiment, and there is a strong possibility that
some writers did it to sell books or to reduce their workload.The teenaged
Futurians wrote stories together in the late 1930s, a practice that came
naturally because they lived together. Other kinds of collaborations
included transatlantic ones - like the anthology written by Ian Watson in
southern England and Michael Bishop in Georgia...or a transmedia
collaboration, as when Piers Anthony wrote the novelization for the film
Total Recall, which was based on a Phillip K. Dick story.Most
collaborations are between colleagues who are essentially peers, like
Stephen King and Peter Straub's work on The Talisman. So the 1995
collaboration by Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich and SF writer William
Forstchen on the novel 1945 is just a continuation of a well-established



With sf/fantasy now a subject for academic study, especially in the USA,
many major institutional collections have been built up, a process which
has supplemented but in no sense supplanted the large number of private
collections amassed by fans and scholars. From the first, GENRE SF has
tended to be published in formats significantly (and foolishly) slighted
in the accession policies of every category of institutional library -
from university libraries to libraries of record like the Library of
Congress and the British Library; and without private collections much of
the research undertaken in recent years would have been impossible to
conduct successfully. Some private collections - notably those of Forrest
J. ACKERMAN in Los Angeles and Sam MOSKOWITZ in Newark - are extremely
well known, extremely large, and accessible to visitors, but they tend not
to be thoroughly catalogued. Individual researchers in sf and fantasy
almost invariably maintain their own store of material, on a scale rather
larger than probably necessary in cognate fields. Entirely typical of such
research collections are those held, for instance, by the editors of this
volume: John CLUTE with 12,000 items, Peter NICHOLLS with 7000 items, and
Associate Editor Brian STABLEFORD with 15,000 items.The strongest library
collection in the USA is the J. LLOYD EATON COLLECTION. For important
library holdings in other countries, MAISON D'AILLEURS (Switzerland,
extremely strong on French sf), MERRIL COLLECTION OF SCIENCE FICTION,
SPECULATION AND FANTASY, formerly the Spaced Out Library (Canada), SCIENCE
number of other large institutional collections exist. In the USA these
include: the University of Arizona Library; California State University
Library at Fullerton (which holds important research material on Philip K.
DICK); Dallas Public Library; Louisiana State University Library;
University of Louisville Library (very large Edgar Rice BURROUGHS
collection); MIT Science Fiction Society Library at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology; San Francisco Academy of Comic Art Library; Texas
A & M University Library.Also important to sf researchers are the great
libraries of record, such as the US Library of Congress (which,
shortsightedly, does not normally catalogue its separately warehoused,
inaccessible mass-market paperback fiction) and, in the UK, the British
Library and the Bodleian Library. These, however, tend to be weak on
ephemera (fanzines, comics, pulp magazines); in some cases their book and
magazine collections have suffered depredation through theft.Further data
on large sf collections can be found in Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical
Guide to Science Fiction: Third Edition (1987) ed Neil BARRON and in
Science/Fiction Collections: Fantasy, Supernatural and Weird Tales (1983)
ed Hal W. HALL. [PN/JC]

(1901-1980) UK novelist, poet and short-story writer who also spent time
in the USA writing filmscripts. He was known mainly for his sophisticated
though sometimes rather precious short stories, generally featuring
acerbic snap endings; many of these stories have strong elements of
fantasy or sf, in particular No Traveller Returns (1931 chap), whose
protagonist visits a DYSTOPIAN future, and The Devil and All (coll 1934),
whose contents are exclusively FANTASY. His best-known title, Fancies and
Goodnights (coll 1951 US; cut vt Of Demons and Darkness 1965 UK),
assembles new material plus a selection of tales from Presenting Moonshine
(coll 1941) and The Touch of Nutmeg (coll 1943 US)-itself a compendium
drawn from the previous volume and from The Devil and All; until the
release of The John Collier Reader (coll 1972 US; cut vt The Best of John
Collier 1975 US), Fancies and Goodnights remained the handiest
presentation of the kind of short fiction with which JC has been
identified: highly polished magazine stories, adroit, world-weary,
waspish, often insubstantial. It won the first INTERNATIONAL FANTASY
AWARD.Radically dissimilar to his most familiar work is Tom's A-Cold
(1933; vt Full Circle 1933 US), a remarkably effective post- HOLOCAUST
novel set in the 1990s, long after an unexplained disaster has decimated
England's (and presumably the world's) population and thrust mankind back
into rural barbarism, a condition out of which the eldest survivors, who
remember civilization, are trying to educate the young third generation.
The simple plot plays no tricks on the reader: the young protagonist, a
born leader, rises through raids and conflict to the chieftainship,
undergoes a tragedy, and reconciles himself at the novel's close to the
burdens of a government which will improve the lot of his people.
Throughout the novel, very movingly, JC renders the reborn, circumambient
natural world with a hallucinatory visual intensity found nowhere else in
his work. Along with Alun LLEWELLYN's The Strange Invaders (1934), Tom's
A-Cold can be seen, in its atmosphere of almost loving conviction, as a
genuine successor to Richard JEFFERIES's After London (1885); and it
contrasts markedly with JC's earlier No Traveller Returns (1931 chap), a
harsh dystopian novella set in a deadened world. [JC]Other works: His
Monkey Wife, or Married to a Chimp (1930), a fantasy; Green Thoughts (1932
chap) and Variation on a Theme (1935 chap), both assembled with other
stories in Green Thoughts and Other Strange Tales (coll 1943 US); Witch's
Money (1940 chap US); Pictures in the Fire (coll 1958); Milton's "Paradise
Lost": Screenplay for Cinema of the Mind * (1973).See also: APES AND

US "slick" magazine published by Crowell-Collier Publishing Co, ed
William L. Chenery, Walter Davenport and others. Weekly from 28 Apr 1888
as Collier's Once A Week, became CW in Dec 1904, continuing weekly to 25
Jul 1953, then biweekly to 4 Jan 1957.CW published sf - e.g., H.G. WELLS's
"A Moonlight Fable" (1909) and George Allan ENGLAND's "June 6, 2016"
(1916) - only intermittently until the 1920s and 1930s, when numerous
serializations of works by Sax ROHMER appeared. Later well remembered sf
publications were: "There Will Come Soft Rains" (1950), "A Sound of
Thunder" (1952) and other stories by Ray BRADBURY; The Day of the Triffids
(1951) by John WYNDHAM; and many early stories by Jack FINNEY from 1951,
including his most famous novel The Body Snatchers (1954 Collier's; 1955;
vt Invasion of the Body Snatchers). [JE/PN]

(1947- ) US poet, story writer and author of a number of nonfiction
studies of sf and fantasy writers, including several on various aspects of
the work of Stephen KING. In Naked to the Sun: Dark Visions of Apocalypse
(coll 1986 chap) and Dark Transformations: Deadly Visions of Change (coll
1990 chap), he published POETRY which tended to use sf and fantasy motifs
as premises for metamorphic brooding. His nonfiction includes Piers
Anthony (1984 chap), Brian W. Aldiss (1986) and In the Image of God:
Theme, Characterization, and Landscape in the Fiction of Orson Scott Card
(1990), plus the various books on King: Stephen King as Richard Bachman
(1985), The Shorter Works of Stephen King (1985) with David Engebretson,
The Many Facets of Stephen King (1986), The Films of Stephen King (1986),
The Stephen King Phenomenon (1987) and The Work of Stephen King: An
Annotated Bibliography and Guide (1992). His criticism tends to be
theme-oriented. He edited Reflections on the Fantastic: Selected Essays
from the Fourth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts
(anth 1987). [JC]

Pseudonym of UK writer William Joseph Cosens Lancaster (1851-1922), most
of whose fiction was for boys and featured nautical settings. He remains
best known for his "Flying Fish" sequence of sf tales: The Log of the
"Flying Fish": A Story of Aerial and Submarine Peril and Adventure (1887),
With Airship and Submarine (1907) and The Cruise of the "Flying Fish": The
Air-Ship-Submarine (1924). The eponymous vehicle is a ship which operates
in the air, on the surface and UNDER THE SEA, and which takes the tales'
protagonists back and forth across the Earth, leading them to a LOST
WORLD, to inner Africa and elsewhere. The third volume, in which a
dreadnought successor to the ship fails to be built in time to affect WWI,
is anticlimactic. Other HC tales include Geoffrey Harrington's Adventures
(1907), Harry Escombe: A Tale of Adventure in Peru (1910) and A Pair of
Adventurers in Search of El Dorado (1915; vt In Search of El Dorado 1925).

[s] Mack REYNOLDS.

(1900-? ) UK writer in various genres, whose two LOST-WORLD novels are of
sf interest. The Valley of Eyes Unseen (1923) finds a Tibetan hidden
valley inhabited by scientifically advanced descendants of Alexander the
Great's Greeks, from whom the protagonist eventually escapes using
purloined mechanical wings. In The Starkenden Quest (1925) the valley is
located in Indochina, the primordial dwarf inhabitants are enthralled by
an immortal blonde priestess (who nevertheless dies), and a great flood
ends the tale. [JC]Other works: Flower of Asia: A Novel of Nihon (1922), a
fantasy of Japan.

(1935 - ) US biologist and writer whose first novel, Mutagenesis (1993),
packs a wide range of material into its moderate compass. The frame
premise-an expedition from ecologically-devastated Earth rediscovers an
old colony planet, where some original plant species still survive-soon
expands into a quest-saga in PLANETARY ROMANCE style as the female
protagonist, accompanied by some escaped unusually independent native
women (see FEMINISM), has various adventures in search of the mysterious
"doctors" who have manipulated the genetic stock of the colonists,
apparently for eugenic reasons. The cast is full, and includes an
interesting presentation of the "geneslave" concept (the term comes from
Elizabeth HAND's Winterlong sequence); and the plot embodies a number of
Twice-Told fairy tales. HC's future work is eagerly awaited. [JC]


Dennis LYNDS.

(1954- ) Australian editor, publisher, writer and bookseller. At an early
age he began publishing and editing a SEMIPROZINE, VOID SCIENCE FICTION
AND FANTASY (1975-81), which in due course transmuted into a series of
original ANTHOLOGIES, including Envisaged Worlds (anth 1978), Ron Graham
Presents Other Worlds (anth 1978), Alien Worlds (anth 1979), Distant
Worlds (anth 1981) and Frontier Worlds (anth 1983); a later anthology is
Metaworlds: Best Australian Science Fiction (anth 1994). His debut novel,
Hot Lead - Cold Sweat (1975), not sf, was published by his own SMALL
PRESS, Void Publications. With Peter Wilfert he edited Sf aus Australien
["Australian SF"] (anth 1982 Germany). In 1980 he set up a second small
press, Cory & Collins, in partnership with Rowena Cory. Despite execrable
production standards, this was of some importance in providing a platform
for Australian sf and fantasy novelists - authors included Russell
WODHAMS - but the venture ceased in 1985 after 14 books. PC's sf-writing
career began with "The Test" for Weirdbook 12 in 1977, and he has since
been remarkably prolific, with over 50 sf stories published, mostly in
Australia but some overseas, though even in Australia he has not made the
impression on sf readers that his craftsmanlike work may at its best
deserve. [PN]See also: AUSTRALIA.


(1936- ) Canadian author and editor of over 80 books, notably anthologies
of Canadiana and works of popular reference. Books with sf relevance
include: CDN SF&F: A Bibliography of Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy
(1979 chap) with Michael Richardson, Alexandre L. Amprimoz and John Bell;
Blackwood's Books: A Bibliography (1981); Years of Light: a Celebration of
Leslie A. Croutch (1982); and Mostly Monsters (coll 1977), fantastic
POETRY. Other Canadas (anth 1979) was the first anthology of Canadian sf,
and Not to be Taken at Night (anth 1981) likewise for Canadian HORROR
fiction. [PN]Other works as editor: Friendly Aliens (anth 1981); Windigo
(anth 1982).Nonfiction: Colombo's Book of Marvels (1979; exp vt Mysterious
Canada 1988); Extraordinary Experiences (1989); Mysterious Encounters
(1990); Mackenzie King's Ghost (1991); UFOs over Canada (1991).See also:

The idea of colonizing the other worlds of the Solar System has had an
uncertain history because the optimism of sf writers has constantly been
subverted and contradicted by the discoveries of ASTRONOMY. The
attractions of the idea have, however, always overridden cautionary
pessimism, and the reluctant acceptance of the inhospitability of local
planets has served only to increase interest in colonizing the worlds of
other stars ( GALACTIC EMPIRES).The example of the British Empire was
insufficient to inspire many early UK sf writers to speculate about its
extension into space. The most important of those who did was Andrew
BLAIR, whose Annals of the Twenty-Ninth Century (1874) was the most
extravagant of early future HISTORIES. H.G. WELLS used the example of the
UK's colonial history as an analogy for the Martians' conduct in THE WAR
OF THE WORLDS (1898) but never considered the idea of mankind's colonizing
MARS, although Robert W. COLE did in The Struggle for Empire (1900). Later
writers of SCIENTIFIC ROMANCE were almost completely uninterested in the
conquest of space; both J.B.S. HALDANE in "The Last Judgement" (1927) and
Olaf STAPLEDON in LAST AND FIRST MEN (1930) imagined mankind migrating to
other worlds but only under extreme duress, as Earth became uninhabitable.
The avoidance of the notion may be connected with a sense of shame about
the methods employed in colonizing terrestrial lands; the parallel which
Wells drew between the European invasion of Tasmania and the Martian
invasion of Earth is a harsh one, and the brutality of the POLITICS of
colonization has always been a key issue in sf stories, even in the US
PULP-MAGAZINE sf that made the conquest of space its central myth. Early
cautionary allegories include Edmond HAMILTON's "Conquest of Two Worlds"
(1932) and Robert A. HEINLEIN's grim "Logic of Empire" (1941), although it
was not until the 1950s that such lurid polemics as Avram DAVIDSON's "Now
Let Us Sleep" (1957) and Robert SILVERBERG's Invaders from Earth (1958
dos) could be published, and not until the 1970s that mature and effective
moral tales like Silverberg's Downward to the Earth (1970) and Ursula K.
LE GUIN's THE WORD FOR WORLD IS FOREST (1972; 1976) became commonplace.
These stories of genocide, slavery and exploitation are the harshest
critiques of human behaviour found in US sf; they often embody a strong
sense of guilt regarding the fate of the inhabitants of pre-Columbian
North America. Mike RESNICK's bitter study of spoliation in Paradise
(1989) is an effective transfiguration of the history of Kenya.Political
issues are at the heart of another recurrent colonization theme, which
deals with the relationship between colonies and the mother world. Here
history provides - at least for US writers - much more attractive
parallels, and the War of Independence has frequently been refought, from
the early "Birth of a New Republic" (1930) by Miles J. BREUER and Jack
WILLIAMSON to Isaac ASIMOV's "The Martian Way" (1952), Robert A.
Heinlein's THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS (1966) and Poul ANDERSON's Tales
of the Flying Mountains (coll 1970). UK writers have been less
enthusiastic about the notion of colonial defection, and sometimes develop
images of a very uneasy relationship between Earth and its colonies;
examples include Arthur C. CLARKE's The Songs of Distant Earth (1986) and
Paul J. MCAULEY's Of the Fall (1989; vt Secret Harmonies).The pioneer
spirit is something much celebrated in sf at all levels. The mythology of
the conquest of the Old West is often transcribed into sf so literally
that even the covered wagon is retained. AMAZING STORIES once published a
novel - "Outlaw in the Sky" (1953) by Guy Archette (Chester S. GEIER) - in
which only half a dozen words had been modified in making the
transposition from Western to sf; a more recent example is the "pioneer"
sequence of Heinlein's Time Enough for Love (1973). Celebrations of the
heroism of colonists fighting tremendous odds to tame hostile environments
include Henry KUTTNER's Fury (1950; vt Destination: Infinity), Walter M.
MILLER's "Crucifixus Etiam" (1953), E.C. TUBB's Alien Dust (1955) and
Harry HARRISON's Deathworld (1960). It is often difficult to offer a
convincing motivation for the colonists, and so various reasons are
commonly devised to compel colonization, as in The Survivors (1958; vt
Space Prison) by Tom GODWIN, Orbit Unlimited (coll 1961) by Poul Anderson,
Mutiny in Space (1964) by Avram Davidson, Castaways' World (1963 dos; rev
as Polymath 1974) by John BRUNNER and Farewell, Earth's Bliss (1966) by D.
G. COMPTON. A frequent subtheme deals with native populations that resist
colonization, sometimes consciously and sometimes by virtue of the fact
that the ECOLOGY of the planet has no suitable niche for the colonists.
Many stories by Poul Anderson fall into this category, as do "You'll Never
Go Home Again" (1951; vt "Beachhead") and "Drop Dead" (1956) by Clifford
D. SIMAK and "Colony" (1953) by Philip K. DICK.One of the most significant
uses which sf writers have found for human colonies on alien worlds is in
building distorted societies, sometimes for SATIRE and sometimes for
thought experiments in SOCIOLOGY. Notable satirical exercises include
Search the Sky (1954) by Frederik POHL and C.M. KORNBLUTH, The Perfect
Planet (1962) by Evelyn E. SMITH, A Planet for Texans (1958) by H. Beam
PIPER and John J. MCGUIRE, and many short stories by Eric Frank RUSSELL,
including the justly celebrated ". . . And Then There Were None" (1951).
More straightforward sociological treatments include Poul Anderson's
Virgin Planet (1959), John JAKES's Mask of Chaos (1970), Harry Harrison's
Planet of the Damned (1962; vt Sense of Obligation) and such remarkable
novels as THE LEFT HAND OF DARKNESS (1969) by Ursula K. Le Guin, THE FIFTH
HEAD OF CERBERUS (1972) by Gene WOLFE and AND CHAOS DIED (1970) by Joanna
RUSS. In many of these stories the colonies are isolated worlds within a
GALACTIC EMPIRE. The notion of an extended chain of remote colony worlds
is used in A. Bertram CHANDLER's Rim Worlds novels and Murray LEINSTER's
Med Ship stories.Two fundamental classes of colonization story can be
easily distinguished: the "romantic" and the "realistic". The first
derives from a tradition which makes much of the exotic qualities of alien
environments. Here the alien worlds are exotic Earths, little different
from the distant lands of travellers' tales. Human and humanoid alien
co-exist. The politics of exploitation is not the focal point of the story
but may serve to turn the wheels of the plot as the hero, alienated from
his or her own kind, champions the downtrodden natives against the horrors
of vulgar commercialism. Women writers have been particularly prolific in
this vein: Leigh BRACKETT often used it, as has Marion Zimmer BRADLEY in
her Darkover novels. Anne MCCAFFREY's Pern novels likewise belong to the
romantic school, and Jack VANCE has written many novels featuring a less
stylized romanticism. Some of the most impressive works in the romantic
vein are Cordwainer SMITH's stories of Old North Australia and his Quest
of the Three Worlds (fixup 1966). Recent examples often emphasize
quasimystical processes of adaptation to the alien environment: a
reharmonization of mankind and nature that often covertly echoes the Eden
myth ( ECOLOGY; LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS; PASTORAL). A simple example is
Outpost Mars (1952; vt Sin in Space) by Cyril Judd (C.M. Kornbluth and
Judith MERRIL); a more complex one is Eight Keys to Eden (1960) by Mark
CLIFTON. The archetype of the species is Ray BRADBURY's "The Million-Year
Picnic" (1946). The image of a lost Eden plays an important part in many
of the otherwise realistic colonization novels of Michael G. CONEY,
tingeing them with a peculiar nostalgia; examples include Mirror Image
(1972), Syzygy (1973) and Brontomek! (1976).The "realistic" school, whose
authors concentrate on blood, sweat and tears rather than glamorous
exotica, developed in the post-WWII era, although Edmond Hamilton's
archetypal "What's it Like out There?" (1952) was written in the 1930s.
This school won its early successes outside the sf magazines, being
extensively developed by Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke in stories
published in general-fiction magazines and in (often juvenile) novels.
Heinlein's contributions include Red Planet (1949), Farmer in the Sky
(1950) and many of the stories in The Green Hills of Earth (coll 1951).
Clarke's include the Venture to the Moon series of vignettes in the London
Evening Standard and the novels The Sands of Mars (1951) and Earthlight
(1955). Patrick MOORE's series of juveniles, including Domes of Mars
(1956) and Voices of Mars (1957), also belongs to this tradition. These
juvenile novels take great pains to achieve some kind of authenticity, but
"realism" in the magazines was much more a matter of literary posturing,
consisting mainly of ultra-tough novels with a strong seasoning of
cynicism: Police Your Planet (1956 as by Erik van Lhin; rev 1975) by
Lester DEL REY is a cardinal example. Realistic treatment of colonization
methods remains a common theme in sf; it plays a subsidiary but important
role in, for example, Mindbridge (1976) by Joe HALDEMAN and GATEWAY (1977)
by Frederik Pohl. The realistic school has suffered somewhat where it has
conscientiously remained within the boundaries of a Solar System whose
hostility has become increasingly apparent, but it has been saved from
extinction not only by the idea of domed colonies with self-enclosed
ecologies but also by the notion of TERRAFORMING, significantly treated in
such works as Kim Stanley ROBINSON's RED MARS (1992 UK), Pamela SARGENT's
VENUS OF DREAMS (1986) and Venus of Shadows (1988), and Ian MCDONALD's
Desolation Road (1988), which features a remarkable juxtaposition of the
ultra-romantic and cynically realistic modes. Other writers have favoured
the idea that colonists need not bother with worlds at all; Konstantin
TSIOLKOVSKY, the pioneer of ROCKET research, proposed that we might build
artificial satellites to contain orbital colonies, and this notion of
SPACE HABITATS has been sophisticated in recent times by such nonfiction
writers as Gerard K. O'Neill. Sf stories displaying such ideas include a
series of novels by Mack Reynolds begun with Lagrange Five (1979; later
novels in the series are ed Dean ING), Lois McMaster BUJOLD's FALLING FREE
(1988), and the satellite-tv soap opera Jupiter Moon (1990).Terraforming
adapts worlds to colonists, but one might logically expect it to be much
easier to adapt colonists to worlds. Relatively little attention has been
given to this approach. Biological-engineering methods were applied to the
business of colonization by James BLISH in the stories making up THE
SEEDLING STARS (fixup 1957) ( PANTROPY) and by Poul Anderson in "Call Me
Joe" (1957), and were investigated in more detail by Frederik Pohl in MAN
PLUS (1976), but increasing interest in GENETIC ENGINEERING has yet to
bring forth prolific speculation in this vein.Theme anthologies concerning
colonization include The Petrified Planet (anth 1952) ed anon Fletcher
PRATT and Medea: Harlan's World (anth 1985) ed Harlan ELLISON. [BS]See

Film (1958). William Alland Productions/Paramount. Dir Eugene Lourie,
starring John Baragrey, Mala Powers, Otto Kruger, Charles Herbert, Ed
Wolff. Screenplay Thelma Schnee, based on a story by Willis Goldbeck. 70
mins. B/w.A curious little film about a man killed in an accident whose
brain is transferred by his scientist father into an 8ft (2.4m) ROBOT
body. Without a human body his mind both loses all compassion and resents
it in others; hence he decides to destroy good guys at the UN. But his
lingering humanity asserts itself and he asks his son (who doesn't know
who he is) to turn him off. TCONY has been praised, but most see it as a
routine potboiler. Shooting took eight days, and its director claims he
can barely remember making it. [PN]

(vt The Forbin Project) Film (1969). Universal. Dir Joseph Sargent,
starring Eric Braeden, Susan Clark, Gordon Pinsent, William Schallert.
Screenplay James Bridges, based on Colossus (1966) by D.F. JONES. 100
mins. Colour.A supercomputer, Colossus, is designed by Dr Forbin to take
control of the US defence network but, once activated, develops ambitions
of its own and ignores all commands. Unlike the neurotic HAL in 2001: A
SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), Colossus is a COMPUTER of the old school -
emotionless, arrogant and practically omnipotent. It forms an alliance
with its Russian equivalent and the film ends with the two computers in
charge and likely to stay that way. The subtext is the usual one: better
to be human and idiotic, even at the risk of nuclear WAR, than to
surrender our autonomy to machines. The scenes showing Colossus in vast
caverns beneath the Rocky Mountains have a powerful admonitory charge.
This is a neat, well made film. [JB/PN]


(1912-1975) UK writer and journalist whose sf novel is Domesday Village
(1948), set in a NEAR-FUTURE UK with a socialist regime. [JC]

House name used primarily by Michael MOORCOCK for book reviews and
stories in NW (and for one independent collection of stories), and
occasionally by others for book reviews. Moorcock has also written at
least one story as Warwick Colvin Jr, who is identified as JC's nephew.

[s] James COLVIN.

Film (1978). MGM. Dir Michael CRICHTON, starring Genevieve Bujold,
Michael Douglas, Rip Torn, Richard Widmark. Screenplay Crichton, based on
Coma (1977) by Robin COOK. 113 mins. Colour.Crichton's most commercially
successful film, C is a present-day thriller with one sf element: the use
of hospital patients, deliberately put into irreversible coma by using
poisoned anaesthetic, as living repositories of body parts which are
profitably sold for use in transplant surgery - a scheme, it has been
alleged, that by the 1980s had real-life counterparts. Bujold is good as
the resourceful young woman doctor - the film was praised at the time by
the Women's Movement - who uncovers the plot in this stylish but wholly
implausible paranoid melodrama. Crude but effective visual symbolism
equates medicine with the meat trade, which cannot have pleased those of
Dr Crichton's old colleagues still in practice. [PN]See also: CINEMA.

US PULP MAGAZINE; 5 issues, Dec 1940-July 1941, bimonthly after Jan 1941.
Published by H-K Publications; ed F. Orlin TREMAINE. Tremaine, former
editor of ASF, made a brief and undistinguished return to sf-magazine
editing with this title. Contributors included Eando BINDER, Frank Belknap
LONG and Harl VINCENT. The last issue contained "The Vortex Blaster", the
first story of E.E. SMITH's series of that name. A continuing feature was
"The Spacean", an imaginary future newspaper which betrayed the magazine's
juvenile slant. C had little visual appeal; its cover layout was
particularly ungainly. [MJE]

(1920- ) UK writer and medical doctor who has published significant
popular work in the fields of sexology and gerontology, being perhaps best
known for The Joy of Sex (1972). Before WWII he established an extremely
precocious reputation for poetry, fiction and a pacifism he espoused
rigorously during the years of conflict. One early novel, No Such Liberty
(1941), edges into parable in its description of the wartime internment of
Germans; Cities of the Plain (1943) is an anti-capitalist DYSTOPIAN play;
Tetrarch (1980 US), a fantasy, takes its protagonists magically into a
political and sexual UTOPIA named Los, where they must find their true
shapes; and Imperial Patient (1987) infuses a tale of the emperor Nero
with mythical elements. His first genuine sf novel, Come Out to Play
(1961), is a near-future SATIRE on scientism narrated by a smug
sexologist. The Philosophers (1989), set in a NEAR-FUTURE UK, savages a
decrepit Tory hegemony. [JC]

This rubric covers the comic strip in daily and Sunday newspapers,
European comic papers and the US-style comic book; it does not cover the
GRAPHIC NOVEL per se, although clearly there is overlap between the two
categories. Strip-cartoon stories use some interaction of text and
picture, as opposed to the established "storybook" use of words plus
illustrations of the words. Design, drawing style, caption and
word-balloon continuity all serve to make the strip cartoon a medium with
its own syntax and frame of reference, one which may have been best
defined by Scott McCloud (1960- ) - in his seminal Understanding Comics:
The Invisible Art (graph 1993) - as "Juxtaposed pictorial and other images
in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce
an aesthetic response in the viewer."Like the history of sf, the history
of the comic strip is far more complex, and extends much further into the
past, than had been assumed until recent decades, when researchers (see
Further Reading list below) began properly to examine the record, and to
establish a continuity between the graphic work of the 18th century and
the comic papers and Sunday newspaper supplements which flourished so
conspicuously in the USA a century later. Sf comic strips as such,
however, were slow to develop. By the end of the 19th century, though the
comic strip had achieved very considerable sophistication and was capable
of treating very widely varied subject matter, there was virtually no sf
presented in a credible manner, nor would there be for another 30 years.
Prior to this, the emphasis on humour in the comic strips had relegated sf
to the realms of fantasy, as in Our Office Boy's Fairy Tales (1895 The
Funny Wonder), an anonymous UK series depicting a family on Mars facing
totally impossible hardships and jubilations. More mature in its approach
was Winsor MCCAY's fantasy Little Nemo in Slumberland (1st series 1905-11
New York Herald), which depicted the dream adventures of a young boy and
an ever-increasing array of characters from the court of King Morpheus.
McCay's manipulation of the size, shape and position of each panel,
together with his use of perspective, gave added emphasis to the narrative
and indicated how artistic technique could augment the text. (This
attribute of the comic strip was sometimes itself used to create the
fantasy element, as in Krazy Kat [1911-44] by George Herriman [1880-1944],
where the scenic background, changing from panel to panel, created a
surrealistically alien environment, or in Felix The Cat [1923 onwards] by
Otto Messmer [1892-1983], where the eponymous feline gave substance to his
imagination by treating the contents of his thought balloons as physical
realities.) McCay's fantasies were perhaps topped only by the
expressionist whimsy of his contemporary, Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), in
Wee Willy Winky's World and The Kin-Der Kids.In the 1920s, when economic
depression brought about a change in public outlook, a demand was created
for action-adventure strips, making publication of outright sf comic
strips feasible. The transition came with BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY
(1929-67), an adult comic strip inspired by a novel in AMAZING STORIES; it
spawned several rivals, among them BRICK BRADFORD (1933 onwards), FLASH
GORDON (1934 onwards), Speed Spaulding (1939), adapted from Edwin BALMER's
and Philip WYLIE's When Worlds Collide (1933) and illustrated by Marvin
Bradley, and not forgetting Frank Godwin's CONNIE (1927-44), which in the
mid-1930s abandoned its everyday terrestrial setting for outer-space
intrigue. These all drew their plots extensively from the epics of
classical literature, modernized by the inclusion of SPACESHIPS and
ray-guns, and distanced from reality by being located in the far future or
remote past.Similar innovations occurred in Europe following the
reprintings there of the major US comic strips. High points were the
appearances of: in France, Futuropolis (1937-8 Junior) and Electropolis
(1939 Jean-Pierre), both written and illustrated by Rene Pellos; in Italy,
Saturno Contro la Terra (1937-43), written by F. Pedrocchi and illustrated
by G. Scolari; and, in the UK, GARTH (1943 onwards).The growth in the
number of sf comic strips was, however, largely a reflection of the
increased number of comic strips in general; they were now so popular in
the USA that new methods of packaging them were being explored. Out of
this experimentation developed the comic book. Initially comic books
contained merely reprints of the newspaper strips-e.g., Buck Rogers in
Famous Funnies (1934-55) and Flash Gordon and Brick Bradford in King
Comics (1936-51)-but soon the available existing strips were used up, and
comic books featuring original strips were the inevitable second stage. In
the first issue of one of these new titles, Action Comics (1938 onwards;
DC COMICS), SUPERMAN appeared. Featuring a larger-than-life figure,
omnipotent (mostly) in the face of all adversity, Superman (1939 onwards)
proved so popular that numerous imitation SUPERHEROES appeared, from
Batman through CAPTAIN MARVEL to the many heroes featured by the modern
MARVEL COMICS group, all being variations on the same basic theme.In many
of these comic books a central sf story was backed up by strips from
outside the genre, but some comics were entirely devoted to sf. The first
sf comic book was Amazing Mystery Funnies (1938-40), which contained a
pot-pourri of superhero and SPACE-OPERA strips, its artists including Bill
Everett (1917-1973), Will Eisner (1917-) and Basil Wolverton (1909-1979).
Hugo GERNSBACK briefly entered the field with Superworld Comics (1939).
Buck Rogers (1940-43) and Flash Gordon (intermittently 1943-53) also
appeared as titles. Most successful was Planet Comics (1940-54), a
companion to PLANET STORIES, which featured Star Pirate by Murphy Anderson
(1926- ), Lost World by George Evans (1920- ), Auro, Lord of Jupiter by
Graham Ingels (1915-1991) and other memorable strips.In such a competitive
market it was inevitable that publishers would turn to the sf PULP
MAGAZINES for help. National Periodicals (DC Comics) offered Mort
WEISINGER, then editor of THRILLING WONDER STORIES, an editorial post.
Accepting it, he worked initially on Superman, using authors of the
calibre of Alfred BESTER, Edmond HAMILTON, Henry KUTTNER and Manly Wade
WELLMAN to help compete with the rival publication, Captain Marvel,
scripted by Otto Binder ( Eando BINDER). Well known artists from the sf
magazines were also used. Alex SCHOMBURG appeared in Startling Comics
(1940-51), Edd CARTIER in Shadow Comics (1940-50) and Red Dragon, 2nd
series (1947-8), and Virgil FINLAY in Real Fact Comics (1946-9).
Similarly, in the UK Serge Drigin, artist on SCOOPS and FANTASY,
illustrated Space Police (1940 Everyday Novels and Comics).By the early
1950s numerous sf comic books were appearing, among them: Lars of Mars
(1951) and Space Patrol (1952), both issued by ZIFF-DAVIS, publishers of
AMAZING STORIES and FANTASTIC ADVENTURES; and Rocket to the Moon (1951)
and An Earthman on Venus (1952), both published by Avon and featuring
adaptations of, respectively, Otis Adelbert KLINE's Maza of the Moon
(1930) and Ralph Milne FARLEY's The Radio Man (1924 Argosy All-Story
Weekly; 1948; vt An Earthman on Venus 1950); and an anti-communist
propaganda sf comic book, Is This Tomorrow? (1947). More durable were
Mystery in Space (1951-66) and Strange Adventures (1950-73), both from DC,
Harvey's Race for the Moon (1956) and Richard E. Hughes's Forbidden Worlds
(1951-67), all of which managed some consistency, albeit of a distinctly
juvenile nature. Distinguished artwork came from the likes of Sid Greene,
Carmine Infantino, (1925- ), Gil Kane (1926- ), Jack KIRBY, Mike Sekowsky,
Al Williamson (1931- ) and sometime Buck Rogers illustrator Murphy
Anderson (1926- ). All the while, new sf comic strips were appearing in
newspapers, two of the better titles being Beyond Mars (1951-3 New York
Sunday News), scripted by Jack WILLIAMSON from his two novels Seetee Shock
(1950) and Seetee Ship (1951), with illustrations by Lee Elias (1920- ),
and Twin Earths (1951-4), a counter-Earth story created and written by
Oskar Lebeck illustrated by Alden McWilliams (1916- ) - not to forget Sky
Masters (1959-61), drawn by Kirby and written by Bob and Dick Wood, doing
their best to second-guess a space programme that still lay 10 years in
the future.The most important of this period, however, were the sf comic
books published by EC COMICS. Appearing initially at the suggestion of
Harry HARRISON, who had been working in comics as artist and scriptwriter
since 1946, Weird Science (1950-53) and Weird Fantasy (1950-53) - which
later merged to form Weird Science Fantasy (1953-5) before being finally
renamed Incredible Science Fiction (1955-6) - published the most
sophisticated sf stories yet to appear in the comic books, often featuring
wry endings in the manner of Philip K. DICK. Illustrated by such well
known sf artists as George Evans, Frank FRAZETTA, Roy G. KRENKEL, Bernard
Krigstein (1919-1990), Al Williamson and Wallace WOOD, they often included
adaptations of stories by popular sf authors, in particular Ray BRADBURY.
With the imposition of the Comics Code in 1955, these and many other
titles ceased, and comics then went through a period of restraint and
unoriginality.A similar boom in sf comic books was taking place in Europe.
Included in these titles were Super Science Thrills (1945), Tit-Bits
Science Fiction Comics (1953) and The Jet Comic (1953), a companion to
AUTHENTIC SCIENCE FICTION, which appeared in the UK, and Espace (1953-54)
and L'An 2,000 (1953-4), in France. Also of interest was Tarzan Adventures
(1953-9) which, under Michael MOORCOCK's editorship from 1957, published
several sf comic strips, including James CAWTHORN's Peril Planet. It was
in the weekly comic papers, however, that the best-drawn and -plotted sf
comic strips were to appear. Foremost was DAN DARE (1950-67 Eagle). With
its clean linework by Frank HAMPSON, this became the UK's most influential
sf comic strip, inspiring several rivals - including JEFF HAWKE, Captain
Condor (1952-5 Lion), at one time illustrated by Brian LEWIS (who also did
many NEW WORLDS covers), and Jet-Ace Logan (1956-9 Comet; 1959-60 Tiger),
written by Frank S. Pepper (1910-1988) and, later, by Moorcock (who also
scripted Rick Random, Space Ace, drawn by Rowland [Ron] Turner (1922- )
for Thriller Picture Library). Equally notable was Rocket (1956), an sf
comic paper which featured US reprints and others, including Escape from
Earth, Seabed Citadel and Captain Falcon; it ran to 32 issues. More
successful was Boy's World (1963-4) which, prior to its merger with Eagle,
published Wrath of the Gods, initially written by Moorcock and illustrated
by Ron Embleton (1930-1988), then by John M. Burns (1938- ), Ghost World,
illustrated by Frank Bellamy (1917-1976), and The Angry Planet, an
adaptation of Harry Harrison's Deathworld (1960) plotted by Harrison and
scripted by Kenneth BULMER. Mention should also be made of TV Century 21
(1965-9), which published material based on Gerry ANDERSON's tv puppet
MYSTERONS and on Terry NATION's horrors, the DALEKS. In 1977 the first
truly UK sf comic arrived in the shape of 2,000 AD, starring the
quasi-fascist supercop JUDGE DREDD.A turning point was the publication by
MARVEL COMICS - which had published innumerable horror, fantasy and sf
anthology titles throughout the 1950s and early 1960s - of The Fantastic
Four (1961 onwards), whose success heralded a new wave of superhero
comics, starring new characters and heroes (like Captain America and
Sub-Mariner) resuscitated from Marvel productions of the period during and
immediately after WWII. National Periodicals (DC Comics), publishers of
Superman, was already in the process of expanding its superhero list, so
DC and Marvel very soon became established as the "Big Two" in the field.
Another trend was the growing number of adaptations of sf TELEVISION
series, notably STAR TREK and DR WHO, which both appeared in a variety of
publications. Innovations appeared in the "underground" comics, where sf
supplied an ideal framework for scatological examinations of society's
neuroses and phobias; original artistic styles were developed by Richard
CORBEN, Vaughn BODE and others. Roger ELWOOD edited Starstream Comics
(1976) in an attempt to introduce adaptations of work by Poul ANDERSON,
Larry NIVEN, Robert SILVERBERG and others, but this venture apparently
failed to attract any substantial readership. A similar fate befell a
slightly earlier series, Unknown Worlds of Science Fiction (1975) ed Roy
Thomas, which adapted stories by Moorcock, Bob SHAW, Stanley G. WEINBAUM
and others. Published by the Marvel Comics group and with the byline "Stan
Lee Presents" ( Stan LEE), it ran for 6 issues in 1975. Several other sf
comics appeared in the mid-1970s, notably Charlton Comics's Space 1999
Magazine (a companion to the Gerry Anderson tv series SPACE 1999), the
apocalyptic colour comic Doomsday Plus 1 (recently reprinted, due to the
popularity of artist John Byrne [1950- ], by Fantagraphics) and Marvel's
Planet of the Apes magazine (based on the 1968 movie PLANET OF THE APES
and its sequels), which was immensely popular in the UK in 1975. Mike
Friedrich's titles Star Reach (1975-8) and Imagine (1976-8), which
graduated in 1977 from underground comics to small-magazine format, had a
heavy sf and fantasy bias. Friedrich's list of contributors reads like a
who's who of comics experimenters and stars: Howard V. CHAYKIN, Michael T.
Gilbert, Lee Marrs, P. Craig Russell (1950- ) (well remembered for his
work on Marvel's Killraven space opera - see below - which ran in Amazing
Adventures 1975-6 and was republished as a graphic novella, 1983), Jim
Starlin (1949- ). . . the list is a long one. Mention should also be made
of Marvel's 1977 adaptation of the 1968 film 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY, done
by Jack Kirby, who also had a 100pp novella, The Silver Surfer (graph
1977), co-authored with Stan LEE, published in that year.In the UK
interest in Jeff Hawke had waned sufficiently for the London Daily
Express, the national newspaper in which it had appeared, to discontinue
the strip - although the Express's sister newspaper, the Scottish Daily
Record, missed Jeff Hawke enough that it commissioned a new and
exceptionally similar strip from Sidney Jordan: this was Lance McLane,
which ran from 1976 until the mid-1980s. Earlier, in 1973, writer Richard
O'Neill and artist John M. Burns had created a Philip Jose FARMER-style
fantasy, Danielle (1973-4; brief revival in 1978; graph coll as Danielle
1984), for the London Evening News. In the USA Gil Kane and Ron GOULART
embarked on a daily space-adventure strip, Star Hawks (1977-81), cleverly
jumping in before the release, later that year, of the movie space opera
STAR WARS.With the success of that film came a renewed interest in sf
proper, rather than the fringe-sf of the superhero adventure. The 1970s
had seen their fair share of interesting though often short-lived
features, such as: Mike Kaluta's elegant adaptation of Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS's Carson of Venus adventures in Korak (1972-4); Killraven
(Amazing Adventures 1973-6) by Don MacGregor, initially drawn by Howard V.
Chaykin and after 1975 by Russell, which was an attempt at a sequel to
H.G. WELLS's THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898); Monark Starstalker by Chaykin;
Deathlok; Star Hunters; Warlock and CAPTAIN MARVEL, both these latter by
Jim Starlin; Guardians of the Galaxy (written by Steve Gerber); Starfire
and The Eternals (inspired by the notions of Erich von DANIKEN) - as well
as the many excellent stories published by James Warren in his
black-and-white magazines Eerie (1965-83), Creepy (1965-83), 1984
(1978-80) and Comix International (1974-7). Baronet Books issued The
Illustrated Roger Zelazny (graph 1978) by Gray MORROW and followed up with
The Illustrated Harlan Ellison. HEAVY METAL - a US avatar of France's
METAL HURLANT - opened many eyes to European comics stars such as Moebius
(Jean GIRAUD), later creator of The Airtight Garage (graph coll trans
1987), and Philippe DRUILLET, with Lone Sloane (graph 1967) and Delirius
(graph 1973). Star Wars and, to a lesser extent, LOGAN'S RUN (1976) began
the deluge of late 1970s/early 1980s sf on film and tv. ALIEN, BATTLESTAR
and UFO all had comics adaptations. Star Wars's own comic series ran for
10 years (1977-86); and, despite its having to change publishers several
times, there has been a Star Trek comic book running continuously right
through the 1970s and 1980s to today's Star Trek: The Next Generation. In
the UK at this time it was the tv-related magazines that produced the best
comic-strip sf. Countdown (later renamed TV Action 1970-74) ran a Dr Who
strip and another based loosely on 2001: A Space Odyssey, and Look In had
some excellent stories ranging from The TOMORROW PEOPLE through Buck
Rogers in the 25th Century to The SIX MILLION DOLLAR MAN .Smaller
independent companies like First Comics brought us items such as: Mars
(1984) by Marc Hempel (1957- ) and Mark Wheatley (1954- ), a tale of Earth
science and colonists versus Martian Mother Nature; NEXUS (1981-91) by
Mike Baron (1949- ) and Steve Rude (1956- ), possibly the ultimate mixture
of HARD SF and superhero genres; AMERICAN FLAGG! (1983-8; 2nd series
1988-9), Chaykin's DYSTOPIAN masterpiece (there were 3 collections: Hard
Times [graph 1984], Southern Comfort [graph 1986] and State of the Union
[graph 1987]), followed by his two stylish Time (2) novellas, The Epiphany
(graph 1986) and The Satisfaction of Black Mariah (graph 1987). First
Comics also continued the comics adaptations of Michael Moorcock's Elric
books after Pacific Comics had expired - Elric of Melnibone (1984), Sailor
on the Seas of Fate (1985-6), Weird of the White Wolf (1986-7), The
Vanishing Tower (1987-8) and Bane of the Black Sword (1988-9) - as well as
initiating further Moorcock series: Hawkmoon (5 series, 1986-9) and Corum
(1987-9). Marvel Comics brought out a glossy magazine in the Heavy Metal
mould called Epic Illustrated (1980-86; rev 1992), and this led Marvel to
set up in 1984 a separate imprint, Epic Comics, which has put out some
excellent material: Starstruck (1985-6; graph exp vt Starstruck: The
Expanding Universe 1990-91); also adapted as a stage play) by Elaine Lee
and Mike Kaluta; Void Indigo (1984-5) by Steve Gerber, which dealt with a
few too many TABOOS and was left unfinished; Alien Legion (1984-current);
and Plastic Forks (1990), a Philip K. Dick-style adventure by Ted
McKeever. Epic Comics is currently publishing McKeever's apocalyptic story
Metropol (1991-current). Other items of interest include: Frank MILLER
Inc.'s story Ronin (1983-4; graph coll 1987), a fascinating mixture in
which post- HOLOCAUST techno-principality (New York) meets Samurai drama;
and comics's answer to Fritz LANG's METROPOLIS (1926), MR X (1984-91) by
Dean Motter and Paul Rivoche, issued by Canadian publisher Vortex and
produced briefly by the LOVE AND ROCKETS creators Gilbert (1957- ), Jaime
(1959- ) and Mario Hernandez, with a collection published as The Return of
Mr X (graph coll 1985). The comic-book company Innovation has recently
published several sf and fantasy adaptations based on work by (among
others) Piers ANTHONY, Terry PRATCHETT, Anne Rice (1941- ) and Gene WOLFE.
JAPAN - home of martial-arts epics, GOJIRA and gargantuan ROBOTS -
deserves special discussion. The robots usually have an initial manga
(comic-strip) incarnation. The ancestor of them all is Osamu TEZUKA's
Tetsuwan Atom (vt Astroboy). This diminutive hero's comic-strip adventures
date back to 1952, and his tv cartoon show, first aired in 1963, marked
the birth of tv animation in Japan. As well as robo-colossi such as
Mazinger X and The Shogun Warriors, space operas like Space Cruiser Yamato
and Galaxy Express 999 and the space piracy of by Masamune Shirow, the
closely-guarded pseudonym of a Japanese writer/artist (1962- ) Captain
Harlock (all created by Reiji Matsumoto) were very popular in 1970s manga
and on tv. More recently speculative manga have been given a chance to
diversify a little as evidenced by Mai the Psychic Girl (trans graph coll
1990 UK); Rumiko Takahashi's Lum (1989-90), a sort of sf farce; the serene
HARD SF of Yukinobu Hoshino's 2001 Nights (trans graph 1990);Appleseed
(trans graph coll, vol 1 1990, vol 2 1991, vol 3 1992)by Masamune Shirow,
the closely-guarded pseudonym of a Japanese writer/artist (1962- ); and
Katsuhiro OTOMO's phenomenally successful Akira (1982 onwards), filmed as
AKIRA (1987), whose nearly 2000 pages are being published in colour in
English by Epic Comics (1989 onwards).In the 1990s the "adult" cartoon
strip has finally begun to find its way into bookshops and away from the
"funnies" sections of the newspapers. Reading V for Vendetta (graph 1990)
by Alan MOORE and artist David Lloyd (1950- ) is not the simple,
lowest-common-denominator entertainment that was once the norm for comic
books; reading the Luther Arkwright trilogy (graph coll 1989) by Bryan
Talbot (1952- ) involves an understanding of the language of comics,
especially in layout; reading Matthias Schultheiss's Bell's Theorem (graph
in 3 vols 1989) really does hinge on an understanding of the eponym. Of
course, there is no shortage of trashy adventure comics and fatuous
newspaper strips, just like 50 years ago. The difference is that now there
are intelligent comic strips, comic books and graphic novels as well.For a
list of all comics and comics-related entries Introduction.
[JE/SW/SH/JC]Further reading: The best studies of the comic strip before
the end of the 19th century are, both by David Kunzle, The Early Comic
Strip (1974) and The History of the Comic Strips: The 19th Century (1992),
the first 2 vols of an extended and intensive overview; and The American
Comic Book Catalogue: The Evolutionary Era, 1884-1939 (1990) by Denis
Gifford (1927- ), which lists nearly 500 separate titles and series, is an
important aid. For later periods, see The Comics (1947; reissued 1990) by
Coulton Waugh; The Penguin Book of Comics (1967; rev 1971; rev 1990) by
George Perry and Alan Aldridge; A History of the Comic Strip (1968) by P.
Couperie and Maurice Horn; The World Encyclopedia of Comics (1967) by
Maurice Horn; The Adventurous Decade: Comic Strips in the Thirties (1976)
by Ron GOULART; The World Encyclopedia of Comics (1976) ed M. Horn;
Smithsonian Collection of Newspaper Comics (1977) ed Bill Blackbeard and
Martin Williams; Smithsonian Book of Comic Book Comics (1979) ed
Blackbeard; The International Book of Comics (1984) by Denis Gifford;
Encyclopedia of Comic Characters (1987) by Denis Gifford;Comics: Ideology,
Power and the Critics (1989) by Martin Barker; The Encyclopedia of Comic
Books (1991) by Ron Goulart; Adult Comics: An Introduction (1993) by Roger
Sabin; The Comic Book: The One Essential Guide for Comic Book Fans
Everywhere (1994) by Paul Sassienie; the important annual bibliography The
Overstreet Comic Book Price Guide by Robert M. Overstreet.

US tv series (1955). Republic Studios/Hollywood Television Service for
NBC TV. Prod Mel Tucker, Franklyn Adreon, dir Fred Bannon, Harry Keller.
Written by Ronald Davidson, Barry Shipman. Weekly. 25 mins per episode.
B/w.Despite the title, the hero of this short-lived children's tv series
was more likely to be found riding in a four-door sedan than travelling
around the Universe. A cross between the Lone Ranger and Captain Midnight
(his rival crime-fighter on CBS), Cody wore a costume that looked as if
its previous owner had been in the German High Command and a mask whose
function was unclear. Cody (here played by Judd Holdren) and his sidekick
Joan (Aline Towne) had previously appeared in two Republic Studios film
serials, Radar Men from the Moon (1952; 12 episodes), in which Cody was
played by George Wallace, and Commando Cody (1953; 12 episodes), starring
Holdren. Equipped with several secret laboratories, a spaceship and an
ordinary revolver, Cody fought conventional gangsters and, occasionally,
the Ruler, an evil genius from outer space. Unsurprisingly reminiscent of
the absurdities of the movie serials, CC was more entertaining than the

Many aspects of communication in sf are dealt with under separate entries
in this volume. The most familiar form of communication is through
language, for a discussion of which LINGUISTICS. Direct mental
communication, or telepathy, is discussed under ESP. For communication in
communications networks COMPUTERS, CYBERPUNK and MEDIA LANDSCAPE.Once the
implications of Relativity were absorbed by GENRE SF it was realized that
most SPACE OPERAS and any story involving a GALACTIC EMPIRE faced the
problem that messages from one star system to another might take many
lifetimes to deliver. The issues raised here are discussed under FASTER
THAN LIGHT (see also HYPERSPACE), and two of the best known sf devices
invented by writers to cope with it are discussed under ANSIBLE and DIRAC
COMMUNICATOR. Communication within our Solar System has been dealt with in
many stories, mostly earlier, notably those collected in Venus Equilateral
(coll of linked stories 1947) by George O. SMITH.Messages can be sent
forwards in time using time capsules. Sending them backwards in time is
trickier, but the apparent prohibition against sending such messages
implied by Relativity may be sidestepped by using the (theoretical)
elementary particle called the TACHYON, which can travel only faster than
light. Sending messages to the past in this way (see also TIME TRAVEL) is
central to TIMESCAPE (1980) by Gregory BENFORD. Indeed, messages from the
future to the past are not uncommon in sf, a recent example, with
bewilderingly rococo detail, being provided by Dan SIMMONS's Hyperion
books, HYPERION (1989) and The Fall of Hyperion (1990), in which a titanic
struggle across the ages by different but ultimate AIs involves such
sometimes contradictory time messages as the lethal Shrike (a God of
Pain), mysterious Time Tombs, and Moneta, the goddess of backwards memory
who lives backwards in time, along with what appears to be reversed
predestination where the future determines the past. All such stories
worryingly violate the Principle of Causality which states, to put it
simply, that causes precede effects.The most common communications
scenario in sf-often but not always linguistic - involves the meeting of
humans with ALIENS. These are often called first-contact stories, and
perhaps the best known of them is "First Contact" (1945) by Murray
LEINSTER; an anthology of such stories is First Contact (anth 1971) ed
Damon KNIGHT. Among some of the alien-contact stories most relevant to
communication are "A Martian Odyssey" (1934) by Stanley G. WEINBAUM, "The
Big Front Yard" (1958) by Clifford D. SIMAK and THE MOTE IN GOD'S EYE
(1974) by Larry NIVEN and Jerry POURNELLE.Aside from the areas of
communications which are dealt with in greater detail elsewhere in this
volume, there remains that of nonlinguistic communication, though the
distinction is merely semantic, in that many writers would take
linguistics to include, for example, mathematical symbology and sign
language ( MATHEMATICS). In many nonfiction works - an early example, for
the lay reader, being We Are Not Alone (1964) by Walter Sullivan - there
is discussion of the possibility of using universal mathematical symbols
to communicate with aliens, and this idea is by no means restricted to sf:
it was used, for example, as the basis for the symbols inscribed on the
first space capsule whose course would take it outside the Solar System.
The best of all stories about talking to aliens via mathematics may be
Neverness (1988) by David ZINDELL, in which the Solid State Entity, a
godlike consciousness formed by an ordering of space and matter
comprehending thousands of star systems, is talked to - at length and very
convincingly, even movingly - in this manner.There was not much emphasis
on communication problems in early sf. Most nonlinguistic communication
stories are post-WWII, by which time there had already been much
discussion of information theory, especially in the context of
CYBERNETICS. Any message consists of coded information: whether in the
form of words, mathematical symbols, signs, modulated electromagnetic
waves, intermittent laser beams or even the chemical pheromones used for
communication by animals. A number of sf communication stories, then, have
been in effect code-cracking stories. In James BLISH's VOR (1958) an alien
communicates by changing the colours of a patch on his head (VOR stands
for violet, orange, red). Jack VANCE's "The Gift of Gab" (1955) turns on
whether a squid-like alien creature is intelligent; his intelligence is
proven when he learns to use a semaphore language - invented for the
purpose - by waving his tentacles. Vance's stories persistently invent new
communication systems, usually linked with the nature of alien cultures.
Messages in various of his stories are passed by masks, music, smells,
colours or signs. (A number of stories of this general type are discussed
under ANTHROPOLOGY.) Suzette Haden ELGIN is another writer whose stories
blend cultural anthropology with communication problems; she has a PhD in
linguistics. Naomi MITCHISON has written a notable book in this area,
MEMOIRS OF A SPACEWOMAN (1962), centred on a research worker whose job it
is to understand and if possible communicate with alien species;
Mitchison's aliens are more vivid and convincing than usual, perhaps
because of her background in BIOLOGY. Communication with aliens is, of
course, a popular theme in sf, and many books, such as Conscience
Interplanetary (1972) by Joseph GREEN, have dealt with it at a less
demanding level.Fred HOYLE has several times tackled the problem of
decoding alien messages, most interestingly in The Black Cloud (1957) but
also in A for Andromeda (1962), written with John ELLIOT. The latter story
tells of the cracking of a binary code picked up on a radio telescope and
its interpretation as instructions for building an artificial person. One
of the purest stories of this kind is James E. GUNN's The Listeners
(1972), which concentrates on the motivation behind attempts to pick up
messages from the stars, and brings in many questions of human
communication as well. Decoding alien communication also occurs in Michael
P. KUBE-MCDOWELL's debut novel Emprise (1985), a first-contact story, in
Carl SAGAN's bestselling Contact (1985) and in Jack MCDEVITT's The
Hercules Text (1986). Sagan's book has some good detail on the physics of
communication and contains the entertaining notion that hidden within the
number pi, with its endless succession of apparently random numbers after
the decimal point, is a message from the original geometers of the
Universe. This outdoes Kurt VONNEGUT Jr who, in THE SIRENS OF TITAN
(1959), reports the discovery that many great human events and artefacts
are in fact coded messages from the alien Tralfamadorians. Stonehenge,
when viewed from above and decoded, means "Replacement part being rushed
with all possible speed".Much closer to home, a popular theme has been
attempts to communicate with species on our own planet, notably in The Day
of the Dolphin (1967; trans 1969) by Robert MERLE and Clickwhistle (1973)
by William Jon WATKINS. Both of these owe much to the well known work
carried out by the scientist John Cunningham Lilly, author of The Mind of
the Dolphin: A Nonhuman Intelligence (1968). Ian WATSON adopts a rather
different method of cetacean communication in The Jonah Kit (1975) -
indeed, most of Watson's books dramatize methods of transcending the
limitations of spoken human communication.There are plenty of
communication problems in our own society, even without aliens. D.G.
COMPTON makes one of the best uses of a familiar idea in SYNTHAJOY (1968),
a well written and serious story about what happens when a machine is
built which records emotional experiences and can be plugged into other
minds. And, of course, there are many stories, both in the mainstream and
in sf - too many to list here - about the effect of DRUGS in assisting (or
militating against) genuine human communication.Some of the most
interesting sf communication stories are those which stress the ambiguity
that may be involved in interspecies communication. Three particularly
enigmatic novels on this theme are ROGUE MOON (1960) by Algis BUDRYS,
SOLARIS (1961 Poland; trans 1970) by Stanislaw LEM and Whipping Star
(1970) by Frank HERBERT. The Stanley KUBRICK film 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY
(1968) also comes into this group. In ROGUE MOON a labyrinthine artefact,
apparently meaningful, is found on the Moon's surface. However, those who
walk through it, some penetrating further than others, have all died.
These slaughters may in one sense be acts of communication also; they are
given a number of human analogies by Budrys, who seems to see all
communication as fraught with difficulty. (Alien-artefact stories are
further discussed under BIG DUMB OBJECTS and DISCOVERY AND INVENTION.)
Lem's SOLARIS tells of the living planet of Solaris; humans in an orbital
laboratory hope to communicate with the (hypothetical) planetary
intelligence; when communication arrives it takes the form of replicating
figures from the scientists' subconscious minds. All efforts at
communication are thwarted by the anthropomorphism of the observers, and
the novel asks the pessimistic question: will it ever be possible to
transcend our human-centred view of the Universe, or is communication with
the alien a contradiction in terms? Herbert's Whipping Star is frivolous
by comparison, but its ingenious array of semantic confusions - as humans
attempt to communicate with entities whose corporeal form, it turns out,
is as stars - poses some sharp questions. Kubrick ducked the question
altogether in what has become the most famous sequence in sf CINEMA; when
the mysterious alien intelligence of 2001 does communicate, the audience
is given only an enigmatic and incomprehensible collage of lights,
fragmentary landscapes, an unexpected 18th-century room and a foetus. We
are given to understand that communication is achieved, but we receive
only the static that surrounds it. CLOSE ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND
(1977) is another film which ends on a comparable note, the communication
here being between humans and the occupants of a UFO by means of lights
and musical notes; the climax is a kaleidoscope of colour and sound.

Film (1989). Pheasantry Films in association with Allied Vision, The
Picture Property Company. Coprod Philippe Mora, Whitley STRIEBER and Dan
Allingham; dir Mora; screenplay Strieber based on his own book Communion:
A True Story(1987); starring Christopher Walken, Lindsay Crouse, Joel
Carlson, Frances Sternhagen, Andreas Katsulas and Terri Hanauer. 101 mins.
Colour.This interesting film which tells of the abduction by ALIENS of
fantasy writer Whitley Strieber has little of the documentary about it,
and while based on a book that purported to be factual, is only
distinguishable from science fiction in one obvious respect. Although we
actually witness the alien abduction, at first in jerky neurotic
flashbacks, later as a more continuous narrative, the film always allows,
even encourages, an alternative reading. This is that fantasist Strieber,
suffering from writers' block, and shown in the film to behave in an
increasingly unstable manner, has experienced a mental breakdown with a
component of paranoid hallucination. (Another theoretical alternative
scenario, that Strieber invented the whole story in a cynical and
successful attempt to break into the best-seller market, is not
considered.) Nonetheless, the dual reading offered gives the film an edgy,
captivating quality, much assisted by the brio of Mora's direction and a
ruthlessly committed performance from Walken, who in some films appears to
drift through his roles. Mora (from an Australian family much involved
with art) sets almost every scene with ambiguous paintings and sculptures
in the background, and this too adds to the teasing (documentary fact or
postmodernist fiction?) quality of the film. The film's most celebratedly
surreal scene is that in which Strieber during an examination by aliens is
sodomised by something resembling a petrol pump. But the aliens themselves
are disappointing, some resembling blue orcs, some resembling the
big-eyed, etiolated, elf-like figures we originally saw in CLOSE
ENCOUNTERS OF THE THIRD KIND (1977), and in both incarnations filmic
stereotypes. (Though if the paranoid reading is correct, then the aliens
indeed "should" be stereotypes.) [PN]See also: UFOS, for a discussion of
various abducted-by-flying-saucer books and films.

(1930- ) UK writer, born of parents who were both in the theatre; he has
lived in the USA since 1981. DGC's novels are almost always set in the
NEAR FUTURE, and each presents a moral dilemma. The future is used as a
device for bringing contemporary trends into a clearer focus. Most of the
interest lies in personal relationships and the behaviour of people under
stress; minor characters are observed with humour which frequently arises
from class differences. Endings are ambiguous or deliberately
inconclusive. Later novels have varying modes of narrative technique.
DGC's rare public utterances confirm the impression that he is not
interested in the staple concerns of GENRE SF.DGC's first sf novel was The
Quality of Mercy (1965; rev 1970 US), concerning a genocidal plot, using a
biological weapon, to combat OVERPOPULATION. In The Silent Multitude
(1967) the crumbling of a cathedral city reflects a disintegration in the
human spirit. Farewell, Earth's Bliss (1966; rev 1971 US) shows the plight
of social misfits transported to MARS. SYNTHAJOY (1968), a more complex
novel, brought DGC wider notice, particularly in the USA. A surgeon and an
electronics engineer develop tapes which enable unremarkable people to
enjoy the experiences of those who are more gifted or fortunate. This
basic idea is a premise for the exploration of a moral problem and the
observation of human beings in extreme situations. The Steel Crocodile
(1970 US; vt The Electric Crocodile 1970 UK) presents the danger of new
knowledge and its application. Chronocules (1970; vt Hot Wireless Sets,
Aspirin Tablets, the Sandpaper Sides of Used Matchboxes, and Something
that Might have been Castor Oil 1971 UK; a further apparent vt, as
Chronicules 1976 UK, is almost certainly a publisher's misspelling) is a
TIME-TRAVEL story. The Missionaries (1972 US) describes the efforts of
some evangelizing aliens with a good deal of social comedy.DGC's strengths
as a writer are all displayed in the much admired The Continuous Katherine
Mortenhoe (1974; edited version vt The Unsleeping Eye 1974 US; vt Death
Watch 1981 UK). A woman in her 40s is given four weeks to live. A reporter
with eyes replaced by tv cameras has the job of watching her decline for
the entertainment of a pain-starved public in a world where illness is
almost unknown. The reporter sees one of the transmissions and realizes
that the camera cannot tell the truth; the recorded film is without mind
and therefore without compassion. The sequel, Windows (1979 US), depicts
the consequences of the reporter's decision to opt for the oxymoron of
literal blindness; neither character in the end is allowed to escape into
solitude. The former novel was filmed as La MORT EN DIRECT (1979). In
DGC's most recent solo novel of real interest, Ascendencies (1980 US),
manna-like free energy begins to fall from space, but the side-effects
include profound displacements, both physical and in the domestic psyches
whose traumas have always inspired his best work. Ragnarok (1991) with
John GRIBBIN shows DGC's grasp of character depiction, but its near-future
plot - a scientist brings on a nuclear winter in an attempt to enforce
disarmament - owes much to his collaborator's grasp of scientific process.
But Nomansland (1993) and Justice City (1994) each increasingly
demonstrates his recapture of the humane smoothness with which, in earlier
books, he so eloquently anatomized the near future. [MA/JC]Other works:
The Palace (1969); A Dangerous Malice (1978) as by Frances Lynch; A Usual
Lunacy (1978 US); Scudder's Game (1985 Germany, in German; English text
1988); Radio Plays (coll 1988 chap).See also: COLONIZATION OF OTHER


Joseph Compton RICKETT.

The computer revolution in the real world has been so recent and so rapid
that sf has had to struggle hard to keep up with actual developments.
Although Charles BABBAGE's attempts to develop a mechanical computer have
lately attracted attention in such STEAMPUNK novels as THE DIFFERENCE
ENGINE (1990 UK) by William GIBSON and Bruce STERLING, they failed to
inspire the 19th-century literary imagination. In fiction the notion of
"mechanical brains" first evolved as a corollary to that of mechanical men
( ROBOTS) - an early one is featured in Edward Page MITCHELL's "The Ablest
Man in the World" (1879) - but this tacit acceptance of the notion of
powerful skull-sized computers contrasts oddly with the tendency to
imagine advanced computers as huge machines the size of buildings, cities
or even planets. Sf writers who had been awakened to the advent of
computers by the building of ENIAC in the late 1940s failed utterly to
foresee the eventual development of the microprocessor. A partial
exception is Howard FAST's "The Martian Shop" (1959), which features a
computer that fits into a 6in (15cm) cube; however, the point made is that
such tininess (which anyway does not seem so tiny today) could not be
achieved using foreseeable human technology.In the early sf PULP
MAGAZINES, artificial brains, like robots, showed a distinct tendency to
go mad and turn against their creators; examples include "The Metal
Giants" (1926) by Edmond HAMILTON and "Paradise and Iron" (1930) by Miles
J. BREUER. But clever machines featured in more sympathetic roles in
several stories by John W. CAMPBELL Jr, who went on from "The Metal Horde"
(1930) to write such stories as the series begun with "The Machine" (1935
as by Don A. Stuart), in which a benevolently inclined machine
intelligence finally bids farewell to the human race in order to prevent
mankind from stagnating through dependence upon its generosity.
Revolutions against a mechanical mind which rules society more-or-less
benignly have long been commonplace in sf; examples include Francis G.
RAYER's Tomorrow Sometimes Comes (1951), Philip K. DICK's Vulcan's Hammer
(1960 dos) and Ira LEVIN's This Perfect Day (1970). The New York Times
commissioned Isaac ASIMOV's satirical explication of the theme, "The Life
and Times of MULTIVAC" (1975), which questions whether such a rebellion
would be desirable or necessary; Asimov had been consistently favourable
towards the idea of a machine-run society ever since his early advocacy in
"The Evitable Conflict" (1950). Another strongly pro-computer story from
the 1950s, redolent of the conflict and confrontation typical of the
period, is They'd Rather Be Right (1957; vt The Forever Machine) by Mark
CLIFTON and Frank RILEY. Hysterical fear of computers is satirized in "The
Man who Hated Machines" (1957) by Pierre BOULLE.The idea that machine
intelligence might be reckoned the logical end product of EVOLUTION on
Earth has a long history in sf, extending from Campbell's "The Last
Evolution" (1930) to Sagan om den stora datamaskinin (1966; trans as The
Tale of the Big Computer 1968; vt The Great Computer; vt The End of Man?)
by Olof JOHANNESSON. The notion of computers evolving to become literally
Godlike is featured in Fredric BROWN's "Answer" (1954), Isaac Asimov's
"The Last Question" (1956), Dino BUZZATI's Il Grande Ritratto (1960; trans
as Larger than Life 1962) and Frank HERBERT's Destination: Void (1966).
Other accounts of huge computers with delusions of grandeur and the power
to back them up include The God Machine (1968) by Martin CAIDIN, Colossus
(1966) and its sequels by D.F. JONES, Mayflies (1979) by Kevin O'DONNELL
Jr, The Judas Mandala (1982) by Damien BRODERICK and The Venetian Court
(1984) by Charles L. HARNESS. The computer incarnation of the Father of
Lies in Jeremy LEVEN's Satan (1982) is, by contrast, humble and
unassuming. The notion that the computer might be the answer to all our
problems is ironically encapsulated in Arthur C. CLARKE's fantasy "The
Nine Billion Names of God" (1953), in which a computer rapidly and easily
completes the task for which God created mankind.The idea that computers
might one day be endowed with - or spontaneously evolve - self-awareness
has generated a whole series of speculative exercises in machine
existentialism, which inevitably tend to the anthropocentric. Notable
examples include "Mike" in THE MOON IS A HARSH MISTRESS (1966) by Robert
A. HEINLEIN and the central characters of When Harlie was One (1972) by
David GERROLD, The Adolescence of P-1 by Thomas J. RYAN (1977), and
Valentina: Soul in Sapphire (1984) by Joseph H. DELANEY and Marc STIEGLER.
In recent years the notion has become so commonplace as to be intensively
recomplicated in such novels as Rudy RUCKER's Software (1982) and Wetware
(1988), although Rucker earlier treated the notion sceptically in
Spacetime Donuts (1981). William Gibson's eponymous Neuromancer (1984)
kicked off a new trend in sentient software, carried forward by other
CYBERPUNK writers and fellow-travellers, including Kim NEWMAN in The Night
Mayor (1989). Autobiographical statements are offered by nascently
sentient machines in "Going Down Smooth" (1968) by Robert SILVERBERG,
Arrive at Easterwine (1971) by R.A. LAFFERTY and - most impressively -
Queen of Angels (1990) by Greg BEAR.The fear of computers "taking over"
our lives remains a powerful influence, manifest across a broad spectrum
of story types. These range from straightforward foul-up stories - e.g.,
"Computers Don't Argue" (1965) by Gordon R. DICKSON - to surreal
extravaganzas like "I Have No Mouth, and I Must Scream" (1967) by Harlan
ELLISON. D.G. COMPTON's The Steel Crocodile (1970; vt The Electric
Crocodile) and John BRUNNER's The Shockwave Rider (1975) offer striking
examples of computers being used, with good intentions but repressively,
by NEAR-FUTURE politico-technocratic elites. On the other hand, Man Plus
(1976) by Frederik POHL presents a secret computer take-over as not
necessarily a bad thing, and Michaelmas (1977) by Algis BUDRYS proposes
that the dictatorship of the machine-based system might in the end be
benevolent. A metaphysical ( METAPHYSICS) species of take-over is
displayed in stories in which computers literally absorb human
personalities. Interesting examples are The Ring of Ritornel (1968) by
Charles L. HARNESS, Midsummer Century (1972) by James BLISH and Catchworld
(1975) by Chris BOYCE. In recent years the idea of "downloading" human
personalities into machinery has been used very promiscuously indeed,
being one of the key corollaries of the notion of "cyberspace"; it is
featured in Vernor VINGE's proto-cyberpunk story True Names (1981; 1981
dos), and had become a virtual cliche by the time Frederik Pohl's Heechee
Rendezvous (1984) and Greg BEAR's Eon (1985) proposed that software
afterlives might one day be universally on offer. The attractions of this
possibility are obvious, if slightly dubious.Real-world developments in
computer games have had a considerable influence on sf ( GAMES AND SPORTS;
GAMES AND TOYS); Rob SWIGART's novel Portal: A Dataspace Retrieval (1988)
is eccentrically modelled on such a game. Computer SCIENTISTS are nowadays
common characters in sf stories and, despite the late start made by sf
writers in getting in on the computer boom, it now seems that ideas
developed by William Gibson and those who have followed his example are
proving a significant inspiration to real computer scientists.Relevant
theme anthologies include Science Fiction Thinking Machines (anth 1954) ed
Groff CONKLIN; Computers, Computers, Computers: In Fiction and in Verse
(anth 1977) ed D. Van Tassel; Machines that Think (anth 1984) ed Isaac
Asimov, Patricia S. WARRICK and Martin H. GREENBERG; Computer Crimes and
Capers (anth 1985) ed Asimov, Greenberg and Charles G. WAUGH; Microworlds:
SF Stories of the Computer Age (anth 1984) ed Thomas F. MONTELEONE; and
Digital Dreams (anth 1990) ed David V. Barrett. [BS]See also: AUTOMATION;

Sharon JARVIS.

Working name of UK writer Barbara Comyns-Carr (1909-1992), whose style's
transfixed faux-naive simplicity urged much of her work into a tone of
pregnant magic realism ( FABULATION). The Vet's Daughter (1959) describes
the emotional distress of its doomed narrator, Alice Rowlands, in such a
deadpan fashion that the violent scene of fatal levitation which
culminates the tale seems totally unfantasticated. The Juniper Tree (1985)
is a retelling, in hallucinated modern garb, of a fable from the Brothers
Grimm. [JC]

The legends of Prometheus and of Dr Faustus contain a central image which
is still vigorous in sf: the hero in his lust for knowledge goes against
the will of God and, though he succeeds in his quest, he is finally
punished for his overweening pride and disobedience. Adam eating the
forbidden apple is another version of the legend. Its reverberations
resonate throughout the whole of literature.Of all the forms which the
quest for knowledge takes in modern sf, by far the most important, in
terms of both the quality and the quantity of the work that dramatizes it,
is conceptual breakthrough. It is amazing that the importance and
centrality of this idea in sf has had so little in the way of critical
recognition, though an essay by Gary K. WOLFE, "The Known and the Unknown:
Structure and Image in Science Fiction" (in Many Futures, Many Worlds
[anth 1977] ed Thomas D. CLARESON), points towards it.Conceptual
breakthrough can best be explained in terms of "paradigms", as that term
is used by philosophers of science. A paradigm is a generally held way of
looking at and interpreting the world; it consists of a set of often
unspoken and unargued assumptions - for example, before Nicolas Copernicus
(1473-1543) the paradigm saw Earth as the centre of the Universe. All the
most exciting scientific revolutions have taken the form of breaking down
a paradigm and substituting another. Often the old paradigm is eroded
slowly at first, through discovery of lots of little puzzling anomalies,
before the new paradigm can take over. Such an altered perception of the
world, sometimes in terms of science and sometimes in terms of society, is
what sf is most commonly about, and few sf stories do not have at least
some element of conceptual breakthrough.An important subset of
conceptual-breakthrough stories consists of those in which the world is
not what it seems. The structure of such stories is often that of a quest
in which an intellectual nonconformist questions apparent certainties.
Quite a number have been stories in which the world turns out to be a
GENERATION STARSHIP, as in "Universe" (1941) by Robert A. HEINLEIN,
Non-Stop (1958; vt Starship US-the US title giving the game away) by Brian
W. ALDISS, and Captive Universe (1969) by Harry HARRISON. In "The Pit"
(1975) by D. West the world turns out to be inside an artificial asteroid.
In "Outside" (1955), by Aldiss, a suburban house turns out to be an
experimental laboratory in which shape-changing aliens are incarcerated.
In several stories the world is artificial, either literally or because
its inhabitants have been brainwashed into seeing it wrongly, as in Time
out of Joint (1959) by Philip K. DICK. Philip Jose FARMER's Riverworld
books deal throughout with conceptual breakthrough; the first breakthrough
is the realization that, despite all the resurrected dead who populate it,
Riverworld is not Heaven; the second is the recognition that the
inhabitants are being manipulated. There is a touch of PARANOIA here ("we
are property"), quite common in conceptual-breakthrough stories, as in
those where the world turns out to be a construct to aid market research;
e.g., "The Tunnel Under the World" (1955) by Frederik POHL and Counterfeit
World (1964; vt Simulacron-3 US) by Daniel F. GALOUYE.Closely allied to
the above are stories where information about the world turns out to be
not so much wrong as incomplete. The classic example here is "Nightfall"
(1941) by Isaac ASIMOV, in which the constant presence of suns in the sky
of another planet has prevented knowledge of the stars, and everyone
panics every 21,049 years when five suns set and the sixth is eclipsed.
Arthur C. CLARKE's The City and the Stars (1956) has two breakthroughs,
the first out of a beautiful but static utopian city into the greater
world, and the second into a knowledge of civilizations in the stars.
Another post-WWII classic is "Surface Tension" (1952) by Blish, in which
the hero breaks out of his underwater microcosm to discover a great world
arching over his puddle. (Blish always recognized the shift from one
paradigm to another as the essence of sf, and said as much in "The Science
in Science Fiction" [1971; reprinted in The Tale that Wags the God coll
1987 ed Cy Chauvin]. His novel about Roger Bacon, Doctor Mirabilis [1964],
which takes conceptual breakthrough as its theme, has, therefore, the
flavour of sf even though based on historical fact.) Daniel F. Galouye's
Dark Universe (1961) is perhaps the best of many stories in which an
underground community has lost its memory of the surface. In LORD OF LIGHT
(1967) by Roger ZELAZNY the breakthrough is into an understanding of the
true nature of an artificial heaven.All stories where the apparently
complete world of the story's beginning, whether a generation starship or
an underground community, turns out to be only part of a greater whole can
be termed pocket-universe stories. ( POCKET UNIVERSE, where the case is
made that many conceptual-breakthrough stories of this sort can be linked
with the passage from the constrictions of childhood to the freedoms of
adulthood.) The archetype of all such stories is The History of Rasselas
(1759) by Samuel JOHNSON, in which the hero, walled into a tranquil
Abyssinian valley by mountains, finds his yearning for knowledge of the
outside world obsessing him, not letting him enjoy the happiness he sees
all around him. He escapes; the world outside is less happy than his own,
but it is interesting. Rasselas provides the template for the whole
subgenre; moreover, the intellectual discontent and formless yearnings of
its hero are among the commonest qualities of sf HEROES, and Johnson's
mild pessimism - which recognizes that, even though the new world-picture
may be uglier than the old, we need to know about it - captures exactly
the accepting tone which was to permeate so much sf. It is a romantic, if
often melancholy, form of striving, and sf never reveals its romantic
origins more clearly than when it uses the tropes of conceptual
breakthrough.Sometimes the breakthrough is transcendent, and can be given
to the reader only by analogy, inasmuch as the new state cannot be
described in a terminology which itself belongs to the old paradigm. Such
a state is commonly attained by the heroes of A.E. VAN VOGT and Alfred
BESTER, and more recently those of Ian WATSON, all of whose works centre
on a conceptual breakthrough of some kind. Such, too, are the end of the
film 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY (1968), where kaleidoscopic imagery of
hypnagogic intensity is an emblem of the incomprehensible, and the vastly
superior INTELLIGENCE attained by the hero of CAMP CONCENTRATION (1968) by
Thomas M. DISCH, a book which alludes with some subtlety to every
celebrated literary variant of the Faust myth. In Algis BUDRYS's
extraordinary novel ROGUE MOON (1960) conceptual breakthrough (in the
attempt to understand a labyrinthine artefact on the Moon) seems
invariably accompanied by death, and this too recalls the Faustian theme,
transcendence being linked to mortality. A similar consequence occurs in
The Black Cloud (1957) by Fred HOYLE.Sometimes conceptual breakthrough is
ambiguous: the objective nature of the new paradigm cannot be understood
because of the subjective nature of PERCEPTION. A joke version of this
occurs in "The Yellow Pill" (1958) by Rog PHILLIPS, where one character
believes himself to be in a room, the other in a spaceship, and both are
tempted to break down the other's version of reality; one walks, fatally,
through what he believes to be a door. Paradoxes of this kind were enjoyed
by Philip K. Dick, as in "Impostor" (1953) - where a man who believes
himself unjustly persecuted as a machine breaks through to the realization
that he is indeed a robot with a bomb in his belly - and also in, among
others, Eye in the Sky (1957), Martian Time-Slip (1964), Ubik (1969) and A
Maze of Death (1970). A subjective, disturbing form of conceptual
breakthrough is the basis for many of J.G. BALLARD's stories, such as
"Build-Up" (1957; vt "The Concentration City"), "Manhole 69" (1959),
"Thirteen to Centaurus" (1962) and even "The Drowned Giant" (1964; vt
"Souvenir"). One of the most remarkable conceptual-breakthrough stories of
recent years - whose author, Christopher PRIEST, saw the work as in part a
homage to Aldiss's Non-Stop - is INVERTED WORLD (1974). In this book a
city is constantly and painfully pushed forward on rails because the
world-picture of its inhabitants is of a hyperboloid where time and space
are progressively distorted both north and south of an always moving
optimum line. The probable truth turns out to be very different. As in
many such stories, the breakthrough is inner as well as outer; the book
adopts the Berkeleyan view that the world is what we see it as being;
changes in objective truth are changes in perception; there is no such
thing as pure scientific truth.The forms taken by conceptual breakthrough
in sf are almost impossible to enumerate. David LINDSAY's A VOYAGE TO
ARCTURUS (1920) is structurally an ironic series of such breakthroughs,
with each new truth seen in turn to be as inadequate as the previous one,
until the grim, rather nihilistic and ultimate reality is revealed at the
end. John FOWLES's The Magus (1965; rev 1977) achieves a similar effect in
a non-sf context. C.S. LEWIS's Perelandra (1944; vt Voyage to Venus) has
some moments of startling beauty when the hero tries to accommodate his
perceptions to the alien configurations of Venus. William GOLDING's The
Inheritors (1955) has the breakthrough symbolized in the confrontation
between Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon. Many of Ray CUMMINGS's PULP-MAGAZINE
stories deal with the realization (based, ironically, on a now discredited
paradigm) that an infinite series of worlds can exist, each within the
atoms of the next higher in the series. Various conceptual leaps take
place in most of Samuel R. DELANY's stories, notably "The Star Pit" (1967)
and BABEL-17 (1966). In the latter story the breakthrough, ultimately
conceptual, is initially LINGUISTIC. Delany sees paradigms as actually
existing within, and created by, language itself, a common view in
linguistic sf and one found also in Ian Watson's THE EMBEDDING (1973). In
Theodore STURGEON's "Who?" (1955; vt "Bulkhead") a spaceship pilot,
frightened of the unknown outside his ship, is cheered by the voice of his
unreachable companion beyond the bulkhead; only at the end does he find
that the other crewman is a mental projection of his own younger self, and
that the bulkhead is, metaphorically, in his own mind. Hal CLEMENT's
Mission of Gravity (1954) takes place on a high-gravity planet whose
natives are forced to understand their world through human eyes, and vice
versa. The SWORD-AND-SORCERY milieu of John CROWLEY's The Deep (1975),
accepted by the reader as a literary convention, turns out to have a quite
different explanation, necessitating a wrench to the reader's view of the
novel as well as the hero's view of his world. Ursula K. LE GUIN's The
Dispossessed (1974) is structured around parallel breakthroughs in
political understanding and fundamental physics; the crossing of walls is
the book's central image. The hero of Daniel KEYES's Flowers for Algernon
(1959 FSF; exp 1966) begins as a moron, comes to understand the nature of
the world as no other human can, then tragically has the gift of
intelligence taken away. The breakthrough in "Strangers" (1974) by Gardner
DOZOIS is in cultural understanding, and is accomplished only after the
death of the protagonist's alien lover. The breakthrough at the end of
Orbitsville (1975) by Bob SHAW takes place in an almost unimaginably huge
DYSON SPHERE, whose nature puts human evolutionary struggle into a new
perspective.Examples could be multiplied endlessly, and have been given
extensively to demonstrate how all-pervasive the theme is in sf; no
adequate DEFINITION OF SF can be formulated that does not somehow take it
into account. It is present, regardless of the usual boundaries, in old
MAINSTREAM writers. It recurs so compulsively, and so much of the feeling
and passion of sf is generated by it, that it must be seen as springing
from a deep-rooted human need: to reach out, escape mental traps, prefer
movement to stasis; to understand. Sf is pre-eminently the literature of
the intellectually discontented, those who need to feel there must be more
to life than this; and therein lies its maturity, which by a paradox can
be seen as a perpetual adolescent yearning.The breakthrough is often
merely implicit in the text, and sometimes easy enough to miss. In these
cases it is the readers themselves whose perceptions are shifted through
their reading of clues. An extreme case is that of Gene WOLFE, whose Book
of the New Sun series is set in a quasimedieval-seeming heroic-fantasy
milieu, but the readers' genre expectations are rudely broken as they
realize that the book is pure sf, not fantasy; that the time is the far
future, not the distant past; that the tower in which apprentice torturers
are educated is in fact a derelict spaceship. Wolfe enjoys such coded
jolts, as in The Fifth Head of Cerberus (1972), in which the narrator who
at the outset was a human anthropologist has towards the end been
supplanted by a shape-shifting native of the planet. The exact textual
point of the breakthrough can be identified, but only by a careful reader.
Thus conceptual breakthrough is not just the subject of much sf: it is
also, quite often, its designed effect.Conceptual breakthrough remained as
popular a theme as ever in the 1980s and 1990s, though seldom provoking
quite the same shock of surprise. The breakthrough in recent sf is often
catalysed by confrontation with alien artefacts ( BIG DUMB OBJECTS;
DISCOVERY AND INVENTION). The pre-eminent conceptual-breakthrough writer
of the 1980s is Greg BEAR, notably in BLOOD MUSIC (1985), a story of
evolutionary transcendence mediated by a new form of microorganism. Nancy
KRESS's AN ALIEN LIGHT (1988) contains a whole string of conceptual
breakthroughs as two rival human cultures and one alien culture make a
series of discoveries about each other's initially incomprehensible modes
of thinking and patterns of behaviour.Robert SILVERBERG is an interesting
case of a writer who - often - no sooner evokes a conceptual breakthrough
than he morosely contemplates its drawbacks for people who just want to be
ordinary human beings. Such is his The Face of the Waters (1991), in which
the revelation that all native life on a planet is linked in a single,
godlike, transcendent organism is followed by angst on the part of the
humans who may be allowed to join it. One feels that had Silverberg
overheard Galileo muttering "Eppur si muove" ["And yet it moves"] he would
have responded: "Yes, I agree, but I wish it didn't." [PN]


(1915- ) US writer, formerly in advertising, best-known for works outside
the sf field such as Money is Love (1975), a rococo fantasy, though many,
including most notably The Manchurian Candidate (1959), employ some sf
elements in the complex generic mix characteristic of his fiction. Later
made into a well known film, The MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (1962), this novel
combines a superior kind of brainwashing and elements of the political
thriller ( POLITICS) in a story of the attempted assassination of the US
President. So extreme is RC's rendering (and rending) of the US political
scene that it is fair to think of much of his work as occupying a series
of ALTERNATE WORLDS, as in the savage Winter Kills (1974), which features
the assassination of a JFK-like US President at the behest of his own
father; in Mile High (1969), which argues the premise that Prohibition was
created as the Mafia's answer to market insecurity; in The Star Spangled
Crunch (1974), in which a 142-year-old tycoon manipulates the world
through oil crises; in The Whisper of the Axe (1976), which augurs a
successful overturning of the US Government, as does The Emperor of
America (1990); in Death of a Politician (1978), which castigates unto
death with Swiftian ( Jonathan SWIFT) vigour a Nixon-like figure; and in
The Final Addiction (1991), which is set in a grotesquely corrupt NEAR
FUTURE. All presume a USA subtly but distinctly other than our own. In all
of RC's work, an almost magic-realist intensity of attention to the turns
of plot combines with an unerring eye for the hypnotic surface of things
to gloss over his profound cynicism about the human animal. But the abyss
beneath never shelves. [JC]About the author: "Fantastic Non-Fantastic:
Richard Condon's Waking Nightmares" by Joe Sanders, Extrapolation 25.2
(1984).See also: FANTASY; PARANOIA.

Pseudonym of UK writer Leslie George Humphrys (1921- ), known only as the
possible author of Odyssey in Space (1953), as by Vektis BRACK, and of The
Dissentizens (1954 chap) and Exile from Jupiter (1955 chap). [JC]

Film (1993). Paramount. Dir Steve Barron, prod Lorne Michaels, starring
Dan Aykroyd, Jane Curtin, Laraine Newman and Michael McKean. Screenplay
Tom Davis & Aykroyd and Bonnie Turner & Terry Turner. 82 mins. Colour.This
gentle and very lightweight SATIRE, an intermittently amusing comedy, is
based on sketches first performed on the US tv show Saturday Night Live.
Two aliens (Aykroyd and Curtin), humanoids with conical heads who are
married to one another, crashland in New York when plans to spearhead an
alien invasion of Earth go wrong. Since a rescue expedition will not pick
them up for many years, they are compelled to live as humans. Upwardly
socially mobile, the male begins working in a repair shop, then (dressed
in a turban) drives a taxi, and eventually becomes a middle-class
suburbanite, father of a typical American cone-headed teenage daughter
(Newman), who excels at golf. Apart from an over-the-top performance by
McKean, who plays the obsessive immigration officer determined to track
them down for working as illegal immigrants, there is little pungency in
either script or performances, and the film lacks the bite of the somewhat
similar MEET THE APPLEGATES. The best running gag is the fact that almost
nobody picks them as aliens, despite the giveaway huge heads. [PN]

(1932- ) UK-born writer, resident in Canada since 1973, working for the
British Columbia Forest Service until his retirement in 1989. He was the
manager of the Jabberwock Hotel in Antigua when he published his first
story, "Sixth Sense" for Visions of Tomorrow in 1969; several more
followed rapidly. His first novel, Mirror Image (1972 US) features ALIEN
"amorphs" who can so perfectly mimic humans that, when they have done so,
they believe themselves to be in fact human; the amorphs reappear in
Brontomek! (1976 UK), which won the BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD. The
ecological ( ECOLOGY) puzzle story Syzygy (1973 US) is set on the same
world. Another novel loosely connected to these is Charisma (1975 UK), a
PARALLEL-WORLDS story whose chief locale is a Cornish fishing village;
similar seaside towns, often transplanted to other planets, commonly
feature in his work. The Hero of Downways (1973 US) is a more stereotyped
action-adventure story, but Friends Come in Boxes (fixup 1973 US; rev 1974
UK) is a fascinatingly grim account of an unorthodox solution to the
problem of OVERPOPULATION. Perhaps the best of his early books are
Winter's Children (1974 UK), a post- HOLOCAUST novel, and Hello Summer,
Goodbye (1975 UK; vt Rax 1975 US; vt Pallahaxi Tide 1990 Canada), a
wistful story of adolescent love in an alien environment. A series of
stories somewhat reminiscent in their setting of J.G. BALLARD's Vermilion
Sands includes several which were amalgamated into The Girl with a
Symphony in her Fingers (fixup 1975 UK; vt The Jaws that Bite, the Claws
that Catch 1975 US).After Brontomek! there was a considerable gap in MGC's
writing career, the two books published during the hiatus, the DYSTOPIAN
The Ultimate Jungle (1979 UK) and the UNDER-THE-SEA adventure Neptune's
Children (1981 US), being books written earlier that had not sold on first
submission. His more recent work is bound together by a FAR-FUTURE
background developed in the two-decker novel The Song of Earth: The
Celestial Steam Locomotive (1983 US) and Gods of the Greataway (1984 US).
Here humans co-exist with other humanoid species, living out a kind of
languid dream thanks to the manipulation by a COMPUTER, Rainbow, of the
Ifalong (a multiverse of ALTERNATE WORLDS) despite the interference of the
godlike alien Starquin. Publication of this was preceded by the spinoff
novel Cat Karina (1982 US). MGC then employed the highly flexible
metaphysical context to frame two eccentric Arthurian fantasies, Fang the
Gnome (1988 US) and its sequel King of the Scepter'd Isle (1989 US).
[MJE/BS]Other works: Monitor Found in Orbit (coll 1974 US); the British
Columbiasequence comprising A Tomcat Called Sabrina (1992) and No Place
for a Sealion (1992), each containing fantasy elements.See also: ARTS;

(1904-1968) US editor who began his career as manager of Doubleday Book
Stores 1930-34, and who intermittently held various editing positions, in
and out of commercial publishing, for the rest of his life; he was,
however, primarily a freelance. The first of his many sf ANTHOLOGIES was
The Best of Science Fiction (anth 1946), a huge compendium which vied in
size and potential influence with Raymond J. HEALY's and J. Francis
MCCOMAS's Adventures in Time and Space (1946), although the latter book
was contracted earlier and had first pick of the material. Nevertheless,
The Best of Science Fiction and its successors from the same publisher - A
Treasury of Science Fiction (anth 1948; much cut 1957), The Big Book of
Science Fiction (anth 1950; much cut 1957) and The Omnibus of Science
Fiction (anth 1952; much cut vt Science Fiction Omnibus 1952; much cut vt
Strange Travels in Science Fiction 1953; much cut vt Strange Adventures in
Science Fiction 1954 UK; cut 1986 - all cut versions differing in their
excisions) - are rewarding compilations. GC wrote a book-review column for
GALAXY SCIENCE FICTION from #1 (Oct 1950) until Oct 1955. He also edited
for Grosset & Dunlap a series of $1 hardcover sf novels, starting in 1950
with novels by A.E. VAN VOGT, Jack WILLIAMSON and others. The series
included the first book publication of Henry KUTTNER's Fury (1947 ASF as
Lawrence O'Donnell; 1950) with an introduction by GC which has been
reprinted in subsequent editions. GC produced anthologies on various
themes, including INVASION in Invaders of Earth (anth 1952; much cut 1953
UK; much cut 1955 US; much cut 1962 US; much cut in 2 vols vt Invaders of
Earth 1962 UK and Enemies in Space 1962 UK - all cut versions differing in
their excisions), TIME TRAVEL and PARALLEL WORLDS in Science Fiction
Adventures in Dimension (anth 1953; cut vt Adventures in Dimension 1955
UK; cut under original title 1965 US), ROBOTS, ANDROIDS and COMPUTERS in
Science Fiction Thinking Machines (anth 1954; cut vt Selections from
Science Fiction Thinking Machines 1955) and MUTANTS in Science Fiction
Adventures in Mutation (anth 1955; cut 1955). Later GC became consultant
sf editor to Collier Books, for whom he produced the notable anthologies
Great Science Fiction by Scientists (anth 1962) and Fifty Short Science
Fiction Tales (anth 1963), the latter with Isaac ASIMOV. GC's anthologies
were never definitive but were always considered and capable.
[MJE/JC]Other works as editor: The Science Fiction Galaxy (anth 1950);
Possible Worlds of Science Fiction (anth 1951); In the Grip of Terror
(anth 1951); Crossroads in Time (anth 1953); The Supernatural Reader (anth
1953) with Lucy Conklin; 6 Great Short Novels of Science Fiction (anth
1954), not the same collection as Six Great Short Science Fiction Novels
(anth 1960), though both are from the same publisher; Science Fiction
Terror Tales (anth 1955); Operation Future (anth 1955); The Graveyard
Reader (anth 1958); 4 for the Future (anth 1959); Br-r-r-! (anth 1959); 13
Great Stories of Science Fiction (anth 1960); Twisted (anth 1962); Worlds
of When (anth 1962); 12 Great Classics of Science Fiction (anth 1963); 17
x Infinity (anth 1963); Dimenson 4 (anth 1964); Five-Odd (anth 1964; vt
Possible Tomorrows 1972 UK); 5 Unearthly Visions (anth 1965); Giants
Unleashed (anth 1965; vt Minds Unleashed 1970); 13 Above the Night (anth
1965); Another Part of the Galaxy (anth 1966); Seven Come Infinity (anth
1966); Science Fiction Oddities (anth 1966; cut vt Science Fiction
Oddities, Second Series 1969 UK); Elsewhere and Elsewhen (anth 1968; vt in
2 vols Science Fiction Elsewhen 1970 UK and Science Fiction Elsewhere 1970
UK); Seven Trips through Time and Space (anth 1968).See also: ALIENS;

[r] Robert C. O'BRIEN.

Working name of US writer Michael Conner (1951- ), who used his full name
for the first half decade or so of his career, beginning to publish work
of genre interest with "Extinction of Confidence, the Exercise of Honesty"
in New Constellations (anth 1976) ed Thomas M. DISCH and Charles Naylor.
His first novel, I am Not the Other Houdini (1978; vt The Houdini
Directive 1989), is a burlesque flirtation with apocalypse set in
California in the 21st century. Groupmind (1984) is less eccentric; but
Eye of the Sun (1988), told with the genre-mixing abundance of many
PLANETARY ROMANCES, follows the careening adolescence of three royal
children as their FAR-FUTURE world totters into a religious crisis which
threatens a long-sustained matriarchy. He won a 1992 NEBULA for "Guide
Dog" (1991). [JC]

US sf COMIC strip, written and drawn by Frank Godwin (1889-1959) from its
beginnings in 1927 until 1944, when it was terminated after several years
of dwindling success. The early years of the strip, which featured
throughout the madcap adventures of its eponymous flapper heroine, were
relatively mundane, but by the mid-1930s Connie had become involved in
LOST-WORLDS tales, encounters with mad SCIENTISTS, interplanetary missions
and TIME TRAVEL. Godwin was not much admired for his writing, but his
complex illustrations, both painterly and draughtsmanlike, made the strip
memorable. [JC]

Pseudonym for all his fiction of UK writer and chemistry professor Alfred
Walter Stewart (1880-1947), best known for his detective novels. His one
sf novel was Nordenholt's Million (1923). A prototype story of world-
DISASTER being surmounted, it is realistic, reasoned, sociologically
observed and credible. Fireball-mutated denitrifying bacteria destroy the
world's vegetation, then die out. A multimillionaire secures the
dictatorship of the UK, selects five million people, segregates them in
the Clyde valley with supplies, and engineers the collapse of the rest of
the country. On the Clyde, nitrogen is synthesized, moral crises take
place, there is an atomic-energy breakthrough at the cost of lives, and
the exhausted dictator dies. New cities are built. JJC's intellect tackles
the scenario seriously and with feeling; though he is occasionally
over-"literary", his imagination is firmly anchored in reality. Under his
own name he wrote publications on chemistry and, about himself, Alias J.J.
Connington (1947). [DIM]See also: END OF THE WORLD; HISTORY OF SF;

(? - ) UK writer of whom nothing is known beyond his collaboration with
the equally diffident Frank McIlraith on one sf novel, Invasion from the
Air: A Prophetic Novel (1934), which depicts with some vividness the
effects on London of raids using poison gas and incendiaries. The
consequences, it is suggested, will include revolution ( WAR). [JC]

(?1883-1941) UK writer of floridly euphemistic novels of high romance,
typical of which are Leonie of the Jungle (1921), whose eponymous heroine
escapes the hypnotic thrall of the goddess Kali in the nick of time, and
Love's Curse (1936), in which the spirit of an Egyptian pharaoh curses two
20th-century lovers. Her two sf novels are The Reckoning (1931), in which
it is presumed that artificial insemination will result in females lacking
both morality and reproductive organs, and With the Lid Off (1936), a
future- UTOPIA in which a benevolent Christian dictatorship holds sway.

(1917- ) UK writer, poet, critic and editor, most active as an sf figure
in the latter capacity, editing with Kingsley AMIS (whom see for details)
the Spectrum ANTHOLOGIES , though some sf essays and reviews of interest
appear in The Abomination of Moab (coll 1979), a non- fiction collection.
RC was educated at Oxford (DLitt), was a member of the Diplomatic Corps
1946-56, and was later literary editor of the Spectator. He has an OBE. In
addition to much poetry, political history and a non-sf novel, The
Egyptologists (1965) with Amis, he published A World of Difference (1955),
an sf tale whose complicated and discursive plot combines poltical (
POLITICS) speculation with a remotely told scientific adventure centred on
a new space drive destined to give humanity a chance to reach beyond the
Solar System. [JC]Other work as editor: The Robert Sheckley Omnibus (coll

Film (1955). Paramount. Prod George PAL, dir Byron HASKIN, starring
Walter Brooke, Eric Fleming, Ross Martin, Mickey Shaughnessy. Screenplay
James O'Hanlon, based remotely on Weltraumfahrt (1952; trans H.J. White as
The Mars Project 1953 US), by Wernher von Braun (1912-1977). 80 mins.
Colour.The title of this film is taken from the popular-science book The
Conquest of Space (1949) by Chesley BONESTELL and Willy LEY. Though
supposedly based on a work of science fact by von Braun, the story, set in
the 1980s, of a military research expedition to Mars and back is riddled
with implausibilities, both scientific (an asteroid burning in the vacuum
of space) and human (the commander, regarded as the only person capable of
sustaining the mission, becomes a twitching religious fanatic - at one
point uttering the celebrated line: "There are some things that Man is not
meant to do"). There is a strange but irrelevant Oedipal conflict, ending
with the son killing his father, the commander, when the latter tries to
sabotage the ship. The special effects are quite ambitious but clumsily
executed, in particular the matte work. A truly awful film, TCOS is
probably Pal's worst production; it was his last for Paramount. [JB/PN]See


Film (1972). Apjac/20th Century-Fox. Dir J. Lee Thompson, starring Roddy
McDowall, Don Murray, Natalie Trundy, Hari Rhodes. Screenplay Paul Dehn,
based on characters created by Pierre BOULLE. 86 mins. Colour.This was the
fourth in the ever-weakening series of films beginning in 1968 with PLANET
OF THE APES. Caesar (McDowall), the ape born in ESCAPE FROM THE PLANET OF
THE APES (1971), is being kept in a circus but comes to resent the human
exploitation of apes so much that, with the help of a sympathetic and all
too symbolic Black man (Rhodes), he incites his fellow primates to revolt.
The film ends with apes victorious over humans after a bloody battle, thus
laying the ground for the future situation (there has been a time-warp) of
Planet of the Apes. All this is crudely simplistic. The novelization is
Conquest of the Planet of the Apes * (1974) by John JAKES. [JB]

(1912-1986) US writer, fairly prolific and sometimes controversial. His
sf comprises a NEAR-FUTURE novel, The Premier (1963), and a collection of
short stories, The Da Vinci Machine: Tales of the Population Explosion
(coll 1969). [JC]


(1857-1924) Naturalized UK writer, born in Poland. His full name was
Josef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski. For most of his life he laboured
under the misprision of his early reputation as a teller of"mere" sea
tales; but posthumously he has received due attention for more complex
later works like Nostromo (1904) and The Secret Agent (1907). Though it is
not sf, "Heart of Darkness" (1902), a dense and potently shaped allegory
of guilt, colonialism, alienation and false epiphany in the abyss of
Africa, has more than once served as a model for modern sf writers, like
Michael BISHOP and Lucius SHEPARD, obsessed by similar concerns: whenever
an sf explorer comes across a ravaged cod-godling "white man" in the
tropical heart of an alien planet, JC's memory has shaped the tale.
Another story, "The Secret Sharer" (1912), has similarly been embraced by
Robert SILVERBERG in The Secret Sharer (1988). With Ford Madox FORD JC
wrote The Inheritors: An Extravagant Story (1901); the people of the title
represent a future race, the "Dimensionists", who will come to supersede
ordinary mankind. Though the novel is primarily political SATIRE in its
projection of the cold, practical, manipulative future humans, it is
genuine sf in its use of themes of other DIMENSIONS and EVOLUTION.
[JC/PN]About the author: "Joseph Conrad's Forgotten Role in the Emergence
of Science Fiction" by Elaine L. Kleiner, in EXTRAPOLATION, Dec 1973.See


Preferred pseudonym of UK writer and journalist Albert King (1924- ), an
extremely prolific writer in various genres under a series of names: for
his ROBERT HALE LIMITED sf he has used PC, his own name, Mark Bannon,
Floyd Gibson, Scott Howell, Christopher King and Paul Muller. Born in
Northern Ireland, he left school at the age of 14. He is the author of
about 120 Westerns, 44 thrillers and 29 romances in addition to his
production of 16 sf titles (over 2 years), of which the most notable are
perhaps Ex Minus (1974), as by PC, and The World of Jonah Klee (1976), as
by Christopher King. Most of his work is routine adventure. [JC]Other
works as PC: Last Man on Kluth V (1975); The Slave Bug (1975).As Albert
King: Stage Two (1974).As Mark Bannon: The Wayward Robot (1974); The
Assimilator (1974); The Tomorrow Station (1975).As Floyd Gibson: A Slip of
Time (1974); A Shadow of Gastor (1975); The Manufactured People (1975).As
Scott Howell: Menace from Magor (1974); Passage to Oblivion (1975).As
Christopher King: Operation Mora (1974).As Paul Muller: The Man from Ger
(1974); Brother Gib (1975).

Working name of UK writer Richard Conroy (? - ), best known for his
Westerns as by Duke Montana, and for historical Westerns as Scott
Jefferson. He was also active around 1950 as an author of routine sf
novels, almost certainly being responsible for 3 titles as by Lee Stanton:
Mushroom Men of Mars (1951), Seven to the Moon (1951) and Report from
Mandazo (1951). Under his own name he wrote Mission to Mars (1952) and
Martians in a Frozen World (1952); they are unconnected. [JC]

Katherine BURDEKIN.

(1956- ) UK writer whose name, initially a pseudonym, is now her name for
all purposes. Her most successful work to date is probably the Wraeththu
trilogy which began her career: The Enchantments of Flesh and Spirit
(1987), The Bewitchments of Love and Hate (1988) and The Fulfilments of
Fate and Desire (1989), all three assembled as Wraeththu (omni 1993). The
sequence follows the rise of a hermaphroditic race from men (not, at least
initially, from women), who take possession of a post- HOLOCAUST Earth
devastated by war and pollution. The books focus on the question of
whether the Wraeththu, mystically aware and symbolically balanced between
male and female yet frequently fascinated by violence and destruction,
will prove to be any better than the humans they replace. The Monstrous
Regiment (dated 1989 but 1990) is set on a colony world where FEMINISM has
gone disastrously wrong and the psychotic ruler - the Dominatrix - plans
to confine all men to compounds and milk them for semen to produce
children. The sequel, Aleph (1991), is less inflamed. In Hermetech (1991)
a woman saves an ecologically damaged Earth by means of a sexual coupling,
the energies from which are technologically redirected into the planet's
"consciousness". SC's novels, which are not really set within an sf
framework, give equal weight to the underlying assumptions of science and
modern pagan magick. They are all fundamentally concerned with sex and
gender (especially androgyny), approached through the realities and
potentials of both the male and female experience, a technique very
considerably sophisticated in Calenture (1994), whose immortal protagonist
( IMMORTALITY) traces - in his imagination, and ultimately in truth - two
characters he has in a sense created as they trek through a world of
CITIES whose wild divergences offer considerable scope for loose but
invigorating SATIRE. Her writing continues to be vigorous, erotic, highly
visual, aesthetically informed by a late punk/Goth sensibility,
occasionally somewhat crudely executed, and linguistically shaped by an
unusual fusion of intensely contemporary slang and ritualistic "High
Style". [NT]Other works: Burying the Shadow (1992); When the Angels Came
(1992 chap); Sign for the Sacred (1993).See also: CYBERPUNK; ESP; GAMES


(vt Contamination; vt Alien Contamination) Film (1981). Cannon. Dir Luigi
Cozzi, starring Ian McCulloch, Louise Marleau, Siegfried Rauch, Martin
Mase, Lisa Hahn. Screenplay Cozzi. 85 mins. Colour."In Italy," says Cozzi,
"when you bring your script to a producer, the first question he asks is .
. . What film is your film like?" This is one of several competing Italian
attempts to exploit the success of ALIEN (1979). Its opening imitates
Lucio Fulci's Zombi 2 (1979) (mysteriously deserted ship with monstrous
cargo docked in New York, and the use of actor McCulloch); and a lot is
borrowed from QUATERMASS II (1957). A tolerably lively effort, which
repeats too often its image of an alien parasite making characters'
stomachs explode in a flurry of guts and blood, this has a Martian MONSTER
and a hypnotized astronaut disseminating alien seed-pods around the globe.
There's a loud score by Goblin, and some well staged action as resourceful
heroes take on zombified alien slaves and an especially ridiculous
last-reel monster. [KN]

(1947- ) US hardware technical support engineer for Cray Research at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and bibliographer. His books,
beginning with Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections (1978)
and Index to Science Fiction Anthologies and Collections: 1977-1983
(1984), are essential tools of reference. Researchers wishing to know
where to locate short stories in collections and ANTHOLOGIES (and also
what books of or about sf were published in a given year) after this
period would normally then turn to the annual series compiled by Charles
N. BROWN and WGC, and published by LOCUS Press, beginning, in terms of
coverage year, with Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror: 1984 (1990), and
going on through Science Fiction in Print: 1985 (1986), Science Fiction,
Fantasy, & Horror: 1986 (1987), Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror: 1987
(1988), Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror: 1988 (1989), Science Fiction,
Fantasy, & Horror: 1989 (1990) and Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror:
1990 (1991) and Science Fiction, Fantasy, & Horror: 1991 (1992), the last
of the series. Despite very occasional omissions, these are still by far
the most comprehensive annual BIBLIOGRAPHIES available, containing useful
comment about the nature of each title. They are even more useful from
1988 (1989) onwards, as the later volumes contain a Research Index by Hal
W. HALL. WGC has also compiled, with Martin H. GREENBERG, Index to Crime
and Mystery Anthologies (1990). [PN]


One of the principal features of sf FANDOM, conventions are usually
weekend gatherings of fans and authors, frequently with a programme of sf
discussion and events. In FAN LANGUAGE conventions are usually referred to
as cons. They are informal, not professionally organized, and with no
delegated attendants or, usually, paid speakers. Typical activities
include talks, auctions, films, panel discussions, masquerades and
banquets.Although some US sf fans date the first convention to 1936, when
a group of fans from New York spent a day with a group from Philadelphia
(including Oswald TRAIN), the first formally planned sf convention took
place in Leeds, UK, in 1937. Since then regular conventions have been
established around the world. In the UK the major annual convention is
known as Eastercon (inaugurated 1948), though it was held at Whitsun until
1955 (except 1950, when there was no convention), and has had up to 900
attending; recent venues have included Liverpool, Leeds, Glasgow, Jersey
and Blackpool. A second convention, Novacon, was added to the calendar in
1971; it takes place every November in Birmingham and attracts some 300
people. Since the late 1970s there has been an explosion in the number of
small conventions held in the UK.The first US convention was held in New
York in 1938 and the first Worldcon, now the premier sf convention, took
place there in 1939 (though it was originally so-named because of the
World's Fair in New York that year). Worldcon, at which the HUGO Awards
are presented, is held annually, usually in the USA, where it has
attracted as many as 8000 attending. It has also gone once each to Germany
(1970) and Holland (1990), twice each to Canada (1948 and 1973) and
Australia (1975 and 1985), and four times to the UK (1957, 1965, 1979 and
1987). Annual regional conventions have also been long established in
North America: major events include Westercon (inaugurated 1948),
Midwestcon (inaugurated 1950), Deepsouthcon (inaugurated 1963), Disclave
(Washington; inaugurated 1950), Lunacon (New York; inaugurated 1957),
Boskone (Boston; inaugurated 1964) and Windycon (Chicago; inaugurated
1974). There are also national conventions in AUSTRALIA, JAPAN and several
European countries, including FINLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, the
NETHERLANDS and NORWAY. In 1976 one of the international Eurocons
(inaugurated 1971) was held in POLAND, the first sf convention in what was
then the communist bloc.Sf conventions are now very numerous, especially
in the USA: taking the whole world into account, there are about 150 a
year. There are similarities and a degree of overlap between sf cons and
those held by fans of COMICS, FANTASY and horror, and also the specialist
conventions held by fans of, for example, STAR TREK and DR WHO. [PR/RH]

(1952- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "Through the Dark Glass"
for AMZ in 1970. His first sf novel was The Midnight Dancers (1971).
Mindship (1971 Universe; exp 1974) is a SPACE OPERA: the mindships of the
title are spaceships coordinated by the PSI POWERS of specially trained
"corks". Not untypically of sf novels of the time, by the end of the book
a gestalt state has been achieved between one cork and his captain. As
Wallace Moore, GFC wrote the Balzan of the Cat People series: The
Bloodstone (1974), The Caves of Madness (1975) and The Lights of Zetar
(1975). [JC]See also: FASTER THAN LIGHT.


(1944- ) US writer who began his sf career with orthodox stories like his
first, "Song from a Forgotten Hill", in Clarion (anth 1971), and with the
sf novel The Heirs of Babylon (1972), in which an authoritarian religious
government takes over after the HOLOCAUST. However, he soon became best
known for his high FANTASY, especially the Dread Empire series, which was
notable for its concerted military set-pieces, moderately complex
plotting, violence, and a sense of undue haste - he has been exceedingly
prolific. The series includes: A Shadow of All Night Falling (1979);
October's Baby (1980); All Darkness Met (1980); "Soldier of an Empire
Unacquainted with Defeat" (1980); a 2-vol subsequence made up of The Fire
in his Hands (1984) and With Mercy Toward None (1985); Reap the East Wind
(1987); An Ill Fate Marshalling; (1988). A further, similar series, the
Chronicles of the Black Company, perhaps stands out; the first 3 vols -
The Black Company (1984), Shadows Linger (1984) and The White Rose (1985)
- were assembled as Annals of the Black Company (omni 1986), and were
followed by a second sequence, the Book of the South, comprising Shadow
Games (1989) and Dreams of Steel (1990); The Silver Spike (1989) is set in
the same world. A series of humorous fantasies, starring a Chandleresque
private eye named Garrett, provides a somewhat relentless light relief,
with titles derivative of John D. MACDONALD: Sweet Silver Blues (1987),
Bitter Gold Hearts (1988), Cold Copper Tears (1988) - all three assembled
as The Garrett Files (omni 1988) - Old Tin Sorrows (1989), Dread Brass
Shadows (1990), Red Iron Nights (1991) and Deadly Quicksilver Lies (1994).
Of his singletons, A Matter of Time (1985), a TIME-TRAVEL tale starring
detective figures, and The Tower of Fear (1989), a strongly plotted
fantasy, are the most notable. GC is a writer of considerable energy but
little patience. [JC]Other works: The Swap Academy (1970) as by Greg
Stevens, GC's first novel, a non-genre erotica title; The Swordbearer
(1982); the Starfishers sequence, comprising Shadowline (1982),
Starfishers (1982) and Stars' End (1982), which is related to Passage at
Arms (1985); the Darkwar trilogy: Doomstalker (1985), Warlock (1985) and
Ceremony (1986); The Dragon Never Sleeps (1988), a SPACE OPERA; Sung in
Blood (1990), a fantasy.About the author: A Glen Cook Bibliography (1983
chap) by Cook and Roger C. SCHLOBIN.

(1957- ) NEW ZEALAND author, known primarily for his mildly competent and
sometimes inventive fantasy series, Chronicles of an Age of Darkness,
which seems intended for a young-adult readership. His only sf novel, The
Shift (1986 UK), a finalist in the 1985 Young Writers' Competition run by
The Times (London) with publishers Jonathan Cape, is a confused tale of
deeply undergraduate humour about an alien INVASION and a machine that
selectively alters human history. [PN]Other works: Plague Summer (1980),
not sf; the Chronicles of an Age of Darkness fantasy series, comprising
#1: The Wizards and the Warriors (1986 UK; vt Wizard War 1987 US), #2: The
Wordsmiths and the Warguild, or The Questing Hero (1987 UK; in 2 vols vt
The Questing Hero 1987 US and The Hero's Return 1988 US), #3: The Women
and the Warlords (1987 UK; vt The Oracle 1987 US), #4: The Walrus and the
Warwolf (1988 UK; cut vt Lords of the Sword 1991 US), #5: The Wicked and
the Witless (1989 UK), #6: The Wishstone and the Wonderworkers (1990 UK),
#7: The Wazir and the Witch (1990 UK), #8: The Werewolf and the Wormlord
(1991), #9: The Worshippers and the Way (1992)and #10: The Witchlord and
the Weaponmaster(1992).

(1950- ) US poet and novelist whose infrequent sf stories began with "The
Character Assassin" in Other Worlds #1 (anth 1979) ed Roy TORGESON. In his
first novel, Tintagel (1981), a virus transports its victims, by
actualizing their response to MUSIC, into fantasy worlds from which the
immune protagonist must rescue them. Duende Meadow (1985) depicts the
post- HOLOCAUST return of North Americans to the surface of the world,
where they find Russian farmers. The lure of transcendence marks PHC's
books; if their focus sharpens, they may become substantial. [JC]Other
works: The Alejandra Variations (1984); HALO (1986); On the Rim of the
Mandala (1987), a congested SPACE OPERA.See also: EVOLUTION; MUSIC.

1.Working name of UK writer Robert William Arthur Cook (1931-1994),
resident for some years in France (in order, he intimated, to put distance
between himself and gangland acquaintances) before returning to the UK a
year or so before his death . He wrote thrillers as Derek Raymond, a name
he began to use when his career was flagging and his own name was eclipsed
by 2. His last novel as RC, A State of Denmark, or A Warning to the
Incurious (1970), is a savage and scatological depiction of a NEAR-FUTURE
welfare DYSTOPIA in the UK.2. (1940- ) US writer of medical horror
thrillers whose premises are often extracted from sf. His best-known novel
is his first, Coma (1977), filmed as COMA (1978) by his medical- HORROR
confrere Michael CRICHTON. Others include Brain (1981), Fever (1982),
Godplayer (1983), Mindbend (1985), Outbreak (1987), Mortal Fear (1988),
Mutation (1989), Harmful Intent(1990) and Terminal (1993). [JC]See also:

(1867-1933) US writer, reportedly pseudonymous, much of whose production
appeared after the turn of the century in such magazines as The ARGOSY,
and only later in book form, in a stapled format reminiscent of DIME-NOVEL
SF. Noteworthy among these books are A Round Trip to the Year 2000, or A
Flight Through Time (1903 The Argosy; 1925), in which various contemporary
writers travel by SUSPENDED ANIMATION to AD2000, where they observe social
conditions, and find themselves popular, and Adrift in the Unknown, or
Adventures in a Queer Realm (1904-5 The Argosy; 1925), a satire on US
capitalism in which a burglar goes along for the ride with a reformist
scientist in his spaceship to MERCURY, where he teaches the kidnapped
capitalists he has brought with him some lessons in social justice. WWC
was a crude writer, but is of interest in his attempts to combine
adventure plots and SATIRE. [JC]Other works: Castaway at the Pole (1904
The Argosy; 1926); Marooned in 1492, or Under Fortune's Flag (1905 The
Argosy; 1925); The Eighth Wonder, or Working for Miracles (1906-7 The
Argosy; 1925); Around the World in Eighty Hours (1925).See also: DISCOVERY

Collaborative pseudonym used on "The Psychological Regulator" (1941) by
C.M. KORNBLUTH, Robert LOWNDES, John Michell (1917-1969), Elsie Balter and
Donald A. WOLLHEIM. [JC]

L. Frank BAUM.

(1897-1961) US writer in whose 43,000 Years Later (1958) ALIENS come to a
post- HOLOCAUST Earth, become intrigued by the civilization that had gone
before, and, through records, explore the 20th-century world to satirical
effect. [JC]

Pseudonym of US writer Susan Plunkett (1945- ), whose Living Planet
sequence - Rahne (1980), Cassilee (1980), The Virgin (1981) and Chiy-Une
(1982) - skids rather loosely about a GALACTIC-EMPIRE setting, only to
terminate in an abrupt and complicated coming-together of humans and
ALIENS on the sentient world which gave its name to the final volume. [JC]


(1926- ) UK writer, active as a scriptwriter for TELEVISION and RADIO.
His first sf was a 6-part BBC serial, "Host Planet Earth" (1967). His
somewhat downbeat sf novels, The Thunder and Lightning Man (1968) and
Outcrop (1970), have not had a strong impact on the field. Dargason (1977)
is a story of the NEAR FUTURE in which, for mysterious reasons, listeners
to MUSIC become severely affected by a variety of psychologically extreme
states; it was perhaps the only sf thriller before Paul H. COOK's Tintagel
(1981) to posit music as a WEAPON. [JC/PN]Other works: The Epping Pyramid

(1926-1982) UK writer who served in the British Merchant Navy 1939-45 and
who began to publish stories of genre interest with "The Unicorn" (1951),
producing a considerable amount of short fiction in the 1950s, much of it
assembled (with considerable overlap) in Tomorrow's Gift (coll 1958 US),
Voices in the Dark (coll 1960) and Tomorrow Came (coll 1963). His early
pseudonyms included Martin Lester; George Kinley, under which name he
published his first sf novel, Ferry Rocket (1954); and Broderick Quain.
For a later sf adventure series (see listing below) he used the name
Richard Avery.It was as a novelist that EC became most highly regarded,
and it was for his earlier novels that he was most appreciated, though
later works like The Overman Culture (1971) showed a continuing (if
reluctant) facility in newer modes; in his persistent use of post-nuclear-
HOLOCAUST settings he was probably expressing his own conviction about the
future course of events. His first novel under his own name, The Uncertain
Midnight (1958; vt Deadly Image 1958 US), describes a post-holocaust world
in which ANDROIDS are gradually threatening to supplant humankind. Seed of
Light (1959) is a GENERATION-STARSHIP novel in which a small group manages
to escape from a devastated Earth. Other novels to incorporate the basic
premise that the planet has been rendered to a greater or lesser degree
uninhabitable include The Last Continent (1969 US), The Tenth Planet (1973
US) and The Cloud Walker (1973), which was his best received novel
(certainly in the USA) and the last to be much praised. Its message was
perhaps conventional, but was competently delivered: even though two
nuclear holocausts have afflicted England, the Luddite response of a new
church is inappropriate, and the young protagonist properly wins the day
with an invention which he uses to defend his village from assailants. As
the novel closes, the march of progress is seen to resume.In general,
however, EC's later work lacked much joie de vivre, while an anti-
FEMINIST point of view - he was quoted as saying of women: "Let them
compete against men, they'll see that they can't make it"-became explicit
in his novels Five to Twelve (1968) and Who Needs Men? (1972; vt Gender
Genocide 1973 US), and implicit elsewhere. These attitudes were neither
politic, in the heightened atmosphere of the 1970s, nor in fact
intrinsically becoming. The stories assembled in Merry Christmas, Ms
Minerva! (coll 1978) failed to help. EC died with his reputation at a low
ebb; but he was a competent and prolific writer, and a better balance may
some day be reached. [MJE/JC]Other works: Wish Goes to Slumberland (1960
chap), a fantasy for children; Transit (1964); All Fools' Day (1966); A
Far Sunset (1967); News from Elsewhere (coll 1968); Sea-Horse in the Sky
(1969); Son of Kronk (1970; vt Kronk 1971 US); The Square Root of Tomorrow
(coll 1970); Unborn Tomorrow (coll 1971); The Slaves of Heaven (1974 US);
Prisoner of Fire (1974); Jupiter Laughs (coll 1980); A World of Difference
(coll 1980).As Richard Avery: The Expendables sequence of SPACE OPERAS,
comprising The Deathworms of Kratos (1975), The Rings of Tantalus (1975),
The War Games of Zelos (1975) and The Venom of Argus (1976).About the
author: "Hope for the Future: The Science Fiction Novels of Edmund Cooper"
and "An Interview with Edmund Cooper" both by James Goddard, in Science
Fiction Monthly vol 2 #4.See also: ANTHROPOLOGY; DISASTER; OUTER PLANETS;

(1789-1851) US writer, best known for the Leather-Stocking Tales sequence
in a gentlemanly frontier-adventure tale style, which includes The Last of
the Mohicans (1826) and many other widely read novels featuring the
woodsman Natty Bumppo. In JFC's sf novel, The Monikins (1835), an English
gentleman purchases several captured specimens from an articulate monkey
civilization located in a LOST WORLD in the Antarctic, which they describe
to him so vividly that he returns there with them, only to find that the
monkey civilization parodies 19th-century human politics. As in many
PROTO-SCIENCE-FICTION tales of this sort, the protagonist then awakens.
The Crater, or Vulcan's Peak (1847; vt Man's Reef, or The Crater 1868 UK)
is a UTOPIA set on an ISLAND, which sinks. [JC]See also: APES AND CAVEMEN

(1935- ) UK writer, a graduate in English studies from Oxford, for some
time a journalist; now resident in the USA. In her sf novel Mandrake
(1964) the eponymous politician takes over a distressed NEAR-FUTURE
England and, in mystical league with the forces of Nature, begins the
process of cleansing the Earth of Man, but is stopped just in time. Her
juvenile FANTASY series, The Dark is Rising, is made up of Over Sea, Under
Stone (1965), The Dark is Rising (1973 US), Greenwitch (1974 US), The Grey
King (1975 US) and Silver on the Tree (1977 US). It is thought by many
critics to be one of the most distinguished of the mythological fantasy
series which, following the success of J.R.R. TOLKIEN's work, were
published in a spate during the 1960s and 1970s. The hero of the series,
Will Stanton, is at once a small boy and a vessel of ancient powers, and
SC shows great skill in blending in him a perfectly natural,
unsentimentalized, childish innocence and the sophistication of a mage.
The series owed much to Anglo-Saxon and Celtic MYTHOLOGY, but also uses
such sf tropes as ALTERNATE WORLDS, TIME PARADOXES and time stasis. The
Grey King won the 1976 Newbery Award. Seaward (1983 US) once again
utilizes Celtic material, this time in a dark hegira into the world of
death. [JC/PN]Other works: J.B. Priestley: Portrait of an Author (1970)
and Stars in our Hands (1977 chap Canada), both nonfiction; Jethro and the
Jumbie (1979 chap) and The Silver Cow (1983), both fantasies for young
children; The Boggart(1993 US).See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

(1932- ) US writer who has established a considerable reputation with his
novels, in which FABULATION and political scatology mix fruitfully. His
work might be seen to represent a POSTMODERNIST intensification of the
same milieu excoriated by Richard CONDON. The Origin of the Brunists
(1965) subverts the millennial fantasy tropes at its heart. The Universal
Baseball Association Inc., J. Henry Waugh, Prop. (1968) also denatures its
FANTASY premise, the eponymous dreamer's creation of a baseball world to
be safe in. The Public Burning (1977) can be read as an alternate history
( ALTERNATE WORLDS) of the early 1950s, taking in the death of the
Rosenbergs and examining Richard Nixon - a figure RC also anatomized in
Whatever Happened to Gloomy Gus of the Chicago Bears? (1987). A Night at
the Movies, or You Must Remember This (1987) is a Hollywood fantasia. In
Pinocchio in Venice (1991) the Pinocchio of human flesh, slowly reverting
to wood in his old age, returns to his origins. Pricksongs and Descants
(coll 1969) contains some stories of sf interest. [JC]Other works: Aesop's
Forest (1986 chap dos); A Political Fable (1968 New American Review as
"The Cat in the Hat for President"; rev 1980 chap).

(? -? ) US writer in whose The Impeachment of President Israels (1912) a
future Jewish US president is impeached for refusing on ethical grounds to
make war on Germany, but is vindicated. [JC]

(1921- ) Prolific US author (and wartime fighter pilot) who has written
also as Robert Cham Gilman and Sol Galaxan (for 1 story only, 1953). He
began publishing sf with "Age of Unreason" for ASF in 1947, and published
a good deal of magazine fiction in the next decade, though he was in fact
producing considerably more in other genres with such action novels as
Hero Driver (1954). His first sf novel was Dark December(1960), an
extremely effective post- HOLOCAUST quest story set in a
nuclear-war-devastated USA and featuring the protagonist's search for his
lost family. As Gilman, AC published the Rhada SPACE-OPERA sequence for
tough, older children: The Rebel of Rhada (1968), The Navigator of Rhada
(1969) and The Starkahn of Rhada (1970) are not easy reading, and neither
is the prequel The Warlock of Rhada (1985). The Burning Mountain: A Novel
of the Invasion of Japan (1983) embodies an orthodox alternate-history (
ALTERNATE WORLDS) premise in thriller dress, told grippingly: the A-bomb
fizzles, necessitating a land invasion of Japan to end WWII; after some
delay, a rejuvenated bomb stops the mayhem in 1946. Although AC's energies
have been, for most of his career, focused on non-sf projects, the recent
and ongoing Goldenwing Cycle- comprising Glory (1993) and Glory's War
(1995), with further volumes projected - is a series of glowingly mature
space opera tales structured around the travels of the eponymous FTL ship,
itself intricately realized. AC's return to sf has been revelatory.
[JC]Other works: Four marginal political thrillers set in the immediate
future: Thirty-Four East (1974) The Dragon (1977); The Hastings Conspiracy
(1980); The Apocalypse Brigade (1981).See also: GALACTIC EMPIRES.

(1940- ) US illustrator and film animator. He attended the Kansas City
Art Institute, and worked for almost a decade with a Kansas City animation
company, doing sf illustration (a cover for FSF in 1967 was his first
sale) and underground COMICS on the side. He became a full-time freelance
illustrator in 1972. Better known as a comic-book artist than as an sf
illustrator, RC in fact combines the fields in his work: his sf art can
look cartoonish, while his comics art has the solid feel of sf
illustration. While his men tend to look like "sacks filled with potatoes"
and his women are ridiculously huge-breasted, he has a genius for surface
texture and for three-dimensional solidity achieved with shading. Much of
his best work in sf has been for the SCIENCE FICTION BOOK CLUB and
DOUBLEDAY, and, in comics, for METAL HURLANT, especially his two series
Den and Rowlff. He contributed a sequence to the animated film Heavy Metal
(1981), published the GRAPHIC NOVEL Bloodstar (1976) and, with Jan Strnad,
produced New Tales of the Arabian Nights (1979). A somewhat fannish study,
with 80 pages of colour illustration and many more in b/w, is Richard
Corben: Flights into Fantasy (1982) by Fershid Bharuch. Richard Corben's
Art Book (graph coll 1990) is useful. Richard Corben's Art Book (graph
coll 1990) is useful. [PN/JG]Other works: Vic and Blood (graph coll 1989)
with Harlan ELLISON.


(? -? ) UK author of popular thrillers specifically written for the
lending-library market. His The Devil Man from Mars (1935) is an
interplanetary novel with a poor scientific background (or perhaps it was
intended as a parody) in which a Martian, equipped with death rays and
hypnotic powers, travels to Earth with, literally, the wind at his back
all the way. More sophisticated in content is The Man who Saw the Devil
(1934), a rewrite of Robert Louis STEVENSON's Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll
and Mr. Hyde (1886), in which neither personality is aware of the other's
existence. Many of his other works contain some elements of sf and the
weird-Vampire of the Skies (1932), The Monster of Dagenham Hall (1935),
The Death Pool (1936), The Man They Could not Kill (1936), The Man with
Nine Lives (1938) The Moon Killer (1938) and The Ghost Plane (1939) - but
none has any real importance. [JE]

(1855-1924) UK writer, almost certainly born Mary (nicknamed "Minnie")
Mackay, though she was secretive about her birth, which may have been
illegitimate. She wrote extremely popular bestsellers (selling, in her
prime, 100,000-copy editions), although her first novel, A Romance of Two
Worlds (1886; rev 1887) - in which interstellar travel is accomplished at
about the turn of the century, through "personal electricity" - and its
sequel, Ardath: The Story of a Dead Self (1889), were only moderately
successful. The Sorrows of Satan (1895), in which a Corelli-like
protagonist charismatically cures the Devil of evil, reaches perhaps her
peculiar peak. By 1900 her odd brand of sublimated sex, heated
religiosity, self-absorbed "female frailty" and unctuous fantasy had begun
to lose its appeal; by her death she had been virtually forgotten. Most of
her early work can be read as fantasy, though careful explication of the
texts may derive a form of religious ( RELIGION) explanation for the most
extraordinary events. Also of sf interest are The Young Diana: An
Experiment of the Future (1918), about a scientific experiment to make a
woman (and hence Woman in general) beautiful, and The Secret Power: A
Romance of the Present (1921), featuring a huge airship and a secret power
that triggers a great earthquake in California. [JC]Other works: The Soul
of Lilith (1892); Barabbas: A Dream of the World's Tragedy (1893); Ziska
(1897); Song of Miriam and Other Stories (coll 1898); The Master-Christian
(1900); The Strange Visitation of Josiah McNason: A Christmas Ghost Story
(1904 chap; vt The Strange Visitation 1912 chap); The Devil's Motor (in A
Christmas Greeting, coll 1901;1910 chap); The Life Everlasting
(1911).About the author: Now Barabbas was a Rotter (1978) by Brian
Masters; "Yesterday's Bestsellers, 1: Marie Corelli" by Brian STABLEFORD
in Million, #1 (1991).See also: GODS AND DEMONS.

(1903-1992) US writer in various genres, active from as early as 1934,
though his first sf story, "Operation Survival" for NW, did not appear
until 1962. Most of his early novels are set on farms in the US Middle
West; the title of one of them, Acres of Antaeus (1946), deceptively
suggests sf content. His sf novel, The Planet of the Blind (1968), written
for ROBERT HALE LIMITED, is a variation on the theme of the one-eyed man
in the country of the blind inaugurated (for sf) by H.G. WELLS in "The
Country of the Blind" (1904). [JC]

(1938- ) UK actor, playwright and novelist, in the latter capacity mostly
for older children. He is of sf interest mainly for the Gate trilogy - The
Gate of Eden (1974), The Land Beyond (1975) and Return to the Gate (1975)
- set in a bleak DYSTOPIAN UK of the NEAR FUTURE: social disintegration
prefigures the moments of hope and rebuilding in the final volume. The
Dark Side of the Moon (1976) ingeniously parallels the experiences of a
kidnapped child with those of an astronaut spiritually adrift in deep
space. The Magician's House sequence-comprising The Steps up the Chimney
(1990),The Door in the Tree(1991), The Tunnel behind the Waterfall (1991)
and The Bridge in the Clouds (1993) - is fantasy. [JC]Other works: The
Summer of the Haunting (1993).

(1931-1981) US writer whose Siege (1969) resembles several other US
novels of the period in its depiction of a Black revolution centred-as in
John WILLIAMS's Sons of Darkness, Sons of Light (1969) - on Manhattan. His
other novels of sf interest include The Jesus Factor (1970) - which factor
prevents the detonation of nuclear weapons, Hiroshima being a hoax
intended to prevent future wars - Acapulco Gold (1972), Sargasso (1977),
and The Genesis Rock (1980, which foresees a NEAR-FUTURE volcanic eruption
under New York. [JC]

(1947- ) UK writer and computer programmer whose first novel, Benedict's
Planet (1976), combines SPACE OPERA and some rather technical speculations
about the possibility of FASTER-THAN-LIGHT travel in a somewhat
overcrowded tale in which the discoverer of a new source of fuel runs into
complex trouble. Neither Orsini Godbase (1978) nor Sundrinker (1980),
written for ROBERT HALE LIMITED, proved significantly more ambitious as
novels. [JC]

(1926- ) US film-maker, a number of whose films are sf. Born in Los
Angeles, he graduated in engineering from Stanford University in 1947, and
spent a period in the US Navy and a term at Oxford University before going
to Hollywood, where he began to write screenplays; his first sale was
Highway Dragnet (1954), a picture he coproduced. He soon formed his own
company and launched his spectacularly low-budget career. From 1956 he was
regularly associated with American International Pictures, a distribution
company specializing in cheap exploitation films, often made to fit an
already-planned advertising campaign. In 1959 he founded Filmgroup, which
distributed its own product, but he returned to AIP in the 1960s for his
Edgar Allan POE movies (discussed below). In 1970, with brother Gene and
Larry Woolner, Corman founded New World Pictures, which soon overtook AIP
as the leading producer and distributor of exploitation films; he sold his
share of the company in 1983.RC's B-movies - mainly Westerns and sf/horror
stories at first, later also thrillers, road movies and drugs and
rock'n'roll movies, most aimed specifically at teenagers - did much to
redefine the various exploitation-movie genres, but only by the 1970s did
they begin to attract attention from radical film critics. At first he
served only as a producer, but in 1955 he began directing. Sf films he has
directed - the dates are those of first release - include The DAY THE
(1957), ATTACK OF THE CRAB MONSTERS (1957), War of the Satellites (1958),
Teenage Caveman (1958; vt Prehistoric World; vt Out of the Darkness), The
WASP WOMAN (1959), LAST WOMAN ON EARTH (1960), The Little Shop of Horrors
(1960), Creature From the Haunted Sea (1961), X - THE MAN WITH THE X-RAY
ORDER TO SAVE IT (1970) and FRANKENSTEIN UNBOUND (1990). The boom for sf
films which had begun in the 1950s was dying out by 1963, after which year
RC and other quickie-producers made far fewer of them. RC-directed films
are rare after 1970; throughout the 1970s and 1980s he concentrated on
producing because directing had stopped being fun.Sf-oriented films he has
produced, sometimes only as executive producer, include Monster from the
Ocean Floor (1954; vt Monster Maker), Beast with a Million Eyes (1955),
NIGHT OF THE BLOOD BEAST (1958), Beast from Haunted Cave (1959;
uncredited), Attack of the Giant Leeches (1960; vt Demons of the Swamp),
DEATH RACE 2000 (1975), PIRANHA (1978), Deathsport (1978), Humanoids from
the Deep (1980; vt Monster), BATTLE BEYOND THE STARS (1980), Galaxy of
Terror (1981; vt Mindwarp: An Infinity of Terror ; vt Planet of Horrors),
FORBIDDEN WORLD (1982; vt MUTANT), Space Raiders (1983), NOT OF THIS EARTH
(1988 remake), Crime Zone (1988), Lords of the Deep (1989), Time Trackers
(1989), BRAIN DEAD (1989) and Welcome to Oblivion (1990).In the 1960s, RC
furthered the practice (pioneered by the 1956 US release of GOJIRA) of
buying up foreign-language films with spectacular effects and reshooting
inserts with well-known US performers to create wholly new films, often
farming out the revision jobs to up-and-coming young talent. This explains
the presence in the filmographies of Francis Ford Coppola, Peter
Bogdanovich and Curtis Harrington of, respectively, Battle Beyond the Sun
(1963), Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (1966; vt Gill Woman)
and Voyage to the Prehistoric Planet (1965); Harrington also made Queen of
Blood (1966; vt Planet of Blood) in this way. These four films drew on
footage from the Soviet films Niebo Zowiet (1959; vt The Sky Calls; vt The
Heavens Call) and PLANETA BUR (1962; vt Planet of Storms; vt Storm Planet;
vt Cosmonauts on Venus). Throughout his career, indeed, RC has been known
for his fostering of young film-makers: as well as Coppola, Bogdanovich
and Harrington there have been Martin Scorsese, Monte Hellman, Jonathan
Demme, Paul Bartel and Jonathan Kaplan; in the sf-film world specifically
he was mentor to James CAMERON, Joe DANTE, Irvin Kershner and John SAYLES.
During his proprietorship of New World, RC became known also as the US
distributor of prestigious films by Kurosawa, Bergman, Fellini and
Truffaut, but he was up to his old tricks with the US release of NIPPON
CHINBOTSU (1973; vt The Submersion of Japan) as a truncated travesty,
Tidal Wave (1974). However, he presided over an inspired re-use of miles
of New World footage in Hollywood Boulevard (1976), dir Joe Dante and
Allan Arkush; this is a skit on low-budget film-making revolving round the
production of an sf exploitationer called Atomic War Brides.As a director,
RC also worked in the field of supernatural HORROR. The Undead (1957) has
a TIME-TRAVEL theme in its tale of a prostitute, the REINCARNATION of an
executed medieval witch, travelling back into the past but refusing to
intervene in her own earlier death because by so doing she would destroy
many futures. Later, RC attracted much critical praise with his series of
films based (often insecurely) on the works of Edgar Allan Poe, beginning
with House of Usher (1960) and mostly starring Vincent Price, of which one
of the finest is The Tomb of Ligeia (1964), written by Robert Towne, later
one of Hollywood's major screenwriters. Only The Haunted Palace
(1963)-actually based on a story by H.P. LOVECRAFT despite the Poe title -
has sf elements: deformed MUTANTS. RC also produced a second Lovecraft
adaptation, The Dunwich Horror (1969), which was mediocre.The argument
over RC's true worth as a film-maker continues. It is clear that by the
1970s he was mostly pursuing rather than setting trends. His work has
attracted a cult following and considerable attention from that school of
film critics which holds that there is often a freshness and inventiveness
in B-grade films lacking from more "respectable" Hollywood productions. In
an interview he said of his sf films: "I was never really satisfied with
my work in this field." His autobiography is How I Made a Hundred Movies
in Hollywood and Never Lost a Dime (1990). He played a bit part (as FBI
Director Hayden Burke) in the 1991 hit film The Silence of the Lambs.
[PN/KN]Further reading: The Films of Roger Corman: Brilliance on a Budget
(1982) by Ed NAHA; Roger Corman (1985) by Gary Morris; Roger Corman: The
Best of the Cheap Acts (1988) by Mark McGee.See also: CINEMA; MONSTER

[r] Kevin D. RANDLE.

(1874-1951) UK writer in whose sf novel, The Woman who Stopped War
(1935), the eponymous heroine sacrifices her virtue in order to gain money
to fund the Women's Save the Race League as another WAR approaches. War is
halted. But was it worth the cost? [JC]

One of the wittiest items of sf TERMINOLOGY. The coinage, credited to
Frederik POHL by Larry NIVEN in his essay "The Words in Science Fiction"
(in The Craft of Science Fiction [anth 1976] ed Reginald BRETNOR), was
first used by Niven in "Rammer" (1971). Formed on the analogy of
"popsicle", a US ice-lolly, the word refers to a frozen dead person,
preserved in the hope of resuscitation in a medically advanced future (



G. Harry STINE.



Collaborative writing name of Jack Owen Jardine (1931- ) and Julie Ann
Jardine (1926- ), then married; the name was taken from her stage name,
Corrie Howard. The Sword of Lankor (1966), in which natives of a high-
GRAVITY planet unknowingly extract valuable crystals for genially
manipulative spacefarers, is swashbuckling. In The Mind Monsters (1966
dos) a crash-landed Terran takes over a peculiar alien planet. Jack Owen
Jardine's solo sf was written as by Larry MADDOCK. [JC]


[r] Nick CARTER; Bernarr MACFADDEN.

[r] E.L. ARCH.



UK PULP MAGAZINE. 1 undated issue, cJune 1950, published by Popular
Press, London; an abridged reprint of the Sep 1949 issue of SUPER SCIENCE
STORIES. The lead novelette was "Minions of Chaos" by John D. MACDONALD.

US PULP MAGAZINE. 3 bimonthly issues, Mar-July 1941. Published by Albing
Publications; ed Donald A. WOLLHEIM. CS was one of 2 companion magazines
(the other being STIRRING SCIENCE STORIES) started by Wollheim in 1941. It
was cheaply produced (lacking full-colour covers) and had a microscopic
editorial budget - most of the stories were not paid for at all, being
solicited by Wollheim from his fellow FUTURIANS. The first issue contained
a story by Isaac ASIMOV, "The Secret Sense"; C.M. KORNBLUTH contributed a
number of stories under various pseudonyms. The title changed with the
second issue to Cosmic Science Fiction, but the whole venture proved
abortive and the magazine was dead within 6 months. [MJE]


Cosmology is the study of the Universe as a whole, its nature and its
origins. It is a speculative science (there being little opportunity for
experiment) and in discussing past writings on the subject it is
occasionally difficult to distinguish essays and fictions. Johannes
KEPLER's Somnium (1634) is basically an essay inspired by the heliocentric
theory of the Universe, opposing the Aristotelian system then favoured by
the Church ( PROTO SCIENCE FICTION). Works of a similar nature include
Gabriel DANIEL's Voyage du monde de Descartes (1690; trans as A Voyage to
the World of Cartesius 1692), which popularized the cosmological (and
other) theories of Rene Descartes (1596-1650), and Bernard le Bovyer de
FONTENELLE's Entretiens sur la pluralite des mondes habites (1686; trans
as The Plurality of Worlds 1929). An early attempt to describe an infinite
Universe with habitable worlds surrounding all the stars was presented as
a revelation by Emanuel SWEDENBORG in De Telluribus (1758; trans as (short
title) The Earths in Our Solar System and the Earths in the Starry Heavens
1787). There are several important 19th-century works belonging to this
tradition of "semi-fiction". Edgar Allan POE's Eureka (1848), elaborating
ideas first laid out in "A Mesmeric Revelation" (1844), is a poetic vision
embodying intuitive hypotheses about the nature and origins of the
Universe; Camille FLAMMARION's Lumen (1887; trans 1897) combines religious
notions with a powerful scientifically inspired imagination, and J.H.
ROSNY aine's La legende sceptique ["The Sceptical Legend"] (1889) belongs
to the same class of works. Edgar FAWCETT's The Ghost of Guy Thyrle (1895)
includes a cosmic vision, and H.G. WELLS offered a brief - and somewhat
ironic - account of a cosmic vision in "Under the Knife" (1896).In the
20th century this tradition petered out. William Hope HODGSON's The House
on the Borderland (1908) is better regarded as a late addition to the
19th-century corpus, combining a curious moral allegory with a spectacular
vision of the END OF THE WORLD. R.A. KENNEDY's curious philosophical
fantasia, The Triuneverse (1912), introduced the microcosm and the
macrocosm to speculative fiction ( GREAT AND SMALL) but is far too absurd
to be taken seriously. There is only one cosmic-vision story comparable in
scope and ambition to Eureka and La legende sceptique: Olaf STAPLEDON's
classic STAR MAKER (1937; part of discarded first draft published as
Nebula Maker, 1976).The early GENRE-SF sf writers were highly ambitious in
the scope and scale of their fantasies, but their attitude was
conspicuously different from that of the cosmic visionaries. They were
interested in adventure, and the viewpoints of their stories remained tied
to the experience of their characters. Protagonists sometimes caught brief
visionary glimpses of the cosmos, but these were rarely extrapolated at
any length. There is a curious narrowness about the tales of the infinite
Universe pioneered by E.E. "Doc" SMITH's Skylark of Space (1928; 1946),
and even such macrocosmic romances as Donald WANDREI's "Colossus" (1934).
The bathetic quality of attempts by pulp writers to tune in to the
infinite is amply illustrated by the first pulp sf story to develop the
idea of the expanding Universe: Edmond HAMILTON's "The Accursed Galaxy"
(1935). Hamilton "explained" the expansion by proposing that all the other
galaxies might be fleeing in horror from our own, because ours is
afflicted with a terrible disease (life). A.E. VAN VOGT's "The Seesaw"
(1941; incorporated into THE WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER fixup 1951), in which
the formation of the Solar System results from an unfortunate accident
whereby a man is caught in a temporal "seesaw", is another example of the
tendency of sf writers to minimize the issues of cosmology; ironically, a
parodic version of this in Earthdoom! (1987) by David LANGFORD and John
Grant ( Paul BARNETT), in which the Big Bang is "triggered" by an
unwitting time traveller, has a far more plausible scientific grounding.
The kind of joke embodied in L. Ron HUBBARD's "Beyond the Black Nebula"
(1949 as by Rene Lafayette), in which it is discovered that our Universe
is somewhere in the alimentary tract of a macrocosmic worm, is echoed in
several other works, including Damon KNIGHT's "God's Nose" (1964) and
Robert RANKIN's Armageddon - The Musical (1990).More earnest cosmological
visions have been inserted into a number of sf novels, sometimes by means
of unusual literary devices. Examples include James BLISH's The Triumph of
Time (1958; vt A Clash of Cymbals), Poul ANDERSON's Tau Zero (1970) and an
episode in Bob SHAW's Ship of Strangers (fixup 1978). Ian WATSON's The
Jonah Kit (1975) casually suggests that the actual cosmos might be a mere
shadowy echo of the original creation, while dramatic and symbolic use of
the steady-state theory is made in THE RING OF RITORNEL (1968) by Charles
L. HARNESS. Eccentric cosmological speculations are used to good effect in
Philip Jose FARMER's The Unreasoning Mask (1981) and in several novels by
Barrington J. BAYLEY, including The Pillars of Eternity (1982) and The Zen
Gun (1983).Among cosmologists who have dabbled in sf are George GAMOW, who
included some cosmological fantasies in his book of didactic fictions Mr
Tomkins in Wonderland (1939), and Fred HOYLE, who incorporated visionary
moments into The Black Cloud (1957) and The Inferno (1973, with Geoffrey
HOYLE).An avant-garde story featuring a juxtaposition between the minutiae
of everyday existence and cosmological notions is Pamela ZOLINE's "The
Heat-Death of the Universe" (1967). Italo CALVINO produced several
eccentric cosmological fantasies, some of which are in Le Cosmicomiche
(coll of linked stories 1965; trans as COSMICOMICS 1968). Surreal
exercises in "alternative cosmology" include Lester DEL REY's The Sky is
Falling (1963), which deals with a pseudo-Aristotelian closed Universe,
and two stories in which the Universe is mostly solid, with habitable
lacunae: Barrington J. Bayley's "Me and My Antronoscope" (1973) and David
LAKE's The Ring of Truth (1982).20th-century ASTRONOMY has, of course,
gradually revealed the true strangeness of the cosmos; it has popularized
such notions as ENTROPY and the Big Bang, and has produced such curious
images as that of a hyperspherical Universe which is finite in dimension
but infinite in extent. The idea that the Universe may contain vast
numbers of BLACK HOLES which themselves may contain universes-in-miniature
has lent a new respectability to microcosmic romance, while the notion of
PARALLEL WORLDS is thought by some modern physicists to be a likely
consequence of quantum theory. The kind of visionary extravagance found in
Poe's and Flammarion's cosmological essays pales into insignificance
beside such modern popular essays on cosmology as Steven Weinberg's The
First Three Minutes (1977), Paul DAVIES's Other Worlds (1980) and Stephen
Hawking's A Brief History of Time (1988). The discoveries and speculations
reported in such books as these have posed a challenge to contemporary sf
writers, several of whom have made interesting attempts to devise
fantasies which can contain and do justice to a distinctively modern
cosmic perspective. Worthy attempts include George ZEBROWSKI's Macrolife
(1979), Charles SHEFFIELD's Between the Strokes of Night (1985) and Greg
BEAR's Eternity (1988). The inspiration provided by modern cosmology has
been adequate to bring about something of a renaissance in the
cosmic-vision story; further examples include Michael BISHOP's "Close
Encounter with the Deity" (1986), the visionary sequences in Brian M.
STABLEFORD's The Centre Cannot Hold (1990) and The Angel of Pain (1991)
and David Langford's "Waiting for the Iron Age" (1991). [BS]See also:



1. US DIGEST-size magazine. 4 issues, irregular, Sep 1953-July 1954,
published by Star Publications; ed L.B. Cole. This was an unremarkable
magazine of moderate standard which published no memorable fiction; the
actual editing was done by Laurence M. JANIFER. There was a scoop in #2,
"Visitor from Nowhere", an sf story by the mysterious writer of Westerns,
B. Traven (?1882-1969).2. US BEDSHEET-size magazine. 4 issues, bimonthly,
May-Nov 1977. Published by Baronet Publishing Co.; ed David G. HARTWELL.
CSFFM contained a sophisticated mixture of sf and fantasy in an elegant
format which included full-colour interior illustration. It serialized a
short novel in Fritz LEIBER's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser series, "Rime
Isle"; ran Michael BISHOP's "The House of Compassionate Sharers"; and
featured a number of other major authors; there was a book-review column
by Robert SILVERBERG. CSFAFM had one of the most promising launches of the
decade but, undercapitalized and suffering distribution problems, it
folded. [FHP/MJE/PN]


One of the many ZIFF-DAVIS house names, this appeared on over 40 magazine
stories 1941-58, but until the late 1940s exclusively for stories by
William P. McGivern (1921-1982). It was then sometimes used by Chester S.
GEIER, later by Roger P. Graham (Rog PHILLIPS) and probably others still
unidentified. "Secret of the Flaming Ring" (1951) and "Space is for
Suckers" (1958) have both been attributed to Graham. [PN]

A term coined by Brian W. ALDISS in Billion Year Spree (1973) to describe
the comforting ambience shed by the sort of DISASTER tale told by UK
writers like John WYNDHAM (see also HOLOCAUST AND AFTER). [JC]

(1954- ) Canadian author whose first two novels, marketed like their
successors as juveniles, were Les Hockeyeurs cybernetiques (1983; trans
Jane Brierley as Shooting for the Stars 1990), a tale marked by a high
degree of invention, and Les Paralleles celestes ["The Celestial
Parallels"] (1983), which demonstrates considerable literary ambition and
talent. The former book begins the Inactifs sequence, further volumes
including L'idole des inactifs ["A Star for the Idle Masses"] (1989), La
Revolte des inactifs ["The Rebellion of the Idle Masses"] (1990) and Le
Retour des inactifs ["The Return of the Idle Masses"] (1991). DC won the
1984 Canada Council Award and the Grand prix de la science-fiction et du
Fantastique Quebecois. Some of DC's short stories are non-juvenile.
[LP]Other works: Les Geants de blizzard ["The Giants in the Blizzard"]
(1985); La Penombre jaune ["Yellow Shadow"] (1986); Nocturnes pour Jessie
["Nocturnes for Jessie"] (1987); Les Prisonniers du zoo ["Prisoners of the
Zoo"] (1988); Terminus cauchemar ["Terminus Nightmare"] (1991); Les Yeux
d'emeraude ["Eyes of Emerald"] (1991).

Grant ALLEN.

[s] John Russell FEARN.

(1933- ) US writer, briefly a schoolteacher, who began publishing sf with
"Another Rib" in FSF in 1963 with Marion Zimmer BRADLEY under the shared
pseudonym John Jay Wells. With her husband, Robert COULSON, she won the
1965 Best Amateur Publication HUGO for their long-running fanzine YANDRO.
JC's first novel, Crisis on Cheiron (1967 dos), like her second, The
Singing Stones (1968 dos), is set on a primitive planet in a
human-dominated Galaxy; the oppressed species of each planet needs help to
survive the inimical influence of large corporations and the like. Unto
the Last Generation 1975 Canada) deals negatively with population control;
Space Trap (1976 Canada) is a First-Contact tale. The romantic coloration
of her work is more evident in the Children of the Stars family saga of
exploration and survival: Tomorrow's Heritage (1981), Outward Bound
(1982), Legacy of Earth (1989) and The Past of Forever (1989). Star Sister
(1990) continues in the same mode. She has also written FANTASY and Gothic
novels. [JC]Other works: The Secret of Seven Oaks (1972), Door into Terror
(1972), Stone of Blood (1975) and Fear Stalks the Bayou (1976), Gothics;
the Krantin fantasy series, comprising The Web of Wizardry (1978) and The
Death-God's Citadel (1980); Dark Priestess (1977), historical and

(1928- ) US writer, a long-time fan who edited, with his wife Juanita
COULSON, the fanzine YANDRO, winner of a 1965 HUGO. With the exception of
To Renew the Ages (1976 Canada), a mildly anti- FEMINISM post- HOLOCAUST
adventure, and the less interesting High Spy (1987), his sf novels have
been written with Gene DEWEESE. They include Gates of the Universe (1975
Canada; rev vt Nightmare Universe 1985 US), a mildly amusing SPACE OPERA,
but more notably the Joe Karns sequence of RECURSIVE tales spoofing sf and
sf CONVENTIONS, Now You See It/Him/Them (1975) and Charles Fort Never
Mentioned Wombats (1977). His revision of But What of Earth? (1976 Canada)
from the Piers ANTHONY manuscript, published as a collaboration, proved
controversial. Anthony (see his entry) has argued his sense of the matter
at great length; neither author, in fact, approved of the final editing by
LASER BOOKS. [JC]Other works: Two Man from U.N.C.L.E. novelizations with
DeWeese, writing together as Thomas Stratton: The Invisibility Affair *
(1967) and The Mind-Twisters Affair * (1967).

Film (1968). William Conrad Productions. Dir Robert Altman, starring
Robert Duvall, James Caan. Screenplay Loren Mandel, based on The Pilgrim
Project (1964) by Hank SEARLS. 101 mins cut to 73 mins for UK. Colour.A
year later, C would have looked like documentary, for it concerns the
first landing on the Moon, which actually took place in 1969. The film's
struggle between the USSR and USA to be first to reach the Moon strays
from the real-life facts (Searls's original novel was published in 1964),
but the behind-the-scenes planning on which the film focuses is gripping.
The idiosyncratic, vivid view of personal relationships - here among
astronauts and technicians - that typifies Altman's work brings life to
the soap-opera elements (astronaut's wife takes to drink, etc.). C's
climax is authentically exciting. This is early Altman, and he had no way
of preventing a clumsy re-edit or the butchery of the UK print. A number
of the later films of Robert Altman (1925- ) were fantasy or sf: Brewster
McCloud (1970), 3 Women (1977), QUINTET (1979) and Popeye (1980) most
obviously. [PN]


[s] John R. PIERCE.

Alfred Taylor SCHOFIELD.



(1950- ) US writer. He was involved in the CLARION SCIENCE FICTION
WRITERS' WORKSHOP in 1971-2, and began publishing sf with "Gee, Isn't He
the Cutest Little Thing?" in Stephen GOLDIN's Alien Condition (anth 1973).
His first novel, Autumn Angels (1975), with intro by Harlan ELLISON,
depicts in hallucinated language a FAR-FUTURE Earth, with LINGUISTIC and
cultural jokes proliferating rather exhaustingly. The sequel, An East Wind
Coming (1979), continues to introduce to the end of time cultural icons in
pastiche. The stories in Platypus of Doom and Other Nihilists (coll of
linked stories 1976) similarly - though with a modest induction of calm -
features a sequence of somewhat unhinged parodies of popular figures. Of
these early books, only The Sound of Winter (1976), a love story set in a
mutation-riddled post- DISASTER wonderland, attempts to create a more
humanly moving outcome. Parody is technically not far removed from
novelization, and ABC's next novel, Flash Gordon * (1980), novelizing the
film of that name, was thus perhaps a logical move. Subsequently ABC has
written for Byron PREISS some Time Machine sharecrops - The Rings of
Saturn * (1985), American Revolutionary * (1985) and Blade of the
Guillotine * (1986) - as well as two sharecrops -Planetfall * (1988) and
Stationfall * (1989) - derived from computer games. Other sharecrops
include Isaac Asimov's Robot City, Book 4: Prodigy * (1987) and Robert
Silverberg's Time Tours #5: The Dinosaur Trackers * (1992). [JC]

(1950- ) US writer of sf and fantasy, almost exclusively juveniles. Of
some interest are: Murder in Orbit (1987 UK; vt Space Station ICE-3 1987);
My Teacher is an Alien (1989) and its sequels, My Teacher Fried my Brains
(1991), My Teacher Glows in the Dark(1991) and My Teacher Flunked the
Planet (1992); Philip Jose Farmer's The Dungeon #2: The Dark Abyss *
(1989), a tie; and the A.I. Gang sequence for children - Operation
Sherlock (1986), Robot Trouble (1986) and Forever Begins Tomorrow (1986).
[JC]Other works: Eyes of the Tarot (1983); Spirits and Spells (1983);
Waiting Spirits (1984); Amulet of Doom (1985); The Monster's Ring (1987);
The Ghost in the Third Row (1987); The Ghost Wore Gray (1988); The Unicorn
Treasury (anth 1988); How I Survived my Summer Vacation (1988); Some of my
Best Friends are Monsters (1988); Monster of the Year (1989); Jeremy
Thatcher, Dragon Hatcher (1991); The Ghost in the Big Brass Bed (1991);
Jennifer Murdley's Toad (1992); Space Brat (1992); Aliens Ate my Homework
(1993); The Dragonslayers (1994); I Left my Sneakers in Dimension X
(1994); Oddly Enough (coll 1994); Bruce Coville's Book of Monsters: Tales
to Give you the Creeps (anth 1994); Bruce Coville's Book of Aliens: Tales
to Warp your Mind (anth 1994); the Unicorn Chronicles sequence beginning
with Into the Land of Unicorns (1994).

(1844-1905) US writer whose Revi-Lona: A Romance of Love in a Marvelous
Land (1879), is a parody of the lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) novels so popular
in the late 19th century. It is set, like many of them, in Antarctica,
where a council of matriarchs falls under the narrator's sexual sway. The
results are syphilis and suicide, death and disaster, and the escape of
the hero. Some sharp points are made about UTOPIAS. [JC]

(1870-1943) US writer whose sf novel, Daybreak: A Romance of an Old World
(1896), features an ambulatory MOON which deposits upon MARS a balloon
whose passengers discover there a new defence of Christianity in the form
of parallel EVOLUTION and the multiple incarnation of Christ. [JC]

(1911- ) UK writer (blind since 1984), long resident in Switzerland,
author of several crabbed visions of a century in decay. Prose & Verse
(coll 1945) with Julian Mountain contains some fantasy stories; of sf
interest are The Indiscretions of an Infant, or The Baby's Revenge (1945)
and The Rape of Man, or The Zoo Let Loose (1947), in which the other
mammals of the world shake off the human yoke. [JC]

Pseudonym of UK writer John Middleton Murry Jr (1926- ), son of the
famous critic; RC also published four non-sf novels under the name Colin
Murry, beginning with The Golden Valley (1958); and, as Colin Middleton
Murry - Colin being a nickname - two autobiographical volumes, One Hand
Clapping (1975; vt I at the Keyhole 1975 US), which deals mainly with his
relationship with his father, and Shadows on the Grass (1977).After
working for some years as a teacher, and finding his non-sf novels to be
only moderately successful, he adopted the Cowper pseudonym for
Breakthrough (1967). Not conventional GENRE SF, being more richly
characterized and romantic than is usual, its story of ESP and a kind of
reverse REINCARNATION is sensitively told and given unusual reverberations
by its use of a leitmotif from Keats. It remains one of RC's finest works,
and its romantic theme - of the power of the mind to sense ALTERNATE
WORLDS, and of the flimsiness and limitations of this one's reality, crops
up often in his work, sometimes in images of deja vu; as does its venue, a
NEAR-FUTURE Southern England on the cusp of transformation. These
characteristics feature in many of the short stories assembled in The
Custodians (coll 1976), The Web of the Magi (coll 1980) and The Tithonian
Factor (coll 1984), the title story of the first of these collections
being much praised in the USA and nominated for several awards. They also
inform what is generally considered his best singleton, The Twilight of
Briareus (1974); in this tale England has been transformed, through a
disruption in world weather caused by a supernova explosion, into a
snowbound Arcadia; from the same apparent source later come psychic
influences which lead to complex interaction between humans and ALIENS.
The story - like all of RC's best work - is charged with a strange,
expectant vibrancy. Its explorations of human PERCEPTION demonstrate an
openness not unlike that described in John Keats's remarks about "negative
capability" - remarks that RC has quoted in print. Keats's plea was for a
kind of waiting expectancy of the mind, which should be kept free of
preconceptions. RC does not usually link telepathy with the idea of the
SUPERMAN, as is more normally found in US sf uses of the convention;
instead, it can be seen in his work as an analogue of "negative
capability".Although the air and style of RC's sf is a long way from
traditional HARD SF, its content uses traditional themes. Kuldesak (1972)
deals with an underground society on a post- HOLOCAUST Earth ( POCKET
UNIVERSE), and one man who finds the surface against the will of an
all-powerful COMPUTER. Clone (1972), which saw RC's first real
breakthrough into the US market, is an amusing near-future SATIRE. Time
out of Mind (1973), like the earlier Domino (1971), rather mechanically
applies psi tropes ( PSI POWERS) to thriller-like plots involving TIME
TRAVEL and the rescue of a future UK from the totalitarian implications of
the 20th century. Worlds Apart (1974) is a not wholly successful comedy,
burlesquing several sf CLICHES in a story of an alien world on which an sf
novel is being written about Urth, while back on Earth an sf writer writes
about the alien world. Profundis (1979) places RC's now-expected
mild-mannered telepathic Christ-figure in a huge submarine which has
survived nuclear holocaust and is being led around the world by dolphins
anxious to keep human violence at bay.RC remains best known for his Corlay
trilogy - THE ROAD TO CORLAY (1978; with "Piper at the Gates of Dawn"1976
added, as coll 1979 US), A Dream of Kinship (1981) and A Tapestry of Time
(1982) - in which what might be called the pathos of expectancy typical of
his best work is finally resolved, for the essential parts of the sequence
take place in an England 1000 years after changing sea-levels have
inundated much low-lying country, creating an archipelago-like venue which
hearkens - perhaps consciously - back to Richard JEFFERIES's After London,
or Wild England (1885), and which also clearly resembles the West Country
featured in Christopher PRIEST's coeval A Dream of Wessex (1977). In this
land, an oppressive theocracy is threatened by the solace offered through
a young lad's redemptive visions of a new faith, whose emblem is the White
Bird of Kinship. The sequence proceeds through the establishment of a new
church, its stiffening into its own repressive rituals, and its rebirth.
Throughout, a sweet serenity of image and storytelling instinct - RC has
always been a gripping teller of tales - transfigure conventional
plot-patterns into testament. The Corlay books so clearly sum up RC's
imaginative sense of a redeemed England that it is perhaps unsurprising
that he has written relatively little since. [PN/JC]Other works: Phoenix
(1968); Domino (1971); Out There Where the Big Ships Go (coll 1980 US);
The Story of Pepita and Corindo (1982 chap US); The Young Student (1982
chap US); The Unhappy Princess (1982 chap US); The Missing Heart (1982
chap US); Shades of Darkness (1986); The Magic Spectacles, and Other Tales
(coll 1986 chap).As Colin Murry: Recollections of a Ghost (1960); A Path
to the Sea (1961); Private View (1972), written at the same time as the
other non-sf novels.About the author:"Backwards Across the Frontier" by RC

[r] M.H. ZOOL.

(1873-1950) Australian novelist and journalist who reviewed for The Argus
and the Australasian 1918-46. His best-known sf novel is Out of the
Silence (1919 The Argus; 1925; cut 1947), about the attempt by a
representative of an otherwise extinct super-race to rule first Australia
and then the world. The novel exhibits some racist overtones. Fool's
Harvest (1939) warned against a future INVASION of AUSTRALIA. The Missing
Angel (1947) is a fantasy about foxing the Devil. [JC]See also: SUSPENDED

(1942- ) US rancher and author whose first sf novel, Mindsong (1979),
features a planet terraformed into a Hellenic Eden. Her second, Star Web
(1980), is somewhat less engaging. [JC]See also: FASTER THAN LIGHT.

[s] Brian W. ALDISS.

Film (1965). Security Pictures/Paramount. Dir Andrew Marton, starring
Dana Andrews, Janette Scott, Kieron Moore, Alexander Knox. Screenplay J.M.
White, Julian Halevy. 96 mins. Colour.An attempt to tap the energy at the
Earth's core causes a large and ever increasing crack in the crust. A bid
to halt the process with a nuclear explosion sends into space a large
chunk of the Earth, which forms a new moon. This ambitious DISASTER movie,
filmed in Spain, is undermined by too small a budget, but is suspensefully
directed. [JB/PN]

[s] Poul ANDERSON.

(? -? ) Author of the lost-race ( LOST WORLDS) novel Ionia: Land of Wise
Men and Fair Women (1898). Ionia is a singularly pious and anti-Semitic
Greek colony in the Himalayas boasting prohibition, eugenics and
communism. He is not to be confused with Alexander George Craig (1897- ),
author of The Voice of Merlin (1946) as Alec Craig, a book-length poem on
Arthurian themes. [JC]


Pseudonym of UK writer and journalist Allan James Tucker (1929- ), whose
Roy Rickman series - The Alias Man (1968), Message Ends (1969) and Contact
Lost (1970) - a mundane jeremiad about the coming 1970s world crisis, with
the UK becoming a Soviet satellite, is sufficiently displaced into sf to
be of some interest. [JC]

[s] Norvell W. PAGE.

[s] Eric Frank RUSSELL.

Working name of UK writer Charles William Thurlow-Craig (1901- ), whose
two NEAR-FUTURE sf novels, Plague Over London (1939) and The Tashkent
Crisis (1971), demonstrate a fine consistency of mind through three
decades, for in each the Russians are the villains who, with secret
weapons and unflagging spite, threaten the world. [JC]

Pseudonym used by illustrator and writer Dorothy M. Craigie (1908- ) on
her books for young adults. As Dorothy Craigie, she wrote numerous stories
for younger children, from Summersalts Circus (1947) to Nicky and Nigger
Join the Circus (1960); also as Dorothy Craigie she illustrated children's
books, including Graham Greene's four in the genre.As DC, she wrote two sf
novels with young protagonists. In The Voyage of the Luna 1 (1948), which
she illustrated under her real name, the two children of famous explorers
more or less hijack a Moon-bound rocket and encounter various strange
species there. Dark Atlantis (1951) takes its protagonist three miles down
to an ATLANTIS inhabited by intelligent reptiles. [JC]

(1934- ) US experimental physicist (Professor of Physics at the
University of Washington) and writer; father of Kathryn CRAMER; author of
the Alternate View series of science articles in ASF from the 1980s
onwards. His HARD-SF novel, Twistor(1989), engagingly describes the
eponymous invention, which sends folk into other DIMENSIONS, where they
find copious supplies of food, while a villainous corporation attempts -
in the end unsuccessfully - to corner the device for its own ends. As the
novel closes, several new and virgin worlds stand at the brink of being
used by humans. [JC]

(1962- ) US critic and editor; daughter of John CRAMER. She has been
involved in various capacities with the NEW YORK REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION
since it began in 1988, where she has published some spiky, erudite
criticism. She has become deeply involved in arguing the aesthetic case
for - and writing - fiction designed for hypertext, including "In Small &
Large Pieces" (1994 The Eastgate Quarterly Review of Hypertext). Her
anthologies include two volumes in the Christmas series, both with David
HARTWELL: Christmas Ghosts (anth 1987) and Spirits of Christmas (anth
1989); The Architecture of Fear (anth 1987) with Peter D. Pautz (1952- );
Masterpieces of Fantasy and Enchantment (anth 1988) with Hartwell;
Masterpieces of Fantasy and Wonder (anth 1989) with Hartwell; Walls of
Fear (anth 1990); The Ascent of Wonder: The Evolution of Hard Science
Fiction (anth 1994) with Hartwell, a huge and ambitious attempt to
delineate, and to represent by examples, the scope of HARD SF. [JC]

[s] Thomas Calvert MCCLARY.

Pseudonym of Bernard Glemser (1908-1990), UK novelist who worked for his
government in the USA after WWII, remaining there after his resignation.
Under his own name he wrote several non-genre novels, at least two of
which feature a protagonist named Robert Crane. As RC he began to write sf
with "The Purple Fields" in 1953, but is best remembered for Hero's Walk
(1954) - the basis for a tv play, "The Voices" (1954) - an intelligent and
realistically conceived tale in which superior ALIENS quarantine a
militaristic Earth and eventually bomb it to rubble. There is some hope at
the novel's close that humanity will be permitted to survive and mature.

US SEMIPROZINE, from 1993, current, quarterly, four issues to Fall 1994,
trade paperback format, ed and pub Bryan Cholfin from Cambridge,
Massachusetts.The uncompromising style of Cholfin's Broken Mirrors Press
(which has published worthy though uncommercial projects by writers such
as David R. BUNCH and R.A. L LAFFERTY) informs this attractive SMALL PRESS
fiction quarterly, which enjoys a remarkably high level of editorial
quality. Its first issues have included new fiction by Ursula K. LE GUIN,
Gwyneth JONES, Brian W. ALDISS, and R.A. LAFFERTY, as well as publishing
Gene WOLFE's novella "Empire of Foliage and Flower", previously available
only in a de luxe edition. Le Guin's novelette "The Matter of Seggri" was
nominated for the 1994 Nebula Award C's high standards, however, may
militate against its success; its recent publication schedule has become
uncertain. [GF]

(? - ) UK writer whose Naming the Animals: A Haunting (1980) congestedly
depicts a DYSTOPIAN future, out of which, freighted in symbol, a new Eden
implausibly emerges. [JC]

(1911-1984) US publisher and editor, one of the first sf fans to become a
publisher, editing and producing two SEMIPROZINES: UNUSUAL STORIES -
ambitiously announced in 1933 but more or less still-born - and MARVEL
TALES, which came out in 1934. At about the same time, after a chapbook
anthology assembling "Men of Avalon" by David H. KELLER and "The White
Sybil" by Clark Ashton SMITH, he published, in Mars Mountain (coll 1935)
by Eugene George KEY, one of the first US GENRE-SF books to be produced by
a US SMALL PRESS founded for that purpose, and the first to be released
with any expectation that copies would be sold to buyers who did not know
the author personally. A second novel, which would have been Andre
NORTON's first published sf, was accepted for publication in 1934 but
stayed in manuscript - except for a few excerpts - until WLC finally
released it 38 years later as Garan the Eternal (1972). This first press,
Fantasy Publications, was followed by Visionary Press, which published The
Shadow over Innsmouth (1936) by H.P. LOVECRAFT; but various projects then
foundered, and WLC became successfully active again only in 1945, when as
Crawford Publications he released some booklets, including Clifford D.
SIMAK's The Creator 1946 chap) and an anthology, The Garden of Fear (anth
1945 chap); 2 further anthologies, Griffin Booklet One (anth 1949) and The
Machine-God Laughs (anth 1949), both ed WLC, were under the Griffin
Publishing Co. imprint. These enterprises all proved less significant than
FANTASY PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. (or FPCI), which WLC was instrumental in
founding in 1947, along with the magazine FANTASY BOOK (editing the latter
under the pseudonym Garrett Ford). FPCI was one of the central fan presses
of the era, publishing L. Sprague DE CAMP's The Undesired Princess (1951),
L. Ron HUBBARD's Death's Deputy (1948), A.E. VAN VOGT's and E. Mayne
HULL's Out of the Unknown (coll 1948) and other titles of importance; it
failed in the end only through incompetent management.WLC soldiered on
through the 1950s and afterwards, hand to mouth, always hopeful and full
of projects, some of which were at least partially realized. He edited
Science and Sorcery (anth 1953) as Garrett Ford; launched the magazine
SPACEWAY in 1953; became publisher of the magazine Witchcraft & Sorcery
(formerly Coven 13) in the 1970s; and became in the mid-1970s a
CONVENTIONS entrepreneur. Also, various stray pamphlets appeared. WLC's
diverse projects included the publishing of some scarce and interesting
material, and it may well have been the unattractive, amateurish
production values which characterized all his work that caused his general
lack of commercial success; certainly he knew sf, and loved it. [JC/MJE]


(vt Code Name Trixie) Film (1973). Cambist Films. Dir George ROMERO,
starring Lane Carroll, W.G. McMillan, Harold Wayne Jones. Screenplay
Romero, based on a story by Paul McCollough. 104 mins. Colour.A plane
carrying germ-warfare material crashes near a small US town and pollutes
the drinking-water, causing an epidemic of homicidal and psychopathic
behaviour in the inhabitants. The army moves in and the crazed brutality
of the soldiers as they shoot victims of the virus (or trapped innocents)
is as bad as the lunacy of their targets. There are strong similarities
between this and Romero's best-known film, NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD
(1968), in that both involve a small group of trapped "normal" people
surrounded by nightmare. Romero's exploitation movies are more ambitious
than most - wittier, too - and this, as usual, has, half-visible through
the blood, a political/cultural subtext about an uncaring society. [JB/PN]


(1908-1973) UK author, publisher and literary agent who began writing for
the BOYS' PAPERS in 1926, turning to adult thrillers in 1932. He wrote 564
books under (it is widely reported) 28 pseudonyms, but it is doubtful if
all were exclusively by him (Michael MOORCOCK was at one time approached
to do writing for JC). Like George GRIFFITH with his future- WAR novels,
JC exploited contemporary fears of organized crime and of terrorist and
revolutionary activities, often including sf elements as an additional
horror-for example, his first novel, Seven Times Seven (1932; rev 1970),
depicts a criminal gang equipped with "freezing gas". In later works,
beginning with Dangerous Quest (1943; rev 1965), a futuristic novel about
an underground Gestapo group in liberated Yugoslavia, and continuing in
his Dr Palfrey series (see listing below), sf themes came to the fore.
Midget aircraft piloted by zombie-like children attack the world's cities
in The Children of Hate (1952; rev vt The Children of Despair 1958 UK; vt
The Killers of Innocence 1971 US). Human-induced world DISASTER was
imminent in The Flood (1955) and others, while an alien INVASION was
defeated in The Unbegotten (1971). All were sensational in nature,
contributing nothing to the genre, and were influential only on the
cheap-thriller market. [JE]Other works include: The Death Miser (1932; rev
1965); Men, Maids and Murder (1933; rev 1972); The Mark of the Crescent
(1935; rev 1967); Death Round the Corner (1935); The Mystery Plane (1936);
Thunder in Europe (1936; rev 1968); The Air Marauders (1937); Carriers of
Death (1937; rev 1968); Days of Danger (1937; rev 1968); The S.O.S. Flight
(1937); Death Stands By (1938; rev 1966); The Fighting Fliers (1938);
Menace! (1938; rev 1971); Panic! (1939; rev 1969); Death by Night (1940);
The Island of Peril (1940; rev 1968); The Peril Ahead (1940; rev 1964);
Death in Flames (1943; rev 1973 as by Gordon Ashe); Dark Peril (1944; rev
1958); The League of Dark Men (1947; rev 1965); Department of Death
(1951); Four of the Best (coll 1955); The Black Spiders (1957); A Shadow
of Death (1968); A Blast of Trumpets (1975). Dr Palfrey stories: Traitors'
Doom (1942), The Valley of Fear (1943; vt The Perilous Country 1949), The
Legion of the Lost (1943), The Hounds of Vengeance (1945; rev 1967), Death
in the Rising Sun (1945), Shadow of Doom (1946), The House of the Bears
(1946; rev 1962), Dark Harvest (1947; rev 1962), Sons of Satan (1948; rev
1970), The Wings of Peace (1948; rev 1964), The Dawn of Darkness (1949),
The League of Light (1949; rev 1963), The Man who Shook the World (1950;
rev 1958), The Prophet of Fire (1951), The Touch of Death (1954), The
Mists of Fear (1955), The Plague of Silence (1958), The Drought (1959; vt
Dry Spell 1967 UK), The Terror (1962; rev 1970), The Depths (1963), The
Sleep (1964), The Inferno (1965), The Famine (1967), The Blight (1968),
The Oasis (1969), The Smog (1970), The Insulators (1972), The Voiceless
Ones (1973), The Thunder-Maker (1976) and The Whirlwind (1979). [JE]See


Film (1954). Universal. Dir Jack ARNOLD, starring Richard Carlson, Julia
Adams, Richard Denning. Screenplay Harry Essex, Arthur Ross, from a story
by Maurice Zimm. 3-D. 79 mins. B/w.A humanoid creature with gills
successfully resists attempts by three scientists - attracted to the area
by the discovery of a fossilized hand with fins - to take him from his
native lagoon in the upper Amazon. One (Denning) is ready to kill it;
another (Carlson) hopes to keep it alive. The Gill-Man - lumbering on land
but remarkably graceful in the underwater sequences - became one of the
icons of Universal's MONSTER MOVIES. Shot in 3-D, the film is richly
atmospheric despite its routine script. It became an archetype of the
genre through the bizarre eroticism of the Creature's fascination with the
third scientist (Adams), especially in the balletic sequence where he
swims unseen beneath her in a sensuous mime of intercourse. In some
respects Steven SPIELBERG's successful Jaws (1975) was a remake of TCFTBL.
The film had two sequels: REVENGE OF THE CREATURE (1954) and The CREATURE
WALKS AMONG US (1956).The novelization is Creature from the Black Lagoon *
(1954) by Vargo Statten ( John Russell FEARN). [PN/JB]


Film (1956). Universal. Dir John Sherwood, starring Jeff Morrow, Rex
Reason, Leigh Snowden. Screenplay Arthur Ross. 78 mins. B/w.This is the
second, inferior sequel to The CREATURE FROM THE BLACK LAGOON (1954) - the
first being REVENGE OF THE CREATURE (1954); it was not shot in 3-D, and
had a new director. Here the Creature is transformed by fire into a land
monster, complete with lungs (and, later, clothes), thereby depriving him
of precisely the qualities that made him popular. There is a ludicrous
plot about an exploitative scientist (Morrow) making money out of the
space programme by building up the Creature's red corpuscles and thus (!)
altering his gene structure. [PN/JB]

In sf TERMINOLOGY, a credit is a unit of MONEY. Credits are used widely
in tales of the future. [PN]


(1942- ) US writer and film director; he graduated with an MD from
Harvard Medical School. He began publishing sf under the pseudonym John
Lange with Drug of Choice (1968). Most of the Lange books are thrillers; A
Case of Need (1968), published as by Jeffery Hudson, won an Edgar Award
for Best Mystery Novel of the year. Some of MC's Lange books, like Zero
Cool (1969) and Binary (1972), make perfunctory use of sf devices in a way
typical of the modern post-James-Bond thriller. Binary was filmed for tv
in MC's directorial debut as PURSUIT (1972). Of greater interest are the
novels he has written under his own name, many of which are sf or fantasy,
beginning with The Andromeda Strain (1969), an immediate bestseller soon
filmed as The ANDROMEDA STRAIN (1971), in which microscopic spores from
space attack the US West ( DISASTER). MC's medical background is evident
in much of his work ( MEDICINE). The Terminal Man (1972) speculates
fascinatingly on the morality and effects of electronic brain implants as
a control device, and was the basis of the film The TERMINAL MAN (1974),
dir Mike Hodges. Eaters of the Dead (1976) recounts a savage conflict
between Vikings and strange Neolithic people; it is in fact a retelling of
the Beowulf legend. Congo (1980) is a LOST-WORLD story set in Africa, and
reads like updated H. Rider HAGGARD. Sphere (1987) is an UNDER-THE-SEA
thriller about the discovery of a long-sunken spacecraft, anticipating The
ABYSS (1989). JURASSIC PARK (1990) is a return to the theme of WESTWORLD
(discussed below): it effectively argues the risks inherent in
uncontrolled GENETIC ENGINEERING, "done in secret, and in haste, and for
profit", though the plot itself - dinosaurs reconstituted from genetic
scraps cause havoc in the theme park they have been created to stock - is
little more than a MCGUFFIN; it was filmed as JURASSIC PARK (1993) by
Steven SPIELBERG. All of these novels read a little like film
treatments.After Pursuit, MC determined to exercise artistic control over
screen adaptations of his work and though he did not do so in the case of
The Terminal Man, he both scripted and directed WESTWORLD (1973), an
intelligent and cleverly commercial film about a ROBOT-manned
reconstruction of the Old West (see also LEISURE) that falls apart at the
seams when a robot gunslinger runs amuck; the screenplay was published as
Westworld (1974). He scored his biggest commercial hit as a director with
COMA (1978), based on Robin COOK's marginally sf novel, a further
exploration of MC's technophobic, PARANOID vision, drawing on his medical
background for a conspiracy thriller about a high-tech organ-transplant
business that draws its raw material from hospital beds. After a
meticulous and underrated period re-creation, The Great Train Robbery
(1979; vt The First Great Train Robbery), adapted from his own novel - not
sf - of the same title, MC has rather lost ground as a director, with
LOOKER (1981) and RUNAWAY (1984) both failing at the box-office. However,
these films, for all their plot failings, are interesting explorations of
his fascination with and distrust of an increasingly mechanized society.
Looker deals with image-generation technology, while Runaway casts Tom
Selleck as a future policeman whose speciality is tackling dangerously
malfunctional household robots. Physical Evidence (1989), a non-sf
thriller, is his least interesting or personal film to date.An efficient
and intelligent writer and director, MC is capable of producing remarkable

(1932- ) Canadian photographer and writer in whose sf novel, Rerun
(1976), a man from 1990 goes back 15 years into his own life of the
mid-1970s but does not ultimately profit from his foreknowledge. [JC]

Genre fiction concerned with crime may be roughly divided into detections
and thrillers. The former are problem stories; the latter exploit the
melodramatic potential of the conflicts inherent in criminal
deviation.Detective stories depend very heavily on ingenuity and generally
require very fine distinctions between what is possible and what is not.
It is not easy to combine sf and the detective story because in sf the
boundary between the possible and the impossible is so flexible, but
futuristic detective stories can work, given a sufficiently rigid set of
ground rules; thus Isaac ASIMOV was able to create intriguing detections
based on the restrictions of his three laws of robotics, most notably The
Naked Sun (1957), and Randall GARRETT was able to write his ingenious Lord
D'Arcy stories about an ALTERNATE-WORLD detective who must use his powers
of ratiocination to solve crimes in which rigorously defined magical laws
feature, often being used forensically. There was also a subgenre of early
detective stories featuring "scientific detectives" armed not only with
the scientific methods of thought made famous by Sherlock Holmes but also
with the equipment and arcane knowledge of advanced science; notable works
in this vein include The Achievements of Luther Trant (coll 1910) by Edwin
BALMER and William MacHarg and the many Craig Kennedy adventures
chronicled by Arthur B. REEVE, including The Poisoned Pen (coll 1911) and
The Dream Doctor (fixup 1914). Hugo GERNSBACK's short-lived SCIENTIFIC
DETECTIVE MONTHLY published fiction of this sort, but the speculative
aspects of the stories are understandably tentative.Crime is much more
commonly and effectively exploited in sf for its melodramatic potential;
the imaginative freedom of sf allows both criminals and crime-fighters to
become exotic, and their schemes grandiose, a pattern which underlies
Jules VERNE's great creations: Captain Nemo, who features in Vingt mille
lieues sous les mers (1870; trans as Twenty Thousand Leagues under the
Seas 1872 UK) and its sequel L'ile mysterieuse (1874-5; trans as The
Mysterious Island 1875 UK); and Robur the Conqueror, who features in Robur
le conquerant (1886; trans as The Clipper of the Clouds 1887 UK; vt Robur
the Conqueror 1887 US) and its sequel Maitre du monde (1904; trans anon as
Master of the World 1914 UK). PULP-MAGAZINE sf grew up alongside
increasingly exotic detective pulps which featured the prototypes of the
SUPERHEROES who would ultimately come into their own in COMIC books, most
notably DOC SAVAGE. In the early days of scientific romance the scientific
supercriminal (often embittered by the world's failure to recognize and
reward his genius) was a common character, frequently holding the world
(or large parts of it) to ransom. Robert CROMIE's The Crack of Doom (1895)
and Fred T. JANE's The Violet Flame (1899) feature early examples of
world-threatening superscientists. There was a glut of such stories in the
1930s, including Power (1931) by S. Fowler WRIGHT, The One Sane Man (1934)
by Francis BEEDING and I'll Blackmail the World (1935) by S. Andrew WOOD.
Few apocalyptic threats were fully carried out in such novels, although
Neil BELL's The Lord of Life (1933) is a flamboyant exception. (The
tradition is kept alive today by, among others, the plots of the many
James Bond movies.) Disenchantment with the state of the world allowed
many writers of the 1930s to sympathize with world-blackmailers whose
demands were humanitarian; C.S. FORESTER's The Peacemaker (1934) is a
notable example, and C.J. Cutcliffe HYNE's Man's Understanding (coll 1933)
includes two black comedies suggesting that even the most destructive and
unreasonable mad SCIENTIST would be no worse than the actual rulers of the
world. Later examples include the atom-bomb story The Maniac's Dream
(1946) by F. Horace ROSE and the Dr Palfrey novels by John CREASEY.Among
the early GENRE-SF writers to make use of the stereotyped supercriminal
was Murray LEINSTER, whose many versions of it include "A Thousand Degrees
Below Zero" (1919), "Darkness on Fifth Avenue" (1929), "The Racketeer Ray"
(1932) and "The Earth-Shaker" (1933). John W. CAMPBELL Jr used the formula
in "Piracy Preferred" (1930), but he armed his heroes as well as his
villain (who reformed and joined the heroes for several sequels). The game
of interplanetary super-cops vs super-robbers was pioneered by Edmond
HAMILTON in the Interstellar Patrol stories, some of which were reprinted
in Outside the Universe (1929; 1964) and Crashing Suns (1928-30; coll
1965), and extravagantly carried forward by E.E. "Doc" SMITH in the
Skylark series and Spacehounds of IPC (1934; 1947). The conflict in the
Skylark of Space books, between Richard Seaton and the impressively
villainous Blackie DuQuesne, was vigorously sustained; and the later
Lensmen series (in book form 1948-54), featured perhaps the most famous
genre-sf criminal organization of all: the Eddorian-run interstellar
cartel known as Boskone.Pulp sf writers imagined that future crime would
follow much the same pattern as crime today, although they were happy to
imagine that romantic crimes like piracy might come back into fashion in
outer space - or even in time, as in Ross ROCKLYNNE's "Pirates of the Time
Trail" (1943). Retribution, too, tended to follow well established tracks,
although one or two writers used sealed time-loops and other gimmicks to
design punishments to fit particular crimes; Lester DEL REY's "My Name is
Legion" (1942) suggests an appropriate fate for Hitler. One magazine story
of the 1940s which attempts to make a significant statement about deviancy
and penology is Robert A. HEINLEIN's "Coventry" (1940), which imagines a
curious kind of exile, then proceeds to develop one of the most annoying
of sf CLICHES: the idea that selfish deviants might be harassed as a kind
of test to prove their suitability for recruitment into the social elite
of a stable society.When sf writers took to building all kinds of
eccentric totalitarian societies for their future scenarios in the 1940s
and 1950s, the rectitude of deviancy became a much more open question. As
forms of conformity became stranger, so did forms of nonconformity. In
Fritz LEIBER's GATHER, DARKNESS! (1943; 1950) the establishment's
superscience masquerades as RELIGION, leading the rebels to disguise their
own superscience as witchcraft. More sophisticated studies of odd forms of
deviancy in warped societies include Wyman GUIN's "Beyond Bedlam" (1951),
whose heroine rebels against the obligation to share tenancy of her body
with her split personality's alter ego, Ray BRADBURY's FAHRENHEIT 451
(1953), whose meek rebels learn books by heart to save them from would-be
burners, and Philip Jose FARMER's Dayworld (1985) and its sequels, in
which "daybreakers" exceed their allotted active time in an overcrowded
world.In the 1950s, new ideas regarding the treatment of deviants began to
appear in some profusion. In "Two-Handed Engine" (1955), by Henry KUTTNER
and C.L. MOORE, criminals are attended by robot "furies" to monitor their
actions and symbolize their guilt. In Damon KNIGHT's "The Country of the
Kind" (1956) criminals are outcast, free to do as they will but utterly
lonely - an idea explored with greater intensity in Robert SILVERBERG's
"To See the Invisible Man" (1963). Robert SHECKLEY's The Status
Civilization (1960) is a satirical extrapolation of the penal-colony
theme, imagining the kind of society which criminals might establish in
reaction against the one which exiles them. The notion of the prison
colony is taken to a terrible extreme in Cordwainer SMITH's "A Planet
Named Shayol" (1961), in which criminals are made to grow extra limbs and
organs for harvesting and use in transplants. A much more humane view of
the issues involved in crime and punishment is featured in Alfred BESTER's
classic sf novel based on Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment
(1866), THE DEMOLISHED MAN (1953), in which the obsessed villain
ultimately fails to avoid detection by a telepathic policeman, but finds
the prospect of punitive "demolition" less terrible than its name implies.
Bester's "Fondly Fahrenheit" (1954) is another forceful study in homicidal
psychology. New fashions in the real-world treatment of prisoners -
especially the notion of "brainwashing" - were extensively featured in
borderline-sf thrillers, and taken to surreal lengths in the tv series The
PRISONER , whose theme was sensitively novelized by Thomas M. DISCH in The
Prisoner * (1969).Exotic police forces were featured in heroic roles in
many sf stories and series in the 1950s. An alien policeman pursues a
criminal to Earth in Needle (1950) by Hal CLEMENT, requiring to inhabit
the body of an earthly host in order to do so. Time police - patrolling
and protecting history - became commonplace, as in The End of Eternity
(1955) by Isaac Asimov, Guardians of Time (1955-60; fixup 1960) by Poul
ANDERSON, and H. Beam PIPER's Paratime Police series. Asimov's first sf
detective story, The Caves of Steel (1954), was followed a few years later
by the first murder mystery in which Earth is the corpse: Poul Anderson's
After Doomsday (1962). Realistic futuristic police-procedural stories were
pioneered by Rick RAPHAEL in an effective series of stories dealing with
road-traffic law enforcement in the near future, Code Three (fixup 1966),
and were carried forward by such novels as Lee KILLOUGH's The Doppelganger
Gambit (1979), but law enforcers of a rather less conventional kind have
understandably remained dominant. Joe Clifford FAUST's A Death of Honour
(1987) imagines that the 21st-century police might be simply too busy to
investigate a murder. The vast majority of the novels of Ron GOULART
feature crime and detectives in some quirky fashion or other; most notable
among them are the Chameleon Corps books. (John E. STITH is another writer
who mixes HUMOUR, crime and sf, but with less accent on the humour than
Goulart.) Although the world of sf crime has remained male-dominated,
female detectives have made significant appearances in Rosel George
BROWN's Sibyl Sue Blue (1966; vt Galactic Sibyl Sue Blue) and the St Cyr
Interplanetary Detective series begun by Ian WALLACE in Deathstar Voyage
(1969). SUPERHERO crime-fighters made relatively little impact in written
sf until the advent of George R.R. MARTIN's SHARED-WORLD anthology series
begun with Wild Cards (anth 1986), but an interesting precursor was
featured in Doris PISERCHIA's Mister Justice 1973); Temps (anth 1991),
"created by" Neil GAIMAN and Alex Stewart, was the first of a series of
shared-world anthologies featuring the crime-fighting escapades of
part-time and/or limited-ability superheroes.A more romantic view of crime
is preserved by picaresque sf stories. Although muted for a long time by
editorial TABOOS, a considerable body of sf makes heroes of social
outsiders and deviants. An early example is Charles L. HARNESS's Flight
into Yesterday (1949; 1953; vt The Paradox Men), and much of Harness's
work features similar heroic outsiders, who tend to be artists when they
are not rogues, and are often both. Much of the work of Jack VANCE falls
into a similar category. Far less romantic is the eponymous antihero of
Harry HARRISON's The Stainless Steel Rat (1957-60; fixup 1961) and its
sequels. Philip Jose Farmer wrote a series featuring John Carmody, a
criminal who reformed to become a priest, the most notable being Night of
Light (1966). As the taboos eased there appeared criminal heroes who
remained both unrepentant and charismatic, including the protagonist of
Roger ZELAZNY's Jack of Shadows (1971) and the narrator of Samuel R.
DELANY's "Time Considered as a Helix of Semi-Precious Stones" (1968);
Delany is another writer who almost invariably uses miscreant artists as
heroes. The most extravagant example of a charismatic criminal in sf is
probably the protagonist of Mike RESNICK's Santiago (1986), who is pursued
across the Galaxy by assorted exotic bounty-hunters, most of whom are
certainly no better than he turns out to be.The relativity of crime and
the idea of evil in societies which have very different values is widely
featured. Earnest variants can be found in such stories as "The Sharing of
Flesh" (1968) by Poul Anderson and Speaker for the Dead (1986) by Orson
Scott CARD, in which alien societies license or compel acts which seem to
us utterly horrific. Robert Sheckley often addresses the question
ironically, as in "Watchbird" (1953), a moral fable about a mechanical
law-enforcer's tendency to exceed its brief, and "The Monsters" (1953),
which features an alien society in which wife-murder is a moral act. The
blackest sf comedy in this vein is probably Piers ANTHONY's "On the Uses
of Torture" (1981).Despite the welter of criminal activity in sf there are
very few new crimes, although such DYSTOPIAS as Yegevny ZAMIATIN's My
(written 1920; trans as We 1924) and George ORWELL's NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR
(1949) have taken the rooting-out of political deviance to new extremes in
making "thoughtcrimes" detectable and remediable. Crimes of nonconformity
often take bizarre forms, as in such J.G. BALLARD stories as "Billenium"
(1961), in which the existence of an empty room is wickedly but futilely
concealed, and "Chronopolis" (1960), in which the hero illegally winds
clocks. Tampering with history is a crime which features only in sf -
matched by the singularly appropriate punishment of historical erasure in
Robert Silverberg's Up the Line (1969) - but even this is no more than an
extreme of subversive activity. A more original crime is committed by the
protagonist of Piers Anthony's Chthon (1967), although the extremely nasty
prison colony to which he is condemned for it is ordinary in kind. The
same situation pertains in the design of punishments, and has done ever
since Arthur Conan DOYLE's "The Los Amigos Fiasco" (1892), which
anticipated the use of the world's first electric chair but made the
consequences of its use exaggeratedly melodramatic. Numerous sf stories
have anticipated the use of "electronic tagging", although usually the
tags are capable of administering on-the-spot punishment. An early example
(although here the "tags" are created by mental conditioning) is featured
in "The Analogues" (1952) by Damon Knight; others are in The Reefs of
Space (1964) by Frederik POHL and Jack WILLIAMSON and The Ring (1968) by
Piers Anthony and Robert E. MARGROFF. When the merits of punitive,
retributive and rehabilitative theories of penology are compared in sf,
the extremism of plausible examples often makes the argument starkly
dramatic; examples of Swiftian "modest proposals" abound. An interesting
polemical work on penological theory is John J. MCGUIRE's "Take the Reason
Prisoner" (1963), and a macabre combination of the punitive and
retributive theories is featured in those of Larry NIVEN's stories in
which the crime of "organlegging" co-exists with a new penal code whereby
criminals are broken up for bodily spare parts. Several of Niven's stories
on these lines are among the best examples of the sf detective story; some
are collected in The Long ARM of Gil Hamilton (coll 1976).Since Sherlock
Holmes fell into the public domain he has been a popular character in sf
stories, appearing in key roles in Morlock Night (1979) by K.W. JETER,
Sherlock Holmes' War of the Worlds (1975) by Manly Wade and Wade WELLMAN,
Dr Jekyll and Mr Holmes (1979) by Loren D. Estleman and Time for Sherlock
Holmes (1983) by David DVORKIN. Another Victorian figure, from the
opposite end of the moral spectrum, who has exerted a similar fascination
upon modern writers is the prototypical serial killer Jack the Ripper;
several of the stories in the centenary anthology Ripper! (anth 1988; vt
Jack the Ripper UK) ed Susan CASPER and Gardner DOZOIS are sf.Theme
anthologies concerned with sf crime stories include Space Police (anth
1956) ed Andre NORTON; Space, Time and Crime (anth 1964) ed Miriam Allen
DEFORD; and Computer Crimes and Capers (anth 1985) ed Isaac Asimov, Martin

Film (1970). Emergent Films. Prod, dir, written and photographed David
CRONENBERG, starring Ronald Mlodzik, Tania Zolty, Jon Lidolt, Jack
Messinger. 70 mins. Colour.This cheaply made, inventive Canadian film,
something between an underground and a commercial movie, is chiefly of
interest as ushering in - along with Stereo (1969) - Cronenberg's
distinguished, eccentric and (according to some) disgusting career in sf
cinema. With hindsight, we can see many Cronenberg strategies and themes
here in embryo: deliberately tasteless SATIRE, the moral corruption of
society, human metamorphosis created by irresponsible TECHNOLOGY, sexual
metaphor at the heart of the argument, and the contrast of sterile
settings with ravages and mutations of the flesh. The film is set in a
NEAR FUTURE where humans are devolving ( DEVOLUTION) and all women of
child-bearing age have been killed by an epidemic spread through a
cosmetics additive created by a mad dermatologist (in the House of Skin),
thus making procreative pedophilia a likely "crime of the future" and
putting a 5-year-old girl (Zolty) at the centre of the barely
comprehensible plot. [PN]


(1915- ) UK writer, at one time in the Merchant Navy. His sf novels, The
Ape of London (1959) and The Night Callers (1960), are routine adventures
deploying thriller and horror elements; their sf displacement is
inconsiderable. The latter, involving an alien INVASION, was filmed as The

(1950- ) US writer who was first known as a competent author of ties,
including three for the Star Trek enterprise - Yesterday's Son * (1983)
and its direct sequel Time for Yesterday * (1988), along with Star Trek,
The Next Generation #13: The Eyes of the Beholder * (1990) - and three for
the "V" sequence - "V" * (1984), East Coast Crisis * (1984) with Howard
WEINSTEIN and Death Tide * (1985) with Deborah A. Marshall ( "V"). She
also collaborated with Andre NORTON on a Witch World novel, Gryphon's
Eyrie (1984), before embarking on her first independent work of
significance, the StarBridge sequence for older children: StarBridge
(1989), Silent Dances (1990) with Kathleen O'MALLEY and Shadow World
(1991) with Jannean (L.) Elliott. The first volume of the series
(projected to contain at least5 vols) follows the exploits of an extremely
bright teenaged girl who becomes involved in problems of galactic scope,
and participates in the founding of an Academy for youngsters like
herself. The second, rather more interestingly, puts a deaf Academy member
of Native American background on an ominous planet where only she can read
the signs of ALIEN intelligence. In the third, an alienated male Academy
member finds, in a short-lived alien race, challenges that are precisely
adapted to his needs. Through these well planned if not strikingly
original tales ACC has demonstrated a consistent professionalism about her
trade, and considerable generosity about giving good value. [JC]

Pseudonym for his literary work of UK composer, writer and editor Robert
Bruce Montgomery (1921-1978), who remains best known for his nine Gervase
Fen detective novels. He also reviewed crime fiction for the Sunday Times
and, as a composer, under his real name wrote the music for many UK films
of the 1950s and 1960s, including several of the Carry On series. EC did
not write sf, but his work as an sf anthologist was of great influence.
When Best SF (anth 1955) appeared it was unique in several ways: its
editor was a respected literary figure; its publisher (Faber & Faber) was
a prestigious one; and it made no apologies or excuses for presenting sf
as a legitimate form of writing. Moreover, EC's selection of stories
showed him to be thoroughly familiar with sf in both magazine and book
form, and his introductions to this and succeeding volumes were informed
and illuminating. Best SF was followed by Best SF Two (anth 1956), Three
(anth 1958), Four (anth 1961), Five (anth 1963), Six (anth 1966) and Seven
(anth 1970). It would be difficult to exaggerate the importance of the
early volumes in this series in establishing sf in the UK as a respectable
branch of literature. EC also edited two sf ANTHOLOGIES for schools, The
Stars and Under (anth 1968) and Outwards from Earth (anth 1974), as well
as Best Tales of Terror (anth 1962) and Best Tales of Terror Two (anth

Pseudonym of US nurse, professor of nursing, and author Christine
Elizabeth Abrahamsen (1916- ), who wrote at least one Gothic as Kathleen
Westcott. She began publishing sf with the florid Veltakin sequence of sf
adventures: Manalacor of Veltakin (1970) and The Cruachan and the Killane
(1970). Her singletons were The Mortal Immortals (1971) and The Golden
Olive (1972). All are written in a style that crosses the romance genre
with boys' fiction. [PN/JC]

This entry restricts itself to works which generalize about sf, and only
in passing mentions books or articles about specific authors or themes
(for which see relevant entries).The range and sophistication of sf
studies have expanded greatly. Before 1970 very little useful material was
available, but since then, and especially during the 1980s, the
publication of secondary materials on sf has become an industry. The first
work of criticism devoted to US sf is Hammer and Tongs (coll 1937 chap) by
Clyde F. Beck (? -1985), which collects still-readable essays from a
fanzine, The Science Fiction Critic; the first important study, Pilgrims
through Space and Time: Trends and Patterns in Scientific and Utopian
Fiction (1947), by J.O. BAILEY, is historical and thematic, dealing mostly
with work published decades previously; value judgments are almost absent,
and trivia are discussed alongside works of lasting interest. Despite its
limitations, this was a valuable pioneering work. The PILGRIM AWARD for
excellence in sf studies was named after it.Bailey was an academic, but
for the next several decades most books about sf were written by fans
rather than academic critics. While this meant that their scholarly and
critical procedures were often eccentric, and sometimes of indifferent
quality, it also introduced considerable vigour into the early days of
debate about sf, along with a willingness to plunge into areas of research
(ephemeral publications-magazines and FANZINES - as well as books, along
with the recording of reminiscences by authors, editors and publishers)
avoided by academia; such knowledge of the HISTORY OF SF as is now
available to us is very much a product of their initial work. Research is
still shallow in many areas of sf's past, and no consensus history yet
exists.The next serious study after Bailey's was New Maps of Hell (1960
US) by Kingsley AMIS, a celebrated novelist with an academic background
but, so far as sf was concerned, a fan. Brief and unscholarly, it is
nevertheless witty, critical and suggestive; Amis regarded the essential
aspects of modern sf as satirical and dystopian ( DYSTOPIAS; SATIRE).
Unlike Bailey, he took most of his examples from contemporary GENRE SF.
Less literary in their approach, and more sober though passionate in their
way, were the historical studies of sf by Sam MOSKOWITZ, which, while
adopting simplistic critical criteria and not always accurate in detail,
were nevertheless important in the huge amount of research they codified
for the first time, especially regarding sf in early magazines, but going
well beyond that. Three collections of his essays which are often taken to
be models of fan scholarship are Explorers of the Infinite (coll 1963),
Seekers of Tomorrow (coll 1966) and Strange Horizons (coll 1976); also of
note are his Science Fiction by Gaslight: A History and Anthology of
Science Fiction in the Popular Magazines 1891-1911 (anth 1968) and Under
the Moons of Mars: A History and Anthology of "The Scientific Romance" in
the Munsey Magazines, 1912-1920 (anth 1970), with their long, informative
introductions.Two well known writers of sf, Damon KNIGHT and James BLISH,
often took time out to write shrewd, well informed criticism, the latter
under the pseudonym William Atheling Jr. Much of Knight's critical work
was collected in In Search of Wonder (coll 1956; exp 1967) and of
Atheling's in The Issue at Hand (coll 1964) and More Issues at Hand (coll
1970). These books were published by ADVENT: PUBLISHERS, a SMALL PRESS
specifically set up to publish books about sf by fan scholars. It was with
Knight and Blish that some sort of critical consensus began to emerge
about what constituted sf and who were its most influential writers. The
first of three critical symposia ed Reginald BRETNOR, also featuring the
critical views of sf writers themselves, appeared very early: Modern
Science Fiction: Its Meaning and its Future (anth 1953; rev 1979). It was
followed by his Science Fiction, Today and Tomorrow (anth 1974) and The
Craft of Science Fiction (anth 1976).The cautious interest being shown in
sf by the US academic world bore its first fruits in 1959, in the shape of
the critical journal EXTRAPOLATION. For many years this was stencilled,
not printed, which suggested that the financial support it was receiving
from academia at large was small; nevertheless it lived on. Two further
academic magazines about sf followed, both (in different ways) a little
SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES in the USA (1973). The former - as much fannish as
academic - emphasized reviews and critical and sociological studies of
contemporary and post-WWII sf; the latter - more strictly academic -
concentrated on writers of sf's past plus only the more academically
acceptable of the present, with good coverage of European sf and some
interesting and, to many, unexpected Marxist criticism. A newcomer has
been JOURNAL OF THE FANTASTIC IN THE ARTS (1988).Some of the best critical
writing about sf has appeared in these journals, and also in a great many
FANZINES. Unfortunately, fanzines tend to be produced cheaply (and as a
result often disintegrate rapidly) and have low circulations; back copies
are usually therefore extremely difficult to obtain. Some of the more
interesting critical fanzines and SEMIPROZINES from the 1940s through the
1980s were (and in many cases still are) ALGOL, AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE FICTION
WARHOON. The professional sf magazines, too, have regularly published sf
criticism, that of FSF in particular often being of a high quality, as has
been (beginning much later) that of INTERZONE.By the 1970s a large body of
sf criticism had been built up, though much of it was and is difficult to
get hold of. The earlier notion that sf should be judged by criteria
different from those normally applied to conventional literature began
steadily to lose ground in the 1970s to the view that sf is strong enough
to be gauged by the same standards that prevail elsewhere in literary
criticism. Very naturally, however, the literary analysis of sf tends to
this day to be argued thematically and structurally, and to eschew a
criticism grounded in concepts of psychological realism on the one hand or
metaphorical power on the other. Although this is inevitable, mimetic
realism and good characterization being qualities somewhat marginalized by
the very nature of sf, it does help explain why even now sf criticism has
not generally developed a vocabulary enabling judgmental distinctions to
be well made; that is, when explaining why some books and stories are
worse than others (an explanation that sf criticism feels called upon to
make more seldom than is healthy), it does not usually do the job with
much conviction.The trickle of sf criticism in book form became a small
spate around the mid-1970s and something of a torrent later on, but
already by 1974 a number of new books had appeared, including studies by
Sam J. LUNDWALL and Donald A. WOLLHEIM in the USA. A major tributary
joined the river with Billion Year Spree (1973) by Brian W. ALDISS; Aldiss
later revised and updated this work with David WINGROVE as Trillion Year
Spree (1986), a version that won them both a HUGO. The book is
idiosyncratic in some respects, with genuine scholarship of an autodidact
kind, although not remotely academic. Many reviewers observed that, in the
earlier version of the book, Aldiss's account of the post-WWII period was
hurried and not very informative, but this remains an important book,
especially in the literary and cultural context it gives for sf ever since
the days of Mary SHELLEY, who is Aldiss's candidate for the position of
the first bona fide sf writer. His cheerful, informal raconteur's tone
enlivens without cheapening his many serious points, and comes as a relief
after the ponderousness of some previous studies of sf and the defensive
fannish enthusiasm of others.The next important book on sf for the general
reader was also by a professional writer from the genre: James E. GUNN's
Alternate Worlds: The Illustrated History of Science Fiction (1975), a
balanced and intelligent survey (although coverage of later writers tends
to be confined to long lists) which strongly emphasizes the Campbellian
tradition of magazine sf in the USA. This book was part of a sudden rush
of handsome, illustrated books about sf, some of which are listed under
ILLUSTRATION.A collection of essays by Alexei and Cory PANSHIN, SF in
Dimension (coll 1976), argued a coherent if controversial viewpoint.
Alexei Panshin had earlier published an interesting study of Robert A.
HEINLEIN, and he and his wife would later publish The World Beyond the
Hill: Science Fiction and the Quest for Transcendence (1989), a long book
full of incidental insights but whose overall thesis is open to argument.
It elicited a devastating review from John CLUTE, always a pungent critic
of sf, in New York Review of Science Fiction (July 1991), which in turn
prompted a correspondence whose overall implication may be that the
US-centred, magazine-centred, somewhat inbred and sentimental view of the
development of the genre which had dominated sf historians for decades was
now being rejected by a new generation of sf critics and scholars. Clute's
own book of sf criticism, Strokes: Essays and Reviews 1966-1986 (coll 1988
US), was an example of the development of a wider perspective on sf,
dealing as it does with sf's concerns in terms of their metaphoric
resonance - their subtexts - as well as their literal meaning. A sometimes
thuddingly literal-minded reading of sf themes, from robots to the
colonization of other worlds, had characterized many of the books and
articles published on sf prior to the 1980s.Numerous sf writers apart from
those already mentioned have also written well informed and lively sf
criticism and essays in sf scholarship; many of these, like Thomas M.
DISCH, Gardner DOZOIS, Joanna RUSS, Robert SILVERBERG and Ian WATSON, have
not yet had their critical pieces collected in book form. Among those who
have are: Algis BUDRYS, with Benchmarks: Galaxy Bookshelf (coll 1985);
Samuel R. DELANY, with The Jewel-Hinged Jaw: Notes on the Language of
Science Fiction (1977) and Starboard Wine: More Notes on the Language of
Science Fiction (coll 1984), whose structuralist and sometimes
POSTMODERNIST criticism is dense and difficult, irritating and
interesting; Ursula K. LE GUIN, with The Language of the Night: Essays on
Fantasy and Science Fiction (coll 1979; rev 1989 UK); Barry N. MALZBERG,
whose The Engines of the Night: Science Fiction in the Eighties (1982) may
not have had the attention it deserves; Norman SPINRAD, with Science
Fiction in the Real World (coll 1990), which collects many of his critical
STABLEFORD, whose several well researched books on the subject, including
Scientific Romance in Britain 1890-1950 (1985), have done much to dispel
the view that sf was primarily a product of PULP MAGAZINES and specialist
SF MAGAZINES.A phenomenon largely of the 1980s was the production of
large, multi-author reference works containing critical assessments of sf,
of which one of the earliest was the first edition of this encyclopedia
(1979). The first edition of Neil BARRON's Anatomy of Wonder: A Critical
Guide to Science Fiction (1976; rev 1981; rev 1987) was earlier still, and
the book remains one of the best and most accessible critical guides.
Others include: the desperately uneven 5-vol Survey of Science Fiction
Literature (anth 1979) ed Frank N. Magill, though the actual editing and
organization was largely the work of associate editor Keith NEILSON; the
largely excellent Science Fiction Writers: Critical Studies of the Major
Authors from the Early Nineteenth Century to the Present Day (anth 1982)
ed E.F. BLEILER; the 2-vol Twentieth-Century American Science-Fiction
Writers (anth 1981) ed David Cowart and Thomas L. Wymer; and
Twentieth-Century Science-Fiction Writers (anth 1981; rev 1986; rev 1991)
first two edns ed Curtis C. SMITH, with its useful essays badly
compromised by poor presentation of bibliographical data. Most of these
books are reference works from specialist publishers at prices that may
deter lay sf readers, but they are readily located in academic
libraries.None of these books is purely academic in its authorship, but in
most of them many of the essays are by academic specialists - for
honourable reasons but also, naturally enough, because the
publish-or-perish syndrome will always ensure academic contributors
willing to work for little or nothing - and it is in the field of academic
books on sf that the largest expansion of book publishing on sf has taken
place, especially in the 1980s. Long before that there were, aside from
Bailey's, two other important early works of academic sf scholarship: The
Imaginary Voyage in Prose Fiction: A History of its Criticism and a Guide
for its Study, with an Annotated Check List of 215 Imaginary Voyages from
1700 to 1800 (1941) by Philip Babcock GOVE, and Voyages to the Moon (1948)
by Marjorie Hope NICOLSON. After a long gap, the next academic works of
importance (apart from studies of single authors such as of H.G. WELLS and
Aldous HUXLEY) were Voices Prophesying War 1763-1984 (1966) by I.F.
CLARKE, who followed this work with other studies of sf, and Yesterday's
Tomorrows (1968) by W.H.G. ARMYTAGE. Running concurrently with all these
publications, and beginning much earlier, have been the many books on
literary UTOPIAS.Next in the academic line came Into the Unknown: The
Evolution of Science Fiction from Francis Godwin to H.G. Wells (1970) by
Robert M. PHILMUS. In the 1970s Darko SUVIN came to the fore as an
influential academic critic of sf, his earliest full-scale book being
first published in French: Pour une poetique de la science-fiction (1977
Canada; exp in English as Metamorphoses of Science Fiction: On the Poetics
and History of a Literary Genre 1979 US). Two important later books by
Suvin are Victorian Science Fiction in the U.K.: The Discourses of
Knowledge and of Power (1983 US) and Positions and Presuppositions in
Science Fiction (coll 1988 US).After 1974 the pace of academic publishing
increased. The most important studies of the mid-1970s were New Worlds for
Old (1974) by David KETTERER, Visions of Tomorrow (coll 1975) by David
SAMUELSON and Structural Fabulation (1975) by Robert SCHOLES. Scholes went
on to collaborate with Eric S. RABKIN on Science Fiction: History,
Science, Vision (1977), one of the best semi-popular accounts of the
genre. Rabkin has since published widely in the field.Scholes's work was
much influenced by Introduction a la litterature fantastique (1970 France;
trans as The Fantastic: A Structural Approach to a Literary Genre 1973) by
Tzvetan TODOROV, a work which has aroused controversy and much interest.
Sf criticism, primarily Marxist, structuralist or both, is flourishing in
Europe. Other notable European critics are Michel BUTOR, Boris Eizykman
(1949- ), Vladimir GAKOV, Jorg Hienger (1927- ), Jean-Henri Holmberg (
SCANDINAVIA), Julius KAGARLITSKI, Gerard KLEIN, Stanislaw LEM, Carlo
PAGETTI, Franz ROTTENSTEINER, Martin Schwonke (1923- ), Jacques van Herp
(1923- ) and Pierre VERSINS. Rottensteiner, who also publishes in English,
is one of the most renowned European critics; unfortunately, his
best-known book in English, The Science Fiction Book: An Illustrated
History (1975), is not quite up to his own usually high standard. Some
exceptionally controversial criticism by Stanislaw LEM has been published
in English, although his much-discussed Fantastyka i futurologia (1970
Poland), a full-length study of sf, has yet to be translated in full; a
small part appeared, with other work, in Microworlds (coll trans 1985 US).
Back in the USA, the appearance in the 1970s of many academic courses
about sf ( SF IN THE CLASSROOM) had repercussions in the publication of
anthologies of critical essays. A pioneer editor in this field was Thomas
D. CLARESON with SF: The Other Side of Realism (anth 1971), Voices for the
Future: Essays on Major Science Fiction Writers Vol. 1 (anth 1976) and its
two sequels, and Many Futures, Many Worlds: Theme and Form in Science
Fiction (anth 1977). Clareson has also published books of his own, his
most important work being on the early HISTORY OF SF, as in Some Kind of
Paradise: The Emergence of American Science Fiction (1985), which is more
a historical and thematic survey than a critical study. Two critical
anthologies about sf aimed at the general reader rather than at the
student or teacher are Science Fiction at Large (anth 1976; vt
Explorations of the Marvellous) ed Peter NICHOLLS and Turning Points:
Essays on the Art of Science Fiction (anth 1977) ed Damon Knight. The
former book contains several essays which, in their readiness to see
shortcomings in sf, may be a particular example of a general lessening of
the rather tedious boosterism in many earlier books about the field.
Another good, academic critical anthology of the 1970s was Science
Fiction: A Critical Guide (anth 1979) ed Patrick PARRINDER.In the 1980s a
great many critical anthologies about sf were published, often choosing
their contents from the proceedings of academic conferences or from
academic-track programming at sf CONVENTIONS. A number of these are listed
in the entries of such individual editors as Martin H. GREENBERG, Donald
HASSLER, Eric S. RABKIN and George E. SLUSSER. Many of the academics who
have edited such books have also written studies of their own. Among them
are perhaps the two most stimulating US academic theoreticians about sf to
have risen to prominence in the 1980s: Mark ROSE and Gary K. WOLFE. Rose
is the author of Alien Encounters: Anatomy of Science Fiction (1981),
which in its discussion of what he sees as the central paradigms in sf
breaks new ground, if controversially. Wolfe is the author of many
articles and several books, including The Known and the Unknown: The
Iconography of Science Fiction (1979), perhaps the major study of sf in
the recent period, and comes as close as any critic ever has to defining,
in useful and quite rigorous theoretical terms, the SENSE OF WONDER that
fans so often use to describe what they seek for and find in sf. Unlike
many of his academic colleagues, Wolfe writes with clarity, grace and wit,
and avoids the jargon that makes so much recent academic analysis of sf so
inaccessible to the ordinary reader - and so boring, sometimes, to even
the academically trained reader.The books of two other academic critics of
considerable interest have been more narrowly focused than most of the
above: H. Bruce FRANKLIN and W. Warren WAGAR. Both write well. Franklin
has written, from a Marxist perspective unusual in US criticism, Robert A.
Heinlein: America as Science Fiction (1980) and War Stars: The Superweapon
and the American Imagination (1988). Wagar is the author of a book which
is as much a contribution to the history of ideas as it is an analysis of
sf specifically: Terminal Visions: The Literature of Last Things (1982).In
the early 1970s anybody interested in the history and criticism of sf
could have found very little to read on the subject. Now there is too much
to cope with, and the difficulty is in locating what might be available
and interesting. The "interesting" criterion remains a lottery, but the
"availability" criterion can be helped considerably. Here the Science
Fiction and Fantasy Reference Indexes of Hal W. HALL are very useful, as
is The Year's Scholarship in Science Fiction and Fantasy series compiled
by Marshall B. TYMN and Roger C. SCHLOBIN (see their entries for details).
An earlier reference is Science Fiction Criticism: An Annotated Checklist
(1972) compiled by Clareson.Further discussion of secondary materials for
the sf researcher will be found in BIBLIOGRAPHIES, CINEMA, DEFINITIONS OF
SF and POSTMODERNISM AND SF, and in selected author and theme entries
throughout. [PN]

UK SEMIPROZINE (1987-current) ed Martin Tudor and Steve Green. CW is a
bimonthly sf and fantasy newsletter - the schedule often slips by a month
- with reviews plus news items covering fantasy, horror and comics as well
as sf; it also features interviews and articles. Originally a mimeographed
FANZINE, CW became professionally printed with #9 and is said to have a
circulation above 1000. The editors clearly want it to become the UK
equivalent of LOCUS; as of 1992, it still had some way to go. [RH]

Film (1986). New Line/Smart Egg/Sho films. Dir Stephen Herek, starring
Dee Wallace Stone, M. Emmet Walsh, Billy Green Bush, Scott Grimes, Don
Opper. Screenplay Herek, Dominic Muir, with additions by Opper. 86 mins,
cut to 85 mins. Colour.Small furry carnivorous aliens with voracious
appetites and large teeth (very clearly modelled on the creatures in Joe
DANTE's Gremlins [1984]) besiege a farmhouse in Kansas and are driven off
with the help of alien bounty-hunters. This wholly derivative film has
some charm and competence, however, and was a not disastrous debut for
director Herek, who went on to make BILL & TED'S EXCELLENT ADVENTURE
(1989). The sequel, Critters 2: The Main Course (1988; vt Critters 2), dir
Mick Garris, has all the sparkle of a second-generation photocopy, and
demonstrates nicely how the 1980s video market had such an insatiable
appetite for teenage horror movies that even imitations bred imitations.
It was Garris's first film as director, though he was already known as a
writer on the tv series AMAZING STORIES. Two further straight-to-video
sequels followed. Critters 3 (1991), dir Kristine Peterson, 81 mins,
reprises the beasties in an apartment block setting. Critters 4: Critters
in Space (1992), dir Rupert Harvey, screenplay Joseph Lyle and David
Schow, 90 mins, continues to star Opper as chief critter-hunter, and also
stars Brad Dourif. This last instalment, still low-budget, takes place on
a spaceship, and can claim to be the most genuine sf episode of the
series, but is in other respects only slightly superior to the second and
third. The usual homages to ALIEN occur. [PN]See also: MONSTER MOVIES.





CROLY, [Reverend] GEORGE
(1780-1860) UK clergyman whose novel of IMMORTALITY Salathiel: A Story of
the Past, the Present and the Future (1826; vt Salathiel the Wandering Jew
1843 US; vt Salathiel the Immortal 1855 UK; vt Tarry Thou Till I Come 1901
US) was published anon but soon acknowledged. [JC]

(1856-1907) Irish author of the well known interplanetary sf novel A
Plunge Into Space (1890) in which visitors travel by ANTIGRAVITY to MARS,
where they discover humans living under UTOPIAN conditions and a fatal
romance ensues; the 1891 edition includes a preface by Jules VERNE. In The
Crack of Doom (1895) something very like atomic energy rather intriguingly
threatens the world (the first test of the substance, thousands of years
earlier, destroyed the fifth planet to create the ASTEROIDS); though
hazily described, RC's use in this novel of a nuclear device to shake
civilization marks the first occurrence of a theme which would dominate
the next century. Two volumes of a cluttered future HISTORY - For
England's Sake (1889) and The Next Crusade (1897) - fail, like his
remaining works, to retain much interest. [JC]Other works: The King's Oak
and Other Stories (coll 1897); A New Messiah (1902); El Dorado (1904; vt
From the Cliffs of Croaghaun 1904 US).See also: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT; END

(1943- ) Canadian film-maker. Crucially a writer as well as a director,
DC can be claimed as one of the most important practitioners of sf, in any
medium, of the last quarter of the 20th century. From his early student
and underground films - Transfer (1966), From the Drain (1967), Stereo
(1969) and CRIMES OF THE FUTURE (1970), the tv short Secret Weapons (1972)
- through his gutsy, increasingly surreal exploitation movies - The
PARASITE MURDERS (1974; vt They Came From Within; vt Shivers), RABID
(1976), The BROOD (1979), SCANNERS (1980) and VIDEODROME (1982) - to his
more mainstream ventures - The DEAD ZONE (1983; from Stephen KING's
novel), The FLY (1986; a remake of the 1958 MONSTER MOVIE), Dead Ringers
(1989), The Naked Lunch368992; based on William S. BURROUGHS's 1959
novel), and his projected film of J.G. BALLARD's Crash (1973) - DC has
shown a remarkably consistent visual and intellectual style, dealing with
the mind-body divide, near-future social, religious and chemical taboos,
the MEDIA LANDSCAPE, and the extremes of experience. DC has also worked as
an actor, in John Landis's Into the Night (1985) and, more notably, Clive
Barker's Nightbreed (1990). The odd man out in his own filmography is Fast
Company (1977), an efficient but nondescript movie about drag racing. The
highly bizarre violence and mutation, often sexual in nature, of
mid-period DC - especially the phallic parasites of The Parasite Murders
and the sadomasochist visions of Videodrome - won him a reputation as the
most uncompromising genre auteur of his generation, but The Brood, an
interior-directed family-trauma drama, revealed a vein of icy sensitivity
that later yielded The Fly, an extraordinarily moving rereading of its
hackneyed premise which abjures monster-on-the-loose melodrama for a
quietly affecting study of the process of physical change, and Dead
Ringers, an entirely psychological and non-sf variation on DC's habitual
themes that demonstrates how he has created his own category - the
Cronenberg Movie - rather than inhabited the sf or HORROR genres in the
way that contemporaries like George A. ROMERO and Wes Craven have done. On
being hailed as "the King of Venereal Horror", DC commented: "It's a small
field, Venereal Horror, but at least I'm king of it." Although DC is
reported to have said around 1993 that he will no longer be working in
horror or science fiction, his films are likely to retain the very
distinctive DC tone, as could be said of his film - an adaptation of Henry
David Hwang's successful play - M. Butterfly (1993), about a diplomat who
falls in love with an apparently female Chinese opera singer, not
realizing she is actually male. An interesting book of interviews is
Cronenberg on Cronenberg (coll 1991) ed Chris Rodley. [KN]See also:

[r] Eric NORTH.

[r] Stephen TALL.

[r] Christopher ANVIL.

(1914-1967) UK writer of RADIO scripts before WWII, and later of novels
and tv adaptations (one of them being of John WYNDHAM's The Kraken Wakes)
for the BBC. Some of his books for younger children, written as Stephen
MacFarlane, are fantasies; Lucy Maroon, the Car that Loved a Policeman
(1944) and Mr Bosanko and Other Stories (coll 1944) are typical. All his
sf novels are for older children; they include The Angry Planet (1945) and
its sequel, SOS from Mars (1954; vt The Red Journey Back 1954 US), both of
which represent JKC's transcription of manuscripts "by Stephen MacFarlane"
encompassing the first three expeditions to Mars, which discover the
vegetable life there to have suffered a Manichaean EVOLUTION into
alternative races. The Owl and the Pussycat (1946; vt The Other Side of
Green Hills 1947 US) is a fantasy, while The Flying Fortunes in an
Encounter with Rubberface! (1952; vt The Stolen Sphere 1953 US) has an
orbital satellite as a MCGUFFIN. Though he wrote several novels as JKC,
including The White Magic (1947) - not a fantasy, although often recorded
as such - his best-known work under his own name is The Other Passenger
(coll 1944; cut vt Stories from The Other Passenger 1961 US), a collection
of subtle fantasy tales for adults. He edited Best Horror Stories (anth
1956), Best Black Magic Stories (anth 1960) and Best Horror Stories 2
(anth 1965). [JC]See also: CHILDREN'S SF.

John Russell FEARN.

(1937- ) US writer who began publishing sf with "The Story of Three
Cities" in New Worlds 6 (anth 1973) ed Michael MOORCOCK and Charles PLATT;
the tale's steely moroseness characterizes much of his work in shorter
forms. His first novel, Prisoners of Paradise (1988), bleakly generates a
sense that the Fantasy-Island-type trap it depicts is not to be escaped
from. The Eternal Guardians sequence - comprising The Fourth Guardian
(1994) and The Lost Guardian (1995), with further volumes projected - is a
fantasy of history. [JC]

Pseudonym under which UK novelist Annie Sophie ("Vivian") Cory
(1868-?1952) published all her work, using the spelling "Crosse" until the
death of Queen Victoria; she was briefly notorious for The Woman who
Didn't (1895), written in response to Grant ALLEN's The Woman who Did
(1895). Her only known sf is Marty Brown, M.P.: A Girl of Tomorrow (1935),
which depicts relationships in a 30th-century UK ruled by women:
unemployment, war and pollution do not exist, nor is meat eaten, and there
is no prostitution because love is free. [RB]

(1910-1981) US writer and editor, active under various names in various
PULP-MAGAZINE markets, perhaps most notably as an author of detective
stories, his best work being published under his own name and as M.E.
Chaber. Though the Green Lama series of early 1940s thrillers, published
in Double Detective as by Richard Foster, and Murder Out of Mind (1945) as
by Ken Crossen, slip close to the fantastic, he only began publishing sf
proper with two stories in Feb 1951: "The Boy who Cried Wolf 359" in AMZ
and "Restricted Clientele" in TWS. Towards the end of their existences he
published a large amount of material with Startling Stories and TWS; much
of this material is intendedly comic, in particular the Manning Draco
series about an interstellar salesman and his amusing experiences with
ALIENS: Once Upon a Star (1951-2 TWS, fixup 1953) plus 4 additional
stories, "Assignment to Aldebaran" (1953), "Whistle Stop in Space" (1953),
"Mission to Mizar" (1953) and "The Agile Algolian" (1954). Year of Consent
(1952), about a COMPUTER that controls the West, expressively conveys the
PARANOIA of much US fiction of the period. The Rest Must Die (1959), as by
Foster, follows the story of those who have survived a nuclear attack on
New York by happening to be underground in subways or cellars: conflicts
ensue. KFC's ANTHOLOGIES - Adventures in Tomorrow (anth 1951; UK edn omits
2 stories) and Future Tense (anth 1952; UK edn omits 7 stories) - include
some original stories, are competently selected, and were influential in
their time. [JC]

[s] Manly Wade WELLMAN.

(1925- ) UK writer whose The Fallen Sky (1954) describes a post-
HOLOCAUST London reverted to barbarism and a sociologist's attempt to cure
himself of violence while simultaneously founding a new civilization.
Monster (1980 US) is a horror tale. [JC]

(1942- ) US writer who has also worked in documentary films and tv since
1966. His sf novels have had a considerable impact on the field, and his
fantasies have established him as a figure whose work markedly stretches
the boundaries of genre literature.His first sf novel, The Deep (1975), is
set on a flat discworld resting on a pillar that extends beyond
measurement into the circumambient Deep, in which very few stars are
visible. On this disc complex feudal conflicts, which seem interminably to
repeat a bad year from the Wars of the Roses, are regulated, maintained
and when necessary fomented for its own pleasure by the mysterious Being
who originally transported to this strange new domain its present
inhabitants - humans whose own world was dying. Though the story is told
from various points of view, the reader's main perspective is through the
eyes of a damaged ANDROID with memory problems sent to record events by
the disc's peculiar God. Using sources as widely divergent as James Branch
CABELL's Biography of the Life of Manuel, Philip Jose FARMER's World of
Tiers novels and E.R. EDDISON's The Worm Ouroboros (1922), JC constructed
a story whose free and supple use of numerous generic conventions marks it
as the sort of tale possible only late in the life of any genre.Beasts
(1976) somewhat more conventionally depicts a balkanized USA, but with a
complex deployment of sf themes, notable among which are the uses made of
biologically transformed animals and of the potential for genuine
interspecies empathy. The chilly belatedness of these two books - like all
his work they depict worlds caught in the iron claws of a prior authority
or Author - warms very considerably in the third, ENGINE SUMMER (1979),
whose title neatly epitomizes JC's abiding central concerns and whose plot
- its protagonist finds that his life in a dying post- HOLOCAUST pastoral
USA is nothing but a memory interminably replayed, and that he himself is
no more than a crystal device replaying those memories on command - exudes
a cruel melancholy. But the story which Rush That Speaks represents in his
being (and tells) is powerfully moving; and his sleep at the close (though
he will soon be turned on again to play himself) is earned.A similar grave
cruelty infuses the TIME TRAVEL cul-de-sacs uncovered in Great Work of
Time (1991), a tale which depicts the desolate consequences of attempting
to control history; it first appeared in NOVELTY (coll 1989), along with
some shorter fantasies and "In Blue" a DYSTOPIAN parable. Further short
work is assembled in Antiquities: Seven Stories (coll 1993).His major
single novel, the grave and eloquent Little, Big (1981), is primarily a
fantasy; partly set in a NEAR-FUTURE USA, this large work puts into
definitive form JC's steely nostalgia for the long arm of immortal law.
The title itself - which condenses a message repeated throughout the text:
"The further in you go, the bigger it gets" - is a restatement in fantasy
terms of the process of CONCEPTUAL BREAKTHROUGH central to much sf. The
story embeds in the centrifugal world of US fantasy a UK tale of harrowing
centripetal inwardness; Smoky Barnable's book-long attempt to enter the
world of faerie ends, as it must, in something like death. In the
meantime, as the century itself closes, a reborn Barbarossa ravages an
unsavable USA. The Renaissance Art of Memory-later utilized by Gene WOLFE,
Mary GENTLE and Michael SWANWICK, among others - significantly shapes the
geography of the book, with the result that the metamorphoses suffered by
its protagonists seem both mathematically foreordained (Lewis CARROLL is a
constant presence in the text) and symbolically potent. Little, Big has
permeated the field. As much cannot be said, perhaps, for AEGYPT (1987)
and Love & Sleep (1994), the first two of the projected Aegypt sequence
examining Renaissance neoplatonism with hallucinated concentration, and
seemingly moving towards a millennial shift in the reality-determining
Story of the world; but even the torso of this sequence confirms JC's very
considerable shaping power, which is his most significant gift to genre
literature. The novelty of his work is less important than the magnetism
of the synthesis it represents. [JC]Other work: Beasts/Engine
Summer/Little, Big (omni 1991).See also: ADAM AND EVE; ALTERNATE WORLDS;



(1862-1935) UK writer whose sf novel, The Red King Dreams, 1946-1948
(1931), rather demurely satirizes the university life of the NEAR FUTURE.

(1887-1979) US writer known almost exclusively for his sequence of
prehistoric-sf novels for older children, set in Europe and featuring the
resourceful Og, who introduces fire to his tribe, fights off giant
reptiles and comports himself with commendable dignity throughout: Og -
Son of Fire (1922), Og - Boy of Battle (1925), Og of the Cave People
(1935) and Og, Son of Og (1965). The series was extended into graphic
form, in Og, Son of Fire (graph 1937), a Big Little Book; and as in COMICS
form from 1936 in The Funnies (1936-1942). Mog the Mound Builder (1931) is
set in the Americas. [JC]

From a Greek root meaning "cold-producing", this word is used in physics
to mean the production of extremely low temperatures and the study of
phenomena at those temperatures. The shorter word CRYONICS is more
commonly used in sf TERMINOLOGY, especially when, as is usual, it is
people or other organic materials that are frozen. [PN]

A term coined in the 1960s by Karl Werner, referring to techniques for
preserving the human body by supercooling. R.C.W. Ettinger's The Prospect
of Immortality (1964) popularized the idea that the corpses of terminally
ill people might be "frozen down" in order to preserve them until such a
time as medical science would discover cures for all ills and a method of
resurrecting the dead. Many sf stories have extrapolated the notion.The
preservative effects of low temperatures have been known for a long time.
The notion of reviving human beings accidentally entombed in ice was first
developed as a fictional device by W. Clark RUSSELL in The Frozen Pirate
(1887). In Louis BOUSSENARD's Dix mille ans dans un bloc de glace (1889;
trans as 10,000 Years in a Block of Ice 1898) a contemporary man visits
the future as a result of a similar accident. Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's "The
Resurrection of Jimber Jaw" (1937) is a satirical account of the revival
of a prehistoric man and his experiences in the civilized world; Richard
Ben SAPIR's The Far Arena (1978) is a modern variant involving a Roman
gladiator. Freezing is still sf's most popular means of achieving
SUSPENDED ANIMATION (see also SLEEPER AWAKES), but recent debate about
cryonics relates also to the themes of REINCARNATION and IMMORTALITY. The
Cryonics Society of California began freezing newly dead people in 1967,
and the movement seems to have survived the setback it suffered when a
power failure caused a number of frozen bodies to thaw out in 1981,
sparking off a chain of lawsuits. The rumour that Walt Disney's body is in
a deep-freeze somewhere remains unconfirmed. Interest in the theme is by
no means confined to the USA, and two of the major fictional examinations
of the prospect are European: Nikolai AMOSOV's Zapiski iz budushchego
(1967; trans as Notes from the Future 1970) and Anders BODELSEN's
Frysepunktet (1969; trans as Freezing Point 1971; vt Freezing Down US).
Cryonic preservation is still used in stories of TIME TRAVEL into the
future, including Frederik POHL's The Age of the Pussyfoot (1969), Mack
REYNOLDS's UTOPIAN Looking Backward, from the Year 2000 (1973) and the
Woody Allen film SLEEPER (1973). It is also a common device in stories of
slower-than-light SPACE TRAVEL: in E.C. TUBB's Dumarest series
interstellar travel may by "high" or "low", depending upon whether time is
absorbed by the use of drugs or more hazardous cryonic procedures, while
James WHITE's The Dream Millennium (1974) explores hypothetical
psychological effects of long-term freezing.The possible social problems
associated with large-scale cryonic projects are explored in various sf
stories. Clifford D. SIMAK's Why Call Them Back from Heaven? (1967)
imagines a time when a person can be tried for delaying the freezing of a
corpse, permitting "ultimate death", and the financial estates of the
frozen have become a political power-bloc, inviting criminal manipulation.
A cynical account of the politics of dealing with the dead is offered in
Larry NIVEN's "The Defenseless Dead" (1973), which points out that the
living have all the votes and that the dead might be an exploitable
resource; it was Niven who first used in print Pohl's term CORPSICLES to
denote the deep-frozen dead. Ernest TIDYMAN's satirical thriller Absolute
Zero (1971), about a financier who builds up a vast cryonics industry, is
similarly cynical. As might be expected, most stories depicting people who
try to "cheat" death by having themselves frozen down find suitably ironic
ways to thwart them. In "Ozymandias" (1972) by Terry CARR people who take
to the cryonic vaults in order to avoid a war fall victim, like the
mummified pharaohs of ancient Egypt before them, to professional
"tomb-robbers". In Gregory BENFORD's now-anachronistic "Doing Lennon"
(1975) an unfrozen John Lennon turns out not to be what he appears or
aspires to be; much more ambitiously, Benford's Chiller (1993) as by
Sterling Blake comprehensively (and very sympathetically) describes a
near-future development of the cryonics movement under threat from a
psychotic anti-freezer campaign conducted by a serial killer. And in ". .
. And He not Busy Being Born" (1987) by Brian M. STABLEFORD a bold
entrepreneur who succeeds against the odds in delivering himself into a
world of immortals find that he still cannot evade his destiny. [BS]




[s] Charles DE LINT.

(1938- ) US writer known almost exclusively for her collaborations with
Sondra MARSHAK as a producer of ties for STAR TREK, including Star Trek:
The New Voyages * (coll 1976) and its direct sequel Star Trek: The New
Voyages 2 * (anth 1978), The Price of the Phoenix * (1977) and its direct
sequel The Fate of the Phoenix * (1979), The Prometheus Design * (1982)
and Triangle * (1983), as well as Shatner: Where No Man . . . : The
Authorized Biography of William Shatner (1979) with William SHATNER. [JC]


A phrase not especially common in sf TERMINOLOGY, although what it refers
to is fundamental to the genre. The idea of humans deliberately altering
the nature of alien cultures (or of aliens doing it to us), or indeed of
doing the same to isolated cultures on Earth, is often evoked in sf,
sometimes approvingly, more often disapprovingly. This is especially so in
are dominant themes. A common form of cultural engineering in sf is the
TIME-TRAVEL or PARALLEL-WORLDS story (often both at once) in which some
sort of time-police force attempts to engineer past, future or ALTERNATE
WORLDS into the most stable and productive conformations. Sf itself can be
seen as a form of sublimated cultural engineering in its persistent
modelling of societies that differ from our own. [PN]


(1914- ) US writer of short stories in various genres who began
publishing sf with "The Bridges of Ool" in Planet Stories in 1955. Her
collection is Exile and Other Tales of Fantasy (coll 1968). [JC]

Working name of US writer Raymond King Cummings (1887-1957), author of
over 750 stories under various names in various genres; he was one of the
few writers active during the heyday of US PULP-MAGAZINE sf (1930-50) to
have begun his career before Hugo GERNSBACK launched AMZ in 1926. His
first sf of any note is also his best-known story, "The Girl in the Golden
Atom" (1919), which appeared, as did much of his early work, in All-Story
Weekly ( The ALL-STORY ); with its sequel, "People of the Golden Atom",
serialized in the same magazine in 1920, this famous story - about a young
man who takes a size-diminishing drug and has extraordinary adventures on
a microscopic world-became The Girl in the Golden Atom (fixup 1922 UK; exp
1923 US) and proved the cornerstone both of RC's reputation and of much of
his work from this time on, for he used the idea of the size-diminishing
drug and the microscopic world, with many variations, for the rest of his
long career ( GREAT AND SMALL). The Girl in the Golden Atom also
constitutes the "Matter" segment of RC's Matter, Space and Time trilogy;
the "Space" segment contains The Princess of the Atom (1929 The Argosy;
1950) and "The Fire People" (1922 The Argosy); the "Time" segment takes in
The Man who Mastered Time (1924 The Argosy; 1929), The Shadow Girl (1929
The Argosy; 1946 UK) and The Exile of Time (1931 ASF; 1964).After the
successes of his early years, RC remained prolific, but his mechanical
style and the general rigidity of his stories gradually lost him
popularity until, in the 1960s, some of his books were nostalgically
revived. Typical of his journeyman prose and uneven quality are the Tama
novels: Tama of the Light Country (1930 The Argosy; 1965) and Tama,
Princess of Mercury (1931 The Argosy; 1966), the heroine of which does
very well after being kidnapped from Earth to MERCURY. Brigands of the
Moon (1931), later published in Canada with a mistaken attribution to John
W. CAMPBELL Jr, and its sequel Wandl the Invader (1932 ASF; 1961 dos) are
examples of his SPACE-OPERA output, in which space pirates tend to
proliferate and humans to defeat terrifying alien monsters.RC was
fundamentally a pulp writer; unlike some of those only a little younger -
for example, Murray LEINSTER and Edmond HAMILTON - he was never capable of
adapting himself to the changing times, either scientifically or
stylistically. His later works could be interchanged with his earliest
with very little adjustment. [JC]Other works: The Sea Girl (1930); Tarrano
the Conqueror (1925 Science and Invention; 1930); Into the Fourth
Dimension (1926 Science and Invention; anth 1943 UK), made up of the title
novel plus stories by other hands, and not to be confused with Into the
4th Dimension (1981 chap), which reprints only the 1926 tale; The Man on
the Meteor (1924 Science and Invention; 1944 UK); Beyond the Vanishing
Point (1931 ASF; 1958 chap dos); Beyond the Stars (1928 The Argosy; 1963);
A Brand New World (1928 The Argosy; 1964); Explorers into Infinity (1927-8
Weird Tales; fixup 1965); The Insect Invasion (1932 The Argosy; 1967);
"The Snow Girl" (1929 The Argosy; in Famous Fantastic Classics No 1 [anth
1974]); Tales of the Scientific Crime Club (1925 The Sketch; coll

US writer who has not been traced with any security, but if precocious
was almost certainly the HOC whose dates are (1884-1973). Of those stories
collected in Welsh Rarebit Tales (coll 1902) at least 4, including "The
Man who Made a Man" and "The Space Annihilator", have considerable sf
interest. In the latter story a MATTER TRANSMITTER is introduced. Other
tales are generally FANTASY, some showing the influence of Ambrose BIERCE.


Howard FAST.

(1942- ) US specialist bookseller (since 1968) and bibliographer. With
David G. HARTWELL he published SF-I: A Selective Bibliography (1971 chap),
both writing as Kilgore TROUT; with Hartwell founded (1973) and operated
Dragon Press, a SMALL PRESS publishing books about sf, fantasy and horror;
the partnership was dissolved in 1979, leaving Hartwell sole owner. Also
with Hartwell, he co-edited the GREGG PRESSScience Fiction Reprint series
1975-81; alone he edited the Gregg Press Masters of Science Fiction and
Fantasy author BIBLIOGRAPHIES 1980-83. LWC's books are: A Research Guide
to Science Fiction Studies: An Annotated Checklist of Primary and
Secondary Sources for Fantasy and Science Fiction(1977) with Marshall B.
TYMN and Roger SCHLOBIN; Index to Stories in Thematic Anthologies of
Science Fiction (1978) with Tymn, Martin H. GREENBERG and Joseph D.
OLANDER; and Science Fiction and Fantasy Authors: A Bibliography of their
Fiction and Selected Nonfiction (1979). This last is his most important
work, a standard text which brought new standards of accuracy and
scholarship to sf bibliography. Listings for newly covered authors are
often published in NEW YORK REVIEW OF SCIENCE FICTION. A second edition of
the bibliography is in preparationScience Fiction, Utopian, Fantasy &
Horror Literature (1705-1938) (1993), offered as his antiquarian
bookseller's catalogue #94, is an extensively annotated checklist of
almost 1000 texts from the library of Donald A. WOLLHEIM. [PN]See also: SF


Film (1965). Lippert. Dir Don Sharp, starring Brian Donlevy, George
Baker, Carole Gray. Screenplay Harry Spalding, based on characters created
by George LANGELAAN. 86 mins. Colour.This UK film is the sequel to the two
US films The FLY (1958) and RETURN OF THE FLY (1959). The confused script
is largely a rehash of them, but Sharp's direction, which concentrates on
the mental disintegration of the mad SCIENTIST's wife (Gray), is -
occasionally - visually powerful. The results of failed MATTER
TRANSMISSION experiments, kept in outhouses in the garden, provide a nice
touch. The critical consensus that this is the worst of the three films
probably needs revision. [PN]

(1860-? ) UK writer whose first sf novel, Tears of Angels (1907),
features its protagonist's conveyance to Alpha Centauri on an angel, who
is perhaps weeping; from the star he gains a perspective on Earth, then
returns home to find himself in an ALTERNATE-WORLD version of the future.
Out of the Shadows (1908) is a detection with occult elements. When
England Slept (1909) is a future- WAR tale. [JC]

Pseudonym of French writer Louis Lafitte (1917- ). His collection of five
satirical sf stories, Un saint au neon(coll 1956; trans Humphrey Hare as
The Neon Halo: The Face of the Future 1958 UK), very sharply depicts a
NEAR-FUTURE world whose centre cannot hold. The tone is vivacious,
didactic, circumstantial; its wit is distanced in the recit fashion long
favoured by French satirists. [JC]

(1937- ) US editor, literary agent and writer, known mainly in the first
capacity for his anthology Future Tense (anth 1968), which is not to be
confused with Kendell Foster CROSSEN's Future Tense (anth 1952). He has
also published short work, beginning with "Introduction to 'The Saint'"
for Cavalier in 1968, as well as Squirm (1976), an sf film novelization (
BLUE SUNSHINE). He wrote 1980-92 the Agent's Corner column in LOCUS, which
has been adapted into book form as Beyond the Bestseller (coll 1989).
[JC]Other works: How to Prosper in the Coming Apocalypse (1981); How to be
Your Own Literary Agent (coll 1983; exp 1984); A Fool for an Agent:
Publishing Satires and Verses (coll 1992 chap).


(1867-1940) US writer, a contributor to several pre-sf fiction magazines.
His most important sf is a short story about a brain transplant, "The
Monster of Lake LaMetrie" (1899 The Windsor Magazine), in which the brain
is human and the recipient body that of a prehistoric survival from a
bottomless lake that may lead into a HOLLOW EARTH. WAC also wrote an
Arabian-Nights fantasy, "The Seal of Solomon the Great" (1901 Argosy) and
The Strange Adventures of Mr Middleton (coll 1903), which contains a
mixture of Oriental fantasy and bizarre mystery. [JE]

Founded in 1948, one of several UK publishing firms which flourished in
the decade after WWII by releasing dozens of purpose-written paperback
originals in various popular genres. Before it foundered in 1954, CW had
published over 500 novels, 98 of them sf, all of them composed strictly
according to length restrictions: in 1948-50, CW books were of 24 or 32pp;
in 1950-53, they were of 112 or 128pp; from 1953, 160pp volumes were the
rule. CW gained some posthumous fame for having published John BRUNNER's
first novel, Galactic Storm (1951) under the house name Gill HUNT; but
their most reliable and prolific author was Dennis HUGHES: as with some of
his stablemates, little is known about this author beyond the titles he
wrote, mostly under CW house names. Other authors associated with CW (see
their entries for personal pseudonyms) included William Henry Fleming
BIRD, Kenneth BULMER, John Russell FEARN, John S. GLASBY, David GRIFFITHS,
Brian HOLLOWAY, John W. JENNISON and E.C. TUBB. As well as Gill Hunt,
house names used for CW sf titles included Berl CAMERON, Neil CHARLES, Lee
REED and Brian SHAW.It cannot be assumed that all books published by CW
were written on hire as SHARECROPS; but almost certainly almost all of
them were. It remains a possibility that some of the 98 titles might have
some intrinsic interest, the most likely candidates being those by Fearn,
Glasby and Tubb. [JC]About the publisher: Curtis Warren and Grant Hughes
(1985 chap) by Stephen HOLLAND.

[r] ITALY.

Pseudonym used by journalist Philippe Tronche (1929- ), French writer. PC
has since the 1950s been associated with the growth of sf in France as
bookseller, magazine editor, photographer, chronicler and author. He is a
fine stylist whose work is exemplified by a sensual, poetic mood and great
affection for his characters. He has written over 20 stories, the first
appearing in 1955. Cette Chere Humanite (1976; trans Steve Cox as Brave
Old World 1981 UK), which won the 1977 Prix Apollo ( AWARDS), conflates
the personal extension of lifespans with the artificial isolation of a
future EEC. Le ressac de l'espace ["The Breakers of Space"] (1962) won the
Prix Jules Verne in 1963 and L'homme a rebours ["Backwards Man"] (1974)
was selected as Best French SF Novel of 1974. [MJ/JC]Other works:Les
fleurs de Venus ["Flowers of Venus"] (1960); La fortresse de coton ["The
Cotton Fortress"] (1967); Les sables de Falun ["The Sands of Falun"]
(1970); Attention les yeux["Watch Out!"] (1972);Un souvenir de Pierre
Loti"In Remembrance of Pierre Loti"(1975); Un soupcon de neant ["A Hint of
Nothingness"] (1977)La Face cachee du desir ["The Dark Side of Desire"]
(1978); Y a quelqu'un? ["Anybody Home?"] (1979); Le dormeur
s'eveillera-t-il? ["Will the Sleeper Awake?"] (1979); Rut aux etoiles
["The Astral Mating Season"] (1979); Regarde, fiston, s'il y a un extra-
terrestre derriere la bouteille de vin ["Take a Look, Boy, If There's an
Alien Behind the Wine Bottle"] (coll 1980); Le Livre d'or de la science
fiction: Philippe Curval ["The Golden Book of Science Fiction: Philippe
Curval"] (coll 1980); L'Odeur de la bete ["The Scent of the Beast"]
(1981); Tous vers l'exstase ["All Together to Ecstasy"] (1981); En
souvenir du futur ["Remembrance of Time to Come"] (1982); Ah! Que c'est
beau New York! ["Ah! New York is so Beautiful!"] (1982); Debout les morts,
le train fantome entre la gare ["On your Feet, Dead Men, the Phantom Train
is Pulling in"] (coll 1984); Comment jouer a L'Homme invisible en Trois
Lecons ["How to Play The Invisible Man in Three Lessons"] (1986);
Akiloe(1988); Habite-t-on reellement quelque part? ["Do we Really Live
Somewhere?"] (coll 1990).See also: FRANCE.

(1956- ) New Zealand-born writer and journalist, in the UK from the late
1970s. His first novel, God Help the Queen (1987), was an sf SATIRE about
the UK of AD2003, which is in such lamentable condition that only Queen
Britannia herself can save it from doublethink and Yankees. [JC]

(1931- ) US writer, some titles in whose Dirk Pitt sequence of
TECHNOTHRILLERS are of sf interest. Supremely competent, irresistible to
women, slightly sadistic, Pitt is Special Projects Director for the
(fictional) American National Underwater and Marine Agency, which engages
in spectacular underwater salvage operations involving exotic
technologies. Relevant titles include Raise the Titanic! (1976), filmed in
1980 as Raise the Titanic! dir Jerry Jameson, Vixen 03 (1978), which deals
with the hunt for a "Doomsday virus", Night Probe! (1981), Pacific Vortex!
(1983), which features human divers with artificial gills,Deep Six (1984),
Cyclops (1986), in which a secret MOON colony figures, Treasure (1988), a
tale of NEAR-FUTURE political manoeuvrings, Dragon(1990), Sahara(1992) and
Inca Gold(1994).[NT]

In sf TERMINOLOGY this is a word so often misused that its real meaning
is in danger of being devalued or forgotten.The term "cybernetics",
derived from a Greek word meaning helmsman or controller, was coined by
the distinguished mathematician Norbert WIENER in 1947 to describe a new
science on which he and others had been working since 1942. The word first
passed into general usage with the publication of his Cybernetics (1948;
rev 1961), subtitled "Control and Communication in the Animal and the
Machine". Cybernetics was cross-disciplinary from the beginning; it
developed when Wiener and others noticed that certain parallel problems
persistently arose in scientific disciplines normally regarded as
separate: statistical mechanics, information theory, electrical
engineering and neurophysiology were four of the most
important.Cybernetics has much in common with the parallel study of
General Systems Theory, founded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1940. It is
concerned with the way systems work, the way they govern themselves, the
way they process information (often through a process known as "feedback")
in order to govern themselves, and the way they can best be designed. The
system in question can be a machine or, equally, a human body. The
trouble, Wiener found, was that the terminology with which engineers
discussed machines led to a very mechanistic approach when applied to
human systems, and, conversely, biological terminology led to an
over-anthropomorphic approach in discussion of machines (or economic or
ecological systems, two other areas where cybernetics is useful). The
trick was to construct a new science which would not be biased towards
either the mechanical or the biological. In his An Introduction to
Cybernetics (1956), W. Ross Ashby remarked that "cybernetics stands to the
real machine - electronic, mechanical, neural or economic - much as
geometry stands to a real object in our terrestrial space"; that is,
cybernetics is an abstracting, generalizing science. However, science
being what it is, always tending towards specialization, the original idea
of cybernetics as a cross-disciplinary study is in danger of being
forgotten, and now we have specialists in, for example, engineering
cybernetics and biological cybernetics. The latter is usually called
"bionics", although this word, coined in 1960, is actually a contraction
of "biological electronics".If we use the broad, scientifically accepted
definition of "cybernetics", it cannot be delimited as a separate theme in
this encyclopedia. Most of the stories discussed under the entries
ROBOTS will, by definition, be cybernetics stories also. For example, Kurt
VONNEGUT Jr's PLAYER PIANO (1952) has at its heart an image of humans
incorporated in and subject to an impersonal, machine-like system (
AUTOMATION); they effectively become components or "bits" in a cybernetic
system.However, in sf the term "cybernetics" is most often used to mean
something narrower - generally the creation of artificial intelligence, or
AI. This is indeed a central problem in real-world cybernetics, but by no
means the only one. Some cyberneticians hope that analysis of neural
systems (i.e., the brain) might lead to the synthesis of simulated
intelligences which begin as machines but go on to become
self-programming, or even, as in Greg BEAR's Queen of Angels (1990),
self-aware. The first step towards AI in real life is the computer, which
is why all computer stories are cybernetics stories also.Cybernetics also
enters sf in the form of the word "cyborg", a contraction of "cybernetic
organism". This usage is taken from an area of cybernetics not necessarily
related to AI: a person with a wooden leg is a kind of very simple cyborg,
because the melding of mechanical and human parts necessitates, whether
consciously or not, the use of feedback devices (i.e., it is cybernetic).
The study of cybernetics is, at bottom, the study of just such devices,
whether they be servo-mechanisms or the messages that travel between eye
and hand when we pick up a book from a table.Surprisingly few sf stories
attack the problem of AI directly; far more commonly, the problem is
sidetracked by conjuring up a magic word from the air. Isaac ASIMOV said
his robots were POSITRONIC, and left it at that. One of the most
comprehensive (if not always comprehensible) cybernetics works in sf is
Destination: Void (1966) by Frank HERBERT, in which the problem is that of
building not just a very complex computer but a machine that could be said
to be conscious. Herbert actually spells out some of the steps through
which this might conceivably be possible, and also goes on to ask those
philosophical questions about autonomy and free will which must inevitably
hover in the background of any cybernetics story of this kind. Much of the
book's terminology is borrowed from Wiener's nonfiction God & Golem, Inc.
(1964). Interestingly, the question "In what respect can a machine be said
to have free will?" engenders a parallel question about humans themselves,
at least for readers and writers who take the materialist view that the
human mind is itself no more than a complex cybernetics system; this
"anti-vitalist" view of humanity is common among cybernetics writers. The
whole thrust of cybernetics as a study is to point up the resemblances
between sciences superficially dissimilar, and the attempt by
neurocyberneticians to analyse the mind as a system has led to impassioned
attack from people who believe that humanness mystically transcends its
own physical constituents.In real life, attempts to simulate INTELLIGENCE
in machines have mainly taken the route of the heuristic programming of
computers. This is a way of showing a computer how to solve a problem not
by painstakingly going through every possible combination that might lead
to a solution - this would take a computer billions of years in an
ordinary chess game - but by programming short-cuts into the machine, so
that it can gauge the most likely or fruitful directions for analysis.
Humans do it automatically; machines have to be taught, but this teaching
is the first step towards training a machine how to make choices, a vital
step towards consciousness.The first important sf work to use the
terminology of cybernetics was Bernard WOLFE's LIMBO (1952; vt Limbo '90
UK); he used its basic ideas (sometimes with hostility) in the wide sense,
as they relate to computers, war-games, industrial management and the
workings of the brain. Cybernetics terminology is used very loosely by
Raymond F. JONES in The Cybernetic Brains (1950 Startling Stories; 1962),
which tells of human brains integrated with computers. Although Jones
probably used the term more because it was fine-sounding than for any
other reason, this is nonetheless a legitimate cybernetics subject, and is
also deployed notably in Wolfbane (1959) by Frederik POHL and C.M.
KORNBLUTH, Catchworld (1975) by Chris BOYCE and many other stories.A
number of stories about the development of consciousness in computers
carry cybernetic implications, though few as far-ranging as those in
Destination: Void. Some early examples can be found in Science Fiction
Thinking Machines (anth 1954) ed Groff CONKLIN; also relevant are The God
Machine (1968) by Martin CAIDIN, Vulcan's Hammer (1960) by Philip K. DICK,
Sagan om den stora datamaskin (1966 Sweden; trans as The Tale of the Big
Computer 1966; vt The Great Computer, A Vision 1968 UK; vt The End of Man?
HEINLEIN, When Harlie Was One (1972) by David GERROLD and "Synth" (1966)
by Keith ROBERTS. The reverse progression, of human into machine, occurs
in the vignettes of Moderan (coll of linked stories 1971) by David R.
BUNCH.Already-developed machine consciousnesses appear in Roger ZELAZNY's
story "For a Breath I Tarry" (1966), Cyberiada (coll of linked stories
1967 Poland; trans as The Cyberiad: Fables for the Cybernetic Age 1974 US)
by Stanislaw LEM, all the Berserker stories by Fred SABERHAGEN, The Siren
Stars (1971) by Richard and Nancy CARRIGAN and The Cybernetic Samurai
(1985) by Victor MILAN. Of these - and they are only a tiny proportion of
the total - Lem's fables are the ones that most directly confront the
various philosophical paradoxes that machine intelligence involves. A
particularly vast, Galaxy-spanning machine consciousness, literally a deus
ex machina, features in Dan SIMMONS's HYPERION (1989) and its sequel.The
Steel Crocodile (1970; vt The Electric Crocodile UK) by D.G. COMPTON is
interesting from a cybernetics viewpoint; it is about computer systems,
but also analyses the nature of human social systems and examines how the
two kinds intermesh. Gray Matters (1971) by William HJORTSBERG examines
disembodied human brain systems linked up in a network. Spacetime Donuts
(1981) by Rudy RUCKER is one of many variants on the theme of a human
society controlled repressively by a benevolent computer. The Black Cloud
(1957) by Fred HOYLE dramatizes communication between a human mind and an
inorganic intelligence in space; it also raises a number of cybernetic
issues. The Jonah Kit (1975) by Ian WATSON asks cybernetic questions in
that part of the story dealing with the imprinting of a human
consciousness onto the mind of a whale.Various compound words have been
formed, with dubious etymological exactness, from "cybernetics" - we have
already met"cyborg" . There are the "Cybermen" and "Cybernauts" - two
varieties of dangerous ROBOTS - in the tv series DR WHO and The AVENGERS ,
respectively; here the "cyber" component is merely a buzzword synonym for
robot. Two terms where the "cyber" component has considerably more force,
CYBERPUNK and CYBERSPACE, warrant their own entries.The only book that
analyses cybernetics issues from an sf perspective is The Cybernetic
Imagination in Science Fiction (1980) by Patricia S. WARRICK, interesting
when talking about cybernetic ideas as they are used in sf - often
inaccurately in her view - but on less sure ground when discussing the
literary quality of the results. "Cyborgs and Cybernetic Intertexts: On
Postmodern Phantasms of Body and Mind" by Gabriele Schwab in
Intertextuality and Contemporary American Fiction (anth 1989), ed Patrick
O'Donnell, is an academic essay on the subject. [PN]

Term used to describe a school of sf writing that developed and became
popular during the 1980s. The word was almost certainly coined by Bruce
BETHKE in his story "Cyberpunk" (1983 AMZ), which had for some time before
publication been circulating in manuscript. The term was picked up, either
directly or indirectly, by writer and editor Gardner DOZOIS and used by
him to characterize a literary movement whose main exponents, at first -
in stories from about 1981-2 onwards - were seen as being Bruce STERLING
and William GIBSON, along with Rudy RUCKER, Lewis SHINER and perhaps John
SHIRLEY. It was not long after the publication of Gibson's first novel,
NEUROMANCER (1984), that the term began to come into general use, and
NEUROMANCER was the book that definitively shaped our sense of the
subgenre to which "cyberpunk" refers.The "cyber" part of the word relates
to CYBERNETICS: to a future where industrial and political blocs may be
global (or centred in SPACE HABITATS) rather than national, and controlled
through information networks; a future in which machine augmentations of
the human body are commonplace, as are mind and body changes brought about
by DRUGS and biological engineering. Central to cyberpunk fictions is the
concept of VIRTUAL REALITY, as in Gibson's Neuromancer sequence, where the
world's data networks form a kind of machine environment into which a
human can enter by jacking into a cyberspace deck and projecting "his
disembodied consciousness into the consensual hallucination that was the
matrix" ( CYBERSPACE). The "punk" part of the word comes from the
rock'n'roll terminology of the 1970s, "punk" meaning in this context
young, streetwise, aggressive, alienated and offensive to the
Establishment. A punk disillusion, often multiple - with progressive
layers of illusion being peeled away - is a major component of these
works.Data networks are more than just a part of cyberpunk's subject
matter. Density of information, often slipped into stories by
near-subliminal means, has from the outset strongly characterized
cyberpunk's actual style. An important cyberpunk forebear was the film
BLADE RUNNER (1982), whose NEAR-FUTURE milieu - mean, drizzling, populous
streets lit up by enormous advertisements for Japanese products,
alternating street junk with hi-tech - is, in the intensity of its visual
infodumps, like a template for a cyberpunk scenario. Even more central to
the cyberpunk ethos, however, are the films of David CRONENBERG, whose
VIDEODROME (1982) in particular is a central cyberpunk document in its
emphasis on bodily metamorphosis, media overload and destructive
sex.Cyberpunk did not spring full-grown from Gibson's forehead, of course.
Indeed, unfriendly critics have rejoiced in locating cyberpunk ancestors,
as if this somehow devalued the entire movement; obviously cyberpunk can
be read as the apotheosis of various idea-clusters that appeared earlier,
but this seems neither surprising nor damaging. Ancestral texts include
Bernard WOLFE's LIMBO (1952; vt Limbo 90 UK), with its prosthetic ironies,
Alfred BESTER's Tiger! Tiger! (1956 UK; rev vt The Stars My Destination
1957 US), with its protopunk antihero, William S. BURROUGHS's The Soft
Machine (1961 France; rev 1966 US) and its various quasi-sequels, with
their drug and biological fantasias, Samuel R. DELANY's NOVA (1968), with
its streetwise CYBORGS, James TIPTREE Jr's "The Girl who was Plugged In"
(1973), with its painful ironies about altered body-image, and Ted
MOONEY's Easy Travel to Other Planets (1981), with its interspecies sex
and its information sickness. Other forebears would include J.G. BALLARD,
John BRUNNER - notably with THE SHOCKWAVE RIDER (1975) - Norman SPINRAD,
John VARLEY and perhaps even Thomas PYNCHON.Cyberpunk is often seen as a
variety of Postmodernist fiction, a point made by the title of Storming
the Reality Studio: A Casebook of Cyberpunk and Postmodern Science Fiction
(anth 1992) ed Larry McCaffery. Many of POSTMODERNISM's allegedly
principal qualities fit cyberpunk like a glove.The sense that cyberpunk
was almost a political movement, not just a form of fiction, came in part
from outside the fictions themselves. There had been nothing like it in
the sf world since the NEW-WAVE arguments of the 1960s. In convention
panels, in magazines (especially from 1987 in a critical semiprozine,
SCIENCE FICTION EYE ed Stephen P. Brown) - in all sorts of media -
passionate and sometimes heated arguments took place from about 1985
affirming the cyberpunks as shapers and movers in the sluggish, complacent
world of sf publishing. Bruce Sterling's fervour in polemic of this sort
was messianic, and it was he who edited the first influential anthology of
the movement: MIRRORSHADES: THE CYBERPUNK ANTHOLOGY (anth 1986), whose
preface resembles a manifesto. The arguments of Sterling and various of
his colleagues have been not merely vigorous but also intelligent about
the changing shape of our world (particularly as regards information
technology and biological engineering), and many readers must have been
attracted by the sense that here was a bunch of writers doing what sf
authors are supposed to do best, surf-riding on the big breakers of change
and the future. On the other hand, some of the cyberpunk propaganda was so
aggressive that it irresistibly reminded older observers of the
mid-century politics of the extreme international-socialist left:
enjoyable, but tiring to watch.Some other sf writers, not part of the
movement, were a bit taken aback by all the fuss - as well they might have
been given the comparatively small amount of published fiction that was
receiving such vast hype (the media picked up on cyberpunk in a big way
around 1988). On the whole, cyberpunk received a friendly reception,
although several of these outside writers seemed to see it as a matter
more of tone than of content. Orson Scott CARD wrote a cyberpunk pastiche,
"Dogwalker" (1989), that was apparently intended to make a point about
this. In his comment on this story when it appeared in his Maps in a
Mirror (coll 1990), Card wrote: "But the worst thing about cyberpunk was
the shallowness of those who imitated it. Splash some drugs onto
brain-and-microchip interface, mix it up with some vague sixties-style
counterculture, and then use really self-conscious, affected language, and
you've got cyberpunk." This was unfair to much of it, though certainly
cyberpunk produced instant CLICHEES, as in books like Hardwired (1986) by
Walter Jon WILLIAMS (although he rendered them rather well, and is by no
means the most cynical-seeming of those who climbed or were hauled onto
the bandwagon).In a magazine piece, "The Neuromantics" (1986; reprinted in
Science Fiction in the Real World coll 1990), Norman Spinrad argued
cogently that the "romance" component of Gibson's triple-punning title
NEUROMANCER ("neuro" as in nervous system; "necromancer"; "new romancer")
is basic to the cyberpunk form. Spinrad proposed ingeniously that the
cyberpunk authors should in fact be called "neuromantics" (nobody seems to
have taken him up on this), for their fiction is "a fusion of the romantic
impulse with science and technology". (Spinrad sees romanticism and
science as having been damagingly split during the New Wave vs HARD SF
debates of the 1960s; only with cyberpunk, he argues, did they fuse
together again.) He also argues, correctly, that Greg BEAR is - despite
his denials - a cyberpunk writer, and an important one. Certainly the
romance element is strong in Bear's work, as is the cyberpunk theme of
literally remaking humanity. Gibson is not just mildly romantic: he is
deeply so, as affirmed by the continuing homage his earlier work paid to
the detective fiction of Raymond Chandler (1888-1959). On the other hand,
Sterling's work - notably his Shaper/Mechanist stories - is not very
romantic at all. Sterling's cool fictions are perhaps the strangest and
most estranging of the cyberpunk stories in that their embracing of the
future leaves remarkably few lifelines whereby readers might connect
themselves back to the present; his prose, too, is more machine-like than
Gibson's (which is notably stylish). All this, while making Sterling's
work rather formidable for the reader, goes to show that Spinrad's
definition, like most definitions of literary movements, has major
exceptions to its rule ( DEFINITIONS OF SF).Cyberpunk has been accused of
being a phallocratic movement, and certainly only one woman writer, Pat
CADIGAN, is regularly associated with it in the public mind. But surely
cyberpunk influence can be seen in the work of, for example, Candas Jane
DORSEY, especially in her fine "(Learning About) Machine Sex" (1988),
Elizabeth HAND, in WINTERLONG (1990), and even perhaps Kathy ACKER,
although arguably she influenced cyberpunk more than it influenced her.
Other candidates might be Storm CONSTANTINE and MISHA.Many further writers
have been associated with cyberpunk, centrally so in the instances of Tom
MADDOX and Richard KADREY, perhaps more marginally so with George Alec
EFFINGER, K.W. JETER, Michael SWANWICK and Jack WOMACK; this is far from a
fully comprehensive list. These authors, however, along with the others
cited above, are by and large sufficiently distinguished to make it clear
why cyberpunk made such a splash. To contemplate them all is certainly to
evoke a sense of where some of the most exciting US sf action was during
the 1980s.Towards the end of that decade, however, it became clear that
the term "cyberpunk" no longer pleased all those whose work it had come to
envelop. Perhaps it had begun to represent too many cliches, too many
literary constraints, too big a readership wanting more and more of the
same. If cyberpunk is dead in the 1990s - as several critics have claimed
- it is as a result of euthanasia from within the family. Certainly the
effects of cyberpunk, both within sf and in the world at large, have been
invigorating; and, since most of its authors still continue to write - if
not necessarily under that label - we can safely assume that the spirit of
cyberpunk lives on. [PN]

An item of sf TERMINOLOGY introduced by William GIBSON in his novel
NEUROMANCER (1984). He takes quite an old sf idea, also much discussed by
scientists, in imagining a NEAR-FUTURE era in which the human brain and
nervous system (biological) can interface directly with the global
information network (electrical) by jacking neurally implanted electrodes
directly into a networked COMPUTER (or "cyberdeck"). The network then
entered by the human mind is perceived by it, Gibson tells us, as if it
were an actual territory, almost a landscape, the "consensual
hallucination that was the matrix". This is cyberspace. Gibson goes on to
imagine that cyberspace might contain not only human minds but also human
or godlike simulacra, artefacts of the system created, perhaps
accidentally, by AIs. The term "cyberspace" has since been used by other
writers. It refers in fact to an imaginary but not wholly impossible
special case of VIRTUAL REALITY, which is in our contemporary world a more
commonly used term for machine-generated scenarios perceived, in varying
degrees, as "real" by those who watch or "enter" them. [PN]See also: GODS

The word "Cyberspace" has become ubiquitous. It was first coined by
William Gibson in his 1984 novel, Neuromancer. But the concept of
cyberspace - that an electronic interface exists between the human nervous
system and a computer - has its roots in cybernetics, a term coined in the
early 1940s by mathematician Norbert Wiener.In 1948, Wiener published a
paper titled "Cybernetics: Control and Communication in the Animal and the
Machine." In it he discusses the relationship between statistics,
information theory, electronics, and the brain.Almost thirty-five years
later, Wiener's ideas inspired the vision of cyberspace. From that vision
came "cyberpunk:" - a literary style that has affected lifestyles...And
what will happen in Cyberspace will most likely change the way we humans
communicate in the future.

The term "cyborg" is a contraction of "cybernetic organism" and refers to
the product of human/machine hybridization. David Rorvik popularized the
idea in As Man Becomes Machine (1971), writing of the "melding" of human
and machine and of a "new era of participant evolution". Elementary
medical cyborgs - people with prosthetic limbs or pacemakers - are already
familiar, and have been extrapolated in fiction in such works as Bernard
WOLFE's LIMBO (1952; vt Limbo '90 UK) and Martin CAIDIN's Cyborg (1972);
the tv series The SIX-MILLION DOLLAR MAN - which popularized the term
"bionic man" - was based on the latter. A more recent example of the
cyborg SUPERMAN can be found in Richard LUPOFF's Sun's End (1984) and
Galaxy's End (1988).There are two other common classes of cyborg in sf:
functional cyborgs are people modified mechanically to perform specific
tasks, usually a job of work; adaptive cyborgs are people redesigned to
operate in an alien environment, sometimes so completely that their
humanity becomes problematic. The subject of the earliest major cyborg
novel, The Clockwork Man (1923) by E.V. ODLE, belongs to the latter
category, featuring a man of the future who has a clockwork mechanism
built into his head which is supposed to regulate his whole being, and
which gives him access to a multidimensional world ( DIMENSIONS). The most
common form of cyborg portrayed in the early sf PULP MAGAZINES was an
extreme version of the medical cyborg ( MEDICINE), consisting of a human
brain in a mechanical envelope. These are featured in Edmond HAMILTON's
"The Comet Doom" (1928) and CAPTAIN FUTURE series, in Neil R. JONES's
Professor Jameson series, and in Raymond F. JONES's The Cybernetic Brains
(1950; 1962). Brains immortalized by mechanical preservation often became
monstrous, like the ones in Lloyd Arthur ESHBACH's "The Time Conqueror"
(1932; vt "Tyrant of Time") and Curt SIODMAK's much-filmed Donovan's Brain
(1943). Some later writers approached the existential situation of humans
in mechanized bodies in a much more careful and sophisticated manner;
outstanding examples include C.L. MOORE's "No Woman Born" (1944) and Algis
BUDRYS's WHO? (1958), both of which focus on the problems of
re-establishing identity once the familiar emblems are gone. Existential
problems are also to the fore in The Continuous Katherine Mortenhoe (1974;
vt The Unsleeping Eye) by D.G. COMPTON, which features a man with tv
cameras implanted in his eyes.An early example of the functional cyborg is
strikingly displayed in "Scanners Live in Vain" (1950) by Cordwainer
SMITH, which features cyborgs designed for SPACE FLIGHT; this particular
theme dominates stories of both functional and adaptive cyborgs. Cyborg
spaceships are central to Thomas N. SCORTIA's "Sea Change" (1956), Anne
MCCAFFREY's The Ship who Sang (coll of linked stories 1969), Kevin
O'DONNELL Jr's Mayflies (1979) and Gordon R. DICKSON's The Forever Man
(1986), while Vonda MCINTYRE's Superluminal (1983) features space pilots
who require mechanical replacement hearts. Stories dealing with the use of
adaptive cyborgs to explore other worlds include Arthur C. CLARKE's "A
Meeting with Medusa" (1971), Frederik POHL's MAN PLUS (1976) and Paul J.
MCAULEY's "Transcendence" (1988). Barrington J. BAYLEY's The Garments of
Caean (1976) has two races of cyborgs adapted to the environment of outer
space. Another major theme in stories dealing with functional cyborgs
concerns their adaptation to the needs of espionage and war; examples
include "I-C-a-BEM" (1961) by Jack VANCE, "Kings who Die" (1962) by Poul
ANDERSON and A Plague of Demons (1965) by Keith LAUMER. Relatively few
stories treat more mundane manipulative functions, although Samuel R.
DELANY's NOVA (1968) makes significant observations en passant. Many
recent stories feature humans modified in such a way as to be able to plug
in directly to COMPUTERS, sometimes working in harness with them to do
many kinds of work. Particularly graphic images of this kind can be found
in ORA:CLE (1984) by Kevin O'Donnell Jr, SCHISMATRIX (1985) by Bruce
STERLING, Hardwired (1986) by Walter Jon WILLIAMS and Escape Plans (1986)
by Gwyneth JONES; the notion is a staple background element of CYBERPUNK.
Not all functional cyborgs involve human flesh: The Godwhale (1974) by
T.J. BASS features a massive food-collecting cetacean cyborg.Sf in the
cinema and on tv has often used the cyborg as a convenient figure of
menace; examples include the DALEKS and Cybermen of DR WHO. Images of
cyborg evil in written sf include the Cyclan in E.C. TUBB's Dumarest
novels and Palmer Eldritch in Philip K. DICK's THE THREE STIGMATA OF
PALMER ELDRITCH (1964). A more sympathetic cyborg is featured in Dick's Dr
Bloodmoney (1965), and tv has presented at least one memorable sympathetic
image in Harlan ELLISON's The OUTER LIMITS script "Demon with a Glass
Hand" (1964).One work which transcends categorization to deal in
semi-allegorical fashion with the relationship between human and machine
via the symbol of the cyborg is David R. BUNCH's Moderan (1959-70; fixup
1971), an assemblage of vignettes about a world where machine-men
gradually forsake their "fleshstrips" and retire into mechanized
"strongholds" to plot the destruction of their fellows.A relevant theme
anthology is Human Machines (anth 1976) ed Thomas N. Scortia and George

Made-for-tv film (1966). Feature Film Corp. Dir Franklin Adreon, starring
Michael Rennie, Karen Steele, Wendell Corey, Warren Stevens, Eduard Franz.
Screenplay Arthur C. Pierce. 86 mins. Colour.This film, which though made
for tv achieved theatrical release, has a renegade CYBORG (Rennie) from
AD2087 going back to 1966 to prevent a scientist (Franz) from creating a
device that will later be used by a totalitarian government for a
mind-control programme to which the cyborgs themselves are central. He is
followed back in time by two government agents, both cyborgs, but he
overcomes them and persuades the scientist to destroy his invention,
though he knows that by doing so he will eliminate the possibility of his
own existence. When the device is indeed destroyed, he disappears along
with everybody's memories of his visit. The narrative has a better grasp
of TIME PARADOXES than usual for tv, but the performances are weak. The
plot bears a similarity to that of the much later film TERMINATOR 2:

The form of his name under which French soldier and writer Savinien
Cyrano de Bergerac (1619-1655) is best known. He is famous as the hero of
a play by Edmond Rostand (1868-1918), Cyrano de Bergerac (1898 UK), which
made legends of his swordsmanship and the size of his nose. He fought with
the Gascon Guard but retired after sustaining bad wounds. Only parts of
his major work of PROTO SCIENCE FICTION, L'autre monde, were published in
posthumous versions, censored (to tone down their heretical elements) by
CdB's friend Henri le Bret. Histoire comique, par Monsieur de Cyrano
Bergerac, contenant les etats et empires de la lune (1657 France; trans
Tho. St Serf as Selenarchia: The Government of the World in the Moon 1659)
is complete, but the text of Fragment d'Histoire comique par Monsieur de
Cyrano Bergerac, contenant les etats et empires du soleil (1662 France;
trans A. Lovell together with the former item as The Comical History of
the States and Empires of the Moon and Sun, coll 1687) is partial. Some of
the censored text is restored in a French edition of Cyrano's complete
works (Oeuvres [coll 1957], and both books - Moon and Sun - are translated
from that edition in Other Worlds: The Comical History of the States and
Empires of the Moon and Sun (trans Geoffrey Strachan omni 1965). It is
possible that the remainder of the second part and the third part (The
History of the Stars) were written but subsequently lost or destroyed.The
hero of the comic histories attempts SPACE FLIGHT by several absurd
methods, including ROCKET power. His adventures are SATIRES interrupted by
discourses and dialogues regarding contemporary issues in natural
philosophy. A classic sequence in the second history has the hero tried
for the crimes of humanity by a court of birds. The histories influenced
several later satirists, including Jonathan SWIFT and VOLTAIRE. The first
part borrows Domingo Gonsales from Francis GODWIN's The Man in the Moone
(1638), and in the second part Tommaso CAMPANELLA appears as the hero's

In Czechoslovakia there are two main groups, the Czechs and the Slovaks,
speaking different languages. Sf is written in both.The history of Czech
sf begins in the 19th century, with the first true sf work probably being
Zivot na Mesici ["Life on the Moon"] (1881) by Karel Pleskac. Also of
interest are some of the works of the famous mainstream author Svatopluk
Cech; for example, Hanuman (1884; trans W.W. Strickland 1894 UK),
depicting a civil war between two factions of apes ( APES AND CAVEMEN),
and Pravy vylet pana Broucka do Mesice ["The True Trip of Mr Broucek to
the Moon"] (1888). Another important ancestral figure was Jakub Arbes, who
wrote a series of romanetos (short novels) on fantastic themes, including
Newtonuv mozek (1877; trans Jiri Kral as "Newton's Brain" in Poet's Lore
[anth 1982 US]), which prefigures the theme of TIME TRAVEL.The first
author to write sf systematically was Karel Hloucha, author of seven
novels and story collections, including Zakleta zeme ["Enchanted Country"]
(1910) and Slunecni vuz ["The Solar Waggon"] (1921). Aliens that can take
the shape of human beings play an important role in Metod Suchdolsky's
novel Rusove na Martu ["Russians on Mars"] (1907).In 1920, the first sf
book by Karel CAPEK was published: the play R.U.R. (1920; trans 1923)
introduced the word ROBOT into the genre. The 1920s and 1930s were rich in
sf novels; each year several titles appeared, with a variety of themes
from technological inventions to the political and social aspects of
future societies. Among the writers active in this period were Tomas
Hruby, Jiri Haussmann, Marie Grubhofferova, J.M. Troska (the pseudonym of
Jan Matzal) and others. Troska was the most influential, especially with
his SPACE OPERA trilogy Zapas s nebem ["Struggle With the Skies"]
(1940-41). At the opposite pole stood Jan Weiss (1890-1972) with his
dreamlike mainstream sf novel Dum o 1000 patrech ["The Thousand-Storey
House"] (1929).After WWII (and especially after the communist coup in
1948) the production of Czech sf decreased, and those few, mainly juvenile
works which were published described a more "realistic" NEAR FUTURE.
Frantisek Behounek, a well known scientist, wrote seven HARD-SF novels
about the apotheosis of science in a communist future, examples being Akce
L ["Operation L"] (1956) and Robinsoni vesmiru ["The Space Family
Robinson"] (1958).The leading figure of the 1960s, and the symbol of the
rebirth of sf, was Josef NESVADBA, whose work is well known also in the
English-speaking world. Perhaps the most popular writer of this period,
however, was Ludvik Soucek (1926-1978), author of nine witty sf-adventure
novels and a few story collections, often with elements of the detective
story. The first and most popular were the trilogy Cesta slepych ptaku
["Voyage of the Blind Birds"] (1964) and the collection Bratri cerne
planety ["Brethren of the Black Planet"] (coll 1969); his last novel,
Blazni z Hepteridy ["The Madmen from Hepteris"] (1980), was published
posthumously. Two DYSTOPIAS by mainstream writers are of interest: Jiri
Marek's Blazeny vek ["Cheerful Era"] (1967) and Cestmir Vejdelek's Navrat
z Raje ["Return from Paradise"] (1961). The latter is a complex novel of
high literary standard describing the inhabitants of a computer-ruled
society who are unaware of their status as slaves. Other interesting
writers of the period were Josef Koenigsmark, Vaclav Kajdos and Ivan
Foustka.After the heightened activity of the 1960s, the so-called
"normalization" of Czech culture following the invasion of Czechoslovakia
by the Warsaw Pact countries in 1968 meant that there was another decrease
in Czech sf in the first half of the 1970s. At the end of that decade,
however, a new wave of writers appeared. The most significant authors of
short fiction are Jaroslav Veis (1946), Zdenek Volny and Ondrej Neff
(1945- ); each has published several books. Veis's Pandorina skrinka
["Pandora's Box"] (coll 1979) is very widely admired. Neff, after the
success of his first collection, Vejce naruby ["An Inside-Out Egg"] (coll
1985), turned to novels: his Mesic meho zivota ["The Moon of My Life"]
(1988), set in a colony of Moon-miners, is among the best Czech sf.
Another fine book from the period, from the usually mainstream writer
(although he has also produced four sf novels) Vladimir Paral, is the
dystopian Zeme zen ["The Country of Women"] (1987). The most important
publications for this generation of sf writers were the twin anthologies
Lide ze souhvezdi Lva ["People from the Constellation of Leo"] (anth 1983)
and Zelezo prichazi z hvezd ["Iron Comes from the Stars"] (anth 1983),
both ed Vojtech Kantor.The establishment in 1982 of the Karel Capek AWARD
for the best sf work by new authors encouraged the arrival of a still
younger generation of writers - Josef Pecinovsky, Frantisek Novotny,
Eduard Martin and Jan Hlavicka are the most significant. Although they
have published collections, this group's work primarily attained
popularity through anthologies: Navrat na planetu Zemi ["Return to Planet
Earth"] (anth 1985) and Stalo se zitra ["It Happened Tomorrow"] (anth
1985), both ed Ivo Zelezny.A few sf works have been written by Czech
authors in exile, an example being Maso ["Meat"] (coll 1981 Canada), a
collection of two novellas by Martin Harnicek. Another author in exile,
Ludek PESEK, is published in German and sometimes in English, although he
writes in Czech. One novel by Ivo DUKA (pseudonym of Ivo Duchacek and
Helena Koldova) was published in English: Martin and his Friend from Outer
Space (1955). Pavel KOHOUT, who left Czechoslovakia in 1968, later
published an sf novel (see his entry for its long title).Sf written in
Slovak does not have as continuous a tradition, and there are noticeably
fewer works. Sf featuring social comment and adventure was published in
the 1930s and 1940s by Peter Suchansky, Dezo S. Turcan and Jan
Kresanek-Ladcan. After WWII the production of Slovak sf was sporadic and
its nature naive, as in Luna 2 neodpoveda ["Luna 2 Doesn't Answer"]
(1958), one of the three sf novels written by Jan Bajla. Only one author
from the 1960s stands out: Jozef Tallo, whose collection is Vlasy Bereniky
["The Hair of Berenice"] (coll 1962). Many more writers emerged in the
1980s: Alta Vasova, Jan Fekete, Jozef Repko and others; they write mainly
juvenile fiction. The most successful may be the post- HOLOCAUST novel Po
["After"] (1979) by Vasova and three juvenile novels by Jozef Zarnay,
including Kolumbovia zo zakladne Ganymedes ["Columbuses from Ganymede
Space Station"] (1983).More than 50 sf films have been made in
Czechoslovakia, the first of them in the early 1920s. The earliest of real
interest are adaptations of stories by Karel Capek; they are Bila nemoc
["The White Plague"] (1937; vt Skeleton on Horseback), dir Hugo Haas, and
Krakatit (1948), dir Otakar Vavra. From the mid-1950s to 1970, several sf
films with animation and live action combined, based loosely on novels by
Jules VERNE and using original drawings from French editions of his books,
were made by director and animator Karel Zeman: Cesta do praveku (1955; vt
Journey to the Beginning of Time), VYNALEZ ZKAZY (1958; vt Weapons of
Destruction), Baron Prasil (1961; vt Baron Munchhausen), Ukradena
vzducholod (1966; vt The Stolen Airship) and Na komete (1970; vt On the
Comet). A completely animated Czech/French coproduction was La PLANETE
SAUVAGE (1973; vt Fantastic Planet).The tradition of Czech sf comedies was
launched by Oldrich Lipsky with a comedy set in "the 5th century after
Sputnik": Muz z prvniho stoleti ["Man from the First Century"] (1961; vt
Man in Outer Space). Lipsky's other sf films include: a TIME-TRAVEL
comedy, Zabil jsem Einsteina, panove! (1969; vt I Killed Einstein,
Gentlemen!); a parody of pre-WWII pulp detective fiction involving Nick
CARTER and a carnivorous plant, perhaps his best film, Adela jeste
nevecerela (1977; vt Adele Hasn't Eaten Yet); a Jules VERNE adaptation,
Tajemstvi hradu v Karpatech ["Mystery of the Carpathian Castle"] (1981);
and Srdecny pozdrav ze Zemekoule ["Cordial Greetings from Earth"] (1982).
Milos Macourek has had a hand in several good sf comedies, notably KDO
CHCE ZABIT JESSII? (1965; vt Who Would Kill Jessie?) and Coz takhle dat si
spenat (1976; vt What Would You Say to Some Spinach?), and also cowrote
the screenplay of ZITRA VSTANU A OPARIM SE CAJEM (1977; vt Tomorrow I'll
Wake up and Scald Myself with Tea), one of a number of Czech sf films,
several of them comedies, based on Josef Nesvadba's stories and novels.Not
many Czech films are "serious" sf, or even straight sf, but those that are
include: the space opera IKARIE XB-1 (1963; vt Voyage to the End of the
Universe); the post- HOLOCAUST story KONEC SRPNA V HOTELU OZON (1966; vt
The End of August at the Hotel Ozone); a film about a visit from deep
space, Akce Bororo ["Operation Bororo"] (1972), dir Otakar Fuka; a
children's film about First Contact with ALIENS, Odysseus a hvezdy
["Odysseus and the Stars"] (1974), dir Ludvik Raza; a free adaptation of
Capek's Krakatit (1924), TEMNE SLUNCE (1980; vt The Black Sun); and, from
Slovakia, ecological space sf in Treti Sarkan ["The Third Dragon"] (1985),
dir Peter Hledik.Sf dramas are quite frequent on Czech tv, especially for
children. One of the better serials has beenNavstevnici ["The Visitors"]
(1984), in which an expedition from AD2484, when Earth is endangered by a
comet, returns to 1984 to seek help; it was dir Jindrich Polak.Sf is very
popular in Czechoslovakia. It has a wide readership, and print-runs of
books by well known authors have been up to 100,000; however, the
worsening economic situation in the early 1990s is likely to change that
figure dramatically for the worse. On the positive side, a monthly sf
magazine, Ikarie, was launched in June 1990 under the editorship of Ondrej
Neff, who has also edited, with Jaroslav OLSA jr, Encyklopedie science
fiction ["Encyclopedia of Science Fiction"] (1992). [IA/JO]

(1921-1991) US writer, formerly known for numerous men's action-adventure
tales, who began publishing sf with The Grotto of the Formigans (1980), a
novel about African grotto MONSTERS, and who came to more general notice
with his Republic of Texas or Forte Family sequence: The Ayes of Texas
(1982), Texas on the Rocks (1986) and Texas Triumphant (1987). The
political premises underlying the series - in the late 1990s the USSR,
having hoodwinked the supinely liberal US media, has come to dominate the
world - have dated, but the exuberance of the tales themselves remains
winning. The protagonist, a triple-amputee WWII veteran from the newly
free Republic of Texas, arms an old battleship (itself called Texas), and
sails off to fight the Russians. Much blood is spilt, and a good time is
had by all. F-Cubed (1989) is a less entrancing TECHNOTHRILLER; but Mixed
Doubles (1989) enjoyably depicts the attempts of a contemporary failed
composer who travels back in time to steal MUSIC from those more talented
than himself. [JC]

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