Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

SF&F encyclopedia (A-A)

(1927-1989) US writer, perhaps best known for his numerous essays on the
US West, in which he clearly expresses a scathing iconoclasm about human
motives and their effects on the world. In The Monkey-Wrench Gang (1975;
rev 1985) and its sequel, Hayduke Lives! (1990), this pessimism is
countered by prescriptions for physically sabotaging the polluters of the
West which, when put into practice, nearly displace normal reality;
structure-hitting, as practised by 21st century saboteurs in Bruce
STERLING's Heavy Weather (1994), seems to derive from EA's premise Good
Times (fixup 1980) is set in a balkanized USA after nuclear fallout has
helped destroy civilization; an Indian shaman, along with other characters
similar to those in The Monkey-Wrench Gang, fights back against tyranny.

(1839-1926) UK clergyman, academic and writer whose most noted work,
published originally as by A Square, is FLATLAND: A ROMANCE OF MANY
DIMENSIONS (1884). Narrated and illustrated by Mr Square, the novel falls
into two parts. The first is a highly entertaining description of the
two-dimensional world of Flatland, in which inhabitants' shapes establish
their (planar) hierarchical status. In the second part, Mr Square travels
in a dream to the one-dimensional universe of Lineland, whose inhabitants
are unable to conceive of a two-dimensional universe; he is in turn
visited from Spaceland by a three-dimensional visitor - named Sphere
because he is spherical - whom Mr Square cleverly persuades to believe in
four-dimensional worlds as well. Flatland is a study in MATHEMATICS and
PERCEPTION, and has stayed popular since its first publication. See also:


(1924-1993) Japanese novelist, active since 1948, several of whose later
novels have been translated into English. He is known mainly for his work
outside the sf field, like Suna no Onna (1962; trans E.Dale Saunders as
Woman in the Dunes 1964 US), and has been deeply influenced by Western
models from Franz KAFKA to Samuel Beckett (1906-1989); the intensely
extreme conditions to which he subjects his alienated protagonists allow a
dubious sf interpretation of novels like Moetsukita Chizu (1967; trans
E.Dale Saunders as The Ruined Map 1969 US), or Tanin no Kao (1964; trans
E.Dale Saunders as The Face of Another 1966 US). However, Dai-Yon Kampyoki
(1959; trans E.Dale Saunders as Inter Ice Age 4 1970 US) is undoubtedly
sf. It is a complex story set in a near-future Japan threatened by the
melting of the polar icecaps. The protagonist, Professor Katsumi, has been
in charge of developing a computer/information system capable of
predicting human behaviour. This system, fatally for him, predicts his
compulsive refusal to go along with his associates and his government in
the creation of genetically engineered children, adapted for life in the
rising seas. Most of the novel, narrated by Katsumi, deals with a
philosophical confrontation between his deeply alienated refusal of the
future and the computer's knowing representations of that refusal and the
alternatives to it. The resulting psychodramas include a mysterious murder
and the enlistment of his unborn child into the ranks of the mutated
water-breathers. A later novel, Hako-Otoko (1973; trans E.Dale Saunders as
The Box Man 1973 US) has some borderline sf elements; its protagonist
walks about and lives in a large cardboard carton along with many other
Tokyo residents who have refused a life of normalcy. Hakobune Sakura
Maru1984; (trans Juliet Winter Carpenter as The Ark Sakura 1988 US)
expands that basic metaphor in a tale about a man obsessively engaged with
his bomb shelter. Beyond the Curve (coll trans Juliet Winters Carpenter
1991 US) collects sf short stories - some sf - published in Japan 1949-66.

Charles BARREN.

(1960- ) US writer, whose Welsh-sounding name has been legalized. He is
perhaps best known for his novella, "The Coon Rolled Down and Ruptured his
Larinks, a Squeezed Novel by Mr. Skunk" (1990 AISFM). Most of his work is
fantasy, or-in the case of the Arthur War Lord sequence, comprising Arthur
War Lord (1994) and Far Beyond the Wave (1994)-is sf with a fantasy
coloration. The sequence features the adventures of a man who, via TIME
TRAVEL convention, chases a female CIA agent into Arthurian times, where
she is attempting to assassinate the king, and thus to change history.
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine: Fallen Heroes (1994) is unexceptionable.

(1927- ) UK novelist known mainly for work outside the sf field whose
first story of genre interest is The Prophet Mackenbee for Lucifer in
1952, about an sf writer and inventor who surrounds himself with disciples
in an absurd world. His first book, I Hear Voices (1958 France). The
Twilight of the Vilp (1969) is not so much sf proper as an informed and
sophisticated playing with the conventions of the genre in a FABULATION
about the author of a work and his relation to its components. The
eponymous Galaxy-spanning Vilp cannot, therefore, be taken literally.

US magazine published from Massachusetts by Absolute Entertainment Inc.
and more recently by the Second Renaissance Foundation Inc., ed Charles C.
RYAN, first issue Oct 1986, 5 issues in both 1987 and 1988, then
bimonthly; 30 issues to Dec 1991, quarterly from 1992, currently
suspended, last issue seen 45/46 Spring 1994. The original format was 24pp
tabloid (11 x 17in; about 280 x 430mm), but changed to smallBEDSHEET with
4 in 1987. A feature is the use of full-page, full-colour illustration
throughout the magazine, which from 8 (1988) to 22 (1990) was printed
entirely on slick paper: cover art for every story, as the editor put it.
The title results from an ongoing but not very good joke about the
publisher, envisaged as a crazy alien, who produces the magazine for the
aboriginals of Earth. The fiction has been reasonable but seldom
excellent, with the work of little known writers like Robert A.Metzger
mixed, very occasionally, with that of big names like Larry NIVEN. The
regular book-review columns are by Darrell SCHWEITZER and Janice M.Eisen.
Editor Ryan previously brought out the magazine GALILEO (1976-80), and
continues, as he did then, to make most of his sales through subscription
rather than newsstand purchases. At the end of 1991, with a hiatus in the
bimonthly appearance, the future of this courageous but never very
exciting magazine looked uncertain, with production and (increased)
postage costs no longer covered by sales. 1992 saw three double issues
only; 1993 saw four issues, two labelled as doubles; there was only one
double issue in 1994 due to illness in the editor's family. In early 1995
the title was offered for sale, though publisher/editor Ryan said he would
stay on as editor if asked by the new owners, if any. A spin-off reprint
anthology in magazine format is Aboriginal Science Fiction, Tales of the
Human Kind: 1988 Annual Anthology (anth chap 1988) ed Ryan.

(1828-1885) French writer of much fiction, some of it sf, notably L'homme
a l'oreille cassee (1862; trans Henry Holt as The Man with the Broken Ear
1867 US; vt Colonel Fougas' Mistake 1878 UK; vt A New Lease of Life 1880
UK), which is included in A New Lease of Life, and Saving a Daughter's
Dowry (coll trans 1880 UK). In this tale a mummified military man is
revived 46 years after his death and causes havoc with his Napoleonic
jingoism. Another work in an English-language version is The Nose of a
Notary (trans 1863 US; vt The Notary's Nose 1864; vt The Lawyer's Nose
1878 UK), which is included in The Notary's Nose and Other Stories (coll
trans 1882 UK). See also: MONEY.

(1900-1985) and SERGEI (1944- ) Russian authors of the sf adventure novel
Horsemen from Nowhere (trans George Yankovsky 1969 Moscow). One of their
short stories appears in Vortex (anth 1970) ed C.G.Bearne. A later novel
is Journey across Three Worlds (trans Gladys Evans with other stories as
coll 1973 Moscow).

Film (1961). Walt Disney. Dir Robert Stevenson, starring Fred MacMurray,
Nancy Olson, Keenan Wynn. Screenplay Bill Walsh. 97 mins. B/w.
Historically important as the financially successful template for a great
many lightweight, comparatively low-budget sf comedies from the Disney
studio, though it was not their first live-action fantasy comedy (The
Shaggy Dog, 1959). Subsequent movies in a similar vein include The
Computer Wore Tennis Shoes (1969), The Love Bug (1969) and The Cat from
Outer Space (1978); because these are largely assembly-belt products aimed
at children, they do not receive entries in this volume. TAMP, perhaps the
best, features MacMurray as a high-school science teacher who accidentally
invents flubber (flying rubber), an ANTIGRAVITY substance he fits in a
Model-T Ford. The flying scenes (matte work by Peter Ellenshaw) are
astonishingly proficient for the period, but the science is puerile, the
humour broad and the characters stereotyped. MacMurray gives one of his
most charmingly deft performances. The sequel was Son of Flubber (1963).


US SEMIPROZINE, from 1993, current, four issues to spring 1995,
small-BEDSHEET format, ed and pub Warren Lapine from Greenfield,
Massachusetts. Subtitled "The Magazine of Science Fiction Adventures", AM
began life as Harsh Mistress, but that title-intended to echo Robert
A.HEINLEIN's novel The Moon is a Harsh Mistress (1966) - sounded like a
bondage 'zine to magazine distributors, and the magazine was retitled (its
numbering resuming with #1) with its third issue, Fall/Winter 1994. Its
production values improved after the first two issues, and AM is now a
professional-looking magazine, whichpublishes a broader selection of sf
than its title implies. Contributors have included Terry BISSON,
C.J.CHERRYH, and Hal CLEMENT. Aimed at a wider readership than most of the
US semiprozines that began to appear in the mid-nineties, AM may realize
its ambition to develop into a fully professional publication.

The word absurdist became fashionable as a literary term after its
consistent use by the French novelist and essayist Albert Camus
(1913-1960) to describe fictions set in worlds where we seem at the mercy
of incomprehensible systems. These systems may work as metaphors of the
human mind - outward manifestations of what J.G.BALLARD means when he uses
the term INNER SPACE - or they may work as representations of a cruelly
arbitrary external world, in which our expectations of rational coherence,
whether from God or from human agencies, are doomed to frustration, as in
the works of Franz KAFKA. In this encyclopedia we cross-refer works of
Absurdist sf to the blanket entry on FABULATION, but do not thereby wish
to discount the usefulness of Absurdist sf as a separate concept,
especially when we are thinking about some sf written between about 1950
and 1970. During this period Brian W.ALDISS, Ballard, David R.BUNCH, Jerzy
Jr and many other writers tended to create metaphorical worlds shaped
externally by a governing PARANOIA, and internally tortured by the psychic
white noise of ENTROPY. Kafka haunted this work, of course - because Kafka
can easily be transposed into terms that suggest a political protest. Most
Absurdist writers were also indebted (a debt they tended freely to
acknowledge) to the 19th-century Symbolist tradition, as exemplified by
figures like Jean-Marie VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM, and to its 20th-century
successors, from the 'pataphysics of Alfred JARRY to the Surrealism of
Andre Breton (1896-1966) and many others. In the end, however, it might be
suggested that Absurdist writers - as they did with Kafka - translated the
Symbolist and Surrealist traditions into political terms: in the end,
Absurdist sf can be seen as a protest movement. The world - they said -
should not be absurd.

Film (1989). 20th Century-Fox. Dir James CAMERON, starring Ed Harris,
Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Todd Graff, Michael Biehn. Prod Gale Anne
HURD. Screenplay Cameron. 139 mins. Colour. Despite the largest budget of
the period's undersea fantasies (DEEPSTAR SIX; LEVIATHAN) at about $60
million, and despite director Cameron's impressive track record with sf,
this was not a box-office smash. A nuclear-missile-armed US submarine
crashes at the edge of the Cayman Trough and the crew of an experimental,
submersible drilling rig are asked to help rescue any survivors. A
hurricane cuts communications with the surface; the laid-back, jokey rig
workers clash with a paranoid team of naval commandos who blame everything
on the Russians; and ALIENS dwelling in the Trench (looking a little like
angels, and therefore good) teasingly appear to some people but not
others. The peace-lovers clash stereotypically with the nuke the aliens
group, and mayhem is followed by transcendental First Contact. Cameron is
good at the low-key establishment of team cameraderie among working
people, but the cute-alien theme and the relationship between estranged
husband and wife have traces of marshmallow softness. The moral-blackmail
finale of an earlier version of the script (aliens threaten world with
tidal waves if world peace is not restored) is replaced by something that
looks more like divine intervention. The film's moralizing is attractive
but simplistic. More interestingly, most of the miraculous technology on
display is either actually possible today or plausible for the NEAR
FUTURE. The novelization, whose author not unfairly calls it a real novel,
is The Abyss (1989) by Orson Scott CARD. In 1992 the director's cut THE
ABYSS: SPECIAL EDITION was released, at 171 mins more than half an hour
longer than the original. The restored climax (tough-minded version) may
be more interesting in theory, but in practice is marred by unconvincing
special effects in the tidal wave. Richer characterization and more
cold-war politics do not compensate for the now sluggish pacing of this
bloated variant edition. See also: CINEMA; MONSTER MOVIES; UNDER THE SEA.

US paperback-publishing company founded by pulp-magazine publisher
A.A.Wyn in 1953. Under editor Donald A.WOLLHEIM, Ace published a high
proportion of sf, much of it in the Ace Double format of two titles bound
together DOS-A-DOS. The series included the first or early novels of many
writers who became famous, such as John BRUNNER, Samuel R.DELANY, Philip
Robert SILVERBERG and Roger ZELAZNY. Terry CARR became an editor in 1964
and later began the Ace Science Fiction Specials series, which received
considerable praise. Carr left the company in 1971, followed by Wollheim,
who began his own imprint, DAW BOOKS, in 1972. Carr rejoined as freelance
editor of a second series of Ace Specials in 1984, this time restricted to
first novels; it included NEUROMANCER (1984) by William GIBSON, THE WILD
SHORE (1984) by Kim Stanley ROBINSON, Green Eyes (1984) by Lucius SHEPARD,
In the Drift (fixup 1985) by Michael SWANWICK and Them Bones (1984) by
Howard WALDROP. In-house editors Beth MEACHAM and Terri WINDLING and, for
a longer period, Susan Allison, also ensured that some high-quality books
continued to be published in the 1980s, although the emphasis remained on
sf adventure. In 1975 Ace had been sold to Grosset & Dunlap; a new sale in
July 1982 saw Ace absorbed by Berkley and ceasing to be an independent
company, although it remained as an imprint. Ace had been publishing,
prior to the sale, more sf than any other publisher; the
Putnam/Berkley/Ace combination continued to dominate US sf publishing, in
terms of number of books, until 1987, thereafter maintaining second place.
Further reading: There are several checklists of Ace sf publications, but
none are complete. Double your Pleasure: The Ace SF Double (1989 chap) by
James A.Corrick is useful for doubles, while Dick Spelman's Science
Fiction and Fantasy Published by Ace Books (1953-1968) (1976 chap) covers
the important years. See also: HUGO.

Ace Doubles were well-known for two reasons: their format - two short
novels bound back-to-back - and their titles - to say they were dramatic
was an understatement. Terry Carr, who worked for Ace during the sixties,
used to say that if the Bible had been reprinted as an Ace Double, the Old
Testament would be called "Master of Chaos" and the New Testament would be
called "The Man with Three Souls."

(1948- ) US-born writer and playwright, in the UK for many years before
returning to the USA in 1989. KA expresses an apocalyptic sense of the
latterday world in works whose tortured absurdity (FABULATION) sometimes
catches the reader by surprise, or transfixes the spectator of one of her
plays, which have been as a whole perhaps more telling than her prose. The
Birth of the Poet (staged 1984 Rotterdam; in Wordplays 5, anth 1986) runs
a gamut from the nuclear HOLOCAUST of the first act to the picaresque jigs
and jags of the second and third. Two novels - Don Quixote (1986), a
surrealistic afterlife fantasy, and Empire of the Senseless (1988), which
features the not-quite terminal coupling of fleshly beings and ROBOTS -
are of some interest. Her use of sf icons and decor in this book resembles
that of William S.BURROUGHS, especially in the homage to CYBERPUNK it
contains, conveyed by cut-ups of text by William GIBSON.

(1916- ) US editor, agent and collector. A reader of the sf magazines
from their inception, he was an active member of sf FANDOM from his early
teens, and as early as 1932 served as associate editor of The Time
Traveller, the first FANZINE. For many decades thereafter he wrote stories
and articles prolifically for fan journals - using his own name and a wide
variety of elaborate pseudonyms, including Dr Acula, Jacques DeForest
Erman, Alden Lorraine, Vespertina Torgosi, Hubert George Wells (cheekily),
Weaver Wright and many others - and becoming known in fan circles as Mr
Science Fiction; he won several awards for these activities, including a
HUGO in 1953 for Number One Fan Personality. His first story was A Trip to
Mars in 1929 for the San Francisco Chronicle, which won a prize for the
best tale by a teenager; some of his more interesting work was assembled
in Science Fiction Worlds of Forrest J.Ackerman and Friends (anth 1969).
He collected sf books and memorabilia from the very first, publishing in I
Bequeath (to the Fantasy Foundation) (1946 chap) a bibliography of the
first 1300 items, and eventually housing his 300.000-item library, which
he called the Fantasy Foundation, in a 17-room house in Hollywood, the
maintenance of which proved difficult to manage over the years. The
library was further celebrated in Souvenir Book of Mr Science Fiction's
Fantasy Museum (1978 chap Japan). Disposals of collectable books have been
made at times; and part of the library was auctioned in 1987, grossing
over $550.000. FJA was active as an editor for many years, though not
deeply influential; he edited both the magazine Famous Monsters of
Filmland (1958-82) and the US PERRY RHODAN series (1969-77), as well as
several sf anthologies, including The Frankenscience Monster (anth 1969),
Best Science Fiction for 1973 (anth 1973), Gosh! Wow! (Sense of Wonder)
(anth 1982), Mr Monster's Movie Gold (anth 1982) and The Gernsback Awards,
Vol 1: 1926 (anth 1982). Notorious for his punning and use of simplified
words, he is credited with introducing the term SCI FI in 1954. He was
agent for a number of writers, notably A.E.VAN VOGT. His wife, Wendayne
Ackerman (1912-1990), was also a fan, and translated the STRUGATSKI
brothers' Trudno byt' bogom (1964) as Hard to be a God (1973 US). Other
works: In Memoriam H.G.Wells 1866-1946 (1946 chap) with Arthur Louis
Jocquel II; James Warren Presents the Best from Famous Monsters of
Filmland (anth 1964); James Warren Presents Famous Monsters of Filmland
Strike Back! (anth 1965); James Warren Presents Son of Famous Monsters of
Filmland (anth 1965); Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977 chap),
nonfiction; J.R.R.Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings: A Fantasy Film (1979
chap), nonfiction; A Reference Guide to American Science Fiction Films,
Volume 1 (1981) with A.W.Strickland, only 1 vol published; Lon of 1000
Faces (1983), nonfiction; Fantastic Movie Memories (1985), nonfiction;
Reel Futures (anth 1994) with Jean Stine. See also: COLLECTIONS.


(1949- ) UK author who began writing as a poet before turning to literary
biographies of figures like T.S.Eliot and Charles DICKENS. His third
novel, Hawksmoor (1985), interestingly conflates the occult geography of
London constructed by an 18th-century architect - who closely resembles
the historical Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736) - with a series of
20th-century murders investigated by an Inspector Hawksmoor. As an
alternate-world FABULATION, the book verges on sf. First Light (1989)
invokes a similar sense of time-slippage, featuring a 20th-century
neolithic dig over which appears a night sky whose star positions are
those of neolithic times. Other Works: The House of Doctor Dee (1993).


(1904-1994) UK writer, long resident in Italy, best known for highly
civilized reflections, in books like Memoirs of an Aesthete (1948), on his
own style of life. His sf novel, Cornelian (1928), tells of a popular
singer in a world which privileges old age.


(?-?) UK writer - possibly, according to Darko SUVIN, a barrister named
Andrew Oswald Acworth (?1857-?) - whose sf novel, A New Eden (1896), set
100 years in the future, features the escape of two depressed protagonists
from the decaying republican UK to an egalitarian island UTOPIA which
fails to cheer them up - despite electric factories, birth control and

Brian W.ALDISS has given the name Shaggy God stories to stories which
provide simple-minded sf frameworks for Biblical myths. A considerable
fraction of the unsolicited material submitted to sf magazines is reputed
to consist of stories of this kind, the plot most frequently represented
being the one in which survivors of a space disaster land on a virgin
world and reveal (in the final line) that their names are Adam and Eve.
Understandably, these stories rarely see print, although A.E.VAN VOGT's
Ship of Darkness (1947) was reprinted in Fantastic in 1961 as a fantasy
classic; another example is The Unknown Assassin (1956) by Hank JANSON.
Straightforward variants include Another World Begins (1942; vt The
Cunning of the Beast) by Nelson BOND (the most prolific writer of pulp
Shaggy God stories), in which God is an ALIEN and Adam and Eve are
experimental creatures who prove too clever for him; and Evolution's End
(1941) by Robert Arthur, in which an old world lurches to its conclusion
and Aydem and Ayveh survive to start the whole thing over again. Charles
L.HARNESS's The New Reality (1950) goes to some lengths to set up a
framework in which a new universe can be created around its hero, his
faithful girlfriend, and the arch-villain (Dr Luce), and uses the idea to
far better effect. More elaborate sf transfigurations of Biblical
mythology include George Babcock's Yezad (1922) and Julian Jay SAVARIN's
Lemmus trilogy (1972-7); a more subtle and sophisticated exercise along
these lines can be found in Shikasta (1977) by Doris LESSING. Adam and Eve
are, of course, frequently featured in allegorical fantasies, notably
George MACDONALD's Lilith (1895), Mark TWAIN's Extracts from Adam's Diary
(1904) and Eve's Diary (1906), George Bernard SHAW's Back to Methuselah
(1921), John Erskine's Adam and Eve (1927), John CROWLEY's The Nightingale
Sings at Night (1989) and Piero Scanziani's The White Book (1969; trans
Linda Lappin 1991 UK). The names Adam and Eve - particularly the former -
are frequently deployed for their metaphorical significance. Adam is a
natural name to give to the first ROBOT or ANDROID, and thus we find Eando
BINDER writing a biography of Adam Link, Robot (1939-42; fixup 1965), and
William C.ANDERSON chronicling the career of Adam M-1 (1964). Adam Link
was provided with an Eve Link, but what they did together remains a matter
for speculation. VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAM had earlier described Thomas Alva
Edison's creation of the perfect woman in L'Eve future (1886; trans Robert
M.Adams as Tomorrow's Eve 1982). The metaphor is found also in some
SUPERMAN stories, including two novels entitled The New Adam, one by
Noelle ROGER (1924; trans L.P.O.Crowhurst 1926 UK), the other by Stanley
G.WEINBAUM (1939), and in prehistoric romances, most notably in
Intimations of Eve (1946) and Adam and the Serpent (1947) by Vardis FISHER
and in the final volume of George S.VIERECK and Paul ELDRIDGE's Wandering
Jew trilogy, The Invincible Adam (1932), where much is made of the matter
of the lost rib. Alfred BESTER's last-man-alive story Adam and No Eve
(1941) uses the names in an ironic vein. More ambitious sf Creation myths
of a vaguely Adamic kind can be found in stories in which human beings are
enabled to play a part in cosmological processes of creation or
re-creation (COSMOLOGY). One example is van Vogt's The Seesaw (1941;
integrated into THE WEAPON SHOPS OF ISHER fixup 1951); others are James
BLISH's The Triumph of Time (1958; vt A Clash of Cymbals) and Charles
Harness's THE RING OF RITORNEL (1968). Shaggy God stories briefly became
popular alternatives to orthodox history in the works of Immanuel
VELIKOVSKY and Erich VON DANIKEN, and it is likely that they will continue
to exert a magnetic attraction upon the naive imagination. See also:

(1967- ) Czech translator and writer, an associate editor of the sf
magazine Ikarie and a contributor to Encyklopedie science fiction
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1992). His Czech SF in the Last Forty
Years appeared in SCIENCE-FICTION STUDIES, Mar 1990.

(1952- ) UK scriptwriter and novelist who worked 1978-80 as an editor on
the DR WHO tv series; his two Doctor Who episodes, Shada and City of
Death, have provided plot elements for more than one of his later novels,
but have not themselves been novelized. He came to wide notice with his
HITCH HIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY sequence, whose first incarnation was as
two BBC RADIO series, the first in 1978, the second in 1980, totalling 12
parts in all, the last 2 scripted in collaboration with producer John
Lloyd. Both series were assembled as The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the
Galaxy: The Original Radio Scripts (coll 1985) ed Geoffrey Perkins; the
scripts as published here were modified for subsequent radio performances,
and were also released on record albums in a format different from any of
the radio incarnations. The second and third full reworkings of the
sequence - as a tv series and as the first two volumes of a series of
novels - seem to have been put together more or less simultaneously, and,
although there are some differences between the two, it would be difficult
to assign priority to any one version of the long and episodic plot. In
novel form, the sequence comprises The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy
(1979; vt The Illustrated Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy 1994) The
Restaurant at the End of the Universe (1980), Life, the Universe and
Everything (1982), So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish (1984); and Mostly
Harmless (1992). The first three volumes were assembled as The
Hitchhiker's Trilogy (omni 1984 US), and the first four were assembled as
The Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy: A Trilogy in Four Parts (omni 1986;
vt The Hitchhiker's Quartet 1986 US; rev with Young Zaphod Plays it Safe
added vt The More than Complete Hitchhiker's Guide: Five Stories 1987 US).
One basic premise frames the various episodes contained in the differing
versions of the sequence, though volumes three and four of the novel
sequence carry on into new territory, and volume five seems to terminate
the entire sequence, with an effect of melancholia. A human-shaped ALIEN,
on contract to revise the eponymous guide, has under the name Ford Prefect
spent some time on Earth, where he befriends the protagonist of the
series, Arthur Dent. On learning that Earth is to be demolished to make
way for an interstellar bypass, Prefect escapes the doomed planet with
Dent, and the two then hitch-hike around the Galaxy, undergoing various
adventures. Various satirical points are made, and, as the sequence moves
ahead into the final episodes, DA's underlying corrosiveness of wit
becomes more and more prominent. Earth proves to have been constructed
eons earlier as a COMPUTER whose task it is to solve the meaning of life;
but its demolition, only seconds before the answer is due, puts paid to
any hope that any meaning will be found. For the millions of fans who
listened to the radio version, watched the tv episodes, and laughed
through the first two volumes of the book sequence, volumes three and four
must have seemed punitively unamused by the human condition; and in Mostly
Harmless (1992), a late addition to the sequence, the darkness only
increases. But a satirist's intrinsic failure to be amused by pain did, in
retrospect, underlie the most ebullient earlier moments. A second sequence
- Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency (1987) and The Long Dark
Tea-Time of the Soul (1988) - confirmed the dark bent of DA's talent.
Though the tales inventively carry the eponymous detective through a wide
range of sf experiences, this second series did not gain the extraordinary
response of the first. In a sense that only time can test, it could be
said that the Hitch Hiker's Guide has become folklore. Other works: The
Meaning of Liff (1983; rev vt The Deeper Meaning of Liff 1990) with John
Lloyd, humour; The Utterly Utterly Merry Comic Relief Christmas Book (anth
1986), ed (anon), charity fundraising book for Comic Relief; Last Chance
to See (1991) with Mark Carwardine, nonfiction book promoting wildlife
conservation, with text by DA to photographs by Carwardine; Doctor Who:
The Scripts: Pirate Planet (1994), reprinting an old DR WHO script. About
the author: Don't Panic: The Official Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy
Companion (1988; rev 1993 with David K.Dickson) by Neil GAIMAN. See also:

(1859-1921) US writer whose two sf UTOPIAS - President John Smith: The
Story of a Peaceful Revolution (Written in 1920) (1897) and The Kidnapped
Millionaires: A Tale of Wall Street and the Tropics (1901) - put into
stiffly earnest narrative form the arguments that direct election of the
US President would lead to a benevolent socialism and that the tycoons of
Wall Street were a doomed race.

(1892-1982) US writer and, after the death of her father Edward
STRATEMEYER in 1930, editor of his publishing syndicate. Under a variety
of house names, including Carolyn Keene, Franklin W.Dixon and Laura Lee
Hope, she was herself responsible for writing approximately 170 of the
Stratemeyer Syndicate novels about the Bobbsey Twins, the Hardy Boys,
Nancy Drew and others; for further titles, she supplied plots and
outlines. Under the house name Victor APPLETON she wrote the last in the
first series of Tom Swift books, Tom Swift and his Planet Stone (1935),
and successfully revived Tom Swift, or, to be more accurate, his son Tom
Swift, Jr., in a new series which began publication in 1954 (TOM SWIFT for
details). About the author: Stratemeyer Pseudonyms and Series Books: An
Annotated Checklist of Stratemeyer and Stratemeyer Syndicate Publications
(1982) ed Deirdre Johnson.


Collaborative pseudonym of US writers Alcanoan O. Grigsby (?-?) and Mary
P.Lowe (?-?) whose Nequa, or The Problem of the Ages (1900) carries the
character Jack Adams - in fact a wronged woman named Cassie - to polar
regions, where she and her bigoted fiance (who does not recognize her as
Adams) are rescued by the inhabitants of Altruria (William Dean HOWELLS,
though there is no explicit connection between his utopias and this one).
The Altrurians take them to their country, which lies inside a HOLLOW
EARTH, demonstrate their flying machines and other marvels, and explain
their sexually egalitarian, non-Christian culture (FEMINISM). Nequa, as
Jack Adams now calls herself, will marry her fiance only if he attains
some wisdom. Nequa is a surprisingly enjoyable salutary tale.



(1941- ) Influential and remarkably prolific US COMIC-strip artist
specializing in the SUPERHERO genre, with a strong, gutsy yet
sophisticated line style. His continued claim to fame probably rests
largely on his ground-breaking personal reinterpretation of DC COMICS's
Batman. He attended the School of Industrial Art in Manhattan, then worked
for Archie Comics 1959-60 before establishing himself in syndicated
newspaper strips with a strip version of the tv series Ben Casey, which he
drew for dailies and Sundays 1962-6. He assisted on other newspaper strips
including Bat Masterson (1961), Peter Scratch (1966), Secret Agent
Corrigan (1967) and Rip Kirby (1968). He began working for National
Periodical Publications (DC Comics) in 1967 drawing Deadman (Strange
Adventures 206-216). Other characters to benefit from his innovative touch
included Spectre, SUPERMAN, Batman (in Detective Comics, 9 issues between
369, Nov 1967, and 439, Mar 1974, and 9 issues in Batman between 219, Feb
1970, and 255, Apr 1974, as well as in other associated titles), Flash,
Green Lantern and the X-MEN. He drew the team-up title Green Lantern-Green
Arrow continuously from 76 (Apr 1970) to 89 (May 1972). 85 (Snowbirds
Don't Fly) and 86 (They Say It'll Kill Me, But They Won't Say When) of
this title featured a story about the drug scene and won an Academy of
Comic-Book Art Award for NA and writer Denny O'Neill. His output for DC,
MARVEL COMICS and other leading publishers was prolific throughout the
1970s and early 1980s; in addition he produced book covers, film posters,
advertising art and the set and costume design for an unsuccessful sf
play, Warp (1973; THEATRE). In 1987 he formed his own publishing company,
Continuity Comics. NA has also had a high profile as a campaigner for
comics creators' rights, notably in connection with the financial
recognition by DC of SUPERMAN's creators, Jerry SIEGEL and Joe Shuster. NA
was involved in the setting-up of the Academy of Comic-Book Art (ACBA) in

Robert ADAMS.

(1932-1990) US soldier and writer who was best known for the
post-HOLOCAUST Horseclans sequence of adventures set after AD2500 in a
series of states occupying what was once the USA and dominated from behind
the scenes by a strain of immortal MUTANTS, while an unsavoury group of
human scientists opposes them from a secret base. Occasionally the reader
gains sight of repulsive sects who decayedly parody 20th-century movements
- ECOLOGY, for instance - that were betes-noires of the author, who was
not averse to polemical intrusions. The sequence comprises The Coming of
the Horseclans (1975; exp 1982), Swords of the Horseclans (1977) and
Revenge of the Horseclans (1977) - all three being assembled as Tales of
the Horseclans (omni 1985) - A Cat of Silvery Hue (1979), The Savage
Mountains (1980), The Patrimony (1980), Horseclans Odyssey (1981), The
Death of a Legend (1981), The Witch Goddess (1982), Bili the Axe (1982) -
which contained a background summary - Champion of the Last Battle (1983),
A Woman of the Horseclans (1983), Horses of the North (1985), A Man Called
Milo Morai (1986), The Memories of Milo Morai (1986), Trumpets of War
(1987), Madman's Army (1987) and The Clan of the Cats (1988). Two
SHARED-WORLD anthologies - Friends of the Horseclans (anth 1987) and
Friends of the Horseclans II (anth 1989) - also appeared, both edited with
his wife, Pamela Crippen Adams (1961- ). A second series, the Castaways in
Time alternate-history TIME-TRAVEL sequence, comprises Castaways in Time
(1980), The Seven Magical Jewels of Ireland (1985), Of Kings and Quests
(1986), Of Chiefs and Champions (1987), Of Myths and Monsters (1988) and
Of Beginnings and Endings (1989). Most of his remaining work, including
another, unfinished series, was fantasy; some of his anthologies, however
- including Robert Adams' Book of Alternate Worlds (anth 1987) with Pamela
Crippen Adams and Martin H.GREENBERG, Robert Adams' Book of Soldiers (anth
1988) with P.C.Adams and Greenberg, and Alternatives (anth 1989) with P.C.
Adams - were of sf interest. Other works: The Stairway to Forever
sequence, comprising The Stairway to Forever (1988) and Monsters and
Magicians (1988). As Editor: Barbarians (anth 1985) with Martin
H.Greenberg and Charles G.WAUGH and Barbarians II (anth 1988) with
P.C.Adams and Greenberg; the Magic in Ithkar sequence, with Andre NORTON,
comprising Magic in Ithkar (anth 1985), 2 (anth 1985), 3 (anth 1986) and 4
(anth 1987); Hunger for Horror (anth 1988) with P.C.Adams and Greenberg;
Phantom Regiments (anth 1990) with P.C.Adams and Greenberg. See also:

(1871-1958) US writer, prolific and popular author of novels and
screenplays, including that for the film It Happened One Night (1934). He
wrote an sf novel with Stewart Edward WHITE (whom see for details), The
Mystery (1907), about a ship found at sea with no crew aboard, and
supplying an sf explanation for their disappearance: side-effects of a new
radioactive element. The sequel, The Sign at Six (1912), also sf, is by
White alone. SHA's solo sf books are The Flying Death (1908), an
impossible crime tale in which Long Island, New York, is invaded by a
pteranodon; and The World Goes Smash (1938), a NEAR-FUTURE story of a US
civil war in which New York is devastated.

(? - ) US writer whose Sentience sequence - Sentience: A Novel of First
Contact (1986) and The Master of Chaos (1989) - begins in the conflict
between true humans and D'Neerans, who are human telepaths (ESP), and
builds into a SPACE-OPERA sequence involving new races and challenges.
They are told in a skittish but engaging style designed to give some sense
of a telepath's way of thinking.


UK magazine, small-BEDSHEET format, published by Rowlot Ltd, ed James
Manning, 16 issues, bimonthly, Oct/Nov 1978-Sep/Oct 1981, only first 2
issues dated. Its subtitle, Britain's First ScienceFact/ScienceFiction
Magazine, contained the seeds of its eventual demise. It attempted to
cover too many fields, most in no real depth. The fiction (about 2 stories
an issue) - mainly from UK authors, including John BRUNNER, Garry
KILWORTH, David LANGFORD and Ian WATSON - was supplemented by a melange of
film, book, games and theatre reviews, together with cartoon strips, sf
news (from Langford), science articles, many about astronomy, and

Richard M.GARVIN.

Pseudonym used by UK author and journalist Harry Collinson Owen
(1882-1956) for his future-WAR novel The Battle of London (1923), one of
several contemporary works which warned of a communist revolution in the
UK. It was given a slight twist by the inclusion of an advantageous German
attack on London.

Principal pseudonym of US writer and businessman Charles Heber Clark
(1841-1915), who wrote also as John Quill, under which name he published
The Women's Millennium (1867), possibly the first sex-role-reversal
DYSTOPIA. Set in an indeterminate future, and told from the perspective of
an even later period when some balance has been achieved, it is a
remarkably cutting demonstration of the foolishness of male claims to
natural superiority. As MA, he specialized in rather facetious tall tales,
both sf and fantasy, many of which end in the perfunctory revelation that
all was a dream. This convention aside, they remain of interest,
especially Professor Baffin's Adventures (1880; vt The Fortunate Island
1882), a long lost-race tale (LOST WORLDS) which first appeared in
Beeton's Christmas Annual (anth 1880 UK) as centrepiece to The Fortunate
Island - a linked assemblage of stories and sketches by various authors
which made up the bulk of the volume - and was later published in An Old
Fogey and Other Stories (coll 1881 UK; rev vt The Fortunate Island and
Other Stories 1882 US). It is MA's story that almost certainly supplied
Mark TWAIN with the basic premise and some of the actual plot of A
Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). When accused of
plagiarism, Twain responded evasively. Other works: Random Shots (coll
1878 UK); Transformations (coll 1883 UK); A Desperate Adventure (coll 1886
UK); By the Bend of the River (coll 1914). About the author: 'Professor
Baffin's Adventures' by Max Adeler: the Inspiration for A Connecticut
Yankee in King Arthur's Court? by David KETTERER in Mark Twain Journal 24
(Spr 1986); 'John Quill': The Women's Millennium, introduced by Ketterer
in Science Fiction Studies 15 (1988); Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee:
Reconsiderations and Revisions, by Horst H.Kruse in American Literature
62, 3 (Sept 1990). See also: SHARED WORLDS.


Working name used by UK writer Peter Marcus Adlard (1932- ) for all his
books. An arts graduate of Cambridge University, he was until his
retirement in 1976 a manager in the steel industry. His knowledge of
managerial and industrial problems plays a prominent role in his Tcity
trilogy: Interface (1971), Volteface (1972) and Multiface (1975). The
series is set in a city of the NEAR FUTURE. By calling it Tcity, MA
plainly intended to confer on it a kind of regimented anonymity in the
manner of Yevgeny ZAMIATIN; at the same time, he was probably making a pun
on Teesside, the industrial conurbation in the northeast of England where
he was raised (also, in some north-England dialects t'city means simply
the city). With a rich but sometimes sour irony, and a real if distanced
sympathy for the problems and frustrations of both management and workers,
MA plays a set of variations, often comic, on AUTOMATION, hierarchical
systems, the MEDIA LANDSCAPE, revolution, the difficulties of coping with
LEISURE, class distinction according to INTELLIGENCE, fantasies of SEX and
the stultifying pressures of conformity. The Greenlander (1978) is the
first volume of a projected non-genre trilogy, further volumes of which
have not appeared. His books are ambitious in scope and deserve to be more
widely known. About the author: The Many Faces of Adlard by Andy
Darlington in Arena 7, March 1978.

(1916-1964) US writer, mostly for films, co-author of the story used as
the basis for the film FORBIDDEN PLANET (1956), although he had nothing to
do with the novelization by W.J.Stuart (Philip MACDONALD). AAA's only sf
novel was an unremarkable adventure, also set on a planet threatened by a
monster: Mach 1: A Story of the Planet Ionus (1957; vt Terror on Planet
Ionus 1966).


Chicago-based specialist publishing house, owned by sf fans, which
publishes critical and bibliographical material. The first book was Damon
KNIGHT's In Search of Wonder (1956); other notable volumes include James
BLISH's two collections of critical essays (as William Atheling Jr) and,
later, his posthumous The Tale that Wags the God (coll 1987), as by Blish.
A: P's most important scholarly publication has been Donald H.TUCK's The
Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy through 1968 (vol 1 1974; vol
2 1978; vol 3 1982). See also: SMALL PRESSES AND LIMITED EDITIONS.

Us tv series (1993-1994). Boam/Cuse Productions for Warner Bros. Series
creators/exec prods Jeffrey Boam, Carlton Cuse. Co-prods David Simkins,
Paul Marks. Writers included Boam, Cuse, Simkins, Brad Kern, John
McNamara, John Wirth. Directors included Kim Manners, Andy Tennant.
Starred Bruce Campbell as Brisco, Julius Carry as Lord Bowler, Christian
Clemenson as Socrates Poole. Recurring players included Billy Drago as
John Bly, Kelly Rutherford as Dixie Cousins, John Pyper-Ferguson as Pete
Hutter, John Astin as Professor Wickwire. Two-hour pilot Sep 1993,
followed by 26 one-hour episodes. Part WILD, WILD WEST, part Indiana
Jones, and part just plain strange, this Fox Newtork Western series
followed a familiar pattern: despite being a solid hit with critics and sf
fans, its rating were spectacularly low, and not even a landslide finish
in TV Guide's 1994 "Save Our Shows" viewer poll persuaded network
executives to renew it for a second season. The convoluted premise
featured popular horror-film star Campbell as Brisco County, Jr., the
Harvard-educated son of a noted bounty hunter. Drawn to 1890s San
Francisco following the murder of his father, Brisco Jr. learns that
notorious outlaw John Bly has larger schemes in mind. Turning bounty
hunter himself to track down Bly, he comes across a glowing orb with
mysterious powers, in which Bly is also interested. Much of the show's run
was spent pursuing Bly and his associates, while other episodes paid
homage to Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960) and television's THE AVENGERS
(1961-69). Quirky, sly humour was the show's hallmark: a train is stopped
by the Wile E.Coyote gimmick of painting a lifelike mural onto a boulder
blocking the track; Brisco's horse Comet races prototype motorcycles and
cracks a safe ("He's not so smart; took him two tries!"); and one episode
featured a Blackbeard-like pirate who is relocated to the Nevada desert.
Recurring plots and characters were a major part of the show's appeal,
with Drago's silkily dangerous Bly ultimately revealed as a time
traveller, and eccentric outlaws the order of the day. The clever writing,
energetic performances and excellent production values may not have made
TAOBC, J a ratings success, but reruns and taped episodes are worth
seeking out.

Film (1984). Sherwood Productions. Dir W.D.Richter, starring Peter
Weller, John Lithgow, Ellen Barkin, Jeff Goldblum, Christopher Lloyd.
Screenplay Earl Mac Rauch. 103 mins. Colour. The crazed but incoherent
tale of rock-musician-neurosurgeon-particle-physicist Banzai (Weller), a
kind of imaginary 1930s pulp hero with a distinctly 1980s ambience. In
this episode Banzai defeats an alien INVASION which began in 1938 (as
described by Orson Welles, who pretended it was fiction) led by
frantically overacting John Lithgow. The film is ill directed and badly
photographed, and appears to have been made by underground junk
intellectuals who accidentally stumbled over a fairly big budget. REPO
MAN, from the same year, is a wittier and better organized example of what
might be called designer cult movies. See also: ANDROIDS; WAR OF THE




A.E. or AE
Pseudonym used by Irish poet George William Russell (1867-1935) for all
his writing. In 1886 he and William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) helped found
the Dublin Lodge of the Theosophical Society, and much of his work
reflects a mystical agenda - not very coherently in the supernatural tales
assembled in The Mask of Apollo, and Other Stories (coll 1904), but with
very much more force in The Interpreters (1922), a philosophical fiction
set in an idealized venue. More elegiacally and more concretely, in The
Avatars: A Futurist Fantasy (1932), set in a future Ireland, this agenda
comes to life in the form of two supernal beings who hauntingly invoke a
vision of a world less abandoned to materialism, and thus draw the
protagonists to the margin of the Great Deep, as Monk Gibbon puts it in
his long and informative essay on A.E.'s work which introduces The Living
Torch (coll 1937), a posthumous volume of nonfiction.

Film (1924). Mezhrabpom. Dir Yakov A.Protazanov, starring Nikolai
M.Tseretelli, Igor Ilinski, Yulia Solntseva. Screenplay Fyodor Otzep,
Alexei Faiko, based on Aelita (1922) by Alexei TOLSTOY. 78 mins cut from
120 mins. B/w. This striking example of early sf cinema is a satiric
comedy in which a group of Soviet astronauts travel to Mars, where they
find the mass of the people living under an oppressive regime and spark
off an abortive revolution; one of them teaches the lovely daughter of a
Martian leader how to kiss. A is a very stylized silent film; its
futuristic, Expressionistic sets, by Isaac Rabinovitch of the Kamerny
Theatre, were to influence the design in FLASH GORDON. The sf elements in
the story are vigorous and witty (though in the end it is revealed to be
All a Dream), but occupy only a small part of the film. See also: CINEMA.


UK tv serial (1961). A BBC TV production. Prod Michael Hayes, Norman
Jones, written John ELLIOT from a storyline by Fred HOYLE. 7 episodes, the
first 6 45 mins, the last 50 mins. B/w. The cast included Peter Halliday,
John Nettleton, Esmond Knight, Patricia Neale, Frank Windsor, Mary Morris,
Julie Christie. A radio signal transmitted from the Andromeda Galaxy
proves, when decoded by maverick scientist Fleming (Halliday), to contain
instructions for the building of a supercomputer. Once built by Earth
scientists, the COMPUTER in turn provides instructions on how to create a
living being. The final result is a beautiful young girl, named,
naturally, Andromeda, mentally linked to the ever-more-powerful computer;
her existence causes a great deal of controversy within the government.
She helps Fleming wreck the computer, and is hurt and (seemingly) drowned.
The story is intelligently presented despite its absurdities. The serial
brought Julie Christie into the public eye for the first time. The
novelization by Hoyle and Elliot is A for Andromeda (1962). The tv sequel


Pseudonym used collaboratively by Robert SILVERBERG and Randall GARRETT
on two stories in 1956.


Working name of US author Jerome Morrell Ahern (1946- ), most of whose
output consists of violent post-HOLOCAUST novels, most notably in his
Survivalist sequence, in which ex-CIA agent John Rourke attempts to
preserve his family after a global nuclear conflict. Perhaps the most
influential series in the subgenre of SURVIVALIST FICTION, it comprises
Survivalist 1: Total War (1981), 2: The Nightmare Begins (1981), 3: The
Quest (1981), 4: The Doomsayer (1981), 5: The Web (1983), 6: The Savage
Horde (1983), 7: The Prophet (1984), 8: The End is Coming (1984), 9: Earth
Fire (1984), 10: The Awakening (1984), 11: The Reprisal (1985), 12: The
Rebellion (1985), 13: Pursuit (1986), 14: The Terror (1987), 15: Overlord
(1987), 16: The Arsenal (1988), 17: The Ordeal (1988), unnumbered: The
Survivalist: Mid-Wake (1988), 18: The Struggle (1989), 19: Final Rain
(1989), 20: Firestorm (1990) and 21: To End All War (1990). The
continuation - beginning with the unnumbered The Survivalist: The Legend
(1991), 22: Brutal Conquest (1991); 23: Call to Battle (199224: Blood
Assassins (1993), 25: War Mountain (1993), 26: Countdown (1993) and 27:
Death Watch (1993) - takes place after the Earth's atmosphere has been
destroyed by a catastrophic fire, and Rourke has saved his family and
himself by entering cryogenic sleep, emerging after 500 years to find a
world deserted except for the personnel of the Eden Project - fresh from
500 years of hibernation aboard a fleet of space shuttles - and surviving
groups of Nazis (sic) and fanatical communists. A second but similar
sequence, the Defender series, comprises The Defender 1: The Battle Begins
(1988), 2: The Killing Wedge (1988), 3: Out of Control (1988), 4: Decision
Time (1989), 5: Entrapment (1989), 6: Escape (1989), 7: Vengeance (1989),
8: Justice Denied (1989), 9: Death Grip (1990), 10: The Good Fight (1990),
11: The Challenge (1990) and 12: No Survivors (1990). With his wife,
Sharan A(nn) Ahern (1948- ), whose contributions were sometimes anonymous,
he wrote the short Takers sequence, comprising The Takers (1984) and River
of Gold (1985), as well as some singletons. He also contributed Deathlight
(1982) to the long-running Nick Carter sequence, writing as Nick CARTER.
Other works: The Freeman (1986), Miamigrad (1987), WerewolveSS (1990) and
The Kamikaze Legacy (1990), all with Sharon A.Ahern. See also: SOCIAL

Jerry AHERN.



The commonly used acronym for Artificial Intelligence, an item of
terminology used increasingly often in information science, and hence in
sf, since the late 1970s. Most writers would agree that for a COMPUTER or
other MACHINE of some sort to qualify as an AI it must be self-aware.
There are as yet none such in the real world. See also: CYBERNETICS;


(1913-1990) US-born UK writer, son of Conrad Aiken (1889-1973) and
brother of Joan Aiken (1924- ) and Jane Aiken Hodge (1917- ). JA published
his first sf story, Camouflage, with ASF in 1943, in the Probability Zero
sequence of short-shorts; though his first sizeable effort wasDragon's
Teeth, with NW in 1946; but did not remain active in the field. His only
novel, World Well Lost (fixup 1970 as John Paget; as JA 1971 US), based on
his 1940s NW stories, was published by ROBERT HALE LIMITED. It describes
with some energy a conflict between a totalitarian Earth and free-minded
colonists in the system of Alpha Centauri. Conrad Aiken, Our Father (1989)
with Joan Aiken and Jane Aiken Hodge, is a revealing memoir.

Working name of US writer James Douglas Aikin (1948- ), whose sf novel,
Walk the Moons Road (1985), gave operatic colour to a moderately intricate
PLANETARY ROMANCE featuring aliens, humans, seas, politics and sex on a
planet which is not Earth. His second novel, The Wall at the Edge of the
World (1993), more ambitiously sets its protagonist - a non-TELEPATH in a
post-HOLOCAUST society - the task of reconciling his home culture with
that of the wild women who live in hinterlands.


Lauran Bosworth PAINE.


US BEDSHEET-size PULP MAGAZINE, 11 issues, July 1929-May 1930, published
by Stellar Publishing Corp., ed Hugo GERNSBACK, managing editor David
Lasser. This was a prompt comeback by Gernsback after the filing of
bankruptcy proceedings against his Experimenter Publishing Co., with which
he had founded AMAZING STORIES. AWS announced itself in its first
editorial as presenting solely flying stories of the future, strictly
along scientific-mechanical-technical lines... to prevent gross
scientific-aviation misinformation from reaching our readers. To this end
Gernsback hired three professors and one Air Corps Reserve major, whose
names appeared prominently on the masthead. The stories were by the
foremost pulp writers of the day, including Edmond HAMILTON, David KELLER,
Victor MACCLURE, Ed Earl REPP, Harl VINCENT and Jack WILLIAMSON; Raymond
Z.GALLUN published his first story here. The cover designs for all issues
were by Frank R.PAUL, who had previously worked on AMZ. A sister magazine,
SCIENCE WONDER STORIES, began one month earlier, in June 1929. In 1930
Gernsback merged them into WONDER STORIES.

(1928- ) Formerly Soviet (now Kyrgyzstanian) writer and diplomat, known
mostly for his mainstream fiction (for which he has been a Nobel
candidate), which poetically depicts Man-Nature relations. His one venture
into sf is I Dol'she Veka Dlitsia Den' (1980; trans John French as The Day
Lasts Longer than a Hundred Years 1983 UK): part of this novel
realistically depicts life in a small Kirghiz town near a secret Soviet
cosmodrome, and part comprises a NEAR-FUTURE thriller set on board the
Soviet-US carrier Parity, which encounters ALIENS. Written before
perestroika, the novel raised controversy due to its obvious pacifist

Kenneth BULMER.

L.Frank BAUM.

[s] Charles DE LINT.

Animated film (1987). Akira Committee. Dir Katsuhiro OTOMO, from a
screenplay by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on the graphic epic Akira
(begun 1982) by Otomo. Animation studio: Asahi. Chief animator: Takashi
Nakamura. 124 mins. Colour. A is the most successful attempt yet to
transfer sophisticated, state-of-the-art comic-book graphics to the
screen. Story-boarded in great detail by the comic's own creator, it is
set in the teeming edginess of Neo-Tokyo in 2019. The convoluted story
deals with two ex-orphanage kids in a biker gang, one tough and one a
loser; the weaker one, Tetsuo, develops PSI POWERS, discovers the remnants
of superbeing Akira stored at Absolute Zero below the Olympic Stadium,
metamorphoses, and becomes (along with others with whom he melds) the seed
of a new cosmos. The link between persecution, adolescent angst and
psychic power seems to come straight from Theodore STURGEON's MORE THAN
HUMAN (1953), and the opportunistic plotting draws also on Philip K.DICK,
Ridley SCOTT's BLADE RUNNER and many other sources. Though A oscillates
too extremely between bloody violence, sardonic cynicism (about
scientists, the military, religious cults, politicians, terrorists) and
dewy-eyed sentiment, and though the novelistic narrative - which despite
weepy moments is rather low on human feeling - is unfolded awkwardly and
at too great a length, much can be forgiven. Its sheer spectacle and the
density and stylish choreography of its apocalyptic, CYBERPUNK ambience
are unparalleled in cartoon films. See also: CINEMA; COMICS; JAPAN.

(1932- ) Russian MAINSTREAM WRITER, one of those whose careers began in
the Khrushchev Thaw and who responded to the subsequent chill by
emigrating to the USA, where he became a citizen. His sf novel, Ostrov
Krym (1981 US; trans anon as The Island of Crimea 1984 US) is a powerful
ALTERNATE WORLD story set in a Crimea which is an ISLAND (not, as in this
world, a peninsula), and where a pre-revolutionary government has
survived; the real-life model is obviously China/Taiwan. The Soviet Union
soon invades.

There has been some sf in Albanian since the late 1960s, but not until
1978 was the first sf book published there. By 1991 there had been about a
dozen, of which five were by Thanas Qerama, a prolific writer and also an
editor of juvenile science magazines; examples are Roboti i pabindur
Disobedient Robot (coll 1981), Nje jave ne vitin 2044 One Week in the Year
2044 (1982) and Misteri i tempullit te lashte Mystery of the Old Church
(1987). The following authors have written at least one sf book each:
A.Bishqemi, N.Deda, B.Dedja, Vangjel Dilo, Dh. Konomi, Flamur Topi and

(?1940- ) US writer known mainly for the Seventh Carrier sequence of
military-sf adventures about a WWII Japanese aircraft carrier which has
been unthawed decades later from polar ice to do good: The Seventh Carrier
(1983), The Second Voyage of the Seventh Carrier (1986), Return of the
Seventh Carrier (1987), Attack of the Seventh Carrier (1989), Trial of the
Seventh Carrier (1990) and Revenge of the Seventh Carrier (1992), Ordeal
of the Seventh Carrier (1992), Challenge of the Seventh Carrier (1993) and
Super Carrier (1994). His other novels, Waves of Glory (1989) and Tides of
Valor (1990), are unremarkable.




Working name of UK writer Gillian Alderman (1941- ), who worked in
microelectronics research until 1984. She began publishing sf with the
first two volumes of her Guna sequence - The Archivist: A Black Romance
(1989) and The Land Beyond: A Fable (1990) - which established her very
rapidly as a figure of interest in the field. As usual in the PLANETARY
ROMANCE, the world in which the tales are set (Guna) is heavily
foregrounded throughout both volumes. Quite similar to Earth - with which
its more technologically advanced civilizations have had concourse for
many centuries - Guna is perhaps most remarkable for the wide range of
relationships found there between the sexes, running from the complex
matriarchy depicted in the first volume through Earth-like patterns of
repressive patriarchy hinted at broadly in the second. Although it is
clearly GA's intent, dexterously achieved, to make some FEMINIST points
about male hierarchical thinking, she abstains from creating characters
whose consciousnesses reflect these issues. The homosexual male
protagonists of The Archivist, for instance, whose long love affair and
estrangement provide much of the immediate action of the book, exhibit no
normal resentment at the dominant role of women; and the political
revolution fomented by the elder lover has little or nothing to do with
sexual politics in any Earthly sense. The long timespan of The Archivist,
the Grand Tour evocations of landscape which make up much of its bulk, and
its distanced narrative voice mark a contemplative sf fantasist of the
first order. The Land Beyond, a chill book set in a cold part of the
planet, is less engaging; but GA is clearly a writer to welcome.

(1925- ) UK writer, anthologist and critic, educated at private schools,
which he disliked. He served in the Royal Signals in Burma and Sumatra,
was demobilized in 1948 and worked as an assistant in Oxford bookshops.
BWA began his writing career by contributing fictionalized sketches about
bookselling to the trade magazine The Bookseller; these were later
assembled as his first book, The Brightfount Diaries (1955). BWA began
publishing sf with Criminal Record for Science Fantasy in 1954. There
followed such notable tales as Outside (1955), Not for an Age (1955),
which was a prizewinner in an Observer sf competition), There is a Tide
(1956) and Psyclops (1956), all of which appeared in BWA's first sf
volume, Space, Time and Nathaniel (Presciences) (coll 1957). No Time Like
Tomorrow (coll 1959 US) reprints 6 stories from the 14 in Space, Time and
Nathaniel and adds another 6. These early stories were ingenious and
lyrical but dark in mood. BWA remains a prolific writer of short stories
(his total well exceeded 300 by 1995), almost all under his own name,
though he has used the pseudonyms C.C.Shackleton, Jael Cracken and John
Runciman for a few items. All the World's Tears (1957), Poor Little
Warrior (1958), But Who Can Replace a Man? (1958), Old Hundredth (1960)
and A Kind of Artistry (1962) are among the most memorable stories
collected in The Canopy of Time (coll of linked stories 1959); of the
stories listed, only All the World's Tears and But Who Can Replace a Man?
appear, with expository passages that make the book into a loose future
HISTORY, in the substantially different Galaxies like Grains of Sand (coll
of linked stories 1960 US; with 1 story added rev 1979 UK). The Airs of
Earth (coll 1963; with 2 stories omitted and 2 stories added, rev vt
(coll 1965; rev 1971; vt Who Can Replace a Man? 1966 US) also assemble
early work. BWA received a 1959 award at the World SF CONVENTION as most
promising new author, but his work was less well received in certain
quarters where his emphasis on style and imagery, and his lack of an
engineering mentality, were regarded with suspicion. His first novel,
Non-Stop (1958; cut vt Starship 1959 US), is a brilliant treatment of the
become accepted as a classic of the field. Vanguard from Alpha (1959 dos
US; with Segregation added, rev as coll vt Equator: A Human Time Bomb from
the Moon! 1961 UK) - which became part of The Year Before Yesterday
(1958-65; fixup 1987 US; rev vt Cracken at Critical: A Novel in Three Acts
1987 UK) - and Bow Down to Nul (1960 US dos; text restored vt The
Interpreter 1961 UK) are much less successful, but The Primal Urge (1961
US) is an amusing treatment of SEX as an sf theme. Always ebullient in his
approach to sexual morality, BWA was one of the authors who changed the
attitudes of sf editors and publishers in this area during the 1960s. The
Long Afternoon of Earth (fixup 1962 US; exp vt Hothouse 1962 UK) won him a
1962 HUGO award for its original appearance as a series of novelettes. It
is one of his finest works. Set in the FAR FUTURE, when the Earth has
ceased rotating, it involves the adventures of humanity's remnants, who
live in the branches of a giant, continent-spanning tree (DEVOLUTION).
Criticized for scientific implausibility by James BLISH and others,
Hothouse (BWA's preferred title) nevertheless displays all his linguistic,
comic and inventive talents. It also illustrates BWA's main thematic
concerns, namely the conflict between fecundity and ENTROPY, between the
rich variety of life and the silence of death. The Dark Light Years (1964)
is a lesser work, though notable for the irony of its central dilemma -
how one comes to terms with intelligent ALIENS who are physically
disgusting. Greybeard (cut 1964 US; full version 1964 UK) is perhaps BWA's
finest sf novel. It deals with a future in which humanity has become
sterile due to an accident involving biological weapons. Almost all the
characters are old people, and their reactions to the incipient death of
the human race are well portrayed. Both a celebration of human life and a
critique of civilization, it has been underrated, particularly in the USA.
Earthworks (1965; rev 1966 US) is a minor novel about OVERPOPULATION. An
Age (1967; vt Cryptozoic! 1968 US) is an odd and original treatment of
TIME TRAVEL, which sees time as running backwards with a consequent
reversal of cause and effect, comparable but superior to Philip K.DICK's
Counter-Clock World (1967), published in the same year. During the latter
half of the 1960s BWA was closely identified with NEW-WAVE sf, and in
particular with the innovative magazine NEW WORLDS, for which he helped
obtain an Arts Council grant in 1967. Here BWA published increasingly
unconventional fiction, notably his novel Report on Probability A (1968;
written 1962 but unpublishable until the times changed), an sf
transposition of the techniques of the French anti-novelists into a
Surrealist story of enigmatic voyeurism, and his Acid-Head War stories,
collected as Barefoot in the Head: A European Fantasia (fixup 1969). Set
in the aftermath of a European war in which psychedelic drugs have been
used as weapons, the latter is written in a dense, punning style
reminiscent of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake (1939); it is an extraordinary
tour de force. The novella The Saliva Tree (1965 FSF; 1988 chap dos US)
won a NEBULA and featured in The Saliva Tree and Other Strange Growths
(coll 1966). It is an entertaining tribute to H.G.WELLS, though the plot
is reminiscent of The Colour out of Space (1927) by H.P.LOVECRAFT. Further
volumes of short stories include Intangibles Inc. (coll 1969; with 2
stories omitted and 1 added, rev vt Neanderthal Planet 1970 US), The
Moment of Eclipse (coll 1970), which won the BRITISH SCIENCE FICTION AWARD
in 1972, and The Book of Brian Aldiss (coll 1972 US; vt Comic Inferno 1973
UK). Novels of this period include Frankenstein Unbound (1973), a
time-travel fantasia which has Mary SHELLEY as a major character and
presents in fictional form the myth-of-origin for sf he advocated in his
history of the genre, Billion Year Spree (1973; rev and exp with David
WINGROVE as Trillion Year Spree 1986, which won a Hugo); and The
Eighty-Minute Hour: A Space Opera (1974 US), a comedy in which BWA's
penchant for puns and extravagant invention is thought by some critics to
be overindulged. His long fantasy novel The Malacia Tapestry (1976) is a
much more balanced work. Set in a mysterious, never-changing city, it is a
love story with fantastic elements. Beautifully imagined, it is a
restatement of BWA's obsessions with entropy, fecundity and the role of
the artist, and was perhaps his best novel since Greybeard. Brothers of
the Head (1977), about Siamese-twin rock stars and their third, dormant
head, was a minor exercise in Grand Guignol; with an additional story, it
was also assembled as Brothers of the Head, and Where the Lines Converge
(coll 1979). Enemies of the System: A Tale of Homo Uniformis (1978) was a
somewhat disgruntled DYSTOPIAN novella. Moreau's Other Island (1980; vt An
Island Called Moreau 1981 US) plays fruitfully with themes from H.G.Wells:
during a nuclear war a US official discovers that bioengineering
experiments performed on a deserted island are a secret project run by his
own department. Stories collected in Last Orders and Other Stories (coll
1977; vt Last Orders 1989 US), New Arrivals, Old Encounters (coll 1979)
and Seasons in Flight (coll 1984) were unwearied, though sometimes hasty.
The 1970s also saw BWA beginning to publish non-sf fictions more
substantial than his previous two, The Brightfount Diaries and The Male
Response (1961 US). He gained his first bestseller and some notoriety with
The Hand-Reared Boy (1970). This, with its two sequels, A Soldier Erect
(1971) and A Rude Awakening (1978), deals with the education, growth to
maturity and war experiences in Burma of a young man whose circumstances
often recall the early life of the author; the three were assembled as The
Horatio Stubbs Saga (omni 1985). More directly connected to his sf are
four novels set in contemporary and near-future Europe, loosely connected
through the sharing of some characters. The sequence comprises Life in the
West (1980), listed by Anthony BURGESS in his Ninety-Nine Novels: The Best
in English since 1939 (1984); Forgotten Life (1988); Remembrance Day
(1993) and Somewhere East of Life: Another European Fantasia (1994). The
four flirt brusquely with autobiography, but are of greatest interest for
their tough-minded grasp of late 20th century European cultures. A
novella, Ruins (1987 chap), also explores contemporary material. Some
years had passed since his last popular success as an sf novelist when BWA
suddenly reasserted his eminence in the field with the publication of the
Helliconia books - HELLICONIA SPRING (1982), which won the 1983 JOHN
W.CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD, Helliconia Summer (1983) and Helliconia Winter
(1985) - three massive, thoroughly researched, deeply through-composed
tales set on a planet whose primary sun is in an eccentric orbit around
another star, so that the planet experiences both small seasons and an
eon-long Great Year, during the course of which radical changes afflict
the human-like inhabitants. Cultures are born in spring, flourish over the
summer, and die with the onset of the generations-long winter. A team from
an exhausted Terran civilization observes the spectacle from orbit.
Throughout all three volumes, BWA pays homage to various high moments of
pulp sf, rewriting several classic action climaxes into a dark idiom that
befits Helliconia. As an exercise in world-building, the Helliconia books
lie unassailably at the heart of modern sf; as a demonstration of the
complexities inherent in the mode of the PLANETARY ROMANCE when taken
seriously, they are exemplary; as a Heraclitean revery upon the
implications of the Great Year for human pretensions, they are (as is
usual with BWA's work) heterodox. Dracula Unbound (1991) continues through
a similar time-travel plot the explorations of Frankenstein Unbound,
although this time in a lighter vein. Two summatory collections - Best SF
Stories of Brian W.Aldiss (coll 1988; vt Man in his Time: Best SF Stories
1989), not to be confused with the similarly titled 1965 collection, and A
Romance of the Equator: Best Fantasy Stories (coll 1989), not to be
confused with A Romance of the Equator (1980 chap), which publishes the
title story only - closed off the 1980s, along with Science Fiction Blues
(coll 1988). This latter collects materials used by BWA in Dickensian
stage readings he began to give in the 1980s at conventions and other
venues; these readings have reflected something of the vast, exuberant,
melancholy, protean corpus of one of the sf field's two or three most
prolific authors of substance, and perhaps its most exploratory; this
impatient expansiveness is also reflected in the stories assembled as A
Tupolev Too Far (coll 1993). Kindred Blood in Kensington Gore (1992 chap),
a short play, gave BWA the opportunity to conduct on stage an imaginary
conversation in similar terms with the posthumous Philip K.DICK. BWA has
been an indefatigable anthologist and critic of sf. His anthologies (most
of which contain stimulating introductions and other matter) include
Penguin Science Fiction (anth 1961), Best Fantasy Stories (anth 1962),
More Penguin Science Fiction (anth 1963), Introducing SF (anth 1964), Yet
More Penguin Science Fiction (anth 1964) - assembled with his earlier two
Penguin anths as The Penguin Science Fiction Omnibus (omni 1973 - and The
Penguin World Omnibus of Science Fiction (anth 1986) with Sam J.LUNDWALL.
The Book of Mini-Sagas I (anth 1985) and The Book of Mini-Sagas II (anth
1988) are associational collections of 50-word stories. The Space Opera
series of anthologies comprises Space Opera (anth 1974), Space Odysseys
(anth 1975), Evil Earths (anth 1975), Galactic Empires (anth in 2 vols
1976) and Perilous Planets (anth 1978). Anthologies ed in collaboration
with Harry HARRISON are: Nebula Award Stories II (1967); the Year's Best
SF series comprising Best SF: 1967 (1968 US; vt The Year's Best Science
Fiction No 1 1968 UK), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 2 (anth 1969;
exp vt Best SF: 1968 1969 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 3 (anth
1970; vt Best SF: 1969 1970 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction No 4
(anth 1971; vt Best SF: 1970 1971 US), The Year's Best Science Fiction No
5 (anth 1972; vt Best SF: 1971 1972 US), Best SF: 1972 (anth 1973 US; vt
The Year's Best Science Fiction No 6 1973 UK), Best SF: 1973 (anth 1974
US; cut vt The Year's Best Science Fiction No 7 1974 UK), Best SF 1974
(anth 1975 US; cut vt The Year's Best Science Fiction No 8 1975 UK) and
The Year's Best Science Fiction No 9 (anth 1976; vt Best SF: 1975 1976
US); All About Venus (anth 1968 US; exp vt Farewell, Fantastic Venus! A
History of the Planet Venus in Fact and Fiction 1968 UK); The
Astounding-Analog Reader (anth in 2 vols 1968 UK paperback of 1973 divided
Vol 1 into 2 vols, and Vol 2 did not appear at all from this publisher);
and the Decade series comprising Decade: The 1940s (1975), The 1950s
(1976) and The 1960s (1977). Also with Harrison, with whom BWA has had a
long and, considering the wide gulf between their two styles of fiction,
amazingly successful working relationship, he edited two issues of SF
Horizons (1964-5), a short-lived but excellent critical journal, and
Hell's Cartographers (anth 1975), a collection of six autobiographical
essays by sf writers, including the two editors. Most of BWA's nonfiction
has a critical relation to the genre, though Cities and Stones: A
Traveller's Jugoslavia (1966) is a travel book. The Shape of Further
Things (1970) is autobiography-cum-criticism. Billion Year Spree (1973), a
large and enthusiastic survey of sf, is BWA's most important nonfiction
work (HISTORY OF SF); its argument that sf is a child of the intersection
of Gothic romance with the Industrial Revolution gives profound pleasure
as a myth of origin, though it fails circumstantially to be altogether
convincing; the book was much expanded and, perhaps inevitably, somewhat
diluted in effect as Trillion Year Spree (1986) with David WINGROVE.
Science Fiction Art (1975) is an attractively produced selection of sf
ILLUSTRATION with commentary, mostly from the years of the PULP MAGAZINES,
and Science Fiction Art (1976) - note identical title - presents a
portfolio of Chris FOSS's art. Science Fiction as Science Fiction (1978
chap), This World and Nearer Ones (coll 1979), The Pale Shadow of Science
(coll 1985 US) and... And the Lurid Glare of the Comet (coll 1986 US)
assemble some of his reviews and speculative essays. As literary editor of
the Oxford Mail for many years, BWA reviewed hundreds of sf books; his
later reviews have appeared in the Times Literary Supplement, the
Guardian, the Washington Post and elsewhere. BWA is a regular attender of
sf conventions all over the world, a passionate supporter of
internationalism in sf and all other spheres of life, and a consistent
attacker of UK-US parochialism. Like Harlan ELLISON in the USA, BWA is an
energetic and charismatic speaker and lecturer. He was guest of honour at
the 23rd World SF Convention in 1965 (and at several since) and received
the BSFA vote for Britain's most popular sf writer in 1969. In 1977 he won
the first James Blish Award (AWARDS) and in 1978 a PILGRIM AWARD, both for
excellence in SF criticism. He was a founding Trustee of WORLD SF in 1982,
and its president from 1983. Bury My Heart at W.H.Smith's: A Writing Life
(1990; trade edition cut by 6 chapters 1990), a memoir, reflects on the
public life of a man of letters in the modern world. Other works: A Brian
Aldiss Omnibus (omni 1969); Brian Aldiss Omnibus 2 (omni 1971); Pile:
Petals from St Klaed's Computer (graph 1979) with Mike Wilks, an
illustrated narrative poem; Foreign Bodies (coll 1981 Singapore); Farewell
to a Child (1982 chap), poem; Science Fiction Quiz (1983); Best of Aldiss
(coll 1983 chap); My Country 'Tis Not Only of Thee (1986 chap); The Magic
of the Past (coll 1987 chap); Sex and the Black Machine (1990 chap), a
collaged jeu d'esprit; Bodily Functions: Stories, Poems, and a Letter on
the Subject of Bowel Movement Addressed to Sam J.Lundwall on the Occasion
of His Birthday February 24th, A.D.1991 (coll 1991); Journey to the Goat
Star (1982 The Quarto as The Captain's Analysis; 1991 chap US); Home Life
with Cats (coll 1992 chap), poetry. About the author: Aldiss Unbound: The
Science Fiction of Brian W.Aldiss (1977) by Richard Matthews; The Entropy
Exhibition: Michael Moorcock and the British New Wave in Science Fiction
(1983) by Colin GREENLAND; Apertures: A Study of the Writings of Brian
Aldiss (1984) by Brian GRIFFIN and David Wingrove; Brian W.Aldiss (1986)
by M.R.COLLINGS; Brian Wilson Aldiss: A Working Bibliography (1988 chap)
by Phil STEPHENSEN-PAYNE; A is for Brian (anth 1990) edited by Frank
Hatherley, a 65th-birthday tribute; The Work of Brian W.Aldiss: An
Annotated Bibliography and Guide (1992) by Margaret Aldiss (1933- ). See

(1836-1907) US writer responsible for Pansy's Wish: A Christmas Fantasy
(1869). Out of his Head, a Romance (coll of linked stories 1862) and The
Queen of Sheba (1877) are early examples of the marginal subgenre of sf in
which contemporary explorations in PSYCHOLOGY suggest storylines ranging
from amnesia to metempsychosis (and ultimately, it might be added,

Stephen R.BOYETT.

(? - ) US author of the Soldiers of War Western sequence as by William
Reed; of the Phoenix sequence of post-HOLOCAUST military-sf adventures,
comprising Dark Messiah (1987), Ground Zero (1987), Metalstorm (1988) and
Whirlwind (1988); and of vols 9-12 of the C.A.D.S. post-holocaust military
sequence under the house name Jan Sievert (Ryder SYVERTSEN). DA is not to
be confused with David M.ALEXANDER.

(1945- ) US lawyer and writer whose first sf novel, The Chocolate Spy
(1978), concerns the creation of an organic COMPUTER using cloned
braincells ( CONES), and whose second, Fane (1981), set on a planet whose
electromagnetic configurations permit the controlled use of MAGIC,
describes an inimical attempt to augment these powers. DMA is not to be
confused with David ALEXANDER.

(1831- ?) US writer whose sf fantasmagoria, The Lunarian Professor and
his Remarkable Revelations Concerning the Earth, the Moon and Mars;
Together with an Account of the Cruise of the Sally Ann (1909), might have
been excluded from this encyclopedia - on the grounds that the insectoid
Lunarian pedagogue and all that he surveys turn out to be a dream - were
it not that JBA's imagination, though patently influenced by H.G.WELLS, is
too vivid to be ignored. The altruistic three-sexed Lunarians, the future
HISTORY of Earth (derived from mathematical models, which the professor
passes on to the narrator), the TERRAFORMING of Mars, the journeys made
possible through ANTIGRAVITY devices - all are of strong sf interest.

(1905-1980) Irish author of several thrillers in the late 1920s and early
1930s under his own name before he adopted the pseudonym Joan Butler for
41 humorous novels. These latter, written in a very distinctive style,
have resonances of Thorne Smith (1892-1934) and P.G.WODEHOUSE. Cloudy
Weather (1940) and Deep Freeze (1951) centre on the resurrection of
Egyptian mummies by scientific means. Space to Let (1955) features the
building of a Venus rocket. Home Run (1958) is about the invention of
pocket-size atom bombs. ESP plays a prominent part in The Old Firm (1956),
while Bed and Breakfast (1933), Low Spirits (1945), Full House (1947) and
Sheet Lightning (1950) focus on the supernatural. RWA used his own name
for two further sf novels, still written in his well established humorous
style; both are set in the future and reflect on the aspirations of youth.
In Mariner's Rest (1943) a group of children shipwrecked on a South Sea
island during WWII are discovered some 10 years later running their own
community. Back To Nature (1945) describes how young people abandon the
comforts of a 21st-century city for the rigours of a more natural
lifestyle. Other works: Ground Bait (1941); Sun Spots (1942).

US tv series (1986-90). Warner Bros TV for NBC. Created by Paul Fusco and
Ed Weinberger. Prod Tom Patchett. Writers include Fusco, Patchett. Dirs
include Fusco, Patchett, Peter Bonerz. 25 mins per episode. Colour. ALF,
an alien life form - in the line of extraterrestrial descent from MY
FAVORITE MARTIAN and Mork in MORK AND MINDY, though also influenced
heavily by E.T.: THE EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL (1982), EXPLORERS (1985) and the
success of the Muppets - moves in with the Tanner family, a sitcom
collection of typical Americans, after his spaceship crashlands in their
garage. A furry puppet, somewhere between cute and obnoxious, voiced and
operated by series creator Paul Fusco, ALF mainly sits in the middle of
the living room insulting people, plotting to eat the family cat, making
tv-style smart-ass remarks and dispensing reassuring sentiment. The sf
premise aside, ALF is basically one of those stereotype sitcom characters
- like Benson (Robert Guillaume) in Soap or Sophia (Estelle Getty) in The
Golden Girls - whose otherness (extraterrestrial, racial, social or
mental) provides an excuse for them to comment rudely, satirically and
smugly on the foibles of everyone else. The regular cast includes Max
Wright, Anne Schedeen, Andrea Elson and Benji Gregory, as the Tanners, and
John LaMotta and Liz Sheridan, as the nosy neighbours straight from I Love
Lucy and Bewitched. See also: SATIRE.


US SEMIPROZINE (1963-84) ed from New York by Andrew PORTER, subtitled The
Magazine about Science Fiction. A began as a duplicated FANZINE but in the
1970s became an attractive printed magazine in small-BEDSHEET format,
published four times a year. With 34, Spring 1979, it changed its name to
Starship; it ceased publication with 44, Winter/Spring 1984, its
20th-anniversary issue. A ran articles on sf and sf publishing, interviews
with authors, and reviews and texts of speeches. Regular columnists
included Vincent DI FATE (on sf artwork), Richard A.LUPOFF (on books),
Frederik POHL, and Susan WOOD (on fanzines and books). Occasional
contributors included Brian W.ALDISS, Alfred BESTER, Ursula K.LE GUIN,
Robert SILVERBERG, Ted WHITE and Jack WILLIAMSON. A, which shared the HUGO
for Best Fanzine in 1974, was much more interesting than its sister
publication, the monthly news magazine SF CHRONICLE, also ed Porter. The
latter still continues; the economics of magazine publishing meant that it
was the more ambitious and expensive publication that had to go.


Tawfiq al-HAKIM.

Film (1979). 20th Century-Fox. Dir Ridley SCOTT, starring Sigourney
Weaver, Tom Skerritt, Harry Dean Stanton, John Hurt, Ian Holm, Yaphet
Kotto, Veronica Cartwright. Alien design H.R.GIGER. Screenplay Dan
O'Bannon, from a story by O'Bannon and Ronald Shusett, with uncredited
input from prods Walter Hill and David Giler. 117 mins. Colour. One of the
most influential sf films ever made, A is actually much closer to HORROR
in its adherence to genre conventions. The merchant spaceship Nostromo, on
a routine voyage, visits a planet where one of the crew is attacked by a
crablike creature in an abandoned ALIEN spacecraft. Back aboard the
Nostromo this metamorphoses, partly inside the crewman's body, into an
almost invulnerable, rapidly growing, intelligent carnivore. Science
officer Ash (Holm), who unknown to the crew is a ROBOT instructed to keep
the alien alive for possible commercial exploitation, attacks Ripley
(Weaver); he is messily dismantled. The alien picks off, piecemeal, all
the remaining crew but Ripley. There is a fine music score by Jerry
Goldsmith. Giger's powerful alien design, inorganic sleekness blended with
curved, phallic, organic forms, renders the horror sequences extremely
vivid, but for all their force they are plotted along deeply conventional
lines. Considerably more original is the sense - achieved through design,
terse dialogue and excellent direction - that this is a real working
spaceship with a real, blue-collar, working crew, the future unglamorized
and taken for granted. Also good sf are the scenes on the alien spacecraft
(Giger's design again) which project a genuine sense of otherness. Tough,
pragmatic Ripley (contrasted with the womanly ineffectiveness of
Cartwright as Lambert) is the first sf movie heroine to reflect cultural
changes in the real world, where by 1979 FEMINISM was causing some men and
many women to think again about the claustrophobia of traditional female
roles. A, which was made in the UK, was a huge success. It had precursors.
Many viewers noticed plot similarities with IT! THE TERROR FROM BEYOND
SPACE (1958) and with A.E.VAN VOGT's Discord in Scarlet (1939); a legal
case about the latter resemblance was settled out of court for $50,000.
The sequels were ALIENS (1986) and ALIEN(3) (1992). The novelization is
Alien (1979) by Alan Dean FOSTER. See also: CINEMA; HUGO; MONSTER MOVIES;


US FANZINE ed from Portland, Oregon, by Richard E.GEIS. For its first 3
issues, AC was an informal magazine written entirely by the editor and
titled Richard E.Geis. With the title-change in 1973, the magazine's
contents began to diversify, featuring regular columns by John BRUNNER and
Ted WHITE as well as a variety of articles and a series of interviews with
sf authors and artists, although its characteristic flavour still derived
from the editor's own outspoken reviews and commentary. With 12 in 1975
the title changed to Science Fiction Review, a title used also by Geis for
his previous fanzine PSYCHOTIC. TAC/Science Fiction Review won HUGOS for
Best Fanzine in 1974 (shared), 1975, 1977 and 1979. TAC's circulation
became quite wide, and it effectively became a SEMIPROZINE. In pain from
arthritis, Geis cancelled the magazine after 61, Nov 1986, though he
continued to publish shorter, more personal fanzines under other titles.
Science Fiction Review was revived as a semiprozine in 1989, with some
fiction added to the old SFR mix; 10 issues to May 1992, none since, ed
Elton Elliott. The schedule changed from quarterly to monthly with 5, Dec
1991, at which point the magazine also began to be sold at newsstands.
This brave attempt at making a SMALL-PRESS magazine fully professional
foundered five issues later.

1. Film (1988). 20th Century-Fox. Dir Graham Baker, starring James Caan,
Mandy Patinkin, Terence Stamp. Prod Gale Anne HURD, Richard Kobritz.
Screenplay Rockne S.O'Bannon. 90 mins. Colour. Los Angeles, 1991. The
Newcomers, or Slags, are 300,000 humanoid ALIENS, genetically engineered
for hard labour, survivors of a crashlanded slave ship, grudgingly
accepted but disliked by humans, and ghettoized. Working in partnership
with a human (Caan), Sam Francisco (Patinkin) becomes the first alien
police detective in LA. There are murders related to the use of alien
drugs. A stereotyped buddy-cop story follows (uneasy relationship between
races deepens as tolerance is learned). This is an efficient, unambitious
adventure film whose observations of racial bigotry towards cultural
strangers - effectively boat people - are good-humoured but seldom rise
above cliche. The novelization is Alien Nation (1988) by Alan Dean FOSTER.
2. US tv series (1989-90). Kenneth Johnson Productions for Fox Television.
Starring Gary Graham and Eric Pierpoint. 100min pilot episode dir and
written Johnson, plus 21 50min episodes. The short-lived tv series that
followed the film combined routine crime stories with mild SATIRE of
NEAR-FUTURE Los Angeles and lessons about civil rights. The
bizarre-looking but adaptable Newcomers act and talk exactly like humans,
portraying housewives, teenagers, used-car salesmen, criminals, police and
other stereotypes. The exception is George (no longer Sam) Francisco,
whose earnest, humourless approach and precise speech recall Spock of STAR
TREK. A few episodes involve the pregnancy of the male Newcomer hero.
Johnson also produced the much harder-edged V. The cliffhanger ending of
the series was not resolved until Oct 1994, when a well-made two-hour tv
movie, Alien Nation: Dark Horizon was broadcast on Fox TV, scripted by
Diane Frolov and Andrew Schneider.

Visitors to other worlds in stories of the 17th and 18th centuries met no
genuine alien beings; instead they found men and animals, sometimes
wearing strange forms but always filling readily recognizable roles. The
pattern of life on Earth was reproduced with minor amendments: UTOPIAN
improvement or satirical (SATIRE) exaggeration. The concept of a
differently determined pattern of life, and thus of a lifeform quite alien
to Earthly habits of thought, did not emerge until the late 19th century,
as a natural consequence of the notions of EVOLUTION and of the process of
adaptation to available environments promulgated by Lamarck and later by
Darwin. The idea of alien beings was first popularized by Camille
FLAMMARION in his nonfictional Real and Imaginary Worlds (1864; trans 1865
US) and in Lumen (1887; trans with some new material 1897 UK). These
accounts of LIFE ON OTHER WORLDS describe sentient plants, species for
which respiration and alimentation are aspects of the same process, etc.
The idea that divinely created souls could experience serial REINCARNATION
in an infinite variety of physical forms is featured in Flammarion's
Urania (1889; trans 1891 US). Aliens also appear in the work of another
major French writer, J.H.ROSNY aine: mineral lifeforms are featured in The
Shapes (1887; trans 1968) and The Death of the World (1910; trans 1928).
Like Flammarion, Rosny took a positive attitude to alien beings: Les
navigateurs de l'infini The Navigators of Infinity (1925) features a love
affair between a human and a six-eyed tripedal Martian. In the tradition
of the French evolutionary philosophers Lamarck and Henri Bergson, these
early French sf writers fitted both humans and aliens into a great
evolutionary scheme. In the UK, evolutionary philosophy was dominated by
the Darwinian idea of the survival of the fittest. Perhaps inevitably, UK
writers imagined the alien as a Darwinian competitor, a natural enemy of
mankind. H.G.WELLS in THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1898) cast the alien as a
genocidal invader - a would-be conqueror and colonist of Earth (INVASION).
This role rapidly became a CLICHE. The same novel set the pattern by which
alien beings are frequently imagined as loathsome MONSTERS. Wells went on
to produce an elaborate description of an alien society in THE FIRST MEN
IN THE MOON (1901), based on the model of the ant-nest (HIVE-MINDS), thus
instituting another significant cliche. Early US PULP-MAGAZINE sf in the
vein of Edgar Rice BURROUGHS usually populated other worlds with
quasihuman inhabitants - almost invariably including beautiful women for
the heroes to fall in love with - but frequently, for melodramatic
purposes, placed such races under threat from predatory monsters. The
specialist sf magazines inherited this tradition in combination with the
Wellsian exemplars, and made copious use of monstrous alien invaders; the
climaxes of such stories were often genocidal. Edmond HAMILTON was a
prolific author of stories in this vein. In the early SPACE OPERAS meek
and benevolent aliens usually had assorted mammalian and avian
characteristics, while the physical characteristics of nasty aliens were
borrowed from reptiles, arthropods and molluscs (especially octopuses).
Sentient plants and entities of pure energy were morally more versatile.
In extreme cases, alien allies and enemies became straightforwardly
symbolic of Good and Evil: E.E.Doc SMITH's Arisians and Eddorians of the
Lensman series are secular equivalents of angels and demons. Occasionally
early pulp-sf writers were willing to invert their Darwinian assumptions
and put humans in the role of alien invaders - significant early examples
are Hamilton's Conquest of Two Worlds (1932) and P.Schuyler MILLER's
Forgotten Man of Space (1933) - but stories focusing on the exoticism of
alien beings tended to take their inspiration from the works of A.MERRITT,
who had described a fascinating mineral life-system in The Metal Monster
(1920; 1946) and had transcended conventional biological chauvinism in his
portrayal of The Snake-Mother (1930; incorporated in The Face in the Abyss
1931). Jack WILLIAMSON clearly showed Merritt's influence in The Alien
Intelligence (1929) and The Moon Era (1932). A significant advance in the
representation of aliens was achieved by Stanley G.WEINBAUM, whose A
Martian Odyssey (1934) made a deep impression on readers. Weinbaum
followed it up with other accounts of relatively complex alien biospheres
(ECOLOGY). Another popular story which directly challenged vulgarized
Darwinian assumptions was Raymond Z.GALLUN's Old Faithful (1934), in which
humans and a Martian set aside their extreme biological differences and
acknowledge intellectual kinship. This spirit was echoed in Liquid Life
(1936) by Ralph Milne FARLEY, which proposed that a man was bound to keep
his word of honour, even to a filterable virus. Some of the more
interesting and adventurous alien stories written in the 1930s ran foul of
editorial TABOOS: The Creator (1935; 1946 chap) by Clifford D.SIMAK, which
suggested that our world and others might be the creation of a godlike
alien (the first of the author's many sf considerations of
pseudo-theological themes - GODS AND DEMONS; RELIGION), was considered
dangerously close to blasphemy and ended up in the semiprofessional MARVEL
TALES, which also began serialization of P.Schuyler Miller's The Titan
(1934-5), whose description of a Martian ruling class sustained by
vampiric cannibalism was considered too erotic, and which eventually
appeared as the title story of The Titan (coll 1952). The influence of
these taboos in limiting the potential the alien being offered writers of
this period, and thereby in stunting the evolution of alien roles within
sf, should not be overlooked. Despite the Wellsian precedents, aliens were
much less widely featured in the UK SCIENTIFIC ROMANCES. Eden PHILLPOTTS
used aliens as objective observers to examine and criticize the human
world in Saurus (1938) and Address Unknown (1949), but the latter novel
explicitly challenges the validity of any such criticism. Olaf STAPLEDON's
STAR MAKER (1937) built humans and aliens into a cosmic scheme akin to
that envisaged by Rosny and Flammarion. Stapledon also employed the alien
as a standard of comparison in one of his most bitter attacks on
contemporary humanity, in The Flames (1947). The alien-menace story
remained dominant in sf for many years; its popularity did not begin to
wane until the outbreak of WWII, and it has never been in danger of dying
out. Such xenophobia eventually became unfashionable in the more reputable
magazines, but monstrous aliens maintained their popularity in less
sophisticated outlets. The CINEMA lagged behind written sf in this
respect, producing a host of cheap MONSTER MOVIES during the 1950s and
1960s, although there was a belated boom in innocent and altruistic aliens
in films of the 1970s. While pulp sf writers continued to invent nastier
and more horrific alien monsters during the late 1930s and 1940s - notable
examples include John W.CAMPBELL Jr's Who Goes There? (1938), as Don
A.Stuart, and A.E.VAN VOGT's Black Destroyer (1939) and Discord in Scarlet
(1939) - the emphasis shifted towards the problems of establishing
fruitful COMMUNICATION with alien races. During the WWII years human/alien
relationships were often represented as complex, delicate and uneasy. In
van Vogt's Co-operate or Else! (1942) a man and a bizarre alien are
castaways in a harsh alien environment during an interstellar war, and
must join forces in order to survive. In First Contact (1945) by Murray
LEINSTER two spaceships meet in the void, and each crew is determined to
give away no information and make no move which could possibly give the
other race a political or military advantage - a practical problem which
they ultimately solve. Another Leinster story, The Ethical Equations
(1945), assumes that a correct decision regarding mankind's first actions
on contact with aliens will be very difficult to achieve, but that
priority should definitely be given to the attempt to establish friendly
relationships; by contrast, Arena (1944) by Fredric BROWN bleakly assumes
that the meeting of Man and alien might still be a test of their ability
to destroy one another. (Significantly, an adaptation of Arena for the tv
series STAR TREK changed the ending of the story to bring it into line
with later attitudes.) Attempts to present more credibly unhuman aliens
became gradually more sophisticated in the late 1940s and 1950s,
particularly in the work of Hal CLEMENT, but writers devoted to the design
of peculiar aliens adapted to extraordinary environments tended to find it
hard to embed such speculations in engaging stories - a problem constantly
faced by Clement and by more recent workers in the same tradition, notably
Robert L.FORWARD. Much more effective in purely literary terms are stories
which juxtapose human and alien in order to construct parables criticizing
various attitudes and values. Despite John W.Campbell Jr's editorial
enthusiasm for human chauvinism - reflected in such stories as Arthur
C.CLARKE's Rescue Party (1946) and L.Ron HUBBARD's Return to Tomorrow
(1954) - many stories produced in the post-WWII years use aliens as
contrasting exemplars to expose and dramatize human follies. Militarism is
attacked in Clifford D.Simak's You'll Never Go Home Again (1951) and Eric
Frank RUSSELL's The Waitabits (1955). Sexual prejudices are questioned in
Theodore STURGEON's The World Well Lost (1953). Racialism is attacked in
Dumb Martian by John WYNDHAM (1952) and Leigh BRACKETT's All the Colours
of the Rainbow (1957). The politics of colonialism (COLONIZATION OF OTHER
WORLDS) are examined in The Helping Hand (1950) by Poul ANDERSON, Invaders
From Earth (1958 dos) by Robert SILVERBERG and Little Fuzzy (1962) by
H.Beam PIPER. The bubble of human vanity is pricked in Simak's Immigrant
(1954) and Anderson's The Martyr (1960). The general human condition has
been subject to increasingly rigorous scrutiny through metaphors of alien
contact in such stories as A MIRROR FOR OBSERVERS (1954) by Edgar
PANGBORN, Rule Golden (1954) by Damon KNIGHT, What Rough Beast? (1980) by
William Jon WATKINS and The Alien Upstairs (1983) by Pamela SARGENT. Sharp
SATIRES on human vanity and prejudice include Brian W.ALDISS's The Dark
Light Years (1964) and Thomas M.DISCH's The Genocides (1965) and Mankind
Under the Leash (1966 dos). The most remarkable redeployment of alien
beings in sf of the 1950s and 1960s was in connection with
pseudo-theological themes (RELIGION). Some images of the inhabitants of
other worlds had been governed by theological notions long before the
advent of sf - interplanetary romances of the 19th century often featured
spirits or angels - and the tradition had been revived outside the sf
magazines by C.S.LEWIS in his Christian allegories OUT OF THE SILENT
PLANET (1938) and Perelandra (1943; vt Voyage to Venus). Within sf itself,
however, the religious imagination had previously been echoed only in a
few Shaggy God stories (ADAM AND EVE). In sf of the 1950s, though, aliens
appear in all kinds of transcendental roles. Aliens are spiritual tutors
in Dear Devil (1950) by Eric Frank Russell and Guardian Angel (1950) by
Arthur C.Clarke, in each case wearing diabolical physical form ironically
to emphasize their angelic role. Edgar Pangborn's Angel's Egg (1951) and
Paul J.MCAULEY's Eternal Light (1991) are less coy. Raymond F.JONES's The
Alien (1951) is ambitious to be a god, and the alien in Philip Jose
FARMER's Father (1955) really is one. In Clifford D.Simak's Time and Again
(1951: vt First He Died) every living creature, ANDROIDS included, has an
immortal alien commensal, an sf substitute for the soul. In James BLISH's
classic A CASE OF CONSCIENCE (1953; exp 1958) alien beings without
knowledge of God appear to a Jesuit to be creations of the Devil. Other
churchmen achieve spiritual enlightenment by means of contact with aliens
in The Fire Balloons (1951; vt In this Sign) by Ray BRADBURY, Unhuman
Sacrifice (1958) by Katherine MACLEAN, and Prometheus (1961) by Philip
Jose Farmer. In Lester DEL REY's For I Am a Jealous People (1954) alien
invaders of Earth turn out to have made a new covenant with God, who is no
longer on our side. Religious imagery is at its most extreme in stories
which deal with literal kinds of salvation obtained by humans who adopt
alien ways, including Robert Silverberg's Downward to the Earth (1970) and
George R.R.MARTIN's A Song for Lya (1974). The evolution of alien roles in
Eastern European sf seems to have been very different. The alien-menace
story typical of early US-UK sf is absent from contemporary Russian sf,
and the ideological calculation behind this absence is made clear by Ivan
YEFREMOV in Cor Serpentis (trans 1962; vt The Heart of the Serpent), which
is explicitly represented as a reply to Leinster's First Contact. Yefremov
argues that, by the time humans are sufficiently advanced to build
interstellar ships, their society will have matured beyond the suspicious
militaristic attitudes of Leinster's humans, and will be able to assume
that aliens are similarly mature. UK-US sf has never become that confident
- although similar ideological replies to earlier work are not unknown in
US sf. Ted WHITE's By Furies Possessed (1970), in which mankind finds a
useful symbiotic relationship with rather ugly aliens, is a reply to The
Puppet Masters (1951) by Robert A.HEINLEIN, which was one of the most
extreme post-WWII alien-menace stories, while Joe HALDEMAN's THE FOREVER
WAR (1974) similarly responds to the xenophobic tendencies of Heinlein's
STARSHIP TROOPERS (1959), and Barry B.LONGYEAR's Enemy Mine (1979) can be
seen as either a reprise of van Vogt's Co-operate - or Else! or a reply to
Brown's Arena; Orson Scott CARD took the unusual step of producing an
ideological counterweight to one of his own stories when he followed the
novel version of the genocidal fantasy ENDER'S GAME (1977; exp 1985) with
the expiatory Speaker for the Dead (1986). This is not to say that
alien-invasion stories are not still being produced - Larry NIVEN's and
Jerry POURNELLE's Footfall (1985) is a notable example - and stories of
war between humans and aliens have understandably retained their
melodramatic appeal. The recent fashionability of militaristic sf (WAR)
has helped to keep the tradition very much alive; examples include the
Demu trilogy (1973-5; coll 1980) by F.M.BUSBY, THE UPLIFT WAR (1987) by
David BRIN and the shared-world anthology series The Man-Kzin Wars
(1988-90) based on a scenario created by Larry Niven. Anxiety has also
been maintained by stories which answer the question If we are not alone,
where are they? with speculative accounts of a Universe dominated by
predatory and destructive aliens; notable examples include Gregory
BENFORD's Across the Sea of Suns (1984), Jack Williamson's Lifeburst
(1984) and David Brin's Lungfish (1986). Stories dealing soberly and
thoughtfully with problems arising out of cultural and biological
differences between human and alien have become very numerous. This is a
constant and continuing theme in the work of several writers, notably Jack
VANCE, Poul Anderson, David LAKE, Michael BISHOP and C.J.CHERRYH.
Cherryh's novels - including her Faded Sun trilogy (1978-9), Serpent's
Reach (1980), the Chanur series (1982-6) and Cuckoo's Egg (1985) - present
a particularly elaborate series of accounts of problematic human/alien
relationships. Such relationships have become further complicated by
virtue of the fact that the gradual decay of editorial taboos from the
1950s onwards permitted more adventurous and explicit exploration of
sexual and psychological themes (PSYCHOLOGY). This work was begun by
Philip Jose Farmer, in such stories as THE LOVERS (1952; exp 1961), Open
to Me, My Sister (1960) and Mother (1953), and has been carried forward by
others. Sexual relationships between human and alien have become much more
complex and problematic in recent times: STRANGERS (1974; exp 1978) by
Gardner R.DOZOIS is a more sophisticated reprise of THE LOVERS, and other
accounts of human/alien love affairs can be found in Jayge CARR's
Leviathan's Deep (1979), Linda STEELE's Ibis (1985) and Robert THURSTON's
Q Colony (1985). And I Awoke and Found Me Here on the Cold Hill's Side
(1971) by James TIPTREE Jr displays human fear and loathing of the alien
curiously alloyed with self-destructive erotic fascination, and the
Xenogenesis trilogy (1987-9) by Octavia BUTLER takes human/alien intimacy
to its uncomfortable limit. The greatest difficulty sf writers face with
respect to the alien is that of depicting something authentically strange.
It is common to find that aliens which are physically bizarre are entirely
human in their modes of thought and speech. Bids to tell a story from an
alien viewpoint are rarely convincing, although heroic efforts are made in
such stories as Stanley SCHMIDT's The Sins of the Fathers (1976), John
BRUNNER's The Crucible of Time (1984) and Brian HERBERT's Sudanna, Sudanna
(1985). Impressive attempts to present the alien not merely as unfamiliar
but also as unknowable include Damon KNIGHT's Stranger Station (1956),
several novels by Philip K.DICK - including The Game-Players of Titan
(1963), GALACTIC POT-HEALER (1969) and Our Friends From Frolix-8 (1970) -
Stanislaw LEM's SOLARIS (1961; trans 1970) and Phillip MANN's The Eye of
the Queen (1982). Such contacts as these threaten the sanity of the
contactees, as does the initial meeting of minds between human and alien
intelligence in Fred HOYLE's The Black Cloud (1957), but here - as in most
such stories - the assumption is made that common intellectual ground of
some sort must and can be found. Faith in the universality of reason, and
hence in the fundamental similarity of all intelligent beings, is strongly
evident in many accounts of physically exotic aliens, including those
featured in Isaac ASIMOV's THE GODS THEMSELVES (1972). This faith is at
its most passionate in many stories in which first contact with aliens is
achieved via radio telescopes; these frequently endow such an event with
quasitranscendental significance. Stories which are sceptical of the
benefits of such contact - examples are Fred HOYLE's and John ELLIOT's A
for Andromeda (1962) and Stanislaw Lem's HisMaster's Voice (1968; trans
1983) - have been superseded by stories like James E.GUNN's The Listeners
(fixup 1972), Robert Silverberg's Tower of Glass (1970), Ben BOVA's
Voyagers (1981), Jeffrey CARVER's The Infinity Link (1984), Carl SAGAN's
Contact (1985), and Frederick FICHMAN's SETI (1990), whose optimism is
extravagant. Where once the notion of the alien being was inherently
fearful, sf now manifests an eager determination to meet and establish
significant contact with aliens. Despite continued exploitation of the
melodramatic potential of alien invasions and interstellar wars, the
predominant anxiety in modern sf is that we might prove to be unworthy of
such communion. Anthologies of stories dealing with particular alien
themes include: From off this World (anth 1949) ed Leo MARGULIES and Oscar
J.FRIEND; Invaders of Earth (anth 1952) ed Groff CONKLIN; Contact (anth
1963) ed Noel Keyes; The Alien Condition (anth 1973) ed Stephen GOLDIN;
and the Starhunters series created by David A.DRAKE (3 anths 1988-90).

Film (1986). Brandywine/20th Century-Fox. Prod Gale Anne HURD, dir James
CAMERON, starring Sigourney Weaver, Paul Reiser, Carrie Henn, William
Hope, Michael Biehn, Lance Henriksen, Jenette Goldstein. Screenplay
Cameron, based on a story by Cameron, David Giler, Walter Hill. 137 mins.
Colour. This formidable sequel to ALIEN is more an action than a HORROR
movie, reminiscent of all those war films and Westerns about beleaguered
groups fighting to the end. Ripley (Weaver, in a fine performance), the
sole survivor at the end of Alien, is sent off again with a troop of
marines to the planet (now colonized) where the original alien was found.
The colony has been wiped out by aliens (lots of them this time); the
marines, at first sceptical, are also almost wiped out. Ripley saves a
small girl (Henn), the sole colonist survivor, and finally confronts the
Queen alien. A is conventional in its disapproval of corporate greed; less
conventional is its demonstration of the inadequacy of the machismo
expressed by all the marines, women and men. A peculiar subtext has to do
with the fierce protectiveness of motherhood (Ripley and the little girl,
the Queen and her eggs). This is a film unusually sophisticated in its use
of sf tropes and is arguably even better than its predecessor. The
novelization is Aliens (1986) by Alan Dean FOSTER. See also: HUGO.

Film (1992). A Brandywine Production/20th Century-Fox. Dir David Fincher,
starring Sigourney Weaver, Charles Dance, Charles S.Dutton, Lance
Henriksen, Paul McGann, Brian Glover. Screenplay David Giler, Walter Hill,
Larry Ferguson, based on a story by Vincent Ward. 110 mins. Colour. One of
Hollywood's occasional, strange films so unmitigatedly uncommercial that
it is impossible to work out why they were ever made. The film had an
unusually troubled development history, previous screenwriters having
included William GIBSON and Eric Red, and previous directors Renny Harlin
and Vincent Ward (director of The Navigator: A Medieval Odyssey 1988);
some of Ward's story ideas were retained, and the final script was
reworked by producers Hill and Giler. The latter has said that he sees a
subtext about the AIDS virus in this film, and the film itself supports
this. The final director, Fincher, had previously been known primarily for
his inventive rock videos. Ripley (Weaver, who also has a credit as
producer), having twice survived alien apocalypse (ALIEN; ALIENS)
crashlands on a prison planet occupied by a displeasing men-only group of
double-Y-chromosomed mass murderers and rapists, who have now adopted a
form of Christian fundamentalism, as well as three variously psychopathic
minders. Her companions on the ship are dead, but she brings (unknown to
her) an alien parasite within her and an external larva hiding in her
ship. The latter grows, kills, grows again, lurks, and wipes out most of
the base (as before). But the - again female - alien seems somehow
unimportant this time; the film's twin centres are the awfulness of the
prison, explicitly and repeatedly compared to a cosmic anus, and the
pared-to-the-bone Ripley, head shaven, face anguished, torso skinny,
sister and mirror image of Alien herself: her sole function is as victim.
Even the ongoing feminist joke (Ripley is as ever the one with metaphoric
balls) is submerged in the bewildering, monochrome intensity of pain and
dereliction, photographed in claustrophobic close-up throughout, that is
the whole of this film. All else - including narrative tension and indeed
the very idea of story - is subjugated to this grim motif. This (probably
bad) film is almost admirable in its refusal to give the audience any
solace or entertainment at all. At the end, Ripley immolates herself for
the greater good, falling out of life as an alien bursts from her chest;
she cradles it like a blood-covered baby as she falls away and away into
the fires of purgatory.

No one knows for sure who first used the term "alien" to describe
extraterrestrials. But the concept of creatures from other planets has
been around for a long time. The idea of an alien and a human meeting and
communicating was a familiar theme by the time H.G.Wells's published The
War of the Worlds in 1898. Wells book was the first to dramatize an alien
invasion of the earth. And these Martians were definitely NOT our friends.
Rather, they were "intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic."After War
of the Worlds appeared, American pulp magazines took the theme of The
Aliens and ran with it. And Aliens have been IN in America ever since...
in novels, stories, films, and television.

UK DIGEST-size magazine. 1 undated issue, cJuly 1966, published and ed
Charles Partington and Harry Nadler, some colour illustrations, stories by
Kenneth BULMER, J.R.(Ramsey) Campbell and Harry HARRISON; articles on film
were also included. AW grew from the FANZINE Alien (16 issues, 1963-6),
which had also published stories and film articles. Its publishers lacked
the distribution strength to make it work as a professional magazine.

(1935- ) Professor of English Literature at the University of Southern
California and author of Origins of Futuristic Fiction (1987), a vigorous
study of the idea of the future that developed in the late 18th and early
19th centuries, as reflected in the fiction and literary theory of the
time. PA resuscitated the almost forgotten figure of Felix Bodin, arguably
the first to provide (in 1834) an aesthetics of sf, his theories -
appropriately futuristic - antedating their subject matter. Science
Fiction Before 1900: Imagination Discovers Technology (1994) is a
competent introductory survey.


(1933- ) UK writer. Most of his books are nonfiction studies in fields
like ECOLOGY, but his The Greening of Mars (1984) with James (Ephraim)
Lovelock (1919-), though basically a nonfiction study of how that planet
might be settled, is told as a fictionalized narrative whose tone is
upliftingly UTOPIAN.

Working name of UK spy-fiction writer Theodore Edward le Bouthillier
Allbeury (1917- ), some of whose NEAR-FUTURE thrillers, like Palomino
Blonde (1975; vt OMEGA-MINUS 1976 US), The Alpha List (1979) and The
Consequences of Fear (1979), edge sf-wards. All our Tomorrows (1982)
depicts a Russian-occupied UK and the resistance movement that soon takes

Pseudonym of Irish-born UK writer and publisher Edmund Downey
(1856-1937), whose short DISASTER sequence, set in Ireland - The Voyage of
the Ark, as Related by Dan Banim (1888) and The Round Tower of Babel
(1891) - conflates hyperbolic comedy and sf instruments, ending in a
visionary plan to build a great tower for profit. A House of Tears (1888
US), as by Edmund Downey, is fantasy, as are Brayhard: The Strange
Adventures of One Ass and Seven Champions (1890) and The Little Green Man
(1895). The Peril of London (1891 chap as by FMA; vt London's Peril 1900
chap as Downey), set in the NEAR FUTURE, warns against a Channel Tunnel
being constructed by the nefarious French.

(1848-1899) UK writer, born in Canada, known primarily for his work
outside the sf field, including the notorious The Woman who Did (1895),
which attacked contemporary sexual mores. He was professor of logic and
principal of Queen's College, Jamaica, before moving to the UK. He wrote a
series of books based on EVOLUTION theory before turning for commercial
reasons to fiction. After the success of The Woman who Did he published a
self-indulgent novel of social criticism, The British Barbarians (1895),
in which a time-travelling social scientist of the future is scathing
about tribalism and taboo in Victorian society. GA's interest in
ANTHROPOLOGY is manifest also in the novel The Great Taboo (1890) and in
many of the short stories assembled in Strange Stories (coll 1884); this
collection includes two sf stories originally published under the
pseudonym J.Arbuthnot Wilson: Pausodyne (1881), an early story about
SUSPENDED ANIMATION, and A Child of the Phalanstery (1884), about a future
society's eugenic practices. (The former is also to be found in The Desire
of the Eyes and Other Stories coll 1895 the latter in Twelve Tales, with a
Headpiece, a Tailpiece and an Intermezzo coll 1899.) GA's other
borderline-sf stories are The Dead Man Speaks (1895) and The Thames Valley
Catastrophe (1897). The above-mentioned collections also feature a handful
of fantasy stories. The Devil's Die (1897) is a mundane melodrama which
includes an account of a bacteriological research project. GA's early
shilling shocker Kalee's Shrine (1886), written with May Cotes (not
credited in some US reprint editions), is a fantasy of mesmerism with some

(1912-1991) US author, as Will Henry, of many Westerns, including
MacKenna's Gold (1963), later filmed. His sf novel, Genesis Five (1968),
narrated by a resident Mongol, depicts the Soviet creation of a dubious
SUPERMAN in Siberia.

(1916-1991) US film-maker long associated with sf subjects. He worked in
radio during the 1940s; later, with the arrival of tv, he created the
first celebrity panel show. In 1951 he began producing films for RKO, and
in 1953 won an Academy Award for The Sea Around Us, a pseudo-documentary
which he wrote and directed. He then made a similar film for Warner
Brothers, The Animal World (1956), which contained dinosaur sequences
animated by Willis H.O'BRIEN and Ray HARRYHAUSEN. In 1957 he made The
Story of Mankind, a bizarre potted history with a fantasy framework, and
then turned to sf subjects: a bland remake of TheLOST WORLD (1960), VOYAGE
TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEA (1961) and Five Weeks in a Balloon (1962). In
1964 he returned to tv and produced a series, VOYAGE TO THE BOTTOM OF THE
SEA (1964-8), based on the movie. Other sf tv series followed: LOST IN
SPACE (1965-8), TheTIME TUNNEL (1966-7) and LAND OF THE GIANTS (1968-70).
A further tv project, CITY BENEATH THE SEA, failed to generate the
necessary interest and was abandoned, the pilot episode being released as
a feature film (vt One Hour to Doomsday) in 1970. Ever resilient, IA
switched back to films. In 1972 he made the highly successful The Poseidon
Adventure, which began the disaster film cycle of the 1970s, followed by
the even more successful The Towering Inferno (1974). Theatrically, IA's
fortunes with disaster films began to founder with The Swarm (1978), based
on the 1974 novel by Arthur HERZOG about killer bees attacking Houston.
Beyond the Poseidon Adventure (1979) and When Time Ran Out... (1980; vt
Earth's Final Fury) were similar to The Swarm in their absurdity and their
parade of embarrassed star cameos; their box-office failure contributed
significantly to the petering out of the borderline-sf disaster movie
cycle. However, IA had already transferred the essential formula - B-movie
dramatics, spectacular (often secondhand) devastation footage, large casts
- of the disaster movie to tv with Flood! (1976), followed by the
diminishing returns of Fire! (1977) and Cave-In (1979, transmitted 1983).
Another made-for-tv movie by IA (pilot for an unsold tv series planned as
a return to the themes of The Time Tunnel) was Time Travelers (1976),
based on an unpublished story by Rod SERLING; its use of stock footage as
the story's centrepiece - here the fire from In Old Chicago (1938) - is an
IA trademark. Subsequently his sf/fantasy work for tv has included The
Return of Captain Nemo (1978), a three-part miniseries (based on Jules
VERNE's characters and themes recycled from Voyage to the Bottom of the
Sea) which was edited into a feature film for release outside the USA, and
a two-part Alice in Wonderland (1985) with second-string stars. Throughout
his career IA has reworked a limited repertoire of basic formulae - the
Verne/DOYLE expedition drama, the juvenile sf-series format, the disaster
scenario - invariably setting groups of lazily stereotyped characters
against colourful, threatening, bizarre but somehow cheap backdrops. His
productions are wholly contemptuous (or ignorant) of scientific accuracy
or even plausibility. The only variation in tone and effect has been
strictly budgetary, with Michael Caine and Paul Newman essentially no
different from David Hedison and Gary Conway, and even the most
earth-shattering cataclysm failing to disturb the tidy complacency of IA's
Poverty-Row worldview. In the end, his most interesting work might just
have been The Story of Mankind, in which Harpo Marx played Isaac Newton.

(1916-1973) Danish journalist and author of popular fiction and film
scripts. Among his few sf titles the best known is Data for din dod (1970;
trans Marianne Helweg as Data for Death 1971 UK), which tells of a
criminal organization whose acquisition of advanced computer techniques
permits it to blackmail people with information about their time of death.

Working name of UK writer Allen Robert Dodd (1887- ?), whose only sf
novel, Captain Gardiner of the International Police: A Secret Service
Novel of the Future (1916 US), is set 60 years after WW1, when an
International Federation governs all the world but for the sinister East,
whose plots are foiled by the eponymous secret agent.

(1957- ) US writer who began writing with a SPACE-OPERA series, The Torch
of Honor (1985) and Rogue Powers (1986), whose considerable impact may
seem excessive to anyone familiar only with the books in synopsis, as
neither might have appeared to offer anything new. The Torch of Honor
begins with a scene all too evocative of Robert A.HEINLEIN's sf juveniles
from three decades earlier, as a batch of space cadets graduates from
academy into interstellar hot water after learning - in a scene which any
viewer of John Ford's Cavalry Westerns would also recognize - of the death
of many of their fellows in a space encounter. But RMA, while clearly
making no secret of his allegiance to outmoded narrative conventions,
remained very much a writer of the 1980s in the physical complexity and
moral dubiety of the Galaxy his crew enters, fighting and judging and
having a fairly good time in the task of saving planets. The second novel,
which features a no-nonsense female protagonist and a lovingly described
ALIEN culture, builds on the strengths of the first while disengaging to
some degree from the debilitating simplicities of military sf. Orphan of
Creation (1988), a singleton, demonstrates with greater clarity than the
series the clarity and scientific numeracy of RMA's mind and narrative
strategies. The story of a Black anthropologist who discovers in the USA
the bones of some Australopithecines who had been transported there by
slave traders, the novel gives an impressive accounting of the nature of
ANTHROPOLOGY as a science, and mounts a welcome attack on the strange
1980s vogue for Creationism. Farside Cannon (1988), in which the
NEAR-FUTURE Solar System witnesses political upheaval on time-tested
grounds, and The War Machine (1989) with David A.DRAKE, part of the
latter's Crisis of Empire sequence, were sufficiently competent to keep
interest in RMA alive. Supernova (1991), with Eric KOTANI, relates, again
with scientific verisimilitude, the process involved in discovering that a
nearby star is due to go supernova and flood Earth with hard radiation.
The Modular Man (1992) deals complexly with the implications of a ROBOT
technology sufficiently advanced for humans to transfer their
consciousnesses into machines. But potentially more interesting than any
of these titles is the Hunted Earth sequence, comprising The Ring of
Charon (1991) and The Shattered Sphere (1994). After the passing of a beam
of phased gravity-waves - a new human invention - has awakened a long
dormant semi-autonomous being embedded deep within the Moon, the Earth is
shunted via wormhole to a new solar system dominated by a multifaceted
culture occupying a DYSON SPHERE. The remnants of humanity must work out -
over the course of the second volume - where Earth is while countering, or
coming to terms with, the attempted demolition of the Solar System to make
a new sphere. Although the human cultures described in the first volume
are unimaginatively presented, the exuberance of RMA's large-scale
plotting (and thinking) makes it seem possible that Hunted Earth will
become one of the touchstone galactic epics of the 1990s. Other Works:
Isaac Asimov's Caliban (1993) and its sequel, Isaac Asimov's Inferno
(1994), both tied to ASIMOV's Robot universe. See also: ASTEROIDS; BLACK

US COMIC strip, created and drawn by V(incent) T(rout) Hamlin
(1900-1993), initially in 1932 for a firm which collapsed, then from 1933
for the NEA syndicate until his retirement in 1971, when it was taken over
by other artists. Drawn in a style more comically exaggerated than usual
in adventure strips, though with clear affection, Oop is a tough and
likeable Neanderthal warrior, half Popeye, half Buck Rogers. His
adventures were initially restricted to his home territory of Moo (the
echo of Mu clearly being deliberate) but he soon began to visit various
human eras - and the Moon - via Professor Wonmug's TIME-TRAVEL device.
There were several pre-War comic-book versions, including Alley Oop and
Dinny (graph 1934), a Big Little Book; Alley Oop in the Invasion of Moo
(graph 1935), an original story in a format similar to the Big Little
Books; as a one-short comic, issue 35 of The Funnies in 1938; and Alley
Oop and the Missing King of Moo (1938 chap). Some extended tales appear in
Hamlin's Alley Oop: The Adventures of a Time-Traveling Caveman: Daily
Strips from July 20, 1946 to June 20, 1947 (graph coll 1990).

(1904-1988) US journalist and writer known in the sf field for Lightning
in the Night (1940 Liberty; 1979), a future-WAR tale which, when
serialized, caused considerable stir because of its defence of the
arguments of General Billy Mitchell (1879-1936) about the primacy of air
power in any future conflict, for its portrayal of a semi-defeated USA in
1945 as she recoups her moral and physical forces and begins to thrust
back the Axis invaders, and for its presentation of a vast and successful
US effort to develop the atomic bomb before Hitler can, and to use the
threat of dropping it to end the war (HITLER WINS).

Film (1980). Alligator Associates/Group 1. Dir Lewis Teague, starring
Robert Forster, Robin Riker, Michael Gazzo, Dean Jagger. Screenplay John
SAYLES, based on a story by Sayles and Frank Ray Perilli. 91 mins cut to
89 mins. Colour. A pet baby alligator is flushed down the toilet, and it
or another grows into a monster, aided by hormone-experiment waste
materials illicitly dumped in the sewers. A policeman investigates the
increasingly violent and bizarre alligator attacks, climaxing in the
destruction of a wedding party held by (of course) the wicked polluter. A
is funny and well made. Sayles has remarked that my original idea was that
the alligator eats its way through the whole socio-economic system. Many
1970s and 1980s MONSTER MOVIES, including this one, have been deliberately
subversive of comfortable social norms.

(1898- ?) South African writer whose imaginary history, written as from
the year 1987, Verwoerd - The End: A Lookback from the Future (1961),
argues for a benevolently administered apartheid. See also: POLITICS.

(1912-1973) UK writer best known for his distinguished and melancholy
poetry, which was assembled in Collected Poems (coll 1975). The Rhubarb
Tree (1937), with Stephen Tait, is one of several 1930s novels predicting
a fascist government in the UK. Jules Verne (1940) is a fluent study, free
of the usual literary condescensions.

Raymond Z.GALLUN.

US PULP MAGAZINE published by the Frank A.MUNSEY Corp.; ed Robert Hobard
Davis. AS appeared monthly Jan 1905-Mar 1914, weekly from 7 Mar 1914 (as
All-Story Weekly), incorporated Cavalier Weekly (The CAVALIER) to form
All-Story Cavalier Weekly from 16 May 1914, and reverted to All-Story
Weekly 15 May 1915-17 July 1920, when it merged with Argosy Weekly to form
Argosy All-Story Weekly (The ARGOSY). TAS was the most prolific publisher
of sf among the pre-1926 pulp magazines; it became important through its
editor's discovery of several major authors. Foremost of these in
popularity were Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, who was represented with 16 serials
and novelettes 1912-20, Ray CUMMINGS, notably with The Girl in the Golden
Atom (1919-20; fixup 1921), and A.MERRITT. Other authors who contributed
sf to TAS included Douglas DOLD, George Allan ENGLAND, Homer Eon FLINT, J.
U.GIESY, Victor ROUSSEAU, Garrett P.SERVISS, Francis STEVENS and Charles
B.STILSON. Many of TAS's stories were reprinted in FAMOUS FANTASTIC
MYSTERIES and FANTASTIC NOVELS. Further reading: Under the Moons of Mars:
A History and Anthology of the Scientific Romances in the Munsey Magazines
1912-1920 (anth 1970) ed Sam MOSKOWITZ.



Working name of Russian-born writer Martha Edith von Almedingen
(1898-1971), who emigrated to the UK in 1923. Of her children's fictions,
which made up about half her total works, several are of fantasy interest.
Her only title of clear sf import is Stand Fast, Beloved City (1954),
about a DYSTOPIAN tyranny.

(1943- ) German sf editor, critic, SMALL-PRESS publisher, literary agent
and author, sometimes as Jurgen Andreas; editor 1978-80 of Knaur SF and
1980-86 of the Moewig SF list. With Ronald M.Hahn (1948- ) he edited the
first anthology of native German sf (GERMANY), Science Fiction aus
Deutschland Science Fiction from Germany (anth 1974), and he was a
co-editor of Lexicon der Science Fiction Literatur (2 vols 1980; rev 1988;
new edn projected 1993), an important sf encyclopedia covering almost all
authors with German editions of their work. Further lexicons, of weird
fiction and fantasy, are projected for 1993-4. With Hahn again and Werner
Fuchs, HJA edited Reclams Science Fiction Fuhrer (1982), an annotated
survey of sf novels with listings by author. With Fuchs HJA edited for
Hohenheim six anthologies of sf stories (1981-4) covering sf history by
the decades 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, with 2 vols for each, and has edited
the Kopernikus sf anthologies for Moewig (15 vols 1980-88). Also for
Moewig he edited a German paperback edition of Analog (ASTOUNDING
SCIENCE-FICTION) (8 vols 1981-4) and a series of sf almanacs and year
books - Science Fiction Jahrbuch (1981-7) and Science Fiction Almanach
(1982-7) - containing sf data, stories and essays, the Almanac
concentrating on the German scene. He wrote the GERMANY entry in this

(vt Une Etrange Aventure de Lemmy Caution)
Pathe-contemporary/Chaumiane-Film Studio. Dir Jean-Luc Godard, starring
Eddie Constantine, Anna Karina, Howard Vernon, Akim Tamiroff. Screenplay
Godard. 100 mins. B/w. In this archetypal French New Wave film,
intergalactic secret agent Lemmy Caution (Constantine) arrives at the
planet Alphaville to deal with Alpha 60, the computer used to impose
conformity on the inhabitants. He succeeds, meeting the computer's logic
with his own illogic, and at the same time wins the affections of the
ruler's daughter (Karina). A typical pulp-sf plot is transformed into an
allegory of feeling versus technology, the past versus the present:
Alphaville itself is an undisguised (but selectively seen) Paris of the
1960s; Caution (a tough guy from the 1940s, hero of many novels by UK
thriller writer Peter Cheyney 1896-1951) does not use a spaceship to get
there, but simply drives his own Ford car through intersidereal space - an
ordinary road. A is filmed in high contrast, deep shadows and glaring
light. It is a not always accessible maze of allusions culled from a wide
variety of sources: semantic theory, the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice,
Hollywood B-movies, comic books and pulp sf. The latter, like the other
components of A, is used by Godard as a means of playfully imaging
philosophical debate. See also: CINEMA.

(vt Unholy Love; vt Daughter of Destiny) Film (1928). Ama Film. Dir
Henrik Galeen, starring Brigitte Helm, Paul Wegener, Ivan Petrovich.
Screenplay Galeen, from Alraune (1911; trans 1929) by Hanns Heinz EWERS.
125 mins. B/w. A professor of genetics (Wegener) conducts a cold-blooded
experiment into the Nature-versus-nurture controversy. Using the semen of
a hanged man to fertilize a whore, he creates life - a girl baby called
Alraune - by artificial insemination in the laboratory. After this
sciencefictional beginning, A becomes, like Frankenstein (1818) by Mary
SHELLEY, a fantastic GOTHIC melodrama of retribution for a crime against
Nature; nevertheless, in its distrust of the scientist, A is wholly
central to the development of sf. Alraune (Helm), who is named after and
compared throughout with the mythic mandrake root that grows where a
hanged man's seed falls, appears to have no soul, and when, as a young
woman, she learns of her dark origins, she revenges herself against her
father, the professor - although at the end there is hope she will be
heartless no longer. Usually spoken of as a great classic of the German
silent cinema, A is actually more of an early exploitation movie, stylish
but prurient, with more than a whiff of incest in the theme. Helm's
eroticism, which we are to deplore, was in fact the reason for the film's
commercial success. However, Galeen considerably softened the portrait of
Alraune rendered in Ewers' sensationalist novel: whereas in the book she
is a monster of depravity, causing illness and suicide wherever she goes,
in the film she merely causes mayhem and a little pain. This is generally
agreed to be the best of the five film versions of the 1911 book, the
others being from 1918 (twice - Germany and Hungary - the latter being
directed by Mihaly Kertesz, who became Michael Curtiz, the director of
Casablanca, 1942), 1930 (Germany, again starring Helm) and 1952 (Germany,
starring Hildegard Knef and Erich von Stroheim). See also: CINEMA; SEX.

Film (1980). Warner Bros. Dir Ken Russell, starring William Hurt, Blair
Brown, Bob Balaban, Charles Haid. Screenplay Sidney Aaron (Paddy
CHAYEFSKY), based on Altered States (1978) by Chayefsky. 102 mins. Colour.
Research scientist Jessup (Hurt) experiments with altered states of
consciousness, with drugs, and with a sensory-deprivation tank. The
alterations allow the primitive DNA in his genes to express itself
(DEVOLUTION and METAPHYSICS for why this is lunatic); he devolves into an
apeman (APES AND CAVEMEN), and later spends some time as primordial ooze.
This is bad for his marriage. In this hearty blend of New Age mysticism
and old-fashioned Jekyll-and-Hyde horror, director Russell has great fun
with hallucinatory psychedelic trips and serious-sounding (but strictly
bogus) scientific talk. The seriousness is skin-deep, and so is the film.
However, even Russell's bad films - some claim there is no other category
- are watchable.


An alternate world - some writers and commentators prefer the designation
alternative world on grammatical grounds - is an account of Earth as it
might have become in consequence of some hypothetical alteration in
history. Many sf stories use PARALLEL WORLDS as a frame in which many
alternate worlds can be simultaneously held, sometimes interacting with
one another. Hypothetical exercises of this kind have long been popular
with historians (HISTORY IN SF) and their virtue was proclaimed by Isaac
d'Israeli in The Curiosities of Literature (coll 1791-1823). A classic
collection of such essays, ed J.C.Squire, If It had Happened Otherwise
(anth 1931; vt If, or History Rewritten; exp 1972) took its inspiration
from G.M.Trevelyan's essay If Napoleon had Won the Battle of Waterloo
(1907); its contributors included G.K.CHESTERTON, Andre MAUROIS, Hilaire
BELLOC, A.J.P.Taylor and Winston Churchill. The most common preoccupations
of modern speculative historians were exhibited in two essays written for
Look: If the South had Won the Civil War (1960; 1961) by MacKinlay KANTOR
and If Hitler had Won World War II (1961), by William L.Shirer. The
tradition has been continued in the MAINSTREAM by the film IT HAPPENED
HERE (1963), Frederic MULLALLY's Hitler Has Won (1975) and Len DEIGHTON's
SS-GB (1978). Another event seen today as historically pivotal, the
invention of the atom bomb, is the basis of two novels by Ronald W.CLARK:
Queen Victoria's Bomb (1967), in which the atom bomb is developed much
earlier in history, and The Bomb that Failed (1969; vt The Last Year of
the Old World UK), in which its appearance on the historical scene is
delayed. Alternative histories are used satirically by non-genre writers
in R.Egerton Swartout's It Might Have Happened (1934) and Marghanita
LASKI's Tory Heaven (1948), and the notion is given a more philosophical
twist in Guy DENT's Emperor of the If (1926). The continuing popularity of
alternative histories with mainstream writers is further illustrated by
John HERSEY's White Lotus (1965), Vladimir NABOKOV's Ada (1969), Martin
Cruz SMITH's The Indians Won (1970), Guido Morselli's Past Conditional
(1975; trans 1981) and Douglas Jones's The Court Martial of George
Armstrong Custer (1976). Murray LEINSTER introduced the idea of alternate
worlds to GENRE SF in Sidewise in Time (1934), and Stanley G.WEINBAUM used
it in a light comedy, The Worlds of If (1935); but the first serious
attempt to construct an alternative history in sf was L.Sprague DE CAMP's
LEST DARKNESS FALL (1939; 1941), in which a man slips back through time
and sets out to remould history by preventing or ameliorating the Dark
Ages. This story is set entirely in the distant past, but in The Wheels of
If (1940) de Camp displayed a contemporary USA which might have resulted
from 10th-century colonization by Norsemen. Most subsequent sf stories in
this vein have tended to skip lightly over the detailed process of
historical development to examine alternative presents, but sf writers
with a keen interest in history often devote loving care to the
development of imaginary pasts; a recent enterprise very much in the
tradition of LEST DARKNESS FALL is Harry TURTLEDOVE's Agent of Byzantium
(coll of linked stories 1986). The extraordinary melodramatic potential
inherent in the idea of alternate worlds was further revealed by Jack
WILLIAMSON's THE LEGION OF TIME (1938; 1952), which features alternative
futures at war for their very existence, with crucial battles spilling
into the past and present. The idea of worlds battling for survival by
attempting to maintain their own histories was further developed by Fritz
LEIBER in Destiny Times Three (1945; 1957) and in the Change War series,
which includes THE BIG TIME (1958; 1961). Such stories gained rapidly in
extravagance: The Fall of Chronopolis (1974) by Barrington J.BAYLEY
features a time-spanning Empire trying to maintain its reality against the
alternative versions which its adversaries are imposing upon it. Attempts
by possible futures to influence the present by friendly persuasion were
presented by C.L.MOORE in Greater than Gods (1939) and by Ross ROCKLYNNE
in The Diversifal (1951). The notion of competing alternative histories is
further recomplicated in TIME-TRAVEL stories in which the heroes range
across a vast series of parallel worlds, each featuring a different
alternative history (alternate universes are often created wholesale,
though usually ephemerally, in tricky time-travel stories; see also TIME
PARADOXES). The policing of time-tracks - either singly, as in Isaac
ASIMOV's The End of Eternity (1955), which features the totalitarian
control of history by social engineers, or in great profusion - has
remained a consistently popular theme in sf. One of the earliest such
police forces is featured in Sam MERWIN's House of Many Worlds (1951) and
Three Faces of Time (1955); the exploits of others are depicted in H.Beam
PIPER's Paratime series, begun with Police Operation (1948), in Poul
ANDERSON's Time Patrol series, whose early stories are in Guardians of
Time (coll 1960), in John BRUNNER's Times without Number (fixup 1962 dos),
and - less earnestly - in Simon Hawke's Time Wars series (Nicholas
Yermakov), begun with The Ivanhoe Gambit (1984). Keith LAUMER's Worlds of
the Imperium (1962 dos) and sequels, Avram DAVIDSON's Masters of the Maze
(1965), Jack L.CHALKER's Downtiming the Night Side (1985), Frederik POHL's
The Coming of the Quantum Cats (1986), Mike MCQUAY's Memories (1987) and
Michael P.KUBE-MCDOWELL's Alternities (1988) are convoluted adventure
stories of an essentially similar kind. John CROWLEY's Great Work of Time
(1989) is a more thoughtful work about a conspiracy which attempts to use
time travel to take charge of history. Early genre-sf stories of conflict
between alternate worlds tend to assume that our world is better than most
of the alternatives. This assumption owes much to our conviction that the
right side won both the American Civil War and WWII. Ward MOORE's classic
BRING THE JUBILEE (1953) paints a relatively grim portrait of a USA in
which the South won the Civil War; and images of worlds in which the Nazis
triumphed (HITLER WINS) tend to be nightmarish - notable examples include
Two Dooms (1958) by C.M.KORNBLUTH, THE SOUND OF HIS HORN (1952) by SARBAN,
THE MAN IN THE HIGH CASTLE (1962) by Philip K.DICK, The Proteus Operation
(1985) by James P.HOGAN, and Moon of Ice (1988) by Brad LINAWEAVER. An
interesting exception is Budspy (1987) by David DVORKIN, where a
successful Third Reich is presented more evenhandedly. Other
turning-points in which our world is held to have gone the right way
include the Reformation and the Industrial Revolution - whose suppression
produces technologically primitive worlds in Keith ROBERTS's excellent
PAVANE (fixup 1968), Kingsley AMIS's The Alteration (1976), Martin GREEN's
The Earth Again Redeemed (1978), Phyllis EISENSTEIN's Shadow of Earth
(1979) and John Whitbourn's A Dangerous Energy (1992) - and the Black
Death, which aborts the rise of the West in Robert SILVERBERG's The Gate
of Worlds (1967) and L.Neil SMITH's The Crystal Empire (1986). The idea
that our world might have turned out far better than it has is more often
displayed by ironic satires, including: Harry HARRISON's Tunnel Through
the Deeps (1972; vt A Transatlantic Tunnel, Hurrah! UK), in which the
American colonies never rebelled and the British Empire remains supreme;
D.R.BENSEN's And Having Writ... (1978), in which the aliens whose crashing
starship is assumed to have caused the Tunguska explosion survive to
interfere in the course of progress; S.P.SOMTOW's The Aquiliad (fixup
1983), in which the Roman Empire conquered the Americas; and William
GIBSON's and Bruce STERLING's THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1990), in which
Babbage's calculating machine precipitates an information-technology
revolution in Victorian England. More earnest examples are fewer in
number, but they include The Lucky Strike (1984) by Kim Stanley ROBINSON,
in which a US pilot refuses to drop the atom bomb on Hiroshima, and
Elleander Morning (1984) by Jerry YULSMAN, which imagines a world where
Hitler was assassinated before starting WWII. More philosophically
inclined uses of the alternate-worlds theme, involving the worldviews of
individual characters rather than diverted histories, were pioneered in
genre sf by Philip K.Dick in such novels as Eye in the Sky (1957), Now
Wait for Last Year (1967) and Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said (1974).
Intriguing homage is paid to Dick's distinctive use of the theme by
Michael BISHOP's The Secret Ascension (1987; vt Philip K.Dick is Dead,
Alas). Other novels which use alternate worlds to explore personal
problems and questions of identity include Bob SHAW's The Two-Timers
(1968), Gordon EKLUND's All Times Possible (1974), Sheila FINCH's
Infinity's Web (1985), Josephine SAXTON's Queen of the States (1986), Ken
Grimwood's Replay (1986) and Thomas BERGER's Changing the Past (1989).
Radical alternative histories, which explore the consequences of
fundamental shifts in biological evolution, include Harry Harrison's
series about the survival of the dinosaurs, begun with West of Eden
(1984); Harry Turtledove's A Different Flesh (fixup 1988), in which Homo
erectus survives in the Americas until 1492; and Brian M.STABLEFORD's The
Empire of Fear (1988), in which 17th-century Europe and Africa are ruled
by vampires. More radical still are novels which portray universes where
the laws of physics are different. Some of these are described in George
GAMOW's series of educative parables Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (coll
1939), and the many worlds interpretation of quantum theory has encouraged
their use in more recent sf, a notable example being The Singers of Time
(1990) by Frederik Pohl and Jack Williamson. Worlds of Maybe: Seven
Stories of Science Fiction (anth 1970) ed Robert Silverberg contains
further work on the theme by Poul Anderson, Philip Jose FARMER, Larry
NIVEN and Silverberg, as well as the Murray Leinster story cited above. In
addition to further stories, including the de Camp story mentioned above,
Alternative Histories: Eleven Stories of the World as it Might have Been
(anth 1986) ed Martin H.GREENBERG and Charles G.WAUGH includes the
definitive version of Barton C.Hacker's and Gordon B.Chamberlain's
invaluable bibliography of the theme, Pasts that Might Have Been, II; the
first version appeared in EXTRAPOLATION in 1981. Gregory BENFORD edited
four anthologies on the theme: Hitler Victorious (anth 1985); plus What
Might Have Been 1: Alternate Empires (anth 1989), 2: Alternate Heroes
(anth 1989) and 3: Alternate Wars (anth 1991). Alternatives (anth 1989),
ed Robert ADAMS and Pamela Crippen Adams, presented original stories told
from LIBERTARIAN perspectives. Alternate Presidents (anth 1992) ed Michael
RESNICK examines a particular aspect from Benjamin Franklin to Michael
Dukakis; the same editor's Alternate Kennedys (anth 1992) narrows the
focus yet further. See also: PARANOIA; STEAMPUNK.


Pseudonym of Russian writer and sf critic Henrikh (Saulovich) Altschuller
(1926- ); a trained engineer, he has registered dozens of patents. His
unpublished Altov's Register is a mammoth catalogue of sf ideas, topics
and situations. His three collections of sf stories, some written with his
wife Valentina Zhuravlyova, Legendy O Zviozdnykh Kapitanakh Legends of the
Star Captains (coll 1961), Opaliaiuschii Razum The Scorching Mind (coll
1968) and Sozdan Dlia Buri Created for Thunder (coll 1970), represent the
best of the Soviet style of brainstorming HARD SF. Some of these tales
were assembled in Ballad of the Stars (anth trans Roger DeGaris 1982 US),
which GA ed with Zhuravlyova.

Lester DEL REY.


Film (1957). Malibu/AIP. Prod and dir Bert I.Gordon, starring Glenn
Langan, Cathy Downs, William Hudson. Screenplay Mark Hanna and Gordon,
from a story by Gordon. 81 mins. B/w. An attempt to duplicate the
commercially successful pathos of The INCREDIBLE SHRINKING MAN (1957) by
reversing its procedure, TACM has an army officer exposed to the radiation
from a plutonium bomb and consequently growing to 60ft (18m) tall.
Poignant dialogues take place between the colossal man (Langan) and his
fiancee (Downs): At high school I was voted the guy most likely to reach
the top. He goes mad and is shot, falling into the Hoover Dam. The poorly
matted special effects allow people standing behind the colossal man to be
seen through his body. Often regarded as schlock producer Gordon's best
film, it raises the question of what his worst must look like: the sequel,
War of the Colossal Beast (1958; vt The Terror Strikes), would be a good




UK PULP MAGAZINE published in Manchester by Pembertons in 1951. Two
unmemorable issues appeared, largely reprints from 2 and 3 of the
Australian THRILLS, INCORPORATED, but also 2 stories reprinted from SUPER
SCIENCE STORIES, a UK edition of which had been published by Pembertons.

1. The magazine of scientifiction, with whose founding Hugo GERNSBACK
announced the existence of sf as a distinct literary species. It was a
BEDSHEET-sized PULP MAGAZINE issued monthly by Gernsback's Experimenter
Publishing Co. as a companion to SCIENCE AND INVENTION; 1 was dated Apr
1926. The title survived to 1994, having been several times modified in
the interim, but it saw great changes. Gernsback lost control of
Experimenter in 1929 and it was acquired by B.A.Mackinnon and H.K.Fly, who
were almost certainly operating as front-men for Bernarr MACFADDEN. The
name of the company was modified more than once, then changed to
Radio-Science Publications in 1930, then to Teck Publications in 1931; but
these name changes were cosmetic, at least some of the new publishers
being in fact Macfadden employees, and Macfadden was himself listed as
publisher and owner in December 1931; he did not interfere with his
editors. Arthur H.Lynch was named as editor of the May-Oct issues, but
Gernsback's assistant T.O'Conor SLOANE, who had stayed with the magazine,
soon (Nov 1929) assumed full editorship. The magazine reverted to standard
pulp format with the Oct 1933 issue. The title was sold in 1938 to
ZIFF-DAVIS, who installed Raymond A.PALMER as editor (June 1938). Palmer
adopted a radically different editorial policy, concentrating on
action-adventure fiction, much of it mass-produced by a stable of authors
using house names. Howard BROWNE became editor in Jan 1950 and the
magazine became a DIGEST with the Apr-May 1953 issue. After a brief period
with Paul W.FAIRMAN as editor (June 1956-Nov 1958) - during which time the
title was changed to Amazing Science Fiction (Mar 1958) and then Amazing
Science Fiction Stories (May 1958) - Cele GOLDSMITH took over (Dec 1958),
using her married name of Cele Lalli from Aug 1964; she ran the magazine
until June 1965, when the title, which had changed back to Amazing Stories
in Oct 1960, was sold to Sol Cohen's Ultimate Publishing Co. For some
years thereafter the bulk of the magazine's contents consisted of
reprints, with Joseph ROSS acting as managing editor (from Aug 1965).
Harry HARRISON became editor in Dec 1967, but a period of confusion
followed as he handed over to Barry N.MALZBERG in Nov 1968, who was in
turn soon replaced by Ted WHITE in May 1969. White eliminated the reprints
and remained editor until Oct 1978, when Sol Cohen sold his interest in
the magazine to his partner Arthur Bernhard; White's last issue was Feb
1979. Elinor Mavor, using the pseudonym Omar Gohagen (May 1979-Aug 1980)
and then her own name, became editor until the Sep 1982 issue. But in
March 1982 - by which time it had again become Amazing Science Fiction
Stories and had been combined with its long-time companion FANTASTIC (from
the Nov 1980 issue) - the title was sold to TSR Hobbies, the marketers of
the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game (GAMES AND TOYS), who installed
George SCITHERS as editor, his first issue being Nov 1982. Scithers was
replaced in Sep 1986 by Patrick Lucien Price. AMZ's circulation hit an
all-time low in 1984 and recovery was slow, but a surge in sales in 1990
prepared the ground for the magazine to be relaunched in May 1991 in a
large-sized slick format, with the original masthead restored. Kim Mohan
took over as editor at the time of the image-change, and AMZ once again
became monthly rather than bimonthly. Publication was temporarily
suspended with the Dec 1993 issue - renamed Winter 1994 - as AMZ was
continuing to lose money. It resumed with a Spring 1994 issue, now in
digest-format, but only two further digest issues were published that
year, the last being marked as Winter 1995. It seems probable that this
will prove to be the last issue ever. In its earliest days AMZ used a
great many reprints of stories by H.G.WELLS, Jules VERNE and Edgar Allan
POE (considered by Gernsback to be the founding fathers of sf) alongside
more recent pulp stories by Garrett P.SERVISS, A.MERRITT and Murray
LEINSTER. The artwork of Frank R.PAUL was a distinctive feature of the
magazine in this period. Original material began to appear in greater
quantity in 1928, in which year Miles J.BREUER, David H.KELLER and Jack
WILLIAMSON published their first stories in AMZ. SPACE OPERA made a
spectacular advent when the first BUCK ROGERS IN THE 25TH CENTURY story,
Armageddon 2419 A.D. (1928; 1962) by Philip Francis NOWLAN appeared in the
same issue (Aug 1928) that E.E.Doc SMITH's The Skylark of Space (1928:
1946) began serialization. Sloane maintained Gernsback's policy of
favouring didactic material that was sometimes rather stilted by
pulp-fiction standards, but extravagant serial novels - notably Smith's
Skylark Three (1930; 1948), Edmond HAMILTON's The Universe Wreckers (1930)
and Jack Williamson's The Green Girl (1930; 1950) - maintained the
balance. From 1930 AMZ faced strong competition from ASTOUNDING STORIES,
whose higher rates of pay secured its dominance of the market. When Ray
Palmer took over the ailing AMZ in 1938 he attempted to boost circulation
in several ways. He aimed at a younger audience, obtaining several stories
from Edgar Rice BURROUGHS, and ultimately (in the mid-1940s) elected to
support a series of PARANOID fantasies by the obsessive Richard S.SHAVER
with insinuations that Shaver's theories about evil subterranean forces
dominating the world by superscientific means were actually true. However,
the bulk of AMZ's contents in the Palmer era consisted of lurid formulaic
material by such writers as Don WILCOX, David Wright O'BRIEN and William
P.McGivern (1922-1982); Palmer was probably a frequent pseudonymous
contributor himself. The fiction-factory system operated by ZIFF-DAVIS
reached its height in the mid-1950s when the contents of several of their
magazines were produced on a regular basis by a small group of writers
including sometime AMZ editor Paul Fairman, Robert SILVERBERG, Randall
GARRETT, Harlan ELLISON and Henry SLESAR. This system resulted in some
confusion with regard to the correct attribution of several floating
PSEUDONYMS, especially Ivar JORGENSEN. Few stories of note appeared under
the first three Ziff-Davis editors, although Edmond Hamilton, Nelson BOND
and Walter M.MILLER were occasional contributors. Under Cele Goldsmith's
editorship AMZ improved dramatically, publishing good work by many leading
authors. Notable contributions included Marion Zimmer BRADLEY's first
Darkover novella, The Planet Savers (Nov 1958; 1962 dos), Harlan Ellison's
first sf novel, The Sound of the Scythe (Oct 1959; rev as The Man with
Nine Lives 1960 dos), and Roger ZELAZNY's NEBULA-winning He Who Shapes
(Jan-Feb 1965; exp as THE DREAM MASTER 1966). Zelazny was one of several
writers whose careers were aided in their early stages by Goldsmith;
others include Ben BOVA (who did a series of science articles), David
R.BUNCH, Thomas M.DISCH, Ursula K.LE GUIN and Robert F.YOUNG. When Ted
White became editor he renewed the attempt to maintain a consistent
standard of quality; although handicapped by having to offer a word-rate
payment considerably less than that of his competitors, he achieved some
degree of success. The special 50th-anniversary issue which he compiled
appeared two months late (it bears the date June 1976) owing to scheduling
difficulties. AMZ's continued survival during the next 15 years was
something of a surprise, given its poor sales, though Scithers in
particular made considerable efforts to maintain its literary quality.
Patrick Lucien Price published good work, too, by such writers as Gregory
BENFORD and Paul J.MCAULEY, and also new writers like Paul Di Filippo, but
the magazine seemed to receive almost no promotion. The new slick
packaging from 1991 was much more attractive than any of AMZ's previous
incarnations, and arguably the most attractive of any sf magazine. Alas,
it proved to be not commercially viable and by Dec 1994 AMZhad subsided
into what may be suspended animation but is more probably death. AMZ had
three UK reprint editions, 1946 (1 undated issue, pulp), 1950-53 (24
undated issues, pulp) and 1953-4 (8 undated issues, digest). Anthologies
based on AMZ stories include The Best of Amazing (anth 1967) ed Joseph
Ross, The Best from Amazing Stories (anth 1973) ed Ted White, Amazing
Stories: 60 Years of the Best Science Fiction (anth 1985) ed Isaac ASIMOV
and Martin H.GREENBERG, Amazing Stories: Vision of Other Worlds (anth
1986) ed Greenberg, and a number of others ed Greenberg. 2. US tv series
(vt Steven Spielberg's Amazing Stories) (1985-7). Amblin/Universal for
NBC. Created by Steven SPIELBERG. Producers included Joshua Brand, John
Falsey, David E.Vogel. Writers included Spielberg, Frank Deese, Richard
Christian MATHESON, Mick Garris, Joseph Minion, Menno Meyjes, Michael
McDowell, Paul Bartel. Directors included Spielberg, Robert Zemeckis,
Peter Hyams, Burt Reynolds, Clint Eastwood, Joe DANTE, Martin Scorsese,
Paul Bartel, Irvin Kershner, Danny DeVito, Tom Holland, Tobe Hooper. Two
seasons, each of 22 25min episodes. An ambitious attempt to revive the
1950s-60s anthology format - which came at the same time as actual
revivals of The TWILIGHT ZONE (1985-7) and Alfred Hitchcock Presents
(1985-6), and a few competitors like The Hitch Hiker (1983-6) and Tales
from the Darkside (1984-7) - this was less an sf series than its
pulp-derived title suggested, more often going for the blend of fantasy
and sentiment found in the less scary episodes of the original Twilight
Zone. Kept afloat for two years through NBC having committed themselves -
astonishingly - to 44 episodes from the very beginning, AS, despite its
large budget and the unusually strong directing talent Spielberg was able
to attract (Eastwood, Zemeckis, Scorsese, Bartel, etc.), was unsuccessful.
Many disappointed viewers and critics felt that Spielberg had stretched
himself too thin, as had Rod SERLING with Twilight Zone, by generating the
often fragile storylines for the bulk of the episodes (16 out of 22 in the
first season); one such projected episode looked even more fragile when
expanded into a feature, BATTERIES NOT INCLUDED (1987). Too many of the
stories, despite good special effects and performances, led nowhere.
Typical of AS's uneven tone was the extended Spielberg-directed episode
The Mission, a 50min WWII-bomber anecdote presciently cast (Kevin Costner,
Kiefer Sutherland) and suspensefully directed, but sinking limply into a
ludicrous and irritating fantasy finale. AS did have surprises - the
gritty cartoon episode The Family Dog, designed by Tim Burton, being
perhaps the overall highlight - but mainly it expressed the
diminishing-return whimsy that was beginning to affect even Spielberg's
big-screen work. Three episodes - The Mission, Mummy, Daddy and Go to the
Head of the Class - were released together as a feature film, Amazing
Stories (1987), outside the USA, and many other episodes have been
released in groups of three on videotape. The versions of individual
episodes are collected in Steven Spielberg's Amazing Stories (anth 1986)
and Volume II of Steven Spielberg's Amazing Stories (anth 1986), both ed
Steven Bauer.

US BEDSHEET-size 128pp PULP MAGAZINE published by Hugo GERNSBACK's
Experimenter Publishing Co. Its only issue (1927) ran the first
publication of The Master Mind of Mars (1927; 1928) by Edgar Rice
BURROUGHS. A successor, AMAZING STORIES QUARTERLY, resulted from the
success of ASA.

as fat) and successor to AMAZING STORIES ANNUAL. 22 issues, Winter
1928-Fall 1934, first under the aegis of Hugo GERNSBACK's Experimenter
Publishing Co. and later (1929-34), ed T.O'Conor SLOANE after Gernsback
had lost control, under several publishers. In addition to short stories
it featured a complete novel in every issue, beginning with H.G.WELLS's
When the Sleeper Wakes (1899) but thereafter using mainly original
material. It published many of the most important early pulp sf novels:
White Lily (Winter 1930; as The Crystal Horde 1952) and Seeds of Life
(Fall 1931; 1951), both assembled as Seeds of Life & White Lily (omni
1966), by John TAINE; The Black Star Passes (Fall 1930; 1953) and Invaders
from the Infinite (Spring/Summer 1932; 1961) by John W.CAMPBELL Jr;
Paradise and Iron (Summer 1930) and The Birth of a New Republic (Winter
1930; 1981) by Miles J.BREUER (the latter with Jack WILLIAMSON); The
Sunken World (Summer 1928 and Fall 1934; 1949) by Stanton A.COBLENTZ; and
The Bridge of Light (Fall 1929; 1950) by A.Hyatt VERRILL. Gernsback's own
Ralph 124C 41+ (1911 Modern Electrics; 1925; ASQ Winter 1929) was
reprinted. Some rebound issues of AMZ were re-released, three to a volume,
in 1940-43 (13 issues) and 1947-51 (15 issues) as Amazing Stories

US DIGEST-size magazine. One undated issue, June 1957, published by
ZIFF-DAVIS; ed (uncredited) Paul W.FAIRMAN. This was to be a quarterly
magazine printing book-length novels in imitation of GALAXY SCIENCE
FICTION NOVELS. The only novel was Henry SLESAR's routine novelization of
the film 20 MILLION MILES TO EARTH (1957).


Film (1992). Yoram Globus and Christopher Pearce Present a Global
Pictures Production. Exec prods Amnon Globus and Marcus Szwarcfiter, prod
Marti Raz, dir Boaz Davidson, starring Joe Lara, Nicole Hansen and John
Ryan. Screenplay Brent Friedman and Bill Crounse and Don Pequingot, based
on a story by Davidson and Pearce. 91 mins. Colour. The production
background is obscure, but this straight-to-video exploitation thriller
appears to be, unusually, an Israeli/Canadian co-production. In a
postHOLOCAUST stereotype, a depleted world (we only see one city), 17
years after global nuclear war, has nearly invulnerable cyborgs ruling the
now infertile and dying human race in the service of a malign artificial
intelligence. One woman is able to carry a foetus (which she does in a
bottle, rather than her womb). If she (Hansen) can cross the deadly city
to the docks (a ship awaits to carry her and the baby to Europe, where
things are not so bad), avoiding the killer cyborg (Ryan), aided by
enigmatic warrior Austin (Lara), then there will be new hope for the
world. Story, script and acting are uniformly sub-standard, but the
photography is fine, and the film has a faintly exotic quality, perhaps
because of its Israeli background. This is representative of the many
low-budget attempts to recapture the human-versus-cyborg thrills of
TERMINATOR, and it has the now standard plot twist of BLADE RUNNER as

UK numbered pocketbook series which could be regarded (being numbered) as
either an anthology series or a magazine. 12 issues known, most 36pp,
numbered only from 2. Published by Utopian Publications, London; ed Benson
HERBERT and Walter GILLINGS (who jointly owned the company). Irregular,
Sep 1944-Jan 1946. AF was a reprint publication. All issues featured
quasi-erotic covers, with the title story often being an already known sf
or fantasy work under a racy new name. Thus S.P.MEEK's Gates of Light
became Arctic Bride (1944 chap), Edmond HAMILTON's Six Sleepers (1935)
became Tiger Girl (c1945 chap), John Beynon Harris's (John WYNDHAM) The
Wanderers of Time (1933) became Love in Time (1945 chap), Jack
WILLIAMSON's Wizard's Isle (1934) became Lady in Danger (c1945 chap) and
Stanton A.COBLENTZ's Planet of Youth (1932) became Youth Madness (1945
chap). Other featured authors were Ralph Milne FARLEY and Robert BLOCH.
All but 1 and 6 in the series contained short stories as well as the
featured novella, hence their usual listing in indexes as if they
constituted separate book publication of a single novella is technically
incorrect. The emphasis was on weird fiction rather than sf, though
stories from other genres were also used.

US COMIC-book series (1983-9, 63 issues), published by First Comics,
created by writer/ artist Howard V.CHAYKIN. Generally considered one of
the best sf COMICS of the 1980s, AF is set in a media-saturated USA
reduced to Third-World status, and stars Reuben Flagg, drafted into the
Plexus Rangers in Chicago in the 2030s (Plexus being a Mars-based
mega-cartel planning to sell off the USA piece by piece). AF is
sophisticated fun, featuring cynically humorous writing and male and
female characters with large sexual appetites. Except for 27, written by
Alan MOORE, Chaykin wrote the first 30 issues and drew all but two of the
first 26. The post-Chaykin issues of AK were not well received, and First
Comics took the unprecedented step of making 46 an apology for these.
Chaykin returned with 47 and continued to 50, the end of the first series.
In 1988 a second series, now called Howard Chaykin's American Flagg!, sent
Flagg to the USSR; it had 12 issues, with Chaykin editing, writing (with
John Moore) and providing art direction. There was also a one-off American
Flagg Special in 1986. The first 9 issues of AK have been collected as
First Comics Graphic Novels 3, 12 and 20.

Australian monthly pocketbook magazine, a companion to SELECTED SCIENCE
FICTION. 41 issues, June 1952-Dec 1955, unnumbered and undated 32pp
booklets. Published by Malian Press, Sydney; no editor named. The first 24
issues did not carry the word magazine on the cover, and it has been
suggested that the publishers had bought book rights rather than serial
rights to stories, which would explain the coyness about its being a
regular periodical. ASFM contained reprints from US magazines of quite a
good standard, including stories by James BLISH, John W.CAMPBELL Jr and

US PULP MAGAZINE. 5 issues, Dec 1949-Oct 1950, published by Popular
Publications; no ed listed - it may have been Mary GNAEDINGER. AMFM was a
was begun in response to the considerable enthusiasm engendered by the
reprinting of A.MERRITT's fiction in those magazines and elsewhere. Until
the appearance in 1954 of VARGO STATTEN SCIENCE FICTION MAGAZINE, and then
magazine which attempted to build its appeal on the popularity of a single
author - even though Merritt himself had died in 1943 and much of his
fiction was available elsewhere. In any event, the magazine failed to
establish itself. AMFM also published reprints of stories by other
authors. There was a Canadian reprint edition.



(1919- ) US writer of novels for older children. Of sf interest is Is
There Life on a Plastic Planet? (1975), which effectively transforms the
PARANOID theme of substitution - in this case a shop contains dolls
identical to the young women its owner attempts to suborn - into a
resonant tale of adolescence and identity. Questions of identity also lie
at the heart of Anna to the Infinite Power (1981), whose protagonist sees
another girl in her mirror image, eventually uncovering an experiment in
cloning (CLONES). Other novels, like The Silver Link, the Silken Tie
(1984) and Conjuring Summer In (1986), are fantasy.

(1922- ) UK novelist, poet and critic; father of Martin AMIS. He took his
MA at Oxford, and was a lecturer in English at Swansea 1949-61 and Fellow
of Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1961-3. Though KA is best known for such social
comedies as his first novel, Lucky Jim (1954), which won him the sobriquet
Angry Young Man, in the catch-phrase of the time, he has also been closely
connected with sf throughout his professional life. He delivered a series
of lectures on sf in 1959 at Princeton University, probably to their
surprise since sf was presumably not the context in which he was invited
to speak. Revised, these were published as a book, New Maps of Hell (1960
US), which was certainly the most influential critical work on sf up to
that time, although not the most scholarly. It strongly emphasized the
DYSTOPIAN elements of sf. KA, himself a satirist and debunker of note, saw
sf as an ideal medium for satirical and sociological extrapolation;
hitherto, most writing on sf had regarded it as primarily a literature of
TECHNOLOGY. As a survey the book was one-sided and by no means thorough,
but it was witty, perceptive and quietly revolutionary. KA went on to edit
a memorable series of ANTHOLOGIES, Spectrum, with Robert CONQUEST (like KA
a novelist, poet, political commentator and sf fan). They were Spectrum
(anth 1961), Spectrum II (anth 1962), Spectrum III (anth 1963), Spectrum
IV (anth 1965) and Spectrum V (anth 1966). These, too, were influential in
popularizing sf in the UK and to some extent in rendering it respectable.
The last of these volumes is selected almost entirely from ASF, a
reflection, perhaps, of KA's increasing conservatism about HARD SF (and in
his politics) which went along with a dislike for stories of the NEW WAVE,
also evident in The Golden Age of Science Fiction (anth 1981) ed KA alone.
As a writer, too, KA was influenced by sf. He wrote several sf short
stories including Something Strange (1960), a minor tour de force about
appearance and reality and about psychological conditioning. His short sf
can mostly be found in My Enemy's Enemy (coll 1962) and later in Collected
Short Stories (coll 1980; exp 1987). The Anti-Death League (1966) is an
extravagant spy story featuring miniaturized nuclear devices. The James
Bond pastiche Colonel Sun: A James Bond Adventure (1968) as by Robert
Markham contains occasional sf elements. The fantasy The Green Man (1969),
one of KA's best works, blends satirical social comedy with Gothic HORROR;
it was dramatized as a miniseries by BBC TV in 1991. KA's major full-scale
sf work is The Alteration (1976), set in an ALTERNATE WORLD in which the
Reformation has not taken place and Roman Catholic domination has
continued to the present. It won the JOHN W.CAMPBELL MEMORIAL AWARD for
best sf novel in 1977. Russian Hide-and-Seek (1980) is a blackly amusing,
pessimistic story about the vulnerability of English culture, set in a
future England that has for decades been subject to the USSR. KA's
controversial artistic evolution from supposed radical to national
institution (during which he remained always his own man) was neatly
summed up by his receipt of a knighthood in 1990. An autobiographical work

(1949- ) UK writer, son of Kingsley AMIS. From the first his novels have
threatened and distressed their protagonists - and their readers - with
narrative displacements that gnaw away at consensual reality, so that
moments of normality in his work are, like as not, intended to reveal
themselves as forms of entrapment. His interest in sf-like (and
sf-mocking) venues dates back to his second novel, Dead Babies (1975), set
in an indistinct NEAR FUTURE and featuring a protagonist who has made his
pile by working at a local abortion factory. MA was responsible for the
screenplay for SATURN 3 (1980), though Steve GALLAGHER wrote the book tie.
Other People: A Mystery Story (1981) - which took its title from Jean-Paul
Sartre's definition of Hell, in Huis Clos (1945; trans Stuart Gilbert as
In Camera 1946 UK), as being other people - is an afterlife fantasy.
Einstein's Monsters (coll 1987) assembles several sf stories variously
concerned with the decay of the world into HOLOCAUSTS, nuclear and
otherwise. London Fields (1989) is set in 1999 in a world approaching a
dread millennium. Time's Arrow (1991) - which begins, as does Other
People, at the moment at which its protagonist awakens into a radically
displaced world - is a full and genuine sf novel, based on the premise
that the arrow of time has been reversed (MA's acknowledged sf sources for
this premise run from Philip K.DICK's Counter-Clock World 1967 to Kurt
VONNEGUT Jr's Slaughterhouse-Five, 1969), but very much complexifies the
implications of the conceit by making the protagonist an old Nazi, whose
involvement in the death camps now becomes a hymn to life. Throughout the
book, the reversal of the 20th century reads as a reprieve. It is a tale
whose joys encode ironies so grim that the happier moments of return and
redemption are impossible to read without considerable pain. Time's Arrow
was, inevitably, received as a FABULATION; at the same time, it reads with
all the clarity of reportage. See also: PERCEPTION; TIME TRAVEL.

(1913- ) Russian engineer and writer. In his sf novel Zapiski iz
budushchego (1967; trans George St George as Notes from the Future 1970 US
as by N.Amosoff) a frozen sleeper awakens to 1991, where he is cured of
leukaemia and reflects somewhat heavily upon the nature of the world he
has come into. See also: CRYONICS.






[s] William C.ANDERSON.

(1932-1991) US novelist and poet, member of the Beat Generation, editor
of underground journals on both coasts, and of Paul WILLIAMS's Crawdaddy,
a rock'n'roll magazine, during the 1980s; he wrote poetry as c v j
anderson. His sf was written in association with Michael KURLAND. Ten
Years to Doomsday (1964), a straight collaboration, is a lightly written
INVASION tale with a good deal of activity in space and on other planets.
The Butterfly Kid (1967) was written by CA alone, but stands as the first
volume of a comically surrealistic SHARED-WORLD trilogy set in Greenwich
Village, the second instalment being The Unicorn Girl (1969) by Kurland
and the third The Probability Pad (1970) by T.A.WATERS. The trilogy stars
all three authors (RECURSIVE SF), who become involved in the attempts of a
pop group to fight off a more than merely psychedelic invasion menace:
Greenwich Village is being threatened by a pill which actualizes people's
fantasies. Other works: Fox & Hare (1980), a fictionalized memoir of the
real lives behind the trilogy. See also: PERCEPTION.

(1904-1980) UK writer whose novel Magellan (1970) depicts a
post-HOLOCAUST Earth dominated by a single city, and the somewhat
metaphysical apotheosis afforded its inhabitants. See also: CITIES.

Raymond F.JONES.

(1929- ) and SYLVIA (? - ) UK tv producers and writers; GA was also an
animator and SA a voice artist. They will forever be remembered for a
succession of 1960s children's puppet adventure shows on tv that
occasionally dealt with sf themes on a far more extensive scale than
contemporary adult programming. GA's first two series, The Adventures of
Twizzle (1958) and Torchy the Battery Boy (1959), were fairly conventional
15min puppet shows, albeit featuring characters whose gimmicks (extensible
arms, electrical powers) were notionally scientific. The Western series
Four Feather Falls (1960) began his run of SuperMarionation shows, its
magical feathers giving it a fantastical touch. With the half-hour series
SUPERCAR (1961-2) GA was joined by his wife SA - who would provide female
voices for and write for subsequent series - and came up with the format
that continued for eight years in FIREBALL XL5 (1962-3), STINGRAY
(1967-8). All these feature a wonderful vehicle from the 21st century, an
ongoing struggle with evil forces, a catchy score suitable for spin-off
records, impressively designed miniature sets, a quasi-military
organization of good guys, and a family-like regular cast with a
square-jawed hero, a stammering boffin, a non-weedy girl, a crusty chief
and a sidekick, and usually a mysterious master villain with a bumbling
accomplice. Stingray was the first in colour, and introduced marginally
more adult characterizations: Mike Mercury and Steve Zodiac, the heroes of
Supercar and Fireball XL5, were never as bad-tempered as Troy Tempest in
Stingray could be, and they would certainly never have been caught up in a
three-way romance. Thunderbirds experimented with a 50min running time and
a less confrontational plot premise - the Tracy family were rescuing
innocents, not fighting ALIENS as Troy Tempest had done and Captain
Scarlet would do - and became perhaps the highlight of the As' career,
spinning off two feature films, Thunderbirds are Go (1966) and Thunderbird
Six (1968), and creating a set of characters - Lady Penelope, Parker, the
Hood, Brains and Jeff Tracy and his sons - who would remain identifiable
enough to crop up in tv commercials as late as the early 1990s, when the
series was also rerun on UK tv by the BBC. Captain Scarlet, returning to
the half-hour format, tried for a more realistic approach by scaling down
the exaggerated features of the puppets and adding a premise - spun off
from Thunderbirds are Go - about a war between Earth and the Mysterons of
Mars that was less clear-cut than previous conflicts insofar as Earth
(admittedly by accident) was the initial aggressor. Also, the device of
resurrecting dead personnel and equipment for use in battle raised the
level of violence beyond the cosy destructiveness of the earlier shows. In
1994 a new GA live-action tv production appeared in syndication in the US,
Space Precinct, described by him as a New York cop show transferred to
outer space, and received a not very favourable critical reception.
Captain Scarlet was as far as the As' format could be stretched, and their
subsequent puppet shows - JOE 90 (1968-9) and The Secret Service (1969) -
were far less successful. The first, focusing on a boy genius, appeared
childish to audiences who had become used to the increasing maturity of
each new show - who had in effect grown up with SuperMarionation. The
second, using live actors alongside puppets, was seen by few and cancelled
mid-season. The As had already produced a live-action film, DOPPELGANGER
(1969; vt Journey to the Far Side of the Sun), by the time they determined
to abandon tv puppets altogether and marry their skills with miniature
effects to real-life actors - who, unfortunately, were almost always
accused of being as wooden as their predecessors - in UFO (1970-73). This
was a marginally more realistic rerun of Captain Scarlet with elements
also of The INVADERS (1967-8), in which a secret organization tried to
fight off a plague of flying saucers. After a nondescript non-sf series,
The Protectors (1972-4), the As launched on their most elaborate venture
yet, SPACE 1999 (1975-7), an internationally cast and impressively mounted
attempt to produce a show with both mass and cult appeal along the lines
of STAR TREK. It is frequently and not entirely without justification
remembered as the worst sf series ever aired. During its run the As
divorced, and GA, who remained on the series, gradually lost control to
his varied UK and US backers. Subsequently GA went back to puppetry with
TERRAHAWKS (1983-6), a feeble imitation of his 1960s triumphs, and worked
extensively in commercials, some re-using characters from his earlier
shows. In their heyday, the SuperMarionation shows - which overlapped to a
degree, creating a detailed 21st-century Universe as a backdrop - gave
birth to TV 21, a successful and well drawn COMIC, along with toys, games,
annuals, books and other now-valued ephemera. See also: TELEVISION.


(1962- ) US technical writer and author who began publishing sf with Luck
of the Draw in Space & Time 63 in 1982, and who gradually became a
prolific contributor of short fiction and articles to various sf journals,
over 100 items having been published by 1992. His first novel,
Resurrection, Inc. (1988), combines elements of the usual sf near-future
DYSTOPIA with elements of the horror novel, reanimated bodies serving a
corrupt society as a worker-class. There followed the Gamearth trilogy -
Gamearth (1989), Gameplay (1989) and Game's End (1990) - which treats with
some verve a GAME-WORLD crisis involved the coming to life of game-bound
personas who (or which) refuse to be cancelled. More interestingly,
Lifeline (1990) with Doug BEASON sets up and solves a technically complex
sequence of problems in space after a nuclear HOLOCAUST (the result of a
USSR-US contretemps of the sort which, unluckily for the authors, had in
the months before publication abruptly become much less likely) has
stripped four habitats of all Earth support; the Filipino station boasts a
GENETIC-ENGINEERING genius who can feed everyone, a US station has the
eponymous monofilament, and so on. Some of the protagonists carrying on
the quadripartite storyline are of interest in their own right. If one
puts aside the whiplashes of Earth's realtime history, the book stands as
a fine example of HARD SF and a gripping portrayal of the complexities of
near space. The Trinity Paradox (1991), also with Beason, treats the
now-standard sf TIME-PARADOX tale with overdue seriousness, suggesting
that untoward moral consequences attend the sudden capacity of its
protagonist - who has been accidentally timeslipped back to Los Alamos in
1943 - to stop nuclear testing in its tracks. See also: MEDICINE; NUCLEAR

(1872-1964) UK writer whose novel, A Son of Noah (1893), features many of
the conventions of prehistoric sf with the added spice of
pterodactyl-worship on the part of a speciously advanced race. But the
Flood will soon clear the air.

(1871-1963) US author of a routinely occult novel with sf elements, The
Treasure Vault of Atlantis (1925 US), with a 70-word subtitle; revived
Atlanteans bring ancient knowledge to bear on contemporary problems. See

(1926- ) US writer born in Pennsylvania of Scandinavian parents; he lived
in Denmark briefly before the outbreak of WWII. In 1948 PA gained a degree
in physics from the University of Minnesota. His knowledge of Scandinavian
languages and literature and his scientific literacy have fed each other
fruitfully through a long and successful career. He is Greg BEAR's
father-in-law. PA's first years as a writer were spent in Minnesota, where
after WWII he joined the Minneapolis Fantasy Society (later the MFS) and
associated with such writers as Clifford D.SIMAK and Gordon R.DICKSON,
both of whom shared with him an attachment to semi-rural (often wooded)
settings peopled by solid, canny stock (frequently, in PA's case, of
Scandinavian descent) whose politics and social views often register as
conservative, especially among readers from the urban East and the UK,
although perhaps this cultural style could more fruitfully be regarded as
a form of romantic, Midwestern, LIBERTARIAN individualism. Although he is
perhaps sf's most prolific writer of any consistent quality, PA began
quite slowly, starting to publish sf with Tomorrow's Children, with
F.N.Waldrop, for ASF in 1947, but not publishing with any frequency until
about 1950 - a selection of eloquent early tales appears in Alight in the
Void (coll 1991) - when he also released his first novel, a post-HOLOCAUST
juvenile, Vault of the Ages (1952). In 1953 PA seemed to come afire: in
addition to 19 stories, he published magazine versions of three novels,
Brain Wave (1953 Space Science Fiction as The Escape, first instalment
only before magazine ceased publication; 1954), Three Hearts and Three
Lions (1953 FSF; exp 1961) and War of Two Worlds (1953 Two Complete
Science-Adventure Books as Silent Victory; 1959 dos). The last of these is
one of PA's many well told but routine adventures, in this case involving
a betrayed Earth, alien overlords and plucky humans; but the other two are
successful, mature novels, each in a separate genre. In Three Hearts and
Three Lions, an ALTERNATE-WORLD fantasy, an Earthman is translated from
the middle of WWII into a SWORD-AND-SORCERY venue where he fights the
forces of Chaos in a tale whose humour is laced with the slightly gloomy
Nordic twilight colours that have become increasingly characteristic of
PA's work (noticeably in Three Hearts's sequel, Midsummer Tempest 1974).
Brain Wave, perhaps PA's most famous single novel, remains very nearly his
finest. Its premise is simple: for millions of years the part of the
Galaxy containing our Solar System has been moving through a vast
forcefield whose effect has been to inhibit certain electromagnetic and
electrochemical processes, and thus certain neuronic functions. When Earth
escapes the inhibiting field, synapse-speed immediately increases, causing
a rise in INTELLIGENCE; after the book has traced various absorbing
consequences of this transformation, a transfigured humanity reaches for
the stars, leaving behind former mental defectives and bright animals to
inherit the planet. After Brain Wave PA seemed content for several years
to produce competent but unambitious stories - in such great numbers that
it was not until many years had passed that they were adequately assembled
in volumes like Explorations (coll 1981) and its stablemates - and SPACE
OPERAS with titles like No World of Their Own (1955 dos; with restored
text vt The Long Way Home 1975 UK); he occasionally wrote under the
pseudonyms A.A.Craig and Winston P.Sanders, and in the mid-1960s as
Michael Karageorge. It was during these years, however, that he began to
formulate and write the many stories and novels making up the complex
Technic History series, in reality two separate sequences. The first
centres on Nicholas van Rijn, a dominant merchant prince of the
Polesotechnic League, an interstellar group of traders who dominate a
laissez-faire Galaxy of scattered planets. Anderson has been widely
criticized for the conservative implications it is possible (though with
some effort) to draw from these stories, whose philosophical implications
he modestly curtails. The second sequence properly begins about 300 years
later, after the first flowering of a post-League Terran Empire, which,
increasingly decadent and corrupt, is under constant threat from other
empires. Most of the sequence features Dominic Flandry, a Terran agent who
- sophisticated, pessimistic and tough - gradually becomes a figure of
stature as Anderson fills in and expands his story, begun in 1951. The
internal chronology of the double sequence is not secure, but the
following list is close. Van Rijn: War of the Wing-Men (1958 dos; with
restored text and new introduction vt The Man who Counts 1978); Trader to
the Stars (coll 1964; with 1 story cut 1964 UK); The Trouble Twisters
(coll 1966); Satan's World (1969); Mirkheim (1977); The Earth Book of
Stormgate (coll 1978; in 3 vols 1980-81 UK); The People of the Wind
(1973). Flandry: Ensign Flandry (1966); A Circus of Hells (1970)and The
Rebel Worlds (1969; vt Commander Flandry 1978 UK), both assembled as
Flandry (omni 1993) The Day of Their Return (1973) andThe People of the
Wind both assembled as The Day of Their Return/The People of the Wind
(omni 1982); Mayday Orbit (1961 dos) and Earthman, Go Home! (1960 dos),
both assembled with revisions as Flandry of Terra (omni 1965); We Claim
These Stars (1959 dos), which is included in Agent of the Terran Empire
(coll 1965); A Knight of Ghosts and Shadows (1974; vt Knight Flandry 1980
UK) and The Rebel Worlds both assembled as The Rebel Worlds/A Knight of
Ghosts and Shadows (omni 1982); A Stone in Heaven (1979); The Game of
Empire (1985), featuring Flandry's daughter, and pointing the way to two
post-Flandry tales: Let the Spacemen Beware (1960 Fantastic Universe as A
Twelvemonth and a Day; 1963 chap dos; with new introduction vt The Night
Face 1978), also included in a separate collection, The Night Face and
Other Stories (coll 1978); and The Long Night (coll 1983). Stories written
later tend to moodier, darker textures. A somewhat smaller sequence, the
Psychotechnic League stories, traces the gradual movement of Man into the
Solar System and eventually the Galaxy itself. There is a good deal of
action-debate about AUTOMATION, the maintenance of freedom in an expanded
polity, and so forth. The sequence comprises, by rough internal
chronology: The Psychotechnic League (coll 1981), Cold Victory (coll
1982), Starship (coll 1982), The Snows of Ganymede (1955 Startling Stories
1958 dos), Virgin Planet (1959), and Star Ways (1956; vt with new
introduction The Peregrine 1978). There are several further series. The
early Time Patrol stories (ALTERNATE WORLDS) are contained in Guardians of
Time (coll 1960; with 2 stories added vt The Guardians of Time 1981) and
Time Patrolman (coll of linked novellas 1983), both assembled as Annals of
the Time Patrol (omni 1984); subsequently, early and later material was
rearranged as The Shield of Time (coll of linked stories 1990) and The
Time Patrol (omni/coll 1991), which re-sorted long stories from the first
volumes along with a new novel, Star of the Sea, plus The Year of the
Ransom (1988) and other new material. The History of Rustum sequence,
mainly concerned with the establishing on laissez-faire lines of a human
colony on a planet in the Epsilon Eridani system, includes Orbit Unlimited
(coll of linked stories 1961) and New America (coll of linked stories
1982). With Gordon R.Dickson, PA wrote the Hoka series about furry aliens
who cannot understand nonliteral language (i.e., metaphors, fictions) and
so take everything as truth, with results intended as comic: Earthman's
Burden (coll of linked stories 1957), Star Prince Charlie (1975) and Hoka!
(coll of linked stories 1984). The Last Viking sequence - The Golden Horn
(1980), The Road of the Sea Horse (1980) and The Sign of the Raven (1980)
- is fantasy, as are the King of Ys novels, written with PA's wife Karen
Anderson (1932- ): Roma Mater (1986), Gallicenae (1987), Dahut (1988) and
The Dog and the Wolf (1988). Although many of the novels and stories
listed as linked to series can be read as singletons, there seems little
doubt that the interlinked complexity of reference and storyline in PA's
fiction has somewhat muffled its effect in the marketplace. This situation
has not been helped by a marked lack of focus in its publication, so that
the interested reader will find considerable difficulty tracing both the
items in a series and their intended relation to one another. With dozens
of novels and hundreds of stories to his credit - all written with a
resolute professionalism and widening range, though also with a marked
disparity between copious storytelling skills and a certain banality in
the creation of characters - PA is still not as well defined a figure in
the pantheon of US sf as writers (like Isaac ASIMOV from the GOLDEN AGE OF
SF and Frank HERBERT from a decade later) of about the same age and
certainly no greater skill. Nonetheless he has been repeatedly honoured by
the sf community, serving as SCIENCE FICTION WRITERS OF AMERICA President
for 1972-3, and receiving 7 HUGOS for sf in shorter forms: in 1961 for The
Longest Voyage (Best Short Story); in 1964 for No Truce With Kings (Best
Short Story); in 1969 for The Sharing of Flesh (Best Novelette); in 1972
for The Queen of Air and Darkness (Best Novella), which also won a NEBULA;
in 1973 for Goat Song (Best Novelette), which also won a Nebula; in 1979
for Hunter's Moon (Best Novelette); and in 1982 for The Saturn Game (Best
Novella), which also won a Nebula. PA also won the Gandalf (Grand Master)
Award for 1977. Out of the welter of remaining titles, four singletons and
one short series can be mentioned as outstanding. The High Crusade (1960)
is a delightful wish-fulfilment conception; an alien SPACESHIP lands in
medieval Europe where it is taken over by quick-thinking Baron Roger and
his feudal colleagues who, when the ship takes them to the stars, soon
trick, cajole, outfight and outbreed all the spacefaring races they can
find, and found their own empire on feudal lines. It is PA's most joyful
moment. Tau Zero (1967 Gal as To Outlive Eternity; exp 1970) is less
successful as fiction, though its speculations on COSMOLOGY are
fascinating, and the hypothesis it embodies is strikingly well conceived.
A spaceship from Earth, intended to fly near the speed of light so that
humans can reach the stars without dying of old age (as a consequence of
the time-dilatation described by the Lorentz-Fitzgerald equations),
uncontrolledly continues to accelerate at a constant one gravity after
reaching its intended terminal velocity, so that the disparity between
ship-time and external time becomes ever greater: eons hurtle by outside,
until eventually the Universe contracts to form a monobloc. After a new
Big Bang the ship begins to slow gradually and the crew plans to settle a
new planet in the universe that has succeeded our own. The felt scope of
the narrative is convincingly sustained throughout, though the characters
tend to soap opera. In The Avatar (1978) a solitary figure typical of PA's
later work searches the Galaxy for an alien race sufficiently
sophisticated to provide him with the means to confound a non-libertarian
Earth government. THE BOAT OF A MILLION YEARS (1989) ambitiously follows
the long lives of a group of immortals, whose growing disaffection with
the recent course of Earth history again points up the sense of
disenchantment noticeable in the later PA, along with a feeling that, in
an inevitably decaying Universe, the tough thing (and the worthy thing) is
to endure. In Harvest of Stars (1993) and its sequel, The Stars Are Also
Fire (1994), that sense of disenchantment once again governs a tale in
which Earth - after centuries of savage environmental exploitation - is no
longer capable of sustaining humanity's quest for new adventures, and for
a new home. The elegy is perhaps soured by some political point-scoring;
but the escape from the dying planet is sustained and exhilarating. Other
works: The Broken Sword (1954; rev 1971); Planet of No Return (1956 dos;
vt Question and Answer 1978); THE ENEMY STARS (1959; with one story added
exp as coll 1987); Perish by the Sword (1959) and The Golden Slave (1960;
rev 1980) and Murder in Black Letter (1960) and Rogue Sword (1960) and
Murder Bound (1962), all associational; Twilight World (2 stories ASF 1947
including Tomorrow's Children with F.N.Waldrop; fixup 1961); Strangers
from Earth (coll 1961); Un-Man and Other Novellas (coll 1962 dos); After
Doomsday (1962); The Makeshift Rocket (1958 ASF as A Bicycle Built for
Brew; 1962 chap dos); Shield (1963); Three Worlds to Conquer (1964); Time
and Stars (coll 1964; with 1 story cut 1964 UK); The Corridors of Time
(1965); The Star Fox (fixup 1965); The Fox, the Dog and the Griffin: A
Folk Tale Adapted from the Danish of C.Molbeck (1966), a juvenile fantasy;
World without Stars (1967); The Horn of Time (coll 1968); Seven Conquests
(coll 1969; vt Conquests 1981 UK); Beyond the Beyond (coll 1969; with 1
story cut 1970 UK); Tales of the Flying Mountains (1963-5 ASF as by
Winston P.Sanders; fixup 1970); The Byworlder (1971); Operation Chaos
(coll of linked stories 1971); The Dancer from Atlantis (1971) and There
Will Be Time (1972), later assembled together as There Will Be Time, and
The Dancer from Atlantis (omni 1982); Hrolf Kraki's Saga (1973), a
retelling of one of the greatest Icelandic sagas, associational; The Queen
of Air and Darkness and Other Stories (coll 1973); Fire Time (1974);
Inheritors of Earth (1974) with Gordon EKLUND - the novel was in fact
written by Eklund, based on a 1951 PA story published in Future; The Many
Worlds of Poul Anderson (coll 1974; vt The Book of Poul Anderson 1975),
not the same as The Worlds of Poul Anderson (omni 1974), which assembles
Planet of No Return, The War of Two Worlds and World without Stars;
Homeward and Beyond (coll 1975); The Winter of the World (1975), later
assembled with The Queen of Air and Darkness as The Winter of the World,
and The Queen of Air and Darkness (omni 1982); Homebrew (coll 1976 chap),
containing essays as well as stories; The Best of Poul Anderson (coll
1976); Two Worlds (omni 1978), which assembles World without Stars and
Planet of No Return; The Merman's Children (1979); The Demon of Scattery
(1979) with Mildred Downey Broxon (1944- ); Conan the Rebel (1980); The
Devil's Game (1980); Winners (coll 1981), a collection of PA's Hugo
winners; Fantasy (coll 1981); The Dark between the Stars (coll 1982); the
Maurai series comprising Maurai and Kith (coll 1982), tales of
post-catastrophe life, and Orion Shall Rise (1983), a pro-technology
sequel, in which humanity once again aspires to the stars; The Gods
Laughed (coll 1982); Conflict (coll 1983); The Unicorn Trade (coll 1984)
with Karen Anderson; Past Times (coll 1984); Dialogue with Darkness (coll
1985); No Truce with Kings (1963 FSF; 1989 chap dos); Space Folk (coll
1989); The Saturn Game (1981 ASF; 1989 chap dos); Inconstant Star (coll
1991), stories set in Larry NIVEN's Man-Kzin universe; The Longest Voyage
(1960 ASF; 1991 chap dos); Losers' Night (1991 chap); Kinship with the
Stars (coll 1991); How to Build a Planet (1991 chap), nonfiction; The
Armies of Elfland (coll 1992). As Editor: West by One and by One (anth
1965 chap); Nebula Award Stories No 4 (anth 1969); The Day the Sun Stood
Still (anth 1972), a common-theme anthology with Gordon R.Dickson and
Robert SILVERBERG; A World Named Cleopatra (anth 1977) ed Roger ELWOOD, a
SHARED-WORLD anthology built around the title story and concept supplied
by PA; 4 titles ed with Martin H.GREENBERG and Charles G.WAUGH,
Mercenaries of Tomorrow (anth 1985), Terrorists of Tomorrow (anth 1985),
Time Wars (anth 1986) and Space Wars (anth 1988); The Night Fantastic
(anth 1991) with Karen Anderson and (anon) Greenberg. About the author:
Against Time's Arrow: The High Crusade of Poul Anderson (1978 chap) by
Sandra MIESEL; Poul Anderson: Myth-Maker and Wonder-Weaver: A Working
Bibliography (latest edition 1989 in 2 vols, each chap) by Gordon BENSON

(1920- ) USAF pilot and writer in various genres who published his first
sf, The Valley of the Gods (1957) as Andy Anderson. Like his Pandemonium
on the Potomac (1966), it features a father and daughter: in the former
book they philosophize about the extinction of mankind; in the latter they
act on their anxiety about Man's imminent self-destruction, blowing up a
US city as a Dreadful Warning. Penelope (1963) and Adam M-1 (1964) are
further sf comedies, the former concerned with a communicating porpoise -
which appears also in Penelope, the Damp Detective (1974) - and the latter
with an ANDROID, the first Astrodynamically Designed Aerospace Man. Other
works: Five, Four, Three, Two, One - Pffff (1960); The Gooney Bird (1968);
The Apoplectic Palm Tree (1969). See also: ADAM AND EVE.

Pseudonym of UK writer Alfred Walter Barrett (1869-1920), who remains
best known for We Three and Troddles: A Tale of London Life (1894) and
other light fiction in the mode of popular figures like Jerome K.Jerome
(1859-1927). His sf and fantasy were similarly derivative; titles of
interest include The Strange Adventure of Roger Wilkins and Other Stories
(coll 1895), The Identity Exchange: A Story of Some Odd Transformations
(1902; vt The Marvellous Adventures of Me 1904), The Enchanted Ship: A
Story of Mystery with a Lot of Imagination (1908) and The Magic Bowl, and
the Blue-Stone Ring: Oriental Tales with Occi(or Acci)dental Fittings
(coll 1909), all exhibiting an uneasy fin de siecle flippancy
characteristic of F.ANSTEY but with less weight. In Fear of a Throne
(1911) is a RURITANIAN fantasy.


Hans Joachim ALPERS.

David C.POYER.

Charles L.GRANT.

Technically a house name, though all titles here listed are in fact by US
writer William H(enry) Keith Jr (1950- ). The Freedom's Rangers sequence
of military-sf adventures, whose heroes roam into various epochs to combat
the KGB, comprises Freedom's Rangers (1989), Freedom's Rangers 2: Raiders
of the Revolution (1989), 3: Search and Destroy (1990), 4: Treason in Time
(1990), 5: Sink the Armada (1990) and 6: Snow Kill (1991). The first
volume features a commando raid through time to kill Hitler; as some of
the titles indicate, the targets thereafter vary. It may be that the
course of real history has determined the progress of the series. Under
his own name Keith has written two Battletech game ties (GAMES AND TOYS):
Mercenary's Star (1987) and The Price of Glory (1987); Renegades Honor
(1988) is another game novelization.

Film (1982). New World. Dir Aaron Lipstadt, starring Klaus Kinski, Brie
Howard, Norbert Weisser, Crofton Hardester, Don Opper. Screenplay James
Reigle and Opper, based on a story by Will Reigle. 80 mins. Colour. The
co-scriptwriter, Don Opper, plays Max, the innocent ANDROID (part flesh,
part metal) who does imitations of James Stewart and works for mad Dr
Daniel (Kinski) in a space laboratory, soon invaded by three criminals. He
experiences sex (Max, you're a doll!), is programmed to become a ruthless
killer just as we were accepting him as human, participates in the
awakening of a female android, learns Daniel's true nature (a plot twist
stolen from ALIEN) and gets the girl. A is made with skill and panache, is
good on android politics (for which one might read working-class
politics), and is one of the most confident sf movies yet made, despite
its low budget. The scriptwriters are infinitely more at home with the
themes of written sf than is usual in sf cinema. Lipstadt's subsequent sf
movie, CITY LIMITS (1984), was disappointing.

The term android, which means manlike, was not commonly used in sf until
the 1940s. The first modern use seems to have been in Jack WILLIAMSON's
The Cometeers (1936; 1950). The word was initially used of automata, and
the form androides first appeared in English in 1727 in reference to
supposed attempts by the alchemist Albertus Magnus (c1200-1280) to create
an artificial man. In contemporary usage android usually denotes an
artificial human of organic substance, although it is sometimes applied to
manlike machines, just as the term ROBOT is still occasionally applied (as
by its originator Karel CAPEK) to organic entities. The conventional
distinction was first popularized by Edmond HAMILTON in his CAPTAIN FUTURE
series, where Captain Future's sidekicks were a robot, an android and a
brain in a box. The most important modern exceptions to the conventional
rule are to be found in the works of Philip K.DICK. The notion of
artificial humans is an old one, embracing the GOLEM of Jewish mythology
as well as alchemical homunculi. Until the 19th century, though, it was
widely believed that organic compounds could not be synthesized, and that
humanoid creatures of flesh and blood would therefore have to be created
either by magical means or, as in Mary SHELLEY's Frankenstein (1818), by
the gruesome process of assembly. Even after the discovery that organic
molecules could be synthesized, some time passed before, in R.U.R. (1920;
trans 1923), Capek imagined androids grown in vats as mass-produced
slaves; these robots were made so artfully as to acquire souls, and
eventually conquered their makers. There was some imaginative resistance
to the idea of the android because it seemed a more outrageous breach of
divine prerogative than the building of humanoid automata. Several authors
toyed with the idea but did not carry it through: the androids in The
Uncreated Man (1912) by Austin Fryers and in The Chemical Baby (1924) by
J.Storer CLOUSTON prove to be hoaxes. Edgar Rice BURROUGHS played a
similar trick in The Monster Men (1913; 1929), but did include some
authentic artificial men as well, as he did also in Synthetic Men of Mars
(1940). In the early sf PULP MAGAZINES androids were rare, authors
concentrating almost exclusively on mechanical contrivances. It was not
until after WWII that Clifford SIMAK wrote the influential Time and Again
(1951; vt First He Died 1953), the first of many stories in which androids
seek emancipation from slavery; here they are assisted in their cause by
the discovery that, in common with all living creatures, they have ALIEN
commensals - sf substitutes for souls. Sf writers almost invariably take
the side of the androids against their human masters, sometimes
eloquently: the emancipation of the biologically engineered Underpeople is
a key theme in Cordwainer SMITH's Instrumentality series; a Millennarian
android religion is memorably featured in Robert SILVERBERG's Tower of
Glass (1970); and androids whose personalities are based on literary
models are effectively featured in Port Eternity (1982) by C.J.CHERRYH.
Cherryh's CYTEEN (1988) is one of the few novels to attempt to present a
society into which androids are fully integrated. Other pleas for
emancipation are featured in Down among the Dead Men (1954) by William
TENN, Slavers of Space (1960 dos; rev as Into the Slave Nebula 1968) by
John BRUNNER and Birthright (1975) by Kathleen SKY, but the liberated
androids in Charles L.GRANT's The Shadow of Alpha (1976) and its sequels
are treated far more ambivalently. An android is used as an innocent
observer of human follies in Charles PLATT's comedy Less than Human
(1986), and to more sharply satirical effect in Stephen FINE's Molly Dear:
The Autobiography of an Android, or How I Came to my Senses, Was Repaired,
Escaped my Master, and Was Educated in the Ways of the World (1988).
Androids also feature, inevitably, in stories which hinge on the confusion
of real and ersatz, including Made in USA (1953) by J.T.MCINTOSH, Synth
(1966) by Keith ROBERTS, the murder mystery Fondly Fahrenheit (1954) by
Alfred BESTER, and Replica (1987) by Richard BOWKER. The confusion between
real and synthetic is central to the work of Philip K.Dick, who tends to
use the terms android and robot interchangeably; he discusses the
importance this theme had for him in his essays The Android and the Human
(1972) and Man, Android and Machine (1976), both of which are reprinted in
The Dark-Haired Girl (coll 1988). His most notable novels dealing with the
subject are DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP? (1968) and We Can Build
You (1972). Stories featuring androids designed specifically for use at
least in part as sexual partners have become commonplace as editorial
taboos have relaxed; examples include The Silver Metal Lover (1982) by
Tanith LEE and The Hormone Jungle (1988) by Robert REED. Science Fiction
Thinking Machines (anth 1954) ed Groff CONKLIN has a brief section
featuring android stories; The Pseudo-People (anth 1965 vt Almost Human:
Androids in Science Fiction) ed William F.NOLAN mostly consists of stories
of robots capable of imitating men.

UK tv serial (1962). A BBC TV production. Prod John ELLIOT, written Fred
HOYLE, Elliot. 6 episodes, 5 at 45 mins, the 6th 50 mins. B/w. The cast
included Peter Halliday, Mary Morris, Barry Linehan, John Hollis, Susan
Hampshire. In this sequel to A FOR ANDROMEDA the android woman built
according to instructions from the stars is played by Susan Hampshire, not
Julie Christie; she has not drowned, as previously thought. She is
kidnapped along with scientist Fleming (Halliday) by a Middle Eastern oil
state where a new COMPUTER has been built according to plans stolen from
the Scottish original. This is used by an international cartel in an
attempt at world domination. The plot becomes ever more melodramatic.
World weather is changed by the influence of computer-designed bacteria on
the oceans. The extraterrestrial beings who sent the original computer
instructions are not, we are implausibly told, just malicious: they are
merely undertaking social engineering on other worlds by administering
salutary shocks. (It seems that yellow-star races tend to wipe themselves
out using nuclear weapons or other devices.) This was a less powerful
serial than its memorable predecessor. The novelization is The Andromeda
Breakthrough (1964) by Fred Hoyle and John Elliot.


Film (1971). Universal. Dir Robert WISE, starring Arthur Hill, David
Wayne, James Olson, Kate Reid. Screenplay Nelson Gidding, based on The
Andromeda Strain (1969) by Michael CRICHTON. 130 mins. Colour. This film,
whose director had in 1951 made the classic sf film TheDAY THE EARTH STOOD
STILL, concerns a microscopic organism, inadvertently brought to Earth on
a returning space probe, which causes the instant death of everyone in the
vicinity of the probe's landing (near a small town) with the exception of
a baby and the town drunk. These two are isolated in a vast underground
laboratory complex, where a group of scientists attempts to establish the
nature of the alien organism. The real enemy seems to be not the Andromeda
virus but technology itself: it is mankind's technology that brings the
virus to Earth, and the scientists in the laboratory sequences - most of
the film - are made to seem puny and fallible compared to the gleaming
electronic marvels that surround them; they have, in effect, become
unwanted organisms within a superior body. (Wise deliberately avoided
using famous actors in order to get the muted performances he wished to
juxtapose with the assertive machinery.) The celebration of technology is
only apparent - the film, despite its implausible but exciting ending, is
coldly ironic, and rather pessimistic.




Pseudonym of Swiss writer Jean Schopfer (1868-1931). His sf novel La fin
d'un monde (1925; trans Jeffery E.Jeffery as The End of a World (1927 US;
vt Abyss) describes the cultural destruction of a prehistoric Ice Age
people by a more advanced culture. See also: ORIGIN OF MAN.

George ORWELL.

William F.NOLAN.

Working name of Irish-born UK writer and editor Anna Livia Julian Brawn
(1955- ), a lesbian feminist of radical views, which she has advanced in
tales of considerable wit, though at book length her effects become
uneasy. Her second novel, Accommodation Offered (1985), invokes a spirit
world which has a ring of fantasy. Her third, Bulldozer Rising (1988), is
an sf DYSTOPIA which depicts a culture rigidly dominated by young males in
which old women, unpersoned and unperceived from the age of 40, represent
the only remaining human potential, the only hope for revolt. About half
the stories assembled in Saccharin Cyanide (coll 1990) present similar
lessons in sf terms. Other works: Minimax (1992), a feminist vampire

This rubric covers the authors of works which, in their first edition,
appeared with no indication of authorship whatsoever, and any in which
authorship is indicated only by a row of asterisks or some similar symbol.
Works attributed to the author of... are considered only if the work
referred to is itself anonymous. Cases where subsequent editions reveal
authorship are not excluded. All other attributions are regarded as
PSEUDONYMS. Anonymously edited sf ANTHOLOGIES are not particularly common,
unlike the case with ghost and horror stories. Before the 20th century
literary anonymity was prevalent. Though this was most notable among the
numerous works of Grub-Street fictional journalism of the early 19th
century, many novels of a higher status likewise hid their authorship. On
some occasions the practice was adopted by well known writers - e.g., Lord
LYTTON - when the content of a novel differed radically from their earlier
writings; although such works are anonymous in a bibliographic sense (and
so within our purview), their authorship was often widely known at the
time of publication. Other authors used anonymity because their work was
controversial, an attribute common in early sf. Such was the case with
UTOPIAN novels, where the depiction of an ideal state highlighted faults
the writer saw in his (or, rarely, her) own society. Falling into this
category is The Reign of George VI, 1900-1925 (1763), the earliest known
example of the future-WAR novel. Showing the forceful George VI becoming
master of Europe following his successes in the European War of 1917-20,
the anonymous UK author gave no consideration to possible change in
society, technology or military strategy, his depicted future being very
similar to contemporary reality. Of more importance in the HISTORY OF SF
is L'an deux mille quatre cent quarante (1771 France; trans W.Hooper as
Memoirs of the Year Two Thousand Five Hundred 1772 UK) (by L.-S. MERCIER),
the first futuristic novel to show change as an inevitable process. It was
widely translated and reprinted, inspiring many imitators. Also anonymous,
but set in an imaginary country, was the first US utopian work, Equality,
or A History of Lithconia (1802 The Temple of Reason as Equality: A
Political Romance; 1837), which depicted a communal economy in a society
where conurbations had been rejected in favour of an equal distribution of
houses. Other anonymous utopian works, some of considerable importance,
appeared throughout the 19th century. Probably the most influential was
Lytton's The Coming Race (1871). Of similar importance is W.H.HUDSON's A
Crystal Age (1887), whose Darwinian extrapolation, although obscured by
the author's animistic view of the world, shows humankind evolved towards
a hive structure (HIVE-MINDS) and living in perfect harmony with Nature.
Another noteworthy Darwinian novel was Colymbia (1873) (by Robert Ellis
DUDGEON, a friend of and physician to Samuel BUTLER), which describes a
remote archipelago where humans have evolved into amphibious beings.
Integral to this gentle SATIRE is a scene in which the country's leading
philosophers debate their common origins with the seal family. Particular
mention should also be made of Ellis James Davis (?1847-1935), author of
the highly imaginative and carefully detailed novels Pyrna, a Commune, or
Under the Ice (1875) and Etymonia (1875) - both utopias, the first located
under a glacier, the second on an ISLAND - and of Coralia: A Plaint of
Futurity (1876), a supernatural fantasy. Other anonymous sf authors
eschewed the utopian format for a more direct attack on aspects of
contemporary society. Following the build-up in power by Germany in the
early 1870s there appeared The Battle of Dorking; Reminiscences of a
Volunteer (1871 chap) (by Sir George T.CHESNEY), the most socially
influential sf novel of all time. Advocating a restructuring of the UK
military system to meet a conceived INVASION, it provoked a storm in
Parliament and enjoyed numerous reprints and translations throughout the
world; it inspired many anonymous refutations. Many other anonymous sf
works, by contrast, enjoyed only rapid obscurity, in some case to the
detriment of sf's development. Perhaps the three most important of these
are: Annals of the Twenty-ninth Century, or The Autobiography of the Tenth
President of the World Republic (1874) (by Andrew BLAIR), a massive work
describing the step-by-step COLONIZATION of our Solar System; In the
Future: A Sketch in Ten Chapters (1875 chap), the story of a struggle for
religious tolerance in a future European empire; and Thoth: A Romance
(1888) (by J.S.Nicholson 1850-1927), an impressive LOST-WORLD novel set in
Hellenic times and depicting a scientifically advanced race using airships
in the North African desert. Among the diversity of ideas expressed by
anonymous sf authors were the stress inflicted upon an ape (APES AND
CAVEMEN) when taught to speak, in The Curse of Intellect (1895), the
emancipation of women, in the futuristic satire The Revolt of Man (1882)
(by Sir Walter BESANT) and, in Man Abroad: A Yarn of Some Other Century
(1887), the notion that humankind will take its international disputes
into space. The Checklist of Fantastic Literature (1948) by Everett
F.BLEILER lists 127 anonymous works (though many are fantasy rather than
sf). A number of anonymous authors whose identities are now known receive
entries in this volume, the most famous being Mary SHELLEY, author of
Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus (1818). Others are too numerous and
their works too slight to merit mention. The Supplemental Checklist of
Fantastic Literature (1963) by Bradford M.DAY adds a further 27 titles to
Bleiler's total, and there are certainly more waiting to be found - such
as The History of Benjamin Kennicott (1932). Anonymous sf authors are
still with us today, particularly in the COMICS and in BOYS' PAPERS, often
retaining their role as social critics or outrageous prognosticators.
However, most modern authors, when seeking to retain their privacy, make
use of PSEUDONYMS. Very few anonymous books - except for anthologies
(which are often released without crediting the compiler) and erotica -
are published today.


1. The imaginary device invented by Ursula K.LE GUIN for instantaneous
communication between two points, regardless of the distance between them.
The physics which led to its invention is described in The Dispossessed
(1974), but the device is mentioned in a number of the Hainish series of
stories written before The Dispossessed, and indeed is central to their
rationale. It compares interestingly with James BLISH's DIRAC
of both.) The ansible has since been adopted as a useful device by several
other writers. 2. Fanzine (1979-87 and 1991 onwards), first sequence being
50 issues, quarto, 4-10pp, ed from Reading, UK, by David LANGFORD. A is a
newszine, a fanzine that carries news on sf and FANDOM. It replaced the
earlier UK newszine Checkpoint (1971-9, 100 issues) ed Peter Roberts
(briefly ed Ian Maule and ed Darroll Pardoe), which in turn had replaced
Skyrack (1959-71, 96 issues) ed Ron Bennett. A's news items were given
sparkle by Langford's witty delivery. A was initially monthly, but
latterly gaps between its issues grew ever longer. In 1987, at the time of
but not due to the appearance of a later newszine, CRITICAL WAVE, Langford
- who had long expressed weariness with the labour of producing A - folded
it. However, he revived A in 1991, the second sequence being an
approximately monthly A4 2pp newssheet with occasional extra issues (given
numbers), beginning with 51. It had reached 93 by April 1995. A won a HUGO
in 1987, and its editor won Hugos as Best Fan Writer in 1985, 1987, and
every year from 1989 to 1994.

(? - ) UK writer whose When Woman Reigns (1938) transports its
protagonist to first the 26th and then the 36th century. Author and hero
take a rather dim view of these two periods, because in both men are
subservient to women.

(1841- ?) UK writer, in the Royal Navy 1859-96. His future-WAR tale, The
Great Anglo-American War of 1900 (1896 chap), warrants modest interest for
the worldwide scope of the conflict and for the UK's use of a new
invention to destroy San Francisco and win the war. For verisimilitude,
the tale should perhaps have been set many years further into the future.

Pseudonym of Thomas Anstey Guthrie (1856-1934), UK writer and humorist,
best known for his many contributions to the magazine Punch and for his
classic satirical fantasies, most of which follow the pattern of
introducing some magical item into contemporary society, with chaotic
consequences. These were widely imitated by many writers, including
R.ANDOM, W.D.Darlington (1890-1979) and Richard Marsh (1857-1915), and
thus became the archetypes of a distinctive subgenre of Ansteyan
fantasies. In his most successful work, Vice Versa, or A Lesson to Fathers
(1882; rev 1883), a Victorian gentleman and his schoolboy son exchange
personalities; the novel has to date been twice filmed and at least twice
adapted as a tv serial. In The Tinted Venus (1885) a young man
accidentally revives the Roman goddess of love, and in A Fallen Idol
(1886) an oriental deity exerts a sinister influence on a young artist.
The protagonist of The Brass Bottle (1900) acquires the services of a
djinn; a stage version is The Brass Bottle: A Farcical Fantastic Play
(1911). In Brief Authority (1915) reverses the pattern, with a Victorian
matron established as queen of the Brothers Grimm's M-rchenland. FA's work
comes closest to sf in Tourmalin's Time Cheques (1891; vt The Time
Bargain), one of the earliest TIME-PARADOX stories. The anonymously
published The Statement of Stella Maberley, Written by Herself (1896) is
an interesting story of abnormal PSYCHOLOGY. Other works: The Black Poodle
and Other Tales (coll 1884); The Talking Horse (coll 1891); Paleface and
Redskin, and Other Stories for Girls and Boys (coll 1898); Only Toys!
(1903), for children; Salted Almonds (coll 1906); Percy and Others (coll
1915), the first 5 stories in which feature the adventures of a bee; The
Last Load (coll 1928); Humour and Fantasy (coll 1931).

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