Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

Calendar: World's famous dates

1 January New Year's Day, and the National Day of Cuba, Sudan, and Hai-
ti. Feast day of St Felix of Bourges, St Almachius, St William of Dijon,
St Eugendus or Oyend,  St Peter of Atroa, St Odilo, and St Fulgentius of
Ruspe. 1785London's oldest daily paper The Daily Universal Register (re-
named  The  Times in 1788) was first published.  1801 Italian astronomer
Giuseppe Piazzi became the first person to discover an asteroid;  he na-
med  it  Ceres.  1887  Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in
Delhi. 1894 The Manchester Ship Canal, England, was officially opened to
traffic.  1901 The Commonwealth of Australia was formed.  1909 The first
payments of old-age pensions were made in Britain,  with persons over 70
receiving five shillings (25p) a week.  1958 The European Community came
into existence.  1959 Fidel Castro overthrew the government of Fulgencio
Batista,  and  seized power in Cuba.  1993 Czechoslovakia split into two
separate states,  the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the peaceful division
had been engineered in 1992.  Born Lorenzo de' Medici (The Magnificent),
Florentine ruler, 1449; Paul Revere, US patriot, 1735; E M Forster, Eng-
lish novelist,  1879; William Fox, US movie mogul, 1879; J Edgar Hoover,
director of the FBI,  1895;  J D Salinger,  US author,  1919; Joe Orton,
English  dramatist,  1933.  Died  William Wycherley,  English dramatist,
1716; James Stuart, the Old Pretender, 1766; Heinrich Hertz, German phy-
sicist,  1894;  Edwin Landseer Lutyens, English architect, 1944; Maurice
Chevalier, French actor and singer, 1972; L Ron Hubbard, US science-fic-
tion writer and founder of Scientology, 1986.

2 January Feast day of St Seraphim of Sarov, St Basil, St Gregory Nazi-
anzen, St Munchin, St Adalhard or Adelard, St Caspar of Bufalo, St Maca-
rius of Alexandria, St Vincentian, and the Holy Name of Jesus. 1492 Gra-
nada,  the last Moorish stronghold in Spain,  surrendered to the  Spani-
ards.  1635 Cardinal Richelieu established the Acadйmie Franзaise.  1839
French photographer Louis Daguerre took the first photograph of the  mo-
on.  1946  King  Zog of Albania,  who had been residing in England since
1939,  was deposed.  1959 The Russian uncrewed spacecraft  Luna  I,  the
first rocket to pass near the moon, was launched. 1971 A barrier collap-
sed at the Ibrox Park football stadium in Glasgow,  crushing 66 fans  to
death. 1979 The trial of Sid Vicious, the Sex Pistols' singer accused of
murdering his girlfriend Nancy Spungen,  began in New York.  Born  James
Wolfe,  British general, 1727; George Murray, English classical scholar,
1866;  Michael Tippett, English composer, 1905; Isaac Asimov, US bioche-
mist and science-fiction writer,  1920; Roger Miller, US singer and com-
poser,  1936; David Bailey, English photographer, 1938. Died Ovid, Roman
poet, 17; Livy, Roman historian, 17; George Airy, English Astronomer Ro-
yal,  1892;  Emil Janning, US film actor, 1950; Tex Ritter, US stage and
screen singing cowboy, 1974; Dick Emery, English comedian, 1983.

3 January Feast day of St Peter Balsam, St Bertilia of Mareuil, St Ant-
herus,  pope, and St Genevieve or Genovefa. 1521 Pope Leo X excommunica-
ted Martin Luther.  1777 The Battle of Princeton took place in the Revo-
lutionary War,  in which George Washington defeated the British  forces,
led  by  Cornwallis.  1924 English explorer Howard Carter discovered the
sarcophagus of Tutankhamen in the  Valley  of  the  Kings,  near  Luxor,
Egypt.  1959 Alaska became the 49th of the United States. 1962 Pope John
XXIII excommunicated Cuban prime minister Fidel Castro. 1991 The British
government  announced that seven Iraqi diplomats,  another embassy staff
member and 67 other Iraqis were being expelled  from  Britain.  1993  US
President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed the se-
cond Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in Moscow. Born Marcus Tul-
lius Cicero, Roman orator and statesman, 106 BC; Clement Attlee, British
statesman,  1883;  J R R Tolkien,  English writer, 1892; Ray Milland, US
film actor, 1907; Victor Borge, Danish musician and comedian, 1909; John
Thaw,  British actor,  1942. Died Josiah Wedgwood, English potter, 1795;
Pierre Larousse,  French editor and encyclopedist, 1875; Jaroslav Hasek,
Czech novelist,  1923;  Conrad Hilton, US hotel magnate, 1979; Joy Adam-
son, British naturalist and author, 1980.

4 January National day of Myanmar.  Feast day of St Gregory of Langres,
St Roger of Ellant,  St Elizabeth Bayley Seton, St Pharaпdis, and St Ri-
gobert  of Reims.  1884 The socialist Fabian Society was founded in Lon-
don,  UK.  1885 The first successful surgical removal of an appendix was
performed, in Iowa, US. 1936 The first pop-music chart was compiled, ba-
sed on record sales published in New York in Billboard.  1944 The attack
on  Monte Cassino was launched by the British Fifth Army in Italy.  1972
Rose Helibron became the first woman judge in Britain at the Old Bailey,
London. 1975 In Vietnam, the communist Khmer Rouge, began to besiege the
Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.  1981 The Broadway show Frankenstein  lost
an  estimated  2 million dollars,  when it opened and closed on the same
night.  1991 The UN Security Council voted unanimously to condemn  Isra-
el's treatment of the Palestinians in the occupied territories. Born Lo-
uis Braille, French deviser of an alphabet for the blind, 1809; Augustus
John,  Welsh painter, 1878; Floyd Patterson, US boxer, 1935; Grace Bumb-
ry,  US opera singer, 1937; Dyan Cannon, US actress, 1939; John McLaugh-
lin,  British blues and jazz guitarist,  1943. Died Ralph Vaughan Willi-
ams,  English composer,  1958;  Albert Camus, French novelist and drama-
tist,  1960; T S Eliot, US poet and critic, 1965; Brian Gwynne Horrocks,
British general,  1985; Christopher Isherwood, English novelist and dra-
matist, 1986.

5 January Feast day of St Simeon Stylites,  St Gerlac, St Dorotheus the
Younger, St Apollinaris, St Convoyon, St Syncletica, and St John Nepomu-
cene Neumann.  1477 Charles the Bold,  King of France, was killed at the
Battle of Nancy.  1896German physicist Rцntgen gave the first demonstra-
tion  of X-rays.  1938 Billie Holiday recorded "When You're Smiling (the
Whole World Smiles with You)' in New York.  1964 In Britain,  the London
Underground's first automatic ticket barrier was installed,  at Stamford
Brook. 1964 On his tour of the Holy Land, Pope Paul VI met Patriarch At-
henagoras  I,  the first meeting between the heads of the Roman Catholic
and Orthodox Churches in over 500 years.  1976  French  premier  Giscard
d'Estaing promulgated a law making French the only language permitted in
advertising in France.  Born Konrad Adenauer,  German  statesman,  1876;
Stella Gibbons, English poet and novelist, 1902; Alfred Brendel, Austri-
an concert pianist,  1931; Robert Duvall, US film actor, 1931; Juan Car-
los, King of Spain, 1938; Diane Keaton, US film actress, 1946. Died Eng-
lish king Edward the Confessor,  1066;  Catherine de' Medici,  Queen  of
France,  1589; Count Radetzky, Austrian soldier, 1858; Henry Shackleton,
Irish Antarctic explorer,  1922;  Calvin Coolidge,  30th  US  president,
1933; Amy Johnson, English aviator, 1941.

6 January  Epiphany.  Feast day of St John de Ribera,  St Erminold,  St
Wiltrudis,  St Guarinus.  871 English king Alfred defeated the Danes  at
the Battle of Ashdown.  1540 King Henry VIII was married to Anne of Cle-
ves,  his fourth wife.  1720 The Committee of Inquiry on the  South  Sea
Bubble  published  its findings.  1838 The first public demonstration of
the electric telegraph was given by its inventor, Samuel Morse. 1928 The
River Thames flooded,  drowning four people, and severely damaging pain-
tings stored in the Tate Gallery's basement. 1945 The Battle of the Bul-
ge,  or Ardennes offensive, ended, with 130,000 German and 77,000 Allied
casualties. 1988 La Coupole, the Parisian brasserie made famous by gene-
rations  of notable artists and writers who frequented it,  was sold for
Ј6 million to be converted into an office block. Born King Richard II of
England, 1367; St Joan of Arc, 1412; Gustave Dorй, French artist and il-
lustrator,  1833;  Carl Sandburg,  US poet, 1878; Loretta Young, US film
actress,  1913;  Rowan Atkinson, English actor and comedian, 1957; Kapil
Dev, Indian cricketer, 1959. Died Fanny Burney, English novelist and di-
arist,  1840; Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and biologist, 1884; Theodore
Roosevelt,  26th US president,  1919;  Archibald Joseph Cronin, Scottish
novelist,  1981;  Rudolf Nureyev, Russian dancer, 1993; Dizzy Gillespie,
US jazz trumpeter, 1993.

7 January Christmas Day in the Orthodox Church.  Feast day of St Valen-
tine, St Raymund of Peсafort, St Aldric, St Lucian of Antioch, St Tillo,
St Canute Lavard,  and St Reinold. 1558 Calais, the last English posses-
sion on mainland France, was recaptured by the French. 1610 Italian ast-
ronomer Galileo discovered Jupiter's four satellites,  naming  them  Io,
Europa,  Ganymede,  and Callisto.  1785 The first aerial crossing of the
English Channel was made by Jean Pierre Blanchard and Dr John  Jeffries,
in  a hot-air balloon.  1927 The London-New York telephone service began
operating,  a three-minute call costing Ј15.  1975 OPEC agreed to  raise
crude oil prices by 10%, which began a tidal wave of world economic inf-
lation.  1990 The Leaning Tower of Pisa was closed to the public, as its
accelerated  rate  of  'leaning' raised fears for the safety of its many
visitors.  Born Joseph Bonaparte, King of Naples, 1768; Carl Laemmle, US
film producer,  founder of Universal Pictures,  1867;  Adolph Zukor,  US
film magnate,  1873;  Charles Pйguy,  French poet and  socialist,  1873;
Francis Poulenc,  French composer,  1899; Gerald Durrell, British author
and naturalist,  1925. Died Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VI-
II,  1536;  Nicholas Hilliard,  English miniaturist painter, 1619; Andrй
Maginot,  French politician,  1932;  Trevor Howard, British actor, 1988;
Michinomiya Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, 1989.

8 January Feast day of St Severinus of Noricum, St Severinus of Septem-
peda,  and St Wulsin. 1815 The Americans, under Andrew Jackson, defeated
the British at the Battle of New Orleans. 1886 The Severn Railway Tunnel
- Britain's longest - was opened.  1889 US inventor Herman Hollerith pa-
tented his tabulator, the first device for data processing; his firm wo-
uld later become one of IBM's founding companies.  1916 The final  with-
drawal of Allied troops from Gallipoli took place.  1921 David Lloyd Ge-
orge became the first prime minister tenant at Chequers Court,  Bucking-
hamshire,  UK.  1959  French  general Charles de Gaulle became the first
president of the Fifth Republic.  1993 Bosnian President Izetbegovic vi-
sited the US to plead his government's case for Western military aid and
intervention to halt Serbian aggression.  Born Wilkie  Collins,  English
novelist,  1824;  Elvis Presley,  US rock singer,  1935; Shirley Bassey,
Welsh-born singer, 1937; Stephen Hawking, English physicist and mathema-
tician,  1942;  David Bowie, English rock singer and actor, 1947; Calvin
Smith, US athlete, 1961. Died Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer, 1642;
Eli Whitney,  US inventor of the cotton gin, 1825; Paul Verlaine, French
poet,  1895;  Zhou Enlai,  Chinese leader, 1976; Gregori Maximilianovich
Malenkov, Soviet leader, 1988; Terry- Thomas, English film comedy actor,

9 January Feast day of Saints Julian and  Basilissa,  St  Berhtwald  of
Canterbury, St Peter of Sebastea, St Waningus or Vaneng, and St Marciana
of Rusuccur. 1799 British prime minister William Pitt the Younger intro-
duced  income tax,  at two shillings (10p) in the pound,  to raise funds
for the Napoleonic Wars. 1902 New York State introduced a bill to outlaw
flirting in public. 1969 The supersonic airplane Concorde made its first
trial flight, at Bristol. 1972 The ocean liner Queen Elizabeth was dest-
royed  by  fire in Hong Kong harbor.  1972 British miners went on strike
for the first time since 1926. 1991 US secretary of state Baker and Ira-
qi foreign minister Aziz met for 611/2 hours in Geneva, but fai-
led to reach any agreement that would forestall war in the Persian Gulf.
Born Gracie Fields, English singer, 1898; George Balanchine, US choreog-
rapher, 1904; Simone de Beauvoir, French novelist and critic, 1908; Ric-
hard Nixon,  37th US president,  1913; Gypsy Rose Lee, US striptease ar-
tist and actress, 1914; Joan Baez, US singer, 1941. Died Caroline Lucre-
tia Herschel,  English astronomer,  1848;  Napoleon III, French emperor,
1873; Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand writer, 1923; Tommy Handley, Eng-
lish radio comedian,  1949;  Frederick Gibberd, British architect, 1984;
Robert Mayer,  British philanthropist, 1985; Peter Cook, English comedi-
an, 1995.

10 January Feast day of St Marcian of Constantinople, St William of Bo-
urges,  St Agatho, pope, St Dermot or Diarmaid, St Peter Orseolo, and St
John  the  Good.  1840  The penny post,  whereby mail was delivered at a
standard charge rather than paid for by the recipient, began in Britain.
1863  British  Prime  Minister Gladstone opened the first section of the
London Underground Railway system, from Paddington to Farringdon Street.
1920 The Treaty of Versailles was ratified,  officially ending World War
I with Germany. 1920 The League of Nations held its first meeting in Ge-
neva. 1926 Fritz Lang's film Metropolis was first shown, in Berlin. 1946
The first meeting of the United Nations General Assembly took  place  in
London,  UK. 1949 Vinyl records were launched by RCA (45 r.p.m.) and Co-
lumbia (33.3 r.p.m.).  1992 An IRA bomb exploded in  Whitehall,  London,
UK, 300 m/975 ft from Downing Street; the IRA threatened further attacks
on the mainland.  Born Michel Ney,  French marshal,  1769;  Barbara Hep-
worth, English sculptor, 1903; Paul Henreid, Austrian actor, 1908; Gali-
na Ulanova,  Russian ballerina,  1910;  Johnny Ray, US singer, 1927; Rod
Stewart, English rock singer, 1945. Died Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish bota-
nist, 1778; Samuel Colt, US gunsmith, 1862; Sinclair Lewis, US novelist,
1951;  Dashiell Hammett, US detective-story writer, 1961; Coco (Gabriel-
le) Chanel,  French fashion designer, 1971; Anton Karas, Austrian compo-
ser, 1985.

11 January Feast day of St Salvius or Sauve of Amiens, and St Theodosi-
us the Cenobiarch.  1569 England's first state lottery was held; tickets
were obtainable from the West Door of St Paul's Cathedral,  London,  UK.
1867 Benito Juarez returned to the  Mexican  presidency,  following  the
withdrawal  of  French  troops  and the execution of Emperor Maximilian.
1922 Leonard Thompson became the first person to be successfully treated
with insulin,  at Toronto General Hospital. 1963 The first disco, called
the 'Whisky-a-go-go', opened in Los Angeles, US. 1973 The Open Universi-
ty awarded its first degrees. 1977 Rolling Stone Keith Richards was tri-
ed in London, UK, for possession of cocaine, found in his automobile af-
ter an accident, and fined Ј750. 1991 An auction of silver and paintings
that had been acquired by the late Ferdinand Marcos and his wife,  Imel-
da, brought in a total of $20.29 million at Christie's in New York. Born
Ezra Cornell,  US philanthropist,  1807;  Fred Archer,  English  jockey,
1857;  Henry Gordon Selfridge, US entrepreneur and founder of the London
department store, 1864; Alan Paton, South African author, 1903; Rod Tay-
lor, Australian film actor, 1929; John Sessions, English actor and come-
dian,  1953.  Died Hans Sloane,  British physician and naturalist, 1753;
Thomas Hardy, English poet and novelist, 1928; Alberto Giacometti, Swiss
sculptor and painter, 1966; Richmal Crompton, English author, 1969; Pad-
raic Colum, Irish poet, 1972; Isidor Rabi, US physicist, 1988.

12 January  Feast  day of St Benedict or Benet Biscop,  St Tatiana,  St
Margaret Bourgeoys,  St Arcadius, St Caesaria, St Victorian, and St Eut-
ropius.  1866 The Royal Aeronautical Society was founded in London,  UK.
1875 Kwang-su was made emperor of China. 1964 The Sultan of Zanzibar was
overthrown,  following an uprising,  and a republic proclaimed. 1971 PLO
terrorist Abu Davoud,  leader of the Black September  group  responsible
for the killing of 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics, was rele-
ased from prison in France. 1970 The Boeing 747 aircraft touched down at
Heathrow  Airport at the end of its first transatlantic flight.  1991 US
Congress passed a resolution authorizing President Bush to use  military
power to force Iraq out of Kuwait. 1993 Sectarian violence continued for
the eighth consecutive day in Bombay,  India; 200 people died in nation-
wide clashes.  Born Johann Pestalozzi, Swiss educational reformer, 1746;
John Singer Sargent,  US painter,  1856;  Jack London,  US author, 1876;
Hermann Goering,  German Nazi leader, 1893; P W Botha, South African po-
litician, 1916; Joe Frazier, US heavyweight boxer, 1944. Died Maximilian
I,  Holy Roman Emperor,  1519;  Jan Breughel the Elder, Flemish painter,
1625;  Pierre de Fermat,  French mathematician, 1665; Isaac Pitman, Eng-
lish teacher and inventor of shorthand, 1897; Nevil Shute, English nove-
list, 1960; Agatha Christie, English detective-story writer, 1976.

13 January Feast day of St Hilary of Poitiers, St Agrecius, and St Ber-
no. 1893 The British Independent Labour Party was formed by Keir Hardie.
1898 French novelist Emile Zola published J'accuse/I Accuse,  a pamphlet
indicting  the  persecutors of Dreyfus.  1910 Opera was broadcast on the
radio for the first time - Enrico Caruso singing from the stage  of  New
York's Metropolitan Opera House. 1964 Capitol records released the Beat-
les' first single in the US;  'I Wanna Hold Your Hand' sold one  million
copies in the first three weeks. 1978 NASA selected its first women ast-
ronauts, 15 years after the USSR had a female astronaut orbit the Earth.
1991  Soviet troops killed 15 protesters in Vilnius,  capital of Lithua-
nia,  in a crackdown on pro-independence forces. 1993 Former East German
leader Erich Honecker, who had been awaiting trial on charges of mansla-
ughter,  was released from a Berlin prison because of ill  health.  Born
Sophie Tucker,  US singer and vaudeville star, 1884; Johannes Bjelke-Pe-
tersen,  Australian politician,  1911;  Ted Willis,  English  dramatist,
1918;  Robert Stack,  US film actor, 1919; Michael Bond, English creator
of the Paddington Bear stories for children,  1926. Died Edmund Spenser,
English poet,  1599;  George Fox, English founder of the Society of Fri-
ends,  1691; Stephen Foster, US songwriter, 1864; James Joyce, Irish no-
velist, 1941; Hubert Humphrey, US politician, 1978.

14 January  Feast  day of The Martyrs of Mount Sinai,  St Barbasymas or
Barbascemin,  St Antony Pucci, St Datius, St Macrina the Elder, St Sava,
St Felix of Nola, and St Kentigern or Mungo. 1858 Attempt on the life of
Napoleon III,  in Paris. 1900 Puccini's opera Tosca was first performed,
in Rome. 1907 An earthquake killed over 1,000 people in Kingston, Jamai-
ca,  virtually destroying the capital.  1943 US President Roosevelt  and
British  Prime Minister Churchill met at Casablanca.  1954 Baseball hero
Joe DiMaggio married film star Marilyn Monroe.  1993  Amid  increasingly
intrusive  coverage about the private lives of the British royal family,
the government pledged to introduce legislation to criminalize invasions
of privacy by the press. Born Henri Fantin-Latour, French painter, 1836;
Albert Schweitzer,  French missionary surgeon,  1875; Cecil Beaton, Bri-
tish photographer and stage designer, 1904; Joseph Losey, US film direc-
tor,  1909; Yukio Mishima, Japanese novelist, 1925; Trevor Nunn, British
stage director,  1940;  Faye Dunaway, US actress, 1941. Died Edmond Hal-
ley, English astronomer, 1742; Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, French pa-
inter,  1867;  Lewis  Carroll,  English mathematician and author,  1898;
Humphrey Bogart,  US film actor, 1957; Peter Finch, English actor, 1977;
Anaпs Nin, US novelist and diarist, 1977.

15 January  Feast day of St Macarius the Elder,  St Isidore of Alexand-
ria,  St Bonitus or Bonet, St Ita, and St John Calybites. 1559 The coro-
nation of Queen Elizabeth I took place.  1759 The British Museum opened,
at Montague House,  Bloomsbury,  London.  1797 London haberdasher  James
Hetherington  was  fined Ј50 for wearing his new creation,  the top hat.
1880 The London Telephone Company published  Britain's  first  telephone
directory,  listing 255 names. 1927 Captain Teddy Wakelam gave the first
live rugby commentary on BBC radio of the match between Wales  and  Eng-
land at Twickenham.  1971 The Aswan High Dam,  on the Nile,  financed by
the USSR, was opened. 1973 President Nixon called a halt to the US's Vi-
etnam offensive.  1992 The EC granted diplomatic recognition to Slovenia
and Croatia,  essentially recognizing the dismemberment  of  Yugoslavia.
Born Moliиre,  French dramatist,  1622; Aristotle Onassis, Greek shipow-
ner,  1906;  Lloyd Bridges,  US film actor, 1913; Gamal Nasser, Egyptian
leader, 1918; Martin Luther King, US civil-rights campaigner, 1929; Mar-
garet O'Brien,  US film actress, 1937. Died Emma Hamilton, English cour-
tesan, mistress to Lord Nelson, 1815; Matthew B Brady, US Civil War pho-
tographer, 1896; Rosa Luxemburg, German socialist, 1919; Jack Teagarden,
US jazz musician,  1964;  Sean MacBride,  Irish politician,  1988; Sammy
Cahn, US lyricist, 1993.

16 January Feast day of St Henry of Cocket,  St Marcellus, pope, St Be-
rard  and Others,  St Fursey,  St Priscilla,  and St Honoratus of Arles.
1547 Ivan the Terrible was crowned first tsar of Russia.  1809 The  Bri-
tish  defeated  the  French at the Battle of Corunna,  in the Peninsular
War. 1920 The 18th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified, prohi-
biting the sale of alcoholic beverages.  1925 Leon Trotsky was dismissed
as Chairman of the Revolutionary Council of the USSR.  1932 Duke Elling-
ton and his Orchestra recorded 'It Don't Mean a Thing' in New York. 1970
Colonel Khaddhafi became virtual president of Libya.  1991 A US-led  in-
ternational  force launched Operation Desert Storm on Iraq and Iraqi-oc-
cupied Kuwait less than 17 hours after the expiration of the UN deadline
for  Iraqi withdrawal.  Born Franz Brentano,  German philosopher,  1838;
Andrй Michelin, French tire-maker, 1853; Diana Wynyard, British actress,
1906, Alexander Knox, Canadian film actor, 1907; Ethel Merman, US singer
and actress,  1909; Cliff Thorburn, snooker player, 1948. Died Lйo Deli-
bes, French composer, 1891; Carole Lombard, US film actress, 1942; Artu-
ro Toscanini,  Italian conductor,  1957; Robert Van de Graff, US nuclear
physicist,  1967; Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, former Shah of Iran, 1979; Flo-
rence Desmond, British actress, 1993.

17 January Feast day of St Sabinus of Piacenza, St Julian Sabas, St An-
tony the Abbot,  St Geulf or Genou, St Richimir, St Sulpicius II or Sul-
pice of Bourges,  and Saints Speusippus,  Eleusippus,  and  Meleusippus.
1377 The Papal See was transferred from Avignon back to Rome.  1773 Cap-
tain Cook's Resolution became the first  ship  to  cross  the  Antarctic
Circle.  1852  The independence of the Transvaal Boers was recognized by
Britain. 1912 English explorer Robert Falcon Scott reached the South Po-
le; Norwegian Roald Amundsen had beaten him there by one month. 1959 Se-
negal and the French Sudan joined to form the  Federal  State  of  Mali.
1966 A B-52 carrying four H-bombs collided with a refueling tanker, kil-
ling eight of the crew and releasing the bombs.  1977 US double murderer
Gary  Gilmore became the first to be executed in the US in a decade;  he
chose to be executed by firing squad.  1991 US, British and Saudi forces
launched  a  combined  attack  against Iraq,  beginning Operation Desert
Storm.  1992 An IRA bomb, placed next to a remote country road in County
Tyrone,  Northern Ireland, killed seven building workers and injured se-
ven others.  1994 An earthquake in Los Angeles, measuring 6.6 on Richter
scale,  left 61 dead and thousands injured and homeless.  1995Over 3,500
people were killed when an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale
hit the city of Kobe,  Japan.  Born Benjamin Franklin,  US statesman and
scientist, 1706; David Lloyd George, English statesman, 1863; Nevil Shu-
te,  English novelist, 1899; Al Capone, US gangster, 1899; Muhammad Ali,
US boxer,  1942;  Paul Young, English singer, 1956. Died Tomaso Giovanni
Albinoni,  Italian composer,  1751;  Quintin Hogg,  English merchant and
philanthropist,  1903; Francis Galton, English anthropologist and explo-
rer,  1911;  T W White,  English writer, 1964; Ruskin Spear, British ar-
tist, 1990.

18 January Feast day of St Prisca,  St Peter's Chair, Rome, St Desle or
Deicolus, and St Volusian. 1778 Captain Cook discovered the Sandwich Is-
lands, now known as Hawaii. 1871 Wilhelm, King of Prussia from 1861, was
proclaimed the first German Emperor.  1911 The first landing of an airc-
raft on a ship's deck was made by US pilot Eugene Ely,  in San Francisco
Bay.  1919 The Versailles Peace Conference opened. 1944 The German siege
of Leningrad, which began Sept 1941, was relieved. 1972 Former Rhodesian
prime  minister  Garfield  Todd and his daughter were placed under house
arrest for campaigning against Rhodesian independence.  1977 In  Austra-
lia,  a Sydney-bound train derailed,  killing 82 people. Born Peter Mark
Roget,  English lexicographer,  1779;  A A Milne,  English author, 1882;
Oliver Hardy,  US comedian, 1892; Cary Grant, US film actor, 1904; Danny
Kaye, US film actor and comedian, 1913; David Bellamy, English botanist,
1933. Died John Tyler, 10th US president, 1862; Rudyard Kipling, English
author,  1936; Sydney Greenstreet, British film actor, 1954; Hugh Gaits-
kell,  British statesman,  1963;  Cecil Beaton, English photographer and
designer, 1980; George Markstein, British author, 1988.

19 January Feast day of St Canute IV of Denmark, Saints Abachum and Au-
difax, St Fillan or Foelan, St Albert of Cashel, St Charles of Sezze, St
Germanicus, Saints Marius and Martha, St Messalina, St Henry of Uppsala,
St  Nathalan,  and  St Wulfstan.  1764 John Wilkes was expelled from the
British House of Commons for seditious libel.  1793 King Louis  XVI  was
tried by the French Convention, found guilty of treason and sentenced to
the guillotine.  1853 Verdi's opera Il Trovatore was first staged in Ro-
me.  1915  More  than 20 people were killed when German zeppelins bombed
England for the first time; the bombs were dropped on Great Yarmouth and
King's Lynn.  1942 The Japanese invaded Burma (now Myanmar). 1966 Indira
Gandhi became prime minister of India.  1969 In protest against the Rus-
sian  invasion  of 1968,  Czech student Jan Palach set himself alight in
Prague's Wenceslas Square.  1993 IBM announced a loss of  $4.97  billion
for 1992, the largest single-year loss in US corporate history. Born Ja-
mes Watt,  Scottish inventor, 1736; Edgar Allan Poe, US author and poet,
1809;  Paul Cйzanne, French painter, 1839; Janis Joplin, US rock singer,
1943; Dolly Parton, US country singer, 1946; Stefan Edberg, Swedish ten-
nis player,  1966. Died Hans Sachs, German poet and composer, 1576; Wil-
liam Congreve,  English dramatist,  1729; Louis Hйrold, French composer,
1833;  Pierre  Joseph Proudhon,  French journalist and anarchist,  1865;
Bhagwam Shree Rajneesh, Indian guru, 1990.

20 January Feast day of St Sebastian, St Fabian, pope, St Euthymius the
Great, and St Fechin. 1265 The first English parliament met in Westmins-
ter Hall,  convened by the Earl of Leicester,  Simon de  Montfort.  1841
Hong Kong was ceded by China and occupied by the British.  1886 The Mer-
sey Railway Tunnel was officially opened by the Prince  of  Wales.  1892
The game of basketball was first played at the YMCA in Springfield, Mas-
sachusetts.  1944 The RAF dropped 2,300 tons of bombs  on  Berlin.  1961
John  F Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th US president,  and the first
Roman Catholic to hold this office.  1981 Fifty-two Americans, held hos-
tage in the US embassy in Teheran for 444 days by followers of Ayatollah
Khomeini,  were released.  1987 Terry Waite, the Archbishop of Canterbu-
ry's special envoy in the Middle East, disappeared on a peace mission in
Beirut,  Lebanon. Born Theobald Wolfe Tone, Irish nationalist, 1763; Ge-
orge Burns,  US comedian and actor, 1896; Federico Fellini, Italian film
director,  1920;  Patricia Neal, US film actress, 1926; Edwin Aldrin, US
astronaut,  1930;  Malcolm McLaren,  British rock impresario, 1946. Died
John Soane, English architect, 1837; John Ruskin, English art critic and
writer, 1900; King George V, 1936; Johnny Weissmuller, US film actor and
swimmer,  1984; Barbara Stanwyck, US film actress, 1990; Audrey Hepburn,
British film actress, 1993.

21 January Feast day of St Agnes,  St Fructuosus of Tarragona,  St Pat-
roclus of Troyes,  St Alban or Bartholomew Roe,  St Epiphanius of Pavia,
and St Meinrad. 1793 Louis XVI, King of France, was guillotined in Place
de la Rйvolution.  1846 The first issue of the  Daily  News,  edited  by
Charles  Dickens,  was published.  1911 The first Monte Carlo automobile
rally was held; it was won seven days later by French racer Henri Rougi-
er.  1941 The British communist newspaper,  the Daily Worker, was banned
due to wartime restrictions.  1954 The world's first nuclear  submarine,
the USS Nautilus, was launched. 1976 Concorde inaugurated its commercial
service with simultaneous take-offs,  from Paris to Rio de  Janeiro  and
from London to Bahrain.  Born John Charles Fremont,  US explorer,  1813;
Thomas Jonathan ('Stonewall') Jackson,  US  Confederate  general,  1824;
Christian Dior,  French couturier,  1905;  Benny Hill, English comedian,
1924;  Jack Nicklaus, US golfer, 1940; Placido Domingo, Spanish operatic
tenor, 1941. Died Elisha Gray, US inventor, 1901; V I Lenin, Russian le-
ader, 1924; Lytton Strachey, English critic and biographer, 1932; George
Orwell,  British  novelist,  1950;  Cecil B De Mille,  US film director,

22 January Feast day of St Dominic of Sora,  St Berthwald of  Ramsbury,
St Anastasius the Persian, St Blesilla, St Vincent Pallotti, and St Vin-
cent of Saragossa.  1771 The Falkland Islands were ceded to  Britain  by
Spain.  1879  British troops were massacred by the Zulus at Isandhlwana.
1905 Insurgent workers were fired on  in  St  Petersburg,  resulting  in
'Bloody  Sunday'.  1924  Ramsay MacDonald took office as Britain's first
Labour prime minister.  1959 British world racing champion Mike Hawthorn
was killed while driving on the Guildford bypass.  1972 The United King-
dom,  the Irish Republic,  and Denmark joined the Common Market. 1973 US
boxer George Foreman knocked out Joe Frazier in Kingston, Jamaica, beco-
ming the world heavyweight boxing champion.  1992 Rebel soldiers  seized
the national radio station in Kinshasa, Zaire's capital, and broadcast a
demand for the government's resignation.  Born  Ivan  III  (the  Great),
Grand Duke of Muscovy,  1440; Francis Bacon, English politician and phi-
losopher,  1561;  Lord Byron,  English poet, 1788; D W Griffith, US film
producer and director,  1875; John Hurt, English actor, 1940; George Fo-
reman,  US boxer, 1948. Died William Paterson, Scottish financier, 1719;
David Edward Hughes,  English inventor, 1900; Queen Victoria, 1901; Lyn-
don B Johnson, 36th US president, 1973; Herbert Sutcliffe, English cric-
keter, 1978; Arthur Bryant, British historian, 1985.

23 January Feast day of St Bernard of Vienne,  Saints Clement and Agat-
hangelus,  St Asclas, St John the Almsgiver, St Emerentiana, St Maimbod,
St Ildephonsus, and St Lufthidis. 1556 An earthquake in Shanxi Province,
China,  is thought to have killed some 830,000 people.  1571  The  Royal
Exchange in London,  England,  founded by financier Thomas Gresham,  was
opened by Queen Elizabeth I.  1849 English-born Elizabeth Blackwell gra-
duated  from a New York medical school to become the first woman doctor.
1924 The first Labour government was  formed,  under  Ramsay  MacDonald.
1943  The  British  captured Tripoli from the Germans.  1960 The US Navy
bathyscaphe Trieste, designed by Dr Piccard, descended to a record depth
of 10,750 m /35,820 ft in the Pacific Ocean.  1973 A ceasefire agreement
was reached at peacetalks in Paris,  ending the conflict between the  US
and North Vietnam. 1985 The proceedings of the House of Lords were tele-
vized for the first time.  Born Stendhal, French novelist, 1783; Edouard
Manet,  French painter,  1832;  Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein,  Russian
film director,  1898; Alfred Denning, British judge and former Master of
the Rolls, 1899; Jeanne Moreau, French actress, 1928; HSH Princess Caro-
line of Monaco,  1957.  Died William Pitt the Younger, British prime mi-
nister,  1806; Anna Pavlova, Russian ballerina, 1931; Edvard Munch, Nor-
wegian painter,  1944;  Pierre Bonnard, French painter, 1947; Paul Robe-
son,  US  actor  and singer,  1976;  Salvador Dali,  Spanish painter and
sculptor, 1989.

24 January Feast day of St Francis of Sales,  St Babylas of Antioch, St
Felician  of  Foligno,  and  St Macedonius the Barley-eater.  1848 James
Marshall was the first to discover gold in California,  at Sutter's Mill
near Coloma.  1916 The US Supreme Court ruled that income tax is uncons-
titutional.  1916 Conscription was introduced in Britain.  1935 Beer  in
cans was first sold,  in Virginia,  US,  by the Kreuger Brewing Company.
1962 French film director Franзois Truffaut's Jules et Jim premiered  in
Paris.  1978  A  Russian satellite crashed near Yellow Knife in Canada's
Northwest Territory. 1991 More than 15,000 Allied air sorties were flown
in the Gulf War, with 23 aircraft lost. Born Hadrian, Roman emperor, 76;
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, 1712; Ernest Borgnine, US film ac-
tor, 1917; Desmond Morris, English zoologist and writer, 1928; Neil Dia-
mond, US singer and songwriter, 1941; Nastassja Kinski, German film act-
ress,  1961. Died Caligula, Roman emperor, assassinated, AD 41; Randolph
Churchill,  British politician, 1895; Amadeo Modigliani, Italian artist,
1920;  Winston Churchill, British prime minister, 1965; George Cukor, US
film director, 1983.

25 January Feast day of Saints Juventinus and Maximinimus,  the Conver-
sion of St Paul,  St Apollo, St Artemas, St Publius, St Dwynwen, St Pop-
po,  and Saint Praejectus or Prix.  1533 King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
were secretly married. 1917 The US purchased the Danish West Indies (now
the Virgin Islands) for $25 million. 1924 The first Winter Olympic Games
were  inaugurated  in  Chamonix in the French Alps.  1938 Due to intense
sunspot activity,  the aurora borealis,  or 'northern lights', were seen
as  far  south as western Europe.  1971 Idi Amin led a coup that deposed
Milton Obote and became president of Uganda. 1971 At a US court, Charles
Manson and others were found guilty of murdering actress Sharon Tate and
four others. 1981 Jiang Qing, Mao's widow, was tried for treason and re-
ceived a death sentence,  which was subsequently commuted to life impri-
sonment.  Born Robert Boyle,  Irish physicist and chemist,  1627; Robert
Burns,  Scottish poet,  1759;  William Somerset Maugham, English author,
1874;  Virginia Woolf, English author, 1882; Wilhelm Furtwдngler, German
conductor,  1886;  Edvard Shevardnadze,  Russian politician,  1928. Died
Marcus Cocceius Nerva,  Roman emperor, AD 98; Lucas Cranach the Younger,
German painter, 1586; Dorothy Wordsworth, English writer, 1855; Al Capo-
ne, US gangster, 1947; Ava Gardner, US film actress, 1990.

26 January National Day of Australia and of India.  Feast day of St Ti-
mothy, St Margaret of Hungary, St Alberic, St Paula, St Conan of Man, St
Titus, St Eystein, and St Thordgith or Theorigitha of Barking. 1500 Vin-
cente  Yanez Pinzon discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal.  1841
Hong Kong was proclaimed a British sovereign territory.  1871  England's
Rugby Football Union was founded in London, by 20 clubs. 1905 The Culli-
nan diamond,  weighing 11/4 lbs,  was found by Captain Wells  at
the Premier Mine, near Pretoria, South Africa. 1939 In the Spanish Civil
War, Franco's forces, with Italian aid, took Barcelona. 1950 India beca-
me a republic within the Commonwealth.  1965 Hindi was made the official
language of India. 1992 Russian President Yeltsin announced that his co-
untry would stop targeting US cities with nuclear weapons.  Born Douglas
MacArthur,  US general, 1880; Stephane Grappelli, French jazz violinist,
1908;  Jimmy Van Heusen, US popular composer, 1913; Paul Newman, US film
actor,  1925; Eartha Kitt, US singer, 1928; Roger Vadim, French film di-
rector, 1928. Died Edward Jenner, English physician, 1823; Charles Geor-
ge Gordon, British general, 1885; Nikolaus August Otto, German engineer,
1891;  Edward G Robinson,  US film actor,  1973;  Nelson Rockefeller, US
statesman, 1979; Josй Ferrer, US actor, 1992.

27 January Feast day of St Julian of Le Mans,  St Marius or May, St An-
gela  Merici,  and  St Vitalian,  pope.  1879 Thomas Edison patented the
electric lamp. 1926 The first public demonstration of television was gi-
ven by John Logie Baird,  at his workshop in London, UK. 1943 The US Air
Force carried out its first bombing raid on Germany.  1967 Three US ast-
ronauts  died in a fire which broke out aboard the spacecraft Apollo du-
ring tests at Cape Kennedy.  1973 The Vietnam cease-fire  agreement  was
signed  by  North Vietnam and the US.  1992 Former world boxing champion
Mike Tyson went on trial for allegedly raping an 18-year-old  contestant
in  the  1991 Miss Black America Contest.  Born Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,
Austrian composer,  1756;  Wilhelm II,  Emperor of Germany, 1859; Jerome
Kern,  US composer,  1891;  John Eccles,  Australian physiologist, 1903;
Mordecai Richler,  Canadian novelist and dramatist,  1931;  John  Ogden,
English  pianist,  1937.  Died  John Audubon,  US artist and naturalist,
1851;  Giuseppe Verdi,  Italian composer,  1901; Giovanni Verga, Italian
novelist and dramatist,  1922; Carl Mannerheim, Finnish soldier and sta-
tesman,  1951;  Mahalia Jackson, US gospel singer, 1972; Thomas Sopwith,
British aircraft designer, 1989.

28 January Feast day of St Thomas Aquinas,  St Amadeus of Lausanne,  St
Peter Nolasco,  St Peter Thomas,  and St Paulinus of Aquileia.  1521 The
Diet of Worms began, at which Protestant reformer Luther was declared an
outlaw by the Roman Catholic church.  1807  London  became  the  world's
first  city to be illuminated by gas light,  when the lamps on Pall Mall
were lit.  1871 In the Franco-Prussian War,  Paris fell to the Prussians
after a five-month siege.  1935 Iceland became the first country to int-
roduce legalized abortion.  1942 The British Eighth Army retreated to El
Alamein.  1986  The  US  space shuttle Challenger exploded shortly after
lift-off from Cape Canaveral,  killing five men and two women on  board.
1993  Solicitors  for British prime minister John Major issued writs for
libel against the New Statesman and Scallywag for publishing stories de-
tailing rumors of an affair between Major and Clare Latimer,  a caterer.
Born Henry Morton Stanley, British journalist and explorer, 1841; Augus-
te  Piccard,  Swiss  balloonist and deep-sea explorer,  1884;  Ernst Lu-
bitsch,  US film director,  1892; Jackson Pollock, US artist, 1921; Alan
Alda,  US film actor and director,  1936;  Mikhail Baryshnikov,  Russian
ballet dancer,  1948. Died Charlemagne, Holy Roman emperor, 814; Francis
Drake,  English  buccaneer and explorer,  1596;  Thomas Bodley,  English
scholar and diplomat,  1613;  Vicente Blasco Ibбсez,  Spanish writer and
politician,  1928; W B Yeats, Irish poet, 1939; Klaus Fuchs, German spy,

29 January Feast day of St Sainian of Troyes,  St Sulpicius  'Severus',
and  St  Gildas  the Wise.  1728 John Gay's The Beggar's Opera was first
performed at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre,  London, England. 1848 Green-
wich Mean Time was adopted by Scotland.  1856 Britain's highest military
decoration,  the Victoria Cross, was founded by Queen Victoria. 1886 The
first successful gasoline-driven automobile, built by Karl Benz, was pa-
tented.  1916 Paris was bombed by German zeppelins for the  first  time.
1942 The BBC Radio 4 program 'Desert Island Discs',  devised and presen-
ted by Roy Plomley, was first broadcast. 1978 The use of environmentally
damaging aerosol sprays was banned in Sweden. 1991 In the Gulf War, Iraq
began its first major ground offensive into Saudi  Arabia.  Born  Thomas
Paine,  English political writer and reformer, 1737; W C Fields, US film
actor and comedian, 1880; Victor Mature, US film actor, 1915; Paddy Cha-
yefsky, US writer, 1923; Germaine Greer, Australian feminist and author,
1939; Katharine Ross, US film actress, 1943. Died King George III, 1820;
Alfred Sisley,  English painter, 1899; Douglas Haig, British field mars-
hal, 1928; Fritz Kreisler, US violinist, 1962; Alan Ladd, US film actor,
1964; Jimmy Durante, US comedian, 1980.

30 January Feast day of St Martina,  St Bathildis, St Adelelmus or Ale-
aume,  St Aldegundis,  St Barsimaeus,  and St Hyacintha Mariscotti. 1649
The  Commonwealth of England was established upon the execution of Char-
les I.  1790 The first purpose-built lifeboat was launched on the  River
Tyne.  1889 Rudolph,  crown prince of Austria, and his 17-year-old mist-
ress,  Baroness Marie Vetsera,  were found shot in his hunting lodge  at
Mayerling,  near  Vienna.  1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of
Germany.  1958 Yves Saint Laurent, aged 22, held his first major fashion
show in Paris.  1972 In Londonderry, Northern Ireland, 13 civilians were
shot by British troops during riots following an illegal march  -  known
as  'Bloody Sunday'.  Born Anton Chekhov,  Russian dramatist and writer,
1860;  Franklin D Roosevelt,  32nd US president,  1882; Gene Hackman, US
film actor,  1932; Vanessa Redgrave, English actress, 1937; Boris Spass-
ky,  Russian chess champion,  1938; Phil Collins, English pop singer and
drummer,  1951. Died King Charles I, 1649; Frank Doubleday, US publisher
and editor,  1934;  Orville Wright,  US aviation pioneer, 1948; Mohandas
Karamchand Gandhi,  Indian leader,  assassinated, 1948; Francis Poulenc,
French composer, 1963; Stanley Holloway, English actor and singer, 1982.

31 January Feast day of Saints Cyrus and John of Alexandria, St Francis
Xavier Bianchi,  St Adamnan of Coldingham,  St Aidan or Maedoc of Ferns,
St Eusebius of St Gall,  St Marcella of Rome, St John Bosco, and St Ulp-
hia.  1606 The executions of Winter, Rockwood, Keys, and Guy Fawkes, the
Gunpowder Conspirators,  took place in London,  England.  1747 The first
clinic  specializing in the treatment of venereal diseases was opened at
London Dock Hospital,  England. 1858 The Great Eastern, the five-funnel-
led steamship designed by Brunel, was launched at Millwall. 1876 All Na-
tive American Indians were ordered to move into reservations.  1929  The
USSR  exiled Leon Trotsky;  he found asylum in Mexico.  1958 Explorer I,
the first US Earth satellite, was launched from Cape Canaveral. 1983 The
wearing of seat belts in automobiles became compulsory in Britain.  Born
Franz Schubert,  Austrian composer,  1797; Zane Grey, US novelist, 1872;
Anna Pavlova, Russian ballerina, 1882; Freya Stark, English traveler and
writer,  1893;  Norman Mailer,  US novelist, 1923; Jean Simmons, English
film  actress,  1929.  Died Charles Edward Stuart,  the Young Pretender,
1788;  John Galsworthy,  English novelist,  1933; Jean Giraudoux, French
novelist and dramatist,  1944; C B Cochran, British theatrical producer,
1951; A A Milne, English author, 1956; Samuel Goldwyn, US film producer,

1 February Feast day of St John of the Grating, St Henry Morse, St Pio-
nius,  St Bride or Brigid of Kildare, St Seiriol, and St Sigebert III of
Austria.  1884  The  first  edition of the Oxford English Dictionary was
published.  1893 Thomas Edison opened the first film studio - to produce
films for peepshow machines - in New Jersey, US. 1896 Puccini's opera La
Bohиme was first staged in Turin.  1930 The Times  published  its  first
crossword puzzle. 1958 The United Arab Republic was formed by a union of
Egypt and Syria (it was broken 1961).  1965 Medical prescriptions on the
NHS became free of charge (they remained so until June 1968).  1979 Aya-
tollah Khomeini returned to Iran after 16 years of exile.  1994 US  talk
show  host  Larry King interviewed Gerry Adams,  President of Sinn Fein.
Born Victor Herbert,  US composer,  1859;  John Ford,  US film director,
1895;  Clark Gable, US film actor, 1901; Stanley Matthews, English foot-
baller,  1915; Renata Tebaldi, Italian operatic soprano, 1922; Don Ever-
ly,  US rock singer, 1937; Princess Stephanie of Monaco, 1966. Died Renй
Descartes,  French scientist and philosopher,  1650; Mary Wollstonecraft
Shelley,  English novelist, 1851; Carlos I, King of Portugal, assassina-
ted, 1908; Aritomo Yamagata, Japanese soldier and politician, 1922; Piet
Mondrian,  Swiss painter,  1944; Buster Keaton, US silent film comedian,

2 February Candlemas (Wives' Feast Day). Feast day of The Purification,
St Joan de Lestonnac,  St Adalbald of Ostrevant, and The Martyrs of Ebs-
dorf.  1801 The first parliament of the United Kingdom of Great  Britain
and  Ireland assembled.  1852 Britain's first men's public flushing toi-
lets opened on Fleet Street,  London,  UK.  1878 Greece declared war  on
Turkey.  1943 The German army surrendered to the Soviet army at Staling-
rad.  1972 The British Embassy in Dublin was burned down  by  protesters
angered  by the 'Bloody Sunday' shootings in Londonderry.  1986 Women in
Liechtenstein went to the polls for the first time.  1989 The USSR's mi-
litary  occupation  of  Afghanistan ended after nine years.  1990 The 30
year ban on the ANC was lifted.  1991 In Britain,  a protest against the
Gulf  War  was held in London's Hyde Park,  attended by more than 40,000
people.  Born Nell Gwyn,  English actress and mistress  of  Charles  II,
1650;  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Pйrigord, French statesman and dip-
lomat,  1754;  James Joyce,  Irish author, 1882; Elaine Stritch, US act-
ress,  1927; Stan Getz, US jazz saxophonist, 1927; Farrah Fawcett, US TV
actress,  1946.  Died Pope Clement XIII, 1769; Dmitri Ivanovich Mendele-
yev, Russian chemist, 1907; Bertrand Russell, English philosopher, 1970;
Sid Vicious, British punk singer, 1979; Alistair Maclean, Scottish nove-

3 February  Feast day of St Laurence of Spoleto,  St Anskar,  St Ia the
Virgin, St Laurence of Canterbury, St Blaise, St Werburga, and St Marga-
ret 'of England'.  1488 The Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Diaz landed
at Mossal Bay in the Cape - the first European known to have  landed  on
the  southern  extremity  of  Africa.  1913 The 16th Amendment to the US
Constitution,  authorising the power to impose and collect  income  tax,
was  ratified.  1919 The League of Nations held its first meeting in Pa-
ris,  with US President Wilson chairing.  1966 The first rocket-assisted
controlled landing on the Moon was made by the Soviet space vehicle Luna
IX.  1969 At the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo,  Yasser  Arafat
was appointed leader of the PLO. 1989 South African politician P W Botha
unwillingly resigned both party leadership and the presidency after suf-
fering a stroke. Born Felix Mendelssohn, German composer, 1809; Gertrude
Stein, US author, 1874; Alvar Aalto, Finnish architect, 1898; James Mic-
hener,  US novelist, 1907; Simone Weil, French writer, 1909; Frankie Va-
ughan,  English singer,  1928.  Died John of Gaunt,  Duke of  Lancaster,
1399; Richard 'Beau' Nash, British dandy and gambler, 1762; Woodrow Wil-
son,  28th US president,  1924;  Buddy Holly,  US singer and  guitarist,
1959; Boris Karloff, US film actor, 1969; John Cassavetes, US film actor
and director, 1989.

4 February National Day of Sri Lanka.  Feast day of St  Theophilus  the
Penitent,  St Nicholas Studites,  St Andrew Corsini,  bishop, St Joan of
Valois, St Isidore of Pelusium, St John de Britto, St Modan, St Phileas,
St Joseph of Leonessa,  and St Rembert. 1861 Seven secessionist southern
states formed the Confederate States of America, in Montgomery, Alabama.
1904 The Russo-Japanese War began after Japan laid siege to Port Arthur.
1928 Black US entertainer Josephine Baker's provocative  performance  in
Munich drew protests from members of the Nazi party. 1945 Allied leaders
Roosevelt,  Churchill,  and Stalin met at Yalta, in the Crimea. 1968 The
world's  largest hovercraft was launched at Cowes,  Isle of Wight.  1987
The US Stars and Stripes won the America's Cup back from Australia. 1993
Russian  scientists  unfurled a giant mirror in orbit and flashed a beam
of sunlight across Europe during the night;  observers saw it only as an
instantaneous flash.  Born Fernand Lйger,  French painter, 1881; Jacques
Prйvert,  French poet and novelist, 1900; Charles Lindbergh, US aviator,
1902;  Ida Lupino, English actress, 1918; Norman Wisdom, English comedi-
an, 1920; Alice Cooper, US pop singer, 1948. Died Lucius Septimius Seve-
rus,  Roman emperor, 211; Giambattista della Porta, Italian natural phi-
losopher,  1615; Robert Koldewey, German archeologist, 1925; Oliver Hea-
viside, English physicist, 1925; Karen Carpenter, US singer, 1983; Libe-
race, US entertainer, 1987.

5 February Feast day of St Agatha,  Saints Indractus and  Dominica,  St
Adelaide of Bellich, St Bertulph or Bertoul of Renty, St Avitus of Vien-
ne,  and St Vodalus or Voel.  1782 The Spanish captured Minorca from the
British. 1924 The BBC time signals, or 'pips', from Greenwich Observato-
ry were heard for the first time;  they are broadcast every  hour.  1940
Glenn  Miller  recorded  'Tuxedo Junction' with his orchestra.  1961 The
first issue of the Sunday Telegraph was published. 1967 Due to a Musici-
ans'  Union  ban,  the Rolling Stones were not allowed to play their hit
'Let's Spend the Night Together' when they appeared on an ITV show. 1974
Patricia Hearst,  granddaughter of US newspaper tycoon William R Hearst,
was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army. 1982 Laker Airways col-
lapsed with debts of $270 million.  1983 Expelled from Bolivia, Nazi war
criminal Klaus Barbie flew to France to be tried for crimes against  hu-
manity.  Born Robert Peel, British politician, 1788; Adlai Stevenson, US
politician and ambassador,  1900;  John Carradine,  US film actor, 1906;
William Burroughs,  US novelist,  1914; Bob Marley, Jamaican reggae sin-
ger, 1945; Charlotte Rampling, British actress, 1946. Died Joost van den
Vondel,  Dutch poet and dramatist,  1679; Thomas Carlyle, English author
and historian,  1881;  A B 'Banjo' Paterson, Australian poet and journa-
list,  1941; George Aliss, English actor, 1946; Marianne Moore, US poet,
1972; Joseph Mankiewicz, US director and author, 1993.

6 February National Day of New Zealand.  Feast day of St Paul Miki  and
his Companions,  St Vedast or Vaast,  St Hidegund,  St Amand, Saints Mel
and Melchu, and St Guarinus of Palestrina. 1508 Maximilian I assumed the
title of Holy Roman Emperor.  1778 Britain declared war on France.  1840
The Treaty of Waitangi was signed by Great Britain and the Maori  chiefs
of  New Zealand,  granting British sovereignty.  1918 Women over 30 were
granted the right to vote in Britain.  1958  An  airplane  carrying  the
Manchester  United football team crashed on take-off at Munich,  killing
seven players. 1964 Britain and France reached an agreement on the cons-
truction of a Channel Tunnel.  1968 The 10th Winter Olympic games opened
in Grenoble,  France.  1991 Debris from Salyut 7, a Soviet space station
abandoned  in 1986,  re-entered the Earth's atmosphere;  it was believed
that most of it landed in the Atlantic Ocean.  Born Christopher Marlowe,
English dramatist,  1564;  Queen Anne, 1665; Babe Ruth, US baseball pla-
yer, 1911; Ronald Reagan, 40th US president, 1911; Zsa Zsa Gabor, Hunga-
rian actress,  1920; Franзois Truffaut, French film director, 1932; Rick
Astley, British pop singer, 1966. Died Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, Eng-
lish landscape gardener,  1783;  Carlo Goldoni, Italian dramatist, 1793;
Joseph Priestley, English chemist, 1804; Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter,
1918;  Marghanita Laski,  English author,  1988;  Arthur Ashe, US tennis
player, 1993.

7 February Feast day of St Luke the Younger,  St Theodore of  Heraclea,
St Adaucus,  St Moses, St Richard, 'King of the English', and St Silvin.
1301 Edward Caernarvon (later King Edward II) became the first Prince of
Wales.  1792 Austria and Prussia formed an alliance against France. 1845
The Portland Vase,  a Roman cameo glass vase dating to the  1st  century
BC,  was  smashed  by a drunken visitor to the British Museum.  1863 HMS
Orpheus was wrecked off the New Zealand coast,  with the loss of 185 li-
ves.  1947  The main group of the Dead Sea Scrolls,  dating to about 150
BC-AD 68,  was found in caves on the W side of the  Jordan  River.  1974
Grenada became a fully independent state within the Commonwealth. 1990 A
Soviet Communist Party Plenum voted to abolish monopoly rule.  1991 Bri-
tish  prime  minister  Major and his senior cabinet ministers escaped an
apparent assassination attempt when the IRA fired three mortar shells at
10 Downing Street from a parked van. Born Thomas More, English politici-
an,  1478;  Philippe Buache, French cartographer, 1700; Charles Dickens,
English  novelist,  1812;  Alfred Adler,  Austrian psychoanalyst,  1870;
Sinclair Lewis,  US novelist, 1885; Peter Jay, British writer and broad-
caster,  1937.  Died William Boyce, English organist and composer, 1779;
Sheridan Le Fanu,  Irish writer,  1873; Adolphe Sax, Belgian inventor of
the saxophone,  1894;  Daniel Malan, South African statesman, 1959; Igor
Vasilevich Kuchatov,  Russian nuclear physicist, 1960; Jimmy Van Heusen,
US composer, 1990.

8 February Feast day of St Jerome Emiliani,  St John of Matha, St Cuth-
man, St Stephen of Muret, St Elfleda, St Nicetius or Nizier of Besanзon,
and St Meingold.  1725 Catherine I succeeded her husband, Peter the Gre-
at,  to become Empress of Russia. 1740 The 'Great Frost' of London, Eng-
land, ended (began 25 Dec 1739). 1920 Odessa was taken by Bolshevik for-
ces.  1924 The gas chamber was used in the US for the first time, in the
Nevada  State Prison.  1964 Beatlemania gripped the US as the Fab 4 flew
into Kennedy airport. 1969 The Boeing 747, the world's largest commerci-
al plane,  made its first flight.  1972 A concert by Frank Zappa and the
Mothers of Invention was canceled at the Albert Hall, London, UK, becau-
se  some of their lyrics were considered obscene.  1974 After 85 days in
space,  the US Skylab station returned to earth.  1993 All  132  persons
aboard an Iran Air passenger jet were killed minutes after take-off when
the plane collided with a military aircraft.  Born John Ruskin,  English
writer, artist, and art critic, 1819; William Sherman, US general, 1820;
Jules Verne,  French novelist, 1828; Lana Turner, US film actress, 1920;
Jack Lemmon,  US film actor, 1925; James Dean, US film actor, 1931. Died
Mary,  Queen of Scots,  beheaded, 1587; R B Ballantyne, Scottish writer,
1894; Peter Alexeivich Kropotkin, Russian anarchist, 1921; William Bate-
son, English biologist, 1926; Max Liebermann, German painter and etcher,
1935; Del Shannon, US pop singer, 1990.

9 February Feast day of St Apollonia,  St Sabinus of Canossa, St Teilo,
St Alto,  St Ansbert,  and St Nicephorus of Antioch. 1801 The Holy Roman
Empire came to an end with the signing of the Peace of Luneville between
Austria and France. 1830 Explorer Charles Sturt discovered the source of
the  Murray  River in Australia.  1872 Lieutenant Dawson's expedition in
search of Dr Livingstone began.  1900 Dwight F.  Davis created the Davis
Cup  Tennis  Tournament.  1942 Soap rationing began in Britain.  1949 US
film actor Robert Mitchum was sentenced to two months in prison for smo-
king marijuana. 1972 The British government declared a state of emergen-
cy due to the miners' strike, which was in its third month. 1991 The re-
public  of  Lithuania  held  a  plebiscite  on independence which showed
overwhelming support for secession from the USSR. Born Daniel Bernoulli,
Swiss mathematician,  1700; Mrs Patrick Campbell, English actress, 1865;
Alban Berg,  Austrian composer, 1885; Ronald Colman, English film actor,
1891;  Carole King,  US singer and songwriter, 1941; Mia Farrow, US film
actress, 1945. Died Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, 1811; Fyodor Mik-
hailovich Dostoevsky,  Russian novelist, 1881; Sergei Vladimirovich Ily-
ushin,  Russian aircraft designer,  1977;  Bill Haley, US rock musician,
1981; Yuri Andropov, Russian leader, 1984.

10 February  Feast  day  of St William of Maleval,  St Scholastica,  St
Trumwin,  St Austreberta,  and St Soteris.  1354 A street battle between
Oxford  University  students  and townspeople resulted in several deaths
and many injuries.  1763 Canada was ceded to Britain by the Peace of Pa-
ris.  1774  Andrew  Becker demonstrated his practical diving suit in the
River Thames.  1840 Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, both aged 20, were
married in St James' Palace. 1931 New Delhi became the capital of India.
1942 The first gold disc - sprayed with gold by the record  company  RCA
Victor - was presented to Glenn Miller for 'Chattanooga Choo Choo'. 1989
Jamaican-born Tony Robinson became  Nottingham's  first  black  sheriff.
Born Harold Macmillan,  British politician and publisher,  1894; Bertolt
Brecht,  German dramatist and poet, 1898; Robert Wagner, US actor, 1930;
Boris Pasternak,  Russian novelist,  1890; Mark Spitz, US swimmer, 1950;
Greg Norman,  Australian golfer,  1955.  Died Luca della Robbia, Italian
sculptor,  1482;  Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin,  Russian author,  1837;
Wilhelm Konrad von Rцntgen,  German physicist, 1923; Edgar Wallace, Eng-
lish thriller writer,  1932; Billy Rose, US producer and lyricist, 1966;
Sophie Tucker, US singer, 1966.

11 February Feast day of Saints Saturninus and Dativus,  St Benedict of
Aniane,  St Gregory II, pope, St Caedmon, St Pascal, pope, St Lazarus of
Milan,  St Lucius of Adrianople, and St Severinus of Agaunum. 1818 Inde-
pendence was proclaimed by Chile.  1858 Bernadette Soubirous,  a peasant
girl,  allegedly had a vision of the Virgin Mary in a grotto in Lourdes.
1878 The first weekly weather report was published by the Meteorological
Office.  1945 The Yalta Conference ended,  at which the  Allied  leaders
planned  the  final defeat of Germany and agreed on the establishment of
the United Nations. 1975 Margaret Thatcher became the first woman leader
of  a British political party.  1990 After more than 27 years in prison,
ANC president Nelson Mandela walked to freedom from a prison  near  Cape
Town,  South  Africa.  1993 US President Clinton nominated Janet Reno as
Attorney-General.  Born Henry Fox Talbot,  British photographic pioneer,
1800;  Thomas Edison, US inventor, 1847; Vivian Fuchs, British Antarctic
explorer,  1908;  Joseph Mankiewicz,  US film writer and director, 1909;
Mary Quant,  English fashion designer,  1934; Burt Reynolds, US film ac-
tor,  1936.  Died Lazaro Spallanzani,  Italian physiologist and chemist,
1799;  Honorй Daumier,  French caricaturist, 1879; John Buchan, Canadian
statesman and novelist,  1940;  Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein,  Russian
film director,  1948; Silvia Plath, US poet, 1963; Lee J Cobb, US actor,

12 February Lincoln's birthday in the US.  Feast day of St  Julian  the
Hospitaller,  St Ethelwald of Lindisfarne,  St Antony Kauleas, St Marina
or Pelagia,  St Meletius,  and St Ludan.  1554 Lady Jane Grey,  queen of
England  for  nine  days,  was executed on Tower Green for high treason.
1797 Over 1,000 French troops, led by Irish-American General William Ta-
te,  made an unsuccessful attempt to invade Britain, on the Welsh coast.
1818 Independence was proclaimed by Chile.  1831 Rubber  galoshes  first
went on sale, in Boston, Massachusetts, US. 1851 Prospector Edward Harg-
reaves made a discovery at Summerhill Creek,  New South Wales, which set
off a gold rush in Australia. 1912 China became a republic following the
overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty. 1973 The first group of US prisoners of
war were released from North Vietnam.  1993 The South African government
and the ANC reached an agreement on a transitional 'government of natio-
nal unity' in which both parties would be partners for five years.  Born
Thomas Campion,  English composer and poet,  1567; Abraham Lincoln, 16th
US president,  1809; Charles Darwin, English scientist, 1809; George Me-
redith,  English novelist,  1828;  Marie Lloyd, English music-hall star,
1870;  Franco  Zeffirelli,  Italian film director,  1923.  Died Immanuel
Kant, German philosopher, 1804; Hans Guido von Bьlow, German pianist and
conductor,  1894;  Lillie Langtry,  English actress,  1929; Tom Keating,
English painter and art forger,  1984;  Henry  Hathaway,  US  filmmaker,

13 February  Feast day of St Catherine dei Ricci,  St Stephen of Rieti,
St Ermenilda or Ermengild, St Martinian the Hermit, St Polyeuctes of Me-
litene, St Licinus or Lesin, and St Modomnoc. 1689 William of Orange and
Mary ascended the throne of Great Britain as joint sovereigns.  1692 The
massacre  of  the  Macdonalds  at Glencoe in Scotland was carried out by
their traditional enemies,  the Campbells.  1793 Britain, Prussia, Aust-
ria,  Holland,  Spain,  and  Sardinia formed an alliance against France.
1867 Strauss's waltz The Blue Danube was first played publicly, in Vien-
na.  1886  The James Younger gang made its first 'hit',  robbing $60,000
from a bank in Missouri,  US.  1917 Dutch spy Mata Hari was arrested  by
the French.  1960 The French tested their first atomic bomb in the Saha-
ra.  1974 Russian novelist Alexander Solzhenitsyn was expelled from  the
USSR.  Born John Hunter,  Scottish surgeon and anatomist,  1728;  Fyodor
Chaliapin,  Russian operatic bass singer, 1873; Georges Simenon, Belgian
novelist,  1901; George Segal, US film actor, 1934; Oliver Reed, British
film actor, 1938; Peter Gabriel, British pop musician, 1950. Died Cathe-
rine Howard,  fifth wife of Henry VIII, executed, 1542; Benvenuto Celli-
ni, Italian sculptor and goldsmith, 1571; Cotton Mather, US colonist and
writer,  1728;  Richard Wagner,  German composer, 1883; Georges Rouault,
French painter, 1958; Jean Renoir, French film director, 1979.

14 February St Valentine's Day. Feast day of St John the Baptist of the
Conception, St Antoninus of Sorrento, St Maro, St Abraham of Carrhae, St
Adolf of Osnabrьck,  St Auxentius,  Saints Cyril and Methodius,  and  St
Conran.  1779  Captain Cook was stabbed to death by natives in the Sand-
wich Islands (now Hawaii). 1797 The naval Battle of St Vincent took pla-
ce off SW Portugal,  in which Captain Nelson and Admiral Jervis defeated
the Spanish fleet. 1852 Great Ormond Street children's hospital, in Lon-
don,  UK,  accepted its first patient. 1895 Oscar Wilde's The Importance
of Being Earnest was first staged in London, UK. 1929 The St Valentine's
Day Massacre took place in Chicago,  when seven members of Bugsy Moran's
gang were gunned down in a warehouse.  1945 US Air Force and  RAF  heavy
bombers  destroyed  Dresden,  leaving between 60-130,000 dead.  1946 The
Bank of England was nationalized. 1956 At the 20th Soviet Communist Par-
ty Conference,  Nikita Khrushchev denounced the policies of Stalin. 1974
Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn was sent into exile after publica-
tion of his book, The Gulag Archipelago. 1989 The Ayatollah Khomeini is-
sued a fatwa edict calling on Muslims to kill  Salman  Rushdie  for  his
blasphemous  novel The Satanic Verses.  Born Francesco Cavalli,  Italian
composer,  1602;  Thomas Malthus,  English economist,  1766; Christopher
Sholes, US inventor of the typewriter, 1819; Jack Benny, US comedian and
actor,  1894;  Alan Parker,  British film director,  1944; Kevin Keegan,
British footballer, 1951. Died King Richard II of England, 1400; Fioren-
zo di Lorenzo, Italian painter, 1525; William Sherman, US general, 1891;
Julian Huxley,  English biologist and philosopher,  1975; P G Wodehouse,
English novelist, 1975; Frederick Loewe, US composer, 1988.

15 February Feast day of St Tanco or Tatto, St Agape of Terni, St Walf-
rid or Galfrid, and St Sigfrid of Vдxjц. 1882 The first shipment of fro-
zen meat left New Zealand for England.  1898 The USS Maine, sent to Cuba
on a goodwill tour, was struck by a mine and sank in Havana harbor, with
the loss of 260 lives.  1922 The first session of the Permanent Court of
International Justice in The Hague was held.  1942 Singapore surrendered
to Japanese forces.  1971 Britain adopted the decimal  currency  system.
1974  The battle for the strategic Golan Heights between Israeli and Sy-
rian forces began.  1978 Mohammad Ali lost his world heavyweight  boxing
title to Leon Spinks in Las Vegas.  1981 For the first time, English Fo-
otball League matches were played on a Sunday.  Born Pedro  Menendez  de
Avilйs,  Spanish navigator,  1519;  Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer,
1564; Jeremy Bentham, English philosopher and writer, 1748; Graham Hill,
British racing driver,  1929;  Claire Bloom, English actress, 1931; Jane
Seymour,  English actress,  1951.  Died Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, German
author,  1781; Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka, Russian composer, 1857; Herbert
Henry Asquith, British statesman, 1928; Nat King Cole, US singer and mu-
sician, 1965; Ethel Merman, US singer and actress, 1984.

16 February Feast day of St Juliana of Cumae, St Onesimus the Slave, St
Gilbert of Sempringham,  and Saints Elias, Jeremy, and their Companions.
1659 The first British check was written. 1887 25,000 prisoners in India
were released to celebrate Queen Victoria's jubilee.  1932 Irish general
election won by Fianna Fбil party,  led by Eamon de Valera. 1937 US sci-
entist W H Corothers obtained a patent for nylon.  1940 The British navy
rescued  about 300 British seamen who were held on board the German ship
Altmark, in a Norwegian fjord. 1959 Fidel Castro became president of Cu-
ba.  1960  The US nuclear submarine Triton set off to circumnavigate the
world underwater.  Born Giambattistsa Bodoni, Italian typographer, 1740;
Francis Galton,  English scientist and founder of eugenics,  1822; Ernst
Haeckel,  German naturalist and philosopher,  1834; Geraint Evans, Welsh
operatic baritone,  1922; John Schlesinger, US film director, 1926; John
McEnroe,  US tennis player,  1959.  Died Alfonso III,  king of Portugal,
1279;  Pierre-Paul Proudhon, French painter, 1823; Lionel Lukin, English
inventor of the lifeboat,  1834;  Henry Walter Bates, English naturalist
and explorer, 1892; Leslie Hore-Belisha, British politician who introdu-
ced driving tests and the Highway Code, 1957.

17 February Feast day of Saints Theodulus and Julian,  St  Evermod,  St
Loman,  St Fintan of Cloneenagh,  and St Finan of Lindisfarne. 1461 Lan-
castrian forces defeated the Yorkists at the Battle of St  Albans.  1859
First  production of Verdi's opera Un Ballo in Maschera,  in Rome.  1864
The first successful submarine torpedo attack took place  when  the  USS
Housatonic  was  sunk  by the Confederate submarine Hunley in Charleston
harbor; however, the force of the explosion was so great that the subma-
rine itself was also blown up, killing all on board. 1880 An attempt was
made to assassinate the Russian tsar Alexander II with  a  bomb  at  the
Winter Palace,  St Petersburg. 1904 First production of Puccini's Madame
Butterfly, in Milan. 1958 The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) was
formed in London, UK. 1968 French skier Jean-Claude Killy won three gold
medals at the Winter Olympics in Grenoble. 1972 The House of Commons vo-
ted in favor of Britain joining the Common Market. Born Arcangelo Corel-
li, Italian composer, 1653; Thomas Malthus, English economist, 1766; Ma-
rian Anderson,  US operatic contralto,  1902; Yasser Arafat, Palestinian
leader, 1929; Barry Humphries, Australian actor and creator of 'Dame Ed-
na Everidge',  1934; Alan Bates, English actor, 1934. Died Tamerlane the
Great,  Mongol leader,  1405;  Moliиre, French dramatist, 1673; Heinrich
Heine,  German poet, 1856; Geronimo, Apache leader, 1909; Graham Suther-
land,  English painter,  1980; Lee Strasburg, US actor, 1982; Thelonious
Monk, US jazz pianist, 1982.

18 February National Day of Gambia and Nepal. Feast day of St Colman of
Lindisfarne, St Flavian of Jerusalem, St Simeon of Jerusalem, St Theoto-
nius,  and  St  Helladius  of Toledo.  1678 Publication of John Bunyan's
Pilgrim's Progress.  1861 Victor Emmanuel proclaimed king  of  a  united
Italy at the first meeting of the Italian parliament.  1876 A direct te-
legraph link was set up between Britain and New Zealand.  1930 US astro-
nomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto. 1948 After 16 years in
power,  the Fianna Fбil party was defeated in the Irish general  electi-
ons.  1965  The  Gambia became an independent state within the Commonwe-
alth.  Born Mary Tudor,  daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon,
1517;  Alessandro Volta,  Italian scientist and inventor of the electric
battery,  1745;  Niccolт Paganini, Italian violinist, 1784; Andres Sego-
via,  Spanish classical guitarist, 1894; Helen Gurley Brown, US magazine
editor,  1922; Len Deighton, English novelist, 1929. Died Martin Luther,
German founder of the Reformation,  1546; Fra Angelico, Florentine pain-
ter, 1455; George, Duke of Clarence, drowned in a butt of Malmsey on the
orders of his brother,  Richard,  Duke of Gloucester, 1478; Michelangelo
Buonarroti,  Italian painter and sculptor,  1564; Richard Wagner, German
composer, 1833; Robert Oppenheimer, US physicist, inventor of the atomic
bomb, 1967.

19 February Feast day of St Boniface of Lausanne,  St Barbatus, St Con-
rad of Piacenza,  and St Mesrop. 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte proclaimed him-
self First Consul of France. 1878 US inventor Thomas Edison patented the
phonograph.  1897 The Women's Institute was founded in Ontario,  Canada,
by Mrs Hoodless. 1906 William Kellogg established the Battle Creek Toas-
ted Cornflake Company, selling breakfast cereals originally developed as
a health food for psychiatric patients. 1959 Britain, Greece, and Turkey
signed  an agreement guaranteeing the independence of Cyprus.  1976 Ice-
land broke off diplomatic relations with Britain after negotiations fai-
led  to produce an agreement over fishing limits in the 'cod war'.  1985
BBC TV broadcast the first episode of the soap  opera  EastEnders.  Born
Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, 1473; David Garrick, English ac-
tor and theater manager,  1717;  Luigi Boccherini,  Italian cellist  and
composer, 1743; Adelina Patti, Italian soprano, 1843; Merle Oberon, Tas-
manian-born film actress, 1911; Lee Marvin, US film actor, 1924; Andrew,
Duke of York, 1960. Died Georg Bьchner, German poet and dramatist, 1837;
Charles Blondin,  French tightrope walker,  1897;  Ernst Mach,  Austrian
physicist,  1916; Andrй Gide, French novelist, 1951; Luigi Dallapiccola,
Italian composer,  1975;  Michael Powell, English documentary filmmaker,

20 February  Feast  day  of St Eleutherius of Tournai,  St Eucherius of
Orlйans,  St Tyranno, St Zenobius, and St Wulfric. 1811 Austria declared
itself bankrupt. 1938 Anthony Eden resigned as British foreign secretary
after Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain decided to negotiate with  Ita-
lian  Fascist  leader Benito Mussolini.  1947 Lord Louis Mountbatten was
appointed viceroy of India, the last person to hold this office. 1962 US
astronaut  John Glenn orbited the Earth three times in the space capsule
Friendship 7.  1985 The sale of contraceptives became legal in the Irish
Republic.  1989 An army barracks at Tern Hill, Shropshire, UK, was dest-
royed by an IRA bomb.  Born Voltaire,  French  writer  and  philosopher,
1694;  Honorй Daumier, French painter, 1808; Marie Rambert, British dan-
cer and founder of the Ballet Rambert, 1888; Enzo Ferrari, Italian auto-
mobile manufacturer, 1898; Robert Altman, US film director, 1925; Sidney
Poitier,  US film actor, 1927. Died King James I of Scotland, assassina-
ted 1437;  Benedict Spinoza, Dutch philosopher, 1677; Aurangzeb, last of
the Mogul rulers of India,  1707; Percy Grainger, Australian-born compo-
ser, 1961; Walter Winchell, US journalist, 1972; Mikhail Sholokhov, Rus-
sian author, 1984.

21 February Feast day of St Robert Southwell, St Peter Damian, St Geor-
ge of Amastris,  and St Germanus of Granfel.  1804 British engineer Ric-
hard Trevithick demonstrated the first steam engine  to  run  on  rails.
1916 The Battle of Verdun began (it continued until 16th December). 1931
The New Statesman was first published.  1960 All private  businesses  in
Cuba nationalized by Fidel Castro. 1972 US president Richard Nixon arri-
ved in Beijing on a visit intended to improve US-Chinese relations. 1989
Czech  writer  Vaclav  Havel  jailed for anti-government demonstrations.
Born Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna,  Mexican revolutionary  and  dictator,
1794;  John Henry Newman, English cardinal and theologian, 1801; W H Au-
den,  English poet, 1907; Robert Mugabe, first prime minister of Zimbab-
we,  1924;  Nina Simone US singer,  1934; Jilly Cooper, English novelist
and journalist,  1937.  Died Robert Southwell,  English poet and  Jesuit
martyr, 1595; Jethro Tull, English agriculturalist, 1741; Nikolai Gogol,
Russian novelist and dramatist, 1852; George Ellery Hale, US astronomer,
1938;  Malcolm X,  US Black Muslim leader, shot dead at a meeting, 1965;
Howard Walter Florey,  Australian pathologist who developed  penicillin,
1968; Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer, 1991.

22 February Feast day of St Baradates,  St Margaret of Cortona, and Sa-
ints Thalassius and Limnaeus.  1797 Over 1,000 French troops  landed  at
Fishguard,  in South Wales,  but were quickly taken prisoner. 1819 Spain
ceded Florida to the US.  1879 US storekeeper F W Woolworth  opened  his
first 'five-and-ten-cent' store in Utica, New York. 1886 The Times news-
paper published a classified personal column,  the first newspaper to do
so. 1940 Five-year-old Tenzin Gyatso was enthroned as the 14th Dalai La-
ma in Lhasa, Tibet. 1946 Dr Selman Abraham Waksman announced that he had
discovered streptomycin,  an antibiotic.  Born George Washington,  first
president of the US,  1732;  Arthur  Schopenhauer,  German  philosopher,
1788;  Robert Baden-Powell, English soldier and founder of the Boy Scout
movement,  1857; Eric Gill, English sculptor and typographer, 1872; Luis
Buсuel,  Spanish film director,  1900;  John Mills, English actor, 1908;
Kenneth Williams,  English comedy actor,  1926.  Died Amerigo  Vespucci,
Italian navigator after whom America is named,  1512;  Jean-Baptiste-Ca-
mille Corot,  French painter,  1875;  Charles Lyell,  English geologist,
1875;  Stefan Zweig, Austrian writer, 1942; Elizabeth Bowen, Irish nove-
list, 1973; Oskar Kokoschka, Austrian painter, 1980.

23 February Feast day of St Polycarp of Smyrna,  St Dositheus,  St Mil-
burga,  St Alexander Akimites,  St Boisil,  and St Willigis.  1732 First
performance of Handel's Oratorio,  in London, England. 1820 Discovery of
the Cato Street conspiracy; following a tip-off, police arrested revolu-
tionaries who planned to blow up the British Cabinet.  1836 The siege of
the Alamo began,  under the Mexican general Santa Anna. 1863 Lake Victo-
ria was proclaimed to be the source of the River Nile by British  explo-
rers  John Speke and J A Grant.  1898 Emile Zola was imprisoned for wri-
ting his open letter J'accuse/I accuse,  accusing the French  government
of  anti-Semitism  and  of  wrongly imprisoning the army officer Captain
Alfred Dreyfus. 1919 Benito Mussolini founded the Italian Fascist Party.
1970 Guyana became an independent republic within the Commonwealth. 1981
Spanish Fascist army officers led by Lt Colonel Antonio Tejero attempted
a coup in the Cortes (parliament). Born Samuel Pepys, English civil ser-
vant and diarist,  1633;  George Frederick Handel,  German-born  British
composer,  1685; Victor Fleming, US film director who made The Wizard of
Oz, 1883; Erich Kдstner, German children's author, 1899; Peter Fonda, US
film actor,  1940. Died Joshua Reynolds, English painter, 1792; John Ke-
ats,  English poet,  1821; Karl Gauss, German mathematician and astrono-
mer,  1855;  Nellie Melba,  Australian opera singer, 1931; Edward Elgar,
English composer,  1994;  Stan Laurel,  English-born US  film  comedian,
1965; Adrian Boult, English conductor, 1983; Andy Warhol, US Pop artist,

24 February Feast day of St Praetextatus and Saints  Montanus,  Lucius,
and  their  Companions.  AD  303  Galerius Valerius Maximianus issued an
edict demanding the persecution of Christians. 1582 The Gregorian Calen-
dar  was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII;  it replaced the Julian Calen-
dar,  but was not adopted in Britain until 1752. 1905 The Simplon Tunnel
through the Alps was completed.  1920 Nancy Astor became the first woman
to address the British Parliament.  1932 Malcolm Campbell beat  his  own
land speed record in Bluebird at Daytona Beach,  US;  he reached a speed
of 408.88 kph/253.96 mph. 1938 Nylon toothbrush bristles were first pro-
duced in the US - the first commercial use of nylon. 1946 Juan Perуn was
elected president of Argentina.  Born Charles  V,  Holy  Roman  Emperor,
1500;  Wilhelm  Grimm,  German philologist and,  with his brother Jakob,
compiler of fairy tales,  1786; Arnold Dolmetsch, Swiss maker and resto-
rer  of musical instruments,  1858;  Michel Legrand,  French composer of
film music, 1932; Alain Prost, French racing driver, 1955; Dennis Water-
man, English actor, 1948. Died Henry Cavendish, English physicist, 1810;
Thomas Bowdler,  English editor who produced 'bowdlerized'  versions  of
great  literary  works such as Shakespeare and the Old Testament,  1825;
Nikolai Bulganin,  Soviet prime minister,  1975;  Memphis Slim, US blues
singer, 1987; Bobby Moore, English footballer, 1993.

25 February National Day of Kuwait.  Feast day of St Ethelbert of Kent,
St Walburga,  St Gerland, St Louis Versiglia, St Caesarius of Nazianzen,
and St Calixto Caravario.  1308 Coronation of King Edward II of England.
1570 Pope Pius V excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I.  1913 English suffra-
gist  Emmeline  Pankhurst went on trial for a bomb attack on the home of
David Lloyd George, chancellor of the Exchequer. 1939 The first Anderson
air-raid shelter was built in Islington,  N London, UK. 1955 HMS Ark Ro-
yal was completed,  the largest aircraft carrier ever built in  Britain.
1964 Cassius Clay took the heavyweight boxing championship of the world,
when his opponent Sonny Liston refused to fight the seventh round.  1988
US televangelist Jimmy Swaggart was suspended after it became known that
he had visited a prostitute for three years. Born Carlo Goldoni, Italian
playwright,  1707;  Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter,
1841;  Enrico Caruso,  Italian operatic tenor,  1873; Myra Hess, English
pianist,  1890;  Anthony Burgess, English novelist, 1917; David Puttnam,
English film producer,  1941;  George Harrison, English pop musician and
former member of the Beatles, 1943. Died Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex,
executed for high treason,  1601;  Christopher Wren,  English architect,
1723;  Paul  Julius  von  Reuter,  founder of Reuters international news
agency,  1899;  John Tenniel, English artist and illustrator, 1914; Mark
Rothko, US painter, 1970; Tennessee Williams, US dramatist, 1983.

26 February Feast day of St Alexander of Alexandria, St Porphyry of Ga-
za,  St Nestor of Magydus,  and St Victor the Hermit. 1531 An earthquake
in Lisbon, Portugal, killed 20,000 people. 1797 The first Ј note was is-
sued by the Bank of England. 1815 Napoleon escaped from exile on the is-
land of Elba. 1839 The first Grand National Steeplechase was run at Ain-
tree.  1935 Robert Watson-Watt gave the first demonstration of Radar  at
Daventry,  England. 1936 Adolf Hitler launched the Volkswagen ('people's
automobile'), intended to compete with Ford's Model T and boost the Ger-
man  economy.  Born Victor Hugo,  French novelist and playwright,  1802;
William Cody ('Buffalo Bill'),  US showman,  1846; Frank Bridge, English
composer and conductor, 1879; Fats Domino, US singer, 1928; Johnny Cash,
US country singer,  1932. Died Roger II, king of Sicily, 1154; John Phi-
lip Kemble,  English actor,  1823;  Richard Gatling,  US inventor of the
Gatling gun,  1903;  Harry Lauder,  Scottish music-hall comedian,  1950;
Slim Gaillard, US jazz musician, 1991.

27 February Feast day of St Alnoth, St Herefrith of Louth, and St Lean-
der of Seville.  1557 The first Russian Embassy opened in  London,  Eng-
land;  exactly one year later,  the first trade mission arrived. 1879 US
chemists Ira Remsen and Constantine Fahlberg announced  their  discovery
of  saccharin.  1881 British troops were defeated by the Boers at Majuba
Hill, Transvaal. 1933 The German Reichstag (parliament building) in Ber-
lin was destroyed by fire; it is believed that the Nazis were responsib-
le,  though they blamed the Communists.  1948 The Communist Party seized
power in Czechoslovakia. 1991 The Gulf War came to an end with the libe-
ration of Kuwait and the retreat of Iraqi forces.  Born Constantine, Ro-
man emperor,  AD 274;  Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, US poet, 1807; Rudolf
Steiner,  Austrian philosopher,  1861; John Steinbeck US novelist, 1902;
Lawrence  Durrell,  English poet and novelist,  1912;  Elizabeth Taylor,
English-born US film actress,  1932.  Died John Evelyn, English diarist,
1706;  Alexander Borodin,  Russian composer and chemist, 1887; Ivan Pav-
lov,  Russian psychologist, 1936; Peter Behrens, German architect, 1940;
Henry Cabot Lodge,  US politician and diplomat,  1985;  Lilian Gish,  US
film actress, 1993.

28 February Feast day of St Oswald of Worcester, St Lupicinus, St Hila-
rius,  pope, St Proterius, and St Romanus. 1784 John Wesley, English fo-
under of the Wesleyan faith, signed its deed of declaration. 1900 Relief
forces  under  General  Buller  reached British troops besieged for four
months at Ladysmith, Natal; Boer troops retreated. 1912 The first parac-
hute jump was made, over Missouri, US. 1948 The last British troops left
India.  1975 In Britain,  a London underground train crashed at Moorgate
station,  killing 42 people.  1986 Swedish prime minister Olof Palme was
shot dead as he walked home from a cinema in Stockholm. Born Renй Antoi-
ne  de  Rйaumur,  French  scientist and inventor of a thermometer scale,
1683;  Linus Pauling,  US physicist and chemist,  1909; Stephen Spender,
English poet and critic, 1909; Vincente Minelli, US film director, 1913;
Peter Medawar,  English immunologist,  1915;  Barry McGuigan, Irish-born
boxer, 1951. Died Alphonse de Lamartine, French poet, 1869; Henry James,
US-born British novelist,  1916;  Alfonso XIII,  ex-king of Spain, 1941;
Rajendra Prasad, first president of India, 1963; Henry Luce, US magazine
publisher, 1967.

29 February Leap Year Day. 1880 The St Gotthard railroad tunnel through
the Alps was completed,  linking Italy with Switzerland.  1948 The Stern
Gang blew up a train carrying British soldiers from Cairo to  Haifa;  27
soldiers were killed.  1956 Pakistan became an Islamic republic. 1960 An
earthquake killed about 12,000 people in Agadir,  Morocco.  1968 English
astronomer  Jocelyn Burnell announced the discovery of the first pulsar.
Born Ann Lee,  English founder of the American Society of Shakers, 1736;
Gioacchino Rossini,  Italian composer,  1792; John Holland, US submarine
inventor,  1840; Shri Morarji Desai, Indian politician, 1896; Jimmy Dor-
sey,  US bandleader,  1904; Mario Andretti, Italian racing driver, 1940.
Died St Hilarius,  46th pope,  468;  St Oswald, archbishop of York, 992;
Patrick Hamilton,  Scottish Protestant martyr, 1528; John Whitgift, arc-
hbishop of Canterbury,  1604;  John Landseer, English painter, 1852; Ro-
land Culver, English actor, 1984.

1 March National Day of Wales. Feast day of St David, St Swithbert, and
St Felix III,  pope. 1780 Pennsylvania became the first US state to abo-
lish slavery. 1845 The US annexed Texas. 1940 English actress Vivien Le-
igh won an Oscar for her performance as Scarlett O'Hara in the film Gone
with the Wind. 1949 US heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis retired af-
ter successfully defending his title 25 times. 1954 The US conducted its
first hydrogen-bomb test at Bikini Atoll,  in the Marshall Islands. 1966
The uncrewed Soviet spacecraft Venus 3 landed on Venus.  1993  At  Waco,
Texas,  US,  members of the Branch Davidian religious sect were besieged
by US federal agencies.  Born Frйdйric Chopin,  Polish  composer,  1810;
Lytton Strachey,  English biographer, 1880; Glenn Miller, US bandleader,
1904;  David Niven,  Scottish-born US film actor, 1910; Harry Belafonte,
US singer,  1927;  Roger Daltrey, English rock musician, singer with The
Who,  1945. Died George Herbert, English poet, 1633; Girolamo Frescobal-
di, Italian composer, 1643; George Grossmith, English singer and comedi-
an,  1912;  Jackie Coogan, US film actor who in 1921 played the child in
Charlie Chaplin's The Kid, 1984.

2 March Feast day of St Chad and St Joavan.  1717 The first ballet, The
Loves of Mars and Venus was performed at the Theatre Royal,  Drury Lane,
London,  England. 1882 An attempt was made to assassinate Queen Victoria
at Windsor.  1949 US Airforce Captain James Gallagher returned  to  Fort
Worth,  Texas, after flying non-stop around the world in 94 hours with a
crew of 13 men;  tanker aircraft refueled their plane four times  during
the flight. 1955 Severe flooding in N and W Australia killed 200 people.
1969 The French-built supersonic aircraft Concorde made its  first  test
flight from Toulouse.  1970 Rhodesia proclaimed itself a republic.  Born
Thomas Bodley,  founder of the Bodleian Library,  Oxford,  1545; Bedrich
Smetana,  Czech composer,  1824;  Kurt Weill, German composer who worked
with Bertolt Brecht,  1900; Basil Hume, archbishop of Westminster, 1923;
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader, 1931; J P R Williams, Welsh rugby pla-
yer,  1949;  Ian Woosnam,  Welsh golfer, 1958. Died John Wesley, English
founder  of  Methodism,  1791;  Horace Walpole,  novelist and historian,
1797; D H Lawrence, English novelist, 1930; Howard Carter, English Egyp-
tologist who discovered Tutankhamen's tomb,  1939;  Joan Greenwood, Eng-
lish film actress,  1987;  Randolph Scott,  US film actor, 1987. 3 March
National  Day of Morocco.  Feast day of St Ailred of Rievaulx,  St Cune-
gund, empress, St Marinus of Caesarea, St Non, St Winwaloe, St Anselm of
Nonantola, St Artelais, St Chef, and St Emeterius. 1802 Beethoven's 'Mo-
onlight Sonata' published.  1875 The first performance of Bizet's  opera
Carmen was staged at the Opйra Comique,  Paris.  1931 'The Star-Spangled
Banner' was adopted as the US national anthem. 1969 US spacecraft Apollo
9  was  launched.  1985  British miners voted to go back to work after a
year of striking over pit closures. 1991 Latvia and Estonia voted to se-
cede  from the Soviet Union.  1991 Iraqi and opposition leaders signed a
peace agreement bringing the Gulf War to an end. Born George Pullman, US
designer  of  luxury  railroad carriages,  1831;  Alexander Graham Bell,
Scottish-born inventor of the telephone, 1847; Jean Harlow, US film act-
ress,  1911; Ronald Searle, English artist and cartoonist, 1920; Miranda
Richardson,  English actress,  1958;  Fatima Whitbread,  English javelin
champion, 1961. Died Robert Hooke, English physicist, 1703; Robert Adam,
Scottish architect,  1792;  Giandomenico Tiepolo,  Italian artist, 1804;
Lou Costello,  US comedian, 1959; Arthur Koestler, Hungarian-born writer
and supporter of euthanasia, committed suicide, 1983; Danny Kaye, US co-
median, 1987.

4 March Feast day of St Peter of Cava, St Casimir of Poland, and St Ad-
rian and his Companions. 1681 King Charles II granted a Royal Charter to
William  Penn,  entitling  Penn  to establish a colony in North America.
1861 Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as the 16th president of the US.  1877
The  Russian  Imperial Ballet staged the first performance of the ballet
Swan Lake in Moscow.  1882 Britain's first electric streetcars came into
operation in Leytonstone, East London, UK. 1890 The Forth railroad brid-
ge, Scotland was officially opened. 1968 Tennis authorities voted to ad-
mit  professional players to Wimbledon,  previously open only to amateur
players.  Born Prince Henry the Navigator,  Portuguese patron of  explo-
rers, 1394; Antonio Vivaldi, Italian composer, 1678; Patrick Moore, Eng-
lish astronomer,  1928;  Bernard Haitink,  Dutch conductor, 1929; Miriam
Makeba,  South African singer,  1931; Kenny Dalgleish, Scottish footbal-
ler,  1951.  Died Saladin,  Kurdish-born Muslim leader who defeated  the
Crusaders,  1193;  Thomas Malory,  English writer of the Morte d'Arthur,
1470;  Jean-Franзois Champollion, French Egyptologist, 1832; Nikolai Go-
gol,  Russian novelist and playwright, 1852; William Carlos Williams, US
poet, 1963.

5 March Feast day of St Piran, St Gerasimus, Saints Adrian and Eubulus,
St Eusebius,  St John Joseph of the Cross, St Kieran of Saighir, St Pho-
cas of Antioch,  and St Virgil of Arles.  1461 King Henry VI of  England
was deposed;  he was succeeded by Edward IV.  1770 British troops killed
five civilians when they fired into a crowd of demonstrators in  Boston;
the incident became known as the 'Boston Massacre'. 1850 English engine-
er Robert Stephenson's tubular bridge was opened,  linking Anglesey with
mainland  Wales.  1933  The  Nazi Party won almost half the seats in the
elections.  1936 The British fighter plane Spitfire made its first  test
flight  from  Eastleigh,  Southampton.  1946 The term 'iron curtain' was
first used,  by Winston Churchill in a speech in Missouri, US. 1961 Alan
Shepherd  became  the  first  American man in space,  taking a 15 minute
sub-orbital flight,  115 miles above the Earth.  Born King Henry  II  of
England,  1133;  Gerardus Mercator,  Flemish cartographer, 1512; Augusta
Gregory, Irish playwright, 1852; Heitor Villa-Lobos, Brazilian composer,
1887;  Rex Harrison,  English actor,  1908; Elaine Page, English musical
actress,  1952.  Died Antonio Corregio, Italian painter, 1534; Friedrich
Mesmer,  Austrian physician and founder of mesmerism,  or 'animal magne-
tism',  1815;  Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist, 1827; Joseph Stalin,
Soviet dictator,  1953;  Sergei Prokofiev,  Russian composer, 1953; Tito
Gobbi, Italian operatic baritone, 1984.

6 March National Day of Ghana.  Feast day of Saints Baldred  and  Bill-
frith,  St Chrodegang,  St Colette, St Conon, St Cyneburga, St Fridolin,
and St Tibba.  1836 The 12-day siege of the Alamo ended,  with only  six
survivors out of the original force of 155. 1899 Aspirin was patented by
chemist Felix Hoffman.  1930 Clarence Birdseye's first frozen foods went
on sale in Springfield,  Massachusetts,  US.  1957 Ghana became indepen-
dent, the first British colony to do so. 1987 A cross-channel ferry left
Zeebrugge, Belgium, with its bow doors open; it capsized suddenly outsi-
de the harbor,  killing over 180 passengers.  1988 British SAS men  shot
dead three IRA members in a street in Gibraltar,  claiming that they had
been about to attack a military parade.  Born Cyrano de Bergerac, French
novelist and playwright, 1619; Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet,
1806; Frankie Howerd, English comedian, 1922; Andrzej Wajda, Polish film
director,  1926;  Valentina Tereshkova,  Soviet astronaut, 1937; Kiri Te
Kanawa,  New Zealand soprano, 1944. Died Louisa May Alcott, US novelist,
1888; Gottlieb Daimler, German motor engineer who invented the motorcyc-
le,  1900;  Ivor Novello, Welsh composer and actor, 1951; George Formby,
English entertainer,  1961; Pearl Buck, US novelist, 1971; Donald Macle-
an, English-born Soviet spy, 1984.

7 March Feast day of St Eosterwine, St Perpetua, and St Felicitas. 1838
Swedish  singer Jenny Lind gave her debut performance in Der Freischutz.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone.  1912 French  aviator
Henri Seimet made the first non-stop flight from Paris to London. 1926 A
radio-telephone link was established between London and New  York.  1965
The first US marines landed in S. Vietnam. 1969 In Britain, the Victoria
line was opened as part of London's underground railroad.  1971 Women in
Switzerland achieved the right to vote and hold federal office. Born To-
mas Masaryk, Czech leader, 1850; Piet Mondrian, Dutch painter, 1872; Ma-
urice Ravel,  French composer,  1875;  Viv Richards, Antiguan cricketer,
1952; Ivan Lendl, Czech tennis player, 1960; Rik Mayall, English comedi-
an, 1958. Died Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor, AD 161; St Thomas Aquinas,
Christian philosopher,  1274;  Herman Mankiewicz, US screenwriter, 1953;
Percy Wyndham Lewis, English writer and artist, 1957; Stevie Smith, Eng-
lish poet and novelist, 1971.

8 March Feast day of St Felix of Dunwich, St Duthac, St Julian of Tole-
do,  St Pontius of Carthage,  St Veremund, St Senan, and St John of God.
1702 Anne became queen of Britain after William III died in a riding ac-
cident. 1910 The first pilot's licenses were issued, to an Englishman, J
T C Moore Brabazon,  and a Frenchwoman, Elise Deroche. 1917 The February
Revolution began in Petrograd (St (Petersburg), Russia. 1930 In India, a
campaign of civil disobedience began,  led by Mahatma Gandhi. 1965 3,500
US marines landed in South Vietnam. 1971 US boxer Muhammed Ali was defe-
ated by Joe Frazier.  Born Kenneth Grahame,  Scottish author of The Wind
in the Willows, 1859; Otto Hahn, German physicist and chemist, 1879; Do-
uglas Hurd,  British politician,  1930; James Dean, US film actor, 1931;
Lynn Seymour, Canadian ballet dancer, 1939; Norman Stone, English histo-
rian, 1941. Died Abraham Darby, English ironmaster, the first to use co-
ke for smelting iron,  1717; Hector Berlioz, French composer, 1869; John
Ericsson, Swedish-born US inventor of the screw propeller, 1889; William
Howard Taft,  27th president of the US,  1930;  Thomas Beecham,  English
conductor, 1961; Harold Lloyd, US comedian and silent-film actor, 1971.

9 March Feast day of the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste,  St Frances of Rome,
St Bosa,  St Constantine, St Gregory of Nyssa, St Pacianus, and St Domi-
nic Savio.  1074 Pope Gregory VII excommunicated  all  married  priests.
1796 French army commander Napoleon Bonaparte married Josephine de Beau-
harnais.  1831 The French Foreign Legion was founded in Algeria; its he-
adquarters moved to France in 1962.  1918 The Russian capital was trans-
ferred from Petrograd (St Petersburg) to Moscow.  1923 Lenin retired  as
Soviet  leader  after  suffering a severe stroke;  he died the following
year.  1956 Archbishop Makarios of Cyprus was deported to the Seychelles
to prevent his involvement in terrorist activities. 1961 Russian dog La-
ika was launched into space aboard the spacecraft Sputnik 9. Born Willi-
am Cobbett,  author and politician,  1763;  Vita Sackville-West, English
novelist,  1892; Yuri Gagarin, Soviet astronaut, the first man in space,
1934; Bobby Fischer, US chess champion, 1943; Vyacheslav Molotov, Soviet
politician,  1890; Bill Beaumont, English rugby player, 1952. Died David
Rizzio,  secretary to Mary Queen of Scots, murdered 1566; Jules Mazarin,
French cardinal and politician, 1661; Frank Wedekind, German playwright,
1918; Wilhelm I of Prussia, 1888; Bob Crosby, US bandleader, 1993.

10 March Feast day of St Kessog,  St John Ogilvie, St Attalas, St Hyme-
lin,  St Macarius of Jerusalem,  St Simplicius,  pope,  and St Anastasia
Patricia.  1801 The first census was begun in Britain.  1886 In Britain,
Cruft's Dog Show was held in London for the first time - since  1859  it
had been held in Newcastle.  1906 In Britain, the Bakerloo line was ope-
ned on the London underground railroad.  1914  English  suffragist  Mary
Richardson slashed Velasquez' Rokeby Venus with a meat cleaver. 1969 Ja-
mes Earl Ray was sentenced to 99 years' imprisonment after pleading  gu-
ilty to the murder of civil-rights leader Martin Luther King. 1974 A Ja-
panese soldier was discovered hiding on Lubang Island in  the  Philippi-
nes.  He was unaware that World War II had ended,  and was waiting to be
picked up by his own forces.  Born Marcello Malpighi,  Italian physiolo-
gist, 1628; Tamara Karsavina, Russian ballet dancer, 1885; Arthur Honeg-
ger, French composer, 1892; Bix Beiderbecke, US jazz musician and compo-
ser, 1903; Prince Edward, youngest son of Queen Elizabeth II, 1964. Died
Giuseppe Mazzini,  Italian nationalist,  1832; Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian
novelist and playwright,  1940; Jan Masaryk, Czech politician, allegedly
committed suicide after Communist takeover,  1948; Konstantin Chernenko,
Soviet leader, 1985; Ray Milland, US film actor, 1986.

11 March Feast day of St Oengus, St Vindician, St Sophronius of Jerusa-
lem,  St Constantine of Cornwall,  St Eulogius of Cordova,  St Aurea, St
Benedict of Milan,  and St Teresa Margaret Redi.  1682 The Royal Chelsea
Hospital for soldiers was founded by Charles II. 1702 The first success-
ful English daily newspaper,  the Daily Courant was published in London.
1941 US Congress passed the Lend-Lease Bill,  authorising huge loans  to
Britain to finance World War II. 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of
the USSR.  1988 The Bank of England replaced pound notes with pound  co-
ins.  1990 US tennis player Jennifer Capriati, aged 13, became the youn-
gest-ever finalist in a professional  contest.  Born  Urbain  Leverrier,
French astronomer,  1811; Malcolm Campbell, English speed record holder,
1885; Harold Wilson, British politician, 1916; Rupert Murdoch, Australi-
an  newspaper  proprietor,  1931;  Douglas Adams,  English author of The
Hitch Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 1952; Nigel Lawson, British politici-
an,  1932.  Died Rolf Boldrewood, Australian author, 1915; David Beatty,
British admiral,  1936;  Alexander Fleming,  Scottish bacteriologist who
discovered penicillin,  1955; Richard Evelyn Bird, US aviator and explo-
rer, 1957; Erle Stanley Gardner, US lawyer and crime writer, 1970.

12 March Feast day of St Alphege, St Bernard of Winchester, St Gregory,
St Maximilian of Theveste, St Mura, St Paul Aurelian, St Theophanes, and
St Pionius. 1609 Bermuda became a British colony. 1881 France made Tuni-
sia  a  protectorate.  1904  Britain's first mainline electric train ran
from Liverpool to Southport. 1912 The Girl Guides movement (later called
Scouts)  was founded in the US.  1930 Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi began
his walk to the sea, known as the Salt March, in defiance of the British
government's  tax on salt and monopoly of the salt trade in India.  1938
Germany annexed Austria.  1940 The Russo-Finnish war ended with  Finland
signing over territory to the USSR.  Born John Aubrey, English antiquary
and author of Brief Lives, 1626; Thomas Arne, English composer who wrote
'Rule Britannia',  1710; Kemal Ataturk, Turkish leader, 1881; Vaslav Ni-
jinsky, Russian ballet dancer, 1890; Max Wall, English actor and comedi-
an, 1908; Jack Kerouac, US 'Beat' novelist and poet, 1922; Liza Minelli,
US film actress and singer,  1946.  Died St Gregory,  pope,  604; Cesare
Borgia,  Italian cardinal and politician, 1507; Sun Yat-sen, Chinese re-
volutionary leader,  1925;  Anne Frank,  Dutch Jewish diarist, died in a
Nazi  concentration  camp,  1945;  Charlie Parker,  US jazz saxophonist,
1955; Eugene Ormandy, US conductor, 1985.

13 March Feast day of St Gerald of Mayo, St Mochoemoc, St Nicephorus of
Constantinople, Saints Roderic and Salomon, St Ansovinus, and St Euphra-
sia. 1781 German-born British astronomer William Herschel discovered the
planet  Uranus.  1881  Tsar Alexander II of Russia died after a bomb was
thrown at him in St Petersburg. 1894 The first public striptease act was
performed  in  Paris.  1928 450 people drowned when a dam burst near Los
Angeles,  US.  1930 US astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovered  the  planet
Pluto;  its existence had been predicted 14 years earlier by US astrono-
mer Percy Lowell.  1979 A Marxist coup led by Maurice Bishop took  place
in  Grenada  while Prime Minister Edward Gairy was in New York at a mee-
ting of the United Nations.  Born Joseph Priestley,  English  scientist,
1733; Percy Lowell, US astronomer, 1855; Hugh Walpole, English novelist,
1884; Henry Hathaway, US film director, 1898; Neil Sedaka, US singer and
songwriter,  1939;  Joe Bugner, Hungarian-born British boxer, 1950. Died
Richard Burbage,  English actor who built the Globe Theatre, 1619; Susan
Anthony,  US  feminist,  1906;  Stephen  Benet,  US poet who wrote 'John
Brown's Body',  1943;  Angela Brazil,  English writer of  stories  about
girls' schools,  1947;  John Middleton Murry, English writer and critic,

14 March Feast day of St Matilda,  St Eutychius,  and St Leobinus. 1492
Queen  Isabella  of  Castile  ordered the expulsion of 150,000 Jews from
Spain, unless they accepted Christian baptism. 1757 British admiral John
Byng was executed by firing squad at Plymouth,  for having failed to re-
lieve Minorca from the French fleet.  1864 English explorer Samuel Baker
was  the first European to see the lake he named Lake Albert.  1885 Gil-
bert and Sullivan's Mikado was first performed  at  the  Savoy  Theatre,
London,  UK. 1891 The submarine Monarch laid the first underwater telep-
hone cable. Born Georg Telemann, German composer, 1681; Mrs Isabella Be-
eton,  English cooking writer, 1836; Maxim Gorky, Russian playwright and
novelist, 1868; Albert Einstein, German-born Swiss physicist, 1879; Mic-
hael Caine,  English film actor, 1933; Jasper Carrott, English comedian,
1946.  Died John Jervis, English admiral, 1823; Karl Marx, German philo-
sopher,  1883; George Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera, 1932; Niko-
lai Bukharin, Russian politician, 1938; Busby Berkeley, US film choreog-
rapher, 1976.

15 March Feast day of St Longinus, St Louise de Marillac, St Zacharias,
pope, St Lucretia, St Matrona, and St Clement Mary Hofbauer. 1892 US in-
ventor Jesse Reno patented the first escalator. 1909 US entrepreneur G S
Selfridge opened Britain's first department store in Oxford Street, Lon-
don,  UK.  1917  Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicated.  1933 Nazi leader
Adolf Hitler proclaimed the Third  Reich  in  Germany;  he  also  banned
left-wing newspapers and kosher food.  1949 Clothes rationing in Britain
ended.  1964 Actors Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton were married  in
Montreal. Born Andrew Jackson, seventh president of the US, 1767; Willi-
am Lamb,  Viscount Melbourne,  British prime minister,  1779; John Snow,
English physician who pioneered the use of ether as an anesthetic, 1813;
Emil von Behring, German bacteriologist, 1854; Mike Love, US pop singer,
member of the Beach Boys,  1941; Ry Cooder, US guitarist, 1947. Died Ju-
lius Caesar, Roman emperor, assassinated, 44 BC; Henry Bessemer, English
metallurgist who invented the Bessemer converter,  1898; Aristotle Onas-
sis,  Greek shipping tycoon, 1975; Rebecca West, English novelist, 1983;
Tommy Cooper, English comedian, 1984; Farzad Barzoft, Iranian-born jour-
nalist working for the Observer, hanged as a spy in Iraq, 1990.

16 March Feast day of St Finan Lobur, St Abraham Kidunaia, St Julian of
Antioch,  St Eusebia of Hamage, St Finian Lobhair, St Heribert of Colog-
ne,  and St Gregory Makar.  1660 The Long Parliament of England was dis-
solved, after sitting for 20 years. 1802 The US Military Academy was es-
tablished at West Point, New York State. 1872 The Wanderers beat the Ro-
yal  Engineers 1-0 in the first FA Cup Final,  at Kennington Oval.  1926
The first rocket fueled by gasoline and liquid oxygen  was  successfully
launched by US physicist Robert Goddard. 1973 In Britain, the new London
Bridge was opened. Born Matthew Flinders, English navigator who explored
the coast of Australia,  1774;  Georg Ohm,  German physicist,  1787; Leo
McKern, Australian actor, 1920; Jerry Lewis, US comedy actor, 1926; Ber-
nardo Bertolucci,  Italian film director,  1941.  Died Tiberius Claudius
Nero, Roman emperor, AD 37; Aubrey Beardsley, English illustrator, 1898;
Miguel Primo de Rivera,  Spanish politician and dictator,  1930;  Austen
Chamberlain,  British politician who negotiated the Locarno Pact,  1937;
William Henry Beveridge, English economist who wrote the report on which
the British welfare state was founded, 1963.

17 March National Day of Ireland.  Feast day of St Patrick, St Withbur-
ga,  St Gertrude of Nivelles, St Joseph of Arimathea, St Paul of Cyprus,
and the Martyrs of the Serapaeum.  1897 English-born New  Zealand  boxer
Bob  Fitzsimmons won the heavyweight title from US champion Jim Corbett.
1899 The first-ever radio distress call was sent,  summoning  assistance
to  a merchant ship aground on the Goodwin Sands,  off the Kent coast of
England.  1921 English doctor Marie Stopes opened The Mothers' Clinic in
London, to advise women on birth-control. 1969 Golda Meir, aged 70, took
office as prime minister of Israel,  the first woman to do so.  1978 The
oil  tanker  Amoco Cadiz ran aground on the coast of Brittany,  spilling
over 220,000 tons of crude oil and causing extensive pollution. 1990 The
Bastille opera house,  Paris,  was opened. Born Edmund Kean, English ac-
tor,  1787;  Kate Greenaway,  English children's book illustrator, 1846;
Nat 'King' Cole,  US singer,  1919;  Penelope Lively, English children's
novelist, 1933; Rudolf Nureyev, Russian ballet dancer, 1938; Robin Knox-
Johnston,  the  first person to sail single-handed,  non-stop around the
world,  1939. Died Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor, AD 180; Daniel Berno-
ulli, Swiss mathematician and physicist 1782; Christian Doppler, Austri-
an physicist, 1853; Lawrence Oates, English Antarctic explorer, a member
of Scott's expedition, who walked into a blizzard, saying 'I am just go-
ing outside, and may be some time', 1912; George Wilkins, Australian po-
lar explorer,  1958;  John Glubb (Glubb Pasha), English soldier, founder
of the Arab Legion, 1986.

18 March Feast day of St Cyril of Jerusalem, St Alexander of Jerusalem,
St Christian,  St Edward the Martyr,  St Finan of Aberdeen, St Anselm of
Lucca, St Frigidian, and St Salvator of Horta. 1662 The first public bus
service began operating,  in Paris. 1834 Six farm laborers from Tolpudd-
le,  Dorset,  England, were sentenced to transportation to Australia for
forming  a  labor union.  1891 The London-Paris telephone link came into
operation.  1922 Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi was jailed for  six  years
for  sedition.  1931  The first electric razors were manufactured in the
US.  1965 Soviet astronaut Alexei Leonov made the first 'walk' in space.
Born  Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov,  Russian composer,  1844;  Rudolf Diesel,
German engineer who invented the engine named  for  him,  1858;  Neville
Chamberlain, British prime minister who tried unsuccessfully to make pe-
ace with Hitler,  1869;  Lavrenti Beria,  Soviet chief of secret police,
1889;  Wilfrid Owen,  English World War I poet, 1893; Robert Donat, Eng-
lish film actor, 1905. Died Edward the Martyr, king of England, murdered
at Corfe Castle, 978; Fra Angelico, Italian monk and painter, 1455; Ivan
IV,  'the Terrible' 1584; Robert Walpole, first prime minister of Brita-
in,  1745; Laurence Sterne, Irish novelist, 1768; Percy Thrower, English
gardener and broadcaster, 1988.

19 March Feast day of St Alcmund,  St Joseph, St John of Panaca, and St
Landoald. 721 BC The first-ever recorded solar eclipse was seen from Ba-
bylon.  1628 The New England Company was formed  in  Massachusetts  Bay.
1913  Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov was first
performed in full at the Metropolitan Opera,  New York.  1932 The Sydney
Harbor  Bridge,  New  South  Wales,  Australia,  was opened;  it was the
world's longest single-span arch bridge, at 503 m/1,650 ft. 1969 British
troops landed on the Caribbean island of Anguilla, after the island dec-
lared itself a republic;  they were well received, and the island remai-
ned a UK dependency.  Born Georges de la Tour, French painter, 1593; To-
bias Smollett,  Scottish physician and author,  1721; David Livingstone,
Scottish missionary and explorer, 1813; Richard Burton, English explorer
and scholar,  1821;  Wyatt Earp, US law officer, 1848; Sergei Diaghilev,
Russian ballet impresario,  1872.  Died Thomas Killigrew, English playw-
right,  1683;  Mary Anning,  English paleontologist who  discovered  the
first ichthyosaurus, 1847; Arthur James Balfour, British prime minister,
1930;  Edgar Rice Burroughs,  US novelist who wrote the Tarzan  stories,
1950; Alan Badel, English actor, 1965.

20 March Feast day of St Cuthbert, St Wolfram, St Herbert of Derwentwa-
ter,  St Martin of Braga, St Photina and her Companions, and the Martyrs
of Mar Saba. 1602 The Dutch government founded the Dutch East India Com-
pany.  1806 The foundation stone of Dartmoor Prison was laid. 1815 Napo-
leon  returned  to  Paris from banishment on the island of Elba to begin
his last 100 days of power that ended with defeat  and  exile.  1852  US
author  Harriet  Beecher  Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was published.
1956 Tunisia achieved independence from France.  1980 Pirate radio  ship
Radio Caroline sank.  Born Ovid, Roman poet, 43 BC; Henrik Ibsen, Norwe-
gian playwright,  1828;  Beniamino Gigli,  Italian operatic tenor, 1890;
Michael Redgrave,  English actor, 1908; Vera Lynn, English singer, 1917;
Madan Lal,  Indian cricketer, 1951. Died King Henry IV of England, 1413;
Thomas Seymour, Lord High Admiral of England, executed, 1549; Isaac New-
ton, English scientist, 1727; Lajos Kossuth, Hungarian revolutionary le-
ader,  1894;  Ferdinand Foch,  French Army marshal, 1929; Brendan Behan,
Irish playwright, 1964.

21 March Feast day of St Benedict,  St Enda,  St Nicholas of  Flue,  St
Fanchea, and St Serapion of Thmuis. 1933 Germany's first Nazi parliament
was officially opened in a ceremony at the garrison church  in  Potsdam.
1946  British  minister  Aneurin Bevan announced the Labour government's
plans for the National Health Service.  1952 Kwame Nkrumah  was  elected
prime  minister  of  the Gold Coast (later Ghana).  1960 The Sharpeville
Massacre - in South Africa a peaceful  demonstration  against  the  pass
laws ended with about 70 deaths when police fired on demonstrators. 1963
Alcatraz, the maximum-security prison in San Francisco Bay, US, was clo-
sed.  1990 A demonstration in London,  UK, against the poll tax became a
riot,  in which over 400 people were  arrested.  Born  Johann  Sebastian
Bach, German composer, 1685; Paul Tortelier, French cellist, 1914; Peter
Brook, English stage and film director, 1925; Michael Heseltine, British
politician,  1933;  Brian Clough,  English footballer and manager, 1935;
Ayrton Senna,  Brazilian racing driver,  1960. Died Thomas Cranmer, arc-
hbishop of Canterbury,  burned at the stake,  1556;  James Ussher, Irish
theologian and archbishop of Armagh,  who fixed the date of the Creation
at 4004 BC,  1656;  Robert Southey, English poet, 1843; Alexander Glazu-
nov, Russian composer, 1936; Philip Wilson Steer, English painter, 1942;
Harry H Corbett, English actor, 1982.

22 March The earliest possible date for Easter. Feast day of St Deogra-
tius,  St Basil of Ancyra, St Paul of Narbonne, St Nicholas Owen, and St
Benvenuto of Osimo. 1824 The British parliament voted to buy 38 pictures
at a cost of Ј57,000,  to establish the national collection which is now
housed in the National Gallery,  Trafalgar Square,  London, UK. 1888 The
English Football League was formed.  1895 French cinema pioneers Auguste
and Louis Lumiиre gave the first demonstration of celluloid film, in Pa-
ris.  1942 The BBC began broadcasting in morse code to the French Resis-
tance.  1945 The Arab League was founded in Cairo.  1946 Jordan achieved
independence from British rule.  Born Maximilian I,  Holy Roman Emperor,
1459;  Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter, 1599; Karl Malden, US film ac-
tor,  1913; Marcel Marceau, French mime, 1923; Stephen Sondheim, US com-
poser and lyricist, 1930; Andrew Lloyd Webber, English composer of musi-
cals, 1948. Died Jean Lully, French composer, 1687; John Canton, English
physicist,  1772; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German poet, novelist, and
playwright, 1832; Thomas Hughes, English author of Tom Brown's Schoolda-
ys, 1896; Mike Todd, US film producer, 1958.

23 March National Day of Pakistan.  Feast day of St Gwinear, St Turibi-
us,  St Benedict the Hermit,  St Victorian, St Ethelwald the Hermit, and
St Joseph Oriol. 1765 The British parliament passed the Stamp Act, impo-
sing a tax on all publications and official documents in  America.  1861
In  Britain,  London's  first streetcars began operating,  in Bayswater.
1891 Goal nets,  invented by Liverpudlian J A Brodie,  were used for the
first time in an FA Cup Final. 1919 The Italian Fascist Party was formed
by Benito Mussolini.  1925 Authorities in the state  of  Tennessee,  US,
forbade  the teaching of Darwinian theory in schools.  1956 Pakistan was
declared an Islamic republic within the Commonwealth.  1983 US president
Ronald Reagan urged support for a revolutionary defence system,  so-cal-
led Star Wars,  to protect the US from Soviet attack.  Born  Juan  Gris,
Spanish painter, 1887; Joan Crawford, US film actress, 1904; Akira Kuro-
sawa,  Japanese film director,  1910;  Wernher von Braun, German-born US
rocket engineer, 1912; Jimmy Edwards, English comedian, 1920; Roger Ban-
nister,  English neurologist who,  as a student, was the first person to
run a mile in under four minutes (3 min 59.4 sec),  1929. Died Stendhal,
French novelist, 1842; Steve Donoghue, English jockey, 1945; Raoul Dufy,
French painter,  1953;  Peter Lorre, Hungarian-born US film actor, 1964;
Claude Auchinleck,  British Field Marshal,  1981; Mike Hailwood, English
champion motor cyclist, 1981.

24 March Feast day of St Dunchad,  St Hildelith,  St Macartan, St Alde-
mar, St Simon of Trent, St William of Norwich, St Catherine of Vadstena,
and St Irenaeus of Sirmeum.  1401 Tamerlane the Great captured Damascus.
1603 The crowns of England and Scotland were united when King  James  VI
of  Scotland succeeded to the English throne.  1877 The Oxford-Cambridge
boat race ended in a dead heat,  the only time this has  happened.  1922
Only  three of the 32 horses in the Grand National Steeplechase finished
the race.  1942 The national loaf was introduced in Britain. 1976 Isabel
Perуn,  president of Argentina,  was deposed.  1980 The oil tanker Exxon
Valdez ran aground off Alaska,  spilling over 12 million gallons of oil.
Born William Morris, English socialist and craftsman, 1834; Roscoe 'Fat-
ty' Arbuckle,  US silent film actor,  1887;  Ub Iwerks,  US animator who
worked  with  Walt Disney on the creation of Mickey Mouse,  1901;  Steve
McQueen,  US film actor,  1930;  Malcolm Muggeridge,  English writer and
broadcaster,  1903; Archie Gemmill, Scottish footballer, 1947. Died Eli-
zabeth I,  queen of England,  1603; Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, US poet,
1882;  Jules Verne,  French novelist, 1905; J M Synge, Irish playwright,
1909;  Orde Charles Wingate,  British general,  1944;  Bernard, Viscount
Montgomery of Alamein, British Field Marshal, 1976.

25 March National Day of Greece. Feast day of St Barontius, St Alfwold,
St Dismus,  St Lucy Filippini, St Hermenland, and St Margaret Clitherow.
1306 Robert I 'the Bruce' was crowned king of Scots. 1609 English explo-
rer Henry Hudson set off from Amsterdam, on behalf of the Dutch East In-
dia Company,  in search of the North West Passage. 1807 The British par-
liament abolished the slave trade.  1843 A pedestrian tunnel was  opened
beneath the Thames in London, UK, linking Wapping with Rotherhithe. 1876
In the first football international between Wales and  Scotland,  played
in Glasgow,  Scotland won 4-0. 1957 Six European countries (France, Bel-
gium,  Luxembourg,  West Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands) signed the
Treaty  of  Rome,  establishing  the European Community.  Born Henry II,
1133;  Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, 1867; Bйla Bartok, Hungarian
composer,  1881; A J P Taylor, English historian, 1906; David Lean, Eng-
lish film director,  1908; Aretha Franklin, US singer, 1942; Elton John,
English pop singer and songwriter, 1947. Died Anna Seward, English nove-
list who wrote Black Beauty,  1809;  Nicholas Hawksmoor,  English archi-
tect,  1836; Frйdйric Mistral, French poet, 1914; Claude Debussy, French
composer, 1918; King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, assassinated by his nephew,

26 March  Feast day of St William of Norwich,  St Liudger,  St Felix of
Trier,  St Castulus of Rome,  St Braulio, and St Basil of Rome. 1839 The
annual rowing regatta at Henley-on-Thames was established.  1886 The fu-
neral of the first person to be officially cremated in Britain took pla-
ce in Woking,  Surrey.  1920 The British special constables known as the
Black and Tans arrived in Ireland. 1934 Driving tests were introduced in
Britain.  1973  The  first women were allowed on the floor of the London
Stock Exchange.  1979 Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian
president  Anwar Sadat signed a peace treaty after two years of negotia-
tions.  Born A E Housman,  English poet,  1859;  Robert Frost,  US poet,
1874; Pierre Boulez, French conductor and composer, 1925; Leonard Nimoy,
US actor who played Mr Spock in the TV series Star Trek;  James Caan, US
film actor,  1939; Diana Ross, US singer, 1944. Died John Vanbrugh, Eng-
lish playwright and architect, 1726; Ludwig von Beethoven, German compo-
ser, 1827; Walt Whitman, US poet, 1892; Cecil Rhodes, English-born South
African politician, 1902; Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, 1923; Raymond
Chandler, US novelist who created private eye Philip Marlowe, 1959; Noel
Coward, English playwright and entertainer, 1973.

27 March Feast day of St Rupert, St Athilda, and St John of Egypt. 1794
The United States Navy was formed. 1871 England and Scotland played the-
ir first rugby international, in Edinburgh; Scotland won. 1914 The first
successful blood transfusion was performed, in a Brussels hospital. 1958
Nikita Khrushchev became leader of the Soviet Union.  1964 The ten Great
Train  Robbers who were caught were sentenced to a total of 307 years in
prison. 1977 Pan Am and KLM jumbo jets collided on the runway at Teneri-
fe airport, in the Canary Islands, killing 574 people. Born Henry Royce,
English automobile designer and manufacturer,  1863; Ludwig Mies van der
Rohe, German architect, 1886; Gloria Swanson, US film actress, 1899; Cy-
rus Vance,  US secretary of state,  1917; Sarah Vaughan, US jazz singer,
1924; Mstislav Rostropovich, Russian cellist and conductor, 1927; Duncan
Goodhew,  English Olympic swimmer, 1957. Died King James I of Great Bri-
tain,  1625;  Giovanni Battista Tiepolo,  Italian painter,  1770; George
Gilbert Scott,  English architect, 1878; James Dewar, Scottish physicist
and chemist who invented the thermos flask,  1923;  Arnold Bennett, Eng-
lish novelist,  1931;  Anthony Blunt,  English art historian and  Soviet
spy, 1983.

28 March Feast day of St Alkelda of Middleham, St Gontran, and St Tuti-
lo. 1910 The first seaplane took off near Marseille, S France. 1912 Both
the  Oxford  and  the  Cambridge boats sank in the University boat race.
1930 The cities of Angora and Constantinople,  in Turkey,  changed their
names  to  Ankara and Istanbul respectively.  1939 The Spanish Civil War
came to an end as Madrid surrendered to  General  Franco.  1945  Germany
dropped  its last V2 bomb on Britain.  1979 The nuclear power station at
Three Mile Island,  Pennsylvania, suffered a meltdown in the core of one
of its reactors.  Born Raphael, Italian painter, 1483; St Teresa of Avi-
la, Carmelite nun, 1515; King George I, 1660; Flora Robson, English act-
ress,  1902; Dirk Bogarde, English actor and author, 1921; Neil Kinnock,
British politician,  1942. Died James Thomas Brudenell, 7th earl of Car-
digan,  leader of the disastrous Charge of the Light Brigade at Balacla-
va,  1868;  Virginia Woolf,  English novelist, 1941; Sergei Rachmaninov,
Russian composer, 1943; Marc Chagall, Russian-born French painter, 1985;
W C Handy, US blues composer, 1958; Dwight Eisenhower, 34th president of
the US, 1969.

29 March Feast day of Saints Gwynllyw and Gwladys, St Cyril of Heliopo-
lis, St Berthold, St Mark of Arethusa, St Rupert of Salzburg, Saints Jo-
nas, Barachisius and Others, Saints Armogastes, Masculas, Achinimus, and
Saturus.  1461 Over 28,000 people are said to have been  killed  in  the
Battle of Towton,  N Yorkshire, England; the Lancastrians under Henry VI
were defeated.  1871 The Albert Hall, London, was opened by Queen Victo-
ria.  1886 Coca Cola went on sale in the US; it was marketed as a 'Brain
Tonic' and claimed to relieve exhaustion.  1971 In the US,  Lt.  William
Calley  was  sentenced  to life imprisonment after being found guilty of
the murder of civilians in the South Vietnamese village  of  My  Lai  in
1969.  1973 The last US troops left Vietnam.  1974 US spacecraft Mariner
10 took close-up photographs of the planet Mercury.  Born Elihu Thomson,
US inventor,  1853; Edwin Lutyens, English architect, 1869; William Wal-
ton,  English composer, 1902; Pearl Bailey, US singer, 1918; Norman Teb-
bit, British politician, 1931; John Major, British prime minister, 1943.
Died Charles Wesley,  English evangelist and  hymn-writer,  1788;  Maria
Fitzherbert,  mistress of King George IV,  1837;  Georges-Pierre Seurat,
French painter, 1891; Robert Falcon Scott, Antarctic explorer, 1912; Jo-
yce Cary, Irish novelist, 1957; Vera Brittain, English socialist writer,

30 March Feast day of St Osburga, St John Climacus, St Zosimus of Syra-
cuse,  St Ludolf,  St Leonard Murialdo,  and St Rieul.  1775 The British
parliament passed an Act forbidding its North American colonies to trade
with anyone other than Britain. 1842 Ether was first used as an anesthe-
tic during surgery, by US doctor Crawford Long. 1856 The Crimean War was
brought to an end by the signing of the Treaty of Paris. 1867 The US bo-
ught Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (oil had not yet been  discove-
red).  1893  Thomas Bayard,  the US's first ambassador to Great Britain,
arrived in London.  1981 In Washington DC,  US,  would-be assassin  John
Hinckley  shot  President  Reagan in the chest.  Born Francisco de Goya,
Spanish painter,  1746;  Paul Verlaine,  French poet,  1844; Vincent Van
Gogh, Dutch painter, 1853; Sean O'Casey, Irish playwright, 1880; Melanie
Klein,  Austrian-born British psychologist,  1882; Eric Clapton, English
guitarist, 1945. Died William Hunter, Scottish anatomist and obstetrici-
an,  1783; 'Beau' Brummel, English dandy, 1840; Rudolf Steiner, Austrian
philosopher, 1925; Friedrich Bergius, German scientist, 1949; Lйon Blum,
French politician, 1950; James Cagney, US film actor, 1986.

31 March Feast day of St Benjamin,  St Balbina,  St Acacius, and St Guy
of Pomposa. 1282 The Sicilian Vespers, a massacre of the French in Sici-
ly,  begun the previous evening, ended. 1889 In Paris, the Eiffel Tower,
built for the Universal Exhibition, was inaugurated. 1896 The first zip-
per was patented in the US by its inventor,  Whitcomb Judson. 1959 Tibe-
tan  Buddhist  leader  the  Dalai Lama fled from Chinese-occupied Tibet.
1973 Racehorse Red Rum set a record of 9 min 1.9 sec for the Grand Nati-
onal Steeplechase.  1986 Hampton Court Palace, near Richmond, SW London,
UK,  was severely damaged by a fire which broke out in the  south  wing.
Born Renй Descartes,  French philosopher and mathematician, 1596; Andrew
Marvell,  English poet,  1621;  Franz Joseph Haydn,  Austrian  composer,
1732;  Nikolai Gogol, Russian novelist, 1809; Robert Bunsen, German che-
mist,  1811; John Fowles, English novelist, 1927. Died King Francis I of
France,  1547; King Philip III of Spain, 1621; John Donne, English poet,
1631;  John Constable,  English painter, 1837; Charlotte Brontл, English
novelist, 1855; Jesse Owens, US athlete, 1980; Enid Bagnold, English no-
velist, 1981.

1 April All Fools' Day.  Feast day of St Agilbert, St Gilbert of Caith-
ness, St Tewdric, St Walaric, St Catharine of Palma, St Melito, St Vale-
ry, St Hugh of Bonnevaux, and St Hugh of Grenoble. 1908 The British Ter-
ritorial Army was founded.  1918 The Royal Air Force was formed when the
Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying  Corps  were  merged.  1947
Britain's  school-leaving age was raised to 15.  1948 The USSR began its
blockade of Berlin.  1960 The US launched the world's first weather  sa-
tellite,  Tiros I. 1973 In Britain, Value Added Tax (VAT) replaced Purc-
hase Tax and Selective Employment Tax. Born William Harvey, English phy-
sician who explained the circulation of the blood,  1578;  Otto von Bis-
marck,  first chancellor of the German  Empire,  1815;  Edmond  Rostand,
French playwright,  author of Cyrano de Bergerac,  1868;  Lon Chaney, US
silent-film actor, 1883; Ali McGraw, US film actress, 1938; David Gower,
English cricketer, 1957. Died Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen of England and
France, 1204; King Robert III of Scotland, 1406; Scott Joplin, US compo-
ser, 1917; Karl Franz Josef, emperor of Austria, 1922; Max Ernst, German
Surrealist painter, 1976; Marvin Gaye, US singer, 1984.

2 April Feast day of St Francis of Paola, St Mary of Egypt, St John Pa-
yne, St Zosimus, St Nicetius of Lyons, and Saints Apphian and Theodosia.
1792 The first mint was established in the US.  1801 The British and Da-
nish fleets met in the Battle of Copenhagen, during which Nelson put his
telescope to his blind eye and ignored Admiral Parker's signal  to  stop
fighting;  the British fleet won.  1849 Britain annexed the Punjab. 1860
The first parliament of the united Italy met at Turin.  1946  The  Royal
Military Academy at Sandhurst,  Berkshire, UK, was founded. 1979 Israeli
Prime Minister Menachem Begin became the first Israeli leader  to  visit
Cairo  when he met Egyptian President Sadat.  1982 Argentina invaded the
Falkland Islands. Born Charlemagne, king of the Franks, 742; Hans Chris-
tian Andersen,  Danish author,  1805; Emile Zola, French novelist, 1840;
Alec Guinness, English actor, 1914; Jack Brabham, Australian racing dri-
ver,  1926; Penelope Keith, English actress, 1939. Died Honorй Mirabeau,
French politician and writer,  1791; Richard Cobden, British politician,
1865;  Samuel Morse,  US inventor, 1872; C S Forester, English novelist,
1966;  Georges Pompidou, president of France, 1974. 3 April Feast day of
Saints Agape,  Chionia, and Irene, St Pancras of Taormina, St Richard of
Chichester, St Nicetas, St Burgundofara, and St Sixtus I, pope. 1721 Ro-
bert Walpole became the first prime minister of Britain. 1860 In the US,
the Pony Express came into operation, with despatch riders regularly ma-
king  the 3,000-km /2,000-mi trip from St Joseph,  Missouri to San Fran-
cisco,  California.  1922 In the USSR,  Stalin was appointed as  general
secretary of the Communist Party.  1930 Haile Selassie became emperor of
Ethiopia.  1987 At an auction in Geneva,  jewelry belonging to the  late
Duchess  of Windsor raised over Ј31 million.  Born King Henry IV,  first
Lancastrian king of England,  1367;  Washington Irving, US historian and
short-story writer,  1783;  Doris Day, US film actress and singer, 1924;
Marlon Brando, US actor, 1924; Helmut Kohl, German politician, 1930; Ed-
die Murphy,  US film actor,  1961. Died Bartolomй Murillo, Spanish pain-
ter,  1682;  James Clark Ross,  English explorer, 1862; Johannes Brahms,
German composer, 1897; Jesse James, US outlaw, 1882; Graham Greene, Eng-
lish novelist,  1991;  Martha Graham, US dancer and choreographer, 1991;
Dieter Plage, German wildlife photographer, 1993.

4 April National Day of Hungary.  Feast day of St Ambrose,  St Isidore,
St Plato,  St Tigernach, St Benedict the Black, and Saints Agathopus and
Theodulus.  1541  Spanish  Jesuit  Ignatius de Loyola became the order's
first superior-general.  1581 English navigator Francis  Drake  returned
home after sailing around the world, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth
I.  1933 In the US,  73 people died when the helium-filled airship Akron
crashed into the sea off the New Jersey coast.  1934 'Cat's-eye' reflec-
tive studs were first used on roads near Bradford,  Yorkshire,  UK. 1949
The  North  Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed in Washington
DC, US; 11 countries signed the treaty. 1958 Members of the Campaign for
Nuclear Disarmament (CND) held the first Aldermaston March, walking from
Hyde Park Corner,  London,  to the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment
at Aldermaston, Berkshire, UK. 1968 Dr. Martin Luther King, US Black ci-
vil rights leader,  was assassinated in Memphis,Tennessee. Born Grinling
Gibbons, Dutch-born woodcarver and sculptor, 1648; William Siemens, Ger-
man-born British metallurgist  and  inventor,  1823;  Marguerite  Duras,
French author,  1914; Muddy Waters, US blues singer, 1915; Maya Angelou,
US author,  1928;  Anthony Perkins,  US actor,  1932.  Died John Napier,
Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms,  1617; Oliver Goldsmith,
Irish playwright,  1774;  Karl Benz,  German automobile engineer,  1929;
Andrй Michelin,  French tire manufacturer,  1931; Martin Luther King, US
civil-rights leader,  assassinated, 1968; Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Pakistani
prime minister, executed, 1979.

5 April Feast day of St Derfel, St Vincent Ferrer, St Ethelburga of Ly-
minge,  St Albert of Montecorvino,  and St Gerald of Sauve-Majeure. 1614
In  England,  the Addled Parliament began sitting,  so called because it
passed no Bills.  1874 Johann Strauss's opera Die Fledermaus  was  first
performed,  in Vienna. 1955 British prime minister Winston Churchill re-
signed.  1964 Automatic, driverless trains began operating on the London
Underground, UK. 1976 Harold Wilson resigned as prime minister of Brita-
in,  and was succeeded by James Callaghan.  Born Thomas Hobbes,  English
philosopher, 1588; Elihu Yale, American merchant and founder of the col-
lege named for him, 1649; Spencer Tracey, US film actor, 1900; Bette Da-
vis,  US film actress,  1908;  Herbert von Karajan,  Austrian conductor,
1908; Gregory Peck, US film actor, 1916. Died Georges Danton, French re-
volutionary leader,  guillotined,  1794;  John Wisden, English cricketer
who compiled the almanacs named for him, 1884; Douglas MacArthur, US ge-
neral,  1964; Chiang Kai-shek, Chinese soldier and politician, 1975; Ho-
ward Hughes,  US industrialist and multi-millionaire,  1976; George Her-
bert, earl of Carnarvon, British Egyptologist, 1923.

6 April Feast day of St Elstan, St Irenaeus of Sirmium, St Celestine I,
pope,  St Marcellinus of Carthage, St Prudentius of Troyes, St Eutychius
of Constantinople, and St William of Eskilsoи. 1580 In Britain, an earth
tremor damaged several London churches, including the old St Paul's Cat-
hedral.  1830  Joseph Smith founded the Mormon Church in New York State.
1896 The first modern Olympic Games began in Athens.  1909  US  explorer
Robert  Peary became the first person to reach the North Pole.  1917 The
US declared war on Germany. 1965 Early Bird, the first commercial commu-
nications satellite, was launched by the US. Born Gustave Moreau, French
painter, 1826; Harry Houdini, US escapologist, 1874; John Betjeman, Eng-
lish poet, 1906; James Watson, US biologist, 1928; Andrй Previn, US con-
ductor, 1929; Paul Daniels, English magician and entertainer, 1938. Died
King Richard I,  'the Lion-Hearted',  1199; Albrecht Dьrer, German pain-
ter,  1528;  Francis Walsingham, English politician, 1590; Jules Bordet,
Belgian bacteriologist,  1961;  Igor Stravinsky, Russian composer, 1971;
Isaac Asimov, US scientist, 1992.

7 April Feast day of St Celsus,  St Goran,  St Finan Cam, St George the
Younger,  St Hegesippus,  St Aphraates,  St Henry Walpole, St Herman Jo-
seph,  and St John Baptist de la Salle. 1827 The first matches were sold
in Stockton, England, by their inventor, chemist John Walker. 1853 Chlo-
roform was used as an anesthetic on Queen Victoria,  during the birth of
her eighth child,  Prince Leopold.  1906 A major eruption of the Italian
volcano,  Vesuvius,  took place.  1939 Italy invaded Albania.  1948  The
World  Health Organization (WHO) was established.  1963 Yugoslavia's new
constitution established Josip Tito as president for life. Born St Fran-
cis Xavier, Spanish Jesuit missionary, 1506; William Wordsworth, English
poet,  1770;  Billie Holiday, US jazz singer, 1915; Ravi Shankar, Indian
sitar player,  1920;  David Frost, English TV presenter and interviewer,
1939;  Francis Ford Coppola, US film director, 1939. Died El Greco, Gre-
ek-born Spanish painter,  1614;  Dick Turpin,  English highwayman, 1739;
Phineas T Barnum, US showman, 1891; Henry Ford, US automobile manufactu-
rer,  1947; Theda Bara, US silent-film actress, 1955; Jim Clark, English
racing driver, killed in a crash, 1968.

8 April Feast day of St Walter of Pontoise, St Julia Billart, St Perpe-
tuus  of Tours,  and St Dionysus of Corinth.  1513 Spanish explorer Juan
Ponce de Leon arrived in Florida and claimed it for Spain. 1838 Isambard
Brunel's steamship Great Western set off on its first voyage, from Bris-
tol to New York;  the journey took 15 days. 1898 Lord Kitchener defeated
Sudanese leader the Mahdi, at the Battle of Atbara. 1908 Herbert Asquith
became prime minister of Britain.  1939 In Albania,  King Zog  abdicated
after Italy occupied the country. 1946 The League of Nations met for the
last time. 1953 British colonial authorities in Kenya sentenced Jomo Ke-
nyatta to seven years' imprisonment for allegedly organizing the Mau gu-
errillas.  Born Adrian Boult, English conductor, 1889; Mary Pickford, US
film actress, 1893; Ian Smith, Rhodesian prime minister, 1919; Eric Por-
ter,  English actor,  1928;  Dorothy Tutin, English actress, 1931; Hywel
Bennett, Welsh actor, 1944. Died Caracalla, Roman emperor, assassinated,
AD 217;  Domenico Donizetti, Italian composer, 1848; Elisha Graves Otis,
US inventor of the safety lift,  1861;  Pablo Picasso,  Spanish painter,
1973; Marian Anderson, US contralto, 1993.

9 April Feast day of St Madrun, St Uramar, St Hugh of Rouen, St Gauche-
rius,  St Mary Cleophas,  and St Waldetrudis. 1747 The Scottish Jacobite
Lord Lovat was beheaded on Tower Hill,  London, for high treason; he was
the last man to be executed in this way in Britain. 1770 English naviga-
tor James Cook arrived in Botany Bay,  Australia,  the first European to
do so. 1865 The American Civil War came to an end when Confederate Gene-
ral Robert E Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S Grant,  at Appo-
matox, Virginia. 1869 The Hudson Bay Company agreed to transfer its ter-
ritory to Canada.  1917 In France,  during World War I,  Canadian forces
began the assault on Vimy Ridge, and the Battle of Arras began. 1969 The
British supersonic aircraft Concorde made its first  test  flight,  from
Bristol to Fairford,  Gloucestershire, UK. Born Isambard Kingdom Brunel,
English engineer,  1806; Charles Baudelaire, French poet, 1821; Paul Ro-
beson,  US actor and singer,  1898;  Hugh Gaitskell, British politician,
1906;  Jean-Paul Belmondo,  French film actor, 1933; Severiano Balleste-
ros,  Spanish golfer,  1957.  Died Edward IV of England,  1483;  Lorenzo
de'Medici,  Florentine ruler,  1492;  Francis Bacon, English philosopher
and politician,  1626;  Dante Gabriel Rosetti, English painter and poet,
1882;  Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologian, 1945; Frank Lloyd Wright,
US architect, 1959.

10 April Feast day of St Hedda of Peterborough,  Saints Beocca and Het-
hor,  St Bademus,  St Macarius of Ghent,  St Paternus of Abdinghhof,  St
Michael  de Sanctis,  St Fulbert of Chartres,  and the Martyrs under the
Danes.  1633 Bananas,  never seen before in England,  were on sale in  a
London shop.  1820 The first British settlers landed at Algoa Bay, South
Africa. 1841 The US newspaper New York Tribune was first published. 1849
The safety pin was patented in the US; unaware of this, a British inven-
tor patented his own safety pin later the same year.  1864 Austrian Arc-
hduke  Maximilian  was made Emperor of Mexico.  1972 Earthquakes in Iran
killed over 3,000 people.  Born King James V of Scotland,  1512; William
Hazlitt, English essayist and critic, 1778; William Booth, English foun-
der of the Salvation Army,  1829; Joseph Pulitzer, US newspaper proprie-
tor who founded the Pulitzer Prize for literature and journalism,  1847;
Max von Sydow,  Swedish actor,  1929;  Omar Sharif, Egyptian film actor,
1932.  Died Joseph-Louis Lagrange,  French mathematician, 1813; Algernon
Charles Swinburne,  English poet, 1909; Emiliano Zapata, Mexican revolu-
tionary leader, shot by government troops, 1919; Auguste Lumiиre, French
cinema pioneer,  1954; Evelyn Waugh, English novelist, 1966; Chris Hani,
South African ANC leader, asssassinated, 1993.

11 April Feast day of St Guthlac, St Stanislas, St Godeberta, St Barsa-
nuphius,  St Gemma Galgani,  St Isaac of Spoleto,  and St Stanislaus  of
Cracow.  1689  The  coronation  of William III and Mary II took place in
London.  1713 The War of the Spanish Succession was ended by the signing
of  the  Treaty  of Utrecht;  France ceded Newfoundland and Gibraltar to
Britain.  1814 Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to the island of  Elba;
Louis XVIII became king of France. 1855 Britain's first pillar boxes we-
re put up in London;  there were just six of them, and they were painted
green.  1945 Allied troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Buc-
henwald.  1951 US General Douglas MacArthur was relieved of his  command
in Korea, after a disagreement with President Truman. 1961 Nazi war cri-
minal Adolf Eichmann went on trial in Jerusalem  after  being  kidnapped
from Argentina, where he had fled after World War II. Born James Parkin-
son,  English physician who discovered Parkinson's disease, 1755; George
Canning,  British prime minister,  1770; Charles Hallй, German-born Bri-
tish pianist and conductor, 1819; Dean Acheson, US politician, 1893; Dan
Maskell, British tennis player, coach, and commentator, 1908; Joel Grey,
US actor and singer,  1933.  Died Donato Bramante, Italian architect who
began St Peter's,  Rome, 1514; Thomas Wyatt, English soldier and conspi-
rator,  1554;  Luther Burbank, US botanist, 1926; Archibald McIndoe, New
Zealand-born plastic surgeon, 1960; John O'Hara, US novelist, 1970; Ers-
kine Caldwell, US novelist, 1987.

12 April Feast day of St Zeno of Verona,  St Julius I,  pope,  St Sabas
the Goth and Others,  and St Alferius.  1204 Soldiers taking part in the
Fourth Crusade under the direction of the Doge of Venice,  captured  the
Byzantine city of Constantinople. 1606 The Union Jack was adopted as the
official flag of England.  1782 The British fleet under  Admiral  Rodney
defeated  the French fleet in the Battle of the Saints in the West Indi-
es.  1861 The American Civil War began when Confederate troops fired  on
the Federal garrison at Fort Sumter.  1961 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
became the first person to orbit the Earth.  1981 The US  space  shuttle
Columbia was launched from Cape Canaveral. Born Henry Clay, American po-
litician,  1777;  Lionel Hampton,  US bandleader,  1913;  Raymond Barre,
French politician, 1924; Alan Ayckbourn, English playwright, 1939; Bobby
Moore,  English footballer,  1941.  Died William Kent, English architect
and landscape gardener,  1748;  Fyodor Chaliapin, Russian operatic bass,
1938;  Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd president of the US, 1945; Josep-
hine Baker,  US-born French singer and dancer,  1975;  Alan Paton, South
African novelist and politician, 1988.

13 April Feast day of St Guinoch, St Martin I, pope, Saints Carpus, Pa-
pylus,  and Agathonice, St Hermenegild, and St Martius. 1598 Henry IV of
France issued the Edict of Nantes, giving religious freedom to the Hugu-
enots.  1668  English  poet  John Dryden became the first Poet Laureate.
1829 The British Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation  Act,  lif-
ting  restrictions imposed on Catholics at the time of Henry VIII.  1919
The Amritsar Massacre took place in the Punjab,  India;  British  troops
fired into a crowd of 10,000 which had gathered to protest at the arrest
of two Indian Congress Party leaders,  379 people were killed and  1,200
wounded.  1936 Luton Town footballer Joe Payne set a goal-scoring record
when he scored ten goals in one match against Bristol Rovers.  1980 Spa-
nish golfer Severiano Ballesteros became the youngest-ever winner of the
US Masters Tournament.  Born Thomas Jefferson,  3rd president of the US,
1743;  Richard Trevithick, English engineer, 1771; F W Woolworth, US fo-
under of chain stores, 1852; John Braine, English novelist, 1922; Seamus
Heaney, Irish poet, 1939; Gary Kasparov, Russian chess player, 1963. Di-
ed Boris Godunov, Russian tsar, 1605; Jean de La Fontaine, French writer
of fables, 1695; William Orchardson, Scottish painter, 1910; Abdul Salam
Arif, president of Iraq, 1966; Christmas Humphreys, English judge, 1983.

14 April Feast day of St Tiburtius and Companions,  St Caradoc, St Lam-
bert of Lyons,  St Ardalion, Saints Anthony, John, and Eustace, St Bene-
zet, St John of Vilna, St Bernard of Tiron or Abbeville, and the Martyrs
of  Lithuania.  1471  The Battle of Barnet took place in the Wars of the
Roses, in which Yorkist forces defeated the Lancastrians, leading to the
restoration  of Edward IV.  1828 US lexicographer Noah Webster published
his American Dictionary of the English Language. 1865 US President Abra-
ham Lincoln was assassinated.  1929 The first Monaco Grand Prix was held
in Monte Carlo.  1931 Spanish King Alfonso XIII fled the  country  after
Republican  successes in elections.  1931 The British Ministry of Trans-
port published the first Highway Code. 1983 The first cordless telephone
went on sale in Britain.  Born Christiaan Huygens,  Dutch astronomer and
physicist,  1629;  Peter Behrens,  German architect and designer,  1868;
John Gielgud,  English actor, 1904; Franзois Duvalier, Haitian dictator,
1907; Rod Steiger, US film actor, 1925; John Roberts, English historian,
1928.  Died  Richard Neville,  'the Kingmaker',  killed at the Battle of
Barnet,  1471;  Thomas Otway, English playwright, 1685; George Frederick
Handel,  English composer,  1759;  Lazarus Zamenhof, Polish linguist who
devised Esperanto, 1917; Ernest Bevin, British politician and labor-uni-
on leader, 1951; Simone de Beauvoir, French feminist writer, 1986.

15 April Feast day of St Ruadhan,  St Paternus of Wales,  St Hunna, and
Saints Anastasia and Basilissa.  1755 English  lexicographer  Dr  Samuel
Johnson  published  his Dictionary;  he had taken eight years to compile
it.  1797 Sailors at Spithead, near Portsmouth, mutinied, demanding bet-
ter conditions; the British government met their demands. 1891 US inven-
tor Thomas Edison gave a public demonstration of his kinetoscope,  a mo-
ving-picture machine. 1912 Over 1,500 people died when the passenger li-
ner Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg on  its  first  voyage.
1922  Insulin  was discovered by Canadian physiologist Frederick Banting
and J J R Macleod.  1942 The George Cross was awarded to the  island  of
Malta,  for  bravery under heavy attack by German and Italian forces du-
ring World War II.  Born Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, 1469; Henry Ja-
mes,  US-born British novelist, 1843; Joe Davis, English snooker player,
1901; Neville Marriner, British conductor, 1924; Jeffrey Archer, English
politician and novelist, 1940; Emma Thompson, English actress, 1959. Di-
ed Mme de Pompadour,  mistress of French King Louis  XV,  1764;  Abraham
Lincoln,  16th president of the US,  assassinated 1865;  Matthew Arnold,
English poet and educator,  1888;  Father  Damien,  Belgian  missionary,
1889;  Jean-Paul Sartre, French philosopher and writer, 1980; Arthur Lo-
we, English actor, 1982.

16 April Feast day of St Bernadette,  St Magnus, St Paternus of Avranc-
hes, St Encratis, St Fructuosus Braga, St Turibius of Astorga, St Drogo,
St Joseph Benedict Labre,  and St Optatus and the Martyrs of  Saragossa.
1746  Charles  Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) was defeated at the
Battle of Culloden.  1883 Paul Kruger became president of South  Africa.
1912  US  pilot  Harriet Quimby became the first woman to fly across the
English Channel. 1951 Seventy-five people died when the British submari-
ne Affray sank in the English Channel. 1954 The first stock-car race me-
eting was held in Britain,  at the Old Kent Road stadium,  London.  1972
The  US spacecraft Apollo 16 was launched.  Born John Franklin,  English
Arctic explorer who  discovered  the  Northwest  Passage,  1786;  Wilbur
Wright,  US aviator,  1867; Charlie Chaplin, English-born film actor and
director, 1889; Spike Milligan, English comedian and writer, 1918; Peter
Ustinov,  English actor and novelist, 1921; Kingsley Amis, English nove-
list,  1922. Died Aphra Behn, English playwright, 1689; Francisco de Go-
ya,  Spanish painter,  1828; Marie Tussaud, French wax-modeler, 1850; St
Bernadette of Lourdes, French saint, 1879; Samuel Smiles, Scottish soci-
al reformer and author of Self-Help,  1904; David Lean, English film di-
rector, 1991.

17 April National Day of Syria.  Feast day of St Donnan,  St Aybert, St
Stephen Harding,  St Innocent of Tortona,  St Mappalicus and Others, and
St Robert of Chaise-Dieu.  1521 The Diet of Worms excommunicated  German
Church reformer Martin Luther. 1961 US troops and Cuban exiles failed in
their attempt to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.  1956 The first Premium
Bonds were issued in Britain. 1957 Archbishop Makarios returned to Gree-
ce after over a year in exile in the Seychelles. 1969 The age at which a
person  is  eligible to vote in Britain was lowered from 21 to 18.  1975
The Cambodian communist Khmer Rouge captured the  capital,  Pnomh  Penh.
1980 Southern Rhodesia became Zimbabwe.  Born John Ford,  English playw-
right, 1586; Leonard Woolley, English archeologist, 1880; Nikita Khrush-
chev,  Soviet leader, 1894; Thornton Wilder, US novelist, 1897; Sirimavo
Bandaranaike, first woman prime minister of Sri Lanka, 1916; Lindsay An-
derson,  British  film  and stage director,  1923.  Died Mme de Sйvignй,
French writer, 1696; Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1711; Benjamin Frank-
lin, American scientist and politician, 1790; Kawabata Yasunari, Japane-
se novelist, 1972; Scott Brady, US actor, 1985; Turgut Ozal, Turkish po-
litician, 1993.

18 April Feast day of St Laserian, St Galdinus, St Idesbald, St Apollo-
nius, and Saints Eleutherius and Anthia. 1775 At the outbreak of the Re-
volutionary War,  US patriot Paul Revere rode from Charleston to Lexing-
ton,  warning people as he went that British troops were on  their  way.
1881  The Natural History Museum in South Kensington,  London,  UK,  was
opened.  1906 An earthquake and the fire that followed it destroyed most
of the city of San Francisco, and killed over 450 people. 1934 The first
launderette,  called a 'washeteria',  was opened in Fort  Worth,  Texas.
1949 Eire proclaimed itself the Republic of Ireland. 1968 The old London
Bridge was sold to a US company,  who shipped it,  stone by stone,  from
Britain to Arizona,  where it was re-erected. Born Lucrezia Borgia, duc-
hess of Ferrara,  1480;  Leopold Stokowski,  US conductor and  composer,
1882;  Clarence Darrow, US lawyer, 1857; Barbara Hayle, US film actress,
1922; Hayley Mills, English actress, 1946; Malcolm Marshall, West Indian
cricketer,  1958.  Died Albert Einstein, German-born US physicist, 1955;
George Jeffreys, the 'hanging judge', 1689; Erasmus Darwin, English phy-
sician and writer, 1802; Ottorino Respighi, Italian composer, 1936; Will
Hay,  English comedian, 1949; Benny Hill, English comedian, 1992; Elisa-
beth Frink, English sculptor, 1993.

19 April Feast day of St Leo IX,  pope, St Alphege, St Geroldus, and St
Expeditus 1587 In the incident known as 'singeing the  King  of  Spain's
beard',  English navigator Francis Drake sank the Spanish fleet in Cadiz
harbor. 1775 The first battle in the Revolutionary War took place at Le-
xington,  Massachusetts. 1951 The first 'Miss World' contest was held in
London,  UK;  it was won by a Swedish contestant.  1958 Footballer Bobby
Charlton played his first international match for England.  1956 US film
actress Grace Kelly married Prince  Rainier  III  of  Monaco.  1961  The
so-called  Bay of Pigs invasion by Cuban exiles failed to overthrow Pre-
sident Fidel Castro. 1972 Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth. Born David
Ricardo,  English  economist,  1772;  Richard Hughes,  English novelist,
1900; Jayne Mansfield, US film actress, 1933; Dudley Moore, English-born
comedy film actor, 1935; Murray Perahia, US pianist and conductor, 1947;
Trevor Francis,  English footballer,  1954. Died Paolo Veronese, Italian
painter, 1588; George Gordon Byron, English poet, died of malaria on his
way to fight for Greek independence,  1824;  Benjamin Disraeli,  British
politician and novelist, 1881; Charles Darwin, English biologist who de-
veloped the theory of evolution,  1882; Pierre Curie, French chemist and
physicist, 1906; Konrad Adenauer, German politician, 1967.

20 April Feast day of St Caedwalla,  St Agnes of Montepulciano, St Mar-
cellinus of Embrun, St Marcian of Auxerre, St Hildegund, and St Peter of
Verona.  1526  A  Mogul army led by Babur defeated an Afghan army at the
Battle of Panipat, taking the cities of Delhi and Agra. 1534 French exp-
lorer  Jacques Cartier arrived on the coast of Labrador,  North America.
1657 English Admiral Robert Blake defeated the Spanish  fleet  in  Santa
Cruz Bay,  off the Canary Islands. 1770 English navigator James Cook re-
ached New South Wales,  Australia.  1949 The Badminton Horse Trials were
held for the first time,  at Badminton, Gloucestershire, UK. 1969 Pierre
Trudeau became prime minister of Canada.  Born Adolf Hitler, German fas-
cist dictator,  1889; Joan Mirу, Spanish painter, 1893; Harold Lloyd, US
silent-film comedian, 1893; Donald Wolfit, English actor, 1902; Ray Bro-
oks,  English actor,  1939;  Ryan O'Neal, US film actor, 1941. Died Jean
Louis Petit, French surgeon, 1750; Canaletto, Italian landscape painter,
1768;  Pontiac,  American Indian leader, 1769; Bram Stoker, Irish author
of Dracula, 1912; Christian X, king of Denmark, 1947.

21 April Feast day of St Anselm,  St Beuno, St Maelrubba, St Ethilwald,
St Anastasius of Antioch,  St Conrad of Prazham,  and St Simeon Barsabas
and Others. 753 BC Traditionally, the date on which the city of Rome was
founded.  1509  Henry VIII became king of England.  1960 The new city of
Brasilia was declared the capital of Brazil,  replacing Rio de  Janeiro.
1964 British TV channel BBC 2 began broadcasting.  1967 King Constantine
II of Greece was removed in an army coup,  and martial law was  imposed.
1983  One-pound  coins  replaced  notes in England and Wales.  1989 Over
100,000 Chinese students gathered in Tiananmen Square,  ignoring govern-
ment warnings of severe punishment.  Born Friedrich Froebel, German edu-
cator, 1782; Henri de Montherlant, French novelist and playwright, 1896;
Richard Beeching,  British Rail chairman,  1913;  Anthony Quinn, US film
actor,  1915;  John Mortimer, English author and playwright, 1923; Queen
Elizabeth II, 1926. Died Henry VII, king of England, 1509; Jean-Baptiste
Racine,  French playwright, 1699; Mark Twain, US novelist, 1910; Manfred
von Richtofen, 'the Red Baron', German fighter pilot, 1918; John Maynard
Keynes, English economist, 1946; Richard Stafford Cripps, English lawyer
and politician, 1952.

22 April Feast day of St Theodore of Sykeon,  St Opportuna, St Agipatus
I,  pope, St Leonides of Alexandria, and Saints Epipodius and Alexander.
1500 Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal.  1662
King Charles II granted a charter to the Royal Society of London,  which
became  an important center of scientific activity in England.  1834 The
South Atlantic island of St Helena was declared a British Crown  Colony.
1838 The first steamship to cross the Atlantic, the British ship Sirius,
arrived at New York;  it made the crossing in 18 days. 1969 Sailor Robin
Knox  Johnston  returned  to Falmouth after a 312-day solo voyage around
the world. 1972 The first people to row across the Pacific Ocean, Sylvia
Cook  and John Fairfax,  arrived in Australia;  they had been at sea for
362 days.  Born Henry Fielding,  English novelist,  1707; Immanuel Kant,
German philosopher,  1724; Mme de Staлl, French writer, 1766; Robert Op-
penheimer,  US physicist who invented the atomic  bomb,  1904;  Kathleen
Ferrier, English contralto, 1912; Yehudi Menuhin, US-born British violi-
nist,  1916;  George Cole,  English actor, 1925; Jack Nicholson, US film
actor, 1937. Died John Tradescant, English naturalist, 1662; James Harg-
reaves,  English inventor of the spinning jenny,  1778; John Crome, Eng-
lish landscape painter,  1821;  Thomas Rowlandson, English caricaturist,
1827; Henry Campbell-Bannerman, British politician, 1908.

23 April National Day of England.  Feast day of St George, St Gerard of
Toul,  St Ibar, St Adalbert of Prague, and Saints Felix, Fortunatus, and
Achilleus. 1349 English King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter.
1661 Charles II was crowned king of Great Britain and Ireland. 1662 Con-
necticut was declared a British colony.  1879 The  Shakespeare  Memorial
Theatre was opened at Stratford-on-Avon. 1924 The British Empire Exhibi-
tion opened at Wembley. 1932 The New Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opened
at  Stratford-on-Avon.  1968  Britain's first decimal coins,  the 5p and
10p, were issued in preparation for decimalization. 1984 New Formula Co-
ca-Cola was announced. 1984 In Washington D.C., Margaret Heckler announ-
ced the discovery of the AIDS virus.  Born William Shakespeare,  English
playwright and poet,  1564;  J M W Turner,  English painter,  1775;  Max
Planck, German physicist, 1858; Ngaio Marsh, New Zealand novelist, 1899;
James Donleavy, Irish novelist, 1926; Roy Orbison, US singer, 1936. Died
William Shakespeare,  1616; Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish author
of Don Quixote,  1616;  William Wordsworth,  English poet,  1850; Rupert
Brooke,  English poet, 1915; Otto Preminger, US film director, 1986; Sa-
tyajit Ray, Indian film director, 1992.

24 April Feast day of St Mellitus,  St Egbert,  St Wilfrid, St Ives, St
Fidelis,  St Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, and St William Firmatus. 1558 Ma-
ry,  Queen  of Scots married the French Dauphin.  1800 The US Library of
Congress was founded in Washington DC.  1895 US sailor Joshua Slocum set
off from Boston,  US, to sail single-handed around the world; the voyage
took just over three years.  1916 The Easter Rising - a Republican  pro-
test  against British rule - took place in Dublin.  1949 Candy-rationing
in Britain came to an end.  1970 The Gambia was declared a republic wit-
hin  the Commonwealth.  Born Anthony Trollope,  English novelist,  1815;
Henri-Philippe Pйtain, French politician and soldier, 1856; William Joy-
ce,  'Lord Haw-Haw', British traitor, 1906; Bridget Riley, English pain-
ter, 1931; Shirley MacLaine, US actress, 1934; John Williams, Australian
guitarist, 1941; Barbra Streisand, US film actress and singer, 1942. Di-
ed Daniel Defoe,  English author, 1731; Willa Cather, US novelist, 1947;
Bud Abbott,  US comedian,  1974;  the Duchess of Windsor, 1986; Bill Ed-
rich, English cricketer, 1986.

25 April Anzac Day in Australia.  Feast day of St Mark the  Evangelist,
St Heribald, and St Anianus of Alexandria. 1792 The guillotine was first
used in Paris.  1859 Work began on the Suez  Canal,  supervised  by  the
French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, who designed it. 1915 In World War
I,  Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli. 1925 Paul von
Hindenburg was elected President of Germany. 1959 The St Lawrence Seaway
was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II  and  President  Eisenhower,
linking the Atlantic with ports on the Great Lakes.  1975 The first free
elections for 50 years were held in Portugal,  resulting in a precarious
Socialist government.  Born Oliver Cromwell,  Puritan leader in the Eng-
lish Civil War,  1599; Mark Isambard Brunel, French-born British engine-
er,  1769; Walter de la Mare, English poet and novelist, 1873; Guglielmo
Marconi, Italian inventor and pioneer in the development of radio, 1874;
Ella Fitzgerald,  US jazz singer,  1918; Al Pacino, US film actor, 1940;
Johann Cruyff,  Dutch footballer, 1947. Died Torquato Tasso, Italian po-
et, 1595; Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer who invented the centigrade
thermometer,  1744; William Cowper, English poet, 1800; Carol Reed, Eng-
lish film director, 1976; Celia Johnson, English actress, 1982.

26 April Feast day of St Cletus, St Riquier, St Stephen of Perm, St Pe-
ter of Braga,  St Franca of Piacenza,  and St Paschasius Radbertus. 1923
The Duke of York and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon,  later King George VI and Qu-
een Elizabeth,  were married in Westminster Abbey. 1937 The Spanish town
of  Guernica was almost destroyed by German bombers acting in support of
the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.  1957 English astronomer Pat-
rick Moore presented the first broadcast of The Sky at Night.  1964 Tan-
ganyika and Zanzibar merged to become the Republic of Tanzania. 1968 The
largest  underground nuclear device ever to be tested in the US exploded
in Nevada.  1986 Radioactive material was leaked from a damaged  nuclear
reactor at Chernobyl,  Ukraine;  the effects could be measured thousands
of miles away.  Born Marcus Aurelius,  Roman emperor, AD 121; John James
Audubon,  US naturalist and painter,  1785;  Ferdinand Delacroix, French
painter,  1798;  Michel Fokine, Russian ballet dancer and choreographer,
1880; Ludwig Wittgenstein, Austrian philosopher, 1889; Rudolf Hess, Ger-
man Nazi leader, 1894. Died Karl Bosch, German metallurgist and chemist,
1940;  Gypsy Rose Lee, US dancer and striptease artist, 1970; Cicely Co-
urtneidge, British actress, 1980; Count Basie, US bandleader, 1984; Bro-
derick Crawford, US film actor, 1986.

27 April Feast day of St Zita,  St Machalus,  St Floribert of Liиge, St
Asicus, St Anthimus of Nicomedia, and Saints Castor and Stephen. 1296 An
English army,  led by Edward I, defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dun-
bar. 1749 The first official performance of Handel's Music for the Royal
Fireworks  finished early due to the outbreak of fire.  1937 King George
VI performed the official opening of the  National  Maritime  Museum  at
Greenwich. 1939 Conscription for men aged 20- 21 was announced in Brita-
in.  1947 Norwegian anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl set off  from  Callao,
Peru,  heading for Polynesia to prove his theory that the original Poly-
nesian islanders could have come from Peru.  1960 French Togoland became
independent  as the Republic of Togo.  1961 Sierra Leone became an inde-
pendent republic within the Commonwealth.  Born Edward  Gibbon,  English
historian who wrote The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1737; Mary
Wollstonecraft Godwin,  English feminist author,  1759; Samuel Morse, US
inventor of Morse Code, 1791; Ulysses Simpson Grant, US general and 18th
president,  1822;  Cecil Day Lewis,  English poet,  1904;  Anouk  Aimйe,
French film actress,  1932;  Sandy Dennis,  US film actress,  1937. Died
Ferdinand Magellan,  Portuguese navigator,  murdered by islanders in the
Philippines, 1521; Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet and essayist, 1882; Ale-
xander Skryabin,  Russian composer,  1915;  Harold Hart Crane,  US poet,
1932; Kwame Nkrumah, president of Ghana, 1972.

28 April Feast day of St Louis de Montfort,  St Vitalis,  St Peter Mary
Chanel,  St Cyril of Turov,  St Valeria,  St Pollio, Saints Theodora and
Didymus, St Pamphilus of Sulmona, and St Cronan Roscrea. 1603 Queen Eli-
zabeth I's funeral took place at Westminster Abbey. 1770 English naviga-
tor  Captain  James  Cook  and  his crew,  including the botanist Joseph
Banks,  landed in Australia,  at the place which was later named  Botany
Bay.  1789 The crew of the ship Bounty, led by Fletcher Christian, muti-
nied against their captain,  William Bligh.  1919 The League of  Nations
was  founded.  1923  The first FA Cup Final was held at Wembley Stadium.
1965 US marines intervened in an attempted communist coup.  1969  French
president  General  de Gaulle resigned.  Born King Edward IV of England,
1442;  James Monroe,  5th president of the US, 1758; Charles Sturt, Bri-
tish explorer of Australia, 1795; Lionel Barrymore, US actor, 1878; Ken-
neth Kaunda,  president of Zambia,  1924;  Ann-Margret, Swedish actress,
1941; Mike Brearley, English cricketer, 1942. Died Gavrilo Princip, Bos-
nian revolutionary assassin who caused World War I by  killing  Archduke
Franz Ferdinand and his wife,  1918;  King Fuad I of Egypt, 1936; Benito
Mussolini, 1945; Francis Bacon, Irish-born painter, 1992; Olivier Messi-
aen, French composer, 1992.

29 April National Day of Japan.  Feast day of St Catherine of Siena, St
Wilfrid the Younger, St Hugh of Cluny, St Endellion, St Joseph Cottolen-
go,  St  Robert of Molesme,  and St Peter the Martyr.  1429 The Siege of
Orlйans was lifted by a French army under the leadership of Joan of Arc.
1884  Oxford University agreed to admit female students to examinations.
1913 Swedish-born US inventor Gideon Sundback patented the zipper in its
modern form - earlier versions had not been successful.  1916 Republican
rebels destroyed the Post Office in Dublin. 1945 The German army in Ita-
ly  surrendered to the Allies under the British General Alexander.  Born
Thomas Beecham,  English conductor,  1879; 'Duke' Ellington, US composer
and bandleader, 1899; Emperor Hirohito of Japan, 1901; Fred Zinneman, US
film director,  1907; Peter de la Biliиre, British commander in the Gulf
War,  1934;  Zubin Mehta, Indian conductor, 1936; Saddam Hussein, presi-
dent of Iraq,  1937. Died George Farquhar, Irish playwright, 1707; Cons-
tantinos Cavafy, Greek poet, 1933; Wallace Carothers, US chemist who pa-
tented nylon,  1937; Alfred Hitchcock, English film director, 1980; And-
rew Cruikshank, English actor, 1988.

30 April National Day of the Netherlands. Feast day of St Erkenwald, St
Pius V, pope, St Forannan, St Wolfhard, St Maximus of Ephesus, St Eutro-
pius of Saintes,  and Saints Marianus,  James,  and Others.  1789 George
Washington became the first president of the US.  1803 France sold Loui-
siana to the US. 1902 Debussy's opera Pellйas et Mйlisande had its first
performance,  in Paris.  1975 The Vietnam War ended, with the South sur-
rendering unconditionally to the North. 1979 In Britain, the Jubilee Li-
ne on the London Underground was officially opened.  1980 Queen  Juliana
of the Netherlands abdicated and was succeeded by her daughter, Beatrix.
Born David Thompson, English explorer, 1770; Karl Gauss, German mathema-
tician and astronomer,  1777; Franz Lehбr, Hungarian composer, 1870; Ja-
roslav Hasek,  Czech novelist,  1883;  Queen Juliana of the Netherlands,
1909;  Cloris Leachman,  US film actress,  1926; King Carl XVI Gustav of
Sweden,  1946.  Died Robert Fitzroy,  English admiral and meteorologist,
1865; Edouard Manet, French painter, 1883; Otto Jespersen, Danish philo-
logist,  1943;  Adolf Hitler,  German fascist dictator, 1945; Eva Braun,
German mistress and later wife of Adolf Hitler,  1945;  Muddy Waters, US
blues singer, 1983; George Balanchine, Russian choreographer, 1983.

1 May May Day. Feast day of St Asaph, St Corentin, St Joseph, St Brioc,
St Amator, St Marcoul, Saints Philip and James, St Peregrine Laziosi, St
Sigismund of Burgundy,  and St Theodard of Narbonne.  1517 In 'Evil  May
Day' riots in London,  England,  apprentices attacked foreign residents.
Wolsey suppressed the rioters, of whom 60 were hanged. 1707 The Union of
England  and Scotland was proclaimed.  1786 The first performance of Mo-
zart's opera The Marriage of Figaro was given in Vienna. 1851 Queen Vic-
toria opened the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park,  London. 1925 Cyprus be-
came a Crown Colony.  1926 British miners began a strike that  continued
until 19 November. 1931 The Empire State Building, New York, was comple-
ted;  it had cost $41 million to build.  1933 A telephone  link  between
Britain and India was established. 1960 A US U-2 aircraft piloted by Ga-
ry Powers,  was shot down as it flew over the USSR.  1961 Betting  shops
became  legal  in  Britain.  Born Arthur Wellesley,  Duke of Wellington,
1769; Glenn Ford, US film actor, 1916; Joseph Heller, US novelist, 1923;
Sonny Ramadhin,  West Indies cricketer,  1929;  Una Stubbs, English act-
ress, 1937; Joanna Lumley, English actress, 1946. Died John Dryden, Eng-
lish poet,  1700;  David Livingstone, Scottish missionary, 1873; AntonЎn
Dvorбk,  Czech composer,  1904;  Joseph Goebbels, German Nazi propaganda
minister,  1945;  William Fox,  US film producer, 1952; Harold Nicolson,
English diplomat and author, 1968.

2 May Feast day of St Gennys,  St Athanasius,  St Mefalda, St Wiborada,
St Waldebert, Saints Exuperius and Zoe, and St Ultan of Fosses. 1251 Si-
mon de Montfort suppressed the Gascon rebellion. 1482 Venice, in allian-
ce with the Papacy, declared war on Ferrara, which was supported by Flo-
rence, Milan and Naples. 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn was sent to the Tower of
London.  1611  The  Authorized Version of the Bible (King James Version)
was first published.  1670 The Hudson Bay Company was incorporated. 1926
US troops landed to preserve order in Nicaraguan revolt.  1936 Ethiopian
Emperor Haile Selassie and his family fled from Addis Ababa,  three days
before  it  fell  to Italian forces.  1945 Germany surrendered to Allied
forces.  1969 The passenger liner Queen Elizabeth II set off from  Sout-
hampton  on  its first voyage.  1989 Martial law was imposed in China as
the government took a firmer stand against  pro-democracy  demonstrators
in Tiananmen Square.  Born Catherine II 'the Great' of Russia, 1729; Je-
rome K Jerome,  English novelist and playwright,  1859;  Theodor  Herzl,
Hungarian founder of Zionism, 1860; Benjamin Spock, US childcare specia-
list,  1903; Bing Crosby, US singer, 1904; Peggy Mount, English actress,
1916;  Clive Jenkins,  British labor-union leader,  1926;  David Suchet,
British actor,  1946. Died Leonardo da Vinci, Florentine artist and sci-
entist,  1519; Joseph McCarthy, US politician who investigated suspected
communists, 1957; Nancy Astor, first British woman MP, 1964; J Edgar Ho-
over, US director of the FBI, 1972.

3 May  Feast day of St Glywys,  St Juvenal of Narni,  Saints Alexander,
Eventius,  and Theodulus, and Saints Timothy and Maura. 1381 the weavers
of Ghent,  led by Philip van Artevelde, take Bruges; other Flemish towns
revolt. 1493 Pope Alexander VI published the first bull Inter cetera di-
viding the New World between Spain and Portugal.  1497 An uprising broke
out in Cornwall, England, provoked by taxation; James Tutchet, Lord Aud-
ley, led an army of 15,000 from Taunton through the southern counties to
attack London.  1747 The Battle of Cape Finisterre took place,  at which
the British defeated the French. 1808 A duel was fought from two hot-air
balloons over Paris,  the first of its kind. 1841 New Zealand was decla-
red a British colony. 1898 Bread riots in Milan were put down with heavy
loss of life.  1906 The Sinai Peninsula became Egyptian territory  after
Turkey renounced its claims. 1951 British King George VI opened the Fes-
tival of Britain. 1958 US President Eisenhower proposes demilitarisation
of  Antarctica,  subsequently accepted by the countries concerned.  Born
Niccolу Machiavelli, Italian politician, 1469; John Scott Haldane, Scot-
tish physiologist,  1860;  Golda Meir, Russian-born Israeli prime minis-
ter,  1898; Sugar Ray Robinson, US boxer, 1920; Norman Thelwell, English
cartoonist,  1923;  James Brown,  US singer, 1933; Henry Cooper, English
boxer,  1934. Died Eglon van der Neer, Dutch painter, 1703; Thomas Hood,
English poet,  1845;  Henry Cornelius, South African-born film director,
1958; Karl Freund, Czech-born US film cameraman and photographer, 1969.

4 May Feast day of St Pelagia of Tarsus, St Florian of Lorch, St Robert
Lawrence, St Augustine Webster, St Gothard, St John Houghton, St Veneri-
us of Milan,  and St Cyriacus.  1471 The Battle of Tewkesbury,  the last
battle in the Wars of the Roses,  took place;  the Yorkists defeated the
Lancastrians. 1780 The first Derby was run at Epsom; the winner was Dio-
med. 1896 The first issue of the Daily Mail was published in London, UK.
1904 Work began on the Panama Canal.  1926 The General Strike  began  in
Britain, with almost half of the country's 6,000,000 labor-union members
participating;  it continued until 12 May.  1954 Roger Bannister,  a  25
year old English medical student,  became the first man to run a mile in
under 4 minutes.  1973 The world's tallest building, Sears Tower, Chica-
go,  was completed. 1979 Margaret Thatcher became prime minister of Bri-
tain.  Born Thomas Huxley, English naturalist, 1825; John Speke, English
explorer who discovered the source of the Nile, 1827; Alice Liddell, the
girl for whom Lewis Carroll wrote  Alice  in  Wonderland,  1852;  Sylvia
Pankhurst, English suffragist, 1882; Eric Sykes, English comedian, 1923;
Audrey Hepburn,  Dutch-born US film actress,  1929. Died William Froude,
English engineer and mathematician,  1879; Georges Enesco, Romanian com-
poser,  1955;  Osbert Sacheverell Sitwell,  English author,  1969; Josip
Broz Tito,  Yugoslavian soldier and president, 1980; Diana Dors, English
film actress, 1984.

5 May Feast day of St Hydroc, St Hilary of Arles, St Hilary of Galeata,
St Angelo, St Jutta, St Avertinus, and St Mauruntius. 1525 The Peasants'
Revolt in south Germany was suppressed and the Anabaptist preacher  Tho-
mas Mьnzer was hanged a few days later. 1751 Portuguese foreign secreta-
ry Sebastiaп Pombal curbed the power of the Inquisition in  Portugal  by
decreeing that no auto da fй should take place without government appro-
val.  1762 The Treaty of St Petersburg was  signed  between  Russia  and
Prussia; Russia restored all territory taken and formed an alliance with
Prussia.  1816 Carl August of Saxe-Weimar granted the first German cons-
titution.  1863  In the American Civil War,  Confederate troops defeated
Federal forces at the Battle of Chancellorsville,  but 'Stonewall' Jack-
son  died  of his wounds five days later.  1864 The indecisive Battle of
the Wilderness was fought in  Virginia,  between  Federal  troops  under
Ulysses S Grant and Confederate troops under Robert E Lee. 1865 A revolt
in San Domingo forced Spain to renounce sovereignty. Born Godfrey of Bo-
uillon,  Norman crusader, first king of Jerusalem, 1061; Gerardus Merca-
tor (Gerhard Kremer), German cartographer, 1512; Leopold III, Holy Roman
Emperor,  1747;  George Borrow, English author, 1803; Sцren Kierkegaard,
Danish philosopher,  1813;  Karl Marx,  German philosopher  and  author,
1818;  Archibald, Lord Wavell, British soldier, 1883. Died Charles, Duke
of Bourbon,  1527; Edward Young, English poet, 1765; Napoleon Bonaparte,
French emperor, 1821; Francis Bret Harte, US author, 1902.

6 May  Feast day of St Edbert,  Saints Marian and James,  St Evodius of
Antioch,  St Petronax,  and St John Before the Latin Gate. 1527 The Sack
of Rome, when imperialist troops under Charles, Duke of Bourbon (who was
killed),  mutinied, pillaging the city and killing some 4,000 of the in-
habitants.  Valuable art treasures were looted. Law was not restored un-
til Feb 1528. 1576 The Fifth War of Religion in France ended; the Hugue-
nots  were  granted freedom of worship in all places except Paris.  1626
Dutch settler Peter Minuit bought the island of  Manhattan  from  native
Americans  for  goods worth about $25.  1840 The Penny Black,  the first
postage stamp,  was issued in Britain. 1882 Fenians murdered Irish chief
secretary, Lord Frederick Cavendish, and T H Burke, Irish under-secreta-
ry,  in Phoenix Park,  Dublin.  1910 George V became king of the  United
Kingdom on the death of Edward VII.  1937 The German zeppelin Hindenburg
caught fire in New Jersey,  US, killing 36 passengers. Born Pope Marcel-
lus II,  1501;  Pope Innocent X, 1574; Thomas William Coke, Earl of Lei-
cester,  1754;  Andrй Massena, French soldier, 1756; Maximilien Franзois
Robespierre,  French revolutionary leader, 1758; Franзois Guillaume And-
rieux 1759;  Sigmund Freud,  Austrian psychoanalyst,  1856; Robert Edwin
Peary,  US Arctic explorer,  1856;  Rabindranath Tagore, Indian poet and
philosopher,  1861.  Died Juan Luis Vives,  Spanish  philosopher,  1540;
Francesco Guicciardini,  Italian historian, 1540; Robert Cotton, English
antiquary, 1631; Cornelius Jansen, Dutch theologian, 1638; Alexander von
Humboldt, German explorer, 1859; Henry David Thoreau, US poet, 1862; Ma-
urice Maeterlinck,  Belgian playwright,  1949;  Marlene  Dietrich,  Ger-
man-born singer and actress, 1992.

7 May Feast day of St John of Beverley, St Letard, St Domitian of Maes-
tricht,  and Saints Serenicus and Serenus.  1793 The second partition of
Poland  was  effected,  with Russia taking Lithuania and W Ukraine,  and
Prussia taking Danzig, Thorn, Posen, Gnesen, and Kalisch. 1821 The Afri-
ca Company was dissolved because of heavy expenses incurred,  and Sierra
Leone,  Gambia, and Gold Coast were taken over by the British government
to form British West Africa.  1832 Greece became an independent kingdom.
1848 Polish rebels surrendered after Prussian troops put down an  insur-
rection  in Warsaw.  1915 German forces sank the liner Lusitania off the
Irish coast,  with the loss of 1,198 lives;  the US was brought  to  the
verge of war with Germany.  1928 Women's suffrage in Britain was reduced
from the age of 30 to 21. 1954 Dien Bien Phu fell to Communist Vietname-
se. 1960 Leonid Brezhnev replaced Marshal Voroshilov as President of the
USSR.  Born David Hume, Scottish philosopher and historian, 1711; Robert
Browning,  English poet,  1812;  Johannes Brahms, German composer, 1833;
Peter Iljitch Tchaikovsky,  Russian  composer,  1840;  Archibald  Philip
Primrose,  Lord Rosebery, British politician, 1847; Gary Cooper, US film
actor,  1901.  Died Jacques de Thou,  French historian  and  politician,
1617;  Mary of Modena,  consort of James II, 1718; Henry, Lord Brougham,
British politician,  1868;  Paul Doumer, French president, assassinated,
1932;  George Lansbury,  British politician,  1940; James George Frazer,
Scottish anthropologist, 1941.

8 May Feast day of St Indract,  St Odger,  St Victor, St Wiro, St Peter
of Tarentaise,  St Benedict II,  pope, St Boniface IV, pope, St Gibrian,
St Plechelm,  St Desideratus of Bourges, and St Acacius. 1559 Queen Eli-
zabeth I of England signed the Act of Uniformity.  1886 The Presidential
Succession law was passed in the US,  providing for succession to presi-
dency in the event of the deaths of both the President and the Vice-Pre-
sident. 1892 A ban was imposed on natives of the Congo, prohibiting them
from  collecting rubber and ivory other than for the state.  1902 On the
Caribbean island of Martinique, the volcano Mount Pelйe erupted, killing
30,000  people.  1950 Douglas MacArthur appointed commander of UN forces
in Korea. 1958 J F Dulles stated in Berlin House of Representatives that
an  attack on Berlin would be regarded as an attack on the Allies.  Born
Peter Martyr (Pieto Martire Vermigli), Italian religious reformer, 1500;
Phineas Fletcher,  English poet,  1582;  Francis Quarles,  English poet,
1592; Claude de Villars, French soldier, 1653; Alain Renй Lesage, French
novelist and playwright,  1668;  Henry Baker,  English naturalist, 1698;
Franзois Mignet,  French historian,  1796; Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian
composer,  1858;  Harry S Truman,  33rd president of the US, 1884; David
Attenborough,  English naturalist  and  broadcaster,  1926.  Died  Palla
Strozzi,  founder of the first public library in Florence, 1462; Antoine
Laurent Lavoisier,  French chemist, guillotined, 1794; Vittorio Alfieri,
Italian poet, 1803; John Stuart Mill, English philosopher, 1873; Gustave
Flaubert,  French novelist,  1880;  Oswald Spengler, German philosopher,
1936; Henry Gordon Selfridge, US-born British store-owner, 1947; Emmanu-
el Shinwell, British politician, 1986.

9 May Feast day of St Beatus of Lungern, St Gerontius of Cervia, St Be-
atus of Vendфme,  and St Pachomius.  1386 The Treaty of Windsor, between
kings Richard and John,  made a perpetual alliance between  England  and
Portugal. 1695 The Scottish Parliament met and inquired into the massac-
re of Glencoe.  1828 The British Test and Corporation Acts were repealed
so  that Catholic and Protestant Nonconformists could hold public office
in Britain. 1939 British prime minister Winston Churchill urged military
alliance with USSR.  1940 RAF began night bombing of Germany. 1940 Roma-
nia placed itself under German protection. 1945 Russian troops took Pra-
gue. 1946 Victor Emmanuel III of Italy abdicated and Umberto II proclai-
med himself king.  Born Giovanni Paisiello, Italian composer, 1741; Jean
Sismondi,  Swiss historian and economist, 1773; John Brown, US abolitio-
nist,  1800; J M Barrie 1860; Howard Carter, British Egyptologist, 1873;
Joan Sims, English actress, 1930; Alan Bennett, English actor and playw-
right,  1934;  Glenda Jackson, English actress, 1936. Died James Lancas-
ter,  English navigator,  1618;  William Bradford, English-born American
colonist,  1657; Dietrich Buxtehude, Danish organist and composer, 1707;
Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac, French physicist and chemist, 1850; Helena Bla-
vatsky,  Russian founder of the Theosophical Society, 1891; Ethel Smyth,
English composer and suffragist, 1944.

10 May Feast day of St Catald,  St Conleth,  Saints Gordian and Epimac-
hus,  St Antoninus,  St Alphius, St Calepodius, St Cataldus, St Solange,
and St John of Avila.  994 The Danes devastated Anglesey.  1804 Pitt re-
turned to office. 1857 A revolt of Sepoys at Meerut began the Indian Mu-
tiny against British rule.  1893 Natal was granted self-government. 1910
The British House of Commons resolved that the maximum lifetime of  Par-
liament be reduced from seven to five years.  1916 Ernest Shackleton and
companions reached South Georgia after sailing 1,300 km/800 mi in 16 da-
ys  in an open boat to seek help for the remaining members of their par-
ty,  marooned on Elephant Island,  Antarctica. 1941 The House of Commons
was  destroyed  in  London's heaviest air raid.  Born Sir John Sinclair,
Scottish politician and agriculturalist,  1754; Augustin Thierry, French
historian, 1795; James Bryce, British politician and diplomat, 1838; Be-
nito Pйrez Galdуs,  Spanish novelist and playwright,  1845;  Karl Barth,
Swiss theologian and author,  1886; Fred Astaire, US dancer, 1899; David
O Selznick, US film producer, 1902. Died Leonhard Fuchs, German physici-
an and botanist, 1566; Jean de la Bruyиre, French writer, 1696; Paul Re-
vere,  American hero,  1818;  Katsushuka Hokusai, Japanese artist, 1849;
Henry Morton Stanley,  US journalist and explorer,  1904; Joan Crawford,
US film actress, 1977.

11 May Feast day of St Comgall,  St Credan, St Maieul, St Tudy, St Ans-
frid,  St Walter of l'Esterp, St Richard Reynolds, St Francis di Girola-
mo, St Ignatius of Laconi, St Asaph, St Gengulf, and Mamertus. 973 Edgar
crowned at Bath as King of all England;  he then went to Chester,  where
eight Scottish and Welsh kings rowed him on the Dee.  1534 English  King
Henry  VIII  made peace with his nephew,  James V of Scotland.  1709 The
first mass emigration of Germans from the Palatinate  to  North  America
began.  1812 British prime minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in
House of Commons.  1824 British forces took Rangoon,  Burma.  1949  Siam
changed  its name to Thailand.  1949 Israel was admitted to United Nati-
ons.  Born Hector Berlioz, French composer, 1803; Chang and Eng, Chinese
Siamese twins,  1811;  Irving Berlin, US composer, 1888; Paul Nash, Eng-
lish painter,  1889; Margaret Rutherford, English actress, 1892; Mikhail
Sholokhov, Russian novelist, 1905. Died 'Abd-al-Mu'min, Almohad ruler of
Muslim Spain and NW Africa, 1163; Matteo Ricci, Jesuit missionary, 1610;
William Pitt,  Earl of Chatham, British politician, 1778; John Herschel,
English astronomer,  1871; William Dean Howells, US novelist and critic,
1920; Kim Philby, English-born Soviet spy, 1988.

12 May Feast day of St Dominic of the Causeway,  St John Stone,  St Et-
helhard, St Fremund, Saints Nereus and Achilleus, St Pancras of Rome, St
Epiphanius of Salamis,  St Germanus of Constantinople, St Modoaldus, and
St Rictrudis.  1394 Malik Sarvar founded the Muslim kingdom of  Jaunpur,
on  the middle Ganges.  1536 Sir Francis Weston,  Mark Smeaton and other
alleged lovers of Anne Boleyn were tried for treason; they were executed
on the 17th. 1809 Arthur Wellesley defeated French under Soult at Oporto
and forced them to retreat from Portugal.  1881 Tunisia became a  French
protectorate.  1949  Berlin blockade was officially lifted.  1961 United
States of the Congo founded, with Lйopoldville the federal capital. 1962
South  African  General Law Amendment bill imposed the death penalty for
sabotage.  1965 West Germany established diplomatic relations with Isra-
el;  Arab states broke off relations with Bonn. Born Claudio Monteverdi,
Italian composer,  1567;  Augustus II of Poland and Elector  of  Saxony,
1670;  Joseph Nicolas Delisle,  French astronomer, 1688; John Bannister,
English comedian, 1760; Justus von Liebig, German chemist, 1803; Floren-
ce Nightingale,  English nursing pioneer,  1820; Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
English painter and poet,  1828;  Jules Massenet, French composer, 1842.
Died George Chapman, English playwright, 1634; Thomas Wentworth, Earl of
Strafford,  English politician,  executed,  1641; Bedrich Smetana, Czech
composer, 1884; Joris Karl Huysmans, French novelist, 1907; Alfred, Lord
Milner,  British politician,  1925;  Arthur Quiller-Couch ('Q'), English
writer, 1944; Erich von Stroheim, Austrian-born US silent-film actor and
director, 1957; John Masefield, English poet, 1967.

13 May Feast day of St Andrew Hubert Fournet,  St John the  Silent,  St
Servatius, St Mucius, St Peter Regalatus, St Erconwald, St Euthymius the
Enlightener, St Glyceria of Heraclia, and St Robert Bellarmine. 1203 By-
zantine  emperor Alexius Comnenus seized Trebizond and established a new
Greek empire there. 1607 Riots took place in Northamptonshire, and other
Midland counties of England in protest at widespread enclosure of common
land.  1643 Oliver Cromwell defeated Royalists at Grantham.  1846 Formal
declaration  of war by US against Mexico.  1888 Serfdom was abolished in
Brazil.  1915 The names of Emperors of Germany and Austria  were  struck
off the roll of Knights of the Garter. 1927 'Black Friday' with the col-
lapse of Germany's economic system.  1945 VE day: Europe celebrated vic-
tory over the German allied forces.  Born Dante Alighieri, Italian poet,
1265;  Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot,  French  revolutionary  leader,
1753; Pope Pius IX, 1792; Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, 1840; Arthur
Sullivan,  English composer,  1842; Ronald Ross, British bacteriologist,
1857;  Daphne du Maurier,  English novelist,  1907; Joe Louis, US boxer,
1914;  Stevie Wonder,  US singer,  1950. Died Johan van Oldenbarneveldt,
Dutch  lawyer and politician,  1619;  Georges Cuvier,  French zoologist,
1832; John Nash, English architect, 1835; Friedrich Henle, German anato-
mist,  1885; Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian Arctic explorer, 1930; Gary Coo-
per, US film actor, 1961.

14 May Feast day of St Mary Mazzarello,  St Pontius of Cimiez, St Cart-
hage the Younger,  St Erembert,  St Matthias,  St Gemma Galgani,  and St
Michael Garicoпts.  1080 Walcher,  Bishop of Durham and Earl of Northum-
berland  was murdered;  William (the Conqueror) consequently ravaged the
area;  he also  invaded  Scotland  and  built  the  castle  at  Newcast-
le-upon-Tyne.  1264  The English barons under Simon de Montfort defeated
Henry III at the Battle of Lewes.  1147 Conrad and the German  crusaders
departed from Regensburg. 1897 By treaty with Ethiopia Britain abandoned
certain claims in Somaliland but Emperor Menelek  refused  to  surrender
his claims to lands near the Nile.  1921 29 Fascists returned in Italian
elections.  1946 Anti-Jewish pogrom in Kielce,  Poland. 1948 As the Bri-
tish  mandate in Palestine came to an end,  a Jewish provisional govern-
ment was formed in Israel with Chaim Weizmann  as  president  and  David
Ben-Gurion  as  premier.  Born  Marguйrite de Valois,  queen of Navarre,
1553; Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, German physicist, the first to use mer-
cury in thermometers,  1686;  Robert Owen,  Welsh social reformer, 1771;
Squire Bancroft,  English actor,  1841;  Hall Caine,  English  novelist,
1853;  Otto Klemperer, German conductor, 1885; Hastings Banda, president
of Malawi,  1905.  Died Jean Grolier,  French diplomat and  bibliophile,
1565;  Henry IV of France, assassinated, 1610; Daniel Auber, French com-
poser,  1871;  August Strindberg,  Swedish playwright, 1912; Henry Rider
Haggard, English novelist, 1925; Jean Rhys, British novelist, 1979.

15 May Feast day of St Berchtun, St Dympna, St Pachomius, Saints Bertha
and Rupert, St Isidore of Chios, St Gerebernus, St Hallvard, St Isias of
Rostov, St Hilary of Galeata, St Peter of Lampsacus, St Isidore the Far-
mer,  and St Torquatus and his Companions. 1567 Mary Queen of Scots mar-
ried Bothwell in Edinburgh. 1649 The Levellers were defeated at Burford.
1848 A communist rising began in Paris, after news of suppression of Po-
lish revolt;  workers overturned the government and set up a provisional
administration which immediately collapsed.  1902 Portugal declared  it-
self bankrupt.  1922 Germany ceded Upper Silesia to Poland.  1937 Muslim
rising in Albania.  1946 US President Truman signed a bill of credit for
$3.75 billion for Britain.  1948 Egyptian troops intervened in Palestine
on the side of the Arabs.  1957 Britain exploded the first British ther-
monuclear bomb in megaton range at Christmas Island,  in the Central Pa-
cific. Born Clemens Prince Metternich, Austrian politician, 1773; Pierre
Curie,  French physicist, 1859; Arthur Schnitzler, Austrian novelist and
playwright,  1862; James Mason, US film actor, 1909; Ted Dexter, English
cricketer,  1935; Ralph Steadman, British cartoonist, 1936. Died Ephraim
Chambers,  English encyclopedist,  1740; Richard Wilson, Welsh landscape
painter, 1782; Daniel O'Connell, Irish leader, 1847; Emily Dickinson, US
poet,  1886;  Leslie Ward ('Spy'), English caricaturist, 1922; Rita Hay-
worth, US film actress, 1987.

16 May Feast day of St Brendan the Navigator, St Carantoc, St Peregrine
of Auxerre, St Simon Stock, St Domnolus of Le Mans, St Honoratus of Ami-
ens,  St Germerius,  St John Nepomucen,  St Possidius, and St Ubaldus of
Gubbio.  1152 Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine. 1203 Baldwin, Count
of Flanders,  was crowned Latin Emperor of Constantinople. 1220 Henry II
laid the foundation stone of a new Lady  Chapel  at  Westminster  Abbey,
thus  beginning the new abbey-church (1245).  1770 The Dauphin of France
(later Louis XVI) married Marie Antoinette,  daughter of the Empress Ma-
ria  Theresa  of Austria.  1804 Napoleon was declared Emperor.  1907 The
Pact of Cartagena was declared between Britain, France, and Spain to co-
unter  German  designs on the Balearic and Canary Islands.  1949 Chinese
Nationalists organized a Supreme Council under  Chiang  Kai-shek,  which
began to remove forces to Formosa.  Born Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor,
1316; John Sell Cotman, English watercolorist, 1782; Maria Gaetana Agne-
si, Italian scholar, 1718; Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, French soldier
who wrote the Marseillaise,  1760; Henry Fonda, US film actor, 1905; Roy
Hudd,  English comedian, 1936. Died Hйloise, French nun, 1164; Peter the
Lombard, Bishop of Paris, 1164; Charles Perrault, French writer of fairy
tales, 1703; Edward Gibbon Wakefield, British colonial politician, 1862;
Edward Augustus Freeman,  English historian, 1892; Bronislaw Malinowski,
Polish anthropologist, 1942.

17 May  Feast  day  of  St Madron,  St Paschal Baylon,  and St Bruno of
Wьrzburg.  1215 The English barons in revolt against King John took pos-
session of London. 1527 Archbishop Warham began a secret inquiry at Gre-
enwich into Henry VIII's marriage with Catherine of  Aragon,  the  first
step in divorce proceedings.  1536 Archbishop Cranmer declared Henry VI-
II's marriage to Anne Boleyn invalid; she was executed on the 19th. 1742
Frederick  II defeated the Austrians at Chotusitz.  1885 Germany annexed
Northern New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago. 1900 The Relief of Ma-
feking by British troops against the besieging Boer forces. 1939 Sweden,
Norway and Finland rejected Germany's offer of non-aggression pacts, but
Denmark, Estonia and Latvia accepted. 1954 Racial segregation was banned
in US state schools. 1960 The Kariba Dam, Rhodesia, was opened. Born Ma-
ria Theresa, empress, 1717; Edward Jenner, English pioneer of vaccinati-
on,  1749;  Timothy Healy,  Irish nationalist leader,  1855; Erik Satie,
French composer, 1866; Dennis Hopper, US film actor, Bhagwat Chandrasek-
har,  Indian cricketer,  1945;  Sugar Ray Leonard,  US boxer, 1956. Died
Sandro Botticelli,  Italian painter, 1510; Matthew Parker, archbishop of
Canterbury,  1575;  Samuel Clarke, English philosopher, 1729; Charles de
Talleyrand-Pйrigord,  French politician,  1838;  Cass Gilbert, US archi-
tect, 1934.

18 May Feast day of St Elgiva,  St John I,  pope, St Eric, king of Swe-
den, St Felix of Cantalicio, St Potamon, and Saints Theodotus and Thecu-
sa. 1302 A French garrison was massacred in the 'Matins of Bruges', when
the  Flemings  revolted against the French occupation.  1764 The British
Parliament amended the Sugar Act from a commercial to a fiscal  measure,
to tax American colonists.  1878 Colombia granted a French company a ni-
ne-year concession to build the Panama Canal.  1900 Tonga became a  Bri-
tish  protectorate.  1936 An army revolt under Emilio Mola and Francisco
Franco began the Spanish Civil War. 1940 At Japan's request Britain pro-
hibited  the  passage  of war materials for China passing through Burma.
1944 Monte Cassino, Italy, was taken by Allied forces. 1980 Mount St He-
lens,  US, erupted for the first time since 1857, devastating an area of
600 sq km/230 sq mi. Born Pieter Breughel, Flemish painter, 1525; George
Gascoigne,  English poet and playwright, 1525; Charles, Cardinal of Lor-
raine,  1525; John Stow, English historian, 1525; Joseph Butler, English
philosopher,  1692;  Bertrand Russell, English philosopher, 1872; Walter
Gropius,  US architect,  1883;  Pierre Balmain, French fashion designer,
1914. Died Elias Ashmole, English antiquarian, 1692; Pierre Augustin Ca-
ron de Beaumarchais,  French playwright, 1799; Johann Gottfried von Her-
der,  German critic and poet,  1803;  George Meredith, English novelist,
1909;  Gustav Mahler, Austrian composer, 1911; Paul Dukas, French compo-
ser, 1935; Werner Sombart, German economist, 1941.

19 May Feast day of St Dunstan,  St Pudentiana, St Peter Celestine, Sa-
ints Calocerus and Parthenius, St Ivo of Kermartin, St Crispin of Viter-
bo,  and  St  Peter Morrone.  1585 English shipping in Spanish ports was
confiscated as a reprisal for depredations across the Line;  this served
as  a declaration of war on England.  1643 The Confederation of New Eng-
land was formed by Connecticut,  New Haven,  Plymouth and  Massachusetts
Bay. 1649 England was declared a Commonwealth. 1662 The Act of Uniformi-
ty gave consent to the revised English Prayer Book and denied the  right
to  take  up  arms  against the king;  Presbyterianism in the Church was
destroyed and many ministers who did not confirm were ejected.  A Licen-
sing Act forbade imports of literature contrary to Christian faith. 1930
White women were enfranchised in South Africa. 1964 The US complained to
Moscow  about  microphones concealed in its Moscow embassy.  Born Johann
Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher, 1762; Nellie Melba, Australian sin-
ger,  1861;  Ho Chi Minh,  Vietnamese leader,  1890; Max Perutz, Austri-
an-born British molecular biologist,  1914; Sandy Wilson, British compo-
ser and playwright,  1924;  Michael Balcon, English film producer, 1896.
Died Alcuin of York, English poet, 804; James Boswell, Scottish biograp-
her and diarist,  1795;  Nathaniel Hawthorne, US novelist, 1864; William
Ewart Gladstone, British politician, 1898; T E Lawrence, English soldier
and writer,  1935; Charles Ives, US composer, 1954; Ogden Nash, US poet,
1971; John Betjeman, English poet, 1984.

20 May Feast day of St Bernardino of Siena,  St Ethelbert of East  Ang-
lia,  St Basilla, St Austregisilus, St Baudelius, and Saints Thalelaeus,
Asterius, Alexander, and Others. 1191 Richard I 'the Lion Heart' conque-
red  Cyprus from its independent Greek ruler,  then joined the Crusaders
before Acre. 1449 Afonso V of Portugal defeated a rebellion by his brot-
her,  Peter, who was killed, at Alfarrobeira. 1631 Flemish commander Co-
unt Tilly's imperialist army sacked Magdeburg;  terrible carnage  ensued
and the city caught fire,  leaving only the cathedral standing.  1927 By
the treaty of Jeddah Britain recognized the independence of  Saudi  Ara-
bia. 1941 German forces invaded Crete. 1941 British ministerial changes,
with Brendan Bracken as Minister of Information and R A Butler as Presi-
dent of Board of Education.  1944 Nazi officers attempted to assassinate
Hitler at a staff meeting.  1946 A bill for nationalisation  of  British
coal mines passed the Commons stage. 1950 The US Senate committee denied
Senator Joseph McCarthy's charges of Communist infiltration of the State
Department.  Born Donato d'Agnolo Bramante de Urbino, Italian architect,
1444; Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, 1444; Honorй de Balzac, French
novelist,  1799;  Thomas Lovell Beddoes,  English poet and physiologist,
1803;  John Stuart Mill,  English philosopher,  1806;  James Stewart, US
film actor,  1908;  Moshe Dayan,  Israeli military leader, 1915. Died St
Bernardino of Siena,  1444;  Christopher  Columbus,  Genoese  navigator,
1506; Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forli, 1509; Nicholas Brady, Anglican
clergyman,  1726; John Clare, English poet, 1864; Clara Schumann, German
pianist, 1896; Max Beerbohm, English writer and caricaturist, 1956; Bar-
bara Hepworth, English sculptor, 1975.

21 May Feast day of St Godric, St Collen, St Andrew Bobola, and St The-
ophilus of Corte.  1662 Charles II married Catherine de Braganza, daugh-
ter of John IV of Portugal.  1674 John Sobieski was elected King of  Po-
land  as  John  III.  1767 Townshend introduced taxes on imports of tea,
glass,  paper, and dyestuffs in American colonies to provide revenue for
colonial administration.  1840 Britain claimed complete sovereignty over
New Zealand. 1851 Gold was first discovered in Australia. 1894 The offi-
cial opening of the Manchester Ship Canal tool place. 1927 Charles Lind-
bergh completed the first solo non-stop flight across  the  Atlantic  in
his monoplane,  The Spirit of St. Louis. 1946 A world wheat shortage led
to bread rationing in Britain.  Born King Philip II of Spain, 1527; Ale-
xander Pope,  English poet and satirist,  1688; Francis Egerton, Duke of
Bridgwater,  builder of Britain's first canal, 1736; Elizabeth Fry, Eng-
lish prison reformer,  1780;  Fats Waller, US jazz pianist and composer,
1904;  Harold Robbins, US novelist, 1916. Died King Henry VI of England,
1471;  Tomaso Campanella,  Italian philosopher, 1639; James, Marquess of
Montrose,  Scottish general,  1650;  Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester,
Parliamentarian  leader in the English Civil War,  1671;  Robert Harley,
Earl of Oxford,  British politician, 1724; Karl Wilhelm Scheele, Swedish
chemist, 1786; Geoffrey de Havilland, British aircraft designer, 1965.

22 May Feast day of St Helen of Carnavon,  St Rita of Cascia,  St Julia
of Corsica,  St Aigulf of Bourges, St Romanus, Saints Castus and Aemili-
us,  St Humility, St Joachima de Mas, and St Quiteria. 853 A Greek expe-
dition captured Damietta,  in Egypt. 853 Olaf the White, son of the King
of  Norway,  received the submission of Vikings and Danes in Ireland and
made Dublin his capital.  1455 In the Wars of the Roses, Richard of York
and the Nevilles attacked the court at St Albans, capturing Henry VI and
killing Edmund Beaufort,  Duke of Somerset.  1498 A death  sentence  was
pronounced on Savonarola,  former Prior of St Mark's and effective ruler
of Florence,  who had been excommunicated in June 1497 for attempting to
seek  the  deposition  of Pope Alexander VI.  1912 The Reichstag (German
parliament) was adjourned following Socialist attacks on German emperor.
1914  Britain  acquired  control  of oil properties in Persian Gulf from
Anglo-Persian Oil Company.  1923 Stanley Baldwin formed  a  Conservative
ministry,  with Neville Chamberlain as Chancellor of the Exchequer. 1972
US President Richard Nixon visited Moscow to  discuss  arms  limitations
with Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev.  Born Richard Wagner, German com-
poser,  1813;  Aston Webb,  English architect, 1849; Arthur Conan Doyle,
English novelist,  1859;  Laurence Olivier, English actor, 1907; Charles
Aznavour, French singer, 1924; George Best, Irish footballer, 1946. Died
Thomas Southerne,  Irish playwright, 1746; Augustin Thierry, French his-
torian,  1856;  John French, Earl of Ypres, British soldier, 1925; Ernst
Toller, German poet and playwright, 1939; Cecil Day Lewis, English poet,
1972; Rajiv Gandhi, Indian leader, assassinated, 1991.

23 May Feast day of Saints Montanus and Lucius,  St William of  Roches-
ter,  St Aldhelm, St Euphrosyne of Polotsk, St Ivo of Chartres, St Leon-
tius of Rostov,  St Desiderius of Vienne, and St John Baptist dei Rossi.
878 The Saxon King Alfred defeated the Danes at Edington; under the pea-
ce of Wedmore,  their leader, Guthrum, was baptized as a Christian. 1169
'The  First Conquerors' landed in Ireland;  they were Normans from Wales
enlisted by Dermot MacMurrough to recover his kingdom of Leinster.  1430
Burgundian troops captured Joan of Arc and delivered her to the English.
1568 William of Orange with German mercenaries defeated a Spanish  force
under  Count  Aremberg at Heiligerlee;  this action marked the beginning
proper of the Revolt of the Netherlands. 1618 The Defenestration of Pra-
gue, when the Regents, Martinitz and Slawata, were overthrown by the Bo-
hemian rebels,  began the Thirty Years' War.  1926 France proclaimed the
Lebanon a republic. Born Tamerlane the Great, Mongol leader, 1335; Elias
Ashmole,  English antiquarian,  1617; Carl von Linnй (Linnaeus), Swedish
botanist,  1707;  William  Hunter,  Scottish anatomist and obstetrician,
1718;  Friedrich Mesmer, Austrian physician, 1733; Otto Lilienthal, Ger-
man aviator,  1848;  Edmund Rubbra, English composer, 1901; Hugh Casson,
British architect,  1910; Joan Collins, English actress, 1933. Died Ric-
hard of Wallingford, Abbot of St Albans, 1335; Girolamo Savonarola, Flo-
rentine priest,  burned at the stake, 1498; William Kidd, Scottish pira-
te,  hanged, 1701; Leopold von Ranke, German historian, 1886; Henrik Ib-
sen, Norwegian playwright, 1906.

24 May Feast day of St David of Scotland,  St Vincent of Lerins, Saints
Donatian and Rogation,  and St Nicetas of Pereaslav. 1153 Malcolm IV ac-
ceded to the Scottish throne.  1530 A list of heretical books was  drawn
up in London,  England; Tyndale's Bible was burned. 1726 Voltaire landed
in England on his liberation from the Bastille (he  returned  to  France
1729).  1726 The first Circulating Library was opened by Allan Ramsay in
Edinburgh. 1862 Westminster Bridge across the River Thames in London was
opened.  1941  The  British battleship HMS Hood was sunk by the Bismarck
off Greenland.  1948 The USSR stopped road and rail traffic between Ber-
lin and the West, forcing Western powers to organize airlifts. Born King
Philip III of France, 1245; William Byrd, English composer, 1543; Willi-
am Gilbert, English physician and early researcher into magnetism, 1540;
Jean-Paul Marat,  French revolutionary,  1743; Queen Victoria, 1819; Jo-
seph Rowntree,  social reformer and industrialist, 1836; Arthur Wing Pi-
nero, English playwright, 1855; J C Smuts, South African soldier and po-
litician, 1870; Bob Dylan, US singer and songwriter, 1941. Died Nicolaus
Copernicus,  Polish astronomer,  1543;  Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury,
English politician, 1612; Jonathan Wild, English criminal, hanged, 1725;
John Dulles, US politician, 1959; 'Duke' Ellington, US jazz composer and
musician, 1974; Hermione Gingold, English actress, 1987.

25 May Feast day of St Madeleine Barat,  St Gregory VII,  pope, St Mary
Magdalen de Pazzi,  St Urban, St Zenobius, St Leo of Mantenay, St Diony-
sius of Milan,  St Gennadius of Astorga,  and St Bede.  1234 The Mongols
took Kaifeng and destroyed the Chin dynasty. 1524 Henry VIII and Charles
V  formed  a new league to support the Duke of Bourbon in a fresh attack
on France.  1657 New Humble Petition and Advice created a new  House  of
Lords,  and  increased Cromwell's power.  1657 Louis XIV put forward his
name as a candidate for the Holy Roman Empire. 1659 Richard Cromwell re-
signed;  the  Rump Parliament re-established the Commonwealth.  1694 The
ministry in England was remodeled when William III dismissed Tories, ex-
cept Godolphin and Danby,  and introduced Whig Junta of Somers, Russell,
Montague, and Wharton. 1911 Porfirio Diaz resigned as president of Mexi-
co.  1914  The British House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule bill.
1923 The independence of Transjordan under Amir Abdullah was proclaimed.
1953  Denationalisation of road transport in Britain.  1961 US President
Kennedy presents an extra-ordinary state of Union  message  to  Congress
for increased funds urgently needed for US space, defense, and air prog-
rams. Born John Stuart, Earl of Bute, Britain's first Scottish prime mi-
nister,  1713;  Edward George Bulwer Lytton,  Lord Lytton, English nove-
list, 1803; Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet and essayist, 1803; Jacob Burc-
khardt Swiss historian, 1818; Bйla Bartуk, Hungarian composer, 1881; Jo-
sip Broz Tito,  Yugoslavian soldier and president, 1892; Miles Davis, US
jazz trumpeter, 1926; Ian McKellen, English actor, 1939. Died Bede, Eng-
lish monk and historian, 735; Georges D'Amboise, French cardinal and po-
litician, 1510; Gaspard Poussin, French painter, 1675; Pedro Caldйron de
la Barca, Spanish playwright, 1681; Samuel Pepys, English diarist, 1703;
Gustav Holst, English composer, 1934.

26 May Feast day of St Priscus,  St Augustine of Canterbury,  St Philip
Neri,  St Lambert of Venice,  St Quadratus of Athens,  and St Mariana of
Quito.  1520 Charles V visited Henry VIII at Dover and Canterbury.  1521
The Edict of Worms imposed on Martin Luther the ban of the Empire.  1538
Jean Calvin was expelled from Geneva and settled in Strasbourg. 1659 Au-
rangzeb formally becomes Mogul Emperor.  1798 Income tax was  introduced
in Britain,  as a tax of 10% on all incomes over Ј200. 1805 Napoleon was
crowned King of Italy in Milan Cathedral.  1834 Sikhs captured Peshawar.
1846  Robert  Peel  repealed the Corn Laws (royal assent given 26 June),
splitting the Conservative Party.  1865 The surrender of the last Confe-
derate  army at Shreveport,  near New Orleans,  ended the American Civil
War. 1924 Calvin Coolidge signed a bill limiting immigration into the US
and entirely excluding the Japanese. Born Charles of Orleans, French po-
et, 1391; Henry Vane the younger, English politician, 1613; William Pet-
ty,  English economist, 1623; Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, English writer,
1689;  Edmond de Goncourt,  French novelist,  1822; A E Housman, English
poet,  1859;  Princess  Mary of Teck (Queen Mary,  consort of George V),
1867; Al Jolson, US singer, 1886; John Wayne, US film actor, 1907; Peter
Cushing,  British actor,  1913.  Died St Augustine,  first archbishop of
Canterbury,  604;  Philip Neri,  Italian priest, founder of the Oratory,
1595;  Charles Mayo,  US surgeon,  1922; Victor Herbert, US composer and
conductor,  1924;  Lincoln Ellsworth,  US scientist and polar  explorer,

27 May Feast day of St Julius the Veteran,  St Eutropius of Orange,  St
Restituta of Sora,  and St Melangel. 1063 Harold of Wessex began to con-
quer Wales.  1199 Pope Innocent III imposed the first direct papal taxa-
tion of Clergy.  1199 Death of Minamoto Yoritomo, first Shogun of Japan;
his  followers  retained control of government but fought for supremacy.
1299 Peace was negotiated between Genoa and  Venice,  ending  their  war
(since  1261)  to control trade with the Byzantine Empire.  1719 Emperor
Charles VI founded the Oriental Company in Vienna to compete with  Dutch
trade  in  the Orient.  1813 US forces occupied Fort St George,  and the
British abandoned the entire Niagara frontier.  1941 The German battles-
hip Bismarck was sunk by the Royal Navy west of Brest. Born Amelia Bloo-
mer,  US feminist and dress reformer,  1818; Julia Ward Howe, US writer,
1819; Vincent D'Indy, French composer, 1851; Arnold Bennett, English no-
velist,  1867; John Cockcroft, English physicist, 1897; Hubert Humphrey,
US politician,  1911;  Vincent Price, US film actor, 1911; Henry Kissin-
ger,  US politician,  1923. Died John Calvin, French religious reformer,
1564; Archibald Campbell, Marquess of Argyll, Scottish Covenanter, behe-
aded,  1661;  Marquise de Montespan,  mistress of the French King  Louis
XIV,  1707; Niccolт Paganini, Italian violinist, 1840; Robert Koch, Ger-
man bacteriologist, 1910; Jawalharlal Nehru, Indian politician, 1964.

28 May Feast day of St Bernard of Aosta,  St Ignatius of Rostov, St Se-
nator of Milan, St William of Gellone, St Germanus of Paris, and St Jus-
tus of Urgel.  1358 In France the uprising known as the Jacquerie  broke
out - the peasants were protesting at their impoverished state after the
ravages of the Hundred Years' War. 1539 Royal assent was given to an Act
(the  Six  Articles  of  Religion) 'abolishing diversity of opinions' in
England,  after Henry VIII personally intervened in the Lords' debate to
argue  with the Reforming bishops.  1932 The IJselmeer was formed in the
Netherlands, by the completion of a dam which enclosed the former Zuider
Zee.  1956 France ceded former French settlements in India to the Indian
Union. 1959 Britain announced the removal of controls on imports of many
consumer goods from the dollar area, with increased import quotas of ot-
her goods. 1961 The last journey of the Orient Express train, from Paris
to Bucharest;  it had been in operation for 78 years. Born King George I
of Great Britain, 1660; Joseph Guillotin, French physician and revoluti-
onary, 1738; William Pitt, British politician, 1759; Thomas Moore, Irish
poet,  1779;  Prosper Mйrimйe, French novelist, 1803; F W Maitland, Eng-
lish historian,  1850;  Ian Fleming, English novelist, 1908; Thora Hird,
English actress,  1916; Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, German baritone, 1925.
Died Lanfranc,  Archbishop of Canterbury,  1089; Edward Montagu, Earl of
Sandwich, English admiral, 1672; Thomas Chippendale, English cabinet-ma-
ker,  1779;  Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz, Swiss oceanographer and marine
zoologist,  1807;  Noah Webster,  US lexicographer,  1843;  Henry Thomas
Buckle,  English historian,  1862; Lord John Russell, Earl Russell, Bri-
tish politician, 1878; Alfred Adler, Austrian psychiatrist, 1937.

29 May Feast day of St Cyril of Caesarea,  St Bernard of  Montjoux,  St
Theodosia  of Constantinople,  St Maximinus of Trier,  Saints Sisinnius,
Martyrius, and Alexander, and Saints William, Stephen, Raymund, and the-
ir  Companions.  862  Riurick  (of Jutland) founded the first dynasty of
Princes of Russia at Novgorod. 1218 The Fifth Crusade landed outside Da-
mietta, N Egypt. 1453 Mohammed II, founder of the Ottoman empire, captu-
red Constantinople;  the Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI was killed and
the Greek Empire finally extinguished. Constantinople became the Ottoman
capital.  1458 Richard Neville,  Earl of Warwick,  defeated a  Castilian
fleet in the Channel.  1848 Wisconsin became a US state.  1940 The first
British forces were evacuated from Dunkirk.  1947 The Indian constituent
assembly outlawed 'untouchability'. Born King Charles II of Great Brita-
in,  1630;  Louis Jean Marie Daubenton, French naturalist, 1716; Patrick
Henry,  US politician,  1736;  Lйon Bourgeois,  French politician, 1851;
Gilbert Keith Chesterton,  English novelist and critic,  1874; Bob Hope,
US actor and comedian,  1903; John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th president of
the US,  1917.  Died Bartholomew Diaz de Novaes,  Portuguese  navigator,
1500;  David  Beaton,  Scottish politician,  1546;  Cornelius Van Tromp,
Dutch sailor, 1691; Humphry Davy, English scientist who invented a safe-
ty lamp for miners,  1829;  John Lothrop Motley, US historian and diplo-
mat, 1877; W S Gilbert, English playwright and librettist, 1911.

30 May Feast day of St Hubert,  St Joan of Arc, St Ferdinand, St Exupe-
riantius of Ravenna,  St Isaac of Constantinople,  St Luke Kirby, St Ma-
delgisilus,  and St Walstan. 1431 Joan of Arc was burned as a heretic at
Rouen,  France.  1536 English King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour,  his
third wife.  1592 The Spanish defeated an English force under  Sir  John
Norris at Cranon,  Brittany.  1913 A peace treaty between Turkey and the
Balkan states was signed in London,  UK.  1925 The shooting  of  Chinese
students  by  municipal police in Shanghai and other incidents in Canton
provoked a Chinese boycott of British goods.  1929  The  British  Labour
Party  won  the general election with 287 seats.  1948 The British Citi-
zenship Act conferred the status of British subjects on all Commonwealth
citizens.  Born Peter the Great,  tsar of Russia, 1672; Henry Addington,
British politician,  1757; Peter Carl Fabergй, Russian goldsmith and je-
weler,  1846;  Howard Hawks,  US film director,  1896; Benny Goodman, US
bandleader,  1909.  Died Christopher Marlowe,  English playwright, 1593;
Peter Paul Rubens,  Flemish painter,  1640; Alexander Pope, English poet
and satirist,  1744;  Franзois Boucher,  French painter, 1770; Voltaire,
French author and philosopher,  1778;  Boris Pasternak, Russian novelist
and poet, 1960; Claude Rains, British-born film actor, 1967.

31 May Feast day of St Petronilla,  Saints Cantius,  Cantianus, Cantia-
nella, and Protus, and St Mechtildi of Edelstetten. 1287 The Genoese de-
feated the Venetian fleet off Acre and blockaded the coast of  Outremer.
1902 The Peace of Vereeniging ended the Boer War, in which British casu-
alties numbered 5,774 killed (and 16,000 deaths  from  disease)  against
4,000 Boers killed in action. 1916 The Battle of Jutland began, in which
Royal Navy losses exceeded those of the German fleet.  1942 Czech patri-
ots  assassinated  Gestapo leader Heydrich.  1952 In the USSR,  the Vol-
ga-Don Canal was opened.  1961 South Africa became an independent repub-
lic outside the Commonwealth, with C R Swart as president. Born Margaret
Beaufort, consort of Henry VII of England, 1443; Matthias Corvinus, king
of Hungary, 1443; Rudolphus Agricola, Dutch humanist, 1443; Guilio Albe-
roni, Italian cardinal and politician, 1664; Karl August von Hardenberg,
Prussian politician,  1750;  Walt Whitman, US poet, 1819; Francis Young-
husband, English explorer, 1863; William Heath Robinson, English illust-
rator,  1872;  Don Ameche,  US film actor, 1908; Clint Eastwood, US film
actor and director, 1930; Terry Waite, religious adviser to the Archbis-
hop of Canterbury,  1939. Died Jacopo Tintoretto, Italian painter, 1594;
Frederick William I of Prussia,  1740;  Jean Cavalier,  French  Huguenot
preacher and leader, 1740; Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, 1809; Joseph
Grimaldi,  English clown,  1837;  Walther Funk,  German Nazi  economist,
1960; Adolf Eichmann, Nazi leader, hanged as a war criminal, 1962.

1 June  National Day of Tunisia.  Feast day of St Gwen of Brittany,  St
Justin,  St Nicomedes, St Ronan, St Whyte, St Wistan, St Symeon of Syra-
cuse,  St Caprasius of Lйrins,  St Pamphilus of Caesarea,  St Inigo,  St
Proculus the Soldier,  St Proculus the Bishop,  and St Theobald of Alba.
836  Viking raiders sacked London.  1485 Matthias of Hungary took Vienna
in his conquest of Austria (from Frederick III) and made  the  city  his
capital.  1666 An English fleet under Lord Albemarle fought an inconclu-
sive battle with the Dutch off the Dunes of Dunkirk.  1679 The  Scottish
Covenanters  defeated  Royal troops under Claverhouse at Drumclog.  1792
Kentucky became the 15th US state.  1796 Tennessee became  the  16th  US
state.  1915 The first Zeppelin attack on London,  UK,  took place. 1946
Television licenses were issued in Britain for the first time; they cost
Ј2.  1957 ERNIE drew the first premium bond prizes in Britain. 1958 Ice-
land extended its fishery limits  to  12  miles.  Born  Nicolas  Carnot,
French founder of thermodynamics, 1796; Brigham Young, US Mormon leader,
1801;  Mikhail Glinka,  Russian composer, 1803; John Drinkwater, English
poet,  1882; Frank Whittle, English inventor who developed the jet engi-
ne, 1907; Marilyn Monroe, 1926; Morgan Freeman, US film actor, 1937. Di-
ed James Gillray,  English caricaturist, 1815; James Buchanan, 15th pre-
sident of the US, 1868; Hugh Walpole, English novelist, 1941; Leslie Ho-
ward, British film actor, 1943; Ion Antonescu, Romanian dictator, execu-
ted, 1946; Eric Partridge, British lexicographer, 1985.

2 June National Day of Italy. Feast day of St Erasmus, St Oda, St Atta-
lus,  Saints Marcellinus and Peter, St Eugenius I, pope, St Nicholas the
Pilgrim,  St Stephen of Sweden, and St Pothinus and his Companions. 1619
A treaty was signed between England and Holland, regulating the trade in
the East between the English and Dutch East India Companies.  1627 Char-
les I granted a charter of incorporation to the Guiana Company. 1627 The
Duke of Buckingham sailed from Portsmouth with a fleet to aid the Hugue-
nots in the defense of La Rochelle.  1780 The Gordon riots began in Lon-
don, England, when Lord George Gordon headed a procession for presenting
a petition to Parliament for repealing Catholic Relief act of 1778;  Ro-
man Catholic chapels were pillaged.  1793 The final overthrow of  Giron-
dins  and arrest of Jacques Brissot began the Reign of Terror.  1916 The
second battle of Ypres took place. 1949 Transjordan was renamed the Has-
hemite Kingdom of Jordan. 1953 The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II took
place in Westminster Abbey.  1989 In Tianenamen Square, Beijing, govern-
ment troops massacred over 2,000 students who were peacefully demonstra-
ting for political reform.  Born John Sobieski,  King of  Poland,  1624;
Thomas Hardy,  English novelist and poet,  1840;  Edward Elgar,  English
composer, 1857; Julian Huxley, English biologist, 1887; Johnny Weissmul-
ler,  US swimmer who played Tarzan in films,  1903;  Barry Levinson,  US
film director,  1942. Died James Douglas, Earl of Morton, 1581; Giuseppe
Garibaldi,  Italian nationalist, 1882; Alexander Ostrovsky, Russian pla-
ywright,  1886;  Alfred Austin, English poet, 1913; Vita Sackville-West,
English writer, 1962; Andrйs Segovia, Spanish classical guitarist, 1987;
Rex Harrison, British actor, 1990.

3 June Feast day of Genesius of Clermont,  St Kevin, St Charles Lwanga,
St Isaac of Cordova,  St Morand,  St Cecilius,  St Clothilde,  St Joseph
Mkasa,  St Lucillian and his Companions,  Saints Liphardus and Urbicius,
and Saints Pergentinus and Laurentinus. 1098 The Crusaders took Antioch.
1162 Thomas … Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of  Canterbury.  1665
The English fleet defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Lowestoft. 1942 US
and Japanese naval forces began the Battle of Midway,  in  the  Pacific.
1946 King Umberto II left Italy and Alcide de Gasperi,  the premier, be-
came provisional head of state.  1959 Singapore  became  self-governing.
Born William Dampier, English navigator and adventurer, 1652; James Hut-
ton, Scottish geologist, 1726; Sydney Smith, English clergyman and jour-
nalist,  1771; Richard Cobden, English economist and political reformer,
1804;  William Flinders Petrie,  English archeologist,  1853;  George V,
1865;  Wilfrid Thesiger,  English explorer and writer,  1910.  Died John
Aylmer,  bishop of London,  1594;  William Harvey, English physician who
described the circulation of the blood, 1657; Georges Bizet, French com-
poser, 1875; Johann Strauss, Austrian composer, 1899; Franz Kafka, Aust-
rian  novelist,  1924;  Mikhail  Ivanovich Kalinin,  Russian politician,
1946; Arthur Ransome, English children's writer, 1967.

4 June Feast day of St Edfrith,  St Ninnoc,  St Petroc, St Metrophanes,
St Francis Caracciolo, St Optatus of Milevis, St Quirinus of Siscia, and
St Vincentia Gerosa.  1039 Gruffyd ap Llewelyn,  King of Gwynned and Po-
wys, defeated an English attack. 1210 King John embarked on an expediti-
on to Ireland,  enforcing his authority there. 1520 Henry VIII and Fran-
cis I met at the Field of the Cloth of Gold, between Gravelines and Ard-
res;  on 6 June they signed a treaty confirming the marriage contract of
Mary  Tudor  and the Dauphin and ending French interference in Scotland.
1878 A secret Anglo-Turkish agreement was made to check Russian  advance
in Asia Minor,  by which Britain promised to defend Turkey against furt-
her attack and Britain was allowed to occupy Cyprus. 1944 The Fifth Army
entered  Rome.  1956  Egypt  declared it would not extend the Suez Canal
Company's concession after its expiry in 1968. 1959 US-owned sugar mills
and plantations in Cuba were expropriated. Born Franзois Quesnay, French
economist and physician,  1694; George III, 1738; John Scott, later Earl
of Eldon, English lawyer and politician, 1751; Harriet Beecher Stowe, US
novelist, 1811; Garnet Wolseley, English soldier, 1833; Christopher Coc-
kerell, English engineer who invented the hovercraft, 1910. Died William
Juxon, archbishop of Canterbury, 1663; Giovanni Casanova, Italian adven-
turer, 1798; Nassau William Senior, English economist, 1864; Kaiser Wil-
liam II,  1941;  Emily Davidson, English suffragist who threw herself in
front of the King's horse during the Derby, 1913.

5 June National Day of Denmark.  Feast day of St Boniface, St Dorotheus
of Tyre, St Tudno, and St Sanctius. 1912 US marines landed in Cuba. 1916
HMS Hampshire sank off the Orkneys, with Lord Kitchener aboard. 1945 The
Allied Control Commission assumed control throughout Germany,  which was
divided  into  four occupation zones.  1947 US Secretary of State George
Marshall called for a European Recovery Program (Marshall Aid). 1967 The
Six-Day  War  broke out between Israel and the Arab states.  1968 Robert
Kennedy was assassinated in a hotel in Los Angeles, US while campaigning
for the US presidency.  1970 Tonga became independent within the Common-
wealth.  1975 The Suez Canal was reopened after being closed  for  eight
years.  Born Nicolas Poussin, French painter, 1594; Adam Smith, Scottish
economist, 1723; Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary, 1878; John Maynard
Keynes,  English economist,  1883; Federico GarcЎa Lorca, Spanish playw-
right and poet,  1898;  Margaret Drabble,  English novelist, 1939; David
Hare,  British playwright,  1947. Died Orlando Gibbons, English organist
and composer, 1625; Henry Sacheverell, English political preacher, 1724;
Carl von Weber,  German composer, 1826; Stephen Crane, US poet and nove-
list, 1900; Horatio, Lord Kitchener, English soldier, 1916; Henri Gaudi-
er-Brzeska,  French  artist,  1916;  Georges Feydeau,  French dramatist,

6 June National Day of Sweden.  Feast Day of St Jarlath,  St Gudwal, St
Ceratius, St Norbert, Saints Primus and Felician, St Claude of Besanзon,
St Eustorgius II of Milan,  and St Philip the Deacon. 1457 Polish forces
took Marienburg; the Teutonic Knights then made Kцnigsberg their headqu-
arters.  1636 Puritan American colonist Roger  Williams,  banished  from
Massachusetts  Bay Colony,  founded Providence,  Rhode Island,  a colony
with complete religious freedom.  1664 War broke out between England and
Holland in the colonies and at sea.  1797 Napoleon Bonaparte founded the
Ligurian Republic in Genoa. 1820 Caroline, Princess of Wales, whom Geor-
ge IV wished to divorce,  triumphantly entered London, demanding her re-
cognition as Queen.  1844 The Factory Act in Britain  restricted  female
workers to a 12-hour day; children between eight and 13 years were limi-
ted to six-and-a-half hours.  Born Diego y Velasquez,  Spanish  painter,
1599;  Pierre Corneille, French playwright, 1606; Henry Newbolt, English
poet,  1862; Robert Falcon Scott, English Antarctic explorer, 1868; Tho-
mas Mann, German novelist, 1875; Ninette de Valois, Irish ballet dancer,
1898;  Bjцrn Borg,  Swedish tennis player,  1956;  Mike Gatting, English
cricketer,  1958.  Died  St Norbert of Xanten,  archbishop of Magdeburg,
1134;  George Anson,  English sailor and explorer, 1762; Jeremy Bentham,
English philosopher and jurist,  1832;  James Agate,  English critic and
essayist,  1947; Carl Gustav Jung, Swiss psychiatrist, 1961; Robert Ken-
nedy, US politician, assassinated, 1968.

7 June  Feast day of St Meriasek,  St Robert of Newminster,  St Anthony
Gianelli,  St Gottschalk, St Vulflagius, St Willibald, St Colman of Dro-
more,  and St Paul I of Constantinople.  1494 By the Treaty of Tordesil-
las,  Spain and Portugal agreed to divide the New World between themsel-
ves: Portugal was to have all lands east of a line north and south drawn
370 leagues west of Cape Verde,  Spain to have the  rest.  1497  English
King  Henry VII defeats the Cornish rebels under Lord Audley at Blackhe-
ath. 1523 Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden. 1535 John Fis-
her,  Bishop  of Rochester,  is tried for treason (he was executed on 22
June). 1672 Dutch Admiral de Ruyter was successful in action against the
combined  English  and  French fleets in Southwold Bay.  1832 The Reform
Bill became law;  over 140 seats were redistributed, and in the boroughs
all  antiquated forms of franchise were eliminated and the franchise was
extended to include leaseholders paying minimum of Ј10 rent  per  annum,
while  in  counties  the 40-shilling freehold qualification was retained
and certain lease-holders acquired the vote.  Born John Rennie, Scottish
engineer, 1761; Alexander Pushkin, Russian novelist, playwright, and po-
et,  1799;  James Young Simpson, Scottish obstetrician who pioneered the
use of anesthetics,  1811;  Pietro Annigoni, Italian painter, 1910; Paul
Gauguin, French painter, 1848; James Ivory, US film director, 1928. Died
Robert I 'the Bruce',  king of Scotland,  1329; David Cox, English pain-
ter,  1859;  Jean Harlow, US film actress, 1937; Dorothy Parker, US wri-
ter,  1967;  E M Forster, English novelist, 1970; Henry Miller, US nove-
list, 1980.

8 June Feast day of St Medard,  St William of York,  St Cloud of  Metz,
and St Maximinius of Aix.  1042 Harthacnut, King of England and Denmark,
died;  he was succeeded in England by his adopted heir,  Edward the Con-
fessor,  and in Denmark by Magnus, King of Norway. 1536 The English Par-
liament met and settled the succession on the future children  of  Henry
VIII  by  Jane Seymour;  the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth were declared
illegitimate.  1919 Nicaragua asked the US for protection against  Costa
Rica.  1934  Oswald Mosley addressed a mass meeting of the British Union
of Fascists at Olympia.  1939 George VI visited the US at the end of his
tour of Canada;  he was the first British monarch to do so. 1941 British
and Free French Forces invaded Syria to  prevent  the  establishment  of
Axis bases. 1965 US troops were authorized to engage in offensive opera-
tions in Vietnam.  Born Giovanni Cassini, Italian astronomer, 1625; John
Smeaton,  English engineer,  1724;  Robert Stevenson,  English engineer,
1772; Robert Schumann, German composer, 1810; John Everett Millais, Eng-
lish painter,  1829; Frank Lloyd Wright, US architect, 1869. Died Chris-
tiaan Huygens,  Dutch physicist and astronomer, 1695; Thomas Paine, Eng-
lish author of The Rights of Man,  1809; Sarah Siddons, English actress,
1831;  Joseph Paxton,  English architect,  1865; 'George Sand' (Amandine
Dudevant,  born Dupin),  French novelist,  1876;  Gerard Manley Hopkins,
English poet,  1889;  Gerhart Hauptmann, German novelist and playwright,

9 June Feast day of St Columba,  St Ephraem,  St Richard of Ambria,  St
Vincent of Agen, and St Pelagia of Antioch. 1572 A new Turkish fleet put
to  sea  against  Don John of Austria to complete the capture of Cyprus.
1788 English botanist Joseph Banks founded the  Africa  Association  for
arousing interest in exploration and trade.  1885 The Treaty of Tientsin
between France and China recognized the French  protectorate  in  Annam.
1934  Cartoon character Donald Duck first appeared.  1959 The USS George
Washington was launched,  the first submarine to be armed with ballistic
missiles.  1992  International leaders signed the Biodiversity Treaty at
the Rio Earth Summit. Born Peter the Great, tsar of Russia, 1672; George
Stephenson,  English locomotive engineer, 1781; Elizabeth Garrett Ander-
son,  English physician,  1836;  Cole Porter,  US composer of  musicals,
1893.  Died William Maitland of Lethingdon,  Scottish politician,  1573;
William Lilly,  English astrologer, 1681; Charles Dickens, English nove-
list,  1870; Cochise, American Apache leader, 1874; Maxwell William Ait-
ken,  Lord Beaverbrook,  Canadian-born politician and newspaper proprie-
tor, 1964; Sybil Thorndike, English actress, 1976.

10 June Feast day of St Ithamar,  St Bogumilus, St Landericus of Paris,
and St Getulius and  his  Companions.  1829  The  Oxford  team  won  the
first-ever  Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.  1891 L Starr Jameson became
administrator of the South Africa Company's territories. 1893 Alarmed at
Belgian advances in the Congo,  France sent an occupying force to fores-
tall further annexations.  1899 US Congress appointed a canal commission
to report on routes through Panama. 1942 The Czech village of Lidice was
destroyed and every man in it killed in reprisal for  the  assassination
of Nazi leader Richard Heydrich. 1943 The ball-point pen was patented in
the US. Born James Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender), 1688; John
Dollond,  English optician, 1706; Gustave Courbet, French painter, 1819;
Henry Morton Stanley, US journalist and explorer, 1840; G E Buckle, Eng-
lish newspaper editor, 1854; Saul Bellow, US novelist, 1915; Prince Phi-
lip,  Duke of Edinburgh, 1921; Judy Garland, US film actress and singer,
1922;  Maurice Sendak,  US illustrator,  1928. Died Luis Vaz de Camoens,
Portuguese poet,  1580; Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor, 1654; Tho-
mas Hearne,  English antiquary and keeper of the Bodleian Library, 1735;
Andrйe Ampиre,  French physicist,  1836;  'Pierre Loti' (Julien  Viaud),
French novelist, 1923; Frederick Delius, English composer, 1934; Spencer
Tracey, US film actor, 1967.

11 June Feast day of St Barnabas,  Saints Felix and Fortunatus,  and St
Parisio.  1509  Henry VIII marries Catherine of Aragon,  his first wife.
1727 George I became king of Great Britain.  1891 At an Anglo-Portuguese
convention  on territories north and south of Zambesi,  Portugal assigns
Barotseland to Britain;  Nyasaland is subsequently proclaimed a  British
Protectorate.  1895 Britain annexed Togoland to block Transvaal's access
to the sea.  1955 US President Eisenhower proposed financial and techni-
cal  aid  to all non-Communist countries to develop atomic energy.  1963
Constantine Karamanlis,  the Greek premier,  resigned in protest against
King  Paul's  state visit to Britain.  1964 Greece rejected direct talks
with Turkey over Cyprus.  Born Barnabe Googe,  English poet,  1540;  Ben
Jonson, English playwright, 1572; John Constable, English painter, 1776;
Millicent Garrett Fawcett,  English suffragist,  1847; Mrs Humphrey Ward
(Mary Augusta Arnold),  English novelist, 1851; Jacques Cousteau, French
oceanographer, 1910; Athol Fugard, South African dramatist and director,
1932.  Died Kenelm Digby,  English writer and diplomat, 1665; Louis, Duc
de Vendфme,  French soldier,  1712; John Franklin, English Arctic explo-
rer,  1847; Clemens, Prince Metternich, Austrian politician, 1859; Frank
Brangwyn, British painter, 1956; Alexander Kerensky, Russian politician,
1970; John Wayne, US film actor, 1979.

12 June National Day of the Philippines.  Feast day of St Basilides, St
Eskil,  St Leo II,  St Odulf, St Onuphrius, St Ternan, St Peter of Mount
Athos,  St Antonia,  St John of Sahagun,  and St Paula Frassinetti. 1088
William II suppressed a revolt in England led by Odo of  Bayeux,  Bishop
of Rochester,  who was supporting Robert Curthose.  1667 The Dutch fleet
under Admiral de Ruyter burned Sheerness,  sailed up the  River  Medway,
raided  Chatham  dockyard,  and escaped with the royal barge,  the Royal
Charles;  the nadir of English naval power.  1683 The Rye House Plot, to
assassinate  King  Charles II and his brother James,  Duke of York,  was
discovered.  1901 A Cuban convention making the country virtually a pro-
tectorate of the US was incorporated in the Cuban constitution as a con-
dition of the withdrawal of US troops.  1934 Political parties banned in
Bulgaria.  1964  Nelson  Mandela and seven others were sentenced to life
imprisonment for acts of sabotage in the Rivonia trial,  Pretoria.  Born
Harriet Martineau, English writer, 1802; Charles Kingsley, English nove-
list, 1819; Anthony Eden, Viscount Avon, British politician, 1897; Geor-
ge Bush,  41st president of the US,  1924; Anne Frank, Jewish Dutch dia-
rist,  1929.  Died James,  Duke of Berwick, English-born French general,
1734;  William Collins, English poet, 1759; Thomas Arnold, English scho-
lar and head of Rugby School,  1842;  John  Ireland,  English  composer,
1962; Billy Butlin, English vacation-camp entrepreneur, 1980; Marie Ram-
bert, British ballet dancer and teacher, 1982.

13 June Feast day of St Antony of Padua,  St Felicula, St Aquilina, and
St  Triphyllius.  1849 Communist riots in Paris were easily defeated and
led to repressive legislation.  1866 The US 14th Amendment  incorporated
the Civil Rights Act and gave states the choice of Negro enfranchisement
or reduced representation in Congress. 1900 The Boxer Rebellion began in
China  against  Europeans.  1942 British forces lost 230 tanks in desert
fighting. 1944 The first flying bomb was dropped on London, UK. 1956 The
last  British  troops left the Suez Canal base.  1961 Austria refused an
application by Archduke Otto of Hapsburg to return as a private  indivi-
dual. Born Richard Barnfield, English poet, 1574; Thomas Arnold, English
scholar,  head of Rugby school, 1795; James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish phy-
sicist,  1831;  William Butler Yeats, Irish poet, 1865; Peter Scudamore,
British jockey,  1958.  Died Alexander the Great,  323 BC; St Antonio of
Padua,  1231; Arcangelo Corelli, Italian composer, 1713; Henry Seagrave,
British racing driver,  1930; Jesse Boot, English pharmacist, drug manu-
facturer, and philanthropist, 1931; Benny Goodman, US bandleader, 1986.

14 June  Feast day of St Dogmael,  Saints Valerius and Rufinus,  and St
Methodius I of Constantinople.  1380 In the Peasants' Revolt, the rebels
occupying London killed Archbishop Sudbury,  the Chancellor,  and Robert
Hales, the Treasurer. 1404 Glendower, having won control of Wales, assu-
mes  the  title  of Prince of Wales and holds a parliament.  1645 In the
English Civil War,  Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists at the Battle
of Naseby, Northamptonshire. 1800 Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Austri-
an army at the Battle of Marengo and reconquers Italy. 1940 In World War
II, German forces entered Paris. 1960 French President de Gaulle renewed
his offer to the Algerian provisional government  to  negotiate  a  cea-
se-fire,  to which Front de la Libйration Nationale agrees,  but rejects
subsequent French conditions. 1962 The European Space Research Organisa-
tion  was  established at Paris.  Born Charles Augustin Coulomb,  French
physicist, 1736; Henry Keppel, British admiral, 1809; Bernard Bosanquet,
English philosopher, 1848; Che Guevara, Argentinian communist revolutio-
nary, 1928; Steffi Graf, German tennis player, 1969. Died Henry Vane the
younger, English politician, executed after the Restoration for his par-
liamentarian activities,  1662;  Edward  Fitzgerald,  English  poet  and
translator,  1883; Jerome Klapka Jerome, English novelist, 1927; Gilbert
Keith Chesterton,  English author,  1936; John Logie Baird, Scottish in-
ventor who developed television,  1946;  Jorge Luis Borges,  Argentinian
author, 1986; Vincent Hamlin, US cartoonist, 1993.

15 June Official birthday of Queen Elizabeth II.  Feast day of St Tril-
lo,  St Vitus and his Companions, St Bardo, St Aleydia, St Germaine Cou-
sin of Pibrac,  St Hesychius of Durostorum, St Landelinus, St Edburga of
Winchester, St Tatian Dulas, and St Orsiesus. 1520 Pope Leo X excommuni-
cated Martin Luther by the bull Exsurge.  1658 The Mogul emperor Aurang-
zeb  imprisoned his father the Shah,  after winning a battle at Samgarh.
1672 The Sluices were opened in  Holland  to  save  Amsterdam  from  the
French.  1836 Arkansas became the 25th state of the US.  1855 Stamp duty
on British newspapers was abolished.  1869 Celluloid was patented in the
US.  1954 The Convention People's Party,  led by Kwame Nkrumah,  won the
Gold Coast elections.  1977 Spain had its first general elections  since
1936. Born Edward (the Black Prince), 1330; St Francesco de Paolo, 1416;
Joannes Argyropoulos, Greek scholar, 1416; Thomas Randolph, English poet
and playwright,  1605;  Edvard Grieg,  Norwegian composer, 1843; Richard
Baker,  English broadcaster, 1925. Died Wat Tyler, English rebel leader,
1381; Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 1467; Marguerite De Launay, Ba-
ronne Staal, French writer, 1750; James Knox Polk, 11th president of the
US, 1849; Evelyn Underhill, English poet and mystic, 1941.

16 June Feast day of St Cyricus,  St Ismael, St Aurelian, St John Fran-
cis Regis, Saints Cyr and Julitta, St Benno of Meissen, St Lutgarde, Sa-
ints Ferreolus and Ferrutio,  and St Tychon of Amathus.  1586 Mary Queen
of Scots recognized Philip II of Spain as her heir.  1745 British troops
took Cape Breton Island and subsequently Louisburg,  at the mouth of the
St Lawrence River.  1779 Spain declared war on Britain (after France had
undertaken to assist in the recovery of Gibraltar and Florida),  and the
siege of Gibraltar began.  1836 In Britain,  the formation of the London
Working Men's Association began the Chartist Movement.  1871 The Univer-
sity Test Acts allowed students to enter Oxford  and  Cambridge  without
religious tests.  1972 Burglars were caught breaking into the Democratic
Party headquarters in the Watergate Building,  Washington DC,  US.  1977
Leonid Brezhnev became president of the USSR.  Born John Cheke,  English
classical scholar,  1514;  King Gustav V of Sweden,  1858;  Stan Laurel,
English-born US film comedian,  1890;  Enoch Powell, British politician,
1912;  Giacomo Agostini,  Italian motorcycle champion,  1942. Died Roger
van der Weyden, Flemish painter, 1464; John Churchill, Duke of Marlboro-
ugh,  English general, 1722; Guilio Alberoni, Italian-born Spanish poli-
tician and cardinal, 1752; Elmer Ambrose Sperry, US inventor, 1930; Mar-
garet Bondfield, British politician and labor-unionist, 1953.

17 June National day of Iceland.  Feast day of St Moling,  St Adulf, St
Nectan,  St Botulf,  St Alban,  St Avitus, St Bessarion, St Hypatius, St
Rainerius of Pisa,  St Emily de Vialai,  St Hervй,  Saints Nicander  and
Marcian, and Saints Teresa and Sanchia of Portugal. 1128 Henry I's daug-
hter,  Matilda, widow of Henry V, married Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou;
she  was recognized in England as her father's heir.  1579 Francis Drake
proclaimed England's sovereignty over New Albion (California).  1617 Ja-
mes I met his Scottish Parliament.  His proposal that the Scottish lords
should surrender to the Crown their hereditable jurisdictions  met  with
vigorous opposition,  but the five Articles of Religion, for introducing
Anglican principles to Scottish worship were endorsed. 1775 In the Revo-
lutionary War, British troops won a victory at Bunker Hill. 1940 Russian
troops occupied the Baltic states.  Born Edward I,  1239; Pedro Calderуn
de la Barca, Spanish playwright, 1600; Charles XII of Sweden, 1682; John
Wesley, English evangelist, 1703; Charles Franзois Gounod, French compo-
ser, 1818; William Crookes, English chemist, 1832; Igor Stravinsky, Rus-
sian composer,  1882.  Died John Sobieski,  king of Poland, 1696; Joseph
Addison, English essayist and poet, 1719; Claude, Duc de Villars, French
soldier, 1734; Prosper Jolyot de Crйbillon, French playwright, 1762; Ed-
ward  Burne-Jones,  English  painter,  1898;  Annie  S Swan (Mrs Burnett
Smith),  Scottish novelist,  1943;  Imre Nagy, Hungarian prime minister,
executed, 1958.

18 June  Feast day of Saints Mark and Marcellian,  St Amandus of Borde-
aux,  St Eliisabeth of Schцnau,  and St Gregory Barbarigo.  860  Vikings
from  Russia  were  repulsed  in  an attack on Constantinople.  1429 The
French, led by Joan of Arc, defeated the English at the Battle of Patay.
1633 Charles I was crowned King of Scotland at Edinburgh.  1815 The Duke
of Wellington and Gebhard von Blьcher defeated Napoleon at the Battle of
Waterloo.  1928  US aviator Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly
across the Atlantic. 1953 A republic was proclaimed in Egypt, with Gene-
ral  M Neguib as president.  1979 US President Jimmy Carter and and USSR
President Leonid Brezhnev signed the SALT-2 arms  limitation  treaty  at
Vienna's Hofburg Palace.  Born Robert Stewart,  later Viscount Castlere-
agh,  Irish politician, 1769; Edouard Daladier, French politician, 1884;
Nikolaus Horthy de Nagybбnya,  Hungarian politician, 1868; George Mallo-
ry, English mountaineer, 1886; Ian Carmichael, English actor, 1920; Isa-
bella Rosselini,  Italian film actress, 1952. Died John Hampden, English
patriot and politician,  1643;  Andrew Jackson, 7th president of the US,
1845;  George Grote, English historian and politician, 1871; Samuel But-
ler,  English novelist,  1902; Roald Amundsen, Norwegian polar explorer,
lost this day in the Arctic, 1928; Maxim Gorky, Russian author, 1936.

19 June Feast day of Saints Gervase and Protase, St Juliana Falconieri,
St Romuald,  St Boniface of Querfurt,  St Deodatus of Nevers, and St Odo
of  Cambrai.  1464 An ordinance of Louis XI in France created the poste,
organizing relays of horses on the main roads for the  king's  business.
1754  The Anglo-French war broke out in North America when a force under
George Washington skirmished with French troops near Fort Duquesne. 1769
Hyder  Ali of Mysore compelled the British at Madras to sign a treaty of
mutual assistance.  1809 Curwen's Act was passed in Britain,  to prevent
the  sale  of  Parliamentary seats,  thus decreasing the number of seats
which the British government can manipulate for its regular  supporters.
1829  Robert  Peel's Act was passed,  to establish a new police force in
London, UK, and its suburbs. 1867 Emperor Maximilian was executed in Me-
xico.  1917  The British royal family renounced German names and titles,
having adopted the name of Windsor.  1965 Ben Bella,  President of Alge-
ria,  was  deposed;  Houari  Boumйdienne headed a revolutionary council.
Born James VI of Scotland and I of England, 1566; Thomas Fuller, English
antiquarian and clergyman,  1608;  Blaise Pascal,  French mathematician,
1623;  Fйlicitй Robert de Lamennais,  French writer, 1783; Douglas, Earl
Haig, British field-marshal, 1861; Ernst Chain, German-born British bac-
teriologist who developed penicillin,  1906; Salman Rushdie, British no-
velist,  1947.  Died Alberico Gentili,  Italian political writer,  1608;
William Sherlock,  English prelate, 1707; Ambrose Philips, English poet,
1749;  Joseph Banks,  English botanist,  1820; John Dalberg, Lord Acton,
English historian, 1902; J M Barrie, Scottish author of Peter Pan, 1937.

20 June Feast day of Edward the Martyr,  St Alban, St Govan, St John of
Matera,  St Silverius,  pope, St Bain, and St Adalbert of Magdeburg. 840
Vikings sailed up the Seine as far as Rouen,  for the first  time.  1530
The Diet of Augsburg met in the presence of Charles V,  who was determi-
ned to exterminate heresy;  Philip Melanchthon stated the Lutheran case,
since Martin Luther was under the ban of the Empire.  1756 Over 140 Bri-
tish subjects were imprisoned in a cell ('The Black Hole of  Calcutta');
only 23 came out alive. 1789 In France, the third estate took the Tennis
Court oath, undertaking not to depart until a constitution was drawn up.
1791 Louis XVI attempted to leave France,  but was turned back at Varen-
nes and taken to Paris.  1837 On the death of William IV, Queen Victoria
succeeded to the British throne.  1837 Hanover was automatically separa-
ted from Britain, as Salic Law forbids female succession, and the throne
was taken by Ernest Augustus,  Duke of Cumberland,  the eldest surviving
son of George III. 1837 Natal Republic was founded by Dutch settlers and
a Constitution was proclaimed.  Born Adam Ferguson, Scottish philosopher
and historian,  1723; John Costello, Irish politician, 1891; Jacques Of-
fenbach,  German-born French composer,  1819; Catherine Cookson, English
novelist,  1906; Errol Flynn, Australian-born US film actor, 1909; Step-
hen Frears, English film director, 1941. Died Willem Barents, Dutch exp-
lorer,  1597; Emmanuel Joseph Sieyиs, French revolutionary leader, 1836;
William IV, 1837; Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, 1908; Panc-
ho Villa,  Mexican revolutionary leader, assassinated, 1923; Bernard Ba-
ruch, US financier, 1965.

21 June Feast day of St Aloysius Gonzaga,  St Leufred, St Mewan, St En-
gelmund, St John Rigby, St Eusebius of Samosata, and St Leutfridus. 1661
The  Peace  of  Kardis was signed between Russia and Sweden,  ending the
northern war;  Russia abandoned all claims to Livonia. 1788 The US cons-
titution came into force, when ratified by the 9th state, New Hampshire.
1798 British General Gerard Lake defeated Irish rebels at  Vinegar  Hill
and entered Wexford,  ending the Irish Rebellion.  1813 The Duke of Wel-
lington completely routed the French at Vittoria,  forcing  the  Spanish
king,  Napoleon's brother Joseph,  to return to France. 1827 Robert Peel
reformed English criminal law,  by reducing the number of capital offen-
ses, abolishing the immunity of the clergy from arrest in cases of felo-
ny, and by defining the law of offenses against property in a simplified
form.  1887 Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee.  1887 Britain annexed Zulu-
land,  blocking the attempt of Transvaal to gain communication with  the
coast. 1919 The German fleet was scuttled in Scapa Flow, in the Orkneys.
1942 German forces under Field-Marshal Rommel captured Tobruk. 1970 Bra-
zil won the World Cup for the third time. Born Increase Mather, American
clergyman and president of Harvard, 1639; William Stubbs, English histo-
rian,  1825;  Claude Auchinleck,  British field-marshal, 1884; Jean-Paul
Sartre,  French philosopher,  novelist,  and playwright, 1905; Jane Rus-
sell, US film actress, 1920; Franзoise Sagan, French novelist, 1935. Di-
ed Edward III,  1377;  John Skelton,  English poet, 1529; Sebastiano del
Piombo,  Italian painter,  1547;  John Smith,  Virginian colonist, 1631;
Inigo Jones,  English architect and stage designer,  1652;  Lord William
Russell,  English politician,  1683; Alexius Petrovich, son of Peter the
Great,  died in prison, 1718; Charles, Viscount Townshend, English poli-
tician, 1738; George Hepplewhite, English cabinet-maker, 1786; Friedrich
Froebel,  German educator,  1852; Jean-Edouard Vuillard, French painter,

22 June Feast day of St Acacius, Saints John Fisher and Thomas More, St
Paulinus of Nola,  St Nicetas of Remesiana, and St Eberhard of Salzburg.
1377 Richard II became king of England.  1671 Turkey declared war on Po-
land.  1679 The Duke of Monmouth subdued an insurrection of Scottish Co-
venanters at Bothwell Bridge.  1826 The Pan-American Congress met in Pa-
nama under the influence of Simon Bolivar in an unsuccessful  effort  to
unite the American Republics. 1894 Dahomey was proclaimed a French Colo-
ny.  1907 In Britain, the Northern Line was opened on the London Underg-
round.  Born Andrй-Hercule de Fleury,  French cardinal, 1653; Jean Char-
din,  French painter, 1699; Jacques Delille, French poet, 1738; Giuseppe
Mazzini, Italian patriot, 1805; H Rider Haggard, English novelist, 1856;
John Hunt,  English mountaineer, 1910; Peter Pears, English tenor, 1910;
Prunella Scales,  English actress,  1932; Meryl Streep, US film actress,
1949.  Died Roger I,  king of Sicily, 1101; Niccolт Machiavelli, Italian
politician and diplomat,  1527; Jane Shore, mistress of Edward IV, 1527;
St John Fisher,  bishop of Rochester, beheaded, 1535; Josiah Child, Eng-
lish merchant, 1699; Walter de la Mare, English author, 1956; Fred Asta-
ire, US dancer and film actor, 1987.

23 June National Day of Luxembourg.  Feast day of St Cyneburg,  St  Et-
heldreda,  St Agrippina, St Lietbertus, St Joseph Cafasso, and St Thomas
Garnet.  1611 English navigator Henry Hudson and eight others were  cast
adrift by mutineers;  the mutineers returned to England,  but Hudson and
his companions were never seen again.  1757 British troops under  Robert
Clive captured Plassey,  in Bengal,  and recovered Calcutta.  1934 Saudi
Arabia and the Yemen signed a peace agreement after a war of six  weeks.
1935  British  Foreign  Secretary  Anthony Eden offered Benito Mussolini
concessions over Abyssinia,  which he rejected. 1951 Guy Burgess and Do-
nald  Maclean,  'missing diplomats',  fled to the USSR.  1952 The US Air
Force bombed hydroelectric plants in North Korea.  Born John Banйr, Swe-
dish general,  1596;  Giovanni Battista Vico, Italian philosopher, 1668;
Josephine de Beauharnais, wife of Napoleon, 1763; Anna Akhmatova, Russi-
an poet, 1889; Jean Anouilh, French playwright, 1910; John Habgood, arc-
hbishop of York,  1927.  Died Vespasian,  Roman emperor, AD 79; Pedro de
Mendoza,  Spanish explorer,  1537; John Aubrey, English antiquary, 1697;
Hester Lucy Stanhope,  English traveler, 1839; Cecil Sharp, English col-
lector of folk songs, 1924.

24 June Feast day of St John the Baptist,  St Bartholomew of Farne,  St
Simplicius of Autun,  and St Ralph of Bourges.  1245 Pope Innocent  sent
John de Plano Carpinis,  a friar minor,  to the court of the Great Khan,
at Karakorum;  this embassy led to the establishment of Christian missi-
ons in China until c.  1368.  1277 English King Edward I began his first
Welsh campaign following Llewelyn's refusal to do  homage.  1314  Robert
the  Bruce defeated Edward II at Bannockburn and so completed his expul-
sion of the English from Scotland. 1535 Charles V leads an expedition to
conquer  Tunis from Barbarossa,  with a fleet commanded by Andrea Doria.
Charles restored the Bey,  Mulai Hassan (deposed by the Turks  in  1534)
and  completed the Spanish conquest of the North African coast (begun in
1494).  1559 The Elizabethan Prayer Book was first used.  1812  Napoleon
crossed the River Niemen and entered Russian territory. 1917 The Russian
Black Sea fleet mutinied at Sebastopol.  1956 Colonel Nasser was elected
President of Egypt. Born Theodore Beza, French religious reformer, 1519;
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, English explorer, 1532; St John of the
Cross (Juan de Yepez y Alvarez), 1542; John Churchill, Duke of Marlboro-
ugh,  1650; Horatio, Lord Kitchener, British soldier, 1850; William Pen-
ney.  British physicist,  1909;  Juan Fangio, Argentinian racing driver,
1911;  Fred Hoyle, English astronomer, 1915; Claude Chabrol, French film
director, 1930. Died Ferdinand I, king of Castile and Leon, 1065; Lucre-
zia Borgia,  duchess of Ferrara,  1519; John Partridge, English astrolo-
ger,  1715; Stephen Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th president of the US,
1908; Rex Warner, British novelist, 1986.

25 June Feast day of St Adalbert,  St Febronia, St Maximus of Turin, St
Eurosia,  St Gohard,  St Gallicanus, St Prosper of Reggio, St Prosper of
Aquitaine,  St Moloc, St Thea, and St William of Vercelli. 1524 The Pea-
sants'  Revolt in southern Germany began at Stьhlingen on the estates of
Count von Lupfen.  The rebels demanded the abolition of  enclosures  and
feudal services. 1646 The surrender of Oxford to the Roundheads virtual-
ly signified the end of the English Civil War.  1788 Virginia became the
10th  state  of the US.  1867 The first patent for barbed wire was taken
out in Ohio, US. 1876 US soldier George Custer and his 264 men were kil-
led by Sioux Indians at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Montana. 1975
Mozambique achieved independence from Portugal.  Born John Horne  Tooke,
English politician,  1736;  Tsar Nicholas I 1796; Lord Louis Mountbatten
of Burma, 1900; George Orwell, English essayist and novelist, 1903; Sid-
ney Lumet,  US film director, 1924. Died Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Ri-
vers,  English politician,  executed, 1483; John Marston, English playw-
right, 1634; George Custer, US soldier, 1876; Margaret Oliphant, English
novelist,  1897;  Laurence Alma-Tadema, English painter, 1912; Tony Han-
cock, English comedian, 1968.

26 June Feast day of Saints Salvius and Superius, Saints John and Paul,
St Anthelmus,  bishop, St Maxentius, and St Vigilius of Trent. 1483 Ric-
hard,  Duke of Gloucester,  began to rule as Richard III, having deposed
his nephew, Edward V; the latter and his brother, Richard, Duke of York,
were  soon  afterward murdered in the Tower of London.  1519 Martin Lut-
her's public disputation with Johann Eck on doctrine began  at  Leipzig.
1849  The British Navigation Acts were finally repealed.  1917 The first
US contingents arrived in France to fight WWI.  1937 Spanish rebels took
Santander.  1937 The Duke of Windsor married Mrs Wallis Simpson in Fran-
ce. 1960 Madagascar was proclaimed independent as the Malagasy Republic.
1960  British  Somaliland  became independent;  it joined Somalia on 27.
1962 The Portuguese in Mozambique required  Indian  nationals  to  leave
within  three  months  of release from internment camps.  1963 President
Kennedy visited West Berlin and declared 'Ich bin  ein  Berliner'.  Born
Philip Doddridge,  English Nonconformist,  1702;  William Thomson,  Lord
Kelvin,  English physicist, 1824: Pearl S Buck, US novelist, 1892: Peter
Lorre,  US film actor,  1904: Laurie Lee, English poet and author, 1914:
Claudio Abbado, Italian conductor, 1933. Died Francisco Pizarro, Spanish
explorer who conquered Peru,  assassinated, 1541: Richard Fanshawe, Eng-
lish scholar and diplomat,  1666:  Ralph Cudworth,  English philosopher,
1688:  Gilbert White,  English clergyman and naturalist,  1793:  Joseph-
Michel Montgolfier,  French balloonist,  1810:  Ford Madox Ford, English
novelist and poet, 1939.

27 June  Feast day of St Cyril of Alexandria,  St Zoilus,  St Samson of
Constantinople,  St George Mtasmindeli, the Martyrs of Arras, St John of
Chinon, and St Ladislas, King of Hungary. 1771 Russia completed its con-
quest of the Crimea.  1795 A British force landed at Quiberon to aid the
revolt in Brittany.  1795 French forces recaptured St Lucia.  1801 Cairo
fell to English forces. 1932 A Constitution was proclaimed in Siam. 1940
The USSR invaded Romania on the refusal of King Carol to cede Bessarabia
and Bukovina; Romania appealed for German aid in vain. 1941 Hungary dec-
lared war on Russia. 1944 Allied forces took Cherbourg. 1950 US air, na-
val and later ground forces supported South Korea against North  Korea's
invasion. Born Louis XII, king of France, 1462: Charles Stewart Parnell,
Irish nationalist leader,  1846: John Monash, Australian civil engineer,
1865:  Helen Keller,  US author and teacher,  1880. Died Giorgio Vasari,
Italian painter and art historian, 1571: Nathaniel Bailey, English lexi-
cographer,  1742:  Samuel Hood,  British admiral,  1816: James Smithson,
English scientist,  1829:  Joseph Smith,  founder of the Mormons,  1844:
Malcolm Lowry,  British novelist,  1957:  Mohammed Reza Pahlavi,  former
Shah of Iran, 1980.

28 June Feast day of St Austell,  Saints Potamiaena and  Basilides,  St
Irenaeus, St Heimrad, St John Southworth, Saints Sergius and Germanus of
Valaam, and St Paul, pope. 1519 Charles I of Spain, Sicily and Sardinia,
was  elected Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.  1645 In the English Civil
War,  the Royalists lost Carlisle. 1895 Union of Nicaragua, Honduras and
El  Salvador (ended in 1898 by El Salvador's opposition).  1914 Archduke
Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife were assassinated at  Sarajevo
by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian revolutionary. 1919 Britain and the US gu-
aranteed France in event of an unprovoked German attack,  which  the  US
later refused to ratify. 1948 Yugoslavia was expelled from Cominform for
hostility to the USSR.  1950 North Korean forces  captured  Seoul.  1956
Sydney  Silverman's  bill for abolition of death penalty passed the Com-
mons; it was defeated in the Lords, 10 July. 1956 Labor riots at Poznan,
Poland,  were put down with heavy loss of life. Born Sigismund of Luxem-
bourg,  Holy Roman Emperor, 1368: Henry VIII, 1491: Jean-Jacques Rousse-
au,  French philosopher and writer, 1712: Etienne-Franзois, Duc de Choi-
seul,  French politician,  1719;  Luigi Pirandello,  Italian playwright,
1867:  Harold Evans,  British newspaper editor, 1929. Died Paul I, pope,
767:  Jean de Rotrou, French playwright, 1650: James Madison, 4th presi-
dent of the US,  1836:  Robert Burke, Irish explorer of Australia, 1861:
Alfred Noyes,  English poet,  1958:  Lord Raglan, British soldier, 1855:
Franz Ferdinand,  heir to the Austrian throne, assassinated, 1914: Boris
Christoff, Bulgarian operatic bass, 1993.

29 June Feast day of St Peter, St Paul, St Elwin, Saints Judith and Sa-
lome,  and St Cassius of Narni.  1613 The Globe Theatre was destroyed by
fire.  1880 France annexed Tahiti.  1943 US forces landed in New Guinea.
1945  Czechoslovakia  ceded Ruthenia to the USSR.  1949 The US completed
its withdrawal of occupying forces from South Korea.  1949 British  dock
strike.  1949  The South African Citizenship Act suspended the automatic
granting of citizenship to Commonwealth immigrants after five years, and
imposed  a  ban on mixed marriages between Europeans and non-Europeans -
the beginning of the Apartheid program.  1954 Following the  meeting  of
President  Eisenhower  and  Winston  Churchill in Washington the Potomac
Charter, or six-point declaration of western policy, was issued. 1965 US
troops took offensive action for the first time against North Vietnamese
forces. Born Peter Paul Rubens, English painter, 1577: Giacomo Leopardi,
Italian poet,  1798: George Ellery Hale, US astronomer, 1868: Antoine de
Saint-Exupйry,  French author and aviator,  1900: Nelson Eddy, US singer
and film actor,  1901:  Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands,  1911.  Died
Margaret, Countess of Richmond (The Lady Margaret), 1509: Elizabeth Bar-
rett Browning,  English poet, 1861: T H Huxley, English biologist, 1895:
Albert Sorel,  French historian,  1906:  Paul Klee, Swiss painter, 1940:
Ignaz Jan Paderewski,  Polish pianist,  composer,  and politician, 1941:
Jayne Mansfield, US film actress, 1967.

30 June Feast day of St Theobald of Provins,  the Martyrs of  Rome,  St
Emma,  St Bertrand of Le Mans,  St Erentrude, and St Martial of Limoges.
1574 William of Orange persuaded the Estates of Holland to open the  dy-
kes to hinder the Spanish siege of Leyden. 1596 English expedition under
Lord Howard of Effingham and the Earl of Essex sacked Cadiz, ravaged the
Spanish  coast,  and  captured much booty.  Philip II was thus prevented
from sending an Armada against England.  1782 Spain completed its conqu-
est  of Florida.  1797 The Nore mutiny was suppressed.  1846 The Mormons
under Brigham Young left Nauvoo City on trail for the Great  Salt  Lake.
1934  A Nazi purge took place in Germany with summary executions of Kurt
von Schleicher,  Ernst Roehm and other party leaders for an alleged plot
against Hitler.  1965 An India-Pakistan cease-fire was signed. Born Phi-
lip the Good,  Duke of Burgundy,  1396:  Charles VIII,  king of  France,
1469: Paul Franзois Nicolas Barras, French politician, 1755: Georges Du-
hamel, French novelist and poet, 1884: Stanley Spencer, English painter,
1891:  Harold Laski,  English politician, 1893. Died Montezuma II, Aztec
ruler,  assassinated,  1520: Johann Reuchlin, German humanist and Hebrew
scholar,  1522:  Willem Barents, Dutch explorer, 1597: William Oughtred,
English mathematician, 1660: Nancy Mitford, English author, 1973: Lilli-
an Hellman, US playwright, 1984.

1 July National Day of Canada. Feast day of St Gall of Clermont, Saints
Aaron and Julius, St Eparchius or Cybard, St Oliver Plunket, St Carilep-
hus  or  Calais,  St  Thierry or Theodoric of Mont d'Or,  St Servanus or
Serf,  St Simeon Salus, and St Shenute. 1690 At the Battle of the Boyne,
William  III of England defeated the Jacobites under James II.  1751 The
first volume of Diderot's Encyclopйdie  was  published  in  Paris.  1838
Charles Darwin presented a paper to the Linnaean Society in London,  UK,
on his theory of the evolution of species.  1863 The Battle  of  Gettys-
burg,  in  the American Civil War,  began.  1916 The first Battle of the
Somme began; more than 21,000 men were killed on the battle's first day.
1937 The telephone emergency service,  999, became operational in Brita-
in. 1940 Guernsey was occupied by German forces. 1990 A state treaty es-
tablishing  a unified economy and monetary system for East and West Ger-
many went into effect.  1991 The Warsaw Pact,  the last vestige  of  the
Cold  War-era  Soviet  bloc,  was formally disbanded.  Born George Sand,
French novelist,  1804; Louis Blйriot, French aviator, 1872; Charles La-
ughton,  English film actor, 1899; Olivia de Havilland, US film actress,
1916; HRH the Princess of Wales, 1961; Carl Lewis, US athlete, 1961. Di-
ed Charles Goodyear,  US inventor,  1860; Allan Pinkerton, US founder of
the Detective Agency, 1884; Harriet Beecher Stowe, US author, 1896; Erik
Satie, French composer, 1925; Juan Perуn, Argentinian politician, 1974.

2 July Feast day of Saints Processus and Martinian,  St Monegundis, and
St Otto of Bamberg.  1644 Oliver Cromwell defeated Prince Rupert at the-
Battle of Marston Moor, his first victory over the Royalists in the Eng-
lish Civil War. 1865 At a revivalist meeting at Whitechapel, London, UK,
William Booth formed the Salvation Army. 1900 The 2nd Olympic Games ope-
ned in Paris.  1940 The Vichy Government was set up in France, headed by
Henri Pйtain. 1956 Elvis Presley recorded 'Hound Dog' and 'Don't Be Cru-
el' in New York.  1964 President Johnson signed the US Civil Rights Bill
prohibiting racial discrimination.  1990 Over a thousand Muslim pilgrims
were killed when a stampede occurred in a pedestrian tunnel  leading  to
the holy city of Mecca.  Born Thomas Cranmer,  archbishop of Canterbury,
1489;  Christoph Gluзk, German composer, 1714; William Henry Bragg, Eng-
lish physicist, 1862; Hermann Hesse, German poet and novelist, 1877; Er-
nest Hemingway,  1899;  David Owen,  British politician,  1938;  Kenneth
Clarke, British politician, 1940. Died Nostradamus, French physician and
astrologer,  1566; Jean Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher and writer,
1778;  Amelia Earhart,  US aviator,  disappeared over the Pacific, 1937;
Ernest Hemingway,  US novelist,  1961;  Betty Grable,  US film  actress,
1973; Vladimir Nabokov, Russian novelist, 1977.

3 July  Feast day of St Thomas the Apostle,  St Anatolius of Constanti-
nople,  Saints Irenaeus and Mustiola,  St Leo II,  pope, St Anatolius of
Laodicea,  St Rumold or Rombaut, St Bernardino Realino, and St Helidorus
of Altino.  1608 French explorer Samuel Champlain founded  Quйbec.  1863
The Union forces,  under General Meade, defeated the Confederates at the
Battle of Gettysburg.  1905 In Odessa,  over 6,000 people were killed by
Russian troops to restore order during a general strike. 1954 Nearly ni-
ne years after the end of the World War II,  food rationing  in  Britain
finally  ended.  1962 Following a referendum,  France proclaimed Algeria
independent.  1976 An Israeli commando force rescued 103 hostages from a
hijacked aircraft,  who were being held at Entebbe airport, Uganda. 1988
The USS Vincennes,  patrolling the Gulf during the  Iran-Iraq  conflict,
mistook an Iranian civil airliner for a bomber and shot it down, killing
all 290 people on board. Born Robert Adam, Scottish architect and desig-
ner,  1728;  Leoљ Janбcek, Czech composer, 1854; Franz Kafka, Czech wri-
ter,  1883; Ken Russell, British film director, 1927; Tom Stoppard, Bri-
tish dramatist,  1937; Richard Hadlee, New Zealand cricketer, 1951. Died
Marie de' Medici, Queen of France, 1642; Theodor Herzl, Austrian Zionist
leader,  1904;  Joel Chandler Harris, US author, 1908; Brian Jones, Eng-
lish rock guitarist,  1961;  Jim Morrison, US singer, 1971; Rudy Vallee,
US singer, 1986; Joe De Rita, US comedian, 1993.

4 July Independence Day in the US. Feast day of The Martyrs of Dorches-
ter, St Andrew of Crete, St Elizabeth of Portugal, St Ulric of Augsburg,
St Bertha of Blangy,  and St Odo of Canterbury. 1776 The American Decla-
ration of Independence was adopted. 1829 Britain's first regular schedu-
led  bus service began running,  between Marylebone Road and the Bank of
England,  in London.  1848 The Communist Manifesto was published by Karl
Marx and Friedrich Engels.  1946 The Philippine Islands were given inde-
pendence by the US.  1968 Alec Rose landed at Portsmouth in Lively Lady,
having sailed single-handed around the world.  1991 Colombia's President
Cesar Gaviria Trujillo lifted state of siege that  had  been  in  effect
since 1984. Born Nathaniel Hawthorne, US author, 1804; Giuseppe Garibal-
di,  Italian soldier and patriot,  1807; Gertrude Lawrence, English act-
ress,  1898;  Louis Armstrong,  US jazz trumpeter and singer, 1900; Neil
Simon,  US dramatist,  1927;  Gina Lollobrigida,  Italian film  actress,
1927.  Died Samuel Richardson, English novelist, 1761; Thomas Jefferson,
3rd US president,  1826;  John Adams, 2nd US president, 1826; James Mon-
roe, 5th US president, 1831; Marie Curie, Polish scientist, 1934; Suzan-
ne Lenglen, French tennis player, 1939.

5 July National Day of Venezuela. Feast day of St Antony-Mary Zaccaria,
and  St  Athanasius the Athonite.  1791 George Hammond was appointed the
first British ambassador to the US.  1946 A swimsuit designed  by  Louis
Reard,  called 'bikini', was first modeled at a Paris fashion show. 1948
Britain's National Health Service came into operation.  1965 Maria  Cal-
las,  at the age of 41, gave her last stage performance singing Tosca at
Covent Garden,  London,  UK.  1967 Israel annexed Gaza. 1969 The Rolling
Stones gave a free concert in Hyde Park two days after the death of gui-
tarist Brian Jones;  it was attended by 250,000 people.  1980 Bjorn Borg
won  the  Wimbledon  singles championship for a record fifth consecutive
time.  1989 Convicted for his involvement in the Iran-Contra affair,  US
Army  Colonel Oliver North was fined $150,000 and given a suspended sen-
tence.  Born Sarah Siddons,  English actress,  1755; Cecil Rhodes, South
African statesman, 1853; Dwight Davis, US statesman, 1879; Jean Cocteau,
French poet,  novelist,  artist, and film director, 1889; Georges Pompi-
dou,  French statesman, 1911; Elizabeth Emanuel, English dress designer,
1953.  Died Thomas Stamford  Raffles,  British  colonial  administrator,
1826; Austen Henry Layard, British archeologist, 1894; Georges Bernanos,
French author, 1948; Thomas Joseph Mboya, Kenyan statesman, 1969; Walter
Adolph Gropius,  US architect,  1969; Georgette Heyer, English novelist,

6 July National Day of Malawi.  Feast day of St Romulus of Fiesole,  St
Dominica, St Mary Goretti, St Goar, St Modwenna, St Godeleva, St Sexbur-
ga,  and St Sisoes.  1535 Sir Thomas More was beheaded on London's Tower
Hill for treason.  1553 Mary I acceded to the throne, becoming the first
queen to rule England in her own right.  1685 James II defeated the Duke
of  Monmouth,  claimant to the throne,  at the Battle of Sedgemoor,  the
last battle to be fought on English soil. 1892 Britain's first non-white
MP  was  elected - Dadabhai Naoraji won the Central Finsbury seat.  1928
The first all-talking feature film, Lights of New York, was presented at
the Strand Theater in New York City.  1964 Engaged couple Chrissie Evert
and Jimmy Connors won the men's and women's singles at  Wimbledon.  1965
The Beatles' film A Hard Day's Night was premiered in London,  UK,  with
royal attendance.  1988 An explosion aboard the North Sea oil rig  Piper
Alpha resulted in the loss of 166 lives.  Born Nicholas I,  Tsar of Rus-
sia, 1796; Bill Haley, US rock musician, 1925; Janet Leigh, US film act-
ress,  1927; Dalai Lama, Tibetan spiritual leader, 1935; Vladimir Ashke-
nazy,  Russian pianist,  1937;  Sylvester Stallone, US film actor, 1946.
Died Guy de Maupassant,  French writer,  1893; Kenneth Grahame, Scottish
children's author, 1932; Aneurin Bevan, British statesman, 1960; William
Faulkner,  US novelist,  1962;  Louis Armstrong, US jazz musician, 1971;
Otto Klemperer, German conductor, 1973; John Bolton, English astronomer,

7 July Feast day of St Hedda of Winchester, Saints Ethelburga, Ercongo-
ta and Sethrida, St Palladius, Saints Cyril and Methodius, St Pantaenus,
and  St  Felix of Nantes.  1853 US naval officer Commodore Matthew Perry
arrived in Japan,  and persuaded her to open  trade  contacts  with  the
West.  1927  Christopher Stone became the first 'disc jockey' on British
radio when he presented his 'Record Round-up' from Savoy Hill.  1929 The
Vatican  City  State,  with  the pope as its sovereign,  came into being
through the Lateran Treaty.  1982 Queen Elizabeth  II  was  woken  by  a
strange man sitting on her bed in Buckingham Palace; the presence of the
intruder,  who merely asked her for a cigarette,  raised concerns  about
Palace  security.  1985 The unseeded 17-year-old Boris Becker became the
youngest ever men's singles champion at Wimbledon. 1990 Martina Navrati-
lova won a record ninth Wimbledon singles title. Born Marc Chagall, Rus-
sian painter and designer,  1887;  George Cukor, US film director, 1899;
Vittorio de Sica,  Italian film director,  1901;  Pierre Cardin,  French
fashion designer,  1922;  Ringo Starr, English drummer, 1940; Tony Jack-
lin, English golfer, 1944. Died King Edward I, 1307; Giacomo da Vignola,
Italian architect,  1573;  R B Sheridan,  English dramatist, 1816; Georg
Ohm,  German physicist,  1854; Arthur Conan Doyle, British author, 1930;
Flora Robson, British actress, 1984.

8 July Feast day of St Adrian III, pope, St Raymund of Toulouse, Saints
Aquila and Prisca or Priscilla, St Kilian and his Companions, St Sunniva
and her Companions,  St Withburga, St Grimbald, and St Procopius of Cae-
sarea.  1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama left Lisbon for a voyage
on which he discovered the Cape route to India. 1709 Charles XII of Swe-
den  was  defeated  by  Peter the Great's army at the Battle of Poltava,
crushing Sweden's territorial ambitions.  1884 The National Society  for
Prevention  of  Cruelty  to Children (NSPCC) was founded in London,  UK.
1907 Ziegfeld's Follies opened for the first time, on Broadway. 1943 Je-
an Moulin,  the French Resistance leader known as 'Max', was executed by
the Gestapo.  1948 General Mc Arthur was appointed Commander-in-Chief of
the  UN forces in Korea.  1978 Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler became
the first to climb Everest entirely without oxygen.  1991 Iraq  admitted
to  the  UN  that it had been conducting clandestine programs to produce
enriched uranium, a key element in nuclear weapons. Born Jean de la Fon-
taine, French writer, 1621; Joseph Chamberlain, British statesman, 1836;
John D Rockefeller,  US millionaire, 1839; Arthur Evans, English archeo-
logist, 1851; Percy Grainger, Australian composer, 1882; Billy Eckstine,
US singer,  1915. Died Percy Bysshe Shelley, English poet, 1822; Anthony
Hope,  British novelist,  1933;  Henry Havelock Ellis, English physician
and author, 1939; Vivien Leigh, English film actress, 1967; Michael Wil-
ding, English film actor, 1979; Judith Chrisholm, British aviator, 1988;
Fred Weick, US aeronautical engineer, 1993.

9 July National Day of Argentina. Feast day of St Veronica de Julianis,
St  Nicholas  Pieck and his Companions,  St Everild,  and the Martyrs of
Gorcum.  1810 Napoleon annexed Holland,  making his brother,  Louis, its
king. 1816 Argentina declared independence from Spain at the Congress of
Tucuman.  1877 The first Wimbledon Lawn Tennis championship was held  at
its original site at Worple Road. 1922 Johnny Weissmuller, aged 18, swam
the 100m in under a minute (58.6 sec). 1938 In anticipation of World War
II,  35  million gas masks were issued to Britain's civilian population.
1979 In Nicaragua,  General Somoza was overthrown by the Sandinista  re-
bels.  1984  Lightning struck York Minster Cathedral and set the roof on
fire, destroying the south transept. 1991 The International Olympic Com-
mittee lifted a 21-year-old boycott on South Africa. Born Elias Howe, US
inventor,  1819;  Bruce Bairnsfather,  British cartoonist, 1888; Barbara
Cartland,  English  novelist,  1901;  Edward Heath,  British politician,
1916;  Michael Williams, British actor, 1935; David Hockney, English pa-
inter,  1937.  Died Jan van Eyck,  Flemish painter,  1440; Edmund Burke,
British statesman,  1797;  Zachary Taylor, 12th US president, 1850; King
Camp Gilette,  US safety-razor inventor, 1932; Randall Thompson, US com-
poser, 1984.

10 July Feast day of St Felicity, The Seven Brothers, St Amelberga, and
Saints Rufina and Secunda.  1460 In the Wars of the Roses,  the Yorkists
defeated the Lancastrians and captured Henry VI at the Battle  of  Nort-
hampton. 1553 Following the death of Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey was proc-
laimed Queen of England. 1900 The Paris underground railroad, the Metro,
was opened.  1958 Britain's first parking meters were installed, in May-
fair, London. 1962 The US communications satellite Telstar was launched,
bringing Europe the first live television from the US.  1976 Seveso,  in
northern Italy, was covered by a cloud of toxic weedkiller leaked from a
chemicals  factory;  crops and 40,000 animals died.  1985 The Greenpeace
campaign ship Rainbow Warrior sank in Auckland,  New Zealand,  after two
explosions tore its hull.  Born John Calvin,  French religious reformer,
1509; Camille Pissarro, French painter, 1830; Marcel Proust, French aut-
hor, 1871; Carl Orff, German composer, 1895; Arthur Ashe, US tennis pla-
yer,  1943;  Arlo Guthrie, US singer, 1947. Died Hadrian, Roman emperor,
138;  El Cid,  Spanish hero,  1099; Louis Jacques Mandй Daguerre, French
photographic pioneer,  1851;  Karl Richard Lepsius, German Egyptologist,
1884;  Jelly Roll Morton, US ragtime pianist and composer, 1941; Giorgio
de Chirico, Italian painter, 1978; Masuji Ibuse, Japanese writer, 1993.

11 July National Day of Mongolia.  Feast day of St Benedict, St John of
Bergamo,  St Drostan, St Olga, and St Hidulf. 1708 The Duke of Marlboro-
ugh's forces defeated the French at the Battle of Oudenarde,  in the War
of the Spanish Succession. 1776 Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth in the
Resolution,  accompanied by the Discovery,  on his last expedition. 1848
London's  Waterloo  Station was officially opened.  1950 In Britain Andy
Pandy, the BBC's popular children's television program, was first trans-
mitted.  1975  Excavations at the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi,  near
the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an,  uncovered an army  of  8,000  li-
fe-size terracotta warriors dating to about 206 BC 1977 In Britain,  Gay
News was fined Ј1,000 for publishing a poem which portrayed Jesus as ho-
mosexual.  1979 America's Skylab I returned to earth after 34,981 orbits
and six years in space.  Born Robert the Bruce,  King of Scotland, 1274;
Frederick I, King of Prussia, 1657; John Quincy Adams, 6th US president,
1767; Yul Brynner, US film actor, 1915; Peter de Savary, British entrep-
reneur and yachtsman,  1944;  Leon Spinks,  US boxer,  1953. Died Alfred
Dreyfus,  French soldier, 1935; George Gershwin, US composer, 1937; Art-
hur John Evans,  English archeologist, 1941; Paul Nash, English painter,
1946;  Buddy DeSylva, US lyricist and film director, 1950; Laurence Oli-
vier, English actor and director, 1989.

12 July  Orangeman's Day in Northern Ireland.  Feast day of St John the
Iberian,  St Jason,  Saints Hermagoras and Fortunatus, St John Gualbert,
St John Jones, St Veronica, and St Felix. 1543 Henry VIII married Cathe-
rine Parr,  his sixth and last wife,  at Hampton Court Palace. 1794 Bri-
tish admiral Horatio Nelson lost his right eye at the siege of Calvi, in
Corsica. 1878 Cyprus was ceded to British administration by Turkey. 1920
US President Wilson opened the Panama Canal. 1930 Australian batsman Don
Bradman scored a record 334 runs - of which a record 309 were scored  in
one  day  -  against England at Leeds.  1970 Thor Heyerdahl and his crew
crossed the Atlantic in 57 days, in a papyrus boat. 1991 Hitoshi Igaras-
hi,  the Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses, was fo-
und stabbed to death in Tokyo.  Born Gaius Julius Caesar, Roman emperor,
100 BC;  Henry Thoreau, US author, 1817; George Eastman, US photographic
pioneer,  1854;  Amadeo Modigliani,  Italian painter and sculptor, 1884;
Bill Cosby,  US comedian and actor, 1937; Jennifer Saunders, English co-
medienne and actress,  1958.  Died Desiderius  Erasmus,  Dutch  scholar,
1536;  Titus Oates,  British conspirator,  1705;  Charles Stewart Rolls,
British engineer and aviator, 1910; Mazo de la Roche, Canadian novelist,
1961; Kenneth More, British actor, 1982.

13 July Feast day of Saints Bridget and Maura, St Henry the Emperor, St
Silas or Silvanus,  St Francis Solano, and St Eugenius of Carthage. 1793
Jean  Paul Marat,  French revolutionary leader,  was stabbed to death in
his bath by Charlotte Corday. 1837 Queen Victoria became the first sove-
reign to move into Buckingham Palace.  1871 The first cat show was held,
organized by Harrison Weir, at Crystal Palace, London, UK. 1878 The Tre-
aty of Berlin was signed,  granting Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria-Hunga-
ry, and gaining the independence of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro from
Turkey. 1930 The World Football Cup was first held in Uruguay; the hosts
beat the 13 other competing countries.  1985 Two simultaneous 'Live Aid'
concerts, one in London and one in Philadelphia, raised over Ј50 million
for famine victims in Africa. Born John Dee, English alchemist, astrolo-
ger,  and mathematician,  1527; George Gilbert Scott, English architect,
1811;  Sidney Webb, English social reformer, 1859; David Storey, English
novelist and dramatist,  1933;  Harrison Ford, US film actor, 1942. Died
Richard Cromwell,  Lord Protector of England,  1712; James Bradley, Eng-
lish  astronomer,  1762;  Jean Paul Marat,  French revolutionary leader,
1793;  John Charles Frйmont, US explorer, 1890; Arnold Schoenberg, Aust-
rian composer, 1951; Seretse Khama, Botswanan politician, 1980.

14 July National Day of France (Bastille Day),  and of Iraq.  Feast day
of St Marcellinus or Marchelm,  St Camillus de Lellis, St Ulric of Zell,
and St Deusdedit of Canterbury. 1789 The Bastille was stormed by the ci-
tizens of Paris and razed to the ground as the French Revolution  began.
1823 During a visit to Britain, King Kamehameha II of Hawaii and his qu-
een died of measles.  1867 Alfred Nobel demonstrated  dynamite  for  the
first time at a quarry in Redhill,  Surrey,  UK. 1958 In a military coup
led by General Kassem, King Faisal of Iraq was assassinated and a repub-
lic proclaimed.  1959 The USS Long Beach, the first nuclear warship, was
launched.  1967 Abortion was legalized in Britain. 1972 Gary Glitter and
the  Glittermen (later called the Glitter Band) gave their first concert
in Wiltshire,  UK. 1989 Over 300,000 Siberian coalminers went on strike,
demanding  better pay and conditions.  Born Emmeline Pankhurst,  English
suffragist,  1858;  Isaac Bashevis Singer,  Polish author,  1904;  Woody
Guthrie,  US folk singer,  1912;  Gerald Ford,  38th US president, 1913;
Ingmar Bergman,  Swedish film director,  1918;  Bruce Oldfield,  British
fashion designer,  1950.  Died Alfred Krupp, German industrialist, 1887;
Paul Kruger,  Boer leader,  1904;  William Henry Perkin, English chemist
and inventor of aniline dyes, 1907; Grock, Swiss clown, 1959; Adlai Ste-
venson, US statesman, 1965.

15 July Feast day of St Swithin, St Athanasius of Naples, St Bonaventu-
re,  St  Donald,  St Edith of Polesworth,  St Barhadbesaba,  St David of
Munktorp,  St Vladimir of Kiev, and St Pompilio Pirrotti. 1099 Jerusalem
was  captured  by the Crusaders with troops led by Godfrey and Robert of
Flanders and Tancred of Normandy. 1795 The Marseillaise, written by Rou-
get de Lisle in 1792, was officially adopted as the French national ant-
hem. 1857 During the Indian Mutiny, the second Massacre of Cawnpore (now
Kanpur) took place, in which 197 English women and children were killed.
1869 Margarine was patented by Hippolyte Mege Mouries in Paris. 1948 Al-
coholics  Anonymous,  in existence in the US since 1935,  was founded in
London,  UK.  1965 US Mariner transmitted the first close-up pictures of
Mars.  1990 In an ongoing campaign of violence,  separatist Tamil Tigers
massacred 168 Muslims in Colombo, the Sri Lankan capital. Born Inigo Jo-
nes,  English architect,  1573;  Rembrandt, Dutch painter, 1606; Hammond
Innes, English novelist, 1913; Iris Murdoch, Irish novelist, 1919; Juli-
an Bream,  English guitarist,  1933; Harrison Birtwistle, English compo-
ser, 1934; Linda Ronstadt, US singer, 1946. Died General Tom Thumb, cir-
cus dwarf, 1883; Anton Chekhov, Russian dramatist and author, 1904; Hugo
von Hofmannsthal,  Austrian dramatist and poet,  1929; John Pershing, US
soldier,  1948;  Paul William Gallico,  US writer,  1976;  Margaret Mary
Lockwood, English film actress, 1990.

16 July Feast day of St Mary Magdalen Postel,  St Fulrad,  St Athenoge-
nes, St Helier, St Eustathius of Antioch, and St Reineldis. 622 Traditi-
onally, the beginning of the Islamic Era, when Mohammed began his flight
(the  Hejira)  from Mecca to Medina.  1661 Europe's first banknotes were
issued,  by the Bank of Stockholm.  1782 Mozart's opera Die  Entfьhhrung
aus  dem  Serail was first performed,  in Vienna.  1918 The last tsar of
Russia,  Nicholas II,  along with his entire family, family doctor, ser-
vants, and even the pet dog, was murdered by Bolsheviks at Ekaterinburg.
1945 The first atomic bomb developed by Robert Oppenheimer and his  team
at Los Alamos was exploded in New Mexico.  1965 The Mont Blanc road tun-
nel,  linking France with Italy,  was opened.  1990 An earthquake struck
the  main  Philippine island of Luzon,  killing over 1,500 people.  Born
Andrea del Sarto,  Italian painter, 1486; Joshua Reynolds, English pain-
ter, 1723; Roald Amundsen, Norwegian polar explorer, 1872; Barbara Stan-
wyck,  US film actress, 1907; Ginger Rogers, US film actress and dancer,
1911; Margaret Court, Australian tennis player, 1942. Died Pope Innocent
III,  1216;  Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of Henry VIII, 1557; Josiah Spode,
English potter,  1827;  Hilaire Belloc, British author, 1953; John Phil-
lips Marquand, US writer, 1960; Herbert von Karajan, Austrian conductor,

17 July Feast day of The Seven Apostles of Bulgaria, St Clement of Okh-
rida and his Companions,  St Leo IV,  pope,  St Ennodius,  St Kenelm, St
Speratus  and his Companions,  St Marcellina,  and St Nerses Lampronazi.
1453 With the defeat of the English at  the  Battle  of  Castillon,  the
Hundred  Years' War between France and England came to an end.  1841 The
first issue of the humorous magazine Punch was published in London,  UK.
1917 The British royal family changed their name from 'House of Saxe-Co-
burg-Gotha' to 'House of Windsor'. 1945 The Potsdam Conference of Allied
leaders Truman,  Stalin, and Churchill (later replaced by Attlee) began.
1975 The US Apollo spacecraft and the Russian Soyuz  craft  successfully
docked while in orbit.  1981 The Humber Estuary Bridge, the world's lon-
gest single-span structure,  was officially opened by  the  Queen.  1990
Iraqi  President  Saddam  Hussein threatened to use force against Kuwait
and the United Arab Emirates,  to stop them driving oil prices  down  by
overproduction.  Born Maxim Litvinov,  Soviet leader, 1876; Erle Stanley
Gardner,  US novelist,  1889; James Cagney, US film actor, 1899; Phyllis
Diller,  US comedienne,  1917;  Donald Sutherland,  Canadian film actor,
1935;  Wayne Sleep,  British dancer and choreographer,  1948.  Died Adam
Smith,  Scottish economist,  1790; Charlotte Corday, murderess of Marat,
executed,  1793;  James McNeill Whistler, US painter, 1903; Dragolub Mi-
hajlovic,  Serbian nationalist,  executed,  1946; Billy Holiday, US jazz
singer, 1959.

18 July National Day of Spain.  Feast day of St Bruno of Segni, St Pam-
bo,  St  Arnoul or Arnulf of Metz,  and St Frederick of Utrecht.  64 The
great fire began in Rome and lasted for nine days.  1870 The Vatican Co-
uncil  proclaimed  the  Dogma of Papal Infallibility in matters of faith
and morals.  1923 Under the Matrimonial Causes Bill,  British women were
given equal divorce rights with men. 1925 Mein Kampf, Hitler's political
testament,  was published. 1936 The Spanish Civil War began with an army
revolt  led by Francisco Franco against the Republican government.  1955
Disneyland,  the 160-acre amusement park,  opened near Anaheim, Califor-
nia.  1959  Fidel Castro ousted President Urrutia and assumed the presi-
dency of Cuba.  1984 In San Ysidro,  California, a security guard walked
into a McDonalds and began shooting randomly,  killing 20 people and wo-
unding 16.  Born Gilbert White, English naturalist, 1720; W M Thackeray,
English novelist and poet, 1811; Nelson Mandela, South African politici-
an,  1918;  John Glenn, US astronaut and politician, 1921; Richard Bran-
son,  British entrepreneur, 1950; Nick Faldo, English golfer, 1957. Died
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Italian painter, 1610; Antoine Watte-
au, French painter, 1721; Peter III, Tsar of Russia, murdered, 1762; Ja-
ne Austen,  English novelist,  1817; Thomas Cook, British pioneer travel
agent, 1892; Jack Hawkins, British film actor, 1973; Jean Negulesco, Ro-
manian-born US film director, 1993.

19 July Feast day of Saints Justa and Rufina,  St Ambrose  Autpert,  St
Macrina the Younger, St Arsenius the Great, St James of Nisibia, St Sym-
machus,  pope,  and St John Plesington. 1545 The Mary Rose, the pride of
Henry  VIII's battle fleet,  keeled over and sank in the Solent with the
loss of 700 lives. (The ship was raised 11 Oct 1982 to be taken to Port-
smouth  Dockyard.)  1837 Brunel's 70 m/236 ft steamship,  the Great Wes-
tern, was launched at Bristol. 1848 At a convention in Seneca Falls, New
York,  female  rights campaigner Amelia Bloomer introduced 'bloomers' to
the world.  1903 The first Tour de France cycle race was won by  Maurice
Garin.  1949 Laos gained independence.  1982 Tom Watson became the fifth
man to win both the US and British Open Golf  Tournaments  in  the  same
year.  1991  A major political scandal erupted in South Africa after the
government admitted that it had made secret payments to  the  Zulu-based
Inkatha Freedom Party. Born Samuel Colt, US inventor, 1814; Edgar Degas,
French painter,  1834;  Lizzie Borden,  alleged US axe murderess,  1860;
Charles Horace Mayo,  US physician, 1865; A J Cronin, Scottish novelist,
1896; Ilie Nastase, Romanian tennis player, 1946. Died Petrarch, Italian
poet,  1374; Matthew Flinders, English navigator and explorer of Austra-
lia,  1814;  Tom Hayward,  English cricketer, 1939; Syngman Rhee, Korean
politician,  1965;  Clarence White, US pop guitarist, 1973; Szymon Gold-
berg, Polish-born violinist and conductor, 1993.

20 July National Day of Colombia.  Feast day of St Margaret of Antioch,
St Elias of Jerusalem, St Ansegisus, St Aurelius of Carthage, St Flavian
of Antioch, St Wulmar, St Gregory Lopez, St Wilgefortis or Liberata, and
St Joseph Barsabas the Just.  1837 London's first railroad station, Eus-
ton,  was opened.  1845 Charles Sturt became the first European to enter
Simpson's  Desert  in central Australia.  1885 Professional football was
legalized in Britain.  1940 In the US,  Billboard  published  the  first
singles-record  charts.  1944 German staff officer Colonel von Stauffen-
burg attempted to assassinate Hitler,  in Rastenburg,  Germany. 1968 Du-
ring a BBC radio interview,  actress Jane Asher announced that her enga-
gement to Beatle Paul McCartney was off;  he was not the first  to  find
out.  1975  After  an 11-month journey,  the US uncrewed Viking 1 made a
soft landing on Mars.  Born Petrarch,  Italian poet,  1304; Alberto San-
tos-Dumont,  Brazilian aviator,  1873; John Reith, Scottish engineer and
first director general of the BBC, 1889; Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mo-
untaineer,  1919;  Jacques Delors,  French politician, 1925; Diana Rigg,
English actress,  1938.  Died Pope Leo XIII, 1903; Andrew Lang, Scottish
historian and folklore scholar,  1912; Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inven-
tor,  1937; Ian Macleod, British statesman, 1970; Bruce Lee, US 'Chinese
Western' actor, 1973; Harry Worth, English comedian, 1989.

21 July National day of Belgium.  Feast day of St Laurence of Brindisi,
St Victor of Marseilles, St Arbogastes, and St Praxedes. 1798 The Battle
of the Pyramids took place,  in which Napoleon,  soon after his invasion
of Egypt, defeated an army of some 60,000 Mamelukes. 1861 The Confedera-
tes  defeated  the Union troops in the first Battle of Bull Run,  in the
American Civil War. 1897 London's Tate Gallery, built on the site of the
Millbank Prison,  was opened.  1944 Guam,  in the western Pacific, which
had been under Japanese occupation since Dec 1941, was retaken by US Ma-
rines. 1960 Sirimavo Bandaranaika replaced her murdered husband as prime
minister of Sri Lanka,  becoming the first woman to  hold  this  office.
1969  The  lunar module Apollo 11 landed on the Moon,  and US astronauts
Armstrong and Aldrin took their first exploratory walk.  1990 More  than
150,000 people attended 'The Wall', a large-scale concert staged by rock
performers in East Berlin to celebrate the  dismantling  of  the  Berlin
Wall. Born Paul Julius von Reuter, German news agency founder, 1816; Er-
nest Hemingway,  US novelist,  1899;  Kay Starr, US singer, 1922; Norman
Jewison, Canadian film director, 1926; Jonathan Miller, English TV, film
and theater director,  1934;  Cat Stevens, English rock singer and song-
writer,  1948. Died Robert Burns, Scottish poet, 1796; Ellen Tracy, Eng-
lish actress,  1928; George Macaulay Trevelyan, British historian, 1962;
Albert Luthuli,  South African politician, 1967; Basil Rathbone, English
actor,  1967 James F Fixx,  US jogging guru,  while running in  Vermont,

22 July National Day of Poland.  Feast day of St Mary Magdalen,  St Jo-
seph of Palestine,  St Philip Evans,  St Vandrille or Wandregesilus, and
St  John  Lloyd.  1812 The Duke of Wellington defeated the French in the
Battle of Salamanca,  in Spain. 1933 Wiley Post completed the first aro-
und the world solo airplane flight - the journey took 7 days, 18 hrs and
49.5 min.  1934 US bank robber and 'public enemy no 1',  John Dillinger,
was gunned down by an FBI squad in Chicago. 1946 Bread rationing started
in Britain.  1976 The musical show A Chorus Line was staged  in  London,
UK,  for the first time. 1991 Prime Minister John Major unveiled the go-
vernment's 'Citizen's Charter' aimed at improving public services.  Born
Philip I,  King of Spain,  1478;  Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk and bota-
nist,  1822; Selman Abraham Waksman, US biochemist, 1888; Alexander Cal-
der,  US sculptor, 1898; Bryan Forbes, British author, director and pro-
ducer, 1926; Terence Stamp, British actor, 1938. Died Marie Franзois Xa-
vier Bichat,  French anatomist,  1802;  Florenz Ziegfeld,  US theatrical
producer, 1932; Mackenzie King, Canadian statesman, 1950; Carl Sandburg,
US poet, 1967; Mortimer Wheeler, British archeologist, 1976.

23 July National Day of Ethiopia and of The United Arab Republic. Feast
day of St Anne or Susanna,  St John Cassian,  St Romula and her Compani-
ons,  St Apollinaris of Ravenna,  The Three Wise Men, St Bridget of Swe-
den,  and St Liborius.  1745 Charles Stuart, the Young Pretender, landed
in the Hebrides. 1864 Dr Livingstone returned to England. 1940 The Local
Defence Volunteers were renamed the Home  Guard  by  Winston  Churchill.
1952 King Farouk of Egypt was deposed by General Neguib. 1967 In the he-
at of the mountain stage of the Tour de  France,  British  cyclist  Tony
Simpson,  29,  collapsed and died. 1986 Prince Andrew married Lady Sarah
Ferguson in Westminster Abbey, and was created Duke of York. Born Arthur
Whitten Brown,  British aviator,  1886;  Raymond Chandler,  US novelist,
1888;  Haile Selassie, Ethiopian emperor, 1892; Michael Wilding, English
actor, 1912; Richard Rogers, English architect, 1933; Graham Gooch, Eng-
lish cricketer,  1953.  Died Domenico Scarlatti, Italian composer, 1757;
Isaac Singer, US inventor, 1875; Ulysses Grant, general and 18th US pre-
sident,  1885; D W Griffith, US film director, 1948; Eddie Rickenbacker,
US World War I fighter pilot, 1973; Jahangir, Pakistani cricketer, 1988;
Raul Gardini, Italian businessman, 1993.

24 July Feast day of St Christina the Astonishing, St Boris or Romanus,
St Declan,  St Christina of Bolsena,  St Lewinna,  and St Gleb or David.
1534 Jacques Cartier landed at Gaspй in Canada and claimed the territory
for  France.  1704  Admiral Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar from the
Spaniards.  1824 The result of the world's first public opinion poll, on
voters intentions in the 1824 US Presidential election, was published in
the Harrisburg Pennsylvanian. 1851 The window tax in Britain was abolis-
hed. 1925 A six-year-old girl became the first patient to be successful-
ly treated with insulin,  at Guy's Hospital, London, UK. 1990 A Catholic
nun and three policemen were killed by an IRA landmine hidden at the si-
de of a road in County Armagh.  Born Simуn Bolнvar, South American libe-
rator,  1783; Alexandre Dumas Pйre, French author, 1802; Frank Wedekind,
German dramatist,  1864;  Amelia Earhart, US aviator, 1898; Peter Yates,
British film director,  1919; Lynda Carter, US actress and singer, 1951.
Died Martin van Buren,  8th US president,  1862;  Matthew Webb,  English
swimmer, 1883; Sacha Guitry, French actor and dramatist, 1957; Constance
Bennett, US film actress, 1965; James Chadwick, English physicist, 1974;
Peter Sellers, English actor, 1980.

25 July Feast day of St Christopher,  Saints Thea,  Valentina and Paul,
St James the Greater,  and St Magnericus. 1139 Alfonso I of Portugal de-
feated  the Moors at Ourique.  1581 A confederation of the northern pro-
vinces of the Netherlands proclaimed their independence from Spain. 1909
French aviator Louis Blйriot made the first Channel crossing in an airp-
lane,  which he had designed.  1917 Magarethe Zelle, the Dutch spy known
as Mata Hari,  was sentenced to death.  1943 Benito Mussolini was forced
to resign as Dictator of Italy,  bringing an end to the Fascist  regime.
1948 Bread rationing in Britain ended.  1952 The European Coal and Steel
Community,  established by the treaty of Paris 1951,  was ratified. 1978
The first test-tube baby in Britain was born - Louise Joy Brown, at Old-
ham General Hospital,  Lancashire.  Born Arthur James  Balfour,  British
statesman,  1848;  Walter Brennan,  US film actor, 1894; Johnny 'Rabbit'
Hodges, US jazz saxophonist, 1907; Annie Ross, British singer, 1930; Co-
lin Renfrew,  British archeologist,  1937; Steve Goodman, US songwriter,
1948. Died Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Roman emperor, 306; Samuel Ta-
ylor Coleridge,  English poet, 1834; Charles Macintosh, Scottish chemist
and inventor,  1843; Henry Mayhew, British social investigator and foun-
der of Punch, 1887; Engelbert Dolfuss, Austrian statesman, 1934.

26 July  National Day of Liberia.  Feast day of St Anne,  St Simeon the
Armenian,  St Joachim,  and St Bartholomea Capitanio. 1745 The first re-
corded women's cricket match was played near Guildford, Surrey, UK, bet-
ween teams from Hambledon and Bramley. 1847 Liberia became the first Af-
rican  colony to secure independence.  1908 The US Federal Bureau of In-
vestigation,  concerned in particular with internal security,  was foun-
ded.  1945 The Labour Party won a landslide victory in Britain's General
Election.  1956 President Nasser of Egypt nationalized  the  Suez  Canal
which led to confrontation with Britain,  France, and Israel. 1958 Debu-
tantes were presented at the British Royal Court for the last time. 1987
Cyclist  Steve  Roche  became  the  first Irishman,  and only the second
non-continental European, to win the Tour de France. Born George Bernard
Shaw, Irish dramatist, 1856; Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist, 1875; Aldous
Huxley, English novelist, 1894; Stanley Kubrick, US film director, 1928;
Mick Jagger, British rock singer, 1943; Vitas Gerulaitis, US tennis pla-
yer, 1954. Died Samuel Houston, US general and president of the Republic
of Texas, 1863; George Borrow, English writer, 1881; Eva Perуn, Argenti-
nian populist leader, 1952; Charles Clore, English financier, 1979; Ave-
rell Harriman, US statesman and diplomat, 1986.

27 July Feast day of The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, St Theobald of Mar-
ly,  The Martyrs of Salsette, Saints Aurelia, Natalia and their Compani-
ons,  and  St Pantaleon.  1694 The Bank of England was founded by act of
Parliament.  1866 The Great Eastern arrived at Heart's Content in Newfo-
undland,  having  successfully  laid  the transatlantic telegraph cable.
1942 The Battle of El Alamein ended after 17 days,  with the British ha-
ving prevented the German and Italian advance into Egypt. 1953 The Kore-
an armistice was signed at Panmujom,  ending three years  of  war.  1985
Ugandan  President  Milton Obote was overthrown for a second time,  this
time by a coup led by Brigadier Tito Okello. 1988 British pole-vault re-
cord  holder  Jeff Gutteridge was banned for life by the British Amateur
Athletic Board for taking steroids.  Born Alexandre Dumas  fils,  French
dramatist,  1824;  Hilaire Belloc,  English poet and author, 1870; Anton
Dolin, British dancer and choreographer, 1904; Bobbie Gentry, US singer,
1942; Alan Border, Australian cricketer, 1955; Christopher Dean, British
ice skater, 1958. Died John Dalton, English physicist and chemist, 1844;
William  Matthew Flinders Petrie,  English Egyptologist,  1942;  Gertude
Stein,  US novelist and poet, 1946; Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran,
1980; James Mason, English actor, 1984; Osbert Lancaster, British writer
and artist, 1986.

28 July National Day of Peru.  Feast day of Saints Nazarius and Celsus,
St Botvid, and St Samson of Dol. 1786 The first potato arrived in Brita-
in,  brought from Colombia by Sir Thomas Harriot. 1794 Maximilien Robes-
pierre and 19 other French Revolutionaries went to the guillotine.  1821
San Martin and his forces liberated Peru and proclaimed its independence
from Spain.  1858 Fingerprints were first used as a means of identifica-
tion by William Herschel,  who later established a fingerprint register.
1868  The 14th Amendment to the US Constitution,  dealing with citizens'
rights of all races,  was ratified. 1914 Austria-Hungary declared war on
Serbia,  beginning  World  War  I.  1976 The Tian Shan area of China was
struck by an earthquake which caused over 800,000  deaths.  Born  Gerard
Manley Hopkins,  English poet,  1844; Beatrix Potter, English author and
illustrator, 1866; Marcel Duchamp, French painter, 1887; Rudy Vallee, US
singer, 1901; Garfield Sobers, West Indian cricketer, 1936; Riccardo Mu-
ti,  Italian conductor 1941.  Died Thomas Cromwell,  Chancellor to  King
Henry VIII, executed, 1540; Cyrano de Bergerac, French poet and soldier,
1655;  Antonio Vivaldi,  Italian composer,  1741; Johann Sebastian Bach,
German composer,  1750;  Nathan Mayer Rothschild,  British banker, 1836;
Otto Hahn, German nuclear physicist, 1944.

29 July Feast day of St Martha,  Saints Beatrice and Simplicius, Saints
Faustinus and Beatrice,  St Felix, antipope, St William of Saint-Brieuc,
St Lupus of Troyes, and St Olav, King of Norway. 1588 The Spanish Armada
was defeated by the English fleet under Howard and Drake,  off Plymouth.
1900 King Umberto I of Italy was assassinated by an anarchist and succe-
eded  by Victor Emmanuel.  1948 The 14th Olympic Games opened in London,
UK - the first in 12 years,  due to World War II. 1949 The first regular
televized  weather forecast was broadcast by the BBC.  1968 Pope Paul VI
reaffirmed the Church's traditional teaching on  (and  condemnation  of)
birth  control.  1981  The Prince of Wales married Lady Diana Spencer at
London's St Paul's Cathedral; the televized ceremony was watched by over
700 million viewers around the world. Born Alexis de Tocqueville, French
historian and politician 1805; Booth Tarkington, US author, 1869; Benito
Mussolini, Italian leader, 1883; Sigmund Romberg, US composer, 1887; Dag
Hammarskjцld,  Swedish UN secretary-general,  1905;  Mikis  Theodorakis,
Greek composer,  1925. Died Robert Schumann, German composer, 1833; Vin-
cent van Gogh,  Dutch painter, 1890; John Barbirolli, English conductor,
1970;  Raymond Massey,  Canadian actor,  1983; David Niven, British film
actor, 1983; Luis Buсuel, Spanish film director, 1983.

30 July Feast day of St Julitta of Caesarea,  St Tatwin,  Archbishop of
Canterbury,  Saints Abdon and Sennen, and St Peter Chrysologus. 1793 To-
ronto (known as York until 1834) was founded  by  General  John  Simcoe.
1935 'Penguin' paperback books,  founded by Allen Lane,  went on sale in
Britain.  1948 The world's first radar station  was  opened,  to  assist
shipping at the port of Liverpool. 1963 Kim Philby, British intelligence
officer from 1940 and Soviet agent from 1933,  fled to  the  USSR.  1966
England won the Football World Cup in London,  beating West Germany 4-2.
1990 Ian Gow,  Conservative MP for Eastbourne, a close friend and perso-
nal adviser to Prime Minister Thatcher,  was killed by a automobile bomb
at his home.  Born Giorgio Vasari,  Italian painter, architect, and wri-
ter,  1511; Emily Brontл, English novelist, 1818; Henry Ford, US automo-
bile manufacturer,  1863;  Henry Moore,  English sculptor,  1898;  Daley
Thompson,  British athlete,  1958; Kate Bush, English singer, 1958. Died
William Penn,  English Quaker leader,  1718;  Thomas Grey, English poet,
1771; Denis Diderot, French encyclopedist, 1784; Otto von Bismarck, Ger-
man politician,  1898; Lynn Fontanne, US actress, 1983; Howard Dietz, US
lyricist, 1983.

31 July  Feast day of St Ignatius of Loyola,  St Justin de Jacobis,  St
Neot,  and St Helen of Skцvde. 1498 Columbus arrrived at Trinidad on his
third voyage.  1919 The Weimar Republic was established in post-war Ger-
many. 1910 Dr Crippen was arrested aboard the SS Montrose as it was doc-
king  at Quebec;  charged with the murder of his wife,  he was the first
criminal to be caught by the use of radio. 1954 Mount Godwin-Austin (K2)
in the Himalayas was first climbed by an Italian expedition,  led by Ar-
dito Desio. 1965 Cigarette advertising on British television was banned.
1971  US  astronauts David Scott and James Irwin entered their Lunar Ro-
ving Vehicle and went for a ride on the moon.  1991 At a superpower sum-
mit  in Moscow,  Presidents Bush and Gorbachev signed the Strategic Arms
Reduction Treaty (START), and announced that they would be co-sponsoring
a Middle East peace conference.  Born John Ericsson,  US naval engineer,
1803; Milton Friedman, US economist, 1912; Peter Nichols, English drama-
tist,  1927;  Lynne Reid Banks, English author, 1929; Geraldine Chaplin,
US film actress,  1944;  Evonne Cawley,  Australian tennis player, 1951.
Died Ignatius of Loyola,  Spanish founder of the Jesuits,  1556;  Andrew
Jackson, 17th US president, 1875; Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer, 1886;
Hedley Verity,  English cricketer,  1943; Jim Reeves, US country singer,
1964; Leonard Cheshire, British pilot and philanthropist, 1992; King Ba-
udouin I of the Belgians, 1993.

1 August National Day of Switzerland.  Feast day of Saints Pistis,  El-
pis,  and Agape (Faith,  Hope,  and Charity), St Peter Julian Eymard, St
Ethelwold of Winchester,  St Almedha or Aled,  St Alphonse Liguori,  and
The Holy Macabees.  1498 Christopher Columbus reached the American main-
land, and named it Santa Isla, believing it to be an island. 1714 George
Louis,  Elector of Hanover, was proclaimed King George I of Great Brita-
in.  1774  English chemist Joseph Priestley identified oxygen,  which he
called 'a new species of air'.  1778 The first savings bank was  opened,
in Hamburg,  Germany.  1793 The kilogram was introduced in France as the
first metric weight.  1798 The English under Nelson destroyed the French
fleet at the Battle of the Nile,  in Aboukir Bay.  1834 Slavery was abo-
lished throughout the British Empire.  1936 The XIth Olympics,  the last
for 12 years,  opened in Berlin. 1975 Thirty-five nations, including the
US and the USSR,  signed the Helsinki Agreement on cooperation in  human
rights and other global issues. Born Claudius, Roman emperor, 10 BC; Je-
an Baptiste de Lamarck,  French zoologist,  1744; Richard Henry Dana, US
novelist, 1815; Herman Melville, US novelist, 1819; Jack Kramer, US ten-
nis champion, 1921; Yves Saint-Laurent, French couturier, 1936. Died Lo-
uis VI, King of France, 1137; Queen Anne, 1714; Robert Morrison, English
missionary and translator, 1834; Theodore Roethke, US poet, 1963; Walter
Ulbricht, East German politician, 1973; John Ogdon, English concert pia-
nist, 1989; Alfred Manessier, French painter, 1993.

2 August Feast day of St Theodota and her Three Sons,  St  Eusebius  of
Vercelli,  St Plegmund, St Stephen I, pope, St Syagrius of Autun, and St
Sidwell or Sativola.  1718 Britain, France, Austria, and Holland conclu-
ded the Quadruple Alliance against Spain, in an attempt to prevent Spain
from annexing Sardinia and Sicily.  1858 The rule of the East India Com-
pany,  which  was  established throughout India,  was transferred to the
British government.  1875 Britain's first roller skating rink was opened
to the public, in Belgravia, London. 1894 Death duties, now known as in-
heritance tax,  were introduced in Britain. 1945 The Potsdam Conference,
establishing  the initial postwar treatment of Germany and demanding un-
conditional Japanese surrender, ended. 1980 Right-wing terrorists explo-
ded a bomb in the crowded Bologna Railroad Station, northern Italy, kil-
ling 84 people.  1990 Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait,  precipitating an
international crisis.  Born John Tyndall, Irish physicist, 1820; Ethel M
Dell, British novelist, 1881; Arthur Bliss, English composer, 1891; Myr-
na Loy,  US film actress,  1905;  James Baldwin,  US writer, 1924; Peter
O'Toole,  Irish actor, 1932; Sammy McIlroy, Irish footballer, 1954. Died
Thomas Gainsborough, English painter, 1788; Jacques Йtienne Montgolfier,
French balloonist, 1799; Enrico Caruso, Italian tenor, 1921; 1923; Louis
Blйriot, French aviator, 1936; Fritz Lang, Austrian film director, 1976;
Carlos Chavez, Mexican composer, 1978.

3 August Feast day of St Walthen or Waltheof,  St Germanus of  Auxerre,
and St Thomas of Hales or Dover. 1492 Christopher Columbus left Palos de
la Frontera in Andalusia,  Spain, on his first voyage of discovery. 1778
La Scala opera house opened in Milan, Italy. 1858 Lake Victoria, the so-
urce of the Nile,  was discovered by the English  explorer  John  Speke.
1904 A British expedition, led by Col Francis E Younghusband, became the
first westerners to enter the 'Forbidden City'  of  Lhasa,  Tibet.  1914
Germany declared war on France.  1914 The first ships passed through the
completed Panama Canal.  1940 Latvia was incorporated into the USSR as a
constituent republic.  1958 The USS Nautilus, the first nuclear submari-
ne,  passed under the North Pole.  1963 The Beatles played The Cavern in
their home town,  Liverpool, for the last time. Born Joseph Paxton, Eng-
lish architect, 1801; Stanley Baldwin, British statesman, 1867; King Ha-
akon VII of Norway,  1872;  Rupert Brooke, English poet, 1887; Tony Ben-
nett,  US singer,  1926;  Martin Sheen, US actor, 1940; Osvaldo Ardiles,
Argentine footballer,  1953. Died James II, King of Scotland, 1460; Ric-
hard Arkwright,  English inventor,  1792; Roger Casement, Irish nationa-
list, 1916; Joseph Conrad, British novelist, 1924; Colette, French nove-
list, 1954; Lenny Bruce, US comedian, 1966.

4 August Feast day of St Molua or Lughaidh,  St Ia,  St Sezni,  and  St
John  Baptist Vianney.  1265 The Battle of Evesham took place,  in which
Simon de Montfort was defeated by Royalist forces led by the future King
Edward I,  during the Barons' War.  1578 The Portuguese were defeated by
the Berbers at the Battle of Alcazarquivir.  1870 The British Red  Cross
Society was founded. 1914 Britain declared war on Germany after the Ger-
mans had violated the Treaty of London,  and World War I began. 1918 The
Second Battle of the Marne ended.  1940 Italy invaded Kenya,  the Sudan,
and British Somaliland.  1966 In a US radio interview, John Lennon clai-
med that the Beatles were probably more popular than Jesus Christ; Beat-
les records were consequently banned in many US states and in South  Af-
rica.  Born Percy Bysshe Shelley, English poet, 1792; William Henry Hud-
son,  British writer and naturalist,  1841; Knut Hamsun, Norwegian nove-
list,  1859;  HM Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, 1900; Osbert Lancas-
ter,  English cartoonist and writer,  1908; Peter Squires, English rugby
player,  1951. Died Henry I, King of France, 1060; Hans Christian Ander-
sen,  Danish fairy tale writer,  1875;  James Cruze,  US film  director,
1942;  Edgar Adrian,  British physiologist, 1977; Pola Negri, German si-
lent-film actress, 1987.

5 August Feast day of St Afra,  St Nonna,  and Saints Addai  and  Mari.
1583 English soldier and navigator Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland
for Elizabeth I.  1858 The first transatlantic cable was opened when Qu-
een  Victoria  exchanged greetings with US President Buchanan.  1891 The
first American Express traveler's  check  was  cashed.  1914  The  first
electrical traffic lights were installed,  in Cleveland,  Ohio. 1924 The
Turkish government abolished polygamy. 1960 Upper Volta (now Burkina Fa-
so) achieved full independence from France.  1962 ANC leader Nelson Man-
dela was arrested and given a life sentence on charges of attempting  to
overthrow the South African government.  1963 The Test Ban Agreement was
signed by the US, the USSR, and the UK, contracting to test nuclear wea-
pons only underground.  Born Niels Henrik Abel, Norwegian mathematician,
1802;  Guy de Maupassant,  French author, 1850; John Huston, US film di-
rector,  1906;  Joan Hickson,  English actress, 1906; Neil Armstrong, US
astronaut, 1930; Bob Geldof, Irish musician, 1951. Died Thomas Newcomen,
English inventor,  1729; Frederick North, British politician, 1792; Ale-
xis BenoЊt Soyer, French chef and writer, 1858; Friedrich Engels, German
political writer,  1895;  Marilyn Monroe, US film actress, 1962; Richard
Burton, Welsh actor, 1984; Eugen Suchon, Slovakian composer, 1993.

6 August National Day of Bolivia.  Feast of the Transfiguration and Fe-
ast  day of Saints Justus and Pastor,  and St Hormisdas,  pope.  939 The
Spanish defeated the Moors at the Battle of Salamanca. 1806 The Holy Ro-
man Empire came to an end when Francis II renounced the crown,  becoming
Francis I, Emperor of Austria. 1889 The Savoy Hotel, London, UK, opened.
1890 William Kemmler, a murderer, became the first man to be executed in
the electric chair, in Auburn Prison, New York. 1926 US swimmer Gertrude
Ederle  became the first woman to swim the English Channel,  in 14 hr 34
min.  1945 An atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of  Hiroshima
from a US Boeing B29 bomber. 1962 Jamaica became independent after being
a British colony for 300 years.  1974 US President Nixon resigned.  1988
Russian ballerina Natalia Makarova danced again with the Kirov Ballet in
London,  UK, 18 years after she defected to the West. Born Daniel O'Con-
nell,  Irish politician, 1775; Alfred Tennyson, English poet, 1809; Paul
Claudel,  French poet, 1868; Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist,
1881;  Robert Mitchum, US film actor, 1917; Chris Bonington, British mo-
untaineer,  1934. Died Anne Hathaway, wife of William Shakespeare, 1623;
Ben Jonson,  English playwright, 1637; Diego Velбzquez, Spanish painter,
1660;  Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar, Cuban dictator, 1973; Pope Paul VI,

7 August Feast day of St Donatus of Arezzo,  St Victricius, Saints Aga-
pitus,  Sixtus II and Felicissimus,  St Dogmetius the Persian, St Albert
of Trapani,  St Claudia,  and St Cajetan or Gaetano. 1711 The first race
meeting was held at Ascot, established by Queen Anne. 1830 Louis Philip-
pe was proclaimed 'Citizen King' (Philippe Egalitй),  for his support of
the 1792 Revolution.  1840 The employment of climbing  boys  as  chimney
sweeps was prohibited by an Act of Parliament. 1858 Queen Victoria chose
Ottawa as the capital of the Dominion of Canada. 1913 In Britain's first
aviation  tragedy,  US  airman 'Colonel' Samuel Cody was killed when his
aircraft crashed at Farnborough.  1926 Britain's first automobile racing
Grand Prix was held at Brooklands; the winning automobile averaged 71.61
mph. 1942 Guadalcanal, in the southern Solomon Islands, was assaulted by
the US Marines in one of the most costly campaigns of World War II. 1960
The Ivory Coast (Cфte d'Ivoire) achieved independence from France.  Born
Mata Hari (Margaretha Geertruide Zelle),  Dutch courtesan,  dancer,  and
probable spy,  1876;  Louis Leakey,  British archeologist,  1903;  Ralph
Bunche,  US diplomat,  1904;  Greg Chappell, Australian cricketer, 1948;
Alexei Sayle,  British comedian,  1952. Died Robert Blake, British admi-
ral,  1657;  Bix Beiderbecke, US jazz musician and composer, 1931; Kons-
tantin Stanislavsky,  Russian theater director, 1938; Rabindranath Tago-
re, Indian writer, 1941; Oliver Hardy, US film comedian, 1957.

8 August Feast day of St Dominic,  Saints Cyriacus, Largus, and Smarag-
dus,  St Hormidas the Martyr, and The Fourteen Holy Helpers. 117 Hadrian
became  emperor  of Rome following the death of his father Trajan.  1786
Mont Blanc, Europe's tallest peak, was climbed for the first time; Swiss
scientist  Horace Saussure had offered a prize for the accomplishment of
this feat.  1940 The Battle of Britain,  which would continue  into  the
following Oct,  began.  1945 The USSR declared war on Germany.  1963 The
Great Train Robbery,  in which over Ј2.5 million was stolen,  took place
near Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, UK. 1974 Richard Nixon became the first
US president to resign from office in face of threats to impeach him for
his  implication in the Watergate scandal.  1988 The luckiest day of the
decade,  according to the Chinese,  because the date - 8.8.88 - is a pa-
lindrome.  1990 Iraq annexed Kuwait, precipitating the onset of the Gulf
War. 1991 Islamic Jihad released John McCarthy, a British journalist who
had  been  held  hostage  since April 1986.  Born Godfrey Kneller,  Ger-
man-born painter,  1646;  Ernest O Lawrence, US physicist, 1901; Dino De
Laurentis,  Italian film producer, 1919; Esther Williams, US swimmer and
film actress, 1923; Andy Warhol, US Pop artist and filmmaker, 1931; Dus-
tin Hoffman,  US film actor, 1937; Nigel Mansell, British racing driver,
1953.  Died Girolamo Fracastoro, Italian physician and writer, 1553; Ja-
mes Tissot, French painter, 1902; Frank Winfield Woolworth, US chainsto-
re founder, 1919; James Gould Cozzens, US novelist, 1978; Louise Brooks,
US actress, 1985.

9 August Feast day of St Oswald of Northumbria, Saints Nathy and Felim,
St Romanus,  and St Emygius. 1842 The frontier between Canada and the US
was defined by the Webster-Ashburton treaty, signed by the US and Brita-
in. 1870 The British Parliament passed The Married Women's Property Act,
improving the situation of the nation's wives. 1902 Following a six-week
delay due to an emergency appendectomy,  Edward VII was crowned king  in
Westminster Abbey.  1912 An earthquake struck Turkey, in the area of Is-
tanbul, killing 6,000 people and rendering 40,000 homeless. 1945 The se-
cond atomic bomb of World War II was dropped on the Japanese city of Na-
gasaki.  1965 Singapore gained independence.  1969 Sharon Tate,  actress
wife of film director Roman Polanski, was murdered by Charles Manson and
members of his commune 'The Family'.  1974 Succeeding Richard Nixon, Ge-
rald  Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the US.  1979 Britain's
first nudist beach was established in Brighton.  Born Izaak Walton, Eng-
lish author, 1593; Thomas Telford, Scottish civil engineer, 1757; Leonid
Nikolayevich Andreyev,  Russian author,  1871;  Lйonide Massine, Russian
dancer and choreographer,  1869;  Philip Larkin, English poet, 1922; Rod
Laver,  Australian tennis player, 1938. Died Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp,
Dutch admiral,  1653; Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer, 1919; Her-
mann Hesse,  German author,  1962;  Joe Orton, English playwright, 1967;
Dmitri Shostakovich, Russian composer, 1975.

10 August  National  Day of Ecuador.  Feast day of St Laurence of Rome.
1675 King Charles II laid the foundation stone of the Royal Observatory,
Greenwich. 1787 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed his popular Eine Klei-
ne Nachtmusik ('A Little Night Music'). 1846 The Smithsonian Institution
was  established in Washington DC,  to foster scientific research.  1889
The screw bottle top was patented by Dan Rylands of  Hope  Glass  Works,
Yorkshire,  UK. 1895 The first Promenade Concert was held at the Queen's
Hall,  London,  UK,  conducted by Henry Wood. 1904 In the Russo-Japanese
War,  Japan inflicted heavy losses on the Russian fleet at the Battle of
the Yellow Sea, off Port Arthur. 1911 British MPs voted to receive sala-
ries for the first time.  1966 Orbiter I,  the first US lunar satellite,
was launched.  Born Charles James Napier, British general, 1782; Camillo
Benso,  Count Cavour, Italian nationalist politician, 1810; Herbert Hoo-
ver, 31st US president, 1874; Eddie Fisher, US singer, 1928; Anita Lons-
borough Porter, English swimmer, 1941. Died Allan Ramsay, Scottish port-
rait painter,  1784;  Edward William Lane, English traveler and transla-
tor, 1876; Otto Lillienthal, German aviator, 1896.

11 August  Feast day of St Attracta or Araght,  St Clare of Assisi,  St
Tiburtius, St Susanna, St Equitius, St Alexander of Comana, St Lelia, St
Blane,  St Gerard of Gallinaro,  and St Gery or Gaugericus. 1576 English
navigator Martin Frobisher, on his search for the Northwest Passage, en-
tered  the  bay  in  Canada  now named for him.  1810 Severe earthquakes
struck the Azores,  causing the village of Sгo Miguel to sink. 1877 Pho-
bos and Deimos, the satellites or 'moons' of Mars, were discovered by US
astronomer Asaph Hall.  1941 President Roosevelt and  Winston  Churchill
signed  the  Atlantic Charter,  largely to demonstrate public solidarity
between the Allies.  1952 King Talal of Jordan was  deposed  because  of
mental  illness,  and  his son,  Crown Prince Hussein,  succeeded to the
throne.  1960 Chad gained its independence from France.  1963 Canton was
entered  by  Chinese  General  Chiang Kai-shek and his supporters.  1965
Watts,  Los Angeles,  US saw the worst outbreak of racial violence since
WWII. Born Jean Victor Marie Moreau, French General, 1772; Charlotte Ma-
ry Yonge,  English novelist, 1823; Hugh MacDiarmid, Scottish poet, 1892;
Enid Blyton, English author, 1897; Alun Hoddinott, Welsh composer, 1929;
Anna Massey,  English actress, 1937. Died Hans Memling, Flemish painter,
1495; John Henry Newman, English Roman Catholic theologian, 1890; Andrew
Carnegie, US industrialist and philanthropist, 1919; Jackson Pollock, US
painter, 1956.

12 August  Feast  day  of St Porcarius and his Companions,  St Jambert,
Archbishop of Canterbury,  St Euplus,  and St Murtagh or Muredach.  1687
The  Austro-Hungarians  defeated  the Turks at the Battle of Mohбcs,  in
Hungary,  effectively ending Turkish expansion into Europe.  1812 In the
Peninsular War, the Duke of Wellington's troops entered Madrid. 1851 The
US schooner America won a race around the Isle of Wight,  giving rise to
the  later America's Cup trophy.  1883 The quagga in Amsterdam Zoo died,
the last of this species in the world.  1898 Spain and the US  concluded
an armistice over Cuba and other possessions. 1944 PLUTO ('pipe line un-
der the ocean') began operating beneath the English  Channel,  supplying
gasoline to Allied forces in France. 1969 The world's first communicati-
ons satellite was launched - America's Echo.  1991 England defeated  the
West Indies in the fifth Test Match at the Oval,  to draw the summer se-
ries 2-2.  Born Thomas Bewick,  British wood engraver, 1753; King George
IV,  1762; Robert Southey, English poet, 1774; Cecil B De Mille, US film
director and producer,  1881; George Hamilton, US film actor, 1939; Mark
Knopfler,  rock guitarist,  1949. Died Giovanni Gabrieli, Italian compo-
ser, 1612; William Blake, English poet, 1827; George Stephenson, English
engineer, 1848; Thomas Mann, German novelist, 1955; Ian Fleming, English
novelist, 1964; Henry Fonda, US film actor, 1982.

13 August Feast day of St Simplician of Milan, St Radegund, St Wigbert,
St Pontian,  pope,  St Benildus, St Hippolytus of Rome, St Narses Klaie-
tus,  St Cassian of Imola,  and St Maximus the Confessor.  1521  Spanish
conquistador Hernбndo Cortйs recaptured Tenochtitlбn (Mexico City),  and
overthrew the Aztec empire.  1705 The Battle of Blenheim took  place  in
southern Germany,  in which the Anglo-Austrian army inflicted a decisive
defeat on the French armies.  1814 The Cape of Good Hope Province became
a  British  colony when it was ceded by the Dutch (sold for Ј6 million).
1868 Earthquakes killed over 25,000 people and destroyed four cities  in
Peru and Ecuador.  1923 Kemal Atatьrk was elected the first president of
Turkey.  1961 The border between East and West Berlin was sealed off  by
East Germany with the closure of the Brandenburg Gate to stop the exodus
to the West. 1964 The last hangings in Britain took place; two murderers
were executed at Liverpool and Manchester. 1966 The Chinese Cultural Re-
volution began.  1972 The last US troops left Vietnam.  1991 Prosecutors
announced  the  discovery  of  one of the largest bank frauds in Japan's
history, involving $2.5 billion in fraudulently obtained loans. Born Qu-
een Adelaide,  consort of William IV, 1756; John Baird, Scottish televi-
sion pioneer, 1888; Alfred Hitchcock, English film director, 1899; Basil
Spence, British architect, 1907; Ben Hogan, US golfer, 1912; Fidel Cast-
ro, Cuban leader, 1927. Died Renй Laлnnec, French physician, 1826; Eugи-
ne Delacroix,  French painter, 1863; John Everett Millais, British pain-
ter, 1896; Florence Nightingale, English nurse, 1910; H G Wells, English
writer, 1946; Henry Williamson, English author, 1977.

14 August Feast day of St Marcellus of Apamea,  St Fachanan, St Athana-
sia of Aegina,  St Eusebius of Rome,  and St Maximilian Kolbe.  1678 The
French  repulsed  William  of Orange at the Battle of Mons,  in Belgium.
1880 Cologne Cathedral was completed;  it had been started in  the  13th
century.  1882 Cetewayo, King of Zululand, South Africa, was received by
Queen Victoria. 1893 France became the first country to introduce vehic-
le  registration  plates.  1900 The Boxer Uprising was ended and Beijing
captured by an international punitive force. 1947 Pakistan became an in-
dependent dominion. 1969 The first British troops were deployed in Nort-
hern Ireland to restore order.  1986 Pakistani politician Benazir Bhutto
was  arrested by President Zia and detained in prison for 30 days.  Born
Samuel Wesley,  English organist and composer,  1810;  John  Galsworthy,
English novelist and playwright,  1867; Fred Davis, English snooker pla-
yer,  1913;  Frederic Raphael,  English novelist, 1931; Sarah Brightman,
English soprano and actress, 1961. Died Augustus Toplady, British priest
and hymn-writer,  1778; Alfred Harmsworth, British newspaper proprietor,
1922;  William Randolph Hearst,  US newspaper proprietor,  1951; Bertolt
Brecht,  German writer, 1956; J B Priestley, English novelist and playw-
right, 1984.

15 August Feast day of The Assumption of the Virgin Mary, St Tarsicius,
and St Arnulf of Soissons.  1543 The Jesuit order (Society of Jesus) was
founded by Ignatius de Loyola in Paris, with the aims of protecting Cat-
holicism against the Reformation and carrying out missionary work.  1843
The  Tivoli Pleasure Gardens were opened in Copenhagen.  1945 Japan sur-
rendered unconditionally to the US and their allies,  bringing an end to
WWII.  1947 India gained independence.  1948 The republic of South Korea
was proclaimed.  1965 The National Guard was called in to quell race ri-
ots in Watts,  Los Angeles, which left 28 dead and 676 injured. 1969 The
Woodstock Music and Arts Fair began on a dairy farm in upstate New York.
In the three days it lasted,  400,000 attended,  two children were born,
and three people died.  1987 Caning was  officially  banned  in  British
schools (excluding independent schools). Born Napoleon Bonaparte, French
emperor,  1769; Sir Walter Scott, Scottish novelist, 1771; Thomas De Qu-
incey,  English writer,  1785; T E Lawrence, English soldier and writer,
1888;  Robert Bolt, British dramatist, 1924; Princess Anne, the Princess
Royal,  1950. Died Macbeth, King of Scotland, 1057; Joseph Joachim, Hun-
garian violinist and composer, 1907; Will Rogers, US humorist, 1935; Wi-
ley Post, US aviator, 1935; Paul Signac, French painter, 1935; Renй Mag-
ritte, Belgian painter, 1967.

16 August Feast day of St Stephen of Hungary,  St Armel, and St Arsaci-
us. 1513 King Henry VIII and his troops defeated the French in the Batt-
le of the Spurs,  at Guinigatte, NW France. 1743 The earliest prize-ring
code  of boxing rules was formulated in England by the champion pugilist
Jack Broughton. 1819 The Peterloo massacre took place in Manchester when
militia  opened  fire  on a crowd gathered to hear discussion of reform,
killing 11 people.  1897 Endowed by the sugar merchant Henry  Tate,  the
Tate Gallery,  in London, UK, was opened. 1934 US explorer Charles Beebe
and engineer Otis Barton made a record-breaking dive to 923 m/3028 ft in
their bathysphere (a spherical diving vessel) near Bermuda.  1960 Cyprus
became an independent republic,  with Archbishop Makarios as  president.
1974  Turkish  forces called a cease-fire in Cyprus,  after having taken
control of the northern part of the island.  Born Arthur Cayley, British
mathematician,  1821;  Johan Siegwald Dahl, Norwegian painter, 1827; Me-
nachem Begin,  Israeli statesman,  1913; Ted Hughes, English poet, 1930;
Jeff Thomson, Australian cricketer, 1950; Madonna, US rock singer, 1958.
Died Joe Miller,  English comedian,  1738; Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, German
chemist and inventor,  1899;  Umberto Boccioni,  Italian sculptor, 1916;
Margaret Mitchell,  US novelist, 1949; Bela Lugosi, US film actor, 1956;
Elvis Presley, US rock singer, 1977; Irene Sharaff, US film-set and cos-
tume designer,  1993;  Alison Smithson, English architect, 1993; Stewart
Granger, English-born US actor, 1993.

17 August National Day of Indonesia.  Feast day of St Joan Delanoue, St
Mamas,  St Liberatus of Capua,  St Rock or Roch, St Clare of Montefalco,
St Hyacinth, and St Eusebius, pope. 1833 The Canadian Royal William, the
first steamship to cross the Atlantic entirely under power, set off from
Nova  Scotia.  1836  Under  the  Registration  Act,  the registration of
births,  deaths, and marriages was introduced in Britain. 1876 The first
performance  of  Wagner's  opera  Gцtterdдmmerung was given in Bayreuth,
Germany.  1896 Gold was discovered at Bonanza Creek  in  Canada's  Yukon
Territory,  leading to the great gold rush of 1898. 1976 Earthquakes and
tidal waves in the Philippines resulted in the deaths of over 6,000  pe-
ople. 1989 Electronic tagging was used for the first time in Britain, on
Richard Hart,  accused of theft.  Born Davy Crockett,  US  frontiersman,
1786;  Mae West,  US film actress, 1892; George Melly, English jazz sin-
ger,  1926; V S Naipaul, English novelist, 1932; Robert De Niro, US film
actor,  1943;  Alan Minter, middleweight boxer, 1951; Robin Cousins, ice
skater,  1957. Died Frederick II (the Great), King of Prussia, 1786; Ho-
norй de Balzac,  French novelist,  1850;  Fernand Lйger, French painter,
1955; Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, US architect, 1973; Ira Gershwin, US ly-
ricist, 1983; Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, Pakistani general, 1988.

18 August Feast day of St Helena,  Saints Florus and Laurus,  St Agapi-
tus,  St Alipius,  and St Beatrice or Brites da Silva. 1759 The British,
under Admiral ('Old Dreadnought') Boscawen, defeated the French fleet at
the Battle of Lagos Bay. 1812 Napoleon's forces defeated the Russians at
the  Battle  of Smolensk.  1866 The Treaty of Alliance forming the North
German Confederation,  under the leadership of Prussia, was signed. 1941
Britain's  National  Fire  Service was established.  1960 The first oral
contraceptive was marketed by the Searle Drug Company in  the  US.  1964
South  Africa  was  banned from participating in the Olympics because of
its racial policies. 1967 The town of Long Beach, in California, purcha-
sed the liner Queen Mary.  Born Antonio Salieri, Italian composer, 1750;
Franz Josef I,  Austro-Hungarian emperor,  1830;  Moura Lympany, English
concert pianist, 1916; Shelley Winters, US film actress, 1922; Roman Po-
lanski, Polish film director, 1933; Robert Redford, US film actor, 1937.
Died Genghis Khan, 1227; Guido Reni, Italian painter, 1642; Andrй Jacqu-
es Garnerin,  French balloonist,  1823; William Henry Hudson, US writer,
1922;  Anita Loos, US writer, 1981; Nikolaus Pevsner, architectural his-
torian, 1983.

19 August Feast day of St Mocha, Saints Agapius and Timothy, St Sebald,
St Thecla, St Andrew the Tribune, St Sixtus III, St Berulf of Bobbio, St
Louis of Anjou,  St John Eudes, and St Credan of Evesham. 1274 The coro-
nation of Edward I took place.  1796 France and Spain formed an alliance
against Britain. 1897 Electric-powered cabs appeared in London, UK; they
proved to be uneconomical and were withdrawn in 1900.  1934 A plebiscite
was held in Germany giving sole power to Adolf Hitler,  the Fьhrer. 1942
British and Canadian troops raided the port of Dieppe, resulting in hea-
vy casualties for the attacking force. 1989 Poland became the first eas-
tern European country to end one-party rule, when a coalition government
was formed with Tadeuz Mazowiecki as prime minister. 1991 President Gor-
bachev was deposed in a dawn coup. Born John Dryden, English poet, 1631;
John Flamsteed,  first Astronomer Royal,  1646;  James Nasmyth, Scottish
inventor,  1808;  Gabrielle (Coco) Chanel, French couturier, 1883; Ogden
Nash, US humorist, 1902; Bill Clinton, 42nd US president, 1945. Died Au-
gustus,  1st Roman emperor,  14;  Blaise Pascal,  French philosopher and
mathematician,  1662;  Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev, Russian chorographer,
1929;  Federico GarcЎa Lorca, Spanish poet and playwright, 1936; 'Grouc-
ho' Marx,  US comedian,  1977;  Frederick Ashton, British choreographer,

20 August Feast day of St Rognwald or Ronald,  St Bernard of Clairvaux,
St Amator or Amadour,  St Philibert,  and St Oswin. 1710 The French were
defeated by the Austrians at the Battle of Saragossa. 1914 German forces
occupied Brussels.  1924 Although considered the likely winner,  British
sprinter  Eric Liddel refused to run in the 100-meter heats at the Paris
Olympics because it fell on a Sunday.  1956 Calder  Hall  nuclear  power
plant,  Britain's first nuclear power station, began operating. 1960 Se-
negal gained independence from France. 1968 Russian troops invaded Czec-
hoslovakia. 1977 The US Voyager I spacecraft was launched on its journey
via Jupiter and Saturn to become the first artificial  object  to  leave
the solar system. Born Thomas Corneille, French playwright, 1625; Benja-
min Harrison,  23rd US president, 1833; Raymond Poincarй, French states-
man, 1860; H P Lovecraft, US writer, 1890; Jack Teagarden, US jazz trom-
bonist,  1905;  Jim Reeves, US country singer, 1924. Died Friedrich Wil-
helm Joseph von Schelling, German philosopher, 1854; Adolphe William Bo-
uguereau,  French painter, 1905; William Booth, founder of the Salvation
Army, 1912; Paul Ehrlich, German biochemist, 1915; Leon Trotsky, Russian
politician, 1940.

21 August Feast day of St Pius X,  pope, St Abraham of Smolensk, St Si-
donius Apollinaris, Saints Bonosus and Maximian, and Saints Cisellus and
Camerinus. 1808 The French forces, under General Junot, were defeated by
Wellington at the Battle of Vimiero. 1901 The Cadillac Motor Company was
formed in Detroit,  Michigan, US, named for the French explorer, Antoine
Cadillac.  1911 Leonardo da Vinci's painting,  the Mona Lisa, was stolen
from the Louvre in Paris - it was recovered two years later.  1939 Civil
Defence,  to mitigate the effects of enemy attack, was started in Brita-
in.  1959 Hawaii became the 50th of the United States. 1991 An attempted
coup  d'йtat  in the USSR failed;  faced with international condemnation
and popular protests led by Boris Yeltsin,  the junta stepped  down  and
Gorbachev was reinstated. Born William Murdock, Scottish inventor, 1754;
King William IV,  1765; Aubrey Beardsley, English illustrator, 1872; Co-
unt Basie,  US jazz pianist and bandleader, 1904; HRH Princess Margaret,
1930;  Janet Baker,  English mezzo-soprano,  1933. Died Richard Crashaw,
English poet,  1649;  Aston Webb, English architect, 1930; Leonard Cons-
tant Lambert,  English composer,  1951; Jacob Epstein, British sculptor,
1959;  Benigno Aquino, Philippine politician, 1983; Tatiana Troyanos, US
operatic mezzo-soprano, 1993.

22 August Feast day of St Timothy,  St Andrew of Fiesole, St Sigfrid of
Wearmouth, and St John Kemble. 1642 The English Civil War began, between
the supporters of Charles I and of Parliament,  when the king raised his
standard at Nottingham.  1788 The British settlement in Sierra Leone was
founded,  the purpose of which was to secure a home in Africa for  freed
slaves from England. 1846 New Mexico was annexed by the US. 1864 The In-
ternational Red Cross was founded by the Geneva Convention to assist the
wounded and prisoners of war. 1910 Korea was annexed by Japan. 1985 Fol-
lowing an aborted take-off,  a British Airtours Boeing  737  burst  into
flames on the runway at Manchester Airport; 55 persons were killed. Born
Claude Debussy, French composer, 1862; Jacques Lipchitz, US sculptor and
painter,  1891; Dorothy Parker, US humorist and writer, 1893; Henri Car-
tier-Bresson,  French photographer, 1908; Ray Bradbury, US writer, 1920;
Karlheinz Stockhausen,  German composer,  1928.  Died Jean Honorй Frago-
nard,  French painter,  1806;  Michael Collins, Irish nationalist, 1922;
Oliver Lodge,  English physicist,  1940;  Michael Fokine, Russian dancer
and choreographer,  1942; William Richard Morris, British automobile ma-
nufacturer, 1963.

23 August National Day of Romania. Feast day of St Rose of Lima, Saints
Asterius and Claudius,  St Tydfil,  St Philip Benizi,  and St Eugene  or
Eoghan  of  Ardstraw.  1813 The French were driven back by the Prussians
under General von Bьlow at the Battle of Grossbeeren. 1839 Hong Kong was
taken  by  the British.  1914 The British Expeditionary Force fought its
first battle at Mons,  in the First World War. 1921 Faisal I was crowned
as  King  of Iraq.  1927 Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti,  two Ita-
lo-American anarchists,  were falsely accused of robbery and murder, and
were  sent  to  the  electric chair.  1939 The USSR and Germany signed a
non-aggression pact which,  although short-lived, eased the way for Hit-
ler's  invasion of Poland.  1940 The Blitz began as German bombers began
an all-night raid on London,  UK. 1948 The World Council of Churches was
founded. Born Louis XVI, King of France, 1754; Edgar Lee Masters, US po-
et and novelist,  1869;  Gene Kelly,  US dancer and singer,  1912; Peter
Thomson,  Australian golfer,  1929;  Willy Russell,  English playwright,
1947;  Keith Moon,  British rock drummer,  1947.  Died William  Wallace,
Scottish patriot,  1305;  Charles Auguste de Coulomb,  French physicist,
1806; Rudolph Valentino, Italian-born film actor, 1926; Oscar Hammerste-
in II, US lyricist, 1960; Didier Peroni, French racing driver, 1987.

24 August Feast day of St Bartholomew, The Martyrs of Utica, and St Au-
denoeus or Ouen AD 79 Mount Vesuvius erupted and buried  the  cities  of
Pompeii and Herculaneum in hot volcanic ash.  410 The Visigoths,  led by
Alaric,  sacked Rome. 1572 Charles IX ordered the massacre of the Hugue-
nots  throughout  France;  in Paris thousands were killed in what became
known as the Massacre of St Bartholomew.  1704 The French were  defeated
by  the  English and Dutch fleets at the Battle of Malaga.  1814 British
forces captured Washington, DC and set the White House on fire. 1921 The
Turkish army,  led by Mustafa Kemal, drove back the Greeks at the Battle
of the Sakkaria River.  1959 The Manchester Guardian was renamed the Gu-
ardian.  Born George Stubbs, English painter, 1724; William Wilberforce,
English philanthropist, 1759; Max Beerbohm, English writer and caricatu-
rist,  1872;  Graham Sutherland, English painter, 1903; Charles Causley,
English poet,  1917;  Stephen Fry,  English actor and writer, 1957. Died
Pliny the Elder,  Roman naturalist and writer, 79; Alaric I, King of the
Visigoths, 410; Thomas Blood, Irish adventurer, 1680; Thomas Chatterton,
English poet, 1770; Nicolas Lйonard Sadi Carnot, French physicist, 1832;
Ronald Knox, British theologian, 1957.

25 August National Day of Uruguay.  Feast day of St Ebba,  St  Genesius
the Comedian,  St Gregory of Utrecht,  St Louis IX,  King of France,  St
Mennas of Constantinople, and St Patricia. 325 The Council of Nicaea set
the  rules for the computation of Easter.  1830 A revolution against the
Netherlands union erupted in Brussels.  1914 Louvain was sacked  by  the
Germans.  1919  The first daily scheduled flights started between London
and Paris.  1931 Ramsay MacDonald formed a National Government. 1940 The
RAF made the first air raid on Berlin.  1944 The Allies liberated Paris.
1960 The XVIIth Olympic Games opened in Rome.  1989 The US  space  probe
Voyager  reached  Neptune;  pictures of Triton,  its moon,  revealed the
existence of two additional moons.  Born Ivan IV ('The Terrible'),  Tsar
of Russia,  1530;  Allan Pinkerton,  founder of the US detective agency,
1819;  Leonard Bernstein, US conductor and composer, 1918; Sean Connery,
Scottish actor, 1930; Martin Amis, English novelist, 1949. Died Jan Ver-
meer,  Dutch painter, 1691; David Hume, Scottish philosopher, 1776; Wil-
liam Herschel,  English astronomer,  1822; Michael Faraday, English che-
mist and physicist,  1867; Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, German philosop-
her, 1900; Truman Capote, US author, 1984.

26 August Feast day of St Bergwine,  archbishop of Canterbury,  St John
Wall,  St Mary Desmaisieres, St Pandonia, and St Teresa Jornet Ihars. 55
BC Julius Caesar landed in Britain.  1346 King Edward III,  aided by the
Black Prince,  his son, defeated the French at the Battle of Crйcy. 1789
The  French Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man.  1846
Mendelssohn's oratorio Elijah was first performed,  Birmingham Festival.
1883 Krakatoa,  the island volcano,  began erupting,  killing thousands.
1920 Women in the US were granted the  right  to  vote.  1936  The  Ang-
lo-Egyptian  alliance  was  signed.  1952 The USSR announced that it had
successfully tested the ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile).  1972
The  XXth  Olympic Games opened in Munich.  1978 Cardinal Albino Luciani
was elected Pope John Paul I.  Born Sir Robert Walpole,  English states-
man,  1676;  Prince Albert,  Consort to Queen Victoria, 1819; Lee De Fo-
rest, US physicist, 1873; Jules Romains, French novelist, playwright and
poet,  1885;  Christopher Isherwood,  English novelist, 1904. Died Frans
Hals,  Dutch painter,  1666; Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch naturalist and
microscopist,  Louis Philippe,  'Citizen King' of France,  1850; Charles
Lindbergh, US pioneer aviator, 1974; Charles Boyer, French actor, 1978.

27 August Feast day of St Caesarius of Arles, St David Lewis, Little St
Hugh,  St Monica,  St Margaret the Barefooted, St Marcellus of Tomi, and
St Poemen.  1784 The first balloon ascent was made in Britain  by  James
Tytler at Edinburgh.  1813 Napoleon defeated the Austrians at the Battle
of Dresden. 1816 Algiers, then a refuge for Barbary pirates, was bombar-
ded by Lord Exmouth.  1859 Edwin Drake was the first in the US to strike
oil - at Titusville,  Pennsylvania. 1913 A Russian pilot, Lieutenant Pe-
ter  Nesterov,  became the first to perform the loop-the-loop.  1928 The
anti-war Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed by 15 nations.  1939  The  first
jet-propelled aircraft, the Heinkel 178, made its first flight. 1958 The
USSR launched Sputnik 3,  carrying two dogs.  1987 At about 30,000  feet
above  the US,  the amorous behavior of a just-married couple caused the
pilot of a jet-liner on a coast-to-coast flight to land in Houston;  the
couple  faced a maximum of one year in prison.  Born Confucius,  Chinese
philosopher,  551 BC; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher,
1770;  Samuel Goldwyn,  US film magnate, 1882; Man Ray, US photographer,
painter and sculptor,  1882;  Lyndon B Johnson, 36th US President, 1908;
Donald Bradman, Australian cricketer, 1908; Lester Young, US jazz saxop-
honist, 1909; Mother Teresa, Albanian-born Indian missionary, 1910. Died
Titian, Italian painter, 1576; James Thomson, Scottish poet, 1748; Louis
Botha,  South African statesman,  1919;  Le Corbusier,  Swiss architect,
1965;  Haile Selassie, deposed Emperor of Ethiopia, 1975; Earl Mountbat-
ten of Burma, murdered by the IRA, 1979.

28 August Feast day of St Augustine of Hippo,  St Alexander of Constan-
tinople,  St  Edmund Arrowsmith,  St Julian of Brioude,  and St Moses of
Abyssinia.  1640 The Indian War in New England ended with the  surrender
of  the  Indians.  1849 Venice was taken by the Austrians after a siege.
1850 The Channel telegraph cable was laid between  Dover  and  Cap  Gris
Nez.  1914 The Battle of Heligoland Bight,  the first major naval battle
of World War I,  was fought.  1933 For the  first  time  in  Britain,  a
BBC-broadcasted  appeal was used by the police in tracking down a wanted
man.  1945 US forces under General George Marshall landed in Japan. 1963
The  massive (200,000 people) civil rights march from the South ended in
Washington,  DC where Martin Luther King delivered his famous 'I have  a
dream' speech.  1988 The Yan Hee Polyclinic in Bangkok, Thailand, repor-
ted on a new slimming technique - overweight Thais were suppressing the-
ir  appetites  by sticking lettuce seeds in their ears and pressing them
in ten times before meals. Born Johann Wolfgang Goethe, German poet, no-
velist and dramatist,  1749;  Edward Burne-Jones, British painter, 1833;
Liam O'Flaherty,  Irish novelist,  1896; Godfrey Hounsfield, British in-
ventor of the EMI-scanner,  1919; Ben Gazzara, US film actor, 1930. Died
Hugo Grotius,  Dutch jurist and politician, 1645; William Smith, British
geologist,  1839; Leigh Hunt, critic and poet, 1859; Ernest Orlando Law-
rence,  US physicist,  1958;  Prince William of Gloucester, killed in an
air crash, 1972, John Huston, US film director, 1988.

29 August  Feast day of St Sabina of Rome,  St Edwold of Cerne,  and St
Medericus or Merry.  1526 The Hungarians were defeated by the  Turks  at
the Battle of Mohacs. 1831 Michael Faraday successfully demonstrated the
first electrical transformer at the Royal Institute,  London,  UK.  1835
The city of Melbourne,  Australia,  was founded. 1842 The Treaty of Nan-
king was signed between the British and the Chinese,  ending  the  Opium
War,  and  leasing the Hong Kong territories to Britain.  1848 The Boers
were defeated by the British army at Boomplatz.  1882 Australia defeated
England  at cricket for the first time;  the Sporting Times published an
'obituary' for English cricket. 1895 The Rugby League (called the 'Nort-
hern  Union'  until  1922) was formed from 21 clubs in the North of Eng-
land.  1904 The third Olympic Games opened at St Louis,  Missouri.  1953
The USSR exploded a hydrogen bomb.  1966 At Candlestick Park,  San Fran-
cisco,  the Beatles played their last live concert. 1991 The Supreme So-
viet  voted  to  suspend formally all activities of the Communist Party.
Born John Locke,  English philosopher, 1632; Jean Auguste Dominique Ing-
res,  French painter, 1780; Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress, 1915; Char-
lie Parker, US jazz saxophonist, 1920; Richard Attenborough, English ac-
tor and director,  1923;  Richard Gere, US actor, 1949; Michael Jackson,
US pop singer,  1958. Died Brigham Young, US Mormon leader, 1877; Cesare
Pavese, Italian novelist, 1950; Йamon de Valera, Irish nationalist poli-
tician,  1975; Ingrid Bergman, Swedish actress, 1982; Lee Marvin, US ac-
tor, 1987.

30 August Feast day of Saints Felix and Audauctus, St Fantinus, St Pam-
machius,  St Margaret Ward, and St Ruan or Rumon. 1762 The French defea-
ted Frederick II,  King of Prussia, at Johannesburg. 1860 The first Bri-
tish tramway, operated by the Birkenhead Street Railway, was inaugurated
by an American,  George Francis Train.  1862 'Stonewall' Jackson led the
Confederates to victory at the second Battle of Bull Run,  in  Virginia,
during the American Civil War.  1881 The first stereo system,  for a te-
lephonic broadcasting service, was patented in Germany by Clement Adler.
1901 Hubert Cecil Booth patented the vacuum cleaner.  1916 Paul von Hin-
denburg became Chief of the General Staff of Germany.  1939 In anticipa-
tion  of  German bombing,  the great evacuation of children from British
cities began,  four days before the outbreak of World War II.  1941  The
siege  of Leningrad by German forces began (ended in Jan 1943).  1963 To
reduce the risk of accidental nuclear war,  the 'Hotline' between the US
President and the Soviet Premier was established. Born Jacques Louis Da-
vid,  French painter, 1748; Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English writer,
1797;  Ernest Rutherford,  New Zealand physicist,  1871; Raymond Massey,
Canadian film actor,  1896;  Fred MacMurray,  US film actor, 1908; Denis
Healey,  British politician, 1917; Jean Claude Killy, French ski champi-
on, 1943. Died Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, 30 BC; Louis XI, King of Fran-
ce,  1483; John Ross, Scottish explorer, 1856; Georges Sorel, French so-
cialist philosopher,  1922;  J(oseph) J(ohn) Thomson, English physicist,

31 August National Day of Malaysia,  and of Trinidad and Tobago.  Feast
Day of St Paulinus of Trier,  St Aidan of Lindisfarne, St Raymond Nonna-
tus, and The Servite Martyrs of Prague. 1422 Henry VI, aged nine months,
acceded as King.  1888 The body of Mary Ann 'Polly' Nichols,  the  first
victim of Jack the Ripper,  was found mutilated in Buck's Row. 1900 Coca
Cola first went on sale in Britain.  1928 The Brecht-Weill  musical  The
Threepenny Opera was first performed,  in Berlin. 1942 The German offen-
sive was halted by the British at the Battle of Alam  al-Halfa,  marking
the turning-point in the North African Campaign.  1957 Malaya, later Ma-
laysia,  became independent.  1972 US swimmer Mark Spitz won five of the
seven gold medals he achieved in total at the Munich Olympics.  1983 The
USSR shot down a South Korean airliner,  killing 269 people aboard. 1984
A  tropical storm hit the Philippines,  killing over 1,000 people.  1989
Buckingham Palace issued a brief statement stating that the Princess Ro-
yal,  Princess Anne, was separating from her husband, Captain Mark Phil-
lips.  Born Caligula,  Roman emperor, 12; Jahangir, Mogul emperor, 1569;
Maria Montessori, Italian educator, 1870; Fredric March, US actor, 1897;
Bernard Lovell,  British astronomer,  1913; James Coburn, US film actor,
1928;  Van Morrison, Irish rock vocalist, 1945; Edwin Moses, US athlete,
1955.  Died King Henry V, 1422; John Bunyan, English author, 1688; Char-
les Pierre Baudelaire,  French poet,  1867; Georges Braque, French pain-
ter,  1963;  Rocky Marciano,  US heavyweight boxer,  1969; John Ford, US
film director, 1973; Henry Moore, British sculptor, 1986.

1 September National Day of Libya.  Feast Day of St Fiacre, St Giles or
Aegidiu,  St Drithelm,  St Lupus or Leu of Sens,  St Sebe, St Priscus of
Capua, and St Verena. AD 70 The destruction of Jerusalem under Titus to-
ok place.  1853 The world's first triangular postage stamps were  issued
by  the  Cape  of Good Hope.  1870 The siege of Metz (Franco-German War)
started.  1886 The Severn Tunnel was opened for goods traffic.  1920 The
state  of Lebanon was created by the French.  1923 Nearly 200,000 people
were killed in earthquakes in Tokyo and Yokohama.  1928 Albania was dec-
lared a kingdom,  with Zog I as king.  1933 The Shape of Things to Come,
the classic science fiction novel by H G Wells, was published. 1939 Ger-
many invaded Poland,  starting World War II. 1969 Colonel Khaddhafi sei-
zed power in Libya,  after overthrowing King Idris I. 1972 Bobby Fischer
beat Boris Spassky at Reykjavik, becoming the first US world chess cham-
pion. Born Engelbert Humperdinck, German composer, 1854; Roger David Ca-
sement,  Irish  nationalist,  1864;  Edgar Rice Burroughs,  US novelist,
1875;  Francis Aston, English physicist, 1877; Rocky Marciano, US heavy-
weight boxer,  1923;  Lily Tomlin, US comedienne, 1939; Leonard Slatkin,
US conductor,  1954.  Died Pope Adrian IV,  the only English pope, 1159;
Jacques Cartier,  French explorer,  1557;  Louis XIV,  the 'Sun King' of
France, 1715; Richard Westmacott, British sculptor, 1856; Siegfried Sas-
soon, English writer, 1967; Franзois Mauriac, French novelist, 1970.

2 September Feast day of St William of Roskilde, The Martyrs of Septem-
ber 1792, St Agricolus, St Antoninus of Pamiers, St Brocard, and St Cas-
tor  of  Apt.  31  BC Emperor Augustus (Octavian) defeated Antony at the
Battle of Actium.  1666 The Great Fire of London started;  it  destroyed
13,000 buildings in four days. 1752 The Julian calendar was used in Bri-
tain and the Colonies 'officially' for the last time;  as in the rest of
Europe, the following day became 14 Sept in the Gregorian calendar. 1898
The British,  led by Lord Kitchener, defeated the Sudanese at the Battle
of Omdurman and re-occupied Khartoum,  the capital.  1906 Roald Amundsen
completed his sailing round Canada's Northwest Passage.  1923 The  Irish
Free  State  held  its first elections.  1939 Under the National Service
Bill, men aged 19-41 were conscripted in Britain. 1958 China's first te-
levision station opened in Peking.  1987 The CD-video, combining digital
sound with high-definition video, was launched by Philips. Born John Ho-
ward, English philanthropist, 1726; Giovanni Verga, Italian novelist and
dramatist, 1840; Wilhelm Ostwald, German chemist, 1853; Frederick Soddy,
English  physical chemist,  1877;  Michael Hastings,  English dramatist,
1938; Jimmy Connors, US tennis player, 1952. Died Josй Ribera ('Lo Spag-
noletto'), Spanish painter, 1652; Thomas Telford, Scottish civil engine-
er, 1834; Henri Rousseau, French painter, 1910; Pierre de Coubertin, fo-
under of the modern Olympics, 1937; J R R Tolkein, English writer, 1973.
3 September Feast Day of St Simeon Stylites the Younger,  St Phoebe,  St
Remaclus,  St Aigulf or Ayoul of Lerins,  St Gregory the Great, St Cuth-
burga,  St Hildelitha,  and St Macanisius.  1650 Cromwell  defeated  the
Scots  at  the  second Battle of Dunbar.  1651 The Royalist troops under
Charles II were defeated by Oliver Cromwell at the second Battle of Wor-
cester.  1783  Britain  recognized US independence with the signing of a
treaty in Paris.  1916 The first Zeppelin was shot  down  over  England.
1930 Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic, was destroyed by a hurri-
cane which killed 5,000 people.  1935 Malcolm  Campbell  reached  a  new
world  land  speed  record  of 301.13 mph in Bluebird on Bonneville Salt
Flats,  Utah.  1939 Britain, New Zealand, Australia, and France declared
war  on Germany.  1943 The Allies landed at Salerno,  on mainland Italy,
and the Italian government surrendered. 1967 Sweden changed from driving
on the left to the right. 1976 The US spacecraft Viking 2 landed on Mars
and began sending pictures of the  red  planet  to  earth.  Born  Joseph
Wright, British painter, 1734; Louis Henry Sullivan, US architect, 1856;
Jean-Lйon Jaurиs,  French socialist politician, 1859; Macfarlane Burnet,
Australian immunologist, 1899; Alan Ladd, US actor, 1913; Brian Lochore,
New Zealand rugby player,  1940.  Died Oliver Cromwell,  Lord Protector,
1658;  Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Russian dramatist, 1883; e e cummings,
poet,  US 1962;  Frederick Louis MacNiece,  British poet,  1963;  Ho Chi
Minh,  president of North Vietnam,  1969; Frank Capra, US film director,
1991; David Brown, English engineer and industrialist, 1993.

4 September Feast day of St Rosalio, St Rose of Viterbo, Saints Marcel-
lus and Valerian,  St Marinus of San Marino, St Boniface I, pope, St Ul-
tan of Ardbraccan,  and St Ida of Herzfeld. 1260 The Battle of Montaper-
ti,  between  the  rival Guelphs and Ghibellines,  was fought in Central
Italy.  1870 Emperor Napoleon III,  Bonaparte's nephew,  was deposed and
the Third Republic was proclaimed. 1886 Geronimo, the Apache chief, sur-
rendered to the US army.  1909 The first Boy Scout  rally  was  held  at
Crystal Palace,  near London, UK. 1940 The US Columbia Broadcasting Sys-
tem gave a demonstration of color TV on station W2XAB.  1944 The  Allies
liberated Antwerp,  Belgium. 1970 Natalia Makarova, of the Kirov Ballet,
defected to the West. 1985 The wreck of the Titanic on the Atlantic sea-
board was photographed by remote control. 1988 British Customs officials
thwarted the first known attempt by persons to smuggle drugs into Brita-
in from Holland using a helicopter. Born Vicomte Franзois Renй de Chate-
aubriand,  French author, 1768; Anton Bruckner, Austrian composer, 1824;
Antonin Artaud,  French dramatist and director, 1896; Mary Renault, Eng-
lish novelist,  1905; Dawn Fraser, Australian swimmer, 1937; Tom Watson,
US golfer, 1949. Died Charles Townshend, British politician, 1767; James
Wyatt,  English architect, 1813; Robert Schuman, French statesman, 1963;
Albert Schweitzer, French organist and missionary surgeon, 1965; Georges
Simenon, Belgian crime writer, 1989.

5 September Feast day of Saints Urban and Theodore and  their  Compani-
ons, St Laurence Giustiniani, St Bertinus, and St Genebald of Laon. 1774
The first Continental Congress in America opened at  Philadelphia.  1800
French troops surrendered Malta to the British, following Nelson's naval
blockade. 1914 The first Battle of the Marne, during World War I, began.
1922  US aviator James Doolittle made the first US coast-to-coast flight
in 21 hrs,  19 min.  1963 Christine Keeler, one of the women involved in
the Profumo scandal,  was arrested and charged with perjury. 1972 At the
Olympic Games in Munich,  terrorists of the Black September group seized
Israeli athletes as hostages;  nine of the Israelis,  four of the terro-
rists,  and one German policeman were killed.  1980 The world's  longest
road tunnel,  the St Gotthard, was opened running 16km/10mi from Gosche-
nen to Airolo, Switzerland. 1988 No Sex Please - We're British, the lon-
gest  running  comedy,  closed (after 6,671 performances over 16 years).
Born Louis VIII,  King of France,  1187;  Louis XIV,  the 'Sun King'  of
France,  1638;  Giacomo Meyerbeer, German composer, 1791; Victorien Sar-
dou,  French dramatist,  1831;  Arthur Koestler, Hungarian author, 1905;
Raquel  Welch,  US actress,  1940;  Freddy Mercury,  British pop singer,
1946.  Died Pieter Breughel the Elder,  Flemish painter,  1569;  Auguste
Comte,  French philosopher, 1857; Charles Pйguy, French poet, 1914; Josh
White,  US blues singer,  1969;  Douglas Bader,  British fighter  pilot,

6 September Feast day of St Eleutherius of Spoleto, St Cagnoald or Cha-
inoaldus, and Saints Donatian, Laetus, and Others. 1522 Ferdinand Magel-
lan's  17  surviving  crew  members reached the Spanish coast aboard the
Vittoria, having completed the first circumnavigation of the world. 1852
Britain's  first  free  lending  library opened in Manchester.  1880 The
first cricket test match in England was played between England and Aust-
ralia at the Oval,  London,  UK.  1901 US President William McKinley was
shot and fatally wounded by an anarchist. 1941 Nazi Germany made the we-
aring  of  the yellow Star of David badges compulsory for all its Jewish
citizens.  1965 India invaded West Pakistan.  1975 A massive  earthquake
centered on Lice, Turkey, caused nearly 3,000 deaths. 1989 Due to a com-
puter error,  41,000 Parisians received letters charging them with  mur-
der,  extortion,  and organized prostitution instead of traffic violati-
ons. Born Marquis de Lafayette, French soldier and statesman, 1757; John
Dalton, British chemist, 1766; Jane Addams, US sociologist, 1860; Edward
Appleton,  British physicist,  1892; Britt Ekland, Swedish film actress,
1943;  Roger Waters,  English bassist,  1947. Died Suleiman I, sultan of
Turkey,  1566;  Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French politician, 1683; Gertrude
Lawrence,  English actress and singer, 1952; Hendrik Verwoerd, South Af-
rican prime minister, assassinated, 1966.

7 September National Day of Brazil. Feast day of St Anastasius the Ful-
ler,  St Cloud or Clodoald,  Saints Alcmund and Tilbert, St Grimonia, St
Regina or Reine of Alize,  St Sozon,  and St John of Nicomedia. 1812 The
Russians  were  defeated by Napoleon's forces at the Battle of Borodino,
70 mi west of Moscow.  1838 British heroine Grace Darling and her father
rescued the crew of the Forfarshire,  a steamer wrecked off the Northum-
berland coast; she subsequently became a national heroine. 1901 The Pea-
ce of Peking was signed,  ending the Boxer Rising in China. 1904 Francis
Younghusband led a British expedition to Tibet,  where a treaty was sig-
ned  with the Dalai Lama.  1973 Jackie Stewart became world champion ra-
cing driver for the third consecutive year. 1986 Bishop Desmond Tutu was
appointed Archbishop of Capetown,  the first black head of South African
Anglicans.  1991 Peace talks on the Yugoslav civil war opened in The Ha-
gue,  the  Netherlands,  under  EC sponsorship.  Born Queen Elizabeth I,
1533;  John McDougall Stuart,  Australian explorer, 1815; Elia Kazan, US
stage and film director,  1909; Anthony Quayle, English actor, 1913; Pe-
ter Lawford,  English actor,  1923; Sonny Rollins, US saxophonist, 1929;
Buddy Holly, US rock singer, 1936. Died Catherine Parr, 6th wife of Hen-
ry VIII,  1548; Armand Sully-Prudhomme, French poet, 1907; William Hunt,
British painter,  1910;  Keith Moon, English rock drummer, 1978; Christy
Brown, Irish novelist, 1981; Liam O'Flaherty, Irish novelist, 1984.

8 September Feast Day of St Corbinian,  St Disibod, St Eusebius, Saints
Adrian and Natalia, St Kingsmark or Cynfarch Oer, St Sergius I, pope, St
Zeno, St Nestabus, and St Nestor. 1664 The Dutch colony of New Amsterdam
was  surrendered  to  the British who renamed it New York in 1669.  1831
William IV was crowned King of Great Britain.  1886 Johannesburg,  South
Africa,  was  founded after the discovery of gold there.  1888 The first
English Football league matches were played.  1900 Parts of  Texas,  US,
were  hit  by a tornado and tidal waves,  which caused over 6,000 deaths
near Galveston. 1926 Germany was admitted to the League of Nations. 1944
The first German V2 flying bombs fell on Britain. 1951 The Treaty of Pe-
ace with Japan was signed by 49 nations in San Francisco.  1966 The  Se-
vern  Road  Bridge  was officially opened.  1974 US President Ford fully
pardoned Richard Nixon for his part in the Watergate affair.  Born  King
Richard I (the Lion Heart),  1157; Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet, 1474;
Antonin Dvorбk, Czech composer, 1841; Siegfried Sassoon, English writer,
1863;  Jean-Louis Barrault,  French actor and director, 1910; Peter Sel-
lers, English actor and comedian, 1925; Frankie Avalon, US singer, 1940.
Died Francisco Gomez de Quevedo y Villegas, Spanish writer, 1645; George
Bradshaw,  British publisher of the first railroad guides, 1853; Richard
Strauss, German composer, 1949; Andrй Derain, French painter, 1954; Jean
Seberg, US actress, 1979.

9 September Feast day of St Omer or Audomaurus, St Peter Claver, St Ci-
aran or Kieran of Clonmacnois, St Bettelin, St Joseph of Volokolamsk, St
Gorgonius, and St Isaac or Sahak the Great. 1513 The Scots were defeated
by the English at the Battle of Flodden Field.  1835 Local government in
Britain was constituted under the British  Municipal  Corporations  Act.
1850  California became the 31st state of the Union.  1943 Allied forces
landed at Salerno, Italy. 1945 Palestinians attempted to hijack an El Al
flight but were overpowered by security guards. The Israelis reluctantly
handed over the failed hijackers at Heathrow,  where the plane made  its
landing.  1971 Geoffrey Jackson, who had been kidnapped by the Tupamaros
in Uruguay eight months previously, was released. 1975 Czech tennis pla-
yer Martina Navratilova, aged 18, defected to the West, requesting poli-
tical asylum in the US.  1985 Massive earthquakes in  Mexico  left  more
than 4,700 dead and 30,000 injured. Born Cardinal Richelieu, French sta-
tesman,  1585;  Luigi Galvani,  Italian physiologist, 1737; Leo Tolstoy,
Russian novelist,  1828; James Hilton, English novelist, 1900; Otis Red-
ding, US singer and songwriter, 1941; John Curry, English figure skating
champion,  1949.  Died King William I (the Conqueror),  1087;  James IV,
King of Scotland,  1513; Giambattista Piranesi, Italian architect, 1778;
Stйphane Mallarmй, French poet, 1898; Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, French pa-
inter, 1901; Mao Zedong, Chinese leader, 1976.

10 September Feast Day of St Theodard of Maestricht, St Salvius or Sal-
vy of Albi,  St Ambrose Barlow, St Aubert of Avranches, Saints Menodora,
Metrodora and Nymphodora, St Finian of Moville, St Nemesian, St Nicholas
of Tolentino,  and St Pulcheria.  1721 The Peace of Nystad was concluded
between Russia and Sweden.  1823 Simуn Bolнvar,  known as The Liberator,
became the dictator of Peru. 1894 George Smith, a London cab driver, be-
came the first person in Britain to be convicted for drunken driving; he
was fined 20s (Ј1). 1919 The Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed; the new
boundaries it set brought about the end of the Austrian Empire.  1942 In
a single raid,  the RAF dropped 100,000 bombs on Dusseldorf. 1945 Former
Norwegian Premier Vidkun Quisling, who had collaborated with the Germans
during World War II, was sentenced to death. 1981 Picasso's Guernica was
returned to Spain after 40 years in US custodianship; the artist had re-
fused to show the painting in Spain before the restoration of democracy.
1989 Hungary opened its border to the West allowing  thousands  of  East
Germans to leave,  much to the anger of the East German government. Born
Giovanni Tiepolo,  Italian painter, 1727; John Soane, English architect,
1753;  Mungo Park, Scottish explorer, 1771; Franz Werfel, Austrian nove-
list and poet, 1890; Robert Wise, US film director, 1914; Arnold Palmer,
US golfer, 1929; Josй Feliciano, US singer, 1945. Died Louis IV, King of
France,  954; Mary Wollstonecraft, British feminist, 1797; Huey Long, US
politician, assassinated, 1935; Charles Cruft, British dog expert, 1938;
Balthazar Johannes Vorster, South African Nationalist politician, 1983.

11 September Feast day of St Theodora of Alexandria, St Peter of Chava-
non,  Saints Protus and Hyacinth, St Deiniol, St Patiens of Lyon, and St
Paphnutius.  1709 The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene  of  Austria
defeated the French, under Marshal Villars, at the Battle of Malplaquet.
1777 American troops led by George Washington were defeated by the  Bri-
tish at the Battle of Brandywine Creek,  in the Revolutionary War.  1841
In Britain,  the London to Brighton commuter express train began regular
service,  taking just 105 minutes.  1855 In the Crimean War,  Sebastopol
was taken by the Allies after capitulation by the Russians.  1922 A Bri-
tish  mandate  was  declared in Palestine.  1951 Stravinsky's The Rake's
Progress was performed for the first time,  in Venice;  the libretto was
by  W  H Auden.  1973 A military junta,  with US support,  overthrew the
elected government of Chile.  1978 Georgi Markov,  a Bulgarian defector,
was  fatally stabbed by a poisoned umbrella point wielded by a Bulgarian
secret agent in London,  UK.  Born Pierre de Ronsard, French poet, 1524;
James  Thomson,  Scottish poet,  1700;  O Henry,  US short story writer,
1862;  James Hopwood Jeans, British mathematician and scientist, 1877; D
H Lawrence, English writer, 1885; Barry Sheene, British racing motorcyc-
list,  1950.  Died Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Italian-French astronomer,
1712;  David Thomas Graham, Scottish chemist, 1869; Jan Christian Smuts,
South African statesman,  1950; Nikita Khrushchev, Russian leader, 1971;
Salvador Allende Gossens, Chilean politician, 1973; Peter Tosh, Jamaican
reggae star, 1987.

12 September Feast day of St Guy of Anderlecht, St Ailbhe, and St Eans-
wida.  1609 Henry Hudson sailed the sloop Half Moon into New York Harbor
and up to Albany to discover the river named for him.  1878  Cleopatra's
Needle,  the obelisk of Thothmes II, was erected on London's Embankment.
1910 Alice Stebbins Wells,  a former social worker,  became the  world's
first policewoman,  appointed by the Los Angeles Police Department. 1914
The Allies were victorious at the First Battle of Marne, in World War I.
1919 Italian writer and nationalist Gabriele D'Annunzio led an unoffici-
al army and seized Fiume from Yugoslavia.  1940 The Lascaux Caves, Fran-
ce,  containing prehistoric wall paintings, were discovered. 1943 Benito
Mussolini, imprisoned by the Allies, was rescued by German parachutists.
1974 A military coup deposed Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, the Li-
on of Judah.  Born Richard Jordan Gatling,  US inventor,  1818;  Herbert
Henry Asquith,  British statesman, 1852; Maurice Chevalier, French actor
and entertainer,  1888;  Louis MacNeice, British poet, 1907; John Cleve-
land 'Jesse' Owens, US athlete, 1913; Wesley Hall, West Indies cricketer
and politician, 1937. Died Franзois Couperin, French composer, 1733; Je-
an-Philippe   Rameau,  French  composer,  1764;  Gebhard  Leberecht  von
Blьcher,  Prussian general and field-marshal,  1819;  Peter Mark  Roget,
English lexicographer, 1869; Steve Biko, South African civil rights lea-
der, 1977; Anthony Perkins, US actor, 1992.

13 September Feast day of St John Chrysostom,  St Maurilius of  Angers,
St Amatus or Amй, abbot, and St Eulogius of Alexandria. 1759 The British
defeated the French at the Battle of Quebec, completing the British con-
quest of North America.  1788 New York became the capital of the US (un-
til 1789). 1845 The Knickerbocker Club, the first baseball club, was fo-
unded in New York.  1914 The first Battle of the Aisne, during World War
I,  began. 1942 The Germans began their attack on Stalingrad. 1943 Gene-
ral  Chiang  Kai-shek was re-elected president of the Republic of China.
1956 Little Richard recorded 'Tutti Frutti' in Los  Angeles  with  clea-
ned-up lyrics. 1957 The Mousetrap became Britain's longest running play,
reaching its 1,998th performance.  1989 Britain's biggest  ever  banking
computer  error gave customers an extra Ј2 billion in a period of 30 mi-
nutes;  99.3 per cent of the money was reportedly returned. Born William
Betty,  British boy actor,  1791;  Arnold Schoenberg, Austrian composer,
1874;  John Joseph Priestley,  English author,  1894; Claudette Colbert,
French actress,  1905;  John Smith, British politician, 1938; Jacqueline
Bisset,  English actress,  1944.  Died Andrea Mantegna, Italian painter,
1506;  Michel Eyquem de Montaigne,  French essayist, 1592; Charles James
Fox, English statesman, 1806; Alexis-Emmanuel Chabrier, French composer,
1894; Leopold Stokowski, US conductor, 1977; Joe Pasternak, US film pro-
ducer, 1991.

14 September Feast day of St Maternus of Cologne and St Notburga.  1402
The  English  defeated the Scots at the Battle of Homildon Hill.  1759 A
Journey Through Europe,  or the play of Geography,  the  earliest  dated
English board game, went on sale, priced 8s (40p). 1812 Napoleon entered
Moscow in his disastrous invasion of Russia. 1891 The first penalty kick
was  taken in an English League football game was taken by Heath of Wol-
verhampton Wanderers against Accrington.  1901 Theodore Roosevelt became
the  26th  US president,  12 hours after the death of President McKinley
who had been shot by an anarchist on 6 Sept. 1923 Miguel Primo de Rivera
became dictator of Spain. 1959 The Soviet Lunik II became the first spa-
cecraft to land on the Moon. 1991 The South African government, the ANC,
and  the Inkatha Freedom Party signed a peace accord aimed at ending the
factional violence in the black townships.  Born Peter Lely, Dutch pain-
ter, 1617; Baron von Humboldt, German traveler and naturalist, 1769; Jan
Garrigue Masaryk, Czech statesman, 1886; Peter Scott, British artist and
ornithologist, 1909; Jack Hawkins, British film actor, 1910; Kepler Wes-
sels,  Australian cricketer,  1957.  Died Dante Alighieri, Italian poet,
1321;  James Fenimore Cooper, US novelist, 1851; Augustus Pugin, English
architect,  1852; Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, English sol-
dier and politician,  1852;  Isadora Duncan,  US dancer,  1927; Princess
Grace of Monaco (Grace Kelly), 1982.

15 September National Day of Costa Rica. The Battle of Britain day. Fe-
ast day of St Nicetus the Goth,  St Nicomedes,  St Aachard or Aichardus,
St Mirin, and St Catherine of Genoa. 1784 The first ascent in a hydrogen
balloon  in  England  was made by the Italian aeronaut Vincenzo Lunardi.
1812 The Russians set fire to Moscow in order to halt the French occupa-
tion.  1830 The Manchester and Liverpool railroad opened; during the ce-
remony, William Huskisson, MP, became the first person to be killed by a
train.  1915 Military tanks, designed by Ernest Swinton, were first used
by the British Army,  at Flers,  in the Somme offensive.  1917 Alexander
Kerensky proclaimed Russia a republic. 1935 The Nuremburg laws were pas-
sed in Germany, outlawing Jews and making the swastika the country's of-
ficial flag.  1964 The Sun, which became Britain's biggest selling news-
paper,  was first published.  1974 The civil war between Christians  and
Muslims in Beirut began.  1985 Tony Jacklin's European golf team won the
Ryder Cup from the US who had long dominated the competition.  Born Tra-
jan,  Roman emperor,  53;  Titus Oates,  British priest and conspirator,
1649;  William Taft,  27th US president,  1857; Agatha Christie, English
detective novelist,  1890; Jean Renoir, French film director, 1894; Jes-
sye Norman, US soprano 1945; Freddie Mercury, British rock singer, 1946.
Died Isambard Kingdom Brunel,  British engineer, 1859; John Hanning Spe-
ke, British explorer, 1864; Josй Echegaray, Spanish dramatist and scien-
tist, 1916; Geoffrey Fisher, former Archbishop of Canterbury, 1972; Gus-
tav VI, King of Sweden, 1973; Robert Penn Warren, US novelist, 1989.

16 September National Day of Mexico.  Feast day of St Cornelius,  pope,
St Cyprian,  St Ludmila,  St Ninian, Saints Abundius and Abundantius, St
Edith of Wilton,  and St Euphemia.  1847 The house in which  Shakespeare
was  born in Stratford-upon-Avon became the first building in Britain to
be purchased for preservation.  1859 David Livingstone  discovered  Lake
Nyasa.  1906 The US Buick and Oldsmobile automobile manufacturers merged
to become General Motors.  1941 The Shah of Iran, Reza Khan Pahlavi, ab-
dicated. 1963 Malaysia became independent and a mob of over 100,000 bur-
ned down the British Embassy.  1969 Biba,  considered London's trendiest
store in the 'swinging 60s',  opened on Kensington High Street. 1976 The
Episcopal Church in the US approved the ordination of women to the  pri-
esthood.  1987 For the first time in South Africa, Othello was performed
with a black actor,  John Khani,  playing the Moor. 1991 All Iran-Contra
charges against Oliver North were dropped. Born King Henry V, 1387; Ale-
xander Korda,  British film director and producer,  1893; Lauren Bacall,
US actress,  1924; Charles Haughey, Irish politician, 1925; B B King, US
blues singer,  1926;  Peter Falk,  US actor,  1927; Andy Irvine, British
rugby footballer, 1951. Died Tomбs de Torquemada, Spanish Inquisitor-Ge-
neral,  1498;  Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit,  German physicist, 1736; Louis
XVIII,  King of France,  1824;  Leo Amery, British statesman and journa-
list,  1955;  Walter Greenwood, English novelist, 1974; Maria Callas, US
opera singer, 1977.

17 September  Feast day of St Francis of Camporosso,  St Hildegard,  St
Columba of Cordova, Saints Socrates and Stephen, St Satyrus of Milan, St
Theodora,  St Lambert of Maastricht,  St Robert Bellarmine, and St Peter
Arbues.  1787 The Constitution of the United States of America was  sig-
ned. 1862 General McClellan repulsed General Lee's invasion of the North
at Antietam,  ending one of the decisive battles in the  American  Civil
War.  1900 The Commonwealth of Australia,  a federation of six colonies,
was proclaimed. 1908 Lt Selfridge, on a test flight with Orville Wright,
was  killed when the plane crashed,  becoming the first passenger to die
in an air crash.  1931 The first long-playing record was demonstrated in
New York by RCA-Victor, but the venture failed because of the high price
of the players.  1939 Poland was invaded by the USSR.  1944 The  British
airborne invasion of Arnhem,  Holland began as part of 'Operation Market
Garden'.  1991 Estonia,  Latvia,  Lithuania,  North and South Korea, the
Marshall  Islands,  and  Micronesia were admitted to the United Nations.
Born Francisco Gomez de Quevado y Villegas,  Spanish poet and  satirist,
1580;  William Carlos Williams, US poet, 1883; Frederick Ashton, British
choreographer,  1906;  Stirling Moss,  English racing driver, 1929; Anne
Bancroft,  US actress,  1931;  Maureen Connolly, US tennis player, 1934.
Died Philip IV,  King of Spain,  1665;  Tobias George Smollett, Scottish
novelist,  1771; William Henry Fox Talbot, English photographic pioneer,
1877; Count Folke Bernadotte, Swedish diplomat, assassinated, 1948; Lau-
ra Ashley, Welsh designer and fabric retailer, 1985.

18 September  National Day of Chile.  Feast day of St John Massias,  St
Joseph of Cupertino, St Richardis, St Ferreolus of Limoges, St Ferreolus
of  Vienne,  and  St  Methodius of Olympus.  1851 The New York Times was
first published.  1879 Blackpool's famous illuminations were switched on
for the first time.  1910 The Chilean revolt against Spanish rule began.
1914 The Irish Home Rule Bill went into effect.  1918 The Battle of  Me-
giddo,  in Palestine, began. 1927 CBS, the Columbia Broadcasting System,
was inaugurated in the US. 1931 Japan seized Manchuria and set up a pup-
pet  state  called  Manchukuo  -  it was returned to China in 1945 after
World War II.  1934 The USSR was admitted to the League of Nations. 1939
William  Joyce,  whose  upper-class  accent earned him the nickname Lord
Haw-Haw,  made his first Nazi propaganda broadcast from Germany  to  the
UK. 1981 France abolished execution by guillotine. 1991 The Yugoslav na-
vy began a blockade of seven port cities on the Adriatic coast in Dalma-
tia. Born Dr Samuel Johnson, English writer and lexicographer, 1709; Je-
an Bernard Lйon Foucault,  French physicist,  1819; Greta Garbo, Swedish
film actress,  1905;  Jack Cardiff, British film director, 1914; Frankie
Avalon,  US singer and actor,  1939;  Peter Shilton, English footballer,
1949.  Died Leonhard Euler,  Swiss mathematician, 1783; William Hazlitt,
British essayist and critic, 1830; Dag Hammarskjцld, Swedish UN secreta-
ry-general,  1961;  Sean O'Casey,  Irish dramatist,  1964;  John Douglas
Cockcroft, English nuclear physicist, 1967; Jimi Hendrix, US rock guita-
rist, 1970.

19 September Feast day of St Januarius of Benevento,  St Peleus and his
Companions, St Emily de Rodat, St Mary of Cerevellon, St Goericus or Ab-
bo,  St Theodore of Canterbury, St Susanna of Eleutheropolis, and St Se-
quanus or Seine. 1356 Led by Edward, the Black Prince, the English defe-
ated  the  French  at  the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War.
1783 The Montgolfier brothers sent up the first balloon with live  crea-
tures aboard;  passengers included a sheep,  a rooster, and a duck. 1876
The US inventor Melville Bissell patented the first carpet sweeper. 1893
New  Zealand  became  the first country to grant its female citizens the
right to vote.  1945 William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) was sentenced to  hang
for  treason.  1960  A  new dance craze began when Chubby Checker's 'The
Twist' entered the US charts.  1960 The new Traffic Wardens  issued  the
first 344 parking tickets in London, UK. 1989 The New York Supreme Court
reversed an earlier decision to award the America's Cup to New  Zealand,
allowing  the San Diego Yacht Club to retain the award.  Born Lajos Kos-
suth, Hungarian statesman, 1802; George Cadbury, English chocolate manu-
facturer and social reformer,  1839;  William Golding, English novelist,
1911; Jeremy Irons, English actor, 1948; Rosemary Casals, US tennis pla-
yer, 1948; Twiggy (Lesley Hornby), English model and actress, 1949. Died
Meyer Amschel Rothschild,  German banker,  1812; James Garfield, 20th US
president, 1881; Thomas John Barnardo, British philanthropist, 1905; Da-
vid Low,  British cartoonist,  1963; Chester Carlson, US inventor of the
xerography photocopying process,  1968;  Roy Kinnear, English comedy ac-
tor, 1988.

20 September Feast day of Saints Fausta and Evilasius,  St  Candida  of
Carthage,  St Vincent Madelgarius,  and Saints Theodore,  Philippa,  and
their Companions.  451 The Romans defeated  the  Huns  under  Attila  at
Chѓlon-sur-Marne.  1519  Ferdinand Magellan,  with a fleet of five small
ships,  sailed from Seville on his expedition around the world. 1854 The
Russian  army was defeated by the Allied armies at the Battle of Alma in
the Crimean War;  the first six Victoria Crosses to be  awarded  to  the
British  Army were won at this battle.  1928 The Fascist Party took over
the supreme legislative body in Rome, replacing the Chamber of Deputies.
1961 Argentinian Antonio Abertondo started the first successful non-stop
swim across the Channel and back, completed in 43 hr 5 min. 1966 The li-
ner Queen Elizabeth II (QE2) was launched at Clydebank,  Scotland.  1984
The US embassy in Beirut was attacked by a  suicide  bomber;  explosives
within a truck were set off,  killing 40 people. Born Alexander the Gre-
at, 356 BC; Henry Arthur Jones, British dramatist, 1851; Upton Sinclair,
US novelist,  1878;  Jelly Roll Morton,  US pianist and composer,  1885;
John Dankworth, English bandleader and jazzman, 1927; Sophia Loren, Ita-
lian film actress, 1934. Died Robert Emmet, Irish nationalist, executed,
1803;  Jakob Karl Grimm, German philologist, 1863; Annie Besant, British
socialist and feminist activist,  1933; Jean Sibelius, Finnish composer,
1957; George Seferis, Greek poet-diplomat, 1971.

21 September National Day of Malta. Feast day of St Theodore of Cherni-
gov,  The Martyrs of Korea,  St Michael of Chernigov, St Matthew, and St
Maures of Troyes.  1529 The Turkish army under Suleiman the  Magnificent
was defeated at Vienna. 1745 Bonnie Prince Charles and his Jacobite army
defeated the English at the Battle of Prestonpans in Scotland.  1784 The
Pennsylvania Packet and General Advertiser, the first successful US dai-
ly newspaper, was published. 1915 Stonehenge was sold at auction to Mr C
H Chubb for Ј6,600.  Mr Chubb presented it to the nation three years la-
ter. 1917 Latvia proclaimed its independence. 1938 The Anglo-French plan
to  cede Sudetenland to Germany was accepted by the Czech cabinet.  1949
The Republic of Ireland beat England 2-0 at Goodison  Park  -  England's
first home defeat by a foreign football team. 1974 Over 8,000 people we-
re killed by floods caused by hurricanes in Honduras. 1989 Hurricane Hu-
go  struck the US coastal states of Georgia and South Carolina,  causing
widespread damage and loss of life.  Born Girolamo  Savonarola,  Italian
political reformer and martyr,  1452; John Loudon McAdam, Scottish engi-
neer,  1756; Edmund William Gosse, English author, 1849; H G Wells, Eng-
lish writer,  1866; Larry Hagman, US actor, 1931; Stephen King, US nove-
list,  1948.  Died Virgil,  Roman poet, 19 BC; King Edward II, murdered,
1327;  Sir Walter Scott,  Scottish novelist,  1832; Arthur Schopenhauer,
German philosopher, 1860; Haakon VII, King of Norway, 1957; William Plo-
mer, South African author, 1973; Walter Brennan, US film actor, 1974.

22 September Feast day of St Felix II,  pope, St Landus or Lф, St Bodo,
St Emmeramus,  St Maurice of Agaunum, St Thomas of Villanova, The Theban
Legion, St Phocas the Gardener, and St Salaberga. 1735 Sir Robert Walpo-
le became the first prime minister to occupy  10  Downing  Street.  1792
France  was  declared  a Republic.  1862 US President Lincoln issued the
Emancipation Proclamation, ordering the freeing of slaves. 1869 Wagner's
opera  Das  Rheingold was first performed in Munich.  1914 Three British
cruisers,  Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy, were torpedoed and sunk by German
U-boats.  1955  Argentinian  leader Juan Perуn was deposed in a military
coup.  1955 Independent TV began operating;  Britain's first  commercial
and  first  woman  newsreader  were transmitted.  1972 Idi Amin gave the
8,000 Asians in Uganda 48 hours to leave the country. 1980 The Solidari-
ty movement in Poland was created,  with Lech Walesa as its elected lea-
der.  1985 A severe earthquake hit Mexico, killing 2,000 people. 1989 An
IRA  bomb attack on the Royal Marines School of Music killed ten and in-
jured twelve of the bandsmen. Born Anne of Cleves, 4th wife of Henry VI-
II, 1515; Michael Faraday, English chemist and physicist, 1791; Christa-
bel Pankhurst,  English suffragist,  1880;  Erich von Stroheim, Austrian
actor  and film director,  1885;  John Houseman,  US actor and producer,
1902; Fay Weldon, British author, 1931; Catherine Oxenberg, US film act-
ress,  1961.  Died Nathan Hale,  American revolutionary patriot, hanged,
1776; Axel Springer, German publisher, 1985; Jaco Pastorius, US bass gu-
itarist,  1987;  Louis Kentner, English pianist, 1987; Irving Berlin, US
composer, 1989.

23 September National Day of Saudi Arabia.  Feast day of Saints Andrew,
John, Peter and Antony, and St Adamnan or Eunan of Iona. 480 BC The Per-
sians were defeated by the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis.  1779 In the
Revolutionary  War,  a  French and American fleet commanded by John Paul
Jones,  captured the British ship Serapis in the Battle  of  Flamborough
Head. 1803 The British under Arthur Wellesley (later Duke of Wellington)
defeated Scindia and the Rajah of Berar at Assaye in India.  1846 German
astronomer Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune.  1848 Chewing gum
was first commercially produced in the US by John Curtis  in  his  home,
and  was called 'State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum'.  1912 Cohen Collects a
Debt,  the first of US film producer Mack Sennet's silent Keystone  Cops
films,  was released. 1940 The George Cross and the George Medal for ci-
vilian acts of courage were instituted.  1973 Juan Perуn was  re-elected
President  of  Argentina;  he had been ousted in 1955.  1974 The world's
first Ceefax teletext service was begun in Britain by the BBC.  Born Au-
gustus,  1st Roman Emperor,  63 BC;  Ferdinand VI,  King of Spain, 1713;
Mickey Rooney, US film actor, 1920; John Coltrane, US saxophonist, 1926;
Ray Charles, US singer, 1930; Julio Iglesias, Spanish singer, 1943; Bru-
ce Springsteen,  US rock singer,  1949;  Jeff Squire,  rugby footballer,
1951.  Died Nicholas Franзois Mansart,  French architect,  1666; Prosper
Merimйe,  French novelist, 1870; Wilkie Collins, English novelist, 1889;
Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychoanalyst, 1939; Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet,
1973; Bob Fosse, US director, 1987.

24 September Feast day of St Pacifico of San Severino, St Robert Flower
of Knaresborough,  St Geremarus or Germer, and St Gerard of Csanad. 1776
The St Leger horse race was run for the first time  at  Doncaster.  1852
French  engineer Henri Giffaud made the first flight in a dirigible bal-
loon,  from Paris to Trappe.  1930 Noel Coward's Private Lives was first
staged in London, UK. 1953 The Robe, the first Cinemascope film, premie-
red in Hollywood.  1960 The first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier,  the
USS Enterprise, was launched at Newport, Virginia. 1975 British mountai-
neers Dougal Haston and Doug Scott became the first  to  reach  Mt  Eve-
rest's summit via the south-west face.  1980 The Iraqis blew up the Aba-
dan oil refinery,  turning the Iran-Iraq conflict into a full scale war.
1991  The Shiite Muslim Revolutionary Justice Organization freed British
hostage Jack Mann, kidnapped in May 1989. Born Geronimo Cardano, Italian
physician and mathematician,  1501;  Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford,
English writer, 1717; F Scott Fitzgerald, US novelist, 1896; Howard Wal-
ter Florey,  pathologist,  1898;  Svetlana Beriosova, British ballerina,
1932;  Gerry Marsden,  English rock musician,  1942. Died Pйpin III (the
Short),  King of the Franks,  768;  Pope Innocent II,  1143; Paracelsus,
Swiss physician,  alchemist,  and scientist, 1541; Isobel Baillie, Scot-
tish oratorio singer, 1983.

25 September  Feast day of St Sergius of Radonezh,  St Vincent Strambi,
St Aunacharius or Aunaire,  St Albert of Jerusalem,  St Firminus of Ami-
ens,  St Ceolfirth, St Fibar or Bairre. 1066 King Harold II defeated the
King of Norway,  Harald Hardrada, at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. 1513
Vasco Balboa,  Spanish explorer,  became the first European to sight the
Pacific Ocean after crossing the Darien isthmus.  1818 The  first  blood
transfusion using human blood,  as opposed to earlier attempts with ani-
mal blood, took place at Guy's Hospital in London, UK. 1888 London's Ro-
yal Court Theatre,  in Sloane Square, opened. 1909 The French battleship
Libertй exploded in Toulon Harbor,  killing 226 people.  1915 The Battle
of Loos, in World War I, began; it would continue into Oct. 1954 Franзo-
is Duvalier ('Papa' Doc) was elected president of Haiti. 1957 The Natio-
nal Guard was sent in to enforce desegregation in Little Rock,  Alabama,
US.  1972 Norway voted against joining the EC in a referendum. Born Jean
Philippe Rameau,  French composer,  1683; William Faulkner, US novelist,
1897; Mark Rothko, US painter, 1903; Dmitri Shostakovich, Russian compo-
ser, 1906; Colin Davis, British conductor, 1927; Michael Douglas, US ac-
tor,  1944;  Christopher Reeve, US film actor, 1952. Died Samuel Butler,
English writer, 1680; Johann Strauss the Elder, Austrian composer, 1849;
Emily Post,  US writer,  1960;  Erich Maria Remarque,  German  novelist,
1970; Walter Pidgeon, US film actor, 1984.

26 September Feast day of Saints Cosmas and Damian,  St Nilus of Rossa-
no,  St Colman of Lann Elo, St Teresa Couderc, and St John of Meda. 1687
The  Parthenon  in  Athens was severely damaged by mortar bombs fired by
the Venetian army as it besieged the Turkish-held Acropolis.  1887  Ger-
man-born US Emile Berliner patented the first phonograph.  1907 New Zea-
land became a Dominion. 1934 The liner Queen Mary was launched at Clyde-
bank,  Scotland,  by Queen Mary. 1953 Sugar rationing in Britain came to
an end.  1955 Frozen Birds Eye fish fingers first went on sale in Brita-
in.  1961  Bob Dylan made his debut in New York's Greenwich Village,  at
Gerdie's Folk City. 1983 Alan Bond's Australia II won the America's Cup,
the  first non-US winner for 132 years.  1984 Britain agreed to transfer
full sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997.  1988 Canadian  sprinter
Ben  Johnson was stripped of his gold medal in the 100 meters at the Se-
oul Olympics after failing a drugs test. Born Thйodore Gйricault, French
painter,  1791;  Ivan Petrovich Pavlov,  Russian physiologist, 1849; T S
Eliot,  US-born British poet and playwright,  1888;  George Gershwin, US
composer,  1898;  Ian Chappell,  Australian cricketer 1943; Bryan Ferry,
English rock singer, 1945; Olivia Newton-John English singer, 1948. Died
Daniel Boone,  US frontiersman, 1820; James Keir Hardie, Scottish Labour
Party pioneer,  1915; Bйla Bartуk, Hungarian composer, 1945; Alberto Mo-
ravia, Italian writer, 1990.

27 September  Feast  day of St Elzear of Sabran,  St Barrog or Barnoch,
and St Vincent de Paul.  1821 Mexico achieved independence  through  the
efforts  of  General  Hubride,  who declared himself Emperor Augustin I.
1826 The Stockton and Darlington Railway,  the first passenger rail ser-
vice,  opened, with its first steam locomotive traveling at 10 mph. 1922
Constantine I,  King of Greece,  abdicated following the Greek defeat in
Turkey.  1938  The  80,000-ton liner Queen Elizabeth was launched by the
Queen Mother.  1939 Warsaw,  the capital of Poland,  surrendered to  the
German forces. 1968 The musical Hair, which took advantage of the end of
British stage censorship by including a scene cast in the nude,  had its
first  London performance.  Born Samuel Adams,  US revolutionary leader,
1722; George Cruikshank, English caricaturist and illustrator, 1792; Lo-
uis Botha, South African politician, 1862; Vincent Youmans, US composer,
1898;  Alvin Stardust,  rock singer, 1942; Michele Dotrice, English act-
ress,  1948.  Died Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov, Russian novelist, 1891;
Edgar Degas,  French painter, 1917; Engelbert Humperdinck, German compo-
ser,  1921;  Aristide Maillol,  French painter and sculptor, 1944; Clara
Bow,  US film actress, 1965; Gracie Fields, English singer and comedian,

28 September  Feast  day of St Eustochium of Bethlehem,  St Annemund or
Chamond,  St Faustus of Riez,  St Ferreolus of Vienne, St Lioba, St Wen-
ceslaus of Bohemia,  and St Exuperius or Soupire of Toulouse. 490 BC The
Greeks defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon. 1745 At the Dru-
ry Lane Theatre,  London,  God Save the King,  the national anthem,  was
sung for the first time.  1794 Britain,  Russia,  and Austria formed the
Alliance  of St Petersburg against France.  1864 The First International
was founded in London,  when Karl Marx proposed the formation of an  In-
ternational  Working Men's Association.  1865 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
became the first qualified woman physician in Britain.  1894 Simon Marks
and  Tom  Spencer opened their Penny Bazaar in Manchester,  the first of
what would become a nation-wide chain of stores.  1978 Pope John Paul I,
pope for only 33 days, was found dead. Born Caravaggio, Italian painter,
1573;  Prosper Merimйe,  French writer, 1803; Georges Clemenceau, French
politician, 1841; Peter Finch, British film actor, 1916; Michael Soames,
English dancer, 1917; Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor, 1924; Brigit-
te Bardot, French film actress, 1934. Died Andrea del Sarto, Italian pa-
inter,  1530;  Herman Melville, US novelist, 1891; Louis Pasteur, French
chemist, 1895; Emile Zola, French novelist, 1902; W H Auden, English po-
et, 1973; William Douglas-Home, British playwright, 1992.

29 September Feast day of Saints Rhipsime,  Gaiana and  Companions,  St
Theodota  of Philippolis,  and St Michael,  St Raphael,  and St Gabriel,
archangels. 1399 The first monarch to abdicate, Richard II, was replaced
by Bolingbroke who ascended the throne as Henry IV. 1829 The first regu-
lar police force in London was inaugurated; the officers became known as
'bobbies'  after Robert Peel,  the Home Secretary who founded the modern
police force.  1911 Italy declared war on Turkey over possession of Tri-
poli, in Libya. 1916 John D Rockefeller became the world's first billio-
naire during the share boom in the US. 1938 The Munich Agreement between
Germany and France, Italy and Britain was signed. 1944 Soviet troops en-
tered Yugoslavia.  1950 The first automatic telephone answering  machine
was  tested by the US Bell Telephone Company.  1991 Haiti's first freely
elected president,  Jean-Bertrand Aristide, was ousted in a military co-
up. Born Miguel de Cervantes, Spanish playwright and novelist, 1547; Ho-
ratio Nelson,  Viscount,  English admiral, 1758; Enrico Fermi, US physi-
cist,  1901;  Jerry Lee Lewis, US singer and pianist, 1935; Lech Walesa,
Polish leader,  1943; Sebastian Coe, English athlete, 1956. Died Winslow
Homer,  US painter,  1910;  Rudolf Diesel, German engineer, 1913; Willem
Einthoven,  Dutch physiologist, 1927; Winifred Holtby, English novelist,
1935; Bruce Bairnsfather, British cartoonist, 1959; Carson McCullers, US
author, 1967.

30 September National Day of Botswana. Feast day of St Jerome, St Simon
of  Crйpy,  St  Gregory the Enlightener,  and St Honorius of Canterbury.
1791 The first performance of Mozart's Magic Flute took place in Vienna.
1888 Jack the Ripper murdered two more women - Liz Stride,  found behind
40 Berner Street,  and Kate Eddowes in Mitre Square,  both  in  London's
East End.  1902 Rayon,  or artificial silk, was patented. 1928 Alexander
Fleming announced his discovery of penicillin.  1935  George  Gershwin's
opera  Porgy  and Bess was first performed in Boston.  1939 The USSR and
Germany agreed on the partition of Poland.  1952 Cinerama,  invented  by
Fred Waller,  was first exhibited in New York.  1987 Keith Best, MP, was
sentenced to four months in prison for trying to obtain British  Telecom
shares by deception.  Born Lord Raglan, British field-marshal, 1788; Da-
vid Fyodorovich Oistrakh, Russian violinist, 1908; Deborah Kerr, British
actress,  1923; Truman Capote, US author, 1924; Angie Dickinson, US act-
ress, 1931; Johnny Mathis, US singer, 1937. Died James Brindley, British
canal  engineer,  1772;  Richard  Austin Freeman,  British crime writer,
1943; James Dean, US film actor, 1955; Simone Signoret, French film act-
ress, 1985; Virgil Thomson, US composer, 1989.

1 October National Day of China,  Nigeria,  and Cyprus. Feast day of St
Romanus the Melodist,  St Melorus or  Mylor,  St  Bavo  or  Allowin,  St
Thйrиse  of  Lisieux.  331 BC Alexander the Great defeated Darius III at
Arbela.  1795 Belgium became part of the French Republic.  1843 The News
of the World, Britain's most popular Sunday newspaper, was first publis-
hed. 1908 The first Model T, produced in Detroit, Michigan, was introdu-
ced by Henry Ford. 1918 The Arab forces of Emir Faisal, with British of-
ficer T E Lawrence, captured Damascus from the Turks. 1936 General Fran-
cisco Franco took office as Head of Spain's Nationalist Government. 1938
German forces entered Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia, annexed by Hitler un-
der the Munich Agreement.  1949 The People's Republic of China was proc-
laimed,  with Mao Zedong as its chairman. 1971 Disney World, the world's
largest amusement resort, was opened in Florida. 1982 Helmut Kohl became
federal chancellor of West Germany, succeeding Helmut Schmidt. Born King
Henry III,  1207;  Paul Dukas, French composer, 1865; Vladimir Horowitz,
US pianist,  1904;  Walter Matthau,  US film actor,  1920; Jimmy Carter,
39th US president, 1924; Richard Harris, British actor, 1933; Julie And-
rews,  English actress and singer,  1935.  Died Pierre Corneille, French
dramatist, 1684; John Blow, British composer, 1708; Edwin Landseer, Eng-
lish painter, 1873; Wilhelm Dilthey, German philosopher, 1911; Louis Se-
ymour Bazett Leakey,  English anthropologist, 1972; Roy Harris US compo-
ser, 1979.

2 October Feast day of The Guardian Angels,  St Leger  or  Leodegarius,
and St Eleutherius of Nicomedia. 1187 Saladin, the Muslim sultan, captu-
red Jerusalem after its 88-year occupation by the Franks. 1608 The first
telescope  was  demonstrated by the Dutch lens maker,  Hans Lipperschey.
1836 Charles Darwin returned from his five-year survey of South American
waters aboard the HMS Beagle.  1870 Rome became the capital of the newly
unified Italy.  1901 The British Royal Navy's first submarine,  built by
Vickers, was launched at Barrow. 1909 The first rugby football match was
played at Twickenham,  between Harlequins and Richmond. 1942 The British
cruiser  Curacao  sank with the loss of 338 lives,  after colliding with
the liner Queen Mary off the coast of Donegal.  1983  Neil  Kinnock  was
elected leader of Britain's Labour Party. 1993 CIS President Boris Yelt-
sin declared a State of Emergency in Moscow as pro-parliamentary  rebels
seized the White House.  Born Mikhail Yurevich Lermontov,  Russian poet,
1814;  Paul von Hindenburg,  German field marshal and politician,  1847;
William Ramsay,  Scottish chemist, 1852; Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, In-
dian leader, 1869; Graham Greene, English novelist, 1904; Sting, English
rock singer,  1951.  Died Samuel Adams,  US statesman,  1803; Max Bruch,
German composer,  1920; Marie Stopes, Scottish birth-control campaigner,
1958;  Marcel Duchamp, French painter, 1968; Rock Hudson, US film actor,
1985; Peter Medawar, British immunologist, 1987.

3 October Feast day of St Hesychius,  St Thomas Cantelupe of  Hereford,
St Attilanus, St Gerard of Brogne, St Froilan, St Ewald the Fair, and St
Ewald the Dark. 1811 The first women's county cricket match began at Ne-
wington,  between Hampshire and Surrey. 1888 Gilbert and Sullivan's Yeo-
men of the Guard was performed for the first  time,  at  London's  Savoy
Theatre.  1906  SOS was established as an international distress signal,
replacing the call sign CQD. 1929 The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slo-
venes was renamed Yugoslavia. 1952 The first British atomic bomb was de-
tonated on the Monte Bello Islands,  off W Australia.  1956 The  Bolshoi
Ballet performed in Britain,  at Covent Garden, for the first time. 1972
US President Nixon signed SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty)  limi-
ting US and USSR to 200 defensive antiballistic missiles to be installed
at two sites.  B{1990 East and West Germany were  officially  reunified,
with Berlin as the capital.  Born Pierre Bonnard,  French painter, 1867;
Louis Aragon,  French poet,  1897; Michael Hordern, English actor, 1911;
James Herriot, Scottish author, 1916; Gore Vidal, US author, 1925; Chub-
by Checker,  US rock singer,  1941.  Died St Francis, Italian founder of
the Franciscan order, 1226; William Morris, English designer, socialist,
and poet,  1896;  Woody Guthrie,  US singer and composer,  1967; Malcolm
Sargent, British conductor, 1967; Jean Anouilh, French dramatist, 1987.

4 October National Day of Lesotho.  Feast day of St Petronius of Bolog-
na,  St Francis of Assisi,  and St Ammon.  The first Chinese Embassy  in
Washington,  DC was opened.  1905 Orville Wright became the first to fly
an aircraft for over 33 minutes. 1910 Portugal was proclaimed a republic
when  King  Manuel II was driven from the country by a revolution.  1911
Britain's first public escalator was switched on, at London's Earl's Co-
urt underground station.  1957 The USSR's Sputnik I, the first space sa-
tellite,  was launched.  1958 BOAC (now British Airways) began operating
the first transatlantic passenger jet service. 1965 Pope Paul VI visited
New York to address the UN,  becoming the first pope to  visit  the  US.
1983  A world record speed of 663.5 mph was achieved by Richard Noble in
his jet-powered automobile Thrust II, in Nevada. 1993 In Moscow, the le-
aders of the pro-parliamentary rebels,  among them Alexander Rutskoi and
Ruslan Khusbulatov,  surrendered to government forces. Born Giambattista
Piranesi, Italian architect, 1720; Jean Franзois Millet, French painter,
1814;  Engelbert Dollfuss,  Austrian statesman,  1892; Buster Keaton, US
comedian,  1892;  Charlton Heston,  US film actor, 1924; Terence Conran,
British designer,  1931.  Died Benozzo Gozzoli,  Italian painter,  1497;
Rembrandt,  Dutch painter,  1669;  John Rennie, Scottish civil engineer,
1821; Arthur Whitten Brown, pioneer aviator, 1948; Janis Joplin, US sin-
ger, 1970.

5 October Feast day of St Flora of Beaulieu,  St Maurus, St Magenulf or
Meinulf,  St Apollinaris of Valence,  and St Galla.  1796 Spain declared
war on Britain,  during the Revolutionary Wars.  1880 The earliest 'ball
pen', with its own ink supply and retractable tip, was patented by Alon-
zo  T Cross.  1908 Bulgaria declared its independence from Turkey.  1911
Italian troops occupied Tripoli,  in Libya,  during its war with Turkey.
1914  The first air battle took place between French and German aircraft
during World War I; both sides suffered losses. 1930 The British airship
R101,  the world's largest dirigible at that time,  crashed in France en
route to India;  the British air minister was among the 48 killed.  1936
The Jarrow march,  of unemployed shipyard workers, started its southward
journey to London, UK. 1967 The first majority verdict by a jury in Bri-
tain was taken,  in Brighton. 1970 Anwar Sadat succeeded Gamal Nasser as
president of Egypt.  Born Denis Diderot, French philosopher, 1713; Ches-
ter Alan Arthur,  21st US president, 1830; Donald Pleasence, English ac-
tor, 1919; Glynis Johns, British actress, 1923; Vaclav Havel, Czech dra-
matist and president,  1936; Bob Geldof, Irish musician, 1954. Died Phi-
lip III ('the Bold'), King of France, 1285; Joachim Patinir, Dutch pain-
ter,  1524;  Jacques Offenbach, French composer, 1880; Jean Vigo, French
film director, 1934; Nelson Riddle, US composer and arranger, 1985.

6 October Feast day of St Mary Frances of Naples,  St Faith of Agen, St
Nicetas  of  Constantinople,  and St Bruno.  1769 English naval explorer
Captain James Cook,  aboard the Endeavour,  landed in New Zealand.  1883
The  Orient Express completed its first run from Paris to Constantinople
(now Istanbul) in nearly 78 hours.  1908 Austria annexed Bosnia and Her-
zegovina.  1927 Warner Brothers' The Jazz Singer, the first talking fea-
ture film (starring Al Jolson),  premiered in New York. 1928 Nationalist
General Chiang Kai-shek became president of China.  1968 The first three
places in the US Grand Prix were taken by British drivers:  Jackie  Ste-
wart, Graham Hill, and John Surtees. 1978 London Underground's first wo-
man driver started work.  1981 One day after the 11th anniversary of his
election  to office,  Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was assassinated by
Muslim extremists. Born Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, 1732; Le Cor-
busier, Swiss architect, 1887; Janet Gaynor, US film actress, 1906; Thor
Heyerdahl,  Norwegian ethnologist, 1914; Richie Benaud, Australian cric-
keter and commentator, 1930; Melvyn Bragg, English writer and TV presen-
ter, 1939. Died William Tyndale, English Bible translator, 1536; William
Henry Smith,  English newsagent,  bookseller and statesman, 1891; Alfred
Tennyson, English poet, 1892; George du Maurier, English novelist, 1896;
Denholm Elliott, English actor, 1992; Cyril Cusack, Irish actor, 1993.

7 October Feast day of St Justina of Padua,  St Mark, pope, St Artaldus
or Arthaud,  and St Osyth. 1571 The Battle of Lepanto, between Christian
allied  naval  forces and the Ottoman Turks attempting to capture Cyprus
from the Venetians, took place. 1806 The first carbon paper was patented
by its English inventor, Ralph Wedgwood. 1919 The Dutch airline KLM, the
oldest existing airline, was established. 1949 The German Democratic Re-
public,  or East Germany,  was formed.  1958 The first photograph of the
far side of the Moon was transmitted from the USSR's Lunik I.  1985  The
Italian  liner Achille Lauro was seized by Palestinian terrorists;  they
surrendered two days later,  having killed one US passenger.  1988  Grey
whales  trapped under ice in Alaska became the focus of an international
rescue effort.  Born William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1573; Niels
Bohr,  Danish physicist,  1885;  Desmond Tutu,  Archbishop of Cape Town,
1931;  Clive James,  Australian critic and TV presenter, 1939; Yo Yo Ma,
Chinese cellist,  1955; Jane Torvill, English ice skater, 1957. Died Ed-
gar Allan Poe,  US novelist and poet,  1849;  Oliver Wendell Holmes,  US
writer, 1894; Marie Lloyd, English music hall comedienne, 1922; Radclyf-
fe Hall,  English author,  1943; Clarence Birdseye, US deep-freezing in-
ventor, 1967; Bette Davis, US actress, 1989; Agnes de Mille, US choreog-
rapher, 1993.

8 October Feast day of St Simeon Senex,  St Pelagia (or  Margaret)  the
Penitent, St Demetrius, St Keyne, St Thaпs, St Marcellus, and St Repara-
ta of Caesarea. 1085 St Mark's Cathedral in Venice was consecrated. 1871
The  Great  Fire of Chicago started.  It burned until the 11th,  killing
over 250 people and making 95,000 homeless. 1905 A permanent waving mac-
hine  was  first  used on a woman's hair,  by Charles Nessler.  1915 The
Battle of Loos,  in World War I, ended. 1939 Western Poland was incorpo-
rated  in  the Third Reich.  1965 London's Post Office Tower,  Britain's
tallest building, opened. 1967 A breathalyzer was used on a motorist for
the first time,  in Somerset.  1973 LBC (London Broadcasting), Britain's
first legal commercial radio station, began transmitting. Born John Cow-
per Powys,  English novelist,  1872;  Alfred Munnings,  British painter,
1878; Juan Perуn, Argentine dictator, 1895; Betty Boothroyd, British MP,
the Speaker,1929; Merle Park, British ballerina, 1937; Jesse Jackson, US
politician,  1941.  Died Jan Massys,  Flemish painter, 1575; Henry Fiel-
ding,  English novelist, 1754; Franklin Pierce, 14th US president, 1869;
Kathleen Ferrier,  English contralto, 1953; Clement Attlee, British sta-
tesman, 1967; Willy Brandt, former German federal chancellor, 1992.

9 October National Day of Uganda. Feast Day of St Demetrius of Alexand-
ria,  Saints Eleutherius and Rusticus,  Saints Andronicus and Athanasia,
St Denis or Dionysius of Paris,  St Dionysius the Aeropagite,  St Savin,
St Publia,  St Louis Bertrбn, and St Ghislain or Gislenus. 1470 Henry VI
was  restored to the throne after being deposed in 1461.  1779 The first
Luddite riots,  against the introduction of machinery for spinning  cot-
ton,  began in Manchester. 1875 The Universal Postal Union was establis-
hed,  with headquarters in Berne,  Switzerland.  1888 The massive marble
Washington Monument,  designed by Robert Mills, was opened. 1934 Alexan-
der,  King of Yugoslavia, and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou were
assassinated  by  Croatian terrorists in Marseilles.  1967 Ernesto 'Che'
Guevara,  Argentinian-born guerilla leader and revolutionary, was murde-
red in Bolivia. Born Camille Saint-Saлns, French composer, 1835; Alasta-
ir Sim,  British actor,  1900; Jacques Tati, French film director, 1908;
Don McCullin,  British war photographer,  1935; John Lennon, rock singer
and songwriter,  1940;  Steve Ovett, English athlete, 1955. Died Gabriel
Fallopius,  Italian anatomist, 1562; Pope Pius XII, 1958; Andrй Maurois,
French writer,  1967;  Clare Booth Luce, US writer and politician, 1987;
Jackie Millburn, English footballer, 1988.

10 October Feast day of St Francis Borgia, St Daniel, St Cerbonius, Sa-
ints Eulampius and Eulampia,  St Paulinus of York, St Maharsapor, and St
Gereon.  732 The Franks,  under Charles Martel, defeated the Saracens at
the Battle of Tours.  1886 The dinner jacket was first worn in New  York
by  its creator at the Tuxedo Park Country Club,  after which it was na-
med. 1903 Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst formed the Women's Social and Political
Union to fight for women's emancipation in Britain. 1911 China's Imperi-
al Dynasty was forced to abdicate,  and a republic was proclaimed, under
Sun  Yat-Sen.  1935  George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess opened in New York
City.  1961 Following a volcanic eruption,  the entire population of the
South Atlantic island of Tristan da Cunha was evacuated to Britain. 1973
US Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned after being fined US $10,000  for
income  tax evasion.  Born Jean Antoine Watteau,  French painter,  1684;
Henry Cavendish, English physicist, 1731; Giuseppe Verdi, Italian compo-
ser,  1813;  Thelonious Monk, US jazz pianist and composer, 1918; Harold
Pinter, British dramatist, 1930; Charles Dance, British actor, 1946. Di-
ed Fra Filippo Lippi,  Italian painter, 1469; Edith Piaf, French singer,
1963;  Eddie Cantor,  US actor and entertainer,  1964; Ralph Richardson,
English actor,  1983;  Orson Welles,  US actor and producer,  1985;  Yul
Brynner, US film actor, 1985.

11 October Feast day of St Mary Soledad,  Saints Andronicus,  Tarachus,
and Probus,  St Agilbert, St Alexander Sauli, St Nectarius of Constanti-
nople, St Bruno the Great of Cologne, St Gummarus or Gomaire, and St Ca-
nice or Kenneth. 1521 Pope Leo X conferred the title of 'Defender of the
Faith' (Fidei Difensor) on Henry VIII for his book  supporting  Catholic
principles. 1689 Peter the Great, Tsar of Russia, assumed control of the
government.  1899 The Anglo-Boer War began.  1923 Rampant  inflation  in
Germany caused the mark to drop to an exchange rate of 10,000,000,000 to
the pound. 1968 The US spacecraft Apollo 7 was launched from Cape Kenne-
dy,  with  a crew of three.  1980 The Soviet Salyut 6 returned to earth;
its cosmonauts had been in space for a record 185 days.  1982  The  Mary
Rose,  which  had  been the pride of Henry VIII's fleet until it sank in
the Solent in 1545,  was raised.  Born Arthur Phillip,  English admiral,
1738;  George  Williams,  founder of the YMCA,  1821;  Franзois Mauriac,
French author,  1885; Richard Burton, Welsh actor, 1925; Bobby Charlton,
English footballer,  1937;  Dawn French, English actress and comedienne,
1957.  Died Huldrych Zwingli, Swiss religious reformer, 1531; Meriwether
Lewis,  US explorer,  1809;  James Joule, English physicist, 1889; Anton
Bruckner, Austrian composer, 1896; 'Chico' Marx, US comedian, 1961; Jean
Cocteau,  French poet,  dramatist, and film director, 1963; Jess Thomas,
US operatic tenor, 1993.

12 October Columbus Day in the US. Feast day of St Maximilian of Lorch,
Saints Felix and Cyprian, St Edwin, St Wilfrid of York, and St Ethelbur-
ga of Barking.  1492 Columbus sighted his first land in discovering  the
New World, calling it San Salvador. 1901 US President Theodore Roosevelt
renamed the Executive Mansion 'The White House'.  1928  The  first  iron
lung was used,  at Boston Children's Hospital,  Massachusetts.  1948 The
first Morris Minor,  designed by Alec Issigonis, was produced at Cowley,
Oxfordshire, UK. 1949 The German Democratic Republic was declared in the
Soviet sector of Berlin.  1968 The 19th Olympic Games opened  in  Mexico
City. 1984 During the Tory Party Conference at the Grand Hotel in Brigh-
ton,  an IRA bomb exploded in the hotel in an attempt to murder the Bri-
tish  Cabinet.  1986 Queen Elizabeth II became the first British monarch
to visit China.  Born King Edward VI, 1537; Elmer Ambrose Sperry, US in-
ventor,  1860; James Ramsay McDonald, British statesman, 1866; Ralph Va-
ughan Williams, English composer, 1872; Aleister Crowley, British occul-
tist,  1875; Luciano Pavarotti, Italian operatic tenor, 1935. Died Piero
della Francesca,  Italian painter,  1492;  Elizabeth Fry, English prison
reformer,  1845; Robert Stephenson, English civil engineer, 1859; Robert
E Lee,  US Confederate general,  1870;  Anatole France,  French  author,
1924;  Tom Mix,  US western film actor,  1940; Leon Ames, US film actor,

13 October Feast day of Saints Januarius and Martial,  St Gerald of Au-
rillac,  St Edward the Confessor,  St Coloman,  St Comgan, St Faustus of
Cordova,  and St Maurice of Carnoлt.  1307 On the orders of Philip IV of
France,  the  arrest  of the Templars on charges of heresy took place in
Paris. 1792 The cornerstone of the White House, Washington, DC, was laid
by  President George Washington.  1884 Greenwich was adapted as the uni-
versal time meridian of longitude from which standard  times  throughout
the  world  are  calculated.  1894 The first Merseyside 'derby' football
match was played at Goodison Park between Liverpool  and  Everton,  with
Everton  winning 3-0.  1904 Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams
was published.  1923 Ankara replaced Istanbul as the capital of  Turkey.
1988  The  Cardinal of Turin confirmed reports that the Shroud of Turin,
believed to carry the imprint of Christ's face,  had been scientifically
dated to the Middle Ages. Born Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist, 1821;
Lillie Langtry,  British actress,  1853; Yves Montand, French singer and
actor, 1921; Margaret Thatcher, British politician, 1925; Paul Simon, US
singer and songwriter, 1941; Marie Osmond, US singer, 1959. Died Claudi-
us I,  Roman emperor,  54;  Nicholas de Malebranche, French philosopher,
1715;  Joachim Murat,  King of the Two Sicilies,  1815;  Antonio Canova,
Italian sculptor, 1822; Henry Irving, English actor, 1905; Clifton Webb,
US actor, 1966.

14 October National Day of Madagascar.  Feast day of St Callixtus I, St
Angadiama,  St Justus of Lyons, St Burchard of Wьrzburg, St Manaccus, St
Manechildis,  and St Dominic Lauricatus. 1066 The Battle of Hastings was
fought on Senlac Hill, where King Harold was slain as William the Conqu-
eror's troops routed the English army. 1884 Photographic film was paten-
ted by US entrepreneur and inventor George Eastman.  1920 Oxford degrees
were conferred on women for the first time.  1947 The  first  supersonic
flight (670 mph) was made in California by Charles Yeagar in his Bell XI
rocket plane.  1971 The US spacecraft Mariner 9  transmitted  the  first
close-up TV pictures of Mars to Earth. 1982 The largest mass wedding to-
ok place in Seoul, South Korea, when 5,837 couples were married simulta-
neously.  Born William Penn, Quaker founder of Pennsylvania, 1644; Йamon
de Valera,  Irish statesman,  1882;  Dwight D Eisenhower, 34th US presi-
dent,  1890; e e cummings, US poet, 1894; Lillian Gish, US film actress,
1899; Cliff Richard, English singer, 1940. Died Erwin Rommel, German fi-
eld-marshal,  1944;  Errol Flynn,  Australian actor,  1959; Edith Evans,
English actress,1976;  Bing Crosby, US singer and film actor, 1977; Leo-
nard Bernstein, US conductor and composer, 1990.

15 October  Feast day of St Teresa of Avila,  St Leonard of Vandoeuvre,
St Thecla of Kitzingen, and St Euthymius the Younger. 1581 The first ma-
jor  ballet was staged at the request of Catherine de' Medici at the pa-
lace in Paris.  1582 The Gregorian calendar was adopted in Italy, Spain,
Portugal, and France; 5 Oct became 15 Oct. 1915 In World War I, Bulgaria
allied itself with the Central European Powers.  1917 Mata  Hari,  Dutch
spy,  was  shot in Paris,  having been found guilty of espionage for the
Germans.  1928 The German airship Graf Zeppelin, captained by Hugo Ecke-
ner, completed its first transatlantic flight. 1961 The human-rights or-
ganization Amnesty International was established in London, UK. 1969 The
'Vietnam  Moratorium'  - the biggest anti-war demonstration organized in
the US - was held across America. 1993 US warships enforced UN sanctions
imposed  on  Haiti,  after  international efforts to reinstate President
Aristide collapsed.  Born Virgil,  Roman poet, 70 BC; Evangelista Torri-
celli, Italian physicist, 1608; Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, German phi-
losopher, 1844; P G Wodehouse, English novelist, 1881; C P Snow, English
scientist and novelist,  1905;  Mario Puzo,  US novelist,  1920; HRH the
Duchess of York,  1959. Died Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French explo-
rer,  1730;  Tadeusz Ko'sciuszko,  Polish patriot, 1817; Raymond Nicolas
Landry Poincarй,  French statesman,  1934; Hermann Goering, Nazi leader,
1946; Cole Porter, US composer and lyricist, 1964.

16 October Feast day of Saints Martinian and Maxima, St Margaret- Mary,
St Anastasius of Cluny, St Hedwig, St Bertrand of Comminges, St Bechari-
us, St Mommolinus, St Lull, St Gerard Majella, and St Gall. 1815 Napole-
on was exiled to the Atlantic island of St Helena. 1846 The first public
surgical  operation  using  ether  as an anesthetic was performed at the
Massachusetts General Hospital,  Boston. 1902 The first detention center
housing young offenders was opened in Borstal,  Kent, UK. 1922 The Simp-
lon II railroad tunnel,  under the Alps,  was completed.  1946 Nazi  war
criminals, including von Ribbentrop, Rosenberg, and Streicher, were han-
ged at Nuremberg. 1964 China exploded a nuclear device. 1964 Labour Par-
ty leader Harold Wilson became Prime Minister.  1978 Cardinal Karol Woj-
tyla was elected Pope John Paul II - the first  non-Italian  pope  since
1542. 1987 Southern England was hit by hurricane force winds, causing 19
deaths and hundreds of millions of pounds' worth of  damage.  Born  Noah
Webster,  US lexicographer,  1758; Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist and aut-
hor,  1854; Austen Chamberlain, British statesman, 1863; David Ben Guri-
on,  Israeli statesman, 1886; Eugene O'Neill, US dramatist, 1888; Gьnter
Grass,  German novelist,  1927. Died Hugh Latimer, bishop and Protestant
martyr, 1555; Nicholas Ridley, bishop and Protestant martyr, 1555; Marie
Antoinette,  Queen of France, 1793; George Marshall, US general and dip-
lomat,  1959;  Moshe Dayan, Israeli general and politician, 1981; Cornel
Wilde,  US film actor, 1989; Paolo Bortoluzzi, Italian dancer and chore-
ographer, 1993.

17 October  Feast  day of The Ursuline Martyrs of Valenciennes,  Saints
Ethelbert and Ethelred,  St John the Dwarf, St Anstrudis or Austrude, St
Seraphino, St Nothelm, St Ignatius of Antioch, and St Rule. 1651 Charles
II,  defeated by Cromwell at Worcester,  fled to France,  destitute  and
friendless. 1777 British commander General Burgoyne surrendered to Gene-
ral Horatio Gates at Saratoga,  a victory for  the  American  colonists.
1914 An earthquake struck Greece and Asia Minor,  killing over 3,000 pe-
ople. 1931 US gangster Al Capone was sentenced to 11 years in prison for
income-tax evasion, the only charge that could be sustained against him.
1956 Calder Hall,  Britain's first nuclear power  station,  was  opened.
1959  The  South  African De Beers diamond firm announced that synthetic
industrial diamonds had been produced.  1977 A US Supreme  Court  ruling
allowed  Concorde  to use Kennedy Airport,  New York.  Born John Wilkes,
British political reformer,  1727;  Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen),  Danish
author,  1885; Nathaniel West, US novelist, 1903; Arthur Miller, US dra-
matist, 1915; Rita Hayworth, US film actress, 1918; Montgomery Clift, US
film actor;  Ann Jones, English tennis player, 1938. Died Philip Sidney,
English poet and soldier,  1586; Frйdйric Chopin, Polish composer, 1849;
Gustav Robert Kirchoff, German physicist, 1887; Julia Ward Howe, US aut-
hor, 1910; S J Perelman, US humorist, 1979; William Paton, English phar-
macologist, 1993.

18 October Feast day of St Luke,  St Gwen of Corwall,  and St Justus of
Beauvais.  1685 The Edict of Nantes,  granting religious freedom to  the
Huguenots,  was revoked by King Louis XIV of France. 1826 Britain's last
state lottery was held.  1887 Russia transferred Alaska to  the  US  for
$7.2 million.  1922 The British Broadcasting Company (later Corporation)
was officially formed. 1977 Germany's anti-terrorist squad stormed a hi-
jacked Lufthansa aircraft at Mogadishu Airport,  Somalia,  killing three
of the four Palestinian hijackers and freeing all of the hostages.  1989
Following a wave of pro-democracy demonstrations in East Germany,  Erich
Honecker was replaced as head of state by Egon Krenz.  1989 With the end
of Communist rule, Hungary was proclaimed a free republic. Born Canalet-
to,  Italian painter, 1697; Henri Bergson, French philosopher, 1859; Pi-
erre Trudeau,  Canadian politician,  1919; Chuck Berry, US singer, 1926;
George C Scott,  US film actor,  1927; Martina Navratilova, Czech tennis
player,  1956.  Died Lord Palmerston,  British politician, 1865; Charles
Babbage,  English mathematician,  1871;  Charles Franзois Gounod, French
composer,  1893; Thomas Edison, US inventor, 1931; Elizabeth Arden, cos-
metics company founder,  1966;  Pierre Mendиs-France,  French statesman,

19 October Feast day of St Paul of the Cross, St Philip Howard, St Eth-
bin,  St Aquilinus of Evreux,  St Cleopatra,  St Frideswide, St Peter of
Alcбntara, St John de Brйbeuf, St Renй Goupil, St Varus, and Saints Pto-
lemy and Lucius.  1781 Lord Cornwallis surrendered to General Washington
at Yorktown,  Virginia,  marking the end of the Revolutionary War.  1813
The Allies defeated Napoleon at the Battle of the  Nations  at  Leipzig.
1860  The  first  company to manufacture internal combustion engines was
formed in Florence. 1864 In the American Civil War, General Sheridan was
victorious over the Confederates at the Battle of Cedar Creek.  1872 The
Holtermann nugget was mined at  Hill  End,  New  South  Wales;  weighing
630lbs, it was the largest gold-bearing nugget ever found. 1935 The Lea-
gue of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy,  following  her  invasion  of
Abyssinia (Ethiopia). 1987 Wall Street was struck by 'Black Monday', du-
ring which millions were wiped out on stock markets  around  the  world.
1989 After serving 14 years in prison for the IRA Guildford and Woolwich
bombings,  the 'Guildford Four' had their convictions quashed. Born Tho-
mas Browne, English author and physician, 1605; Leigh Hunt, English poet
and essayist,  1784;  Alfred Dreyfus, French army officer, 1859; Auguste
Marie Lumiиre, French photographic pioneer, 1862; John Le Carrй, English
novelist,  1931;  Peter Tosh,  Jamaican reggae musician, 1944. Died King
John  of  England,  1216;  Thomas Browne,  English author and physician,
1682;  Jonathan Swift,  Irish author,  1745; George Pullman, US engineer
and sleeping-car manufacturer, 1897; Ernest Rutherford, New Zealand phy-
sicist, 1937; Jacqueline du Prй, British cellist, 1987.

20 October Feast day of St Artemius,  St Andrew the Calybite of  Crete,
St Caprasius of Agen, St Bertilla Boscardin, and St Acca. 1714 The coro-
nation of King George I took place.  1818 Britain and the US established
the  49th  parallel as the boundary between Canada and the US.  1822 The
Sunday Times was first published.  1827 The Battle of Navarino,  off the
coast of Greece,  ended with the combined British,  French,  and Russian
fleets completely destroying the Egyptian and Turkish fleets.  1935  Mao
Zedong's Long March ended in Yenan,  north China. 1944 The Allies captu-
red Aachen, Germany. 1944 US troops landed at Leyte, in the Philippines.
1968  Jacqueline Kennedy,  widow of US president Kennedy,  married Greek
millionaire Aristotle Onassis.  1973 The Sydney Opera House, designed by
Danish architect John Utzon,  was opened to the public. Born Christopher
Wren, English architect, 1632; Lord Palmerston, British statesman, 1784;
Arthur Rimbaud,  French poet,  1854;  James Chadwick, English physicist,
1891;  Anna Neagle,  British actress,  1904; Tom Petty, US guitarist and
singer, 1953. Died Thomas Linacre, English physician and humanist, 1524;
Richard Francis Burton, English explorer and scholar, 1890; Herbert Hoo-
ver, 31st US president, 1964; Bud Flanagan, English comedian, 1968; She-
ila Scott, English aviator, 1988; Anthony Quayle, English actor, 1989.

21 October Feast day of St Hilarion,  St Fintan or Munnu of Taghmon, St
Condedus, St Tuda, St John of Bridlington, and St Malchus. 1805 The Bri-
tish defeated the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar.  1858
Offenbach's opera Orpheus in the Underworld was first performed,  in Pa-
ris. 1934 Mao Zedong's Long March, with his 100,000-strong Communist ar-
my, began. 1950 Tibet was occupied by Chinese forces. 1960 Britain laun-
ched its first nuclear submarine,  the HMS Dreadnought.  1966 The  Welsh
village  of  Aberfan was engulfed by a collapsed slagheap,  killing 144,
including 116 children.  1967 Egyptian missiles sank the Israeli destro-
yer Eilat,  with the loss of over 40 lives. 1984 Niki Lauda became world
motor-racing champion for the third time. 1991 Jesse Turner, an American
who had been held hostage in Lebanon for just under five years, was fre-
ed by his captors. Born Katsushika Hokusai, Japanese artist and printma-
ker,  1760;  Samuel Taylor Coleridge,  English poet, 1772; Alfred Nobel,
Swedish industrialist,  1833; Georg Solti, British conductor, 1912; Diz-
zie Gillespie,  US jazz trumpeter, 1917; Carrie Fisher, US film actress,
1956.  Died Pietro Aretino, Italian writer, 1556; Edmund Waller, English
poet, 1687; Horatio, Viscount Nelson, English admiral, killed at Trafal-
gar,  1805;  Jack Kerouac, US poet and novelist, 1969; Bob Todd, English
comedy actor, 1992.

22 October  Feast  day of St Philip of Heraclea and his Companions,  St
Mellon or Mallonus,  St Abercius, Saints Nunilo and Alodia, and St Dona-
tus of Fiesole.  1797 The first parachute jump was made by Andrй-Jacques
Garnerin from a balloon above the Parc Monceau,  Paris.  1878 The  first
floodlit  rugby  match  took place,  Broughton v Swinton,  at Broughton,
Lancs. 1883 New York's Metropolitan Opera House opened. 1909 French avi-
ator Elise Deroche became the first woman to make a solo flight. 1910 Dr
Hawley Crippen was found guilty of poisoning his wife and was  sentenced
to  be hanged on 23 October 1910.  1935 Haiti was struck by a hurricane,
causing over 2,000 deaths.  1962 US President Kennedy announced that So-
viet missile bases had been installed in Cuba.  1987 The first volume of
the Gutenberg Bible was sold at auction in New York for $5.39m/Ј3.26m  -
a record price for a printed book. Born Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer,
1811;  Sarah Bernhardt, French actress, 1844; Doris Lessing, English no-
velist,  1919;  Robert Rauschenberg, US artist, 1925; Derek Jacobi, Eng-
lish actor,  1938;  Catherine Deneuve,  French film actress,  1943. Died
Charles Martel, leader of the Franks, 741; Thomas Sheraton, English fur-
niture maker,  1806;  Paul Cйzanne,  French painter, 1906; Pablo Casals,
Spanish cellist, 1973; Arnold Joseph Toynbee, English historian, 1975.

23 October Feast day of St Severino Boethius, St Severinus or Seurin of
Bordeaux, St Elfleda or Ethelfled, St Allucio, St Ignatius of Constanti-
nople,  St  Theodoret,  St Romanus of Rouen,  and St John of Capistrano.
1642 The Battle of Edgehill,  in the Cotswolds,  took place - the  first
major conflict of the English Civil War.  1922 Andrew Bonar Law took of-
fice as British prime minister;  he was replaced 22.5.23, making his the
shortest term of office in the twentieth century.  1942 The Battle of El
Alamein,  in Egypt,  began. 1946 The first meeting of the United Nations
General Assembly took place in New York. 1947 Julie Andrews made her de-
but in Starlight Roof, aged 12. 1956 The Hungarian revolt against Soviet
leadership  began,  in  which  thousands of demonstrators called for the
withdrawal of Soviet forces.  1970 Gary Gabelich achieved the world land
speed record of 631.367mph, in his rocket-engine automobile on Bonnevil-
le Salt Flats,  Utah. 1987 Former British champion jockey Lester Piggott
was sentenced to three years in prison for tax evasion.  Born Pierre La-
rousse,  French lexicographer, 1817; Robert Bridges, British poet, 1844;
Louis Riel,  French-Canadian rebel, 1844; Douglas Jardine, English cric-
keter,  1900;  Pelй,  Brazilian footballer, 1940; Anita Roddick, British
entrepreneur and founder of The Body Shop, 1942. Died Marcus Junius Bru-
tus,  Roman soldier,  42 BC;  Thйophile Gautier,  French poet, 1872; W G
Grace,  English cricketer,  1915; John Boyd Dunlop, Scottish inventor of
the pneumatic rubber tire,  1921;  Zane Grey, US novelist, 1939; Al Jol-
son, US singer and actor, 1950.

24 October National Day of Zambia and United Nations Day.  Feast day of
St Martin or Mark, St Martin of Vertou, St Elesbaan, St Felix of Thibiu-
ca,  St Antony Claret, St Evergislus, St Aretas, St Senoch, St Maglorius
or Maelor, St Proclus of Constantinople, and The Martyrs of Najran. 1648
The Treaty of Westphalia was signed,  ending the Thirty Years' War. 1857
The first football club was formed by a group  of  Cambridge  University
Old  Boys meeting in Sheffield.  1901 Mrs Ann Edson Taylor braved a des-
cent over Niagara Falls in a padded barrel to  help  pay  the  mortgage.
1945 The United Nations charter came into force. 1977 Saudi Arabia purc-
hased the transatlantic liner France for use as a floating luxury hotel.
1987  Heavyweight  boxing champion Frank Bruno knocked out Joe Bugner in
Britain's most hyped boxing match held at White Hart Lane,  London,  UK.
1989 US television preacher Jim Bakker was sentenced to 45 years in pri-
son and fined $500,000/Ј272,000 for his multi-milion dollar  scam.  Born
Anton van Leeuwenhoek,  Dutch microscope pioneer, 1632; Jacques Lafitte,
French banker and politician,  1767;  Sybil Thorndike,  English actress,
1882;  Tito Gobbi, Italian baritone, 1915; Robin Day, English TV presen-
ter,  1923; Bill Wyman, English bass guitarist, 1941. Died Jane Seymour,
3rd wife of King Henry VIII, 1537; Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer, 1601;
Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian politician and Nazi collaborator, 1945; Franz
Lehбr, Hungarian composer, 1948; Christian Dior, French couturier, 1957;
Mary McCarthy, US author, 1989; Jo Grimond, Scottish politician and wri-
ter, 1993; Jiri Hajek, Czech human-rights campaigner, 1993.

25 October  Feast  day of Saints Crispin and Crispinian,  Saints Fronto
and George,  The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales,  Saints Chrysanthus
and Daria,  St Richard Gwyn, and St Gaudentius of Brescia. 1415 The Eng-
lish army,  led by King Henry V,  defeated the French at the  Battle  of
Agincourt, during the Hundred Years' War. 1839 Bradshaw's Railway Guide,
the world's first railroad timetable,  was published in Manchester. 1854
Lord  Cardigan  led the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Battle of
Balaclava in the Crimean War.  1900 The Transvaal, a region in South Af-
rica which is rich in minerals, especially gold, was annexed by the Bri-
tish.  1961 The British satirical magazine Private Eye was first publis-
hed.  1971 Taiwan was expelled from the UN to allow the admission of the
People's Republic of China.  1983 Over 2,000 US troops invaded  Grenada.
Born  Thomas Babington Macaulay,  English historian and essayist,  1800;
Johann Strauss the Younger,  Austrian  composer,  1825;  Georges  Bizet,
French composer, 1838; Pablo Picasso, Spanish artist, 1881; Richard Eve-
lyn Byrd,  US aviator and explorer, 1888; Abel Gance, French film direc-
tor, 1889. Died Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet, 1400; Giorgione, Italian
painter, 1510; Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist and inventor of
the barometer,  1647;  King George II,  1760; Frank Norris, US novelist,
1902;  Frederick Rolfe, English writer, 1913; Vincent Price, US film ac-
tor, 1993.

26 October National Day of Iran and of Austria. Feast day of Saints Lu-
cian and Marcian,  St Bean,  St Rusticus of Narbonne,  St Eata,  and  St
Cedd. 1825 The Erie Canal, linking the Niagara River with the Hudson Ri-
ver, was opened to traffic. 1860 Italian unification leader Giuseppe Ga-
ribaldi  proclaimed  Victor  Emmanuel King of Italy.  1881 The legendary
'Gunfight at the OK Corral' took place at Tombstone,  Arizona. 1905 Swe-
den and Norway ended their union and Oscar II, the Norwegian king, abdi-
cated.  1927 Duke Ellington and his orchestra recorded the jazz classic,
Creole Love Song. 1929 T W Evans of Miami, Florida, became the first wo-
man to give birth aboard an aircraft. 1956 The UN's International Atomic
Energy  Agency  was  formed.  1965 Queen Elizabeth presented the Beatles
with their MBEs at Buckingham Palace.  1985 A US infant,  known as  Baby
Fae, was given a baboon's heart to replace her malformed one. Born Geor-
ges Danton,  French revolutionary leader,  1759;  Leon Trotsky,  Russian
Communist leader,  1879; Franзois Mitterand, French statesman, 1916; Mo-
hammed Reza Pahlavi, last Shah of Iran, 1919; John Arden, English drama-
tist,  1930;  Bob  Hoskins,  English actor,  1942.  Died Gilles de Rais,
French marshal,  1440;  William Hogarth,  English artist  and  engraver,
1764; Elizabeth Stanton, US feminist, 1902; Igor Sikorsky, US aeronauti-
cal engineer,  1972; Roger Hollis, British civil servant and alleged do-
uble agent, 1973.

27 October Feast day of St Otteran or Odhran of Iona, and St Frumentius
of Ethiopia.  1662 Charles II sold Dunkirk to Louis XIV for 2.5  million
livres. 1901 In Paris, a 'getaway car' was used for the first time, when
thieves robbed a shop and sped away.  1904 The first section of New York
City's subway system was opened. 1917 US troops entered the war in Fran-
ce.  1936 Mrs Wallis Simpson was granted a divorce from her second  hus-
band,  leaving her free to marry King Edward VIII.  1971 The Republic of
Congo changed its name to the Republic of Zaire. 1986 The City of London
experienced 'Big Bang' day, due to the deregulation of the money market.
Born Captain James Cook,  English naval explorer, 1728; Nicolи Paganini,
Italian violinist and composer, 1782; Theodore Roosevelt, 26th US presi-
dent,  1858;  Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet, 1905; Roy Lichtenstein, US pain-
ter,  1923;  Sylvia Plath, US poet, 1932; John Cleese, English actor and
comedian,  1939. Died Ivan III (the Great), Tsar of Russia, 1505; George
Morland,  English painter,  1804;  Lise Meitner, Austrian nuclear physi-
cist, 1968; Eric Maschwitz, English lyricist, 1969; James M Cain, US no-
velist, 1977.

28 October Feast day of Saints Anastasia and Cyril, St Faro, St Abraham
of Ephesus,  St Salvius or Saire,  St Simon, St Jude or Thaddeus, and St
Fidelis of Como. 1636 Harvard University, the first in the US, was foun-
ded.  1746 An earthquake demolished Lima and Callao,  in Peru. 1831 Eng-
lish  chemist and physicist Michael Faraday demonstrated the first dyna-
mo.  1886 The Statue of Liberty, designed by Auguste Bartholdi, was pre-
sented by France to the US to mark the 100th anniversary of the Declara-
tion of Independence.  1893 HMS Havelock, the Royal Navy's first destro-
yer,  went on trials. 1914 George Eastman, of Eastman Kodak Company, an-
nounced the introduction of a color photographic process. 1971 By a mar-
gin of 112 votes, the House of Commons backed Prime Minister Heath's de-
cision to apply for EEC membership.  1982 Felipe Gonzбlez became Spain's
first Socialist prime minister,  with a sweeping electoral victory. Born
Evelyn Waugh,  English novelist,  1903;  Francis Bacon, British painter,
1909;  Jonas Salk,  US microbiologist, 1914; Cleo Laine, British singer,
1927;  Carl Davis,  US composer,  1936;  Hank Marvin, English guitarist,
1941.  Died John Locke, English philosopher, 1704; John Smeaton, English
civil engineer,  1792; Ottmar Mergenthaler, German inventor of the Lino-
type,  1899;  Georges Carpentier,  French boxer,  1975; Woody Herman, US
bandleader, 1987; Pietro Annigoni, Italian painter, 1988.

29 October National Day of Turkey.  Feast day of The Martyrs of  Douay,
St Theuderius or Chef, St Colman of Kilmacduagh, and St Narcissus of Je-
rusalem.  1618 Sir Walter Raleigh, English navigator, courtier, and once
favorite of Elizabeth I, was beheaded at Whitehall for treason. 1787 Mo-
zart's opera Don Giovanni was first performed,  in Prague.  1863 The In-
ternational  Red Cross was founded by Swiss philanthropist Henri Dunant.
1929 The Wall Street crash known as 'Black Tuesday' took place,  leading
to  the Great Depression.  1964 The union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was
announced, adopting the name of Tanzania. 1967 Expo-67, an international
exhibition, opened in Montreal. 1982 In Australia, Lindy Chamberlain was
sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of her nine-week-old  baby
who, she claimed, had been carried off by a dingo. 1991 Vietnam formally
approved a plan to repatriate forcibly tens of thousands  of  Vietnamese
refugees living in camps in Hong Kong.  Born James Boswell, Scottish bi-
ographer and diarist, 1740; Wilfred Rhodes, English cricketer, 1877; Je-
an Giraudoux,  French author, 1882; Fanny Brice, US singer and entertai-
ner,  1891; Joseph Goebbels, German Nazi propaganda chief, 1897; Richard
Dreyfuss,  US actor, 1947. Died Joseph Pulitzer, US newspaper publisher,
1911; Frances Hodgson Burnett, English novelist, 1924; Gustav V, King of
Sweden,  1950; Louis Burt Mayer, US film producer and distributor, 1957;
John Braine, British novelist, 1986.

30 October Feast day of St Marcellus the Centurion, St Alphonsus Rodri-
guez,  St Germanus of Capua, St Serapion of Antioch, St Asterius of Ama-
sea,  and St Ethelnoth. 1485 The Yeomen of the Guard were established by
King Henry VII.  1650 'Quakers', the more common name for the Society of
Friends,  came into being during a court case,  at which George Fox, the
founder,  told the magistrate to 'quake and tremble at the word of God'.
1911 P'u-Yi, the boy emperor of China aged five, granted a new constitu-
tion, officially ending three centuries of Manchu domination over China.
1918 The Republic of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed.  1925  The  Scottish
inventor  John  Baird  made the first televized transmission of a moving
object (a 15-year-old office boy).  1938 US actor  Orson  Welles'  radio
production of The War of the Worlds by H G Wells caused panic in the US.
1965 Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones was  jailed  for  drug  offenses.
1988 Sun Myung Moon,  head of the Unification Church, conducted the mar-
riage of 6,516 couples in a Seoul factory; the couples had first met the
day before.  Born Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Irish dramatist, 1751; John
Adams, 2nd US president, 1735; Alfred Sisley, French painter, 1840; Ezra
Pound, US poet, 1885; Louis Malle, French film director, 1932; Diego Ma-
radona,  Argentinian footballer, 1960. Died Edward Vernon, English admi-
ral,  1757; Edmund Cartwright, English inventor, 1823; Andrew Bonar Law,
British statesman,  1923; Pio Baroja, Spanish novelist, 1956; Jim Molli-
son,  Scottish pioneer aviator, 1959; Barnes Neville Wallis, British ae-
ronautical engineer, 1979.

31 October All Hallows' Eve (Halloween). Feast day of St Quentin or Qu-
intinus,  St Bee or Bega,  St Wolfgang,  and St Foillan of Fosses.  1517
Martin Luther nailed his theses on indulgences to  the  church  door  at
Wittenberg,  Germany.  1864  Nevada  became the 36th state of the Union.
1902 The first telegraph cable across the Pacific Ocean  was  completed.
1940 The Battle of Britain ended.  1951 Zebra crossings came into effect
in Britain. 1952 At Eniwetok Atoll, in the Pacific, the US detonated the
first hydrogen bomb. 1956 British and French troops bombed Egyptian air-
fields at Suez.  1971 An IRA bomb exploded at the top of the Post Office
Tower,  London,  UK. 1982 The Thames barrier, part of London's flood de-
fenses,  was raised for the first time.  1984 Indian Prime Minister  Mrs
Ghandi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguard.  Born Jan Vermeer,  Dutch
painter,  1632; John Keats, English poet, 1795; Joseph Wilson Swan, Eng-
lish inventor of the electric lamp,  1828; Chiang Kai-shek, Chinese lea-
der, 1887; Dale Evans, US film actress, 1912; Michael Collins, US astro-
naut, 1930. Died Dan Leno, British comedian, 1904; Harry Houdini, US es-
capologist,  1926;  Max Reinhardt, Austrian producer and director, 1943;
Augustus John,  Welsh painter,  1961;  Indira Gandhi, Indian politician,
assassinated, 1984; River Phoenix, US film actor, 1993.

1 November National Day of Algeria.  Feast day of All Saints, St Benig-
nus of Dijon, Saints Caesarius and Julian, St Austremonius or Stremoine,
St Cadfan,  St Mary,  martyr, St Vigor, St Marcellus of Paris, and Saint
Mathurin  or Maturinus.  1755 An earthquake reduced two-thirds of Lisbon
to rubble and resulted,  according to accounts,  in the death of  60,000
people.  1848  The first W H Smith railroad bookstall opened,  at Euston
Station,  London,  UK. 1911 Woman's Weekly was first published. 1914 The
British  ships  Good Hope and Monmouth were sunk by the Germans,  at the
Battle of Coronel.  1940 A prehistoric painting was discovered in a cave
in Lascaux in the Dordogne,  France.  1950 Two Puerto Rican nationalists
attempted to assassinate US President Truman.  1959 The first stretch of
the M1 expressway was opened in Britain.  1972 Orissa, India, was struck
by a tidal wave which killed 10,000 people and left 5 million  homeless.
1992 Democrat Bill Clinton was elected as 42nd US president. Born Benve-
nuto Cellini, Italian sculptor and goldsmith, 1500; Antonio Canova, Ita-
lian sculptor,  1757;  Stephen Crane, US novelist, 1871; L S Lowry, Eng-
lish painter, 1887; Victoria de los Angeles, Spanish soprano, 1923; Gary
Player,  South African golfer, 1935. Died George Gordon, British Protes-
tant agitator,  1793; Ezra Pound, US poet, 1972; King Vidor, US film di-
rector,  1982; Phil Silvers, US comedian and actor, 1985; Louis Johnson,
New Zealand poet, 1988.

2 November Feast day of All Souls,  St Victorinus of Pettau,  and Saint
Marcian  of Cyrrhus.  1785 The first insubmersible lifeboat was patented
by Lionel Lakin,  a London coach builder.  1871 The 'Rogues Gallery' was
started,  when photographs of all prisoners in Britain were first taken.
1899 Ladysmith,  in Natal, South Africa, was besieged by the Boers. 1917
The Balfour Declaration,  stating British support for the Jewish Zionist
goal of a homeland in Palestine,  was sent to Lord Rothschild.  1930 Ras
Tafari,  King of Ethiopia, was crowned Emperor Haile Selassie ('Might of
the Trinity'). 1957 With eight simultaneous hits in the UK Top 30 chart,
Elvis Presley set an all-time record. 1960 A British jury acquitted Pen-
guin Books of obscenity in the matter of publishing D H Lawrence's  Lady
Chatterley's  Lover.  1976 James Earl Carter was elected the 39th Presi-
dent of the US.  1990 Ivana Trump filed for divorce from US  millionaire
Donald Trump.  Born Daniel Boone, US frontiersman, 1734; Marie Antoinet-
te,  Queen of King Louis XVI of France,  1755; Joseph Radetzky, Austrian
field marshal, 1766; Luchino Visconti, Italian film director, 1906; Burt
Lancaster,  US film actor,  1913;  Keith Emerson, English rock musician,
1944. Died Richard Hooker, English theologian, 1600; Jenny Lind, Swedish
soprano,  1887; William Powell Frith, British painter, 1909; George Ber-
nard Shaw,  Irish dramatist, 1950; James Thurber, US humorous writer and
cartoonist, 1961.

3 November National Day of Panama.  Feast day of St Rumwald, St Malachy
of Armagh, St Amicus, St Winifred or Gwenfrewi, St Martin de Porres, and
St Pirminus. 1493 Christopher Columbus, on his second voyage of discove-
ry,  sighted Dominica, in the West Indies. 1706 A violent earthquake oc-
curred in the Abruzzi, Italy, killing some 15,000 inhabitants. 1927 Tur-
key adopted the Roman alphabet,  abolishing the use of Arabic. 1942 Bri-
tish troops,  led by Field Marshal Montgomery,  broke  through  Rommel's
front line in Africa.  1948 Democrat Harry Truman was elected as 33rd US
president. 1957 The Russian dog, Laika, became the first in space aboard
Sputnik  II.  1964  Democrat Lyndon Bains Johnson was elected as 36th US
president.  1975 The North Sea pipeline,  the first to be built underwa-
ter,  was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II.  1993 A mystery woman
paid a record 5 million Swiss francs (Ј2.2m) for an  envelope  with  two
stamps  sent  from  Mauritius to a Bordeaux wine exporter in 1847.  Born
Vincenzo Bellini, Italian operatic composer, 1801; Karl Baedeker, German
guide-book publisher,  1801;  Charles Bronson,  US film actor, 1922; Roy
Emerson, Australian tennis player, 1936; Larry Holmes, US boxing champi-
on,  1949;  Adam Ant,  English rock musician, 1954. Died Constantius II,
Roman emperor of the East,  361;  Annie Oakley, US entertainer and mark-
swoman,  1926;  Henri Matisse, French painter, 1954; Ralph Hodgson, Eng-
lish poet, 1962; Leon Theremin, Russian inventor, 1993.

4 November Feast day of saints Vitalis  and  Agricola,  St  Birstan  or
Brynstan of Winchester, St Pierius, St John Zedazneli, St Charles Borro-
meo, St Joannicus, and St Clarus. 1605 Guy Fawkes, a Roman Catholic con-
vert and conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested in Parliament's
cellar.  1862 US inventor Richard Gatling patented  the  rapid-fire,  or
machine,  gun. 1914 The first fashion show was organized by Edna Woodman
Chase of Vogue magazine,  and held at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel,  New York.
1922 British archeologist Howard Carter discovered the tomb of the Egyp-
tian pharaoh Tutankhamen. 1946 UNESCO was established, with headquarters
in  Paris.  1952 Republican General Dwight Eisenhower elected as 34th US
president.  1979 Iranian students stormed the US Embassy in Teheran  and
held over 60 staff and US marines hostage.  1980 Ronald Reagan was elec-
ted 40th US president.  1991 Imelda Marcos returned to  the  Philippines
after five years of exile in the US;  the government endorsed her return
so that she could be tried on corruption and tax evasion  charges.  Born
King William III, 1605; Augustus Montague Toplady, British clergyman and
author,  1740; Eden Phillpotts, English novelist and dramatist; G E Moo-
re, British philosopher, 1873; Will Rogers, US humorist and actor, 1879;
Art Carney,  US actor,  1918.  Died Felix Mendelssohn,  German composer,
1847; Paul Delaroche, French painter, 1856; Joseph Rowntree, British co-
coa manufacturer and philanthropist,  1859;  Wilfred Owen, English poet,
1918; Gabriel Faurй, French organist and composer, 1924.

5 November Guy Fawkes' Night in Britain.  Feast day of Saints Elisabeth
and Zachary,  St Galation, St Bertilla of Chelles, and St Episteme. 1854
The  combined  British  and  French  armies defeated the Russians at the
Battle of Inkerman during the Crimean War.  1912 The  British  Board  of
Film  Censors  was appointed.  1914 Cyprus was annexed by Britain on the
outbreak of war with Turkey.  1919 Rudolph Valentino, the archetypal ro-
mantic  screen  lover,  married actress Jean Acker;  the marriage lasted
less than six hours. 1927 Britain's first automatic traffic lights began
functioning,  in  Wolverhampton.  1968 Richard Nixon was elected 37th US
president. 1990 Rabbi Meir Kahane, founder of the militant Jewish Defen-
se League and Israel's extremist anti-Arab Kach party,  was assassinated
in a New York City hotel.  Born James Elroy Flecker, English poet, 1884;
John Haldane,  Scottish scientist,  1892; Vivien Leigh, British actress,
1913; Lester Piggott, British jockey, 1935; Elke Sommer, German actress,
1940; Art Garfunkel, US singer and composer, 1941. Died Mack Sennett, US
film producer,  1960; Maurice Utrillo, French painter, 1955; Al Capp, US
cartoonist,  1979;  Jacques Tati,  French film actor and director, 1982;
Vladimir Horowitz,  US pianist, 1989; Robert Maxwell, British publishing
and newspaper proprietor, 1991.

6 November Feast day of St Demetrian of Khytri,  St Melaine, St Barlaam
of Khutyn, St Leonard of Noblac, St Winnoc, and St Illtud. 1429 Henry VI
was  crowned  King of England.  1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected 16th US
president. 1869 Diamonds were discovered at Kimberley, in Cape Province,
South Africa. 1924 British Tory leader Stanley Baldwin was elected prime
minister.  1932 In general elections held in Germany,  the Nazis emerged
as the largest party.  1956 Construction of the Kariba High Dam,  on the
Zambezi River between Zambia and Zimbabwe, began. 1975 UK punk rock gro-
up,  the Sex Pistols, gave their first public performance at London's St
Martin's College of Art; college authorities cut the concert short - af-
ter  10 minutes.  1988 Six thousand US Defense Department computers were
crippled by a virus;  the culprit was the 23-year-old son of the head of
the country's computer security agency.  Born Alois Senefelder, Austrian
inventor of lithography,  1771; Adolphe Sax, Belgian inventor of the sa-
xophone, 1814; John Philip Sousa, US bandmaster and composer, 1854; John
Alcock,  British pioneer aviator, 1892; Mike Nichols, US director, 1931;
Sally Field,  US actress,  1946. Died Gustavus II, King of Sweden, 1632;
Heinrich Schьtz,  German composer,  1672; William Hone, British satirist
and editor, 1842; Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, 1893; Kate
Greenaway,  British illustrator,  1901; Gene Eliza Tierney, US film act-
ress, 1991.

7 November National day of Russia.  Feast day of St Herculanus of Peru-
gia,  St Engelbert, St Willibrord, and St Florentius of Strasbourg. 1783
The  last public hanging in England took place when John Austin,  a for-
ger,  was executed at Tyburn. 1872 The Marie Celeste, the ill-fated bri-
gantine,  sailed  from  New York to be found mysteriously abandoned near
the Azores some time later. 1916 Jeanette Rankin, of the state of Monta-
na, became the first woman member of US Congress. 1917 The Bolshevik Re-
volution,  led by Lenin,  overthrew Prime Minister Alexander  Kerensky's
government.  1972 Richard Nixon was re-elected US president. 1988 In Las
Vegas,  'Sugar' Ray Lewis knocked out Canadian Donny  Londe,  completing
his collection of world titles at five different weights.  1990 Mary Ro-
binson became the Irish Republic's first woman president. Born Marie Cu-
rie,  French physicist,  1867;  Leon Trotsky,  Russian Communist leader,
1879;  Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman,  Indian physicist, 1888; Albert Ca-
mus,  French writer, 1913; Joan Sutherland, operatic soprano, 1926; Joni
Mitchell,  Canadian singer,  1943. Died Godfrey Kneller, German painter,
1723;  Victor McLaglen,  English film actor, 1959; Eleanor Roosevelt, US
writer and lecturer, 1962; Gene Tunney, US heavyweight boxer, 1978; Ste-
ve McQueen, US film actor, 1980; Alexander Dubcek, Czech statesman; Ade-
laide Hall, US singer, dancer, and actress, 1993.

8 November Feast day of The Four Crowned Martyrs,  St Cuby or Cybi,  St
Godfrey of Amiens,  St Deusdedit, St Willehad, and St Tysilio or Suliau.
1793 The Louvre was opened to the public by  the  Revolutionary  govern-
ment, although only part of the collection could be viewed. 1895 William
Rцntgen discovered X-rays during an  experiment  at  the  University  of
Wurzburg.  1923  Hitler led his unsuccessful rising in Munich,  known as
the Beer Hall Putsch.  1942 Under Eisenhower's command,  British and  US
forces  invaded  North Africa,  in 'Operation Torch'.  1958 Melody Maker
published the first British album charts.  1987 An IRA bomb went off  in
Eniskillen, Co Fermanagh, shortly before a Remembrance Day service, kil-
ling 11 people.  1991 EC foreign ministers,  meeting in Rome, imposed an
economic embargo on Yugoslavia in an effort to halt the civil war there.
Born Edmond Halley, English astronomer, 1656; Bram Stoker, Irish writer,
1847;  Herbert Austin,  English automobile manufacturer,  1866; Margaret
Mitchell,  US novelist,  1900;  Christiaan Barnard,  South African heart
transplant pioneer,  1922;  Alain Delon,  French film actor,  1935. Died
John Milton,  English poet, 1674; Tom Sayers, English bare-knuckle pugi-
list,  1865; Fred Archer, English jockey, 1886; Victorien Sardou, French
dramatist,  1908;  Ivan Alexeyevich Bunin,  Russian poet,  1953;  Edgard
Varиse, French composer, 1965.

9 November National Day of Cambodia.  Feast day of St Theodore the Rec-
ruit, St Vitonus or Vanne, and St Benignus or Benen. 1837 Moses Montefi-
ore became the first Jew to be knighted in England. 1859 Flogging in the
British army was abolished.  1908 Britain's first woman mayor, Elizabeth
Garrett Anderson,  was elected at Aldeburgh. 1918 Following a revolution
in Germany,  Kaiser William abdicated and fled to Holland.  1925 The  SS
(Schutzstaffel or 'Protection Squad') was formed in Germany.  1965 Capi-
tal punishment was abolished in Britain. 1988 Gary Kasparov became world
chess champion after beating Anatoly Karpov,  who had held the title for
ten years,  in Moscow. 1989 E Germany opened its borders to the West and
demolition of the Berlin Wall began.  Born Ivan Turgenev, Russian drama-
tist,  1818;  King Edward VII, 1841; Giles Gilbert Scott, English archi-
tect,  1880;  Katherine Hepburn,  US film actress, 1909; Hedy Lamarr, US
film actress,  1913;  Carl Sagan,  US astronomer,  1934.  Died Guillaume
Apollinaire,  French poet, 1918; James Ramsay MacDonald, British states-
man,  1937;  Neville Chamberlain, British statesman, 1940; Dylan Thomas,
Welsh poet,  1953;  Charles de Gaulle, French statesman, 1970; Yves Mon-
tand, French singer and actor, 1991.

10 November Feast day of St Leo the Great,  St Justus of Canterbury, St
Aedh MacBrice, St Theoctista, and St Andrew Avellino. 1775 The Continen-
tal Congress authorized the creation of the 'Continental  Marines',  now
known as the US Marines.  1862 The first performance of Giuseppe Verdi's
opera La Forza del Destino was held in St Petersburg.  1871 Henry Morton
Stanley,  who had been sent to track down missing explorer David Living-
stone,  met him at Ujiji,  on Lake  Taganyika.  1938  Kristallnacht,  or
'night  of (broken) glass',  took place when Nazis burned 267 synagogues
and destroyed thousands of Jewish homes and businesses in Germany.  1928
Hirohito was crowned Emperor of Japan, at the age of 27. 1989 Bulldozers
began demolishing the 28-year-old Berlin  Wall,  following  the  govern-
ment's  announcement  that  it  would allow free travel between East and
West Germany.  Born Martin Luther,  German  Protestant  reformer,  1483;
Franзois Couperin, French composer, 1668; William Hogarth, English pain-
ter and engraver,  1697; Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller, German
poet and dramatist, 1759; Jacob Epstein, British sculptor, 1880; Richard
Burton, Welsh actor, 1925. Died Pope Leo I (the Great), 461; Arthur Rim-
baud,  French  poet,  1891;  Mustapha Kemal Atatьrk,  Turkish statesman,
1938;  Dennis Wheatley,  English novelist, 1979; Leonid Brezhnev, Soviet
political leader, 1982; Gordon Richards, 1986.

11 November Feast day of St Martin of Tours,  St Bartholomew of Grotta-
ferata, St Mannas of Egypt, and St Theodore the Studite. 1918 The armis-
tice was signed between the Allies and Germany in Compeigne, France, ef-
fectively ending World War I.  1921 The British Legion  held  its  first
Poppy Day to raise money for wounded World War I veterans. 1940 The Wil-
lys-Overland Company launched a four-wheel drive vehicle for the US  Ar-
my, named 'Jeep' after GP (general purpose). 1952 The first video recor-
der was demonstrated in Beverly Hills, California, by its inventors John
Mullin  and Wayne Johnson.  1965 Ian Smith,  Prime Minister of Rhodesia,
unilaterally declared his country's independence from Britain.  1975 An-
gola  gained independence from Portugal.  Born Louis Antoine de Bougain-
ville,  French navigator,  1729; Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, Russian
author,  1821; Edouard Vuillard, French painter, 1868; Kurt Vonnegut, US
novelist,  1922;  Bibi Andersson,  Swedish film  actress,  1935;  Rodney
Marsh, Australian cricketer, 1947. Died Sцren Kierkegaard, Danish philo-
sopher, 1855; Ned Kelly, Australian outlaw, 1880; Edward German, English
composer, 1936; Jerome Kern, US composer, 1945; Dimitri Tiomkin, US com-
poser, 1979; Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, Russian leader, 1986.

12 November Feast day of St Benedict of Benevento, St Machar or Mochum-
ma, St Astrik or Anastasius, St Nilus the Elder, St Cadwalader, St Lebu-
in or Liafwine,  St Cunibert, St Emilian Cucullatus, St Cumian the Tall,
St Josephat of Polotsk,  and St Livinus. 1660 English author John Bunyan
was arrested for preaching without a license; refusing to give up preac-
hing, he remained in jail for 12 years. 1847 The first public demonstra-
tion of the use of chloroform as an anesthetic was given by James  Simp-
son,  at  the  University of Edinburgh.  1859 Jules Lйotard,  the daring
young man on the flying trapeze,  made his debut at the Cirque Napolйon,
in Paris. 1912 The remains of English explorer Robert Scott and his com-
panions were found in Antarctica.  1918 The Republic of Austria was dec-
lared,  thus  ending the Hapsburg dynasty.  1944 The RAF bombed and sank
the Tirpitz,  the last of the major German  battleships.  1974  For  the
first time since the 1840s,  a salmon was caught in the Thames. 1981 The
US shuttle Columbia became the first reusable crewed spacecraft,  by ma-
king its second trip.  Born Alexander Borodin,  Russian composer,  1833;
Auguste Rodin,  French sculptor,  1840; Sun Yat-sen, Chinese nationalist
politician,  1866;  Grace Kelly,  Princess Grace of Monaco,  1929;  Neil
Young, Canadian rock singer and guitarist, 1946; Nadia Comaneci, Romani-
an gymnast,  1961.  Died Canute II (the Great), king of England and Den-
mark,  1035;  John Sylvan,  French astronomer,  1793; Elizabeth Gaskell,
English novelist,  1865;  Percival Lowell, US astronomer, 1916; Baroness
Orczy, English novelist, 1947; Rudolf Friml, US composer, 1972; H R Hal-
deman, US political aide, 1993.

13 November  Feast day of At Arcadius,  St Didacus or Diego of Seville,
St Abbo of Fleury,  St Eugenius of Toledo, St Brice or Britius, St Homo-
bonus,  St Nicholas, pope, St Francis Xavia Cabrini, St Stanislaus Kost-
ka,  and St Maxellendis.  1002 The Massacre of the Danes in the southern
counties of England took place by order of Ethelred II.  1851 The teleg-
raph service between London and Paris began operating.  1907  The  first
helicopter rose 2 m/6.5 ft above ground in Normandy. 1914 US heiress Ma-
ry Phelps Jacob patented a new female undergarment,  known as the 'back-
less brassiere'.  1916 In World War I, the Battle of Somme ended, having
caused the deaths of some 60,000 allied soldiers. 1970 A cyclone and ti-
dal  waves struck East Pakistan,  killing over 500,000 people.  1985 The
Columbian volcano Nevado del Ruiz,  dormant since 1845, erupted, killing
over 20,000 people.  1987 With a view to encouraging 'safe sex', or AIDS
prevention,  the BBC screened Britain's first condom commercial (without
a brand name). Born John Moore, British general, 1761; Charles Frederick
Worth, English couturier, 1825; Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish writer,
1850; Eugene Ionesco, French author and dramatist, 1912; Adrienne Corri,
British actress, 1931; George Carey, archbishop of Canterbury, 1935. Di-
ed Gioacchino Rossini,  Italian composer, 1868; Camille Pissarro, French
painter,  1903; Elsa Schiaparelli, Italian couturiиre, 1973; Vittorio de
Sica,  Italian  film director,  1974;  Chesney Allen,  British comedian,

14 November Feast day of St Laurence O'Toole,  St Adeotus  Aribert,  St
Nicholas Tavelic, St Dubricius or Dyfrig, St Stephen of Como, and St Pe-
ter of Narbonne. 1770 Scottish explorer James Bruce discovered the sour-
ce  of the Blue Nile in NE Ethiopia,  then considered the main stream of
the Nile.  1896 The speed limit for motor vehicles in Britain was raised
from 4 mph to 14 mph. 1925 An exhibition of Surrealist art opened in Pa-
ris,  including works by Max Ernst, Man Ray, Joan Mirу, and Pablo Picas-
so.  1940  Enemy  bombing destroyed Coventry's medieval cathedral.  1952
Britain's first pop singles chart was published by New Musical  Express.
1963  The island of Surtsey off Iceland was 'born' by the eruption of an
underwater volcano. 1973 Bobby Moore made his 108th (and final) interna-
tional appearance for England, against Italy at Wembley. 1991 Prince Si-
hanouk,  Cambodia's former head of state,  returned to Phnom Penh  after
nearly 13 years in exile to head the country's interim government.  Born
Robert Fulton,  US engineer,  1765;  Claude Monet, French painter, 1840;
Jawaarlal Nehru,  Indian statesman,  1889;  Aaron Copland,  US composer,
1889;  Elisabeth Frink,  English sculptor, 1930; King Hussein of Jordan,
1935; HRH the Prince of Wales, 1948. Died Nell Gwyn, English actress and
mistress of Charles II,  1687;  Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, German philo-
sopher,  1716;  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher, 1831;
Booker T Washington,  US educator, 1915; Manuel de Falla, Spanish compo-
ser, 1946; Tony Richardson, British director, 1991.

15 November Feast day of St Leopold of Austria,  Saints Abibus, Gurias,
and Samonas,  St Fintan of Rheinau,  St Malo or Machutus,  St Albert the
Great,  and  St Desiderius or Didier of Cahors.  1837 Pitman's system of
shorthand was published,  under the title Stenographic Sound-Hand.  1889
Dom  Pedro  was overthrown,  and Brazil was proclaimed a republic.  1899
Winston Churchill was captured by the Boers while covering the war as  a
reporter for the Morning Post. 1956 Love Me Tender, the first film star-
ring Elvis Presley,  premiered in New York.  1968 The Cunard liner Queen
Elizabeth  ended  its  final transatlantic journey.  1983 An independent
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was unilaterally proclaimed,  recog-
nized only by Turkey.  1985 UK and Irish premiers, Margaret Thatcher and
Garret Fitzerald,  signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement in Dublin.  1991  In
the  wake  of increased sectarian violence in Northern Ireland,  Britain
called up 1,400 reserve troops for full-time active duty.  Born  William
Pitt the Elder,  British statesman, 1708; William Herschel, English ast-
ronomer,  1738; Erwin Rommel, German field marshal, 1891; Averell Harri-
man,  US diplomat, 1891; Petula Clark, British singer and actress, 1934;
Daniel Barenboim,  Israeli pianist and conductor, 1942. Died George Rom-
ney,  English painter,  1802; Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish novelist, 1916;
Lionel Barrymore, US actor, 1954; Tyrone Power, US film actor, 1958; Je-
an Gabin,  French actor,  1976;  Margaret Mead, US anthropologist, 1978;
Luciano Liggio, Italian racketeer, 1993.

16 November Feast day of St Margaret of Scotland,  St Agnes of  Assisi,
St Gertrude of Helfta,  St Afan, St Edmund of Abingdon, St Mechtildis of
Helfta, St Nikon 'Metanoeite', and St Eucherius of Lyons. 1824 Australi-
an explorer Hamilton Hume discovered the Murray River, the longest river
in Australia.  1869 The Suez Canal,  which had taken ten years to build,
was  formally  opened.  1913  The  first volume of Remembrance of Things
Past, the classic autobiographical novel by Marcel Proust, was published
in  Paris.  1918 Hungary achieved independence from the Austro-Hungarian
empire and was proclaimed a republic.  1928  In  London,  UK,  obscenity
charges  were  brought  against Radclyffe Hall's crusading lesbian novel
The Well of Loneliness.  1965 The USSR launched Venus III,  an  uncrewed
spacecraft that successfully landed on Venus. 1993 Amid the tears of its
employees and sympathisers, Vladimir Lenin's mausoleum was closed by the
Russian authorities;  it was the first site in Moscow linked to Lenin to
be shut down.  Born Tiberius, Roman emperor, 42 BC; John Bright, British
political reformer,  1811;  William Frend de Morgan,  English artist and
novelist,  1839;  George S Kaufman,  US dramatist,  1889; Willie Carson,
English jockey,  1942; Frank Bruno, British boxer, 1961. Died King Henry
III, 1272; Jack Sheppard, English highwayman, 1724; Louis Riel, Canadian
leader of the Mйtis rebellion,  1885;  Clark Gable,  US fim actor, 1960;
William Holden,  US film actor,  1981;  Arthur Askey,  English comedian,

17 November  Feast  day of St Hilda,  Saints Acisclus and Victoria,  St
Anianus or Aignan of Orlйans, Saints Alphaeus and Zachaeus, St Elizabeth
of Hungary,  St Gregory of Tours, St Gregory the Wonderworker, St Diony-
sius of Alexandria,  The Martyrs of Paraguay,  and St Hugh  of  Lincoln.
1800 The US Congress met for the first time,  in Washington DC. 1880 The
first three British women to graduate received their  Bachelor  of  Arts
degrees  from  the University of London.  1922 The last sultan of Turkey
was deposed by Kemal Atatьrk.  1922 Siberia voted  for  union  with  the
USSR.  1970  The  USSR's Luna 17 landed on the Sea of Rains on the moon,
and released the first moonwalker vehicle.  1970 Stephanie  Rahn  became
the Sun newspaper's first Page Three girl. 1988 Benazir Bhutto was elec-
ted prime minister of Pakistan,  becoming the first female leader  of  a
Muslim  state.  1991 The US Congress endorsed NAFTA (North American Free
Trade Agreement) between US,  Canada and Mexico.  Born Louis XVIII, King
of France,  1755;  Bernard Law Montgomery,  British field-marshal, 1887;
Charles Mackerras,  Australian conductor, 1925; Rock Hudson, US film ac-
tor,  1925;  Peter Cook,  English writer and entertainer,  1937;  Martin
Scorsese,  US film director,  1942.  Died Pico della Mirandola,  Italian
philosopher,  1497; Mary I, Queen of England, 1558; Robert Owen, British
socialist,  1856; Auguste Rodin, French sculptor, 1917; Heitor Villa-Lo-
bos, Brazilian composer, 1959; Gladys Cooper, English actress, 1971.

18 November Feast day of St Odo of Cluny, St Romanus of Antioch, and St
Mawes or Maudez.  1477 William Caxton's The Dictes or  Sayinges  of  the
Philosophres was published - the first printed book in England bearing a
date.  1626 St Peter's in Rome was consecrated. 1918 Latvia was proclai-
med an independent republic.  1928 The first experimental sound cartoon,
Steamboat Willie,  starring Mickey Mouse,  was screened in the US.  1977
President  Anwar  Sadat became the first Egyptian leader to visit Israel
and to address the Knesset (parliament).  1987 A fire broke out at  Lon-
don's King's Cross underground station, killing 30 people. 1991 The Shi-
ite Muslim faction Islamic Jihad freed Church of England envoy Terry Wa-
ite  (held since Jan 1987) and US university professor Thomas Sutherland
(held since June 1985).  Born Carl von Weber, German composer, 1786; Lo-
uis Daguerre,  French photographic pioneer,  1789;  W S Gilbert, English
dramatist and librettist, 1836; Ignacy Padereweski, Polish pianist, com-
poser and statesman,  1860; Alan Shepard, US astronaut, 1923; David Hem-
mings,  English and director,  1941.  Died Chester Alan Arthur,  21st US
president,  1886; Marcel Proust, French author, 1922; Niels Henrik Bohr,
Danish physicist, 1962; Joseph Kennedy, US financier and diplomat, 1969;
Gustбv Husбk, Czech politician, 1991.

19 November Feast day of St Ermenburga,  St Barlaam of Antioch,  and St
Nerses I.  1493 On his second voyage to the New World, Columbus discove-
red Puerto Rico.  1850 Alfred Tennyson was appointed Poet Laureate. 1863
President Lincoln delivered his famous  Gettysburg  address,  after  the
American  Civil  War.  1942 The Red Army counter-attacked and surrounded
the German army at Stalingrad. 1969 Brazilian footballer Pelй scored his
1,000th  goal in his 909th first class match.  1987 A record price for a
automobile was reached when a 1931 Bugatti Royale was  sold  at  auction
for Ј5.5 million.  Born Charles I,  King of England and Scotland,  1600;
Ferdinand de Lesseps,  French engineer, 1805; Anton Walbrook, German ac-
tor,  1900;  Indira Gandhi,  Indian stateswoman,  1917; Calvin Klein, US
fashion designer, 1942; Jodie Foster, US actress, 1963. Died Nicolas Po-
ussin,  French painter, 1665; Thomas Shadwell, English dramatist and po-
et, 1692; Franz Schubert, Austrian composer, 1828; William Siemens, Ger-
man metallurgist, 1883; Basil Spence, British architect, 1976; Christina
Onassis, Greek shipowner, 1988.

20 November Feast day of St Edmund the Martyr, St Maxentia of Beauvais, St Nerses of Sahgerd, St Bernward, St Felix of Valois, and St Dasius.
1759 The British fleet under Admiral Hawke defeated the French at the Battle of Quiberon Bay, thwarting an invasion of England. 1818 Simуn Bolнvar, known as 'the Liberator', declared Venezuela to be independent of Spain. 1917 The Battle of Cambrai
began, in which the British deployed large numbers of tanks for the first time. 1944 The lights of Piccadilly, the Strand, and Fleet Street were switched back on after five years of blackout. 1945 The Nuremberg trials of 24 chief Nazi war criminals
by an international military tribunal began. 1979 Anthony Blunt, Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, was stripped of his knighthood when his past work as a double agent was made public. 1980 The Solar Challenger was flown for the first time, entirely
under solar power.
Born   Edwin Powell Hubble, US astronomer, 1889; Alexandra Danilova, Russian ballerina and choreographer, 1906; Alistair Cooke, English, journalist and broadcaster, 1908; Dulcie Gray, English actress, 1920, Nadine Gordimer, South African novelist,
1923; Robert Kennedy, US politician, 1925.
Died   Anton Rubinstein, Russian pianist and composer, 1894; Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist, 1910; Queen Alexandra, consort of Edward VII, 1925; John Rushworth Jellicoe, British admiral, 1935; Francis William Aston, English physicist, 1945; Francisco
Franco, Spanish dictator, 1975.

21 November Feast day of St Geasius,  pope,  and St Albert of  Louvain.
1783 Franзois de Rozier and the Marquis d'Arlandres made the first human
flight when they lifted off from the  Bois  de  Boulogne,  Paris,  in  a
hot-air balloon built by the Montgolfier brothers.  1918 The German High
Seas Fleet surrendered to the Allies.  1934 Cole Porter's Anything  Goes
was first performed in New York.  1953 The discovery of the Piltdown Man
skull by Charles Dawson in Sussex, England, in 1912 was finally revealed
as a hoax.  1974 In Birmingham, 20 people were killed and 200 injured by
IRA bomb explosions.  1990 Leaders of NATO and Warsaw Pact member states
signed the Charter of Paris and a treaty on Conventional Forces in Euro-
pe,  bringing an end to the Cold War.  Born Voltaire, French philosopher
and writer,  1694; Harpo Marx, US comedian, 1888; Renй Magritte, Belgian
painter, 1898; Coleman Hawkins, US jazz saxophonist, 1904; Natalia Maka-
rova,  Russian ballerina, 1940; Goldie Hawn, US film actress, 1945. Died
Henry Purcell, English composer, 1695; James Hogg, Scottish novelist and
poet,  1835; Franz Josef I, Emperor of Austria, 1916; James Hertzog, So-
uth African politician, 1942; Venkata Raman, Indian physicist, 1970.

22 November National Day of Lebanon. Feast day of St Cecilia or Cecily,
and Saints Philemon and Apphia.  1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama
rounded the Cape of Good Hope in his search for a route to  India.  1938
The first coelacanth, a prehistoric fish believed to be extinct, was ca-
ught off the South African coast. 1946 Biro ball point pens went on sale
in Britain,  invented by Hungarian journalist Lбszlу Biro. 1956 The 16th
Olympic Games opened in Melbourne.  1963 John F Kennedy,  35th US presi-
dent, was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald.
1975 Two days after the death of General Franco, Juan Carlos I was sworn
in as King of Spain.  1986 Mike Tyson,  aged 20, defeated Trevor Berbick
in Las Vegas,  becoming the youngest-ever heavyweight  boxing  champion.
1990  Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher,  who had led Britain since 1979,
announced her resignation.  Born George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans),  English
novelist,  1819;  Wassily Kandinsky,  Russian painter, 1866; Andrй Gide,
French author, 1869; Charles de Gaulle, French statesman, 1890; Benjamin
Britten,  English composer,  1913; Billie Jean King, US tennis champion,
1943;  Boris Becker,  German tennis champion,  1967.  Died Edward  Teach
(Blackbeard the pirate),  English navigator, 1718; Robert Clive, British
general and administrator,  1774;  Arthur  Sullivan,  English  composer,
1900;  Jack London,  US novelist, 1916; Mae West, US film actress, 1980;
Sterling Holloway, US film actor, 1992.

23 November Feast day of St Clement I,  pope,  St Alexander, prince, St
Columbanus,  St Amphilochius, St Trudo or Trond, St Gregory of Girgenti,
and St Felicitas.  1670 Moliиre's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme was performed
for  the  first  time  in Paris.  1852 Britain's first pillar boxes were
erected,  at St Helier, Jersey. 1889 The first juke box was installed in
the  Palais  Royal Saloon in San Francisco.  1906 Italian operatic tenor
Enrico Caruso was fined $10 for sexual  harassment.  1921  US  President
Warren Harding banned doctors from prescribing beer, eliminating a loop-
hole in the prohibition law.  1963 The first episode of the British  BBC
TV serial Dr Who was broadcast, with William Hartnell as Dr Who and Anna
Ford as his female companion.  1980 A violent earthquake struck Southern
Italy,  killing over 4,000 people.  Born Billy the Kid, US outlaw, 1859;
Manuel de Falla, Spanish composer, 1876; Boris Karloff, English film ac-
tor, 1887; Michael Gough, English actor, 1917; Lew Hoad, Australian ten-
nis player,  1934;  Shane Gould,  Australian swimmer,  1956.  Died  Abbй
Prйvost,  French author,  1763;  Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen,  US murderer,
executed,  1910;  Arthur Wing Pinero, British dramatist, 1934; P C Wren,
British novelist, 1941; Andrй Malraux, French novelist, 1976; Merle Obe-
ron, British film actress, 1979.

24 November Feast day of Saints Flora and Mary,  St Chrysogonus, and St
Colman  of Cloyne.  1642 Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered Van Die-
men's Land which he named for his captain, but it was later renamed Tas-
mania.  1859 Darwin's The Origin of Species was published. 1963 Lee Har-
vey Oswald,  charged with the assassination of John F Kennedy,  was shot
while in police custody by Jack Ruby,  a stripclub owner. 1989 Czech po-
litician Alexander Dubcek made his first public appearance  in  over  20
years,  speaking  at  a pro-democracy rally in Prague.  1993 The last 14
bottles of Scotch whiskey salvaged from the SS  Politician,  wrecked  in
1941 and the inspiration of the book and film,  Whisky Galore, were sold
at auction for Ј11,462 at Christie's.  Born Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philo-
sopher,  1632;  Laurence Sterne,  Irish novelist, 1713; Henri de Toulou-
se-Lautrec,  French painter,  1864; Scott Joplin, US ragtime pianist and
composer,  1868;  Billy Connolly,  Scottish comedian,  1942; Ian Botham,
English cricketer,  1955.  Died John Knox,  Scottish religious reformer,
1572;  Erskine Childers,  Irish nationalist and novelist,  1922; Georges
Clemenceau,  French statesman,  1929;  George Raft, US film actor, 1980;
Freddie Mercury, English rock singer, 1991; Anthony Burgess, British no-
velist and critic, 1993.

25 November Feast day of St Moses the Martyr and St Mercurius of Caesa-
rea.  1884  Evaporated  milk was patented by John Mayenberg of St Louis,
Missouri.  1937 An inter-regional spelling competition became the  first
British quiz program to be broadcast. 1941 HMS Barham was sunk, with the
loss of 868 lives. 1952 The longest-running play, The Mousetrap by Agat-
ha Christie, opened in London, at the Ambassador's Theatre. 1969 In pro-
test against Britain's involvement in Biafra and support of US  involve-
ment in Vietnam,  John Lennon returned his MBE.  1975 Surinam,  formerly
called Dutch Guiana,  became a fully independent republic.  1991 Winston
Silcott  became  the  first of the 'Tottenham Three',  convicted for the
1985 killing of a policeman in Tottenham,  North London, UK, to have his
conviction overturned.  Born Andrew Carnegie,  US industrialist and phi-
lanthropist,  1835; Carl Benz, German engineer and automobile manufactu-
rer,  1844; Augusto Pinochet, Chilean dictator, 1915; Ricardo Montalban,
US film actor,  1920;  Imran Khan Niaz,  Pakistani cricketer, 1952. Died
Isaac Watts,  English hymn writer,  1748;  Bojangles (Bill Robinson), US
tapdancer and entertainer, 1949; Myra Hess, British pianist, 1965; Upton
Sinclair, US novelist, 1968; Yukio Mishima, Japanese novelist, 1970; An-
ton Dolin, British dancer and choreographer, 1983.

26 November Feast day of St Conrad of Constance,  St Peter of  Alexand-
ria,  St John Berchmans, St Basolus or Basle, St Siricius, St Leonard of
Porto Maurizio,  and St Silvester Gozzolini. 1703 England was hit by se-
vere gales,  known as the Great Storm,  in which 8,000 people died. 1789
The American Thanksgiving was celebrated nationally for the first  time.
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt returned to Washington after a trip to
Central America,  becoming the first US president to travel abroad while
in office. 1942 The Soviet forces counter-attacked at Stalingrad, ending
the siege and forcing General von Paulus's Sixth Army to  retreat.  1949
India  became  a  federal republic within the Commonwealth.  1966 French
President Charles de Gaulle opened the world's first tidal power station
in Brittany. 1990 Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's prime minister for 31 years,
announced that he was stepping down.  Born William Cowper, English poet,
1731;  William George Armstrong, English inventor, 1810; Emlyn Williams,
Welsh actor and dramatist,  1905; Cyril Cusack, Irish actor, 1910; Char-
les Schultz, US cartoonist, 1922; Tina Turner, US rock singer, 1938. Di-
ed Isabella I,  Queen of Castile and Aragon, 1504; John McAdam, Scottish
engineer,  1836;  Nicolas Soult,  French general, 1851; Leander Jameson,
British colonial administrator,  1917;  Tommy Dorsey,  US trombonist and
bandleader, 1956; Arnold Zweig, German novelist, 1968.

27 November  Feast  day of St James Intercisus,  St Cungar of Somerset,
Saints Barlaam and Josaphat, St Maximus of Riez, St Fergus of Strathern,
St  Virgil of Salzburg,  and St Secundinus or Sechnall.  1095 Pope Urban
began to preach the First Crusade at Clermont, France. 1582 William Sha-
kespeare, aged 18, married Anne Hathaway. 1914 Britain's first policewo-
men went on duty,  at  Grantham,  Lincolnshire.  1940  In  Romania,  the
pro-fascist group Iron Guard murdered 64 people,  including former prime
minister Jorga. 1967 French President Charles de Gaulle rejected British
entry  into  the  Common Market.  1970 The Gay Liberation Front held its
first demonstration in London, UK. Born Anders Celsius, Swedish astrono-
mer and thermometer inventor, 1701; Fanny Kemble, English actress, 1809;
Chaim Weizmann,  Israeli chemist and Zionist leader, 1874; Konosuke Mat-
sushita,  Japanese industrialist,  1894; Alexander Dubcek, Czech states-
man, 1920; Jimi Hendrix, US guitarist and singer, 1942. Died Horace, Ro-
man  poet,  8 BC;  Alexandre Dumas fils,  French novelist and dramatist,
1895;  Eugene O'Neill, US dramatist, 1953; Arthur Honegger, Swiss compo-
ser, 1955; Ross McWhirter, British editor, 1975.

28 November Feast day of St Stephen the Younger,  St Catherine Labourй,
St Simeon Metaphrastes, St James of the March, and St Joseph Pignatelli.
1520  Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan sailed through the Straits
at the tip of South America and reached an ocean which he named the  Pa-
cific.  1660  The  Royal Society was chartered in London,  UK.  1905 The
Irish political party Sinn Fein was founded by Arthur Griffith  in  Dub-
lin. 1909 In France, a law was passed allowing women eight weeks' mater-
nity leave.  1948 Edwin Land's first polaroid cameras went  on  sale  in
Boston. 1960 Mauritania gained independence. 1978 Amid growing fundamen-
talist opposition, the Iranian government banned religious rallies. 1993
The  Northern Ireland peace process and Prime Minister John Major's cre-
dibility were dealt a blow when secret government contacts with the  IRA
were publicly disclosed. Born Jean Baptiste Lully, Italian/French compo-
ser,  1632;  William Blake, English poet and artist, 1757; Friedrich En-
gels,  German Socialist,  1820;  Alberto Moravia,  Italian writer, 1907;
Claude Lйvi-Strauss,  French anthropologist, 1908; Randy Newman, US sin-
ger and songwriter,  1943. Died Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, Italian sculp-
tor,  1680;  Washington Irving,  US author,  1859; Enrico Fermi, Italian
physicist, 1954; Enid Blyton, English children's book author, 1968; Ken-
neth Connor, English actor, 1993.

29 November Feast day of St Radbod,  St Brendan of Birr, St Saturninus,
martyr,  and  St  Saturninus or Sernin of Toulouse.  1864 The Sand Creek
massacre took place when over 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians - who had
surrendered and were disarmed - were killed by US cavalry. 1929 US Admi-
ral Richard Byrd became the first man to fly over the South  Pole,  with
his pilot Bernt Balchen.  1932 Cole Porter's The Gay Divorcee,  starring
Fred Astaire, was first performed in New York. 1945 Yugoslavia was proc-
laimed a Federal People's Republic, under Tito's leadership. 1947 The UN
approved Britain's plan for a partition of Palestine.  1990 The UN Secu-
rity Council,  at the urging of the US, authorized the use of force aga-
inst Iraq if it did not withdraw totally from Kuwait by 15 January 1991.
Born Gaetano Donizetti,  Italian composer,  1797; Christian Johann Dopp-
ler,  Austrian physicist,  1803; Louisa May Alcott, US author, 1832; C S
Lewis,  English scholar and writer, 1898; Jacques Chirac, French states-
man,  1932; John Mayall, British vocalist and guitarist, 1949. Died Tho-
mas Wolsey,  English cardinal and politician,  1530; Maria Theresa, Emp-
ress of Austria.  1780;  Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer, 1924; Graham
Hill,  English racing driver, 1975; Natalie Wood, US film actress, 1981;
Ralph Bellamy, US film actor, 1991.

30 November National Day of Scotland. Feast day of St Andrew the Apost-
le,  St Sapor, and St Cuthbert Mayne. 1840 Napoleon I's remains were re-
turned from St Helena to Paris.  1872 The first  international  football
match was played, Scotland v England (drawing 0-0). 1914 Charlie Chaplin
made his film debut in Making a Living,  a Mack Sennett one-reeler, wit-
hout his trademark moustache and cane. 1936 The Crystal Palace at Syden-
ham,  designed by Joseph Paxton and originally constructed in Hyde  Park
to house the Great Exhibition of 1851,  burned down. 1939 The USSR inva-
ded Finland.  1988 PLO leader Yasser Arafat attempted to enter the US to
address  the  UN General Assembly,  but was refused a visa.  Born Andrea
Palladio,  Italian architect, 1508; Philip Sidney, English poet and sol-
dier,  1554;  Jonathan Swift, Irish author, 1667; Mark Twain, US author,
1835;  Winston Churchill, British statesman, 1874; Gary Lineker, English
footballer,  1960.  Died Oscar Wilde, Irish dramatist, 1900; Edward John
Eyre,  Australian explorer,  1901; Beniamino Gigli, Italian operatic te-
nor,  1957; Zeppo Marx, US actor and comedian, 1979; Cary Grant, US film
actor, 1986; James Baldwin, US writer, 1987.

1 December World Aids Day.  Feast day of St Edmund Campion, St Agericus
or Airy,  St Eligius or Elroy, St Alexander Briant, St Anasanus, St Tud-
wal,  and St Ralph Sherwin. 1640 The Spanish were driven out of Portugal
and the country regained its independence. 1919 US-born Lady Nancy Astor
became the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons,  as  MP
for the Sutton division of Plymouth. 1925 The Locarno Pact was signed in
London,  guaranteeing peace and frontiers in Europe.  1939 Gone with the
Wind premiered in New York.  1941 Japanese warplanes launched a surprise
attack on the US Pacific Fleet in their home base at Pearl Harbor,  for-
cing the US to enter WWII. 1942 The Beveridge Report on Social Security,
which formed the basis of the welfare state in Britain, was issued. 1953
The  first  issue of Hugh Heffner's Playboy magazine was published;  the
center-spread nude featured Marilyn Monroe.  1989 Pope John Paul II  and
Mikhail Gorbachev met in Rome,  ending 70 years of hostility between the
Vatican and the USSR.  1991 France won its first Davis Cup tennis  title
in 59 years by defeating the US at the finals in Lyons, France. Born Ma-
dame Tussaud,  French wax-modeler,  1761; Alicia Markova, British ballet
dancer, 1910; Woody Allen, US film actor, writer and director, 1935; Lee
Trevino,  US golfer,  1939;  Richard Pryor, US comedian and actor, 1940;
Bette Midler,  US comedienne and singer,  1945. Died King Henry I, 1135;
Lorenzo Ghiberti,  Italian sculptor and goldsmith, 1455; Vincent d'Indy,
French  composer,  1931;  J  B S Haldane,  English scientist and writer,
1964;  David Ben Gurion, Israeli statesman, 1973; James Baldwin, US wri-
ter, 1987.

2 December Feast day of St Chromatius of Aquilea,  St Silvanus of Cons-
tantinople, St Nonnus and St Bibiana or Viviana. 1697 The rebuilt St Pa-
ul's Cathedral,  work of Sir Christopher Wren, was opened. 1805 Napoleon
(crowned Emperor exactly one year earlier) defeated  the  Austrians  and
Russians  at  the  Battle of Austerlitz.  1823 US President James Monroe
proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine,  warning that any further European colo-
nial  ambitions in the western hemisphere would be considered threats to
US peace and security. 1901 In the US, King Camp Gillette patented a sa-
fety razor with a double-edged disposable blade.  1942 The first nuclear
chain reaction took place at the University of Chicago, under physicists
Enrico  Fermi and Arthur Compton.  1988 In Bangladesh,  a cyclone killed
thousands of people and left five million  homeless.  1990  West  German
Chancellor Helmut Kohl was elected chancellor of a united Germany.  1993
Colombian drugs baron Pablo Escobar was shot dead.  Born Georges Seurat,
French painter,  1859; Ruth Draper, US entertainer, 1884; John Barbirol-
li,  English conductor, 1899; Peter Carl Goldmark, US inventor of the LP
record,  1906;  Maria Callas, US lyric soprano, 1923; Alexander Haig, US
general and politician.  Died  Hernбndo  Cortйs,  Spanish  conquistador,
1547;  Gerhardt Mercator,  Belgian cartographer,  1594; Marquis de Sade,
French writer and philosopher,  1814; John Brown, US abolitionist, 1859;
Philip Larkin,  English poet,  1985;  Aaron Copland,  US composer, 1990;
Pablo Escobar, Colombian racketeer, 1993.

3 December Feast day of Saints Claudius,  Hilaria and their Companions,
St Birinus,  St Lucius of Britain, St Cassian of Tangier, and St Francis
Xavier.  1810 The British captured Mauritius from the French.  1910 Neon
lighting was displayed for the first time at the Paris Motor Show.  1917
The Quebec Bridge,  the world's longest cantilever, over the St Lawrence
River,  was opened - 87 lives were lost during its construction. 1961 At
the Museum of Modern Art in New York,  Henri Matisse's painting Le Bate-
au,  which had been hanging upside-down for 46 days,  was hung the right
way up. 1967 At Groote Schurr Hospital, Cape Town, Dr Christiaan Barnard
carried out the world's first heart transplant.  1984 A chemical leakage
at a pesticide factory in Bhopal,  India caused the deaths of over 2,500
people  and  blinded  many thousands.  Born Niccolт Amati,  Italian vio-
lin-maker,  1596;  Joseph Conrad,  British novelist, 1857; Anton von We-
bern,  Austrian composer, 1883; Andy Williams, US singer, 1930; Jean-Luc
Godard, French film director, 1930; Franz Klammer, Austrian skier, 1953.
Died Frederick VI,  King of Denmark, 1839; Robert Louis Stevenson, Scot-
tish novelist,  1894;  Mary Baker Eddy, US founder of Christian Science,
1910;  Pierre Auguste Renoir,  French painter, 1919; Oswald Mosley, Eng-
lish fascist leader,  1980;  Lewis Thomas,  US physician and  biologist,
1993; Frank Zappa, US composer and guitarist, 1993.

4 December Feast day of St Maruthas,  St Bernard of Parma,  St Sola, St
Osmund,  St Anno,  St Barbara,  virgin-martyr,  and St John of Damascus.
1154 The only Englishman to become a pope,  Nicholas Breakspear,  became
Adrian IV.  1791 Britain's oldest Sunday paper,  the Observer, was first
published.  1798 William Pitt the Younger first introduced income tax in
Britain,  to finance the wars with revolutionary France.  1808  Napoleon
abolished  the  Inquisition  in Spain.  1829 Under British rule,  suttee
(whereby a widow commits suicide by joining her husband's funeral  pyre)
was made illegal in India.  1947 The first performance of Tennessee Wil-
liams' A Streetcar Named Desire starring Marlon Brando and Jessica  Tan-
dy,  in New York.  1961 Birth control pills became available on the NHS.
1991 News correspondent Terry Anderson, the longest-held Western hostage
in Lebanon (2,454 days in captivity),  was freed by Islamic Jihad.  Born
Thomas Carlyle,  Scottish author,  1795;  Edith Cavell,  English  nurse,
1865;  Rainer Maria Rilke,  German poet, 1875; Francisco Franco, Spanish
dictator, 1892; Ronnie Corbett, British comedian, 1930; Jeff Bridges, US
film actor, 1949. Died Cardinal Richelieu, French politician, 1642; John
Gay,  English poet and dramatist, 1732; Luigi Galvani, Italian physiolo-
gist, 1798; Jack Payne, British bandleader, 1969; Benjamin Britten, Eng-
lish composer, 1976.

5 December National Day of Thailand.  Feast day of St Christian, St Sa-
bas, St Justinian or Iestin, St Crispina, St Nicetius of Trier, St Sigi-
ramnus or Cyran, and St John Almond. 1766 James Christie, founder of the
famous auctioneers,  held his first sale in London, UK. 1904 The Russian
fleet was destroyed by the Japanese at Port Arthur, during the Russo-Ja-
panese War.  1908 The first American football game in which players were
numbered was played, at Pittsburgh. 1933 Prohibition was repealed in the
US after more than 13 years.  1958 Britain's first expressway, the Pres-
ton by-pass,  was opened by Prime Minister Macmillan. 1993 The single by
Mr Blobby, a pink and yellow spotted BBC television star, reached number
one in the British charts. Born Christina Georgina Rossetti, English po-
et,  1830;  Fritz Lang,  Austrian film director,  1890;  Walt Disney, US
filmmaker and animator,  1901;  Otto Preminger,  Austrian film director,
1906;  Little Richard,  US rock 'n' roll pioneer,  1935;  Josй Carreras,
Spanish operatic tenor,  1946.  Died Wolfgang Amadeus  Mozart,  Austrian
composer, 1791; Alexandre Dumas pиre, French novelist, 1870; Henry Tate,
English businessman and philanthropist, 1899; Claude Monet, French pain-
ter,  1926;  Jan Kubelik, Czech violinist, 1940; Robert Aldrich, US film
director, 1983.

6 December National Day of Finland. Feast day of St Gertrude the Elder,
St Abraham of Kratia,  St Nicholas of Bari, St Asella, and Saints Diony-
sia,  Majoricus and their Companions. 1492 Columbus discovered Hispanio-
la,  now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 1774 Austria became the first
nation to introduce a state education system.  1877 With a recording  of
himself  reciting  Mary Had a Little Lamb Thomas Edison demonstrated the
first phonograph, in New Jersey, US. 1907 In Monongah, West Virginia 361
people were killed in America's worst mine disaster.  1917 Finland proc-
laimed independence from Russia.  1921 The Irish Free State was formally
created,  as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. 1926 Mussolini introdu-
ced a tax on bachelors. 1990 Saddam Hussein announced that he would free
all of the 2,000 foreign hostages held in Iraq and occupied Kuwait. Born
King Henry VI,  1421;  George Monck,  English admiral, 1608; Warren Has-
tings,  British  administrator,  1732;  Osbert Sitwell,  English writer,
1892;  Ira Gershwin,  US lyricist, 1896; Dave Brubeck, US jazz musician,
1920. Died Jean-Baptiste-Simйon Chardin, French painter, 1779; Madame du
Barry, mistress of King Louis XV of France, 1793; Anthony Trollope, Eng-
lish novelist,  1882;  Ernst Werner von Siemens,  German inventor, 1892;
Roy Orbison, US singer and songwriter, 1988.

7 December Feast day of St Martin of Saujon,  St Ambrose of  Milan,  St
Eutychianus,  St Servus, and St Buithe or Boethius. 1431 In Paris, Henry
VI of England was crowned King of France.  1732 The original Covent Gar-
den Theatre Royal (now the Royal Opera House) was opened.  1787 Delaware
became the first of the United States.  1907 At London's National  Spor-
ting Club, Eugene Corri became the first referee to officiate from insi-
de a boxing ring.  1941 The Japanese attacked the US fleet in Pearl Har-
bor.  1982  The  first  execution by lethal injection took place at Fort
Worth Prison,  Texas. 1988 An earthquake in Armenia killed thousands and
caused  widespread  destruction.  1990 A week-long succession of violent
clashes between Hindus and Muslims in several Indian cities  began,  re-
sulting  in  about  300 deaths and 3,000 arrests.  Born Giovanni Lorenzo
Bernini,  Italian sculptor,  1598;  Pietro Mascagni,  Italian  composer,
1863; Eli Wallach, US film actor, 1915; Mario Soares, Portuguese politi-
cian,  1924;  Ellen Burstyn,  US actress, 1932; Geoff Lawson, Australian
cricketer, 1958. Died Cicero, Roman orator, 43 BC; William Bligh, capta-
in of the Bounty,  1817;  Ferdinand de Lesseps,  French engineer,  1894;
Kirsten Flagstad,  Norwegian operatic soprano, 1962; Thornton Wilder, US
novelist,  1975;  Robert Graves, English poet and author, 1985; Wolfgang
Paul, German nuclear physicist, 1993.

8 December Feast day of the Immaculate Conception,  St Romaric, St Euc-
harius, St Sophronius of Cyprus, and St Patapius. 1854 Pope Pius IX dec-
lared  the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary
to be an article of faith.  1863 Tom King of England  defeated  American
John Heenan, becoming the first world heavyweight champion. 1941 The US,
Britain,  and Australia declared war on Japan,  one day after the attack
on  Pearl  Harbor.  1980 John Lennon was shot dead in New York.  1987 US
President Reagan and Soviet President Gorbachev signed the  Intermediate
Nuclear Forces treaty in Washington, DC, the first nuclear arms reducti-
on agreement.  1991 The leaders of Russia,  Byelorussia, and the Ukraine
signed  an  agreement  forming a 'Commonwealth of Independent States' to
replace the USSR;  the decision was denounced by President Gorbachev  as
unconstitutional.  Born Horace, Roman poet, 65 BC; Mary Stuart, Queen of
Scots,  1542; Bjцrnstjerne Bjцrnson, Norwegian poet and dramatist, 1832;
James Thurber,  US wit and cartoonist,  1894; Sammy Davis Jr, US singer,
actor,  and dancer,  1925; Jim Morrison, US singer, 1943. Died Thomas de
Quincey,  English author, 1859; Herbert Spencer, British philosopher and
writer,  1903;  Simon Marks, English retailer, 1964; Golda Meir, Israeli
politician, 1978; John Lennon, British rock singer and songwriter, 1980.

9 December National Day of Tanzania.  Feast day of The Seven Martyrs of
Samosata, St Peter Fourier, St Budoc or Beuzec, St Gorgonia, and St Leo-
cadia.  1783  The  first  executions at Newgate Prison took place.  1868
Gladstone was elected prime minister of Britain,  beginning the first of
his four terms.  1917 The British captured Jerusalem from the Turks, du-
ring World War I. 1955 Sugar Ray Robinson knocked out Carl Olson, regai-
ning his world middleweight boxing title.  1960 The first episode of Co-
ronation Street was screened on ITV.  1987 The first martyrs of the 'in-
tifada'  in  the Gaza Strip were created when an Israeli patrol attacked
the Jabaliya refugee camp. 1990 Lech Walesa, leader of the once-outlawed
Solidarity  labor movement,  was elected president of Poland.  Born John
Milton, English poet, 1608; Clarence Birdseye, US inventor of deep-free-
zing process,  1886; Douglas Fairbanks Jr, US film actor, 1909; Kirk Do-
uglas,  US film actor,  1918; Robert Hawke, Australian politician, 1929;
Joan Armatrading,  English singer and songwriter, 1950. Died Anthony Van
Dyck, Flemish painter, 1641; Joseph Bramah, English inventor of the hyd-
raulic press,  1814;  Juan de la Cierva,  Spanish engineer,  1963; Edith
Sitwell,  English poet and author,  1964;  Karl Barth, Swiss theologian,
1968;  Bernice Abbott,  US photographer, 1991; Danny Blanchflower, Irish
footballer, 1993.

10 December Feast day of St Gregory,  pope, St Edmund Gerhings, St Eus-
tace White, St John Roberts, St Eulalia of Merida, St Swithin Wells, Sa-
ints Mannas,  Hermogenes and Eugrphus, St Polydore Plaaden, and St Melc-
hiades or Miltiades.  1768 The Royal Academy of Arts was founded in Lon-
don by George III,  with Joshua Reynolds as its  first  president.  1845
Pneumatic  tires  were patented by Scottish civil engineer Robert Thomp-
son.  1898 Cuba became independent of Spain following the Spanish-Ameri-
can  War.  1901  Nobel  Prizes were first awarded.  1941 The Royal Naval
battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk by  Japanese  aircraft
in  the  Battle of Malaya.  The leaders of the 12 EC nations ended their
two-day summit and agreed on the treaty of Maastricht,  pledging  closer
political and economic union. Born Cйsar Franck, Belgian composer, 1822;
Emily Dickinson,  US poet,  1830;  William Plomer, South African author,
1903;  Olivier Messiaen, French composer and organist, 1908; Dorothy La-
mour,  US film actress,  1914; Kenneth Branagh, British actor and direc-
tor, 1960. Died Paolo Uccello, Italian painter, 1475; Leopold I, King of
the Belgians,  1865;  Alfred Nobel, Swedish industrialist and philathro-
pist,  1896; Damon Runyon, US writer, 1946; Otis Redding, US soul singer
and songwriter, 1967; Jascha Heifetz, US violinist, 1987.

11 December Feast day of St Daniel the Stylite, St Damasus, pope, Sain-
ts Fuscianus, Victoricus and Gentianus, and St Barsabas. 1769 Edward Be-
ran of London,  UK, patented venetian blinds. 1844 Nitrous oxide, or la-
ughing gas,  was first used for a tooth extraction. 1894 The first motor
show opened in Paris,  with nine exhibitors. 1941 Germany and Italy dec-
lared  war  on the US.  1987 Charlie Chaplin's trademark cane and bowler
hat were sold at Christie's for #є2,500.  1991 Salman Rushdie,  under an
Islamic  death sentence for blasphemy,  made his first public appearance
since 1989 in New York, at a dinner marking the 200th anniversary of the
First  Amendment (which guarantees freedom of speech).  Born Pope Leo X,
1475;  Hector Berlioz,  French composer, 1803; Carlo Ponti, Italian film
director  and producer,  1913;  Alexander Solzhenitsyn,  Russian author,
1918;  Kenneth MacMillan,  Scottish choreographer,  1929; Brenda Lee, US
pop singer, 1944. Died Llewlyn ap Gruffydd, last native Prince of Wales,
1282;  Bernardino Pinturicchio,  Italian painter, 1513; Olive Schreiner,
South African novelist,  1920; Ed Murrow, US journalist and broadcaster,

12 December National Day of Kenya.  Feast day of  St  Jane  Frances  de
Chantel, St Corentin or Cury, Saints Epimachus and Alexander, St Edburga
of Minster, St Vicelin, and St Finnian of Clonard. 1896 Guglielmo Marco-
ni gave the first public demonstration of radio at Toynbee Hall, London,
UK.  1915 The first all-metal aircraft,  the German Junkers J1, made its
first flight. 1925 The world's first motel, in San Luis Obispo, Califor-
nia,  opened. 1955 Bill Haley and the Comets recorded 'See You Later Al-
ligator'  at  Decca Recording Studios,  New York.  1955 British engineer
Christopher Cockerell patented the first hovercraft.  1989 US billionai-
ress Leona Helmsley,  dubbed the 'Queen of Greed',  was fined $7 million
and sentenced to four years in prison for tax evasion. Born Gustave Fla-
ubert, French novelist, 1821; Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter, 1863; Ed-
ward G Robinson,  US film actor,  1893; Frank Sinatra, US singer and ac-
tor, 1915; Dionne Warwick, US singer, 1941; Emerson Fittipaldi, Brazili-
an racing driver,  1960. Died Robert Browning, English poet, 1889; Doug-
las Fairbanks,  Sr, US film actor, 1939; Peter Fraser, New Zealand poli-
tician,  1950; Tallulah Bankhead, US actress, 1968; Anne Baxter, US film
actress, 1985.

13 December Feast day of St Lucy,  St Aubert of Cambrai,  St Othilia or
Odilia, St Eustratius of Sebastea, and St Judocus or Josse. 1577 Francis
Drake began his journey from Plymouth in the Golden Hind that was to ta-
ke him around the world. 1642 Dutch navigator Abel Tasman discovered New
Zealand.  1903 Molds for ice cream cones were patented by Italo Marcione
of New York.  1904 The Metropolitan Underground railroad in London,  UK,
went  electric.  1967  A  military coup replaced the monarchy in Greece,
sending King Constantine II into exile. 1973 Due to the Arab oil embargo
and the coalminers' slowdown, the British government ordered a three-day
work week.  Born Heinrich Heine,  German poet and journalist, 1797; John
Piper, English painter and writer, 1903; Laurens van der Post, South Af-
rican writer and explorer, 1906; Balthazar Johannes Vorster, South Afri-
can politician,  1915;  Christopher Plummer, US film actor, 1929; Howard
Brenton,  English dramatist,  1942. Died Maimonides, Jewish philosopher,
1204;  Donatello, Italian sculptor, 1466; Dr Samuel Johnson, English le-
xicographer, 1784; Wassily Kandinsky, Russian painter, 1944; Grandma Mo-
ses,  US primitive painter (aged 101), 1961; Mary Renault, English nove-
list, 1983.

14 December Feast day of St John of the Cross, Saints Fingar or Gwinne-
ar and Phiala, St Spiridion, St Venantius Fortunatus, and St Nicasius of
Reims. 1900 Professor Max Planck of Berlin University revealed his revo-
lutionary  Quantum  Theory.  1911  A  Norwegian  expedition led by Roald
Amundsen became the first to reach the South Pole -  35  days  ahead  of
Captain Scott.  1918 For the first time in Britain women (over 30) voted
in a General Election.  1959 Archbishop  Makarios  was  elected  Cyprus'
first president.  1962 US Mariner II sent the first close-up pictures of
the planet Venus back to Earth. 1990 After 30 years in exile, ANC presi-
dent  Oliver  Tambo returned to South Africa.  Born Nostradamus,  French
physician and astrologer,  1503; Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer and mat-
hematician,  1546; Roger Fry, English painter and critic, 1866; King Ge-
orge VI,  1895; Lee Remick, US actress, 1935; Stan Smith, US tennis pla-
yer,  1946.  Died George Washington,  1st US president, 1799; Prince Al-
bert,  consort of Queen Victoria, 1861; Stanley Baldwin, British politi-
cian,  1947;  Stanley Spencer,  English painter,  1959; Andrei Sakharov,
Russian physicist and human-rights campaigner, 1989.

15 December Feast day of St Nino,  St Valerian, St Mary di Rosa, and St
Paul of Latros.  1654 A meteorological office established in Tuscany be-
gan recording daily temperature readings.  1791 The Bill of Rights'  ten
amendments became part of the US Constitution.  1916 In World War I, the
first Battle of Verdun ended;  over 700,000 German and  Allied  soldiers
died in the action.  1939 Nylon was first produced commercially in Dela-
ware,  US.  1961 Nazi official Adolf Eichmann was found guilty of crimes
against the Jewish people and sentenced to death, after a trial in Jeru-
salem. 1982 Gibraltar's frontier with Spain was opened to pedestrian use
after 13 years. 1992 Bettino Craxi, the leader of Italy's Socialist Par-
ty, was informed that he was under investigation in a burgeoning corrup-
tion scandal that had racked the northern city of Milan.  Born Nero, Ro-
man emperor,  37;  George Romney, English painter, 1734; Gustave Eiffel,
French engineer,  1832;  John Paul Getty, US oil billionaire, 1892; Edna
O'Brien,  Irish novelist,  1936;  Dave Clark, English pop drummer, 1942.
Died Jan Vermeer,  Dutch painter,  1675; Izaak Walton, English author of
The Compleat Angler,  1683;  Sitting Bull,  chief of the Sioux  Indians,
1890;  Fats Waller, US jazz pianist, 1943; Charles Laughton, English ac-
tor, 1962; Walt Disney, US filmmaker and animator, 1966.

16 December Feast day of St Irenion,  Saints Ananiah, Azariah, and Mic-
hael,  and  St  Adelaide.  1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of
England.  1773 The Boston Tea Party, a protest against British taxation,
took place off Griffin's Wharf in Boston harbor.  1809 Napoleon divorced
his wife Josйphine, because she had not produced children. 1838 The Zulu
chief  Dingaan  was  defeated by a small force of Boers at Blood River -
celebrated in South Africa as 'Dingaan's Day'.  1850 The first immigrant
ship,  the Charlotte Jane,  arrived at Lyttleton,  New Zealand. 1944 The
Battle of the Bulge, in the Ardennes, began with a strong counter-attack
by the Germans under General von Rundstedt. 1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide,
a leftist priest,  was elected president  in  Haiti's  first  democratic
elections. 1991 The UN General Assembly voted to repeal its 1975 resolu-
tion equating Zionism with racism. Born Catherine of Aragon, 1st wife of
King Henry VIII,  1485; Jane Austen, English novelist, 1775; Jack Hobbs,
English cricketer,  1882; Noлl Coward, English dramatist, actor and com-
poser, 1889; Margaret Mead, US anthropologist, 1901; Liv Ullmann, Norwe-
gian actress,  1938.  Died Wilhelm Grimm, German philologist and folklo-
rist, 1859; Camille Saint-Saлns, French composer, 1921; Glenn Miller, US
trombonist and bandleader, 1944; William Somerset Maugham, British nove-
list, 1965; Kakuei Tanaka, Japanese politician, 1993.

17 December Feast day of St Lazarus,  St Sturmi,  St Begga,  St Wivina,
and St Olympias.  1843 A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens was  publis-
hed.  1892  Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker was first performed,  in St Pe-
tersburg by the Russian Imperial Ballet.  1903 Orville Wright  made  the
first successful controlled flight in a powered aircraft,  at Kill Devil
Hill,  near Kitty Hawk,  North Carolina,  US. 1939 The German battleship
Graf Spee was scuttled by British warships off Montvideo, Uruguay, after
the Battle of the River Plate. 1973 Thirty-one people were killed at Ro-
me airport after Arab guerillas hijacked a German airliner. 1986 At Pap-
worth Hospital,  Cambridge, Davina Thompson became the world's first re-
cipient of a heart,  lungs,  and liver transplant.  1992 Israel deported
over 400 Palestinians to Lebanese territory in an unprecedented mass ex-
pulsion of suspected militants.  Born Domenico Cimarosa,  Italian compo-
ser, 1749; Humphry Davy, English chemist and inventor, 1778; William Ly-
on MacKenzie King,  Canadian statesman, 1874; Erskine Caldwell, US nove-
list,  1903;  Tommy Steele, British singer and actor, 1936; Peter Snell,
New Zealand athlete, 1938. Died Simуn Bolнvar, South American revolutio-
nary leader,  1830;  Alphonse Daudet,  French novelist,  1897; Elizabeth
Garrett Anderson, first English woman physician, 1917; Harold Holt, Aus-
tralian politician, 1967; Sy Oliver, US composer, 1988.

18 December Feast day of Saints Rufus and Zosimus, St Flannan, St Wine-
bald, St Gatian, and St Samthan. 1865 The US officially abolished slave-
ry with the ratification of the 13th Amendment.  1903 The  Panama  Canal
Zone  was acquired 'in perpetuity' by the US,  for an annual rent.  1912
The immigration of illiterate persons to the US was prohibited by  Cong-
ress. 1912 The discovery of the Piltdown Man in East Sussex, England was
announced;  it was proved to be a hoax in 1953.  1969 The death  penalty
for murder was abolished in Britain. 1970 Divorce became legal in Italy.
1979 The sound barrier on land was broken for the first time by  Stanley
Barrett, driving at 739.6 mph, in California. Born Joseph Grimaldi, Eng-
lish clown,  1779;  Paul Klee, Swiss painter, 1879; Willy Brandt, German
statesman,  1913;  Betty Grable,  US film actress, 1916; Keith Richards,
British guitarist,  1943; Steven Spielberg, US film director, 1947. Died
Antonio Stradivari,  Italian violin maker,  1737;  John Alcock,  English
aviator,  1919;  Dorothy L Sayers, English author, 1957; Bobby Jones, US
golfer,  1971;  Ben Travers,  British dramatist,  1980;  Paul Tortelier,
French cellist, 1990.

19 December Feast day of St Timothy,  St Gregory of Auxerre, St Anasta-
sius I of Antioch,  and St Nemesius of Alexandria.  1154 Henry II became
King of England.  1562 The Battle of Dreux was fought between the Hugue-
nots and the Catholics,  beginning the French Wars of Religion. 1842 Ha-
waii's independence was recognized by the US.  1955 'Blue  Suede  Shoes'
was recorded by Carl Perkins in Memphis,  Tennessee. 1957 An air service
between London and Moscow was inaugurated. 1984 Ted Hughes was appointed
Poet Laureate. 1984 Britain and China signed an agreement in Beijing, in
which Britain agreed to transfer full sovereignty of Hong Kong to  China
in 1997. 1991 Bob Hawke was deposed as Australia's prime minister by his
parliamentary colleagues and replaced by Paul Keating.  Born William Ed-
ward Parry,  English Arctic explorer, 1790; Albert Abraham Michelson, US
physicist, 1852; Ralph Richardson, English actor, 1902; Leonid Brezhnev,
Soviet leader,  1906;  Jean Genet,  French dramatist and essayist, 1910;
Edith Piaf,  French singer,  1915.  Died Vitus Bering, Danish navigator,
1741; Emily Brontл, English novelist, 1848; Joseph Turner, English pain-
ter, 1851; Robert Andrews Millikan, US physicist, 1953; Alexei Nikolaie-
vich Kosygin,  Soviet politician,  1980; Stella Gibbons, English author,

20 December Feast day of St Dominic of Silos, St Ammon and his Compani-
ons,  St Ursicinus, and St Philogonius. 1860 South Carolina seceded from
the American Union, and joined the Confederacy. 1915 The ANZACS, Austra-
lian and New Zealand forces with British troops were evacuated from Gal-
lipoli,  after their expedition against the Turks went seriously  wrong.
1933 Flying Down to Rio, the first film to feature Fred Astaire and Gin-
ger Rogers,  was first shown in New York. 1957 Elvis Presley, at the he-
ight  of his stardom,  received his draft papers.  1989 General Noriega,
Panama's former dictator,  was overthrown by a US invasion force invited
by the new civilian government. 1990 Soviet Foregn Minister Shevardnadze
resigned,  complaining of conservative attacks on his policies. Born Ro-
bert Menzies, Australian politician, 1894; James Leasor, English author,
1923; Geoffrey Howe, British politician, 1926; Uri Geller, Israeli psyc-
hic/illusionist,  1946;  Jenny  Agutter,  English actress,  1952;  Billy
Bragg, English rock singer, 1958. Died Erich Ludendorff, German general,
1937; James Hilton, English novelist, 1954; John Steinbeck, US novelist,
1968;  Artur Rubinstein,  US pianist, 1982; Bill Brandt, British photog-
rapher, 1983.

21 December Feast day of St Thomas the Apostle, Saints Themistocles and
Dioscorus,  St John Vincent, St Anastasius II of Antioch, St Peter Cani-
sius,  and St Glycerius. 1620 The Pilgrim Fathers, aboard the Mayflower,
landed at Plymouth Rock,  Massachusetts. 1879 Ibsen's A Doll's House was
first performed in Copenhagen, with a revised happy ending. 1925 Eisens-
tein's film Battleship Potemkin was first shown  in  Moscow.  1937  Walt
Disney's  Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was shown in Los Angeles,  the
first full-length animated talking picture. 1958 Charles de Gaulle beca-
me  President  of  France.  1988  A Pan Am jet blew up in mid-flight and
crashed in Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 passengers aboard and 11
people on the ground; the terrorist bomb had been concealed within a ra-
dio. 1990 In a German television interview, Saddam Hussein declared that
he would not withdraw from Kuwait by the UN deadline. Born Benjamin Dis-
raeli, British politician, 1804; Joseph Stalin, Soviet leader, 1879; He-
inrich Bцll,  German author,  1917;  Jane Fonda,  US film actress, 1937;
Frank Zappa,  US rock singer and composer,  1940; Chris Evert, US tennis
player,  1954. Died Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian author, 1375; James Par-
kinson,  British neurologist,  1824;  F Scott Fitzgerald,  US  novelist,
1940; George Patton, US military leader, 1945; Jack Hobbs, English cric-
keter, 1963.

22 December Feast day of St Flavian of Tuscany,  St Zeno,  St Chaeremon
and Others,  and St Ischyrion.  1715 James Stuart,  the 'Old Pretender',
landed at Petershead after his exile in France.  1864 The Geneva Conven-
tion  was  originated.  1894 Alfred Dreyfus,  the French officer who was
falsely convicted for selling military secrets,  was sent to Devil's Is-
land. 1895 German physicist Wilhelm Rцntgen made the first X-ray, of his
wife's hand.  1945 The US recognized Josip Tito's government in Yugosla-
via.  1961  James  Davis  became the first US soldier to die in Vietnam,
while US involvement was still limited to the provision of military  ad-
visers.  1989  Romanian  dictator Nicolae Ceausзescu was overthrown in a
bloody revolutionary coup.  1991 Eleven of the 12 Soviet republics (exc-
luding Georgia) agreed,  in Alma Ata,  Kazakhstan,  on the creation of a
Commonwealth of Independent States.  Born John Crome,  English  painter,
1768; John Nevil Maskelyne, English stage magician, 1839; Giacomo Pucci-
ni,  Italian composer, 1858; Peggy Ashcroft, English actress, 1907; Noel
Edmonds,  English TV presenter, 1948; Maurice and Robin Gibb, Australian
pop musicians,  1949. Died George Eliot, English novelist, 1880; Beatrix
Potter,  English author and artist,  1943; Harry Langdon, US silent film
comedian, 1944; Richard Dimbleby, British broadcaster, 1965; Samuel Bec-
kett, Irish author and dramatist, 1989.

23 December  Feast  day of The Ten Martyrs of Crete,  St Dagobert II of
Austria,  St John of Kanti, Saints Victoria and Anatolia, St Frithebert,
St Servulus, and St Thorlac. 1834 English architect Joseph Hansom paten-
ted his 'safety cab',  better known as the Hansom cab.  1888 Following a
quarrel  with Paul Gauguin,  Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh cut off part
of his own earlobe. 1922 The BBC began daily news broadcasts in Britain.
1948 General Tojo and six other Japanese military leaders were executed,
having been found guilty of crimes against humanity.  1953 Soviet secret
police chief Lavrenti Beria and six of his associates were shot for tre-
ason following a secret trial. 1986 Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager made the
first  non-stop flight around the world without refueling,  piloting the
US plane Voyager.  1965 A 70-mph speed limit was introduced in  Britain.
1990  Elections  in Yugoslavia ended,  leaving four of its six republics
with non-Communist governments.  Born Richard Arkwright,  English inven-
tor,  1732;  Alexander I,  tsar of Russia, 1777; Samuel Smiles, Scottish
author, 1812; J Arthur Rank, British film magnate, 1888; Maurice Denham,
English actor, 1909; Helmut Schmidt, German statesman, 1918. Died Micha-
el Drayton,  English poet,  1631;  Thomas Robert Malthus, English econo-
mist,  1834;  George Catlin, US painter and explorer, 1872; Charles Dana
Gibson,  US artist and illustrator,  1944; Henry Cotton, British golfer,
1987; Ernst Krenek, US composer, 1991.

24 December Feast day of St Gregory of Spoleto,  Saints,  Tharsilla and
Emiliana,  St Adela,  St Irmina,  St Delphinus, and St Sharbel Makhlouf.
1814  The  War  of 1812 between the US and Britain was brought to an end
with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.  1828 William Burke  who,  with
his partner William Hare, dug up the dead and murdered to sell the corp-
ses for dissection,  went on trial in Edinburgh.  1871 Verdi's Aida  was
first  performed  in Cairo.  1914 The first air raid on Britain was made
when a German airplane dropped a bomb on the grounds of a rectory in Do-
ver.  1951  Libya  achieved independence as the United Kingdom of Libya,
under King Idris.  1965 A meteorite landed on Leicestershire, UK; it we-
ighed about 100lbs. 1979 Afghanistan was invaded by Soviet troops as the
Kabul government fell. Born King John, 1167; Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish
founder of the Jesuits,  1491;  Matthew Arnold, English poet and critic,
1822;  Howard Hughes,  US tycoon,  1905;  Ava Gardner,  US film actress,
1922; Colin Cowdrey, English cricketer, 1932. Died Vasco da Gama, Portu-
guese explorer and navigator,  1524;  W M Thackeray,  English  novelist,
1863;  Leon Bakst, Russian painter and stage designer, 1924; Alban Berg,
Austrian composer, 1935; Frank Richards, English writer, 1961; Karl Doe-
nitz, German naval commander, 1980.

25 December  Christmas Day.  Feast day of The Martyrs of Nicomedia,  St
Eugenia,  St Alburga,  and St Anastasia of Sirmium.  800 Charlemagne was
crowned  first Holy Roman Emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III.  1066 William
the Conqueror was crowned king of England at Westminster Abbey. 1914 Du-
ring World War I,  British and German troops observed an unofficial tru-
ce,  even playing football together on the  Western  Front's  'no  man's
land'. 1926 Hirohito succeeded his father Yoshihito as emperor of Japan.
1941 Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese.  1972 The Nicaraguan capital
Managua was devastated by an earthquake which killed over 10,000 people.
1989 Dissident playwright Vaclav Havel was elected president of Czechos-
lovakia.  1991  Unable  to maintain control over a disintegrating Soviet
Union,  Mikhail Gorbachev announced his resignation as  president.  Born
Isaac Newton,  English scientist, 1642; Maurice Utrillo, French painter,
1883;  Humphrey Bogart,  US film actor, 1899; Anwar Sadat, Egyptian sta-
tesman, 1918; Sissy Spacek, US film actress, 1949; Annie Lennox, British
pop singer,  1954.  Died Karel Capek, Czech dramatist, 1938; W C Fields,
US actor and screenwriter,  1946; Charlie Chaplin, English actor and di-
rector, 1977; Joan Mirу, Spanish artist, 1983; Nicolae Ceausзescu, Roma-
nian politician, executed, 1989.

26 December Boxing Day in Britain (Handsel Day in Scotland).  Feast day
of St Stephen,  St Dionysius, pope, St Archelaus of Kashkar, St Vicentia
Lopez, St Zosimus, pope, and St Tathai or Athaeus. 1898 Marie and Pierre
Curie discovered radium. 1908 Texan boxer 'Galveston Jack' Johnson knoc-
ked out Tommy Burns in Sydney,  Australia, to become the first black bo-
xer to win the world heavyweight title.  1943 The  German  battlecruiser
Scharnhorst was sunk in the North Sea,  during the Battle of North Cape.
1956 Fidel Castro attempted a secret landing in Cuba  to  overthrow  the
Batista regime; all but 11 of his supporters were killed. 1959 The first
charity walk took place, along Icknield Way, in aid of the World Refugee
Fund.  1991 The Soviet Union's parliament formally voted the country out
of existence.  Born Thomas Gray,  English poet,  1716;  Charles Babbage,
English mathematician,  1792;  Henry Miller,  US novelist, 1891; Mao Ze-
dong,  Chinese Communist leader,  1893;  Richard Widmark, US film actor,
1914;  Jane Lapotaire,  English actress, 1944. Died John Wilkes, British
politician and journalist,  1797;  Heinrich Schliemann, German archeolo-
gist,  1890;  Charles Pathй,  French film pioneer, 1957; Harry S Truman,
33rd US president, 1972; Jack Benny, US comedian, 1974.

27 December Feast day of St John the  Evangelist,  St  Fabiola,  Saints
Theodore and Theophanes Graptoi, and St Nicarete. 1703 The Methuen Trea-
ty was signed between Portugal and England, giving preference to the im-
port  of Portuguese wines into England.  1831 Charles Darwin set sail in
the Beagle on his voyage of scientific discovery.  1904  James  Barrie's
Peter Pan premiered in London, UK. 1927 Defeated in his struggle for po-
wer against Stalin,  Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Communist Party.
1945  The  IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank were es-
tablished.  1965 The BP oil rig Sea Gem capsized in the North Sea,  with
the loss of 13 lives. 1978 With the adoption of a new constitution, Spa-
in became a democracy after 40 years of dictatorship. Born Johannes Kep-
ler,  German astronomer,  1571; George Cayley, British aviation pioneer,
1773;  Louis Pasteur,  French chemist and microbiologist,  1822;  Sydney
Greenstreet,  English film actor,  1878; Marlene Dietrich, German singer
and actress, 1901; Gerard Depardieu, French film actor, 1948. Died Char-
les Lamb,  English essayist and critic, 1834; Max Beckmann, German pain-
ter, 1950; Lester Pearson, Canadian statesman, 1972; Houari Boumйdienne,
Algerian politician,  1978;  Hoagy Carmichael,  US composer, singer, and
pianist, 1981; Hervй Guibert, French novelist and photographer, 1992.

28 December Feast day of the Holy Innocents,  St Antony of Lйrins,  and
St Theodore the Sanctified. 1065 Westminster Abbey was consecrated under
Edward the Confessor.  1836 Mexico's independence was recognized by Spa-
in.  1879 The central portion of the Tay Bridge collapsed as a train was
passing over it,  killing 75 people.  1908  An  earthquake  killed  over
75,000  at Messina in Sicily.  1926 The highest recorded cricket innings
score of 1107 runs was hit by Victoria, against New South Wales, in Mel-
bourne.  1937 The Irish Free State became the Republic of Ireland when a
new constitution established the country as a sovereign state under  the
name  of Eire.  1950 The Peak District became Britain's first designated
National Park.  1989 Alexander Dubcek,  who had been expelled  from  the
Communist  Party  in 1970,  was elected speaker of the Czech parliament.
Born Woodrow Wilson,  28th US president, 1856; Arthur Stanley Eddington,
English astronomer,  1882; Earl Hines, US jazz pianist, 1905; Lew Ayres,
US film actor, 1908, Maggie Smith, English actress, 1934; Nigel Kennedy,
English violinist,  1956.  Died Queen Mary II,  1694;  Rob Roy, Scottish
clan chief,  1734; Gustave Eiffel, French engineer, 1923; Maurice Ravel,
French composer,  1937;  Max Steiner,  US film music composer, 1971; Sam
Peckinpah, US film director, 1984.

29 December Feast day of St Thomas of Canterbury, St Ebrulf or Evroult,
St Trophimus of Arles,  and St Maroellus Akimetes. 1170 St Thomas … Bec-
ket,  the 40th Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in his own cathed-
ral by four knights acting on Henry II's orders.  1860 HMS Warrior, Bri-
tain's first seagoing iron-clad warship, was launched. 1890 The massacre
at  Wounded Knee,  the last major battle between Native American Indians
and US troops,  took place.  1895 The Jameson Raid  from  Mafikeng  into
Transvaal,  which attempted to overthrow Kruger's Boer government, star-
ted.  1911 Sun Yat-sen became the first president of a republican China,
following the Revolution. 1989 Following Hong Kong's decision to forcib-
ly repatriate some Vietnamese refugees,  thousands of  Vietnamese  'boat
people' battled with riot police.  Born Marquise de Pompadour,  mistress
of King Louis XV,  1721;  Charles Goodyear,  US inventor,  1800; William
Gladstone, English statesman, 1809; Pablo Casals, Spanish cellist, 1876;
Jon Voight,  US film actor, 1938; Marianne Faithfull, English singer and
actress,  1946.  Died Thomas Sydenham,  English physician, 1689; Jacques
Louis David,  French painter, 1825; Christina Georgina Rossetti, English
poet,  1894;  Rainer Maria Rilke, German poet, 1926; James Fletcher Hen-
derson,  US jazz pianist and composer,  1952;  Harold Macmillan, British
politician, 1986.

30 December Feast day of St Sabinus of Spoleto,  St Anysia, St Anysius,
and St Egwin. 1460 At the Battle of Wakefield, in the Wars of the Roses,
the Duke of York was defeated and killed by the Lancastrians.  1879 Gil-
bert and Sullivan's The Pirates of Penzance was first performed,  at Pa-
ignton,  Devon,  UK.  1880 The Transvaal was declared a republic by Paul
Kruger,  who became its first president. 1887 A petition to Queen Victo-
ria  with over one million names of women appealing for public houses to
be closed on Sundays was handed to the home  secretary.  1919  Lincoln's
Inn, in London, UK, admitted the first female bar student. 1922 The Uni-
on of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.  1947 King Michael of Roma-
nia  abdicated  in  favor  of a Communist Republic.  1988 Colonel Oliver
North subpoenaed President Reagan and Vice President Bush to testify  at
the Irangate hearings. Born Andrй Messager, French composer, 1853; Rudy-
ard Kipling, English author and poet, 1865; Carol Reed, English film di-
rector,  1906; Bo Diddley, US rhythm and blues singer, 1928; Tracey Ull-
man, English comedienne, 1959; Ben Johnson, Canadian athlete, 1961. Died
Robert Boyle,  Irish physicist and chemist, 1691; Amelia Bloomer, US so-
cial reformer, 1894; Grigoriy Efimovich Rasputin, Siberian mystic, 1916;
Trygve Lie, Norwegian politician and diplomat, 1968; Richard Rodgers, US
composer,  1979.31 December New Year's Eve. Feast day of St Silvester I,
pope, St Melania the Younger, and St Columba of Sens.

31 December New Year's Eve. Feast day of St Silvester I, pope, St Mela-
nia the Younger,  and St Columba of Sens.  1687 The first Huguenots  set
sail from France for the Cape of Good Hope, where they would later crea-
te the South African wine industry with the vines they took with them on
the voyage.  1695 The window tax was imposed in Britain,  which resulted
in many being bricked up. 1891 New York's new Immigration Depot was ope-
ned at Ellis Island, to provide improved facilities for the massive num-
bers of arrivals.  1923 The chimes of Big Ben,  London,  UK,  were first
broadcast by the BBC.  1960 The farthing coin,  which had been in use in
Great Britain since the 13th century,  ceased to be legal  tender.  1990
Titleholder  Gary  Kasparov of the USSR won the world chess championship
match against his countryman Anatoly Karpov. Born Charles Edward Stuart,
the Young Pretender,  1720;  Henri Matisse, French painter, 1869; George
Marshall,  US general,  1880;  Anthony Hopkins,  Welsh actor,  1937; Ben
Kingsley,  British actor, 1943; Donna Summer, US singer, 1948. Died John
Flamsteed,  first Astronomer Royal,  1719; Gustave Courbet, French pain-
ter,  1877;  Miguel de Unamuno,  Spanish writer, 1936; Malcolm Campbell,
British racing driver,  1948;  Maxim Litvinov, Soviet leader, 1951; Rick
Nelson, US rock and country singer, 1985

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