Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.

Table of Contents

   Introduction................................................ 5
         What Is Role-Playing?................................. 5
         Setting Up............................................ 5
         Cyclopedia Organization............................... 5

    Character Creation Section
    Chapter 1: Steps in Character Creation..................... 6
         Roll for Ability Scores............................... 6
         Prime Requisites...................................... 6
         Choose a Character Class.............................. 6
         Adjust Ability Scores................................. 7
         Roll for Hit Points................................... 7
         Roll for Money........................................ 8
         Buy Equipment......................................... 8
         Determine Other Numbers and Rolls..................... 8
             Armor Class....................................... 8
             Attack Rolls...................................... 8
             Saving Throws..................................... 8
         Note Adjustments for Ability Scores................... 9
             Strength.......................................... 9
             Intelligence...................................... 9
             Wisdom............................................ 10
             Dexterity......................................... 10
             Constitution...................................... 10
             Charisma.......................................... 10
         Choose Character Alignment............................ 10
         Select Name, Personality, and Background............. 11
         Determine Character Height and Weight................. 12
         Earn Experience....................................... 12
         Hit Dice and Hit Points............................... 12
         Prime Requisites and Experience Points................ 12
     Chapter 2: The Character Classes.......................... 13
         Understanding the Tables.............................. 13
         About the Classes..................................... 13
             Cleric............................................ 13
             Fighter........................................... 16
             Magic-User........................................ 19
             Thief............................................. 21
             Dwarf............................................. 23
             Elf............................................... 24
             Halfling.......................................... 26
             Druid  (Optional)................................. 28
             Mystic (Optional)................................. 29
         Chapter 3: Spells and Spellcasting.................... 32
             Introduction to Spellcasting...................... 32
             Clerical Spells................................... 33
             Clerical Spell List............................... 33
             Druidic Spell  List............................... 33
             Magical Spell  List............................... 34
             Druidic  Spells................................... 41
             Magical  Spells................................... 43
         Chapter 4: Equipment.................................. 62
             Money............................................. 62
             Weapons........................................... 62
             Armor............................................. 67
             Adventuring Gear.................................. 68
             Land Transportation Equipment..................... 70
             Water Transportation.............................. 70
             Siege Equipment................................... 72
         Chapter 5: Other Character Abilities.................. 75
             Weapon Mastery.................................... 75
             General Skills.................................... 81

         Rules  Section

         Chapter 6: Movement....................................87
             Land Travel........................................88
             Water  Travel......................................89
             Aerial Travel......................................90
         Chapter 7: Encounters and Evasion......................91
             Exploration and the Game Turn......................91
             Travel and the Game Day............................91
             Monster Reactions..................................93
             Wandering Monster Encounters.......................93
             Evasion and Pursuit................................98
             Balancing Encounters (Optional)....................100
          Chapter 8: Combat.....................................102
             Order of Combat....................................102
             Morale (Optional)..................................102
             Combat Maneuvers...................................103
             The Attack Roll....................................105
             Missile Combat.....................................108
             Hand-to-Hand Combat................................110
             Two Weapons Combat (Optional)......................110
             Unarmed Combat.....................................110
             Aerial Combat......................................114
             Naval Combat.......................................115
             Underwater Combat..................................115
             Siege Combat.......................................115
          Chapter 9: Mass Combat................................117
             The War Machine....................................117
             The Siege Machine..................................122
          Chapter 10: Experience................................127
             Experience From Role-Playing.......................127
             Experience From Achieving Goals....................127
             Experience From Monsters...........................127
             Experience From Treasure...........................128
             Experience From Exceptional Actions................128
             Rate of Experience Gain............................129
             Maximum Hit Points.................................129
             Paths to Immortality...............................129
             Creating High-Level Player Characters..............129
          Chapter  11: Nonplayer Characters.....................132
          Chapter 12: Strongholds and Dominions.................134
             Dealing With the Authorities.......................134
             The Construction Process...........................135
             Stronghold Retainers...............................137
             Stronghold Staff...................................138
             After the Stronghold Is Built......................139
          Chapter 13: Dungeon Master Procedures.................143
             Ability Checks.....................................143
         Alignment Changes......................................143
             Anti-Magic Effects.................................143
             Arguments and Complaints...........................144
             Charm Person Spells................................144
             Creating Characters................................145
             Damage to Magical Items............................145
             Demihuman Clan Relics..............................145
             Equipment Not Listed...............................147
             Haste Spell........................................147
             Magic-User Spell Choice............................147
             Multiple Characters................................148
             New Items and Monsters.............................148
             Overusing Dice.....................................148
             Reality Shifts.....................................148
             Record Keeping.....................................148
             Retiring Characters................................149
             Special Character Conditions.......................150
             Thief Abilities....................................151
             Transferring Characters............................151
          Chapter 14: Monsters..................................152
             How to Read Monster Descriptions...................152
             Special Attacks....................................153
             Special Defenses...................................154
             Monster Type.......................................155
             Monster List.......................................156
             Changing Monsters..................................214
             Monster Spellcasters...............................215
             Undead Lieges and Pawns............................217
          Chapter 15: Immortals.................................219
             Immortals and Spheres of Power.....................219
             How the Immortals Interact With Mortals............219
             Immortal Statistics................................220
             PCs Becoming Immortals.............................222
          Chapter 16: Treasure..................................224
             Dividing Treasure..................................224
             Choosing Treasures.................................224
             Special Treasure...................................228
             Magical Items......................................228
             Wands, Staves, and Rods............................236
             Miscellaneous Magical Items........................239
             Armor and Shields..................................242
             Missile Weapons and Missiles.......................243
             Swords.............................................244                                            ...
             Miscellaneous Weapons..............................
             Additional Weapon Modifiers........................
             Cashing Treasure...................................
             Making  Magical Items..............................
             Making Magical Constructs..........................
             Making Huge Magical Constructs.....................
             Spell Research.....................................
             Experience From Spells and Enchantment.............
          Chapter 17: Campaigning...............................
             Campaign Tone and Goals............................
             Player Character  Goals............................
             Designing the Setting..............................
             Adapting the Game to the Setting...................
             Designing Adventures and Dungeons..................
             Running Adventures.................................
          Chapter 18: The Planes of Existence...................
             Arrangement of the Planes..........................
             Interplanar Adventures.............................
             The Ethereal Plane.................................
             Elemental Planes...................................
             Effects on Magic...................................
             The Outer Planes...................................
             Beyond the Multiverse..............................
          Chapter  19:  Variant  Rules..........................
             Ability Scores and Saving Throws...................
             Demihuman and Mystic Experience ...................
             Nonlethal Combat...................................

          Appendix 1: The D&De Game World.......................
             The  Known World...................................
             The Hollow World...................................
          Appendix 2: AD&D@ Game Conversions....................
             Why Convert?.......................................
             Game Differences...................................
             Converting Between the Games.......................
             Magical Items......................................
             Immortals and Deities..............................
          Appendix 3: Record Sheets.............................
             DM's  Character  Card..............................
             Character Record Sheet.............................
             Spell     Book   Sheet.............................
             Adventure Record Sheet.............................
             Hex Mapping Paper..................................
          Appendix  4: Indices..................................
             Index to Spells....................................
             Index to Tables and Checklists.....................
             General Index......................................

                                Credits                                                                                                 Credits

     Rules Compilation and Development: Aaron Allston                                                                 pilation and Development: Aaron Allston
     Editorial Coordinator: Steven E. Schend                                                                           Coordinator: Steven E. Schend
     Editing: Steven E. Schend, withjon Pickens and Dori "the Barbarian" Watry
     Project Coordinator: Bruce Heard
     Art Director: Peggy Cooper
     Front Cover Art: Jeff Easley
     Back Cover Art: Robin Raab
     Interior Art: Terry Dykstra
     Cartography: Dennis Kauth and Frey Graphics
     Graphic Design: Stephanie Tabat and Robin Raab
     Typography: Angelika Lokotz and Trauey Zarnagne
     Production: Sarah Feggestad


    The D&D Cyclopedia is a derivative work based on the original DUNGEONS  &
DRAGONS game by E. Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. The Cyclopedia has also been
drawn from the works of and benefitted  from  the  input  of  the  following
people:  Jim Bambra,  Brian Blume,  Tim Brown,  jonatha Caspian, David Cook,
Troy Denning,  Anne C.  Gray, Ernie Gygax, Allen Hammack, Bruce Heard, Kevin
Hendryx,  John Eric Holmes,  Harold Johnson,  Tim Kask, Jeff Key, Rob Kuntz,
Alan Lucien,  Steve Marsh,  Frank Mentzer,  Tom Moldvay, Mike Mornard, Steve
Perrin,  Jon Pickens,  Brian Pitzer,  Michael Price,  Patrick L. Price, Paul
Reiche,  Evan Robinson,  Gordon Schick, Lawrence Schick, Don Snow, Edward G.
Sollers,  GaM Spiegic,  Stephen D.  Sullivan,  Ralph Wagner,  Jim Ward, jean
Wells, and Bill Wilkerson.
  Additional thanks  go to the Cyclopedia's commentators and helpers:  Mark
Bennett, William W Connors, Alan Grimes and the Role Players Guild of Kansas
City, Bruce Heard, Rob King, Dirk Remmecke, and Luray Richmond.

FORGOTTEN REALMS,  and WORLD OF GREYHAWK are registered trademarks  of  TSR,
BATTLESYSTEMS, and SPELLJAMMER are trademarks of TSR, Inc.
  LANKHMAR is  a  trademark  owned  by  Fritz  Lieber  and  is  used  with

  Random House  and  its  affiliate  companies  have worldwide distribution
rights in the book trade for English language products of TSR, Inc.
 Distributed to the book and hobby trade in the United Kingdom by TSR Ltd.
 Distributed to the toy and hobby trade by regional distributors.

   911991 TSR, Inc.  All Rights Reserved.


  This work is protected under the copyright laws of the United  States  of
America.  Any  reproduction  or  unauthorized use of the material or artwork
presented herein is prohibited without the express written consent  of  TSR,

   Printed in the United States of America.


  The D&D Cyclopedia is as accurate a name as you could want for this book.
A "cyclopedia" is an encyclopedia,  and this book is an encyclopedia of  all
major D&D game rules.
  This book is intended to be a reference volume for those who already play
the D&D game. You'll find it much more convenient to look up a specific rule
here than in earlier versions of the game.  just about everything  appearing
in the boxed sets is here-but in a more convenient format.  For example, all
the game's spells are in one place,  and  all  the  details  of  creating  a
fighter- class character are in one location.
  However, though this book  is  aimed  at  the  experienced  user,  it  is
possible  to  learn  to  play the D&D game from these pages.  The Cyclopedia
lacks many of the examples and the patient explanation you'll  find  in  the
DUNGEONS  &  DRAGONS boxed sets,  but you can still learn to play from these

  What Is Role-Playing?

  Before television, there was radio. Audiences earlier in this century sat
in  front  of  their radios and thrilled to the exploits of bigger-than-life
radio heroes.  Since it was radio,  they couldn't see what was going on, but
they didn't need to-all the action was described by dialogue, narration, and
sound effects,  and was translated by the imaginations of the listeners into
scenes they could see, experience, and remember.
  Role-playing games  are  much  like  radio  adventures,  except  for  one
important detail: they're interactive. One player provides the narrative and
some of the dialogue,  but the other players,  instead of just  sitting  and
envisioning what's going on,  actually participate. Each player controls the
actions of a character in the story,  decides on his actions,  supplies  his
character's   dialogue,   and  makes  decisions  based  on  the  character's
personality and his current game options.
  The DUNGEONS  &  DRAGONS game is a fantasy role-playing game.  This means
that it's set in a world where men and women can wield powerful magic, where
monsters like dragons thrive,  and where heroes like Sinbad,  Hercules,  and
Lancelot abound.
  When you  play  the  D&D game,  one player will become the Dungeon Master
(also known as the DM or referee).  He or she  will  create  the  world  and
setting  in  which  the  adventures  will  be taking place and will create a
variety of characters to populate  the  world.  The  DM  will  also  develop
situations taking place in that world and will then run adventures-acting as
the main narrator of the stories in which the other players' characters will
  The other players will create characters-the heroes of  the  DM's  story.
The DM will present their characters with situations, and they'll decide how
to react to  those  situations.  Several  situations  progressing  toward  a
conclusion  become an adventure or story;  a number of adventures played one
after another become a campaign.

                                Setting Up
  When a group gets together to play, everyone should bring what they need,
including dice,  pencils and papers, and characters (preferably on character
  A table  is  normally  used,  the  DM sitting at one end with information
about the dungeon. The DM often uses an upright piece of staff card
  There are no two- or three-sided dice,  but we and maps of the dungeon so
they are not accidentally seen by the players.
  The players  sit around the table,  away from the DM,  where they can all
easily see any maps made during the adventure,  the order of the figures (if
used), and so forth.
   During the game, players should be allowed to refer to any player's aids
whenever  they  wish,  including  the  character  creation  section  of  the
Cyclopedia (Chapters 1-5).  However,  they should  not  be  allowed  to  see
everything in this book.  The mystery and excitement on unknown monsters and
magic can be spoiled if someone looks up all the details during the game.

Mapping and Calling

  Although each person will be playing the role of a character, the players
should  also  handle the jobs of mapping and calling.  Any player can be the
mapper or caller.
  The mapper  is  the  player  who  draws  a  map  of  the dungeon as it is
explored.  One or more of the characters should be making maps,  but one  of
the  players  must make the actual map.  The map should be kept on the table
for all to see and refer to.  Pencil should be used when making the map,  in
case of errors or tricky passages.
  If the party's movement carries it into new and unmapped  territory,  the
DM  will  describe  the area in detail so the party's mapper can map it.  If
something such as a secret door or  treasure  item  is  discovered,  the  DM
describes it and announces the results if the characters examine it.
  The caller is a player selected by the other players  to  describe  party
actions  so  the DM doesn't have to listen to several voices at once.  He or
she tells the DM what the party is doing this turn.  If the DM prefers, each
individual  player  can  describe  his  own  actions.  The  caller is just a
convenience in many campaigns;  it's not a game rule that  players  have  to

Using the Dice

  Often the  characters  want  to  do something that involves an element of
chance.  Say someone wants to leap onto a galloping  horse.  He  might  make
it-or he might not!  You can roll dice to decide if the action succeeds.  In
the D&D game there are many kinds  of  dices:  four-,  six-,  eight-,  ten-,
twelve-, and even twenty-sided dice.
  A four-sided dice looks like a pyramid.  Drop it on the table.  Read  the
numbers  that  are face up along the bottom of the dice.  This number is the
result of the roll.
  When rolling any dice with six sides or more,  one side always lands face
up. This number is the result.  On the  ten-sided  dice,  the  number  0  is
usually read as 10.
   You can use a ten-sided dice to find a percentage (a number from 1-100).
Roll the dice once. Read the result as the "tens" digit, counting a 0 as "no
tens." Roll a second time and read the result as the "ones" digit.  If  both
rolls are zeroes, the result is 100.
  We often use abbreviations to refer to  various  kinds  of  dice:  a  "d"
followed  by the number of the dice's sides.  For example,  "d6" refers to a
six- sided dice. We use "d%" or 1d100 to refer to percentage dice.
  We use a coin for a d2- heads is 1,  tails is 2. To make a d3, roll a d6,
and then divide the result by two and round up.
  Often, a  number  appears before the "d" as well as after it.  This shows
the number of times you should roll the dice.  (For example,  2d8 means roll
the  eight-sided  dice twice.) When you roll a dice more than once,  add the
results of the rolls together.  So,  3d6 means roll the six-sided dice three
times and add the results.  For example, a 3d6 roll of 3, 5, and 1 is 9 (3 +
5 + 1 = 9).

Cyclopedia Organization

 This book is divided  into  the  character  creation  section,  the  rules
section, and the appendices.

Character Creation Section

  In this section of the book, we're going to describe everything needed to
know in order to create a player character-a character played by any  player
except the Dungeon Master.  The DM,  too, will find this section useful when
creating human and demihuman nonplayer characters.
  In this  section,  Chapters 1-5 give you a basic understanding of the D&D
game rules; a thorough description of the way human and demihuman characters
are created; information on the spells, skills, and equipment the characters
use to accomplish their objectives;  and information on the  things  players
and their characters need to do in the course of a game.

 Rules Section

  This section  of  the  book,  covering  Chapters  6-  19,  gives detailed
information on handling movement,  encounters,  and combat;  It also  covers
procedures such as mass combat,  granting experience,  and playing nonplayer
characters.  Its largest  components  include  all  information  needed  for
monsters, Immortals, and treasure.
  In addition,  this   section   discusses   Dungeon   Master   procedures,
campaigning, variant rules, and the planes of existence.


  The appendices hold valuable information regarding the D&D game world and
also on converting characters over to the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS  game.
You'll find supplemental record sheets, useful forms, and indices for spells
and rules.

 Pronoun Note

  The mate pronouns (he,  him,  his) are used throughout this book. We hope
this  won't  be  interpreted by anyone as an attempt to exclude females from
the game or to imply their exclusion.  Centuries  of  use  have  made  these
pronouns  neutral,  and  we  feel  their  use provides for clear and concise
written text.
  Sooner or later you will want to make up your new character.  Before  you
start,  get a the multisided dice used with the D&D game. You will also need
a blank character sheet (or a piece of notebook paper) to keep track of  the
details. A sample character sheet is found in Appendix 3.
  If you are using a blank piece of paper,  copy the form of the  character
sheet  onto  it-in  other  words,  allow  a  space  for  your  name  and the
character's name at the top left,  a place for character class, level, armor
class, and hit points below that, and so forth. The Dungeon Master should be
present and should watch the creation of any player character, including all
dice rolls.
    Your first try at creating a new character will probably take  an  hour
or  so.  Even  when you are used to the procedure,  it will still take 10-30
minutes.  If the Dungeon Master is just beginning a new campaign,  he should
call  everyone  together  for  a  session  where  all  players  create their
characters and where he describes the campaign world  in  which  the  others
will  be playing.  Once the campaign is underway,  a player shouldn't try to
create a character at  the  beginning  of  a  play-session  (unless  the  DM
specifically asks him to)-it delays the start of the game.  All the rolling,
adjusting, buying, and so forth should be done beforehand. n
    The following  is  a  list  of  the  steps  to  take  when making a new
character; each step is then explained in detail.

       Steps to creating a character:
       1. Roll for  ability  scores
       2. Choose a character class
       3. Adjust   ability    scores
       4. Roll for hit points
       5. Roll for money
       6. Buy equipment
       7. Determine other numbers and rolls
       8. Note adjustments for ability scores
       9. Choose character alignment
       10. Select name, personality, and background
       11. Determine character height and weight
       12. Earn experience

       Roll for Ability Scores

       Roil 3d6  for  each  ability:

  Many of the  attributes  that  make  up  a  character-for  instance,  his
physical  might  and his level of intelligence-are represented by numbers in
the  game.  Six  of  these  are   the   character's   abilities:   Strength,
Intelligence,  Wisdom, Dexterity, Constitution, and Charisma. Strength (Str)
is the character's physical might. It affects the amount of damage the char.
acter  does  with hand-to-hand weapons (such as swords and clubs) and thrown
weapons (such as thrown spears and knives),  affects his chance to hit  with
hand-to-hand weapons,  and determines his ability to do such things as break
down locked doors.
 Intelligence (Int) is the character's mental might.  It affects the number
of languages the character can learn.
  Wisdom (Wis)  is  the  character's strength of understanding of the world,
the way things work,  the forces of nature,  and so  forth.  It  affects  the
character's natural ability to resist magical spells.
  Dexterity (Dex) is the character's nimbleness and grace.  It  affects  the
character's  ability  to  wield  missile and thrown weapons (such as bows and
throwing knifes@) and can make it harder for enemies to hit the character.
  Constitution (Con)  is  the  character's  physical  health  and vigor.  It
affects the character's hit points score (i.e.,  his ability to survive being
  Charisma (Cha) is the character's force of personality  and  presence.  It
affects the way other characters,  especially nonplayer characters controlled
by the DM, react to the character.
  You roll  dice  to  find  each ability score.  This is done by rolling the
six-sided die three times and adding the results.  Or, if you have three six-
sided  dice,  roll the dice together.  (This is normally referred to in the
text as "rolling 3d6.")
   For example,  if you toll ones each time,  the the total score is 3,  the
least score possible.  If you roll all sixes,  then  the  total  is  18,  the
highest score you can have.
  You should end up with six numbers, each between 3 and 18. These are your
character's ability scores.  Write the scores down as you roll them, next to
the names of the abilities.
  High ability  scores  can  help  the  character  in  certain things.  For
example, high Strength allows a character to deal out more damage in combat;
a high Constitution helps a character survive injury;  a high Charisma helps
a character attract friends.  Low scores have exactly the  opposite  effect.
We'll  discuss these effects in the Bonuses and Penalties for Ability Scores
  You can  adjust  the  ability scores in Step 3 ("Adjust Ability Scores"),
but first you must decide what class your character will be.

Prime Requisites

 Each character class requires prowess in one  of  the  abilities-in  other
words,  each  class  has  its  ability  that is of utmost importance to that
class.  (For example,  a fighter's most important ability is Strength and  a
cleric's is Wisdom.) These are known as prime requisites.
  Each character class has its own prime requisite.  This means each  class
is  talented at certain things,  such as fighting (fighters because of their
Strength),  healing  (clerics  because  of  their  Wisdom),  sneaking  about
(thieves  because of their Dexterity),  and so on.  The higher a character's
prime requisite score, the more skill he will have in his class (his "job").
Prime requisites for each class are listed with the character class.

Choose a Character  Class

  A character  class  is  a  character's main profession in the campaign.
Think of each character


  class as a sort of stereotype.  For instance,  all warriors in books  and
movies have some features in common and those specific features,  translated
into the D&D game terms, are what make up the fighter character class.
 The player  character  (PC)  classes  available for you to choose include
four human classes (cleric,  fighter,  magic-user,  thief), three demihuman
classes (dwarf,  elf,  halting),  and two special character classes (druid,
 You've probably  noticed that the names of the demihuman character classes
sound more like race or  species  names  than  professions.  That's  because
demihumans are more limited in thief options than humans are,  so the entire
face can be represented by a single character class.

Types of Character Classes

 Most characters will be humans. In most D&D game campaigns, humans are the
most  widespread of all intelligent beings.  Any new character can belong to
one of the human classes (cleric, fighter, magic-user, thief), regardless of
his ability scores.

 Character Classes and Ability Requirements
 Character        Prime             Other
 Class            Requisite(s)      Requirements
 Cleric           Wisdom            None
 Fighter          Strength          None
 Magic-User       Intelligence      None
 Thief            Dexterity         None
 Dwarf            Strength          Constitution 9
 Elf              Strength,         Intelligence 9
 Halfling         Strength,         Dexterity 9,
                  Dexterity         Constitution 9
 Druid            Wisdom            Neutral align-
                                    ment, obtain
                                    9th level as a
 Mystic           Strength,         Wisdom 13,
                  Dexterity         Dexterity 13

 Demihuman characters (dwarf,  elf,  and halfling) should be a little  less
common:  these  races  are supposed to be somewhat reclusive and mysterious.
They are known as "demihumans" because they are so similar to  humans.  Each
demihuman  character  class  has  specific ability requirements.  If a newly
created character  does  not  have  high  enough  scores  in  some  specific
abilities, he can't belong to the demihuman classes.
 The special character classes (druid and mystic) technically belong in the
set  of  human character classes,  but they have such stringent requirements
and unusual guidelines t@at they're set aside for you to look at separately.
The  DM  might not want to use them in his campaign;  it's easier for him to
make and enforce this decision if they're set aside.

Descriptions of Character

  A Cleric  is  a human character who has dedicated his life to a great and
worthy cause.  Often, this cause is the cleric's alignment. A Lawful cleric,
for  example,  would  be dedicated to spreading law and order throughout the
campaign world.  The cleric wields magic,  and he can  use  almost  as  many
weapons  and  armor types as a fighter.  The cleric's prime requisite is his
   A Fighter  is  a  character whose main skill is his prowess at arms.  A
fighter can be a heavily armored knight or a lightly armored  swashbuckler,
but  it's his extraordinary skill in combat that makes him special.  In the
game, a fighter's prime requisite is his Strength.
  A Magic- User is a character who wields magic.  He has little or nothing
in the way of fighting ability,  and in the early part of his career he has
little in the way of magical ability either. But as he gains in experience,
he becomes a powerful character and can wield powerful magical spells.  The
magic-user's prime requisite is his Intelligence.
  A Thief is a character who has spying  abilities.  Whether  he  actually
makes his living stealing from other people, he has many skills appropriate
to that livehood. He can move stealthily, climb sheer surfaces, pick locks,
and so forth.  He has combat abilities better than a magic-user's, but he's
not a strong combatant. The thief's' prime requisite is his Dexterity.
  A Dwarf is a sturdy, squat demihuman.  He resembles the fighter in  many
details,  but has many special abilities and special restrictions that set
him apart from human fighters. The dwarfs' prime requisite is his Strength.
Also, a dwarf character must have a Constitution score of q or more. If the
character you're creating has a Constitution of 8 or less,  he cannot be  a
  An Elf is a lean,  nimble demihuman. He is a very capable combination of
the  fighter  and  magic-user  classes.  He's not quite as tough as a human
fighter,  nor will he ever achieve the great magical  ability  of  a  human
magic-user,  but he does have most of the abilities of both classes. He has
other special abilities and restrictions that set him apart from the  human
classes. The elf has two prime requisites: Strength and Intelligence, and
the Intelligence score must be 9 or more.  If the character you're creating
has an Intelligence of 8 or less, he cannot be an elf.
  A Halfling is a small demihuman.  He has many  abilities  similar  to  a
fighter,  but he is also noted for his ability in woodsmanship. He's not as
tough as a fighter,  and he has special abilities and restrictions that set
him  apart  from  the fighter class.  The halting has two prime requisites:
Strength and Dexterity,  and the Dexterity score must be 9 or more. Also, a
halting character must have a score of q or better for his Constitution.
  A Druid is a special type of spellcaster who devotes  himself  to  the
needs and preservation of Nature.  However, you can't start a character off
as a druid.  A druid character must start off as a  cleric-in  fact,  as  a
cleric of the Neutral  alignment  (alignments  are  discussed  in  Step  9,
"Choose  Character  Alignment")-and  earn  a  lot  of experience (up to 9th
experience level) as a cleric. Only at that point can he become a druid.
  A Mystic  is  a type of warrior-monk.  He lives a monastic life,  devotes
himself to philosophy and the mastery  of  his  physical  body,  and  trains
himself to become a master of unarmed fighting.  Mystics are not appropriate
to all campaigns,  so the DM has the option of refusing to allow mystics  in
his world. The mystic's prime requisites are Strength and Dexterity. Also, a
mystic c acter must have scores of 13 or better in both Wisdom and Dexterity
  All these character classes will be describe greater detail in Chapter 2.
If you don't know enough about these classes to decide  your  new  character
should  be,  you  can ahead to Chapter 2,  then return here and your choice.
When you've decided what character class your character will be, continue
with  next step.

Adjust Ability Scores

  You can trade two points from an ability score you don't  want  to  raise
your  prime  requisite by one point.  You can perform trade as many times as
you want,  so long you do not lower any ability below a score 9.  You cannot
lower  your Dexterity,  Constitution,  or Charisma.  You can only raise your
Character's prime requisite score.

  Once you've rolled your character's ability and decided on his  character
class,  it  is  possible to raise his prime requisite by lowering of ability
scores. This is sort of like training hardly improve one skill while letting
others become neglected. (For example, a magic-user might spend all his time
studying  hard,  neglecting  his  exercise;  he'd  end  up  with  a   higher
Intelligence and a lower Strength.)
  These are the rules for exchanging ability points:

  1. The prime requisite goes up 1 point for each  2  points  that  another
ability score goes down.  If a character has two prime requisites,  both can
be raised.
  2 .Constitution and Charisma points cannot be exchanged with others.
  3. Dexterity cannot be lowered (but it may  be  raised  for  a  thief  or
Halfling character).
  4. No  score  can  be  lowered below 9.  If it is already 10 or less,  it
cannot be lowered.

  Example: An  elf  has Intelligence and Strength scores of 12 and a Wisdom
of 13.  His player wants him to be both stronger and smarter.  He drops  the
Wisdom  score  by 2,  to 1 1,  so 1 point can be added to Strength.  Then he
drops the Wisdom again,  to 9,  and adds 1 to Intelligence. This results are
Intelligence and Strength scores of 13 and an adjusted Wisdom of g.
  A cleric with Strength and Wisdom of 15 drops the Strength by  6  (to  9)
and raises the Wisdom by 3 (to 18).

  If you  want  to exchange any ability score points,  you must do that now
before you go any further in making the character. No such adjustments can
be  made later.  Remember that you do not have to adjust any ability scores.
This is an option, not a requirement.

Roll for Hit Points

  Your character's hit  point  score  represents  his  ability  to  survive
injury.  The  higher  his  hit  point score,  the more damage he can sustain
before dying. Characters who survive long enough to
gain a good deal of experience typically gain  more  and  more  hit  points;
therefore,  an  experienced  character  lasts  longer  in  a  fight or other
dangerous situations than does an inexperienced character.
 A character's  profession (his character class) dramatically affects the
number of hit points he receives.  Fighters and dwarves receive a  lot  of
hit  points.  Magic-users and thieves receive only a few.  The other classes
receive a medium amount.
 Find your character's class on the Character Class and Hit Dice Table, and
then roll the type of die indicated in  order  to  find  your  starting  hit
points.  Note that your character's Constitution score can affect the number
of hit points he will have.  Look for the Bonuses and Penalties for  Ability
Scores  Table  and  apply the appropriate number to the number of hit points
rolled for your character.

Character Class and Hit Dice Table

                                 Dice for

  Character Class                 Hit Points

  Cleric                            1d6
  Fighter                           1d8
  Magic-user                        1d4
  Thief                             1d4
  Dwarf                             1d8
  Elf                               1d6
  Halfling                          1d6
  Mystic                            1d6
  Does not apply.

Roll for Money

              Starting gold piece

  Your character starts out with no possessions except for  normal  clothes
and a little money,  saved up over many years.  You will need to go shopping
for equipment, but first you must find out how much money you have.
  Roll 3d6  (three  six-sided  dice),  and  multiply the total by 10.  (For
example,  if you roll 12,  the total is 120.) This is  the  number  of  gold
pieces  (gp)  that  you start with.  Write that on your character sheet.  If
you're using a hand-written sheet write down the word "Money"  on  the  back
an@ put beside it the number you've just rolled.

Buy Equipment

  Now that you have your money,  you can spend it on the equipment you need
to go adventuring.  There is a complete list of equipment in Chapter 4 later
in this book.  Be sure to ask your Dungeon Master if everything on that list
is available in his campaign.  If his  campaign  deviates  a  lot  from  the
"standard"  D&DO  game  campaign,  he  could  have  a very different list of
equipment, which he should provide for you.
  There are  restrictions  on what items your character is allowed to have,
especially on armor and weapons.  Before you go shopping,  be sure you  have
read the full description of your character list, later in this chapter.
   For example,  a magic-user cannot wear any armor at all and can only use
a few types of weapons. It would be a waste of money for a character of this
class to buy a sword or shield;  instead, his money can be saved or spent on
oil,  torches, and other items. Thieves, however, must buy thieves' tools to
use their Open Locks ability.  On a piece of piece paper, write down all the
equipment you Want to buy and add up the cost.
   If it costs more gold pieces than you have,  you  must  erase  something
from  the  list.  When you can pay for your list of equipment,  subtract the
cost from your money,  and write the equipment down on your character sheet.
Be  careful  when  shopping!  You may forget to buy rope,  for example,  and
suddenly find a need for it during an adventure-and if you  didn't  buy  it,
you  don't have it.  Ask the other players and your DM for advice on what to
buy-and what not to buy.  Remember  that  money  can  be  saved  for  buying
expensive equipment later.

Don't Forget Spells

  If your character is a spellcaster,  he will also need to  equip  himself
with the spells he knows. Magic-users know one spell at their first level of
experience,  while clerics learn their first spell at second level. Ask your
DM for the spells which your character knows.  Magic-users also need to have
spell books to record the spells they know.  A magic-user's first spell book
is  free,  a  gift  of the wizard who taught him.  Clerics do not need spell

Determine Other Numbers and Rolls
  Armor class,  attack  rolls,  and saving throws are numbers-numbers which
you'll calculate  from  the character's other attributes or find on provided
tables-which are important to the way the character performs in combat.

Armor Class

Armor class,  sometimes abbreviated as AC,  is a number indicating how tough
it is to hit your character.  With the armor class,  unlike most numbers  in
the  D&D  game,  a low number is good for a character,  and a high number is
bad. Your armor class is a combination of the type of armor you are wearing,
plus  any adjustments due to Dexterity.  First,  find your armor type on the
Armor Type and Armor Class Table.

Armor Type and Armor Class Table

Armor Type                     Armor Class

No armor                               9
Leather armor                          7
Scale armor                            6
Chain mail                             5
Banded armor                           4
Plate mail                             3
Suit armor                             0
Shield                          Subtract 1*

*  If  using  a  shield,  subtract  1  from   the   AC
number.  Example:  chain   mail   alone   is   AC   5,
but with a shield it is AC 4.

  Once you  know  your armor class as provided by your armor type,  you can
determine adjustments  to  your  armor class from your Dexterity.  Find your
  Dexterity score on the Bonuses and Penalties For Ability Scores
table.  For every + 1 on the table,  subtract 1 from your armor  class.  For
every -1 add 1 to your armor class.

Example: If  you  are  wearing  chain  mail and a shield (AC 4),  but have a
Dexterity score of 15 (+ 1 bonus), your armor class number improves and goes
down,  to  3.  If  you  are  wearing plate mail and shield (AC 2) but have a
Dexterity score of 5 ( - 2 penalty), your armor class worsens and goes up to

Remember: The lower the AC number,  the harder you are to hit.  A penalty to
armor class actually raises the number, making you easier to hit. If your AC
is  even better than zero,  then negative numbers,  or "minus" numbers,  are
used.  For example,  a character with a Dexterity Score of 18 (a + 3  bonus,
which  translates to - 3 to the AC) and wearing plate mail and shield (AC 2)
would have an AC of "minus one"

Attack Rolls
  An attack roll is a number representing how easy or difficult it  is  for
your  character  to  hit  other targets.  In combat,  when your character is
trying to hit another character,  you roll 1d2O; this is known as his attack
roll.  (In some game supplements,  it's also called the "hit roll," " to-hit
roll," or "roll to hit.") Once you know the number you've rolled on the die,
you  add  any bonuses your character gets from high ability scores,  magical
weapons,  or other factors.  You'll compare that final result to the  number
required  to hit the armor class of your character's opponent.  If you reach
or exceed that number, your character has successfully hit his opponent.
But how  do you find out what number you need to hit a certain armor class?
That's simple enough:  We provide it to you on handy tables.  Take a look at
the Attack Rolls Table on page 106.  Go ahead and flip forward to that table
and return here when you've looked at it.  To use the table, cross-reference
your character's experience level and character class  with  his  opponent's
armor  class.  On the table,  "MU" stands for magic-user,  "C,TD" stands for
"clerics,  thieves,  and druids," "F" stands for "fighters"  (and  also
includes mystics and low-level demihumans), and "DH" stands for "demihumans"
(and is used for high-experience demihumans). The numbers " 19" through 20"

Stand for the opposition's armor class.
   A 1st  level fighter attacks an enemy with an armor class (AC) of 2.  On
the Attack Rolls Table in Chapter 8,  go to the "F" (for fighter) column, go
down  to  where it says "1-3" (which means "Experience Levels I through 3"),
and then go right to the column corresponding to AC 2. You need to roll a 17
to hit that armor class.

Attack Rolls Tables vs.  THACO
  Now, record your character's attack rolls on the character  sheet.  There
are  two  ways to do this.  One is for beginning players and for players who
sometimes have a hard time juggling numbers;  the other is  for  experienced
players who don't have trouble juggling numbers.
  Attack Rolls:  With the first way,  you write down your character's rolls to
hit several armor classes. Instead of recording all the listed armor classes
(19 to -20),  we usually record only ACs 9 to  -  5;  these  are  the  armor
classes most commonly encountered in a game.
  On your character sheet,  you'd make a small,  simple table  listing  the
attack  rolls  for  your  character's level and character class.  An example
given on this page of the attack rolls for a first level  fighter;  for  all
characters, refer  to  the  main  table  in  Chapter 8,  then write down the
pertinent information on your character sheet.  This way,  when  your  first
level  fighter is attacking an AC of - 2,  you'd be able to look down on his
character sheet and see immediately that he needs to achieve a roll of 20 to
hit his target.

  THACO: The  abbreviation THACO stands for "To Hit Armor Class O." There's
nothing mysterious about it:  It's just the number your character  needs  to
hit armor class 0. On the table immediately above, for example, you see that
a 1st level fighter needs to achieve a roll of 19 to hit an armor  class  of
0; therefore, his THACO is 19.
  Some experienced players will not want to have an entire table cluttering
up  their  character  sheets;  they'll  just  record their characters' THACO
number. Additionally, many abbreviated descriptions of monsters used in D&D@
game adventures will use the THACO number.
 To use THACO,  you have to do some adding and subtracting  during  combat.
You  subtract your modified attack roll (the number rolled on a 20-sided die
plus any bonuses) from your THACO,  and the result is the armor  class  your
character hits.

 For example,  Ruggin  is a 3rd level dwarf,  and he's fighting a hobgoblin
clad in chain mail (AC 5).  Ruggin's THACO is 19,  and he rolls a 16; Ruggin
successfully  hits  his opponent's armor class (19 - 16 = 3) since he hit an
AC 3 (two better than AC 5).
 Likewise, instead  of figuring out which AC your attack hits,  you can use
THACO to determine what number is needed to  hit  a  specific  armor  class.
Subtract the defender's armor class from the attacker's THACO.  If the armor
class is a negative value,  add the armor class  number  to  the  attacker's
THACO. The result is the number the attacker needs to hit his opponent. e
 For instance,  Ruggin the 3rd level dwarf  needs  a  19  or  better  on  a
20-sided die to hit a monster with AC 0. Ruggin is facing a troll (AC 4) and
he needs a roll of 15 of greater to hit the monster (19 - 4 = 15).
 If you're a beginning player,  you should stick to the larger table;  when
you're comfortable with it,  you can practice using the THACO  number.  When
you're  equally  comfortable  with  THACO,  you can stop recording the whole
table on your character sheet, and merely record THACO.

 AC:           9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5
 Attack Roll: 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 20

Saving Throws

  Find your character's class and experience level  on  the  Saving  Throws
Table  in  Chapter  8.  Move  across  to the column representing the type of
attack your character is sustaining.  The number shown in that column is  is
your  saving throw.  Roll that number or better on 1d2O to avoid or diminish
the effects of the attack.

A saving throw represents your character's attempt to avoid the effects  of
some sort of unusual attack-poison,  magical spells, the flaming breath of a
dragon,  and so forth.  A successful saving throw means that  the  character
either  sustains  a reduced amount of damage or suffers no harmful effect at
all,  depending on the type of attack.  An unsuccessful saving  throw  means
that  the  character sustains the full damage or effect of the attack.  The
saving throw is rolled on 1d2O when specified by the DM.
A character  doesn't have just one saving throw number;  he has a different
one for  each  of  five  different  categories  of  unusual  attacks.  Those
categories  include  "Poison or Death Ray," " Magic Wand," "Turning to Stone
or Paralysis," "Dragon Breath," and "Spells or Magic Staff."
Saving throws are based on your character's class and experience level. You
can find your character's saving throws on the Saving Throws Table  on  page
109 of Chapter 8.  Go ahead and flip to that table, look it over, and return
To find the saving throws for your character,  simply took up his class and
experience level.  For example,  if your character is a 1st level  elf,  his
saving throws would be:

  Death Ray or Poison:  12; Magic Wand: 13; Paralysis or Turn to Stone: 13;
Dragon Breath: 15; Spells or Staff: 15

Write the saving throws appropriate for  your  character  on  his  character

High Wisdom and Saving Throws
If a character has a Wisdom score of 13 or more, he receives a bonus to one
of his saving throws; if his Wisdom is 8 or less, he receives a penalty.
  Take a look at the Bonuses and Penalties for Ability Scores Table  below.
If  your  Wisdom score is high or low enough for a bonus or penalty,  record
that on your character sheet beside your Wisdom score. This bonus or penalty
affects your character's saving throws vs.  spells. When rolling your saving
throw vs.  spells,  you can add the character's Wisdom bonus to  his  saving
throw (or must subtract the penalty, if he has a penalty instead).

Note Adjustments for Ability Scores

  You've already seen,  on several occasions, that high abilities give your
character special  bonuses,  while  low  ones  give  the  character  special
penalties.  Below  are  the character's abilities and notes on what sorts of
adjustments high and low abilities will bring him.
  When you  have  high  scores in abilities,  note the specific adjustments
which result from them;  if you're not,using a character sheet which already
has blanks for these adjustments, place them beside the abilities (Strength,
etc.) which grant them to the  character.  The  Bonuses  and  Penalties  for
Ability Scores Table shows ability adjustments.

  Bonuses  and  Penalties   for   Ability   Scores

       Ability Score               Adjustment
              2-3                   -   3   Penalty
              4-5                   -   2   Penalty
              6-8                   -   1   Penalty
             9-12               No adjustment
            13-15                   +   1    Bonus
            16-17                   +   2    Bonus
               18                   +   3    Bonus

  Now, let's go through each of the abilities and see what high scores will
do for each ability.


  High Strength affects how well a character hits with melee weapons - that
is, hand-held weapons.  It affects how much damage the character  does  with
melee weapons, and with thrown weapons like hurled knives and spears. And it
affects how often a character can budge stuck doorways.
  The character's  adjustment  for  a high Strength score is applied to any
roll he makes to hit someone in melee combat.
  For instance,  if  a  character  has  a Strength of 17 (therefore,  a + 2
adjustment),  and rolls a 9 on his 1d2O to hit someone,  he gets to add  his
Strength adjustment to that roll.  He has actually achieved a roll of I 1 (9
+ 2 = 11).  If the character has a Strength of 8 (therefore,  a - 1 penalty)
and  tolls a 9,  he has to subtract his penalty;  he has actually achieved a
roll of 8 (9 - 1 = 8).
  The character's adjustment for Strength is also applied to damage he does
with melee and thrown weapons.
  For example,  let  us  say  a character with Strength 18 (adjustment + 3)
hits someone with a sword and does 8 points of damage.  He adds his Strength
bonus to the damage, and so has actually done 11 points of damage. Likewise,
a character with a Strength of 5 (adjustment - 2)  who  rolls  8  points  of
damage has actually only done 6 points of damage (8 - 2 = 6).
  Finally, the character gets his bonus or penalty to his Open Doors  roll.
The  Open  Doors  roll is the character's ability to force open stuck doors.
(The DM can optionally use it to decide  whether  the  character  is  strong
enough  to perform similar feats of strength,  such as moving obstructions.)
The Open Doors roll is tolled on a 1d6,  with a  roll  of  5  or  6  meaning
success;  the  character  with  high  Strength applies his adjustment to the
number he rolls on the dice.  However,  a natural, unmodified "6" on an Open
doors roll will always open a door, despite any penalties to the contrary.

   Abilities and Adjustments Table
   Ability                     Adjustments     To:
   Strength                    Attack Rolls (Melee Weapons and Unarmed
                               Combat), Damage Rolls
                               (Melee and Thrown Weapons), Opening Doors
   Intelligence                Languages, General Skills (Optional)
   Wisdom                      Saving Throws vs.  Spells
   Dexterity                   Attack Rolls (Thrown and Missile Weapons),
                               Armor Class
   Constitution                Hit  Points  per  Experience   Level
   Charisma                    Reactions    from     NPCs

 For example,  a  character  with  Strength  13 (adjustment + 1) tries to
budge a stuck door.  On his 1d6, he rolls a 4. This isn't enough; it's not
a 5 or 6.  But he adds his + 1 adjustment, his 4 becomes a 5, and suddenly
it's enough:  He can budge the stuck door.  Similarly,  a  character  with
Strength 3 (adjustment - 3) tries a similarly stuck door.  On his 1d6,  he
rolls a 5,  normally a success.  But he must apply his - 3 adjustment  and
his 5 suddenly becomes a 2, a failure.

 High Intelligence affects the number of languages a character knows.  If
the DM is using the optional general skills rules,  high Intelligence also
affects the number of general skills the character knows.
 A human  character of "average" Intelligence (a score of 9-12) knows two
languages:  the Common tongue -and an alignment tongue.  The character can
read  and  write  those  languages.  (The  Common tongue is the "standard"
tongue for the campaign.  A campaign set  in  modern  America  would  have
English  as its Common tongue,  for example.) Demihuman characters usually
know additional languages,  as  described  for  each  demihuman  character
 if the character receives an adjustment from an Intelligence over 12  (a
bonus,  in  other  words),  this is the number of additional languages the
character can read and write.  Your Dungeon  Master  will  tell  you  what
languages  are available.  You must choose your added languages before you
play the character in a game.
 If the  Intelligence  adjustment  is  a penalty,  then the character has
trouble writing and perhaps speaking.
 In either case, look at the Intelligence and Languages Table.

     Intelligence and Languages Table
     intelligence Use of
           Score    Languages
               3    Has trouble speaking, cannot read or write
             4-5    Cannot read or write Common
             6-8    Can write simple Common words
            9-12    Reads and writes native languages (usually two)
           13-15    Reads and writes native
                    languages, +1 additional
           16-17    Reads and writes native
                    languages, +2 additional
              18    Reads  and  writes   native
                    languages, +3 additional

  If your campaign makes use of a lot of languages-especially common  in  a
campaign  where the player characters travel through a lot of foreign lands,
or where there are a lot of talking monster species character's ability with
languages can be very important.

   The effects of a high Wisdom are discussed above, under "High Wisdom and
Saving Throws." Adjustments for high Wisdom scores  affect  the  character's
saving throws vs. spells.

  The effects of a high Dexterity are discussed above, under "Armor Class."
Adjustments for high Dexterity scores affect the character's AC.
  They also  affect the character's ability to hit with missile weapons-any
thrown  weapons  or  weapons  launched  through  the  air.  The  character's
adjustment for a high or low Dexterity is applied to his roll to hit when he
is using missile weapons.
  For example,  a  character with a 17 Dexterity (adjustment + 2),  using a
bow,  is trying to shoot a distant enemy. He needs a 13 to hit his enemy. On
his  1d20  attack roll,  he rolls a 12.  He has failed.  But now he adds his
bonus for high Dexterity ( + 2) and his 12 becomes a 14: He has actually hit
his opponent.

  Your Constitution score can affect the number of  hit  points  you  have.
Look  earlier  in  this chapter for the Bonuses and Penalties for Ability
Scores table, and apply the bonus of penalty to the number of hit points you
rolled. But whatever the adjustments, your hit points cannot be lowered to 0
(zero); you will have at least I hit point for each roll.
  Each time  a  character  gains  a  level  of experience (a measure of how
experienced he is),  roll for more hit points.  And each time you roll,  you
adjust the roll according to your Constitution score.
  Eventually, your character will stop gaining dice  of  hit  points  every
time  he earns a level of experience,  and will no longer gain bonuses for a
very high or very low Constitution score.  Instead,  he'll start  getting  a
preset number of hit points every level, and his Constitution bonus will not
apply to that number.  But that's off in the future;  don't worry  about  it
right now.

  A character's Charisma score will affect how others,  whether  characters
or  monsters,  react  to  him-when the character is talking to them (but not
unless  he  is  talking).  If  he  tries  to  hire  retainers   (bodyguards,
assistants,  and  so  forth),  his Charisma will determine the number he can
hire,  and how loyal they will be.  Your Dungeon Master will tell you if any
retainers  are  available,  and  will  play  the roles of the retainers your
character finds and (possibly) hires.

Charisma    Adjustment    Table

Charisma  Reaction  Max.  No.  Retainer
Score          Adj .     Retainers     Morale
   3          -   3          1            4
 4-5          -   2          2            5
 6-8          -   1          3            6
 9-12      No adj.           4            7
13-15         +   1          5            8
16-17         +   2          6            9
 18           +   3          7            10

  Whenever your character is talking to any creature (monster or character)
controlled by the DM,  tell the DM what your reaction adjustment is. If your
Dungeon Master allows the use of retainers and you attempt to  employ  some,
you  will need to tell him your character's maximum number of retainers,  as
well as the Retainer Morale  score  (which  is  a  measure  of  loyalty  and
courage).  Reaction  adjustments due to high Charisma never adjust any rolls
you make;  they only affect rolls made by the Dungeon Master, so he needs to
know this information.

Choose Character

  An alignment is a code of behavior  or  way  of  life  which  guides  the
actions and thoughts of characters and monsters.  There are three alignments
  in the D&De game:  Law,  Chaos,  and Neutrality.  Players may choose  the
  alignments they feel will best fit their
characters.  A player does not have to tell other players what alignment  he
or  she  has  picked,  but  must  tell  the  Dungeon  Master.  Most Lawful
characters will reveal their alignments if asked.  When picking  alignments,
the  characters  should know that Chaotics cannot be trusted,  even by other
Chaotics. A Chaotic character does not work well with other PCs.
Alignments give  characters  guidelines  to live by.  They are not absolute
rules: characters will try to follow their alignment guidelines, but may not
always  be  successful.  To  better understand the philosophies behind them,
let's define the three alignments.

Law (or Lawful)

Law is  the belief that everything should follow an order,  and that obeying
rules is the natural way of life.  Lawful creatures will  try  to  tell  the
truth,  obey  laws  that  are fair,  keep promises,  and care for all living
things.  If a choice must be made between the  benefit  of  a  group  or  an
individual,  a  Lawful  character  will usually choose the group.  Sometimes
individual freedoms must be given up for the good
of the  group.  Lawful  characters  and monsters often act in predictable
ways. Lawful behavior is usually the same as "good" behavior.

      Chaos (or Chaotic)

   Chaos is  the opposite of Law.  It is the belief that life is random and
that chance and luck rule the world.  Laws are made to be broken, as long as
a  person  can get away with it.  It is not important to keep promises,  and
lying and telling the truth are both useful.

 To a Chaotic creature, the individual is the most important of all things.
Selfishness  is  the  normal  way  of life,  and the group is not important.
Chaotics often act on sudden desires an( whims.  They have strong belief  in
the  power  of  luck.  They  cannot  always be trusted.  Chaotic behavior is
usually the same as behavior that could be called  "evil."  Each  individual
player  must  decide  if his Chaotic character is closer to a mean,  selfish
"evil" personality or merely a happy-go-lucky, unpredictable personality.

Neutrality (or Neutral)

 Neutrality is  the  belief  that  the  world  is a balance between Law and
Chaos.  It is important that neither side get too much power and upset  this
balance.  The  individual is important,  but so is the group;  the two sides
must work together.

 A Neutral  character  is  most  interested  in  personal  survival.   Such
characters  believe  in their own wits and abilities rather than luck.  They
tend to return the treatment they receive from  others.  Neutral  characters
will  join a party if they think it is in their own best interest,  but will
not be overly helpful unless there is some sort of  profit  in  it.  Neutral
behavior may be considered '.good" or "evil" (of neither).

Alignment Behavior

 Take this  situation  as  an  example:  A  group  of  player characters is
attacked by a large number of monsters.  Escape is not possible  unless  the
monsters are slowed down.
 A Lawful character will fight to protect  the  group,  regardless  of  the
danger. The character will not run away unless the whole group does so or is
otherwise safe.
 A Neutral  character  will  fight  to  protect  the group as long as it is
reasonably safe to do so. If the danger is too great, the character will try
to save himself, even at the expense of the rest of the party.
 A Chaotic character  might  fight  the  monsters  or  he  might  run  away
immediately - Chaotics are,  as always, unpredictable. The character may not
even care what happened to the rest of the party.
 Playing an  alignment  does not mean a character must do stupid things.  A
character should always act  as  intelligently  as  the  Intelligence  score
indicates,  unless  there  is  a  reason to act otherwise (such as a magical

Alignment Languages

 Each alignment has a secret language of passwords, hand signals, and other
body  motions.  Player characters and intelligent monsters always know their
alignments.  They will also recognize when  another  alignment  language  is
being spoken,  but  will  not  understand  it.  Alignment  languages have no
written form.  A character may not  learn  a  different  alignment  language
unless he changes alignments.  In such a case, the character forgets the old
alignment language and starts using the new one immediately.

Select Name, Personality, and Background

  You may have been thinking about this all during  the  character-creation
process, but now it's time to give your character his name, personality, and
background-the traits which make him a real character.


  You should give your character a name appropriate to the world  in  which
he'll  be  adventuring.  Ask your DM if his campaign setting is based on any
real-world civilization; if so, use a name appropriate to that civilization.
(If you're not familiar with that civilization, ask your DM for help.) Or if
you are adventuring in an Arabian setting, such legendary names as Ali Baba,
Sinbad, and Saladin are appropriate names.
  Many campaigns are straightforward fantasy with  elements  drawn  from  a
number  of sources,  yet these campaigns may not be strongly based in any of
those sources. In that case, you need merely make up a fantasy-sounding name
and ask  the DM if it sounds appropriate to his campaign.  Such names can be
made up of interesting-sounding syllables like Adragan or  Nissia.  Or,  and
especially  in the case of lyrically named elves,  they could be composed of
descriptive words like Silverglade or Woodshadow.

  Choose a name carefully.  It should represent the character in some  way,
or  at  least  be  a  name  you  like.  You might find yourself playing this
character for years,  and if you give him a silly or inappropriate name, you
might regret it later.

  Alignment isn't all there is to a  character's  personality.  You  should
think about your character, about his mannerisms, the way he speaks, the way
he dresses,  how he spends money, what sort of people he likes, how he likes
to spend his non-adventuring time,  and so on. The more attention you invest
in imagining your character,  with all his traits,  virtues,  and vices, the
more  interesting and "real" you will make him.  Sure,  it's useful for your
character to be the mightiest warrior in the world ... but none of the other
player  characters  will  care  whether  he  lives  or  dies unless he has a

   At some point,  you'll need to decide on  your  character's  background:
where and when he was born,  how he was reared,  who his family is,  who his
friends were, and what he did up until the time he enters play.
   This isn't a solo effort-it's a cooperative effort between you  and  the
DM.  He knows more about his campaign-world than you do; you know more about
your character than he does.  The two  of  you  have  to  work  together  to
integrate your character into his world.

  This means  that  the  DM may recommend or even insist on some changes to
your character background in order to make him fit better into the  campaign
world.  You  should normally accept any recommendations that don't seriously
interfere with your concept of your character,  and should negotiate on  the
ones which do.

   For example,  you may have decided that your character's family lived in
a small fishing village in a small,  distant island far,  far away.  Your DM
may prefer that he lived in a small fishing village on the coast of the main
continent, not quite so isolated. This probably won't alter your character's
personality  or  personal  history,  and  will  allow  your  DM  to fit your
character more fully into the campaign,  so this is the sort of  change  you
can acquiesce to without any worries.

  But let's  say  your  DM  wants  to  establish  something else about your
character:  That when he was ten,  a werewolf with  a  distinctive  red-and-
silver  coat  burst in through the door of the family hut and killed all the
family except your character,  and that your character  was  raised  by  the
family of your mother's brother.

  It's obvious  here  that  your  DM  is  setting  you  up  for some future
encounter with that selfsame werewolf-perhaps it will be far in the  future,
or  perhaps  the  hunt for that monster will be used as the event which will
bring all the player characters together in the first place. Whichever, he's
not  trying  to kill your character's family for frivolous reasons,  but for
reasons related to plot.  However, you've been imagining that your character
is emotionally strong and unscarred,  and still has a good relationship with
his parents and siblings,  and the DM's changes would seriously affect  your
concept  of  your  character.  You  explain  this  to  him.  This  is  where
negotiations enter the picture.

  He may counter,  "All right, let's say instead that the werewolf attacked
the  local pub,  and your father was among those killed.  As the oldest son,
you suddenly had to become the man of the family, and now, after you've been
the  main  provider  for years,  your brothers and sisters are old enough to
take over, and you can leave to make a life for yourself at last."

  This still leaves your character with a  tragedy  in  his  past,  but  he
didn't  lose  his  entire  family,  and  wasn't  present  to  see his father
destroyed by the monster,  which would tend  to  leave  him  much  healthier
emotionally.  So you could agree to this change,  and both your purposes and
your DM's are served.
  Another thing  you  can  do,  and your DM may be doing so as well,  is to
establish that your  character  already  knows  some  of  the  other  player
characters.  Talk  with  the other players to find out something about their
characters.  When the players have come up  with  similar  backgrounds,  you
might suggest that those backgrounds intersected with yours, and then try to
work out the details.  Perhaps another player thought of  his  character  as
growing up in a fishing village,  in which case you might suggest that it be
the same as your character's.  Perhaps another character  has  been  in  the
army,  and you conceived of your character as having briefly been a soldier.
See if you can put your character in the same unit.
  This sort of thing helps establish connections between  your  characters.
These  connections  can keep an adventuring group from falling apart is high
over trivial incidents of mistrust and confusion.

Determine  Character

Height  and  Weight

  The player can choose any height and weight for his character  which  the
DM  agrees  is appropriate.  The Character Height and Weight Table will give
you an idea what height and weight ranges are average for  character  races.
For  use  with  later encumbrance rules,  all character weights are given in
coin-weights:  one coin equals one-tenth of a pound, so a character weighing
2,000 cn actually weighs 200 lbs.

Character    Height    and    Weight    Table

Human Characters
                           Male            Female
    Height                    Weight       (cn)
    4'10"                  1,100   cn      1,050    cn
    5'1"                   1,200   cn      1,100    cn
    5'2"                   1,300   cn      1,200    cn
    5'4"                   1,400   cn      1,250    cn
    5'6"                   1,500   cn      1,300    cn
    5'8"                   1,550   cn      1,400    cn
    5'10"                  1,650   cn      1,500    cn
    6'0"                   1,750   cn      1,550    cn
    6'2"                   1,850   cn      1,650    cn
    6'4"                   2,000   cn      1,750    cn
Dwarf Characters
                           Male            Female
    Height                     Weight      (cn)
    3'8"                   1,300   cn      1,250    cn
    3'10'                  1,400   cn      1,350    cn
    4'0"                   1,500   cn      1,450    cn
    4'2"                   1,550   cn      1,500    cn
    4'4"                   1,650   cn      1,600    cn

Elf Characters

                           Male            Female

    Height                     Weight      (cn)

    4'8"                   900     cn         750  cn
    5'0"                   1,000   cn         800  cn
    5'2"                   1,100   cn         900  cn
    5'4"                   1,200   cn       1,000  cn
    5'6"                   1,300   cn       1,100  cn
    5'8"                   1,400   cn       1,200  cn

Halfling    Characters    Both      Sexes

    Height                      Weight     (cn)

    2'10"                           580   cn
    3'0"                            600   cn
    3'2                             620   cn

Earn Experience

  As characters  go  through  a  lot  of  adventures,  however,  some  they
gradually get better and better at what they characters' experience.Everyone
learns to  fight  better  (especially  all  fighters).  Everyone  learns  to
withstand  damage,  the  DM better (more hit points and better saving cision
ahead throws), and so forth. This is all accomplished add through the use of
experience points and experience levels.

At the  end  of every game-session or complete adventure story (the DM will
decide which),  the Dungeon Master will award experience points (abbreviated
as "XP") to the characters.  Experience points are awarded for accomplishing
goals in the course of the adventure story.

  Every so often,  a character will have earned enough experience points to
attain  a higher experience level;  this is often referred to as "going up a
level." Each time the character goes up a level,  he gains  more  abilities.
Under  no  circumstances  can  a  character  advance more than one level per
adventure; all experience beyond one level of advancement can be retained up
to  one  point  short  of a two level advance.  Any additional experience is
lost.  Take a look at the Fighter Experience Table on page 16,  then  return
  As you can see on that table,  a fighter with no experience points (0 XP)
is a 1st level fighter. During his adventuring career, he'll earn experience
points.  Once he reaches 2,000 points,  his player should inform the DM that
he's  reached  his  2nd  experience level;  once he reaches 4,000 experience
points,  he can tell the+ DM that he's reached 3rd level;  and  so  on.  The
number of experience points the character must earn, becomes proportionately
greater and greater.  Don't be alarmed by this. The character's rise through
experience levels will slow down, but not as much as this table suggests. As
he becomes tougher,  he can undertake tougher and tougher quests, which will
earn him proportionately more experience points.

Hit Dice and Hit Points

After a  character reaches 9th experience level (often referred to as "Name"
level),  the player no longer rolls dice to gain additional hit  points  for
the  character:  For each level of experience earned,  a given number of hit
points (instead of Hit Dice) will be gained. The number of hit points gained
each  level (after 9th) will be shown later in the next chapter;  it differs
from character class to character class.

Each player will roll Hit Dice for his character from 1st  experience  level
to 9th (or 8th,  in the case of the halting character, who can only go up to
8th level).  Starting with 10th level,  the character will receive a pre-set
number of hit points appropriate for his character class.

Constitution adjustments to hit points apply only to the Hit Dice the player
rolls; they do not apply to the hit points added at higher levels.

Maximum Levels and Experience Points

Dwarves and elves may not progress beyond 12th  level.  Halflings  may  only
rise to 8th level. Druids may only achieve 30th level (and only then after a
special challenge,  which is described in the next chapter),  while  mystics
can  only reach 16th level.  The other four human classes (cleric,  fighter,
magic-user, thief) may continue -all the way to 36th level.

Once a character reaches his maximum experience  level,  he  does  not  stop
earning  experience  points.  Characters  can  always  earn  more experience
points.  Players should keep records of  all  the  experience  points  their
characters earn.

  Prime Requisites and Experience Points

  If your  character's  prime  requisite is high enough,  he will get extra
experience points.  The Experience Bonuses and Penalties Table will serve as
your  rule  of  thumb  for  calculating  how  much extra experience clerics,
fighters, magic- users, and thieves get for high prime requisites.

     Experience Bonuses and Penalties Table
     Character       Prime    Requisite    and
     Class           Experience          Bonus
     Cleric          Wis       3-5:       -20%
                     Wis       6-8:       -10%
                     Wis     13-15:       + 5%
                     Wis     16-18:       +10%
     Fighter         Str       3-5:       -20%
                     Str       6-8:       -10%
                     Str     13-15:       + 5%
                     Str     16-18:       +10%
     Magic-User      Int       3-5:       -20%
                     Int       6-8:       -10%
                     Int     13-15:       + 5%
                     Int     16-18:       +10%
     Thief           Dex       3-5:       -20%
                     Dex       6-8:       -10%
                     Dex     13-15:       + 5%
                     Dex     16-18:       +10%
     Dwarf           Str       3-5:       -20%
                     Str       6-8:       -10%
                     Str     13-15:       + 5%
                     Str     16-18:       +10%
     Elf             Str     13-18 and Int 13-15: + 5%
                     Str     13-18 and Int 16-18: +10%
     Halfling        Str     13-18 or  Dex 13-18: + 5%
                     Str     13-18 and Dex 13-18: +10%
     Druid           Wis      3-5:        -20%
                     Wis      6-8:        -10%
                     Wis    13-15:        + 5%
                     Wis    16-18:        +10%
     Mystic          Str      3-5:        -10%
                     Str      6-8:        - 5%
                     Str    13-15:        + 5%
                     Str    16-18:        +10%

  For example,  a  fighter's  prime  requisite  is  Strength.  If  he has a
Strength of 3-5,  he loses 20%  of all the experience points he earns. If he
has a Strength of 6-8,  he loses 10%.  If his Strength is 13-15, he earns an
extra 5 %. And if his Strength is 16-18, he earns an extra 10%. If a fighter
with a Strength of 16 were to be given 100 points of experience,  his player
would add in an extra 10%  (for a total of  110  experience  points)  before
writing the amount down on his character sheet.

     Calculating Experience Bonuses

  Unless your  DM  tells  you  otherwise,  you  will  always calculate your
character's experience bonus ...  or experience penalty.  However,  some DMs
prefer  to keep a close eye on characters' experience gains,  and may decide
to calculate all such bonuses themselves.  In such a case,  the DM needs  to
tell  his  players  about this decision ahead of time;  otherwise they might
accidentally add in their experience bonuses again.
  The character professions,  or "character classes," are described  below.
They include the basic human classes (cleric,  fighter,  magic-user, thief),
the three demihuman classes (dwarf,  elf,  halfling),  and two special human
classes (druid, mystic).
   Each character class is presented in the following fashion.
  Boxed Material:   This   box  shows  abbreviated  information  about  the
character class for players who are already familiar with the game and  only
need to be reminded of certain details.
  Description: The class is described in terms of the  traits,  goals,  and
abilities common to all members of the profession or race.
  Experience Table:  This table shows the maximum experience level a member
of this character class can attain, the number of experience points it takes
to achieve each experience level,  and the  number  of  magical  spells  the
character  acquires  at  each  level (in the case of spellcasting character
  Saving Throws  Table:  This  table shows the character's saving throws at
every experience level the character can attain.
  Class Details:   This  text  talks  about  many  of  the  class'  special
characteristics:  its  prime  requisite,  its  Hit  Dice,  restrictions   or
advantages with armor and weapons, and any other significant details.
  Special Abilities:  This text talks about any special abilities which the
character  class possesses.  Some classes can cast magical spells;  some can
see in the dark;  some have  no  special  abilities  at  all.  Some  special
abilities will require tables and tables of their own.
  At Higher  Experience  Levels:  Finally,  this  text  describes   special
characteristics  and responsibilities the character acquires when he reaches
higher levels of experience.

  Understanding the Tables

  Take a  look  at  any  of  the  experience tables in the following pages.
Here's an explanation of those tables' column headings.
  Level: This  column  shows the experience levels which characters of this
class can attain.  Most human classes can reach 36th level; some classes are
more restricted.
  XP: This column shows the number of experience points it  takes  for  the
character  to  attain  each  experience  level.  A  starting character has 0
experience points and is at 1st level.
  Attack Rank:  Not  all experience tables will have this column;  only the
demihuman tables have it. Attack ranks are measures of a demihuman's ability
to improve  his  fighting  skill  if  even  when  he's  reached  his maximum
experience level.  Each attack rank corresponds to  a  fighter's  experience
level  when  you  determine  how well the demihuman hits in combat;  see the
Attack Rolls Table on  page  106  to  see  how  well  demihumans  attack  at
different attack ranks.
  Spells/Level: Not all experience tables will have  this  column-only  the
tables belonging to spellcasting character classes. As you'll see in Chapter
3,  spells are arranged in levels-just as there are  1st  level  characters,
there are 1st level spells,  for instance.  The table shows how many spells
of  which spell level a character can know.

About the Classes

 Here are some notes on the three categories of  character  classes-humans,
demihumans,   and  special-before  you  progress  on  to  the  actual  class

Human Classes
 In the  D&D@  game,  humans are the most prolific race.  They are also the
race with the greatest potential. While demihuman character classes can only
attain moderate experience levels (8th,  10th,  or 12th level,  depending on
the class/ race),  each of the four basic human character classes can attain
36th experience level.
 In many  D&D  game  campaigns,  human  civilization  is  similar  to   the
civilizations   of  Western  Europe  in  the  late  Middle  Ages  and  early
Renaissance period.  In such campaigns,  you can expect to see  most  humans
living  in  kingdoms  ruled  by  a  king  and  queen and organized in feudal
domains, with a rising middle class of traders and craftsmen in the cities.
 However, your  Dungeon  Master may decide not to follow that standard;  he
may  prefer  for  his  human  civilizations  to  resemble   ancient   Egypt,
feudal Japan, conquistador-era  Mexico,  a  culture  from a specific fantasy
novel,  or something created from his own imagination.  Be sure to ask  your
Dungeon Master about the nature of human cultures in his world; the more you
know ahead of time,  the better you can fit your character into the existing

Demihuman Classes
  Demihuman characters are more limited than human characters.  They  can't
rise  to  very high levels of experience (dwarves are limited to 12th level,
elves to 10th,  Halflings to 8th).  Elves cannot learn very powerful  magic;
they can only learn up to 5th level spells, while humans can learn up to 9th
level spells.
 Clans: The demihuman race of dwarves, elves,and halflings have a different
way of life than humans.  They usually live longer,  have a stricter way  of
life,  and  find  security  in large family groups called Clans.  A Clan may
include several hundred demihumans.  The head of  the  Clan  is  always  the
oldest member, male or female, assuming that member is fit to rule.
  Day-today tasks are usually done by those best suited to do them.  Unlike
many human communities,  few demihumans are lazy;  everyone has a job,  with
Clan duties and responsibilities,  and "goofing off' is nearly  unthinkable.
The DM  may  choose  to  develop many other aspects of demihuman family life
(such as marriage customs,  industry,  clan-to-clan relations, and so forth)
as needed).
  Demihuman Relations:  Elves and dwarves don't usually  like  each  other.
This dislike usually surfaces as verbal battles,  rather than physical. Both
get along fairly well with halflings.
  The DM  will  decide  why  elves  and  dwarves don't get along in his own
campaign.  In the D&D game's Known World setting,  it's because they are  so
physically  and  emotionally different (elves are tall and willowy,  dwarves
short and  stocky;  elves  love  freedom  and  the  outdoors,  dwarves  love
organization and caverns,  etc.), and because the two races had many clashes
which they've never forgiven one another. But the reason can be different in
your own campaign;  a DM can decide, for instance, that in his own world the
elves and dwarves are the best of friends!
  All demihuman  races  trade  and interact with humans;  though men can be
dangerous, many are also trustworthy and have good points.
  Special Abilities  and  Maneuvers:  All  demihuman  races receive special
abilities,  which make them much  more  effective  than  humans  in  certain
situations.  The  special  abilities  of  each  race  are  detailed  in  the
description of each character class.

Special Classes
  There are  two  other human character classes,  the druid and the mystic,
which are described separately from the  cleric,  fighter,  magic-user,  and
thief.  We  present  them  separately because the DM may not wish to include
them in his campaign.
  The druid is a little complicated, because druid characters start play as
clerics and then change their character classes to become druids.
  The mystic,  a monastic specialist in unarmed combat,  is not appropriate
for all campaigns.  Some of their special abilities  mimic  those  of  other
human   classes,  but  many  are  unique  to  this  class,  including  their
increasingly powerful unarmed combat tactics.


  Prime Requisite: Wisdom.
  Experience Bonus: 5 % for Wisdom 13-15, 10% for Wisdom 16-18.
  Hit Dice:  1d6 per level up to 9th level.  Starting with 10th level,
  + 1 hit point per level, and Constitution adjustments no longer apply.
  Maximum Level: 36.
  Armor: Any, plus shield.
  Weapons: No edged or pointed weapons; all others permitted.
  Special Abilities: Turning undead; clerical spells.

  A cleric is a human character who is dedicated to  serving  a  great  and
worthy  cause.  This  cause can be an Immortal being dedicated to a specific
goal or attribute;  sometimes the cleric is serving only his alignment,  and
has  no  interest  in  immortal beings.  The D&D game does not deal with the
ethical and theological beliefs of the characters in the game.
  All clerics belong to orders,  or clerical societies,  made up of clerics
serving the same ends.
  A brand-new  cleric  character  is  at  the  very  bottom of his clerical
organization;  as he gains experience levels,  he will also gain new  powers
and  responsibilities pertaining to his clerical order.  The DM will decide,
and will inform you, how the clerical orders of his campaign are arranged.
  A cleric can learn to cast spells after gaining a level of experience.  A
1st level cleric cannot cast any spells;  once he reaches 2nd level,  he can
begin to cast spells.  A cleric's spell powers come from the strength of the
cleric's beliefs.  The cleric  sits  and  meditates,  and  magically  learns
spells.  These  spells  can then be used during an adventure.  Most clerical
spells are for healing, protection

                      Cleric Experience Table

Level    XP        1    2    3    4    5    6    7

 1        0        -    -    -    -    -    -    -
 2    1,500        1    -    -    -    -    -    -
 3    3,000        2    -    -    -    -    -    -
 4    6,000        2    1    -    -    -    -    -
 5    12,000       2    2    -    -    -    -    -
 6    25,000       2    2    1    -    -    -    -
 7    50,000       3    2    2    -    -    -    -
 8    100,000      3    3    2    1    -    -    -
 9    200,000      3    3    3    2    -    -    -
 10   300,000      4    4    3    2    1    -    -
 11   400,000      4    4    3    3    2    -    -
 12   500,000      4    4    4    3    2    1    -
 13   600,000      5    5    4    3    2    2    -
 14   700,000      5    5    5    3    3    2    -
 15   800,000      6    5    5    3    3    3    -
 16   900,000      6    5    5    4    4    3    -
 17   1,000,000    6    6    5    4    4    3    1
 18   1,100,000    6    6    5    4    4    3    2
 19   1,200,000    7    6    5    4    4    4    2
 20   1,300,000    7    6    5    4    4    4    3
 21   1,400,000    7    6    5    5    5    4    3
 22   1,500,000    7    6    5    5    5    4    4
 23   1,600,000    7    7    6    6    5    4    4
 24   1,700,000    8    7    6    6    5    5    4
 25   1,800,000    8    7    6    6    5    5    5
 26   1,900,000    8    7    7    6    6    5    5
 27   2,000,000    8    8    7    6    6    6    5
 28   2,100,000    8    8    7    7    7    6    5
 29   2,200,000    8    8    7    7    7    6    6
 30   2,300,000    8    8    8    7    7    7    6
 31   2,400,000    8    8    8    8    8    7    6
 32   2,500,000    9    8    8    8    8    7    7
 33   2,600,000    9    9    8    8    8    8    7
 34   2,700,000    9    9    9    8    8    8    8
 35   2,800,000    9    9    9    9    9    8    8
 36   2,900,000    9    9    9    9    9    9    9

Cleric Savings
Levels                  1-4 5-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24  25-28  29-32  33-36
Death Ray/Poison         11   9    7     6     5     4      3      2      2
Magic Wands              12  10    8     7     6     5      4      3      2
Paralysis/Turn to Stone  14  12   10     8     6     5      4      3      2
Dragon Breath            16  14   12    10     8     6      4      3      2
Rod/Staff/Spell          15  13   11     9     7     5      4      3      2

       and gathering  information.  Clerical  spells  are  different   from
magic-user spells. Clerics can use only their own type of spells; they never
utilize magic-user spells.
     Clerics have good fighting skills and can fight monsters. A cleric can
wear any type of armor,  like a fighter;  he can use many types of  weapons,
but  cannot  use edged or piercing weapons of any sort.  Unlike magic-users,
whose spells are often used during battles,  a cleric's spells  are  usually
needed  after  battles  (such  as  cures)  or for general exploring (such as
detecting things).
     If your  party  has  enough  fighters,  your cleric should not need to
fight often.  But he is equipped for fighting if his combat skill is needed.
Watch for ways that his spells can help before, during, and after battles.
     For the  first  three  levels of experience,  a cleric's power is very
limited.  But as they advance (to a maximum of 36th level),  clerics  obtain
more spells of greater power,  due both to practice and the strengthening of
their beliefs.  It is very important for clerics to  be  faithful  to  their
beliefs.  If  a  cleric  behaves in a manner that is not consistent with the
character's alignment or beliefs, the cleric may be punished by the order-or
by even greater powers. This punishment could be a penalty on attack rolls',
a dangerous quest that must be completed,  or  even a lack of spells.The  DM
will tell you what the character must do to regain his good standing.

Class Details

  Prime Requisite:  A cleric's prime requisite is Wisdom. If a cleric has a
Wisdom score of 13-15,  the character gains a 5 % bonus to experience points
earned in every adventure;  if his Wisdom is 16-18,  he earns a 10% bonus to
XP. Hit Dice: Roll a six-sided die (1d6) to determine a cleric's hit points.
A  cleric starts with 1d6 (1-6) hit points (plus any Constitution bonus) and
gains 1d6 more hit points (plus bonus) with each level  of  experience.  One
additional hit point is gained for each level after 9th level.

Armor: A cleric can wear any kind of armor, and can use a shield.

Weapons: A cleric cannot use any weapon with a sharp edge or point;  this is
forbidden by the cleric's beliefs.  This includes arrows and  quarrels.  But
the cleric can use any non-edged weapon.

Special Abilities
A cleric  has  two special abilities:  turning undead monsters and casting
clerical spells.

Turning Undead
A cleric  has  the  power  to  force  certain  monsters  called the "undead"
(skeletons,  zombies,  ghouls, wights, and other types) to run away, or even
to  perish.  This  special ability is called "turning undead." When a cleric
encounters an undead monster, the cleric may either attack it normally (with
a  weapon  or spell),  or try to turn it.  The cleric cannot both attack and
turn undead  in one round.  When you want your cleric to try to turn undead,
just tell your Dungeon Master "I'll try to  turn  undead  this  round."  The
power to turn undead is inherent in the cleric;  he does not need the symbol
of his faith or any other device to do it, unless the DM declares otherwise.
Undead  monsters  are  not  automatically  turned  by  the cleric.  When the
encounter occurs, the player must refer to the cleric's Turning Undead table
to  find the effect the cleric has.  When the cleric tries to turn an undead
monster,  find the cleric's level of experience across the top of the table.
Read down the left column until you find the name of the undead monster.  If
you see a "-" in the column,  then you cannot turn the monster.  If you  see
anything  else,  you  have a chance to turn the monster,  or perhaps several
monsters.  See immediately below,  under "Explanation of Results:' to  learn
how  to  find  out  if  you  have  turned  the  monster.  Apply  the results
immediately.  If the attempt succeeds,  one or more of the  undead  monsters
will retreat or be destroyed. But don't forget, if the monster is turned, it
hasn't been destroyed; it may decide to return soon....
  If you try to turn a specific undead monster (for instance,  one specific
vampire)  and  fail,  you cannot try again to turn it in the same fight.  At
some later encounter, you can try to turn that individual again.

Explanation of Results
  7, 9, or 11: Whenever a number is listed, the cleric has a chance to turn
the undead monsters. The player rolls 2d6 (two six-sided dice). If the total
is equal to or greater than the number given,  the attempt at turning undead
is successful.
  When the attempt at turning undead is successful, the Dungeon Master (not
the  player)  will  roll  2d6  to  determine  the  number  of  Hit  Dice  of
undead,monsters  that  turn  away.  At  least  one  monster  will be turned,
regardless of what the DM rolls on his dice.
  Example: A  1st  level  cleric  has  just  encountered a group of seven
zombies. Zombies (as you

        Turning Undead Table (Roil 2d6)
                            Cleric's    Level
Undead     1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9-10   11-12   13-14
Skeleton   7    T    T    D    D    D    D    D      D      D +     D +
Zombie     9    7    T    T    D    D    D    D      D      D       D +
Ghoul      11   9    7    T    T    D    D    D      D      D         D
Wight      -    11   9    7    T    T    D    D      D      D         D
Wraith     -    -    11   9    7    T    T    D      D      D         D
Mummy      -    -    -    11   9    7    T    T      D      D         D
Spectra    -    -    -    -    11   9    7    T      T      D         D
Vampire    -    -    -    -    -    11   9    7      T      T         D
Phantom    -    -    -    -    -    -    11   9      7      T         T
Haunt      -    -    -    -    -    -    -    11     9      7         T
Spirit     -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -      11     9         7
Nightshade -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -      -      11        9
Lich       -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -      -      -         11
Special    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    -      -      -         -

Undead      15-16     17-20    21-24   25-28   29-32  33-36
Skeleton      D +      D +      D +    D #      D #    D #
Zombie        D +      D +      D +    D +      D #    D #
Ghoul         D +      D +      D +    D +      D +    D #
Wight         D        D +      D +    D +      D +    D +
Wraith        D        D        D +    D +      D +    D +
Mummy         D        D        D      D +      D +    D +
Spectra       D        D        D      D        D +    D +
Vampire       D        D        D      D        D      D +
Phantom       D        D        D      D        D      D
Haunt         T        D        D      D        D      D
Spirit        T        T        D      D        D      D
Nightshade    7        T        T      D        D      D
Lich          9        7        T      T        T      T
Special       11       9        7      T        T      T

        7,9, or 11 =   number   needed   to   turn   successfully
        T   automatic  turn,  2d6  Hit   Dice   of   undead
        D   automatic   Destroy,   2d6   Hit   Dice   of   undead
        D +    automatic  Destroy,  3d6  Hit   Dice   of   undead
        D#    automatic  Destroy,  4d6   Hit   Dice   of   undead

  can learn in Chapter 14) each have two Hit Dice (2 HD).  The cleric tries
to turn the zombies.
  On the Turning Undead Table,  a 1st level cleric vs.  a zombie  yields  a
result of 9: The cleric must roll a 9 or greater on 2d6 to turn the zombies.
The  cleric's  player rolls 2d6 and achieves a 10-he has successfully turned
  The DM now rolls to see what sort of  results  the  cleric  achieves.  He
rolls 2d6 and achieves an 8;  in other words, the cleric turns 8 Hit Dice of
zombies.  Since each zombie is a 2-Hit Die creature,  the cleric has  turned
four zombies.  Four zombies turn and begin shambling away from the cleric as
fast as they can move. This leaves the cleric with only three to fight. Next
round,  he  can  attack  them with weapons of spells,  or he can try to turn
them, too.
  T. The attempt at turning the undead automatically succeeds; the cleric's
player does not need to roll for success.  To determine how many undead will
be turned,  the DM rolls 2d6 as described above;  regardless of his roll, at
least one undead will be turned.
  D: The  attempt at turning the undead automatically succeeds-in fact,  it
succeeds so well that the affected monsters are destroyed instead of  merely
turned.  To determine how many Hit Dice of undead will be destroyed,  the DM
rolls 2d6 as described above;  regardless of his roll,  at least one  undead
will be destroyed.  (The DM decides  what  happens  when  the  monsters  are
destroyed:  They  might  fade  away,  burst into flame and crumble away,  or
disintegrate like a vampire in sunlight, for instance.)
   D +:  This is the same as the "D" result above, except that the DM rolls
3d6 to find out how many Hit Dice of undead will be destroyed. Regardless of
the roll, at least one undead will be destroyed.
   D#: This  is the same as the "D" result above,  except that the DM rolls
4d6 to find out how many Hit Dice of undead will be destroyed. Regardless of
the roll, at least one undead will be destroyed.

Using  Clerical   Spells
   Starting at the 2nd level of  experience  (having  earned  1,500  XP  or
more),  the cleric can use spells. The procedures by which the cleric learns
and casts his spells are described in Chapter 3.

Higher Experience  Levels

   When a cleric reaches Name level (9th),  he is called  a  patriarch  (if
mate) or matriarch (if female).  At this point in his adventuring career, he
has several options available to him.
   If the  character  is a Neutral cleric,  he can decide to become a druid
instead (see the description of that character class  below);  he  certainly
does not have to change his class.
   If the cleric is a Neutral who does not want to become a druid, or if he
is  Lawful or Chaotic alignment,  he must decide whether to build a clerical
stronghold approved by his clerical order.
   Depending on  how the DM has set up his campaign,  the cleric might have
built himself a

home, even a lavish castle,  long before.  However,  that was  his  personal
home,  regardless of how big it is or what he has done with it.  Here, we're
talking about a stronghold sanctioned by the cleric's order,  one which will
be built and maintained to further the goals of the order.

Land-Owning Clerics
 A cleric who decides to build  a  stronghold  with  the  sanction  of  his
clerical  order  is  called a "land-owning cleric." (Note:  This is merely a
convenient term.  A land-owning cleric can go adventuring with his footloose
friends; he is not tied to his land.) There are advantages and disadvantages
to setting up a clerical stronghold.
  Advantages: The  character  can  progress  up  through  the  ranks of his
clerical order.  The character may receive  financial  aid  from  his  order
toward the building of the stronghold. The character may be able to increase
his lands and build strong settlements there,  which  could  result  in  him
becoming a very wealthy character indeed.
  Disadvantages: The character will be the chief  clerical  authority  (for
his clerical order) for the lands around his stronghold.  This means that he
has clerical responsibilities to all the people living  on  and  around  his
lands-responsibilities  which  may  interfere with his desire to travel with
his old adventuring  friends  of  which  may  confront  him  with  difficult

Traveling Clerics
 A cleric who decides not to build a stronghold sanctioned by his order  is
referred  to  as a "traveling cleric," even if he is not always on the road
traveling.  There are also advantages and disadvantages to being a traveling
 Advantages: The cleric does not have to tie himself down to any one  place
or  group  of  people;  except  when acting on official requests from his
order, he may go where he pleases.
 Disadvantages: The  cleric  may  not  rise  to  or  above  the  rank  of a
land-owning cleric,  and may not achieve much political influence within his
order.  (He  doesn't stop earning experience points,  experience levels,  or
personal power;  he just cannot climb any higher  in  the  clerical  order's
hierarchy.)  The  cleric  still  has responsibilities to his clerical order,
naturally;  as before,  he may be required at any time to uphold the beliefs
and accomplish the goals of his order.

Becoming a Land Owner
 If the 9th level cleric decides to build a stronghold, he must report to a
superior of  some  type,  either  an official of his order or a ruler of the
nation where he wishes to  settle,  to  ask  for  land.  This  ruler  should
willingly grant the land, unless the cleric has had problems with him in the
past;  if so,  the ruler may requite some service of the cleric (such  as  a
quest)  before he grants the land.  (The DM must decide whether the cleric's
order has the power to make such grants,  according to the  civilization  of
his campaign world.)
  If the cleric has never been punished  for  misbehavior,  either  by  his
order or by the powers that grant him his spells, his order can (at the DM's
discretion) help him with the cost of building  the  stronghold.  Such  help
usually  involves  the  order paying for up to any amount the DM feels to be
reasonable (the standard is  50%  of  the  stronghold's  construction).  The
player  should design the stronghold the way he wishes to see it built.  The
DM will calculate how much it would cost to  build,  determine  to  his  own
satisfaction  how much of the design is good and necessary planning (and how
much is extravagant overexpenditure), and decide what proportion of the cost
the clerical order will assume.
 Regardless of  how  much  the  clerical  order  pays,  the  stronghold  is
technically  the  cleric's  property.  The  cleric  can't deny access to the
property and its facilities to members of his order-normally,  he  shouldn't
ever wish to do so-but it's his land,  and he can't just be assigned to some
other stronghold against his will.
  A number  (typically  1d6)  of  lower  level  clerics  will  come  to the
stronghold once it is built, to assist and serve the cleric in operating the
stronghold's  clerical  functions.  (See  Chapter  11  for  more  on  this.)
Naturally,  he'll get fewer or no assistant clerics if he has  a  reputation
for abusing  or  endangering his retainers.  These clerics have arrived with
the intention of helping to operate the stronghold,  not to travel with  the
cleric on  his adventures.  The DM should create each of these clerics as an
individual,  with  his  own  name,  personality,  background,   goals,   and
 If the cleric manages his land well and serves his order equally well,  he
will  probably  rise  in power in the bureaucracy of his clerical order.  In
addition,  he may be awarded more land; more normal men will settle the area
around the cleric's stronghold,  and the cleric will receive more tax income
from the settlements.

Choosing to Travel
  A cleric who decides to travel may follow one of two routes: in civilized
lands,  or in wilderness.  A cleric who travels within the boundaries of the
civilized  world  usually looks for ways to help those of the same alignment
(whatever that may be). The cleric may travel alone, with retainers, or with
other clerics.
 A cleric who travels to the wilderness usually searches for enemies of the
clerical  order,  to  convert or destroy.  This cleric normally travels with
other characters as an adventuring party  (though  the  others  may  all  be

Changing Back and Forth
 Once a player decides to be a traveling  or  land-owning  cleric,  only  a
major  development  in  the  campaign or in the character should change that
status.  The DM should discourage frequent or casual changes of the cleric's


  Prime Requisite: Strength.
  Experience Bonus: 5 % for Strength 13-15, 10% for Strength 16-18.
  Hit Dice: 1d8 per level up to 9th level. Starting with 10th level,
  +2 hit points per level, and Constitution adjustments no longer apply.
  Maximum Level: 36th.
  Armor: Any; shields allowed.
  Weapons: Any.
  Special Abilities:  Lance  Attack  and  Set  Spear vs.  Charge maneuvers,
Fighter Combat Options (see Chapter 8).
  A fighter is a human whose main ability is fighting skill. Fighters often
have greater Strength than other characters. They usually hit opponents more
often in combat, and inflict more damage.
  In the D&D game,  fighters protect their weaker  friends  and  allies.  A
party  made  up  only  of  fighters  would probably survive most dungeon and
wilderness encounters,  even those where magic would be useful.  Every group
of explorers should have at least one of two fighters.
  In group adventures,  the fighters should stay in front and  act  as  the
"front  line"  in combat situations.  If there are three or more fighters in
the party,  one should stay in the back,  in case the characters'  party  is
approached  from  the  fear  by enemies.  In battle itself,  fighters have a
better chance at surviving physical damage,  since they have more hit points
than most other classes.
  A fighter character should be able to use a variety  of  weapons.  Unless
your conception of your fighter character Omits him to one class of weapons,
you should equip him with both hand-to- hand and missile weapons.
  Fighters may advance as high as 36th level. Their rapid advances, both in
combat ability and in their amount of hit points,  make them natural leaders
in human settlements, especially small ones. High level fighters spend a lot
of their time training and leading men-at-arms,  clearing the wilderness  of
monsters, and expanding human settlements.

            Fighter Experience Table

    Level    XP    Level      XP    Level      XP

     1        0    13    720,000    25  2,160,000
     2    2,000    14    840,000    26  2,280,000
     3    4,000    15    960,000    27  2,400,000
     4    8,000    16  1,080,000    28  2,520,000
     5   16,000    17  1,200,000    29  2,640,000
     6   32,000    18  1,320,000    30  2,760,000
     7   64,000    19  1,440,000    31  2,880,000
     8  120,000    20  1,560,000    32  3,000,000
     9  240,000    21  1,680,000    33  3,120,000
    10  360,000    22  1,800,000    34  3,240,000
    11  480,000    23  1,920,000    35  3,360,000
    12  600,000    24  2,040,000    36  3,480,000

Class Details

  Prime Requisite:  A  fighter's prime requisite is Strength.  If a fighter
has a Strength score of 13- 15 of more,  the character gains a 5 %  bonus to
experience points earned in every adventure;  if his Strength is 16-18,  his
bonus is 10%.
  Hit Dice:  Roll an 8-sided die (1d8) to determine a fighter's hit points.
A fighter starts with 1d8 (1-8) hit points (plus Constitution bonus, if any)
and  gains  1d8  more hit points (plus bonus) with each level of experience.
Two additional hit points are gained for each level after 9th level.
  Armor: A fighter can wear any kind of armor and may use a shield.
  Weapons: A fighter  can  use  any  kind  of  weapon.

Special Abilities

  Beginning fighters  initially  receive only a couple of special abilities
and need no other special abilities to  survive  and  prosper.  Their  great
strength,  hit points,  strong armor,  and many weapons make them a powerful
character class without additional special abilities.  At higher  experience
levels, though, they do receive some additional fighting abilities.
  The two special abilities they  do  receive  immediately  are  the  Lance
Attack  maneuver  and  Set  Spear vs.  Charge maneuver.  These maneuvers are
described in Chapter 8.
  At higher  experience  levels,  some  fighters  receive specific special
abilities,  including Fighter Combat Options and other abilities;  these are
also described in Chapter 8.

Higher Experience Levels
  A fighter with enough money may build himself  a  home,  even  a  castle,
before he reaches 9th experience level.  However,  this home has no official
sanction;  even if it is a castle,  the  character  is  not  a  ruler  or  a
  When a fighter reaches Name level (9th level), the character is, owing to
his great abilities and reputation,  addressed as Lord (if male) or Lady (if
female).  This is status within his community even if it  is  not  a  formal
title;  it  is  for  the  DM  to  decide whether or not it is a formal title
bestowed upon the fighter by the nation's rulers.
  At Name level, the fighter will have to decide whether he intends to be a
"land-owning fighter" (i.e.,  a ruler in his own right, and lord of a region
of  land) or a "traveling fighter" (one who may own homes but not rule land,
and has no especially strong responsibilities to the nation's rulers). Don't
be  confused  by these names.  A land-owning fighter may spend a lot of time
traveling and adventuring,  and a traveling fighter may spend a lot  of  his
time at home.

 Fighter Saving Throws Table
 Saving Throw                Man  1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 13-15 16-18
 Death Ray/Poison             14   12  10   8     6     6     5
 Magic Wands                  15   13  11   9     7     6     6
 Paralysis/Turn to Stone      16   14  12  10     8     7     6
 Breath Attack                17   15  13  11     9     8     7
 Rod/Staff/Spell              17   16  14  12    10     9     8

 Saving Throw               19-21  22-24  25-27  28-30  31-33  34-36
 Death Ray/Poison               5      4      4      3      3      2
 Magic Wands                    5      5      4      4      3      2
 Paralysis/Turn to Stone        6      5      5      4      3      2
 Breath Attack                  6      5      4      3      2      2
 Rod/Staff/Spell                7      6      5      4      3      2

Land-Owning Fighters
   There are  two  ways  for  a  fighter  to  become a land-owning fighter:
independently or in fealty to a greater ruler.
  The DM  decides  on  what  sort  of  government  is used in his campaign.
Assuming that it's based on medieval Europe,  as is the case with  many  D&D
game  campaigns,  a nation's government consists in part of a king and queen
ruling a strong court of dukes,  counts and barons,  each of  whom  rules  a
smaller territory or domain.
   In order to become a ruler within an existing country,  he will have  to
petition  the  country's rulers for a grant of land.  If he has already done
them great services in the past,  they may give it to  him  immediately  and
gratefully, but if he is not already their friend of ally, they may send him
on a difficult quest so that he can prove himself to them.  Once he has been
granted the land,  he may build his castle upon it (at his own expense). The
land may be occupied or not;  if it is unoccupied, the prospective ruler had
best  try  to  lure  settlers  there  soon,  so that his dominion will begin
receiving tax revenues.
 At the  very least,  a land-owning fighter within an existing country will
be granted the title of Baron (if male) or  Baroness  (if  female),  or  the
equivalent.  If he continues to expand his land within the nation's laws and
to make his dominion an increasingly strong and rich  one,  he  may  receive
greater titles, such as Count/Countess and Duke/Duchess.
  If the fighter wishes to make his dominion in a wilderness which  is  not
within  an  existing country,  he may call himself anything he wants- baron,
duke,  king,  emperor. However, be aware that a too-glorious title will make
others  laugh at him.  If he takes a title,  it should be appropriate to the
size and strength of the dominion he is ruling;  he may wish to  change  his
title as it increases in size and prosperity.

Traveling fighters
  If, at 9th level,  a fighter does not  decide  to  make  a  dominion  for
himself, he chooses to become a traveling fighter (you can use the term even
if he really doesn't do a lot of traveling).
  Traveling fighters  don't  usually  have  the  political
power that land-owning fighters do,  but they can receive special  abilities
to  help compensate for that.  (Note that we said can.  They don't   receive
these abilities automatically.)
   The alignment  of  a  traveling fighter determines special abilities and
other characteristics.

  A Lawful  traveling  fighter  may  be  known as a paladin if he meets the
following requirements.  If he does not  meet  those  requirements,  he  may
become a knight (described below).

  The fighter  must  sweat fealty (an oath of service) to a Lawful clerical
order to gain paladin status.  The fighter must be of Name level or  greater
to  be  accepted  by  the  clerical  order.  Thereafter,  the paladin may be
summoned by the order's leaders at any time, and must do as they command, as
long  as  the service aids the powers of Good.
  2 .A paladin can detect evil (as per the cleric spell) as often  as  once
per round,  simply by concentrating.  (Range:  120'.  The paladin cannot use
this ability and attack in the same round.)
  3. If the paladin's Wisdom score is 13 of greater, the character can cast
cleric spells as if he were a cleric  of  one-third  his  actual  experience
level (round any fraction down); if a fighter becomes a paladin right at 9th
level, he'll immediately gain the spells of a 3rd level cleric. A 17th level
paladin  can  cast  spells  as if he were a 5th level cleric.  If his Wisdom
score is 12 of less,  the fighter can still be a paladin,  but  cannot  cast
  The paladin learns how to meditate and cast spells from  the  clerics  of
the order.  The clerics will refuse any offer of compensation or payment for
this service.
  4. A  paladin  can  turn undead,  as if he were a cleric of one-third his
actual experience level (round all fractions down).  Therefore, a 6th or 7th
level paladin can turn undead with the same ability of a 2nd level cleric.
  5. A paladin may only travel with a number of hirelings equal to or  less
than  his  clerical  level.  In  other words,  if he can cast spells or turn
undead as a 5th level cleric, he can have five hirelings accompany him.
  6. A paladin must assist anyone who asks for help-with two exceptions: He
does not have to help evil characters or achieve  evil  goals,  and  if  the
paladin  is on a mission for a higher authority (such as a quest,  serving a
duke, etc.), he can offer only a small amount of help (such as sheltering or
advising  the  person  in  need  of aid),  along with an explanation for his
refusal.  Assistance never involves donations of money or  items,  but  only
service for a short time.

   A Neutral traveling  fighter  may  become  a  knight.  Lawful  traveling
fighters  who  do not become paladins,  or Chaotic traveling fighters who do
not become an avengers (described below) are also able to become knights.
   To gain knighthood,  a fighter must swear fealty to a prince,  king,  or
emperor.  In return,  the ruler will declare the character  a  knight;  that
ruler then becomes the knight's "liege."
   In most campaigns,  knights  are  the  most  common  sort  of  traveling
fighters. The following rules apply to knights.

  1. If  summoned  by his liege the knight must report to him as quickly as
possible,  and must serve as the liege orders.
  2. If the knight ever refuses to obey the liege, or ever swears fealty to
any other liege,  the knight loses three levels of experience.  (The DM  may
increase  this  penalty  if the offense warrants it.) The previous liege may
even order the offender slain for his treachery.  In  addition,  rumors  and
tales of the "traitorous knight" may haunt the character forever after;  the
character may find it difficult to find help in places where his  reputation
is known.
  If his liege dies,  the knight is  free  to  choose  another.  Additional
benefits (lands,  money, etc.) may be awarded to knights who swear fealty to
the successor of a liege who dies.
  A knight  may petition the liege for a peaceful end to his oath;  however
rarely granted.  The knight would be banished,  at the least,  and could  be
stripped of all possessions as well.
  3. A  knight  may  visit  any  castle,  of  any  territory,  and  request
sanctuary.  The  castle  owner  must,  by the customs of the land,  give the
knight a place to stay for up to three days,  along with food and drink.  He
does not have to be friendly to the knight,  but,  according to this custom,
may not challenge, attack, or refuse sanctuary to the knight. (Note that the
knight cannot challenge or attack his host or members of his host's court or
family, either. Should he do so, his sanctuary is at an end, and his host is
now  free  to punish him.) In campaigns modeled after medieval Europe,  this
custom is nearly universal,  but the DM is free to indicate that the  custom
is not present if his nations are not similar to Europe's.
  4. If a call to arms sounds (a call for knights to battle  for  justice),
the knight must respond. This declaration can only be issued by the ruler of
a large town (Mayor) of territory (Archduke  or  greater  status),  and  the
knight  need  only  respond  if  it  sounds  in the area through which he is
passing or if it is called by his liege.  When the call to arms sounds,  the
knight  must  immediately travel as fast as possible to the ruling castle of
the one who made the call to arms,  and fight as ordered by the ruler-within
the constraints of any knightly oaths he took in the course of the campaign.
(If the ruler who made the call to arms orders  him  to  kill  innocents  or
helpless  prisoners,  the  knight may choose to refuse,  but he will make an
enemy of that ruler.) The  knight  is  entitled  to  compensation  for  this
service;  the  ruler  issuing  the call to arms must grant the knight a gift
appropriate to the value of the knight's services.  (Many rulers will  offer
the gift out of gratitude; some will not. The knight has the right to demand
the gift; he does not have to demand it if he does not wish to.)
  There are  two  notable exceptions to the custom of the call to arms.  In
lands where the civilization is very different from  medieval  Europe,  this
custom might not be used (in wilderness areas where there are no rulers,  it
would naturally be unknown).  If the knight is within a territory  that  has
declared  itself  hostile  to  the  knight's  liege,  the  knight  need  not
respond-if the call to arms is against the land of his liege,  he  must  not
respond.  In fact, the knight would be in great danger when the call to arms

   A Chaotic  traveling  fighter  may  become  an  avenger  if he meets the
following requirements.  Otherwise,  a Chaotic traveling  fighter  may  also
become a knight.

  1 . The fighter must make an alliance with a Chaotic clerical order. This
is not a swearing an oath of fealty,  but a loose agreement of  loyalty  and
support;  the order may decline the offer. If the order accepts, the order's
leaders may summon the avenger at any time,  and he must do as they command.
If  he  disobeys  them,  he  loses all special abilities and benefits of the
avenger. Even  then,  the  fighter  may regain avenger status by negotiating
with a different order.
  2. An avenger can detect evil (as the cleric spell) up to once per round,
simply by concentrating.  (Range: 12O'. The avenger may not use this ability
and attack in the same round.)
  3. If the avenger's Wisdom score is 13 or greater,  the avenger can learn
to  cast  cleric  spells  as  if  he  were  a cleric of one-third his actual
experience level (round all fractions down).  Therefore,  a 12th-14th  level
avenger  casts  spells  as a 4th level cleric.  If his Wisdom score is 12 or
less, the fighter can still be an avenger, but cannot cast spells.
  The avenger learns how to meditate and cast spells from  the  clerics  of
the order-but at a price (the price is at the DM's discretion, but a minimum
of 10,000 gp per clerical spell level gained is recommended).
  4. An  avenger  may  turn  undead as if he were a cleric of one-third his
actual experience level,  but with an important difference.  If the   result
is  "turn" or "destroy," the avenger may choose to control them instead.  If
control is chosen, it lasts for 1 turn per level of the avenger-thus, a 17th
level avenger could control them for 17 turns. Undead thus controlled behave
as if charmed, obeying the avenger as if they were friends.
  However, if  the  undead  are  turned or destroyed by a cleric during the
duration of the control, the control is dispelled immediately, and cannot be
renewed. If the duration of the control ends without  incident,  the  undead
will flee (as if turned).
  5 An  avenger  may  not have human or demihuman hirelings.  However,  the
avenger may try to persuade monsters of  Chaotic  alignment  to  become  his
hirelings. If a Chaotic creature is not immediately hostile, the avenger may
offer food or treasure, indicating (through word or gestures) friendship. If
this  fails,  threats or combat resulting in surrender may accomplish nearly
the same result.  If the creature's Reaction roll indicates friendship,  the
creature is persuaded to follow and obey the avenger. The effect lasts for a
duration identical to a charm magic-user spell;  once it ends,  it cannot be
renewed. The
avenger may  have  the  number  of  Chaotic  monster  hirelings  that his
Charisma score allows for;  once he  loses  one,  he  may  try  to  persuade
  6. An avenger may visit any castle, ruin, or dungeon known to be ruled by
an intelligent Chaotic monster or character and, using his alignment tongue,
demand Sanctuary (see knight,  above). An avenger may pretend to be a knight
and request Sanctuary of other rulers;  if he deceives the ruler (and is not
tripped up by some alignment-revealing magic),  the ruler will  provide  him
with normal Sanctuary.

     Changing Back and Forth
  Once a player decides to be a traveling of land-owning  fighter,  only  a
major  development  in  the  campaign or in the character should change that
status. The DM should discourage frequent or casual changes of the fighter's


          Prime Requisite: Intelligence.

  Experience Bonus:  5 %  for Intelligence 13-  15,
  10%  for  Intelligence 16-18.
  Hit Dice: 1d4 per level up to 9th level.
  Starting with  10th  level,  +  1  hit point per level,  and Constitution
adjustments no longer apply.
  Maximum Level: 36.
  Armor: None; no shield permitted.
  Weapons: Dagger only. Optional (DM's discretion): staff, blowgun, flaming
oil, holy water, net, thrown rock, sling, whip.
  Special Abilities: Magical spells.

    A magic-user  is  a  human  character  who studies the powers of magic.
Magic-users find spells, put them into books, and study those books to learn
the  spells.  Magic-users  have  their  own spells,  entirely different from
clerical spells.  A magic-user has poor fighting skills,  and  should  avoid
    A magic-user concentrates on learning and casting magic  spells.  He'll
find  that  a  high  Intelligence  is  very helpful.  The magic-user's other
ability scores are often low.  However,  a high Constitution score will help
your  magic-user survive longer,  because it gives a bonus to hit points-one
of the magic-user's weaker traits.
    Magic-users greatly  fear  damage.  All the other character classes can
use armor of some kind,  but magic-users can only wear clothes.  Thus,  they
are easy to hit. They also have few hit points.
    Magic-users start as the weakest characters,  but can eventually become
the  most  powerful.  Their  magical spells can be used for many things-from
simple things like opening doors and  locks,  to  impressive  and  dangerous
magical attacks such as throwing lightning.  All details on Spellcasting are
given in Chapter 3.
    However, it  is  often difficult for magic-users to survive.  Their few
weapons and spells (at low levels) balance against the power they eventually
achieve.  Therefore,  magic-users  must be cautious at lower levels,  as few
will survive long without protection.
  Your magic-user  should  not  go on adventures alone;  because of his low
defenses and hit points,  one surprise could kill him.  In groups,  he should
always stay in the middle of the party,  protected from attacks,  and use his
magic in ways that will help win the fight.

                       Magic-User Experience Table

  Level       XP       1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
    1        0         1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -
    2        2,500     2  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -
    3        5,000     2  1  -  -  -  -  -  -  -
    4        10,000    2  2  -  -  -  -  -  -  -
    5        20,000    2  2  1  -  -  -  -  -  -
    6        40,000    2  2  2  -  -  -  -  -  -
    7        80,000    3  2  2  1  -  -  -  -  -
    8        150,000   3  3  2  2  -  -  -  -  -
    9        300,000   3  3  3  2  1  -  -  -  -
   10        450,000   3  3  3  3  2  -  -  -  -
   11        600,000   4  3  3  3  2  1  -  -  -
   12        750,000   4  4  4  3  2  1  -  -  -
   13        900,000   4  4  4  3  2  2  -  -  -
   14      1,050,000   4  4  4  4  3  2  -  -  -
   15      1,200,000   5  4  4  4  3  2  1  -  -
   16      1,350,000   5  5  5  4  3  2  2  -  -
   17      1,500,000   6  5  5  4  4  3  2  -  -
   18      1,650,000   6  5  5  4  4  3  2  1  -
   19      1,800,000   6  5  5  5  4  3  2  2  -
   20      1,950,000   6  5  5  5  4  4  3  2  -
   21      2,100,000   6  5  5  5  4  4  3  2  1
   22      2,250,000   6  6  5  5  5  4  3  2  2
   23      2,400,000   6  6  6  6  5  4  3  3  2
   24      2,550,000   7  7  6  6  5  5  4  3  2
   25      2,700,000   7  7  6  6  5  5  4  4  3
   26      2,850,000   7  7  7  6  6  5  5  4  3
   27      3,000,000   7  7  7  6  6  5  5  5  4
   28      3,150,000   8  8  7  6  6  6  6  5  4
   29      3,300,000   8  8  7  7  7  6  6  5  5
   30      3,450,000   8  8  8  7  7  7  6  6  5
   31      3,600,000   8  8  8  7  7  7  7  6  6
   32      3,750,000   9  8  8  8  8  7  7  7  6
   33      3,900,000   9  9  9  8  8  8  7  7  7
   34      4,050,000   9  9  9  9  8  8  8  8  7
   35      4,200,000   9  9  9  9  9  9  8  8  8
   36      4,350,000   9  9  9  9  9  9  9  9  9

                   Magic-User    Saving    Throws     Table

 Levels                  1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-24 25-28 29-32 33-36
 Death Ray/ Poison        13   11     9     7     5     4     3     2
 Magic Wands              14   12    10     8     6     4     3     2
 Paralysis/Turn to Stone  13   11     9     7     5     4     3     2
 Breath  Attack           16   14    12    10     8     6     4     2
 Rod / Staff / Spell      15   12     9     6     4     3     2     2

 Class  Details

    Prime Requisite:  A magic-user's prime requisite is  Intelligence.  If  a
magic-user has an Intelligence score of 13-15, the character gains a 5% bonus
to experience points earned in every adventure;  if he has an Intelligence of
16-18, the bonus is 10%.
    Hit Dice:  Roll a 4-sided die  (1d4)  to  determine  a  magic-user's  hit
points.  A  magic-user  starts  with 1d4 (1-4) hit points (plus Constitution
bonus, if any) and gains 1d4 more hit points (plus bonus) with each level of
experience.  One  additional  hit  point  is gained for each level after 9th
   Armor: A  magic-user  cannot  wear  any  kind  of armor,  and cannot use a
    Weapons: A magic-user may only use daggers as weapons. Optionally, at the
DM's discretion,  magic-users can use the staff,  blowgun, flaming oil, holy
water, net, thrown rock, sling, and whip.

                            Special Abilities

   The magic-user's  sole  special  ability is that he can cast magic spells.
The processes of spell book and new spell acquisitions,  as well as  how  the
magic-user memorizes and casts spells, are described in Chapter 3.

                        Higher Experience Levels

    At Name (9th) level or greater, a magic-user is called a wizard (if mate)
or maga (female). Also at Name level, a magic-user may create magical items.
  Upon reaching Name level,  a magic-user may build  a  tower  (if  he  can
afford  to).  A  magic-user  who constructs a tower will usually attract 1d6
(1-6) apprentices,  all magic-users of experience levels 1-3.  The  DM  will
decide  how  many apprentices arrive to serve the wizard,  and should create
names,  backgrounds,  and character sheets for them; they should be complete
  If a Name level magic-user decides to  build  a  tower,  or  to  take  up
regular  residence  in  the home of a ruler who wishes to employ him,  he is
referred to as a  land-owning  magic-user;  otherwise,  he  is  a  traveling
magic-user (even if he actually spends more time in his own home than on the

Land-Owning Magic-Users:
Independent Wizards
  Magic-users who decide to live in their own  strongholds,  regardless  of
their political affiliations or interest in the outer world, are referred to
as independent wizards.  They are commonly  referred  to  and  addressed  as
wizard or maga, whatever their actual titles may be.
  An independent magic-user may build or seize a tower.  By  tradition,  he
need not seek permission from the local ruler beforehand.  If,  however, the
wizard does seek the ruler's permission,  the ruler will probably  give  the
magic-user a lavish gift,  official title to the dominion, and possibly some
sort of official rank of nobility to keep the favor of the character.  (Only
the  most  powerful  of  rulers would dare to offend a magic-user,  whatever
their alignment differences.)
   After the  magic-user  moves  into  his tower,  he may choose to build a
dungeon beneath or near it.  Most wizards and magas employ specialists to do
their  mining  and  engineering,  but  may  decide  to  create  the dungeons
themselves if they know the proper spells.
  Of course,  any  character  building  a  stronghold  could  also  build a
dungeon,  a subterranean  complex  where  prisoners  can  be  kept  and  the
character can perform specific researches in secret. But a wizard can choose
for his dungeon to be different.  If, once one or more levels of the dungeon
are  completed,  the  wizard  leaves  an unguarded opening into the dungeon,
monsters will be attracted and will build lairs. Some wizards encourage this
sort  of  thing  so  that  they  have ready access to a variety of different
monster types  (useful  for  research,  and  for  staying  aware  of  what's
happening in the realms of monsters).
  Such monster-infested dungeons are not looked upon favorably by humans in
the  region.  Dungeons tend to make the locals nervous,  and the monsters in
them often prey on  nearby  human  communities.  Wizards  who  create  these
dungeons need to be aware that low level adventurers may take action against
the monsters of these dungeons,  either to keep the region safe of simply to
fill their own coffers with the monsters' treasure.
  Independent wizards do not usually live in complete solitude. They may or
may  not  interact  with the rulers and nobles of the nations in which they
live,  as they please. They may continue to go on quests and adventures with
their old friends. Other wizards may visit and correspond with them in order
to facilitate magical research and understanding.  They might participate in
the operation of schools of magic. Only the most misanthropic of wizards, or
those  with  much  to  hide,  build their  towers  in the most dangerous and
inaccessible areas and live there alone.

Land-Owning Magic-Users: Magists
  If a land-owning magic-user cannot or does not want to maintain a  tower,
the character may apply for a position as a magist in any existing castle or
stronghold. If the ruler does not have a magist and can afford one, he will
usually  accept  the  application  ...  unless  the  wizard  has  so  vile a
reputation that the ruler cannot trust the wizard.  The magist  advises  the
ruler  in matters involving magic and handles the magical needs of the ruler
and the stronghold.
  To become a magist, the magic-user must first find a ruler who is willing
to hire and support him.  He must negotiate payment and other benefits  with
the  ruler.  (Standard  payment is a minimum of 3,000 gold pieces per month,
with magists above 15th  level  commanding  higher  payment.)  Finally,  the
character must swear an oath of fealty to that ruler to become a magist.
  When the agreements and terms are complete,  the ruler supplies  all  the
magist's needs, including a place to stay in the stronghold (usually a suite
of several rooms), guards and servants, and other agreed-upon benefits (such
as  magical  items,  either to use or as outright gifts).  The ruler usually
pays for magical research costs if the item or spell researched will benefit
the stronghold.  The magist must serve the ruler as ordered in all respects,
but is never required to fight or otherwise be placed in danger.
  A magist may go on normal adventures if the ruler gives.  permission. The
ruler knows that more experience means a  more  powerful  magist,  and  will
usually give permission if no immediate magical needs are pressing.
  The magist is bound by oath not to work  against  the  interests  of  his
ruler.  If  at  some,  time  in the future he finds that he cannot serve the
ruler, he must officially renounce his oath of fealty and depart the ruler's
home.  He cannot oppose his former ruler until he has left the ruler's home.
(If he intends to become an enemy of the ruler,  it's best for him to depart
in secret and send his official notification by proxy.)

Traveling Magic-Users: Magi
  A traveling magic-user of either gender is known as a magus.
  1. A  magus  may  visit any land-owning magic- user to offer to help with
magical research,  If the offer is accepted, items or spells researched will
be completed faster and more efficiently,  as described in Chapter 3.
  2. The magus will attract powerful traveling fighters  and  clerics,  who
offer  to  travel  with  and  help  the  magus in return for pay.  The magus
attracts 1d6 such hirelings.  These hirelings are of levels much higher than
normal (5th level minimum).

  High Experience Levels and Spell Damage
   Here's one final but very important note about high level magic-users:
   Any damage-causing  spell can produce a maximum of 20 dice of damage (of
whatever type is applicable).  Therefore, a 16th level magic-user casting a
fireball spell can deal out 16d6 points of damage,  but a 27th level caster
only inflicts the maximum of 20d6 points of damage.


  Prime Requisite: Dexterity.
  Experience   Bonus:   5%   for    Dexterity    13-15,
  10% for Dexterity 16-18.
  Hit Dice: 1d4 per level up to 9th level. Starting with 10th level, +2 hit
points per level, and Constitution adjustments no longer apply.
    Maximum Level: 36.
    Armor: Leather armor only; shield not permitted.
    Weapons: Any missile weapon; any onehanded melee weapon.

    Special Abilities: At 1st level-Open Locks, Find Traps, Remove Traps, Climb
Walls,  Move  Silently,  Hide  in  Shadows,  Pick Pockets,  Hear Noise,  and
Backstab;  at 4th level-Read any normal language  80%;  at  10th  level-cast
magic-user spells from scrolls (10%  chance of backfire). For the chances of
success for these abilities, see "Special Abilities" below.

  A thief  is  a  human  who  specializes  in  stealth,  lockpicking,  trap
removing,  and other such activities.  As the name indicates,  however, most
characters belonging to the thief c@s do  steal.  (They  rarely  steal  from
their  friends or members of their own groups,  however.  A thief who steals
from friends is usually not permitted to adventure with them ever again!)
  Thieves belong to an organization (sometimes called a Guild).  Every town
has a building, called the Guild Hall, where thieves may live and eat (for a
price,  of course).  Every thief learns " the Arts" (a thief's unique skills;
see "Special Abilities," below) from teachers at the Guild.  Thieves  are  a
normal  part  of  life  in  most campaign worlds because of their unique and
useful skills,  but they are not usually welcome  in  the  better  parts  of
  The thiefs job is to use his special abilities  where  needed.  A  thiefs
skills can be very useful,  and they can be used over and over. For example,
a magic-user may use a spell to open a lock,  but the spell only works once;
a thief may try to open locks whenever desired.  Consequently,  thieves  are
found in most groups of adventurers.
  Most thieves  have  high  Dexterity scores.  Since this can improve their
ability to use missile weapons,  most thieves  use  one  of  more  types  of
missiles.  The  thief  will also find it useful to have a sword or dagger in
situations where he can't avoid close combat.
  Thieves may advance to 36th level.

Class Details

  Prime Requisite: A thief s prime requisite is Dexterity. If a thief has a
Dexterity score of 13- 15,  he gains a 5%  bonus to experience points earned
in every adventure; if his Dexterity is 16- 18, the bonus is 10%.
  Hit Dice:  Roll a 4-sided die (1d4) to determine a thiefs hit  points.  A
thief  starts  with 1d4 (1-4) hit points (plus Constitution bonus,  if any)
and gains 1d4 more hit points (plus bonus) with each  level  of  experience.
Two additional hit points are gained for each level after 9th level.
 Armor: A thief may only wear leather armor, and may not use a shield.
 Weapons: A  thief may use any missile weapon,  and any other weapon usable
with one hand (two-handed weapons are prohibited).

Special Abilities

 Thieves have numerous special abilities.  They receive some of them at 1st
experience  level,  when  they  begin play,  and receive others as they gain
experience levels.
  At 1st experience level,  thieves know the following skills:  Open Locks,
Find and Remove Traps,  Climb Walls,  Move Silently,  Hide in Shadows,  Pick
Pockets,  and  Hear  Noise.  They also learn the skill of Backstabbing.  The
Thief Special Abilities Table shows the development of many  of  the  thiefs
special abilities.
 The column on the left is the thiefs experience level; cross-reference his
level  with the skill he is trying to use.  For instance,  a 6th level thief
using his Climb Walls skill has a 92 % chance.
 Each number  on the table above is the percentage chance that the thief is
successful in using that special ability.  Tell the Dungeon Master  whenever
you want your thief to use a special ability; at the DM's discretion, either
the player or the DM will roll percentile dice (d%).  If the result is equal
to or less than the percentage given, the thiefs attempt is successful.

Descriptions of the Special Abilities
 Open Locks (OL):  With successful use of this special  ability,  and  with
professional  lockpicks (often called "thieves' tools"),  the thief may open
locks. The character may try to use this skill only once per lock. The thief
may  not try again with that particular lock until he gains another level of
experience. Without lockpicks, he may not use this ability.
  Find Traps (FT):  With successful use of this special ability,  the thief
may examine a room or an object and determine  whether  it  is  rigged  with
traps.  He may check only once per trap,  and failure prevents the character
from finding any trap in or on the object searched.  (Since the DM  actually
does  the  rolling,  the  player doesn't know how many traps he's rolling to
find.) If the thief finds a trap,  he may use his Remove  Traps  ability  to
remove or deactivate it.
  Remove Traps (RT): With successful use of this special ability, the thief
may remove or deactivate a trap. He may not roll this ability against a trap
unless the trap has been found.  The thief may try his ability only once per
trap; failure to remove a trap triggers the trap.
  Climb Walls (CW):  With successful use of this special ability, the thief
can climb steep surfaces,  such as sheer cliffs,  walls,  and so forth.  The
chances for success are good, but if failed, the

                    Chapter 2: The Character Classes

                          Thief Experience Table
       Level           XP
           1            0    13     640,000    25   2,080,000
           2        1,200    14     760,000    26   2,200,000
           3        2,400    15     880,000    27   2,320,000
           4        4,800*   16   1,000,000    28   2,440,000
           5        9,600    17   1,120,000    29   2,560,000
           6       20,000    18   1,240,000    30   2,680,000
           7       40,000    19   1,360,000    31   2,800,000
           8       80,000    20   1,480,000    32   2,920,000
           9      160,000    21   1,600,000    33   3,040,000
           10     280,000**  22   1,720,000    34   3,160,000
           11     400,000    23   1,840,000    35   3,280,000
           12     520,000    24   1,960,000    36   3,400,000

  * Thief gains 80%  chance  to  read  any  normal  (nonmagical)  writing,
language, code, or map
  * Thief gains ability to cast magic-user spells from spell  scrolls  (10%
chance that the spell will backfire)

thief slips at the halfway point and falls.  The DM rolls for  success  once
for every 100' climbed.  If the roll is a failure, the thief takes 1-6 (1d6)
points of damage per 10' fallen.  Falling during a 10' climb will inflict  1
point of damage.
 Move Silently (MS):  Successful use of this  special  ability  allows  the
thief  to move silently.  When the thief tries to use this skill,  he always
believes he has been successful,  but a failed roll means that  someone  can
hear his passage.  The DM,  at his discretion, may modify the thiefs roll at
any time:  When he tries moving silently across a field of dried leaves, his
percentage  chance  would  go  down,  while  if  he  does  so  during a loud
tournament, his chance will be greatly enhanced. Note that it doesn't do the
thief  any  good  to  use this skill against someone who is already aware of
 Hide in Shadows (HS):  Successful use of this special ability  means  that
the  thief  moves into and remains in shadows,  making him very hard to see.
While the thief is in shadows,  observers only get a chance to  see  him  if
they look directly at him,  at which time he must roll again;  success means
that he remains unobserved.  While in shadows,  the thief may use  his  Move
Silently  ability,  but  attacking  someone reveals the thief.  If the thief
tries to hide in shadows but fails,  he will not know that his  position  of
concealment is a failure until someone sees him and announces the fact. Note
that if the thief is under direct observation,  he  can't  hide  in  shadows
against the people watching him; they'll be able to follow his progress with
no problem.
  Pick Pockets (PP):  This special ability allows the  character  to  steal
things  from  another  character's person without him noticing.  It's a very
risky skill to use.  If the attempt succeeds,  the thief is able to pick the
other's  pockets  without anyone noticing.  If the roll is a simple failure,
the thief fails to get his hands on  what  he's  seeking.  If  the  roll  is
greater than twice what th thief needs to succeed or an 00 in any case,  the
thief is caught in the act by his intended victim, and possibly others.
  When using  the skill,  subtract 5 %  per level or HD of victim.  (Normal
men-men and women who have no adventuring ability at all and do  not  belong
to any adventuring character class- are treated as being 0 level.)

  Example: A  1st  level  thief  tries  to  pick  the pocket of a 1st level
fighter walking along the street.  His chance is 20%  (normal)  minus  5  (5
times 1),  or 15%.  The DM rolls the percentile dice and rolls a 41. This is
over twice what he needed to roll, so the thief is caught in the act.

  Hear Noise (HN): This special ability gives the thief the ability to hear
faint noises-such as breathing on the other side of the door, of the clatter
of distant footsteps approaching  fast.  The  DM  can  rule  that  any  loud
situation, such as a battle, prevents the thief from using this skill.

                       Thief   Saving   Throws   Table

 Levels                 1-4 5-8 9-12 13-16 17-20 21-24
 Death Ray/Poison        13  11    9     7     5     4
 Magic Wands             14  12   10     8     6     5
 Paralysis/Turn to Stone 13  11    9     7     5     4
 Breath Attack           16  14   12    10     8     6
 Rod/Staff/Spell         15  13   11     9     7     5

 Levels                     25-28    29-32    33-36
 Death Ray/Poison               3        2        2
 Magic Wands                    4        3        2
 Paralysis/Turn to Stone        3        2        2
 Breath Attack                  4        3        2
 Rod/Staff/Spell                4        3        2

                 Thief Special Abilities Table (Percentages)

        Open    Find Remove Climb      Move   Hide in     Pick   Hear
 Level  Locks  Traps  Traps Walls  Silently   Shadows  Pockets  Noise
     1     15     10     10   87         20        10       20     30
     2     20     15     15   88         25        15       25     35
     3     25     20     20   89         30        20       30     40
     4     30     25     25   90         35        24       35     45
     5     35     30     30   91         40        28       4o     50
     6     40     35     34   92         44        32       45     54
     7     45     40     38   93         48        35       50     58
     8     50     45     42   94         52        38       55     62
     9     54     50     46   95         55        41       6o     66
     10    58     54     50   96         58        44       65     70
     11    62     58     54   97         61        47       70     74
     12    66     62     58   98         64        50       75     78
     13    69     66     61   99         66        53       80     81
     14    72     70     64   100        68        56       85     84
     15    75     73     67   101        70        58       90     87
     16    78     76     70   102        72        60       95     90
     17    81     80     73   103        74        62       100    92
     18    84     83     76   104        76        64       105    94
     19    86     86     79   105        78        66       110    96
     20    88     89     82   106        80        68       115    98
     21    90     92     85   107        82        70       120    100
     22    92     94     88   108        84        72       125    102
     23    94     96     91   109        86        74       130    104
     24    96     98     94   110        88        76       135    106
     25    98     99     97   111        89        78       140    108
     26    100    100    100  112        90        80       i45    110
     27    102    101    103  113        91        82       150    112
     28    104    102    106  114        92        84       155    114
     29    106    103    109  115        93        86       160    116
     30    108    104    112  116        94        88       165    118
     31    110    105    115  117        95        90       170    120
     32    112    106    118  118        96        92       175    122
     33    114    107    121  118        97        94       180    124
     34    116    108    124  119        98        96       185    126
     35    118    109    127  119        99        98       190    128
     36    120    110    130  120        100       100      195    130

     Lvl   OL     FT     RT   CW         MS        HS       PP     HN

                        Proper Use of Thief Abilities
 Watch for opportunities to use special abilities,  and  simply  tell  your
Dungeon Master when you want your thief to use one.
  A stuck or exceptionally difficult lock,  carefully hidden trap, slippery
wall, or very faint noise may cause a penalty to be applied to the  normal
chances of successful skill use.  The DM may could assign the task a penalty
of -5%,  -10%,  -20%,  or higher depending on the difficulty of at the task.
If,  after applying such penalties, the  chance of success remains 100% or
greater,  the  DM should adjust it to 99%,  allowing a 1%  minimum chance of
failure in all cases.
 However, the  DM  should not modify Move Silently or Hide in Shadows skill
chances unless 4' the thief is undertaking  actions  that  are  outside  the
ability's  usual  functions  (trying  to move silently while running at full
speed or across floor covered with peanut shells,  hiding when very near  to
torchlight, etc.).

Other Thief Abilities
 Backstabbing: If a thief can sneak up on a victim,  completely  unnoticed,
the  thief may he backstab-if he is using a one-handed melee weapon,  he may
strike at particularly vulnerable , points of his target's body. (Though the
ability  is  called  "backstabbing,"  the  weapon  doesn't  have  on to be a
stabbingweapon. A thief can use this ability with a club, for example.)
 When backstabbing,  the  thief gains a bonus of +4 on the attack roll;  if
the target is hit,  the damage done is twice normal (roll the damage for the
weapon,  multiply the result by two,  and then add any pertinent modifiers).
 If the intended victim sees,  hears,  or is warned of the thiefs approach,
the  thiefs  attack is not a backstab;  it is an ordinary attack,  doing the
damage appropriate for the weapon used.
 When no  battle  is  in  progress,  a  backstab attempt may require a Move
Silently ability check. The DM will make all the necessary decisions on that
 Read Languages:  When the thief reaches 4th level,  he gains an 80% chance
to  read any normal writing or language (including simple codes,  etc.) dead
languages,  treasure maps, and so on, but not magical writings). If he tries
but  fails to read a piece of writing,  he must gain at least one experience
level before trying to read it again.
 Cast Spells  From  Magic-User  Scrolls:  At 10th level,  a thief gains the
ability to cast magic-user to spells from spell scrolls.  However,  there is
always he a 10%  chance that the spell will backfire, creating an unexpected
result,  because  of  the  thiefs  s.  imperfect  understanding  of  magical
writings.  This  ability  only  allows  thieves to cast spells from existing
magic scrolls, not to write their own.
Higher Experience Levels
  When a  thief  reaches  Name  (9th)  level,  he  is called a master thief
(whether male or female).
Land-Owning Thieves
  Name level thieves may construct a hide-out (a fortified house in a  city,
a  cave network,  etc.).  A thief who has constructed a hide-out will attract
2d6 1st level apprentice thieves, who come to the learn from a master. These
will  generally  (though not always) be loyal to the thief,  but  will not
automatically be replaced by others if they die or leave; the character will
have to recruit new thieves himself.
     At this point,  a player character thief may want to consider  setting
up a Thieves' Guild.
    A thief who wishes to settle must contact the  Thieves'  Guild  of  the
region where he wants to settle.  If the thief has not been an enemy of this
Guild (or,  even if he has,  if he  can  persuade  or  bribe  the  Guild  to
cooperate), the Guild will help establish the thief as a guildmaster. He may
be the master of a new branch of the Guild,  an expansion branch  in  a  new
neighborhood,  or  of  an established Guild whose leader has stepped down or
    The Dungeon Master will describe how many new thieves arrive at the new
Guild,  or will describe how the existing Guild is currently organized.  The
Guild will generate income from its illegal activities.
    The character can, at some point, ask for control of a larger branch of
the  Guild  (this  is  recommended  when  18th  level  is reached),  and may
eventually become a powerful official in the Guild Headquarters.
    Skilled (high level) thieves are always needed for difficult and unique
adventures, and the Guildmaster thief is the person adventurers contact when
such  jobs are available.  You,  as the Guildmaster,  may choose to take the
jobs or allow one or more of the Guild members to  have  them-but  you  have
first choice, in any case.

Traveling Thieves
    A Name level thief who chooses not to  establish  any  hide-out  or  any
station  in the local Guild authority is a traveling thief,  known also as a
  1. A rogue must remain a member of a Thieves' Guild, though he need visit
the Guild only once a year.
  2. Once  a  character  becomes a rogue,  the character can never become a
Guildmaster in an established branch of the  Guild.  However,  if  he  later
decides to settle down, and if the Guild-master permits, he may set up a new
branch of the Guild where none currently exists.
  3. A  rogue  has  a  chance  (checked  by  the  DM once per game week) of
discovering treasure maps or rumors about the location of  great  treasures.
This chance is based on him keeping his ear to the thieves' grapevine.
  4 . Likewise, the rogue may visit any branch of the Thieves' Guild to see
the Guildmaster and learn local information,  tips, and rumors- if the local
Guildmaster is willing to suffer his  presence  in  the  territory.  If  the
Guildmaster  is  willing,  it  will  only  be  under  the condition that the
character hire assistance from several low  level  thieves  on  a  temporary

  Prime Requisite: Strength. Other Requirements: Constitution 9 or better.
  Experience  Bonus:  5  %   for   Strength   13-15,
10% for Strength 16-18.
  Hit Dice: 1d8 per level up to 9th level. Starting with 10th level, + 3 hp
per level and Constitution adjustments no longer apply.
  Maximum Level: 12.
  Armor: Any; shields permitted.
  Weapons: Any Small or Medium  melee  weapon;  short  bows  and  crossbows
permitted, but longbows forbidden.
  Special Abilities:  Fighter Maneuvers (Lance Attack  and  Set  Spear  vs.
Charge maneuvers at 1st level;  at 660,000 XP, Fighter Combat Options); half
damage from spells at 1,400,000 XP;  infravision;  extra  languages  (dwarf,
gnome,  goblin,  kobold);  1  in  3  chance to detect traps,  sliding walls,
sloping corridors, new construction.

  A dwarf is short and stocky,  standing about 4' tall and  weighing  about
150  pounds.  Male  dwarves  wear  long  beards.  Their  skin  is  ruddy  or
earth-colored and their hair is dark brown,  gray,  or black.  'Stubborn but
practical, dwarves are fond of good food and drink. They value craftsmanship
and love gold. Dwarves are sturdy fighters and are resistant to magic.
  Although the dwarf class is different from  the  fighter  class  in  many
ways, their tasks are the same. Dwarves are only able to attain a maximum of
12 experience levels at best.  However,  this  is  balanced  by  the  dwarfs
special  abilities,  such  as  the  ability  to  see in the dark,  detection
abilities,  and better saving throws.  Dwarves are formidable  fighters,  no
matter what their level.
   Dwarven families are organized in Clans.

Class Details

  Prime Requisite:  A dwarfs prime requisite is Strength.  If a dwarf has a
Strength  score  of  13- 15,  the character gains a 5 %  bonus to experience
points earned in every adventure;  if his Strength is 16-18,  the  bonus  is
   Minimum Scores: A dwarf character must have a Constitution score of 9 or
greater when first played.
  Hit Dice:  Roll an 8-sided dice (1d8) to determine a dwarfs hit points. A
dwarf starts with 1d8 (1-8) hit points (plus Constitution bonus, if any) and
gains 1d8 more hit points (plus bonus) with each experience level. Three hit
points are gained per level after 9th level.
  Armor: A dwarf may wear any kind of armor, and may use a shield.
   Weapons: A  dwarf  may use any small or medium melee weapon.  (If you're
unsure as to whether a weapon is small or medium,  see the Weapons Table  in
Chapter 4.) They may not use longbows, but can use short bows and crossbows.

Special Abilities

Special Attacks
  Dwarves are good fighters.  Like fighters, they know the Lance Attack and
Set Spear vs. Charge maneuvers.
Fighter Combat Options
  When the  dwarfs  experience  points total reaches 660,000,  he gains the
Fighter Combat Options (see "Combat Maneuvers" in Chapter 8).
  With the  multiple attacks combat option,  the dwarf can make two attacks
at 660,000 experience points, and three at 2,200,000 experience
points. He can use the smash and parry combat options,  but cannot use  the
disarm  option  against a giant-sized opponent.  (A giant-sized opponent is
any monster which is  described  as  being  a  giant,  a  giant  animal,  a
gargantua, or is otherwise in the DM's opinion enormous.)

Dwarf Experience Table
     Level          XP           Attack Rank
         1               0
         2           2,200
         3           4,400
         4           8,800
         5          17,000
         6          35,000
         7          70,000
         8         140,000
         9         270,000
         10        400,000
         1я21 я0       530,000
         12        660,000*             C
                   800,000              D
                 1,000,000              E
                 1,200,000              F
                 1,400,000**            G
                 1,600,000              H
                 1,800,000              I
                 2,000,000              J
                 2,200,000t             K
                 2,400,000              L
                 2,600,000              M

  * Gain Fighter Combat Options. Two attacks are possible at this level.
  ** Automatically   takes   half   damage  from  damage-causing  spell  or
spell-like effect.
  t Three attacks per round possible at this level.

    Dwarf Saving Throws Table

Levels                  1-3   4-6  7-9  10-12
Death Ray or Poison       8     6    4      2
Magic Wands               9     7    5      3
Paralysis/Turn to Stone  10     8    6      4
Dragon Breath            13    10    7      4
Rod/Staff/Spell*         12     9    6      3

    * At  1,400,000  XP,  dwarves  automatically  take  only half damage from
spells, or one-quarter damage if the saving throw is successful.

  Special   Defenses
  Experienced dwarves become  more  resistant  to  magic.  When  the  dwarf
reaches  the 1,400,000 experience point mark,  the dwarf automatically takes
only half damage from any damage- causing spell of spell-like  effect  (such
as from a magical item or strange monster powers such as beholders' eyes but
not including dragon's breath).  Divide the rolled damage  by  2  and  round
down.  If the effect allows a saving throw, a successful roll indicates that
he only takes 1/4 damage;  divide the rolled damage by 4 and round down. (If
the  result  is 1/2 point of damage or less,  the character takes 1 point of

  Infravision is  the  ability to see heat (and the lack of heat).  Dwarves
have infravision in addition to normal sight and can see 60'  in  the  dark.
Infravision does not work in the presence of normal and magical light.  With
infravision, warm things appear fed, and cold things appear blue. A creature
could be seen as a red shape,  leaving faint reddish footprints. A cold pool
of water would seem a deep blue color.

  Characters with infravision can even see  items  or  creatures  the  same
temperature  as  the surrounding air (such as a table or a skeleton),  since
air flow will inevitably show the viewer their borders,  outlining them in a
faint  fighter-blue  tone.  Until they move,  they will be very faint to the
eye;  once they start moving, they become blurry but very obvious light-blue

 Infravision isn't  good  enough  to  read  by.  A  character  can  use his
infravision to recognize an individual only if they are within 10' distance
... unless the individual is  very,  very  distinctive
(for example, 8' tall or walking with a crutch).

 In addition  to  Common  and  alignment  tongues,  a  dwarf  can speak the
languages of the dwarf, gnome, goblin, and kobold races.

 Dwarves can  sometimes  detect  traps  (specifically,  traps  built   into
stone-work  or  heavy  construction,  not  other  types  of  traps  such  as
rope-traps in the forest or spring-out needles built into  a  jewelry  box);
they   can   also   detect   sliding   walls,  sloping  corridors,  and  new

  If your dwarf character wants to search for such things in an area,  tell
the DM.  You have 1 chance in 3 to find them.  The DM will roll 1d6, and a I
or  2  will  indicate success if there is anything to find;  a result of 3-6
means your dwarf detects nothing.  You may check once for each trap, sliding
wall,  sloping corridor,  or new construction.  You must tell the DM if  you
want to look for anything; the detection is never automatic.

Higher Experience Levels
   When a  dwarf  reaches Name (9th) level,  he is usually referred to as a
dwarf lord (or dwarf lady, in the case of female dwarves).
  He may build a stronghold. Unless he has forsaken his dwarven Clan and is
living among humans,  it should be an underground cavern complex located in
either mountains or hills.  (If he is living among humans, he may build any
sturdy stone dwelling in the human fashion instead, but will still want for
there to be an underground complex connected to it.) The
character may hire only dwarven mercenaries, but may hire specialists and
hirelings of other races.

  Prime Requisites:   Strength   and   Intelligence.   Other  Requirements:
Intelligence score of 9 or more.
  Experience Bonus:  5  %  for Strength of 13 or better and Intelligence of
13-15, 10% for Strength of 13 or better and Intelligence of 16-18.
  Hit Dice:  1d6 per level up to 9th level.  10th level, + 1 hit point, and
Constitution adjustment does not apply.
  Maximum Level: 10.
  Armor: All; shields permitted.
  Weapons: Any.
  Special Abilities: Fighter Maneuvers (Lance Attack, Set Spear vs. Charge;
at 850,000 XP,  Combat Options for Fighters); half damage from dragon breath
at 1,600,000 XP;  infravision; extra languages (elf, gnoll, hobgoblin, orc);
1  in  3  chance  to  detect  secret  and  hidden  doors;  immunity to ghoul
paralysis; magic spells.

 An elf is slender and graceful,  with delicate features and pointed  ears.
An elf is 5' to 5'1/2' tall, and weighs about 120 pounds.
 Elves are able to use all types of armor and weapons, and can cast magical
 Few elves are adventurers;  most prefer to spend their time  feasting  and
frolicking  in woodland glades.  Except for adventurers,  elves rarely visit
the cities of man.
 Elves are  fascinated  by  magic and never grow tired of collecting spells
and magical items, especially if the items are beautifully crafted.
 Elves are similar to both fighters and magic- users.  Read the description
of the fighter class for some tips on playing a fighter-type character,  but
remember that the elf does not have as many hit points as a fighter. The elf
can best perform as a fighter if he  is  undamaged  or  only  slightly  hurt
before entering a battle; otherwise, he should stay back and help with magic
spells, as a magic-user does.
 An elf  may only advance to 10th level.  However,  this is balanced by the
elf's  special  abilities,  especially  the  combination  of  fighting   and
spellcasting.  This  combination makes an elf far more powerful than a human
of the same level.
 Elves only  employ  other  elves as mercenary fighters,  although they may
hire specialists and hirelings of any race.
 Eleven families live in Clans.

Class Details

 Prime Requisite:   Elves   have   two   prime   requisites:  Strength  and
Intelligence. If an elf has a score of 13 or more in both ability scores, he
gains a 5%  bonus to experience points earned.  If his Intelligence score is
16-18 and his Strength is 13 or more, the bonus is 10%.
 Minimum Scores:  An elf character must have Intelligence 9 or greater when
first played.
 Hit Dice:  Roll  a 6-sided die (1d6) to determine an elf s hit points.  An
elf starts with 1d (1-6) hit point on bonus, if any) and gains 1d6 more  hit
points (plus bonus) with each level of experience. Two additional hit points
are gained at 10th level.
  Armor: An elf may wear any kind of armor, and may use a shield.
  Weapons: An elf may use any weapon.

Special Abilities

Special Attacks
  After reaching  maximum  level  (10th),  elves may continue to improve in
combat ability.  This is a slow process,  however, due to the fact that they
must  divide  their  training time between fighting and magic.  Elves always
know the following fighter maneuvers: Set Spear vs. Attack; Lance Attack.

Fighter Combat Options
   When the   character's  experience  point  total  reaches  850,000,  the
character receives the Combat Options for fighters (see their description on
page 104,  under "Combat Maneuvers"). With multiple attacks, two attacks are
possible at 850,000  experience  points,  and  three  attacks  at  2,600,000
experience points;  the elf never gains four attacks per round.  The elf may
use the smash, parry, and disarm options as described in the text.

Special Defenses
  Experienced elves  become  more resistant to dragon breath.  When the elf
reaches the 1,600,000 experience points mark,  he automatically  takes  only
half damage  from  any  breath  weapon  (most  notably  dragon  breath,  but
including all sorts of breath weapon attacks). If the breath allows a saving
throw,  a successful roll indicates that  the  elf  takes  only  one-quarter
damage. When modifying damage sustained, always round down. If the result is
1/2 point of damage or less, the character takes 1 point of damage.

   Elves have infravision identical to that of dwarves. See the description
of infravision in the explanation of the dwarfs special abilities.

  In addition to the languages of all characters-the Common  and  alignment
tongues-an elf can speak the languages of the elf, gnoll, hobgoblin, and orc

  All elves  can find secret and hidden doors better than other characters.
You must tell the DM if you want to look for secret and  hidden  doors;  the
detection is never automatic.

Immnunity to Ghoul Paralysis
  All elves are naturally immune to the paralyzing attacks of ghouls. Other
types  of  paralysis,  such  as attacks from a carrion crawler or gelatinous
cube, do affect them normally.

  Elves can  use  magic-user  spells just as magic- users can,  though they
receive fewer and lower level spells. Spell are described in Chapter 3.

 Higher Experience Levels
  When the elf reaches Name (9th) level,  he is often referred to as a lord
wizard (if male) or lady maga (if female).
  He may build a special kind  of  stronghold  deep  in  the  forest.  This
stronghold  must  pleasingly blend with its surroundings,  usually a natural
site of great beauty.  Typical locations are the tops of great trees, on the
edges of quiet vales,  or behind rushing waterfalls. Because of the effort 1
to beautify the work,  the structure costs as much 2 as similar work if made
of stone.

  When the stronghold is completed, the character will develop a friendship
with the animals 3 2 of the forest (birds, rabbits, squirrels, foxes, beefs,
etc.).  All  normal  animals  within  five  miles  of the stronghold will be
friendly toward the elves dwelling there.  Animals will be able to  warn  of
approaching  strangers,  carry  news  of  events,  deliver short messages to
nearby places,  etc.  In return for these services,  the animals will expect
the elves to help and protect them.

Elf Experience Table
                          Attack         Spells / Level
  Level         XP        Rank          1   2   3  4   5
       1              0                 1   -   -  -   -
       2          4,000                 2   -   -  -   -
       3          8,000                 2   1   -  -   -
       4         16,000                 2   2   -  -   -
       5         32,000                 2   2   1  -   -
       6         64,000                 2   2   2  -   -
       7        120,000                 3   2   2  1   -
       8        250,000                 3   3   2  2   -
       9        400,000                 3   3   3  2   1
      10        600,000    C            3   3   3  3   2
                850,000*   D
              1,100,000    E
              1,350,000    F
              1,600,000**  G
              1,850,000    H
              2,100,000    I
              2,350,000    J
              2,600,000t   K
              2,850,000    L
              3,100,000    M

  * Gain the Fighter Combat Options. Two attacks per found possible at this
  ** Automatically takes half damage from any breath weapon.
  t Three attacks per round possible at this level.

Elf  Saving   Throws   Table

Levels                  1-3  4-6  7-9  10
Death Ray/Poison         12   8      4   2
Magic Wands              13   10     7   4
Paralysis/Turn to Stone  13   10     7   4
Breath  Attack*          15   11     7   3
Rod/Staff/Spell          15   11     7   3

  * At  1,600,000  XP,  elves  take  half  damage  from breath weapons,  or
one-quarter damage if the saving throw is successful.


  Prime Requisite: Strength and Dexterity. Other Requirements: Dexterity of
9 or better, Constitution of 9 or better.
  Experience Bonus: 5 % for either Strength or Dexterity of 13 or more, 10%
for both Strength and Dexterity of 13 or more.
  Hit Dice: 1d6 per level up to 8th level.
  Maximum Level: 8.
  Armor: Any;  shield is permitted; armor must be designed specifically for
      Weapons: Any Small melee weapon; short bow; light crossbow.
  Special Abilities:  Fighter Maneuver (Set Spear vs.  Charge);  at 900,000
XP, Fighter Combat Options); Combat Bonuses (- 2 AC vs. monsters larger than
man-size,  + 1 to attack roll  with  missile  weapons,  +  1  to  Individual
Initiative);  half damage from spells at 300,000 XP, half damage from dragon
breath at 2,100,000 XP;  90%  chance to hide motionless  in  woodlands,  33%
chance to hide motionless in dimly lit building interiors.

  A halfling  is a short demihuman,  and looks much like a human child with
slightly pointed ears.  A halting stands about 3' tall and  weighs  about  60
pounds. Halflings rarely have beards. Halflings are outgoing but not unusually
brave, seeking treasure as a way to gain the comforts of home, which they so
dearly love.  Halflings prefer to live in pleasant areas of fair countryside
near rolling hills and gentle streams.  When  not  working  or  adventuring,
halflings  will  spend  most  of their time eating,  drinking,  talking with
friends,  and relaxing.  Their communities  are  called  shires,  and  their
recognized spokesman is called a Sheriff. Halting families live in Clans.

  Halflings are  woodland  folk,  and usually get along well with elves and
dwarves.  They have special abilities  in  the  outdoors.  Halflings  behave
similarly to fighters and dwarves. A halfling's saving throws are as good as
those of dwarves. Halflings may only advance to 8th level. This limitation is
balanced by their woodland abilities, saving throws, and combat bonuses.

Class Details
  Prime Requisite:  A  halting  has  two  prime  requisites:  Strength  and
Dexterity. If either of these ability scores is 13 or greater, the character
gains a 5 % bonus to experience points earned in every adventure. If both of
these scores are 13 of greater, the experience points bonus is 10%.
   Minimum Scores: A halting character must have a score of 9 or greater in
both Dexterity and Constitution.
  Hit Dice: Roll a 6-sided die (1d6) to determine a halfling's hit points. A
halting  starts with 1d6 (1-6) hit points (plus Constitution bonus,  if any)
and gains 1d6 more hit points (plus bonus) with each level of experience.
  Armor: A  halfling  may  wear  any  kind of armor,  and may use a shield.
However,  their armor and shields must be specially  made  for  their  small
size. Even dwarf-sized armor is too large for them.
  Weapons: A halting may use any Small melee weapon and may use short  bows
and  light cross-bows.  (if you're unsure whether a weapon is Small or not,
see the Weapons Table found in Chapter 4.)

Special Abilities

Combat      Bonuses
All  halflings  gain  the  following  bonuses   when
in    combat.

Halfling Combat Bonuses Table
  - 2 bonus to armor class when attacked by creatures larger than man-sized
(i.e., an AC of 6 becomes a 4)
  + 1 bonus to the attack roll when using any missile weapon
  + 1  bonus  to  individual  initiative  (see  Chapter  8  for  details on
  A creature  is  larger  than man-sized when it is referred to as "giant,"
"gargantuan," or "enormous" in a monster description.  It is likewise larger
than  man-sized if it is a real-world creature which the DM considers bigger
than a man (for example, a horse). As a rule of thumb, any non- human-shaped
creature  whose size is not otherwise given in a description can be presumed
to be larger than man-sized if it has 4 or more HD.

Special     Attacks
  In combat,  a  halting  may  use  the Set Spear vs.  Charge maneuver,  as
described in Chapter 8 under "Combat  Maneuvers."  They  are  too  small  to
utilize the Lance Attack maneuver, however.

       Halting Experience Table
           Level         XP     Rank
              1           0
              2       2,000
              3       4,000
              4       8,000
              5      16,000
              6      32,000
              7      64,000
              8     120,000      A
                    300,000*     B
                    600,000      C
                    900,000**    D
                  1,200,000      E
                  1,500,000      F
                  1,800,000      G
                  2,100,000t     H
                  2,400,000      I
                  2,700,000      J
                  3,000,000tt    K

  * Automatically  takes  half  damage  from  any  damage-causing  spell or
spell-like effect.
  ** Gains  the  Fighter Combat Options.  Two attacks per round possible at
this level.
  t Automatically takes half damage from any breath weapon.
  tt Three attacks per round possible at this level.

Haling Saving Throws Table

Levels                   1-3   4-6  7-8
Death Ray/Poison           8     5    2
Magic Wands                9     6    3
Paralysis/Turn to Stone   10     7    4
Breath Attack*            13     9    5
Rod/Staff/Spell**         12     8    4

    * At 2,  100,000 XP,  halflings take half damage from breath weapons,  or
 one-quarter damage if the saving throw is successful.
    ** At 300,000 XP,  halflings take half damage from spells,  or one-quarter
 damage if the saving throw is successful.

    Fighter Combat Options
  When the halfling's experience point total reaches 900,000,  he gains  the
Fighter  Combat  Options on page 104.  For the multiple attacks option,  two
attacks are possible at 900,000 experience  points,  and  three  attacks  at
3,000,000 experience points. The halting can use the smash and parry options
as described,  but cannot use the disarm option effectively against a giant-
sized opponent.

Special    Defenses
  Experienced halflings become more resistant r damage if the to both magic
and  breath  weapons.  When the halting reaches the 300,000 experience point
the  saving  mark,  he  automatically  takes  only  half  damage  from   any
damage-causing spell or spell-like effect (such as from a magical item).  If
the effect allows a saving throw,  a successful roll indicates that he takes
only 1/4 damage.
  In addition,  when the halting reaches  the  2,100,000  experience  point
mark,  he  likewise automatically takes only half damage from breath weapons
(most notably dragon breath,  but  including  all  sorts  of  breath  weapon
attacks),  and takes only 1/4 damage if he successfully makes a saving throw
(if the attack allows one).
  When modifying  sustained  damage,  always  round fractions down.  If the
result is 1/2point of damage or less, the character takes 1 point of damage.

Woodland     Abilities
  Outdoors, halflings are difficult to spot, having the ability to hide in
woods of underbrush. In such cover, they have a 90 % chance to remain unseen
(the  DM  will  roll).  Halflings can even hide in building interiors such as
dungeons,  though not with as much success. In such situations, if a halting
finds some deep shadows or cover to hide in,  his chance drops to 33%; if he
cannot find shadows or cover, he has no chance at all.
  This ability  is  not  the  same  as  the thiefs Move Silently or Hide in
Shadows abilities.  To use his ability, the halting must stay motionless. If
he tries to move to another site, anyone can see him.
 When your halfling uses this ability, inform the DM. He'll roll percentile
dice  (d%)  for  the  halfling.  On a roll of go or less,  the halfling will
remain unnoticed.  On a 91 or greater, observers with a chance to detect the
halfling  will do so.  In a dungeon or other building interior,  the DM will
roll d%.  On a roll of 33 or less,  the halfling remains undetected; on a 34
or greater, an observer who has a chance to detect him will do so.
  Indoors, a  light  bright  enough  to  banish  shadows   and   illuminate
everything well (such as  magical  light)  will  ruin  the  hiding  attempt.
Naturally,  if the halting character is himself carrying a light, it will be
impossible for him to hide.

Higher Experience Levels

  A halting  reaching  8th  experience  level is usually referred to by the
title of sheriff.  In your campaign, this may be a merely honorary title, or
the  DM  may  choose  to  have  the halfling character be elected to a local
sheriff's position.
  Regardless of  his  experience  level,  a halfling may build a stronghold
whenever he has the money and the interest.  The stronghold will  attract  a
whole community of other halflings if constructed in a place suited to their

Druid (Optional)

  Prime Requisite: Wisdom. Other Requirements: Neutral alignment.
  Experience Bonus: 5 % for Wisdom 13-15, 10% for Wisdom 16-18.
  Hit Dice:  Starting  with  10th  level,  +  1  hit  point per level,  and
Constitution adjustments do not apply.
  Maximum Level:  36;  Druid must challenge and defeat another Druid of the
newly- attained experience level starting at 30th level.
  Armor: Leather armor; shield permitted if made only of wood and leather.
  Weapons: Any non-edged/non-piercing weapon made with no metal.
  Special Abilities: Spells (both druidic and clerical).

  A Neutral  cleric of 9th to 29th level may choose to study nature instead
of remaining among "civilized" areas.  If he does so,  he changes  character
class and becomes a druid.  To become a druid, the cleric must find and live
in a woodland home,  meditating for one to four  (1d4,  rolled  by  the  DM)
  During that time,  a higher level druid (usually 25th level  of  greater)
will find the cleric,  test him for worthiness, and teach him the principles
of druidic philosophy and magic.  (The DM may prefer to handle all  that  in
the  background,  or to make a protracted role-playing adventure out of it.)
The new druid may then join the realm of the druids.
  A druid is pure Neutral, never Lawful or Chaotic. The druid devotes his
life to the balance of all things and to the study of nature.
  Druid items  and  equipment  are  all  made of items that were once alive
(leather, wood,  etc.).  "Dead"  things  that  have  never  been  alive  are
repulsive to the druid;  the character simply won't want  to  use  or  touch
them.  However, the character should not object if others use "dead" things.
Thus,  a druid can be a challenging character to play,  but the role can  be
  Druids, unlike  clerics,  have no power to turn undead and so have reason
to fear undead monsters.  They may contact town churches if undead monsters
threaten their realms.
  Every druid lives in, protects, and tends a section of woodlands. (Druids
must  live in a nature setting;  they cannot live in a city or town.) Druids
do not  think  of  themselves  as  owners,  but  rather  as  caretakers,  of
wilderness.  Nearly  every  tree  in every woodland is cared for by a druid.
Although minor damage to  the  woods  is  a  fact  of  life,  druids  punish
deliberate  evil destruction of trees or nature.  Even Chaotic monsters know
this, and avoid harming things of the woods lest they incur the wrath of the
local druid.
  The DM and players should be sure not to abuse this protective role.  For
example,  a  party foraging for food would not be attacked by a druid unless
they killed more animals than they could eat, wantonly destroyed trees, etc.
  The battles of Law and Chaos are not the affairs of the druids,  and they
may simply watch such encounters from afar, helping neither side.

When characters perform good deeds in the woodlands,  such as curing wounded
animals,  this  does  not  make  the druid automatically friendly.  However,
assistance in fighting a huge disaster-such as  a  magical  storm  or  major
forest  fire-could  earn  the  gratitude and possible friendship of a druid.
Should the druid change alignment, he will retain all the clerical abilities
and clerical spells which druids can use (but will not regain his ability to
turn undead);  he will lose all  druid  benefits  including  druidic  spells
unless  he returns to Neutral alignment.  Druids have unusual abilities that
help them in their woodland role,  but they  also  have  many  restrictions.
These are described below.

Class Details
  Prime Requisite:  A druid's prime requisite is Wisdom.  If a druid has  a
Wisdom  score  of 13-15 the character gains a 5%  bonus to experience points
earned; if his Wisdom is 16-18, he earns a 10% bonus to experience points.
  Hit Dice: A character cannot become a druid until he has reached at least
Name (9th) experience level as a cleric.  Therefore,  from then on,  he will
receive only 1 hit point per experience level gained after 9th level.
  Armor: The druid may not wear metal armor or use metal items. He can wear
leather armor and shields made of wood and leather.
  Weapons: Druids,  like clerics,  may not use piercing or cutting weapons;
and  even  of the weapon types they can use,  they may not have weapons with
metal parts.  He can commission craftsmen to  make  all-wooden  versions  of
appropriate  weapons;  they  cost  50%  more  than  their counterparts,  but
otherwise behave identically.

Abilities and Restrictions

Druid Spells

  Druids can cast any spells that clerics can (except  those  which  affect
good or evil, as described below). Druids also have access to a special list
of druid spells, which normal clerics cannot learn or cast. The druid is not
able  to cast more spells per day than a cleric,  but he can use spells from
both cleric and druid spell lists.  The principles of clerical  and  druidic
magic and the lists of spells are found in Chapter 3.
  A druid cannot cast any spell that affects good or evil (protection  from
evil or dispel evil,  for example).  He must live in a woodland home, rather
than in a town  or  city.  He  may  visit  a  city  (though  he  won't  feel
comfortable there), and he will always prefer to sleep in the wilderness- in
a cave or other natural shelter if the weather is bad.

Higher Experience Levels

  Druids at Name (9th) level or above receive the title of  druid,  whether
male  or  female.  There are only nine druids of 30th level,  seven of 31st,
five of 32nd, four of 33rd, three of 34th, two of 35th, and one of 36th (the
Great Druid).
  When the character reaches 30th level,  he must find and challenge one of
the nine 30th level druids; they will only fight with magic and
unarmed combat,  as weapons are not allowed.  if the player character loses,
he  stays  at  29th level,  losing enough experience points that he is 1 ex-
perience point short of 30th level.  Once he's regained 30th level,  he  may
try again, but cannot issue another challenge until three months have passed
since his first challenge.

                         Druid   Experience    Table

          Level       XP       1   2   3   4   5   6   7

          9         200,000    3   3   3   2   -   -   -
          10        300,000    4   4   3   2   1   -   -
          11        400,000    4   4   3   3   2   -   -
          12        500,000    4   4   4   3   2   1   -
          13        600,000    5   5   4   3   2   2   -
          14        700,000    5   5   5   3   3   2   -
          15        800,000    6   5   5   3   3   3   -
          16        900,000    6   5   5   4   4   3   -
          17      1,000,000    6   6   5   4   4   3   1
          18      1,100,000    6   6   5   4   4   3   2
          19      1,200,000    7   6   5   4   4   4   2
          20      1,300,000    7   6   5   4   4   4   3
          21      1,400,000    7   6   5   5   5   4   3
          22      1,500,000    7   6   5   5   5   4   4
          23      1,600,000    7   7   6   6   5   4   4
          24      1,700,000    8   7   6   6   5   5   4
          25      1,800,000    8   7   6   6   5   5   5
          26      1,900,000    8   7   7   6   6   5   5
          27      2,000,000    8   8   7   6   6   6   5
          28      2,100,000    8   8   7   7   7   6   5
          29      2,200,000    8   8   7   7   7   6   6
          30      2,300,000    8   8   8   7   7   7   6
          31      2,400,000    8   8   8   8   8   7   6
          32      2,500,000    9   8   8   8   8   7   7
          33      2,600,000    9   9   8   8   8   8   7
          34      2,700,000    9   9   9   8   8   8   8
          35      2,800,000    9   9   9   9   9   8   8
          36      2,900,000    9   9   9   9   9   9   9

  Druid Saving Throws Table

  levels                    9-12  13-16 17-20  21-24 25-28 29-32 33-36
  Death Ray/ Poison            7     6      5      4     3     2     2
  Magic  Wands                 8     7      6      5     4     3     2
  Paralysis/Turn to Stone     10     8      6      5     4     3     2
  Dragon Breath               12     10     8      6     4     3     2
  Rod/Staff/Spell             11     9      7      5     4     3     2

 Mystic (Optional)

    Prime Requisite:  Strength and Dexterity.  Other Requirements: Wisdom and
Dexterity scores of 13 or better.
  Experience Bonus: 5 % for Strength 13-15, 10% for Strength 16-18.
  Hit Dice: 1d6 per level up to 9th level. Starting with 10th level, +2 hit
points per level, and Constitution adjustments no longer apply.
  Maximum Level: 16.
  Armor: None; shield not permitted.
  Weapons:      Any.
  Special Abilities:  AC bonuses, increased movement, and martial arts (see
Mystic Special Abilities Table);  (at  9th  level)  Set  Spear  vs.  Charge,
Fighter Combat Options; Acrobatics; thief abilities; mystic abilities.

  Mystics are monastic humans who follow a strict discipline of meditation,
denial,  seclusion,  and mastery of the human body.  Mystics are skilled  in
unarmed combat: They live in cloisters, or monastic communities.
  Mystics adventure  to gain spiritual growth and learn the lessons of life
outside the cloister.  They rarely adventure with other mystics; they prefer
to  attach  themselves to adventuring parties consisting of many different
types of adventurers.
  Mystics receive experience from treasure only if they donate  it  to  the
needy. Also, they must donate (tithe) ten percent of their treasure to their
  A mystic's  oath  is his bond.  He must be true to his oath and strive to
repay all debts.  Should he forswear himself (break an oath he has made), he
is expelled from the cloister, may not gain any new experience levels, loses
one level per year away from the cloister,  and  may  not  join  any  other,
similar,  cloister.  The  DM may allow him a grand quest to regain his honor
and his standing in the cloister.
Most mystics (75% ) are
  Lawful, though other alignments are represented.  All are utterly devoted
to  the mystic discipline,  which is neither good nor evil,  similar in that
respect to druid philosophy. However, the mystics rely on innerstrength, and
believe  in extraordinary but non- magical powers (rather than the powers of
nature, as the druids do).
  Mystics can often be recognized by their robes or other unusual garb, but
another distinctive feature is their salute.  Upon meeting another  creature
presumed to be peaceful,  the mystic raises a fist, covers it with the other
hand,  and bows slightly.  This symbolizes greetings (the bow), readiness to
fight if necessary (the fist), but peaceful intentions (the covered fist).

            Mystic Experience Table
         Level        XP
             1             0
             2         2,000
             3         4,000
             4         8,000
             5        16,000
             6        32,000
             7        64,000
             8       120,000
             9       240,000
            10       360,000
            11       480,000
            12       600,000
            13       720,000
            14       840,000
            15       960,000
            16     1,080,000

Class Details

  Prime Requisite:  The  mystic  has  two  prime  requisites,  Strength and
Dexterity.  But since he must have a score of at least 13 in Dexterity to be
a  mystic  in the first place,  it is his Strength score that determines his
bonus to experience. If a mystic has a Strength score of 13-15 the character
gains  a  5 %  bonus to experience points earned in every adventure;  if his
Strength is 16-18, he earns a 10% bonus to experience points.
  Minimum Scores:  A  mystic  character must have scores of 13 or better in
both his Wisdom and Dexterity abilities.
  Hit Dice:  Roll a 6-sided die (1d6) to determine a mystic's hit points. A
mystic starts with 1d6 (1-6) hit points (plus Constitution  bonus,  if  any)
and  gains  1d6  more hit points (plus bonus) with each level of experience.
Two hit points are gained for every level beyond 9th level.
  Armor: Mystics  can  never wear armor of any type,  nor can they ever use
protective magical devices (such as rings, cloaks, etc.); they rely on their
discipline for protection.
  Weapons: Mystics are trained to use all  weapons,  but  not  all  mystics
carry  them;  higher level mystics especially travel unarmed,  or armed only
with a walking-staff which doubles as a quatter- staff.

Special Abilities

  Mystics have a lot of special abilities,  which help compensate for their
inability  to  wear  armor or own personal possessions;  we'll describe them
  Level: This column shows the mystic's experience level.  AC:  This column
shows the mystic's armor class. Mystics cannot wear armor, but their ACs
become lower   as   they  gain  in  experience  due  to  their  skill  in

                     Mystic Saying Throws Table

     Levels                   1-3  4-6  7-9  10-12  13-15  16
     Death Ray/Poison         12   10     8     6       6   5
     Magic Wands              13   11     9     7       6   6
     Paralysis/Turn to Stone  14   12    10     8       7   6
     Breath Attack            15   13    11     9       8   7
     Rod / Staff / Spell      16   14    12     10      9   8

  MV: This  column  shows  the mystic's movement rate.  First level mystics
move as fast as any other unarmored characters,  but  higher  level  mystics
learn to move very, very fast indeed.
  Hand Attacks- #AT.  Mystics are very effective fighters; as they go up in
levels,  they  are able to attack multiple times per round,  and this column
shows how many times per round they may attack. Mystics use this column when
attacking either bare-handed or when using melee weapons.
  Hand Attacks-Damage: When mystics fight bare-handed, they use this column
to  find  the amount of damage they do.  They do add Strength bonuses to the
amount of damage shown.

Martial Arts
  Mystics are  able  to  fight  very  effectively  without using weapons of
magic.  They utilize a form of unarmed combat  as  part  of  their  mystical
training. They call this training "the discipline," but others often call it
"martial arts." The discipline  involves  physical  training,  meditation,
philosophy, and comprehension of the forces of the universe, and mystics are
taught to resolve difficult situations  peacefully  whenever  possible;  for
these  reasons,  mystics do not care to have their lifestyles referred to as
"martial arts," as the term suggests that all they do  is  fight.  The  mys-
tics'  discipline  is  presumed  to  integrate  and  vastly improve upon the
bare-handed combat techniques described in Chapter 8.
  As you  can  see  in the Mystic Special Abilities Table on the next page,
mystics can strike more often  than  normal  humans,  elude  attacks  better
(their enhanced AC), and deal more damage when fighting barehanded. They can
also fight with weapons,  and can use their multiple attacks per round  with
melee and thrown weapons (but not missile weapons).
  In addition,  when fighting unarmed,  they can often hurt monsters  which
can  ordinarily only be hit by magical weapons.  Though a mystic's hands are
not  magical,  an  experienced  mystic  can  use  them  effectively  against
creatures immune to normal weapons,  as shown in the Mystic Unarmed Attack
Equivalents Table.

 Mystic Unarmed Attack Equivalents, Table
      Level            Equivalent
         2             Silver Weapon
         5             +   1   weapon
         8             +   2   weapon
        11             +   3   weapon
        14             +   4   weapon
        16             +   5   weapon

  These attacks  don't  gain  the  attack  or  damage  bonuses   of   their
magic-weapon  equivalents,  but can hit creatures as if the indicated weapon
were used,  For example, a 5th level mystic can hit and hurt a gargoyle when
fighting barehanded.

Set Spear vs.  Charge, Fighter Combat Options
  Beginning mystics  can  utilize  the  fighter's  Set  Spear  vs.   Charge
maneuver. They cannot utilize the Lance Attack maneuver.
  At Name (9th) level, they get three of the Fighter Combat Options (smash,
parry,  and disarm,  but not multiple attacks). The Fighter Combat Options
are detailed under "Combat Maneuvers" in Chapter 8.

  Some mystics  may also possess a special ability called acrobatics.  This
specialized ability, while useful, detracts a mystic from fully focusing on
his combat abilities; this is why acrobatic mystics have a - 20 % penalty on
all earned experience.  Acrobatics allows a mystic to perform the  following
Tumbles / Flips
Catches (to prevent oneself from falling)

The game effects of this ability are these:

  First, the mystic's acrobatics ability  includes  every  feature  of  the
Acrobatics general skill mentioned in Chapter 5.
  Second, with a successful ability check,  the  mystic  can  cross  rough,
broken  terrain  at  no  modification  to  his movement rate:  He flips over
obstructions,  leaps across trenches, handsprings over low fences, etc. This
doesn't  affect  his  long-distance  movement  rates;  it  only  affects his
encounter speed and running speed.
  Third, the mystic can cross a line of enemy warriors without having to go
around or break through it.  With a successful ability check,  he  can  roll
between the legs of one opponent, or handspring over the line, or pole-vault
using his spear,  and thus cross a distance equal to his  encounter  speed's
movement rate. He suffers no AC penalty when he performs this action.
  The mystic's chance to perform  any  of  these  actions  successfully  is
calculated this way: Three times the mystic's Dexterity score plus two times
the mystic's experience level  equals  the  mystic's  percentile  chance  to
perform the action.

                             Acrobatics Check
                    d% roll vs. ([3 x Dex] + [2 x Lvl)
  For example, a 3rd level mystic with Dexterity 15 would have a 51% chance
to perform an Acrobatics feat.

 Mystic Special Abilities Table
                   Hand Attacks  Mystic
   Level    AC   MV    #AT       Damage      Abilities
       1     9   120'    1       1d4
       2     8   130'    1       1d4 +1      Awareness
       3     7   140'    1       1d6
       4     6   150'    1       1d6 +1      Heal Self
       5     5   160'    2       1d8
       6     4   170'    2       1d8 +1      Speak with Animals
       7     3   180,    2       1d10
       8     2   190,    2       1d12        Resistance
       9*    1   200'    3       2d8
      10     0   210'    3       2d10        Speak with Anyone
      11     -1  220'    3       2d12
      12     -2  240'    3       3d8 +1      Mind Block
      13     -3  260'    4       4d6 +2
      14     -4  280'    4       5d6         Blankout
      15     -5  300'    4       4d8
      16     -6  320'    4       3d12        Gentle Touch

  * The  mystic receives the Fighter Combat Options (not including multiple
attacks); see the description of them under "Combat Maneuvers" in Chapter 8.
The mystic can use these Combat Options with weapons or in unarmed fighting.

  The DM,  if  he  prefers  to  make acrobatics an easier and more commonly
useful ability, can decide to use some alternate means to check success. For
example,  he  might  have  the player roll 1d20 against his Dexterity score,
with any roll equal to or less than the Dexterity score indicating success.
  Whatever type  of  roll he uses,  the DM is free to adjust any individual
roll to reflect the difficulty  of  the  action  being  attempted.  Doing  a
backflip  on the street to entertain a flock of children is much easier than
doing one while walking on a wire ten stories in the air;  the DM might wish
to  improve  the  mystic's  chance  to  perform the former task and make the
latter task harder.

Thief Abilities

  Any mystic can use the following special abilities of thieves  as  if  he
were  a thief of the same level:  Find Traps,  Remove Traps,  Move Silently,
Climb Walls, and Hide in Shadows.

Mystic Abilities
Mystics  gain  the  following  special  abilities   as
they progress in experience levels:
2nd Level: Awareness
4th Level: Heal Self
6th Level: Speak with Animals
8th Level: Resistance
10th Level: Speak with Anyone
12th Level: Mind Block
14th Level: Blankout
16th Level: Gentle Touch

Explanations of Mystic Abilities
  Awareness: The  mystic  is  only  surprised  on  a  roll  of  1 (on 1d6).
(Surprise is explained in Chapter 7.)
  Heal Self:  The mystic may,  once per day,  cure himself of  1  point  of
damage   for   each  experience  level  he  has.  He  does  this  simply  by
concentrating for 1 round.  Example: a 10th level mystic can concentrate for
one round and will heal (regain) 10 hit points of damage.
  Speak with Animals:  The mystic may speak with any normal or giant animal
as often as desired;  animals  understand  his  speech  and  he  understands
theirs, though no animal is forced to talk to him.
  Resistance: The mystic takes only  half  damage  (found  down)  from  all
spells and breath weapons that inflict damage,  or one-quarter damage (round
down) if the saving throw is successful.  Any attack that  does  him  damage
will do a minimum of 1 point of damage,  even if rounding indicates 0 points
of damage.
  Speak with Anyone: The mystic may speak with any living creature that has
a language of any sort,  as often as desired.  The creature being spoken  to
does not have to converse with him.
  Mind Block:  The mystic is immune to ESP,  hold and slow spells,  magical
charms, quests, and gets spells.
  Blankout: By concentrating for 1 round, the mystic causes his presence to
"disappear."  No  living or undead creature can see him;  there is no saving
throw. The effect lasts for 1 round per level of the mystic; it is dispelled
automatically if he attacks. He may only do this once per day.

  Gentle Touch:  Once  per day,  the mystic may use the Gentle Touch on any
one living creature (it requires a normal roll to hit;  if he fails to  hit,
he can try the Gentle Touch again).  The mystic must declare he is using the
Gentle Touch  before  he  rolls  to  hit,  and  must  declare  which  result
(explained below) he is seeking. The victim does not get a saving throw, but
a  victim  which has more Hit Dice than the mystic's experience level is not
  The Touch will have one of the following results (the mystic decides  and
announces which before he rolls to hit):  charm,  cureall,  death, quest, or
paralysis.  These effects mimic the same effects of the following spells  in
all respects except duration: charm person, cureall, death spell, quest, and
holdperson.  The effect lasts for 24 hours-except  for  death,  which  is  a
permanent effect.

Special       Restrictions
  Mystics may not use protective magical devices (such  as  rings,  cloaks,
  All the material goods (money,  magical items,  etc.) won,  purchased, or
acquired  as treasure by the mystic are actually owned by his cloister,  not
by the mystic himself. Should the cloister have need of something "owned" by
a mystic, the head of the cloister need only ask for it.

Higher Experience Levels
  A mystic of Name (9th) level is addressed as master (if male) or mistress
(if female).
  There are many mystics of 1st to 9th level,  but only seven each of  10th
to 12th level, five each of 13th to 15th level, and three of 16th level.
  When the character gains enough experience points to reach 10th level, he
must find and challenge one of the seven 10th level mystics; they will fight
bare-handed (weapons are not allowed).  If the player  character  loses,  he
stays at 9th level,  losing enough experience points that he is 1 experience
point short of 10th level.  Once he's regained 10th level, he may try again,
but  cannot issue another challenge until three months have passed since his
first challenge.  (Note:  If a DM's campaign world is particularly large, he
might  declare  that  there are seven 10th and so forth per continent in his
  At Name level,  the mystic may desire to build a stronghold, or cloister.
If his Grand Abbot (i.e.,  the mystic in charge  of  his  current  cloister)
agrees that he is fit to manage one,  the cloister will pay for construction
of the new cloister.  The new cloister remains a branch of the old one until
the PC achieves 13th level,  at which time the PC is called a Greater Master
and  can  declare  independence.  At  that  point,  he may wish to teach his
mystics-in-training in techniques and philosophies different from  those  of
the other cloister-that is, he may wish to establish his own "school" of the

                  Chapter 3: Spells and Spellcasting

        Introduction to Spellcasting

      In this chapter,  we'll learn how characters acquire and then  cast
magical spells of all types.  You've already seen that some characters are
more accomplished and powerful than others,  and that  the  more  powerful
ones  are  said  to be at higher experience levels than those who are less
powerful.  Spells are rated in much the same way,  in levels.  Lower-level
spellcasters can learn only lower-level spells;  higher-level spellcasters
can add higher-level spells.  Higher-level spells are more  powerful  than
lower-level spells.
 In the  D&D  game,  there  are  three  different  categories  of spells:
clerical,  magical,  and druidic.  Here's a little table which  shows  you
which type of character can use which type of spell.

Classes and  Spells  Table
Character                Can Use Which
Class                    Type of Spell
Cleric                   Clerical
Druid                    Clerical, Druidic
Elf                      Magical

(Fighter Sub-Classes)

Avenger                  Clerical
Paladin                  Clerical
Magic-user               Magical
Sharnan                  Clerical, Druidic
Thief                    Magical*
Wokan                    Magical

* At level 10 + , and only from scrolls

The avenger and paladin are fighter sub- classes;  see the description  of
the  fighter  class.  Shamans  and  wokani  are  spellcaster monsters,  as
described in Chapter 14.

The fact  that  character  classes  use different types of magic keeps all
spellcasters from being identical to one another.  A cleric  will  cast  a
very different type of spell from a magic-user;  an elf will cast the same
sorts of spells as a magic-user,  but far fewer,  and he  can  fight  much
better  than  the  magic-user;  a  druid can cast clerical spells,  but he
really shines when he's casting druidic spells,  which are his  specialty;
and so on.

Memorizing Spells

During an adventure,  a spellcaster can only use spells he has  memorized.
Memorization  is a special process of imprinting one use of a spell in the
caster's mind. When the Spellcasting character memorizes a spell, he holds
it  in  his  mind  and can cast it at any time.  But when he casts it,  it
vanishes from his memory:  His knowledge of it flows  away  a5  the  spell
discharges.  For  this  reason,  characters constantly have to re-memorize

Magic-users and  elves  can  only  use  spells  that  they   have   found,
researched,  or  have  been  taught  by  their  mentors.  These spells are
recorded in a large,  bound volume called a  "spell  book."  The  book  is
written  in  a magical language that only the magic-user who owns the book
can read.  This spell book is the list of spells that can be used by  that
character when taking spells for an adventure.

      Clerics and druids gain their spells by the way of  meditation,  DM
may choose which spells clerics have  memorized at the beginning of an
adventure.  They do not need to write down their spells,  since  they  can
simply meditate to rememorize them.

Resting and Re-Memorizing
      After a spell is cast,  the character cannot rememorize it until he
is well-rested.  One night's sleep is enough rest.  Upon awakening, before
he spends time on any strenuous activities,  the spellcaster must spend an
hour (of game time) in study or meditation. Magic-users and elves must use
their  spell  books  to regain spells,  while clerics and druids need only
Just because Spellcasters spend their mornings doing their memorization or
meditation for spells,  it doesn't mean  that  they  forget  their  uncast
spells overnight.  Unless they wish to do so, they won't forget the spells
they didn't cast. The next morning, the spellcaster needs only to study or
meditate to replace those spells he cast the previous day.

Multiples  of  the  Same  Span
Characters often  memorize  the same spell multiple times so that they can
cast it several times in the course of a day.  A cleric knowing that  he's
going  to  face  fierce  battle  during the day may memorize numerous cure
light wounds spells, for instance.

Number of Spells Known
In the  last  chapter,  you  saw  experience  tables for all the character
classes. The experience tables for clerics, magic-users, elves, and druids
had a block of columns labeled "Spells/Level."
      This column  shows  you  how  many  spells  of each spell level the
character can have memorized at one time. For instance, take a look at the
table below. It is taken from the experience table of the cleric

Cleric                Spells / Level

Level    1     2       3      4      5       6      7

 8      3     3       2      1      -       -       -

      In this  chart,  we  see  that an 8th level cleric can,  at any one
time, memorize nine spells and no more. He'll know three 1st level spells,
three 2nd level spells,  two 3rd level spells, and one 4th level spell. In
the course of a day, as he casts them, he forgets them. If he were to cast
two 1st level spells and his 4th level spell, he'd only know one 1st level
spell, three 2nd level spells, and two 3rd level spells.

   The "Spells/Level" columns on the experience  charts  shows  how  many
spells  can  be  memorized  at  any  one  time,  not  how  many spells the
spellcaster has access to.  He doesn't have to memorize  the  same  spells
every  day.  Magic-users may have more spells in their books than they can
know at any one time;  clerics may, over a period of days, learn many more
different spells than they can cast in a single day.

Casting Spells

      During the game, when you want your character to cast a spell, just
tell  your Dungeon Master.  The DM may ask for some details;  for-example,
some spells are cast at target, and you must tell the DM what the target
is.  For example,  a cleric's player might say,  "I'm casting a cure light
wounds spell on Ruggin."
      The character must be able to gesture and speak normally to cast  a
spell.  While casting a spell,  the character must remain in one place and
concentrate.  The character cannot cast spells while walking  or  running,
rowing a boat or poling a raft,  and so on.  If the character is disturbed
(i.e., hit in combat, tackled, etc.) while casting a spell, the spell will
be ruined, and will still be "erased" from his mind just as if it had been
     Spells must be cast one at a time; a character cannot cast more than
one spell at the same time (i.e.,  no more than one in the  same  combat

   Important Note:  Unless otherwise noted in a spell description, damage
caused by spells is always rolled on six-sided dice.  If a  character  can
cast a spell which does six dice of damage, this is customarily 6d6.
   The maximum damage produced by any single  spell-including  fireball,
lightening  bolt,  and  delayed  blast  fireball-is  20 dice,  of the type
specified (usually  d6,  therefore  a  maximum  of  20d6).  This  is  very
important for game balance, and should not be ignored.
   For example,  without this maximum,  a  36th  level  magic-user  could
instantly slay any other magic-user by surprise, regardless of the results
of the saving throw!

   Reading Spell Descriptions

   Below, each spell is explained in terms of its  range,  duration,  and
effect; these three details are followed by its description.
   Range: This is a measure of how far from  the  spellcaster  the  magic
will reach.  The character should be sure,  before casting the spell, that
the target is within range.  If the description says "Range: 0", the spell
may  only  be  used on the spellcaster,  and cannot be cast on others.  If
"Range:  Touch" is given,  the spell can be placed  on  any  creature  the
spellcaster  touches-  including  the  spellcaster  himself.  If the range
listed is a distance,  and you're not sure how far from  the  target  your
character is, ask the DM your target is within your spell's range.
   Duration: This describes how long the effects of  the  spell  last.  A
spell's  duration is given either in rounds (each round lasts ten seconds)
or turns (each turn is ten minutes).  If the description says,  "Duration:
Permanent",  then  the  spell  has  permanent effect that does not go away
after a given duration (though other spells can sometimes dispel  it).  If
the  spell's duration is listed as "Instantaneous," the spell takes effect
immediately,  though specific spell descriptions  will  alter  its  actual
   Effect: This gives details  on  either  the  number  of  creatures  or
objects,  or an area or volume of space,  which the spell affects;  it can
also briefly describe what the spell does in short form.
   Description: This  text  explains  what  the  spell  does  to those it

Saving Throws vs.  Spells

  With many magic spells,  a character  can  often  resist  some  of  the
spell's  effects  by  making a d Level 1d20 roll called a saving throw.  A
saving throw is the number the character must roll equal to or higher than
to successfully "save against a spell." Basically, if your character makes
his saving th of Animal throw,  he can either reduce the damage  inflicted
by  the  spell  or  he  can  partially (or fully) resist the Curse spell's
effects, depending on the individual spell.
  If a  character is allowed to make a saving throw vs.  the effects of a
spell,  the spell description will mention the fact. The spell description
also  explains  the effect of a successful save.  You can learn more about
saving throws in Chapter 8 on page 109.

Reversible  Spells

  Some spells can be cast "reversed," meaning  that  they  result  in  an
effect  opposite  to  the  effect  normally  described for the spell.  For
example,  when a cleric casts a  reversed  healing  spell,  it  harms  the
  On the spell lists you'll find in this chapter,  any spell marked  with
an  asterisk (*) may be reversed;  the spell description will explain what
the reversed spell does if it is not self-evident.  If a spell name is not
marked with an asterisk, the spell is not reversible.
  Magic-users must memorize their spells in the reversed form in order to
use  them reversed.  Clerics,  on the other hand,  will learn their spells
through meditation, and can decide during the casting whether to cast them
in proper or reversed form.

Multiple Spell Effects

  Some spells  can  be  used  to temporarily improve a character's attack
rolls, damage rolls, saving throws, and other abilities,
  As a  general rule,  casting the same spell twice on someone doesn't do
any good;  the spells' effects do not combine,  even if they were cast  by
two  different  characters.  For  instance,  two  haste  spells (described
further in this chapter) do not combine to allow  a  target  character  to
attack  at  four  times  the  normal rate;  only the first haste will take
  Different spells,  on  the  other  hand,  or  the effects of spells and
magical items,  will usually combine successfully.  For example,  a  bless
spell  gives a character a +1 to his attack roll;  so does a magical sword
with a +1 bonus.  If a character with a magical sword +1 is blessed  by  a
cleric,  the  two bonuses combine and he has a +2 added to his attack roll
(in addition to normal Strength bonuses).

Clerical Spells

  Clerical spells tend to be less flashy than magic-user spells. Clerical
magic  primarily  involves healing,  divination of truth,  protection from
harm,  and so forth.  Seldom do you see clerical spells  as  forceful  and
dramatic as the magic- user's lightning bolt.  On the other hand,  clerics
can fight well and don't need such spells.

Clerical Spells List

     First    Level             Second     Level        Third    Level
   1 Cure Light Wounds*         Bless*                  Continual Light*
   2 Detect    Evil             Find    Traps           Cure Blindness
   3 Detect      Magic          Hold     Person*        Cure Disease*
   4 Light*                     Know Alignment*         Growth of Animal
   5 Protection from Evil       Resist   Fire           Locate Object
   6 Purify Food and Water      Silence 15' Radius      Remove Curse*
   7 Remove      Fear*          Snake      Charm        Speak with the Dead
   8 Resist    Cold             Speak with Animal       Striking

     Fourth      Level          Fifth   Level           Sixth    Level
   1 Animate Dead               Commune                 Aerial Servant
   2 Create      Water          Create      Food        Animate Objects
   3 Cure Serious Wounds*       Cure Critical Wounds*   Barrier@
   4 Dispel      Magic          Dispel   Evil           Create Normal Animals
   5 Neutralize Poison*         Insect    Plague        Cureall
   6 Protection from            Quest*                  Find the Path
     Evil 10' radius
   7 Speak with Plants          Raise      Dead*        Speak with Monsters*
   8 Sticks to Snakes           Truesight               Word of Recall

     Seventh     Level
   I Earthquake
   2 Hole      Word
   3 Raise Dead Fully*
   4 Restore*
   5 Survival
   6 Travel
   7 Wish
   8 Wizardry

    * Reversible    Spell

    Druidic Spells List

  First    Level                   Second     Level    Third    Level
I Detect Danger                    Heat    Metal       Call Lightning
2 Faerie    Fire                   Obscure             Hold Animal
3 Locate                           Produce     Fire    Protection from Poison
4 Predict Weather                  Warp        Wood    Water Breathing

  Fourth      Level                Fifth   Level       Sixth    Level
I Control Temperature 10' radius   Anti-Plant Shell    Anti-Animal Shell
2 Plant     Door                   Control Winds       Summon Weather
3 Protection from Lightning        Dissolve            Transport Through Plants
4 Summon Animals                   Pass    Plant       Turn      Wood

    Seventh     Level
 1 Creeping Doom
 2 Metal to Wood
 3 Summon Elemental
 4 Weather Control

 Learning Spells
   To learn  a  spell,  the  cleric  meditates,  petitioning the power he
serves. The memory and details of the spells appear in the cleric's mind.
The  cleric  may  cast the spells at any time thereafter.  The cleric will
remember each spell until it is cast,  even if it is not used for days  or
    As a  player,  all  you need to do is choose whatever spells you want
your character to have.  This can only be done when the cleric has  had  a
good  night's  sleep and immediately has a full hour when he does not have
to do anything strenuous.
 The cleric can meditate in a certain amount of noise:  the  sound  of  a
camp  readying  itself  in the morning,  the normal bustling of a house or
inn,  even while people are trying to talk with him.  He's not totally cut
off  from  his  surroundings,  and can put up a hand or say a few words to
forestall further interruption.  But it's not possible for the  cleric  to
meditate in the middle of a battle.
 If the  cleric  learned spells on a previous day that he no longer wants
to have available to him,  he can opt to forget them and meditate  on  new

     Magical  Spells   List

   First Level                         Second       Level

  1 Analyze                            Continual   Light*
  2 Charm   Person                     Detect        Evil
  3 Detect   Magic                     Detect   Invisible
  4 Floating  Disc                     Entangle
  5 Hold  Portal                       ESP*
  6 Light*                             Invisibility
  7 Magic  Missile                     Knock
  8 Protection from Evil               Levitate
  9 Read Languages                     Locate  Object
  10 Read   Magic                      Mirror  Image
  11 Shield                            Phantasmal Force
  12 Sleep                             Web
  13 Ventriloquism                     Wizard  Lock

 Third Level                           Fourth   Level

 1 Clairvoyance                       Charm Monster
 2 Create Air                         Clothform
 3 Dispel Magic                       Confusion
 4 Fireball                           Dimension Door
 5 Fly                                Growth of Plants*
 6 Haste*                             Hallucinatory Terrain
 7 Hold Person*                       Ice Storm/Wall of Ice
 8 Infravision                        Massmorph
 9 Invisibility 10' Radius            Polymorph Other
 10 Lightning Bolt                     Polymorph Self
 11 Protection from Evil 10' Radii      Remove Curse*
 12 Protection from Normal Missile      Wall  of  Fire
 13 Water      Breathing               Wizard     Eye

 Fifth        Level                   Sixth Level

 1 Animate       Dead                 Anti-Magic     Shell
 2 Cloudkill                          Death Spell
 3 Conjure Elemental                  Disintegrate
 4 Contact   Outer    Plane           Geas*
 5 Dissolve*                          invisible    Stalker
 6 Feeblemind                         Lower Water
 7 Hold      Monster*                 Move Earth
 8 Magicjar                           Projected      Image
 9 Passwall                           Reincarnation
 10 Telekinesis                       Stone   to    Flesh*
 11 Teleport                          Stoneform
 12 Wall   of    Stone                Wall of Iron
 13 Woodform                          Weather      Control

  Seventh Level                        Eighth   Level
  1 Charm Plant                        Clone
  2 Create    Normal     Monsters      Create Magical Monsters
  3 Delayed Blast Fireball             Dance
  4 Ironform                           Explosive Cloud
  5 Lore                               Force   Field
  6 Magic Door*                        Mass  Charm*
  7 Mass Invisibility*                 Mind  Barrier*
  8 Power Word Stun                    Permanence
  9 Reverse Gravity                    Polymorph Any Object
  10 Statue                            Power  Word  Blind
  11 Summon Object                     Steelform
  12 Sword                             Symbol
  13 Teleport any Object               Travel

  Ninth Level
  Create Any Monster
  Meteor  Swarm
  Power Word Kill
  Prismatic  Wall

  * Reversible Spell

  Number  and  Types  of  Spells

 The cleric may know at any one time the number of spells appropriate for
his experience level, as shown on the cleric's experience table in Chapter
 The cleric may know any clerical spell from the list of clerical  spells
so long as he is of a high enough experience level to know it and cast it,
and so long as the DM has not banned the use of that particular  spell  in
his  campaign.  The  cleric  cannot  learn a spell from either the druidic
spells list or the magical spells list.

Reversible Spells

 A cleric  may reverse a spell simply by casting it backward.  The player
simply says, "My cleric is casting the spell in reverse."
 However, Lawful clerics prefer not to cast spells in reversed form. They
only cast the reversed forms in extreme life-or-death situations.
 Chaotic clerics  often  use  the reversed spells and only use the normal
forms to benefit their friends.  Neutral clerics can choose  to  cast  the
normal or the reversed forms.

List of Clerical Spells
 Following is a list of clerical spells and their  descriptions.  They're
divided  up  into  spell levels and set in alphabetical order.  All spells
marked with an asterisk (*) can be cast in reversed form.

 First             Level Clerical Spells

 Cure Light Wounds*
 Range: Touch
 Duration: Permanent
 Effect: Any one living creature

 This spell either heals damage or removes paralysis. If used to heal, it
can  cure  2-7 (1d6+1) points of damage.  It cannot heal damage if used to
cure paralysis, The cleric may cast it on himself if desired.
 This spell  cannot  increase  a  creature's  total  hit points above the
original amount.  When reversed,  this spell,  cause light wounds,  causes
1d6+1  (2-7)  points  of  damage  to any creature or character touched (no
saving throw is allowed).  The cleric must make a normal  attack  roll  to
inflict this damage.

Detect Evil
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Everything within 120'
When this spell is cast,the cleric will see evilly enchanted objects within
120'  glow.  it  will also cause creatures that want to harm the cleric to
glow when they are within range.  The actual  thoughts  of  the  creatures
cannot be heard.  Remember that a Chaotic alignment does not automatically
mean Evil,  although many Chaotic monsters have evil intentions. Traps and
poison  are neither good nor evil,  merely dangerous;  this spell does not
reveal them.

Detect Magic

Range: 0
Duration: 2 turns
Effect: Everything within 60'

When this spell is cast,  the cleric will  see  a  glow  surround  magical
objects,  creatures,  and places within the spell's effect.  The glow will
not last very long;  clerics should normally use the spell only when  they
want  to  know  if  particular objects already within sight are,  in fact,
magical.  For example, a door may be held shut magically, a stranger might
actually be an enchanted monster, or a treasure might be enchanted.


Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Volume of 30' diameter

 This spell creates a large ball of light,  as if casts by a bright torch
or lamp. If the spell is cast on -an object (such as the cleric's weapon),
the light will move with the object.
 If the spell is cast at a creature's eyes, the victim must make a saving
throw vs.  spell.  If he fails saving throw, the victim will be blinded by
the  light  for  the  duration of the spell,  or until the spell effect is
When reversed,  this spell,  darkness, creates a circle of darkness 30' in
diameter. It will block all sight except infravision. Darkness will cancel
a light spell if cast upon it, but may itself be canceled by another light
spell.  If cast at an opponent's eyes,  darkness causes blindness for  the
duration of the spell or until canceled.  if the target makes a successful
saving throw vs. spell, the spell misses.

Protection from Evil

Duration: 12 turns
Effect: The cleric only

 This spell creates an invisible magical barrier all around the  cleric's
body (less than an inch
away). While the spell lasts, characters and monsters attacking the cleric
are penalized by -1 to their attack rolls, and the cleric gains a +1 bonus
to all saving throws.
 In addition,  enchanted creatures cannot  even  touch  the  cleric!  (An
enchanted  creature is one that normal weapons will not affect,  one which
only magical weapons can hit.  A creature that can only be hit by a silver
weapon  -  a  werewolf,  for  example-is  not  an enchanted creature.  Any
creature that is magically summoned of  controlled,  such  as  a  charmed
character,  is  also  considered to be an enchanted creature.) The barrier
thus completely protects the cleric from all melee or hand-to-hand attacks
from  such  creatures;  however,  it  cannot  prevent attacks from missile
weapons.  Enchanted creatures using missile weapons still  suffer  the  -1
penalty to the attack roll, but they can hit the cleric.
 This spell will not affect a magic missile spell used by magic-users.
 If the cleric attacks an enchanted creature during the spell's duration,
the spell's effect changes slightly.  Enchanted creatures are then able to
touch  the  magic-user,  but  still  suffer  the attack foil penalty;  the
penalty and the cleric's saving throw adjustments still  apply  until  the
spell duration ends.

Purify Food and Water
Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: See below

 This spell will make spoiled or poisoned food and water safe and usable.
It  will  purify  one  ration  of  preserved food (either iron of standard
rations),  or six waterskins of water,  or enough normal food  to  feed  a
dozen  people.  If  cast at mud,  the spell will cause the dirt to settle,
leaving a pool of pure,  cleat water. The spell will not affect any living

Remove Fear*
Range: Touch
Duration: 2 turns
Effect:  Any  one   living   creature

 When the cleric casts this spell and then touches any  living  creature,
the spell will calm the creature and remove any fear.  If the creature has
been affected by a fear spell or effect which does not  normally  allow  a
saving  throw,  the  remove fear spell can still be useful.  If the cleric
casts the spell on someone afflicted by a magical fear effect,  the victim
gets to make a saving throw vs.  spells,  adding a bonus to the roll equal
to the cleric's level of experience (up to a maximum bonus of + 6). If the
saving  throw is successful,  the victim's fear is negated.  Regardless of
the cleric's level or any bonuses, a roll of 1 will always fail.
 The reversed form of the spell,  cause fear will make any  one  creature
flee for two turns. The victim may make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid
the effect. This reversed spell has a range of 120'.

Resist Cold
Range: 0
Duration: 6 turns
Effect:  All  creatures  within   30'
  When this spell is cast,  all creatures within 30' of  the  cleric  can
withstand freezing temperatures without harm.  In addition, those affected
gain  a  bonus  of  +  2  to  all  saving  throws  against  cold  attacks.
Furthermore,  any damage from cold is reduced by 1 point per die of damage
(but with a minimum of 1 point of damage per die).  The effect  will  move
with the cleric.

Second Level Clerical Spells

Duration:   6    turns
Effect: All within a 20' square area

 This spell improves the morale of friendly creatures by +  1  and  gives
the  recipients  a  +1 bonus on all attack and damage rolls.  It will only
affect creatures in a 2O'x20' area,  and only those who  are  not  yet  in
  When reversed,  this  spell,  blight,  places a - 1 penalty on enemies'
morale,  attack rolls,  and damage tolls.  Each victim may make  a  saving
throw vs. spells to avoid the penalties.

Find Traps
Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration:   2    turns
Effect: Traps within 30'glow

  This spell  causes all mechanical and magical traps to glow with a dull
blue light when the cleric comes within 30' of them.  It does  not  reveal
the types of traps,  nor any method of removing them.  Note that an ambush
is not a trap, nor is a natural hazard, such as quicksand.

Hold Person*
Duration:   9    turns
Effect: Paralyzes up to 4 creatures

  The hold person spell will affect any human,  demihuman,  or human-like
creature (bugbear, dryad, gnoll, hobgoblin, kobold, lizard man, ogre, orc,
nixie,  pixie or sprite,  for instance).  It will not affect the undead or
creatures larger than ogres.  Each victim must make  a  saving  throw  vs.
spells  or be paralyzed for nine turns.  The spell may be cast at a single
person or at a group. If cast at a single person, the victim suffers a - 2
penalty to the saving throw. If cast at a group, it will affect up to four
persons (of the cleric's choice),  but with no penalty to their rolls. The
paralysis  may only be removed by the reversed form of the spell,  or by a
dispel magic spell.
  The reverse of the spell,  free person,  removes the paralysis of up to
four victims of the normal form of the spell (including hold  person  cast
by  a  magic-user  or an elf).  It has no other effect;  it does not,  for
instance, remove the effects of a ghoul's paralysis ability.

Know Alignment*
Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration: 1 round
Effect: One creature within 10'

  The caster  of this spell may discover the alignment (Lawful,  Neutral,
or Chaotic) of any one creature within 10'.  The spell may also be used to
find the alignment of an enchanted item or area (if any).
 The reverse of the spell,  confuse alignment,  lasts for  one  turn  per
level  of the caster,  and may be cast on any one creature,  by touch.  No
saving throw is allowed.  For as long as the spell lasts,  a cleric trying
to  identify  the  alignment  of  the  recipient  by using the normal know
alignment spell will get a false answer.  That same false answer  will  be
the result of any further attempts.

Resist Fire
Range: 30'
Duration: 2 turns
Effect: One living creature

 For the duration of this spell,  normal fife and heat  cannot  harm  the
spell's  recipient.  The  recipient  also  gains a + 2 bonus on all saving
throws  against  magical   fire   (dragon's   breath,   fireball,   etc.).
Furthermore, damage from such fire is reduced by 1 point per die of damage
(though each die will inflict at least 1 point of  damage,  regardless  of
adjustments).  Red  dragon breath damage is reduced by 1 point per Hit Die
of the creature (again, to no less than 1 point of damage per Hit Die).

Silence 15' Radius
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Sphere of silence 30' across
 This spell  makes  the  area of effect totally silent.  Conversation and
Spellcasting in this area are impossible for the duration  of  the  spell.
This  spell  does not prevent a person within the area from hearing noises
outside the area.  If cast on a creature,  the victim must make  a  saving
throw vs.  spells or the spell effects will move with the creature. If the
saving throw is successful,  the spell remains in the area in which it was
cast, and the victim may move out of the area.

Snake Charm
Duration: 2-5 rounds or 2-5 turns
 Effect: Charms 1 HD of snakes per level of the caster

 With this spell,  a cleric may charm 1 Hit Die of snakes for each  level
of experience he has,  and no saving throw is allowed.  A 5th level cleric
could charm one 5 HD snake, five 1 HD snakes, or any combination totaling
5  Hit Dice or less.  The snakes affected will rise up and sway,  but will
not attack unless attacked themselves.
 If the  cleric  uses  the  spell  on  snakes attacking him,  the spell's
duration is 1d4+1 (2-5) rounds;  otherwise,  it lasts 1d4+1  (2-5)  turns.
When  the  spell  wears off,  the snakes return to normal (but with normal
reactions; they will not be automatically hostile).

Speak with Animals
Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Allows conversation within 30'
 When casting  this spell,  the cleric must name one type of animal (such
as wolves). For the duration of the spell, the cleric may speak with all
animals of  that  type  if they are within 30';  the effect moves with the
 The cleric can speak to any normal or giant forms of the specific animal
type named,  but only to one type at a time.  The caster may not use  this
spell to speak to intelligent animals and fantastic creatures.
 The creatures spoken to usually have favorable reactions ( + 2 bonus  to
the  reaction  roll),  and  they  can be talked into doing a favor for the
cleric if the reaction roll is high enough.  The animal must  be  able  to
understand the request and must be able to perform it.

Third Level Clerical Spells

Continual Light*
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Sphere of light 60' across

 This spell creates light as bright as daylight in a spherical volume  of
30'  radius.  It lasts until a dispel magic or continual darkness spell is
cast upon it.  Creatures penalized in  bright  daylight  suffer  the  same
penalties within this spell effect (for example, goblins, which suffer a -
1 attack toll penalty in daylight,  suffer the  same  penalty  within  the
effect of continual light).
If the spell is cast on an opponent's eyes,  the victim must make a saving
throw vs. spells or be blinded until the effect is removed. This spell may
be cast in an area,  upon an object,  or on a person or creature;  it  can
also be cast directly on a person's or creature's eyes, thus blinding him.
The reverse of this spell,  continual darkness,  creates a completely dark
volume of the same size.  Torches,  lanterns,  and even a light spell will
not affect it,  and infravision cannot penetrate  it.  A  continual  light
spell will, however, cancel it. If cast on a creature's eyes, the creature
must make a saving throw vs.  spells or be blinded (with the same  effects
as blindness from the normal continual light until the spell is removed.

Cure Blindness
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: One living creature

This spell will cure nearly any form of blindness, including those caused
by light or darkness spells (whether normal or continual).  It  will  not,
however, affect blindness caused by a curse.

Cure Disease*
Duration: Permanent
Effect: One living creature within range

 This spell will cure any living creature of one disease,  such -as those
caused by a mummy or green slime.  If cast by a cleric of  11th  level  or
greater, this spell will also cure lycanthropy.
 The reverse  of  this  spell,  cause disease,  infects the victim with a
hideous wasting disease unless he successfully makes a  saving  throw  vs.
spells.  A  diseased  victim  has  a  - 2 penalty on all attack rolls.  In
addition,  the victim's wounds cannot  be  magically  cured,  and  natural
healing takes twice as long as usual. The disease is fatal in 2d12 (2- 24)
days unless removed by a cure disease spell.

Growth  of  Animal
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Doubles the size of one animal

This spell doubles the size of one normal or giant animal. The animal then
h-as twice its normal strength and inflicts double its normal  damage.  It
may also carry twice its normal encumbrance. This spell does not change an
animal's behavior,  armor class,  or  hit  points,  and  does  not  affect
intelligent animal races or fantastic creatures.

Locate Object
Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration: 6  turns
Effect: Detects one object within 120'

 This spell allows the cleric to sense the direction of one known object.
It gives no information about distance. It can detect a common object with
only  a partial description (such as "stairs leading up") but it will only
reveal the direction to the  closest  such  object.  To  find  a  specific
object,  the  cleric  must  know exactly what the object looks like (size,
shape, color, etc.). The spell will not locate a creature.

Remove Curse*
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Removes any one curse

 This spell removes one curse,  whether on a character,  item,  or  area.
Some  curses-especially  those  on magical items-may only be removed for a
short time,  at the DM's discretion;  such curses would require  a  dispel
evil  spell  for  permanent  removal (or possibly a remove curse cast by a
high level cleric or magic-user, again at DM's discretion).
 The reverse of this spell,  curse,  causes a misfortune  or  penalty  to
affect  the  victim.  Curses are limited only by the caster's imagination,
but if an attempted curse is too powerful,  it may return  to  the  caster
(DM's discretion)! Safe limits to curses may include: -4 penalty on attack
rolls;  - 2 penalty on saving throws;  prime requisite  reduced  to  half
normal;  - 4 penalty on others' reaction rolls to him. The victim may make
a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the curse.

Speak with the Dead
Range: 10
Duration: 1 round per  level  of  the  cleric
Effect: Cleric may ask three questions

By means of this spell,  a cleric may ask three questions of  a  deceased
spirit if the body is within range.
 A cleric  of  6th  or  7th  level  can contact recently deceased spirits
(those dead up to 4 days).  Cleric's of levels  8-14  have  slightly  more
power  (cont-acting  spirits  up to 4 months dead),  and clerics of levels
15-20 have even more (speaking with corpses up to 4 years dead).  No  time
limits apply to clerics of 21st level or greater.
 The spirit will always reply in a tongue known to the  cleric,  but  can
only  offer  knowledge  of  things  up  to  the time of its death.  If the
spirit's alignment is the same as the cleric's,  it will provide clear and
brief answers;  however, if the alignments differ, the spirit may reply in

Duration: 1 turn
Effect: 1d6 bonus to damage on 1 weapon

 This spell allows any one weapon to inflict  1d6  additional  points  of
damage  per  attack  (like  a magical staff of striking).  The weapon will
inflict this extra damage with every successful blow for as  long  as  the
spell lasts. This bonus does not apply to attack rolls, but only to damage
 If the cleric casts this spell on a normal weapon,  the weapon may  then
damage  creatures  which are normally affected only by magic weapons;  the
weapon will do 1d6 points of damage per strike (regardless of  the  normal
damage of the weapon).

Fourth Level Clerical Spells

Animate Dead
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates zombies or skeletons

This spell allows the caster to make  animated,  enchanted  skeletons  or
zombies from normal skeletons or dead bodies within range.  These animated
undead creatures will obey the cleric until they are destroyed by  another
cleric of a dispel magic spell.
 For each experience level of the cleric,  he may animate one Hit Die  of
undead.  A skeleton has the same Hit Dice as the original creature,  but a
zombie has one Hit Die more than the  original.  Note  that  this  doesn't
count character experience levels as Hit Dice: For purposes of this spell,
all humans and demihumans are 1 HD creatures,  so the  remains  of  a  9th
level thief would be animated as a zombie with 2 HD.
Animated creatures  do  not  have any spells,  but are immune to sleep and
charm effects and poison.  Lawful clerics must take care to use this spell
only for good purpose. Animating the dead is usually a Chaotic act.

Create Water
Range: 10'
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Creates one magical spring

With this spell,  the cleric summons forth an enchanted  spring  from  the
ground  or a wall.  The spring will flow for an hour'creating enough water
for 12 men and their mounts (for that day,  about 50 gallons). For each of
the  cleric's  experience levels above 8,  water for twelve additional men
and mounts is created;  thus a 10th level cleric could create water for 36
men and horses.
The cleric doesn't have to create the  maximum  amount  of  water  if  he
doesn't wish to. He might wish to create a spring which will flow for half
an hour,  or a few minutes;  the player need only tell  the  GM  how  many
gallons he wants the spell to create, up to the spell's maximum.

Cure Serious Wounds*
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Any one living creature

 This spell is similar to a cure light wounds spell,  but will  cure  one
creature of 2d6 + 2 (4-14) points of damage.
 The reverse of this spell,  cause serious wounds,  causes 2d6 + 2 points
of damage to any creature or character  touched  (no  saving  throw).  The
caster  must  make  a  normal  attack  roll to successfully cast the cause
serious wounds spell.

Dispel Magic
Range: 120'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Destroys spells in a 20' cube
 This spell destroys other spell effects in a cubic volume of  20'x  20'x
20'.  It does not affect magical items.  Spell effects created by a caster
(whether cleric,  druid,  magic-user, or elf) of a level equal to or lower
than  the  caster  of  the  dispel magic are automatically and immediately
destroyed.  Spell effects created by a higher-level caster  might  not  be
affected.  The chance of failure is 5% per level of difference between the
casters. For example, a 7th level cleric trying to dispel a web spell cast
by a 9th level magic-user would have a 10% chance of failure.
 Dispel magic will not affect a magical item (such as a scroll, a magical
sword,  etc.). However, it can dispel the effects of the magical item when
that item is used (for example, a spellcaster can cast dispel magic on the
victim  of a ring of human control and snap hi 'm out of that control,  or
on a flaming weapon to douse the flame).

Neutralize Poison*
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: A creature, container, or object
 This spell  will make poison harmless either in a creature,  a container
(such as a bottle),  or on one object (such as  a  chest).  It  will  even
revive a victim slain by poison if cast within 10 rounds of the poisoning!
 The spell will affect any and all poisons present  at  the  time  it  is
cast,  but  does  not cure any damage (and will thus not revive a poisoned
victim who has died of wounds).
 The reverse of this spell,  create poison,  may be cast,  by touch, on a
creature  or  container.  A  cleric cannot cast it on any other object.  A
victim must make a saving throw vs.  poison or be immediately slain by the
poison.  If cast on a container, the spell poisons its contents; no saving
throw applies,  even for magical containers or contents (such as potions).
(Of course,  when someone drinks those poisoned contents, he gets a saving
throw.) Using create poison,  or poisoning  in  any  case,  is  usually  a
Chaotic act.

Protection from Evil 10' Radius
Range: 0
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Barrier 20' diameter
 This spell  creates  an invisible magical barrier all around the caster,
extending for a  10'  radius  in  all  directions.  The  spell  serves  as
protection  from  attacks  by  monsters  of  an  alignment  other than the
caster's.  Each creature within the barrier  gains  a  +1  to  all  saving
throws,  and  all  attacks against those within are penalized by -1 to the
attacker's attack roll while the spell lasts.
  In addition, enchanted creatures cannot attack those within the barrier
in hand-to-hand (melee) combat.  (An enchanted creature  is  any  creature
which is magically summoned or controlled, such as a charmed character, or
one that is not harmed by normal weapons.  A creature that can be hit only
by a silver weapon- a werewolf, for example-is not an enchanted creature.)
  If anyone within the barrier attacks an enchanted creature, the barrier
will  no longer prevent the creature from attacking hand-to-hand,  but the
bonus to saving throws and penalty to attack rolls will still apply.
  Attackers, including enchanted creatures,  can attack people inside the
barrier by using missile or magical attacks. They do suffer the -1 penalty
to attack rolls, but that is the only penalty they suffer.

Speak    with    Plants
Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration:    3    turns
Effect: All plants within 30'
  This spell enables the cleric to talk to  plants  as  though  they  are
intelligent.  The  cleric may request a simple favor,  and the plants will
grant it if it is within the plants' power to understand and perform. This
spell  may be used to allow the cleric and party to pass through otherwise
impenetrable undergrowth.  It will also allow the  cleric  to  communicate
with plantlike monsters (such as truants).

Sticks to Snakes
Duration:    6    turns
Effect: Up to 16 sticks
 This spell turns 2d8 sticks into snakes (detailed below). The snakes may
be poisonous (50% chance per snake; the DM can toll 1d6 for each snake; on
a roll of 1-3,  the snake is poisonous).  They obey the cleric's commands,
but will turn back into sticks when slain or  when  the  spell's  duration
  Snakes: NA 2d8 (2d8); AC 6, HD 1; AT 1 bite; Dmg 1d4; MV 90'(30'); Save
  F1;  ML 12; TT Nil; AL Neutral; SA poison (50% chance for each snake to
  be poisonous); XP 10 (non- poisonous) or 13 (poisonous).

Fifth Level Clerical                  Spells

Range: 0 (Cleric only)
Duration:    3    turns
Effect:   3   questions
 This spell  allows  the  cleric  to  ask questions of the greater powers
(whatever forces of nature, greater spirits, or legendary Immortals the DM
has  created for this campaign world).  The cleric may ask three questions
that can be answered yes" or "no."
 A cleric  may  commune only once a week.  If the clerics in the campaign
are using the spell too often,  the DM may wish to limit its use to once a
month.  Once  a  year  the  cleric  may  ask  twice  the  normal number of
questions.  The DM might wish to establish that this must occur on  a  day
which is significant to the greater powers being questioned.

Create Food
Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates food for 12 or more
 This spell  creates  enough  normal  food to feed up to 12 men and their
mounts for one day.  For every level of the cleric above  8th,  the  spell
creates  enough food for 12 additional men and mounts.  The cleric doesn't
have to create the maximum amount of food if he doesn't wish  to;  he  can
create a lesser amount.  Created food spoils after 24 hours;  therefore it
is impossible to lay in a big store of food created by this spell.

Cure Critical Wounds*
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Any one living creature
 This spell is similar to a cure light wounds spell,  but will  cure  one
living creature of 3d6 + 3 (6-21) points of damage.
 The reverse  of  this  spell (cause critical wounds) causes 3d6+3 (6-21)
points of damage to any living creature or character  touched  (no  saving
throw).  The  caster  must make a normal attack roll to cause the critical

Dispel Evil
Duration: 1 turn
Effect: Enchanted or undead monsters or one curse or charm
 This spell  may  affect all undead and enchanted (summoned,  controlled,
and animated) monsters within range.  It will destroy the  monster  unless
each victim makes a saving throw vs. spells. If cast at only one creature,
that creature takes a - 2 penalty to the saving throw.  Any  creature  from
another plane is banished (forced to return to its home plane) if it fails
the saving throw.  Even if the  victims  successfully  roll  their  saving
throws,  they must flee the area, and will stay away as long as the caster
concentrates; the caster cannot move while concentrating.
 This spell  will also remove the curse from any one cursed item,  or may
be used to remove the influence of any magical charm.

Insect Plague
Duration: 1 day
Effect: Creates a swarm of 30' radius
 This spell summons a vast swarm of insects.  The swarm  obscures  vision
and  drives  off creatures of less than 3 Hit Dice (no saving throw).  The
swarm moves at up to 20' per round as directed by the cleric while  it  is
within range.  The caster must concentrate, without moving, to control the
swarm. If the caster is disturbed, the
insects scatter  and  the  spell ends.  This spell only works outdoors and

Range: 30'
Duration: Special
Effect: Compels one living creature
 This spell  forces the victim to perform some special task or quest,  as
commanded by the caster. The victim may make a saving throw vs. spells; if
he succeeds, the spell does not affect him.
 A typical task might involve  slaying  a  certain  monster,  rescuing  a
prisoner,  obtaining  a  magical  item  for  the  caster,  or  going  on a
pilgrimage.  If the task is impossible  of  suicidal,  the  spell  has  no
effect. Once the task is completed, the spell ends.
 The spell forces the victim to undertake a task,  but doesn't force  him
to like it.  Once the task is accomplished, the victim might wish to exact
revenge on  the  cleric,  just  depending  on  the  circumstances  of  the
adventure.  Any  victim  refusing  to  go on the quest is cursed until the
quest is continued.  The type of curse is decided by the DM,  but  may  be
double normal strength.  The reverse of this spell,  remove quest,  may be
used to dispel an unwanted quest or a quest- related curse.  The chance of
success is 50%, modified by 5 % for every level of the caster differs from
the level of the caster of the first quest.  Thus,  an 11th  level  cleric
attempting  to  remove  a quest cast by a 13th level cleric has only a 40%
chance of success;  a 36th level cleric attempting to remove a quest  cast
by a 20th level cleric has a 130%  chance (reduced to 99% to provide for a
1% chance of failure).

Raise Dead*
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Body of one human or demihuman
 By means of this spell, the cleric can raise any human, dwarf, halfling,
or elf from the dead.  The body must be present,  and if part is  missing,
the raised character will be disabled accordingly. An 8th level cleric can
rise a body that has been dead for up to four days.  For each level of the
cleric above 8th,  add four days to this time.  Thus,  a 10th level cleric
can raise bodies that have been dead for up to twelve days.
 The recipient returns to life with 1 hit point,  and cannot fight,  cast
spells, use abilities, carry heavy loads, of move at more than half speed.
These penalties will disappear after two full weeks of complete bed  rest,
but the healing cannot be speeded by magic.
 The cleric may also cast this spell at any one  undead  creature  within
range.  The  undead  creature  will  be destroyed unless it makes a saving
throw vs.  spells with a -2 penalty.  However,  a vampire which fails  its
saving throw is not destroyed,  merely forced to retreat to its coffin, in
gaseous form, as fast as possible. When cast at an undead creature of more
Hit Dice than a vampire, this spell inflicts 3d1O (3-30) points of damage.
The creature can make a saving throw vs. spells to take half damage.
 The reverse of this spell,  finger of death,  creates a death ray that
will kill any one living creature within 60'. The victim may make a saving
throw  vs.  death  ray to avoid the effect.  A Lawful cleric will only use
finger of death in a  life-or-  death  situation.  Finger  of  death  will
actually  cure 3d1O (3-30) points of damage for any undead with 10 or more
Hit Dice (phantom, haunt, spirit, nightshade, or special).

Range: 0 (cleric only)
Duration: 1 turn + 1 round per level of caster.
Effect: Reveals all things
 When he casts this spell,  the cleric is able to see all  things  within
120'.  The spell is quite powerful; the cleric can clearly see all hidden,
invisible,  and ethereal objects and  creatures  as  with  the  magic-user
detect invisible spell. In addition, any secret doors as well as things or
creatures not  in  their  true  form-whether  polymorphed,  disguised,  or
otherwise-are  seen  as they truly are,  with no possibility of deception.
Alignment is also "seen:' as is experience and power.

Sixth Level Clerical Spells

Aerial Servant
Duration: 1 day per level of caster
Effect: Servant fetches one item or creature
An aerial  servant  is  a very intelligent being from the elemental plane.
With this spell,  the cleric summons one of these  beings,  which  appears
immediately.  The  cleric  must then describe one creature or item and its
location to the servant,  or else it  will  depart.  When  it  hears  this
description  and location,  the aerial servant leaves,  trying to find the
item or creature and bring it to the cleric. The servant will take as much
time as needed,  up to the limit of the duration.  If the spell's duration
lapses before the task is completed, even if the aerial servant is already
bringing  the target back to the caster,  the aerial servant has failed to
accomplish its task. See below for further details.
The aerial servant has 18 Strength,  and can carry up to 500  lbs  (5,000
cn).  It  can become ethereal at will,  and thus can travel to most places
easily.  However,  it cannot pass through a  protection  from  evil  spell
If it  cannot  perform  its  duty  within the duration of the spell,  the
servant becomes insane and returns to attack the caster.
See Chapter 14 for a full description of the aerial servant.

Animate Objects
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Causes objects to move
 The cleric may use this spell  to  cause  any  non-  living,  nonmagical
objects  to move and attack.  Magical objects are not affected.  The spell
can animate any one object up to 400 lbs (4,000 cn) (roughly the  size  of
two  men),  or  a  number  of  smaller objects whose total weight does not
exceed 400 lbs.
 The DM must decide on the movement rate,  number of attacks, damage, and
other combat details of the objects animated.  As a guideline, a man-sized
statue  might move at 30' per round,  attack once per round for 2d8 (2-16)
points of damage,  and have an armor class of 1.  A chair might only be AC
6,  but move at 180' per round on its four legs, attacking twice per round
for 1d4 points per attack. All objects have the same chances to hit as the
cleric animating them.

Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Creates whirling hammers

 This spell  creates  a  magical barrier in an area up to 30' in diameter
and 30'high.  The barrier is a  wall  of  whirling  and  dancing  hammers,
obviously  dangerous  to  any  who  come in contact with it.  Any creature
passing through the barrier takes 7d1O (7-70) points of  damage  from  the
whirling  hammers  (no saving throw allowed).  This spell is often used to
block an entrance or passage.
 The reverse of this spell (remove barrier) will destroy any one  barrier
created by a cleric. It can also be used to destroy a magic-user's wall of
ice, wall of fire, clothform, woodform, or wall of stone spell effects. It
will not affect the magic- user spells wall of iron,  stoneform,  ironform
or steelform.

Create Normal Animals
Duration: 10 turns
Effect: Creates 1-6 loyal animals
 The cleric  is  able  to  create  normal animals from thin air with this
spell.  The animals will appear at a point chosen (within  30'),  but  may
thereafter be sent (by command) up to 240' away,  if desired.  The animals
created will understand and obey the cleric at all times.  They will fight
if so commanded, and will perform other actions (carrying, watching, etc.)
to the best of their abilities.  They are normal animals,  and may  attack
others unless their instructions are carefully worded.
 The cleric may choose the number of animals created,  but not the  exact
type;  the  DM  should  decide,  or even randomly determine,  what sort of
animals  appear.  The  spell  will  create  one  large  animal  (elephant,
hippopotamus,  etc.),  three medium-sized animals (bear, great cat, etc.),
or six small animals (wolf,  rock baboon,  etc.).  The spell cannot create
giant animals. The animals disappear when slain or when the spell duration

Cure All
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Cures anything
This spell is the most powerful of the healing spells.  When used to  cure
wounds,  it  cures nearly all damage,  leaving the recipient with only 1d6
points of damage.  (Restore the victim to full starting hit  points,  then
roll 1d6 and subtract that amount from the victim's hit point total.)
The spell can remove a curse, neutralize a poison, cure paralysis, cute a
disease, cure blindness, or even remove a feeblemind effect instead
of healing.  However,  it will cure one thing only;  if the  recipient  is
suffering  from two or more afflictions (such as wounds and a curse),  the
cleric must name the ailment the spell is intended to cure.
 If cast  on the recipient of a raise dead spell,  the cureall eliminates
the need for two weeks of bed rest; the recipient can immediately function
normally.  This  is  the  only  form of magical curing that will work on a
newly-raised creature.

Find the Path
Range:  0  (Cleric   only)
Duration: 6 turns +  1  turn  per  level  of  the  caster
Effect: Shows the path to an area
 When casting this spell,  the cleric must name a specific place,  though
it  need  not  be  a place he has visited before.  For the duration of the
spell,  the cleric knows the direction to that  place.  In  addition,  the
cleric  will  magically  gain  any  special knowledge needed to get to the
place; for example, he would know the location of secret doors, passwords,
and so forth.
 When the spell's duration  runs  out,  the  caster  only  remembers  the
general   direction  to  the  place.  All  other  special  information  is
forgotten.  The spell is instantly negated is the caster attempts to write
down,  record, or disclose that special knowledge to others. This spell is
often used to find a fast escape route.

Speak    with    Monsters*
Range:  0  (Cleric   only)
Duration: 1 round per level of the cleric
Effect: Permits conversation with any monster
 This spell  gives  the  caster the power to ask questions of any and all
living and undead creatures within 30'.  Even unintelligent monsters  will
understand and respond to the cleric.  Those spoken to will not attack the
cleric while engaged in conversation, but may defend themselves or flee if
attacked.  The  cleric  may  ask only one question per round'and the spell
lasts one round per level of the caster.
 The reverse of this spell, babble, has a 60' range, a duration of 1 turn
per  level of the caster,  and affects one target within spell range.  The
victim may make a saving throw vs.  spells to avoid the effect, but with a
- 2 penalty to the roll.  If he fails the saving throw, the victim can not
communicate with any other creature for the duration of  the  spell.  Even
hand  motions,  writ-  ten  notes,  telepathy,  and  all  other  forms  of
communication will seem garbled. This does not interfere with the victim's
spellcasting  (if any),  but does prevent him from using any magical items
which are  activated  by  command  words-  the  command  words  turn  into

Word of Recall
Range:  0  (Cleric   only)
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Teleports the caster to sanctuary
 Similar to a magic-user's teleport spell,  this spell carries the cleric
and  all  equipment carried (but no other creatures) to the cleric's home,
regardless of the distance. The cleric must have a permanent home (such as
a  castle),  and  a  meditation  room  within that home;  this room is the
destination when the spell is cast.  During the round in which this  spell
is cast, the cleric automatically gains initiative unless surprised.

Seventh Level Clerical  Spells

Range: 120 yards
Duration: 1 turn
Effect: Causes earth tremors
  This powerful spell causes a section of earth to shake, and opens large
cracks in the ground.  A 17th level caster can affect an area  up  to  60'
square, adding 5' to each dimension with each experience level above 17th.
For example,  an 18th level cleric affects an area up to 65' square;  19th
level, 70' square; and so forth.
  Within the area of effect,  all small dwellings are reduced to  rubble,
and  larger  constructions  are  cracked open.  Earthen formations (hills,
cliffsides, etc.) form rockslides. Cracks in the earth may open and engulf
I  creature  in 6 (determined randomly),  crushing them (when the die roll
randomly determines that a character is in danger of falling into a  crack
and being crushed,  the character gets a saving throw vs.  death to escape
failing in).

Holy      Word
Range: 0
Duration:        Instantaneous
Effect: All creatures within 40'
  This spell affects all creatures, friend or foe, within a circular area
of 40' radius,  centered on the caster.  When the cleric casts this spell,
all creatures of alignments  other  than  the  cleric's  are  affected  as
follows (no saving throw vs. spells allowed):

Holy Word Effects
Up to 5th Level:            Killed
Level 6-8:                  Stunned 2d10 turns
Level 9-12:                 Deafened 1d6 turns
Level 13   +:               Stunned 1d10 rounds
 Any victim  of 13th level (or Hit Dice) or higher,  or any victim of the
same alignment as the caster,  may make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid
all spell effects.  This powerful spell cannot be blocked by stone, nor by
any other solid material except lead.  It can,  however,  be blocked by an
anti-magic shell.

Raise Dead Fully*
Range:     60'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Raises any living creature
  This spell is similar to the 5th level spell raise dead, except that it
can raise any living creature-not just humans and demihumans. Any human or
demihuman recipient awakens immediately, with full hit points, and is able
to fight,  use abilities, spells known, etc., without any penalties-except
those penalties the creature already possessed at the time of  death.  For
example,  a  victim  cursed  or  discased  at death would still suffer the
affliction when raised fully.
  If any other living creature (other than a human or demihuman)  is  the
recipient,  the  guidelines given in the raise dead spell apply (including
time limitations, rest needed, etc.).
 A 17th level cleric can use this spell on a human or demihuman body that
has  been  dead  up to 4 months;  for each level of experience above 17th,
this time increases 4 months.  Thus,  a 19th level cleric could cast raise
dead fully on a body that has been dead up to 12 months.
 The spell is fatal to undead.  Cast on an undead creature of 7 Hit  Dice
or  less,  the  spell immediately destroys the creature (no saving throw).
The spell forces an undead creature of 7 to 12 Hit Dice to make  a  saving
throw vs.  spells,  with a - 4 penalty to the roll;  if the creature fails
the roll, it is destroyed. The spell inflicts 6d10 (6-60) points of damage
upon an undead monster of more than 12 Hit Dice, but the victim may make a
saving throw vs. spells to take half damage.
 The reverse  of  this  spell  (obliterate) will affect a living creature
just as the normal form affects undead (destroy 7 Hit  Dice  or  less,  et
al.).  If cast at an undead creature of any type, obliterate has the sa-me
effect as a cureall would on a living creature (curing all but 1d6  points
of damage, or curing blindness of feeblemind, etc.).

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Restores 1 level lost to energy drain
 This spell restores one full level of energy (experience) to any  victim
who  has  lost  a  level  because  of  energy drain (for instance,  from a
vampire's attack).  It does not restore more than one level,  nor does  it
add  a  level if no level has been lost.  Furthermore,  the cleric casting
this spell loses one level of experience, as if struck by a wight when the
spell is cast; however, the cleric's loss is not permanent, and the cleric
need only rest for 2d10 (2-20) days to regain the lost experience.
 The reverse  of this spell,  life drain,  drains one level of experience
from the victim touched, just like the touch of a wight or wraith. Casting
the reversed spell causes no experience level loss to the cleric, nor does
it require any rest afterward,  but it is a Chaotic act, avoided by Lawful

Range: Touch
Duration: One hour per level of the caster
 Effect: Protects  one  creature against all non- magical damage from the
 Spell protects the recipient  from  adverse  conditions  of  all  types,
including normal heat or cold,  lack of air, and so forth. While the spell
is in effect,  the caster needs no air,  food,  water, or sleep. The spell
does  not  protect  against  magical  damage  of any type,  attack damage,
poisons, breath weapons, or physical blows from creatures. It does protect
against  all  damage  caused  by  natural  conditions  on  other planes of
 For example,  a cleric might use this spell:  in a desert or blizzard to
prevent damage from the natural  conditions;  underground  or  underwater,
enabling survival without air;  in space,  to magically survive in vacuum;
or on the elemental plane of Fire,  to protect  against  conditional  fire

Range: 0
Duration: One turn per level of the caster
Effect: Allows aerial or gaseous travel
 This spell allows the cleric to move quickly -and freely,  even  between
the  planes of existence.  The caster (only) may fly in the same manner as
given by the magic-user's spell,  at a rate of 360' (120'). The cleric can
also  enter  a nearby plane of existence,  simply by concentrating for one
round. He may enter a maximum of one plane per turn.
 The cleric may bring  one  other  creature  for  every  five  levels  of
experience  (rounded  down;  for example,  a 29th level cleric could bring
five other creatures on the journey). To bring others, he must touch them,
or they must touch him, while the spell is cast and the shift is made. Any
unwilling creature can make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the effect.
The  cleric  must  take  the  others  with  him-he  cannot send them while
remaining behind.
 While this spell is in effect, the caster (only) may assume gaseous form
by  concentrating  for  one full round.  (If he is interrupted,  no change
occurs.) Unlike the potion effect, all equipment carried also becomes part
of the same gaseous cloud.  In this form,  the caster may travel at double
the normal flying rate:  720' (240'). While gaseous, the cleric cannot use
items or cast spells,  but also cannot be damaged except by magic (weapons
or certain spells). Also, a gaseous being cannot pass through a protection
from evil spell effect or an anti-magic shell.

Range: Special
Duration: Special
Effect: Special
  A wish is the single most powerful spell a cleric can have. It is never
found on a scroll, but may be placed elsewhere (in a ring, for example) in
rare cases.  Only clerics of 36th level and with an 18 (or greater) Wisdom
score may cast the wish spell.
  Wording the Wish:  The player must say or  write  the  exact  wish  his
character  makes.  The  wording  is very important.  The wish will usually
follow the literal wording, and whatever the intentions of the cleric.
  The DM should try to maintain game balance,  being neither too generous
nor too stingy in deciding the effects of a wish.  Even  a  badly  phrased
wish,  made with good intentions,  may have good results.  However, if the
wish is greedy,  or made with malicious intent,  the DM should make  every
effort  to  distort  the  results of the spell so that the caster does not
profit from it.  If necessary, the DM can even disallow the wish; it would
then  have no effect.  Whenever a wish fails or is misinterpreted,  the DM
should explain (after the game) the problem or flaw in the phrasing.
  Here are some examples of faulty wishes:
 "I wish that I knew everything about this dungeon" could result  in  the
character knowing all for only a second, and then forgetting it.
  " I  wish for a million gold pieces" can be granted by having them land
on the character (that's 100,000 pounds of gold!), and then vanish.
 "I wish to immediately and permanently  possess  the  gaze  power  of  a
basilisk while retaining all of my own abilities and items" is a carefully
worded wish that's out of balance. Characters able to use these high-level
spells are already quite powerful. This wish could result in the character
growing a basilisk head in addition to the character's own head.
 A wish cannot be used to gain either  experience  points  or  levels  of
 Possible Effects:  A properly worded wish can substitute for  any  other
magical  spell  of 8th level or less,  or any clerical or druidic spell of
6th level or less,  at the DM's discretion.  This common use of a wish  is
more likely to succeed with little chance for error than other uses of the
spell.  Otherwise, if the wishes used to harm another creature, the victim
may make a saving throw vs.  spells. If the save is successful, the victim
takes half the ill effects and the other half rebounds on the caster  (who
may also save to avoid it, but with a -4 penalty to the roll). If the wish
will inconvenience someone without harming him (for  example,  by  causing
him to teleport into a prison cell), the victim gets no saving throw.
 A character  can use a wish to gain treasure,  up to a maximum of 50,000
gold pieces per wish.  However,  the caster loses 1 experience  point  per
gold  piece  value  of treasure gained,  and this loss cannot be magically
 The cleric can use a wish to temporarily change any one ability score to
a minimum of 3 or maximum of 18. This effect lasts for only six turns.
 Wishes can also be used to permanently increase ability scores,  but the
cost  is  very  high:  You  must  cast as many wishes as the number of the
ability score desired.  All the wishes must  be  cast  within  a  one-week
 You may  raise an ability score only one point at a time.  To raise your
Strength from 15 to 16 takes 16 wishes.  To then raise it to 17 will  take
an additional 17 wishes. Wishes cannot permanently lower ability scores.
 A wish cannot raise the maximum experience level for  human  characters;
36th level is an absolute limit. However, one wish can allow demihumans to
gain one additional Hit Die (for a new maximum of 9 for halflings,  11 for
elves,  and  13 for dwarves).  This affects only hit points,  and does not
change any other scores (such as attack rolls,  elves' number  of  spells,
A wish can change a demihuman to a human,  or the reverse.  Such a change
is  permanent,  and  the recipient does not become magical.  Halflings and
dwarves become fighters of the same level.  Elves  become  magic-users  or
fighters  (but  not  both),  at the choice of the caster of the wish.  The
changed character would then gain levels of experience normally.  A  human
changes to the same level demihuman,  but no higher than the normal racial
 If one character casts a wish to change another's character  class,  the
victim (at his option) may make a saving throw vs.  spells with a +5 bonus
to resist the change.
 A wish can sometimes change the results of a past  occurrence.  This  is
normally limited to events of the previous day.  A lost battle may be won,
or the losses may be made far less severe,  but impossible odds cannot  be
overcome completely.  A death could be changed to a neardeath survival;  a
permanent loss could be made temporary.  The DM may wish to advise players
when their wishes exceed the limit of the spell-power (or his patience).
 Important Note:  Whenever an effect is described as  being  unchangeable
"even with a wish," that statement supersedes all others here.
 Wishes can cause great problems if not handled properly. The DM must see
that wishes are reasonably limited or the balance  and  enjoyment  of  the
game  will be completely upset.  The DM should not allow wishes that alter
the basics of the game (such as a wish  that  dragons  can't  breathe  for
damage).  The  more  unreasonable and greedy the wish is,  the less likely
that the wish will become reality.

Range: 0 (cleric only)
Duration: One turn
Effect: Allows the use of one magic-user device or scroll spell

The cleric  using  this  spell  gains  the  power to use one item normally
restricted to magic-users:  either a device (such as a wand) or  a  scroll
containing  a  1st or 2nd level magic-user spell.  (The cleric cannot cast
spells of 3rd or higher level,  even though they may  be  present  on  the
 This ability lasts for one turn, or until the scroll or device is used.
The cleric magically gains knowledge of the proper use of the item,  as if
the character were a magic-user.  For  the  duration  and  effect  of  the
magic-user spell,  the caster is treated as the minimum level necessary to
cast the spell.

                          Druidic Spells

  Druids can  learn  and  cast  any  spell  that  a  cleric  can-with the
exception of spells that affect alignments (such as protection from evil.
  However, druids also have their own spells,  spells which  clerics  and
magic-users  cannot  utilize.  The  druid cannot cast more spells in a day
than a cleric, but he has the advantage of being able to learn spells from
two different sources, his own list and the cleric's spell list.
  Druidic spells  tend  to  concern  nature and the natural order of life
rather than combat or power like many of the clerical and magical  spells.
Druidic spells are also not reversible.

First Level Druidic Spells

Detect Danger
Range: 5' per level of the caster
Duration: One hour
Effect: Reveals hazards

  This spell combines some effects of detect evil and find  traps.  While
it  is  functioning,  the  druid  can concentrate on places,  objects,  or
creatures within range.  He needs a full round of concentration to examine
one  square  foot  of  area,  one creature,  or one small object (a chest,
weapon, or smaller item). Larger objects require more time.
  After he  examines  the  thing,  the  druid  will  know  whether  it is
immediately dangerous, potentially dangerous, or benign (all strictly from
the  druid's  point  of  view).  Note  that most creatures are potentially
dangerous. This spell will detect poisons, while other spells may not.
 The duration is a full hour when used in natural outdoor settings on the
Prime Plane; elsewhere, the duration is half normal (three turns).

Faerie Fire
Range: 60'
Duration: 1 found per level of caster
Effect: Illuminates creatures or objects

  With this spell, the druid can outtine one or more creatures or objects
with  a  pale,  flickering,  greenish fire.  The fire does not inflict any
damage.  The objects or creatures need only be detected in some way  (such
as by sight, or a detect invisible spell) to be the object of this spell.
  All attacks against the outlined creature or object gain a + 2 bonus to
attack  rolls.  The druid can outline one man-sized creature (about 12' of
fire) for each 5 levels of experience.  Thus,  at 20th level,  48' of fire
can be produced (outlining one dragon-sized creature,  two horse-sized, or
four man-sized creatures).

Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Detects 1 animal or plant within 120'

  This spell  allows the druid to sense the direction of one known normal
animal or plant. The druid can locate (similar to the locate object spell)
any  normal  or  giant-sized  animal,  but not fantastic creatures,  plant
monsters, nor any intelligent creature or plant.
  He must name the exact type of animal of plant,  but does not  need  to
see  the  specific  one  he wishes to locate.  The animal or plant gets no
saving throw. (This spell is most often used to find special rare plants.)

Predict Weather
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 12 hours
Effect: Gives knowledge of coming weather

  This spell enables the druid to learn the accurate weather to come  for
the next 12 hours.  It affects an area 1 mile in diameter per level of the
druid; for example, a 20th level druid would learn the weather within a 20
mile  diameter  (a 10 mile radius).  The spell does not give the druid any
control over the weather; it merely predicts what is to come.

Second Level Druidic Spells

Heat Metal
Duration: 7 rounds
Effect: Warms one metal object

  This spell causes one object to slowly heat  and  then  cool.  It  will
affect  one  metal  item weighing up to one-half pound (5 cn) per level of
the caster.  A 12th level druid,  for example, can heat up to 6 pounds (60
cn-a  normal  sword,  for instance),  while a 20th level druid can heat 10
pounds (100 cn-for example, a two-handed sword).
  The heat causes no damage to magical items.  Normal  weapons  or  other
items  may be severely damaged,  especially if made of both wood and metal
(as a normal lance),  as the wood will burn away at the point  of  contact
with metal.
   If the object is being held when heated, the heat causes damage to the
holder:  1 point of damage during the first round, 2 points in the second,
4 points in the third,  8 points in the fourth, and then decreasing at the
same rate (for a total of 22 points of heat damage over seven rounds).  In
the fourth round,  the searing heat will cause leather,  wood,  paper, and
other flammable objects in contact with the metal to catch fire.
  The holder  gets  no  saving  throw,  but  fire  resistance negates all
damage.  The character can drop the item  at  any  time,  of  course,  and
creatures of low intelligence are 80% likely to do so (check each round).
  Once the spell has been cast, the druid no longer needs to concentrate;
the heating and cooling proceed automatically. A dispel magic can stop the
effect, but normal means (immersion in water, etc.) will not.
  If the  spell  is  used  on an item embedded in an opponent (such as an
arrow or dagger),  the opponent may remove the item but  loses  initiative
for  that  round  (and takes the appropriate heat damage for that round as
  Heat damage disrupts  concentration;  the  victim  cannot  cast  spells
during any round in which he sustains damage from this spell.

Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 1 turn per level of the caster
Effect: Creates a huge misty cloud
 This spell causes a misty vapor to arise  from  the  ground  around  the
druid,  forming a huge cloud. The cloud is 1' high per level of the druid,
and is 10' in diameter for each level.  For example,  a 20th  level  druid
could cast an obscure 20' tall and 200' diameter (100' radius).  The cloud
has no ill effects except to block vision.
 The caster, and all creatures able to see invisible things, will be able
to see dimly through the cloud.  All other creatures within the cloud will
be  delayed  and  confused  by the effect.  While within the cloud,  these
creatures are effectively blind.

Produce    Fire
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 2 turns per level
Effect: Creates fire in hand

 This spell  causes a small flame to appear in the druid's hand.  It does
not harm the caster in any way,  and sheds light as if a normal torch. The
flame  can  be  used  to  ignite  combustible  materials  touched to it (a
lantern,  torch,  oil,  etc.) without harming  the  magical  flame.  While
holding  the  flame,  the caster can cause it to disappear and reappear by
concentration once per round,  until the duration ends. Other items may be
held and used in the hand while the fire is out.  If desired, the fire may
be dropped or thrown to a 30' range,  but disappears 1 round after leaving
the druid's hand. (Any fire it ignites during that round remains burning.)

Warp  Wood
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Causes wooden weapons to bend

 This spell  causes  one  or  more  wooden weapons to bend and (probably)
become useless.  The spell will affect one arrow for  each  level  of  the
caster;  treat a spear, javelin, or magical wand as two arrows' worth, and
any club,  bow or staff (magical or otherwise) as four. The spell will not
affect any wooden items other than weapons. If a magical wooden item (such
as an enchanted staff) is the target,  the wilder may make a saving throw
vs.  spells to avoid the effect.  Items carried but not held get no saving
throw;  magical items with "pluses" might not be affected, at a 10% chance
per  "plus."  (For  example,  an  arrow  +1 would have a 10%  chance to be

Third Level Druidic Spells

Call Lightning
Duration: 1 turn per level of the caster
Effect: Calls lightning bolts from a storm

  This spell cannot be used unless a storm of some (any) type  is  within
range of the druid. (This does not mean that he must be within the spell's
range of the storm cloud, but only that the stormy weather be taking place
within 360' of him.)
 If a storm is present,  the druid may call 1 lightning bolt per turn (10
minutes) to strike at any point within range.  The lightning bolt descends
from the sky, hitting an area 20' across.
Each victim  within  that area takes 8d6 (8-48) points of electrical damage,
but may make a saving throw vs.  spells to take half damage.  The druid need
not call the lightning every turn unless desired; it remains available until
the spell duration (or the storm) ends.

Hold Animal
Duration: I turn per level of the caster
Effect: Paralyzes several animals

  This spell  will  affect  any normal or giant-sized animal,  but will not
affect any fantastic creature,  nor one of greater than animal  intelligence
(2). Each victim must make a saving throw vs. spells or be paralyzed for the
duration of the spell.
The druid can affect 1 Hit Die of animals  for  each  level  of  experience,
ignoring  "plumes" to Hit Dice.  For example,  a 20th level druid could cast
the spell at I 0 giant toads (which have 2 + 2 Hit Dice each). Note that the
spell can affect summoned, conjured, or controlled animals.

Protection from Poison
Range: Touch
Duration: One turn per level of the caster
Effect: Gives one  creature  immunity  to  all  poison

For the duration of this spell,  the recipient is completely immune  to  the
effects  of poisons of all types,  including gas traps and cloudkill spells.
This protection extends to items carried (thus protecting against a spirit's
poisonous  presence,  for example).  Furthermore,  the recipient gains a + 4
bonus on saving throws vs.  poisonous breath weapons (such as  green  dragon
breath), but not petrification breath (such as a gorgon's).

Water Breathing
Duration: I day
Effect: One air-breathing creature

This spell allows the recipient to breathe while under water (at any depth).
It does not affect movement in any way,  nor  does  it  interfere  with  the
breathing of air.

Fourth Level Druidic Spells

Control Temperature 10' radius
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: I turn per level of the caster
Effect: Cools or warms air within 10'

This spell  allows  the  druid  to  alter the temperature within an area 20'
across.  The maximum change is 50 degrees  (Fahrenheit),  either  warmer  or
cooler.  The change occurs immediately, and the effect moves with the druid.
The druid may change the temperature simply by concentrating  for  I  round,
and  the  temperature  will  remain changed as long as the spell lasts.  The
spell is useful for resisting  cold  or  heat  so  the  caster  may  survive
temperature extremes.

Plant Door
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 1 turn per level of the caster
Effect: Opens a path through growth
  For the duration of  this  spell,  no  plants  can  prevent  the  druid's
passage,  no  matter  how  dense.  Even trees will bend or magically open to
allow the druid to pass.  The druid can freely carry equipment while  moving
through such barriers,  but no other creature can use the passage. Note that
a druid can hide inside a large tree after casting  this  spell.  The  druid
cannot see what is happening while he is in the tree.

Protection from Lightning
Range: Touch
Duration: 1 turn per level of the caster
Effect: Protects against lightning attack

Any recipient  of  this  spell  is  immune  to  a given amount of electrical
damage.  The druid's experience level determines the amount of  damage:  for
each level of experience,  one die (1d6) of damage is negated.  Subtract the
number of dice from the number of dice of damage that would be done to him.

Example: A  20th level druid casts this spell.  He is protected against 20d6
lightning damage.  For example,  this would negate the effects of  two  full
call lighting attacks (of 8 dice each)on him,  plus half of a third (8 + 8 +
4 = 20).  The third call lighting inflicts 4d6 points of damage on him  (but
he does get his saving throw against it),  and any subsequent call lightning
attacks made against him will do full damage.

Summon Animals
Duration: 3 turns
Effect: Calls and befriends normal animals

  With this spell,  the druid can summon any or all normal  animals  within
range.   Only  normal,  nonmagical  creatures  of  animal  intelligence  are
affected,  including mammals,  reptiles, amphibians, etc. The spell does not
affect insects, arthropods, humans, and demihumans. The druid may choose one
or more known animals, may call for specific types, or may summon everything
within  range.  The  total Hit Dice of the animals responding will equal the
level of the druid.  Treat normal small creatures (frogs,  mice,  squirrels,
small birds, etc.) as 1/10 Hit Die each. Animals affected will come at their
fastest movement rate,  and will understand the  druid's  speech  while  the
spell is in effect.  They will be friend and help the druid, to the limit of
their abilities. If harmed in any way, a summoned animal will normally flee,
the  spell broken for that animal.  However,  if the druid is being attacked
when a summoned animal arrives,  the  animal  will  immediately  attack  the
opponent,  fleeing  only if it fails a morale check.  This spell may also be
used to calm hostile animals encountered while adventuring.

Fifth Level Druidic Spells

Anti-Plant Shell
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: 1 round per level of the druid
Effect: Personal barrier which blocks plants

  This spell creates an invisible barrier around  the  druid's  body  (less
than  an inch away).  The barrier stops all attacks by plants and plant-like
monsters,  so that they can inflict no damage.  If the caster pushes through
normal but dense growth while protected, he will open a path that others can
pass through.
While protected,  the  druid  cannot  attack  plants except by spells;  the
plants are protected from the druid's physical attacks, just as the druid is
protected from theirs.

Control Winds
Range: 10' radius per level of the  caster
Duration: 1 turn per level of  the  caster
Effect: Calms or increases winds

With this  spell,  the druid can cause all the air within range to behave as
desired,  either increasing to gale force or slowing to  a  dead  calm.  The
druid  must  concentrate  for  one full turn of concentration (can't move or
attack) to change the wind completely (calm to gale, for example).
Any higher-level  spellcaster  using  the same spell can easily counter the
spell. The effect moves with the caster.
If the spell is cast against an air creature (such as  an  elemental),  the
victim can make a saving throw vs. spells. If the victim fails its roll, the
druid can slay or control the air creature by proper use of the wind  force.
The creature will only obey as long as the druid maintains concentration and
while the spell is active;  if the druid's concentration is  broken  or  the
spell's duration lapses, the creature will attack the druid.

Duration: 3-18 days
Effect: Liquefies 3,000 square feet

  Nearly identical to the 5th level magic-user spell of the same name, this
effect changes a volume of soil or rock (but not a construction) to a morass
of  mud.  An  area  up to 10' deep or thick is affected,  and may have up to
3,000 square feet of surface area.  The druid may choose the exact width and
length (20'x 150',  30'x 100',  etc.), but the entire area of effect must be
within 240' of the caster.  Creatures moving through the mud are  slowed  to
10% of their normal movement rate at best, and may become stuck (at the DM's
discretion,  a victim must make saving throw vs.  spells to  avoid  becoming

Pass Plant
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Short-range teleportation

With this spell,  the druid can enter one tree,  teleport,  and  immediately
step out of another tree of the same type. The trees must be large enough to
enclose the druid.  The range a druid can teleport varies  by  the  type  of
tree, as follows.

Oak                            600   yards
Ash, Elm, Linden, Yew          360   yards
Evergreen trees                240   yards
Other trees                    300   yards

Sixth Level Druidic Spells

Anti-Animal Shell
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: I turn per level of the caster
Effect: Personal barrier that blocks animals

 This spell creates an invisible barrier around the druid's body (less than
an  inch  away).  The barrier stops all attacks by animals,  both normal and
giant-sized,  as well as insects and all  other  nonfantastic  creatures  of
animal  intelligence  or  less (0-2).  The druid cannot attack animals while
protected except by use of other spells;  the animals are protected from the
druid's physical attacks, just as the druid is protected from theirs.

Summon Weather
Range: 5 miles or more
Duration: 6 turns per level
Effect: Brings weather to druid's area

 When the  druid  casts this spell,  some known nearby weather condition is
pulled to the druid's location.  The druid does  not  have  control  of  the
weather, but merely summons it.
 Only a  druid  of  a  5th  level  or  greater  may  summon  severe weather
(hurricane,  severe heat wave,  etc.).  The range of summoning is 5 miles at
levels 12 to 15,  adding 1 mile for each level of the caster above 15th.  (A
20th level druid could summon weather from up to 10 miles away.)

Transport Through Plants
Range: Infinite
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Long-range teleportation

 This spell may be used a maximum of once per day. The druid must be near a
plant (of any size), and must choose either a general location or a specific
known plant elsewhere.  After casting the spell,  the druid magically enters
the nearby plant and steps out of a plant at the destination (if  the  druid
could  not  specify  the  exact  plant,  he  appears from a plant determined
randomly by the DM).  There is no limit to the range,  but the  plants  must
both be living for the spell to work,  and must both be on the same plane of
existence.  If either plant is dead,  the spell fails. Otherwise, the caster
immediately  reappears  at  the  new location.  The caster can transport two
additional willing creatures.

Turn Wood
Range: 30'
Duration: One turn per level of the druid
Effect: Pushes all wooden items away

 This spell creates an invisible wave of force, 120' long and 60' tall. Its
midpoint  can  be  created  anywhere within 30' of the caster.  This wave of
force then immediately moves in one horizontal direction,  as  specified  by
the caster,  at the rate of 10' per round. If the druid desires, he can stop
the wave of force at any time, but cannot thereafter move it again.
 All wooden objects contacting or contacted by the  wave  of  force  become
stuck  to  it and move with it.  The wave of force continues moving until it
reaches the maximum range of 360 feet,  and stops there for the remainder of
the  spell  duration.  The  items  caught are not harmed by the effect,  but
wooden weapons (bows, crossbows, most spears and javelins, etc.) and magical
items (wands, staves, etc.) cannot be used while trapped in the effect.
 Once created,  the wave of force does not require concentration.  However,
the  caster may cause it to vanish before the duration ends by concentrating
for one round.
  This spell has many useful applications during  mass  combat  (against  a
group  of  archers  or  siege  engines) and waterborne adventures (to move a
ship).  It will move wooden objects which have metal  attachments  (such  as
treasure chests). However, it will not move permanent constructions (such as
buildings,  including objects permanently attached to them such as doors) or
other secured objects (such as trees).

Seventh Level Druidic                   Spells

Creeping Doom
Duration: 1 round per level of the caster
Effect: Creates a 20' x 20' insect horde

 This spell  magically  creates  a  huge  swarm  of 1,000 creeping insects,
appearing anywhere within 120' of the druid (as chosen by the caster).  They
fill an area at least 20'x 20',  and can be ordered to fill any area up to a
maximum of 60' x 60'.
 The creeping  doom can move at up to 60'(20') if the caster remains within
120' of any part of the swarm.  They vanish  after  the  duration  ends,  or
whenever the druid is more than 120' away.
  The insects   always  attack  everyone  and  everything  in  their  path,
inflicting I point of damage per 10 insects, a total of 100 points per round
to  each  creature  caught  in the effect (no saving throw).  Normal attacks
(such as fire) can damage the horde slightly, but even a fireball spell will
only  slay 100 of them (reducing the damage accordingly).  The creeping doom
can be destroyed by a dispel magic spell (at normal  chances  for  success),
but  it can penetrate a protection from evil effect,  and can move over most
obstacles at the normal movement rate.

Metal to Wood
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Changes metal into dead wood

 This spell  can  be used to change any metal item or items into wood.  The
spell can transmute five pounds (50 cn weight) per level of the caster.  Any
magical metal item is 90%  resistant to the magic.  The effect is permanent,
and the affected metal cannot be changed back with a dispel magic spell. Any
armor  changed to wood falls off the wearer and any weapons affected turn to
nonmagical wooden clubs.

Summon Elemental
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Summons one 16 HD elemental

  This spell allows the caster to summon any one elemental per  spell  (see
Chapter  14).  The druid may only summon one of each type of elemental (air,
earth,  fire,  water) in one day.  The elemental will understand the druid's
spoken  commands  and  will  perform  any  tasks within its power (carrying,
attacking, etc.) as directed by the caster.
   Unlike the magic-user's version of the spell, the druid does not need to
concentrate to control the creature.  The caster may send it back to its own
plane with a simple command, and someone else may send it back by the use of
a dispel magic or dispel evil spell.

Weather Control
Range: 0 (druid only)
Duration: Concentration
Effect: All weather within 240 yards

  This spell  allows  the  druid to create one special weather condition in
the surrounding area (within a 240 yard radius).  The caster may select  the
weather  condition.  The  spell  only  works outdoors,  and the weather will
affect all creatures in the area (including the caster).  The effects  lasts
as long as the caster concentrates,  without moving;  if the caster is being
moved (for example,  aboard a ship),  the effect  moves  also.  The  spell's
effects vary, but the following results are typical:
  Rain: -  2  penalty  to  attack rolls applies to all missile fire.  After
three turns,  the ground becomes muddy, reducing movement to half the normal
  Snow: Visibility  (the  distance  a  creature can see) is reduced to 20';
movement is reduced to half the normal rate.  Rivers and streams may  freeze
over. Mud remains after the snow thaws, for the same movement penalty.
   Fog: 20' visibility,  half normal movement.  Those within the fog  might
become lost, moving in the wrong direction.
  Clear: This  cancels  bad  weather  (fain,  snow,  fog) but not secondary
effects (such as mud).
  Intense Heat:  Movement reduced to half normal.  Excess water (from rain,
snow, mud transmuted from rock, etc.) dries up.
  High Winds:  No missile fire or flying is possible.  Movement reduced  to
half normal.  At sea,  ships sailing with the wind move 50%  faster.  In the
desert,  high winds create a sandstorm,  for half normal  movement  and  20'
  Tornado: This creates a whirlwind under the druid control,  attacking and
moving as if it was a 12 HD air elemental.  At sea,  treat the tornado as  a
storm or gale.

Magical Spells
Casting Magical Spells

   Spells used by magic-users and elves are somewhat different  from  those
used  by  clerics  and  druids,  both in their effects and the ways they are
learned and used.

Spell Books
  When a magic-user or elf begins play at first level,  he  starts  with  a
spell book, given to him by his teacher. The spell book will contain two 1st
level spells.  The Dungeon Master will tell you what spells  your  character
starts with.
  The spell book is large and bulky, and cannot be easily carried (about 2'
square,  2-6 inches thick,  weighing at least 20 pounds).  It will  not  fit
inside a normal sack of any size, but may be
carried in a backpack or saddlebag.  All spell books are written in  magical
words,  and  only  their  owners  may read them without using the read magic
spell (described later).
  As previously discussed,  the magic-user or elf forgets each spell as  he
casts it.  This is why he has a spell book:  He can memorize the spell again
later and have it available to him once more.
On the magic-user and elf  experience  tables,  the  "Spells/Level"  columns
indicate  how  many spells of each level the character can have memorized at
one time.  This doesn't limit the number of spells the character can have in
his  spell books.  For example,  a fourth level magic-user can memorize four
spells-two 1st level and two 2nd level.  But his spell book might have  more
spells  written  in  it.  He  might have six 1st level spells written in his
book,  for instance,  and he might have three 2nd level spells. He can still
only memorize two of each type in a day.

Learning New Spells
  Every magic-user and elf was taught magic by someone else-normally,  by a
nonplayer  character  spellcaster  of 7th experience level or higher.  Your
campaign can assume that magic-user and elf characters have such a  teacher,
whom they visit and learn from whenever they're not adventuring.  The DM may
wish to work this NPC into  a  full-fledged  character  who  can  appear  in
adventures as a consultant or expert.
  The PCs' teacher does not go on adventures not until the characters reach
or exceed his experience level,  and only then if  the  DM  wishes  him  to.
Otherwise,  the player characters would have a very powerful ally along, one
who would solve most of their adventuring problems.
When the  player  character begins play,  the teacher gives him a spell book
with two 1st level spells in it.  When the PC reaches 2nd level, the teacher
writes  another 1st level spell in the book.  When the PC reaches 3rd level,
the teacher will write a 2nd level spell in his book,  and when  he  reaches
4th level the teacher will give him one more 2nd level spell.

  In many  campaigns,  that's  the  point  at  which  the   teacher   stops
instructing  the  character.  The  character  has  gone  from  apprentice to
journeyman, and now he must journey in order to learn more of magic.
So, where  can  PCs  learn more spells?  They have several options,  and may
explore any or all of them during their careers.
  Other Magic-Users:  By  ancient   tradition-of   necessity   and   common
sense-magic-users   are  loathe  to  trade  spells  among  themselves.  Each
magic-user knows that he may become a very powerful wizard some day ...  and
that  he  may end up being the enemy of another wizard of similar power.  No
wizard wants to teach the other fellow magic that  can  kill  him.  This  is
something  the  DM should reinforce in his campaign:  If he finds characters
casually trading spells from their spell books, he should remind them of the
traditions  of  secrecy,  of  the  good reasons for that tradition,  of the
paranoia that infects the magic-  users'  community,  and  so  on.  If  they
decline  to  accept  his  recommendation,  their  characters  may  pick up a
reputation-as  magic-users  who  can't  keep  their  trade   secret.   Other
spellcasters, perhaps even their old teachers, will refuse to teach them and
will take special pains to keep their magic hidden from  them.  Higher-level
magic-  users  may  even  decide to steal or destroy the PCs' spell books to
teach them a lesson-forcing them to work for many boring weeks or months  to
reconstruct them (see "Lost Spell Books," below).
  But that's casual exchanges of spells. It's known for magic-users to give
spells  to  PCs  in more remarkable circumstances.  For instance,  low-level
spellcasters might do a great favor for  a  high-level  magician  (save  his
child,  undertake a special quest for him and demonstrate remarkable bravery
while carrying it out,  etc.).  In  such  a  case,  it  is  not  necessarily
inappropriate for the NPC to reward the PC with a spell.
  The Teacher:  Once the player character reaches 4th experience level, his
teacher doesn't have to leave play entirely.  The PC might be able to  visit
and  train  with  him  from time to time,  and the teacher could continue to
teach him spells.
  But since the PC is a journeyman now,  the teacher might also require him
to undertake specific tasks ("Now, I need you to take this flask to Esdevius
in far-off Parokaland .  . . and don't let the dragon get you.") in order to
remain  his  student.  While the PC could continue learning spells this way,
the teacher should not be his only source  for  new  spells;  he  should  be
learning others as he adventures.
Scrolls: One  magical  treasure sometimes found in adventures is the magical
scroll.  Some scrolls have magic-user spells written upon them. A magic-user
can  use  the  scroll by casting the spell from it-in which case the written
spell disappears as soon as it is cast.  Or, he can transfer it to his spell
book  (during  this process,  the spell disappears from the scroll),  and he
will have gained a new spell.
  Enemy Magic-Users:  Should  the  PCs  encounter  and  defeat   an   enemy
magic-user, the PC magic-user might try to help himself to the enemy's spell
book.  The DM should make sure that the spell book has many spells which are
identical  to  those  in  the  PC's spell book:  Most magic- users have many
spells in common, especially the lower-level spells. The PC should gain only
one or two new spells out of such an encounter.  A new spell is a rare find,
and a spell book is an even rarer treasure; the books are always well hidden
and  protected.  PCs  using someone else's spell book may find magical traps
and curses within before they find any new spells.

Higher-level Spells
A magic-user  cannot  put into his spell book a spell of a higher-level than
he can cast.  In other words,  if he can't yet cast a 3rd  level  spell,  he
certainly can't write one in his spell book.

Lost Spell Books
A magic-user or elf whose spell book is  lost  or  destroyed  cannot  regain
spells  until  he replaces the spell book.  He can't just read from somebody
else's spell book.  He can recreate the spells from memory and research  ...
but it takes a lot of money and a lot of time.
  The method,  amount  of time,  and cost it takes to recreate a spell book
are for the DM to decide.  Here's a rough guideline:  1,000 gold pieces  and
one  week  of  study for each spell level replaced.  (For example,  each 3rd
level spell would require 3,000 gp and three  weeks  to  reconstruct).  This
reconstruction   takes   up  an  the  character's  time,  leaving  none  for
adventuring.  A character can make a second spell book to leave  in  a  safe
place in case his primary book is destroyed.  This doesn't take all the time
and money which reconstruction of spells requires; a magic-user of elf could
copy four spells a day from his primary spell book to his "backup."

The Player Character's Spell Book
  Both the player and the DM need to keep track of exactly which spells are
in a character's spell book.  Both people can keep track of which spells the
character  h-as  had  access  to;  the player can keep track of the ones the
character acquires. If ever there's a difference in the two spell lists, the
player  should  be  able to remember where the char-acter acquired the extra
spells; if the explanation doesn't satisfy the DM, he's may remove the spell
from  the character's spell book.  Appendix 3 provides a copyable spell book
sheet,  on which players can keep the name  and  description  of  all  their
characters' spells.

Reversible Spells

Unlike clerical  spells,  magical spells must be memorized in their reversed
form to be usable in that form.  The spellcaster must select the  normal  or
reversed form of the spell when he memorizes the spell for the day.  There's
no problem to memorizing a spell in reversed form; if the spell
can  be  reversed,  the  magic-user  knows  how  to
memorize it that way.
  Of course, a magic-user could memorize it once in normal form and once in
reversed form.  For example,  if a spellcaster has a light spell in a  spell
book, the character could memorize both light and darkness for an adventure.
In the spell lists below,  all spells which can be reversed are marked  with
an asterisk

First Level Magical Spells

Range: 0 (touch only)
Duration: 1 round
Effect: Analyzes magic on one item

  A spellcaster  using  this  spell  can  handle  one  item  and  learn the
enchantment on it.  Helms must be put on the Spellcasters head, swords held
in his hand, bracelets put over his wrist,  etc. for this spell to work. Any
consequences of this action (for example,  from  cursed  or  booby-  trapped
objects) fall upon the spellcaster, though he gets his usual saving throws.

The spellcaster has a chance  of  15%  plus  5%  per  experience  level  to
determine one magical characteristic of the item; if the item is nonmagical,
his chance is to determine that fact.

  The spell does not reveal much precise information.  It will characterize
a weapon's pluses (attack bonus) as  "many"  or  "few,"  will  estimate  the
number of charges on an item within 25 % of the actual number, etc.

Charm Person
Duration: See below
Effect: One living person (see below)

  This spell  will  only  affect  humans,  demihumans,  and   certain   other
creatures. The victim
is allowed a saving throw vs. spells. If the saving throw is successful, the
spell has  no  effect.  If  it  falls, the  victim  will  believe  that  the
spellcaster  is  its "best friend," and will try to defend the spell- caster
against any threat, whether real or imagined. The victim is charmed.
  As a general rule, the spell only affects creatures which look similar to
humans in various ways-humans,  demihumans,  certain giant- class creatures,
etc. It will not affect animals, magical creatures (such as living statues),
undead monsters, or human-like creatures larger than ogres.
  If the  spellcaster  can  speak  a  language  that  the  charmed   victim
understands,  the  spellcaster  may give orders to the victim.  These orders
should sound like suggestions,  as if "just between  friends."  The  charmed
victim will usually obey, but the victim may resist orders that are contrary
to the victim's nature (alignment and habits) -  he  doesn't  need  to  roll
anything to resist. A victim will refuse to obey if ordered to kill itself.
  A charm  may  last  for months.  The victim may make another saving throw
every so often, depending on its Intelligence score.

Charm Person Duration
If the Victim Has:             He Saves Every:
High Intelligence (13-18):     1 day
Average Intelligence (9-12):   1 week
Low Intelligence (3-8):        1 month

A more  complex system for determining the duration of a charm spell appears
in Chapter 13, on page 144.
  A victim who is given conflicting  orders  and  impressions  by  his  old
adventuring  friends  and  his  new "best friend" should react as any person
would in real life:  with confusion.  He will not automatically assume  that
one party or the other is lying ... even if the player wants him to.
The charm is automatically broken if the spell- caster attacks  the  victim,
whether by spell or by weapon. The victim will fight normally if attacked by
the spellcaster's allies.

Detect Magic
Range: 0
Duration: 2 turns
Effect: Everything within 60'

  When he casts this spell,  the spellcaster will see a glow  surround  all
magical objects, creatures, and places which are visible and within range of
the spell. No saving throw is allowed.
Example: Shortly after casting this spell,  a magic-user walks into  a  room
containing  a  door  locked by magic,  a magical potion lying nearby,  and a
treasure chest containing a magical wand.  All the magic will glow,  but the
spellcaster can see only the door and potion;  the light of the glowing wand
is hidden by the treasure chest.

Floating Disc
Range: 0
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Disc remains within 6'

  This spell  creates  an  invisible  magical horizontal platform about the
size and shape of a small round shield.  It can carry up  to  5000  cn  (500
pounds).  It  cannot be created in a place occupied by a creature or object.
The floating disc is created at the height of the spellcaster's  waist,  and
will  always  remain  at  that  height.  It  will  automatically  follow the
spellcaster at his current movement rate,  remaining within 6' of him at all
times. It can  never be used as a weapon,  because it has no solid existence
and veers away from anything it might run into.  When the duration ends, the
floating disc will disappear,  suddenly dropping anything upon it. No saving
throw is allowed.

Hold Portal
Range: 10'
Duration: 2-12 (2d6) turns
Effect: One door, gate, or similar portal

This spell will magically hold shut any portal-for example,  a door or gate.
A knock spell will open the hold portal. Any creature three or more Hit Dice
greater than the caster (and characters three or  more  levels  higher)  may
break open a held portal in one round, but the portal will relock if allowed
to close within the duration of the spell.  Example: Any 5th level character
can break through a hold portal spell cast by a 2nd level spellcaster.

Range: 120'
Duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/ level of the caster
Effect: Volume of 30' diameter

This spell creates a large ball of light, much like a bright torchlight. If
the spell is cast on an object (such as a coin),  the light will  move  with
the  object.  If cast at a creature's eyes,  the creature must make a saving
throw vs.  spells.  If he fails the saving throw, the victim will be blinded
by  the  light  until  the  duration ends (see page 150,  for the effects of
blindness).  If he makes the saving throw,  the light  appears  in  the  air
behind the intended victim.
When reversed,  this spell,  darkness,  creates a circle of darkness 30' in
diameter. It will block all sight except infravision. Darkness will cancel a
light  spell  if  cast  upon it (but may itself be canceled by another light
spell).  If cast at an  opponent's  eyes,  it  will  cause  blindness  until
canceled,  or  until  the  duration ends;  as before,  the victim does get a
saving throw.

Magic Missile
Duration: 1 round
Effect: Creates 1 or more arrows

A magic  missile  is  a  glowing  arrow,  created and shot by magic,  which
inflicts 1d6 + 1 (2-7) points of damage to any creature  it  strikes.  After
the  spell  is  cast,  the  arrow appears next to the spellcaster and hovers
there (moving with him) until the spellcaster causes it to shoot. When shot,
the  magic  missile  will  automatically  hit  any  one  visible  target the
spellcaster specifies.  The magic missile actually has no  solid  form,  and
cannot be touched. A magic missile never misses its target and the target is
not allowed a saving throw.
  For every  5  levels  of experience of the caster,  two more missiles are
created by the same spell.
 Thus a  6th  level spellcaster may create three missiles.  The spellcaster
may shoot the missiles all at one target or at different targets.

Protection from Evil
Range: 0
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: The spellcaster only

  This spell  creates  an  invisible  magical  barrier   all   around   the
spellcaster's  body  (less  than  an  inch  away).  All  attacks against the
spellcaster are penalized by - I to their attack rolls,  and the spellcaster
gains a + I bonus to all saving throws, while the spell lasts.
  In addition,  enchanted  creatures  cannot  attack  the  spellcaster   in
hand-to-hand  or  melee  combat.  (An  enchanted creature is one that normal
weapons cannot hurt;  only magical weapons can hit the creature.  A creature
that  can  be only hit by a silver weapon-a werewolf,  for example-is not an
enchanted creature.  Any creature that is magically summoned or  controlled,
such  as  a  charmed  character,  is  also  considered  to  be  an enchanted
  The barrier thus completely prevents all  attacks  from  those  creatures
unless they use missile weapons; the barrier is no defense against missiles,
though the attackers still suffer the attack roll penalties.
  This spell will not affect a magic missile,  either incoming or outgoing.
If the  spellcaster  attacks  (hand-to-hand)  anything  during  the  spell's
duration,  the effect changes slightly. Enchanted creatures are then able to
touch the spellcaster,  but the attack roll  and  saving  throw  adjustments
still apply until the spell duration ends.

Read Languages
Range: 0
Duration: 2 turns
Effect: The spellcaster only

  This spell will allow the spellcaster to read,  not  speak,  any  unknown
languages or codes,  including treasure maps,  secret symbols, and so forth,
until the duration ends.

Read Magic
Range: 0
Duration: 1 turn
Effect: The spellcaster only

  This spell will allow the spellcaster to read,  not  speak,  any  magical
words  or  runes,  such  as  those  found  on  scrolls  and  other items.  A
spellcaster cannot understand unfamiliar magic writings without  using  this
spell.  However,  once  a  spell-  caster  reads a scroll or runes with this
spell,  he can read or speak that magic later without  using  a  spell.  All
spell  books  are  written in magical words,  and only their owners may read
them without using this spell.

Range: 0
Duration: 2 turns
Effect: The spellcaster only

  This spell  creates  a  magical  barrier all around the spellcaster (less
than an inch away). It moves
with the spellcaster. While the duration lasts, the spellcaster has an AC of
2 against missiles,  and AC 4 against all other attacks. If someone shoots a
magic missile at a spell- caster protected by this  spell,  the  spellcaster
may  make a saving throw vs.  spells (one saving throw per missile).  If the
saving throw is successful,  the magic missile has no effect;  it  hits  the
barrier and evaporates.

Duration: 4d4 (4-16) turns
Effect: 2-16 Hit Dice of living creatures within a 40' square area

This spell will put creatures to sleep for up  to  16  turns. It  will  only
affect  creatures with 4 + 1 Hit Dice or less-generally,  small or man-sized
creatures.  The spell will not affect creatures outside the 40' x  40'  area
which the player chooses as the spell's target area. The spell will not work
against undead or very large creatures, such as dragons.
  When a character is first hit with a sleep spell,  falling or sagging  to
the  ground  will not wake him up.  However,  characters affected by a sleep
spell are not in a deep sleep.  Any  steeping  character  or  creature  will
awaken if slapped, kicked, orsha-ken.
  Characters can kill a sleeping victim with a single  blow  of  any  edged
weapon, regardless of the creature's hit points.
Your Dungeon  Master  will roll 2d8 to find the total Hit Dice or experience
levels of monsters affected by the spell.  The victims get no  saving  throw
against this spell.

Duration: 2 turns
Effect: One item or location

This spell will allow the spellcaster to make the sound of his or her  voice
come from somewhere else,  such as a statue,  animal,  a dark corner, and so
forth. The "somewhere else" must be within range of the spell.

Second Level Magical  Spells

Continual Light*
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Volume  of  60'  diameter

  This spell creates a globe of light 60' across.  It is much brighter than
a torch,  but not as bright as full  daylight.  It  will  continue  to  glow
forever, or until it is magically removed. It may be cast on an object, just
as the first level light spell.  If cast at a creature's  eyes,  the  victim
must  make  a  saving throw vs.  spells.  If he fails the saving throw,  the
victim is blinded-permanently,  or until the spell is dispelled. If he makes
the saving throw,  the globe will still appear, but will remain in the place
it was cast, and the intended victim will suffer no ill effects.
The reverse of this spell,  continual darkness, creates a volume of complete
darkness in a 30' radius. Torches, lanterns, and even a light spell will not
affect  it,  and  infravision  cannot penetrate it.  If cast on a creature's
eyes,  the creature must make a saving throw vs.  spells or be blinded until
the spell is removed. A continual light spell will cancel its effects.

Detect Evil
Duration: 2turns
Effect: Everything within 60'

  When this  spell  is  cast,  the spellcaster will see a glow surround all
evilly-enchanted objects within 60'.  It will also cause creatures that want
to  harm  the  spellcaster  to  glow when they are within range.  The spell,
however,  does not allow the spellcaster to hear the actual thoughts of  the
  Remember that Chaotic alignment is not automatically the  same  as  evil,
although  many  Chaotic monsters have evil intentions.  Traps and poison are
neither good nor evil, but merely dangerous.

Detect Invisible
Range: 10' per level of the spellcaster
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: The spellcaster only

When this  spell  is cast,  the spellcaster can see all invisible creatures
and  objects  within  range.  The  range  is  10'  for  each  level  of  the
For example,  a 3rd level spellcaster can use this spell to  see  invisible
things within 30'.

Duration: I round per level
Effect: Controls ropes

This spell allows the spellcaster to use any rope-like object of  living  or
once-living material (roots,  vines, leather ropes, plant-fiber ropes, etc.)
to behave as he or she orders.  About 50' of normal 1/2" diameter vine  plus
5' per level of the caster can be affected.
  The commands which can be given during an entangle  spell  include:  coil
(form a neat stack),  coil and knot,  loop, loop and knot, tic and knot, and
the reverses of all the above.  The vine or rope must be within  1'  of  any
object  it  is  to coil around or tie up,  so it must often be thrown at the
target.  This spell is very useful in climbing situations; a spellcaster can
toss  a  rope up the side of a wall or cliff and command it to loop and knot
itself around a  projection  at  the  height  of  the  throw.  Coiling  knot
effectively ties up a victim.
  A person of monster attacked by any use of the spell may  make  a  saving
throw vs. spells to avoid the effects of the entangle.

Duration: 12 turns
Effect: All thoughts in one direction

This spell  will  allow the spellcaster to "hear" thoughts.  The spellcaster
must concentrate in one direction for six rounds (one minute)  to  hear  the
thoughts (if any) of a creature within range.
  The spell allows the spellcaster to understand the thoughts of any single
living creature,  regardless of the language.  The spell does not allow  the
caster  to hear the thoughts of undead creatures.  If more than one creature
is within range and in  the  direction  the  caster  is  concentrating,  the
spellcaster  will "hear" a confused jumble of thoughts.  The spellcaster can
sort out the jumble only by concentrating for an extra six rounds to find  a
single creature.
  ESP will  not  be  hampered  by  any  amount of wood or liquid,  and will
penetrate as much as two feet of rock, but a thin coating of lead will block
the  spell.  Targets  can  make a saving throw vs.  spell to avoid the spell
  The reverse of this spell,  mindmask,  may be cast,  by touch, on any one
creature.  The  recipient is completely immune to ESP and all other forms of
mind-reading for the spell duration.

Duration: Permanent until broken
Effect: One creature or object

  This spell will make  any  one  creature  or  object  invisible.  When  a
creature becomes invisible,  all items that he carries and wears also become
invisible.  Any invisible item becomes visible  again  when  it  leaves  the
creature's possession (dropped,  set down,  etc.). A light source (such as a
torch) may be made invisible,  but the light given off  will  always  remain
If the spellcaster makes an object invisible that is not being  carried  or
worn, it will become visible again when touched by any living creature.
An invisible creature will remain invisible until  he  or  she  attacks  or
casts any spell.

Duration: See below
Effect: One lock or bar

  This spell will open any type of lock. This spell will open any normal or
magically locked door (one affected by a hold portal or wizard lock  spell),
and  any  secret  door  (but  a  secret  door must be found before it can be
knocked open).  Any locking magic will remain, however, and will take effect
once again when the door is closed.  This spell will also unlock a gate,  or
unstuck it if it is stuck, and will cause any treasure chest to open easily.
It will also cause a barred door to open,  magically forcing the bar to fall
to the floor.  If a door is locked and barred, only one type of lock will be

  Duration: 6 turns + 1 turn/ level of the caster
  Effect: The spellcaster only

  When this spell is cast,  the spellcaster may move up or down in the  air
without any support.  This spell does not, however, allow the spellcaster to
move from side to side.  For example,  a spellcaster  could  levitate  to  a
ceiling,  and  then  could slowly move sideways by pushing and pulling.  His
movement up or down is at the rate of 20' per found.
 The spell cannot be cast on another person or object.  The spellcaster may
carry a normal
amount of  weight  while  levitating,  up  to  2,OOO cn (200 lbs) in weight,
possibly another mansized creature (if it isn't wearing  metal  armor).  Any
creature  smaller  than man-sized can be carried,  unless heavily laden.  No
saving throw is allowed.

Locate Object
Range: 60' + 10' per level of the spellcaster
Duration:  2 turns
Effect: One object within range

 The spellcaster  casts  this  spell  to  find an object within the spell's
range.  For this spell to work,  the spellcaster must know exactly what  the
object  looks  like.  He  can specify a common type of object,  such as "any
flight of stairs," instead.
 The spell will point to the nearest designated object within range, giving
the direction but not the distance.
 The spell's range increases as the spellcaster gains levels of experience.
For example,  a 2nd level spellcaster can locate objects up to 80'  away;  a
3rd level spellcaster, up to 90'.

Mirror Image
Range: 0
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: The spellcaster only

 With this  spell,  the  spellcaster  creates  1d4 (1- 4) additional images
which look and act exactly like him.  The images appear and remain  next  to
(within 3' of) the spellcaster,  moving if the spellcaster moves, talking if
the spellcaster talks,  and so forth.  The spellcaster need not concentrate;
the images will remain until the duration ends, or until they are hit.
 The images are not real,  and cannot actually do anything.  Any successful
attack on the spellcaster will strike an image instead,  which  will  merely
cause  that  image  to  disappear  (regardless  of the actual damage);  this
continues until all the images are dispelled.  (If the spellcaster is caught
in the effect of an area-type attack,  such as a fireball spell,  all images
will disappear and the spellcaster will be affected by the spell.)

Phantasmal Force
Duration: Concentration (see below)
Effect: A volume 20'x 20'x 20'

  This spell creates or changes appearances of everything within  the  area
affected.  The  spell- caster can create the illusion of something he or she
has seen.  If not,  the DM will give a bonus to the saving throws  of  those
trying  to ignore the spell's effects.  If the spellcaster does not use this
spell to attack,  the illusion created by this  spell  will  disappear  when
 If the spellcaster uses the spell to create the illusion of a monster,  it
will appear in every way to be the monster in question. However, the monster
is AC 9 and will disappear when hit.
 If the spellcaster uses the spell to create an attack (a phantasmal magic
missile,  collapsing  wall,  etc.),  the  victim may make a saving throw vs.
spells;  if he is successful,  the victim is not affected, and realizes that
the attack is an illusion.
  The phantasmal force will remain as long as the spellcaster concentrates.
If the spellcaster moves,  takes any damage,  or fails any saving throw, his
concentration is broken and the phantasm disappears.
  This spell never inflicts any real damage.  Those  "killed"  by  it  will
merely fall unconscious,  those "turned to stone" will be paralyzed,  and so
forth.  The effects wear off in 1d4 turns.  If the character does  make  his
saving throw to realize that the attack is an illusion, the damage sustained
disappears immediately.

Duration: 48 turns
Effect: A volume 10'x 10'x 10'

  This spell  creates  a  mass  of  sticky  strands  which are difficult to
destroy except with flame.  It usually blocks the area affected.  Giants and
other  creatures with great strength can break through a web in 2 rounds.  A
human of Average Strength (a score of 9-12) will take  2d4  (2-8)  turns  to
break through the web.  Flames (from a torch,  for example) will destroy the
web in 2 rounds,  but all creatures within the web will be  burned  for  1-6
(1d6)  points  of damage.  Anyone wearing gaunts    of ogre power (a magical
treasure) can break free of a web in 4 rounds.

Wizard Lock
Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: One portal of lock

 This spell is a more powerful version of a hold portal spell. It will work
on any lock,  not merely doors,  and will last forever (or  until  magically
dispelled). However, a knock spell can open the wizard lock.
 The wizard who cast the wizard lock  can  easily  open  the  door  he  has
enchanted,  as  can  any  magic-using character or creature of three or more
levels (or Hit Dice) greater than the caster. This sort of door-opening does
not remove the magic, and the magical lock will relock when allowed to close
(just as with the hold portal spell).

Third Level Magical Spells

Duration: 12 turns
Effect: See through another's eyes

 With this  spell,  the  caster  may  see  through  the  eyes of any single
creature in spell range.
 "Seeing" through  a  creature's eyes takes one full turn,  after which the
caster can change to another creature,  even one in  another  direction;  he
does  not have to cast the spell again to do so.  Two feet of rock or a thin
coating of lead blocks the  effects  of  this  spell.  No  saving  throw  is

Create Air
Range: Immediate area, 8,000 cu. ft.
Duration: I hour per level of caster
Effect: Provides breathable air

 This spell  provides  breathable air,  especially in areas where otherwise
there is none to be had. It is cast on a volume of 8,000 cubic feet (such as
a  20' x 20' x 20' room) and,  while it is in effect,  everyone in that area
has good air to breathe.
 Customarily, it's used when dungeon explorers are  trapped  where  air  is
running out. When cast in this fashion, the spell effect stays in one place;
it does not move with the caster.
 However, it does not have to be cast in only that way;  it can be cast  on
enclosed  vehicle interiors (such as the below-deck areas of ships),  living
creatures,  or pieces of equipment.  When it is so  cast,  it  will  provide
pressurized  air  for  the duration of the spell effect,  and the spell will
travel with the vehicle on which it is cast.
 The spell may be cast upon one person,  whereupon he can breathe normally.
It's not the same as water breathing,  though-if he dives underwater, he can
still breathe,  but great quantities of air are always bubbling up from him,
making stealthy travel an impossibility.
 The spell  may  be  cast upon a specific piece of equipment like a helmet,
and whichever one person wears it may breathe normally. If the helmet is not
fully enclosed (i.e.,  airtight),  air will lack out from it under pressure;
underwater this makes stealthy movement impossible.
 A flying  creature  on  which  this  spell is cast can not only breathe in
hostile environments,  it can fly through airless void.  This means  that  a
pegasus-rider  could  cast one spell on himself and one on his pegasus,  and
then the two of them could fly into the ether of outer space.
  The spell  does  not  protect  people  from  the effects of poison gasses
unless the gas in question is a normal component of the atmosphere.

Dispel Magic
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Destroys smells in a 20' cube

  This spell destroys other spell effects in a cubic volume  of  20'x  20'x
20'.  It  does  not affect magical items.  Spell effects created by a caster
(whether cleric,  druid,  magic-user,  or elf) of a level equal to or  lower
than  the  spellcaster of the dispel magic are automatically and immediately
destroyed.  Spell effects created by a higher-level spellcaster might not be
affected.  The chance of failure is 5 %  per level of difference between the
spellcasters.  For example,  a 7th level magic-user trying to dispel  a  web
spell cast by a 9th level cleric would have a 10% chance of failure.
  Dispel magic will not affect a magical item (such as a scroll,  a magical
sword,  etc.).  However,  it can dispel the effects of the magical item when
that item is used (a spellcaster can cast dispel magic on the  victim  of  a
ring of human control and snap him out of that control).

Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Explosion in a sphere 40' diameter

  This spell creates a missile of fire that bursts into a ball of fire with
a  40'  diameter  (20' radius) where it strikes a target.  The fireball will
cause 1d6 points of fire damage per level of the caster to every creature in
the area of effect.
  Each victim may make a saving throw vs.  spells; if successful, the spell
will only do half damage.  For example,  a fireball  cast  by  a  6th  level
spellcaster will burst for 6d6 (6-36) points of damage;  characters who make
their saving throw vs. spell will take only half of the damage rolled on the

Range: Touch
  Duration: 1d6 (1-6) turns + 1 turn per level of the caster
Effect: One creature may fly

  This spell  allows  the  target it is cast upon (possibly the spellcaster
himself) to fly.  The recipient can fly in any direction and at any speed up
to 360' (120') by mere concentration.  The recipient may also stop and hover
at any point (as a levitate spell); this does not require concentration.

Duration: 3 turns
Effect: Up to 24 creatures move double speed

  This spell  allows  up to 24 creatures in a 60'diameter circle to perform
actions at double speed for half an hour (3 turns).  Those affected may move
at  up to twice normal speed and make double the normal number of missile or
hand- to-hand attacks.
  This spell  does  not  affect the rate at which magic works,  so a hasted
spellcaster can still not cast more than one spell per round, and the use of
magical devices (such as wands) cannot be speeded up.
  The reverse of this spell,  slow,  will remove the  effects  of  a  haste
spell, or will cause the victims to move and attack at half normal speed.
 As with  haste,  the slow spell does not affect spellcasting or the use of
magical devices.
  The victims may make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the effect.

Hold Person*
Duration: 1 turn/level
Effect: Paralyzes up to 4 creatures

 The hold  person  spell  will affect any human,  demihuman,  or human-like
creature (bugbear,  dryad,  gnoll, hobgoblin, kobold, lizard man, ogre, orc,
nixie,  pixie  or  sprite,  for instance).  It will not affect the undead or
creatures larger than ogres.
 Each victim  must make a saving throw vs.  spells or be paralyzed for nine
turns.  The spell may be cast at a single person or at a group. If cast at a
single person, the victim suffers a - 2 penalty to the saving throw. If cast
at a group,  it will affect up to four persons (of the cleric's choice), but
with  no  penalty  to their rolls.  The paralysis may only be removed by the
reversed form of the spell, or by a dispel magic spell.
  The reverse of the spell,  free person,  removes the paralysis of  up  to
four  victims of the normal form of the spell (including hold person cast by
a cleric). It has no other effect; e.g., it does not remove the effects of a
ghoul's paralysis ability.

Range: Touch
Duration: 1 day
Effect: One living creature

 This spell enables the recipient to see in the dark,  to a 60' range, with
the same sort of vision possessed by dwarves and elves.
  Infravision is the ability to see heat (and the lack of  heat).  Dwarves,
elves,  and casters of the infravision spell have infravision in addition to
normal sight and can see 60' in the  dark.  infravision  does  not  work  in
normal  and  magical  light.  Fire and other heat sources can interfere with
infravision, just as a bright flash of light can make normal vision go black
for a short time.
 With infravision,  warm things appear red,  and cold things -appear  blue.
For example,  an approaching creature could be seen as a red shape,  leaving
faint reddish footprints. A cold pool of water would seem a deep blue color.
  Characters with infravision can even see items or creatures which are the
same temperature as the surrounding air (such as a  table  or  a  skeleton),
since air flow will inevitably show the viewer their borders, outfining them
in a faint Eghter-blue tone. Until they move, they will be very faint to the
eye;  once they start moving, they become blurry but very obvious light-blue
 Infravision isn't  good  enough  to  read  by.  A  character  can use his
infravision to recognize an individual only if they are within 10'  distance
unless  the  individual is very,  very distinctive (for example,  8' tall or
walking with a crutch).

Invisibility 10' radius
Range: 120'
Duration: Permanent until broken
Effect: All creatures within 10'

  This spell makes the recipient (and all others within 10' at the time  of
the casting) invisible.  This is an area effect,  and those who move further
than 10' from the recipient become visible. They may not regain invisibility
by  returning to the area.  Otherwise,  the invisibility is the same as that
bestowed by the  spell  invisibility.  An  invisible  creature  will  remain
invisible until he or she attacks or casts any spell.
All items  carried  (whether  by  the  recipient  or others within 10') also
become invisible.

Lightning Bolt
Range: 180'
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Bolt 60' long, 5' wide
  This spell creates a bolt of lightning, starting up to 180' away from the
caster  and  extending  60'  in a straight line further away.  All creatures
within the area of effect take  1d6  points  of  damage  per  level  of  the
spellcaster.  (Thus  a  6th  level elf would cast a lightning bolt doing 6d6
points of damage.)
Each victim may make a saving throw vs. spells; if successful, he takes only
half damage. If the lightning bolt strikes a solid surface (such as a wall),
it  will bounce back toward the caster until the total length of the bolt is

Protection from Evil 10' Radius
Range: 0
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Barrier 20' diameter

  This spell  creates  an  invisible magical barrier all around the caster,
extending for a 10' radius in all directions. The spell serves as protection
from  attacks  by  monsters  of  an alignment other than the caster's.  Each
creature within the barrier gains a +  1  to  all  saving  throws,  and  all
attacks  against  those within are penalized by - 1 to the attacker's attack
roll while the spell lasts.
In addition,  enchanted  creatures cannot attack those within the barrier in
hand-to-hand (melee) combat. (An enchanted creature is any creature which is
magically summoned or controlled,  such as a charmed character,  or one that
is not harmed by normal weapons. A creature that can be hit only by a silver
weapon-a werewolf, for example-is not an enchanted creature.
  If anyone within the barrier attacks an enchanted creature,  the  barrier
will  no  longer  prevent the creature from attacking hand-to-hand,  but the
bonus to saving throws and penalty to attack rolls will still apply.
Attackers, including  enchanted  creatures,  can  attack  people  inside the
barrier by using missile or magical attacks.  They do suffer the penalty  to
attack rolls, but that is the only penalty they suffer.

Protection from Normal Missiles
Range: 30'
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: One creature
  This spell  gives  the  recipient  complete  protection  from  all  small
nonmagical missiles (such as arrows,  quarrels,  thrown spears,  etc.);  the
ranged attacks simply miss.  Large or magical attacks,  such as  a  catapult
stone or a magic arrow, are not affected.
The spellcaster can cast the spell on any one creature within  the  spell's

Water Breathing
Duration: 1 day (24 hours)
Effect: One air-breathing creature

This spell allows the recipient to breathe while underwater (at any  depth).
It  does not affect his movement in any way,  nor does it interfere with the
breathing of air if the recipient emerges from the water.

Fourth Level Magical  Spells
Charm Monster
Duration: Special
Effect: One or more living creatures

This spell effect is identical to that of a charm  person  spell,  but  will
affect any creature except an undead monster. If cast on victims with 3 Hit
Dice or less,  the spell will charm 3d6 (3-18) victims.  Otherwise, it will
charm only one victim.  Each victim may make a saving throw  vs.  spells  to
avoid the effects.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates up to 30' x 30' cloth

  This spell creates quantities of cloth up to 30'x 30'.  The cloth created
by a single spell must appear  in  one  piece.  Unlike  many  creation  type
spells, this one creates cloth that is nonmagical and cannot be dispelled.
  If the  campaign  uses  the optional general skills and the caster has an
appropriate Craft skill,  he may shape the cloth as he creates  it.  He  may
thus create a tent,  a sail,  a single garment,  a drape, 60'of common rope,
etc.  If the campaign doesn't use the skills rules, the character could have
been  defined earlier as one who knows how to work cloth in order for him to
do this.  Naturally,  unshaped cloth created by this spell can later be cut,
sewn and otherwise fashioned into such objects.
The cloth so created is much like undyed linen-it's tough, serviceable, and
unglamorous. A caster can create his cloth with an unfinished end, and later
he or another caster can use another clothform to create cloth joined to the
first on that edge-and there will be no seam or  weakness  at  the  joining.
This makes it a good spell for creating rugged, dependable sails.
  When created,  the cloth extrudes from the caster's hands and  out  along
the  ground.  If there are obstacles,  it piles up against them but does not
shove them back.  The spell may not be cast to create  a  huge  sheet  which
falls over a unit of enemies, for instance. The cloth, when created, may not
be attached to anything except to another expanse  of  clothform  cloth,  as
described  above.  The  cloth  cannot be cast in a space occupied by another
In adventures, this spell is often used to make quick shelters and to create

Duration: 12 rounds
Effect: 3- 18 creatures in an area 60' across

This spell  will  confuse its victims,  affecting all creatures within a 30'
radius.  Victims with less than 2 + 1 Hit Dice  are  not  allowed  a  saving
throw. Those with 2 + 1 or more Hit Dice must make a saving throw vs. spells
every round of the spell's duration,  if they remain  in  the  area,  or  be
  Confused creatures act randomly.  The DM should roll 2d6  each  round  to
determine each creature's action, using the following chart:
Confusion Results
2d6 Roll  Result
2-5      Attack the spellcaster's party
6-8      Do nothing
9-12     Attack the creature's own party

Dimension Door
Range: 10'
Duration: 1 round
Effect: Safely transport one creature

This spell will transport one creature (either the caster or a victim up  to
10'  from  the  caster)  to  a  place up to 360' away.  The caster picks the
desired destination.  If he does not  know  the  location,  the  caster  may
specify the direction and distance of travel, but the distance cannot exceed
a total of 360' (for example, 360' straight up; or 200' west, 60' south, and
100' down).
  If this would cause the recipient to arrive at a location occupied  by  a
solid object, the spell has no effect.
  An unwilling recipient may make a saving throw vs.  spells to  avoid  the

Growth of Plants*
Range: 120'
Duration: Special
Effect: Enlarges 3000 square feet of plants

  This spell  causes normal brush or woods to become thickly overgrown with
vines, deepers, thorns, and briefs (or types of small plant-life appropriate
to  the  area).  The  spell  affects  an area of upto 3,000 square feet (the
caster chooses the dimensions  of  the  spell  effect).  The  plants  to  be
affected must be entirely within the spell's range.
The area  affected  by  the  spell  is  impassable  to  all  but giant-sized
creatures.  The effect lasts until removed by the reversed form of the spell
or by a dispel magic spell.
  The reverse of this spell, shrink plants, causes all normal plants within
the area of effect to shrink and become passable.  It may be used to  negate
the  effects  of  the no-al spell.  Shrink plants will not affect plant-like
monsters (such as treants).

Hallucinatory Terrain
Duration: Special
Effect: Changes or hides terrain in 240' radius (or less)

This spell creates the illusion of a terrain feature,  either indoors (such
as a pit,  stairs,  etc.) or outdoors (hill,  swamp,  grove of trees, etc.),
possibly  hiding  a  real  feature.  The caster could create the illusion of
solid ground over a series of pits or quicksand pools,  or he  could  create
the image of dense forest over his army's camp, etc.
 The caster   may   choose  to  place  his  hallucinatory  terrain  over  a
comparatively small area (for instance, a throne room) or over a much larger
one  (for  example,  a  hill).  If  he chooses to cast the spell on a larger
terrain feature,  the entire feature to be affected must be within the range
of  the  spell.  (A  hill  with  greater  than  a 480' diameter would not be
 The spell lasts until the illusion is touched by an intelligent  creature,
or until dispelled.

Ice Storm/Wail of Ice
Duration: Storm, 1 round; Wall, 12 turns
Effect: Storm in 20'x 20'x 20' volume; or Wall of 1,200 square feet

  This spell may be cast in either of two ways: either as an icy blast, ice
storm, or wall of ice.
  An ice  storm fills a 20'x 20'x 20' cube.  If cast in a smaller area,  it
will remain 20' long at most.  The storm inflicts 1d6 points of cold  damage
per level of the caster to every creature in the area.  Each victim may make
a saving throw vs.  spells;  if he is successful, he takes only half damage.
Fire-type creatures (red dragons, flame salamanders, etc.) have a -4 penalty
on  their  saving  throws,  but  cold-type  creatures  (frost  giant,  frost
salamander, etc.) are not affected by the spell.
A wall  of  ice  is  a  thin  vertical  wall  of  any  dimensions and shape
determined by the spellcaster totaling 1,200 square feet  of  less  (10'  x
120' 3o'x40',  etc.).  The wall is opaque and will block sight. The wall must
be cast to rest on the ground or similar support,  and cannot be cast  in  a
space occupied by another object.
Creatures of less than 4 Hit Dice or levels cannot break through the  wall.
Creatures  of 4 HD or more levels can break through,  but take 1d6 points of
damage in the process.  Fire-type creatures each take twice  the  amount  of
damage (2d6) while breaking through.

Duration: See below
Effect:  Causes  illusion  of  trees  within  240'  range

  This spell  will  affect up to 100 human or man-sized creatures in a 240'
diameter,  making them appear to be the trees of an orchard, dense woods, or
other  large  plant  life appropriate to the region.  (Unless the campaign's
deserts feature very large cactus,  the spell won't  work  in  the  desert.)
Unwilling creatures are not affected.
  Creatures larger than man-size (such as horses) may be included, counting
as two of three men  each.  The  illusion  will  hide  the  recipients  from
creatures  moving through the area affected.  The spell lasts until a dispel
magic is cast on it or until the caster decides to drop  the  illusion.  The
appearance  of  each  disguised  creature  returns to normal if the creature
moves out of the affected area.  However,  movement within the area does not
destroy the illusion.

Polymorph Other
Duration: Permanent until dispelled
Effect: Changes one living creature

  This spell changes the victim into another living creature.  The new form
may have no more than twice as many Hit Dice as the original,  or the  spell
will fail. The victim's hit points remain the same; an 8th level prince with
32 hit points could end up as a frog with 32 hit points.
  Unlike the  polymorph  self  spell,  the  polymorph others spell actually
turns the victim into the new creature,  giving  him  any  and  all  special
abilities of the new form,  plus its tendencies and behavior. For example, a
hobgoblin polymorphed into a mule will think and act like a mule.
  This spell cannot create a duplicate of a  specific  individual,  only  a
race or monster type.  For example,  a creature polymorphed into a 9th level
fighter will indeed become a human,  but not necessarily a  fighter  and  no
higher than 1st level.
  The victim of this spell may make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the
effect. The effect lasts until dispelled, or until the creature dies.

Polymorph Self
Range: 0 (Caster only)
Duration: 6 turns + 1 turn  per  level  of  the  caster
Effect: Caster may change shapes

  This spell allows the caster to change shape, taking the physical form of
another living creature.  The Hit Dice of the new form must be equal  to  or
less than the Hit Dice of the caster, or the spell will fail.
  The caster's armor class,  hit points, attack rolls, and saving throws do
not  change,  and  he  does  not  gain  special  abilities  (such as ghouls'
paralysis) or special immunities of the new form;  however, he does gain the
natural  physical  abilities  of  the new form.  For example,  a spellcaster
polymorphed into a frost giant has the strength of a  frost  giant  and  the
ability  to  hurl  boulders,  but  not  immunity  from  cold.  A spellcaster
polymorphed into a dragon could fly but would not be able to use any  breath
weapons or spells.
The spellcaster cannot cast spells while polymorphed into a different form.
The spell lasts for the listed duration,  or until dispelled,  or until  the
caster is killed.  This spell will not enable the caster to take the form of
a specific individual (see polymorph other).

Remove Curse*
Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Removes any one curse

This spell removes one curse,  whether on a character,  item, or area. Some
those on  magical  items-may  only  be  temporarily  removed,  at  the  DM's
discretion,  requiring a clerical dispel evil spell for permanently removing
the effects (or possibly a remove curse cast by a high-level spellcaster).
 The reverse of this spell, curse, causes a misfortune or penalty to affect
the recipient.  Curses are limited only by the caster's imagination,  but if
an  attempted  curse  is  too  powerful,  it  may return to the caster (DM's
discretion)! Safe limits to curses may include: - 4 penalty on attack rolls;
-  2  penalty to all saving throws;  prime requisite reduced to half normal.
The victim may make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the curse.

Wail of Fire
Range: 60'
Duration: Concentration
Effect: Creates 1200 square feet of fife

 This spell creates a thin vertical wall of  fire  of  ,any  dimension  and
shape,  determined  by  the  spellcaster,  totaling  1,200 square feet (for
example,  10'x 120',  20'x 60', 30'x 40', etc.). The wall is opaque and will
block sight.  The wall cannot be cast is a space occupied by another object.
It lasts as long as the caster concentrates, without moving, on it.
 Creatures of less than 4 Hit Dice cannot break through the wall. Creatures
of  4  HD  or  more can break through,  but take 1d6 points of damage in the
process. Undead and cold-using creatures (white dragons, frost giants, etc.)
each take double damage while breaking through.

Wizard Eye
Range: 240'
'Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Creates movable invisible eye

 This spell creates an invisible eye through which the caster can  see.  It
is  the  size of a real eye and has infravision (60' range).  The wizard eye
floats through the air at up to 120' per turn, but will not go through solid
objects  nor move more than 240' away from the caster.  The spellcaster must
concentrate (without moving) to see through the eye.

Fifth Level Magical Spells

Animate Dead
Range: 60'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates zombies or skeletons

 This spell allows the spellcaster to make animated, enchanted skeletons or
zombies  from  normal skeletons or dead bodies within range.  These animated
undead creatures will obey the cleric until they are  destroyed  by  another
cleric of a dispel magic spell.
 For each experience level of the cleric,  he may animate one  Hit  Die  of
undead.  A  skeleton  has the same Hit Dice as the original creature,  but a
zombie has one Hit Die more than the original.  Note that this doesn't count
character  experience  levels as Hit Dice:  For purposes of this spell,  all
humans and demihumans are 1 HD creatures,  so the remains  of  a  9th  level
thief would be animated as a zombie with 2 HD.
 Animated  creatures   do   not   have   any   spells,
but  are  immune  to  sleep  and   charm   effects   and
poison.  Lawful  clerics  must  take  care  to  use  this
spell  only  for  good  purpose.  Animating   the   dead
is usually a Chaotic act.

Range: l'
Duration:   6 turns
Effect: Creates a moving poisonous cloud

 This spell creates a circular cloud of poisonous vapor, 30' across and 20'
tall,  which  appears next to the spellcaster.  It moves away at the rate of
60' (20' per round) in any one direction (with the wind,  if any; otherwise,
in  the direction chosen by the caster).  This cloud is heavier than air and
will sink when possible (going down  holes,  sliding  downhill,  etc.).  The
cloud  will  evaporate  if  it hits trees or thick vegetation.  If cast in a
small area (such as in a 10' tall dungeon corridor),  the cloud  may  be  of
smaller than normal size.
 All living  creatures  within  the cloud take 1 point of damage per round.
Any victim of less than 5 Hit Dice must make a saving throw vs. poison or be
killed by the vapors.

Conjure Elemental
Duration: Concentration
Effect: Summons one 16 HD elemental

 This spell  allows the caster to summon any one elemental (AC - 2,  HD 16,
Damage 3d8; see the description of elementals in Chapter 14). The caster can
only summon one of each type of elemental (earth,  air,  fire, water) in one
  The elemental  will  perform  any  tasks  within  its  power   (carrying,
attacking,  etc.)  as long as the caster maintains control by concentrating.
The caster cannot fight,  cast other spells, or move over half Normal Speed,
else he will lose control of the elemental.  If he loses control,  he cannot
regain it.  An uncontrolled elemental will try to slay its summoner, and may
attack anyone in its path while pursuing him.
 The spell's  caster  may  return  a controlled elemental to its home plane
simply by concentration.  A dispel magic or dispel evil spell can  return an
uncontrolled elemental to its plane.

Contact Outer Plane
Range: 0 (spellcaster only)
Duration: See below
Effect: 3-12 questions may be answered

 This spell  allows  the  spellcaster to contact one of the outer planes of
existence to seek knowledge from an Immortal creature - a  powerful  magical
being  played by the DM.  The wisest and most powerful Immortals live on the
most distant outer planes.  However,  mental contact with  an  Immortal  may
cause  a  mortal to go insane.  The more distant the plane,  the greater the
chance of a correct answer-but the greater the chance of insanity as well.
  The number  of  questions  the  spellcaster  may  ask  is  equal  to  the
"distance" to the outer plane. "Distance" to any other plane of existence is
measured  in the number of planes the character would have to cross in order
to visit that plane.
  See the chart on page 264 to see where the various  planes  of  existence
lie  in relation to one another.  The "distance" between the Prime Plane and
the closest outer plane is 3-the Ethereal,  elemental, and Astral Planes lie
"between"  them.  There  are  many outer planes,  many too far removed to be
affected by this spell.
 The caster  may  choose  the distance,  up to the maximum allowed.  The DM
checks the caster's chance of insanity once,  when  the  Immortal  is  first
contacted. If the caster is 21st level or greater, the chance of insanity is
reduced by 5% per level of the caster above 20.
  Even if  insanity  does  not result,  the Immortal may still not know the
answer to the character's questions,  or may lie, at the DM's discretion. If
the  DM does not wish just to decide whether the Immortal knows or is lying,
he can roil on the chart below to determine this.

Contact   Outer    Plane

Distance &
Number of                Chance of...
Questions     Insanity        Knowing      Lying*
     3           5%           25%           50%
     4          10%           30%           45%
     5          15%           35%           40%
     6          20%           40%           35%
     7          25%           50%           30%
     8          30%           60%           25%
     9          35%           70%           20%
     10         40%           80%           15%
     11         45%           90%           10%
     12         50%           95%            5%

  * Or not knowing

  The spellcaster can use this spell once a month at most (or less often,
at  the  DM's  option),  An  insane character recovers with rest,  after a
number of weeks of game time equal to the number of the plane contacted.

Duration:   3-18    days
Effect: Liquefies 3000 square feet

 This spell  changes a volume of soil of rock (but not a construction) to
a morass of mud. An area up to 10' deep or thick is affected, and may have
up  to  3,000  square feet of surface area.  The magic-user may choose the
exact width and length (20'x 150',  30'x 100',  etc.), but the entire area
of effect must be within 240' of the caster.  Creatures moving through the
mud are slowed to 10 %  of their normal movement rate  at  best,  and  may
become stuck (at the DM's discretion,  a victim must make saving throw vs.
spells to avoid becoming stuck).
 The reverse of this spell (harden) will change the same volume of mud to
rock,  but permanently.  A victim in the mud may make a saving  throw  vs.
spells to avoid being trapped in the hardened mud.

Duration: Permanent until dispelled
Effect: Lowers Intelligence score to 2

   This spell will only affect a magic-user,  elf, or a monster which can
cast  magical  spells;  it does not affect those which cast only cleric or
It will  make the victim helpless,  unable to cast spells or think clearly
(as if the victim has an Intelligence score of 2).  The victim may make  a
saving throw vs. spells to avoid the effect, but with a - 4 penalty to the
   The feeblemind keeps until removed by a dispel magic spell (at  normal
chances for success) or by a cleric's cureall spell.

Hold Monster*
Duration: 6 turns + 1  turn  per  level  of  the  caster
Effect: Paralyzes 1-4 creatures
   This spell has an effect identical to that of a hold person spell, but
will affect any living creature.  (It does not affect  the  undead.)  Each
victim must make a saving throw vs.  spells or be paralyzed. The spell may
be cast at a single creature or a group. If cast at a single creature, the
victim  takes  a - 2 penalty to his saving throw.  If cast at a group,  it
will affect 1d4 creatures (of the spell- caster's choice, and within spell
range), but with no penalties to the saving throw.
   The reverse of this spell,  free monster,  removes the paralysis of up
to four victims of hold person or hold monster spells.  It h-as  no  other

Magic jar
Duration: See below
Effect: Take over one body
   This spell causes the caster Is body to fall into a trance,  while the
caster's life force is placed in an inanimate object (which  is  called  a
magic  jar  regardless of its form;  it does not have to be an actual jar)
within range.  From this object,  the caster's life force may  attempt  to
take  over  any  one creature within 120' of the magic jar.  If the victim
makes a successful saving throw vs.  spells,  the attempt  fails  and  the
caster  may  not  try to take over that victim again for one turn.  If the
victim fails the saving throw, the caster takes over his body and the life
force of the victim is placed into the magic jar.
   The caster may cause the body to perform any normal actions,  but  not
special  abilities  (similar  to  a polymorph self effect).  A dispel evil
spell will force the spellcaster's life force out of the victim's body and
back  into the magic jar.  When the spellcaster returns to his or her real
body, the victim's life force returns to his body and the spell ends.
   If the possessed body is destroyed,  the victim's life force dies, and
the  caster's  life force returns to the magic jar.  From there the caster
may try to take over another body or return to the original body.
   If the  magic jar is destroyed while the caster's life force is within
it, the caster is killed. If the magic jar is destroyed while the caster's
life force is in a victim's body, the life force is stranded in that body,
and the force of the body's original owner is destroyed.  If the  caster's
original  body  is destroyed,  his life force is stranded in the magic jar
until the caster can take over another body!
   The taking over of another body is a Chaotic act.

Duration: 3 turns
Effect: Creates a hole 10' deep
   This spell causes a hole 5' diameter, 10' deep to appear in solid rock
or stone only. The hole may be horizontal or vertical.
   The stone reappears at the end of the duration. If someone is still in
the  tunnel when the stone reappears,  he gets a saving throw vs.  turn to
stone.  If he succeeds, he is hurled out the nearest end of the tunnel. if
he fails, he is trapped within the reappearing stone, and dies.

Duration: 6 rounds
Effect: 200 cn of weight per level of caster
   This spell enables the spellcaster to move a creature or object simply
by  concentrating.  The  item may weigh up to 200 cn (20 lbs) per level of
the caster (a 10th level elf could move an object weighing up to 2,000 cn,
or 200 lbs).  The caster m-ay move the object in any direction,  at a rate
of up to 20' per round.
   An unwilling  victim  may make a saving throw vs.  spells to avoid the
effect.  If he makes the roll, he doesn't budge. If a target is being held
by  someone,  the  holder  can  make  a saving throw with a - 2 penalty to
retain the target item.
   If the telekinesis grabs an object that is being carried but not  held
in the hand,  the owner may grab for it as it is yanked away. To catch the
departing object,  he must make a saving throw  vs.  spells  with  a  -  5
   The caster must concentrate while moving objects, and the objects will
fall if the caster is disturbed.

Range: 10'
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect:  Transports  one  creature   with   equipment
This spell instantly transports the spell-caster or another recipient  to
any  unoccupied destination on the same plane of existence.  Distance does
not matter so long as the destination is on the same plane.  The recipient
arrives  at  the  destination  with  all  equipment  he  was carrying.  An
unwilling victim can make a saving throw vs.  spell  to  avoid  the  spell
   The caster may not deliberately choose a destination he  knows  to  be
occupied  by  a  solid  object,  and he must choose to appear on a surface
(such as ground level or the top of a building);  he  can  not  choose  to
appear far up in the air.
   Teleporting is dangerous; there is a chance the teleporter will appear
in a solid object.  The teleporter's chance of arriving safely depends  on
how carefully the caster has studied the area.
   On the  chart  below,  the DM determines how well the caster knows the

Teleport Chances
Knowledge of Destination              Result
Casual       General        Exact
01-50         01-80         01-95      Success
51-75         81-90         96-99      Too       High
76-00         91-00           00       Too        Low

   "Casual Knowledge" means that the caster has been there once or twice,
or is visualizing the aiming point from  descriptions  or  magical  means.
"General  Knowledge"  means the caster has been to the area often,  or has
spent several weeks studying the area magically (via crystal ball,  etc.).
"Exact  Knowledge"  means the caster has made a detailed personal study of
the area.
   Once the   DM   has  determined  how  well  the  character  knows  the
destination,  the DM rolls d%.  If the result is "Success," the teleporter
arrives exactly where the caster desired.
   If the  result is "Too High," the recipient arrives 1d10x10' above the
desired destination,  then falls,  taking damage on impact (1d6 points  of
damage  per 10' fallen).  (If he had already cast a fly or levitate spell,
or already had a flying device operating, he can avoid this damage.)
   If the  result  is "Too Low," the recipient arrives 1d10x10' below the
desired  location.  Any  creature  teleporting  into  a  solid  object  is
instantly  killed unless a vacant area (such as a cave or dungeon) lies at
that point (DM's discretion).

Wall of Stone
Duration: Special
Effect: Creates 1000 cubic feet of stone
   This spell creates a vertical stone wall exactly 2' thick.  The caster
chooses  the  wall's dimensions and shape,  but its total area must be 500
square feet or less (10' x 50', 20' x 25', etc.), and the entire wall must
be within 60' of the caster.
   The caster must create the wall where the wall will rest on the ground
or similar support, and cannot create the wall in a space already occupied
by another object.
   The wall lasts until it is dispelled or physically broken.
   If a wall of stone topples,  it causes 10d10 points of damage to  what
it hits, and it shatters.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect:  Creates  1,000  cubic  feet  of  wood
   This spell creates a mass of wood equal to 1,000 cubic feet; it may be
arranged in any fashion the caster desires (10' x 10' x  10'  block,  25'x
20'x 2' wall, etc.)
   Casting time  varies  depending  on  the  complexity of the design.  A
simple wall and other simple shapes take 1 round.  A simple staircase  may
take 10 rounds (i turn).  A complicated design which is supposed to adhere
to very tight specifications-such as the keel of  a  ship-could  take  the
maximum time allowable,  12 turns (2 hours) just to work up in rough form.
When the caster wants to try a complicated design, the DM decides how long
the casting will take.
   The object  must  be created as a single piece,  with no moving parts.
The original caster of the spell may later cast woodform on an  object  he
has  already created with the same spell,  in order to modify it for up to
two hours.  This is how spellcaster artists often make fine  woodcarvings,
for instance.  When he is satisfied with his work, he casts woodform on it
one last time to "lock it in place," and it may no longer be  modified  by
woodform spells.
 The mass of wood must be created so as to rest on the ground or  similar
support, and cannot be cast in a space occupied by another object.
 A caster can create his wood with one or more rough sides,  and later he
or another caster can use another woodform to create wood perfectly joined
to  the  first  on  that side-and there will be no seam or weakness at the
joining.  This makes it a good spell for creating strong ships and  wooden
 The caster may decide what sort of wood is created,  within reason.  The
DM  may  refuse  to  allow the caster to pick very expensive,  exotic,  or
magical woods.
   The wood created by this spell is  not  dispellable;  it  lasts  until
broken through, burned, or destroyed by spells like disintegrate.
 The armor  class  and  hit points of building materials are given in the
Fortifications Table on page 137.  Based on those guidelines,  a  wall  of
wood has an AC of - 4(6) and 60 hit points per 1' thickness. Most building
exterior walls would be about 8" thick and have 40 hit points.

Sixth Level Magical Spells

Anti-Magic Shell
Range: 0 (Caster only)
Duration: 12 turns
Effect: Personal barrier which blocks magic
 This spell  creates  an  invisible barrier around the spellcaster's body
(less than an inch away).  The barrier stops all spells or spell  effects,
including  the  caster's.  The  caster  may  destroy  the  shell  at will;
otherwise,  it lasts for  the  duration.  Except  for  a  wish,  no  magic
(including a dispel magic spell) can cancel the barrier.

Death Spell
Range: 240'
Duration:       Instantaneous
Effect:  Slays   4d8   (4-32) Hit   Dice   of   creatures
       within a 60' x 60' x 60' area
 This spell  will  affect  4d8 (4-32) Hit Dice of living creatures within
the given area.  Normal plants and insects are  automatically  slain,  and
those with no hit points (normal insects, plants smaller than shrub-sized,
for instance) are not counted  in  the  total  affected.  Undead  are  not
affected,  nor  are  creatures  with  8  or  more  Hit  Dice (or levels of
 The lowest  Hit  or Dice creatures are affected first.  Each victim must
make a saving throw vs. death ray or die.

Range: 60'
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Destroys one creature or object
 This spell causes one creature or nonmagical object to crumble to  dust.
A victim may make a saving throw vs.  death ray to avoid the effect.  (The
spell can disintegrate a dragon,  a ship,  or a 10'section  of  wall,  for
 The spell does not affect magical items or spell effects.

Duration: Until completed or removed
Effect: Compels one creature
 This spell forces a victim either to perform or avoid a  stated  action.
For  example,  a  character  may be geesed to bring back an object for the
caster,  to eat whenever the chance arises,  or never  to  reveal  certain
information.  The  action  must be possible and not directly fatal or else
the geas will return and affect the caster instead!
 When the  spell  is  first cast,  the victim may make a saving throw vs.
spells to avoid the spell's effect.
 If the victim ignores the  geas,  penalties  (decided  by  the  DM)  are
applied  until  the  character  either  obeys  the geas or dies.  Suitable
penalties include penalties in combat,  lowered ability  scores,  loss  of
spells,  pain  and weakness,  and so forth.  Dispel magic and remove curse
spells will not affect a geas.
  The geas  makes  the  victim  perform an action,  but does not make him
think it is his own idea:  Once he finishes performing his  task,  he  may
decide to exact revenge on the spellcaster.
 The reverse  of  this  spell,  remove  geas,  will rid a character of an
unwanted Geas and its effects.  However, if the caster is of a lower level
than  the  caster of the original geas,  there is a chance of failure (5 %
per level difference).

Invisible Stalker
Range: 0 (Caster only)
Duration: Until mission is accomplished
Effect: Summons one creature
  This spell summons an invisible stalker (from Chapter  14)  which  will
perform  one  task  for  the  caster.  The  creature will serve the caster
regardless of the time or distance involved,  until the task is  completed
or  until  the  creature  is  stain.  A  dispel  evil spell will force the
creature to return to its home plane.

Lower Water
Duration: 10 turns
Effect: Cuts depths to half normal
 This spell causes a body of water to lower to half its normal depth.  It
will effect an area up to 10,000 square feet (width and length).  If  cast
on  a  constantly-renewed  source of water (such as a river or ocean),  it
lowers that area of water for the entire duration of the spell  (or  until
it  is  dispelled);  surrounding water does not rush in until the spell is
ended. If cast around a boat or ship, the vessel may become stuck.
 At the end of the spell's duration, the sudden rush of water filling the
"hole"  will  sweep a ship's deck clear of most items (and people who fail
their saving throws vs. spells) and cause 1d12 + 20 (21-32) points of hull
  This spell  can  turn  a rampaging river into a river which the heroes'
party can ford,  can  cause  some  pools  to  lower  fat  enough  for  the
adventurers  to see what's deeper in them,  etc.  If cast around a boat or
ship,  this spell may cause the bay or river to drop enough for the vessel
to become stuck.

Move Earth
Duration:   6   turns
Effect:  Moves   soil
  This spell causes soil (but not rock) to move.  The caster can use  the
spell to move earth horizontally to make a hill,  or vertically, to open a
large hole (one up to 240' deep,  unless it reaches solid rock). The spell
moves  the  soil  at  up  to  60'  per  turn,  and at the end of the spell
duration,  the moved soil remains where it is put.  This spell is  helpful
for constructing castles.

Projected Image
Duration:   6   turns
Effect: Creates one image
  This spell creates an image of the caster up to 240'  away;  the  image
will   last   without   concentration.   The  projected  image  cannot  be
distinguished from the original except by touch. Any spell the spellcaster
casts will seem to come from the image,  but the caster must still be able
to see the target.
  Spells and missile attacks will not appear to affect the image.  If the
image is touched or struck by a hand-to-hand weapon, it disappears.

Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates a new body
   To cast this spell, the magic-user must have a part (however small) of
a  dead body.  The spell magically creates a new body,  and the life force
which was once in the dead body returns and inhabits the new one.  The  DM
can choose what sort of body is created, or can refers to the tables below
to decide.
  If the  life  force is reincamated as a different race,  ail details of
the new race apply, instead of the old. For example, a cleric reincarnated
as  an  elf is no longer a cleric,  but is able to cast magic- user spells
and fight as an elf.
  The victim's level of experience does not change unless  restricted  by
the  maximum  for  demihumans.  If the victim is reincarnated in a monster
body,  the victim's alignment helps determine the type  of  monster  which
appears;  a  character  will  not be reincarnated in the body of a monster
that cannot have his alignment.  A monster body may  not  gain  levels  of
experience;  the  character  must  play  as the reincarnated creature,  or
retire from play, or (perhaps) be reincarnated again when slain.

Reincarnation Results
Type of Body Appearing (Roll 1d8)
         1 Human                5 Elf
         2 Human                6 Halfling
         3 Human                7 Original race
         4 Dwarf                8 Monster
                                   (see below)

Type of Monster Body Appearing (Roll 1d6)
1d6 Lawful       Neutral         Chaotic
1 Blink Dog       Ape, White      Bugbear
2 Gnome           Bear*           Gnoll
3 Neanderthal     Centaur         Kobold
4 Owl, giant      Griffon         Manticore
5 Pegasus         Lizard Man      Orc
6 Treant          Pixie           Troglodyte

Any normal bear
The DM may add more monsters to the lists. Such monsters should have 8 Hit
Dice or less and should be at least semi-intelligent.

Stone to Flesh*
Duration: Permanent
Effect: One creature or object
   This spell  turns any one statue (or quantity of stone up to 10'x 10'x
10') to flesh.  It is usually used to restore a character turned to  stone
(by gorgon breath, for example).
   The reverse  of  this  spell,  flesh  to  stone,  will turn one living
creature, including all equipment carried, to stone. The victim may make a
saving throw vs. turn to stone to avoid the effect.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates  1,000  cubic  feet  of stone This spell creates a mass of
stone equal to 1,000 cubic feet;  it may be arranged in  any  fashion  the
caster desires (10'x10'x10' block, 25'x 20'x 2' wall, etc.).
   Casting time varies depending on the complexity  of  the  design.  A
simple  wall and other simple shapes take I round.  A simple staircase may
take 10 rounds (i turn).  A complicated design meant  to  adhere  to  very
tight  specifications-such  as an ornate fountain or statue-could take the
maximum time allowable, 12 turns (2 hours), just to work up in rough form.
When  the  caster  wants  to  try a complicated or unusual design,  the DM
decides how long the casting will take.
   The object must be created as a single piece,  with no  moving  parts.
The  original caster of the spell may later cast stoneform on an object he
has already created with the same spell in order to modify it  for  up  to
two  hours.  This  is how magic-user artists often make fine statues,  for
instance.  When he is  satisfied  with  his  work,  the  magic-user  casts
stoneform  on it one last time to "lock it in place," and it may no longer
be modified by stoneform spells.
   The mass of stone must be created to rest on  the  ground  or  similar
support, and cannot be cast in a space occupied by another object.
   A caster can create his stone with one or more rough sides,  and later
he  of  another caster can use another stoneform to create stone joined to
the first on that side-and there will  be  no  seam  or  weakness  at  the
joining. This makes it a good spell for creating strong walls and gigantic
buildings-colisea, palaces, etc.
   The caster  may  decide what sort of stone is created,  within reason.
The DM may refuse to allow the caster to pick very expensive,  exotic,  or
magical stones.  Valuable jade,  for instance, is an inappropriate choice.
However,  a caster can choose such stones as clear lead  crystal,  and  so
make thick, strong, perfect windows with this spell.
   The stone is not dispellable;  it lasts until broken or  destroyed  by
spells like disintegrate.
   The armor class and hit points of building materials are given on  the
Fortifications Table on page 137. In general, from those guidelines, stone
walls have an AC of -4(6) and 100 hit points per 1' thickness;  doing  500
hit  points  of  damage  to  a 5' wall will definitely knock a hole in it.
Building exterior walls tend to be about 7" thick and have 60 hit points.

Wall of Iron
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates 500 square feet of iron
   This spell  creates  a  vertical  wall  of iron exactly 2' thick.  The
magic-user may choose any length and width, but the total area must be 500
square feet or less (10' x 50', 20' x 25', etc.), and the entire wall must
be within 120' of the caster.  The caster must create the wall so it rests
on the ground or similar support. It cannot be cast in a space occupied by
another object.  It lasts until dispelled,  disintegrated,  or  physically
broken (though it will resist all but giant-sized physical attacks).  Most
other spell effects,  including fireball,  lighting bolt,  etc.,  have  no
effect on a wall of iron.  If the wall is made to topple,  it causes 10d10
(10-100) points of damage to whatever it hits, and shatters.
   If the  wall  is attacked,  it has a number of hit points equal to the
level of the caster.  A rust monster can destroy a wall  of  iron  with  a
single touch.  Otherwise,  the wall can only be damaged by battering;  see
Chapter 9 (page 118) for more on battering attacks.

Weather Control
Range: 0 (magic-user  only)
Duration: Concentration
Effect: All weather within 240 yards
This spell  allows  the magic-user to create one special weather condition
in the surrounding area (within a 240 yard radius).  The  spellcaster  may
select  the  weather  condition.  The  spell only works outdoors,  and the
weather will affect all creatures in the area (including the caster).  The
effects last as long as the spellcaster concentrates,  without moving;  if
the caster is being moved (for example,  aboard a ship),  the effect moves
The spell's effects vary,  but the following results are typical:
   Rain: -  2 penalty to attack rolls applies to all missile fire.  After
three turns,  the ground becomes muddy,  reducing  movement  to  half  the
normal rate.
   Snow: Visibility  (the distance a creature can see) is reduced to 20';
movement is reduced to half the normal rate. Rivers and streams may freeze
over. Mud remains after the snow thaws, for the same movement penalty.
   Fog: 20' visibility,  half normal movement. Those within the fog might
become lost, moving in the wrong direction.
   Clear: This  cancels bad weather (rain,  snow,  fog) but not secondary
effects (such as mud).  Intense Heat:  Movement reduced  to  half  normal.
Excess water (from rain, snow, mud transmuted from rock, etc.) dries up.
   High Winds: No missile fire or flying is possible. Movement reduced to
half normal.  At sea,  ships sailing with the wind move 50% faster. In the
desert,  high winds create a sandstorm,  for half normal movement and  20'
   Tornado: This  creates  a  whirlwind  under  the  magic-user  control,
attacking and moving as if it was a 12 HD air elemental. At sea, treat the
tornado as a storm or gale.

Seventh Level Magical Spells
Charm Plant
Duration: 6 months(see below)
Effect: Charms one tree or more smaller plants
   Similar to a charm person spell,  this effect  causes  one  tree,  six
medium-sized bushes, 12 small shrubs, or 24 small plants to become friends
of the  magic-user  (no  saving  throw).  However,  a  plant-like  monster
(treant,  shrieker, etc.) may make a saving throw vs. spells to resist the
   The charmed  plants  will  understand  and  obey  all  commands of the
magic-user, as longe as the tasks are within their ability (including  the
entangling of passers-by within range, but not including movement, sensing
alignment, etc.).
   The plants will remain charmed for six  months,  until  the  charm  is
dispelled,  or until winter (when they steep). (This spell is quite useful
around a stronghold, both inside and out, especially when used after a 4th
level growth of plants spell, and possibly a permanence as well.)

Create Normal Monsters
Duration: I turn
Effect: Creates 1 of more monsters
This spell  causes  monsters  to  appear  out  of thin air.  All monsters
appearing  will  understand  and  obey  the  caster's   commands-fighting,
carrying or fetching things,  etc.  They will faithfully obey all commands
to the best of their abilities.  Each monster  will  appear  carrying  its
normal  weapons  and  wearing  its  normal arm.  or (if any),  but arrives
otherwise unequipped.  At the end of one turn,  all the  monsters  created
vanish back into thin air,  along with all their equipment.  (if a monster
has dropped  a  weapon  while  fighting  and  then  vanishes,  the  weapon
disappears, too.)
   The total number of Hit Dice of monsters appearing  is  equal  to  the
level of the magic-user casting the spell.  (If the spellcaster's level is
not an exact multiple of the monsters' Hit Dice,  drop all fractions). The
magic-user  may  choose  the  exact type of monsters created,  but he must
select only monsters with no special abilities (i.e.,  no asterisk next to
the Hit Die number in the monster explanation). This spell does not create
humans,  demihumans,  or undead. Creatures of 1-1 1/2 Hit Dice are counted
as 1 Hit Die;  creatures of 1/2 Hit Die or less are counted as 1/2 Hit Die
   Example: With  this  spell,  a 15th level caster could summon 30 giant
bats,  rats,  or kobolds (1/2 Hit Die monsters);  or 15 goblins,  orcs, or
hobgoblins (i Hit Die monsters); or  rock baboons,
gnolls,  or lizard men (2 Hit Die  monsters);  or  5  boars,  dragons,
lizards,  or bugbears (3 Hit Die monsters); or 3 black bears, panthers, or
giant weasels (5 Hit Die monsters); and so forth.

Delayed Blast Fireball
Range: 240'
Duration: 0 to 60 rounds
Effect: Delayed blast fireball of 20' radius
  As the name implies,  this is a  fireball  spell  whose  blast  can  be
delayed;  it behaves like a time bomb. When he casts the spell, the magic-
user states the exact number of rounds of delay (from 0 to 60)  until  the
spell  detonates.  A small rock,  very similar in appearance to a valuable
gem,  then shoots out toward the desired location,  and  remains  at  that
location  until  the  stated  delay  elapses.  The "gem" may be picked up,
carried, and so forth.
  When the stated duration ends,  it explodes in an effect identical to a
normal  fireball a sudden instantaneous explosion inflicting 1d6 points of
damage per level of the caster to all within the area of effect (a  sphere
of  20'  radius).  Each victim may make a saving throw vs.  spells to take
half damage.
  Once the  spell  has  been  cast,  the  explosion cannot be hurried nor
further delayed,  except for with a wish. The "gem" created is pure magic,
not  an  actual  object,  and  cannot  be moved magically (by telekinesis,
teleport, etc.); however, it can be dispelled.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates 500 square feet of iron
  This spell creates a wall of iron 2" thick (or less) with an area equal
to 500 square feet;  it may be arranged in any fashion the caster  desires
(10'x 50' wall, or 25'x 20' wall, etc.)
  Casting time varies depending on the complexity of the design. A simple
wall and other simple shapes take 1 round.  A simple staircase may take 10
rounds (i turn).  A complicated design which is supposed to adhere to very
tight specifications-such as a giant  portcullis-could  take  the  maximum
time allowable,  12 turns (2 hours) just to create in rough form. When the
caster wants to try a complicated of unusual design,  the DM  decides  how
long the casting will take.
  The object must be,created as a single piece, with no moving parts. The
original  caster  of the spell may later cast ironform on an object he has
already created with the same spell,  in order to modify it for up to  two
hours.  This is how magic- user artists often make fine iron statues,  for
instance.  When he is satisfied with his work, he casts ironform on it one
last  time  to  "lock  it  in  place," and it may no longer be modified by
ironform spells.
  The iron wall must be created to rest on the ground or similar support,
and cannot be cast in a space occupied by another object. Unlike the metal
created by the wall of iron spell,  it does not have to be  created  in  a
vertical position.
  A caster can create his iron with one of more rough sides, and later he
of another caster can use another ironform to create iron  joined  to  the
first  on  that side-and there will be no seam or weakness at the joining.
This makes it a good spell for creating iron reinforcements for walls.
  The iron  so  created  is  not  dispellable;  it  lasts until broken or
destroyed by spells like disintegrate of creatures such as rust monsters.
 The armor class and hit points of building materials are  given  in  the
Fortifications Table on page 137.  Following these general guidelines,  we
find that an iron wall will have an AC of -10(2) and about 15  hit  points
per 1" thickness.

Range: 0 (magic-user only)
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Reveals details of 1  item,  place,  or  person
 By means  of this spell,  the magic-user may gain knowledge of one item,
place,  or person.  If the caster holds the item being studied,  the spell
takes  1d4  turns to complete,  and the magic-user learns the item's name,
method of operation and command words (if any),  and approximate number of
charges (if any, within five of the correct number).
 If the  item  has  more  than  one  mode of operation,  or more than one
command word, only one function will be revealed for each lore spell used,
and the spell will not even hint that the object has any other functions.
 If the spell is being used to investigate a place or person,  or an item
which  the  caster  is  not  holding,  the  spell  may  take 1d100 days to
complete.  A purely legendary topic should require large amounts of  time,
and  the  information  gained may be in the form of a riddle or poem.  The
Dungeon Master should reveal only general details if the place  is  large,
or if the person is of great power.

Magic Door*
Range: 10'
Duration: 7 uses
Effect: Creates one passage
 This spell  may  be  cast  on any wall,  floor,  ceiling,  or section of
ground.  It creates a magical, invisible doorway that only the spellcaster
may  use.  It also creates a passage through up to 10' of non-living solid
material beyond the doorway itself.  It cannot  be  created  in  a  living
object  of  any  kind.  The  door is undetectable except by a detect magic
spell,  and cannot be destroyed except by a dispel magic spell (at  normal
chances for success).
 The magic  door  lasts until dispelled,  of until it has been used seven
times.  Note that each one way passage through the door is  counted  as  a
separate use.
 The reverse of this spell,  magic lock, is a powerful version of the 2nd
level wizard lock spell, but cannot be affected by a knock spell or by the
effects  of  any  magical  item.  The  magic lock causes any one portal to
become totally impassable as long as the magic remains;  only  the  spell-
caster   can   use  the  portal.  The  spell  can  affect  an  empty  10'x
10'portal-like area (such as an empty doorway). The locked portal does not
change in,appearance.  As with a magic door, the enchantment remains until
the portal has been used seven times or until removed by  a  dispel  magic

Mass Invisibility*
Duration: Permanent until broken
Effect: Creatures or objects in 60' square area
  This bestows  invisibility  (as  the  2nd  level  spell)   on   several
creatures.  All  the  recipients  must be within an area 60' square within
240' of the magic-user.  The  spell  will  affect  up  to  6  dragon-sized
creatures, or up to 300 man-sized creatures. After the spell is cast, each
creature becomes invisible,  along with all equipment it carries  (as  per
the   invisibility  spell,  above).  An  invisible  creature  will  remain
invisible until he or she attacks or casts any spell.
 The reverse of this spell,  (appear), will cause all invisible creatures
and objects in a 20'x 20'x 20' volume to become visible.  Creatures on the
Astral and Ethereal planes are not within the area of  effect;  the  spell
cannot reach across planar boundaries. All other forms of invisibility are
affected,  both magical and natural,  and all victims of this spell cannot
become invisible again for one full turn.

Power Word Stun
Duration: 2d6 or 1d6 turns
Effect: Stuns 1 creature of 70 hp or less
 This lets  the  caster stun one victim within 120' (no saving throw).  A
victim with 1-35 hit points is stunned for 2d6 turns;  a victim with 36-70
hit  points  is stunned for 1d6 turns.  No creature with 71 or greater hit
points is affected.

Reverse Gravity
Range: 90'
Duration: 1/5 round (2 seconds)
Effect: Causes victims in a 30' cubic volume to fall upward
 This spell  affects all creatures and objects within a cubic volume 30'x
30'x 30',  causing them to "fall"  in  a  direction  opposite  the  normal
gravity.  In  two  seconds,  creatures and objects can "fall" a maximum of
65'.  No saving throw is allowed,  and all victims hitting  a  ceiling  or
other  obstruction  take  1d6 points of damage per 10' "fallen." Note that
after the two seconds have elapsed,  gravity returns  to  normal  and  all
victims  will  fall back to their original places,  suffering more falling
damage.  The DM should make a morale check for each  NPC  victim  of  this
  Example: A magic-user casts this spell at a group of approaching giants
in a 40' tall room.  The giants "fall" to the ceiling and then back to the
floor,  each taking a total of 8d6 points of damage in  the  process:  4d6
from  "failing"  up and hitting the ceiling,  and another 4d6 from failing
back down to the floor.

Range: 0 (Magic-user only)
Duration: 2 turns per level of the caster
Effect: Allows caster to turn to stone
 This allows the magic-user to change  into  a  statue,  along  with  all
nonliving  equipment  he carries,  up to once per round (to or from statue
form) for the duration of the spell.  The caster can concentrate on  other
spells while in statue
for, though  he  can cast no new spells while in this form.  Although this
spell does not give him immunity  to  "turn  to  stone"  effects  (from  a
gorgon's  attack),  the  caster  may  simply turn back to normal one round
after becoming petrified.
   While in statue form,  the magic-user is armor class  -4,  but  cannot
move.  He cannot be damaged by cold or fire (whether normal or magical) or
by normal weapons.  He does not breathe,  and is thus immune  to  all  gas
attacks,  drowning,  etc.  Magical  weapons  and  other  spells  (such  as
lightning bolt) inflict normal damage on him.  If a fire or cold spell  is
cast  at the magic-user while in normal form,  the character need only win
initiative (with a + 2 bonus) to turn into a statue before the attacking
spell strikes.

Summon Object
Range: Infinite
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect:  Retrieves  one  object  from  caster's   home
   By means of this spell,  the magic-user can cause one nonliving object
to  leave the spellcaster's home and appear in his hand.  The object must
weigh no more than 500 cn (50 pounds),  and may be no bigger than a  staff
or  small  chest.  The spellcaster must be very familiar with the item and
its exact location,  or the spell will not work. The caster must also have
prepared  the  item beforehand by sprinkling it with a special powder that
costs 1,000 gold pieces per item prepared;  the powder  becomes  invisible
and  does not interfere with the item in any way.  The spell cannot summon
items that have not been prepared in this fashion.
   If the magic-user prepares a chest for use with this spell,  fills the
chest with weapons and magical items, and then later tries to summon it to
him,  the  chest  appears-empty.  All its contents stay behind,  where the
chest originally stood,  since they have not been magically  prepared  for
use  with  the  spell,  and  since  the spell can summon only one prepared
object at a time.
   If another being possesses the item summoned,  it will not appear, but
the caster will know approximately who and where  the  possessor  is.  The
magic-user may use this spell from any location, even if the item summoned
is on another plane of existence.

Duration: 1 round per level of the caster
Effect: Creates a magical sword
   When this  spell is cast,  a glowing sword made of magic,  rather than
metal,  appears next to the caster.  The magic-user may cause it to attack
any creature within 30',  simply by concentrating;  the sword flies to the
target and attacks.  If the caster's concentration is  broken,  the  sword
merely stops attacking. It remains in existence for one round per level of
the spellcaster.
   The sword moves very quickly, attacking twice per round and making its
attack rolls at the caster's level.  Damage is the same  as  a  two-handed
sword  (1d10),  but this magical creation is capable of hitting any target
(even those hit only by powerful magical weapons).
The sword cannot be destroyed before the duration ends, except by a dispel
magic spell effect (at normal chances of success) or a wish.

Teleport Any Object
Range: Touch
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Causes 1 object to teleport
   This spell is similar to the 5th level teleport spell,  but  nonliving
objects  can  be affected.  After casting this spell,  the spellcaster may
touch one creature or object and cause it to teleport.  The normal  chance
of  error  apply  (see  the  description  of the teleport spell above)l an
object appearing  too  high  will  fall  and  probably  break,  while  one
appearing  too  low  will be destroyed instantly.  If the spellcaster uses
this spell to teleport himself,  there is no chance for error.  The caster
may not deliberately choose a destination occupied by a solid object or in
open air above the ground.
The maximum weight affected is 500 cn (50 pounds) per level of the caster.
If an object is a solid part of a greater whole  (such  as  a  section  of
wall),  the  spell  will  teleport  a maximum of one 10'x 10'x 10' cube of
material.  If the caster is trying to teleport a creature that weighs more
than the spell allows, the spell fails.
   If another creature holds or carries the  item  which  the  caster  is
trying to teleport,  the creature may make a saving throw vs. spells (with
a -2 penalty). If the saving throw is successful, the teleport fails.
   If the caster touches another creature, the target creature may make a
saving throw vs.  spells (if so desired) to avoid  being  teleported,  but
with a - 2 penalty to the roll.

Eighth Level Magical Spells

Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Grows one duplicate creature from a piece of the original creature
   A clone is an exact duplicate of another living creature, grown from a
piece of the original through the use of this spell. The piece need not be
alive at the time the spell is cast.
   A human or demihuman clone is rare and may be very dangerous.  A clone
of any other living creature is a more commorlthing called a simulacrum. A
character can have only one clone at a time;  attempts at making  multiple
clones  of  a  single character automatically fail.  Undead and constructs
cannot be cloned,  because they are not living creatures. (You could clone
someone  from  flesh taken before that person became undead,  but he would
not be subject to the effects described below  for  situations  where  two
examples of the same person exist.)
   Human and demihuman clones: To create a human or demihuman clone, this
spell must be cast on one pound of the person's flesh. This spell requires
the caster to use up other materials costing 5,000.  gold pieces  per  Hit
Die of the original.  The clone awakens only when fully grown;  this takes
one week per Hit Die of the  clone.  When  completed,  the  clone  is  not
magical and cannot be dispelled.
   If the  human  or  demihuman  original  is  not  alive  when the clone
awakens,  the clone has all  the  features,  statistics  (abilities),  and
memories  possessed by the original at the time the flesh was taken.  This
is a very important point.  For example,  a 20th  level  magic-user  might
leave  a  pound of flesh with a scroll of this spell,  so that he might be
restored if lost;  but if  the  character  gains  another  ten  levels  of
experience and then dies, the clone will be the younger, less experienced,
20th level form.
   If a clone duplicates a person still living, or if the original person
regains  life,  a  very hazardous situation develops.  Each form instantly
becomes aware of the  other's  existence.  A  partial  mind-  link  exists
between them;  each can feel the other's emotions (but no other thoughts).
If either one is damaged,  the other takes the same damage (but may make a
saving throw vs.  spells to take half damage).  This effect does not apply
to charm, sleep, cures, or other effects that do not cause damage.
   The clone  is  immediately  obsessed  with  the  need  to  destroy its
original and will do anything to accomplish this.  From the time  a  clone
becomes  aware  of  its original,  it has one day per level of its creator
(i.e., the caster of the clone spell) to kill the original.
   Example: A  25th  level  fighter  dies.  His  friend  the  34th  level
magic-user,  who possesses a pound of the fighter's flesh for this precise
purpose,  bones  him.  Then someone else raises the fighter from the dead.
The clone becomes aware of his original and is compelled to kill  him.  He
has 34 days to do so-one day for every experience level of his creator.
   If the  clone  succeeds in killing its original,  it can continue with
its life normally;  but if it fails  and  does  not  immediately  die,  it
becomes insane.
   When a clone goes insane,  the original creature permanently loses one
point of Intelligence and one point  of  Wisdom.  The  original  may  also
thereafter  become  insane (5%  chance per day,  not cumulative).  If this
occurs, the victim and the clone die one week later, both forever dead and
unrecoverable even with a wish.
   Special Note:  If the original and the clone  are  kept  on  different
planes of existence, no mindlink occurs, and the clone is not compelled to
kill its original.  No ill effects occur,  and the two  remain  completely
unaware  of  their  situation.  If  they  ever occupy the same plane,  the
mind-link occurs and cannot be broken thereafter except by the destruction
of the clone or its original.
   Other clones:  A  clone  of  any other living creature (not a human of
demihuman) is called a simulacr-um. One percent of the original's flesh is
needed,  and  the cost of other materials is 500 gold pieces per hit point
of the original.  As with a normal clone,  the time  required  to  grow  a
simulacrum  is  one week per Hit Die of the original,  A simulacrum always
obeys its creator (the spellcaster).  It  understands  all  the  languages
spoken  by the caster.  Within a range of 10' per level of the caster,  it
can receive mental commands if the creator concentrates on sending them.
A simulacrum is an enchanted monster.  It can be blocked by a  protection
from  evil  spell  and  is  magical;  a dispel magic spell can (subject to
normal chances of failure for that spell) cause it  to  vanish  without  a
  The simulacrum's alignment is the same  as  that  of  the  spellcaster,
regardless of the original creature's alignment. Its armor class, movement
rate, morale, and number of attacks are the same as the original's.
  A simulacrum has only 50%  of the original's Hit Dice,  hit points, and
damage per attack.  The DM rolls d100 for  each  special  ability;  it  is
present in the simulacrum if the result is 01-50. However, a freshly grown
simulacrum never has any of the spells  or  spell-like  abilities  of  the
  If the original creature is alive,  the simulacrum does not grow beyond
this point.  If the original creature  dies  (or  is  already  dead),  the
simulacr-um continues to increase in abilities,  gaining an additional 5 %
per week to a maximum of 90%  of the original's statistics. When complete,
the  DM  rolls again to see which special abilities previously missing are
gained,  including spells and spell-like abilities (using the  90%  chance
for each; all may be present).

Create Magical Monsters
Range: 60'
Duration: Two turns
Effect: Creates one or more monsters
  This spell  is  similar  to the 7th level create normal monsters spell,
except that it can create monsters with some special abilities (up to  two
asterisks).  The  range and duration are double those of the lesser spell.
All other details are the same:  the creatures are chosen by  the  caster,
appear out of thin air, and vanish at the end of the spell duration.
  The total  number  of  Hit  Dice  of monsters appearing is equal to the
level of the magic-user casting the spell (again,  dropping  fractions  if
the  caster's  level is not an exact multiple of the creatures' Hit Dice).
The spell does not create humans or demihumans,  but  can  create  undead.
Creatures of 1 - 1 Hit Die count as 1 Hit Die; creatures of 1/2 Hit Die or
less count as 1/2 Hit Die each.
  Special Note:  This spell can create a construct (as defined in Chapter
14)  if  the  spellcaster  uses  the  materials  normally requited for the
construct's creation.  Only one construct will appear,  regardless of  the
caster's Hit Dice;  but it is permanent, and does not vanish at the end of
the spell duration-though it still may be dispelled at normal  chances  of
success. This construct may have only two asterisks (special abilities) or
less;  see Chapter 14 for lists of the known types of constructs  and  the
number of special abilities they have.  The cost of materials is a minimum
of 5,000 gold pieces per asterisk (or more,  depending on your  campaign).
Chapter  16  contains  more  rules for enchanting magical items (including
constructs), and has suggestions regarding nondispellable constructs.

Range: Touch
Duration: 3 or more rounds
Effect: Causes 1 victim to dance
  This spell causes one victim to prance madly about, performing a jig or
other dance,  for 3 or more rounds.  The magic-user must touch the  victim
for  the  spell to take effect (a normal attack roll).  The victim gets no
saving throw, and can not attack, use spells (or spell-like abilities), or
flee. While dancing, the victim suffers a -4 penalty to his saving throws,
and a +4 penalty to his armor class.
  The duration is three rounds for a caster of 18th to 20th  level;  four
rounds for levels 21-24, five rounds at levels 25-28, six rounds at levels
29-32, and seven rounds at levels 33-36.

Explosive Cloud
Range: 1'
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Creates a moving poisonous cloud
 This spell creates an effect which looks  identical  to  the  5th  level
cloudkill  spell  (a  20'  tall  cloud  of  greenish  gas  30' in diameter
appearing next to the caster).  The cloud is only  mildly  poisonous;  all
victims within it must make a saving throw vs. spells or be paralyzed that
found. Each victim within the cloud makes a new saving throw each round.
 The cloud is filled with sparkling lights (visible only to those  within
it),  which are small explosions.  Each round, those within the cloud take
damage from the explosions, with no saving throw allowed. This damage is 1
point for each two levels of experience of the magic-user, rounded down (9
points at 18th or 19th level, 10 points at 20th or 21st level, etc.). This
explosive damage will affect any creature, including those immune to fire,
gas, electricity, and other special attacks.

Force Field
Range: 120'
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Creates an invisible barrier
 This spell  creates  an  invisible,  immovable barrier or object of pure
force.  It has almost no thickness,  but cannot be broken or destroyed  by
any means except a disintegrate spell or a wish; even a dispel magic spell
cannot  affect  it.  A  force  field's  shape  is  limited  to  a  sphere,
hemisphere,  a flat surface,  a cylinder, a square or rectangular box with
flat sides, or part of such a box. The sphere's radius can be a maximum of
20'.  The  flat  surface of combinations thereof may be up to 5,000 square
feet in total area.  The force Field cannot be irregular in shape, and its
surface  must  be  perfectly  smooth.  It  can  be  as small as the caster
 The force  field will not appear within any solid or creature.  Any part
of it that would do so will not  appear,  leaving  a  hole  in  the  force
field-normally,  a  hole  large  enough  for the victim to escape through.
Furthermore,  the edges of the field are blunt and cannot cause damage  in
any  way.  The  force field will stay where it is put until it disappears,
and cannot be moved by any means but a wish.
 Creature(s) completely enclosed by a sealed force field will not starve,
suffer  from  lack  of  air,  or otherwise be harmed by the encasement.  A
sealed force field magically preserves any within it from  natural  death.
This  does  not  prevent damage or death from attacks by others within the
force field.
 Nothing can pass through a force field.  Spells, missiles, blows, breath
weapons,  and all other attack forms merely  bounce  off  it.  However,  a
teleport  or  dimension  door spell can bypass it;  these spells allow the
caster to travel into of out of the field without harming the  field.  The
force  field  exists only on one plane of existence.  Thus,  planar travel
(via gate or other means) can also bypass it.
 Though most often used as a barrier or cage, a force field can easily be
used to create an invisible floor,  stairway,  chair,  or other object.  A
force field can be made permanent,  but  the  permanence  spell  is  still
subject  to  dispel  magic,  and  if  removed,  the force field disappears
immediately.  Even if treated with a permanence spell,  a force field will
always vanish if struck by a disintegrate spell or wished away.

Mass Charm*
Duration: Special (as charm person spell)
Effect: 30 Levels of creatures
  This spell  creates  the same effect as a charm person or charm monster
spell, except that the spell affects 30 levels (or Hit Dice) at once. Each
victim may make a saving throw vs.  spells to avoid the charm,  but with a
-2 penalty to the toll. The spell will not affect a creature of 31 of more
levels or Hit Dice.
   The duration of each charm is determined by the victim's  Intelligence
(see  charm person,  above).  If the magic-user attacks one of the charmed
victims, only that one creature's charm is automatically broken. Any other
charmed  creatures  seeing  the attack may make another saving throw,  but
other creatures' charms are not affected.
 The reverse of this spell,  remove charm,  will unfailingly  remove  all
charm  effects  within  a  20'x 20'x 20' volume.  It will also prevent any
object in that area from creating charm effects for one turn.

Mind Barrier*
Range: 10'
Duration: 1 hour per level of the caster
Effect: Protects against mind-affecting spells and items
 This spell affects one creature;  an  unwilling  recipient  may  make  a
saving throw vs. spells to avoid the effect.
   The spell  prevents  any  form  of  ESP  clairvoyance,  ciqirqudience,
crystal ball gazing,  or any other form of mental influence or information
gathering  (such  as  by  a  contact  higher  plane or summon object) from
working on the target creature.  The caster of recipient simply  does  not
exist for the purposes of those and similar spell effects for the duration
of the mind barrier spell.
 In addition, the recipient gains a bonus of + 8 to saving throws against
mind-influencing attacks,  such  as  all  forms  of  charm,  illusion  2nd
phantasms,  feeblemind,  and the like.  (However, a roll of 1 always fails
the saving throw, regardless of adjustments.)
 The reverse  of this spell,  open mind,  causes the victim touched to be
vulnerable to all  the  mind-influencing  attacks  given  above.  All  the
victim's  saving  throws against such effects are penalized by - 8 for the
duration of the  spell.  This  reversed  spell  must  be  cast  by  touch,
requiring a normal attack roll.

Range: 10'
Duration: Permanent until dispelled
Effect:  Causes  one   magical   effect   to   become   permanent
   By means of this spell,  the magic-user can cause one other magic-user
spell effect of 7th level or less to become permanent. This spell will not
make  permanent  any  spell  which  has  an "instantaneous" or "permanent"
duration (such as dispel magic, Fireball, lightning bolt, etc.); clerical
spells  and  8th  or  9th  level  magic-user  spells  also  cannot be made
   The DM  can  declare  that the permanence spell will not work with any
other specific spell.  Whenever a character wishes to cast the spell,  the
DM  should  carefully  consider  whether  permanence will affect the other
spell. Certain spell combinations could seriously affect a campaign's game
balance, and the DM should carefully regulate all uses of this spell.
   A permanence  spell lasts until dispelled by a dispel magic spell from
either the caster or some higher-level spellcaster (at normal chances  for
success).  When the permanence spell is dispelled,  the other spell effect
vanishes immediately.
   Except for weapons, an item can only receive one permanence spell, and
a  creature  can receive two at most.  If a permanence spell is cast on an
item or area that already has one in effect (or a creature  which  already
has  two,  or  a  weapon  which already has five),  both permanence spells
automatically fail.  A weapon may have up to five permanent effects, but a
25  %  (noncumulative)  chance of failure applies to each permanence after
the first.  Furthermore,  if the permanence fails,  it destroys the weapon
Some spells  used  on  a  creature  that are commonly made permanent are:
detect magic,  protection from evil,  read languages,  read magic,  detect
invisible,  and  fly.  Some  spells  commonly  made permanent on areas are
light, phantasmal force, confusion, and cloudkill.
 A magic-user  does  not  need  a  permanence spell to make any permanent
magical item.  Using permanence to bind a spell to an object  is  not  the
same  as  enchanting  the  object.  Enchanted objects are more durable and
permanent than objects which have merely  had  spells  permanently  placed
upon them.

Polymorph any Object
Duration: See below
Effect:   Changes   form   of   one   object   of   creature
 This spell is similar to the 4th level polymorph  others  spell,  except
that it will affect objects as well as creatures. If the object is part of
a greater whole (such as a section of wall), the spell will affect up to a
10'x 10'x 10' volume.  A creature may avoid the effects if it successfully
makes a saving throw vs. spells is made at a -4 penalty to the roll.
  The duration of the polymorph depends on  the  degree  of  the  change.
There  are  three  basic  kingdoms  of all things-animal,  vegetable,  and
mineral.  If  an  object  is  polymorphed  to  one  of  a  nearby  kingdom
(animal-vegetable,  vegetable-  mineral)  the spell's duration is one hour
per level of the caster.  If the change is from animal to mineral (or  the
reverse),  it lasts for one turn per level of the caster.  If no change in
kingdom occurs (for example,  if a creature is polymorphed into some other
creature),  the  change is permanent until removed by a dispel magic spell
(at normal chances for success).
   Note that   creatures   created   by  means  of  this  spell  are  not
automatically friendly.  A polymorph cannot affect a creature's age or hit
points.  (See the 4th level polymorph self and polymorph others spells for
other guidelines.)
   This spell will not affect a creature which has  more  than  2  x  the
spellcaster's  experience  levels in Hit Dice.  For example,  a 20th level
magic- user cannot affect a creature with 41 or more Hit Dice.

Power Word Blind
Duration: 1-4 days or 2-8 hours (see below)
Effect: Blinds 1 creature with 80 hit points or less With this spell, the
caster may blind one victim within 120' (no saving throw).  A victim  with
1-40  hit  points  is  blinded for 1d4 days;  one with 41-80 hit points is
blinded for 2d4 hours. The spell does not affect creatures with 81 or more
hit points.
   A blinded victim suffers penalties of - 4 on all saving throws and  +4
on armor class. A cleric's cure blindness or cureall spell will not remove
this blindness unless the cleric is of a level equal to or higher than the
caster of the power word blind.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates up to 500 square feet of steel
   This spell is effectively identical to the 7th level  ironform  spell.
However, the material created is of weapon-quality; a swordmaker with this
spell could cast the spell and  create  a  finely-  crafted,  high-quality
sword in 12 turns (two hours) or less.
Following the  same  general  guidelines as iron- form,  a steel wall will
have an AC of -10(2) and about 20 hit points per 1" thickness.

Range: Touch
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Creates one magical rune
   This spell  creates  a  written  magical  drawing  (a "rune") of great
power. There are six kinds of symbols; the caster must select one when the
spell is memorized. The rune may be placed on an object (such as a door or
wall) or placed in mid-air.  The rune cannot move; if placed on a creature
or  moving  object,  it  will  remain at that point when the surface moves
(possibly floating in mid-air).
   When any living creature passes over or through the rune,  or  touches
the object on which the rune is inscribed,  or (foolishly) reads the rune,
the rune's effect takes place immediately (no saving throw).
   There is one exception: a magic-user, and any other creature which can
normally cast magic- user spells (high-level thieves with scrolls  do  not
count!),  may make a saving throw vs. spells if he merely reads or touches
(rather than passes) the symbol.  If the saving throw is  successful,  the
symbol has no effect.
   All symbols look similar to normal writings.
   Six symbols  and  their  effects  are  given below;  the DM may create
others (such as polymorph, teleport, charm, geas, etc.).
   Death: Slays any creature with 75 hit points or less;  does not affect
a creature with 76 hit points or more.
   Discord: The  victim  attacks allies (if any) or is otherwise confused
(as the 4th level confusion spell).  The effect is permanent until removed
by  a  dispel magic spell (at normal chances for success) or by a cleric's
cureall spell.
   Fear: The victim immediately runs away from the symbol, at his Running
Speed, for 30 rounds (as the wand).
   Insanity: The victim becomes insane,  and can not attack, cast spells,
or use special abilities or items.  The  victim  may  walk,  but  must  be
carefully  tended or may run away.  This effect is permanent until removed
by a dispel magic spell (at normal chances for success) or by  a  cleric's
cureall spell.
   Sleep: The  victim  falls asleep,  and cannot be awakened.  The victim
will wake normally in 1d10+10 (11-20) hours or if dispel magic is used  to
negate it (at normal chances for success).
   Stunning: Affects  any  creature  with  150  or fewer hit points.  The
victim is stunned for 2d6 turns (as the power word stun spell).

Range: 0 (caster only)
Duration: One turn per level of the caster
Effect: Allows aerial or gaseous travel
   This spell allows the magic-user to  move  quickly  and  freely,  even
between  the  planes  of existence.  The caster (only) may fly in the same
manner as given by the magic-user's spell,  at a rate of 360' (120').  The
caster can also enter a nearby plane of existence, simply by concentrating
for one round. He may enter a maximum of one plane per turn.
   The magic-user may bring one other creature for every five  levels  of
experience (rounded down; for example, a 28th level magic-user could bring
five other creatures on the journey). To bring others, he must touch them,
or they must touch him, while the spell is cast and the shift is made. Any
unwilling creature can make a saving throw vs. spells to avoid the effect.
The  caster  must  take  the  others  with  him-he  cannot send them while
remaining behind.
   While this spell is  in  effect,  the  magic-user  (only)  may  assume
gaseous  form by concentrating for one full round.  (If he is interrupted,
no change occurs.) Unlike the potion effect,  all equipment  carried  also
becomes  part  of  the  same gaseous cloud.  In this form,  the caster may
travel at double the normal flying rate:  720' (240').  While gaseous, the
magic-user  cannot  use  items or cast spells,  but also cannot be damaged
except by magic (weapons or certain spells).  Also, a gaseous being cannot
pass through a protection from evil spell effect or an anti-magic shell.

Ninth Level Magical Spells

Range: Touch
Duration: Indefinite (see below)
Effect: Prepares one  spell
 This powerful spell acts as a trigger for one stated  magic-user  spell;
this  second  spell  must  be  of 4th level of less that does not normally
cause damage.
 While casting a contingency spell,  the magic- user  must  describe  one
situation  and the spell which is contingent upon it.  When that situation
next occurs,  the  contingent  spell  effect  triggers  automatically  and
immediately, as if cast at that time.
 Examples of proper use:
 "When I am touched or struck by any living creature that is not a Lawful
or Neutral cleric,  except for my  friends  Charley  McGonigle  and  Sally
Silvernose (contingency), then cast charm monster on the creature touching
or striking me (spell)."
 "When I  have  eight  hit  points  or  less  and  am about to be damaged
(contingency),  then cast dimension  door  on  myself  to  take  me  to  a
destination  one inch above ground level directly upward;  or,  if that is
greater than 360' away,  to the furthest unoccupied area within range that
I  have  seen  within  the  12  hour period prior to the existence of this
contingency (spell effect)."
 No item or creature can have more than one contingency spell cast on it;
not even a wish can allow multiple applications. The contingency described
can  be  as detailed or as simple as desired,.  but is somewhat limited in
effect:  It must pertain to something within 120' of the triggering event.
A  contingency  based  on  a  far-off  occurrence  is  beyond  the spell's
capacity.  The target and effect of the secondary  spell  must  always  be
specified,  and if any necessary details are lacking,  the secondary spell
does not occur.
 A contingency spell effect has no maximum duration.  It may  remain  for
centuries before the situation described comes to pass.

Create Any Monster
Range: 10'
Duration: 3 turns
Effect: Creates one of more monsters
 This spell  is similar to the 7th level spell create normal monsters and
the 8th level spell create magical monsters, but with fewer limitations on
the types of creatures appearing.
 The range  and  duration are triple those of the 7th level version.  The
spell cannot create humans  and  demihumans,  but  can  create  any  other
creature,  regardless  of  the  number  of  special abilities (asterisks).
However,  if the caster wants to create a  creature  with  three  or  more
asterisks, the  caster  must  have  carefully studied one (either alive or
dead) for at least one hour to be able to create another with this  spell.
As with the lesser spells,  the maximum number of Hit Dice of creatures is
equal to the level of the caster.
 To create a construct (as described in  Chapter  14),  the  caster  must
obtain  the proper materials necessary to create the construct.  The spell
will create only one construct,  regardless of the caster's Hit Dice;  but
it  is  permanent,  and  does not vanish at the end of the spell duration.
(However,  a dispel magic spell,  with  normal  chances  of  success,  can
destroy this type of construct.)
  As with the 8th level spell, the cost of materials required to create a
construct  is  a  minimum  of  5,000  gold  pieces  per asterisk (or more,
depending on your campaign).  If the construct has four or more  asterisks
(such as a golem),  the cost is doubled (or more; ask your DM). Chapter 16
contains more rules for enchanting magical items  (including  constructs),
and has suggestions regarding nondispellable constructs.
  Created monsters  of  all types can be blocked by protection from evil
or anti-magic shell effect.

Duration: 1d10 x 10 (1- 100) turns or I turn
Effect: Opens a portal to another plane
  When the magic-user casts this spell,  he must  name  one  target:  the
Ethereal Plane, the Astral Plane, one of the four elemental planes, or one
outer plane.  He must also name a resident of that plane,  usually that of
an Immortal,  a ruler of the plane. The spell opens a direct connection to
the other plane of existence.
  A gate to an outer plane remains open for only one turn. Any other gate
remains open for 1d10x10 (1-100) turns, and there is a 10% chance per turn
that  some  other-planar creature will wander through the gate while it is
  A gate to an elemental plane actually creates a vortex and a  wormhole,
and  a  wish  may be used to make them permanent.  Planes,  vortexes,  and
wormholes are described in Chapter 18.
  Contact with an outer plane is dangerous,  and the magic-user must know
and  speak the name of the Immortal he wishes to contact.  The Immortal he
calls will probably (95 %  chance) arrive in 1d6 rounds, but there is a 5%
chance that some other being from the outer planes will respond.  When the
being arrives, it immediately looks for the spellcaster.
   If the  caster does not have an excellent reason for opening the gate,
the being will probably destroy the caster. Even if the caster provides an
excellent  reason,  the  being  may  merely leave immediately,  showing no
interest.  If the reason is of supreme importance to the magic-user and of
some  interest to the being (DM's discretion),  it may actually help for a
short time.
  The reverse of this spell,  close gate,  will close a gate  created  by
normal form of the spell. It can also be used to close a permanent gate to
a nearby plane (such as an elemental vortex).  But the spell cannot affect
an  Immortal;  it  cannot,  for instance,  make him leave if he chooses to

Range: Touch (one creature)
Duration: Permanent
Effect: Cures anything

  This spell's effect is identical to that of the 6th level cleric  spell
cureall.  When  used  to  cure wounds,  it cures nearly all of the damage,
leaving only 1d6 points of damage  remaining.  It  can  instead  remove  a
curse, neutralize a poison, cure a disease, cure blindness, or even remove
a feeblemind effect.

Range: Touch (one creature)
Duration: One turn per level of the caster
Effect: Bestows immunity or resistance to some spells and weapons

  This spell  gives the recipient total immunity to all 1st-,  2nd-,  and
3rd level spells.  Furthermore,  4th- and 5th level spells have only  half
normal  effect,  or  one-quarter  normal  if the victim makes a successful
saving throw.  Any spell effect that is quantifiable is reduced in effect;
these effects include reductions in duration,  bonuses, penalties, damage,
etc. Round fractions off in the recipient's favor.
   The recipient is also completely immune to  all  missiles  (normal  or
magical),  as well as normal and silver weapons; he takes half damage from
magical hand-held weapons.  This applies only to  weapons;  claws,  bites,
breath weapons, and other natural attack forms are not blocked.
  By concentrating,  the recipient  can  drop  the  protection,  allowing
spells  (such  as  cure wounds) to have normal effects for that round.  If
dropped,  the immunity is absent for one round (including  the  protection
from weapons), but returns automatically at the end of the round.
   A carefully worded wish  spell  can  extend  this  protection,  giving
immunity  to 4th level spells and +1 weapons,  and half normal effect from
5th and 6th level spells. No further improvements are possible.

Duration: See below (1d6 turns, 2d20 rounds, 2d4 rounds, or 1d4 rounds)
Effect: Traps one creature
  This spell creates an indestructible  maze  in  the  Astral  Plane  and
places   one  victim  into  the  maze  (he  gets  no  saving  throw).  The
intelligence of the victim determines the time  he  needs  to  escape  the

Maze      Duration
Victim's                   Time Required
Intelligence                To Escape
Non to Low (1-8)             1d6 (1-6) turns
Average  ( 9-12)           2d2O (2-40) rounds
High     (13-17)             2d4 (2-8) rounds
Genius   (18+)               1d4 (1-4) rounds
  When he escapes the maze,  the victim returns to the exact  place  from
which he originally disappeared.

Meteor       Swarm
Duration:       Instantaneous
Effect: Creates four of eight meteor-fireballs
  This spell creates either 4 or 8 meteors (at the caster's choice). Each
meteor can be aimed at a different  target  within  range,  but  only  one
meteor can be aimed at any one creature. Each meteor slams into its target
and explodes like  a  fireball  (affecting  all  creatures  within  a  20'
  If the caster creates four meteors,  each strikes for 8d6 (8-48) points
of damage and then explodes for 8d6 (8-48) points of fire damage. If
the caster  creates  eight  smaller  meteors,  each strikes for 4d6 (4-24)
points and then explodes for 4d6 more points of fire damage.  Note that if
the  meteors  are  aimed  accurately,  a  victim or area might find itself
within overlapping blasts and thus take explosion damage multiple times.
   The player rolls damage for each strike and blast separately. A meteor
never misses its  target.  Any  victim  struck  by  a  meteor  takes  full
"strike" damage (no saving throw).  Each victim within a blast radius may
make a saving throw vs.  spells to take  only  half  of  the  given  blast
damage. Even fire-resistant and fire-using creatures are fully affected by
strikes from a meteor swarm, although they might be resistant to the fiery
explosions.  A  separate  saving  throw  must  be  made for each blast the
character contacts.

Power Word Kill
Duration: Instantaneous
Effect: Slays or stuns one or more creatures
   This spell  enables  the  caster  to affect one or more victims within
120' (no saving throw).  Exception:  A magic-user,  and any creature which
can  cast magic-user spells,  may make a saving throw vs.  spells to avoid
this effect, with a -4 penalty to the roll.
   A single victim with 1-60 hit points is automatically slain;  one with
61-100  hit  points  is stunned (as power word stun) and unable to act for
1d4 turns, No creature with 101 or more hit points is affected.
   The spell can also be used to slay up to five victims if each  has  20
hit points or less (again, no saving throw).

Prismatic Wall
Duration: 6 turns
Effect: Creates a multi-colored barrier
   This spell  creates  a  barrier  of  many  colors  with  a  glittering
appearance as if from light shining through  a  prism.  This  wall  is  2"
thick,  with  1/8" between the colors.  The effect must be either a sphere
with a radius of 10',  centered on the caster, or a flat surface (vertical
or horizontal) of up to 500 square feet in area.
   Whatever its form,  the prismatic wall cannot  be  moved  (even  by  a
wish).  The caster may pass through it freely and unharmed, with any items
he chooses to carry. All other creatures and objects contacting or passing
through  the  prismatic wall are affected by its magic,  starting with the
first color they contact.
   It takes  powerful magic to break through the wall.  A wish spell or a
rod of cancellation will remove the three outermost remaining colors,  but
that's all.
   To break through a prismatic wall,  an attacker must attack it with  a
specific  sequence  of  spells.  Each  spell  will cancel one color of the
prismatic wall.  These remedy spells,  shown on the chart below,  must  be
cast  in  the  correct  order  (first,  any magical cold to remove the red
layer; then, any magical lightning to remove the orange layer; and so on).
When  cast  successfully,  each  spell  causes  the  appropriate  color to
disappear from the wall.  When all layers are gone,  so  is  the  wall.  A
person  with  an  active  anti-magic  shell  (including  the caster of the
prismatic wall) will not be able to pass through the wall, but the attempt
will not damage either the anti-magic shell or the prismatic wall.
   The prismatic  wall  extends  into the nearest plane of existence (the
Ethereal Plane,  if cast on  the  Prime  Plane),  appearing  there  as  an
indestructible solid wall. Planar and dimensional travel can therefore not
bypass it. The colors and effects of a prismatic wall are always the same;
when created, the violet side is always closest to the caster. The effects
and colors of the prismatic wall are summarized below.

 Prismatic   Wall   Effects

Color    Effect                                        Negated By

Red      Blocks all  magical  missiles;                Any magical cold
         inflicts 12 points of damage
         (no  saving   throw   allowed)
Orange   Blocks   all    nonmagical    missiles;       Any magical lightning
         inflicts 24 points of damage
         (no  saving   throw   allowed)
Yellow   Blocks  all  breath   weapons;                Magic missile spell
         inflicts 48 points   of damage
         (no  saving   throw   allowed)
Green    Blocks  all  detection  spells                Passwall spell
         (crystal  balls,  ESP,  etc.);
         saving  throw   vs.   poison   or   die
Blue     Blocks   all   poisons,   gases,    and       Disintegrate spell
         gaze  attacks;   anyone   touching   it
         must   make   a   saving   throw    vs.
         turn to stone or be petrified
Indigo   Blocks  all   matter;   anyone                Dispel magic spell
         touching  it   must   make   a   saving
         throw vs. spells or be
         gated to a random
         outer   plane,   and   possibly   (50%)
         lost forever
Violet   Blocks  magic  of  all  types;   anyone       Continual light spell
         touching  it   must   make   a   saving
         throw   vs.   wands   or   be    struck
         unconscious   and   insane    (curable
         only by a cureall spell
         or a wish)

 Range: 0 (caster only)
 Duration: One turn per level of the caster
 Effect: Caster may change form

   This spell is similar to the 4th level polymorph self  spell,  but  is
far more powerful,  The caster actually becomes another creature or object
in all respects except the mind, hit points, and saving throws. The caster
takes his new armor class, attack rolls, special attack forms, immunities,
and all other details from the form he has taken.
A magic-user cannot cast spells in any  form  except  that  of  a  bipedal
humanoid (demihuman,  goblin, ogre, giant, etc.). The caster cannot take a
completely unique form (such as that of a  specific  character,  Elemental
Ruler,  of  Immortal).  He  can gain the likeness but not the abilities of
another character class.  When wearing another  form,  he  can  only  cast
spells from his own memory;  he can't cast from scrolls of his spell book.
He cannot assume huge inanimate forms;  if he tries to, the form will be a
maximum  of  one  foot  tall per experience level of the caster and 100 cn
weight per level.
   Except for these limits,  the caster can become any creature or object
that he or  she  has  ever  seen.  He  cannot  change  into  imaginary  or
unfamiliar creatures;  unless there are ten-armed trolls in your campaign,
for example,  he cannot turn into one. The caster may change shape at will
during  the  spell's  duration;  each  change  requires  a  full  round of
   Note that  the caster does assume the flaws of the new form as well as
its strengths. If, for example, the caster is struck by a sword +2, +5 vs.
dragons while in dragon form, the +5 bonus applies against his new form.
   This spell  effect  cannot  be made permanent and is subject to dispel
magic.  During the spell duration,  the caster  cannot  pass  through  any
protection from evil or anti-magic shell span effect.

Duration: One hour per level of the caster
Effect: Protects  one  creature  against  all  non-  magical environmental

This spell  protects  the  recipient  from adverse conditions of all types,
including normal heat or cold,  lack of air, and so forth. While the spell
is in effect,  the caster needs no air,  food,  water, or sleep. The spell
does not protect against  magical  damage  of  any  type,  attack  damage,
poisons, breath weapons, or physical blows from creatures. It does protect
against all damage  caused  by  natural  conditions  on  other  planes  of
   For example, a cleric might use this spell: in a desert or blizzard to
prevent  damage  from  the natural conditions;  underground or underwater,
enabling survival without air;  in space,  to magically survive in vacuum;
or  on  the  elemental plane of Fire,  to protect against conditional fire

Range: 0 (caster only)
Duration: 2-5 rounds
Effect: Allows caster to act for 1d4 + 1  (2-5)  rounds  while  everything
       else "stops"

   To the caster,  this spell seems to stop time. It speeds the caster so
greatly that all other creatures seem frozen at their  Normal  Speeds,  in
"normal time." From the caster's point of view, the effect lasts for 1d4+1
(2-5) rounds.  The caster may perform one  action  during  each  of  these
magical rounds.
   Normal and magical fire,  cold,  gas,  etc. can still harm the caster.
While the timestop is in effect, however, other creatures are invulnerable
to the caster's attacks and  spells.  Spells  with  durations  other  than
"instantaneous"  may be created and left to take effect when time resumes.
Note that no time elapses while this spell  is  in  effect;  durations  of
other spells cast start after the timestop ends.
   The spellcaster  cannot move items held by those in "normal time," but
can move other items that are not "stuck"' including those worn or carried
by  others.  The  caster  is  completely  undetectable by those in "normal
time." However,  the magic-user cannot pass through a protection from evil
or anti-magic shell while under this spell's effect.

Range: Special
Duration: Special
Effect: Special
   A wish is the single most powerful spell a magic-user can have.  It is
never found on a scroll,  but may be placed  elsewhere  (in  a  ring,  for
example) in rare cases.  Only magic-users of 36th level and with an 18 (or
greater) Wisdom score may cast the wish spell.
   Wording the  Wish:  The  player  must  say or write the exact wish his
character makes.  The wording is very important.  The  wish  will  usually
follow the literal wording, and whatever the intentions of the magic-user.
   The DM should try to maintain game balance, being neither too generous
nor  too  stingy  in deciding the effects of a wish.  Even a badly phrased
wish,  made with good intentions,  may have good results.  However, if the
wish  is greedy,  or made with malicious intent,  the DM should make every
effort to distort the results of the spell  so that the  caster  does  not
profit from it.  If necessary, the DM can even disallow the wish; it would
then have no effect.  Whenever a wish fails or is misinterpreted,  the  DM
should explain (after the game) the problem or flaw in the phrasing.
   Here are some examples of faulty wishes:
   "I wish that I knew everything about this dungeon" could result in the
character knowing all for only a second, and then forgetting it.
   "I wish  for a million gold pieces" can be granted by having them land
on the character (that's 100,000 pounds of gold!), and then vanished.
   "I wish to immediately and permanently possess the  gaze  power  of  a
basilisk while retaining all of my own abilities and items" is a carefully
worded wish that's out of balance. Characters able to use these high-level
spells are already quite powerful. This wish could result in the character
growing a basilisk head in addition to the character's own head.
   A wish cannot be used to gain either experience points  or  levels  of
   Possible Effects:  A properly worded wish can substitute for any other
magical  spell  of 8th level or less,  or any clerical or druidic spell of
6th level or less,  at the DM's discretion.  This common use of a wish  is
more likely to succeed with little chance for error than other uses of the
   Otherwise, if the wish is used to harm another  creature,  the  victim
may make a saving throw vs.  spells. If the save is successful, the victim
takes half the ill effects and the other half rebounds on the caster  (who
may  also  save to avoid it,  but with a -4 penalty to the roll).  If the
wish will inconvenience someone  without  harming  him  (for  example,  by
causing  him  to  teleport into a prison cell),  the victim gets no saving
   A character can use a wish to gain treasure, up to a maximum of 50,000
gold pieces per wish.  However,  the caster loses 1 experience  point  per
gold  piece  value  of treasure gained,  and this loss cannot be magically
  The magic-user can use a wish to temporarily  change  any  one  ability
score  to a minimum of 3 or maximum of 18.  This effect lasts for only six
  Wishes can also be used to permanently increase ability scores, but the
cost  is  very  high:  You  must  cast as many wishes as the number of the
ability score desired.  All the wishes must  be  cast  within  a  one-week
  You may raise an ability score only one point at a time.  To raise your
Strength from 15 to 16 takes 16 wishes.  To then raise it to 17 will  take
an additional 17 wishes. Wishes cannot permanently lower ability scores.
  A wish cannot raise the maximum experience level for human  characters;
36th level is an absolute limit. However, one wish can allow demihumans to
gain one additional Hit Die (for a new maximum of 9 for halflings,  11 for
elves,  and  13 for dwarves).  This affects only hit points,  and does not
change any other scores (such as attack rolls,  elves' number  of  spells,
  A wish can change a demihuman to a human, or the reverse. Such a change
is  permanent,  and  the recipient does not become magical.  Halflings and
dwarves become fighters of the same level.  Elves  become  magic-users  or
fighters  (but  not  both),  at the choice of the caster of the wish.  The
changed character would then gain levels of experience normally.  A  human
changes to the same level demihuman,  but no higher than the normal racial
  If one character casts a wish to change another's  character  c@s,  the
victim (at his option) may make a saving throw vs.  spells with a +5 bonus
to resist the change.
  A wish can sometimes change the results of a past occurrence.  This  is
normally limited to events of the previous day.  A lost battle may be won,
or the losses may be made far less severe,  but impossible odds cannot  be
overcome completely. A death could be changed to a near- death survival; a
permanent loss could be made temporary.  The DM may wish to advise players
when their wishes exceed the limit of the spell's power (or his patience).
  Important Note:  Whenever an effect is described as being  unchangeable
"even with a wish," that statement supersedes all others here.
   Wishes can cause great problems if not handled properly.  The DM  must
see that wishes are reasonably limited or the balance and enjoyment of the
game will be completely upset.  The DM should not allow wishes that  alter
the  basics  of  the  game  (such as a wish that dragons can't breathe for
damage).  The more unreasonable and greedy the wish is,  the  less  likely
that the wish will become reality.



  Characters who  throw  themselves  into  dangerous  situations tend to
survive a lot longer of they have the right tools  and  equipment  for  each
situation.  In this chapter, we list most of the normal equipment characters
will need in a game.


Some quick notes on money in the D&D game:

  Starting Gold.  Beginning characters receive a one-time sum of 3d6  x  10
gold  pieces.  This  represents  money  saved  up by the character before he
embarked on his adventuring career,  or money given to  him  by  his  family
before he left home.  It should be spent on weapons,  armor,  and equipment;
the DM may have recommendations as to what the characters should  buy.  When
first created, the character also can be assumed to own two or three sets of
plain clothes, a pair of shoes, a belt, and a belt-pouch.

  Abbreviations: The game commonly uses the following abbreviations.
   platinum  pieces = pp
   gold pieces = gp
   electrum  pieces = ep
   silver pieces = sp
   copper pieces = cp
Conversions: You can convert money  from  one  type  to  another  using  the
following values.
   1 sp = 10 cp
   1 ep =  5 sp = 50 cp
   1 gp =  2 ep = 10 sp = 100 cp
   1 pp =  5 gp = 10 ep =  50 sp = 500 cp


  Most characters  will  want  to  carry one or more reliable weapons.  The
Weapons Table shows the weapons available in the D&D  game.  Some  of  these
weapons  have special effects that are Some of the weapons in the table will
look very similar to  one  another.  But  these  weapons  often  demonstrate
substantial  differences  if  you also use the optional weapon mastery rules
described in the next chapter.
  Weapon information in the table is defined as follows:
* Item gives the weapon's name.
* Damage shows the amount of damage the
weapon does; if the column shows "1d6" for instance, you'd roll 1d6, for a
result  of I to 6 points of damage whenever you hit with that weapon.
* Range  shows  the  range  characteristics  of  the  weapon  if  it   fires
projectiles or can be thrown. A number like "60/120/180," for example, means
that the weapon is at short range (for the indicated  +  1  to  attack  roll
modifier)  from  11  to  60';  it  is  at  medium  range (for no attack roll
modifier) from 61' to 120';  and it is at long range (for a -  1  to  attack
roll modifier) from 121' to 180'. Beyond 180', it cannot hit a target. These
distances are measured as feet indoors and as yards outdoors; for example, a
crossbow  that  can  fire  180'  ins1de a dungeon can launch its quarrel 180
yards outs1de.
* Cost  (gp)  shows  how much it costs to buy the weapon in gold pieces(gp).

  Weapons Table
                                  Range       Cost   Enc
  Item                   Damage   S/MIL       (gp)  (cn)   Notes

  See Ammunition Table

  Axe, Battle            1d8                     7     60  r,2H,M
  Axe,  Hand             1d6      10/20/30       4     30  t,S

  Bow, Short             1d6      50/100/150     25    20  a,m,2H,M
  Bow,Long               1d6      70/140/210     40    30  a,m,2H,L
  Crossbow, Light        1d6      60/120/180     30    50  a,m,s,2H,M
  Crossbow, Heavy        2d4      80/160/240     50    80  a,m,s,2H,L

  Blackjack              1d2                     5      5  c,r,s,S
  Club                   1d4                     3     50  c,r,M
  Hammer, Throwing       1d4      10/20/30       4     25  c,t,M
  Hammer,      War       1d6                     5     50  c,r,M
  Mice                   1d6                     5     30  c,r,M
  Staff                  1d6                     5     40  c,r,w,2H,M
  Torch                  1d4                     1/6   20  c,r,S

  Normal                 1d4      10/20/30        3    10  t,W,S
  Silver                 1d4      10/20/30       30    10  t,w,S

  Pole    Weapons:
  Halberd                1d10                    7    150  s,2H,L
  javelin                1d6      30/60/90       1     20  t,M
  Lance                  1d10                    10   180  s,v,L
  Pike                   1d10                    3     80  s,v,2H,L
  Polearm                1d10                    7    150  s,2H,L
  Poleaxe                1d10                    5    120  s,2H,L
  Spear                  1d6      20/40/160      3     30  t,v,L
  Trident                1d6      10/20/30       5     25  s,t,M

  Shield Weapons:
  Shield, Horned         1d2                     15    20  s,S
  Shield,    Knife       1d4 + 1                 65    70  s,S
  Shield,    Sword       1d4 + 2                 200  185  s,v,M
  Shield, Tasked         1d4 + 1                 200  275  s,2H,L

  Short                  1d6                     7     30  r,S
  Normal                 1d8                     10    60  r,M
  One-Handed             1d6 + 1                 15    80  R,HH,L
  Two-Handed             1d8+1                   15    80  r,2H,L
  Two-Handed             1d10                    15   100  2H,L

  Other Weapons:
  Blowgun, up to 2'      Nil        10/20/30     3      6  a,m,s,w,S
  Blowgun, 2'+           Nil        20/25/30     6     15  a,m,s,w,2H,M
  Bola                   1d2        20/40/60     5      5  s,t,M
  Cestus                 1d3                     5     10  s,S
  Holy       Water       1d8        10/30/50    25      1  C,S,t,W,S
  Net                    Nil        10/20/30     n      n  s,t,w,M or L
  Oil,     Burning       1d8        10/30/50     2    100  C,S,t,W,S
  Rock, Thrown           1d3        10/30/50  1/10     10  C,t,W,s
  Sling                  1d4        40/80/160    2     20  c,m,w,S
  Whip                   1d2                  1/ft  10/ft  s,w,m

  (For  explanations  of  Notes,  see   the   next   page.)

 Weapons Table (Notes)
 a The weapon's normal load of ammunition is already included in the weapon's
         encumbrance  (bow:  20  arrows;  crossbow:  30 quarrels;  sling:  30
         stones;  blowgun:  5 darts).  If you want  to  vary  the  number  of
         missiles  you carry with the missile weapon,  2 arrows equal 1 cn in
         encumbrance, 3 quarrels equal 1 cn, 5 sling stones equal I cn, and 5
         darts  equal  I  cn.  Therefore,  a  long  bow without arrows has an
         encumbrance of 20 cn;  a light  crossbow  without  quarrels  has  an
         encumbrance of 40 cn.
 c Clerics may use this weapon.  Druids may,  too, if they can find a form of
         this weapon with no metal or stone parts.
 m Missile weapon;  never used  as  a  melee  weapon.
 n A net's cost and encumbrance are based on its size.  Nets cost I sp per
    square foot of surface area and have an encumbrance of 1  cn  per  square
    foot. A  Medium  net  (6'x  6')  would  cost  36  sp (3.6 gp) and have an
    encumbrance of 36 cn.
 r This  weapon  can  be  thrown,  but  is  only  rarely used this way;  only
    characters at the Expert or greater  level  of  weapon  mastery  can
    throw this weapon in combat.
 s    This weapon has special features; read the weapon description.
 t    This is a  hand  weapon  that  may  also  be  thrown.
 v    This weapon may be set vs. a charge.
 w    Magic-users  may  use  this  weapon  at  the  DM's   discretion.
 HH This weapon can be used either one-handed or two-handed. Used two-handed,
         it  operates  similarly  to  two-handed  weapons (i.e.,  the wielder
         cannot use a shield when using the  weapon  this  way).  However,  a
         character using this weapon,  even in its two-handed style, does not
         automatically lose individual initiative. Halflings and other  small
         races can use this weapon.
 2H This weapon requires two hands for use. The wielder of the weapon may not
         use  a  shield  and always loses individual initiative to characters
         not using a two-handed weapon.  Halflings and small races cannot use
         this weapon.
 S   Small weapon.
 M   Medium weapon.
 L   Large weapon.

 Weapon Special Effects Table

 Victim's      Bonus to         Failed Saving Throw Results*
 Level  or       Saving               Bola, Net,
 Hit  Dice        Throw    Blackjack  or    Whip   Blowgun
 Up  to  1         None    Knockout   Entangle     By poison
 1 + 1 to 3          +1    Knockout   Entangle     By poison
 3 + 1 to 6          +2    Stun       Slow         By poison
 6 + 1 to 9          +3    Stun       Slow         By poison
 9 + 1 to 12         +4    Delay      Delay        By poison
 12 + or more        +5    Delay      Delay        By poison

    * The  effects of successful saving throws are explained in each weapon's

  Ammunition Table
                                     Standard            Enc
              Type     of            Load (# of   Cost   of shots
  Weapon      Ammunition             Shots)       (gp)   per cn)

  Blowgun     Dart                      5            1     5
  Bow         Arrow                    20            5     2
              Silver-tipped arrow       1            5     2
  Crossbow    Quarrel                  30           10     3
              Silver-tipped quarrel     1            5     3
  Sling       Stone or lead pellet     30            1     5
              Silver pellet             1            5     5

  * Enc (cn) shows  how  much  encumbrance  the  weapon  has,  measured  in
coin-weights (cn).  One coin weighs one-tenth of a pound.  Remember that the
more encumbrance a character is carrying, the slower he moves.
  * Notes  refers  you  to  the  description  section that describes weapon
characteristics.  Sometimes a weapon that looks unimpressive  on  the  chart
will  have  special  features listed in the Notes column,  and those special
features might make them very useful weapons indeed.


   Missile weapons such as bows eventually run out  of  ammunition;  here's
what it costs to buy additional ammunition.
   These figures apply for any type of weapon that goes by the name  shown.
Arrows  cost  the same,  come in the same standard loads,  and have the same
encumbrance for a short bow as for a long bow; darts for a short blowgun are
identical to those for a long blowgun.

   Silver-tipped arrows  and  quarrels  are like ordinary missiles,  except
that their arrowheads are made of silver, which is useful when fighting cer-
tain monsters.  Such arrows are comparatively expensive and are usually sold
by the arrow,  rather than in batches of 20 or 30.  Likewise, silver pellets
are made for slings.
  Arrow and quarrel costs include the price of a cheap quiver or case, both
of which carry a stand are load of ammunition.

Weapon Descriptions

  The weapons from the Weapons Table are described here. They are listed in
alphabetical order for convenience.

   Axe, Battle: This is a large one- or two-bladed chopping head fixed upon
a  long (3'- 5') wooden shaft.  This is a two-handed weapon;  the wielder of
the weapon may not use a shield and always loses  individual  initiative  to
characters  not  using  a two-handed weapon. Halflings and small non-humans
such as goblins cannot use this weapon.

   Axe, Hand:  This is a small chopping  blade  (usually  only  one  blade)
affixed  to a small (1'-2') wooden shaft.  It is a one-handed weapon and may
be thrown.

   Bastard Sword: See Sword, Bastard (below).
   Battle Axe: See Axe, Battle (above).

  Blackjack: This weapon is a small leather sack,  4" -8" long, filled with
sand or metal shot and with a looped strap attached. It causes little damage
(1d2  points) but,  if it is used to strike a victim's head or neck,  it can
possibly stun or cause unconsciousness.
  This weapon  has  no  effect on a victim wearing a metal helmet (which is
included in any set of plate,  banded,  chain,  or scale  mail)  or  on  any
unarmored  monster of armor class 0 or less (which indicates very tough skin
or protective plating).
  The DM  decides  whether  or  not  someone  using a blackjack can hit his
target's head.  The DM might dec1de,  for  example,  that  someone  who  has
sneaked  up on a completely unsuspecting target can aim at the target's head
with no penalty,  or that the character,  in combat,  can aim at the enemy's
head  by  taking  a  -4  penalty  to  the  attack  roll.  Also at the DM's
discretion,  if the target is so much taller  than  the  attacker  that  the
attacker  can't  reach  his  head,  then  the attack can only inflict normal
  If the  attack  does  hit  the target's head,  consult the Weapon Special
Effects Table.  The victim must make a saving throw vs.  death ray (possibly
with a bonus;  see the table).  If he fails the saving throw, he suffers the
additional effects shown on the table,  as determined by his Hit Dice. These
effects are as follows:
  Knockout: The victim is immediately unconscious  and  remains  helpless
for d100 (d%) rounds.
  Stun: The victim is stunned and will remain stunned until he successfully
makes a saving throw vs.  death ray. He may try to make a nev., saving throw
each round.
   Delay: The  victim  is  mildly  dazed;  he  loses initiative on the next
  Blowgun: This weapon is a tube, 6" -4' long. The user places a small dart
or thorn into it,  aims the tube at a target, and blows air into it forcing
the dart to fly toward the target.
  The darts cause no damage themselves.  However,  the  darts  are  usually
treated with poison. A blowgun dart merely scratches the victim, with little
penetration;  it inflicts no real damage.  If hit,  the victim must  make  a
saving  throw  vs.  poison  or suffer the effects.  Depending on the size or
level of experience of the victim,  he may gain a bonus to the saving  throw
(see  the Weapon Special Effects Table).  No undead creature of any creature
immune to poison can be harmed by a blowgun.
  The use  of  deadly poison as a weapon is not a good act.  Because of its
dangers, poison may be declared illegal by local or regional rulers. In this
case,  Lawful  characters do not typically use it.  The DM may choose not to
allow player characters to use poisons in his campaign.  Warn players  that,
if they want their characters to use blowguns,  monsters will have them as
  Longer blowguns are two-handed weapons; the wielder of the weapon may not
use a shield and always loses individual initiative to characters not  using
two-handed weapon.  Halflings and small nonhumans such as goblins cannot use
this weapon.
  Bola: This  weapon  is  a  cord  with  weighted balls on the ends.  It is
whirled around and thrown at a victim.  It causes very little damage  itself
(1d2 points), but may entangle, slow, or delay the victim.
If the attack roll is a 20 (not counting any  modifiers),  the  victim  must
make a saving throw vs.  death ray or be immediately paralyzed;  he will die
in 1d6 + 2 (3-8) rounds from strangling unless rescued. If freed, the victim
remains  effectively paralyzed for 2d6 (2-12) rounds.  Creatures that do not
breathe (such as constructs) are immune to this effect.  If the attack  roll
is  successful but not a 20,  the victim must make a saving throw vs.  death
ray,  possibly with a bonus (see the Weapon Special Effects Table).  If  the
saving throw is successful,  the attack has no effect except damage.  If the
victim fails the saving throw,  the result varies by the victim's experience
level or size (see the Weapon Special Effects Table).  The victim may try to
make a new saving throw during the hand-to-hand combat phase of  each  round
until  one  is  successful;  this  indicates that the victim has removed the
bola.  If another character tries to remove  the  bola  that  has  struck  a
victim,  the  victim  rolls his own saving throw vs.  death ray,  with a + 2
bonus.  When the victim makes the saving throw,  the bola  is  removed.  The
victim  may  spend 1 round destroying the bola if he has an edged weapon and
chooses to destroy it.  Otherwise,  the bola is undamaged; he can hold on to
it  or  drop  it.  Possible  bola  effects,  as listed on the Weapon Special
Effects Table,  are as follows:  Entangle:  The victim cannot  attack,  cast
spells,  or  move  until  his saving throw is successfully made.  Slow:  The
victim is slowed,  moving and attacking at half his normal rate;  he  cannot
cast spells.  Delay:  The victim automatically loses individual initiative
for the next round.  This weapon can only affect solid  creatures.  Wraiths,
specters,  ethereal  creatures,  and monsters made of water (such as a water
elemental) cannot be affected.  Bolas are awkward to carry  and  may  become
tangled.  For  each  additional  bola carried,  the encumbrance of the bolas
triples: 1 bola = 5 cn, 2 bolas = 15 cn, 3 bolas = 45 cn, etc.

  Bow, Long:  This is a piece of wood bent into a curve, with a taut string
holding  it  in  that position;  it is used to launch arrows.  This bow is a
two-handed weapon; the wielder of the weapon may not use a shield and always
loses  individual  initiative  to  characters not using a two-handed weapon.
Halflings and small races such as goblins cannot use this weapon.

Bow, Short:  This bow is similar to the long bow,  but it is smaller and not
able to fire arrows as far.  It,  too, is a two-handed weapon, but it can be
used by halfling characters and small races such as goblins.

  Cestus: The cestus (plural:  cesti) is a sort of glove or  thong  wrapped
around the hand; it has rough, cutting edges on the back, so that a punching
attack will inflict more damage on an opponent.  If the  campaign  uses  the
optional  rules  for  two-weapons  use,  a character does not suffer the -4
penalty for the cestus worn on his off hand.

Club: This is a simple, blunt piece of wood used to batter opponents.

Crossbow, Heavy:  This is a missile weapon consisting of a tough bow (like a
small bow,  but smaller and sometimes made of metal) laid crosswise across
a stock with a trigger, It fires stubby arrows called quarrels.
  Heavy crossbows  are bulky,  requiring two hands to use,  and are slow to
reload.  A character with 18 strength can draw back the string with one hand
and  fire  every  round,  but  weaker  characters  must  point  the crossbow
nose-down on the ground,  brace it with one foot,  and draw back the  string
with both hands in order to reload it;  they can only fire it once every two
  This crossbow  is a two-handed weapon;  the wielder of the weapon may not
use a shield and always loses individual initiative to characters not  using
a  two-handed  weapon.  Halflings and small nonhumans such as goblins cannot
use this weapon.
  Crossbow, Light:  This  weapon  is  similar  to  the heavy crossbow,  but
smaller. It also requires two hands to load, but only one to fire.
  This crossbow  is a two-handed weapon;  the wielder of the weapon may not
use a shield and always loses individual initiative to characters not  using
a  two-handed  weapon.  Halfling  characters and small races such as goblins
cannot use this weapon.

Dagger: This is a small blade with a one- handed grip.  It may be  used  in
hand-to-hand  combat  or  thrown.  Some  expensive varieties are made out of
silver for use against certain magical creatures.

Halberd: See Polearms, Halberd (below).

Hammer, Throwing:  This is a short-shafted,  broad-headed hammer, capable of
crushing blows. It is balanced for throwing.

Hammer, War: This weapon consists of a broad hammer head-sometimes with two
striking ends instead of just one-on a  medium-  length  (about  3')  wooden

Hand Axe: See Axe, Hand (above).

Heavy     Crossbow:     See      Crossbow,      Heavy

  Holy Water: This is water that has been prepared by a special cleric (who
must be at least 9th level or above). It is normally placed into a breakable
bottle or gourd and then hurled at a target;  if it strikes the target,  the
container smashes and the target is splashed.
  Holy water only does the listed damage  to  undead  monsters;  all  other
characters and monsters are unaffected by it (except for being dampened).
  If you are using the optional Weapon Mastery rules (in the next chapter),
all characters have Basic mastery level when using holy water.

Horned Shield: See Shield Weapons, Horned Shield (below).

  Javelin: This  weapon  is  a  thrusting point atop a light,  long (4'-6')
pole.  Characters can throw it at targets or use it in hand-to-hand  combat;
in hand-to-hand,  they can use it with one hand, keeping the other hand free
for a shield or weapon.  Halflings (and small races such as goblins) can use
this weapon.

Knife Shield: See Shield Weapons, Knife Shield (below).

Lance: When  in combat on horseback,  many fighters use a special long spear
called a lance.
  Fighters, dwarves,  and  elves  can  use the Lance Attack maneuver (see
Chapter 8). Mystics can use lances, though they do not have the Lance Attack
combat maneuver;  even when on the back of a charging horse,  mystics always
thrust with the weapon as though fighting with a spear.  Other human classes
cannot use a lance effectively.
  A character with a lance may still use a  shield;  however,  if  you  are
using  the optional Weapon Mastery rules (in the next chapter),  a character
who is at Basic mastery with the lance cannot yet use a  shield.  Under  the
Weapon Mastery rules,  a lance can be used to gain a defense bonus, but each
round a lance is used to defend, it causes only half damage.
  If the  wielder  of  the  lance  has the Multiple Attacks option,  he can
indeed make multiple attacks, but not all against the same foe. He must make
each  attack  against  a different target,  taking them in the course of his
lance charge.
  A lance used from the back of a flying mount can be used normally. If the
wielder needs to release the lance and ties it to his saddle so that it will
not drop to the ground, he cannot defend with it.

Light   Crossbow:   See    Crossbow,    Light    (above).

Long Bow: See Bow, Long (above).

  Mace: This is a heavy striking head attached to a short- or medium-length
wooden shaft.

  Net: A net is an open mesh of rope or cord.  Small nets (up to 10'x10')
are  commonly  used  in  hunting and adventuring and can be used as either a
hand-to-hand or thrown weapon. The net's encumbrance varies by the size.
  This weapon  is  commonly available in most campaign worlds.  Its cost is
low,  but it is easily damaged.  The net is one of humankind's first  tools,
having  been invented in prehistoric times,  and it is used by most humanoid
monsters for both hunting and defense.
  A net  can  only  affect  creatures  made  of  solid  material.  Wraiths,
specters, ethereal creatures, and monsters made of water (such as water ele-
mentals) cannot be affected.
  A net inflicts no damage on the victim,  but may entangle, slow, or delay
the victim.  The wielder makes a normal toll to hit his target;  if he does,
the target must make a saving throw vs.  death ray,  possibly with  a  bonus
(see the Weapon Special Effects Table).
  If the saving throw succeeds,  the net does not  affect  the  target;  it
drops  off him without impairing him at all.  If the victim fails his saving
throw, the result varies by the victim's experience level or size.
  Once a target is trapped in a net,  he may make a new saving throw during
the hand-to-hand combat phase of each round  until  one  is  successful;  a
successful roll indicates that the net has been pulled off and thrown as1de.
If he has a dagger (but not a longer weapon or a nonbladed  weapon)  in  his
hand when he is hit with the net,  he has a +4 to his saving throw;  success
means that he has cut his way out of the net, thus destroying it.

  Nets Table
  Victim's Size      Equivalent*     Net Size**
  Very small          Up to 1'         2'x 2'
  Small                 1+'-3'         4'x 4'
  Medium                3+'-6'         6'x 6'
  Large                 6+'-10'        6'x 6'
  Very large           10+'-15'       12'x 12'
  Huge                 15+'-20'       16'x 16'
  Mammoth              20+'-30'       25'x 25'

  * A small net is right for a target the size of a halfling;  a medium net
is right for human, dwarf, and elf targets.
  ** Or equivalent in square feet.

  Magical nets are rare.  The few that exist cannot be  damaged  except  by
fife  of  ac1d;  daggers will not cut through them.  An entangled victim can
only remove the net, not damage it.
  The effects listed on the Weapon Special Effects Table are as follows:
  Entangle: The victim cannot attack,  cast spells,  or move until a saving
throw is successful.
  Slow: The victim is slowed, moving and attacking at half his normal rate.
He cannot cast spells.
  Delay: The victim automatically loses initiative for the  next  round.
  A net can easily be damaged by any edged weapon (or claw or bite), but it
can be repaired if rope or cord is available,  which requires 1d3  turns  of
undisturbed repair work. A damaged net is useless.
   Nets come in a variety of sizes; if the target is too large for the net,
he  will  gain  bonuses to his saving throw to avoid the effects.  Using the
Nets Table,  determine how many sizes the victim is larger than the net. For
each  size  greater,  the  victim gains a +4 bonus.  A roll of I is always a
failure unless the bonus is + 20 or greater.
  Nets 6'x  6' or smaller may be used one- handed.  Larger nets require two
hands and suffer the same penalties as other two-handed weapons. The wielder
may  not use a shield,  always loses individual initiative to characters not
using a two-handed weapon;  and  halflings  and  small  nonhumans  (such  as
goblins) cannot use nets larger than 6' x 6'.

   Normal Sword: See Sword, Normal (below).

  Oil, Burning: This type of weapon usually consists of cooking or lamp oil
poured into a breakable container (such as a bottle,  gourd, or glass lamp),
with a fuse or wick attached. In combat, the wielder lights the fuse or wick
and throws it at his target (lighting and throwing only takes one  round  if
the  character  has  another  lit  object handy).  If the container hits the
target,  it bursts, splashes the target with the oil, and ignites the oil on
  Burning oil causes 1d8 points of damage each round a  target  is  in  the
fire.  Oil  that has been lit and thrown will burn for 2 rounds.  If you are
using the optional Weapon Mastery rules (next chapter),  all characters  are
considered  to  have  Basic  mastery level with thrown containers of burning

  Pike: See Polearms, Pike (below).

  Polearms: Polearms consist of  various  weapon  blades  mounted  on  long
poles.  Polearms may be used only by fighters,  dwarves, elves, and mystics.
Because of a polearm's length,  a character with a polearm may attack a  foe
even  when  there  is  another  friend or foe between them.  Often,  polearm
wielders stand in the second rank of the combat,  striking over the heads of
their frontline comrades to hit front-line fighters of the enemy force.
  A polearm may be used with  the  Fighter  Combat  options.  However,  the
optional disarm rule may only be used where noted with the weapon type.
   The polearm user's attack rolls suffer penalties of -3 for each  of  the
following cases:
  * The user is a dwarf.
  * The  wielder  is  attacking  from   behind   a   larger ally.
  * An ally in front of the user is using a two- handed weapon (other  than
a polearm) or any weapon that is swung backward behind the wielder (e.g.,  a
battle axe, bola, sling, etc.), thus endangering the polearm bearer.
  If you  are  using  the  Weapon  Mastery  rules  from  the  next chapter,
characters trained in the use of these two-handed weapons  can  deflect  at-
tacks with them.
  Four types of pole arms  are  shown  on  the  Weapons  Table.  They  have
individual  entries  because each has certain characteristics that distin-
guish it from the others when using the Weapon Mastery rules. The variations
are as follows:
  Halberd: This weapon is both a thrusting and a chopping weapon.  It has a
broad axehead with a spike on the top and a hook on the back.
  Pike: This thrusting weapon  (essentially  an  extra-long  spear)  has  a
short, sharp spearhead on the end of a very long pole (12-18').
  Poleaxe: This chopping weapon has a small axehead attached to a  pole  of
varying length (5- 15'). It is essentially an extra-long battle axe.
  Polearm: All other polearms  use  this  line  on  the  Weapons  Table.  A
character  using  a polearm can say that it is a generic polearm,  or he can
say that he is using one of  the  following  specific  types  of  real-world
  * Bardiche:  This weapon  has  a  heavy  axe  blade  with  a  long  spike
projecting forward.
  * Bill:  A lightweight weapon,  the bill has a long, narrow, single-edged
blade (like a scythe).
  * Gisarme:  This weapon resembles a bill with a thin spike on the back of
the blade, curving forward.
  * Glaive: This weapon has a broad, knifelike blade.
  * Lochaber Axe:  This weapon has a long,  heavy, single-bladed axe with a
hook on the back, pointing forward.
  * Partizan:  The  partizan  has  a  broad spearhead with two hooks at the
base, pointing forward.
  * Ranseur:  This  weapon  has a short,  sharp spike flanked by two short,
curved blades at its base.
  * Spetum:  The  spetum  has  a  long  spike  with two sharp curved blades
forming a trident shape.
  * Spontoon:  The  spontoon has an elaborate blade,  possibly wavy or with
  * Voulge: The voulge has a large, heavy, broad blade like a cleaver.
   In the campaign,  a DM can simply use the generic Polearm entry  on  the
Weapons  Table  for polearm variants.  Or,  if he's using the Weapon Mastery
rules, he can follow the guidelines in that chapter for combining the traits
of halberds, pikes, and polearms into new weapons.
  Regardless of type,  all polearms are two- handed weapons; the wielder of
the  weapon may not use a shield and always loses individual initiative to
characters not using a two-handed  weapon.  Halflings  and  small  nonhumans
(such as goblins) cannot use this weapon.

  Poleaxe: See Polearms, Poleaxe (above).

   Rock, Thrown:  This is a rock of fist size or smaller.  When a character
throws any object that causes impact damage, treat it as if it were a thrown
rock;  the DM can reduce the damage done if he thinks it is not as punishing
as a normal rock. Strength modifications apply to attack rolls and damage.
  If you  are  using the optional Weapon Mastery rules,  all characters are
considered to have Basic mastery level with thrown rocks.

  Shield Weapons: These weapons combine a shield with weapon blades. Though
awkward  and prone to breaking,  a shield weapon can provide a second attack
when used with a onehanded weapon.
Only fighters,  thieves,  and demihumans may  use  these
weapons.  Monsters rarely use shield weapons.  The larger shield weapons may
break during battle.  Check  for  breakage  whenever  the  attacker  or  the
defender rolls the exact attack roll needed. (For example, if a roll of q or
better is needed to hit and a 9 is rolled on the die,  check for  breakage.)
Each  time  a  breakage  occurs,  one  of the shield weapon's blades becomes
unusable.  The chance that a shield weapon will break is 5 or less on  1d10.
Magical  shield  bonuses add to the die roll,  and magical weapon bonuses of
the foe subtract from it. In addition to magical modifiers, modify the foe's
attack roll by -1 per 10 points of maximum damage possible.  For example, a
fighter wit@ a sword shield + 3 is attacked by a monster using a  two-handed
sword.  The  monster needs a 7 to hit his target (before any modifications),
and he rolls a 7 on the die.  The wielder of the sword shield must check for
breakage.  The shield wielder's base roll is 1d10; on a 5 or less his shield
breaks.  His roll will have a - 1 penalty because his opponent's  two-handed
sword  can  do  up  to 10 points of damage.  But he will have a bonus of + 3
because his shield is magical. He rolls a 6, which yields 6 - 1 + 3 = 8. His
shield doesn't break. The four types of shield weapons are as follows:
   Homed Shield:  A  one-foot  circular  shield that is strapped to the arm
rather than held.  A single spike projects from its center.  This shield  is
very durable and will not break.
   Knife Shield:  A small buckler equipped with one  or  two  short  blades
protruding from its sides.
   Sword Shield: A medium-size shield with one or two sword or spear blades
projecting from the sides (if round) or ends (if oblong).
   Tusked Shield:  A large shield with one to four short blades  protruding
from the sides.  It may have a central spike.  Due to its size, the tusked s
shield requires two hands to use and may not be used with  an
additional  weapon  or  another shield.  Characters using this weapon always
lose individual initiative - to  characters  not  using  two-handed  weapon.
Halflings and small nonhumans such as goblins cannot use this weapon.

Short Bow: See Bow, Short (above).

Short Sword: See Sword, Short (below).

Sling: This is a length of cord or a long leather strap with a pouch in  the
middle.  The  user places a stone or metal "bullet" in the pouch,  holds the
sling by the ends, whirls it to build up speed, and then releases one end of
the strap to launch the missile at his target.

Spear: The spear is a thrusting head attached to one end of a medium-to-long
pole (6'-8').  Fighters,  dwarves,  elves, and mystics can use the set spear
vs. charge maneuver (see Chapter 8).

Staff: This  is  a  2" -thick staff,  4'-6' long,  possibly with iron-loaded
ends.  A staff may be used by all classes,  even by magic-users if the DM so
   The staff is a two-handed weapon;  the wielder of the weapon may not use
a  shield  and  always loses individual initiative to characters not using a
two-handed weapon. Halflings and small non-humans cannot use this weapon.

Stone: See Rock, Thrown (above).

Sword, Bastard: This popular weapon is similar to a normal sword (below) but
has  a  longer  blade  and  a  hilt  (handle)  nearly  as  long as that of a
two-handed sword;  the overall weapon length may be from 3'/2' to 4'/2'. The
sword  may  be  wielded either one- or two-handed.  A character cannot use a
shield while using this item two-handed. However, it does not cause the loss
of individual initiative.  The bastard sword cannot be used by a halfling or
other small humanoid.

Sword, Normal:  This is the classic weapon of  fantasy.  It  consists  of  a
one-handed  hilt  (handle)  attached  to  a long cutting or thrusting blade;
weapon is usually between 21/2' to 3'/2' long.

Sword, Short:  This is much like the normal sword (above) but smaller; it is
usually  between  2'  to 2'1/2' long.  Halflings and small nonhumans such as
goblins can use this weapon.

Sword, Two-Handed:  This weapon, also called the great sword, is the largest
type  of sword.  It is similar to the normal sword (-above) but much longer,
usually being 4'/2' to 6'/2' long.  This sword is a two-handed  weapon;  the
wielder  of  the  weapon  may  not  use a shield and always loses individual
initiative to characters not using a two-handed weapon.  Halflings and small
nonhumans such as goblins cannot use this weapon.

Sword Shield: See Shield Weapons, Sword Shield (above).

Throwing Hammer: See Hammer, (above).

Torch: A torch is basically a flaming club. Although lighter than a club, it
is on fire so it the same amount of damage as a club (1d4).  someone uses an
unlit  torch as a bludgeoning weapon,  it does 1d2 points of damage.  If you
use the optional Weapon Mastery rules,  mastery with a club is also  mastery
with  a  torch.  However  (also  from  the  Weapon  Mastery rules),  someone
unskilled with a torch does not halve damage, but always inflicts 1d4 points
(regardless if the torch is lit).

Trident: This is a light spear with three barbed prongs on the end, designed
for underwater use.  Any small creatures (2' long or less,  such  as  normal
fish)  hit  by  a  trident  become  stuck  on  the  spiked  prongs.  To free
themselves,  they need to make an ability check vs.  Strength to free  them-
selves.  They  may  make  one  attempt per round;  many small creatures have
Strengths that do not exceed 1 or 2.  This weapon can be used either one- or
two-  handed.  Used  two-handed,  it  operates similarly to other two-handed
weapons (i.e.,  the wielder cannot use a shield when using the  weapon  this
way).  However, a character using this weapon, even in its two-handed style,
does not lose his initiative roll, and halflings and other small creatures
can use this weapon.

Tusked Shield: See Shield Weapons, Tusked Shield (above).

Two-Handed Sword: See Sword, Two-Handed (above).

War Hammer: See Hammer, War (above).

Whip: This weapon is a long,  braided leather strap with a handle. It may be
from 5'-30' long.  It is a hand-to-hand weapon and may  be  used  to  either
cause damage (1d2 points) or to entangle Before each combat round,  the user
must declare which option is being used.  Whichever  he  uses,  he  makes  a
normal attack roll.
   If he scores a hit, the whip either inflicts 1d2 points of damage or (if
entangling  is attempted) the forces the victim to make a saving throw death
ray,  possibly with a bonus.  (See the Weapon Special Effects Table for  his
saving  throw  bonus  and the result of the attack.) If the victim fails his
saving throw, he may be entangled, slowed, or delayed,

The effects listed on the Weapon  Special  Effects  Table  are  as  follows:
   Entangle: The victim cannot attack,  cast spells, or move until a saving
throw is successful.
   Slow: The  victim  is  slowed,  moving  and attacking at half his normal
rate. He cannot cast spells.
   Delay: The victim automatically loses initiative for the next round.
   This weapon is not very useful except as -a tactical device.  It is most
often  used  by  a  thief  or other character who wants to help a front-line
fighter somehow while not actually engaging in melee.
   A whip  can  only  entangle  creatures made of solid material.  Wraiths,
specters, ethereal creatures, and monsters made of water (such a elementals)
cannot be entangled.  They will, however, suffer the normal damage caused by
a whip.  (A normal whip will not hit a monster that does can only be hit  by
magical weapons, of course that would require a magical whip.)

Nonstandard Weapon Use
   Sometimes a  character  may  want  to  use a one- handed weapon with two
hands. This inflicts more damage, but has the following limitations:
   * Any  one-handed  weapon  (except "Other Weapons") can be used for this
option: .
   * The character loses individual initiative.
   * The character cannot  effectively  use  a  shield  for  defense  while
wielding a weapon two- handed (no AC bonus).
When used two-handed,  weapons gain an additional + 1 point of damage  to
their  attacks.  This bonus applies to any one-handed weapons used with both
hands,  regardless of the origin@ damage of the weapon.  Therefore, a dagger
used in this way inflicts 1d4 + 1 (2-5) points of dam. age, and a spear does
1d6 + 1 (2-7) points of damage when wielded with both hands.

  Armor Table
                          Cost    Enc
  AC      Armor Type      (gp)   (cn)    Notes
  - 1)*   Shield           10     100       D
     7    Leather Armor    20     200      D,T
     6    Scale Mail       30     300
     5    Chain Mail       40     400
     4    Banded Mail      50     450
     3    Plate Mail       60     500
     0    Suit Armor      250     750       S

Subtract 1 from AC if a shield is used.
  D A druid can use this type of armor if it contains  no  metal  parts  or
other nonorganic components (parts that have never been alive).
  S Suit armor has some very special characteristics;  carefully  read  the
description of this type of armor.
  T A thief can use this type of armor.


  All fighters,  clerics,  dwarves, elves, and halflings can use any of the
types of armor described below..  Thieves and druids can use  the  types  of
armor indicated in the "Notes" column. Magic- users and mystics can use none
of these armor types.
  Armor is  normally made for a specific face.  The DM can impose penalties
on a character who wears the armor of a different race.  For example, an elf
would  find  a  dwarf's  chain  mail awkward  and  heavy (for an additional
reduction to movement beyond what the  armor's  encumbrance  calls  for),  a
halfling  would  find it very hard to move in a human's armor (he would have
to save vs.  paralysis each round to avoid tripping and falling down), and a
dwarf couldn't get into a halfling's armor at all!

Armor Descriptions
  Each type of armor constitutes a full set.  The player can  presume  that
his  character,  as  part  of  the  set of armor,  gets the type of headgear
appropriate to the armor (e.g.,  from a stout leather cap to  a  full  metal
helm).  The  player  may  imagine  other appropriate armor components as he
chooses-gauntlets,  braces,  grieves,  etc.-as these  components  do  not
affect play or armor class.
  The armor listed in the Armor Table is described here  and  is  presented
alphabetically for your convenience.
  Banded Mail:  This is a suit of heavy leather armor with strips or  knobs
of metal embedded in the leather.
 Chain Mail:  This is a  full-sized  shirt,  often  including  a  hood  and
sometimes  including full pants,  made of interlocked rings of metal.  It is
worn over a quilted shirt called a gambeson.  When  someone  with  a  heavy
weapon  hits a character in chain mail,  the gambeson keeps the chain mail's
links from being driven into the flesh.  (Additionally,  it keeps  him  from
being  chilled  by  flesh-to-metal  contact  in  cool weather and from being
pinched by the rings.)
 Leather Armor: This armor is made of tough leather, often boiled for extra
toughness,  or  even  boiled  in  wax  (which  produces   armor   known   as
   Plate Mail:  This is not the full plate armor  usually  associated  with
knights. It consists of numerous metal plates (the chestplate being the most
important of them) linked together by chain mesh;  it's much like the  chain
mail  armor  described  above except that it has large,  shaped metal plates
reinforcing it.
  Scale Mail: This armor consists of light leather armor completely covered
with overlapping metal scales sewn or riveted onto the leather.
  Shield: A shield can be any of a number of sizes as follows:
  * Target or Buckler (a small round shield,  with only one strap,  held in
the fighter's hand);
  * Medium or Round (a larger, heavier shield,
often with two straps-one for the fighter's hand and one further up  on  his
forearm);  or o Wall or Tower (a huge shield nearly the size of the wielder,
usually with two straps like a Medium).
  Regardless of size,  all shields provide the same amount of protection by
lowering the armor class score by - 1. Smaller shields are considered easier
to  move  into the path of danger,  while leather shields protect better but
are slower to move into the  path  of  danger-thus  the  benefit  is  evenly
  Suit Armor:  Suit armor is the type of armor associated with the  mounted
knights  of  high romance.  It encloses the wearer completely in a sheath of
steel,  with chain-link joints to permit movement.  It is often called plate
armor  (which is different than plate mail),  full plate,  gothic armor,  or
jousting armor. However, suit armor is more like the plate armor made during
the last days of armor-making.  The arrival of gunpowder forced armor-makers
to thicken the armor made,  which rendered  it  too  heavy  and  clumsy  and
impractical for use,  leading to the abandonment of making armor. In the D&D
game, the presence of magic has had almost the same effect on suit armor.

  Advantages: Suit armor alone is armor class 0.  It may  be  used  with  a
shield for armor class - 1.  Suit armor reduces the damage inflicted by most
area effects (fire,  cold,  gas,  ac1d),  including breath weapons. The base
damage  is reduced by 1 point per die of damage,  and the wearer gains a + 2
bonus to the applicable saving throw.  The minimum base damage is always  at
least 1 point per die.
  For example,  the damage from the breath of a small red dragon (HD 10, 57
hit  points)  is  reduced by I point per die of damage ( - 10) to 47;  the
fighter in suit armor may make the usual saving throw,  but  with  a  +  2
bonus, to take half damage (24 points).
  Magical suit armor, can reduce such damage still further, by 1 point per
die of damage for each two pluses of enchantment (rounded down).
  If a fighter in suit armor is mounted and has assistance from others, the
disadvantages of en cumbrance, slow movement, and surprise can be minimized.
  Disadvantages: Suit armor is bulky and expensive.  Its encumbrance is 750
cn.  It must be specially made for one wearer,  tailored exactly to fit; the
cost is 250 gp.  Magical forms are proportionately more valuable,  averaging
50% greater value than plate mail of identical enchantment.

Suit armor is awkward in some situations,  especially when getting up from a
prone position or mounting a  steed.  If  attempted  alone,  the  chance  of
success is 1 in 6 per round.  In late medieval times, the latter problem was
solved by the use of a strap tied around the wearer and over a handy limb or
bar. The knight was then hoisted into the air and lowered onto.the mount. In
the D&D game,  assume automatic success in getting up if anyone is available
to help the wearer.

Suit armor  is noisy and slow.  Its common creaks and clanks can be heard up
to 120 feet away and negate chances for surprise. The wearer's movement rate
is  30'  (10');  most  fighters  prefer  to  use  their suit armor'only when
fighting from horseback.

  An unarmored fighter needs two full turns to  dress  in  suit  armor;  it
takes one full turn to take it off.

  Suit armor gives no additional protection against gaze attacks (such as a
medusa's) or electricity (such as a blue dragon's lightning breath).

  The wearer has a - 5 penalty when using any missile device other  than  a
crossbow.  If alone,  the wearer suffers a - 1 penalty to be surprised.  (In
other words,  a fighter in such armor rolling for surprise might roll  a  3,
indicating no surprise, but the penalty applied will reduce the roll to a 2,
resulting in the fighter being surprised.)


  Some characters  purchase  armor  for  their horses so that their mounts,
too, will be protected in combat.

Barding Encumbrance Table
                  Movement   Encumbrance:        Encumbrance:
                  Rate       Full Movement (cn)  Half Movement (cn)
 Horse, Draft     90'   (30')      4,500                  9,000
 Horse, R1ding    240'  (80')      3,000                  6,000
 Horse, War       120'  (40')      4,000                  8,000
 Mule             120'  (40')      3,000                  6,000
 Pegasus          240'  (80')      3,000                  6,000
 Flying           480' (160')      3,000                  6,000
 Pony             210'  (70')      2,000                  4,000
 Unicorn          240'  (80')      2,000                  4,000

                   Armor                  Cost   Enc
         AC        Type                   (gp)   cn
          7        Leather                 40     250
          6        Scale                   75     400
          5        Chain                  150     600
          4        Banded                 400   1,500
          3        Plate                  500   3,000
          2        Field                  600   4,000
          0        Joust                  700   5,000

  Most of  these  types  of barding correspond to types of character armor.
Chain barding, for example, is made up of the same material as a character's
chain  mail.  joust  barding  is  the horse equivalent of suit armor.  Field
barding is similar to joust barding, but lighter.

 Barding and Encumbrance
  On the  Barding  Encumbrance  Table  are  the  types  of mounts for which
barding is usually made. Note that one animal's barding will not fit another
type  of  animal,  except that barding made for a war horse will fit a draft
horse and vice versa.
Listed on the Barding Encumbrance Table is the animal,  its normal movement
rate,  the  amount of encumbrance it can carry at its normal movement rate,
and the amount of encumbrance it can carry up to half its movement rate. If
loaded  with  an amount of encumbrance greater than the amount shown in the
last column, the beast will not move.

Remember that the encumbrance shown is the total encumbrance being  carried
by the beast.  This includes the barding, the weight of the rider(s) and
armor and gear.  Encumbrance rates for characters' gear is  listed  in  the
Adventuring Gear Table.

   Barding for Other Animals (Optional)

  The DM can allow characters to commission barding for other creatures. If
he does,  here are some rules for the DM to gauge the cost and encumbrance
of barding made for other types of creatures.

  In Chapter  14,  many  creatures have a listing titled "Load." This shows
what sort of load the creature can carry and with what modification  to  its
movement  rate.  (Not all creatures have this information.) With many "Load"
paragraphs is a "Barding Multiplier." This is a number that  represents  how
much  more  difficult  it  is to make barding for this creature and how much
more encumbered the creature will be with barding.  To determine how much it
costs  to  make barding for any type of creature,  take its barding cost and
encumbrance multiplier and multiply it by the cost and  encumbrance  columns
from the Barding Table.
For example,  a character wants to find the cost and  encumbrance  of  armor
specially  made  for his griffon.  Take the cost and encumbrance values from
the Barding Table and then multiply them by the barding cost and encumbrance
multiplier from the description of the griffon in Chapter 14.  The griffon's
multiplier is a x 5.  The griffon's basic AC is 5,  so it will  need  banded
barding (or better) to improve its condition.
  Multiplying the cost and encumbrance by 5, the banded armor for a griffon
would  cost  2,000  gp  and  have an encumbrance of 7,500 cn.  The griffon's
description says that it can fly with up to a load of 7,000 cn at full speed
or  14,000  cn  at  half  speed,  so the griffon carrying this armor must be
reduced to half flying speed.

  When barding provides an AC that is only  equal  to  or  worse  than  the
creature's natural AC, it will do no good to wear the armor.

Adventuring Gear

 This section  describes  many  of  the  items  that  characters  take   on

Adventuring Gear

 The equipment listed in the Adventuring Gear Table is described here.  The
items are arranged alphabetically for your convenience.

 Backpack: This  sturdy  pack is used to carry equipment on the character's
back. The shoulder straps leave the character's hands free of other actions.

    Boots: Plain boots are standard, mid-calf

  Adventuring Gear Table
 Item                  Description /     Notes          Cost        (cn)
 Backpack              Capacity   400   cn              5 gp        20*
 Belt                                                   2 sp         5**
 Boots,   plain                                         1 gp        10**
 Boots, riding or                                       5 gp        15**
 Cloak,   short                                         5 sp        10**
 Cloak,    long                                         1 gp        15**
 Clothes, plain        Tunic and pants; blouse and skirt
                       dress; robe; or equivalent       5 sp        20***
 Clothes, middle-class See above                        5 gp        20**
 Clothes,  fine        See above                       20 gp        20**
 Clothes, extravagant  See above                       50+ gp       30**
 Garlic                                                 5 gp         1
 Grappling hook                                        25 gp        80
 Hammer                Small                            2 gp        10
 Hat   or   cap                                         2 sp         3
 Holy    symbol                                        25 gp         1
 Holy     water        Breakable    vial               25 gp         1
 Iron     spike        One         spike                1 sp         5
 Iron    spikes        Twelve     spikes                1 gp        60
 Lantern               Burns         oil               10 gp        30
 Mirror                Hand-size      steel             5 gp         5
 Oil                   One         flask                2 gp        10
 Pole                  Wooden,      10'long             1 gp       100
 Pouch,    belt        Capacity   50    cn              5 sp         2*
 Quiver                For arrows or quarrels           1 gp         5***
 Rations,  iron        Preserved food for one person
                         for one      week             15 gp        70
 Rations, standard     Unpreserved food for one person
                         for   one    week              5 gp       200
 Rope                  50'length                        1 gp        50
 Sack,    small        Capacity   200   cn              1 gp         1*
 Sack,large            Capacity   600   cn              2 gp         5*
 Shoes                                                  5 sp         8**
 Stakes (3) and mallet                                  3 gp        10
 Thieves' tools        Lockpicks,  wire,   etc.        25 gp        10
 Tinder     box        Flint,  steel,  kindling
 Torch                                                  3 gp         5
                       One           torch              2 sp        20
 Torches               Six         torches              1 gp       120
 Waterskin/wineskin    One-quart capacity; enc 30 when
                         filled                         1 gp         5
 Wine                  One quart, wineskin not included 1 gp        30
 Wolfsbane             One           bunch              10 gp        1

  * This is the item's encumbrance when empty. When goods are placed within
it, the encumbrance includes both the item's encumbrance and the encumbrance
of the goods within it.  Thus, a fully filled belt pouch has an encumbrance
of 55 cn.
  ** This is the encumbrance if packed.  If the clothes are worn, disregard
the encumbrance.
  *** This is the quiver's encumbrance when empty.  Filled with  arrows  or
quarrels,  it is up to 10 cn for encumbrance. A 5-cn encumbrance quiver + 10
cn of missiles (20  arrows  or  30  quarrels)  still  equals  only  a  10-cn
encumbrance bundle to carry around.

leather boots.  Riding boots are more expensive footwear coming  up  to  the
knee  or just below.  Swash-topped boots are soft leather boots that come up
well above the knee, but the top portion folds down at knee height or below,
resulting in a cuff.
  Cloak: The D&D game  gives  no  special  benefit  to  characters  wearing
cloaks,  but  the  DM  may  dec1de  that  a character caught in cold weather
without a cloak or similar garment could eventually suffer from exposure.
  Clothes: A  character is presumed to start play with two or three sets of
clothes of the plain variety.  Plain clothes are fine for  most  travel  and
adventuring purposes;  the better grades of clothes are for social purposes.
(Characters invited to the king's ball don't go  in  plain  or  middle-class
clothes, after all!)
  Garlic: This is an aromatic herb that  repels  vampires  and  some  other
undead monsters.
 Grappling Hook:  A large 3- or 4-pronged hook,  made of specially hardened
iron,  this  item is tied to the end of the rope and then swung up or over a
target.  A successful attack roll,  with  difficulty  modifiers  as  the  DM
decides,  means that the hook has anchored itself to the target. With use of
this tool, the characters can often cross gaps or climb walls they could not
otherwise climb. The hook may also be attached manually to a nearby surface,
such as when a thief climbs a wall and then attaches a line for his  friends
to climb.
 Hammer: This is used to drive iron spikes into hard surfaces.  Used  as  a
weapon,  it  does  1d3 points of damage and can be wielded by anyone who can
use a war hammer.
  Hat or Cap: This is standard headgear for the campaign setting.
  Holy Symbol:  This is a sign or symbol of a cleric's beliefs. It is often
used  to  physically  ward  off  vampires,  and  DMs  may  make holy symbols
necessary for a cleric to turn undead.
  Holy Water:  This is water prepared by a high level cleric. It will cause
damage to undead monsters.
  Iron Spikes:  These are essentially large, long iron nails; they may have
flat heads or circular,  open heads (the latter kind  is  useful  for  tying
ropes  to).  Spikes  can  be  used  to  wedge doors open;  provide grips for
climbing or anchors for ropes,  pry things loose,  and so forth.  Characters
will need a hammer to pound them into hard surfaces such as stone and wood.
  Lantern: This is a simple oil lantern that casts light in a  30'  radius,
burning one flask of oil in four hours (24 turns).  Most types are shuttered
or enclosed -against wind.
  Mirror: Your  character can use a mirror to look around corners,  examine
empty rooms,  and defend against magical gaze attacks. When a character uses
a mirror to watch an opponent, he receives a -2 penalty to attack rolls when
he tries to hit that target,  and he cannot use a shield (he's  holding  the
mirror in his shield hand). The area must be lit for the mirror to work this
  Oil: Oil  is  burned  in a lantern for light.  A flask of oil may also be
thrown as a missile weapon or poured out and ignited to delay pursuit.
  Pole, Wooden:  This  is  the proverbial 10' pole,  made of wood 2" thick.
Particularly cautious adventurers,  or adventurers  in  regions  where  such
objects have proven their usefulness,  use poles to prod piles of rags, stir
around in watery pools, poke into corners, touch objects that may have traps
attached to them, test the sturdiness of floors and ledges, and so forth.
  Quiver: This is a container for arrows or quarrels; it is usually made of
leather.  A lesser-quality quiver is included in the basic cost of a load of
ammunition, as noted on the Ammunition Table above.
  Rations: Your  character  needs  to  pack  food and drink when traveling;
rations are food that has been packaged  for  travel.  A  single  ration  is
enough  food  to  sustain  one  vigorous adult for a week-that is,  about 21
meals. Rations for adventurers typically come in two types as follows:
  Standard Rations:  These  rations  consist  of  untreated food chosen and
prepared for traveling;  they will last up to a week when the characters are
traveling  outdoors.  Carried  into  a dank,  unhealthy dungeon,  they spoil
  Iron Rations:  These  rations are preserved food (beef jerky,  hard tack,
dried fruits and vegetables,  etc.);  they are  not  as  tasty  as  standard
rations,  but they last for two months (eight weeks) in normal travel and up
to a week in bad conditions (such as dungeons).
  Rope (50'  Length):  This is a heavy climbing rope that can support three
fully loaded humans (i.e.,  about 7,500 cn in encumbrance). Rope can be tied
to an iron spike and used to climb up steep walls.  It may also be useful in
tying up captured prisoners, pulling doors open, etc.
  Sack, Large: This is a burlap, cloth, or leather bag, usually 2' x 4'. It
is normally carried over a shoulder (occupying one hand) or tied onto a
cart or saddle-horn;  if carried in hand,  it is usually dropped when the
owner goes into combat.
  Sack, Small: Similar to a large sack, the 1'x 2' cloth bag can be carried
over  the  shoulder  (occupying  one  hand) or tied onto a cart of a saddle-
horn.  Some characters tie it off their belts or (with quick-release  knots)
to their spearheads.
  Shoes: A character should have shoes if he is going to travel or  explore
dungeons;  the DM might assign damage to barefoot characters walking through
bad terrain or treacherous catacombs.
  Stakes and  Mallet:  Three  large (18") wooden stakes and a wooden mallet
can be quite useful for destroying vampires.
  Thieves' Tools:  Required for picking locks,  these items are usable only
by thieves. A typical set includes various lockpicks, fine wire, etc.
  Tinderbox: The tinderbox is a small  box  containing  flint,  steel,  and
tinder  (wood shavings).  Characters use this to start any fires,  be it for
their camp or their torches.  To use a tinderbox,  roll  1d6;  under  normal
(comparatively  dry)  circumstances,  a  fire  is  successfully ignited on a
result of 1 or 2.  Someone with a tinderbox may try - to  use  it  once  per
  Torch: This is any 1' to 2'  long  piece  of  wood,  its  head  sometimes
covered with an inflammable substance such as pitch. It casts light in a 30'
radius and burns for one hour (six turns).  See  the  description  from  the
Weapons Table for information on using a torch as a weapon;  clerics can use
it as a weapon.
  Waterskin: This flexible container  is  usually  made  of  leather  or  a
preserved  animal  bladder.  It  has  a  liquid capacity of one quart and an
encumbrance of 30 cn when filled, 5 cn when empty.
  Wine: This  is  the  cost  of  a quart of common wine,  not including the
  Wolfsbane: Sold dried or fresh in single sprigs,  this is an herb used to
drive off lycanthropes, who cannot abide its presence.

    Land Transportation

  Characters usually  acquire land animals,  and sometimes carts or wagons,
for transportation of themselves and  their  gear  overland.  Adventurers
typically  buy  the  types  of  animals  for transportation listed in the
R1ding Animal Costs Table. In addition, they may purchase other equipment
from the Land Transportation Gear Table.

    Riding Animal Costs Table
        Animal                       Cost (gp)
        Camel                            100
          Draft                           40
          Riding                          75
          War                            250
        Mule                              30
        Pony                              35

    Riding  Animal  Descriptions

  The animals  listed  in  the R1ding Animal Costs Table are described here
and are arranged alphabetically for your use.
  Camels: These  animals are normally only found in desert campaigns.  They
are better suited to and climates than horses,  and they travel much further
on the same amount of water.
  Horses: As campaigns develop, characters will travel many miles in search
of  adventure.  Most characters will probably purchase one or more horses to
make travel faster and easier. Types of horses are as follows:
  Draft Horses:  These  horses  are huge,  plodding animals usually used to
plow fields and perform other farm labors.  Characters will seldom  want  to
ride  them-normally  this  will  occur  only  when they need to transport an
injured person or a lot of gear and they have no other mount.
  Riding Horses:  This type of horse is the fastest normal steed, but it is
no help in combat.
  War Horses:  These  horses are larger and harder than riding horses,  and
they may be useful in wilderness encounters.  A war horse can fight, using
its  two  front  hoof  attacks  (for 1d6 points each),  with the help of the
character f1ding it.  While guiding the horse,  the character cannot cast  a
spell,  but  he  can attack or perform some other action (such as drinking a
potion, changing weapons, etc.). When not carrying a rider, a war horse will
defend itself without needing such gu1dance. Any class can ride a war horse.
  Mules: Mules are cheaper,  less glamorous animals than horses,  but  they
are very durable and reliable mounts and pack animals.
  Ponies: Ponies are small riding equines.  Their diminutive stature  makes
them ideal mounts for halflings, children, and small characters.
  The items and accountements listed in the Land Transportation Gear  Table
are useful to adventurers who have the above riding animals.

Land Transportation

Equipment Descriptions
The items listed in the Land Transportation Gear Table are  described  here
and are arranged alphabetically for your use.
  Cart: A cart is pulled either by one or two draft horses  or  by  two  to
four  mules.  The cart's maximum safe movement rate is 60'(20');  above that
rate,  the DM should check once per turn to see if the cart breaks  down  or
tips over.  On I on a 1d6, it breaks down, and on a 2 or 3 it tips over. The
cart's carrying capacity is 4,000 cn when pulled by a single horse, 8,000 cn
when pulled by two.  It cannot travel through desert,  forest,  mountain, or
swamp except by road.
Saddle & Tack: This is a leather and wooden saddle with metal fastenings. It
is assumed to include a blanket,  bridle and bit, and stirrups. The saddle's
capacity  does  not  refer  to  the  size of the rider;  it is the amount of
encumbrance the  saddle  can  carry  in  the  form  of  sacks  tied  to  the
saddle-horn, weapon sheathes, etc.

  Saddle Bag:  This  is  a  long,  two pocketed leather container that lies
behind the saddle.
  Wagon: This  is  a  large wooden wagon pulled by two or four draft horses
(or four,  six,  or eight mules).  The wagon's maximum safe movement rate is
60' (20');  above that rate,  the DM should check once per turn to see if the
wagon breaks down or tips over. On 1 on a 1d6, it breaks down, and on a 2 it
tips  over.  The wagon cannot travel through desert,  forest,  mountain,  of
swamp except by road.

Vehicle Movement Speeds
  The animals  noted  above  can pull the carrying capacities for carts and
wagons with no problem or hindrance against their movement speeds.
The vehicles  can  be  loaded  heavier,  but  movement speeds will suffer.
  Simply put,  if the animal's normal encumbrance  value  is  equal  to  or
higher  than the weight in the vehicle,  it can pull it at its normal speed.
If the encumbrance of the vehicle exceeds the  animal's  normal  encumbrance
value, it can be pulled at half the animal's normal speed.
  For example,  one draft horse pulls a cart loaded down with 3,000 cn  of
cargo;  this  cart  could  travel  at the horse's maximum rate of 90' (30'),
though speeds greater than 60' (20') risk  upsetting  the  vehicle  and  the
cargo.  The  same draft horse can pull a cart loaded with 5,000 cn of cargo,
but this cart moves at half speed or 45' (15')

Water Transportation

  When characters  must travel along rivers or across oceans,  they'll need
to find water transportation.  Vessels and pertinent information are  listed
in the Sailing Vessels Table.
  Crew numbers do not include the captains  of  the  vessels.  All  vessels
should have a captain except lifeboats, river boats, sailboats, and rafts.
  As a rule of thumb,  galleys sail only  along  the  coast;  they  do  not
venture  across oceans.  River boats and rafts are used for travel on rivers
and will almost surely be destroyed if they venture  too  far  from  coastal
shores.  Canoes are normally used on rivers.  All other vessels are suitable
for use on the open ocean.

Water Vessel Descriptions

  The vessels listed in the Sailing Vessels Table are described below.
  Boat, River:  This  boat  is designed specifically for river travel.  The
length is 20'-30',  beam (width) is 10',  and draft (depth under  water)  is
2'-3'.  Capacity:  30,000 cn. Crew: 8 rowers, 2 sailors (one of whom acts as
captain). It may be rowed  or  poled;  it  may  have  a  wooden   roof   for
protection   from   weather   (1,000   gp   extra).

Land   Transportation   Gear   Table
Item               Cost (gp)   Capacity (m)                   Notes
Saddle & Tack           25             200 (Enc 300)              (a)
Saddle Bags              5             800 (Enc 100)              (a)
Cart (2 wheels)        100           4,000/ 8,000                 (b)
Wagon (4 wheels)       200          15,000/25,000                 (b)

  (a) The  Enc  figure  is the amount of weight the empty container adds to
the load the horse carries.  For example,  a fully laden  saddlebag  has  an
encumbrance of 900 cn.
  (b) The cart's or wagon's capacity  varies  with  the  number  of  horses
pulling  it;  one horse indicates the lesser capacity,  two horses indicates
the greater.  These figures are based on using draft horses.  Two mules  can
substitute for one horse.

 Sailing Vessels Table
                            Cost     Crew
 Item                       (gp)     Rowers    Sailors      Marines
 Boat, River                4,000      8            2          -
 Boat, Sailing              2,000    -              1          -
 Canoe                         50    -              1          -
   Large                   30,000    180         20            50
   Small                   10,000    60          10            20
   War                     60,000    300         30            75
 Lifeboat, Ship's           1,000    -           -             -
 Longship                  15,000    -           75t           -
 Rafts tt:
   Professional          1 gp/sq ft  -                         -
   Built by PCs              -       -           -             -
 Sailing Ships:
   Small                    5,000    -           10            25++
   Large                   20,000    -           20            50++
 Troop Transport           30,000    -           20           100++

 Item                Capacity   Move      Move        Hull      Armor
 Boat, River                    Mi/Day**  Ft/Rnd**    Points     Class
 Boat, Sailing         40,000   36          60        20-40         8
 Canoe                 20,000   72         120        20-40         8
 Galleys:               6,000   18          60         5-10         9
   Large               60,000   18/72       90/120   100-120        7
   Small               40,000   18/90       90/150    80-100        8
   War                 80,000   12/72       60/120   120-150        7
 Lifeboat, Ship's      15,000   18          30        10-20         9
 Longship              30,000   18/90       90/150    60-80         8
 Rafts tt:
   Professional        10,000   12          30          5           9
   Built by PCs         5,000   12          30          5           9
 Sailing Ships:
   Small              100,000   90         150        60-90         8
   Large              300,000   72         120        120-180       7
 Troop Transport      600,000   60          90        160-220       7

  *This column  shows the vessel's capacity in addition to the listed crew.
For example,  a river boat can ca@ 8 people  and  40,000  cn  in  additional
cargo. "Cargo" includes any additional passengers.
  ** If two rates are given,  the first rate is for rowing,  the second for
sailing. The first rate is used on windless days (or rounds), and the second
on days or rounds when there is wind in the  sails.  If  only  one  rate  is
given,  it is for sailing;  on windless days,  or days when wind is against
the vessel, the vessel does not move.
  t Longship: Sailors acts as both rowers and marines.
  tt The hull points and movement rate figures are for each 100 square foot
section (10'x 10').
  ++ Sailing ships have no marines.  If this vessel  is  converted  into  a
troop  transport,  it  can  accommodate  this number of marines and keep its
cargo capacity, but it costs 1/3 more gp.

   Boat, Sailing:  This  is  a  single-master  boat,  designed  for lake of
coastal use.  The length is 15'- 45',  beam is 5'-15',  and draft is  3'-8'.
Capacity: 20,000 cn. Minimum crew: 1 sailor; additional crew and captain may
be hired.
   Canoe: This  is  a  light  wood  frame  covered with hides,  canvas,  or
waterproof bark;  it is designed for rivers and swamps.  The length is  15',
beam is 3', and draft is 1'. Capacity: 6,000 cn. It may be carried by one or
two people;  encumbrance is 1,000 cn for one,  300 cn each for two people. A
special type of canoe,  the outrigger, can sail on the ocean; it costs twice
as much as the normal canoe and has three times the encumbrance.
   Galley, Large:  This  ship  is designed for oceans and large lakes.  The
length is 120'- 150',  beam is 15'-20', and draft is 3'. Capacity: 40,000 cn
plus crew.  Standard crew: 180 rowers, 20 sailors, 50 marines, 1 captain. It
has a single mast with a square sail.  It can have a ram(1/3additional cost)
and two light catapults (bow and stem).
   Galley, Small:  Similar to the large galley,  this  ship  is  built  for
coastal and lake use.  The length is 60'-100', beam is 10'-15', and draft is
2'-3'.  Capacity: 20,000 cn plus crew. Standard crew: 60 rowers, 10 sailors,
20  marines,  1  captain.  This  ship can have a ram(1/3 extra cost) and two
light catapults (bow and stem).
   Galley, War: This large, two-master galley is designed for combat; it is
often used as a flagship.  The length is 120'-150',  beam  is  20'-30',  and
draft is 4'-6'. Capacity: 60,000 cn plus crew. Standard crew: 300 rowers, 30
sailors,  75 marines,  1 captain.  This ship always has a ram and  one  deck
above  the  rowers has two light wooden towers (bow and stem),  each 10'-20'
square, height 15'-20'. It can have three light catapults.
  Lifeboat, Ship's:  This vessel can carry up to ten people. It is designed
for survival and each has a collapsible mast.  The length is  20',  beam  is
4'-5',  and draft is 1'-2'.  Capacity: 15,000 cn. Stored onboard the ship is
one week's iron rations for ten people. Small ships usually carry one or two
lifeboats;  large  ships carry three or four.  Lifeboats are not included in
the listed cost of ships.  A lifeboat carried onboard another vessel has  an
encumbrance of 5,000 cn (deducted from the ship's capacity).
  Longship: This ship is designed for river,  ocean,  or coastal  use.  The
length is 60'-80', beam is 10'-15', and draft is 2'-3'. Capacity: 40,000 cn.
Standard crew:  75 sailors (acting as rowers and marines),  1 captain. Sixty
rowers are needed for full speed.
  Raft: This is an awkward floating platform of barge,  moved by  poles  or
natural current,  and often equipped with a crude steering oar. Maximum size
30'x 40'.  Capacity: 10,000 cn per 100 square feet. The raft may have raised
edges  and  a tent or wood hut for shelter.  It is often dismantled and sold
for the value of the wood (1/4 Price) once the cargo  reaches  a  downstream
port. It may be found as a ferry at a river crossing.
  Characters can build their own rafts if wood is available-this takes  1d3
days per 100 square feet (maximum size 600 square feet).  Capacity: 5,000 cn
per 100 square feet.
  Sailing Ship,  Large: This is a three-masted ship with one or more decks.
The length is 100'- 150',  beam is 25'-30',  and draft is 10'-12'. Capacity:
300,000  cn plus crew.  Standard crew:  20 sailors,  I captain.  The bow and
stern are raised "castles" for better field of fire,  and it  may  have  two
light catapults.
  Sailing Ship,  Small:  Very similar to the large sailing ship,  the small
sailing ship has a single mast.  The length is 60'-80', beam is 20'-30', and
draft is 5'-8'. Capacity: 100,000 cn plus crew. Standard crew: 10 sailors, 1
  Troop Transport:  Identical in size to the large sailing ship,  this ship
is designed to carry people. Capacity: double large sailing ship, calculated
for men and  horses.  This  vessel  often  has  special  modifications.  For
example,  troop  transports  designed to carry cavalry will have a hatch cut
into the side for loading horses or other animals.

Ship Combat Characteristics
  Hull Pts:  A ship's ability to remain afloat after taking water or damage
is measured by a number, called hull points. Hull points for a ship are very
similar  to  hit  points for a character;  when a ship reaches zero or fewer
hull points, it will sink in 1d10 rounds.
  If a ship is reduced to zero of fewer hull points,  it can no longer move
under its own power or attack with ship-mounted weapons.
  The DM  can  dec1de  whether any onboard catapults are then destroyed (he
can choose to roll 1d6,  with a 1-4 indicating the weapon is  wrecked);  the
crew may use personal weapons normally.
  When the PCs buy a ship,  the DM decides how many  hull  points  it  has,
choosing  from the range of hull points listed in the Sailing Vessels Table.
As a general rule of thumb,  a new ship from a good shipyard will  have  the
maximum  listed  hull points.  A new ship from a less-reliable shipyard or a
well-maintained older ship will have  somewhat  fewer  hull  points.  And  a
scurvy river barge that's taking on water will have the lowest possible hull
points indeed.
 Armor Class:  This  number is used to determine chances of success for ram
and catapult attacks against a ship.

Ship Modifications
  Some ships can be modified for transport or combat, with additional costs
as follows:
  Adding a Ram: A large or small galley may
add a  ram  for  an  additional 1/3 of the ship's listed cost.  A war galley
already has a ram included in the cost. Other ships may not add rams.
  Troop Transport:  A  large  or small sailing ship may be converted into a
troop transport by paying an additional 1/2 of the  ship's  listed  cost.  A
troop transport has 1/3 more hull points than a normal sailing ship,  and it
carries twice as many troops as the normal vessel of its type. The one troop
transport  listed  on the Sailing Vessels Table is equivalent to a converted
large sailing ship.
  Catapult: A  longship,  any  type  of  galley,  and either type of sailed
warship may add one light catapult beyond the numbers of  catapults  already
described  for  them.  The  larger  sailing  ships  may  use heavy catapults
instead.  Ordinary sailing ships,  troop transports, and the smaller vessels
not  mentioned  above  cannot mount a catapult.  A catapult and 20 rounds of
shot weigh 20,000 cn.  Catapults are discussed later in this chapter,  under
"Siege Equipment."


  Characters don't  have  to  buy ships in order to get from place to place
across the water.  They can book passage on commercial vessels.  The Passage
Table  shows  the  cost of such transportation based on the class of passage
and the distance traveled. To use the table, determine how far the character
is  traveling;  divide that distance by the number shown,  and the result is
the cost of passage per person (in silver pieces).
  For example an adventurer travels 80 miles at first-class pass.  His rate
is 80 miles divided by 1 sp = 80 sp for  passage.  A  different  adventurer,
traveling  the  same 80 miles but going by third- class,  would pay 4 sp (80
miles - 20 sp 4 sp).

  Passage Table

  Class of                            Minimum
  Passage              Rate              Cost
  First-Class          Miles/1  sp      35 sp
  Second-Class         Miles/5  sp      10 sp
  Third-Class          Miles/20 sp       2 sp

  The passage classes listed in the Passage Table are  described  here  and
are arranged alphabetically for your convenience.
  First-Class: These are luxurious accommodations.  The character  has  his
own  cabin  (two  or more people traveling together may book a single larger
cabin).  Service is first-rate,  and meals are excellent. Each character has
10,000  cn  of  cargo  space  in  the hold available,  and he can easily put
another 5,000 cn of space in his cabin.  He can purchase an extra 10,000  cn
of space in the hold for 1/10 the cost of his passage.
 Second-Class: These are decent accommodations. The character is in a small
cabin with up to three other people;  some  of  them  may  be  strangers  if
characters  are  traveling singly or do not arrange to be placed in the same
cabin.  Service is minimal, but meals are adequate. Each character has 5,000
cn  of cargo space in the hold available to him,  and he can comfortably fit
another 1,000 cn of gear in his cabin.  He can purchase an additional  5,000
cn of space in the hold for 1/10 the cost of his passage.
 Third-Class: These  are  minimal accommodations.  The character may have a
bunk in a large common passenger hold;  on a smaller boat or ferry,  he  may
just have a seat open to the sky. If this is passage on a ship that can hold
20 people or more,  the price of passage includes 1,000 cn of space  in  the
cargo  area.  A  character can keep another 500 cn of gear near or under his
bunk,  and he can purchase another 1,000 cn of space in the cargo  area  for
1/5 the cost of his passage.  If this is passage on a raft, ferry, canoe, or
other small vessel,  the character has no cargo privileges because of sp-ace
constrictions.  He  can  bring  only  what  he  can comfortably carry on his
person, unless he cares to buy another seat at the same rate. The additional
seat  would  give  him  about  2,000  cn  of  room for equipment.  Food,  if
available, is meager and coarse.

Siege Equipment
  Should characters  decide  to  lay  siege  to  a fortification or equip a
sailing vessel with heavy weapons,  siege weaponry and  miscellaneous  Siege
information is found in this section.
 Many of the siege weapons described here need to be  operated  by  trained
crews.  For simplicity's sake, the DM can assume that 1d6 days spent working
with the ballista is sufficient to train the crew with it.  If the  campaign
uses the optional General Skills from Chapter 5,  the artillery skill counts
as training with every existing type of siege weapon.
 Weapon  information  listed  in  the  Siege   Weapons Table is as follows:
 Cost (gp) shows only the cost of the weapon itself;  ammunition costs  are
shown on another column.
 Enc (cn) is the weight of each weapon.
 AC shows  the  weapon's  armor  class  when fired upon at range;  in melee
combat, consider siege weapons to have ACs of 6.
 HP shows  the  weapon's  hit  points.  When  a weapon has taken its listed
number of hit points, it is broken and will no longer work.
 Full Crew  indicates  the  optimum size of a crew to operate this piece of
equipment.  More crewmen will not improve its performance. If a crew is less
than full, but at least half the listed number, the weapon's fate of fire is
half normal.  If the crew is reduced below half but not below 1/4 the listed
number,  the  weapon's  rate  of  fire  is  divided by four.  Round down all
Damage  is  the  amount   of   damage   each   weapon can do.
 Range should be read as you would for any  missile  weapon.  However,  the
"Min"  figure  is  the  closest  distance  at which the weapon can fire at a
target.  A light catapult can't fire at anything closer than 150 yards,  for
instance.  As usual, targets are + 1 to hit at short range and - 1 to hit at
long range.
 Fire Rate  describes  the  maximum rate at which the weapon can fire;  for
example,  a continuously manned ballista can fire one projectile  every  two
rounds (20 seconds).
 Ammo Cost /Week reflects the amount of ammunition used during  a  standard
week-long  siege.  During longer sieges,  you'll use the rules in the "Siege
Combat"  section  of  Chapter  8.  This  section  has  more  detailed  rules
pertaining to the use of siege weapons.
 The "Cost," "Standard Size," and "Enc (cn)" listed  in  the  Miscellaneous
Siege Equipment Table on page 74 are self-explanatory; the remaining columns
are as follows:  AC shows the equipment's  own  armor  class;  when  someone
attacks the equipment itself, this is the armor class he must hit.
 AC + shows the armor class bonus that the equipment provides to those  who
are protected by it.  If an armor class 6 character is inside a belfry,  his
armor class against  outside  attackers  is  a  -  2.  Once  the  belfry  is
destroyed, however, armor class is 6.
 HP shows the equipment's hit points; once the equipment has sustained that
number of hit points,  it collapses,  becomes useless, and ceases to protect
those within it.

Siege Weapon Descriptions
 The weapons listed in the Siege Weapons Table are described here  and  are
arranged alphabetically for your convenience.
 Ballista: A ballista is very similar to a normal crossbow and was actually
the crossbow's forerunner. It is much larger (often 5'-10' long) and mounted
on  a  platform  or  wheeled  carriage.  The ballista described in the Siege
Weapons Table is the largest one available. It is mounted on wheels (or on a
wagon),  or  it can be placed on a pivot.  The latter is the case when it is
installed on a ship or a defensive fortification.
  Ballista   ammunition    resembles    spears,    but
they have   larger   heads.   The   ammunition  is  nearly  useless  against
constructions,  but they can inflict some  damage  to  equipment.  They  are
designed for use against men, animals, and monsters.

      Siege Weapons Table

                   Cost   Enc                    Full    Fire
 Weapon          (gp)   (cn)         AC     HP   Crew    Rate
 Ballista         75     6,000*       4      9    4     1 per  2
 Catapult, Light 150    12,000*       4     18    6     1 per  5
 Catapult, Heavy 250    18,000*       0     27    8     1 per  6
 Trebuchet       400    24,000*       0     36   12     1 per  6
 Bore            150     3,000       -4     50   10     1 per  2
 Ram, Battering  100     3,000       -4     50   10     1 per  2

                  Range                    Damage    Ammo
 Ballista         100/200/300 (Min: NA)    d10+6    Cost/Wk.
 Catapult, Light  200/250/300 (Min: 150)   d8+8      2,000
 Catapult, Heavy  250/325/400 (Min: 175)   d10+10    4,000
 Trebuchet        250/400/500 (Min: 100)   d12+13    6,000
 Bore             -                        d6+14     8,000
 Ram, Battering   -                        d6+8        -
   These weapons  may  have wheels attached and be towed.  Towing encumbrance
=1/12 the listed encumbrance;  thus a horse  pulling  a  heavy  catapult  on
wheels is pulling 1,500 cn.

  The crew of a ballista must be trained to use it, but the weapon does not
require  that  an artillerist be present (see "General Skills," in Chapter 5
for the artillery skill). ,
  If a  ballista  is  operated  by  a  trained  crew,  one  of  whom  is an
artillerist,  it fires at the fighter experience level of  the  artillerist.
(If the artillerist is not a fighter, use the equivalent fighting ability of
his class;  for example,  a magic-user of 1st-5th level has the same  attack
roll  as a fighter of 1st- 3rd level.) If operated by a trained crew with no
artillerist present,  take the size of the operating crew (maximum:  4)  and
use  the  size  as  if  it were the experience level of a fighter;  in other
words,  the smaller the crew, the worse the attack roll becomes. If operated
by an untrained crew, the ballista fifes as though it were a normal man with
a - 8 penalty to the attack roll.
  Bore: A bore is a long,  heavy loglike device hung from chains; its metal
tip is similar to a corkscrew.  Instead of being carried,  it rests within a
cradle  of  chains  so  it can be freely rotated.  Ropes are wrapped tightly
around it and are pulled alternately from each side by two crews of four men
  In use,  the bore is rolled up to its target  (normally  the  gate  of  a
fortification).  Two  men  hold the bore firmly against the target structure
while the other men,  in two groups of four,  pull the ropes in sequence  to
rotate  the  bore-first  one  direction,  then the other.  The bore actually
drills its way into the target. The bore does not require a siege specialist
to use,  but its crew does need to be trained in its use. A bore is too slow
to attack a mobile target of any sort.
 Catapult: A  catapult  is  a huge wooden spoon" mounted in a wooden frame.
Its lower end is fixed by twisted ropes,  so that the tension on  the  ropes
keeps the spoon portion nearly upright.  When the spoon is pulled down,  the
ropes become taut.  The spoon is secured in this position, loaded with shot,
and  released.  The  spoon  snaps  quickly upward until it hits a horizontal
crossbar and stops;  the shot continues on  its  way,  following  an  arched
trajectory. The range varies by the amount of tension on the ropes.
  A trained artillerist knows the proper amounts  of  tension  for  various
ranges of fire. Use of the catapult requires the presence of an artillerist.
If you are using the General Skills rules from Chapter 5,  anyone  with  the
artillery skill can captain a catapult. Otherwise, the artillerist must be a
hired NPC specialist.
  There are  two common types of catapults- fight and heavy.  Either may be
mounted on a wheeled carriage for towing,  but it must be firmly blocked  in
place when used. Light catapults may also be mounted on ships.
  Catapults cannot  be  fired  at  moving  targets.  An  exception  is  the
ship-mounted catapult,  which is aimed by virtue of the ship steering in the
correct direction;  it can only be aimed at very large  monsters  and  other
  If a catapult  is  operated  by  a  trained  crew,  one  of  whom  is  an
artillerist,  it  fires  at the fighter experience level of the artillerist.
(If the artillerist is not a fighter, use the equivalent fighting ability of
his class;  for example,  a magic-user of 1st- 5th level has the same attack
roll as a fighter of 1st- 3rd level.) If operated by an untrained  crew,  or
by a trained crew with no artillerist present,  it fires as though it were a
normal man with a - 8 penalty to the attack roll.
  Ram, Battering:  A battering ram is a large,  heavy log or similar device
mounted on wheels.  The log is  usually  capped  with  metal.  This  end  is
repeatedly  slammed  against a target (such as a door or gate),  using brute
force to cause damage.
  The standard  battering  ram  is  10'  long  and  needs  a 10-man crew to
operate.  For a longer ram, add one crewman per extra foot of length. A rain
can be transported by fewer men than it takes to operate it.
  The rain is commonly used  by  fastening  it  securely  to  stout  chains
attached  to  a  wheeled  gallery shed ceiling of belfry (see "Miscellaneous
Siege Equipment," below).  The ram is then easily tolled  up  to  and  swung
against  the  target.  When  a  ram is used in this manner,  only one man is
needed for each 2' of the ram's length;  a five-man crew is sufficient for a
10' battering ram.  The crew of a battering rain does not have to be trained
in its use.
  Trebuchet: Somewhat similar to the catapult,  a trebuchet is a huge wooden
bar with a sling at one end,  mounted on a wooden frame in  seesaw  fashion.
Instead  of  using  ropes and tension to propel it,  the bar is mounted on a
pivot so that part of the bar projects toward the target.  A large basket or
net is hung from this end and is filled with weights. Ropes are used to pull
the long sling arm down and to hold it for loading.
  When released,  the  weights pull the short arm downward and the long arm
pivots quickly upward.  The sling slows naturally as the weights  reach  the
bottom  of  the  arc and flies open,  causing the shot to fly off in a high,
arched trajectory.  The range of fire is determined by the amount of  weight
in  the  basket  of net and by the exact position of the basket on the short
arm of the bar.
  If a  trebuchet  is  operated  by  a  trained  crew,  one  of  whom is an
artillerist,  it fires at the fighter experience level of  the  artillerist.
(If the artillerist is not a fighter, use the equivalent fighting ability of
his class;  for example,  a magic-user of 1st- 5th level has the same attack
toll as a fighter of 1st-3rd level.) If operated by an untrained crew, or by
a trained crew with no artillerist present,  it fires as though  it  were  a
normal man with a - 8 penalty to the attack roll.

Alternative Types of Ammunition
  Previously, weapon tables have shown damage and cost factors  for  normal
ammunition. Normal ammunition is ammunition of a consistent quality, weight,
and size.
  In the  field,  characters sometimes have to rely on available stones and
projectiles to launch from their weapons.  This greatly reduces the cost  of
operating a weapon continuously, but is a drain on manpower due to having to
find ammunition.  The DM will decide  in  any  such  instance  whether  this
foraging  for  ammunition  slows  down  the  rate  of fire of diminishes the
weapon's effectiveness.  Foraged rocks may not be as  accurate  as  standard
ammunition,  and  the  DM  can assign attack foil penalties to those who use
them. Only catapults and trebuchets may utilize found stones.
 Another type  of ammunition is pitch shot.  Pitch shot consists of a large
ball of pitch (sometimes mixed with gravel) loaded into the weapon  and  lit
just before it's fired. Pitch shot does not do normal damage. Where it hits,
it does 1d6 fire damage in a 10'x 10' area; it ignites any flammable targets
(such as oil) that it hits.
   Wooden structures can be damaged by pitch  attacks.  Damage  starts  out
slowly-instead of taking 1d6 points of damage, wooden structures take only 1
point.  But wooden structures attacked by fire can  be  set  afire,  causing
further damage.  A building's chance to catch fire is 5% per point of damage
caused by each fife attack. This is cumulative during any one-day period- in
other  words,  a  building hit by one fire attack has a 5 %  chance to catch
fire,  a 10%  chance on the next attack,  and so on. Anything set afire will
take  1  point  of  damage the first round,  3 more points by the end of the
first turn, 6 points the second turn, and 12 points for each turn thereafter
until destroyed.
  Catapults and trebuchets can use pitch shots;  their firing bowls must be
specially  reinforced  (costing 50 gp) to fire pitch shot.  Pitch shot costs
five times as much as normal shot.

Miscellaneous Siege

Equipment Descriptions
  The equipment  listed  in  the  Miscellaneous  Siege  Equipment  Table is
described here and is arranged alphabetically for your convenience
  Belfry: A  belfry (or siege tower) is a protected stairway.  The standard
belfry is a 30' tall building on wheels,  made of a stout  wood  frame  with
thin  walls.  The  walls  are  covered  with uncured or wet animal hides and
blanket  to minimize fire damage.  The interior of  the  belfry  contains  a
well-built stairway.  One or two doors lead into the building at the base. A
drawbridge near the top of the belfry is controlled from inside. A final set
of  steps  leads to the roof of the belfry,  with access protected by a trap
door barred on the inside.
  In use,  the  belfry is pushed or pulled up to a wall;  troops then enter
the doors and climb the stairway.  When ready,  they lower the drawbridge so
that it gives access to the top of the adjacent wag,  and then charge across
to melee.  Some troops may take a position atop the belfry,  adding  missile
fire to the melee atop the wall.
   If a belfry is subjected to fire attack,  it  takes  full  initial  fire
damage,  but  it  has  only a 5%  chance to ignite for each 2 points of fire
damage it sustains.  (See the description  above  for  pitch  shot  and  see
Chapter 8 for more details on fires and fire fighting.)
   Gallery Shed:  This protective device is a wooden building with a  light
frame construction. It has side walls but no end walls. The roof is normally
covered with animal hides or wet  blankets  to  minimize  fire  damage.  The
standard gallery shed is 20' long, 10' wide, and 10' tall. It can be carried
by 20 men,  and it gives a - 12 bonus to the armor class of those within it.
A  gallery  shed  is  most  often  used  along with a ram or bore,  which is
suspended by chains from the ceiling of the shed  before  advancing  on  the
  Hoist: A hoist is a machine used to lift small numbers of troops over  or
to the top of a wall or other obstruction. A hoist consists of a light
frame, similar to a belfry's, with a long beam projecting from the top and
a pulley on the beam. A large basket, capable of carrying up to four men, is
raised  by  ropes  through the pulley and connected to a winch.  The rate of
ascent varies by the number of crewmen operating the hoist and by the number
of  troops  in  the basket.  A hoist is normally used to raise well-armed or
higher level troops (those  who  can  withstand  some  missile  fire  before
engaging in melee) to the top of a wall.

                             Miscellaneous Table

                                  Standard    Enc (cn)  AC  AC+  HP
 Type           Cost              Size
 Belfry         25 gp/ft height   30' tall    250,000*  0    -8  75
 Gallery Shed   15 gp/ft length   10'x10'x20'   8,000*  4   -12  40
 Hoist          5 gp/ft height    30' tall     12,000*  4     0  15
 Ladder         1 gp/10' height   30' tall        900   4     0   3
 Mantlet        2 gp/ft length    8'  long      4,800*  0    -4  16
 Timber Fort    4 gp/ft length    8'  long      7,200*  0    -8  32

   These weapons  may  have wheels attached and be towed.  Towing encumbrance
 =1/12 the listed encumbrance;  thus a horse pulling a mantlet on  wheels  is
 pulling only 400 cn.

 Ladder: The siege ladder is a large,  sturdy version of the common ladder.
It is most effective when used by  surprise  or  against  defenders  already
occupied by attackers from a belfry or hoist. Used alone, ladders are easily
toppled or broken by defenders.
 To topple  a  ladder,  take  the  number of defenders trying to topple the
ladder (numbers greater than four count as four) and multiply that number by
four.  The attacker (on the ladder) must roll above that result on 1d2O as a
saving throw each round or the ladder is toppled. The attacker may attempt
this save once per round.
 Mantlet: A mantlet is a wooden wall,  built with wheels for easy movement.
The standard mantlet is 8' long and 4' high and can shield up to  five  men.
Those protected by the mantlet gain a - 4 bonus to armor class. Mantlets are
often used by troops who are pushing a belfry up to  a  wall  and  by  those
operating or waiting for use of a hoist.
 Timber Fort: A timber fort is a heavy wooden wall built in sections. It is
movable only with difficulty. Each section of the wall is 8' long and 4'- 5'
high. Those protected by a timber fort gain a - 8 bonus to armor class.

Final Notes on Siege Weapons
 Special additional  rules  for these weapons appear elsewhere in this book
in the "Siege Machine" section of Chapter 8.
 Two types of special abilities (called weapon mastery and general  skills)
can  be  used  by  player  characters  in campaign games.  These two sets of
abilities are optional; the Dungeon Master decides whether they will be used
in his or her world.
  Weapon mastery is a character's ability to use weapons with greater skill
than the game normally allows.  All characters, not just fighters, can learn
to use weapon mastery.
  General skills  are  abilities  that  characters can learn and use in the
campaign.  Few general skills are useful in combat,  but  many  are  helpful
throughout the course of a campaign; they also help define the character and
make him or her seem more real.

Weapon Mastery

 In the D&D combat system,  each character automatically knows how  to  use
every weapon available to his character class for use.  The following system
gives player characters the option to either study one weapon in depth or to
study a few weapons to a less intense degree.  When a character is using the
weapon(s) he has mastered,  he has an advantage  over  those  who  have  not
studied these weapons.

Weapon Choices
  With the weapon mastery rules, when a human character is started, he does
not  know how to use any weapons.  He is given weapon choices so that he may
choose to learn individual weapons.  Demihumans do not gain  or  use  weapon
choices;  due  to their longer lifespans and wilderness-oriented lifestyles,
demihuman characters start with basic skill in all  weapons  not  restricted
from  their classes.  However,  demihumans can increase their weapon mastery
through training, as outlined below.

Number of Weapon Choices
  Fighters staff  off  at  1st  level  with four weapon choices;  all other
character classes start off with two.
  Human characters  gain  one  new  weapon  choice at each of the following
experience levels:  3,  6,  9,  11,  15,  23, 30, and 36. Fighters also gain
weapon choices at levels 19,  27, and 33. All characters gain one new weapon
choice for every 200,000 experience points they  earn  above  their  maximum
experience level.
  The Weapon Choices by Experience Level Table shows the character's number
of weapon choices.

What to Do With Weapon Choices
  For each weapon choice he has, a character may choose to learn one weapon
at  the  basic level of  ability By "one weapon:' we mean precisely that-one
weapon from the Weapons Mastery Table used in one fashion only.  One weapon,
for  example,  might mean a "normal Cost Per sword";  it does not mean " all
 When a weapon can be used in two different 100 fashions (i.e.,  one-handed
and two-handed,  as 250 with the bastard sword),  a weapon choice  buys  500
only  one  of  those fashions.  A character can have 750 different levels of
mastery,  for example,  with 1,000 one-handed bastard swords and  two-handed
bastard  swords,  depending  on how he has allotted his weapon choices.  One
exception is the net;  training with the net allows a character to use small
nets  one-handed and larger nets two- handed,  so the net has only one entry
on the Weapons Mastery Table.
  Basic level  of  ability  is  the  same  level  of ability you're already
familiar  with;  basic  level  allows  the  character  to  use  the   weapon
effectively  by doing the damage and special functions listed on the Weapons
Table in Chapter 4.  However,  a character does not have to use every weapon
choice he has to buy basic level of ability with a new weapon.  Instead,  he
can choose to specialize by applying his  weapon  choices  to  a  weapon  he
already knows, thus improving his ability with that weapon. These degrees of
ability are called levels of mastery and are listed in the Levels of  Weapon
Mastery Table.

    Weapon Choices by Experience Level Table

                          Weapon Choices by
         Experience        Character        Class:
            Level        Fighters        All Others
             1                 4                2
             3                 5                3
             6                 6                4
             9                 7                5
            11                 8                6
            15                 9                7
            19                10                7
            23                11                8
            27                12                8
            30                13                9
            33                14                9
            36*               15               10
      * +1 weapon choice per 200,000 XP above
     the character's maximum experience level.

     Levels of Weapon Mastery Table
       Number  of                  Weapon Level of
       Choices Spent                  Mastery

                0                     Unskilled
                1                     Basic
                2                     Skilled
                3                     Expert
                4                     Master
                5                     Grand Master

  At 1st experience level, a character must spend all his weapon choices on
different weapons;  he may not yet progress beyond basic  ability  with  any
weapon.  He  may spend subsequent weapon choices to either buy basic ability
with a new weapon or to gain the opportunity to improve his level of mastery
with a weapon he already knows.
  In general,  the higher a character's level of mastery with a weapon, the
more  damage  he  does  with  the  weapon  and the greater number of special
results he can achieve with the weapon.  The different levels of mastery are
detailed under "Training:' next.


  Although characters  can gain basic levels of mastery simply by expending
weapon choices, characters cannot attain higher levels in the same way. Once
the character has spent his 1st level choices,  to gain additional knowledge
of the use of a weapon he must be  trained  by  someone  who  has  equal  or
greater knowledge of that specific weapon. That someone could be another PC,
but it is  usually  an  NPC  teacher  found  during  adventures  or  through
word-of-mouth.  In  some campaigns,  weapon masters run academies where they
teach the proper use of specific weapons;  sword academies  are  common.  In
other campaigns, mystics may allow nonmystics to learn at their monasteries;
many mystics are weapon masters.
  Demihumans can  train  to  reach  higher levels of weapon mastery just as
human characters can.  However,  demihumans are eligible to  train  only  at
levels  4  and  8  and level 12 for dwarves) and at every 200,000 experience
points after reaching their maximum level.
  After finding  a trainer who will provide the necessary instruction,  the
student must pay all of the required costs before training  can  begin.  The
costs  and  time  required  for weapon training vary by the level of mastery
sought, and they are listed in the Training Times and Costs Table.
 A student can train only to the next rank of ability above his own. He can
go from Basic to Skilled,  for example,  and next time go  from  Skilled  to
Expert, but he can never jump straight from Basic to Expert.
 A student can train in the hope of achieving the next level of mastery-and
yet fail to do so.  The student character has a chance of failure applied to
each training period. His chances of success and failure vary by the mastery
levels  of  himself  and  his  trainer,  as  given in the Chance of Training
Success Table.  From the character's perspective,  failure may occur because
the  trainer has insufficient knowledge or lacks the ability to train others
or because the student cannot fully absorb the new information.
  Failure does  not  mean that the character has lost his weapon choice for
that experience level.  The weapon choice is still  there,  and  it's  still
dedicated  to  the  weapon  and  level of mastery he has chosen for it.  The
student has lost the time and money he has spent, but he may spend more time
and  money  until he reaches the level of mastery for which he has spent his
weapon choice.
    The chance of success is checked halfway
through the training period,  and the student is immediately  informed  of
the  results.  (In the role-playing situation,  this usually consists of the
teacher taking the student -aside and telling him that he is not  ready  yet
and  that  it  is useless for him to continue at this time.) The student may
then either continue (despite his  teacher's  recommendation)  or  stop  the
training.  If  the  success  roil failed but the student decides to continue
training for the full period,  the student may then  study  the  same  level
again  but with a different trainer,  and his chance of success is increased
by 10%.

  Training Times and Costs Table

  Level  of                   Time       Cost Per
  Mastery Sought        Required (wks)  Week (gp)
  Basic (-new weapon)             1           100
  Skilled                         2           250
  Expert                          4           500
  Master                          8           750
  Grand Master                   12         1,000

      Chance of Training Success Table

      Student's                            Trainer's Knowledge

      Knowledge     Basic   Skilled   Expert   Master  Grand Master
      None            60%       80%      95%      99%          99%
      Basic            1%       50%      70%      90%          95%
      Skilled          -         1%      40%      60%          80%
      Expert           -         -        1%      30%          50%
      Master           -         -        -        1%          20%
      Grand Master     -         -        -        -            1%

 If the student chooses to stop the training midway,  he may then study the
same level with a different master at the same chance for success.  The  two
advantages  to  this option are that the character does not lose the rest of
the time he would spend with the first teacher and that  the  first  teacher
normally  refunds  half  the  cost of training.  (Chaotic teachers might not
offer refunds.) As you can see from the Chance of Training Success Table, it
is possible (1%  chance) for a character to learn a superior level of weapon
mastery from a teacher who is actually the character's equal.  (Such unusual
training  matches  usually  end up with the teacher realizing and announcing
that his student has surpassed him:  "Now,  you are the master, and I am the
student!")  However,  learning from an equal-level teacher is very difficult
to do.  Whenever possible,  the student should find a teacher  who  is  more
skilled than he is; when that isn't possible, however, he will have to train
with a teacher who is his equal. At the more advanced levels, characters are
likely to train with their equals and just as likely to fail their chance to
succeed the first  time  around.  Most  characters  will  choose  to  finish
training  with  that teacher anyway so that they will have a 10%  bonus with
the next teacher they train under.  Obviously,  it takes quite  a  while  to
attain the grand master level of competency.

Unskilled Weapons Use

 A character who is not trained in any weapon (i.e.,  he  has  not  devoted
even one weapon choice to a weapon) is classified as unskilled.
 If an unskilled character uses a weapon,  the weapon has its basic mastery
characteristics and bonuses or penalties,  but it  does  only  half  damage.
Thus,  if  an  unskilled  character  uses a weapon that does 1d8 points of
damage, he will roll 1d8 and then halve the result (rounding fractions down)
for  the actual damage.  Missile weapons used at the unskilled mastery level
also receive a - 1  penalty  to  attack  rolls.  Also  apply  his  Dexterity
adjustment to all

Skilled Weapons Use

 When using  the  weapon  mastery  rules,  the  weapons from last chapter's
Weapons Table acquire  new  abilities  and  damage  ranges.  All  these  new
bonuses,  damage  types,  and  special uses are given in the Weapons Mastery
Table in this chapter.  Weapons that were nearly identical in  the  previous
rules become much more distinctive here.
 Characters might  choose  to  specialize in a particular weapon because of
its better damage against weapon-using opponents,  or they  might  choose  a
weapon for its special uses (such as parrying blows or tripping opponents).
 The DM may modify the Weapons Mastery  Table  if  he  chooses,  either  by
adjusting listed weapon characteristics or by adding new weapons.  He should
not add any new weapons that are significantly more powerful than  the  ones
listed  in  the table;  new weapons should be assigned balanced benefits and

Types of Benefits
 Characters gain  several  benefits  from  weapon  mastery.  These benefits
include extra damage,  attack roll bonuses, improved range with missiles and
thrown weapons, ability to throw some hand-to-hand weapons, bonuses to armor
class, and other special results (stunning, paralysis, entanglement, etc.).

Applying Benefits
 Some maneuvers and special weapon effects in these rules  provide  bonuses
to  attack  rolls  in  combat.  These  benefits  are  applied  before  other
modifiers.  Using this method, high-experience fighters and demihumans might
gain enough bonuses to bring the attack roll needed to 2 or less, activating
their Multiple Attacks  option.  (Multiple  Attacks  are  described  in  the
"Combat Maneuvers" section in Chapter 8.)
 Other weapon  mastery  benefits can be applied during the normal course of
the combat sequence.  Benefits such as the greater damage available can be a
crucial factor when doubled by a thief's Backstab ability.
 Some benefits can occur only if the player announces that his character is
deliberately using them (such as deflecting,  disarming,  etc.).  The player
must  always  tell the DM he is using one of these options.  He must mention
this use before he rolls to hit.  It is too late to mention it after the die
has been cast.
Armor class   bonuses  gained  through  weapon  mastery  should  be  applied
automatically in all applicable situations.  However,  players may,  want to
remind the DM once or twice. Attack and Defense Benefits

There are  a  number  of attack and defense benefits available to characters
when using the weapon mastery rules.  These are outlined  in  the  following

Opponent Type and Damage Bonuses
 Many damage  increases  and  attack  roll  bonuses  vary  with the type of
opponent.  Opponents that attack with two-handed missile fire  devices  have
similar defenses to those that attack with natural body weaponry.  This type
of opponent is designated "M"  (for  Missile  of  Monster)  on  the  Weapons
Mastery Table.
 Defense is  very  different for opponents using hand-held weapons that are
swung (such as swords and axes) or thrown (such as daggers  and  bolas)  and
opponents using missile-fire weapons that need only one hand (slings,  short
blowguns,  preloaded light crossbows).  On the Weapons Mastery Table,  these
opponents are designated "H" (for Hand-held).
 If an  opponent could fit into both categories (such as a wererat carrying
a sword,  who has both natural body weaponry and a  hand-held  weapon),  the
character  attacking that opponent uses his weapon's damage results that are
most favorable to the opponent (not to the attacker!). However, if this type
of opponent drops the weapon it holds, it immediately becomes category M for
all calculations. Most weapons are better when attacking one or the other of
these  defense  categories.  On  the  Weapons  Mastery Table,  each weapon's
listing shows a primary opponent (the category of defense against which  the
weapon  is  most  effective)  and  a secondary opponent (the other category,
against which it is less effective).  A few weapons are equally good against
both target types;  they bear the table notation [P=A], where "A" stands for

Attack  Roll  Bonuses
 Characters with skilled or better weapon masteries receive bonuses to  the
attack  roll with the mastered weapons,  as noted in the Attack Roll Bonuses
Table. When the character successfully completes training and achieves a new
level of weapon mastery, he gains his new applicable attack roll bonuses and
all other special weapon benefits from the new level of mastery  (listed  in
the  Weapons  Mastery Table and described in the weapon descriptions section

 Attack Roll Bonuses Table
 Level of              Bonus            Bonus
 Mastery             vs. Primary     vs. Secondary

 Unskilled           No bonus         No bonus
 Basic               No bonus         No bonus
 Skilled                  + 2              + 1
 Expert                   + 4              + 2
 Master                   + 6              + 4
 Grand Master             + 8              + 6

Even with the additional bonuses gained from weapon mastery,  don't  forget
to  apply a character's Strength adjustment to all melee attack rolls and to
melee and thrown-weapon damage rolls.

Improved Range
A character  at  skilled  or  better mastery with a ranged weapon can often
fire or hurl it  farther  than  someone  less  accomplished.  All  notes  on
improved  weapon ranges are on the Weapons Mastery Table.  Remember that the
ranges for thrown and missile weapons  are  calculated  in  feet  in  indoor
settings and in yards in outdoor combat.

Throwing   Ability    With    Hand-to-Hand    Weapons

Weapon masters  can  throw  some weapons that other character's can't throw
effectively. Masters of battle axes, clubs and torches, war hammers, bastard
swords,  normal swords,  and short swords can throw these in combat starting
at the expert level of mastery.  Ranges for these weapons are given  on  the
Weapons  Mastery Table,  and there are rules for barely thrown weapons after
the table.

Bonuses to the Wielder's Armor Class
When a character is using a weapon he has mastered, he gains an armor class
bonus (above any he might receive from his armor  or  defensive  maneuvers).
The  armor class bonus he receives applies only to a given number of attacks
per round.  That number is given on the Weapons Mastery Table,  and  it  may
apply to M (Missile/ Monster) attackers, H (Hand-held) attackers, or A (All)
attackers,  as shown on the table.  For example,  if the table says that the
character  has  M:  -2AC/2,  it  means  that he gets a - 2 armor class bonus
against the first two attacks made against him that  round  by  missiles  or
monster attackers.  Likewise, A: - 6AC/3 indicates that the character gets a
- 6 armor class bonus against the first three attacks made against him  that
round by any missile or monster attacker.
 Some shields do not have a number after a slash mark;  that means that the
shield provides the character an additional armor class benefit all the time
the shield is held,  not just for a certain number  of  attacks  per  found.
Having an armor class bonus does not count as a maneuver;  the character may
still move and attack at normal rates.

Defensive Maneuvers
In addition to the above armor class bonuses, a character may have an armor
class adjustment due to Fighting Withdrawal and Parry  defensive  maneuvers,
as described in Chapter 8.

Special Results
Weapon masters can do some amazing things with their weapons; they get more
performance out of the weapons they've mastered. Most of the special results
are listed in the "Special Effects" column of the Weapons Mastery Table  and
are  described  in  the  section  on descriptions of special effects,  which
follows the table.
However, one special result is common to all weapons: the despair effect.

Despair Effect
A weapon master's amazing ability with his weapon  can  cause  despair  and
fear in some opponents.  This is called the despair effect. When it happens,
the targets affected must make a standard morale check (described in Chapter
8). Opponents must be above animal intelligence to be affected.
 Targets that fail their morale tolls try to flee  or  surrender  at  their
next  opportunity.  The  DM  should describe the expressions of the monsters
who've had to make special despair morale checks,  but he or  she  shouldn't
describe  whether the monsters successfully made their rolls until it's time
for them to act.

 When to Roll for Despair:  The DM should have affected monsters  and  NPCs
make their morale rolls under any of the following circumstances:
 * The weapon user inflicts maximum possible damage with his weapon.
 * The  weapon  user  avoids  all  damage  in  a  round  by  deflecting the
opponent's blows. (Deflecting is described in the section on descriptions of
special effects after the Weapons Mastery Table.)
 * The weapon user disarms two or more opponents in the same round.
 The DM  may choose to check for despair during other special situations if
he desires.

 PC Victims of Despair:  Player characters under a despair effect must make
a saving throw vs.  death ray.  If they succeed,  they are merely impressed;
those who fail must retreat in awe for 1d6 rounds.

 Numbers Affected:  The despair effect can only affect a certain number  of
enemies  at  a  time.  This  varies with the character's level of mastery as
* Basic-no despair effect possible.
* Skilled-up to 4 hit dice or levels.
* Expert-up to 8 hit dice or levels.
* Master-up to 12 hit dice or levels.
* Grand Master-up to 16 hit dice or levels.
 When the despair effect is turned  on  a  group,  it  always  affects  the
lowest-level (or lowest-HD) enemies first.

 Frequency of  Use:  A  weapon master can only use his despair ability once
per fight (once the current situation leaves the combat sequence,  the fight
is over).

Other Notes
 When choosing a character's weapons,  keep the character in mind;  be sure
to  select  the  weapons  the  character (not necessarily the player!) would
choose.  Be aware of standard weapon restrictions.  Halflings can  only  use
small weapons, for example.
 Weapons that do a wide range of damage are present in each  category.  Low
damage  is  usually  offset  by special benefits.  Once a suitable weapon is
found,  review the other weapons within that category with comparable damage
or  special  effects  and  consider  the  weapon's potential (available with
further training). Weapon mastery choices, once taken, cannot be changed.
 Remember that  weapon  mastery  bonuses  apply  only when the character is
using the weapon he has mastered,  not when  he  uses  other  weapons,  even
similar ones.

How to Read the Weapon

Mastery Table
  The columns on the table provide the following information:  Weapon: This
column gives not only the weapon name but also many other details about  its
use;   compare   the  symbols  beneath  the  weapon  name  to  the  list  of
abbreviations at the bottom of the table.
 Lvl: This   heading  stands  for  "level  of  mastery."  Each  weapon  has
statistics listed for five different levels of mastery.  If  your  character
has expert mastery with a normal sword, he'd find the entry for normal sword
and skip down to the line labeled "EX" (for Expert) in this column.
 Ranges: This column shows the weapon's range when thrown or launched.  Not
all weapons have ranges listed.  Note that the weapon's range increases with
each new level of mastery.
 Damage: This column  shows  the  damage  the  weapon  does.  Damage,  too,
increases  with  each  new level of mastery.  This column often has separate
entries for " P " and " S " -the weapon does different amounts of damage  to
its primary and secondary target types.
  Defense: This column shows the effects the weapon has on the armor  class
of its wielder.

Special Effects:  This column summarizes the weapon's special abilities; you
will need to read  the  text  after  the  table  to  understand  what  these
notations  mean.  Certain weapons have an additional symbol (" SS ") in this
column; this symbol indicates that these weapons have special effects beyond
the  other  weapons'  special  effects.  Read  the  following  text-for more
information on these particular weapons.

The " SS " Notation

Five weapons-the blackjack,  blowgun,  bola, net, and whip-are listed on the
Weapons  Mastery  Table  with  an  "  SS " symbol in their "Special Effects"
column. This means you need to refer t@ the following Special Effects Tables
to see what else these weapons do to their victims.

Special Effects Descriptions

The special  effects  listed  for  weapons  in the Weapons Mastery Table are
described here and are arranged alphabetically for your convenience.

  Breaks: Whenever the wielder of a shield weapon  or  his  foe  tolls  the
exact  number  needed  to  hit the other,  there is a chance that one of the
shield weapon's blades will break.  With a subsequent roll of 5 or  less  on
1d10,  a blade breaks.  Charge:  If the wielder charges 20 yards or more and
strikes his target, the victim takes double damage.
  Death: The victim is reduced to 0 hit points. Deflect: In addition to any
attacks,  the wielder of this weapon may attempt to deflect  the  number  of
melee  and  thrown  weapon attacks indicated in one round.  To deflect each
attack, the character must make a saving throw vs. death ray.

Delay: The victim hit by this weapon  must  make  a  saving  throw  or  lose
initiative the next round. If the type of saving throw is not specified, it
is a saving throw vs. paralysis. For missile attacks, this effect occurs only
at the indicated ranges.

Disarm: The wielder of this weapon may attempt to disarm an opponent instead
of making a normal attack.  The attacker must roll to hit  the  target.  The
victim can save his weapon by rolling less than or equal to his Dexterity on
1d20.  If the attacker has the Disarm Combat option, the victim must add a +
5 penalty to his die roll. The DM should determine Dexterity scores for NPCs
and monsters or else assume a Dexterity score of 1 1.  In addition, for each
level of mastery the attacker has gained beyond basic,  the victim suffers a
penalty of + 1 to his roll vs.  the effect.
  Double Damage:  On  a  natural  toll  of number(s) indicated,  the weapon
inflicts double damage.
  Entangle: An entangled victim cannot attack,  cast spells,  of move.  The
victim may make a saving throw vs. death ray each round to escape.
  Hook: Instead of making a normal attack,  the wielder of this weapon  may
attempt  to  hook and pull down a foe.  The attacker must roll to hit.  This
causes the minimum damage possible for the weapon;  the victim must  make  a
saving throw vs. paralysis or fall down. A + 4 bonus to attack rolls applies
when attacking a fallen foe.  A fallen foe also has  a  -4  penalty  to  all
saving  throws  and  a  -  2 penalty to attack tolls while on the ground.  A
character can stand up in one round.
  Ignite: Fire has a chance to ignite anything flammable that it hits.  The
chance  is equal to 5%  (rolled on 1d1OO) per point of damage caused in each
round.  If an item ignites it will burn for 1d6 rounds causing 1d4 points of
damage each round.
  Knockout: The victim is rendered unconscious for 1d100 rounds.
  No Off-Hand  Penalty:  If  a  campaign  is using the optional Two Weapons
Combat rules (see Chapter 8 and consult the DM),  the cestus does not take a
-4  penalty  or  the  -1  weapon  mastery  level  penalties when used in the
off-hand.  If the character uses two cesti,  he can strike with both weapons
at the same chance for success.  Paralysis:  Paralysis freezes a creature in
place for 1-6 turns.  A paralyzed creature is aware of what is happening but
cannot move,  attack,  talk,  or cast spells.  Any cure spell can negate the
effects of paralysis,  but they do not cure damage in addition  to  removing
the paralysis.
  Poison: See the Special Effects Tables One- Three for effects.
  Second Attack:  The  wielder  is  able  to make a second attack with this
shield weapon while attacking with another one-handed weapon in his
other hand. This second attack is made with no off-hand penalty.

   Special   Effects   Table   One:   Blowgun and net

   Victim's      Bonus to
   Level or      Saving       Results of Failed Saving  Throw
   Hit Dice       Throw              Blowgun                Net
   Up to 1         None               Death                 Entangle
   1+1  to  3     +1          Loss of 75% hp + paralysis    Entangle
   3+1  to  6     +2          Loss of 50% hp + paralysis    Slow
   6+1  to  9     +3          Loss of 50% hp                Slow
   9+1  to 12     +4          Loss of 25% hp                Delay
   12+1 to 16     +5          Loss of 25% hp                Delay
   16+1 or more   +5          Loss of 10% hp                Delay
   Save  vs.:                 Poison                        Death Ray

    Special Effects Table Two: Blackjack

   Victim's      Bonus to  Results of Failed Saving Throw
   Level or      Saving    Basic/    Expert/   Grand
   Hit Dice       Throw    Skilled   Master    Master

   Up to 1         None    Knockout  Knockout  Knockout
   1+1  to  3     +1       Knockout  Knockout  Knockout
   3+1  to  6     +2       Stun      Knockout  Knockout
   6+1  to  9     +3       Stun      Stun      Knockout
   9+1  to 12     +4       Delay     Stun      Stun
   12+1 to 16     +5       Delay     Delay     Stun
   16+1 or more   +5       Delay     Delay     Delay
   Save  vs.:              Death Ray Death Ray Death Ray

    Special Effects Table Three: Bola and Whip

   Victim's      Bonus to   Results of Failed Saving Throw
   Level or      Saving    Basic     Expert    Grand
   Hit Dice       Throw    Skilled   Master    Master

   Up to 1         None    Entangle  Entangle  Entangle
   1+1  to  3     +1       Entangle  Entangle  Entangle
   3+1  to  6     +2       Slow      Entangle  Entangle
   6+1  to  9     +3       Slow      Slow      Entangle
   9+1  to 12     +4       Delay     Slow      Slow
   12+1 to 16     +5       Delay     Delay     Slow
   16+1 or more   +5       Delay     Delay     Delay
   Save  vs.:              Death Ray Death Ray Death Ray

  Set vs.  Charge:  If the wielder is aware of a charging enemy, he may set
this weapon against the charge.  A charge only takes place  when  the  enemy
rushes the wielder at 20 yards (or more) this round. If the wielder's weapon
hits the charging foe, it inflicts double listed damage.
  Skewer: If  the target has no more than the number of Hit Dice indicated,
the wielder of this weapon may decide to skewer him instead  of  strike  him
normally.  A  normal  attack consists of striking the target and withdrawing
the trident for another attack;  with the skewer,  the attacker thrusts  his
trident  into  the  target and twists it so that it is not easily extracted.
Once the weapon hits,  it is stuck;  it will remain stuck for 1d4 + 4  (5-8)
rounds,  after which time the victim's movements will cause it to come free.
For each round a victim remains skewered,  he automatically takes 1d6  points
of damage.
  Slow: The victim is slowed and can move  and  attack  at  only  half  his
normal movement rates. He can cast no spells while slowed.
  Strangle: If  the  attacker  makes  a  natural  roll  of  the   number(s)
indicated,  the victim must make a successful saving throw vs.  death ray or
become immediately paralyzed and die in 1d6 + 2 (3-8) rounds unless rescued.
If  the  victim  escapes,  he  survives but remains paralyzed for 2d6 (2-12)
  Stun: If  the  victim  is  approximately the same size as the attacker or
smaller, he is stunned if he falls a saving throw vs.  death ray.  A stunned
character moves at 1/3 Speed and cannot attack or cast spells. The character
also has a +2 armor class penalty and a - 2 saving throw penalty.  A stunned
character  can make a saving throw vs.  death ray each round to recover from
the stun effect.  For missile  weapons,  this  effect  occurs  only  at  the
specified ranges.

Individual Weapon
 Some of  the  weapons  on the Weapons Mastery Table are marked with either
one or two asterisks.  When a weapon is marked with one asterisk (*),  refer
to  last  chapter's  Weapon  Descriptions  to learn about the item's special
characteristics.  If a weapon is marked with two asterisks (**), that weapon
is described here. Items are arranged alphabetically for your convenience.

 Blowguns: A  victim hit by a poisoned blow- gun dart fired by someone with
skilled or better weapon mastery makes his saving throws at a  penalty.  The
weapon  master  knows how to accurately fire the daft into veins,  arteries,
and other critical areas,  thus introducing the poison more quickly into the

 Polearms, Other:  The last chapter mentioned that traits of  the  halberd,
pike,  and  poleaxe  could  be  combined to individualize the other types of
polearm mentioned.  This is an optional rule to be used  if  the  DM  wishes
these  weapons to be individualized.  These additional polearms are detailed
as follows:

 Bardiche: This  polearm  uses  halberd statistics but also has the deflect
abilities of the pike. The bardiche may be set vs. a charge.

  Bill: This  weapon  uses  poleaxe  statistics  and  deflect  scores.   In
addition, the bill has the hook ability of a halberd.
  Gisarme: This polearm  uses  pike  statistics  and  deflect  scores.  The
gisarme also has the hook ability of a halberd.
  Glaive: This weapon uses  poleaxe  statistics  and  deflect  scores.  The
glaive  causes  double  damage like a dagger.  This weapon may be set vs.  a
  Lochaber Axe:  This  polearm  follows  all of the halberd rules,  but the
lochaber axe may also stun at the highest two masteries.
  Partizan: This  weapon  follows all the pike rules,  but the partizan may
also disarm. This weapon may be set vs. a charge.
  Ranscur: This  polearm  uses  halberd  statisti  and deflect scores.  The
ranseur may also be used to disarm at skilled level and above.  This  weapon
may be set vs. a charge.
   Spetum: This weapon uses pike statistics and deflect scores.  The spetum
may also disarm at skilled or greater mastery. It may be set vs. a charge.
  Spontoon: This polearm uses spear statistics,  but it may not be  thrown.
It  uses  the  deflect scores of a halberd.  The spontoon does double damage
like a dagger and may be set vs. a charge.
  Voulge: This weapon uses poleaxe statistics,  but it causes + 2 points of
damage.  The voulge uses the deflect scores for  a  halberd.  it  may  cause
double damage like a dagger.

  Throwing Rarely Thrown Weapons
  Several of  the  weapons  listed  in  the  Weapons  Mastery Table,  while
normally used in melee, can be thrown by a wielder at high levels of mastery
in desperate situations.
  To throw  these  weapons,  the  attacker  must  make a normal attack roll
modified by Strength (but not by Dexterity).
  Since the maneuver is unexpected, the attacker first checks to see if his
foe is surprised (a toll of 1 or 2 on 1d6).  If the victim is not surprised,
the victim makes a saving throw vs.  death ray to reduce damage by half.  If
he is surprised of if he fails his saving throw,  he takes full damage  from
the attack.

  Retroactive Weapon Mastery

  If a campaign has already begun but the  DM  would  like  to  add  weapon
mastery to it, it's not too late. The DM should start by carefully examining
each character.  Characters often have a few favorite weapons.  Assume  that
these  are the character's preferences;  these will be the weapons for which
the character has learned increased mastery,  while  the  knowledge  of  the
proper  use of other weapons has faded through lack of use.  The DM may then
give the character the number of weapon choices appropriate  for  his  class
and  experience  level.  Weapons that are the character's personal trademark
can be bought  up  to  expert  mastery;  weapons  that  the  character  uses
frequently  can be bought up to skilled mastery;  weapons that the character
has been known to use effectively should be bought to basic mastery.  If the
character  still has any weapon choices left,  his player can assign them as
he pleases to buy Basic masteries with other weapons;  he cannot buy  higher
than basic mastery for these additional weapons.
  When fitting these rules into an existing campaign,  the  DM  should  not
allow  a  character  to  buy  a  weapon  skill above expert level unless the
character is at 24th experience level or greater. He or she should not allow
a character to buy a weapon skill above master level unless the character is
already 30th level or better.
Refer to  "Reality  Shift"  in  Chapter 13 for additional suggestions about
coping with sudden retroactive changes in a campaign.

Weapon-Using Monsters

  Monsters may use weapon mastery rules if they ordinarily use  weapons  to
attack.  Just  as  with  player  characters,  a  monster must find a trainer
willing to teach it.  Its  maximum  possible  skill  is  determined  by  its
Intelligence,  as  given  in  the  Mastery  Limits for Weapon-Using Monsters
Table.  (See Chapter 13  for  advice  on  determining  monster  Intelligence
Note that only humans and demihumans  can  become  grand  masters;  monsters

 Mastery Limits for Weapon-Using Monsters Table
     Monster                Maximum Level of
     Intelligence           Weapon Mastery
     Up to 11               Basic
     12-15                  Skilled
     16-17                  Expert
     18 +                   Master

  General Skills
  General skills are abilities that characters can  use  in  the  campaign.
There are many general skills, but no character will have more than a few of
them,  so a character's choice of skills will help make him more distinctive
and more individually useful in some campaign situations.
  Using general skills is optional.  If the DM doesn't want to use them  in
his or her campaign, they won't be used.

Beginning Skills
  All 1st level characters start with four  "blank"  skills,  often  called
slots.  (When a skill is chosen, it stops being a slot.) Characters who have
an Intelligence of more than 12 start with more than four  skill  slots.  If
the character has an Intelligence of 13-15, he gets I additional skill slot;
if his Intelligence is 16-17,  he gets 2 additional skill slots;  and if his
Intelligence  is  18,  he  gets  3 additional skill slots.  Different things
determine which skills are chosen to fill the character's slots.  The player
may choose some or all of the skills to fill his Available skill slots. Or
the DM may insist that the player select certain skill  choices  appropriate
for the character background the player has chosen.

How Skills Are Used
  Each skill  is  based on one of the character's ability scores (Strength,
Intelligence, Wisdom, Dexterity, Constitution, and Charisma).
  Whenever the  DM  feels  a character's selected skill is appropriate to a
game situation,  he or she will ask the player  to  roll  1d20  against  the
corresponding ability score.  This is called a skill roll or skill check.
If the roll on the 1d20 is equal to or less  than  the  ability  score,  the
skill  use  succeeds.  A  roll  of 20 always fails,  no matter how high the
chance for success.
  Example: If  the  character  is  riding a horse and the horse is suddenly
spooked and begins rearing,  the DM will decide that the character's  Riding
skill  is appropriate to check in this situation.  The player will roll 1d20
against his skill-related ability  score  (Dexterity).  If  the  character's
Dexterity is 15,  the player has only to roll a 15 or less to use his Riding
skill successfully.
  Successfully rolling   the   skill   normally  allows  the  character  to
accomplish the task he is attempting. For instance, if a character is trying
to track an animal through the forest and he successfully makes his Tracking
skill check, then he is able to follow the tracks of his prey.

Sample Skills
  The Sample  Skills Table lists a number of skills appropriate to most D&D
game campaigns. The players and the DM may add skills to this list as the DM
sees fit. The DM determines which ability score pertains to each new skill.
Skills Descriptions
  The skills  listed  in the Sample Skills Table are described here and are
arranged alphabetically for your convenience.  Roll skill rolls against  the
ability under which these skills were listed in the table.
  Acrobatics: The  character  with  this  skill  can   perform   impressive
acrobatic feats,  balance on taut ropes and wires,  etc.  A successful skill
roll is requited to perform any acrobatic feat;  failure may result  in  the
character  falling.  A  successful  roll  allows  a  character to reduce the
effective height of a fall by 10'.  A DM can give an acrobatic character a +
2  to  save  vs.  mechanical  traps where agility would help-such as tilting
floors and pit traps.  Many entertainers,  thieves, and nimble warriors have
this  skill.  This  skill is not the equal of a mystic's acrobatics ability,
but the mystic's special ability can be presumed to include  this  skill;  a
mystic does not have to purchase the acrobatics skill.
  Acting: This is the ability to make one's living as a stage actor, but it
also  imparts the ability to assume a different personality or to show false
emotions. Successful use of this skill allows a character to tell convincing
lies over a limited period of time.
  Alchemy: This skill provides the ability to recognize and identify common
alchemical substances,  potions,  and poisons.  Success with this skill will
allow a character to create an antidote potion  for  one  specific  type  of
poison-if the DM says that this is possible in his campaign.
  Alertness: Successful uses of this skill  allow  the
character to draw a weapon without losing any time,  to avoid the effects of
surprise, and to wake up at the slightest out-of-place noise.

 Sample Skills Table
 Strength Skills  Intelligence Skills    Wisdom Skills

 Intimidation     Alchemy                Animal Training (choose type)
 Muscle           Alternate Magics       Art (choose type)
 Wrestling        Art (choose type)      Bravery
                  Artillery              Caving
                  Craft (choose type)    Ceremony (choose specific immortal)
                  Disguise               Danger Sense
                  Engineering            Detect Deception
                  Fire-Building          Gambling
                  Heating                Law and justice (choose culture)
                  Hunting                Mysticism
                  Knowledge (choose type)
                  Language (choose type)      Dexterity Skills
                  Lip Reading                 Acrobatics
                  Magical Engineering         Alertness
                  Mapping/Cartography         Blind Shooting
                  Military Tactics            Cheating
                  Mimicry                     Escape
                  Nature Lore                 Mountaineering
                  Navigation                  Piloting (choose type)
                  Planar Geography            Quick Draw
                  Profession (choose type)    Riding (choose type)
                  Science (choose type)       Stealth (choose terrain)
                  Signaling (choose type)     Constitution Skills
                  Snares                      Endurance
                  Survival (choose terrain)   Food Tasting
                  Veterinary Healing

    Charisma Skills
    Music (choose type)

  Alternate Magics:  This  skill  gives  a character basic familiarity with
magics that are not related to standard Spellcasting.  It  includes  knowing
many  magical  abilities  of well-known Prime Plane and extraplanar monsters
and of Immortal beings.  The DM defines what types of knowledge  this  skill
provides in his or her campaign.
  Animal Training (choose type):  The character knows how to raise,  train,
and care for one type of animal. The animal can be taught some simple tricks
or simple orders.  A character who wants to  train  two  or  more  different
animal  types  must  choose  this skill more than once-Horse Training is one
skill,  Dog Training is another. However, a horse trainer can train any sort
of  natural horse or pony and a dog trainer can train any breed of dog.  Any
culture that features a strong bond with some animal  type  will  have  many
members with the corresponding Animal Training skill.
  Art: This is the skill of creating art. There are several different types
of Art skill (painting,  sculpture,  woodcarving,  mosaic, etc.). The player
must specify one sort of art his character practices;  a character can  take
the  skill several times and be proficient in several different forms of an.
Art skill can be used to improve the reaction of NPCs to the party;  if  the
artist  can  present an NPC with a portrait or sculpture of that person (and
make his Art toll),  the artist receives a + 2 to reaction.  The player  can
choose  for  his  character's  Art  skill to be based,  on Wisdom instead of
  Artillery: A  character must have this skill if he is to command the crew
of a piece of artillery (catapult or trebuchet).  He does not have  to  make
his  skill roll with each shot;  merely knowing the skill is enough.  The DM
can call on him to make his skill roll each time the character or  the  crew
aims  at a new target;  the skill allows the character to make all pertinent
calculations of trajectory, distance, and throw weight.
  This skill  can alternatively allow the character to oversee the building
and repair of all varieties of siege equipment.  The character  cannot  know
both how to build and how to effectively operate artillery weapons unless he
takes the skill twice.
  Bargaining: A  successful  skill  roll  allows a character to get the best
deal available  for  goods,  services,  or  information.  It's  not  usually
possible  for  a  character to bargain someone into giving him very much for
  Blind Shooting:  This  skill  is the ability to shoot at a target without
being able to see it; it is typically used when the character is in darkness
or  when  the  target is outside the range of his sight or infravision.  The
character must be able to hear the  target  so  that  its  position  can  be
evaluated.  If the character makes his skill check,  he can then fire at the
target; he needs an attack toll to hit the target, but the character doesn't
suffer the normal darkness penalties.
  Bravery: With a successful use of this skill,  the character  can  resist
the  effects  of any magical fear.  An NPC using this skill successfully can
ignore the results of morale checks or of skills such as Intimidation.
  Caving: This  is  an  ability to always know where one is while exploring
underground caves,  cavern complexes,  rivers,  etc.  A character with  this
skill  will automatically know the route he has taken to get where he is (if
he was conscious all the time). Many dwarves have this skill.
  The Caving skill can also be used in a maze.  Skill checks are  necessary
when  the  character  has become disoriented.  If he is forced to flee for a
long stretch,  he  must  make  a  skill  check  to  keep  from  being  lost.
(Characters   without  this  skill  automatically  become  lost  in  such  a
  Ceremony (choose  specific  Immortal):  A character with this skill knows
how to honor an Immortal through ritual and ceremony;  the  skill  allows  a
cleric  character  to perform normal rituals of his clerical order and could
even (if the DM allows) permit a character to gain an  Immortal's  attention
(through devout prayer, fasting, sacrifice of possessions, etc.). This skill
includes knowing the code of  behavior  and  the  rituals  pleasing  to  the
  In earlier D&D@ game products, this skill was often referred to as "Honor
(specific immortal)."
   Cheating: This is the skill of winning at gambling games by  cheating-by
dealing  cards  from  the  bottom of the deck,  etc.  The cheating character
should make his Cheating skill toll;  each character he plays with can  make
one skill toll (Cheating at the normal level,  Gambling at a - 1 penalty, or
a base Intelligence check at a - 4 penalty,  whichever is best) against  the
character's  cheating  roll.  If  one or more of the other players makes his
roll lower than the cheater does (see "Using Skills Against Each  Other"  in
this chapter),  he detects the cheating. This skill is limited to characters
of Chaotic alignment.
   Craft (choose  type):  The  character knows one type of craft;  examples
include  armor-making,  bow-making,  tattooing,  leatherworking,   smithing,
weapon-making,  etc.  The  character must choose which one type of craft the
skill pertains to; of course, he can spend more slots and have several types
of craft skills.
  The character can  make  his  living  at  this  profession  and,  with  a
successful roll, make expert opinions on subjects pertaining to his skill.
  Danger Sense: A successful skill roll means that the character can detect
an imminent danger.  The character will not know the nature or source of the
danger.  The DM,  not the player, makes the skill roll, and he or she should
not  tell  the player that a roll has been made unless the roll is a success
(and there is danger present).
  Deceiving: This  is the ability to persuade a listener of the "truth" and
sincerity of what the speaker is saying,  despite the fact  that  the  skill
user is lying through his teeth.  Successful use of this skill causes an NPC
to believe an untrue statement or toaccept a misleading statement as  honest
and sincere.  Failure indicates that the character sounds unconvincing. This
skill cannot be used on player characters.
  Detect Deception:  This is the ability to recognize deceptive behavior in
an NPC.  This does not reveal the truth or falsehood of specific statements,
the motivations of the speaker,  of the exact nature of the deception.  This
skill only warns the character to distrust the deceptive NPC.  The DM  makes
the  skill  roll for the character,  informing him of the result.  The skill
does not work on player characters.
  Disguise: This is the ability to make a character look like someone else.
A  successful  Disguise  check  is  required  for each character or group of
characters that the disguised character is trying to fool with his disguise.
The target that the disguised character is trying to fool must make a Wisdom
roll against the Disguise roll in  order  to  penetrate  the  disguise  (see
"Using Skills Against Each Other" at the end of this chapter).
  Endurance: This skill gives the character the ability to perform a tiring
task for long periods of time.  A successful check means that the  character
is  able  to  run  (or  perform  some  demanding  task)  for an hour without
collapsing.  The character must make another check each hour he performs the
task,  with  a  cumulative  penalty  of  +  1 for each extra hour.  Once the
character has completed his task or fails a skill  roll  and  collapses,  he
must rest for three times the amount of time he was performing that task.
  Engineering: This is the skill of planning, designing, and building large
constructions  such as houses,  bridges,  dams,  and so forth.  Unless built
under the eye of a trained engineer,  a  large  structure-whether  built  by
manpower and materials or pure magic-will inevitably collapse of suffer some
other calamity. Engineering skill can also be used to evaluate constructions
the  party  is passing through or over:  what shape they're in,  when and by
whom they were built, and so on.
  Escape: The  character is often able to get loose when tied or locked up.
A successful skill roll means that the character is able to get rid  of  his
ties. Another roll is needed to open a locked door. The DM can apply bonuses
and penalties to the check based on the quality of the ropes and knots,  the
intricacy of the lock, the lack of lockpicking tools, etc.
  Fire-Building: This is the ability to start a fire without a tinderbox. A
character   with  a  tinderbox  and  this  skill  is  able  to  start  fires
automatically (no roll necessary) in ordinary conditions.  If the  character
is  trying to build a fife without a tinderbox,  he will eventually succeed;
he must make a 1d6 toll each round,  and on a 1 or 2 he ignites the fire. If
the  character  is trying to build a fire in adverse conditions (during high
winds or using wet wood), he must make a skill check with penalties assigned
by the DM.
  Food Tasting:  This is the ability to taste food and water to see if they
have spoiled.  Thus the character can avoid suffering from food poisoning by
carefully tasting his food first. This ability will not detect poisons added
to  a  dish  unless  the DM determines that the poison has a taste (in which
case it may be too late anyway).
  Gambling: This is the ability to win money in games of skill (competitive
card games,  for example) and betting.  This involves honest games (cheating
is  covered  elsewhere),  and  a  successful check increases the character's
Chances for winning money at the games.
  Healing: This is the ability to treat wounds and diagnose illnesses among
humans and demihumans. A successful skill roll allows a character to restore
1d3 hit points to a wounded character. (A related skill, Veterinary Healing,
allows similar treatment of animals and monsters.)
  This skill  cannot  be used on a wounded character more than once for the
same set of wounds.  If the character receives new wounds, Healing skill can
be  applied  against  the  new wounds.  The skill is rolled against a set of
wounds,  not individually against each injury.  (The  term  "set  of
wounds" usually refers to all the hit points lost by a character in a single
combat situation.)
  If a  healer  rolls  a natural 20 when using this skill,  he accidentally
inflicts 1d3 points of damage to the patient,  and he may not treat that set
of wounds again.
  Successful skill rolls allow the healer to diagnose type of  illness.  In
addition,  a  roll  made  by 5 or more will allow the character to determine
whether an illness is natural or magically induced.  Hunting:  This  is  the
ability to locate, stalk, and hunt large and small game with the bow, sting,
or spear. Successful use of this skill gives the character a + I to hit with
a  bow,  sling,  or  spear  against  an unaware target in a peaceful outdoor
setting; the skill is not usable in most combat situations.
  The character  can  automatically  supply  himself  with food over a long
period of time if he is in a fairly fertile area and has a  missile  weapon,
spear,  or javelin.  In areas not normally rich in game he must make a skill
roll and receive penalties to that roll (penalties determined by the DM). If
he is trying to supply more than just himself,  he must make a skill roll if
he is supplying one other person,  and he takes  a  -  1  penalty  for  each
additional person -after the first he is trying to supply. He must roll each
day,  and failure indicates that he  has  not  found  enough  food  to  feed
everyone that day.
  A character with the Hunting skill forages automatically in fertile areas
(even  when  on  the  move) and uses his Hunting skill roll to determine how
successful he is during full days spent in search of game.
  Intimidation: This  is  the  ability  to  bully nonplayer characters into
doing what the player character wants them to do.  Success means  that  NPCs
are  intimidated  into doing what the character wants.  This skill cannot be
used against PCs.  NPCs who have this skill used upon them are  unlikely  to
ever  become  friends  with  the intimidating player character.  Use of this
skill  means  that  the  character  is  either  implicitly   or   explicitly
threatening  the  target  with  violence  or  other dire consequences if the
target doesn't comply.  For this reason,  Intimidation  works  best  against
low-level  characters.  It  does  not work at all on player characters or on
NPCs of 5th level or higher.  The DM can also,  at his or her option, decide
that  it  does  not  work  on  someone  who  is obviously in a much stronger
position than the character using the skill.  For example, a king surrounded
by elite guards, even if he himself is a 1st level character, is unlikely to
feel threatened.
  Knowledge (choose type): The character is an expert in one field of study
such as the culture or geography of an  area,  history,  legends,  theology,
etc. A character can usually make his living by teaching his skill or acting
as an expert on the subject;  with a successful roll,  he  can  make  expert
commentary  on information relating to his skill.  The character taking this
skill must specify what sort of knowledge he is acquiring.  A character  can
select  multiple  Knowledge  skills,  using  one for each different field of
  Labor: The  character  is  very accomplished at one type of labor such as
bricklaying,  farming, mining, stonecutting, etc. The character can make his
living with the skill.  With a successful roll, he can interpret information
in light of his occupation.  A character must specify which type of labor he
knows,  and  he  can  select  multiple Labor skills to be proficient in many
types of jobs.  Language (choose type):  See "Optional Rule for  Languages,"
later in this chapter.
  Law and justice: This is the knowledge of the laws and judicial system of
one  culture  or  country;  characters  who  wish  to be a judge or advocate
(lawyer) must select this skill. Each empire or nation has its own codes, so
characters  who  wish  to  be  conversant in different nations' codes should
choose this skill for each set of laws they wish to study.
  Leadership: Successful  use  of  this skill adds + 1 to the morale of any
NPCs under the character's control.  It can also be used to  convince  other
NPCs to follow the character's commands.  The DM can decide that any NPC who
has a good reason not to follow the leader is  automatically  successful  at
resisting  this  skill.  Unlike  Intimidation,  Leadership  does  not bully,
antagonize, or make enemies of the NPCs it is used upon.
  Lip Reading:  To  use  this skill,  the character must be able to see the
lips of the target person or creature  and  understand  the  language  being
spoken.   A   successful   check   allows  a  character  to  "overhear"  the
conversation;  if the lip reader understands the language being  spoken,  he
can  understand  the  speakers'  words.  The  distance to the target and the
available light should be taken into account-the DM should apply skill  roll
penalties for difficult situations.
  Magical Engineering:  This  is  the  ability  to  recognize   the   basic
principles of some unfamiliar magical devices. It does not include practical
training in design or fabrication of magical artifacts.  It does  allow  the
character  to  recognize  most  common magical items with a successful skill
roll. It doesn't allow a character to recognize uncommon magical items or to
distinguish trapped or cursed items from safe ones.
  Mapping (Cartography):  If a character has this skill,  he can understand
and  make  maps  even  if  he  cannot  read and write.  The skill allows the
character to comprehend simple maps without  a  skill  roll;  the  character
should  make skill rolls to interpret or draft complicated layouts or to map
an area by memory.  A character does not have to have this skill in order to
map a dungeon as the characters explore it.  A character who can map but not
read obviously cannot understand the words on a map.
  Military Tactics: This skill allows a character to interpret the movement
of enemy forces and to move his own forces better.  When using  this  skill,
the player (not the character) first examines the situation and decides what
he thinks is right-what he thinks the enemy is doing or how he should set up
his units.
  The DM,  not the player, rolls the character's Military Tactics skill. On
a  successful  roll,  the  DM will truthfully tell the player whether he has
calculated correctly;  if he has not calculated correctly but the  roll  was
successful,  the DM should offer some advice on how the player should set up
his forces.  If the roll is a failure,  the DM should tell  the  player  his
character cannot interpret the enemy troop movements well enough to use them
to his advantage.  The success of the roll determines bonuses  or  penalties
for the troops during mass combat.
  Mimicry: This is the ability to mimic animal noises and  foreign-language
accents.  This  is  a  very useful skill in the wilderness especially.  When
characters use recognition codes or signals that imitate the  screech  of  a
hoot owl or a noise from some other animal,  this skill allows them to mimic
those noises convincingly so that  enemy  listeners  are  not  automatically
tipped off that there are spies in the area.
  Mountaineering: This does not replace a thief's special climbing  ability;
it  is  the  skill of mountain-climbing with the use of ropes,  pitons,  and
other climbing gear.  A character who has Mountaineering skill can use  such
gear to climb difficult mountain and cliff faces and can rig lines to enable
nonclimbers to tackle those faces as well.
  Muscle: This  skill is experience with heavy lifting and hard labor.  The
char-acter can direct groups of laborers so that their efforts are the  most
effective  possible.  This character understands the use of simple machinery
such as wedges,  pulleys,  and levers.  With a successful skill  check,  the
character  receives  a + 2 bonus on Strength rolls for tasks such as opening
  Music (choose  type):  This skill allows a character to play one group of
related instruments in a skilled manner.  The player chooses  the  group  of
instruments  that his character knows,  and the character can take the skill
several times in order to know multiple instrument  groups.  Groups  include
stringed instruments, brass, percussion, woodwinds, etc. This skill is often
taken in conjunction with the Singing skill.  Mysticism:  This skill, though
similar to Ceremony (above),  is taken by nonclerics. This skill allows the
character to instinctively know the best course  of  action  to  please  the
Immortals in general.  A successful skill roll,  for example, means that the
character  recognizes  an  idol  dedicated  to  an  Immortal  and  that  the
characters should give it its due respects.
  Nature Lore:  This skill is the knowledge of common plant and animal life
forms of one specific terrain:  desert, forest, jungle, mountain/ hill, open
sea, plains, or arctic. The character can gain several Nature Lore skills by
spending  one  skill  slot for each different terrain he learns.  This skill
gives the character knowledge of such things as edible and poisonous plants,
healing herbs, and signs of unnatural danger (such as unusual quiet, absence
of normal plant or animal life,  atypical animal behavior,  etc.).  When the
character uses this skill in his home territory,  he receives a - 2 bonus to
the die rolled for the skill check.  When  he  uses  it  in  territory  very
similar  to  his home,  he receives no bonus.  The less it resembles his own
home territory, the greater the penalty he will receive, up to a +4.
  Navigation: By  taking  directions  from  the position of the sun and the
stars  (or  of  whatever  atmospheric  phenomena  are  appropriate  in  your
campaign),  the  character  can always know roughly where he is.  Successful
skill rolls,  with  positive  or  negative  modifiers  for  the  character's
distance from his home territory and familiarity with his surroundings, will
tell the character more precisely where he is.
  Persuasion: This  is  the  ability  to  persuade NPCs of your character's
honesty and sincerity.  This isn't a liar's skill;  the speaker must believe
the truth of what he says. Successful use of the
skill means the listener believes what the speaker tells him. It does not
mean that the listener will agree to actions proposed by the speaker. The DM
can  assign  modifiers  from + 1 to + 8 to the skill roll if the audience is
hostile. This is a good skill for diplomats and negotiators to have
  Piloting (choose  type):  This  is the equivalent of the Riding skill but
applies to sailing vessels.  (it can also apply to large flying vessels such
as  aerial  ships  and  flying  castles,  if  such  things  are present in a
campaign.  The use of magical items such as flying carpets and flying brooms
does  not  require  the  Piloting  skill.)  A character must use a different
category of Piloting for each different type of vessel,  as defined  in  the
Piloting Skill:  Types of Vessels Table. As such, he will need to spend more
than one skill to pilot more than one type of vessel.
  Planar Geography:  This  skill gives the character a general knowledge of
the Prime,  inner, outer, Astral, and Ethereal Planes as described elsewhere
in  this  book.  This skill includes knowledge of techniques of travel among
the planes and common inhabitants of known planes.
  Profession: The  character  is  accomplished  at  one  type  of  nonlabor
profession such as politics,  cooking,  estate management,  horse  grooming,
scribing (the character must be literate),  etc.  The character can make his
living with his skill,  and (with a successful roll) make expert  commentary
on subjects pertaining to his skill. The player must indicate which specific
profession his character  knows;  a  character  can  buy  several  different
Profession skills.
  Quick Draw: A successful skill check with this skill allows the character
to rock and fire an arrow with a + 2 bonus to individual initiative.
  Riding (choose type): This skill includes the basic care and feeding of a
riding  animal  and the ability to control it under difficult circumstances.
Riding rolls are required if a character is trying to use a weapon from  the
back of a riding animal; failure means that the mount is moving too much for
the character to use the weapon.
  Each Riding  skill allows the character to ride one type of animal;  if a
character wishes to know how to ride two different types of beasts, he first
buy two different Riding skills. Horses constitute one type of animal; giant
eagles constitute another.
  When a  character uses his Riding skill on the wrong animal (for example,
when a horse rider tries to ride a camel),  he suffers a +4  to  his  Riding
rolls. When a character with no Riding skill at all tries to ride an animal,
he must make a Dexterity check at a + 8 penalty to his die roll.
  However, a  character  doesn't  have  to  make the success roll except in
difficult situations,  such as when the animal is spooked. Otherwise, he can
stay on the animal's back without difficulty.
  Science (choose type):  The character is  an  expert  in  one  branch  of
scientific study such as astronomy,  geology,  metallurgy,  etc.  Characters
with this skill can make their living with it,  usually  as  specialists  in
large cities.  The DM should not allow this skill to characters belonging to
more primitive cultures,  but it is entirely appropriate to characters  from
highly  civilized areas of the world.  The player must indicate which branch
of science his character has mastered;  a character can buy multiple Science
skills to know multiple disciplines.
  Shipbuilding: This is the skill  of  designing  and  building  ships.  It
allows  a  character  to  supervise the construction of professional-quality
ships,  whether they are made by muscle or by magic.  The Shipbuilding skill
will  also  let characters evaluate the ships they encounter,  determine who
built them and when, etc.
  Signaling (choose   type):  Successful  use  of  this  skill  allows  the
character to leave messages that can only be understood by another Signaling
specialist of the same culture,  trade guild,  military force,  or "school."
For instance,  one dwarf character with the Signaling skill could pile rocks
into a cluster; it would communicate nothing to most characters, but another
dwarf character with Signaling would recognize it as a signal and be able to
interpret its meaning.
  When a character takes a Signaling skill,  he must specify the  type  and
culture of signals that he will be studying and he must have the opportunity
to learn such signals. Appropriate types of signals include military trumpet
signals, naval flag signals, smoke signals, drum signals, etc.
  Singing: This is the ability to sing in a skilled manner; a character can
make  his  living  with  this  skill and (if he is good enough) can become a
famous entertainer or bard.
   Snares: This  is  the  skill  of  building  traps  to  capture  animals,
monsters,  and unwanted visitors.  A successful skill roll  means  the  trap
functions properly. The DM can assign modifiers to the skill roll based on
the mount of time the character had to set up the trap,  the availability of
materials, etc.
   Stealth (choose terrain):  This is similar to the thief's  Move  Silently
ability,  with some important differences.  The character taking the Stealth
skill must choose one type of terrain in which  the  skill  works  from  the
following   list:  city/  outdoors,  indoors/caves,  forest/jungle,  plains,
desert,  arctic,  and mountains/ hills. The skill only works in that type of
terrain.  (However,  the character could conceivably spend seven slots,  one
for each type of Stealth skill.)
  City/Outdoors is  used  in  the  streets,  in  trashstrewn alleyways,  on
rooftops,  and in similar  urban  environments.  Indoors/Caves  is  used  in
dungeons and catacombs,  in caverns and caves,  and in most enclosed spaces.
The other terrain types are self-explanatory.
   Humans, demihumans,  and  humanoids  can  take  the  Stealth skill.  The
character will move very quietly in the terrains for which he has the skill.
When  he  is trying to sneak up on someone or when there is a chance that he
will be heard,  he must make his skill check.  If the DM doesn't want him to
know that the DM can make the skill check for him.
  Storytelling: This is the ability to captivate an audience  when  telling
stories.  The  character  can earn his living as a teller of stories;  if he
also has Knowledge skills of such things as history, he can be a storyteller
of history.
  Survival (choose terrain): This skill allows the character to easily find
food (especially vegetables and fruits), shelter, and water in a single type
of terrain,  selected from one  of  the  following:  desert,  forest/jungle,
mountain/hill,  open sea,  plains,  arctic. Desert Survival doesn't give the
character the ability to survive in the forest;  he must  also  take  Forest
Survival for that.
  A character with the Survival  skill  forages  automatically  in  fertile
areas,  even  when  on  the  move.  If he is trying to supply more than just
himself, he must make a skill check at a +1 penalty to his die roll for each
additional  person that he is trying to supply.  He must roll each day,  and
failure indicates that he has not found  enough  food  for  everyone  he  is
trying to supply.
   Tracking: The character can follow tracks. The DM is free to increase or
penalize  the  chance  of success depending on the circumstances (age of the
tracks, type of terrain, number of tracks being followed, and so forth).
  Veterinary Heating:  This is the same as Healing (above),  but this skill
pertains to creatures that are neither humans  nor  demihumans  -  in  other
words, nonhumans, monsters, normal animals, and so forth.
   A character can take this skill in one of two  ways:
  1) as  a General Veterinary Healing skill,  which means that he makes his
roll with a + 1 penalty for every type of creature he treats; or
  2) as  a  Specialized Veterinary Healing skill that pertains to one class
of creatures (for  example,  equines).  The  character  with  a  Specialized
Veterinary  Healing  skill takes no penalty when treating the creatures that
are his specialty,  but he takes a + 2  penalty  with  all  other  types  of
creatures.  (A  character  could  take the skill twice,  one General and one
Specialized;  he would have his listed roll for the creatures that were  his
specialty  and only have a + 1 penalty when treating all other creatures.) A
character with Veterinary Healing skill trying to treat a human or demihuman
rolls at a + 3 penalty.
  Wrestling: In wrestling combat, a successful roll will give the character
a + 1 to his wrestling rating (see the "Unarmed Combat" rules in Chapter 8).
Higher skill scores give higher bonuses,  so a character with  Wrestling  +1
would receive a + 2 bonus, and so on.

Optional Rule for Languages

  With the  DM's  permission,  characters  can  use  skill  slots  to  take
additional  languages.  (Additional  languages  are  an   Intelligence-based
skill.)  For each slot spent on a new language,  the character can speak the
language (not necessarily very well) and can read it (if he  is  intelligent
enough  to  read  his regular languages).  Characters still get all the free
languages they're entitled to from their Intelligence and racial abilities.
  Characters have  trouble  speaking  these additional "skill languages." A
character speaking a
skill language will automatically understand someone speaking slowly  and
simply.  If  the  character  is  listening to someone who is excited or using
technical speech,  he must make his skill roll to understand  the  language.
Failure means he didn't understand what was said.
  The character speaking a skill language communicates  in  the  same  way.
When he's struggling to explain something fast, complicated, or technical or
when he's flustered or excited,  he must make a skill roll to get  the  idea

Piloting Skill: Types of Vessels Table
Type of Vessel   Vessels in This Category
Small boats      River boat, sailing boat,  canoe, ship's lifeboat, raft
Galleys          Small galley, large galley, war galley, longship
Water vessels    Large sailing ship, small sailing ship, Troop Transport
Flying vessels   Aerial boat, aerial ship

      Improving Skills
  Characters' skills can be increased to higher  scores.  Simply  use  more
skill choices to improve skill rolls, and the PC will get a + 1 to his skill
roll for every skill choice added to that skill.  A skill choice can be used
to either improve an existing skill by one point or to buy a new skill,  not
both.  Example:  Alaric has only a Charisma of 12,  yet he  wants  to  be  a
natural  leader.  Instead  of  using  only  one skill choice to purchase the
Leadership skill,  he chooses to use three on that skill.  The first  choice
gives him his Leadership skill; he must roll his Charisma score, 12, for all
Leadership checks. His two extra skill choices give him an additional + 2 to
his rolls ( + 1 for each skill choice spent). His Leadership checks will now
be made at 14 instead of 12.

      Learning More Skills

  Your character can choose to purchase more  skills  or  improve  existing
ones.  All  characters  get  a  new skill slot every four experience levels.
Thus, humans get four slots (plus bonuses for high Intelligence) at level 1,
then an extra at level 5,  another at level 9,  another at level 13,  and so
on. See the Skill Slot Acquisition (Humans)


        Skill Slot Acquisition (Humans) Table

               Experience                    Skill Slots
                    Level                       Gained
                        1                        4*
                        5                        1
                        9                        1
                        13                       1
                        17                       1
                        21                       l
                        25                       1
                        29                       1
                        33                       1
           * Not counting bonuses for high Intelligence

  Above 12th level,  dwarves get another skill slot at 1,200,000 experience
points and another slot for every  800,000  experience  earned  after  that.
Above 10th level,  elves get another slot at 1,350,000 experience points and
another for every 1,000,000 experience points earned after that.  Above  8th
level, halflings  get  another slot at 300,000 experience points and another
for every 1,200,000 points earned beyond that.  These points are outlined in
the Skill Slot Acquisition (Demihumans) Table.
  The DM can simply assume that your character is meeting  with  a  teacher
who can instruct him in the skill, or the DM can introduce an NPC who is the
character's teacher. Unlike the situation with weapon mastery, the character
never has to roll anything to acquire the skill. If the DM says the skill is
available 'to player characters and if the PC has an empty  skill  slot  and
access to a teacher, he can take the skill.
  Important DM's Note:  Intelligent monsters,  such as orcs and giants, can
also have general skills.  The DM may prefer only to give skills to monsters
that have distinctive personalities and roles within a campaign.

Skills and the DM
  It's the  responsibility  of the DM to see to it that players don't abuse
these skills and achieve results totally inappropriate to their use  in  the
campaign.  It's  also  the responsibility of the DM to reward characters who
use their skills cleverly and in the context of the adventure.
  The DM  decides when a character can try his skill roll,  and the DM also
decides what sort of effect the skill  can  have  in  a  situation.  The  DM
shouldn't make the characters roll over and over for the same task,  only at
critical points in play.
  Positive and Negative Modifiers
  When the character is using a skill,  the DM may wish to assign  positive
or  negative modifiers to make the character's roll easier or harder.  These
modifiers are based on circumstances.
  Circumstances that  make a job slightly more difficult warrant a +1 or +2
modifier.  Those that make the job substantially more difficult warrant a +3
or +4 modifier.  Those that make the job very hard-such as not being able to
see,  working on the rolling deck of a ship during a severe  storm,  and  so
forth@can warrant penalties of + 5, + 10, or even + 15 to the roll.
  On the other hand,  circumstances that make the job easier-such as having
all the materials needed,  having lots of time, and so forthwarrant positive
benefits at the same scale.
  The character  always has a chance of success,  however bad the odds,  as
long as the DM says it's remotely possible to succeed.  A natural roll of  1
on  1d20  is  an  automatic  success,  just  as a roll of 20 is an automatic

Time Use
  When it's  important to know,  the DM decides how much time each use of a
skill represents.  The time it takes to look at the stars and make  a  basic
Navigation  roll  might  be  about  a  minute;  the  time it takes to make a
superior spear,  both he-ad -and shaft,  will be a few days; and the time it
takes  to  make  a Tracking roll to recognize what sort of creature left the
prints before a character may only be a second or two.

Using Skills Together
  Often, when  the  character's  skill  roll  has  failed,  all  the  other
characters with the same skill will say,  "He failed? I let me make my skill
roll!  " This isn't a good thing to do. If the DM lets everyone make a skill
roll for  the  same  task  when  someone  has  failed,  one  character  will
eventually  succeed;  it's therefore pointless to have a skills system since
every task will be "automatically" (that is, "eventually") successful.
  The DM  should  usually  decide  that  the  circumstances  that  led  one
character to fail will make all the others fail.  For example,  a  character
tracking  his  prey fails his roll and loses the track.  The DM decides that
it's because the creature went to the  trees,  a  rainfall  obliterated  the
tracks,  or  whatever,  there  are no tracks to find.  Therefore,  the other
characters can't make their own Tracking skill tolls here, except to confirm
the fact that there are no tracks.
  However, sometimes it's reasonable for characters  to  use  their  skills
together  to  solve  a  task.  For  example,  when two healers are trying to
diagnose a disease, two can be better than one.
  The characters  can  choose which of them is the chief problem-solver for
this situation (usually the PC with the  highest skill), and that PC and the
others with the same skill all make their skill rolls.  The DM uses the roll
of the chief problemsolver and gives him a - 1 modifier for every one of his
friends  who  made  the roll and a + 1 modifier for every one who failed it.
The chief problem-solver can never receive more than a - 3 bonus  this  way,
but  there  is no limit to the penalty he can receive if his allies all roll

Using Skills Against Each Other
  Sometimes situations  will  come  up where two skills are in conflict.  A
character with Deception can  try  to  fast-talk  a  character  with  Detect
Deception,  or  two Bargaining characters can haggle.  When the DM sees this
situation occur, he can have both parties toll their appropriate skills. The
character with the lowest successful roll wins the contest. When a tied roll
occurs,  the DM has to analyze the situation;  he may have them reroll for a
clear decision or he may decide that the situation is unchanged.

         Skill Slots Acquisition (Demihumans) Table

 Dwarf Level  Number of   Elf  Level   Number of   Halfling Level Number of
 or XP Total  New Slots   or XP Total  New Slots   or XP Total    New Slots
 1st  level          4*   1st  level         4*    1st level             4*
 5th  level          1    5th  level         1     5th level             1
 9th  level          1    9th  level         1     300,000               1
 1,200,000           1    1,350,000          1     + 1,200,000           1
 + 800,000           1    + 1,000,000        1

            * Not counting bonuses for high Intelligence scores.

                             Chapter 6: Movement

  This chapter  covers  all  the information needed for movement in the D&D
world.  Using the rules that follow for time;  movement; and travel by land,
water, and air will help add realism to the game.


Time is  handled  somewhat  differently  in  the D&D game than it is in real
life.  Time that the players experience is called "real time." Time that the
characters  experience  is  "game  time." In D&D games,  the passage of time
experienced by the characters is usually compressed.  A  game  can  take  as
little  as  an  hour of real time or up to twelve hours (of even longer with
tireless players),  but that real time may represent days or weeks  of  game

Game time  is  not  always  longer  than  actual real time.  Combat and some
role-playing can take much longer than the actual game time. For example, it
may  take  half  an hour of real time to play a battle that lasts only a few
minutes of game time.

Rounds, Turns, and Days
Game time  is  divided  into rounds,  turns,  and days,  as described in the
following text.

Rounds: Situations of immediate danger- such as combat or  those  precarious
seconds when a character trips a trap,  falls into a pit,  grabs hold of the
side,  and gazes down in terror at the poison-tipped  spikes  far  below-are
normally  measured  in rounds,  each of which represents 10 seconds of gained
time.  Except when the rules specify otherwise,  each character can  perform
only one action during a round-swing a sword,  cast a spell, of perform some
movement or other action.

Turns: Slightly less intense situations carefully exploring a dangerous  set
of  catacombs,  sneaking  up  on an enemy encampment,  of trying to escape a
pursuing army that is a mile or more behind-are usually  measured  in  turns,
each  of which represents 10 minutes of game time.  In the course of a turn,
should  something  happen  to  propel  the  character  into  an  immediately
dangerous situation, the DM will always shift the time sequence to rounds.

Days: Characters'  lives  are  not  all  spent  in  breakneck action scenes.
Sometimes they do things that take a great deal of time to accomplish,  such
as journey 1,000 miles on horseback, do library research, create a golem, or
sit around the city  waiting  while  the  king  finishes  putting  his  army
together.  Typically, the DM passes this time in days, describing one or two
things the characters might learn or do each day. Should one of these events
lead  to  a  role-playing  encounter,  the  DM can always shift to turns and

Measurements of Game Time Table

Measure    Equals        Activities Measured This Way

1 round 10 seconds  Combat, some spell durations
1 turn  10 minutes  Noncombat movement,  some spell durations,
                   exploration of dungeons
1 day  144 turns    Long-distance movement (miles/day),  spell research,
                   magical item creation

  See the Measurements of Game Time Table for more information on how these
units interconnect.

Skipped   Time

  It's also  possible  to measure longer periods of time simply by skipping
over them.  For instance,  characters might finish up one adventure together
and  decide  they need to fulfill their family obligations for awhile.  They
split up, each returning to his respective home, and agree to meet at an inn
known  to  all of them after one month.  The DM will ask each character what
he's doing during this skipped time,  give each character the results of his
actions,  and then bring the characters back together again when the time is
up.  Great lengths of time,  up to years,  can be passed this  way  if  both
players and the DM wish to do so.

Assumed and Defined Actions
   In D&D games, the player does not normally have to describe every action
his character takes throughout the day. For example, when the characters are
doing long-distance traveling and time is being measured by  the  day,  it's
reasonable for everyone to assume that the characters do eat, rest after and
sometimes during travel,  talk to one another,  behave in a normally prudent
and careful fashion,  and so forth, without the  players having to role-play
every single incident or encounter.

Movement, Missile, and Spell Ranges

  Indoors: Normal  movement speed,  missile ranges,  and spell ranges are
measured in feet (90' means ninety feet indoors).
  Outdoors :  Normal movement speed, missile ranges, and spell ranges are
measured in yards (120' actually means 120 yards outdoors).
Everywhere: Spell effects are always measured in feet.

Maps    and    Miniatures

  Map Scale:  Dungeon  maps  are  usually  done on graph paper,  one square
representing 10'.  Wilderness  maps  are  usually  on  hex  paper,  one  hex
representing 8, 16, 24, 32, 72, or any other distance in miles.
  Using Miniatures:  In standard game play using miniatures,  25mm lead  or
cardboard  miniatures  represent  human-scale  figures.  If you use 25mm hex
paper to regulate movement,  one hex represents 10'; if you are not using a
hex-grid,  one  inch  on the table-top or surface represents 10' (indoors or

Feet vs.  Yards

  In dungeons and  other  indoor  settings,  the  basic  unit  of  distance
measurement  is  the  foot.  Missile  and spell ranges are measured in feet;
character's normal speed is expressed in feet. In wildernesses, open fields,
open  city  streets,  an other outdoor settings,  the basic unit of distance
measurement is the yard.  (One yard equals three feet.) In outdoor settings,
it  is  easier to move quickly due to more open terrain and better lighting.
Therefore, a character's normal speed outdoors is expressed in yards.

  Example: A character who moves 90' per turn (normal speed) in  a  dungeon
could move 90 yards (or 180') per turn outdoors.

  Missiles and  spell ranges are also read as feet in dungeons and as yards
in the wilderness. However, the area effected by a spell (or by flaming oil, a
net, or any other such attack) is not read yards; it is always read as feet.
Thus,  a fireball spell cast in the wilderness would have  a  range  of  240
yards, but it would still have an area effect of 40 feet in diameter.

Map Scales
  You may want to keep maps of the characters' travels; it's usually a very
good idea in traditional dungeon- based campaigns,  and the DM may insist on
it.  With dungeon or indoor maps,  you use graph paper.  Each square on  the
paper typically represents 10' of distance. With wilderness or outdoor maps,
you use hex paper.  Map hex scales vary widely,  but the most commonly  used
D&D  game scales usually have one hex represent 8 or 24 miles.  Always check
the map key printed on maps.  In any case, the DM will tell you if he or she
wants you to map in a different scale.

Miniature Figures
  Your campaign group might like to use miniature figures to represent  all
characters and monsters, especially in combat encounters.

  Several types of miniature figures are available from toy and hobby shops
worldwide that are made of metal,  plastic,  of  cardboard;  the  metal  and
plastic ones are suitable for painting.  With so many available,  you should
be able to find figures that look very similar to your characters.  The 25mm
figurines (a human is about 1" tall) are well-suited to D&D games.

  When you  use  miniatures  to  conduct  combat,  1"  on the table surface
represents 10' of distance.  If a character can move 30  yards  (90')  in  a
round, you'd move his figure 91, ahead on the table.

  You can use a ruler to measure distances or you can buy one of many vinyl
or  plastic  playing  surfaces  that  are  already  gridded   into   inches.
Additionally,  you  can  use  watercolor  markers to draw room and situation
details on vinyl or plastic surfaces and easily erase them once  the  combat
is done.


  "Move: 120'  (40')"  gives  the character's rates of movement.  The first
number,  usually 120', is the number of feet the character moves per turn at
a very cautious walking pace indoors;  outdoors,  the unit of measurement is
tripled so that

   Character Movement Rates and Encumbrance Table

               Normal    Speed  Encounter Speed    Running Speed
   Enc  (cn)   (feet per turn)  (feet per round)   (feet per round)
      0-  400         120              40                     120
    401-  800          90              30                      90
    801-1,200          60              20                      60
  1,201-1,600          30              10                      30
  1,601-2,400          15               5                      15
  2,401+                0               0                       0

   Terrain Effects on Movement Table

   Terrain                                Movement
   Trail/road*                            1 1/2 normal
   Clear/city/grassland                   Normal
   Forest/muddy ground/snow               2/3  normal
   Hill/desert/broken terrain             2/3  normal
   Mountain/swamp/jungle                  1/2  normal
   Ice/glacier                            1/2  normal

   * Unpaved roads allow travelers to ignore every terrain modifier except muddy
   ground/snow.  Paved  roads  allow  travelers to ignore every terrain modifier
   except snow.

  Traveling Rates by  Terrain  Table
                            Miles Covered Per Day:
  Travel Mode      Trail  Clear  Hills  Mountains  Desert
  Foot, no  enc*   36     24     16            12      16
  Foot, It  enc**  24     12      8             6       8
  Foot, hvy  enc t 12      8      6             4       6
  Camel            48     32     24            16      32
  Elephant         36     24     12             8       8
  Riding  horse tt 72     48     36            24      16
  Donkey or mule   36     24     16            12      16
  War horse        36     24     16            12       8
  Draft horse      24     16     12             8       8
  Ox               16     12     10             8       6

  * This is a character with a 120' normal speed; he can carry no more than
400 cn encumbrance.
  ** This is a character with a 90' normal speed (that is, someone carrying
between 401 and 800 cn encumbrance).
  t This is a character with a 60' normal speed (that is,  someone carrying
between 801 and 1,200 cn encumbrance).
  tt The travel rates listed here are possible but will kill the  horse  if
only  one  is used for the entire trip.  Typically,  a rider only manages to
achieve these rates by riding one-third the distance listed and trading  his
horse in twice at way stations for fresh mounts.  At the end of the day,  he
and the three horses are exhausted,  but all are alive.  If a rider does not
intend  to kill or exhaust his horse,  he should use the travel rates listed
for the war horse instead.

120' becomes 120 yards per turn.  (Outdoor movement is  tripled  because  of
easier terrain,  better lighting,  etc.) This first number is often known as
"normal speed."
  The second  number  within  parentheses is the movement rate per round in
feet;  this number is often called "encounter speed" and is the number  used
during combat. Outdoors, the encounter speed would be 40 yards as opposed to
40' in this instance.
  Movement is  sometimes  written  as  "MV  120'  (40')"  or "Movement 120'

  Normal, Encounter, and Running Speeds

  Though the normal speed of 120' per  turn  seems  very  slow,  this  rate
includes many assumed actions-mapping,  peeking around corners, resting, and
so forth.
  During encounters,  movement  is measured in encounter speed.  Characters
move at 1/3 their normal speed in feet per round.  In other  words,  if  the
character's  normal  speed is 120' per turn,  his encounter speed is 40' per
round indoors.
  In addition,  when  characters  are running at full speed (toward or away
from an enemy),  their rate is equal to their normal speed in feet per round
(rather than turn) or three times their encounter speed. A character can run
at maximum  speed  for  30  rounds  at  most  (5  minutes)  before  becoming
exhausted.  (Characters  with the optional Endurance skill can maintain this
pace for longer periods of time.) In other words,  if a  character's  normal
speed is 120' per turn and his encounter speed is 40' per round, his running
speed is 120' per round indoors.

  An exhausted  character  must  rest for at least three turns (30 minutes)
before running or fighting again.  An exhausted character who is  forced  to
fight  without  rest  is  penalized in combat.  Monsters gain a + 2 bonus to
their attack rolls to hit the character  (because  he  is  unable  to  dodge
incoming attacks as effectively), and the character must subtract 2 from all
attack damage rolls (he cannot muster the strength to hit more  effectively,
but any successful hit will still inflict at least 1 point of damage).
  A character who becomes exhausted  but  is  forced  to  continue  running
cannot use his maximum running speed. He drops to encounter speed and cannot
move any faster until he has rested.

Character Movement Rates

  Any character will have a movement rate  of  120'  (40')"  unless  he  is
weighed  down by a lot of gear.  The weight and clumsiness of gear is called
encumbrance and is measured in "cn",  which are coin-weight  equivalents;  1
coin  equals  approximately  1/10 of a pound in weight and awkwardness.  The
amount of encumbrance the character carries determines how fast he can move,
as noted in the Character Movement Rates and Encumbrance Table.
  Example: A character carring 60 lbs. (600 cn) of armor and equipment will
be slowed to a MV of 90' (30').  Traveling in a dungeon,  at a very cautious
walking pace (normal speed),  he'll move 90'  per  turn;  outdoors,  walking
cautiously  (normal speed) but over easier terrain,  he'll walk 90 yards per
     Important Note: Groups of characters, if they intend to stay together,
move at the rate of the slowest character.

Monster  Movement   Rates

  Monsters' and animals' movement rates are also expressed in  the  "  120'
(40')"  format.  Some monsters move much faster than player characters,  but
others are the same speed or slower.  See Chapter 14 for the movement  rates
of various monsters.
     The only time monster encumbrance is tallied is when  the  monster  or
animal  is  carrying  away some heavy prey or is being used to carry riders.
Guidelines are found in Chapter 14.
     These rules  are  somewhat  simpler  than  those  for player character
encumbrance.  For instance,  a monster will be able  to  move  at  its  full
movement rate up to a certain amount of encumbrance carried. It will move at
half its movement rate up to twice that amount of encumbrance  carried,  and
it will not be able to move at greater than a certain amount of encumbrance.

Land Travel

   This section  discusses  moving  over land using various movement rates,
the effect terrain has on movement, long-distance travel, becoming lost, and
finding food in the wilds.

Overland Movement Rates

  To find  the distance a party travels in a day,  find the normal speed of
the slowest party member or mount (if all party members are mounted). Divide
that  speed by 5.  The result is the number of miles per day the party moves
through clear terrain (open fields and range,  city,  etc.). This number, of
course, is modified if terrain is less favorable.
 Terrain (the  features  of  the  land  being explored) affects the rate of
travel.  Though it makes no difference to the combat round or the  10-minute
turn,  the  terrain  may  affect  the distance a party travels in a day,  as
outlined in the Terrain Effects on Movement Table.
 On the  Terrain  Effects on Movement Table,  modifiers are not cumulative.
When two or more conditions are in effect (not counting trail/ road), simply
use  the  worst  condition  to  determine  the  party's  movement.  When the
characters' path will carry them through several different types of  terrain
in  a single day,  the DM should decide which one terrain type dominates and
base their movement on that type of terrain.
 For convenience's  sake,  character  and mount movement in the most common
types of terrain are listed in the Traveling Rates by  Terrain  Table.  Find
out  which party member moves slowest on this table;  his movement rate will
dictate the movement for the entire party.

Long-Distance Travel and Rest
 Characters and mounts must rest one full day for every six days they spend
traveling.  Those who do not rest suffer a - I penalty on attack  rolls  and
damage  rolls  until  they  do  rest.  If they go more than six days without
resting,  they suffer an additional - I penalty per six days until  they  do
rest, and they must rest one full day for each six days they spent traveling
if they are to lose the penalty.

Becoming  Lost

  A party following a road, trail, or river or led by a reliable guide will
not  become  lost.  A guide is a retainer who knows the local area or-if you
are using the optional general skills rules-is a PC or an NPC who has either
the  Navigation  or  Knowledge  (of the area in question) skill.  The DM may
require the character to make his Navigation/Knowledge skill check each  day
to keep the party on track.
   However, if a party is not on a road,  trail, or river and does not have
a guide, the party may become lost. The DM must check each day to see if the
adventurers become lost by rolling 1d6 before the party begins movement  for
the  day.  Find  the  type  of terrain the party is traveling through on the
following list;  if the roll on the die matches the number listed, the party
becomes lost.
   * Clear or grasslands: 1.
   * Swamp, jungle, or desert: 1-3.
   * All other terrain: 1-2.
  If a  party  is  lost,  find  the direction of travel (either by the DM's
choice or by random roll).  The DM must keep track  of  the  party's  actual
position and the direction the characters think they are going! For example,
the party members tell the DM that they want to travel north.  However,  the
DM  has secretly determined that the party is lost and that northeast is the
direction the party thinks is north. If the group travels this direction and
then decides to travel in a different direction,  the DM will have to adjust
accordingly.  For example,  after traveling "north" for six miles  (although
actually  traveling  northeast),  the  group decides to turn northwest;  the
members will actually be going north at this point.

Food in the Wild

  Traveling characters sometimes run out of  food  in  the  wild.  Cautious
parties  bring  enough  standard  or iron rations for everyone's use for the
whole trip plus up to 50 %  extra; but great delays (weather, magical traps,
other  problems) can still cause them to run out of food.  However,  in most
terrain types (but not in some swamps or oceans),  parties may either forage
or hunt to get more food.
 The characters may forage while  traveling,  but  they  slow  their  daily
movement  rate  to  2/3  normal as a result.  (They cannot forage while on a
forced march.)  Foraged  food  includes  nuts,  berries,  some  plants,  and
possibly small game.  In good terrain and weather, characters usually have a
50% chance (1-3 on 1d6) of finding enough food to survive. The DM may modify
this due to the terrain, and he or she will make all the necessary rolls.
 If the characters spend a full day in the vicinity of their  camp,  normal
foraging  is  automatically successful.  Such characters might (DM's choice)
encounter animals that they can hunt for additional food.  Days spent  in  a
forced match or resting cannot be spent hunting.
  If the campaign is using the general skills from Chapter 5,  a  character
with the Hunting skill forages automatically (without movement penalties) in
fertile areas,  even when on the move, and he uses his Hunting skill roll to
determine how successful he is during days spent in search of game.
 If characters run out of food,  they will become ravaged by  hunger.  They
will  need  to  rest more,  travel slower,  suffer attack roll penalties and
gradual loss of hit points, and eventually face death from starvation.

Water Travel

 Characters are sometimes forced to swim of use ships to reach destinations
via waterways. This section describes how to do both.

  By Swimming (and Drowning)

 In the  D&D  game,  all  characters  may  swim  unless  the  DM  decides
otherwise.  A character's movement rate while swimming is  1/5  his  outdoor
running  speed  (120 yards per round / 5 = 24 yards per round).  A character
swimming underwater always measures his  movement  rate  in  feet.  Thus,  a
character  who- can swim at 24 yards per round on the surface can swim at 24
feet per round underwater.
 Under normal conditions, a swimming character is in no danger of drowning.
However,  if the character is swimming while carrying heavy  encumbrance  or
swimming  in rough,  dangerous conditions,  he can drown.  If a character is
carrying more than 400 cn encumbrance,  sheer weight will drag him down. The
DM  should decide on the chances of drowning in rough water,  swimming while
encumbered, or fighting while swimming.

      Water Movement Modification Table
 (2d6) Weather                 Effect/Notes
       No  wind              Becalmed; no movement except by oar; oared
                             movement reduced to 1/3 normal amount because
                             of rower fatigue
 3     Extreme light breeze  Movement reduced to 1/3 normal; also used when
                             beating before  normal   winds
 4     Light breeze          Movement reduced to 1/3 normal; also used when
                             quarter reaching before normal winds
 5     Moderate breeze       Movement reduced to 2/3 normal; also used when
                             broad reaching before normal winds
 6-8   Normal winds          Normal movement
 9     Strong breeze         Movement is 1 1/3 normal (normal plus 1/3 extra)
 10    High winds            Movement is 1 1/2 normal (normal plus 1/2 extra)
 11    Extreme high winds    Double normal movement*
 12    Gale              Galleys have an 80% chance of sinking; triple normal
                             movement in random direction rolling 1d6:
                                  1=    desired direction
                                  2=    60'  starboard
                                  3=    120' starboard
                                  4=    180' (reverse)
                                  5=    120' port
                                  6=    60'  port

  * May  take  on  water (unsailed vessel chance 20%,  sailed vessel chance
10%).  Taking on water reduces speed by 1/3 until  docking  and  repair  are

  Generally, if  the  DM  wishes,  he  can  tell  the  player  to  make  an
appropriate ability check each round (for example,  a Strength check if  the
character  is battling high seas or a Constitution check against exhaustion)
to check on the character's ability to keep his head  above  water.  On  the
first  occasion  the character misses his ability check,  he slips under the
  When a character goes underwater- and cannot breathe there - he must hold
his breath immediately begin drowning.  He can hold his breath for a  number
of  rounds equal to his Constitution score if he does not exert himself;  if
he exerts himself (by fighting, panicking, etc.) he can only hold his breath
for a number of rounds equal to half his Constitution score.
  Once a  character can no longer hold his breath,  he begins to drown.  He
must make a triple normal Constitution check every round. The first check is
against his normal Constitution score;  each subsequent one is rolled with a
cumulative + 1 penalty to the die roll (+ 1 on the second check,  + 2 on the
third, etc.).
  Once he fails a check, he has drowned-but he is not dead yet. Although he
doesn't breathe, he will not be dead for a number of rounds equal to 1/3 his
Constitution  score  (found  up).  While he is in this state halfway between
life and death, if he can be healed by a character with the Healing skill or
by a character with healing magic, he will recover normally.
  If this happy event does not take place,  the character dies. However, he
still may be brought back to life by a raise dead st)ell.
  A character  who  reaches  the  stage  at which he is making Constitution
rolls to keep from drowning,  even if he is rescued and does not  drown,  is
considered exhausted, as described above under "Exhaustion."

By Ship
For waterborne traveling,  whether on a river or near  a  coast,  characters
move at the ship's rate.
  The ship's  movement rate given on the Sailing Vessels Table in Chapter 4
is for average sailing conditions.  If the voyage is favored by steady winds
and calm waters,  the speed may be increased to as much as double the number
given.  If the seas are rough or the vessel becalmed,  little or no progress
might be made in a day!
  When sailing  on seas or oceans,  there is a chance that the weather will
be unsuitable for travel. Roll 2d6 at the beginning of each day; a result of
2  indicates no wind and a roll of 12 indicates gales or fierce storms.  The
effects such weather has on ship travel are as follows:
  No Wind:  Sailing ships (vessels without rowers) may not  move  and  must
spend  the entire day in the same area (hex).  Rowed ships are never stopped
for lack of wind; they are unaffected by calm weather.
  Gale or  Storm:  Results  differ  whether the ship is a sailing ship or a
galley, as noted in the following:
  Sailing Ship: This type of ship may either sit (80% chance of sinking) or
run before the wind.  Movement rate is triple normal,  but it is in a random
direction as determined by the DM.  (The  DM  can  see  the  Water  Movement
Modification  Table for a handy direction generator if he or she wishes.) If
no coastline is reached during (triple) one day's movement,  the maneuver is
successful and the ship is safe (though likely to be far off course). If the
ship reaches a coastline or other shore, there is a 75 % chance that it will
be broken up trying to beach, and only a 25% chance that it will safely find
a sheltering harbor.  (DMs can modify that chance  if  they  are  using  the
optional  general  skills.  If  the ship's pilot can make his Piloting skill
check ,  the ship's chances of finding safety improve by 5 % for every point
by which he successfully makes his roll.)
  A Galley (Lifeboat, Raft): Any vessel without sails has only a 20% chance
of  weathering  a  gale;  failure results in the ship being swamped.  If the
galley is in sight of the coastline when the  gale  first  hits,  check  the
coastal  terrain.  If  it is clear terrain,  the galley may beach before the
storm hits.  For all other terrain, roll 1d6; a result of 1-2 indicates that
the pilot finds a safe beach or cove.  (As noted under sailing ship above, a
good pilot can improve the galley's chances if the DM is using  the  general
skills rules and the pilot can make his Piloting skill check.  Historically,
many galleys did have sails, but the galleys found in the D&D game do not.)
  If a DM prefer to add more complexity to his game world,  he can add some
optional water movement rules for traveling by water.  Roll 2d6 at the start
of  each  day  traveled by water and check the results on the Optional Water
Movement Modification Table.

Aerial Travel
  Characters traveling  on  aerial  mounts  can  move  72  miles  per  day.
Characters traveling on aerial devices (such as flying carpets) can move 120
miles per day.
  An encounter occurs when a player character or a PC party meets a person,
group, or monster that is not a member of his party. An encounter can result
in combat between the two sides,  conversation,  cooperation,  a  chase,  or
similar  event.  "Evasion"  is what happens when an encounter occurs and one
side wants to escape the other; that side turns and runs.
  In this  chapter,  standard  procedures  for game turns and game days are
discussed as well as what  happens  during  encounters  and  during  evasion
attempts. Surprise, reactions, and wandering monsters are also detailed.

Exploration and the

Game Turn

  When characters are exploring a specific area (such as a dungeon), moving
through heavily patrolled territory (such as an armed  camp  or  the  border
between  unmendly  nations),  or  traveling through a heavily populated zone
(such as a town),  the DM measures time in turns. Each  turn  represents  10
minutes;  customarily  characters  will travel at their normal speed (luting
game turns.  Each game turn follows  the  pattern  noted  in  the  Game Turn

  Game Turn Checklist
  1. Wandering Monsters:  If the wandering monsters check at the end of the
previous  turn was positive,  the monsters arrive now.  Under normal dungeon
conditions,  they appear 2d6 x 10' away in a direction of  the  DM's  choice
(see the "Encounter Distance" section,  below,  for more information). Leave
the Game Turn Checklist sequence and go to the Encounter  Checklist,  below.
See  "Handling  Wandering  Monsters,"  below,  for  more details on handling
wandering monsters.
  2. Actions:   The   caller  (or  each  player)  describes  party  actions
(movement, listening, searching, etc.).
  3. Results:  The  DM  describes  the  results  of  the party's actions as
  a. If PC actions result in a discovery (a secret door,  trap,  etc.), the
DM tells them what they found.
  b. If the PCs entered a new area,  the DM describes it so that the mapper
can map it.
  c. If an encounter occurs, skip to the Encounter Checklist.
  4. Wander Monsters Check: The DM checks for wandering monsters and random
encounters.  The DM rolls 1d6 every other turn to check for this. If this is
a dungeon and a "1" comes up on the die,  the PCs will  encounter  wandering
monsters  at  the  beginning  of  the next turn (other types of terrain have
different chances as shown on the Chance of Encounter Table, below).

Wandering Monsters
  When a  DM's  roll  indicates that wandering monsters will appear,  they
appear the following turn.  The DM rolls 2d6 and multiplies this  number  by
10; the result is the distance, in feet, at which the monsters are detected.
  This is the distance at which the DM first begins keeping track  of  them
and  the  distance  at  which  both  sides first have a chance to notice one
another.  Once the monsters appear,  the DM should switch to  the  Encounter
Checklist (on page 93) to determine what happens next.

Wandering Monsters Check
  Every two turns (not every turn), the DM rolls 1d6 to check for wandering
monsters  of random encounters.  In any setting where there is a possibility
of characters running across monsters (or strangers, wild animals, occupants
of  a dungeon that are not locked in a particular room or area,  or anything
else that might be moving freely through an area),  the  DM  can  check  for
wandering  monsters  and  random  encounters.  For a more in-depth method of
determining encounters,  the DM can check the Chance of Encounter Table  and
follow the instructions there for checking for encounters.
  If the DM's roll indicates that there will be an encounter,  the  DM  can
choose what sort of encounter it is (based on what he knows about the area),
or he can roll on the wandering monsters tables later in this chapter.
  Important Note:  If  the  Dungeon  Master  has  already decided to have a
prearranged encounter during this two-turn time period or if he his  decided
that  the characters will have no encounter during this period,  he can skip
the wandering monster roll.

Leaving the Game Turn
  The DM  continues  determining time in game turns and using the Game Turn
Checklist until he feels that the situation has changed  and  he  no  longer
needs  to  use  the  checklist.  For  example,  the characters might reach a
different  type  of  terrain  (the  comparatively  safe  outdoors   of   the
wilderness,  the  inn  where  they  plan  to spend the night,  the protected
caravan of their patron,  etc.), which will remove them from the normal game
turn sequence.

Travel and the  Game  Day

   Characters who  are  traveling overland or across open water and who are
not moving through dangerous territories should travel  in  game  days,  not
game turns. The rules for long-distance overland travel fates were presented
in Chapter 6,  and traveling by ship  rates  were  discussed  there  and  in
Chapter 4. Each game day spent traveling follows the Game Day Checklist.

Game Day Checklist
  1 .  Daybreak:  Party prepares for travel, studies spells, selects travel
  2. Getting Lost:  DM rolls 1d6 to see if party becomes lost.  If so,  see
the "Land Travel" section in Chapter 6.
  3. Daytime Wandering Monsters:  The DM makes a  1d6  roll  for  wandering
monsters  for  the  daytime  hours.  See  the  Chance of Encounter Table for
determining rolls.
  4. Encounter Results.  Based on the DM's die roll,  the  party  does  the
  a. If no wandering monsters are encountered, party concludes movement and
daylight period ends. Skip to Step 6.
  b. If  wandering  monsters are encountered,  the DM goes to the Encounter
Checklist,  below.  If the characters want to evade  or  pursue  encountered
monsters,  the  DM  goes  to the "Evasion and Pursuit" section later in this
  5 .  Resume Travel:  After the encounter, the party may resume travel. If
they are lost, the DM may (at his option) recheck the direction of travel.
  6. Nightfall: The party finds a place to stop and rest.
  7. Nighttime Wandering Monsters:  The DM makes a 1d12 roll for  wandering
monsters  for  the  nighttime  hours.  See the Chance of Encounter Table for
determining rolls.  If an encounter is indicated,  the DM chooses the  watch
during  which  it  occurs;  two  or three PC guards can be posted during the
night,  each taking an equal amount of time  guarding  the  party  while  on
watch. Continue with one of the following steps:
  a. If an encounter occurs, the DM uses the Encounter Checklist, below.
  b. If no encounter occurs, the DM proceeds to Step 9.
  8. Resume Rest:  Once any nighttime encounter is over,  the party returns
to rest.
  9. Night's End: Return to Step 1 above.


  An "encounter" occurs when two or more groups come within visual range of
one another and at least one group becomes aware of the other;  the term  is
also used to refer to incidents where PCs encounter traps.
  In most dungeon situations,  groups encountering other groups will become
aware  of  one another at or nearly at the same time.  In outdoor encounters
and a few dungeon encounters,  one group could become aware of the other and
not  reveal  itself,  allowing  the  group members to run away without being
detected,  spy on the other group, arrange to ambush the other group, and so
 Encounters keep  game  adventures  exciting  and  unpredictable  and  give
characters experience with different monster types.  No map and map key will
detail every creature,  monster,  or character that can be found on the area
represented  by a map,  of course,  but the use of random encounters can add
flavor to a campaign. Characters traveling through a jungle might run across
a tiger,  a giant python, or an even more fantastic monster; this monster is
present because it belongs to the type of terrain in question.
  In a dungeon,  roll for encounters once every two turns; in the outdoors,
roll once during the day and once (at a reduced chance) at night.  Check the
Chance of Encounter Table on the following page for when to roll and type of
  Some actions or items may increase the chance of wandering monsters. Loud
noises,  battles,  cursed items, or exploring special areas may allow the DM
to check for wandering monsters every turn-and possibly with higher chances

    Chance of Encounter Table

Type of Encounter/Roll Method
  Dungeon and city
  Roll 1d6  every  two  turns  when traveling and roll 1d12 once during the
night; on a 1, an encounter occurs
  Determine the type of terrain the party is in and toll  1d6  once  during
the  day and roll 1d12 once when camped at night;  consult the following for
encounter occurrences

Type of Terrain                                                Chance
Clear, grasslands, inhabited, or settled                           1
Forest, river, hills, barren lands, desert, ocean*, or aerial**   1-2
Swamp, jungle, or mountains                                       1-3
  * Ocean:  A roll of 1 indicates a normal ocean encounter.  A  roll  of  2
indicates no encounter unless the ship lands -at the end of the day;  if so,
a land encounter is used.
  ** Aerial encounters always use the Flyers  subtable  in  the  Wilderness
Encounter Table, regardless

(1-2, 1-3, or 1-4 on  1d6).
When the  DM  chooses  to have an encounter or when a die roll indicates an
encounter,  the DM must first  determine  or  randomly  roll  what  sort  of
encounter it is (an encounter with wandering monsters,  an NPC or a group of
NPCS,  or a trap).  Once that's determined,  he or she can run the encounter
according to the Encounter Checklist.

Encounter Distance
  Once the  Dungeon Master has determined that an encounter will take place
and has determined the relative conditions of surprise for the  two  groups,
he or she can decide how far apart the two parties ,  the when the encounter
takes place.
  When both parties are surprised,  the encounter distance is 1d4 x 10' (or
yards if outdoors)
  When one party is surprised,  the unsurprised party notices the surprised
party at the 1d4 x 10, (or yards) distance rolled; the surprised party won't
notice the unsurprised party until they reach half that distance.
 When neither party is surprised,  take a look at the  Encounter  Distances
Table.  When  the  type  of  terrain  (dungeon,  wilderness,  ocean/sea,  of
underwater) is known,  the DM can find out how far apart the groups are when
the encounter takes place.


  When an  unexpected encounter occurs both sides roll 1d6.  Each side that
rolls 1 or 2 is surprised. Possible results are as follows:
  Neither group  is surprised:  Both are aware of one another and can be on
the guard.
  Both Groups  Are Surprised:  Both groups lose one round due to the sudden
surprise and confusion;  once the round is over,  both groups  are  back  in
control of themselves, aware of one another, and on guard.
  One Group Is Surprised:  The unsurprised group can take advantage of  the
situation  by  evading  (automatic  success,  meaning  that  the other group
doesn't notice them at all), by attacking (the attacking group gets one free
round  of  attacks  before  the other group can respond),  or by other means
(leaving one or two members in the open to negotiate while the other members
hide in ambush, for example).

   When the DM determines that there will be an encounter, the DM should roll
1d6 once for each group-or he can let one of the players roll for the  PCs,
if  he  isn't  worried  about  tipping  them off that something is about to
happen.  A result of 1 or 2 means that the group in question  is  surprised
(though this may differ with some monsters;  see Chapter 14).  In any given
encounter,  one group could be surprised, or the other could, or both, or

 Encounter Distances Table

 Setting     Visibility       Encounter     Distance

 Dungeon*    Very good light  DM's choice   4d6  x  10'
 Dungeon*    Dim light**      DM's choice   2d6  x  10'
 Dungeon*    No light t       DM's choice   1d4  x  10'
 Wilderness  Clear daylight   DM's choice   4d6  x  10  yards
 Wilderness  Dim  light**     DM's choice   2d6  x  10  yards
 Wilderness  No  lightt       DM's choice   1d4  x  10  yards
 Ocean/sea   Clear daylight   Ship          300   yards
 Ocean/sea   Clear daylight   Monster       4d6  x  10  yards
 Ocean/sea   Dim  light**     Ship          120   yards
 Ocean/sea   Dim  light**     Monster       2d6  x  10  yards
 Ocean/sea   No  light t      Ship          40    yards
 Ocean/sea   No  light t      Monster       1d4  x  10  yards
 Undersea    Any light        DM's choice   1d6  x  10  yards

    * Or other indoor setting.
    * Or  full  darkness  with  infravision   used.
    t Or  very  poor  visibility  (heavy  snow  or  fog,  sandstorm,  etc.).

 Encounter Checklist

  1. Game Time:  Game time  switches  from  10-minute  turns  to  10-second
rounds.  The  DM does not have to inform the players of this until he or she
informs them that they are having an encounter.
  2. Surprise:  Both sides make appropriate rolls (1d6), the caller for the
PCs and the DM for the monsters.  Any  side  that  rolls  a  1  or  a  2  is
surprised.  To keep from alerting players than an encounter is imminent, the
DM can simply make both rolls him- or herself.
  3. Initiative:   If   one   side   is   surprised,  it  loses  initiative
automatically.  Otherwise, both sides make initiative rolls (1d6) to see who
moves, talks, or attacks first. The side that rolls higher goes first.
  4. Reactions:  If the DM does not know how the monsters will react to the
PCs,  the DM makes reaction rolls to determine their initial reactions.  See
the Monster Reactions Table under "Monster Reactions," below.
  5. Results:  The  DM  determines  the  results  of the party's actions as
  a. If  the  PCs  trigger  a  trap,  the  DM  applies the consequences.
  b. If both sides can speak, role-play the conversation until agreement is
reached, one side leaves, of a fight begins.
  c. If  the PCs run away,  make a morale check for the monsters or NPCs to
see if they give chase.  If so, use the pursuit and evasion rules later this
chapter to see if the PCs get away.
  d. If one or both sides attack,  play proceeds with the  Combat  Sequence
Checklist  (see  Chapter  8,  page  102;  start  with  Step  1  and roll for
initiative again).
  6. Encounter Ends:  After the encounter ends, begin play with a new turn.
Always assume that an encounter takes at least one full turn to resolve.

  When neither  group  is surprised,  both can act at th same time.  If one
decides to attack, the other can respond immediately. If one decides to run,
the other can give chase. Neither has an advantage over the other.
  The same applies when both groups are surprised.  Both groups are  caught
off  guard  and  lose  a  little  time  gathering their wits;  neither group
recovers before the other does.  Once they have  themselves  under  control,
they proceed as though neither group was surprised.
  When one group surprises the other, it can, if it chooses, take advantage
of the situation.  It might attack,  in which case it would get a free round
of attacks on the other group before the surprised group could  respond.  It
might  also try to sneak away,  in which case it would avoid the other group
automatically, with no chance for the other group to discover or catch it.

  When surprise  occurs,  the  DM  looks  at  the terrain and situation and
decides exactly what has happened,  describing this to the players, who must
work within the limits of the situation.

Monster  Reactions
  Just because  an encounter takes place does not mean that the two parties
automatically attack one another.  Either party may be in a mood  to  trade,
talk, exchange rumors and information, or even run away from one another.
  The player  characters  determine how they wish to react.  The DM decides
how the monsters and NPCs will react.  Descriptions of  some  monsters  (see
Chapter 14) will determine how they react, while the DM might wish a monster
to react a certain way.  When the DM wants to use a random reaction for  the
monster or NPC, he can consult the Monster Reactions Table.
  If the  DM  wants  to use the random Monster Reactions Table for the PCs'
encounters with monsters and NPCS,  he can roll 2d6 on the table  and  apply
the indicated results.  After the first round,  the DM should modify the 2d6
roll of the character talking for the  group  by  the  character's  Charisma
bonuses  or  penalties.  For the first reaction roll,  the DM shouldn't take
Charisma adjustments into account.

     Monster   Reactions    Table

    Roll 2d6    Monster Reaction
       2-3      Monster attacks
       4-6      Monster    is    aggressive    (growls,
                threatens); roll  again  in  one  round
                with a penalty of - 4  to  the  roll
       7-9      Monster  is  cautious;  roll  again  in
     10-11      Monster is   neutral;   roll   again  in
                oneround  with  a  bonus  of   +   4 to
                the roll
        12      Monster is friendly

  The DM can substitute any appropriate response  for  the  ones  described
above. A cowardly monster that rolls a 2-3, for instance, might flee instead
of attacking;  if it rolls a 4-6 instead, it might shy away from the PCs and
be ready to run.
  You may  need  to make more than one roll on the Monster Reactions Table.
When the result says to roll again in one round,  allow the PCs to react  to
the  monster.  If  they  do  something  to  get a specific reaction (such as
attack),  you won't need to roll again.  If they try to bluff, negotiate, or
befriend  the  creature,  roll again with the penalty or bonus listed on the

  The actions or words of the PCs may affect monsters' reactions.  Gestures
of friendship can give the PCs a bonus  at  the  DM's  discretion;  threats,
attempts  to  appear  menacing,  and  rudeness  can  give the PCs a penalty.
Adjustments for PC actions can range from a - 2 penalty to a + 2 bonus. If a
charismatic  character  is  speaking  for  his  entire  party  while another
character is silently glaring, bristling, and otherwise indicating that he's
a tough guy, the rudeness penalty could easily cancel the Charisma bonus.

  Don't roll more than three times. If by the third toll the monster hasn't
achieved a roll of 10 or better, it will decide to attack or leave.

Wandering Monster Encounters
  The tables  in  this  section  will  help  generate wandering monster and
random encounters. The Dungeon Encounters Levels 1-10 Tables give guidelines
for  the number of monsters that constitute an encounter." For instance,  an
entry might read "Hobgoblin 1d6"; in such a case, roll 1d6 for the number of
hobgoblins encountered by the player characters.
  In the  Wilderness  Encounters Table,  Castle Encounters Table,  and City
Encounters  Table,  no  such  number  guidelines  are  given.  Consult   the
description  of  the monster in question from Chapter 14;  the text with the
headline "Number of Monsters" gives handy guidelines for  selecting  numbers
of monsters for encounters.

  The tables  in  this section are general tables for an "average" dungeon.
The Dungeon Master is encouraged to make his own  specific  encounter  table
for  specific  dungeons  and settings in his campaign.  These can change the
frequency of monsters,  introduce new monsters of the DM's creation,  use  a
different type of die (d8, d12, etc.), and so on.
  When a random encounter is to occur, the DM first needs to know where the
characters are- dungeon or wilderness. "City" is treated just like any other
wilderness terrain.

  If the random encounter is in a  dungeon  setting,  go  to  the  "Dungeon
Encounters" section below.  If it's a wilderness (or a city) setting,  go to
the "Wilderness Encounters" section. Both start on page 95.

 Dungeon Encounters Level 1 Table      Dungeon Encounters Level 2 Table

  Roll                      Number     Roll                      Number
  1d20    Monster           Appearing  1d20    Monster           Appearing
     1    Bandit            1d6           1    Beetle,     Oil      1d6
     2    Beetle, Fire      1d6           2    Carrion Crawler      1
     3    Cave Locust       1d6           3    Ghoul                1d4
     4    Centipede, Giant  1d6           4    Gnoll                1d4
     5    Ghoul             1d2           5    Goblin               2d4
     6    Goblin            1d6           6    Gray       Ooze      1
     7-10 Human             1d3           7    Hobgoblin            1d6
     11   Kobold            2d6           8-10 Human                1d3
     12   Lizard, Gecko     1d2           11   Lizard,   Draco      1
     13   NPC Party         1 party       12   Lizard      Man      1d6
     14   Orc               1d6           13   Neanderthal          2d4
     15   Skeleton          1d10          14   NPC       Party      1 party
     16   Snake,Racer       1d2           15   Orc                  1d10
     17   Spicier, Crab     1d2           16   Skeleton             2d6
     18   Stirge            1d8           17   Snake, Pit Viper     1d6
     19   Troglodyte        1d3           18   Spider, Black Widow  1
     20   Zombie            1d3           19   Troglodyte           1d6
                                          20   Zombie               1d6

 Dungeon Encounters Level 3 Table     Dungeon Encounters Levels 4-5 Table
 Roll                       Number    Roll                      Number
 1d20   Monster            Appearing  1d20    Monster           Appearing
   1    Ape,      White        1d4       1    Blink Dog              1d4
   2    Beetle,   Tiger        1d4       2    Bugbear                1d6+4
   3    Bugbear                1d6       3    Caecilia               1
   4    Carrion Crawler        1d3       4    Cockatrice             1d2
   5    Dopplegangef           1d2       5    Displacer   Beast      1
   6    Gargoyle               1d3       6    Gargoyle               1d4+1
   7    Gelatinous Cube        1         7    Giant,       Hill      1
   8    Harpy                  1d3       8    Harpy                  1d4+1
   9-10 Human                  1d3       9    Hellhound (1d3 + 2 HD) 1d4
   11   Living Statue, Crystal 1d4       10   Hydra (5-headed)       1
   12   Lycanthrope, Wererat   1d6       11   Lycanthrope, Werewoff  1d4
   13   Medusa                 1         12   Medusa                 1d2
   14   NPC       party        1 party   13   Mummy                  1d3
   15   Ochre     jelly        1d10      14   NPC   Party            1
   16   Ogre                   1d3       15   Ochre jelly            1
   17   Shadow                 1d4       16   Rhagodessa             1d3
   18   Spider, Tarantella     1         17   Rust      Monster      1d2
   19   Thoul                  1d4       18   Scorpion,   Giant      1d3
   20   Wight                  1d3       19   Troll                  1d2                                                      ter.                                                                           ter.
                                         20   Wraith                 1d2

  Dungeon Encounters Levels 6-7 Table   Dungeon Encounters Levels 8-10 Table
  Roll                      Number      Roll                      Number
  1d20    Monster           Appearing   1d20    Monster           Appearing
   1      Basilisk              1d3      1      Basilisk            1d6
   2      Caecilia.             1d4      2      Black     Pudding   1
   3      Cockatrice            1d3      3      Chimera             1
   4      Giant,       Hill     1d2      4      Devil       Swine   1d2
   5      Giant,      Stone     1d2      5      Dragon              1d2
   6      Heilhound (5-7 HD)    1d4      6-7    Giant*              1d6
   7      Hydra (6-8 heads)     1        8      Golem*              1
   8      Lycanthrope*          1d3      9      Hydra (7-12 heads)  1
   9      Manticore             1        10     Living    Statue*   1d4+1
   10     Minotaur              1d4      11-12  Lycanthrope*        1d6+1
   11     Mummy                 1d4      13     NPC         Party   1
   12     NPC         Party     1        14     Purple       Worm   1
   13     Ochrejelly            1        15     Rust      Monster   1d4+1
   14     Ogre                  2d4      16     Salamander*         1d4
   15     Rust      Monster     1d3+1    17     Snake*              1d4+1
   16     Spectra               1d3      18     Spectra             1d3
   17     Spider, Tarantella    1d3      19     Spider*             1d4+1
   18     Salamander, Flame     1d2      20     Vampire             1d2
   19     Troll                 1d4+1
   20     Vampire               1
    * Either  weretiger  or  werebear.   * Select  any  one  type and modify
                                         the number  appearing for
                                         the level of monster

                      Chapter 7: Encounters and Evasions

                         Wilderness Encounters Table
    Roll         Clear,
    1d8          Grassland              Woods                 River                  Swamp
      1          Human                  Human                 Human                  Human
      2          Flyer                  Flyer                 Flyer                  Flyer
      3          Humanoid               Humanoid              Humanoid               Humanoid
      4          Animal                 Insect                Insect                 Swimmer
      5          Animal                 Unusual               Swimmer                Undead
      6          Unusual                Animal                Swimmer                Undead
      7          Dragon                 Animal                Animal                 Insect
      8          Insect                 Dragon                Dragon                 Dragon

   Roll          Barren,
    1d8          Mountain, Hill         Desert                Settled*
      1          Human                  Human                 Castle**
      2          Flyer                  Flyer                 Flyer
      3          Humanoid               Humanoid              Humanoid
      4          Unusual                Human                 Human
      5          Animal                 Animal                Human
      6          Humanoid               Dragon                Animal
      7          Dragon                 Undead                Animal
      8          Dragon                 Animal                Dragon
    1d8          City                   Ocean                 jungle
      1          Human                  Human                 Human
      2          Undead                 Flyer                 Flyer
      3          Humanoid               Swimmer               Insect
      4          Human                  Swimmer               Insect
      5          Human                  Swimmer               Humanoid
      6          Human                  Swimmer               Animal
      7          Human                  Swimmer               Animal
      8          Special               Dragon                Dragon
  * Any  inhabited  rural  area  is  "Settled."
    * Consult the "Special Castle Encounters" section below for Subtable: 10.
 Castle Encounters.
    t Consult the "Special City Encounters" section below for  Subtable:  11.
 City Encounters.

 Dungeon Encounters
  Determine the dungeon level where the encounter takes place.  Consult the
table corresponding to that dungeon level.  Roll 1d20 on that table  to  see
what sort of monster is encountered.  Make whatever die roll is indicated in
the "Number Encountered" column to determine how many monsters of that  type
appear in this encounter. Consult Chapter 14 for details about that monster.
Play out the encounter as described earlier under "Encounters."

  In dungeon encounters,  first  determine  the  dungeon  level  where  the
encounter  is  taking  place.  The DM or writer who created the dungeon will
normally have designated it "Level 1," "Level 2" or some such. If he or she
hasn't,  look  at the types of monsters found on the dungeon level;  if they
tend to average 1 experience level of HD,  it's probably level  1;  if  they
tend to average 3 experience levels or HD, it's probably level 3; and so on.
  Below are tables for several different dungeon levels.  Roll 1d20 on  the
table  that  corresponds  to the dungeon level in question.  The 1d20 result
will identify a type  of  monster.  Now  roll  the  dice  indicated  in  the
right-hand  column to determine how many of that monster are involved in the
  For example,  on the first level of a dungeon, the DM tolls an encounter.
He consults the Dungeon Encounters Level 1 Table below and rolls  1d20;  the
result is a 14. According to the table, the encounter will be with orcs. The
die roll in the "Number Appearing" column of the table is 1d6;  the DM rolls
1d6  and gets a 4.  This means that the encounter is with four orcs.  The DM
can now consult the description of orcs in Chapter 14 to see what  they  do,
how tough they are, how they behave, and so forth.
  The monsters listed in the Dungeon Encounters Tables are different levels
of  difficulty,  depending  on the level of dungeon they are typically found
in,  Later in this book is a Section on dungeon design  that  discusses  the
difference in difficulty between different levels of a dungeon.

             Wilderness Encounters

  Find the type of terrain on the Wilderness  Encounters  Table  where  the
encounter  is  taking place.  Roll 1d8 and check the column corresponding to
the terrain type.  The result tells which subtable to consult.  Go  to  that
subtable and roll 1d12 on the column corresponding to the terrain type where
the encounter is taking place. The result tells which monster the characters
  See Chapter  14  for  details  about  that  monster,  including  how many
monsters appear.  Play out the encounter as described under "Encounters"  on
page 91, using the visibility, distance, and surprise factors.

  In a wilderness encounter,  the type of terrain plays an important  part.
On  the  Wilderness Encounters Table,  roll 1d8 and check the result against
the column corresponding to the correct terrain type.  This will direct  you
to one of eleven subtables, nine of which immediately follow the main table.
The other two subtables are presented with explanatory text in the  sections
that follow the the ninth subtable.
  Roll 1d12 on the subtable indicated by the previous toll.  Check the 1d12
result against the column corresponding to the terrain type.
  Example: The player  characters  are  traveling  through  heavily  wooded
mountains.  The  DM decides that this is more mountainous terrain than it is
wooded.  She rolls on the Wilderness Encounters Table;  her 1d8 roll is a 6.
On the "Barren,  Mountain,  Hill" column, a humanoid encounter is indicated.
The DM looks at the humanoid subtable,  rolls 1d12,  and checks  the  result
against the column for "Barren, Mountain, Hill." The DM's roll is a 2, which
indicates a cloud giant for the PCs' encounter.
  Once the  encountered  monster is determined,  The Chapter 14 for details
about  that  monster.  (Chapter  14  will  describe  the  monster's  habits,
activities, number likely to appear, and so forth.

  With all the information in hand,  the encounter with the PCs is ready to
play out.  Consult the Encounter Checklist and the Encounter Distances Table
for other factors regarding encounters.

Special   Castle   Encounters
  The DM  can  determine  character  class  of castle inhabitants either by
using the Subtable:  10. Castle Encounters (page 98) or by selecting classes
as appropriate.  If the table is to be used,  roll a 1d6; if the result is a
3,  roll 1d6 again and see which of the demihuman races is the  result.  For
human owners of a castle, regardless of class, roll 1d20 + 8 for the owner's
level. Demihumans' levels are listed in the table.
  If the DM  has  not  already  determined  what  the  castle  inhabitants'
re-actions  will  be  to  player characters,  he or she can either check the
Monster Reactions Table given earlier in this chapter or  check  the  Castle
Reactions Table on page 99.  The "Reaction" columns of the table assume that
the party does nothing to either arouse suspicion or to inspire  trust;  the
DM  can  certainly adjust the die roll if the PCs' actions toward the castle
inhabitants warrant the modification.
  Remember, too,  that some high-level PC fighters may have  the  right  of
sanctuary at castles in the campaign;  a PC with that fight who declares his
name and title will normally receive a "Friendly" result.
  Note that  the  men listed are only part of the castle owner's forces and
are simply the unit sent out after  annoying  travelers;  the  rest  of  the
castle's  forces  should  include  other  men and might even include special
  Pursue: The men will chase the party off the lord's land  or  charge  the
characters  a  toll.  This  sum may vary depending on the personality of the
lord,  how wealthy the characters look,  and other factors.  Refusing to pay
may result in the PCs being arrested,  run off the land, or attacked. The DM
can ignore this result if the castle  owner  is  Lawful  and  the  PCs  have
behaved well.
  Ignore: No attempt is made to aid or hinder the party.

     Subtable: 1. Animals
   Roll    Clear,
   1d12    Grassland                Woods
   1       Animal      Herd         Animal      Herd
   2       Baboon,     Rock         Boar
   3       Boar                     Cat,     Panther
   4       Cat, Lion                Cat, Tiger
   5       Elephant                 Lizard,    Gecko
   6       Ferret,    Giant         Lizard,    Draco
   7       Horse,    Riding         Lizard,  Tuatara
   8       Lizard,    Draco         Snake,     Viper
   9       Mule                     Spider,     Crab
   10      Snake,     Viper         Unicorn
   11      Snake,   Rattler         Wolf
   12      Weasel,    Giant         Wolf, Dire

   Roll                                    Barren,
   1d12  River                   Mountain / Hill
   1     Animal     Herd         Animal Herd
   2     Boar                    Ape,Snow
   3     Cat,    Panther         Ape, White
   4     Cat,      Tiger         Baboon, Rock
   5     Crab,     Giant         Bear, Cave
   6     Crocodile               Bear, Grizzly
   7     Crocodile, Large        Cat, Mountain Lion
   8     Fish,      Rock         Mule
   9     Leech,    Giant         Snake, Viper
   10    Rat,      Giant         Snake, Rattler
   11    Shrew,    Giant         Wolf
   12    Toad,     Giant         Wolf, Dire

   1d12    Desert                Settled
   1       Animal      Herd      Animal      Herd
   2       Animal      Herd      Animal      Herd
   3       Camel                 Boar
   4       Camel                 Cat, Tiger
   5       Cat, Lion             Ferret,    Giant
   6       Cat, Lion             Horse,    Riding
   7       Lizard,    Gecko      Rat, Giant
   8       Lizard,  Tuatara      Shrew,     Giant
   9       Snake,     Viper      Snake,     Racer
   10      Snake,   Rattler      Snake,     Viper
   11      Spider,    Widow      Spider,Tarantella
   12      Spider, Tarantella    Wolf

   1d12      Jungle                  Prehistoric
   1         Animal     Herd         Bear, Cave
   2         Boar                    Cat, Sabretooth
   3         Cat,    Panther         Crocodile, Giant
   4         Lizard,   Draco         Elephant, Mastodon
   5         Lizard,   Gecko         Pterodactyl
   6         Lizard, Horned          Pteranondon
   7         Rat,      Giant         Snake, Racer
   8         Shrew,    Giant         Snake, Viper
   9         Snake,    Viper         Triceratops
   10        Snake, Python           Triceratops
   11        Snake, Spitting         Tyrannosaurus
   12        Spider,    Crab         Wolf, Dire

   Subtable:       2.       Humanoids

   Roll    Clear,
   1d12    Grassland               Woods
   1       Bugbear                 Bugbear
   2       Elf                     Cyclops
   3       Giant,      Hill        Dryad
   4       Gnoll                   Elf
   5       Goblin                  Giant,  Hill
   6       Halfling                Gnoll
   7       Hobgoblin               Goblin
   8       Ogre                    Hobgoblin
   9       Orc                     Ogre
   10      Pixie                   Orc
   11      Thoul                   Thoul
   12      Troll                   Troll

   Roll    Barren,
   1d12    Mountain, Hill          Desert
   1       Dwarf                   Giant, Fire
   2       Giant, Cloud            Goblin
   3       Giant, Frost            Hobgoblin
   4       Giant,  Hill            Hobgoblin
   5       Giant, Stone            Ogre
   6       Giant, Storm            Ogre
   7       Gnome                   Ogre
   8       Goblin                  Orc
   9       Kobold                  Orc
   10      Orc                     Pixie
   11      Troglodyte              Sprite
   12      Troll                   Thoul

   Roll    City  and
   1d12    Inhabited               Jungle
   1       Dwarf                   Bugbear
   2       Elf                     Cyclops
   3       Giant,     Hill         Elf
   4       Gnome                   Giant, Fire
   5       Gnoll                   Giant, Hill
   6       Goblin                  Gnoll
   7       Halting                 Goblin
   8       Hobgoblin               Lizard Man
   9       Ogre                    Ogre
   10      Orc                     Orc
   11      Pixie                   Troglodyte
   12      Sprite                  Troll

   1d12    River                   Swamp
   1       Bugbear                 Gnoll
   2       Elf                     Goblin
   3       Gnoll                   Hobgoblin
   4       Hobgoblin               Lizard Man
   5       Lizard      Man         Lizard Man
   6       Lizard      Man         Lizard Man
   7       Nixie                   Nixie
   8       Ogre                    Ogre
   9       Orc                     Orc
   10      Sprite                  Troglodyte
   11      Thoul                   Troll
   12      Troll                   Troll

         Friendly: The castle owner invites the party to stay. (This is not
necessarily actual friendship; some NPCs may have evil intentions toward the
unsuspecting party ... City Encounters (on page 98).

Special City Encounters
         On the Wilderness Encounters Table, the entry for city terrain has
a "Special" result.  Whenever a special result is rolled,  the DM can either
roll again and use one of the more common results,  or he or she can roll on
the Subtable: 11.

    To use this subtable,  roll 1d8 to find the section of the subtable  to
be used (the subtable is split into sections marked 1-8).  Then roll 1d20 to
find out what sort of person the PCs encounter.

  The Subtable:  11.  City  Encounters  indicates  only   the   encountered
character's  profession  not his level or intent.  The DM must decide how to
use this type of character in the encounter.
  For example,  an  Alchemist might wish to hire the characters to find him
some rare ingredients;  an Assassin might be stalking  one  of  the  PCs;  a
Brewer  could  have  set  up  a  drinking contest to determine whose beer is
better-his own or a competitor's-and tries to persuade a PC to  participate;
and  lastly,  a  Government  Official  could  be  seeking  revenge against a
high-ranking thief who is blackmailing him, and he might try to persuade the
PCs to help him.
  You can also use the Subtable: City Encounters when trying to think of an
interesting  location  for  an encounter.  Translate the name of the type of
character to the appropriate type of building or site-for instance,  "Judge"
would become "Courtroom," while "Undertaker" would become "Cemetery."

  Wandering Monsters and High-Level PCs
  In low-level play,  wandering monsters help make adventures  interesting,
keep  the characters alert,  and give the characters experience in dangerous
situations.  Once the characters are  very  experienced,  though,  wandering
monsters  no longer serve this last purpose.  If the DM runs them exactly as
they come up on the Encounter Tables, monster encounters will be nothing but
boring  delays or (at best) comic relief.  Therefore,  when the PCs are high
level, the DM needs to think briefly about every random encounter and decide
how the PCs' experience levels affect things. He or she should discard (that
is, not play) encounters that would be nothing but dull combats and keep the
encounters that have other purposes. To that end there are essentially three
types of encounters the DM can consider running.
  For example,  there's  nothing wrong with comic relief encounters as long
as they're deliberately run with  that  intent.  For  example,  a  group  of
well-played bugbears blundering into a group of high-level PCs can provide a
lot of humor.  But recurring encounters along the same lines will,  after a
short while, wear very thin.
  Then, there are  tactical  encounters.  A  large  group  of  lower  level
monsters who have a superior knowledge of the terrain,  good tactics, traps,
and the advantage of surprise can challenge (of at least  delay)  high-level
  There are also respectful avoidance  encounters.  Word  of  a  high-level
party's  power  will  certainly  circulate  in  any dungeon or wilderness
setting,  along  with  descriptions  of  the  individuals  involved;  weaker
monsters will watch for and avoid these dangerous characters.  When surprise
encounters  occur,  the  low-level  monsters  will  automatically   opt   to
preferably  evade  the PCs or to talk with them;  such monsters would attack
the PCs only under the rarest situations.  Respectful  avoidance  encounters
help  reinforce  to  the  PCs  that  they're  more  powerful and influential
characters now-and it's a boost to their egos.
  To reflect the powers of high-level characters, the DM may also alter the
monsters' morale (described in the next chapter). If the PCs demonstrate
fierce magic or combat abilities,  the monsters might decide  to
retreat or reconsider their position.

                   Chapter 7: Encounters and Evasion

                         Subtable:     3.     Humans*

   Roll      Clear,       Woods       River          Hill          Desert
   1d12      Grassland
   1         Adventurer   Adventurer  Adventurer     Adventurer    Adventurer
   2         Bandit       Bandit      Bandit         Bandit        Cleric
   3         Bandit       Bandit      Buccaneer      Berserker     Dervish
   4         Berserker    Berserker   Buccaneer      Berserker     Dervish
   5         Brigand      Brigand     Buccaneer      Brigand       Fighter
   6         Cleric       Brigand     Cleric         Caveman       Magic-User
   7         Fighter      Brigand     Cleric         Caveman       Merchant
   8         Magic-User   Cleric      Fighter        Caveman       Noble
   9         Merchant     Fighter     Magic-User     Cleric        Nomad
   10        Merchant     Magic-User  Merchant       Fighter       Nomad
   11        Noble        Merchant    Merchant       Magic-User    Nomad
   12        Nomad        NPC Party   NPC Party      Merchant      Nomad

   Roll      Settled      Ocean       Jungle         Swamp
   1         Acolyte      Adventurer  Adventurer     Adventurer
   2         Adventurer   Buccaneer   Adventurer     Adventurer
   3         Bandit       Buccaneer   Bandit         Bandit
   4         Bandit       Merchant    Berserker      Bandit
   5         Cleric       Merchant    Brigand        Berserker
   6         Fighter      Merchant    Brigand        Brigand
   7         Magic-User   Merchant    Brigand        Cleric
   8         Merchant     Merchant    Caveman        Fighter
   9         Noble        Pirate      Cleric         Magic-User
   10        NPC Party    Pirate      Fighter        Merchant
   11        Trader       Pirate      Magic-User     NPC     Party
   12        Veteran      Pirate      Merchant       Trader

    * When an NPC party is indicated,  the encounter is with one character of
name  level  of  greater,  plus 2-20 low-level apprentices.  When a specific
level title is given, the encounter is with 6-15 individuals of that level.

   Subtable: 4. Flyers
   Roll    Mountain              Desert               All     Other
     1     Bee,     Giant        Gargoyle             Bee,    Giant
     2     Gargoyle              Gargoyle             Cockatfice
     3     Griffon               Griffon              Gargoyle
     4     Harpy                 Harpy                Griffon
     5     Hippogrff             Insect    Swarm      Hippogriff
     6     Insect     Swarm      Lizard,   Draco      Lizard, Draco
     7     Manticore             Manticore            Pegasus
     8     Pegasus               Manticore            Pixie
     9     Robber     Fly        Manticore            Robber Fly
     10    Roc, Small            Roc, Small           Roc,    Small
     11    Roc, Large            Roc, Large           Sprite  Large
     12    Roc, Giant            Roc, Giant           Stirge  Giant
    Subtable:    5.    Swimmers
  Roll       River /  Lake        Ocean                Swamp
     1       Crab,     Giant      Giant,     Storm     Crab, Giant
     2       Crocodile            Hydra,       Sea     Crocodile
     3       Crocodile, Large     Hydra,       Sea     Crocodile
     4       Fish, Giant Bass     Hydra,       Sea     Crocodile, Large
     5       Fish,    Sturgeon    Merman               Crocodile, Large
     6       Leech,    Giant      Snake,Sea            Leech, Giant
     7       Leech,    Giant      Snake,Sea            Leech, Giant
     8       Lizard    Man        Snake,Sea            Leech, Giant
     9       Lizard    Man        Snake,Sea            Lizard Man
     10      Merman               Termite, Water       Lizard Man
     11      Nixie                Termite, Water       Termite, Water
     12      Termite,    Water    Termite, Water       Termite, Water

   Subtable: 6. Dragons   Subtable: 7. Insects        Subtable:  8. Undead
   Roll                   Roll                        Roll
   1d12*                  1d12                        1d12
   1 Chimera              1   Ant,    Giant           I  Ghoul
   2 Dragon, Black        2   Bee,    Giant           2  Ghoul
   3 Dragon,  Blue        3   Beetle,  Fire           3  Ghoul
   4 Dragon,  Gold        4   Beetle,   Oil           4  Mummy
   5 Dragon, Green        5   Beetle, Tiger           5  Skeleton
   6 Dragon,   Red        6   Insect  Swarm           6  Skeleton
   7 Dragon, White        7   Rhagodessa              7  Spectre
   8 Hydra                8   Robber    Fly           8  Wight
   9 Hydra                9   Scorpion, Giant         9  Wraith
   10 Wyvern              10  Spider,  Black   Widow  10 Vampire
   11 Salamander, Flame   11  Spider,  Crab           11 Zombie
   12 Salamander, Frost   12  Spider, Tarantella      12 Zombie

   At sea, roll 1d10.

       Subtable: 9.Unusual          Subtable: 10.  Castle Encounters
       Roll                         Roll
       1d12                         1d6    Owner of the Castle     Level
       1   Basilisk                   1    Cleric                  1d20+8
       2   Blink   Dog                2    Magic-User              1d20+8
       3   Centaur                    3    Demihuman
       4   Displacer Beast                 Roll 1d6 again:
       5   Gorgon                                1-2 Dwarf         12th
       6   Lycanthrope,                          3-4 Elf           10th
           Werebear                              5-6 Halfling      8th
       7   Lycanthrope,             4-6    Fighter                 1d20+8
           Werebear                 1d6    Owner's Alignment
       8   Lycanthrope, Wererat       1    Chaotic
       9   Lycanthrope,             2-4    Neutral
           Weretiger                5-6    Lawful
       10  Lycanthrope,
       11  Medusa
       12  Treant

                      Chapter 7: Encounters and Evasion

  It's a mistake simply to  change  the  wandering  monster  encounter
tables so that only tough monsters appear.  First because it's not very
logical (the PCs will wonder where all the lesser creatures went),  and
second because it's frustrating to the PCs (who will assume, correctly,
that it doesn't matter how strong they become because the DM will  just
increase  the  power  of  every  monster in the world to compensate for
  None of this means that the DM should entirely get rid of encounters
with less-powerful monsters.  For instance,  when a weak monster serves
as  a clue to a dangerous but an as yet undiscovered situation or is an
interesting and  entertaining  role-playing  opportunity,  the  monster
serves a definite purpose and should be kept.

Evasion and Pursuit
  When two groups encounter one another,  one or both  may  decide  to
evade  the other,  or one group may decide to pursue the evading group.
This means that,  as soon as the groups spot one another,  the  evading
group turns and runs, trying to get out of the pursuers' sight. Time is
measured in rounds for  as long as the chase occurs.  The side  running
away  is  "evading," and the other chasing is "in pursuit." The Evasion
Checklist on page  99  gives  a  step-by-step  procedure  for  handling
evasion and pursuit.

  The terms used in the Evasion Checklist are defined in the following
subsections and are presented in the order that they are most likely to

  Contact occurs when the two parties encounter one  another,  as  per
the  earlier encounter rules.  They do not have to be near one another,
only within visual range.  When the encounter occurs, the DM determines
the encounter distance and the parties' relative states of surprise.

Decision to Evade
  In an  encounter,  if one group surprises another (but is not itself
surprised),  it may automatically evade the surprised group by  turning
away and moving off at another direction at running speed  for  one  round.
The  nonsurprised group has enough time to get
cleat of the area before the surprised group  can  recover  enough  to  give
chase. In fact, if the surprised party didn't detect the nonsurprised party,
the surprised party will never  know  that  it  has  just  been  through  an

  Subtable:  11.  City  Encounters *
 1d20  Section 1            Section 2         Section 3
    1  Alchemist            Boatman/Gondolier Construction Worker
    2  Animal Trainer       Bodyguard         Cooper
    3  Apothecary           Bonecarver        Craft Guildsman
    4  Archaeologist        Bootmaker         Dairy Worker
    5  Armorer              Bowyer            Dancer
    6  Artist/Sculptor      Brewer            Diplomat
    7  Assassin             Broommaker        Diver
    8  Astrologer           Butcher           Docksman/Wharfsman
    9  Astronomer           Candlemaker       Doctor/Dentist
   10  Athlete              Caravan Master    Druid       Adventurer
   11  Baker                Carpenter         Dwarf       Adventurer
   12  Banker               Carter            Elf Adventurer
   13  Barber               Chandler          Entertainer
   14  Bartender            Charcoalmaker     Farmer
   15  Basketweaver         Chef              Ferryman
   16  Bazaar Merchant      Chemist           Fighter Adventurer
   17  Beekeepef            Church/Temple
                              Employee        Fighter, Mercenary
   18  Beggar               Cleric Adventurer Fisherman
   19  Blacksmith           Coachman          Fletcher
   20  Boardinghouse Keeper Constable         Foundry Worker

 1d20   Section 4            Section 5                 Section 6
    1   Freighter            Jailor                    Merchant
    2   Furnituremaker       Jeweler                   Merchants' Guild
    3   Furrier              Judge                     Metaismith
    4   Gambler              Juggler/Mime              Military Officer
    5   Gemcutter            Kennel Keeper             Miller
    6   Gentleman/Lady       Laborer                   Monastery Worker
    7   Geologist            Land Officer              Moneylender
    8   Glassblower          Lawyer                    Mystic Adventurer
    9   Goldsmith            Leatherworker             Nobleman/Noblewoman
    10  Government Official  Lighthouse Keeper         Peasant
    11  Graveyard Keeper     Locksmith                 Peddler
    12  Guardsman            Logger                    Politician
    13  Guide                Lumberyard Worker         Potter
    i4  Guild    Officer     Madame                    Public Bathkeeper
    15  Halting Adventurer   Madman                    Ropemaker
    16  Harlot               Magic-User Adventurer     Royalty
    17  Healer               Magic-User Guild Officer  Sage
    18  Herbalist            Majordomo                 Sailor, Captain
    19  Hunter               Mason                     Sailor, Common
    20  Innkeeper            Mayor                     Saloonkeeper

 1d20   Section 7            Section 8
    1   Schoolteacher        Thief Adventurer
    2   Scribe               Thieves' Guild Officer
    3   Serf                 Town Drunk
    4   Servant, Hired       Town Hall Employee
    5   Servant, Indentured  Trading Post Employee
    6   Shipwright           Translator
    7   Shoemaker            Treasurer
    8   Singer               Undertaker
    9   Slave                Vagrant
    10  Smuggler             Vigilante
    11  Soapmaker            Warehouse Worker
    12  Spy                  Watchman
    13  Stablekeepef         Watering-Hole Worker
    14  Stoneworker          Weaver
    15  Tailor               Welldigger
    16  Tanner               Wellkeeper
    17  Tavernkeeper         Wheelwright
    18  Tax     Assessor     Winemaker
    19  Taxidermist          Woodcarver
    20  Thatcher             Woodcutter

  * First  roll  1d8  to  determine which section to use for the encounter;
then roll 1d20 in that  section  to  find  the  city-dweller  used  for  the

                Castle Reactions Table
                                         Reaction (Roll 1d6)
  Owner's Class  Patrol Type/Size        Pursue  Ignore  Friendly
  Fighter        2-12 heavy horsemen       1-3     4-5      6
  Magic-User     2-12 heavy footmen         1      2-5      6
  Cleric         2-12 medium horsemen      1-2     3-4     5-6
  Demihuman      2-12 demihumans            1      2-5      6

 Decision to Pursue
 If neither party in an encounter was surprised and one party took  off  in
an  attempt  to  evade,  the  other party must now decide whether to pursue.
Player characters decide for  their  own  reasons  whether  to  give  chase.
Monsters  and  NPCs make a morale check (described in the next chapter).  If
the NPC group contains different types of monsters,  use the morale check of
the  monster  that leads the group.  If the monsters/ NPCs successfully make
the morale check,  they give chase; if they fail, they let the PCs go and do
not pursue.

Attempt to Evade
 If neither group was surprised (or if both were) and one group  wishes  to
try evasion,  the DM rolls on the Evasion Table.  Find the size of the party
and compare it to the  number  of  creatures  encountered.  This  gives  the
percentage  chance  that  the  evasion will be successful.  If a large party
breaks up into small parties,  roll for each small party separately; in this
way, some parties could evade while others could be caught.
 Example: A  PC  party of eight characters runs into a scouting party of 12
orcs.  Comparing the "Party Size 5-12" entry  to  the  "Number  of  Monsters
Encountered 9 + " line,  the PCs have a 70% chance to evade the orcs. The DM
rolls a d100; on a 01-70, the PCs have successfully evaded the monsters, and
on a 71-100, the monsters successfully pursue the characters.
 The DM may adjust evasion chances for terrain,  differences in speed,  and
other factors as noted in the Evasion Table.  For example, woods might add a
25  %  chance to evade the monsters.  If monsters are familiar with an area,
they may be able to evade pursuers by rapidly turning corners, closing doors
behind them,  and so forth.  If one group can move at least twice as fast as
the other,  the faster group adjusts the chances of evasion by 2 5 %  in its
favor (that is,  if the faster group is pursuing,  it subtracts 25% from the
evaders' evasion chance,  and if the faster group is evading,  it adds 2 5 %
to  its evasion chance).  If the pursuing group has sent out small groups of
scouts,  evasion is made more difficult (a -10%  penalty is applied  to  the
evasion chance).
 Important Note: Regardless of the number of evasion penalties, the evading
group always has at least a 5% chance to evade.

Pursuit Continues
 If the first evasion attempt was unsuccessful,  the chase is on.  Movement
is carried out at running speed,  and time is measured in rounds.  As though
this  were combat,  each side rolls initiative once per round,  with the two
sides taking movement in initiative order. The chase will continue until one
of the following events occurs.
   The pursuers decide to give up the chase.  PCs decide whether or not  to
keep  chasing  for their own reasons;  monsters and NPCS,  on the otherhand,
make a new morale check every five rounds, with failure indicating that they
have given up the chase.
   The pursuers catch up to the evaders.  This can  happen  for  one  of  a
number  of  reasons.  If  the pursuers end one round having caught up to the
evaders (the DM should be keeping  track  of  their  relative  positions  to
determine  this)  and  then win initiative the next round,  they can attack,
forcing the evaders to turn and fight.  Or the evaders could run  into  some
obstacle that prevents them from continuing (a sheer cliff face,  a dead-end
hallway,  a magically locked door,  another party of enemies, and so on). In
these situations, combat usually results, though the evaders might choose to
surrender instead.
   The evaders escape.  There are a number of ways evaders can escape their
pursuers, including the following:
  * Evaders can,  if time permits, cast a spell that will allow them to get
away.  For  example,  they might cast a teleport spell to whisk the party to
safety;  a pass wall spell to get them somewhere inaccessible (followed by a
dispel magic to cancel the pass wall so that the pursuers cannot follow); or
a wall of iron spell to forestall pursuit long enough for the evaders to get
   * If possible,  evaders can run far enough ahead of the pursuers so that
they are temporarily out  of  vision  range  when  they  reach  an  area  of
difficult terrain (for example, thick woods, a long dungeon corridor riddled
with doors and side passages,  etc.). In such cases, the DM would again roil
on  the  Evasion  Table  for  the  evaders,  and success would mean that the
pursuers fail to follow their tracks.

Evasion Checklist
  1. Contact: The two parties encounter one another.
  2. Decision to Evade: One party decides to evade. If the evading party is
not  surprised  and  the other party is surprised,  evasion is automatically
successful; go to Step 6. If the other party is not surprised, go to Step 2.
  3. Decision to Pursue: The other party decides whether to pursue. The PCs
decide for themselves; monsters must make a morale check (defined in Chapter
8). On a successful morale check, the monsters give chase (go to Step 4). On
an unsuccessful morale check, the monsters do not chase (go to Step 6).
  4. Attempt  to  Evade:  The  DM  rolls  on the Evasion Table.  If the PCs
succeed, they have evaded the pursuers (go to Step 6). If they fail, pursuit
continues (Step 5).
  5 .Pursuit  Continues:  Movement  is  measured in rounds and conducted at
running speed;  both sides roll 1d6 for initiative once per round;  the side
with  the higher roll moves first each round.  The chase continues until one
of the following happens:
  a. The pursuers decide to give up.  Monsters must make a new morale check
every  five rounds and give up the chase if they fail the check.  Go to Step
  b. The evading party is caught by the pursuers (because of superior speed
or terrain obstacles).  Combat occurs; go to the Combat Checklist in Chapter
  c. The evading party escapes (by using magic spells or by finally  making
a   successful   evasion   roll  on  the  Evasion  Table  when  terrain  and
circumstances warrant). Go to Step 6.
  6. Regain Bearings: Evaders rest and determine where they now are.

Evasion Table
    Party   No. of Monsters Chance of  Condition             Adjustment
    Size      Encountered     Evasion  in Effect              to Chance
    1-4               1         50%    Wooded terrain           +25%
                    2-3         70%    Featureless terrain      -15%
                    4 +         90%    Pursuers are twice
    5-12            1-3         35%          as fast as evade   -25%
                    4-8         50%    Evaders are twice as
                    9 +         70%          fast as pursuers   +25%
    13-24           1-6         25%    Pursuers have
                    7-16        35%          scouts in place    -15%
                    17 +        50%
    25 +            1-10        10%

                    11-30       25%
                    31+         35%

    Evaders can  drop goods that the monsters might want;  a hungry monster
might want meal rations,  for example, while a vampire might be more content
with magical treasures.  In these cases, the DM rolls 1d6 if he or she feels
that the item dropped is indeed appealing to the  monster.  On  a  1-3,  the
monster  stops  to  consume (or retrieve) the proffered goods and is delayed
long enough for the evaders to get away.

Regain Bearings
  If the  evaders  do get away,  they need to rest from their exertions and
regain their bearings, that is, determine where they now are.
 For every round the chase lasted,  the evaders moved at full running speed
in directions chosen or assumed by the DM.  They didn't have time to consult
their map, and the DM should enforce this fact rigorously. If their movement
carried them into areas they already knew or had mapped,  they're fine. But,
at  the  DM's discretion,  their attempts at evasion could have carried them
deep into unknown territory (such as wilderness off  the  posted  roads  and
trails  or  unexplored  dungeon  levels),  and  now the characters are lost;
they'll have to explore their way back to the areas they know.

Evasion at Sea
  Ships meeting  at  sea  may  wish to evade one another.  To determine one
ship's chance of eluding another ship, consult the Ship Evasion Table.

  Ship Evasion Table
  Evading Ship's Speed    Chance of
  (per round)               Evasion
  Faster than pursuer         80%
  0'-30' slower               50%
  31'-60' slower              40%
  61'-90' slower              35%
  91'-120' slower             25%
  121'+ slower                10%

  If evasion is successful,  the pursuer loses sight of its prey and cannot
find it again or attack it that day. A ship can evade its pursuer by sailing
into a baffling archipelago, heading into a concealing fog, hiding itself in
a cove and ducking out once the pursuers are past, and so forth.
  If the evasion is not successful, the pursuer starts at a distance of 300
yards on a clear day.  (At the DM's discretion,  if the weather is impairing
vision, the pursuer may start closer.) The pursuing ship closes in.
  If the  pursuer's  speed  is  0-30' per round greater than the evader (or
actually slower),  the rate of  closing  is  10  yards  per  round.  If  the
difference  is  greater  than  30'  per round,  the pursuer closes in at its
normal movement rate.
  A slower vessel can close in on  a  faster  one  by  virtue  of  superior
sailing. If the evading ship missed its roll for evasion on the Ship Evasion
Table yet it is faster than the pursuing ship,  this means that the  pursuer
is sailing much more effectively than the evader.
  If the DM is using the optional general skills rules,  he or she  can  roll
the  two captains' Piloting skills in competition with one another.  If the
evading ship's captain rolls his skill better,  he evades pursuit;  if  the
pursuer rolls his better, he is able to close at the rates described above.

  Balancing Encounters
    When the  DM is uncertain as to whether an encounter is a fair challenge,
he or she can use the following system  to  make  that  determination.  This
optional rule gives a fairly accurate estimate of an encounter's impact on a
PCs' party.  Although this system is too involved to use  with  most  random
encounters,  it is useful for prepared encounters.  However, the DM is never
required to use it, and no other rules in the D&D game depend on its use.
The   system   makes   the   following   assumptions:
  * The PC party is composed of a normal mix of character classes  who  are
adequately equipped (with both gear and magic). Review any special abilities
of this encounter's monster; if it has abilities that no member of the party
can withstand, this encounter is too tough for them.
  * The monster is encountered in a normal melee. If the monster is waiting
in ambush or has special weapons or traps, the DM should treat the encounter
as one level tougher than the calculations show.
  * The monsters encountered are all the same type.  If a  mixed  group  of
monsters  is encountered,  make sure the total of the monsters' adjusted Hit
Dice falls within the desired range.  If the monsters are mounted,  add only
half the HD of the mount or rider, whichever is weaker, as additions to
the adjusted Hit Dice of the larger HD of the mount or rider.
    * The  Total  Party  Level-(TPL)  is  equivalent to the adjusted Hit Dice
value of the monster.  The TPL (described  and  calculated  below)  is  not
adjusted  for  magical  or  special  abilities.  If the DM believes special
abilities will play a major role in the encounter (for example,  the entire
party is made up of 18th level Spellcasters), the DM will need to add power
bonuses, as described below, to the TPL.
 * The party is at full strength.  The DM may adjust the TPL downward when
the party is not at full strength, as discussed below.

 Balancing Encounters Checklist

 Follow these three steps to determine the impact of an encounter:
 1. Determine the TPL (Total Party Level) of the PC party.
 2. Determine the Individual Adjusted Hit Dice of the Monsters.
 3. Determine the type of challenge faced.

 The terms used in the Balancing Encounters Checklist are defined here and
presented in the order of procedure.

Determine the TPL
 The Total Party Level (TPL) is the sum of the experience  levels  of  all
the  characters  in  the  party.  If  the  party consists of six 10th level
characters, the TPL is 60 (6 x 10).
 The DM  can adjust the TPL downward if the party is not at full strength.
If a character has  taken  at  least  I  hit  point  of  damage  for  every
experience  level  he  has (that is,  an 8th level character has taken 8 or
more hit points of damage),  treat him as being one experience  level  less
than he is.
 If he has taken at l@t 2 hit points of damage for every level he has  (in
this  case,  16  hit points of damage),  treat him as being two levels less
than he is.  For the TPL figure,  damage can reduce a character to no  less
than 1/2 (round down) his actual experience level.
 Example: An 8th level fighter with 40 hit points has taken 24 hit  points
in damage. This is 3 hit points for every experience level he has, so he is
rated as being a 5th level fighter (8 - 3 = 5) for the Total Party Level.

Determine the Individual Adjusted Hit Dice of the Monsters
 The Individual  Adjusted Hit Dice figure represents the monster's overall
effectiveness; it's a combination of its Hit Dice and special abilities.
 To find  the Individual Adjusted Hit Dice,  take the creature's Hit Dice.
If there are additions to the Hit Dice,  divide additional  hit  points  by
five,  round up, and add the result to the number of Hit Dice. For example,
a creature with 4 + 3 HD would count as 5 HD.

 If there are any subtractions from the Hit Dice,  subtract 1/2 HD  per  2
points  subtracted.  For example,  a creature with 1-1 HD would count as 1/2
  Then add half of the original Hit Dice figure for each power bonus. Power
bonuses include:
  * Each asterisk next to a monster's hit dice.
  * Special NPC abilities. For NPC parties, award a power bonus for each of
the  following  conditions:  1)  Everyone  in  the  party has + 2 weapons or
better;  and 2) There are Spellcasters in the party. (Take the highest level
of  spells that may be cast,  divide by two,  then divide that result by the
number of characters in the party,  rounding up;  the result  is  the  power
bonus added to the Individual Adjusted Hit Dice figure of every character in
the party.)
  Example: A  monster's  description  (from  Chapter 14) says "HD 9**." For
each asterisk, add in half the creature's basic HD; therefore, each asterisk
is  worth + 4 1/2 HD to this creature's rating,  and its Individual Adjusted
Hit Dice is 18.
  Example: An NPC party has four members;  one can cast spells  up  to  8th
level. The party's power bonus equals 1/4 (8 levels /2 /4 members = 1/4), or
1 power bonus to everyone in the party.
   If more  than  one  monster  is  present  in  the  encounter,  add their
Individual Adjusted Hit Dice figures together.

Determine the  Challenge
  The challenge of an encounter is expressed as  a  percentage  number.  To
find  that  number,  divide the combined Individual Adjusted Hit Dice of the
monsters by the TPL of the player character party .  Remember that a  number
such  as ".5" actually translates into percentile form as "50%," as shown in
the Challenge Percentage Table, found below.
   When a DM is using the balancing encounters optional  rule,  he  or  she
should  decide  which  level  of  challenge the encounter should be (see the
Encounter Challenge Table).  Then  the  DM  can  multiply  the  TPL  by  the
challenge  percentages (from the Challenge Percentable Table) to get a range
of Hit Dice.
   Divide the  highest  number obtained by the adjusted monster Hit Dice to
determine how many monsters should be present in the encounter.  The DM  can
use any fraction to make one monster a larger leader or can treat a fraction
as a youngster.
   When checking  the  impact  of  an encounter,  the DM can take the total
adjusted monster Hit Dice and divide  by  the  TPLX  100  to  determine  the
percentage. Then, he or she can look p the result in the challenge levels as
listed in the Encounter Challenge Table.

 Challenge Percentage Table    Encounter Challenge Table

 Number = Percentage           Adj. HD
    .1=    10%                 of   TPL        Challenge Level
    .2=    20%                 110% +          Extremely dangerous
    .3=    30%                 90-110%         Risky
    .4=    40%                 70-90%          Major
    .5=    50%                 50-70%          Challenging
    .6=    60%                 30-50%          Good fight
    .7=    70%                 20-30%          Distraction
    .8=    80%                 10-20%          Minor
    .9=    90%                 1-10%           Too easy
   1.0=   100%

 The terms presented in the Encounter Challenge Table are  defined  in  the
following text and are listed in the order of challenge.
  Extremely Dangerous:  This  encounter  is  a  killer.  If  the PCs do not
retreat or flee,  they will probably be defeated and may die.  This type  of
encounter  is  usually  used  for  "no  win" situations when the DM wants it
obvious that the players cannot beat the monsters in a fight.
  Risky: The  monsters  are  equal to the party and there is an even chance
that either side may win.  This encounter may require many  of  the  party's
resources, and some members may die. Risky encounters are sometimes used for
the grand finale to a quest.
 Major: This  type of encounter is usually used as the main fight or climax
of an adventure. If an adventure has little fighting, the DM may want
to include one or two of these encounters.
 Challenging: This encounter will challenge a party's might,  but the party
has the odds in its favor if the encou