ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА КОАПП
Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.



                 The Oxford Dictionary of New Words:

                A popular guide to words in the news

PREFACE Preface

   This is the first dictionary entirely devoted to new words and meanings to
   have been published by the Oxford University Press. It follows in the
   tradition of the Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary in attempting
   to record the history of some recent additions to the language, but,
   unlike the Supplement, it is necessarily very selective in the words,
   phrases, and meanings whose stories it sets out to tell and it stands as
   an independent work, unrelated (except in the resources it draws upon) to
   the Oxford English Dictionary.

   The aim of the Oxford Dictionary of New Words is to provide an informative
   and readable guide to about two thousand high-profile words and phrases
   which have been in the news during the past decade; rather than simply
   defining these words (as dictionaries of new words have tended to do in
   the past), it also explains their derivation and the events which brought
   them to prominence, illustrated by examples of their use in journalism and
   fiction. In order to do this, it draws on the published and unpublished
   resources of the Oxford English Dictionary, the research that is routinely
   carried out in preparing new entries for that work, and the word-files and
   databases of the Oxford Dictionary Department.

   What is a new word? This, of course, is a question which can never be
   answered satisfactorily, any more than one can answer the question "How
   long is a piece of string?" It is a commonplace to point out that the
   language is a constantly changing resource, growing in some areas and
   shrinking in others from day to day. The best one can hope to do in a book
   of this kind is to take a snapshot of the words and senses which seem to
   characterize our age and which a reader in fifty or a hundred years' time
   might be unable to understand fully (even if these words were entered in
   standard dictionaries) without a more expansive explanation of their
   social, political, or cultural context. For the purposes of this
   dictionary, a new word is any word, phrase, or meaning that came into
   popular use in English or enjoyed a vogue during the eighties and early
   nineties. It is a book which therefore necessarily deals with passing
   fashions: most, although probably not all, of the words and senses defined
   here will eventually find their way into the complete history of the
   language provided by the Oxford English Dictionary, but many will not be
   entered in smaller dictionaries for some time to come, if at all.

   It tends to be the case that "new" words turn out to be older than people
   expect them to be. This book is not limited to words and senses which
   entered the language for the first time during the eighties, nor even the
   seventies and eighties, because such a policy would mean excluding most of
   the words which ordinary speakers of English think of as new; instead, the
   deciding factor has been whether or not the general public was made aware
   of the word or sense during the eighties and early nineties. A few words
   included here actually entered the language as technical terms as long ago
   as the nineteenth century (for example, acid rain was first written about
   in the 1850s and the greenhouse effect was investigated in the late
   nineteenth century, although it may not have acquired this name until the
   1920s); many computing terms date from the late 1950s or early 1960s in
   technical usage. It was only (in the first case) the surge of interest in
   environmental issues and the sudden fashion for "green" concerns and (in
   the second) the boom in home and personal computing touching the lives of
   large numbers of people that brought these words into everyday vocabulary
   during the eighties.

   There is, of course, a main core of words defined here which did only
   appear for the first time in the eighties. There are even a few which
   arose in the nineties, for which there is as yet insufficient evidence to
   say whether they are likely to survive. Some new-words dictionaries in the
   past have limited themselves to words and senses which have not yet been
   entered in general dictionaries. The words treated in the Oxford
   Dictionary of New Words do not all fall into this category, for the
   reasons outlined above.  Approximately one-quarter of the main headwords
   here were included in the new words and senses added to the Oxford English
   Dictionary for its second edition in 1989; a small number of others were
   entered for the first time in the Concise Oxford Dictionary's eighth
   edition in 1990.

   The articles in this book relate to a wide range of different subject
   fields and spheres of interest, from environmentalism to rock music,
   politics to youth culture, technology to children's toys. Just as the
   subject coverage is inclusive, treating weighty and superficial topics as
   even-handedly as possible, so the coverage of different registers, or
   levels of use, of the language is intended to give equal weight to the
   formal, the informal, and examples of slang and colloquialism. This
   results in a higher proportion of informal and slang usage than would be
   found in a general dictionary, reflecting amongst other things the way in
   which awareness of register seems to be disappearing as writers
   increasingly use slang expressions in print without inverted commas or any
   other indication of their register. The only registers deliberately
   excluded are the highly literary or technical in cases where the
   vocabulary concerned had not gained any real popular exposure. Finally, a
   deliberate attempt was made to represent English as a world language, with
   new words and senses from US English accounting for a significant
   proportion of the entries, along with more occasional contributions from
   Australia, Canada, and other English-speaking countries. It is hoped that
   the resulting book will prove entertaining reading for English speakers of
   all ages and from all countries.


PREFACE.1 Acknowledgements


   I am grateful to John Simpson and Edmund Weiner, Co-Editors of the Oxford
   English Dictionary, for their help and advice throughout the writing of
   this book, and in particular for their constructive comments on the first
   draft of the text; to OED New Words editors Edith Bonner, Peter Gilliver,
   Danuta Padley, Bernadette Paton, Judith Pearsall, Michael Proffitt, and
   Anthony Waddell, on whose draft entries for the OED I based much of what I
   have written here; to Peter Gilliver, Simon Hunt, Veronica Hurst, and
   Judith Pearsall for help with corrections and additions to the text; to
   Melinda Babcock, Nancy Balz, Julie Bowdler, George Chowdharay-Best,
   Melissa Conway, Margaret Davies, Margery Fee, Ken Feinstein, Daphne
   Gilbert-Carter, Dorothy Hanks, Sally Hinkle, Sarah Hutchinson, Rita
   Keckeissen, Adriana Orr, and Jeffery Triggs for quotation and library
   research; and, last but not least, to Trish Stableford for giving up
   evenings and weekends to do the proofreading.

HOWTO How to Use this Dictionary

   This topic, with some modification, has been reproduced from the printed
   hard-copy version of this dictionary. Some display devices limit the
   effects of the highlighting techniques used in this book.  You can see
   what your display device provides by looking at the following examples:

       This is an example of large bold type
       This is an example of italic type
       This is an example of bold type

   The entries in this dictionary are of two types: full entries and
   cross-reference entries.


HOWTO.1 Full entries


   Full entries normally contain five sections:

   1.  Headword section

       The first paragraph of the entry, or headword section, gives

       °   the main headword in large bold type

           Where there are two different headwords which are spelt in the
           same way, or two distinct new meanings of the same word, these are
           distinguished by superior numbers after the headword.

       °   the part of speech, or grammatical category, of the word in italic
           type

           In this book, all the names of the parts of speech are written out
           in full. The ones used in the book are adjective, adverb,
           interjection, noun, pronoun, and verb There are also entries in
           this book for the word-forming elements (combining form, prefix,
           and suffix) and for abbreviations, which have abbreviation in the
           part-of-speech slot if they are pronounced letter by letter in
           speech (as is the case, for example, with BSE or PWA), but acronym
           if they are normally pronounced as words in their own right (Aids,
           NIMBY, PIN, etc.).

           When a new word or sense is used in more than one part of speech,
           the parts of speech are listed in the headword section of the
           entry and a separate definition section is given for each part of
           speech.

       °   other spellings of the headword (if any) follow the part of speech
           in bold type

       °   the subject area(s) to which the word relates are shown at the end
           of the headword section in parentheses (see "Subject Areas" in
           topic HOWTO.5).

           The subject areas are only intended to give a general guide to the
           field of use of a particular word or sense. In addition to the
           subject area, the defining section of the entry often begins with
           further explanation of the headword's application.

   2.  Definition section

       The definition section explains the meaning of the word and sometimes
       contains information about its register (the level or type of language
       in which it is used) or its more specific application in a particular
       field; it may also include phrases and derived forms of the headword
       (in bold type) or references to other entries.  References to other
       entries have been converted to hypertext links.

   3.  Etymology

       The third section of the entry begins a new paragraph and starts with
       the heading Etymology: This explains the origin and formation of the
       headword. Some words or phrases in this section may be in italic type,
       showing that they are the forms under discussion. Cross-references to
       other headwords in this book have been converted to hypertext links.

   4.  History and Usage

       The fourth section also begins a new paragraph and starts with the
       heading History and Usage. Here you will find a description of the
       circumstances under which the headword entered the language and came
       into popular use. In many cases this section also contains information
       about compounds and derived forms of the headword (as well as some
       other related terms), all listed in bold type, together with their
       definitions and histories. As elsewhere in the entry, cross-references
       to other headwords have been converted to hypertext links.

   5.  Illustrative quotations

       This final section of the entry begins a new paragraph and is indented
       approximately 5 character spaces from the left margin of the previous
       text line. These illustrative quotations are arranged in a single
       chronological sequence, even when they contain examples of a number of
       different forms. The illustrative quotations in this book do not
       include the earliest printed example in the Oxford Dictionaries
       word-file (as would be the case, for example, in the Oxford English
       Dictionary); instead, information about the date of the earliest
       quotations is given in the history and usage section of the entry and
       the illustrative quotations aim to give a representative sample of
       recent quotations from a range of sources. The sources quoted in this
       book represent English as a world language, including quotations from
       the UK, the US, Australia, Canada, India, South Africa, and other
       English-speaking countries. They are taken for the most part from
       works of fiction, newspapers, and popular magazines (avoiding wherever
       possible the more technical or academic sources in favour of the more
       popular and accessible). There are nearly two thousand quotations
       altogether, taken from five hundred different sources.

HOWTO.2 Cross-reference entries


   Because this book is designed to provide more information than the
   standard dictionary and to give an expansive account of the recent history
   of certain words and concepts, there is some grouping together of related
   pieces of information in a single article. This means that, in addition to
   the full entry, there is a need for cross-reference entries leading the
   reader from the normal alphabetical place of a word or phrase to the full
   entry in which it is discussed. Cross-reference entries are single-line
   entries containing only the headword (with a superior number if identical
   to some other headword), a subject area or areas to give some topical
   orientation, the word "see," and the headword under which the information
   can be found. For example:



       ESA       see environmentally


   A cross-reference entry is given only if there is a significant distance
   between the alphabetical places of the cross-referenced headword and the
   full entry in which it is mentioned. Thus the compounds and derived forms
   of a full headword are not given their own cross-reference entries because
   these would immediately follow the full entry; the same is true of the
   words which start with one of the common initial elements (such as eco- or
   Euro-) which have their own full entries listing many different formations
   in which they are used. On the other hand, the forms grouped together by
   their final element (for example, words ending in -friendly or -gate) are
   all entered as cross-reference entries in their normal alphabetical
   places.

HOWTO.3 Alphabetical order


   The full and cross-reference entries in this book are arranged in a single
   alphabetical sequence in letter-by-letter alphabetical order (that is,
   ignoring spaces, hyphens, and other punctuation which occurs within them).
   The following headwords, taken from the letter E, illustrate the point:

       E°
       Eэ
       e°
       earcon
       eco
       eco-
       ecobabble
       ecological
       ecu
       E-free
       EFTPOS
       enterprise culture
       enterprise zone
       E number

HOWTO.4 Pronunciation Symbols


   Pronunciation symbols which follow the headword in printed copy have been
   excluded from this soft-copy edition. In-line pronunciation symbols have
   been replaced with /--/.

HOWTO.5 Subject Areas


   The subject areas in parentheses at the end of the headword section of
   each entry indicate the broad subject field to which the headword relates.
   The subject areas used are:

   Drugs          words to do with drug use and abuse

   Environment    words to do with conservation, the environment, and green
                  politics

   Business World words to do with work, commerce, finance, and marketing

   Health and Fitness
                  words to do with conventional and complementary medicine,
                  personal fitness, exercise, and diet

   Lifestyle and Leisure
                  words to do with homes and interiors, fashion, the media,
                  entertainment, food and drink, and leisure activities in
                  general

   Music          words to do with music of all kinds (combined with Youth
                  Culture in entries concerned with pop and rock music)

   Politics       words to do with political events and issues at home and
                  abroad

   People and Society
                  words to do with social groupings and words for people with
                  particular characteristics; social issues, education, and
                  welfare

   Science and Technology
                  words to do with any branch of science in the public eye;
                  technical jargon that has entered the popular vocabulary

   War and Weaponry
                  words to do with the arms race or armed conflicts that have
                  been in the news

   Youth Culture  words which have entered the general vocabulary through
                  their use among young people

CONTENTS Table of Contents


 Title Page    TITLE

 Edition Notice    EDITION

 Notices    NOTICES

 Preface    PREFACE
 Acknowledgements    PREFACE.1

 How to Use this Dictionary    HOWTO
 Full entries    HOWTO.1
 Cross-reference entries    HOWTO.2
 Alphabetical order    HOWTO.3
 Pronunciation Symbols    HOWTO.4
 Subject Areas    HOWTO.5

 Table of Contents    CONTENTS

 A    1.0
 AAA    1.1
 abled...    1.2
 ace...    1.3
 Adam...    1.4
 aerobics    1.5
 affinity card...    1.6
 ageism    1.7
 AI...    1.8
 Alar...    1.9
 angel dust...    1.10
 Aqua Libra...    1.11
 arb...    1.12
 asset    1.13
 ATB...    1.14
 audio-animatronics...    1.15
 aware...    1.16
 Azeri...    1.17

 B    2.0
 babble...    2.1
 beat box...    2.2
 bhangra    2.3
 bicycle moto-cross...    2.4
 black economy...    2.5
 BMX.    2.6
 boardsailing...    2.7
 brat pack...    2.8
 BSE...    2.9
 B two (B2) bomber    2.10
 bubblehead...    2.11
 bypass    2.12

 C    3.0
 cable television...    3.1
 CD    3.2
 Ceefax...    3.3
 CFC    3.4
 chair...    3.5
 citizen-friendly    3.6
 claimant...    3.7
 cocooning...    3.8
 crack...    3.9
 CT    3.10
 cursor...    3.11
 cyberpunk...    3.12

 D    4.0
 dairy-free...    4.1
 ...    4.2
 ddI...    4.3
 deafened...    4.4
 diddy goth...    4.5
 doc, docu-...    4.6
 dramadoc...    4.7
 DTP    4.8
 dude...    4.9
 DVI    4.10
 dweeb    4.11
 dynamize    4.12

 E    5.0
 E°...    5.1
 earcon...    5.2
 eco...    5.3
 E-free...    5.4
 EFTPOS...    5.5
 EGA card    5.6
 electro...    5.7
 email...    5.8
 enterprise culture...    5.9
 EPOS    5.10
 ERM    5.11
 ESA    5.12
 etext...    5.13
 Euro...    5.14
 Eve    5.15
 exchange rate mechanism...    5.16

 F    6.0
 F    6.1
 faction...    6.2
 FF    6.3
 FF    6.4
 fibre...    6.5
 flak...    6.6
 fontware...    6.7
 F-plan    6.8
 free...    6.9
 fudge and mudge...    6.10

 G    7.0
 gag me with a spoon...    7.1
 gel...    7.2
 ghetto blaster    7.3
 GIFT...    7.4
 G-Jo    7.5
 glam...    7.6
 go...    7.7
 graphic novel...    7.8
 guestage...    7.9

 H    8.0
 hack...    8.1
 headbanger...    8.2
 hidden agenda...    8.3
 HM    8.4
 hog...    8.5
 ...    8.6
 HRT    8.7
 HTLV, human immunodeficiency virus, human T-cell lymphocyte virus    8.8
 human shield...    8.9
 hype...    8.10

 I    9.0
 ice...    9.1
 IKBS    9.2
 immune...    9.3
 incendiary device...    9.4
 indie...    9.5
 Iran-contra...    9.6
 Italian house...    9.7
 IVF    9.8

 J    10.0
 jack...    10.1
 jack...    10.2
 job-sharing...    10.3
 jukebox...    10.4

 K    11.0
 K    11.1
 karaoke    11.2
 keyboard...    11.3
 kidflation...    11.4
 krytron    11.5

 L    12.0
 lab...    12.1
 LBO...    12.2
 leaderene...    12.3
 lifestyle...    12.4
 LMS    12.5
 lock...    12.6
 LRINF    12.7
 luggable...    12.8
 Lyme disease...    12.9

 M    13.0
 McGuffin...    13.1
 mad cow disease...    13.2
 MBO    13.3
 MDMA    13.4
 ME...    13.5
 microwave...    13.6
 moi...    13.7
 MRI...    13.8
 muesli belt...    13.9
 myalgic encephalomyelitis...    13.10

 N    14.0
 nab...    14.1
 neato...    14.2
 nibble...    14.3
 NMR...    14.4
 no-alcohol beer...    14.5
 non-ism...    14.6
 nuclear device...    14.7
 nyaff...    14.8

 O    15.0
 offender's tag...    15.1
 oilflation...    15.2
 oink...    15.3
 on-and-on rap...    15.4
 optical disc...    15.5
 Oracle...    15.6
 OTE...    15.7
 out...    15.8
 ozone...    15.9

 P    16.0
 package...    16.1
 PC...    16.2
 peace camp...    16.3
 p-funk...    16.4
 phencyclidine...    16.5
 piece...    16.6
 PLA, PLWA...    16.7
 pneumocystis carinii pneumonia...    16.8
 poaching...    16.9
 pre-Aids...    16.10
 psychobabble...    16.11
 puff-ball...    16.12
 PWA...    16.13

 Q    17.0
 qinghaosu...    17.1
 quaffable...    17.2

 R    18.0
 racquet abuse...    18.1
 reader-friendly...    18.2
 rhythmic gymnastics    18.3
 right-to-life...    18.4
 rock...    18.5
 RPG    18.6
 Rubik...    18.7

 S    19.0
 sab...    19.1
 SBS    19.2
 scratch...    19.3
 SDI    19.4
 SEAQ...    19.5
 shareware...    19.6
 sick building...    19.7
 ska house...    19.8
 ska house...    19.9
 smart...    19.10
 snuff    19.11
 soca...    19.12
 space shuttle, Space Transportation System...    19.13
 SRINF    19.14
 Stalkergate...    19.15
 sugar-free...    19.16
 sweep...    19.17

 T    20.0
 tablet...    20.1
 TBS    20.2
 techno...    20.3
 Thatcher...    20.4
 tight building syndrome...    20.5
 TOE...    20.6
 train surfing...    20.7
 tubular...    20.8
 tweak...    20.9

 U    21.0
 UDMH...    21.1
 unban...    21.2
 use-by date...    21.3

 V    22.0
 vaccine...    22.1
 VCR    22.2
 vegeburger...    22.3
 video nasty...    22.4
 Vodafone...    22.5

 W    23.0
 wack...    23.1
 well safe...    23.2
 wheat-free...    23.3
 wicked...    23.4
 wok...    23.5
 wrinklie    23.6
 WYSIWYG    23.7

 X    24.0
 XTC    24.1

 Y    25.0
 yah...    25.1
 yo    25.2
 yuppie...    25.3

 Z    26.0
 zap    26.1
 zero    26.2
 Zidovudine...    26.3
 zouave...    26.4
 Zuppie    26.5
 zygote intra-fallopian transfer    26.6

1.0 A



1.1 AAA


   AAA        (War and Weaponry) see triple A

1.2 abled...


   abled     adjective (People and Society)

             Able-bodied, not disabled. Also (especially with a preceding
             adverb): having a particular range of physical abilities;
             differently abled, otherly abled, uniquely abled: euphemistic
             ways of saying 'disabled'.

             Etymology:  Formed by removing the prefix dis- from disabled.

             History and Usage:  The word abled arose in the US; it has been
             used by the disabled to refer to the able-bodied since about the
             beginning of the eighties, and is also now so used in the UK.
             The euphemistic phrases differently abled, otherly abled, and
             uniquely abled were coined in the mid eighties, again in the US,
             as part of an attempt to find a more positive official term than
             handicapped (the official term in the US) or disabled (the
             preferred term in the UK during the eighties). Another similarly
             euphemistic coinage intended to serve the same purpose was
             challenged.  Differently abled has enjoyed some success in the
             US, but all of the forms with a preceding adverb have come in
             for considerable criticism.

                 Disabled, handicapped, differently-abled, physically or
                 mentally challenged, women with disabilities--this is
                 more than a mere discourse in semantics and a matter of
                 personal preference.

                 Debra Connors in With the Power of Each Breath (1985),
                 p. 92

                 In a valiant effort to find a kinder term than
                 handicapped, the Democratic National Committee has
                 coined differently abled. The committee itself shows
                 signs of being differently abled in the use of English.

                 Los Angeles Times 9 Apr. 1985, section 5, p. 1

                 I was aware of how truly frustrating it must be to be
                 disabled, having to deal not only with your disability,
                 but with abled people's utter disregard for your needs.

                 San Francisco Chronicle 4 July 1990, Briefing section,
                 p. 7

   ableism   noun Also written ablism (People and Society)

             Discrimination in favour of the able-bodied; the attitude or
             assumption that it is only necessary to cater for able-bodied
             people.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ism (as in ageism,
             racism, and sexism) to the adjective able in the sense in which
             it is used in able-bodied.

             History and Usage:  This is one of a long line of -isms which
             became popular in the eighties to describe various forms of
             perceived discrimination: see also fattism and heterosexism.
             Ableism was a term first used by feminists in the US at the
             beginning of the eighties; in the UK, the concept was first
             referred to as able-bodism in a GLC report in 1984 and was later
             also called able-bodiedism. However, ableism was the form chosen
             by the Council of the London borough of Haringey for a press
             release in 1986, and it is this form which has continued to be
             used, despite the fact that it is thought by some to be badly
             formed (the suffix -ism would normally be added to a noun stem
             rather than an adjective).  The spelling ableism is preferred to
             ablism, which some people might be tempted to pronounce /--/.
             In practice, none of the forms has been widely used, although
             society's awareness of disability was raised during the
             International Year of Disabled Persons in 1981. The adjective
             corresponding to this noun is ableist, but its use is almost
             entirely limited to US feminist writing.  For an adjective which
             describes the same characteristics from the opposite viewpoint,
             see disablist.

                 A GLC report...referred throughout to a new phenomenon
                 called mysteriously 'able-bodism'--a reference
                 apparently to that malevolent majority, the fully-fit.

                 Daily Telegraph 1 Nov. 1984, p. 18

                 Able-ist movements of the late-nineteenth and early
                 twentieth centuries regarded disability as problematic
                 for society.

                 Debra Connors in With the Power of Each Breath (1985),
                 p. 99

                 I was at the national convention of the National
                 Organization for Women. I consider myself a
                 feminist...but I'm...embarrassed by the hysteria, the
                 gaping maws in their reasoning and the tortuous twists
                 of femspeak. Who else can crowd the terms 'ableism,
                 homophobia and sexism' into one clause without heeding
                 the shrillness of tone?

                 San Francisco Chronicle 4 July 1990, section A, p. 19

   ABS        (Science and Technology) see anti-lock

   abuse     noun (Drugs) (People and Society)

             Illegal or excessive use of a drug; the misuse of any substance,
             especially for its stimulant effects.

             In the context of human relationships, physical (especially
             sexual) maltreatment of another person.

             Etymology:  These are not so much new senses of the word as
             specializations of context; abuse has meant 'wrong or improper
             use, misapplication, perversion' since the sixteenth century,
             but in the second half of the twentieth century has been used so
             often in the two contexts mentioned above that this is becoming
             the dominant use.

             History and Usage:   Abuse was first used in relation to drugs
             in the early sixties; by the seventies it was usual for it to be
             the second element in compounds such as alcohol abuse, drug
             abuse, and solvent abuse, and soon afterwards with a human
             object as the first word: see child abuse. Interestingly it is
             not idiomatic to form similar compounds for other types of abuse
             in its traditional sense:  the abuse of power rather than 'power
             abuse', for example. This is one way in which the language
             continues to differentiate the traditional use from the more
             specialized one, although there have been some recent exceptions
             (a tennis player who throws his racquet about in anger or
             frustration can now be cautioned for racquet abuse, for
             example).

                 This is a setback for the campaign against increasing
                 heroin abuse among the young in all parts of the
                 country.

                 Sunday Times 9 Dec. 1984, p. 3

                 Just over 30 per cent of the girls questioned said they
                 had tried solvent abuse.

                 Daily Express 20 Aug. 1986, p. 2

                 Asked why she continued diagnosing abuse after three
                 appeals from other agencies to stop because they could
                 not cope, she replied: 'With hindsight, at the time we
                 were trying to do our best for them. In the event, with
                 some children, we were sadly unable to do that.'

                 Guardian 14 July 1989, p. 2

1.3 ace...


   ace       adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: great, fantastic, terrific.

             Etymology:  The adjectival use has arisen from the noun ace,
             which essentially means 'number one'.

             History and Usage:  As any reader of war comics will know,
             during the First World War outstanding pilots who had succeeded
             in bringing down ten or more enemy planes were known as aces;
             shortly after this, ace started to be used in American English
             to mean any outstanding person or thing, and by the middle of
             the century was often used with another noun following (as in
             'an ace sportsman'). It was a short step from this attributive
             use to full adjectival status. In the eighties, ace was
             re-adopted by young people as a general term of approval, and
             this time round it was always used as an adjective ('that's
             really ace!') or adverbially ('ace!') as a kind of exclamation.

                 With staff, everything becomes possible. And--ace and
                 brill--they confer instant status on the employer at the
                 same time. A double benefit:  dead good and the
                 apotheosis of yuppiedom.

                 Daily Telegraph 12 July 1987, p. 21

                 The holiday was absolutely ace--loads of sailing and
                 mountain walking, and even a night's camping in the
                 hills.

                 Balance (British Diabetic Association) Aug.-Sept. 1989,
                 p. 45

   acid house
             noun (Music) (Youth Culture)

             A style of popular music with a fast beat, a spare, mesmeric,
             synthesized sound, few (if any) vocals, and a distinctive
             gurgling bass; in the UK, a youth cult surrounding this music
             and associated in the public mind with smiley badges,
             drug-taking, and extremely large parties known as acid house
             parties. Sometimes abbreviated to acid (also written acieeed or
             aciiied, especially when used as a kind of interjection).

             Etymology:  The word acid here is probably taken from the record
             Acid Trax by Phuture (in Chicago slang, acid burning is a term
             for stealing and this type of music relies heavily on sampling,
             or stealing from other tracks); a popular theory that it is a
             reference to the drug LSD is denied by its followers (but
             compare acid rock, a sixties psychedelic rock craze, which
             certainly was).  House is an abbreviated form of Warehouse: see
             house.

             History and Usage:   Acid house music originated in Chicago as
             an offshoot of house music in 1986; at first it was called
             'washing machine', which aptly described the original sound.
             Imported to the UK in 1988, acid house started a youth cult
             during the summer of that year, and soon spawned its own set of
             behaviour and its own language. The craze for acid house
             parties, at venues kept secret until the very last moment,
             exercised police forces throughout the south of England, since
             they often involved trespass on private land and caused a public
             nuisance, although organizers claimed that they had been
             maligned in the popular press.

                 I suppose that a lot of acid house music is guilty
                 of...being completely cold and devoid of any human
                 touch.

                 Spin Oct. 1989, p. 18

                 Aciiied was a figment of the British imagination. Like
                 British R&B in the Sixties, it was a creative
                 misrecognition of a Black American pop.

                 Melody Maker 23-30 Dec. 1989, p. 34

                 Acid House, whose emblem is a vapid, anonymous smile, is
                 the simplest and gentlest of the Eighties' youth
                 manifestations. Its dance music is rhythmic but
                 non-aggressive (except in terms of decibels).

                 Independent 3 Mar. 1990, p. 12

             See also warehouse

   acid rain noun (Environment)

             Rain containing harmful acids which have formed in the
             atmosphere, usually when waste gases from industrial emissions
             combine with water.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  rain with an acid content.

             History and Usage:  The term acid rain was first used as long
             ago as 1859, when R. A. Smith observed in a chemical journal
             that the stonework of buildings crumbled away more quickly in
             towns where a great deal of coal was burnt for industrial
             purposes; this he attributed to the combination of waste gases
             with water in the air, making the rain acidic. In the early
             1970s the term was revived as it became clear that acid rain was
             having a terrible effect on the forests and lakes of North
             America, Europe, and especially Scandinavia (killing trees and
             freshwater life).  Acid rain started to be discussed frequently
             in official reports and documents on the environment; but it was
             not until environmental concerns became a public issue in the
             eighties that the term passed from technical writing of one kind
             and another into everyday use. With this familiarity came a
             better understanding of the causes of acid rain, including the
             contribution of exhaust fumes from private vehicles.  By the end
             of the eighties, acid rain was a term which even schoolchildren
             could be expected to know and understand, and had been joined by
             variations on the same theme:  acid cloud, a term designed to
             emphasize the fact that acidic gases could damage the
             environment even without any precipitation; acid fallout, the
             overall atmospheric effect of pollution; acid precipitation, the
             name sometimes used for snow or hail of high acidity.

                 She has a list of favorite subjects, favorite serious
                 subjects--nuclear proliferation, acid rain,
                 unemployment, as well as racial bigotry and the
                 situation of women.

                 Alice Munro Progress of Love (1987), p. 190

                 Burning oil will contribute to the carbon dioxide
                 umbrella and the acid rain deposited on Europe.

                 Private Eye 1 Sept. 1989, p. 25

   acquired immune deficiency syndrome
              (Health and Fitness) see Aids

   active    adjective (Science and Technology)

             Programmed so as to be able to monitor and adjust to different
             situations or to carry out several different functions; smart,
             intelligent°.

             Etymology:  A simple development of sense: the software enables
             the device to act on the results of monitoring or on commands
             from its user.

             History and Usage:  This sense of active became popular in the
             naming of products which make use of developments in artificial
             intelligence and microelectronics during the late eighties and
             early nineties: for example, the Active Book, the trade mark of
             a product designed to enable an executive to use facilities like
             fax, telephone, dictaphone, etc. through a single portable
             device; the active card, a smart card with its own keyboard and
             display, enabling its user to discover the remaining balance,
             request transactions, etc.; active optics, which makes use of
             computer technology to correct light for the distortion placed
             upon it as it passes through the atmosphere; active suspension,
             a suspension system for cars in which the hydraulic activators
             are controlled by a computer which monitors road conditions and
             adjusts suspension accordingly; and active system, any
             computerized system that adjusts itself to changes in the
             immediate environment, especially a hi-fi system.

                 The only development that I would class as the 'biggy'
                 for 1980 was the introduction of reasonably priced
                 active systems.

                 Popular Hi-Fi Mar. 1981, p. 15

                 The company is also pioneering the development of active
                 or supersmart cards, which rivals...believe to be
                 impractical on several counts.

                 New Scientist 11 Feb. 1989, p. 64

                 One of our mottos is 'Buy an Active Book and get 20 per
                 cent of your life back'.

                 Daily Telegraph 30 Apr. 1990, p. 31

   active birth
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             Childbirth during which the mother is encouraged to be as active
             as possible, mainly by moving around freely and assuming any
             position which feels comfortable.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  birth which is active rather
             than passive.

             History and Usage:  The active birth movement was founded by
             childbirth counsellor Janet Balaskas in 1982 as a direct
             rejection of the increasingly technological approach to
             childbirth which prevailed in British and American hospitals at
             the time. Ironically, this technological approach was known as
             the active management of labour; to many of the women involved
             it felt like a denial of their right to participate in their own
             labour. The idea of active birth was to move away from the view
             that a woman in labour is a patient to be treated (and therefore
             passive), freeing her from the encumbrance of monitors and other
             medical technology whenever possible and handing over to her the
             opportunity to manage her own labour. The concept has been
             further popularized in the UK by Sheila Kitzinger.

                 The concept of Active Birth is based on the idea that
                 the woman in labour is an active birthgiver, not a
                 passive patient.

                 Sheila Kitzinger Freedom & Choice in Childbirth (1987),
                 p. 63

                 New Active Birth by Janet Balaskas...After Active Birth,
                 published in 1983, updated New Active Birth prepares a
                 woman for complete participation in the birth of her
                 child.

                  Guardian 1 Aug. 1989, p. 17

   active citizen
             noun (Politics)

             A member of the public who takes an active role in the
             community, usually by getting involved in crime prevention, good
             neighbour schemes, etc.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a citizen who is active in
             society rather than passively soaking up the benefits of
             community life.

             History and Usage:  The term active citizen was first used in
             the name of the Active Citizen Force, a White militia in South
             Africa, set up in 1912 and consisting of male citizens
             undergoing national service. In a completely separate
             development, active citizen started to be used in the US from
             the late seventies as a more polite way of saying 'political
             activist' or even 'future politician'; some active citizens even
             organized themselves into pressure groups which were able to
             affect local government policies. In the UK, the term active
             citizen and the associated policy of active citizenship were
             popularized by the Conservative government of the eighties,
             which placed great emphasis upon them, especially after the
             Conservative Party conference of 1988. The focus of active
             citizenship as encouraged by this government was on crime
             prevention (including neighbourhood watch) and public order,
             rather than political activism. This put it on the borderline
             with vigilante activity, a cause of some difficulty in turning
             the policy into concrete action.

                 Pervading the researches will be an effort to plumb
                 individuals' moral convictions, their motives for
                 joining or not joining in active citizenship.

                 Christian Science Monitor (New England edition) 2 June
                 1980, p. 32

                 Intermediate institutions...help to produce the 'active
                 citizen' which Ministers such as Douglas Hurd have
                 sought to call into existence to supplement gaps in
                 welfare provision.

                 Daily Telegraph 3 May 1989, p. 18

                 'Active citizens'...brought unsafe or unethical
                 practices by their employers to official notice. As
                 their stories reveal, active citizenship carries
                 considerable personal risk. Blacklisting by other
                 employers is a frequent consequence.

                 Guardian 27 June 1990, p. 23

   acupressure
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             A complementary therapy also known as shiatsu, in which symptoms
             are relieved by applying pressure with the thumbs or fingers to
             specific pressure points on the body.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first two syllables of
             acupuncture (acupressure is a Japanese application of the same
             principles as are used in Chinese acupuncture) with pressure.
             The word acupressure actually already existed in English for a
             nineteenth-century method of arresting bleeding during
             operations by applying pressure with a needle (Latin acu means
             'with a needle'); since no needle is used in shiatsu it is clear
             that the present use is a separate formation of the word,
             deliberately referring back to acupuncture but without taking
             into account the original meaning of acu-.

             History and Usage:   Acupressure has been practised in Japan as
             shiatsu and in China as G-Jo ('first aid') for many centuries;
             it was exported to the Western world during the 1960s, but at
             first was usually called shiatsu. During the late seventies and
             early eighties acupressure became the preferred term and the
             word became popularized, first in the US and then in the UK, as
             complementary medicine became more acceptable and even sought
             after. In the late eighties the principle was incorporated into
             a popular proprietary means of avoiding motion sickness in which
             elastic bracelets hold a hard 'button' in place, pressing on an
             acupressure point on each wrist. A practitioner of acupressure
             is called an acupressurist.

                 Among the kinds of conditions that benefit from
                 acupressure are migraine, stress, and tension-related
                 problems.

                 Natural Choice Issue 1 (1988), p. 19

                 After one two-hour massage that included...acupressure,
                 I was addicted.

                 Alice Walker Temple of My Familiar (1989), p. 292

   acyclovir noun (Health and Fitness)

             An antiviral drug that is effective against certain types of
             herpes, including cytomegalovirus.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining all but the ending of the
             adjective acyclic (in its chemical sense, 'containing no cycle,
             or ring of atoms') with the stem of viral.

             History and Usage:  The drug was developed at the end of the
             seventies and became the only effective treatment for genital
             herpes that was available during the eighties. It was widely
             publicized as a breakthrough in antiviral medicine at a time
             when genital herpes was seen as the most intractable sexually
             transmitted disease affecting Western societies (before the
             advent of Aids). During the late eighties it was used in
             combination with AZT (or Zidovudine) in the management of
             cytomegalovirus, a herpes virus which affects some people
             already infected with HIV.

                 The beauty of acyclovir is that it remains inactive in
                 the body until it comes in contact with a herpes-induced
                 enzyme. The enzyme then activates the drug.

                 Maclean's 2 Nov. 1981, p. 24

                 Professor Griffiths said studies in the US have shown
                 the drug Acyclovir to be effective in preventing the
                 side effects of CMV infection.

                 Guardian 7 July 1989, p. 3

1.4 Adam...


   Adam      noun (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, the hallucinogenic designer drug
             methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, also known as Ecstasy.

             Etymology:  The name is probably a type of backslang, reversing
             the abbreviated chemical name MDMA, dropping the first m, and
             pronouncing the resulting 'word'; it may be influenced by the
             associations of the first Adam with paradise. A similar designer
             drug is known in drugs slang as Eve.

             History and Usage:  For history, see Ecstasy.

                 On the street, its name is 'ecstasy' or 'Adam', which
                 should tell how people on the street feel about it.

                 Los Angeles Times 29 Mar. 1985, section 5, p. 8

                 One close relative of MDMA, known as Eve--MDMA is
                 sometimes called Adam--has already been shown to be less
                 toxic to rats than MDMA. Because of a 'designer-drug'
                 law passed in 1986, Eve is banned too.

                 Economist 19 Mar. 1988, p. 94

   additive  noun (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A substance which is added to something during manufacture,
             especially a chemical added to food or drink to improve its
             colour, flavour, preservability, etc. (known more fully as a
             food additive).

             Etymology:   Additive has meant 'something that is added' since
             the middle of this century; recently it has acquired this more
             specialized use, which partly arose from the desire to
             abbreviate food additive once the term was being used
             frequently.

             History and Usage:  Public interest in what was being put into
             foods by manufacturers grew rapidly during the eighties because
             of the green movement, with its associated diet-consciousness
             and demand for 'natural' products, and also because of growing
             evidence of the harmful effects of certain additives (including
             their implication in hyperactivity and other behavioural
             problems in children). This interest was crystallized in the mid
             eighties by new EC regulations on naming and listing additives
             and the publication of a number of reference books giving
             details of all the permitted food additives as well as some of
             the possible effects on health of ingesting them. Possibly the
             most famous of these was Maurice Hanssen's E for Additives
             (1984); certainly after the publication of this book, additive
             could be used on its own (not preceded by food) without fear of
             misunderstanding. In response to the public backlash against the
             use of chemical additives, manufacturers began to make a
             publicity point out of foods which contained none; the phrase
             free from artificial additives (bearing witness to the fact that
             food additives from natural sources continued to be used) and
             the adjective additive-free began to appear frequently on food
             labels from the second half of the eighties.

                 Last week Peter turned up at Broadcasting House with the
                 first ever commercially produced non-sweetened,
                 additive-free yoghurt.

                 Listener 10 May 1984, p. 15

                 Every human and inhuman emotion magnified itself in New
                 York; thoughts...more quickly became action within and
                 beyond the law; some said the cause lay in the food, the
                 additives, some said in the polluted air.

                 Janet Frame Carpathians (1988), p. 103

             See also Alar, E number, -free

   advertorial
             noun (Business World)

             An advertisement which is written in the form of an editorial
             and purports to contain objective information about a product,
             although actually being limited to the advertiser's own
             publicity material.

             Etymology:  Formed by replacing the first two syllables of
             editorial with the word advert to make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The advertorial (both the phenomenon and the
             word) first appeared in the US as long ago as the sixties, but
             did not become a common advertising ploy in the UK until the mid
             eighties.  Advertorials came in for some criticism when they
             started to appear in British newspapers since there was a
             feeling of dishonesty about them (as deliberately inducing the
             reader to read them as though they were editorials or features),
             but they apparently did not contravene fair advertising
             standards as set out in the British Code of Advertising
             Practice:

                 An advertisement should always be so designed and
                 presented that anyone who looks at it can see, without
                 having to study it closely, that it is an advertisement.

             In many cases the page on which an advertorial appears is headed
             advertising or advertisement feature (a more official name for
             the advertorial), and this is meant to alert the reader to the
             nature of the article, although the layout of the page often
             does not. The word advertorial is sometimes used (as in the
             second example below) without an article to mean this style of
             advertisement-writing in general rather than an individual
             example of it.

                 Yes, advertorials are a pain, just like the advertising
                 supplement pages in Barron's, but I question whether
                 'anyone who bought FNN would have to junk the
                 programming'.

                 Barron's 24 Apr. 1989, p. 34

                 This will probably lead to a growth in what the industry
                 calls 'advertorial'--a mixture of public relations and
                 journalism, or editorial with bias.

                 Sunday Correspondent 22 Apr. 1990, p. 27

1.5 aerobics


   aerobics  noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A form of physical exercise designed to increase fitness by any
             maintainable activity that increases oxygen intake and heart
             rate.

             Etymology:  A plural noun on the same model as mathematics or
             stylistics, formed on the adjective aerobic ('requiring or using
             free oxygen in the air'), which has itself been in use since the
             late nineteenth century.

             History and Usage:  The word was coined by Major Kenneth Cooper
             of the US Air Force as the name for a fitness programme
             developed in the sixties for US astronauts. In the early
             eighties, when fitness became a subject of widespread public
             interest, aerobics became the first of a string of fitness
             crazes enthusiastically taken up by the media. The fashion for
             the aerobics class, at which aerobic exercises were done
             rhythmically to music as part of a dance movement called an
             aerobics routine, started in California, soon spread to the UK,
             Europe, and Australia, and even reached the Soviet Union before
             giving way to other exercise programmes such as Callanetics.
             Although a plural noun in form, aerobics may take either
             singular or plural agreement.

                 Aerobics have become the latest fitness craze.

                 Observer 18 July 1982, p. 25

                 The air-waves of the small, stuffy gym reverberated with
                 the insistent drum notes as thirty pairs of track shoes
                 beat out the rhythm of the aerobics routine.

                 Pat Booth Palm Beach (1986), p. 31

             See also Aquarobics

1.6 affinity card...


   affinity card
             noun Sometimes in the form affinity credit card (Business World)

             A credit card issued to members of a particular affinity group;
             in the UK, one which is linked to a particular charity such that
             the credit-card company makes a donation to the charity for each
             new card issued and also passes on a small proportion of the
             money spent by the card user.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining affinity in the sense in which
             it is used in affinity group (an American term meaning 'a group
             of people sharing a common purpose or interest') with card°. In
             the case of the charity cards, the idea is that the holders of
             the cards share a common interest in helping the charity.

             History and Usage:   Affinity cards were first issued in the US
             in the late seventies in a wide variety of different forms to
             cater for different interest groups. These cards were actually
             issued through the affinity group (which could be any non-profit
             organization such as a college, a union, or a club), and
             entitled its members to various discounts and other benefits.
             When the idea was taken up by large banks and building societies
             in the UK in 1987, it was chiefly in relation to charities, and
             the idea was skilfully used to attract new customers while at
             the same time appealing to their social conscience.

                 One alternative [to credit-card charges] is an affinity
                 credit card linked to a charity, although the Leeds
                 Permanent Building Society is considering charging for
                 its affinity cards.

                 Observer 29 Apr. 1990, p. 37

                 Affinity cards cannot be used to access any account
                 other than one maintained by a Visa card-issuing
                 financial institution.

                 Los Angeles Times 10 Oct. 1990, section D, p. 5

   affluential
             adjective and noun (People and Society)

             adjective: Influential largely because of great wealth; rich and
             powerful.

             noun: A person whose influential position in society derives
             from wealth.

             Etymology:  Formed by telescoping affluent or affluence and
             influential to make a blend.

             History and Usage:  A US coinage of the second half of the
             seventies, affluential became quite well established (especially
             as a noun) in American English during the eighties, but so far
             shows little sign of catching on in the UK.

                 Spa is the name of the mineral-water resort in Belgium,
                 and has become a word for 'watering place' associated
                 with the weight-conscious affluentials around the world.

                 New York Times Magazine 18 Dec. 1983, p. 13

   affluenza noun (Health and Fitness) (People and Society)

             A psychiatric disorder affecting wealthy people and involving
             feelings of malaise, lack of motivation, guilt, etc.

             Etymology:  Formed by telescoping affluence and influenza to
             make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The term was popularized in the mid eighties
             by Californian psychiatrist John Levy, after he had conducted a
             study of children who grow up expecting never to need to earn a
             living for themselves because of inheriting large sums of money.
             The name affluenza had apparently been suggested by one of the
             patients. By the end of the eighties, the term had started to
             catch on and was being applied more generally to the guilt
             feelings of people who suspected that they earned or possessed
             more than they were worth.

                 The San Francisco group also runs seminars that teach
                 heiresses how to cope with guilt, lack of motivation,
                 and other symptoms of affluenza, an ailment she says is
                 rampant among children of the wealthy.

                 Fortune 13 Apr. 1987, p. 27

                 Also pathogenic is 'affluenza', the virus of inherited
                 wealth, striking young people with guilt, boredom, lack
                 of motivation, and delayed emotional development.

                 British Medical Journal 1 Aug. 1987, p. 324

1.7 ageism


   ageism    noun Also written agism (People and Society)

             Discrimination or prejudice against someone on the grounds of
             age; especially, prejudice against middle-aged and elderly
             people.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ism (as in racism and
             sexism) to age.

             History and Usage:  The word was coined by Dr Robert Butler of
             Washington DC, a specialist in geriatric medicine, in 1969; by
             the mid seventies it was fairly common in the US but did not
             really enter popular usage in the UK until the late seventies or
             early eighties. Until then, it was often written age-ism,
             displaying a slight discomfort about its place in the language.
             Along with a number of other -isms, ageism enjoyed a vogue in
             the media during the eighties, perhaps partly because of a
             growing awareness of the rising proportion of older people in
             society and the need to ensure their welfare. The adjective and
             noun ageist both date from the seventies and have a similar
             history to ageism.

                 The government campaign against 'ageism' was stepped up
                 this weekend with a call for employers to avoid
                 discrimination against the elderly in job
                 advertisements.

                 Sunday Times 5 Feb. 1989, section A, p. 4

                 John Palmer, who had been at that desk for many years,
                 was completely screwed...I think that's ageist.

                 New York 23 July 1990, p. 29

             See also ableism, fattism, and heterosexism

1.8 AI...


   AI        abbreviation (Science and Technology)

             Short for artificial intelligence, the use of computers and
             associated technology to model and simulate intelligent human
             behaviour.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Artificial Intelligence.

             History and Usage:  Attempts to 'teach' computers how to carry
             out tasks (such as translation between languages) which would
             normally require a human intelligence date back almost as far as
             computer technology itself, and have been referred to under the
             general-purpose heading of artificial intelligence since the
             fifties. This was being abbreviated to AI in technical
             literature by the seventies, and by the eighties the
             abbreviation had entered the general vocabulary, as computing
             technology became central to nearly all areas of human activity.
             The abbreviation is often used attributively, with a following
             noun, as in AI technology etc.

                 Sales for AI technology will top њ719 million this year.

                 Business Week 1 July 1985, p. 78

                 Military research...has been both the driving force
                 and...paymaster of AI development.

                 CU Amiga Apr. 1990, p. 89

   -Aid      combining form Also written -aid and without hyphen (People and
             Society)

             The second element in names of efforts to raise money for
             charity.

             Etymology:  Based on Band Aid, the punning name of a rock group
             formed by Irish rock musician Bob Geldof in 1984 to raise money
             for famine relief in Ethiopia; Band-Aid is also the trade mark
             of a well-known brand of sticking-plasters.  Until Bob Geldof
             became involved in this area, aid had tended to be associated
             with economic assistance given by one government to another,
             often with political conditions attached.

             History and Usage:  The enormous success of Bob Geldof's appeal
             for Ethiopia, which began with the release of Band Aid's record
             Do they know it's Christmas? in 1984 and continued with a
             large-scale rock concert called Live Aid in 1985, laid the
             foundations for this new combining element in the language.
             Whereas in the sixties, fund-raising organizations and events
             had favoured the word fund in their titles, it now became
             fashionable to use -Aid following the name of your group or
             activity (School-Aid for schoolchildren's efforts, Fashion-Aid
             for a charity fashion show, etc.), or after the name of the
             group being helped (as in Kurd Aid, an unofficial name for a Red
             Cross concert in aid of Kurdish refugees in May 1991).

                 Sport Aid organizers were yesterday endeavouring to
                 maximize the money raised by Sunday's worldwide Race
                 Against Time in aid of African famine relief.

                 The Times 28 May 1986, p. 2

                 Inspired by the Live Aid rockathon, Willie Nelson staged
                 Farm Aid I in Champaign to help the needy closer to
                 home.

                 Life Fall 1989, p. 142

   aid fatigue
              (People and Society) see compassion fatigue

   Aids      acronym Also written AIDS (Health and Fitness)

             Short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a complex
             condition which is thought to be caused by a virus called HIV
             and which destroys a person's ability to fight infections.

             Etymology:  An acronym, formed on the initial letters of
             Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

             History and Usage:  The condition was first noticed by doctors
             at the very end of the seventies and was described under the
             name acquired immune deficiency state in 1980, although later
             research has shown that a person died from Aids as long ago as
             1959 and that the virus which causes it may have existed in
             Africa for a hundred years or more. Colloquially the condition
             was also sometimes referred to as GRID (gay-related immune
             disease) in the US before the name Aids became established. The
             US Center for Disease Control first used the name acquired
             immune deficiency syndrome and the acronym Aids in September
             1982, and by 1984 the disease was already reaching epidemic
             proportions in the US and coming to be known as the scourge of
             the eighties. At first Aids was identified as principally
             affecting two groups: first, drug users who shared needles, and
             second, male homosexuals, giving rise to the unkind name gay
             plague, which was widely bandied about in newspapers during the
             mid eighties. Once the virus which causes the immune breakdown
             which can lead to Aids was identified and it became clear that
             this was transmitted in body fluids, sexual promiscuity in
             general was blamed for its rapid spread. These discoveries
             prompted a concerted and ill-received government advertising
             campaign in the UK which aimed to make the general public aware
             of the risks and how to avoid them; this resulted, amongst other
             things, in the revival of the word condom in everyday English.

             The acronym soon came to be written by some in the form Aids
             (rather than AIDS) and thought of as a proper noun; it was also
             very quickly used attributively, especially in Aids virus (a
             colloquial name for HIV) and the adjective Aids-related. By 1984
             doctors had established that infection with the virus could
             precede the onset of any symptoms by some months or years, and
             identified three distinct phases of the syndrome:
             lymphadenopathy syndrome developed first, followed by
             Aids-related complex (ARC), a phase in which preliminary
             symptoms of fever, weight loss, and malaise become apparent; the
             later phase, always ultimately fatal, in which the body's
             natural defences against infection are broken down and tumours
             may develop, came to be known as full-blown Aids. Colloquially,
             the phases before the onset of full-blown Aids are sometimes
             called pre-Aids.

             The language of Aids (Aidspeak) became both complex and emotive
             as the eighties progressed, with the word Aids itself being used
             imprecisely in many popular sources to mean no more than
             infection with HIV--a usage which, in the eyes of those most
             closely concerned with Aids, could only be expected to add to
             the stigmatization and even victimization of already isolated
             social groups. The Center for Disease Control published a
             carefully defined spectrum of stages, in an attempt to make the
             position clear:  HIV antibody seronegativity (i.e. the absence
             of antibodies against HIV in the blood), HIV antibody
             seropositivity (see antibody-positive), HIV asymptomaticity,
             lymphadenopathy syndrome, Aids-related complex, and full-blown
             Aids. In order to lessen the emotive connotations of some
             tabloid language about Aids, pressure groups tried to discourage
             the use of Aids victim and replace it with person with Aids (see
             PWA). The terminology had become so complex and tricky that
             those who could find their way about it and understood the
             issues came to be known as Aids-literate. At the time of writing
             no cure has been found for Aids.

                 In just one year the list of people at risk from AIDS
                 has lengthened from male homosexuals, drug-abusers and
                 Haitians, to include the entire population [of the USA].

                 New Scientist 3 Feb. 1983, p. 289

                 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis...will
                 look at potential drug treatments in animals for an
                 AIDS-related form of pneumonia, pneumocystis carinii.

                 New York Times 1 May 1983, section 1, p. 26

                 Buddies' project is not to examine the construction of
                 gay identity but to take apart the mythology of AIDS as
                 a 'gay plague'.

                 Film Review Annual 1986, p. 160

                 Of 34 mothers who gave birth to children with Aids at
                 his hospital, only four had any symptoms of the disease
                 or Aids-related complex, a milder form.

                 Daily Telegraph 3 Feb. 1986, p. 5

                 Like many well-educated professionals who are sexually
                 active, the man had become an AIDS encyclopedia without
                 changing his habits.

                 Atlantic Feb. 1987, p. 45

             See also Slim

   Aidsline   (People and Society) see -line

   Aids-related virus
              (Health and Fitness) see HIV

   airhead   noun (People and Society)

             In North American slang, a stupid person; someone who speaks or
             acts unintelligently.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: someone whose head is full of
             air; perhaps influenced by the earlier form bubblehead (which
             goes back to the fifties).

             History and Usage:   Airhead has been a favourite American and
             Canadian term of abuse since the beginning of the eighties, used
             especially for the unintelligent but attractive type of woman
             that the British call a bimbo. At first airhead was associated
             with teenage Valspeak, but it soon spread into more general use
             among all age-groups.  Although very common in US English by the
             mid eighties, airhead did not start to catch on in the UK or
             Australia until the end of the decade.

                 His comedies of manners are very funny, and the vain
                 airheads who populate his novels are wonderfully drawn.

                 Christian Science Monitor 2 Mar. 1984, section B, p. 12

                 Mature women...left the airheads to be abused by the
                 stuffy, bossy older men and wore shorter skirts than
                 their teenage daughters.

                 Indy 21 Dec. 1989, p. 7

   airside   noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The part of an airport which is beyond passport controls and so
             is only meant to be open to the travelling public and to bona
             fide airport and airline staff.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the side of the airport
             giving access to the air (as opposed to the landside, the public
             area of the airport).

             History and Usage:  The word airside has been in use in the
             technical vocabulary of civil aviation since at least the
             fifties, but only really came to public notice during the late
             eighties, especially after the bombing, over Lockerbie in
             Scotland, of a Pan-Am passenger jet after it left London's
             Heathrow airport in December 1988. As a result of this and other
             terrorist attacks on air travel, a great deal of concern was
             expressed about the ease with which a person could gain access
             to airside and plant a device, and several attempts were made by
             investigative reporters to breach security in this way. Tighter
             security arrangements were put in place. The word airside is
             used with or without an article, and can also be used
             attributively in airside pass etc. or adverbially (to go airside
             etc.).

                 Far too many unvetted people have access to
                 aircraft...No one should get an 'airside' pass
                 without...clearance.

                 The Times 27 June 1985, p. 12

                 For several hours the terminal-building was plunged into
                 chaos.  'Airside' was sealed off by armed police.

                 Daily Telegraph 18 Apr. 1986, p. 36

1.9 Alar...


   Alar      noun (Environment)

             A trade mark for daminozide, a growth-regulating chemical used
             as a spray on fruit trees to enable the whole crop to be
             harvested at once.

             History and Usage:   Alar has been manufactured under this brand
             name since the mid sixties and is used by commercial growers to
             regulate the growth of fruit (especially apples), so larger,
             unblemished fruit which remains on the tree longer can be
             produced. The chemical does not remain on the surface of the
             fruit, but penetrates the flesh, so that it cannot be washed off
             or removed by peeling. The results of research published in the
             second half of the eighties showed that, when the apples were
             subsequently processed (in order to make apple juice, for
             instance), Alar could be converted into unsymmetrical
             dimethylhydrazine (or UDMH), a potent carcinogen. This discovery
             brought Alar unwelcome publicity during the late eighties:
             mothers anxious to protect their children from harmful chemicals
             in foods (among them some famous mothers such as film star Meryl
             Streep in the US and comedian Pamela Stephenson in the UK) led a
             campaign to have its use discontinued.  Alar was voluntarily
             withdrawn by its manufacturers, Uniroyal, from use on food crops
             in the US and Australia in 1989; in the UK the Advisory
             Committee on Pesticides declared it safe.

                 Some products which have been publicised as Alar-free by
                 retailers and manufacturers were still found to contain
                 Alar.

                 She Oct. 1989, p. 18

                 Most people are far more frightened of the threat of
                 cancer than of the flulike symptoms that they associate
                 with food poisoning. Fanning their anxieties are
                 frequent alerts: about dioxin in milk, aldicarb in
                 potatoes, Alar in apples.

                 New York Times 7 May 1990, section D, p. 11

   alcohol abuse
              (Drugs) (People and Society) see abuse

   alcohol-free
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

   Alexander technique
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             A complementary therapy which aims to correct bad posture and
             teach people a balanced use of their bodies as an aid to better
             health.

             Etymology:  The name of F. Matthias Alexander, who invented the
             technique.

             History and Usage:  The Alexander technique was developed by
             Alexander, an Australian actor who subsequently devoted his life
             to physiotherapy, at the end of the nineteenth century, and was
             promoted by the writer Aldous Huxley in the forties. It was not
             widely taken up by the general public until the seventies in the
             US and the early eighties in the UK, when complementary medicine
             and alternative approaches to health became more socially
             acceptable than previously. It continued to enjoy a vogue in the
             late eighties, since it fitted in well with the New Age approach
             to self-awareness. Although not claiming to cure any organic
             health problems, teachers of the Alexander technique maintain
             that it can relieve or even remove symptoms, notably back pain,
             as well as helping people to prevent pain and discomfort in
             later life.

                 The Alexander Technique is a very careful, gentle way of
                 increasing awareness; it was a joy to learn how to
                 listen to myself.

                 Out from the Core Feb. 1986, p. 5

                 I saw an ad...for a cheap introductory course in
                 Alexander technique and as I had poor posture and...an
                 aching back, I went along.

                 Good Housekeeping May 1990, p. 17

   aliterate adjective and noun (People and Society)

             adjective: Disinclined to acquire information from written
             sources; able to read, but preferring not to.

             noun: A person who can read but chooses to derive information,
             entertainment, etc. from non-literary sources.

             Etymology:  A hybrid word, formed by adding the Greek prefix a-
             in the sense 'without' to literate, a word of Latin origin. The
             hybrid form was intended to make a distinction between the
             aliterate and the illiterate (formed with the equivalent Latin
             prefix in-), who are unable to read and write.

             History and Usage:  The word aliterate was coined in the late
             sixties, but it was not until the eighties that there began to
             be real evidence that the increasing popularity of television
             and other 'screen-based' media (including information on
             computer screens) was having a noticeable effect on people's use
             of reading and writing skills. This observation came soon after
             it had been revealed that there were considerable numbers of
             people leaving school unable to read and write. In the early
             eighties, the noun aliteracy developed as a counterbalance to
             illiteracy; the two terms described these twin problems. As the
             eighties progressed, graphics and video became even more heavily
             used to put across information, to teach, and to entertain;
             aliteracy is therefore likely to become increasingly prevalent
             in the nineties.

                 The nation's decision-making process...is threatened by
                 those who can read but won't, Townsend Hooper, president
                 of the Association of American Publishers, told some 50
                 persons attending an 'a-literacy' conference.

                 Publishers Weekly 1 Oct. 1982, p. 34

                 According to a recent estimate, 60 million
                 Americans--almost one-third of our entire population--is
                 illiterate. And a recent report from the Librarian of
                 Congress suggests that we may have at least the same
                 number who are aliterate.

                 The Times 27 Dec. 1985, p. 12

   all-terrain bike
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see mountain bike

   alpha test
             noun and verb (Science and Technology)

             noun: A preliminary test of an experimental product (such as
             computer software), usually carried out within the organization
             developing it before it is sent out for beta testing.

             transitive verb: To submit (a product) to an alpha test.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding.  Alpha, the first letter of
             the Greek alphabet, has long been used to denote the first in a
             series; the alpha test is the first test in a routine series.

             History and Usage:  The concept of the alpha test comes from the
             world of computer software development, where it has been used
             since the early eighties. Its purpose is to iron out as many
             bugs as possible before allowing the software to be used by
             outsiders during the second phase of testing (see beta test). A
             person whose job is to test software in this way for the
             developer is an alpha-tester; the process is known as alpha
             testing and the product at this stage of development is the
             alpha-test version.

                 As the operations manager for a large computer equipment
                 manufacturer, Ray Majkut helped oversee the 90-day test
                 of a 200-line private branch exchange, an experience he
                 regarded as more of an alpha test than a beta test.

                 Network World 14 Apr. 1986, p. 35

                 Apple set Hypercard 2.0 into alpha test right before the
                 quake, making a spring intro likely.

                 InfoWorld 23 Oct. 1989, p. 110

   Altergate  (Politics) see -gate

   alternative
             adjective and noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             adjective: Offering a different approach from the conventional
             or established one; belonging to the counter-culture.

             noun: An approach that is alternative in this way; also, a
             follower of alternative culture.

             Etymology:  A simple development of sense:  alternative first
             meant 'offering a choice between two things', but by the end of
             the last century could be used to refer to choices involving
             more than two options. The meaning dealt with here probably
             arose from the phrase alternative society (see below).

             History and Usage:  The word alternative was first used in this
             sense when the hippie culture of the late sixties, with its
             rejection of materialism and traditional Western values, was
             described as an alternative society. Almost immediately,
             anything that served the counter-culture also came to be
             described as alternative (for example the alternative press,
             consisting of those newspapers and magazines that were aimed at
             radical youth); uses arose from within the counter-culture, too
             (for example the alternative prospectus, which gave the
             students' view of an educational establishment rather than the
             official view). Although the term alternative society itself had
             fallen from fashion by the end of the seventies, the adjective
             enjoyed a new vogue in the eighties as the green movement urged
             society to seek new approaches to natural resources, fuel
             sources, etc. and the health and fitness movement became
             increasingly influential in advocating unconventional medical
             therapies. The most important alternatives of the past decade
             have been:

             alternative birth, birthing (Health and Fitness), any method of
             childbirth that tries to get away from the intrusive, high-tech
             approach of modern medicine towards a more natural and homely
             setting in which the mother has control;

             alternative comedy (Lifestyle and Leisure), comedy that is not
             based on stereotypes (especially sexual or racial ones) or on
             conventional views of humour, but often includes an element of
             black humour or surrealism and an aggressive style of
             performance; also alternative comedian, alternative comedienne,
             practitioners of this;

             alternative energy (Environment), energy (such as solar power,
             wind generation, etc.) derived from any source that does not use
             up the earth's natural resources of fossil fuels or harm the
             environment;

             alternative medicine, therapy (Health and Fitness), any medical
             technique that aims to promote health and fitness without the
             use of drugs, often involving the patient in self-awareness and
             self-help; complementary medicine;

             alternative technology (Environment) (Science and Technology),
             technology deliberately designed to conserve natural resources
             and avoid harm to the environment, especially by harnessing
             renewable energy sources.

                 Babies are born with as little medical intervention as
                 possible in the hospital's Alternative Birth Center,
                 located on a separate floor from the maternity wing.

                 Money Dec. 1983, p. 205

                 A recent survey of more than 1,000 practitioners,
                 conducted by the Institute for Complementary Medicine,
                 found the number of patients turning to alternative
                 therapies growing at an annual rate of 15 per cent, with
                 a 39 per cent increase in patients visiting homeopaths.

                 Chicago Tribune 8 Apr. 1985, p. 1

                 Jennifer is a 20-year-old Alternative, with short
                 platinum hair jelled and sprayed into a cone, bright
                 face, smart casual clothes and heavy worker's boots.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 27 Sept. 1988, p. 17

                 The so-called alternative comedy boom was initially
                 compared to the punk phenomenon and ultimately has
                 proved to be equally as impotent.

                 Arena Autumn/Winter 1988, p. 163

                 Waterfall Vegetarian Food...is launching its new range
                 of alternative salami slices with its Vegelami slice.

                 Grocer 21 Jan. 1989, p. 168

                 The...Trust will invest in companies working to ensure a
                 better cleaner environment (waste processing,
                 alternative energy, recycling, etc).

                 Green Magazine Apr. 1990, p. 82

1.10 angel dust...


   angel dust
             noun Sometimes written angels' dust (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, the hallucinogenic drug
             phencyclidine hydrochloride or PCP (see PCP°).

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding. The drug was originally taken
             in the form of a powder or dust; it may be called the dust of
             angels because of the supposedly heavenly visions that it
             produces, although it has been claimed that the reason is that
             the drug was first distributed illegally by Hell's Angels.

             History and Usage:   Angel dust was popular in the drugs
             subculture of the sixties (when the term was sometimes used to
             refer to drug mixtures such as cocaine, heroin, and morphine, or
             dried marijuana with PCP). In the eighties angel dust enjoyed a
             short-lived revival as one of the preferred drugs of the new
             psychedelia associated with acid house; the term became the
             usual street name this time round for PCP, which also had a
             large number of other slang names such as cornflakes, goon, hog,
             loopy dust, and rocket fuel.

                 She could've been on something...Acid, angel dust.

                 Elmore Leonard Glitz (1985), p. 69

                 PCP or 'angel dust', a strong anaesthetic which came
                 after LSD in 1960s drug fashions...has recently emerged
                 anew. Now they call it 'rocket fuel' in Chicago and mix
                 it with peanut butter.

                 Sunday Times 24 Mar. 1985, p. 12

                 'Angel dust', one of the most dangerous street drugs
                 ever created, may soon have a new role--in treating
                 heart attack and stroke victims.

                 Observer 12 Mar. 1989, p. 32

   angioplasty
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             An operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or to unblock a
             coronary artery.

             Etymology:  A compound formed on classical roots:  angio- is the
             Latinized form of a Greek word, aggeion, meaning 'a vessel';
             -plasty comes from Greek plastia, 'moulding, formation'.

             History and Usage:   Angioplasty has been known as a medical
             term since the twenties, but came into the news during the
             eighties particularly as a result of the development of two new
             techniques for carrying it out.  Balloon angioplasty, available
             since the mid eighties, involves passing a tiny balloon up the
             patient's arteries and inflating it to remove blood clots or
             other blockages.  Laser angioplasty, still in its experimental
             stages in the late eighties, makes use of lasers to burn away
             blockages, and is designed to be minimally invasive. The
             development of these techniques has meant that expensive heart
             surgery under general anaesthetic can now often be avoided, with
             angioplasty taking place instead under local anaesthetic.
             Angioplasty by these new means has therefore been vaunted in the
             popular science press as a very significant medical advance.

                 Arterial lesions would remain at the center of medical
                 interest in coronary heart disease for decades to come.
                 Cholesterol-lowering diets would aim to slow their
                 growth; bypass surgery would attempt to route blood
                 around them; in angioplasty, a tiny balloon would
                 squeeze the lesions open.

                 Atlantic Sept. 1989, p. 39

   Anglo-Irish agreement
             noun (Politics)

             A formal agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic
             of Ireland, signed on 15 November 1985, establishing an
             intergovernmental conference and providing for greater
             cooperation between the two countries, especially where the
             sovereignty and security of Northern Ireland were concerned.

             Etymology:   Anglo- is the combining form of English, but
             doubles as the combining form for British and 'of the United
             Kingdom', since neither has a combining form of its own; to
             describe the agreement as Anglo-Irish therefore means not just
             that it was between England and Eire, but between the whole
             United Kingdom and Eire (and so by implication included Northern
             Ireland, even though it met with opposition there).

             History and Usage:  The Anglo-Irish agreement was the subject of
             some considerable speculation in the press long before it was
             actually signed by British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and
             Irish Taoiseach Garret Fitzgerald at Hillsborough, Co.  Down, in
             1985: the earliest uses of the term date from the very beginning
             of the eighties. It became very frequently used in newspapers
             during the mid eighties, partly as a result of the intense
             opposition to it raised by Ulster Unionists. They particularly
             objected to the fact that their political representatives had
             not been involved in the negotiations and to the implications
             they saw in it for the sovereignty of Northern Ireland.
             Attempted Ulster talks in May 1991 sought to involve them first
             in a new agreement.

                 The disagreement goes to the heart of the problem of how
                 to introduce Dublin as a partner in the talks and what
                 role it would have in renegotiating the replacement of
                 the Anglo-Irish Agreement.

                 Guardian 28 June 1990, p. 2

   animal-free
              (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

   animalist°
             noun (Politics)

             An animal rights campaigner or supporter.

             Etymology:  A contraction of animal liberationist; formerly, an
             animalist was a follower of the philosophy of animalism or an
             artist who treated animal subjects.

             History and Usage:  This snappier term arose in US English
             during the mid eighties and is as yet barely established in the
             language. The movement to which it refers, variously known as
             animal liberation, animal lib, and animal rights, has a much
             longer history--the term animal liberation goes back to the
             early seventies--and there is a good case for a term which would
             be less of a mouthful than animal liberationist or animal rights
             campaigner, although this one suffers from possible confusion
             with the opposite meaning of the adjective animalist in the
             entry below.

                 The uproar resulted from a column two weeks ago in which
                 I reported that animalist Barbara Toth was enraged over
                 the possibility that some Asian immigrants in Canoga
                 Park might be turning strays into dog foo young.

                 Los Angeles Times (Valley edition) 22 July 1985, section
                 2, p. 7

                 The dismal sight on Tuesday night of bedraggled
                 'animalists' distributing protest literature to queues
                 of happy families agog with the expectancy of pure
                 pleasure.

                 Financial Times 28 July 1988, p. 21

   animalistэ
             adjective (People and Society)

             Discriminating against animals; demeaning animals or denying
             them rights by the way one speaks, thinks, or behaves.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ist as used in racist
             or sexist to animal: compare ageist (see ageism).

             History and Usage:  Also very new and still rare, this sense of
             animalist is a British usage which promises to give rise to some
             considerable confusion by creating a situation in which the noun
             animalist and its corresponding adjective carry almost opposite
             meanings.  Ultimately one or other sense must surely survive at
             the expense of the other--if indeed either catches on.

                 Animal rights campaigners on Merseyside are urging
                 parents and teachers to stop children using 'animalist'
                 expressions, which they claim demean certain creatures.

                 Daily Telegraph 27 Oct. 1989, p. 5

   animatronics
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology)

             The technique of constructing robots which look like animals,
             people, etc. and which are programmed to perform lifelike
             movements to the accompaniment of a pre-recorded soundtrack.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first three syllables of
             animated with the last two of electronics to make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The idea of animatronics (which originally
             had the even more complicated name audio-animatronics, now a
             trade mark) was developed by Walt Disney during the sixties for
             use at the World's Fair and later for Disneyland and other theme
             parks. The movements and gestures of the robots (each of which
             may be called an animatron or an animatronic) are extremely
             lifelike, but because they are pre-programmed they cannot be
             responsive or interactive: for this reason, animatronics has
             been described as being 'like television with the screen
             removed'. During the eighties, animatronics became more widely
             known as the theme park idea and the robotics technology were
             exported from the US to other parts of the world.  Although it
             looks plural in form, animatronics always takes a singular
             agreement when it refers to the technique; plural agreement
             indicates that it is being used for a group of the robots
             themselves. The adjective used to describe the technology or the
             robots is animatronic.

                 'How-about-some-you'd-pay-twice-as-much-for-anywhere-else,'
                 yells Stein, his mouth seeming to move independently of
                 the words, like one of those eerie Animatronic Disney
                 robots.

                 Forbes 12 Nov. 1979, p. 177

                 Sally Animatronics Pty Ltd has set up shop in Sydney to
                 capitalise on what it perceives to be a boom market in
                 Australia...--the production of lifelike robots for
                 theme parks, exhibitions and museums.  The robots, known
                 as animatronics, were made famous by
                 Disneyland...Designing an animatronic figure is a
                 difficult process.

                 The Australian 24 Nov. 1987, p. 58

                 The animals and acrobats of the popular entertainment
                 will give way to a Disney-style 'animatronic' show, part
                 of a њ17.5-million plan to revamp the Tower.

                 The Times 28 Sept. 1990, p. 17

   antibody-positive
             adjective (Health and Fitness)

             Having had a positive result in a blood test for the Aids virus
             HIV; at risk of developing Aids.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; having a positive test for
             antibodies to HIV. Long before Aids, antibody-positive was in
             technical use for the result of any blood test for antibodies to
             a virus; it is only in popular usage that it has become
             specialized almost exclusively to the Aids sense.

             History and Usage:  This sense of antibody-positive arose during
             the mid eighties, when fear of Aids was at its height and much
             publicity was given to it. Since infection with HIV could
             precede the onset of any Aids symptoms by a period of years, and
             only some of those who were tested positive would in fact
             develop symptoms at any time, health officials emphasized the
             need to avoid over-reacting to a positive test and tried (with
             varying degrees of success) to prevent discrimination against
             those who were known to be antibody-positive. The adjective for
             a person found not to have been infected or a test with a
             negative result is antibody-negative, but this is less commonly
             found in popular sources.

                 Without testing facilities at, say, clinics for sexually
                 transmitted diseases, 'high-risk' donors might give
                 blood simply to find out their antibody status (and
                 possibly transmit the virus while being
                 antibody-negative).

                 New Statesman 27 Sept. 1985, p. 14

                 This longstanding concentration on the clinical
                 manifestations of AIDS rather than on all stages of HIV
                 infection (i.e., from initial infection to
                 seroconversion, to an antibody-positive asymptomatic
                 stage, to full-blown AIDS) has had the...effect of
                 misleading the public.

                 Susan Sontag Aids & its Metaphors (1989), p. 31

   anti-choice
             adjective Sometimes written antichoice (Health and Fitness)
             (People and Society)

             Especially in US English, opposed to the principle of allowing a
             woman to choose for herself whether or not to have an abortion;
             a derogatory synonym for pro-life (see under pro-).

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the prefix anti- in the sense
             'against' to choice.

             History and Usage:  The whole issue of abortion has been an
             extremely contentious one in US politics during the past fifteen
             years. The term anti-choice arose in the second half of the
             seventies as a label applied to pro-life campaigners by those
             who had fought for women's rights in the US and resented the
             erosion of their work by the anti-abortion lobby. As such it is
             deliberately negative in form (supporters of the rights of the
             unborn child would describe themselves in more positive terms
             such as pro-life or right-to-life). Although abortion has also
             been an important issue in the UK in the eighties, the term
             anti-choice has hardly been used in British sources until quite
             recently.

                 She said there are at least three races in the state
                 where a clear anti-choice incumbent is being opposed by
                 a strong pro-choice challenger.

                 San Francisco Chronicle 26 June 1990, section B, p. 4

   anti-lock adjective (Science and Technology)

             Of the brakes of a car or other vehicle: set up so as to prevent
             locking and skidding when applied suddenly; especially in
             anti-lock brake (or braking) system (ABS), a patent system which
             allows sudden braking without any locking of the wheels.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the prefix anti- in the sense
             'preventing' to the verb stem lock.

             History and Usage:   Anti-lock braking was developed in the
             sixties from a similar system which had been applied to
             aeroplanes (under the name wheel-slide protection system). The
             first application to motor vehicles was Lockheed's Antilok (a
             trade mark); at first it was used mainly for heavy trucks and
             the like. The term began to appear frequently in car advertising
             in the early eighties, when the system became generally
             available on private cars (either as an optional extra or a
             standard feature), and was used as a strong marketing point. The
             system works by momentarily releasing the brakes and freeing the
             locked wheel as often as necessary to avoid skid.  Anti-lock is
             occasionally used on its own as a noun as a shortened form of
             anti-lock brake system.

                 Unlike car systems, the motorcycle ABS does not allow
                 full application of the brakes while cornering.

                 Daily Mirror (Sydney) 21 Oct. 1988, p. 111

                 An anti-lock brake system is available. This amazing
                 sports sedan also has a Bumper-to-Bumper warranty that's
                 good for 3 years.

                 Life Fall 1989, p. 85

   antivirus  (Science and Technology) see vaccine

1.11 Aqua Libra...


   Aqua Libra
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The trade mark of a health drink containing spring water, fruit
             juices, and a number of other ingredients, which is promoted as
             an aid to proper alkaline balance and good digestion.

             Etymology:  Latin aqua 'water' and libra 'balance': literally
             'water balance' (compare balance).

             History and Usage:   Aqua Libra was launched under this name in
             1987, at a time when there was a fashion for non-alcoholic
             drinks, and many smart executives favoured mineral water (see
             designer).

                 Aqua Libra...is completely free of alcohol and I like it
                 because it is not as sweet as, say Perrier and orange
                 juice.

                 Financial Times 31 Dec. 1988, Weekend FT, p. IX

                 The smart set in England this season is drinking Aqua
                 Libra. The pale-gold beverage is a blend of sparkling
                 water, passion fruit juice and apple juice, seasoned
                 with sesame, sunflower, melon, tarragon and Siberian
                 ginseng.

                 Forbes 25 Dec. 1989, p. 48

   Aquarobics
             noun Sometimes written aquarobics or aquaerobics (Health and
             Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The trade mark of a fitness programme, including a form of
             aerobics, in which the exercises are done in a shallow swimming
             pool.

             Etymology:  Formed by substituting the Latin word aqua 'water'
             for the first syllable of aerobics.

             History and Usage:   Aquarobics was developed by Georgia Kerns
             and Judy Mills in the US in 1980 and registered there as a trade
             mark. By the late eighties it had spread to the UK and was
             becoming a popular alternative to aerobics, being promoted
             especially as a form of exercise suitable for people with
             physical disabilities or those recovering from operations.

                 The movable floor can be lowered from 1.5 feet to 10
                 feet and is used for such water exercise classes as
                 aquarobics and aquafitness.

                 Business First of Buffalo 9 Mar. 1987, p. 30

                 Many...handicapped people said how beneficial the
                 Aquarobics Exercises had been.

                 Keep Fit Autumn 1989, p. 7

1.12 arb...


   arb       noun (Business World)

             In financial jargon, a dealer in stocks who takes advantage of
             differing values in different markets to make money; especially
             on the US stock exchange, a dealer in the stocks of companies
             facing take-over bids.

             Etymology:  A colloquial shortened form of arbitrageur, a French
             word borrowed into English in the late nineteenth century for
             any stock dealer who makes his money from buying stock in one
             market and selling in another.

             History and Usage:  Although the practice of arbitrage (the
             simultaneous buying and selling of large quantities of stock in
             different markets so as to take advantage of the price
             difference) is well established--it dates from the late
             nineteenth century--the word arbitrageur was not shortened to
             arb in print until Wall Street risk arbitrageurs started buying
             up large quantities of stock in companies facing take-over bids
             in the late seventies. These take-overs attracted considerable
             media interest, and the word arb started to appear frequently in
             the financial sections of newspapers from about the beginning of
             the eighties.

                 For a start you often have to make use of the 'arbs',
                 very useful gentlemen indeed in a bid battle.

                 Sunday Telegraph 25 Mar. 1984, p. 19

                 It should have been the risk arbitrageurs' finest
                 year...Instead, in the wake of archrival Ivan F.
                 Boesky's admission of insider trading, the arbs are
                 being battered.

                 Business Week 8 Dec. 1986, p. 36

   ARC        (Health and Fitness) see Aids

   aromatherapy
             noun Sometimes in the form aromatotherapy (Health and Fitness)

             A complementary therapy which makes use of essential oils and
             other plant extracts to promote a person's health, general
             well-being, or beauty.

             Etymology:  Actually borrowed from French aromath‚rapie,
             although the formation of the English word is self-explanatory:
             therapy based on aromatic oils.

             History and Usage:   Aromatherapy was promoted by the French
             chemist Ren‚-Maurice Gattefoss‚ in the thirties, but was not
             widely taken up in English-speaking countries until the
             seventies, when the search began for natural remedies to replace
             the increasingly intrusive techniques of traditional medicine.
             There was nothing new, of course, in the use of plant extracts
             for medicinal purposes; it was the therapeutic effect of
             inhaling the aromatic oils or massaging them into the skin that
             Gattefoss‚ claimed to have discovered anew. During the eighties,
             when alternative therapies proliferated and there was a premium
             on the use of natural ingredients, aromatherapy graduated from
             fringe status to a reasonably respected technique, especially
             for the relief of stress-related symptoms. A practitioner of
             aromatherapy is called an aromatherapist; the adjective used to
             describe an oil which has some use in aromatherapy is
             aromatherapeutic.

                 Today in Britain most therapists and their clients use
                 aromatherapy as a form of relaxation with some benefits
                 to minor medical conditions.

                 Here's Health June 1988, p. 89

                 For details of a qualified aromatherapist in your area
                 contact the International Federation of Aromatherapists.

                 Prima Aug. 1988, p. 74

   artificial intelligence
              (Science and Technology) see AI

   ARV        (Health and Fitness) see HIV

1.13 asset


   asset     noun (Business World)

             The first word of a number of compounds fashionable in the
             business and financial world, including:

             asset card, a US name for the debit card (see card°);

             asset management, the active management of the assets of a
             company so as to optimize the return on investments; the job of
             an asset manager;

             asset-stripping, the practice of selling off the assets of a
             company (especially one which has recently been taken over) so
             as to make maximum profit, but without regard for the company's
             future; the activity of an asset-stripper.

             Etymology:  The word assets, which originally came from
             Anglo-French assets (modern French assez enough) was
             reinterpreted as a plural noun with a singular asset by the
             nineteenth century; however, it was only in the late twentieth
             century that it acquired compounds based on this singular form.

             History and Usage:  All three compounds entered the language
             through US business usage in the mid seventies; asset-stripping
             had been practised since the fifties, but did not become widely
             known by this name until the seventies.  Asset management and
             asset-stripping have been widely used in the UK during the
             eighties, even moving into non-technical usage. By the end of
             the decade, though, asset-stripping had become an unfashionable
             name for an activity which financiers now preferred to call
             unbundling: see unbundle.

                 Guinness Peat's chief executive...reckons that
                 institutions in the post Big Bang City will take one of
                 three forms--bankers, traders or asset managers.

                 Investors Chronicle 1 Nov. 1985, p. 54

                 The solution...--moving the $2 billion asset card
                 business to...South Dakota--ushered in a new era in
                 interstate banking.

                 US Banker Mar. 1986, p. 42

                 One of the large mutual fund families...offers not only
                 a variety of funds but an asset management account that
                 would give you a monthly record of all transactions,
                 including reinvestment of dividends.

                 Christian Science Monitor 20 Feb. 1987, section B, p. 2

                 A more relevant description of Hanson's strategy would
                 be asset-mining rather than asset-stripping; that is,
                 the development of undervalued assets for hidden value.

                 National Westminster Bank Quarterly Review May 1987,
                 p. 27

                 They were returning...from visiting a foundry in Derby
                 that had been taken over by asset-strippers.

                 David Lodge Nice Work (1988), p. 154

1.14 ATB...


   ATB        (Lifestyle and Leisure) see mountain bike

   ATM       abbreviation (Business World)

             Short for automated teller machine, a machine which carries out
             banking transactions automatically.  (Usually known colloquially
             in the UK as a cashpoint or cash dispenser, although it may be
             capable of carrying out transactions other than cash
             dispensing.)

             Etymology:  The initial letters of automated (or automatic )
             teller machine.

             History and Usage:  The full term automated teller machine was
             first used in the mid seventies, when the machines were put into
             mass operation in US banks; by 1976 this had been abbreviated to
             ATM, which has remained the standard term for the increasingly
             versatile machines in the US as well as Australia and other
             English-speaking countries. In the UK, they were available from
             the middle of the seventies but not used by the mass of the
             British public until the mid eighties.  Consequently, the name
             ATM has tended to be used mostly in official circles, while cash
             dispenser, cash machine, and cashpoint have been the more
             popular names. Even though the machines are now capable of
             registering deposits, providing statements, etc., it seems
             unlikely that ATM will become the regular term in the UK as
             well.

                 Bill payments and loan repayments can be made through
                 ATMs...80 per cent of all ATM transactions were
                 withdrawals, 10 per cent were inquiries and 10 per cent
                 were deposits.

                 Sunday Mail Magazine (Brisbane) 12 Oct. 1986, p. 16

                 Need cash at midnight? Hit the ATM.

                 Life Fall 1989, p. 49

             See also cash dispenser

1.15 audio-animatronics...


   audio-animatronics
              (Science and Technology) see animatronics

   autogenic training
             noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A relaxation technique in which the patient is taught a form of
             self-hypnosis and biofeedback as a way of managing stress.

             Etymology:  A translation of the German name, das autogene
             Training.  Autogenic, an adjective which has been used in
             English since the late nineteenth century, literally means
             'self-produced'. It is not the training that is self-produced,
             though; autogenic training is designed to teach people how to
             produce a feeling of calm and well-being in themselves in
             stressful circumstances. A more accurate (though long-winded)
             name would be training in autogenic relaxation.

             History and Usage:   Autogenic training was invented in Germany
             and first popularized by psychiatrist and neurologist Johannes
             Schultz from the thirties until the fifties.  It is the first of
             three stages in a method which is known in its entirety as
             autogenic therapy. Although it has reputedly been used by East
             German athletes for decades, it only became widely practised
             outside Germany in the seventies and eighties. The technique is
             particularly useful for athletes because it offers the
             possibility of bringing about positive changes in one's own
             physical state (such as lowering blood pressure or reducing
             heart-rate).  Autogenics is an alternative name for autogenic
             therapy or autogenic training; although plural in form, this
             noun (like aerobics) can take singular or plural agreement.

                 A new study indicates that autogenics--a form of mental
                 press-ups--are as good for reducing stress...as physical
                 exertions.

                 She July 1985, p. 115

                 Liz Ferris uses autogenic training with athletes. This
                 discipline is designed to help switch off the body's
                 stress mechanisms.

                 Observer 6 May 1990, p. 21

   automated teller machine
              (Business World) see ATM

1.16 aware...


   aware     adjective (Environment) (People and Society)

             Of a person, social group, etc.: fully informed about current
             issues of concern in a particular field. Of a product: designed,
             manufactured, or marketed in such a way as to take account of
             current concerns and attitudes. (Often with a preceding adverb
             indicating the field of concern, as ecologically or
             environmentally aware, socially aware, etc.)

             Etymology:  Formed by increasingly elliptical use of the
             adjective: first, people were described as being aware of
             certain issues, then they were simply described as socially
             (etc.)  aware, and finally their quality of awareness was
             ascribed to the products which resulted from their concerns.

             History and Usage:  People have been described as socially or
             politically aware since the early seventies; as the green
             movement gained momentum in the late seventies and early
             eighties it became increasingly important to be ecologically or
             environmentally aware as well. The adjective started to be
             applied to things as well as people in the early eighties; this
             usage remains limited in practice to environmentally aware
             products and activities and sometimes appears to mean only that
             some part of the profit on the sales is to be donated to a green
             cause.

                 Most of the machines described as being 'environmentally
                 aware' will also cost you over њ400.

                 Which? Jan. 1990, p. 49

                 The main dessert component was one of the few
                 ecologically aware trademarked foods, the 'Rainforest
                 Crunch' ice cream made by Ben & Jerry's, which donates
                 some of the profits from this flavor to a rain forest
                 preservation fund.

                 Los Angeles Times 21 June 1990, section E, p. 8

   awesome   adjective (Youth Culture)

             In North American slang (especially among young people):
             marvellous, great, stunningly good.

             Etymology:   Awesome originally meant 'full of awe', but by the
             end of the seventeenth century could also be used in the sense
             'inspiring awe, dreadful'. The apparent reversal of meaning that
             has now taken place started through a weakening of the word's
             meaning during the middle decades of the twentieth century to
             'staggering, remarkable'; this was then further weakened and
             turned into an enthusiastic term of approval in the eighties.

             History and Usage:  Within the youth culture, terms of approval
             come into fashion and go out again quite rapidly. After becoming
             frequent in its weakened sense of 'mind-boggling' during the
             sixties and seventies, awesome was taken up in the eighties as
             one of the most fashionable words of general approval among
             young Americans. In particular it was associated with the speech
             of preppies and the New York smart set, and often seemed to be
             part of a fixed phrase, preceded by totally. Surprisingly, it
             has remained popular among young people into the nineties, and
             has spread outside the US to Canada and Australia.  It has been
             used in British English in this sense too, but really only in
             caricatures of US speech.

                 Stuck in a rut...the kid was at the end of his rope when
                 out of the blue... kaboom...'Awesome!! The Acclaim
                 remote for Nintendo!'

                 Captain America Nov. 1989, p. 7

                 Roxanne Shante is quite simply the baddest sister
                 around, and teamed with Marley Marl at the mixing desk
                 she is awesome.

                 Number One 8 Nov. 1989, p. 43

                 That night I freebased a fractal of crack and blissed
                 out on E. It was awesome. It was ace. It was wicked, bad
                 and def. It was twenty quid. OUCH!

                 Blitz Dec. 1989, p. 130

1.17 Azeri...


   Azeri     noun and adjective Sometimes written Azari (People and Society)

             noun: A member of a Turkic people of the USSR and Iran, living
             mainly in Azerbaijan, Armenia, and northern Iran; an
             Azerbaijani. Also, their language.

             adjective: Of or belonging to this people or their language.

             Etymology:  The Turkish form (azerЊ) of what was originally a
             Persian word for fire; the place-name Azerbaijan is a compound
             meaning 'fire-temple'.  Azeri is apparently the preferred form
             among those of Azeri ethnic origin, since it preserves a
             distinction between the Turkic people and anyone who lives in
             Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani can mean either).

             History and Usage:  Although used in ethnographical and
             linguistic works since at least the last century, Azeri was not
             a word that the average reader of English newspapers would have
             recognized until the late eighties. Then ethnic unrest on the
             border between the Armenian and Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist
             Republics was widely reported in the newspapers. Since the
             trouble was partly caused by the fact that large numbers of
             ethnic Armenians lived within the borders of the Azerbaijan SSR
             and Azeris in the Armenian SSR, it was necessary for journalists
             to make the distinction between the inhabitant of Azerbaijan (an
             Azerbaijani) and the Azeri.

                 At least two civilians, one Armenian and one Azeri,
                 attacked Armenian homes...Azeri mobs had burned 60
                 houses...Three Azeris were shot and killed by troops.

                 Observer 27 Nov. 1988, p. 23

   AZT       abbreviation (Health and Fitness)

             Short for azidothymidine, a drug used in the treatment of Aids
             to stop the virus HIV from replicating itself within the
             patient's body; now officially known as Zidovudine.

             Etymology:  The first two letters of azido- combined with the
             initial letter of thymidine.

             History and Usage:   Azidothymidine was developed in the US
             during the mid seventies, before Aids became a problem, but was
             always intended as a retrovirus inhibitor. When HIV was
             identified as the probable cause of Aids in the mid eighties,
             its applicability to this virus was tested and it was found that
             it could prolong the life of Aids patients by preventing the
             virus from copying itself and so reducing the patients'
             susceptibility to infections. This discovery led to its being
             promoted in the press as a 'wonder drug' and even as a cure for
             Aids, although its testers continued to emphasize the fact that
             it was only capable of slowing down the development of the
             disease. Once the drug was in use for treating Aids, the name
             azidothymidine was usually abbreviated to AZT. This is still the
             name by which the drug is known colloquially, despite the fact
             that its official name has been changed to Zidovudine.

                 The company has been sharply criticized for the cost of
                 AZT, and recently cut the price by 20 per cent. An adult
                 with AIDS now pays about $6,500 a year for the drug.

                 New York Times 26 Oct. 1989, section A, p. 22

2.0 B



2.1 babble...


   -babble   combining form

             The jargon or gobbledegook that is characteristic of the
             subject, group, etc. named in the first part of the word:

             ecobabble (Environment), environmental jargon; especially,
             meaningless green jargon designed to make its user sound
             environmentally aware;

             Eurobabble (Politics), the jargon of European Community
             documents and regulations;

             psychobabble (People and Society), language that is heavily
             influenced by concepts and terms from psychology;

             technobabble (Science and Technology), technical jargon,
             especially from computing and other high-technology areas.

             Etymology:  The noun babble means 'inarticulate or imperfect
             speech, especially that of a child': the implication here is
             that these jargon-ridden forms of the language sound like so
             much nonsense to those who are not 'in the know'. In these words
             babble has been added on to the combining form of ecological
             etc. like a suffix: compare the earlier use of -speak in this
             way, after George Orwell's Newspeak and Oldspeak in the novel
             1984.

             History and Usage:   Psychobabble was coined in the US in the
             mid seventies, when various forms of psychoanalysis and
             psychotherapy were fashionable and the terms of these subjects
             were often bandied about by laypeople who only partly understood
             them. In 1977, Richard Rosen devoted a whole book to the subject
             of Americans who used this language of analysis. It was not long
             before other forms using -babble started to appear in the
             language:  Eurobabble arrived soon after Britain's entry into
             the EC and ecobabble followed in the mid eighties as the green
             movement gained momentum.

                 Is the environmental hoopla resonating through the halls
                 of American business 'mere corporate ecobabble intended
                 to placate the latest group of special-interest
                 loonies'?

                 Los Angeles Times 1 Feb. 1990, section E, p. 1

                 No matter that the Kohl-Mitterrand accords might amount
                 to no more than Eurobabble. They, and many British
                 voters, see a Continental future in which ever more
                 business is ordained without British involvement.

                 The Times 27 Apr. 1990, p. 13

   baby boomer
              (People and Society) see boomer

   baby buster
              (People and Society) see buster

   Bach       proper noun (Health and Fitness)

             In Bach (or Bach's) flower remedies (sometimes simply Bach
             remedies): a complementary therapy related to homoeopathy, in
             which a number of preparations of intestinal bacteria are used
             to relieve emotional states which (according to the inventor of
             the remedies, Edward Bach) underlie many physical illnesses.

             Etymology:  The name of Edward Bach combined with flower
             remedies (because the preparations are made from intestinal
             flora).

             History and Usage:  Dr Edward Bach (1886-1936) was a Harley
             Street specialist who became interested in homoeopathy and
             developed the remedies as his own contribution to the
             discipline. According to his theory, the mind and body can be in
             a positive state (ease) or degenerate into a negative one
             (disease). He developed 38 different remedies, each designed to
             produce the positive state of ease for a particular personality
             type.  Bach flower remedies were not widely known or used until
             the middle of the eighties, when they suddenly became
             fashionable, perhaps as a result of the general upsurge of
             interest in homoeopathy and alternative therapies at this time.

                 The key to the Bach Remedies is that they are chosen not
                 for the symptoms of the illness, but for the underlying
                 emotional state of the client.

                 Out from the Core Feb. 1986, p. 14

   backward masking
             noun (Music)

             A technique in music recording in which a disguised message is
             included in such a way as to be audible only when the disc is
             spun backwards, although it may allegedly be perceived
             subliminally during normal playing. Also, the message itself.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  masking a message that has
             to be played backwards to be heard. In psychology, backward
             masking is a technical term used since the sixties to mean
             'disruption of a stimulus by a second, similar stimulus which
             closely follows it'.

             History and Usage:  The idea of hiding a backward message on a
             rock record was first tried by the Beatles as long ago as the
             sixties, but the term backward masking only became widely known
             during the early eighties as a result of attempts by Christian
             fundamentalist groups to have the practice banned. They claimed
             that a number of rock groups were including satanic messages on
             their records using this technique, and that these messages had
             a subliminal effect on the listener. In parts of the US,
             legislation was passed in the mid eighties making warning
             notices compulsory on all records carrying backward masking, and
             by the early nineties one rock band had even been sued
             (unsuccessfully) for compensation after two teenagers committed
             suicide while listening to a record said to contain hidden
             messages.

                 In the last two years, Styx has been targeted by
                 fundamentalist religious groups for the 'backward
                 masking' of satanic messages on its albums.

                 New York Times 27 Mar. 1983, section 2, p. 27

   bad       adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang, especially among Blacks in the US:
             excellent, spectacular, full of good qualities.

             Etymology:  A reversal of meaning: compare wicked and the
             earlier use of evil in this sense.

             History and Usage:  This sense of bad originated among Black
             jazz musicians in the US in the twenties and by the seventies
             had spread into more general use among US Blacks.  It was taken
             up by the young in general during the eighties as a favourite
             term of approval, especially preceded by the adverb well:
             anything that was described as well bad had really gained the
             highest accolade. Its use among White British youngsters is an
             example of the spread of Black street slang as a cult language
             in the late eighties, with the popularity of hip hop culture
             etc. When used in this sense, bad has the degrees of comparison
             badder and baddest rather than worse and worst.

                 We ran into some of the baddest chicks, man, we partied,
                 we had a nice time.

                 Gene Lees Meet Me at Jim & Andy's (1988), p. 203

                 Roxanne Shante is quite simply the baddest sister
                 around, and teamed with Marley Marl at the mixing desk
                 she is awesome.

                 Number One 8 Nov. 1989, p. 43

   bad-mouth  transitive verb Also written badmouth (People and Society)

             In US slang (especially among Blacks): to abuse (someone)
             verbally; to put down or 'rubbish' (a person or thing),
             especially by malicious gossip.

             Etymology:  The verb comes from the Black slang expression bad
             mouth (a literal translation of similar expressions in a number
             of African and West Indian languages), which originally meant 'a
             curse or spell'.

             History and Usage:  The earliest use of bad-mouth as a verb in
             print is an isolated wartime use by James Thurber in 1941,
             although it was almost certainly in spoken use before this.  By
             the sixties it had become fairly common in US Black English, but
             it was not until the late seventies that it acquired any
             currency in British slang. In the eighties it started to appear
             in respectable journalistic sources without quotation marks or
             any other sign of slang status. The corresponding verbal noun
             bad-mouthing is also common.

                 The dealing fraternity and the auctioneers, despite the
                 fact that they never cease bad-mouthing each other, are
                 mutually dependent.

                 The Times 16 Nov. 1981, p. 10

                 Jo-Anne was a bitter enemy who could be relied on to
                 bad-mouth her at every opportunity.

                 Pat Booth Palm Beach (1986), p. 180

   bag people
             plural noun (People and Society)

             Homeless people who live on the streets and carry their
             possessions in carrier bags.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding (people whose main
             characteristic is the bags they carry) after the model of bag
             lady (see below). A tramp who carries his personal effects in a
             bag has been called a bagman in Australian English since the end
             of the nineteenth century.

             History and Usage:  The earliest references to bag people come
             from New York City in the seventies, and are in the form bag
             lady (sometimes written baglady) or shopping-bag lady; at that
             time it was mostly elderly homeless women who piled their
             belongings into plastic carrier bags and lived on the streets.
             By the mid eighties both the phenomenon and the term had spread
             to other US cities and to the UK, and sensitivity to sexist
             language had produced bag person along with its plural form bag
             people.

                 They even had a couple of black-clad bagladies sitting
                 silently on straight chairs by the door.

                 Martin Amis Money (1984), p. 105

                 Peterson saw The Avenue's funky charm and its cast of
                 misfits as inspirations for his painting. 'I like the
                 bag people and the alcoholics and the street people.'

                 Los Angeles Times (Ventura County edition) 12 May 1988,
                 section 9, p. 2

   bagstuffer
             noun (Business World) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A piece of promotional literature handed out to shoppers in the
             streets or put into shopping bags at the checkout.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: these leaflets are usually
             treated as so much waste paper with which to stuff one's bag.

             History and Usage:  The bagstuffer (originally called a
             shopping-bag stuffer) was invented in the seventies in the US as
             a variation on the flyer. It became a widespread advertising
             ploy in the eighties, despite environmentalists' concern about
             wasteful use of paper and the destruction of rainforests.

                 As the vote approaches, soda bottlers have begun airing
                 television commercials against it. Supermarkets have
                 opposed it through 'bagstuffer' leaflets in their
                 stores.

                 New York Times 23 Apr. 1982, section B, p. 1

                 You have to market your pharmacy to supermarket
                 customers through coupons and bagstuffers; to the
                 community through ads in flyers, and by offering free
                 services.

                 Supermarket News 15 May 1989, p. 43

   bailout   noun Sometimes written bail-out (Business World)

             Financial assistance given to a failing business or economy by a
             government, bank, etc. so as to save it from collapse.

             Etymology:  The noun bailout is derived from the verbal phrase
             bail out, which has a number of distinct meanings. In this case,
             it is questionable whether it is a figurative use of the
             nautical sense 'to throw water out of (a boat) so as to prevent
             it from sinking' or the legal sense 'to get (a person) released
             from custody by providing the money needed as security (bail)'.

             History and Usage:  The financial sense of bailout comes
             originally from the US, where the practice was first written
             about in the seventies.  Bailouts occurred with increasing
             frequency in other parts of the English-speaking world as the
             eighties progressed and the economic climate became more
             difficult even for large businesses; in the UK, though, the
             Conservative government of the eighties opposed government
             bailouts. The word bailout is often used attributively, with
             another noun following, especially in bailout loan and bailout
             plan.

                 Governments have to avoid protectionism, bailouts that
                 cannot work and subsidies just to keep industries alive.

                 Toronto Star 28 May 1986, section A, p. 16

                 The executive branch is collaborating with Congress in
                 putting part of the savings and loan bailout
                 'off-budget', thereby raising...the real cost of it.

                 Washington Post 1 Oct. 1989, section D, p. 7

   Baker day noun (People and Society)

             Colloquially in the UK, any one of several days in the normal
             school year statutorily set aside for in-service training of
             teachers and mainly intended as a preparation for teaching the
             national curriculum.

             Etymology:  Named after Kenneth Baker, who was the Education
             Secretary responsible for introducing them.

             History and Usage:  Compulsory in-service training for teachers
             was introduced in 1987 as part of a drive towards greater
             accountability in the teaching profession (see INSET); the five
             days set aside during the school year 1987-8 to prepare for the
             national curriculum had already been nicknamed Baker days by
             children and teachers alike by early 1988.  Baker days were
             popular with children (for whom they meant an extra day off
             school), but did not meet with universal approval from teachers
             and parents.

                 A Leeds delegate told the conference...the Baker Days
                 were 'universally hated and resented' within staffrooms.

                 Daily Telegraph 18 Apr. 1990, p. 2

   balance   noun (Health and Fitness)

             In the language of alternative or complementary medicine: a
             harmonious relationship of body, mind, and spirit, which it is
             claimed can only be achieved by treating the whole person.

             Etymology:   Balance has been used in the general figurative
             sense of 'equilibrium' for several centuries (its original and
             literal sense is 'scale(s)'); the recent movement towards
             therapies that take a holistic approach has meant that it is now
             commonly applied in this context, often without further
             explanation (not balance of anything, but simply balance).

             History and Usage:  The rise of alternative therapies in general
             from 'fringe' to respectable complementary status during the
             eighties brought this use of balance to public notice; in
             particular, techniques such as biofeedback which aim to put the
             patient more in touch with the natural rhythms of life and
             increase self-awareness, as well as the growing New Age culture,
             have stressed this concept of balance as a central precept for
             health. This view has been further reinforced by the green
             movement, with its emphasis on maintaining ecological balance so
             as not to upset the natural rhythms there: human life and health
             are seen as inextricably linked with the balance of nature as a
             whole. Marketers and copywriters had noticed this development by
             the middle of the eighties, and had begun using the word balance
             liberally in descriptions of a wide variety of products,
             including food and drink, beauty preparations, etc.

                 This 'holistic' perspective on the essence of healing
                 presents us with a practical challenge: How can we best
                 utilize the knowledge and services encompassed by
                 Western medicine while maintaining a 'healthstyle'
                 attuned to principles of order, balance, and
                 self-reliance?

                 Michael Blate Natural Healer's Acupressure Handbook
                 (1978), p. viii

                 The body is used as a source of ideas about 'wholeness',
                 'balance' and 'harmony', involving both the body and the
                 mind...Nature is deduced from the hypothesis of the
                 instinct of the body for health. But health is only
                 found by discovering an inner balance and harmony.

                 Rosalind Coward The Whole Truth (1989; paperback ed.
                 1990), p. 32

   balloon angioplasty
              (Health and Fitness) see angioplasty

   band      verb (Business World) (People and Society)

             To arrange (pay scales, taxes, interest rates, etc.) in
             graduated bands. Also as an adjective banded; noun banding.

             Etymology:  A figurative application of the sense of the verb
             'to mark with bands or stripes'; the noun has long had a
             corresponding figurative sense 'a range of values'.

             History and Usage:  Although practised in areas such as income
             tax for a long time, the principle of banding became topical
             during the discussion of the community charge (' poll tax') in
             the UK in 1990, when pressure was put on the government to
             introduce a banded rate based on people's ability to pay; the
             new council tax proposed in 1991 included this feature. It was
             also applied to a practice among some local authorities in the
             UK of grouping children by ability, so as to ensure that all
             schools got at least some of the brighter children.

                 This limited banding, which would need legislation,
                 would be intended to respond to complaints about the
                 unfairness of the lump-sum tax.

                 Economist 31 Mar. 1990, p. 27

                 With Downing Street denying reports that Mrs Thatcher
                 had herself now accepted that the poll tax was unfair,
                 the Prime Minister has already rejected any plan for
                 'banding' the tax.

                 Financial Times 28 Apr. 1990, section 1, p. 22

   Band Aid   (Music) (People and Society) see -Aid

   bandog    noun (People and Society)

             A fighting-dog specially bred for its strength and ferocity by
             crossing aggressive breeds such as the American pit
             bull-terrier, rottweiler, and various breeds of mastiff.

             Etymology:  The word bandog has existed in the English language
             since the fifteenth century:  originally, it was any dog that
             had to be tied up to guard a house or because of its ferocity
             (band in its historical sense 'fastening' combined with dog).
             Its use was soon generalized to cover any ferocious dog (such as
             a mastiff or bloodhound); the practice of breeding these
             cross-breeds for secret dog-fights has led to its being revived
             and specialized in meaning.

             History and Usage:  The news that ferocious cross-breeds were
             being produced and used in the UK both for illegal dog-fighting
             and as a way of keeping police at bay while other crimes were
             committed was reported by the RSPCA in early 1990. This followed
             public concern about a number of attacks on children by
             rottweilers and other ferocious dogs which had become
             increasingly popular as pets. Legislation in May 1991 ensured
             that the most dangerous bandogs became banned dogs.

                 The Kennel Club said yesterday it would discipline any
                 member who rears bandogs--American pit bull terriers
                 crossed with rottweilers, mastiffs or Rhodesian
                 ridgebacks.

                 Daily Telegraph 8 Mar. 1990, p. 3

   bang       (Business World) see big bang

   bankable  adjective (Business World) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Certain to bring in a profit; good for the box office (said of a
             production which is sure to succeed or of a star whose name
             alone will ensure the success of the venture).

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the adjectival suffix -able to
             bank. The adjective bankable already existed in the sense
             'receivable at a bank'; this show-business use rests on a pun,
             in that the producer can bank on a profit which in turn can be
             banked.

             History and Usage:   Bankable has been used in this sense in
             Hollywood jargon since the fifties.  During the seventies it
             increasingly featured in popular magazine articles about
             film-making and became popularized still further in the eighties
             by wider reporting of the processes which precede the actual
             making of a film. As the Hollywood-style hype was applied to
             other areas of the arts (writing, music, etc.), it became
             commonplace to read about bankable names in these fields as
             well.

                 Sales of the chosen book may rocket. I say 'may'
                 deliberately because I am not so sure how bankable all
                 the shortlist are.

                 Bookseller 20 Oct. 1984, p. 1705

                 Becoming highly bankable, Allen discovered, meant
                 becoming instantly popular with incipient entrepreneurs.

                 New Yorker 29 Apr. 1985, p. 61

   Barbour   noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Short for Barbour jacket, the trade mark of a well-known brand
             of waxed jacket.

                 This autumn [the shop] is developing a rather Sloane
                 country image due to the run on its Barbours and Cricket
                 jackets.

                 Financial Times 10 Sept. 1983, section 1, p. 13

                 The Seventies brought introspection, and the fashion of
                 'me' emerged in the Thatcher Eighties. In 1989, clad in
                 designer clothes and Barbour jacket, the student
                 programmed a Filofax to ensure that no problems would
                 frustrate the quest for that coveted job in the City.

                 The Times 20 Jan. 1990, p. 36

   bar-code  noun and verb Also written barcode or bar code (Business World)
             (Science and Technology)

             noun: A machine-readable code consisting of a series of lines
             (bars) and spaces of varying width, used for stock control on
             goods for sale, library books, etc.

             transitive verb: To label (goods, etc.) with a bar-code.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a code based on the width of
             bars.

             History and Usage:  The bar-code was invented as long ago as the
             early sixties and was quite widely used by public libraries for
             their book-issuing systems by the mid seventies. The code has to
             be 'read', and in the early days this was usually done using a
             light pen. With the introduction of computerized tills and EPOS
             during the eighties, bar-codes became seemingly ubiquitous on
             goods of all kinds, and a variety of types of bar-code reader
             could be seen (and heard bleeping) at the tills. By the early
             nineties the bar-code had been put to more inventive uses still:
             television-programme magazines published them on their pages so
             that videos could be programmed direct from the code, and
             scientists used them to label the subjects of their experiments
             (in one case, bar-codes were stuck to the hairs on the backs of
             hundreds of bees). The adjective used to describe goods which
             carry a bar-code is bar-coded; the practice of providing goods
             with them is bar-coding.

                 Bar-code reader...comes with a sheet of bar codes...You
                 set the timer by running the reader over the appropriate
                 bar codes for day, time and channel required.

                 Which? Sept. 1989, p. 450

                 The electronic supermarket check-out, which bleeped and
                 flashed up the cost of items taken from the bar codes on
                 the packets, also warranted some attention.

                 Good Food Jan./Feb. 1990, p. 26

   basically adverb

             In short, putting it bluntly, actually. (Usually in speech and
             often used at the beginning of a sentence or clause.)

             Etymology:  A weakened sense of the adverb, which originally
             meant 'essentially, fundamentally, at root'. The weakening
             arises as much from the way in which the word is used (a
             'sentence' adverb) as from the context; the result is a word
             which in most cases is redundant, adding nothing to the sense
             and simply giving the speaker time to think. Purists object to
             it in much the same way as they do to hopefully used at the
             beginning of a clause.

             History and Usage:  Although it had been in use in speech for
             some decades, it only became really fashionable to use basically
             in this almost meaningless way during the late seventies, when
             it took over from actually as a favourite 'filler'. The fashion
             may have been reinforced by the increased influence of the
             recorded television interview: the interviewee, anxious to reply
             succinctly enough to be sure of having the whole answer
             broadcast but also wanting to make it clear that this was not
             all that could be said on the subject, would prefix the reply
             with basically. Whether or not it once had a legitimate purpose,
             basically used in this way fast became a clich‚ and passed from
             spoken English into the written language as well.

                 I'm not political, you know, basically I don't know the
                 first thing about politics or economics or all that
                 LSE-type crap, despite what you think.

                 Stephen Gray Time of Our Darkness (1988), p. 142

                 'Basically I got served off the court,' she admitted.
                 'She served unbelievably well. I couldn't get the ball
                 back in that last set.'

                 Guardian 10 July 1989, p. 15

                 In a few cases, Western women who were told to report
                 with their husbands to pick up their exit visas had to
                 watch the men taken away by security officials,
                 presumably adding to Saddam's human shield.  'They
                 basically traded the husband for the visa,' said a
                 Western diplomat.

                 Washington Post 2 Sept. 1990, section A, p. 1

   basuco    Also written basuko, bazuco, or bazuko noun (Drugs)

             A cheap, impure form of cocaine, made by mixing coca paste with
             a variety of other substances, which is extremely addictive when
             smoked for its stimulant effects.

             Etymology:  A Colombian Spanish word; perhaps connected with
             Spanish basura 'sweepings, waste' (since the drug is made from
             the waste products of refined cocaine) or with bazucar 'to shake
             violently'. Another suggestion is that there have actually been
             two stages of borrowing here: first the English weapon-name
             bazooka was borrowed into Spanish, then it was applied
             figuratively to the drug (with its explosive effect), and
             finally the word was re-borrowed into English in a slightly
             altered form.

             History and Usage:   Basuco is the South American equivalent of
             crack, and has been smoked in Latin American countries for some
             time.  The drug first appeared in the English-speaking world in
             the mid eighties and at first was also known as little devil or
             Suzuki, but basuco now seems to be its established name.

                 There's a big internal market; a lot of coke and basuko
                 used by the street boys.

                 Charles Nicholl The Fruit Palace (1985), p. 67

                 Police and drug enforcement agencies [in Florida]
                 believed basuco had the potential to create a bigger
                 problem than crack...The cost of using basuco was as
                 little as $1 a dose.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 15 Dec. 1986, p. 6

                 While it takes two years of regular cocaine use to
                 become addicted, it takes only a few weeks to become
                 hooked on bazuko, a mind-blowing mix of coca base,
                 marijuana and tobacco containing such impurities as
                 petrol, ether and even sawdust.

                 The Times 14 Sept. 1987, p. 10

   battlebus noun (Politics)

             A bus used as a mobile centre of operations by a politician
             during an election campaign.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a bus in which one goes into
             battle, figuratively speaking.

             History and Usage:  The battlebus was a feature of the British
             general election campaign fought by the Liberal-SDP Alliance in
             1983; the buses even bore the name battlebus on their sides. By
             the time of the next general election in 1987, the battlebus had
             become an established feature of election campaigning and was
             used by other parties as well.

                 She said the message to Mrs Thatcher from the
                 by-election was loud and clear: 'It's time to go.' Then,
                 taking her own advice, she zoomed off in the Sylvia Heal
                 Battlebus for a lightning victory lap around the
                 constituency.

                 Financial Times 24 Mar. 1990, p. 1

   bazuco, bazuko
              (Drugs) see basuco

2.2 beat box...


   beat box  noun Also written beat-box or beatbox (Music) (Youth Culture)

             In colloquial use among musicians, a drum machine (an electronic
             device for producing a variety of drum-beats and percussion
             sounds as backing for music or rapping: see rap); hence a style
             of music with a throbbing electronic drum-beat which often also
             accompanies interludes of rapping. Also, another name for a
             ghetto blaster.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a box which produces the
             beat.

             History and Usage:  The beat box, which is essentially a
             percussion synthesizer, became a popular alternative to the
             conventional drum kit during the early eighties, when
             synthesized sounds in general opened up new possibilities for
             many bands. It was really the increased popularity of rap and
             its spread outside the Black music scene that led to the
             development of a distinct style of music called beat box by the
             mid eighties. A beat box is an expensive piece of equipment, so
             it is perhaps not surprising that some youngsters tried to
             imitate the sound without actually using a beat box; this led to
             the development of a new action noun beatboxing, the activity of
             making percussion noises like those of a beat box using only
             one's mouth and body.

                 How do you compare an album like that to...the sparse
                 beat-box music and intensely engaging call-and-response
                 served up by today's leading rap group, Run-D.M.C.?

                 New York Times 9 Jan. 1985, section C, p. 14

                 Booming out of beat boxes on the street and bounced to
                 in aerobics classes, the 'Big' beat sounds like the next
                 equal-play anthem for American women.

                 Washington Post 19 Mar. 1985, section C, p. 1

                 They usurp rap and beatbox, scratching their own
                 frequently wild guitar marks on top.

                 Q Mar. 1989, p. 72

   Beaujolais Nouveau
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Beaujolais wine that is sold while still in the first year of a
             vintage.

             Etymology:  French for 'new Beaujolais'.

             History and Usage:   Beaujolais Nouveau was made commercially
             available in the early seventies, and, although it had been
             allowed no time to mature and in consequence struck some
             wine-lovers as very acidic, it proved an instant success.  Its
             popularity led to the development of a new sport in the hotel
             and catering world: the race to be the first to have the new
             year's vintage in stock. Some wine bars and restaurants even
             went to the lengths of having stocks flown in by helicopter so
             as to pip others at the post. As the eighties progressed,
             signboards saying 'The Beaujolais Nouveau has arrived' became a
             common sight on pavements outside these places in mid November.
             Beaujolais Primeur (literally 'early-season Beaujolais') is the
             correct term for Beaujolais sold during the first few months of
             the vintage (from mid November until the end of January), and is
             sometimes used interchangeably with Beaujolais Nouveau, but
             Beaujolais Nouveau is much better known in English.

                 A wine shipper telephoned that he'd reserved me fifty
                 cases of Beaujolais Nouveau for November 15th...I never
                 waited for the Nouveau to be delivered but fetched it
                 myself.

                 Dick Francis Proof (1984), p. 76

   becu       (Business World) see ecu

   bell      noun

             In the British colloquial phrase give (someone) a bell: to ring
             (someone) up, to contact by telephone.

             Etymology:  A variation on the theme of give (someone) a ring
             and give (someone) a tinkle, phrases which go back to the
             thirties.

             History and Usage:  Although probably in use in spoken British
             English for some time, this phrase did not start to appear in
             print until the early eighties.  When it did start to spread it
             was perhaps under the influence of such television series as
             Only Fools and Horses and Minder (both of which popularized the
             working-class speech of London's East End). Certainly at about
             that time it became a popular phrase in the youth press as a
             less formal way of saying 'ring up'.  It is curious that it
             should have caught on in this way at a time when fewer and fewer
             telephones actually had bells; during the eighties telephone
             bells were largely replaced by electronic tones, warbles,
             chirps, etc.

                 DJ Sammon gave me a bell and wrote me a letter (thorough
                 chap) about his shows.

                 Rave! 6 Mar. 1990, p. 18

   bells and whistles
             noun phrase (Science and Technology)

             In colloquial use in computing, additional facilities in a
             system, program, etc. which help to make it commercially
             attractive but are often not really essential; gimmicks.

             Etymology:  An allusion to the old fairground organs, with their
             multiplicity of bells and whistles; the bells of a computer are
             actually a range of electronic bleeps.

                 There are more than 600 microsystems on the market so it
                 is hardly surprising that the manufacturers have taken
                 to hanging a few bells and whistles on to their machines
                 to get them noticed.

                 Sunday Times 26 Aug. 1984, p. 49

   belly-bag, belt-bag
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see bum-bag and fanny pack

   best before date
             noun phrase (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A date marked on a food package (usually preceded by the words
             'best before') to show the latest time by which the contents can
             be used without risk of deterioration.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the statutory words best before
             with date: the date before which the food is in best condition.

             History and Usage:  The use of best before dates was codified in
             the UK in 1980, when new food labelling regulations stipulated
             that perishable foods should carry some indication of their
             durability including the words best before and a date; very
             perishable foods must carry a sell-by date or some other
             indication of the shelf-life of the product within the store.
             After outbreaks of salmonella poisoning and listeriosis at the
             end of the eighties, it was felt that for high-risk perishables
             best before was a rather ambiguous label, suggesting that the
             goods would be best consumed before the date given but could
             safely be eaten for some time afterwards (whereas in some cases
             this would actually have been quite dangerous). This led to the
             wider use of an unambiguous use-by date on foods most likely to
             cause illness if stored too long. The best before date has now
             become so commonplace that it has acquired a figurative use
             among City personnel: one's best before date is the age beyond
             which one will be considered past one's best by prospective
             employers.

                 Date marking is now required on most pre-packed foods
                 (with a few exceptions, such as frozen foods, wine and
                 vinegar) unless they have a shelf-life of at least 18
                 months...This is expressed as either a best before date
                 (day, month, year) [etc.]

                 Maurice Hanssen The New E for Additives (1987), p. 17

                 Their colleagues in Eurobond dealing and corporate
                 finance have 'sell by' and 'best before' dates (in most
                 jobs, at age 35) as career markers.

                 Observer 29 Mar. 1987, p. 51

   Betamax   noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology)

             The trade mark of one of the two standard formats for video and
             videotapes; also abbreviated to Beta.

             Etymology:  The name is not (as popularly supposed) derived from
             the Greek letter name beta, but from the Japanese word beta-beta
             'all over' and English max (short for maximum: see max);
             however, the inventors were making conscious and deliberate use
             of the pun with Greek beta to create an English-sounding product
             name.

             History and Usage:  The first home-video systems were developed
             by Sony in the sixties; the immediate predecessor of the Betamax
             was the U-Matic, developed in the late sixties. In order to
             create a smaller machine using smaller tapes, a new method of
             recording was invented for the Betamax, known as beta or 'all
             over' recording because it did away with the tape structure of
             guard bands and empty spaces which had previously been employed,
             and instead used the whole area of the tape. The Sony Betamax
             video system was first available in the mid seventies, but at
             first it was not possible to buy pre-recorded cassettes in this
             format.  However, the policy soon changed and by the mid
             eighties video rental had become an important market in which
             two formats competed:  Betamax and VHS. VHS eventually became
             the standard format for home video, although Betacam, a
             derivative of Betamax, is used for television news-gathering
             worldwide.

                 If you plan to watch a lot of pre-recorded films...there
                 may be difficulties getting a wide choice on Beta; VHS
                 versions are much more common.

                 What Video Dec. 1986, p. 95

                 When Betamax was introduced, our first task was to help
                 people understand why video systems were important in
                 the home...We beat our brains, and finally came up with
                 the phrase 'Time Shift'.  We were explaining the
                 concept...all over the world with such catch phrases as;
                 'For the first time, the world of TV is in your hands
                 with Betamax', or 'Look at your TV just like a
                 magazine'.

                 Sony Corporation Betamax 15th Anniversary (1990), p. 8

   beta test noun and verb (Science and Technology)

             noun: A test of an experimental product (such as computer
             software), carried out by an outside organization after alpha
             testing by the developer (see alpha test) is complete.

             transitive verb: To submit (a product) to a beta test.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding.  Beta, the second letter of
             the Greek alphabet, has long been used to denote the second in a
             series; the beta test is the second test, carried out only after
             successful alpha testing.

             History and Usage:  For history see alpha test. A person whose
             job is to test software in this way for a separate developer is
             a beta-tester; the process is known as beta testing and the
             product at this stage of development is the beta-test version.

                 Problem solving together with alpha and beta testing of
                 new products require a minimum of 2 years experience.

                 The Times 21 Mar. 1985, p. 39

2.3 bhangra


   bhangra   noun and adjective Also written Bhangra (Music) (Youth Culture)

             noun: A style of popular music mainly intended for dancing to,
             which fuses elements of Punjabi folk music with features of
             Western rock and disco music.

             adjective: Belonging to this style of music or the subculture
             surrounding it.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from Punjabi bhangra, a
             traditional Punjabi folk dance associated with harvest.

             History and Usage:   Bhangra music originated in the Asian
             community in the UK in the early eighties, when pop musicians
             with a Punjabi ethnic background started to experiment with
             Westernized versions of their parents' musical traditions. At
             first it was only performed for Asian audiences, but by the end
             of the eighties had attracted a more general following.  It is
             sometimes called bhangra beat.

                 This was not the middle of a feverish Saturday night,
                 but a Wednesday mid-afternoon excursion for devotees of
                 the Bhangra beat, the rhythm of the Punjabi pop...An up
                 and coming group...turned in a performance which set the
                 seemingly incompatible rhythmic stridency of funk and
                 Bhangra dance to a compulsive harmony.

                 Independent 30 June 1987, p. 12

                 This is a bhangra 'all-dayer', part of a booming
                 sub-culture that has sprung up around an English-born
                 hybrid of Punjabi folk and Western rock music.

                 Sunday Telegraph Magazine 22 May 1988, p. 36

2.4 bicycle moto-cross...


   bicycle moto-cross
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Youth Culture) see BMX

   big bang  noun Frequently written Big Bang (Business World)

             In financial jargon, the deregulation of the Stock Exchange in
             London on 27 October 1986. Hence, any far-reaching reform.

             Etymology:   Big bang literally means 'a great explosion' and
             has been used since the forties to refer especially to the
             theory that the universe was formed as a result of a single huge
             explosion. Since the deregulation was to involve several
             significant changes in trading practices which would all be
             introduced at once, the whole process was likened to this
             explosive supposed moment of creation.

             History and Usage:  The deregulation of the Stock Exchange
             resulted from a restrictive practices suit brought by the Office
             of Fair Trading against the Stock Exchange in 1978; this case
             was dropped after the Stock Exchange agreed, in 1983, to do away
             with minimum commissions. However, the abolition of these made
             it difficult for the Stock Exchange to maintain the distinction
             between stockbrokers and stock-jobbers, and it became clear that
             further changes would be needed. The term big bang was in use
             from about that time, as financiers discussed the respective
             merits of a phased introduction of the changes and a big bang
             approach. The main areas of change were the creation of a single
             category of broker-dealer to replace stockbrokers and
             stock-jobbers, the admission of institutions as members, and the
             introduction of a new electronic dealing system known as SEAQ
             (Stock Exchange Automatic Quotation System).  Big bang is
             sometimes used without a preceding article ('after Big Bang',
             etc.); it is also sometimes abbreviated to bang, especially in
             post-bang, an adjective meaning 'belonging to the period after
             big bang'. Since the London big bang, the term has also been
             used in a transferred sense, for example in discussions of EMU°,
             with reference to economic reforms in Eastern Europe, and even
             to describe the new financial basis of the Health Service in the
             UK.

                 In the wake of the City's Big Bang, American and
                 Japanese banks are chasing each other to occupy the few
                 high-tech buildings.

                 City Limits 19 Feb. 1987, p. 10

                 Less than three months after Big Bang, the start of the
                 Solidarity-led government's package of strict austerity
                 and radical market reforms, Poland is in ruins.

                 Economist 24 Mar. 1990, p. 65

                 The scale of the 'big bang' reflects the Government's
                 determination to push through far-reaching health
                 reforms.

                 Sunday Express 16 Sept. 1990, p. 5

             See also market maker

   bike      noun

             In the British slang phrase on your bike (frequently written on
             yer bike): go away, push off, get away with you. Also, get on
             with it, 'pull your finger out'.

             Etymology:  Originally a Cockney expression and typically
             graphic: the hearer should 'push off', and, in order to get away
             faster, should pedal, too.

             History and Usage:  Although almost certainly in spoken use
             since the early sixties, the phrase on your bike did not start
             appearing in print at all frequently until the eighties, when it
             suddenly became a fashionable insult. It was probably made the
             more popular by a speech which Norman Tebbit (then UK Employment
             Secretary) made at the Conservative Party Conference in October
             1981, pointing out that his father had not rioted in the 1930s
             when unemployed, but had 'got on his bike and looked for work'.
             This speech was also the cause of some confusion in the meaning
             of the phrase: whereas before it had always been a ruder (but
             not obscene) way of telling someone to push off or indicating
             that you did not believe a word of what they were saying (the
             senses in which it continued to be used by those in the know),
             it was now taken up by the press as a favourite clich‚ to be
             used in stories about anyone who was unemployed, and acquired
             the secondary meaning 'get on with it, make an effort'.  In this
             secondary sense it is sometimes used as an adjectival phrase
             rather than an exclamation, to describe the attitude which
             Tebbit's remark betrayed.

                 The first ever Tory prime minister who truly believes in
                 pull-yourselves-up-by-your-bootlaces, she wants upwardly
                 mobile, self-helping, on-yer-bike meritocrats.

                 Financial Times 12 Sept. 1984, p. 24

                 On your bike Jake, I said, this joke has gone far
                 enough.

                 Punch 16 Oct. 1985, p. 44

                 'Wally son, it's Pim.' 'On your bike. Pim's doing five
                 in Durham.'

                 Tom Barling The Smoke (1986), p. 115

   Billygate  (Politics) see -gate

   bimbo     noun (People and Society)

             In media slang, an attractive but unintelligent young woman
             (especially one who has an affair with a public figure); a sexy
             female airhead.

             Etymology:  This was originally a direct borrowing from Italian
             bimbo 'little child, baby'. The word was in use in English in
             other senses before this one developed (see below); in all of
             them the original Italian meaning has been lost, but in this
             case there may be some connection with the use of baby for a
             girlfriend, and possibly some influence from dumbo as well.

             History and Usage:   Bimbo first came into English in the early
             twenties, when it was used on both sides of the Atlantic
             (although mainly in the US) as a contemptuous term for a person
             of either sex; ironically, P. G. Wodehouse wrote in the forties
             about 'bimbos who went about the place making passes at innocent
             girls after discarding their wives'. By the end of the twenties
             it had developed the more specific sense of a stupid or 'loose'
             woman, especially a prostitute. During 1987, bimbo started to
             enjoy a new vogue in the media, this time without the
             implication of prostitution: journalists claimed that the bimbo
             was epitomized by young women who were prepared to 'kiss and
             tell', ending their affairs with the rich and famous by selling
             their stories to the popular press. In the US bimbos cost
             politicians their careers; Britain also had its own 'battle of
             the bimbos' in 1988, when the affairs of certain rich men were
             exposed and the lifestyle of the bimbo was discussed in court.
             The word started to acquire derivatives:  a teenage bimbo came
             to be known as a bimbette and a male bimbo as a bimboy (but see
             also himbo), while having an affair with a bimbo was even
             described as bimbology in one paper.

                 In the strict sense the bimbo exists on the fringes of
                 pornography, and some cynics might say she has the
                 mental capacity of a minor kitchen appliance.

                 Independent 23 July 1988, p. 5

                 A gathering of playboys just wasn't a party unless there
                 was at least one...scantily clad bimbette swimming
                 around in a bathtub of shampoo.

                 Arena Autumn/Winter 1988, p. 157

                 Actor Rob Lowe was at the Cannes Film Festival,
                 expressing frustration with his reputation as the Brat
                 Pack's leading bimboy.

                 People 5 June 1989, p. 79

                 Still, Smith, and Gans are not bimbos and understandably
                 bristle at accusations that they are chatty-cathies for
                 their white male superiors.

                 New York Woman Nov. 1989, p. 60

   bio-      combining form (Environment) (Health and Fitness) (Science and
             Technology)

             Part of the words biology and biological, widely used as the
             first element of compounds relating to biology or biotechnology;
             frequently used as a shortened form of biological(ly).

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating biology and biological; in
             both words this part is ultimately derived from Greek bios
             'life'.

             History and Usage:  Compounds relating to 'life' have been
             formed on bio- in English for over three centuries, and even the
             ancient Greeks used it as a combining form. During the second
             half of the twentieth century, however, advances in
             biotechnology and the increasing interest in green issues caused
             a proliferation in popular language of compounds in these areas,
             alongside the continuing use of bio- in scientific terminology.
             Like eco-, bio- was particularly productive in the late sixties
             and early seventies, and many of the compounds which had been
             well known then came back into fashion during the eighties,
             often undergoing further development.  The development of
             plastics and other synthetic products which were biodegradable,
             that is, those that would decompose spontaneously and hence not
             become an environmental hazard, led during the eighties to the
             verb biodegrade.  Biomass, originally a biologists' term for the
             total amount of organic material in a given region, was later
             also used of fuel derived from such matter (also called biofuel,
             or, in the case of the mixture of methane and other gases
             produced by fermenting biological waste, biogas; this was burnt
             to produce what became known as bioenergy). By contrast,
             biofeedback, the conscious control of one's body by 'willing'
             readings on instruments (such as heart-rate monitors) to change,
             reappeared in the eighties as one of the techniques used in
             autogenic training. Computer scientists continued to speculate
             that micro-organisms could be developed that would function like
             the simple logic circuits of conventional microelectronics, thus
             paving the way for biocomputing with biochips. Biological
             warfare, a more disturbing application of biotechnology, became
             sufficiently familiar to be abbreviated as biowar. Concern about
             the effect of even peaceful technology on the biosphere (the
             component of the environment consisting of living things) was
             expressed in the philosophy of biocentrism, in which all life,
             rather than just humanity, is viewed as important (much as in
             Gaia theory). Direct and sometimes violent opposition to such
             aspects of biological research as animal experimentation and
             genetic engineering was organized by biofundamentalists (see
             also animalist° and fundie). As a result of the Green
             Revolution, the public was made more aware of the threat posed
             by intensive cultivation of particular species to biodiversity,
             the richness of variety of the biosphere.

             Towards the end of the decade bio- began to be used
             indiscriminately wherever it had the slightest relevance, either
             frivolously or because of its advertising potential (just as
             biological had once been a glamorous epithet for washing
             powder). The prefix is sometimes even used as a free-standing
             adjective in this sense, meaning little more than 'biologically
             acceptable'. Examples include biobeer, biobottom (an
             'eco-friendly nappy cover'), bio house, bio home, bioloo,
             bioprotein, and bio yoghurt.

                 The term bio-chip, coined only about four years ago,
                 already means different things to different people. In
                 the United States, where the word arose, researchers
                 generally use it to refer to chips in which the silicon
                 transistors would be replaced by single protein-like
                 molecules. Such a molecule could be stable in one of at
                 least two different forms of...charge distribution,
                 depending on its external environment. But some
                 scientists, particularly in Europe, now seem to use
                 bio-chip more widely to refer to any 'smart' system
                 small enough to interact with a cell.

                 The Age (Melbourne) 28 Nov. 1983, p. 5

                 Even medical insurance companies are now beginning to
                 recognize the value of a veritable A-to-Z of 'holistic'
                 therapies..., including acupuncture, biofeedback and
                 chiropractic.

                 John Elkington & Julia Hailes The Green Consumer Guide
                 (1988; paperback ed.  1989), p. 260

                 The bio-diversity campaign is an attempt to bring the
                 seriousness of the global situation to the attention of
                 people in all walks of life.

                 The Times 31 Mar. 1989, p. 5

                 German architect Joachim Ebler has designed a range of
                 'bio homes'...The buildings are made with timbers from
                 sustainable sources and are not treated with chemical
                 preservatives.

                 Green Magazine Oct. 1989, p. 14

                 Therapeutic properties...are ascribed to the presence of
                 the live lactic acid bacteria, particularly in the
                 bio-yoghurts, said to promote the friendly bacteria in
                 the gut which can be affected by the overuse of
                 antibiotics.

                 Healthy Eating Feb./Mar. 1990, p. 37

                 The 43-year-old Californian has chosen to have a second
                 child because her teenage daughter has leukaemia and
                 will die without a transplant of bone
                 marrow...Biofundamentalists claim emotively that she
                 wants to use the baby as 'a spare part'...Bone marrow
                 will be extracted for implanting into her 17-year-old
                 sister.

                 Daily Telegraph 9 Apr. 1990, p. 16

   biotechnology
             noun (Science and Technology)

             The branch of technology concerned with the use of living
             organisms (usually micro-organisms) in industrial, medical, and
             other scientific processes.

             Etymology:  Formed from the combining form bio- and technology.

             History and Usage:  Micro-organisms are capable of carrying out
             many chemical and physical processes which it is not possible or
             economic to duplicate:  varieties of cheese and wine, for
             example, are given their distinctive flavours and appearances by
             the action of bacteria and fungi, and antibiotics such as
             penicillin could originally only be produced from cultures of
             particular micro-organisms. During the seventies and eighties
             the increasing sophistication of genetic engineering, in
             particular recombinant DNA technology, made it possible for a
             biotechnologist to 'customize' micro-organisms capable of
             producing important or useful substances on a large scale.
             Insulin, interferon, and various hormones and antibodies have
             been produced by this method, as well as foodstuffs such as
             mycoprotein. Strains of bacteria which digest oil spills and
             toxic wastes have also been developed. The commercial importance
             of biotechnology was recognized in 1980 when the US Supreme
             Court ruled that such genetically engineered micro-organisms
             could be patented: during the eighties a number of firms
             appeared which specialized in the manufacture of substances by
             these means. Such a business is known as a biotech company or
             biotech. The potential of these companies as investments was
             recognized in 1982 by the editors of the science journal Nature,
             who began publishing performance statistics for the stocks of
             some representative US companies operating in the field.

                 Conventional brewing and wine making are not usually
                 regarded as biotechnology but many other fermentation
                 processes are.

                 The Times 9 June 1983, p. 22

                 To an extent, the biotech companies have taken over from
                 the high-techs as the main vehicle for investors' 'risk'
                 dollars.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 30 June 1986, p. 28

                 A biotechnologist in London has found a way to make the
                 natural stimulant which triggers the 'immune system' of
                 plants.

                 New Scientist 23 June 1988, p. 48

2.5 black economy...


   black economy
             noun (Business World)

             The underground economy of earnings which are not declared for
             tax purposes, etc.

             Etymology:  Formed by applying the black of black market to the
             economy.

             History and Usage:  The black economy was first so named at the
             end of the seventies, when it was revealed that undeclared
             earnings accounted for an increasing proportion of the national
             income in several Western countries. The trend continued
             throughout the eighties.

                 Part-time jobs have tended to be filled either by new
                 entrants to the workforce, or in the 'black economy'--by
                 people on the dole who do not declare their earnings.

                 The Times 24 June 1985, p. 17

   Black Monday
             (Business World)

             In the colloquial language of the stock-market, the day of the
             world stock-market crash which began in New York on Monday 19
             October 1987 and resulted in great falls in the values of stocks
             and shares on all the world markets.

             Etymology:  Any day of the week on which something awful happens
             can be given the epithet black; the name Black Monday had, in
             fact, already been used over the centuries for a number of
             Mondays, notably (since the fourteenth century) for Easter
             Monday.  Black Tuesday was a term already in use on Wall Street
             to refer to Tuesday 29 October 1929, the worst day of the
             original Wall Street crash.

             History and Usage:  Within days of the dramatic drop in share
             prices which started in New York and sent panic all over the
             world, the financial press was describing the event as Black
             Monday. The crash had important economic consequences in several
             countries, so Black Monday is likely to remain a meaningful
             financial nickname for some time.

                 The Dow Jones, once up 712 points for the year, drops
                 508 points on Black Monday. Paper losses total $500
                 billion.

                 Life Fall 1989, p. 28

                 Many institutions and individual investors have shied
                 away from stock-index futures, blaming them for speeding
                 the stock market crash on Black Monday two years ago.

                 Wall Street Journal 17 Oct. 1989, section C, p. 29

             See also meltdown

   black tar noun (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, an exceptionally pure and potent
             form of heroin from Mexico. Also known more fully as black-tar
             heroin or abbreviated to tar.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: this form of heroin is dark
             (black) in colour and has the consistency of tar; tar had also
             been a slang word for opium since the thirties.

             History and Usage:   Black tar first became known under this
             name to drug enforcement officials in Los Angeles in 1983
             (though it may in fact be the same thing as black stuff, slang
             for brown Mexican heroin since the late sixties); its abuse had
             become a serious and widespread problem in various parts of the
             US by 1986. It is made and distributed only from opium-poppy
             crops in Mexico using a process which makes it at the same time
             very pure and relatively cheap.  Black tar has a large number of
             other slang names, including those listed in the Economist
             quotation given below.

                 DEA officials blame the low price of 'black tar' for
                 forcing down other heroin prices, causing the nation's
                 first general increase in overall heroin use in more
                 than five years.

                 Capital Spotlight 17 Apr. 1986, p. 22

                 Black tar, also known as bugger, candy, dogfood,
                 gumball, Mexican mud, peanut butter and tootsie
                 roll...started in Los Angeles and has since spread to 27
                 states...What makes black tar heroin unique is that it
                 has a single, foreign source--Mexico--and finds its way
                 into Mexican-American distribution networks, often via
                 illegal immigrants.

                 Economist 7 June 1986, p. 37

   blanked   adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: ignored, cold-shouldered, out on a
             limb.

             Etymology:  This is presumably a figurative use: a person who is
             blanked apparently no longer exists--he or she might as well be
             a blank space.

             History and Usage:  This usage seems to have originated as a
             verb blank (someone or something) in the world of crime several
             decades ago (compare blank out, meaning literally 'to rub out').
             As a verb it was apparently used by both criminals and
             policemen; in his book The Guvnor (1977), Gordon F. Newman uses
             it several times, for example 'He also blanked Scotch Pat's next
             suggestion, about calling a couple of girls.' It has only
             recently emerged as an adjective among young people.

                 Are you blanked? Safe? Or lame?

                 New Statesman 16 Feb. 1990, p. 12

   blip      noun and verb (Business World)

             noun: A temporary movement in statistics (usually in an
             unexpected or unwelcome direction); hence any kind of temporary
             problem or hold-up; a 'hiccup'.

             intransitive verb: (Of figures, as on a graph etc.) to rise
             suddenly; (of a business, an economic indicator, etc.) to suffer
             a temporary 'hiccup'.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of an existing sense of blip in
             radar: the small bump on a financial graph which represents the
             temporary change looks rather like the apparent rise and fall of
             the blip as it appears on the even trace on a radar screen.

             History and Usage:   Blip started to be used figuratively in
             this way, particularly in economics and finance, during the
             seventies. In the UK it was largely limited to economic or
             business jargon until September 1988, when Nigel Lawson, then
             Chancellor of the Exchequer, was widely quoted as having
             announced that a significant increase in the Retail Price Index
             was to be regarded only as a 'temporary blip' and not as a sign
             that the government's anti-inflation policies were failing.
             After this, the word became fashionable in the British press and
             it was common to find it applied more widely, outside the field
             of finance, to any temporary problem. As was the case with Mr
             Lawson, it is not unusual to find that the person who describes
             a sudden change as a blip is not yet in a position to know
             whether it will, in the end, prove to be only temporary. This
             adds a certain euphemistic tinge to the usage.

                 Nigel Lawson's dilemma is the Conservative Party's also.
                 Is the first tremor on its happy political landscape
                 merely 'a blip', as the Chancellor has called the storm
                 that has gradually engulfed him?

                 Listener 2 Mar. 1989, p. 10

                 Prices moved higher during overnight trading, and
                 blipped a shade higher still following the release of
                 the G.N.P. figures.

                 New York Times 27 Apr. 1989, section D, p. 19

2.6 BMX.


   BMX       abbreviation (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Youth Culture)

             Short for bicycle moto-cross, a sport involving organized
             cycle-racing and stunt-riding on a dirt track. Also applied to
             the particular style of sturdy, manoeuvrable cycle used for
             this.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Bicycle and Moto-, with X
             representing the word cross.

             History and Usage:   BMX developed in the US in the late
             seventies, when youngsters pressed for special tracks where they
             could race each other on their bikes without interfering with
             normal road traffic or pedestrians. It quickly became popular in
             several countries, and, by the mid eighties, ownership of a
             distinctive BMX bike had become a status symbol among young
             people, whether or not they actually intended to take part in
             the sport. The main characteristics of the cycles are their
             manoeuvrability (making possible some very daring stunts in
             freestyle BMX), small colourful wheels, and brightly-coloured
             protective pads fixed on the tubular frame. A wide variety of
             other BMX merchandise (such as racing suits, helmets, and
             gloves) became available during the eighties as manufacturers
             cashed in on the popularity--and the dangers--of the sport. By
             the end of the eighties, organized BMX on tracks had waned,
             although the bikes and stunts remained popular.

                 Danny and the Mongoose Team promote the 'fastest growing
                 youth sport in the country'--BMX bike racing--with a
                 single called 'BMX Boys'.

                 Sounds 3 Dec. 1983, p. 6

                 Up on the far top corner of camp lies the BMX track. A
                 very fast downhill track with four turns and
                 jumps...adds up to a fun and competitive track.

                 BMX Plus! Sept. 1990, p. 36

2.7 boardsailing...


   boardsailing
             noun Also written board sailing or board-sailing (Lifestyle and
             Leisure)

             Another (more official) name for windsurfing.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  sailing on a board.

             History and Usage:  The name boardsailing was first used in the
             US at the very beginning of the eighties for a water sport which
             had developed out of surfing, involving a board (a sailboard)
             similar to a surfboard but using wind in a small sail rather
             than waves for its power. The sport developed during the
             seventies and at first was also known as sailboarding.
             Particularly since it became an Olympic demonstration sport in
             1983, it has been known officially as boardsailing, although
             most people probably know it colloquially as windsurfing. A
             person who practises this sport is known as a boardsailor or
             boardsailer (officially, that is:  sailboarder and windsurfer
             also exist!).

                 A more contentious point is whether HRH and his fellow
                 enthusiasts are wind surfers, sailboarders, boardsailers
                 or simply bored sailors.

                 Daily Mail 9 Apr. 1981, p. 39

                 After scoring seven firsts in as many pre-Olympic
                 boardsailing regattas this year,...Penny Way is fast
                 becoming Britain's hottest Olympic hopeful.

                 The Times 8 June 1990, p. 42

   body mousse
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see mousse°

   body-popping
             noun Also written body popping or bodypopping (Lifestyle and
             Leisure) (Youth Culture)

             A style of urban street dancing featuring jerky robotic
             movements, made to music with a disco beat; abbreviated in
             street slang to popping.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the popping part is probably
             a reference to the jerkiness of the dance's movements in
             response to the popping beat of the music, which is reminiscent
             of the electronic bleeps of a computer monitor. There may also
             be some influence from West Indian English poppy-show 'an
             ostentatious display' (itself ultimately related to puppet
             show). Certainly the idea is to perform mechanical movements
             like those of a robot or doll, punctuated by a machine-gun
             rhythm.

             History and Usage:   Body-popping developed on the streets of
             Los Angeles in the late seventies and became popular in other US
             cities, especially among teenagers in the Bronx area of New
             York, by the early eighties. Along with break-dancing, with
             which it gradually merged to become one of the styles of street
             dancing contributing to hip hop culture, body-popping proved to
             be one of the most important dance crazes of the decade.  By the
             middle of the eighties it had spread throughout the
             English-speaking world, and crews of dancers (both Black and
             White) had been formed in the UK and elsewhere. The verb (body-)
             pop and agent noun (body-) popper date from about the same time
             as body-popping.

                 The Pop is very characteristic of the Electric Boogie.
                 Because of the popping nature of Breakdance music, your
                 Boogie will be fresh if you can Pop with all your moves.
                 It is as if the music were Popping you.

                 Mr Fresh with the Supreme Rockers Breakdancing (1984),
                 p. 68

                 Kids on the rough, tough streets of the Bronx used to
                 beat each other up until they began to have battles in
                 'break dancing' and 'body popping'.

                 The Times 2 Feb. 1985, p. 9

                 'What's the difference between breaking and popping?'
                 'When they popping, they be waving, you know, doing
                 their hands and stuff like that. When they breaks, they
                 spins on the floor, be going around.'

                 American Speech Spring 1989, p. 32

   body-scanner
             noun (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology)

             A scanning X-ray machine which uses computer technology to
             produce cross-sectional pictures (tomographs) of the body's
             internal state from a series of X-ray pictures.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a scanner which produces
             pictures of the whole body.

             History and Usage:  The body-scanner (at first called a
             whole-body scanner or total body scanner) was developed by EMI
             in 1975, using the same technology as had been used to produce
             the brain scanner a few years earlier. It was immediately
             welcomed as a powerful diagnostic tool, especially since it was
             capable of showing up tumours in all parts of the body while
             they were still at an early stage of development. During the
             eighties the body-scanner became commonplace in the US, but its
             high price made it a rarer acquisition in the National Health
             Service in the UK. As the technology of ultrasound and magnetic
             resonance imaging (see MRI) have developed, the term
             body-scanner has been extended in colloquial use to cover all
             kinds of machines which scan the body and compute
             cross-sectional pictures of its inside.

                 The studies could also give a better understanding of
                 crystals, which are widely used in electronics, and of
                 magnetism, which is exploited in many body scanners.

                 Sunday Times 6 May 1990, section D, p. 15

   body-snatching
              (Business World) see headhunt

   bodysuit  noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A close-fitting stretch all-in-one garment for women, used
             mainly for exercising and sports.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a suit (something like a
             swimsuit in fabric structure) to cover the whole body.

             History and Usage:  The bodysuit first appeared as a fashion
             garment in the late sixties (when it was usually an all-in-one
             body garment fastened with snap fasteners at the crotch); in the
             late seventies and eighties it enjoyed a new lease of life as a
             skin-tight all-in-one sports garment, benefiting from the craze
             for exercise regimes and the fashion for sportswear outside the
             gymnasium and sports stadium.

                 Before he changes into his tight red Spandex bodysuit
                 with the plunging neckline, there is the quick hint of a
                 tattoo lurking beneath the rolled-up sleeve on his right
                 arm.

                 Washington Post 13 May 1982, section C, p. 17

                 Four schoolgirls stunned spectators and officials by
                 wearing 'Flo Jo' bodysuits at Victoria's most
                 prestigious schools' athletics meeting at the weekend.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 31 Oct. 1989, p. 3

                 The eye-boggling bodysuit...is a style trend that has
                 been taken up by designers.

                 New York Times 5 Aug. 1990, section 6, p. 38

   boff       (People and Society) see bonk

   boggling  adjective

             In colloquial use: staggering, stunning, overwhelming.

             Etymology:  Formed by dropping the word mind from mind-boggling,
             itself a fashionable expression since the mid sixties.

             History and Usage:   Boggling started to be used following nouns
             other than mind, and also on its own, in the mid seventies. By
             the end of the eighties, mind-boggling seemed quite dated, while
             boggling was commonly used, especially to describe a very large
             statistic or sum of money--in fact anything that would make you
             boggle-eyed with amazement or surprise. Although essentially a
             colloquial usage, boggling is found in print, especially in
             journalism.

                 Per-mile costs fell fractionally as a result of the
                 additional travel, whose total was a boggling 1.526
                 trillion miles.

                 New York Times 18 Aug. 1985, section 5, p. 9

                 Serious damage can mean even more boggling bills, but at
                 least your insurance should cover it.

                 Which? Mar. 1990, p. 144

   bomb factory
             noun (Politics)

             In the colloquial usage of police press releases: a place where
             terrorist bombs are made illegally or materials for their
             manufacture are secretly stored.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: an unofficial factory for
             bombs.

             History and Usage:  The term bomb factory seems to have been
             invented by the police, who have used it in press releases
             announcing the detection of terrorist bomb manufacture since the
             mid seventies. The term was taken up enthusiastically by the
             press--especially the tabloids, for whom it satisfied all the
             requirements of headline material (short words, the use of nouns
             in apposition, and emotiveness).

                 He had no idea the four people in the room were turning
                 it into a bomb factory.

                 The Times 21 June 1986, p. 3

                 A senior police officer described the hoard--one of the
                 biggest ever found--as 'practically the entire contents
                 of a bomb factory'.

                 Daily Mirror 12 Nov. 1990, p. 2

   bonk      verb and noun (People and Society)

             transitive or intransitive verb: In young people's slang, to
             have sex with (someone); to copulate.

             noun: An act of sex.

             Etymology:   Bonk originally meant 'to hit resoundingly' and the
             corresponding noun was an onomatopoeic word for the abrupt thud
             that is heard when something hard hits a solid object (such as
             the head); it was used fairly typically in the school-playground
             joke 'What goes ninety-nine bonk?'--'A centipede with a wooden
             leg', which has been told for at least half a century. The
             transition from 'to hit resoundingly' to the present use was
             made by way of an intransitive sense 'to make a bonking noise,
             to thud'. The slang use has parallels in the bang of gang-bang
             and in the American slang equivalent boff (noun and verb). A
             less likely theory is that it is backslang for knob, also a
             vulgar slang way of saying 'have sex'.

             History and Usage:  This sense of bonk, which is really a
             humorous euphemism, has apparently been in spoken use among
             young people (especially, it seems, at a number of public
             schools) since the fifties and first appeared in print in the
             seventies. Although middle-class slang, it is coarse enough not
             to have been used in print at all frequently until the middle of
             the eighties. Then it was brought into vogue by journalists
             unable to resist the pun with bonk as the onomatopoeic word for
             the sound a tennis ball makes in contact with the racquet: in
             the 1987 season, the defending Wimbledon champion Boris Becker
             was giving disappointing performances, something which the
             tabloids put down to too much bonking. This episode was followed
             by much journalistic speculation about the origin of the word
             (including a street interview on the consumer programme That's
             Life) and considerably increased use of it in print, often with
             heavy innuendo. As is often the case with words taken up by the
             media in this way, interest in it died down within a short time,
             but by then it had acquired a respectability that allowed it to
             be used even in the quality newspapers. The corresponding action
             noun is bonking; agent noun bonker.

                 The Fleet Street rags had their angle after the Doohan
                 victory:  BONKED OUT; TOO MUCH SEX BEATS BIG BORIS.

                 Sports Illustrated 6 July 1987, p. 21

                 Flaubert bonked his way round the Levant, his sense of
                 sexual adventure unquenched by the prospect, soon
                 realised, of catching unpleasant diseases.

                 Independent 28 May 1988, p. 17

                 Police took away...a 'little black' book containing the
                 names of thousands of women with whom the legendary
                 Belgian bonker is said to have had steamy love romps.

                 Private Eye 15 Sept. 1989, p. 23

   boom box  noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Music)

             In US slang, the same thing as a ghetto blaster.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a box which booms.

             History and Usage:  For history, see ghetto blaster.

                 How about a law against playing 'boom boxes' in public
                 places?

                 Washington Post 26 June 1985, section C, p. 10

   boomer    noun (People and Society)

             In US slang, short for baby boomer: a person born as a result of
             the baby boom, a sharp increase in the birth rate which occurred
             in the US at the end of the Second World War and lasted until
             the mid sixties.

             Etymology:  Formed by dropping the word baby from baby boomer.
             Before this, boomer had meant 'a person who pushes or boosts an
             enterprise' in US English.

             History and Usage:  The term baby boom has been in use in US
             English since the forties, but it was only when the children
             born as a result of the postwar boom reached maturity in the
             seventies and eighties that baby boomers started to be referred
             to frequently in the American press.  This generation was by
             then so numerically significant in US society that advertisers,
             businesses, and politicians considered them an essential group
             to cater for. So frequent did the name baby boomer become that
             by the end of the eighties it could be abbreviated to boomer
             without fear of misunderstanding, and boomer itself became the
             basis for compounds such as boomer-age and post-boomer.

                 The post-boomers have also had to deal with the more
                 recent sellout of the baby boom generation.

                 Globe & Mail (Toronto) 27 May 1989, section D, p. 5

                 The script is ambitiously constructed, tracing the
                 relationships of several boomer-age parents with their
                 kids, their siblings, and their own parents.

                 New Yorker 18 Sept. 1989, p. 28

                 The boomer group is so huge that it tends to define
                 every era it passes through, forcing society to
                 accommodate its moods and dimensions.

                 Time 16 July 1990, p. 57

             See also buster

   boot      verb (Science and Technology)

             transitive:  To start up (a computer) by loading its operating
             system into the working memory; to cause (the system or a
             program) to be loaded in this way.  intransitive:  (Of a
             computer) to be started up by the loading of the operating
             system; (of a program) to be loaded.

             Etymology:  An abbreviated form of bootstrap 'to initiate a
             fixed sequence of instructions which initiates the loading of
             further instructions and, ultimately, of the whole system'; this
             in turn is named after the process of pulling oneself up by
             one's bootstraps, a phrase which is widely supposed to be based
             on one of the eighteenth-century Adventures of Baron Munchausen.
             Despite the traditional practice of getting sluggish machines to
             work by giving them a surreptitious kick, there is no connection
             whatever between this verb and boot meaning 'to kick'.

             History and Usage:   Bootstraps have been used in computing
             since the fifties, but it was not until personal computers
             became widespread in the seventies and eighties that the noun
             bootstrap and the corresponding verb were abbreviated to boot.
             The verb is often used with up; the action noun for this process
             is booting (up).

                 If a computer does not have a hard drive and must be
                 booted from a floppy, one should boot from a
                 'write-protected' disc that cannot be altered.

                 New Scientist 4 Mar. 1989, p. 42

                 At last the Amiga can boast a game you'll be proud to
                 boot up when your crystal analyst comes round to listen
                 to your collect of Brian Eno LPs.

                 CU Amiga Apr. 1990, p. 57

   born-again
             adjective (People and Society)

             Full of the enthusiastic zeal of one recently converted or
             reconverted to a cause; vigorously campaigning. Also, getting a
             second chance to do something.

             Etymology:  A figurative application of the adjective, which
             originally developed from the verbal phrase to be born again
             (after the story of Jesus and Nicodemus in St John's Gospel,
             chapter 3) and was properly used to apply to an evangelical
             Christian who had had a conversion experience of new life in
             Christ and made this experience the basis for all later actions.

             History and Usage:  The adjective born-again has been used to
             refer to fundamentalist or evangelical Christians (especially in
             the Southern States of the US) since at least the sixties.
             Probably the most influential factor leading to the development
             of a figurative sense was the election of Jimmy Carter to the
             Presidency of the United States in 1977; the connection between
             his born-again Baptist background and the policies that he put
             forward was made much of in the press at the time, as were the
             hopes of fundamentalist 'Bible Belt' Christians for his
             Presidency. Another (quite separate) influence was the rise of
             fundamentalism within the Islamic world during the early
             eighties and the zeal with which it was presented to the West.
             By the end of the eighties, the figurative use was well
             established and could be applied to virtually any convert to a
             cause, however trivial; it had also started to be used to
             describe anyone who had been given a second chance to do
             something (another 'life' in the language of games).

                 Duncan and Jeremy are born-again northerners. They saw
                 the northern light last year, when they turned their
                 backs on London.

                 Sunday Express Magazine 9 Aug. 1987, p. 23

                 In March 1988 I was a born-again student, having got my
                 PPL in 1954...then having to let the licence go at the
                 end of 1956 when marriage came along.

                 Pilot Nov. 1988, p. 26

   bottle    noun

             In British slang: courage, spirit, guts. Usually in phrases such
             as have (got) a lot of bottle, to be spirited or courageous; to
             have guts; lose one's bottle, to lose one's nerve (and so as a
             phrasal verb bottle out, to lose one's nerve; to pull out,
             especially at the last minute).

             Etymology:  The phrase no bottle has been used in underworld
             slang to mean 'no use, worthless' since the middle of the
             nineteenth century; it is likely that this was reinterpreted
             this century to mean 'lacking substance or spirit', and that
             from there bottle started to be used on its own and eventually
             to be incorporated into new phrases. The rhyming slang
             expression bottle and glass for 'arse' is often assumed to have
             something to do with these expressions (in which case bottle
             would be more strictly 'guts'), but this may be no more than
             popular speculation.

             History and Usage:  These phrases, which are essentially part of
             the spoken language, started to appear in written sources in the
             sixties as representations of Cockney or underworld speech.
             Their use was reinforced by a milk marketing campaign in the
             early eighties, the caption for which read 'It's gotta lotta
             bottle', and by television series such as Minder, in which
             Cockney expressions were brought to a wide audience.  Bottle out
             did not appear in the written language at all until the very end
             of the seventies (at about the same time as this series was
             first shown).

                 Goodness, was I going to give her a bad time! Of course,
                 when it got down to it, I bottled out completely.

                 Robert McLiam Wilson Ripley Bogle (1989), p. 162

                 You appear not to have the bottle, courtesy or
                 wherewithal to actually approach her in person.

                 Just Seventeen Dec. 1989, p. 22

                 Some of the warders lost their bottle and just fled.

                 News of the World 8 Apr. 1990, p. 6

   bottle bank
             noun (Environment)

             A collection point to which empty bottles and other glass
             containers can be taken for recycling.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; whereas in blood bank, sperm
             bank, etc. the metaphor extends to deposits and withdrawals, the
             recycling bank accepts deposits only.

             History and Usage:  An early manifestation of public interest in
             conservation, the bottle bank scheme started in the UK in 1977.
             The covered skips or plastic bells normally used for this
             purpose had become a familiar sight in supermarket car parks by
             the end of the eighties--often overflowing, since there proved
             to be more enthusiasm among the public than capacity to recycle
             the glass.

                 Why not take your old, non-returnable glass bottles to
                 your local bottle bank instead of throwing them away?

                 Which? Aug. 1984, p. 355

   bought deal
             noun (Business World)

             In financial jargon, an arrangement for marketing an issue of
             bonds or shares, in which a securities house buys up all the
             stock (often after tendering against other houses) and then
             resells it at an agreed price.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; the issuer of the shares can
             be sure that the whole deal will be bought in advance.

             History and Usage:  A practice which originated in the US in the
             early eighties, the bought deal soon proved attractive to
             companies in the UK as well as an alternative to the standard
             rights issue; however, the legal right of shareholders to first
             refusal on new issues of shares in the UK gave it limited
             applicability.

                 The American 'bought deal' might become the norm for
                 equity issues as well as for fixed interest loans.

                 The Times 11 Sept. 1986, p. 23

   bovine spongiform encephalopathy
              (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see BSE

   boy toy    (People and Society) see toyboy

2.8 brat pack...


   brat pack noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             In media slang, a group of young Hollywood film stars of the mid
             eighties who were popularly seen as having a rowdy, fun-loving,
             and pampered lifestyle and a spoilt attitude to society; more
             generally, any precocious and aggressive clique.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; deliberately made punningly
             like rat pack, a slang name for a group of rowdy young stars led
             by Frank Sinatra in the fifties.

             History and Usage:  The term was coined by David Blum in New
             York magazine in 1985 in an article about the film St Elmo's
             Fire, and quickly caught on in the media. At a time when rich
             young stars of sport as well as films were gaining a reputation
             for bad behaviour in public places, it became a kind of
             shorthand for the young who had been spoilt by early success and
             thought the whole world should be organized to suit them. Blum's
             article also coined the term brat packer for a member of the
             original Hollywood brat pack; this, too, is used more widely to
             refer to members of other brat packs, from professional tennis
             players to young, successful authors.

                 The Brat Packers act together whenever possible.

                 New York 10 June 1985, p. 42

                 Border hit back at an Indian newspaper report, which
                 dubbed the Australian cricket team a 'brat pack',
                 notorious for uncouth behavior.

                 Brisbane Telegraph 21 Oct. 1986, p. 2

                 Young guns. A new generation rediscovers an old genre:
                 brat-packers Estevez, Sutherland, Sheen and Lou Diamond
                 'La Bamba' Phillips in a rollicking re-run of the Billy
                 The Kid legend.

                 Q Mar. 1989, p. 119

   break-dancing
             noun Also written breakdancing or break dancing (Lifestyle and
             Leisure) (Youth Culture)

             A very individualistic and competitive style of dancing,
             popularized by Black teenagers in the US, and characterized by
             energetic and acrobatic movements performed to a loud insistent
             beat; abbreviated in the slang of those who dance it to
             breaking.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the dancing that was
             developed specifically to fill the break in a piece of rap music
             (i.e. an instrumental interlude during which the DJ would be
             busy mixing, sampling, etc.). In Jamaican English, to broke up
             has meant 'to wriggle the body in a dance' since at least the
             fifties; in the Deep South of the US a breakdown has been the
             name for a riotous dance or hoedown (with an associated verbal
             phrase to break down) since the middle of the nineteenth
             century, but the connection between rap music and the
             development of break-dancing in New York was so close that these
             older dialectal uses are unlikely to have had much influence.

             History and Usage:  This style of dancing was pioneered during
             the late seventies by teams of Black teenage dancers (notably
             the 'Rock Steady Crew') on the streets of the south Bronx area
             of New York; each team (or crew) worked in parallel with
             graffiti artists, and the combination of music, art, and street
             entertainment that they developed formed the core of the new
             Black street culture called hip hop. By 1982 the phenomenon had
             been taken up by the press and widely publicized (to such an
             extent that by the mid eighties there was talk of over-exposure
             in the media and breaksploitation, an alteration of the more
             familiar word blaxploitation 'exploitation of Blacks'). To
             connoisseurs, breaking is only one of a number of styles of
             movement making up the highly competitive dance culture; others
             include body-popping, the lock, and the moonwalk. In breaking
             itself, dancers spin on the ground, using the body like a human
             top, and pivoting on a shoulder or elbow, the head, or the back.
             The craze quickly spread to other parts of the world and began
             to lose its association with Black culture. The noun
             break-dancing was quickly followed by the verb break-dance
             (simply break in Black slang use) and both these forms also
             exist as nouns; a person who break-dances is a break-dancer (or
             breaker).

                 While Freddy lays down chanting, talking, rhythmic rap,
                 the Break Dancers break, trying to out-macho one
                 another. They jump in the air and land on their backs,
                 do splits and flip over.

                 Washington Post 4 June 1982, Weekend section, p. 5

                 They are young street dudes, nearly all of them black,
                 anywhere from 10 to 23 years old, and what they are
                 doing is a new style of dancing known as 'breaking' or
                 'break dancing'.

                 Daily News 23 Sept. 1983, p. 18

                 In Leningrad the Juventus Health and Sports Club has
                 activities from Aikido wrestling, skateboarding and
                 break-dancing to tennis.

                 The Times 5 Apr. 1989, p. 46

                 It seems any moment they will break from this
                 4,000-year-old tradition and spin off into a lively
                 breakdance.

                 Burst of Excitement (California Institute of Technology)
                 Mar. 1990, p. 3

   briefcase  (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Music) see ghetto blaster

   brilliant adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: great, fantastic, really good. Often
             abbreviated to brill.

             Etymology:  A weakening of the original meaning (in much the
             same way as great, fantastic, etc. had been weakened by earlier
             generations of young people), followed in the case of brill by
             clipping of the ending (like the earlier fab etc.)

             History and Usage:  Although the literal meaning of brilliant is
             'shining brightly', the adjective had been used figuratively for
             two centuries and more before being taken up as a cult word by
             young people; these earlier figurative uses often described some
             kind of spectacle, or a person with abnormal talents. From about
             the end of the 1970s, though, brilliant began to be used to
             express approval of just about anything.  When used in this way,
             it is sometimes pronounced as a three-syllable word with the
             primary stress shifted to the final syllable: /--/.  Brill
             appeared in the early eighties. Both are considered a little
             dated by the very young, but they still seem to be going strong
             in comics and children's television programmes.

                 I allowed Pandora to visit me in my darkened bedroom. We
                 had a brilliant kissing session.

                 Sue Townsend The Growing Pains of Adrian Mole (1984),
                 p. 15

                 I think your magazine is brill.

                 Music Making July 1987, p. 11

   brilliant pebbles
             plural noun Also written Brilliant Pebbles (War and Weaponry)

             A code-name for small computerized heat-seeking missiles
             designed to intercept and destroy enemy weapons; part of the US
             Strategic Defense Initiative (or Star Wars). Also, the
             technology used to produce these.

             Etymology:  One of a series of names making a word-play out of
             the idea of smart weaponry. The largest, heaviest, and least
             intelligent weapons (see intelligent°) were spoken about by
             scientists as moronic mountains, smaller and more intelligent
             ones as smart rocks (a term coined by SDI chief scientist Gerald
             Yonas: see smart), and yet smaller and smarter ones as brilliant
             pebbles; a fourth category in the series was savant sand.

             History and Usage:   Brilliant pebbles were the idea of US
             scientist Lowell Wood, who proposed in 1988 that existing
             smart-rocks technology could simply be 'shrunk' to smaller
             weapons. Work then started on developing brilliant pebbles in
             place of the space-based interceptor originally planned for Star
             Wars. Their brilliance is explained by the fact that each would
             carry a microchip frozen to superconducting temperatures and as
             powerful as a supercomputer.

                 The SDI organization has funded assembly of brilliant
                 pebbles hardware at the laboratory, and tests to
                 demonstrate the concept are planned in the near future.

                 Aviation Week 11 July 1988, p. 37

                 The Pentagon has been pushing the smart rocks, while
                 Congress has been championing the ground-based missiles.
                 Mr Edward Teller advocates 'brilliant pebbles'.

                 Economist 4 Feb. 1989, p. 44

   Brixton briefcase
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Music)

             In British slang, the same thing as a ghetto blaster.
             (Considered by some to be racially offensive.)

             Etymology:  For etymology and history, see ghetto blaster.

                 The other five had on their laps large stereo portable
                 radios which, I believe, are colloquially spoken of as
                 Brixton briefcases.

                 The Times 22 July 1986, p. 13

                 Frank asked someone to fetch his briefcase from his
                 car...but...all they could see was a ghetto blaster. So
                 they went back and told Frank.  'That WAS my briefcase
                 man--my Brixton briefcase,' said Frank.

                 Fast Forward 28 Mar. 1990, p. 6

   broker-dealer
              (Business World) see big bang

2.9 BSE...


   BSE       abbreviation (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Short for bovine spongiform encephalopathy, an incurable viral
             brain condition in cattle which causes nervousness, staggering,
             and other neurological disorders, and eventually results in
             death. Known colloquially as mad cow disease.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Bovine Spongiform
             Encephalopathy.  Bovine because it affects cattle; spongiform in
             that it produces a spongy appearance in parts of the brain
             tissue; encephalopathy is a word made up of Greek roots meaning
             'disease of the brain'.

             History and Usage:   Bovine spongiform encephalopathy was first
             identified in the UK in 1986, and quickly started to affect a
             considerable number of cattle in different parts of the country.
             The discovery in May 1990 that it was possible for it to be
             transmitted to cats, possibly through pet foods containing brain
             tissue or offal from cattle, led to international public concern
             over the safety of British beef for human consumption. The
             disease has a long incubation period--a number of years--so it
             was difficult for experts to be sure that no cases in humans
             would occur in the future; but a government inquiry found that
             it was extremely unlikely.  Steps were taken to ensure that meat
             from affected cattle did not enter the food chain, and the
             public panic over beef began to die down.

                 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) twists the
                 tongues of vets and wrecks the brains of cows. It is
                 also new and baffling. Since the first case of the
                 disease was diagnosed in December 1986, it has struck
                 down 120 animals from 71 herds.

                 Economist 14 Nov. 1987, p. 92

                 The disease in cows is similar to Scrapie which occurs
                 in sheep, and it's possible that BSE may have been
                 transferred to cattle from sheep.

                 Which? Sept. 1989, p. 428

   BSE-free   (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

2.10 B two (B2) bomber


   B two (B2) bomber
              (War and Weaponry) see Stealth

2.11 bubblehead...


   bubblehead
              (People and Society) see airhead

   buddy     noun and verb (Health and Fitness) (People and Society)

             noun: Someone who befriends and supports a person with Aids (see
             PWA) by volunteering to give companionship, practical help, and
             moral support during the course of the illness.

             intransitive verb: To do this kind of voluntary work. Also as an
             action noun buddying.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the well known American sense
             of buddy, 'friend'. The American film Buddies, released quite
             early in the Aids era (1985), was surely influential in
             popularizing this specialized use.

             History and Usage:  For several generations children in the US
             have been encouraged to follow the buddy system--never to go
             anywhere or take part in any potentially dangerous activity
             alone, but to take a buddy who can bring help if necessary; a
             similar practice is followed by adults in dangerous situations.
             The scheme to provide buddies for people with Aids, started in
             late 1982 in New York, is an extension of that system,
             recognizing that these people need friendship that is often
             denied them once they are diagnosed as having the condition.

                 Our greatest priority is to ensure that no person who
                 has contracted an AID related disease is without some
                 kind of personal support...It is therefore our aim to
                 create a buddy system.

                 New York Native 11 Oct. 1982, p. 14

                 I suppose the book wouldn't have been written if I
                 hadn't buddied, because I wouldn't have had a sense of
                 knowing the reality of Aids.

                 The Times 29 June 1987, p. 16

                 When one of the members crossed the Rubicon from HIV to
                 Aids, Helpline always appointed two or three buddies to
                 'see the person through'.

                 Independent 21 Mar. 1989, p. 15

   bum-bag   noun Also written bumbag or bum bag (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A small pouch for money and other valuables, attached to a belt
             and designed to be worn round the waist or hips; a British name
             for the fanny pack.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; skiers wear them with the
             pouch to the back, above the bottom (the ' bum'), although as
             fashion accessories they are normally worn with the pouch in
             front, where the contents can best be protected from
             pickpockets.

             History and Usage:  The bum-bag has been well known to skiers,
             motorcyclists, and ramblers for some decades as a useful
             receptacle for sandwiches, waterproofs, and other bits and
             pieces; being worn round the waist, it leaves the hands free. In
             the late eighties the bum-bag made the transition from a piece
             of sports equipment to a fashion item: perhaps because of the
             risk of bag-snatching in busy city streets, it became
             fashionable to wear a bum-bag for shopping and everyday use, and
             in 1990 it was considered one of the main fashion 'accents' in
             the UK. As such, it is probably only a temporary item in the
             more general language.

                 The most brilliant accessory is the bum-bag. Slung
                 around the waist, it doubles as a belt and a secure
                 place for valuables.

                 Indy 21 Dec. 1989, p. 21

   buppie    noun Also written Buppie or buppy (People and Society)

             A Black urban (or upwardly-mobile) professional; a yuppie who is
             Black.

             Etymology:  Formed by substituting the initial letter of black
             for the y- of yuppie (see yuppie).

             History and Usage:  The word buppie was invented by the US media
             in 1984 as one of several variations on the theme of yuppie.
             Unlike some of the others--such as guppie, juppie (a Japanese
             yuppie), and puppie (a pregnant yuppie)-- this one caught on:
             perhaps this was because it identified a distinct group which
             was obviously rejecting its 'roots' culture in favour of the
             values and aspirations of a yuppie peer group.

                 Bryant Gumbel and Vanessa Williams are both Buppies. Of
                 course, it wouldn't be Yuppie to be Miss America unless
                 you are the first black one.

                 People 9 Jan. 1984, p. 47

                 Old Harrovian and self-confessed buppie, with a
                 fifth-in-a-row hit, Danny D's entrepreneurship is about
                 to go global.

                 Evening Standard 1 May 1990, p. 34

   burn-bag  noun (Politics)

             In the jargon of US intelligence, a container into which
             classified (or incriminating) material is put before being
             destroyed by burning.  Also sometimes known as a burn-basket.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a bag or basket for what is
             to be burned.

             History and Usage:  The word has been used in US intelligence
             circles since at least the sixties, but did not come to public
             notice until the political scandals of later decades: first
             Watergate (1972) and then the Iran-contra affair (1986: see
             contra). In relation to these two incidents it was used
             especially to refer to the means which allowed prominent
             politicians to dispose of incriminating documents allegedly
             linking them with the scandal; the chairmen of relevant
             inquiries could not then require them to be produced.

                 'I frankly didn't see any need for it at the time,' he
                 [John Poindexter] said of the document, known as an
                 intelligence finding.  'I thought it was politically
                 embarrassing. And so I decided to tear it up, and I tore
                 it up, put it in the burn basket behind my desk.

                 New York Times 16 July 1987, section A, p. 10

   burn-out  noun Frequently written burnout (Health and Fitness)

             Physical or emotional exhaustion, usually caused by stress at
             work; more generally, apathy, disillusionment, or low morale.
             Also as an intransitive verb burn out, to suffer from this kind
             of stress exhaustion; adjective burned (or burnt) out.

             Etymology:  A noun formed on the verbal phrase burn oneself out,
             meaning 'to use up all one's physical or emotional resources';
             the noun burn-out already existed in the more literal sense of
             the complete destruction of something by fire, as well as in two
             technical senses.

             History and Usage:  The burn-out syndrome, which is thought to
             be a direct result of the high-stress lifestyles of the past two
             decades, was first identified and named in the mid seventies by
             American psychotherapist Herbert J. Freudenberger.  Once the
             preserve of those in jobs requiring a high level of emotional
             commitment (such as charity work, medicine, and teaching),
             burn-out soon started affecting professional sportspeople,
             executives, and entertainers, too. In the late eighties, the
             word remained very fashionable, taking over from the more
             old-fashioned terms depression (imprecise except as a clinical
             term) and nervous breakdown (for cases of complete burn-out).

                 The most moderate form of burnout occurs when the
                 sufferer endures a heavy stressload.

                 Management Today July 1989, p. 122

                 She may find herself trapped into trying to please
                 everybody and do everything, failing to set boundaries
                 to her role, which leads to chronic overwork and
                 burn-out.

                 Nursing Times 29 Nov.-5 Dec. 1989, p. 51

                 Addled with divorce headaches and post- Born burnout,
                 Cruise isn't doing press; but would you like to talk to
                 Don and Jerry, perhaps?

                 Premiere June 1990, p. 92

   burster   noun (Science and Technology)

             A machine for separating or bursting continuous stationery (such
             as computer listing paper) into individual sheets.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the agent suffix -er to burst;
             originally, a burster was a charge of gunpowder for bursting a
             shell.

             History and Usage:  The word has existed in the technical jargon
             of office machinery since the fifties, but has only become
             widely known since the advent of computers and listing paper to
             nearly all offices, with the attendant nuisance of separating
             printout into pages.

                 Users who work through a heavy load of fan-fold may find
                 that a 'burster'...is a useful accessory.

                 Susan Curran Word Processing for Beginners (1984), p. 45

   buster    noun (People and Society)

             In US slang, short for baby buster: a person born in the
             generation after the baby boom (see boomer), at a time when the
             birth rate fell dramatically in most Western countries.

             Etymology:  Formed by dropping the word baby from baby buster,
             following the model of boomer. In economic terms (especially in
             US English), a bust is a slump, that is the opposite of a boom.

             History and Usage:  The busters--children born from the late
             sixties onwards--are becoming an important force in Western
             economies now that they are adults.  These economies, once able
             to grow continuously, must now shrink if the smaller population
             is not to bust them.

                 Busters may replace boomers as the darlings of
                 advertisers.

                 headline in Wall Street Journal 12 Nov. 1987, p. 41

   bustier   noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A short, close-fitting bodice (usually without straps), worn by
             women as a fashion top.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from French bustier 'bodice'. The
             garment helps to define the bust, and so makes its wearer appear
             bustier, but this is a popular misunderstanding of the origin of
             the word.

             History and Usage:  The bustier came into fashion in the early
             eighties; one of its most famous devotees is the rock star
             Madonna, who has probably done much to keep the fashion going by
             regularly making public appearances in a bustier.

                 Delicately edged suede jackets and bustiers in scarlet
                 and black sat atop wafts of brightly coloured chiffon
                 skirts for evening.

                 London Evening News 17 Mar. 1987, p. 18

   buyout    noun Sometimes written buy-out (Business World)

             The purchase of a controlling share in a company, either by its
             own employees or by another company.

             Etymology:  The noun is formed on the verbal phrase to buy
             (someone) out.

             History and Usage:  The word originated in the US in the mid
             seventies, when there was a marked rise in company take-overs
             and tender offers. In some buyout schemes it was the company's
             own employees who were encouraged to buy up sufficient stock in
             the firm to retain control; other variants are the management
             buyout or MBO, in which the senior directors of a company buy up
             the whole stock, and the leveraged buyout (pronounced /--/:  see
             leverage) or LBO, practised mainly in the US, in which outside
             capital is used to enable the management to buy up the company.
             Although originally American, the buyout soon reached UK markets
             as well; by the mid eighties there were firms of financial
             advisers on both sides of the Atlantic specializing in this
             subject alone. Variations on the same theme are the buy-back, in
             which a company repurchases its own stock on the open market
             (often as a defensive ploy against take-overs), and the buy-in,
             in which a group of managers from outside the company together
             buys up a controlling interest.

                 Leveraged buyouts are commonly used in the United States
                 to defeat hostile takeover bids, but have yet to be
                 successfully tested in Britain.

                 The Times 2 May 1985, p. 21

                 Latest statistics show buyouts and buy-ins by outside
                 managers running at a record level this year.

                 Daily Telegraph 30 Oct. 1989, Management Buyouts
                 Supplement, p. i

                 Lifting the veil of secrecy was ordinarily enough to
                 kill a developing buyout in its cradle: Once disclosed,
                 corporate raiders or other unwanted suitors were free to
                 make a run at the company before management had a chance
                 to prepare its own bid.

                 Bryan Burrough & John Helyar Barbarians at the Gate
                 (1990), p. 8

   buzzword  see fuzzword

2.12 bypass


   bypass    noun Also written by-pass (Health and Fitness)

             A permanent alternative pathway for a blood vessel, artery, etc.
             (especially near the heart or brain), created by transplanting a
             vessel from elsewhere in the body or inserting an artificial
             one. Also, the operation by which this is achieved or the
             artificial device that is inserted.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of the word bypass, which was
             regularly used in the sixties and seventies for an alternative
             road built to route traffic round a bottleneck such as a large
             town; the medical bypass, too, is often created to avoid an
             obstruction or constriction in the existing network.

             History and Usage:  The art of bypass surgery was developed
             during the sixties and seventies and was becoming routine by the
             eighties. By an interesting reversal of linguistic roles, new
             roads were often called arterials rather than bypasses in the
             eighties, and the medical sense of bypass showed signs of
             becoming the dominant meaning of the word. It is often used
             attributively, in bypass operation, bypass surgery, etc.

                 Sir Robin Day was yesterday 'progressing very nicely'
                 after his heart by-pass operation in a London hospital.

                 News of the World 3 Mar. 1985, p. 2

                 The findings may have far-reaching
                 implications...offering patients a low-risk alternative
                 to cholesterol-lowering drugs, bypass operations and
                 angioplasty, a technique in which clogged arteries are
                 opened with a tiny balloon that presses plaque against
                 the artery walls.

                 New York Times 14 Nov. 1989, section C, p. 1

3.0 C



3.1 cable television...


   cable television
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A system for relaying television programmes by cable (rather
             than broadcasting them over the air), usually into individual
             subscribers' homes; also, collectively, the stations and
             programmes that make use of this system. Often abbreviated to
             cable tv or simply cable.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; a straightforward combination
             of the existing nouns cable and television.

             History and Usage:  The first experiments with cable television
             were carried out in the US in the early sixties, but at first
             the system was officially known as community antenna television,
             since the signal is picked up by a shared antenna before being
             cabled to individual receivers. The snappier name cable tv or
             cable television was first used in the mid sixties in the US,
             competing for a time with Cablevision (a trade mark which
             belonged to one of the larger companies operating the system
             there). After unsuccessful experiments here too in the fifties,
             cable television was finally adopted in the UK at the beginning
             of the eighties, giving rise to much speculation about its
             probable effect on the quality and choice of programmes in
             conventional broadcasting; in the event it enjoyed a smaller
             take-up than satellite television. Once established in any
             individual country, cable tv has tended to be abbreviated
             further to cable alone (without a preceding article); the word
             is often used to refer to the stations or programmes available
             rather than the system.  There is also a verb cable, 'to provide
             (a home, area, etc.) with cable television'.

                 Reports that the government will soon approve plans to
                 bring cable television to Britain have appeared in
                 almost every newspaper.

                 New Scientist 9 Sept. 1982, p. 674

                 Even Coronation Street...failed to catch on when it was
                 shown on a New York channel in 1976 and on nationwide
                 cable in 1982.

                 Listener 4 Dec. 1986, p. 29

                 Cabling a typical 100,000-home franchise takes four to
                 five years, costs њ35 million--њ350 for each home passed
                 by the fibre-optic link which carries the signals.

                 Business Apr. 1990, p. 100

   cache     noun and verb (Science and Technology)

             noun: Short for cache memory, a small high-speed memory in some
             computers which can be used for data and instructions that need
             to be accessed frequently, instead of the slower main memory.

             transitive verb: To place (data, etc.) in a separate high-speed
             memory. Adjective cached, action noun caching.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of cache, which originally meant 'a
             hiding place' (borrowed into English at the end of the
             eighteenth century from French cache, related to cacher 'to
             hide'); from here it went on to mean 'a temporary store' (Arctic
             explorers, for example, put spare provisions in a cache, and the
             verb to cache also already existed for this activity). A
             computer cache is, in effect, only another kind of temporary
             store.

             History and Usage:  The cache memory was invented by IBM in the
             late sixties, but the verb and its derivatives appear not to
             have developed until the early eighties.

                 Window images are normally cached in a form to allow
                 fast screen redraw.

                 Personal Computer World Nov. 1986, p. 171

                 If the information is held in the cache, which can be
                 thought of as a very fast on-chip local memory, then
                 only two clock cycles are required.

                 Electronics & Wireless World Jan. 1987, p. 105

   Callanetics
             plural noun (but usually treated as singular) (Health and
             Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The trade mark of a physical exercise programme originally
             developed in the US by Callan Pinckney and based on the idea of
             building muscle tone through repeated tiny movements using deep
             muscles.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the woman's name Callan with
             -etics, after the model of athletics; probably also influenced
             by callisthenics, a nineteenth-century word for gymnastics for
             girls, designed to produce the 'body beautiful' (itself formed
             on Greek kallos 'beautiful').

             History and Usage:  One of a long line of exercise programmes
             and workout routines popular in the eighties, Callanetics was
             made the subject of a book of the same name in the US in 1984.
             Despite claims that Callan Pinckney had 'stolen' exercises from
             the workout routines of her own teachers, the programme was
             hailed as a new approach to exercise and by 1988 was proving
             extremely successful commercially. When the book Callanetics was
             first published in the UK in 1989 it started a new exercise
             craze, helped on by reports that the Duchess of York had used
             the programme to get herself back into shape after the birth of
             her daughter Beatrice. Pinckney herself claims that the unique
             feature of Callanetics is the way in which it works out deep
             muscles through movements of only half an inch in each direction
             from a starting position.

                 Callanetics requires only two hour-long work-out
                 sessions a week.

                 Sunday Times Magazine 5 Mar. 1989, p. 21

   camcorder noun Occasionally written cam-corder (Lifestyle and Leisure)
             (Science and Technology)

             A portable video camera with a built-in sound recorder, which
             can produce recorded video cassettes (and in some cases also
             play them back).

             Etymology:  A clipped compound, formed by combining the first
             syllable of camera with the last two of recorder.

             History and Usage:  Prototype camcorders were produced almost
             simultaneously by several Japanese companies at the beginning of
             the eighties; the word was first used in English-language
             sources in 1982. By the end of the eighties it had become almost
             a household word, as video took over from cine and home movies
             for recording family occasions, travel, etc.

                 If you want to use a video camera simply to record
                 events in the school year then the camcorder might be
                 for you.

                 Times Educational Supplement 30 Nov. 1984, p. 29

                 The eight-millimetre camcorders (eight-millimetre refers
                 to the width of the tape)...produce tapes that cannot be
                 used with the VHS format.

                 New Yorker 24 Nov. 1986, p. 98

   camp-on   noun (Business World) (Science and Technology)

             A facility of electronic telephone systems which allows an
             unsuccessful caller to 'latch on' to a number so that the call
             is automatically connected once the receiving number is
             available.

             Etymology:  The noun is formed on the verbal phrase to camp on
             to, which in turn is a figurative use of the verb to camp: the
             caller stakes claim to a place in the queue, and this 'pitch' is
             automatically registered by the system.

             History and Usage:  First used in the mid seventies, the camp-on
             became increasingly widespread with the rise in popularity of
             push-button electronic telephones during the eighties.

                 A Thorn Ericsson PABX can provide over twenty aids to
                 efficient communications. Here is one of them: Camp-on
                 busy. An incoming call for an extension that is already
                 engaged (busy)...can be 'camped' on to the engaged
                 extension.

                 Daily Telegraph 10 Mar. 1977, p. 2

   campylobacter
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             A bacterium occurring in unpasteurized dairy produce and other
             everyday foods and capable of causing food poisoning in humans.

             Etymology:  The bacterium takes its name from the genus name
             Campylobacter, which in turn is formed from a Greek word
             kampulos 'bent, twisted' (the bacteria in this family being
             twisted or spiral in shape) and the first two syllables of
             bacterium.

             History and Usage:   Campylobacter is an important cause of
             non-fatal cases of food poisoning.  The word, first used in the
             early seventies, would probably have remained known only to
             bacteriologists had it not been for public interest in--and
             concern about--food safety in the UK in 1989-90.

                 60 per cent of all poultry carcasses were infected with
                 either salmonella or campylobacter.

                 The Times 2 Mar. 1990, p. 2

   can bank  noun (Environment)

             A collection point to which empty cans may be taken for
             recycling.

             Etymology:  For etymology, see bottle bank.

             History and Usage:  With increasing consumption of fizzy drinks
             from ring-pull cans in the eighties, the can bank was a natural
             development of the recycling idea started by the bottle bank.

                 So far there are less than 200 'can banks' operated by
                 60 local authorities in Britain. One big problem is that
                 it isn't easy enough to distinguish steel from
                 aluminium.

                 John Button How to be Green (1989), p. 112

   Candida   noun (Health and Fitness)

             Short for Candida albicans, a yeastlike fungus which causes
             inflammation and itching in the mouth or vagina (commonly known
             as thrush), and is also thought to cause digestive problems when
             it multiplies in the digestive tract. Also, loosely, the set of
             digestive problems caused by excessive quantities of Candida in
             the gut; candidiasis.

             Etymology:  A shortened form of the Latin name Candida albicans;
             popularly, the genus name Candida (which is formed on the Latin
             word candidus 'white') is used to refer to the particular
             species Candida albicans (whose name is a sort of tautology,
             meaning 'white-tinged white').

             History and Usage:  The effects of Candida in the mouth and
             vagina (thrush) have been well known since the thirties. The
             theory that the fungus can get out of control in the gut
             (especially on a Western diet high in refined sugars) and cause
             digestive illness is one that has only been given any credence
             in the past decade, and is still not fully supported in
             traditional medicine.

                 Bill Wyman...tours the world...while she stays in
                 Britain suffering from an agonising allergy...He spoke
                 of his wife's painful illness, Candida...Candida's a
                 yeast allergy that usually affects the stomach...Certain
                 food's OK for the Candida, but bad for the liver.

                 News of the World 8 Apr. 1990, p. 9

   cap       verb and noun (Politics)

             transitive verb: To impose a limit on (something); specifically,
             of central government: to regulate the spending of (a local
             authority) by imposing an upper limit on local taxation.

             noun: An upper limit or 'ceiling', especially one imposed by
             central government on a local authority's spending.

             Etymology:  This sense arises from the image of placing a cap or
             capping on the top of something (a general sense of the verb
             which has existed since the seventeenth century), and may be
             related more specifically to the capping of oil wells as a way
             of controlling pressure. As such, it is almost opposite in
             meaning to the colloquial sense of the verb, 'to exceed or
             excel, to outdo'.

             History and Usage:  This type of capping became topical in the
             mid eighties with the UK government's capping of local authority
             spending (first in the form of rate-capping, and in 1990 as
             charge-capping or poll-capping). Councils on which this was
             imposed, or the taxes they could levy, were described as capped
             (rate-capped, charge-capped, etc.).

                 The major cost would come in lost interest on cash flow
                 because most people would delay paying until the lower,
                 charge-capped, demand arrived.

                 Independent 20 Mar. 1990, p. 8

                 The Court of Appeal yesterday dismissed the second stage
                 of the legal campaign by 19 Labour local authorities
                 against the Government's decision to cap their poll tax
                 levels and order cuts in their budgets.

                 Guardian 28 June 1990, p. 2

                 A council once famous for getting disadvantaged people
                 into further education has abolished all discretionary
                 maintenance grants because it has been charge-capped.

                 Times Educational Supplement 7 Sept. 1990, p. 6

   capture   noun and verb (Science and Technology)

             noun: The process of transferring information from a written,
             paper format to machine-readable form (on a computer). Known
             more fully as data capture.

             transitive verb: To convert (data) in this way, using any of
             several means (such as punched tape, keyboarding, optical
             character readers, etc.).

             Etymology:  The noun and verb arose at about the same time,
             probably through specialization of a figurative sense of the
             verb to capture meaning 'to catch or record something elusive,
             to portray in permanent form' (as, for example, a likeness might
             be captured in a painting or photograph).

             History and Usage:  A technical term in computing from the early
             seventies onwards, capture entered the more general language in
             the eighties and became one of the vogue words in journalistic
             articles about any computerization project and in advertising
             copy for even minimally computerized products.

                 About 70% of all data captured is reentered at some
                 future point.

                 ABA Banking Journal Dec. 1989, p. 74

                 Unmatched range of edit/capture facilities simply not
                 offered by other scanners at this unbeatable price.

                 CU Amiga Apr. 1990, p. 68

   carbon tax
              (Environment) see greenhouse

   card°     noun (Business World)

             A thin rectangular piece of semi-rigid plastic carrying the
             membership details of the owner and used to obtain credit,
             guarantee cheques, activate cash dispensers, etc.

             Etymology:  Although made of plastic, this kind of card closely
             resembles in size, shape, and purpose a business or membership
             card (itself named after the material from which it was
             traditionally made); in the electronic age, size, shape, and
             recorded data (usually on a magnetic strip) are the important
             characteristics, for they determine whether or not the card may
             be used in the appropriate machinery.

             History and Usage:  In the UK, the stiff plastic card was first
             widely used by banks as a method of guaranteeing payment on
             cheques from the late sixties onwards; this kind of card was
             generally known as a cheque card. The huge increase in consumer
             credit facilities which took place in the US during the sixties
             and in the UK during the seventies meant that the embossed
             credit card or charge card became very common. By the eighties
             it was not unusual for an individual cardmember to carry a whole
             range of cards for different purposes, including the types
             mentioned above and the store option card (or simply option
             card) giving interest-free credit for a limited period on goods
             from a specified store. Some people even considered that plastic
             had taken over from money in the US and the UK. This view was
             reinforced by the introduction in 1982 of a plastic card to
             replace coins in public telephone boxes (see phonecard), the
             increasing popularity of the cash dispenser (which allows people
             to use a cash card as a means of obtaining cash, discovering
             their bank balance, etc.), and the introduction of the debit
             card (which uses electronic point-of-sale equipment to debit the
             cost of goods direct from the customer's bank account, without
             the intervention of cheques or credit facilities).  Card
             technology became a growth area during the eighties with the
             need to increase card-users' protection against theft and
             misuse; the chip card, a card which incorporates a microchip to
             store information about the transactions for which it is used,
             was one of the proposed solutions to this problem. With the
             proliferation of different kinds of cards, machinery was needed
             which could 'read' the information stored on the magnetic strip
             quickly and efficiently; by the end of the eighties, the
             card-swipe, a reader similar to an electronic eye, across or
             through which the card is 'wiped' rapidly, was widely used for
             this purpose.  The term (credit-)card (short for
             (credit-)card-sized) began to occur in attributive position in
             the mid eighties to describe the thing named by the following
             noun as being the same size as, or in some other way similar to,
             a card (see the last quotation below).

                 I reported the missing credit cards...but I did not call
                 my bank that evening, trusting that nobody could use
                 that card without the PIN code.

                 New York Times 21 Nov. 1989, section A, p. 24

                 Forstmann Little would receive senior debt rather than
                 junior debt--roughly the difference between an American
                 Express card and an IOU.

                 Bryan Burrough & John Helyar Barbarians at the Gate
                 (1990), p. 292

                 UK Banks and building societies...are vigorously
                 promoting the advantages of the new style three-in-one
                 card covering cheque guarantee, cashpoint and debit card
                 facilities.

                 Observer 22 Apr. 1990, p. 35

                 The British Heart Foundation has leaflets on angina and
                 other heart conditions as well as credit card guides to
                 pacemaker centres.

                 Daily Telegraph 26 June 1990, p. 13

             See also affinity card, gold card, and switch

   cardэ     noun (Science and Technology)

             A printed circuit board (see PCBэ) similar in appearance to a
             credit card and having all the circuitry required to provide a
             particular function in a computer system.

             Etymology:  So named because of its resemblance to a credit
             card; just as a small piece of cardboard is a card, so too a
             small circuit board is punningly called a card.

             History and Usage:  Slot-in cards providing extra facilities for
             a computer system (at first known almost exclusively as
             expansion cards) became a popular feature of the PCs of the
             eighties. The word card is often preceded by another word
             explaining the function (as in graphics card or EGA card, a card
             upgrading a computer to display enhanced graphics); this
             sometimes results in rather cryptic names such as hard card, a
             card upgrading the memory of a computer to the equivalent of
             hard-disc storage capacity. Because it provides the user with
             any of a number of new options without the need to buy a new
             computer, this kind of card is sometimes known as an option
             card.

                 VideoFax comes as a pair of circuit boards, or 'cards',
                 which plug into the back of a personal computer.

                 New Scientist 21 Jan. 1989, p. 39

                 No matter how reliable, how well engineered or how many
                 options your intelligent multiport card claims to
                 offer,...it will severely limit the numbers of users
                 your system will support.

                 UnixWorld Sept. 1989, p. 36

   cardboard city
             noun (People and Society)

             An area of a large town where homeless people congregate at
             night under makeshift shelters made from discarded cardboard
             boxes and other packing materials.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a city made from cardboard.

             History and Usage:  A phenomenon of the eighties, and an
             increasing problem in large cities both in the UK and in the US.
             Sometimes written with capital initials, as though it were a
             place-name in its own right.

                 This is not a country where families can live under
                 bridges or in 'cardboard cities' while the rest of us
                 have our turkey dinner.

                 Washington Post 23 Dec. 1982, section A, p. 16

                 In The Trackers of Oxyrhyncus...the people of Cardboard
                 City erupt on to the stage. These are the men and women,
                 some old and some very young, who live beneath the
                 arches on the South Bank.

                 Independent Magazine 19 May 1990, p. 14

   Cardiofunk
             noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The trade mark of a cardiovascular exercise programme which
             combines aerobic exercises with dance movements.

             Etymology:  Formed from the combining form cardio- 'heart'
             (Greek kardia) and funk, a type of popular music (see funk).

             History and Usage:  A development of aerobics, Cardiofunk was
             invented in the US in 1989 and imported to the UK in 1990.

                 Cardiosalsa and Cardiofunk classes are jammed at the
                 five Voight Fitness and Dance Centers.

                 USA Today 4 Jan. 1990, section D, p. 1

                 Tessa Sanderson...is a fan of cardiofunk and has got
                 together with Derrick Evans to present the video
                 Cardiofunk: the Aerobic programme.

                 Company June 1990, p. 25

   cardphone  (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see phonecard

   carer     noun (People and Society)

             Someone whose job involves caring; especially, a person who
             looks after an elderly, sick, or disabled relative at home and
             is therefore unable to take paid employment.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the agent suffix -er to care; the
             word had existed in the more general sense of 'one who cares'
             since the seventeenth century.

             History and Usage:  This sense arose out of the concept of
             caring professions (see below) and the realization that much
             unpaid caring was being done by relatives who could not or would
             not entrust their elderly or sick loved-ones to professional
             care. The word was first used in this way towards the end of the
             seventies and became very fashionable in the mid eighties as
             increasing efforts were made to provide carers with the support
             they need. When used on its own, without further qualification,
             carer now usually means a person who cares for someone unpaid at
             home (also called a care-giver in the US); professional carer is
             often used for a member of the caring professions.

                 When a son is the primary care-giver, it is usually by
                 default:  either he is an only son or belongs to a
                 family of sons.

                 New York Times 13 Nov. 1986, section C, p. 1

                 Ms Caroline Glendinning, who made the study while a
                 research fellow at York University, called yesterday for
                 increased benefit rates for carers and for a non-means
                 tested carer's costs allowance. Carers also needed
                 opportunities for part-time work, flexi-time employment,
                 and job sharing. There are an estimated six million
                 carers.

                 Guardian 12 July 1989, p. 8

   caring    adjective (People and Society)

             Committed, compassionate; of a job: involving the everyday care
             of elderly, sick, or disabled people.

             Etymology:  Formed by turning the present participle of the verb
             care into an adjective.

             History and Usage:   Caring was first used as an adjective (in
             the sense 'committed, compassionate') in the mid sixties. By the
             end of the seventies there had been much talk in the UK of the
             need for a caring society supported by a strong welfare state,
             and certain professions (such as medicine, social work, etc.)
             had been recognized as caring professions. With the change of
             emphasis towards individual responsibility and away from the
             nanny state in the eighties, the caring society based on the
             welfare state received less attention, but the government put
             forward the idea of caring capitalism instead. After the
             conspicuous consumption of the eighties, journalists identified
             a change of ethos in Western societies which prompted them to
             christen the new decade the caring nineties.

                 A lot of people seemed to have come from the so-called
                 caring professions--social work, psychotherapy, and so
                 on.

                 New Yorker 22 Sept. 1986, p. 58

                 The Government had long urged local authority social
                 service departments to act in an enabling and not just a
                 providing capacity. They would be responsible, after
                 consulting agencies such as doctors and other caring
                 professions, for assessing individual needs, designing
                 care arrangements, and ensuring that they were properly
                 administered.

                 Guardian 13 July 1989, p. 6

                 His major driving force is 'caring capitalism', showing
                 that making money does not always mean exploiting
                 others.

                 Today 13 Mar. 1990, p. 6

   carphone  noun Also written car phone or car-phone (Lifestyle and Leisure)
             (Science and Technology)

             A radio telephone which can be fitted in and operated from a
             car.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a phone used in a car.

             History and Usage:  The carphone has been available since the
             sixties, but only really became popular in the late eighties as
             less expensive and more reliable models came on to the market.
             Their popularity, especially among the yuppie set, with whom
             they were considered a status symbol, has led to concern about
             the safety of one-handed driving. This was possibly influential
             in the British government's decision to tax their use more
             heavily in the April 1991 budget.

                 'Darling can you keep next Friday free for our
                 appointment at the amniocentesis clinic,' Nicola chirps
                 down the Cellnet (Yuppiespeak for car phone).

                 Today 21 Oct. 1987, p. 36

                 The carphone, that symbol of success that says you are
                 so much in demand that you cannot afford to be
                 incommunicado for a moment.

                 The Road Ahead (Brisbane) Aug. 1989, p. 19

             See also cellular and Vodafone.

   Cartergate
              (Politics) see -gate

   cascade   noun (Business World)

             In business jargon, the process of disseminating information
             within an organization from the top of the hierarchy downwards
             in stages, with each level in the hierarchy being briefed and in
             turn briefing the next level down; a meeting designed to achieve
             this.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of the word cascade, in which the
             information is seen as falling and spreading like a waterfall.
             It has parallels in a technical sense of the word in transport:
             the process of relegating rolling stock etc. to successively
             less demanding uses before decommissioning it altogether.

             History and Usage:   Cascade was a fashionable marketing and
             business term which found its way into other professions, such
             as education, during the eighties.  The opposite effect, in
             which those at the bottom of the hierarchy feed back their views
             to the higher echelons, has jokingly been called 'splashback'.

                 An elaborate training programme has been arranged,
                 spread over four phases in what is called a 'cascade'.
                 Heads of department are trained so that they can go back
                 into schools and train the teachers.

                 The Times 25 Apr. 1986, p. 10

   cash card  (Business World) see card°

   cash dispenser
             noun (Business World) (Science and Technology)

             A machine from which cash can be obtained by account-holders at
             any time of day or night by inserting a cash card and keying in
             a PIN.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a dispenser of cash.

             History and Usage:   Cash dispensers were introduced in the
             sixties, but made much more versatile (and therefore more
             popular) during the seventies and eighties, when the name
             cashpoint started to take over from cash dispenser. Also
             sometimes called a cash machine. For further history see ATM.

                 Ian first noticed the mystery debits one weekend when he
                 tried to withdraw money from a cashpoint, and couldn't.

                 Which? Sept. 1989, p. 411

                 With an Abbeylink card you can also have round-the-clock
                 access to a national network of cash machines...Problems
                 with cash dispensers are the biggest cause for complaint
                 [to the Building Societies Ombudsman], followed by
                 building societies that charge home owners an
                 administration fee if they refuse to take out buildings
                 insurance through them.

                 Good Housekeeping May 1990, pp. 18 and 191

   Cassingle noun (Music)

             The trade mark of an audio cassette carrying a single piece of
             (usually popular) music, especially one which needs no
             rewinding; the cassette version of a single disc.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first syllable of cassette
             with single to make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The Cassingle was introduced in the UK in
             the late seventies and in the US at the beginning of the
             eighties, when the popularity of the single disc in the popular
             music world was waning and much popular music was listened to on
             tape. In the UK it started purely as a promotional device, given
             away to radio stations and disc jockeys to encourage them to
             give airtime to singles; by the end of the eighties, though,
             Cassingles were commercially available.

                 Singles...recently introduced by CBS (which introduced
                 the two-sided disc back in 1908); the cassingle, which
                 lists for $2.98 and goes totally against the idea of
                 convenience.

                 Washington Post 31 Oct. 1982, section L, p. 1

                 All the figures tell the same story. Single and LP
                 records are on the way out. Within 10 years, we will all
                 be buying 'cassingles', cassettes and compact discs.

                 Independent 20 Feb. 1987, p. 14

   casual    noun Frequently written Casual (People and Society) (Youth
             Culture)

             In the UK, a young person who belongs to a peer group favouring
             a casual, sporty style of dress and soul music, and often
             characterized by right-wing political views, aggressively or
             violently upheld.

             Etymology:  Named after their characteristic style of dress,
             which is studiedly casual (but certainly not untidy--for
             example, sports slacks rather than jeans).

             History and Usage:  Successors to the Mods of earlier decades,
             the first groups of casuals seem to have been formed in the
             early eighties. By 1986 they were firmly associated with
             football violence, having been described in the Popplewell
             report on crowd safety and control at sports grounds as groups
             which attached themselves to particular teams, 'bent on fighting
             the opposition fans in order to enhance their own prestige'.
             The subculture also exists outside the football ground, though,
             especially in wealthier areas.

                 Politics just aren't that important for 90 per cent of
                 skinheads.  And you're more likely to get violence from
                 the Casuals at football matches than any of us.

                 Independent 23 Jan. 1989, p. 14

   casual sex
             noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) (People and
             Society)

             Sexual activity between people who are not regular or
             established sexual partners.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  sex which is casual.

             History and Usage:  A change in public attitudes towards sexual
             activity was the essential prerequisite for sexual activity to
             be described as casual sex, since the description implies that
             sex with a diversity of partners is conceivable--a view which,
             however much it may have been held by individuals, was not much
             aired in public before the 'swinging' sixties. During the
             seventies significant numbers of people began to question the
             conventional wisdom that only husband and wife, or those in a
             'steady relationship', should have sexual intercourse. However,
             the idea that sex could become a transaction between any two (or
             more) otherwise unacquainted people remained controversial,
             despite the existence of such long-established forms of casual
             sex as prostitution. Use of the expression steadily increased,
             possibly indicating more widespread acceptability for the
             concept, and by the late seventies casual could also be applied
             to sexual partners. What brought the phrase to unprecedented
             prominence during the eighties was the Aids crisis, which made
             non-judgemental plain speaking about the reality of people's
             sexual behaviour essential.

                 The length of the list might suggest that Auden was in
                 the habit of 'cruising'--picking up boys for casual sex.

                 Humphrey Carpenter W. H. Auden (1981), p. 97

                 The advice is to either avoid casual sex or to use a
                 condom.

                 New Musical Express 14 Feb. 1987, p. 4

             See also safe sex

   CAT°      acronym (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology)

             Short for computerized axial tomography, a medical technology
             which provides a series of cross-sectional pictures of internal
             organs and builds these up into a detailed picture using an
             X-ray machine controlled by a computer.

             Etymology:  An acronym, formed on the initial letters of
             Computerized Axial Tomography; sometimes expanded as
             Computer-Aided or Computer-Assisted Tomography.

             History and Usage:  The technique was developed by EMI in the US
             in the mid seventies and was at first known as CT scanning (an
             alternative name which is still widely used, especially in the
             US). By producing detailed pictures of the inside of the body
             (and in particular of brain tissue) it revolutionized diagnostic
             procedures, often doing away with the need for exploratory
             surgery.  CAT is normally used attributively, like an adjective:
             the image produced is a CAT scan; the equipment which produces
             it is a CAT scanner; the process is CAT scanning rather than CAT
             alone.

                 Voluntary groups have raised the money...to buy CAT
                 scanners for their local hospitals.

                 Listener 28 Apr. 1983, p. 2

                 Very soon after meeting Gabriel, I sent him to get a CT
                 scan of his head and discovered a medium-sized tumor in
                 his brain.

                 Perri Klass Other Women's Children (1990), p. 222

   catэ      noun and adjective (Environment)

             noun: Short for catalytic converter, catalyst, or catalyser, a
             device which filters pollutants from vehicle exhaust emissions,
             thereby cutting down air pollution.

             adjective: Catalysed; fitted with a catalytic converter (used
             especially in cat car).

             Etymology:  Formed by shortening catalytic converter, catalyst,
             or catalyser to its first syllable.

             History and Usage:   Catalytic converters were first developed
             in the fifties, but the abbreviation cat did not start to appear
             frequently in print until about 1988, when the first models of
             car fitted with a cat as a standard option became available in
             the UK. Although quite separate from the issue of unleaded fuel,
             the desirability of cat cars has tended to be discussed in
             connection with the widespread switch to lead-free petrol, since
             a cat can only do its job--to 'scrub' carbon monoxide, nitrogen
             oxide, and hydrocarbons from the exhaust--in cars which run on
             unleaded fuel. At first, new models were produced in both cat
             and non-cat versions, but cat-only models look increasingly
             likely in the nineties.

                 Unusually, Ford have been completely wrong-footed on
                 this one by arch-rival Vauxhall, who are to start
                 supplying cat cars in the UK this autumn.

                 Performance Car June 1989, p. 20

                 The new Turbo's exhaust system...features a
                 metallic-element catalytic converter, while even the
                 wastegate tailpipe is equipped with a cat and a muffler.

                 Autocar & Motor 7 Mar. 1990, p. 13

                 'Cats' are like honeycombs with many internal
                 surfaces...covered with precious metals which react with
                 harmful exhaust gases.

                 Independent 3 Aug. 1990, p. 2

3.2 CD


   CD        noun (Science and Technology)

             Short for compact disc, a small disc on which audio recordings
             or other data are recorded digitally and which can be 'read'
             optically by the reflection of a laser beam from the surface.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Compact Disc.

             History and Usage:   CD technology was invented by Philips for
             audio recording towards the end of the seventies as the most
             promising medium for the accurate new digital recordings. By
             1980 Philips had pooled their resources with Sony and it was
             clear that the CD was to become the successor to the grooved
             audio disc. During the early eighties the optical disc (another
             name for the CD) was also vaunted as the medium of the future
             for other kinds of data, since the storage capacity was vastly
             greater than on floppy--or even hard--discs; a number of large
             reference works and commercial databases became available on CD
             ROM (compact disc with read-only memory), the form of CD used
             for data of this kind. The sound and data are recorded as a
             spiral pattern of pits and bumps underneath a smooth protective
             layer; inside the special CD player or CD reader needed to
             'read' each of these kinds of disc, a laser beam is focused on
             this spiral. By 1990 the CD had become the established medium
             for high-quality audio recordings and new forms of CD were being
             tried: the photo-CD, for example, was suggested as a permanent
             storage medium for family photographs, the digitized images
             being 'read' by a CD player and viewed on a television screen.
             CD video (or CDV) applies the same technology to video.
             Multimedia CDs, including CDI (Compact Disc Interactive) and DVI
             (Digital Video Interactive) offer the possibility of combining
             text, sound, and images on a single disc.  CDTV allows the
             viewer to interact with recorded television.

                 Whatever you want--get it on CD Video from your record
                 or Hi Fi dealer.

                 Sky Magazine Apr. 1990, p. 14

                 The CDTV system involves a unit the same size as a video
                 recorder which plugs into a standard television set.

                 Daily Telegraph 13 Aug. 1990, p. 4

                 CDI...emphasises the fact that it is a world standard.
                 This is a claim that can only be equalled by records,
                 tapes and audio CDs...To achieve this Philips and Sony
                 developed a new system and a new CD format for text,
                 graphics, stills, and animation.

                 Information World Review Sept. 1990, p. 20

                 The Kodak Photo CD system, jointly developed by Kodak
                 and Philips of the Netherlands, digitally stores images
                 from negatives or slides on compact discs. The pictures
                 can then be shown on ordinary television or computer
                 screens with a Photo CD player that also plays audio
                 CDs.

                 Chicago Tribune 19 Sept. 1990, section C, p. 4

3.3 Ceefax...


   Ceefax    noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology)

             In the UK, the trade mark of a teletext system (see tele-)
             operated by the BBC.

             Etymology:  A respelling of see (as in seeing) combined with fax
             (see fax° and faxэ):  seeing facsimile, on which you may see
             facts.

             History and Usage:   Ceefax was introduced in the early
             seventies and is now a standard option on most new television
             sets in the UK.

                 Telesoftware is carried by teletext--in other words, it
                 is part of the BBC's Ceefax service.

                 Listener 16 June 1983, p. 38

             See also Oracle

   cellular  adjective (Science and Technology)

             Being part of a mobile radio-telephone system in which the area
             served is divided into small sections, each with its own
             short-range transmitter/receiver; cellular telephone, a
             hand-held mobile radio telephone for use in this kind of system.

             Etymology:  This kind of radio-telephone system is termed
             cellular from the small sections, called cells, into which the
             operating area is divided. The same frequencies can be used
             simultaneously in the different cells, giving greater capacity
             to the system as a whole.

             History and Usage:  This kind of mobile telephone became
             available in the late seventies and was considerably more
             successful than the more limited non-cellular radio telephone.
             By the mid eighties cellular was often abbreviated to cell-, as
             in cellphone for cellular telephone and Cellnet, the trade mark
             of the cellular network operated by British Telecom in the UK
             (and also of a similar service in the US), sometimes also used
             to mean a cellphone.

                 It will soon be possible to use either of the two
                 cellular networks started this year off almost the
                 entire south coast.

                 The Times 15 Feb. 1985, p. 37

                 The mobile phone is the perfect symbol, if not of having
                 arrived, then at least of having the car pointed in the
                 right direction. It would no doubt come as a surprise to
                 most cellphone users that their conversations are in the
                 public domain, as it were, available to anyone with a
                 scanning receiver, a little time to kill, and a healthy
                 disregard for personal privacy. Fortunately for
                 cellphone users, it's very difficult for us
                 eavesdroppers to 'lock in' on one conversation for more
                 than a few minutes.

                 Guardian 14 July 1989, p. 7

3.4 CFC


   CFC       abbreviation (Environment)

             Short for chlorofluorocarbon, any of a number of chemical
             compounds released into the atmosphere through the use of
             refrigerators, aerosol propellants, etc., and thought to be
             harmful to the ozone layer.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of the elements which make up
             the chemical name chlorofluorocarbon: compounds of chlorine,
             fluorine, and carbon.

             History and Usage:   CFCs have been in use as refrigerants, in
             aerosols, and in the plastics industry for some decades, but
             came into the public eye through the discovery that they were
             being very widely dispersed in the atmosphere and that chlorine
             atoms derived from them were contributing to ozone depletion.
             The experimental work showing this to be the case was carried
             out during the seventies; by the early eighties, environmental
             groups were trying to publicize the dangers and some governments
             had taken action to control the use of CFCs, but it was not
             until the end of the decade that CFC became an almost
             universally known abbreviation in industrialized countries and
             manufacturers started to produce large numbers of products
             labelled CFC-free. If not followed by a number or in a
             combination such as CFC gases, the term is nearly always used in
             the plural, since there is a whole class of compounds of similar
             structure and having similar effects on the ozone layer,
             although some are more harmful than others.

                 Shoppers are told that meat and eggs are packaged in
                 CFC-free containers.

                 Daily Telegraph 2 May 1989, p. 17

                 India alone estimates its bill for replacing CFCs over
                 the next 20 years will be њ350 million.  Mrs Thatcher
                 said it was essential that all nations joined the
                 process of ridding the world of CFCs otherwise the
                 health of the people of the world and their way of life
                 would suffer.

                 Guardian 28 June 1990, p. 3

                 Du Pont has...promised to suspend production of
                 ozone-destroying CFCs by 2000.

                 News-Journal (Wilmington) 9 July 1990, section D, p. 1

3.5 chair...


   chair     noun (People and Society)

             A non-sexist way of saying 'chairman' or 'chairwoman'; a
             chairperson.

             Etymology:  Formed by dropping the sex-specific part of chairman
             etc. An impersonal use of Chair (especially in the appeal of
             Chair! Chair! and in the phrase to address the chair) had
             existed for centuries and provided the precedent for this use.

             History and Usage:  A usage which arose from the feminist
             movement in the mid seventies.  Although disliked by some, it
             has become well established. It is interesting, though, that it
             has not produced derivatives: one finds chairpersonship of a
             committee, but only very rarely chairship.

                 On the more general aspects of the arriviste's upward
                 trajectory, however, such as the craft
                 of...chairpersonship, he has much less to say.

                 Nature 9 Dec. 1982, p. 550

                 She has annoyed the Black Sections by refusing to resign
                 as chair of the party black advisory committee.

                 Tribune 12 Sept. 1986, p. 7

   challenged
              (Health and Fitness) (People and Society) see abled

   Challenger
              (Science and Technology) see shuttle

   chaos     noun (Science and Technology)

             A state of apparent randomness and unpredictability which can be
             observed in the physical world or in any dynamic system that is
             highly sensitive to small changes in external conditions; the
             area of mathematics and physics in which this is studied (also
             called chaos theory or chaology).

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the figurative sense of chaos,
             'utter confusion and disorder' (a sense which itself goes back
             to the seventeenth century). Although actually determined by
             tiny changes in conditions which have large consequences, the
             processes which scientists call chaos appear at first sight to
             be random, utterly confused, and disordered.

             History and Usage:  The serious study of chaos began in the late
             sixties, but it was only in the mid seventies that
             mathematicians started to call this state chaos and not until
             the mid eighties that the study of these phenomena came to be
             called chaos theory. It is relevant to any system in which a
             very small change in initial conditions can make a significant
             difference to the outcome; a humorous example often quoted is
             the butterfly effect in weather systems--these systems being so
             sensitive to initial conditions that it is said that whether or
             not a butterfly flaps its wings on one side of the world could
             determine whether or not a tornado occurs on the other side. By
             the beginning of the nineties the study of chaotic systems had
             already proved to offer important insights to all areas of
             science--and indeed to our understanding of social
             processes--partly because it views systems as dynamic and
             developing rather than looking only at a static problem. A
             person who studies chaos is a chaologist, chaos theorist, or
             chaoticist.

                 When the explorers of chaos began to think back on the
                 genealogy of their new science, they found many
                 intellectual trails from the past...A starting point was
                 the Butterfly Effect.

                 James Gleick Chaos: Making a New Science (1988), p. 8

                 Chaos theory presents a Universe that is deterministic,
                 obeying fundamental physical laws, but with a
                 predisposition for disorder, complexity and
                 unpredictability.

                 New Scientist 21 Oct. 1989, p. 24

                 One of the tasks facing students of complex chaotic
                 systems...is to investigate fully the range of
                 predictability in each case.

                 The Times 9 Aug. 1990, p. 13

   charge-capping
              (Politics) see cap

   charge card
              (Business World) see card°

   chase the dragon
             verbal phrase (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, to take heroin (or heroin mixed with
             another smokable drug) by heating it on a piece of folded tin
             foil and inhaling the fumes.

             Etymology:  The phrase is reputed to be translated from Chinese
             and apparently arises from the fact that the fumes move up and
             down the piece of tin foil with the movements of the molten
             heroin powder, and these undulating movements resemble the tail
             of the dragon in Chinese myths.

             History and Usage:  This method of taking heroin comes from the
             Far East, as does the imagery of the phrase. It has been
             practised in the West since at least the sixties; in the
             eighties, with the threat of contracting Aids from used needles,
             it became more popular than injecting and the phrase became more
             widely known.

                 Probably the stuff was now only twenty per cent pure.
                 Still, good enough for 'chasing the dragon' Hong Kong
                 style with match, silver foil, and paper tube.

                 Timothy Mo Sour Sweet (1982), p. 50

                 A hundred men or more lay sprawled 'chasing the
                 dragon'--inhaling heroin through a tube held over heated
                 tinfoil.

                 The Times 24 May 1989, p. 13

                 A smokeable dollop of heroin costs about $10, about the
                 same as a 'rock' of crack, which means that one can
                 'chase the dragon' for $20.

                 Sunday Telegraph 18 Feb. 1990, p. 17

   chatline   (People and Society) see -line

   chattering classes
             noun (People and Society)

             In the colloquial language of the media in the UK, educated
             members of the middle and upper classes who read the 'quality'
             newspapers, hold freely expressed liberal political opinions,
             and see themselves as highly articulate and socially aware.

             Etymology:  A catch-phrase (apparently coined by the journalist
             Frank Johnson in the early eighties and popularized by Alan
             Watkins of the Observer), after the model of working
             classes--the main characteristic of the group being readiness to
             express social and political opinions which are nevertheless
             seen by those in power as mere chatter.

             History and Usage:  According to an article by Alan Watkins in
             the Guardian (25 November 1989), the term was coined by Frank
             Johnson in conversation with Watkins in the late seventies or
             early eighties, when the two journalists lived in neighbouring
             flats. Certainly it was Watkins who subsequently popularized
             this apt description and turned it into a useful piece of
             shorthand for a well-known British 'type'. According to Watkins,
             the most important characteristics of the chattering classes at
             the time were their political views (usually including criticism
             of the then Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher), their
             occupations (social workers, teachers, journalists, 'media
             people'), and their preferred reading matter (newspapers such as
             the Guardian, Independent, and Observer).

                 Does anybody really care who is elected Chancellor of
                 the University of Oxford? Only the chattering classes
                 are exercised.

                 Daily Telegraph 7 Mar. 1987, p. 14

   cheque card
              (Business World) see card°

   child abuse
             noun (People and Society)

             Maltreatment of a child, especially by physical violence or
             sexual interference.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding. The specialized sense of
             abuse here had already been in use for some time before the
             (sexual) abuse of children came to public attention during the
             eighties, and is common in other combinations: see abuse.

             History and Usage:   Child abuse was first used as a term in the
             early seventies, but mostly to refer to crimes of physical
             violence ('baby battering') or neglect. During the eighties (and
             particularly as a result of the public enquiry into the large
             numbers of children diagnosed as sexually abused in Cleveland,
             NE England, in 1987) it became clear that the sexual abuse of
             children, often by a parent or other family member, was much
             more widespread than had previously been thought, and a great
             deal was both written and spoken on the subject. Since then, the
             term child abuse has been used especially to refer to sexual
             interference with a child, and seems to have taken over from the
             older term child molesting. In 1990 the subject gained
             widespread publicity once again in the UK as police investigated
             the suspected abuse of children by adults involved in satanic
             rituals (known as ritual abuse or satanic abuse as well as child
             abuse).

                 Child abuse occurs in all walks of life...Doctors and
                 lawyers, too, batter their kids.

                 New York Times 6 Jan. 1974, p. 54

                 Grave disquiet was expressed...about the conclusions
                 drawn from diagnostic sessions held at the Great Ormond
                 Street Hospital child abuse clinic in those cases where
                 there was doubt whether a child had been sexually
                 abused.

                 The Times 16 July 1986, p. 36

   Childline  (People and Society) see -line

   China syndrome
             noun (Science and Technology)

             A hypothetical sequence of events following the meltdown of a
             nuclear reactor, in which so much heat is generated that the
             core melts through its containment structure and deep down into
             the earth.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the idea is that the syndrome
             ultimately results in the meltdown's reaching China (from the
             US) by melting through the core of the earth.

             History and Usage:  The China syndrome was always a fictional
             concept. It began as a piece of the folklore of nuclear physics
             but was widely popularized by the film The China Syndrome
             (produced in the US in 1979), which dealt with a fictional case
             of the official cover-up of an operational flaw in a nuclear
             reactor.  Partly as a result of this film and partly because of
             the near meltdown which occurred at Chernobyl in the Soviet
             Union in 1986, the idea of the China syndrome came to symbolize
             people's fears about the increasing use of nuclear power, even
             though the actual sequence of events in the fictional China
             syndrome was obviously far-fetched. The phrase had become
             sufficiently well known by the late eighties to be applied
             punningly by journalists in a number of other contexts, notably
             in relation to mass pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing in
             1989 and their subsequent violent suppression by the Chinese
             government.

                 Mr. Velikhov's announcement gave no clear indication
                 just how close the Chernobyl disaster came to creating
                 the so-called 'China Syndrome'.

                 The Times 12 May 1986, p. 1

                 For at least a decade, government and business leaders
                 around the world have based their Asian thinking on the
                 belief that China was an economically developing,
                 politically stable giant. Now all that has been stood on
                 its head. There is a new China syndrome.

                 Business Week 26 June 1989, p. 76

   China white
              (Drugs) see designer drug

   chip card  (Business World) see card°

   chlorofluorocarbon
              (Environment) see CFC

   chocolate mousse
              (Environment) see mousseэ

   cholesterol-free
              (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

3.6 citizen-friendly


   citizen-friendly
              (Politics) see -friendly

3.7 claimant...


   claimant  noun (People and Society)

             A person claiming a state benefit (especially unemployment
             benefit).

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the word claimant, which has
             been used in the more general sense of 'one who makes a claim'
             since the eighteenth century.

             History and Usage:  The term has been used in official documents
             since the twenties, but was taken up by the claimants themselves
             in the seventies as a word offering solidarity; claimants'
             unions were formed and soon the word started to appear in new
             contexts such as notices announcing discounts.

                 The administration argues that its tough
                 program--reviewing records of claimants and actually
                 cutting off benefits from persons deemed able to
                 work--stems from a 1980 law.

                 Christian Science Monitor 27 Mar. 1984, p. 17

                 A new and unneccessary hurdle for the thousands of
                 claimants who have been unfairly thrown off the
                 disability rolls.

                 New York Times 26 Mar. 1986, section A, p. 22

             See also unwaged

   clamp      transitive verb (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             To immobilize (an illegally parked car) by attaching a wheel
             clamp to it. Also, to subject (a person) to the experience of
             having his or her car clamped.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the verb, which has existed in
             the general sense 'to make fast with a clamp' since the
             seventeenth century.

             History and Usage:  For history and usage, see wheel clamp.

                 In the first eight weeks 4,358 vehicles were clamped
                 with the Denver shoe.

                 Daily Telegraph 14 July 1983, p. 19

                 We've been clamped!! One just can't avoid every
                 potential hazard!!

                 Holiday Which? Mar. 1990, p. 73

   classist  adjective and noun (People and Society)

             adjective: Discriminating against a person or group of people
             because of their social class; class-prejudiced.

             noun: A person who holds class prejudices or advocates class
             discrimination.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ist (as in racist and
             sexist) to class; the corresponding -ism (classism) is a much
             older word, going back to the middle of the nineteenth century.

             History and Usage:  This word belongs to the debate about social
             attitudes and motivations which resulted from the feminist
             movement of the second half of the seventies.

                 The user called another participant in the conversation
                 'a classist' for arguing that (particular) middle class
                 values and behaviors were superior.

                 American Speech Summer 1988, p. 183

   Clause 28 noun (Politics) (People and Society)

             In the UK, a clause of the Local Government Bill (and later Act)
             banning local authorities from 'promoting homosexuality', and
             thereby imposing restrictions on certain books and educational
             material, works of art, etc.; hence also used allusively for the
             loss of artistic freedom and mood of homophobia seen by many as
             the sub-text of this legislation. Sometimes referred to simply
             as the Clause.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the clause numbered 28 in the
             original Local Authority Bill. Although the Bill became an Act
             in mid 1988, and the clause therefore became a section, the term
             Section 28 did not gain much currency outside government or
             legal circles.

             History and Usage:   Clause 28 was discussed in Parliament for
             the first time at the end of 1987 and was welcomed by a large
             number of Conservative MPs as an expression of their party's
             commitment to 'traditional family values' and its pledge to
             tackle the problem of the 'permissive society' which had
             resulted from increased sexual freedom in the seventies and
             early eighties. From the opposite side of the political
             spectrum, though, the emergence of measures like Clause 28 in
             the late eighties was interpreted as being symptomatic of a
             growing institutionalized homophobia in the post-Aids era. It
             was largely the opponents of Clause 28 who continued to use the
             term--after the Bill became an Act in mid 1988--to allude to
             this perceived mood of artistic censorship and repressiveness.

                 The homeless, the loss of artistic freedom (Clause 28),
                 the unemployment figures and the cuts in arts funding
                 were the subjects discussed.

                 Independent on Sunday 18 Nov. 1990, p. 23

                 In the years immediately following 1967 there was a
                 tripling of the prosecutions for homosexual offences.
                 What is happening today follows the same logic, reshaped
                 by a decade of new right dominance, the impact of aids,
                 and the climate that brought us Clause 28.

                 Gay Times Apr. 1991, p. 3

   click      intransitive or transitive verb (Science and Technology)

             In computing, to press one of the buttons on a mouse; to select
             (an item represented on-screen, a particular function, etc.) by
             so doing.

             Etymology:   Click, like zap, began as an onomatopoeic word for
             any of various small 'mechanical' sounds, such as finger-snaps
             or the cocking of a gun. The same word was also used as a verb,
             meaning either 'to make, or cause to make, this sound' or (a
             later development) 'to operate (a device which clicks)'. The
             mouse is simply the latest in a succession of possible objects
             for this later transitive sense.

                 Prodigy uses the mouse extensively...In place of a GEM
                 double click, you have to click both buttons.

                 Music Technology Apr. 1990, p. 36

                 It allows you to browse until you find the file you're
                 looking for, and, assuming you're in 'recover' mode,
                 click on its name to request the server to deliver it
                 back to your client at the desktop.

                 UnixWorld Jan. 1991, p. 54

   clock      transitive verb

             In slang, to take notice of (a person or thing), to spot; also,
             to watch, to stare at.

             Etymology:  Probably derived from the practice of
             clock-watching, which involves repeated glancing at the clock.

             History and Usage:  This word has been in use in underworld or
             criminal slang since about the forties, but has recently been
             taken up by journalists and moved into a rather more respectable
             register.

                 This is the one rhythm machine that puts you back in the
                 driving seat. Clock the SBX-80 at Roland dealers now.

                 International Musician June 1985, p. 86

                 Our waiter...was so busy clocking him that he spilt a
                 bottle of precious appleade over the tablecloth.

                 Sunday Express Magazine 3 Aug. 1986, p. 33

   clone     noun (Science and Technology)

             A computer which deliberately simulates the features and
             facilities of a more expensive competitor; especially, a copy of
             the IBM PC.

             Etymology:  A specialization of the figurative sense of clone
             which originated in science fiction: from the early seventies, a
             clone was a person or animal that had developed from a single
             somatic cell of its parent and was therefore genetically an
             identical copy.  The computer clones were designed to be
             identical in capability to the models that inspired them (and,
             in particular, to run the same software).

             History and Usage:  A usage which arose during the eighties, as
             a number of microcomputer manufacturers attempted to undercut
             the very successful IBM personal computer (and later its
             successor, the PS2). Also widely used for other cut-price copies
             (for example, of cars and cameras as well as other computers).

                 Amstrad [is] leading the cut price clones attacking IBM
                 personal computers on price.

                 Marketing 11 Sept. 1986, p. 5

                 The company is a major porter to Far Eastern clone
                 makers, who are developing copies of Sun Microsystems'
                 SPARC-based workstations.

                 UnixWorld Jan. 1991, p. 68

3.8 cocooning...


   cocooning noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             In the US, the practice of nurturing one's family life by
             spending leisure time in the home with one's family; the valuing
             of family life and privacy above social contact and advancement.
             Also as a verb cocoon and an agent noun cocooner.

             Etymology:  This specialized sense derives from the idea of a
             cocoon as a protective layer or shell: Americans are seen as
             deliberately retreating from the stressful conditions of life
             outside the home into the cosy private world of the family.
             Towards the end of the seventies in his book Manwatching, the
             anthropologist Desmond Morris had observed a similar protective
             device among people who live or work in crowded places where
             privacy is difficult to achieve:

                 Flatmates, students sharing a study, sailors in the
                 cramped quarters of a ship, and office staff in crowded
                 workplaces, all have to face this problem. They solve it
                 by 'cocooning'. They use a variety of devices to shut
                 themselves off from the others present.

             Cocooning can be seen as one step on from the nesting which is
             characteristic of new parents.

             History and Usage:  The word was apparently coined by Faith
             Popcorn--a New York trend analyst--in 1986, after analysis of
             socio-economic trends had shown that people in the US were going
             out and travelling less, ordering more takeout food to eat at
             home, doing more of their shopping from catalogues rather than
             in person, and showing more interest in traditional pastimes
             (such as craft work) which could be done at home.  Within a few
             years this had had a significant commercial effect in the
             US--but it remains to be seen whether the trend will be limited
             to affluent Americans.  Cocooning is seen by some as an
             up-market way of saying 'being a couch potato'.

                 We are benefitting from 'cocooning'. Everyone wants to
                 spend more time at home with family. Crafts like
                 cross-stitching and fabrics for children and home
                 decorating have experienced tremendous growth.

                 Fortune 30 July 1990, p. 132

                 You could be...what Americans call a 'cocooner'--a rich
                 yuppie who escapes the violence of society by shutting
                 himself up with his designer wife and baby behind a
                 screen of security alarms.

                 Sunday Express 16 Sept. 1990, p. 25

   cohabitation
             noun (Politics)

             Coexistence or co-operation in government between members of
             opposing parties, especially when one is the President and the
             other the Prime Minister. Hence, by extension, the coexistence
             of different currencies in a single monetary system. Also as an
             intransitive verb, cohabit.

             Etymology:  Borrowed into English from French cohabitation. In
             both languages, this is a figurative use of cohabitation in the
             sense 'living together as though man and wife, although not
             actually married'. Political cohabitation is seen as a marriage
             of inconvenience brought about by the fickleness of the voting
             public.

             History and Usage:  The word was first used in this sense in
             English in a report of a speech made by French President Val‚ry
             Giscard d'Estaing in 1978, during a period of coalition
             government in France. As the eighties progressed, the French
             voting public tended to favour a Socialist President (Fran‡ois
             Mitterrand) in combination with a conservative Prime Minister,
             making cohabitation a fact of life in French politics. During
             the discussion of EMS and EMU° in the late eighties, the word
             was used by journalists in a transferred sense to refer to the
             coexistence of different standards for European currencies.

                 Like France, Portugal is adjusting to the 'cohabitation'
                 of a Socialist president and a conservative Prime
                 Minister.

                 Economist 5 Apr. 1986, p. 57

                 Via EMS, the D-mark became Europe's leading currency,
                 while the yen and the dollar cohabited.

                 Business Apr. 1990, p. 43

   cold call verb and noun (Business World)

             In marketing jargon,

             transitive verb: To make an unsolicited telephone call or visit
             to (a prospective customer) as a way of selling a product.

             noun: A marketing call on a person who has not previously
             expressed any interest in the product. Also as an action noun
             cold calling.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the call, whether by
             telephone or in person, is made cold, without any previous
             warm-up, or preparation of the ground.

             History and Usage:  The term was first used in the early
             seventies as a more jargony equivalent for 'door-to-door
             selling' (and at that time cold calling was mostly done
             door-to-door); in the eighties the rise of telemarketing (see
             tele-) and the emphasis on 'hard sell' has meant a huge increase
             in cold calling by telephone.

                 On the first cold call I ever made I started saying what
                 I had been trained to say when to my astonishment the
                 person I had rung said 'yes'.

                 Marketing 11 Sept. 1986, p. 20

                 We've never been happy with 'cold calling' and are very
                 disappointed that the FSA extended it further. People
                 don't make calm, rational decisions if they're
                 smooth-talked into signing by strangers in their homes.

                 Which? Jan. 1990, p. 35

                 Financial salesmen will be able to 'cold call' customers
                 and sell investment trust savings schemes.

                 The Times 30 Mar. 1990, p. 23

   collectable
             noun Also written collectible (especially in the US) (Lifestyle
             and Leisure)

             Any article which might form part of a collection or is sought
             after by collectors, especially a small and relatively
             inexpensive item or one expressly produced for collectors.

             Etymology:  Formed by turning the adjective collectable into a
             noun. In its more general sense the adjective simply means 'that
             may be collected', but it has been used by collectors to mean
             'worth collecting, sought after' since the end of the last
             century.

             History and Usage:  Not a particularly new word--even as a
             noun--among collectors themselves, but one which has enjoyed
             increased exposure in the past decade, partly through the boom
             in collecting as a hobby. The noun is nearly always used in the
             plural.

                 What distinguishes all these catalog 'collectibles' is
                 that they are at once ugly, of doubtful value, and
                 expensive.

                 Paul Fussell Class (1983), p. 119

                 The wonderful thing about 'collectables' is that anyone
                 with just a few extra pounds can become a collector.

                 Miller's Collectables Price Guide 1989-90, volume 1,
                 p. 5

   colourize  transitive verb Written colorize in the US (Lifestyle and
             Leisure) (Science and Technology)

             To add colour to (a black-and-white film) by a computerized
             process called Colorizer (a trade mark). Also as an adjective
             colourized; noun colourization.

             Etymology:  The verb has existed in the sense 'to colour' since
             the seventeenth century, but was rarely used until the invention
             of the Colorizer. This use of the verb is likely to be a
             back-formation from Colorizer rather than a straightforward
             sense development.

             History and Usage:  The Colorizer program has been used in
             Canada since the early eighties; the name was registered as a
             trade mark in the mid eighties. Also during the mid eighties,
             the practice of colourizing classic black-and-white films
             (especially for release as home videos) caused considerable
             controversy, with one side claiming that a company which had
             bought the rights to a particular film should be allowed to do
             as it wished with it, and the other maintaining that classic
             films were works of art not to be tampered with in any way.

                 'Colorizing' great movies such as Casablanca...is like
                 spray-painting the Venus de Milo.

                 Time 5 Nov. 1984, p. 10

                 Rather than legislate directly against the business
                 interests that stood to profit from colorization,
                 Congress approved provisions under which films could be
                 given landmark status and protected...When broadcast
                 recently on TBS, colorized pictures have been labeled as
                 such.

                 Philadelphia Inquirer 20 Sept. 1989, section A, p. 4

   commodification
             noun (Business World)

             The process of turning something into a commodity or viewing it
             in commercial terms when it is not by nature commercial;
             commercialization.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the process suffix -ification to
             the first two syllables of commodity.

             History and Usage:  Coined in the seventies, commodification has
             become a fashionable word to describe the eighties' increasingly
             commercial approach to the Arts and to services (such as health
             care) which would not previously have been regarded as
             marketable. In financial sources, the word has also been used to
             refer to the tendency in the late eighties for money to be
             traded as though it were a commodity.

                 [Artists] have made conscious attempts over the last
                 decade to combat the relentless commodification of their
                 products.

                 Lucy Lippard Overlay (1983), p. 6

   community antenna television
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see cable television

   community charge
             noun (Business World) (Politics)

             In Great Britain, a charge for local services at a level fixed
             annually by the local authority and in principle payable by
             every adult resident; the official name for the tax popularly
             known as the poll tax.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a charge for community
             services, and payable by every adult resident of the community
             who is not specially exempted.

             History and Usage:  The government announced its intention to
             replace the system of household rates with a community charge in
             1985; the original plan was for a flat-rate charge of њ50 per
             person. The plan was first put into effect in Scotland in 1989
             and in the rest of Great Britain (but not Northern Ireland) in
             1990.  In both places it met with considerable opposition and a
             campaign of non-payment, not least because of the high level of
             tax fixed by many local authorities, the large discrepancies
             from one area to another, and the absence of any kind of means
             testing from the system (although those on low incomes could
             apply for rebates). The government's decision to cap the tax in
             high-spending areas only compounded the problem, since bills had
             already been issued by many of the local authorities affected.
             Community charge is the official term used by the government and
             some local authorities; popularly, though, and in some
             literature issued by non-Conservative local authorities, it is
             known as poll tax. In April 1991, the government announced the
             result of its review of the community charge, which, it said,
             would be replaced after consultation by a property-based council
             tax by 1993.

                 You don't pay the personal charge if you're...a
                 prisoner, unless you're inside for not paying the
                 community charge or a fine.

                 Which? Oct. 1989, p. 476

                 This week's violent community charge agitation has
                 sparked a dramatic resurgence in the fortunes of
                 Militant Tendency and other Trotskyite groups.

                 The Times 8 Mar. 1990, p. 5

   compact disc
              (Science and Technology) see CD

   compassion fatigue
             (People and Society)

             A temporarily indifferent or unsympathetic attitude towards
             others' suffering as a result of overexposure to charitable
             appeals.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  fatigue affecting one's
             capacity for compassion.

             History and Usage:   Compassion fatigue was first written about
             in the US in the early eighties, and at first was used mainly in
             the context of refugee appeals and the resulting pressure on
             immigration policy there. In the UK compassion fatigue was first
             mentioned when famines in Ethiopia in 1984-5 became the subject
             of graphic television appeals, followed by large-scale
             fund-raising events such as Band Aid (see -Aid). It was feared
             that the British public could only stand the sight of so many
             starving children before 'switching off' emotionally to their
             suffering, but in the event the response to these appeals was
             good and it seemed that the issues most vulnerable to compassion
             fatigue were the ones generally perceived as 'old news'. The
             same effect on governmental agencies has been described as aid
             fatigue.

                 Geldof, the Irish rock musician who conceived the event
                 and spearheaded its hasty implementation, said that he
                 'wanted to get this done before compassion fatigue set
                 in', following such projects as the African fund-raising
                 records 'Do They Know It's Christmas?' and 'We Are the
                 World'.

                 New York Times 22 Sept. 1985, section 2, p. 28

                 It is a chilling vision, a cataclysm. Compassion fatigue
                 be damned.  There is no doubt that we in Britain,
                 without ceasing to wage our domestic battle against
                 Aids, should be careful not to forget Africa, fighting
                 its far more savage war.

                 Independent on Sunday 1 Apr. 1990, Sunday Review
                 section, p. 10

   complementary
             adjective (Health and Fitness)

             Of a therapy or health treatment: intended to complement
             orthodox medical practices; alternative, naturopathic. Also of a
             practitioner: not belonging to the traditional medical
             establishment.

             Etymology:  A specialized application of complementary in its
             normal sense, 'forming a complement', the idea being that the
             alternative therapies do not compete with traditional medicine,
             but form a natural complement to it. This is the successor to
             the earlier and more dismissive 'fringe medicine', which saw
             these techniques as being on--or even beyond--the fringe of
             conventional medicine.

             History and Usage:  The term complementary medicine was coined
             by Stephen Fulder and Robin Munro in a report on the use of
             these techniques in the UK, published in 1982:

                 After extensive consideration of titles such as
                 'alternative medicine', 'fringe medicine' or 'natural
                 therapeutics' we have decided to use the term '
                 complementary medicine' to describe systems...which
                 stand apart from but are in some ways complementary to
                 conventional scientific medicine.

              Since then it has become very common, reflecting the change in
             public attitudes to these techniques during the decade (from
             'fringe' or even 'quack' medicine to an accepted approach).
             Apart from complementary medicine, the adjective is used in
             complementary therapist, complementary practitioner, etc.

                 The Research Council for Complementary Medicine (RCCM)
                 was set up to find research methods acceptable to both
                 complementary and conventional practitioners.

                 Practical Health Spring 1990, pull-out section, p. 5

                 The plight of Mrs S wishing to fight cancer with
                 complementary medicine before surgery...but rejected for
                 this reason by five doctors is sad indeed. She could no
                 doubt be helped by more than one complementary therapy.

                 Kindred Spirit Summer 1990, p. 38

   computer-aided tomography, computer-assisted tomography
              (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology) see CAT°

   computerate
             adjective (Science and Technology)

             Proficient in the theory and practice of computing;
             computer-literate.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining computer and literate into a
             blend, taking advantage of the shared syllable -ter-. There was
             a precedent for this concept in the words numeracy and numerate
             (mathematically literate), which in the late fifties introduced
             the idea of a range of skills modelled on literacy/literate.

             History and Usage:  When computing skills became sought after in
             the job markets in the seventies, there was much discussion of
             computer literacy and the need to provide a general education
             which would produce computer-literate individuals. It was a
             short step from this metaphor to the blend computerate, which
             started to appear in the early eighties. The corresponding noun
             computeracy has been used colloquially since the late sixties,
             but also attained a more general currency during the eighties. A
             similar, but less successful, coinage is the punning adjective
             computent, competent in the use of computers (coined by Richard
             Sarson in the mid eighties), along with its corresponding noun
             computence.

                 Chapman and Hall are looking for a numerate and
                 computerate person with publishing experience.

                 New Scientist 30 Aug. 1984, p. 59

                 Computeracy will not solve all your problems.

                 headline in Guardian 28 Feb. 1985, p. 25

                 Andy's computence did not make him a philosopher or a
                 captain of industry...But he passed on some of his
                 computence to me, for which I will always be
                 grateful...Computent Andy, illiterate and innumerate in
                 the eyes of the educational system though he may be, has
                 made me computent, and thereby more literate and
                 numerate than I was.

                 The Times 19 Apr. 1988, p. 33

   computer-friendly
              (Science and Technology) see -friendly

   computerized axial tomography
              (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology) see CAT°

   computer virus
              (Science and Technology) see virus

   condom    noun (Health and Fitness)

             A sheath made of thin rubber and worn over the penis during
             sexual intercourse, either to prevent conception or as a
             prophylactic measure.

             Etymology:  Of unknown origin; often said to be the name of its
             inventor, although this theory has never been proved.

             History and Usage:  The word has been used in this sense in
             English since the early eighteenth century. It is included here
             only because it acquired a renewed currency--and a new
             respectability--in the language as a direct result of the spread
             of Aids in the 1980s. Whereas sheath or trade marks such as
             Durex were the only terms (apart from slang expressions) in
             widespread popular use in the UK immediately before the advent
             of Aids, it was condom that was chosen for repeated use in
             government advertising campaigns designed to explain the concept
             of safe sex to the general public in the mid eighties. Soon the
             word had become so widespread that there were even reports of
             schoolchildren who had invented a new version of the playground
             game tag in which the safe area was not the 'den' but the
             condom. The pronunciation with full quality given to both vowels
             /--/ belongs only to this twentieth-century use (in the past it
             had been pronounced /--/ or /--/, to rhyme at the end with
             conundrum) and possibly reflects the unfamiliarity of the word
             to the speakers of the government advertisements. In 1988 there
             was an attempt to introduce a condom for women to wear;
             meanwhile, the buying of the male version was presented very
             much as a joint duty for any Aids-conscious couple.  This
             emphasis in advertising, as well as the generally permissive
             attitude to sexual relationships of any orientation in the
             eighties, led to the development of the nickname condom culture,
             used especially by those who favoured stricter sexual morals.

                 More women should buy, carry and use condoms to help
                 stop the spread of Aids, according to the organisers of
                 National Condom Week, which starts today. The intention
                 is to encourage people to get used to buying and
                 carrying the contraceptives without embarrassment or
                 inhibition.

                 Guardian 7 Aug. 1989, p. 5

                 The government has promoted a 'condom culture' of sex
                 without commitment as part of a dismal record on support
                 of family life, the National Family Trust claims today.

                 Daily Telegraph 11 Aug. 1989, p. 2

                 Everyone on the docks has...condoms...Pull a kid
                 aside...and he'll tell you he doesn't need them...Does
                 it sound to you like I need to put on a bag?

                 Village Voice (New York) 30 Jan. 1990, p. 34

   connectivity
              (Science and Technology) see neural

   consumer terrorism
              (People and Society) see tamper

   contra    noun Sometimes written Contra (Politics)

             A member of any of the guerrilla forces which opposed the
             Sandinista government in Nicaragua between 1979 and 1990; often
             written in the plural contras, these forces considered
             collectively.

             Etymology:  An abbreviated form of the Spanish word
             contrarrevolucionario 'counter-revolutionary', probably
             influenced by Latin contra 'against'.

             History and Usage:  The word appeared on the US political scene
             at the very beginning of the eighties and became an increasingly
             hot issue in view of the US presidential administration's desire
             to aid the overthrow of the Sandinista government in Nicaragua.
             This reached its peak in the Iran-contra affair of 1986, when it
             was alleged that profits from US arms sales to Iran had been
             diverted to aid the contras, even though legislation had by then
             been passed to prevent any material aid from being sent; the
             ensuing Congressional hearings made the word contra known
             throughout the English-speaking world even if reporting of the
             long civil war in Nicaragua itself had not. Despite a plan
             agreed by Central American leaders in August 1989 to 'disband'
             the rebels, even the end of the Sandinista government after the
             elections in 1990 did not immediately bring an end to guerrilla
             activity from the contras.

                 Oliver North, the ex-Marine colonel at the heart of the
                 Iran-contra affair, whom Ronald Reagan dubbed 'a true
                 American hero', was yesterday spared a prison term.

                 Guardian 6 July 1989, p. 20

                 The scenario clearly involved some kind of trade-off of
                 contra aid and drugs and money.

                 Interview Mar. 1990, p. 42

   contraflow
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             In the UK, a temporary traffic flow system (for example during
             carriageway repairs on a motorway) in which traffic is diverted
             on to the outer lane or lanes of the opposite carriageway, so
             that the carriageway which remains fully operational is in
             effect a temporary two-way road.

             Etymology:   Contraflow has existed as a word meaning 'flow in
             the opposite direction' since the thirties; the traffic use is a
             specialized application of this sense.

             History and Usage:  The first contraflow systems on British
             roads--at least, the first to be called contraflow--appeared in
             the seventies. As the country's system of motorways began to age
             in the eighties, the contraflow became a seemingly ubiquitous
             sight and one was reported on radio traffic news almost every
             day. Sometimes contraflow is used on its own to signify the
             whole traffic-flow system; often, though, it is used
             attributively in contraflow system, etc.

                 Resurfacing...has meant closing the northbound section
                 and funnelling traffic into a contraflow system of two
                 lanes each way on the southbound side.

                 The Times 9 Apr. 1985, p. 3

                 A spokesman said the contraflow was working smoothly at
                 the time of the crash and visibility was good.

                 Daily Telegraph 7 Sept. 1987, p. 4

   Contragate
              (Politics) see -gate

   cook-chill
             adjective and noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             adjective: Of foods: sold in a pre-cooked and refrigerated form,
             for consumption within a specified time (usually after thorough
             reheating). Also in the form cook-chilled.

             noun: The process of pre-cooking and refrigerating foods for
             reheating later.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: the principle is first to
             cook and then to chill the food.

             History and Usage:  The system was invented as an offshoot of
             partially cooked frozen meals, and had become popular in
             institutional catering by the early eighties. The term was
             widely popularized in the UK in 1989, when there was an increase
             in cases of listeriosis thought to be caused at least in part by
             failure to store cook-chill foods correctly or reheat them
             thoroughly.

                 The Department of Health has already advised people in
                 at-risk groups not to eat cook-chill foods cold, and--if
                 you buy one to eat hot--to make sure that it's reheated
                 until it's 'piping hot'.

                 Which? Apr. 1990, p. 206

   core wars  plural noun (Science and Technology)

             In computing jargon, a type of computer game played by
             programming experts, in which the object is to design and run a
             program which will destroy the one designed and run by the
             opponent.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; core is a reference to the
             old ferromagnetic cores which made up the memory elements of
             computers used in the fifties and sixties, before the advent of
             semiconductor chips. Active memory is still sometimes referred
             to as core memory, even in modern computers.

             History and Usage:  The 'sport' of core wars originated among
             computer scientists at Bell Laboratories in the US in the late
             fifties and sixties and was originally the proper name of a
             program developed by the computer-games group there. It was
             popularized in the US in the mid eighties, probably as a more
             respectable offshoot of the interest in mischievous programs
             such as the computer virus and worm and in defensive programming
             techniques which could be used to protect software from attack.
             By 1986 it had been raised to the level of international
             competition, but remains a minority interest.

                 Robert Morris Sr....played a game based on a computer
                 virus over 40 years ago...Called Core Wars, the game
                 centered around the design of a program that multiplied
                 and tried to destroy other players' programs.

                 Personal Computing May 1989, p. 92

   corn circle
              (Environment) see crop circle

   cornflakes
              (Drugs) see angel dust

   corn-free  (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

   corpocracy
             noun (Business World)

             Corporate bureaucracy: bureaucratic organization in large
             companies (or in a particular company), especially when
             excessively hierarchical structures lead to overstaffing and
             inefficiency. Such companies are described as corpocratic; a
             director of one is a corpocrat.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first two syllables of
             corporate with the last two of bureaucracy to make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The word was coined by American economist
             Robert Heller in his book The Common Millionaire (1974), but was
             still sufficiently unfamiliar in the mid eighties for John S.
             Berry and Mark Green to present it as a new coinage in The
             Challenge of Hidden Profits: Reducing Corporate Bureaucracy and
             Waste (1985). In the UK the word--although not the
             phenomenon--was popularized by financier Sir James Goldsmith.
             Corpocracy was presented as an important reason for the
             uncompetitiveness of British and American businesses during the
             eighties.

                 It doesn't believe much in hierarchy, rule books, dress
                 codes, company cars, executive dining rooms, lofty
                 titles, country club memberships or most other trappings
                 of corpocracy.

                 Forbes 23 Mar. 1987, p. 154

                 Such a complete change of direction is not likely to be
                 welcomed by directors who I would describe as complacent
                 or entrenched in their current 'corpocratic' culture.

                 Sir James Goldsmith in First, 3.3 (1989), p. 18

   corporate makeover
              (Business World) see makeover

   couch potato
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (People and Society)

             In slang, a person who spends leisure time passively (for
             example by sitting watching television or videos), eats junk
             food, and takes little or no physical exercise.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; a person with the physical
             shape of a potato who spends as much time as possible slouching
             on the couch. The original humorous coinage by Californian Tom
             Iacino relied on a pun: because of their love for continuous
             viewing of the television (known in US slang as the boob tube,
             unlike British slang, which uses the term for a skimpy stretch
             bodice), these people had formerly been called boob tubers; for
             their emblem, cartoonist Robert Armstrong therefore drew the
             best known tuber--a potato--reclining on a couch watching TV,
             formed a club called The Couch Potatoes, and later went on to
             register the term as a trade mark.

             History and Usage:  The US trade mark registration for the term
             couch potato claims that it was first used on 15 July 1976.
             Robert Armstrong (who is really responsible for popularizing the
             term and maintaining the cult) has claimed that this coinage was
             not his, attributing it instead to Tom Iacino, another 'Elder'
             of the cult, who used it when asking to speak to a fellow Elder
             (known only as 'The Hallidonian') on the telephone. The Couch
             Potatoes club which Armstrong formed aimed to raise the
             self-esteem of tubers, and provided a counterbalance to the cult
             of physical fitness which was by then a dominant influence in
             American society. With the growth of the domestic video market,
             the couch potato cult became very popular during the eighties
             and resulted in much merchandising-- couch potato teeshirts,
             dolls, stationery, books, etc. designed to promote pride in the
             tuber culture. Many variations on the term developed too: the
             obvious couch potatoing and couch potatodom and a whole range of
             words based on spud, such as vid spud, telespud, spud suit, and
             spudismo. With the coining of the trend analyst's term cocooning
             in 1986, couch potatoes felt that their way of life was being
             officially recognized; however, a National Children and Youth
             Fitness Study carried out in the US in 1987 made it clear that
             it was not to be officially condoned, criticizing parents for
             not getting children to take outdoor exercise and for raising a
             nation of couch potatoes. The couch potato concept and
             merchandising reached the UK in the late eighties, although the
             lifestyle had existed without a name for some time before that.

                 Though Mr. Armstrong's brainchild has yet to make him
                 rich, he is still undaunted, spreading the Couch Potato
                 gospel: 'We feel that watching TV is an indigenous
                 American form of meditation. We call it "transcendental
                 vegetation".'

                 Parade 3 Jan. 1988, p. 6

                 The economy could be thrown into recession because of
                 the couch potato's penchant for staying home with the
                 family, watching TV and munching on microwave popcorn.

                 Atlanta Oct. 1989, p. 61

   council tax
              (Business World) (Politics) see community charge

   counter-culture
             noun Also written counter culture or counterculture (Lifestyle
             and Leisure) (Youth Culture)

             A radical, alternative culture, especially among young people,
             that seeks out new values to replace the established and
             conventional.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the prefix counter- (an anglicized
             form of the Latin contra 'against') to culture: something that
             rebels against established culture.

             History and Usage:  The counter-culture has, in a sense, always
             been with us, since the younger generation in each succeeding
             age rebels against the values of its parents and tries to
             establish a new lifestyle; but the word counter-culture was
             first used in the US to describe the hippie culture of the
             sixties by those who looked back on it from the end of the
             decade.  The concept was popularized by Theodore Roszak in his
             book The Making of a Counter-Culture (1969).  Counter-culture
             has come to be used especially to refer to any lifestyle which
             attempts to get away from the materialism and consumption of the
             post-war Western world; in the eighties, it has tended to give
             way to the word alternative, especially in British English. A
             follower of the counter-culture is a counter-culturalist.

                 The counter-culture ponytail is gone, sacrificed to the
                 heat of arena lights and the sizzling sweat of the
                 fast-break pace.

                 Time 30 May 1977, p. 40

                 It was the counter-culture, the alternative society, a
                 middle-class movement, an explosion of creative energy,
                 a bunch of unwashed, stoned-out air heads.

                 Observer 23 Oct. 1988, p. 43

                 The fact that so many counter-culturalists have now cut
                 their hair...and...become green 'rainbow warriors', is a
                 point which seems to have been overlooked.

                 Films & Filming Mar. 1990, p. 50

   courseware
              (Science and Technology) see -ware

   Cowabunga Originally written kowa-bunga or Kawabonga; now also cowabunga
             interjection (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang (originally in the US), an exclamation
             of exhilaration or satisfaction, or sometimes a rallying cry to
             action:  yippee!, yahoo!, yabbadabba doo!

             Etymology:  The word was originally used in the fifties (in the
             form kowa-bunga or Kawabonga) as an exclamation of anger by the
             cartoon character Chief Thunderthud in The Howdy Doody Show,
             written by Eddie Kean. By the sixties, it had entered surfing
             slang as a cry of exhilaration when riding the crest of a wave.
             Since the surfers of the sixties had been the children for whom
             The Howdy Doody Show was written, it is easy to see how the word
             made this transition; it is less clear how Eddie Kean came upon
             it. Chief Thunderthud used the expression when annoyed, or if
             something went wrong; when things went well, he said Kawagoopa.
             Although Thunderthud was meant to be an American Indian, there
             had been early speculation that cowabunga might come from the
             Australian or South Seas surfing world; interestingly, kauwul is
             recorded as an aboriginal word in New South Wales for 'big',
             bong for 'death', and gubba for 'good', but this is surely no
             more than a curious coincidence.

             History and Usage:  As mentioned above, Cowabunga was in use as
             an exclamation among Californian surfers by the sixties. It
             reached a wider audience through a series of films about a
             surfer called Gidget in the sixties, through its use by the
             cookie monster in the children's television series Sesame Street
             in the seventies, and more particularly from 1990, when it was
             taken up as the rallying cry of the Teenage Mutant Turtles. In
             the book of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: the Movie, the turtles
             are searching for a suitable cry:

                 They turned to Donatello, who struggled to come up with
                 the perfect word to describe their exploits. But
                 Donatello was at a loss. His brothers continued to top
                 each other: 'Tubular!' 'Radical!' 'Dynamite!' At last
                 Splinter raised a finger and brought an end to the
                 debate. 'I have always liked', he said quietly,
                 'cowabunga.' The turtles stared at him, grinning, then
                 laid down high-threes all around. 'Cow-a-bung-a!' they
                 cried in unison. And the battle-cry was born.

             The word soon crossed the Atlantic as part of turtlemania, with
             the result that one could hear the cry of 'Cowabunga, dudes!'
             from British children apparently unaware that, as far as their
             parents were concerned, they were speaking a foreign language.

                 'Hey, Mike, I didn't know that you could drive!' 'Me
                 neither...cowabunga!'

                 Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles 10-23 Feb. 1990, p. 20

                 Marketers are betting that youngsters will have the same
                 reaction as American kids: Cowabunga!

                 Newsweek 16 Apr. 1990, p. 61

3.9 crack...


   crack     noun (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, a highly addictive, crystalline form
             of cocaine made by heating a mixture of it with baking powder
             and water until it is hard, and breaking it into small pieces
             which are burnt and smoked for their stimulating effect.

             Etymology:  The name arises from the fact that the hard-baked
             substance has to be cracked into small pieces for use, as well
             as the cracking sound the pieces make when smoked.

             History and Usage:  The substance itself first came to the
             attention of US drug enforcement agencies in 1983, but at that
             time was generally known on the streets as rock or freebase. The
             name crack appeared during 1985 and by 1986 had become
             established as the usual term, both among drug users and by the
             authorities; since 1988, the fuller term crack cocaine has
             tended to replace crack alone in official use.  Crack's
             appearance on the US drug market coincided with a marked rise in
             violent crime, testifying to its potency and addictiveness, with
             users prepared to go to almost any lengths to get more. The word
             crack quickly became the basis for compounds, notably crackhead
             (in drugs slang, a user of crack) and crack house (a house where
             crack is prepared or from which it is sold). The phrasal verb
             crack (it) up has also acquired the specialized meaning in drugs
             slang of smoking crack.

                 In New York and Los Angeles drug dealers have opened up
                 drug galleries, called 'crack houses'.

                 San Francisco Chronicle 6 Dec. 1985, p. 3

                 'Crack it up, crack it up,' the drug dealers murmur from
                 the leafy parks of the suburbs to New York City's
                 meanest streets.

                 Time 4 Aug. 1986, p. 27

                 Charlie and two fellow 'crackheads' took me to a vast
                 concrete housing estate in South London where crack is
                 on sale for between њ20 and њ25 a deal.

                 Observer 24 July 1988, p. 15

                 Some crack users [in Washington DC], unable to work for
                 a living, will go out with a lead pipe or a bat and hit
                 defenceless women.

                 Japan Times 19 May 1989, p. 20

             See also wack

   cracking   (Science and Technology) (Youth Culture) see hack

   crank     verb (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users in the UK: to inject (a drug). Often
             as a phrasal verb crank up.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of the verb which normally means
             'to start a motor by turning the crank'; a synonym in drugs
             slang for jack (up), which follows a similar type of metaphor.

             History and Usage:  A word which has been used by drug users in
             the UK since about the beginning of the seventies, crank seems
             to be a rare example of a piece of drugs slang which is
             exclusively British. US drugs slang has crank as a noun for
             methamphetamine and cranking for repeated use of
             methamphetamine, but the verb is apparently not used at all. In
             Britain, it is normally used in the context of heroin injection.

                 'Where do you inject?' 'Me feet, me arms, me hands.'
                 'Would you give up cranking?' 'No, it's the needle I'm
                 into.'

                 Sunday Telegraph 29 Oct. 1989, p. 15

   creative  adjective (Business World)

             Used euphemistically in the language of finance: exploiting
             loopholes in financial legislation so as to gain maximum
             advantage or present figures in a misleadingly favourable light;
             ingenious or inventive.

             Etymology:  A figurative extension of meaning:  creative had
             been used of writing that was inventive or imaginative since the
             early nineteenth century, and in context frequently meant no
             more than 'fictional'. The creative accountant's task is to
             interpret the figures imaginatively, with the result that a
             largely fictional picture of events is often presented.

             History and Usage:  Used in the business world (especially in
             creative accountancy or creative accounting) since the early
             seventies, the euphemism was popularized in the mid eighties,
             when it was rumoured that the technique had been used in
             presenting both central and local government figures. At this
             time creative accounting also became the subject of a number of
             books published for people running small businesses or working
             on their own.

                 Mr Nicholas Ridley, the Secretary of State for the
                 Environment, is today expected to warn high-spending
                 councils that he is ready to take tough new action to
                 stamp out 'creative accounting'.

                 The Times 21 Nov. 1986, p. 2

   cred°     noun (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: credibility, reputation, peer status.

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating credibility to its first
             syllable.

             History and Usage:  The emphasis on cred in the early nineties
             arises from the concept of street credibility which developed at
             the very end of the seventies.  Street credibility (which by the
             early eighties was being abbreviated to street cred) originally
             involved popularity with, and accessibility to, members of the
             urban street culture, who were seen as representing ordinary
             people. Before long, though, the term had come to mean
             familiarity with contemporary fashions--or the extent to which a
             person was 'hip'. Once the concept was established, the word
             street was often dropped, leaving cred alone.

                 'Cred' was achieved by your rhetorical stance and no one
                 had more credibility than the Clash.

                 Bob Geldof Is That It? (1986), p. 125

                 'They've got to have total cred,' Boxall insisted, when
                 listing the special qualities he is looking for [in a
                 magazine editor].

                 Sydney Morning Herald 1 Feb. 1990, p. 28

   credэ     noun (Business World)

             In colloquial use (originally in the US): financial credit.

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating credit to its first syllable.

             History and Usage:  A natural development in view of the boom in
             the use of credit facilities during the late seventies and
             eighties. Also used in combinations, especially cred card.

                 Neat trick, eh? Cash and cred all in one bundle.

                 The Face Jan. 1989, p. 61

   credit card
              (Business World) see card°

   crew      noun (Youth Culture)

             In hip hop culture, a group of rappers, break-dancers, graffiti
             artists, etc. working together as a team. Also, loosely, one's
             gang or posse.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of crew in the sense of 'a body or
             squad of people working together', which goes back to the
             seventeenth century. In this case, there is probably a conscious
             allusion to the Rock Steady Crew: see break-dancing.

             History and Usage:  Originally used mainly of groups of rappers
             (from about 1982 in the US), the term was soon applied to street
             groups using other hip-hop forms of expression such as
             break-dancing and graffiti (see tagэ) and by the end of the
             decade had been adopted more generally by groups of youngsters.

                 To kids out of the South Bronx and Harlem, what the top
                 crews make is big bucks. For a one-night gig...a dancer
                 takes home $150 to $300.

                 Village Voice (New York) 10 Apr. 1984, p. 38

                 He and four friends, members of a crew of graffiti
                 artists who call themselves the L.A. Beastie Boys,
                 gathered at the park.

                 Los Angeles Times 22 Oct. 1987, section 10 (Glendale),
                 p. 1

   crop circle
             noun (Environment)

             A (usually circular) area of standing crops which has been
             inexplicably flattened, apparently by a swirling, vortex-like
             movement.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a circle of flattened crop.

             History and Usage:  The puzzling phenomenon of crop circles
             (sometimes also called corn circles) has been perplexing
             scientists for about a decade. Since the early eighties
             increasing numbers of circles and other patterns have been
             reported in areas as far apart as the South of England, the
             farming belt of the US, and Australia, often appearing
             overnight. A number of theories--ranging from meteorological
             changes or fungi to alien spaceships or the activity of
             hoaxers--have been put forward to explain them, but none has
             been conclusive.

                 They are the result not of the supernatural but of an
                 everyday, common garden variety of fungi, according to
                 biologists Mr Michael Hall and Mr Andrew Macara, who
                 have been conducting a study into the crop circle
                 conundrum.

                 Sunday Telegraph 11 Mar. 1990, p. 5

                 Could the enormous increase in the perplexing crop
                 circles be anything to do with the Earth's vital
                 energies?

                 Kindred Spirit Summer 1990, p. 26

   crossover noun and adjective Sometimes written cross-over (Music) (People
             and Society)

             noun: The process of moving from one culture (or especially from
             one musical genre) to another; something or someone that has
             done this (specifically, a musical act or artist that has moved
             from a specialized appeal in one limited area of music into the
             general popular-music charts).

             adjective: (Of a person) that has made this transition from one
             culture or genre to another; (of music, an act, etc.) appealing
             to a wide audience outside its genre, sometimes by mixing
             musical styles.

             Etymology:  The noun is formed on the verbal phrase cross over
             and has been used in a number of specialized senses in English
             since the eighteenth century. The cultural sense here is perhaps
             in part a figurative application of the genetic crossover (one
             of the word's specialized senses, in use since the early years
             of this century), in which the characteristics of both parents
             are displayed as a result of the crossing over of pairs of
             chromosomes.

             History and Usage:  Since the sixties, crossover has been used
             in politics (especially in the US) in relation to the practice
             or tactic of switching votes from the party with which one is
             registered to another party--for instance in a State primary.
             Within the music industry crossover was being used by the mid
             seventies in relation to records in the country charts which
             were tending to cross over into popular music generally, and it
             was not long before this process became more generalized, for
             example as various Black sounds acquired a more general appeal
             to White audiences. In the eighties, crossover was one of the
             favourite words of the music industry and there was plenty of
             scope for its use, as soundtracks from films and television
             series increasingly figured in the charts and the big names of
             classical music ventured into middle-of-the-road and easy
             listening recordings.  In the broader cultural context
             sociologists use crossover to refer to the way in which people
             from one ethnic background consciously leave their roots culture
             for another, more prestigious one; this has led to an extended
             use of crossover in relation to fashion, as ethnic cultures
             acquired high prestige and became fashionable in Western
             society. Other extended uses of the word included actresses
             crossing over from theatre to films and even a supermarket which
             had gone over to wholefoods to cash in on the new green culture
             of the late eighties.

                 'I think the crossover has already started happening',
                 says Salman Ahmed. 'This year I've noticed a lot of
                 white and coloured kids at the shows...' Within the
                 world of bhangra there are mixed reactions to the idea
                 of crossover.

                 Sunday Telegraph Magazine 22 May 1988, p. 38

                 It showed the group making the crossover from
                 deft-but-faceless R&B outfit to 'far out' funkers.

                 Q Dec. 1989, p. 169

                 Blame prefigured what fashion mood critics would soon
                 call 'crossover culture'--the white mainstream's fresh
                 infatuation with black style.

                 Vogue Sept. 1990, p. 87

   crucial   adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: very good or important, great,
             fantastic.

             Etymology:  An example of the way in which meaning is weakened
             and trivialized in the idiom of young people: compare ace,
             awesome, and rad.

             History and Usage:   Crucial belongs to the slang usage of the
             very young (largely the pre-teenage group) in the late eighties.
             It was popularized especially by children's television
             presenters and other media personalities, notably the comedian
             Lenny Henry, who devoted a whole book to the subject. As often
             happens with such slang words, the respectability which crucial
             gained by being used in print caused it to go out of fashion
             rather among the youngsters who were using it.

                 Martha (aged seven): 'Lenny Henry, he wrote the "guide
                 to cruciality", so we don't say crucial no more.'

                 New Statesman 16 Feb. 1990, p. 12

                 The very latest buzz-word, after last year's favourite
                 sayings like 'mental, mental', 'crucial' and 'wicked',
                 is 'raw'.

                 Daily Star 20 Mar. 1990, p. 13

                 I have worn out three sets of trainers running around
                 telling my friends how crucial Young Eye is.

                 Private Eye 26 Oct. 1990, p. 21

   cruelty-free
             adjective (Environment)

             Of cosmetics and other goods: not tested (or only minimally
             tested) on animals during development; produced ostensibly
             without involving any cruelty to animals.

             Etymology:  For etymology, see -free.

             History and Usage:  This is a term which started to appear in
             the late eighties as a natural consequence of the increasingly
             well-publicized animal liberation movement--a movement whose
             arguments seemed to get a more sympathetic hearing once green
             views in general became acceptable.  Cruelty-free often appears
             on the labels of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and other everyday
             products which have hitherto been routinely tested on laboratory
             animals but are now produced without actual cruelty (although
             the interpretation of 'actual cruelty' evidently still varies);
             vegetarians also sometimes use it to refer to animal-free food
             products.

                 Mary Bonner showed over 50 people how enjoyable a
                 cruelty-free Christmas can be with her celebration
                 roast, mushroom stuffing and red wine sauce, vegan
                 Christmas Cake and mince pies.

                 Vegetarian Mar./Apr. 1988, p. 42

                 Pamphlets that bring news of...where they can purchase
                 'cruelty-free' soaps and shampoos.

                 Forbes 20 Mar. 1989, p. 44

   crumblie  noun (People and Society) (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang: an old or senile person (older than a
             wrinklie).

             Etymology:  Formed by treating a figurative sense of the
             adjective as a noun; the metaphor relies on the assumption among
             the young that all elderly people will eventually 'crack up' and
             become senile. This process of crumbling, they suppose, is the
             natural next step after going wrinkly.

             History and Usage:  Used mainly by children and teenagers from
             about the late seventies, and apparently limited to British
             English.

                 The growing fashion among teenagers is to describe their
                 parents as 'wrinklies' and their grandparents as
                 'crumblies'.  A reader, however, tells me how she
                 countered this when...she described her own children, in
                 their earshot, as 'pimplies'.

                 Daily Telegraph 26 Jan. 1987, p. 17

   cryo-     combining form (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology)

             Widely used in compounds relating to extreme cold, especially
             when this is an artificial means of preserving tissue.

             Etymology:  From the Greek kruos 'frost, icy cold'.

             History and Usage:  Early words formed with this combining form
             concerned temperatures not much below the freezing point of
             water. However, as it became possible to create lower and lower
             temperatures artificially, cryo- came to be associated with the
             sort of intense cold that could only be achieved with the aid of
             'cold-creating' or cryogenic equipment, such as apparatus for
             liquefying nitrogen or other gases. During the sixties and
             seventies the creation of such temperatures began to find
             applications in electronics and surgery: below a certain point
             some materials become superconductors, that is to say they lose
             all electrical resistance, which makes them very useful in a
             wide range of applications (in brilliant pebbles, for example),
             while cryosurgery uses intense cold to remove or destroy tissue
             just as effectively as heat. Until the late seventies cryonics
             (or cryopreservation), the use of extreme cold to preserve
             living tissue, had remained at an experimental stage because of
             the tendency of water to expand when frozen--making the
             formation of ice crystals within living cells lethally damaging.
             However, study of the few animals which can survive freezing led
             to the development of substances which circumvent some of the
             problems (cryoprotectants). During the eighties it became
             possible to cryopreserve an increasingly wide range of tissues
             for future use: sperm may be stored in a cryobank, and frozen
             embryos may now be thawed out for cryobirth. The lack of any
             reliable means of freezing and thawing the entire human body
             without severe damage has not prevented cryonicists, mostly on
             the West coast of the US, from setting up businesses offering
             cryonic suspension to those willing to pay for it, especially
             the incurably ill (who may wish to be 'thawed out' when a
             treatment for their condition arrives).

                 Once a month, she goes to the Southern California
                 Cryobank, a commercial sperm bank in Los Angeles, pays
                 $38 for a syringe of sperm packed in dry ice, which she
                 either takes back to the health center for insemination,
                 or takes home.

                 New York Times 20 July 1980, section 6, p. 23

                 Still others call for these pre-embryos to be
                 cryopreserved--frozen for months, years and perhaps
                 indefinitely. Once the pre-embryos are thawed out, they
                 can be used as if they were fresh.

                 Washington Post 12 Apr. 1988, section Z, p. 14

                 Cryonicists...talk...of storing the brains of the frozen
                 hopeful in the bodies of anencephalic babies.

                 Independent 1 Aug. 1988, p. 13

                 Mr Thomas Donaldson, 46, wants his head cryonically
                 suspended in the anticipation that a way will be found
                 to attach it to a healthy body and cure his brain
                 disorder.

                 Daily Telegraph 3 May 1990, p. 12

                 A mathematician from Sunnyvale, California, has filed a
                 lawsuit in America for the right to 'cryonic suspension'
                 before death.

                 The Times 27 Oct. 1990, p. 3

   crystal healing
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             An alternative therapy popular in New Age culture and based on
             the supposed healing power of pulsar crystals.  Sometimes also
             called crystal therapy or crystal treatment.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  healing by crystals.

             History and Usage:  The idea of harnessing the healing power
             which--according to the crystal healer--emanates from some
             crystals is not new: its supporters claim that it goes back to
             the practices of the ancient Greeks. However, it only gained any
             real popularity with the rise of the New Age movement in
             California. By the end of the eighties this idea had spread
             outside the US to other English-speaking countries but was still
             regarded by many as being on the fringe of serious healing.

                 For the esoteric set, crystal healing, extraterrestrials
                 and transchanneling will be summer pursuits.

                 Los Angeles Times 29 May 1987, section 5, p. 4

                 Ben says something called crystal healing is one of the
                 new fads brought in by what he calls 'weirdos' from the
                 United States.

                 Sunday Mail Magazine (Brisbane) 10 Apr. 1988, p. 13

   crystal meth
              (Drugs) see ice

3.10 CT


   CT         (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology) see CAT°

3.11 cursor...


   cursor    noun (Science and Technology)

             A distinctive symbol on a computer screen (such as a flashing
             underline or rectangle) which shows where the next character
             will appear or the next action will take effect, and which can
             usually be moved about by using a cursor key on the keyboard or
             a mouse.

             Etymology:  From Latin cursor 'runner' (the agent-noun formed on
             the verb currere 'to run'). When first used in English (until
             the middle of the seventeenth century) the word meant a runner
             or messenger; it then came to be used for a part of a
             mathematical instrument, etc.  that moved backwards and forwards
             (for example, the transparent slide with a hair-line which forms
             part of a slide-rule). It was a logical step to its present use
             in the computer age, since it is the cursor which 'runs' round
             the screen.

             History and Usage:  The first uses of the word cursor in
             computer technology are associated with the development of a
             mouse in the mid sixties, although the idea had been invented
             (and described using other names such as marker) by John Lentz
             of IBM in the fifties. Even though the cursor had first been
             thought of in connection with mouse technology, the principle of
             having a cursor which was controlled using keys on the keyboard
             was well-established in home computing in the late seventies,
             before windows and mice (see WIMPэ) became widespread. With the
             increased popularity of home computing and word-processing in
             the eighties, cursor has passed from the technical vocabulary
             into everyday currency.

                 Cursor movement is particularly important in word
                 processing, and well laid-out cursor keys are a real
                 boon.

                 Susan Curran Word Processing for Beginners (1984), p. 31

                 For home use you may not mind if the cursor is a bit
                 slow to move on occasions.

                 Which? Nov. 1988, p. 524

   cuss       (Youth Culture) see diss

   cutting edge
              (Science and Technology) see leading edge

3.12 cyberpunk...


   cyberpunk noun Sometimes written Cyberpunk (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A style of science fiction writing combining high-tech plots (in
             which the world is controlled by artificial intelligence) with
             unconventional or nihilistic social values. Also, a writer of
             (or sometimes a character in or follower of) cyberpunk.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first two syllables of
             cybernetics (the science of control systems) with punk (probably
             as an allusion to the hard, aggressive character of punk music,
             with which cyberpunk has much in common, particularly in its
             harshness and deliberate attempt to shock).

             History and Usage:  Although only a few years old, cyberpunk has
             grown into a leading genre of science fiction. The word may have
             been coined by Gardner Dozois to describe the work of a number
             of writers in the mid eighties, notably William Gibson and Bruce
             Sterling.  William Gibson's book Neuromancer (1984) is seen as a
             foundational influence; so much so, in fact, that another name
             for the writers of this type of fiction is Neuromantics. They
             have also been called outlaw technologists or the mirror-shades
             group, while the genre has been called technopunk or radical
             hard SF as well as cyberpunk. Outside the world of science
             fiction only cyberpunk has been widely popularized, especially
             as a result of the television adaptation of Neuromancer, Max
             Headroom. In 1991 Cyberpunk was the title of Peter von
             Brandenburg's documentary film on the genre, which itself used
             some of the techniques characteristic of cyberpunk writing.

                 The purveyors of bizarre, hard-edged, high-tech stuff,
                 who have on occasion been referred to as
                 'cyberpunks'...They are the '80s generation.

                 Washington Post 30 Dec. 1984, p. 9

                 It's the Rhetoric of the New. Pitched somewhere between
                 the SF genre of cyberpunk and the mainstream brat novel.

                 Listener 4 May 1989, p. 29

4.0 D



4.1 dairy-free...


   dairy-free
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see -free

   daisy chain°
             noun and verb (Business World)

             noun: In financial jargon, a string of buyers who concentrate
             their dealings on a particular stock in order to raise its price
             artificially.

             transitive verb: To raise (prices) artificially in this way.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the figurative sense of daisy
             chain, which has been used as a noun since the middle of the
             last century to refer to any linking together of people or
             things in the fashion of a real daisy chain.

             History and Usage:  A practice which began with strings of
             traders in crude oil who bought and sold to each other on paper
             in the seventies, the daisy chain became a shady and only
             semi-legal activity on the wider market in the mid eighties. The
             conspirators make a show of activity in their chosen market,
             thereby pushing up the price and attracting unsuspecting
             investors. They then pull out, leaving the new investors with
             overpriced stock. Most countries have tried to curb the practice
             legally.

                 They have been buying crude from resellers who illegally
                 inflated the prices and supplying products to brokers
                 whose only function was to 'daisy chain' the prices.

                 Washington Post 31 May 1979, section A, p. 11

                 Can order be brought to the daisy chain market?

                 The Times 19 Feb. 1986, p. 17

                 Lincoln traded junk bonds with other daisy chain members
                 at 'artificial and escalating prices so that both
                 parties could recognize artificial and improper
                 profits', the suit said.

                 Los Angeles Times (Orange County edition) 10 Feb. 1990,
                 section D, p. 11

   daisy chainэ
             transitive verb (Science and Technology)

             To link (computers and other electronic devices used with them)
             to each other in series, forming a chain which is connected to a
             single controlling device.

             Etymology:   Daisy chain had come to be used as a verb meaning
             'to join things together in the manner of a daisy chain' during
             the middle years of the century; the computing sense is a
             specialization of that use.

                 Occupying a full-size slot, each SCSI device lets you
                 daisy-chain other devices to it.

                 PC World Oct. 1989, p. 80

                 Twenty or more players can be daisy-chained to one card.

                 Guardian 18 Jan. 1990, p. 29

   daisy wheel
             noun Also written daisy-wheel or daisywheel (Science and
             Technology)

             A removable printing unit in some computer printers and
             electronic typewriters, consisting of a disc of spokes extending
             radially from a central hub, each spoke having a single printing
             character at its outer end.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a wheel which in some ways
             resembles a daisy with its radiating 'petals'.

             History and Usage:  The daisy wheel type of printer was
             introduced in the late seventies and proved a popular
             alternative to dot-matrix printing in cases where clear,
             typewriter-like quality was needed. The wheel revolves to
             position the next character in front of a single hammer (a
             process which in the early machines was both slow and noisy,
             although this was improved in later models). The wheels are
             removable, allowing a number of different scripts or founts to
             be used on a single printer, but only text can be printed (a
             limitation which does not apply to the cheaper, poorer-quality
             dot-matrix or the more expensive, top-quality laser
             printers--both can also print graphics such as charts and
             graphs).

                 As I write, an IBM word processor with daisywheel sits
                 malevolently waiting for me in a customs shed.

                 Anthony Burgess Homage to QWERTYUIOP (1986), p. xii

   damage limitation
             noun (Politics)

             The action or process of minimizing the damage to one's cause
             (usually a political one) after an accident, mistake, etc. has
             occurred.  Also sometimes called damage control.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding.

             History and Usage:  The term damage limitation was first used in
             the mid sixties to refer to a policy in US politics of planning
             for the disaster of nuclear war, so as to have mechanisms in
             place for minimizing the damage to the US of a first strike by
             the enemy; damage control originated in international shipping
             law and later came to be used figuratively in politics. Both
             terms were applied in new contexts in the eighties as a series
             of political scandals and mistakes involving individual
             politicians or whole parties threatened to affect the polls
             unless damage-limiting measures were taken.

                 The meeting decided to put Lord Whitelaw in charge of a
                 'damage limitation' exercise. Part of this would be a
                 speech by Mrs Thatcher distancing the government from
                 the [Channel] tunnel.

                 Economist 14 Feb. 1987, p. 19

   daminozide
              (Environment) see Alar

4.2 ...


   DAT       acronym Also written dat (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and
             Technology)

             Short for digital audio tape, a kind of audio tape on which
             sound is recorded digitally, equivalent in quality to a digital
             recording on CD. Also, a piece or cassette of digital audio
             tape.

             Etymology:  An acronym, formed on the initial letters of Digital
             Audio Tape.

             History and Usage:   Digital audio tape was developed
             experimentally at the beginning of the eighties and had started
             to be called DAT outside technical trade sources by 1985. It was
             widely used in recording studios as a convenient form of
             high-quality master tape.  However, when commercial production
             was first talked about in the mid eighties there was near panic
             among some record producers (called DATphobia by one music
             paper), since DAT was expected to pose a considerable threat to
             the growing compact disc market, and to be much more difficult
             to protect from copying and piracy. After a lull in the late
             eighties, the word came back into the news in 1990 as companies
             talked of making DAT commercially available in 1991.

                 Compact Discs have been marketed as the ultimate in
                 sound. If DAT allows you to copy CDs...with absolutely
                 no loss in that quality, where does this put the major
                 record houses currently investing sharp-intake-of-breath
                 sized sums on CD pressing plants?

                 Q Oct. 1986, p. 18

                 The introduction of DAT has been bitterly fought here by
                 record companies fearing unstoppable competition to
                 compact discs.

                 Music & Musicians International Feb. 1988, p. 14

                 During a visit to Japan a year or so ago, I was
                 convinced the year for consumer DAT is '91. I still
                 believe that to be the case.

                 Music Week 23 June 1990, p. 4

   data capture
              (Science and Technology) see capture

   Data Discman
              (Science and Technology) see Walkman

   data massage
              (Business World) (Science and Technology) see massage

   data tablet
              (Science and Technology) see tablet

   dawn raid noun (Business World)

             In financial jargon, a swift buying operation carried out at the
             beginning of the day's trading, in which a substantially
             increased shareholding is obtained for a client, often as a
             preliminary to a take-over.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of a compound which comes
             originally from military contexts but had become something of a
             journalistic clich‚ in reports of police operations during the
             twentieth century: the media often reported that a dawn raid had
             been carried out on a house occupied by suspected drug dealers
             or other criminals.

             History and Usage:  A phenomenon which began at the very
             beginning of the eighties, the dawn raid offers a 'predator'
             company the chance to take an intended victim by surprise, and
             is therefore a popular preliminary to a take-over.  The
             proportion of shares which may be bought up in this way by a
             dawn raider has been successively limited during the eighties so
             as to give a fairer chance to the target company.

                 Market lethargy has brought out the dawn raiders again,
                 despite the recent stock exchange report on such
                 practices.

                 Economist 26 July 1980, p. 84

                 Its shares rose 14p to 235p, 5p below the new terms, as
                 Blue Circle picked up a 29.5 per cent stake in a dawn
                 raid on the stock market.

                 Guardian 3 Aug. 1989, p. 11

4.3 ddI...


   ddI       abbreviation Also written DDI (Health and Fitness)

             Short for dideoxyinosine, a drug which has been tested for use
             in the treatment of Aids.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Di-, Deoxy-, and Inosine.

             History and Usage:  The compound dideoxyinosine was first
             synthesized in the mid seventies in connection with cancer
             research; in the late eighties it was suggested that it should
             be tried as an alternative to AZT (Zidovudine) in treating
             people with Aids. It was successfully tested in clinical trials
             in the US in 1989 and trials in the UK followed in 1990. Like
             AZT, ddI prevents the Aids virus HIV from replicating itself
             within the body.

                 Almost 20 times as many people have flocked to free
                 distributions of the new drug DDI than have signed up
                 for the clinical trial.

                 New York Times 21 Nov. 1989, section A, p. 1

                 The UK trial of ddI will be accompanied by a similar
                 trial in France.

                 Lancet 10 Mar. 1990, p. 596

                 DDI may offer an alternative treatment to the many
                 people with AIDS who cannot tolerate zidovudine.

                 New Scientist 26 May 1990, p. 32

4.4 deafened...


   deafened  adjective (Health and Fitness) (People and Society)

             Of a person: having lost the faculty of hearing (although not
             deaf from birth) to such an extent as to have to rely on visual
             aids such as lip-reading in order to understand speech. The
             corresponding noun for the state of being deafened is
             deafenedness.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the adjective, which has
             existed since the seventeenth century in the more general sense
             'deprived of hearing', but has usually referred to temporary
             deafening (as, for example, by a loud noise).

             History and Usage:  The distinction between the deaf (who have
             never been able to hear) and the deafened (who lose their
             hearing after having acquired normal language skills) has been
             made in medical literature for some time, often with an adverb
             making the situation absolutely clear, as pre-lingually deaf and
             post-lingually deafened. In popular usage, though, deaf has
             tended to serve both functions, as well as being used frequently
             to mean 'hard of hearing' (for which the official term is now
             hearing-impaired). The term deafened was brought into wider
             usage--partly as an attempt to alert the public to this
             important distinction and make them aware of the special
             problems of the deafened--by the formation of the National
             Association for Deafened People in 1984.

                 Deafened people share many problems with those born
                 deaf, but there is a gulf between us in terms of
                 lifestyle.

                 Good Housekeeping Sept. 1986, p. 45

                 Lip-reading...confounds crucial distinctions between the
                 hard of hearing, the profoundly deafened and the
                 pre-lingually profoundly deaf. The hard of hearing and
                 the deafened have...been...supporters of oralism; and
                 the born deaf have retaliated by speaking as if they
                 alone were the true deaf.

                 Independent 16 May 1989, p. 15

   death metal
              (Music) (Youth Culture) see thrash

   debit card
              (Business World) see card°

   debrezhnevization
              (Politics) see decommunize

   debt counselling
             noun Written debt counseling in the US (Business World) (People
             and Society)

             Professional advice and support provided for those who have
             fallen into debt and are unable to meet their financial
             commitments. The work of a debt counsellor.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding:  counselling about debt.

             History and Usage:  The term was first used in technical sources
             as long ago as the late sixties, but did not become at all
             common in general usage until the late seventies in the US and
             the eighties in the UK. The successive problems of the credit
             boom (leading to credit-card debt) and high interest rates
             (causing people to default on mortgage payments) have made it
             increasingly common since then.

                 As debt counselors all over the state can attest: The
                 woods around here are full of people who can't handle a
                 single credit card without getting into deep, deep
                 trouble.

                 Los Angeles Times 30 Jan. 1986, section 5, p. 14

                 For homeowners forced into debt by rising interest
                 rates, the Portsmouth Building Society has set up a free
                 debt counselling phoneline...manned by staff trained in
                 debt counselling.

                 Daily Telegraph 10 Feb. 1990, p. 34

   decommunize
             transitive verb (Politics)

             To remove the communist basis from (a country, its institutions
             or economy), especially in Eastern Europe; loosely, to
             democratize.  Also as a noun decommunization, the process of
             dismantling communism; adjective decommunized.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the prefix de- (in its commonest
             sense of removal or reversal) and the verbal suffix -ize to the
             root commun-.

             History and Usage:  The word has been in use since the early
             eighties, when the first signs emerged of a willingness in
             communist countries to allow a small amount of private
             enterprise in some areas of their economies. Its use became more
             frequent in the late eighties--first in relation to Poland and
             Hungary and later to all former Warsaw Pact countries, as the
             whole edifice of Marxism in Eastern Europe began to be replaced
             by varying degrees of democracy and capitalism. The verb is
             sometimes used intransitively, in the sense 'to become
             decommunized'.  The noun decommunization covers all the
             processes, both economic and political, which contribute to the
             dismantling of communism, whereas democratization and its
             Russian equivalent demokratizatsiya really refer only to the
             political process.  Debrezhnevization was used for a short time
             to describe the personal discrediting of Leonid Brezhnev and his
             style of government, a process which took place during the mid
             eighties, shortly after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the
             Soviet Union.

                 The momentum of decommunization is likely to carry most
                 of the successor states of the Soviet Union quite far to
                 the right.

                 The Times 24 Feb. 1990, p. 10

                 'We cannot decommunize a whole society overnight,' says
                 Friedrich Magirius, superintendent of Leipzig's
                 Protestant churches, who notes that East Germany was 'a
                 typical dictatorship'.

                 Time 9 July 1990, p. 75

   deepening  (Politics) see widening

   deep green
              (Environment) see green

   deep house
              (Music) (Youth Culture) see garage and house

   def       adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang (originally in the US): excellent,
             great, 'cool'. Often used in the phrase def jam, brilliant
             music.

             Etymology:  Usually explained as a clipped form of definite or
             definitive (in its slang sense 'the last word in...'); compare
             rad and brill (see brilliant). However, it seems more likely to
             be connected with the use of def (derived from death) as a
             general intensifying adjective in West Indian English.  This is
             borne out by a number of early uses of def in rap lyrics, where
             death can be substituted more readily than definite or
             definitive (words which would not anyway be appropriate in this
             context).

             History and Usage:   Def belongs originally to hip hop, where it
             started to be used by rappers in about the mid eighties; the US
             record label Def Jam dates from about that time. The word soon
             became extremely fashionable among both Black and White
             youngsters in the US and the UK. A series of programmes for a
             teenage audience on BBC2 from 9 May 1988 onwards was given the
             general heading 'DEF II'. For further emphasis, the suffix - o
             may be added, giving deffo.

                 Further def vinyl to look out for includes deejay Scott
                 La Rock's album.

                 Blues & Soul 3-16 Feb. 1987, p. 30

                 Shot in super-slick black and white, with a half-hour
                 colour 'behind the scenes' documentary, this is actually
                 quite a funky lil' package.  And a deffo must for all
                 Jan fans.

                 P.S. Dec. 1989, p. 27

   deforestation
              (Environment) see desertification

   dehire     (People and Society) see deselect

   deleverage
              (Business World) see leverage

   democratization, demokratizatsiya
              (Politics) see decommunize

   deniability
             noun (Politics)

             Ability to deny something; especially, in the context of US
             politics, the extent to which a person in high office is able to
             deny knowledge of something which is relevant to a political
             scandal.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the noun suffix -ability to deny,
             giving a noun counterpart for the adjective deniable.

             History and Usage:   Deniability is one of those potential words
             which the building blocks of affixation would make it possible
             to form at any time, and in fact it was first used in its more
             general sense at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The
             special political sense, though, dates from the political
             scandals of the late twentieth century in the US--first the
             Watergate scandal of 1972-4, and later the Iran-contra affair of
             1986 (see contra). This special sense seems to have originated
             in CIA jargon, where it was sometimes used in the phrase
             plausible deniability. It was popularized at the time of the
             Watergate scandal by an article by Shana Alexander in Newsweek
             in 1973, entitled 'The Need (Not) To Know'; and indeed the whole
             point of this concept is the perceived need to protect the
             President (or another high official) from knowledge of some
             shady activity, so that he will be able to tell any ensuing
             inquiry that he knew nothing about it.

                 The concept of 'plausible deniability' was devised by
                 the late CIA director, Mr William Casey, by having
                 Israeli arms brokers as middlemen.

                 Daily Telegraph 11 July 1987, p. 6

                 I made a very definite decision not to ask the President
                 so that I could insulate him from the decision and
                 provide some future deniability...The buck stops here
                 with me.

                 John Poindexter quoted in Time 27 July 1987, p. 24

                 The government is rendering itself less competent,
                 preparing a more thoroughgoing deniability.

                 Marilynne Robinson Mother Country (1989), p. 182

   Denver boot, shoe
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see wheel clamp

   desaparecido
             noun (Politics) (People and Society)

             Any of the many people who disappeared in Argentina during the
             period of military rule there between 1976 and 1983; by
             extension, anyone who has disappeared in South or Central
             America under a totalitarian regime.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from Spanish desaparecido
             'disappeared', the past participle of the verb desaparecer 'to
             disappear'.

             History and Usage:  The plight of the desaparecidos, also called
             in English the disappeared or disappeared ones, was much
             discussed in the newspapers in the US and the UK from about the
             late seventies. Many were never seen again after being arrested
             by the army or police, and can only be presumed killed in
             detention; many others were children who were taken away from
             their arrested parents and placed with other families without
             any consent. Since the end of the military regime, the
             desaparecidos have remained in the news from time to time, and
             some of those formerly in detention have reappeared. The effort
             continues to trace as many of the displaced children as possible
             and return them to their real families. Recently the word has
             been extended in use to anyone who has suffered a similar fate
             in Spanish America.

                 People whose children or husbands or wives were
                 desaparecidos--'disappeared ones'--would go to Cardinal
                 Arns, and the Cardinal would stop whatever he was doing
                 and drive to the prisons, the police, the Second Army
                 headquarters.

                 New Yorker 2 Mar. 1987, p. 62

                 The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo are assembling a
                 genetic databank on grandparents whose grandchildren are
                 still missing, and on children who suspect that they are
                 desaparecidos but whose grandparents have yet to be
                 identified.

                 Nature 18 June 1987, p. 553

   deselect  verb (Politics)

             Of a local constituency party in the UK: to reject (an
             established candidate, especially a sitting Member of
             Parliament) as its constituency candidate for an election.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the prefix de- (indicating
             reversal) to the verb select. This kind of formation with de- is
             characteristic of euphemistic verbs like deselect--compare
             dehire for 'sack' in the US (where deselect has also been used
             as a euphemism for 'dismiss').

             History and Usage:  The verb has been used in this sense in
             British politics since the very end of the seventies, when the
             Labour Party's reselection procedure made deselection a real
             danger for a number of Labour MPs. The practice was particularly
             common during the middle years of the eighties, and the word
             came to be used in other contexts (such as local government) at
             that time.

                 Mr Woodall, MP for 12 years..., launched a bitter attack
                 on his opponents in the NUM and local party who, he
                 said, had 'connived' to deselect him.

                 Daily Telegraph 24 Feb. 1986, p. 24

                 Echoes of a more turbulent past also emerged from the
                 NEC's monthly meeting in the long-running dispute over
                 Frank Field's deselection as Birkenhead's sitting MP.

                 Guardian 28 June 1990, p. 20

   desertification
             noun (Environment)

             The changing of fertile land into desert or arid waste,
             especially as a long-term result of human activity. Also
             sometimes known as desertization.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the process suffix -ification to
             desert.

             History and Usage:  The process of desertification was
             recognized as a world environmental problem as long ago as the
             mid seventies, but it was not until the late eighties that the
             word became widely known as a result of the green movement and
             increased awareness of environmental issues generally.  The
             problem is exacerbated by destruction of forests
             (deforestation), erosion of the topsoil, and global warming
             (which involves formerly fertile areas in drought). As the
             process takes place, the affected land is first termed arid,
             then desertified.

                 Some 6.9 million sq. km. of Africa...were under direct
                 threat of desertification in 1985, according to UN
                 estimates.

                 The Annual Register 1985 (1986), p. 395

                 The very processes of extracting Third World resources
                 result in environmental disasters--deforestation,
                 massive soil-erosion and desertification.

                 New Internationalist May 1987, p. 13

   designer  adjective (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Originally, of clothes and other fashion items: bearing the name
             or label of a famous designer, and therefore (by implication)
             expensive or prestigious. Later extended to describe anything
             fashionable among yuppies and the smart set generally; also
             applied to anything that can be designed individually for or by
             a particular user.

             Etymology:  An attributive use of the noun designer which has
             become so common in recent years that it is now regarded by many
             as an adjective.

             History and Usage:  This use of designer began with the designer
             scarf (also known as a signature scarf) back in the mid sixties,
             but did not really take off in the language until the late
             seventies. Then denim jeans were elevated from simple workaday
             clothing to high fashion by the addition of the designer label
             on the pocket, which made them designer jeans and therefore
             comparatively expensive. The trend spread to other areas of
             fashion (notably designer knitwear) in the early eighties; by
             the middle of the decade the word had become one of the
             advertising industry's favourites, and anything associated with
             the smart and wealthy class targeted by these advertisers could
             have the designer tag applied to it ironically (for example,
             overpriced sparkling mineral water served by trendy wine bars
             came to be called designer water). A distinct branch of meaning
             started to develop in the second half of the eighties, perhaps
             under the influence of the same advertisers and fashion writers.
             Whereas before this, designer items had to be created by a
             designer (or at least bear the name of a designer: the name was
             often licensed out on goods which the designer had never seen),
             the emphasis was now on designing for the individual customer,
             and in some cases the consumers were even encouraged to do the
             designing themselves. This was the era of such things as
             designer stubble (a carefully nurtured unshaven look) and
             designer food (inspired by the chef-artists of nouvelle
             cuisine). The concept has been used outside the world of
             'lifestyle' and fashion as well, for example in popular
             descriptions of genetic engineering.

                 Small wonder Perrier is called Designer Water. My local
                 wine bar has the cheek to charge 70p a glass.

                 The Times 4 Sept. 1984, p. 12

                 I mean Ah'd...got into ma designer tracksuit just to be
                 casual like.

                 Liz Lochhead True Confessions (1985), p. 72

                 Designer stubble of the George Michael ilk has also run
                 its bristly course. Hockney thinks that the only people
                 who can get away with it are dark, continental men whose
                 whiskers push through evenly.

                 Guardian 7 Aug. 1989, p. 17

                 Altering the shape of plants is another
                 possibility--what Professor Stewart calls designer
                 plants...In some cases they could be made to grow a
                 canopy across the bare earth to keep in gases like
                 carbon dioxide.

                 Guardian 5 Mar. 1990, p. 6

                 'Designer' pianos in coloured finishes, veneers and
                 marquetries now form about 5 per cent of the market.

                 Ideal Home Apr. 1990, p. 84

             See also designer drug

   designer drug
             noun (Drugs)

             A drug deliberately synthesized to get round anti-drug
             regulations, using a structure which is not yet illegal but
             which mimics the chemistry and effects of an existing, banned
             drug; hence any recreational drug with an altered structure.

             Etymology:  For etymology, see designer. The ultimate in
             made-to-measure kicks, the designer drug was also designed to
             keep one step ahead of anti-drugs laws.

             History and Usage:   Designer drugs were being made privately as
             early as 1976; the first designer 'look-alikes' of heroin
             appeared on the streets in the late seventies under the names
             China White and new heroin. The term itself was coined several
             years later when Professor Henderson of the University of
             California at Davis investigated the large number of deaths and
             Parkinsonian symptoms among users of China White in California.
             Despite attempts to limit them by legislation, designer drugs
             mimicking prohibited amphetamines enjoyed an explosion in the
             late eighties, as drug users looked for ways of avoiding heroin
             use with its associated Aids risk. With the new legislation came
             a development in the sense of the term: any recreational drug
             which deliberately altered the structure of an existing drug
             could be called a designer drug, as could a drug used by a
             sports competitor hoping to avoid falling foul of random tests.

                 The legality of the designer drugs is only one of the
                 many powerful economic incentives working to make them
                 the future drugs of abuse.

                 Science Mar. 1985, p. 62

                 Some of these people obviously also use cocaine,
                 marijuana and some exotic designer drugs.

                 New York Times 23 Sept. 1989, p. 23

   desk organizer
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see organizer

   desk-top  noun and adjective Also written desktop (Science and Technology)

             noun: A personal computer which fits on the top surface of a
             desk (short for desk-top computer). Also, a representation of a
             desk-top on a VDU screen.

             adjective: Using a desk-top computer system to produce printed
             documents to a publishable standard of typesetting, layout,
             etc.; especially in the phrase desk-top publishing (abbreviation
             DTP).

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the transparent compound
             desk-top.

             History and Usage:  The desk-top computer goes back to the
             seventies, but only started to be called a desk-top for short in
             the mid eighties. At about the same time, computer manufacturers
             whose systems made use of icons and other features of WIMPS (see
             WIMPэ) started to use desk-top widely as a way of referring to
             the representation of the top of a working desk that appeared on
             the screen.  Desk-top publishing depends on software packages
             that were only first marketed in the mid eighties. Essentially
             it makes available to the computer user a page make-up and
             design facility which makes it possible to create any
             arrangement on the 'page' of text and graphics output from other
             packages such as word processing and spreadsheets, using a wide
             variety of different type-styles and sizes. The design can then
             be printed using a laser printer. These systems proved very
             popular for the production of documents on a small scale,
             bypassing the cost of commercial typesetting and design. By 1990
             the dividing line between desk-top and conventional typesetting
             systems had blurred; this book, for example, was typeset using
             DTP software, but output on a high-quality image setter.

                 Given today's low cost desktop publishing systems,
                 almost anyone could set up as a newsletter publisher,
                 working from home.

                 Guardian 10 Aug. 1989, p. 29

                 There's nothing remotely hostile about a desktop with
                 icons for both Unix and DOS applications.

                 PC User 11 Oct. 1989, p. 203

                 It was in fact set on a personal computer DTP system
                 (feel the quality, never mind the width!).

                 Creative Review Mar. 1990, p. 47

   des res   noun Also written des. res. (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Colloquially in the UK (originally among estate agents), a
             desirable residence; an expensive house, usually in a
             'sought-after' neighbourhood.

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating desirable and residence to
             their first three letters.

             History and Usage:   Des res belongs originally to the highly
             abbreviated and euphemistic language of estate agents' newspaper
             advertisements, where the clich‚ has been in use for some years.
             During the mid eighties, though, it moved into a more general
             colloquial idiom, often used rather ironically.  Des res is
             sometimes used as an adjective--again, often ironically.

                 The days of the 'des res' that clearly isn't are set to
                 end for estate agents.

                 The Times 20 Apr. 1990, p. 2

                 WDS make many practical suggestions as to how women's
                 toilets could be improved; if all were adopted, they'd
                 become highly des res.

                 Guardian 11 July 1990, p. 17

                 For those for whom the genuine article is not beyond
                 reach, the Georgian country house (right) is one typical
                 English version of the des res.

                 Independent 22 Dec. 1990, p. 33

   device    noun (War and Weaponry)

             Euphemistically, a bomb.

             Etymology:  Formed by shortening the earlier euphemism explosive
             device.

             History and Usage:  The word was used as long ago as the late
             fifties in nuclear device, a euphemism for atom bomb, but this
             term was rarely shortened to device alone. In the age of
             international terrorism, the euphemism was taken up in police
             jargon, at first often in the longer form explosive device or
             incendiary device, and widely used in press releases describing
             terrorist attacks in which explosives were used. During the
             course of the eighties device seems to have become an
             established synonym for bomb in news reports.

                 After sprinkling them with an unidentified liquid, an
                 explosive charge was put on top of the human pile. The
                 device detonated as planned.

                 Washington Post 3 Jan. 1981, section A, p. 1

                 February 24: A device pushed through a letter box
                 wrecked an army careers office in Halifax, West
                 Yorkshire.

                 Guardian 11 June 1990, p. 2

4.5 diddy goth...


   diddy goth
              (Youth Culture) see goth

   dideoxyinosine
              (Health and Fitness) see ddI

   dietary fibre
              (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see fibre

   differently abled
              (People and Society) see abled

   digital   adjective (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology)

             (Of a recording) made by digitizing, or turning information
             about sound into a code of numerical values or digits, and
             storing this.

             Etymology:  A straightforward development of the adjective
             digital in the computing sense 'operating on data in the form of
             digits'; first the method of recording was described as digital,
             and then the adjective was also applied to a recording or piece
             of music reproduced in this way.

             History and Usage:  The technology for digital recording was
             developed as early as the sixties, but it was not until the late
             seventies that the first digital discs became commercially
             available. The sound information that is stored includes
             millions of coded pulses per second; until the advent of the CD
             there was no suitable medium for this mass of information. This
             method of recording is considerably more faithful to the
             original sound than analogue recording (the audio method
             previously used) and the recording does not deteriorate so
             quickly; as a result, digital recording has more or less taken
             over the classical market (where fidelity of sound is especially
             important) and is also widely used for popular music. The
             process of translating a signal into coded pulses is called
             digitization (or digitalization); older analogue recordings are
             often re-recorded using the digital technique and are then
             described as digitally remastered.

                 The performances could hardly be more authentic, with
                 magnificent playing and an ample resonance in this fine
                 digital recording.

                 Sunday Times 14 Oct. 1984, p. 40

                 In their day (1957-59) these recordings stood as
                 superior examples of the conducting and engineering art.
                 They sound even more impressive today in RCA's digitally
                 remastered version.

                 Chicago Tribune 22 Apr. 1990, section 13, p. 22

   digital audio tape
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see DAT

   digital video interactive
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see CD

   DINK      acronym Also written Dink, dink, Dinkie, Dinky, etc. (People and
             Society)

             Colloquially, either partner of a career couple with no
             children, both of whom have an income from work and who are
             therefore viewed as affluent consumers with few drains on their
             resources.

             Etymology:  Formed on the initial letters of Double (or Dual )
             Income No Kids; in the variant forms Dinkie or Dinky, the
             diminutive suffix -ie, -y is added in imitation of yuppie,
             although Dinky is sometimes explained as Double Income No Kids
             Yet.

             History and Usage:   DINK is one of a line of humorous terms
             (often acronyms) for social groupings that followed in the wake
             of the successful yuppie in the mid eighties. It owes its
             existence to the trend analysts and marketing executives of the
             US and Canada, who in 1986 identified and targeted this group as
             an increasingly important section of the American market.
             Typically, the partners in a DINK couple are educated to a high
             level and each is committed to a high-paid career; the social
             trend underlying the coinage is that women with high educational
             qualifications tend to have fewer children, and to have them
             later in their careers than was previously the case.  For two or
             three years, DINK appeared to be almost as successful a coinage
             as yuppie (despite its confusability with the US slang word dink
             'penis', also used as a personal term of abuse); derivatives
             included dinkdom and the adjective undink (not characteristic of
             a DINK). Less successful variants on the theme, such as OINK
             (One Income No Kids), Nilkie (No Income Lots of Kids), and
             Tinkie (Two Incomes, Nanny and Kids) came and went during 1987.
             A later attempt was SITCOM (Single Income, Two (K)ids,
             Outrageous Mortgage), which appeared in 1989, but this also
             failed to make much impression.

                 These speedy high-rollers are upper-crust DINKs...They
                 flourish in the pricier suburbs as well as in gentrified
                 urban neighborhoods.

                 Time 20 Apr. 1987, p. 45

                 The wolf is looming through the smoked-glass door even
                 for many hard-working Dinkie...couples.

                 The Times 2 May 1990, p. 10

   direct broadcasting by satellite
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see satellite

   dirty dancing
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Youth Culture) see lambada

   dis        (Youth Culture) see diss

   disablist adjective Also written disable-ist or disableist (People and
             Society)

             Showing discrimination or prejudice against disabled people;
             characterized by ableism.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the adjectival suffix -ist to the
             root form of disabled, after the model of ageist (see ageism),
             racist, and sexist.

             History and Usage:  The word was coined in the mid eighties as
             the adjectival counterpart for ableism. At first it was
             sometimes written disableist or even disable-ist, but disablist
             now seems to be becoming established as the usual form.
             Disablism, which represents the opposite side of the coin from
             ableism (discrimination against the disabled rather than in
             favour of the able-bodied) very rarely occurs as a term.

                 I am not apologising for SM and believe that in itself
                 it is neither racist, classist, disablist nor
                 anti-semitic.

                 Spare Rib May 1986, p. 6

                 Labour has promised to infuse racist, sexist,
                 'disablist', and 'ageist' criteria into higher
                 education, like those that are making an academic
                 mockery of some American institutions.

                 Daily Telegraph 8 Nov. 1989, p. 20

             See also abled

   disappeared (ones)
              (Politics) (People and Society) see desaparecido

   Discman    (Lifestyle and Leisure) see Walkman

   disco     noun Also written distco (Business World)

             A power-distribution company; any of the twelve regional
             companies set up in 1989 to distribute electricity in England
             and Wales.

             Etymology:  Formed by combining the first syllable of
             distribution with co, a long-established abbreviation of company
             which had already been used as a suffix in company and brand
             names (for example, Woolco for a Woolworths brand).

             History and Usage:   Disco was used in company names in the US
             before becoming topical in the UK because of the government's
             reorganization of the electricity supply in the late eighties
             and their plans to sell off the discos as part of their
             privatization strategy.  Distco seems to be the officially
             preferred form, although disco is commoner in the newspapers
             (despite confusability with the musical disco). The sale of the
             distribution companies took place in 1990.

                 It is argued that smaller distcos, such as Manweb and
                 South Wales, will have lower growth prospects to push
                 down costs.

                 Observer 18 Mar. 1990, p. 57

                 The discos have much better growth prospects than the
                 water companies, while the gencos generate a unique
                 'fuel'.

                 Daily Telegraph 25 July 1990, p. 23

                 Lloyds pitched for the business of arranging the
                 loans...for three discos, with two of whom it already
                 enjoyed a relationship as a clearing bank.

                 Daily Telegraph 17 Aug. 1990, p. 17

             See also genco

   disco-funk
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Youth Culture) see funk

   dish       (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see satellite

   diss      verb Also written dis (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang (originally in the US): to put (someone)
             down, usually verbally; to show disrespect for a person by
             insulting language or dismissive behaviour. Also as an action
             noun dissing.

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating disrespect to its first
             syllable.

             History and Usage:   Diss originated in US Black English and has
             been popularized through the spread of hip hop. In Black
             culture, insults form an important part of the peer-group
             behaviour known as sounding or playing the dozens, in which the
             verbal repartee consists of a rising crescendo of taunts and
             abuse. The concept of dissing moved outside Black culture
             through its use in rap, and is now widely known among Whites
             both in America and in the UK; even children interviewed in an
             Inner London school playground in 1990 practised this trading of
             insults, referring to them as cusses.

                 The victim, according to detectives, made the mistake of
                 irritating Nuke at a party. 'He dissed him' Sergeant
                 Croissant said.

                 New York Times 15 Nov. 1987, section VI, p. 52

                 The gladiatorial rapping, the sportswear, the symbolic
                 confrontations ('dissing') are all about self-assertion.

                 Weekend Guardian 11 Nov. 1989, p. 20

                 While taking a dispute to someone's home is the ultimate
                 in 'dissing'...there are other insults that can be just
                 as deadly...'You dis, you die,' some youths say.

                 Boston Globe 2 May 1990, p. 12

   distco     (Business World) see disco

4.6 doc, docu-...


   doc, docu-
             combining forms (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Parts of the word documentary, used in docudrama (also called
             dramadoc or drama-doc) and docutainment to show that a film or
             entertainment contains an element of documentary (or at least
             that real events have formed the basis for it).

             Etymology:   Doc, which also exists as a free-standing
             colloquial abbreviation of documentary, is used as the second
             part of an abbreviated compound; when the documentary element
             comes first, the -u- is kept as a link vowel.

             History and Usage:  The dramatized documentary (dramadoc,
             docudrama) suddenly became a fashionable form of television
             entertainment at the end of the seventies in the US, and this
             was a fashion which lasted through the eighties both in the US
             and in the UK. The proportions of fact and dramatic licence in
             these programmes is variable, whereas the docutainment (a word
             which dates from the late seventies and appears to be a Canadian
             coinage) is more likely to be factual, but designed both to
             inform and entertain: compare infotainment (at info-).

                 This two-part production about the life and times of
                 Douglas MacArthur is no docudrama. It is instead a
                 documentary or, more precisely, five hours of
                 'docutainment', a fascinating...biography based on
                 William Manchester's book about America's most
                 intriguing, epic soldier.

                 Los Angeles Times 3 Mar. 1985, p. 3

                 While the film is not a 'docu-drama', immense pains have
                 been taken to achieve authenticity.

                 Daily Telegraph 8 Mar. 1990, p. 18

             See also faction

   donutting  (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Politics) see doughnutting

   doom and gloom
              (Business World) (Politics) see gloom and doom

   doorstep  verb (Politics)

             intransitive:  Of a politician: to canvass support by going from
             door to door, talking to voters on their doorsteps; also as an
             action noun doorstepping and agent noun doorstepper.

             transitive:  Of a journalist, campaigner, etc.: to 'stake out'
             the doorstep of (a person in the news, someone in a position of
             authority or power in a particular area, etc.) in the hope of
             getting a statement or story from them.

             Etymology:  Formed by treating the noun doorstep as though it
             were a verb. This shift originally took place at about the
             beginning of this century, when door-to-door salesmen carried
             out their trade by doorstepping.

             History and Usage:  The intransitive, political sense goes back
             at least to the sixties, when door-to-door canvassing took over
             from public debate as the most important means of winning voters
             to one's cause--but doorstepping and doorstepper are later
             developments. The media use of the verb belongs to the eighties,
             when investigative journalism and straightforward intrusions of
             privacy on the part of journalists came in for some considerable
             criticism. The staying power of some journalists and press
             photographers became so widely publicized that the transitive
             verb started to develop a transferred sense: a person who was
             determined to get a decision or change of policy on a particular
             issue would talk of doorstepping the person responsible in order
             to achieve this (in much the same way as one might speak of
             lobbying one's MP).

                 The journalists are often the last ones to see him
                 before he goes to bed or the first to see him when he
                 gets up in the morning, spending late nights at his
                 house after his day is over and doorstepping him next
                 morning.

                 The Times 13 Jan. 1988, p. 30

                 Some say it is time for a new approach, with bands of
                 scientific inspectors doorstepping laboratories around
                 the world.

                 New Scientist 4 Aug. 1988, p. 31

                 Hard News...will doorstep editors and reporters, if
                 necessary, to get a reply.

                 Independent 5 Apr. 1989, p. 17

   double zero option
              (Politics) see zero

   doughnutting
             noun Also written donutting (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Politics)

             In television jargon, the clustering of politicians round a
             speaker during a televised parliamentary debate so as to fill
             the shot and make the speaker appear well supported.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ing to
             doughnut--presumably alluding to the ring shape of some
             doughnuts as resembling the ring of supporters, or to the jam in
             the middle as representing the speaker, surrounded by the
             apparently substantial dough of his support.

             History and Usage:  The word is often said to have been used in
             connection with the first televised debates from the federal
             parliament in Ottawa, but Canadian newspaper reports of the time
             do not bear this out (describing the practice, but not using the
             word). When the British parliament began to be televised, and
             particularly when House of Commons debates first appeared on TV
             screens in 1989, the word enjoyed a brief vogue in the press
             amid speculation that members would attempt to fill the seats
             immediately behind the speaker so as to make the chamber appear
             full, even when in fact a debate had attracted only a handful of
             MPs.  Its use in popular sources promises to be shortlived.

                 Mr Kirkwood did have a little ring of fellow-Liberals
                 around him.  But this practice of 'doughnutting', as
                 Canadian parliamentarians call it, exhausts the nutters
                 more than it fools the viewers.

                 Daily Telegraph 24 Nov. 1989, p. 14

   dozens     (Youth Culture) see diss

4.7 dramadoc...


   dramadoc   (Lifestyle and Leisure) see doc, docu-

   drive-by  noun Plural drive-bys (People and Society)

             In the US, a criminal act (usually a shooting) carried out from
             a moving vehicle. Also known more fully as a drive-by shooting.

             Etymology:  Formed by dropping the word shooting from drive-by
             shooting and treating what remains as a noun.

             History and Usage:  The drive-by represents a reappearance in
             American crime of the gang-led murder carried out from a moving
             car, something which many would associate with the twenties
             rather than the eighties. In its new manifestation in the late
             eighties and early nineties it is particularly associated with
             rival teenage gangs, but the gun is often shot randomly into a
             crowd, endangering innocent passers-by as well as the gang
             targets.

                 The task force suggested increased penalties for
                 drive-by shootings and other gang-related homicides, and
                 for the possession and sale of controlled substances,
                 including phencyclidine.

                 New Yorker 3 Nov. 1986, p. 128

                 In Chicago, 'drive-bys' contributed to a 22 per cent
                 leap in the youth murder rate last year.

                 The Times 7 Feb. 1990, p. 10

   drug abuse
              (Drugs) (People and Society) see abuse

4.8 DTP


   DTP        (Science and Technology) see desk-top

4.9 dude...


   dude      (Youth Culture)

             In urban street slang (originally in the US): a person, a guy,
             one of the 'gang'. Often used as a form of address: friend,
             buddy.

             Etymology:   Dude is a slang word of unknown origin that was
             first used in the US in the 1880s to mean 'a dandy, a swell' or
             (as a Western cowboys' word) 'a city-dweller'. By the early
             1970s it had been taken up in US Black English to mean 'a man, a
             cool guy or cat' (and later 'any person'), losing its original
             negative connotations.

             History and Usage:  This more general use of dude was
             popularized outside Black street slang through the
             blaxploitation films of the late seventies and, more
             particularly, through the explosion of hip hop during the
             eighties. Its spread into British English idiom, at least among
             children, was finally ensured by repeated use among the Teenage
             Mutant Turtles and other US cartoon characters in comic strips,
             cartoons, and games.

                 Dudes like that, they're totally dialled in. They can
                 earn a quarter of a million a year, serious coin.

                 Richard Rayner Los Angeles Without a Map (1988), p. 68

                 It is the teenage Bart who has caught the public's
                 imagination.  With his skateboard and, touchingly, his
                 catapult, he is a match for anyone, not least because of
                 his streetwise vocabulary. 'Yo, dude!' he says; 'Aye
                 caramba!' and--most famously--'Eat my shorts!'

                 Independent 29 July 1990, p. 17

   dumping   noun (Environment)

             The practice of disposing of radioactive or toxic waste by
             burying it in the ground, dropping or piping it into the oceans,
             or depositing it above ground in another country.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of the verbal noun dumping, which
             literally means 'throwing down in a heap'.

             History and Usage:  It was only in the late seventies that
             environmentalists began to expose the scale of dumping by all
             the industrialized nations over the previous decade and the
             environmental disasters that this could cause. Hazardous waste
             had been buried in landfill sites on which houses were later
             built, sent off to Third World countries desperate for revenue,
             and pumped into rivers and oceans.  Dumping became a topical
             issue in the UK in the eighties first because of public
             resistance to plans to bury radioactive waste in British
             landfill sites and later when the UK fell foul of European
             Community directives on clean beaches because of the large
             quantities of raw sewage being pumped out to sea from British
             shores.

                 Dumping increases the input of nutrients such as
                 nitrogen and phosphorus into the marine environment.

                 Steve Elsworth A Dictionary of the Environment (1990),
                 p. 243

                 Waste trichloroethene probably gets into the tap water
                 because of careless dumping.

                 Which? Aug. 1990, p. 433

   Dutch house
              (Music) (Youth Culture) see house

   Dutching  noun Also written dutching (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             In the jargon of the British food industry, the practice of
             sending substandard food intended for the UK market for
             irradiation in the Netherlands (or some other European country
             where irradiation is permitted) so as to mask any bacterial
             contamination before putting it on sale in British shops.

             Etymology:  Formed by making a 'verbal' noun from the adjective
             Dutch (since the irradiation is normally carried out in the
             Netherlands) and the suffix -ing; a similarly euphemistic
             expression for the same process is 'sending on a holiday to
             Holland'.

             History and Usage:  The practice of Dutching was exposed in a
             Thames television documentary in 1985, but it was not at that
             time given this name. Both the word and the practice became
             topical in 1989 during discussions of the proposed legalization
             of food irradiation. At a time when there was widespread public
             concern over food-related illnesses, many people were shocked to
             discover that bad food was already being passed off as good in
             this way.

                 A dealer...talked about 'Dutching' to a Sunday Times
                 reporter posing as a potential buyer. Asked if the
                 prawns would pass health tests at a British port...:
                 'Well, they won't if they come into England directly.
                 But if they went into Holland and Belgium, yes.'

                 Sunday Times 6 Aug. 1989, section 1, p. 3

             See also irradiation

4.10 DVI


   DVI        (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see CD

4.11 dweeb


   dweeb     noun (Youth Culture)

             In North American slang: a contemptible or boring person,
             especially one who is studious, puny, or unfashionable; a
             'nerd'.

             Etymology:  Of unknown origin; probably an invented word
             influenced by dwarf, weed, creep, etc.

             History and Usage:  The term has been in use since the early
             eighties, and may have originated in US prep school slang. The
             corresponding adjective is dweeby.

                 Norman, a research dweeb with a rockabilly hairdo.

                 Kitchener-Waterloo Record (Ontario) 9 Nov. 1989, section
                 C, p. 22

                 Nathan Hendrick, 9, is wonderfully nerdy as Leonard
                 Digbee, a dweeb's dweeb whose only goal in life is to
                 one-up Harriet.

                 Los Angeles Times 19 July 1990, p. 6

                 'These Val guys are totally gross. They think they're
                 real, but you can tell they're Barneys.' She says
                 'dweeby types' often 'snog right up' to her when she's
                 wearing her 'floss', or thong-back bikini.

                 Wall Street Journal 27 Sept. 1990, section A, p. 1

4.12 dynamize


   dynamize   transitive verb (Business World)

             To increase the value of (a pension) by taking inflation into
             account in the calculations of final salary on which the pension
             is based; to calculate (final salary) by adding the value of
             inflation in successive years to a real salary some years before
             retirement.  Such a pension or salary is dynamized; the
             calculation involved is dynamization.

             Etymology:  The verb to dynamize has been in use in financial
             contexts with the more general meaning 'make more dynamic or
             effective' since the seventies.  The use in relation to pensions
             is a specialization of this.

             History and Usage:  The dynamized pension is an approved way of
             avoiding the Inland Revenue's maximum allowable pension rule
             (that a pension may not be worth more than two-thirds of final
             salary) and dates from the late seventies.

                 Norwich Union...cannot dynamise the pension without the
                 trustees' approval.

                 Daily Telegraph 14 Oct. 1989, p. 31

5.0 E



5.1 E°...


   E°         (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see E number

   Eэ         (Drugs) see Ecstasy

   e°         (Science and Technology) see electronic

5.2 earcon...


   earcon     (Science and Technology) see icon

   Earth-friendly
              (Environment) see -friendly

5.3 eco...


   eco       adjective (Environment) see eco- below

   eco-      combining form (Environment)

             Part of the words ecology and ecological, widely used as the
             first element of compounds and blends which relate in some way
             (sometimes quite tenuously) to ecology, the environment (see
             environment°), or green issues. Hence as a free-standing
             adjective: ecological, environment-friendly.

             Etymology:  The first two syllables of ecology and ecological;
             in both words this part is ultimately derived from Greek oikos
             'house' (ecology being, properly speaking, the study of the
             'household' or community of organisms).

             History and Usage:  One of the most fashionable combining forms
             of the late eighties, eco- had already enjoyed a vogue in the
             late sixties and early seventies, especially in US English. As a
             formative element of scientific terminology (for example in
             words like ecoclimate, ecosphere, ecospecies, ecosystem, and
             ecotype), it goes back to the twenties and thirties; scientists
             have also used it as a kind of shorthand for 'ecological and...'
             (for example in ecocultural, ecogenetic, ecogeographical,
             ecophysiological, etc.). The explosion of non-technical uses
             arises from the increasing influence of the green view of
             politics, and represents a shift in meaning which had also taken
             place in the use of the full forms ecology and ecological:  eco-
             in these words can signify a range of different connections with
             'the environment' or with environmental politics, but not
             usually (if ever) with the community of organisms studied by
             ecology proper. At the furthest extreme of this development are
             the words in which eco- is synonymous with environment-friendly
             (see -friendly) and often operates as a free-standing adjective
             (see the quotations below).

             Among the formations of the earlier vogue period were
             eco-activist, eco-catastrophe (or ecodisaster), and ecofreak
             (also called an eco-nut or eco-nutter). Many of these seventies
             formations betray a lack of sympathy with environmental action
             groups and others who were already campaigning against the
             destruction of the environment; the formations of the eighties
             and early nineties, on the other hand, tended to have much more
             positive connotations, as green politics became acceptable and
             even desirable. Some of the earlier forms were now telescoped
             into blends:  eco-catastrophe, for example, became
             eco-tastrophe. Many ad hoc formations using eco- have appeared
             in only one or two contexts (especially when it is used as a
             type of adjective); a few of these are illustrated in the
             quotations below.

             Among the more lasting eco- words (some originally formed by the
             environmental campaigners of the seventies, others new to the
             eighties or early nineties) are:  eco-aware(ness); ecobabble
             (see under -babble); ecocentric (and ecocentrism);
             ecoconsciousness; ecocrat; ecocrisis; ecodoom (and -doomster,
             -doomsterism); ecofeminism; eco-friendly; ecolabel(ling) (see
             also environmental); ecomania (sometimes called ecohysteria);
             ecopolitics (also ecopolicy, ecopolitical); ecoraider;
             ecorefugee; ecosocialism (and ecosocialist); ecotage (also
             called ecoterrorism) and ecoteur (also an eco-guerrilla or
             ecoterrorist); ecotechnology (and ecotechnological); Ecotopian
             (as an adjective or noun, from Ecotopia, an ecologically ideal
             society or environmental Utopia); eco-tourism and eco-tourist.

                 Whew, the day certainly had a funny colour to it--a harp
                 light, but livid, bilious, as if some knot of eco-scuzz
                 still lingered in its lungs.

                 Martin Amis Money (1984), p. 43

                 Among the measures called for are...introduction of
                 'ecomark' labels for products that have little adverse
                 effect on the environment.

                 Nature 25 May 1989, p. 242

                 Tom Cruise will wear a shock of bright green hair in his
                 next movie, fighting such evil characters as Sly
                 Sludge...in an effort to wipe out those 'eco-villains
                 who pollute the earth'.

                 Sunday Mail Magazine (Brisbane) 11 Feb. 1990, p. 42

                 Four eco-warriors risk their lives as Greenpeace
                 attempts to prevent a ship dumping waste in the North
                 Sea.

                 Sky Magazine Apr. 1990, p. 3

                 Oiling the wheels of eco progress.

                 Times Educational Supplement 11 May 1990, section A,
                 p. 12

                 What scientists call an 'eco-tastrophe' [on Mount St
                 Helen's] has witnessed a remarkable recovery by nature.

                 Guardian 18 May 1990, p. 12

                 Lex Silvester is no Crocodile Dundee, but dedicated to
                 eco-tourism, blending sightseeing with conservation.

                  The Times 2 June 1990, p. 29

                 The 'Eco house', in its own acre garden, will
                 demonstrate how we can live in a more environmental
                 friendly way with highly efficient insulation, solar
                 heating, energy efficient appliances and organic
                 gardening.

                 Natural World Spring/Summer 1990, p. 9

                 The Department of the Environment produced a useful
                 discussion paper on eco-labelling back in August 1989,
                 and after some lengthy consultation set up an Advisory
                 Panel.

                 She Aug. 1990, p. 122

                 An overwhelming groundswell of support transformed
                 Greenpeace from a daring but ragtag band of
                 eco-guerrillas into the largest environmental
                 organization in the world in barely over a decade.

                 New York Times Book Review 25 Nov. 1990, p. 14

                 As products with specious 'eco-friendly' claims multiply
                 on store shelves, the need for substantiated product
                 information has intensified.

                 Garbage Nov.-Dec. 1990, p. 17

   ecobabble  (Environment) see -babble

   ecological
             adjective (Environment)

             Concerned with ecology or green issues; hence,
             environment-friendly, environmental.

             Etymology:  For etymology, see eco- and ecology.

             History and Usage:   Ecological has developed in very much the
             same way as environmental during the past ten years, developing
             the sense 'concerned with environmental issues' in the seventies
             (see ecology below) and the more elliptical sense
             'environment-friendly' in the early eighties.

                 It seems it can already be economical (though surely not
                 ecological) to fly cargo to London for onward trucking
                 to Paris and points east, and vice versa.

                 Guardian 19 June 1990, p. 15

   ecology   noun (Environment)

             Conservation of the environment (see environment°); green
             politics. Often used attributively, in Ecology Party etc., in
             much the same sense as the adjectives environmental and green.

             Etymology:  A sense development of the noun ecology, which is
             formed on the Greek word oikos 'house', and originally referred
             only to the branch of biology which has to do with the
             'household' or community of organisms and how they relate to
             their surroundings. Since it was the potential destruction of
             habitats (including the human one) that first focused political
             attention on green issues, ecology came to be used popularly to
             refer to the protection of the natural world from the effects of
             pollution.

             History and Usage:  The transformation of ecology from
             scientific study to political cause was foreseen by the writer
             Aldous Huxley in his paper The Politics of Ecology (1963), in
             which he wrote:

                 Ecology is the science of the mutual relations of
                 organisms with their environment and with one another.
                 Only when we get it into our collective head that the
                 basic problem confronting twentieth-century man is an
                 ecological problem will our politics become
                 realistic...Do we propose to live on this planet in
                 symbiotic harmony with our environment?

              The word ecology was popular throughout the seventies as the
             ecology movement gained momentum. In the eighties, though,
             ecology has tended to be replaced in its attributive use by
             green--the Ecology Party in the UK officially changed its name
             to the Green Party in 1985, for example--and by the environment
             elsewhere.

                 The strongest organised hesitation before socialism is
                 perhaps the diverse movement variously identified as
                 'ecology' or 'the greens'.

                 New Socialist Sept. 1986, p. 36

                 The Polish Ecology Club was the second independent
                 organisation to be established after Solidarity, and has
                 several thousand members.

                 EuroBusiness June 1990, p. 14

   economic and monetary union
              (Politics) see EMU°

   Ecstasy   noun Also written ecstasy or XTC (Drugs)

             In the slang of drug users, the hallucinogenic designer drug
             methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA, also known as Adam.
             Sometimes abbreviated to E (and used as a verb, in the sense 'to
             freak out on Ecstasy').

             Etymology:  The name refers to the extreme feelings of euphoria
             and general well-being which the drug induces in its users. The
             word ecstasy has been used in the sense of 'rapturous delight'
             since the sixteenth century; 'street chemists' in the eighties
             have simply applied it in a more specialized and concrete sense.

             History and Usage:  It has been claimed that the drug was first
             made in the early years of this century as an appetite
             suppressant and patented in 1914 by the pharmaceutical company
             Merck; according to the chemical literature it was first
             synthesized in 1960 and did not become known as MDMA until the
             seventies. It was not until 1984, though, that it was made as a
             designer drug; by 1985 it had appeared on the streets in the US
             and was being called Ecstasy or Adam. It soon acquired a
             reputation as a drug of the smart, wealthy set; it was Ecstasy
             that the media most associated with the introduction of acid
             house culture to the UK in 1988, claiming that the drug, in the
             form of small tablets, could easily be sold at crowded acid
             house parties, and lent itself to being 'pumped' down with fizzy
             drinks and the energetic style of dancing practised there.
             Despite claims by psychotherapists that it had a legitimate
             therapeutic use in releasing the inhibitions of some psychiatric
             patients, research showed that prolonged use could do
             irreversible damage to nerve cells in the brain, and it was
             banned in both the US and the UK. It remains one of the most
             popular illicit drugs of the eighties and early nineties; its
             users are sometimes known as Ecstatics.

                 If cocaine and angel dust were the drugs of the 70s,
                 Ecstasy may be the escape of the 80s.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 31 May 1985, p. 4

                 It is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, ADAM,
                 Decadence, Essence, XTC, Ecstasy. Ecstasy! Paradise
                 induced. And as of July, by emergency order of the Drug
                 Enforcement Administration, illegal.

                 Washington Post 1 June 1985, section D, p. 1

                 Police fear Acid House parties...provide an ideal
                 opportunity for professional criminals to sell drugs,
                 particularly the 'designer' drug Ecstasy favoured in the
                 Acid house culture.

                 Independent 7 Nov. 1988, p. 2

                 The really great thing was three years ago, the Ecstasy
                 explosion, when everybody started E'ing all over the
                 place, there was all these different sorts of music
                 getting mixed up.

                 Melody Maker 23-30 Dec. 1989, p. 38

   ecu       acronym Also written Ecu or ECU (Business World)

             Short for European Currency Unit, a unit of account used as a
             notional currency within the EMS and in Eurobond trading, and
             intended as the future common currency of EC countries under
             EMU°. Also, a coin denominated in ecus.

             Etymology:  An acronym formed on the initial letters of European
             Currency Unit, but influenced by and deliberately referring back
             to the French word ‚cu, a name for a historical French gold or
             silver coin worth different amounts in different periods. This
             influence explains the fact that most English speakers use an
             anglicized version of the French pronunciation rather than
             spelling out.

             History and Usage:   Ecu was adopted as the name for the
             European Community's currency unit in the early seventies (after
             a short period during which it was known as the EMU, or European
             Monetary Unit). In the UK the word was hardly known outside
             financial markets until the late eighties, when it became a
             central subject in discussions of EMS and EMU. The value of the
             ecu is based on a weighted average of a 'basket' of European
             currencies. The Delors report provided for the ecu to become the
             single European currency in the third stage of development of
             EMU, replacing the existing national currencies of EC member
             states. The UK government in particular opposed this implied
             loss of national sovereignty, and the Chancellor John Major put
             the issue at the centre of his counter-proposals for EMU in June
             1990, suggesting an intermediate stage when Europe would use a
             hard ecu alongside national currencies, moving on to the ecu as
             a single currency unit only if individual member states decided
             they wanted this.  Ecu coins were minted as collectors' items in
             some countries, including Belgium, where they have been legal
             currency since 1987, but are rarely used.  Ecus were
             increasingly popular for business transactions, travellers'
             cheques, and as a stable currency for mortgages before the UK's
             entry to the ERM in October 1990. A million ecus make one mecu
             and a billion ecus one becu, although neither term is in common
             use.

                 Charcol has launched a mortgage in ECUs...because ECUs
                 should be less volatile than a single currency.

                 Sunday Times 19 Feb. 1989, Business section, p. 15

                 'I think that really it will become a reality when that
                 currency exists,' he says, pulling an ECU coin out of
                 his pocket.

                 Financial World 7 Mar. 1989, p. 40

                 The 1989 budget was adopted on 15 December 1988 and
                 provides for total Community expenditure of 44.8 becu
                 (њ29.9 bn) in payment appropriations.

                 Accountancy June 1989, p. 43

                 Another clever aspect of Mr Major's scheme is that the
                 EMF would manage the ecu so that it was never devalued
                 at a currency realignment:  it would be a 'hard ecu'.

                 Economist 23 June 1990, p. 64

5.4 E-free...


   E-free     (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see E number

5.5 EFTPOS...


   EFTPOS    acronym Also written Eftpos, eft/pos, or EFT-Pos (Business
             World) (Science and Technology)

             Short for electronic funds transfer at point of sale, a method
             of paying for goods and services by transferring the cost
             electronically from the card-holder's account to the retailer's
             using a card such as a credit or debit card and a special
             terminal at the cash-desk.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Electronic Funds Transfer at
             Point Of Sale; the formation is modelled on the earlier acronyms
             EPOS and POS, point of sale.

             History and Usage:   EFTPOS was heralded in the late seventies
             as the facility which would ensure a cashless society within a
             decade. In practice, it was not officially announced in the UK
             until 1982, and was only generally introduced in the second half
             of the eighties. The rather cumbersome abbreviation, which does
             not lend itself very readily to being pronounced as a word, is
             used mainly in business circles; popularly, EFTPOS facilities in
             the UK are usually known by the proper names Switch and Connect,
             while in the US EFTPOS is often referred to simply as EFT (an
             abbreviation which has a longer history than EFTPOS).

                 While Publix was launching its p.o.s. debit card system
                 last week, Abell and other EFT experts suggested that
                 any debit card system be considered carefully before a
                 supermarket company invests in joining bank-controlled
                 switch networks.

                 Supermarket News 2 July 1984, p. 20

                 A trial of some 2,000 EFT-Pos terminals is set to take
                 place, some time in the autumn of 1988, in retailers in
                 Southampton, Leeds and Edinburgh.

                 Daily Telegraph 29 May 1987, p. 19

                 EFTPOS...will save you the hassle of writing a cheque or
                 carrying cash around. You hand over a debit card like
                 Switch and Connect cards, which deduct money straight
                 from your bank account.

                 Which? Feb. 1990, p. 69

5.6 EGA card


   EGA card   (Science and Technology) see cardэ

5.7 electro...


   electro   combining form, adjective, and noun (Music) (Youth Culture)

             combining form and adjective: (Of popular music) making heavy
             use of electronic instruments, especially synthesizers and drum
             machines.

             noun: A style of popular dance music with a strong and
             repetitive electronic beat and a synthesized backing track.

             Etymology:   Electro- started life as a combining form of
             electric or electronic, as in familiar scientific terms such as
             electromagnetism. In the musical sense it developed from
             combinations with the names of popular-music styles
             (electrobeat, electro-disco, etc.) to become an adjective in its
             own right, and eventually to be used as a noun to describe a
             particular style of dance music.

             History and Usage:  The first combinations of electro- with the
             names of other popular-music styles date from the early
             eighties, when synthesized and electronically produced sounds
             were becoming very important in a number of different areas of
             pop.  One of the earliest and most enduring combinations is
             electrofunk, which expresses just one of the new directions that
             funk has taken in the eighties. More temporary combinations have
             included electro-disco (perhaps the most important, especially
             in Belgium), electrobeat, electro-bop, electro-country, and
             electro-jazz. By the mid eighties the music papers had begun to
             use electro on its own, both as an adjective and as a noun.
             Sometimes this was used as another name for electric boogie, the
             music played on ghetto blasters as an accompaniment to
             break-dancing in the street, and a style which ultimately fed
             into hip hop.

                 Pianist Herbie Hancock...played a sterling set totally
                 unlike his tarted-up electro-funk of recent years.

                 Maclean's 29 Mar. 1982, p. 66

                 No dress restrictions, music policy is well 'ard with P.
                 Funk, House, Go-Go and Electro cutting in.

                 Blues & Soul 3 Feb. 1987, p. 34

                 You get bored with the happening hardcore electro groove
                 business.

                 New Musical Express 25 Feb. 1989, p. 43

             See also techno

   electrobash
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Science and Technology) see
             technostress

   electronic
             adjective (Science and Technology)

             In machine-readable form; existing as data which must be read by
             a computer. Especially in:

             electronic mail (often abbreviated to email or e-mail), the
             transfer of messages or files of data in machine-readable form
             from one user to one or more others by means of a computer
             network; also, the messages that are sent and received using
             this facility;

             electronic publishing, the publication of text in
             machine-readable form (on tape, discs, CD-ROM, etc.) rather than
             on paper; texts published in this way;

             electronic text (sometimes abbreviated to etext), the
             machine-readable version of a text, which is created by data
             capture.

             Etymology:  A development of the adjective electronic in the
             sense 'operated by the methods, principles, etc. of electronics'
             in which a subtle shift from active to passive has taken place:
             whereas in the original term electronic data processing (a
             synonym for computing in the sixties), electronic referred
             principally to the processing rather than to the data, now it is
             applied also to the 'soft' copy of the text, the object of the
             processing. Instead of being operated by electronics, these
             electronic media may only be operated upon by electronic
             equipment (in practice, specifically by computer). This shift is
             evident within the development of the term electronic mail
             itself, which at first only referred to the system (operated
             electronically), but later came to be used also of the messages
             (existing in a form which meant that they had to be operated
             upon by the computer).  In general during this period electronic
             has tended to become a synonym for computerized.

             History and Usage:   Electronic mail, which relies upon data
             transfer across telecommunications networks, began in the late
             seventies and by the mid eighties was frequently abbreviated to
             email or e-mail.  Electronic publishing had begun during the
             seventies, but did not acquire this name until 1979 and only
             became a growth industry in the mid eighties; it tends to be
             popularly confused with conventional publishing using electronic
             techniques (especially desk-top publishing). The proliferation
             of electronic text was a natural result of the growth of
             electronic publishing and increasing use of computers for
             editing and research work during the eighties.

                 When our coded file arrives, PPI's Atex computer merges
                 electronic text and digitized artwork into a complete
                 page.

                 Chemical Week 28 July 1982, p. 7

                 The first Electronic Publishing conference was held at
                 Wembley four years ago.

                 Daily Telegraph 13 June 1988, p. 27

                 We read and respond to e-mail as it pleases us, not at
                 our correspondent's convenience.

                 New Scientist 6 May 1989, p. 66

                 Just now the Soviet people are getting into networking.
                 They are not yet used to the idea of electronic mail.

                 Guardian 3 Aug. 1989, p. 20

   electronic funds transfer at point of sale
              (Business World) (Science and Technology) see EFTPOS

   electronic keyboard
              (Music) (Science and Technology) see keyboard

   electronic point of sale
              (Business World) (Science and Technology) see EPOS

   electronic tablet
              (Science and Technology) see tablet

   electronic tagging
              (People and Society) (Science and Technology) see tag°

5.8 email...


   email      (Science and Technology) see electronic

   EMS       abbreviation (Business World)

             Short for European Monetary System, a financial arrangement
             which consists primarily of an exchange-rate mechanism (ERM)
             linking the currencies of some EC member countries to the ecu so
             as to limit excessive fluctuations in exchange rates, and common
             credit facilities.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of European Monetary System.

             History and Usage:  The EMS was set up in the late seventies,
             after the failure of the 'snake' to regulate currency
             fluctuations in Europe. It grew out of dissatisfaction among
             politicians from some EC countries (notably the former British
             Chancellor of the Exchequer Roy Jenkins, Helmut Schmidt of West
             Germany, and Val‚ry Giscard d'Estaing of France) with the slow
             progress of plans for economic and monetary union (see EMU°
             below). By the time EMS was formally accepted by the European
             Council in 1978 and put into effect in March 1979, the British
             government was not prepared to participate fully in it,
             declining to take part in the exchange rate mechanism which is
             the core of the system.  EMS was widely discussed in the British
             newspapers during the late eighties, as plans for EMU began to
             move forward, the single European market of 1992 approached, and
             pressure increased on the UK to join EMS. There was a
             concentration of uses of the term during 1988-9, when it was
             reported that the then Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson
             favoured British participation as a way of controlling
             inflation, but could not break Prime Minister Margaret
             Thatcher's opposition to it. This deadlock eventually
             contributed to Mr Lawson's resignation in October 1989. His
             successor, John Major, took the UK into the ERM in October 1990,
             even though the so-called Madrid conditions had not been met.

                 Given the existence of the EMS, our continuing
                 non-participation in the ERM cannot fail to cast
                 practical doubt on that resolve [to beat inflation].

                 Nigel Lawson quoted in The Times Guide to 1992 (1990),
                 p.107

                 Sterling quickly lost the big early gains that followed
                 ERM entry.  But its ability to hold pre-EMS levels is no
                 mean feat.

                 Financial Times 5 Nov. 1990, section 1, p. 19

   EMU°      abbreviation Also written Emu (Business World)

             Short for economic and monetary union, a programme for full
             economic unity in the EC, based on the phased introduction of
             the ecu as a common currency.

             Etymology:  Now nearly always explained as the initial letters
             of Economic (and) Monetary Union, although during earlier
             discussions (see below) it was intended to stand for European
             Monetary Union, and this expansion is still sometimes given.

             History and Usage:   EMU is by no means a new abbreviation, the
             idea having been proposed as early as 1970 as a way of solving
             currency difficulties in France and Germany. The original plan
             envisaged that the full union of EC currencies should be
             achieved by 1980 and be based on a European monetary unit (see
             ecu). Little progress towards this aim had taken place by 1978,
             when the European Monetary System (see EMS) was adopted by eight
             member states as the EC's financial system, incorporating a
             mechanism for controlling exchange rates. A new impetus for EMU
             was the publication in April 1989 of the Delors report, a
             three-stage plan for introducing a common currency and aligning
             the economies of the Twelve. This was discussed at summits in
             Madrid and Strasburg during 1989, with Britain (or principally
             Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher) standing out against
             acceptance of the plan as it stood--despite the enthusiasm of
             other member states--because of the implied threat to national
             sovereignty; stage one was, however, adopted. In June 1990,
             Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major made a counter-proposal
             for the phased introduction of a common currency, designed to
             minimize the effect on sovereignty (see ecu). One result of all
             this discussion has been the very widespread use of the
             abbreviation in newspapers and the media generally during the
             late eighties and early nineties.

                 The EC's main debate a few months ago centered on 'EMU',
                 or how to achieve economic and monetary union after
                 1992.

                 International Management Mar. 1990, p. 21

                 EC monetary officials interpreted Mr Major's emphasis on
                 the elements of agreement between the British government
                 and the other EC countries on crucial aspects of the
                 plan for EMU as a deliberate signal of a new line in
                 London.

                 Guardian 2 Apr. 1990, p. 8

   EMUэ       (Business World) see ecu

5.9 enterprise culture...


   enterprise culture
             noun (Business World) (People and Society)

             A capitalist society in which entrepreneurial activity and
             initiative are explicitly encouraged; a culture founded on an
             individualistic, go-getting economic ethic.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a culture founded on
             (business) enterprise. In general, enterprise has been a
             favourite word in the economic vocabulary of the Conservative
             government in the UK during the eighties and nineties:  see also
             enterprise zone below.

             History and Usage:  Put forward by Sir Keith Joseph and other
             prominent Conservatives from the early eighties in the UK, the
             enterprise culture was modelled on the spirit of free enterprise
             which characterized US society. In the UK it found its
             expression principally in various schemes to encourage small
             businesses and financial self-reliance, as well as in the
             fostering of a more individualistic and materialistic atmosphere
             in British society.

                 At the age of 27 she has embraced the enterprise culture
                 and established Upstage Theatre.

                 Blitz Jan. 1989, p. 11

                 They are required to...review their courses and explain
                 how they are going to alter them in the light of the
                 career prospects of their students, the enterprise
                 culture, 1992...and, for all I know, the end of the
                 world.

                 Modern Painters Autumn 1989, p. 78

   enterprise zone
             (Business World)

             An area in which a government seeks to stimulate new enterprise
             by creating financial incentives (such as tax concessions) for
             businesses.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: a zone in which enterprise is
             actively fostered.

             History and Usage:   Enterprise zones were first discussed in
             the late seventies, principally as a way of revitalizing
             economically depressed areas of inner cities, where there tended
             to be high levels of unemployment and relatively little
             investment. The idea has been tried in various parts of the
             world during the past ten years, including the US, the UK, and
             Australia.

                 The enterprise zone...development will become the norm
                 in Wales, as more service industries requiring office
                 space move to the area.

                 Building Today 22 June 1989, p. 26

   E number  noun (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A code number in the form of the letter E followed by a group of
             digits, used as a standard way of referring to approved food
             additives when listing ingredients on food or drink labels under
             EC regulations; by extension, an additive (especially the
             additive to which a particular code refers). Sometimes
             abbreviated to E, an additive.

             Etymology:  The initial letter of Europe(an) in a compound with
             number.

             History and Usage:  The European Commission recommended in 1977
             that all food additives should be declared by their name or
             their E number; by 1986 this was compulsory except in the case
             of flavourings.  As the eighties progressed, and particularly
             after the publication in 1984 of Maurice Hanssen's book E for
             Additives, public awareness of E numbers grew steadily in the
             UK. By the early nineties, E number was often abbreviated to E
             alone and both terms were popularly used to refer to the
             additives themselves rather than the codes (a point which was
             picked up and exploited in a number of food-advertising
             campaigns). This resulted in labelling and advertising copy
             which used E-free as a synonym for additive-free.

                 Apparently the effect of Es on Yuppie kids is dramatic.
                 A simple glass of orange squash or a packet of crisps
                 can bring them out in a rash or drive them barmy.

                 Today 21 Oct. 1987, p. 36

                 It's not so long since we learned the link between
                 eating certain 'E' numbers and the behaviour of highly
                 disruptive children.

                 She Oct. 1989, p. 2

   environment°
             noun (Environment)

             Usually with the definite article, as the environment: the sum
             of the physical surroundings in which people live; especially,
             the natural world viewed as a unified whole with a pre-ordained
             interrelationship and balance among the parts which must be
             conserved. Hence sometimes used in an extended sense:
             conservation of the natural world; ecology.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of environment, which literally
             means 'surroundings', and had been used in the sense of the
             particular set of physical features surrounding a person or
             thing since the early nineteenth century.

             History and Usage:  This sense of environment, which in the late
             eighties and early nineties has been the dominant general sense,
             grew out of the concern about the natural world--particularly
             the effects upon it of industrialization and pollution--which
             was first expressed in any concerted way in the sixties. By the
             early seventies, some governments were taking enough notice of
             these concerns to appoint a Minister (or Secretary ) for the
             Environment (colloquially environment minister, secretary); but
             the real vogue for this word only came in the second half of the
             eighties, after green politics took off in Europe and
             politicians in general realized that the environment promised to
             be the central political concern of the nineties.  From the late
             eighties onwards, environment was frequently used in
             combinations, too, the most important being environment-friendly
             (see -friendly). The playfully formed opposite of this is
             environment-unfriendly (see unfriendlyэ) or environment-hostile;
             other combinations include environment-conscious(ness) and
             environment-minded(ness).

                 President Bush said that the environment was now on the
                 'front burner' and that no other subject, except the
                 anti-drugs campaign, had aroused such fervour among his
                 summit colleagues.

                 Guardian 17 July 1989, p. 20

                 A campaign is being launched to encourage sustainable
                 development within our cities. The status 'Environment
                 City' will be awarded to the four coming nearest to the
                 ideal.

                 Natural World Spring/Summer 1990, p. 7

                 We have to have a government-backed labelling scheme
                 before consumers throw up their hands in horror and
                 revert to their old 'environment-hostile' ways.

                 She Aug. 1990, p. 122

   environmentэ
             noun (Science and Technology)

             In computing jargon, the overall structure (such as an operating
             system, a collection of software tools, etc.) within which a
             user, a computer, or a program operates or through which access
             can be gained to individual programs.

             Etymology:  Another specialized use of the sense described
             above; the environment is still the sum total of the surrounding
             structure, but limited to the restricted world of the computer
             system. This metaphor of a restricted world is often extended to
             refer to the ability of a computer user to communicate only in
             one programming or operating language while in that language's
             environment, as if in a foreign country where only that language
             is spoken.

             History and Usage:  Computer scientists have spoken of an
             integrated structure of tools or an operating system as an
             environment since at least the early sixties. What brought the
             term into popular use was the rapid development of home and
             personal computing in the late seventies and eighties.

                 In Applications-by-Forms, the 4GL development
                 environment, the interface includes a visual catalog for
                 ease of use.

                 UnixWorld Sept. 1989, p. 142

                 Designed with the user in mind, the A500 features a
                 friendly WIMP environment and comes supplied with a free
                 mouse.

                 CU Amiga Apr. 1990, p. 93

   environmental
             adjective (Environment)

             Concerned with the conservation of the environment (see
             environment°); hence, serving this cause: not harmful to the
             environment, environment-friendly.

             Etymology:  A sense development of the adjective which arises
             directly from the use of environment as a kind of shorthand for
             'conservation of the environment'.

             History and Usage:  The use of environmental in this sense seems
             to have begun in the US towards the end of the seventies, when
             advertisers first attempted to climb on to the bandwagon of
             concerns about the environment. In its more general sense 'to do
             with the conservation of the environment' it is used in a great
             variety of grammatical constructions; one of the recent ones,
             environmental labelling, is even more elliptical than most,
             contracting 'to do with the effects of the thing labelled on the
             conservation of the environment' to a single word. In local
             government and also in the private sector the term environmental
             services (first used as long ago as the late sixties) seems to
             have become the fashionable way to refer to the upkeep of the
             local environment, such as parks and public gardens, waste
             disposal (including the management of hazardous wastes), and
             street cleaning. See also environmental friendliness (under
             -friendly).

                 Right Guard spray deodorant...now directs itself toward
                 ecological armpits with the epithet 'new environmental
                 Right Guard'.

                 American Speech Spring 1983, p. 94

                 The Labour Party is planning to issue a 'Green Bill'
                 later this year, setting out its plans for tackling
                 atmospheric pollution, and its proposals for
                 environmental labelling, litter control, handling
                 hazardous waste, and improving water quality.

                 Guardian Weekly 30 July 1989, p. 4

                 An environmental meeting in Bergen at which ministers
                 from ECE's member countries discussed practical steps to
                 promote 'sustainable growth', the catch-phrase...for
                 economic growth that does not destroy the environment.

                 EuroBusiness June 1990, p. 64

   environmentalism
             noun (Environment)

             Concern with, or support for, the preservation of the
             environment (see environment°); green politics or consumerism.

             Etymology:  A new sense of environmentalism which also arises
             directly from the recent use of environment; previously,
             environmentalism was the name of the psychological theory that
             it is our environment ('nurture') rather than our inborn nature
             that determines individual or national character.

             History and Usage:  The term environmentalism was first used in
             this sense in the US in the early seventies, at a time when the
             ecology movement was starting to gain some public support, but
             was still widely considered to be the concern of freaks and
             hippies. In its early uses, the word therefore had a rather
             derogatory nuance; this was completely turned round in the late
             eighties, as green ideas became both acceptable and desirable as
             a replacement for the conspicuous consumption of the first half
             of the decade.  Environmentalist, which is used both as an
             adjective and as a noun, has a longer history than
             environmentalism but has enjoyed the same transformation from
             negative to positive connotations in the media.

                 Even some politicians on the other side of the trenches
                 felt the need to identify themselves with
                 environmentalism.

                 Sports Illustrated 15 Nov. 1982, p. 24

                 The kind of environmentalism that is finding favour with
                 Bush and his friends in industry has a new slant,
                 substituting the power of market forces for moral
                 outrage and blanket control measures.

                 Nature 22 June 1989, p. 570

                 Environmentalism is the new religion for the 'us
                 generation' replacing the 'me generation', according to
                 a report released this week.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 4 May 1990, p. 50

   environmentally
             adverb (Environment)

             As regards the conservation of the environment (see
             environment°); used especially to qualify an adjective, as in:

             environmentally aware, of a person or group: informed about
             contemporary concerns for the environment; sensitive to the
             effect upon the environment of a product, activity, etc.;

             environmentally friendly, environment-friendly (see -friendly);

             environmentally sensitive, of a geographical area: officially
             recognized as containing a habitat for rare species or some
             other natural feature which should be protected from
             destruction;

             environmentally sound, of a product: having no harmful effects
             on the environment; environment-friendly.

             Etymology:  Most of these formations use environmentally in a
             way which can be predicted from the developments in the use of
             environment (see above); the exception is environmentally
             friendly, which involves a grammatical development as well. The
             original term environment-friendly, modelled on user-friendly in
             computing, implies a dative construction: 'friendly to the
             environment'. Once the hyphen was dropped and the free-standing
             adjective friendly also acquired the meaning 'harmless', it had
             to be qualified by an adverb--hence environmentally friendly.

             History and Usage:  Work on environmentally sensitive areas
             (abbreviation ESA) began in Canada in the mid seventies and soon
             spread to other industrialized countries; government regulations
             ensured that economic development, agricultural practices, etc.
             were not allowed to destroy the natural beauty of these areas.
             Environmentally friendly, by far the commonest of the other
             combinations, was first used in the US during the mid eighties;
             it owes its popularity in part to the enthusiasm with which
             manufacturers began labelling their products with it, sometimes
             with little foundation--a practice which in the UK led to calls
             for government regulation of eco-labelling. New formations with
             environmentally are cropping up all the time: the ones mentioned
             here are some of the more important and lasting.

                 One has to be reasonable. The factory means jobs. There
                 is no factory without emissions. It just has to be as
                 environmentally friendly as possible.

                 Christian Science Monitor 6 Apr. 1984, p. 9

                 Under new proposals from the European Commission, member
                 states are empowered to pay farmers to continue with or
                 revert to traditional farming methods in environmentally
                 sensitive areas.

                 New Scientist 15 May 1986, p. 30

                 Nobody can deny that there are occasions on which the
                 careful guiding of a river along its course requires
                 some bank reinforcement.  However, there are plenty of
                 sensible materials to hand for the environmentally aware
                 river engineer.

                 Jeremy Purseglove Taming the Flood (1989), p. 191

                 Environmentally friendly household products are big news
                 on the shopping front.

                 Health Shopper Jan./Feb. 1990, p. 7

5.10 EPOS


   EPOS      acronym Also written Epos or epos (Business World) (Science and
             Technology)

             Short for electronic point of sale, a computerized system of
             stock control in shops, in which bar-codes on the goods for sale
             are scanned electronically at the till, which is in turn linked
             to a central stock-control computer.

             Etymology:  The initial letters of Electronic Point Of Sale; its
             inventors probably chose to add E (for electronic) to the
             already existing POS, point of sale.

             History and Usage:   EPOS was introduced in the early eighties
             and by 1990 was widely used in the larger chains of stores. In
             order for EPOS to be used, all goods must carry a bar-code and
             special electronic tills must be installed, making the
             changeover an expensive business; one large chain even uses EPOS
             as a verb meaning 'to convert (goods, a shop, etc.) to an EPOS
             system'.

                 The barcoding of books by their publishers is crucial to
                 the success of the WHS epos system.

                 Bookseller 1 Mar. 1986, p. 819

                 All of the supermarkets (except Waitrose) now have some
                 branches with the EPOS [Electronic Point of Sale]
                 system.

                 Which? Feb. 1990, p. 69

                 I Eposed Oxford--that's where the grey hairs came from.

                 Bookseller 26 Apr. 1991, p. 1232

             See also EFTPOS

5.11 ERM


   ERM        (Business World) see EMS

5.12 ESA


   ESA        (Environment) see environmentally

5.13 etext...


   etext      (Science and Technology) see electronic

   ethical investment
             noun (Business World)

             In financial jargon, investment which takes account of the
             client's scruples by screening the companies to be invested in
             for their business morality and social outlook.

             Etymology:  A transparent combination of ethical and investment.

             History and Usage:  The demand for ethical investment began in
             the US in the early eighties and was a natural consequence of
             the drive to involve ordinary people in capital investment;
             clearly some customers would not feel happy about handing over
             their portfolios only to find that they were unwittingly
             supporting companies whose principles they were unable to agree
             with. Investments which customers have wanted to avoid have
             included the politically questionable (notably companies with
             South African connections), the armaments industry, and
             companies making 'unhealthy' products (especially tobacco and
             alcohol).  Ethical investment became fashionable in the UK and
             Australia during the second half of the eighties.

                 The latest craze to be imported from America is for
                 'ethical investment'. Almost every week, there seems to
                 be a new unit trust launched which promises to invest
                 your money only in 'socially screened' firms.

                 Daily Telegraph 25 Sept. 1987, p. 20

                 Labor backbencher Mr Hayward told Parliament last night
                 that Queensland should legislate to attract 'ethical
                 investment' by superannuation and other funds.

                 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) 29 Sept. 1988, p. 26

   ethnic    adjective (Music) (Youth Culture)

             Of pop and rock music: inspired by, or incorporating elements
             of, the native music of a particular ethnic group. Especially in
             ethnic pop or ethnic rock, pop or rock music which fuses native
             musical traditions with Western rock styles.

             Etymology:  A development of the adjective ethnic in the sense
             'of or pertaining to (a particular) race'; by the mid sixties
             the adjective was already being used in the more general sense
             of 'foreign', and this development is simply an application of
             that sense in a particular context.

             History and Usage:  The adjective ethnic has been applied to
             folk and modern music for some decades, but the fashion for
             ethnic elements in pop and rock music dates from the late
             seventies.  The distinction between ethnic music and world music
             is often not clearly drawn.

                 As majors attempt to follow Island's commendable
                 packaging of ethnic music, they rely on yet another
                 promotional push to find Africa's Bob Marley.

                 Blitz Jan. 1989, p. 35

                 Shanachie, the New Jersey-based record company that has
                 specialized in funky international ethnic pop, recently
                 put out two Mahlathini albums.

                 Washington Post 15 June 1990, section 2, p. 17

5.14 Euro...


   Euro°     noun (Politics)

             Either a European or a Eurocommunist (see Euro-).

             Etymology:  Formed by shortening European, probably under the
             influence of the combining form Euro- used as a free-standing
             adjective; compare Brit used as a noun.

             History and Usage:  These two rather different uses have been
             current since the mid eighties; the sense 'a Eurocommunist'
             really belongs to the jargon used by Communists among
             themselves, while the more general sense 'a European' is a
             colloquial nickname for all Europeans (including the British) in
             the US, but largely limited to continental Europeans (or those
             in favour of European integration) when used by the British. In
             this latter use it was particularly topical during the debate
             about European integration (see EMU°).

                 I'm the only person I know that tries to persuade both
                 Euros and Tankies to join the Labour Party.

                 Marxism Today May 1985, p. 9

                 Why didn't we assert British Rule and make the Euros
                 change to furlongs and chains, bushels and pecks?

                 Listener 6 Feb. 1986, p. 43

                 There are the chic Euros on holiday, the armies of
                 retired people, and the smart 'Miami Vice' clones.

                 Newsday 5 Jan. 1989, p. 2

                 A dense fog of rhetoric in which the Thatcherites insist
                 on their commitment to co-operation and the Euros insist
                 on their devotion to British sovereignty.

                 Spectator 20 May 1989, p. 6

   Euroэ     noun (Business World)

             Colloquially in finance (especially in the US): a Eurobond,
             Eurodollar, Eurodollar future, or other item traded on the
             Euromoney markets (see Euro-).

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating Euromoney or any of the other
             financial terms formed on Euro-.

             History and Usage:  Although probably in spoken use for some
             time, Euro in this sense did not start to appear in print until
             the early eighties, at first as a shorthand for Eurodollar
             future. These futures were traded especially at the Chicago
             Board of Trade, the New York Futures Exchange (from 1981), and
             the London International Financial Futures Exchange (from 1982).
             By the end of the eighties the abbreviated form Euro had become
             very common in financial writing and was no longer limited to
             Eurodollar futures.

                 Euros have a very good correlation with domestic CDs--so
                 good, in fact, that maybe the market will not need both
                 contracts.

                 American Banker 9 July 1981, p. 11

                 Euros tend to remain liquid for a longer period...If
                 people would downgrade the definition of liquidity...,
                 you would find a lot of Eurobonds are liquid.

                 Institutional Investor May 1988, p. 105

   Euro-     combining form (Politics)

             The first part of the name Europe and the adjective European,
             widely used in compounds and blends relating to Europe, the
             European Community, or the 'European' money market. Hence as a
             free-standing adjective: European, conforming to EC standards or
             belonging to a European institution.

             Etymology:  The first two syllables of Europe or European, Euro-
             began as a regular adjectival combining form with the function
             of linking two adjectives together, as in Euro-American,
             Euro-African, etc.

             History and Usage:  Like eco-, Euro- has enjoyed two fashionable
             periods in English, the first during the sixties (when British
             membership was first under discussion) and the second more
             recently, as EC institutions and standards have begun to impinge
             more on the British way of life and a greater degree of European
             integration has been under discussion. When the European Common
             Market was first set up in the late fifties, it was nicknamed
             Euromarket or Euromart by some (perhaps in imitation of
             Eurovision, which had begun in the early fifties), and this
             began the earlier fashion for formations with Euro-. The Euro-
             words of the sixties included Eurocrat (a European bureaucrat),
             Europarliament, Eurofarmer, and several terms to do with the
             Euromarket in the sense of the 'European' financial markets
             (such as Eurobond and Euroissue). In the seventies came (amongst
             others) Eurocentrism (or Eurocentricity), Euro-MP, Eurosummit,
             and Eurocredit.

             The rapid growth of the market in Eurocurrencies (some of which
             are exemplified below) and in Eurobond trading has meant that
             Euro- has been one of the most fashionable combining forms for
             financial terms during the eighties and early nineties (examples
             include Euroconvertible, an adjective or noun applied to
             Eurobonds which can be converted into another type of security,
             and Euroequity, an international equity issue).

              By the late seventies it had also become a fashionable
             combining form for all consumer products, packaging, etc.
             produced to EC standards (including Eurobottle, Euro-pack,
             Euro-pass, and Eurocode) as well as for the standards themselves
             (Eurostandards). Europe has also been blamed (although perhaps
             unfairly) for the design of the large wheeled rubbish bin known
             as a Eurobin or wheelie bin. EC standards and regulations
             themselves came in for some criticism for their use of
             gobbledygook, which came to be known as Eurobabble (see
             -babble), Eurojargon, Eurolingo, or Eurospeak. The apparent
             inability of EC countries to cope with the commercial challenges
             of new technology gave rise to the term Eurosclerosis in the
             early eighties, but this tended to die out in the late eighties
             as the single European market of 1992 approached and a more
             optimistic view was taken of the economies of the Twelve.

             Nevertheless there was much discussion of the pros and cons of
             European integration in the late eighties, and the issue
             certainly contributed to the downfall of Margaret Thatcher, who
             was considered Britain's leading Euro-sceptic. Quite
             independently of the EC, an important political development of
             the second half of the seventies was the rise of Eurocommunism,
             a brand of communism which emphasized acceptance of democratic
             institutions and sought to influence European politics from
             within; in the mid eighties the Eurocommunists and
             Eurosocialists sought to resolve their differences and re-form
             under the more general heading of the Euroleft. The music scene
             also had a vogue for Euro- words, with Eurodisco, Europop, and
             Eurorock. In the late seventies and eighties there was
             opposition to the deployment of Euromissiles and heated
             discussion in the US over Eurosubsidies given to European firms
             setting up business or marketing products there.

             From the beginning Euro- was popular in proper names (for
             organizations, projects, etc.)--examples include Eurocontrol for
             air-traffic control from the early sixties, Eurotransplant for
             an international file of potential donors in the early eighties,
             and more recent formations such as EuroCypher, an encryption
             system for satellite transmissions, and Eurotunnel, the
             Anglo-French consortium which undertook the building of the
             channel tunnel--and in these cases the capital initial was
             usually kept. In other Euro- words, though, there is a tendency
             for the capital to be replaced by a lower-case initial once the
             word becomes established, and for hyphenated forms to be joined
             up into a solid word. Occasionally Euro (or euro) is used as a
             free-standing word operating as an adjective and simply meaning
             'European' (see the examples below).

                 Mrs Thatcher is seen in most of the EEC as a
                 Euro-sceptic at best.

                 The Times 30 June 1986, p. 9

                 A maximum fine of њ1,000 is proposed for owners of all
                 lawnmowers which fail to 'produce a noise of acceptable
                 EEC standard, or Euronoise'.

                 Independent 4 Dec. 1986, p. 1

                 Though far larger than the domestic stockmarket, the
                 eurodollar market does not directly involve the general
                 public.

                 Michael Brett How to Read the Financial Pages (1987),
                 p. 2

                 Investors in Industry...yesterday made its first foray
                 into the Euroyen market with the issue of a 12 billion
                 yen...bond, only the third conventional Euroyen issue by
                 a British company.

                 The Times 14 Feb. 1987, p. 18

                 The Euro terrorists announced...that they had set up a
                 'Western European Revolutionary offensive'.

                 Evening Standard 24 Mar. 1987, p. 7

                 While outside influences transform Euro-pop, white
                 America sticks to some well-tested styles.

                 Guardian 7 July 1989, p. 33

                 The Communists meanwhile have split into two separate
                 groups; a 28-strong 'Euro' tendency led by the Italian
                 PCI, and an 'orthodox' grouping of French, Greek and
                 Portuguese communists and the single Irish Workers'
                 Party member.

                 Guardian 24 July 1989, p. 3

                 The name Britannia had been dropped from the deal
                 because its nationalistic connotations could have
                 obvious drawbacks in a pan-Euro venture.

                 European Investor May 1990, p. 57

                 It would be very regrettable if anyone sought to divert
                 the party down a Euro-sceptic path.

                 Daily Telegraph 29 Nov. 1990, p. 2

                 How Euro are you?

                 Radio Times 18 May 1991, p. 72

   Eurobabble
              (Politics) see -babble

   European Currency Unit
              (Business World) see ecu

   European Monetary System
              (Business World) see EMS

5.15 Eve


   Eve        (Drugs) see Adam

5.16 exchange rate mechanism...


   exchange rate mechanism
              (Business World) see EMS

   Exocet    noun and verb (War and Weaponry)

             noun: The trade mark of a kind of rocket-propelled short-range
             guided missile, used especially in sea warfare. Used
             figuratively: something devastating and unexpected, a
             'bombshell'.

             transitive or intransitive verb: To deliver a devastating attack
             on (something) with, or as if with, an Exocet missile; to move
             as if hit by a missile, to 'rocket'.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from French exocet, literally
             'flying fish'; the missiles are made by a French company and
             they skim across the surface of water like flying fish, making
             them virtually impossible to detect and destroy.

             History and Usage:  The name has been registered as a trade mark
             in the UK since 1970, but came to prominence during the
             Falklands war of 1982. In particular, the destruction of Royal
             Naval ships by Argentinian Exocet missiles during that conflict
             helped to establish the figurative use of the word, both as a
             noun and as a verb.

                 Then he produced his Exocet: a copy of your most recent
                 readership survey.

                 New Statesman 27 Sept. 1985, p. 13

                 The full range of missiles--notably the Exocet, whose
                 very name...has become synonymous with highly efficient
                 death and destruction--will be on display.

                 The Times 10 June 1987, p. 20

                 Burton's family are furious at Sally's decision to sell
                 the family home...Their Exocet reply is to back a
                 critical biography of the late screen hero.

                 Telegraph (Brisbane) 6 Jan. 1988, p. 5

                 I presented the bristle end of a broom to the back end
                 of the pony, which exoceted up the ramp into the
                 trailer.

                 Daily Telegraph 16 Dec. 1989, Weekend section, p. vii

   expansion card
              (Science and Technology) see cardэ

   expert system
             noun (Science and Technology)

             A computer system using software which stores and applies the
             knowledge of experts in a particular field, so that a person
             using the system can draw upon that expertise to make decisions,
             inferences, etc.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding: although not itself expert,
             the system is founded on expert knowledge, proving the truth of
             the maxim that a computer system can only be as good as the
             input it receives (a principle in computing that is known by the
             acronym GIGO, or garbage in, garbage out).

             History and Usage:  The first expert systems were developed in
             the second half of the seventies; they have proved very
             successful and popular, especially in diagnostic work, because
             of their ability to consider large numbers of symptoms or
             variables at one time and reach logical conclusions.

                 The technology of expert systems is said to have now
                 matured to a point where it can help manufacturers
                 improve productivity and hence their competitive
                 position.

                 British Business 14 Apr. 1989, p. 9

   explosive device
              (War and Weaponry) see device

6.0 F



6.1 F


   F          (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see fibre

6.2 faction...


   faction   noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A blend of fact and fiction, especially when used as a literary
             genre, in film-making, etc.; documentary fiction. Also, a book,
             film, etc. that uses this technique.

             Etymology:  Formed by telescoping the words fact and fiction to
             make a blend.

             History and Usage:  The word was invented in the late sixties,
             when there was a fashion for novels based on real or historical
             events. In the eighties, the term was also applied to the
             dramatized television documentaries sometimes called docudramas
             or drama-docs (see doc, docu-). The adjective used to describe a
             work of this kind is factional or factionalized; the process of
             combining fact and fiction into a narrative is factionalization.

                 His Merseyside is vivid enough, every bit as 'real' as
                 those fictionalised documentaries we are learning to
                 call 'faction'.

                 Listener 30 June 1983, p. 16

                 Factional drama will be discussed in detail at a BBC
                 seminar.

                 The Times 13 July 1988, p. 1

                 Humphrey's... No Resting Place...offers a factionalised
                 account of Indian history.

                 Literary Review Aug. 1989, p. 14

   factoid   noun and adjective (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             noun: A spurious or questionable fact; especially, something
             that is popularly supposed to be true because it has been
             reported (and often repeated) in the media, but is actually
             based on speculation or even fabrication.

             adjective: Apparently factual, but actually only partly true;
             'factional' (see faction above).

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -oid (from Latin -oides
             and ultimately derived from Greek eidos 'form') to fact; the
             implication is that these spurious pieces of information have
             the form or appearance of facts, but are actually something
             quite different.

             History and Usage:  The word was coined by the American writer
             Norman Mailer in 1973.  In his book Marilyn (a biography of
             Marilyn Monroe), he defined factoids as

                 facts which have no existence before appearing in a
                 magazine or newspaper, creations which are not so much
                 lies as a product to manipulate emotion in the Silent
                 Majority.

             Since it so aptly described the mixture of fact and supposition
             that often characterized both biography and journalism in the
             seventies and eighties, factoid established a place for itself
             in the language as a noun and as an adjective.

                 Santa Fe is full of writers, which is what he has now
                 become.  His speciality is big fat factoids full of real
                 people, especially his old boss.

                 The Times 19 Mar. 1987, p. 17

                 The vast bulk of it is devoted to a somewhat breathless
                 and awestruck factoid account of how these difficulties
                 will work themselves out to an inevitable, or at least
                 dauntingly probable, finale.

                 Spectator 4 July 1987, p. 31

   factor VIII
             noun Also written factor eight (Health and Fitness)

             A substance in blood which is essential to the coagulation
             process and is deficient in haemophiliacs.

             Etymology:  Substances which contribute to the blood-clotting
             process have been called factors since the early years of this
             century, and were assigned a series of identifying Roman
             numerals by medical researchers. This is the eighth in the
             series.

             History and Usage:  Although congenital factor VIII deficiency
             had been identified as the cause of haemophilia by the fifties,
             the term did not become widely known until the Aids era. In the
             mid eighties, before the implications of Aids for the blood
             donor system were fully understood, thousands of haemophiliacs
             worldwide were infected with the Aids virus HIV as a result of
             receiving injections to boost their levels of factor VIII. This,
             and the subsequent actions for damages, brought the term factor
             VIII to public attention.

                 Doctors, unaware of the cause of his illness, pumped him
                 with huge doses of Factor VIII...But with AIDS becoming
                 a public issue...both he and Elizabeth were aware that
                 the massive transfusions of blood could well have
                 exposed him to the virus.

                 New Idea (Melbourne) 9 May 1987, p. 8

                 More than 1,200 haemophiliacs were infected with the
                 Aids virus after treatment with contaminated Factor
                 VIII, a blood-clotting agent that was administered
                 through the NHS.

                 Sunday Times 30 Sept. 1990, p. 1

   fanny pack
             noun Also written fannypack (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The US slang name for a bum-bag.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; in US slang, fanny is the
             equivalent of British slang bum and has none of the sexual
             connotations of the British English fanny.

             History and Usage:   Fanny pack has a similar history in US
             English to that of bum-bag in British English, arising as long
             as twenty years ago as a term used by skiers, motorcyclists,
             etc. (sometimes with variations on the name, such as fanny bag
             or fanny belt) and moving into the more general vocabulary when
             the idea was taken up by the fashion world in the late eighties.
             As a fashion accessory in the US, the fanny pack has also been
             called a belly-bag, reflecting the fact that it is worn at the
             front rather than the back (see bum-bag) or belt bag, avoiding
             all reference to human anatomy.

                 I've hurt myself and my cameras numerous times...but
                 I've never had a problem, even doing an eggbeater at
                 full speed, with my gear tucked away inside a fannypack.

                 Sierra Jan.-Feb. 1985, p. 45

                 Christin Ranger...says her company put out six versions
                 this year (compared with only two last year), including
                 larger fanny packs that hold lunches or tennis shoes and
                 front-loaders with just enough room for a wallet.

                 Newsweek 5 Dec. 1988, p. 81

   fast-food adjective (Drugs)

             Of substances other than food, especially drugs: instant; quick
             and easy to make, obtain, and use. Also occasionally of
             non-material things: intellectually accessible; easy to present
             or understand.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of fast food, a term which has been
             used since the fifties in the US and the seventies in the UK for
             food which is kept hot or partially prepared in a restaurant and
             so can be served quickly when required. The term fast food was
             used attributively (in fast-food service, fast-food outlet,
             etc.) before being used as a compound noun in its own right, so
             it is hardly surprising that it should now be perceived and used
             as an adjective, replacing instant in some contexts.

             History and Usage:   Fast-food was first used in this figurative
             way in the late seventies and was applied to drugs from the
             middle of the eighties, when the rapid spread of crack on the
             streets of US cities could be attributed to the fact that it was
             easily made, cheap to buy, and instantly smokable--it seemed to
             drug enforcement agencies that anyone who wanted to obtain the
             drug could do so as easily as buying a hamburger. The
             description provides a useful distinction between the fast-food
             drugs offering instant gratification (like crack and ice) and
             the more complex designer drugs, and so has stuck. The term can
             be applied in its figurative sense also to consumable but
             non-material things (such as broadcasting or the arts); this is
             the more established figurative use and may yet prove to be the
             most enduring as well.

                 If he does talk, listen. Do not respond with 'fast-food'
                 answers such as 'Heck, it can't be so bad', or 'Why
                 don't you take the afternoon off?'

                 Industry Week 9 Mar. 1981, p. 45

                 Fast-food opera that will face an anniversary judgment.

                 headline in Guardian 3 July 1989, p. 19

                 A few years ago, all the talk was about more complex,
                 more expensive 'designer drugs'. Ironically it has
                 turned out to be the fast-food drugs like crack and
                 ice...that are tearing us apart.

                 People 13 Nov. 1989, p. 13

   fast track
             noun, adjective, and verb Also written fast-track when used as
             an adjective or verb (Business World) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             noun: A hectic lifestyle or job involving rapid promotion and
             intense competition; also called the fast lane.

             adjective: High-flying, enjoying or capable of rapid
             advancement.

             transitive verb: To promote (a person) rapidly, to accelerate or
             rush (something) through.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of the horse-racing term fast track
             (which dates from the thirties), a race-track on which the going
             is dry and hard enough to enable the horses to run fast; track
             has a long history in US terms to do with careers, for example
             in the concept of a tenure track for academics.

             History and Usage:  The figurative use of fast track in business
             arose in the mid sixties; it may owe its popularity to US
             President Richard Nixon, who claimed at that time that he
             preferred New York to California because it was the fast track.
             Certainly it became a vogue word in US business circles during
             the seventies, in all its grammatical uses, and developed a
             number of derivatives: the agent-noun fast-tracker (and even
             fast-tracknik), a person who lives or works in the fast track;
             also the verbal noun fast-tracking, the practice of promoting
             staff rapidly or accelerating processes.  In the eighties this
             vogue has spread to British English, although in the UK fast
             lane is still probably better known as the name for the hectic,
             competitive lifestyle of the yuppie.

                 Some of the fast trackers seem so preoccupied with
                 getting ahead that they don't always notice the
                 implications of what they do.

                 Fortune June 1977, p. 160

                 Many a thrusting young manager or fast-track public
                 servant has had his hopes dashed.

                 The Times 15 Dec. 1984, p. 7

                 An assurance was given to 'fast track' the required
                 planning procedures.

                 Stock & Land (Melbourne) 5 Mar. 1987, p. 3

   fatigue    (People and Society) see compassion fatigue

   fattism   noun Also written fatism (People and Society)

             Discrimination against, or the tendency to poke fun at,
             overweight people.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ism (as in racism and
             sexism) to fat.

             History and Usage:   Fattism is one of a large number of
             formations ending in -ism which became popular in the eighties
             to describe perceived forms of discrimination (see also ableism,
             ageism, and heterosexism). This one belongs to the second half
             of the eighties, a time when general diet-consciousness and an
             emphasis on physical fitness in Western societies made being
             overweight almost into a moral issue.  It was coined by American
             psychologist Rita Freedman in the book Bodylove (1988), in which
             she points out the insidious influence of one's personal
             appearance on others (in particular the notion that obese people
             are lazy or undisciplined):

                 Looksism gives birth to fatism, another cruel stereotype
                 that affects us all.

             It is usually used only half-seriously, though, as is the
             corresponding adjective fat(t)ist. The adjective appears to be
             becoming more established in the language than the noun at
             present, but neither promises to be permanent.

                 Fatist is a refreshing new word to me, as opposed to
                 fattest which is much more familiar.

                 Spare Rib Oct. 1987, p. 5

                 Dawn French makes no apologies about her size, and any
                 frisson of incipient fattism is instantly quashed in her
                 commanding presence.

                 Sunday Express Magazine 25 Mar. 1990, p. 18

                 Now Ms Wood looks smarter and has lost so much weight,
                 some of her fattist pieces lose their credibility.

                 Gay Times Nov. 1990, p. 71

   fatwa     noun Also written Fatwa or fatwah (Politics)

             A legal decision or ruling given by an Islamic religious leader.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from Arabic; the root in the
             original language is the same verb fata (to instruct by a legal
             decision) from which we get the word Mufti, a Muslim legal
             expert or teacher.

             History and Usage:  Actually an old borrowing from Arabic (in
             the form fetfa or fetwa it has been in use in English since the
             seventeenth century), the fatwa acquired a new currency in the
             English-language media in February 1989, when Iran's Ayatollah
             Khomeini issued a fatwa sentencing the British writer Salman
             Rushdie to death for publishing The Satanic Verses (1988), a
             book which many Muslims considered blasphemous and highly
             offensive.  Fatwa is a generic term for any legal decision made
             by a Mufti or other Islamic religious authority, but, because of
             the particular context in which the West became familiar with
             the word, it is sometimes erroneously thought to mean 'a death
             sentence'.

                 The...International Committee...have capitalized on the
                 outrage felt at the notorious fatwa to drive forward
                 with new confidence the long-nurtured campaign for total
                 abolition of blasphemy laws in this country.

                 Bookseller 29 Sept. 1989, p. 1068

                 This Fatwa...was written and signed by the Grand
                 Ayatollah of Shia in Iraq, explaining his position
                 regarding the executions of 16 Kuwaiti Pilgrims after
                 the Saudi media quoted his name.

                 Independent 27 Oct. 1989, p. 10

                 [He]...rejected the findings of a BBC opinion poll which
                 claimed that only 42 per cent of Muslims in Britain
                 supported the fatwah.

                 Independent 16 July 1990, p. 5

   fax°      noun and verb (Science and Technology)

             noun: Facsimile telegraphy (a system allowing documents to be
             scanned, digitized, and transmitted to a remote destination
             using the telephone network); a copy of a document transmitted
             in this way; a machine capable of performing facsimile
             telegraphy (known more fully as a fax machine).

             transitive verb: To transmit (a document) by fax.

             Etymology:  An abbreviated and respelt form of facsimile;
             sometimes popularly associated with the respelt form of facts in
             the next entry.

             History and Usage:  Experiments in different methods of
             facsimile transmission began in the late nineteenth century; the
             first successful transmission of a document took place in 1925.
             Fax technology was first written about using this name in the
             forties, describing a method of transmitting newspaper text by
             radio rather than by telephone; this was the result of research
             and development work carried out by the American electrical
             engineer and inventor John V. L. Hogan during the late twenties
             and thirties. In 1944, after contributing to military use of
             facsimile during the Second World War, he was instrumental in
             forming Broadcasters' Faximile Analysis, a research project
             linking broadcasters and newspaper publishers in the US, but
             their plans to provide a facsimile news service in individual
             homes failed because of licensing difficulties. Legal
             restrictions on the use of telephone equipment which did not
             belong to the telephone company also stood in the way of
             widespread application of telephone fax, and the word fax
             remained in the technical jargon of telegraphy until these
             restrictions were lifted and the machines became widely
             affordable for business use in the early eighties. By the middle
             of the eighties, it had already developed the three distinct
             uses mentioned above as well as being widely used as a verb, and
             it was commonplace for company notepaper to carry a firm's fax
             number (the telephone number to be dialled to enable the firm to
             receive a faxed document) as well as standard telephone and
             telex numbers. Derivatives include faxable (capable of being
             faxed), faxee (a person to whom a fax is sent), faxer (a sender
             of faxes), faxham (a person who uses the fax as a radio ham uses
             short-wave radio to contact unknown enthusiasts), and faxing
             (the sending of faxes).

                 As the technology improved, fax became faster and
                 cheaper.

                 Daily Telegraph 21 Nov. 1986, p. 16

                 In a five-storey office building, there may be a fax on
                 each floor.

                 Observer Magazine 19 June 1988, p. vi

                 NFUC sent out several thousand faxes urging the faxees
                 to refax the fax to the fax machines in the governor's
                 office.

                 Washington Post 23 May 1989, section C, p. 5

                 He had not faxed me specifically, he continued, since he
                 did not know me from Adam--the faxham simply tapped
                 arbitrarily into the void...hoping sometime, somewhere,
                 to encounter responsive life.

                 The Times 20 Mar. 1990, p. 14

   faxэ       plural noun

             Colloquially, facts, information, 'gen'.

             Etymology:  A playful respelling of facts (compare sox for
             socks), in this case reflecting the lack of a t sound in most
             people's casual pronunciation of the word.

             History and Usage:  This spelling of facts was devised by
             Thackeray in his Yellowplush correspondence: Fashnable fax and
             polite annygoats, first published in 1837. It has been common in
             popular magazines and newspapers using normal modern orthography
             since about the 1970s and had formed the second element of trade
             marks (see Ceefax and Filofax) for decades before that. However,
             it was only when the Filofax and facsimile (fax°) became
             fashionable in the eighties that fax really acquired any popular
             currency as a word in its own right; the increasing emphasis on
             information as a commodity in eighties culture has helped it to
             establish a place in the language that is not simply a newspaper
             editor's pun.

                 Eco-fax. These pages are designed for you to fill in the
                 address and/or telephone numbers you may need.

                 John Button How to be Green (1989), p. 230

   fax-napping
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) see Filofax

6.3 FF


6.4 FF


   FF         (Lifestyle and Leisure) see functional food

6.5 fibre...


   fibre     noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             Food material such as bran and cellulose that is not broken down
             by the process of digestion; roughage. Often in the fuller form
             dietary fibre; occasionally abbreviated to F, especially in the
             US trade mark F Plan Diet (or F-Plan), a weight-reducing diet
             based on a high fibre intake to provide bulk without calories.

             Etymology:  A specialized use of fibre in its collective sense
             of 'matter consisting of animal or vegetable fibres'.

             History and Usage:  Scientists have written about fibre in this
             sense since the early years of this century; what brought it
             into the more popular domain and made it a fashionable subject
             was the discovery in the seventies that a high-fibre diet could
             help to prevent certain digestive illnesses, including cancers
             of the colon, diverticular disease, and irritable bowel
             syndrome.  In the eighties, the green movement added impetus to
             this by stressing the need to concentrate on natural,
             unprocessed foods (the highly refined foods which most people in
             developed countries normally eat contain relatively little
             fibre). The F-Plan diet (the book of which was published in
             1982) is one of many diets put forward in the eighties which
             emphasize the need for fibre, and the word now seems to have
             taken over from the more old-fashioned roughage in popular
             usage.

                 The newly promoted F plan diet, which underlined the
                 nutritional value of beans, fortuitously coincided with
                 the Heinz campaign message.  'They were talking fibre;
                 we were talking goodness.'

                 Financial Times 18 Aug. 1983, p. 9

                 Bran is one type of fibre, nature's own 'filler' that is
                 present only in plant foods and is essential for proper
                 digestion.

                 Here's Health Apr. 1986, p. 127

                 Get into a wholefood diet routine, sticking to
                 high-fibre low fat foods, plenty of salads, fresh fruit
                 and vegetables.

                 Health Shopper Jan./Feb. 1990, p. 9

   Filofax   noun (Business World) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The trade mark of a type of loose-leaf portable filing system; a
             personal organizer.

             Etymology:  A respelling of file of facts which is meant to
             reflect colloquial pronunciation.

             History and Usage:  The Filofax has been made for several
             decades (the trade mark was first registered in the early
             thirties), but the name was not widely known until the early
             eighties, when it suddenly became fashionable (especially for
             business people) to carry a Filofax. These small loose-leaf
             folders usually contain a diary and other personal documentation
             such as an address book, planner, note section, maps, etc., as
             well as a wallet with spaces for a pen, credit cards, and other
             small non-paper items. In the mid eighties the Filofax was
             associated particularly with the yuppie set--the word was even
             used attributively in the sense 'yuppie'. By the end of the
             decade all sorts of people could be seen with Filofaxes--or with
             one of the numerous imitations of the Filofax proper--and a
             growing market developed for different types of filofax insert.
             So popular were they that variations on the theme started to
             appear--notably Filofiction, novels produced on hole-punched
             sheets to fit a Filofax. (Some other examples of the birth of
             filo- as a combining form are given in the quotations below.)
             Filofax is even occasionally used as a verb, meaning 'to steal a
             Filofax from (someone) in order to demand a ransom for its
             return'--a crime apparently known colloquially as filo-napping
             or fax-napping.

                 The Digger guide to Metropolitan Manners No 1: Yup and
                 Non-Yup by Ivor Pawsh (Advice: consult filonotes when
                 reading this).

                 Digger 9 Oct. 1987, p. 26

                 Small neat people tend to go for the small neat
                 organizers while fatsos nearly always buy large
                 Filofaxes and stuff them fit to burst.

                 The Times 10 June 1988, p. 27

                 An advertisement in last week's Bookseller for
                 Filofiction--or what the publishers describe as
                 'publishing's brightest new idea'.

                 New Scientist 28 July 1988, p. 72

                 Taxpak '89 is a new filofax insert detailing the Budget
                 changes, enabling you to check your income tax
                 allowance.

                 Investors Chronicle 17-23 Mar. 1989, p. 35

                 One of the more Americanised [pop groups] of England's
                 filofax funksters.

                 Listener 4 May 1989, p. 36

                 The filoflask...a normal personal organiser but with a
                 hip flask fitted inside, is being marketed.

                 The Times 14 June 1990, p. 27

   finger-dry
             transitive verb (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             To style and dry (the hair) by running one's fingers through it
             to lift it and give it body while it dries naturally in the
             warmth of the air. Also as an adjective finger-dried and action
             noun finger-drying.

             Etymology:  A transparent combination of finger and dry; the
             warmth from the fingers apparently also helps to dry the hair.

             History and Usage:  Hair has no doubt been finger-dried since
             the beginning of time; the technique was only graced with the
             fashion term finger-drying at the beginning of the eighties,
             when hairdressers sought a more natural look than could be
             achieved with the blow-dried styles of the seventies.

                 Howard layered Jocelyn's hair, and finger-drying brought
                 out its natural movement.

                 Woman's Realm 10 May 1986, p. 29

                 An advance on the razor is the new texturising technique
                 which forms a feathery, textured look and is ideal for
                 finger-dried styles.

                 Cornishman 5 June 1986, p. 8

6.6 flak...


   flak      noun (Business World) (Politics)

             In business and political jargon, short for flak-catcher: a
             person employed by an individual or institution to deal with all
             adverse comment, questions, etc. from the public, thereby
             shielding the employer from unfavourable publicity.

             Etymology:  Formed by a combination of semantic change and
             abbreviation.  Flak was originally borrowed into English from
             the German initials of a compound word meaning 'pilot defence
             gun' in the Second World War, for an anti-aircraft gun and (by
             extension) anti-aircraft fire; by the late sixties it was being
             used figuratively to mean 'a barrage of criticism or abuse'. The
             sense under discussion here arose by shortening the compound
             flak-catcher to flak again, perhaps involving some confusion
             with the word flack, an established US term for a press agent
             which was allegedly coined quite independently by the
             entertainment paper Variety in the late thirties.  Variety
             claimed that this word for a press agent was the surname of Gene
             Flack, a well-known movie agent.

             History and Usage:  An example of a well-established Americanism
             that has only gained a place in British English in the past few
             years. The term flak-catcher was popularized at the beginning of
             the seventies in the US (by the writer Tom Wolfe in Mau-Mauing
             the Flak Catchers); the name was apt enough to stick in US
             English, and to be applied in British English as well during the
             seventies to those slick spokesmen who can turn any question to
             the advantage of the government or organization whose image they
             are employed to protect. The abbreviation to flak belongs to the
             late seventies in the US and the eighties in the UK. The form
             flak-catching (as an adjective or noun) also occurs.

                 Spitting Image...has firmly established itself as TV's
                 premiЉre flak-catching slot.

                 Listener 7 Mar. 1985, p. 29

                 The tone is world-weary, that of the flakcatcher for
                 whom life has become an arduous process of warding off,
                 out-manoeuvring, beating down.

                 Times Literary Supplement 31 Oct. 1986, p. 1210

                 Most U.S. companies employ spokespeople who are paid to
                 parrot the company line...To reporters they are
                 derisively known as 'flaks' whose main duties consist of
                 peddling press releases.

                 Bryan Burrough & John Helyar Barbarians at the Gate
                 (1990), p. 293

   flake     noun (People and Society)

             In US slang: an eccentric, dim, or unreliable person, a
             'screwball'.

             Etymology:  A back-formation from the adjective flaky, which in
             US slang has been used in the sense 'odd, eccentric,
             unpredictable' since the mid sixties.

             History and Usage:   Flake was first used in US baseball slang
             and in college slang generally in the sixties; during the
             seventies it passed into general slang use in the US, and by the
             early eighties was becoming more widely known still through its
             use in political contexts (compare wimp°).

                 Out in California, Gov. Jerry Brown--often called a
                 flake--was campaigning against San Diego Mayor Pete
                 Wilson...Larry Liebert...quoted an anonymous Brown aide
                 as asking 'Why trade a flake for a wimp.'

                 New York Times Magazine 24 Oct. 1982, p. 16

   flashy     (Lifestyle and Leisure) see glitzy

   flavour of the month
             noun phrase (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             The current fashion; something that (or someone who) is
             especially popular at a given time. Also with variations, such
             as flavour of the week, year, etc.

             Etymology:  A figurative application of a phrase that began as a
             marketing ploy in US ice-cream parlours in the forties, when a
             particular ice-cream flavour would be singled out for the month
             or week for special promotion.

             History and Usage:   Flavour of the month started to be used
             figuratively in the news media in the late seventies, and for a
             while in the early eighties the phrase itself appeared to be
             flavour of the month with journalists. There is often a note of
             cynicism in its use, implying that the thing or person described
             as flavour of the month is but a passing fashion or whim that
             will soon be replaced by the next one. It is also sometimes
             applied to something which is not really subject to fashions,
             but is especially common or widely reported at a given time.

                 In many ways the question of authority in the Church is
                 the theological flavour of the year in Anglican circles.

                 Church Times 15 May 1987, p. 7

                 Readership surveys were flavour of the month in that
                 sector so he wanted one.

                 Media Week 2 Sept. 1988, p. 14

                 Currently the England dressing room resembles a MASH
                 unit, with finger and hand injuries the flavour of the
                 month.

                 Guardian 2 Apr. 1990, p. 15

   fly-tipping
             noun Also written fly tipping or flytipping (Environment)

             In the UK: unauthorized dumping of rubbish on the streets or on
             unoccupied ground.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding. The fly- part is probably
             ultimately derived from the verb to fly (the culprits tip and
             fly); it is the equivalent of fly-posting (a term which dates
             back to the early years of this century) except that it involves
             dumping rubbish rather than putting up posters.  Since the
             thirties, street salesmen have called their unlicensed pitches
             fly-pitches, but this name is probably derived from the
             adjective fly, 'clever'.

             History and Usage:  The term fly-tipping has been used in
             technical sources to do with waste disposal since at least the
             late sixties. A topical problem in the Britain of the eighties,
             fly-tipping was the subject of tighter legislation in 1989 to
             try to tidy up city streets and give the UK a greener image. The
             term fly-tipping has also been applied to the dumping of toxic
             waste in other countries.  Fly-tip has been back-formed as the
             verb corresponding to the noun fly-tipping; individuals or
             bodies who do it are fly-tippers.

                 The LIFT...Report divides the people who fly tip into
                 four categories:  the 'organised criminal', the
                 'commercial', the 'domestic' and the 'traveller'. The
                 organised criminal fly tipper operates to make money
                 through illegal deposition of wastes.

                 Managing Waste (Report of the Royal Commission on
                 Environmental Pollution, 1985), p. 71

                 The Control Of Pollution (Amendment) Bill, to tighten up
                 the law against fly-tippers and stop illegal dumping of
                 builders' rubble, was given an unopposed third reading
                 in the Lords.

                 The Times 5 July 1989, p. 13

                 There was the visible evidence of fly-tipping. A mound
                 of rubbish all but obscured an electrical sub-station on
                 which two local hospitals depended.

                 Independent 23 Aug. 1988, p. 17

6.7 fontware...


   fontware   (Science and Technology) see -ware

   food additive
              (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see additive

   foodie    noun (Lifestyle and Leisure) (People and Society)

             In colloquial use, a person whose hobby or main interest is
             food; a gourmet.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ie (as in groupie,
             etc.) to food; one of a succession of such formations during the
             eighties for people who are fans of, or heavily 'into', a
             particular thing or activity.

             History and Usage:  Although gourmets have been around for a
             long time, the foodie is an invention of the early eighties,
             encouraged by the food and wine pages of the colour supplements
             and the growth of a magazine industry for which food is a
             central interest. The foodie is interested not just in eating
             good food, but in preparing it, reading about it, and talking
             about it as well, especially if the food in question is a new
             'eating experience'. An Official Foodie Handbook was published
             in 1984.

                 He told me about the foodie who sat next to him in a
                 Chinese restaurant and went into transports of
                 enthusiastic analysis about the way in which the chicken
                 had been cooked.

                 Listener 27 Sept. 1984, p. 19

                 The oriental chopper...--a perfect gift for your
                 favourite foodie, particularly if that happens to be
                 you.

                 Good Food Jan./Feb. 1990, p. 11

   food irradiation
              (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see irradiation

   footprint noun (Science and Technology)

             In computing jargon, the surface area taken up by a computer on
             a desk or other surface.

             Etymology:  A figurative use of footprint; the latest in a
             succession of technical uses employing this metaphor. In the mid
             sixties, footprint had been proposed as the name for the landing
             area of a spacecraft; from the early seventies onwards it was
             used for the ground area affected by noise, pressure, etc. from
             a vehicle or aircraft (an aeroplane's noise footprint is the
             restricted area on the ground below in which noise exceeds a
             specified level, and the footprint of a tyre is the area of
             contact between it and the ground); it is also used for the area
             within which a satellite signal can be received.

             History and Usage:  Interest in the footprint of computer
             hardware began in the early eighties, with the widespread sale
             and use of PCs and other microcomputers which had to compete for
             space on people's desks with books, papers, and simply room in
             which to work. A small footprint soon became a selling-point for
             a microcomputer. In the era of hacking (see hack), there is some
             evidence that footprint also came to be used figuratively in
             computing to mean a visible sign left in a file to show that it
             had been hacked into (the machine-readable equivalent of 'I woz
             'ere').

                 With features like a...memory mapper and a footprint of
                 only 12.6 inches by 15.7 inches, it's a difficult micro
                 to fault.

                 advertisement in Mail on Sunday 9 Aug. 1987, p. 39

   Footsie   acronym Also written footsie or FT-SE (Business World)

             In the colloquial language of the Stock Exchange, the Financial
             Times-Stock Exchange 100 share index, an index based on the
             share values of Britain's one hundred largest public companies.
             Also known more fully as the Footsie index.

             Etymology:  A respelling of FT-SE (itself the initial letters of
             Financial Times-Stock Exchange), intended to represent the
             sounds produced when you try to pronounce the initials as a
             word.

             History and Usage:  The FT-SE index was set up in January 1984
             and almost immediately came to be known affectionately as
             Footsie, perhaps because FT-SE is such a mouthful. Within a few
             months, traded options and futures which were linked to the
             index became available and these were described as Footsie
             options etc. (even without a capital initial) almost as though
             Footsie were an adjective.  Footsie is used with or without the
             to refer to the index; the 100 part of the index's name
             sometimes follows Footsie, especially when the official form,
             FT-SE 100 index, is used.

                 The FT-SE 100 (Footsie) Index has already fallen from a
                 peak 1717 early in April to 1565, but if you think
                 calamity lies ahead, it is not too late to buy Footsie
                 Put Options.

                 Daily Mail 17 May 1986, p. 30

                 With Congress and Administration still deadlocked over
                 the US Budget, the most anodyne political remark is
                 quite capable of shifting Footsie 50 points.

                 Investors Chronicle 20 Nov. 1987, p. 29

   forty-three
              (People and Society) see Rule 43

6.8 F-plan


   F-plan     (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see fibre

6.9 free...


   -free     combining form (Environment) (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and
             Leisure)

             As the second element in a hyphenated adjective: not containing
             or involving the (usually undesirable) ingredient, factor, etc.
             named in the word before the hyphen.

             Etymology:  A largely contextual development in the use of what
             is an ancient combining form in English: originally it meant
             'exempt from the tax or charge named before the hyphen' (as in
             tax-free, toll-free, etc.) and this developed through the
             figurative sense 'not hampered by the trouble etc. named in the
             first word' (as in carefree and trouble-free) to the present
             use, in which ingredients or processes, often ones formerly
             thought desirable in the production of something, have been
             found to be unwanted by some section of the public, and the
             product is therefore advertised as being free from them.

             History and Usage:  The sense of -free defined here has become
             particularly fashionable since the late seventies, especially
             through its use by advertisers (who possibly see it as a
             positive alternative--with connotations of liberation and
             cleanness-- to the rather negative suffix -less). The uses fall
             into a number of different groups, including those to do with
             special diets (alcohol-free, cholesterol-free, corn-free,
             dairy-free (an odd term out with animal-free in naming the
             generic source rather than the substance as the first word),
             gluten-free, meat-free, milk-free, sugar-free, wheat-free, and
             many others), those to do with pollutants or additives
             (additive-free (see additive), Alar-free (see Alar), CFC-free
             (see CFC), e-free (see E number), lead-free, etc.), those in
             which an undesirable process or activity is named first
             (cruelty-free, nuclear-free), and those with the name of an
             illness or infection as the first element (BSE-free,
             salmonella-free). Occasionally advertisers omit the hyphen, with
             unintentional comical effect: during the scare about salmonella
             in eggs in the UK in 1989, for example, some shops displayed
             posters advertising 'Fresh farm eggs--salmonella free'.

                 The Saudis have oil, which the world wants. Now C.
                 Schmidt & Sons, a Philadelphia brewery, has something
                 the Saudis want--alcohol-free beer.

                 Washington Post 23 June 1979, section D, p. 9

                 Special dishes which are gluten-free, dairy-free and
                 meat-free.

                 Hampstead & Highgate Express 7 Feb. 1986, p. 90

                 These contain a complex of high potency, dairy-free
                 lactobacilli, good bacteria that help the body to
                 maintain a positive balance.

                 Health Shopper Jan./Feb. 1990, p. 4

                 The advice of the National Eczema Society is to use
                 either liquids (none of which contains bleaches) or
                 enzyme-free 'non-biological' detergents.

                 Which? Apr. 1990, p. 190

                 We all feel virtuous because we have gone lead-free; but
                 this is a separate issue from the greenhouse effect.

                 Good Housekeeping May 1990, p. 17

                 They say they can deliver BSE-free embryos, but no one
                 can guarantee that.

                 Independent on Sunday 29 July 1990, Sunday Review
                 section, p. 13

   freebase  noun and verb Also written free base or free-base (Drugs)

             noun: A purified form of cocaine made by heating it with ether,
             and taken (illegally) by inhaling the fumes or smoking the
             residue.

             intransitive or transitive verb: To make a freebase of cocaine
             or smoke it as a drug; to smoke (freebase). Also as a verbal
             noun freebasing; agent noun freebaser.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; the base, or most important
             ingredient in cocaine, is freed by the process of heating.

             History and Usage:  The term has been in use in the drugs
             subculture since the seventies (there are reports of people who
             claim to have been using freebase since 1978, for example), but
             it was not taken up by the media until 1980, when American
             comedian Richard Pryor was badly burned while freebasing. It
             then became clear that freebase was a favourite form of cocaine
             among the Hollywood set, since smoking it was more congenial
             than 'snorting' cocaine. The cheaper crystalline cocaine, crack,
             was at first also known as freebase. The noun and verb appeared
             simultaneously in printed sources, but it is likely that the
             noun preceded the verb in colloquial use.

                 A police lieutenant said Mr. Pryor had told a doctor the
                 accident happened while he was trying to make 'free
                 base', a cocaine derivative produced with the help of
                 ether.

                 New York Times 15 June 1980, p. 15

                 She recalled that her seven-year-old daughter used to
                 follow her around the house with a deodorant spray
                 because she could not stand the smell of freebasing.

                 Daily Telegraph 30 June 1981, p. 15

                 A society drugs scandal is introduced as the freebasers
                 start brewing up in their alembics.

                 Times Literary Supplement 14 Aug. 1987, p. 872

   free from artificial additives
              (Environment) (Lifestyle and Leisure) see additive

   free radical
             noun (Health and Fitness)

             An atom or group of atoms in which there is one or more unpaired
             electrons; an unstable element in the human body which, it is
             thought, can be overproduced as a result of chemical pollution
             and may then cause cell damage.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; free in its chemical sense
             means 'uncombined' and radical denotes an atom which would
             normally form part of a compound.

             History and Usage:  As a chemical term, free radical has existed
             since the beginning of this century. What has brought it into
             the public eye in the past few years is the interest shown by
             the alternative health movement and environmentalists in free
             radicals as the apparent link between pollution and late
             twentieth-century health problems such as cancer and Alzheimer's
             disease.

                 Vincent Lord knew that many drugs, when in action in the
                 human body and as part of their metabolism, generated
                 'free radicals'.

                 Arthur Hailey Strong Medicine (1984), p. 159

                 Increasingly essential are the anti-oxidants--vitamins
                 A, C, E and the mineral selenium, which bolster the
                 body's natural defence against disruptive free radicals.
                 Generated in the body as a result of radiation, chemical
                 pollutants, medicinal drugs and stress, free radicals
                 can damage cells and tissues bringing about premature
                 ageing.

                 Harpers & Queen Apr. 1990, p. 143

   freestyle BMX
              (Lifestyle and Leisure) (Youth Culture) see BMX

   freeware   (Science and Technology) see -ware

   freeze-frame
             noun and verb Also written freeze frame (Lifestyle and Leisure)
             (Science and Technology)

             noun: A still picture forming part of a motion sequence; a
             facility on video recorders allowing one to stop the action and
             view the picture currently on the screen as a still.

             intransitive or transitive verb: To use the freeze-frame
             facility; to pause (action or a picture) in this way.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding; freeze-frame is effectively a
             contraction of the technical phrase freeze the frame as used in
             cinematography.

             History and Usage:   Freeze-frame was first used as a noun in
             cinematography in the early sixties; at that time, before the
             advent of home videos, the effect was achieved by printing the
             same frame repeatedly rather than actually stopping on a
             particular frame, and was also known simply as a freeze. The
             word freeze-frame became popularized in the early eighties by
             the appearance on the general market of video recorders which
             had the facility; most manufacturers chose to label the control
             freeze-frame, and so it was a natural step to the development of
             a verb in this form to replace the more cumbersome phrase freeze
             the frame.

                 You can freeze-frame sequences for close analysis.

                 Listener 12 May 1983, p. 2

                 Don't use 'freeze frame'...for longer than necessary--it
                 increases tape and head wear.

                 Which? June 1984, p. 250

   fresh     adjective (Youth Culture)

             In young people's slang (especially in the US):  def, 'hip',
             'cool', new and exciting.

             Etymology:  A sense shift which is perhaps influenced by the pun
             with cool; as a word of approbation in young people's slang it
             has its roots in rap talk and ultimately in the street language
             of hip hop.

             History and Usage:  This is a usage which only began to appear
             in print in the second half of the eighties, as part of the crop
             of new slang expressions popularized by the spread of hip-hop
             culture. A number of rappers used the word in their pseudonyms,
             and a US sitcom which was centred on hip hop and shown on UK
             television as well had as its title The Fresh Prince of Bel Air.

                 Run DMC, the rap group, told it to the audience
                 straighter than most. The other groups at the Fresh
                 Festival, a compendium of rappers and break dancers, had
                 visited Hollywood.

                 Chicago Tribune 7 July 1985 (Final edition), section 3,
                 p. 5

                 According to Freddy, street talkers and rappers long ago
                 abandoned bad for such alternatives as fresh, def and
                 chillin'.

                 Los Angeles Times 29 Aug. 1988, section 6, p. 2

   friendly  adjective (War and Weaponry)

             Of troops, equipment, etc.: belonging to one's own side in a
             conflict; in specific phrases (such as friendly fire, friendly
             bombing, etc.): coming from one's own side; especially, causing
             accidental damage to one's own personnel or equipment.

             Etymology:  A specialized and slightly elliptical use of the
             adjective friendly in the sense 'not hostile'.

             History and Usage:  This sense of friendly has been in use in
             military jargon since at least the Second World War (and may go
             back even further as a noun meaning 'a member of one's own or
             one's allies' forces'); in the earlier uses, though, friendly
             tended to be followed by aircraft, ships, etc. The euphemistic
             phrase friendly fire had been used in the Vietnam War (it was
             chosen in the seventies as the title of a book and film about
             the parents of a soldier killed by his own side in Vietnam), but
             was brought to prominence in the Gulf War of 1991, when the
             majority of fatal casualties among allied troops were attributed
             to it.

                 'There will be other occurrences of some of our troops
                 potentially being a victim of "friendly fire"', Marine
                 Corps Maj. Gen.  Robert B. Johnston, the Central
                 Command's chief of staff, told reporters on Feb. 2.

                 National Journal 9 Feb. 1991, p. 335

                 Since the war began, more American troops are thought to
                 have been killed by 'friendly fire' than by the Iraqis,
                 most by air-launched missiles.

                 Independent 22 Feb. 1991, p. 3

   -friendly combining form (Environment) (Science and Technology)

             As the second word in a hyphenated adjective:  either adapted,
             designed, or made suitable for the person or thing named in the
             first word or safe for, not harmful to what is named before the
             hyphen. Hence as a free-standing adjective (often qualified by
             an adverb): accessible or harmless, non-polluting.

             Etymology:  Formed on the adjective friendly, after the model of
             user-friendly in computing.

             History and Usage:  One of the most popular ways of forming a
             new adjective in the late eighties, especially in consumer
             advertising and writing on environmental issues, -friendly has
             its roots in the extremely successful late-seventies coinage
             user-friendly (the history of which is described under that
             heading). By the early eighties the computing metaphor was being
             extended to users of other types of product, sometimes simply as
             an extension of user-friendly itself, but sometimes substituting
             a new first word (reader-friendly, listener-friendly, etc.); the
             gobbledygook of legal drafting was replaced in some legislation
             by clear, understandable language and this was described as
             citizen-friendly. It was also in the early eighties that the
             second branch of meaning started to develop, with the appearance
             on the scene of environment-friendly (causing little harm to the
             environment, ecologically sound); this also gave rise to a
             stream of imitative formations, notably ozone-friendly (see
             ozone), Earth-friendly, eco-friendly (see eco-), and
             planet-friendly. In the second half of the eighties both
             branches of meaning grew steadily and became somewhat confused,
             as new formations arose which did not follow the original
             pattern. In the sense to do with accessibility and ease of use,
             for example, the term computer-friendly (used of a person, a
             synonym for computerate or computent (see the entry for
             computerate) with a nuance of willingness as well as ability to
             use computers) seemed to turn the tables: the person was now
             friendly to the computer, rather than the other way round. On
             the environmental side there were formations like
             greenhouse-friendly, in which the basic meaning 'not harmful to'
             had been extended into 'not contributing to the harmful effects
             of' in a potentially confusing way. The fashion for formations
             in -friendly has also led to the use of hyphenated adjectives in
             which the -friendly part means no more than 'friendly' in its
             usual sense (see the example for Thatcher-friendly in the
             quotations).

             There were also grammatical confusions when -friendly started to
             be used as a free-standing adjective. From the late seventies,
             friendly was used as a free-standing word in computing as a
             synonym for user-friendly. As -friendly became more and more
             popular, some sources started to print the compounds with no
             hyphen between the two words; what is essentially an abbreviated
             dative phrase 'friendly to...' was then interpreted as an
             adjective qualified by a noun, and this was 'corrected' to an
             adverb, giving forms such as environmentally friendly (see
             environmentally). There were even some examples in which two
             adjectives were used together, in environmental friendly etc.
             (presumably transferring the adjective from environmental
             friendliness).  Friendliness, with a preceding noun, and with or
             without a hyphen, can be used to form noun counterparts for most
             of these adjectives, but environmental friendliness co-exists
             with environment-friendliness.

                 Companies' requirements for computer-friendly personnel
                 fluctuate dramatically.

                 The Times 3 Mar. 1987, p. 21

                 Non-food products such as 'environment-friendly'
                 detergents...may not be as widely available.

                 Which? Jan. 1989, p. 27

                 Listener-friendly tunes...take him close to Michael
                 Jackson in tone and delivery.

                 Guitar Player Mar. 1989, p. 12

                 Mitsubishi mixes high performance and environmental
                 friendliness in its new Starion 2.6-litre turbo coup‚.

                 Financial Times 4 Mar. 1989, Weekend FT, p. xxiv

                 Young people are displaying a lot of behaviour and some
                 attitudes which are Thatcher-friendly.

                 Listener 4 May 1989, p. 4

                 It argued that nuclear power had a role to play in a
                 'greenhouse friendly' electricity supply industry but
                 that this role should not be exaggerated.

                 Financial Times 18 July 1989, p. 18

                 Nearly 4,000 products are being analysed according to
                 user- and environment-friendliness in a study sponsored
                 by property developers Rosehaugh.

                 Sunday Telegraph 13 Aug. 1989, p. 2

                 On the grocery shelves, garbage and trash bags of all
                 sizes, once the scourge of the environment, now come
                 with planet-friendly certification.

                 Los Angeles Times 4 Feb. 1990, section E, p. 1

                 Another well-advanced initiative...involves the
                 production of a sterilized sewage and straw compost, a
                 process which disposes of two major pollutants at once,
                 turning them into earth-friendly products which are good
                 growing materials.

                 The Times 24 Mar. 1990, p. 45

   fromage frais
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A smooth white curd cheese or quark, originally from France; now
             also any of a number of low-fat dairy desserts based on curd
             cheese with fruit, sugar, etc. added.

             Etymology:  Borrowed from French; literally 'fresh cheese'. This
             kind of cheese is normally known as petit suisse in France,
             however.

             History and Usage:   Fromage frais is a product which was
             introduced to British supermarkets in the early eighties and to
             American ones a few years later as a way of extending the dairy
             dessert market in which yogurts were becoming very popular.
             Fromage frais has proved extremely successful as the basis for a
             whole range of desserts.

                 Tell us the fat content of Sainsbury's virtually
                 fat-free fromage frais and you might win a white
                 porcelain gratin dish.

                 Good Housekeeping May 1990, p. 42

                 Remove and discard pods, herbs, carrot and celery.
                 Process until smooth with the yogurt or fromage frais,
                 adding a little extra water or skimmed milk to desired
                 consistency.

                 She Aug. 1990, p. 128

   front-ending
             noun (Science and Technology)

             In media jargon, direct input of newspaper text by journalists
             at their own terminals, cutting out the traditional typesetting
             stage.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the action or process suffix -ing
             to front end (the part of a computer system that a user deals
             with directly, especially a terminal that routes input to a
             central computer); the term front end is used attributively (in
             front-end system etc.), for the 'new technology' which allowed
             journalists to set their own copy.

             History and Usage:  Computer scientists used the term
             front-ending from the early seventies to refer to ways of using
             mini- and microcomputers in networks attached to a single
             central computer.  In the context of newspaper production, the
             term came into the news in the mid eighties, when the
             introduction of the system in the UK (especially by the News
             International group producing The Times, The Sunday Times, Sun,
             and News of the World) gave rise to mass picketing by print
             union representatives who were angry about their members' loss
             of jobs in typesetting.

                 I intend to negotiate the introduction of front-ending
                 and...a modern web-offset printing plant.

                 The Times 10 July 1986, p. 21

6.10 fudge and mudge...


   fudge and mudge
             verbal phrase (Politics)

             As a political catch-phrase: to evade comment or avoid making a
             decision on an issue by waffling; to apply facile, ill-conceived
             solutions to problems while trying to appear resolved.

             Etymology:  The verb fudge has been used since the seventeenth
             century in the sense 'to patch up, to make (something) look
             legitimate or properly done when in fact it is dishonestly
             touched up'; mudge here is probably chosen for its rhyme with
             fudge and influenced by smudge or muddle, although it might be
             taken from hudge-mudge, a Scottish form of hugger-mugger, a noun
             meaning 'disorder, confusion' but also used as an adjective in
             the sense 'makeshift'.

             History and Usage:  The catch-phrase was coined by the British
             politician David Owen in a speech to his supporters at the
             Labour Party conference in 1980.  In a direct attack on the
             leadership of James Callaghan, he said:

                 We are fed up with fudging and mudging, with mush and
                 slush. We need courage, conviction, and hard work.

             Since then it has been used in a number of political contexts,
             both as a verbal phrase and as a noun phrase for the policy or
             practice of fudging and mudging.

                 A short term victory must poison the atmosphere in which
                 much-needed, long-term reforms of pay bargaining are
                 examined. There are occasions on which it is right to
                 fudge and mudge at the margins.

                 Guardian Weekly 14 June 1981, p. 10

                 Since the Prime Minister has a well-known abhorrence for
                 fudge and mudge, it must be assumed that she agreed to
                 this next step [in joining the European Monetary System]
                 because she intended to take it.

                 Guardian 28 July 1989, p. 22

   full-blown Aids
              (Health and Fitness) see Aids

   functional food
             noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A foodstuff which contains additives specifically designed to
             promote health and longevity. Sometimes abbreviated to FF.

             Etymology:  A translation of Japanese kinoseishokuhin.

             History and Usage:   Functional foods were originally a Japanese
             idea and by 1990 had an eight per cent share of the Japanese
             food market. They cleverly turn round the negative connotations
             of food additives by fortifying foods with enzymes to aid
             digestion, anti-cholesterol agents, added fibre, etc. and by
             marketing the foods as beneficial to health--much the same idea
             as the familiar breakfast cereals fortified with vitamins and
             iron, but taken a stage further.  Functional foods have yet to
             be tested on Western markets.

                 Unless food manufacturers outside Japan wake up to the
                 market potential of functional foods, a new Japanese
                 invasion of protein-enhanced Yorkshire pudding,
                 high-fibre spotted dick and vitamin-boosted
                 toad-in-the-hole is likely...Mr Potter, a food scientist
                 and technologist, explained:  'FF ingredients are
                 products known to have positive health benefits like
                 lowering cholesterol levels, lowering blood sugar,
                 preventing calcium loss from the bone, lowering
                 incidences of heart disease.'

                 Independent 28 Apr. 1990, p. 3

   fundie    noun Also written fundy or (in discussions of German Green Party
             politics) Fundi (Environment) (Politics)

             In colloquial use: a fundamentalist; especially either a
             religious fundamentalist or a member of a radical branch of the
             green movement, a 'deep' green.

             Etymology:  Formed by adding the suffix -ie to the first four
             letters of fundamentalist; the spelling Fundi reflects borrowing
             from the German slang name of the radical wing of the German
             Green Party.

             History and Usage:  A nickname which belongs to the political
             debates of the early eighties, when the Moral Majority and other
             fundamentalist Christian groups in the US and the Greens in
             Germany became a political force to be reckoned with. In the
             green sense, fundie has its origins in the arguments from 1985
             onwards between the German Greens' realo wing, who were prepared
             to take a normal co-operative approach to parliamentary life,
             and the more radical fundamentalists, who did not wish to
             co-operate with other parties and favoured extreme measures to
             solve environmental problems.

                 The Fundies are not a serious political force and their
                 current hero is not a serious political candidate.

                 New York Times 7 Mar. 1988, section A, p. 19

                 The fundies are the purists who believe the only way to
                 save the Earth is to dismantle industry.

                 Daily Telegraph 20 Sept. 1989, p. 15

   funk      noun (Music) (Youth Culture)

             In recent use in popular music, a style that draws upon Black
             cultural roots and includes bluesy or soulful elements,
             especially syncopated rhythms and chord progressions including
             sevenths and ninths; often as the second word in combinations
             (see below).

             Etymology:  In US English the word funk originally meant 'a bad
             smell' but a new sense was back-formed from the slang adjective
             funky in the fifties to refer to the fashion then for
             down-to-earth bluesy music; funky also meant 'swinging' or
             'fashionable'. (There is no connection with the British English
             word funk meaning 'a state of fear'.) In the latest development
             of its meaning, Funk has been extended outside the styles
             traditionally thought of as funky, tending to become a catch-all
             tag for whatever is fashionable in a particular area of popular
             music.

             History and Usage:  As mentioned above, funk has existed since
             the fifties, but has acquired a broader meaning recently. The
             first crossovers between funk and other styles came in the
             seventies with disco-funk, a funky (that is, fast and rootsy)
             style of disco music. This was followed in the eighties by
             electrofunk (see electro), jazz-funk (which, it has more than
             once been claimed, is neither jazz nor funk), p-funk (a style
             developed by George Clinton of Parliament/Funkadelic),
             slack-funk, slow-funk, and techno-funk (see techno), to name
             only a few of the styles which claimed to include funk elements.
             A leading and influential practitioner of funk proper is James
             Brown. Often the funk tag signifies no more than an attempt to
             incorporate Black musical traditions and jagged rhythms, funky
             chord progressions, or soulful lyrics into the White music
             style:  funk has been widely played by White musicians since the
             mid seventies.  Derivatives formed on funk have also been common
             in the eighties:  funker and funkster extended their meaning to
             cover the broader sense of funk, and there were other, one-off
             formations along the lines of funkadelic (originally a proper
             name but also adopted as a common noun or adjective), funkateer,
             funkathon, and funketize.

                 We scored No 1 disco albums with legendary jazz-funk duo
                 Morrissey Mullen.

                 Music Week 2 Feb. 1985, Advertisement pullout, p. i

                 If old bubblegum music is on I sing at the top of my
                 lungs, and if new funkadelic is on I bop in my seat.

                 New York Times 14 May 1986, section C, p. 1

                 If you've never fancied this kind of frantic funk try
                 this for size. Blackman's wild and witty lyrical style
                 combines macho street level cliche with sharp social
                 awareness.

                 Hi-Fi Answers Dec. 1986, p. 78

                 These 10 songs demonstrate that all it takes is a good
                 kick in the pants, a bottleneck slide guitar, and a feel
                 for Muscle Shoals slow-funk to make a boy want to whoop
                 and holler all night long.

                 Dirty Linen Spring 1989, p. 56

                 The second track on the album, 'Have a Talk with God' is
                 a simple message to people with problems...backed with a
                 slack-funk beat.

                 Shades No. 1 1990, p. 19

   fun run   noun (Health and Fitness) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             An organized long-distance run in which amateur athletes take
             part for fun or to raise money for charity rather than
             competitively.

             Etymology:  A transparent compound of fun and run, exploiting
             the rhyme.

             History and Usage:  The first fun runs took place in the US in
             the mid seventies as a way of bringing together people who had
             taken up jogging or long-distance running recreationally. The
             idea was introduced into the UK in the late seventies, and by
             the mid eighties the fun run was an established part of many
             Western countries' culture, with large races such as the annual
             London Marathon attracting thousands of participants. Often the
             fun runners, who are only competing for the enjoyment of running
             or so as to raise money for charity from sponsors, run alongside
             serious international athletes in the same race.

                 Thousands of fun runners and disabled competitors
                 pounded the same rain-soaked course as the stars.

                 New York Times 21 Apr. 1986, section C, p. 6

                 A fun run over 8km was held at the Phobians Athletics
                 Club.

                 South African Panorama Jan. 1988, p. 50

                 Before the main race, limited to 150 runners, there will
                 also be a charity one-mile Family Fun Run.

                 Northern Runner Apr./May 1988, p. 6

   futon     noun (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             A low-slung Japanese-style bed or mattress.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from Japanese, in which it
             traditionally refers to a bed-quilt or thin cotton mattress
             which is laid on a mat on the floor overnight, and may be rolled
             up and put away during the day.

             History and Usage:  The word has been used in descriptions of
             Japanese culture since the end of the last century, but the
             present Western application dates from the early 1980s. The
             futon as marketed in the West may include a slatted wooden base
             which stands only a few inches from the floor, is often capable
             of conversion into a sofa for day-time use, and usually includes
             a stuffed cotton mattress similar to the Japanese version.

                 They fall onto the stripped-pine futon.

                 Artseen Dec. 1986, p. 19

                 Slatted bases are often used in traditional bedstead
                 designs and low line beds such as futons.

                 Daily Mail DIY Home Interiors 1988, p. 112

   fuzzword  noun

             A deliberately confusing, euphemistic, or imprecise piece of
             jargon, used more to impress than to inform.

             Etymology:  Formed by compounding and abbreviation: a word that
             is fuzzy in its twentieth-century sense 'imprecisely defined,
             confused, vague'. It is also a deliberate alteration of buzzword
             (a fashionable but often meaningless piece of jargon, a vogue
             word), which has been in use since the late sixties.

             History and Usage:   Fuzzword was coined by the Washington Post
             in 1983 and is still principally a US usage.

                 In the often emotional arms control debate, there may be
                 no more common fuzzword than 'verification'.

                 National Journal 14 Apr. 1984, p. 730

7.0 G



7.1 gag me with a spoon...


   gag me with a spoon
              (Youth Culture) see Valspeak

   Gaia      noun (Environment)

             The Earth viewed as a vast self-regulating organism, in which
             the whole range of living matter defines the conditions for its
             own survival, modifying the physical environment to suit its
             needs. Used especially in Gaia hypothesis or Gaia theory, the
             theory that this is how the global ecosystem functions.

             Etymology:  Named after Gaia, the Earth goddess in Greek
             mythology (the daughter of Chaos).

             History and Usage:  The term was coined by the British scientist
             James Lovelock, who first put forward the hypothesis at a
             scientific meeting about the origins of life on Earth in 1969;
             the suggestion that it should be named after the goddess Gaia
             had come from William Golding. Although not especially well
             received by the scientific community, the theory reached a wider
             audience in the eighties and early nineties and proved very
             attractive both to environmentalists and to the New Age
             movement, with its emphasis on holistic concepts and an Earth
             Mother.  Gaia is used as a proper name for the hypothetical
             organism itself, and also as a shorthand way of referring to the
             Gaia hypothesis.  Gaian (as an adjective and noun) and Gaiaist
             (as an adjective) have been derived from it.

                 'The Biosphere Catalogue' expresses a kind of
                 spirituality in science, a metaphysical belief in the
                 biosphere as an entity which has been dubbed 'Gaia', as
                 if to acknowledge its divine qualities.

                 Los Angeles Times 15 Dec. 1985, p. 12

                 Gaians (to use an abbreviation popular at the meeting)
                 argue that this state of affairs is indeed evidence of
                 the interconnectedness of life on Earth, and that it
                 would be foolish to expect to find a series of isolated
                 and independent mechanisms.

                 Nature 7 Apr. 1988, p. 483

                 Will tomorrow bring hordes of militant Gaiaist activists
                 enforcing some pseudoscientific idiocy on the community?

                 New Scientist 7 Apr. 1988, p. 60

                 It is at the core of the current debate over the 'Gaia
                 hypothesis', which holds that the planet is one huge
                 organism in which everything interacts to sustain and
                 maintain life on Earth.

                 Christian Science Monitor 30 Jan. 1990, p. 12

                 Understanding Gaia means understanding that the survival
                 of the plants, trees and wildlife which live on this
                 planet with us is crucial to our own survival.

                 Debbie Silver & Bernadette Vallely The Young Person's
                 Guide to Saving the Planet (1990), p. 52

   galleria  noun (Business World) (Lifestyle and Leisure)

             In marketing and planning jargon, a collection of small shops
             under a single roof, either in an arcade or as concessions in a
             large store.

             Etymology:  A direct borrowing from Italian galleria 'arcade'.

             History and Usage:  Architects in English-speaking countries
             were first inspired by the idea of the Italian galleria in the
             sixties and began to design shopping arcades on the same model,
             but it was not until the early eighties that the word galleria
             suddenly came into vogue as a fashionable way of saying
             'arcade'.  The vogue was continued by the application of the
             term to shops-within-a-shop as well.

                 Burton and Habitat intend to create a new format at
                 Debenhams with the 'Galleria concept'--an integrated
                 collection of highly-focused speciality stores under one
                 roof.

                 Yorkshire Post 23 May 1985, p. 4

                 The winning scheme...incorporated the inevitable
                 'galleria'.

                 The Times 17 Feb. 1990, p. 10

                 Johnson took over eleven floors in an unremarkable glass
                 tower at a suburban shopping center named The Galleria.

                 Bryan Burrough & John Helyar Barbarians at the Gate
                 (1990), p. 85

   gamete intra-fallopian transfer
              (Health and Fitness) (Science and Technology) see GIFT

   gaming     (Lifestyle and Leisure) see role-playing game

   garage    noun Also written Garage (Music) (Youth Culture)

             A variety of house music from New York which incorporates
             elements of soul music, especially in its vocals.

             Etymology:  Probably named after the Paradise Garage, the former
             nightclub in New York where this style of music was first
             played; there may also be some influence from the term garage
             band, which has been applied since the late sixties to groups
             (originally amateurs who practised in empty garages and other
             disused buildings) with a loud, energetic, and unpolished sound
             which is also sometimes known as garage or garage punk.

             History and Usage:  New York garage developed in the early
             eighties (principally at the Paradise Garage but later also at
             other New York clubs), but only came to be called garage--or by
             the fuller name garage house--in the second half of the decade.
             The founding influence on the style was the New York group The
             Peech Boys. In its later manifestations garage is very closely
             related to deep house (see house)--indeed some consider deep
             house to be simply the Chicago version of garage, incorporating
             the lyrical and vocal traditions of American soul into the fast,
             synthesized dance music which is typical of house.

                 The void left in trendier clubs following the
                 over-commercialisation and subsequent ridiculing of
                 'acieed!'...is being filled by 'garage' and 'deep
                 house'.

                 Music Week 10 Dec. 1988, p. 14

                 The records will be anything dance-orientated: 'Rap,
                 reggae, hip hop, house, jazz, garage or soul,' says
                 Anita Mackie...'What is garage?' I ask. She consults a
                 colleague and they decide on 'Soulful house'. I decline
                 to ask them what 'house' is.

                 The Times 25 July 1990, p. 17

   garbage in, garbage out
              (Science and Technology) see expert system

   gas-permeable
              (Health and Fitness) see lens

   -gate     combining form (Politics)

             Part of the name Watergate, widely used in compounds to form
             names for actual or alleged scandals (usually also involving an
             attempted cover-up), comparable in some way to the Watergate
             scandal of 1972.

             Etymology:  Formed by abbreviating Watergate, treating the -gate
             part as a word-forming element in its own right.

             History and Usage:  Before the Watergate scandal and the ensuing
             hearings were even fully over, journalists began to use -gate
             allusively to form names for other (major or minor) scanda