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English language - Dictionaries Y...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 Y...

   Y(1)      n.  (also y) (pl.  Ys or Y's) 1 the twenty-fifth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 (usu.  y) Algebra the second unknown quantity.  3
             Geom. the second coordinate.  4 a a Y-shaped thing, esp. an
             arrangement of lines, piping, roads, etc.  b a forked clamp or

   Y(2)      abbr.  (also Y.) 1 yen.  2 Yeomanry.  3 US = YMCA, YWCA.

   Y(3)      symb.  Chem.  the element yttrium.

   y.        abbr.  year(s).

   y-        prefix archaic forming past participles, collective nouns, etc.
             (yclept).  [OE ge- f. Gmc]

   -y(1)     suffix forming adjectives: 1 from nouns and adjectives, meaning:
             a full of; having the quality of (messy; icy; horsy).  b
             addicted to (boozy).  2 from verbs, meaning 'inclined to', 'apt
             to' (runny; sticky).  [from or after OE - ig f. Gmc]

   -y(2)     suffix (also -ey, -ie) forming diminutive nouns, pet names, etc.
             (granny; Sally; nightie; Mickey).  [ME (orig. Sc.)]

   -y(3)     suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 state, condition, or quality
             (courtesy; orthodoxy; modesty).  2 an action or its result
             (colloquy; remedy; subsidy).  [from or after F -ie f. L -ia,
             -ium, Gk -eia, -ia: cf.  -ACY, -ERY, -GRAPHY, and others]

2.0 yabby...

   yabby     n.  (also yabbie) (pl.  -ies) Austral.  1 a small freshwater
             crayfish, esp. of the genus Cherax.  2 a marine prawn,
             Callianassa australiensis, often used as bait.  [Aboriginal]

   yacht     n. & v.  --n.  1 a light sailing-vessel, esp. equipped for
             racing.  2 a larger usu. power-driven vessel equipped for
             cruising.  3 a light vessel for travel on sand or ice.
             --v.intr. race or cruise in a yacht.  Ьyacht-club a club esp.
             for yacht-racing.  ЬЬyachting n.  [early mod.Du.  jaghte =
             jaghtschip fast pirate-ship f.  jag(h)t chase f.  jagen to hunt
             + schip SHIP]

   yachtsman n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  yachtswoman, pl.  -women) a person who
             sails yachts.

   yack      n. & v.  (also yackety-yack) sl.  derog.  --n. trivial or unduly
             persistent conversation.  --v.intr. engage in this.  [imit.]

   yacka     (also yacker) var. of YAKKA.

   yaffle    n.  dial.  a green woodpecker, Picus viridus.  [imit. of its
             laughing cry]

   yager     var. of JAEGER.

   yah       int.  expressing derision or defiance.  [imit.]

   yahoo     n.  a coarse bestial person.  [name of an imaginary race of
             brutish creatures in Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726)]

   Yahweh    n.  (also Yahveh) the Hebrew name of God in the Old Testament.
             [Heb.  YHVH with added vowels: see JEHOVAH]

   Yahwist   n.  (also Yahvist) the postulated author or authors of parts of
             the Hexateuch in which God is regularly named Yahweh.

   yak       n.  a long-haired humped Tibetan ox, Bos grunniens.  [Tibetan

   yakka     n.  (also yacka, yacker) Austral.  sl.  work.  [Aboriginal]

   Yale lock n.  propr.  a type of lock for doors etc. with a cylindrical
             barrel turned by a flat key with a serrated edge.  [L.  Yale,
             Amer. inventor d. 1868]

   yam       n.  1 a any tropical or subtropical climbing plant of the genus
             Dioscorea.  b the edible starchy tuber of this.  2 US a sweet
             potato.  [Port.  inhame or Sp.  i¤ame, of unkn. orig.]

   yammer    n. & v.  colloq. or dial.  --n.  1 a lament, wail, or grumble.
             2 voluble talk.  --v.intr.  1 utter a yammer.  2 talk volubly.
             ЬЬyammerer n.  [OE geomrian f.  geomor sorrowful]

   yandy     v. & n.  Austral.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) separate (grass seed)
             from refuse by special shaking.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a shallow
             dish used for this.  [Aboriginal]

   yang      n.  (in Chinese philosophy) the active male principle of the
             universe (cf.  YIN).  [Chin.]

   Yank      n.  colloq. often derog.  an inhabitant of the US; an American.

   yank      v. & n.  colloq.  --v.tr. pull with a jerk.  --n. a sudden hard
             pull.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Yankee    n.  colloq.  1 often derog. = YANK.  2 US an inhabitant of New
             England or one of the northern States.  3 hist. a Federal
             soldier in the Civil War.  4 a type of bet on four or more
             horses to win (or be placed) in different races.  5 (attrib.) of
             or as of the Yankees.  ЬYankee Doodle 1 an American tune and
             song regarded as a national air.  2 = YANKEE.  [18th c.: orig.
             uncert.: perh. f. Du.  Janke dimin. of Jan John attested (17th
             c.) as a nickname]

   yap       v. & n.  --v.intr.  (yapped, yapping) 1 bark shrilly or fussily.
             2 colloq. talk noisily, foolishly, or complainingly.  --n. a
             sound of yapping.  ЬЬyapper n.  [imit.]

   yapok     n.  = POSSUM 2.  [Oyapok, Oiapoque, N. Brazilian river]

   yapp      n.  Brit.  a form of bookbinding with a limp leather cover
             projecting to fold over the edges of the leaves.  [name of a
             London bookseller c.1860, for whom it was first made]

             n.  a whist or bridge hand with no card above a 9.  [Earl of
             Yarborough (d. 1897), said to have betted against its

   yard(1)   n.  1 a unit of linear measure equal to 3 feet (0.9144 metre).
             2 this length of material (a yard and a half of cloth).  3 a
             square or cubic yard esp. (in building) of sand etc.  4 a
             cylindrical spar tapering to each end slung across a mast for a
             sail to hang from.  5 (in pl.; foll. by of) colloq. a great
             length (yards of spare wallpaper).  Ьby the yard at great
             length.  yard-arm the outer extremity of a ship's yard.  yard of
             ale Brit.  1 a deep slender beer glass, about a yard long and
             holding two to three pints.  2 the contents of this.  [OE gerd
             f. WG]

   yard(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of enclosed ground esp. attached to a
             building or used for a particular purpose.  2 US the garden of a
             house.  --v.tr. put (cattle) into a stockyard.  Ьthe Yard Brit.
             colloq. = SCOTLAND YARD.  yard-man 1 a person working in a
             railway-yard or timber-yard.  2 US a gardener or a person who
             does various outdoor jobs.  yard-master the manager of a
             railway-yard.  [OE geard enclosure, region, f. Gmc: cf.  GARDEN]

   yardage   n.  1 a number of yards of material etc.  2 a the use of a
             stockyard etc.  b payment for this.

   yardbird  n.  US sl.  1 a new military recruit.  2 a convict.

   yardstick n.  1 a standard used for comparison.  2 a measuring rod a yard
             long, usu. divided into inches etc.

   yarmulke  n.  (also yarmulka) a skullcap worn by Jewish men.  [Yiddish]

   yarn      n. & v.  --n.  1 any spun thread, esp. for knitting, weaving,
             rope-making, etc.  2 colloq. a long or rambling story or
             discourse.  --v.intr.  colloq. tell yarns.  [OE gearn]

   yarran    n.  any of several Australian acacias, esp.  Acacia
             homalophylla, a small tree with scented wood used for fencing,
             fuel, etc.  [Aboriginal]

   yarrow    n.  any perennial herb of the genus Achillea, esp. milfoil.  [OE
             gearwe, of unkn. orig.]

   yashmak   n.  a veil concealing the face except the eyes, worn by some
             Muslim women when in public.  [Arab.  yasmak, Turk.  yasmak]

   yataghan  n.  a sword without a guard and often with a double-curved
             blade, used in Muslim countries.  [Turk.  yatagan]

   yaw       v. & n.  --v.intr. (of a ship or aircraft etc.) fail to hold a
             straight course; fall off; go unsteadily (esp. turning from side
             to side).  --n. the yawing of a ship etc. from its course.
             [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   yawl      n.  1 a two-masted fore-and-aft sailing-boat with the mizen-mast
             stepped far aft.  2 a small kind of fishing-boat.  3 hist. a
             ship's jolly boat with four or six oars.  [MLG jolle or Du.
             jol, of unkn. orig.: cf.  JOLLY(2)]

   yawn      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (as a reflex) open the mouth wide and
             inhale esp. when sleepy or bored.  2 intr. (of a chasm etc.)
             gape, be wide open.  3 tr. utter or say with a yawn.  --n.  1 an
             act of yawning.  2 colloq. a boring or tedious idea, activity,
             etc.  ЬЬyawner n.  yawningly adv.  [OE ginian, geonian]

   yawp      n. & v.  US --n.  1 a harsh or hoarse cry.  2 foolish talk.
             --v.intr. utter these.  ЬЬyawper n.  [ME (imit.)]

   yaws      n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) a contagious tropical
             skin-disease with large red swellings.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

3.0 Yb

   Yb        symb.  Chem.  the element ytterbium.

4.0 Y-chromosome...

             n.  a sex chromosome occurring only in male cells.  [Y as an
             arbitrary label + CHROMOSOME]

   yclept    adj.  archaic or joc.  called (by the name of).  [OE gecleopod
             past part. of cleopian call f. Gmc]

5.0 yd....

   yd.       abbr.  yard (measure).

   yds.      abbr.  yards (measure).

6.0 ye...

   ye(1)     pron.  archaic pl. of THOU(1).  Ьye gods!  joc.  an exclamation
             of astonishment.  [OE ge f. Gmc]

   ye(2)     adj.  pseudo-archaic = THE (ye olde tea-shoppe).  [var. spelling
             f. the y-shaped letter THORN (representing th) in the 14th c.]

   yea       adv. & n.  archaic --adv.  1 yes.  2 indeed, nay (ready, yea
             eager).  --n. the word 'yea'.  Ьyea and nay shilly-shally.  yeas
             and nays affirmative and negative votes.  [OE gea, ge f. Gmc]

   yeah      adv.  colloq.  yes.  Ьoh yeah?  expressing incredulity.  [casual
             pronunc. of YES]

   yean      v.tr. & intr.  archaic bring forth (a lamb or kid).  [perh. f.
             OE geeanian (unrecorded, as Y-, eanian to lamb)]

   yeanling  n.  archaic a young lamb or kid.

   year      n.  1 (also astronomical year, equinoctial year, natural year,
             solar year, tropical year) the time occupied by the earth in one
             revolution round the sun, 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 46
             seconds in length (cf.  sidereal year).  2 (also calendar year,
             civil year) the period of 365 days (common year) or 366 days
             (see leap year) from 1 Jan. to 31 Dec., used for reckoning time
             in ordinary affairs.  3 a a period of the same length as this
             starting at any point (four years ago).  b such a period in
             terms of a particular activity etc. occupying its duration
             (school year; tax year).  4 (in pl.) age or time of life (young
             for his years).  5 (usu. in pl.) colloq. a very long time (it
             took years to get served).  6 a group of students entering
             college etc. in the same academic year.  Ьin the year of Our
             Lord (foll. by the year) in a specified year AD.  of the year
             chosen as outstanding in a particular year (sportsman of the
             year).  a year and a day the period specified in some legal
             matters to ensure the completion of a full year.  the year dot
             see DOT(1).  year in, year out continually over a period of
             years.  year-long lasting a year or the whole year.  year of
             grace the year AD.  year-round existing etc. throughout the
             year.  [OE ge(a)r f. Gmc]

   yearbook  n.  an annual publication dealing with events or aspects of the
             (usu.  preceding) year.

   yearling  n. & adj.  --n.  1 an animal between one and two years old.  2 a
             racehorse in the calendar year after the year of foaling.
             --adj.  1 a year old; having existed or been such for a year (a
             yearling heifer).  2 intended to terminate after one year
             (yearling bonds).

   yearly    adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 done, produced, or occurring once a year.
             2 of or lasting a year.  --adv. once a year; from year to year.
             [OE gearlic, -lice (as YEAR)]

   yearn     v.intr.  1 (usu. foll. by for, after, or to + infin.) have a
             strong emotional longing.  2 (usu. foll. by to, towards) be
             filled with compassion or tenderness.  ЬЬyearner n.  yearning n.
             & adj.  yearningly adv.  [OE giernan f. a Gmc root meaning

   yeast     n.  1 a greyish-yellow fungous substance obtained esp. from
             fermenting malt liquors and used as a fermenting agent, to raise
             bread, etc.  2 any of various unicellular fungi in which
             vegetative reproduction takes place by budding or fission.
             ЬЬyeastless adj.  yeastlike adj.  [OE gist, giest (unrecorded):
             cf. MDu.  ghist, MHG jist, ON j”str]

   yeasty    adj.  (yeastier, yeastiest) 1 frothy or tasting like yeast.  2
             in a ferment.  3 working like yeast.  4 (of talk etc.) light and
             superficial.  ЬЬyeastily adv.  yeastiness n.

   yegg      n.  US sl.  a travelling burglar or safe-breaker.  [20th c.:
             perh. a surname]

   yell      n. & v.  --n.  1 a loud sharp cry of pain, anger, fright,
             encouragement, delight, etc.  2 a shout.  3 US an organized cry,
             used esp. to support a sports team.  4 sl. an amusing person or
             thing.  --v.intr. & tr. make or utter with a yell.  [OE
             g(i)ellan f. Gmc]

   yellow    adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 of the colour between green and orange
             in the spectrum, of buttercups, lemons, egg-yolks, or gold.  2
             of the colour of faded leaves, ripe wheat, etc.  3 having a
             yellow skin or complexion.  4 colloq. cowardly.  5 (of looks,
             feelings, etc.) jealous, envious, or suspicious.  6 (of
             newspapers etc.) unscrupulously sensational.  --n.  1 a yellow
             colour or pigment.  2 yellow clothes or material (dressed in
             yellow).  3 a a yellow ball, piece, etc., in a game or sport.  b
             the player using such pieces.  4 (usu. in comb.) a yellow moth
             or butterfly.  5 (in pl.) jaundice of horses etc.  6 US a
             peach-disease with yellowed leaves.  --v.tr. & intr. make or
             become yellow.  Ьyellow arsenic = ORPIMENT.  yellow-belly 1
             colloq. a coward.  2 any of various fish with yellow underparts.
             yellow card Football a card shown by the referee to a player
             being cautioned.  yellow fever a tropical virus disease with
             fever and jaundice.  yellow flag 1 a flag displayed by a ship in
             quarantine.  2 an iridaceous plant, Iris pseudacorus, with
             slender sword-shaped leaves and yellow flowers.  yellow jack 1 =
             yellow fever.  2 = yellow flag.  yellow line (in the UK) a line
             painted along the side of the road in yellow either singly or in
             pairs to denote parking restrictions.  yellow metal brass of 60
             parts copper and 40 parts zinc.  Yellow Pages propr.  a section
             of a telephone directory on yellow paper and listing business
             subscribers according to the goods or services they offer.  the
             yellow peril the political or military threat regarded as
             emanating from Asian peoples, esp. the Chinese.  yellow rattle a
             yellow-flowered plant of the genus Rhinanthus.  yellow rocket
             see ROCKET(2).  yellow spot the point of acutest vision in the
             retina.  yellow streak colloq.  a trait of cowardice.
             ЬЬyellowish adj.  yellowly adv.  yellowness n.  yellowy adj.
             [OE geolu, geolo f. WG, rel. to GOLD]

             n.  a cheap novel etc. in a yellow cover.

             n.  a bunting, Emberiza citrinella, of which the male has a
             yellow head, neck, and breast.  [16th c.: orig. of hammer

   yelp      n. & v.  --n. a sharp shrill cry of or as of a dog in pain or
             excitement.  --v.intr. utter a yelp.  ЬЬyelper n.  [OE gielp(an)
             boast (imit.): cf.  YAWP]

   yen(1)    n.  (pl. same) the chief monetary unit of Japan.  [Jap. f. Chin.
             yuan round, dollar]

   yen(2)    n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a longing or yearning.  --v.intr.
             (yenned, yenning) feel a longing.  [Chin. dial.]

   yeoman    n.  (pl.  -men) 1 esp.  hist. a man holding and cultivating a
             small landed estate.  2 hist. a person qualified by possessing
             free land of an annual value of 40 shillings to serve on juries,
             vote for the knight of the shire, etc.  3 Brit. a member of the
             yeomanry force.  4 hist. a servant in a royal or noble
             household.  5 (in full yeoman of signals) a petty officer in the
             Navy, concerned with visual signalling.  6 US a petty officer
             performing clerical duties on board ship.  ЬYeoman of the Guard
             1 a member of the British sovereign's bodyguard.  2 (in general
             use) a warder in the Tower of London.  yeoman (or yeoman's)
             service efficient or useful help in need.  Yeoman Usher Brit.
             the deputy of Black Rod.  ЬЬyeomanly adj.  [ME yoman, yeman,
             etc., prob. f.  YOUNG + MAN]

   yeomanry  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a body of yeomen.  2 Brit.  hist. a volunteer
             cavalry force raised from the yeoman class (1794-1908).

   yep       adv. & n.  (also yup) US colloq.  = YES.  [corrupt.]

   -yer      suffix var. of -IER esp. after w (bowyer; lawyer).

   yerba mat‚
             n.  = MATђ.  [Sp., = herb mat‚]

   yes       adv. & n.  --adv.  1 equivalent to an affirmative sentence: the
             answer to your question is affirmative, it is as you say or as I
             have said, the statement etc. made is correct, the request or
             command will be complied with, the negative statement etc. made
             is not correct.  2 (in answer to a summons or address) an
             acknowledgement of one's presence.  --n. an utterance of the
             word yes.  Ьsay yes grant a request or confirm a statement.
             yes?  1 indeed? is that so?  2 what do you want?  yes and a form
             for introducing a stronger phrase (he came home drunk -- yes,
             and was sick).  yes and no that is partly true and partly
             untrue.  yes-man (pl.  -men) colloq.  a weakly acquiescent
             person.  [OE gese, gise, prob. f.  gia sie may it be (gia is

   yester-   comb. form poet. or archaic of yesterday; that is the last past
             (yester-eve).  [OE geostran]

   yesterday adv. & n.  --adv.  1 on the day before today.  2 in the recent
             past.  --n.  1 the day before today.  2 the recent past.
             Ьyesterday morning (or afternoon etc.) in the morning (or
             afternoon etc.) of yesterday.  [OE giestran d‘g (as YESTER-,

             n.  literary 1 last year.  2 the recent past.

   yet       adv. & conj.  --adv.  1 as late as, or until, now or then (there
             is yet time; your best work yet).  2 (with neg. or interrog.) so
             soon as, or by, now or then (it is not time yet; have you
             finished yet?).  3 again; in addition (more and yet more).  4 in
             the remaining time available; before all is over (I will do it
             yet).  5 (foll. by compar.) even (a yet more difficult task).  6
             nevertheless; and in spite of that; but for all that (it is
             strange, and yet it is true).  --conj. but at the same time; but
             nevertheless (I won, yet what good has it done?).  Ьnor yet and
             also not (won't listen to me nor yet to you).  [OE giet(a), =
             OFris.  ieta, of unkn. orig.]

   yeti      n.  = Abominable Snowman.  [Tibetan]

   yew       n.  1 any dark-leaved evergreen coniferous tree of the genus
             Taxus, having seeds enclosed in a fleshy red aril, and often
             planted in churchyards.  2 its wood, used formerly as a material
             for bows and still in cabinet-making.  [OE iw, eow f. Gmc]

7.0 Y-fronts

   Y-fronts  n.  propr.  men's or boys' briefs with a Y-shaped seam at the

8.0 Yggdrasil

   Yggdrasil n.  (in Scandinavian mythology) an ash-tree whose roots and
             branches join heaven, earth, and hell.  [ON yg(g)drasill f.
             Yggr Odin + drasill horse]

9.0 YHA

   YHA       abbr.  (in the UK) Youth Hostels Association.

10.0 Yid...

   Yid       n.  sl.  offens.  a Jew.  [back-form. f.  YIDDISH]

   Yiddish   n. & adj.  --n. a vernacular used by Jews in or from central and
             eastern Europe, orig. a German dialect with words from Hebrew
             and several modern languages.  --adj. of or relating to this
             language.  [G jЃdisch Jewish]

   Yiddisher n. & adj.  --n. a person speaking Yiddish.  --adj.

   yield     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (also absol.) produce or return as a fruit,
             profit, or result (the land yields crops; the land yields
             poorly; the investment yields 15%).  2 tr. give up; surrender,
             concede; comply with a demand for (yielded the fortress; yielded
             themselves prisoners).  3 intr. (often foll. by to) a surrender;
             make submission.  b give consent or change one's course of
             action in deference to; respond as required to (yielded to
             persuasion).  4 intr. (foll. by to) be inferior or confess
             inferiority to (I yield to none in understanding the problem).
             5 intr. (foll. by to) give right of way to other traffic.  6
             intr.  US allow another the right to speak in a debate etc.
             --n. an amount yielded or produced; an output or return.  Ьyield
             point Physics the stress beyond which a material becomes
             plastic.  ЬЬyielder n.  [OE g(i)eldan pay f. Gmc]

   yielding  adj.  1 compliant, submissive.  2 (of a substance) able to bend;
             not stiff or rigid.  ЬЬyieldingly adv.  yieldingness n.

   yin       n.  (in Chinese philosophy) the passive female principle of the
             universe (cf.  YANG).  [Chin.]

   yip       v. & n.  US --v.intr.  (yipped, yipping) = YELP v.  --n. = YELP
             n.  [imit.]

   yippee    int.  expressing delight or excitement.  [natural excl.]

11.0 yl...

   -yl       suffix Chem.  forming nouns denoting a radical (ethyl; hydroxyl;

             n.  (also ilang-ilang) 1 a Malayan tree, Cananga odorata, from
             the fragrant yellow flowers of which a perfume is distilled.  2
             the perfume itself.  [Tagalog  lang-ilang]

12.0 YMCA

   YMCA      abbr.  Young Men's Christian Association.

13.0 yne

   -yne      suffix Chem.  forming names of unsaturated compounds containing
             a triple bond (ethyne = acetylene).

14.0 yob...

   yob       n.  Brit.  sl.  a lout or hooligan.  ЬЬyobbish adj.  yobbishly
             adv.  yobbishness n.  [back sl. for BOY]

   yobbo     n.  (pl.  -os) Brit.  sl.  = YOB.

   yod       n.  1 the tenth and smallest letter of the Hebrew alphabet.  2
             its semivowel sound.  [Heb.  yod f.  yad hand]

   yodel     v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  (yodelled, yodelling; US yodeled,
             yodeling) sing with melodious inarticulate sounds and frequent
             changes between falsetto and the normal voice in the manner of
             the Swiss mountain-dwellers.  --n. a yodelling cry.  ЬЬyodeller
             n.  [G jodeln]

   yoga      n.  1 a Hindu system of philosophic meditation and asceticism
             designed to effect reunion with the universal spirit.  2 = HATHA
             YOGA.  ЬЬyogic adj.  [Hind. f. Skr., = union]

   yogh      n.  a Middle English letter used for certain values of g and y.

   yoghurt   n.  (also yogurt) a semi-solid sourish food prepared from milk
             fermented by added bacteria.  [Turk.  yogurt]

   yogi      n.  a person proficient in yoga.  ЬЬyogism n.  [Hind. f.  YOGA]

             int. & n.  = heave-ho.

   yo-ho     int.  (also yo-ho-ho) 1 used to attract attention.  2 =
             YO-HEAVE-HO.  [cf.  YO-HEAVE-HO & HO]

   yoicks    int.  (also hoicks) a cry used by fox-hunters to urge on the
             hounds.  [orig. unkn.: cf.  hyke call to hounds, HEY(1)]

   yoke      n. & v.  --n.  1 a wooden crosspiece fastened over the necks of
             two oxen etc. and attached to the plough or wagon to be drawn.
             2 (pl. same or yokes) a pair (of oxen etc.).  3 an object like a
             yoke in form or function, e.g. a wooden shoulder-piece for
             carrying a pair of pails, the top section of a dress or skirt
             etc. from which the rest hangs.  4 sway, dominion, or servitude,
             esp. when oppressive.  5 a bond or union, esp. that of marriage.
             6 Rom.Hist. an uplifted yoke, or an arch of three spears
             symbolizing it, under which a defeated army was made to march.
             7 archaic the amount of land that one yoke of oxen could plough
             in a day.  8 a crossbar on which a bell swings.  9 the crossbar
             of a rudder to whose ends ropes are fastened.  10 a bar of soft
             iron between the poles of an electromagnet.  --v.  1 tr. put a
             yoke on.  2 tr. couple or unite (a pair).  3 tr. (foll. by to)
             link (one thing) to (another).  4 intr. match or work together.
             [OE geoc f. Gmc]

   yokel     n.  a rustic; a country bumpkin.  [perh. f. dial.  yokel green

   yolk(1)   n.  1 the yellow internal part of an egg that nourishes the
             young before it hatches.  2 Biol. the corresponding part of any
             animal ovum.  Ьyolk-bag (or -sac) a membrane enclosing the yolk
             of an egg.  ЬЬyolked adj. (also in comb.).  yolkless adj.  yolky
             adj.  [OE geol(o)ca f.  geolu YELLOW]

   yolk(2)   n.  = SUINT.  [OE eowoca (unrecorded)]

   Yom Kippur
             n.  = Day of Atonement (see ATONEMENT).  [Heb.]

   yomp      v.intr.  Brit.  sl.  march with heavy equipment over difficult
             terrain.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   yon       adj., adv., & pron.  literary & dial.  --adj. & adv. yonder.
             --pron. yonder person or thing.  [OE geon]

   yonder    adv. & adj.  --adv. over there; at some distance in that
             direction; in the place indicated by pointing etc.  --adj.
             situated yonder.  [ME: cf. OS gendra, Goth.  jaindre]

   yoni      n.  a symbol of the female genitals venerated by Hindus etc.
             [Skr., = source, womb, female genitals]

   yonks     n.pl.  sl.  a long time (haven't seen them for yonks).  [20th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   yoo-hoo   int.  used to attract a person's attention.  [natural excl.]

   yore      n.  literary Ьof yore formerly; in or of old days.  [OE geara,
             geare, etc., adv. forms of uncert. orig.]

   york      v.tr.  Cricket bowl with a yorker.  [back-form. f.  YORKER]

   yorker    n.  Cricket a ball bowled so that it pitches immediately under
             the bat.  [prob. f.  York, as having been introduced by
             Yorkshire players]

   Yorkist   n. & adj.  --n.  hist. a follower of the House of York or of the
             White Rose party supporting it in the Wars of the Roses (cf.
             LANCASTRIAN).  --adj. of or concerning the House of York.

   Yorks.    abbr.  Yorkshire.

   Yorkshire fog
             n.  a fodder-grass, Holcus lanatus.

             n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  Yorkshirewoman, pl.  -women) a native of
             Yorkshire in N. England.

   Yorkshire pudding
             n.  a baked batter pudding usu. eaten with roast beef.
             [Yorkshire in N. England]

   Yorkshire terrier
             n.  a small long-haired blue-grey and tan kind of terrier.

   Yoruba    n.  1 a member of a Black African people inhabiting the west
             coast, esp. Nigeria.  2 the language of this people.  [native

   you       pron.  (obj.  you; poss.  your, yours) 1 used with reference to
             the person or persons addressed or one such person and one or
             more associated persons.  2 (as int. with a noun) in an
             exclamatory statement (you fools!).  3 (in general statements)
             one, a person, anyone, or everyone (it's bad at first, but you
             get used to it).  Ьyou-all US colloq.  you (usu. more than one
             person).  you and yours you together with your family, property,
             etc.  you-know-what (or -who) something or someone unspecified
             but understood.  [OE eow accus. & dative of ge YE(1) f. WG:
             supplanting ye because of the more frequent use of the obj.
             case, and thou and thee as the more courteous form]

   you'd     contr.  1 you had.  2 you would.

   you'll    contr.  you will; you shall.

   young     adj. & n.  --adj.  (younger; youngest) 1 not far advanced in
             life, development, or existence; not yet old.  2 immature or
             inexperienced.  3 felt in or characteristic of youth (young
             love; young ambition).  4 representing young people (Young
             Conservatives; Young England).  5 distinguishing a son from his
             father (young Jones).  6 (younger) a distinguishing one person
             from another of the same name (the younger Pitt).  b Sc. the
             heir of a landed commoner.  --n. (collect.) offspring, esp. of
             animals before or soon after birth.  Ьwith young (of an animal)
             pregnant.  young blood see BLOOD.  younger hand Cards the second
             player of two.  young fustic see FUSTIC.  young hopeful see
             HOPEFUL.  young idea the child's mind.  young lady colloq.  a
             girlfriend or sweetheart.  young man a boyfriend or sweetheart.
             young person Law (in the UK) a person generally between 14 and
             17 years of age.  Young Pretender Charles Stuart (1720-80),
             grandson of James II and claimant to the British throne.  young
             thing archaic or colloq.  an indulgent term for a young person.
             Young Turk 1 a member of a revolutionary party in Turkey in
             1908.  2 a young person eager for radical change to the
             established order.  young turk offens.  a violent child or
             youth.  young 'un colloq.  a youngster.  young woman colloq.  a
             girlfriend or sweetheart.  ЬЬyoungish adj.  youngling n.  [OE
             g(e)ong f. Gmc]

   youngster n.  a child or young person.

   younker   n.  archaic = YOUNGSTER.  [MDu.  jonckher f.  jonc YOUNG + here
             lord: cf.  JUNKER]

   your      poss.pron.  (attrib.) 1 of or belonging to you or yourself or
             yourselves (your house; your own business).  2 colloq. usu.
             derog. much talked of; well known (none so fallible as your
             self-styled expert).  [OE eower genit. of ge YE(1)]

   you're    contr.  you are.

   yours     poss.pron.  1 the one or ones belonging to or associated with
             you (it is yours; yours are over there).  2 your letter (yours
             of the 10th).  3 introducing a formula ending a letter (yours
             ever; yours truly).  Ьof yours of or belonging to you (a friend
             of yours).

   yourself  pron.  (pl.  yourselves) 1 a emphat. form of YOU.  b refl. form
             of YOU.  2 in your normal state of body or mind (are quite
             yourself again).  Ьbe yourself act in your normal, unconstrained
             manner.  how's yourself?  sl.  how are you? (esp. after
             answering a similar enquiry).

   youth     n.  (pl.  youths) 1 the state of being young; the period between
             childhood and adult age.  2 the vigour or enthusiasm,
             inexperience, or other characteristic of this period.  3 an
             early stage of development etc.  4 a young person (esp. male).
             5 (pl.) young people collectively (the youth of the country).
             Ьyouth club (or centre) a place or organization provided for
             young people's leisure activities.  youth hostel a place where
             (esp. young) holiday-makers can put up cheaply for the night.
             youth hosteller a user of a youth hostel.  [OE geoguth f. Gmc,
             rel. to YOUNG]

   youthful  adj.  1 young, esp. in appearance or manner.  2 having the
             characteristics of youth (youthful impatience).  3 having the
             freshness or vigour of youth (a youthful complexion).
             ЬЬyouthfully adv.  youthfulness n.

   you've    contr.  you have.

   yowl      n. & v.  --n. a loud wailing cry of or as of a cat or dog in
             pain or distress.  --v.intr. utter a yowl.  [imit.]

   yo-yo     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  yo-yos) 1 a toy consisting of a pair of
             discs with a deep groove between them in which string is
             attached and wound, and which can be spun alternately downward
             and upward by its weight and momentum as the string unwinds and
             rewinds.  2 a thing that repeatedly falls and rises again.
             --v.intr.  (yo-yoes, yo-yoed) 1 play with a yo-yo.  2 move up
             and down; fluctuate.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

15.0 yr....

   yr.       abbr.  1 year(s).  2 younger.  3 your.

   yrs.      abbr.  1 years.  2 yours.

16.0 ytterbium...

   ytterbium n.  Chem.  a silvery metallic element of the lanthanide series
             occurring naturally as various isotopes.  °Symb.: Yb.  [mod.L f.
             Ytterby in Sweden]

   yttrium   n.  Chem.  a greyish metallic element resembling the
             lanthanides, occurring naturally in uranium ores and used in
             making superconductors.  °Symb.: Y.  [formed as YTTERBIUM]

17.0 yuan...

   yuan      n.  (pl. same) the chief monetary unit of China.  [Chin.: see

   yucca     n.  any American white-flowered liliaceous plant of the genus
             Yucca, with swordlike leaves.  [Carib]

   yuck      int. & n.  (also yuk) sl.  --int. an expression of strong
             distaste or disgust.  --n. something messy or repellent.

   yucky     adj.  (also yukky) (-ier, -iest) sl.  1 messy, repellent.  2
             sickly, sentimental.

   Yugoslav  n. & adj.  (also Jugoslav) --n.  1 a native or national of
             Yugoslavia.  2 a person of Yugoslav descent.  --adj. of or
             relating to Yugoslavia or its people.  ЬЬYugoslavian adj. & n.
             [Austrian G Jugoslav f. Serb.  jugo- f.  jug south + SLAV]

   yuk       var. of YUCK.

   yukky     var. of YUCKY.

   yule      n. (in full yule-tide) archaic the Christmas festival.
             Ьyule-log 1 a large log burnt in the hearth on Christmas Eve.  2
             a log-shaped chocolate cake eaten at Christmas.  [OE geol(a):
             cf. ON jўl]

   yummy     adj.  (yummier, yummiest) colloq.  tasty, delicious.  [YUM-YUM +

   yum-yum   int.  expressing pleasure from eating or the prospect of eating.
             [natural excl.]

   yup       var. of YEP.

   yuppy     n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq., usu.  derog.  a young middle-class
             professional person working in a city.  [young urban

18.0 YWCA

   YWCA      abbr.  Young Women's Christian Association.


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