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English language - Dictionaries X...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 X...

   X(1)      n.  (also x) (pl.  Xs or X's) 1 the twenty-fourth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 (as a Roman numeral) ten.  3 (usu.  x) Algebra the
             first unknown quantity.  4 Geom. the first coordinate.  5 an
             unknown or unspecified number or person etc.  6 a cross-shaped
             symbol esp. used to indicate position (X marks the spot) or
             incorrectness or to symbolize a kiss or a vote, or as the
             signature of a person who cannot write.

   X(2)      symb.  (of films) classified as suitable for adults only.
             °Formerly used in the UK to indicate that persons under 18 would
             not be admitted; it was replaced in 1983 by 18, but is still
             used in the US.

   -x        suffix forming the plural of many nouns in -u taken from French
             (beaux; tableaux).  [F]

2.0 xanthate...

   xanthate  n.  any salt or ester of xanthic acid.

   xanthic   adj.  yellowish.  Ьxanthic acid any colourless unstable acid
             containing the -OCS[2]H group.  [Gk xanthos yellow]

   Xanthippe n.  (also Xantippe) a shrewish or ill-tempered woman or wife.
             [name of Socrates' wife]

   xanthoma  n.  (pl.  xanthomas or xanthomata) Med.  1 a skin disease
             characterized by irregular yellow patches.  2 such a patch.  [as
             XANTHIC + -OMA]

             n.  any of various oxygen-containing carotenoids associated with
             chlorophyll, some of which cause the yellow colour of leaves in
             the autumn.  [as XANTHIC + Gk phullon leaf]

3.0 X-chromosome

             n.  a sex chromosome of which the number in female cells is
             twice that in male cells.  [X as an arbitrary label +

4.0 x.d.

   x.d.      abbr.  ex dividend.

5.0 Xe...

   Xe        symb.  Chem.  the element xenon.

   xebec     n.  (also zebec, zebeck) a small three-masted Mediterranean
             vessel with lateen and usu.  some square sails.  [alt. (after
             Sp.  xabeque) of F chebec f. It.  sciabecco f. Arab.  sabak]

   xeno-     comb. form 1 a foreign.  b a foreigner.  2 other.  [Gk xenos
             strange, foreign, stranger]

   xenogamy  n.  Bot.  cross-fertilization.  ЬЬxenogamous adj.

   xenolith  n.  Geol.  an inclusion within an igneous rock mass, usu.
             derived from the immediately surrounding rock.

   xenon     n.  Chem.  a heavy colourless odourless inert gaseous element
             occurring in traces in the atmosphere and used in fluorescent
             lamps.  °Symb.: Xe.  [Gk, neut. of xenos strange]

   xenophobe n.  a person given to xenophobia.

             n.  a deep dislike of foreigners.  ЬЬxenophobic adj.

             n.  a composite plant of the genus Xeranthemum, with dry
             everlasting composite flowers.  [mod.L f. Gk xeros dry +
             anthemon flower]

   xeric     adj.  Ecol.  having or characterized by dry conditions.  [as
             XERO- + -IC]

   xero-     comb. form dry.  [Gk xeros dry]

   xeroderma n.  any of various diseases characterized by extreme dryness of
             the skin, esp. ichthyosis.  [mod.L (as XERO-, Gk derma skin)]

   xerograph n.  a copy produced by xerography.

             n.  a dry copying process in which black or coloured powder
             adheres to parts of a surface remaining electrically charged
             after exposure of the surface to light from an image of the
             document to be copied.  ЬЬxerographic adj.  xerographically adv.

             adj.  (of a plant) adapted to extremely dry conditions.

   xerophyte n.  (also xerophile) a plant able to grow in very dry
             conditions, e.g. in a desert.

   Xerox     n. & v.  --n.  propr.  1 a machine for copying by xerography.  2
             a copy made using this machine.  --v.tr. (xerox) reproduce by
             this process.  [invented f.  XEROGRAPHY]

6.0 Xhosa

   Xhosa     n. & adj.  --n.  1 (pl. same or Xhosas) a member of a Bantu
             people of Cape Province, South Africa.  2 the Bantu language of
             this people, similar to Zulu.  --adj. of or relating to this
             people or language.  [native name]

7.0 xi...

   xi        n.  the fourteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.  [Gk]

   -xion     suffix forming nouns (see -ION) from Latin participial stems in
             -x- (fluxion).

             n.  Anat. = xiphoid process.  [as XIPHOID + STERNUM]

   xiphoid   adj.  Biol.  sword-shaped.  Ьxiphoid process the cartilaginous
             process at the lower end of the sternum.  [Gk xiphoeides f.
             xiphos sword]

8.0 Xmas

   Xmas      n.  colloq.  = CHRISTMAS.  [abbr., with X for the initial chi of
             Gk Khristos Christ]

9.0 xoanon

   xoanon    n.  (pl.  xoana) Gk Antiq.  a primitive usu. wooden image of a
             deity supposed to have fallen from heaven.  [Gk f.  xeo carve]

10.0 X-ray

   X-ray     n. & v.  (also x-ray) --n.  1 (in pl.) electromagnetic radiation
             of short wavelength, able to pass through opaque bodies.  2 an
             image made by the effect of X-rays on a photographic plate, esp.
             showing the position of bones etc. by their greater absorption
             of the rays.  --v.tr. photograph, examine, or treat with X-rays.
             ЬX-ray astronomy the branch of astronomy concerned with the
             X-ray emissions of celestial bodies.  X-ray crystallography the
             study of crystals and their structure by means of the
             diffraction of X-rays by the regularly spaced atoms of a
             crystalline material.  X-ray tube a device for generating X-rays
             by accelerating electrons to high energies and causing them to
             strike a metal target from which the X-rays are emitted.
             [transl. of G x-Strahlen (pl.) f.  Strahl ray, so called because
             when discovered in 1895 the nature of the rays was unknown]

11.0 xylem...

   xylem     n.  Bot.  woody tissue (cf.  PHLOEM).  [Gk xulon wood]

   xylene    n.  Chem.  one of three isomeric hydrocarbons formed from
             benzene by the substitution of two methyl groups, obtained from
             wood etc.  [formed as XYLEM + -ENE]

   xylo-     comb. form wood.  [Gk xulon wood]

   xylocarp  n.  a hard woody fruit.  ЬЬxylocarpous adj.

   xylograph n.  a woodcut or wood-engraving (esp. an early one).

             n.  1 the (esp. early or primitive) practice of making woodcuts
             or wood-engravings.  2 the use of wood blocks in printing.

   Xylonite  n.  propr.  a kind of celluloid.  [irreg. f.  xyloidin (as
             XYLO-) + -ITE(1)]

             adj.  (of an insect or mollusc) eating, or boring into, wood.

   xylophone n.  a musical instrument of wooden or metal bars graduated in
             length and struck with a small wooden hammer or hammers.
             ЬЬxylophonic adj.  xylophonist n.  [Gk xulon wood + -PHONE]

   xystus    n.  (pl.  xysti) 1 a covered portico used by athletes in ancient
             Greece for exercise.  2 Rom. Antiq. a garden walk or terrace.
             [L f. Gk xustos smooth f.  xuo scrape]

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