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English language - Dictionaries S...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 S...

   S(1)      n.  (also s) (pl.  Ss or S's) 1 the nineteenth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 an S-shaped object or curve.

   S(2)      abbr.  (also S.) 1 Saint.  2 siemens.  3 Society.  4 South,

   S(3)      symb.  Chem.  the element sulphur.

   s.        abbr.  1 second(s).  2 shilling(s).  3 singular.  4 son.  5
             succeeded.  [sense 2 orig. f. L solidus: see SOLIDUS]

   's        abbr.  1 is, has (he's; it's; John's; Charles's).  2 us (let's).
             3 colloq. does (what's he say?).

   -s(1)     ways, bags suffix denoting the plurals of nouns (cf.  -ES(1)).
             [OE -as pl. ending]

   -s(2)     ties, begs suffix forming the 3rd person sing. present of verbs
             (cf.  -ES(2)).  [OE dial., prob. f. OE 2nd person sing. present
             ending -es, -as]

   -s(3)     besides suffix 1 forming adverbs (afterwards; besides).  2
             forming possessive pronouns (hers; ours).  [formed as -'S(1)]

   -s(4)     suffix forming nicknames or pet names (Fats; ducks).  [after

   -s'       suffix denoting the possessive case of plural nouns and
             sometimes of singular nouns ending in s (the boys' shoes;
             Charles' book).  [as -'S(1)]

   's-       prefix archaic (esp. in oaths) God's ('sblood; 'struth).

   -'s(1)    suffix denoting the possessive case of singular nouns and of
             plural nouns not ending in -s (John's book; the book's cover;
             the children's shoes).  [OE genit. sing. ending]

   -'s(2)    suffix denoting the plural of a letter or symbol (S's; 8's).
             [as -S(1)]

2.0 SA...

   SA        abbr.  1 Salvation Army.  2 sex appeal.  3 a South Africa.  b
             South America.  c South Australia.  4 hist.  Sturmabteilung (the
             paramilitary force of the Nazi party).

   sabadilla n.  1 a Mexican plant, Schoenocaulon officinale, with seeds
             yielding veratrine.  2 a preparation of these seeds, used in
             medicine and agriculture.  [Sp.  cebadilla dimin. of cebada

   Sabaoth   n.pl.  Bibl.  heavenly hosts (see HOST(1) 2) (Lord of Sabaoth).
             [ME f. LL f. Gk Sabaoth f. Heb.  sebaot pl. of sabѓ host (of

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a strict sabbath-keeping Jew.  2 a Christian
             who favours observing Sunday strictly as the sabbath.  3 a
             Christian who observes Saturday as the sabbath.  --adj. relating
             to or holding the tenets of Sabbatarians.  ЬЬSabbatarianism n.
             [LL sabbatarius f. L sabbatum: see SABBATH]

   sabbath   n.  1 (in full sabbath day) a day of rest and religious
             observance kept by Christians on Sunday, Jews on Saturday, and
             Muslims on Friday.  2 a period of rest.  3 (in full witches'
             sabbath) a supposed general midnight meeting of witches with the
             Devil.  [OE sabat, L sabbatum, & OF sabbat, f. Gk sabbaton f.
             Heb.  sabbat f.  sabat to rest]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or appropriate to the sabbath.  2 (of
             leave) granted at intervals to a university teacher for study or
             travel, orig. every seventh year.  --n. a period of sabbatical
             leave.  Ьsabbatical year 1 Bibl. every seventh year, prescribed
             by the Mosaic law to be observed as a 'sabbath', during which
             the land was allowed to rest.  2 a year's sabbatical leave.
             ЬЬsabbatically adv.  [LL sabbaticus f. Gk sabbatikos of the

   saber     US var. of SABRE.

   Sabian    adj. & n.  --adj. of a sect classed in the Koran with Muslims,
             Jews, and Christians, as believers in the true God.  --n. a
             member of this sect.  [Arab.  sabi']

   sabicu    n.  1 a W. Indian tree, Lysiloma latisiliqua, grown for timber.
             2 the mahogany-like wood of this tree.  [Cuban Sp.  sabicЈ]

   Sabine    adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to a people of the central
             Apennines in ancient Italy.  --n. a member of this people.  [L

   Sabin vaccine
             n.  an oral vaccine giving immunity against poliomyelitis.  [A.
             B.  Sabin, US virologist b. 1906]

   sable(1)  n.  1 a a small brown-furred flesh-eating mammal, Martes
             zibellina, of N. Europe and parts of N. Asia, related to the
             marten.  b its skin or fur.  2 a fine paintbrush made of sable
             fur.  [ME f. OF f. med.L sabelum f. Slav.]

   sable(2)  n. & adj.  --n.  1 esp. poet. black.  2 (in pl.) mourning
             garments.  3 (in full sable antelope) a large stout-horned
             African antelope, Hippotragus niger, the males of which are
             mostly black in old age.  --adj.  1 (usu. placed after noun)
             Heraldry black.  2 esp. poet. dark, gloomy.  ЬЬsabled adj.
             sably adv.  [ME f. OF (in Heraldry): gen. taken to be identical
             with SABLE(1), although sable fur is dark brown]

   sabot     n.  1 a kind of simple shoe hollowed out from a block of wood.
             2 a wooden-soled shoe.  3 Austral. a small snub-nosed yacht.
             ЬЬsaboted adj.  [F, blend of savate shoe + botte boot]

   sabotage  n. & v.  --n. deliberate damage to productive capacity, esp. as
             a political act.  --v.tr.  1 commit sabotage on.  2 destroy,
             spoil; make useless (sabotaged my plans).  [F f.  saboter make a
             noise with sabots, bungle, wilfully destroy: see SABOT]

   saboteur  n.  a person who commits sabotage.  [F]

   sabra     n.  a Jew born in Israel.  [mod. Heb.  sabrah opuntia fruit]

   sabre     n. & v.  (US saber) --n.  1 a cavalry sword with a curved blade.
             2 a cavalry soldier and horse.  3 a light fencing-sword with a
             tapering blade.  --v.tr. cut down or wound with a sabre.
             Ьsabre-bill any S. American bird of the genus Campylorhamphus
             with a long curved bill.  sabre-cut 1 a blow with a sabre.  2 a
             wound made or a scar left by this.  sabre-rattling a display or
             threat of military force.  sabre-toothed designating any of
             various extinct mammals having long sabre-shaped upper canines.
             sabre-wing a S. American humming-bird, Campylopterus falcatus,
             with curved wings.  [F, earlier sable f. G Sabel, S„bel, Schabel
             f. Pol.  szabla or Magyar szablya]

             n.  a flat satchel on long straps worn by some cavalry officers
             from the left of the waist-belt.  [F f. G S„beltasche (as SABRE,
             Tasche pocket)]

   sabreur   n.  a user of the sabre, esp. a cavalryman.  [F f.  sabrer SABRE

   SAC       abbr.  (in the UK) Senior Aircraftman.

   sac       n.  1 a baglike cavity, enclosed by a membrane, in an animal or
             plant.  2 the distended membrane surrounding a hernia, cyst,
             tumour, etc.  [F sac or L saccus SACK(1)]

   saccade   n.  a brief rapid movement of the eye between fixation points.
             ЬЬsaccadic adj.  [F, = violent pull, f. OF saquer, sachier pull]

   saccate   adj.  Bot.  1 dilated into a bag.  2 contained in a sac.

             n.  Chem.  = SUGAR 2.  [mod.L saccharum sugar + -IDE]

             n.  any instrument, esp. a polarimeter, for measuring the sugar
             content of a solution.  [F saccharimЉtre (as SACCHARIDE)]

   saccharin n.  a very sweet substance used as a non-fattening substitute
             for sugar.  [G (as SACCHARIDE) + -IN]

             adj.  1 sugary.  2 of, containing, or like sugar.  3
             unpleasantly over-polite, sentimental, etc.

   saccharo- comb. form sugar; sugar and.  [Gk sakkharon sugar]

             adj.  producing sugar.

             n.  any instrument, esp. a hydrometer, for measuring the sugar
             content of a solution.

             n.  sucrose.  [mod.L saccharum sugar + -OSE(2)]

   sacciform adj.  sac-shaped.  [L saccus sac + -FORM]

   saccule   n.  a small sac or cyst.  ЬЬsaccular adj.  [L sacculus (as SAC)]

             adj.  1 of priests or the priestly office; priestly.  2 (of a
             doctrine etc.) ascribing sacrificial functions and supernatural
             powers to ordained priests; claiming excessive authority for the
             priesthood.  ЬЬsacerdotalism n.  sacerdotalist n.  sacerdotally
             adv.  [ME f. OF sacerdotal or L sacerdotalis f.  sacerdos -dotis

   sachem    n.  1 the supreme chief of some American Indian tribes.  2 US a
             political leader.  [Narraganset, = SAGAMORE]

   sachet    n.  1 a small bag or packet containing a small portion of a
             substance, esp. shampoo.  2 a small perfumed bag.  3 a dry
             perfume for laying among clothes etc.  b a packet of this.  [F,
             dimin. of sac f. L saccus]

   sack(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a large strong bag, usu. made of hessian,
             paper, or plastic, for storing or conveying goods.  b (usu.
             foll. by of) this with its contents (a sack of potatoes).  c a
             quantity contained in a sack.  2 (prec. by the) colloq.
             dismissal from employment.  3 (prec. by the) US sl. bed.  4 a a
             woman's short loose dress with a sacklike appearance.  b archaic
             or hist. a woman's loose gown, or a silk train attached to the
             shoulders of this.  5 a man's or woman's loose-hanging coat not
             shaped to the back.  --v.tr.  1 put into a sack or sacks.  2
             colloq. dismiss from employment.  Ьsack race a race between
             competitors in sacks up to the waist or neck.  ЬЬsackful n.
             (pl.  -fuls).  sacklike adj.  [OE sacc f. L saccus f. Gk sakkos,
             of Semitic orig.]

   sack(2)   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 plunder and destroy (a captured town etc.).
             2 steal valuables from (a place).  --n. the sacking of a
             captured place.  [orig. as noun, f. F sac in phr.  mettre … sac
             put to sack, f. It.  sacco SACK(1)]

   sack(3)   n.  hist.  a white wine formerly imported into Britain from
             Spain and the Canaries (sherry sack).  [16th-c.  wyne seck, f. F
             vin sec dry wine]

   sackbut   n.  an early form of trombone.  [F saquebute, earlier saqueboute
             hook for pulling a man off a horse f.  saquer pull, boute (as

   sackcloth n.  1 a coarse fabric of flax or hemp.  2 clothing made of this,
             formerly worn as a penance or in mourning (esp.  sackcloth and

   sacking   n.  material for making sacks; sackcloth.

   sacra     pl. of SACRUM.

   sacral    adj.  1 Anat. of or relating to the sacrum.  2 Anthropol. of or
             for sacred rites.  [E or L sacrum: see SACRUM]

   sacrament n.  1 a religious ceremony or act of the Christian Churches
             regarded as an outward and visible sign of inward and spiritual
             grace: applied by the Eastern, pre-Reformation Western, and
             Roman Catholic Churches to the seven rites of baptism,
             confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, extreme unction,
             ordination, and matrimony, but restricted by most Protestants to
             baptism and the Eucharist.  2 a thing of mysterious and sacred
             significance; a sacred influence, symbol, etc.  3 (also Blessed
             or Holy Sacrament) (prec. by the) a the Eucharist.  b the
             consecrated elements, esp. the bread or Host.  4 an oath or
             solemn engagement taken.  [ME f. OF sacrement f. L sacramentum
             solemn oath etc. f.  sacrare hallow f.  sacer SACRED, used in
             Christian L as transl. of Gk musterion MYSTERY(1)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or of the nature of a sacrament or the
             sacrament.  2 (of a doctrine etc.) attaching great importance to
             the sacraments.  --n. an observance analogous to but not
             reckoned among the sacraments, e.g. the use of holy water or the
             sign of the cross.  ЬЬsacramentalism n.  sacramentalist n.
             sacramentality n.  sacramentally adv.  [ME f. F sacramental or
             LL sacramentalis (as SACRAMENT)]

   sacrarium n.  (pl.  sacraria) 1 the sanctuary of a church.  2 RC Ch. a
             piscina.  3 Rom. Antiq. a shrine; the room (in a house)
             containing the penates.  [L f.  sacer sacri holy]

   sacred    adj.  1 a (often foll. by to) exclusively dedicated or
             appropriated (to a god or to some religious purpose).  b made
             holy by religious association.  c connected with religion; used
             for a religious purpose (sacred music).  2 a safeguarded or
             required by religion, reverence, or tradition.  b sacrosanct.  3
             (of writings etc.) embodying the laws or doctrines of a
             religion.  ЬSacred College RC Ch.  the body of cardinals.
             sacred cow colloq.  an idea or institution unreasonably held to
             be above criticism (with ref. to the Hindus' respect for the cow
             as a holy animal).  Sacred Heart RC Ch.  the heart of Christ as
             an object of devotion.  sacred number a number associated with
             religious symbolism, e.g. 7.  ЬЬsacredly adv.  sacredness n.
             [ME, past part. of obs.  sacre consecrate f. OF sacrer f. L
             sacrare f.  sacer sacri holy]

   sacrifice n. & v.  --n.  1 a the act of giving up something valued for the
             sake of something else more important or worthy.  b a thing
             given up in this way.  c the loss entailed in this.  2 a the
             slaughter of an animal or person or the surrender of a
             possession as an offering to a deity.  b an animal, person, or
             thing offered in this way.  3 an act of prayer, thanksgiving, or
             penitence as propitiation.  4 Theol.  a Christ's offering of
             himself in the Crucifixion.  b the Eucharist as either a
             propitiatory offering of the body and blood of Christ or an act
             of thanksgiving.  5 (in games) a loss incurred deliberately to
             avoid a greater loss or to obtain a compensating advantage.
             --v.  1 tr. give up (a thing) as a sacrifice.  2 tr. (foll. by
             to) devote or give over to.  3 tr. (also absol.) offer or kill
             as a sacrifice.  ЬЬsacrificial adj.  sacrificially adv.  [ME f.
             OF f. L sacrificium f.  sacrificus (as SACRED)]

   sacrilege n.  the violation or misuse of what is regarded as sacred.
             ЬЬsacrilegious adj.  sacrilegiously adv.  [ME f. OF f. L
             sacrilegium f.  sacrilegus stealer of sacred things, f.  sacer
             sacri sacred + legere take possession of]

   sacring   n.  archaic 1 the consecration of the Eucharistic elements.  2
             the ordination and consecration of a bishop, sovereign, etc.
             Ьsacring bell a bell rung at the elevation of the elements in
             the Eucharist.  [ME f. obs.  sacre: see SACRED]

   sacristan n.  1 a person in charge of a sacristy and its contents.  2
             archaic the sexton of a parish church.  [ME f. med.L sacristanus
             (as SACRED)]

   sacristy  n.  (pl.  -ies) a room in a church, where the vestments, sacred
             vessels, etc., are kept and the celebrant can prepare for a
             service.  [F sacristie or It.  sacrestia or med.L sacristia (as

   sacro-    comb. form denoting the sacrum (sacro-iliac).

             adj.  (of a person, place, law, etc.) most sacred; inviolable.
             ЬЬsacrosanctity n.  [L sacrosanctus f.  sacro ablat. of sacrum
             sacred rite (see SACRED) + sanctus (as SAINT)]

   sacrum    n.  (pl.  sacra or sacrums) Anat.  a triangular bone formed from
             fused vertebrae and situated between the two hip-bones of the
             pelvis.  [L os sacrum transl. Gk hieron osteon sacred bone (from
             its sacrificial use)]

   SACW      abbr.  (in the UK) Senior Aircraftwoman.

   SAD       abbr.  seasonal affective disorder.

   sad       adj.  (sadder, saddest) 1 unhappy; feeling sorrow or regret.  2
             causing or suggesting sorrow (a sad story).  3 regrettable.  4
             shameful, deplorable (is in a sad state).  5 (of a colour) dull,
             neutral-tinted.  6 (of dough etc.) heavy, having failed to rise.
             Ьsad-iron a solid flat-iron.  sad sack US colloq.  a very inept
             person.  ЬЬsaddish adj.  sadly adv.  sadness n.  [OE s‘d f. Gmc,
             rel. to L satis]

   sadden    v.tr. & intr.  make or become sad.

   saddle    n. & v.  --n.  1 a seat of leather etc., usu. raised at the
             front and rear, fastened on a horse etc. for riding.  2 a seat
             for the rider of a bicycle etc.  3 a joint of meat consisting of
             the two loins.  4 a ridge rising to a summit at each end.  5 the
             part of a draught-horse's harness to which the shafts are
             attached.  6 a part of an animal's back resembling a saddle in
             shape or marking.  7 the rear part of a male fowl's back.  8 a
             support for a cable or wire on top of a suspension-bridge, pier,
             or telegraph-pole.  9 a fireclay bar for supporting ceramic ware
             in a kiln.  --v.tr.  1 put a saddle on (a horse etc.).  2 a
             (foll. by with) burden (a person) with a task, responsibility,
             etc.  b (foll. by on, upon) impose (a burden) on a person.  3
             (of a trainer) enter (a horse) for a race.  Ьin the saddle 1
             mounted.  2 in office or control.  saddle-bag 1 each of a pair
             of bags laid across a horse etc. behind the saddle.  2 a bag
             attached behind the saddle of a bicycle or motor cycle.
             saddle-bow the arched front or rear of a saddle.  saddle-cloth a
             cloth laid on a horse's back under the saddle.  saddle-horse a
             horse for riding.  saddle-sore chafed by riding on a saddle.
             saddle stitch a stitch of thread or a wire staple passed through
             the centre of a magazine or booklet.  saddle-tree 1 the frame of
             a saddle.  2 a tulip-tree (with saddle-shaped leaves).
             ЬЬsaddleless adj.  [OE sadol, sadul f. Gmc]

             n.  1 Archit. a tower-roof with two opposite gables.  2 a hill
             with a concave upper outline.  3 a black pig with a white stripe
             across the back.  4 any of various birds with a saddle-like
             marking esp. a New Zealand bird, Philesturnus carunculatus.
             ЬЬsaddlebacked adj.

   saddler   n.  a maker of or dealer in saddles and other equipment for

   saddlery  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the saddles and other equipment of a saddler.
             2 a saddler's business or premises.

   Sadducee  n.  a member of a Jewish sect or party of the time of Christ
             that denied the resurrection of the dead, the existence of
             spirits, and the obligation of the traditional oral law (cf.
             PHARISEE, ESSENE).  ЬЬSadducean adj.  [OE sadduceas f. LL
             Sadducaeus f. Gk Saddoukaios f. Heb.  sed–kЊ, prob. = descendant
             of Zadok (2 Sam. 8:17)]

   sadhu     n.  (in India) a holy man, sage, or ascetic.  [Skr., = holy man]

   sadism    n.  1 a form of sexual perversion characterized by the enjoyment
             of inflicting pain or suffering on others (cf.  MASOCHISM).  2
             colloq. the enjoyment of cruelty to others.  ЬЬsadist n.
             sadistic adj.  sadistically adv.  [F sadisme f. Count or
             'Marquis' de Sade, Fr. writer d. 1814]

             n.  the combination of sadism and masochism in one person.
             ЬЬsado-masochist n.  sado-masochistic adj.

   s.a.e.    abbr.  stamped addressed envelope.

   safari    n.  (pl.  safaris) 1 a hunting or scientific expedition, esp. in
             E. Africa (go on safari).  2 a sightseeing trip to see African
             animals in their natural habitat.  Ьsafari park an enclosed area
             where lions etc. are kept in relatively open spaces for public
             viewing from vehicles driven through.  safari suit a lightweight
             suit usu. with short sleeves and four pleated pockets in the
             jacket.  [Swahili f. Arab.  safara to travel]

   safe      adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a free of danger or injury.  b (often foll.
             by from) out of or not exposed to danger (safe from their
             enemies).  2 affording security or not involving danger or risk
             (put it in a safe place).  3 reliable, certain; that can be
             reckoned on (a safe catch; a safe method; is safe to win).  4
             prevented from escaping or doing harm (have got him safe).  5
             (also safe and sound) uninjured; with no harm done.  6 cautious
             and unenterprising; consistently moderate.  --n.  1 a strong
             lockable cabinet etc. for valuables.  2 = meat safe.  Ьon the
             safe side with a margin of security against risks.  safe bet a
             bet that is certain to succeed.  safe-breaker (or -blower or
             -cracker) a person who breaks open and robs safes.  safe conduct
             1 a privilege of immunity from arrest or harm, esp. on a
             particular occasion.  2 a document securing this.  safe deposit
             a building containing strongrooms and safes let separately.
             safe house a place of refuge or rendezvous for spies etc.  safe
             keeping preservation in a safe place.  safe light Photog.  a
             filtered light for use in a darkroom.  safe period the time
             during and near the menstrual period when conception is least
             likely.  safe seat a seat in Parliament etc. that is usually won
             with a large margin by a particular party.  safe sex sexual
             activity in which precautions are taken to reduce the risk of
             spreading sexually transmitted diseases, esp. Aids.  ЬЬsafely
             adv.  safeness n.  [ME f. AF saf, OF sauf f. L salvus uninjured:
             (n.) orig.  save f.  SAVE(1)]

   safeguard n. & v.  --n.  1 a proviso, stipulation, quality, or
             circumstance, that tends to prevent something undesirable.  2 a
             safe conduct.  --v.tr. guard or protect (rights etc.) by a
             precaution or stipulation.  [ME f. AF salve garde, OF sauve
             garde (as SAFE, GUARD)]

   safety    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the condition of being safe; freedom from
             danger or risks.  2 (attrib.) a designating any of various
             devices for preventing injury from machinery (safety bar; safety
             lock).  b designating items of protective clothing (safety
             helmet).  Ьsafety-belt 1 = seat-belt.  2 a belt or strap
             securing a person to prevent injury.  safety-catch a contrivance
             for locking a gun-trigger or preventing the accidental operation
             of machinery.  safety curtain a fireproof curtain that can be
             lowered to cut off the auditorium in a theatre from the stage.
             safety factor (or factor of safety) 1 the ratio of a material's
             strength to an expected strain.  2 a margin of security against
             risks.  safety film a cinematographic film on a slow-burning or
             non-flammable base.  safety first a motto advising caution.
             safety fuse 1 a fuse (see FUSE(2)) containing a slow-burning
             composition for firing detonators from a distance.  2 Electr. a
             protective fuse (see FUSE(1)).  safety glass glass that will not
             splinter when broken.  safety harness a system of belts or
             restraints to hold a person to prevent falling or injury.
             safety lamp a miner's lamp so protected as not to ignite
             firedamp.  safety match a match igniting only on a specially
             prepared surface.  safety net a net placed to catch an acrobat
             etc. in case of a fall.  safety pin a pin with a point that is
             bent back to the head and is held in a guard when closed.
             safety razor a razor with a guard to reduce the risk of cutting
             the skin.  safety-valve 1 (in a steam boiler) a valve opening
             automatically to relieve excessive pressure.  2 a means of
             giving harmless vent to excitement etc.  safety zone US an area
             of a road marked off for pedestrians etc. to wait safely.  [ME
             sauvete f. OF sauvet‚ f. med.L salvitas -tatis f. L salvus (as

   safflower n.  1 a a thistle-like plant, Carthamus tinctorius, yielding a
             red dye.  b its dried petals.  2 a dye made from these, used in
             rouge etc.  [Du.  saffloer or G Safflor f. OF saffleur f. obs.
             It.  saffiore, of unkn. orig.]

   saffron   n. & adj.  --n.  1 an orange flavouring and food colouring made
             from the dried stigmas of the crocus, Crocus sativus.  2 the
             colour of this.  3 = meadow saffron.  --adj. saffron-coloured.
             ЬЬsaffrony adj.  [ME f. OF safran f. Arab.  za' faran]

   safranine n.  (also safranin) any of a large group of mainly red dyes used
             in biological staining etc.  [F safranine (as SAFFRON): orig. of
             dye from saffron]

   sag       v. & n.  --v.intr.  (sagged, sagging) 1 sink or subside under
             weight or pressure, esp. unevenly.  2 have a downward bulge or
             curve in the middle.  3 fall in price.  4 (of a ship) drift from
             its course, esp. to leeward.  --n.  1 a the amount that a rope
             etc. sags.  b the distance from the middle of its curve to a
             straight line between its supports.  2 a sinking condition;
             subsidence.  3 a fall in price.  4 Naut. a tendency to leeward.
             ЬЬsaggy adj.  [ME f. MLG sacken, Du.  zakken subside]

   saga      n.  1 a long story of heroic achievement, esp. a medieval
             Icelandic or Norwegian prose narrative.  2 a series of connected
             books giving the history of a family etc.  3 a long involved
             story.  [ON, = narrative, rel. to SAW(3)]

   sagacious adj.  1 mentally penetrating; gifted with discernment; having
             practical wisdom.  2 acute-minded, shrewd.  3 (of a saying,
             plan, etc.) showing wisdom.  4 (of an animal) exceptionally
             intelligent; seeming to reason or deliberate.  ЬЬsagaciously
             adv.  sagacity n.  [L sagax sagacis]

   sagamore  n.  = SACHEM 1.  [Penobscot sagamo]

   sage(1)   n.  1 an aromatic herb, Salvia officinalis, with dull
             greyish-green leaves.  2 its leaves used in cookery.  Ьsage and
             onion (or onions) a stuffing used with poultry, pork, etc.  sage
             Derby (or cheese) a cheese made with an infusion of sage which
             flavours and mottles it.  sage-green the colour of sage-leaves.
             sage tea a medicinal infusion of sage-leaves.  ЬЬsagy adj.  [ME
             f. OF sauge f. L salvia healing plant f.  salvus safe]

   sage(2)   n. & adj.  --n.  1 often iron. a profoundly wise man.  2 any of
             the ancients traditionally regarded as the wisest of their time.
             --adj.  1 profoundly wise, esp. from experience.  2 of or
             indicating profound wisdom.  3 often iron. wise-looking;
             solemn-faced.  ЬЬsagely adv.  sageness n.  sageship n.  [ME f.
             OF ult. f. L sapere be wise]

   sagebrush n.  1 a growth of shrubby aromatic plants of the genus
             Artemisia, esp.  A. tridentata, found in some semi-arid regions
             of western N. America.  2 this plant.

   saggar    n.  (also sagger) a protective fireclay box enclosing ceramic
             ware while it is being fired.  [prob. contr. of SAFEGUARD]

   sagittal  adj.  Anat.  1 of or relating to the suture between the parietal
             bones of the skull.  2 in the same plane as this, or in a
             parallel plane.  [F f. med.L sagittalis f.  sagitta arrow]

             n.  1 a constellation, traditionally regarded as contained in
             the figure of an archer.  2 a the ninth sign of the zodiac (the
             Archer).  b a person born when the sun is in this sign.
             ЬЬSagittarian adj. & n.  [ME f. L, = archer, f.  sagitta arrow]

   sagittate adj.  Bot. & Zool.  shaped like an arrowhead.

   sago      n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a kind of starch, made from the powdered pith
             of the sago palm and used in puddings etc.  2 (in full sago
             palm) any of several tropical palms and cycads, esp.  Cycas
             circinalis and Metroxylon sagu, from which sago is made.  [Malay
             sagu (orig. through Port.)]

   saguaro   n.  (also sahuaro) (pl.  -os) a giant cactus, Carnegiea
             gigantea, of the SW United States and Mexico.  [Mex. Sp.]

   sahib     n.  1 hist. (in India) a form of address, often placed after the
             name, to European men.  2 colloq. a gentleman (pukka sahib).
             [Urdu f. Arab.  sahib friend, lord]

   said      past and past part. of SAY(1).

   saiga     n.  an antelope, Saiga tatarica, of the Asian steppes.  [Russ.]

   sail      n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of material (orig. canvas, now usu.
             nylon etc.)  extended on rigging to catch the wind and propel a
             boat or ship.  2 a ship's sails collectively.  3 a a voyage or
             excursion in a sailing-ship.  b a voyage of specified duration.
             4 a ship, esp. as discerned from its sails.  5 (collect.) ships
             in a squadron or company (a fleet of twenty sail).  6 (in pl.)
             Naut.  a sl. a maker or repairer of sails.  b hist. a chief
             petty officer in charge of rigging.  7 a wind-catching
             apparatus, usu. a set of boards, attached to the arm of a
             windmill.  8 a the dorsal fin of a sailfish.  b the tentacle of
             a nautilus.  c the float of a Portuguese man-of-war.  --v.  1
             intr. travel on water by the use of sails or engine-power.  2
             tr.  a navigate (a ship etc.).  b travel on (a sea).  3 tr. set
             (a toy boat) afloat.  4 intr. glide or move smoothly or in a
             stately manner.  5 intr. (often foll. by through) colloq.
             succeed easily (sailed through the exams).  Ьsail-arm the arm of
             a windmill.  sail close to (or near) the wind 1 sail as nearly
             against the wind as possible.  2 come close to indecency or
             dishonesty; risk overstepping the mark.  sail-fluke = MEGRIM(2).
             sailing-boat (or -ship or -vessel) a vessel driven by sails.
             sailing-master an officer navigating a ship, esp.  Brit. a
             yacht.  sailing orders instructions to a captain regarding
             departure, destination, etc.  sail into colloq.  attack
             physically or verbally with force.  take in sail 1 furl the sail
             or sails of a vessel.  2 moderate one's ambitions.  under sail
             with sails set.  ЬЬsailable adj.  sailed adj. (also in comb.).
             sailless adj.  [OE segel f. Gmc]

   sailboard n.  a board with a mast and sail, used in windsurfing.
             ЬЬsailboarder n.  sailboarding n.

   sailboat  n.  US a boat driven by sails.

   sailcloth n.  1 canvas for sails.  2 a canvas-like dress material.

   sailer    n.  a ship of specified sailing-power (a good sailer).

   sailfish  n.  1 any fish of the genus Istiophorus, with a large dorsal
             fin.  2 a basking shark.

   sailor    n.  1 a seaman or mariner, esp. one below the rank of officer.
             2 a person considered as liable or not liable to seasickness (a
             good sailor).  Ьsailor hat 1 a straw hat with a straight narrow
             brim and flat top.  2 a hat with a turned-up brim in imitation
             of a sailor's, worn by women and children.  ЬЬsailoring n.
             sailorless adj.  sailorly adj.  [var. of SAILER]

   sailplane n.  a glider designed for sustained flight.

   sainfoin  n.  a leguminous plant, Onobrychis viciifolia, grown for fodder
             and having pink flowers.  [obs. F saintfoin f. mod.L sanum
             foenum wholesome hay (because of its medicinal properties)]

   saint     n. & v.  --n.  (abbr.  St or S; pl.  Sts or SS) 1 a holy or (in
             some Churches) a canonized person regarded as having a place in
             heaven.  2 (Saint or St) the title of a saint or archangel,
             hence the name of a church etc.  (St Paul's) or (often with the
             loss of the apostrophe) the name of a town etc. (St Andrews; St
             Albans).  3 a very virtuous person; a person of great real or
             affected holiness (would try the patience of a saint).  4 a
             member of the company of heaven (with all the angels and
             saints).  5 ( Bibl., archaic, and used by Puritans, Mormons,
             etc.) one of God's chosen people; a member of the Christian
             Church or one's own branch of it.  --v.tr.  1 canonize; admit to
             the calendar of saints.  2 call or regard as a saint.  3 (as
             sainted adj.) sacred; of a saintly life; worthy to be regarded
             as a saint.  Ьmy sainted aunt see AUNT.  saint's day a Church
             festival in memory of a saint .  ЬЬsaintdom n.  sainthood n.
             saintlike adj.  saintling n.  saintship n.  [ME f. OF seint,
             saint f. L sanctus holy, past part. of sancire consecrate]

   St Andrew's cross
             n.  an X-shaped cross.

   St Anthony cross
             n.  (also St Anthony's cross) a T-shaped cross.

   St Anthony's fire
             n.  erysipelas or ergotism.

   St Bernard
             n. (in full St Bernard dog) 1 a very large dog of a breed orig.
             kept to rescue travellers by the monks of the Hospice on the
             Great St Bernard pass in the Alps.  2 this breed.

   St Elmo's fire
             n.  a corposant.

   St George's cross
             n.  a +-shaped cross, red on a white background.

   St John's wort
             n.  any yellow-flowered plant of the genus Hypericum, esp.  H.

   St Leger  n.  a horse-race at Doncaster in England for three-year-olds.
             [f. the founder's name]

   St Luke's summer
             n.  Brit.  a period of fine weather expected about 18 Oct.

   saintly   adj.  (saintlier, saintliest) very holy or virtuous.
             ЬЬsaintliness n.

   St Martin's summer
             n.  Brit.  a period of fine weather expected about 11 Nov.

             n.  any plant of the genus Saintpaulia, esp. the African violet.
             [Baron W. von Saint Paul, Ger. soldier d. 1910, its discoverer]

   St Vitus's dance
             n.  = Sydenham's chorea (see CHOREA).

   saith     archaic 3rd sing. present of SAY(1).

   saithe    n.  Sc.  a codlike fish, Pollachius virens, with skin that soils
             fingers like wet coal. Also called COALFISH, COLEY, POLLACK.
             [ON seithr]

   sake(1)   n. (esp.  for the sake of or for one's sake) 1 out of
             consideration for; in the interest of; because of; owing to (for
             my own sake as well as yours).  2 in order to please, honour,
             get, or keep (for the sake of uniformity).  Ьfor Christ's (or
             God's or goodness' or Heaven's or Pete's etc.) sake an
             expression of urgency, impatience, supplication, anger, etc.
             for old times' sake in memory of former times.  [OE sacu
             contention, charge, fault, sake f. Gmc]

   sake(2)   n.  a Japanese alcoholic drink made from rice.  [Jap.]

   saker     n.  1 a large falcon, Falco cherrug, used in hawking, esp. the
             larger female bird.  2 hist. an old form of cannon.  [ME f. OF
             sacre (in both senses), f. Arab.  sakr]

   saki      n.  (pl.  sakis) any monkey of the genus Pithecia or Chiropotes,
             native to S. America, having coarse fur and a long
             non-prehensile tail.  [F f. Tupi ‡ahy]

   Sakta     n.  a member of a Hindu sect worshipping the Sakti.  [Skr.
             sakta relating to power or to the SAKTI]

   Sakti     n. (also sakti) (in Hinduism) the female principle, esp. when
             personified as the wife of a god.  [Skr.  sakti power, divine

   sal       n.  a N. Indian tree, Shorea robusta, yielding teaklike timber
             and dammar resin.  [Hindi sal]

   salaam    n. & v.  --n.  1 the oriental salutation 'Peace'.  2 an Indian
             obeisance, with or without the salutation, consisting of a low
             bow of the head and body with the right palm on the forehead.  3
             (in pl.) respectful compliments.  --v.  1 tr. make a salaam to
             (a person).  2 intr. make a salaam .  [Arab.  salam]

   salable   var. of SALEABLE.

   salacious adj.  1 lustful; lecherous.  2 (of writings, pictures, talk,
             etc.) tending to cause sexual desire.  ЬЬsalaciously adv.
             salaciousness n.  salacity n.  [L salax salacis f.  salire leap]

   salad     n.  1 a cold dish of various mixtures of raw or cooked
             vegetables or herbs, usu. seasoned with oil, vinegar, etc.  2 a
             vegetable or herb suitable for eating raw.  Ьsalad cream creamy
             salad-dressing.  salad days a period of youthful inexperience.
             salad-dressing a mixture of oil, vinegar, etc., used with salad.
             [ME f. OF salade f. Prov.  salada ult. f. L sal salt]

   salade    var. of SALLET.

             n.  1 Zool. any tailed newtlike amphibian of the order Urodela,
             esp. the genus Salamandra, once thought able to endure fire.  2
             a mythical lizard-like creature credited with this property.  3
             US = GOPHER(1) 1.  4 an elemental spirit living in fire.  5 a
             red-hot iron used for lighting pipes, gunpowder, etc.  6 a metal
             plate heated and placed over food to brown it.  ЬЬsalamandrian
             adj.  salamandrine adj.  salamandroid adj. & n. (in sense 1).
             [ME f. OF salamandre f. L salamandra f. Gk salamandra]

   salami    n.  (pl.  salamis) a highly-seasoned orig. Italian sausage often
             flavoured with garlic.  [It., pl. of salame, f. LL salare
             (unrecorded) to salt]

   sal ammoniac
             n.  ammonium chloride, a white crystalline salt.  [L sal
             ammoniacus 'salt of Ammon', associated with the Roman temple of
             Ammon in N. Africa]

   salariat  n.  the salaried class.  [F f.  salaire (see SALARY), after

   salary    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a fixed regular payment, usu. monthly
             or quarterly, made by an employer to an employee, esp. a
             professional or white-collar worker (cf.  WAGE n.  1).  --v.tr.
             (-ies, -ied) (usu. as salaried adj.) pay a salary to.  [ME f. AF
             salarie, OF salaire f. L salarium orig. soldier's salt-money f.
             sal salt]

   sale      n.  1 the exchange of a commodity for money etc.; an act or
             instance of selling.  2 the amount sold (the sales were
             enormous).  3 the rapid disposal of goods at reduced prices for
             a period esp. at the end of a season etc.  4 a an event at which
             goods are sold.  b a public auction.  Ьon (or for) sale offered
             for purchase.  sale of work an event where goods made by
             parishioners etc. are sold for charity.  sale or return an
             arrangement by which a purchaser takes a quantity of goods with
             the right of returning surplus goods without payment.  sale-ring
             a circle of buyers at an auction.  sales clerk US a salesman or
             saleswoman in a shop.  sales department etc. the section of a
             firm concerned with selling as opposed to manufacturing or
             dispatching goods.  sales engineer a salesperson with technical
             knowledge of the goods and their market.  sales resistance the
             opposition or apathy of a prospective customer etc. to be
             overcome by salesmanship.  sales talk persuasive talk to promote
             the sale of goods or the acceptance of an idea etc.  sales tax a
             tax on sales or on the receipts from sales.  [OE sala f. ON]

   saleable  adj.  (also salable) fit to be sold; finding purchasers.
             ЬЬsaleability n.

   salep     n.  a starchy preparation of the dried tubers of various
             orchids, used in cookery and formerly medicinally.  [F f. Turk.
             salep f. Arab. (kusa-' l-) ta' lab fox, fox's testicles]

   saleratus n.  US an ingredient of baking powder consisting mainly of
             potassium or sodium bicarbonate.  [mod.L sal aeratus aerated

   saleroom  n.  esp.  Brit.  a room in which items are sold at auction.

   salesgirl n.  a saleswoman.

   Salesian  n. & adj.  --n. a member of an educational religious order
             within the RC Church.  --adj. of or relating to this order.  [St
             Fran‡ois de Sales, Fr. RC bishop d. 1622]

   saleslady n.  (pl.  -ies) a saleswoman.

   salesman  n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  saleswoman, pl.  -women) 1 a person
             employed to sell goods in a shop, or as an agent between the
             producer and retailer.  2 US a commercial traveller.

             n.  1 skill in selling.  2 the techniques used in selling.

             n.  a salesman or saleswoman (used as a neutral alternative).

   salesroom n.  US = SALEROOM.

   Salian    adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the Salii, a 4th-c. Frankish
             people living near the River Ijssel, from which the Merovingians
             were descended.  --n. a member of this people.  [LL Salii]

   Salic     adj.  = SALIAN.  ЬSalic law hist.  1 a law excluding females
             from dynastic succession, esp. as the alleged fundamental law of
             the French monarchy.  2 a Frankish law-book extant in
             Merovingian and Carolingian times.  [F Salique or med.L Salicus
             f.  Salii (as SALIAN)]

   salicet   n.  an organ stop like a salicional but one octave higher.  [as

   salicin   n.  (also salicine) a bitter crystalline glucoside with
             analgesic properties, obtained from poplar and willow bark.  [F
             salicine f. L salix -icis willow]

             n.  an organ stop with a soft reedy tone like that of a
             willow-pipe.  [G f. L salix as SALICIN]

   salicylic acid
             n.  a bitter chemical used as a fungicide and in the manufacture
             of aspirin and dyestuffs.  ЬЬsalicylate n.  [salicyl its radical
             f. F salicyle (as SALICIN)]

   salient   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 jutting out; prominent; conspicuous, most
             noticeable.  2 (of an angle, esp. in fortification) pointing
             outwards (opp.  RE-ENTRANT).  3 Heraldry (of a lion etc.)
             standing on its hind legs with the forepaws raised.  4 archaic a
             leaping or dancing.  b (of water etc.) jetting forth.  --n. a
             salient angle or part of a work in fortification; an outward
             bulge in a line of military attack or defence.  Ьsalient point
             archaic the initial stage, origin, or first beginning.
             ЬЬsalience n.  saliency n.  saliently adv.  [L salire leap]

             adj. & n.  = ANURAN.  [mod.L Salientia (as SALIENT)]

             adj.  Geol.  (of rock etc.) containing much salt.  [L sal salt +

   salina    n.  a salt lake.  [Sp. f. med.L, = salt pit (as SALINE)]

   saline    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of natural waters, springs, etc.)
             impregnated with or containing salt or salts.  2 (of food or
             drink etc.) tasting of salt.  3 of chemical salts.  4 of the
             nature of a salt.  5 (of medicine) containing a salt or salts of
             alkaline metals or magnesium.  --n.  1 a salt lake, spring,
             marsh, etc.  2 a salt-pan or salt-works.  3 a saline substance,
             esp. a medicine.  4 a solution of salt in water.  ЬЬsalinity n.
             salinization n.  salinometer n.  [ME f. L sal salt]

   saliva    n.  liquid secreted into the mouth by glands to provide moisture
             and facilitate chewing and swallowing.  Ьsaliva test a
             scientific test requiring a saliva sample.  ЬЬsalivary adj.  [ME
             f. L]

   salivate  v.  1 intr. secrete or discharge saliva esp. in excess or in
             greedy anticipation.  2 tr. produce an unusual secretion of
             saliva in (a person) usu. with mercury.  ЬЬsalivation n.  [L
             salivare (as SALIVA)]

   Salk vaccine
             n.  a vaccine developed against polio.  [J. E.  Salk, Amer.
             scientist b. 1914]

   sallee    n.  (also sally) (pl.  -ees or -ies) Austral.  any of several
             eucalypts and acacias resembling the willow.  [Aboriginal]

   sallet    n.  (also salade) hist.  a light helmet with an outward-curving
             rear part.  [F salade ult. f. L caelare engrave f.  caelum

   sallow(1) adj. & v.  --adj.  (sallower, sallowest) (of the skin or
             complexion, or of a person) of a sickly yellow or pale brown.
             --v.tr. & intr. make or become sallow.  ЬЬsallowish adj.
             sallowness n.  [OE salo dusky f. Gmc]

   sallow(2) n.  1 a willow-tree, esp. one of a low-growing or shrubby kind.
             2 the wood or a shoot of this.  ЬЬsallowy adj.  [OE salh salg-
             f. Gmc, rel. to OHG salaha, ON selja, L salix]

   Sally     n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq.  1 (usu. prec. by the) the Salvation
             Army.  2 a member of this.  [abbr.]

   sally(1)  n. & v.  (pl.  -ies) --n.  1 a sudden charge from a
             fortification upon its besiegers; a sortie.  2 a going forth; an
             excursion.  3 a witticism; a piece of banter; a lively remark
             esp. by way of attack upon a person or thing or of a diversion
             in argument.  4 a sudden start into activity; an outburst.  5
             archaic an escapade.  --v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 (usu. foll. by
             out, forth) go for a walk, set out on a journey etc.  2 (usu.
             foll. by out) make a military sally.  3 archaic issue or come
             out suddenly.  Ьsally-port an opening in a fortification for
             making a sally from.  [F saillie fem. past part. of saillir
             issue f. OF salir f. L salire leap]

   sally(2)  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the part of a bell-rope prepared with inwoven
             wool for holding.  2 a the first movement of a bell when set for
             ringing.  b the bell's position when set.  Ьsally-hole the hole
             through which the bell-rope passes.  [perh. f.  SALLY(1) in
             sense 'leaping motion']

   sally(3)  var. of SALLEE.

   Sally Lunn
             n.  Brit.  a sweet light teacake, properly served hot.  [perh.
             f. the name of a woman selling them at Bath c.1800]

             n.  (pl.  salmagundis) 1 a dish of chopped meat, anchovies,
             eggs, onions, etc., and seasoning.  2 a general mixture; a
             miscellaneous collection of articles, subjects, qualities, etc.
             [F salmigondis of unkn. orig.]

             n.  a wine bottle of about 12 times the standard size.
             [Shalmaneser king of Assyria (2 Kings 17-18)]

   salmi     n.  (pl.  salmis) a ragout or casserole esp. of partly roasted
             game-birds.  [F, abbr. formed as SALMAGUNDI]

   salmon    n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same or (esp. of types) salmons) 1 any
             anadromous fish of the family Salmonidae, esp. of the genus
             Salmo, much prized for its (often smoked) pink flesh.  2
             Austral. & NZ the barramundi or a similar fish.  --adj.
             salmon-pink.  Ьsalmon-ladder (or -leap) a series of steps or
             other arrangement incorporated in a dam to allow salmon to pass
             upstream.  salmon-pink the colour of salmon flesh.  salmon trout
             a large silver-coloured trout, Salmo trutta.  ЬЬsalmonoid adj. &
             n. (in sense 1).  salmony adj.  [ME f. AF sa(u)moun, OF saumon
             f. L salmo -onis]

             n.  (pl.  salmonellae) 1 any bacterium of the genus Salmonella,
             esp. any of various serotypes causing food poisoning.  2 food
             poisoning caused by infection with salmonellae.  ЬЬsalmonellosis
             n.  [mod.L f. D. E.  Salmon, Amer. veterinary surgeon d. 1914]

   salon     n.  1 the reception room of a large, esp. French or continental,
             house.  2 a room or establishment where a hairdresser,
             beautician, etc., conducts trade.  3 hist. a meeting of eminent
             people in the reception room of a (esp.  Parisian) lady of
             fashion.  4 (Salon) an annual exhibition in Paris of the work of
             living artists.  Ьsalon music light music for the drawing-room
             etc.  [F: see SALOON]

   saloon    n.  1 a a large room or hall, esp. in a hotel or public
             building.  b a public room or gallery for a specified purpose
             (billiard-saloon; shooting-saloon).  2 (in full saloon car) a
             motor car with a closed body and no partition behind the driver.
             3 a public room on a ship.  4 US a drinking-bar.  5 (in full
             saloon bar) Brit. the more comfortable bar in a public house.  6
             (in full saloon car) Brit. a luxurious railway carriage serving
             as a lounge etc.  Ьsaloon deck a deck for passengers using the
             saloon.  saloon-keeper US a publican or bartender.  saloon
             pistol (or rifle) a pistol or rifle adapted for short-range
             practice in a shooting-saloon.  [F salon f. It.  salone augment.
             of sala hall]

   Salopian  n. & adj.  --n. a native or inhabitant of Shropshire.  --adj. of
             or relating to Shropshire.  [AF Salopesberia f. ME f. OE
             Scrobbesbyrig Shrewsbury]

             n.  any solanaceous plant of the genus Salpiglossis, cultivated
             for its funnel-shaped flowers.  [mod.L, irreg. f. Gk salpigx
             trumpet + glossa tongue]

   salping-  comb. form Med.  denoting the Fallopian tubes.  [Gk salpigx
             salpiggos, lit. 'trumpet']

             n.  (pl.  -ies) Med.  the surgical removal of the Fallopian

             n.  Med.  inflammation of the Fallopian tubes.

   salsa     n.  1 a kind of dance music of Latin American origin,
             incorporating jazz and rock elements.  2 a dance performed to
             this music.  [Sp. (as SAUCE)]

   salsify   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a European plant, Tragopogon porrifolius, with
             long cylindrical fleshy roots.  2 this root used as a vegetable.
             Ьblack salsify scorzonera.  [F salsifis f. obs. It.  salsefica,
             of unkn. orig.]

   SALT      abbr.  Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (or Treaty).

   salt      n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 (also common salt) sodium chloride; the
             substance that gives sea water its characteristic taste, got in
             crystalline form by mining from strata consisting of it or by
             the evaporation of sea water, and used for seasoning or
             preserving food, or for other purposes.  2 a chemical compound
             formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, with all or
             part of the hydrogen of the acid replaced by a metal or
             metal-like radical.  3 sting; piquancy; pungency; wit (added
             salt to the conversation).  4 (in sing. or pl.) a a substance
             resembling salt in taste, form, etc. (bath salts; Epsom salts;
             smelling-salts).  b (esp. in pl.) this type of substance used as
             a laxative.  5 a marsh, esp. one flooded by the tide, often used
             as a pasture or for collecting water for salt-making.  6 (also
             old salt) an experienced sailor.  7 (in pl.) an exceptional rush
             of sea water up river.  --adj.  1 impregnated with, containing,
             or tasting of salt; cured or preserved or seasoned with salt.  2
             (of a plant) growing in the sea or in salt marshes.  3 (of tears
             etc.) bitter.  4 (of wit) pungent.  --v.tr.  1 cure or preserve
             with salt or brine.  2 season with salt.  3 make (a narrative
             etc.) piquant.  4 sprinkle (the ground etc.) with salt esp. in
             order to melt snow etc.  5 treat with a solution of salt or
             mixture of salts.  6 (as salted adj.) (of a horse or person)
             hardened or proof against diseases etc. caused by the climate or
             by special conditions.  Ьeat salt with be a guest of.  in salt
             sprinkled with salt or immersed in brine as a preservative.  not
             made of salt not disconcerted by wet weather.  put salt on the
             tail of capture (with ref. to jocular directions given to
             children for catching a bird).  salt an account sl.  set an
             extremely high or low price for articles.  salt-and-pepper (of
             materials etc. and esp. of hair) with light and dark colours
             mixed together.  salt away (or down) sl.  put money etc. by.
             salt the books sl.  show receipts as larger than they really
             have been.  salt-cat a mass of salt mixed with gravel, urine,
             etc., to attract pigeons and keep them at home.  salt dome a
             mass of salt forced up into sedimentary rocks.  salt fish W.Ind.
             preserved cod.  salt-glaze a hard stoneware glaze produced by
             throwing salt into a hot kiln containing the ware.  salt-grass
             US grass growing in salt meadows or in alkaline regions.  salt
             horse Naut.  sl.  1 salt beef.  2 a naval officer with general
             duties.  salt lake a lake of salt water.  salt-lick 1 a place
             where animals go to lick salt from the ground.  2 this salt.
             salt-marsh = sense 5 of n.  salt meadow a meadow subject to
             flooding with salt water.  salt a mine sl.  introduce extraneous
             ore, material, etc., to make the source seem rich.  the salt of
             the earth a person or people of great worthiness, reliability,
             honesty, etc.; those whose qualities are a model for the rest
             (Matt. 5:13).  salt-pan a vessel, or a depression near the sea,
             used for getting salt by evaporation.  salt-shaker US a
             container of salt for sprinkling on food.  salt-spoon a small
             spoon usu. with a short handle and a roundish deep bowl for
             taking table salt.  salt water 1 sea water.  2 sl. tears.
             salt-water adj.  of or living in the sea.  salt-well a bored
             well yielding brine.  salt-works a place where salt is produced.
             take with a pinch (or grain) of salt regard as exaggerated; be
             incredulous about; believe only part of.  worth one's salt
             efficient, capable.  ЬЬsaltish adj.  saltless adj.  saltly adv.
             saltness n.  [OE s(e)alt s(e)altan, OS, ON, Goth.  salt, OHG
             salz f. Gmc]

             n.  (pl.  -os or saltarelli) an Italian and Spanish dance for
             one couple, with sudden skips.  [It.  salterello, Sp.
             saltarelo, rel. to It.  saltare and Sp.  saltar leap, dance f. L
             saltare (as SALTATION)]

   saltation n.  1 the act or an instance of leaping or dancing; a jump.  2 a
             sudden transition or movement.  ЬЬsaltatory adj.  saltatorial
             adj.  [L saltatio f.  saltare frequent. of salire salt- leap]

   saltbush  n.  = ORACHE.

             n.  1 a vessel holding salt for table use.  2 colloq. an
             unusually deep hollow above the collar-bone, esp. found in
             women.  [SALT + obs.  saler f. AF f. OF salier salt-box f. L (as
             SALARY), assim. to CELLAR]

   salter    n.  1 a manufacturer or dealer in salt.  2 a workman at a
             salt-works.  3 a person who salts fish etc.  4 = dry-salter.
             [OE sealtere (as SALT)]

   saltern   n.  1 a salt-works.  2 a set of pools for the natural
             evaporation of sea water.  [OE sealt‘rn (as SALT, ‘rn building)]

             adj. & n.  Zool.  --adj. (of arthropods) moving by leaping or
             jumping.  --n. a saltigrade arthropod, e.g. a spider,
             sand-hopper, etc.  [mod.L Saltigradae f. L saltus leap f.
             salire salt- + -gradus walking]

   salting   n.  1 in senses of SALT v.  2 (esp. in pl.) Geol. a salt marsh;
             a marsh overflowed by the sea.

   saltire   n.  Heraldry an ordinary formed by a bend and a bend sinister
             crossing like a St Andrew's cross.  Ьin saltire arranged in this
             way.  ЬЬsaltirewise adv.  [ME f. OF sau(l)toir etc.
             stirrup-cord, stile, saltire, f. med.L saltatorium (as

   saltpetre n.  (US saltpeter) potassium nitrate, a white crystalline salty
             substance used in preserving meat and as a constituent of
             gunpowder.  [ME f. OF salpetre f. med.L salpetra prob. for sal
             petrae (unrecorded) salt of rock (i.e. found as an
             incrustation): assim.  to SALT]

   saltus    n.  literary a sudden transition; a breach of continuity.  [L, =

   saltwort  n.  any plant of the genus Salsola; glasswort.

   salty     adj.  (saltier, saltiest) tasting of, containing, or preserved
             with salt.  ЬЬsaltiness n.

             adj.  1 health-giving; healthy.  2 (of surroundings etc.)
             pleasant; agreeable.  ЬЬsalubriously adv.  salubriousness n.
             salubrity n.  [L salubris f.  salus health]

   saluki    n.  (pl.  salukis) 1 a tall swift slender dog of a silky-coated
             breed with large ears and a fringed tail and feet.  2 this
             breed.  [Arab.  saluki]

   salutary  adj.  1 producing good effects; beneficial.  2 archaic
             health-giving.  [ME f. F salutaire or L salutaris f.  salus
             -utis health]

             n.  1 a sign or expression of greeting or recognition of
             another's arrival or departure.  2 words spoken or written to
             enquire about another's health or well-being.  ЬЬsalutational
             adj.  [ME f. OF salutation or L salutatio (as SALUTE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. of salutation.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) US an
             oration, esp. as given by a member of a graduating class, often
             the second-ranking member.  ЬЬsalutatorian n. (in sense of n.).
             [L salutatorius (as SALUTE)]

   salute    n. & v.  --n.  1 a gesture of respect, homage, or courteous
             recognition, esp. made to or by a person when arriving or
             departing.  2 a Mil. & Naut. a prescribed or specified movement
             of the hand or of weapons or flags as a sign of respect or
             recognition.  b (prec. by the) the attitude taken by an
             individual soldier, sailor, policeman, etc., in saluting.  3 the
             discharge of a gun or guns as a formal or ceremonial sign of
             respect or celebration.  4 Fencing the formal performance of
             certain guards etc. by fencers before engaging.  --v.  1 a tr.
             make a salute to.  b intr. (often foll. by to) perform a salute.
             2 tr. greet; make a salutation to.  3 tr. (foll. by with)
             receive or greet with (a smile etc.).  4 tr.  archaic hail as
             (king etc.).  Ьtake the salute 1 (of the highest officer
             present) acknowledge it by gesture as meant for him.  2 receive
             ceremonial salutes by members of a procession.  ЬЬsaluter n.
             [ME f. L salutare f.  salus -utis health]

   salvage   n. & v.  --n.  1 the rescue of a ship, its cargo, or other
             property, from loss at sea, destruction by fire, etc.  2 the
             property etc. saved in this way.  3 a the saving and utilization
             of waste paper, scrap material, etc.  b the materials salvaged.
             4 payment made or due to a person who has saved a ship or its
             cargo.  --v.tr.  1 save from a wreck, fire, etc.  2 retrieve or
             preserve (something favourable) in adverse circumstances (tried
             to salvage some dignity).  ЬЬsalvageable adj.  salvager n.  [F
             f. med.L salvagium f. L salvare SAVE(1)]

   salvation n.  1 the act of saving or being saved; preservation from loss,
             calamity, etc.  2 deliverance from sin and its consequences and
             admission to heaven, brought about by Christ.  3 a religious
             conversion.  4 a person or thing that saves (was the salvation
             of).  ЬSalvation Army a worldwide evangelical organization on
             quasi-military lines for the revival of Christianity and helping
             the poor.  ЬЬsalvationism n.  salvationist n. (both nouns esp.
             with ref. to the Salvation Army).  [ME f. OF sauvacion,
             salvacion, f. eccl.L salvatio -onis f.  salvare SAVE(1), transl.
             Gk soteria]

   salve(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a healing ointment.  2 (often foll. by for) a
             thing that is soothing or consoling for wounded feelings, an
             uneasy conscience, etc.  3 archaic a thing that explains away a
             discrepancy or palliates a fault.  --v.tr.  1 soothe (pride,
             self-love, conscience, etc.).  2 archaic anoint (a wound etc.).
             3 archaic smooth over, make good, vindicate, harmonize, etc.
             [OE s(e)alf(e), s(e)alfian f. Gmc; senses 1 and 3 of v. partly
             f. L salvare SAVE(1)]

   salve(2)  v.tr.  1 save (a ship or its cargo) from loss at sea.  2 save
             (property) from fire.  ЬЬsalvable adj.  [back-form. f.  SALVAGE]

   salver    n.  a tray usu. of gold, silver, brass, or electroplate, on
             which drinks, letters, etc., are offered.  [F salve tray for
             presenting food to the king f. Sp.  salva assaying of food f.
             salvar SAVE: assoc. with platter]

   Salve Regina
             n.  1 a Roman Catholic hymn or prayer said or sung after
             compline and after the Divine Office from Trinity Sunday to
             Advent.  2 the music for this.  [f. the opening words salve
             regina hail (holy) queen]

   salvia    n.  any plant of the genus Salvia, esp.  S. splendens with red
             or blue flowers.  [L, = SAGE(1)]

   Salvo     n.  (pl.  -os) Austral.  sl.  a member of the Salvation Army.

   salvo(1)  n.  (pl.  -oes or -os) 1 the simultaneous firing of artillery or
             other guns esp.  as a salute, or in a sea-fight.  2 a number of
             bombs released from aircraft at the same moment.  3 a round or
             volley of applause.  [earlier salve f. F f. It.  salva
             salutation (as SAVE(1))]

   salvo(2)  n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a saving clause; a reservation (with an express
             salvo of their rights).  2 a tacit reservation.  3 a quibbling
             evasion; a bad excuse.  4 an expedient for saving reputation or
             soothing pride or conscience.  [L, ablat. of salvus SAFE as used
             in salvo jure without prejudice to the rights of (a person)]

   sal volatile
             n.  ammonium carbonate, esp. in the form of a flavoured solution
             in alcohol used as smelling-salts.  [mod.L, = volatile salt]

   salvor    n.  a person or ship making or assisting in salvage.  [SALVE(2)]

   SAM       abbr.  surface-to-air missile.

   Sam.      abbr.  Samuel (Old Testament).

   samadhi   n.  Buddhism & Hinduism 1 a state of concentration induced by
             meditation.  2 a state into which a perfected holy man is said
             to pass at his apparent death.  [Skr.  samadhi contemplation]

   samara    n.  Bot.  a winged seed from the sycamore, ash, etc.  [mod.L f.
             L, = elm-seed]

   Samaritan n. & adj.  --n.  1 (in full good Samaritan) a charitable or
             helpful person (with ref. to Luke 10:33 etc.).  2 a member of an
             organization which counsels people in distress by telephone or
             face to face.  3 a native of Samaria in West Jordan .  4 the
             language of this people.  5 an adherent of the Samaritan
             religious system, accepting only the Samaritan Pentateuch.
             --adj. of Samaria or the Samaritans.  ЬSamaritan Pentateuch a
             recension used by Samaritans of which the MSS are in archaic
             characters.  ЬЬSamaritanism n.  [LL Samaritanus f. Gk Samareites
             f.  Samareia Samaria]

   samarium  n.  Chem.  a soft silvery metallic element of the lanthanide
             series, occurring naturally in monazite etc. and used in making
             ferromagnetic alloys.  °Symb.: Sm.  [samarskite the mineral in
             which its spectrum was first observed, f.  Samarski name of a
             19th-c. Russ. official]

   samba     n. & v.  --n.  1 a Brazilian dance of African origin.  2 a
             ballroom dance imitative of this.  3 the music for this.
             --v.intr.  (sambas, sambaed or samba'd, sambaing) dance the
             samba.  [Port., of Afr. orig.]

   sambar    n.  (also samba, sambhar) either of two large deer, Cervus
             unicolor or C. equinus, native to S. Asia.  [Hindi sa(m)bar]

   Sambo     n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) 1 sl.  offens. a Black person.  2 (sambo)
             hist. a person of mixed race esp. of Negro and Indian or Negro
             and European blood.  [Sp.  zambo perh. = zambo bandy-legged;
             sense 1 perh. a different word f. Foulah sambo uncle]

   Sam Browne
             n. (in full Sam Browne belt) an army officer's belt and the
             strap supporting it.  [Sir Samuel J.  Browne, Brit. military
             commander d. 1901]

   same      adj., pron., & adv.  --adj.  1 (often prec. by the) identical;
             not different; unchanged (everyone was looking in the same
             direction; the same car was used in another crime; saying the
             same thing over and over).  2 unvarying, uniform, monotonous
             (the same old story).  3 (usu. prec. by this, these, that,
             those) (of a person or thing) previously alluded to; just
             mentioned; aforesaid (this same man was later my husband).
             --pron. (prec. by the) 1 the same person or thing (the others
             asked for the same).  2 Law or archaic the person or thing just
             mentioned (detected the youth breaking in and apprehended the
             same).  --adv. (usu. prec. by the) similarly; in the same way
             (we all feel the same; I want to go, the same as you do).  Ьall
             (or just) the same 1 emphatically the same.  2 in spite of
             changed conditions, adverse circumstances, etc.  (but you should
             offer, all the same).  at the same time 1 simultaneously.  2
             notwithstanding; in spite of circumstances etc.  be all (or
             just) the same to an expression of indifference or impartiality
             (it's all the same to me what we do).  by the same token see
             TOKEN.  same here colloq.  the same applies to me.  the same to
             you!  may you do, have, find, etc., the same thing; likewise.
             the very same emphatically the same.  ЬЬsameness n.  [ME f. ON
             sami, sama, with Gmc cognates]

   samey     adj.  (samier, samiest) colloq.  lacking in variety; monotonous.
             ЬЬsameyness n.

   samfu     n.  a suit consisting of a jacket and trousers, worn by Chinese
             women and sometimes men.  [Cantonese]

   Samhain   n.  Brit.  Nov., celebrated by the Celts as a festival marking
             the beginning of winter.  [Ir.  Samhain]

   Samian    n. & adj.  --n. a native or inhabitant of Samos, an island in
             the Aegean sea.  --adj. of Samos.  ЬSamian ware fine red pottery
             from various parts of the Roman Empire, esp.  Gaulish pottery
             often found on Roman sites in Britain.  [L Samius f. Gk Samios

   samisen   n.  a long three-stringed Japanese guitar, played with a
             plectrum.  [Jap. f. Chin.  san-hsien f.  san three + hsien

   samite    n.  hist.  a rich medieval dress-fabric of silk occas.
             interwoven with gold.  [ME f. OF samit f. med.L examitum f. med.
             Gk hexamiton f. Gk hexa- six + mitos thread]

   samizdat  n.  a system of clandestine publication of banned literature in
             the USSR.  [Russ., = self-publishing house]

   Samnite   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a member of a people of ancient Italy often
             at war with republican Rome.  2 the language of this people.
             --adj. of this people or their language.  [ME f. L Samnites
             (pl.), rel. to Sabinus SABINE]

   Samoan    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native of Samoa, a group of islands in the
             Pacific.  2 the language of this people.  --adj. of or relating
             to Samoa or its people or language.  [Samoa]

   samosa    n.  a triangular pastry fried in ghee or oil, containing spiced
             vegetables or meat.  [Hind.]

   samovar   n.  a Russian urn for making tea, with an internal heating tube
             to keep water at boiling-point.  [Russ., = self-boiler]

   Samoyed   n.  1 a member of a people of northern Siberia.  2 the language
             of this people.  3 (also samoyed) a a dog of a white Arctic
             breed.  b this breed.  [Russ.  samoed]

   Samoyedic n. & adj.  --n. the language of the Samoyeds.  --adj. of or
             relating to the Samoyeds.

   samp      n.  US 1 coarsely-ground maize.  2 porridge made of this.
             [Algonquin nasamp softened by water]

   sampan    n.  a small boat usu. with a stern-oar or stern-oars, used in
             the Far East.  [Chin.  san-ban f.  san three + ban board]

   samphire  n.  1 an umbelliferous maritime rock plant, Crithmum maritimum,
             with aromatic fleshy leaves used in pickles.  2 the glasswort.
             [earlier samp(i)ere f. F (herbe de) Saint Pierre St Peter('s

   sample    n. & v.  --n.  1 a small part or quantity intended to show what
             the whole is like.  2 a small amount of fabric, food, or other
             commodity, esp.  given to a prospective customer.  3 a specimen,
             esp. one taken for scientific testing or analysis.  4 an
             illustrative or typical example.  --v.tr.  1 take or give
             samples of.  2 try the qualities of.  3 get a representative
             experience of.  Ьsample bag Austral.  an (orig. free) bag of
             advertisers' samples.  [ME f. AF assample, OF essample EXAMPLE]

             n.  a piece of embroidery worked in various stitches as a
             specimen of proficiency (often displayed on a wall etc.).  [OF
             essamplaire (as EXEMPLAR)]

             n.  1 a person who samples.  2 US a collection of representative
             items etc.

   samsara   n.  Ind.  Philos.  the endless cycle of death and rebirth to
             which life in the material world is bound.  ЬЬsamsaric adj.
             [Skr.  samsara a wandering through]

   samskara  n.  Ind.  Philos.  1 a purificatory ceremony or rite marking an
             event in one's life.  2 a mental impression, instinct, or
             memory.  [Skr.  samskara a making perfect, preparation]

   Samson    n.  a person of great strength or resembling Samson in some
             respect.  ЬSamson- (or Samson's-) post 1 a strong pillar passing
             through the hold of a ship or between decks.  2 a post in a
             whaleboat to which a harpoon rope is attached.  [LL f. Gk
             Sampson f. Heb.  sims“n (Judg. 13-16)]

   samurai   n.  (pl. same) 1 a Japanese army officer.  2 hist. a military
             retainer of the daimios; a member of a military caste in Japan.

   san       n.  = SANATORIUM 2.  [abbr.]

   sanative  adj.  1 healing; curative.  2 of or tending to physical or moral
             health.  [ME f. OF sanatif or LL sanativus f. L sanare cure]

             n.  (pl.  sanatoriums or sanatoria) 1 an establishment for the
             treatment of invalids, esp. of convalescents and the chronically
             sick.  2 Brit. a room or building for sick people in a school
             etc.  [mod.L (as SANATIVE)]

   sanctify  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 consecrate; set apart or observe as holy.
             2 purify or free from sin.  3 make legitimate or binding by
             religious sanction; justify; give the colour of morality or
             innocence to.  4 make productive of or conducive to holiness.
             ЬЬsanctification n.  sanctifier n.  [ME f. OF saintifier f.
             eccl.L sanctificare f. L sanctus holy]

             adj.  making a show of sanctity or piety.  ЬЬsanctimoniously
             adv.  sanctimoniousness n.  sanctimony n.  [L sanctimonia
             sanctity (as SAINT)]

   sanction  n. & v.  --n.  1 approval or encouragement given to an action
             etc. by custom or tradition; express permission.  2 confirmation
             or ratification of a law etc.  3 a a penalty for disobeying a
             law or rule, or a reward for obeying it.  b a clause containing
             this.  4 Ethics a consideration operating to enforce obedience
             to any rule of conduct.  5 (esp. in pl.) military or esp.
             economic action by a State to coerce another to conform to an
             international agreement or norms of conduct.  6 Law hist. a law
             or decree.  --v.tr.  1 authorize, countenance, or agree to (an
             action etc.).  2 ratify; attach a penalty or reward to; make
             binding.  ЬЬsanctionable adj.  [F f. L sanctio -onis f.  sancire
             sanct- make sacred]

             n.  archaic saintliness.  [ME f. L sanctitudo (as SAINT)]

   sanctity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 holiness of life; saintliness.  2 sacredness;
             the state of being hallowed.  3 inviolability.  4 (in pl.)
             sacred obligations, feelings, etc.  [ME f. OF sain(c)tit‚ or L
             sanctitas (as SAINT)]

   sanctuary n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a holy place; a church, temple, etc.  2 a the
             inmost recess or holiest part of a temple etc.  b the part of
             the chancel containing the high altar.  3 a place where birds,
             wild animals, etc., are bred and protected.  4 a place of
             refuge, esp. for political refugees.  5 a immunity from arrest.
             b the right to offer this.  6 hist. a sacred place where a
             fugitive from the law or a debtor was secured by medieval Church
             law against arrest or violence.  Ьtake sanctuary resort to a
             place of refuge.  [ME f. AF sanctuarie, OF sanctuaire f. L
             sanctuarium (as SAINT)]

   sanctum   n.  (pl.  sanctums) 1 a holy place.  2 colloq. a person's
             private room, study, or den.  Ьsanctum sanctorum 1 the holy of
             holies in the Jewish temple.  2 = sense 2 of n.  3 an inner
             retreat.  4 an esoteric doctrine etc.  [L, neut. of sanctus
             holy, past part. of sancire consecrate: sanctorum genit. pl. in
             transl. of Heb.  kodes hakkш dasЊm holy of holies]

   sanctus   n. (also Sanctus) 1 the prayer or hymn beginning 'Holy, holy,
             holy' said or sung at the end of the Eucharistic preface.  2 the
             music for this.  Ьsanctus bell a handbell or the bell in the
             turret at the junction of the nave and the chancel, rung at the
             sanctus or at the elevation of the Eucharist.  [ME f. L, = holy]

   sand      n. & v.  --n.  1 a loose granular substance resulting from the
             wearing down of esp. siliceous rocks and found on the seashore,
             river-beds, deserts, etc.  2 (in pl.) grains of sand.  3 (in
             pl.) an expanse or tracts of sand.  4 a light yellow-brown
             colour like that of sand.  5 (in pl.) a sandbank.  6 US colloq.
             firmness of purpose; grit.  --v.tr.  1 smooth or polish with
             sandpaper or sand.  2 sprinkle or overlay with, or bury under,
             sand.  3 adulterate (sugar etc.) with sand.  Ьsand bar a
             sandbank at the mouth of a river or US on the coast.  sand-bath
             a vessel of heated sand to provide uniform heating.  sand-bed a
             stratum of sand.  sand-cloud driving sand in a simoom.
             sand-crack 1 a fissure in a horse's hoof.  2 a crack in the
             human foot from walking on hot sand.  3 a crack in brick due to
             imperfect mixing.  sand dollar US any of various round flat sea
             urchins, esp. of the order Clypeasteroida.  sand-dune (or -hill)
             a mound or ridge of sand formed by the wind.  sand eel any
             eel-like fish of the family Ammodytidae or Hypotychidae: also
             called LAUNCE.  sand-flea a chigoe or sand-hopper.  sand-glass =
             HOURGLASS.  sand-groper Austral.  1 a gold-rush pioneer.  2 joc.
             a Western Australian.  sand-hill a dune.  sand-hopper any of
             various small jumping crustaceans of the order Amphipoda,
             burrowing on the seashore.  sand-martin a swallow-like bird,
             Riparia riparia, nesting in the side of a sandy bank etc.  the
             sands are running out the allotted time is nearly at an end.
             sand-shoe a shoe with a canvas, rubber, hemp, etc., sole for use
             on sand.  sand-skipper = sand-hopper.  sand-yacht a boat on
             wheels propelled along a beach by wind.  ЬЬsander n.  sandlike
             adj.  [OE sand f. Gmc]

   sandal(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a light shoe with an openwork upper or no
             upper, attached to the foot usu. by straps.  2 a strap for
             fastening a low shoe, passing over the instep or around the
             ankle.  --v.tr.  (sandalled, sandalling; US sandaled, sandaling)
             1 (esp. as sandalled adj.) put sandals on (a person, his feet).
             2 fasten or provide (a shoe) with a sandal.  [ME f. L sandalium
             f. Gk sandalion dimin. of sandalon wooden shoe, prob. of Asiatic

   sandal(2) n.  = SANDALWOOD.  Ьsandal-tree any tree yielding sandalwood,
             esp. the white sandalwood, Santalum album, of India.  [ME f.
             med.L sandalum, ult. f. Skr.  candana]

             n.  1 the scented wood of a sandal-tree.  2 a perfume derived
             from this.  Ьred sandalwood the red wood from either of two SE
             Asian trees, Adenanthera pavonina and Pterocarpus santalinus,
             used as timber and to produce a red dye.  sandalwood oil a
             yellow aromatic oil made from the sandal-tree.

   sandarac  n.  (also sandarach) 1 the gummy resin of a N. African conifer,
             Tetraclinis articulata, used in making varnish.  2 = REALGAR.
             [L sandaraca f. Gk sandarake, of Asiatic orig.]

   sandbag   n. & v.  --n. a bag filled with sand for use: 1 (in
             fortification) for making temporary defences or for the
             protection of a building etc. against blast and splinters or
             floodwaters.  2 as ballast esp. for a boat or balloon.  3 as a
             weapon to inflict a heavy blow without leaving a mark.  4 to
             stop a draught from a window or door.  --v.tr.  (-bagged,
             -bagging) 1 barricade or defend.  2 place sandbags against (a
             window, chink, etc.).  3 fell with a blow from a sandbag.  4 US
             coerce by harsh means.  ЬЬsandbagger n.

   sandbank  n.  a deposit of sand forming a shallow place in the sea or a

   sandblast v. & n.  --v.tr. roughen, treat, or clean with a jet of sand
             driven by compressed air or steam.  --n. this jet.
             ЬЬsandblaster n.

   sandbox   n.  1 Railways a box of sand on a locomotive for sprinkling
             slippery rails.  2 Golf a container for sand used in teeing.  3
             a sandpit enclosed in a box.  4 hist. a device for sprinkling
             sand to dry ink.

   sandboy   n.  Ьhappy as a sandboy extremely happy or carefree.  [prob. = a
             boy hawking sand for sale]

             n.  a shape like a castle made in sand, usu. by a child on the

             n.  a small wading bird, Calidris alba, of the sandpiper family.
             [perh. f. an OE form sandyrthling (unrecorded, as SAND +
             yrthling ploughman, also the name of a bird)]

   sanders   n.  (also saunders) sandalwood, esp. red sandalwood.  [ME f. OF
             sandre var. of sandle SANDAL(2)]

   sandfly   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 any midge of the genus Simulium.  2 any biting
             fly of the genus Phlebotomus transmitting the viral disease

   sandhi    n.  Gram.  the process whereby the form of a word changes as a
             result of its position in an utterance (e.g. the change from a
             to an before a vowel).  [Skr.  samdhi putting together]

   sandhog   n.  US a person who works underwater laying foundations,
             constructing tunnels, etc.

   sandiver  n.  liquid scum formed in glass-making.  [ME app. f. F suin de
             verre exhalation of glass f.  suer to sweat]

   sandlot   n.  US a piece of unoccupied sandy land used for children's

   sandman   n.  the personification of tiredness causing children's eyes to
             smart towards bedtime.

   sandpaper n.  paper with sand or another abrasive stuck to it for
             smoothing or polishing.

   sandpiper n.  any of various wading birds of the family Scolopacidae,
             frequenting moorland and coastal areas.

   sandpit   n.  a hollow partly filled with sand, usu. for children to play

   sandsoap  n.  heavy-duty gritty soap.

   sandstock n.  brick made with sand dusted on the surface.

   sandstone n.  1 any clastic rock containing particles visible to the naked
             eye.  2 a sedimentary rock of consolidated sand commonly red,
             yellow, brown, grey, or white.

   sandstorm n.  a desert storm of wind with clouds of sand.

   sandwich  n. & v.  --n.  1 two or more slices of usu. buttered bread with
             a filling of meat, cheese, etc., between them.  2 a cake of two
             or more layers with jam or cream between (bake a sponge
             sandwich).  --v.tr.  1 put (a thing, statement, etc.) between
             two of another character.  2 squeeze in between others (sat
             sandwiched in the middle).  Ьsandwich-board one of two
             advertisement boards carried by a sandwich-man.  sandwich course
             a course of training with alternate periods of practical
             experience and theoretical instruction.  sandwich-man (pl.
             -men) a man who walks the streets with sandwich-boards hanging
             before and behind.  [4th Earl of Sandwich, Engl. nobleman d.
             1792, said to have eaten food in this form so as not to leave
             the gaming-table]

   sandwort  n.  any low-growing plant of the genus Arenaria, usu. bearing
             small white flowers.

   sandy     adj.  (sandier, sandiest) 1 having the texture of sand.  2
             having much sand.  3 a (of hair) yellowish-red.  b (of a person)
             having sandy hair.  Ьsandy blight Austral.  conjunctivitis with
             sandlike grains in the eye.  ЬЬsandiness n.  sandyish adj.  [OE
             sandig (as SAND)]

   sane      adj.  1 of sound mind; not mad.  2 (of views etc.) moderate;
             sensible.  ЬЬsanely adv.  saneness n.  [L sanus healthy]

   sang      past of SING.

   sangar    n.  (also sanga) a stone breastwork round a hollow.  [Pashto

   sangaree  n.  a cold drink of wine diluted and spiced.  [Sp.  sangrЎa

             n.  composure, coolness, etc., in danger or under agitating
             circumstances.  [F, = cold blood]

   sangrail  n.  = GRAIL.  [ME f. OF saint graal (as SAINT, GRAIL)]

   sangria   n.  a Spanish drink of red wine with lemonade, fruit, etc.
             [Sp., = bleeding: cf.  SANGAREE]

             adj.  1 accompanied by or delighting in bloodshed.  2 bloody;
             bloodthirsty.  3 (of laws) inflicting death freely.
             ЬЬsanguinarily adv.  sanguinariness n.  [L sanguinarius f.
             sanguis -inis blood]

   sanguine  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 optimistic; confident.  2 (of the
             complexion) florid; bright; ruddy.  3 hist. of a ruddy
             complexion with a courageous and hopeful amorous disposition.  4
             hist. of the temperament in which blood predominates over the
             other humours.  5 Heraldry or literary blood red.  6 archaic
             bloody; bloodthirsty.  --n.  1 a blood-red colour.  2 a crayon
             of chalk coloured red or flesh with iron oxide.  ЬЬsanguinely
             adv.  sanguineness n. (both in sense 1 of n.).  [ME f. OF
             sanguin -ine blood-red f. L sanguineus (as SANGUINARY)]

             adj.  1 sanguinary.  2 Med. of or relating to blood.  3
             blood-red.  4 full-blooded; plethoric.  [L sanguineus (as

   Sanhedrin n.  (also Sanhedrim) the highest court of justice and the
             supreme council in ancient Jerusalem with 71 members.  [late
             Heb.  sanhedrЊn f. Gk sunedrion (as SYN-, hedra seat)]

   sanicle   n.  any umbelliferous plant of the genus Sanicula, esp.  S.
             europaea, formerly believed to have healing properties.  [ME
             ult. f. med.L sanicula perh. f. L sanus healthy]

   sanify    v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) make healthy; improve the sanitary state of.
             [L sanus healthy]

             n.  (pl.  sanitariums or sanitaria) US = SANATORIUM.  [pseudo-L
             f. L sanitas health]

   sanitary  adj.  1 of the conditions that affect health, esp. with regard
             to dirt and infection.  2 hygienic; free from or designed to
             kill germs, infection, etc.  Ьsanitary engineer a person dealing
             with systems needed to maintain public health.  sanitary towel
             (US napkin) an absorbent pad used during menstruation.  sanitary
             ware porcelain for lavatories etc.  ЬЬsanitarian n. & adj.
             sanitarily adv.  sanitariness n.  [F sanitaire f. L sanitas: see

             n.  1 sanitary conditions.  2 the maintenance or improving of
             these.  3 the disposal of sewage and refuse from houses etc.
             ЬЬsanitate v.tr. & intr.  sanitationist n.  [irreg. f.

   sanitize  v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make sanitary; disinfect.  2 US colloq.
             render (information etc.) more acceptable by removing improper
             or disturbing material.  ЬЬsanitizer n.

   sanity    n.  1 a the state of being sane.  b mental health.  2 the
             tendency to avoid extreme views.  [ME f. L sanitas (as SANE)]

   sank      past of SINK.

   sannyasi  n.  (also sanyasi) (pl. same) a Hindu religious mendicant.
             [Hindi & Urdu sannyasi f. Skr.  samnyasin laying aside f.  sam
             together, ni down, as throw]

   sans      prep.  archaic or joc.  without.  [ME f. OF san(z), sen(s) ult.
             f. L sine, infl. by L absentia in the absence of]

             n.  1 hist. a lower-class Parisian republican in the French
             Revolution.  2 an extreme republican or revolutionary.
             ЬЬsansculottism n.  [F, lit. = without knee-breeches]

   sanserif  n. & adj.  (also sans-serif) Printing --n. a form of type
             without serifs.  --adj. without serifs.  [app. f.  SANS + SERIF]

   Sanskrit  n. & adj.  --n. the ancient and sacred language of the Hindus in
             India.  --adj. of or in this language.  ЬЬSanskritic adj.
             Sanskritist n.  [Skr.  samskrta composed, elaborated, f.  sam
             together, kr make, -ta past part. ending]

   Santa Claus
             n.  (also colloq.  Santa) a person said to bring children
             presents on the night before Christmas.  [orig. US f. Du. dial.
             Sante Klaas St Nicholas]

   santolina n.  any aromatic shrub of the genus Santolina, with finely
             divided leaves and small usu. yellow flowers.  [mod.L, var. of

   santonica n.  1 a shrubby wormwood plant, Artemisia cina, yielding
             santonin.  2 the dried flower-heads of this used as an
             anthelmintic.  [L f.  Santones an Aquitanian tribe]

   santonin  n.  a toxic drug extracted from santonica and other plants of
             the genus Artemisia, used as an anthelmintic.  [SANTONICA + -IN]

   sanyasi   var. of SANNYASI.

   sap(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 the vital juice circulating in plants.  2
             vigour; vitality.  3 = SAPWOOD.  4 US sl. a bludgeon (orig. one
             made from a sapling).  --v.tr.  (sapped, sapping) 1 drain or dry
             (wood) of sap.  2 exhaust the vigour of (my energy had been
             sapped by disappointment).  3 remove the sapwood from (a log).
             4 US sl. hit with a sap.  Ьsap-green n.  1 the pigment made from
             buckthorn berries.  2 the colour of this.  --adj. of this
             colour.  ЬЬsapful adj.  sapless adj.  [OE s‘p prob. f. Gmc]

   sap(2)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a tunnel or trench to conceal assailants'
             approach to a fortified place; a covered siege-trench.  2 an
             insidious or slow undermining of a belief, resolution, etc.
             --v.  (sapped, sapping) 1 intr.  a dig a sap or saps.  b
             approach by a sap.  2 tr. undermine; make insecure by removing
             the foundations.  3 tr. destroy insidiously.  [ult. f. It.
             zappa spade, spadework, in part through F sappe sap(p)er, prob.
             of Arab. orig.]

   sap(3)    n.  sl.  a foolish person.  [abbr. of sapskull f.  SAP(1) =
             sapwood + SKULL]

   sapanwood var. of SAPPANWOOD.

   sapele    n.  1 any of several large W. African hardwood trees of the
             genus Entandrophragma.  2 the reddish-brown mahogany-like timber
             of these trees.  [W. Afr. name]

   sapid     adj.  literary 1 having (esp. an agreeable) flavour; savoury;
             palatable; not insipid.  2 literary (of talk, writing, etc.) not
             vapid or uninteresting.  ЬЬsapidity n.  [L sapidus f.  sapere

   sapient   adj.  literary 1 wise.  2 aping wisdom; of fancied sagacity.
             ЬЬsapience n.  sapiently adv.  [ME f. OF sapient or L part. stem
             of sapere be wise]

             adj.  literary of or relating to wisdom.  [ME f. F sapiential or
             eccl.L sapientialis f. L sapientia wisdom]

   sapling   n.  1 a young tree.  2 a youth.  3 a greyhound in its first

   sapodilla n.  a large evergreen tropical American tree, Manilkara zapota,
             with edible fruit and durable wood, and sap from which chicle is
             obtained.  Ьsapodilla plum the fruit of this tree.  [Sp.
             zapotillo dimin. of zapote f. Aztec tz potl]

             adj.  1 of, like, or containing soap; soapy.  2 joc. unctuous;
             flattering.  [mod.L saponaceus f. L sapo -onis soap]

   saponify  v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. turn (fat or oil) into soap by reaction
             with an alkali.  2 tr. convert (an ester) to an acid and
             alcohol.  3 intr. become saponified.  ЬЬsaponifiable adj.
             saponification n.  [F saponifier (as SAPONACEOUS)]

   saponin   n.  any of a group of plant glycosides, esp. those derived from
             the bark of the tree Quillaja saponaria, that foam when shaken
             with water and are used in detergents and fire extinguishers.
             [F saponine f. L sapo -onis soap]

   sapor     n.  1 a quality perceptible by taste, e.g. sweetness.  2 the
             distinctive taste of a substance.  3 the sensation of taste.
             [ME f. L sapere taste]

             n.  (also sapanwood) the heartwood of an E. Indian tree,
             Caesalpinia sappan, formerly used as a source of red dye.  [Du.
             sapan f. Malay sapang, of S. Indian orig.]

   sapper    n.  1 a person who digs saps.  2 Brit. a soldier of the Royal
             Engineers (esp. as the official term for a private).

   Sapphic   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to Sappho, poetess of Lesbos
             c.600 BC, or her poetry.  2 lesbian.  --n. (in pl.) (sapphics)
             verse in a metre associated with Sappho.  [F sa(p)phique f. L
             Sapphicus f. Gk Sapphikos f.  Sappho]

   sapphire  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a transparent blue precious stone consisting
             of corundum.  2 precious transparent corundum of any colour.  3
             the bright blue of a sapphire.  4 a humming-bird with bright
             blue colouring.  --adj. of sapphire blue.  Ьsapphire wedding a
             45th wedding anniversary.  ЬЬsapphirine adj.  [ME f. OF safir f.
             L sapphirus f. Gk sappheiros prob. = lapis lazuli]

   sappy     adj.  (sappier, sappiest) 1 full of sap.  2 young and vigorous.
             ЬЬsappily adv.  sappiness n.

   sapro-    comb. form Biol.  rotten, putrefying.  [Gk sapros putrid]

             adj.  causing or produced by putrefaction.

             adj.  feeding on decaying matter.

             n.  a bacterium inhabiting putrid matter.  ЬЬsaprophilous adj.

             n.  any plant or micro-organism living on dead or decayed
             organic matter.  ЬЬsaprophytic adj.

   sapwood   n.  the soft outer layers of recently formed wood between the
             heartwood and the bark.

   saraband  n.  1 a stately old Spanish dance.  2 music for this or in its
             rhythm, usu. in triple time often with a long note on the second
             beat of the bar.  [F sarabande f. Sp. & It.  zarabanda]

   Saracen   n. & adj.  hist.  --n.  1 an Arab or Muslim at the time of the
             Crusades.  2 a nomad of the Syrian and Arabian desert.  --adj.
             of the Saracens.  ЬSaracen corn Brit.  archaic buckwheat.
             Saracen's head the head of a Saracen or Turk as a heraldic
             charge or inn-sign.  ЬЬSaracenic adj.  [ME f. OF sar(r)azin,
             sar(r)acin f. LL Saracenus f. late Gk Sarakenos perh. f. Arab.
             sarki eastern]

   sarangi   n.  (pl.  sarangis) an Indian stringed instrument played with a
             bow.  [Hindi sarangi]

   sarape    var. of SERAPE.

   sarcasm   n.  1 a bitter or wounding remark.  2 a taunt, esp. one
             ironically worded.  3 language consisting of such remarks.  4
             the faculty of using this.  ЬЬsarcastic adj.  sarcastically adv.
             [F sarcasme or f. LL sarcasmus f. late Gk sarkasmos f. Gk
             sarkazo tear flesh, in late Gk gnash the teeth, speak bitterly
             f.  sarx sarkos flesh]

   sarcenet  var. of SARSENET.

   sarcoma   n.  (pl.  sarcomas or sarcomata) a malignant tumour of
             connective or other non-epithelial tissue.  ЬЬsarcomatosis n.
             sarcomatous adj.  [mod.L f. Gk sarkoma f.  sarkoo become fleshy
             f.  sarx sarkos flesh]

             n.  (pl.  sarcophagi) a stone coffin, esp. one adorned with a
             sculpture or inscription.  [L f. Gk sarkophagos flesh-consuming
             (as SARCOMA, -phagos -eating)]

             n.  Anat.  the cytoplasm in which muscle fibrils are embedded.
             [Gk sarx sarkos flesh + PLASMA]

   sarcous   adj.  consisting of flesh or muscle.  [Gk sarx sarkos flesh]

   sard      n.  a yellow or orange-red cornelian.  [ME f. F sarde or L sarda
             = LL sardius f. Gk sardios prob. f.  Sardo Sardinia]

   sardelle  n.  any of several fish resembling the sardine.  [It.  sardella
             dimin. of sarda f. L (as SARDINE(1))]

             n.  a young pilchard or similar young or small herring-like
             marine fish.  Ьlike sardines crowded close together (as sardines
             are in tins).  [ME f. OF sardine = It.  sardina f. L f.  sarda
             f. Gk, perh. f.  Sardo Sardinia]

             n.  a precious stone mentioned in Rev. 4:3.  [ME f. LL sardinus
             f. Gk sardinos var. of sardios SARD]

   sardius   n.  Bibl.  etc. a precious stone.  [ME f. LL f. Gk sardios sard]

   sardonic  adj.  1 grimly jocular.  2 (of laughter etc.) bitterly mocking
             or cynical.  ЬЬsardonically adv.  sardonicism n.  [F sardonique,
             earlier sardonien f. L sardonius f. Gk sardonios of Sardinia,
             alt. of sardanios Homeric epithet of bitter or scornful

   sardonyx  n.  onyx in which white layers alternate with sard.  [ME f. L f.
             Gk sardonux (prob. as SARD, ONYX)]

   saree     var. of SARI.

   sargasso  n.  (also sargassum) (pl.  -os or -oes or sargassa) any seaweed
             of the genus Sargassum, with berry-like air-vessels, found
             floating in island-like masses, esp. in the Sargasso Sea of the
             N. Atlantic. Also called GULFWEED.  [Port.  sarga‡o, of unkn.

   sarge     n.  sl.  sergeant.  [abbr.]

   sari      n.  (also saree) (pl.  saris or sarees) a length of cotton or
             silk draped round the body, traditionally worn as a main garment
             by Indian women.  [Hindi sar(h)i]

   sark      n.  Sc. & N.Engl.  a shirt or chemise.  [ME serk f. ON serkr f.

   sarking   n.  boarding between the rafters and the roof.  [SARK + -ING(1)]

   sarky     adj.  (sarkier, sarkiest) Brit.  sl.  sarcastic.  ЬЬsarkily adv.
             sarkiness n.  [abbr.]

             adj.  (also sarmentous) Bot.  having long thin trailing shoots.
             [L sarmentosus f.  sarmenta (pl.) twigs, brushwood, f.  sarpere
             to prune]

   sarnie    n.  Brit.  colloq.  a sandwich.  [abbr.]

   sarong    n.  1 a Malay and Javanese garment consisting of a long strip of
             (often striped) cloth worn by both sexes tucked round the waist
             or under the armpits.  2 a woman's garment resembling this.
             [Malay, lit. 'sheath']

   saros     n.  Astron.  a period of about 18 years between repetitions of
             eclipses.  [Gk f. Babylonian sar(u) 3,600 (years)]

             n.  a metal wind instrument played with a double reed like an
             oboe.  [Sarrus, 19th-c. Fr. inventor]

             n.  1 a preparation of the dried roots of various plants, esp.
             smilax, used to flavour some drinks and medicines and formerly
             as a tonic.  2 any of the plants yielding this.  [Sp.
             zarzaparilla f.  zarza bramble, prob. + dimin. of parra vine]

   sarsen    n.  Geol.  a sandstone boulder carried by ice during a glacial
             period.  [prob. var. of SARACEN]

   sarsenet  n.  (also sarcenet) a fine soft silk material used esp. for
             linings.  [ME f. AF sarzinett perh. dimin. of sarzin SARACEN
             after OF drap sarrasinois Saracen cloth]

   sartorial adj.  1 of a tailor or tailoring.  2 of men's clothes.
             ЬЬsartorially adv.  [L sartor tailor f.  sarcire sart- patch]

   sartorius n.  Anat.  the long narrow muscle running across the front of
             each thigh.  [mod.L f. L sartor tailor (the muscle being used in
             adopting a tailor's cross-legged posture)]

   Sarum use n.  Eccl.  the order of divine service used in the diocese of
             Salisbury before the Reformation.  [med.L Sarum Salisbury, perh.
             f. L Sarisburia]

   SAS       abbr.  (in the UK) Special Air Service.

   s.a.s.e.  abbr.  US self-addressed stamped envelope.

   sash(1)   n.  a long strip or loop of cloth etc. worn over one shoulder
             usu.  as part of a uniform or insignia, or worn round the waist,
             usu. by a woman or child.  ЬЬsashed adj.  [earlier shash f.
             Arab.  sas muslin, turban]

   sash(2)   n.  1 a frame holding the glass in a sash-window and usu. made
             to slide up and down in the grooves of a window aperture.  2 the
             glazed sliding light of a glasshouse or garden frame.
             Ьsash-cord a strong cord attaching the sash-weights to a sash.
             sash-tool a glazier's or painter's brush for work on
             sash-windows.  sash-weight a weight attached to each end of a
             sash to balance it at any height.  sash-window a window with one
             or two sashes of which one or each can be slid vertically over
             the other to make an opening.  ЬЬsashed adj.  [sashes corrupt.
             of CHASSIS, mistaken for pl.]

   sashay    v.intr.  esp.  US colloq.  walk or move ostentatiously,
             casually, or diagonally.  [corrupt. of CHASSђ]

   sashimi   n.  a Japanese dish of garnished raw fish in thin slices.

   sasin     n.  = BLACKBUCK.  [Nepali]

   sasine    n.  Sc.  Law 1 the possession of feudal property.  2 an act or
             document granting this.  [var. of SEISIN]

   Sask.     abbr.  Saskatchewan.

   sasquatch n.  a supposed yeti-like animal of NW America.  [Amer. Ind.]

   sass      n. & v.  US colloq.  --n. impudence, cheek.  --v.tr. be impudent
             to, cheek.  [var. of SAUCE]

   sassaby   n.  (pl.  -ies) a S. African antelope, Damaliscus lunatus,
             similar to the hartebeest.  [Tswana tsess‚be, - bi]

   sassafras n.  1 a small tree, Sassafras albidum, native to N. America,
             with aromatic leaves and bark.  2 a preparation of oil extracted
             from the leaves, or from its bark, used medicinally or in
             perfumery.  [Sp.  sasafr s or Port.  sassafraz, of unkn. orig.]

   Sassanian n. & adj.  (also Sassanid) --n. a member of a Persian dynasty
             ruling 211-651.  --adj. of or relating to this dynasty.  [Sasan,
             founder of the dynasty]

   Sassenach n. & adj.  Sc. & Ir. usu.  derog.  --n. an English person.
             --adj. English.  [Gael.  Sasunnoch, Ir.  Sasanach f. L Saxones

   sassy     adj.  (sassier, sassiest) esp.  US colloq.  = SAUCY.  ЬЬsassily
             adv.  sassiness n.  [var. of SAUCY]

   sastrugi  n.pl.  wavelike irregularities on the surface of hard polar
             snow, caused by winds.  [Russ.  zastrugi small ridges]

   Sat.      abbr.  Saturday.

   sat       past and past part. of SIT.

   Satan     n.  the Devil; Lucifer.  [OE f. LL f. Gk f. Heb.  satan lit.
             'adversary' f.  satan oppose, plot against]

   satanic   adj.  1 of, like, or befitting Satan.  2 diabolical, hellish.
             ЬЬsatanically adv.

   Satanism  n.  1 the worship of Satan, with a travesty of Christian forms.
             2 the pursuit of evil for its own sake.  3 deliberate
             wickedness.  ЬЬSatanist n.  Satanize v.tr.  (also -ise).

             n.  1 beliefs concerning the Devil.  2 a history or collection
             of these.

   satay     n.  (also satai, sat‚) an Indonesian and Malaysian dish
             consisting of small pieces of meat grilled on a skewer and usu.
             served with spiced sauce.  [Malayan satai sate, Indonesian sate]

   SATB      abbr.  Mus.  soprano, alto, tenor, and bass (as a combination of

   satchel   n.  a small bag usu. of leather and hung from the shoulder with
             a strap, for carrying books etc. esp. to and from school.  [ME
             f. OF sachel f. L saccellus (as SACK(1))]

   sate      v.tr.  1 gratify (desire, or a desirous person) to the full.  2
             cloy, surfeit, weary with over-abundance (sated with pleasure).
             ЬЬsateless adj.  poet.  [prob. f. dial.  sade, OE sadian (as
             SAD), assim. to SATIATE]

   sateen    n.  cotton fabric woven like satin with a glossy surface.
             [satin after velveteen]

   satellite n. & adj.  --n.  1 a celestial body orbiting the earth or
             another planet.  2 an artificial body placed in orbit round the
             earth or another planet.  3 a follower; a hanger-on.  4 an
             underling; a member of an important person's staff or retinue.
             5 (in full satellite State) a small country etc. nominally
             independent but controlled by or dependent on another.  --adj.
             1 transmitted by satellite (satellite communications; satellite
             television).  2 esp. Computing secondary; dependent; minor
             (networks of small satellite computers).  Ьsatellite dish a
             concave dish-shaped aerial for receiving broadcasting signals
             transmitted by satellite.  satellite town a small town
             economically or otherwise dependent on a nearby larger town.
             ЬЬsatellitic adj.  satellitism n.  [F satellite or L satelles
             satellitis attendant]

   sati      var. of SUTTEE.

   satiate   adj. & v.  --adj.  archaic satiated.  --v.tr. = SATE.
             ЬЬsatiable adj.  archaic.  satiation n.  [L satiatus past part.
             of satiare f.  satis enough]

   satiety   n.  1 the state of being glutted or satiated.  2 the feeling of
             having too much of something.  3 (foll. by of) a cloyed dislike
             of.  Ьto satiety to an extent beyond what is desired.  [obs. F
             saciet‚ f. L satietas -tatis f.  satis enough]

   satin     n., adj., & v.  --n. a fabric of silk or various man-made
             fibres, with a glossy surface on one side produced by a twill
             weave with the weft-threads almost hidden.  --adj. smooth as
             satin.  --v.tr.  (satined, satining) give a glossy surface to
             (paper).  Ьsatin finish 1 a polish given to silver etc. with a
             metallic brush.  2 any effect resembling satin in texture
             produced on materials in various ways.  satin paper fine glossy
             writing paper.  satin spar a fibrous variety of gypsum.  satin
             stitch a long straight embroidery stitch, giving the appearance
             of satin.  satin white a white pigment of calcium sulphate and
             alumina.  ЬЬsatinized adj.  (also -ised).  satiny adj.  [ME f.
             OF f. Arab.  zaytuni of Tseutung in China]

   satinette n.  (also satinet) a satin-like fabric made partly or wholly of
             cotton or synthetic fibre.

             n.  1 any plant of the genus Clarkia, with pink or lavender
             flowers.  2 = HONESTY 3.

   satinwood n.  1 a (in full Ceylon satinwood) a tree, Chlororylon
             swietenia, native to central and southern India and Ceylon.  b
             (in full West Indian satinwood) a tree, Fagara flava, native to
             the West Indies, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and southern Florida.  2
             the yellow glossy timber of either of these trees.

   satire    n.  1 the use of ridicule, irony, sarcasm, etc., to expose folly
             or vice or to lampoon an individual.  2 a work or composition in
             prose or verse using satire.  3 this branch of literature.  4 a
             thing that brings ridicule upon something else.  5 Rom. Antiq. a
             poetic medley, esp. a poem ridiculing prevalent vices or
             follies.  [F satire or L satira later form of satura medley]

   satiric   adj.  1 of satire or satires.  2 containing satire (wrote a
             satiric review).  3 writing satire (a satiric poet).  [F
             satirique or LL satiricus (as SATIRE)]

   satirical adj.  1 = SATIRIC.  2 given to the use of satire in speech or
             writing or to cynical observation of others; sarcastic;
             humorously critical.  ЬЬsatirically adv.

   satirist  n.  1 a writer of satires.  2 a satirical person.

   satirize  v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 assail or ridicule with satire.  2 write a
             satire upon.  3 describe satirically.  ЬЬsatirization n.  [F
             satiriser (as SATIRE)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of satisfying; the state of being
             satisfied (heard this with great satisfaction).  2 a thing that
             satisfies desire or gratifies feeling (is a great satisfaction
             to me).  3 a thing that settles an obligation or pays a debt.  4
             a (foll. by for) atonement; compensation (demanded
             satisfaction).  b Theol. Christ's atonement for the sins of
             mankind.  Ьto one's satisfaction so that one is satisfied.  [ME
             f. OF f. L satisfactio -onis (as SATISFY)]

             adj.  1 adequate; causing or giving satisfaction (was a
             satisfactory pupil).  2 satisfying expectations or needs;
             leaving no room for complaint (a satisfactory result).
             ЬЬsatisfactorily adv.  satisfactoriness n.  [F satisfactoire or
             med.L satisfactorius (as SATISFY)]

   satisfy   v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr.  a meet the expectations or desires of;
             comply with (a demand).  b be accepted by (a person, his taste)
             as adequate; be equal to (a preconception etc.).  2 tr. put an
             end to (an appetite or want) by supplying what was required.  3
             tr. rid (a person) of an appetite or want in a similar way.  4
             intr. give satisfaction; leave nothing to be desired.  5 tr. pay
             (a debt or creditor).  6 tr. adequately meet, fulfil, or comply
             with (conditions, obligations, etc.) (has satisfied all the
             legal conditions).  7 tr. (often foll. by of, that) provide with
             adequate information or proof, convince (satisfied the others
             that they were right; satisfy the court of their innocence).  8
             tr.  Math. (of a quantity) make (an equation) true.  9 tr. (in
             passive) a (foll. by with) contented or pleased with.  b (foll.
             by to) demand no more than or consider it enough to do.
             Ьsatisfy the examiners reach the standard required to pass an
             examination.  satisfy oneself (often foll. by that + clause) be
             certain in one's own mind.  ЬЬsatisfiable adj.  satisfiability
             n.  satisfiedly adv.  satisfying adj.  satisfyingly adv.  [ME f.
             OF satisfier f. L satisfacere satisfact- f.  satis enough]

   satori    n.  Buddhism sudden enlightenment.  [Jap.]

   satrap    n.  1 a provincial governor in the ancient Persian empire.  2 a
             subordinate ruler, colonial governor, etc.  [ME f. OF satrape or
             L satrapa f. Gk satrapes f. OPers.  xsathra-pavan

   satrapy   n.  (pl.  -ies) a province ruled over by a satrap.

   satsuma   n.  1 also a variety of tangerine orig. grown in Japan.  2
             (Satsuma) (in full Satsuma ware) cream-coloured Japanese
             pottery.  [Satsuma a province in Japan]

   saturate  v.tr.  1 fill with moisture; soak thoroughly.  2 (often foll. by
             with) fill to capacity.  3 cause (a substance, solution, vapour,
             metal, or air) to absorb, hold, or combine with the greatest
             possible amount of another substance, or of moisture, magnetism,
             electricity, etc.  4 cause (a substance) to combine with the
             maximum amount of another substance.  5 supply (a market) beyond
             the point at which the demand for a product is satisfied.  6
             (foll. by with, in) imbue with or steep in (learning, tradition,
             prejudice, etc.).  7 overwhelm (enemy defences, a target area,
             etc.) by concentrated bombing.  8 (as saturated adj.) a (of
             colour) full; rich; free from an admixture of white.  b (of fat
             molecules) containing the greatest number of hydrogen atoms.
             ЬЬsaturate adj.  literary.  saturable adj.  saturant n. & adj.
             [L saturare f.  satur full]

             n.  the act or an instance of saturating; the state of being
             saturated.  Ьsaturation point the stage beyond which no more can
             be absorbed or accepted.

   Saturday  n. & adv.  --n. the seventh day of the week, following Friday.
             --adv.  colloq.  1 on Saturday.  2 (Saturdays) on Saturdays;
             each Saturday.  [OE S‘tern(es) d‘g transl. of L Saturni dies day
             of Saturn]

   Saturn    n.  1 a the sixth planet from the sun, with a system of broad
             flat rings circling it, and the most distant of the five planets
             known in the ancient world.  b Astrol. Saturn as a supposed
             astrological influence on those born under its sign,
             characterized by coldness and gloominess.  2 Alchemy the metal
             lead.  ЬЬSaturnian adj.  [L Saturnus, Roman god of agriculture,
             identified with Kronos, father of Zeus, perh. f. Etruscan]

             n.  (pl. same or saturnalias) 1 (usu.  Saturnalia) Rom.Hist. the
             festival of Saturn in December, characterized by unrestrained
             merrymaking for all, the predecessor of Christmas.  2 (as sing.
             or pl.) a scene of wild revelry or tumult; an orgy.
             ЬЬsaturnalian adj.  [L, neut. pl. of Saturnalis (as SATURN)]

   saturnic  adj.  Med.  affected with lead-poisoning.  ЬЬsaturnism [SATURN

   saturniid n.  any large moth of the family Saturniidae, including emperor
             moths.  [mod.L]

   saturnine adj.  1 a of a sluggish gloomy temperament.  b (of looks etc.)
             dark and brooding.  2 archaic a of the metal lead.  b Med. of or
             affected by lead-poisoning.  ЬЬsaturninely adv.  [ME f. OF
             saturnin f. med.L Saturninus (as SATURN)]

             n.  Ind.  1 hist. a policy of passive resistance to British rule
             advocated by Gandhi.  2 passive resistance as a policy.  [Skr.
             f.  satya truth + agraha obstinacy]

   satyr     n.  1 (in Greek mythology) one of a class of Greek woodland gods
             with a horse's ears and tail, or (in Roman representations) with
             a goat's ears, tail, legs, and budding horns.  2 a lustful or
             sensual man.  3 = SATYRID.  [ME f. OF satyre or L satyrus f. Gk

             n.  Med.  excessive sexual desire in men.  [LL f. Gk saturiasis
             (as SATYR)]

   satyric   adj.  (in Greek mythology) of or relating to satyrs.  Ьsatyric
             drama a kind of ancient Greek comic play with a chorus of
             satyrs.  [L satyricus f. Gk saturikos (as SATYR)]

   satyrid   n.  any butterfly of the family Satyridae, with distinctive
             eyelike markings on the wings.  [mod.L Satyridae f. the
             genus-name Satyrus (as SATYR)]

   sauce     n. & v.  --n.  1 any of various liquid or semi-solid
             preparations taken as a relish with food; the liquid constituent
             of a dish (mint sauce; tomato sauce; chicken in a lemon sauce).
             2 something adding piquancy or excitement.  3 colloq. impudence,
             impertinence, cheek.  4 US stewed fruit etc. eaten as dessert or
             used as a garnish.  --v.tr.  1 colloq. be impudent to; cheek.  2
             archaic a season with sauce or condiments.  b add excitement to.
             Ьsauce-boat a kind of jug or dish used for serving sauces etc.
             sauce for the goose what is appropriate in one case (by
             implication appropriate in others).  ЬЬsauceless adj.  [ME f. OF
             ult. f. L salsus f.  salere sals- to salt f.  sal salt]

   saucepan  n.  a usu. metal cooking pan, usu. round with a lid and a long
             handle at the side, used for boiling, stewing, etc., on top of a
             cooker.  ЬЬsaucepanful n.  (pl.  -fuls).

   saucer    n.  1 a shallow circular dish used for standing a cup on and to
             catch drips.  2 any similar dish used to stand a plant pot etc.
             on.  ЬЬsaucerful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  saucerless adj.  [ME, =
             condiment-dish, f. OF saussier(e) sauce-boat, prob. f. LL
             salsarium (as SAUCE)]

   saucy     adj.  (saucier, sauciest) 1 impudent, cheeky.  2 colloq.
             smart-looking (a saucy hat).  3 colloq. smutty, suggestive.
             ЬЬsaucily adv.  sauciness n.  [earlier sense 'savoury', f.

   Saudi     n. & adj.  (also Saudi Arabian) --n.  (pl.  Saudis) 1 a a native
             or national of Saudi Arabia.  b a person of Saudi descent.  2 a
             member of the dynasty founded by King Saud.  --adj. of or
             relating to Saudi Arabia or the Saudi dynasty.  [A. Ibn- Saud,
             Arab. king d. 1953]

             n.  a German dish of chopped pickled cabbage.  [G f.  sauer SOUR
             + Kraut vegetable]

   sauger    n.  US a small American pike-perch.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   sauna     n.  1 a Finnish-style steam bath.  2 a building used for this.

   saunders  var. of SANDERS.

   saunter   v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 walk slowly; amble, stroll.  2 proceed
             without hurry or effort.  --n.  1 a leisurely ramble.  2 a slow
             gait.  ЬЬsaunterer n.  [ME, = muse: orig. unkn.]

   saurian   adj.  of or like a lizard.  [mod.L Sauria f. Gk saura lizard]

   sauropod  n.  any of a group of plant-eating dinosaurs with a long neck
             and tail, and four thick limbs.  [Gk saura lizard + pous pod-

   saury     n.  (pl.  -ies) a long-beaked marine fish, Scomberesox saurus,
             of temperate waters.  [perh. f. LL f. Gk sauros horse-mackerel]

   sausage   n.  1 a minced pork, beef, or other meat seasoned and often
             mixed with other ingredients, encased in cylindrical form in a
             skin, for cooking and eating hot or cold.  b a length of this.
             2 a sausage-shaped object.  Ьnot a sausage colloq.  nothing at
             all.  sausage dog Brit.  colloq.  a dachshund.  sausage machine
             1 a sausage-making machine.  2 a relentlessly uniform process.
             sausage meat minced meat used in sausages or as a stuffing etc.
             sausage roll Brit.  sausage meat enclosed in a pastry roll and
             baked.  [ME f. ONF saussiche f. med.L salsicia f. L salsus: see

   saut‚     adj., n., & v.  --adj. (esp. of potatoes etc.) quickly fried in
             a little hot fat.  --n. food cooked in this way.  --v.tr.
             (saut‚d or saut‚ed) cook in this way.  [F, past part. of sauter

   Sauternes n.  a sweet white wine from Sauternes in the Bordeaux region of

   savage    adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 fierce; cruel (savage persecution; a
             savage blow).  2 wild; primitive (savage tribes; a savage
             animal).  3 archaic (of scenery etc.) uncultivated (a savage
             scene).  4 colloq. angry; bad-tempered (in a savage mood).  5
             Heraldry (of the human figure) naked.  --n.  1 Anthropol.
             derog. a member of a primitive tribe.  2 a cruel or barbarous
             person.  --v.tr.  1 (esp. of a dog, wolf, etc.) attack and bite
             or trample.  2 (of a critic etc.) attack fiercely.  ЬЬsavagedom
             n.  savagely adv.  savageness n.  savagery n.  (pl.  -ies).  [ME
             f. OF sauvage wild f. L silvaticus f.  silva a wood]

   savannah  n.  (also savanna) a grassy plain in tropical and subtropical
             regions, with few or no trees.  [Sp.  zavana perh. of Carib

   savant    n.  (fem.  savante) a learned person, esp. a distinguished
             scientist etc.  [F, part. of savoir know (as SAPIENT)]

   savate    n.  a form of boxing in which feet and fists are used.  [F,
             orig. a kind of shoe: cf.  SABOT]

   save(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by from) rescue, preserve,
             protect, or deliver from danger, harm, discredit, etc. (saved my
             life; saved me from drowning).  2 tr. (often foll. by up) keep
             for future use; reserve; refrain from spending (saved up њ150
             for a new bike; likes to save plastic bags).  3 tr. (often
             refl.) a relieve (another person or oneself) from spending
             (money, time, trouble, etc.); prevent exposure to (annoyance
             etc.) (saved myself њ50; a word processor saves time).  b
             obviate the need or likelihood of (soaking saves scrubbing).  4
             tr. preserve from damnation; convert (saved her soul).  5 tr. &
             refl. husband or preserve (one's strength, health, etc.) (saving
             himself for the last lap; save your energy).  6 intr. (often
             foll. by up) save money for future use.  7 tr.  a avoid losing
             (a game, match, etc.).  b prevent an opponent from scoring (a
             goal etc.).  c stop (a ball etc.) from entering the goal.  --n.
             1 Football etc. the act of preventing an opponent's scoring etc.
             2 Bridge a sacrifice-bid to prevent unnecessary losses.
             Ьsave-all 1 a device to prevent waste.  2 hist. a pan with a
             spike for burning up candle-ends.  save appearances present a
             prosperous, respectable, etc. appearance.  save-as-you-earn
             Brit.  a method of saving by regular deduction from earnings at
             source.  save one's breath not waste time speaking to no effect.
             save a person's face see FACE.  save the situation (or day) find
             or provide a solution to difficulty or disaster.  save one's
             skin (or neck or bacon) avoid loss, injury, or death; escape
             from danger.  save the tide get in or out (of port etc.) while
             it lasts.  save the trouble avoid useless or pointless effort.
             ЬЬsavable adj.  (also saveable).  [ME f. AF sa(u)ver, OF salver,
             sauver f. LL salvare f. L salvus SAFE]

   save(2)   prep. & conj.  archaic or poet.  --prep. except; but (all save
             him).  --conj. (often foll. by for) unless; but; except (happy
             save for one want; is well save that he has a cold).  [ME f. OF
             sauf sauve f. L salvo, salva, ablat. sing. of salvus SAFE]

   saveloy   n.  a seasoned red pork sausage, dried and smoked, and sold
             ready to eat.  [corrupt. of F cervelas, -at, f. It.  cervellata
             (cervello brain)]

   saver     n.  1 a person who saves esp. money.  2 (often in comb.) a
             device for economical use (of time etc.) (found the short cut a
             time-saver).  3 Racing sl. a hedging bet.

   savin     n.  (also savine) 1 a bushy juniper, Juniperus sabina, usu.
             spreading horizontally, and yielding oil formerly used in the
             treatment of amenorrhoea.  2 US = red cedar.  [OE f. OF savine
             f. L sabina (herba) Sabine (herb)]

   saving    adj., n., & prep.  --adj. (often in comb.) making economical use
             of (labour-saving).  --n.  1 anything that is saved.  2 an
             economy (a saving in expenses).  3 (usu. in pl.) money saved.
             --prep.  1 with the exception of; except (all saving that one).
             2 without offence to (saving your presence).  Ьsaving clause Law
             a clause containing a stipulation of exemption etc.  saving
             grace 1 the redeeming grace of God.  2 a redeeming quality or
             characteristic.  savings account a deposit account.  savings
             bank a bank receiving small deposits at interest and returning
             the profits to the depositors.  savings certificate Brit.  an
             interest-bearing document issued by the Government for the
             benefit of savers.  [ME f.  SAVE(1): prep. prob. f.  SAVE(2)
             after touching]

   saviour   n.  (US savior) 1 a person who saves or delivers from danger,
             destruction, etc. (the saviour of the nation).  2 (Saviour)
             (prec. by the, our) Christ.  [ME f. OF sauv‰our f. eccl.L
             salvator -oris (transl. Gk soter) f. LL salvare SAVE(1)]

   savoir faire
             n.  the ability to act suitably in any situation; tact.  [F, =
             know how to do]

   savor     US var. of SAVOUR.

   savory(1) n.  (pl.  -ies) any herb of the genus Satureia, esp.  S.
             hortensis and S. montana, used esp. in cookery.  [ME saverey,
             perh. f. OE s‘therie f. L satureia]

   savory(2) US var. of SAVOURY.

   savour    n. & v.  (US savor) --n.  1 a characteristic taste, flavour,
             relish, etc.  2 a quality suggestive of or containing a small
             amount of another.  3 archaic a characteristic smell.  --v.  1
             tr.  a appreciate and enjoy the taste of (food).  b enjoy or
             appreciate (an experience etc.).  2 intr. (foll. by of) a
             suggest by taste, smell, etc. (savours of mushrooms).  b imply
             or suggest a specified quality (savours of impertinence).
             ЬЬsavourless adj.  [ME f. OF f. L sapor -oris f.  sapere to

   savoury   adj. & n.  (US savory) --adj.  1 having an appetizing taste or
             smell.  2 (of food) salty or piquant, not sweet (a savoury
             omelette).  3 pleasant; acceptable.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit. a
             savoury dish served as an appetizer or at the end of dinner.
             ЬЬsavourily adv.  savouriness n.  [ME f. OF savour‚ past part.
             (as SAVOUR)]

   savoy     n.  a hardy variety of cabbage with wrinkled leaves.  [Savoy in
             SE France]

   Savoyard  n. & adj.  --n. a native of Savoy in SE France.  --adj. of or
             relating to Savoy or its people etc.  [F f.  Savoie Savoy]

   savvy     v., n., & adj.  sl.  --v.intr. & tr.  (-ies, -ied) know.  --n.
             knowingness; shrewdness; understanding.  --adj.  (savvier,
             savviest) US knowing; wise.  [orig. Black & Pidgin E after Sp.
             sabe usted you know]

   saw(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a hand tool having a toothed blade used to
             cut esp. wood with a to-and-fro movement.  b any of several
             mechanical power-driven devices with a toothed rotating disk or
             moving band, for cutting.  2 Zool.  etc. a serrated organ or
             part.  --v.  (past part.  sawn or sawed) 1 tr.  a cut (wood
             etc.) with a saw.  b make (boards etc.) with a saw.  2 intr. use
             a saw.  3 a intr. move to and fro with a motion as of a saw or
             person sawing (sawing away on his violin).  b tr. divide (the
             air etc.) with gesticulations.  Ьsaw-doctor a machine for making
             the teeth of a saw.  saw-edged with a jagged edge like a saw.
             saw-frame a frame in which a saw-blade is held taut.  saw-gate =
             saw-frame.  saw-gin = cotton-gin.  saw-horse a rack supporting
             wood for sawing.  sawn-off (US sawed-off) 1 (of a gun) having
             part of the barrel sawn off to make it easier to handle and give
             a wider field of fire.  2 colloq. (of a person) short.  saw-pit
             a pit in which the lower of two men working a pit-saw stands.
             saw-set a tool for wrenching saw-teeth in alternate directions
             to allow the saw to work freely.  saw-wort a composite plant,
             Serratula tinctoria, yielding a yellow dye from its serrated
             leaves.  ЬЬsawlike adj.  [OE saga f. Gmc]

   saw(2)    past of SEE(1).

   saw(3)    n.  a proverb; a maxim (that's just an old saw).  [OE sagu f.
             Gmc, rel. to SAY: cf.  SAGA]

   sawbill   n.  a merganser.

   sawbones  n.  sl.  a doctor or surgeon.

   sawbuck   n.  US 1 a saw-horse.  2 sl. a $10 note.

   sawdust   n.  powdery particles of wood produced in sawing.

   sawfish   n.  any large marine fish of the family Pristidae, with a
             toothed flat snout used as a weapon.

   sawfly    n.  (pl.  -flies) any insect of the superfamily Tenthredinidae,
             with a serrated ovipositor, the larvae of which are injurious to

   sawmill   n.  a factory in which wood is sawn mechanically into planks or

   sawn      past part. of SAW(1).

   sawtooth  adj.  1 (also sawtoothed) (esp. of a roof, wave, etc.) shaped
             like the teeth of a saw with one steep and one slanting side.  2
             (of a wave-form) showing a slow linear rise and rapid linear

   sawyer    n.  1 a person who saws timber professionally.  2 US an uprooted
             tree held fast by one end in a river.  3 NZ a large wingless
             horned grasshopper whose grubs bore in wood.  [ME, earlier
             sawer, f.  SAW(1)]

   sax(1)    n.  colloq.  1 a saxophone.  2 a saxophone-player.  ЬЬsaxist n.

   sax(2)    n.  (also zax) a slater's chopper, with a point for making
             nail-holes.  [OE seax knife f. Gmc]

   saxatile  adj.  living or growing on or among rocks.  [F saxatile or L
             saxatilis f.  saxum rock]

   saxboard  n.  the uppermost strake of an open boat.  [SAX(2) + BOARD]

   saxe      n. (in full saxe blue) (often attrib.) a lightish blue colour
             with a greyish tinge.  [F, = Saxony, the source of a dye of this

   saxhorn   n.  any of a series of different-sized brass wind instruments
             with valves and a funnel-shaped mouthpiece, used mainly in
             military and brass bands.  [Sax, name of its Belgian inventors,
             + HORN]

             adj.  (also saxicolous) Biol.  = SAXATILE.  [mod.L saxicolus f.
             saxum rock + colere inhabit]

   saxifrage n.  any plant of the genus Saxifraga, growing on rocky or stony
             ground and usu. bearing small white, yellow, or red flowers.
             [ME f. OF saxifrage or LL saxifraga (herba) f. L saxum rock +
             frangere break]

   Saxon     n. & adj.  --n.  1 hist.  a a member of the Germanic people that
             conquered parts of England in 5th-6th c.  b (usu.  Old Saxon)
             the language of the Saxons.  2 = ANGLO-SAXON.  3 a native of
             modern Saxony in Germany.  4 the Germanic (as opposed to Latin
             or Romance) elements of English.  --adj.  1 hist. of or
             concerning the Saxons.  2 belonging to or originating from the
             Saxon language or Old English.  3 of or concerning modern Saxony
             or Saxons.  ЬSaxon architecture the form of Romanesque
             architecture preceding the Norman in England.  Saxon blue a
             solution of indigo in sulphuric acid as a dye.  ЬЬSaxondom n.
             Saxonism n.  Saxonist n.  Saxonize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).
             [ME f. OF f. LL Saxo -onis f. Gk Saxones (pl.) f. WG: cf. OE
             Seaxan, Seaxe (pl.)]

   saxony    n.  1 a fine kind of wool.  2 cloth made from this.  [Saxony in
             Germany f. LL Saxonia (as SAXON)]

   saxophone n.  1 a keyed brass reed instrument in several sizes and
             registers, used esp. in jazz and dance music.  2 a
             saxophone-player.  ЬЬsaxophonic adj.  saxophonist n.  [Sax (as
             SAXHORN) + -PHONE]

   say       v. & n.  --v.  (3rd sing. present says; past and past part.
             said) 1 tr. (often foll. by that + clause) a utter (specified
             words) in a speaking voice; remark (said 'Damn!'; said that he
             was satisfied).  b put into words; express (that was well said;
             cannot say what I feel).  2 tr. (often foll. by that + clause) a
             state; promise or prophesy (says that there will be war).  b
             have specified wording; indicate (says here that he was killed;
             the clock says ten to six).  3 tr. (in passive; usu. foll. by to
             + infin.) be asserted or described (is said to be 93 years old).
             4 tr. (foll. by to + infin.)  colloq. tell a person to do
             something (he said to bring the car).  5 tr. convey
             (information) (spoke for an hour but said little).  6 tr. put
             forward as an argument or excuse (much to be said in favour of
             it; what have you to say for yourself?).  7 tr. (often absol.)
             form and give an opinion or decision as to (who did it I cannot
             say; do say which you prefer).  8 tr. select, assume, or take as
             an example or (a specified number etc.) as near enough (shall we
             say this one?; paid, say, њ20).  9 tr.  a speak the words of
             (prayers, Mass, a grace, etc.).  b repeat (a lesson etc.);
             recite (can't say his tables).  10 tr.  Art etc. convey (inner
             meaning or intention) (what is the director saying in this
             film?).  11 intr.  a speak; talk.  b (in imper.) poet. tell me
             (what is your name, say!).  12 tr. (the said) Law or joc. the
             previously mentioned (the said witness).  13 intr. (as int.) US
             an exclamation of surprise, to attract attention, etc.  --n.  1
             a an opportunity for stating one's opinion etc. (let him have
             his say).  b a stated opinion.  2 a share in a decision (had no
             say in the matter).  Ьhow say you?  Law how do you find?
             (addressed to the jury requesting its verdict).  I etc. cannot
             (or could not) say I etc. do not know.  I'll say colloq.  yes
             indeed.  I say!  Brit.  an exclamation expressing surprise,
             drawing attention, etc.  it is said the rumour is that.  not to
             say and indeed; or possibly even (his language was rude not to
             say offensive).  said he (or I etc.) colloq. or poet.  he etc.
             said.  say for oneself say by way of conversation, oratory, etc.
             say much (or something) for indicate the high quality of.  say
             no refuse or disagree.  say out express fully or candidly.  says
             I (or he etc.) colloq.  I, he, etc., said (used in reporting
             conversation).  say-so 1 the power of decision.  2 mere
             assertion (cannot proceed merely on his say-so).  say something
             make a short speech.  says you!  colloq.  I disagree.  say when
             colloq.  indicate when enough drink or food has been given.  say
             the word 1 indicate that you agree or give permission.  2 give
             the order etc.  say yes agree.  that is to say 1 in other words,
             more explicitly.  2 or at least.  they say it is rumoured.  to
             say nothing of = not to mention (see MENTION).  what do (or
             would) you say to?  would you like?  when all is said and done
             after all, in the long run.  you can say that again!  (or you
             said it!) colloq.  I agree emphatically.  you don't say so
             colloq.  an expression of amazement or disbelief.  ЬЬsayable
             adj.  sayer n.  [OE secgan f. Gmc]

   SAYE      abbr.  Brit.  save-as-you-earn.

   saying    n.  1 the act or an instance of saying.  2 a maxim, proverb,
             adage, etc.  Ьas the saying goes (or is) an expression used in
             introducing a proverb, clich‚, etc.  go without saying be too
             well known or obvious to need mention.  there is no saying it is
             impossible to know.

3.0 Sb...

   Sb        symb.  Chem.  the element antimony.  [L stibium]

   SBN       abbr.  Standard Book Number (cf. ISBN).

   S. by E.  abbr.  South by East.

   S. by W.  abbr.  South by West.

4.0 SC...

   SC        abbr.  1 US South Carolina (also in official postal use).  2
             special constable.

   Sc        symb.  Chem.  the element scandium.

   sc.       abbr.  scilicet.

   s.c.      abbr.  small capitals.

   scab      n. & v.  --n.  1 a dry rough crust formed over a cut, sore, etc.
             in healing.  2 (often attrib.) colloq.  derog. a person who
             refuses to strike or join a trade union, or who tries to break a
             strike by working; a blackleg.  3 the mange or a similar skin
             disease esp. in animals.  4 a fungous plant-disease causing
             scablike roughness.  5 a dislikeable person.  --v.intr.
             (scabbed, scabbing) 1 act as a scab.  2 (of a wound etc.) form a
             scab; heal over.  ЬЬscabbed adj.  scabby adj.  (scabbier,
             scabbiest).  scabbiness n.  scablike adj.  [ME f. ON skabbr
             (unrecorded), corresp. to OE sceabb]

   scabbard  n.  1 hist. a sheath for a sword, bayonet, etc.  2 US a sheath
             for a revolver etc.  Ьscabbard-fish any of various silvery-white
             marine fish shaped like a sword-scabbard, esp.  Lepidopus
             caudatus.  [ME sca(u)berc etc. f. AF prob. f. Frank.]

   scabies   n.  a contagious skin disease causing severe itching (cf.
             ITCH).  [ME f. L f.  scabere scratch]

   scabious  n. & adj.  --n. any plant of the genus Scabiosa, Knautia, etc.,
             with pink, white, or esp. blue pincushion-shaped flowers.
             --adj. affected with mange; scabby.  [ME f. med.L scabiosa
             (herba) formerly regarded as a cure for skin disease: see

   scabrous  adj.  1 having a rough surface; bearing short stiff hairs,
             scales, etc.; scurfy.  2 (of a subject, situation, etc.)
             requiring tactful treatment; hard to handle with decency.  3 a
             indecent, salacious.  b behaving licentiously.  ЬЬscabrously
             adv.  scabrousness n.  [F scabreux or LL scabrosus f. L scaber

   scad      n.  any fish of the family Carangidae native to tropical and
             subtropical seas, usu. having an elongated body and very large
             spiky scales.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scads     n.pl.  US colloq.  large quantities.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scaffold  n. & v.  --n.  1 a hist. a raised wooden platform used for the
             execution of criminals.  b a similar platform used for drying
             tobacco etc.  2 = SCAFFOLDING.  3 (prec. by the) death by
             execution.  --v.tr. attach scaffolding to (a building).
             ЬЬscaffolder n.  [ME f. AF f. OF (e)schaffaut, earlier
             escadafaut: cf.  CATAFALQUE]

             n.  1 a a temporary structure formed of poles, planks, etc.,
             erected by workmen and used by them while building or repairing
             a house etc.  b materials used for this.  2 a temporary
             conceptual framework used for constructing theories etc.

   scagliola n.  imitation stone or plaster mixed with glue.  [It.
             scagliuola dimin. of scaglia SCALE(1)]

   scalable  adj.  capable of being scaled or climbed.  ЬЬscalability n.

   scalar    adj. & n.  Math. & Physics --adj. (of a quantity) having only
             magnitude, not direction.  --n. a scalar quantity (cf.  VECTOR).
             [L scalaris f.  scala ladder; see SCALE(3)]

   scalawag  var. of SCALLYWAG.

   scald(1)  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 burn (the skin etc.) with hot liquid or
             steam.  2 heat (esp. milk) to near boiling-point.  3 (usu. foll.
             by out) clean (a pan etc.) by rinsing with boiling water.  4
             treat (poultry etc.) with boiling water to remove feathers etc.
             --n.  1 a burn etc. caused by scalding.  2 a skin disease caused
             esp. by air pollution etc. affecting the fruits of some plants.
             Ьlike a scalded cat moving unusually fast.  scalded cream a
             dessert made from milk scalded and allowed to stand.  scalding
             tears hot bitter tears of grief etc.  ЬЬscalder n.  [ME f. AF,
             ONF escalder, OF eschalder f. LL excaldare (as EX-(1), L calidus

   scald(2)  var. of SKALD.

   scale(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 each of the small thin bony or horny
             overlapping plates protecting the skin of fish and reptiles.  2
             something resembling a fish-scale, esp.: a a pod or husk.  b a
             flake of skin; a scab.  c a rudimentary leaf, feather, or bract.
             d each of the structures covering the wings of butterflies and
             moths.  e Bot. a layer of a bulb.  3 a a flake formed on the
             surface of rusty iron.  b a thick white deposit formed in a
             kettle, boiler, etc. by the action of heat on water.  4 plaque
             formed on teeth.  --v.  1 tr. remove scale or scales from (fish,
             nuts, iron, etc.).  2 tr. remove plaque from (teeth) by
             scraping.  3 intr.  a (of skin, metal, etc.) form, come off in,
             or drop, scales.  b (usu. foll. by off) (of scales) come off.
             Ьscale-armour hist.  armour formed of metal scales attached to
             leather etc.  scale-board very thin wood used for the back of a
             mirror, picture, etc.  scale-bug = scale insect.  scale-fern any
             of various spleenworts, esp.  Asplenium ceterach.  scale insect
             any of various insects, esp. of the family Coccidae, clinging to
             plants and secreting a shieldlike scale as covering.  scale-leaf
             a modified leaf resembling a scale.  scale-moss a type of
             liverwort with scalelike leaves.  scales fall from a person's
             eyes a person is no longer deceived (cf. Acts 9:18).
             scale-winged lepidopterous.  scale-work an overlapping
             arrangement.  ЬЬscaled adj. (also in comb.).  scaleless adj.
             scaler n.  [ME f. OF escale f. Gmc, rel. to SCALE(2)]

   scale(2)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a (often in pl.) a weighing machine or device
             (bathroom scales).  b (also scale-pan) each of the dishes on a
             simple scale balance.  2 (the Scales) the zodiacal sign or
             constellation Libra.  --v.tr. (of something weighed) show (a
             specified weight) in the scales.  Ьpair of scales a simple
             balance.  throw into the scale cause to be a factor in a
             contest, debate, etc.  tip (or turn) the scales 1 (usu. foll. by
             at) outweigh the opposite scale-pan (at a specified weight);
             weigh.  2 (of a motive, circumstance, etc.) be decisive.  [ME f.
             ON sk l bowl f. Gmc]

   scale(3)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a series of degrees; a graded classification
             system (pay fees according to a prescribed scale; high on the
             social scale; seven points on the Richter scale).  2 a (often
             attrib.) Geog. & Archit. a ratio of size in a map, model,
             picture, etc. (on a scale of one centimetre to the kilometre; a
             scale model).  b relative dimensions or degree (generosity on a
             grand scale).  3 Mus. an arrangement of all the notes in any
             system of music in ascending or descending order (chromatic
             scale; major scale).  4 a a set of marks on a line used in
             measuring, reducing, enlarging, etc.  b a rule determining the
             distances between these.  c a piece of metal, apparatus, etc. on
             which these are marked.  5 (in full scale of notation) Math. the
             ratio between units in a numerical system (decimal scale).  --v.
             1 tr.  a (also absol.) climb (a wall, height, etc.) esp. with a
             ladder.  b climb (the social scale, heights of ambition, etc.).
             2 tr. represent in proportional dimensions; reduce to a common
             scale.  3 intr. (of quantities etc.) have a common scale; be
             commensurable.  Ьeconomies of scale proportionate savings gained
             by using larger quantities.  in scale (of drawing etc.) in
             proportion to the surroundings etc.  play (or sing) scales Mus.
             perform the notes of a scale as an exercise for the fingers or
             voice.  scale down make smaller in proportion; reduce in size.
             scale up make larger in proportion; increase in size.
             scaling-ladder hist.  a ladder used to climb esp. fortress
             walls, esp. to break a siege.  to scale with a uniform reduction
             or enlargement.  ЬЬscaler n.  [(n.) ME (= ladder): (v.) ME f. OF
             escaler or med.L scalare f. L scala f.  scandere climb]

   scalene   adj. & n.  --adj. (esp. of a triangle) having sides unequal in
             length.  --n.  1 (in full scalene muscle) = SCALENUS.  2 a
             scalene triangle.  Ьscalene cone (or cylinder) a cone (or
             cylinder) with the axis not perpendicular to the base.  [LL
             scalenus f. Gk skalenos unequal, rel. to skolios bent]

   scalenus  n.  (pl.  scaleni) any of several muscles extending from the
             neck to the first and second ribs.  [mod.L: see SCALENE]

   scallawag var. of SCALLYWAG.

   scallion  n.  a shallot or spring onion; any long-necked onion with a
             small bulb.  [ME f. AF scal(o)un = OF escalo(i)gne ult. f. L
             Ascalonia (caepa) (onion) of Ascalon in anc. Palestine]

   scallop   n. & v.  (also scollop) 1 any of various bivalve molluscs of the
             family Pectinidae, esp. of the genus Chlamys or Pecten, much
             prized as food.  2 (in full scallop shell) a a single valve from
             the shell of a scallop, with grooves and ridges radiating from
             the middle of the hinge and edged with small rounded lobes,
             often used for cooking or serving food.  b hist. a
             representation of this shell worn as a pilgrim's badge.  3 (in
             pl.) an ornamental edging cut in material in imitation of a
             scallop-edge.  4 a small pan or dish shaped like a scallop shell
             and used for baking or serving food.  --v.tr.  (scalloped,
             scalloping) 1 cook in a scallop.  2 ornament (an edge or
             material) with scallops or scalloping.  ЬЬscalloper n.
             scalloping n. (in sense 3 of n.).  [ME f. OF escalope prob. f.

   scallywag n.  (also scalawag, scallawag) a scamp; a rascal.  [19th-c. US
             sl.: orig. unkn.]

   scalp     n. & v.  --n.  1 the skin covering the top of the head, with the
             hair etc.  attached.  2 a hist. the scalp of an enemy cut or
             torn away as a trophy by an American Indian.  b a trophy or
             symbol of triumph, conquest, etc.  3 Sc. a bare rock projecting
             above water etc.  --v.tr.  1 hist. take the scalp of (an enemy).
             2 criticize savagely.  3 US defeat; humiliate.  4 US colloq.
             resell (shares, tickets, etc.) at a high or quick profit.
             ЬЬscalpless adj.  [ME, prob. of Scand. orig.]

   scalpel   n.  a surgeon's small sharp knife shaped for holding like a pen.
             [F scalpel or L scalpellum dimin. of scalprum chisel f.
             scalpere scratch]

   scalper   n.  1 a person or thing that scalps (esp. in sense 4 of v.).  2
             (also scauper, scorper) an engraver's tool for hollowing out
             woodcut or linocut designs.  [SCALP + -ER(1): sense 2 also f. L
             scalper cutting tool f.  scalpere carve]

   scaly     adj.  (scalier, scaliest) covered in or having many scales or
             flakes.  ЬЬscaliness n.

   scam      n.  US sl.  1 a trick or swindle; a fraud.  2 a story or rumour.
             [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scammony  n.  (pl.  -ies) an Asian plant, Convolvulus scammonia, bearing
             white or pink flowers, the dried roots of which are used as a
             purgative.  [ME f. OF scamonee, escamonie or L scammonia f. Gk

   scamp(1)  n.  colloq.  a rascal; a rogue.  ЬЬscampish adj.  [scamp rob on
             highway, prob. f. MDu.  schampen decamp f. OF esc(h)amper (as
             EX-(1), L campus field)]

   scamp(2)  v.tr.  do (work etc.) in a perfunctory or inadequate way.
             [perh. formed as SCAMP(1): cf.  SKIMP]

   scamper   v. & n.  --v.intr. (usu. foll. by about, through) run and skip
             impulsively or playfully.  --n. the act or an instance of
             scampering.  [prob. formed as SCAMP(1)]

   scampi    n.pl.  1 large prawns.  2 (often treated as sing.) a dish of
             these, usu. fried.  [It.]

   scan      v. & n.  --v.  (scanned, scanning) 1 tr. look at intently or
             quickly (scanned the horizon; rapidly scanned the speech for
             errors).  2 intr. (of a verse etc.) be metrically correct; be
             capable of being recited etc. metrically (this line doesn't
             scan).  3 tr.  a examine all parts of (a surface etc.) to detect
             radioactivity etc.  b cause (a particular region) to be
             traversed by a radar etc.  beam.  4 tr. resolve (a picture) into
             its elements of light and shade in a prearranged pattern for the
             purposes esp. of television transmission.  5 tr. test the metre
             of (a line of verse etc.) by reading with the emphasis on its
             rhythm, or by examining the number of feet etc.  6 tr.  a make a
             scan of (the body or part of it).  b examine (a patient etc.)
             with a scanner.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of scanning.  2
             an image obtained by scanning or with a scanner.  ЬЬscannable
             adj.  [ME f. L scandere climb: in LL = scan verses (from the
             raising of one's foot in marking rhythm)]

   scandal   n.  1 a a thing or a person causing general public outrage or
             indignation.  b the outrage etc. so caused, esp. as a subject of
             common talk.  c malicious gossip or backbiting.  2 Law a public
             affront, esp. an irrelevant abusive statement in court.
             Ьscandal sheet derog.  a newspaper etc. giving prominence to
             esp. malicious gossip.  ЬЬscandalous adj.  scandalously adv.
             scandalousness n.  [ME f. OF scandale f. eccl.L scandalum f. Gk
             skandalon snare, stumbling-block]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) offend the moral feelings, sensibilities,
             etc. of; shock.  [ME in sense 'make a scandal of' f. F
             scandaliser or eccl.L scandaliso f. Gk skandalizo (as SCANDAL)]

             n.  a person who spreads malicious scandal.

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a a native or inhabitant of Scandinavia
             (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland).  b a person of
             Scandinavian descent.  2 the family of languages of Scandinavia.
             --adj. of or relating to Scandinavia or its people or languages.
             [L Scandinavia]

   scandium  n.  Chem.  a rare soft silver-white metallic element occurring
             naturally in lanthanide ores.  °Symb.: Sc.  [mod.L f.  Scandia
             Scandinavia (source of the minerals containing it)]

   scannable see SCAN.

   scanner   n.  1 a device for scanning or systematically examining all the
             parts of something.  2 a machine for measuring the intensity of
             radiation, ultrasound reflections, etc., from the body as a
             diagnostic aid.  3 a person who scans or examines critically.  4
             a person who scans verse.

   scansion  n.  1 the metrical scanning of verse.  2 the way a verse etc.
             scans.  [L scansio (LL of metre) f.  scandere scans- climb]

   scant     adj. & v.  --adj. barely sufficient; deficient (with scant
             regard for the truth; scant of breath).  --v.tr.  archaic
             provide (a supply, material, a person, etc.) grudgingly; skimp;
             stint.  ЬЬscantly adv.  scantness n.  [ME f. ON skamt neut. of
             skammr short]

   scantling n.  1 a a timber beam of small cross-section.  b a size to which
             a stone or timber is to be cut.  2 a set of standard dimensions
             for parts of a structure, esp.  in shipbuilding.  3 (usu. foll.
             by of) archaic a a specimen or sample.  b one's necessary
             supply; a modicum or small amount.  [alt. after -LING(1) f. obs.
             scantlon f. OF escantillon sample]

   scanty    adj.  (scantier, scantiest) 1 of small extent or amount.  2
             barely sufficient.  ЬЬscantily adv.  scantiness n.  [obs.  scant
             scanty supply f. ON skamt neut. adj.: see SCANT]

   scape     n.  1 a long flower-stalk coming directly from the root.  2 the
             base of an insect's antenna.  [L scapus f. Gk skapos, rel. to

   -scape    comb. form forming nouns denoting a view or a representation of
             a view (moonscape; seascape).  [after LANDSCAPE]

   scapegoat n. & v.  --n.  1 a person bearing the blame for the sins,
             shortcomings, etc.  of others, esp. as an expedient.  2 Bibl. a
             goat sent into the wilderness after the Jewish chief priest had
             symbolically laid the sins of the people upon it (Lev. 16).
             --v.tr. make a scapegoat of.  ЬЬscapegoater n.  [scape (archaic,
             = escape) + GOAT, = the goat that escapes]

             n.  a rascal; a scamp, esp. a young person or child.  [scape (as
             SCAPEGOAT) + GRACE = one who escapes the grace of God]

   scaphoid  adj. & n.  Anat.  = NAVICULAR.  [mod.L scaphoides f. Gk
             skaphoeides f.  skaphos boat]

   scapula   n.  (pl.  scapulae or scapulas) the shoulder-blade.  [LL, sing.
             of L scapulae]

   scapular  adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the shoulder or
             shoulder-blade.  --n.  1 a a monastic short cloak covering the
             shoulders.  b a symbol of affiliation to an ecclesiastical
             order, consisting of two strips of cloth hanging down the breast
             and back and joined across the shoulders.  2 a bandage for or
             over the shoulders.  3 a scapular feather.  Ьscapular feather a
             feather growing near the insertion of the wing.  [(adj.) f.
             SCAPULA: (n.) f. LL scapulare (as SCAPULA)]

   scapulary n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 = SCAPULAR n.  1.  2 = SCAPULAR n.  3.  [ME f.
             OF eschapeloyre f. med.L scapelorium, scapularium (as SCAPULA)]

   scar(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a usu. permanent mark on the skin left after
             the healing of a wound, burn, or sore.  2 the lasting effect of
             grief etc. on a person's character or disposition.  3 a mark
             left by damage etc. (the table bore many scars).  4 a mark left
             on the stem etc. of a plant by the fall of a leaf etc.  --v.
             (scarred, scarring) 1 tr. (esp. as scarred adj.) mark with a
             scar or scars (was scarred for life).  2 intr. heal over; form a
             scar.  3 tr. form a scar on.  ЬЬscarless adj.  [ME f. OF
             eschar(r)e f. LL eschara f. Gk eskhara scab]

   scar(2)   n.  (also scaur) a steep craggy outcrop of a mountain or cliff.
             [ME f. ON sker low reef in the sea]

   scarab    n.  1 a the sacred dung-beetle of ancient Egypt.  b =
             SCARABAEID.  2 an ancient Egyptian gem cut in the form of a
             beetle and engraved with symbols on its flat side, used as a
             signet etc.  [L scarabaeus f. Gk skarabeios]

             n.  any beetle of the family Scarabaeidae, including the
             dung-beetle, cockchafer, etc.  [mod.L Scarabaeidae (as SCARAB)]

             n.  archaic a boastful coward; a braggart.  [It.  Scaramuccia
             stock character in Italian farce f.  scaramuccia = SKIRMISH,
             infl. by F form Scaramouche]

   scarce    adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 (usu.  predic.) (esp. of food, money,
             etc.) insufficient for the demand; scanty.  2 hard to find;
             rare.  --adv.  archaic or literary scarcely.  Ьmake oneself
             scarce colloq.  keep out of the way; surreptitiously disappear.
             ЬЬscarceness n.  [ME f. AF & ONF (e)scars, OF eschars f. L
             excerpere: see EXCERPT]

   scarcely  adv.  1 hardly; barely; only just (I scarcely know him).  2
             surely not (he can scarcely have said so).  3 a mild or
             apologetic or ironical substitute for 'not' (I scarcely expected
             to be insulted).

   scarcity  n.  (pl.  -ies) (often foll. by of) a lack or inadequacy, esp.
             of food.

   scare     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. frighten, esp. suddenly (his expression
             scared us).  2 tr. (as scared adj.) (usu. foll. by of, or to +
             infin.) frightened; terrified (scared of his own shadow).  3 tr.
             (usu. foll. by away, off, up, etc.) drive away by frightening.
             4 intr. become scared (they don't scare easily).  --n.  1 a
             sudden attack of fright (gave me a scare).  2 a general, esp.
             baseless, fear of war, invasion, epidemic, etc. (a measles
             scare).  3 a financial panic causing share-selling etc.
             Ьscaredy-cat colloq.  a timid person.  scare-heading (or -head)
             a shockingly sensational newspaper headline.  scare up (or out)
             esp.  US 1 frighten (game etc.) out of cover.  2 colloq. manage
             to find; discover (see if we can scare up a meal).  ЬЬscarer n.
             [ME skerre f. ON skirra frighten f.  skjarr timid]

   scarecrow n.  1 a human figure dressed in old clothes and set up in a
             field to scare birds away.  2 colloq. a badly-dressed,
             grotesque-looking, or very thin person.  3 archaic an object of
             baseless fear.

             n.  a person who spreads frightening reports or rumours.
             ЬЬscaremongering n.

   scarf(1)  n.  (pl.  scarves or scarfs) a square, triangular, or esp. long
             narrow strip of material worn round the neck, over the
             shoulders, or tied round the head (of a woman), for warmth or
             ornament.  Ьscarf-pin (or -ring) Brit.  an ornamental device for
             fastening a scarf.  scarf-skin the outermost layer of the skin
             constantly scaling off, esp. that at the base of the nails.
             scarf-wise worn diagonally across the body from shoulder to hip.
             ЬЬscarfed adj.  [prob. alt. of scarp (infl. by SCARF(2)) f. ONF
             escarpe = OF escherpe sash]

   scarf(2)  v. & n.  --v.tr. join the ends of (pieces of esp. timber, metal,
             or leather) by bevelling or notching them to fit and then
             bolting, brazing, or sewing them together; cut the blubber of (a
             whale).  --n.  1 a joint made by scarfing.  2 a cut on a whale
             made by scarfing.  [ME (earlier as noun) prob. f. OF escarf
             (unrecorded) perh. f. ON]

   scarifier n.  1 a thing or person that scarifies.  2 a machine with prongs
             for loosening soil without turning it.  3 a spiked road-breaking

             v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 a make superficial incisions in.  b cut
             off skin from.  2 hurt by severe criticism etc.  3 loosen (soil)
             with a scarifier.  ЬЬscarification n.  [ME f. F scarifier f. LL
             scarificare f. L scarifare f. Gk skariphaomai f.  skariphos

             v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) colloq.  scare; terrify.

   scarious  adj.  (of a part of a plant etc.) having a dry membranous
             appearance; thin and brittle.  [F scarieux or mod.L scariosus]

             n.  = scarlet fever.  [mod.L f. It.  scarlattina (febbre fever)
             dimin. of scarlatto SCARLET]

   scarlet   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a brilliant red colour tinged with orange.  2
             clothes or material of this colour (dressed in scarlet).  --adj.
             of a scarlet colour.  Ьscarlet fever an infectious bacterial
             fever, affecting esp. children, with a scarlet rash.  scarlet
             hat RC Ch.  a cardinal's hat as a symbol of rank.  scarlet
             pimpernel a small annual wild plant, Anagallis arvensis, with
             small esp. scarlet flowers closing in rainy or cloudy weather:
             also called poor man's weather-glass.  scarlet rash = ROSEOLA 1.
             scarlet runner 1 a runner bean.  2 a scarlet-flowered climber
             bearing this bean.  scarlet woman derog.  a notoriously
             promiscuous woman, a prostitute.  [ME f. OF escarlate: ult.
             orig. unkn.]

   scaroid   n. & adj.  --n. any colourful marine fish of the family
             Scaridae, native to tropical and temperate seas, including the
             scarus.  --adj. of or relating to this family.

   scarp     n. & v.  --n.  1 the inner wall or slope of a ditch in a
             fortification (cf.  COUNTERSCARP).  2 a steep slope.  --v.tr.  1
             make (a slope) perpendicular or steep.  2 provide (a ditch) with
             a steep scarp and counterscarp.  3 (as scarped adj.) (of a
             hillside etc.) steep; precipitous.  [It.  scarpa]

   scarper   v.intr.  Brit.  sl.  run away; escape.  [prob. f. It.  scappare
             escape, infl. by rhyming sl.  Scapa Flow = go]

   scarus    n.  any fish of the genus Scarus, with brightly coloured scales,
             and teeth fused to form a parrot-like beak used for eating
             coral. Also called parrot-fish.  [L f. Gk skaros]

   scarves   pl. of SCARF(1).

   scary     adj.  (scarier, scariest) colloq.  scaring, frightening.
             ЬЬscarily adv.

   scat(1)   v. & int.  colloq.  --v.intr.  (scatted, scatting) depart
             quickly.  --int. go!  [perh. abbr. of SCATTER]

   scat(2)   n. & v.  --n. improvised jazz singing using sounds imitating
             instruments, instead of words.  --v.intr.  (scatted, scatting)
             sing scat.  [prob. imit.]

   scathe    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 poet. injure esp. by blasting or withering.
             2 (as scathing adj.) witheringly scornful (scathing sarcasm).  3
             (with neg.) do the least harm to (shall not be scathed) (cf.
             UNSCATHED).  --n. (usu. with neg.) archaic harm; injury (without
             scathe).  ЬЬscatheless predic.adj.  scathingly adv.  [(v.) ME f.
             ON skatha = OE sceathian: (n.) OE f. ON skathi = OE sceatha
             malefactor, injury, f. Gmc]

   scatology n.  1 a a morbid interest in excrement.  b a preoccupation with
             obscene literature, esp. that concerned with the excretory
             functions.  c such literature.  2 the study of fossilized dung.
             3 the study of excrement for esp. diagnosis.  ЬЬscatological
             adj.  [Gk skor skatos dung + -LOGY]

             adj.  feeding on dung.  [as SCATOLOGY + Gk -phagos -eating]

   scatter   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a throw here and there; strew (scattered
             gravel on the road).  b cover by scattering (scattered the road
             with gravel).  2 tr. & intr.  a move or cause to move in flight
             etc.; disperse (scattered to safety at the sound).  b disperse
             or cause (hopes, clouds, etc.) to disperse.  3 tr. (as scattered
             adj.) not clustered together; wide apart; sporadic (scattered
             villages).  4 tr.  Physics deflect or diffuse (light, particles,
             etc.).  5 a intr. (of esp. a shotgun) fire a charge of shot
             diffusely.  b tr. fire (a charge) in this way.  --n.  1 the act
             or an instance of scattering.  2 a small amount scattered.  3
             the extent of distribution of esp. shot.  Ьscatter cushions (or
             rugs, etc.) cushions, rugs, etc., placed here and there for
             effect.  scatter-shot n. & adj.  US firing at random.
             ЬЬscatterer n.  [ME, prob. var. of SHATTER]

             n.  a person given to silly or disorganized thought with lack of
             concentration.  ЬЬscatterbrained adj.

   scatty    adj.  (scattier, scattiest) Brit.  colloq.  scatterbrained;
             disorganized.  ЬЬscattily adv.  scattiness n.  [abbr.]

   scaup     n.  any diving duck of the genus Aythya.  [scaup Sc. var. of
             scalp mussel-bed, which it frequents]

   scauper   var. of SCALPER 2.

   scaur     var. of SCAR(2).

   scavenge  v.  1 tr. & intr. (usu. foll. by for) search for and collect
             (discarded items).  2 tr. remove unwanted products from (an
             internal-combustion engine cylinder etc.).  [back-form. f.

   scavenger n.  1 a person who seeks and collects discarded items.  2 an
             animal, esp. a beetle, feeding on carrion, refuse, etc.  3 Brit.
             archaic a person employed to clean the streets etc.
             ЬЬscavengery n.  [ME scavager f. AF scawager f.  scawage f. ONF
             escauwer inspect f. Flem.  scauwen, rel. to SHOW: for -n- cf.

   scazon    n.  Prosody a Greek or Latin metre of limping character, esp. a
             trimeter of two iambuses and a spondee or trochee.  [L f. Gk
             skazon f.  skazo limp]

   Sc.D.     abbr.  Doctor of Science.  [L scientiae doctor]

   SCE       abbr.  Scottish Certificate of Education.

   scena     n.  Mus.  1 a scene or part of an opera.  2 an elaborate
             dramatic solo usu. including recitative.  [It. f. L: see SCENE]

   scenario  n.  (pl.  -os) 1 an outline of the plot of a play, film, opera,
             etc., with details of the scenes, situations, etc.  2 a
             postulated sequence of future events.  ЬЬscenarist n. (in sense
             1).  [It. (as SCENA)]

   scend     n. & v.  Naut.  --n.  1 the impulse given by a wave or waves
             (scend of the sea).  2 a plunge of a vessel.  --v.intr. (of a
             vessel) plunge or pitch owing to the impulse of a wave.  [alt.
             f.  SEND or DESCEND]

   scene     n.  1 a place in which events in real life, drama, or fiction
             occur; the locality of an event etc. (the scene was set in
             India; the scene of the disaster).  2 a an incident in real
             life, fiction, etc. (distressing scenes occurred).  b a
             description or representation of an incident etc. (scenes of
             clerical life).  3 a public incident displaying emotion, temper,
             etc., esp.  when embarrassing to others (made a scene in the
             restaurant).  4 a a continuous portion of a play in a fixed
             setting and usu.  without a change of personnel; a subdivision
             of an act.  b a similar section of a film, book, etc.  5 a any
             of the pieces of scenery used in a play.  b these collectively.
             6 a landscape or a view (a desolate scene).  7 colloq.  a an
             area of action or interest (not my scene).  b a way of life; a
             milieu (well-known on the jazz scene).  8 archaic the stage of a
             theatre.  Ьbehind the scenes 1 Theatr. among the actors,
             scenery, etc. offstage.  2 not known to the public; secret.
             behind-the-scenes (attrib.) secret, using secret information (a
             behind-the-scenes investigation).  change of scene a variety of
             surroundings esp. through travel.  come on the scene arrive.
             quit the scene die; leave.  scene-dock a space for storing
             scenery near the stage.  scene-shifter a person who moves
             scenery in a theatre.  scene-shifting this activity.  set the
             scene 1 describe the location of events.  2 give preliminary
             information.  [L scena f. Gk skene tent, stage]

   scenery   n.  1 the general appearance of the natural features of a
             landscape, esp. when picturesque.  2 Theatr. the painted
             representations of landscape, rooms, etc., used as the
             background in a play etc.  Ьchange of scenery = change of scene
             (see SCENE).  [earlier scenary f. It.  SCENARIO: assim. to -ERY]

   scenic    adj.  1 a picturesque; impressive or beautiful (took the scenic
             route).  b of or concerning natural scenery (flatness is the
             main scenic feature).  2 (of a picture etc.) representing an
             incident.  3 Theatr. of or on the stage (scenic performances).
             Ьscenic railway 1 a miniature railway running through artificial
             scenery at funfairs etc.  2 = big dipper 1.  ЬЬscenically adv.
             [L scenicus f. Gk skenikos of the stage (as SCENE)]

   scent     n. & v.  --n.  1 a distinctive, esp. pleasant, smell (the scent
             of hay).  2 a a scent trail left by an animal perceptible to
             hounds etc.  b clues etc. that can be followed like a scent
             trail (lost the scent in Paris).  c the power of detecting or
             distinguishing smells etc. or of discovering things (some dogs
             have little scent; the scent for talent).  3 Brit. = PERFUME 2.
             4 a trail laid in a paper-chase.  --v.  1 tr.  a discern by
             scent (the dog scented game).  b sense the presence of (scent
             treachery).  2 tr. make fragrant or foul-smelling.  3 tr. (as
             scented adj.) having esp. a pleasant smell (scented soap).  4
             intr. exercise the sense of smell (goes scenting about).  5 tr.
             apply the sense of smell to (scented the air).  Ьfalse scent 1 a
             scent trail laid to deceive.  2 false clues etc. intended to
             deflect pursuers.  on the scent having a clue.  put (or throw)
             off the scent deceive by false clues etc.  scent-bag a bag of
             aniseed etc. used to lay a trail in drag-hunting.  scent-gland
             (or -organ) a gland in some animals secreting musk, civet, etc.
             scent out discover by smelling or searching.  ЬЬscentless adj.
             [ME sent f. OF sentir perceive, smell, f. L sentire; -c- (17th
             c.) unexpl.]

   scepsis   n.  (US skepsis) 1 philosophic doubt.  2 sceptical philosophy.
             [Gk skepsis inquiry, doubt f.  skeptomai consider]

   scepter   US var. of SCEPTRE.

   sceptic   n. & adj.  (US skeptic) --n.  1 a person inclined to doubt all
             accepted opinions; a cynic.  2 a person who doubts the truth of
             Christianity and other religions.  3 hist. a person who accepts
             the philosophy of Pyrrhonism.  --adj. = SCEPTICAL.  ЬЬscepticism
             n.  [F sceptique or L scepticus f. Gk skeptikos (as SCEPSIS)]

   sceptical adj.  (US skeptical) 1 inclined to question the truth or
             soundness of accepted ideas, facts, etc.; critical; incredulous.
             2 Philos. of or accepting the philosophy of Pyrrhonism, denying
             the possibility of knowledge.  ЬЬsceptically adv.

   sceptre   n.  (US scepter) 1 a staff borne esp. at a coronation as a
             symbol of sovereignty.  2 royal or imperial authority.
             ЬЬsceptred adj.  [ME f. OF (s)ceptre f. L sceptrum f. Gk
             skeptron f.  skepto lean on]

   sch.      abbr.  1 scholar.  2 school.  3 schooner.

             n.  the malicious enjoyment of another's misfortunes.  [G f.
             Schaden harm + Freude joy]

   schappe   n.  fabric or yarn made from waste silk.  [G, = waste silk]

   schedule  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a list or plan of intended events, times,
             etc.  b a plan of work (not on my schedule for next week).  2 a
             list of rates or prices.  3 US a timetable.  4 a tabulated
             inventory etc. esp. as an appendix to a document.  --v.tr.  1
             include in a schedule.  2 make a schedule of.  3 Brit. include
             (a building) in a list for preservation or protection.
             Ьaccording to schedule (or on schedule) as planned; on time.
             behind schedule behind time.  scheduled flight (or service etc.)
             a public flight, service, etc., according to a regular
             timetable.  scheduled territories hist. = sterling area.
             ЬЬscheduler n.  [ME f. OF cedule f. LL schedula slip of paper,
             dimin. of scheda f. Gk skhede papyrus-leaf]

   scheelite n.  Mineral.  calcium tungstate in its mineral crystalline form.
             [K. W.  Scheele, Sw. chemist d. 1786]

   schema    n.  (pl.  schemata or schemas) 1 a synopsis, outline, or
             diagram.  2 a proposed arrangement.  3 Logic a syllogistic
             figure.  4 (in Kantian philosophy) a conception of what is
             common to all members of a class; a general type or essential
             form.  [Gk skhema -atos form, figure]

   schematic adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or concerning a scheme or schema.  2
             representing objects by symbols etc.  --n. a schematic diagram,
             esp. of an electronic circuit.  ЬЬschematically adv.

             n.  a schematic arrangement or presentation.  [mod.L
             schematismus f. Gk skhematismos (as SCHEMATIZE)]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 put in a schematic form; arrange.  2
             represent by a scheme or schema.  ЬЬschematization n.

   scheme    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a systematic plan or arrangement for work,
             action, etc.  b a proposed or operational systematic arrangement
             (a colour scheme).  2 an artful or deceitful plot.  3 a
             timetable, outline, syllabus, etc.  --v.  1 intr. (often foll.
             by for, or to + infin.) plan esp. secretly or deceitfully;
             intrigue.  2 tr. plan to bring about, esp. artfully or
             deceitfully (schemed their downfall).  ЬЬschemer n.  [L schema
             f. Gk (as SCHEMA)]

   scheming  adj. & n.  --adj. artful, cunning, or deceitful.  --n. plots;
             intrigues.  ЬЬschemingly adv.

             var. of SHEMOZZLE.

             adv., adj., & n.  Mus.  --adv. & adj. in a playful manner.  --n.
             (pl.  scherzandos or scherzandi) a passage played in this way.
             [It., gerund of scherzare to jest (as SCHERZO)]

   scherzo   n.  (pl.  -os) Mus.  a vigorous, light, or playful composition,
             usu. as a movement in a symphony, sonata, etc.  [It., lit.

   schilling n.  1 the chief monetary unit of Austria.  2 a coin equal to the
             value of one schilling.  [G (as SHILLING)]

             n.  1 a small black tailless dog of a breed with a ruff of fur
             round its neck.  2 this breed.  [Du. dial., = little boatman, f.
             its use as a watchdog on barges]

   schism    n.  1 a the division of a group into opposing sections or
             parties.  b any of the sections so formed.  2 a the separation
             of a Church into two Churches or the secession of a group owing
             to doctrinal, disciplinary, etc., differences.  b the offence of
             causing or promoting such a separation.  [ME f. OF s(c)isme f.
             eccl.L schisma f. Gk skhisma -atos cleft f.  skhizo to split]

             adj. & n.  (also schismatical) --adj. inclining to, concerning,
             or guilty of, schism.  --n.  1 a holder of schismatic opinions.
             2 a member of a schismatic faction or a seceded branch of a
             Church.  ЬЬschismatically adv.  [ME f. OF scismatique f. eccl.L
             schismaticus f. eccl.Gk skhismatikos (as SCHISM)]

   schist    n.  a foliated metamorphic rock composed of layers of different
             minerals and splitting into thin irregular plates.  ЬЬschistose
             adj.  [F schiste f. L schistos f. Gk skhistos split (as SCHISM)]

             n.  = BILHARZIA 1.  [Gk skhistos divided (as SCHISM) + soma

             n.  = BILHARZIASIS.  [mod.L Schistosoma (the genus-name, as

             n.  any plant of the genus Schizanthus, with showy flowers in
             various colours, and finely-divided leaves.  [mod.L f. Gk skhizo
             to split + anthos flower]

   schizo    adj. & n.  colloq.  --adj. schizophrenic.  --n.  (pl.  -os) a
             schizophrenic.  [abbr.]

             n.  Bot.  any of a group of dry fruits that split into
             single-seeded parts when ripe.  ЬЬschizocarpic adj.
             schizocarpous adj.  [Gk skhizo to split + karpos fruit]

   schizoid  adj. & n.  --adj. (of a person or personality etc.) tending to
             or resembling schizophrenia or a schizophrenic, but usu. without
             delusions.  --n. a schizoid person.

             n.  a former name for a bacterium.  [Gk skhizo to split + mukes
             -etos mushroom]

             n.  a mental disease marked by a breakdown in the relation
             between thoughts, feelings, and actions, frequently accompanied
             by delusions and retreat from social life.  ЬЬschizophrenic adj.
             & n.  [mod.L f. Gk skhizo to split + phren mind]

             n.  Psychol.  an introvert condition with a tendency to
             schizophrenia.  ЬЬschizothymic adj.  [mod.L (as SCHIZOPHRENIA +
             Gk thumos temper)]

   schlemiel n.  US colloq.  a foolish or unlucky person.  [Yiddish shlumiel]

   schlep    v. & n.  (also schlepp) colloq.  --v.  (schlepped, schlepping) 1
             tr. carry, drag.  2 intr. go or work tediously or effortfully.
             --n. esp.  US trouble or hard work.  [Yiddish shlepn f. G
             schleppen drag]

   schlieren n.  1 a visually discernible area or stratum of different
             density in a transparent medium.  2 Geol. an irregular streak of
             mineral in igneous rock.  [G, pl. of Schliere streak]

   schlock   n.  US colloq.  inferior goods; trash.  [Yiddish shlak a blow]

   schmaltz  n.  esp.  US colloq.  sentimentality, esp. in music, drama, etc.
             ЬЬschmaltzy adj.  (schmaltzier, schmaltziest).  [Yiddish f. G
             Schmalz dripping, lard]

   schmuck   n.  esp.  US sl.  a foolish or contemptible person.  [Yiddish]

   schnapps  n.  any of various spirits drunk in N. Europe.  [G, = dram of
             liquor f. LG & Du.  snaps mouthful (as SNAP)]

   schnauzer n.  1 a dog of a German breed with a close wiry coat and heavy
             whiskers round the muzzle.  2 this breed.  [G f.  Schnauze
             muzzle, SNOUT]

   schnitzel n.  an escalope of veal.  ЬWiener (or Vienna) schnitzel a
             breaded, fried, and garnished schnitzel.  [G, = slice]

   schnorkel var. of SNORKEL.

   schnorrer n.  esp.  US sl.  a beggar or scrounger; a layabout.  [Yiddish
             f. G Schnurrer]

   scholar   n.  1 a learned person, esp. in language, literature, etc.; an
             academic.  2 the holder of a scholarship.  3 a a person with
             specified academic ability (is a poor scholar).  b a person who
             learns (am a scholar of life).  4 archaic colloq. a person able
             to read and write.  5 archaic a schoolboy or schoolgirl.
             Ьscholar's mate see MATE(2).  ЬЬscholarly adv.  scholarliness n.
             [ME f. OE scol(i)ere & OF escol(i)er f. LL scholaris f. L schola

             n.  1 a academic achievement; learning of a high level.  b the
             methods and standards characteristic of a good scholar (shows
             great scholarship).  2 payment from the funds of a school,
             university, local government, etc., to maintain a student in
             full-time education, awarded on the basis of scholarly

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or concerning universities, schools,
             education, teachers, etc.  2 pedantic; formal (shows scholastic
             precision).  3 Philos.  hist. of, resembling, or concerning the
             schoolmen, esp. in dealing with logical subtleties.  --n.  1 a
             student.  2 Philos.  hist. a schoolman.  3 a theologian of
             scholastic tendencies.  4 RC Ch. a member of any of several
             religious orders, who is between the novitiate and the
             priesthood.  ЬЬscholastically adv.  scholasticism n.  [L
             scholasticus f. Gk skholastikos studious f.  skholazo be at
             leisure, formed as SCHOOL]

   scholiast n.  hist.  an ancient or medieval scholar, esp. a grammarian,
             who annotated ancient literary texts.  ЬЬscholiastic adj.
             [med.Gk skholiastes f.  skholiazo write scholia: see SCHOLIUM]

   scholium  n.  (pl.  scholia) a marginal note or explanatory comment, esp.
             by an ancient grammarian on a classical text.  [mod.L f. Gk
             skholion f.  skhole disputation: see SCHOOL]

   school(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a an institution for educating or giving
             instruction, esp.  Brit. for children under 19 years, or US for
             any level of instruction including college or university.  b
             (attrib.) associated with or for use in school (a school bag;
             school dinners).  2 a the buildings used by such an institution.
             b the pupils, staff, etc. of a school.  c the time during which
             teaching is done, or the teaching itself (no school today).  3 a
             a branch of study with separate examinations at a university; a
             department or faculty (the history school).  b Brit. the hall in
             which university examinations are held.  c (in pl.) Brit. such
             examinations.  4 a the disciples, imitators, or followers of a
             philosopher, artist, etc. (the school of Epicurus).  b a group
             of artists etc. whose works share distinctive characteristics.
             c a group of people sharing a cause, principle, method, etc.
             (school of thought).  5 Brit. a group of gamblers or of persons
             drinking together (a poker school).  6 colloq. instructive or
             disciplinary circumstances, occupation, etc.  (the school of
             adversity; learnt in a hard school).  7 hist. a medieval
             lecture-room.  8 Mus. (usu. foll. by of) a handbook or book of
             instruction (school of counterpoint).  9 (in pl.; prec. by the)
             hist. medieval universities, their teachers, disputations, etc.
             --v.tr.  1 send to school; provide for the education of.  2
             (often foll. by to) discipline; train; control.  3 (as schooled
             adj.) (foll. by in) educated or trained (schooled in humility).
             Ьat (US in) school attending lessons etc.  go to school 1 begin
             one's education.  2 attend lessons.  leave school finish one's
             education.  of the old school according to former and esp.
             better tradition (a gentleman of the old school).  school age
             the age-range in which children normally attend school.  school
             board US or hist.  a board or authority for local education.
             school-days the time of being at school, esp. in retrospect.
             school-inspector a government official reporting on the
             efficiency, teaching standards, etc. of schools.  school-leaver
             Brit.  a child leaving school esp. at the minimum specified age.
             school-leaving age the minimum age at which a schoolchild may
             leave school.  school-ma'm (or -marm) US colloq.  a
             schoolmistress.  school-marmish colloq.  prim and fussy.
             school-ship a training-ship.  school-time 1 lesson-time at
             school or at home.  2 school-days.  school year = academic year.
             [ME f. OE scol, scolu, & f. OF escole ult. f. L schola school f.
             Gk skhole leisure, disputation, philosophy, lecture-place]

   school(2) n. & v.  --n. (often foll. by of) a shoal of fish, porpoises,
             whales, etc.  --v.intr. form schools.  [ME f. MLG, MDu.  schole
             f. WG]

             adj.  liable by age etc. to compulsory education.

   schoolboy n.  a boy attending school.

             n.  a child attending school.

             n.  a past or esp. present member of the same school.

             n.  a girl attending school.

             n.  Brit.  1 a building used as a school, esp. in a village.  2
             a dwelling-house adjoining a school.

   schoolie  n.  Austral.  sl. & dial.  a schoolteacher.

   schooling n.  1 education, esp. at school.  2 training or discipline, esp.
             of an animal.

   schoolman n.  (pl.  -men) 1 hist. a teacher in a medieval European
             university.  2 RC Ch.  hist. a theologian seeking to deal with
             religious doctrines by the rules of Aristotelian logic.  3 US a
             male teacher.

             n.  a head or assistant male teacher.  ЬЬschoolmasterly adj.

             n.  teaching as a profession.

             n.  = SCHOOLFELLOW.

             n.  a head or assistant female teacher.

             adj.  colloq.  prim and fussy.

             n.  a room used for lessons in a school or esp. in a private

             n.  a person who teaches in a school.  ЬЬschoolteaching n.

   schooner  n.  1 a fore-and-aft rigged ship with two or more masts, the
             foremast being smaller than the other masts.  2 a Brit. a
             measure or glass for esp. sherry.  b US & Austral. a tall
             beer-glass.  3 US hist. = prairie schooner.  [18th c.: orig.

   schorl    n.  black tourmaline.  [G Sch”rl]

             n.  1 a kind of slow polka.  2 the music for this.  [G der
             schottische Tanz the Scottish dance]

   Schottky effect
             n.  Electronics the increase in thermionic emission from a solid
             surface due to the presence of an external electric field.  [W.
             Schottky, Ger. physicist d. 1976]

   Schr”dinger equation
             n.  Physics a differential equation used in quantum mechanics
             for the wave function of a particle.  [E.  Schr”dinger, Austrian
             physicist d. 1961]

   schuss    n. & v.  --n. a straight downhill run on skis.  --v.intr. make a
             schuss.  [G, lit. 'shot']

   schwa     n.  (also sheva) Phonet.  1 the indistinct unstressed vowel
             sound as in a mom ent ago.  2 the symbol representing this in
             the International Phonetic Alphabet.  [G f. Heb. sewa, app. f.
             saw' emptiness]

             n.  (also skiagraphy) the art of shading in drawing etc.
             ЬЬsciagram n.  sciagraph n. & v.tr.  sciagraphic adj.  [F
             sciagraphie f. L sciagraphia f. Gk skiagraphia f.  skia shadow]

   sciamachy n.  (also skiamachy) formal 1 fighting with shadows.  2
             imaginary or futile combat.  [Gk skiamakhia (as SCIAGRAPHY,
             -makhia -fighting)]

   sciatic   adj.  1 of the hip.  2 of or affecting the sciatic nerve.  3
             suffering from or liable to sciatica.  Ьsciatic nerve the
             largest nerve in the human body, running from the pelvis to the
             thigh.  ЬЬsciatically adv.  [F sciatique f. LL sciaticus f. L
             ischiadicus f. Gk iskhiadikos subject to sciatica f.  iskhion

   sciatica  n.  neuralgia of the hip and thigh; a pain in the sciatic nerve.
             [ME f. LL sciatica (passio) fem. of sciaticus: see SCIATIC]

   science   n.  1 a branch of knowledge conducted on objective principles
             involving the systematized observation of and experiment with
             phenomena, esp. concerned with the material and functions of the
             physical universe (see also natural science).  2 a systematic
             and formulated knowledge, esp. of a specified type or on a
             specified subject (political science).  b the pursuit or
             principles of this.  3 an organized body of knowledge on a
             subject (the science of philology).  4 skilful technique rather
             than strength or natural ability.  5 archaic knowledge of any
             kind.  Ьscience fiction fiction based on imagined future
             scientific discoveries or environmental changes, frequently
             dealing with space travel, life on other planets, etc.  science
             park an area devoted to scientific research or the development
             of science-based industries.  [ME f. OF f. L scientia f.  scire

   scienter  adv.  Law intentionally; knowingly.  [L f.  scire know]

   sciential adj.  concerning or having knowledge.  [LL scientialis (as

             adj.  1 a (of an investigation etc.) according to rules laid
             down in exact science for performing observations and testing
             the soundness of conclusions.  b systematic, accurate.  2 used
             in, engaged in, or relating to (esp. natural) science
             (scientific discoveries; scientific terminology).  3 assisted by
             expert knowledge.  ЬЬscientifically adv.  [F scientifique or LL
             scientificus (as SCIENCE)]

   scientism n.  1 a a method or doctrine regarded as characteristic of
             scientists.  b the use or practice of this.  2 often derog. an
             excessive belief in or application of scientific method.
             ЬЬscientistic adj.

   scientist n.  1 a person with expert knowledge of a (usu. physical or
             natural) science.  2 a person using scientific methods.

             n.  a religious system based on self-improvement and promotion
             through grades of esp. self-knowledge.  ЬЬscientologist n.  [L
             scientia knowledge + -LOGY]

   sci-fi    n.  (often attrib.) colloq.  science fiction.  [abbr.: cf.

   scilicet  adv.  to wit; that is to say; namely (introducing a word to be
             supplied or an explanation of an ambiguity).  [ME f. L, = scire
             licet one is permitted to know]

   scilla    n.  any liliaceous plant of the genus Scilla, related to the
             bluebell, usu. bearing small blue star-shaped or bell-shaped
             flowers and having long glossy straplike leaves.  [L f. Gk

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the Scilly Isles off the
             coast of Cornwall.  --n. a native of the Scilly Isles.  [Scilly,
             perh. after Devonian]

   scimitar  n.  an oriental curved sword usu. broadening towards the point.
             [F cimeterre, It.  scimitarra, etc., of unkn. orig.]

             n.  an image of an internal part of the body, produced by

             n.  the use of a radioisotope and a scintillation counter to get
             an image or record of a bodily organ etc.  [SCINTILLATION +

   scintilla n.  1 a trace.  2 a spark.  [L]

             v.intr.  1 (esp. as scintillating adj.) talk cleverly or
             wittily; be brilliant.  2 sparkle; twinkle; emit sparks.  3
             Physics fluoresce momentarily when struck by a charged particle
             etc.  ЬЬscintillant adj.  scintillatingly adv.  [L scintillare
             (as SCINTILLA)]

             n.  1 the process or state of scintillating.  2 the twinkling of
             a star.  3 a flash produced in a material by an ionizing
             particle etc.  Ьscintillation counter a device for detecting and
             recording scintillation.

             n.  an image or other record showing the distribution of
             radioactive traces in parts of the body, used in the detection
             and diagnosis of various diseases.  [SCINTILLATION + SCAN]

   sciolist  n.  a superficial pretender to knowledge.  ЬЬsciolism n.
             sciolistic adj.  [LL sciolus smatterer f. L scire know]

   scion     n.  1 (US cion) a shoot of a plant etc., esp. one cut for
             grafting or planting.  2 a descendant; a younger member of (esp.
             a noble) family.  [ME f. OF ciun, cion, sion shoot, twig, of
             unkn. orig.]

   scire facias
             n.  Law a writ to enforce or annul a judgement, patent, etc.
             [L, = let (him) know]

   scirocco  var. of SIROCCO.

   scirrhus  n.  (pl.  scirrhi) a carcinoma which is hard to the touch.
             ЬЬscirrhoid adj.  scirrhosity n.  scirrhous adj.  [mod.L f. Gk
             skir(r)os f.  skiros hard]

   scissel   n.  waste clippings etc. of metal produced during coin
             manufacture.  [F cisaille f.  cisailler clip with shears]

   scissile  adj.  able to be cut or divided.  [L scissilis f.  scindere
             sciss- cut]

   scission  n.  1 the act or an instance of cutting; the state of being cut.
             2 a division or split.  [ME f. OF scission or LL scissio (as

   scissor   v.tr.  1 (usu. foll. by off, up, into, etc.) cut with scissors.
             2 (usu. foll. by out) clip out (a newspaper cutting etc.).

   scissors  n.pl.  1 (also pair of scissors sing.) an instrument for cutting
             fabric, paper, hair, etc., having two pivoted blades with finger
             and thumb holes in the handles, operating by closing on the
             material to be cut.  2 (treated as sing.) a a method of
             high-jumping with a forward and backward movement of the legs.
             b a hold in wrestling in which the opponent's body or esp.  head
             is gripped between the legs.  Ьscissor-bill = SKIMMER 4.
             scissor-bird (or -tail) a fork-tailed flycatcher, Tyrannus
             forficatus.  scissors and paste a method of compiling a book,
             article, etc., from extracts from others or without independent
             research.  ЬЬscissorwise adv.  [ME sisoures f. OF cisoires f. LL
             cisoria pl. of cisorium cutting instrument (as CHISEL): assoc.
             with L scindere sciss- cut]

   sciurine  adj.  1 of or relating to the family Sciuridae, including
             squirrels and chipmunks.  2 squirrel-like.  ЬЬsciuroid adj.  [L
             sciurus f. Gk skiouros squirrel f.  skia shadow + oura tail]

   sclera    n.  the white of the eye; a white membrane coating the eyeball.
             ЬЬscleral adj.  scleritis n.  sclerotomy n.  (pl.  -ies).
             [mod.L f. fem. of Gk skleros hard]

             n.  the woody tissue found in a plant, formed from lignified
             cells and usu. providing support.  [mod.L f. Gk skleros hard +
             egkhuma infusion, after parenchyma]

   scleroid  adj.  Bot. & Zool.  having a hard texture; hardened.  [Gk
             skleros hard]

   scleroma  n.  (pl.  scleromata) an abnormal patch of hardened skin or
             mucous membrane.  [mod.L f. Gk skleroma (as SCLEROSIS)]

             n.  an instrument for determining the hardness of materials.
             [Gk skleros hard + -METER]

             n.  any woody plant with leathery leaves retaining water.
             ЬЬsclerophyllous adj.  [Gk skleros hard + phullon leaf]

             n.  Biochem.  any insoluble structural protein.  [Gk skleros
             hard + PROTEIN]

   sclerosed adj.  affected by sclerosis.

   sclerosis n.  1 an abnormal hardening of body tissue (see also
             ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, ATHEROSCLEROSIS).  2 (in full multiple or
             disseminated sclerosis) a chronic and progressive disease of the
             nervous system resulting in symptoms including paralysis and
             speech defects.  3 Bot. the hardening of a cell-wall with
             lignified matter.  [ME f. med.L f. Gk sklerosis f.  skleroo

   sclerotic adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or having sclerosis.  2 of or relating
             to the sclera.  --n. = SCLERA.  ЬЬsclerotitis n.  [med.L
             sclerotica (as SCLEROSIS)]

   sclerous  adj.  Physiol.  hardened; bony.  [Gk skleros hard]

   SCM       abbr.  (in the UK) 1 State Certified Midwife.  2 Student
             Christian Movement.

   scoff(1)  v. & n.  --v.intr. (usu. foll. by at) speak derisively, esp. of
             serious subjects; mock; be scornful.  --n.  1 mocking words; a
             taunt.  2 an object of ridicule.  ЬЬscoffer n.  scoffingly adv.
             [perh. f. Scand.: cf. early mod. Da.  skuf, skof jest, mockery]

   scoff(2)  v. & n.  colloq.  --v.tr. & intr. eat greedily.  --n. food; a
             meal.  [(n.) f. Afrik.  schoff repr. Du.  schoft quarter of a
             day (hence, meal): (v.) orig. var. of dial.  scaff, assoc. with
             the noun]

   scold     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. rebuke (esp. a child, employee, or
             inferior).  2 intr. find fault noisily; complain; rail.  --n.
             archaic a nagging or grumbling woman.  ЬЬscolder n.  scolding n.
             [ME (earlier as noun), prob. f. ON sk ld SKALD]

   scolex    n.  (pl.  scoleces or scolices) the head of a larval or adult
             tapeworm.  [mod.L f. Gk skolex worm]

   scoliosis n.  an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.  ЬЬscoliotic
             adj.  [mod.L f. Gk f.  skolios bent]

   scollop   var. of SCALLOP.

             n.  any of various ferns, esp. hart's tongue.  [mod.L f. Gk
             skolopendrion f.  skolopendra millipede (because of the supposed

   scomber   n.  any marine fish of the family Scombridae, including
             mackerels, tunas, and bonitos.  ЬЬscombrid n.  scombroid adj. &
             n.  [L f. Gk skombros]

   sconce(1) n.  1 a flat candlestick with a handle.  2 a bracket candlestick
             to hang on a wall.  [ME f. OF esconse lantern or med.L sconsa f.
             L absconsa fem. past part. of abscondere hide: see ABSCOND]

   sconce(2) n.  1 a small fort or earthwork usu. defending a ford, pass,
             etc.  2 archaic a shelter or screen.  [Du.  schans brushwood f.
             MHG schanze]

   scone     n.  a small sweet or savoury cake of flour, fat, and milk, baked
             quickly in an oven.  [orig. Sc., perh. f. MDu.  schoon(broot),
             MLG schon(brot) fine (bread)]

   scoop     n. & v.  --n.  1 any of various objects resembling a spoon,
             esp.: a a short-handled deep shovel used for transferring grain,
             sugar, coal, coins, etc.  b a large long-handled ladle used for
             transferring liquids.  c the excavating part of a
             digging-machine etc.  d Med. a long-handled spoonlike instrument
             used for scraping parts of the body etc.  e an instrument used
             for serving portions of mashed potato, ice-cream, etc.  2 a
             quantity taken up by a scoop.  3 a movement of or resembling
             scooping.  4 a piece of news published by a newspaper etc. in
             advance of its rivals.  5 a large profit made quickly or by
             anticipating one's competitors.  6 Mus. a singer's exaggerated
             portamento.  7 a scooped-out hollow etc.  --v.tr.  1 (usu. foll.
             by out) hollow out with or as if with a scoop.  2 (usu. foll. by
             up) lift with or as if with a scoop.  3 forestall (a rival
             newspaper, reporter, etc.) with a scoop.  4 secure (a large
             profit etc.) esp. suddenly.  Ьscoop-neck the rounded low-cut
             neck of a garment.  scoop-net a net used for sweeping a river
             bottom, or for catching bait.  ЬЬscooper n.  scoopful n.  (pl.
             -fuls).  [ME f. MDu., MLG schope bucket etc., rel. to SHAPE]

   scoot     v. & n.  colloq.  --v.intr. run or dart away, esp. quickly.
             --n. the act or an instance of scooting.  [19th-c. US (earlier
             scout): orig. unkn.]

   scooter   n. & v.  --n.  1 a child's toy consisting of a footboard mounted
             on two wheels and a long steering-handle, propelled by resting
             one foot on the footboard and pushing the other against the
             ground.  2 (in full motor scooter) a light two-wheeled open
             motor vehicle with a shieldlike protective front.  3 US a
             sailboat able to travel on both water and ice.  --v.intr. travel
             or ride on a scooter.  ЬЬscooterist n.

   scopa     n.  (pl.  scopae) a small brushlike tuft of hairs, esp. on the
             leg of a bee for collecting pollen.  [sing. of L scopae = twigs,

   scope(1)  n.  1 a the extent to which it is possible to range; the
             opportunity for action etc. (this is beyond the scope of our
             research).  b the sweep or reach of mental activity,
             observation, or outlook (an intellect limited in its scope).  2
             Naut. the length of cable extended when a ship rides at anchor.
             3 archaic a purpose, end, or intention.  [It.  scopo aim f. Gk
             skopos target f.  skeptomai look at]

   scope(2)  n.  colloq.  a telescope, microscope, or other device ending in
             -scope.  [abbr.]

   -scope    comb. form forming nouns denoting: 1 a device looked at or
             through (kaleidoscope; telescope).  2 an instrument for
             observing or showing (gyroscope; oscilloscope).  ЬЬ-scopic comb.
             form forming adjectives.  [from or after mod.L -scopium f. Gk
             skopeo look at]

             n.  = HYOSCINE.  [Scopolia genus-name of the plants yielding it,
             f. G. A.  Scopoli, It. naturalist d. 1788 + AMINE]

   scopula   n.  (pl.  scopulae) any of various small brushlike structures,
             esp. on the legs of spiders.  [LL, dimin. of L scopa: see SCOPA]

   -scopy    comb. form indicating viewing or observation, usu. with an
             instrument ending in -scope (microscopy).

   scorbutic adj. & n.  --adj. relating to, resembling, or affected with
             scurvy.  --n. a person affected with scurvy.  ЬЬscorbutically
             adv.  [mod.L scorbuticus f. med.L scorbutus scurvy, perh. f. MLG
             schorbuk f.  schoren break + buk belly]

   scorch    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a burn the surface of with flame or heat
             so as to discolour, parch, injure, or hurt.  b affect with the
             sensation of burning.  2 intr. become discoloured etc. with
             heat.  3 tr. (as scorching adj.) colloq.  a (of the weather)
             very hot.  b (of criticism etc.) stringent; harsh.  4 intr.
             colloq. (of a motorist etc.) go at excessive speed.  --n.  1 a
             mark made by scorching.  2 colloq. a spell of fast driving etc.
             Ьscorched earth policy the burning of crops etc. and the
             removing or destroying of anything that might be of use to an
             enemy force occupying a country.  ЬЬscorchingly adv.  [ME, perh.
             rel. to skorkle in the same sense]

   scorcher  n.  1 a person or thing that scorches.  2 colloq.  a a very hot
             day.  b a fine specimen.

   score     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the number of points, goals, runs, etc., made
             by a player, side, etc., in some games.  b the total number of
             points etc. at the end of a game (the score was five-nil).  c
             the act of gaining esp. a goal (a superb score there!).  2 (pl.
             same or scores) twenty or a set of twenty.  3 (in pl.) a great
             many (scores of people arrived).  4 a a reason or motive
             (rejected on the score of absurdity).  b topic, subject (no
             worries on that score).  5 Mus.  a a usu. printed copy of a
             composition showing all the vocal and instrumental parts
             arranged one below the other.  b the music composed for a film
             or play, esp. for a musical.  6 colloq.  a a piece of good
             fortune.  b the act or an instance of scoring off another
             person.  7 colloq. the state of affairs; the present situation
             (asked what the score was).  8 a notch, line, etc. cut or
             scratched into a surface.  9 a an amount due for payment.  b a
             running account kept by marks against a customer's name.  10
             Naut. a groove in a block or dead-eye to hold a rope.  --v.  1
             tr.  a win or gain (a goal, run, points, etc., or success etc.)
             (scored a century).  b count for a score of (points in a game
             etc.) (a bull's-eye scores most points).  c allot a score to (a
             competitor etc.).  d make a record of (a point etc.).  2 intr.
             a make a score in a game (failed to score).  b keep the tally of
             points, runs, etc. in a game.  3 tr. mark with notches,
             incisions, lines, etc.; slash; furrow (scored his name on the
             desk).  4 intr. secure an advantage by luck, cunning, etc. (that
             is where he scores).  5 tr.  Mus.  a orchestrate (a piece of
             music).  b (usu. foll. by for) arrange for an instrument or
             instruments.  c write the music for (a film, musical, etc.).  d
             write out in a score.  6 tr.  a (usu. foll. by up) mark (a total
             owed etc.) in a score (see sense 9b of n.).  b (usu. foll. by
             against, to) enter (an item of debt to a customer).  7 intr.
             sl.  a obtain drugs illegally.  b (of a man) make a sexual
             conquest.  8 tr. (usu. foll. by against, to) mentally record (an
             offence etc.).  9 tr.  US criticize (a person) severely.  Ьkeep
             score (or the score) register the score as it is made.  know the
             score colloq.  be aware of the essential facts.  on the score of
             for the reason that; because of.  on that score so far as that
             is concerned.  score-book (or -card or -sheet) a book etc.
             prepared for entering esp. cricket scores in.  score draw a draw
             in football in which goals are scored.  score off (or score
             points off) colloq.  humiliate, esp. verbally in repartee etc.
             score out draw a line through (words etc.).  score under
             underline.  ЬЬscorer n.  scoring n.  Mus.  [(n.) f. OE: sense 5
             f. the line or bar drawn through all staves: (v.) partly f. ON
             skora f. ON skor notch, tally, twenty, f. Gmc: see SHEAR]

             n.  a large board for publicly displaying the score in a game or

   scoria    n.  (pl.  scoriae) 1 cellular lava, or fragments of it.  2 the
             slag or dross of metals.  ЬЬscoriaceous adj.  [L f. Gk skoria
             refuse f.  skor dung]

   scorify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 reduce to dross.  2 assay (precious metal)
             by treating a portion of its ore fused with lead and borax.
             ЬЬscorification n.  scorifier n.

   scorn     n. & v.  --n.  1 disdain, contempt, derision.  2 an object of
             contempt etc. (the scorn of all onlookers).  --v.tr.  1 hold in
             contempt or disdain.  2 (often foll. by to + infin.) abstain
             from or refuse to do as unworthy (scorns lying; scorns to lie).
             Ьthink scorn of despise.  ЬЬscorner n.  [ME f. OF esc(h)arn(ir)
             ult. f. Gmc: cf. OS skern MOCKERY]

   scornful  adj.  (often foll. by of) full of scorn; contemptuous.
             ЬЬscornfully adv.  scornfulness n.

   scorper   var. of SCALPER 2.

   Scorpio   n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a constellation, traditionally regarded as
             contained in the figure of a scorpion.  2 a the eighth sign of
             the zodiac (the Scorpion).  b a person born when the sun is in
             this sign.  ЬЬScorpian adj. & n.  [ME f. L (as SCORPION)]

   scorpioid adj. & n.  --adj.  1 Zool. of, relating to, or resembling a
             scorpion; of the scorpion order.  2 Bot. (of an inflorescence)
             curled up at the end, and uncurling as the flowers develop.
             --n. this type of inflorescence.  [Gk skorpioeides (as SCORPIO)]

   scorpion  n.  1 an arachnid of the order Scorpionida, with lobster-like
             pincers and a jointed tail that can be bent over to inflict a
             poisoned sting on prey held in its pincers.  2 (in full false
             scorpion) a similar arachnid of the order Pseudoscorpionida,
             smaller and without a tail.  3 (the Scorpion) the zodiacal sign
             or constellation Scorpio.  4 Bibl. a whip with metal points (1
             Kings 12:11).  Ьscorpion fish any of various marine fish of the
             family Scorpaenidae, with venomous spines on the head and gills.
             scorpion fly any insect of the order Mecoptera, esp. of the
             family Panorpidae, the males of which have a swollen abdomen
             curved upwards like a scorpion's sting.  scorpion grass =
             forget-me-not.  [ME f. OF f. L scorpio -onis f.  scorpius f. Gk

             n.  1 a composite plant, Scorzonera hispanica, with long
             tapering purple-brown roots.  2 the root used as a vegetable.
             [It. f.  scorzone venomous snake ult f. med.L curtio]

   Scot      n.  1 a a native of Scotland.  b a person of Scottish descent.
             2 hist. a member of a Gaelic people that migrated from Ireland
             to Scotland around the 6th c.  [OE Scottas (pl.) f. LL Scottus]

   scot      n.  hist.  a payment corresponding to a modern tax, rate, etc.
             Ьpay scot and lot share the financial burdens of a borough etc.
             (and so be allowed to vote).  scot-free unharmed; unpunished;
             safe.  [ME f. ON skot & f. OF escot, of Gmc orig.: cf.  SHOT(1)]

   Scotch    adj. & n.  --adj.  var. of SCOTTISH or SCOTS.  --n.  1 var. of
             SCOTTISH or SCOTS.  2 Scotch whisky.  ЬScotch broth a soup made
             from beef or mutton with pearl barley etc.  Scotch cap = BONNET
             n.  1b.  Scotch catch Mus.  a short note on the beat followed by
             a long one.  Scotch egg a hard-boiled egg enclosed in sausage
             meat and fried.  Scotch fir (or pine) a pine tree, Pinus
             sylvestris, native to Europe and Asia.  Scotch kale a variety of
             kale with purplish leaves.  Scotch mist 1 a thick drizzly mist
             common in the Highlands.  2 a retort made to a person implying
             that he or she has imagined or failed to understand something.
             Scotch pebble agate, jasper, cairngorm, etc., found in Scotland.
             Scotch pine = Scotch fir.  Scotch snap = Scotch catch.  Scotch
             terrier 1 a small terrier of a rough-haired short-legged breed.
             2 this breed.  Scotch whisky whisky distilled in Scotland, esp.
             from malted barley.  °  Scots or Scottish is generally preferred
             in Scotland, except in the special compounds given above.
             [contr. of SCOTTISH]

   scotch(1) v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 put an end to; frustrate (injury scotched
             his attempt).  2 archaic a wound without killing; slightly
             disable.  b make incisions in; score.  --n.  1 archaic a slash.
             2 a line on the ground for hopscotch.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   scotch(2) n. & v.  --n. a wedge or block placed against a wheel etc. to
             prevent its slipping.  --v.tr. hold back (a wheel, barrel, etc.)
             with a scotch.  [17th c.: perh. = scatch stilt f. OF escache]

   Scotchman n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  Scotchwoman, pl.  -women) = SCOTSMAN.  °
             Scotsman etc. are generally preferred in Scotland.

   scoter    n.  (pl. same or scoters) a large marine duck of the genus
             Melanitta.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scotia    n.  a concave moulding, esp. at the base of a column.  [L f. Gk
             skotia f.  skotos darkness, with ref. to the shadow produced]

   Scoticism var. of SCOTTICISM.

   Scoticize var. of SCOTTICIZE.

   Scotland Yard
             n.  1 the headquarters of the London Metropolitan Police.  2 its
             Criminal Investigation Department.  [Great and New Scotland
             Yard, streets where it was successively situated until 1967]

   scotoma   n.  (pl.  scotomata) a partial loss of vision or blind spot in
             an otherwise normal visual field.  [LL f. Gk skotoma f.  skotoo
             darken f.  skotos darkness]

   Scots     adj. & n.  esp.  Sc.  --adj.  1 = SCOTTISH adj.  2 in the
             dialect, accent, etc., of (esp. Lowlands) Scotland.  --n.  1 =
             SCOTTISH n.  2 the form of English spoken in (esp. Lowlands)
             Scotland.  [ME orig.  Scottis, north. var. of SCOTTISH]

   Scotsman  n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  Scotswoman, pl.  -women) 1 a native of
             Scotland.  2 a person of Scottish descent.

             n.  (also Scoticism) a Scottish phrase, word, or idiom.  [LL

             v.  (also Scoticize, -ise) 1 tr. imbue with or model on Scottish
             ways etc.  2 intr. imitate the Scottish in idiom or habits.

   Scottie   n.  colloq.  1 (also Scottie dog) a Scotch terrier.  2 a Scot.

   Scottish  adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Scotland or its inhabitants.
             --n. (prec. by the; treated as pl.) the people of Scotland (see
             also SCOTS).  ЬЬScottishness n.

   scoundrel n.  an unscrupulous villain; a rogue.  ЬЬscoundreldom n.
             scoundrelism n.  scoundrelly adj.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scour(1)  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a cleanse or brighten by rubbing, esp. with
             soap, chemicals, sand, etc.  b (usu. foll. by away, off, etc.)
             clear (rust, stains, reputation, etc.) by rubbing, hard work,
             etc. (scoured the slur from his name).  2 (of water, or a person
             with water) clear out (a pipe, channel, etc.) by flushing
             through.  3 hist. purge (the bowels) drastically.  --n.  1 the
             act or an instance of scouring; the state of being scoured, esp.
             by a swift water current (the scour of the tide).  2 diarrhoea
             in cattle.  3 a substance used for scouring.  Ьscouring-rush any
             of various horsetail plants with a rough siliceous coating used
             for polishing wood etc.  ЬЬscourer n.  [ME f. MDu., MLG schuren
             f. F escurer f. LL excurare clean (off) (as EX-(1), CURE)]

   scour(2)  v.  1 tr. hasten over (an area etc.) searching thoroughly
             (scoured the streets for him; scoured the pages of the
             newspaper).  2 intr. range hastily esp. in search or pursuit.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   scourge   n. & v.  --n.  1 a whip used for punishment, esp. of people.  2
             a person or thing seen as punishing, esp. on a large scale (the
             scourge of famine; Genghis Khan, the scourge of Asia).  --v.tr.
             1 whip.  2 punish; afflict; oppress.  ЬЬscourger n.  [ME f. OF
             escorge (n.), escorgier (v.) (ult. as EX-(1), L corrigia thong,

   Scouse    n. & adj.  colloq.  --n.  1 the dialect of Liverpool.  2 (also
             Scouser) a native of Liverpool.  3 (scouse) = LOBSCOUSE.  --adj.
             of or relating to Liverpool.  [abbr. of LOBSCOUSE]

   scout(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a person, esp. a soldier, sent out to get
             information about the enemy's position, strength, etc.  2 the
             act of seeking (esp. military) information (on the scout).  3 =
             talent-scout.  4 (Scout) a member of the Scout Association, a
             boys' association intended to develop character esp. by open-air
             activities.  5 a college servant, esp. at Oxford University.  6
             colloq. a person; a fellow.  7 a ship or aircraft designed for
             reconnoitring, esp. a small fast aircraft.  --v.  1 intr. act as
             a scout.  2 intr. (foll. by about, around) make a search.  3 tr.
             (often foll. by out) colloq. explore to get information about
             (territory etc.).  ЬQueen's (or King's) Scout a Scout who has
             reached the highest standard of proficiency.  ЬЬscouter n.
             scouting n.  [ME f. OF escouter listen, earlier ascolter ult. f.
             L auscultare]

   scout(2)  v.tr.  reject (an idea etc.) with scorn.  [Scand.: cf. ON skЈta,
             skЈti taunt]

   Scouter   n.  an adult member of the Scout Association.

             n.  a person in charge of a group of Scouts.

   scow      n.  esp.  US a flat-bottomed boat used as a lighter etc.  [Du.
             schouw ferry-boat]

   scowl     n. & v.  --n. a severe frown producing a sullen, bad-tempered,
             or threatening look on a person's face.  --v.intr. make a scowl.
             ЬЬscowler n.  [ME, prob. f. Scand.: cf. Da.  skule look down or

   SCPS      abbr.  (in the UK) Society of Civil and Public Servants.

   SCR       abbr.  Brit.  Senior Common (or Combination) Room.

   scr.      abbr.  scruple(s) (of weight).

   scrabble  v. & n.  --v.intr. (often foll. by about, at) scratch or grope
             to find or collect or hold on to something.  --n.  1 an act of
             scrabbling.  2 (Scrabble) propr. a game in which players build
             up words from letter-blocks on a board.  [MDu.  schrabbelen
             frequent. of schrabben SCRAPE]

   scrag     n. & v.  --n.  1 (also scrag-end) the inferior end of a neck of
             mutton.  2 a skinny person or animal.  3 colloq. a person's
             neck.  --v.tr.  (scragged, scragging) sl.  1 strangle, hang.  2
             seize roughly by the neck.  3 handle roughly; beat up.  [perh.
             alt. f. dial.  crag neck, rel. to MDu.  craghe, MLG krage]

   scraggly  adj.  sparse and irregular.

   scraggy   adj.  (scraggier, scraggiest) thin and bony.  ЬЬscraggily adv.
             scragginess n.

   scram     v.intr.  (scrammed, scramming) (esp. in imper.) colloq.  go
             away.  [20th c.: perh. f.  SCRAMBLE]

   scramble  v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. make one's way over rough ground, rocks,
             etc., by clambering, crawling, etc.  2 intr. (foll. by for, at)
             struggle with competitors (for a thing or share of it).  3 intr.
             move with difficulty, hastily, or anxiously.  4 tr.  a mix
             together indiscriminately.  b jumble or muddle.  5 tr. cook
             (eggs) by heating them when broken and well mixed with butter,
             milk, etc.  6 tr. change the speech frequency of (a broadcast
             transmission or telephone conversation) so as to make it
             unintelligible without a corresponding decoding device.  7 intr.
             move hastily.  8 tr.  colloq. execute (an action etc.) awkwardly
             and inefficiently.  9 intr. (of fighter aircraft or their
             pilots) take off quickly in an emergency or for action.  --n.  1
             an act of scrambling.  2 a difficult climb or walk.  3 (foll. by
             for) an eager struggle or competition.  4 Brit. a motor-cycle
             race over rough ground.  5 an emergency take-off by fighter
             aircraft.  Ьscrambled egg colloq.  gold braid on a military
             officer's cap.  [16th c. (imit.): cf. dial. synonyms scamble,

   scrambler n.  a device for scrambling telephone conversations.

   scran     n.  sl.  1 food, eatables.  2 remains of food.  Ьbad scran Ir.
             bad luck.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scrap(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a small detached piece; a fragment or remnant.
             2 rubbish or waste material.  3 an extract or cutting from
             something written or printed.  4 discarded metal for
             reprocessing (often attrib.: scrap metal).  5 (with neg.) the
             smallest piece or amount (not a scrap of food left).  6 (in pl.)
             a odds and ends.  b bits of uneaten food.  7 (in sing or pl.) a
             residuum of melted fat or of fish with the oil expressed.
             --v.tr.  (scrapped, scrapping) discard as useless.  Ьscrap heap
             1 a pile of scrap materials.  2 a state of uselessness.  scrap
             merchant a dealer in scrap.  [ME f. ON skrap, rel. to skrapa

   scrap(2)  n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a fight or rough quarrel, esp. a
             spontaneous one.  --v.tr.  (scrapped, scrapping) (often foll. by
             with) have a scrap.  ЬЬscrapper n.  [perh. f.  SCRAPE]

   scrapbook n.  a book of blank pages for sticking cuttings, drawings, etc.,

   scrape    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a move a hard or sharp edge across (a
             surface), esp. to make something smooth.  b apply (a hard or
             sharp edge) in this way.  2 tr. (foll. by away, off, etc.)
             remove (a stain, projection, etc.) by scraping.  3 tr.  a rub (a
             surface) harshly against another.  b scratch or damage by
             scraping.  4 tr. make (a hollow) by scraping.  5 a tr. draw or
             move with a sound of, or resembling, scraping.  b intr. emit or
             produce such a sound.  c tr. produce such a sound from.  6 intr.
             (often foll. by along, by, through, etc.) move or pass along
             while almost touching close or surrounding features, obstacles,
             etc. (the car scraped through the narrow lane).  7 tr. just
             manage to achieve (a living, an examination pass, etc.).  8
             intr. (often foll. by by, through) a barely manage.  b pass an
             examination etc. with difficulty.  9 tr. (foll. by together, up)
             contrive to bring or provide; amass with difficulty.  10 intr.
             be economical.  11 intr. draw back a foot in making a clumsy
             bow.  12 tr. clear (a ship's bottom) of barnacles etc.  13 tr.
             completely clear (a plate) of food.  14 tr. (foll. by back) draw
             (the hair) tightly back off the forehead.  --n.  1 the act or
             sound of scraping.  2 a scraped place (on the skin etc.).  3 a
             thinly applied layer of butter etc. on bread.  4 the scraping of
             a foot in bowing.  5 colloq. an awkward predicament, esp.
             resulting from an escapade.  Ьscrape acquaintance with contrive
             to get to know (a person).  scrape the barrel colloq.  be
             reduced to one's last resources.  [ME f. ON skrapa or MDu.

   scraper   n.  a device used for scraping, esp. for removing dirt etc. from
             a surface.

             n.  Brit.  cardboard or board with a blackened surface which can
             be scraped off for making white-line drawings.

   scrapie   n.  a viral disease of sheep involving the central nervous
             system and characterized by lack of coordination causing
             affected animals to rub against trees etc. for support.

   scraping  n.  1 in senses of SCRAPE v. & n.  2 (esp. in pl.) a fragment
             produced by this.

   scrappy   adj.  (scrappier, scrappiest) 1 consisting of scraps.  2
             incomplete; carelessly arranged or put together.  ЬЬscrappily
             adv.  scrappiness n.

   scrapyard n.  a place where (esp. metal) scrap is collected.

   scratch   v., n., & adj.  --v.  1 tr. score or mark the surface of with a
             sharp or pointed object.  2 tr.  a make a long narrow
             superficial wound in (the skin).  b cause (a person or part of
             the body) to be scratched (scratched himself on the table).  3
             tr. (also absol.) scrape without marking, esp. with the hand to
             relieve itching (stood there scratching).  4 tr. make or form by
             scratching.  5 tr. scribble; write hurriedly or awkwardly
             (scratched a quick reply; scratched a large A).  6 tr. (foll. by
             together, up, etc.) obtain (a thing) by scratching or with
             difficulty.  7 tr. (foll. by out, off, through) cancel or strike
             (out) with a pencil etc.  8 tr. (also absol.) withdraw (a
             competitor, candidate, etc.) from a race or competition.  9
             intr. (often foll. by about, around, etc.)  a scratch the ground
             etc. in search.  b look around haphazardly (they were scratching
             about for evidence).  --n.  1 a mark or wound made by
             scratching.  2 a sound of scratching.  3 a spell of scratching
             oneself.  4 colloq. a superficial wound.  5 a line from which
             competitors in a race (esp. those not receiving a handicap)
             start.  6 (in pl.) a disease of horses in which the pastern
             appears scratched.  7 sl. money.  --attrib.adj.  1 collected by
             chance.  2 collected or made from whatever is available;
             heterogeneous (a scratch crew).  3 with no handicap given (a
             scratch race).  Ьfrom scratch 1 from the beginning.  2 without
             help or advantage.  scratch along make a living etc. with
             difficulty.  scratch one's head be perplexed.  scratch my back
             and I will scratch yours 1 do me a favour and I will return it.
             2 used in reference to mutual aid or flattery.  scratch pad 1
             esp.  US a pad of paper for scribbling.  2 Computing a small
             fast memory for the temporary storage of data.  scratch the
             surface deal with a matter only superficially.  up to scratch up
             to the required standard.  ЬЬscratcher n.  [ME, prob. f.
             synonymous ME scrat & cratch, both of uncert. orig.: cf. MLG
             kratsen, OHG krazzon]

   scratchy  adj.  (scratchier, scratchiest) 1 tending to make scratches or a
             scratching noise.  2 (esp. of a garment) tending to cause
             itchiness.  3 (of a drawing etc.) done in scratches or
             carelessly.  ЬЬscratchily adv.  scratchiness n.

   scrawl    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. write in a hurried untidy way.  2
             tr. (foll. by out) cross out by scrawling over.  --n.  1 a piece
             of hurried writing.  2 a scrawled note.  ЬЬscrawly adj.  [perh.
             f. obs.  scrawl sprawl, alt. of CRAWL]

   scrawny   adj.  (scrawnier, scrawniest) lean, scraggy.  ЬЬscrawniness n.
             [var. of dial.  scranny: cf. archaic scrannel (of sound) weak,

   scream    n. & v.  --n.  1 a loud high-pitched piercing cry expressing
             fear, pain, extreme fright, etc.  2 the act of emitting a
             scream.  3 colloq. an irresistibly funny occurrence or person.
             --v.  1 intr. emit a scream.  2 tr. speak or sing (words etc.)
             in a screaming tone.  3 intr. make or move with a shrill sound
             like a scream.  4 intr. laugh uncontrollably.  5 intr. be
             blatantly obvious or conspicuous.  6 intr.  colloq. turn
             informer.  [OE or MDu.]

   screamer  n.  1 a person or thing that screams.  2 any S. American
             goose-like bird of the family Anhimidae, frequenting marshland
             and having a characteristic shrill cry.  3 colloq. a tale that
             raises screams of laughter.  4 US colloq. a sensational

   scree     n.  (in sing. or pl.) 1 small loose stones.  2 a mountain slope
             covered with these.  [prob. back-form. f.  screes (pl.) ult. f.
             ON skritha landslip, rel. to skrЎtha glide]

   screech   n. & v.  --n. a harsh high-pitched scream.  --v.tr. & intr.
             utter with or make a screech.  Ьscreech-owl any owl that
             screeches instead of hooting, esp. a barn-owl or a small
             American owl, Otus asio.  ЬЬscreecher n.  screechy adj.
             (screechier, screechiest).  [16th-c. var. of ME scritch (imit.)]

   screed    n.  1 a long usu. tiresome piece of writing or speech.  2 a a
             strip of plaster or other material placed on a surface as a
             guide to thickness.  b a levelled layer of material (e.g.
             cement) applied to a floor or other surface.  [ME, prob. var. of

   screen    n. & v.  --n.  1 a fixed or movable upright partition for
             separating, concealing, or sheltering from draughts or excessive
             heat or light.  2 a thing used as a shelter, esp. from
             observation.  3 a a measure adopted for concealment.  b the
             protection afforded by this (under the screen of night).  4 a a
             blank usu. white or silver surface on which a photographic image
             is projected.  b (prec. by the) the cinema industry.  5 the
             surface of a cathode-ray tube or similar electronic device, esp.
             of a television, VDU, etc., on which images appear.  6 =
             sight-screen.  7 = WINDSCREEN.  8 a frame with fine wire netting
             to keep out flies, mosquitoes, etc.  9 Physics a body
             intercepting light, heat, electric or magnetic induction, etc.,
             in a physical apparatus.  10 Photog. a piece of ground glass in
             a camera for focusing.  11 a large sieve or riddle, esp. for
             sorting grain, coal, etc., into sizes.  12 a system of checking
             for the presence or absence of a disease, ability, attribute,
             etc.  13 Printing a transparent finely-ruled plate or film used
             in half-tone reproduction.  14 Mil. a body of troops, ships,
             etc., detached to warn of the presence of an enemy force.
             --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by from) a afford shelter to; hide
             partly or completely.  b protect from detection, censure, etc.
             2 (foll. by off) shut off or hide behind a screen.  3 a show (a
             film etc.) on a screen.  b broadcast (a television programme).
             4 prevent from causing, or protect from, electrical
             interference.  5 a test (a person or group) for the presence or
             absence of a disease.  b check on (a person) for the presence or
             absence of a quality, esp. reliability or loyalty.  6 pass
             (grain, coal, etc.) through a screen.  Ьscreen printing a
             process like stencilling with ink forced through a prepared
             sheet of fine material (orig. silk).  screen test an audition
             for a part in a cinema film.  ЬЬscreenable adj.  screener n.
             [ME f. ONF escren, escran: cf. OHG skrank barrier]

             n.pl.  refuse separated by sifting.

             n.  the script of a film, with acting instructions, scene
             directions, etc.

             n.  a person who writes a screenplay.

   screw     n. & v.  --n.  1 a thin cylinder or cone with a spiral ridge or
             thread running round the outside (male screw) or the inside
             (female screw).  2 (in full wood-screw) a metal male screw with
             a slotted head and a sharp point for fastening things, esp. in
             carpentry, by being rotated to form a thread in wood etc.  3 (in
             full screw-bolt) a metal male screw with a blunt end on which a
             nut is threaded to bolt things together.  4 a wooden or metal
             straight screw used to exert pressure.  5 (in sing. or pl.) an
             instrument of torture acting in this way.  6 (in full
             screw-propeller) a form of propeller with twisted blades acting
             like a screw on the water or air.  7 one turn of a screw.  8
             (foll. by of) Brit. a small twisted-up paper (of tobacco etc.).
             9 Brit. (in billiards etc.) an oblique curling motion of the
             ball.  10 sl. a prison warder.  11 Brit.  sl. an amount of
             salary or wages.  12 coarse sl.  a an act of sexual intercourse.
             b a partner in this.  °Usually considered a taboo use.  13 sl. a
             mean or miserly person.  14 sl. a worn-out horse.  --v.  1 tr.
             fasten or tighten with a screw or screws.  2 tr. turn (a screw).
             3 intr. twist or turn round like a screw.  4 intr. (of a ball
             etc.) swerve.  5 tr.  a put psychological etc. pressure on to
             achieve an end.  b oppress.  6 tr. (foll. by out of) extort
             (consent, money, etc.) from (a person).  7 tr. (also absol.)
             coarse sl. have sexual intercourse with.  °Usually considered a
             taboo use.  8 intr. (of a rolling ball, or of a person etc.)
             take a curling course; swerve.  9 intr. (often foll. by up) make
             tenser or more efficient.  Ьhave one's head screwed on the right
             way colloq.  have common sense.  have a screw loose colloq.  be
             slightly crazy.  put the screws on colloq.  exert pressure, esp.
             to extort or intimidate.  screw cap = screw top.  screw-coupling
             a female screw with threads at both ends for joining lengths of
             pipes or rods.  screw eye a screw with a loop for passing cord
             etc. through instead of a slotted head.  screw gear an endless
             screw with a cog-wheel or pinion.  screw hook a hook to hang
             things on, with a screw point for fastening it.  screw-jack a
             vehicle jack (see JACK(1)) worked by a screw device.  screw pine
             any plant of the genus Pandanus, with its leaves arranged
             spirally and resembling those of a pineapple.  screw-plate a
             steel plate with threaded holes for making male screws.
             screw-tap a tool for making female screws.  screw top (also
             (with hyphen) attrib.) a cap or lid that can be screwed on to a
             bottle, jar, etc.  screw up 1 contract or contort (one's face
             etc.).  2 contract and crush into a tight mass (a piece of paper
             etc.).  3 summon up (one's courage etc.).  4 sl.  a bungle or
             mismanage.  b spoil or ruin (an event, opportunity, etc.).
             screw-up n.  sl.  a bungle, muddle, or mess.  screw valve a
             stopcock opened and shut by a screw.  ЬЬscrewable adj.  screwer
             n.  [ME f. OF escroue female screw, nut, f. L scrofa sow]

   screwball n. & adj.  US sl.  --n. a crazy or eccentric person.  --adj.

             n.  a tool with a shaped tip to fit into the head of a screw to
             turn it.

   screwed   adj.  1 twisted.  2 sl.  a ruined; rendered ineffective.  b

   screwy    adj.  (screwier, screwiest) sl.  1 crazy or eccentric.  2
             absurd.  ЬЬscrewiness n.

             v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. write carelessly or hurriedly.  2
             intr. often derog. be an author or writer.  3 intr. & tr. draw
             carelessly or meaninglessly.  --n.  1 a scrawl.  2 a hasty note
             etc.  3 careless handwriting.  ЬЬscribbler n.  scribbly adj.
             [ME f. med.L scribillare dimin. of L scribere write]

             v.tr.  card (wool, cotton, etc.) coarsely.  [prob. f. LG: cf. G
             schrubbeln (in the same sense), frequent. f. LG schrubben: see

   scribe    n. & v.  --n.  1 a person who writes out documents, esp. an
             ancient or medieval copyist of manuscripts.  2 Bibl. an ancient
             Jewish record-keeper or professional theologian and jurist.  3
             (in full scribe-awl) a pointed instrument for making marks on
             wood, bricks, etc., to guide a saw, or in sign-writing.  4 US
             colloq. a writer, esp. a journalist.  --v.tr. mark (wood etc.)
             with a scribe (see sense 3 of n.).  ЬЬscribal adj.  scriber n.
             [(n.) ME f. L scriba f.  scribere write: (v.) perh. f.

   scrim     n.  open-weave fabric for lining or upholstery etc.  [18th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   scrimmage n. & v.  --n.  1 a rough or confused struggle; a brawl.  2 Amer.
             Football a sequence of play beginning with the placing of the
             ball on the ground with its longest axis at right angles to the
             goal-line.  --v.  1 intr. engage in a scrimmage.  2 tr.  Amer.
             Football put (the ball) into a scrimmage.  ЬЬscrimmager n.
             [var. of SKIRMISH]

   scrimp    v.  1 intr. be sparing or parsimonious.  2 tr. use sparingly.
             ЬЬscrimpy adj.  [18th c., orig. Sc.: perh. rel. to SHRIMP]

             v.intr.  Brit.  sl.  esp. Mil.  shirk duty.  ЬЬscrimshanker n.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scrimshaw v. & n.  --v.tr. (also absol.) adorn (shells, ivory, etc.) with
             carved or coloured designs (as sailors' pastime at sea).  --n.
             work or a piece of work of this kind.  [19th c.: perh. f. a

   scrip     n.  1 a provisional certificate of money subscribed to a bank or
             company etc. entitling the holder to a formal certificate and
             dividends.  2 (collect.) such certificates.  3 an extra share or
             shares instead of a dividend.  [abbr. of subscription receipt]

   script    n. & v.  --n.  1 handwriting as distinct from print; written
             characters.  2 type imitating handwriting.  3 an alphabet or
             system of writing (the Russian script).  4 the text of a play,
             film, or broadcast.  5 an examinee's set of written answers.  6
             Law an original document as distinct from a copy.  --v.tr. write
             a script for (a film etc.).  [ME, = thing written, f. OF
             escri(p)t f. L scriptum, neut. past part. of scribere write]

             n.  (pl.  scriptoria or scriptoriums) a room set apart for
             writing, esp. in a monastery.  ЬЬscriptorial adj.  [med.L (as

             adj.  1 of or relating to a scripture, esp. the Bible.  2 having
             the authority of a scripture.  ЬЬscripturally adv.  [LL
             scripturalis f. L scriptura: see SCRIPTURE]

   scripture n.  1 sacred writings.  2 (Scripture or the Scriptures) a the
             Bible as a collection of sacred writings in Christianity.  b the
             sacred writings of any other religion.  [ME f. L scriptura (as

             n.  a person who writes a script for a film, broadcast, etc.
             ЬЬscriptwriting n.

   scrivener n.  hist.  1 a copyist or drafter of documents.  2 a notary.  3
             a broker.  4 a moneylender.  [ME f. obs.  scrivein f. OF
             escrivein ult. f. L (as SCRIBE)]

             adj.  Bot. & Zool.  pitted, furrowed.  [L scrobiculus f.
             scrobis trench]

   scrod     n.  US a young cod or haddock, esp. as food.  [19th c.: perh.
             rel. to SHRED]

   scrofula  n.  archaic a disease with glandular swellings, prob. a form of
             tuberculosis.  Also called king's evil.  ЬЬscrofulous adj.  [ME
             f. med.L (sing.) f. LL scrofulae (pl.) scrofulous swelling,
             dimin. of L scrofa a sow]

   scroll    n. & v.  --n.  1 a roll of parchment or paper esp. with writing
             on it.  2 a book in the ancient roll form.  3 an ornamental
             design or carving imitating a roll of parchment.  --v.  1 tr.
             (often foll. by down, up) move (a display on a VDU screen) in
             order to view new material.  2 tr. inscribe in or like a scroll.
             3 intr. curl up like paper.  Ьscroll saw a saw for cutting along
             curved lines in ornamental work.  [ME scrowle alt. f.  rowle
             ROLL, perh. after scrow (in the same sense), formed as ESCROW]

   scrolled  adj.  having a scroll ornament.

             decoration of spiral lines, esp. as cut by a scroll saw.

   Scrooge   n.  a mean or miserly person.  [a character in Dickens's
             Christmas Carol]

   scrotum   n.  (pl.  scrota or scrotums) a pouch of skin containing the
             testicles.  ЬЬscrotal adj.  scrotitis n.  [L]

   scrounge  v. & n.  colloq.  --v.  1 tr. (also absol.) obtain (things)
             illicitly or by cadging.  2 intr. search about to find something
             at no cost.  --n. an act of scrounging.  Ьon the scrounge
             engaged in scrounging.  ЬЬscrounger n.  [var. of dial.  scrunge

   scrub(1)  v. & n.  --v.  (scrubbed, scrubbing) 1 tr. rub hard so as to
             clean, esp. with a hard brush.  2 intr. use a brush in this way.
             3 intr. (often foll. by up) (of a surgeon etc.) thoroughly clean
             the hands and arms by scrubbing, before operating.  4 tr.
             colloq. scrap or cancel (a plan, order, etc.).  5 tr. use water
             to remove impurities from (gas etc.).  --n. the act or an
             instance of scrubbing; the process of being scrubbed.
             Ьscrubbing-brush (US scrub-brush) a hard brush for scrubbing
             floors.  scrub round colloq.  circumvent, avoid.  [ME prob. f.
             MLG, MDu.  schrobben, schrubben]

   scrub(2)  n.  1 a vegetation consisting mainly of brushwood or stunted
             forest growth.  b an area of land covered with this.  2 (of
             livestock) of inferior breed or physique (often attrib.: scrub
             horse).  3 a small or dwarf variety (often attrib.: scrub pine).
             4 US Sport colloq. a team or player not of the first class.
             Ьscrub turkey a megapode.  scrub typhus a rickettsial disease of
             the W. Pacific transmitted by mites.  ЬЬscrubby adj.  [ME, var.
             of SHRUB(1)]

   scrubber  n.  1 an apparatus using water or a solution for purifying gases
             etc.  2 sl.  derog. a sexually promiscuous woman.

   scruff(1) n.  the back of the neck as used to grasp and lift or drag an
             animal or person by (esp.  scruff of the neck).  [alt. of scuff,
             perh. f. ON skoft hair]

   scruff(2) n.  colloq.  an untidy or scruffy person.  [orig. = SCURF, later
             'worthless thing', or back-form. f.  SCRUFFY]

   scruffy   adj.  (scruffier, scruffiest) colloq.  shabby, slovenly, untidy.
             ЬЬscruffily adv.  scruffiness n.  [scruff var. of SCURF + -Y(1)]

   scrum     n.  1 Rugby Football an arrangement of the forwards of each team
             in two opposing groups, each with arms interlocked and heads
             down, with the ball thrown in between them to restart play.  2
             colloq. a milling crowd.  Ьscrum-half a half-back who puts the
             ball into the scrum.  [abbr. of SCRUMMAGE]

   scrummage n.  Rugby Football = SCRUM 1.  [as SCRIMMAGE]

   scrump    v.tr.  Brit.  colloq.  steal (fruit) from an orchard or garden.
             [cf.  SCRUMPY]

   scrumple  v.tr.  crumple, wrinkle.  [var. of CRUMPLE]

             adj.  colloq.  1 delicious.  2 pleasing, delightful.
             ЬЬscrumptiously adv.  scrumptiousness n.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scrumpy   n.  Brit.  colloq.  rough cider, esp. as made in the West
             Country of England.  [dial.  scrump small apple]

   scrunch   v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  1 (usu. foll. by up) make or become
             crushed or crumpled.  2 make or cause to make a crunching sound.
             --n. the act or an instance of scrunching.  [var. of CRUNCH]

   scruple   n. & v.  --n.  1 (in sing. or pl.) a regard to the morality or
             propriety of an action.  b a feeling of doubt or hesitation
             caused by this.  2 Brit.  hist. an apothecaries' weight of 20
             grains.  3 archaic a very small quantity.  --v.intr.  1 (foll.
             by to + infin.; usu. with neg.) be reluctant because of scruples
             (did not scruple to stop their allowance).  2 feel or be
             influenced by scruples.  [F scrupule or L scrupulus f.  scrupus
             rough pebble, anxiety]

             adj.  1 conscientious or thorough even in small matters.  2
             careful to avoid doing wrong.  3 punctilious; over-attentive to
             details.  ЬЬscrupulosity n.  scrupulously adv.  scrupulousness
             n.  [ME f. F scrupuleux or L scrupulosus (as SCRUPLE)]

             n.  a person who scrutinizes or examines something, esp. the
             conduct and result of a ballot.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) look closely at; examine with close scrutiny.
             ЬЬscrutinizer n.

   scrutiny  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a critical gaze.  2 a close investigation or
             examination of details.  3 an official examination of
             ballot-papers to check their validity or accuracy of counting.
             [ME f. L scrutinium f.  scrutari search f.  scruta rubbish:
             orig. of rag-collectors]

   scry      v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) divine by crystal-gazing.  ЬЬscryer n.
             [shortening f.  DESCRY]

   scuba     n.  (pl.  scubas) an aqualung.  [acronym f.  self- contained
             underwater breathing apparatus]

             n.  swimming underwater using a scuba, esp. as a sport.
             ЬЬscuba-dive v.intr.  scuba-diver n.

   scud      v. & n.  --v.intr.  (scudded, scudding) 1 fly or run straight,
             fast, and lightly; skim along.  2 Naut. run before the wind.
             --n.  1 a spell of scudding.  2 a scudding motion.  3 vapoury
             driving clouds.  4 a driving shower; a gust.  5 wind-blown
             spray.  [perh. alt. of SCUT, as if to race like a hare]

   scuff     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. graze or brush against.  2 tr. mark or wear
             down (shoes) in this way.  3 intr. walk with dragging feet;
             shuffle.  --n. a mark of scuffing.  [imit.]

   scuffle   n. & v.  --n. a confused struggle or disorderly fight at close
             quarters.  --v.intr. engage in a scuffle.  [prob. f. Scand.: cf.
             Sw.  skuffa to push, rel. to SHOVE]

             var. of SKULDUGGERY.

   scull     n. & v.  --n.  1 either of a pair of small oars used by a single
             rower.  2 an oar placed over the stern of a boat to propel it,
             usu.  by a twisting motion.  3 (in pl.) a race between boats
             with single pairs of oars.  --v.tr. propel (a boat) with sculls.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   sculler   n.  1 a user of sculls.  2 a boat intended for sculling.

   scullery  n.  (pl.  -ies) a small kitchen or room at the back of a house
             for washing dishes etc.  [ME f. AF squillerie, OF escuelerie f.
             escuele dish f. L scutella salver dimin. of scutra wooden

   scullion  n.  archaic 1 a cook's boy.  2 a person who washes dishes etc.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   sculpin   n.  any of numerous fish of the family Cottidae, native to
             non-tropical regions, having large spiny heads.  [perh. f. obs.
             scorpene f. L scorpaena f. Gk skorpaina a fish]

   sculpt    v.tr. & intr.  (also sculp) sculpture.  [F sculpter f.
             sculpteur SCULPTOR: now regarded as an abbr.]

   sculptor  n.  (fem.  sculptress) an artist who makes sculptures.  [L (as

   sculpture n. & v.  --n.  1 the art of making forms, often
             representational, in the round or in relief by chiselling stone,
             carving wood, modelling clay, casting metal, etc.  2 a work or
             works of sculpture.  3 Zool. & Bot. raised or sunken markings on
             a shell etc.  --v.  1 tr. represent in or adorn with sculpture.
             2 intr. practise sculpture.  ЬЬsculptural adj.  sculpturally
             adv.  sculpturesque adj.  [ME f. L sculptura f.  sculpere
             sculpt- carve]

   scum      n. & v.  --n.  1 a layer of dirt, froth, or impurities etc.
             forming at the top of liquid, esp. in boiling or fermentation.
             2 (foll. by of) the most worthless part of something.  3 colloq.
             a worthless person or group.  --v.  (scummed, scumming) 1 tr.
             remove scum from; skim.  2 tr. be or form a scum on.  3 intr.
             (of a liquid) develop scum.  ЬЬscummy adj.  (scummier,
             scummiest) adj.  [ME f. MLG, MDu.  schum, OHG scum f. Gmc]

   scumble   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 modify (a painting) by applying a thin
             opaque coat of paint to give a softer or duller effect.  2
             modify (a drawing) similarly with light pencilling etc.  --n.  1
             material used in scumbling.  2 the effect produced by scumbling.
             [perh. frequent. of SCUM v.tr.]

   scuncheon n.  the inside face of a door-jamb, window-frame, etc.  [ME f.
             OF escoinson (as EX-(1), COIN)]

   scunge    n.  Austral. & NZ colloq.  1 dirt, scum.  2 a dirty or
             disagreeable person.  ЬЬscungy adj.  (scungier, scungiest).
             [perh. f. E dial.  scrunge steal: cf.  SCROUNGE]

   scunner   v. & n.  Sc.  --v.intr. feel disgust or nausea.  --n.  1 a
             strong dislike (esp.  take a scunner at or against).  2 an
             object of loathing.  [14th c.: orig. uncert.]

   scup      n.  an E. American fish, Stenostomus chrysops, a kind of porgy.
             [Narraganset mishcup thick-scaled f.  mishe large + cuppi scale]

             n.  a hole in a ship's side to carry off water from the deck.
             [ME (perh. f. AF) f. OF escopir f. Rmc skuppire (unrecorded) to
             spit: orig. imit.]

             v.tr.  Brit.  sl.  1 sink (a ship or its crew).  2 defeat or
             ruin (a plan etc.).  3 kill.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   scurf     n.  1 flakes on the surface of the skin, cast off as fresh skin
             develops below, esp. those of the head; dandruff.  2 any scaly
             matter on a surface.  ЬЬscurfy adj.  [OE, prob. f. ON & earlier
             OE sceorf, rel. to sceorfan gnaw, sceorfian cut to shreds]

             adj.  1 (of a person or language) grossly or indecently abusive.
             2 given to or expressed with low humour.  ЬЬscurrility n.  (pl.
             -ies).  scurrilously adv.  scurrilousness n.  [F scurrile or L
             scurrilus f.  scurra buffoon]

   scurry    v. & n.  --v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) run or move hurriedly, esp.
             with short quick steps; scamper.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the act or
             sound of scurrying.  2 bustle, haste.  3 a flurry of rain or
             snow.  [abbr. of hurry-scurry redupl. of HURRY]

   scurvy    n. & adj.  --n. a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C,
             characterized by swollen bleeding gums and the opening of
             previously healed wounds, esp. formerly affecting sailors.
             --adj.  (scurvier, scurviest) paltry, low, mean, dishonourable,
             contemptible.  Ьscurvy grass any cresslike seaside plant of the
             genus Cochlearia, orig. taken as a cure for scurvy.  ЬЬscurvied
             adj.  scurvily adv.  [SCURF + -Y(1): noun sense by assoc. with F
             scorbut (cf.  SCORBUTIC)]

   scut      n.  a short tail, esp. of a hare, rabbit, or deer.  [ME: orig.
             unkn.: cf. obs.  scut short, shorten]

   scuta     pl. of SCUTUM.

   scutage   n.  hist.  money paid by a feudal landowner instead of personal
             service.  [ME f. med.L scutagium f. L scutum shield]

   scutch    v.tr.  dress (fibrous material, esp. retted flax) by beating.
             ЬЬscutcher n.  [OF escouche, escoucher (dial.), escousser, ult.
             f. L excutere excuss- (as EX-(1), quatere shake)]

   scutcheon n.  1 = ESCUTCHEON.  2 an ornamented brass etc. plate round or
             over a keyhole.  3 a plate for a name or inscription.  [ME f.

   scute     n.  Zool.  etc. = SCUTUM.  [L (as SCUTUM)]

   scutellum n.  (pl.  scutella) Bot. & Zool.  a scale, plate, or any
             shieldlike formation on a plant, insect, bird, etc., esp. one of
             the horny scales on a bird's foot.  ЬЬscutellate adj.
             scutellation n.  [mod.L dimin. of L scutum shield]

   scutter   v. & n.  --v.intr.  colloq. scurry.  --n. the act or an instance
             of scuttering.  [perh. alt. of SCUTTLE(2)]

             n.  1 a receptacle for carrying and holding a small supply of
             coal.  2 Brit. the part of a motor-car body between the
             windscreen and the bonnet.  [ME f. ON skutill, OHG scuzzila f. L
             scutella dish]

             v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 scurry; hurry along.  2 run away; flee
             from danger or difficulty.  --n.  1 a hurried gait.  2 a
             precipitate flight or departure.  [cf. dial.  scuddle frequent.
             of SCUD]

             n. & v.  --n. a hole with a lid in a ship's deck or side.
             --v.tr. let water into (a ship) to sink it, esp. by opening the
             seacocks.  [ME, perh. f. obs. F escoutille f. Sp.  escotilla
             hatchway dimin. of escota cutting out cloth]

             n.  1 a water-butt on the deck of a ship, for drinking from.  2
             colloq. rumour, gossip.

   scutum    n.  (pl.  scuta) each of the shieldlike plates or scales forming
             the bony covering of a crocodile, sturgeon, turtle, armadillo,
             etc.  ЬЬscutal adj.  scutate adj.  [L, = oblong shield]

   Scylla and Charybdis
             n.pl.  two dangers such that avoidance of one increases the risk
             from the other.  [the names of a sea-monster and whirlpool in Gk

             n. & adj.  --n. any marine jellyfish of the class Scyphozoa,
             with tentacles bearing stinging cells.  --adj. of or relating to
             this class.  [as SCYPHUS + Gk zoion animal]

   scyphus   n.  (pl.  scyphi) 1 Gk Antiq. a footless drinking-cup with two
             handles below the level of the rim.  2 Bot. a cup-shaped part as
             in a narcissus flower or in lichens.  ЬЬscyphose adj.  [mod.L f.
             Gk skuphos]

   scythe    n. & v.  --n. a mowing and reaping implement with a long curved
             blade swung over the ground by a long pole with two short
             handles projecting from it.  --v.tr. cut with a scythe.  [OE
             sithe f. Gmc]

   Scythian  adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to ancient Scythia, a region
             north of the Black Sea.  --n.  1 an inhabitant of Scythia.  2
             the language of this region.  [L Scythia f. Gk Skuthia Scythia]

5.0 SD...

   SD        abbr.  US South Dakota (in official postal use).

   S.Dak.    abbr.  South Dakota.

   SDI       abbr.  strategic defence initiative.

   SDLP      abbr.  (in N. Ireland) Social Democratic and Labour Party.

   SDP       abbr.  (in the UK) Social Democratic Party.

   SDR       abbr.  special drawing right (from the International Monetary

6.0 SE...

   SE        abbr.  1 south-east.  2 south-eastern.

   Se        symb.  Chem.  the element selenium.

   se-       prefix apart, without (seclude; secure).  [L f. OL se (prep. &

   sea       n.  1 the expanse of salt water that covers most of the earth's
             surface and surrounds its land masses.  2 any part of this as
             opposed to land or fresh water.  3 a particular (usu. named)
             tract of salt water partly or wholly enclosed by land (the North
             Sea; the Dead Sea).  4 a large inland lake (the Sea of Galilee).
             5 the waves of the sea, esp. with reference to their local
             motion or state (a choppy sea).  6 (foll. by of) a vast quantity
             or expanse (a sea of troubles; a sea of faces).  7 (attrib.)
             living or used in, on, or near the sea (often prefixed to the
             name of a marine animal, plant, etc., having a superficial
             resemblance to what it is named after) (sea lettuce).  Ьat sea 1
             in a ship on the sea.  2 (also all at sea) perplexed, confused.
             by sea in a ship or ships.  go to sea become a sailor.  on the
             sea 1 in a ship at sea.  2 situated on the coast.  put (or put
             out) to sea leave land or port.  sea anchor a device such as a
             heavy bag dragged in the water to retard the drifting of a ship.
             sea anemone any of various coelenterates of the order Actiniaria
             having a polypoid body bearing a ring of tentacles around the
             mouth.  sea-angel an angel-fish.  sea bass any of various marine
             fishes like the bass, esp.  Centropristis striatus.  sea bird a
             bird frequenting the sea or the land near the sea.  sea bream =
             PORGY.  sea breeze a breeze blowing towards the land from the
             sea, esp. during the day (cf.  land breeze).  sea buckthorn a
             maritime shrub, Hippopha‰ rhamnoides with orange berries.  sea
             change a notable or unexpected transformation (with ref. to
             Shakesp.  Tempest I. ii. 403).  sea-chest a sailor's
             storage-chest.  sea coal archaic mineral coal, as distinct from
             charcoal etc.  sea cow 1 a sirenian.  2 a walrus.  sea cucumber
             a holothurian, esp. a b€che-de-mer.  sea dog an old or
             experienced sailor.  sea eagle any fish-eating eagle esp. of the
             genus Halia‰tus.  sea-ear = ORMER.  sea elephant any large seal
             of the genus Mirounga, the male of which has a proboscis: also
             called elephant seal.  sea fan any colonial coral of the order
             Gorgonacea supported by a fanlike horny skeleton.  sea front the
             part of a coastal town directly facing the sea.  sea-girt
             literary surrounded by sea.  sea gooseberry any marine animal of
             the phylum Ctenophora, with an ovoid body bearing numerous
             cilia.  sea-green bluish-green (as of the sea).  sea hare any of
             various marine molluscs of the order Anaspidea, having an
             internal shell and long extensions from its foot.  sea holly a
             spiny-leaved blue-flowered evergreen plant, Eryngium maritimum.
             sea horse 1 any of various small upright marine fish of the
             family Syngnathidae, esp.  Hippocampus hippocampus, having a
             body suggestive of the head and neck of a horse.  2 a mythical
             creature with a horse's head and fish's tail.  sea-island cotton
             a fine-quality long-stapled cotton grown on islands off the
             southern US.  sea lavender any maritime plant of the genus
             Limonium, with small brightly-coloured funnel-shaped flowers.
             sea legs the ability to keep one's balance and avoid seasickness
             when at sea.  sea level the mean level of the sea's surface,
             used in reckoning the height of hills etc. and as a barometric
             standard.  sea lily any of various sessile echinoderms, esp. of
             the class Crinoidea, with long jointed stalks and feather-like
             arms for trapping food.  sea lion any large, eared seal of the
             Pacific, esp. of the genus Zalophus or Otaria.  sea loch = LOCH
             2.  Sea Lord (in the UK) a naval member of the Admiralty Board.
             sea mile = nautical mile.  sea mouse any iridescent marine
             annelid of the genus Aphrodite.  sea onion = SQUILL 2.  sea
             otter a Pacific otter, Enhydra lutris, using a stone balanced on
             its abdomen to crack bivalve molluscs.  sea pink a maritime
             plant, Armeria maritima, with bright pink flowers: also called
             THRIFT.  sea purse the egg-case of a skate or shark.  sea room
             clear space at sea for a ship to turn or manoeuvre in.  sea salt
             salt produced by evaporating sea water.  Sea Scout a member of
             the maritime branch of the Scout Association.  sea serpent (or
             snake) 1 a snake of the family Hydrophidae, living in the sea.
             2 an enormous legendary serpent-like sea monster.  sea shell the
             shell of a salt-water mollusc.  sea snail 1 a small slimy fish
             of the family Liparididae, with a ventral sucker.  2 any
             spiral-shelled mollusc, e.g. a whelk.  sea squirt any marine
             turnicate of the class Ascidiacea, consisting of a bag-like
             structure with apertures for the flow of water.  sea trout =
             salmon trout.  sea urchin a small marine echinoderm of the class
             Echinoidea, with a spherical or flattened spiny shell.  sea wall
             a wall or embankment erected to prevent encroachment by the sea.
             sea water water in or taken from the sea.  [OE s‘ f. Gmc]

   seabed    n.  the ground under the sea; the ocean floor.

   seaboard  n.  1 the seashore or coastal region.  2 the line of a coast.

   seaborne  adj.  transported by sea.

   seacock   n.  a valve below a ship's water-line for letting water in or

   seafarer  n.  1 a sailor.  2 a traveller by sea.

   seafaring adj. & n.  travelling by sea, esp. regularly.

   seafood   n.  edible sea fish or shellfish.

   seagoing  adj.  1 (of ships) fit for crossing the sea.  2 (of a person)

   seagull   n.  = GULL(1).

   seakale   n.  a cruciferous maritime plant, Crambe maritima, having
             coarsely-toothed leaves and used as a vegetable.  Ьseakale beet
             = CHARD.

   seal(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of wax, lead, paper, etc., with a
             stamped design, attached to a document as a guarantee of
             authenticity.  2 a similar material attached to a receptacle,
             envelope, etc., affording security by having to be broken to
             allow access to the contents.  3 an engraved piece of metal,
             gemstone, etc., for stamping a design on a seal.  4 a a
             substance or device used to close an aperture or act as a
             fastening.  b an amount of water standing in the trap of a drain
             to prevent foul air from rising.  5 an act or gesture or event
             regarded as a confirmation or guarantee.  6 a significant or
             prophetic mark (has the seal of death in his face).  7 a
             decorative adhesive stamp.  8 esp. Eccl. a vow of secrecy; an
             obligation to silence.  --v.tr.  1 close securely or
             hermetically.  2 stamp or fasten with a seal.  3 fix a seal to.
             4 certify as correct with a seal or stamp.  5 (often foll. by
             up) confine or fasten securely.  6 settle or decide (their fate
             is sealed).  7 (foll. by off) put barriers round (an area) to
             prevent entry and exit, esp.  as a security measure.  8 apply a
             non-porous coating to (a surface) to make it impervious.  ЬGreat
             Seal (in the UK) the seal in the charge of the Lord Chancellor
             or Lord Keeper used in sealing important State papers.  one's
             lips are sealed one is obliged to keep a secret.  sealed-beam
             (attrib.) designating a vehicle headlamp with a sealed unit
             consisting of the light source, reflector, and lens.  sealed
             book see BOOK.  sealed orders orders for procedure not to be
             opened before a specified time.  sealing-wax a mixture of
             shellac and rosin with turpentine and pigment, softened by
             heating and used to make seals.  seal ring a finger ring with a
             seal.  seals of office (in the UK) those held during tenure esp.
             by the Lord Chancellor or a Secretary of State.  set one's seal
             to (or on) authorize or confirm.  ЬЬsealable adj.  [ME f. AF
             seal, OF seel f. L sigillum dimin. of signum SIGN]

   seal(2)   n. & v.  --n. any fish-eating amphibious sea mammal of the
             family Phocidae or Otariidae, with flippers and webbed feet.
             --v.intr. hunt for seals.  [OE seolh seol- f. Gmc]

   sealant   n.  material for sealing, esp. to make something airtight or

   sealer    n.  a ship or person engaged in hunting seals.

   sealery   n.  (pl.  -ies) a place for hunting seals.

   sealskin  n.  1 the skin or prepared fur of a seal.  2 (often attrib.) a
             garment made from this.

   Sealyham  n. (in full Sealyham terrier) 1 a terrier of a wire-haired
             short-legged breed.  2 this breed.  [Sealyham in S. Wales]

   seam      n. & v.  --n.  1 a line where two edges join, esp. of two pieces
             of cloth etc. turned back and stitched together, or of boards
             fitted edge to edge.  2 a fissure between parallel edges.  3 a
             wrinkle or scar.  4 a stratum of coal etc.  --v.tr.  1 join with
             a seam.  2 (esp. as seamed adj.) mark or score with or as with a
             seam.  Ьbursting at the seams full to overflowing.  seam bowler
             Cricket a bowler who makes the ball deviate by bouncing off its
             seam.  ЬЬseamer n.  seamless adj.  [OE seam f. Gmc]

   seaman    n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a sailor, esp. one below the rank of officer.
             2 a person regarded in terms of skill in navigation (a poor
             seaman).  ЬЬseamanlike adj.  seamanly adj.  [OE s‘man (as SEA,

             n.  skill in managing a ship or boat.

             n.  (also sempstress) a woman who sews, esp. professionally; a
             needlewoman.  [OE seamestre fem. f.  seamere tailor, formed as
             SEAM + -STER + -ESS(1)]

   seamy     adj.  (seamier, seamiest) 1 marked with or showing seams.  2
             unpleasant, disreputable (esp.  the seamy side).  ЬЬseaminess n.

   Seanad    n.  the upper House of Parliament in the Republic of Ireland.
             [Ir., = senate]

   seance    n.  (also s‚ance) a meeting at which spiritualists attempt to
             make contact with the dead.  [F s‚ance f. OF seoir f. L sedere

   seaplane  n.  an aircraft designed to take off from and land and float on

   seaport   n.  a town with a harbour for seagoing ships.

   SEAQ      abbr.  Stock Exchange Automated Quotations (computerized access
             to share information).

   seaquake  n.  an earthquake under the sea.

   sear      v. & adj.  --v.tr.  1 a scorch, esp. with a hot iron; cauterize,
             brand.  b (as searing adj.) scorching, burning (searing pain).
             2 cause pain or great anguish to.  3 brown (meat) quickly at a
             high temperature so that it will retain its juices in cooking.
             4 make (one's conscience, feelings, etc.) callous.  5 archaic
             blast, wither.  --adj.  (also sere) literary (esp. of a plant
             etc.) withered, dried up.  [OE sear (adj.), searian (v.), f.

   search    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. look through or go over thoroughly to find
             something.  2 tr. examine or feel over (a person) to find
             anything concealed.  3 tr.  a probe or penetrate into.  b
             examine or question (one's mind, conscience, etc.) thoroughly.
             4 intr. (often foll. by for) make a search or investigation.  5
             intr. (as searching adj.) (of an examination) thorough; leaving
             no loopholes.  6 tr. (foll. by out) look probingly for; seek
             out.  --n.  1 an act of searching.  2 an investigation.  Ьin
             search of trying to find.  right of search a belligerent's right
             to stop a neutral vessel and search it for prohibited goods.
             search me!  colloq.  I do not know.  search-party a group of
             people organized to look for a lost person or thing.  search
             warrant an official authorization to enter and search a
             building.  ЬЬsearchable adj.  searcher n.  searchingly adv.  [ME
             f. AF sercher, OF cerchier f. LL circare go round (as CIRCUS)]

             n.  1 a powerful outdoor electric light with a concentrated beam
             that can be turned in any direction.  2 the light or beam from

   seascape  n.  a picture or view of the sea.

   seashore  n.  1 land close to or bordering on the sea.  2 Law the area
             between high and low water marks.

   seasick   adj.  suffering from sickness or nausea from the motion of a
             ship at sea.  ЬЬseasickness n.

   seaside   n.  the sea-coast, esp. as a holiday resort.

   season    n. & v.  --n.  1 each of the four divisions of the year (spring,
             summer, autumn, and winter) associated with a type of weather
             and a stage of vegetation.  2 a time of year characterized by
             climatic or other features (the dry season).  3 a the time of
             year when a plant is mature or flowering etc.  b the time of
             year when an animal breeds or is hunted.  4 a proper or suitable
             time.  5 a time when something is plentiful or active or in
             vogue.  6 (usu. prec. by the) = high season.  7 the time of year
             regularly devoted to an activity (the football season).  8 the
             time of year dedicated to social life generally (went up to
             London for the season).  9 a period of indefinite or varying
             length.  10 Brit.  colloq. = season ticket.  --v.  1 tr. flavour
             (food) with salt, herbs, etc.  2 tr. enhance with wit,
             excitement, etc.  3 tr. temper or moderate.  4 tr. & intr.  a
             make or become suitable or in the desired condition, esp.  by
             exposure to the air or weather; mature.  b make or become
             experienced or accustomed (seasoned soldiers).  Ьin season 1 (of
             foodstuff) available in plenty and in good condition.  2 (of an
             animal) on heat.  3 timely.  season ticket a ticket entitling
             the holder to any number of journeys, admittances, etc., in a
             given period.  ЬЬseasoner n.  [ME f. OF seson f. L satio -onis
             (in Rmc sense 'seed-time') f.  serere sat- sow]

             adj.  1 suitable to or usual in the season.  2 opportune.  3
             meeting the needs of the occasion.  ЬЬseasonableness n.
             seasonably adv.

   seasonal  adj.  of, depending on, or varying with the season.  Ьseasonal
             affective disorder a depressive state associated with late
             autumn and winter and thought to be caused by a lack of light.
             ЬЬseasonality n.  seasonally adv.

   seasoning n.  condiments added to food.

   seat      n. & v.  --n.  1 a thing made or used for sitting on; a chair,
             stool, saddle, etc.  2 the buttocks.  3 the part of the trousers
             etc. covering the buttocks.  4 the part of a chair etc. on which
             the sitter's weight directly rests.  5 a place for one person in
             a theatre, vehicle, etc.  6 the occupation of a seat.  7 esp.
             Brit.  a the right to occupy a seat, esp. as a Member of the
             House of Commons.  b a member's constituency.  8 the part of a
             machine that supports or guides another part.  9 a site or
             location of something specified (a seat of learning; the seat of
             the emotions).  10 a country mansion, esp. with large grounds.
             11 the manner of sitting on a horse etc.  --v.tr.  1 cause to
             sit.  2 a provide sitting accommodation for (the cinema seats
             500).  b provide with seats.  3 (as seated adj.) sitting.  4 put
             or fit in position.  Ьbe seated sit down.  by the seat of one's
             pants colloq.  by instinct rather than logic or knowledge.
             seat-belt a belt securing a person in the seat of a car or
             aircraft.  take a (or one's) seat sit down.  ЬЬseatless adj.
             [ME f. ON s‘ti (= OE gesete f. Gmc)]

   -seater   n.  (in comb.) having a specified number of seats (a 16-seater

   seating   n.  1 seats collectively.  2 sitting accommodation.

   SEATO     abbr.  South-East Asia Treaty Organization.

   seaward   adv., adj., & n.  --adv.  (also seawards) towards the sea.
             --adj. going or facing towards the sea.  --n. such a direction
             or position.

   seaway    n.  1 an inland waterway open to seagoing ships.  2 a ship's
             progress.  3 a ship's path across the sea.

   seaweed   n.  any of various algae growing in the sea or on the rocks on a

   seaworthy adj.  (esp. of a ship) fit to put to sea.  ЬЬseaworthiness n.

   sebaceous adj.  fatty; of or relating to tallow or fat.  Ьsebaceous gland
             (or follicle or duct) a gland etc. secreting or conveying oily
             matter to lubricate the skin and hair.  [L sebaceus f.  sebum

             n.  (US seborrhea) excessive discharge of sebum from the
             sebaceous glands.  ЬЬseborrhoeic adj.  [SEBUM after gonorrhoea

   sebum     n.  the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands.  [mod.L f. L
             sebum grease]

   Sec.      abbr.  secretary.

   sec       adj.  (of wine) dry.  [F f. L siccus]

   sec(1)    abbr.  secant.

   sec(2)    n.  colloq.  (in phrases) a second (of time).  [abbr.]

   sec.      abbr.  second(s).

   secant    adj. & n.  Math.  --adj. cutting (secant line).  --n.  1 a line
             cutting a curve at one or more points.  2 the ratio of the
             hypotenuse to the shorter side adjacent to an acute angle (in a
             right-angled triangle).  °Abbr.: sec.  [F s‚cant(e) f. L secare
             secant- cut]

   secateurs n.pl.  esp.  Brit.  a pair of pruning clippers for use with one
             hand.  [F s‚cateur cutter, irreg. f. L secare cut]

   secco     n.  the technique of painting on dry plaster with pigments mixed
             in water.  [It., = dry, f. L siccus]

   secede    v.intr.  (usu. foll. by from) withdraw formally from membership
             of a political federation or a religious body.  ЬЬseceder n.  [L
             secedere secess- (as SE-, cedere go)]

   secession n.  1 the act or an instance of seceding.  2 (Secession) hist.
             the withdrawal of eleven southern States from the US Union in
             1860, leading to the Civil War.  ЬЬsecessional adj.
             secessionism n.  secessionist n.  [F s‚cession or L secessio (as

   seclude   v.tr.  (also refl.) 1 keep (a person or place) retired or away
             from company.  2 (esp. as secluded adj.) hide or screen from
             view.  [ME f. L secludere seclus- (as SE-, claudere shut)]

   seclusion n.  1 a secluded state; retirement, privacy.  2 a secluded
             place.  ЬЬseclusionist n.  seclusive adj.  [med.L seclusio (as

   second(1) n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 the position in a sequence corresponding
             to that of the number 2 in the sequence 1-2.  2 something
             occupying this position.  3 the second person etc. in a race or
             competition.  4 Mus.  a an interval or chord spanning two
             consecutive notes in the diatonic scale (e.g. C to D).  b a note
             separated from another by this interval.  5 = second gear.  6
             another person or thing in addition to one previously mentioned
             or considered (the policeman was then joined by a second).  7
             (in pl.) a goods of a second or inferior quality.  b coarse
             flour, or bread made from it.  8 (in pl.) colloq.  a a second
             helping of food at a meal.  b the second course of a meal.  9 an
             attendant assisting a combatant in a duel, boxing-match, etc.
             10 a a place in the second class of an examination.  b a person
             having this.  --adj.  1 that is the second; next after first.  2
             additional, further; other besides one previously mentioned or
             considered (ate a second cake).  3 subordinate in position or
             importance etc.; inferior.  4 Mus. performing a lower or
             subordinate part (second violins).  5 such as to be comparable
             to; closely reminiscent of (a second Callas).  --v.tr.  1
             supplement, support; back up.  2 formally support or endorse (a
             nomination or resolution etc., or its proposer).  Ьat second
             hand by hearsay, not direct observation etc.  in the second
             place as a second consideration etc.  second advent a supposed
             return of Christ to earth.  second ballot a deciding ballot
             between candidates coming first (without an absolute majority)
             and second in a previous ballot.  second-best adj.  next after
             best.  --n. a less adequate or desirable alternative.  second
             cause Logic a cause that is itself caused.  second chamber the
             upper house of a bicameral parliament.  second class the
             second-best group or category, esp. of hotel or train
             accommodation or (in the UK) of postal services.  second-class
             adj.  1 of or belonging to the second class.  2 inferior in
             quality, status, etc. (second-class citizens).  --adv. by
             second-class post, train, etc. (travelled second-class).  second
             coming Theol.  the second advent of Christ on earth.  second
             cousin see COUSIN.  second-degree Med.  denoting burns that
             cause blistering but not permanent scars.  second fiddle see
             FIDDLE.  second floor 1 Brit. the floor two levels above the
             ground floor.  2 US the floor above the ground floor.  second
             gear the second (and next to lowest) in a sequence of gears.
             second-generation denoting the offspring of a first generation,
             esp. of immigrants.  second-guess colloq.  1 anticipate or
             predict by guesswork.  2 judge or criticize with hindsight.
             second honeymoon a holiday like a honeymoon, taken by a couple
             after some years of marriage.  second in command the officer
             next in rank to the commanding or chief officer.  second
             lieutenant an army officer next below lieutenant or US first
             lieutenant.  second name a surname.  second nature (often foll.
             by to) an acquired tendency that has become instinctive (is
             second nature to him).  second officer an assistant mate on a
             merchant ship.  second person Gram.  see PERSON.  second-rate of
             mediocre quality; inferior.  second-rater a person or thing that
             is second-rate.  second reading a second presentation of a bill
             to a legislative assembly, in the UK to approve its general
             principles and in the US to debate committee reports.  second
             self a close friend or associate.  second sight the supposed
             power of being able to perceive future or distant events.
             second-sighted having the gift of second sight.  second string
             an alternative course of action, means of livelihood, etc.,
             invoked if the main one is unsuccessful.  second teeth the teeth
             that replace the milk teeth in a mammal.  second thoughts a new
             opinion or resolution reached after further consideration.
             second to none surpassed by no other.  second wind 1 recovery of
             the power of normal breathing during exercise after initial
             breathlessness.  2 renewed energy to continue an effort.
             ЬЬseconder n. (esp. in sense 2 of v.).  [ME f. OF f. L secundus
             f.  sequi follow]

   second(2) n.  1 a sixtieth of a minute of time or angular distance.
             °Symb.:'.  2 the SI unit of time, based on the natural
             periodicity of the caesium atom.  °Abbr.: s.  3 colloq. a very
             short time (wait a second).  Ьsecond hand an extra hand in some
             watches and clocks, recording seconds.  [F f. med.L secunda
             (minuta) secondary (minute)]

   second(3) v.tr.  Brit.  transfer (a military officer or other official or
             worker) temporarily to other employment or to another position.
             ЬЬsecondment n.  [F en second in the second rank (of officers)]

   secondary adj. & n.  --adj.  1 coming after or next below what is primary.
             2 derived from or depending on or supplementing what is primary.
             3 (of education, a school, etc.) for those who have had primary
             education, usu. from 11 to 18 years.  4 Electr.  a (of a cell or
             battery) having a reversible chemical reaction and therefore
             able to store energy.  b denoting a device using electromagnetic
             induction, esp.  a transformer.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a secondary
             thing.  2 a secondary device or current.  Ьsecondary colour the
             result of mixing two primary colours.  secondary feather a
             feather growing from the second joint of a bird's wing.
             secondary picketing the picketing of premises of a firm not
             otherwise involved in the dispute in question.  secondary planet
             a satellite of a planet (cf.  primary planet).  secondary sexual
             characteristics those distinctive of one sex but not directly
             related to reproduction.  ЬЬsecondarily adv.  secondariness n.
             [ME f. L secundarius (as SECOND(1))]

   seconde   n.  Fencing the second of eight parrying positions.  [F, fem. of
             second SECOND(1)]

             adj. & adv.  --adj.  also 1 a (of goods) having had a previous
             owner; not new.  b (of a shop etc.) where such goods can be
             bought.  2 (of information etc.) accepted on another's authority
             and not from original investigation.  --adv.  1 on a second-hand
             basis.  2 at second hand; not directly.

   secondly  adv.  1 furthermore; in the second place.  2 as a second item.

   secondo   n.  (pl.  secondi) Mus.  the second or lower part in a duet etc.

   secrecy   n.  1 the keeping of secrets as a fact, habit, or faculty.  2 a
             state in which all information is withheld (was done in great
             secrecy).  Ьsworn to secrecy having promised to keep a secret.
             [ME f.  secretie f. obs.  secre (adj.) or SECRET adj.]

   secret    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 kept or meant to be kept private, unknown,
             or hidden from all or all but a few.  2 acting or operating
             secretly.  3 fond of, prone to, or able to preserve secrecy.  4
             (of a place) hidden, completely secluded.  --n.  1 a thing kept
             or meant to be kept secret.  2 a thing known only to a few.  3 a
             mystery.  4 a valid but not commonly known or recognized method
             of achieving or maintaining something (what's their secret?;
             correct breathing is the secret of good health).  5 RC Ch. a
             prayer concluding the offertory of the mass.  Ьin secret
             secretly.  in (or in on) the secret among the number of those
             who know it.  keep a secret not reveal it.  secret agent a spy
             acting for a country.  secret ballot a ballot in which votes are
             cast in secret.  secret police a police force operating in
             secret for political purposes.  secret service a government
             department concerned with espionage.  secret society a society
             whose members are sworn to secrecy about it.  ЬЬsecretly adv.
             [ME f. OF f. L secretus (adj.) separate, set apart f.  secernere
             secret- (as SE-, cernere sift)]

             n.  an escritoire.  [F (as SECRETARY)]

             n.  1 a permanent administrative office or department, esp. a
             governmental one.  2 its members or premises.  3 the office of
             secretary.  [F secr‚tariat f. med.L secretariatus (as

   secretary n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a person employed by an individual or in an
             office etc.  to assist with correspondence, keep records, make
             appointments, etc.  2 an official appointed by a society etc. to
             conduct its correspondence, keep its records, etc.  3 (in the
             UK) the principal assistant of a government minister,
             ambassador, etc.  Ьsecretary bird a long-legged snake-eating
             African bird, Sagittarius serpentarius, with a crest likened to
             a quill pen stuck over a writer's ear.  Secretary-General the
             principal administrator of an organization.  Secretary of State
             1 (in the UK) the head of a major government department.  2 (in
             the US) the chief government official responsible for foreign
             affairs.  ЬЬsecretarial adj.  secretaryship n.  [ME f. LL
             secretarius (as SECRET)]

             v.tr.  Biol.  (of a cell, organ, etc.) produce by secretion.
             ЬЬsecretor n.  secretory adj.  [back-form. f.  SECRETION]

             v.tr.  conceal; put into hiding.  [obs.  secret (v.) f.  SECRET]

   secretion n.  1 Biol.  a a process by which substances are produced and
             discharged from a cell for a function in the organism or for
             excretion.  b the secreted substance.  2 the act or an instance
             of concealing (the secretion of stolen goods).  [F s‚cr‚tion or
             L secretio separation (as SECRET)]

   secretive adj.  inclined to make or keep secrets; uncommunicative.
             ЬЬsecretively adv.  secretiveness n.  [back-form. f.
             secretiveness after F secr‚tivit‚ (as SECRET)]

   sect      n.  1 a a body of people subscribing to religious doctrines usu.
             different from those of an established Church from which they
             have separated.  b usu.  derog. a nonconformist or other Church.
             c a party or faction in a religious body.  d a religious
             denomination.  2 the followers of a particular philosopher or
             philosophy, or school of thought in politics etc.  [ME f. OF
             secte or L secta f. the stem of sequi secut- follow]

   sect.     abbr.  section.

   sectarian adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or concerning a sect.  2 bigoted or
             narrow-minded in following the doctrines of one's sect.  --n.  1
             a member of a sect.  2 a bigot.  ЬЬsectarianism n.  sectarianize
             v.tr.  (also -ise).  [SECTARY]

   sectary   n.  (pl.  -ies) a member of a religious or political sect.
             [med.L sectarius adherent (as SECT)]

   section   n. & v.  --n.  1 a part cut off or separated from something.  2
             each of the parts into which a thing is divided (actually or
             conceptually) or divisible or out of which a structure can be
             fitted together.  3 a distinct group or subdivision of a larger
             body of people (the wind section of an orchestra).  4 a
             subdivision of a book, document, statute, etc.  5 US a an area
             of land.  b one square mile of land.  c a particular district of
             a town (residential section).  6 a subdivision of an army
             platoon.  7 esp. Surgery a separation by cutting.  8 Biol. a
             thin slice of tissue etc., cut off for microscopic examination.
             9 a the cutting of a solid by or along a plane.  b the resulting
             figure or the area of this.  10 a representation of the internal
             structure of something as if cut across along a vertical or
             horizontal plane.  11 Biol. a group, esp. a subgenus.  --v.tr.
             1 arrange in or divide into sections.  2 Brit. cause (a person)
             to be compulsorily committed to a psychiatric hospital in
             accordance with a section of a mental health act.  3 Biol. cut
             into thin slices for microscopic examination.  Ьsection-mark the
             sign (°) used as a reference mark to indicate the start of a
             section of a book etc.  [F section or L sectio f.  secare sect-

   sectional adj.  1 a relating to a section, esp. of a community.  b
             partisan.  2 made in sections.  3 local rather than general.
             ЬЬsectionalism n.  sectionalist n. & adj.  sectionalize v.tr.
             (also -ise).  sectionally adv.

   sector    n.  1 a distinct part or branch of an enterprise, or of society,
             the economy, etc.  2 Mil. a subdivision of an area for military
             operations, controlled by one commander or headquarters.  3 the
             plane figure enclosed by two radii of a circle, ellipse, etc.,
             and the arc between them.  4 a mathematical instrument
             consisting of two arms hinged at one end and marked with sines,
             tangents, etc., for making diagrams etc.  ЬЬsectoral adj.  [LL,
             techn. use of L sector cutter (as SECTION)]

   sectorial adj.  1 of or like a sector or sectors.  2 = CARNASSIAL.

   secular   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 concerned with the affairs of this world;
             not spiritual or sacred.  2 (of education etc.) not concerned
             with religion or religious belief.  3 a not ecclesiastical or
             monastic.  b (of clergy) not bound by a religious rule.  4
             occurring once in an age or century.  5 lasting for or occurring
             over an indefinitely long time.  --n. a secular priest.
             Ьsecular variation Astron.  variation compensated over a long
             period of time.  ЬЬsecularism n.  secularist n.  secularity n.
             secularize v.tr.  (also -ise).  secularization n.  secularly
             adv.  [ME (in senses 1-3 f. OF seculer) f. L saecularis f.
             saeculum generation, age]

   secund    adj.  Bot.  arranged on one side only (as the flowers of lily of
             the valley).  ЬЬsecundly adv.  [L secundus (as SECOND)]

   secure    adj. & v.  --adj.  1 untroubled by danger or fear.  2 safe
             against attack: impregnable.  3 reliable; certain not to fail
             (the plan is secure).  4 fixed or fastened so as not to give way
             or get loose or be lost (made the door secure).  5 a (foll. by
             of) certain to achieve (secure of victory).  b (foll. by
             against, from) safe, protected (secure against attack).  --v.tr.
             1 make secure or safe; fortify.  2 fasten, close, or confine
             securely.  3 succeed in obtaining or achieving (have secured
             front seats).  4 guarantee against loss (a loan secured by
             property).  5 compress (a blood-vessel) to prevent bleeding.
             Ьsecure arms Mil.  hold a rifle with the muzzle downward and the
             lock in the armpit to guard it from rain.  ЬЬsecurable adj.
             securely adv.  securement n.  [L securus (as SE-, cura care)]

   security  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a secure condition or feeling.  2 a thing that
             guards or guarantees.  3 a the safety of a State, company, etc.,
             against espionage, theft, or other danger.  b an organization
             for ensuring this.  4 a thing deposited or pledged as a
             guarantee of the fulfilment of an undertaking or the payment of
             a loan, to be forfeited in case of default.  5 (often in pl.) a
             certificate attesting credit or the ownership of stock, bonds,
             etc.  Ьon security of using as a guarantee.  security blanket 1
             an official sanction on information in the interest of security.
             2 a blanket or other familiar object given as a comfort to a
             child.  Security Council a permanent body of the United Nations
             seeking to maintain peace and security.  security guard a person
             employed to protect the security of buildings, vehicles, etc.
             security risk a person whose presence may threaten security.
             [ME f. OF securit‚ or L securitas (as SECURE)]

   sedan     n.  1 (in full sedan chair) an enclosed chair for conveying one
             person, carried between horizontal poles by two porters, common
             in the 17th-18th c.  2 US an enclosed motor car for four or more
             people.  [perh. alt. f. It. dial., ult. f. L sella saddle f.
             sedere sit]

   sedate(1) adj.  tranquil and dignified; equable, serious.  ЬЬsedately adv.
             sedateness n.  [L sedatus past part. of sedare settle f.  sedere

   sedate(2) v.tr.  put under sedation.  [back-form. f.  SEDATION]

   sedation  n.  a state of rest or sleep esp. produced by a sedative drug.
             [F s‚dation or L sedatio (as SEDATE(1))]

   sedative  n. & adj.  --n. a drug, influence, etc., that tends to calm or
             soothe.  --adj. calming, soothing; inducing sleep.  [ME f. OF
             sedatif or med.L sedativus (as SEDATE(1))]

   sedentary adj.  1 sitting (a sedentary posture).  2 (of work etc.)
             characterized by much sitting and little physical exercise.  3
             (of a person) spending much time seated.  4 Zool. not migratory,
             free-swimming, etc.  ЬЬsedentarily adv.  sedentariness n.  [F
             s‚dentaire or L sedentarius f.  sedere sit]

   Seder     n.  the ritual for the first night or first two nights of the
             Passover.  [Heb.  seder order]

   sederunt  n.  Sc.  a sitting of an ecclesiastical assembly or other body.
             [L, = (the following persons) sat f.  sedere sit]

   sedge     n.  1 any grasslike plant of the genus Carex with triangular
             stems, usu. growing in wet areas.  2 an expanse of this plant.
             Ьsedge-warbler (or -wren) a small warbler, Acrocephalus
             schoenobaenus, that breeds in sedge.  ЬЬsedgy adj.  [OE secg f.

   sedile    n.  (pl.  sedilia) (usu. in pl.) Eccl.  each of usu. three stone
             seats for priests in the south wall of a chancel, often canopied
             and decorated.  [L, = seat f.  sedere sit]

   sediment  n.  1 matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid; dregs.  2
             Geol. matter that is carried by water or wind and deposited on
             the surface of the land, and may in time become consolidated
             into rock.  ЬЬsedimentary adj.  sedimentation n.  [F s‚diment or
             L sedimentum (as SEDILE)]

   sedition  n.  1 conduct or speech inciting to rebellion or a breach of
             public order.  2 agitation against the authority of a State.
             ЬЬseditious adj.  seditiously adv.  [ME f. OF sedition or L
             seditio f.  sed- = SE- + ire it- go]

   seduce    v.tr.  1 tempt or entice into sexual activity or into
             wrongdoing.  2 coax or lead astray; tempt (seduced by the smell
             of coffee).  ЬЬseducer n.  seducible adj.  [L seducere seduct-
             (as SE-, ducere lead)]

   seduction n.  1 the act or an instance of seducing; the process of being
             seduced.  2 something that tempts or allures.  [F s‚duction or L
             seductio (as SEDUCE)]

   seductive adj.  tending to seduce; alluring, enticing.  ЬЬseductively adv.
             seductiveness n.  [SEDUCTION after inductive etc.]

             n.  a female seducer.  [obs.  seductor male seducer (as SEDUCE)]

   sedulous  adj.  1 persevering, diligent, assiduous.  2 (of an action etc.)
             deliberately and consciously continued; painstaking.  ЬЬsedulity
             n.  sedulously adv.  sedulousness n.  [L sedulus zealous]

   sedum     n.  any plant of the genus Sedum, with fleshy leaves and
             star-shaped yellow, pink, or white flowers, e.g. stonecrop.  [L,
             = houseleek]

   see(1)    v.  (past saw; past part.  seen) 1 tr. discern by use of the
             eyes; observe; look at (can you see that spider?; saw him fall
             over).  2 intr. have or use the power of discerning objects with
             the eyes (sees best at night).  3 tr. discern mentally;
             understand (I see what you mean; could not see the joke).  4 tr.
             watch; be a spectator of (a film, game, etc.).  5 tr. ascertain
             or establish by inquiry or research or reflection (I will see if
             the door is open).  6 tr. consider; deduce from observation (I
             see that you are a brave man).  7 tr. contemplate; foresee
             mentally (we saw that no good would come of it; can see myself
             doing this job indefinitely).  8 tr. look at for information
             (usu. in imper. as a direction in or to a book: see page 15).  9
             tr. meet or be near and recognize (I saw your mother in town).
             10 tr.  a meet socially (sees her sister most weeks).  b meet
             regularly as a boyfriend or girlfriend; court (is still seeing
             that tall man).  11 tr. give an interview to (the doctor will
             see you now).  12 tr. visit to consult (went to see the doctor).
             13 tr. find out or learn, esp. from a visual source (I see the
             match has been cancelled).  14 intr. reflect; consider further;
             wait until one knows more (we shall have to see).  15 tr.
             interpret or have an opinion of (I see things differently now).
             16 tr. experience; have presented to one's attention (I never
             thought I would see this day).  17 tr. recognize as acceptable;
             foresee (do you see your daughter marrying this man?).  18 tr.
             observe without interfering (stood by and saw them squander my
             money).  19 tr. find attractive (can't think what she sees in
             him).  20 intr. (usu. foll. by to, or that + infin.) make
             provision for; ensure; attend to (shall see to your request
             immediately; see that he gets home safely) (cf.  see to it).  21
             tr. escort or conduct (to a place etc.) (saw them home).  22 tr.
             be a witness of (an event etc.) (see the New Year in).  23 tr.
             supervise (an action etc.) (will stay and see the doors locked).
             24 tr.  a (in gambling, esp. poker) equal (a bet).  b equal the
             bet of (a player), esp. to see the player's cards.  Ьas far as I
             can see to the best of my understanding or belief.  as I see it
             in my opinion.  do you see?  do you understand?  has seen better
             days has declined from former prosperity, good condition, etc.
             I'll be seeing you colloq.  an expression on parting.  I see I
             understand (referring to an explanation etc.).  let me see an
             appeal for time to think before speaking etc.  see about attend
             to.  see after 1 take care of.  2 = see about.  see the back of
             colloq.  be rid of (an unwanted person or thing).  see a person
             damned first colloq.  refuse categorically and with hostility to
             do what a person wants.  see eye to eye see EYE.  see fit see
             FIT(1).  see here! = look here.  see into investigate.  see life
             gain experience of the world, often by enjoying oneself.  see
             the light 1 realize one's mistakes etc.  2 suddenly see the way
             to proceed.  3 undergo religious conversion.  see the light of
             day (usu. with neg.) come into existence.  see off 1 be present
             at the departure of (a person) (saw them off at Heathrow).  2
             colloq. ward off, get the better of (managed to see off an
             investigation into their working methods).  see out 1 accompany
             out of a building etc.  2 finish (a project etc.) completely.  3
             remain awake, alive, etc., until the end of (a period).  4 last
             longer than; outlive.  see over inspect; tour and examine.  see
             reason see REASON.  see red become suddenly enraged.  see a
             person right make sure that a person is rewarded, safe, etc.
             see service see SERVICE.  see stars colloq.  see lights before
             one's eyes as a result of a blow on the head.  see things have
             hallucinations or false imaginings.  see through 1 not be
             deceived by; detect the true nature of.  2 penetrate visually.
             see-through adj.  (esp. of clothing) translucent.  see a person
             through support a person during a difficult time.  see a thing
             through persist with it until it is completed.  see to it (foll.
             by that + clause) ensure (see to it that I am not disturbed)
             (cf.  sense 20 of v.).  see one's way clear to feel able or
             entitled to.  see the world see WORLD.  see you (or see you
             later) colloq.  an expression on parting.  we shall see 1 let us
             await the outcome.  2 a formula for declining to act at once.
             will see about it a formula for declining to act at once.  you
             see 1 you understand.  2 you will understand when I explain.
             ЬЬseeable adj.  [OE seon f. Gmc]

   see(2)    n.  1 the area under the authority of a bishop or archbishop, a
             diocese (the see of Norwich).  2 the office or jurisdiction of a
             bishop or archbishop (fill a vacant see).  ЬSee of Rome the
             papacy, the Holy See.  [ME f. AF se(d) ult. f. L sedes seat f.
             sedere sit]

   seed      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a flowering plant's unit of reproduction
             (esp. in the form of grain) capable of developing into another
             such plant.  b seeds collectively, esp. as collected for sowing
             (is full of seed; to be kept for seed).  2 a semen.  b milt.  3
             (foll. by of) prime cause, beginning, germ (seeds of doubt).  4
             archaic offspring, progeny, descendants (the seed of Abraham).
             5 Sport a seeded player.  6 a small seedlike container for the
             application of radium etc.  7 a seed crystal.  --v.  1 tr.  a
             place seeds in.  b sprinkle with or as with seed.  2 intr. sow
             seeds.  3 intr. produce or drop seed.  4 tr. remove seeds from
             (fruit etc.).  5 tr. place a crystal or crystalline substance in
             (a solution etc.)  to cause crystallization or condensation
             (esp. in a cloud to produce rain).  6 tr.  Sport a assign to (a
             strong competitor in a knockout competition) a position in an
             ordered list so that strong competitors do not meet each other
             in early rounds (is seeded seventh).  b arrange (the order of
             play) in this way.  7 intr. go to seed.  Ьgo (or run) to seed 1
             cease flowering as seed develops.  2 become degenerate, unkempt,
             ineffective, etc.  raise up seed archaic beget children.
             seed-bed 1 a bed of fine soil in which to sow seeds.  2 a place
             of development.  seed-cake cake containing whole seeds esp. of
             caraway as flavouring.  seed-coat the outer integument of a
             seed.  seed-corn 1 good quality corn kept for seed.  2 assets
             reused for future profit or benefit.  seed crystal a crystal
             used to initiate crystallization.  seed-eater a bird (esp. a
             finch) living mainly on seeds.  seed-fish a fish that is ready
             to spawn.  seed-leaf a cotyledon.  seed-lip a basket for seed in
             sowing by hand.  seed money money allocated to initiate a
             project.  seed-pearl a very small pearl.  seed-plot a place of
             development.  seed-potato a potato kept for seed.  seed-time the
             sowing season.  seed-vessel a pericarp.  ЬЬseedless adj.  [OE
             s‘d f. Gmc, rel. to SOW(1)]

   seeder    n.  1 a person or thing that seeds.  2 a machine for sowing
             seed, esp. a drill.  3 an apparatus for seeding raisins etc.  4
             Brit. a spawning fish.

   seedling  n.  a young plant, esp. one raised from seed and not from a
             cutting etc.

   seedsman  n.  (pl.  -men) a dealer in seeds.

   seedy     adj.  (seedier, seediest) 1 full of seed.  2 going to seed.  3
             shabby-looking, in worn clothes.  4 colloq. unwell.  ЬЬseedily
             adv.  seediness n.

   seeing    conj. & n.  --conj. (usu. foll. by that + clause) considering
             that, inasmuch as, because (seeing that you do not know it
             yourself).  --n.  Astron. the quality of observed images as
             determined by atmospheric conditions.

   seek      v.  (past and past part.  sought) 1 a tr. make a search or
             inquiry for.  b intr. (foll. by for, after) make a search or
             inquiry.  2 tr.  a try or want to find or get.  b ask for;
             request (sought help from him; seeks my aid).  3 tr. (foll. by
             to + infin.) endeavour or try.  4 tr. make for or resort to (a
             place or person, for advice, health, etc.) (sought his bed;
             sought a fortune-teller; sought the shore).  5 tr.  archaic aim
             at, attempt.  6 intr. (foll. by to) archaic resort.  Ьseek dead
             an order to a retriever to find killed game.  seek out 1 search
             for and find.  2 single out for companionship, etc.
             sought-after much in demand; generally desired or courted.  to
             seek (or much to seek or far to seek) deficient, lacking, or not
             yet found (the reason is not far to seek; an efficient leader is
             yet to seek).  ЬЬseeker n. (also in comb.).  [OE secan f. Gmc]

   seel      v.tr.  archaic close (a person's eyes).  [obs.  sile f. F
             ciller, siller, or med.L ciliare f. L cilium eyelid]

   seem      v.intr.  1 give the impression or sensation of being (seems
             ridiculous; seems certain to win).  2 (foll. by to + infin.)
             appear or be perceived or ascertained (he seems to be breathing;
             they seem to have left).  Ьcan't seem to colloq.  seem unable
             to.  do not seem to colloq.  somehow do not (I do not seem to
             like him).  it seems (or would seem) (often foll. by that +
             clause) it appears to be true or the fact (in a hesitant,
             guarded, or ironical statement).  [ME f. ON soema honour f.
             soemr fitting]

             adj.  1 apparent but perhaps not real (with seeming sincerity).
             2 apparent only; ostensible (the seeming and the real;
             seeming-virtuous).  ЬЬseemingly adv.

             n.  literary 1 appearance, aspect.  2 deceptive appearance.

   seemly    adj.  (seemlier, seemliest) conforming to propriety or good
             taste; decorous, suitable.  ЬЬseemliness n.  [ME f. ON soemiligr
             (as SEEM)]

   seen      past part. of SEE(1).

   seep      v. & n.  --v.intr. ooze out; percolate slowly.  --n.  US a place
             where petroleum etc. oozes slowly out of the ground.  [perh.
             dial. form of OE sipian to soak]

   seepage   n.  1 the act of seeping.  2 the quantity that seeps out.

   seer(1)   n.  1 a person who sees.  2 a prophet; a person who sees
             visions; a person of supposed supernatural insight esp. as
             regards the future.  [ME f.  SEE(1)]

   seer(2)   n.  an Indian (varying) measure of weight (about one kilogram)
             or liquid measure (about one litre).  [Hindi ser]

             n.  material of linen, cotton, etc., with a puckered surface.
             [Pers.  sir o sakar, lit. 'milk and sugar']

   see-saw   n., v., adj., & adv.  --n.  1 a a device consisting of a long
             plank balanced on a central support for children to sit on at
             each end and move up and down by pushing the ground with their
             feet.  b a game played on this.  2 an up-and-down or to-and-fro
             motion.  3 a contest in which the advantage repeatedly changes
             from one side to the other.  --v.intr.  1 play on a see-saw.  2
             move up and down as on a see-saw.  3 vacillate in policy,
             emotion, etc.  --adj. & adv. with up-and-down or
             backward-and-forward motion (see-saw motion).  Ьgo see-saw
             vacillate or alternate.  [redupl. of SAW(1)]

   seethe    v.  1 intr. boil, bubble over.  2 intr. be very agitated, esp.
             with anger (seething with discontent; I was seething inwardly).
             3 tr. & intr.  archaic cook by boiling.  ЬЬseethingly adv.  [OE
             seothan f. Gmc]

   segment   n. & v.  --n.  1 each of several parts into which a thing is or
             can be divided or marked off.  2 Geom. a part of a figure cut
             off by a line or plane intersecting it, esp.: a the part of a
             circle enclosed between an arc and a chord.  b the part of a
             line included between two points.  c the part of a sphere cut
             off by any plane not passing through the centre.  3 the smallest
             distinct part of a spoken utterance.  4 Zool. each of the
             longitudinal sections of the body of certain animals (e.g.
             worms).  --v.  usu.  1 intr. & tr. divide into segments.  2
             intr.  Biol. (of a cell) undergo cleavage or divide into many
             cells.  ЬЬsegmental adj.  segmentalize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             segmentalization n.  segmentally adv.  segmentary adj.
             segmentation n.  [L segmentum f.  secare cut]

   sego      n.  (pl.  -os) (in full sego lily) a N. American plant,
             Calochortus nuttallii, with green and white bell-shaped flowers.

             v.  1 tr. put apart from the rest; isolate.  2 tr. enforce
             racial segregation on (persons) or in (a community etc.).  3
             intr. separate from a mass and collect together.  4 intr.  Biol.
             (of alleles) separate into dominant and recessive groups.
             ЬЬsegregable adj.  segregative adj.  [L segregare (as SE-, grex
             gregis flock)]

             adj.  1 Zool. simple or solitary, not compound.  2 archaic set
             apart, separate.  [L segregatus past part. (as SEGREGATE(1))]

             n.  1 enforced separation of racial groups in a community etc.
             2 the act or an instance of segregating; the state of being
             segregated.  ЬЬsegregational adj.  segregationist n. & adj.  [LL
             segregatio (as SEGREGATE(1))]

   segue     v. & n.  esp. Mus.  --v.intr.  (segues, segued, seguing) (usu.
             foll. by into) go on without a pause.  --n. an uninterrupted
             transition from one song or melody to another.  [It., = follows]

             n.  1 a Spanish dance in triple time.  2 the music for this.
             [Sp. f.  seguida following f.  seguir follow]

   Sehnsucht n.  yearning, wistful longing.  [G]

   sei       n.  a small rorqual, Balaenoptera borealis.  [Norw.  sejhval sei

   seicento  n.  the style of Italian art and literature of the 17th c.
             ЬЬseicentist n.  seicentoist n.  [It., = 600, used with ref. to
             the years 1600-99]

   seiche    n.  a fluctuation in the water-level of a lake etc., usu. caused
             by changes in barometric pressure.  [Swiss F]

   Seidlitz powder
             n.  (US Seidlitz powders) a laxative medicine of two powders
             mixed separately with water and then poured together to
             effervesce.  [named with ref. to the mineral water of Seidlitz
             in Bohemia]

   seif      n. (in full seif dune) a sand-dune in the form of a long narrow
             ridge.  [Arab.  saif sword (from its shape)]

   seigneur  n.  (also seignior) a feudal lord; the lord of a manor.  Ьgrand
             seigneur a person of high rank or noble presence.  ЬЬseigneurial
             adj.  seigniorial adj.  [ME f. OF seigneur, seignor f. L SENIOR]

             n.  (also seignorage) 1 a a profit made by issuing currency,
             esp. by issuing coins rated above their intrinsic value.  b
             hist. the Crown's right to a percentage on bullion brought to a
             mint for coining.  2 hist. something claimed by a sovereign or
             feudal superior as a prerogative.  [ME f. OF seignorage,
             seigneurage (as SEIGNEUR)]

   seigniory n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 lordship, sovereign authority.  2 (also
             seigneury) a seigneur's domain.  [ME f. OF seignorie (as

   seine     n. & v.  --n.  (also seine-net) a fishing-net for encircling
             fish, with floats at the top and weights at the bottom edge, and
             usu. hauled ashore.  --v.intr. & tr. fish or catch with a seine.
             ЬЬseiner n.  [ME f. OF sa‹ne, & OE segne f. WG f. L sagena f. Gk

   seise     var. of SEIZE 9.

   seisin    n.  (also seizin) Law 1 possession of land by freehold.  2 the
             act of taking such possession.  3 what is so held.  [ME f. AF
             sesine, OF seisine, saisine (as SEIZE)]

   seismic   adj.  of or relating to an earthquake or earthquakes.  ЬЬseismal
             adj.  seismical adj.  seismically adv.  [Gk seismos earthquake
             f.  seio shake]

   seismo-   comb. form earthquake.  [Gk seismos]

             n.  a record given by a seismograph.

             n.  an instrument that records the force, direction, etc., of
             earthquakes.  ЬЬseismographic adj.  seismographical adj.

             n.  the scientific study and recording of earthquakes and
             related phenomena.  ЬЬseismological adj.  seismologically adv.
             seismologist n.

   seize     v.  1 tr. take hold of forcibly or suddenly.  2 tr. take
             possession of forcibly (seized the fortress; seized power).  3
             tr. take possession of (contraband goods, documents, etc.) by
             warrant or legal right, confiscate, impound.  4 tr. affect
             suddenly (panic seized us; was seized by apoplexy; was seized
             with remorse).  5 tr. take advantage of (an opportunity).  6 tr.
             comprehend quickly or clearly.  7 intr. (usu. foll. by on, upon)
             a take hold forcibly or suddenly.  b take advantage eagerly
             (seized on a pretext).  8 intr. (usu. foll. by up) (of a moving
             part in a machine) become stuck or jammed from undue heat,
             friction, etc.  9 tr.  (also seise) (usu. foll. by of) Law put
             in possession of.  10 tr.  Naut. fasten or attach by binding
             with turns of yarn etc.  Ьseized (or seised) of 1 possessing
             legally.  2 aware or informed of.  ЬЬseizable adj.  seizer n.
             [ME f. OF seizir, saisir give seisin f. Frank. f. L sacire f.

   seizin    var. of SEISIN.

   seizing   n.  Naut.  a cord or cords used for seizing (see SEIZE 10).

   seizure   n.  1 the act or an instance of seizing; the state of being
             seized.  2 a sudden attack of apoplexy etc., a stroke.

   sejant    adj.  (placed after noun) Heraldry (of an animal) sitting
             upright on its haunches.  [properly seiant f. OF var. of seant
             sitting f.  seoir f. L sedere sit]

   Sekt      n.  a German sparkling white wine.  [G]

   selachian n. & adj.  --n. any fish of the subclass Selachii, including
             sharks and dogfish.  --adj. of or relating to this subclass.
             [mod.L Selachii f. Gk selakhos shark]

   seladang  n.  a Malayan gaur.  [Malay]

   selah     int.  often used at the end of a verse in Psalms and Habakkuk,
             supposed to be a musical direction.  [Heb.  se. lah]

   seldom    adv. & adj.  --adv. rarely, not often.  --adj. rare, uncommon.
             [OE seldan f. Gmc]

   select    v. & adj.  --v.tr. choose, esp. as the best or most suitable.
             --adj.  1 chosen for excellence or suitability; choice.  2 (of a
             society etc.) exclusive, cautious in admitting members.  Ьselect
             committee see COMMITTEE.  ЬЬselectable adj.  selectness n.  [L
             seligere select- (as SE-, legere choose)]

   selectee  n.  US a conscript.

   selection n.  1 the act or an instance of selecting; the state of being
             selected.  2 a selected person or thing.  3 things from which a
             choice may be made.  4 Biol. the process in which environmental
             and genetic influences determine which types of organism thrive
             better than others, regarded as a factor in evolution.
             ЬЬselectional adj.  selectionally adv.  [L selectio (as SELECT)]

   selective adj.  1 using or characterized by selection.  2 able to select,
             esp. (of a radio receiver) able to respond to a chosen frequency
             without interference from others.  Ьselective service US hist.
             service in the armed forces under conscription.  ЬЬselectively
             adv.  selectiveness n.  selectivity n.

   selector  n.  1 a person who selects, esp. one who selects a
             representative team in a sport.  2 a device that selects, esp. a
             device in a vehicle that selects the required gear.

   selenite  n.  a form of gypsum occurring as transparent crystals or thin
             plates.  ЬЬselenitic adj.  [L selenites f. Gk selenites lithos
             moonstone f.  selene moon]

   selenium  n.  Chem.  a non-metallic element occurring naturally in various
             metallic sulphide ores and characterized by the variation of its
             electrical resistivity with intensity of illumination.  °Symb.:
             Se.  Ьselenium cell a piece of this used as a photoelectric
             device.  ЬЬselenate n.  selenic adj.  selenious adj.  [mod.L f.
             Gk selene moon + -IUM]

   seleno-   comb. form moon.  [Gk selene moon]

             n.  the study or mapping of the moon.  ЬЬselenographer n.
             selenographic adj.

             n.  the scientific study of the moon.  ЬЬselenologist n.

   self      n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  selves) 1 a person's or thing's own
             individuality or essence (showed his true self).  2 a person or
             thing as the object of introspection or reflexive action (the
             consciousness of self).  3 a one's own interests or pleasure
             (cares for nothing but self).  b concentration on these (self is
             a bad guide to happiness).  4 Commerce or colloq. myself,
             yourself, himself, etc. (cheque drawn to self; ticket admitting
             self and friend).  5 used in phrases equivalent to myself,
             yourself, himself, etc. (his very self; your good selves).  6
             (pl.  selfs) a flower of uniform colour, or of the natural wild
             colour.  --adj.  1 of the same colour as the rest or throughout.
             2 (of a flower) of the natural wild colour.  3 (of colour)
             uniform, the same throughout.  Ьone's better self one's nobler
             impulses.  one's former (or old) self oneself as one formerly
             was.  [OE f. Gmc]

   self-     comb. form expressing reflexive action: 1 of or directed towards
             oneself or itself (self-respect; self-cleaning).  2 by oneself
             or itself, esp. without external agency (self-evident).  3 on,
             in, for, or relating to oneself or itself (self-absorbed;

             n.  (also self-abandonment) the abandonment of oneself, esp. to
             passion or an impulse.  ЬЬself-abandoned adj.

             n.  the abasement of oneself; self-humiliation; cringing.

             n.  the abhorrence of oneself; self-hatred.

             n.  the abnegation of oneself, one's interests, needs, etc.;

             n.  1 absorption in oneself.  2 Physics the absorption, by a
             body, of radiation emitted within it.  ЬЬself-absorbed adj.

             n.  1 the reviling or abuse of oneself.  2 archaic masturbation.

             n.  the accusing of oneself.  ЬЬself-accusatory adj.

             adj.  acting without external influence or control; automatic.
             ЬЬself-action n.  self-activity n.

             adj.  (of an envelope etc.) having one's own address on for
             return communication.

             adj.  (of an envelope, label, etc.) adhesive, esp. without being

             adj.  (of machinery etc.) adjusting itself.  ЬЬself-adjustment

             n.  the admiration of oneself; pride; conceit.

             n.  the advancement of oneself.

             n.  the advertising or promotion of oneself.  ЬЬself-advertiser

             n.  Psychol.  the recognition and assertion of the existence of
             the conscious self.

             n.  the act or process of enriching oneself or making oneself
             powerful.  ЬЬself-aggrandizing adj.

             n.  Psychol.  the analysis of oneself, one's motives, character,
             etc.  ЬЬself-analysing adj.

             adj.  designated so by oneself, not authorized by another (a
             self-appointed guardian).

             n.  a good opinion of oneself; conceit.

             n.  = SELF-APPRECIATION.

             n.  = SELF-APPRECIATION.

             n.  the aggressive promotion of oneself, one's views, etc.
             ЬЬself-asserting adj.  self-assertive adj.  self-assertiveness

             n.  confidence in one's own abilities etc.  ЬЬself-assured adj.
             self-assuredly adv.

             adj.  conscious of one's character, feelings, motives, etc.
             ЬЬself-awareness n.

             adj.  produced by oneself or itself; not made externally.

             n.  1 the betrayal of oneself.  2 the inadvertent revelation of
             one's true thoughts etc.

             n.  a reaping machine with an automatic mechanism for binding
             the sheaves.

   self-born adj.  produced by itself or oneself; not made externally.

             adj.  (esp. of a holiday or holiday premises) providing rented
             accommodation with cooking facilities but without food.

             n.  the censoring of oneself.

             adj.  preoccupied with one's own personality or affairs.
             ЬЬself-centredly adv.  self-centredness n.

             n.  the practice by which an employee declares in writing that
             an absence from work was due to illness.

             adj.  (esp. of an oven) cleaning itself when heated etc.

             adj.  (of a door etc.) closing automatically.

             adj.  (of a gun) with the hammer raised by the trigger, not by

             adj.  composed, serene, self-assured.

             adj.  1 a having the same colour throughout (buttons and belt
             are self-coloured).  b (of material) natural; undyed.  2 a (of a
             flower) of uniform colour.  b having its colour unchanged by
             cultivation or hybridization.

             n.  = SELF-CONTROL.

             n.  meditation upon one's own character, conduct, etc.

             n.  = SELF-SATISFACTION.  ЬЬself-conceited adj.

             n.  1 the blaming of oneself.  2 the inadvertent revelation of
             one's own sin, crime, etc.  ЬЬself-condemned adj.

             adj.  openly admitting oneself to be (a self-confessed thief).

             n.  = SELF-ASSURANCE.  ЬЬself-confident adj.  self-confidently

             n.  = SELF-SATISFACTION.  ЬЬself-congratulatory adj.

             n.  the overcoming of one's worst characteristics etc.

             adj.  1 socially inept through embarrassment or shyness.  2
             Philos. having knowledge of one's own existence;
             self-contemplating.  ЬЬself-consciously adv.  self-consciousness

             adj.  (of parts of the same whole etc.) consistent; not
             conflicting.  ЬЬself-consistency n.

             adj.  (of a person, group, etc.) assuming a function without
             authorization or right; self-appointed.

             adj.  1 (of a person) uncommunicative; independent.  2 Brit.
             (esp. of living-accommodation) complete in itself.
             ЬЬself-containment n.

             n.  contempt for oneself.  ЬЬself-contemptuous adj.

             n.  satisfaction with oneself, one's life, achievements, etc.
             ЬЬself-contented adj.

             n.  internal inconsistency.  ЬЬself-contradictory adj.

             n.  the power of controlling one's external reactions, emotions,
             etc.  ЬЬself-controlled adj.

             adj.  = SELF-CONDEMNED (see SELF-CONDEMNATION).

             adj.  correcting itself without external help.

             adj.  created by oneself or itself.  ЬЬself-creation n.

             adj.  critical of oneself, one's abilities, etc.
             ЬЬself-criticism n.

             n.  deceiving oneself esp. concerning one's true feelings etc.
             ЬЬself-deceit n.  self-deceiver n.  self-deceiving adj.
             self-deceptive adj.

             adj.  (of an attempt, action, etc.) doomed to failure because of
             internal inconsistencies etc.

             n.  1 an aggressive act, speech, etc., intended as defence (had
             to hit him in self-defence).  2 (usu.  the noble art of
             self-defence) boxing.  ЬЬself-defensive adj.

             n.  delight in oneself or one's existence.

             n.  the act or an instance of deluding oneself.

             n.  = SELF-ABNEGATION.  Ьself-denying ordinance hist.  a
             resolution of the Long Parliament 1645 depriving Members of
             Parliament of civil and military office.  ЬЬself-denying adj.

             adj.  dependence only on oneself or itself; independence.
             ЬЬself-dependent adj.

             n.  the act of disparaging or belittling oneself.
             ЬЬself-deprecating adj.  self-deprecatingly adv.

             n.  despair with oneself.

             adj.  destroying oneself or itself.

             v. & adj.  esp.  US --v.intr. (of a spacecraft, bomb, etc.)
             explode or disintegrate automatically, esp. when pre-set to do
             so.  --attrib.adj. enabling a thing to self-destruct (a
             self-destruct device).

             n.  1 the process or an act of destroying oneself or itself.  2
             esp.  US the process or an act of self-destructing.
             ЬЬself-destructive adj.  self-destructively adv.

             n.  1 a nation's right to determine its own allegiance,
             government, etc.  2 the ability to act with free will, as
             opposed to fatalism etc.  ЬЬself-determined adj.
             self-determining adj.

             n.  the development of oneself, one's abilities, etc.

             n.  the devotion of oneself to a person or cause.

             n.  the act of or ability to apply oneself, control one's
             feelings, etc.; self-control.  ЬЬself-disciplined adj.

             n.  the process of acquiring insight into oneself, one's
             character, desires, etc.

             n.  disgust with oneself.

             n.  lack of confidence in oneself, one's abilities, etc.

             adj.  (of a hired vehicle) driven by the hirer.

             adj.  educated by oneself by reading etc., without formal
             instruction.  ЬЬself-education n.

             adj.  retiring; modest; timid.  ЬЬself-effacement n.
             self-effacingly adv.

             adj.  (of a committee etc.) proceeding esp. by co-opting members

             adj.  working for oneself, as a freelance or owner of a business
             etc.; not employed by an employer.  ЬЬself-employment n.

             n.  a good opinion of oneself.

             adj.  obvious; without the need of evidence or further
             explanation.  ЬЬself-evidence n.  self-evidently adv.

             n.  1 the study of one's own conduct, reasons, etc.  2 the
             examining of one's body for signs of illness etc.

             adj.  Law (of a law, legal clause, etc.) not needing legislation
             etc. to be enforced; automatic.

             adj.  existing without prior cause; independent.

             adj.  easily understood; not needing explanation.

             n.  the expression of one's feelings, thoughts, etc., esp. in
             writing, painting, music, etc.  ЬЬself-expressive adj.

             adj.  (of stone) unhewn; undressed.

             n.  1 a furnace, machine, etc., that renews its own fuel or
             material automatically.  2 a device for supplying food to farm
             animals automatically.  ЬЬself-feeding adj.

             adj.  (of a plant etc.) self-fertilizing.  ЬЬself-fertility n.

             n.  the fertilization of plants by their own pollen, not from
             others.  ЬЬself-fertilized adj.  self-fertilizing adj.

             adj.  that finances itself, esp. (of a project or undertaking)
             that pays for its own implementation or continuation.
             ЬЬself-finance v.tr.

             n.  = SELF-APPRECIATION.  ЬЬself-flattering adj.

             adj.  unselfish.  ЬЬself-forgetfulness n.

             adj.  (of a prophecy, forecast, etc.) bound to come true as a
             result of actions brought about by its being made.

             n.  (US -fulfillment) the fulfilment of one's own hopes and

             adj.  generated by itself or oneself, not externally.

             n.  the proclamation of oneself, one's abilities, etc.;

             n.  1 (esp. of a former colony etc.) government by its own
             people.  2 = SELF-CONTROL.  ЬЬself-governed adj.  self-governing

   self-hate n.  = SELF-HATRED.

             n.  hatred of oneself, esp. of one's actual self when contrasted
             with one's imagined self.

   self-heal n.  any of several plants, esp.  Prunella vulgaris, believed to
             have healing properties.

   self-help n.  1 the theory that individuals should provide for their own
             support and improvement in society.  2 the act or faculty of
             providing for or improving oneself.

   selfhood  n.  personality, separate and conscious existence.

             n.  one's own idea or picture of oneself, esp. in relation to

             n.  a high opinion of oneself; pompousness.  ЬЬself-important
             adj.  self-importantly adv.

             adj.  (of a task or condition etc.) imposed on and by oneself,
             not externally (self-imposed exile).

             n.  the improvement of one's own position or disposition by
             one's own efforts.

             adj.  1 induced by oneself or itself.  2 Electr. produced by

             n.  Electr.  the property of an electric circuit that causes an
             electromotive force to be generated in it by a change in the
             current flowing through it (cf.  mutual inductance).

             n.  Electr.  the production of an electromotive force in a
             circuit when the current in that circuit is varied.
             ЬЬself-inductive adj.

             adj.  indulging or tending to indulge oneself in pleasure,
             idleness, etc.  ЬЬself-indulgence n.  self-indulgently adv.

             adj.  (esp. of a wound, damage, etc.) inflicted by and on
             oneself, not externally.

             n.  one's personal interest or advantage.  ЬЬself-interested

   selfish   adj.  1 deficient in consideration for others; concerned chiefly
             with one's own personal profit or pleasure; actuated by
             self-interest.  2 (of a motive etc.) appealing to self-interest.
             ЬЬselfishly adv.  selfishness n.

             n.  the justification or excusing of oneself, one's actions,

             n.  the understanding of oneself, one's motives, etc.

   selfless  adj.  disregarding oneself or one's own interests; unselfish.
             ЬЬselflessly adv.  selflessness n.

             adj.  (esp. of a gun) loading itself.  ЬЬself-loader n.

             adj.  locking itself.

   self-love n.  1 selfishness; self-indulgence.  2 Philos. regard for one's
             own well-being and happiness.

   self-made adj.  1 successful or rich by one's own effort.  2 made by

             n.  = SELF-CONTROL.

   selfmate  n.  Chess checkmate in which a player forces the opponent to
             achieve checkmate.

             adj.  mocking oneself or itself.

             n.  motion caused by oneself or itself, not externally.
             ЬЬself-moving adj.

             adj.  acting on one's own initiative without external pressure.
             ЬЬself-motivation n.

             n.  = SUICIDE.  ЬЬself-murderer n.

             n.  neglect of oneself.

   selfness  n.  1 individuality, personality, essence.  2 selfishness or

             adj.  1 stubbornly adhering to one's own opinions.  2 arrogant.
             ЬЬself-opinion n.

             adj.  perpetuating itself or oneself without external agency.
             ЬЬself-perpetuation n.

   self-pity n.  extreme sorrow for one's own troubles etc.  ЬЬself-pitying
             adj.  self-pityingly adv.

             n.  the pollination of a flower by pollen from the same plant.
             ЬЬself-pollinated adj.  self-pollinating adj.  self-pollinator

             n.  a portrait or description of an artist, writer, etc., by
             himself or herself.

             adj.  habitually exercising self-control; composed.
             ЬЬself-possession n.

             n.  boasting; self-glorification.

             n.  1 the preservation of one's own life, safety, etc.  2 this
             as a basic instinct of human beings and animals.

             adj.  proclaimed by oneself or itself to be such.

             adj.  (esp. of a plant) able to propagate itself.

             adj.  (esp. of a motor vehicle etc.) moving or able to move
             without external propulsion.  ЬЬself-propelling adj.

             n.  protecting oneself or itself.  ЬЬself-protective adj.

             adj.  Brit.  (of flour) having a raising agent already added.

             n.  1 the development of one's faculties, abilities, etc.  2
             this as an ethical principle.

             adj.  (of a scientific instrument etc.) automatically recording
             its measurements.

             n.  1 a proper regard for oneself.  2 a selfishness.  b conceit.

             adj.  (of a scientific instrument etc.) automatically
             registering its measurements.

             adj.  regulating oneself or itself without intervention.
             ЬЬself-regulation n.  self-regulatory adj.

             n.  reliance on one's own resources etc.; independence.
             ЬЬself-reliant adj.  self-reliantly adv.

             n.  the act or process of renewing oneself or itself.

             n.  1 = SELF-SACRIFICE.  2 unselfishness.

             n.  reproach or blame directed at oneself.  ЬЬself-reproachful

             n.  respect for oneself, a feeling that one is behaving with
             honour, dignity, etc.  ЬЬself-respecting adj.

             n.  = SELF-CONTROL.  ЬЬself-restrained adj.

             adj.  revealing one's character, motives, etc., esp.
             inadvertently.  ЬЬself-revelation n.

             adj.  excessively conscious of or insistent on one's rectitude,
             correctness, etc.  ЬЬself-righteously adv.  self-righteousness

             adj.  (of a boat) righting itself when capsized.

             adj.  US = SELF-RAISING.

   self-rule n.  = SELF-GOVERNMENT 1.

             n.  the negation of one's own interests, wishes, etc., in favour
             of those of others.  ЬЬself-sacrificing adj.

   selfsame  attrib.adj.  (prec. by the) the very same (the selfsame

             n.  excessive and unwarranted satisfaction with oneself, one's
             achievements, etc.; complacency.  ЬЬself-satisfied adj.
             self-satisfiedly adv.

             adj.  1 (of a pneumatic tyre, fuel tank, etc.) automatically
             able to seal small punctures.  2 (of an envelope) self-adhesive.

             adj. & n.  seeking one's own welfare before that of others.
             ЬЬself-seeker n.

             n.  the act of selecting oneself or itself.  ЬЬself-selecting

             adj. & n.  --adj. (often attrib.) 1 (of a shop, restaurant,
             garage, etc.) where customers serve themselves and pay at a
             checkout counter etc.  2 (of a machine) serving goods after the
             insertion of coins.  --n.  colloq. a self-service store, garage,

             adj.  = SELF-SEEKING.

             n.  = SUICIDE.

   self-sown adj.  grown from seed scattered naturally.

             n.  1 an electric appliance for starting a motor vehicle engine
             without the use of a crank.  2 an ambitious person who needs no
             external motivation.

             adj.  Biol.  not being self-fertile.  ЬЬself-sterility n.

             adj.  called so by oneself; would-be; pretended (a self-styled

             adj.  1 a needing nothing; independent.  b (of a person, nation,
             etc.) able to supply one's needs for a commodity, esp. food,
             from one's own resources.  2 content with one's own opinion;
             arrogant.  ЬЬself-sufficiency n.  self-sufficiently adv.
             self-sufficing adj.

             n.  = AUTO-SUGGESTION.

             adj.  1 capable of maintaining oneself or itself financially.  2
             staying up or standing without external aid.  ЬЬself-support n.

             n.  the surrender of oneself or one's will etc. to an influence,
             emotion, or other person.

             adj.  sustaining oneself or itself.  ЬЬself-sustained adj.

             adj.  educated or trained by oneself, not externally.

             n.  the inflicting of pain, esp. mental, on oneself.

             adj.  obstinately pursuing one's own wishes.  ЬЬself-will n.

             adj.  (of a watch etc.) having an automatic winding apparatus.

             n.  = SELF-ESTEEM.

   Seljuk    n. & adj.  --n. a member of any of the Turkish dynasties
             (11th-13th c.) of central and western Asia preceding Ottoman
             rule.  --adj. of or relating to the Seljuks.  ЬЬSeljukian adj. &
             n.  [Turk.  seljuq (name of their reputed ancestor)]

   sell      v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  sold) 1 tr. make over or
             dispose of in exchange for money.  2 tr. keep a stock of for
             sale or be a dealer in (do you sell candles?).  3 intr. (of
             goods) be purchased (will never sell; these are selling well).
             4 intr. (foll. by at, for) have a specified price (sells at њ5).
             5 tr. betray for money or other reward (sell one's country).  6
             tr. offer dishonourably for money or other consideration; make a
             matter of corrupt bargaining (sell justice; sell oneself; sell
             one's honour).  7 tr.  a advertise or publish the merits of.  b
             give (a person) information on the value of something, inspire
             with a desire to buy or acquire or agree to something.  8 tr.
             cause to be sold (the author's name alone will sell many
             copies).  9 tr.  sl. disappoint by not keeping an engagement
             etc., by failing in some way, or by trickery (sold again!).
             --n.  colloq.  1 a manner of selling (soft sell).  2 a deception
             or disappointment.  Ьsell-by date the latest recommended date of
             sale marked on the packaging of esp. perishable food.  sell down
             the river see RIVER.  sell the (or a) dummy see DUMMY.
             selling-point an advantageous feature.  selling-race a
             horse-race after which the winning horse must be auctioned.
             sell one's life dear (or dearly) do great injury before being
             killed.  sell off sell the remainder of (goods) at reduced
             prices.  sell out 1 a sell all one's stock-in-trade, one's
             shares in a company, etc.  b sell (all or some of one's stock,
             shares, etc.).  2 a betray.  b be treacherous or disloyal.
             sell-out n.  1 a commercial success, esp. the selling of all
             tickets for a show.  2 a betrayal.  sell the pass see PASS(2).
             sell a pup see PUP.  sell short disparage, underestimate.  sell
             up Brit.  1 sell one's business, house, etc.  2 sell the goods
             of (a debtor).  sold on colloq.  enthusiastic about.  ЬЬsellable
             adj.  [OE sellan f. Gmc]

   seller    n.  1 a person who sells.  2 a commodity that sells well or
             badly.  Ьseller's (or sellers') market an economic position in
             which goods are scarce and expensive.

   Sellotape n. & v.  --n.  propr. adhesive usu. transparent cellulose or
             plastic tape.  --v.tr. (sellotape) fix with Sellotape.
             [CELLULOSE + TAPE]

   seltzer   n. (in full seltzer water) 1 medicinal mineral water from
             Nieder-Selters in Germany.  2 an artificial substitute for this;
             soda water.  [G Selterser (adj.) f.  Selters]

   selvage   n.  (also selvedge) 1 a an edging that prevents cloth from
             unravelling (either an edge along the warp or a specially woven
             edging).  b a border of different material or finish intended to
             be removed or hidden.  2 Geol. an alteration zone at the edge of
             a rock mass.  3 the edge-plate of a lock with an opening for the
             bolt.  [ME f.  SELF + EDGE, after Du.  selfegghe]

   selves    pl. of SELF.

   semanteme n.  Linguistics a fundamental element expressing an image or
             idea.  [F s‚mantЉme (as SEMANTIC)]

   semantic  adj.  relating to meaning in language; relating to the
             connotations of words.  ЬЬsemantically adv.  [F s‚mantique f. Gk
             semantikos significant f.  semaino signify f.  sema sign]

   semantics n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) the branch of linguistics
             concerned with meaning.  ЬЬsemantician n.  semanticist n.

   semaphore n. & v.  --n.  1 Mil.  etc. a system of sending messages by
             holding the arms or two flags in certain positions according to
             an alphabetic code.  2 a signalling apparatus consisting of a
             post with a movable arm or arms, lanterns, etc., for use (esp.
             on railways) by day or night.  --v.intr. & tr. signal or send by
             semaphore.  ЬЬsemaphoric adj.  semaphorically adv.  [F
             s‚maphore, irreg. f. Gk sema sign + -phoros -PHORE]

             n.  semantics.  ЬЬsemasiological adj.  [G Semasiologie f. Gk
             semasia meaning f.  semaino signify]

   sematic   adj.  Zool.  (of colouring, markings, etc.) significant; serving
             to warn off enemies or attract attention.  [Gk sema sematos

   semblable n. & adj.  --n. a counterpart or equal.  --adj.  archaic having
             the semblance of something, seeming.  [ME f. OF (as SEMBLANCE)]

   semblance n.  1 the outward or superficial appearance of something (put on
             a semblance of anger).  2 resemblance.  [ME f. OF f.  sembler f.
             L similare, simulare SIMULATE]

   sem‚      adj.  (also sem‚e) Heraldry covered with small bearings of
             indefinite number (e.g. stars, fleurs-de-lis) arranged all over
             the field.  [F, past part. of semer to sow]

             var. of SEMIOLOGY.

             var. of SEMIOTICS.

   sememe    n.  Linguistics the unit of meaning carried by a morpheme.  [as

   semen     n.  the reproductive fluid of male animals, containing
             spermatozoa in suspension.  [ME f. L semen seminis seed f.
             serere to sow]

   semester  n.  a half-year course or term in (esp. German and US)
             universities.  [G f. L semestris six-monthly f.  sex six +
             mensis month]

   semi      n.  (pl.  semis) colloq.  1 Brit. a semi-detached house.  2 US a
             semi-trailer.  [abbr.]

   semi-     prefix 1 half (semicircle).  2 partly; in some degree or
             particular (semi-official; semi-detached).  3 almost (a
             semi-smile).  4 occurring or appearing twice in a specified
             period (semi-annual).  [F, It., etc. or L, corresp. to Gk HEMI-,
             Skr.  sami]

             adj.  occurring, published, etc., twice a year.  ЬЬsemi-annually

             adj.  1 partially automatic.  2 (of a firearm) having a
             mechanism for continuous loading but not for continuous firing.

             n.  a storey partly below ground level.

   semi-bold adj.  Printing printed in a type darker than normal but not as
             dark as bold.

   semibreve n.  Mus.  the longest note now in common use, having the time
             value of two minims or four crochets, and represented by a ring
             with no stem. Also called whole note.

             n.  1 half of a circle or of its circumference.  2 a set of
             objects ranged in, or an object forming, a semicircle.  [L
             semicirculus (as SEMI-, CIRCLE)]

             adj.  1 forming or shaped like a semicircle.  2 arranged as or
             in a semicircle.  Ьsemicircular canal one of three fluid-filled
             channels in the ear giving information to the brain to help
             maintain balance.  [LL semicircularis (as SEMICIRCLE)]

             adj.  partially civilized.

   semicolon n.  a punctuation mark (;) of intermediate value between a comma
             and full stop.

             adj.  having the properties of a semiconductor.

             n.  a solid substance that is a non-conductor when pure or at a
             low temperature but has a conductivity between that of
             insulators and that of most metals when containing a suitable
             impurity or at a higher temperature and is used in integrated
             circuits, transistors, diodes, etc.

             adj.  partly or imperfectly conscious.

             n.  half of a cylinder cut longitudinally.  ЬЬsemicylindrical


             adj.  Gram.  (of a Latin verb) having active forms in present
             tenses and passive forms with active sense in perfect tenses.

             adj. & n.  --adj. (of a house) joined to another by a party-wall
             on one side only.  --n. a semi-detached house.

             n.  half of a diameter.  [LL (as SEMI-, DIAMETER)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. (of a film) having a factual background and a
             fictitious story.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a semi-documentary film.

   semi-dome n.  1 a half-dome formed by vertical section.  2 a part of a
             structure more or less resembling a dome.

             adj.  (of a flower) intermediate between single and double in
             having only the outer stamens converted to petals.

   semifinal n.  a match or round immediately preceding the final.

             n.  a competitor in a semifinal.

             adj.  prepared for the final stage of manufacture.

             adj.  (of a garment) shaped to the body but not closely fitted.

   semifluid adj. & n.  --adj. of a consistency between solid and liquid.
             --n. a semifluid substance.

             adj.  Math.  limited in one direction and stretching to infinity
             in the other.

             n.  a person somewhat enfeebled or partially disabled.

             adj. & n.  = SEMIFLUID.

             adj.  shaped like a half moon or crescent.  Ьsemi-lunar bone a
             bone of this shape in the carpus.  semi-lunar cartilage a
             cartilage of this shape in the knee.  semi-lunar valve a valve
             of this shape in the heart.  [mod.L semilunaris (as SEMI-,

             n.  a substance with some of the properties of metals.  [mod.L
             semimetallum (as SEMI-, METAL)]

             adj. & adv.  --adj. occurring, published, etc., twice a month.
             --adv. twice a month.

   seminal   adj.  1 of or relating to seed, semen, or reproduction.  2
             germinal.  3 rudimentary, undeveloped.  4 (of ideas etc.)
             providing the basis for future development.  Ьseminal fluid
             semen.  ЬЬseminally adv.  [ME f. OF seminal or L seminalis (as

   seminar   n.  1 a small class at a university etc. for discussion and
             research.  2 a short intensive course of study.  3 a conference
             of specialists.  [G (as SEMINARY)]

   seminary  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a training-college for priests, rabbis, etc.
             2 a place of education or development.  ЬЬseminarist n.  [ME f.
             L seminarium seed-plot, neut. of seminarius (adj.) (as SEMEN)]

             adj.  1 bearing seed.  2 conveying semen.  [L semin- f.  SEMEN +

             adj.  1 partly official; rather less than official.  2 (of
             communications to newspapers etc.) made by an official with the
             stipulation that the source should not be revealed.
             ЬЬsemi-officially adv.

   semiology n.  (also semeiology) = SEMIOTICS.  ЬЬsemiological adj.
             semiologist n.  [Gk semeion sign f.  sema mark]

             adj.  not fully transparent.

   semiotics n.  (also semeiotics) 1 the study of signs and symbols in
             various fields, esp. language.  2 Med. symptomatology.
             ЬЬsemiotic adj.  semiotical adj.  semiotically adv.  semiotician
             n.  [Gk semeiotikos of signs (as SEMIOLOGY)]

             adj.  rather less than permanent.

             adj.  (of a membrane etc.) allowing small molecules, but not
             large ones, to pass through.

             n.  a feather with a firm stem but a downy web.

             adj.  (of a gem) less valuable than a precious stone.

   semi-pro  adj. & n.  (pl.  -os) US colloq. = SEMI-PROFESSIONAL.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 receiving payment for an activity but not
             relying on it for a living.  2 involving semi-professionals.
             --n. a semi-professional musician, sportsman, etc.

             n.  Mus.  a note having the time value of half a quaver and
             represented by a large dot with a two-hooked stem. Also called
             sixteenth note.

             adj.  (of an airship) having a stiffened keel attached to a
             flexible gas container.

             adj.  (of work or a worker) having or needing some training but
             less than for a skilled worker.

             n.  an expression that is not quite a smile.

             adj.  viscous, semifluid.

             adj.  (of biscuits etc.) slightly sweetened.

             adj.  Chem.  (of a substance) that is prepared synthetically but
             derives from a naturally occurring material.

   Semite    n.  a member of any of the peoples supposed to be descended from
             Shem, son of Noah (Gen. 10:21 ff.), including esp. the Jews,
             Arabs, Assyrians, and Phoenicians.  ЬЬSemitism n.  Semitist n.
             Semitize v.tr.  (also -ise).  Semitization n.  [mod.L Semita f.
             LL f. Gk Sem Shem]

   Semitic   adj.  1 of or relating to the Semites, esp. the Jews.  2 of or
             relating to the languages of the family including Hebrew and
             Arabic.  [mod.L Semiticus (as SEMITE)]

   semitone  n.  Mus.  the smallest interval used in classical European
             music; half a tone.

             n.  a trailer having wheels at the back but supported at the
             front by a towing vehicle.

             adj.  partially or imperfectly transparent.

             n.pl.  = SUBTROPICS.  ЬЬsemi-tropical adj.

             n.  1 a sound intermediate between a vowel and a consonant (e.g.
             w, y).  2 a letter representing this.  [after L semivocalis]

             adj. & adv.  --adj. occurring, published, etc., twice a week.
             --adv. twice a week.

   semmit    n.  Sc.  an undershirt.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   semolina  n.  1 the hard grains left after the milling of flour, used in
             puddings etc. and in pasta.  2 a pudding etc. made of this.
             [It.  semolino dimin. of semola bran f. L simila flour]

             adj.  rhet.  eternal, everlasting.  ЬЬsempiternally adv.
             sempiternity n.  [ME f. OF sempiternel f. LL sempiternalis f. L
             sempiternus f.  semper always + aeternus eternal]

   semplice  adv.  Mus.  in a simple style of performance.  [It., = SIMPLE]

   sempre    adv.  Mus.  throughout, always (sempre forte).  [It.]

             var. of SEAMSTRESS.

   SEN       abbr.  (in the UK) State Enrolled Nurse.

   Sen.      abbr.  1 Senior.  2 US a Senator.  b Senate.

   senarius  n.  (pl.  senarii) Prosody a verse of six feet, esp. an iambic
             trimeter.  [L: see SENARY]

   senary    adj.  of six, by sixes.  [L senarius f.  seni distrib. of sex

   senate    n.  1 a legislative body, esp. the upper and smaller assembly in
             the US, France, and other countries, in the States of the US,
             etc.  2 the governing body of a university or (in the US) a
             college.  3 Rom.Hist. the State council of the republic and
             empire sharing legislative power with the popular assemblies,
             administration with the magistrates, and judicial power with the
             knights.  [ME f. OF senat f. L senatus f.  senex old man]

   senator   n.  1 a member of a senate.  2 (in Scotland) a Lord of Session.
             ЬЬsenatorial adj.  senatorship n.  [ME f. OF senateur f. L
             senator -oris (as SENATE)]

   send      v.  (past and past part.  sent) 1 tr.  a order or cause to go or
             be conveyed (send a message to headquarters; sent me a book;
             sends goods all over the world).  b propel; cause to move (send
             a bullet; sent him flying).  c cause to go or become (send into
             raptures; send to sleep).  d dismiss with or without force (sent
             her away; sent him about his business).  2 intr. send a message
             or letter (he sent to warn me).  3 tr. (of God, providence,
             etc.) grant or bestow or inflict; bring about; cause to be (send
             rain; send a judgement; send her victorious!).  4 tr.  sl.
             affect emotionally, put into ecstasy.  Ьsend away for send an
             order to a dealer for (goods).  send down Brit.  1 rusticate or
             expel from a university.  2 sentence to imprisonment.  3 Cricket
             bowl (a ball or an over).  send for 1 summon.  2 order by post.
             send in 1 cause to go in.  2 submit (an entry etc.) for a
             competition etc.  send off 1 get (a letter, parcel, etc.)
             dispatched.  2 attend the departure of (a person) as a sign of
             respect etc.  3 Sport (of a referee) order (a player) to leave
             the field and take no further part in the game.  send-off n.  a
             demonstration of goodwill etc. at the departure of a person, the
             start of a project, etc.  send off for = send away for.  send on
             transmit to a further destination or in advance of one's own
             arrival.  send a person to Coventry see COVENTRY.  send up 1
             cause to go up.  2 transmit to a higher authority.  3 Brit.
             colloq. satirize or ridicule, esp. by mimicking.  4 US sentence
             to imprisonment.  send-up n.  Brit.  colloq.  a satire or
             parody.  send word send information.  ЬЬsendable adj.  sender n.
             [OE sendan f. Gmc]

   sendal    n.  hist.  1 a thin rich silk material.  2 a garment of this.
             [ME f. OF cendal, ult. f. Gk sindon]

   senecio   n.  any composite plant of the genus Senecio, including many
             cultivated species as well as groundsel and ragwort.  [L senecio
             old man, groundsel, with ref. to the hairy fruits]

   senesce   v.intr.  grow old.  ЬЬsenescence n.  senescent adj.  [L
             senescere f.  senex old]

   seneschal n.  1 the steward or major-domo of a medieval great house.  2 a
             judge in Sark.  [ME f. OF f. med.L seniscalus f. Gmc, = old

   senhor    n.  a title used of or to a Portuguese or Brazilian man.  [Port.
             f. L senior: see SENIOR]

   senhora   n.  a title used of or to a Portuguese woman or a Brazilian
             married woman.  [Port., fem. of SENHOR]

   senhorita n.  a title used of or to a Brazilian unmarried woman.  [Port.,
             dimin. of SENHORA]

   senile    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or characteristic of old age (senile
             apathy; senile decay).  2 having the weaknesses or diseases of
             old age.  --n. a senile person.  ЬЬsenility n.  [F s‚nile or L
             senilis f.  senex old man]

   senior    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by to) more or most advanced
             in age or standing.  2 of high or highest position.  3 (placed
             after a person's name) senior to another of the same name.  4
             (of a school) having pupils in an older age-range (esp.  over
             11).  5 US of the final year at a university, high school, etc.
             --n.  1 a person of advanced age or comparatively long service
             etc.  2 one's elder, or one's superior in length of service,
             membership, etc. (is my senior).  3 a senior student.  Ьsenior
             citizen an elderly person, esp. an old-age pensioner.  senior
             college US a college in which the last two years' work for a
             bachelor's degree is done.  senior common (or combination) room
             Brit.  a room for use by senior members of a college.  senior
             nursing officer the person in charge of nursing services in a
             hospital.  senior officer an officer to whom a junior is
             responsible.  senior partner the head of a firm.  senior service
             Brit.  the Royal Navy as opposed to the Army.  senior tutor
             Brit.  a college tutor in charge of the teaching arrangements.
             ЬЬseniority n.  [ME f. L, = older, older man, compar. of senex
             senis old man, old]

   senna     n.  1 a cassia tree.  2 a laxative prepared from the dried pod
             of this.  [med.L sena f. Arab.  sana]

   sennet(1) n.  hist.  a signal call on a trumpet or cornet (in the stage
             directions of Elizabethan plays).  [perh. var. of SIGNET]

   sennet(2) var. of SINNET.

   sennight  n.  archaic a week.  [OE seofon nihta seven nights]

   sennit    n.  1 hist. plaited straw, palm leaves, etc., used for making
             hats.  2 = SINNET.  [var. of SINNET]

   se¤or     n.  (pl.  se¤ores) a title used of or to a Spanish-speaking man.
             [Sp. f. L senior: see SENIOR]

   se¤ora    n.  a title used of or to a Spanish-speaking married woman.
             [Sp., fem. of SEҐOR]

   se¤orita  n.  a title used of or to a Spanish-speaking unmarried woman.
             [Sp., dimin. of SEҐORA]

   Senr.     abbr.  Senior.

   sensate   adj.  perceived by the senses.  [LL sensatus having senses (as

   sensation n.  1 the consciousness of perceiving or seeming to perceive
             some state or condition of one's body or its parts or senses or
             of one's mind or its emotions; an instance of such consciousness
             (lost all sensation in my left arm; had a sensation of
             giddiness; a sensation of pride; in search of a new sensation).
             2 a a stirring of emotions or intense interest esp. among a
             large group of people (the news caused a sensation).  b a
             person, event, etc., causing such interest.  3 the sensational
             use of literary etc. material.  [med.L sensatio f. L sensus

             adj.  1 causing or intended to cause great public excitement
             etc.  2 of or causing sensation.  ЬЬsensationally adv.

             n.  1 the use of or interest in the sensational in literature,
             political agitation, etc.  2 Philos. the theory that ideas are
             derived solely from sensation (opp.  RATIONALISM).
             ЬЬsensationalist n. & adj.  sensationalistic adj.

   sense     n. & v.  --n.  1 a any of the special bodily faculties by which
             sensation is roused (has keen senses; has a dull sense of
             smell).  b sensitiveness of all or any of these.  2 the ability
             to perceive or feel or to be conscious of the presence or
             properties of things.  3 (foll. by of) consciousness (sense of
             having done well; sense of one's own importance).  4 (often
             foll. by of) a quick or accurate appreciation, understanding, or
             instinct regarding a specified matter (sense of the ridiculous;
             road sense; the moral sense).  b the habit of basing one's
             conduct on such instinct.  5 practical wisdom or judgement,
             common sense; conformity to these (has plenty of sense; what is
             the sense of talking like that?; has more sense than to do
             that).  6 a a meaning; the way in which a word etc. is to be
             understood (the sense of the word is clear; I mean that in the
             literal sense).  b intelligibility or coherence or possession of
             a meaning.  7 the prevailing opinion among a number of people.
             8 (in pl.) a person's sanity or normal state of mind.  9 Math.
             etc. a a direction of movement.  b that which distinguishes a
             pair of entities which differ only in that each is the reverse
             of the other.  --v.tr.  1 perceive by a sense or senses.  2 be
             vaguely aware of.  3 realize.  4 (of a machine etc.) detect.  5
             US understand.  Ьbring a person to his or her senses 1 cure a
             person of folly.  2 restore a person to consciousness.  come to
             one's senses 1 regain consciousness.  2 become sensible after
             acting foolishly.  the five senses sight, hearing, smell, taste,
             and touch.  in a (or one) sense if the statement is understood
             in a particular way (what you say is true in a sense).  in one's
             senses sane.  make sense be intelligible or practicable.  make
             sense of show or find the meaning of.  man of sense a sagacious
             man.  out of one's senses in or into a state of madness (is out
             of her senses; frightened him out of his senses).  sense-datum
             (pl.  -data) Philos.  an element of experience received through
             the senses.  sense of direction the ability to know without
             guidance the direction in which one is or should be moving.
             sense of humour see HUMOUR.  sense-organ a bodily organ
             conveying external stimuli to the sensory system.  take leave of
             one's senses go mad.  take the sense of the meeting ascertain
             the prevailing opinion.  under a sense of wrong feeling wronged.
             [ME f. L sensus faculty of feeling, thought, meaning, f.
             sentire sens- feel]

   senseless adj.  1 unconscious.  2 wildly foolish.  3 without meaning or
             purpose.  4 incapable of sensation.  ЬЬsenselessly adv.
             senselessness n.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 capacity to feel (little finger lost its
             sensibility).  2 a openness to emotional impressions,
             susceptibility, sensitiveness (sensibility to kindness).  b an
             exceptional or excessive degree of this (sense and sensibility).
             3 (in pl.) a tendency to feel offended etc.  [ME f. LL
             sensibilitas (as SENSIBLE)]

   sensible  adj.  1 having or showing wisdom or common sense; reasonable,
             judicious (a sensible person; a sensible compromise).  2 a
             perceptible by the senses (sensible phenomena).  b great enough
             to be perceived; appreciable (a sensible difference).  3 (of
             clothing etc.) practical and functional.  4 (foll. by of) aware;
             not unmindful (was sensible of his peril).  Ьsensible horizon
             see HORIZON 1b.  ЬЬsensibleness n.  sensibly adv.  [ME f. OF
             sensible or L sensibilis (as SENSE)]

   sensitive adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by to) very open to or acutely
             affected by external stimuli or mental impressions; having
             sensibility.  2 (of a person) easily offended or emotionally
             hurt.  3 (often foll. by to) (of an instrument etc.) responsive
             to or recording slight changes.  4 (often foll. by to) a (of
             photographic materials) prepared so as to respond (esp.
             rapidly) to the action of light.  b (of any material) readily
             affected by or responsive to external action.  5 (of a topic
             etc.) subject to restriction of discussion to prevent
             embarrassment, ensure security, etc.  6 (of a market) liable to
             quick changes of price.  --n. a person who is sensitive (esp. to
             supposed occult influences).  Ьsensitive plant 1 a plant whose
             leaves curve downwards and leaflets fold together when touched,
             esp. mimosa.  2 a sensitive person.  ЬЬsensitively adv.
             sensitiveness n.  [ME, = sensory, f. OF sensitif -ive or med.L
             sensitivus, irreg. f. L sentire sens- feel]

             n.  the quality or degree of being sensitive.

   sensitize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make sensitive.  2 Photog. make sensitive
             to light.  3 make (an organism etc.) abnormally sensitive to a
             foreign substance.  ЬЬsensitization n.  sensitizer n.

             n.  Photog.  a device for measuring sensitivity to light.

   sensor    n.  a device giving a signal for the detection or measurement of
             a physical property to which it responds.  [SENSORY, after

   sensorium n.  (pl.  sensoria or sensoriums) 1 the seat of sensation, the
             brain, brain and spinal cord, or grey matter of these.  2 Biol.
             the whole sensory apparatus including the nerve-system.
             ЬЬsensorial adj.  sensorially adv.  [LL f. L sentire sens- feel]

   sensory   adj.  of sensation or the senses.  ЬЬsensorily adv.  [as

   sensual   adj.  1 a of or depending on the senses only and not on the
             intellect or spirit; carnal, fleshly (sensual pleasures).  b
             given to the pursuit of sensual pleasures or the gratification
             of the appetites; self-indulgent sexually or in regard to food
             and drink; voluptuous, licentious.  c indicative of a sensual
             nature (sensual lips).  2 of sense or sensation, sensory.  3
             Philos. of, according to, or holding the doctrine of,
             sensationalism.  ЬЬsensualism n.  sensualist n.  sensualize
             v.tr.  (also -ise).  sensually adv.  [ME f. LL sensualis (as

             n.  gratification of the senses, self-indulgence.  [ME f. F
             sensualit‚ f. LL sensualitas (as SENSUAL)]

   sensum    n.  (pl.  sensa) Philos.  a sense-datum.  [mod.L, neut. past
             part. of L sentire feel]

   sensuous  adj.  of or derived from or affecting the senses, esp.
             aesthetically rather than sensually.  ЬЬsensuously adv.
             sensuousness n.  [L sensus sense]

   sent      past and past part. of SEND.

   sentence  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a set of words complete in itself as the
             expression of a thought, containing or implying a subject and
             predicate, and conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or
             command.  b a piece of writing or speech between two full stops
             or equivalent pauses, often including several grammatical
             sentences (e.g.  I went; he came).  2 a a decision of a
             lawcourt, esp. the punishment allotted to a person convicted in
             a criminal trial.  b the declaration of this.  3 Logic a series
             of signs or symbols expressing a proposition in an artificial or
             logical language.  --v.tr.  1 declare the sentence of (a
             convicted criminal etc.).  2 (foll. by to) declare (such a
             person) to be condemned to a specified punishment.  Ьunder
             sentence of having been condemned to (under sentence of death).
             [ME f. OF f. L sententia opinion f.  sentire be of opinion]

             adj.  Gram. & Logic of a sentence.  [L sententialis (as

             adj.  1 (of a person) fond of pompous moralizing.  2 (of a
             style) affectedly formal.  3 aphoristic, pithy, given to the use
             of maxims, affecting a concise impressive style.
             ЬЬsententiously adv.  sententiousness n.  [L sententiosus (as

   sentient  adj.  having the power of perception by the senses.  ЬЬsentience
             n.  sentiency n.  sentiently adv.  [L sentire feel]

   sentiment n.  1 a mental feeling (the sentiment of pity).  2 a the sum of
             what one feels on some subject.  b a verbal expression of this.
             3 the expression of a view or desire esp. as formulated for a
             toast (concluded his speech with a sentiment).  4 an opinion as
             distinguished from the words meant to convey it (the sentiment
             is good though the words are injudicious).  5 a view or tendency
             based on or coloured with emotion (animated by noble
             sentiments).  6 such views collectively, esp. as an influence
             (sentiment unchecked by reason is a bad guide).  7 the tendency
             to be swayed by feeling rather than by reason.  8 a mawkish
             tenderness.  b the display of this.  9 an emotional feeling
             conveyed in literature or art.  [ME f. OF sentement f. med.L
             sentimentum f. L sentire feel]

             adj.  1 of or characterized by sentiment.  2 showing or affected
             by emotion rather than reason.  3 appealing to sentiment.
             Ьsentimental value the value of a thing to a particular person
             because of its associations.  ЬЬsentimentalism n.
             sentimentalist n.  sentimentality n.  sentimentalize v.intr. &
             tr.  (also -ise).  sentimentalization n.  sentimentally adv.

   sentinel  n. & v.  --n. a sentry or lookout.  --v.tr.  (sentinelled,
             sentinelling; US sentineled, sentineling) 1 station sentinels at
             or in.  2 poet. keep guard over or in.  [F sentinelle f. It.
             sentinella, of unkn. orig.]

   sentry    n.  (pl.  -ies) a soldier etc. stationed to keep guard.
             Ьsentry-box a wooden cabin intended to shelter a standing
             sentry.  sentry-go the duty of pacing up and down as a sentry.
             [perh. f. obs.  centrinel, var. of SENTINEL]

   sepal     n.  Bot.  each of the divisions or leaves of the calyx.  [F
             s‚pale, mod.L sepalum, perh. formed as SEPARATE + PETAL]

   separable adj.  1 able to be separated.  2 Gram. (of a prefix, or a verb
             in respect of a prefix) written as a separate word in some
             collocations.  ЬЬseparability n.  separableness n.  separably
             adv.  [F s‚parable or L separabilis (as SEPARATE)]

   separate  adj., n., & v.  --adj.  (often foll. by from) forming a unit
             that is or may be regarded as apart or by itself; physically
             disconnected, distinct, or individual (living in separate rooms;
             the two questions are essentially separate).  --n.  1 (in pl.)
             separate articles of clothing suitable for wearing together in
             various combinations.  2 an offprint.  --v.  1 tr. make
             separate, sever, disunite.  2 tr. prevent union or contact of.
             3 intr. go different ways, disperse.  4 intr. cease to live
             together as a married couple.  5 intr. (foll. by from) secede.
             6 tr.  a divide or sort (milk, ore, fruit, light, etc.) into
             constituent parts or sizes.  b (often foll. by out) extract or
             remove (an ingredient, waste product, etc.) by such a process
             for use or rejection.  7 tr.  US discharge, dismiss.
             ЬЬseparately adv.  separateness n.  separative adj.  separatory
             adj.  [L separare separat- (as SE-, parare make ready)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of separating; the state of being
             separated.  2 (in full judicial separation or legal separation)
             an arrangement by which a husband and wife remain married but
             live apart.  3 any of three or more monochrome reproductions of
             a coloured picture which can combine to reproduce the full
             colour of the original.  Ьseparation order an order of court for
             judicial separation.  [ME f. OF f. L separatio -onis (as

             n.  a person who favours separation, esp. for political or
             ecclesiastical independence (opp.  UNIONIST 2).  ЬЬseparatism n.

   separator n.  a machine for separating, e.g. cream from milk.

   Sephardi  n.  (pl.  Sephardim) a Jew of Spanish or Portuguese descent (cf.
             ASHKENAZI).  ЬЬSephardic adj.  [LHeb., f. separad, a country
             mentioned in Obad. 20 and taken to be Spain]

   sepia     n.  1 a dark reddish-brown colour.  2 a a brown pigment prepared
             from a black fluid secreted by cuttlefish, used in monochrome
             drawing and in water-colours.  b a brown tint used in
             photography.  3 a drawing done in sepia.  4 the fluid secreted
             by cuttlefish.  [L f. Gk sepia cuttlefish]

   sepoy     n.  hist.  a native Indian soldier under European, esp. British,
             discipline.  [Urdu & Pers.  sipahi soldier f.  sipah army]

   seppuku   n.  hara-kiri.  [Jap.]

   sepsis    n.  1 the state of being septic.  2 blood-poisoning.  [mod.L f.
             Gk sepsis f.  sepo make rotten]

   Sept.     abbr.  1 September.  2 Septuagint.

   sept      n.  a clan, esp. in Ireland.  [prob. alt. of SECT]

   sept-     var. of SEPTI-.

   septa     pl. of SEPTUM.

   septal(1) adj.  1 of a septum or septa.  2 Archaeol. (of a stone or slab)
             separating compartments in a burial chamber.  [SEPTUM]

   septal(2) adj.  of a sept or septs.

   septate   adj.  Bot., Zool., & Anat.  having a septum or septa;
             partitioned.  ЬЬseptation n.

             n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a seven-hundredth anniversary.  2
             a festival marking this.  --adj. of or concerning a

   September n.  the ninth month of the year.  [ME f. L September f.  septem
             seven: orig. the seventh month of the Roman year]

             n.  (pl.  septenarii) Prosody a verse of seven feet, esp. a
             trochaic or iambic tetrameter catalectic.  [L f.  septeni
             distributive of septem seven]

   septenary adj. & n.  --adj. of seven, by sevens, on the basis of seven.
             --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a group or set of seven (esp. years).  2 a
             septenarius.  [L septenarius (as SEPTENARIUS)]

   septenate adj.  Bot.  1 growing in sevens.  2 having seven divisions.  [L
             septeni (as SEPTENARIUS)]

             adj.  1 lasting for seven years.  2 recurring every seven years.
             [LL septennis f. L septem seven + annus year]

             n.  (pl.  septenniums or septennia) a period of seven years.

   septet    n.  (also septette) 1 Mus.  a a composition for seven
             performers.  b the performers of such a composition.  2 any
             group of seven.  [G Septett f. L septem seven]

   septfoil  n.  1 a seven-lobed ornamental figure.  2 archaic tormentil.
             [LL septifolium after CINQUEFOIL, TREFOIL]

   septi-    comb. form (also sept- before a vowel) seven.  [L f.  septem

   septic    adj.  contaminated with bacteria from a festering wound etc.,
             putrefying.  Ьseptic tank a tank in which the organic matter in
             sewage is disintegrated through bacterial activity.
             ЬЬseptically adv.  septicity n.  [L septicus f. Gk septikos f.
             sepo make rotten]

             n.  (US septicemia) blood-poisoning.  ЬЬsepticaemic adj.  [mod.L
             f. Gk septikos + haima blood]

             n.  (pl. same) a thousand raised to the eighth (or formerly,
             esp.  Brit., the fourteenth) power (10(24) and 10(42)
             respectively).  [F f.  sept seven, after billion etc.]

   septimal  adj.  of the number seven.  [L septimus seventh f.  septem

   septime   n.  Fencing the seventh of the eight parrying positions.  [L
             septimus (as SEPTIMAL)]

             adj.  (also septavalent) Chem.  having a valency of seven.

             n. & adj.  --n. a person from 70 to 79 years old.  --adj. of
             this age.  [L septuagenarius f.  septuageni distributive of
             septuaginta seventy]

             n. (in full Septuagesima Sunday) the Sunday before Sexagesima.
             [ME f. L, = seventieth (day), formed as SEPTUAGINT, perh. after
             QUINQUAGESIMA or with ref. to the period of 70 days from
             Septuagesima to the Saturday after Easter]

             n.  a Greek version of the Old Testament including the
             Apocrypha, said to have been made about 270 BC by seventy-two
             translators.  [L septuaginta seventy]

   septum    n.  (pl.  septa) Anat., Bot., & Zool.  a partition such as that
             between the nostrils or the chambers of a poppy-fruit or of a
             shell.  [L s(a)eptum f.  saepire saept- enclose f.  saepes

   septuple  adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 sevenfold, having seven parts.  2
             being seven times as many or as much.  --n. a sevenfold number
             or amount.  --v.tr. & intr. multiply by seven.  [LL septuplus f.
             L septem seven]

   septuplet n.  1 one of seven children born at one birth.  2 Mus. a group
             of seven notes to be played in the time of four or six.  [as
             SEPTUPLE, after TRIPLET etc.]

             adj.  1 of a tomb or interment (sepulchral mound; sepulchral
             customs).  2 suggestive of the tomb, funereal, gloomy, dismal
             (sepulchral look).  ЬЬsepulchrally adv.  [F s‚pulchral or L
             sepulchralis (as SEPULCHRE)]

   sepulchre n. & v.  (US sepulcher) --n. a tomb esp. cut in rock or built of
             stone or brick, a burial vault or cave.  --v.tr.  1 lay in a
             sepulchre.  2 serve as a sepulchre for.  Ьthe Holy Sepulchre the
             tomb in which Christ was laid.  whited sepulchre a hypocrite
             (with ref. to Matt. 23:27).  [ME f. OF f. L sepulc(h)rum f.
             sepelire sepult- bury]

   sepulture n.  literary the act or an instance of burying or putting in the
             grave.  [ME f. OF f. L sepultura (as SEPULCHRE)]

   seq.      abbr.  (pl.  seqq.) the following.  [L sequens etc.]

             adj.  1 (of reasoning or a reasoner) not inconsequent, coherent.
             2 archaic inclined to follow, lacking independence or
             originality, servile.  ЬЬsequaciously adv.  sequacity n.  [L
             sequax f.  sequi follow]

   sequel    n.  1 what follows (esp. as a result).  2 a novel, film, etc.,
             that continues the story of an earlier one.  Ьin the sequel as
             things developed afterwards.  [ME f. OF sequelle or L sequel(l)a
             f.  sequi follow]

   sequela   n.  (pl.  sequelae) Med. (esp. in pl.) a morbid condition or
             symptom following a disease.  [L f.  sequi follow]

   sequence  n. & v.  --n.  1 succession, coming after or next.  2 order of
             succession (shall follow the sequence of events; give the facts
             in historical sequence).  3 a set of things belonging next to
             one another on some principle of order; a series without gaps.
             4 a part of a film dealing with one scene or topic.  5 a set of
             poems on one theme.  6 a set of three or more playing-cards next
             to one another in value.  7 Mus. repetition of a phrase or
             melody at a higher or lower pitch.  8 Eccl. a hymn said or sung
             after the Gradual or Alleluia that precedes the Gospel.  9
             succession without implication of causality (opp.  CONSEQUENCE).
             --v.tr.  1 arrange in a definite order.  2 Biochem. ascertain
             the sequence of monomers in (esp. a polypeptide or nucleic
             acid).  Ьsequence of tenses Gram.  the dependence of the tense
             of a subordinate verb on the tense of the principal verb,
             according to certain rules (e.g.  I think you are, thought you
             were, wrong).  ЬЬsequencer n.  [ME f. LL sequentia f. L sequens
             pres. part. of sequi follow]

   sequent   adj.  1 following as a sequence or consequence.  2 consecutive.
             ЬЬsequently adv.  [OF sequent or L sequens (as SEQUENCE)]

             adj.  forming a sequence or consequence or sequela.
             ЬЬsequentiality n.  sequentially adv.  [SEQUENCE, after

   sequester v.tr.  1 (esp. as sequestered adj.) seclude, isolate, set apart
             (sequester oneself from the world; a sequestered life; a
             sequestered cottage).  2 = SEQUESTRATE.  3 Chem. bind (a metal
             ion) so that it cannot react.  [ME f. OF sequestrer or LL
             sequestrare commit for safe keeping f. L sequester trustee]

             v.tr.  1 confiscate, appropriate.  2 Law take temporary
             possession of (a debtor's estate etc.).  3 Eccl. apply (the
             income of a benefice) to clearing the incumbent's debts or
             accumulating a fund for the next incumbent.  ЬЬsequestrable adj.
             sequestration n.  sequestrator n.  [LL sequestrare (as

             n.  (pl.  sequestra) a piece of dead bone or other tissue
             detached from the surrounding parts.  ЬЬsequestral adj.
             sequestrotomy n.  (pl.  -ies).  [mod.L, neut. of L sequester
             standing apart]

   sequin    n.  1 a circular spangle for attaching to clothing as an
             ornament.  2 hist. a Venetian gold coin.  ЬЬsequinned adj.
             (also sequined).  [F f. It.  zecchino f.  zecca a mint f. Arab.
             sikka a die]

   sequoia   n.  a Californian evergreen coniferous tree, Sequoia
             sempervirens, of very great height.  [mod.L genus-name, f.
             Sequoiah, the name of a Cherokee]

   sera      pl. of SERUM.

   serac     n.  one of the tower-shaped masses into which a glacier is
             divided at steep points by crevasses crossing it.  [Swiss F
             s‚rac, orig. the name of a compact white cheese]

   seraglio  n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a harem.  2 hist. a Turkish palace, esp. that
             of the Sultan with government offices etc. at Constantinople.
             [It.  serraglio f. Turk. f. Pers.  saray palace: cf.  SERAI]

   serai     n.  a caravanserai.  [Turk. f. Pers. (as SERAGLIO)]

   serang    n.  Anglo-Ind.  a native head of a Lascar crew.  [Hindi f. Pers.
             sarhang commander]

   serape    n.  (also sarape, zarape) a shawl or blanket worn as a cloak by
             Spanish Americans.  [Mexican Sp.]

   seraph    n.  (pl.  seraphim or seraphs) an angelic being, one of the
             highest order of the ninefold celestial hierarchy gifted esp.
             with love and associated with light, ardour, and purity.
             [back-form. f.  seraphim (cf.  CHERUB) (pl.) f. LL f. Gk
             seraphim f. Heb.  serapim]

   seraphic  adj.  1 of or like the seraphim.  2 ecstatically adoring,
             fervent, or serene.  ЬЬseraphically adv.  [med.L seraphicus f.
             LL (as SERAPH)]

   seraskier n.  hist.  the Turkish Commander-in-Chief and minister of war.
             [Turk. f. Pers.  sar' askar head of army]

   Serb      n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native of Serbia in Yugoslavia.  2 a person
             of Serbian descent.  --adj. = SERBIAN.  [Serbian Srb]

   Serbian   n. & adj.  --n.  1 the dialect of the Serbs (cf.  SERBO-CROAT).
             2 = SERB.  --adj. of or relating to the Serbs or their dialect.

   Serbo-    comb. form Serbian.

             n. & adj.  (also Serbo-Croatian) --n. the main official language
             of Yugoslavia, combining Serbian and Croatian dialects.  --adj.
             of or relating to this language.

   SERC      abbr.  (in the UK) Science and Engineering Research Council.

   sere(1)   n.  a catch of a gunlock holding the hammer at half or full
             cock.  [prob. f. OF serre lock, bolt, grasp, f.  serrer (see

   sere(2)   var. of SEAR adj.

   sere(3)   n.  Ecol.  a sequence of animal or plant communities.  [L serere
             join in a SERIES]

   serein    n.  a fine rain falling in tropical climates from a cloudless
             sky.  [F f. OF serain ult. f. L serum evening f.  serus late]

   serenade  n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of music sung or played at night, esp.
             by a lover under his lady's window, or suitable for this.  2 =
             SERENATA.  --v.tr. sing or play a serenade to.  ЬЬserenader n.
             [F s‚r‚nade f. It.  serenata f.  sereno SERENE]

   serenata  n.  Mus.  1 a cantata with a pastoral subject.  2 a simple form
             of suite for orchestra or wind band.  [It. (as SERENADE)]

             n.  the faculty of making happy and unexpected discoveries by
             accident.  ЬЬserendipitous adj.  serendipitously adv.  [coined
             by Horace Walpole (1754) after The Three Princes of Serendip
             (Sri Lanka), a fairy-tale]

   serene    adj. & n.  --adj.  (serener, serenest) 1 a (of the sky, the air,
             etc.) clear and calm.  b (of the sea etc.) unruffled.  2 placid,
             tranquil, unperturbed.  --n.  poet. a serene expanse of sky,
             sea, etc.  Ьall serene Brit.  sl.  all right.  Serene Highness a
             title used in addressing and referring to members of some
             European royal families (His Serene Highness; Their Serene
             Highnesses; Your Serene Highness).  ЬЬserenely adv.  sereneness
             n.  [L serenus]

   serenity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 tranquillity, being serene.  2 (Serenity) a
             title used in addressing and referring to a reigning prince or
             similar dignitary (your Serenity).  [F s‚r‚nit‚ or L serenitas
             (as SERENE)]

   serf      n.  1 hist. a labourer not allowed to leave the land on which he
             worked, a villein.  2 an oppressed person, a drudge.  ЬЬserfage
             n.  serfdom n.  serfhood n.  [OF f. L servus slave]

   serge     n.  a durable twilled worsted etc. fabric.  [ME f. OF sarge,
             serge ult. f. L serica (lana): see SILK]

   sergeant  n.  1 a non-commissioned Army or Air Force officer next below
             warrant officer.  2 a police officer ranking below (Brit.)
             inspector or (US) captain.  Ьcompany sergeant-major Mil.  the
             highest non-commissioned officer of a company.  Sergeant Baker
             Austral.  a large brightly-coloured marine fish, Aulopus
             purpurissatus.  sergeant-fish a marine fish, Rachycentron
             canadum, with lateral stripes suggesting a chevron.
             sergeant-major Mil.  1 (in full regimental sergeant-major) Brit.
             a warrant-officer assisting the adjutant of a regiment or
             battalion.  2 US the highest-ranking non-commissioned officer.
             ЬЬsergeancy n.  (pl.  -ies).  sergeantship n.  [ME f. OF sergent
             f. L serviens -entis servant f.  servire SERVE]

   Sergt.    abbr.  Sergeant.

   serial    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a story, play, or film which is published,
             broadcast, or shown in regular instalments.  2 a periodical.
             --adj.  1 of or in or forming a series.  2 (of a story etc.) in
             the form of a serial.  3 Mus. using transformations of a fixed
             series of notes (see SERIES).  4 (of a publication) appearing in
             successive parts published usu. at regular intervals,
             periodical.  Ьserial killer a person who murders continuously
             with no apparent motive.  serial number a number showing the
             position of an item in a series.  serial rights the right to
             publish a story or book as a serial.  ЬЬseriality n.  serially
             adv.  [SERIES + -AL]

   serialist n.  a composer or advocate of serial music.  ЬЬserialism n.

   serialize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 publish or produce in instalments.  2
             arrange in a series.  3 Mus. compose according to a serial
             technique.  ЬЬserialization n.

   seriate   adj. & v.  --adj.  in the form of a series; in orderly sequence.
             --v.tr.  arrange in a seriate manner.  ЬЬseriation n.

   seriatim  adv.  point by point; taking one subject etc. after another in
             regular order (consider seriatim).  [med.L f. L series, after
             LITERATIM etc.]

   Seric     adj.  archaic Chinese.  [L sericus; see SILK]

   sericeous adj.  Bot. & Zool.  covered with silky hairs.  [LL sericeus

             n.  1 silkworm-breeding.  2 the production of raw silk.
             ЬЬsericultural adj.  sericulturist n.  [F s‚riciculture f. LL
             sericum: see SILK, CULTURE]

   seriema   n.  (also cariama) Zool.  any S. American bird of the family
             Cariamidae, having a long neck and legs and a crest above the
             bill.  [mod.L f. Tupi siriema etc. crested]

   series    n.  (pl. same) 1 a number of things of which each is similar to
             the preceding or in which each successive pair are similarly
             related; a sequence, succession, order, row, or set.  2 a set of
             successive games between the same teams.  3 a set of programmes
             with the same actors etc. or on related subjects but each
             complete in itself.  4 a set of lectures by the same speaker or
             on the same subject.  5 a a set of successive issues of a
             periodical, of articles on one subject or by one writer, etc.,
             esp. when numbered separately from a preceding or following set
             (second series).  b a set of independent books in a common
             format or under a common title or supervised by a common general
             editor.  6 Philately a set of stamps, coins, etc., of different
             denominations but issued at one time, in one reign, etc.  7
             Geol.  a a set of strata with a common characteristic.  b the
             rocks deposited during a specific epoch.  8 Mus. an arrangement
             of the twelve notes of the chromatic scale as a basis for serial
             music.  9 Electr.  a a set of circuits or components arranged so
             that the current passes through each successively.  b a set of
             batteries etc. having the positive electrode of each connected
             with the negative electrode of the next.  10 Chem. a set of
             elements with common properties or of compounds related in
             composition or structure.  11 Math. a set of quantities
             constituting a progression or having the several values
             determined by a common relation.  Ьarithmetical (or geometrical)
             series a series in arithmetical (or geometrical) progression.
             in series 1 in ordered succession.  2 Electr. (of a set of
             circuits or components) arranged so that the current passes
             through each successively.  [L, = row, chain f.  serere join,

   serif     n.  a slight projection finishing off a stroke of a letter as in
             T contrasted with T! (cf.  SANSERIF).  ЬЬseriffed adj.  [perh.
             f. Du.  schreef dash, line f. Gmc]

             n.  the art or process of printing designs by means of a silk
             screen.  ЬЬserigraph n.  serigrapher n.  [irreg. f. L sericum

   serin     n.  any small yellow Mediterranean finch of the genus Serinus,
             esp. the wild canary S. serinus.  [F, of uncert. orig.]

   serinette n.  an instrument for teaching cage-birds to sing.  [F (as

   seringa   n.  1 = SYRINGA.  2 any of various rubber-trees of the genus
             Hevea, native to Brazil.  [F (as SYRINGA)]

             adj.  combining the serious and the comic, jocular in intention
             but simulating seriousness or vice versa.  ЬЬserio-comically

   serious   adj.  1 thoughtful, earnest, sober, sedate, responsible, not
             reckless or given to trifling (has a serious air; a serious
             young person).  2 important, demanding consideration (this is a
             serious matter).  3 not slight or negligible (a serious injury;
             a serious offence).  4 sincere, in earnest, not ironical or
             joking (are you serious?).  5 (of music and literature) not
             merely for amusement (opp.  LIGHT(2) 5a).  6 not perfunctory
             (serious thought).  7 not to be trifled with (a serious
             opponent).  8 concerned with religion or ethics (serious
             subjects).  ЬЬseriousness n.  [ME f. OF serieux or LL seriosus
             f. L serius]

   seriously adv.  1 in a serious manner (esp. introducing a sentence,
             implying that irony etc. is now to cease).  2 to a serious

   serjeant  n.  1 (in full serjeant-at-law, pl.  serjeants-at-law) hist. a
             barrister of the highest rank.  2 Brit. (in official lists) a
             sergeant in the Army.  ЬCommon Serjeant Brit.  a circuit judge
             of the Central Criminal Court with duties in the City of London.
             serjeant-at-arms (pl.  serjeants-at-arms) an official of a court
             or city or parliament, with ceremonial duties.  ЬЬserjeantship
             n.  [var. of SERGEANT]

   sermon    n.  1 a spoken or written discourse on a religious or moral
             subject, esp. a discourse based on a text or passage of
             Scripture and delivered in a service by way of religious
             instruction or exhortation.  2 a piece of admonition or reproof,
             a lecture.  3 a moral reflection suggested by natural objects
             etc. (sermons in stones).  ЬSermon on the Mount the discourse of
             Christ recorded in Matt. 5-7.  [ME f. AF sermun, OF sermon f. L
             sermo -onis discourse, talk]

             n.  a short sermon.

   sermonize v.  (also -ise) 1 tr. deliver a moral lecture to.  2 intr.
             deliver a moral lecture.  ЬЬsermonizer n.

   serology  n.  the scientific study of blood sera and their effects.
             ЬЬserological adj.  serologist n.

   serosa    n.  a serous membrane.  [mod.L, fem. of med.L serosus SEROUS]

   serotine  n.  a chestnut-coloured European bat, Eptesicus serotinus.  [F
             s‚rotine f. L serotinus late, of the evening, f.  serus late]

   serotonin n.  Biol.  a compound present in blood serum, which constricts
             the blood vessels and acts as a neurotransmitter.  [SERUM +
             TONIC + -IN]

   serous    adj.  of or like or producing serum; watery.  Ьserous gland (or
             membrane) a gland or membrane with a serous secretion.
             ЬЬserosity n.  [F s‚reux or med.L serosus (as SERUM)]

   serpent   n.  1 usu.  literary.  a a snake, esp. of a large kind.  b a
             scaly limbless reptile.  2 a sly or treacherous person, esp. one
             who exploits a position of trust to betray it.  3 Mus. an old
             bass wind instrument made from leather-covered wood, roughly in
             the form of an S.  4 (the Serpent) Bibl. Satan (see Gen. 3, Rev.
             20).  [ME f. OF f. L serpens -entis part. of serpere creep]

             adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 of or like a serpent.  2 coiling,
             tortuous, sinuous, meandering, writhing (the serpentine windings
             of the stream).  3 cunning, subtle, treacherous.  --n.  1 a soft
             rock mainly of hydrated magnesium silicate, usu.  dark green and
             sometimes mottled or spotted like a serpent's skin, taking a
             high polish and used as a decorative material.  2 Skating a
             figure of three circles in a line.  --v.intr. move sinuously,
             meander.  Ьserpentine verse a metrical line beginning and ending
             with the same word.  [ME f. OF serpentin f. LL serpentinus (as

             adj.  (of a skin-disease etc.) creeping from one part to
             another.  [med.L serpigo -ginis ringworm f. L serpere creep]

   SERPS     abbr.  (in the UK) State earnings-related pension scheme.

   serpula   n.  (pl.  serpulae) any of various marine worms of the family
             Serpulidae, living in intricately twisted shell-like tubes.
             [LL, = small serpent, f. L serpere creep]

   serra     n.  (pl.  serrae) a serrated organ, structure, or edge.  [L, =

             n.  (pl.  serradillae) a clover, Ornithopus sativus, grown as
             fodder.  [Port., dimin. of serrado serrated]

   serran    n.  any marine fish of the family Serranidae.  [mod.L serranus
             f. L serra saw]

   serrate   v. & adj.  --v.tr.  (usu. as serrated adj.) provide with a
             sawlike edge.  --adj.  esp. Anat., Bot., & Zool. notched like a
             saw.  ЬЬserration n.  [LL serrare serrat- f. L serra saw]

   serried   adj.  (of ranks of soldiers, rows of trees, etc.) pressed
             together; without gaps; close.  [past part. of serry press close
             prob. f. F serr‚ past part. of serrer close ult. f. L sera lock,
             or past part. of obs.  serr f. OF serrer]

   serrulate adj.  esp. Anat., Bot., & Zool.  finely serrate; with a series
             of small notches.  ЬЬserrulation n.  [mod.L serrulatus f. L
             serrula dimin. of serra saw]

   serum     n.  (pl.  sera or serums) 1 a an amber-coloured liquid that
             separates from a clot when blood coagulates.  b whey.  2 Med.
             blood serum (usu. from a non-human mammal) as an antitoxin or
             therapeutic agent, esp. in inoculation.  3 a watery fluid in
             animal bodies.  Ьserum sickness a reaction to an injection of
             serum, characterized by skin eruption, fever, etc.  [L, = whey]

   serval    n.  a tawny black-spotted long-legged African cat, Felis serval.
             [F f. Port.  cerval deerlike f.  cervo deer f. L cervus]

   servant   n.  1 a person who has undertaken (usu. in return for stipulated
             pay) to carry out the orders of an individual or corporate
             employer, esp. a person employed in a house on domestic duties
             or as a personal attendant.  2 a devoted follower, a person
             willing to serve another (a servant of Jesus Christ).  Ьyour
             humble servant Brit.  archaic a formula preceding a signature or
             expressing ironical courtesy.  your obedient servant Brit.  a
             formula preceding a signature, now used only in certain formal
             letters.  [ME f. OF (as SERVE)]

   serve     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. do a service for (a person, community,
             etc.).  2 tr. (also absol.) be a servant to.  3 intr. carry out
             duties (served on six committees).  4 intr.  a (foll. by in) be
             employed in (an organization, esp. the armed forces, or a place,
             esp. a foreign country) (served in the air force).  b be a
             member of the armed forces.  5 a tr. be useful to or serviceable
             for; meet the needs of; do what is required for (serve a
             purpose; one packet serves him for a week).  b intr. meet
             requirements; perform a function (a sofa serving as a bed).  c
             intr. (foll. by to + infin.) avail, suffice (his attempt served
             only to postpone the inevitable; it serves to show the folly of
             such action).  6 tr. go through a due period of (office,
             apprenticeship, a prison sentence, etc.).  7 tr. set out or
             present (food) for those about to eat it (asparagus served with
             butter; dinner was then served).  8 intr. (in full serve at
             table) act as a waiter.  9 tr.  a attend to (a customer in a
             shop).  b (foll. by with) supply with (goods) (was serving a
             customer with apples; served the town with gas).  10 tr. treat
             or act towards (a person) in a specified way (has served me
             shamefully; you may serve me as you will).  11 tr.  a (often
             foll. by on) deliver (a writ etc.) to the person concerned in a
             legally formal manner (served a warrant on him).  b (foll. by
             with) deliver a writ etc. to (a person) in this way (served her
             with a summons).  12 tr.  Tennis etc. a (also absol.) deliver (a
             ball etc.) to begin or resume play.  b produce (a fault etc.) by
             doing this.  13 tr.  Mil. keep (a gun, battery, etc.) firing.
             14 tr. (of an animal, esp. a stallion etc. hired for the
             purpose) copulate with (a female).  15 tr. distribute (served
             the ammunition out; served the rations round).  16 tr. render
             obedience to (a deity etc.).  17 Eccl.  a intr. act as a server.
             b tr. act as a server at (a service).  18 intr. (of a tide) be
             suitable for a ship to leave harbour etc.  19 tr.  Naut. bind (a
             rope etc.) with thin cord to strengthen it.  20 tr. play (a
             trick etc.) on.  --n.  1 Tennis etc. a the act or an instance of
             serving.  b a manner of serving.  c a person's turn to serve.  2
             Austral.  sl. a reprimand.  Ьit will serve it will be adequate.
             serve one's needs (or need) be adequate.  serve out retaliate
             on.  serve the purpose of take the place of, be used as.  serve
             a person right be a person's deserved punishment or misfortune.
             serve one's time 1 hold office for the normal period.  2 (also
             serve time) undergo imprisonment, apprenticeship, etc.  serve
             one's (or the) turn be adequate.  serve up offer for acceptance.
             [ME f. OF servir f. L servire f.  servus slave]

   server    n.  1 a person who serves.  2 Eccl. a person assisting the
             celebrant at a service, esp. the Eucharist.

   servery   n.  (pl.  -ies) a room from which meals etc. are served and in
             which utensils are kept.

             n. & v.  --n.  1 the act of helping or doing work for another or
             for a community etc.  2 work done in this way.  3 assistance or
             benefit given to someone.  4 the provision or system of
             supplying a public need, e.g.  transport, or (often in pl.) the
             supply of water, gas, electricity, telephone, etc.  5 a the fact
             or status of being a servant.  b employment or a position as a
             servant.  6 a state or period of employment doing work for an
             individual or organization (resigned after 15 years' service).
             7 a a public or Crown department or organization employing
             officials working for the State (civil service; secret service).
             b employment in this.  8 (in pl.) the armed forces.  9 (attrib.)
             of the kind issued to the armed forces (a service revolver).  10
             a a ceremony of worship according to prescribed forms.  b a form
             of liturgy for this.  11 a the provision of what is necessary
             for the installation and maintenance of a machine etc. or
             operation.  b a periodic routine maintenance of a motor vehicle
             etc.  12 assistance or advice given to customers after the sale
             of goods.  13 a the act or process of serving food, drinks, etc.
             b an extra charge nominally made for this.  14 a set of dishes,
             plates, etc., used for serving meals (a dinner service).  15
             Tennis etc. a the act or an instance of serving.  b a person's
             turn to serve.  c the manner or quality of serving.  d (in full
             service game) a game in which a particular player serves.
             --v.tr.  1 provide service or services for, esp. maintain.  2
             maintain or repair (a car, machine, etc.).  3 pay interest on (a
             debt).  4 supply with a service.  Ьat a person's service ready
             to serve or assist a person.  be of service be available to
             assist.  in service 1 employed as a servant.  2 available for
             use.  on active service serving in the armed forces in wartime.
             out of service not available for use.  see service 1 have
             experience of service, esp. in the armed forces.  2 (of a thing)
             be much used.  service area 1 an area beside a major road for
             the supply of petrol, refreshments, etc.  2 the area served by a
             broadcasting station.  service-book a book of authorized forms
             of worship of a Church.  service bus (or car) Austral. & NZ a
             motor coach.  service charge an additional charge for service in
             a restaurant, hotel, etc.  service dress ordinary military etc.
             uniform.  service flat a flat in which domestic service and
             sometimes meals are provided by the management.  service
             industry one providing services not goods.  service line (in
             tennis etc.) a line marking the limit of the area into which the
             ball must be served.  service road a road parallel to a main
             road, serving houses, shops, etc.  service station an
             establishment beside a road selling petrol and oil etc. to
             motorists and often able to carry out maintenance.  take service
             with become a servant to.  [ME f. OF service or L servitium f.
             servus slave]

             n. (in full service tree) a European tree of the genus Sorbus,
             esp.  S. domestica with toothed leaves, cream-coloured flowers,
             and small round or pear-shaped fruit eaten when overripe.
             Ьservice-berry 1 the fruit of the service tree.  2 a any
             American shrub of the genus Amelanchier.  b the edible fruit of
             this.  [earlier serves, pl. of obs.  serve f. OE syrfe f. Gmc
             surbhjon ult. f. L sorbus]

             adj.  1 useful or usable.  2 able to render service.  3 durable;
             capable of withstanding difficult conditions.  4 suited for
             ordinary use rather than ornament.  ЬЬserviceability n.
             serviceableness n.  serviceably adv.  [ME f. OF servisable (as

             n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a man serving in the armed forces.  2 a man
             providing service or maintenance.

             n.  (pl.  -women) a woman serving in the armed forces.

   serviette n.  esp.  Brit.  a napkin for use at table.  [ME f. OF f.
             servir SERVE]

   servile   adj.  1 of or being or like a slave or slaves.  2 slavish,
             fawning; completely dependent.  ЬЬservilely adv.  servility n.
             [ME f. L servilis f.  servus slave]

   serving   n.  a quantity of food served to one person.

   servitor  n.  1 archaic a a servant.  b an attendant.  2 hist. an Oxford
             undergraduate performing menial duties in exchange for
             assistance from college funds.  ЬЬservitorship n.  [ME f. OF f.
             LL (as SERVE)]

   servitude n.  1 slavery.  2 subjection (esp. involuntary); bondage.  3 Law
             the subjection of property to an easement.  [ME f. OF f. L
             servitudo -inis f.  servus slave]

   servo     n.  (pl.  -os) 1 (in full servo-mechanism) a powered mechanism
             producing motion or forces at a higher level of energy than the
             input level, e.g. in the brakes and steering of large motor
             vehicles, esp. where feedback is employed to make the control
             automatic.  2 (in full servo-motor) the motive element in a
             servo-mechanism.  3 (in comb.) of or involving a servo-mechanism
             (servo-assisted).  [L servus slave]

   sesame    n.  Bot.  1 an E. Indian herbaceous plant, Sesamum indicum, with
             seeds used as food and yielding an edible oil.  2 its seeds.
             Ьopen sesame a means of acquiring or achieving what is normally
             unattainable (from the magic words used in the Arabian Nights'
             Entertainments).  [L sesamum f. Gk sesamon, sesame]

   sesamoid  adj. & n.  --adj. shaped like a sesame seed; nodular (esp. of
             small independent bones developed in tendons passing over an
             angular structure such as the kneecap and the navicular bone).
             --n. a sesamoid bone.

   sesqui-   comb. form 1 denoting one and a half.  2 Chem. (of a compound)
             in which there are three equivalents of a named element or
             radical to two others.  [L (as SEMI-, -que and)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a one-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary.

             n. & adj.  --n. = SESQUICENTENARY.  --adj. of or relating to a

   sess      var. of CESS(1).

   sessile   adj.  1 Bot. & Zool. (of a flower, leaf, eye, etc.) attached
             directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle.  2 fixed in
             one position; immobile.  Ьsessile oak = DURMAST.  [L sessilis f.
             sedere sess- sit]

   session   n.  1 the process of assembly of a deliberative or judicial body
             to conduct its business.  2 a single meeting for this purpose.
             3 a period during which such meetings are regularly held.  4 a
             an academic year.  b the period during which a school etc. has
             classes.  5 a period devoted to an activity (poker session;
             recording session).  6 the governing body of a Presbyterian
             Church.  Ьin session assembled for business; not on vacation.
             petty sessions 1 a meeting of two or more magistrates for the
             summary trial of certain offences.  2 = quarter sessions.
             ЬЬsessional adj.  [ME f. OF session or L sessio -onis (as

   sesterce  n.  (also sestertius) (pl.  sesterces or sestertii) an ancient
             Roman coin and monetary unit equal to one quarter of a denarius.
             [L sestertius (nummus coin) = 2« f.  semis half + tertius third]

   sestet    n.  1 the last six lines of a sonnet.  2 a sextet.  [It.
             sestetto f.  sesto f. L sextus a sixth]

   sestina   n.  a form of rhymed or unrhymed poem with six stanzas of six
             lines and a final triplet, all stanzas having the same six words
             at the line-ends in six different sequences.  [It. (as SESTET)]

   set(1)    v.  (setting; past and past part.  set) 1 tr. put, lay, or stand
             (a thing) in a certain position or location (set it on the
             table; set it upright).  2 tr. (foll. by to) apply (one thing)
             to (another) (set pen to paper).  3 tr.  a fix ready or in
             position.  b dispose suitably for use, action, or display.  4
             tr.  a adjust the hands of (a clock or watch) to show the right
             time.  b adjust (an alarm clock) to sound at the required time.
             5 tr.  a fix, arrange, or mount.  b insert (a jewel) in a ring,
             framework, etc.  6 tr. make (a device) ready to operate.  7 tr.
             lay (a table) for a meal.  8 tr. arrange (the hair) while damp
             so that it dries in the required style.  9 tr. (foll. by with)
             ornament or provide (a surface, esp. a precious item) (gold set
             with gems).  10 tr. bring by placing or arranging or other means
             into a specified state; cause to be (set things in motion; set
             it on fire).  11 intr. & tr. harden or solidify (the jelly is
             set; the cement has set).  12 intr. (of the sun, moon, etc.)
             appear to move towards and below the earth's horizon (as the
             earth rotates).  13 tr. represent (a story, play, scene, etc.)
             as happening in a certain time or place.  14 tr.  a (foll. by to
             + infin.) cause or instruct (a person) to perform a specified
             activity (set them to work).  b (foll. by pres. part.) start (a
             person or thing) doing something (set him chatting; set the ball
             rolling).  15 tr. present or impose as work to be done or a
             matter to be dealt with (set them an essay).  16 tr. exhibit as
             a type or model (set a good example).  17 tr. initiate; take the
             lead in (set the fashion; set the pace).  18 tr. establish (a
             record etc.).  19 tr. determine or decide (the itinerary is
             set).  20 tr. appoint or establish (set them in authority).  21
             tr. join, attach, or fasten.  22 tr.  a put parts of (a broken
             or dislocated bone, limb, etc.) into the correct position for
             healing.  b deal with (a fracture or dislocation) in this way.
             23 tr. (in full set to music) provide (words etc.) with music
             for singing.  24 tr. (often foll. by up) Printing a arrange or
             produce (type or film etc.) as required.  b arrange the type or
             film etc. for (a book etc.).  25 intr. (of a tide, current,
             etc.) have a certain motion or direction.  26 intr. (of a face)
             assume a hard expression.  27 tr.  a cause (a hen) to sit on
             eggs.  b place (eggs) for a hen to sit on.  28 tr. put (a seed,
             plant, etc.) in the ground to grow.  29 tr. give the teeth of (a
             saw) an alternate outward inclination.  30 tr. esp.  US start (a
             fire).  31 intr. (of eyes etc.) become motionless.  32 intr.
             feel or show a certain tendency (opinion is setting against it).
             33 intr.  a (of blossom) form into fruit.  b (of fruit) develop
             from blossom.  c (of a tree) develop fruit.  34 intr. (in full
             set to partner) (of a dancer) take a position facing one's
             partner.  35 intr. (of a hunting dog) take a rigid attitude
             indicating the presence of game.  36 intr.  dial. or sl. sit.
             Ьset about 1 begin or take steps towards.  2 colloq. attack.
             set (a person or thing) against (another) 1 consider or reckon
             (a thing) as a counterpoise or compensation for.  2 cause to
             oppose.  set apart separate, reserve, differentiate.  set aside
             see ASIDE.  set back 1 place further back in place or time.  2
             impede or reverse the progress of.  3 colloq. cost (a person) a
             specified amount.  set-back n.  1 a reversal or arrest of
             progress.  2 a relapse.  set by archaic save for future use.
             set down 1 record in writing.  2 allow to alight from a vehicle.
             3 (foll. by to) attribute to.  4 (foll. by as) explain or
             describe to oneself as.  set eyes on see EYE.  set one's face
             against see FACE.  set foot on (or in) see FOOT.  set forth 1
             begin a journey.  2 make known; expound.  set forward begin to
             advance.  set free release.  set one's hand to see HAND.  set
             one's heart (or hopes) on want or hope for eagerly.  set in 1
             (of weather, a condition, etc.) begin (and seem likely to
             continue), become established.  2 insert (esp. a sleeve etc.
             into a garment).  set little by consider to be of little value.
             set a person's mind at rest see MIND.  set much by consider to
             be of much value.  set off 1 begin a journey.  2 detonate (a
             bomb etc.).  3 initiate, stimulate.  4 cause (a person) to start
             laughing, talking, etc.  5 serve as an adornment or foil to;
             enhance.  6 (foll. by against) use as a compensating item.
             set-off n.  1 a thing set off against another.  2 a thing of
             which the amount or effect may be deducted from that of another
             or opposite tendency.  3 a counterpoise.  4 a counter-claim.  5
             a thing that embellishes; an adornment to something.  6 Printing
             = OFFSET 7.  set on (or upon) 1 attack violently.  2 cause or
             urge to attack.  set out 1 begin a journey.  2 (foll. by to +
             infin.) aim or intend.  3 demonstrate, arrange, or exhibit.  4
             mark out.  5 declare.  set sail 1 hoist the sails.  2 begin a
             voyage.  set the scene see SCENE.  set store by (or on) see
             STORE.  set one's teeth 1 clench them.  2 summon one's resolve.
             set to begin doing something vigorously, esp. fighting, arguing,
             or eating.  set-to n.  (pl.  -tos) colloq.  a fight or argument.
             set up 1 place in position or view.  2 organize or start (a
             business etc.).  3 establish in some capacity.  4 supply the
             needs of.  5 begin making (a loud sound).  6 cause or make
             arrangements for (a condition or situation).  7 prepare (a task
             etc. for another).  8 restore or enhance the health of (a
             person).  9 establish (a record).  10 propound (a theory).  11
             colloq. put (a person) in a dangerous or vulnerable position.
             set-up n.  1 an arrangement or organization.  2 the manner or
             structure or position of this.  set oneself up as make
             pretensions to being.  [OE settan f. Gmc]

   set(2)    n.  1 a number of things or persons that belong together or
             resemble one another or are usually found together.  2 a
             collection or group.  3 a section of society consorting together
             or having similar interests etc.  4 a collection of implements,
             vessels, etc., regarded collectively and needed for a specified
             purpose (cricket set; teaset; a set of teeth).  5 a piece of
             electric or electronic apparatus, esp. a radio or television
             receiver.  6 (in tennis etc.) a group of games counting as a
             unit towards a match for the player or side that wins a defined
             number or proportion of the games.  7 Math. & Logic a collection
             of distinct entities, individually specified or satisfying
             specified conditions, forming a unit.  8 a group of pupils or
             students having the same average ability.  9 a a slip, shoot,
             bulb, etc., for planting.  b a young fruit just set.  10 a a
             habitual posture or conformation; the way the head etc.  is
             carried or a dress etc. flows.  b (also dead set) a setter's
             pointing in the presence of game.  11 the way, drift, or
             tendency (of a current, public opinion, state of mind, etc.)
             (the set of public feeling is against it).  12 the way in which
             a machine, device, etc., is set or adjusted.  13 esp.  Austral.
             & NZ colloq. a grudge.  14 a the alternate outward deflection of
             the teeth of a saw.  b the amount of this.  15 the last coat of
             plaster on a wall.  16 Printing a the amount of spacing in type
             controlling the distance between letters.  b the width of a
             piece of type.  17 a warp or bend or displacement caused by
             continued pressure or a continued position.  18 a setting,
             including stage furniture etc., for a play or film etc.  19 a
             sequence of songs or pieces performed in jazz or popular music.
             20 the setting of the hair when damp.  21 (also sett) a badger's
             burrow.  22 (also sett) a granite paving-block.  23 a
             predisposition or expectation influencing a response.  24 a
             number of people making up a square dance.  Ьmake a dead set at
             1 make a determined attack on.  2 seek to win the affections of.
             set point Tennis etc. 1 the state of a game when one side needs
             only one more point to win the set.  2 this point.  set theory
             the branch of mathematics concerned with the manipulation of
             sets.  [sense 1 (and related senses) f. OF sette f. L secta
             SECT: other senses f.  SET(1)]

   set(3)    adj.  1 in senses of SET(1).  2 prescribed or determined in
             advance.  3 fixed, unchanging, unmoving.  4 (of a phrase or
             speech etc.) having invariable or predetermined wording; not
             extempore.  5 prepared for action.  6 (foll. by on, upon)
             determined to acquire or achieve etc.  7 (of a book etc.)
             specified for reading in preparation for an examination.  8 (of
             a meal) served according to a fixed menu.  Ьset fair (of the
             weather) fine without a sign of breaking.  set phrase an
             invariable or usual arrangement of words.  set piece 1 a formal
             or elaborate arrangement, esp. in art or literature.  2
             fireworks arranged on scaffolding etc.  set screw a screw for
             adjusting or clamping parts of a machine.  set scrum Rugby
             Football a scrum ordered by the referee.  set square a
             right-angled triangular plate for drawing lines, esp. at 90ш,
             45ш, 60ш, or 30ш.  [past part. of SET(1)]

   seta      n.  (pl.  setae) Bot. & Zool.  stiff hair; bristle.  ЬЬsetaceous
             adj.  [L, = bristle]

             adj.  (also setigerous) having bristles.  [L seta bristle,
             setiger bristly + -FEROUS, -GEROUS]

   seton     n.  Surgery a skein of cotton etc. passed below the skin and
             left with the ends protruding to promote drainage etc.  [ME f.
             med.L seto, seta silk, app. f. L seta bristle]

   setose    adj.  Biol.  bristly.  [L seta bristle]

   Setswana  var. of TSWANA (and the preferred form for the language).

   sett      var. of SET(2) 21, 22.

   settee    n.  a seat (usu. upholstered), with a back and usu. arms, for
             more than one person.  [18th c.: perh. a fanciful var. of

   setter    n.  1 a a dog of a large long-haired breed trained to stand
             rigid when scenting game (see SET(1) 35).  b this breed.  2 a
             person or thing that sets.

   setting   n.  1 the position or manner in which a thing is set.  2 the
             immediate surroundings (of a house etc.).  3 the surroundings of
             any object regarded as its framework; the environment of a
             thing.  4 the place and time, scenery, etc., of a story, drama,
             etc.  5 a frame in which a jewel is set.  6 the music to which
             words of a poem, song, etc., are set.  7 a set of cutlery and
             other accessories for one person at a table.  8 the way in which
             or level at which a machine is set to operate.  Ьsetting lotion
             lotion used to prepare the hair for being set.

   settle(1) v.  1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by down) establish or become
             established in a more or less permanent abode or way of life.  2
             intr. & tr. (often foll. by down) a cease or cause to cease from
             wandering, disturbance, movement, etc.  b adopt a regular or
             secure style of life.  c (foll. by to) apply oneself (to work,
             an activity, a way of life, etc.) (settled down to writing
             letters).  3 a intr. sit or come down to stay for some time.  b
             tr. cause to do this.  4 tr. & intr. bring to or attain fixity,
             certainty, composure, or quietness.  5 tr. determine or decide
             or agree upon (shall we settle a date?).  6 tr.  a resolve (a
             dispute etc.).  b deal with (a matter) finally.  7 tr. terminate
             (a lawsuit) by mutual agreement.  8 intr.  a (foll. by for)
             accept or agree to (esp. an alternative not one's first choice).
             b (foll. by on) decide on.  9 tr. (also absol.) pay (a debt, an
             account, etc.).  10 intr. (as settled adj.) not likely to change
             for a time (settled weather).  11 tr.  a aid the digestion of
             (food).  b remedy the disordered state of (nerves, the stomach,
             etc.).  12 tr.  a colonize.  b establish colonists in.  13 intr.
             subside; fall to the bottom or on to a surface (the foundations
             have settled; wait till the sediment settles; the dust will
             settle).  14 intr. (of a ship) begin to sink.  15 tr. get rid of
             the obstruction of (a person) by argument or conflict or
             killing.  Ьsettle one's affairs make any necessary arrangements
             (e.g. write a will) when death is near.  settle a person's hash
             see HASH(1).  settle in become established in a place.  settle
             up 1 (also absol.) pay (an account, debt, etc.).  2 finally
             arrange (a matter).  settle with 1 pay all or part of an amount
             due to (a creditor).  2 get revenge on.  settling day the
             fortnightly pay-day on the Stock Exchange.  ЬЬsettleable adj.
             [OE setlan (as SETTLE(2)) f. Gmc]

   settle(2) n.  a bench with a high back and arms and often with a box
             fitted below the seat.  [OE setl place to sit f. Gmc]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of settling; the process of being
             settled.  2 a the colonization of a region.  b a place or area
             occupied by settlers.  c a small village.  3 a a political or
             financial etc. agreement.  b an arrangement ending a dispute.  4
             a the terms on which property is given to a person.  b a deed
             stating these.  c the amount of property given.  d = marriage
             settlement.  5 the process of settling an account.  6 subsidence
             of a wall, house, soil, etc.

   settler   n.  a person who goes to settle in a new country or place; an
             early colonist.

   settlor   n.  Law a person who makes a settlement esp. of a property.

   seven     n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than six, or three less than ten;
             the sum of four units and three units.  2 a symbol for this (7,
             vii, VII).  3 a size etc. denoted by seven.  4 a set or team of
             seven individuals.  5 the time of seven o'clock (is it seven
             yet?).  6 a card with seven pips.  --adj. that amount to seven.
             Ьthe seven deadly sins the sins of pride, covetousness, lust,
             anger, gluttony, envy, and sloth.  the seven seas the oceans of
             the world: the Arctic, Antarctic, N. Pacific, S.  Pacific, N.
             Atlantic, S. Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.  the seven wonders of
             the world see WONDER.  seven year itch a supposed tendency to
             infidelity after seven years of marriage.  [OE seofon f. Gmc]

   sevenfold adj. & adv.  1 seven times as much or as many.  2 consisting of
             seven parts.

   seventeen n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than sixteen, or seven more than
             ten.  2 a symbol for this (17, xvii, XVII).  3 a size etc.
             denoted by seventeen.  --adj. that amount to seventeen.
             ЬЬseventeenth adj. & n.  [OE seofontiene]

   seventh   n. & adj.  --n.  1 the position in a sequence corresponding to
             the number 7 in the sequence 1-7.  2 something occupying this
             position.  3 one of seven equal parts of a thing.  4 Mus.  a an
             interval or chord spanning seven consecutive notes in the
             diatonic scale (e.g. C to B).  b a note separated from another
             by this interval.  --adj. that is the seventh.  Ьin seventh
             heaven see HEAVEN.  Seventh-Day Adventists a staunchly
             protestant branch of the Adventists with beliefs based rigidly
             on faith and the Scriptures and the imminent return of Christ to
             earth, and observing the sabbath on Saturday.  ЬЬseventhly adv.

   seventy   n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the product of seven and ten.  2
             a symbol for this (70, lxx, LXX).  3 (in pl.) the numbers from
             70 to 79, esp. the years of a century or of a person's life.
             --adj. that amount to seventy.  Ьseventy-first, -second , etc.
             the ordinal numbers between seventieth and eightieth.
             seventy-one, -two , etc. the cardinal numbers between seventy
             and eighty.  ЬЬseventieth adj. & n.  seventyfold adj. & adv.
             [OE -seofontig]

   sever     v.  1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by from) divide, break, or make
             separate, esp. by cutting.  2 tr. & intr. break off or away;
             separate, part, divide (severed our friendship).  3 tr. end the
             employment contract of (a person).  ЬЬseverable adj.  [ME f. AF
             severer, OF sevrer ult. f. L separare SEPARATE v.]

   several   adj. & n.  --adj. & n. more than two but not many.  --adj.  1
             separate or respective; distinct (all went their several ways).
             2 Law applied or regarded separately (opp.  JOINT).  ЬЬseverally
             adv.  [ME f. AF f. AL separalis f. L separ SEPARATE adj.]

   severalty n.  1 separateness.  2 the individual or unshared tenure of an
             estate etc.  (esp.  in severalty).  [ME f. AF severalte (as

   severance n.  1 the act or an instance of severing.  2 a severed state.
             Ьseverance pay an amount paid to an employee on the early
             termination of a contract.

   severe    adj.  1 rigorous, strict, and harsh in attitude or treatment (a
             severe critic; severe discipline).  2 serious, critical (a
             severe shortage).  3 vehement or forceful (a severe storm).  4
             extreme (in an unpleasant quality) (a severe winter; severe
             cold).  5 arduous or exacting; making great demands on energy,
             skill, etc. (severe competition).  6 unadorned; plain in style
             (severe dress).  ЬЬseverely adv.  severity n.  [F s‚vЉre or L

   severy    n.  (pl.  -ies) Archit.  a space or compartment in a vaulted
             ceiling.  [ME f. OF civoire (as CIBORIUM)]

   Seville orange
             n.  a bitter orange used for marmalade.  [Seville in Spain]

   SЉvres    n.  fine porcelain, often with elaborate decoration, made at
             SЉvres in the suburbs of Paris.

   sew       v.tr.  (past part.  sewn or sewed) 1 (also absol.) fasten, join,
             etc., by making stitches with a needle and thread or a
             sewing-machine.  2 make (a garment etc.) by sewing.  3 (often
             foll. by on, in, etc.) attach by sewing (shall I sew on your
             buttons?).  Ьsew up 1 join or enclose by sewing.  2 colloq.
             (esp. in passive) satisfactorily arrange or finish dealing with
             (a project etc.).  3 esp.  US obtain exclusive use of.  ЬЬsewer
             n.  [OE si(o)wan]

   sewage    n.  waste matter, esp. excremental, conveyed in sewers.  Ьsewage
             farm (or works) a place where sewage is treated, esp. to produce

   sewen     var. of SEWIN.

   sewer     n.  a conduit, usu. underground, for carrying off drainage water
             and sewage.  Ьsewer rat the common brown rat.  [ME f. AF
             sever(e), ONF se(u)wiere channel to carry off the overflow from
             a fishpond, ult. f. L ex- out of + aqua water]

   sewerage  n.  a system of or drainage by sewers.

   sewin     n.  (also sewen) a salmon trout of Welsh etc. rivers.  [16th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   sewing    n.  a piece of material or work to be sewn.

             n.  a machine for sewing or stitching.

   sewn      past part. of SEW.

   sex       n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 either of the main divisions (male and
             female) into which living things are placed on the basis of
             their reproductive functions.  2 the fact of belonging to one of
             these.  3 males or females collectively.  4 sexual instincts,
             desires, etc., or their manifestation.  5 colloq. sexual
             intercourse.  --adj.  1 of or relating to sex (sex education).
             2 arising from a difference or consciousness of sex (sex
             antagonism; sex urge).  --v.tr.  1 determine the sex of.  2 (as
             sexed adj.) a having a sexual appetite (highly sexed).  b having
             sexual characteristics.  Ьsex act (usu. prec. by the) the (or
             an) act of sexual intercourse.  sex appeal sexual
             attractiveness.  sex change an apparent change of sex by
             surgical means and hormone treatment.  sex chromosome a
             chromosome concerned in determining the sex of an organism,
             which in most animals are of two kinds, the X-chromosome and the
             Y-chromosome.  sex hormone a hormone affecting sexual
             development or behaviour.  sex kitten colloq.  a young woman who
             asserts her sex appeal.  sex life a person's activity related to
             sexual instincts.  sex-linked Genetics carried on or by a sex
             chromosome.  sex maniac colloq.  a person needing or seeking
             excessive gratification of the sexual instincts.  sex object a
             person regarded mainly in terms of sexual attractiveness.
             sex-starved lacking sexual gratification.  sex symbol a person
             widely noted for sex appeal.  ЬЬsexer n.  [ME f. OF sexe or L

             n. & adj.  --n. a person from 60 to 69 years old.  --adj. of
             this age.  [L sexagenarius f.  sexageni distrib. of sexaginta

             n.  the Sunday before Quinquagesima.  [ME f. eccl.L, = sixtieth
             (day), prob. named loosely as preceding QUINQUAGESIMA]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of sixtieths.  2 of sixty.  3 reckoning or
             reckoned by sixtieths.  --n. (in full sexagesimal fraction) a
             fraction with a denominator equal to a power of 60 as in the
             divisions of the degree and hour.  ЬЬsexagesimally adv.  [L
             sexagesimus (as SEXAGESIMA)]

             n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a six-hundredth anniversary.  2 a
             celebration of this.  --adj.  1 of or relating to a
             sexcentenary.  2 occurring every six hundred years.

   sexennial adj.  1 lasting six years.  2 recurring every six years.  [SEXI-
             + L annus year]

   sexfoil   n.  a six-lobed ornamental figure.  [SEXI-, after CINQUEFOIL,

   sexi-     comb. form (also sex- before a vowel) six.  [L sex six]

   sexism    n.  prejudice or discrimination, esp. against women, on the
             grounds of sex.  ЬЬsexist adj. & n.

             adj.  (also sexvalent) Chem.  having a valency of six.

   sexless   adj.  1 Biol. neither male nor female.  2 lacking in sexual
             desire or attractiveness.  ЬЬsexlessly adv.  sexlessness n.

   sexology  n.  the study of sexual life or relationships, esp. in human
             beings.  ЬЬsexological adj.  sexologist n.

             adj.  divided into six parts.

             n.  colloq.  the exploitation of sex, esp. commercially.

   sexpot    n.  colloq.  a sexy person (esp. a woman).

   sext      n.  Eccl.  1 the canonical hour of prayer appointed for the
             sixth daytime hour (i.e. noon).  2 the office of sext.  [ME f. L
             sexta hora sixth hour f.  sextus sixth]

   sextant   n.  an instrument with a graduated arc of 60(0) used in
             navigation and surveying for measuring the angular distance of
             objects by means of mirrors.  [L sextans -ntis sixth part f.
             sextus sixth]

   sextet    n.  (also sextette) 1 Mus. a composition for six voices or
             instruments.  2 the performers of such a piece.  3 any group of
             six.  [alt. of SESTET after L sex six]

             n.  (pl. same or sextillions) a thousand raised to the seventh
             (or formerly, esp.  Brit., the twelfth) power (10(21) and 10(36)
             respectively) (cf.  BILLION).  ЬЬsextillionth [F f. L sex six,
             after septillion etc.]

   sexto     n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a size of book or page in which each leaf is
             one-sixth that of a printing-sheet.  2 a book or sheet of this
             size.  [L sextus sixth, as QUARTO]

             n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a size of book or page in which each leaf is
             one-sixteenth that of a printing-sheet.  2 a book or sheet of
             this size.  [L sextus decimus 16th (as QUARTO)]

   sexton    n.  a person who looks after a church and churchyard, often
             acting as bell-ringer and gravedigger.  Ьsexton beetle any
             beetle of the genus Necrophorus, burying carrion to serve as a
             nidus for its eggs.  [ME segerstane etc., f. AF, OF segerstein,
             secrestein f. med.L sacristanus SACRISTAN]

   sextuple  adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 sixfold.  2 having six parts.  3 being
             six times as many or much.  --n. a sixfold number or amount.
             --v.tr. & intr. multiply by six; increase sixfold.  ЬЬsextuply
             adv.  [med.L sextuplus, irreg. f. L sex six, after LL quintuplus

   sextuplet n.  1 each of six children born at one birth.  2 Mus. a group of
             six notes to be played in the time of four.  [SEXTUPLE, after
             triplet etc.]

   sexual    adj.  1 of or relating to sex, or to the sexes or the relations
             between them.  2 Bot. (of classification) based on the
             distinction of sexes in plants.  3 Biol. having a sex.  Ьsexual
             intercourse the insertion of a man's erect penis into a woman's
             vagina, usu.  followed by the ejaculation of semen.  ЬЬsexuality
             n.  sexually adv.  [LL sexualis (as SEX)]

   sexvalent var. of SEXIVALENT.

   sexy      adj.  (sexier, sexiest) 1 sexually attractive or stimulating.  2
             sexually aroused.  3 concerned with or engrossed in sex.
             ЬЬsexily adv.  sexiness n.

   sez       sl.  says (sez you).  [phonetic repr.]

7.0 SF...

   SF        abbr.  science fiction.

   sf        abbr.  Mus.  sforzando.

   SFA       abbr.  Scottish Football Association.

   sforzando adj., adv., & n.  (also sforzato) --adj. & adv.  Mus. with
             sudden emphasis.  --n.  (pl.  -os or sforzandi) 1 a note or
             group of notes especially emphasized.  2 an increase in emphasis
             and loudness.  [It., verbal noun and past part. of sforzare use

   sfumato   adj. & n.  Painting --adj. with indistinct outlines.  --n. the
             technique of allowing tones and colours to shade gradually into
             one another.  [It., past part. of sfumare shade off f.  s- =
             EX-(1) + fumare smoke]

   sfz       abbr.  Mus.  sforzando.

8.0 SG...

   SG        abbr.  1 US senior grade.  2 Law Solicitor-General.  3 specific

   sgd.      abbr.  signed.

   sgraffito n.  (pl.  sgraffiti) a form of decoration made by scratching
             through wet plaster on a wall or through slip on ceramic ware,
             showing a different-coloured under-surface.  [It., past part. of
             sgraffire scratch f.  s- = EX-(1) + graffio scratch]

   Sgt.      abbr.  Sergeant.

9.0 sh...

   sh        int.  calling for silence.  [var. of HUSH]

   sh.       abbr.  Brit.  hist.  shilling(s).

   shabby    adj.  (shabbier, shabbiest) 1 in bad repair or condition; faded
             and worn, dingy, dilapidated.  2 dressed in old or worn clothes.
             3 of poor quality.  4 contemptible, dishonourable (a shabby
             trick).  ЬЬshabbily adv.  shabbiness n.  shabbyish adj.  [shab
             scab f. OE sceabb f. ON, rel. to SCAB]

   shabrack  n.  hist.  a cavalry saddle-cloth.  [G Schabracke of E. European
             orig.: cf. Russ.  shabrak]

   shack     n. & v.  --n. a roughly built hut or cabin.  --v.intr. (foll. by
             up) sl. cohabit, esp. as lovers.  [perh. f. Mex.  jacal, Aztec
             xacatli wooden hut]

   shackle   n. & v.  --n.  1 a metal loop or link, closed by a bolt, to
             connect chains etc.  2 a fetter enclosing the ankle or wrist.  3
             (usu. in pl.) a restraint or impediment.  --v.tr. fetter,
             impede, restrain.  Ьshackle-bolt 1 a bolt for closing a shackle.
             2 a bolt with a shackle at its end.  [OE sc(e)acul fetter,
             corresp. to LG sh„kel link, coupling, ON sk”kull wagon-pole f.

   shad      n.  (pl. same or shads) Zool.  any deep-bodied edible marine
             fish of the genus Alosa, spawning in fresh water.  [OE sceadd,
             of unkn. orig.]

   shaddock  n.  Bot.  1 the largest citrus fruit, with a thick yellow skin
             and bitter pulp. Also called POMELO.  2 the tree, Citrus
             grandis, bearing these.  [Capt.  Shaddock, who introduced it to
             the W. Indies in the 17th c.]

   shade     n. & v.  --n.  1 comparative darkness (and usu. coolness) caused
             by shelter from direct light and heat.  2 a place or area
             sheltered from the sun.  3 a darker part of a picture etc.  4 a
             colour, esp. with regard to its depth or as distinguished from
             one nearly like it.  5 comparative obscurity.  6 a slight amount
             (am a shade better today).  7 a translucent cover for a lamp
             etc.  8 a screen excluding or moderating light.  9 an
             eye-shield.  10 (in pl.) esp.  US colloq. sunglasses.  11 a
             slightly differing variety (all shades of opinion).  12 literary
             a a ghost.  b (in pl.) Hades.  13 (in pl.; foll. by of)
             suggesting reminiscence or unfavourable comparison (shades of Dr
             Johnson!).  --v.  1 tr. screen from light.  2 tr. cover,
             moderate, or exclude the light of.  3 tr. darken, esp. with
             parallel pencil lines to represent shadow etc.  4 intr. & tr.
             (often foll. by away, off, into) pass or change by degrees.  Ьin
             the shade in comparative obscurity.  ЬЬshadeless adj.  [OE
             sc(e)adu f. Gmc]

   shading   n.  1 the representation of light and shade, e.g. by pencilled
             lines, on a map or drawing.  2 the graduation of tones from
             light to dark to create a sense of depth.

   shadoof   n.  a pole with a bucket and counterpoise used esp. in Egypt for
             raising water.  [Egypt. Arab.  saduf]

   shadow    n. & v.  --n.  1 shade or a patch of shade.  2 a dark figure
             projected by a body intercepting rays of light, often regarded
             as an appendage.  3 an inseparable attendant or companion.  4 a
             person secretly following another.  5 the slightest trace (not
             the shadow of a doubt).  6 a weak or insubstantial remnant or
             thing (a shadow of his former self).  7 (attrib.) Brit. denoting
             members of a political party in opposition holding
             responsibilities parallel to those of the government (shadow
             Home Secretary; shadow cabinet).  8 the shaded part of a
             picture.  9 a substance used to colour the eyelids.  10 gloom or
             sadness.  --v.tr.  1 cast a shadow over.  2 secretly follow and
             watch the movements of.  Ьshadow-boxing boxing against an
             imaginary opponent as a form of training.  ЬЬshadower n.
             shadowless adj.  [repr. OE scead(u)we, oblique case of sceadu

             n.  1 an image or photograph made by means of X-rays; =
             RADIOGRAM 2.  2 a picture formed by a shadow cast on a lighted
             surface.  3 an image formed by light refracted differently by
             different densities of a fluid.

   shadowy   adj.  1 like or having a shadow.  2 full of shadows.  3 vague,
             indistinct.  ЬЬshadowiness n.

   shady     adj.  (shadier, shadiest) 1 giving shade.  2 situated in shade.
             3 (of a person or behaviour) disreputable; of doubtful honesty.
             ЬЬshadily adv.  shadiness n.

   shaft     n. & v.  --n.  1 a an arrow or spear.  b the long slender stem
             of these.  2 a remark intended to hurt or provoke (a shaft of
             malice; shafts of wit).  3 (foll. by of) a a ray (of light).  b
             a bolt (of lightning).  4 the stem or handle of a tool,
             implement, etc.  5 a column, esp. between the base and capital.
             6 a long narrow space, usu. vertical, for access to a mine, a
             lift in a building, for ventilation, etc.  7 a long and narrow
             part supporting or connecting or driving a part or parts of
             greater thickness etc.  8 each of the pair of poles between
             which a horse is harnessed to a vehicle.  9 the central stem of
             a feather.  10 Mech. a large axle or revolving bar transferring
             force by belts or cogs.  11 US colloq. harsh or unfair
             treatment.  --v.tr.  US colloq. treat unfairly.  [OE sc‘ft,
             sceaft f. Gmc]

   shafting  n.  Mech.  1 a system of connected shafts for transmitting
             motion.  2 material from which shafts are cut.

   shag(1)   n.  1 a rough growth or mass of hair etc.  2 a coarse kind of
             cut tobacco.  3 a cormorant, esp. the crested cormorant,
             Phalacrocorax aristotelis.  [OE sceacga, rel. to ON skegg beard,
             OE sceaga coppice]

   shag(2)   v.tr.  (shagged, shagging) coarse sl.  °Usually considered a
             taboo word.  1 have sexual intercourse with.  2 (usu. in
             passive; often foll. by out) exhaust; tire out.  [18th c.: orig.

   shaggy    adj.  (shaggier, shaggiest) 1 hairy, rough-haired.  2 unkempt.
             3 (of the hair) coarse and abundant.  4 Biol. having a hairlike
             covering.  Ьshaggy-dog story a long rambling story amusing only
             by its being inconsequential.  ЬЬshaggily adv.  shagginess n.

   shagreen  n.  1 a kind of untanned leather with a rough granulated
             surface.  2 a sharkskin rough with natural papillae, used for
             rasping and polishing.  [var. of CHAGRIN in the sense 'rough

   shah      n.  hist.  a title of the former monarch of Iran.  ЬЬshahdom n.
             [Pers.  sah f. OPers.  ksaytiya king]

   shaikh    var. of SHEIKH.

   shake     v. & n.  --v.  (past shook; past part.  shaken) 1 tr. & intr.
             move forcefully or quickly up and down or to and fro.  2 a intr.
             tremble or vibrate markedly.  b tr. cause to do this.  3 tr.  a
             agitate or shock.  b colloq. upset the composure of.  4 tr.
             weaken or impair; make less convincing or firm or courageous
             (shook his confidence).  5 intr. (of a voice, note, etc.) make
             tremulous or rapidly alternating sounds; trill (his voice shook
             with emotion).  6 tr. brandish; make a threatening gesture with
             (one's fist, a stick, etc.).  7 intr.  colloq. shake hands (they
             shook on the deal).  8 tr. esp.  US colloq. = shake off.  --n.
             1 the act or an instance of shaking; the process of being
             shaken.  2 a jerk or shock.  3 (in pl.; prec. by the) a fit of
             or tendency to trembling or shivering.  4 Mus. a trill.  5 =
             milk shake.  Ьin two shakes (of a lamb's or dog's tail) very
             quickly.  no great shakes colloq.  not very good or significant.
             shake a person by the hand = shake hands.  shake down 1 settle
             or cause to fall by shaking.  2 settle down.  3 become
             established; get into harmony with circumstances, surroundings,
             etc.  4 US sl. extort money from.  shake the dust off one's feet
             depart indignantly or disdainfully.  shake hands (often foll. by
             with) clasp right hands at meeting or parting, in reconciliation
             or congratulation, or over a concluded bargain.  shake one's
             head move one's head from side to side in refusal, denial,
             disapproval, or concern.  shake in one's shoes tremble with
             apprehension.  shake a leg 1 begin dancing.  2 make a start.
             shake off 1 get rid of (something unwanted).  2 manage to evade
             (a person who is following or pestering one).  shake out 1 empty
             by shaking.  2 spread or open (a sail, flag, etc.) by shaking.
             shake-out n. = shake-up.  shake up 1 mix (ingredients) by
             shaking.  2 restore to shape by shaking.  3 disturb or make
             uncomfortable.  4 rouse from lethargy, apathy, conventionality,
             etc.  shake-up n.  an upheaval or drastic reorganization.
             ЬЬshakeable adj.  (also shakable).  [OE sc(e)acan f. Gmc]

   shakedown n.  1 a makeshift bed.  2 US sl. a swindle; a piece of
             extortion.  3 (attrib.) US colloq. denoting a voyage, flight,
             etc., to test a new ship or aircraft and its crew.

   shaken    past part. of SHAKE.

   shaker    n.  1 a person or thing that shakes.  2 a container for shaking
             together the ingredients of cocktails etc.  3 (Shaker) a member
             of an American religious sect living simply, in celibate mixed
             communities.  ЬЬShakeress n. (in sense 3).  Shakerism n. (in
             sense 3).  [ME, f.  SHAKE: sense 3 from religious dances]

             adj. & n.  (also Shakespearean) --adj.  1 of or relating to
             William Shakespeare, English dramatist d. 1616.  2 in the style
             of Shakespeare.  --n. a student of Shakespeare's works etc.

   shako     n.  (pl.  -os) a cylindrical peaked military hat with a plume.
             [F schako f. Magyar cs kў (sЃveg) peaked (cap) f.  cs k peak f.
             G Zacken spike]

             n.  (pl.  shakuhachis) a Japanese bamboo flute.  [Jap. f.  shaku
             a measure of length + hachi eight (tenths)]

   shaky     adj.  (shakier, shakiest) 1 unsteady; apt to shake; trembling.
             2 unsound, infirm (a shaky hand).  3 unreliable, wavering (a
             shaky promise; got off to a shaky start).  ЬЬshakily adv.
             shakiness n.

   shale     n.  soft finely stratified rock that splits easily, consisting
             of consolidated mud or clay.  Ьshale oil oil obtained from
             bituminous shale.  ЬЬshaly adj.  [prob. f. G Schale f. OE
             sc(e)alu rel. to ON sk l (see SCALE(2))]

   shall     v.aux.  (3rd sing. present shall; archaic 2nd sing. present
             shalt as below; past should) (foll. by infin. without to, or
             absol.; present and past only in use) 1 (in the 1st person)
             expressing the future tense (I shall return soon) or (with shall
             stressed) emphatic intention (I shall have a party).  2 (in the
             2nd and 3rd persons) expressing a strong assertion or command
             rather than a wish (cf.  WILL(1)) (you shall not catch me again;
             they shall go to the party).  °For the other persons in senses
             1, 2 see WILL(1).  3 expressing a command or duty (thou shalt
             not steal; they shall obey).  4 (in 2nd-person questions)
             expressing an enquiry, esp. to avoid the form of a request (cf.
             WILL(1)) (shall you go to France?).  Ьshall I?  do you want me
             to?  [OE sceal f. Gmc]

   shallot   n.  an onion-like plant, Allium ascalonicum, with a cluster of
             small bulbs.  [eschalot f. F eschalotte alt. of OF eschaloigne:
             see SCALLION]

   shallow   adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 of little depth.  2 superficial,
             trivial (a shallow mind).  --n. (often in pl.) a shallow place.
             --v.intr. & tr. become or make shallow.  ЬЬshallowly adv.
             shallowness n.  [ME, prob. rel. to schald, OE sceald SHOAL(2)]

   shalom    n. & int.  a Jewish salutation at meeting or parting.  [Heb.
             sal“m peace]

   shalt     archaic 2nd person sing. of SHALL.

   sham      v., n., & adj.  --v.  (shammed, shamming) 1 intr. feign,
             pretend.  2 tr.  a pretend to be.  b simulate (is shamming
             sleep).  --n.  1 imposture, pretence.  2 a person or thing
             pretending or pretended to be what he or she or it is not.
             --adj. pretended, counterfeit.  ЬЬshammer n.  [perh. north.
             dial. var. of SHAME]

   shaman    n.  a witch-doctor or priest claiming to communicate with gods
             etc.  ЬЬshamanism n.  shamanist n. & adj.  shamanistic adj.  [G
             Schamane & Russ.  shaman f. Tungusian sam n]

   shamateur n.  derog.  a sports player who makes money from sporting
             activities though classed as an amateur.  ЬЬshamateurism n.
             [SHAM + AMATEUR]

   shamble   v. & n.  --v.intr. walk or run with a shuffling or awkward gait.
             --n. a shambling gait.  [prob. f. dial.  shamble (adj.)
             ungainly, perh. f.  shamble legs with ref. to straddling
             trestles: see SHAMBLES]

   shambles  n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) 1 colloq. a mess or muddle (the
             room was a shambles).  2 a butcher's slaughterhouse.  3 a scene
             of carnage.  [pl. of shamble stool, stall f. OE sc(e)amul f. WG
             f. L scamellum dimin. of scamnum bench]

   shambolic adj.  colloq.  chaotic, unorganized.  [SHAMBLES, prob. after

   shame     n. & v.  --n.  1 a feeling of distress or humiliation caused by
             consciousness of the guilt or folly of oneself or an associate.
             2 a capacity for experiencing this feeling, esp. as imposing a
             restraint on behaviour (has no sense of shame).  3 a state of
             disgrace, discredit, or intense regret.  4 a a person or thing
             that brings disgrace etc.  b a thing or action that is wrong or
             regrettable.  --v.tr.  1 bring shame on; make ashamed; put to
             shame.  2 (foll. by into, out of) force by shame (was shamed
             into confessing).  Ьfor shame!  a reproof to a person for not
             showing shame.  put to shame disgrace or humiliate by revealing
             superior qualities etc.  shame on you!  you should be ashamed.
             what a shame!  how unfortunate!  [OE sc(e)amu]

             adj.  1 showing shame.  2 bashful, diffident.  ЬЬshamefacedly
             also adv.  shamefacedness n.  [16th-c. alt. of shamefast, by
             assim. to FACE]

   shameful  adj.  1 that causes or is worthy of shame.  2 disgraceful,
             scandalous.  ЬЬshamefully adv.  shamefulness n.  [OE sc(e)amful
             (as SHAME, -FUL)]

   shameless adj.  1 having or showing no sense of shame.  2 impudent.
             ЬЬshamelessly adv.  shamelessness n.  [OE sc(e)amleas (as SHAME,

   shammy    n.  (pl.  -ies) (in full shammy leather) colloq. = CHAMOIS 2.
             [repr. corrupted pronunc.]

   shampoo   n. & v.  --n.  1 liquid or cream used to lather and wash the
             hair.  2 a similar substance for washing a car or carpet etc.  3
             an act or instance of cleaning with shampoo.  --v.tr.
             (shampoos, shampooed) wash with shampoo.  [Hind.  chhampo,
             imper. of chhampna to press]

   shamrock  n.  any of various plants with trifoliate leaves, esp.
             Trifolium repens or Medicago lupulina, used as the national
             emblem of Ireland.  [Ir.  seamrўg trefoil, dimin. of seamar
             clover + og young]

   shamus    n.  US sl.  a detective.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   shandy    n.  (pl.  -ies) a mixture of beer with lemonade or ginger beer.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shanghai  v. & n.  --v.tr.  (shanghais, shanghaied, shanghaiing) 1 force
             (a person) to be a sailor on a ship by using drugs or other
             trickery.  2 colloq. put into detention or an awkward situation
             by trickery.  3 Austral. & NZ shoot with a catapult.  --n.  (pl.
             shanghais) Austral. & NZ a catapult.  [Shanghai in China]

             n.  an imaginary paradise on earth.  [the name of a hidden
             Tibetan valley in J. Hilton's Lost Horizon (1933)]

   shank     n.  1 a the leg.  b the lower part of the leg; the leg from knee
             to ankle.  c the shin-bone.  2 the lower part of an animal's
             foreleg, esp. as a cut of meat.  3 a shaft or stem.  4 a the
             long narrow part of a tool etc. joining the handle to the
             working end.  b the stem of a key, spoon, anchor, etc.  c the
             straight part of a nail or fish-hook.  5 the narrow middle of
             the sole of a shoe.  Ьshanks's mare (or pony) one's own legs as
             a means of conveyance.  ЬЬshanked adj. (also in comb.).  [OE
             sceanca f. WG]

   shanny    n.  (pl.  -ies) a long-bodied olive-green European marine fish,
             Blennius pholis.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.: cf. 18th-c.  shan]

   shan't    contr.  shall not.

   shantung  n.  soft undressed Chinese silk, usu. undyed.  [Shantung,
             Chinese province]

   shanty(1) n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a hut or cabin.  2 a crudely built shack.
             Ьshanty town a poor or depressed area of a town, consisting of
             shanties.  [19th c., orig. N.Amer.: perh. f. Can.F chantier]

   shanty(2) n.  (also chanty) (pl.  -ies) (in full sea shanty) a song with
             alternating solo and chorus, of a kind orig. sung by sailors
             while hauling ropes etc.  [prob. F chantez, imper. pl. of
             chanter sing: see CHANT]

   SHAPE     abbr.  Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe.

   shape     n. & v.  --n.  1 the total effect produced by the outlines of a
             thing.  2 the external form or appearance of a person or thing.
             3 a specific form or guise.  4 a description or sort or way (not
             on offer in any shape or form).  5 a definite or proper
             arrangement (must get our ideas into shape).  6 a condition, as
             qualified in some way (in good shape; in poor shape).  b (when
             unqualified) good condition (back in shape).  7 a person or
             thing as seen, esp. indistinctly or in the imagination (a shape
             emerged from the mist).  8 a mould or pattern.  9 a jelly etc.
             shaped in a mould.  10 a piece of material, paper, etc., made or
             cut in a particular form.  --v.  1 tr. give a certain shape or
             form to; fashion, create.  2 tr. (foll. by to) adapt or make
             conform.  3 intr. give signs of a future shape or development.
             4 tr. frame mentally; imagine.  5 intr. assume or develop into a
             shape.  6 tr. direct (one's life, course, etc.).  Ьlick (or
             knock) into shape make presentable or efficient.  shape up 1
             take a (specified) form.  2 show promise; make good progress.
             shape up well be promising.  ЬЬshapable adj.  (also shapeable).
             shaped adj. (also in comb.).  shaper n.  [OE gesceap creation f.

   shapeless adj.  lacking definite or attractive shape.  ЬЬshapelessly adv.
             shapelessness n.

   shapely   adj.  (shapelier, shapeliest) 1 well formed or proportioned.  2
             of elegant or pleasing shape or appearance.  ЬЬshapeliness n.

   shard     n.  1 a broken piece of pottery or glass etc.  2 = POTSHERD.  3
             a fragment of volcanic rock.  4 the wing-case of a beetle.  [OE
             sceard: sense 3 f.  shard-borne (Shakesp.) = born in a shard
             (dial., = cow-dung), wrongly taken as 'borne on shards']

   share(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a portion that a person receives from or gives
             to a common amount.  2 a a part contributed by an individual to
             an enterprise or commitment.  b a part received by an individual
             from this (got a large share of the credit).  3
             part-proprietorship of property held by joint owners, esp.  any
             of the equal parts into which a company's capital is divided
             entitling its owner to a proportion of the profits.  --v.  1 tr.
             get or have or give a share of.  2 tr. use or benefit from
             jointly with others.  3 intr. have a share; be a sharer (shall I
             share with you?).  4 intr. (foll. by in) participate.  5 tr.
             (often foll. by out) a divide and distribute.  b give away part
             of.  Ьshare and share alike make an equal division.
             share-farmer Austral. & NZ a tenant farmer who receives a share
             of the profits from the owner.  ЬЬshareable adj.  (also
             sharable).  sharer n.  [ME f. OE scearu division, rel. to SHEAR]

   share(2)  n.  = PLOUGHSHARE.  [OE scear, sc‘r f. Gmc]

             n.  esp.  US a tenant farmer who gives a part of each crop as
             rent.  ЬЬsharecrop v.tr. & intr.  (-cropped, -cropping).

             n.  an owner of shares in a company.

   shariah   n.  the Muslim code of religious law.  [Arab.  sari' a]

   sharif    n.  (also shereef, sherif) 1 a descendant of Muhammad through
             his daughter Fatima, entitled to wear a green turban or veil.  2
             a Muslim leader.  [Arab.  sarif noble f.  sarafa be exalted]

   shark(1)  n.  any of various large usu. voracious marine fish with a long
             body and prominent dorsal fin.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shark(2)  n.  colloq.  a person who unscrupulously exploits or swindles
             others.  [16th c.: orig. perh. f. G Schurke worthless rogue:
             infl. by SHARK(1)]

   sharkskin n.  1 the skin of a shark.  2 a smooth dull-surfaced fabric.

   sharp     adj., n., adv., & v.  --adj.  1 having an edge or point able to
             cut or pierce.  2 tapering to a point or edge.  3 abrupt, steep,
             angular (a sharp fall; a sharp turn).  4 well-defined,
             clean-cut.  5 a severe or intense (has a sharp temper).  b (of
             food etc.) pungent, keen (a sharp appetite).  c (of a frost)
             severe, hard.  6 (of a voice or sound) shrill and piercing.  7
             (of sand etc.) composed of angular grains.  8 (of words or
             temper etc.) harsh or acrimonious (had a sharp tongue).  9 (of a
             person) acute; quick to perceive or comprehend.  10 quick to
             take advantage; artful, unscrupulous, dishonest.  11 vigorous or
             brisk.  12 Mus.  a above the normal pitch.  b (of a key) having
             a sharp or sharps in the signature.  c (C, F, etc., sharp) a
             semitone higher than C, F, etc.  13 colloq. stylish or flashy
             with regard to dress.  --n.  1 Mus.  a a note raised a semitone
             above natural pitch.  b the sign (**) indicating this.  2
             colloq. a swindler or cheat.  3 a fine sewing-needle.  --adv.  1
             punctually (at nine o'clock sharp).  2 suddenly, abruptly,
             promptly (pulled up sharp).  3 at a sharp angle.  4 Mus. above
             the true pitch (sings sharp).  --v.  1 intr.  archaic cheat or
             swindle at cards etc.  2 tr.  US Mus. make sharp.  Ьsharp end
             colloq.  1 the bow of a ship.  2 the scene of direct action or
             decision.  sharp practice dishonest or barely honest dealings.
             sharp-set 1 set with a sharp edge.  2 hungry.  ЬЬsharply adv.
             sharpness n.  [OE sc(e)arp f. Gmc]

   sharpen   v.tr. & intr.  make or become sharp.  ЬЬsharpener n.

   sharper   n.  a swindler, esp. at cards.

   sharpish  adj. & adv.  colloq.  --adj. fairly sharp.  --adv.  1 fairly
             sharply.  2 quite quickly.

             n.  a skilled marksman.  ЬЬsharpshooting n. & adj.

             adj.  keenly perceptive or intelligent.  ЬЬsharp-wittedly adv.
             sharp-wittedness n.

   shashlik  n.  (in Asia and E. Europe) a kebab of mutton and garnishings.
             [Russ.  shashlyk, ult. f. Turk.  sis spit, skewer: cf.  SHISH

   Shasta    n. (in full Shasta daisy) a European plant, Chrysanthemum
             maximum, with large daisy-like flowers.  [Shasta in California]

   Shastra   n.  Hindu sacred writings.  [Hindi sastr, Skr.  sastra]

   shatter   v.  1 tr. & intr. break suddenly in pieces.  2 tr. severely
             damage or utterly destroy (shattered hopes).  3 tr. greatly
             upset or discompose.  4 tr. (usu. as shattered adj.) exhaust.
             ЬЬshatterer n.  shattering adj.  shatteringly adv.
             shatter-proof adj.  [ME, rel. to SCATTER]

   shave     v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past part.  shaved or (as adj.) shaven) 1
             remove (bristles or hair) from the face etc. with a razor.  2
             (also absol.) remove bristles or hair with a razor from the face
             etc. of (a person) or (a part of the body).  3 a reduce by a
             small amount.  b take (a small amount) away from.  4 cut thin
             slices from the surface of (wood etc.) to shape it.  5 pass
             close to without touching; miss narrowly.  --n.  1 an act of
             shaving or the process of being shaved.  2 a close approach
             without contact.  3 a narrow miss or escape; = close shave (see
             CLOSE(1)).  4 a tool for shaving wood etc.  [OE sc(e)afan (sense
             4 of noun f. OE sceafa) f. Gmc]

   shaveling n.  archaic 1 a shaven person.  2 a monk, friar, or priest.

   shaven    see SHAVE.

   shaver    n.  1 a person or thing that shaves.  2 an electric razor.  3
             colloq. a young lad.

   Shavian   adj. & n.  --adj. of or in the manner of G. B. Shaw, Irish-born
             dramatist d. 1950, or his ideas.  --n. an admirer of Shaw.
             [Shavius, Latinized form of Shaw]

   shaving   n.  1 a thin strip cut off the surface of wood etc.  2 (attrib.)
             used in shaving the face (shaving-cream).

   Shavuoth  n.  (also Shavuot) the Jewish Pentecost.  [Heb.  sab–' “t, =
             weeks, with ref. to the weeks between Passover and Pentecost]

   shaw      n.  esp.  Brit.  the stalks and leaves of potatoes, turnips,
             etc.  [perh. = SHOW n.]

   shawl     n.  a piece of fabric, usu. rectangular and often folded into a
             triangle, worn over the shoulders or head or wrapped round a
             baby.  Ьshawl collar a rolled collar extended down the front of
             a garment without lapel notches.  ЬЬshawled adj.  [Urdu etc. f.
             Pers.  sal, prob. f.  Shaliat in India]

   shawm     n.  Mus.  a medieval double-reed wind instrument with a sharp
             penetrating tone.  [ME f. OF chalemie, chalemel, chalemeaus
             (pl.), ult. f. L calamus f. Gk kalamos reed]

   shchi     n.  a Russian cabbage soup.  [Russ.]

   she       pron. & n.  --pron.  (obj.  her; poss.  her; pl.  they) 1 the
             woman or girl or female animal previously named or in question.
             2 a thing regarded as female, e.g. a vehicle or ship.  3
             Austral. & NZ colloq. it; the state of affairs (she'll be
             right).  --n.  1 a female; a woman.  2 (in comb.) female
             (she-goat).  Ьshe-devil a malicious or spiteful woman.  [ME sc‘,
             sche, etc., f. OE fem. demonstr. pron. & adj.  sio, seo, acc.

   s/he      pron.  a written representation of 'he or she' used to indicate
             both sexes.

   shea      n.  a W. African tree, Vitellaria paradoxa, bearing nuts
             containing a large amount of fat.  Ьshea-butter a butter made
             from this fat.  [Mandingo si, se, sye]

   sheading  n.  each of the six administrative divisions of the Isle of Man.
             [SHED(1) + -ING(1)]

   sheaf     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  sheaves) a group of things laid lengthways
             together and usu. tied, esp.  a bundle of cornstalks tied after
             reaping, or a collection of papers.  --v.tr. make into sheaves.
             [OE sceaf f. Gmc (as SHOVE)]

   shealing  var. of SHIELING.

   shear     v. & n.  --v.  (past sheared, archaic except Austral. & NZ
             shore; past part.  shorn or sheared) 1 tr. cut with scissors or
             shears etc.  2 tr. remove or take off by cutting.  3 tr. clip
             the wool off (a sheep etc.).  4 tr. (foll. by of) a strip bare.
             b deprive.  5 tr. & intr. (often foll. by off) distort or be
             distorted, or break, from a structural strain.  --n.  1 Mech. &
             Geol. a strain produced by pressure in the structure of a
             substance, when its layers are laterally shifted in relation to
             each other.  2 (in pl.) (also pair of shears sing.) a large
             clipping or cutting instrument shaped like scissors for use in
             gardens etc.  ЬЬshearer n.  [OE sceran f. Gmc]

   shearling n.  1 a sheep that has been shorn once.  2 wool from a

             n.  1 any long-winged sea bird of the genus Puffinus, usu.
             flying near the surface of the water.  2 = SKIMMER 4.

   sheatfish n.  (pl. same or sheatfishes) a large freshwater catfish,
             Silurus glanis, native to European waters.  [earlier
             sheath-fish, prob. after G Scheid]

   sheath    n.  (pl.  sheaths) 1 a close-fitting cover, esp. for the blade
             of a knife or sword.  2 a condom.  3 Bot., Anat., & Zool. an
             enclosing case or tissue.  4 the protective covering round an
             electric cable.  5 a woman's close-fitting dress.  Ьsheath knife
             a dagger-like knife carried in a sheath.  ЬЬsheathless adj.  [OE
             sc‘th, sceath]

   sheathe   v.tr.  1 put into a sheath.  2 encase; protect with a sheath.
             [ME f.  SHEATH]

   sheathing n.  a protective casing or covering.

   sheave(1) v.tr.  make into sheaves.

   sheave(2) n.  a grooved wheel in a pulley-block etc., for a rope to run
             on.  [ME f. OE scife (unrecorded) f. Gmc]

   sheaves   pl. of SHEAF.

   shebang   n.  US sl.  1 a matter or affair (esp.  the whole shebang).  2 a
             shed or hut.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shebeen   n.  esp.  Ir.  an unlicensed house selling alcoholic liquor.
             [Anglo-Ir.  sЎbЎn f.  s‚ibe mugful]

   shed(1)   n.  1 a one-storeyed structure usu. of wood for storage or
             shelter for animals etc., or as a workshop.  2 a large roofed
             structure with one side open, for storing or maintaining
             machinery etc.  3 Austral. & NZ an open-sided building for
             shearing sheep or milking cattle.  [app. var. of SHADE(1)]

   shed(2)   v.tr.  (shedding; past and past part.  shed) 1 let or cause to
             fall off (trees shed their leaves).  2 take off (clothes).  3
             reduce (an electrical power load) by disconnection etc.  4 cause
             to fall or flow (shed blood; shed tears).  5 disperse, diffuse,
             radiate (shed light).  Ьshed light on see LIGHT(1).  [OE
             sc(e)adan f. Gmc]

   she'd     contr.  1 she had.  2 she would.

   shedder   n.  1 a person or thing that sheds.  2 a female salmon after

   shedhand  n.  Austral. & NZ an unskilled assistant in a shearing shed.

   sheen     n.  1 a gloss or lustre on a surface.  2 radiance, brightness.
             ЬЬsheeny adj.  [obs.  sheen beautiful, resplendent f. OE scene:
             sense assim. to SHINE]

   sheep     n.  (pl. same) 1 any ruminant mammal of the genus Ovis with a
             thick woolly coat, esp. kept in flocks for its wool or meat, and
             noted for its timidity.  2 a bashful, timid, or silly person.  3
             (usu. in pl.) a a member of a minister's congregation.  b a
             parishioner.  Ьseparate the sheep from the goats divide into
             superior and inferior groups (cf. Matt. 25:33).  sheep-dip 1 a
             preparation for cleansing sheep of vermin or preserving their
             wool.  2 the place where sheep are dipped in this.  sheep-run an
             extensive sheepwalk, esp. in Australia.  sheep's-bit a plant,
             Jasione montana, resembling a scabious.  ЬЬsheeplike adj.  [OE
             scep, sc‘p, sceap]

   sheepdog  n.  1 a dog trained to guard and herd sheep.  2 a a dog of
             various breeds suitable for this.  b any of these breeds.

   sheepfold n.  an enclosure for penning sheep.

   sheepish  adj.  1 bashful, shy, reticent.  2 embarrassed through shame.
             ЬЬsheepishly adv.  sheepishness n.

             n.  a knot used to shorten a rope temporarily.

   sheepskin n.  1 a garment or rug of sheep's skin with the wool on.  2
             leather from a sheep's skin used in bookbinding.

   sheepwalk n.  Brit.  a tract of land on which sheep are pastured.

   sheer(1)  adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 no more or less than; mere, unqualified,
             absolute (sheer luck; sheer determination).  2 (of a cliff or
             ascent etc.) perpendicular; very steep.  3 (of a textile) very
             thin; diaphanous.  --adv.  1 directly, outright.  2
             perpendicularly.  ЬЬsheerly adv.  sheerness n.  [ME schere prob.
             f. dial.  shire pure, clear f. OE scir f. Gmc]

   sheer(2)  v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 esp. Naut. swerve or change course.  2
             (foll. by away, off) go away, esp. from a person or topic one
             dislikes or fears.  --n.  Naut. a deviation from a course.
             [perh. f. MLG scheren = SHEAR v.]

   sheer(3)  n.  the upward slope of a ship's lines towards the bow and
             stern.  [prob. f.  SHEAR n.]

   sheerlegs n.pl.  (treated as sing.) a hoisting apparatus made from poles
             joined at or near the top and separated at the bottom for
             masting ships, installing engines, etc.  [sheer, var. of SHEAR
             n. + LEG]

   sheet(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a large rectangular piece of cotton or other
             fabric, used esp. in pairs as inner bedclothes.  2 a a broad
             usu. thin flat piece of material (e.g. paper or metal).  b
             (attrib.) made in sheets (sheet iron).  3 a wide continuous
             surface or expanse of water, ice, flame, falling rain, etc.  4 a
             set of unseparated postage stamps.  5 derog. a newspaper, esp. a
             disreputable one.  6 a complete piece of paper of the size in
             which it was made, for printing and folding as part of a book.
             --v.  1 tr. provide or cover with sheets.  2 tr. form into
             sheets.  3 intr. (of rain etc.) fall in sheets.  Ьsheet
             lightning a lightning flash with its brightness diffused by
             reflection.  sheet metal metal formed into thin sheets by
             rolling, hammering, etc.  sheet music music published in cut or
             folded sheets, not bound.  [OE scete, sciete f. Gmc]

   sheet(2)  n.  1 a rope or chain attached to the lower corner of a sail for
             securing or controlling it.  2 (in pl.) the space at the bow or
             stern of an open boat.  Ьflowing sheets sheets eased for free
             movement in the wind.  sheet anchor 1 a second anchor for use in
             emergencies.  2 a person or thing depended on in the last
             resort.  sheet bend a method of temporarily fastening one rope
             through the loop of another.  [ME f. OE sceata, ON skaut (as

   sheeting  n.  material for making bed linen.

   sheikh    n.  (also shaikh, sheik) 1 a chief or head of an Arab tribe,
             family, or village.  2 a Muslim leader.  ЬЬsheikhdom n.  [ult.
             f. Arab.  sayk old man, sheikh, f.  saka be or grow old]

   sheila    n.  Austral. & NZ sl.  a girl or young woman.  [orig.  shaler
             (of unkn. orig.): assim. to the name Sheila]

   shekel    n.  1 the chief monetary unit of modern Israel.  2 hist. a
             silver coin and unit of weight used in ancient Israel and the
             Middle East.  3 (in pl.) colloq. money; riches.  [Heb.  sekel f.
             sakal weigh]

   shelduck  n.  (pl. same or shelducks; masc.  sheldrake, pl. same or
             sheldrakes) any bright-plumaged coastal wild duck of the genus
             Tadorna, esp.  T. tadorna.  [ME prob. f. dial.  sheld pied, rel.
             to MDu.  schillede variegated, + DRAKE]

   shelf(1)  n.  (pl.  shelves) 1 a a thin flat piece of wood or metal etc.
             projecting from a wall, or as part of a unit, used to support
             books etc.  b a flat-topped recess in a wall etc. used for
             supporting objects.  2 a a projecting horizontal ledge in a
             cliff face etc.  b a reef or sandbank under water.  c =
             continental shelf.  Ьon the shelf 1 (of a woman) past the age
             when she might expect to be married.  2 (esp. of a retired
             person) no longer active or of use.  shelf-life the amount of
             time for which a stored item of food etc. remains usable.
             shelf-mark a notation on a book showing its place in a library.
             shelf-room available space on a shelf.  ЬЬshelved adj.  shelfful
             n.  (pl.  -fuls).  shelflike adj.  [ME f. (M)LG schelf, rel. to
             OE scylfe partition, scylf crag]

   shelf(2)  n. & v.  Austral.  sl.  --n. an informer.  --v.tr. inform upon.
             [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   shell     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the hard outer case of many marine molluscs
             (cockle shell).  b the esp. hard but fragile outer covering of a
             bird's, reptile's, etc. egg.  c the usu. hard outer case of a
             nut-kernel, seed, etc.  d the carapace of a tortoise, turtle,
             etc.  e the wing-case or pupa-case of many insects etc.  2 a an
             explosive projectile or bomb for use in a big gun or mortar.  b
             a hollow metal or paper case used as a container for fireworks,
             explosives, cartridges, etc.  c US a cartridge.  3 a mere
             semblance or outer form without substance.  4 any of several
             things resembling a shell in being an outer case, esp.: a a
             light racing-boat.  b a hollow pastry case.  c the metal
             framework of a vehicle body etc.  d the walls of an unfinished
             or gutted building, ship, etc.  e an inner or roughly-made
             coffin.  f a building shaped like a conch.  g the handguard of a
             sword.  5 a group of electrons with almost equal energy in an
             atom.  --v.  1 tr. remove the shell or pod from.  2 tr. bombard
             (a town, troops, etc.) with shells.  3 tr. provide or cover with
             a shell or shells.  4 intr. (usu. foll. by off) (of metal etc.)
             come off in scales.  5 intr. (of a seed etc.) be released from a
             shell.  Ьcome out of one's shell cease to be shy; become
             communicative.  shell-bit a gouge-shaped boring bit.  shell
             company an unimportant firm made the subject of a take-over bid
             because of its status on the Stock Exchange etc.  shell egg an
             egg still in its shell, not dried etc.  shell-heap (or -mound)
             hist.  a kitchen midden.  shell-jacket an army officer's
             tight-fitting undress jacket reaching to the waist.  shell-lime
             fine quality lime produced by burning sea shells.  shell-money
             shells used as a medium of exchange, e.g. wampum.  shell out
             (also absol.) colloq.  1 pay (money).  2 hand over (a required
             sum).  shell-out n.  1 the act of shelling out.  2 a game of
             snooker etc. played by three or more people.  shell-pink a
             delicate pale pink.  shell-shock a nervous breakdown resulting
             from exposure to battle.  shell-shocked suffering from
             shell-shock.  shell-work ornamentation consisting of shells
             cemented on to wood etc.  ЬЬshelled adj.  shell-less adj.
             shell-like adj.  shellproof adj. (in sense 2a of n.).  shelly
             adj.  [OE sc(i)ell f. Gmc: cf.  SCALE(1)]

   she'll    contr.  she will; she shall.

   shellac   n. & v.  --n. lac resin melted into thin flakes and used for
             making varnish (cf.  LAC(1)).  --v.tr.  (shellacked,
             shellacking) 1 varnish with shellac.  2 US sl. defeat or thrash
             soundly.  [SHELL + LAC, transl. F laque en ‚cailles lac in thin

   shellback n.  sl.  an old sailor.

   shellfish n.  1 an aquatic shelled mollusc, e.g. an oyster, winkle, etc.
             2 a crustacean, e.g. a crab, shrimp, etc.

   Shelta    n.  an ancient hybrid secret language used by Irish tinkers,
             gypsies, etc.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shelter   n. & v.  --n.  1 anything serving as a shield or protection from
             danger, bad weather, etc.  2 a a place of refuge provided esp.
             for the homeless etc.  b US an animal sanctuary.  3 a shielded
             condition; protection (took shelter under a tree).  --v.  1 tr.
             act or serve as shelter to; protect; conceal; defend (sheltered
             them from the storm; had a sheltered upbringing).  2 intr. &
             refl. find refuge; take cover (sheltered under a tree; sheltered
             themselves behind the wall).  Ьshelter-belt a line of trees etc.
             planted to protect crops from the wind.  ЬЬshelterer n.
             shelterless adj.  [16th c.: perh. f. obs.  sheltron phalanx f.
             OE scieldtruma (as SHIELD, truma troop)]

   sheltie   n.  (also shelty) (pl.  -ies) a Shetland pony or sheepdog.
             [prob. repr. ON Hjalti Shetlander as pronounced in Orkney]

   shelve(1) v.tr.  1 put (books etc.) on a shelf.  2 a abandon or defer (a
             plan etc.).  b remove (a person) from active work etc.  3 fit (a
             cupboard etc.) with shelves.  ЬЬshelver n.  shelving n.
             [shelves pl. of SHELF]

   shelve(2) v.intr.  (of ground etc.) slope in a specified direction (land
             shelved away to the horizon).  [perh. f.  shelvy (adj.) having
             underwater reefs f.  shelve (n.) ledge, f.  SHELVE(1)]

   shelves   pl. of SHELF.

   shemozzle n.  (also schemozzle) sl.  1 a brawl or commotion.  2 a muddle.
             [Yiddish after LHeb.  sel-lo' -mazzal of no luck]

             n.  (esp. in pl.) colloq.  1 high-spirited behaviour; nonsense.
             2 trickery; dubious manoeuvres.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Sheol     n.  the Hebrew underworld abode of the dead.  [Heb.  se'“l]

   shepherd  n. & v.  --n.  1 (fem.  shepherdess) a person employed to tend
             sheep, esp. at pasture.  2 a member of the clergy etc. who cares
             for and guides a congregation.  --v.tr.  1 a tend (sheep etc.)
             as a shepherd.  b guide (followers etc.).  2 marshal or drive (a
             crowd etc.) like sheep.  Ьthe Good Shepherd Christ.  shepherd
             dog a sheepdog.  shepherd's crook a staff with a hook at one end
             used by shepherds.  shepherd's needle a white-flowered common
             plant, Scandix pecten-veneris, with spiny fruit.  shepherd's pie
             a dish of minced meat under a layer of mashed potato.
             shepherd's plaid 1 a small black and white check pattern.  2
             woollen cloth with this pattern.  shepherd's purse a
             white-flowered hairy cornfield plant, Capsella bursa-pastoris,
             with triangular or cordate pods.  [OE sceaphierde (as SHEEP,

             v.tr.  (also -ise) coat (iron or steel) with zinc by heating in
             contact with zinc dust.  [Sherard Cowper-Coles, Engl. inventor
             d. 1936]

   Sheraton  n.  (often attrib.) a style of furniture introduced in England
             c.1790, with delicate and graceful forms.  [T.  Sheraton, Engl.
             furniture-maker d. 1806]

   sherbet   n.  1 a a flavoured sweet effervescent powder or drink.  b US a
             water-ice.  2 a cooling drink of sweet diluted fruit-juices esp.
             in Arabic countries.  3 Austral.  joc. beer.  [Turk.  serbet,
             Pers.  serbet f. Arab.  sarba drink f.  sariba to drink: cf.
             SHRUB(2), SYRUP]

   sherd     n.  = POTSHERD.  [var. of SHARD]

   shereef   (also sherif) var. of SHARIF.

   sheriff   n.  1 Brit.  a (also High Sheriff) the chief executive officer
             of the Crown in a county, administering justice etc.  b an
             honorary officer elected annually in some towns.  2 US an
             elected officer in a county, responsible for keeping the peace.
             Ьsheriff court Sc.  a county court.  sheriff-depute Sc.  the
             chief judge of a county or district.  ЬЬsheriffalty n.  (pl.
             -ies).  sheriffdom n.  sheriffhood n.  sheriffship n.  [OE
             scir-gerefa (as SHIRE, REEVE(1))]

   Sherpa    n.  (pl. same or Sherpas) 1 a Himalayan people living on the
             borders of Nepal and Tibet, and skilled in mountaineering.  2 a
             member of this people.  [native name]

   sherry    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a fortified wine orig. from S. Spain.  2 a
             glass of this.  Ьsherry cobbler see COBBLER 2.  sherry-glass a
             small wineglass used for sherry.  [earlier sherris f. Sp. (vino
             de) Xeres (now Jerez de la Frontera) in Andalusia]

   she's     contr.  1 she is.  2 she has.

             n.  a native of the Shetland Islands, NNE of the mainland of

   Shetland lace
             n.  openwork woollen trimming.

   Shetland pony
             n.  1 a pony of a small hardy rough-coated breed.  2 this breed.

   Shetland sheepdog
             n.  1 a small dog of a collie-like breed.  2 this breed.

   Shetland wool
             n.  a fine loosely twisted wool from Shetland sheep.

   sheva     var. of SCHWA.

   shew      archaic var. of SHOW.

   shewbread n.  twelve loaves that were displayed in a Jewish temple and
             renewed each sabbath.

   Shiah     n.  one of the two main branches of Islam, esp. in Iran, that
             rejects the first three Sunni Caliphs and regards Ali as
             Muhammad's first successor.  [Arab.  si' a party (of Ali,
             Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law)]

   shiatsu   n.  a kind of therapy of Japanese origin, in which pressure is
             applied with the thumbs and palms to certain points of the body.
             [Jap., = finger pressure]

             n.  a long-standing formula, doctrine, or phrase, etc., held to
             be true by a party or sect (must abandon outdated shibboleths).
             [ME f. Heb.  sibbolet ear of corn, used as a test of nationality
             for its difficult pronunciation (Judg. 12:6)]

   shicer    n.  Austral.  1 Mining an unproductive claim or mine.  2 sl.  a
             a swindler, welsher, or cheat.  b a worthless thing; a failure.
             [G Scheisser contemptible person]

   shicker   adj.  (also shickered) Austral. & NZ sl.  drunk.  [Yiddish
             shiker f. Heb.  sikk“r f.  sakar be drunk]

   shield    n. & v.  --n.  1 a esp.  hist. a piece of armour of esp. metal,
             carried on the arm or in the hand to deflect blows from the head
             or body.  b a thing serving to protect (insurance is a shield
             against disaster).  2 a thing resembling a shield, esp.: a a
             trophy in the form of a shield.  b a protective plate or screen
             in machinery etc.  c a shieldlike part of an animal, esp. a
             shell.  d a similar part of a plant.  e Geol. a large rigid area
             of the earth's crust, usu. of Precambrian rock, which has been
             unaffected by later orogenic episodes.  f US a policeman's
             shield-shaped badge.  3 Heraldry a stylized representation of a
             shield used for displaying a coat of arms etc.  --v.tr. protect
             or screen, esp. from blame or lawful punishment.  Ьshield fern 1
             any common fern of the genus Polystichum, with shield-shaped
             indusia.  2 = BUCKLER 2.  ЬЬshieldless adj.  [OE sc(i)eld f.
             Gmc: prob. orig. = board, rel. to SCALE(1)]

   shieling  n.  (also shealing) Sc.  1 a roughly constructed hut orig. esp.
             for pastoral use.  2 pasture for cattle.  [Sc.  shiel hut: ME,
             of unkn. orig.]

   shier     compar. of SHY(1).

   shiest    superl. of SHY(1).

   shift     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. change or move or cause to change
             or move from one position to another.  2 tr. remove, esp. with
             effort (washing won't shift the stains).  3 sl.  a intr. hurry
             (we'll have to shift!).  b tr. consume (food or drink) hastily
             or in bulk.  c tr. sell (esp. dubious goods).  4 intr. contrive
             or manage as best one can.  5 US a tr. change (gear) in a
             vehicle.  b intr. change gear.  6 intr. (of cargo) get shaken
             out of place.  7 intr.  archaic be evasive or indirect.  --n.  1
             a the act or an instance of shifting.  b the substitution of one
             thing for another; a rotation.  2 a a relay of workers (the
             night shift).  b the time for which they work (an eight-hour
             shift).  3 a a device, stratagem, or expedient.  b a dodge,
             trick, or evasion.  4 a a woman's straight unwaisted dress.  b
             archaic a loose-fitting undergarment.  5 a displacement of
             spectral lines (see also red shift).  6 (also sound shift) a
             systematic change in pronunciation as a language evolves.  7 a
             key on a keyboard used to switch between lower and upper case
             etc.  8 Bridge a a change of suit in bidding.  b US a change of
             suit in play.  9 the positioning of successive rows of bricks so
             that their ends do not coincide.  10 US a a gear lever in a
             motor vehicle.  b a mechanism for this.  Ьmake shift manage or
             contrive; get along somehow (made shift without it).  shift for
             oneself rely on one's own efforts.  shift one's ground take up a
             new position in an argument etc.  shift off get rid of
             (responsibility etc.) to another.  ЬЬshiftable adj.  shifter n.
             [OE sciftan arrange, divide, etc., f. Gmc]

   shiftless adj.  lacking resourcefulness; lazy; inefficient.  ЬЬshiftlessly
             adv.  shiftlessness n.

   shifty    adj.  colloq.  (shiftier, shiftiest) not straightforward;
             evasive; deceitful.  ЬЬshiftily adv.  shiftiness n.

   shigella  n.  any airborne bacterium of the genus Shigella, some of which
             cause dysentery.  [mod.L f. K.  Shiga, Jap. bacteriologist d.
             1957 + dimin. suffix]

   shih-tzu  n.  1 a dog of a breed with long silky erect hair and short
             legs.  2 this breed.  [Chin.  shizi lion]

   Shiite    n. & adj.  --n. an adherent of the Shiah branch of Islam.
             --adj. of or relating to Shiah.  ЬЬShiism n.

   shikar    n.  Ind.  hunting.  [Urdu f. Pers.  sikar]

   shiksa    n.  often offens.  (used by Jews) a gentile girl or woman.
             [Yiddish shikse f. Heb.  si&qdbelow.sѓ f.  sheqes detested thing
             + -ѓ fem. suffix]

   shill     n.  US a person employed to decoy or entice others into buying,
             gambling, etc.  [prob. f. earlier shillaber, of unkn. orig.]

             n.  a thick stick of blackthorn or oak used in Ireland esp. as a
             weapon.  [Shillelagh in Co. Wicklow, Ireland]

   shilling  n.  1 hist. a former British coin and monetary unit worth
             one-twentieth of a pound or twelve pence.  2 a monetary unit in
             Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.  Ьshilling-mark hist. = SOLIDUS.
             take the King's (or Queen's) shilling hist.  enlist as a soldier
             (formerly a soldier was paid a shilling on enlisting).  [OE
             scilling, f. Gmc]

             v., adj., & n.  --v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) hesitate to act or
             choose; be undecided; vacillate.  --adj. vacillating.  --n.
             indecision; vacillation.  ЬЬshilly-shallyer n.  (also
             -shallier).  [orig.  shill I, shall I, redupl. of shall I?]

   shily     var. of SHYLY (see SHY(1)).

   shim      n. & v.  --n. a thin strip of material used in machinery etc. to
             make parts fit.  --v.tr.  (shimmed, shimming) fit or fill up
             with a shim.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shimmer   v. & n.  --v.intr. shine with a tremulous or faint diffused
             light.  --n. such a light.  ЬЬshimmeringly adv.  shimmery adj.
             [OE scymrian f. Gmc: cf.  SHINE]

   shimmy    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 hist. a kind of ragtime dance in
             which the whole body is shaken.  2 archaic colloq. = CHEMISE.  3
             US an abnormal vibration of esp. the front wheels of a motor
             vehicle.  --v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 a hist. dance a shimmy.  b
             move in a similar manner.  2 shake or vibrate abnormally.  [20th
             c.: orig. uncert.]

   shin      n. & v.  --n.  1 the front of the leg below the knee.  2 a cut
             of beef from the lower foreleg.  --v.tr. & (usu. foll. by up,
             down) intr.  (shinned, shinning) climb quickly by clinging with
             the arms and legs.  Ьshin-bone = TIBIA.  shin-pad (or -guard) a
             protective pad for the shins, worn when playing football etc.
             [OE sinu]

   shindig   n.  colloq.  1 a festive, esp. noisy, party.  2 = SHINDY 1.
             [prob. f.  SHINDY]

   shindy    n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq.  1 a brawl, disturbance, or noise
             (kicked up a shindy).  2 = SHINDIG 1.  [perh. alt. of SHINTY]

   shine     v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  shone or shined) 1 intr.
             emit or reflect light; be bright; glow (the lamp was shining;
             his face shone with gratitude).  2 intr. (of the sun, a star,
             etc.) not be obscured by clouds etc.; be visible.  3 tr. cause
             (a lamp etc.) to shine.  4 tr.  (past and past part.  shined)
             make bright; polish (shined his shoes).  5 intr. be brilliant in
             some respect; excel (does not shine in conversation; is a
             shining example).  --n.  1 light; brightness, esp. reflected.  2
             a high polish; lustre.  3 US the act or an instance of shining
             esp. shoes.  Ьshine up to US seek to ingratiate oneself with.
             take the shine out of 1 spoil the brilliance or newness of.  2
             throw into the shade by surpassing.  take a shine to colloq.
             take a fancy to; like.  ЬЬshiningly adv.  [OE scinan f. Gmc]

   shiner    n.  1 a thing that shines.  2 colloq. a black eye.  3 US any of
             various small silvery freshwater fish, esp. of the genus
             Notropis.  4 (usu. in pl.) sl.  a archaic money.  b a jewel.

             n.  (in sing. or pl.) small rounded pebbles, esp. on a
             sea-shore.  ЬЬshingly adj.  [16th c.: orig. uncert.]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a rectangular wooden tile used on roofs,
             spires, or esp.  walls.  2 archaic a shingled hair.  b the act
             of shingling hair.  3 US a small signboard, esp. of a doctor,
             lawyer, etc.  --v.tr.  1 roof or clad with shingles.  2 archaic
             a cut (a woman's hair) very short.  b cut the hair of (a person
             or head) in this way.  [ME app. f. L scindula, earlier scandula]

   shingles  n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) an acute painful viral
             inflammation of the nerve ganglia, with a skin eruption often
             forming a girdle around the middle of the body.  [ME f. med.L
             cingulus f. L cingulum girdle f.  cingere gird]

   shinny    v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) (usu. foll. by up, down) US colloq.  shin
             (up or down a tree etc.).

   Shinto    n.  the official religion of Japan incorporating the worship of
             ancestors and nature-spirits.  ЬЬShintoism n.  Shintoist n.
             [Jap. f. Chin.  shen dao way of the gods]

   shinty    n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  1 a game like hockey played with a ball
             and curved sticks, and taller goalposts.  2 a stick or ball used
             in shinty.  [earlier shinny, app. f. the cry used in the game
             shin ye, shin you, shin t' ye, of unkn. orig.]

   shiny     adj.  (shinier, shiniest) 1 having a shine; glistening;
             polished; bright.  2 (of clothing, esp. the seat of trousers
             etc.) having the nap worn off.  ЬЬshinily adv.  shininess n.

   ship      n. & v.  --n.  1 a any large seagoing vessel (cf.  BOAT).  b a
             sailing-vessel with a bowsprit and three, four, or five
             square-rigged masts.  2 US an aircraft.  3 a spaceship.  4
             colloq. a boat, esp. a racing-boat.  --v.  (shipped, shipping) 1
             tr. put, take, or send away (goods, passengers, sailors, etc.)
             on board ship.  2 tr.  a take in (water) over the side of a
             ship, boat, etc.  b take (oars) from the rowlocks and lay them
             inside a boat.  c fix (a rudder etc.) in its place on a ship
             etc.  d step (a mast).  3 intr.  a take ship; embark.  b (of a
             sailor) take service on a ship (shipped for Africa).  4 tr.
             deliver (goods) to a forwarding agent for conveyance.
             Ьship-breaker a contractor who breaks up old ships.  ship-broker
             an agent in shipping goods and insuring ships.  ship burial
             Archaeol.  burial in a wooden ship under a mound.  ship-canal a
             canal large enough for ships to pass inland.  ship (or ship's)
             chandler see CHANDLER.  ship-fever typhus.  ship-money hist.  a
             tax raised to provide ships for the navy in the 17th c.  ship of
             the desert the camel.  ship off 1 send or transport by ship.  2
             colloq. send (a person) away.  ship of the line hist.  a large
             battleship fighting in the front line of battle.  ship-rigged
             square-rigged.  ship's articles the terms on which seamen take
             service on a ship.  ship's biscuit hist.  a hard coarse kind of
             biscuit kept and eaten on board ship.  ship's boat a small boat
             carried on board a ship.  ship's company a ship's crew.  ship's
             corporal see CORPORAL(1) 2.  ship a sea be flooded by a wave.
             ship's husband an agent appointed by the owners to see to the
             provisioning of a ship in port.  ship's papers documents
             establishing the ownership, nationality, nature of the cargo,
             etc., of a ship.  take ship embark.  when a person's ship comes
             home (or in) when a person's fortune is made.  ЬЬshipless adj.
             shippable adj.  [OE scip, scipian f. Gmc]

   -ship     suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 a quality or condition
             (friendship; hardship).  2 status, office, or honour
             (authorship; lordship).  3 a tenure of office (chairmanship).  4
             a skill in a certain capacity (workmanship).  5 the collective
             individuals of a group (membership).  [OE -scipe etc. f. Gmc]

   shipboard n.  (usu.  attrib.) used or occurring on board a ship (a
             shipboard romance).  Ьon shipboard on board ship.

             n.  a person, company, etc., that constructs ships.
             ЬЬshipbuilding n.

   shiplap   v. & n.  --v.tr. fit (boards) together for cladding etc. so that
             each overlaps the one below.  --n. such cladding.

   shipload  n.  a quantity of goods forming a cargo.

             n.  a ship's captain.

   shipmate  n.  a fellow member of a ship's crew.

   shipment  n.  1 an amount of goods shipped; a consignment.  2 the act or
             an instance of shipping goods etc.

   shipowner n.  a person owning a ship or ships or shares in ships.

   shipper   n.  a person or company that sends or receives goods by ship, or
             US by land or air.  [OE scipere (as SHIP)]

   shipping  n.  1 the act or an instance of shipping goods etc.  2 ships,
             esp. the ships of a country, port, etc.  Ьshipping-agent a
             person acting for a ship or ships at a port etc.
             shipping-articles = ship's articles.  shipping-bill Brit.  a
             manifest of goods shipped.  shipping-master Brit.  an official
             presiding at the signing of ship's articles, paying off of
             seamen, etc.  shipping-office the office of a shipping-agent or

   shipshape adv. & predic.adj.  in good order; trim and neat.

   shipway   n.  a slope on which a ship is built and down which it slides to
             be launched.

   shipworm  n.  = TEREDO.

   shipwreck n. & v.  --n.  1 a the destruction of a ship by a storm,
             foundering, etc.  b a ship so destroyed.  2 (often foll. by of)
             the destruction of hopes, dreams, etc.  --v.  1 tr. inflict
             shipwreck on (a ship, a person's hopes, etc.).  2 intr. suffer

             n.  1 a shipbuilder.  2 a ship's carpenter.

   shipyard  n.  a place where ships are built, repaired, etc.

   shiralee  n.  Austral.  a tramp's swag or bundle.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shire     n.  Brit.  1 a county.  2 (the Shires) a a group of English
             counties with names ending or formerly ending in -shire,
             extending NE from Hampshire and Devon.  b the midland counties
             of England.  c the fox-hunting district of mainly Leicestershire
             and Northants.  3 Austral. a rural area with its own elected
             council.  Ьshire-horse a heavy powerful type of draught-horse
             bred chiefly in the midland counties of England.  [OE scir, OHG
             scira care, official charge: orig. unkn.]

   -shire    suffix forming the names of counties (Derbyshire; Hampshire).

   shirk     v. & n.  --v.tr. (also absol.) shrink from; avoid; get out of
             (duty, work, responsibility, fighting, etc.).  --n. a person who
             shirks.  ЬЬshirker n.  [obs.  shirk (n.) sponger, perh. f. G
             Schurke scoundrel]

   shirr     n. & v.  --n.  1 two or more rows of esp. elastic gathered
             threads in a garment etc. forming smocking.  2 elastic webbing.
             --v.tr.  1 gather (material) with parallel threads.  2 US bake
             (eggs) without shells.  ЬЬshirring n.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shirt     n.  1 a man's upper-body garment of cotton etc., having a
             collar, sleeves, and esp. buttons down the front, and often worn
             under a jacket or sweater.  2 a similar garment worn by a woman;
             a blouse.  3 = NIGHTSHIRT.  Ьkeep one's shirt on colloq.  keep
             one's temper.  put one's shirt on colloq.  bet all one has on;
             be sure of.  shirt blouse = sense 2 of n.  shirt-dress =
             SHIRTWAISTER.  shirt-front the breast of a shirt, esp. of a
             stiffened evening shirt.  the shirt off one's back colloq.
             one's last remaining possessions.  shirt-tail the lower curved
             part of a shirt below the waist.  ЬЬshirted adj.  shirting n.
             shirtless adj.  [OE scyrte, corresp. to ON skyrta (cf.  SKIRT)
             f. Gmc: cf.  SHORT]

             n.  (usu. in pl.) the sleeve of a shirt.  Ьin shirtsleeves
             wearing a shirt with no jacket etc. over it.

             n.  esp.  US a woman's blouse resembling a shirt.

             n.  US a woman's dress with a bodice like a shirt.  [SHIRT,

   shirty    adj.  (shirtier, shirtiest) colloq.  angry; annoyed.  ЬЬshirtily
             adv.  shirtiness n.

   shish kebab
             n.  a dish of pieces of marinated meat and vegetables cooked and
             served on skewers.  [Turk.  sis kebabi f.  sis skewer, KEBAB
             roast meat]

   shit      v., n., & int.  coarse sl.  °Usually considered a taboo word.
             --v.  (shitting; past and past part.  shitted or shit) intr. &
             tr. expel faeces from the body or cause (faeces etc.) to be
             expelled.  --n.  1 faeces.  2 an act of defecating.  3 a
             contemptible or worthless person or thing.  4 nonsense.  5 an
             intoxicating drug, esp. cannabis.  --int. an exclamation of
             disgust, anger, etc.  [OE scitan (unrecorded) f. Gmc]

   shitty    adj.  (shittier, shittiest) coarse sl.  1 disgusting,
             contemptible.  2 covered with excrement.

   Shiva     var. of SIVA.

   shivaree  esp.  US var. of CHARIVARI.

   shiver(1) v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 tremble with cold, fear, etc.  2 suffer a
             quick trembling movement of the body; shudder.  --n.  1 a
             momentary shivering movement.  2 (in pl.) an attack of
             shivering, esp. from fear or horror (got the shivers in the
             dark).  ЬЬshiverer n.  shiveringly adv.  shivery adj.  [ME
             chivere, perh. f.  chavele chatter (as JOWL(1))]

   shiver(2) n. & v.  --n. (esp. in pl.) each of the small pieces into which
             esp. glass is shattered when broken; a splinter.  --v.tr. &
             intr. break into shivers.  Ьshiver my timbers a reputed
             piratical curse.  [ME scifre, rel. to OHG scivaro splinter f.

   shivoo    n.  Austral.  colloq.  a party or celebration.

   shoal(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a great number of fish swimming together (cf.
             SCHOOL(2)).  2 a multitude; a crowd (shoals of letters).
             --v.intr. (of fish) form shoals.  [prob. re-adoption of MDu.
             schole SCHOOL(2)]

   shoal(2)  n., v., & adj.  --n.  1 a an area of shallow water.  b a
             submerged sandbank visible at low water.  2 (esp. in pl.) hidden
             danger or difficulty.  --v.  1 intr. (of water) get shallower.
             2 tr. (of a ship etc.) move into a shallower part of (water).
             --adj.  archaic (of water) shallow.  ЬЬshoaly adj.  [OE sceald
             f. Gmc, rel. to SHALLOW]

   shoat     n.  US a young pig, esp. newly weaned.  [ME: cf. W.Flem.

   shock(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a violent collision, impact, tremor, etc.  2 a
             sudden and disturbing effect on the emotions, physical
             reactions, etc. (the news was a great shock).  3 an acute state
             of prostration following a wound, pain, etc., esp. when much
             blood is lost (died of shock).  4 = electric shock.  5 a
             disturbance in stability causing fluctuations in an
             organization, monetary system, etc.  --v.  1 tr.  a affect with
             shock; horrify; outrage; disgust; sadden.  b (absol.) cause
             shock.  2 tr. (esp. in passive) affect with an electric or
             pathological shock.  3 intr. experience shock (I don't shock
             easily).  4 intr.  archaic collide violently.  Ьshock absorber a
             device on a vehicle etc. for absorbing shocks, vibrations, etc.
             shock-brigade (or -workers) a body of esp. voluntary workers in
             the USSR engaged in an especially arduous task.  shock stall
             excessive strain produced by air resistance on an aircraft
             approaching the speed of sound.  shock tactics 1 sudden and
             violent action.  2 Mil. a massed cavalry charge.  shock therapy
             (or treatment) Psychol.  a method of treating depressive
             patients by electric shock or drugs inducing coma and
             convulsions.  shock troops troops specially trained for assault.
             shock wave a sharp change of pressure in a narrow region
             travelling through air etc. caused by explosion or by a body
             moving faster than sound.  ЬЬshockable adj.  shockability n.  [F
             choc, choquer, of unkn. orig.]

   shock(2)  n. & v.  --n. a group of usu. twelve corn-sheaves stood up with
             their heads together in a field.  --v.tr. arrange (corn) in
             shocks.  [ME, perh. repr. OE sc(e)oc (unrecorded)]

   shock(3)  n.  an unkempt or shaggy mass of hair.  [cf. obs.  shock(-dog),
             earlier shough, shaggy-haired poodle]

   shocker   n.  colloq.  1 a shocking, horrifying, unacceptable, etc. person
             or thing.  2 hist. a sordid or sensational novel etc.  3 a shock

   shocking  adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 causing indignation or disgust.  2
             colloq. very bad (shocking weather).  --adv.  colloq. shockingly
             (shocking bad manners).  Ьshocking pink a vibrant shade of pink.
             ЬЬshockingly adv.  shockingness n.

             adj.  resistant to the effects of (esp. physical) shock.

   shod      past and past part. of SHOE.

   shoddy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (shoddier, shoddiest) 1 trashy; shabby;
             poorly made.  2 counterfeit.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a an inferior
             cloth made partly from the shredded fibre of old woollen cloth.
             b such fibre.  2 any thing of shoddy quality.  ЬЬshoddily adv.
             shoddiness n.  [19th c.: orig. dial.]

   shoe      n. & v.  --n.  1 either of a pair of protective foot-coverings
             of leather, plastic, etc., having a sturdy sole and, in Britain,
             not reaching above the ankle.  2 a metal rim nailed to the hoof
             of a horse etc.; a horseshoe.  3 anything resembling a shoe in
             shape or use, esp.: a a drag for a wheel.  b = brake shoe (see
             BRAKE(1)).  c a socket.  d a ferrule, esp. on a sledge-runner.
             e a mast-step.  f a box from which cards are dealt in casinos at
             baccarat etc.  --v.tr.  (shoes, shoeing; past and past part.
             shod) 1 fit (esp. a horse etc.) with a shoe or shoes.  2 protect
             (the end of a pole etc.) with a metal shoe.  3 (as shod adj.)
             (in comb.) having shoes etc. of a specified kind (dry-shod;
             roughshod).  Ьbe in a person's shoes be in his or her situation,
             difficulty, etc.  dead men's shoes property or a position etc.
             coveted by a prospective successor.  if the shoe fits US = if
             the cap fits (see CAP).  shoe-bill an African stork-like bird,
             Balaeniceps rex, with a large flattened bill for catching
             aquatic prey.  shoe-buckle a buckle worn as ornament or as a
             fastening on a shoe.  shoe-leather leather for shoes, esp. when
             worn through by walking.  shoe-tree a shaped block for keeping a
             shoe in shape when not worn.  where the shoe pinches where one's
             difficulty or trouble is.  ЬЬshoeless adj.  [OE scoh, scog(e)an
             f. Gmc]

   shoeblack n.  a person who cleans the shoes of passers-by for payment.

   shoebox   n.  1 a box for packing shoes.  2 a very small space or

   shoehorn  n.  a curved piece of horn, metal, etc., for easing the heel
             into a shoe.

   shoelace  n.  a cord for lacing up shoes.

   shoemaker n.  a maker of boots and shoes.  ЬЬshoemaking n.

   shoeshine n.  esp.  US a polish given to shoes.

             n.  1 a shoelace.  2 colloq. a small esp. inadequate amount of
             money (living on a shoestring).  3 (attrib.) barely adequate;
             precarious (a shoestring majority).

   shofar    n.  (pl.  shofroth) a ram's-horn trumpet used by Jews in
             religious ceremonies and as an ancient battle-signal.  [Heb.
             s“par, pl.  s“par“t]

   shogun    n.  hist.  any of a succession of Japanese hereditary
             Commanders-in-Chief and virtual rulers before 1868.  ЬЬshogunate
             n.  [Jap., = general, f. Chin.  jiang jun]

   shone     past and past part. of SHINE.

   shonky    adj.  (shonkier, shonkiest) Austral.  sl.  unreliable,
             dishonest.  [perh. E dial.  shonk smart]

   shoo      int. & v.  --int. an exclamation used to frighten away birds,
             children, etc.  --v.  (shoos, shooed) 1 intr. utter the word
             'shoo!'.  2 tr. (usu. foll. by away) drive (birds etc.) away by
             shooing.  Ьshoo-in US something easy or certain to succeed.

   shook(1)  past of SHAKE.  --predic.adj.  colloq.  1 (foll. by up)
             emotionally or physically disturbed; upset.  2 (foll. by on)
             Austral. & NZ keen on; enthusiastic about (not too shook on the
             English climate).

   shook(2)  n.  US a set of staves and headings for a cask, ready for
             fitting together.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shoot     v., n., & int.  --v.  (past and past part.  shot) 1 tr.  a cause
             (a gun, bow, etc.) to fire.  b discharge (a bullet, arrow, etc.)
             from a gun, bow, etc.  c kill or wound (a person, animal, etc.)
             with a bullet, arrow, etc. from a gun, bow, etc.  2 intr.
             discharge a gun etc. esp. in a specified way (shoots well).  3
             tr. send out, discharge, propel, etc., esp. violently or swiftly
             (shot out the contents; shot a glance at his neighbour).  4
             intr. (often foll. by out, along, forth, etc.) come or go
             swiftly or vigorously.  5 intr.  a (of a plant etc.) put forth
             buds etc.  b (of a bud etc.) appear.  6 intr.  a hunt game etc.
             with a gun.  b (usu. foll. by over) shoot game over an estate
             etc.  7 tr. shoot game in or on (coverts, an estate, etc.).  8
             tr. film or photograph (a scene, film, etc.).  9 tr. (also
             absol.) esp. Football a score (a goal).  b take a shot at (the
             goal).  10 tr. (of a boat) sweep swiftly down or under (a
             bridge, rapids, falls, etc.).  11 tr. move (a door-bolt) to
             fasten or unfasten a door etc.  12 tr. let (rubbish, a load,
             etc.) fall or slide from a container, lorry, etc.  13 intr.  a
             (usu. foll. by through, up, etc.) (of a pain) pass with a
             stabbing sensation.  b (of part of the body) be intermittently
             painful.  14 intr. (often foll. by out) project abruptly (the
             mountain shoots out against the sky).  15 tr. (often foll. by
             up) sl. inject esp. oneself with (a drug).  16 tr.  US colloq.
             a play a game of (craps, pool, etc.).  b throw (a die or dice).
             17 tr.  Golf colloq. make (a specified score) for a round or
             hole.  18 tr.  colloq. pass (traffic-lights at red).  19 tr.
             plane (the edge of a board) accurately.  20 intr.  Cricket (of a
             ball) dart along the ground after pitching.  --n.  1 the act or
             an instance of shooting.  2 a a young branch or sucker.  b the
             new growth of a plant.  3 Brit.  a a hunting party, expedition,
             etc.  b land shot over for game.  4 = CHUTE(1).  5 a rapid in a
             stream.  --int.  colloq.  1 a demand for a reply, information,
             etc.  2 US euphem. an exclamation of disgust, anger, etc. (see
             SHIT).  Ьshoot ahead come quickly to the front of competitors
             etc.  shoot one's bolt see BOLT(1).  shoot down 1 kill (a
             person) by shooting.  2 cause (an aircraft, its pilot, etc.) to
             crash by shooting.  3 argue effectively against (a person,
             argument, etc.).  shoot it out sl.  engage in a decisive
             gun-battle.  shoot a line sl.  talk pretentiously.  shoot one's
             mouth off sl.  talk too much or indiscreetly.  shoot-out colloq.
             a decisive gun battle.  shoot through Austral. & NZ sl.  depart;
             escape, abscond.  shoot up 1 grow rapidly, esp. (of a person)
             grow taller.  2 rise suddenly.  3 terrorize (a district) by
             indiscriminate shooting.  4 sl.  = sense 15 of v.  the whole
             shoot = the whole shooting match (see SHOOTING).  ЬЬshootable
             adj.  [OE sceotan f. Gmc: cf.  SHEET(1), SHOT(1), SHUT]

   shooter   n.  1 a person or thing that shoots.  2 a (in comb.) a gun or
             other device for shooting (peashooter; six-shooter).  b sl. a
             pistol etc.  3 a player who shoots or is able to shoot a goal in
             football, netball, etc.  4 Cricket a ball that shoots.  5 a
             person who throws a die or dice.

   shooting  n. & adj.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of shooting.  2 a the
             right of shooting over an area of land.  b an estate etc. rented
             to shoot over.  --adj. moving, growing, etc. quickly (a shooting
             pain in the arm).  Ьshooting-box Brit.  a lodge used by
             sportsmen in the shooting-season.  shooting-brake (or -break)
             Brit.  an estate car.  shooting-coat (or -jacket) a coat
             designed to be worn when shooting game.  shooting-gallery a
             place used for shooting at targets with rifles etc.
             shooting-iron esp.  US colloq.  a firearm.  shooting-range a
             ground with butts for rifle practice.  shooting star a small
             meteor moving rapidly and burning up on entering the earth's
             atmosphere.  shooting-stick a walking-stick with a foldable
             seat.  shooting war a war in which there is shooting (opp.  cold
             war, war of nerves etc.).  the whole shooting match colloq.

   shop      n. & v.  --n.  1 a building, room, etc., for the retail sale of
             goods or services (chemist's shop; betting-shop).  2 a place in
             which manufacture or repairing is done; a workshop
             (engineering-shop).  3 a profession, trade, business, etc., esp.
             as a subject of conversation (talk shop).  4 colloq. an
             institution, establishment, place of business, etc.  --v.
             (shopped, shopping) 1 intr.  a go to a shop or shops to buy
             goods.  b US = window-shop.  2 tr. esp.  Brit.  sl. inform
             against (a criminal etc.).  Ьall over the shop colloq.  1 in
             disorder (scattered all over the shop).  2 in every place
             (looked for it all over the shop).  3 wildly (hitting out all
             over the shop).  set up shop establish oneself in business etc.
             shop around look for the best bargain.  shop assistant Brit.  a
             person who serves customers in a shop.  shop-boy (or -girl) an
             assistant in a shop.  shop-floor workers in a factory etc. as
             distinct from management.  shop-soiled 1 (of an article) soiled
             or faded by display in a shop.  2 (of a person, idea, etc.)
             grubby; tarnished; no longer fresh or new.  shop steward a
             person elected by workers in a factory etc. to represent them in
             dealings with management.  shop-window 1 a display window in a
             shop.  2 an opportunity for displaying skills, talents, etc.
             shop-worn = shop-soiled.  ЬЬshopless adj.  shoppy adj.  [ME f.
             AF & OF eschoppe booth f. MLG schoppe, OHG scopf porch]

             n.  the owner and manager of a shop.  ЬЬshopkeeping n.

             n.  a person who steals goods while appearing to shop.
             ЬЬshoplifting n.

   shopman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 Brit. a shopkeeper or shopkeeper's assistant.
             2 a workman in a repair shop.

   shopper   n.  1 a person who makes purchases in a shop.  2 a shopping bag
             or trolley.  3 sl. an informer.

   shopping  n.  1 (often attrib.) the purchase of goods etc. (shopping
             expedition).  2 goods purchased (put the shopping on the table).
             Ьshopping centre an area or complex of shops, with associated

             n.  Brit.  an attendant in a large shop who directs customers,
             supervises assistants, etc.

   shoran    n.  a system of aircraft navigation using the return of two
             radar signals by two ground stations.  [short range navigation]

   shore(1)  n.  1 the land that adjoins the sea or a large body of water.  2
             (usu. in pl.) a country; a sea-coast (often visits these shores;
             on a distant shore).  3 Law land between ordinary high and low
             water marks.  Ьin shore on the water near or nearer to the shore
             (cf.  INSHORE).  on shore ashore.  shore-based operating from a
             base on shore.  shore leave Naut.  1 permission to go ashore.  2
             a period of time ashore.  ЬЬshoreless adj.  shoreward adj. &
             adv.  shorewards adv.  [ME f. MDu., MLG schore, perh. f. the
             root of SHEAR]

   shore(2)  v. & n.  --v.tr. (often foll. by up) support with or as if with
             a shore or shores; hold up.  --n. a prop or beam set obliquely
             against a ship, wall, tree, etc., as a support.  ЬЬshoring n.
             [ME f. MDu., MLG schore prop, of unkn. orig.]

   shore(3)  see SHEAR.

   shoreweed n.  a stoloniferous plant, Littorella uniflora, growing in
             shallow water.

   shorn     past part. of SHEAR.

   short     adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  1 a measuring little; not long
             from end to end (a short distance).  b not long in duration;
             brief (a short time ago; had a short life).  c seeming less than
             the stated amount (a few short years of happiness).  2 of small
             height; not tall (a short square tower; was shorter than
             average).  3 a (usu. foll. by of, on) having a partial or total
             lack; deficient; scanty (short of spoons; is rather short on
             sense).  b not far-reaching; acting or being near at hand
             (within short range).  4 a concise; brief (kept his speech
             short).  b curt; uncivil (was short with her).  5 (of the
             memory) unable to remember distant events.  6 Phonet. & Prosody
             of a vowel or syllable: a having the lesser of the two
             recognized durations.  b unstressed.  c (of an English vowel)
             having a sound other than that called long (cf.  LONG(1) adj.
             8).  7 a (of pastry) crumbling; not holding together.  b (of
             clay) having poor plasticity.  8 esp. Stock Exch.  a (of stocks,
             a stockbroker, crops, etc.) sold or selling when the amount is
             not in hand, with reliance on getting the deficit in time for
             delivery.  b (of a bill of exchange) maturing at an early date.
             9 Cricket a (of a ball) pitching relatively near the bowler.  b
             (of a fielder or his position) relatively near the batsman.  10
             (of a drink of spirits) undiluted.  --adv.  1 before the natural
             or expected time or place; abruptly (pulled up short; cut short
             the celebrations).  2 rudely; uncivilly (spoke to him short).
             --n.  1 colloq. a short drink, esp. spirits.  2 a short circuit.
             3 a short film.  4 Stock Exch.  a a person who sells short.  b
             (in pl.) short-dated stocks.  5 Phonet.  a a short syllable or
             vowel.  b a mark indicating that a vowel is short.  6 (in pl.) a
             mixture of bran and coarse flour.  --v.tr. & intr.
             short-circuit.  Ьbe caught (or taken) short 1 be put at a
             disadvantage.  2 colloq. urgently need to urinate or defecate.
             bring up (or pull up) short check or pause abruptly.  come short
             be inadequate or disappointing.  come short of fail to reach or
             amount to.  for short as a short name (Tom for short).  get (or
             have) by the short hairs colloq.  be in complete control of (a
             person).  go short (often foll. by of) not have enough.  in
             short to use few words; briefly.  in short order US immediately.
             in the short run over a short period of time.  in short supply
             scarce.  in the short term = in the short run.  make short work
             of accomplish, dispose of, destroy, consume, etc. quickly.
             short and sweet esp. iron.  brief and pleasant.  short-arm (of a
             blow etc.) delivered with the arm not fully extended.  short
             back and sides a haircut in which the hair is cut short at the
             back and the sides.  short change insufficient money given as
             change.  short-change v.tr.  rob or cheat by giving short
             change.  short circuit an electric circuit through small
             resistance, esp. instead of the resistance of a normal circuit.
             short-circuit 1 cause a short circuit or a short circuit in.  2
             shorten or avoid (a journey, work, etc.) by taking a more direct
             route etc.  short commons insufficient food.  short cut 1 a
             route shortening the distance travelled.  2 a quick way of
             accomplishing something.  short date an early date for the
             maturing of a bill etc.  short-dated due for early payment or
             redemption.  short-day (of a plant) needing the period of light
             each day to fall below some limit to cause flowering.  short
             division Math.  division in which the quotient is written
             directly without being worked out in writing.  short drink a
             strong alcoholic drink served in small measures.  short-eared
             owl an owl, Asio flammeus, frequenting open country and hunting
             at dawn or dusk.  short for an abbreviation for ('Bob' is short
             for 'Robert').  short fuse a quick temper.  short game Golf
             approaching and putting.  short-handed undermanned or
             understaffed.  short haul 1 the transport of goods over a short
             distance.  2 a short-term effort.  short head Racing a distance
             less than the length of a horse's head.  short-head v.tr.  beat
             by a short head.  short hundredweight see HUNDREDWEIGHT.  short
             list Brit.  a list of selected candidates from which a final
             choice is made.  short-list v.tr.  Brit.  put on a short list.
             short-lived ephemeral; not long-lasting.  short mark = BREVE 2.
             short measure less than the professed amount.  short metre
             Prosody a hymn stanza of four lines with 6, 6, 8, and 6
             syllables.  short notice an insufficient length of warning time.
             short odds nearly equal stakes or chances in betting.  short of
             1 see sense 3a of adj.  2 less than (nothing short of a
             miracle).  3 distant from (two miles short of home).  4 without
             going so far as; except (did everything short of destroying it).
             short of breath panting, short-winded.  short on colloq.  see
             sense 3a of adj.  short order US an order in a restaurant for
             quickly cooked food.  short-pitched Cricket (of a ball) pitching
             relatively near the bowler.  short-range 1 having a short range.
             2 relating to a fairly immediate future time (short-range
             possibilities).  short rib = floating rib.  short score Mus.  a
             score not giving all parts.  short shrift curt or dismissive
             treatment.  short sight the inability to focus except on
             comparatively near objects.  short-sleeved with sleeves not
             reaching below the elbow.  short-staffed having insufficient
             staff.  short story a story with a fully developed theme but
             shorter than a novel.  short suit a suit of less than four
             cards.  short temper self-control soon or easily lost.
             short-term occurring in or relating to a short period of time.
             short time the condition of working fewer than the regular hours
             per day or days per week.  short title an abbreviated form of a
             title of a book etc.  short ton see TON.  short view a
             consideration of the present only, not the future.  short waist
             1 a high or shallow waist of a dress.  2 a short upper body.
             short wave a radio wave of frequency greater than 3 MHz.  short
             weight weight less than it is alleged to be.  short whist whist
             with ten or five points to a game.  short wind quickly exhausted
             breathing-power.  short-winded 1 having short wind.  2 incapable
             of sustained effort.  ЬЬshortish adj.  shortness n.  [OE sceort
             f. Gmc: cf.  SHIRT, SKIRT]

   shortage  n.  (often foll. by of) a deficiency; an amount lacking (a
             shortage of 100 tons).

             n.  a crisp rich crumbly type of biscuit made with butter,
             flour, and sugar.

   shortcake n.  1 = SHORTBREAD.  2 a cake made of short pastry and filled
             with fruit and cream.

             n.  failure to come up to a standard; a defect.

             n. (in full shortcrust pastry) a type of crumbly pastry made
             with flour and fat.

   shorten   v.  1 intr. & tr. become or make shorter or short; curtail.  2
             tr.  Naut. reduce the amount of (sail spread).  3 intr. & tr.
             (with reference to gambling odds, prices, etc.) become or make
             shorter; decrease.

             n.  fat used for making pastry, esp. for making short pastry.

   shortfall n.  a deficit below what was expected.

   shorthand n.  1 (often attrib.) a method of rapid writing in abbreviations
             and symbols esp.  for taking dictation.  2 an abbreviated or
             symbolic mode of expression.  Ьshorthand typist Brit.  a typist
             qualified to take and transcribe shorthand.

   shorthorn n.  1 an animal of a breed of cattle with short horns.  2 this

   shortie   var. of SHORTY.

   shortly   adv.  1 (often foll. by before, after) before long; soon (will
             arrive shortly; arrived shortly after him).  2 in a few words;
             briefly.  3 curtly.  [OE scortlice (as SHORT, -LY(2))]

   shorts    n.pl.  1 trousers reaching only to the knees or higher.  2 US

             adj.  1 having short sight.  2 lacking imagination or foresight.
             ЬЬshort-sightedly adv.  short-sightedness n.

   shortstop n.  a baseball fielder near second base.

   shorty    n.  (also shortie) (pl.  -ies) colloq.  1 a person shorter than
             average.  2 a short garment, esp. a nightdress or raincoat.

   shot(1)   n.  1 the act or an instance of firing a gun, cannon, etc.
             (several shots were heard).  2 an attempt to hit by shooting or
             throwing etc. (took a shot at him).  3 a a single non-explosive
             missile for a cannon, gun, etc.  b (pl. same or shots) a small
             lead pellet used in quantity in a single charge or cartridge in
             a shotgun.  c (as pl.) these collectively.  4 a a photograph.  b
             a film sequence photographed continuously by one camera.  5 a a
             stroke or a kick in a ball game.  b colloq. an attempt to guess
             or do something (let him have a shot at it).  6 colloq. a person
             having a specified skill with a gun etc. (is not a good shot).
             7 a heavy ball thrown by a shot-putter.  8 the launch of a space
             rocket (a moonshot).  9 the range, reach, or distance to or at
             which a thing will carry or act (out of earshot).  10 a remark
             aimed at a person.  11 colloq.  a a drink of esp. spirits.  b an
             injection of a drug, vaccine, etc. (has had his shots).  Ьlike a
             shot colloq.  without hesitation; willingly.  make a bad shot
             guess wrong.  not a shot in one's (or the) locker 1 no money
             left.  2 not a chance left.  shot-blasting the cleaning of metal
             etc. by the impact of a stream of shot.  shot-firer a person who
             fires a blasting-charge in a mine etc.  shot in the arm colloq.
             1 stimulus or encouragement.  2 an alcoholic drink.  shot in the
             dark a mere guess.  shot-put an athletic contest in which a shot
             is thrown a great distance.  shot-putter an athlete who puts the
             shot.  shot-tower hist.  a tower in which shot was made from
             molten lead poured through sieves at the top and falling into
             water at the bottom.  ЬЬshotproof adj.  [OE sc(e)ot, gesc(e)ot
             f. Gmc: cf.  SHOOT]

   shot(2)   past and past part. of SHOOT.  --adj.  1 (of coloured material)
             woven so as to show different colours at different angles.  2
             colloq.  a exhausted; finished.  b drunk.  3 (of a board-edge)
             accurately planed.  Ьbe (or get) shot of sl.  be (or get) rid
             of.  shot through permeated or suffused.  [past part. of SHOOT]

   shot(3)   n.  colloq.  a reckoning, a bill, esp. at an inn etc. (paid his
             shot).  [ME, = SHOT(1): cf. OE sceotan shoot, pay, contribute,
             and SCOT]

   shotgun   n.  a smooth-bore gun for firing small shot at short range.
             Ьshotgun marriage (or wedding) colloq.  an enforced or hurried
             wedding, esp. because of the bride's pregnancy.

   shotten herring
             n.  1 a herring that has spawned.  2 archaic a weakened or
             dispirited person.  [ME, archaic past part. of SHOOT]

   should    v.aux.  (3rd sing.  should) past of SHALL, used esp.: 1 in
             reported speech, esp. with the reported element in the 1st
             person (I said I should be home by evening).  °  Cf.  WILL(1),
             WOULD, now more common in this sense, esp. to avoid implications
             of sense 2.  2 a to express a duty, obligation, or likelihood; =
             OUGHT(1) (I should tell you; you should have been more careful;
             they should have arrived by now).  b (in the 1st person) to
             express a tentative suggestion (I should like to say something).
             3 a expressing the conditional mood in the 1st person (cf.
             WOULD) (I should have been killed if I had gone).  b forming a
             conditional protasis or indefinite clause (if you should see
             him; should they arrive, tell them where to go).  4 expressing
             purpose = MAY, MIGHT(1) (in order that we should not worry).

   shoulder  n. & v.  --n.  1 a the part of the body at which the arm,
             foreleg, or wing is attached.  b (in full shoulder joint) the
             end of the upper arm joining with the collar-bone and
             blade-bone.  c either of the two projections below the neck from
             which the arms depend.  2 the upper foreleg and shoulder blade
             of a pig, lamb, etc.  when butchered.  3 (in pl.) a the upper
             part of the back and arms.  b this part of the body regarded as
             capable of bearing a burden or blame, providing comfort, etc.
             (needs a shoulder to cry on).  4 a strip of land next to a
             metalled road (pulled over on to the shoulder).  5 a part of a
             garment covering the shoulder.  6 a part of anything resembling
             a shoulder in form or function, as in a bottle, mountain, tool,
             etc.  --v.  1 a tr. push with the shoulder; jostle.  b intr.
             make one's way by jostling (shouldered through the crowd).  2
             tr. take (a burden etc.) on one's shoulders (shouldered the
             family's problems).  Ьput (or set) one's shoulder to the wheel
             make an effort.  shoulder arms hold a rifle with the barrel
             against the shoulder and the butt in the hand.  shoulder-bag a
             woman's handbag that can be hung from the shoulder.
             shoulder-belt a bandolier or other strap passing over one
             shoulder and under the opposite arm.  shoulder-blade Anat.
             either of the large flat bones of the upper back; the scapula.
             shoulder-high up to or as high as the shoulders.
             shoulder-holster a gun holster worn in the armpit.
             shoulder-knot a knot of ribbon, metal, lace, etc. worn as part
             of a ceremonial dress.  shoulder-length (of hair etc.) reaching
             to the shoulders.  shoulder loop US the shoulder-strap of an
             army, air-force, or marines officer.  shoulder mark US the
             shoulder-strap of a naval officer.  shoulder-note Printing a
             marginal note at the top of a page.  shoulder-of-mutton sail =
             leg-of-mutton sail.  shoulder-pad a pad sewn into a garment to
             bulk out the shoulder.  shoulder-strap 1 a strip of fabric,
             leather, etc. suspending a bag or garment from the shoulder.  2
             a strip of cloth from shoulder to collar on a military uniform
             bearing a symbol of rank etc.  3 a similar strip on a raincoat.
             shoulder to shoulder 1 side by side.  2 with closed ranks or
             united effort.  ЬЬshouldered adj. (also in comb.).  [OE sculdor
             f. WG]

   shouldn't contr.  should not.

   shout     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. make a loud cry or vocal sound; speak
             loudly (shouted for attention).  2 tr. say or express loudly;
             call out (shouted that the coast was clear).  3 tr. (also
             absol.) Austral. & NZ colloq. treat (another person) to drinks
             etc.  --n.  1 a loud cry expressing joy etc. or calling
             attention.  2 colloq. one's turn to order a round of drinks etc.
             (your shout I think).  Ьall over bar (or but) the shouting
             colloq.  the contest is virtually decided.  shout at speak
             loudly to etc.  shout down reduce to silence by shouting.  shout
             for call for by shouting.  shout-up colloq.  a noisy argument.
             ЬЬshouter n.  [ME, perh. rel. to SHOOT: cf. ON skЈta SCOUT]

   shove     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (also absol.) push vigorously; move by hard
             or rough pushing (shoved him out of the way).  2 intr. (usu.
             foll. by along, past, through, etc.) make one's way by pushing
             (shoved through the crowd).  3 tr.  colloq. put somewhere
             (shoved it in the drawer).  --n. an act of shoving or of
             prompting a person into action.  Ьshove-halfpenny a form of
             shovelboard played with coins etc. on a table esp. in licensed
             premises.  shove off 1 start from the shore in a boat.  2 sl.
             depart; go away (told him to shove off).  [OE scufan f. Gmc]

   shovel    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a spadelike tool for shifting quantities of
             coal, earth, etc., esp. having the sides curved upwards.  b the
             amount contained in a shovel; a shovelful.  2 a machine or part
             of a machine having a similar form or function.  --v.tr.
             (shovelled, shovelling; US shoveled, shoveling) 1 shift or clear
             (coal etc.) with or as if with a shovel.  2 colloq. move (esp.
             food) in large quantities or roughly (shovelled peas into his
             mouth).  Ьshovel hat a broad-brimmed hat esp. worn by some
             clergymen.  ЬЬshovelful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [OE scofl f. Gmc (see

             n.  a game played esp. on a ship's deck by pushing discs with
             the hand or with a long-handled shovel over a marked surface.
             [earlier shoveboard f.  SHOVE + BOARD]

             n.  a shark, Sphyrna tiburo, like the hammerhead but smaller.
             Also called BONNETHEAD.

   shoveller n.  (also shoveler) 1 a person or thing that shovels.  2 a duck,
             Anas clypeata, with a broad shovel-like beak.  [SHOVEL: sense 2
             earlier shovelard f.  -ARD, perh. after mallard]

   show      v. & n.  --v.  (past part.  shown or showed) 1 intr. & tr. be,
             or allow or cause to be, visible; manifest; appear (the buds are
             beginning to show; white shows the dirt).  2 tr. (often foll. by
             to) offer, exhibit, or produce (a thing) for scrutiny etc. (show
             your tickets please; showed him my poems).  3 tr.  a indicate
             (one's feelings) by one's behaviour etc. (showed mercy to him).
             b indicate (one's feelings to a person etc.) (showed him
             particular favour).  4 intr. (of feelings etc.) be manifest (his
             dislike shows).  5 tr.  a demonstrate; point out; prove (has
             shown it to be false; showed that he knew the answer).  b (usu.
             foll. by how to + infin.) cause (a person) to understand or be
             capable of doing (showed them how to knit).  6 tr. (refl.)
             exhibit oneself as being (showed herself to be fair).  7 tr. &
             intr. (with ref. to a film) be presented or cause to be
             presented.  8 tr. exhibit (a picture, animal, flower, etc.) in a
             show.  9 tr. (often foll. by in, out, up, etc.) conduct or lead
             (showed them to their rooms).  10 intr. = show up 3 (waited but
             he didn't show).  11 intr.  US finish in the first three in a
             race.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of showing; the state of
             being shown.  2 a a spectacle, display, exhibition, etc. (a fine
             show of blossom).  b a collection of things etc. shown for
             public entertainment or in competition (dog show; flower show).
             3 a a play etc., esp. a musical.  b a light entertainment
             programme on television etc.  c any public entertainment or
             performance.  4 a an outward appearance, semblance, or display
             (made a show of agreeing; a show of strength).  b empty
             appearance; mere display (did it for show; that's all show).  5
             colloq. an undertaking, business, etc. (sold the whole show).  6
             colloq. an opportunity of acting, defending oneself, etc. (gave
             him a fair show; made a good show of it).  7 Med. a discharge of
             blood etc. from the vagina at the onset of childbirth.  Ьgive
             the show (or whole show) away demonstrate the inadequacies or
             reveal the truth.  good (or bad or poor) show!  colloq.  1 that
             was well (or badly) done.  2 that was lucky (or unlucky).
             nothing to show for no visible result of (effort etc.).  on show
             being exhibited.  show business colloq.  the theatrical
             profession.  show-card a card used for advertising.  show one's
             cards = show one's hand.  show cause Law allege with
             justification.  show a clean pair of heels colloq.  retreat
             speedily; run away.  show one's colours make one's opinion
             clear.  show a person the door dismiss or eject a person.  show
             one's face make an appearance; let oneself be seen.  show fight
             be persistent or belligerent.  show the flag see FLAG(1).  show
             forth archaic exhibit; expound.  show one's hand 1 disclose
             one's plans.  2 reveal one's cards.  show house (or flat etc.) a
             furnished and decorated house (or flat etc.) on a new estate
             shown to prospective buyers.  show in see sense 9 of v.  show a
             leg colloq.  get out of bed.  show off 1 display to advantage.
             2 colloq. act pretentiously; display one's wealth, knowledge,
             etc.  show-off n.  colloq.  a person who shows off.  show of
             force proof that one is prepared to use force.  show of hands
             raised hands indicating a vote for or against, usu. without
             being counted.  show oneself 1 be seen in public.  2 see sense 6
             of v.  show out see sense 9 of v.  show-piece 1 an item of work
             presented for exhibition or display.  2 an outstanding example
             or specimen.  show-place a house etc. that tourists go to see.
             show round take (a person) to places of interest; act as guide
             for (a person) in a building etc.  show-stopper colloq.  a
             performance receiving prolonged applause.  show one's teeth
             reveal one's strength; be aggressive.  show through 1 be visible
             although supposedly concealed.  2 (of real feelings etc.) be
             revealed inadvertently.  show trial esp.  hist.  a judicial
             trial designed by the State to terrorize or impress the public.
             show up 1 make or be conspicuous or clearly visible.  2 expose
             (a fraud, impostor, inferiority, etc.).  3 colloq. appear; be
             present; arrive.  4 colloq. embarrass or humiliate (don't show
             me up by wearing jeans).  show the way 1 indicate what has to be
             done etc. by attempting it first.  2 show others which way to go
             etc.  show the white feather appear cowardly (see also white
             feather).  show willing display a willingness to help etc.
             show-window a window for exhibiting goods etc.  [ME f. OE
             sceawian f. WG: cf.  SHEEN]

   showbiz   n.  colloq.  = show business.

   showboat  n.  US a river steamer on which theatrical performances are

   showcase  n. & v.  --n.  1 a glass case used for exhibiting goods etc.  2
             a place or medium for presenting (esp. attractively) to general
             attention.  --v.tr. display in or as if in a showcase.

   showdown  n.  1 a final test or confrontation; a decisive situation.  2
             the laying down face up of the players' cards in poker.

   shower    n. & v.  --n.  1 a brief fall of esp. rain, hail, sleet, or
             snow.  2 a a brisk flurry of arrows, bullets, dust, stones,
             sparks, etc.  b a similar flurry of gifts, letters, honours,
             praise, etc.  3 (in full shower-bath) a a cubicle, bath, etc. in
             which one stands under a spray of water.  b the apparatus etc.
             used for this.  c the act of bathing in a shower.  4 a group of
             particles initiated by a cosmic-ray particle in the earth's
             atmosphere.  5 US a party for giving presents to a prospective
             bride, etc.  6 Brit.  sl. a contemptible or unpleasant person or
             group of people.  --v.  1 tr. discharge (water, missiles, etc.)
             in a shower.  2 intr. use a shower-bath.  3 tr. (usu. foll. by
             on, upon) lavishly bestow (gifts etc.).  4 intr. descend or come
             in a shower (it showered on and off all day).  ЬЬshowery adj.
             [OE scur f. Gmc]

             adj. & v.  --adj. resistant to light rain.  --v.tr. render

   showgirl  n.  an actress who sings and dances in musicals, variety shows,

   showing   n.  1 the act or an instance of showing.  2 a usu. specified
             quality of performance (made a poor showing).  3 the
             presentation of a case; evidence (on present showing it must be
             true).  [OE sceawung (as SHOW)]

             n.  the sport of riding horses over a course of fences and other
             obstacles, with penalty points for errors.  ЬЬshowjump v.intr.
             showjumper n.

   showman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 the proprietor or manager of a circus etc.  2
             a person skilled in self-advertisement or publicity.
             ЬЬshowmanship n.

   shown     past part. of SHOW.

   showroom  n.  a room in a factory, office building, etc. used to display
             goods for sale.

   showy     adj.  (showier, showiest) 1 brilliant; gaudy, esp. vulgarly so.
             2 striking.  ЬЬshowily adv.  showiness n.

   s.h.p.    abbr.  shaft horsepower.

   shrank    past of SHRINK.

   shrapnel  n.  1 fragments of a bomb etc. thrown out by an explosion.  2 a
             shell containing bullets or pieces of metal timed to burst short
             of impact.  [Gen. H.  Shrapnel, Brit. soldier d. 1842, inventor
             of the shell]

   shred     n. & v.  --n.  1 a scrap, fragment, or strip of esp. cloth,
             paper, etc.  2 the least amount, remnant (not a shred of
             evidence).  --v.tr.  (shredded, shredding) tear or cut into
             shreds.  Ьtear to shreds completely refute (an argument etc.).
             [OE scread (unrecorded) piece cut off, screadian f. WG: see

   shredder  n.  1 a machine used to reduce documents to shreds.  2 any
             device used for shredding.

   shrew     n.  1 any small usu. insect-eating mouselike mammal of the
             family Soricidae, with a long pointed snout.  2 a bad-tempered
             or scolding woman.  ЬЬshrewish adj. (in sense 2).  shrewishly
             adv.  shrewishness n.  [OE screawa, scr‘wa shrew-mouse: cf. OHG
             scrawaz dwarf, MHG schrawaz etc. devil]

   shrewd    adj.  1 a showing astute powers of judgement; clever and
             judicious (a shrewd observer; made a shrewd guess).  b (of a
             face etc.) shrewd-looking.  2 archaic a (of pain, cold, etc.)
             sharp, biting.  b (of a blow, thrust, etc.) severe, hard.  c
             mischievous; malicious.  ЬЬshrewdly adv.  shrewdness n.  [ME, =
             malignant, f.  SHREW in sense 'evil person or thing', or past
             part. of obs.  shrew to curse, f.  SHREW]

   shriek    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a utter a shrill screeching sound or
             words esp. in pain or terror.  b (foll. by of) provide a clear
             or blatant indication of.  2 tr.  a utter (sounds or words) by
             shrieking (shrieked his name).  b indicate clearly or blatantly.
             --n. a high-pitched piercing cry or sound; a scream.  Ьshriek
             out say in shrill tones.  shriek with laughter laugh
             uncontrollably.  ЬЬshrieker n.  [imit.: cf. dial.  screak, ON
             skr‘kja, and SCREECH]

   shrieval  adj.  of or relating to a sheriff.  [shrieve obs. var. of

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a sheriff's office or jurisdiction.  2 the
             tenure of this.  [as SHRIEVAL + -alty as in mayoralty etc.]

   shrift    n.  archaic 1 confession to a priest.  2 confession and
             absolution.  Ьshort shrift 1 curt treatment.  2 archaic little
             time between condemnation and execution or punishment.  [OE
             scrift (verbal noun) f.  SHRIVE]

   shrike    n.  any bird of the family Laniidae, with a strong hooked and
             toothed bill, that impales its prey of small birds and insects
             on thorns.  Also called butcher-bird.  [perh. rel. to OE scric
             thrush, MLG schrik corncrake (imit.): cf.  SHRIEK]

   shrill    adj. & v.  --adj.  1 piercing and high-pitched in sound.  2
             derog. (esp. of a protester) sharp, unrestrained, unreasoning.
             --v.  1 intr. (of a cry etc.) sound shrilly.  2 tr. (of a person
             etc.) utter or send out (a song, complaint, etc.)  shrilly.
             ЬЬshrilly adv.  shrillness n.  [ME, rel. to LG schrell sharp in
             tone or taste f. Gmc]

   shrimp    n. & v.  --n.  1 (pl. same or shrimps) any of various small
             (esp. marine) edible crustaceans, with ten legs, grey-green when
             alive and pink when boiled.  2 colloq. a very small slight
             person.  --v.intr. go catching shrimps.  Ьshrimp plant an
             evergreen shrub, Justicia brandegeana, bearing small white
             flowers in clusters of pinkish-brown bracts.  ЬЬshrimper n.
             [ME, prob. rel. to MLG schrempen wrinkle, MHG schrimpfen
             contract, and SCRIMP]

   shrine    n. & v.  --n.  1 esp. RC Ch.  a a chapel, church, altar, etc.,
             sacred to a saint, holy person, relic, etc.  b the tomb of a
             saint etc.  c a casket esp. containing sacred relics; a
             reliquary.  d a niche containing a holy statue etc.  2 a place
             associated with or containing memorabilia of a particular
             person, event, etc.  3 a Shinto place of worship.  --v.tr.
             poet. enshrine.  [OE scrin f. Gmc f. L scrinium case for books

   shrink    v. & n.  --v.  (past shrank; past part.  shrunk or (esp. as
             adj.) shrunken) 1 tr. & intr. make or become smaller; contract,
             esp. by the action of moisture, heat, or cold.  2 intr. (usu.
             foll. by from) a retire; recoil; flinch; cower (shrank from her
             touch).  b be averse from doing (shrinks from meeting them).  3
             (as shrunken adj.) (esp. of a face, person, etc.) having grown
             smaller esp. because of age, illness, etc.  --n.  1 the act or
             an instance of shrinking; shrinkage.  2 sl. a psychiatrist (from
             'head-shrinker').  Ьshrinking violet an exaggeratedly shy
             person.  shrink into oneself become withdrawn.  shrink on slip
             (a metal tyre etc.) on while expanded with heat and allow to
             tighten.  shrink-resistant (of textiles etc.) resistant to
             shrinkage when wet etc.  shrink-wrap (-wrapped, -wrapping)
             enclose (an article) in (esp. transparent) film that shrinks
             tightly on to it.  ЬЬshrinkable adj.  shrinker n.  shrinkingly
             adv.  shrink-proof adj.  [OE scrincan: cf.  skrynka to wrinkle]

   shrinkage n.  1 a the process or fact of shrinking.  b the degree or
             amount of shrinking.  2 an allowance made for the reduction in
             takings due to wastage, theft, etc.

   shrive    v.tr.  (past shrove; past part.  shriven) RC Ch.  archaic 1 (of
             a priest) hear the confession of, assign penance to, and
             absolve.  2 (refl.) (of a penitent) submit oneself to a priest
             for confession etc.  [OE scrifan impose as penance, WG f. L
             scribere write]

   shrivel   v.tr. & intr.  (shrivelled, shrivelling or US shriveled,
             shriveling) contract or wither into a wrinkled, folded,
             rolled-up, contorted, or dried-up state.  [perh. f. ON: cf. Sw.
             dial.  skryvla to wrinkle]

   shriven   past part. of SHRIVE.

   shroud    n. & v.  --n.  1 a sheetlike garment for wrapping a corpse for
             burial.  2 anything that conceals like a shroud (wrapped in a
             shroud of mystery).  3 (in pl.) Naut. a set of ropes forming
             part of the standing rigging and supporting the mast or topmast.
             --v.tr.  1 clothe (a body) for burial.  2 cover, conceal, or
             disguise (hills shrouded in mist).  Ьshroud-laid (of a rope)
             having four strands laid right-handed on a core.  ЬЬshroudless
             adj.  [OE scrud f. Gmc: see SHRED]

   shrove    past of SHRIVE.

             n.  Shrove Tuesday and the two days preceding it when it was
             formerly customary to be shriven.  [ME shrove abnormally f.

   Shrove Tuesday
             n.  the day before Ash Wednesday.

   shrub(1)  n.  a woody plant smaller than a tree and having a very short
             stem with branches near the ground.  ЬЬshrubby adj.  [ME f. OE
             scrubb, scrybb shrubbery: cf. NFris.  skrobb brushwood, WFlem.
             schrobbe vetch, Norw.  skrubba dwarf cornel, and SCRUB(2)]

   shrub(2)  n.  a cordial made of sweetened fruit-juice and spirits, esp.
             rum.  [Arab.  surb, sarab f.  sariba to drink: cf.  SHERBET,

   shrubbery n.  (pl.  -ies) an area planted with shrubs.

   shrug     v. & n.  --v.  (shrugged, shrugging) 1 intr. slightly and
             momentarily raise the shoulders to express indifference,
             helplessness, contempt, etc.  2 tr.  a raise (the shoulders) in
             this way.  b shrug the shoulders to express (indifference etc.)
             (shrugged his consent).  --n. the act or an instance of
             shrugging.  Ьshrug off dismiss as unimportant etc. by or as if
             by shrugging.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   shrunk    (also shrunken) past part. of SHRINK.

   shtick    n.  sl.  a theatrical routine, gimmick, etc.  [Yiddish f. G
             StЃck piece]

   shuck     n. & v.  US --n.  1 a husk or pod.  2 the shell of an oyster or
             clam.  3 (in pl.) colloq. an expression of contempt or regret or
             self-deprecation in response to praise.  --v.tr. remove the
             shucks of; shell.  ЬЬshucker n.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   shudder   v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 shiver esp. convulsively from fear, cold,
             repugnance, etc.  2 feel strong repugnance etc. (shudder to
             think what might happen).  3 (of a machine etc.) vibrate or
             quiver.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of shuddering.  2 (in
             pl.; prec. by the) colloq. a state of shuddering.
             ЬЬshudderingly adv.  shuddery adj.  [ME shod(d)er f. MDu.
             schuderen, MLG schoderen f. Gmc]

   shuffle   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. move with a scraping, sliding, or
             dragging motion (shuffles along; shuffling his feet).  2 tr.  a
             (also absol.) rearrange (a pack of cards) by sliding them over
             each other quickly.  b rearrange; intermingle; confuse (shuffled
             the documents).  3 tr. (usu. foll. by on, off, into) assume or
             remove (clothes, a burden, etc.) esp. clumsily or evasively
             (shuffled on his clothes; shuffled off responsibility).  4 intr.
             a equivocate; prevaricate.  b continually shift one's position;
             fidget.  5 intr. (foll. by out of) escape evasively (shuffled
             out of the blame).  --n.  1 a shuffling movement.  2 the act or
             an instance of shuffling cards.  3 a general change of relative
             positions.  4 a piece of equivocation; sharp practice.  5 a
             quick scraping movement of the feet in dancing (see also double
             shuffle).  Ьshuffle-board = SHOVELBOARD.  shuffle the cards
             change policy etc.  ЬЬshuffler n.  [perh. f. LG schuffeln walk
             clumsily f. Gmc: cf.  SHOVE]

   shufti    n.  (pl.  shuftis) Brit.  colloq.  a look or glimpse.  [Arab.
             saffa try to see]

   shun      v.tr.  (shunned, shunning) avoid; keep clear of (shuns human
             company).  [OE scunian, of unkn. orig.]

   shunt     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. diverge or cause (a train) to be
             diverted esp. on to a siding.  2 tr.  Electr. provide (a
             current) with a shunt.  3 tr.  a postpone or evade.  b divert (a
             decision etc.) on to another person etc.  --n.  1 the act or an
             instance of shunting on to a siding.  2 Electr. a conductor
             joining two points of a circuit, through which more or less of a
             current may be diverted.  3 Surgery an alternative path for the
             circulation of the blood.  4 sl. a motor accident, esp. a
             collision of vehicles travelling one close behind another.
             ЬЬshunter n.  [ME, perh. f.  SHUN]

   shush     int. & v.  --int. = HUSH int.  --v.  1 intr.  a call for silence
             by saying shush.  b be silent (they shushed at once).  2 tr.
             make or attempt to make silent.  [imit.]

   shut      v.  (shutting; past and past part.  shut) 1 tr.  a move (a door,
             window, lid, lips, etc.) into position so as to block an
             aperture (shut the lid).  b close or seal (a room, window, box,
             eye, mouth, etc.) by moving a door etc. (shut the box).  2 intr.
             become or be capable of being closed or sealed (the door shut
             with a bang; the lid shuts automatically).  3 intr. & tr. become
             or make (a shop, business, etc.) closed for trade (the shops
             shut at five; shuts his shop at five).  4 tr. bring (a book,
             hand, telescope, etc.) into a folded-up or contracted state.  5
             tr. (usu. foll. by in, out) keep (a person, sound, etc.) in or
             out of a room etc. by shutting a door etc. (shut out the noise;
             shut them in).  6 tr. (usu. foll. by in) catch (a finger, dress,
             etc.) by shutting something on it (shut her finger in the door).
             7 tr. bar access to (a place etc.) (this entrance is shut).  Ьbe
             (or get) shut of sl.  be (or get) rid of (were glad to get shut
             of him).  shut the door on refuse to consider; make impossible.
             shut down 1 stop (a factory, nuclear reactor, etc.) from
             operating.  2 (of a factory etc.) stop operating.  3 push or
             pull (a window-sash etc.) down into a closed position.
             shut-down n.  the closure of a factory etc.  shut-eye colloq.
             sleep.  shut one's eyes (or ears or heart or mind) to pretend
             not, or refuse, to see (or hear or feel sympathy for or think
             about).  shut in (of hills, houses, etc.) encircle, prevent
             access etc. to or escape from (were shut in by the sea on three
             sides) (see also sense 5).  shut off 1 stop the flow of (water,
             gas, etc.) by shutting a valve.  2 separate from society etc.
             shut-off n.  1 something used for stopping an operation.  2 a
             cessation of flow, supply, or activity.  shut out 1 exclude (a
             person, light, etc.) from a place, situation, etc.  2 screen
             (landscape etc.) from view.  3 prevent (a possibility etc.).  4
             block (a painful memory etc.) from the mind.  5 US prevent (an
             opponent) from scoring (see also sense 5).  shut-out bid Bridge
             a pre-emptive bid.  shut to 1 close (a door etc.).  2 (of a door
             etc.) close as far as it will go.  shut up 1 close all doors and
             windows of (a house etc.); bolt and bar.  2 imprison (a person).
             3 close (a box etc.) securely.  4 colloq. reduce to silence by
             rebuke etc.  5 put (a thing) away in a box etc.  6 (esp. in
             imper.) colloq. stop talking.  shut up shop 1 close a business,
             shop, etc.  2 cease business etc. permanently.  shut your face
             (or head or mouth or trap)!  sl.  an impolite request to stop
             talking.  [OE scyttan f. WG: cf.  SHOOT]

   shutter   n. & v.  --n.  1 a person or thing that shuts.  2 a each of a
             pair or set of panels fixed inside or outside a window for
             security or privacy or to keep the light in or out.  b a
             structure of slats on rollers used for the same purpose.  3 a
             device that exposes the film in a photographic camera.  4 Mus.
             the blind of a swell-box in an organ used for controlling the
             sound-level.  --v.tr.  1 put up the shutters of.  2 provide with
             shutters.  Ьput up the shutters 1 cease business for the day.  2
             cease business etc. permanently.  ЬЬshutterless adj.

             n.  1 a temporary structure usu. of wood, used to hold concrete
             during setting.  2 material for making shutters.

   shuttle   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a bobbin with two pointed ends used for
             carrying the weft-thread across between the warp-threads in
             weaving.  b a bobbin carrying the lower thread in a
             sewing-machine.  2 a train, bus, etc., going to and fro over a
             short route continuously.  3 = SHUTTLECOCK.  4 = space shuttle.
             --v.  1 intr. & tr. move or cause to move to and fro like a
             shuttle.  2 intr. travel in a shuttle.  Ьshuttle armature
             Electr.  an armature with a single coil wound on an elongated
             iron bobbin.  shuttle diplomacy negotiations conducted by a
             mediator who travels successively to several countries.  shuttle
             service a train or bus etc. service operating to and fro over a
             short route.  [OE scytel dart f. Gmc: cf.  SHOOT]

             n.  1 a cork with a ring of feathers, or a similar device of
             plastic, used instead of a ball in badminton and in battledore
             and shuttlecock.  2 a thing passed repeatedly back and forth.
             [SHUTTLE + COCK(1), prob. f. the flying motion]

   shy(1)    adj., v., & n.  --adj.  (shyer, shyest or shier, shiest) 1 a
             diffident or uneasy in company; timid.  b (of an animal, bird,
             etc.) easily startled; timid.  2 (foll. by of) avoiding; chary
             of (shy of his aunt; shy of going to meetings).  3 (in comb.)
             showing fear of or distaste for (gun-shy; work-shy).  4 (often
             foll. by of, on) colloq. having lost; short of (I'm shy three
             quid; shy of the price of admission).  --v.intr.  (shies, shied)
             1 (usu. foll. by at) (esp. of a horse) start suddenly aside (at
             an object, noise, etc.) in fright.  2 (usu. foll. by away from,
             at) avoid accepting or becoming involved in (a proposal etc.) in
             alarm.  --n. a sudden startled movement.  ЬЬshyer n.  shyly adv.
             (also shily).  shyness n.  [OE sceoh f. Gmc]

   shy(2)    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (shies, shied) (also absol.) fling or throw (a
             stone etc.).  --n. the act or an instance of shying.  Ьhave a
             shy at colloq.  1 try to hit with a stone etc.  2 make an
             attempt at.  3 jeer at.  ЬЬshyer n.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Shylock   n.  a hard-hearted money-lender; a miser.  [character in
             Shakesp.  Merchant of Venice]

   shyster   n.  esp.  US colloq.  a person, esp. a lawyer, who uses
             unscrupulous methods.  [19th c.: orig. uncert.]

10.0 SI...

   SI        abbr.  1 (Order of the) Star of India.  2 the international
             system of units of measurement (F SystЉme International).

   Si        symb.  Chem.  the element silicon.

   si        n.  Mus. = TE.  [F f. It., perh. f. the initials of Sancte
             Iohannes: see GAMUT]

             n. & adj.  --n. a medicine inducing the flow of saliva.  --adj.
             inducing such a flow.  [F f. Gk sialon saliva + agogos leading]

   siamang   n.  a large black gibbon, Hylobates syndactylus, native to
             Sumatra and the Malay peninsula.  [Malay]

   Siamese   n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 a a native of Siam (now Thailand)
             in SE Asia.  b the language of Siam.  2 (in full Siamese cat) a
             a cat of a cream-coloured short-haired breed with a brown face
             and ears and blue eyes.  b this breed.  --adj. of or concerning
             Siam, its people, or language.  ЬSiamese twins 1 twins joined at
             any part of the body and sometimes sharing organs etc.  2 any
             closely associated pair.

   sib       n. & adj.  --n.  1 a brother or sister (cf.  SIBLING).  2 a
             blood relative.  3 a group of people recognized by an individual
             as his or her kindred.  --adj. (usu. foll. by to) esp.  Sc.
             related; akin.  [OE sib(b)]

   Siberian  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native of Siberia in the northern Soviet
             Union.  2 a person of Siberian descent.  --adj. of or relating
             to Siberia.

   sibilant  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of a letter or set of letters, as s, sh)
             sounded with a hiss.  2 hissing (a sibilant whisper).  --n. a
             sibilant letter or letters.  ЬЬsibilance n.  sibilancy n.  [L
             sibilare sibilant- hiss]

   sibilate  v.tr. & intr.  pronounce with or utter a hissing sound.
             ЬЬsibilation n.

   sibling   n.  each of two or more children having one or both parents in
             common.  [SIB + -LING(1)]

   sibship   n.  1 the state of belonging to a sib or the same sib.  2 a
             group of children having the same two parents.

   sibyl     n.  1 any of the women in ancient times supposed to utter the
             oracles and prophecies of a god.  2 a prophetess,
             fortune-teller, or witch.  [ME f. OF Sibile or med.L Sibilla f.
             L Sibylla f. Gk Sibulla]

   sibylline adj.  1 of or from a sibyl.  2 oracular; prophetic.  Ьthe
             Sibylline books a collection of oracles belonging to the ancient
             Roman State and used for guidance by magistrates etc.  [L
             Sibyllinus (as SIBYL)]

   sic       adv.  (usu. in brackets) used, spelt, etc., as written
             (confirming, or calling attention to, the form of quoted or
             copied words).  [L, = so, thus]

   siccative n. & adj.  --n. a substance causing drying, esp. mixed with
             oil-paint etc. for quick drying.  --adj. having such properties.
             [LL siccativus f.  siccare to dry]

   sice(1)   n.  the six on dice.  [ME f. OF sis f. L sex six]

   sice(2)   var. of SYCE.

   Sicilian  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native of Sicily, an island off the S.
             coast of Italy.  2 a person of Sicilian descent.  --adj. of or
             relating to Sicily.  [L Sicilia Sicily]

   siciliano n.  (pl.  -os) (also siciliana) a dance, song, or instrumental
             piece in 6/8 or 12/8 time, often in a minor key, and evoking a
             pastoral mood.  [It., = Sicilian]

   sick(1)   adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 (often in comb.) esp.  Brit. vomiting
             or tending to vomit (feels sick; has been sick; seasick).  2
             esp.  US ill; affected by illness (has been sick for a week; a
             sick man; sick with measles).  3 a (often foll. by at) esp.
             mentally perturbed; disordered (the product of a sick mind; sick
             at heart).  b (often foll. by for, or in comb.) pining; longing
             (sick for a sight of home; lovesick).  4 (often foll. by of)
             colloq.  a disgusted; surfeited (sick of chocolates).  b angry,
             esp. because of surfeit (am sick of being teased).  5 colloq.
             (of humour etc.) jeering at misfortune, illness, death, etc.;
             morbid (sick joke).  6 (of a ship) needing repair (esp. of a
             specified kind) (paint-sick).  --n.  Brit.  colloq. vomit.
             --v.tr. (usu. foll. by up) Brit.  colloq. vomit (sicked up his
             dinner).  Ьgo sick report oneself as ill.  look sick colloq.  be
             unimpressive or embarrassed.  sick at (or to) one's stomach US
             vomiting or tending to vomit.  sick-benefit Brit.  an allowance
             made by the State to a person absent from work through sickness.
             sick building syndrome a high incidence of illness in office
             workers, attributed to the immediate working surroundings.
             sick-call 1 a visit by a doctor to a sick person etc.  2 Mil. a
             summons for sick men to attend.  sick-flag a yellow flag
             indicating disease at a quarantine station or on ship.  sick
             headache a migraine headache with vomiting.  sick-leave leave of
             absence granted because of illness.  sick-list a list of the
             sick, esp. in a regiment, ship, etc.  sick-making colloq.
             sickening.  sick nurse = NURSE.  sick-pay pay given to an
             employee etc. on sick-leave.  take sick colloq.  be taken ill.
             ЬЬsickish adj.  [OE seoc f. Gmc]

   sick(2)   v.tr.  (usu. in imper.) (esp. to a dog) set upon (a rat etc.).
             [19th c., dial. var. of SEEK]

   sickbay   n.  1 part of a ship used as a hospital.  2 any room etc. for
             sick people.

   sickbed   n.  1 an invalid's bed.  2 the state of being an invalid.

   sicken    v.  1 tr. affect with loathing or disgust.  2 intr.  a (often
             foll. by for) show symptoms of illness (is sickening for
             measles).  b (often foll. by at, or to + infin.) feel nausea or
             disgust (he sickened at the sight).  3 (as sickening adj.) a
             loathsome, disgusting.  b colloq. very annoying.  ЬЬsickeningly

   sickie    n.  Austral. & NZ colloq.  a period of sick-leave, usu. taken
             with insufficient medical reason.

   sickle    n.  1 a short-handled farming tool with a semicircular blade,
             used for cutting corn, lopping, or trimming.  2 anything
             sickle-shaped, esp. the crescent moon.  Ьsickle-bill any of
             various curlews with a sickle-shaped bill.  sickle-cell a
             sickle-shaped blood-cell, esp. as found in a type of severe
             hereditary anaemia.  sickle-feather each of the long middle
             feathers of a cock's tail.  [OE sicol, sicel f. L secula f.
             secare cut]

   sickly    adj.  (sicklier, sickliest) 1 a of weak health; apt to be ill.
             b (of a person's complexion, look, etc.) languid, faint, or
             pale, suggesting sickness (a sickly smile).  c (of light or
             colour) faint, pale, feeble.  2 causing ill health (a sickly
             climate).  3 (of a book etc.) sentimental or mawkish.  4
             inducing or connected with nausea (a sickly taste).  5 (of a
             colour etc.) of an unpleasant shade inducing nausea (a sickly
             green).  ЬЬsickliness n.  [ME, prob. after ON sjukligr (as

   sickness  n.  1 the state of being ill; disease.  2 a specified disease
             (sleeping sickness).  3 vomiting or a tendency to vomit.
             Ьsickness benefit (in the UK) benefit paid by the State for
             sickness interrupting paid employment.  [OE seocnesse (as
             SICK(1), -NESS)]

   sickroom  n.  1 a room occupied by a sick person.  2 a room adapted for
             sick people.

   sidalcea  n.  any mallow-like plant of the genus Sidalcea, bearing racemes
             of white, pink, or purple flowers.  [mod.L f.  Sida + Alcea,
             names of related genera]

   side      n. & v.  --n.  1 a each of the more or less flat surfaces
             bounding an object (a cube has six sides; this side up).  b a
             more or less vertical inner or outer plane or surface (the side
             of a house; a mountainside).  c such a vertical lateral surface
             or plane as distinct from the top or bottom, front or back, or
             ends (at the side of the house).  2 a the half of a person or
             animal that is on the right or the left, esp. of the torso (has
             a pain in his right side).  b the left or right half or a
             specified part of a thing, area, building, etc. (put the box on
             that side).  c (often in comb.) a position next to a person or
             thing (grave-side; seaside; stood at my side).  d a specified
             direction relating to a person or thing (on the north side of;
             came from all sides).  e half of a butchered carcass (a side of
             bacon).  3 a either surface of a thing regarded as having two
             surfaces.  b the amount of writing needed to fill one side of a
             sheet of paper (write three sides).  4 any of several aspects of
             a question, character, etc. (many sides to his character; look
             on the bright side).  5 a each of two sets of opponents in war,
             politics, games, etc.  (the side that bats first; much to be
             said on both sides).  b a cause or philosophical position etc.
             regarded as being in conflict with another (on the side of
             right).  6 a a part or region near the edge and remote from the
             centre (at the side of the room).  b (attrib.) a subordinate,
             peripheral, or detached part (a side-road; a side-table).  7 a
             each of the bounding lines of a plane rectilinear figure (a
             hexagon has six sides).  b each of two quantities stated to be
             equal in an equation.  8 a position nearer or farther than, or
             right or left of, a dividing line (on this side of the Alps; on
             the other side of the road).  9 a line of hereditary descent
             through the father or the mother.  10 (in full side spin) Brit.
             a spinning motion given to a billiard-ball etc. by hitting it on
             one side, not centrally.  11 Brit.  sl. boastfulness; swagger
             (has no side about him).  12 Brit.  colloq. a television channel
             (shall we try another side?).  --v.intr. (usu. foll. by with)
             take part or be on the same side as a disputant etc. (sided with
             his father).  Ьby the side of 1 close to.  2 compared with.
             from side to side 1 right across.  2 alternately each way from a
             central line.  let the side down fail one's colleagues, esp. by
             frustrating their efforts or embarrassing them.  on one side 1
             not in the main or central position.  2 aside (took him on one
             side to explain).  on the ... side fairly, somewhat (qualifying
             an adjective: on the high side).  on the side 1 as a sideline;
             in addition to one's regular work etc.  2 secretly or illicitly.
             3 US as a side dish.  on this side of the grave in life.
             side-arms swords, bayonets, or pistols.  side-band a range of
             frequencies near the carrier frequency of a radio wave,
             concerned in modulation.  side-bet a bet between opponents, esp.
             in card-games, over and above the ordinary stakes.  side-bone
             either of the small forked bones under the wings of poultry.
             side by side standing close together, esp. for mutual support.
             side-car 1 a small car for a passenger or passengers attached to
             the side of a motor cycle.  2 a cocktail of orange liqueur,
             lemon juice, and brandy.  3 a jaunting car.  side-chapel a
             chapel in the aisle or at the side of a church.  side dish an
             extra dish subsidiary to the main course.  side-door 1 a door in
             or at the side of a building.  2 an indirect means of access.
             side-drum a small double-headed drum in a jazz or military band
             or in an orchestra (orig. hung at the drummer's side).
             side-effect a secondary, usu. undesirable, effect.  side-glance
             a sideways or brief glance.  side-issue a point that distracts
             attention from what is important.  side-note a marginal note.
             side-on adv.  from the side.  --adj.  1 from or towards one
             side.  2 (of a collision) involving the side of a vehicle.
             side-road a minor or subsidiary road, esp. joining or diverging
             from a main road.  side-saddle n.  a saddle for a woman rider
             with both feet on the same side of the horse.  --adv. sitting in
             this position on a horse.  side salad a salad served as a side
             dish.  side-seat a seat in a vehicle etc. in which the occupant
             has his back to the side of the vehicle.  side-slip n.  1 a
             skid.  2 Aeron. a sideways movement instead of forward.
             --v.intr.  1 skid.  2 Aeron. move sideways instead of forward.
             side-splitting causing violent laughter.  side-street a minor or
             subsidiary street.  side-stroke 1 a stroke towards or from a
             side.  2 an incidental action.  3 a swimming stroke in which the
             swimmer lies on his or her side.  side-swipe n.  1 a glancing
             blow along the side.  2 incidental criticism etc.  --v.tr. hit
             with or as if with a side-swipe.  side-table a table placed at
             the side of a room or apart from the main table.  side-trip a
             minor excursion during a voyage or trip; a detour.  side valve a
             valve in a vehicle engine, operated from the side of the
             cylinder.  side-view 1 a view obtained sideways.  2 a profile.
             side-wheeler US a steamer with paddle-wheels.  side-whiskers
             whiskers growing on the cheeks.  side wind 1 wind from the side.
             2 an indirect agency or influence.  take sides support one or
             other cause etc.  ЬЬsideless adj.  [OE side f. Gmc]

   sideboard n.  a table or esp. a flat-topped cupboard at the side of a
             dining-room for supporting and containing dishes, table linen,
             decanters, etc.

             n.pl.  Brit.  colloq.  hair grown by a man down the sides of his
             face; side-whiskers.

   sideburns n.pl.  = SIDEBOARDS.  [burnsides pl. of burnside f. General
             Burnside d. 1881 who affected this style]

   sided     adj.  1 having sides.  2 (in comb.) having a specified side or
             sides (one-sided).  ЬЬ-sidedly adv.  sidedness n. (also in

   sidehill  n.  US a hillside.

   sidekick  n.  colloq.  a close associate.

   sidelight n.  1 a light from the side.  2 incidental information etc.  3
             Brit. a light at the side of the front of a motor vehicle to
             warn of its presence.  4 Naut. the red port or green starboard
             light on a ship under way.

   sideline  n. & v.  --n.  1 work etc. done in addition to one's main
             activity.  2 (usu. in pl.) a a line bounding the side of a
             hockey-pitch, tennis-court, etc.  b the space next to these
             where spectators etc. sit.  --v.tr.  US remove (a player) from a
             team through injury, suspension, etc.  Ьon (or from) the
             sidelines in (or from) a position removed from the main action.

   sidelong  adj. & adv.  --adj. inclining to one side; oblique (a sidelong
             glance).  --adv. obliquely (moved sidelong).  [sideling (as
             SIDE, -LING(2)): see -LONG]

   sidereal  adj.  of or concerning the constellations or fixed stars.
             Ьsidereal clock a clock showing sidereal time.  sidereal day the
             time between successive meridional transits of a star or esp.
             of the first point of Aries, about four minutes shorter than the
             solar day.  sidereal time time measured by the apparent diurnal
             motion of the stars.  sidereal year a year longer than the solar
             year by 20 minutes 23 seconds because of precession.  [L
             sidereus f.  sidus sideris star]

   siderite  n.  1 a mineral form of ferrous carbonate.  2 a meteorite
             consisting mainly of nickel and iron.  [Gk sideros iron]

             n.  an instrument used for keeping the image of a celestial body
             in a fixed position.  [L sidus sideris star, after heliostat]

   sideshow  n.  1 a minor show or attraction in an exhibition or
             entertainment.  2 a minor incident or issue.

   sidesman  n.  (pl.  -men) an assistant churchwarden, who shows worshippers
             to their seats, takes the collection, etc.

   sidestep  n. & v.  --n. a step taken sideways.  --v.tr.  (-stepped,
             -stepping) 1 esp. Football avoid (esp. a tackle) by stepping
             sideways.  2 evade.  ЬЬsidestepper n.

   sidetrack n. & v.  --n. a railway siding.  --v.tr.  1 turn into a siding;
             shunt.  2 a postpone, evade, or divert treatment or
             consideration.  b divert (a person) from considering etc.

   sidewalk  n.  US a pedestrian path at the side of a road; a pavement.

   sideward  adj. & adv.  --adj. = SIDEWAYS.  --adv.  (also sidewards) =

   sideways  adv. & adj.  --adv.  1 to or from a side (moved sideways).  2
             with one side facing forward (sat sideways on the bus).  --adj.
             to or from a side (a sideways movement).  ЬЬsidewise adv. & adj.

             n.  1 a desert rattlesnake, Crotalus cerastes, native to N.
             America, moving with a lateral motion.  2 US a sideways blow.

   siding    n.  1 a short track at the side of and opening on to a railway
             line, used for shunting trains.  2 US cladding material for the
             outside of a building.

   sidle     v. & n.  --v.intr. (usu. foll. by along, up) walk in a timid,
             furtive, stealthy, or cringing manner.  --n. the act or an
             instance of sidling.  [back-form. f.  sideling, SIDELONG]

   SIDS      abbr.  sudden infant death syndrome; = cot-death (see COT(1)).

   siege     n.  1 a a military operation in which an attacking force seeks
             to compel the surrender of a fortified place by surrounding it
             and cutting off supplies etc.  b a similar operation by police
             etc. to force the surrender of an armed person.  c the period
             during which a siege lasts.  2 a persistent attack or campaign
             of persuasion.  Ьlay siege to esp. Mil.  conduct the siege of.
             raise the siege of abandon or cause the abandonment of an
             attempt to take (a place) by siege.  siege-gun hist.  a heavy
             gun used in sieges.  siege-train artillery and other equipment
             for a siege, with vehicles etc.  [ME f. OF sege seat f.
             assegier BESIEGE]

   siemens   n.  Electr.  the SI unit of conductance, equal to one reciprocal
             ohm.  °Abbr.: S.  [W. von Siemens, Ger. electrical engineer, d.

   sienna    n.  1 a kind of ferruginous earth used as a pigment in paint.  2
             its colour of yellowish-brown (raw sienna) or reddish-brown
             (burnt sienna).  [It. (terra di) Sienna (earth of) Siena in

   sierra    n.  a long jagged mountain chain, esp. in Spain or Spanish
             America.  [Sp. f. L serra saw]

   siesta    n.  an afternoon sleep or rest esp. in hot countries.  [Sp. f. L
             sexta (hora) sixth hour]

   sieve     n. & v.  --n. a utensil having a perforated or meshed bottom for
             separating solids or coarse material from liquids or fine
             particles, or for reducing a soft solid to a fine pulp.  --v.tr.
             1 put through or sift with a sieve.  2 examine (evidence etc.)
             to select or separate.  Ьhead like a sieve colloq.  a memory
             that retains little.  ЬЬsievelike adj.  [OE sife f. WG]

   siffleur  n.  (fem.  siffleuse) a professional whistler.  [F f.  siffler

   sift      v.  1 tr. sieve (material) into finer and coarser parts.  2 tr.
             (usu. foll. by from, out) separate (finer or coarser parts) from
             material.  3 tr. sprinkle (esp. sugar) from a perforated
             container.  4 tr. examine (evidence, facts, etc.) in order to
             assess authenticity etc.  5 intr. (of snow, light, etc.) fall as
             if from a sieve.  Ьsift through examine by sifting.  ЬЬsifter n.
             (also in comb.).  [OE siftan f. WG]

   Sig.      abbr.  Signor.

   sigh      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. emit a long deep audible breath
             expressive of sadness, weariness, longing, relief, etc.  2 intr.
             (foll. by for) yearn for (a lost person or thing).  3 tr. utter
             or express with sighs ('Never!' he sighed).  4 intr. (of the
             wind etc.) make a sound like sighing.  --n.  1 the act or an
             instance of sighing.  2 a sound made in sighing (a sigh of
             relief).  [ME sihen etc., prob. back-form. f.  sihte past of
             sihen f. OE sican]

   sight     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the faculty of seeing with the eyes (lost his
             sight).  b the act or an instance of seeing; the state of being
             seen.  2 a thing seen; a display, show, or spectacle (not a
             pretty sight; a beautiful sight).  3 a way of looking at or
             considering a thing (in my sight he can do no wrong).  4 a range
             of space within which a person etc. can see or an object be seen
             (he's out of sight; they are just coming into sight).  5 (usu.
             in pl.) noteworthy features of a town, area, etc. (went to see
             the sights).  6 a a device on a gun or optical instrument used
             for assisting the precise aim or observation.  b the aim or
             observation so gained (got a sight of him).  7 colloq. a person
             or thing having a ridiculous, repulsive, or dishevelled
             appearance (looked a perfect sight).  8 colloq. a great quantity
             (will cost a sight of money; is a sight better than he was).
             --v.tr.  1 get sight of, esp. by approaching (they sighted
             land).  2 observe the presence of (esp. aircraft, animals, etc.)
             (sighted buffalo).  3 take observations of (a star etc.) with an
             instrument.  4 a provide (a gun, quadrant, etc.) with sights.  b
             adjust the sight of (a gun etc.).  c aim (a gun etc.) with
             sights.  Ьat first sight on first glimpse or impression.  at (or
             on) sight as soon as a person or a thing has been seen (plays
             music at sight; liked him on sight).  catch (or lose) sight of
             begin (or cease) to see or be aware of.  get a sight of manage
             to see; glimpse.  have lost sight of no longer know the
             whereabouts of.  in sight 1 visible.  2 near at hand (salvation
             is in sight).  in (or within) sight of so as to see or be seen
             from.  lower one's sights become less ambitious.  out of my
             sight!  go at once!  out of sight 1 not visible.  2 colloq.
             excellent; delightful.  out of sight out of mind we forget the
             absent.  put out of sight hide, ignore.  set one's sights on aim
             at (set her sights on a directorship).  sight for the gods (or
             sight for sore eyes) a welcome person or thing, esp. a visitor.
             sight-glass a transparent device for observing the interior of
             apparatus etc.  sighting shot an experimental shot to guide
             riflemen in adjusting their sights.  sight-line a hypothetical
             line from a person's eye to what is seen.  sight-read (past and
             past part.  -read) read and perform (music) at sight.
             sight-reader a person who sight-reads.  sight-screen Cricket a
             large white screen on wheels placed near the boundary in line
             with the wicket to help the batsman see the ball.  sight-sing
             sing (music) at sight.  sight unseen without previous
             inspection.  ЬЬsighter n.  [OE (ge)sihth]

   sighted   adj.  1 capable of seeing; not blind.  2 (in comb.) having a
             specified kind of sight (long-sighted).

   sightless adj.  1 blind.  2 poet. invisible.  ЬЬsightlessly adv.
             sightlessness n.

   sightly   adj.  attractive to the sight; not unsightly.  ЬЬsightliness n.

   sightseer n.  a person who visits places of interest; a tourist.
             ЬЬsightsee v.intr. & tr.  sightseeing n.

             adj.  worth seeing.

   sigillate adj.  1 (of pottery) having impressed patterns.  2 Bot. having
             seal-like marks.  [L sigillatus f.  sigillum seal dimin. of
             signum sign]

   siglum    n.  (pl.  sigla) a letter (esp. an initial) or other symbol used
             to denote a word in a book, esp. to refer to a particular text.
             [LL sigla (pl.), perh. f.  singula neut. pl. of singulus single]

   sigma     n.  the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.  [L f. Gk]

   sigmate   adj.  1 sigma-shaped.  2 S-shaped.

   sigmoid   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 curved like the uncial sigma;
             crescent-shaped.  2 S-shaped.  --n. (in full sigmoid flexure)
             Anat. the curved part of the intestine between the colon and the
             rectum.  [Gk sigmoeides (as SIGMA)]

   sign      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a thing indicating or suggesting a quality or
             state etc.; a thing perceived as indicating a future state or
             occurrence (violence is a sign of weakness; shows all the signs
             of decay).  b a miracle evidencing supernatural power; a portent
             (did signs and wonders).  2 a a mark, symbol, or device used to
             represent something or to distinguish the thing on which it is
             put (marked the jar with a sign).  b a technical symbol used in
             algebra, music, etc. (a minus sign; a repeat sign).  3 a gesture
             or action used to convey information, an order, request, etc.
             (gave him a sign to leave; conversed by signs).  4 a publicly
             displayed board etc. giving information; a signboard or
             signpost.  5 any objective evidence of a disease, usu. specified
             (Babinski's sign).  6 a password (advanced and gave the sign).
             7 any of the twelve divisions of the zodiac, named from the
             constellations formerly situated in them (the sign of Cancer).
             8 US the trail of a wild animal.  9 Math.  etc. the positiveness
             or negativeness of a quantity.  --v.  1 tr.  a (also absol.)
             write (one's name, initials, etc.) on a document etc. indicating
             that one has authorized it.  b write one's name etc. on (a
             document) as authorization.  2 intr. & tr. communicate by
             gesture (signed to me to come; signed their assent).  3 tr. &
             intr. engage or be engaged by signing a contract etc. (see also
             sign on, sign up).  4 tr. mark with a sign (esp. with the sign
             of the cross in baptism).  Ьmake no sign seem unconscious; not
             protest.  sign and countersign secret words etc. used as
             passwords.  sign away convey (one's right, property, etc.) by
             signing a deed etc.  sign for acknowledge receipt of by signing.
             sign language a system of communication by visual gestures, used
             esp. by the deaf.  sign of the cross a Christian sign made in
             blessing or prayer, by tracing a cross from the forehead to the
             chest and to each shoulder, or in the air.  sign off 1 end work,
             broadcasting, a letter, etc., esp. by writing or speaking one's
             name.  2 a end a period of employment, contract, etc.  b end the
             period of employment or contract of (a person).  3 Brit. stop
             receiving unemployment benefit after finding work.  4 Bridge
             indicate by a conventional bid that one is seeking to end the
             bidding.  sign-off n.  Bridge such a bid.  sign of the times a
             portent etc. showing a likely trend.  sign on 1 agree to a
             contract, employment, etc.  2 begin work, broadcasting, etc.,
             esp. by writing or announcing one's name.  3 employ (a person).
             4 Brit. register as unemployed.  sign-painter (or -writer) a
             person who paints signboards etc.  sign up 1 engage or employ (a
             person).  2 enlist in the armed forces.  3 a commit (another
             person or oneself) by signing etc. (signed you up for dinner).
             b enrol (signed up for evening classes).  ЬЬsignable adj.
             signer n.  [ME f. OF signe, signer f. L signum, signare]

   signal(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a a usu. prearranged sign conveying
             information, guidance, etc. esp. at a distance (waved as a
             signal to begin).  b a message made up of such signs (signals
             made with flags).  2 an immediate occasion or cause of movement,
             action, etc.  (the uprising was a signal for repression).  3
             Electr.  a an electrical impulse or impulses or radio waves
             transmitted as a signal.  b a sequence of these.  4 a light,
             semaphore, etc., on a railway giving instructions or warnings to
             train-drivers etc.  5 Bridge a prearranged mode of bidding or
             play to convey information to one's partner.  --v.  (signalled,
             signalling; US signaled, signaling) 1 intr. make signals.  2 tr.
             a (often foll. by to + infin.) make signals to; direct.  b
             transmit (an order, information, etc.) by signal; announce
             (signalled her agreement; signalled that the town had been
             taken).  Ьsignal-book a list of signals arranged for sending
             esp. naval and military messages.  signal-box Brit.  a building
             beside a railway track from which signals are controlled.
             signal of distress esp. Naut.  an appeal for help, esp. from a
             ship by firing guns.  signal-tower US = signal-box.  ЬЬsignaller
             n.  [ME f. OF f. Rmc & med.L signale neut. of LL signalis f. L
             signum SIGN]

   signal(2) adj.  remarkably good or bad; noteworthy (a signal victory).
             ЬЬsignally adv.  [F signal‚ f. It. past part.  segnalato
             distinguished f.  segnale SIGNAL(1)]

   signalize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make noteworthy or remarkable.  2 lend
             distinction or lustre to.  3 indicate.

   signalman n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a railway employee responsible for operating
             signals and points.  2 a person who displays or receives naval
             etc. signals.

   signary   n.  (pl.  -ies) a list of signs constituting the syllabic or
             alphabetic symbols of a language.  [L signum SIGN + -ARY(1),
             after syllabary]

   signatory n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a party or esp. a State that has
             signed an agreement or esp.  a treaty.  --adj. having signed
             such an agreement etc.  [L signatorius of sealing f.  signare
             signat- mark]

   signature n.  1 a a person's name, initials, or mark used in signing a
             letter, document, etc.  b the act of signing a document etc.  2
             archaic a distinctive action, characteristic, etc.  3 Mus.  a =
             key signature.  b = time signature.  4 Printing a a letter or
             figure placed at the foot of one or more pages of each sheet of
             a book as a guide for binding.  b such a sheet after folding.  5
             US directions given to a patient as part of a medical
             prescription.  Ьsignature tune esp.  Brit.  a distinctive tune
             used to introduce a particular programme or performer on
             television or radio.  [med.L signatura (LL = marking of sheep),
             as SIGNATORY]

   signboard n.  a board with a name or symbol etc. displayed outside a shop
             or hotel etc.

   signet    n.  1 a seal used instead of or with a signature as
             authentication.  2 (prec. by the) the royal seal formerly used
             for special purposes in England and Scotland, and in Scotland
             later as the seal of the Court of Session.  Ьsignet-ring a ring
             with a seal set in it.  [ME f. OF signet or med.L signetum (as

             n.  1 importance; noteworthiness (his opinion is of no
             significance).  2 a concealed or real meaning (what is the
             significance of his statement?).  3 the state of being
             significant.  4 Statistics the extent to which a result deviates
             from a hypothesis such that the difference is due to more than
             errors in sampling.  [OF significance or L significantia (as

             adj.  1 having a meaning; indicative.  2 having an unstated or
             secret meaning; suggestive (refused it with a significant
             gesture).  3 noteworthy; important; consequential (a significant
             figure in history).  4 Statistics of or relating to the
             significance in the difference between an observed and
             calculated result.  Ьsignificant figure Math.  a digit conveying
             information about a number containing it, and not a zero used
             simply to fill vacant space at the beginning or end.
             ЬЬsignificantly adv.  [L significare: see SIGNIFY]

             n.  1 the act of signifying.  2 (usu. foll. by of) exact meaning
             or sense, esp. of a word or phrase.  [ME f. OF f. L significatio
             -onis (as SIGNIFY)]

             adj.  1 (esp. of a symbol etc.) signifying.  2 having a meaning.
             3 (usu. foll. by of) serving as a sign or evidence.  [ME f. OF
             significatif -ive, or LL significativus (as SIGNIFY)]

   signify   v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. be a sign or indication of (a yawn
             signifies boredom).  2 tr. mean; have as its meaning ('Dr'
             signifies 'doctor').  3 tr. communicate; make known (signified
             their agreement).  4 intr. be of importance; matter (it
             signifies little).  ЬЬsignifier n.  [ME f. OF signifier f. L
             significare (as SIGN)]

   signing   n.  a person who has signed a contract, esp. to join a
             professional sports team.

   signor    n.  (pl.  signori) 1 a title or form of address used of or to an
             Italian-speaking man, corresponding to Mr or sir.  2 an Italian
             man.  [It. f. L senior: see SENIOR]

   signora   n.  1 a title or form of address used of or to an
             Italian-speaking married woman, corresponding to Mrs or madam.
             2 a married Italian woman.  [It., fem. of SIGNOR]

   signorina n.  1 a title or form of address used of or to an
             Italian-speaking unmarried woman.  2 an Italian unmarried woman.
             [It., dimin. of SIGNORA]

   signory   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 = SEIGNIORY.  2 hist. the governing body of a
             medieval Italian republic.  [ME f. OF s(e)ignorie (as SEIGNEUR)]

   signpost  n. & v.  --n.  1 a post erected at a crossroads with arms
             indicating the direction to and sometimes also the distance from
             various places.  2 a means of guidance; an indication.  --v.tr.
             1 provide with a signpost or signposts.  2 indicate (a course of
             action, direction, etc.).

   sika      n.  a small forest-dwelling deer, Cervus nippon, native to
             Japan.  [Jap.  shika]

   Sikh      n.  a member of an Indian monotheistic sect founded in the 16th
             c.  [Hindi, = disciple, f. Skr.  sishya]

   Sikhism   n.  the religious tenets of the Sikhs.

   silage    n. & v.  --n.  1 storage in a silo.  2 green fodder that has
             been stored in a silo.  --v.tr. put into a silo.  [alt. of
             ENSILAGE after silo]

   sild      n.  a small immature herring, esp. one caught in N. European
             seas.  [Da. & Norw.]

   silence   n. & v.  --n.  1 absence of sound.  2 abstinence from speech or
             noise.  3 the avoidance of mentioning a thing, betraying a
             secret, etc.  4 oblivion; the state of not being mentioned.
             --v.tr. make silent, esp. by coercion or superior argument.  Ьin
             silence without speech or other sound.  reduce (or put) to
             silence refute in argument.  [ME f. OF f. L silentium (as

   silencer  n.  any of various devices for reducing the noise emitted by the
             exhaust of a motor vehicle, a gun, etc.

   silent    adj.  1 not speaking; not uttering or making or accompanied by
             any sound.  2 (of a letter) written but not pronounced, e.g.  b
             in doubt.  3 (of a film) without a synchronized soundtrack.  4
             (of a person) taciturn; speaking little.  5 saying or recording
             nothing on some subject (the records are silent on the
             incident).  6 (of spirits) unflavoured.  Ьsilent majority those
             of moderate opinions who rarely assert them.  silent partner US
             = sleeping partner (see SLEEP).  ЬЬsilently adv.  [L silere
             silent- be silent]

   silenus   n.  (pl.  sileni) (in Greek mythology) a bearded old man like a
             satyr, sometimes with the tail and legs of a horse.  [L f. Gk

   silex     n.  a kind of glass made of fused quartz.  [L (as SILICA)]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a representation of a person or thing showing
             the outline only, usu. done in solid black on white or cut from
             paper.  2 the dark shadow or outline of a person or thing
             against a lighter background.  --v.tr. represent or (usu. in
             passive) show in silhouette.  Ьin silhouette seen or placed in
             outline.  [ђtienne de Silhouette, Fr. author and politician d.

   silica    n.  silicon dioxide, occurring as quartz etc. and as a principal
             constituent of sandstone and other rocks.  Ьsilica gel hydrated
             silica in a hard granular form used as a desiccant.  ЬЬsiliceous
             adj.  (also silicious).  silicic adj.  silicify v.tr. & intr.
             (-ies, -ied).  silicification n.  [L silex -icis flint, after
             alumina etc.]

   silicate  n.  any of the many insoluble compounds of a metal combined with
             silicon and oxygen, occurring widely in the rocks of the earth's

   silicon   n.  Chem.  a non-metallic element occurring widely in silica and
             silicates, and used in the manufacture of glass.  °Symb.: Si.
             Ьsilicon chip a silicon microchip.  silicon carbide =
             CARBORUNDUM.  Silicon Valley an area with a high concentration
             of electronics industries.  [L silex -icis flint (after carbon,
             boron), alt. of earlier silicium]

   silicone  n.  any of the many polymeric organic compounds of silicon and
             oxygen with high resistance to cold, heat, water, and the
             passage of electricity.

   silicosis n.  lung fibrosis caused by the inhalation of dust containing
             silica.  ЬЬsilicotic adj.

   siliqua   n.  (also silique) (pl.  siliquae or siliques) the long narrow
             seed-pod of a cruciferous plant.  ЬЬsiliquose adj.  siliquous
             adj.  [L, = pod]

   silk      n.  1 a fine strong soft lustrous fibre produced by silkworms in
             making cocoons.  2 a similar fibre spun by some spiders etc.  3
             thread or cloth made from silk fibre.  4 (in pl.) kinds of silk
             cloth or garments made from it, esp. as worn by a jockey in a
             horse-owner's colours.  5 Brit.  colloq. Queen's (or King's)
             Counsel, as having the right to wear a silk gown.  6 (attrib.)
             made of silk (silk blouse).  7 the silky styles of the female
             maize-flower.  Ьsilk cotton kapok or a similar substance.
             silk-fowl a breed of fowl with a silky plumage.  silk-gland a
             gland secreting the substance produced as silk.  silk hat a tall
             cylindrical hat covered with silk plush.  silk moth any of
             various large moths of the family Saturniidae, esp.  Hyalophora
             cecropia.  silk-screen printing = screen printing.  take silk
             Brit.  become a Queen's (or King's) Counsel.  ЬЬsilklike adj.
             [OE sioloc, seolec (cf. ON silki) f. LL sericum neut. of L
             sericus f.  seres f. Gk Seres an oriental people]

   silken    adj.  1 made of silk.  2 wearing silk.  3 soft or lustrous as
             silk.  4 (of a person's manner etc.) suave or insinuating.  [OE
             seolcen (as SILK)]

   silkworm  n.  the caterpillar of the moth Bombyx mori, which spins its
             cocoon of silk.

   silky     adj.  (silkier, silkiest) 1 like silk in smoothness, softness,
             fineness, or lustre.  2 (of a person's manner etc.) suave,
             insinuating.  ЬЬsilkily adv.  silkiness n.

   sill      n.  (also cill) 1 a shelf or slab of stone, wood, or metal at
             the foot of a window or doorway.  2 a horizontal timber at the
             bottom of a dock or lock entrance, against which the gates
             close.  3 Geol. a tabular sheet of igneous rock intruded between
             other rocks and parallel with their planar structure.  [OE syll,

   sillabub  var. of SYLLABUB.

             n.  an aluminium silicate occurring in orthorhombic crystals or
             fibrous masses.  [B.  Silliman, Amer. chemist d. 1864]

   silly     adj. & n.  --adj.  (sillier, silliest) 1 lacking sense; foolish,
             imprudent, unwise.  2 weak-minded.  3 Cricket (of a fielder or
             position) very close to the batsman (silly mid-off).  4 archaic
             innocent, simple, helpless.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq. a foolish
             person.  Ьsilly billy colloq.  a foolish person.  the silly
             season high summer as the season when newspapers often publish
             trivial material for lack of important news.  ЬЬsillily adv.
             silliness n.  [later form of ME sely (dial.  seely) happy, repr.
             OE s‘lig (recorded in uns‘lig unhappy) f. Gmc]

   silo      n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a pit or airtight structure in which
             green crops are pressed and kept for fodder, undergoing
             fermentation.  2 a pit or tower for the storage of grain,
             cement, etc.  3 an underground chamber in which a guided missile
             is kept ready for firing.  --v.tr.  (-oes, -oed) make silage of.
             [Sp. f. L sirus f. Gk siros corn-pit]

   silt      n. & v.  --n. sediment deposited by water in a channel, harbour,
             etc.  --v.tr. & intr. (often foll. by up) choke or be choked
             with silt.  ЬЬsiltation n.  silty adj.  [ME, perh. rel. to Da.,
             Norw.  sylt, OLG sulta, OHG sulza salt marsh, formed as SALT]

   siltstone n.  rock of consolidated silt.

   Silurian  adj. & n.  Geol.  --adj. of or relating to the third period of
             the Palaeozoic era with evidence of the first fish and land
             plants, and the formation of mountains and new land areas.  °Cf.
             Appendix II.  --n. this period or system.  [L Silures, a people
             of ancient SE Wales]

   silva     var. of SYLVA.

   silvan    var. of SYLVAN.

   silver    n., adj., & v.  --n.  Chem.  1 a greyish-white lustrous
             malleable ductile precious metallic element, occurring naturally
             as the element and in mineral form, and used chiefly with an
             admixture of harder metals for coin, plate, and ornaments, as a
             subordinate monetary medium, and in compounds for photography
             etc.  °Symb.: Ag.  2 the colour of silver.  3 silver or
             cupro-nickel coins.  4 esp.  Sc. money.  5 silver vessels or
             implements, esp. cutlery.  6 household cutlery of any material.
             7 = silver medal.  --adj.  1 made wholly or chiefly of silver.
             2 coloured like silver.  --v.  1 tr. coat or plate with silver.
             2 tr. provide (a mirror-glass) with a backing of tin amalgam
             etc.  3 tr. (of the moon or a white light) give a silvery
             appearance to.  4 a tr. turn (the hair) grey or white.  b intr.
             (of the hair) turn grey or white.  Ьsilver age a period regarded
             as inferior to a golden age, e.g. that of post-classical Latin
             literature in the early Imperial period.  silver band Brit.  a
             band playing silver-plated instruments.  silver birch a common
             birch, Betula alba, with silver-coloured bark.  silver fir any
             fir of the genus Abies, with the under-sides of its leaves
             coloured silver.  silver fox 1 an American red fox at a time
             when its fur is black with white tips.  2 its fur.  silver gilt
             1 gilded silver.  2 an imitation gilding of yellow lacquer over
             silver leaf.  silver-grey a lustrous grey.  silver jubilee 1 the
             25th anniversary of a sovereign's accession.  2 any other 25th
             anniversary.  silver Latin literary Latin of the early Imperial
             period.  silver-leaf a fungal disease of fruit trees.  silver
             lining a consolation or hopeful feature in misfortune.  silver
             medal a medal of silver, usu. awarded as second prize.  silver
             nitrate a colourless solid that is soluble in water and formerly
             used in photography.  silver paper 1 a fine white tissue-paper
             for wrapping silver.  2 aluminium or tin foil.  silver plate
             vessels, spoons, etc., of copper etc. plated with silver.
             silver salmon a coho.  silver sand a fine pure sand used in
             gardening.  silver screen (usu. prec. by the) motion pictures
             collectively.  silver solder solder containing silver.  silver
             spoon a sign of future prosperity.  silver standard a system by
             which the value of a currency is defined in terms of silver, for
             which the currency may be exchanged.  silver thaw a glassy
             coating of ice formed on the ground or an exposed surface,
             caused by freezing rain or a sudden light frost.  silver tongue
             eloquence.  silver wedding the 25th anniversary of a wedding.
             silver weed a plant with silvery leaves, esp. a potentilla,
             Potentilla anserina, with silver-coloured leaves.  [OE seolfor
             f. Gmc]

             n.  (pl. same or -fishes) 1 any small silvery wingless insect of
             the order Thysanura, esp.  Lepisma saccharina in houses and