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English language - Dictionaries R...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 R...

   R(1)      n.  (also r) (pl.  Rs or R's) the eighteenth letter of the
             alphabet.  Ьthe r months the months with r in their names
             (September to April) as the season for oysters.

   R(2)      abbr.  (also R.) 1 Regina (Elizabeth R).  2 Rex.  3 River.  4
             (also °) registered as a trademark.  5 (in names of societies
             etc.) Royal.  6 Chess rook.  7 Railway.  8 rand.  9 Regiment.
             10 R‚aumur.  11 radius.  12 roentgen.

   r.        abbr.  (also r) 1 right.  2 recto.  3 run(s).  4 radius.

2.0 RA...

   RA        abbr.  1 a (in the UK) Royal Academy.  b (in the UK) Royal
             Academician.  2 (in the UK) Royal Artillery.  3 right ascension.

   Ra        symb.  Chem.  the element radium.

   RAAF      abbr.  Royal Australian Air Force.

   rabbet    n. & v.  --n. a step-shaped channel etc. cut along the edge or
             face or projecting angle of a length of wood etc., usu. to
             receive the edge or tongue of another piece.  --v.tr.
             (rabbeted, rabbeting) 1 join or fix with a rabbet.  2 make a
             rabbet in.  Ьrabbet plane a plane for cutting a groove along an
             edge.  [ME f. OF rab(b)at abatement, recess f.  rabattre REBATE]

   rabbi     n.  (pl.  rabbis) 1 a Jewish scholar or teacher, esp. of the
             law.  2 a person appointed as a Jewish religious leader.  ЬChief
             Rabbi the religious head of the Jewish communities in Britain.
             ЬЬrabbinate n.  [ME & OE f. eccl.L f. Gk rhabbi f. Heb.  rabbЊ
             my master f.  rab master + pronominal suffix]

             adj.  of or relating to rabbis, or to Jewish law or teaching.
             ЬЬrabbinically adv.

   rabbit    n. & v.  --n.  1 a any of various burrowing gregarious
             plant-eating mammals of the hare family, esp.  Oryctolagus
             cuniculus, with long ears and a short tail, varying in colour
             from brown in the wild to black and white, and kept as a pet or
             for meat.  b US a hare.  c the fur of the rabbit.  2 Brit.
             colloq. a poor performer in any sport or game.  --v.intr.
             (rabbited, rabbiting) 1 hunt rabbits.  2 (often foll. by on,
             away) Brit.  colloq. talk excessively or pointlessly; chatter
             (rabbiting on about his holiday).  Ьrabbit punch a short chop
             with the edge of the hand to the nape of the neck.  rabbit
             warren an area in which rabbits have their burrows, or are kept
             for meat etc.  ЬЬrabbity adj.  [ME perh. f. OF: cf. F dial.
             rabotte, Walloon robЉte, Flem.  robbe]

   rabble(1) n.  1 a disorderly crowd; a mob.  2 a contemptible or inferior
             set of people.  3 (prec. by the) the lower or disorderly classes
             of the populace.  Ьrabble-rouser a person who stirs up the
             rabble or a crowd of people in agitation for social or political
             change.  rabble-rousing adj.  tending to arouse the emotions of
             a crowd.  --n. the act or process of doing this.  [ME: orig.

   rabble(2) n.  an iron bar with a bent end for stirring molten metal etc.
             [F rѓble f. med.L rotabulum, L rutabulum fire-shovel f.  ruere
             rut- rake up]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or like Rabelais or his writings.  2
             marked by exuberant imagination and language, coarse humour, and
             satire.  --n. an admirer or student of Rabelais.  [F.  Rabelais,
             Fr. satirist d. 1553]

   rabid     adj.  1 furious, violent (rabid hate).  2 unreasoning;
             headstrong; fanatical (a rabid anarchist).  3 (esp. of a dog)
             affected with rabies; mad.  4 of or connected with rabies.
             ЬЬrabidity n.  rabidly adv.  rabidness n.  [L rabidus f.  rabere

   rabies    n.  a contagious and fatal viral disease esp. of dogs,
             transmissible through the saliva to humans etc. and causing
             madness and convulsions; hydrophobia.  [L f.  rabere rave]

   RAC       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Automobile Club.  2 (in the UK) Royal
             Armoured Corps.

   raccoon   var. of RACOON.

   race(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a contest of speed between runners, horses,
             vehicles, ships, etc.  2 (in pl.) a series of these for horses,
             dogs, etc. at a fixed time on a regular course.  3 a contest
             between persons to be first to achieve something.  4 a a strong
             or rapid current flowing through a narrow channel in the sea or
             a river (a tide race).  b the channel of a stream etc. (a
             mill-race).  5 each of two grooved rings in a ball-bearing or
             roller bearing.  6 Austral. a fenced passageway for drafting
             sheep etc.  7 a passageway along which football players etc. run
             to enter the field.  8 (in weaving) the channel along which the
             shuttle moves.  9 archaic a the course of the sun or moon.  b
             the course of life (has run his race).  --v.  1 intr. take part
             in a race.  2 tr. have a race with.  3 tr. try to surpass in
             speed.  4 intr. (foll. by with) compete in speed with.  5 tr.
             cause (a horse, car, etc.) to race.  6 a intr. go at full or (of
             an engine, propeller, the pulse, etc.) excessive speed.  b tr.
             cause (a person or thing) to do this (raced the bill through the
             House).  7 intr. (usu. as racing adj.) follow or take part in
             horse-racing (a racing man).  Ьnot in the race Austral.  sl.
             having no chance.  race meeting a sequence of horse-races at one
             place.  racing car a motor car built for racing on a prepared
             track.  [ME, = running, f. ON r s]

   race(2)   n.  1 each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct
             physical characteristics.  2 a tribe, nation, etc., regarded as
             of a distinct ethnic stock.  3 the fact or concept of division
             into races (discrimination based on race).  4 a genus, species,
             breed, or variety of animals, plants, or micro-organisms.  5 a
             group of persons, animals, or plants connected by common
             descent.  6 any great division of living creatures (the
             feathered race; the four-footed race).  7 descent; kindred (of
             noble race; separate in language and race).  8 a class of
             persons etc. with some common feature (the race of poets).
             Ьrace relations relations between members of different races
             usu. in the same country.  race riot an outbreak of violence due
             to racial antagonism.  [F f. It.  razza, of unkn. orig.]

   race(3)   n.  a ginger root.  [OF rais, raiz f. L radix radicis root]

   racecard  n.  a programme of races.

             n.  a ground or track for horse-racing.

   racegoer  n.  a person who frequents horse-races.

   racehorse n.  a horse bred or kept for racing.

   racemate  n.  Chem.  a racemic mixture.

   raceme    n.  Bot.  a flower cluster with the separate flowers attached by
             short equal stalks at equal distances along a central stem (cf.
             CYME).  [L racemus grape-bunch]

   racemic   adj.  Chem.  composed of equal numbers of dextrorotatory and
             laevorotatory molecules of a compound.  ЬЬracemize v.tr. & intr.
             (also -ise).  [RACEME + -IC, orig. of tartaric acid in

   racemose  adj.  1 Bot. in the form of a raceme.  2 Anat. (of a gland etc.)
             clustered.  [L racemosus (as RACEME)]

   racer     n.  1 a horse, yacht, bicycle, etc., of a kind used for racing.
             2 a circular horizontal rail along which the traversing-platform
             of a heavy gun moves.  3 a person or thing that races.

   racetrack n.  1 = RACECOURSE.  2 a track for motor-racing.

   raceway   n.  1 a track or channel along which something runs, esp.: a a
             channel for water.  b a groove in which ball-bearings run.  c a
             pipe or tubing enclosing electrical wires.  2 esp.  US a a track
             for trotting, pacing, or harness racing.  b a racecourse.

   rachis    n.  (pl.  rachides) 1 Bot.  a a stem of grass etc. bearing
             flower-stalks at short intervals.  b the axis of a compound leaf
             or frond.  2 Anat. the vertebral column or the cord from which
             it develops.  3 Zool. a feather-shaft, esp. the part bearing the
             barbs.  ЬЬrachidial adj.  [mod.L f. Gk rhakhis spine: the E pl.
             -ides is erron.]

   rachitis  n.  rickets.  ЬЬrachitic adj.  [mod.L f. Gk rhakhitis (as

             n.  Brit.  the exploitation and intimidation of slum tenants by
             unscrupulous landlords.  [P.  Rachman, London landlord of the
             early 1960s]

   racial    adj.  1 of or concerning race (racial diversities; racial
             minority).  2 on the grounds of or connected with difference in
             race (racial discrimination; racial tension).  ЬЬracially adv.

   racialism n.  = RACISM 1.  ЬЬracialist n. & adj.

   racism    n.  1 a a belief in the superiority of a particular race;
             prejudice based on this.  b antagonism towards other races, esp.
             as a result of this.  2 the theory that human abilities etc. are
             determined by race.  ЬЬracist n. & adj.

   rack(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a framework usu. with rails, bars, hooks,
             etc., for holding or storing things.  b a frame for holding
             animal fodder.  2 a cogged or toothed bar or rail engaging with
             a wheel or pinion etc., or using pegs to adjust the position of
             something.  3 hist. an instrument of torture stretching the
             victim's joints by the turning of rollers to which the wrists
             and ankles were tied.  --v.tr.  1 (of disease or pain) inflict
             suffering on.  2 hist. torture (a person) on the rack.  3 place
             in or on a rack.  4 shake violently.  5 injure by straining.  6
             oppress (tenants) by exacting excessive rent.  7 exhaust (the
             land) by excessive use.  Ьon the rack in distress or under
             strain.  rack one's brains make a great mental effort (racked my
             brains for something to say).  rack-railway a railway with a
             cogged rail between the bearing rails.  rack-rent n.  1 a high
             rent, annually equalling the full value of the property to which
             it relates.  2 an extortionate rent.  --v.tr. exact this from (a
             tenant) or for (land).  rack-renter a tenant paying or a
             landlord exacting an extortionate rent.  rack-up US achieve (a
             score etc.).  rack-wheel a cog-wheel.  [ME rakke f. MDu., MLG
             rak, rek, prob. f.  recken stretch]

   rack(2)   n.  destruction ( esp.  rack and ruin).  [var. of WRACK, WRECK]

   rack(3)   n.  a joint of lamb etc. including the front ribs.  [perh. f.

   rack(4)   v.tr.  (often foll. by off) draw off (wine, beer, etc.) from the
             lees.  [ME f. Prov.  arracar f.  raca stems and husks of grapes,

   rack(5)   n. & v.  --n. driving clouds.  --v.intr. (of clouds) be driven
             before the wind.  [ME, prob. of Scand. orig.: cf. Norw. and Sw.
             dial.  rak wreckage etc. f.  reka drive]

   rack(6)   n. & v.  --n. a horse's gait between a trot and a canter.
             --v.intr. progress in this way.

   racket(1) n.  (also racquet) 1 a bat with a round or oval frame strung
             with catgut, nylon, etc., used in tennis, squash, etc.  2 (in
             pl.) a ball game for two or four persons played with rackets in
             a plain four-walled court.  3 a snow shoe resembling a racket.
             Ьracket-ball a small hard orig. kid-covered ball of cork and
             string.  racket-press a press for keeping rackets taut and in
             shape.  racket-tail a S. American humming-bird, Loddigesia
             mirabilis, with a racket-shaped tail.  [F racquette f. It.
             racchetta f. Arab.  raha palm of the hand]

   racket(2) n.  1 a a disturbance; an uproar; a din.  b social excitement;
             gaiety.  2 sl.  a a scheme for obtaining money or attaining
             other ends by fraudulent and often violent means.  b a dodge; a
             sly game.  3 colloq. an activity; a way of life; a line of
             business (starting up a new racket).  ЬЬrackety adj.  [16th c.:
             perh. imit.]

   racketeer n.  a person who operates a dishonest business.  ЬЬracketeering

   racon     n.  esp.  US a radar beacon that can be identified and located
             by its response to a radar signal from a ship etc.  [radar + bea

   raconteur n.  (fem.  raconteuse) a teller of anecdotes.  [F f.  raconter
             relate, RECOUNT]

   racoon    n.  (also raccoon) 1 any greyish-brown furry N. American
             nocturnal flesh-eating mammal of the genus Procyon, with a bushy
             tail and sharp snout.  2 the fur of the racoon.  [Algonquian

   racquet   var. of RACKET(1).

   racy      adj.  (racier, raciest) 1 lively and vigorous in style.  2
             risqu‚, suggestive.  3 having characteristic qualities in a high
             degree (a racy flavour).  ЬЬracily adv.  raciness n.  [RACE(2) +

   rad(1)    n.  (pl. same) radian.  [abbr.]

   rad(2)    n.  sl.  a political radical.  [abbr.]

   rad(3)    n.  Physics a unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation,
             corresponding to the absorption of 0.01 joule per kilogram of
             absorbing material.  [radiation absorbed dose]

   RADA      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Academy of Dramatic Art.

   radar     n.  1 a system for detecting the direction, range, or presence
             of aircraft, ships, and other (usu. moving) objects, by sending
             out pulses of high frequency electromagnetic waves.  2 the
             apparatus used for this.  Ьradar trap the use of radar to detect
             vehicles exceeding a speed limit.  [radio detection and ranging]

   RADC      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Army Dental Corps.

   raddle    n. & v.  --n. red ochre (often used to mark sheep).  --v.tr.  1
             colour with raddle or too much rouge.  2 (as raddled adj.) worn
             out; untidy, unkempt.  [var. of RUDDLE]

   radial    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of, concerning, or in rays.  2 a arranged
             like rays or radii; having the position or direction of a
             radius.  b having spokes or radiating lines.  c acting or moving
             along lines diverging from a centre.  3 Anat. relating to the
             radius (radial artery).  4 (in full radial-ply) (of a vehicle
             tyre) having the core fabric layers arranged radially at right
             angles to the circumference and the tread strengthened.  --n.  1
             Anat. the radial nerve or artery.  2 a radial-ply tyre.  Ьradial
             engine an engine having cylinders arranged along radii.  radial
             symmetry symmetry occurring about any number of lines or planes
             passing through the centre of an organism etc.  radial velocity
             esp. Astron.  the speed of motion along a radial line, esp.
             between a star etc.  and an observer.  ЬЬradially adv.  [med.L
             radialis (as RADIUS)]

   radian    n.  Geom.  a unit of angle, equal to an angle at the centre of a
             circle the arc of which is equal in length to the radius.
             [RADIUS + -AN]

   radiant   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 emitting rays of light.  2 (of eyes or
             looks) beaming with joy or hope or love.  3 (of beauty) splendid
             or dazzling.  4 (of light) issuing in rays.  5 operating
             radially.  6 extending radially; radiating.  --n.  1 the point
             or object from which light or heat radiates, esp.  in an
             electric or gas heater.  2 Astron. a radiant point.  Ьradiant
             heat heat transmitted by radiation, not by conduction or
             convection.  radiant heater a heater that works by this method.
             radiant point 1 a point from which rays or radii proceed.  2
             Astron. the apparent focal point of a meteor shower.  ЬЬradiance
             n.  radiancy n.  radiantly adv.  [ME f. L radiare (as RADIUS)]

   radiate   v. & adj.  --v.  1 intr.  a emit rays of light, heat, or other
             electromagnetic waves.  b (of light or heat) be emitted in rays.
             2 tr. emit (light, heat, or sound) from a centre.  3 tr.
             transmit or demonstrate (life, love, joy, etc.) (radiates
             happiness).  4 intr. & tr. diverge or cause to diverge or spread
             from a centre.  5 tr. (as radiated adj.) with parts arranged in
             rays.  --adj.  having divergent rays or parts radially arranged.
             ЬЬradiately adv.  radiative adj.  [L radiare radiat- (as

   radiation n.  1 the act or an instance of radiating; the process of being
             radiated.  2 Physics a the emission of energy as electromagnetic
             waves or as moving particles.  b the energy transmitted in this
             way, esp. invisibly.  3 (in full radiation therapy) treatment of
             cancer and other diseases using radiation, such as X-rays or
             ultraviolet light.  Ьradiation chemistry the study of the
             chemical effects of radiation on matter.  radiation sickness
             sickness caused by exposure to radiation, such as X-rays or
             gamma rays.  ЬЬradiational adj.  radiationally adv.  [L radiatio
             (as RADIATE)]

   radiator  n.  1 a person or thing that radiates.  2 a a device for heating
             a room etc., consisting of a metal case through which hot water
             or steam circulates.  b a usu. portable oil or electric heater
             resembling this.  3 an engine-cooling device in a motor vehicle
             or aircraft with a large surface for cooling circulating water.
             Ьradiator grille a grille at the front of a motor vehicle
             allowing air to circulate to the radiator.

   radical   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of the root or roots; fundamental (a
             radical error).  2 far-reaching; thorough; going to the root
             (radical change).  3 a advocating thorough reform; holding
             extreme political views; revolutionary.  b (of a measure etc.)
             advanced by or according to principles of this kind.  4 forming
             the basis; primary (the radical idea).  5 Math. of the root of a
             number or quantity.  6 (of surgery etc.) seeking to ensure the
             removal of all diseased tissue.  7 of the roots of words.  8
             Mus. belonging to the root of a chord.  9 Bot. of, or springing
             direct from, the root.  10 hist. belonging to an extreme section
             of the Liberal party.  11 US hist. seeking extreme anti-South
             action at the time of the Civil War.  --n.  1 a person holding
             radical views or belonging to a radical party.  2 Chem.  a a
             free radical.  b an element or atom or a group of these normally
             forming part of a compound and remaining unaltered during the
             compound's ordinary chemical changes.  3 the root of a word.  4
             a fundamental principle; a basis.  5 Math.  a a quantity forming
             or expressed as the root of another.  b a radical sign.
             Ьradical sign indicating the square, cube, etc., root of the
             number following.  ЬЬradicalism n.  radicalize v.tr. & intr.
             (also -ise).  radicalization n.  radically adv.  radicalness n.
             [ME f. LL radicalis f. L radix radicis root]

   radicchio n.  (pl.  -os) a variety of chicory with dark red-coloured
             leaves.  [It., = chicory]

   radices   pl. of RADIX.

   radicle   n.  1 the part of a plant embryo that develops into the primary
             root; a rootlet.  2 a rootlike subdivision of a nerve or vein.
             ЬЬradicular adj.  [L radicula (as RADIX)]

   radii     pl. of RADIUS.

   radio     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 (often attrib.) a the transmission
             and reception of sound messages etc. by electromagnetic waves of
             radio-frequency (cf.  WIRELESS).  b an apparatus for receiving,
             broadcasting, or transmitting radio signals.  c a message sent
             or received by radio.  2 a sound broadcasting in general
             (prefers the radio).  b a broadcasting station or channel (Radio
             One).  --v.  (-oes, -oed) 1 tr.  a send (a message) by radio.  b
             send a message to (a person) by radio.  2 intr. communicate or
             broadcast by radio.  Ьradio astronomy the branch of astronomy
             concerned with the radio-frequency range of the electromagnetic
             spectrum.  radio cab (or car) a cab or car equipped with a
             two-way radio.  radio fix the position of an aircraft, ship,
             etc., found by radio.  radio galaxy a galaxy emitting radiation
             in the radio-frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
             radio ham see HAM.  radio star a small star etc. emitting strong
             radio waves.  radio telescope a directional aerial system for
             collecting and analysing radiation in the radio-frequency range
             from stars etc.  [short for radio-telegraphy etc.]

   radio-    comb. form 1 denoting radio or broadcasting.  2 a connected with
             radioactivity.  b denoting artificially prepared radioisotopes
             of elements (radio-caesium).  3 connected with rays or
             radiation.  4 Anat. belonging to the radius in conjunction with
             some other part (radio-carpal).  [RADIUS + -O- or f.  RADIO]

             adj.  of or exhibiting radioactivity.  ЬЬradioactively adv.

             n.  the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nucleii, with the
             emission of usu. penetrating radiation or particles.

             n.  an analysis of a substance based on radiation from a sample.

             n.  the biology concerned with the effects of radiation on
             organisms and the application in biology of radiological
             techniques.  ЬЬradiobiological adj.  radiobiologically adv.
             radiobiologist n.

             n.  a radioactive isotope of carbon.  Ьradiocarbon dating =
             carbon dating.

             n.  the chemistry of radioactive materials.  ЬЬradiochemical
             adj.  radiochemist n.

             adj.  (of a model aircraft etc.) controlled from a distance by

             n.  a natural or artificial radioactive element or isotope.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) the frequency band of telecommunication, ranging
             from 10(4)-10(11) or 10(12) Hz.

             adj.  1 produced by radioactivity.  2 suitable for broadcasting
             by radio.  ЬЬradiogenically adv.

             n.  an instrument for finding direction using radio waves.

   radiogram n.  1 Brit. a combined radio and record-player.  2 a picture
             obtained by X-rays, gamma rays, etc.  3 a radio-telegram.
             [RADIO- + -GRAM, GRAMOPHONE]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 an instrument recording the intensity of
             radiation.  2 = RADIOGRAM 2.  --v.tr. obtain a picture of by
             X-ray, gamma ray, etc.  ЬЬradiographer n.  radiographic adj.
             radiographically adv.  radiography n.

             n.  the application of radiological techniques in immunology.

             n.  a radioactive isotope.  ЬЬradioisotopic adj.
             radioisotopically adv.

             n.  any marine protozoan of the order Radiolaria, having a
             siliceous skeleton and radiating pseudopodia.  [mod.L radiolaria
             f. L radiolus dimin. of RADIUS]

   radiology n.  the scientific study of X-rays and other high-energy
             radiation, esp. as used in medicine.  ЬЬradiologic adj.
             radiological adj.  radiologist n.

             n.  an instrument for measuring the intensity or force of
             radiation.  ЬЬradiometry n.

             adj.  of or relating to the measurement of radioactivity.
             Ьradiometric dating a method of dating geological specimens by
             determining the relative proportions of the isotopes of a
             radioactive element present in a sample.

   radionics n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) the study and interpretation of
             radiation believed to be emitted from substances, esp. as a form
             of diagnosis.  [RADIO- + - onics, after ELECTRONICS]

             n.  a radioactive nuclide.

             adj.  (also radio-opaque) opaque to X-rays or similar radiation.
             ЬЬradiopacity n.  [RADIO- + OPAQUE]

             adj.  of or relating to synthetic sound, esp. music, produced

             n.  the examination by X-rays etc. of objects opaque to light.
             ЬЬradioscopic adj.

             n.  a miniature radio transmitter broadcasting information about
             pressure, temperature, etc., from various levels of the
             atmosphere, carried esp. by balloon.  [RADIO- + G Sonde probe]

             n.  a telegram sent by radio, usu. from a ship to land.

             n.  telegraphy using radio transmission.  ЬЬradio-telegraph n.

             n.  telephony using radio transmission.  ЬЬradio-telephone n.
             radio-telephonic adj.

             n.  a telex sent usu. from a ship to land.

             n.  the treatment of disease by X-rays or other forms of
             radiation.  ЬЬradiotherapeutic adj.  radiotherapist n.

   radish    n.  1 a cruciferous plant, Raphanus sativus, with a fleshy
             pungent root.  2 this root, eaten esp. raw in salads etc.  [OE
             r‘dic f. L radix radicis root]

   radium    n.  Chem.  a radioactive metallic element orig. obtained from
             pitchblende etc., used esp. in luminous materials and in
             radiotherapy.  °Symb.: Ra.  Ьradium bomb a container holding a
             large quantity of radium and used in radiotherapy as a source of
             gamma rays.  radium emanation = RADON.  radium therapy the
             treatment of disease by the use of radium.  [L radius ray]

   radius    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  radii or radiuses) 1 Math.  a a straight
             line from the centre to the circumference of a circle or sphere.
             b a radial line from the focus to any point of a curve.  c the
             length of the radius of a circle etc.  2 a usu. specified
             distance from a centre in all directions (within a radius of 20
             miles; has a large radius of action).  3 a the thicker and
             shorter of the two bones in the human forearm (cf.  ULNA).  b
             the corresponding bone in a vertebrate's foreleg or a bird's
             wing.  4 any of the five arm-like structures of a starfish.  5 a
             any of a set of lines diverging from a point like the radii of a
             circle.  b an object of this kind, e.g. a spoke.  6 a the outer
             rim of a composite flower-head, e.g. a daisy.  b a radiating
             branch of an umbel.  --v.tr. give a rounded form to (an edge
             etc.).  Ьradius vector Math.  a variable line drawn from a fixed
             point to an orbit or other curve, or to any point as an
             indication of the latter's position.  [L, = staff, spoke, ray]

   radix     n.  (pl.  radices) 1 Math. a number or symbol used as the basis
             of a numeration scale (e.g.  ten in the decimal system).  2
             (usu. foll. by of) a source or origin.  [L, = root]

   radome    n.  a dome or other structure, transparent to radio waves,
             protecting radar equipment, esp. on the outer surface of an
             aircraft.  [radar + dome]

   radon     n.  Chem.  a gaseous radioactive inert element arising from the
             disintegration of radium, and used in radiotherapy.  °Symb.: Rn.
             [RADIUM after argon etc.]

   radula    n.  (pl.  radulae) a filelike structure in molluscs for scraping
             off food particles and drawing them into the mouth.  ЬЬradular
             adj.  [L, = scraper f.  radere scrape]

   RAF       abbr.  colloq.  (in the UK) Royal Air Force.

   Rafferty's rules
             n.  Austral. & NZ colloq.  no rules at all, esp. in boxing.  [E
             dial. corrupt. of refractory]

   raffia    n.  (also raphia) 1 a palm-tree, Raphia ruffia, native to
             Madagascar, having very long leaves.  2 the fibre from its
             leaves used for making hats, baskets, etc., and for tying plants
             etc.  [Malagasy]

   raffinate n.  Chem.  a refined liquid oil produced by solvent extraction
             of impurities.  [F raffiner + -ATE(1)]

   raffish   adj.  1 disreputable; rakish.  2 tawdry.  ЬЬraffishly adv.
             raffishness n.  [as RAFT(2) + -ISH(1)]

   raffle(1) n. & v.  --n. a fund-raising lottery with goods as prizes.
             --v.tr. (often foll. by off) dispose of by means of a raffle.
             [ME, a kind of dice-game, f. OF raf(f)le, of unkn. orig.]

   raffle(2) n.  1 rubbish; refuse.  2 lumber; debris.  [ME, perh. f. OF ne
             rifle, ne rafle nothing at all]

   raft(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a flat floating structure of timber or other
             materials for conveying persons or things.  2 a lifeboat or
             small (often inflatable) boat, esp. for use in emergencies.  3 a
             floating accumulation of trees, ice, etc.  --v.  1 tr. transport
             as or on a raft.  2 tr. cross (water) on a raft.  3 tr. form
             into a raft.  4 intr. (often foll. by across) work a raft
             (across water etc.).  [ME f. ON raptr RAFTER]

   raft(2)   n.  colloq.  1 a large collection.  2 (foll. by of) a crowd.
             [raff rubbish, perh. of Scand. orig.]

   rafter(1) n.  each of the sloping beams forming the framework of a roof.
             ЬЬraftered adj.  [OE r‘fter, rel. to RAFT(1)]

   rafter(2) n.  1 a person who rafts timber.  2 a person who travels by

   raftsman  n.  (pl.  -men) a worker on a raft.

   rag(1)    n.  1 a a torn, frayed, or worn piece of woven material.  b one
             of the irregular scraps to which cloth etc. is reduced by wear
             and tear.  2 (in pl.) old or worn clothes.  3 (collect.) scraps
             of cloth used as material for paper, stuffing, etc.  4 derog.  a
             a newspaper.  b a flag, handkerchief, curtain, etc.  5 (usu.
             with neg.) the smallest scrap of cloth etc. (not a rag to cover
             him).  6 an odd scrap; an irregular piece.  7 a jagged
             projection, esp. on metal.  Ьin rags 1 much torn.  2 in old torn
             clothes.  rag-and-bone man Brit.  an itinerant dealer in old
             clothes, furniture, etc.  rag-bag 1 a bag in which scraps of
             fabric etc. are kept for use.  2 a miscellaneous collection.  3
             sl. a sloppily-dressed woman.  rag bolt a bolt with barbs to
             keep it tight when it has been driven in.  rag book a children's
             book made of untearable cloth.  rag doll a stuffed doll made of
             cloth.  rag paper paper made from rags.  rag-picker a collector
             and seller of rags.  rags to riches poverty to affluence.  rag
             trade colloq.  the business of designing, making, and selling
             women's clothes.  [ME, prob. back-form. f.  RAGGED]

   rag(2)    n. & v.  sl.  --n.  Brit.  1 a fund-raising programme of stunts,
             parades, and entertainment organized by students.  2 colloq. a
             prank.  3 a a rowdy celebration.  b a noisy disorderly scene.
             --v.  (ragged, ragging) 1 tr. tease; torment; play rough jokes
             on.  2 tr. scold; reprove severely.  3 intr.  Brit. engage in
             rough play; be noisy and riotous.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.: cf.

   rag(3)    n.  1 a large coarse roofing-slate.  2 any of various kinds of
             hard coarse sedimentary stone that break into thick slabs.  [ME:
             orig. unkn., but assoc. with RAG(1)]

   rag(4)    n.  Mus.  a ragtime composition or tune.  [perh. f.  RAGGED: see

   raga      n.  (also rag) Ind.  Mus.  1 a pattern of notes used as a basis
             for improvisation.  2 a piece using a particular raga.  [Skr., =
             colour, musical tone]

             n.  a person in ragged dirty clothes, esp. a child.  [prob.
             based on RAG(1): cf. 14th-c.  ragamoffyn the name of a demon]

   rage      n. & v.  --n.  1 fierce or violent anger.  2 a fit of this (flew
             into a rage).  3 the violent action of a natural force (the rage
             of the storm).  4 (foll. by for) a a vehement desire or passion.
             b a widespread temporary enthusiasm or fashion.  5 poet. poetic,
             prophetic, or martial enthusiasm or ardour.  6 sl. a lively
             frolic.  --v.intr.  1 be full of anger.  2 (often foll. by at,
             against) speak furiously or madly; rave.  3 (of wind, battle,
             fever, etc.) be violent; be at its height; continue unchecked.
             4 Austral.  sl. seek enjoyment; go on a spree.  Ьall the rage
             popular, fashionable.  [ME f. OF rager ult. f. L RABIES]

   ragee     n.  (also raggee) a coarse cereal, Eleusine coracana, forming a
             staple food in parts of India etc.  [Hindi ragi]

   ragged    adj.  1 (of clothes etc.) torn; frayed.  2 rough; shaggy;
             hanging in tufts.  3 (of a person) in ragged clothes.  4 with a
             broken or jagged outline or surface.  5 faulty; imperfect.  6
             lacking finish, smoothness, or uniformity (ragged rhymes).  7
             exhausted (esp. be run ragged).  Ьragged robin a pink-flowered
             campion, Lychnis flos-cuculi, with tattered petals.  ЬЬraggedly
             adv.  raggedness n.  raggedy adj.  [ME f. ON roggvathr tufted]

   raggee    var. of RAGEE.

             adj.  (also wraggle-taggle) ragged; rambling, straggling.  [app.
             fanciful var. of RAGTAG]

   raglan    n.  (often attrib.) an overcoat without shoulder seams, the
             sleeves running up to the neck.  Ьraglan sleeve a sleeve of this
             kind.  [Lord Raglan, Brit. commander d. 1855]

   ragout    n. & v.  --n. meat in small pieces stewed with vegetables and
             highly seasoned.  --v.tr. cook (food) in this way .  [F rago–t
             f.  rago–ter revive the taste of]

   ragstone  n.  = RAG(3) 2.

   ragtag    n. (in full ragtag and bobtail) derog.  the rabble or common
             people.  [earlier tag-rag, tag and rag, f.  RAG(1) + TAG(1)]

   ragtime   n. & adj.  --n. music characterized by a syncopated melodic line
             and regularly-accented accompaniment, evolved by American Black
             musicians in the 1890s and played esp. on the piano.  --adj.
             sl. disorderly, disreputable, inferior (a ragtime army).  [prob.
             f.  RAG(4)]

   raguly    adj.  Heraldry like a row of sawn-off branches.  [perh. f.
             RAGGED after nebuly]

   ragweed   n.  1 = RAGWORT.  2 US any plant of the genus Ambrosia, with
             allergenic pollen.

   ragwort   n.  any yellow-flowered ragged-leaved plant of the genus

   rah       int.  esp.  US colloq.  an expression of encouragement,
             approval, etc.  [shortening of HURRAH]

   raid      n. & v.  --n.  1 a rapid surprise attack, esp.: a by troops,
             aircraft, etc. in warfare.  b to commit a crime or do harm.  2 a
             surprise attack by police etc. to arrest suspected persons or
             seize illicit goods.  3 Stock Exch. an attempt to lower prices
             by the concerted selling of shares.  4 (foll. by on, upon) a
             forceful or insistent attempt to make a person or thing provide
             something.  --v.tr.  1 make a raid on (a person, place, or
             thing).  2 plunder, deplete .  ЬЬraider n.  [ME, Sc. form of OE
             rad ROAD(1)]

   rail(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a level or sloping bar or series of bars: a
             used to hang things on.  b running along the top of a set of
             banisters.  c forming part of a fence or barrier as protection
             against contact, falling over, etc.  2 a steel bar or continuous
             line of bars laid on the ground, usu. as one of a pair forming a
             railway track.  3 (often attrib.) a railway (send it by rail;
             rail fares).  4 (in pl.) the inside boundary fence of a
             racecourse.  5 a horizontal piece in the frame of a panelled
             door etc.  (cf.  STILE(2)).  --v.tr.  1 furnish with a rail or
             rails.  2 (usu. foll. by in, off) enclose with rails (a small
             space was railed off).  3 convey (goods) by rail.  Ьoff the
             rails disorganized; out of order; deranged.  over the rails over
             the side of a ship.  rail fence esp.  US a fence made of posts
             and rails.  rail gun an electromagnetic projectile launcher used
             esp. as an anti-missile weapon.  ЬЬrailage n.  railless adj.
             [ME f. OF reille iron rod f. L regula RULE]

   rail(2)   v.intr.  (often foll. by at, against) complain using abusive
             language; rant.  ЬЬrailer n.  railing n. & adj.  [ME f. F
             railler f. Prov.  ralhar jest, ult. f. L rugire bellow]

   rail(3)   n.  any bird of the family Rallidae, often inhabiting marshes,
             esp.  the corncrake and water rail.  [ME f. ONF raille f. Rmc,
             perh. imit.]

   railcar   n.  a railway vehicle consisting of a single powered coach.

   railcard  n.  Brit.  a pass entitling the holder to reduced rail fares.

   railhead  n.  1 the farthest point reached by a railway under
             construction.  2 the point on a railway at which road transport
             of goods begins.

   railing   n.  1 (usu. in pl.) a fence or barrier made of rails.  2 the
             material for these.

   raillery  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 good-humoured ridicule; rallying.  2 an
             instance of this.  [F raillerie (as RAIL(2))]

   railman   n.  (pl.  -men) = RAILWAYMAN.

   railroad  n. & v.  --n. esp.  US = RAILWAY.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by
             to, into, through, etc.) rush or coerce (a person or thing)
             (railroaded me into going too).  2 send (a person) to prison by
             means of false evidence.

   railway   n.  1 a track or set of tracks made of steel rails upon which
             goods trucks and passenger trains run.  2 such a system worked
             by a single company (Great Western Railway).  3 the organization
             and personnel required for its working.  4 a similar set of
             tracks for other vehicles etc.  Ьrailway-yard the area where
             rolling-stock is kept and made up into trains.

             n.  (pl.  -men) a railway employee.

   raiment   n.  archaic clothing.  [ME f. obs.  arrayment (as ARRAY)]

   rain      n. & v.  --n.  1 a the condensed moisture of the atmosphere
             falling visibly in separate drops.  b the fall of such drops.  2
             (in pl.) a rainfalls.  b (prec. by the) the rainy season in
             tropical countries.  3 a falling liquid or solid particles or
             objects.  b the rainlike descent of these.  c a large or
             overwhelming quantity (a rain of congratulations).  --v.  1
             intr. (prec. by it as subject) rain falls (it is raining; if it
             rains).  2 a intr. fall in showers or like rain (tears rained
             down their cheeks; blows rain upon him).  b tr. (prec. by it as
             subject) send in large quantities (it rained blood; it is
             raining invitations).  3 tr. send down like rain; lavishly
             bestow (rained benefits on us; rained blows upon him).  4 intr.
             (of the sky, the clouds, etc.) send down rain.  Ьrain cats and
             dogs see CAT.  rain check US 1 a ticket given for later use when
             a sporting fixture or other outdoor event is interrupted or
             postponed by rain.  2 a promise that an offer will be maintained
             though deferred.  rain-cloud a cloud bringing rain.  rain forest
             luxuriant tropical forest with heavy rainfall.  rain-gauge an
             instrument measuring rainfall.  rain-making the action of
             attempting to increase rainfall by artificial means.  rain off
             (or US out) (esp. in passive) cause (an event etc.) to be
             terminated or cancelled because of rain.  rain or shine whether
             it rains or not.  rain-shadow a region shielded from rain by
             mountains etc.  rain-wash 1 loose material carried away by rain.
             2 the movement of this.  rain-worm the common earthworm.
             ЬЬrainless adj.  raintight adj.  [OE regn, ren, regnian f. Gmc]

   rainbird  n.  a bird said to foretell rain by its cry, esp. the green

   rainbow   n. & adj.  --n.  1 an arch of colours (conventionally red,
             orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) formed in the sky
             (or across a cataract etc.) opposite the sun by reflection,
             twofold refraction, and dispersion of the sun's rays in falling
             rain or in spray or mist.  2 a similar effect formed by the
             moon's rays.  --adj. many-coloured.  Ьrainbow lorikeet a small
             brightly coloured Polynesian parrot, Trichoglossus haematodus.
             rainbow trout a large trout, Salmo gairdneri, orig. of the
             Pacific coast of N. America.  secondary rainbow an additional
             arch with the colours in reverse order formed inside or outside
             a rainbow by twofold reflection and twofold refraction.  [OE
             regnboga (as RAIN, BOW(1))]

   raincoat  n.  a waterproof or water-resistant coat.

   raindrop  n.  a single drop of rain.  [OE regndropa]

   rainfall  n.  1 a fall of rain.  2 the quantity of rain falling within a
             given area in a given time.

   rainproof adj.  (esp. of a building, garment, etc.) resistant to

   rainstorm n.  a storm with heavy rain.

   rainwater n.  water obtained from collected rain, as distinct from a well

   rainy     adj.  (rainier, rainiest) 1 (of weather, a climate, day, region,
             etc.) in or on which rain is falling or much rain usually falls.
             2 (of cloud, wind, etc.) laden with or bringing rain.  Ьrainy
             day a time of special need in the future.  ЬЬrainily adv.
             raininess n.  [OE renig (as RAIN)]

   raise     v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 put or take into a higher position.  2
             (often foll. by up) cause to rise or stand up or be vertical;
             set upright.  3 increase the amount or value or strength of
             (raised their prices).  4 (often foll. by up) construct or build
             up.  5 levy or collect or bring together (raise money; raise an
             army).  6 cause to be heard or considered (raise a shout; raise
             an objection).  7 set going or bring into being; rouse (raise a
             protest; raise hopes).  8 bring up; educate.  9 breed or grow
             (raise one's own vegetables).  10 promote to a higher rank.  11
             (foll. by to) Math. multiply a quantity to a specified power.
             12 cause (bread) to rise with yeast.  13 Cards a bet more than
             (another player).  b increase (a stake).  c Bridge make a bid
             contracting for more tricks in the same suit as (one's partner);
             increase (a bid) in this way.  14 abandon or force an enemy to
             abandon (a siege or blockade).  15 remove (a barrier or
             embargo).  16 cause (a ghost etc.) to appear (opp.  LAY(1) 6b).
             17 colloq. find (a person etc. wanted).  18 establish contact
             with (a person etc.) by radio or telephone.  19 (usu. as raised
             adj.) cause (pastry etc.) to stand without support (a raised
             pie).  20 Naut. come in sight of (land, a ship, etc.).  21 make
             a nap on (cloth).  22 extract from the earth.  --n.  1 Cards an
             increase in a stake or bid (cf.  sense 13 of v.).  2 esp.  US an
             increase in salary.  Ьraise Cain see CAIN.  raised beach Geol.
             a beach lying above water level owing to changes since its
             formation.  raise the devil colloq.  make a disturbance.  raise
             a dust 1 cause turmoil.  2 obscure the truth.  raise one's
             eyebrows see EYEBROW.  raise one's eyes see EYE.  raise from the
             dead restore to life.  raise one's glass to drink the health of.
             raise one's hand to make as if to strike (a person).  raise
             one's hat (often foll. by to) remove it momentarily as a gesture
             of courtesy or respect.  raise hell colloq.  make a disturbance.
             raise a laugh cause others to laugh.  raise a person's spirits
             give him or her new courage or cheerfulness.  raise one's voice
             speak, esp. louder.  raise the wind Brit.  procure money for a
             purpose.  ЬЬraisable adj.  [ME f. ON reisa, rel. to REAR(2)]

   raisin    n.  a partially dried grape.  ЬЬraisiny adj.  [ME f. OF ult. f.
             L racemus grape-bunch]

   raison d'€tre
             n.  (pl.  raisons d'€tre pronunc. same) a purpose or reason that
             accounts for or justifies or originally caused a thing's
             existence.  [F, = reason for being]

   raj       n.  (prec. by the) hist.  British sovereignty in India.  [Hindi
             raj reign]

   raja      n.  (also rajah) hist.  1 an Indian king or prince.  2 a petty
             dignitary or noble in India.  3 a Malay or Javanese chief.
             ЬЬrajaship n.  [Hindi raja f. Skr.  rajan king]

   raja yoga n.  a form of yoga intended to achieve control over the mind and
             emotions.  [Skr. f.  rajan king + YOGA]

   Rajput    n.  (also Rajpoot) a member of a Hindu soldier caste claiming
             Kshatriya descent.  [Hindi rajput f. Skr.  rajan king + putr 

   rake(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a an implement consisting of a pole with a
             crossbar toothed like a comb at the end, or with several tines
             held together by a crosspiece, for drawing together hay etc. or
             smoothing loose soil or gravel.  b a wheeled implement for the
             same purpose.  2 a similar implement used for other purposes,
             e.g. by a croupier drawing in money at a gaming-table.  --v.  1
             tr. collect or gather or remove with or as with a rake.  2 tr.
             make tidy or smooth with a rake (raked it level).  3 intr. use a
             rake.  4 tr. & intr. search with or as with a rake, search
             thoroughly, ransack.  5 tr.  a direct gunfire along (a line)
             from end to end.  b sweep with the eyes.  c (of a window etc.)
             have a commanding view of.  6 tr. scratch or scrape.  Ьrake in
             colloq.  amass (profits etc.).  rake-off colloq.  a commission
             or share, esp. in a disreputable deal.  rake up (or over) revive
             the memory of (past quarrels, grievances, etc.).  ЬЬraker n.
             [OE raca, racu f. Gmc, partly f. ON raka scrape, rake]

   rake(2)   n.  a dissolute man of fashion.  Ьrake's progress a progressive
             deterioration, esp. through self-indulgence (the title of a
             series of engravings by Hogarth 1735).  [short for archaic
             rakehell in the same sense]

   rake(3)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. set or be set at a sloping angle.
             2 intr.  a (of a mast or funnel) incline from the perpendicular
             towards the stern.  b (of a ship or its bow or stern) project at
             the upper part of the bow or stern beyond the keel.  --n.  1 a
             raking position or build.  2 the amount by which a thing rakes.
             3 the slope of the stage or the auditorium in a theatre.  4 the
             slope of a seat-back etc.  5 the angle of the edge or face of a
             cutting tool.  [17th c.: prob. rel. to G ragen project, of unkn.

   raki      n.  (pl.  rakis) any of various spirits made in E. Europe and
             the Middle East.  [Turk.  raqi]

   rakish(1) adj.  of or like a rake (see RAKE(2)); dashing; jaunty.
             ЬЬrakishly adv.  rakishness n.

   rakish(2) adj.  (of a ship) smart and fast-looking, seemingly built for
             speed and therefore open to suspicion of piracy.  [RAKE(3),
             assoc. with RAKE(2)]

   raku      n.  a kind of Japanese earthenware, usu. lead-glazed.  [Jap.,
             lit. enjoyment]

   rale      n.  an abnormal rattling sound heard in the auscultation of
             unhealthy lungs.  [F f.  rѓler to rattle]

   rall.     adv. & adj. & n.  = RALLENTANDO.  [abbr.]

             adv., adj., & n.  Mus.  --adv. & adj. with a gradual decrease of
             speed.  --n.  (pl.  -os or rallentandi) a passage to be
             performed in this way.  [It.]

   ralli car n.  (also ralli cart) hist.  a light two-wheeled horse-drawn
             vehicle for four persons.  [Ralli, name of the first purchaser

   ralline   adj.  of the bird-family Rallidae (see RAIL(3)).  [mod.L rallus

   rally(1)  v. & n.  --v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by round,
             behind, to) bring or come together as support or for
             concentrated action.  2 tr. & intr. bring or come together again
             after a rout or dispersion.  3 a intr. renew a conflict.  b tr.
             cause to do this.  4 a tr. revive (courage etc.) by an effort of
             will.  b tr. rouse (a person or animal) to fresh energy.  c
             intr. pull oneself together.  5 intr. recover after illness or
             prostration or fear, regain health or consciousness, revive.  6
             intr. (of share-prices etc.) increase after a fall.  --n.  (pl.
             -ies) 1 an act of reassembling forces or renewing conflict; a
             reunion for fresh effort.  2 a recovery of energy after or in
             the middle of exhaustion or illness.  3 a mass meeting of
             supporters or persons having a common interest.  4 a competition
             for motor vehicles, usu. over public roads.  5 (in lawn tennis
             etc.) an extended exchange of strokes between players.
             Ьrally-cross motor racing over roads and cross-country.
             ЬЬrallier n.  [F rallier (as RE-, ALLY(1))]

   rally(2)  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) subject to good-humoured ridicule.  [F
             railler: see RAIL(2)]

   RAM       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Academy of Music.  2 Computing
             random-access memory.

   ram       n. & v.  --n.  1 an uncastrated male sheep, a tup.  2 (the Ram)
             the zodiacal sign or constellation Aries.  3 hist.  a =
             battering ram (see BATTER(1)).  b a beak projecting from the bow
             of a battleship, for piercing the sides of other ships.  c a
             battleship with such a beak.  4 the falling weight of a
             pile-driving machine.  5 a a hydraulic water-raising or lifting
             machine.  b the piston of a hydrostatic press.  c the plunger of
             a force-pump.  --v.tr.  (rammed, ramming) 1 force or squeeze
             into place by pressure.  2 (usu. foll. by down, in, into) beat
             down or drive in by heavy blows.  3 (of a ship, vehicle, etc.)
             strike violently, crash against.  4 (foll. by against, at, on,
             into) dash or violently impel.  Ьram home stress forcefully (an
             argument, lesson, etc.).  ЬЬrammer n.  [OE ram(m), perh. rel. to
             ON rammr strong]

   Ramadan   n.  (also Ramadhan) the ninth month of the Muslim year, during
             which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset.  [Arab.
             ramadan f.  ramada be hot; reason for name uncert.]

   ramal     adj.  Bot.  of or proceeding from a branch.  [L ramus branch]

   Raman effect
             n.  the change of frequency in the scattering of radiation in a
             medium, used in spectroscopic analysis.  [Sir C. V.  Raman, Ind.
             physicist d. 1970]

   ramble    v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 walk for pleasure, with or without a
             definite route.  2 wander in discourse, talk or write
             disconnectedly.  --n. a walk taken for pleasure.  [prob. f. MDu.
             rammelen (of an animal) wander about in sexual excitement,
             frequent. of rammen copulate with, rel. to RAM]

   rambler   n.  1 a person who rambles.  2 a straggling or climbing rose
             (crimson rambler).

   rambling  adj.  1 peripatetic, wandering.  2 disconnected, desultory,
             incoherent.  3 (of a house, street, etc.) irregularly arranged.
             4 (of a plant) straggling, climbing.  ЬЬramblingly adv.

             adj.  US colloq.  1 uncontrollably exuberant.  2 unruly.
             ЬЬrambunctiously adv.  rambunctiousness n.  [19th c.: orig.

   rambutan  n.  1 a red plum-sized prickly fruit.  2 an East Indian tree,
             Nephelium lappaceum, that bears this.  [Malay rambutan f.
             rambut hair, in allusion to its spines]

   RAMC      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Army Medical Corps.

   ramekin   n.  1 (in full ramekin case or dish) a small dish for baking and
             serving an individual portion of food.  2 food served in such a
             dish, esp. a small quantity of cheese baked with breadcrumbs,
             eggs, etc.  [F ramequin, of LG or Du. orig.]

   ramie     n.  1 any of various tall East Asian plants of the genus
             Boehmeria, esp.  B. nivea.  2 a strong fibre obtained from this,
             woven into cloth.  [Malay rami]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of ramifying; the state of being
             ramified.  2 a subdivision of a complex structure or process
             comparable to a tree's branches.  [F f.  ramifier: see RAMIFY]

   ramify    n.  (-ies, -ied) 1 intr. form branches or subdivisions or
             offshoots, branch out.  2 tr. (usu. in passive) cause to branch
             out; arrange in a branching manner.  [F ramifier f. med.L
             ramificare f. L ramus branch]

   ramin     n.  1 any Malaysian tree of the genus Gonystylus, esp.  G.
             bancanus.  2 the light-coloured hardwood obtained from this
             tree.  [Malay]

   ramjet    n.  a type of jet engine in which air is drawn in and compressed
             by the forward motion of the engine.

   rammer    see RAM.

   rammy     n.  (pl.  -ies) Sc.  sl.  a brawl, a fight (esp. between gangs);
             a quarrel.  [perh. f. Sc.  rammle row, uproar, var. of RAMBLE]

   ramose    adj.  branched; branching.  [L ramosus f.  ramus branch]

   ramp(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a slope or inclined plane, esp. for joining two
             levels of ground, floor, etc.  2 movable stairs for entering or
             leaving an aircraft.  3 an upward bend in a stair-rail.  4 Brit.
             a transverse ridge in a road to control the speed of vehicles.
             --v.  1 tr. furnish or build with a ramp.  2 intr.  a assume or
             be in a threatening posture.  b (often foll. by about) storm,
             rage, rush.  c Heraldry be rampant.  3 intr.  Archit. (of a
             wall) ascend or descend to a different level.  [ME (as verb in
             heraldic sense) f. F rampe f. OF ramper creep, crawl]

   ramp(2)   n. & v.  Brit.  sl.  --n. a swindle or racket, esp. one
             conducted by the levying of exorbitant prices.  --v.  1 intr.
             engage in a ramp.  2 tr. subject (a person etc.) to a ramp.
             [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rampage   v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 (often foll. by about) rush wildly or
             violently about.  2 rage, storm.  --n.  often wild or violent
             behaviour.  Ьon the rampage rampaging.  ЬЬrampageous adj.
             rampager n.  [18th c., perh. f.  RAMP(1)]

   rampant   adj.  1 (placed after noun) Heraldry (of an animal) standing on
             its left hind foot with its forepaws in the air (lion rampant).
             2 unchecked, flourishing excessively (rampant violence).  3
             violent or extravagant in action or opinion (rampant theorists).
             4 rank, luxuriant.  ЬЬrampancy n.  rampantly adv.  [ME f. OF,
             part. of ramper: see RAMP(1)]

   rampart   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a defensive wall with a broad top and usu. a
             stone parapet.  b a walkway on top of such a wall.  2 a defence
             or protection.  --v.tr. fortify or protect with or as with a
             rampart.  [F rempart, rempar f.  remparer fortify f.  emparer
             take possession of, ult. f. L ante before + parare prepare]

   rampion   n.  1 a bellflower, Campanula rapunculus, with white tuberous
             roots used as a salad.  2 any of various plants of the genus
             Phyteuma, with clusters of hornlike buds and flowers.  [ult. f.
             med.L rapuncium, rapontium, prob. f. L rapum RAPE(2)]

   ramrod    n.  1 a rod for ramming down the charge of a muzzle-loading
             firearm.  2 a thing that is very straight or rigid.

             adj.  (usu. of a house or vehicle) tumbledown, rickety.
             [earlier ramshackled past part. of obs.  ransackle RANSACK]

   ramsons   n.  (usu. treated as sing.) 1 a broad-leaved garlic, Allium
             ursinum, with elongate pungent-smelling bulbous roots.  2 the
             root of this, eaten as a relish.  [OE hramsan pl. of hramsa wild
             garlic, later taken as sing.]

   RAN       abbr.  Royal Australian Navy.

   ran       past of RUN.

   ranch     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a cattle-breeding establishment esp. in the
             US and Canada.  b a farm where other animals are bred (mink
             ranch).  2 US a single-storey or split-level house.  --v.intr.
             farm on a ranch.  [Sp.  rancho group of persons eating together]

   rancher   n.  1 a person who farms on a ranch.  2 US a modern
             single-storey house.

   ranchero  n.  (pl.  -os) a person who farms or works on a ranch, esp. in
             Mexico.  [Sp. (as RANCH)]

   rancid    adj.  smelling or tasting like rank stale fat.  ЬЬrancidity n.
             rancidness n.  [L rancidus stinking]

   rancour   n.  (US rancor) inveterate bitterness, malignant hate,
             spitefulness.  ЬЬrancorous adj.  rancorously adv.  [ME f. OF f.
             LL rancor -oris (as RANCID)]

   rand(1)   n.  1 the chief monetary unit of South Africa and some
             neighbouring countries.  2 S.Afr. a ridge of high ground on
             either side of a river.  [Afrik., = edge, rel. to RAND(2): sense
             1 f.  the Rand, gold-field district near Johannesburg]

   rand(2)   n.  a levelling-strip of leather between the heel and sides of a
             shoe or boot.  [OE f. Gmc]

   R & B     abbr.  (also R. & B.) rhythm and blues.

   R & D     abbr.  (also R. & D.) research and development.

   random    adj.  1 made, done, etc., without method or conscious choice
             (random selection).  2 Statistics a with equal chances for each
             item.  b given by a random process.  3 (of masonry) with stones
             of irregular size and shape.  Ьat random without aim or purpose
             or principle.  random-access Computing (of a memory or file)
             having all parts directly accessible, so that it need not read
             sequentially.  random error Statistics an error in measurement
             caused by factors which vary from one measurement to another.
             ЬЬrandomize v.tr.  (also -ise).  randomization n.  randomly adv.
             randomness n.  [ME f. OF randon great speed f.  randir gallop]

   R and R   abbr.  (also R. and R.) 1 rescue and resuscitation.  2 rest and
             recreation.  3 rock and roll.

   randy     adj.  (randier, randiest) 1 lustful; eager for sexual
             gratification.  2 Sc. loud-tongued, boisterous, lusty.
             ЬЬrandily adv.  randiness n.  [perh. f. obs.  rand f. obs. Du.
             randen, ranten RANT]

   ranee     n.  (also rani) hist.  a raja's wife or widow; a Hindu queen.
             [Hindi rani = Skr.  rajni fem. of rajan king]

   rang      past of RING(2).

   rangatira n.  NZ a Maori chief or noble.  [Maori]

   range     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the region between limits of variation, esp.
             as representing a scope of effective operation (a voice of
             astonishing range; the whole range of politics).  b such limits.
             c a limited scale or series (the range of the thermometer
             readings is about 10 degrees).  2 the area included in or
             concerned with something.  3 a the distance attainable by a gun
             or projectile (the enemy are out of range).  b the distance
             between a gun or projectile and its objective.  4 a row, series,
             line, or tier, esp. of mountains or buildings.  5 a an open or
             enclosed area with targets for shooting.  b a testing-ground for
             military equipment.  6 a a fireplace with ovens and hotplates
             for cooking.  b US an electric or gas cooker.  7 the area over
             which a thing, esp. a plant or animal, is distributed (gives the
             ranges of all species).  8 the distance that can be covered by a
             vehicle or aircraft without refuelling.  9 the distance between
             a camera and the subject to be photographed.  10 the extent of
             time covered by a forecast etc.  11 a a large area of open land
             for grazing or hunting.  b a tract over which one wanders.  12
             lie, direction (the range of the strata is east and west).  --v.
             1 intr.  a reach; lie spread out; extend; be found or occur over
             a specified district; vary between limits (ages ranging from
             twenty to sixty).  b run in a line (ranges north and south).  2
             tr. (usu. in passive or refl.) place or arrange in a row or
             ranks or in a specified situation or order or company (ranged
             their troops; ranged themselves with the majority party; trees
             ranged in ascending order of height).  3 intr. rove, wander
             (ranged through the woods; his thoughts range over past,
             present, and future).  4 tr. traverse in all directions (ranging
             the woods).  5 Printing a tr.  Brit. make (type) lie flush at
             the ends of successive lines.  b intr. (of type) lie flush.  6
             intr.  a (often foll. by with) be level.  b (foll. by with,
             among) rank; find one's right place (ranges with the great
             writers).  7 intr.  a (of a gun) send a projectile over a
             specified distance (ranges over a mile).  b (of a projectile)
             cover a specified distance.  c obtain the range of a target by
             adjustment after firing past it or short of it.  Ьranging-pole
             (or -rod) Surveying a pole or rod for setting a straight line.
             [ME f. OF range row, rank f.  ranger f.  rang RANK(1)]

   rang‚     adj.  (fem.  rang‚e) domesticated, orderly, settled.  [F]

             n.  an instrument for estimating the distance of an object, esp.
             one to be shot at or photographed.

   ranger    n.  1 a keeper of a royal or national park, or of a forest.  2 a
             member of a body of armed men, esp.: a a mounted soldier.  b US
             a commando.  3 (Ranger) Brit. a senior Guide.  4 a wanderer.
             ЬЬrangership n.

   rangy     adj.  (rangier, rangiest) (of a person) tall and slim.

   rani      var. of RANEE.

   rank(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a position in a hierarchy, a grade of
             advancement.  b a distinct social class, a grade of dignity or
             achievement (people of all ranks; in the top rank of
             performers).  c high social position (persons of rank).  d a
             place in a scale.  2 a row or line.  3 a single line of soldiers
             drawn up abreast.  4 Brit. a place where taxis stand to await
             customers.  5 order, array.  6 Chess a row of squares across the
             board (cf.  FILE(2)).  --v.  1 intr. have rank or place (ranks
             next to the king).  2 tr. classify, give a certain grade to.  3
             tr. arrange (esp. soldiers) in a rank or ranks.  4 US a tr. take
             precedence of (a person) in respect to rank.  b intr. have the
             senior position among the members of a hierarchy etc.  Ьbreak
             rank fail to remain in line.  close ranks maintain solidarity.
             keep rank remain in line.  other ranks soldiers other than
             commissioned officers.  rank and fashion high society.  rank and
             file ordinary undistinguished people (orig.  = the ranks).  the
             ranks the common soldiers, i.e. privates and corporals.  rise
             from the ranks 1 (of a private or a non-commissioned officer)
             receive a commission.  2 (of a self-made man or woman) advance
             by one's own exertions.  [OF ranc, renc, f. Gmc, rel. to

   rank(2)   adj.  1 too luxuriant, coarse; choked with or apt to produce
             weeds or excessive foliage.  2 a foul-smelling, offensive.  b
             loathsome, indecent, corrupt.  3 flagrant, virulent, gross,
             complete, unmistakable, strongly marked (rank outsider).
             ЬЬrankly adv.  rankness n.  [OE ranc f. Gmc]

   ranker    n.  1 a soldier in the ranks.  2 a commissioned officer who has
             been in the ranks.

   ranking   n. & adj.  --n. ordering by rank; classification.  --adj.  US
             having a high rank or position.

   rankle    v.intr.  1 (of envy, disappointment, etc., or their cause) cause
             persistent annoyance or resentment.  2 archaic (of a wound,
             sore, etc.) fester, continue to be painful.  [ME (in sense 2) f.
             OF rancler f.  rancle, draoncle festering sore f. med.L
             dranculus, dracunculus dimin. of draco serpent]

   ransack   v.tr.  1 pillage or plunder (a house, country, etc.).  2
             thoroughly search (a place, a receptacle, a person's pockets,
             one's conscience, etc.).  ЬЬransacker n.  [ME f. ON rannsaka f.
             rann house + -saka f.  soekja seek]

   ransom    n. & v.  --n.  1 a sum of money or other payment demanded or
             paid for the release of a prisoner.  2 the liberation of a
             prisoner in return for this.  --v.tr.  1 buy the freedom or
             restoration of; redeem.  2 hold to ransom.  3 release for a
             ransom.  ЬЬransomer n. (in sense 1 of v.).  [ME f. OF
             ransoun(er) f. L redemptio -onis REDEMPTION]

   rant      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. use bombastic language.  2 tr. & intr.
             declaim, recite theatrically.  3 tr. & intr. preach noisily.
             --n.  1 a piece of ranting, a tirade.  2 empty turgid talk.
             ЬЬranter n.  rantingly n.  [Du.  ranten rave]

             adj.  of or relating to the family Ranunculaceae of flowering
             plants, including clematis and delphiniums.

             n.  (pl.  ranunculuses or ranunculi) any plant of the genus
             Ranunculus, usu. having bowl-shaped flowers with many stamens
             and carpels, including buttercups and crowfoots.  [L, orig.
             dimin. of rana frog]

   RAOC      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Army Ordnance Corps.

   rap(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a smart slight blow.  2 a knock, a sharp
             tapping sound.  3 sl. blame, censure, or punishment.  4 sl. a
             conversation.  5 a a rhyming monologue recited rhythmically to
             prerecorded music.  b (in full rap music) a style of rock music
             with a pronounced beat and words recited rather than sung.  --v.
             (rapped, rapping) 1 tr. strike smartly.  2 intr. knock; make a
             sharp tapping sound (rapped on the table).  3 tr. criticize
             adversely.  4 intr.  sl. talk.  Ьbeat the rap US escape
             punishment.  rap on (or over) the knuckles a reprimand or
             reproof.  rap out 1 utter (an oath, order, pun, etc.) abruptly
             or on the spur of the moment.  2 Spiritualism express (a message
             or word) by raps.  take the rap suffer the consequences.
             ЬЬrapper n.  [ME, prob. imit.]

   rap(2)    n.  a small amount, the least bit (don't care a rap).  [Ir.
             ropaire Irish counterfeit coin]

   rapacious adj.  grasping, extortionate, predatory.  ЬЬrapaciously adv.
             rapaciousness n.  rapacity n.  [L rapax -acis f.  rapere snatch]

   RAPC      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Army Pay Corps.

   rape(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a the act of forcing a woman to have sexual
             intercourse against her will.  b forcible sodomy.  2 (often
             foll. by of) violent assault, forcible interference, violation.
             3 poet. carrying off (esp. of a woman) by force.  4 an instance
             of rape.  --v.tr.  1 commit rape on (a person, usu. a woman).  2
             violate, assault, pillage.  3 poet. take by force.  [ME f. AF
             rap(er) f. L rapere seize]

   rape(2)   n.  a plant, Brassica napus, grown as food for sheep and for its
             seed, from which oil is made. Also called COLZA, COLE.
             Ьrape-cake rape-seed pressed into a flat shape after the
             extraction of oil and used as manure or cattle food.  rape-oil
             an oil made from rape-seed and used as a lubricant and in
             foodstuffs.  [ME f. L rapum, rapa turnip]

   rape(3)   n.  hist.  (in the UK) any of the six ancient divisions of
             Sussex.  [OE, var. of rap ROPE, with ref. to the fencing-off of

   rape(4)   n.  1 the refuse of grapes after wine-making, used in making
             vinegar.  2 a vessel used in vinegar-making.  [F rѓpe, med.L

   raphia    var. of RAFFIA.

   raphide   n.  a needle-shaped crystal of an irritant substance such as
             oxalic acid formed in a plant.  [back-form. f.  raphides pl. of
             raphis f. Gk rhaphis -idos needle]

   rapid     adj. & n.  --adj.  (rapider, rapidest) 1 quick, swift.  2 acting
             or completed in a short time.  3 (of a slope) descending
             steeply.  4 Photog. fast.  --n. (usu. in pl.) a steep descent in
             a river-bed, with a swift current.  Ьrapid eye-movement a type
             of jerky movement of the eyes during periods of dreaming.
             rapid-fire (attrib.) fired, asked, etc., in quick succession.
             rapid transit (attrib.) denoting high-speed urban transport of
             passengers.  ЬЬrapidity n.  rapidly adv.  rapidness n.  [L
             rapidus f.  rapere seize]

   rapier    n.  a light slender sword used for thrusting.  [prob. f. Du.
             rapier or LG rappir, f. F rapiЉre, of unkn. orig.]

   rapine    n.  rhet.  plundering, robbery.  [ME f. OF or f. L rapina f.
             rapere seize]

   rapist    n.  a person who commits rape.

   rapparee  n.  hist.  a 17th-c. Irish irregular soldier or freebooter.
             [Ir.  rapaire short pike]

   rappee    n.  a coarse kind of snuff.  [F (tabac) rѓp‚ rasped (tobacco)]

   rappel    n. & v.intr.  (rappelled, rappelling; US rappeled, rappeling) =
             ABSEIL.  [F, = recall, f.  rappeler (as RE-, APPEAL)]

   rapport   n.  1 relationship or communication, esp. when useful and
             harmonious (in rapport with; establish a rapport).  2
             Spiritualism communication through a medium.  [F f.  rapporter
             (as RE-, AP-, porter f. L portare carry)]

             n.  a person who prepares an account of the proceedings of a
             committee etc. for a higher body.  [F (as RAPPORT)]

             n.  the resumption of harmonious relations, esp. between States.
             [F f.  rapprocher (as RE-, APPROACH)]

             n.  archaic or joc.  a rascal, scamp, or rogue.  [earlier
             rascallion, perh. f.  RASCAL]

   rapt      adj.  1 fully absorbed or intent, enraptured (listen with rapt
             attention).  2 carried away with feeling or lofty thought.  3
             carried away bodily.  ЬЬraptly adv.  raptness n.  [ME f. L
             raptus past part. of rapere seize]

   raptor    n.  any bird of prey, e.g. an owl, falcon, etc.  [L, = ravisher,
             plunderer f.  rapere rapt- seize]

   raptorial adj. & n.  --adj. (of a bird or animal) adapted for seizing
             prey; predatory.  --n.  1 = RAPTOR.  2 a predatory animal.  [L
             raptor: see RAPTOR]

   rapture   n.  1 a ecstatic delight, mental transport.  b (in pl.) great
             pleasure or enthusiasm or the expression of it.  2 archaic the
             act of transporting a person from one place to another.  Ьgo
             into (or be in) raptures be enthusiastic; talk enthusiastically.
             ЬЬrapturous adj.  rapturously adv.  rapturousness n.  [obs. F
             rapture or med.L raptura (as RAPT)]

   rara avis n.  (pl.  rarae aves) a rarity; a kind of person or thing rarely
             encountered.  [L, = rare bird]

   rare(1)   adj.  (rarer, rarest) 1 seldom done or found or occurring,
             uncommon, unusual, few and far between.  2 exceptionally good
             (had a rare time).  3 of less than the usual density, with only
             loosely packed substance (the rare atmosphere of the mountain
             tops).  Ьrare bird = RARA AVIS.  rare earth 1 a lanthanide
             element.  2 an oxide of such an element.  rare gas = noble gas.
             ЬЬrareness n.  [ME f. L rarus]

   rare(2)   adj.  (rarer, rarest) (of meat) underdone.  [var. of obs.  rear
             half-cooked (of eggs), f. OE hrer]

   rarebit   n.  = Welsh rabbit.  [RARE(1) + BIT(1)]

             n.  1 a show or spectacle.  2 a show carried about in a box; a
             peep-show.  [app. = rare show as pronounced by Savoyard showmen]

   rarefy    v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. & intr. make or become less dense or
             solid (rarefied air).  2 tr. purify or refine (a person's nature
             etc.).  3 tr. make (an idea etc.) subtle.  ЬЬrarefaction n.
             rarefactive adj.  rarefication n.  [ME f. OF rarefier or med.L
             rarificare f. L rarefacere f.  rarus rare + facere make]

   rarely    adv.  1 seldom; not often.  2 in an unusual degree;
             exceptionally.  3 exceptionally well.

   raring    adj.  (foll. by to + infin.)  colloq.  enthusiastic, eager
             (raring to go).  [part. of rare, dial. var. of ROAR or REAR(2)]

   rarity    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 rareness.  2 an uncommon thing, esp. one
             valued for being rare.  [F raret‚ or L raritas (as RARE(1))]

   rascal    n.  often joc.  a dishonest or mischievous person, esp. a child.
             ЬЬrascaldom n.  rascalism n.  rascality n.  (pl.  -ies).
             rascally adj.  [ME f. OF rascaille rabble, prob. ult. f. L
             radere ras- scrape]

   rase      var. of RAZE.

   rash(1)   adj.  reckless, impetuous, hasty; acting or done without due
             consideration.  ЬЬrashly adv.  rashness n.  [ME, prob. f. OE
             r‘sc (unrecorded) f. Gmc]

   rash(2)   n.  1 an eruption of the skin in spots or patches.  2 (usu.
             foll. by of) a sudden widespread phenomenon, esp. of something
             unwelcome (a rash of strikes).  [18th c.: prob. rel. to OF
             ra(s)che eruptive sores, = It.  raschia itch]

   rasher    n.  a thin slice of bacon or ham.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rasp      n. & v.  --n. a coarse kind of file having separate teeth.  --v.
             1 tr.  a scrape with a rasp.  b scrape roughly.  c (foll. by
             off, away) remove by scraping.  2 a intr. make a grating sound.
             b tr. say gratingly or hoarsely.  3 tr. grate upon (a person or
             a person's feelings), irritate.  ЬЬraspingly adv.  raspy adj.
             [ME f. OF raspe(r) ult. f. WG]

   raspberry n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a bramble, Rubus idaeus, having usu. red
             berries consisting of numerous drupels on a conical receptacle.
             b this berry.  2 any of various red colours.  3 colloq.  a a
             sound made with the lips expressing dislike, derision, or
             disapproval (orig.  raspberry tart, rhyming sl. = fart).  b a
             show of strong disapproval (got a raspberry from the audience).
             Ьraspberry-cane a raspberry plant.  raspberry vinegar a kind of
             syrup made from raspberries.  [16th-c.  rasp (now dial.) f. obs.
             raspis, of unkn. orig., + BERRY]

   rasper    n.  1 a person or thing that rasps.  2 Hunting a high difficult

   Rasta     n. & adj.  = RASTAFARIAN.  [abbr.]

             n. & adj.  --n. a member of a sect of Jamaican origin regarding
             Blacks as a chosen people and the former Emperor Haile Selassie
             of Ethiopia (d.  1975, entitled Ras Tafari) as God.  --adj. of
             or relating to this sect.  ЬЬRastafarianism n.

   raster    n.  a pattern of scanning lines for a cathode-ray tube picture.
             [G, = screen, f. L rastrum rake f.  radere ras- scrape]

   rat       n. & v.  --n.  1 a any of several rodents of the genus Rattus
             (brown rat).  b any similar rodent (muskrat; water-rat).  2 a
             deserter from a party, cause, difficult situation, etc.; a
             turncoat (from the superstition that rats desert a sinking
             ship).  3 colloq. an unpleasant person.  4 a worker who refuses
             to join a strike, or who blacklegs.  5 (in pl.) sl. an
             exclamation of contempt, annoyance, etc.  --v.intr.  (ratted,
             ratting) 1 (of a person or dog) hunt or kill rats.  2 colloq.
             desert a cause, party, etc.  3 (foll. by on) a betray; let down.
             b inform on.  Ьrat-catcher a person who rids buildings of rats
             etc.  rat kangaroo Austral.  any of various small ratlike
             marsupials of the family Potoroidae, having kangaroo-like hind
             limbs for jumping.  rat race a fiercely competitive struggle for
             position, power, etc.  rat's tail a thing shaped like a rat's
             tail, e.g. a tapering cylindrical file.  rat-tail 1 the
             grenadier fish.  2 a horse with a hairless tail.  3 such a tail.
             rat-tail (or -tailed) spoon a spoon with a tail-like moulding
             from the handle to the back of the bowl.  [OE r‘t & OF rat]

   rata      n.  any large tree of the genus Metrosideros, esp.  M. robusta
             of New Zealand, with crimson flowers and hard red wood.  [Maori]

   ratable   var. of RATEABLE.

   ratafia   n.  1 a liqueur flavoured with almonds or kernels of peach,
             apricot, or cherry.  2 a kind of biscuit similarly flavoured.
             [F, perh. rel. to TAFIA]

   ratan     var. of RATTAN.

   rataplan  n. & v.  --n. a drumming sound.  --v.  (rataplanned,
             rataplanning) 1 tr. play (a tune) on or as on a drum.  2 intr.
             make a rataplan.  [F: imit.]

   ratatat   (also rat-a-tat) var. of RAT-TAT.

             n.  a vegetable dish made of stewed onions, courgettes,
             tomatoes, aubergines, and peppers.  [F dial.]

   ratbag    n.  sl.  an unpleasant or disgusting person.

   ratch     n.  1 a ratchet.  2 a ratchet-wheel.  [perh. f. G Ratsche: cf.

   ratchet   n. & v.  --n.  1 a set of teeth on the edge of a bar or wheel in
             which a device engages to ensure motion in one direction only.
             2 (in full ratchet-wheel) a wheel with a rim so toothed.  --v.
             (ratcheted, ratcheting) 1 tr.  a provide with a ratchet.  b make
             into a ratchet.  2 tr. & intr. move as under the control of a
             ratchet.  [F rochet blunt lance-head, bobbin, ratchet, etc.,
             prob. ult. f. Gmc]

   rate(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a stated numerical proportion between two sets
             of things (the second usu. expressed as unity), esp. as a
             measure of amount or degree (moving at a rate of 50 miles per
             hour) or as the basis of calculating an amount or value (rate of
             taxation).  2 a fixed or appropriate charge or cost or value; a
             measure of this (postal rates; the rate for the job).  3
             rapidity of movement or change (travelling at a great rate;
             prices increasing at a dreadful rate).  4 class or rank
             (first-rate).  5 Brit.  a an assessment levied by local
             authorities at so much per pound of the assessed value of
             buildings and land owned or leased.  b (in pl.) the amount
             payable by this.  --v.  1 tr.  a estimate the worth or value of
             (I do not rate him very highly).  b assign a fixed value to (a
             coin or metal) in relation to a monetary standard.  c assign a
             value to (work, the power of a machine, etc.).  2 tr. consider;
             regard as (I rate them among my benefactors).  3 intr. (foll. by
             as) rank or be rated.  4 tr.  Brit.  a subject to the payment of
             a local rate.  b value for the purpose of assessing rates.  5
             tr. be worthy of, deserve.  6 tr.  Naut. place in a specified
             class (cf.  RATING(1)).  Ьat any rate in any case, whatever
             happens.  at this (or that) rate if this example is typical or
             this assumption is true.  rate-capping Brit.  the imposition of
             an upper limit on the rate leviable by a local authority.  [ME
             f. OF f. med.L rata f. L pro rata parte or portione according to
             the proportional share f.  ratus past part. of reri reckon]

   rate(2)   v.tr.  scold angrily.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   rate(3)   var. of RET.

   rateable  adj.  (also ratable) 1 Brit. liable to payment of rates.  2 able
             to be rated or estimated.  Ьrateable value the value at which a
             house etc. is assessed for payment of rates.  ЬЬrateability n.
             rateably adv.

   ratel     n.  an African and Indian nocturnal flesh-eating burrowing
             mammal, Mellivora capensis. Also called honey-badger.  [Afrik.,
             of unkn. orig.]

   ratepayer n.  Brit.  a person liable to pay rates.

   rathe     adj.  poet.  coming, blooming, etc., early in the year or day.
             Ьrathe-ripe 1 ripening early.  2 precocious.  [OE hr‘th, hr‘d f.

   rather    adv.  1 (often foll. by than) by preference; for choice (would
             rather not go; would rather stay than go).  2 (usu. foll. by
             than) more truly; as a more likely alternative (is stupid rather
             than honest).  3 more precisely (a book, or rather, a pamphlet).
             4 slightly; to some extent; somewhat (became rather drunk; I
             rather think you know him).  5 Brit. (as an emphatic response)
             indeed, assuredly (Did you like it? - Rather!).  Ьhad rather
             would rather.  [ME f. OE hrathor, compar. of hr‘the (adv.) f.
             hr‘th (adj.): see RATHE]

             n.  US a beer-saloon or restaurant in a basement.  [G, =
             (restaurant in) town-hall cellar]

   ratify    v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) confirm or accept (an agreement made in
             one's name) by formal consent, signature, etc.  ЬЬratifiable
             adj.  ratification n.  ratifier n.  [ME f. OF ratifier f. med.L
             ratificare (as RATE(1))]

   rating(1) n.  1 the act or an instance of placing in a rank or class or
             assigning a value to.  2 the estimated standing of a person as
             regards credit etc.  3 Naut.  a Brit. a non-commissioned sailor.
             b a person's position or class on a ship's books.  4 Brit. an
             amount fixed as a local rate.  5 the relative popularity of a
             broadcast programme as determined by the estimated size of the
             audience.  6 Naut. any of the classes into which racing yachts
             are distributed by tonnage.

   rating(2) n.  an angry reprimand.

   ratio     n.  (pl.  -os) the quantitative relation between two similar
             magnitudes determined by the number of times one contains the
             other integrally or fractionally (in the ratio of three to two;
             the ratios 1:5 and 20:100 are the same).  [L (as RATE(1))]

             v.intr.  literary go through logical processes, reason, esp.
             using syllogisms.  ЬЬratiocination n.  ratiocinative adj.
             ratiocinator n.  [L ratiocinari (as RATIO)]

   ration    n. & v.  --n.  1 a fixed official allowance of food, clothing,
             etc., in a time of shortage.  2 (foll. by of) a single portion
             of provisions, fuel, clothing, etc.  3 (usu. in pl.) a fixed
             daily allowance of food, esp. in the armed forces (and formerly
             of forage for animals).  4 (in pl.) provisions.  --v.tr.  1
             limit (persons or provisions) to a fixed ration.  2 (usu. foll.
             by out) share out (food etc.) in fixed quantities.  Ьgiven out
             with the rations Mil.  sl.  awarded without regard to merit.
             ration book (or card) a document entitling the holder to a
             ration.  [F f. It.  razione or Sp.  raciўn f. L ratio -onis
             reckoning, RATIO]

   rational  adj.  1 of or based on reasoning or reason.  2 sensible, sane,
             moderate; not foolish or absurd or extreme.  3 endowed with
             reason, reasoning.  4 rejecting what is unreasonable or cannot
             be tested by reason in religion or custom.  5 Math. (of a
             quantity or ratio) expressible as a ratio of whole numbers.
             Ьrational dress hist.  a style of dress adopted by some women in
             the late nineteenth century, including bloomers or
             knickerbockers.  rational horizon see HORIZON 1c.  ЬЬrationality
             n.  rationally adv.  [ME f. L rationalis (as RATION)]

   rationale n.  1 (often foll. by of) the fundamental reason or logical
             basis of anything.  2 a reasoned exposition; a statement of
             reasons.  [mod.L, neut. of L rationalis: see RATIONAL]

             n.  1 Philos. the theory that reason is the foundation of
             certainty in knowledge (opp.  EMPIRICISM (see EMPIRIC),
             SENSATIONALISM).  2 Theol. the practice of treating reason as
             the ultimate authority in religion.  3 a belief in reason rather
             than religion as a guiding principle in life.  ЬЬrationalist n.
             rationalistic adj.  rationalistically adv.

             v.  (also -ise) 1 a tr. offer or subconsciously adopt a rational
             but specious explanation of (one's behaviour or attitude).  b
             intr. explain one's behaviour or attitude in this way.  2 tr.
             make logical and consistent.  3 tr. make (a business etc.) more
             efficient by reorganizing it to reduce or eliminate waste of
             labour, time, or materials.  4 tr. (often foll. by away) explain
             or explain away rationally.  5 tr.  Math. clear of surds.  6
             intr. be or act as a rationalist.  ЬЬrationalization n.
             rationalizer n.

   ratite    adj. & n.  --adj. (of a bird) having a keelless breastbone, and
             unable to fly (opp.  CARINATE).  --n. a flightless bird, e.g. an
             ostrich, emu, cassowary, etc.  [L ratis raft]

   ratline   n.  (also ratlin) (usu. in pl.) any of the small lines fastened
             across a sailing-ship's shrouds like ladder-rungs.  [ME: orig.

   ratoon    n. & v.  --n. a new shoot springing from a root of sugar cane
             etc. after cropping.  --v.intr. send up ratoons.  [Sp.  reto¤o

   ratsbane  n.  anything poisonous to rats, esp. a plant.

   rattan    n.  (also ratan) 1 any East Indian climbing palm of the genus
             Calamus etc. with long thin jointed pliable stems.  2 a piece of
             rattan stem used as a walking stick etc.  [earlier rot(t)ang f.
             Malay rotan prob. f.  raut pare]

   rat-tat   n.  (also rat-tat-tat, ratatat, rat-a-tat) a rapping sound, esp.
             of a knocker.  [imit.]

   ratter    n.  1 a dog or other animal that hunts rats.  2 sl. a person who
             betrays a cause, party, friend, etc.

   rattle    v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. give out a rapid succession of short
             sharp hard sounds.  b tr. make (a chair, window, crockery, etc.)
             do this.  c intr. cause such sounds by shaking something
             (rattled at the door).  2 a intr. move with a rattling noise.  b
             intr. drive a vehicle or ride or run briskly.  c tr. cause to
             move quickly (the bill was rattled through Parliament).  3 a tr.
             (usu. foll. by off) say or recite rapidly.  b intr. (usu. foll.
             by on) talk in a lively thoughtless way.  4 tr.  colloq.
             disconcert, alarm, fluster, make nervous, frighten.  --n.  1 a
             rattling sound.  2 an instrument or plaything made to rattle
             esp. in order to amuse babies or to give an alarm.  3 the set of
             horny rings in a rattlesnake's tail.  4 a plant with seeds that
             rattle in their cases when ripe (red rattle; yellow rattle).  5
             uproar, bustle, noisy gaiety, racket.  6 a a noisy flow of
             words.  b empty chatter, trivial talk.  7 archaic a lively or
             thoughtless incessant talker.  Ьrattle the sabre threaten war.
             ЬЬrattly adj.  [ME, prob. f. MDu. & LG ratelen (imit.)]

   rattlebox n.  1 a rattle consisting of a box with objects inside.  2 a
             rickety old vehicle etc.

   rattler   n.  1 a thing that rattles, esp. an old or rickety vehicle.  2
             colloq. a rattlesnake.  3 sl. a remarkably good specimen of

             n.  any of various poisonous American snakes of the family
             Viperidae, esp. of the genus Crotalus or Sistrurus, with a
             rattling structure of horny rings in its tail.

             n. & adj.  colloq.  --n. a rickety old vehicle etc.  --adj.

   rattling  adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 that rattles.  2 brisk, vigorous (a
             rattling pace).  --adv. remarkably (a rattling good story).

   ratty     adj.  (rattier, rattiest) 1 relating to or infested with rats.
             2 colloq. irritable or angry.  3 colloq. wretched, nasty.
             ЬЬrattily adv.  rattiness n.

   raucous   adj.  harsh-sounding, loud and hoarse.  ЬЬraucously adv.
             raucousness n.  [L raucus]

   raunchy   adj.  (raunchier, raunchiest) colloq.  1 coarse, earthy,
             boisterous; sexually provocative.  2 esp.  US slovenly, grubby.
             ЬЬraunchily adv.  raunchiness n.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   ravage    v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr. devastate, plunder.  --n.  1 the act or
             an instance of ravaging; devastation, damage.  2 (usu. in pl.;
             foll. by of) destructive effect (survived the ravages of
             winter).  ЬЬravager n.  [F ravage(r) alt. f.  ravine rush of

   rave(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. talk wildly or furiously in or as in
             delirium.  2 intr. (usu. foll. by about, of, over) speak with
             rapturous admiration; go into raptures.  3 tr. bring into a
             specified state by raving (raved himself hoarse).  4 tr. utter
             with ravings (raved their grief).  5 intr. (of the sea, wind,
             etc.) howl, roar.  6 tr. & intr.  colloq. enjoy oneself freely (
             esp.  rave it up).  --n.  1 (usu.  attrib.) colloq. a highly
             enthusiastic review of a film, play, etc. (a rave review).  2
             sl. an infatuation.  3 (also rave-up) colloq. a lively party.  4
             the sound of the wind etc. raving.  [ME, prob. f. ONF raver,
             rel. to (M)LG reven be senseless, rave]

   rave(2)   n.  1 a rail of a cart.  2 (in pl.) a permanent or removable
             framework added to the sides of a cart to increase its capacity.
             [var. of dial.  rathe (15th c., of unkn. orig.)]

   ravel     v. & n.  --v.  (ravelled, ravelling; US raveled, raveling) 1 tr.
             & intr. entangle or become entangled or knotted.  2 tr. confuse
             or complicate (a question or problem).  3 intr. fray out.  4 tr.
             (often foll. by out) disentangle, unravel, distinguish the
             separate threads or subdivisions of.  --n.  1 a tangle or knot.
             2 a complication.  3 a frayed or loose end.  [prob. f. Du.
             ravelen tangle, fray out, unweave]

   ravelin   n.  hist.  an outwork of fortifications, with two faces forming
             a salient angle.  [F f. obs. It.  ravellino, of unkn. orig.]

   ravelling n.  a thread from fabric which is frayed or unravelled.

   raven(1)  n. & adj.  --n. a large glossy blue-black crow, Corvus corax,
             feeding chiefly on carrion etc., having a hoarse cry.  --adj.
             glossy black (raven tresses).  [OE hr‘fn f. Gmc]

   raven(2)  v.  1 intr.  a plunder.  b (foll. by after) seek prey or booty.
             c (foll. by about) go plundering.  d prowl for prey (ravening
             beast).  2 a tr. devour voraciously.  b intr. (usu. foll. by
             for) have a ravenous appetite.  c intr. (often foll. by on) feed
             voraciously.  [OF raviner ravage ult. f. L rapina RAPINE]

   ravenous  adj.  1 very hungry, famished.  2 (of hunger, eagerness, etc.,
             or of an animal) voracious.  3 rapacious.  ЬЬravenously adv.
             ravenousness n.  [ME f. OF ravineus (as RAVEN(2))]

   raver     n.  1 colloq. an uninhibited pleasure-loving person.  2 a person
             who raves; a madman or madwoman.

   ravin     n.  poet. or rhet.  1 robbery, plundering.  2 the seizing and
             devouring of prey.  3 prey.  Ьbeast of ravin a beast of prey.
             [ME f. OF ravine f. L rapina RAPINE]

   ravine    n.  a deep narrow gorge or cleft.  ЬЬravined adj.  [F (as

   raving    n., adj., & adv.  --n. (usu. in pl.) wild or delirious talk.
             --adj. delirious, frenzied.  --adj. & adv.  colloq. as an
             intensive (a raving beauty; raving mad).  ЬЬravingly adv.

   ravioli   n.  small pasta envelopes containing minced meat etc.  [It.]

   ravish    v.tr.  1 commit rape on (a woman).  2 enrapture; fill with
             delight.  3 archaic a carry off (a person or thing) by force.  b
             (of death, circumstances, etc.) take from life or from sight.
             ЬЬravisher n.  ravishment n.  [ME f. OF ravir ult. f. L rapere

   ravishing adj.  entrancing, delightful.  ЬЬravishingly adv.

   raw       adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of food) uncooked.  2 in the natural
             state; not processed or manufactured (raw sewage).  3 (of
             alcoholic spirit) undiluted.  4 (of statistics etc.) not
             analysed or processed.  5 (of a person) inexperienced,
             untrained; new to an activity (raw recruits).  6 a stripped of
             skin; having the flesh exposed.  b sensitive to the touch from
             having the flesh exposed.  7 (of the atmosphere, day, etc.)
             chilly and damp.  8 crude in artistic quality; lacking finish.
             9 (of the edge of cloth) without hem or selvage.  10 (of silk)
             as reeled from cocoons.  11 (of grain) unmalted.  --n. a raw
             place on a person's or horse's body.  Ьcome the raw prawn
             Austral.  sl.  attempt to deceive.  in the raw 1 in its natural
             state without mitigation (life in the raw).  2 naked.  raw-boned
             gaunt and bony.  raw deal harsh or unfair treatment.  raw
             material that from which the process of manufacture makes
             products.  raw sienna a brownish-yellow ferruginous earth used
             as a pigment.  raw umber umber in its natural state, dark yellow
             in colour.  touch on the raw upset (a person) on a sensitive
             matter.  ЬЬrawish adj.  rawly adv.  rawness n.  [OE hreaw f.

   rawhide   n.  1 untanned hide.  2 a rope or whip of this.

   Rawlplug  n.  propr.  a thin cylindrical plug for holding a screw or nail
             in masonry.  [Rawlings, name of the engineers who introduced it]

   ray(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a single line or narrow beam of light from a
             small or distant source.  2 a straight line in which radiation
             travels to a given point.  3 (in pl.) radiation of a specified
             type (gamma rays; X-rays).  4 a trace or beginning of an
             enlightening or cheering influence (a ray of hope).  5 a any of
             a set of radiating lines or parts of things.  b any of a set of
             straight lines passing through one point.  6 the marginal
             portion of a composite flower, e.g. a daisy.  7 a a radial
             division of a starfish.  b each of a set of bones etc.
             supporting a fish's fin.  --v.  1 intr. (foll. by forth, out)
             (of light, thought, emotion, etc.) issue in or as if in rays.  2
             intr. & tr. radiate.  Ьray gun (esp. in science fiction) a gun
             causing injury or damage by the emission of rays.  ЬЬrayed adj.
             rayless adj.  raylet n.  [ME f. OF rai f. L radius: see RADIUS]

   ray(2)    n.  a large cartilaginous fish of the order Batoidea, with a
             broad flat body, winglike pectoral fins and a long slender tail,
             used as food.  [ME f. OF raie f. L raia]

   ray(3)    n.  (also re) Mus.  1 (in tonic sol-fa) the second note of a
             major scale.  2 the note D in the fixed-doh system.  [ME re f. L
             resonare: see GAMUT]

   rayon     n.  any of various textile fibres or fabrics made from
             cellulose.  [arbitrary f.  RAY(1)]

   raze      v.tr.  (also rase) 1 completely destroy; tear down (esp.  raze
             to the ground).  2 erase; scratch out (esp. in abstract senses).
             [ME rase = wound slightly f. OF raser shave close ult. f. L
             radere ras- scrape]

   razor     n. & v.  --n. an instrument with a sharp blade used in cutting
             hair esp. from the skin.  --v.tr.  1 use a razor on.  2 shave;
             cut down close.  Ьrazor-back an animal with a sharp ridged back,
             esp. a rorqual.  razor-bill an auk, Alca torda, with a
             sharp-edged bill.  razor-blade a blade used in a razor, esp. a
             flat piece of metal with a sharp edge or edges used in a safety
             razor.  razor-cut a haircut made with a razor.  razor- (or
             razor's) edge 1 a keen edge.  2 a sharp mountain-ridge.  3 a
             critical situation (found themselves on a razor-edge).  4 a
             sharp line of division.  razor-fish (or -shell) any of various
             bivalve molluscs of the family Solenidae, with a shell like the
             handle of a cutthroat razor.  [ME f. OF rasor (as RAZE)]

   razz      n. & v.  US sl.  --n. = RASPBERRY 3.  --v.tr. tease, ridicule.
             [razzberry, corrupt. of RASPBERRY]

             n.  (also razzle) sl.  1 a glamorous excitement; bustle.  b a
             spree.  2 extravagant publicity.  [redupl. of DAZZLE]

             n.  (also razzamatazz) colloq.  1 = RAZZLE-DAZZLE.  2 insincere
             actions; humbug.  [prob. alt. f.  RAZZLE-DAZZLE]

3.0 Rb

   Rb        symb.  Chem.  the element rubidium.

4.0 RC...

   RC        abbr.  1 Roman Catholic.  2 Red Cross.  3 reinforced concrete.

   RCA       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal College of Art.  2 (in the US) Radio
             Corporation of America.

   RCAF      abbr.  Royal Canadian Air Force.

   RCM       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal College of Music.

   RCMP      abbr.  Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

   RCN       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal College of Nursing.  2 Royal Canadian

   RCP       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal College of Physicians.

   RCS       abbr.  (in the UK): 1 Royal College of Scientists.  2 Royal
             College of Surgeons.  3 Royal Corps of Signals.

   RCVS      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.

5.0 RD...

   RD        abbr.  1 refer to drawer.  2 (in the UK) Royal Naval Reserve

   Rd.       abbr.  Road (in names).

   RDC       abbr.  Brit.  hist.  Rural District Council.

   RDF       abbr.  radio direction-finder.

6.0 RE...

   RE        abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Engineers.  2 religious education.

   Re        symb.  Chem.  the element rhenium.

   re(1)     prep.  1 in the matter of (as the first word in a heading, esp.
             of a legal document).  2 colloq. about, concerning.  [L, ablat.
             of res thing]

   re(2)     var. of RAY(3).

   re-       prefix 1 attachable to almost any verb or its derivative,
             meaning: a once more; afresh, anew (readjust; renumber).  b
             back; with return to a previous state (reassemble; reverse).  °A
             hyphen is normally used when the word begins with e (re-enact),
             or to distinguish the compound from a more familiar one-word
             form (re-form = form again).  2 (also red- before a vowel, as in
             redolent) in verbs and verbal derivatives denoting: a in return;
             mutually (react; resemble).  b opposition (repel; resist).  c
             behind or after (relic; remain).  d retirement or secrecy
             (recluse; reticence).  e off, away, down (recede; relegate;
             repress).  f frequentative or intensive force (redouble; refine;
             resplendent).  g negative force (recant; reveal).  [L re-, red-,
             again, back, etc.]

   reabsorb  v.tr.  absorb again.  ЬЬreabsorption n.

   reaccept  v.tr.  accept again.  ЬЬreacceptance n.

             v.tr.  accustom again.

   reach     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. (often foll. by out) stretch out;
             extend.  2 intr. stretch out a limb, the hand, etc.; make a
             reaching motion or effort.  3 intr. (often foll. by for) make a
             motion or effort to touch or get hold of, or to attain (reached
             for his pipe).  4 tr. get as far as; arrive at (reached Lincoln
             at lunch-time; your letter reached me today).  5 tr. get to or
             attain (a specified point) on a scale (the temperature reached
             90ш; the number of applications reached 100).  6 intr. (foll. by
             to) attain to; be adequate for (my income will not reach to it).
             7 tr. succeed in achieving; attain (have reached agreement).  8
             tr. make contact with the hand etc., or by telephone etc. (was
             out all day and could not be reached).  9 tr. succeed in
             influencing or having the required effect on (could not manage
             to reach their audience).  10 tr. hand, pass (reach me that
             book).  11 tr. take with an outstretched hand.  12 intr.  Naut.
             sail with the wind abeam or abaft the beam.  --n.  1 the extent
             to which a hand etc. can be reached out, influence exerted,
             motion carried out, or mental powers used.  2 an act of reaching
             out.  3 a continuous extent, esp. a stretch of river between two
             bends, or the part of a canal between locks.  4 Naut. a distance
             traversed in reaching.  Ьout of reach not able to be reached or
             attained.  reach-me-down ready-made.  ЬЬreachable adj.  reacher
             n.  [OE r‘can f. WG]

             v.tr. & refl.  (usu. foll. by with) make (a person or oneself)
             acquainted again.  ЬЬreacquaintance n.

   reacquire v.tr.  acquire anew.  ЬЬreacquisition n.

   react     v.  1 intr. (foll. by to) respond to a stimulus; undergo a
             change or show behaviour due to some influence (how did they
             react to the news?).  2 intr. (often foll. by against) be
             actuated by repulsion to; tend in a reverse or contrary
             direction.  3 intr. (often foll. by upon) produce a reciprocal
             or responsive effect; act upon the agent (they react upon each
             other).  4 intr. (foll. by with) Chem. & Physics (of a substance
             or particle) be the cause of activity or interaction with
             another (nitrous oxide reacts with the metal).  5 tr. (foll. by
             with) Chem. cause (a substance) to react with another.  6 intr.
             Mil. make a counter-attack.  7 intr.  Stock Exch. (of shares)
             fall after rising.  [RE- + ACT or med.L reagere react- (as RE-,
             L agere do, act)]

   re-act    v.tr.  act (a part) again.

   reactance n.  Electr.  a component of impedance in an AC circuit, due to
             capacitance or inductance or both.

   reactant  n.  Chem.  a substance that takes part in, and undergoes change
             during a reaction.

   reaction  n.  1 the act or an instance of reacting; a responsive or
             reciprocal action.  2 a a responsive feeling (what was your
             reaction to the news?).  b an immediate or first impression.  3
             the occurrence of a (physical or emotional) condition after a
             period of its opposite.  4 a bodily response to an external
             stimulus, e.g. a drug.  5 a tendency to oppose change or to
             advocate return to a former system, esp. in politics.  6 the
             interaction of substances undergoing chemical change.  7
             propulsion by emitting a jet of particles etc. in the direction
             opposite to that of the intended motion.  ЬЬreactionist n. &
             adj.  [REACT + -ION or med.L reactio (as RE-, ACTION)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. tending to oppose (esp. political) change and
             advocate return to a former system.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a
             reactionary person.

             v.tr.  restore to a state of activity; bring into action again.
             ЬЬreactivation n.

   reactive  adj.  1 showing reaction.  2 of or relating to reactance.
             ЬЬreactivity n.

   reactor   n.  1 a person or thing that reacts.  2 (in full nuclear
             reactor) an apparatus or structure in which a controlled nuclear
             chain reaction releases energy.  3 Electr. a component used to
             provide reactance, esp. an inductor.  4 an apparatus for the
             chemical reaction of substances.  5 Med. a person who has a
             reaction to a drug etc.

   read      v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  read) 1 tr. (also absol.)
             reproduce mentally or (often foll. by aloud, out, off, etc.)
             vocally the written or printed words of (a book, author, etc.)
             by following the symbols with the eyes or fingers.  2 tr.
             convert or be able to convert into the intended words or meaning
             (written or other symbols or the things expressed in this way).
             3 tr. interpret mentally.  4 tr. deduce or declare an (esp.
             accurate) interpretation of (read the expression on my face).  5
             tr. (often foll. by that + clause) find (a thing) recorded or
             stated in print etc. (I read somewhere that you are leaving).  6
             tr. interpret (a statement or action) in a certain sense (my
             silence is not to be read as consent).  7 tr. (often foll. by
             into) assume as intended or deducible from a writer's words;
             find (implications) (you read too much into my letter).  8 tr.
             bring into a specified state by reading (read myself to sleep).
             9 tr. (of a meter or other recording instrument) show (a
             specified figure etc.) (the thermometer reads 20ш).  10 intr.
             convey meaning in a specified manner when read (it reads
             persuasively).  11 intr. sound or affect a hearer or reader as
             specified when read (the book reads like a parody).  12 a tr.
             study by reading (esp. a subject at university).  b intr. carry
             out a course of study by reading (is reading for the Bar).  13
             tr. (as read adj.) versed in a subject (esp. literature) by
             reading (a well-read person; was widely read in law).  14 tr.  a
             (of a computer) copy or transfer (data).  b (foll. by in, out)
             enter or extract (data) in an electronic storage device.  15 tr.
             a understand or interpret (a person) by hearing words or seeing
             signs, gestures, etc.  b interpret (cards, a person's hand,
             etc.) as a fortune-teller.  c interpret (the sky) as an
             astrologer or meteorologist.  16 tr.  Printing check the
             correctness of and emend (a proof).  17 tr. (of an editor or
             text) give as the word or words probably used or intended by an
             author.  --n.  1 a spell of reading.  2 colloq. a book etc. as
             regards its readability (is a really good read).  Ьread between
             the lines look for or find hidden meaning (in a document etc.).
             read-in the entry of data in an electronic storage device.  read
             a person like a book understand a person's motives etc.
             read-only memory Computing a memory read at high speed but not
             capable of being changed by program instructions.  read out 1
             read aloud.  2 US expel from a political party etc.  read-out
             information retrieved from a computer.  read up make a special
             study of (a subject).  read-write Computing capable of reading
             existing data and accepting alterations or further input (cf.
             read-only memory).  [OE r‘dan advise, consider, discern f. Gmc]

   readable  adj.  1 able to be read; legible.  2 interesting or pleasant to
             read.  ЬЬreadability n.  readableness n.  readably adv.

   readapt   v.intr. & tr.  become or cause to become adapted anew.
             ЬЬreadaptation n.

   readdress v.tr.  1 change the address of (a letter or parcel).  2 address
             (a problem etc.) anew.  3 speak or write to anew.

   reader    n.  1 a person who reads or is reading.  2 a book of extracts
             for learning, esp. a language.  3 a device for producing an
             image that can be read from microfilm etc.  4 Brit. a university
             lecturer of the highest grade below professor.  5 a publisher's
             employee who reports on submitted manuscripts.  6 a printer's
             proof-corrector.  7 a person appointed to read aloud, esp. parts
             of a service in a church.  8 a person entitled to use a
             particular library.  [OE (as READ)]

             n.  1 the readers of a newspaper etc.  2 the number or extent of

   readily   adv.  1 without showing reluctance; willingly.  2 without

   reading   n.  1 a the act or an instance of reading or perusing (the
             reading of the will).  b matter to be read (have plenty of
             reading with me).  c the specified quality of this (it made
             exciting reading).  2 (in comb.) used for reading (reading-lamp;
             reading-room).  3 literary knowledge (a person of wide reading).
             4 an entertainment at which a play, poems, etc., are read
             (poetry reading).  5 a figure etc. shown by a meter or other
             recording instrument.  6 an interpretation or view taken (what
             is your reading of the facts?).  7 an interpretation made (of
             drama, music, etc.).  8 each of the successive occasions on
             which a bill must be presented to a legislature for acceptance
             (see also first reading, second reading, third reading).  9 the
             version of a text, or the particular wording, conjectured or
             given by an editor etc.  Ьreading age reading ability expressed
             as the age for which the same ability is calculated as average
             (has a reading age of eight).  [OE (as READ)]

   readjust  v.tr.  adjust again or to a former state.  ЬЬreadjustment n.

   readmit   v.tr.  (readmitted, readmitting) admit again.  ЬЬreadmission n.

   readopt   v.tr.  adopt again.  ЬЬreadoption n.

   ready     adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  (readier, readiest) (usu.
             predic.) 1 with preparations complete (dinner is ready).  2 in a
             fit state (are you ready to go?).  3 willing, inclined, or
             resolved (he is always ready to complain; I am ready for
             anything).  4 within reach; easily secured (a ready source of
             income).  5 fit for immediate use (was ready to hand).  6
             immediate, unqualified (found ready acceptance).  7 prompt,
             quick, facile (is always ready with excuses; has a ready wit).
             8 (foll. by to + infin.) about to do something (a bud just ready
             to burst).  9 provided beforehand.  --adv.  1 beforehand.  2 so
             as not to require doing when the time comes for use (the cases
             are ready packed).  --n.  (pl.  -ies) sl.  1 (prec. by the) =
             ready money.  2 (in pl.) bank notes.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) make
             ready; prepare.  Ьat the ready ready for action.  make ready
             prepare.  ready-made (or -to-wear) (esp. of clothes) made in a
             standard size, not to measure.  ready-mix (or -mixed) (of
             concrete, paint, food, etc.) having some or all of the
             constituents already mixed together.  ready money 1 actual coin
             or notes.  2 payment on the spot.  ready reckoner a book or
             table listing standard numerical calculations as used esp. in
             commerce.  ready, steady (or get set), go the usual formula for
             starting a race.  ЬЬreadiness n.  [ME r‘di(g), re(a)di, f. OE
             r‘de f. Gmc]

   reaffirm  v.tr.  affirm again.  ЬЬreaffirmation n.

             v.tr.  replant (former forest land) with trees.
             ЬЬreafforestation n.

   reagency  n.  reactive power or operation.

   reagent   n.  Chem.  1 a substance used to cause a reaction, esp. to
             detect another substance.  2 a reactive substance or force.
             [RE- + AGENT: cf.  REACT]

   real(1)   adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 actually existing as a thing or occurring
             in fact.  2 genuine; rightly so called; not artificial or merely
             apparent.  3 Law consisting of or relating to immovable property
             such as land or houses (real estate) (cf. personal property).  4
             appraised by purchasing power; adjusted for changes in the value
             of money (real value; income in real terms).  5 Philos. having
             an absolute and necessary and not merely contingent existence.
             6 Math. (of a quantity) having no imaginary part (see IMAGINARY
             2).  7 Optics (of an image etc.) such that light actually passes
             through it.  --adv.  Sc. & US colloq. really, very.  Ьfor real
             colloq.  as a serious or actual concern; in earnest.  real ale
             beer regarded as brewed in a traditional way, with secondary
             fermentation in the cask.  real life that lived by actual
             people, as distinct from fiction, drama, etc.  real live
             (attrib.) often joc.  actual; not pretended or simulated (a real
             live burglar).  the real McCoy see MCCOY.  real money current
             coin or notes; cash.  real tennis the original form of tennis
             played on an indoor court.  the real thing (of an object or
             emotion) genuine, not inferior.  real time the actual time
             during which a process or event occurs.  real-time (attrib.)
             Computing (of a system) in which the response time is of the
             order of milliseconds, e.g. in an airline booking system.
             ЬЬrealness n.  [AF = OF reel, LL realis f. L res thing]

   real(2)   n.  hist.  a former coin and monetary unit of various
             Spanish-speaking countries.  [Sp., noun use of real (adj.) (as

   realgar   n.  a mineral of arsenic sulphide used as a pigment and in
             fireworks.  [ME f. med.L f. Arab.  rahj al-gar dust of the cave]

   realign   v.tr.  1 align again.  2 regroup in politics etc.  ЬЬrealignment

   realism   n.  1 the practice of regarding things in their true nature and
             dealing with them as they are.  2 fidelity to nature in
             representation; the showing of life etc. as it is in fact.  3
             Philos.  a the doctrine that universals or abstract concepts
             have an objective existence (opp.  NOMINALISM).  b the belief
             that matter as an object of perception has real existence.
             ЬЬrealist n.

   realistic adj.  1 regarding things as they are; following a policy of
             realism.  2 based on facts rather than ideals.  ЬЬrealistically

   reality   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 what is real or existent or underlies
             appearances.  2 (foll. by of) the real nature of (a thing).  3
             real existence; the state of being real.  4 resemblance to an
             original (the model was impressive in its reality).  Ьin reality
             in fact.  [med.L realitas or F r‚alit‚ (as REAL(1))]

   realize   v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 (often foll. by that + clause) be fully
             aware of; conceive as real.  2 understand clearly.  3 present as
             real; make realistic; give apparent reality to (the story was
             powerfully realized on stage).  4 convert into actuality;
             achieve (realized a childhood dream).  5 a convert into money.
             b acquire (profit).  c be sold for (a specified price).  6 Mus.
             reconstruct (a part) in full from a figured bass.  ЬЬrealizable
             adj.  realizability n.  realization n.  realizer n.

             v.tr.  allocate again or differently.  ЬЬreallocation n.

   reallot   v.tr.  (reallotted, reallotting) allot again or differently.
             ЬЬreallotment n.

   really    adv.  1 in reality; in fact.  2 positively, assuredly (really
             useful).  3 (as a strong affirmative) indeed, I assure you.  4
             an expression of mild protest or surprise.  5 (in interrog.)
             (expressing disbelief) is that so? (They're musicians. --

   realm     n.  1 formal esp. Law a kingdom.  2 a sphere or domain (the
             realm of imagination).  [ME f. OF realme, reaume, f. L regimen
             -minis (see REGIMEN): infl. by OF reiel ROYAL]

             n.  politics based on realities and material needs, rather than
             on morals or ideals.  [G]

   realtor   n.  US a real-estate agent, esp.  (Realtor) a member of the
             National Association of Realtors.

   realty    n.  Law real estate (opp.  PERSONALTY).

   ream(1)   n.  1 twenty quires or 500 (formerly 480) sheets of paper (or a
             larger number, to allow for waste).  2 (in pl.) a large quantity
             of paper or writing (wrote reams about it).  [ME rem, rim f. OF
             raime etc., ult. f. Arab.  rizma bundle]

   ream(2)   v.tr.  1 widen (a hole in metal etc.) with a borer.  2 turn over
             the edge of (a cartridge-case etc.).  3 Naut. open (a seam) for
             caulking.  4 US squeeze the juice from (fruit).  ЬЬreamer n.
             [19th c.: orig. uncert.]

   reanimate v.tr.  1 restore to life.  2 restore to activity or liveliness.
             ЬЬreanimation n.

   reap      v.tr.  1 cut or gather (a crop, esp. grain) as a harvest.  2
             harvest the crop of (a field etc.).  3 receive as the
             consequence of one's own or others' actions.  [OE ripan, reopan,
             of unkn. orig.]

   reaper    n.  1 a person who reaps.  2 a machine for reaping.  Ьthe Reaper
             (or grim Reaper) death personified.

   reappear  v.intr.  appear again or as previously.  ЬЬreappearance n.

   reapply   v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) apply again, esp. submit a further
             application (for a position etc.).  ЬЬreapplication n.

   reappoint v.tr.  appoint again to a position previously held.
             ЬЬreappointment n.

             v.tr.  apportion again or differently.  ЬЬreapportionment n.

             v.tr.  appraise or assess again.  ЬЬreappraisal n.

   rear(1)   n. & adj.  --n.  1 the back part of anything.  2 the space
             behind, or position at the back of, anything (a large house with
             a terrace at the rear).  3 the hindmost part of an army or
             fleet.  4 colloq. the buttocks.  --adj. at the back.  Ьbring up
             the rear come last.  in the rear behind; at the back.  rear
             admiral a naval officer ranking below vice admiral.  rear
             commodore a yacht-club officer below vice commodore.  rear-lamp
             (or -light) a usu. red light at the rear of a vehicle.  rear
             sight the sight nearest to the stock on a firearm.  rear-view
             mirror a mirror fixed inside the windscreen of a motor vehicle
             enabling the driver to see traffic etc. behind.  take in the
             rear Mil.  attack from behind.  [prob. f. (in the) REARWARD or

   rear(2)   v.  1 tr.  a bring up and educate (children).  b breed and care
             for (animals).  c cultivate (crops).  2 intr. (of a horse etc.)
             raise itself on its hind legs.  3 tr.  a set upright.  b build.
             c hold upwards (rear one's head).  4 intr. extend to a great
             height.  ЬЬrearer n.  [OE r‘ran f. Gmc]

   rearguard n.  1 a body of troops detached to protect the rear, esp. in
             retreats.  2 a defensive or conservative element in an
             organization etc.  Ьrearguard action 1 Mil. an engagement
             undertaken by a rearguard.  2 a defensive stand in argument
             etc., esp. when losing.  [OF rereguarde (as RETRO-, GUARD)]

   rearm     v.tr.  (also absol.) arm again, esp. with improved weapons.
             ЬЬrearmament n.

   rearmost  adj.  furthest back.

   rearrange v.tr.  arrange again in a different way.  ЬЬrearrangement n.

   rearrest  v. & n.  --v.tr. arrest again.  --n. an instance of rearresting
             or being rearrested.

   rearward  n., adj., & adv.  --n. rear, esp. in prepositional phrases (to
             the rearward of; in the rearward).  --adj. to the rear.  --adv.
             (also rearwards) towards the rear.  [AF rerewarde = REARGUARD]

   reascend  v.tr. & intr.  ascend again or to a former position.
             ЬЬreascension n.

   reason    n. & v.  --n.  1 a motive, cause, or justification (has good
             reasons for doing this; there is no reason to be angry).  2 a
             fact adduced or serving as this (I can give you my reasons).  3
             the intellectual faculty by which conclusions are drawn from
             premisses.  4 sanity (has lost his reason).  5 Logic a premiss
             of a syllogism, esp. a minor premiss when given after the
             conclusion.  6 a faculty transcending the understanding and
             providing a priori principles; intuition.  7 sense; sensible
             conduct; what is right or practical or practicable; moderation.
             --v.  1 intr. form or try to reach conclusions by connected
             thought.  2 intr. (foll. by with) use an argument (with a
             person) by way of persuasion.  3 tr. (foll. by that + clause)
             conclude or assert in argument.  4 tr. (foll. by why, whether,
             what + clause) discuss; ask oneself.  5 tr. (foll. by into, out
             of) persuade or move by argument (I reasoned them out of their
             fears).  6 tr. (foll. by out) think or work out (consequences
             etc.).  7 tr. (often as reasoned adj.) express in logical or
             argumentative form.  8 tr. embody reason in (an amendment etc.).
             Ьby reason of owing to.  in (or within) reason within the bounds
             of sense or moderation.  it stands to reason (often foll. by
             that + clause) it is evident or logical.  listen to reason be
             persuaded to act sensibly.  see reason acknowledge the force of
             an argument.  with reason justifiably.  ЬЬreasoner n.  reasoning
             n.  reasonless adj.  [ME f. OF reisun, res(o)un, raisoner, ult.
             f. L ratio -onis f.  reri rat- consider]

             adj.  1 having sound judgement; moderate; ready to listen to
             reason.  2 in accordance with reason; not absurd.  3 a within
             the limits of reason; not greatly less or more than might be
             expected.  b inexpensive; not extortionate.  c tolerable, fair.
             4 archaic endowed with the faculty of reason.  ЬЬreasonableness
             n.  reasonably adv.  [ME f. OF raisonable (as REASON) after L

             v.intr. & tr.  assemble again or into a former state.
             ЬЬreassembly n.

   reassert  v.tr.  assert again.  ЬЬreassertion n.

   reassess  v.tr.  assess again, esp. differently.  ЬЬreassessment n.

   reassign  v.tr.  assign again or differently.  ЬЬreassignment n.

   reassume  v.tr.  take on oneself or undertake again.  ЬЬreassumption n.

   reassure  v.tr.  1 restore confidence to; dispel the apprehensions of.  2
             confirm in an opinion or impression.  ЬЬreassurance n.
             reassurer n.  reassuring adj.  reassuringly adv.

   reattach  v.tr.  attach again or in a former position.  ЬЬreattachment n.

   reattain  v.tr.  attain again.  ЬЬreattainment n.

   reattempt v.tr.  attempt again, esp. after failure.

   R‚aumur   adj.  expressed in or related to the scale of temperature at
             which water freezes at 0ш and boils at 80ш under standard
             conditions.  ЬR‚aumur scale this scale.  [R. de R‚aumur, Fr.
             physicist d. 1757]

   reave     v.  (past and past part.  reft) archaic 1 tr.  a (foll. by of)
             forcibly deprive of.  b (foll. by away, from) take by force or
             carry off.  2 intr. make raids; plunder; = REIVE.  [OE reafian
             f. Gmc: cf.  ROB]

   reawaken  v.tr. & intr.  awaken again.

             adj.  literary repellent, unattractive.  [F r‚barbatif -ive f.
             barbe beard]

   rebate(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a partial refund of money paid.  2 a deduction
             from a sum to be paid; a discount.  --v.tr. pay back as a
             rebate.  ЬЬrebatable adj.  rebater n.  [earlier = diminish: ME
             f. OF rabattre (as RE-, ABATE)]

   rebate(2) n. & v.tr.  = RABBET.  [respelling of RABBET, after REBATE(1)]

   rebec     n.  (also rebeck) Mus.  a medieval usu. three-stringed
             instrument played with a bow.  [F rebec var. of OF rebebe rubebe
             f. Arab.  rabab]

   rebel     n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a person who fights against, resists, or
             refuses allegiance to, the established government.  2 a person
             or thing that resists authority or control.  --adj.  (attrib.) 1
             rebellious.  2 of or concerning rebels.  3 in rebellion.
             --v.intr.  (rebelled, rebelling; US rebeled, rebeling) (usu.
             foll. by against) 1 act as a rebel; revolt.  2 feel or display
             repugnance.  [ME f. OF rebelle, rebeller f. L rebellis (as RE-,
             bellum war)]

   rebellion n.  open resistance to authority, esp. organized armed
             resistance to an established government.  [ME f. OF f. L
             rebellio -onis (as REBEL)]

             adj.  1 tending to rebel, insubordinate.  2 in rebellion.  3
             defying lawful authority.  4 (of a thing) unmanageable,
             refractory.  ЬЬrebelliously adv.  rebelliousness n.  [ME f.
             REBELLION + -OUS or f. earlier rebellous + -IOUS]

   rebid     v. & n.  --v.  also (rebidding; past and past part.  rebid)
             Cards 1 intr. bid again.  2 tr. bid (a suit) again at a higher
             level.  --n.  1 the act of rebidding.  2 a bid made in this way.

   rebind    v.tr.  (past and past part.  rebound) bind (esp. a book) again
             or differently.

   rebirth   n.  1 a new incarnation.  2 spiritual enlightenment.  3 a
             revival (the rebirth of learning).  ЬЬreborn adj.

   reboot    v.tr.  (often absol.) Computing boot up (a system) again.

   rebore    v. & n.  --v.tr.  make a new boring in, esp. widen the bore of
             (the cylinder in an internal-combustion engine).  --n.  1 the
             process of doing this.  2 a rebored engine.

             v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 spring back after action or impact.  2
             (foll. by upon) (of an action) have an adverse effect upon (the
             doer).  --n.  1 the act or an instance of rebounding; recoil.  2
             a reaction after a strong emotion.  Ьon the rebound while still
             recovering from an emotional shock, esp. rejection by a lover.
             ЬЬrebounder n.  [ME f. OF rebonder, rebondir (as RE-, BOUND(1))]

             past and past part. of REBIND.

             v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past rebroadcast or rebroadcasted; past part.
             rebroadcast) broadcast again.  --n. a repeat broadcast.

   rebuff    n. & v.  --n.  1 a rejection of one who makes advances, proffers
             help or sympathy, shows interest or curiosity, makes a request,
             etc.  2 a repulse; a snub.  --v.tr. give a rebuff to.  [obs. F
             rebuffe(r) f. It.  ribuffo, ribuffare, rabbuffo, rabbuffare (as
             RE-, buffo puff)]

   rebuild   v.tr.  (past and past part.  rebuilt) build again or

   rebuke    v. & n.  --v.tr. reprove sharply; subject to protest or censure.
             --n.  1 the act of rebuking.  2 the process of being rebuked.  3
             a reproof.  ЬЬrebuker n.  rebukingly adv.  [ME f. AF & ONF
             rebuker (as RE-, OF buchier beat, orig. cut down wood f.  busche

   rebury    v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) bury again.  ЬЬreburial n.

   rebus     n.  1 an enigmatic representation of a word (esp. a name), by
             pictures etc. suggesting its parts.  2 Heraldry a device
             suggesting the name of its bearer.  [F r‚bus f. L rebus, ablat.
             pl. of res thing]

   rebut     v.tr.  (rebutted, rebutting) 1 refute or disprove (evidence or a
             charge).  2 force or turn back; check.  ЬЬrebutment n.
             rebuttable adj.  rebuttal n.  [ME f. AF rebuter, OF rebo(u)ter
             (as RE-, BUTT(1))]

   rebutter  n.  1 a refutation.  2 Law a defendant's reply to the
             plaintiff's surrejoinder.  [AF rebuter (as REBUT)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 obstinately disobedient.  2 objecting to
             restraint.  --n. a recalcitrant person.  ЬЬrecalcitrance n.
             recalcitrantly adv.  [L recalcitrare (as RE-, calcitrare kick
             out with the heels f.  calx calcis heel)]

             v.tr.  calculate again.  ЬЬrecalculation n.

   recalesce v.intr.  grow hot again (esp. of iron allowed to cool from white
             heat, whose temperature rises at a certain point for a short
             time).  ЬЬrecalescence n.  [L recalescere (as RE-, calescere
             grow hot)]

   recall    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 summon to return from a place or from a
             different occupation, inattention, a digression, etc.  2
             recollect, remember.  3 bring back to memory; serve as a
             reminder of.  4 revoke or annul (an action or decision).  5
             cancel or suspend the appointment of (an official sent overseas
             etc.).  6 revive, resuscitate.  7 take back (a gift).  --n.
             also 1 the act or an instance of recalling, esp. a summons to
             come back.  2 the act of remembering.  3 the ability to
             remember.  4 the possibility of recalling, esp. in the sense of
             revoking (beyond recall).  5 US removal of an elected official
             from office.  ЬЬrecallable adj.

   recant    v.  1 tr. withdraw and renounce (a former belief or statement)
             as erroneous or heretical.  2 intr. disavow a former opinion,
             esp. with a public confession of error.  ЬЬrecantation n.
             recanter n.  [L recantare revoke (as RE-, cantare sing, chant)]

   recap     v. & n.  colloq.  --v.tr. & intr.  (recapped, recapping)
             recapitulate.  --n. recapitulation.  [abbr.]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) capitalize (shares etc.) again.
             ЬЬrecapitalization n.

             v.tr.  1 go briefly through again; summarize.  2 go over the
             main points or headings of.  ЬЬrecapitulative adj.
             recapitulatory adj.  [L recapitulare (as RE-, capitulum

             n.  1 the act or an instance of recapitulating.  2 Biol. the
             reappearance in embryos of successive type-forms in the
             evolutionary line of development.  3 Mus. part of a movement,
             esp. in sonata form, in which themes from the exposition are
             restated.  [ME f. OF recapitulation or LL recapitulatio (as

   recapture v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 capture again; recover by capture.  2
             re-experience (a past emotion etc.).  --n. the act or an
             instance of recapturing.

   recast    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  recast) 1 put into a new
             form.  2 improve the arrangement of.  3 change the cast of (a
             play etc.).  --n.  1 the act or an instance of recasting.  2 a
             recast form.

   recce     n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a reconnaisance.  --v.tr. & intr.
             (recced, recceing) reconnoitre.  [abbr.]

   recd.     abbr.  received.

   recede    v.intr.  1 go or shrink back or further off.  2 be left at an
             increasing distance by an observer's motion.  3 slope backwards
             (a receding chin).  4 decline in force or value.  5 (foll. by
             from) withdraw from (an engagement, opinion, etc.).  6 (of a
             man's hair) cease to grow at the front, sides, etc.  [ME f. L
             recedere (as RE-, cedere cess- go)]

   re-cede   v.tr.  cede back to a former owner.

   receipt   n. & v.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of receiving or being
             received into one's possession (will pay on receipt of the
             goods).  2 a written acknowledgement of this, esp. of the
             payment of money.  3 (usu. in pl.) an amount of money etc.
             received.  4 archaic a recipe.  --v.tr. place a written or
             printed receipt on (a bill).  [ME receit(e) f. AF & ONF receite,
             OF re‡oite, recete f. med.L recepta fem. past part. of L
             recipere RECEIVE: -p- inserted after L]

   receive   v.tr.  1 take or accept (something offered or given) into one's
             hands or possession.  2 acquire; be provided with or given (have
             received no news; will receive a small fee).  3 accept delivery
             of (something sent).  4 have conferred or inflicted on one
             (received many honours; received a heavy blow on the head).  5 a
             stand the force or weight of.  b bear up against; encounter with
             opposition.  6 consent to hear (a confession or oath) or
             consider (a petition).  7 (also absol.) accept or have dealings
             with (stolen property knowing of the theft).  8 admit; consent
             or prove able to hold; provide accommodation for (received many
             visitors).  9 (of a receptacle) be able to hold (a specified
             amount or contents).  10 greet or welcome, esp. in a specified
             manner (how did they receive your offer?).  11 entertain as a
             guest etc.  12 admit to membership of a society, organization,
             etc.  13 be marked more or less permanently with (an impression
             etc.).  14 convert (broadcast signals) into sound or pictures.
             15 Tennis be the player to whom the server serves (the ball).
             16 (often as received adj.) give credit to; accept as
             authoritative or true (received opinion).  17 eat or drink (the
             Eucharistic bread and wine).  Ьbe at (or on) the receiving end
             colloq.  bear the brunt of something unpleasant.  received
             pronunciation (or Received Standard) the form of spoken English
             based on educated speech in southern England.  receiving-order
             Brit.  an order of a court authorizing a receiver (see RECEIVER
             3) to act.  ЬЬreceivable adj.  [ME f. OF receivre, re‡oivre f. L
             recipere recept- (as RE-, capere take)]

   receiver  n.  1 a person or thing that receives.  2 the part of a machine
             or instrument that receives sound, signals, etc. (esp. the part
             of a telephone that contains the earpiece).  3 (in full official
             receiver) a person appointed by a court to administer the
             property of a bankrupt or insane person, or property under
             litigation.  4 a radio or television receiving apparatus.  5 a
             person who receives stolen goods.  6 Chem. a vessel for
             collecting the products of distillation, chromatography, etc.

             n.  1 the office of official receiver.  2 the state of being
             dealt with by a receiver ( esp.  in receivership).

   recension n.  1 the revision of a text.  2 a particular form or version of
             a text resulting from such revision.  [L recensio f.  recensere
             revise (as RE-, censere review)]

   recent    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 not long past; that happened, appeared,
             began to exist, or existed lately.  2 not long established;
             lately begun; modern.  3 (Recent) Geol. = HOLOCENE.  --n.  Geol.
             = HOLOCENE.  ЬЬrecency n.  recently adv.  recentness n.  [L
             recens recentis or F r‚cent]

             n.  1 a containing vessel, place, or space.  2 Bot.  a the
             common base of floral organs.  b the part of a leaf or thallus
             in some algae where the reproductive organs are situated.  [ME
             f. OF receptacle or L receptaculum (as RECEPTION)]

   reception n.  1 the act or an instance of receiving or the process of
             being received, esp. of a person into a place or group.  2 the
             manner in which a person or thing is received (got a cool
             reception).  3 a social occasion for receiving guests, esp.
             after a wedding.  4 a formal or ceremonious welcome.  5 a place
             where guests or clients etc. report on arrival at a hotel,
             office, etc.  6 a the receiving of broadcast signals.  b the
             quality of this (we have excellent reception).  Ьreception order
             an order authorizing the entry of a patient into a mental
             hospital.  reception room a room available or suitable for
             receiving company or visitors.  [ME f. OF reception or L
             receptio (as RECEIVE)]

             n.  a person employed in a hotel, office, etc., to receive
             guests, clients, etc.

   receptive adj.  1 able or quick to receive impressions or ideas.  2
             concerned with receiving stimuli etc.  ЬЬreceptively adv.
             receptiveness n.  receptivity n.  [F r‚ceptif -ive or med.L
             receptivus (as RECEPTION)]

   receptor  n.  (often attrib.) Biol.  1 an organ able to respond to an
             external stimulus such as light, heat, or a drug, and transmit a
             signal to a sensory nerve.  2 a region of a cell, tissue, etc.,
             that responds to a molecule or other substance.  [OF receptour
             or L receptor (as RECEPTIVE)]

   recess    n. & v.  --n.  1 a space set back in a wall; a niche.  2 (often
             in pl.) a remote or secret place (the innermost recesses).  3 a
             temporary cessation from work, esp. of Parliament, or US of a
             lawcourt or during a school day.  4 Anat. a fold or indentation
             in an organ.  5 Geog. a receding part of a mountain chain etc.
             --v.  1 tr. make a recess in.  2 tr. place in a recess; set
             back.  3 US a intr. take a recess; adjourn.  b tr. order a
             temporary cessation from the work of (a court etc.).  [L
             recessus (as RECEDE)]

   recession n.  1 a temporary decline in economic activity or prosperity.  2
             a receding or withdrawal from a place or point.  3 a receding
             part of an object; a recess.  ЬЬrecessionary adj.  [L recessio
             (as RECESS)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. sung while the clergy and choir withdraw after
             a service.  --n. a recessional hymn.

   recessive adj.  1 tending to recede.  2 Phonet. (of an accent) falling
             near the beginning of a word.  3 Genetics (of an inherited
             characteristic) appearing in offspring only when not masked by a
             dominant characteristic inherited from one parent.
             ЬЬrecessively adv.  recessiveness n.  [RECESS after excessive]

   recharge  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 charge again.  2 reload.  --n.  1 a renewed
             charge.  2 material etc. used for this.  ЬЬrechargeable adj.

   r‚chauff‚ n.  1 a warmed-up dish.  2 a rehash.  [F past part. of
             r‚chauffer (as RE-, CHAFE)]

   recheck   v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  check again.  --n.  a second or
             further check or inspection.

   recherch‚ adj.  1 carefully sought out; rare or exotic.  2 far-fetched,
             obscure.  [F, past part. of rechercher (as RE-, chercher seek)]

             v.tr.  1 christen again.  2 give a new name to.

             n.  a person who relapses into crime.  ЬЬrecidivism n.
             recidivistic adj.  [F r‚cidiviste f.  r‚cidiver f. med.L
             recidivare f. L recidivus f.  recidere (as RE-, cadere fall)]

   recipe    n.  1 a statement of the ingredients and procedure required for
             preparing cooked food.  2 an expedient; a device for achieving
             something.  3 a medical prescription.  [2nd sing. imper. (as
             used in prescriptions) of L recipere take, RECEIVE]

   recipient n. & adj.  --n. a person who receives something.  --adj.  1
             receiving.  2 receptive.  ЬЬrecipiency n.  [F r‚cipient f. It.
             recipiente or L recipiens f.  recipere RECEIVE]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 in return (offered a reciprocal greeting).
             2 mutual (their feelings are reciprocal).  3 Gram. (of a
             pronoun) expressing mutual action or relation (as in each
             other).  4 inversely correspondent; complementary (natural
             kindness matched by a reciprocal severity).  --n.  Math. an
             expression or function so related to another that their product
             is unity (« is the reciprocal of 2).  ЬЬreciprocality n.
             reciprocally adv.  [L reciprocus ult. f.  re- back + pro

             v.  1 tr. return or requite (affection etc.).  2 intr. (foll. by
             with) offer or give something in return (reciprocated with an
             invitation to lunch).  3 tr. give and receive mutually;
             interchange.  4 a intr. (of a part of a machine) move backwards
             and forwards.  b tr. cause to do this.  Ьreciprocating engine an
             engine using a piston or pistons moving up and down in
             cylinders.  ЬЬreciprocation n.  reciprocator n.  [L reciprocare
             reciprocat- (as RECIPROCAL)]

             n.  1 the condition of being reciprocal.  2 mutual action.  3
             give and take, esp. the interchange of privileges between
             countries and organizations.  [F r‚ciprocit‚ f.  r‚ciproque f. L
             reciprocus (as RECIPROCATE)]

             v.tr. & intr.  circulate again, esp. make available for reuse.
             ЬЬrecirculation n.

   recital   n.  1 the act or an instance of reciting or being recited.  2
             the performance of a programme of music by a solo
             instrumentalist or singer or by a small group.  3 (foll. by of)
             a detailed account of (connected things or facts); a narrative.
             4 Law the part of a legal document that states the facts.
             ЬЬrecitalist n.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of reciting.  2 a thing recited.
             [OF recitation or L recitatio (as RECITE)]

             n.  1 musical declamation of the kind usual in the narrative and
             dialogue parts of opera and oratorio.  2 the words or part given
             in this form.  [It.  recitativo (as RECITE)]

   recite    v.  1 tr. repeat aloud or declaim (a poem or passage) from
             memory, esp.  before an audience.  2 intr. give a recitation.  3
             tr. mention in order; enumerate.  ЬЬreciter n.  [ME f. OF
             reciter or L recitare (as RE-, CITE)]

   reck      v.  archaic or poet. (only in neg. or interrog.) 1 tr. (foll. by
             of) pay heed to; take account of; care about.  2 tr. pay heed
             to.  3 intr. (usu. with it as subject) be of importance (it
             recks little).  [OE reccan, rel. to OHG ruohhen]

   reckless  adj.  disregarding the consequences or danger etc.; lacking
             caution; rash.  ЬЬrecklessly adv.  recklessness n.  [OE
             recceleas (as RECK)]

   reckon    v.  1 tr. count or compute by calculation.  2 tr. (foll. by in)
             count in or include in computation.  3 tr. (often foll. by as or
             to be) consider or regard (reckon him wise; reckon them to be
             beyond hope).  4 tr.  a (foll. by that + clause) conclude after
             calculation; be of the considered opinion.  b colloq. (foll. by
             to + infin.) expect (reckons to finish by Friday).  5 intr. make
             calculations; add up an account or sum.  6 intr. (foll. by on,
             upon) rely on, count on, or base plans on.  7 intr. (foll. by
             with) a take into account.  b settle accounts with.  Ьreckon up
             1 count up; find the total of.  2 settle accounts.  to be
             reckoned with of considerable importance; not to be ignored.
             [OE (ge)recenian f. WG]

   reckoner  n.  = ready reckoner.

   reckoning n.  1 the act or an instance of counting or calculating.  2 a
             consideration or opinion.  3 a the settlement of an account.  b
             an account.  Ьday of reckoning the time when something must be
             atoned for or avenged.

   reclaim   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 seek the return of (one's property).  2
             claim in return or as a rebate etc.  3 bring under cultivation,
             esp. from a state of being under water.  4 a win back or away
             from vice or error or a waste condition; reform.  b tame,
             civilize.  --n. the act or an instance of reclaiming; the
             process of being reclaimed.  ЬЬreclaimable adj.  reclaimer n.
             reclamation n.  [ME f. OF reclamer reclaim- f. L reclamare cry
             out against (as RE-, clamare shout)]

             v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) classify again or differently.
             ЬЬreclassification n.

   reclinate adj.  Bot.  bending downwards.  [L reclinatus, past part. of
             reclinare (as RECLINE)]

   recline   v.  1 intr. assume or be in a horizontal or leaning position,
             esp. in resting.  2 tr. cause to recline or move from the
             vertical.  ЬЬreclinable adj.  [ME f. OE recliner or L reclinare
             bend back, recline (as RE-, clinare bend)]

   recliner  n.  1 a comfortable chair for reclining in.  2 a person who

   reclothe  v.tr.  clothe again or differently.

   recluse   n. & adj.  --n. a person given to or living in seclusion or
             isolation, esp.  as a religious discipline; a hermit.  --adj.
             favouring seclusion; solitary.  ЬЬreclusion n.  reclusive adj.
             [ME f. OF reclus recluse past part. of reclure f. L recludere
             reclus- (as RE-, claudere shut)]

             n.  the act or an instance of recognizing or being recognized.
             ЬЬrecognitory adj.  [L recognitio (as RECOGNIZE)]

             n.  1 a bond by which a person undertakes before a court or
             magistrate to observe some condition, e.g. to appear when
             summoned.  2 a sum pledged as surety for this.  [ME f. OF
             recon(n)issance (as RE-, COGNIZANCE)]

             adj.  (usu. foll. by of) 1 showing recognition (of a favour
             etc.).  2 conscious or showing consciousness (of something).

   recognize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 identify (a person or thing) as already
             known; know again.  2 realize or discover the nature of.  3
             (foll. by that) realize or admit.  4 acknowledge the existence,
             validity, character, or claims of.  5 show appreciation of;
             reward.  6 (foll. by as, for) treat or acknowledge.  7 (of a
             chairperson etc.) allow (a person) to speak in a debate etc.
             ЬЬrecognizable n.  recognizability n.  recognizably adv.
             recognizer n.  [OF recon(n)iss- stem of reconnaistre f. L
             recognoscere recognit- (as RE-, cognoscere learn)]

   recoil    v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 suddenly move or spring back in fear,
             horror, or disgust.  2 shrink mentally in this way.  3 rebound
             after an impact.  4 (foll. by on, upon) have an adverse reactive
             effect on (the originator).  5 (of a gun) be driven backwards by
             its discharge.  6 retreat under an enemy's attack.  7 Physics
             (of an atom etc.) move backwards by the conservation of momentum
             on emission of a particle.  --n.  also 1 the act or an instance
             of recoiling.  2 the sensation of recoiling.  [ME f. OF reculer
             (as RE-, L culus buttocks)]

   recollect v.tr.  1 remember.  2 succeed in remembering; call to mind.  [L
             recolligere recollect- (as RE-, COLLECT(1))]

             v.tr.  1 collect again.  2 (refl.) recover control of (oneself).

             n.  1 the act or power of recollecting.  2 a thing recollected.
             3 a a person's memory (to the best of my recollection).  b the
             time over which memory extends (happened within my
             recollection).  ЬЬrecollective adj.  [F recollection or med.L
             recollectio (as RECOLLECT)]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) colonize again.  ЬЬrecolonization n.

   recolour  v.tr.  colour again or differently.

             adj. & n.  Biol.  --adj. (of a gene etc.) formed by
             recombination.  --n. a recombinant organism or cell.
             Ьrecombinant DNA DNA that has been recombined using constituents
             from different sources.

             n.  Biol.  the rearrangement, esp. by crossing over in
             chromosomes, of nucleic acid molecules forming a new sequence of
             the constituent nucleotides.

   recombine v.tr. & intr.  combine again or differently.

             v.tr. & intr.  begin again.  ЬЬrecommencement n.

   recommend v.tr.  1 suggest as fit for some purpose or use.  2 (often foll.
             by that + clause or to + infin.) advise as a course of action
             etc. (I recommend that you stay where you are).  3 (of
             qualities, conduct, etc.) make acceptable or desirable.  4
             (foll. by to) commend or entrust (to a person or a person's
             care).  ЬЬrecommendable adj.  recommendation n.  recommendatory
             adj.  recommender n.  [ME (in sense 4) f. med.L recommendare (as
             RE-, COMMEND)]

   recommit  v.tr.  (recommitted, recommitting) 1 commit again.  2 return (a
             bill etc.) to a committee for further consideration.
             ЬЬrecommitment n.  recommittal n.

             v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 make amends to (a person) or for (a loss
             etc.).  2 requite; reward or punish (a person or action).  --n.
             1 a reward; requital.  2 retribution; satisfaction given for an
             injury.  [ME f. OF recompense(r) f. LL recompensare (as RE-,

   recompose v.tr.  compose again or differently.

   reconcile v.tr.  1 make friendly again after an estrangement.  2 (usu. in
             refl. or passive; foll. by to) make acquiescent or contentedly
             submissive to (something disagreeable or unwelcome) (was
             reconciled to failure).  3 settle (a quarrel etc.).  4 a
             harmonize; make compatible.  b show the compatibility of by
             argument or in practice (cannot reconcile your views with the
             facts).  ЬЬreconcilable adj.  reconcilability n.  reconcilement
             n.  reconciler n.  reconciliation n.  reconciliatory adj.  [ME
             f. OF reconcilier or L reconciliare (as RE-, conciliare

   recondite adj.  1 (of a subject or knowledge) abstruse; out of the way;
             little known.  2 (of an author or style) dealing in abstruse
             knowledge or allusions; obscure.  ЬЬreconditely adv.
             reconditeness n.  [L reconditus (as RE-, conditus past part. of
             condere hide)]

             v.tr.  1 overhaul, refit, renovate.  2 make usable again.
             ЬЬreconditioner n.

             v.tr.  configure again or differently.  ЬЬreconfiguration n.

   reconfirm v.tr.  confirm, establish, or ratify anew.  ЬЬreconfirmation n.

             n.  1 a survey of a region, esp. a military examination to
             locate an enemy or ascertain strategic features.  2 a
             preliminary survey or inspection.  [F (earlier -oissance) f.
             stem of reconnaЊtre (as RECONNOITRE)]

   reconnect v.tr.  connect again.  ЬЬreconnection n.

             v. & n.  (US reconnoiter) --v.  1 tr. make a reconnaissance of
             (an area, enemy position, etc.).  2 intr. make a reconnaissance.
             --n. a reconnaissance.  [obs. F reconnoЊtre f. L recognoscere

   reconquer v.tr.  conquer again.  ЬЬreconquest n.

             v.tr. & intr.  consider again, esp. for a possible change of
             decision.  ЬЬreconsideration n.

   reconsign v.tr.  consign again or differently.  ЬЬreconsignment n.

             v.tr. & intr.  consolidate again.  ЬЬreconsolidation n.

             v. & tr.  1 build up again from parts; reconstruct.  2
             reorganize.  3 restore the previous constitution of (dried food
             etc.) by adding water.  ЬЬreconstitution n.

             v.tr.  1 build or form again.  2 a form a mental or visual
             impression of (past events) by assembling the evidence for them.
             b re-enact (a crime).  3 reorganize.  ЬЬreconstructable adj.
             (also reconstructible).  reconstruction n.  reconstructive adj.
             reconstructor n.

   reconvene v.tr. & intr.  convene again, esp. (of a meeting etc.) after a
             pause in proceedings.

   reconvert v.tr.  convert back to a former state.  ЬЬreconversion n.

   record    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a piece of evidence or information
             constituting an (esp.  official) account of something that has
             occurred, been said, etc.  b a document preserving this.  2 the
             state of being set down or preserved in writing or some other
             permanent form (is a matter of record).  3 a (in full gramophone
             record) a thin plastic disc carrying recorded sound in grooves
             on each surface, for reproduction by a record-player.  b a trace
             made on this or some other medium, e.g. magnetic tape.  4 a an
             official report of the proceedings and judgement in a court of
             justice.  b a copy of the pleadings etc. constituting a case to
             be decided by a court (see also court of record).  5 a the facts
             known about a person's past (has an honourable record of
             service).  b a list of a person's previous criminal convictions.
             6 the best performance (esp. in sport) or most remarkable event
             of its kind on record (often attrib.: a record attempt).  7 an
             object serving as a memorial of a person or thing; a portrait.
             8 Computing a number of related items of information which are
             handled as a unit.  --v.tr.  1 set down in writing or some other
             permanent form for later reference, esp. as an official record.
             2 convert (sound, a broadcast, etc.) into permanent form for
             later reproduction.  3 establish or constitute a historical or
             other record of.  Ьbreak (or beat) the record outdo all previous
             performances etc.  for the record as an official statement etc.
             go on record state one's opinion or judgement openly or
             officially, so that it is recorded.  have a record be known as a
             criminal.  a matter of record a thing established as a fact by
             being recorded.  off the record as an unofficial or confidential
             statement etc.  on record officially recorded; publicly known.
             put (or get or set etc.) the record straight correct a
             misapprehension.  recorded delivery a Post Office service in
             which the dispatch and receipt of a letter or parcel are
             recorded.  recording angel an angel that supposedly registers
             each person's good and bad actions.  record-player an apparatus
             for reproducing sound from gramophone records.  ЬЬrecordable
             adj.  [ME f. OF record remembrance, recorder record, f. L
             recordari remember (as RE-, cor cordis heart)]

   recorder  n.  1 an apparatus for recording, esp. a tape recorder.  2 a a
             keeper of records.  b a person who makes an official record.  3
             Brit.  a a barrister or solicitor of at least ten years'
             standing, appointed to serve as a part-time judge.  b hist. a
             judge in certain courts.  4 Mus. a woodwind instrument like a
             flute but blown through the end and having a more hollow tone.
             ЬЬrecordership n. (in sense 3).  [ME f. AF recordour, OF
             recordeur & f.  RECORD (in obs. sense 'practise a tune')]

   recording n.  1 the process by which audio or video signals are recorded
             for later reproduction.  2 material or a programme recorded.

   recordist n.  a person who records sound.

   recount   v.tr.  1 narrate.  2 tell in detail.  [ONF & AF reconter (as
             RE-, COUNT(1))]

   re-count  v. & n.  --v.  tr. count again.  --n.  a re-counting, esp. of
             votes in an election.

   recoup    v.tr.  1 recover or regain (a loss).  2 compensate or reimburse
             for a loss.  3 Law deduct or keep back (part of a sum due).
             Ьrecoup oneself recover a loss.  ЬЬrecoupable adj.  recoupment
             n.  [F recouper (as RE-, couper cut)]

   recourse  n.  1 resorting to a possible source of help.  2 a person or
             thing resorted to.  Ьhave recourse to turn to (a person or
             thing) for help.  without recourse a formula used by the
             endorser of a bill etc. to disclaim responsibility for payment.
             [ME f. OF recours f. L recursus (as RE-, COURSE)]

   recover   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. regain possession or use or control of,
             reclaim.  2 intr. return to health or consciousness or to a
             normal state or position (have recovered from my illness; the
             country never recovered from the war).  3 tr. obtain or secure
             (compensation etc.) by legal process.  4 tr. retrieve or make up
             for (a loss, setback, etc.).  5 refl. regain composure or
             consciousness or control of one's limbs.  6 tr. retrieve
             (reusable substances) from industrial waste.  --n. the recovery
             of a normal position in fencing etc.  ЬЬrecoverable adj.
             recoverability n.  recoverer n.  [ME f. AF recoverer, OF
             recovrer f. L recuperare RECUPERATE]

   re-cover  v.tr.  1 cover again.  2 provide (a chair etc.) with a new

   recovery  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the act or an instance of recovering; the
             process of being recovered.  2 Golf a stroke bringing the ball
             out of a bunker etc.  [ME f. AF recoverie, OF reco(u)vree (as

   recreant  adj. & n.  literary --adj.  1 craven, cowardly.  2 apostate.
             --n.  1 a coward.  2 an apostate.  ЬЬrecreancy n.  recreantly
             adv.  [ME f. OF, part. of recroire f. med.L (se) recredere yield
             in trial by combat (as RE-, credere entrust)]

   re-create v.tr.  create over again.  ЬЬre-creation n.

             n.  1 the process or means of refreshing or entertaining
             oneself.  2 a pleasurable activity.  Ьrecreation-ground public
             land for games etc.  ЬЬrecreational adj.  recreationally adv.
             recreative adj.  [ME f. OF f. L recreatio -onis f.  recreare
             create again, renew]

             v.intr.  make mutual or counter accusations.  ЬЬrecrimination n.
             recriminative adj.  recriminatory adj.  [med.L recriminare (as
             RE-, criminare accuse f.  crimen CRIME)]

   recross   v.tr. & intr.  cross or pass over again.

             v.intr.  (of a disease or difficulty etc.) break out again, esp.
             after a dormant period.  ЬЬrecrudescence n.  recrudescent adj.
             [back-form. f.  recrudescent, -ence f. L recrudescere (as RE-,
             crudus raw)]

   recruit   n. & v.  --n.  1 a serviceman or servicewoman newly enlisted and
             not yet fully trained.  2 a new member of a society or
             organization.  3 a beginner.  --v.  1 tr. enlist (a person) as a
             recruit.  2 tr. form (an army etc.) by enlisting recruits.  3
             intr. get or seek recruits.  4 tr. replenish or reinvigorate
             (numbers, strength, etc.).  ЬЬrecruitable adj.  recruiter n.
             recruitment n.  [earlier = reinforcement, f. obs. F dial.
             recrute ult. f. F recroЊtre increase again f. L recrescere]

             v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise) crystallize again.
             ЬЬrecrystallization n.

   recta     pl. of RECTUM.

   rectal    adj.  of or by means of the rectum.  ЬЬrectally adv.

   rectangle n.  a plane figure with four straight sides and four right
             angles, esp. one with the adjacent sides unequal.  [F rectangle
             or med.L rectangulum f. LL rectiangulum f. L rectus straight +
             angulus ANGLE(1)]

             adj.  1 a shaped like a rectangle.  b having the base or sides
             or section shaped like a rectangle.  2 a placed at right angles.
             b having parts or lines placed at right angles.  Ьrectangular
             coordinates coordinates measured along axes at right angles.
             rectangular hyperbola a hyperbola with rectangular asymptotes.
             ЬЬrectangularity n.  rectangularly adv.

   recti     pl. of RECTUS.

   rectifier n.  1 a person or thing that rectifies.  2 Electr. an electrical
             device that allows a current to flow preferentially in one
             direction by converting an alternating current into a direct

   rectify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 adjust or make right; correct, amend.  2
             purify or refine, esp. by repeated distillation.  3 find a
             straight line equal in length to (a curve).  4 convert
             (alternating current) to direct current.  ЬЬrectifiable adj.
             rectification n.  [ME f. OF rectifier f. med.L rectificare f. L
             rectus right]

             adj.  (also rectilineal) 1 bounded or characterized by straight
             lines.  2 in or forming a straight line.  ЬЬrectilinearity n.
             rectilinearly adv.  [LL rectilineus f. L rectus straight + linea

   rectitude n.  1 moral uprightness.  2 righteousness.  3 correctness.  [ME
             f. OF rectitude or LL rectitudo f. L rectus right]

   recto     n.  (pl.  -os) 1 the right-hand page of an open book.  2 the
             front of a printed leaf of paper or manuscript (opp.  VERSO).
             [L recto (folio) on the right (leaf)]

   rector    n.  1 (in the Church of England) the incumbent of a parish where
             all tithes formerly passed to the incumbent (cf.  VICAR).  2 RC
             Ch. a priest in charge of a church or religious institution.  3
             a the head of some schools, universities, and colleges.  b (in
             Scotland) an elected representative of students on a
             university's governing body.  ЬЬrectorate n.  rectorial adj.
             rectorship n.  [ME f. OF rectour or L rector ruler f.  regere
             rect- rule]

   rectory   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a rector's house.  2 (in the Church of
             England) a rector's benefice.  [AF & OF rectorie or med.L
             rectoria (as RECTOR)]

   rectrix   n.  (pl.  rectrices) a bird's strong tail-feather directing
             flight.  [L, fem. of rector ruler: see RECTOR]

   rectum    n.  (pl.  rectums or recta) the final section of the large
             intestine, terminating at the anus.  [L rectum (intestinum)
             straight (intestine)]

   rectus    n.  (pl.  recti) Anat.  a straight muscle.  [L, = straight]

   recumbent adj.  lying down; reclining.  ЬЬrecumbency n.  recumbently adv.
             [L recumbere recline (as RE-, cumbere lie)]

             v.  1 intr. recover from illness, exhaustion, loss, etc.  2 tr.
             regain (health, something lost, etc.).  ЬЬrecuperable adj.
             recuperation n.  recuperative adj.  recuperator n.  [L
             recuperare recuperat- recover]

   recur     v.intr.  (recurred, recurring) 1 occur again; be repeated.  2
             (of a thought, idea, etc.) come back to one's mind.  3 (foll. by
             to) go back in thought or speech.  Ьrecurring decimal a decimal
             fraction in which the same figures are repeated indefinitely.
             [L recurrere recurs- (as RE-, currere run)]

   recurrent adj.  1 recurring; happening repeatedly.  2 (of a nerve, vein,
             branch, etc.) turning back so as to reverse direction.
             ЬЬrecurrence n.  recurrently adv.

   recursion n.  1 the act or an instance of returning.  2 Math. the repeated
             application of a procedure or definition to a previous result to
             obtain a series of values.  Ьrecursion formula Math.  an
             expression giving successive terms of a series etc.  ЬЬrecursive
             adj.  [LL recursio (as RECUR)]

   recurve   v.tr. & intr.  bend backwards.  ЬЬrecurvate adj.  recurvature n.
             [L recurvare recurvat- (as RE-, curvare bend)]

   recusant  n. & adj.  --n. a person who refuses submission to an authority
             or compliance with a regulation, esp.  hist. one who refused to
             attend services of the Church of England.  --adj. of or being a
             recusant.  ЬЬrecusance n.  recusancy n.  [L recusare refuse]

   recycle   v.tr.  return (material) to a previous stage of a cyclic
             process, esp.  convert (waste) to reusable material.
             ЬЬrecyclable adj.

   red       adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or near the colour seen at the
             least-refracted end of the visible spectrum, of shades ranging
             from that of blood to pink or deep orange.  2 flushed in the
             face with shame, anger, etc.  3 (of the eyes) bloodshot or
             red-rimmed with weeping.  4 (of the hair) reddish-brown, orange,
             tawny.  5 involving or having to do with bloodshed, burning,
             violence, or revolution.  6 colloq. communist or socialist.  7
             (Red) Russian, Soviet (the Red Army).  8 (of wine) made from
             dark grapes and coloured by their skins.  --n.  1 a red colour
             or pigment.  2 red clothes or material (dressed in red).  3
             colloq. a communist or socialist.  4 a a red ball, piece, etc.,
             in a game or sport.  b the player using such pieces.  5 the
             debit side of an account (in the red).  6 a red light.  Ьred
             admiral a butterfly, Vanessa atalanta, with red bands on each
             pair of wings.  red bark a red kind of cinchona.  red biddy
             colloq.  a mixture of cheap wine and methylated spirits.
             red-blooded virile, vigorous.  red-bloodedness vigour, spirit.
             red card Football a card shown by the referee to a player being
             sent off the field.  red carpet privileged treatment of an
             eminent visitor.  red cedar an American juniper, Juniperus
             virginiana.  red cell (or corpuscle) an erythrocyte.  red cent
             US the smallest (orig. copper) coin; a trivial sum.  Red
             Crescent an organization like the Red Cross in Muslim countries.
             red cross 1 St George's cross, the national emblem of England.
             2 the Christian side in the crusades.  Red Cross 1 an
             international organization (originally medical) bringing relief
             to victims of war or natural disaster.  2 the emblem of this
             organization.  red deer a deer, Cervus elaphus, with a rich
             red-brown summer coat turning dull-brown in winter.  red duster
             Brit.  colloq. = red ensign.  red dwarf an old relatively cool
             star.  red ensign see ENSIGN.  red-eye 1 = RUDD.  2 US sl. cheap
             whisky.  red-faced embarrassed, ashamed.  red flag 1 the symbol
             of socialist revolution.  2 a warning of danger.  red fox a
             native British fox, Vulpes vulpes, having a characteristic deep
             red or fawn coat.  red giant a relatively cool giant star.  red
             grouse a subspecies of the willow grouse, native to Britain and
             familiar as a game-bird.  Red Guard hist.  a member of a
             militant youth movement in China (1966-76).  red gum 1 a
             teething-rash in children.  2 a a reddish resin.  b any of
             various kinds of eucalyptus yielding this.  red-handed in or
             just after the act of committing a crime, doing wrong, etc.  red
             hat 1 a cardinal's hat.  2 the symbol of a cardinal's office.
             red-headed 1 (of a person) having red hair.  2 (of birds etc.)
             having a red head.  red heat 1 the temperature or state of
             something so hot as to emit red light.  2 great excitement.  red
             herring 1 dried smoked herring.  2 a misleading clue or
             distraction (so called from the practice of using the scent of
             red herring in training hounds).  red-hot 1 heated until red.  2
             highly exciting.  3 (of news) fresh; completely new.  4
             intensely excited.  5 enraged.  red-hot poker any plant of the
             genus Kniphofia, with spikes of usually red or yellow flowers.
             Red Indian offens.  an American Indian.  red lead a red form of
             lead oxide used as a pigment.  red-letter day a day that is
             pleasantly noteworthy or memorable (orig. a festival marked in
             red on the calendar).  red light 1 a signal to stop on a road,
             railway, etc.  2 a warning or refusal.  red-light district a
             district containing many brothels.  red man = Red Indian.  red
             meat meat that is red when raw (e.g. beef or lamb).  red mullet
             a marine fish, Mullus surmuletus, valued as food.  red pepper 1
             cayenne pepper.  2 the ripe fruit of the capsicum plant,
             Capsicum annuum.  red rag something that excites a person's rage
             (so called because red is supposed to provoke bulls).  red
             rattle a pink-flowered marsh plant, Pedicularis palustris.  red
             roan see ROAN(1).  red rose the emblem of Lancashire or the
             Lancastrians.  red shift the displacement of the spectrum to
             longer wavelengths in the light coming from distant galaxies
             etc. in recession.  red spider any of various mites of the
             family Tetranychidae infesting hothouse plants esp. vines.  red
             squirrel a native British squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, with
             reddish fur.  Red Star the emblem of some Communist countries.
             red tape excessive bureaucracy or adherence to formalities esp.
             in public business.  red-water 1 a bacterial disease of calves,
             a symptom of which is the passing of reddish urine.  2 a mass of
             water made red by pigmented plankton, esp.  Gonyanlax
             tamarensis.  ЬЬreddish adj.  reddy adj.  redly adv.  redness n.
             [OE read f. Gmc]

   redact    v.tr.  put into literary form; edit for publication.  ЬЬredactor
             n.  [L redigere redact- (as RE-, agere bring)]

   redaction n.  1 preparation for publication.  2 revision, editing,
             rearrangement.  3 a new edition.  ЬЬredactional adj.  [F
             r‚daction f. LL redactio (as REDACT)]

   redan     n.  a fieldwork with two faces forming a salient angle.  [F f.
             redent notching (as RE-, dent tooth)]

   redbreast n.  colloq.  a robin.

   redbrick  adj.  esp.  Brit.  (of a university) founded relatively

   redbud    n.  any American tree of the genus Cercis, with pale pink

   redcap    n.  1 Brit. a member of the military police.  2 US a railway

   redcoat   n.  hist.  a British soldier (so called from the scarlet uniform
             of most regiments).

             n.  1 a widely cultivated shrub, Ribes rubrum.  2 a small red
             edible berry of this plant.

   redd      v.tr.  (past and past part.  redd) dial.  1 clear up.  2
             arrange, tidy, compose, settle.  [ME: cf. MLG, MDu.  redden]

   redden    v.tr. & intr.  make or become red.

   reddle    n.  red ochre; ruddle.  [var. of RUDDLE]

   rede      n. & v.  archaic --n. advice, counsel.  --v.tr.  1 advise.  2
             read (a riddle or dream).  [OE r‘d f. Gmc, rel. to READ (of
             which the verb is a ME var. retained for archaic senses)]

             v.tr.  decorate again or differently.  ЬЬredecoration n.

   redeem    v.tr.  1 buy back; recover by expenditure of effort or by a
             stipulated payment.  2 make a single payment to discharge (a
             regular charge or obligation).  3 convert (tokens or bonds etc.)
             into goods or cash.  4 (of God or Christ) deliver from sin and
             damnation.  5 make up for; be a compensating factor in (has one
             redeeming feature).  6 (foll. by from) save from (a defect).  7
             refl. save (oneself) from blame.  8 purchase the freedom of (a
             person).  9 save (a person's life) by ransom.  10 save or rescue
             or reclaim.  11 fulfil (a promise).  ЬЬredeemable adj.  [ME f.
             OF redimer or L redimere redempt- (as RE-, emere buy)]

   redeemer  n.  a person who redeems.  Ьthe Redeemer Christ.

   redefine  v.tr.  define again or differently.  ЬЬredefinition n.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of redeeming; the process of being
             redeemed.  2 man's deliverance from sin and damnation.  3 a
             thing that redeems.  ЬЬredemptive adj.  [ME f. OF f. L redemptio
             (as REDEEM)]

   redeploy  v.tr.  send (troops, workers, etc.) to a new place or task.
             ЬЬredeployment n.

   redesign  v.tr.  design again or differently.

             v.tr.  determine again or differently.  ЬЬredetermination n.

   redevelop v.tr.  develop anew (esp. an urban area, with new buildings).
             ЬЬredeveloper n.  redevelopment n.

   redfish   n.  1 a male salmon in the spawning season.  2 a rose-fish.

   redhead   n.  a person with red hair.

   redial    v.tr. & intr.  (redialled, redialling; US redialed, redialing)
             dial again.

   redid     past of REDO.

             n.  the relaying of broadcast programmes esp. by cable from a
             central receiver.

   redingote n.  a woman's long coat with a cutaway front or a contrasting
             piece on the front.  [F f. E riding-coat]

             v.tr.  1 restore to wholeness or unity.  2 renew or re-establish
             in a united or perfect state.  ЬЬredintegration n.
             redintegrative adj.  [ME f. L redintegrare (as RE-, INTEGRATE)]

   redirect  v.tr.  direct again, esp. change the address of (a letter).
             ЬЬredirection n.

             v.tr.  discover again.  ЬЬrediscovery n.  (pl.  -ies).

             v.tr. & intr.  dissolve again.  ЬЬredissolution n.

             disp.  v.tr.  distribute again or differently.  ЬЬredistribution
             n.  redistributive adj.

   redivide  v.tr.  divide again or differently.  ЬЬredivision n.

   redivivus adj.  (placed after noun) come back to life.  [L (as RE-, vivus

   redneck   n.  US often derog.  a working-class White in the southern US,
             esp. a politically conservative one.

   redo      v.tr.  (3rd sing. present redoes; past redid; past part.
             redone) 1 do again or differently.  2 redecorate.

   redolent  adj.  1 (foll. by of, with) strongly reminiscent or suggestive
             or mentally associated.  2 fragrant.  3 having a strong smell;
             odorous.  ЬЬredolence n.  redolently adv.  [ME f. OF redolent or
             L redolere (as RE-, olere smell)]

   redouble  v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or grow greater or more
             intense or numerous; intensify, increase.  2 intr.  Bridge
             double again a bid already doubled by an opponent.  --n.  Bridge
             the redoubling of a bid.  [F redoubler (as RE-, DOUBLE)]

   redoubt   n.  Mil.  an outwork or fieldwork usu. square or polygonal and
             without flanking defences.  [F redoute f. obs. It.  ridotta f.
             med.L reductus refuge f. past part. of L reducere withdraw (see
             REDUCE): -b- after DOUBT (cf.  REDOUBTABLE)]

             adj.  formidable, esp. as an opponent.  ЬЬredoubtably adv.  [ME
             f. OF redoutable f.  redouter fear (as RE-, DOUBT)]

   redound   v.intr.  1 (foll. by to) (of an action etc.) make a great
             contribution to (one's credit or advantage etc.).  2 (foll. by
             upon, on) come as the final result to; come back or recoil upon.
             [ME, orig. = overflow, f. OF redonder f. L redundare surge (as
             RE-, unda wave)]

   redox     n.  Chem. (often attrib.) oxidation and reduction.  [reduction +

   redpoll   n.  a finch, Acanthis flammea, with a red forehead, similar to a

   redraft   v.tr.  draft (a writing or document) again.

   redraw    v.tr.  (past redrew; past part.  redrawn) draw again or

   redress   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 remedy or rectify (a wrong or grievance
             etc.).  2 readjust; set straight again.  --n.  1 reparation for
             a wrong.  2 (foll. by of) the act or process of redressing (a
             grievance etc.).  Ьredress the balance restore equality.
             ЬЬredressable adj.  redressal n.  redresser n.  (also
             redressor).  [ME f. OF redresse(r), redrecier (as RE-, DRESS)]

   re-dress  v.tr. & intr.  dress again or differently.

   redshank  n.  either of two sandpipers, Tringa totanus and T. erythropus,
             with bright-red legs.

   redskin   n.  colloq.  offens.  an American Indian.

   redstart  n.  1 any European red-tailed songbird of the genus Phoenicurus.
             2 any of various similar American warblers of the family
             Parulidae.  [RED + OE steort tail]

   reduce    v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become smaller or less.  2 tr. (foll.
             by to) bring by force or necessity (to some undesirable state or
             action) (reduced them to tears; were reduced to begging).  3 tr.
             convert to another (esp. simpler) form (reduced it to a powder).
             4 tr. convert (a fraction) to the form with the lowest terms.  5
             tr. (foll. by to) bring or simplify or adapt by classification
             or analysis (the dispute may be reduced to three issues).  6 tr.
             make lower in status or rank.  7 tr. lower the price of.  8
             intr. lessen one's weight or size.  9 tr. weaken (is in a very
             reduced state).  10 tr. impoverish.  11 tr. subdue; bring back
             to obedience.  12 Chem.  intr. & tr.  a combine or cause to
             combine with hydrogen.  b undergo or cause to undergo addition
             of electrons.  13 tr.  Chem. convert (oxide etc.) to metal.  14
             tr.  a (in surgery) restore (a dislocated etc. part) to its
             proper position.  b remedy (a dislocation etc.) in this way.  15
             tr.  Photog. make (a negative or print) less dense.  16 tr.
             Cookery boil off excess liquid from.  Ьreduced circumstances
             poverty after relative prosperity.  reduce to the ranks demote
             (an NCO) to the rank of private.  reducing agent Chem.  a
             substance that brings about reduction by oxidation and losing
             electrons.  ЬЬreducer n.  reducible adj.  reducibility n.  [ME
             in sense 'restore to original or proper position', f.  L
             reducere reduct- (as RE-, ducere bring)]

   reductio ad absurdum
             n.  a method of proving the falsity of a premiss by showing that
             the logical consequence is absurd; an instance of this.  [L, =
             reduction to the absurd]

   reduction n.  1 the act or an instance of reducing; the process of being
             reduced.  2 an amount by which prices etc. are reduced.  3 a
             reduced copy of a picture etc.  4 an arrangement of an
             orchestral score for piano etc.  ЬЬreductive adj.  [ME f. OF
             reduction or L reductio (as REDUCE)]

             n.  1 the tendency to or principle of analysing complex things
             into simple constituents.  2 often derog. the doctrine that a
             system can be fully understood in terms of its isolated parts,
             or an idea in terms of simple concepts.  ЬЬreductionist n.
             reductionistic adj.

   redundant adj.  1 superfluous; not needed.  2 that can be omitted without
             any loss of significance.  3 (of a person) no longer needed at
             work and therefore unemployed.  4 Engin. & Computing (of a
             component) not needed but included in case of failure in another
             component.  ЬЬredundancy n.  (pl.  -ies).  redundantly adv.  [L
             redundare redundant- (as REDOUND)]

             v.tr.  1 make double.  2 repeat.  3 repeat (a letter or syllable
             or word) exactly or with a slight change (e.g. hurly-burly,
             see-saw).  ЬЬreduplication n.  reduplicative adj.  [LL
             reduplicare (as RE-, DUPLICATE)]

   redwing   n.  a thrush, Turdus iliacus, with red underwings showing in

   redwood   n.  1 an exceptionally large Californian conifer, Sequoia
             sempervirens, yielding red wood.  2 any tree yielding red wood.

   reebok    n.  (also rhebok) a small S. African antelope, Pelea capreolus,
             with sharp horns.  [Du., = roebuck]

   re-echo   v.intr. & tr.  (-oes, -oed) 1 echo.  2 echo repeatedly; resound.

   reed(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a any of various water or marsh plants with a
             firm stem, esp.  of the genus Phragmites.  b a tall straight
             stalk of this.  2 (collect.) reeds growing in a mass or used as
             material esp. for thatching.  3 Brit. wheat-straw prepared for
             thatching.  4 a pipe of reed or straw.  5 a the vibrating part
             of the mouthpiece of some wind instruments, e.g. the oboe and
             clarinet, made of reed or other material and producing the
             sound.  b (esp. in pl.) a reed instrument.  6 a weaver's
             comblike implement for separating the threads of the warp and
             correctly positioning the weft.  7 (in pl.) a set of
             semicylindrical adjacent mouldings like reeds laid together.
             --v.tr.  1 thatch with reed.  2 make (straw) into reed.  3 fit
             (a musical instrument) with a reed.  4 decorate with a moulding
             of reeds.  Ьreed bunting a small brown bird, Emberiza
             schoeniclus, frequenting reed-beds.  reed-mace a tall reedlike
             water-plant, Typha latifolia, with straplike leaves and a head
             of numerous tiny red-brown flowers.  reed-organ a harmonium etc.
             with the sound produced by metal reeds.  reed-pipe 1 a wind
             instrument with sound produced by a reed.  2 an organ-pipe with
             a reed.  reed-stop a reeded organ-stop.  reed-warbler any bird
             of the genus Acrocephalus, esp.  A. scirpaceus, frequenting
             reed-beds.  [OE hreod f. WG]

   reed(2)   n.  the fourth stomach of a ruminant; the abomasum.  [OE reada]

   reedbuck  n.  an antelope, Redunca redunca, native to W. Africa.

   reeded    adj.  Mus.  (of an instrument) having a vibrating reed.

   reeding   n.  Archit.  a small semicylindrical moulding or ornamentation
             (cf.  REED(1) n.  7).

   re-edit   v.tr.  (-edited, -editing) edit again or differently.
             ЬЬre-edition n.

   reedling  n.  a bearded tit.  [REED(1)]

             v.tr.  educate again, esp. to change a person's views or
             beliefs.  ЬЬre-education n.

   reedy     adj.  (reedier, reediest) 1 full of reeds.  2 like a reed, esp.
             in weakness or slenderness.  3 (of a voice) like a reed
             instrument in tone; not full.  ЬЬreediness n.

   reef(1)   n.  1 a ridge of rock or coral etc. at or near the surface of
             the sea.  2 a a lode of ore.  b the bedrock surrounding this.
             [earlier riff(e) f. MDu., MLG rif, ref, f. ON rif RIB]

   reef(2)   n. & v.  Naut.  --n. each of several strips across a sail, for
             taking it in or rolling it up to reduce the surface area in a
             high wind.  --v.tr.  1 take in a reef or reefs of (a sail).  2
             shorten (a topmast or a bowsprit).  Ьreefing-jacket a thick
             close-fitting double-breasted jacket.  reef-knot a double knot
             made symmetrically to hold securely and cast off easily.
             reef-point each of several short pieces of rope attached to a
             sail to secure it when reefed.  [ME riff, refe f. Du.  reef, rif
             f. ON rif RIB, in the same sense: cf.  REEF(1)]

   reefer    n.  1 sl. a marijuana cigarette.  2 = reefing-jacket (see
             REEF(2)).  3 a a person who reefs.  b colloq. a midshipman.
             [REEF(2) (in sense 1, = a thing rolled) + -ER(1)]

   reek      v. & n.  --v.intr. (often foll. by of) 1 smell strongly and
             unpleasantly.  2 have unpleasant or suspicious associations
             (this reeks of corruption).  3 give off smoke or fumes.  --n.  1
             a foul or stale smell.  2 esp.  Sc. smoke.  3 vapour; a visible
             exhalation (esp. from a chimney).  ЬЬreeky adj.  [OE reocan
             (v.), rec (n.), f. Gmc]

   reel      n. & v.  --n.  1 a cylindrical device on which thread, silk,
             yarn, paper, film, wire, etc., are wound.  2 a quantity of
             thread etc. wound on a reel.  3 a device for winding and
             unwinding a line as required, esp.  in fishing.  4 a revolving
             part in various machines.  5 a a lively folk or Scottish dance,
             of two or more couples facing each other.  b a piece of music
             for this.  --v.  1 tr. wind (thread, a fishing-line, etc.) on a
             reel.  2 tr. (foll. by in, up) draw (fish etc.) in or up by the
             use of a reel.  3 intr. stand or walk or run unsteadily.  4
             intr. be shaken mentally or physically.  5 intr. rock from side
             to side, or swing violently.  6 intr. dance a reel.  Ьreel off
             say or recite very rapidly and without apparent effort.
             ЬЬreeler n.  [OE hreol, of unkn. orig.]

   re-elect  v.tr.  elect again, esp. to a further term of office.
             ЬЬre-election n.  re-eligible adj.

   re-embark v.intr. & tr.  go or put on board ship again.  ЬЬre-embarkation

   re-emerge v.intr.  emerge again; come back out.  ЬЬre-emergence n.
             re-emergent adj.

             v.tr.  place renewed emphasis on.  ЬЬre-emphasis n.

   re-employ v.tr.  employ again.  ЬЬre-employment n.

   re-enact  v.tr.  act out (a past event).  ЬЬre-enactment n.

   re-enlist v.intr.  enlist again, esp. in the armed services.
             ЬЬre-enlister n.

   re-enter  v.tr. & intr.  enter again; go back in.  ЬЬre-entrance n.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 esp. Fortification (of an angle) pointing
             inwards (opp.  SALIENT).  2 Geom. reflex.  --n. a re-entrant

   re-entry  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the act of entering again, esp. (of a
             spacecraft, missile, etc.) re-entering the earth's atmosphere.
             2 Law an act of retaking or repossession.

   re-equip  v.tr. & intr.  (-equipped, -equipping) provide or be provided
             with new equipment.

   re-erect  v.tr.  erect again.

             v.tr.  establish again or anew.  ЬЬre-establishment n.

             v.tr.  evaluate again or differently.  ЬЬre-evaluation n.

   reeve(1)  n.  1 hist.  a the chief magistrate of a town or district.  b an
             official supervising a landowner's estate.  c any of various
             minor local officials.  2 Can. the president of a village or
             town council.  [OE (ge)refa, giroefa]

   reeve(2)  v.tr.  (past rove or reeved) Naut.  1 (usu. foll. by through)
             thread (a rope or rod etc.) through a ring or other aperture.  2
             pass a rope through (a block etc.).  3 fasten (a rope or block)
             in this way.  [prob. f. Du.  reven REEF(2)]

   reeve(3)  n.  a female ruff (see RUFF(1)).  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

             v.tr.  examine again or further (esp. a witness after
             cross-examination).  ЬЬre-examination n.

   re-export v. & n.  --v.tr.  export again (esp. imported goods after
             further processing or manufacture).  --n.  1 the process of
             re-exporting.  2 something re-exported.  ЬЬre-exportation n.
             re-exporter n.

   ref       n.  colloq.  a referee in sports.  [abbr.]

   ref.      abbr.  1 reference.  2 refer to.

   reface    v.tr.  put a new facing on (a building).

   refashion v.tr.  fashion again or differently.

   refection n.  literary 1 refreshment by food or drink (we took refection).
             2 a light meal.  [ME f. OF f. L refectio -onis f.  reficere (as

   refectory n.  (pl.  -ies) a room used for communal meals, esp. in a
             monastery or college.  Ьrefectory table a long narrow table.
             [LL refectorium f. L reficere refresh (as RE-, facere make)]

   refer     v.  (referred, referring) (usu. foll. by to) 1 tr. trace or
             ascribe (to a person or thing as a cause or source) (referred
             their success to their popularity).  2 tr. consider as belonging
             (to a certain date or place or class).  3 tr. send on or direct
             (a person, or a question for decision) (the matter was referred
             to arbitration; referred him to her previous answer).  4 intr.
             make an appeal or have recourse to (some authority or source of
             information) (referred to his notes).  5 tr. send (a person) to
             a medical specialist etc.  6 tr. (foll. by back to) send (a
             proposal etc.) back to (a lower body, court, etc.).  7 intr.
             (foll. by to) (of a person speaking) make an allusion or direct
             the hearer's attention (decided not to refer to our other
             problems).  8 intr. (foll. by to) (of a statement etc.) have a
             particular relation; be directed (this paragraph refers to the
             events of last year).  9 tr. (foll. by to) interpret (a
             statement) as being directed to (a particular context etc.).  10
             tr. fail (a candidate in an examination).  Ьreferred pain pain
             felt in a part of the body other than its actual source.  refer
             to drawer a banker's note suspending payment of a cheque.
             ЬЬreferable adj.  referrer n.  [ME f. OF referer f. L referre
             carry back (as RE-, ferre bring)]

   referee   n. & v.  --n.  1 an umpire esp. in football or boxing.  2 a
             person whose opinion or judgement is sought in some connection,
             or who is referred to for a decision in a dispute etc.  3 a
             person willing to testify to the character of an applicant for
             employment etc.  --v.  (referees, refereed) 1 intr. act as
             referee.  2 tr. be the referee of (a game etc.).

   reference n. & v.  --n.  1 the referring of a matter for decision or
             settlement or consideration to some authority.  2 the scope
             given to this authority.  3 (foll. by to) a a relation or
             respect or correspondence (success seems to have little
             reference to merit).  b an allusion (made no reference to our
             problems).  c a direction to a book etc. (or a passage in it)
             where information may be found.  d a book or passage so cited.
             4 a the act of looking up a passage etc. or looking in a book
             for information.  b the act of referring to a person etc. for
             information.  5 a a written testimonial supporting an applicant
             for employment etc.  b a person giving this.  --v.tr. provide (a
             book etc.) with references to authorities.  Ьreference book a
             book intended to be consulted for information on individual
             matters rather than read continuously.  reference library a
             library in which the books are for consultation not loan.  with
             (or in) reference to regarding; as regards; about.  without
             reference to not taking account of.  ЬЬreferential adj.

             n.  (pl.  referendums or referenda) 1 the process of referring a
             political question to the electorate for a direct decision by
             general vote.  2 a vote taken by referendum.  [L, gerund or
             neut. gerundive of referre: see REFER]

   referent  n.  the idea or thing that a word etc. symbolizes.  [L referens
             (as REFERENDUM)]

   referral  n.  the referring of an individual to an expert or specialist
             for advice, esp. the directing of a patient by a GP to a medical

   refill    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 fill again.  2 provide a new filling for.
             --n.  1 a new filling.  2 the material for this.  ЬЬrefillable

   refine    v.  1 tr. free from impurities or defects; purify, clarify.  2
             tr. & intr. make or become more polished or elegant or cultured.
             3 tr. & intr. make or become more subtle or delicate in thought,
             feelings, etc.  ЬЬrefinable adj.  [RE- + FINE(1) v.]

   refined   adj.  characterized by polish or elegance or subtlety.

             n.  1 the act of refining or the process of being refined.  2
             fineness of feeling or taste.  3 polish or elegance in behaviour
             or manner.  4 an added development or improvement (a car with
             several refinements).  5 a piece of subtle reasoning.  6 a fine
             distinction.  7 a subtle or ingenious example or display (all
             the refinements of reasoning).  [REFINE + -MENT, after F

   refiner   n.  a person or firm whose business is to refine crude oil,
             metal, sugar, etc.

   refinery  n.  (pl.  -ies) a place where oil etc. is refined.

   refit     v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  (refitted, refitting) make or become
             fit or serviceable again (esp. of a ship undergoing renewal and
             repairs).  --n.  the act or an instance of refitting; the
             process of being refitted.  ЬЬrefitment n.

   reflag    v.tr.  (reflagged, reflagging) change the national registration
             of (a ship).

   reflate   v.tr.  cause reflation of (a currency or economy etc.).  [RE-
             after inflate, deflate]

   reflation n.  the inflation of a financial system to restore its previous
             condition after deflation.  [RE- after inflation, deflation]

   reflect   v.  1 tr.  a (of a surface or body) throw back (heat, light,
             sound, etc.).  b cause to rebound (reflected light).  2 tr. (of
             a mirror) show an image of; reproduce to the eye or mind.  3 tr.
             correspond in appearance or effect to; have as a cause or source
             (their behaviour reflects a wish to succeed).  4 tr.  a (of an
             action, result, etc.) show or bring (credit, discredit, etc.).
             b (absol.; usu. foll. by on, upon) bring discredit on.  5 a
             intr. (often foll. by on, upon) meditate on; think about.  b tr.
             (foll. by that, how, etc. + clause) consider; remind oneself.  6
             intr. (usu. foll. by upon, on) make disparaging remarks.
             Ьreflecting telescope = REFLECTOR.  [ME f. OF reflecter or L
             reflectere (as RE-, flectere flex- bend)]

             n.  (also reflexion) 1 the act or an instance of reflecting; the
             process of being reflected.  2 a reflected light, heat, or
             colour.  b a reflected image.  3 reconsideration (on
             reflection).  4 (often foll. by on) discredit or a thing
             bringing discredit.  5 (often foll. by on, upon) an idea arising
             in the mind; a comment or apophthegm.  Ьangle of reflection
             Physics the angle made by a reflected ray with a perpendicular
             to the reflecting surface.  ЬЬreflectional adj.  [ME f. OF
             reflexion or LL reflexio (as REFLECT), with assim. to reflect]

             adj.  1 (of a surface etc.) giving a reflection or image.  2 (of
             mental faculties) concerned in reflection or thought.  3 (of a
             person or mood etc.) thoughtful; given to meditation.
             ЬЬreflectively adv.  reflectiveness n.

   reflector n.  1 a piece of glass or metal etc. for reflecting light in a
             required direction, e.g. a red one on the back of a motor
             vehicle or bicycle.  2 a a telescope etc. using a mirror to
             produce images.  b the mirror itself.

   reflet    n.  lustre or iridescence, esp. on pottery.  [F f. It.  riflesso
             reflection, REFLEX]

   reflex    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of an action) independent of the will, as
             an automatic response to the stimulation of a nerve (e.g. a
             sneeze).  2 (of an angle) exceeding 180ш.  3 bent backwards.  4
             (of light) reflected.  5 (of a thought etc.) introspective;
             directed back upon itself or its own operations.  6 (of an
             effect or influence) reactive; coming back upon its author or
             source.  --n.  1 a reflex action.  2 a sign or secondary
             manifestation (law is a reflex of public opinion).  3 reflected
             light or a reflected image.  4 a word formed by development from
             an earlier stage of a language.  Ьreflex arc Anat.  the sequence
             of nerves involved in a reflex action.  reflex camera a camera
             with a ground-glass focusing screen on which the image is formed
             by a combination of lens and mirror, enabling the scene to be
             correctly composed and focused.  ЬЬreflexly adv.  [L reflexus
             (as REFLECT)]

             adj.  capable of being reflected.  ЬЬreflexibility n.

   reflexion Brit.  var. of REFLECTION.

   reflexive adj. & n.  Gram.  --adj.  1 (of a word or form) referring back
             to the subject of a sentence (esp. of a pronoun, e.g.  myself).
             2 (of a verb) having a reflexive pronoun as its object (as in to
             wash oneself).  --n. a reflexive word or form, esp. a pronoun.
             ЬЬreflexively adv.  reflexiveness n.  reflexivity n.

             n.  1 a system of massage through reflex points on the feet,
             hands, and head, used to relieve tension and treat illness.  2
             Psychol. the scientific study of reflexes.  ЬЬreflexologist n.

   refloat   v.tr.  set (a stranded ship) afloat again.

   refluent  adj.  flowing back (refluent tide).  ЬЬrefluence n.  [ME f. L
             refluere (as RE-, fluere flow)]

   reflux    n. & v.  --n.  1 a backward flow.  2 Chem. a method of boiling a
             liquid so that any vapour is liquefied and returned to the
             boiler.  --v.tr. & intr.  Chem. boil or be boiled under reflux.

   refocus   v.tr.  (refocused, refocusing or refocussed, refocussing) adjust
             the focus of (esp. a lens).

   reforest  v.tr.  = REAFFOREST.  ЬЬreforestation n.

   reforge   v.tr.  forge again or differently.

   reform    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become better by the
             removal of faults and errors.  2 tr. abolish or cure (an abuse
             or malpractice).  3 tr.  US correct (a legal document).  4 tr.
             Chem. convert (a straight-chain hydrocarbon) by catalytic
             reaction to a branched-chain form for use as petrol.  --n.  1
             the removal of faults or abuses, esp. of a moral or political or
             social kind.  2 an improvement made or suggested.  ЬReformed
             Church a Church that has accepted the principles of the
             Reformation, esp. a Calvinist Church (as distinct from
             Lutheran).  Reform Judaism a simplified and rationalized form of
             Judaism.  reform school an institution to which young offenders
             are sent to be reformed.  ЬЬreformable adj.  [ME f. OF reformer
             or L reformare (as RE-, FORM)]

   re-form   v.tr. & intr.  form again.  ЬЬre-formation n.

   reformat  v.tr.  (reformatted, reformatting) format anew.

             n.  the act of reforming or process of being reformed, esp. a
             radical change for the better in political or religious or
             social affairs.  Ьthe Reformation hist.  a 16th-c. movement for
             the reform of abuses in the Roman Church ending in the
             establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches.
             ЬЬReformational adj.  [ME f. OF reformation or L reformatio (as

             n.  the process or an instance of forming or being formed again.

             adj.  tending or intended to produce reform.  [OF reformatif
             -ive or med.L reformativus (as REFORM)]

             n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) US & hist. = reform school.  --adj.

   reformer  n.  a person who advocates or brings about (esp. political or
             social) reform.

   reformism n.  a policy of reform rather than abolition or revolution.
             ЬЬreformist n.

             v.tr.  formulate again or differently.  ЬЬreformulation n.

   refract   v.tr.  1 (of water, air, glass, etc.) deflect (a ray of light
             etc.)  at a certain angle when it enters obliquely from another
             medium.  2 determine the refractive condition of (the eye).  [L
             refringere refract- (as RE-, frangere break)]

             n.  the process by which or the extent to which light is
             refracted.  Ьangle of refraction the angle made by a refracted
             ray with the perpendicular to the refracting surface.  [F
             r‚fraction or LL refractio (as REFRACT)]

             adj.  of or involving refraction.  Ьrefractive index the ratio
             of the velocity of light in a vacuum to its velocity in a
             specified medium.

             n.  an instrument for measuring a refractive index.
             ЬЬrefractometric adj.  refractometry n.

   refractor n.  1 a refracting medium or lens.  2 a telescope using a lens
             to produce an image.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 stubborn, unmanageable, rebellious.  2 a
             (of a wound, disease, etc.) not yielding to treatment.  b (of a
             person etc.) resistant to infection.  3 (of a substance) hard to
             fuse or work.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a substance especially
             resistant to heat, corrosion, etc.  ЬЬrefractorily adv.
             refractoriness n.  [alt. of obs.  refractary f. L refractarius
             (as REFRACT)]

             v.intr.  (foll. by from) avoid doing (an action) (refrain from
             smoking).  ЬЬrefrainment n.  [ME f. OF refrener f. L refrenare
             (as RE-, frenum bridle)]

             n.  1 a recurring phrase or number of lines, esp. at the ends of
             stanzas.  2 the music accompanying this.  [ME f. OF refrain
             (earlier refrait) ult. f. L refringere (as RE-, frangere break),
             because the refrain 'broke' the sequence]

             adj.  that can be refracted.  ЬЬrefrangibility n.  [mod.L
             refrangibilis f.  refrangere = L refringere: see REFRACT]

   refreeze  v.tr. & intr.  (past refroze; past part.  refrozen) freeze

   refresh   v.tr.  1 a (of food, rest, amusement, etc.) give fresh spirit or
             vigour to.  b (esp.  refl.) revive with food, rest, etc.
             (refreshed myself with a short sleep).  2 revive or stimulate
             (the memory), esp. by consulting the source of one's
             information.  3 make cool.  [ME f. OF refreschi(e)r f.  fres
             fresche FRESH]

   refresher n.  1 something that refreshes, esp. a drink.  2 Law an extra
             fee payable to counsel in a prolonged case.  Ьrefresher course a
             course reviewing or updating previous studies.

             adj.  1 serving to refresh.  2 welcome or stimulating because
             sincere or untypical (refreshing innocence).  ЬЬrefreshingly

             n.  1 the act of refreshing or the process of being refreshed in
             mind or body.  2 (usu. in pl.) food or drink that refreshes.  3
             something that refreshes or stimulates the mind.  [ME f. OF
             refreschement (as REFRESH)]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a substance used for refrigeration.  2 Med. a
             substance that cools or allays fever.  --adj. cooling.  [F
             r‚frig‚rant or L refrigerant- (as REFRIGERATE)]

             v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become cool or cold.  2 tr. subject
             (food etc.) to cold in order to freeze or preserve it.
             ЬЬrefrigeration n.  refrigerative adj.  [L refrigerare (as RE-,
             frigus frigoris cold)]

             n.  a cabinet or room in which food etc. is kept cold.

             adj. & n.  --adj. serving to cool.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) hist. a
             cold-water vessel attached to a still for condensing vapour.
             [mod.L refrigeratorium (n.), L refrigeratorius (adj.) (as

             adj.  Physics refracting.  ЬЬrefringence n.  refringency n.  [L
             refringere: see REFRACT]

   refroze   past of REFREEZE.

   refrozen  past part. of REFREEZE.

   reft      past part. of REAVE.

   refuel    v.  (refuelled, refuelling; US refueled, refueling) 1 intr.
             replenish a fuel supply.  2 tr. supply with more fuel.

   refuge    n.  1 a shelter from pursuit or danger or trouble.  2 a person
             or place etc. offering this.  3 a person, thing, or course
             resorted to in difficulties.  4 a traffic island.  [ME f. OF f.
             L refugium (as RE-, fugere flee)]

   refugee   n.  a person taking refuge, esp. in a foreign country from war
             or persecution or natural disaster.  [F r‚fugi‚ past part. of
             (se) r‚fugier (as REFUGE)]

   refulgent adj.  literary shining; gloriously bright.  ЬЬrefulgence n.
             refulgently adv.  [L refulgere (as RE-, fulgere shine)]

   refund    v. & n.  --v.  tr. (also absol.) 1 pay back (money or expenses).
             2 reimburse (a person).  --n.  1 an act of refunding.  2 a sum
             refunded; a repayment.  ЬЬrefundable adj.  refunder n.  [ME in
             sense 'pour back', f. OF refonder or L refundere (as RE-,
             fundere pour), later assoc. with FUND]

   re-fund   v.tr.  fund (a debt etc.) again.

   refurbish v.tr.  1 brighten up.  2 restore and redecorate.
             ЬЬrefurbishment n.

   refurnish v.tr.  furnish again or differently.

   refusal   n.  1 the act or an instance of refusing; the state of being
             refused.  2 (in full first refusal) the right or privilege of
             deciding to take or leave a thing before it is offered to

   refuse(1) v.  1 tr. withhold acceptance of or consent to (refuse an offer;
             refuse orders).  2 tr. (often foll. by to + infin.) indicate
             unwillingness (I refuse to go; the car refuses to start; I
             refuse!).  3 tr. (often with double object) not grant (a
             request) made by (a person) (refused me a day off; I could not
             refuse them).  4 tr. (also absol.) (of a horse) be unwilling to
             jump (a fence etc.).  ЬЬrefusable adj.  refuser n.  [ME f. OF
             refuser prob. ult. f. L recusare (see RECUSANT) after refutare

   refuse(2) n.  items rejected as worthless; waste.  [ME, perh. f. OF refus‚
             past part. (as REFUSE)]

   re-fuse   v.tr.  fuse again; provide with a new fuse.

   refusenik n.  a Jew in the Soviet Union who has been refused permission to
             emigrate to Israel.  [REFUSE(1) + -NIK]

   refute    v.tr.  1 prove the falsity or error of (a statement etc. or the
             person advancing it).  2 rebut or repel by argument.  3 disp.
             deny or contradict (without argument).  °Often confused in this
             sense with repudiate.  ЬЬrefutable adj.  refutal n.  refutation
             n.  refuter n.  [L refutare (as RE-: cf.  CONFUTE)]

   reg       n.  colloq. = registration mark.  [abbr.]

   regain    v.tr.  obtain possession or use of after loss (regain
             consciousness).  [F regagner (as RE-, GAIN)]

   regal     adj.  1 royal; of or by a monarch or monarchs.  2 fit for a
             monarch; magnificent.  ЬЬregally adv.  [ME f. OF regal or L
             regalis f.  rex regis king]

   regale    v.tr.  1 entertain lavishly with feasting.  2 (foll. by with)
             entertain or divert with (talk etc.).  3 (of beauty, flowers,
             etc.) give delight to.  ЬЬregalement n.  [F r‚galer f. OF gale

   regalia   n.pl.  1 the insignia of royalty used at coronations.  2 the
             insignia of an order or of civic dignity.  [med.L, = royal
             privileges, f. L neut. pl. of regalis REGAL]

   regalism  n.  the doctrine of a sovereign's ecclesiastical supremacy.

   regality  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the state of being a king or queen.  2 an
             attribute of sovereign power.  3 a royal privilege.  [ME f. OF
             regalit‚ or med.L regalitas (as REGAL)]

   regard    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 gaze on steadily (usu. in a specified way)
             (regarded them suspiciously).  2 give heed to; take into
             account; let one's course be affected by.  3 look upon or
             contemplate mentally in a specified way (I regard them kindly; I
             regard it as an insult).  4 (of a thing) have relation to; have
             some connection with.  --n.  1 a gaze; a steady or significant
             look.  2 (foll. by to, for) attention or care.  3 (foll. by for)
             esteem; kindly feeling; respectful opinion.  4 a respect; a
             point attended to (in this regard).  5 (in pl.) an expression of
             friendliness in a letter etc.; compliments (sent my best
             regards).  Ьas regards about, concerning; in respect of.  in (or
             with) regard to as concerns; in respect of.  [ME f. OF regard f.
             regarder (as RE-, garder GUARD)]

   regardant adj.  Heraldry looking backwards.  [AF & OF (as REGARD)]

   regardful adj.  (foll. by of) mindful of; paying attention to.

   regarding prep.  about, concerning; in respect of.

             adj. & adv.  --adj. (foll. by of) without regard or
             consideration for (regardless of the expense).  --adv. without
             paying attention (carried on regardless).  ЬЬregardlessly adv.
             regardlessness n.

   regather  v.tr. & intr.  1 gather or collect again.  2 meet again.

   regatta   n.  a sporting event consisting of a series of boat or yacht
             races.  [It. (Venetian)]

   regd.     abbr.  registered.

   regelate  v.intr.  freeze again (esp. of pieces of ice etc. frozen
             together after temporary thawing of the surfaces).  ЬЬregelation
             n.  [RE- + L gelare freeze]

   regency   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the office of regent.  2 a commission acting
             as regent.  3 a the period of office of a regent or regency
             commission.  b (Regency) a particular period of a regency, esp.
             (in Britain) from 1811 to 1820, and (in France) from 1715 to
             1723 (often attrib.: Regency costume).  [ME f. med.L regentia
             (as REGENT)]

             v. & adj.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. bring or come into renewed
             existence; generate again.  2 tr. improve the moral condition
             of.  3 tr. impart new, more vigorous, and spiritually greater
             life to (a person or institution etc.).  4 intr. reform oneself.
             5 tr. invest with a new and higher spiritual nature.  6 intr. &
             tr.  Biol. regrow or cause (new tissue) to regrow to replace
             lost or injured tissue.  7 tr. & intr.  Chem. restore or be
             restored to an initial state of reaction or process.  --adj.  1
             spiritually born again.  2 reformed.  ЬЬregeneration n.
             regenerative adj.  regeneratively adv.  regenerator n.  [L
             regenerare (as RE-, GENERATE)]

   regent    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a person appointed to administer a State
             because the monarch is a minor or is absent or incapacitated.  2
             US a member of the governing body of a State university.  --adj.
             (placed after noun) acting as regent (Prince Regent).
             Ьregent-bird an Australian bower bird, Sericulus chrysocephalus.
             [ME f. OF regent or L regere rule]

             v.tr. & intr.  germinate again.  ЬЬregermination n.

   reggae    n.  a W. Indian style of music with a strongly accented
             subsidiary beat.  [W.Ind.]

   regicide  n.  1 a person who kills or takes part in killing a king.  2 the
             act of killing a king.  ЬЬregicidal adj.  [L rex regis king +

   regild    v.tr.  gild again, esp. to renew faded or worn gilding.

   regime    n.  (also r‚gime) 1 a a method or system of government.  b
             derog. a particular government.  2 a prevailing order or system
             of things.  3 the conditions under which a scientific or
             industrial process occurs.  [F r‚gime (as REGIMEN)]

   regimen   n.  1 esp. Med. a prescribed course of exercise, way of life,
             and diet.  2 archaic a system of government.  [L f.  regere

   regiment  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a permanent unit of an army usu. commanded by
             a colonel and divided into several companies or troops or
             batteries and often into two battalions.  b an operational unit
             of artillery etc.  2 (usu. foll. by of) a large array or number.
             3 archaic rule, government.  --v.tr.  1 organize (esp.
             oppressively) in groups or according to a system.  2 form into a
             regiment or regiments.  ЬЬregimentation n.  [ME (in sense 3) f.
             OF f. LL regimentum (as REGIMEN)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to a regiment.  --n. (in pl.)
             military uniform, esp. of a particular regiment.  ЬЬregimentally

   Regina    n.  the reigning queen (following a name or in the titles of
             lawsuits, e.g.  Regina v. Jones the Crown versus Jones).  [L, =
             queen f.  rex regis king]

   region    n.  1 an area of land, or division of the earth's surface,
             having definable boundaries or characteristics (a mountainous
             region; the region between London and the coast).  2 an
             administrative district esp. in Scotland.  3 a part of the body
             round or near some organ etc. (the lumbar region).  4 a sphere
             or realm (the region of metaphysics).  5 a a separate part of
             the world or universe.  b a layer of the atmosphere or the sea
             according to its height or depth.  Ьin the region of
             approximately.  ЬЬregional adj.  regionalism n.  regionalist n.
             & adj.  regionalize v.tr.  (also -ise).  regionally adv.  [ME f.
             OF f. L regio -onis direction, district f.  regere direct]

   regisseur n.  the director of a theatrical production, esp. a ballet.  [F
             r‚gisseur stage-manager]

   register  n. & v.  --n.  1 an official list e.g. of births, marriages, and
             deaths, of shipping, of professionally qualified persons, or of
             qualified voters in a constituency.  2 a book in which items are
             recorded for reference.  3 a device recording speed, force, etc.
             4 (in electronic devices) a location in a store of data, used
             for a specific purpose and with quick access time.  5 a the
             compass of a voice or instrument.  b a part of this compass
             (lower register).  6 an adjustable plate for widening or
             narrowing an opening and regulating a draught, esp. in a
             fire-grate.  7 a a set of organ pipes.  b a sliding device
             controlling this.  8 = cash register (see CASH(1)).  9
             Linguistics each of several forms of a language (colloquial,
             formal, literary, etc.) usually used in particular
             circumstances.  10 Printing the exact correspondence of the
             position of printed matter on the two sides of a leaf.  11
             Printing & Photog. the correspondence of the position of
             colour-components in a printed positive.  --v.  1 tr. set down
             (a name, fact, etc.) formally; record in writing.  2 tr. make a
             mental note of; notice.  3 tr. enter or cause to be entered in a
             particular register.  4 tr. entrust (a letter etc.) to a post
             office for transmission by registered post.  5 intr. & refl. put
             one's name on a register, esp. as an eligible voter or as a
             guest in a register kept by a hotel etc.  6 tr. (of an
             instrument) record automatically; indicate.  7 a tr. express (an
             emotion) facially or by gesture (registered surprise).  b intr.
             (of an emotion) show in a person's face or gestures.  8 intr.
             make an impression on a person's mind (did not register at all).
             9 intr. & tr.  Printing correspond or cause to correspond
             exactly in position.  Ьregistered nurse a nurse with a State
             certificate of competence.  registered post a postal procedure
             with special precautions for safety and for compensation in case
             of loss.  register office Brit.  a State office where civil
             marriages are conducted and births, marriages, and deaths are
             recorded with the issue of certificates.  °The name in official
             use, and generally preferred to registry office.  ЬЬregistrable
             adj.  [ME & OF regestre, registre or med.L regestrum, registrum,
             alt. of regestum f. LL regesta things recorded (as RE-, L gerere
             gest- carry)]

   registrar n.  1 an official responsible for keeping a register or official
             records.  2 the chief administrative officer in a university.  3
             a middle-ranking hospital doctor undergoing training as a
             specialist.  4 (in the UK) the judicial and administrative
             officer of the High Court etc.  ЬRegistrar General a government
             official responsible for holding a population census.
             ЬЬregistrarship n.  [med.L registrarius f.  registrum REGISTER]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) the registrar of Cambridge University.

             n.  the act or an instance of registering; the process of being
             registered.  Ьregistration mark (or number) a combination of
             letters and figures identifying a motor vehicle etc.  [obs. F
             r‚gistration or med.L registratio (as REGISTRAR)]

   registry  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a place or office where registers or records
             are kept.  2 registration.  Ьregistry office = register office.
             [obs.  registery f. med.L registerium (as REGISTER)]

   Regius professor
             n.  Brit.  the holder of a chair founded by a sovereign (esp.
             one at Oxford or Cambridge instituted by Henry VIII) or filled
             by Crown appointment.  [L, = royal, f.  rex regis king]

   reglaze   v.tr.  glaze (a window etc.) again.

   reglet    n.  1 Archit. a narrow strip separating mouldings.  2 Printing a
             thin strip of wood or metal separating type.  [F r‚glet dimin.
             of rЉgle (as RULE)]

   regnal    adj.  of a reign.  Ьregnal year a year reckoned from the date or
             anniversary of a sovereign's accession.  [AL regnalis (as

   regnant   adj.  1 reigning (Queen regnant).  2 (of things, qualities,
             etc.) predominant, prevalent.  [L regnare REIGN]

   regolith  n.  Geol.  unconsolidated solid material covering the bedrock of
             a planet.  [erron. f. Gk rhegos rug, blanket + -LITH]

   regorge   v.  1 tr. bring up or expel again after swallowing.  2 intr.
             gush or flow back from a pit, channel, etc.  [F regorger or RE-
             + GORGE]

   regrade   v.tr.  grade again or differently.

   regress   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. move backwards, esp. (in abstract senses)
             return to a former state.  2 intr. & tr.  Psychol. return or
             cause to return mentally to a former stage of life, esp. through
             hypnosis or mental illness.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of
             going back.  2 reasoning from effect to cause.  [ME (as n.) f. L
             regressus f.  regredi regress- (as RE-, gradi step)]

             n.  1 a backward movement, esp. a return to a former state.  2 a
             relapse or reversion.  3 Psychol. a return to an earlier stage
             of development, esp. through hypnosis or mental illness.  4
             Statistics a measure of the relation between the mean value of
             one variable (e.g. output) and corresponding values of other
             variables (e.g. time and cost).  [L regressio (as REGRESS)]

             adj.  1 regressing; characterized by regression.  2 (of a tax)
             proportionally greater on lower incomes.  ЬЬregressively adv.
             regressiveness n.

   regret    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (regretted, regretting) (often foll. by that +
             clause) 1 feel or express sorrow or repentance or distress over
             (an action or loss etc.) (I regret that I forgot; regretted your
             absence).  2 (often foll. by to + infin. or that + clause)
             acknowledge with sorrow or remorse (I regret to say that you are
             wrong; regretted he would not be attending).  --n.  1 a feeling
             of sorrow, repentance, disappointment, etc., over an action or
             loss etc.  2 (often in pl.) an (esp. polite or formal)
             expression of disappointment or sorrow at an occurrence,
             inability to comply, etc. (refused with many regrets; heard with
             regret of her death).  Ьgive (or send) one's regrets formally
             decline an invitation.  [ME f. OF regreter bewail]

   regretful adj.  feeling or showing regret.  ЬЬregretfully adv.
             regretfulness n.

             adj.  (of events or conduct) undesirable, unwelcome; deserving
             censure.  ЬЬregrettably adv.

   regroup   v.tr. & intr.  group or arrange again or differently.
             ЬЬregroupment n.

   regrow    v.intr. & tr.  grow again, esp. after an interval.  ЬЬregrowth

   Regt.     abbr.  Regiment.

   regulable adj.  able to be regulated.

   regular   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 conforming to a rule or principle;
             systematic.  2 (of a structure or arrangement) harmonious,
             symmetrical (regular features).  3 acting or done or recurring
             uniformly or calculably in time or manner; habitual, constant,
             orderly.  4 conforming to a standard of etiquette or procedure;
             correct; according to convention.  5 properly constituted or
             qualified; not defective or amateur; pursuing an occupation as
             one's main pursuit (cooks as well as a regular cook; has no
             regular profession).  6 Gram. (of a noun, verb, etc.) following
             the normal type of inflection.  7 colloq. complete, thorough,
             absolute (a regular hero).  8 Geom.  a (of a figure) having all
             sides and all angles equal.  b (of a solid) bounded by a number
             of equal figures.  9 Eccl. (placed before or after noun) a bound
             by religious rule.  b belonging to a religious or monastic order
             (canon regular).  10 (of forces or troops etc.) relating to or
             constituting a permanent professional body (regular soldiers;
             regular police force).  11 (of a person) defecating or
             menstruating at predictable times.  12 Bot. (of a flower) having
             radial symmetry.  --n.  1 a regular soldier.  2 colloq. a
             regular customer, visitor, etc.  3 Eccl. one of the regular
             clergy.  4 colloq. a person permanently employed.  Ьkeep regular
             hours do the same thing, esp. going to bed and getting up, at
             the same time each day.  ЬЬregularity n.  regularize v.tr.
             (also -ise).  regularization n.  regularly adv.  [ME reguler,
             regular f. OF reguler f. L regularis f.  regula RULE]

   regulate  v.tr.  1 control by rule.  2 subject to restrictions.  3 adapt
             to requirements.  4 alter the speed of (a machine or clock) so
             that it may work accurately.  ЬЬregulative adj.  regulator n.
             regulatory adj.  [LL regulare regulat- f. L regula RULE]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of regulating; the process of being
             regulated.  2 a prescribed rule; an authoritative direction.  3
             (attrib.) a in accordance with regulations; of the correct type
             etc.  (the regulation speed; a regulation tie).  b colloq. usual
             (the regulation soup).

   regulo    n.  (usu. foll. by a numeral) each of the numbers of a scale
             denoting temperature in a gas oven (cook at regulo 6).  [Regulo,
             propr. term for a thermostatic gas oven control]

   regulus   n.  (pl.  reguluses or reguli) Chem.  1 the purer or metallic
             part of a mineral that separates by sinking on reduction.  2 an
             impure metallic product formed during the smelting of various
             ores.  ЬЬreguline adj.  [L, dimin. of rex regis king: orig. of a
             metallic form of antimony, so called because of its readiness to
             combine with gold]

             v.  1 tr. bring (swallowed food) up again to the mouth.  2 tr.
             cast or pour out again (required by the exam to regurgitate
             facts).  3 intr. be brought up again; gush back.
             ЬЬregurgitation n.  [med.L regurgitare (as RE-, L gurges
             gurgitis whirlpool)]

   rehab     n.  colloq.  rehabilitation.  [abbr.]

             v.tr.  1 restore to effectiveness or normal life by training
             etc., esp. after imprisonment or illness.  2 restore to former
             privileges or reputation or a proper condition.
             ЬЬrehabilitation n.  rehabilitative adj.  [med.L rehabilitare
             (as RE-, HABILITATE)]

   rehandle  v.tr.  1 handle again.  2 give a new form or arrangement to.

   rehang    v.tr.  (past and past part.  rehung) hang (esp. a picture or a
             curtain) again or differently.

   rehash    v. & n.  --v.tr.  put (old material) into a new form without
             significant change or improvement.  --n.  1 material rehashed.
             2 the act or an instance of rehashing.

   rehear    v.tr.  (past and past part.  reheard) hear again.

   rehearsal n.  1 the act or an instance of rehearsing.  2 a trial
             performance or practice of a play, recital, etc.

   rehearse  v.  1 tr. practise (a play, recital, etc.) for later public
             performance.  2 intr. hold a rehearsal.  3 tr. train (a person)
             by rehearsal.  4 tr. recite or say over.  5 tr. give a list of;
             enumerate.  ЬЬrehearser n.  [ME f. AF rehearser, OF reherc(i)er,
             perh. formed as RE- + hercer to harrow f.  herse harrow: see

   reheat    v. & n.  --v.tr.  heat again.  --n.  the process of using the
             hot exhaust to burn extra fuel in a jet engine and produce extra
             power.  ЬЬreheater n.

   reheel    v.tr.  fit (a shoe etc.) with a new heel.

   rehoboam  n.  a wine bottle of about six times the standard size.
             [Rehoboam King of Israel (1 Kings 11-14)]

   rehouse   v.tr.  provide with new housing.

   rehung    past and past part. of REHANG.

   rehydrate v.  1 intr. absorb water again after dehydration.  2 tr. add
             water to (esp. food) again to restore to a palatable state.
             ЬЬrehydratable adj.  rehydration n.

   Reich     n.  the former German State, esp. the Third Reich.  ЬFirst Reich
             the Holy Roman Empire, 962-1806.  Second Reich the German Empire
             1871-1918.  Third Reich the Nazi regime, 1933-45.  °Only Third
             Reich is normal historical terminology.  [G, = empire]

   Reichstag n.  hist.  1 the main legislature of the German State under the
             Second and Third Reichs.  2 the building in which this met.  [G]

   reify     v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) convert (a person, abstraction, etc.) into a
             thing; materialize.  ЬЬreification n.  reificatory adj.  [L res
             thing + -FY]

   reign     v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 hold royal office; be king or queen.  2
             prevail; hold sway (confusion reigns).  3 (as reigning adj.) (of
             a winner, champion, etc.) currently holding the title etc.  --n.
             1 sovereignty, rule.  2 the period during which a sovereign
             rules.  [ME f. OF reigne kingdom f. L regnare f.  rex regis

   reignite  v.tr. & intr.  ignite again.

   Reilly    var. of RILEY.

   reimburse v.tr.  1 repay (a person who has expended money).  2 repay (a
             person's expenses).  ЬЬreimbursable adj.  reimbursement n.
             reimburser n.  [RE- + obs.  imburse put in a purse f. med.L
             imbursare (as IM-, PURSE)]

   reimport  v. & n.  --v.tr.  import (goods processed from exported
             materials).  --n.  1 the act or an instance of reimporting.  2 a
             reimported item.  ЬЬreimportation n.

   reimpose  v.tr.  impose again, esp. after a lapse.  ЬЬreimposition n.

   rein      n. & v.  --n. (in sing. or pl.) 1 a long narrow strap with each
             end attached to the bit, used to guide or check a horse etc. in
             riding or driving.  2 a similar device used to restrain a young
             child.  3 a means of control.  --v.tr.  1 check or manage with
             reins.  2 (foll. by up, back) pull up or back with reins.  3
             (foll. by in) hold in as with reins; restrain.  4 govern,
             restrain, control.  Ьdraw rein 1 stop one's horse.  2 pull up.
             3 abandon an effort.  give free rein to remove constraints from;
             allow full scope to.  keep a tight rein on allow little freedom
             to.  ЬЬreinless adj.  [ME f. OF rene, reigne, earlier resne,
             ult. f. L retinere RETAIN]

             n.  (in some beliefs) the rebirth of a soul in a new body.
             ЬЬreincarnate v.tr.  reincarnate adj.

             v.tr.  incorporate afresh.  ЬЬreincorporation n.

   reindeer  n.  (pl. same or reindeers) a subarctic deer, Rangifer tarandus,
             of which both sexes have large antlers, used domestically for
             drawing sledges and as a source of milk, flesh, and hide.
             Ьreindeer moss an arctic lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, with
             short branched stems growing in clumps.  [ME f. ON hreind°ri f.
             hreinn reindeer + d°r DEER]

   reinfect  v.tr.  infect again.  ЬЬreinfection n.

   reinforce v.tr.  strengthen or support, esp. with additional personnel or
             material or by an increase of numbers or quantity or size etc.
             Ьreinforced concrete concrete with metal bars or wire etc.
             embedded to increase its tensile strength.  ЬЬreinforcer n.
             [earlier renforce f. F renforcer]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of reinforcing; the process of
             being reinforced.  2 a thing that reinforces.  3 (in pl.)
             reinforcing personnel or equipment etc.

   reinsert  v.tr.  insert again.  ЬЬreinsertion n.

   reinstate v.tr.  1 replace in a former position.  2 restore (a person
             etc.) to former privileges.  ЬЬreinstatement n.

   reinsure  v.tr. & intr.  insure again (esp. of an insurer securing himself
             by transferring some or all of the risk to another insurer).
             ЬЬreinsurance n.  reinsurer n.

             v.tr.  1 = REDINTEGRATE.  2 integrate back into society.
             ЬЬreintegration n.

   reinter   v.tr.  inter (a corpse) again.  ЬЬreinterment n.

             v.tr.  (reinterpreted, reinterpreting) interpret again or
             differently.  ЬЬreinterpretation n.

             v.tr.  introduce again.  ЬЬreintroduction n.

   reinvest  v.tr.  invest again (esp. money in other property etc.).
             ЬЬreinvestment n.

             v.tr.  impart fresh vigour to.  ЬЬreinvigoration n.

   reissue   v. & n.  --v.tr.  (reissues, reissued, reissuing) issue again or
             in a different form.  --n. a new issue, esp. of a previously
             published book.

   reiterate v.tr.  say or do again or repeatedly.  ЬЬreiteration n.
             reiterative adj.  [L reiterare (as RE-, ITERATE)]

   reive     v.intr.  esp.  Sc.  make raids; plunder.  ЬЬreiver n.  [var. of

   reject    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 put aside or send back as not to be used or
             done or complied with etc.  2 refuse to accept or believe in.  3
             rebuff or snub (a person).  4 (of a body or digestive system)
             cast up again; vomit, evacuate.  5 Med. show an immune response
             to (a transplanted organ or tissue) so that it fails to survive.
             --n.  a thing or person rejected as unfit or below standard.
             ЬЬrejectable adj.  rejecter n.  (also rejector).  rejection n.
             rejective adj.  [ME f. L rejicere reject- (as RE-, jacere

   rejig     v.tr.  (rejigged, rejigging) 1 re-equip (a factory etc.) for a
             new kind of work.  2 rearrange.

   rejoice   v.  1 intr. feel great joy.  2 intr. (foll. by that + clause or
             to + infin.) be glad.  3 intr. (foll. by in, at) take delight.
             4 intr. celebrate some event.  5 tr. cause joy to.  ЬЬrejoicer
             n.  rejoicingly adv.  [ME f. OF rejoir rejoiss- (as RE-, JOY)]

   rejoin(1) v.  1 tr. & intr. join together again; reunite.  2 tr. join (a
             companion etc.) again.

   rejoin(2) v.  1 tr. say in answer, retort.  2 intr.  Law reply to a charge
             or pleading in a lawsuit.  [ME f. OF rejoindre rejoign- (as RE-,

   rejoinder n.  1 what is said in reply.  2 a retort.  3 Law a reply by
             rejoining.  [AF rejoinder (unrecorded: as REJOIN(2))]

             v.tr.  make young or as if young again.  ЬЬrejuvenation n.
             rejuvenator n.  [RE- + L juvenis young]

             v.  1 intr. become young again.  2 Biol.  a intr. (of cells)
             gain fresh vitality.  b tr. impart fresh vitality to (cells).
             ЬЬrejuvenescent adj.  rejuvenescence n.  [LL rejuvenescere (as
             RE-, L juvenis young)]

   rekindle  v.tr. & intr.  kindle again.

   -rel      suffix with diminutive or derogatory force (cockerel;
             scoundrel).  [from or after OF -erel(le)]

   relabel   v.tr.  (relabelled, relabelling; US relabeled, relabeling) label
             (esp. a commodity) again or differently.

   relapse   v. & n.  --v.intr. (usu. foll. by into) fall back or sink again
             (into a worse state after an improvement).  --n.  also the act
             or an instance of relapsing, esp. a deterioration in a patient's
             condition after a partial recovery.  Ьrelapsing fever a
             bacterial infectious disease with recurrent periods of fever.
             ЬЬrelapser n.  [L relabi relaps- (as RE-, labi slip)]

   relate    v.  1 tr. narrate or recount (incidents, a story, etc.).  2 tr.
             (in passive; often foll. by to) be connected by blood or
             marriage.  3 tr. (usu. foll. by to, with) bring into relation
             (with one another); establish a connection between (cannot
             relate your opinion to my own experience).  4 intr. (foll. by
             to) have reference to; concern (see only what relates to
             themselves).  5 intr. (foll. by to) bring oneself into relation
             to; associate with.  ЬЬrelatable adj.  [L referre relat- bring
             back: see REFER]

   related   adj.  connected, esp. by blood or marriage.  ЬЬrelatedness n.

   relater   n.  (also relator) a person who relates something, esp. a story;
             a narrator.

   relation  n.  1 a what one person or thing has to do with another.  b the
             way in which one person stands or is related to another.  c the
             existence or effect of a connection, correspondence, contrast,
             or feeling prevailing between persons or things, esp. when
             qualified in some way (bears no relation to the facts; enjoyed
             good relations for many years).  2 a relative; a kinsman or
             kinswoman.  3 (in pl.) a (foll. by with) dealings (with others).
             b sexual intercourse.  4 = RELATIONSHIP.  5 a narration (his
             relation of the events).  b a narrative.  6 Law the laying of
             information.  Ьin relation to as regards.  [ME f. OF relation or
             L relatio (as RELATE)]

             adj.  1 of, belonging to, or characterized by relation.  2
             having relation.  Ьrelational database Computing a database
             structured to recognize the relation of stored items of

             n.  1 the fact or state of being related.  2 colloq.  a a
             connection or association (enjoyed a good working relationship).
             b an emotional (esp. sexual) association between two people.  3
             a condition or character due to being related.  4 kinship.

   relative  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 considered or having significance in
             relation to something else (relative velocity).  2 (foll. by to)
             having existence only as perceived or considered by (beauty is
             relative to the eye of the beholder).  3 (foll. by to)
             proportioned to (something else) (growth is relative to input).
             4 implying comparison or contextual relation ('heat' is a
             relative word).  5 comparative; compared one with another (their
             relative advantages).  6 having mutual relations; corresponding
             in some way; related to each other.  7 (foll. by to) having
             reference or relating (the facts relative to the issue).  8
             involving a different but corresponding idea (the concepts of
             husband and wife are relative to each other).  9 Gram.  a (of a
             word, esp. a pronoun) referring to an expressed or implied
             antecedent and attaching a subordinate clause to it, e.g.
             which, who.  b (of a clause) attached to an antecedent by a
             relative word.  10 Mus. (of major and minor keys) having the
             same key signature.  11 (of a service rank) corresponding in
             grade to another in a different service.  12 pertinent,
             relevant; related to the subject (need more relative proof).
             --n.  1 a person connected by blood or marriage.  2 a species
             related to another by common origin (the apes, man's closest
             relatives).  3 Gram. a relative word, esp. a pronoun.  4 Philos.
             a relative thing or term.  Ьrelative atomic mass the ratio of
             the average mass of one atom of an element to one twelfth of the
             mass of an atom of carbon-12: also called atomic weight.
             relative density Chem.  the ratio of the density of a substance
             to the density of a standard, usu. water for a liquid or solid,
             and air for a gas.  relative molecular mass the ratio of the
             average mass of one molecule of an element or compound to one
             twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12: also called
             molecular weight.  ЬЬrelatival adj. (in sense 3 of n.).
             relatively adv.  relativeness n.  [ME f. OF relatif -ive or LL
             relativus having reference or relation (as RELATE)]

             n.  the doctrine that knowledge is relative, not absolute.
             ЬЬrelativist n.

             adj.  Physics (of phenomena etc.) accurately described only by
             the theory of relativity.  ЬЬrelativistically adv.

             n.  1 the fact or state of being relative.  2 Physics a (special
             theory of relativity) a theory based on the principle that all
             motion is relative and that light has constant velocity,
             regarding space-time as a four-dimensional continuum, and
             modifying previous conceptions of geometry.  b (general theory
             of relativity) a theory extending this to gravitation and
             accelerated motion.

   relator   n.  1 var. of RELATER.  2 Law a person who makes a relation (see
             RELATION 6).  [L (as RELATE)]

   relax     v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become less stiff or rigid or tense.
             2 tr. & intr. make or become less formal or strict (rules were
             relaxed).  3 tr. reduce or abate (one's attention, efforts,
             etc.).  4 intr. cease work or effort.  5 tr. (as relaxed adj.)
             at ease; unperturbed.  ЬЬrelaxedly adv.  relaxedness n.  relaxer
             n.  [ME f. L relaxare (as RE-, LAX)]

   relaxant  n. & adj.  --n. a drug etc. that relaxes and reduces tension.
             --adj. causing relaxation.

             n.  1 the act of relaxing or state of being relaxed.  2
             recreation or rest, esp. after a period of work.  3 a partial
             remission or relaxing of a penalty, duty, etc.  4 a lessening of
             severity, precision, etc.  5 Physics the restoration of
             equilibrium following disturbance.  [L relaxatio (as RELAX)]

   relay     n. & v.  --n.  1 a fresh set of people or horses substituted for
             tired ones.  2 a gang of workers, supply of material, etc.,
             deployed on the same basis (operated in relays).  3 = relay
             race.  4 a device activating changes in an electric circuit etc.
             in response to other changes affecting itself.  5 a a device to
             receive, reinforce, and transmit a telegraph message, broadcast
             programme, etc.  b a relayed message or transmission.  --v.tr.
             1 receive (a message, broadcast, etc.) and transmit it to
             others.  2 a arrange in relays.  b provide with or replace by
             relays.  Ьrelay race a race between teams of which each member
             in turn covers part of the distance.  [ME f. OF relai (n.),
             relayer (v.) (as RE-, laier ult. f. L laxare): cf.  RELAX]

   re-lay    v.tr.  (past and past part.  re-laid) lay again or differently.

   relearn   v.tr.  learn again.

   release   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by from) set free; liberate,
             unfasten.  2 allow to move from a fixed position.  3 a make
             (information, a recording, etc.) publicly or generally
             available.  b issue (a film etc.) for general exhibition.  4 Law
             a remit (a debt).  b surrender (a right).  c make over (property
             or money) to another.  --n.  1 deliverance or liberation from a
             restriction, duty, or difficulty.  2 a handle or catch that
             releases part of a mechanism.  3 a document or item of
             information made available for publication (press release).  4 a
             a film or record etc. that is released.  b the act or an
             instance of releasing or the process of being released in this
             way.  5 Law a the act of releasing (property, money, or a right)
             to another.  b a document effecting this.  ЬЬreleasable adj.
             releasee n. (in sense 4 of v.).  releaser n.  releasor n. (in
             sense 4 of v.).  [ME f. OF reles (n.), relesser (v.),
             relaiss(i)er f. L relaxare: see RELAX]

   relegate  v.tr.  1 consign or dismiss to an inferior or less important
             position; demote.  2 transfer (a sports team) to a lower
             division of a league etc.  3 banish or send into exile.  4
             (foll. by to) a transfer (a matter) for decision or
             implementation.  b refer (a person) for information.
             ЬЬrelegable adj.  relegation n.  [L relegare relegat- (as RE-,
             legare send)]

   relent    v.intr.  1 abandon a harsh intention.  2 yield to compassion.  3
             relax one's severity; become less stern.  [ME f. med.L relentare
             (unrecorded), formed as RE- + L lentare bend f.  lentus

             adj.  1 unrelenting; insistent and uncompromising.  2
             continuous; oppressively constant (the pressure was relentless).
             ЬЬrelentlessly adv.  relentlessness n.

   re-let    v.tr.  (-letting; past and past part.  -let) let (a property)
             for a further period or to a new tenant.

   relevant  adj.  (often foll. by to) bearing on or having reference to the
             matter in hand.  ЬЬrelevance n.  relevancy n.  relevantly adv.
             [med.L relevans, part. of L relevare RELIEVE]

   reliable  adj.  1 that may be relied on.  2 of sound and consistent
             character or quality.  ЬЬreliability n.  reliableness n.
             reliably adv.

   reliance  n.  1 (foll. by in, on) trust, confidence (put full reliance in
             you).  2 a thing relied upon.  ЬЬreliant adj.

   relic     n.  1 an object interesting because of its age or association.
             2 a part of a deceased holy person's body or belongings kept as
             an object of reverence.  3 a surviving custom or belief etc.
             from a past age.  4 a memento or souvenir.  5 (in pl.) what has
             survived destruction or wasting or use.  6 (in pl.) the dead
             body or remains of a person.  [ME relike, relique, etc. f. OF
             relique f. L reliquiae: see RELIQUIAE]

   relict    n.  1 a a geological or other object surviving in its primitive
             form.  b an animal or plant known to have existed in the same
             form in previous geological ages.  2 (foll. by of) archaic a
             widow.  [L relinquere relict- leave behind (as RE-, linquere
             leave): sense 2 f. OF relicte f. L relicta]

   relief    n.  1 a the alleviation of or deliverance from pain, distress,
             anxiety, etc.  b the feeling accompanying such deliverance.  2 a
             feature etc. that diversifies monotony or relaxes tension.  3
             assistance (esp. financial) given to those in special need or
             difficulty (rent relief).  4 a the replacing of a person or
             persons on duty by another or others.  b a person or persons
             replacing others in this way.  5 (usu.  attrib.) a thing
             supplementing another in some service, esp. an extra vehicle
             providing public transport at peak times.  6 a a method of
             moulding or carving or stamping in which the design stands out
             from the surface, with projections proportioned and more (high
             relief) or less (low relief) closely approximating to those of
             the objects depicted (cf.  ROUND n.  9).  b a piece of sculpture
             etc. in relief.  c a representation of relief given by an
             arrangement of line or colour or shading.  7 vividness,
             distinctness (brings the facts out in sharp relief).  8 (foll.
             by of) the reinforcement (esp. the raising of a siege) of a
             place.  9 esp. Law the redress of a hardship or grievance.
             Ьrelief map 1 a map indicating hills and valleys by shading etc.
             rather than by contour lines alone.  2 a map-model showing
             elevations and depressions, usu. on an exaggerated relative
             scale.  relief printing = LETTERPRESS 2.  relief road a road
             taking traffic around a congested (esp. urban) area.  [ME f AF
             relef, OF relief (in sense 6 F relief f. It.  rilievo) f.
             relever: see RELIEVE]

   relieve   v.tr.  1 bring or provide aid or assistance to.  2 alleviate or
             reduce (pain, suffering, etc.).  3 mitigate the tedium or
             monotony of.  4 bring military support for (a besieged place).
             5 release (a person) from a duty by acting as or providing a
             substitute.  6 (foll. by of) take (a burden or responsibility)
             away from (a person).  7 bring into relief; cause to appear
             solid or detached.  Ьrelieve one's feelings use strong language
             or vigorous behaviour when annoyed.  relieve oneself urinate or
             defecate.  ЬЬrelievable adj.  reliever n.  [ME f. OF relever f.
             L relevare (as RE-, levis light)]

   relieved  predic.adj.  freed from anxiety or distress (am very relieved to
             hear it).  ЬЬrelievedly adv.

   relievo   n.  (also rilievo) (pl.  -os) = RELIEF 6.  [It.  rilievo RELIEF

   relight   v.tr.  light (a fire etc.) again.

   religio-  comb. form 1 religion.  2 religious.

   religion  n.  1 the belief in a superhuman controlling power, esp. in a
             personal God or gods entitled to obedience and worship.  2 the
             expression of this in worship.  3 a particular system of faith
             and worship.  4 life under monastic vows (the way of religion).
             5 a thing that one is devoted to (football is their religion).
             Ьfreedom of religion the right to follow whatever religion one
             chooses.  ЬЬreligionless adj.  [ME f. AF religiun, OF religion
             f. L religio -onis obligation, bond, reverence]

             n.  excessive religious zeal.  ЬЬreligionist n.

   religiose adj.  excessively religious.  [L religiosus (as RELIGIOUS)]

             n.  the condition of being religious or religiose.  [ME f. L
             religiositas (as RELIGIOUS)]

   religious adj. & n.  --adj.  1 devoted to religion; pious, devout.  2 of
             or concerned with religion.  3 of or belonging to a monastic
             order.  4 scrupulous, conscientious (a religious attention to
             detail).  --n.  (pl. same) a person bound by monastic vows.
             ЬЬreligiously adv.  religiousness n.  [ME f. AF religius, OF
             religious f. L religiosus (as RELIGION)]

   reline    v.tr.  renew the lining of (a garment etc.).

             v.tr.  1 surrender or resign (a right or possession).  2 give up
             or cease from (a habit, plan, belief, etc.).  3 relax hold of
             (an object held).  ЬЬrelinquishment n.  [ME f. OF relinquir f. L
             relinquere (as RE-, linquere leave)]

   reliquary n.  (pl.  -ies) esp. Relig.  a receptacle for relics.  [F
             reliquaire (as RELIC)]

   reliquiae n.pl.  1 remains.  2 Geol. fossil remains of animals or plants.
             [L f.  reliquus remaining, formed as RE- + linquere liq- leave]

   relish    n. & v.  --n.  1 (often foll. by for) a great liking or
             enjoyment.  b keen or pleasurable longing (had no relish for
             travelling).  2 a an appetizing flavour.  b an attractive
             quality (fishing loses its relish in winter).  3 a condiment
             eaten with plainer food to add flavour, esp.  a piquant sauce,
             pickle, etc.  4 (foll. by of) a distinctive taste or tinge.
             --v.tr.  1 a get pleasure out of; enjoy greatly.  b look forward
             to, anticipate with pleasure (did not relish what lay before
             her).  2 add relish to.  ЬЬrelishable adj.  [alt. (with assim.
             to -ISH(2)) of obs.  reles f. OF reles, relais remainder f.
             relaisser: see RELEASE]

   relive    v.tr.  live (an experience etc.) over again, esp. in the

   reload    v.tr.  (also absol.) load (esp. a gun) again.

   relocate  v.  1 tr. locate in a new place.  2 tr. & intr. move to a new
             place (esp. to live or work).  ЬЬrelocation n.

   reluctant adj.  (often foll. by to + infin.)  unwilling or disinclined
             (most reluctant to agree).  ЬЬreluctance n.  reluctantly adv.
             [L reluctari (as RE-, luctari struggle)]

   rely      v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) (foll. by on, upon) 1 depend on with
             confidence or assurance (am relying on your judgement).  2 be
             dependent on (relies on her for everything).  [ME (earlier
             senses 'rally, be a vassal of') f. OF relier bind together f. L
             religare (as RE-, ligare bind)]

   REM       abbr.  rapid eye-movement.

   rem       n.  (pl. same) a unit of effective absorbed dose of ionizing
             radiation in human tissue, equivalent to one roentgen of X-rays.
             [roentgen equivalent man]

   remade    past and past part. of REMAKE.

   remain    v.intr.  1 be left over after others or other parts have been
             removed or used or dealt with.  2 be in the same place or
             condition during further time; continue to exist or stay; be
             left behind (remained at home; it will remain cold).  3 (foll.
             by compl.) continue to be (remained calm; remains President).
             [ME f. OF remain- stressed stem of remanoir or f. OF remaindre
             ult. f. L remanere (as RE-, manere stay)]

   remainder n. & v.  --n.  1 a part remaining or left over.  2 remaining
             persons or things.  3 a number left after division or
             subtraction.  4 the copies of a book left unsold when demand has
             fallen.  5 Law an interest in an estate that becomes effective
             in possession only when a prior interest (devised at the same
             time) ends.  --v.tr. dispose of (a remainder of books) at a
             reduced price.  [ME (in sense 5) f. AF, = OF remaindre: see

   remains   n.pl.  1 what remains after other parts have been removed or
             used etc.  2 relics of antiquity, esp. of buildings (Roman
             remains).  3 a person's body after death.  4 an author's (esp.
             unpublished) works left after death.

   remake    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  remade) make again or
             differently.  --n.  a thing that has been remade, esp. a cinema

   reman     v.tr.  (remanned, remanning) 1 equip (a fleet etc.) with new
             personnel.  2 make courageous again.

   remand    v. & n.  --v.tr. return (a prisoner) to custody, esp. to allow
             further inquiries to be made.  --n. a recommittal to custody.
             Ьon remand in custody pending trial.  remand centre (in the UK)
             an institution to which accused persons are remanded pending
             trial.  [ME f. LL remandare (as RE-, mandare commit)]

   remanent  adj.  1 remaining, residual.  2 (of magnetism) remaining after
             the magnetizing field has been removed.  ЬЬremanence n.  [ME f.
             L remanere REMAIN]

   remark    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by that + clause) a say by way
             of comment.  b take notice of; regard with attention.  2 intr.
             (usu. foll. by on, upon) make a comment.  --n.  1 a written or
             spoken comment; anything said.  2 a the act of noticing or
             observing (worthy of remark).  b the act of commenting (let it
             pass without remark).  [F remarque, remarquer (as RE-, MARK(1))]

             adj.  1 worth notice; exceptional.  2 striking, conspicuous.
             ЬЬremarkableness n.  remarkably adv.  [F remarquable (as

   remarry   v.intr. & tr.  (-ies, -ied) marry again.  ЬЬremarriage n.

   remaster  v.tr.  make a new master of (a recording), esp. to improve the
             sound quality.

   rematch   n.  a return match or game.

   REME      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers.

   remeasure v.tr.  measure again.  ЬЬremeasurement n.

   remedial  adj.  1 affording or intended as a remedy (remedial therapy).  2
             (of teaching) for slow or backward children.  ЬЬremedially adv.
             [LL remedialis f. L remedium (as REMEDY)]

   remedy    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) (often foll. by for, against) 1 a
             medicine or treatment (for a disease etc.).  2 a means of
             counteracting or removing anything undesirable.  3 redress;
             legal or other reparation.  4 the margin within which coins as
             minted may differ from the standard fineness and weight.
             --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) rectify; make good.  ЬЬremediable adj.
             [ME f. AF remedie, OF remede or L remedium (as RE-, mederi

   remember  v.tr.  1 keep in the memory; not forget.  2 a (also absol.)
             bring back into one's thoughts, call to mind (knowledge or
             experience etc.).  b (often foll. by to + infin. or that +
             clause) have in mind (a duty, commitment, etc.) (will you
             remember to lock the door?).  3 think of or acknowledge (a
             person) in some connection, esp.  in making a gift etc.  4
             (foll. by to) convey greetings from (one person) to (another)
             (remember me to your mother).  5 mention (in prayer).  Ьremember
             oneself recover one's manners or intentions after a lapse.
             ЬЬrememberer n.  [ME f. OF remembrer f. LL rememorari (as RE-, L
             memor mindful)]

             n.  1 the act of remembering or process of being remembered.  2
             a memory or recollection.  3 a keepsake or souvenir.  4 (in pl.)
             greetings conveyed through a third person.  ЬRemembrance Day 1 =
             Remembrance Sunday.  2 hist. Armistice Day.  Remembrance Sunday
             (in the UK) the Sunday nearest 11 Nov., when those who were
             killed in the wars of 1914-18 and 1939-45 are commemorated.  [ME
             f. OF (as REMEMBER)]

   remex     n.  (pl.  remiges) a primary or secondary feather in a bird's
             wing.  [L, = rower, f.  remus oar]

   remind    v.tr.  1 (foll. by of) cause (a person) to remember or think of.
             2 (foll. by to + infin. or that + clause) cause (a person) to
             remember (a commitment etc.) (remind them to pay their

   reminder  n.  1 a thing that reminds, esp. a letter or bill.  2 (often
             foll. by of) a memento or souvenir.

   remindful adj.  (often foll. by of) acting as a reminder; reviving the

   reminisce v.intr.  indulge in reminiscence.  ЬЬreminiscer n.  [back-form.
             f.  REMINISCENCE]

             n.  1 the act of remembering things past; the recovery of
             knowledge by mental effort.  2 a a past fact or experience that
             is remembered.  b the process of narrating this.  3 (in pl.) a
             collection in literary form of incidents and experiences that a
             person remembers.  4 Philos. (esp. in Platonism) the theory of
             the recovery of things known to the soul in previous existences.
             5 a characteristic of one thing reminding or suggestive of
             another.  ЬЬreminiscential adj.  [LL reminiscentia f. L
             reminisci remember]

             adj.  1 (foll. by of) tending to remind one of or suggest.  2
             concerned with reminiscence.  3 (of a person) given to
             reminiscing.  ЬЬreminiscently adv.

   remise    v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 Law surrender or make over (a right or
             property).  2 Fencing make a remise.  --n.  Fencing a second
             thrust made after the first has failed.  [F f.  remis, remise
             past part. of remettre put back: cf.  REMIT]

   remiss    adj.  careless of duty; lax, negligent.  ЬЬremissly adv.
             remissness n.  [ME f. L remissus past part. of remittere
             slacken: see REMIT]

             adj.  that may be remitted.  [F r‚missible or LL remissibilis
             (as REMIT)]

   remission n.  1 the reduction of a prison sentence on account of good
             behaviour.  2 the remitting of a debt or penalty etc.  3 a
             diminution of force, effect, or degree (esp. of disease or
             pain).  4 (often foll. by of) forgiveness (of sins etc.).
             ЬЬremissive adj.  [ME f. OF remission or L remissio (as REMIT)]

   remit     v. & n.  --v.  (remitted, remitting) 1 tr. cancel or refrain
             from exacting or inflicting (a debt or punishment etc.).  2
             intr. & tr. abate or slacken; cease or cease from partly or
             entirely.  3 tr. send (money etc.) in payment.  4 tr. cause to
             be conveyed by post.  5 tr.  a (foll. by to) refer (a matter for
             decision etc.) to some authority.  b Law send back (a case) to a
             lower court.  6 tr.  a (often foll. by to) postpone or defer.  b
             (foll. by in, into) send or put back into a previous state.  7
             tr.  Theol. (usu. of God) pardon (sins etc.).  --n.  1 the terms
             of reference of a committee etc.  2 an item remitted for
             consideration.  ЬЬremittable adj.  remittal n.  remittee n.
             remitter n.  [ME f. L remittere remiss- (as RE-, mittere send)]

             n.  1 money sent, esp. by post, for goods or services or as an
             allowance.  2 the act of sending money.  Ьremittance man hist.
             an emigrant subsisting on remittances from home.

   remittent adj.  (of a fever) that abates at intervals.  [L remittere (as

   remix     v. & n.  --v.tr.  mix again.  --n.  a sound recording that has
             been remixed.

   remnant   n.  1 a small remaining quantity.  2 a piece of cloth etc. left
             when the greater part has been used or sold.  3 (foll. by of) a
             surviving trace (a remnant of empire).  [ME (earlier remenant)
             f. OF remenant f.  remenoir REMAIN]

   remodel   v.tr.  (remodelled, remodelling; US remodeled, remodeling) 1
             model again or differently.  2 reconstruct.

   remodify  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) modify again.  ЬЬremodification n.

   remold    US var. of REMOULD.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) restore (a metal etc.) to its former position
             as legal tender.  ЬЬremonetization n.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of remonstrating.  2 an
             expostulation or protest.  [ME f. obs. F remonstrance or med.L
             remonstrantia (as REMONSTRATE)]

             v.  1 intr. (foll. by with) make a protest; argue forcibly
             (remonstrated with them over the delays).  2 tr. (often foll. by
             that + clause) urge protestingly.  ЬЬremonstrant adj.
             remonstration n.  remonstrative adj.  remonstrator n.  [med.L
             remonstrare (as RE-, monstrare show)]

   remontant adj. & n.  --adj. blooming more than once a year.  --n. a
             remontant rose.  [F f.  remonter REMOUNT]

   remora    n.  Zool.  any of various marine fish of the family Echeneidae,
             which attach themselves by modified sucker-like fins to other
             fish and to ships.  [L, = hindrance (as RE-, mora delay, from
             the former belief that the fish slowed ships down)]

   remorse   n.  1 deep regret for a wrong committed.  2 compunction; a
             compassionate reluctance to inflict pain ( esp. in without
             remorse).  [ME f. OF remors f. med.L remorsus f. L remordere
             remors- vex (as RE-, mordere bite)]

             adj.  filled with repentance.  ЬЬremorsefully adv.

             adj.  without compassion or compunction.  ЬЬremorselessly adv.
             remorselessness n.

             v. & n.  --v.tr. (also absol.) mortgage again; revise the terms
             of an existing mortgage on (a property).  --n. a different or
             altered mortgage.

   remote    adj.  (remoter, remotest) 1 far away in place or time.  2 out of
             the way; situated away from the main centres of population,
             society, etc.  3 distantly related (a remote ancestor).  4
             slight, faint ( esp. in not the remotest chance, idea , etc.).
             5 (of a person) aloof; not friendly.  6 (foll. by from) widely
             different; separate by nature (ideas remote from the subject).
             Ьremote control control of a machine or apparatus from a
             distance by means of signals transmitted from a radio or
             electronic device.  remote-controlled (of a machine etc.)
             controlled at a distance.  ЬЬremotely adv.  remoteness n.  [ME
             f. L remotus (as REMOVE)]

   remould   v. & n.  (US remold) --v.tr.  1 mould again; refashion.  2
             re-form the tread of (a tyre).  --n.  a remoulded tyre.

   remount   v. & n.  --v.  1 a tr. mount (a horse etc.) again.  b intr. get
             on horseback again.  2 tr. get on to or ascend (a ladder, hill,
             etc.) again.  3 tr. provide (a person) with a fresh horse etc.
             4 tr. put (a picture) on a fresh mount.  --n.  1 a fresh horse
             for a rider.  2 a supply of fresh horses for a regiment.

   removal   n.  1 the act or an instance of removing; the process of being
             removed.  2 the transfer of furniture and other contents on
             moving house.

   remove    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. take off or away from the place or position
             occupied (remove the top carefully).  2 tr.  a move or take to
             another place; change the situation of (will you remove the tea
             things?).  b get rid of; eliminate (will remove all doubts).  3
             tr. cause to be no longer present or available; take away (all
             privileges were removed).  4 tr. (often foll. by from) dismiss
             (from office).  5 tr.  colloq. kill, assassinate.  6 tr. (in
             passive; foll. by from) distant or remote in condition (the
             country is not far removed from anarchy).  7 tr. (as removed
             adj.) (esp. of cousins) separated by a specified number of steps
             of descent (a first cousin twice removed = a grandchild of a
             first cousin).  8 formal a intr. (usu. foll. by from, to) change
             one's home or place of residence.  b tr. conduct the removal of.
             --n.  1 a degree or remoteness; a distance.  2 a stage in a
             gradation; a degree (is several removes from what I expected).
             3 Brit. a form or division in some schools.  ЬЬremovable adj.
             removability n.  remover n. (esp. in sense 8b of v.).  [ME f. OF
             removeir f. L removere remot- (as RE-, movere move)]

             v.tr.  1 reward; pay for services rendered.  2 serve as or
             provide recompense for (toil etc.) or to (a person).
             ЬЬremuneration n.  remunerative adj.  remuneratory adj.  [L
             remunerari (as RE-, munus muneris gift)]

             n.  1 the revival of art and literature under the influence of
             classical models in the 14th-16th c.  2 the period of this.  3
             the culture and style of art, architecture, etc. developed
             during this era.  4 (renaissance) any similar revival.  [F
             renaissance (as RE-, F naissance birth f. L nascentia or F
             naЊtre naiss- be born f. Rmc: cf.  NASCENT)]

   renal     adj.  of or concerning the kidneys.  [F r‚nal f. LL renalis f. L
             renes kidneys]

   rename    v.tr.  name again; give a new name to.

             n.  1 rebirth; renewal.  2 = RENAISSANCE.  [RENASCENT]

   renascent adj.  springing up anew; being reborn.  [L renasci (as RE-,
             nasci be born)]

   rencontre n.  archaic = RENCOUNTER.  [F (as RENCOUNTER)]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 an encounter; a chance meeting.  2 a battle,
             skirmish, or duel.  --v.tr. encounter; meet by chance.  [F
             rencontre(r) (as RE-, ENCOUNTER)]

   rend      v.  (past and past part.  rent) archaic or rhet.  1 tr. (foll.
             by off, from, away, etc.; also absol.) tear or wrench forcibly.
             2 tr. & intr. split or divide in pieces or into factions (a
             country rent by civil war).  3 tr. cause emotional pain to (the
             heart etc.).  Ьrend the air sound piercingly.  rend one's
             garments (or hair) display extreme grief or rage.  [OE rendan,
             rel. to MLG rende]

   render    v.tr.  1 cause to be or become; make (rendered us helpless).  2
             give or pay (money, service, etc.), esp. in return or as a thing
             due (render thanks; rendered good for evil).  3 (often foll. by
             to) a give (assistance) (rendered aid to the injured man).  b
             show (obedience etc.).  c do (a service etc.).  4 submit; send
             in; present (an account, reason, etc.).  5 a represent or
             portray artistically, musically, etc.  b act (a role); represent
             (a character, idea, etc.) (the dramatist's conception was well
             rendered).  c Mus. perform; execute.  6 translate (rendered the
             poem into French).  7 (often foll. by down) melt down (fat etc.)
             esp. to clarify; extract by melting.  8 cover (stone or brick)
             with a coat of plaster.  9 archaic a give back; hand over;
             deliver, give up, surrender (render to Caesar the things that
             are Caesar's).  b show (obedience).  Ьrender-set v.tr.
             (-setting; past and past part.  -set) plaster (a wall etc.) with
             two coats.  --n. a plastering of two coats.  --adj. of two
             coats.  ЬЬrenderer n.  [ME f. OF rendre ult. f. L reddere
             reddit- (as RE-, dare give)]

   rendering n.  1 a the act or an instance of performing music, drama, etc.;
             an interpretation or performance (an excellent rendering of the
             part).  b a translation.  2 a the act or an instance of
             plastering stone, brick, etc.  b this coating.  3 the act or an
             instance of giving, yielding, or surrendering.

             n. & v.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 an agreed or regular meeting-place.
             2 a meeting by arrangement.  3 a place appointed for assembling
             troops, ships, etc.  --v.intr.  (rendezvouses; rendezvoused;
             rendezvousing) meet at a rendezvous.  [F rendez-vous present
             yourselves f.  rendre: see RENDER]

   rendition n.  (often foll. by of) 1 an interpretation or rendering of a
             dramatic role, piece of music, etc.  2 a visual representation.
             [obs. F f.  rendre RENDER]

   renegade  n. & v.  --n.  1 a person who deserts a party or principles.  2
             an apostate; a person who abandons one religion for another.
             --v.intr. be a renegade.  [Sp.  renegado f. med.L renegatus (as
             RE-, L negare deny)]

   renegado  n.  (pl.  -oes) archaic = RENEGADE.  [Sp. (as RENEGADE)]

   renege    v.  (also renegue) 1 intr.  a go back on one's word; change
             one's mind; recant.  b (foll. by on) go back on (a promise or
             undertaking or contract).  2 tr. deny, renounce, abandon (a
             person, faith, etc.).  3 intr.  Cards revoke.  ЬЬreneger n.
             reneguer n.  [med.L renegare (as RE-, L negare deny)]

             v.tr.  (also absol.) negotiate again or on different terms.
             ЬЬrenegotiable adj.  renegotiation n.

   renew     v.tr.  1 revive; regenerate; make new again; restore to the
             original state.  2 reinforce; resupply; replace.  3 repeat or
             re-establish, resume after an interruption (renewed our
             acquaintance; a renewed attack).  4 get, begin, make, say, give,
             etc. anew.  5 (also absol.) grant or be granted a continuation
             of or continued validity of (a licence, subscription, lease,
             etc.).  6 recover (one's youth, strength, etc.).  ЬЬrenewable
             adj.  renewability n.  renewal n.  renewer n.

   reniform  adj.  esp. Med.  kidney-shaped.  [L ren kidney + -FORM]

   rennet    n.  1 curdled milk found in the stomach of an unweaned calf,
             used in curdling milk for cheese, junket, etc.  2 a preparation
             made from the stomach-membrane of a calf or from certain fungi,
             used for the same purpose.  [ME, prob. f. an OE form rynet
             (unrecorded), rel. to RUN]

   rennin    n.  Biochem.  an enzyme secreted into the stomach of unweaned
             mammals causing the clotting of milk.  [RENNET + -IN]

             v.tr.  nominate for a further term of office.  ЬЬrenomination n.

   renounce  v.  1 tr. consent formally to abandon; surrender; give up (a
             claim, right, possession, etc.).  2 tr. repudiate; refuse to
             recognize any longer (renouncing their father's authority).  3
             tr.  a decline further association or disclaim relationship with
             (renounced my former friends).  b withdraw from; discontinue;
             forsake.  4 intr.  Law refuse or resign a right or position esp.
             as an heir or trustee.  5 intr.  Cards follow with a card of
             another suit when having no card of the suit led (cf.  REVOKE).
             Ьrenounce the world abandon society or material affairs.
             ЬЬrenounceable adj.  renouncement n.  renouncer n.  [ME f. OF
             renoncer f. L renuntiare (as RE-, nuntiare announce)]

   renovate  v.tr.  1 restore to good condition; repair.  2 make new again.
             ЬЬrenovation n.  renovative adj.  renovator n.  [L renovare (as
             RE-, novus new)]

   renown    n.  fame; high distinction; celebrity (a city of great renown).
             [ME f. AF ren(o)un, OF renon, renom f.  renomer make famous (as
             RE-, L nominare NOMINATE)]

   renowned  adj.  famous; celebrated.

   rent(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a tenant's periodical payment to an owner or
             landlord for the use of land or premises.  2 payment for the use
             of a service, equipment, etc.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by from)
             take, occupy, or use at a rent (rented a cottage from the local
             farmer).  2 tr. (often foll. by out) let or hire (a thing) for
             rent.  3 intr. (foll. by at) be let or hired out at a specified
             rate (the land rents at њ100 per month).  Ьfor rent US available
             to be rented.  rent-a- (in comb.) often joc.  denoting
             availability for hire (rent-a-van; rent-a-crowd).  rent-boy a
             young male prostitute.  rent-free with exemption from rent.
             rent-roll the register of a landlord's lands etc. with the rents
             due from them; the sum of one's income from rent.  [ME f. OF
             rente f. Rmc (as RENDER)]

   rent(2)   n.  1 a large tear in a garment etc.  2 an opening in clouds
             etc.  3 a cleft, fissure, or gorge.  [obs.  rent var. of REND]

   rent(3)   past and past part. of REND.

   rentable  adj.  1 available or suitable for renting.  2 giving an adequate
             ratio of profit to capital.  ЬЬrentability n.

   rental    n.  1 the amount paid or received as rent.  2 the act of
             renting.  3 an income from rents.  4 US a rented house etc.
             Ьrental library US a library which rents books for a fee.  [ME
             f. AF rental or AL rentale (as RENT(1))]

   renter    n.  1 a person who rents.  2 Cinematog. (in the UK) a person who
             distributes cinema films.  3 sl. a male prostitute.

   rentier   n.  a person living on dividends from property, investments,
             etc.  [F f.  rente dividend]

   renumber  v.tr.  change the number or numbers given or allocated to.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of renouncing or giving up.  2
             self-denial.  3 a document expressing renunciation.
             ЬЬrenunciant n. & adj.  renunciative adj.  renunciatory adj.
             [ME f. OF renonciation or LL renuntiatio (as RENOUNCE)]

   renvoi    n.  Law the act or an instance of referring a case, dispute,
             etc. to a different jurisdiction.  [F f.  renvoyer send back]

   reoccupy  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) occupy again.  ЬЬreoccupation n.

   reoccur   v.intr.  (reoccurred, reoccurring) occur again or habitually.
             ЬЬreoccurrence n.

   reopen    v.tr. & intr.  open again.

   reorder   v. & n.  --v.tr. order again.  --n. a renewed or repeated order
             for goods.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) organize differently.  ЬЬreorganization n.
             reorganizer n.

   reorient  v.tr.  1 give a new direction to (ideas etc.); redirect (a
             thing).  2 help (a person) find his or her bearings again.  3
             change the outlook of (a person).  4 (refl., often foll. by to)
             adjust oneself to or come to terms with something.

             v.tr.  = REORIENT.  ЬЬreorientation n.

   Rep.      abbr.  US 1 a Representative in Congress.  2 a Republican.

   rep(1)    n.  colloq.  a representative, esp. a commercial traveller.

   rep(2)    n.  colloq.  1 repertory.  2 a repertory theatre or company.

   rep(3)    n.  (also repp) a textile fabric with a corded surface, used in
             curtains and upholstery.  [F reps, of unkn. orig.]

   rep(4)    n.  US sl.  reputation.  [abbr.]

   repack    v.tr.  pack again.

   repackage v.tr.  1 package again or differently.  2 present in a new form.
             ЬЬrepackaging n.

             v.tr.  paginate again; renumber the pages of.  ЬЬrepagination n.

   repaid    past and past part. of REPAY.

   repaint   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 paint again or differently.  2 restore the
             paint or colouring of.  --n.  1 the act of repainting.  2 a
             repainted thing, esp. a golf ball.

   repair(1) v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 restore to good condition after damage or
             wear.  2 renovate or mend by replacing or fixing parts or by
             compensating for loss or exhaustion.  3 set right or make amends
             for (loss, wrong, error, etc.).  --n.  1 the act or an instance
             of restoring to sound condition (in need of repair; closed
             during repair).  2 the result of this (the repair is hardly
             visible).  3 good or relative condition for working or using
             (must be kept in repair; in good repair).  ЬЬrepairable adj.
             repairer n.  [ME f. OF reparer f. L reparare (as RE-, parare
             make ready)]

   repair(2) v. & n.  --v.intr. (foll. by to) resort; have recourse; go often
             or in great numbers or for a specific purpose (repaired to
             Spain).  --n.  archaic 1 resort (have repair to).  2 a place of
             frequent resort.  3 popularity (a place of great repair).  [ME
             f. OF repaire(r) f. LL repatriare REPATRIATE]

   repairman n.  (pl.  -men) a man who repairs machinery etc.

   repand    adj.  Bot.  with an undulating margin; wavy.  [L repandus (as
             RE-, pandus bent)]

   repaper   v.tr.  paper (a wall etc.) again.

   reparable adj.  (of a loss etc.) that can be made good.  ЬЬreparability n.
             reparably adv.  [F f. L reparabilis (as REPAIR(1))]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of making amends.  2 a
             compensation.  b (esp. in pl.) compensation for war damage paid
             by the defeated State.  3 the act or an instance of repairing or
             being repaired.  ЬЬreparative adj.  [ME f. OF f. LL reparatio
             -onis (as REPAIR)]

   repartee  n.  1 the practice or faculty of making witty retorts; sharpness
             or wit in quick reply.  2 a a witty retort.  b witty retorts
             collectively.  [F repartie fem. past part. of repartir start
             again, reply promptly (as RE-, partir PART)]

             v.tr.  partition again.

   repass    v.tr. & intr.  pass again, esp. on the way back.  [ME f. OF

   repast    n.  formal 1 a meal, esp. of a specified kind (a light repast).
             2 food and drink supplied for or eaten at a meal.  [ME f. OF
             repaistre f. LL repascere repast- feed]

   repat     n.  colloq.  1 a repatriate.  2 repatriation.  [abbr.]

             v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. restore (a person) to his or her native
             land.  2 intr. return to one's own native land.  --n. a person
             who has been repatriated.  ЬЬrepatriation n.  [LL repatriare (as
             RE-, L patria native land)]

   repay     v.  (past and past part.  repaid) 1 tr. pay back (money).  2 tr.
             return (a blow, visit, etc.).  3 tr. make repayment to (a
             person).  4 tr. make return for; requite (a service, action,
             etc.) (must repay their kindness; the book repays close study).
             5 tr. (often foll. by for) give in recompense.  6 intr. make
             repayment.  ЬЬrepayable adj.  repayment n.  [OF repaier (as RE-,

   repeal    v. & n.  --v.tr. revoke, rescind, or annul (a law, act of
             parliament, etc.).  --n. the act or an instance of repealing.
             ЬЬrepealable adj.  [ME f. AF repeler, OF rapeler (as RE-,

   repeat    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. say or do over again.  2 tr. recite,
             rehearse, report, or reproduce (something from memory) (repeated
             a poem).  3 tr. imitate (an action etc.).  4 intr. recur; appear
             again, perhaps several times (a repeating pattern).  5 tr. used
             for emphasis (am not, repeat not, going).  6 intr. (of food) be
             tasted intermittently for some time after being swallowed as a
             result of belching or indigestion.  7 intr. (of a watch etc.)
             strike the last quarter etc. over again when required.  8 intr.
             (of a firearm) fire several shots without reloading.  9 intr.
             US illegally vote more than once in an election.  --n.  1 a the
             act or an instance of repeating.  b a thing repeated (often
             attrib.: repeat prescription).  2 a repeated broadcast.  3 Mus.
             a a passage intended to be repeated.  b a mark indicating this.
             4 a pattern repeated in wallpaper etc.  5 Commerce a a
             consignment similar to a previous one.  b an order given for
             this; a reorder.  Ьrepeating decimal a recurring decimal.
             repeat itself recur in the same form.  repeat oneself say or do
             the same thing over again.  ЬЬrepeatable adj.  repeatability n.
             repeatedly adv.  [ME f. OF repeter f. L repetere (as RE-, petere

   repeater  n.  1 a person or thing that repeats.  2 a firearm which fires
             several shots without reloading.  3 a watch or clock which
             repeats its last strike when required.  4 a device for the
             automatic re-transmission or amplification of an electrically
             transmitted message.  5 a signal lamp indicating the state of
             another that is invisible.

   rep€chage n.  (in rowing etc.) an extra contest in which the runners-up in
             the eliminating heats compete for a place in the final.  [F
             rep€cher fish out, rescue]

   repel     v.tr.  (repelled, repelling) 1 drive back; ward off; repulse.  2
             refuse admission or approach or acceptance to (repel an
             assailant).  3 be repulsive or distasteful to.  ЬЬrepeller n.
             [ME f. L repellere (as RE-, pellere puls- drive)]

   repellent adj. & n.  --adj.  1 that repels.  2 disgusting, repulsive.
             --n. a substance that repels esp. insects etc.  ЬЬrepellence n.
             repellency n.  repellently adv.  [L repellere (as REPEL)]

   repent(1) v.  1 intr. (often foll. by of) feel deep sorrow about one's
             actions etc.  2 tr. (also absol.) wish one had not done, regret
             (one's wrong, omission, etc.); resolve not to continue (a
             wrongdoing etc.).  3 refl. (often foll. by of) archaic feel
             regret or penitence about (now I repent me).  ЬЬrepentance n.
             repentant adj.  repenter n.  [ME f. OF repentir (as RE-, pentir
             ult. f. L paenitere)]

   repent(2) adj.  Bot.  creeping, esp. growing along the ground or just
             under the surface.  [L repere creep]

   repeople  v.tr.  people again; increase the population of.

             n.  1 (often foll. by of) an indirect effect or reaction
             following an event or action (consider the repercussions of
             moving).  2 the recoil after impact.  3 an echo or
             reverberation.  ЬЬrepercussive adj.  [ME f. OF repercussion or L
             repercussio (as RE-, PERCUSSION)]

             n.  1 a stock of pieces etc. that a company or a performer knows
             or is prepared to give.  2 a stock of regularly performed
             pieces, regularly used techniques, etc. (went through his
             repertoire of excuses).  [F r‚pertoire f. LL (as REPERTORY)]

   repertory n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 = REPERTOIRE.  2 the theatrical performance of
             various plays for short periods by one company.  3 a a repertory
             company.  b repertory theatres regarded collectively.  4 a store
             or collection, esp. of information, instances, etc.  Ьrepertory
             company a theatrical company that performs plays from a
             repertoire.  [LL repertorium f. L reperire repert- find]

   repetend  n.  1 the recurring figures of a decimal.  2 the recurring word
             or phrase; a refrain.  [L repetendum (as REPEAT)]

             n.  1 a tutor or coach of musicians, esp. opera singers.  2 a
             person who supervises ballet rehearsals etc.  [F]

             n.  1 a the act or an instance of repeating or being repeated.
             b the thing repeated.  2 a copy or replica.  3 a piece to be
             learned by heart.  4 the ability of a musical instrument to
             repeat a note quickly.  ЬЬrepetitional adj.  repetitionary adj.
             [F r‚p‚tition or L repetitio (as REPEAT)]

             adj.  characterized by repetition, esp. when unnecessary or
             tiresome.  ЬЬrepetitiously adv.  repetitiousness n.

             adj.  = REPETITIOUS.  ЬЬrepetitively adv.  repetitiveness n.

   rephrase  v.tr.  express in an alternative way.

   repine    v.intr.  (often foll. by at, against) fret; be discontented.
             [RE- + PINE(2), after repent]

   repique   n. & v.  --n. (in piquet) the winning of 30 points on cards
             alone before beginning to play.  --v.  (repiques, repiqued,
             repiquing) 1 intr. score repique.  2 tr. score repique against
             (another person).  [F repic (as RE-, PIQUE(2))]

   replace   v.tr.  1 put back in place.  2 take the place of; succeed; be
             substituted for.  3 find or provide a substitute for.  4 (often
             foll. by with, by) fill up the place of.  5 (in passive, often
             foll. by by) be succeeded or have one's place filled by another;
             be superseded.  ЬЬreplaceable adj.  replacer n.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of replacing or being replaced.  2
             a person or thing that takes the place of another.

   replan    v.tr.  (replanned, replanning) plan again or differently.

   replant   v.tr.  1 transfer (a plant etc.) to a larger pot, a new site,
             etc.  2 plant (ground) again; provide with new plants.

   replay    v. & n.  --v.tr.  play (a match, recording, etc.) again.  --n.
             the act or an instance of replaying a match, a recording, or a
             recorded incident in a game etc.

   replenish v.tr.  1 (often foll. by with) fill up again.  2 renew (a supply
             etc.).  3 (as replenished adj.) filled; fully stored or stocked;
             full.  ЬЬreplenisher n.  replenishment n.  [ME f. OF replenir
             (as RE-, plenir f.  plein full f. L plenus)]

   replete   adj.  (often foll. by with) 1 filled or well-supplied with.  2
             stuffed; gorged; sated.  ЬЬrepleteness n.  repletion n.  [ME f.
             OF replet replete or L repletus past part. of replere (as RE-,
             plere plet- fill)]

   replevin  n.  Law 1 the provisional restoration or recovery of distrained
             goods pending the outcome of trial and judgement.  2 a writ
             granting this.  3 the action arising from this process.  [ME f.
             AF f. OF replevir (as REPLEVY)]

   replevy   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) Law recover by replevin.  [OF replevir
             recover f. Gmc]

   replica   n.  1 a duplicate of a work made by the original artist.  2 a
             facsimile, an exact copy.  3 a copy or model, esp. on a smaller
             scale.  [It. f.  replicare REPLY]

   replicate v., adj., & n.  --v.tr.  1 repeat (an experiment etc.).  2 make
             a replica of.  3 fold back.  --adj.  Bot. folded back on itself.
             --n.  Mus. a tone one or more octaves above or below the given
             tone.  ЬЬreplicable adj. (in sense 1 of v.).  replicability n.
             (in sense 1 of v.).  replicative adj.  [L replicare (as RE-,
             plicare fold)]

             n.  1 a reply or response, esp. a reply to an answer.  2 Law the
             plaintiff's reply to the defendant's plea.  3 a the act or an
             instance of copying.  b a copy.  c the process by which genetic
             material or a living organism gives rise to a copy of itself.
             [ME f. OF replicacion f. L replicatio -onis (as REPLICATE)]

   reply     v. & n.  --v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 intr. (often foll. by to) make an
             answer, respond in word or action.  2 tr. say in answer (he
             replied, 'Please yourself').  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the act of
             replying (what did they say in reply?).  2 what is replied; a
             response.  3 Law = REPLICATION.  Ьreply coupon a coupon
             exchangeable for stamps in any country for prepaying the reply
             to a letter.  reply paid 1 hist. (of a telegram) with the cost
             of a reply prepaid by the sender.  2 (of an envelope etc.) for
             which the addressee undertakes to pay postage.  ЬЬreplier n.
             [ME f. OF replier f. L (as REPLICATE)]

   repoint   v.tr.  point (esp. brickwork) again.

   repolish  v.tr.  polish again.

             v.tr.  populate again or increase the population of.
             ЬЬrepopulation n.

   report    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a bring back or give an account of.  b
             state as fact or news, narrate or describe or repeat, esp.  as
             an eyewitness or hearer etc.  c relate as spoken by another.  2
             tr. make an official or formal statement about.  3 tr. (often
             foll. by to) name or specify (an offender or offence) (shall
             report you for insubordination; reported them to the police).  4
             intr. (often foll. by to) present oneself to a person as having
             returned or arrived (report to the manager on arrival).  5 tr.
             (also absol.) take down word for word or summarize or write a
             description of for publication.  6 intr. make or draw up or send
             in a report.  7 intr. (often foll. by to) be responsible (to a
             superior, supervisor, etc.) (reports directly to the managing
             director).  8 tr.  Parl. (of a committee chairman) announce that
             the committee has dealt with (a bill).  9 intr. (often foll. by
             of) give a report to convey that one is well, badly, etc.
             impressed (reports well of the prospects).  --n.  1 an account
             given or opinion formally expressed after investigation or
             consideration.  2 a description, summary, or reproduction of a
             scene or speech or law case, esp. for newspaper publication or
             broadcast.  3 common talk; rumour.  4 the way a person or thing
             is spoken of (I hear a good report of you).  5 a periodical
             statement on (esp. a school pupil's) work, conduct, etc.  6 the
             sound of an explosion.  Ьreport back deliver a report to the
             person, organization, etc. for whom one acts etc.  reported
             speech the speaker's words with the changes of person, tense,
             etc. usual in reports, e.g.  he said that he would go (opp.
             direct speech).  report progress state what has been done so
             far.  report stage (in the UK) the debate on a bill in the House
             of Commons or House of Lords after it is reported.  ЬЬreportable
             adj.  reportedly adv.  [ME f. OF reporter f. L reportare (as
             RE-, portare bring)]

   reportage n.  1 the describing of events, esp. the reporting of news etc.
             for the press and for broadcasting.  2 the typical style of
             this.  3 factual presentation in a book etc.  [REPORT, after F]

   reporter  n.  1 a person employed to report news etc. for newspapers or
             broadcasts.  2 a person who reports.

             adj.  US of newspaper reporters.  ЬЬreportorially adv.
             [REPORTER, after editorial]

   repose(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 the cessation of activity or excitement or
             toil.  2 sleep.  3 a peaceful or quiescent state; stillness;
             tranquillity.  4 Art a restful effect; harmonious combination.
             5 composure or ease of manner.  --v.  1 intr. & refl. lie down
             in rest (reposed on a sofa).  2 tr. (often foll. by on) lay
             (one's head etc.) to rest (on a pillow etc.).  3 intr. (often
             foll. by in, on) lie, be lying or laid, esp. in sleep or death.
             4 tr. give rest to; refresh with rest.  5 intr. (foll. by on,
             upon) be supported or based on.  6 intr. (foll. by on) (of
             memory etc.) dwell on.  ЬЬreposal n.  reposeful adj.
             reposefully adv.  reposefulness n.  [ME f. OF repos(er) f. LL
             repausare (as RE-, pausare PAUSE)]

   repose(2) v.tr.  (foll. by in) place (trust etc.) in.  ЬЬreposal n.  [RE-
             + POSE(1) after L reponere reposit-]

             v.  1 tr. move or place in a different position.  2 intr. adjust
             or alter one's position.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a place where things are stored or may be
             found, esp. a warehouse or museum.  2 a receptacle.  3 (often
             foll. by of) a a book, person, etc. regarded as a store of
             information etc.  b the recipient of confidences or secrets.
             [obs. F repositoire or L repositorium (as REPOSE(2))]

   repossess v.tr.  regain possession of (esp. property or goods on which
             repayment of a debt is in arrears).  ЬЬrepossession n.
             repossessor n.

   repot     v.tr.  (repotted, repotting) put (a plant) in another, esp.
             larger, pot.

   repouss‚  adj. & n.  --adj. hammered into relief from the reverse side.
             --n. ornamental metalwork fashioned in this way.  [F, past part.
             of repousser (as RE-, pousser PUSH)]

   repp      var. of REP(3).

   repped    adj.  having a surface like rep.

   repr.     abbr.  1 represent, represented, etc.  2 reprint, reprinted.

   reprehend v.tr.  rebuke; blame; find fault with.  ЬЬreprehension n.  [ME
             f. L reprehendere (as RE-, prehendere seize)]

             adj.  deserving censure or rebuke; blameworthy.
             ЬЬreprehensibility n.  reprehensibly adv.  [LL reprehensibilis
             (as REPREHEND)]

   represent v.tr.  1 stand for or correspond to (the comment does not
             represent all our views).  2 (often in passive) be a specimen or
             example of; exemplify (all types of people were represented in
             the audience).  3 act as an embodiment of; symbolize (the
             sovereign represents the majesty of the State; numbers are
             represented by letters).  4 call up in the mind by description
             or portrayal or imagination; place a likeness of before the mind
             or senses.  5 serve or be meant as a likeness of.  6 a state by
             way of expostulation or persuasion (represented the rashness of
             it).  b (foll. by to) try to bring (the facts influencing
             conduct) home to (represented the risks to his client).  7
             (often foll. by as, to be) describe or depict as; declare or
             make out (represented them as martyrs; not what you represent it
             to be).  8 (foll. by that + clause) allege.  9 show, or play the
             part of, on stage.  10 fill the place of; be a substitute or
             deputy for; be entitled to act or speak for (the Queen was
             represented by the Princess of Wales).  11 be elected as a
             member of Parliament, a legislature, etc.  by (represents a
             rural constituency).  ЬЬrepresentable adj.  representability n.
             [ME f. OF representer or f. L repraesentare (as RE-,

             n.  1 the act or an instance of representing or being
             represented.  2 a thing (esp. a painting etc.) that represents
             another.  3 (esp. in pl.) a statement made by way of allegation
             or to convey opinion.  [ME f. OF representation or L
             repraesentatio (as REPRESENT)]

             adj.  of representation.  Ьrepresentational art art seeking to
             portray the physical appearance of a subject.
             ЬЬrepresentationalism n.  representationalist adj. & n.

             n.  the doctrine that perceived objects are only a
             representation of real external objects.  ЬЬrepresentationist n.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 typical of a class or category.  2
             containing typical specimens of all or many classes (a
             representative sample).  3 a consisting of elected deputies etc.
             b based on the representation of a nation etc. by such deputies
             (representative government).  4 (foll. by of) serving as a
             portrayal or symbol of (representative of their attitude to
             work).  5 that presents or can present ideas to the mind
             (imagination is a representative faculty).  --n.  1 (foll. by
             of) a sample, specimen, or typical embodiment or analogue of.  2
             a the agent of a person or society.  b a commercial traveller.
             3 a delegate; a substitute.  4 a deputy in a representative
             assembly.  5 (of art) representational.  ЬЬrepresentatively adv.
             representativeness n.  [ME f. OF representatif -ive or med.L
             repraesentativus (as REPRESENT)]

   repress   v.tr.  1 a check; restrain; keep under; quell.  b suppress;
             prevent from sounding, rioting, or bursting out.  2 Psychol.
             actively exclude (an unwelcome thought) from conscious
             awareness.  3 (usu. as repressed adj.) subject (a person) to the
             suppression of his or her thoughts or impulses.  ЬЬrepresser n.
             repressible adj.  repression n.  repressive adj.  repressively
             adv.  repressiveness n.  repressor n.  [ME f. L reprimere (as
             RE-, premere PRESS(1))]

   reprice   v.tr.  price again or differently.

   reprieve  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 remit, commute, or postpone the execution of
             (a condemned person).  2 give respite to.  --n.  1 a the act or
             an instance of reprieving or being reprieved.  b a warrant for
             this.  2 respite; a respite or temporary escape.  [ME as past
             part.  repryed f. AF & OF repris past part. of reprendre (as
             RE-, prendre f. L prehendere take): 16th-c.  -v- unexpl.]

   reprimand n. & v.  --n. (often foll. by for) an official or sharp rebuke
             (for a fault etc.).  --v.tr. administer this to.  [F
             r‚primande(r) f. Sp.  reprimenda f. L reprimenda neut. pl.
             gerundive of reprimere REPRESS]

   reprint   v. & n.  --v.tr.  print again.  --n.  1 the act or an instance
             of reprinting a book etc.  2 the book etc. reprinted.  3 the
             quantity reprinted.  ЬЬreprinter n.

   reprisal  n.  1 an act of retaliation.  2 hist. the forcible seizure of a
             foreign subject or his or her goods as an act of retaliation.
             [ME (in sense 2) f. AF reprisaille f. med.L reprisalia f.
             repraehensalia (as REPREHEND)]

   reprise   n.  1 a repeated passage in music.  2 a repeated item in a
             musical programme.  [F, fem. past part. of reprendre (see

   repro     n.  (pl.  -os) (often attrib.) a reproduction or copy.  [abbr.]

   reproach  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 express disapproval to (a person) for a
             fault etc.  2 scold; rebuke; censure.  3 archaic rebuke (an
             offence).  --n.  1 a rebuke or censure (heaped reproaches on
             them).  2 (often foll. by to) a thing that brings disgrace or
             discredit (their behaviour is a reproach to us all).  3 a
             disgraced or discredited state (live in reproach and ignominy).
             4 (in pl.) RC Ch. a set of antiphons and responses for Good
             Friday representing the reproaches of Christ to his people.
             Ьabove (or beyond) reproach perfect.  ЬЬreproachable adj.
             reproacher n.  reproachingly adv.  [ME f. OF reproche(r) f. Rmc
             (as RE-, L prope near)]

             adj.  full of or expressing reproach.  ЬЬreproachfully adv.
             reproachfulness n.

   reprobate n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 an unprincipled person; a person of
             highly immoral character.  2 a person who is condemned by God.
             --adj.  1 immoral.  2 hardened in sin.  --v.tr.  1 express or
             feel disapproval of; censure.  2 (of God) condemn; exclude from
             salvation.  ЬЬreprobation n.  [ME f. L reprobare reprobat-
             disapprove (as RE-, probare approve)]

   reprocess v.tr.  process again or differently.

   reproduce v.  1 tr. produce a copy or representation of.  2 tr. cause to
             be seen or heard etc. again (tried to reproduce the sound
             exactly).  3 intr. produce further members of the same species
             by natural means.  4 refl. produce offspring (reproduced itself
             several times).  5 intr. give a specified quality or result when
             copied (reproduces badly in black and white).  6 tr.  Biol. form
             afresh (a lost part etc. of the body).  ЬЬreproducer n.
             reproducible adj.  reproducibility n.  reproducibly adv.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of reproducing.  2 a copy of a work
             of art, esp. a print or photograph of a painting.  3 (attrib.)
             (of furniture etc.) made in imitation of a certain style or of
             an earlier period.  ЬЬreproductive adj.  reproductively adv.
             reproductiveness n.

   reprogram v.tr.  (also reprogramme) (reprogrammed, reprogramming; US
             reprogramed, reprograming) program (esp. a computer) again or
             differently.  ЬЬreprogramable adj.  (also reprogrammable).

             n.  the science and practice of copying documents by
             photography, xerography, etc.  ЬЬreprographer n.  reprographic
             adj.  reprographically adv.  [REPRODUCE + -GRAPHY]

             n.  1 blame (a glance of reproof).  2 a rebuke; words expressing
             blame.  [ME f. OF reprove f.  reprover REPROVE]

             v.tr.  1 render (a coat etc.) waterproof again.  2 make a fresh
             proof of (printed matter etc.).

   reprove   v.tr.  rebuke (a person, a person's conduct, etc.).
             ЬЬreprovable adj.  reprover n.  reprovingly adv.  [ME f. OF
             reprover f. LL reprobare disapprove: see REPROBATE]

   reptant   adj.  (of a plant or animal) creeping.  [L reptare reptant-
             frequent. of repere crawl]

   reptile   n. & adj.  --n.  1 any cold-blooded scaly animal of the class
             Reptilia, including snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles,
             tortoises, etc.  2 a mean, grovelling, or repulsive person.
             --adj.  1 (of an animal) creeping.  2 mean, grovelling.
             ЬЬreptilian adj. & n.  [ME f. LL reptilis f. L repere rept-

   republic  n.  1 a State in which supreme power is held by the people or
             their elected representatives or by an elected or nominated
             president, not by a monarch etc.  2 a society with equality
             between its members (the literary republic).  ЬRepublic Day the
             day on which the foundation of a republic is commemorated; in
             India 26 January.  [F r‚publique f. L respublica f.  res concern
             + publicus PUBLIC]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or constituted as a republic.  2
             characteristic of a republic.  3 advocating or supporting
             republican government.  --n.  1 a person advocating or
             supporting republican government.  2 (Republican) (in the US) a
             member or supporter of the Republican Party.  3 an advocate of a
             united Ireland.  ЬRepublican Party one of the two main US
             political parties, favouring only a moderate degree of central
             power (cf.  Democratic Party).  ЬЬrepublicanism n.

   republish v.tr.  (also absol.) publish again or in a new edition etc.
             ЬЬrepublication n.

   repudiate v.tr.  1 a disown; disavow; reject.  b refuse dealings with.  c
             deny.  2 refuse to recognize or obey (authority or a treaty).  3
             refuse to discharge (an obligation or debt).  4 (esp. of the
             ancients or non-Christians) divorce (one's wife).  ЬЬrepudiable
             adj.  repudiation n.  repudiator n.  [L repudiare f.  repudium

             n.  (also repugnancy) 1 (usu. foll. by to, against) antipathy;
             aversion.  2 (usu. foll. by of, between, to, with) inconsistency
             or incompatibility of ideas, statements, etc.  [ME (in sense 2)
             f. F r‚pugnance or L repugnantia f.  repugnare oppose (as RE-,
             pugnare fight)]

   repugnant adj.  1 (often foll. by to) extremely distasteful.  2 (often
             foll. by to) contradictory.  3 (often foll. by with)
             incompatible.  4 poet. refractory; resisting.  ЬЬrepugnantly
             adv.  [ME f. F r‚pugnant or L (as REPUGNANCE)]

   repulse   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 drive back (an attack or attacking enemy) by
             force of arms.  2 a rebuff (friendly advances or their maker).
             b refuse (a request or offer or its maker).  3 be repulsive to,
             repel.  4 foil in controversy.  --n.  1 the act or an instance
             of repulsing or being repulsed.  2 a rebuff.  [L repellere
             repuls- drive back (as REPEL)]

   repulsion n.  1 aversion; disgust.  2 esp. Physics the force by which
             bodies tend to repel each other or increase their mutual
             distance (opp.  ATTRACTION).  [LL repulsio (as REPEL)]

   repulsive adj.  1 causing aversion or loathing; loathsome, disgusting.  2
             Physics exerting repulsion.  3 archaic (of behaviour etc.) cold,
             unsympathetic.  ЬЬrepulsively adv.  repulsiveness n.  [F
             r‚pulsif -ive or f.  REPULSE]

             v. & n.  --v.tr. purchase again.  --n. the act or an instance of
             purchasing again.

   repurify  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) purify again.  ЬЬrepurification n.

   reputable adj.  of good repute; respectable.  ЬЬreputably adv.  [obs. F or
             f. med.L reputabilis (as REPUTE)]

             n.  1 what is generally said or believed about a person's or
             thing's character or standing (has a reputation for dishonesty).
             2 the state of being well thought of; distinction;
             respectability (have my reputation to think of).  3 (foll. by
             of, for + verbal noun) credit or discredit (has the reputation
             of driving hard bargains).  [ME f. L reputatio (as REPUTE)]

   repute    n. & v.  --n. reputation (known by repute).  --v.tr.  1 (as
             reputed adj.) (often foll. by to + infin.) be generally
             considered or reckoned (is reputed to be the best).  2 (as
             reputed adj.) passing as being, but probably not being (his
             reputed father).  ЬЬreputedly adv.  [ME f. OF reputer or L
             reputare (as RE-, putare think)]

   request   n. & v.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of asking for something;
             a petition (came at his request).  2 a thing asked for.  3 the
             state of being sought after; demand (in great request).  4 a
             letter etc. asking for a particular record etc. to be played on
             a radio programme, often with a personal message.  --v.tr.  1
             ask to be given or allowed or favoured with (request a hearing;
             requests your presence).  2 (foll. by to + infin.) ask a person
             to do something (requested her to answer).  3 (foll. by that +
             clause) ask that.  Ьby (or on) request in response to an
             expressed wish.  request programme a programme composed of items
             requested by the audience.  request stop a bus-stop at which a
             bus stops only on a passenger's request.  ЬЬrequester n.  [ME f.
             OF requeste(r) ult. f. L requaerere (as REQUIRE)]

   requiem   n.  1 (Requiem) (also attrib.) chiefly RC Ch. a mass for the
             repose of the souls of the dead.  2 Mus. the musical setting for
             this.  [ME f. accus. of L requies rest, the initial word of the

             n.  a wish or prayer for the repose of a dead person.  [L, = may
             he or she rest (in peace)]

   require   v.tr.  1 need; depend on for success or fulfilment (the work
             requires much patience).  2 lay down as an imperative (did all
             that was required by law).  3 command; instruct (a person etc.).
             4 order; insist on (an action or measure).  5 (often foll. by
             of, from, or that + clause) demand (of or from a person) as a
             right.  6 wish to have (is there anything else you require?).
             ЬЬrequirer n.  requirement n.  [ME f. OF requere ult. f. L
             requirere (as RE-, quaerere seek)]

   requisite adj. & n.  --adj. required by circumstances; necessary to
             success etc.  --n. (often foll. by for) a thing needed (for some
             purpose).  ЬЬrequisitely adv.  [ME f. L requisitus past part.
             (as REQUIRE)]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 an official order laying claim to the use of
             property or materials.  2 a formal written demand that some duty
             should be performed.  3 being called or put into service.
             --v.tr. demand the use or supply of, esp. by requisition order.
             Ьunder (or in) requisition being used or applied.
             ЬЬrequisitioner n.  requisitionist n.  [F r‚quisition or L
             requisitio (as REQUIRE)]

   requite   v.tr.  1 make return for (a service).  2 (often foll. by with)
             reward or avenge (a favour or injury).  3 (often foll. by for)
             make return to (a person).  4 (often foll. by for, with) repay
             with good or evil (requite like for like; requite hate with
             love).  ЬЬrequital n.  [RE- + quite var. of QUIT]

   reran     past of RERUN.

   reread    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  reread) read again.
             --n. an instance of reading again.  ЬЬre-readable adj.

   reredos   n.  Eccl.  an ornamental screen covering the wall at the back of
             an altar.  [ME f. AF f. OF areredos f.  arere behind + dos back:
             cf.  ARREARS]

             v. & n.  --v.tr. release (a record, film, etc.) again.  --n. a
             re-released record, film, etc.

   re-route  v.tr.  (-routeing) send or carry by a different route.

   rerun     v. & n.  --v.tr.  (rerunning; past reran; past part.  rerun) run
             (a race, film, etc.) again.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of
             rerunning.  2 a film etc. shown again.

   resale    n.  the sale of a thing previously bought.  Ьresale price
             maintenance a manufacturer's practice of setting a minimum
             resale price for goods.  ЬЬresalable adj.

   resat     past and past part. of RESIT.

             v.tr.  alter the schedule of; replan.

   rescind   v.tr.  abrogate, revoke, cancel.  ЬЬrescindable adj.
             rescindment n.  rescission n.  [L rescindere resciss- (as RE-,
             scindere cut)]

   rescript  n.  1 a Roman emperor's written reply to an appeal for guidance,
             esp. on a legal point.  2 RC Ch. the Pope's decision on a
             question of doctrine or papal law.  3 an official edict or
             announcement.  4 a the act or an instance of rewriting.  b the
             thing rewritten.  [L rescriptum, neut. past part. of rescribere
             rescript- (as RE-, scribere write)]

   rescue    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (rescues, rescued, rescuing) 1 (often foll. by
             from) save or set free or bring away from attack, custody,
             danger, or harm.  2 Law a unlawfully liberate (a person).  b
             forcibly recover (property).  --n. the act or an instance of
             rescuing or being rescued; deliverance.  Ьrescue bid Bridge a
             bid made to get one's partner out of a difficult situation.
             ЬЬrescuable adj.  rescuer n.  [ME rescowe f. OF rescoure f. Rmc,
             formed as RE- + L excutere (as EX-(1), quatere shake)]

   reseal    v.tr.  seal again.  ЬЬresealable adj.

   research  disp.  n. & v.  --n.  1 a the systematic investigation into and
             study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts
             and reach new conclusions.  b (usu. in pl.) an endeavour to
             discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study
             of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.  2
             (attrib.) engaged in or intended for research (research
             assistant).  --v.  1 tr. do research into or for.  2 intr. make
             researches.  Ьresearch and development (in industry etc.) work
             directed towards the innovation, introduction, and improvement
             of products and processes.  ЬЬresearchable adj.  researcher n.
             [obs. F recerche (as RE-, SEARCH)]

   reseat    v.tr.  1 (also refl.) seat (oneself, a person, etc.) again.  2
             provide with a fresh seat or seats.

   resect    v.tr.  Surgery 1 cut out part of (a lung etc.).  2 pare down
             (bone, cartilage, etc.).  ЬЬresection n.  resectional adj.
             resectionist n.  [L resecare resect- (as RE-, secare cut)]

   reseda    n.  1 any plant of the genus Reseda, with sweet-scented flowers,
             e.g. a mignonette.  2 also the pale green colour of mignonette
             flowers.  [L, perh. f. imper. of resedare assuage, with ref. to
             its supposed curative powers]

   reselect  v.tr.  select again or differently.  ЬЬreselection n.

   resell    v.tr.  (past and past part.  resold) sell (an object etc.) after
             buying it.

             n.  (often foll. by to, between, of) a likeness or similarity.
             ЬЬresemblant adj.  [ME f. AF (as RESEMBLE)]

   resemble  v.tr.  be like; have a similarity to, or features in common
             with, or the same appearance as.  ЬЬresembler n.  [ME f. OF
             resembler (as RE-, sembler f. L similare f.  similis like)]

   resent    v.tr.  show or feel indignation at; be aggrieved by (a
             circumstance, action, or person) (we resent being patronized).
             [obs. F resentir (as RE-, L sentire feel)]

   resentful adj.  feeling resentment.  ЬЬresentfully adv.  resentfulness n.

             n.  (often foll. by at, of) indignant or bitter feelings; anger.
             [It.  risentimento or F ressentiment (as RESENT)]

   reserpine n.  an alkaloid obtained from plants of the genus Rauwolfia,
             used as a tranquillizer and in the treatment of hypertension.
             [G Reserpin f. mod.L Rauwolfia (f. L.  Rauwolf, Ger. botanist d.
             1596) serpentina]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of reserving or being reserved.  2
             a booking (of a room, berth, seat, etc.).  3 the thing booked,
             e.g. a room in a hotel.  4 an express or tacit limitation or
             exception to an agreement etc. (had reservations about the
             plan).  5 Brit. a strip of land between the carriageways of a
             road.  6 an area of land reserved for occupation by American
             Indians, African Blacks, or Australian Aboriginals, etc.  7 a a
             right or interest retained in an estate being conveyed.  b the
             clause reserving this.  8 Eccl.  a the practice of retaining for
             some purpose a portion of the Eucharistic elements (esp. the
             bread) after celebration.  b RC Ch. the power of absolution
             reserved to a superior.  c RC Ch. the right reserved to the Pope
             of nomination to a vacant benefice.  [ME f. OF reservation or LL
             reservatio (as RESERVE)]

   reserve   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 postpone, put aside, keep back for a later
             occasion or special use.  2 order to be specially retained or
             allocated for a particular person or at a particular time.  3
             retain or secure, esp. by formal or legal stipulation (reserve
             the right to).  4 postpone delivery of (judgement etc.)
             (reserved my comments until the end).  --n.  1 a thing reserved
             for future use; an extra stock or amount (a great reserve of
             strength; huge energy reserves).  2 a limitation, qualification,
             or exception attached to something (accept your offer without
             reserve).  3 a self-restraint; reticence; lack of cordiality
             (difficult to overcome his reserve).  b (in artistic or literary
             expression) absence from exaggeration or ill-proportioned
             effects.  4 a company's profit added to capital.  5 (in sing. or
             pl.) assets kept readily available as cash or at a central bank,
             or as gold or foreign exchange (reserve currency).  6 (in sing.
             or pl.) a troops withheld from action to reinforce or protect
             others.  b forces in addition to the regular army, navy,
             airforce, etc., but available in an emergency.  7 a member of
             the military reserve.  8 an extra player chosen to be a possible
             substitute in a team.  9 a place reserved for special use, esp.
             as a habitat for a native tribe or for wildlife (game reserve;
             nature reserve).  10 the intentional suppression of the truth
             (exercised a certain amount of reserve).  11 (in the decoration
             of ceramics or textiles) an area which still has the original
             colour of the material or the colour of the background.  Ьin
             reserve unused and available if required.  reserve grade
             Austral.  a second-grade team.  reserve price the lowest
             acceptable price stipulated for an item sold at an auction.
             with all (or all proper) reserve without endorsing.
             ЬЬreservable adj.  reserver n.  [ME f. OF reserver f. L
             reservare (as RE-, servare keep)]

   re-serve  v.tr. & intr.  serve again.

   reserved  adj.  1 reticent; slow to reveal emotion or opinions;
             uncommunicative.  2 a set apart, destined for some use or fate.
             b (often foll. by for, to) left by fate for; falling first or
             only to.  Ьreserved occupation an occupation from which a person
             will not be taken for military service.  ЬЬreservedly adv.
             reservedness n.

   reservist n.  a member of the reserve forces.

   reservoir n.  1 a large natural or artificial lake used as a source of
             water supply.  2 a any natural or artificial receptacle esp. for
             or of fluid.  b a place where fluid etc. collects.  3 a part of
             a machine etc. holding fluid.  4 (usu. foll. by of) a reserve or
             supply esp. of information.  [F r‚servoir f.  r‚server RESERVE]

   reset     v.tr.  (resetting; past and past part.  reset) set (a broken
             bone, gems, a mechanical device, etc.) again or differently.
             ЬЬresettable adj.  resettability n.

   resettle  v.tr. & intr.  settle again.  ЬЬresettlement n.

   reshape   v.tr.  shape or form again or differently.

   reshuffle v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 shuffle (cards) again.  2 interchange the
             posts of (government ministers etc.).  --n. the act or an
             instance of reshuffling.

   reside    v.intr.  1 (often foll. by at, in, abroad, etc.) (of a person)
             have one's home, dwell permanently.  2 (of power, a right, etc.)
             rest or be vested in.  3 (of an incumbent official) be in
             residence.  4 (foll. by in) (of a quality) be present or
             inherent in.  [ME, prob. back-form. f.  RESIDENT infl. by F
             r‚sider or L residere (as RE-, sedere sit)]

   residence n.  1 the act or an instance of residing.  2 a the place where a
             person resides; an abode.  b a mansion; the official house of a
             government minister etc.  c a house, esp. one of considerable
             pretension (returned to their London residence).  Ьin residence
             dwelling at a specified place, esp. for the performance of
             duties or work.  [ME f. OF residence or med.L residentia f. L
             residere: see RESIDE]

   residency n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 = RESIDENCE 1, 2a.  2 US a period of
             specialized medical training; the position of a resident.  3
             hist. the official residence of the Governor-General's
             representative or other government agent at an Indian native
             court; the territory supervised by this official.  4 a
             musician's regular engagement at a club etc.  5 a group or
             organization of intelligence agents in a foreign country.

   resident  n. & adj.  --n.  1 (often foll. by of) a a permanent inhabitant
             (of a town or neighbourhood).  b a bird belonging to a species
             that does not migrate.  2 a guest in a hotel etc. staying
             overnight.  3 hist. a British government agent in any
             semi-independent State, esp.  the Governor-General's agent at an
             Indian native court.  4 US a medical graduate engaged in
             specialized practice under supervision in a hospital.  5 an
             intelligence agent in a foreign country.  --adj.  1 residing; in
             residence.  2 a having quarters on the premises of one's work
             etc. (resident housekeeper; resident doctor).  b working
             regularly in a particular place.  3 located in; inherent (powers
             of feeling are resident in the nerves).  4 (of birds etc.)
             non-migratory.  ЬЬresidentship n. (in sense 3 of n.).  [ME f. OF
             resident or L: see RESIDE]

             adj.  1 suitable for or occupied by private houses (residential
             area).  2 used as a residence (residential hotel).  3 based on
             or connected with residence (the residential qualification for
             voters; a residential course of study).  ЬЬresidentially adv.

             adj. & n.  --adj. of, subject to, or requiring, official
             residence.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) an ecclesiastic who must
             officially reside in a place.  [med.L residentiarius (as

   residua   pl. of RESIDUUM.

   residual  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 remaining; left as a residue or residuum.
             2 Math. resulting from subtraction.  3 (in calculation) still
             unaccounted for or not eliminated.  --n.  1 a quantity left over
             or Math. resulting from subtraction.  2 an error in calculation
             not accounted for or eliminated.  ЬЬresidually adv.

   residuary adj.  1 of the residue of an estate (residuary bequest).  2 of
             or being a residuum; residual; still remaining.

   residue   n.  1 what is left over or remains; a remainder; the rest.  2
             Law what remains of an estate after the payment of charges,
             debts, and bequests.  3 esp. Chem. a residuum.  [ME f. OF residu
             f. L residuum: see RESIDUUM]

   residuum  n.  (pl.  residua) 1 Chem. a substance left after combustion or
             evaporation.  2 a remainder or residue.  [L, neut. of residuus
             remaining f.  residere: see RESIDE]

   resign    v.  1 intr.  a (often foll. by from) give up office, one's
             employment, etc. (resigned from the Home Office).  b (often
             foll. by as) retire (resigned as chief executive).  2 tr. (often
             foll. by to, into) relinquish; surrender; hand over (a right,
             charge, task, etc.).  3 tr. give up (hope etc.).  4 refl. (usu.
             foll. by to) a reconcile (oneself, one's mind, etc.) to the
             inevitable (have resigned myself to the idea).  b surrender
             (oneself to another's guidance).  5 intr.  Chess etc.
             discontinue play and admit defeat.  ЬЬresigner n.  [ME f. OF
             resigner f. L resignare unseal, cancel (as RE-, signare sign,

   re-sign   v.tr. & intr.  sign again.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of resigning, esp. from one's job
             or office.  2 the document etc. conveying this intention.  3 the
             state of being resigned; the uncomplaining endurance of a sorrow
             or difficulty.  [ME f. OF f. med.L resignatio (as RESIGN)]

   resigned  adj.  (often foll. by to) having resigned oneself; submissive,
             acquiescent.  ЬЬresignedly adv.  resignedness n.

   resile    v.intr.  1 (of something stretched or compressed) recoil to
             resume a former size and shape; spring back.  2 have or show
             resilience or recuperative power.  3 (usu. foll. by from)
             withdraw from a course of action.  [obs. F resilir or L resilire
             (as RE-, salire jump)]

   resilient adj.  1 (of a substance etc.) recoiling; springing back;
             resuming its original shape after bending, stretching,
             compression, etc.  2 (of a person) readily recovering from
             shock, depression, etc.; buoyant.  ЬЬresilience n.  resiliency
             n.  resiliently adv.  [L resiliens resilient- (as RESILE)]

   resin     n. & v.  --n.  1 an adhesive inflammable substance insoluble in
             water, secreted by some plants, and often extracted by incision,
             esp. from fir and pine (cf.  GUM(1)).  2 (in full synthetic
             resin) a solid or liquid organic compound made by polymerization
             etc. and used in plastics etc.  --v.tr.  (resined, resining) rub
             or treat with resin.  ЬЬresinate n.  resinate v.tr.  resinoid
             adj. & n.  resinous adj.  [ME resyn, rosyn f. L resina & med.L
             rosina, rosinum]

   resist    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. withstand the action or effect of; repel.
             2 tr. stop the course or progress of; prevent from reaching,
             penetrating, etc.  3 tr. abstain from (pleasure, temptation,
             etc.).  4 tr. strive against; try to impede; refuse to comply
             with (resist arrest).  5 intr. offer opposition; refuse to
             comply.  --n. a protective coating of a resistant substance,
             applied esp.  to parts of calico that are not to take dye or to
             parts of pottery that are not to take glaze or lustre.  Ьcannot
             (or could not etc.) resist 1 (foll. by verbal noun) feel obliged
             or strongly inclined to (cannot resist teasing me about it).  2
             is certain to be amused, attracted, etc., by (can't resist
             children's clothes).  ЬЬresistant adj.  resister n.  resistible
             adj.  resistibility n.  [ME f. OF resister or L resistere (as
             RE-, sistere stop, redupl. of stare stand)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of resisting; refusal to comply.  2
             the power of resisting (showed resistance to wear and tear).  3
             Biol. the ability to withstand adverse conditions.  4 the
             impeding, slowing, or stopping effect exerted by one material
             thing on another.  5 Physics a the property of hindering the
             conduction of electricity, heat, etc.  b the measure of this in
             a body.  °Symb.: R.  6 a resistor.  7 (in full resistance
             movement) a secret organization resisting authority, esp. in an
             occupied country.  [ME f. F r‚sistance, r‚sistence f. LL
             resistentia (as RESIST)]

   resistive adj.  1 able to resist.  2 Electr. of or concerning resistance.

             n.  Electr.  a measure of the resisting power of a specified
             material to the flow of an electric current.

             adj.  archaic poet.  1 irresistible; relentless.  2 unresisting.
             ЬЬresistlessly adv.

   resistor  n.  Electr.  a device having resistance to the passage of an
             electrical current.

   resit     v. & n.  --v.tr.  (resitting; past and past part.  resat) sit
             (an examination) again after failing.  --n.  1 the act or an
             instance of resitting an examination.  2 an examination held
             specifically to enable candidates to resit.

   re-site   v.tr.  place on another site; relocate.

   resold    past and past part. of RESELL.

   resoluble adj.  1 that can be resolved.  2 (foll. by into) analysable.  [F
             r‚soluble or L resolubilis (as RESOLVE, after soluble)]

             adj.  that can be dissolved again.

   resolute  adj.  (of a person or a person's mind or action) determined;
             decided; firm of purpose; not vacillating.  ЬЬresolutely adv.
             resoluteness n.  [L resolutus past part. of resolvere (see

             n.  1 a resolute temper or character; boldness and firmness of
             purpose.  2 a thing resolved on; an intention (New Year's
             resolutions).  3 a a formal expression of opinion or intention
             by a legislative body or public meeting.  b the formulation of
             this (passed a resolution).  4 (usu. foll. by of) the act or an
             instance of solving doubt or a problem or question (towards a
             resolution of the difficulty).  5 a separation into components;
             decomposition.  b the replacing of a single force etc. by two or
             more jointly equivalent to it.  6 (foll. by into) analysis;
             conversion into another form.  7 Mus. the act or an instance of
             causing discord to pass into concord.  8 Physics etc. the
             smallest interval measurable by a scientific instrument; the
             resolving power.  9 Med. the disappearance of inflammation etc.
             without suppuration.  10 Prosody the substitution of two short
             syllables for one long.  [ME f. L resolutio (as RESOLVE)]

             adj.  Med.  having the power or ability to dissolve.
             Ьresolutive condition Law a condition whose fulfilment
             terminates a contract etc.  [med.L resolutivus (as RESOLVE)]

   resolve   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. make up one's mind; decide firmly
             (resolve to do better).  2 tr. (of circumstances etc.) cause (a
             person) to do this (events resolved him to leave).  3 tr. (foll.
             by that + clause) (of an assembly or meeting) pass a resolution
             by vote (the committee resolved that immediate action should be
             taken).  4 intr. & tr. (often foll. by into) separate or cause
             to separate into constituent parts; disintegrate; analyse;
             dissolve.  5 tr. (of optical or photographic equipment) separate
             or distinguish between closely adjacent objects.  6 tr. & intr.
             (foll. by into) convert or be converted.  7 tr. & intr. (foll.
             by into) reduce by mental analysis into.  8 tr. solve; explain;
             clear up; settle (doubt, argument, etc.).  9 tr. & intr.  Mus.
             convert or be converted into concord.  10 tr.  Med. remove
             (inflammation etc.) without suppuration.  11 tr.  Prosody
             replace (a long syllable) by two short syllables.  12 tr.  Mech.
             replace (a force etc.) by two or more jointly equivalent to it.
             --n.  1 a a firm mental decision or intention; a resolution
             (made a resolve not to go).  b US a formal resolution by a
             legislative body or public meeting.  2 resoluteness;
             steadfastness.  Ьresolving power an instrument's ability to
             distinguish very small or very close objects.  ЬЬresolvable adj.
             resolvability n.  resolver n.  [ME f. L resolvere resolut- (as
             RE-, SOLVE)]

   resolved  adj.  resolute, determined.  ЬЬresolvedly adv.  resolvedness n.

   resolvent adj. & n.  esp. Med.  --adj. (of a drug, application, substance,
             etc.) effecting the resolution of a tumour etc.  --n. such a
             drug etc.

   resonance n.  1 the reinforcement or prolongation of sound by reflection
             or synchronous vibration.  2 Mech. a condition in which an
             object or system is subjected to an oscillating force having a
             frequency close to its own natural frequency.  3 Chem. the
             property of a molecule having a structure best represented by
             two or more forms rather than a single structural formula.  4
             Physics a short-lived elementary particle that is an excited
             state of a more stable particle.  [OF f. L resonantia echo (as

   resonant  adj.  1 (of sound) echoing, resounding; continuing to sound;
             reinforced or prolonged by reflection or synchronous vibration.
             2 (of a body, room, etc.) tending to reinforce or prolong sounds
             esp. by synchronous vibration.  3 (often foll. by with) (of a
             place) resounding.  4 of or relating to resonance.  ЬЬresonantly
             adv.  [F r‚sonnant or L resonare resonant- (as RE-, sonare

   resonate  v.intr.  produce or show resonance; resound.  [L resonare
             resonat- (as RESONANT)]

   resonator n.  Mus.  1 an instrument responding to a single note and used
             for detecting it in combinations.  2 an appliance for giving
             resonance to sound or other vibrations.

   resorb    v.tr.  absorb again.  ЬЬresorbence n.  resorbent n.  [L
             resorbere resorpt- (as RE-, sorbere absorb)]

   resorcin  n.  = RESORCINOL.  [RESIN + ORCIN]

             n.  Chem.  a crystalline organic compound usu. made by synthesis
             and used in the production of dyes, drugs, resins, etc.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of resorbing; the state of being
             resorbed.  2 the absorption of tissue within the body.
             ЬЬresorptive adj.  [RESORB after absorption]

   resort    n. & v.  --n.  1 a place frequented esp. for holidays or for a
             specified purpose or quality (seaside resort; health resort).  2
             a a thing to which one has recourse; an expedient or measure (a
             taxi was our best resort).  b (foll. by to) recourse to; use of
             (without resort to violence).  3 a tendency to frequent or be
             frequented (places of great resort).  --v.intr.  1 (foll. by to)
             turn to as an expedient (resorted to threats).  2 (foll. by to)
             go often or in large numbers to.  Ьin the (or as a) last resort
             when all else has failed.  ЬЬresorter n.  [ME f. OF resortir (as
             RE-, sortir come or go out)]

   re-sort   v.tr.  sort again or differently.

   resound   v.  1 intr. (often foll. by with) (of a place) ring or echo (the
             hall resounded with laughter).  2 intr. (of a voice, instrument,
             sound, etc.) produce echoes; go on sounding; fill the place with
             sound.  3 intr.  a (of fame, a reputation, etc.) be much talked
             of.  b (foll. by through) produce a sensation (the call
             resounded through Europe).  4 tr. (often foll. by of) proclaim
             or repeat loudly (the praises) of a person or thing (resounded
             the praises of Greece).  5 tr. (of a place) re-echo (a sound).
             [ME f.  RE- + SOUND(1) v., after OF resoner or L resonare: see

             adj.  1 in senses of RESOUND.  2 unmistakable; emphatic (was a
             resounding success).  ЬЬresoundingly adv.

   resource  n.  1 an expedient or device (escape was their only resource).
             2 (usu. in pl.) a the means available to achieve an end, fulfil
             a function, etc.  b a stock or supply that can be drawn on.  c
             US available assets.  3 (in pl.) a country's collective wealth
             or means of defence.  4 a leisure occupation (reading is a great
             resource).  5 a skill in devising expedients (a person of great
             resource).  b practical ingenuity; quick wit (full of resource).
             6 archaic the possibility of aid (lost without resource).
             Ьone's own resources one's own abilities, ingenuity, etc.
             ЬЬresourceful adj.  resourcefully adv.  resourcefulness n.
             resourceless adj.  resourcelessness n.  [F ressource, ressourse,
             fem. past part. of OF dial.  resourdre (as RE-, L surgere rise)]

   respect   n. & v.  --n.  1 deferential esteem felt or shown towards a
             person or quality.  2 a (foll. by of, for) heed or regard.  b
             (foll. by to) attention to or consideration of (without respect
             to the results).  3 an aspect, detail, particular, etc. (correct
             except in this one respect).  4 reference, relation (a morality
             that has no respect to religion).  5 (in pl.) a person's polite
             messages or attentions (give my respects to your mother).
             --v.tr.  1 regard with deference, esteem, or honour.  2 a avoid
             interfering with, harming, degrading, insulting, injuring, or
             interrupting.  b treat with consideration.  c refrain from
             offending, corrupting, or tempting (a person, a person's
             feelings, etc.).  Ьin respect of as concerns; with reference to.
             in respect that because.  with (or with all due) respect a
             mollifying formula preceding an expression of one's disagreement
             with another's views.  ЬЬrespecter n.  [ME f. OF respect or L
             respectus f.  respicere (as RE-, specere look at) or f.
             respectare frequent. of respicere]

             n.  1 the state of being respectable.  2 those who are

             adj.  1 deserving respect.  2 a of fair social standing.  b
             having the qualities necessary for such standing.  3 honest and
             decent in conduct etc.  4 of some merit or importance.  5
             tolerable, passable, fairly good or competent (a respectable
             try).  6 (of activities, clothes, etc.) presentable; befitting a
             respectable person.  7 reasonably good in condition or
             appearance.  8 appreciable in number, size, amount, etc.  9
             primly conventional.  ЬЬrespectably adv.

             adj.  showing deference (stood at a respectful distance).
             ЬЬrespectfully adv.  respectfulness n.

             prep.  with reference or regard to; concerning.

             adj.  concerning or appropriate to each of several individually;
             proper to each (go to your respective places).  [F respectif
             -ive f. med.L respectivus (as RESPECT)]

             adv.  for each separately or in turn, and in the order mentioned
             (she and I gave њ10 and њ1 respectively).

   respell   v.tr.  (past and past part.  respelt or respelled) spell again
             or differently, esp. phonetically.

             adj.  (of air, gas, etc.) able or fit to be breathed.  [F
             respirable or LL respirabilis (as RESPIRE)]

   respirate v.tr.  subject to artificial respiration.  [back-form. f.

             n.  1 a the act or an instance of breathing.  b a single
             inspiration or expiration; a breath.  2 Biol. in living
             organisms, the process involving the release of energy and
             carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances.
             [ME f. F respiration or L respiratio (as RESPIRE)]

             n.  1 an apparatus worn over the face to prevent poison gas,
             cold air, dust particles, etc., from being inhaled.  2 Med. an
             apparatus for maintaining artificial respiration.

   respire   v.  1 intr. breathe air.  2 intr. inhale and exhale air.  3
             intr. (of a plant) carry out respiration.  4 tr. breathe (air
             etc.).  5 intr. breathe again; take a breath.  6 intr. get rest
             or respite; recover hope or spirit.  ЬЬrespiratory adj.  [ME f.
             OF respirer or f. L respirare (as RE-, spirare breathe)]

   respite   n. & v.  --n.  1 an interval of rest or relief.  2 a delay
             permitted before the discharge of an obligation or the suffering
             of a penalty.  --v.tr.  1 grant respite to; reprieve (a
             condemned person).  2 postpone the execution or exaction of (a
             sentence, obligation, etc.).  3 give temporary relief from (pain
             or care) or to (a sufferer).  [ME f. OF respit f. L respectus

             adj.  brilliant, dazzlingly or gloriously bright.
             ЬЬresplendence n.  resplendency n.  resplendently adv.  [ME f. L
             resplendere (as RE-, splendere glitter)]

   respond   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. answer, give a reply.  2 intr. act or
             behave in an answering or corresponding manner.  3 intr. (usu.
             foll. by to) show sensitiveness to by behaviour or change (does
             not respond to kindness).  4 intr. (of a congregation) make
             answers to a priest etc.  5 intr.  Bridge make a bid on the
             basis of a partner's preceding bid.  6 tr. say (something) in
             answer.  --n.  1 Archit. a half-pillar or half-pier attached to
             a wall to support an arch, esp. at the end of an arcade.  2
             Eccl. a responsory; a response to a versicle.  ЬЬrespondence n.
             respondency n.  responder n.  [ME f. OF respondre answer ult. f.
             L respondere respons- answer (as RE-, spondere pledge)]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a defendant, esp. in an appeal or divorce
             case.  2 a person who makes an answer or defends an argument
             etc.  --adj.  1 making answer.  2 (foll. by to) responsive.  3
             in the position of defendant.

   response  n.  1 an answer given in word or act; a reply.  2 a feeling,
             movement, change, etc., caused by a stimulus or influence.  3
             (often in pl.) Eccl. any part of the liturgy said or sung in
             answer to the priest; a responsory.  4 Bridge a bid made in
             responding.  [ME f. OF respons(e) or L responsum neut. past
             part. of respondere RESPOND]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a (often foll. by for, of) the state or fact
             of being responsible (refuses all responsibility for it; will
             take the responsibility of doing it).  b authority; the ability
             to act independently and make decisions (a job with more
             responsibility).  2 the person or thing for which one is
             responsible (the food is my responsibility).  Ьon one's own
             responsibility without authorization.

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to, for) liable to be called to account
             (to a person or for a thing).  2 morally accountable for one's
             actions; capable of rational conduct.  3 of good credit,
             position, or repute; respectable; evidently trustworthy.  4
             (often foll. by for) being the primary cause (a short circuit
             was responsible for the power failure).  5 (of a ruler or
             government) not autocratic.  6 involving responsibility (a
             responsible job).  ЬЬresponsibleness n.  responsibly adv.  [obs.
             F f. L respondere: see RESPOND]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to) responding readily (to some
             influence).  2 sympathetic; impressionable.  3 a answering.  b
             by way of answer.  4 (of a liturgy etc.) using responses.
             ЬЬresponsively adv.  responsiveness n.  [F responsif -ive or LL
             responsivus (as RESPOND)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) an anthem said or sung by a soloist and choir
             after a lesson.  [ME f. LL responsorium (as RESPOND)]

   respray   v. & n.  --v.tr.  spray again (esp. to change the colour of the
             paint on a vehicle).  --n.  the act or an instance of

   rest(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. cease, abstain, or be relieved from
             exertion, action, movement, or employment; be tranquil.  2 intr.
             be still or asleep, esp. to refresh oneself or recover strength.
             3 tr. give relief or repose to; allow to rest (a chair to rest
             my legs).  4 intr. (foll. by on, upon, against) lie on; be
             supported by; be spread out on; be propped against.  5 intr.
             (foll. by on, upon) depend, be based, or rely on.  6 intr.
             (foll. by on, upon) (of a look) alight or be steadily directed
             on.  7 tr. (foll. by on, upon) place for support or foundation.
             8 intr. (of a problem or subject) be left without further
             investigation or discussion (let the matter rest).  9 intr.  a
             lie in death.  b (foll. by in) lie buried in (a churchyard
             etc.).  10 tr. (as rested adj.) refreshed or reinvigorated by
             resting.  11 intr.  US conclude the calling of witnesses in a
             law case (the prosecution rests).  12 intr. (of land) lie
             fallow.  13 intr. (foll. by in) repose trust in (am content to
             rest in God).  --n.  1 repose or sleep, esp. in bed at night
             (get a good night's rest).  2 freedom from or the cessation of
             exertion, worry, activity, etc. (give the subject a rest).  3 a
             period of resting (take a 15-minute rest).  4 a support or prop
             for holding or steadying something.  5 Mus.  a an interval of
             silence of a specified duration.  b the sign denoting this.  6 a
             place of resting or abiding, esp. a lodging place or shelter
             provided for sailors, cabmen, etc.  7 a pause in elocution.  8 a
             caesura in verse.  Ьat rest not moving; not agitated or
             troubled; dead.  be resting Brit.  euphem.  (of an actor) be out
             of work.  rest-baulk a ridge left unploughed between furrows.
             rest one's case conclude one's argument etc.  rest-cure a rest
             usu. of some weeks as a medical treatment.  rest-day 1 a day
             spent in rest.  2 = day of rest.  rest (or God rest) his (or
             her) soul may God grant his (or her) soul repose.  rest-home a
             place where old or frail people can be cared for.  rest-house
             Ind.  a house for travellers to rest in.  resting-place a place
             provided or used for resting.  rest mass Physics the mass of a
             body when at rest.  rest on one's laurels see LAUREL.  rest on
             one's oars see OAR.  rest room esp.  US a public lavatory in a
             factory, shop, etc.  rest up US rest oneself thoroughly.  set at
             rest settle or relieve (a question, a person's mind, etc.).
             ЬЬrester n.  [OE r‘st, rest (n.), r‘stan, restan (v.)]

   rest(2)   n. & v.  --n. (prec. by the) 1 the remaining part or parts; the
             others; the remainder of some quantity or number (finish what
             you can and leave the rest).  2 Brit.  Econ. the reserve fund,
             esp. of the Bank of England.  3 hist. a rally in tennis.
             --v.intr.  1 remain in a specified state (rest assured).  2
             (foll. by with) be left in the hands or charge of (the final
             arrangements rest with you).  Ьand all the rest (or the rest of
             it) and all else that might be mentioned; etcetera.  for the
             rest as regards anything else.  [ME f. OF reste rester f. L
             restare (as RE-, stare stand)]

   restart   v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  begin again.  --n.  a new beginning.

   restate   v.tr.  express again or differently, esp. more clearly or
             convincingly.  ЬЬrestatement n.

             n.  public premises where meals or refreshments may be had.
             Ьrestaurant car Brit.  a dining-car on a train.  [F f.
             restaurer RESTORE]

             n.  a restaurant-keeper.  [F (as RESTAURANT)]

   restful   adj.  1 favourable to quiet or repose.  2 free from disturbing
             influences.  3 soothing.  ЬЬrestfully adv.  restfulness n.

             n.  any tough-rooted plant of the genus Ononis, native to Europe
             and the Mediterranean.  [obs.  rest (v.) = ARREST (in sense
             'stop') + HARROW]

             n.  1 (often foll. by of) the act or an instance of restoring a
             thing to its proper owner.  2 reparation for an injury ( esp.
             make restitution).  3 esp. Theol. the restoration of a thing to
             its original state.  4 the resumption of an original shape or
             position because of elasticity.  ЬЬrestitutive adj.  [ME f. OF
             restitution or L restitutio f.  restituere restitut- restore (as
             RE-, statuere establish)]

   restive   adj.  1 fidgety; restless.  2 (of a horse) refusing to advance,
             stubbornly standing still or moving backwards or sideways;
             jibbing; refractory.  3 (of a person) unmanageable; rejecting
             control.  ЬЬrestively adv.  restiveness n.  [ME f. OF restif
             -ive f. Rmc (as REST(2))]

   restless  adj.  1 finding or affording no rest.  2 uneasy; agitated.  3
             constantly in motion, fidgeting, etc.  ЬЬrestlessly adv.
             restlessness n.  [OE restleas (as REST, -LESS)]

   restock   v.tr.  (also absol.) stock again or differently.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of restoring or being restored.  2
             a model or drawing representing the supposed original form of an
             extinct animal, ruined building, etc.  3 a the re-establishment
             of a monarch etc.  b the period of this.  4 (Restoration) hist.
             a (prec. by the) the re-establishment of Charles II as king of
             England in 1660.  b (often attrib.) the literary period
             following this (Restoration comedy).  [17th-c. alt. (after
             RESTORE) of restauration, ME f. OF restauration or LL
             restauratio (as RESTORE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. tending to restore health or strength.  --n. a
             restorative medicine, food, etc. (needs a restorative).
             ЬЬrestoratively adv.  [ME var. of obs.  restaurative f. OF
             restauratif -ive (as RESTORE)]

   restore   v.tr.  1 bring back or attempt to bring back to the original
             state by rebuilding, repairing, repainting, emending, etc.  2
             bring back to health etc.; cure.  3 give back to the original
             owner etc.; make restitution of.  4 reinstate; bring back to
             dignity or right.  5 replace; put back; bring back to a former
             condition.  6 make a representation of the supposed original
             state of (a ruin, extinct animal, etc.).  7 reinstate by
             conjecture (missing words in a text, missing pieces, etc.).
             ЬЬrestorable adj.  restorer n.  [ME f. OF restorer f. L

   restrain  v.tr.  1 (often refl., usu. foll. by from) check or hold in;
             keep in check or under control or within bounds.  2 repress;
             keep down.  3 confine; imprison.  ЬЬrestrainable adj.
             restrainer n.  [ME f. OF restrei(g)n- stem of restreindre f. L
             restringere restrict- (as RE-, stringere tie)]

   re-strain v.tr.  strain again.

             adv.  with self-restraint.

   restraint n.  1 the act or an instance of restraining or being restrained.
             2 a stoppage; a check; a controlling agency or influence.  3 a
             self-control; avoidance of excess or exaggeration.  b austerity
             of literary expression.  4 reserve of manner.  5 confinement,
             esp. because of insanity.  6 something which restrains or holds
             in check.  Ьin restraint of in order to restrain.  restraint of
             trade action seeking to interfere with free-market conditions.
             [ME f. OF restreinte fem. past part. of restreindre: see

   restrict  v.tr.  (often foll. by to, within) 1 confine, bound, limit
             (restricted parking; restricted them to five days a week).  2
             subject to limitation.  3 withhold from general circulation or
             disclosure.  Ьrestricted area 1 Brit. an area in which there is
             a special speed limit for vehicles.  2 US an area which military
             personnel are not allowed to enter.  ЬЬrestrictedly adv.
             restrictedness n.  [L restringere: see RESTRAIN]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of restricting; the state of being
             restricted.  2 a thing that restricts.  3 a limitation placed on
             action.  ЬЬrestrictionist adj. & n.  [ME f. OF restriction or L
             restrictio (as RESTRICT)]

             adj.  imposing restrictions.  Ьrestrictive clause Gram.  a
             relative clause, usu. without surrounding commas.  restrictive
             practice Brit.  an agreement to limit competition or output in
             industry.  ЬЬrestrictively adv.  restrictiveness n.  [ME f. OF
             restrictif -ive or med.L restrictivus (as RESTRICT)]

   restring  v.tr.  (past and past part.  restrung) 1 fit (a musical
             instrument) with new strings.  2 thread (beads etc.) on a new

             v.tr.  give a new structure to; rebuild; rearrange.

   restudy   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) study again.

   restyle   v.tr.  1 reshape; remake in a new style.  2 give a new
             designation to (a person or thing).

   result    n. & v.  --n.  1 a consequence, issue, or outcome of something.
             2 a satisfactory outcome; a favourable result (gets results).  3
             a quantity, formula, etc., obtained by calculation.  4 (in pl.)
             a list of scores or winners etc. in an examination or sporting
             event.  --v.intr.  1 (often foll. by from) arise as the actual
             consequence or follow as a logical consequence (from conditions,
             causes, etc.).  2 (often foll. by in) have a specified end or
             outcome (resulted in a large profit).  Ьwithout result in vain;
             fruitless.  ЬЬresultful adj.  resultless adj.  [ME f. med.L
             resultare f. L (as RE-, saltare frequent. of salire jump)]

   resultant adj. & n.  --adj. resulting, esp. as the total outcome of more
             or less opposed forces.  --n.  Math. a force etc. equivalent to
             two or more acting in different directions at the same point.

   resume    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. begin again or continue after an
             interruption.  2 tr. & intr. begin to speak, work, or use again;
             recommence.  3 tr. get back; take back; recover; reoccupy
             (resume one's seat).  --n. = RђSUMђ.  ЬЬresumable adj.  [ME f.
             OF resumer or L resumere resumpt- (as RE-, sumere take)]

   r‚sum‚    n.  1 a summary.  2 US a curriculum vitae.  [F past part. of
             r‚sumer (as RESUME)]

             n.  the act or an instance of resuming (ready for the resumption
             of negotiations).  ЬЬresumptive adj.  [ME f. OF resumption or LL
             resumptio (as RESUME)]

             adj.  (of a leaf etc.) upside down.  [L resupinatus past part.
             of resupinare bend back: see SUPINE]

   resurface v.  1 tr. lay a new surface on (a road etc.).  2 intr. rise or
             arise again; turn up again.

   resurgent adj.  1 rising or arising again.  2 tending to rise again.
             ЬЬresurgence n.  [L resurgere resurrect- (as RE-, surgere rise)]

   resurrect v.  1 tr.  colloq. revive the practice, use, or memory of.  2
             tr. take from the grave; exhume.  3 tr. dig up.  4 tr. & intr.
             raise or rise from the dead.  [back-form. f.  RESURRECTION]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of rising from the dead.  2
             (Resurrection) a Christ's rising from the dead.  b the rising of
             the dead at the Last Judgement.  3 a revival after disuse,
             inactivity, or decay.  4 exhumation.  5 the unearthing of a lost
             or forgotten thing; restoration to vogue or memory.
             Ьresurrection plant any of various plants, including clubmosses
             of the genus Selaginella and the Rose of Jericho, unfolding when
             moistened after being dried.  ЬЬresurrectional adj.  [ME f. OF
             f. LL resurrectio -onis (as RESURGENT)]

   resurvey  v. & n.  --v.tr.  survey again; reconsider.  --n.  the act or an
             instance of resurveying.

             v.tr. & intr.  1 revive from unconsciousness or apparent death.
             2 return or restore to vogue, vigour, or vividness.
             ЬЬresuscitation n.  resuscitative adj.  resuscitator n.  [L
             resuscitare (as RE-, suscitare raise)]

   ret       v.  (also rate) (retted, retting) 1 tr. soften (flax, hemp,
             etc.) by soaking or by exposure to moisture.  2 intr. (often as
             retted adj.) (of hay etc.) be spoilt by wet or rot.  [ME, rel.
             to ROT]

   ret.      abbr.  retired; returned.

   retable   n.  1 a frame enclosing decorated panels above the back of an
             altar.  2 a shelf.  [F r‚table, retable f. Sp.  retablo f. med.L
             retrotabulum rear table (as RETRO-, TABLE)]

   retail    n., adj., adv., & v.  --n. the sale of goods in relatively small
             quantities to the public, and usu. not for resale (cf.
             WHOLESALE).  --adj. & adv. by retail; at a retail price (do you
             buy wholesale or retail?).  --v.  also 1 tr. sell (goods) in
             retail trade.  2 intr. (often foll. by at, of) (of goods) be
             sold in this way (esp. for a specified price) (retails at
             њ4.95).  3 tr. recount; relate details of.  Ьretail price index
             an index of the variation in the prices of retail goods.
             ЬЬretailer n.  [ME f. OF retaille a piece cut off f.  retaillier
             (as RE-, TAIL(2))]

   retain    v.tr.  1 a keep possession of; not lose; continue to have,
             practise, or recognize.  b not abolish, discard, or alter.  2
             keep in one's memory.  3 keep in place; hold fixed.  4 secure
             the services of (a person, esp. a barrister) with a preliminary
             payment.  Ьretaining fee a fee paid to secure a person, service,
             etc.  retaining wall a wall supporting and confining a mass of
             earth or water.  ЬЬretainable adj.  retainability n.  retainment
             n.  [ME f. AF retei(g)n- f. stem of OF retenir ult. f. L
             retinere retent- (as RE-, tenere hold)]

   retainer  n.  1 a person or thing that retains.  2 Law a fee for retaining
             a barrister etc.  3 a hist. a dependant or follower of a person
             of rank.  b joc. an old and faithful friend or servant ( esp.
             old retainer).  4 Brit. a reduced rent paid to retain
             accommodation during a period of non-occupancy.

   retake    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past retook; past part.  retaken) 1 take
             again.  2 recapture.  --n.  1 a the act or an instance of
             retaking.  b a thing retaken, e.g. an examination.  2 a the act
             or an instance of filming a scene or recording music etc. again.
             b the scene or recording obtained in this way.

   retaliate v.  1 intr. repay an injury, insult, etc., in kind; attack in
             return; make reprisals.  2 tr.  a (usu. foll. by upon) cast (an
             accusation) back upon a person.  b repay (an injury or insult)
             in kind.  ЬЬretaliation n.  retaliative adj.  retaliator n.
             retaliatory adj.  [L retaliare (as RE-, talis such)]

   retard    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 make slow or late.  2 delay the progress,
             development, arrival, or accomplishment of.  --n. retardation.
             Ьin retard delayed, in the rear.  ЬЬretardant adj. & n.
             retardation n.  retardative adj.  retardatory adj.  retarder n.
             retardment n.  [F retarder f. L retardare (as RE-, tardus slow)]

   retardate adj. & n.  US --adj. mentally retarded.  --n. a mentally
             retarded person.  [L retardare: see RETARD]

   retarded  adj.  backward in mental or physical development.

   retch     v. & n.  --v.intr. make a motion of vomiting esp. involuntarily
             and without effect.  --n. such a motion or the sound of it.
             [var. of (now dial.)  reach f. OE hr‘can spit, ON hr‘kja f. Gmc,
             of imit. orig.]

   retd.     abbr.  1 retired.  2 returned.

   rete      n.  (pl.  retia) Anat.  an elaborate network or plexus of blood
             vessels and nerve cells.  [L rete net]

   reteach   v.tr.  (past and past part.  retaught) teach again or

   retell    v.tr.  (past and past part.  retold) tell again or in a
             different version.

   retention n.  1 a the act or an instance of retaining; the state of being
             retained.  b the ability to retain things experienced or
             learned; memory.  2 Med. the failure to evacuate urine or
             another secretion.  [ME f. OF retention or L retentio (as

   retentive adj.  1 (often foll. by of) tending to retain (moisture etc.).
             2 (of memory or a person) not forgetful.  3 Surgery (of a
             ligature etc.) serving to keep something in place.
             ЬЬretentively adv.  retentiveness n.  [ME f. OF retentif -ive or
             med.L retentivus (as RETAIN)]

   retexture v.tr.  treat (material, a garment, etc.) so as to restore its
             original texture.

   rethink   v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  rethought) think about
             (something) again, esp. with a view to making changes.  --n.  a
             reassessment; a period of rethinking.

   retia     pl. of RETE.

   retiarius n.  (pl.  retiarii) a Roman gladiator using a net to trap his
             opponent.  [L f.  rete net]

   reticence n.  1 the avoidance of saying all one knows or feels, or of
             saying more than is necessary; reserve in speech.  2 a
             disposition to silence; taciturnity.  3 the act or an instance
             of holding back some fact.  4 abstinence from overemphasis in
             art.  ЬЬreticent adj.  reticently adv.  [L reticentia f.
             reticere (as RE-, tacere be silent)]

   reticle   n.  a network of fine threads or lines in the focal plane of an
             optical instrument to help accurate observation.  [L reticulum:
             see RETICULUM]

   reticula  pl. of RETICULUM.

             v. & adj.  --v.tr. & intr.  1 divide or be divided in fact or
             appearance into a network.  2 arrange or be arranged in small
             squares or with intersecting lines.  --adj.  reticulated.
             ЬЬreticulately adv.  reticulation n.  [L reticulatus reticulated
             (as RETICULUM)]

   reticule  n.  1 = RETICLE.  2 usu.  hist. a woman's netted or other bag,
             esp. with a drawstring, carried or worn to serve the purpose of
             a pocket.  [F r‚ticule f. L (as RETICULUM)]

   reticulum n.  (pl.  reticula) 1 a netlike structure; a fine network, esp.
             of membranes etc.  in living organisms.  2 a ruminant's second
             stomach.  ЬЬreticular adj.  reticulose adj.  [L, dimin. of rete

   retie     v.tr.  (retying) tie again.

   retiform  adj.  netlike, reticulated.  [L rete net + -FORM]

   retina    n.  (pl.  retinas, retinae) a layer at the back of the eyeball
             sensitive to light, and triggering nerve impulses via the optic
             nerve to the brain where the visual image is formed.  ЬЬretinal
             adj.  [ME f. med.L f. L rete net]

   retinitis n.  inflammation of the retina.

   retinol   n.  a vitamin found in green and yellow vegetables, egg-yolk,
             and fish-liver oil, essential for growth and vision in dim
             light. Also called vitamin A.  [RETINA + -OL(1)]

   retinue   n.  a body of attendants accompanying an important person.  [ME
             f. OF retenue fem. past part. of retenir RETAIN]

   retiral   n.  esp.  Sc.  retirement from office etc.

   retire    v.  1 a intr. leave office or employment, esp. because of age
             (retire from the army; retire on a pension).  b tr. cause (a
             person) to retire from work.  2 intr. withdraw; go away;
             retreat.  3 intr. seek seclusion or shelter.  4 intr. go to bed.
             5 tr. withdraw (troops).  6 intr. & tr.  Cricket (of a batsman)
             voluntarily end or be compelled to suspend one's innings
             (retired hurt).  7 tr.  Econ. withdraw (a bill or note) from
             circulation or currency.  Ьretire from the world become a
             recluse.  retire into oneself become uncommunicative or
             unsociable.  retiring age the age at which most people normally
             retire from work.  ЬЬretirer n.  [F retirer (as RE-, tirer

   retired   adj.  1 a having retired from employment (a retired teacher).  b
             relating to a retired person (received retired pay).  2
             withdrawn from society or observation; secluded (lives a retired
             life).  ЬЬretiredness n.

             n.  1 a the act or an instance of retiring.  b the condition of
             having retired.  2 a seclusion or privacy.  b a secluded place.
             Ьretirement pension Brit.  a pension paid by the State to
             retired people above a certain age.

   retiring  adj.  shy; fond of seclusion.  ЬЬretiringly adv.

   retold    past and past part. of RETELL.

   retook    past of RETAKE.

   retool    v.tr.  equip (a factory etc.) with new tools.

   retort(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 an incisive or witty or angry reply.  2 the
             turning of a charge or argument against its originator.  3 a
             piece of retaliation.  --v.  1 a tr. say by way of a retort.  b
             intr. make a retort.  2 tr. repay (an insult or attack) in kind.
             3 tr. (often foll. by on, upon) return (mischief, a charge,
             sarcasm, etc.) to its originator.  4 tr. (often foll. by
             against) make (an argument) tell against its user.  5 tr. (as
             retorted adj.) recurved; twisted or bent backwards.  [L
             retorquere retort- (as RE-, torquere twist)]

   retort(2) n. & v.  --n.  1 a vessel usu. of glass with a long recurved
             neck used in distilling liquids.  2 a vessel for heating mercury
             for purification, coal to generate gas, or iron and carbon to
             make steel.  --v.tr. purify (mercury) by heating in a retort.
             [F retorte f. med.L retorta fem. past part. of retorquere: see

   retortion n.  1 the act or an instance of bending back; the condition of
             being bent back.  2 retaliation by a State on the subjects of
             another.  [RETORT(1), perh. after contortion]

   retouch   v. & n.  --v.tr. improve or repair (a composition, picture,
             photographic negative or print, etc.) by fresh touches or
             alterations.  --n. the act or an instance of retouching.
             ЬЬretoucher n.  [prob. f. F retoucher (as RE-, TOUCH)]

   retrace   v.tr.  1 go back over (one's steps etc.).  2 trace back to a
             source or beginning.  3 recall the course of in one's memory.
             [F retracer (as RE-, TRACE(1))]

   retract   v.  1 tr. (also absol.) withdraw or revoke (a statement or
             undertaking).  2 a tr. & intr. (esp. with ref. to part of the
             body) draw or be drawn back or in.  b tr. draw (an undercarriage
             etc.) into the body of an aircraft.  ЬЬretractable adj.
             retraction n.  retractive adj.  [L retrahere or (in sense 1)
             retractare (as RE-, trahere tract- draw)]

             adj.  capable of being retracted.  ЬЬretractility n.  [RETRACT,
             after contractile]

   retractor n.  1 a muscle used for retracting.  2 a device for retracting.

   retrain   v.tr. & intr.  train again or further, esp. for new work.

   retral    adj.  Biol.  hinder, posterior; at the back.  [RETRO- + -AL]

             v.tr.  translate again, esp. back into the original language.
             ЬЬretranslation n.

             v.tr.  (retransmitted, retransmitting) transmit (esp. radio
             signals or broadcast programmes) back again or to a further
             distance.  ЬЬretransmission n.

   retread   v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past retrod; past part.  retrodden) 1 tread
             (a path etc.) again.  2 put a fresh tread on (a tyre).  --n.  a
             retreaded tyre.

   retreat   v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. (esp. of military forces) go back,
             retire; relinquish a position.  b tr. cause to retreat; move
             back.  2 intr. (esp. of features) recede; slope back.  --n.  1 a
             the act or an instance of retreating.  b Mil. a signal for this.
             2 withdrawal into privacy or security.  3 a place of shelter or
             seclusion.  4 a period of seclusion for prayer and meditation.
             5 Mil. a bugle-call at sunset.  6 a place for the reception of
             the elderly or others in need of care.  [ME f. OF retret (n.),
             retraiter (v.) f. L retrahere: see RETRACT]

   retrench  v.  1 a tr. reduce the amount of (costs).  b intr. cut down
             expenses; introduce economies.  2 tr. shorten or abridge.
             ЬЬretrenchment n.  [obs. F retrencher (as RE-, TRENCH)]

   retrial   n.  a second or further (judicial) trial.

             n.  requital usu. for evil done; vengeance.  ЬЬretributive adj.
             retributory adj.  [ME f. LL retributio (as RE-, tribuere tribut-

   retrieve  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a regain possession of.  b recover by
             investigation or effort of memory.  2 a restore to knowledge or
             recall to mind.  b obtain (information stored in a computer
             etc.).  3 (of a dog) find and bring in (killed or wounded game
             etc.).  4 (foll. by from) recover or rescue (esp. from a bad
             state).  5 restore to a flourishing state; revive.  6 repair or
             set right (a loss or error etc.) (managed to retrieve the
             situation).  --n. the possibility of recovery (beyond retrieve).
             ЬЬretrievable adj.  retrieval n.  [ME f. OF retroeve- stressed
             stem of retrover (as RE-, trover find)]

   retriever n.  1 a a dog of a breed used for retrieving game.  b this
             breed.  2 a person who retrieves something.

   retro-    comb. form 1 denoting action back or in return (retroact;
             retroflex).  2 Anat. & Med. denoting location behind.  [L retro

   retroact  v.intr.  1 operate in a backward direction.  2 have a
             retrospective effect.  3 react.  ЬЬretroaction n.

             adj.  (esp. of legislation) having retrospective effect.
             ЬЬretroactively adv.  retroactivity n.

   retrocede v.  1 intr. move back; recede.  2 tr. cede back again.
             ЬЬretrocedence n.  retrocedent adj.  retrocession n.
             retrocessive adj.  [L retrocedere (as RETRO-, cedere cess- go)]

             n.  the part of a cathedral or large church behind the high
             altar.  [med.L retrochorus (as RETRO-, CHOIR)]

   retrod    past of RETREAD.

   retrodden past part. of RETREAD.

   retrofit  v.tr.  (-fitted, -fitting) modify (machinery, vehicles, etc.) to
             incorporate changes and developments introduced after
             manufacture.  [RETROACTIVE + REFIT]

   retroflex adj.  (also retroflexed) 1 Anat., Med., & Bot. turned backwards.
             2 Phonet. = CACUMINAL.  ЬЬretroflexion n.  [L retroflectere
             retroflex- (as RETRO-, flectere bend)]

             n.  Astron.  1 the apparent backward motion of a planet in the
             zodiac.  2 the apparent motion of a celestial body from east to
             west.  3 backward movement of the lunar nodes on the ecliptic.
             [LL retrogradatio (as RETRO-, GRADATION)]

             adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 directed backwards; retreating.  2
             reverting esp. to an inferior state; declining.  3 inverse,
             reversed (in retrograde order).  4 Astron. in or showing
             retrogradation.  --n. a degenerate person.  --v.intr.  1 move
             backwards; recede, retire.  2 decline, revert.  3 Astron. show
             retrogradation.  ЬЬretrogradely adv.  [ME f. L retrogradus (as
             RETRO-, gradus step, gradi walk)]

             v.intr.  1 go back; move backwards.  2 deteriorate.
             ЬЬretrogressive adj.  [RETRO-, after PROGRESS v.]

             n.  1 backward or reversed movement.  2 a return to a less
             advanced state; a reversal of development; a decline or
             deterioration.  3 Astron. = RETROGRADATION.  ЬЬretrogressive
             adj.  [RETRO-, after progression]

   retroject v.tr.  throw back (usu. opp.  PROJECT).  [RETRO-, after PROJECT

             n.  an auxiliary rocket for slowing down a spacecraft etc., e.g.
             when re-entering the earth's atmosphere.

   retrorse  adj.  Biol.  turned back or down.  ЬЬretrorsely adv.  [L
             retrorsus = retroversus (as RETRO-, versus past part. of vertere

             n.  1 (foll. by to) regard or reference to precedent or
             authority, or to previous conditions.  2 a survey of past time
             or events.  Ьin retrospect when looked back on.  [RETRO-, after
             PROSPECT n.]

             n.  1 the action of looking back esp. into the past.  2 an
             indulgence or engagement in retrospect.  [prob. f.  retrospect
             (v.) (as RETROSPECT)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 looking back on or dealing with the past.
             2 (of an exhibition, recital, etc.) showing an artist's
             development over his or her lifetime.  3 (of a statute etc.)
             applying to the past as well as the future; retroactive.  4 (of
             a view) lying to the rear.  --n. a retrospective exhibition,
             recital, etc.  ЬЬretrospectively adv.

             adj.  Anat. & Med.  behind the breastbone.

   retrouss‚ adj.  (of the nose) turned up at the tip.  [F, past part. of
             retrousser tuck up (as RE-, TRUSS)]

   retrovert v.tr.  1 turn backwards.  2 Med. (as retroverted adj.) (of the
             womb) having a backward inclination.  ЬЬretroversion n.  [LL
             retrovertere (as RETRO-, vertere vers- turn)]

             n.  Biol.  any of a group of RNA viruses which form DNA during
             the replication of their RNA.  [mod.L f. initial letters of
             reverse transcriptase + VIRUS]

   retry     v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) try (a defendant or lawsuit) a second or
             further time.  ЬЬretrial n.

   retsina   n.  a Greek white wine flavoured with resin.  [mod. Gk]

   retune    v.tr.  1 tune (a musical instrument) again or differently.  2
             tune (a radio etc.) to a different frequency.

   returf    v.tr.  provide with new turf.

   return    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. come or go back.  2 tr. bring or put or
             send back to the person or place etc. where originally belonging
             or obtained (returned the fish to the river; have you returned
             my scissors?).  3 tr. pay back or reciprocate; give in response
             (decided not to return the compliment).  4 tr. yield (a profit).
             5 tr. say in reply; retort.  6 tr. (in cricket or tennis etc.)
             hit or send (the ball) back after receiving it.  7 tr. state or
             mention or describe officially, esp. in answer to a writ or
             formal demand.  8 tr. (of an electorate) elect as an MP,
             government, etc.  9 tr.  Cards a lead (a suit) previously led or
             bid by a partner.  b lead (a suit or card) after taking a trick.
             10 tr.  Archit. continue (a wall etc.) in a changed direction,
             esp. at right angles.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of coming
             or going back.  2 a the act or an instance of giving or sending
             or putting or paying back.  b a thing given or sent back.  3 (in
             full return ticket) esp.  Brit. a ticket for a journey to a
             place and back to the starting-point.  4 (in sing. or pl.) a the
             proceeds or profit of an undertaking.  b the acquisition of
             these.  5 a formal report or statement compiled or submitted by
             order (an income-tax return).  6 (in full return match or game)
             a second match etc. between the same opponents.  7 Electr. a
             conductor bringing a current back to its source.  8 Brit. a
             sheriff's report on a writ.  9 esp.  Brit.  a a person's
             election as an MP etc.  b a returning officer's announcement of
             this.  10 Archit. a part receding from the line of the front,
             e.g. the side of a house or of a window-opening.  Ьby return (of
             post) by the next available post in the return direction.  in
             return as an exchange or reciprocal action.  many happy returns
             (of the day) a greeting on a birthday.  return crease Cricket
             each of two lines joining the popping-crease and bowling-crease
             at right angles to the bowling-crease and extending beyond it.
             returning officer Brit.  an official conducting an election in a
             constituency and announcing the results.  return thanks express
             thanks esp. in a grace at meals or in response to a toast or
             condolence.  ЬЬreturnable adj.  returner n.  returnless adj.
             [ME f. OF returner (as RE-, TURN)]

   returnee  n.  a person who returns home from abroad, esp. after war

   retuse    adj.  esp. Bot.  having a broad end with a central depression.
             [L retundere retus- (as RE-, tundere beat)]

   retying   pres. part. of RETIE.

   retype    v.tr.  type again, esp. to correct errors.

   reunify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) restore (esp. separated territories) to a
             political unity.  ЬЬreunification n.

   reunion   n.  1 a the act or an instance of reuniting.  b the condition of
             being reunited.  2 a social gathering esp. of people formerly
             associated.  [F r‚union or AL reunio f. L reunire unite (as RE-,

   reunite   v.tr. & intr.  bring or come back together.

             v.tr.  upholster anew.  ЬЬreupholstery n.

   reuse     v. & n.  --v.tr.  use again or more than once.  --n.  a second
             or further use.  ЬЬreusable adj.

   reutilize v.tr.  (also -ise) utilize again or for a different purpose.
             ЬЬreutilization n.

   Rev.      abbr.  1 Reverend.  2 Revelation (New Testament).

   rev       n. & v.  colloq.  --n. (in pl.) the number of revolutions of an
             engine per minute (running at 3,000 revs).  --v.  (revved,
             revving) 1 intr. (of an engine) revolve; turn over.  2 tr. (also
             absol.; often foll. by up) cause (an engine) to run quickly.
             Ьrev counter = revolution counter.  [abbr.]

             v.tr.  vaccinate again.  ЬЬrevaccination n.

   revalue   v.tr.  (revalues, revalued, revaluing) Econ.  give a different
             value to, esp. give a higher value to, (a currency) in relation
             to other currencies or gold (opp.  DEVALUE).  ЬЬrevaluation n.

   revamp    v.tr.  1 renovate, revise, improve.  2 patch up.  [RE- +

             n.  Polit.  a policy of seeking to retaliate, esp. to recover
             lost territory.  ЬЬrevanchist n. & adj.  [F revanche (as

   revarnish v.tr.  varnish again.

   Revd      abbr.  Reverend.

   reveal(1) v.tr.  1 display or show; allow to appear.  2 (often as
             revealing adj.) disclose, divulge, betray (revealed his plans; a
             revealing remark).  3 tr. (in refl. or passive) come to sight or
             knowledge.  4 Relig. (esp. of God) make known by inspiration or
             supernatural means.  Ьrevealed religion a religion based on
             revelation (opp.  natural religion).  ЬЬrevealable adj.
             revealer n.  revealingly adv.  [ME f. OF reveler or L revelare
             (as RE-, velum veil)]

   reveal(2) n.  an internal side surface of an opening or recess, esp. of a
             doorway or window-aperture.  [obs.  revale (v.) lower f. OF
             revaler f.  avaler (as RE-, VAIL)]

   reveille  n.  a military waking-signal sounded in the morning on a bugle
             or drums etc.  [F r‚veillez imper. pl. of r‚veiller awaken (as
             RE-, veiller f. L vigilare keep watch)]

   revel     v. & n.  --v.  (revelled, revelling; US reveled, reveling) 1
             intr. have a good time; be extravagantly festive.  2 intr.
             (foll. by in) take keen delight in.  3 tr. (foll. by away) throw
             away (money or time) in revelry.  --n. (in sing. or pl.) the act
             or an instance of revelling.  ЬЬreveller n.  revelry n.  (pl.
             -ies).  [ME f. OF reveler riot f. L rebellare REBEL v.]

             n.  1 a the act or an instance of revealing, esp. the supposed
             disclosure of knowledge to humankind by a divine or supernatural
             agency.  b knowledge disclosed in this way.  2 a striking
             disclosure (it was a revelation to me).  3 (Revelation or
             colloq.  Revelations) (in full the Revelation of St John the
             Divine) the last book of the New Testament, describing visions
             of heaven.  ЬЬrevelational adj.  [ME f. OF revelation or LL
             revelatio (as REVEAL(1))]

             n.  a believer in divine revelation.

             adj.  serving to reveal, esp. something significant.  [L
             revelare: see REVEAL(1)]

   revenant  n.  a person who has returned, esp. supposedly from the dead.
             [F, pres. part. of revenir: see REVENUE]

   revenge   n. & v.  --n.  1 retaliation for an offence or injury.  2 an act
             of retaliation.  3 the desire for this; a vindictive feeling.  4
             (in games) a chance to win after an earlier defeat.  --v.  1 tr.
             (in refl. or passive; often foll. by on, upon) inflict
             retaliation for an offence.  2 tr. take revenge for (an
             offence).  3 tr. avenge (a person).  4 intr. take vengeance.
             ЬЬrevenger n.  [ME f. OF revenger, revencher f. LL revindicare
             (as RE-, vindicare lay claim to)]

             adj.  eager for revenge.  ЬЬrevengefully adv.  revengefulness n.

   revenue   n.  1 a income, esp. of a large amount, from any source.  b (in
             pl.) items constituting this.  2 a State's annual income from
             which public expenses are met.  3 the department of the civil
             service collecting this.  Ьrevenue tax a tax imposed to raise
             revenue, rather than to affect trade.  [ME f. OF revenu(e) past
             part. of revenir f. L revenire return (as RE-, venire come)]

   reverb    n.  Mus.  colloq.  1 reverberation.  2 a device to produce this.

             v.  1 a intr. (of sound, light, or heat) be returned or echoed
             or reflected repeatedly.  b tr. return (a sound etc.) in this
             way.  2 intr. (of a story, rumour, etc.) be heard much or
             repeatedly.  Ьreverberating furnace a furnace constructed to
             throw heat back on to the substance exposed to it.
             ЬЬreverberant adj.  reverberantly adv.  reverberation n.
             reverberative adj.  reverberator n.  reverberatory adj.  [L
             reverberare (as RE-, verberare lash f.  verbera (pl.) scourge)]

   revere    v.tr.  hold in deep and usu. affectionate or religious respect;
             venerate.  [F r‚v‚rer or L revereri (as RE-, vereri fear)]

   reverence n. & v.  --n.  1 a the act of revering or the state of being
             revered (hold in reverence; feel reverence for).  b the capacity
             for revering (lacks reverence).  2 archaic a gesture showing
             that one reveres; a bow or curtsy.  3 (Reverence) a title used
             of or to some members of the clergy.  --v.tr. regard or treat
             with reverence.  [ME f. OF f. L reverentia (as REVERE)]

   reverend  adj. & n.  --adj.  (esp. as the title of a clergyman) deserving
             reverence.  --n.  colloq. a clergyman.  ЬMost Reverend the title
             of an archbishop or an Irish Roman Catholic bishop.  Reverend
             Mother the title of the Mother Superior of a convent.  Right
             Reverend the title of a bishop.  Very Reverend the title of a
             dean etc.  [ME f. OF reverend or L reverendus gerundive of
             revereri: see REVERE]

   reverent  adj.  feeling or showing reverence.  ЬЬreverently adv.  [ME f. L
             reverens (as REVERE)]

             n.  of the nature of, due to, or characterized by reverence.
             ЬЬreverentially adv.  [med.L reverentialis (as REVERE)]

   reverie   n.  1 a fit of abstracted musing (was lost in a reverie).  2
             archaic a fantastic notion or theory; a delusion.  3 Mus. an
             instrumental piece suggesting a dreamy or musing state.  [obs. F
             resverie f. OF reverie rejoicing, revelry f.  rever be
             delirious, of unkn. orig.]

   revers    n.  (pl. same) 1 the turned-back edge of a garment revealing the
             under-surface.  2 the material on this surface.  [F, = REVERSE]

   reverse   v., adj., & n.  --v.  1 tr. turn the other way round or up or
             inside out.  2 tr. change to the opposite character or effect
             (reversed the decision).  3 intr. & tr. travel or cause to
             travel backwards.  4 tr. make (an engine etc.) work in a
             contrary direction.  5 tr. revoke or annul (a decree, act,
             etc.).  6 intr. (of a dancer, esp. in a waltz) revolve in the
             opposite direction.  --adj.  1 placed or turned in an opposite
             direction or position.  2 opposite or contrary in character or
             order; inverted.  --n.  1 the opposite or contrary (the reverse
             is the case; is the reverse of the truth).  2 the contrary of
             the usual manner.  3 an occurrence of misfortune; a disaster,
             esp. a defeat in battle (suffered a reverse).  4 reverse gear or
             motion.  5 the reverse side of something.  6 a the side of a
             coin or medal etc. bearing the secondary design.  b this design
             (cf.  OBVERSE).  7 the verso of a leaf.  Ьreverse arms hold a
             rifle with the butt upwards.  reverse the charges Brit.  make
             the recipient of a telephone call responsible for payment.
             reverse gear a gear used to make a vehicle etc. travel
             backwards.  reversing light a white light at the rear of a
             vehicle operated when the vehicle is in reverse gear.  reverse
             Polish notation see Polish notation.  reverse strata Geol.  a
             fault in which the overlying side of a mass of rock is displaced
             upward in relation to the underlying side.  ЬЬreversal n.
             reversely adv.  reverser n.  reversible adj.  reversibility n.
             reversibly adv.  [ME f. OF revers (n.), reverser (v.), f. L
             revertere revers- (as RE-, vertere turn)]

   reversion n.  1 a the legal right (esp. of the original owner, or his or
             her heirs) to possess or succeed to property on the death of the
             present possessor.  b property to which a person has such a
             right.  2 Biol. a return to ancestral type.  3 a return to a
             previous state, habit, etc.  4 a sum payable on a person's
             death, esp. by way of life insurance.  ЬЬreversional adj.
             reversionary adj.  [ME f. OF reversion or L reversio (as

   revert    v.  1 intr. (foll. by to) return to a former state, practice,
             opinion, etc.  2 intr. (of property, an office, etc.) return by
             reversion.  3 intr. fall back into a wild state.  4 tr. turn
             (one's eyes or steps) back.  ЬЬreverter n. (in sense 2).  [ME f.
             OF revertir or L revertere (as REVERSE)]

             adj.  (of property) subject to reversion.

   revet     v.tr.  (revetted, revetting) face (a rampart, wall, etc.) with
             masonry, esp. in fortification.  [F rev€tir f. OF revestir f. LL
             revestire (as RE-, vestire clothe f.  vestis)]

   revetment n.  a retaining wall or facing.  [F rev€tement (as REVET)]

   review    n. & v.  --n.  1 a general survey or assessment of a subject or
             thing.  2 a retrospect or survey of the past.  3 revision or
             reconsideration (is under review).  4 a display and formal
             inspection of troops etc.  5 a published account or criticism of
             a book, play, etc.  6 a periodical publication with critical
             articles on current events, the arts, etc.  7 a second view.
             --v.tr.  1 survey or look back on.  2 reconsider or revise.  3
             hold a review of (troops etc.).  4 write a review of (a book,
             play, etc.).  5 view again.  Ьcourt of review a court before
             which sentences etc. come for revision.  ЬЬreviewable adj.
             reviewal n.  reviewer n.  [obs. F reveue f.  revoir (as RE-,
             voir see)]

   revile    v.  1 tr. abuse; criticize abusively.  2 intr. talk abusively;
             rail.  ЬЬrevilement n.  reviler n.  reviling n.  [ME f. OF
             reviler (as RE-, VILE)]

   revise    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 examine or re-examine and improve or amend
             (esp. written or printed matter).  2 consider and alter (an
             opinion etc.).  3 (also absol.) Brit. read again (work learnt or
             done) to improve one's knowledge, esp. for an examination.  --n.
             Printing a proof-sheet including corrections made in an earlier
             proof.  ЬRevised Standard Version a revision in 1946-52 of the
             Authorized Version of the Bible.  Revised Version a revision in
             1881-5 of the Authorized Version of the Bible.  ЬЬrevisable adj.
             revisal n.  reviser n.  revisory adj.  [F r‚viser look at, or L
             revisere (as RE-, visere intensive of videre vis- see)]

   revision  n.  1 the act or an instance of revising; the process of being
             revised.  2 a revised edition or form.  ЬЬrevisionary adj.  [OF
             revision or LL revisio (as REVISE)]

             n.  often derog.  a policy of revision or modification, esp. of
             Marxism on evolutionary socialist (rather than revolutionary) or
             pluralist principles.  ЬЬrevisionist n. & adj.

   revisit   v.tr.  (revisited, revisiting) visit again.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) imbue with new life and vitality.
             ЬЬrevitalization n.

   revival   n.  1 the act or an instance of reviving; the process of being
             revived.  2 a new production of an old play etc.  3 a revived
             use of an old practice, custom, etc.  4 a a reawakening of
             religious fervour.  b a series of evangelistic meetings to
             promote this.  5 restoration to bodily or mental vigour or to
             life or consciousness.

             n.  belief in or the promotion of a revival, esp. of religious
             fervour.  ЬЬrevivalist n.  revivalistic adj.

   revive    v.intr. & tr.  1 come or bring back to consciousness or life or
             strength.  2 come or bring back to existence, use, notice, etc.
             ЬЬrevivable adj.  [ME f. OF revivre or LL revivere (as RE-, L
             vivere live)]

   reviver   n.  1 a person or thing that revives.  2 colloq. a stimulating
             drink.  3 a preparation used for restoring faded colours etc.

   revivify  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) restore to animation, activity, vigour, or
             life.  ЬЬrevivification n.  [F revivifier or LL revivificare (as
             RE-, VIVIFY)]

   revoke    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. rescind, withdraw, or cancel (a decree or
             promise etc.).  2 intr.  Cards fail to follow suit when able to
             do so.  --n.  Cards the act of revoking.  ЬЬrevocable adj.
             revocability n.  revocation n.  revocatory adj.  revoker n.  [ME
             f. OF revoquer or L revocare (as RE-, vocare call)]

   revolt    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a rise in rebellion against authority.
             b (as revolted adj.) having revolted.  2 a tr. (often in
             passive) affect with strong disgust; nauseate (was revolted by
             the thought of it).  b intr. (often foll. by at, against) feel
             strong disgust.  --n.  1 an act of rebelling.  2 a state of
             insurrection (in revolt).  3 a sense of loathing.  4 a mood of
             protest or defiance.  [F r‚volter f. It.  rivoltare ult. f. L
             revolvere (as REVOLVE)]

   revolting adj.  disgusting, horrible.  ЬЬrevoltingly adv.

   revolute  adj.  Bot.  etc. having a rolled-back edge.  [L revolutus past
             part. of revolvere: see REVOLVE]

             n.  1 a the forcible overthrow of a government or social order,
             in favour of a new system.  b (in Marxism) the replacement of
             one ruling class by another; the class struggle which is
             expected to lead to political change and the triumph of
             communism.  2 any fundamental change or reversal of conditions.
             3 the act or an instance of revolving.  4 a motion in orbit or a
             circular course or round an axis or centre; rotation.  b the
             single completion of an orbit or rotation.  c the time taken for
             this.  5 a cyclic recurrence.  Ьrevolution counter a device for
             indicating the number or rate of revolutions of an engine etc.
             ЬЬrevolutionism n.  revolutionist n.  [ME f. OF revolution or LL
             revolutio (as REVOLVE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 involving great and often violent change.
             2 of or causing political revolution.  3 (Revolutionary) of or
             relating to a particular revolution, esp. the War of American
             Independence.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) an instigator or supporter of
             political revolution.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) introduce fundamental change to.

   revolve   v.  1 intr. & tr. turn or cause to turn round, esp. on an axis;
             rotate.  2 intr. move in a circular orbit.  3 tr. ponder (a
             problem etc.) in the mind.  Ьrevolving credit credit that is
             automatically renewed as debts are paid off.  revolving door a
             door with usu. four partitions turning round a central axis.
             ЬЬrevolvable adj.  [ME f. L revolvere (as RE-, volvere roll)]

   revolver  n.  a pistol with revolving chambers enabling several shots to
             be fired without reloading.

   revue     n.  a theatrical entertainment of a series of short usu.
             satirical sketches and songs.  [F, = REVIEW n.]

   revulsion n.  1 abhorrence; a sense of loathing.  2 a sudden violent
             change of feeling.  3 a sudden reaction in taste, fortune,
             trade, etc.  4 Med. counterirritation; the treatment of one
             disordered organ etc.  by acting upon another.  [F revulsion or
             L revulsio (as RE-, vellere vuls- pull)]

   revulsive adj. & n.  Med.  --adj. producing revulsion.  --n. a revulsive

   reward    n. & v.  1 a a return or recompense for service or merit.  b
             requital for good or evil; retribution.  2 a sum offered for the
             detection of a criminal, the restoration of lost property, etc.
             --v.tr. give a reward to (a person) or for (a service etc.).
             ЬЬrewardless adj.  [ME f. AF, ONF reward = OF reguard REGARD]

   rewarding adj.  (of an activity etc.) well worth doing; providing
             satisfaction.  ЬЬrewardingly adv.

   rewarewa  n.  a tall red-flowered tree, Knightia excelsa, of New Zealand.

   rewash    v.tr.  wash again.

   reweigh   v.tr.  weigh again.

   rewind    v.tr.  (past and past part.  rewound) wind (a film or tape etc.)
             back to the beginning.  ЬЬrewinder n.

   rewire    v.tr.  provide (a building etc.) with new wiring.  ЬЬrewirable

   reword    v.tr.  change the wording of.

   rewound   past and past part. of REWIND.

   rewrap    v.tr.  (rewrapped, rewrapping) wrap again or differently.

   rewrite   v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past rewrote; past part.  rewritten) write
             again or differently.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of
             rewriting.  2 a thing rewritten.

   Rex       n.  the reigning king (following a name or in the titles of
             lawsuits, e.g.  Rex v. Jones the Crown versus Jones).  [L]

   Rexine    n.  propr.  an artificial leather used in upholstery,
             bookbinding, etc.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Reynard   n.  a fox (esp. as a proper name in stories).  [ME f. OF Renart
             name of a fox in the Roman de Renart]

   Reynolds number
             n.  Physics a quantity indicating the degree of turbulence of
             flow past an obstacle etc.  [O.  Reynolds, Engl. physicist d.

7.0 Rf...

   Rf        symb.  Chem.  the element rutherfordium.

   r.f.      abbr.  radio frequency.

   RFA       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Fleet Auxiliary.

   RFC       abbr.  1 Rugby Football Club.  2 hist. Royal Flying Corps.

8.0 RGS

   RGS       abbr.  Royal Geographical Society.

9.0 Rh...

   Rh(1)     symb.  Chem.  the element rhodium.

   Rh(2)     abbr.  1 Rhesus.  2 Rhesus factor.

   r.h.      abbr.  right hand.

   RHA       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Horse Artillery.

             n.  the use of a divining-rod, esp. for discovering subterranean
             water or mineral ore.  [Gk rhabdomanteia f.  rhabdos rod: see

             adj.  stern and incorruptible in judgement.  [Rhadamanthus f. L
             f. Gk Rhadamanthos, name of a judge in the underworld]

             adj. & n.  (also Rhaeto-Romanic) --adj. of or in any of the
             Romance dialects of SE Switzerland and Tyrol, esp. Romansh and
             Ladin.  --n. any of these dialects.  [L Rhaetus of Rhaetia in
             the Alps + ROMANIC]

   rhapsode  n.  a reciter of epic poems, esp. of Homer in ancient Greece.
             [Gk rhapsoidos f.  rhapto stitch + oide song, ODE]

             n.  1 a person who rhapsodizes.  2 = RHAPSODE.

             v.intr.  (also -ise) talk or write rhapsodies.

   rhapsody  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an enthusiastic or extravagant utterance or
             composition.  2 Mus. a piece of music in one extended movement,
             usu. emotional in character.  3 Gk Antiq. an epic poem, or part
             of it, of a length for one recitation.  ЬЬrhapsodic adj.
             rhapsodical adj. (in senses 1, 2).  [L rhapsodia f. Gk
             rhapsoidia (as RHAPSODE)]

   rhatany   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 either of two American shrubs, Krameria
             trianda and K. argentea, having an astringent root when dried.
             2 the root of either of these.  [mod.L rhatania f. Port.
             ratanha, Sp.  ratania, f. Quechua rata¤a]

   rhea      n.  any of several S. American flightless birds of the family
             Rheidae, like but smaller than an ostrich.  [mod.L genus name f.
             L f. Gk Rhea mother of Zeus]

   rhebok    var. of REEBOK.

   Rhenish   adj. & n.  --adj. of the Rhine and the regions adjoining it.
             --n. wine from this area.  [ME rynis, rynisch etc., f. AF
             reneis, OF r(a)inois f. L Rhenanus f.  Rhenus Rhine]

   rhenium   n.  Chem.  a rare metallic element of the manganese group,
             occurring naturally in molybdenum ores and used in the
             manufacture of superconducting alloys.  °Symb.: Re.  [mod.L f. L
             Rhenus Rhine]

   rheology  n.  the science dealing with the flow and deformation of matter.
             ЬЬrheological adj.  rheologist n.  [Gk rheos stream + -LOGY]

   rheostat  n.  Electr.  an instrument used to control a current by varying
             the resistance.  ЬЬrheostatic adj.  [Gk rheos stream + -STAT]

   rhesus    n. (in full rhesus monkey) a small catarrhine monkey, Macaca
             mulatta, common in N. India.  Ьrhesus baby an infant with a
             haemolytic disorder caused by the incompatibility of its own
             rhesus-positive blood with its mother's rhesus-negative blood.
             rhesus factor an antigen occurring on the red blood cells of
             most humans and some other primates (as in the rhesus monkey, in
             which it was first observed).  rhesus negative lacking the
             rhesus factor.  rhesus positive having the rhesus factor.
             [mod.L, arbitrary use of L Rhesus f. Gk Rhesos, mythical King of

   rhetor    n.  1 an ancient Greek or Roman teacher or professor of
             rhetoric.  2 usu.  derog. an orator.  [ME f. LL rethor f. L
             rhetor f. Gk rhetor]

   rhetoric  n.  1 the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing.  2
             language designed to persuade or impress (often with an
             implication of insincerity or exaggeration etc.).  [ME f. OF
             rethorique f. L rhetorica, -ice f. Gk rhetorike (tekhne) (art)
             of rhetoric (as RHETOR)]

             adj.  1 expressed with a view to persuasive or impressive
             effect; artificial or extravagant in language.  2 of the nature
             of rhetoric.  3 a of or relating to the art of rhetoric.  b
             given to rhetoric; oratorical.  Ьrhetorical question a question
             asked not for information but to produce an effect, e.g.  who
             cares? for nobody cares.  ЬЬrhetorically adv.  [ME f. L
             rhetoricus f. Gk rhetorikos (as RHETOR)]

             n.  1 an orator.  2 a teacher of rhetoric.  3 a rhetorical
             speaker or writer.  [ME f. OF rethoricien (as RHETORICAL)]

   rheum     n.  a watery discharge from a mucous membrane, esp. of the eyes
             or nose.  [ME f. OF reume ult. f. Gk rheuma -atos stream f.
             rheo flow]

   rheumatic adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of, relating to, or suffering from
             rheumatism.  2 producing or produced by rheumatism.  --n. a
             person suffering from rheumatism.  Ьrheumatic fever a
             non-infectious fever with inflammation and pain in the joints.
             ЬЬrheumatically adv.  rheumaticky adj.  colloq.  [ME f. OF
             reumatique or L rheumaticus f. Gk rheumatikos (as RHEUM)]

             n.pl.  (treated as sing.; often prec. by the) colloq.

             n.  any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints,
             muscles, or fibrous tissue, esp. rheumatoid arthritis.  [F
             rhumatisme or L rheumatismus f. Gk rheumatismos f.  rheumatizo
             f.  rheuma stream]

             adj.  having the character of rheumatism.  Ьrheumatoid arthritis
             a chronic progressive disease causing inflammation and
             stiffening of the joints.

             n.  the study of rheumatic diseases.  ЬЬrheumatological adj.
             rheumatologist n.

   RHG       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Horse Guards.

   rhinal    adj.  Anat.  of a nostril or the nose.  [Gk rhis rhin-: see

             n.  an imitation diamond.  [Rhine, river and region in Germany +

   rhinitis  n.  inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.  [Gk rhis
             rhinos nose]

   rhino(1)  n.  (pl. same or -os) colloq.  a rhinoceros.  [abbr.]

   rhino(2)  n.  Brit.  sl.  money.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rhino-    comb. form Anat.  the nose.  [Gk rhis rhinos nostril, nose]

             n.  (pl. same or rhinoceroses) any of various large
             thick-skinned plant-eating ungulates of the family
             Rhinocerotidae of Africa and S. Asia, with one horn or in some
             cases two horns on the nose and plated or folded skin.
             Ьrhinoceros bird = ox-pecker.  rhinoceros horn a mass of
             keratinized fibres, reputed to have medicinal or aphrodisiac
             powers.  ЬЬrhinocerotic adj.  [ME f. L f. Gk rhinokeros (as
             RHINO-, keras horn)]

             adj.  of or relating to the nose and pharynx.

             n.  plastic surgery of the nose.  ЬЬrhinoplastic adj.

   rhizo-    comb. form Bot.  a root.  [Gk rhiza root]

   rhizocarp n.  a plant with a perennial root but stems that wither.
             [RHIZO- + Gk karpos fruit]

   rhizoid   adj. & n.  Bot.  --adj. rootlike.  --n. a root-hair or filament
             in mosses, ferns, etc.

   rhizome   n.  an underground rootlike stem bearing both roots and shoots.
             [Gk rhizoma f.  rhizoo take root (as RHIZO-)]

   rhizopod  n.  any protozoa of the class Rhizopodea, forming rootlike

   rho       n.  the seventeenth letter of the Greek alphabet (P).  [Gk]

   rhodamine n.  Chem.  any of various red synthetic dyes used to colour
             textiles.  [RHODO- + AMINE]

   Rhode Island Red
             n.  an orig. American breed of reddish-black domestic fowl.

   Rhodes Scholarship
             n.  any of several scholarships awarded annually and tenable at
             Oxford University by students from certain Commonwealth
             countries, South Africa, the United States, and W. Germany.
             ЬЬRhodes Scholar n.  [Cecil Rhodes, Brit. statesman d. 1902, who
             founded them]

   rhodium   n.  Chem.  a hard white metallic element of the platinum group,
             occurring naturally in platinum ores and used in making alloys
             and plating jewellery.  °Symb.: Rh.  [Gk rhodon rose (from the
             colour of the solution of its salts)]

   rhodo-    comb. form esp. Mineral. & Chem.  rose-coloured.  [Gk rhodon

             n.  a mineral form of manganese carbonate occurring in rose-red
             crystals.  [Gk rhodokhrous rose-coloured]

             n.  any evergreen shrub of the genus Rhododendron, with large
             clusters of trumpet-shaped flowers.  [L, = oleander, f. Gk (as
             RHODO-, dendron tree)]

   rhodopsin n.  = visual purple.  [Gk rhodon rose + opsis sight]

   rhodora   n.  a N. American pink-flowered shrub, Rhodora canadense.
             [mod.L f. L plant-name f. Gk rhodon rose]

   rhomb     n.  = RHOMBUS.  ЬЬrhombic adj.  [F rhombe or L rhombus]

   rhombi    pl. of RHOMBUS.

             n.  (pl.  -hedrons or -hedra) 1 a solid bounded by six equal
             rhombuses.  2 a crystal in this form.  ЬЬrhombohedral adj.
             [RHOMBUS, after polyhedron etc.]

   rhomboid  adj. & n.  --adj.  (also rhomboidal) having or nearly having the
             shape of a rhombus.  --n. a quadrilateral of which only the
             opposite sides and angles are equal.  [F rhombo‹de or LL
             rhomboides f. Gk rhomboeides (as RHOMB)]

             n.  (pl.  rhomboidei) Anat.  a muscle connecting the
             shoulder-blade to the vertebrae.  [mod.L rhomboideus RHOMBOID]

   rhombus   n.  (pl.  rhombuses or rhombi) Geom.  a parallelogram with
             oblique angles and equal sides.  [L f. Gk rhombos]

   RHS       abbr.  1 Royal Historical Society.  2 Royal Horticultural
             Society.  3 Royal Humane Society.

   rhubarb   n.  1 a any of various plants of the genus Rheum, esp.  R.
             rhaponticum, producing long fleshy dark-red leaf-stalks used
             cooked as food.  b the leaf-stalks of this.  2 a a root of a
             Chinese and Tibetan plant of the genus Rheum.  b a purgative
             made from this.  3 a colloq. a murmurous conversation or noise,
             esp. the repetition of the word 'rhubarb' by crowd actors.  b
             sl. nonsense; worthless stuff.  4 US sl. a heated dispute.  [ME
             f. OF r(e)ubarbe, shortening of med.L r(h)eubarbarum, alt. (by
             assoc. with Gk rheon rhubarb) of rhabarbarum foreign 'rha', ult.
             f. Gk rha + barbaros foreign]

   rhumb     n.  Naut.  1 any of the 32 points of the compass.  2 the angle
             between two successive compass-points.  3 (in full rhumb-line) a
             a line cutting all meridians at the same angle.  b the line
             followed by a ship sailing in a fixed direction.  [F rumb prob.
             f. Du.  ruim room, assoc. with L rhombus: see RHOMBUS]

   rhumba    var. of RUMBA.

   rhyme     n. & v.  --n.  1 identity of sound between words or the endings
             of words, esp. in verse.  2 (in sing. or pl.) verse having
             rhymes.  3 a the use of rhyme.  b a poem having rhymes.  4 a
             word providing a rhyme.  --v.  1 intr.  a (of words or lines)
             produce a rhyme.  b (foll. by with) act as a rhyme (with
             another).  2 intr. make or write rhymes; versify.  3 tr. put or
             make (a story etc.) into rhyme.  4 tr. (foll. by with) treat (a
             word) as rhyming with another.  Ьrhyming slang slang that
             replaces words by rhyming words or phrases, e.g.  stairs by
             apples and pears, often with the rhyming element omitted (as in
             TITFER).  without rhyme or reason lacking discernible sense or
             logic.  ЬЬrhymeless adj.  rhymer n.  rhymist n.  [ME rime f. OF
             rime f. med.L rithmus, rythmus f. L f. Gk rhuthmos RHYTHM]

   rhymester n.  a writer of (esp. simple) rhymes.

   rhyolite  n.  a fine-grained volcanic rock of granitic composition.  [G
             Rhyolit f. Gk rhuax lava-stream + lithos stone]

   rhythm    n.  1 a measured flow of words and phrases in verse or prose
             determined by various relations of long and short or accented
             and unaccented syllables.  2 the aspect of musical composition
             concerned with periodical accent and the duration of notes.  3
             Physiol. movement with a regular succession of strong and weak
             elements.  4 a regularly recurring sequence of events.  5 Art a
             harmonious correlation of parts.  Ьrhythm and blues popular
             music with a blues theme and a strong rhythm.  rhythm method
             birth control by avoiding sexual intercourse when ovulation is
             likely to occur.  rhythm section the part of a dance band or
             jazz band mainly supplying rhythm, usu. consisting of piano,
             bass, and drums.  ЬЬrhythmless adj.  [F rhythme or L rhythmus f.
             Gk rhuthmos, rel. to rheo flow]

   rhythmic  adj.  (also rhythmical) 1 relating to or characterized by
             rhythm.  2 regularly occurring.  ЬЬrhythmically adv.  [F
             rhythmique or L rhythmicus (as RHYTHM)]

             n.  1 rhythmical quality or character.  2 the capacity for
             maintaining a rhythm.

10.0 RI...

   RI        abbr.  1 King and Emperor.  2 Queen and Empress.  3 US Rhode
             Island (also in official postal use).  4 Royal Institute or
             Institution.  [sense 1 f. L rex et imperator: sense 2 f. L
             regina et imperatrix]

   ria       n.  Geog.  a long narrow inlet formed by the partial submergence
             of a river valley.  [Sp.  rЎa estuary]

   rial      n.  (also riyal) the monetary unit of Iran, equal to 100 dinars.
             [Pers. f. Arab.  riyal f. Sp.  real ROYAL]

   rib       n. & v.  --n.  1 each of the curved bones articulated in pairs
             to the spine and protecting the thoracic cavity and its organs.
             2 a joint of meat from this part of an animal.  3 a ridge or
             long raised piece often of stronger or thicker material across a
             surface or through a structure serving to support or strengthen
             it.  4 any of a ship's transverse curved timbers forming the
             framework of the hull.  5 Knitting a combination of plain and
             purl stitches producing a ribbed somewhat elastic fabric.  6
             each of the hinged rods supporting the fabric of an umbrella.  7
             a vein of a leaf or an insect's wing.  8 Aeron. a structural
             member in an aerofoil.  --v.tr.  (ribbed, ribbing) 1 provide
             with ribs; act as the ribs of.  2 colloq. make fun of; tease.  3
             mark with ridges.  4 plough with spaces between the furrows.
             ЬЬribless adj.  [OE rib, ribb f. Gmc]

   RIBA      abbr.  Royal Institute of British Architects.

   ribald    adj. & n.  --adj. (of language or its user) coarsely or
             disrespectfully humorous; scurrilous.  --n. a user of ribald
             language.  [ME (earlier sense 'low-born retainer') f. OF
             ribau(l)d f.  riber pursue licentious pleasures f. Gmc]

   ribaldry  n.  ribald talk or behaviour.

   riband    n.  a ribbon.  [ME f. OF riban, prob. f. a Gmc compound of

   ribbed    adj.  having ribs or riblike markings.

   ribbing   n.  1 ribs or a riblike structure.  2 colloq. the act or an
             instance of teasing.

   ribbon    n.  1 a a narrow strip or band of fabric, used esp. for trimming
             or decoration.  b material in this form.  2 a ribbon of a
             special colour etc. worn to indicate some honour or membership
             of a sports team etc.  3 a long narrow strip of anything, e.g.
             impregnated material forming the inking agent in a typewriter.
             4 (in pl.) ragged strips (torn to ribbons).  Ьribbon development
             the building of houses along a main road, usu. one leading out
             of a town or village.  ribbon worm a nemertean.  ЬЬribboned adj.
             [var. of RIBAND]

             n.  any of various long slender flat fishes of the family

   ribcage   n.  the wall of bones formed by the ribs round the chest.

             n.  (also riboflavine) a vitamin of the B complex, found in
             liver, milk, and eggs, essential for energy production. Also
             called vitamin B[2].  [RIBOSE + L flavus yellow]

   ribonucleic acid
             n.  a nucleic acid yielding ribose on hydrolysis, present in
             living cells, esp. in ribosomes where it is involved in protein
             synthesis.  °Abbr.: RNA.  [RIBOSE + NUCLEIC ACID]

   ribose    n.  a sugar found in many nucleosides and in several vitamins
             and enzymes.  [G, alt. f.  Arabinose a related sugar]

   ribosome  n.  Biochem.  each of the minute particles consisting of RNA and
             associated proteins found in the cytoplasm of living cells,
             concerned with the synthesis of proteins.  ЬЬribosomal adj.
             [RIBONUCLEIC (ACID) + -SOME(3)]

   ribwort   n.  a kind of plantain (see PLANTAIN(1)) with long narrow ribbed

   rice      n. & v.  n.  1 a swamp grass, Oryza sativa, cultivated in
             marshes, esp. in Asia.  2 the grains of this, used as cereal
             food.  --v.tr.  US sieve (cooked potatoes etc.) into thin
             strings.  Ьrice-bowl an area producing much rice.  rice-paper
             edible paper made from the pith of an oriental tree and used for
             painting and in cookery.  ЬЬricer n.  [ME rys f. OF ris f. It.
             riso, ult. f. Gk oruza, of oriental orig.]

   ricercar  n.  (also ricercare) an elaborate contrapuntal instrumental
             composition in fugal or canonic style, esp. of the 16th-18th c.
             [It., = seek out]

   rich      adj.  1 having much wealth.  2 (often foll. by in, with)
             splendid, costly, elaborate (rich tapestries; rich with lace).
             3 valuable (rich offerings).  4 copious, abundant, ample (a rich
             harvest; a rich supply of ideas).  5 (often foll. by in, with)
             (of soil or a region etc.) abounding in natural resources or
             means of production; fertile (rich in nutrients; rich with
             vines).  6 (of food or diet) containing much fat or spice etc.
             7 (of the mixture in an internal-combustion engine) containing a
             high proportion of fuel.  8 (of colour or sound or smell) mellow
             and deep, strong and full.  9 a (of an incident or assertion
             etc.) highly amusing or ludicrous; outrageous.  b (of humour)
             earthy.  ЬЬrichen v.intr. & tr.  richness n.  [OE rice f. Gmc f.
             Celt., rel. to L rex king: reinforced in ME f. OF riche rich,
             powerful, of Gmc orig.]

   riches    n.pl.  abundant means; valuable possessions.  [ME richesse f. OF
             richeise f.  riche RICH, taken as pl.]

   richly    adv.  1 in a rich way.  2 fully, thoroughly (richly deserves

   Richter scale
             n.  a scale of 0 to 10 for representing the strength of an
             earthquake.  [C. F.  Richter, Amer. seismologist d. 1985]

   ricin     n.  a toxic substance obtained from castor oil beans and causing
             gastroenteritis, jaundice, and heart failure.  [mod.L ricinus
             communis castor oil]

   rick(1)   n. & v.  --n. a stack of hay, corn, etc., built into a regular
             shape and usu.  thatched.  --v.tr. form into a rick or ricks.
             [OE hreac, of unkn. orig.]

   rick(2)   n. & v.  (also wrick) --n. a slight sprain or strain.  --v.tr.
             sprain or strain slightly.  [ME wricke f. MLG wricken move
             about, sprain]

   rickets   n.  (treated as sing. or pl.) a disease of children with
             softening of the bones (esp. the spine) and bow-legs, caused by
             a deficiency of vitamin D.  [17th c.: orig. uncert., but assoc.
             by medical writers with Gk rhakhitis RACHITIS]

             n.  a parasitic micro-organism of the genus Rickettsia causing
             typhus and other febrile diseases.  ЬЬrickettsial adj.  [mod.L
             f. H. T.  Ricketts, Amer. pathologist d. 1910]

   rickety   adj.  1 a insecure or shaky in construction; likely to collapse.
             b feeble.  2 a suffering from rickets.  b resembling or of the
             nature of rickets.  ЬЬricketiness n.  [RICKETS + -Y(1)]

   rickey    n.  (pl.  -eys) a drink of spirit (esp. gin), lime-juice, etc.
             [20th c.: prob. f. the surname Rickey]

   rickrack  var. of RICRAC.

   rickshaw  n.  (also ricksha) a light two-wheeled hooded vehicle drawn by
             one or more persons.  [abbr. of jinricksha, jinrikshaw f. Jap.
             jinrikisha f.  jin person + riki power + sha vehicle]

   ricochet  n. & v.  --n.  1 the action of a projectile, esp. a shell or
             bullet, in rebounding off a surface.  2 a hit made after this.
             --v.intr.  (ricocheted; ricocheting or ricochetted;
             ricochetting) (of a projectile) rebound one or more times from a
             surface.  [F, of unkn. orig.]

   ricotta   n.  a soft Italian cheese.  [It., = recooked, f. L recoquere (as
             RE-, coquere cook)]

   ricrac    n.  (also rickrack) a zigzag braided trimming for garments.
             [redupl. of RACK(1)]

   RICS      abbr.  Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.

   rictus    n.  Anat. & Zool.  the expanse or gape of a mouth or beak.
             ЬЬrictal adj.  [L, = open mouth f.  ringi rict- to gape]

   rid       v.tr.  (ridding; past and past part.  rid or archaic ridded)
             (foll. by of) make (a person or place) free of something
             unwanted.  Ьbe (or get) rid of be freed or relieved of
             (something unwanted); dispose of.  [ME, earlier = 'clear (land
             etc.)' f. ON rythja]

   riddance  n.  the act of getting rid of something.  Ьgood riddance welcome
             relief from an unwanted person or thing.

   ridden    past part. of RIDE.

   riddle(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a question or statement testing ingenuity in
             divining its answer or meaning.  2 a puzzling fact or thing or
             person.  --v.  1 intr. speak in or propound riddles.  2 tr.
             solve or explain (a riddle).  ЬЬriddler n.  [OE r‘dels, r‘delse
             opinion, riddle, rel. to READ]

   riddle(2) v. & n.  --v.tr. (usu. foll. by with) 1 make many holes in, esp.
             with gunshot.  2 (in passive) fill; spread through; permeate
             (was riddled with errors).  3 pass through a riddle.  --n. a
             coarse sieve.  [OE hriddel, earlier hrider: cf.  hridrian sift]

   riddling  adj.  expressed in riddles; puzzling.  ЬЬriddlingly adv.

   ride      v. & n.  --v.  (past rode; past part.  ridden) 1 tr. travel or
             be carried on (a bicycle etc.) or esp.  US in (a vehicle).  2
             intr. (often foll. by on, in) travel or be conveyed (on a
             bicycle or in a vehicle).  3 tr. sit on and control or be
             carried by (a horse etc.).  4 intr. (often foll. by on) be
             carried (on a horse etc.).  5 tr. be carried or supported by
             (the ship rides the waves).  6 tr.  a traverse on horseback
             etc., ride over or through (ride 50 miles; rode the prairie).  b
             compete or take part in on horseback etc. (rode a good race).  7
             intr.  a lie at anchor; float buoyantly.  b (of the moon) seem
             to float.  8 intr. (foll. by in, on) rest in or on while moving.
             9 tr. yield to (a blow) so as to reduce its impact.  10 tr. give
             a ride to; cause to ride (rode the child on his back).  11 tr.
             (of a rider) cause (a horse etc.) to move forward (rode their
             horses at the fence).  12 tr.  a (in passive; foll. by by, with)
             be oppressed or dominated by; be infested with (was ridden with
             guilt).  b (as ridden adj.) infested or afflicted (usu. in
             comb.: a rat-ridden cellar).  13 intr. (of a thing normally
             level or even) project or overlap.  14 tr. mount (a female) in
             copulation.  15 tr.  US annoy or seek to annoy.  --n.  1 an act
             or period of travel in a vehicle.  2 a spell of riding on a
             horse, bicycle, person's back, etc.  3 a path (esp. through
             woods) for riding on.  4 the quality of sensations when riding
             (gives a bumpy ride).  Ьlet a thing ride leave it alone; let it
             take its natural course.  ride again reappear, esp. unexpectedly
             and reinvigorated.  ride down overtake or trample on horseback.
             ride for a fall act recklessly risking defeat or failure.  ride
             herd on see HERD.  ride high be elated or successful.  ride out
             come safely through (a storm etc., or a danger or difficulty).
             ride roughshod over see ROUGHSHOD.  ride to hounds see HOUND.
             ride up (of a garment, carpet, etc.) work or move out of its
             proper position.  take for a ride colloq.  hoax or deceive.
             ЬЬridable adj.  [OE ridan]

   rider     n.  1 a person who rides (esp. a horse).  2 a an additional
             clause amending or supplementing a document.  b Brit.  Parl. an
             addition or amendment to a bill at its third reading.  c a
             corollary.  d Brit. a recommendation etc. added to a judicial
             verdict.  3 Math. a problem arising as a corollary of a theorem
             etc.  4 a piece in a machine etc. that surmounts or bridges or
             works on or over others.  5 (in pl.) an additional set of
             timbers or iron plates strengthening a ship's frame.
             ЬЬriderless adj.  [OE ridere (as RIDE)]

   ridge     n. & v.  --n.  1 the line of the junction of two surfaces
             sloping upwards towards each other (the ridge of a roof).  2 a
             long narrow hilltop, mountain range, or watershed.  3 any narrow
             elevation across a surface.  4 Meteorol. an elongated region of
             high barometric pressure.  5 Agriculture a raised strip of
             arable land, usu. one of a set separated by furrows.  6 Hort. a
             raised hotbed for melons etc.  --v.  1 tr. mark with ridges.  2
             tr.  Agriculture break up (land) into ridges.  3 tr.  Hort.
             plant (cucumbers etc.) in ridges.  4 tr. & intr. gather into
             ridges.  Ьridge-piece (or -tree) a beam along the ridge of a
             roof.  ridge-pole 1 the horizontal pole of a long tent.  2 =
             ridge-piece.  ridge-tile a tile used in making a roof-ridge.
             ЬЬridgy adj.  [OE hrycg f. Gmc]

   ridgeway  n.  a road or track along a ridge.

   ridicule  n. & v.  --n. subjection to derision or mockery.  --v.tr. make
             fun of; subject to ridicule; laugh at.  [F or f. L ridiculum
             neut. of ridiculus laughable f.  ridere laugh]

             adj.  1 deserving or inviting ridicule.  2 unreasonable, absurd.
             ЬЬridiculously adv.  ridiculousness n.  [L ridiculosus (as

   riding(1) n.  1 in senses of RIDE v.  2 the practice or skill of riders of
             horses.  3 = RIDE n.  3.  Ьriding-light (or -lamp) a light shown
             by a ship at anchor.  riding-school an establishment teaching
             skills in horsemanship.

   riding(2) n.  1 each of three former administrative divisions (East
             Riding, North Riding, West Riding) of Yorkshire.  2 an electoral
             division of Canada.  [OE thriding (unrecorded) f. ON thrithjungr
             third part f.  thrithi THIRD: th- was lost owing to the
             preceding -t or -th of east etc.]

   Riesling  n.  1 a kind of dry white wine produced in Germany, Austria, and
             elsewhere.  2 the variety of grape from which this is produced.

   rife      predic.adj.  1 of common occurrence; widespread.  2 (foll. by
             with) abounding in; teeming with.  ЬЬrifeness n.  [OE ryfe prob.
             f. ON rЎfr acceptable f.  reifa enrich, reifr cheerful]

   riff      n. & v.  --n. a short repeated phrase in jazz etc.  --v.intr.
             play riffs.  [20th c.: abbr. of RIFFLE n.]

   riffle    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a turn (pages) in quick succession.  b
             shuffle (playing-cards) esp. by flexing and combining the two
             halves of a pack.  2 intr. (often foll. by through) leaf quickly
             (through pages).  --n.  1 the act or an instance of riffling.  2
             (in gold-washing) a groove or slat set in a trough or sluice to
             catch gold particles.  3 US a a shallow part of a stream where
             the water flows brokenly.  b a patch of waves or ripples on
             water.  [perh. var. of RUFFLE]

   riff-raff n.  (often prec. by the) rabble; disreputable or undesirable
             persons.  [ME riff and raff f. OF rif et raf]

   rifle(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a gun with a long rifled barrel, esp. one fired
             from shoulder-level.  2 (in pl.) riflemen.  --v.tr. make spiral
             grooves in (a gun or its barrel or bore) to make a bullet spin.
             Ьrifle bird any dark green Australian bird of paradise of the
             genus Ptiloris.  rifle-range a place for rifle-practice.
             rifle-shot 1 the distance coverable by a shot from a rifle.  2 a
             shot fired with a rifle.  [OF rifler graze, scratch f. Gmc]

   rifle(2)  v.tr. & (foll. by through) intr.  1 search and rob, esp. of all
             that can be found.  2 carry off as booty.  [ME f. OF rifler
             graze, scratch, plunder f. ODu.  riffelen]

   rifleman  n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a soldier armed with a rifle.  2 a small
             yellow and green New Zealand bird, Acanthisitta chloris.

   rifling   n.  the arrangement of grooves on the inside of a gun's barrel.

   rift      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a crack or split in an object.  b an opening
             in a cloud etc.  2 a cleft or fissure in earth or rock.  3 a
             disagreement; a breach in friendly relations.  --v.tr. tear or
             burst apart.  Ьrift-valley a steep-sided valley formed by
             subsidence of the earth's crust between nearly parallel faults.
             ЬЬriftless adj.  rifty adj.  [ME, of Scand. orig.]

   rig(1)    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (rigged, rigging) 1 a provide (a sailing ship)
             with sails, rigging, etc.  b prepare ready for sailing.  2
             (often foll. by out, up) fit with clothes or other equipment.  3
             (foll. by up) set up hastily or as a makeshift.  4 assemble and
             adjust the parts of (an aircraft).  --n.  1 the arrangement of
             masts, sails, rigging, etc., of a sailing ship.  2 equipment for
             a special purpose, e.g. a radio transmitter.  3 = oil rig.  4 a
             person's or thing's look as determined by clothing, equipment,
             etc., esp. uniform.  Ьin full rig colloq.  smartly or
             ceremonially dressed.  rig-out Brit.  colloq.  an outfit of
             clothes.  ЬЬrigged adj. (also in comb.).  [ME, perh. of Scand.
             orig.: cf. Norw.  rigga bind or wrap up]

   rig(2)    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (rigged, rigging) manage or conduct
             fraudulently (they rigged the election).  --n.  1 a trick or
             dodge.  2 a way of swindling.  Ьrig the market cause an
             artificial rise or fall in prices.  ЬЬrigger n.  [19th c.: orig.

   rigadoon  n.  1 a lively dance in duple or quadruple time for two persons.
             2 the music for this.  [F rigodon, rigaudon, perh. f. its
             inventor Rigaud]

   rigger    n.  1 a person who rigs or who arranges rigging.  2 (of a
             rowing-boat) = OUTRIGGER 5a.  3 a ship rigged in a specified
             way.  4 a worker on an oil rig.

   rigging   n.  1 a ship's spars, ropes, etc., supporting and controlling
             the sails.  2 the ropes and wires supporting the structure of an
             airship or biplane.

   right     adj., n., v., adv., & int.  --adj.  1 (of conduct etc.) just,
             morally or socially correct (it is only right to tell you; I
             want to do the right thing).  2 true, correct; not mistaken (the
             right time; you were right about the weather).  3 less wrong or
             not wrong (which is the right way to town?).  4 more or most
             suitable or preferable (the right person for the job; along the
             right lines).  5 in a sound or normal condition; physically or
             mentally healthy; satisfactory (the engine doesn't sound right).
             6 a on or towards the side of the human body which corresponds
             to the position of east if one regards oneself as facing north.
             b on or towards that part of an object which is analogous to a
             person's right side or (with opposite sense) which is nearer to
             a spectator's right hand.  7 (of a side of fabric etc.) meant
             for display or use (turn it right side up).  8 colloq. or
             archaic real; properly so called (made a right mess of it; a
             right royal welcome).  --n.  1 that which is morally or socially
             correct or just; fair treatment (often in pl.: the rights and
             wrongs of the case).  2 (often foll. by to, or to + infin.) a
             justification or fair claim (has no right to speak like that).
             3 a thing one may legally or morally claim; the state of being
             entitled to a privilege or immunity or authority to act (a right
             of reply; human rights).  4 the right-hand part or region or
             direction.  5 Boxing a the right hand.  b a blow with this.  6
             (often Right) Polit.  a a group or section favouring
             conservatism (orig. the more conservative section of a
             continental legislature, seated on the president's right).  b
             such conservatives collectively.  7 the side of a stage which is
             to the right of a person facing the audience.  8 (esp. in
             marching) the right foot.  9 the right wing of an army.  --v.tr.
             1 (often refl.) restore to a proper or straight or vertical
             position.  2 a correct (mistakes etc.); set in order.  b avenge
             (a wrong or a wronged person); make reparation for or to.  c
             vindicate, justify, rehabilitate.  --adv.  1 straight (go right
             on).  2 colloq. immediately; without delay (I'll be right back;
             do it right now).  3 a (foll. by to, round, through, etc.) all
             the way (sank right to the bottom; ran right round the block).
             b (foll. by off, out, etc.) completely (came right off its
             hinges; am right out of butter).  4 exactly, quite (right in the
             middle).  5 justly, properly, correctly, truly, satisfactorily
             (did not act right; not holding it right; if I remember right).
             6 on or to the right side.  7 archaic very; to the full (am
             right glad to hear it; dined right royally).  --int.  colloq.
             expressing agreement or assent.  Ьas right as rain perfectly
             sound and healthy.  at right angles placed to form a right
             angle.  by right (or rights) if right were done.  do right by
             act dutifully towards (a person).  in one's own right through
             one's own position or effort etc.  in the right having justice
             or truth on one's side.  in one's right mind sane; competent to
             think and act.  of (or as of) right having legal or moral etc.
             entitlement.  on the right side of 1 in the favour of (a person
             etc.).  2 somewhat less than (a specified age).  put (or set)
             right 1 restore to order, health, etc.  2 correct the mistaken
             impression etc. of (a person).  put (or set) to rights make
             correct or well ordered.  right about (or about-turn or
             about-face) 1 a right turn continued to face the rear.  2 a
             reversal of policy.  3 a hasty retreat.  right and left (or
             right, left, and centre) on all sides.  right angle an angle of
             90ш, made by lines meeting with equal angles on either side.
             right-angled 1 containing or making a right angle.  2 involving
             right angles, not oblique.  right arm one's most reliable
             helper.  right ascension see ASCENSION.  right away (or off)
             immediately.  right bank the bank of a river on the right facing
             downstream.  right bower see BOWER(3).  right field Baseball the
             part of the outfield to the right of the batter as he faces the
             pitcher.  right hand 1 = right-hand man.  2 the most important
             position next to a person (stand at God's right hand).
             right-hand adj.  1 on or towards the right side of a person or
             thing (right-hand drive).  2 done with the right hand
             (right-hand blow).  3 (of a screw) = RIGHT-HANDED 4b.
             right-hand man an indispensable or chief assistant.  Right
             Honourable Brit.  a title given to certain high officials, e.g.
             Privy Counsellors.  right-minded (or -thinking) having sound
             views and principles.  right of search Naut.  see SEARCH.  right
             of way 1 a right established by usage to pass over another's
             ground.  2 a path subject to such a right.  3 the right of one
             vehicle to proceed before another.  right oh!  (or ho!) =
             RIGHTO.  right on!  colloq.  an expression of strong approval or
             encouragement.  a right one Brit.  colloq.  a silly or foolish
             person.  Right Reverend see REVEREND.  right sphere Astron.  see
             SPHERE.  right turn a turn that brings one's front to face as
             one's right side did before.  right whale any large-headed whale
             of the family Balaenidae, rich in whalebone and easily captured.
             right wing 1 the right side of a football etc. team on the
             field.  2 the conservative section of a political party or
             system.  right-wing adj.  conservative or reactionary.
             right-winger a person on the right wing.  right you are!
             colloq.  an exclamation of assent.  she's (or she'll be) right
             Austral.  colloq.  that will be all right.  too right sl.  an
             expression of agreement.  within one's rights not exceeding
             one's authority or entitlement.  ЬЬrightable adj.  righter n.
             rightish adj.  rightless adj.  rightlessness n.  rightness n.
             [OE riht (adj.), rihtan (v.), rihte (adv.)]

   righten   v.tr.  make right or correct.

   righteous adj.  (of a person or conduct) morally right; virtuous,
             law-abiding.  ЬЬrighteously adv.  righteousness n.  [OE rihtwis
             (as RIGHT n. + -WISE or RIGHT adj. + WISE(2)), assim. to
             bounteous etc.]

   rightful  adj.  1 a (of a person) legitimately entitled to (a position
             etc.)  (the rightful heir).  b (of status or property etc.) that
             one is entitled to.  2 (of an action etc.) equitable, fair.
             ЬЬrightfully adv.  rightfulness n.  [OE rihtful (as RIGHT n.)]

             adj.  1 using the right hand by preference as more serviceable
             than the left.  2 (of a tool etc.) made to be used with the
             right hand.  3 (of a blow) struck with the right hand.  4 a
             turning to the right; towards the right.  b (of a screw)
             advanced by turning to the right (clockwise).  ЬЬright-handedly
             adv.  right-handedness n.

             n.  1 a right-handed person.  2 a right-handed blow.

   rightism  n.  Polit.  the principles or policy of the right.  ЬЬrightist
             n. & adj.

   rightly   adv.  justly, properly, correctly, justifiably.

   rightmost adj.  furthest to the right.

   righto    intr.  Brit.  colloq.  expressing agreement or assent.

   rightward adv. & adj.  --adv.  (also rightwards) towards the right.
             --adj. going towards or facing the right.

   rigid     adj.  1 not flexible; that cannot be bent (a rigid frame).  2
             (of a person, conduct, etc.) inflexible, unbending, strict,
             harsh, punctilious (a rigid disciplinarian; rigid economy).
             ЬЬrigidity n.  rigidly adv.  rigidness n.  [F rigide or L
             rigidus f.  rigere be stiff]

   rigidify  v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) make or become rigid.

   rigmarole n.  1 a lengthy and complicated procedure.  2 a a rambling or
             meaningless account or tale.  b such talk.  [orig.  ragman roll
             = a catalogue, of unkn. orig.]

   rigor(1)  n.  Med.  1 a sudden feeling of cold with shivering accompanied
             by a rise in temperature, preceding a fever etc.  2 rigidity of
             the body caused by shock or poisoning etc.  [ME f. L f.  rigere
             be stiff]

   rigor(2)  US var. of RIGOUR.

   rigor mortis
             n.  stiffening of the body after death.  [L, = stiffness of

   rigorous  adj.  1 characterized by or showing rigour; strict, severe.  2
             strictly exact or accurate.  3 (of the weather) cold, severe.
             ЬЬrigorously adv.  rigorousness n.  [OF rigorous or LL rigorosus
             (as RIGOR(1))]

   rigour    n.  (US rigor) 1 a severity, strictness, harshness.  b (in pl.)
             harsh measures or conditions.  2 logical exactitude.  3 strict
             enforcement of rules etc. (the utmost rigour of the law).  4
             austerity of life; puritanical discipline.  [ME f. OF rigour f.
             L rigor (as RIGOR(1))]

   Rig-Veda  n.  the oldest and principal of the Hindu Vedas (see VEDA).
             [Skr.  rigveda f.  ric praise + veda VEDA]

   rile      v.tr.  1 colloq. anger, irritate.  2 US make (water) turbulent
             or muddy.  [var. of ROIL]

   Riley     n.  (also Reilly) Ьthe life of Riley colloq.  a carefree
             existence.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rilievo   var. of RELIEVO.

   rill      n.  1 a small stream.  2 a shallow channel cut in the surface of
             soil or rocks by running water.  3 var. of RILLE.  [LG ril,

   rille     n.  (also rill) Astron.  a cleft or narrow valley on the moon's
             surface.  [G (as RILL)]

   rim       n. & v.  --n.  1 a a raised edge or border.  b a margin or
             verge, esp. of something circular.  2 the part of a pair of
             spectacles surrounding the lenses.  3 the outer edge of a wheel,
             on which the tyre is fitted.  4 a boundary line (the rim of the
             horizon).  --v.tr.  (rimmed, rimming) 1 a provide with a rim.  b
             be a rim for or to.  2 edge, border.  Ьrim-brake a brake acting
             on the rim of a wheel.  ЬЬrimless adj.  rimmed adj. (also in
             comb.).  [OE rima edge: cf. ON rimi ridge (the only known

   rime(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 frost, esp. formed from cloud or fog.  2 poet.
             hoar-frost.  --v.tr. cover with rime.  [OE hrim]

   rime(2)   archaic var. of RHYME.

   rimose    adj.  (also rimous) esp. Bot.  full of chinks or fissures.  [L
             rimosus f.  rima chink]

   rimu      n.  NZ a softwood tree, Dacrydium cupressinum, native to New
             Zealand.  [Maori]

   rimy      adj.  (rimier, rimiest) frosty; covered with frost.

   rind      n. & v.  --n.  1 the tough outer layer or covering of fruit and
             vegetables, cheese, bacon, etc.  2 the bark of a tree or plant.
             --v.tr. strip the bark from.  ЬЬrinded adj. (also in comb.).
             rindless adj.  [OE rind(e)]

             n.  a virulent infectious disease of ruminants (esp. cattle).
             [G f.  Rinder cattle + Pest PEST]

   ring(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a circular band, usu. of precious metal, worn
             on a finger as an ornament or a token of marriage or betrothal.
             2 a circular band of any material.  3 the rim of a cylindrical
             or circular object, or a line or band round it.  4 a mark or
             part having the form of a circular band (had rings round his
             eyes; smoke rings).  5 = annual ring.  6 a an enclosure for a
             circus performance, betting at races, the showing of cattle,
             etc.  b (prec. by the) bookmakers collectively.  c a roped
             enclosure for boxing or wrestling.  7 a a group of people or
             things arranged in a circle.  b such an arrangement.  8 a
             combination of traders, bookmakers, spies, politicians, etc.
             acting together usu. illicitly for the control of operations or
             profit.  9 a circular or spiral course.  10 = gas ring.  11
             Astron.  a a thin band or disc of particles etc. round a planet.
             b a halo round the moon.  12 Archaeol. a circular prehistoric
             earthwork usu. of a bank and ditch.  13 Chem. a group of atoms
             each bonded to two others in a closed sequence.  14 Math. a set
             of elements with two binary operations, addition and
             multiplication, the second being distributive over the first and
             associative.  --v.tr.  1 make or draw a circle round.  2 (often
             foll. by round, about, in) encircle or hem in (game or cattle).
             3 put a ring on (a bird etc.) or through the nose of (a pig,
             bull, etc.).  4 cut (fruit, vegetables, etc.) into rings.
             Ьring-binder a loose-leaf binder with ring-shaped clasps that
             can be opened to pass through holes in the paper.  ring circuit
             an electrical circuit serving a number of power points with one
             fuse in the supply to the circuit.  ring-dove 1 the woodpigeon.
             2 the collared dove.  ringed plover either of two small plovers,
             Charadrius hiaticula and C. dubius.  ring finger the finger next
             to the little finger, esp. of the left hand, on which the
             wedding ring is usu. worn.  ring main 1 an electrical supply
             serving a series of consumers and returning to the original
             source, so that each consumer has an alternative path in the
             event of a failure.  2 = ring circuit.  ring-neck any of various
             ring-necked birds esp. a type of pheasant, Phasianus colchicus,
             with a white neck-ring.  ring-necked Zool.  having a band or
             bands of colour round the neck.  ring ouzel a thrush, Turdus
             torquatus, with a white crescent across its breast.  ring-pull
             (of a tin) having a ring for pulling to break its seal.  ring
             road a bypass encircling a town.  ring-tailed 1 (of monkeys,
             lemurs, racoons, etc.) having a tail ringed in alternate
             colours.  2 with the tail curled at the end.  run (or make)
             rings round colloq.  outclass or outwit (another person).
             ЬЬringed adj. (also in comb.).  ringless adj.  [OE hring f. Gmc]

   ring(2)   v. & n.  --v.  (past rang; past part.  rung) 1 intr. (often
             foll. by out etc.) give a clear resonant or vibrating sound of
             or as of a bell (a shot rang out; a ringing laugh; the telephone
             rang).  2 tr.  a make (esp. a bell) ring.  b (absol.) call for
             service or attention by ringing a bell (you rang, madam?).  3
             tr. (also absol.; often foll. by up) Brit. call by telephone
             (will ring you on Monday; did you ring?).  4 intr. (usu. foll.
             by with, to) (of a place) resound or be permeated with a sound,
             or an attribute, e.g. fame (the theatre rang with applause).  5
             intr. (of the ears) be filled with a sensation of ringing.  6
             tr.  a sound (a peal etc.) on bells.  b (of a bell) sound (the
             hour etc.).  7 tr. (foll. by in, out) usher in or out with
             bell-ringing (ring in the May; rang out the Old Year).  8 intr.
             (of sentiments etc.) convey a specified impression (words rang
             hollow).  --n.  1 a ringing sound or tone.  2 a the act of
             ringing a bell.  b the sound caused by this.  3 colloq. a
             telephone call (give me a ring).  4 a specified feeling conveyed
             by an utterance (had a melancholy ring).  5 a set of esp. church
             bells.  Ьring back make a return telephone call to (a person who
             has telephoned earlier).  ring a bell see BELL(1).  ring the
             changes (on) see CHANGE.  ring down (or up) the curtain 1 cause
             the curtain to be lowered or raised.  2 (foll. by on) mark the
             end or the beginning of (an enterprise etc.).  ring in 1 report
             or make contact by telephone.  2 Austral. & NZ sl. substitute
             fraudulently.  ring in one's ears (or heart etc.) linger in the
             memory.  ringing tone a sound heard by a telephone caller when
             the number dialled is being rung.  ring off Brit.  end a
             telephone call by replacing the receiver.  ring true (or false)
             convey an impression of truth or falsehood.  ring up 1 Brit.
             call by telephone.  2 record (an amount etc.) on a cash
             register.  ЬЬringed adj. (also in comb.).  ringer n.  ringing
             adj.  ringingly adv.  [OE hringan]

   ringbark  v.tr.  cut a ring in the bark of (a tree) to kill it or retard
             its growth and thereby improve fruit production.

   ringbolt  n.  a bolt with a ring attached for fitting a rope to etc.

   ringer    n.  sl.  1 a esp.  US an athlete or horse entered in a
             competition by fraudulent means, esp. as a substitute.  b a
             person's double, esp. an imposter.  2 Austral.  a the fastest
             shearer in a shed.  b a stockman or station hand.  3 a person
             who rings, esp. a bell-ringer.  Ьbe a ringer (or dead ringer)
             for resemble (a person) exactly.  [RING(2) + -ER(1)]

   ringhals  n.  a large venomous snake, Hemachatus hemachatus, of Southern
             Africa, with a white ring or two across the neck.  [Afrik.
             rinkhals f.  ring RING(1) + hals neck]

             n.  a leading instigator in an illicit or illegal activity.

   ringlet   n.  1 a curly lock of hair, esp. a long one.  2 a butterfly,
             Aphantopus hyperantus, with spots on its wings.  ЬЬringleted
             adj.  ringlety adj.

             n.  the person directing a circus performance.

   ringside  n.  the area immediately beside a boxing ring or circus ring
             etc.  (often attrib.: a ringside seat; a ringside view).
             ЬЬringsider n.

   ringster  n.  a person who participates in a political or commercial ring
             (see RING(1) n.  8).

   ringtail  n.  1 a ring-tailed opossum, lemur, or phalanger.  2 a golden
             eagle up to its third year.  3 a female hen-harrier.

   ringworm  n.  any of various fungous infections of the skin causing
             circular inflamed patches, esp. on a child's scalp.

   rink      n.  1 an area of natural or artificial ice for skating or the
             game of curling etc.  2 an enclosed area for roller-skating.  3
             a building containing either of these.  4 Bowls a strip of the
             green used for playing a match.  5 a team in bowls or curling.
             [ME (orig. Sc.), = jousting-ground: perh. orig. f. OF renc

   rinse     v. & n.  --v.tr. (often foll. by through, out) 1 wash with clean
             water.  2 apply liquid to.  3 wash lightly.  4 put (clothes
             etc.) through clean water to remove soap or detergent.  5 (foll.
             by out, away) clear (impurities) by rinsing.  --n.  1 the act or
             an instance of rinsing (give it a rinse).  2 a solution for
             cleansing the mouth.  3 a dye for the temporary tinting of hair
             (a blue rinse).  ЬЬrinser n.  [ME f. OF rincer, raincier, of
             unkn. orig.]

   riot      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a disturbance of the peace by a crowd; an
             occurrence of public disorder.  b (attrib.) involved in
             suppressing riots (riot police; riot shield).  2 uncontrolled
             revelry; noisy behaviour.  3 (foll. by of) a lavish display or
             enjoyment (a riot of emotion; a riot of colour and sound).  4
             colloq. a very amusing thing or person.  --v.intr.  1 make or
             engage in a riot.  2 live wantonly; revel.  Ьread the Riot Act
             put a firm stop to insubordination etc.; give a severe warning
             (from the name of a former act partly read out to disperse
             rioters).  run riot 1 throw off all restraint.  2 (of plants)
             grow or spread uncontrolled.  ЬЬrioter n.  riotless adj.  [ME f.
             OF riote, rioter, rihoter, of unkn. orig.]

   riotous   adj.  1 marked by or involving rioting.  2 characterized by
             wanton conduct.  3 wildly profuse.  ЬЬriotously adv.
             riotousness n.  [ME f. OF (as RIOT)]

   RIP       abbr.  may he or she or they rest in peace.  [L requiescat (pl.
             requiescant) in pace]

   rip(1)    v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  (ripped, ripping) 1 tr. tear or cut (a
             thing) quickly or forcibly away or apart (ripped out the lining;
             ripped the book up).  2 tr.  a make (a hole etc.) by ripping.  b
             make a long tear or cut in.  3 intr. come violently apart;
             split.  4 intr. rush along.  --n.  1 a long tear or cut.  2 an
             act of ripping.  Ьlet rip colloq.  1 act or proceed without
             restraint.  2 speak violently.  3 not check the speed of or
             interfere with (a person or thing).  rip-cord a cord for
             releasing a parachute from its pack.  rip into attack (a person)
             verbally.  rip off colloq.  defraud, steal.  rip-off n.  colloq.
             1 a fraud or swindle.  2 financial exploitation.  [ME: orig.

   rip(2)    n.  a stretch of rough water in the sea or in a river, caused by
             the meeting of currents.  Ьrip current (or tide) 1 a strong
             surface current from the shore.  2 a state of conflicting
             psychological forces.  [18th c.: perh. rel. to RIP(1)]

   rip(3)    n.  1 a dissolute person.  2 a rascal.  3 a worthless horse.
             [perh. f.  rep, abbr. of REPROBATE]

   riparian  adj. & n.  esp. Law --adj. of or on a river-bank (riparian
             rights).  --n. an owner of property on a river-bank.  [L
             riparius f.  ripa bank]

   ripe      adj.  1 (of grain, fruit, cheese, etc.) ready to be reaped or
             picked or eaten.  2 mature; fully developed (ripe in judgement;
             a ripe beauty).  3 (of a person's age) advanced.  4 (often foll.
             by for) fit or ready (when the time is ripe; land ripe for
             development).  5 (of the complexion etc.) red and full like ripe
             fruit.  ЬЬripely adv.  ripeness n.  [OE ripe f. WG]

   ripen     v.tr. & intr.  make or become ripe.

   ripieno   n.  (pl.  -os or ripieni) Mus.  a body of accompanying
             instruments in baroque concerto music.  [It. (as RE-, pieno

   riposte   n. & v.  --n.  1 a quick sharp reply or retort.  2 a quick
             return thrust in fencing.  --v.intr. deliver a riposte.  [F
             ri(s)poste, ri(s)poster f. It.  risposta RESPONSE]

   ripper    n.  1 a person or thing that rips.  2 a murderer who rips the
             victims' bodies.

   ripping   adj.  Brit.  archaic colloq.  very enjoyable (a ripping good
             yarn).  ЬЬrippingly adv.

   ripple(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a ruffling of the water's surface, a small wave
             or series of waves.  2 a gentle lively sound that rises and
             falls, e.g. of laughter or applause.  3 a wavy appearance in
             hair, material, etc.  4 Electr. a slight variation in the
             strength of a current etc.  5 ice-cream with added syrup giving
             a coloured ripple effect (raspberry ripple).  6 US a riffle in a
             stream.  --v.  1 a intr. form ripples; flow in ripples.  b tr.
             cause to do this.  2 intr. show or sound like ripples.  Ьripple
             mark a ridge or ridged surface left on sand, mud, or rock by the
             action of water or wind.  ЬЬripplet n.  ripply adj.  [17th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   ripple(2) n. & v.  --n. a toothed implement used to remove seeds from
             flax.  --v.tr. treat with a ripple.  [corresp. to MDu. & MLG
             repel(en), OHG riffila, rifilon]

   riprap    n.  US a collection of loose stone as a foundation for a
             structure.  [redupl. of RAP(1)]

             adj.  1 wildly noisy or boisterous.  2 excellent, first-rate.
             ЬЬrip-roaringly adv.

   ripsaw    n.  a coarse saw for sawing wood along the grain.

             n.  colloq.  an energetic, remarkable, or excellent person or
             thing.  ЬЬripsnorting adj.  ripsnortingly adv.

   rise      v. & n.  --v.intr.  (past rose; past part.  risen) 1 move from a
             lower position to a higher one; come or go up.  2 grow, project,
             expand, or incline upwards; become higher.  3 (of the sun, moon,
             or stars) appear above the horizon.  4 a get up from lying or
             sitting or kneeling (rose to their feet; rose from the table).
             b get out of bed, esp. in the morning (do you rise early?).  5
             recover a standing or vertical position; become erect (rose to
             my full height).  6 (of a meeting etc.) cease to sit for
             business; adjourn (Parliament rises next week; the court will
             rise).  7 reach a higher position or level or amount (the flood
             has risen; prices are rising).  8 develop greater intensity,
             strength, volume, or pitch (the colour rose in her cheeks; the
             wind is rising; their voices rose with excitement).  9 make
             progress; reach a higher social position (rose from the ranks).
             10 a come to the surface of liquid (bubbles rose from the
             bottom; waited for the fish to rise).  b (of a person) react to
             provocation (rise to the bait).  11 become or be visible above
             the surroundings etc., stand prominently (mountains rose to our
             right).  12 a (of buildings etc.) undergo construction from the
             foundations (office blocks were rising all around).  b (of a
             tree etc.) grow to a (usu. specified) height.  13 come to life
             again (rise from the ashes; risen from the dead).  14 (of dough)
             swell by the action of yeast etc.  15 (often foll. by up) cease
             to be quiet or submissive; rebel (rise in arms).  16 originate;
             have as its source (the river rises in the mountains).  17 (of
             wind) start to blow.  18 (of a person's spirits) become
             cheerful.  19 (of a barometer) show a higher atmospheric
             pressure.  20 (of a horse) rear (rose on its hind legs).  21 (of
             a bump, blister, etc.) form.  22 (of the stomach) show nausea.
             --n.  1 an act or manner or amount of rising.  2 an upward slope
             or hill or movement (a rise in the road; the house stood on a
             rise; the rise and fall of the waves).  3 an increase in sound
             or pitch.  4 a an increase in amount, extent, etc. (a rise in
             unemployment).  b Brit. an increase in salary, wages, etc.  5 an
             increase in status or power.  6 social, commercial, or political
             advancement; upward progress.  7 the movement of fish to the
             surface.  8 origin.  9 a the vertical height of a step, arch,
             incline, etc.  b = RISER 2.  Ьget (or take) a rise out of
             colloq.  provoke an emotional reaction from (a person), esp. by
             teasing.  on the rise on the increase.  rise above 1 be superior
             to (petty feelings etc.).  2 show dignity or strength in the
             face of (difficulty, poor conditions, etc.).  rise and shine
             (usu. as imper.) colloq.  get out of bed smartly; wake up.  rise
             in the world attain a higher social position.  rise to develop
             powers equal to (an occasion).  rise with the sun (or lark) get
             up early in the morning.  [OE risan f. Gmc]

   riser     n.  1 a person who rises esp. from bed (an early riser).  2 a
             vertical section between the treads of a staircase.  3 a
             vertical pipe for the flow of liquid or gas.

   rishi     n.  (pl.  rishis) a Hindu sage or saint.  [Skr.  risi]

   risible   adj.  1 laughable, ludicrous.  2 inclined to laugh.  3 Anat.
             relating to laughter (risible nerves).  ЬЬrisibility n.  risibly
             adv.  [LL risibilis f. L ridere ris- laugh]

   rising    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 going up; getting higher.  2 increasing
             (rising costs).  3 advancing to maturity or high standing (the
             rising generation; a rising young lawyer).  4 approaching a
             specified age (the rising fives).  5 (of ground) sloping
             upwards.  --n. a revolt or insurrection.  Ьrising damp moisture
             absorbed from the ground into a wall.

   risk      n. & v.  --n.  1 a chance or possibility of danger, loss,
             injury, or other adverse consequences (a health risk; a risk of
             fire).  2 a person or thing causing a risk or regarded in
             relation to risk (is a poor risk).  --v.tr.  1 expose to risk.
             2 accept the chance of (could not risk getting wet).  3 venture
             on.  Ьat risk exposed to danger.  at one's (own) risk accepting
             responsibility, agreeing to make no claims.  at the risk of with
             the possibility of (an adverse consequence).  put at risk expose
             to danger.  risk capital money put up for speculative business
             investment.  risk one's neck put one's own life in danger.  run
             a (or the) risk (often foll. by of) expose oneself to danger or
             loss etc.  take (or run) a risk chance the possibility of danger
             etc.  [F risque, risquer f. It.  risco danger, riscare run into

   risky     adj.  (riskier, riskiest) 1 involving risk.  2 = RISQUђ.
             ЬЬriskily adv.  riskiness n.

             n.  hist.  a movement for the unification and independence of
             Italy (achieved in 1870).  [It., = resurrection]

   risotto   n.  (pl.  -os) an Italian dish of rice cooked in stock with
             meat, onions, etc.  [It.]

   risqu‚    adj.  (of a story etc.) slightly indecent or liable to shock.
             [F, past part. of risquer RISK]

   rissole   n.  a compressed mixture of meat and spices, coated in
             breadcrumbs and fried.  [F f. OF ruissole, roussole ult. f. LL
             russeolus reddish f. L russus red]

   rit.      abbr.  Mus.  ritardando.

             adv. & n.  Mus.  (pl.  -os or ritardandi) = RALLENTANDO.  [It.]

   rite      n.  1 a religious or solemn observance or act (burial rites).  2
             an action or procedure required or usual in this.  3 a body of
             customary observances characteristic of a Church or a part of it
             (the Latin rite).  Ьrite of passage (often in pl.) a ritual or
             event marking a stage of a person's advance through life, e.g.
             marriage.  ЬЬriteless adj.  [ME f. OF rit, rite or L ritus (esp.
             religious) usage]

   ritenuto  adv. & n.  Mus.  --adv. with immediate reduction of speed.  --n.
             (pl.  -os or ritenuti) a passage played in this way.  [It.]

             n.  Mus.  (pl.  -os or ritornelli) a short instrumental refrain,
             interlude, etc., in a vocal work.  [It., dimin. of ritorno

   ritual    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a prescribed order of performing rites.  2 a
             procedure regularly followed.  --adj. of or done as a ritual or
             rites (ritual murder).  ЬЬritualize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).
             ritualization n.  (also -isation).  ritually adv.  [L ritualis
             (as RITE)]

   ritualism n.  the regular or excessive practice of ritual.  ЬЬritualist n.
             ritualistic adj.  ritualistically adv.

   ritzy     adj.  (ritzier, ritziest) colloq.  1 high-class, luxurious.  2
             ostentatiously smart.  ЬЬritzily adv.  ritziness n.  [Ritz, the
             name of luxury hotels f. C.  Ritz, Swiss hotel-owner d. 1918]

   rival     n. & v.  --n.  1 a person competing with another for the same
             objective.  2 a person or thing that equals another in quality.
             3 (attrib.) being a rival or rivals (a rival firm).  --v.tr.
             (rivalled, rivalling; US rivaled, rivaling) 1 be the rival of or
             comparable to.  2 seem or claim to be as good as.  [L rivalis,
             orig. = using the same stream, f.  rivus stream]

   rivalry   n.  (pl.  -ies) the state or an instance of being rivals;

   rive      v.  (past rived; past part.  riven) archaic or poet.  1 tr.
             split or tear apart violently.  2 a tr. split (wood or stone).
             b intr. be split.  [ME f. ON rЎfa]

   river     n.  1 a copious natural stream of water flowing in a channel to
             the sea or a lake etc.  2 a copious flow (a river of lava;
             rivers of blood).  3 (attrib.) (in the names of animals, plants,
             etc.) living in or associated with the river.  Ьriver blindness
             a tropical disease of the skin caused by a parasitic worm, the
             larvae of which can migrate into the eye and cause blindness.
             river capture the diversion of the upper headwaters of a
             mountain stream into a more powerful one.  sell down the river
             colloq.  betray or let down.  ЬЬrivered adj. (also in comb.).
             riverless adj.  [ME f. AF river, rivere, OF riviere river or
             river-bank ult. f. L riparius f.  ripa bank]

   riverine  adj.  of or on a river or river-bank; riparian.

   riverside n.  the ground along a river-bank.

   rivet     n. & v.  --n. a nail or bolt for holding together metal plates
             etc., its headless end being beaten out or pressed down when in
             place.  --v.tr.  (riveted, riveting) 1 a join or fasten with
             rivets.  b beat out or press down the end of (a nail or bolt).
             c fix; make immovable.  2 a (foll. by on, upon) direct intently
             (one's eyes or attention etc.).  b (esp. as riveting adj.)
             engross (a person or the attention).  ЬЬriveter n.  [ME f. OF f.
             river clench, of unkn. orig.]

   riviera   n.  a coastal region with a subtropical climate, vegetation,
             etc., esp. that of SE France and NW Italy.  [It., = sea-shore]

   riviЉre   n.  a gem necklace, esp. of more than one string.  [F, = RIVER]

   rivulet   n.  a small stream.  [obs.  riveret f. F, dimin. of riviЉre
             RIVER, perh. after It.  rivoletto dimin. of rivolo dimin. of
             rivo f. L rivus stream]

   riyal     var. of RIAL.

11.0 RL...

   RL        abbr.  Rugby League.

   rly.      abbr.  railway.

12.0 RM...

   RM        abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Marines.  2 Resident Magistrate.  3
             (in the UK) Royal Mail.

   rm.       abbr.  room.

   RMA       abbr.  Royal Military Academy.

   r.m.s.    abbr.  Math.  root-mean-square.

13.0 RN...

   RN        abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Navy.  2 (in the UK) Registered

   Rn        symb.  Chem.  the element radon.

   RNA       abbr.  ribonucleic acid.

   RNAS      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Naval Air Service (or Station).

   RNLI      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal National Lifeboat Institution.

   RNZAF     abbr.  Royal New Zealand Air Force.

   RNZN      abbr.  Royal New Zealand Navy.

14.0 roach...

   roach(1)  n.  (pl. same) a small freshwater fish, esp.  Rutilus rutilus,
             allied to the carp.  [ME f. OF roc(h)e, of unkn. orig.]

   roach(2)  n.  1 US colloq. a cockroach.  2 sl. the butt of a marijuana
             cigarette.  [abbr.]

   roach(3)  n.  Naut.  an upward curve in the foot of a square sail.  [18th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   road(1)   n.  1 a a path or way with a specially prepared surface, used by
             vehicles, pedestrians, etc.  b the part of this used by vehicles
             (don't step in the road).  2 one's way or route (our road took
             us through unexplored territory).  3 an underground passage in a
             mine.  4 US a railway.  5 (usu. in pl.) a partly sheltered piece
             of water near the shore in which ships can ride at anchor.  Ьby
             road using transport along roads.  get out of the (or my etc.)
             road colloq.  cease to obstruct a person.  in the (or my etc.)
             road colloq.  obstructing a person or thing.  one for the road
             colloq.  a final (esp. alcoholic) drink before departure.  on
             the road travelling, esp. as a firm's representative, itinerant
             performer, or vagrant.  road fund Brit.  hist.  a fund for the
             construction and maintenance of roads and bridges.  road fund
             licence Brit.  a disc displayed on a vehicle certifying payment
             of road tax.  road-hog colloq.  a reckless or inconsiderate
             road-user, esp. a motorist.  road-holding the capacity of a
             moving vehicle to remain stable when cornering at high speeds
             etc.  road-house an inn or club on a major road.  road hump =
             sleeping policeman (see SLEEP).  road-manager the organizer and
             supervisor of a musicians' tour.  road-map a map showing the
             roads of a country or area.  road-metal broken stone used in
             road-making or for railway ballast.  road sense a person's
             capacity for safe behaviour on the road, esp. in traffic.  road
             show 1 a a performance given by a touring company, esp. a group
             of pop musicians.  b a company giving such performances.  2 a
             radio or television programme done on location.  road sign a
             sign giving information or instructions to road users.  road tax
             a periodic tax payable on road vehicles.  road test a test of
             the performance of a vehicle on the road.  road-test v.tr.  test
             (a vehicle) on the road.  the road to the way of getting to or
             achieving (the road to London; the road to ruin).  road train a
             large lorry pulling one or more trailers.  rule of the road the
             custom or law regulating which side of the road is to be taken
             by vehicles (also riders or ships) meeting or passing each
             other.  take the road set out.  ЬЬroadless adj.  [OE rad f.
             ridan RIDE]

   road(2)   v.tr.  (also absol.) (of a dog) follow up (a game-bird) by the
             scent of its trail.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   roadbed   n.  1 the foundation structure of a railway.  2 the material
             laid down to form a road.  3 US the part of a road on which
             vehicles travel.

   roadblock n.  a barrier or barricade on a road, esp. one set up by the
             authorities to stop and examine traffic.

   roadie    n.  colloq.  an assistant employed by a touring band of
             musicians to erect and maintain equipment.

   roadman   n.  (pl.  -men) a man employed to repair or maintain roads.

             n.  a motor vehicle with a heavy roller, used in road-making.

             n.  a bird of Mexican and US deserts, Geococcyx californianus,
             related to the cuckoo, and a poor flier but fast runner.

   roadside  n.  the strip of land beside a road.

   roadstead n.  = ROAD(1) 5.  [ROAD(1) + stead in obs. sense 'place']

   roadster  n.  1 an open car without rear seats.  2 a horse or bicycle for
             use on the road.

   roadway   n.  1 a road.  2 = ROAD(1) 1b.  3 the part of a bridge or
             railway used for traffic.

   roadwork  n.  1 (in pl.) the construction or repair of roads, or other
             work involving digging up a road surface.  2 athletic exercise
             or training involving running on roads.

             adj.  1 fit to be used on the road.  2 (of a person) fit to
             travel.  ЬЬroadworthiness n.

   roam      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. ramble, wander.  2 tr. travel
             unsystematically over, through, or about.  --n. an act of
             roaming; a ramble.  ЬЬroamer n.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   roan(1)   adj. & n.  --adj. (of an animal, esp. a horse or cow) having a
             coat of which the prevailing colour is thickly interspersed with
             hairs of another colour, esp. bay or sorrel or chestnut mixed
             with white or grey.  --n. a roan animal.  Ьblue roan adj.  black
             mixed with white.  --n. a blue roan animal.  red roan adj.  bay
             mixed with white or grey.  --n. a red roan animal.  strawberry
             roan adj.  chestnut mixed with white or grey.  --n. a strawberry
             roan animal.  [OF, of unkn. orig.]

   roan(2)   n.  soft sheepskin leather used in bookbinding as a substitute
             for morocco.  [ME, perh. f.  Roan, old name of Rouen in N.

   roar      n. & v.  --n.  1 a loud deep hoarse sound, as made by a lion, a
             person in pain or rage or excitement, thunder, a loud engine,
             etc.  2 a loud laugh.  --v.  1 intr.  a utter or make a roar.  b
             utter loud laughter.  c (of a horse) make a loud noise in
             breathing as a symptom of disease.  2 intr. travel in a vehicle
             at high speed, esp. with the engine roaring.  3 tr. (often foll.
             by out) say, sing, or utter (words, an oath, etc.) in a loud
             tone.  ЬЬroarer n.  [OE rarian, of imit. orig.]

   roaring   adj.  in senses of ROAR v.  Ьroaring drunk very drunk and noisy.
             roaring forties stormy ocean tracts between lat. 40ш and 50ш S.
             roaring trade (or business) very brisk trade or business.
             roaring twenties the decade of the 1920s (with ref. to its
             postwar buoyancy).  ЬЬroaringly adv.

   roast     v., adj., & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a cook (food, esp. meat) in an oven
             or by exposure to open heat.  b heat (coffee beans) before
             grinding.  2 tr. heat (the ore of metal) in a furnace.  3 tr.  a
             expose (a torture victim) to fire or great heat.  b tr. & refl.
             expose (oneself or part of oneself) to warmth.  4 tr. criticize
             severely, denounce.  5 intr. undergo roasting.  --attrib.adj.
             (of meat or a potato, chestnut, etc.) roasted.  --n.  1 a roast
             meat.  b a dish of this.  c a piece of meat for roasting.  2 the
             process of roasting.  3 US a party where roasted food is eaten.
             [ME f. OF rost, rostir, f. Gmc]

   roaster   n.  1 a person or thing that roasts.  2 a an oven or dish for
             roasting food in.  b an ore-roasting furnace.  c a
             coffee-roasting apparatus.  3 something fit for roasting, e.g. a
             fowl, a potato, etc.

   roasting  adj. & n.  --adj. very hot.  --n.  1 in senses of ROAST v.  2 a
             severe criticism or denunciation.

   rob       v.tr.  (robbed, robbing) (often foll. by of) 1 take unlawfully
             from, esp. by force or threat of force (robbed the safe; robbed
             her of her jewels).  2 deprive of what is due or normal (was
             robbed of my sleep).  3 (absol.) commit robbery.  Ьrob Peter to
             pay Paul take away from one to give to another, discharge one
             debt by incurring another.  [ME f. OF rob(b)er f. Gmc: cf.

   robber    n.  a person who commits robbery.  Ьrobber baron 1 a plundering
             feudal lord.  2 an unscrupulous plutocrat.  [ME f. AF & OF (as

   robbery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a the act or process of robbing, esp. with
             force or threat of force.  b an instance of this.  2 excessive
             financial demand or cost (set us back њ20 - it was sheer
             robbery).  [ME f. OF roberie (as ROB)]

   robe      n. & v.  --n.  1 a long loose outer garment.  2 esp.  US a
             dressing-gown.  3 a baby's outer garment esp. at a christening.
             4 (often in pl.) a long outer garment worn as an indication of
             the wearer's rank, office, profession, etc.; a gown or vestment.
             5 US a blanket or wrap of fur.  --v.  1 tr. clothe (a person) in
             a robe; dress.  2 intr. put on one's robes or vestments.  [ME f.
             OF f. Gmc (as ROB, orig. sense 'booty')]

   robin     n.  1 (also robin redbreast) a small brown European bird,
             Erithacus rubecula, the adult of which has a red throat and
             breast.  2 US a red-breasted thrush, Turdus migratorius.  3 a
             bird similar in appearance etc. to either of these.  ЬRobin Hood
             (with ref. to the legend of the medieval forest outlaw) a person
             who acts illegally or unfavourably towards the rich for the
             benefit of the poor.  [ME f. OF, familiar var. of the name

   robinia   n.  any N. American tree or shrub of the genus Robinia, e.g. a
             locust tree or false acacia.  [mod.L, f. J.  Robin, 17th-c.
             French gardener]

   roborant  adj. & n.  Med.  --adj. strengthening.  --n. a strengthening
             drug.  [L roborare f.  robur -oris strength]

   robot     n.  1 a machine with a human appearance or functioning like a
             human.  2 a machine capable of carrying out a complex series of
             actions automatically.  3 a person who works mechanically and
             efficiently but insensitively.  4 S.Afr. an automatic
             traffic-signal.  ЬЬrobotic adj.  robotize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             [Czech (in K. C.apek'.s play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)
             1920), f.  robota forced labour]

   robotics  n.pl.  the study of robots; the art or science of their design
             and operation.

   robust    adj.  (robuster, robustest) 1 (of a person, animal, or thing)
             strong and sturdy, esp.  in physique or construction.  2 (of
             exercise, discipline, etc.) vigorous, requiring strength.  3 (of
             intellect or mental attitude) straightforward, not given to nor
             confused by subtleties.  4 (of a statement, reply, etc.) bold,
             firm, unyielding.  5 (of wine etc.) full-bodied.  ЬЬrobustly
             adv.  robustness n.  [F robuste or L robustus firm and hard f.
             robus, robur oak, strength]

   ROC       abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Observer Corps.

   roc       n.  a gigantic bird of Eastern legend.  [Sp.  rocho ult. f. Arab

   rocaille  n.  1 an 18th-c. style of ornamentation based on rock and shell
             motifs.  2 a rococo style.  [F f.  roc (as ROCK(1))]

   rocambole n.  an alliaceous plant, Allium scorodoprasum, with a
             garlic-like bulb used for seasoning.  [F f. G Rockenbolle]

   roche moutonn‚e
             n.  Geol.  a small bare outcrop of rock shaped by glacial
             erosion.  [F, = fleecy rock]

   rochet    n.  a vestment resembling a surplice, used chiefly by bishops
             and abbots.  [ME f. OF, dimin. f. Gmc]

   rock(1)   n.  1 a the hard material of the earth's crust, exposed on the
             surface or underlying the soil.  b a similar material on other
             planets.  2 Geol. any natural material, hard or soft (e.g.
             clay), consisting of one or more minerals.  3 a a mass of rock
             projecting and forming a hill, cliff, reef, etc.  b (the Rock)
             Gibraltar.  4 a large detached stone.  5 US a stone of any size.
             6 a firm and dependable support or protection.  7 a source of
             danger or destruction.  8 Brit. a hard usu. cylindrical stick of
             confectionery made from sugar with flavouring esp. of
             peppermint.  9 (in pl.) US sl. money.  10 sl. a precious stone,
             esp. a diamond.  11 sl. a solid form of cocaine.  12 (in pl.)
             coarse sl. the testicles.  Ьget one's rocks off coarse sl.  1
             achieve sexual satisfaction.  2 obtain enjoyment.  on the rocks
             colloq.  1 short of money.  2 broken down.  3 (of a drink)
             served undiluted with ice-cubes.  rock-bed a base of rock or a
             rocky bottom.  rock-bottom adj.  (of prices etc.) the very
             lowest.  --n. the very lowest level.  rock-bound (of a coast)
             rocky and inaccessible.  rock-cake a small currant cake with a
             hard rough surface.  rock-candy US = sense 8 of n.  rock cress =
             ARABIS.  rock-crystal transparent colourless quartz usu. in
             hexagonal prisms.  rock-dove a wild dove, Columba livia,
             frequenting rocks, supposed ancestor of the domestic pigeon.
             rock-face a vertical surface of natural rock.  rock-fish a
             rock-frequenting goby, bass, wrasse, catfish, etc.  rock-garden
             an artifical mound or bank of earth and stones planted with
             rock-plants etc.; a garden in which rockeries are the chief
             feature.  rock-pigeon = rock-dove.  rock-pipit a species of
             pipit, Anthus spinoletta, frequenting rocky shores.  rock-plant
             any plant growing on or among rocks.  rock python any large
             snake of the family Boidae, esp. the African python Python
             sebae.  rock-rabbit any of several species of hyrax.  rock rose
             any plant of the genus Cistus, Helianthemum, etc., with
             rose-like flowers.  rock-salmon 1 any of several fishes, esp.
             Brit. (as a commercial name) the catfish and dogfish.  2 US an
             amberjack.  rock-salt common salt as a solid mineral.  rock-wool
             inorganic material made into matted fibre esp. for insulation or
             soundproofing.  ЬЬrockless adj.  rocklet n.  rocklike adj.  [ME
             f. OF ro(c)que, roche, med.L rocca, of unkn. orig.]

   rock(2)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. move gently to and fro in or as if in a
             cradle; set or maintain such motion (rock him to sleep; the ship
             was rocked by the waves).  2 intr. be or continue in such motion
             (sat rocking in his chair; the ship was rocking on the waves).
             3 a intr. sway from side to side; shake, oscillate, reel (the
             house rocks).  b tr. cause to do this (an earthquake rocked the
             house).  4 tr. distress, perturb.  5 intr. dance to or play rock
             music.  --n.  1 a rocking movement (gave the chair a rock).  2 a
             spell of rocking (had a rock in his chair).  3 a = rock and
             roll.  b any of a variety of types of modern popular music with
             a rocking or swinging beat, derived from rock and roll.  Ьrock
             and (or rock 'n') roll a type of popular dance-music originating
             in the 1950s, characterized by a heavy beat and simple melodies,
             often with a blues element.  rock and (or rock 'n') roller a
             devotee of rock and roll.  rock the boat colloq.  disturb the
             equilibrium of a situation.  rocking-chair a chair mounted on
             rockers or springs for gently rocking in.  rocking-horse a model
             of a horse on rockers or springs for a child to rock on.
             rocking-stone a poised boulder easily rocked.  rock-shaft a
             shaft that oscillates about an axis without making complete
             revolutions.  [OE roccian, prob. f. Gmc]

             n.  a type of popular music combining elements of rock and roll
             and hill-billy music.  [blend of rock and roll and hill-billy]

   rockburst n.  a sudden rupture or collapse of highly stressed rock in a

   rocker    n.  1 a person or thing that rocks.  2 a curved bar or similar
             support, on which something can rock.  3 a rocking-chair.  4
             Brit. a young devotee of rock music, characteristically
             associated with leather clothing and motor cycles.  5 a skate
             with a highly curved blade.  6 a switch constructed on a pivot
             mechanism operating between the 'on' and 'off' positions.  7 any
             rocking device forming part of a mechanism.  Ьoff one's rocker
             sl.  crazy.

   rockery   n.  (pl.  -ies) a heaped arrangement of rough stones with soil
             between them for growing rock-plants on.

   rocket(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a cylindrical projectile that can be propelled
             to a great height or distance by combustion of its contents,
             used esp. as a firework or signal.  2 an engine using a similar
             principle but not dependent on air intake for its operation.  3
             a rocket-propelled missile, spacecraft, etc.  4 Brit.  sl. a
             severe reprimand.  --v.  (rocketed, rocketing) 1 tr. bombard
             with rockets.  2 intr.  a move rapidly upwards or away.  b
             increase rapidly (prices rocketed).  [F roquette f. It.
             rochetto dimin. of rocca ROCK(2), with ref. to its cylindrical

   rocket(2) n.  1 (also sweet rocket) any of various fast-growing plants,
             esp. of the genus Hesperis or Sisymbrium.  2 a cruciferous
             annual plant, Eruca sativa, grown for salad.  Ьwall-rocket a
             yellow-flowered weed, Diplotaxis muralis, emitting a foul smell
             when crushed.  yellow rocket winter cress.  [F roquette f. It.
             rochetta, ruchetta dimin. of ruca f. L eruca downy-stemmed

   rocketeer n.  1 a discharger of rockets.  2 a rocket expert or enthusiast.

   rocketry  n.  the science or practice of rocket propulsion.

   rockfall  n.  1 a descent of loose rocks.  2 a mass of fallen rock.

             n.  a small penguin, Eudyptes crestatus, of the Antarctic and
             New Zealand, with a crest of feathers on the forehead.

   rockling  n.  any of various small marine fish of the cod family, esp. of
             the genus Ciliata and Rhinomenus, found in pools among rocks.

   rocky(1)  adj. & n.  --adj.  (rockier, rockiest) 1 of or like rock.  2
             full of or abounding in rock or rocks (a rocky shore).  --n.
             (the Rockies) the Rocky Mountains in western N. America.
             ЬЬrockiness n.

   rocky(2)  adj.  (rockier, rockiest) colloq.  unsteady, tottering.
             ЬЬrockily adv.  rockiness n.  [ROCK(2)]

   rococo    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of a late baroque style of decoration
             prevalent in 18th-c.  continental Europe, with asymmetrical
             patterns involving scroll-work, shell motifs, etc.  2 (of
             literature, music, architecture, and the decorative arts) highly
             ornamented, florid.  --n. the rococo style.  [F, joc. alt. f.

   rod       n.  1 a slender straight bar esp. of wood or metal.  2 this as a
             symbol of office.  3 a a stick or bundle of twigs used in caning
             or flogging.  b (prec. by the) the use of this.  4 a =
             fishing-rod.  b an angler using a rod.  5 a a slender straight
             round stick growing as a shoot on a tree.  b this when cut.  6
             (as a measure) a perch or square perch (see PERCH(1)).  7 US sl.
             = hot rod.  8 US sl. a pistol or revolver.  9 Anat. any of
             numerous rod-shaped structures in the eye, detecting dim light.
             Ьmake a rod for one's own back act in a way that will bring one
             trouble later.  ЬЬrodless adj.  rodlet n.  rodlike adj.  [OE
             rodd, prob. rel. to ON rudda club]

   rode(1)   past of RIDE.

   rode(2)   v.intr.  1 (of wildfowl) fly landwards in the evening.  2 (of
             woodcock) fly in the evening during the breeding season.  [18th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   rodent    n. & adj.  --n. any mammal of the order Rodentia with strong
             incisors and no canine teeth, e.g. rat, mouse, squirrel, beaver,
             porcupine.  --adj.  1 of the order Rodentia.  2 gnawing (esp.
             Med. of slow-growing ulcers).  Ьrodent officer Brit.  an
             official dealing with rodent pests.  ЬЬrodential adj.  [L rodere
             ros- gnaw]

             n.  a poison used to kill rodents.

   rodeo     n.  (pl.  -os) 1 an exhibition or entertainment involving
             cowboys' skills in handling animals.  2 an exhibition of other
             skills, e.g. in motor cycling.  3 a a round-up of cattle on a
             ranch for branding etc.  b an enclosure for this.  [Sp. f.
             rodear go round ult. f. L rotare ROTATE(1)]

   rodham    n.  a raised bank in the Fen district of E. Anglia, formed on
             the bed of a dry river-course.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

             n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 boastful or bragging talk or behaviour.
             2 an instance of this.  --adj. boastful or bragging.  --v.intr.
             brag, talk boastfully.  [F f. obs. It.  rodomontada f. F
             rodomont & It.  rodomonte f. the name of a boastful character in
             the Orlando epics]

   roe(1)    n.  1 (also hard roe) the mass of eggs in a female fish's ovary.
             2 (also soft roe) the milt of a male fish.  Ьroe-stone oolite.
             ЬЬroed adj. (also in comb.).  [ME row(e), rough, f. MLG, MDu.
             roge(n), OHG rogo, rogan, ON hrogn]

   roe(2)    n.  (pl. same or roes) (also roe-deer) a small European and
             Asian deer, Capreolus capreolus.  [OE ra(ha)]

   roebuck   n.  a male roe.

   roentgen  n.  a unit of ionizing radiation, the amount producing one
             electrostatic unit of positive or negative ionic charge in one
             cubic centimetre of air under standard conditions.  Ьroentgen
             rays X-rays.  [W. C.  R”ntgen, Ger. physicist d. 1923,
             discoverer of X-rays]

             n.  photography using X-rays.

             n.  = RADIOLOGY.

   rogation  n.  (usu. in pl.) Eccl.  a solemn supplication consisting of the
             litany of the saints chanted on the three days before Ascension
             day.  ЬRogation Days the three days before Ascension Day.
             Rogation Sunday the Sunday preceding these.  ЬЬrogational adj.
             [ME f. L rogatio f.  rogare ask]

   roger     int. & v.  --int.  1 your message has been received and
             understood (used in radio communication etc.).  2 sl. I agree.
             --v.  coarse sl.  1 intr. have sexual intercourse.  2 tr. have
             sexual intercourse with (a woman).  [the name Roger, code for R]

   rogue     n. & v.  --n.  1 a dishonest or unprincipled person.  2 joc. a
             mischievous person, esp. a child.  3 (usu.  attrib.) a a wild
             animal driven away or living apart from the herd and of fierce
             temper (rogue elephant).  b a stray, irresponsible, or
             undisciplined person or thing (rogue trader).  4 an inferior or
             defective specimen among many acceptable ones.  --v.tr. remove
             rogues (sense 4 of n.) from.  Ьrogues' gallery a collection of
             photographs of known criminals etc., used for identification of
             suspects.  [16th-c. cant word: orig. unkn.]

   roguery   n.  (pl.  -ies) conduct or an action characteristic of rogues.

   roguish   adj.  1 playfully mischievous.  2 characteristic of rogues.
             ЬЬroguishly adv.  roguishness n.

   roil      v.tr.  1 make (a liquid) turbid by agitating it.  2 US = RILE 1.
             [perh. f. OF ruiler mix mortar f. LL regulare regulate]

   roister   v.intr. (esp. as roistering adj.) revel noisily; be uproarious.
             ЬЬroisterer n.  roistering n.  roisterous adj.  [obs.  roister
             roisterer f. F rustre ruffian var. of ruste f. L rusticus

   Roland    n.  Ьa Roland for an Oliver 1 an effective retort.  2 a
             well-balanced combat or exchange.  [name of the legendary nephew
             of Charlemagne celebrated with his comrade Oliver in the Chanson
             de Roland]

   role      n.  (also r“le) 1 an actor's part in a play, film, etc.  2 a
             person's or thing's characteristic or expected function (the
             role of the tape recorder in language-learning).  Ьrole model a
             person looked to by others as an example in a particular role.
             role-playing an exercise in which participants act the part of
             another character, used in psychotherapy, language-teaching,
             etc.  [F r“le and obs. F roule, rolle, = ROLL n.]

   roll      v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. move or go in some direction by turning
             over and over on an axis (the ball rolled under the table; a
             barrel started rolling).  b tr. cause to do this (rolled the
             barrel into the cellar).  2 tr. make revolve between two
             surfaces (rolled the clay between his palms).  3 a intr. (foll.
             by along, by, etc.) move or advance on or (of time etc.) as if
             on wheels etc. (the bus rolled past; the pram rolled off the
             pavement; the years rolled by).  b tr. cause to do this (rolled
             the tea trolley into the kitchen).  c intr. (of a person) be
             conveyed in a vehicle (the farmer rolled by on his tractor).  4
             a tr. turn over and over on itself to form a more or less
             cylindrical or spherical shape (rolled a newspaper).  b tr. make
             by forming material into a cylinder or ball (rolled a cigarette;
             rolled a huge snowball).  c tr. accumulate into a mass (rolled
             the dough into a ball).  d intr. (foll. by into) make a
             specified shape of itself (the hedgehog rolled into a ball).  5
             tr. flatten or form by passing a roller etc. over or by passing
             between rollers (roll the lawn; roll pastry; roll thin foil).  6
             intr. & tr. change or cause to change direction by rotatory
             movement (his eyes rolled; he rolled his eyes).  7 intr.  a
             wallow, turn about in a fluid or a loose medium (the dog rolled
             in the dust).  b (of a horse etc.) lie on its back and kick
             about, esp. in an attempt to dislodge its rider.  8 intr.  a (of
             a moving ship, aircraft, or vehicle) sway to and fro on an axis
             parallel to the direction of motion.  b walk with an unsteady
             swaying gait (they rolled out of the pub).  9 a intr. undulate,
             show or go with an undulating surface or motion (rolling hills;
             rolling mist; the waves roll in).  b tr. carry or propel with
             such motion (the river rolls its waters to the sea).  10 a intr.
             (of machinery) start functioning or moving (the cameras rolled;
             the train began to roll).  b tr. cause (machinery) to do this.
             11 intr. & tr. sound or utter with a vibratory or trilling
             effect (words rolled off his tongue; thunder rolled in the
             distance; he rolls his rs).  12 US sl.  a tr. overturn (a car
             etc.).  b intr. (of a car etc.) overturn.  13 tr.  US throw
             (dice).  14 tr.  sl. rob (esp. a helpless victim).  --n.  1 a
             rolling motion or gait; undulation (the roll of the hills).  2 a
             a spell of rolling (a roll in the mud).  b a gymnastic exercise
             in which the body is rolled into a tucked position and turned in
             a forward or backward circle.  c (esp.  a roll in the hay)
             colloq. an act of sexual intercourse or erotic fondling.  3 the
             continuous rhythmic sound of thunder or a drum.  4 Aeron. a
             complete revolution of an aircraft about its longitudinal axis.
             5 a a cylinder formed by turning flexible material over and over
             on itself without folding (a roll of carpet; a roll of
             wallpaper).  b a filled cake or pastry of similar form (fig
             roll; sausage roll).  6 a a small portion of bread individually
             baked.  b this with a specified filling (ham roll).  7 a more or
             less cylindrical or semicylindrical straight or curved mass of
             something (rolls of fat; a roll of hair).  8 a an official list
             or register (the electoral roll).  b the total numbers on this
             (the schools' rolls have fallen).  c a document, esp. an
             official record, in scroll form.  9 a cylinder or roller, esp.
             to shape metal in a rolling-mill.  10 Archit.  a a moulding of
             convex section.  b a spiral scroll of an Ionic capital.  11 US &
             Austral. money, esp. as banknotes rolled together.  Ьbe rolling
             colloq.  be very rich.  be rolling in colloq.  have plenty of
             (esp. money).  on a roll US sl.  experiencing a bout of success
             or progress; engaged in a period of intense activity.  roll back
             US cause (esp. prices) to decrease.  roll-back n.  a reduction
             (esp. in price).  roll bar an overhead metal bar strengthening
             the frame of a vehicle (esp.  in racing) and protecting the
             occupants if the vehicle overturns.  roll-call a process of
             calling out a list of names to establish who is present.  rolled
             gold gold in the form of a thin coating applied to a baser metal
             by rolling.  rolled into one combined in one person or thing.
             rolled oats oats that have been husked and crushed.  roll in
             arrive in great numbers or quantity.  rolling barrage = creeping
             barrage.  rolling drunk swaying or staggering from drunkenness.
             rolling-mill a machine or factory for rolling metal into shape.
             rolling-pin a cylinder for rolling out pastry, dough, etc.
             rolling-stock 1 the locomotives, carriages, or other vehicles,
             used on a railway.  2 US the road vehicles of a company.
             rolling stone a person who is unwilling to settle for long in
             one place.  rolling strike industrial action through a series of
             limited strikes by consecutive groups.  roll-neck (of a garment)
             having a high loosely turned-over neck.  roll of honour a list
             of those honoured, esp. the dead in war.  roll on v.tr.  1 put
             on or apply by rolling.  2 (in imper.) colloq. (of a time, in
             eager expectation) come quickly (roll on Friday!).  roll-on
             (attrib.) (of deodorant etc.) applied by means of a rotating
             ball in the neck of the container.  --n. a light elastic corset.
             roll-on roll-off (of a ship, a method of transport, etc.) in
             which vehicles are driven directly on at the start of the voyage
             and off at the end of it.  roll over 1 send (a person) sprawling
             or rolling.  2 Econ. finance the repayment of (maturing stock
             etc.) by an issue of new stock.  roll-over n.  1 Econ. the
             extension or transfer of a debt or other financial relationship.
             2 colloq. the overturning of a vehicle etc.  roll-top desk a
             desk with a flexible cover sliding in curved grooves.  roll up 1
             colloq. arrive in a vehicle; appear on the scene.  2 make into
             or form a roll.  3 Mil. drive the flank of (an enemy line) back
             and round so that the line is shortened or surrounded.  roll-up
             (or roll-your-own) n.  a hand-rolled cigarette.  roll up one's
             sleeves see SLEEVE.  strike off the rolls debar (esp. a
             solicitor) from practising after dishonesty etc.  ЬЬrollable
             adj.  [ME f. OF rol(l)er, rouler, ro(u)lle f. L rotulus dimin.
             of rota wheel]

   rollaway  adj.  US (of a bed etc.) that can be removed on wheels or

   roller    n.  1 a a hard revolving cylinder for smoothing the ground,
             spreading ink or paint, crushing or stamping, rolling up cloth
             on, hanging a towel on, etc., used alone or as a rotating part
             of a machine.  b a cylinder for diminishing friction when moving
             a heavy object.  2 a small cylinder on which hair is rolled for
             setting.  3 a long swelling wave.  4 (also roller bandage) a
             long surgical bandage rolled up for convenient application.  5 a
             kind of tumbler-pigeon.  6 a any brilliantly plumaged bird of
             the family Coraciidae, with characteristic tumbling
             display-flight.  b a breed of canary with a trilling song.
             Ьroller bearing a bearing like a ball-bearing but with small
             cylinders instead of balls.  roller-coaster n.  a switchback at
             a fair etc.  --adj. that goes up and down, or changes, suddenly
             and repeatedly.  --v.intr. (or roller-coast) go up and down or
             change in this way.  roller-skate see SKATE(1).  roller-skater a
             person who roller-skates.  roller towel a towel with the ends
             joined, hung on a roller.

             n.  a ball-point pen using thinner ink than other ball-points.

   rollick   v. & n.  --v.intr. (esp. as rollicking adj.) be jovial or
             exuberant, indulge in high spirits, revel.  --n.  1 exuberant
             gaiety.  2 a spree or escapade.  [19th-c., prob. dial.: perh. f.
             ROMP + FROLIC]

   rollmop   n.  a rolled uncooked pickled herring fillet.  [G Rollmops]

   roly-poly n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 (also roly-poly pudding) a
             pudding made of a strip of suet pastry covered with jam etc.,
             formed into a roll, and boiled or baked.  2 US a tumbler toy.  3
             Austral. a bushy plant, esp.  Salsola kali, that breaks off and
             is rolled by the wind.  --adj. (usu. of a child) podgy, plump.
             [prob. formed on ROLL]

   ROM       n.  Computing read-only memory.  [abbr.]

   Rom       n.  (pl.  Roma) a male gypsy.  [Romany, = man, husband]

   Rom.      abbr.  Romans (New Testament).

   rom.      abbr.  roman (type).

   Romaic    n. & adj.  --n. the vernacular language of modern Greece.
             --adj. of or relating to this language.  [Gk Rhomaikos Roman
             (used esp. of the Eastern Empire)]

   romaine   n.  US a cos lettuce.  [F, fem. of romain (as ROMAN)]

   romaji    n.  a system of Romanized spelling used to transliterate
             Japanese.  [Jap.]

   Roman     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a of ancient Rome or its territory or
             people.  b archaic of its language.  2 of medieval or modern
             Rome.  3 of papal Rome, esp. = ROMAN CATHOLIC.  4 of a kind
             ascribed to the early Romans (Roman honesty; Roman virtue).  5
             surviving from a period of Roman rule (Roman road).  6 (roman)
             (of type) of a plain upright kind used in ordinary print.  7 (of
             the alphabet etc.) based on the ancient Roman system with
             letters A-Z.  --n.  1 a a citizen of the ancient Roman Republic
             or Empire.  b a soldier of the Roman Empire.  2 a citizen of
             modern Rome.  3 = ROMAN CATHOLIC.  4 (roman) roman type.  5 (in
             pl.) the Christians of ancient Rome.  ЬHoly Roman Empire the
             Western part of the Roman Empire as revived by Charlemagne in
             800.  Roman candle a firework discharging a series of flaming
             coloured balls and sparks.  Roman Empire hist.  that established
             by Augustus in 27 BC and divided by Theodosius in AD 395 into
             the Western or Latin and Eastern or Greek Empire.  Roman holiday
             enjoyment derived from others' discomfiture.  Roman law the
             law-code developed by the ancient Romans and forming the basis
             of many modern codes.  Roman nose one with a high bridge; an
             aquiline nose.  roman numeral any of the Roman letters
             representing numbers: I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D =
             500, M = 1000.  [ME f. OF Romain (n. & adj.) f. L Romanus f.
             Roma Rome]

             n.  (pl.  romans-…-clef pronunc. same) a novel in which real
             persons or events appear with invented names.  [F, = novel with
             a key]

   Roman Catholic
             adj. & n.  --adj. of the part of the Christian Church
             acknowledging the Pope as its head.  --n. a member of this
             Church.  ЬЬRoman Catholicism n.  [17th-c. transl. L (Ecclesia)
             Romana Catholica (et Apostolica), app. orig. as a conciliatory
             term: see ROMAN, CATHOLIC]

   romance   n., adj., & v.  --n.  also disp.  1 an atmosphere or tendency
             characterized by a sense of remoteness from or idealization of
             everyday life.  2 a a prevailing sense of wonder or mystery
             surrounding the mutual attraction in a love affair.  b
             sentimental or idealized love.  c a love affair.  3 a a literary
             genre with romantic love or highly imaginative unrealistic
             episodes forming the central theme.  b a work of this genre.  4
             a medieval tale, usu. in verse, of some hero of chivalry, of the
             kind common in the Romance languages.  5 a exaggeration or
             picturesque falsehood.  b an instance of this.  6 (Romance) the
             languages descended from Latin regarded collectively.  7 Mus. a
             short informal piece.  --adj. (Romance) of any of the languages
             descended from Latin (French, Italian, Spanish, etc.).  --v.  1
             intr. exaggerate or distort the truth, esp. fantastically.  2
             tr. court, woo.  [ME f. OF romanz, -ans, -ance, ult. f. L
             Romanicus ROMANIC]

   romancer  n.  1 a writer of romances, esp. in the medieval period.  2 a
             liar who resorts to fantasy.

             n. & adj.  --n. a style of architecture prevalent in Europe c.
             900-1200, with massive vaulting and round arches (cf.  NORMAN).
             --adj. of the Romanesque style of architecture.  [F f.  roman

             n.  (pl.  romans-fleuves pronunc. same) 1 a novel featuring the
             leisurely description of the lives of members of a family etc.
             2 a sequence of self-contained novels.  [F, = river novel]

   Romanian  n. & adj.  (also Rumanian) --n.  1 a a native or national of
             Romania in E. Europe.  b a person of Romanian descent.  2 the
             language of Romania.  --adj. of or relating to Romania or its
             people or language.

   Romanic   n. & adj.  --n. = ROMANCE n.  6.  --adj.  1 a of or relating to
             Romance.  b Romance-speaking.  2 descended from the ancient
             Romans or inheriting aspects of their social or political life.
             [L Romanicus (as ROMAN)]

   Romanism  n.  Roman Catholicism.

   Romanist  n.  1 a student of Roman history or law or of the Romance
             languages.  2 a a supporter of Roman Catholicism.  b a Roman
             Catholic.  [mod.L Romanista (as ROMAN)]

   romanize  v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make Roman or Roman Catholic in character.
             2 put into the Roman alphabet or into roman type.
             ЬЬromanization n.

   Romano    n.  a strong-tasting hard cheese, orig. made in Italy .  [It.,=

   Romano-   comb. form Roman; Roman and (Romano-British).

   Romansh   n. & adj.  (also Rumansh) --n. the Rhaeto-Romanic dialects, esp.
             as spoken in the Swiss canton of Grisons.  --adj. of these
             dialects.  [Romansh Ruman(t)sch, Roman(t)sch f. med.L romanice
             (adv.) (as ROMANCE)]

   romantic  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of, characterized by, or suggestive of an
             idealized, sentimental, or fantastic view of reality; remote
             from experience (a romantic picture; a romantic setting).  2
             inclined towards or suggestive of romance in love (a romantic
             woman; a romantic evening; romantic words).  3 (of a person)
             imaginative, visionary, idealistic.  4 a (of style in art,
             music, etc.) concerned more with feeling and emotion than with
             form and aesthetic qualities; preferring grandeur or
             picturesqueness to finish and proportion.  b (also Romantic) of
             or relating to the 18th-19th-c. romantic movement or style in
             the European arts.  5 (of a project etc.) unpractical,
             fantastic.  --n.  1 a romantic person.  2 a romanticist.
             ЬЬromantically adv.  [romant tale of chivalry etc. f. OF f.
             romanz ROMANCE]

             n. (also Romanticism) adherence to a romantic style in art,
             music, etc.

             n. (also Romanticist) a writer or artist of the romantic school.

             v.  (also -ise) 1 tr.  a make or render romantic or unreal (a
             romanticized account of war).  b describe or portray in a
             romantic fashion.  2 intr. indulge in romantic thoughts or
             actions.  ЬЬromanticization n.

   Romany    n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a Gypsy.  2 the Indo-European
             language of the Gypsies.  --adj.  1 of or concerning Gypsies.  2
             of the Romany language.  [Romany Romani fem. and pl. of Romano
             (adj.)  (ROM)]

   Romeo     n.  (pl.  -os) a passionate male lover or seducer.  [the hero of
             Shakesp.  Romeo and Juliet]

   Romish    adj.  usu.  derog.  Roman Catholic.

   romneya   n.  any shrub of the genus Romneya, bearing poppy-like flowers.
             [T.  Romney Robinson, Brit. astronomer d. 1882]

   romp      v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 play about roughly and energetically.  2
             (foll. by along, past, etc.)  colloq. proceed without effort.
             --n. a spell of romping or boisterous play.  Ьromp in (or home)
             colloq.  finish as the easy winner.  ЬЬrompingly adv.  rompy
             adj.  (rompier, rompiest).  [perh. var. of RAMP(1)]

   romper    n.  (usu. in pl.) (also romper suit) a young child's one-piece
             garment covering legs and trunk.

   rondavel  n.  S.Afr.  1 a round tribal hut usu. with a thatched conical
             roof.  2 a similar building, esp. as a holiday cottage, or as an
             outbuilding on a farm etc.  [Afrik.  rondawel]

   ronde     n.  1 a dance in which the dancers move in a circle.  2 a course
             of talk, activity, etc.  [F, fem. of rond ROUND adj.]

   rondeau   n.  (pl.  rondeaux pronunc. same or) a poem of ten or thirteen
             lines with only two rhymes throughout and with the opening words
             used twice as a refrain.  [F, earlier rondel: see RONDEL]

   rondel    n.  a rondeau, esp. one of special form.  [ME f. OF f.  rond
             ROUND: cf.  ROUNDEL]

   rondo     n.  (pl.  -os) Mus.  a form with a recurring leading theme,
             often found in the final movement of a sonata or concerto etc.
             [It. f. F rondeau: see RONDEAU]

   rone      n.  Sc.  a gutter for carrying off rain from a roof.

   ronin     n.  hist.  (in feudal Japan) a lordless wandering samurai; an
             outlaw.  [Jap.]

   r”ntgen   etc. var. of ROENTGEN etc.

   roo       n.  (also 'roo) Austral.  colloq.  a kangaroo.  [abbr.]

   rood      n.  1 a crucifix, esp. one raised on a screen or beam at the
             entrance to the chancel.  2 a quarter of an acre.  Ьrood-loft a
             gallery on top of a rood-screen.  rood-screen a wooden or stone
             carved screen separating nave and chancel.  [OE rod]

   roof      n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  roofs or disp. rooves) 1 a the upper
             covering of a building, usu. supported by its walls.  b the top
             of a covered vehicle.  c the top inner surface of an oven,
             refrigerator, etc.  2 the overhead rock in a cave or mine etc.
             3 the branches or the sky etc. overhead.  4 (of prices etc.) the
             upper limit or ceiling.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in, over)
             cover with or as with a roof.  2 be the roof of.  Ьgo through
             the roof colloq.  (of prices etc.) reach extreme or unexpected
             heights.  hit (or go through or raise) the roof colloq.  become
             very angry.  roof-garden a garden on the flat roof of a
             building.  roof of the mouth the palate.  a roof over one's head
             somewhere to live.  roof-rack a framework for carrying luggage
             etc. on the roof of a vehicle.  roof-tree the ridge-piece of a
             roof.  under one roof in the same building.  under a person's
             roof in a person's house (esp. with ref. to hospitality).
             ЬЬroofed adj. (also in comb.).  roofless adj.  [OE hrof]

   roofage   n.  the expanse of a roof or roofs.

   roofer    n.  a person who constructs or repairs roofs.

   roofing   n.  1 material for constructing a roof.  2 the process of
             constructing a roof or roofs.

   roofscape n.  a scene or view of roofs.

   rooftop   n.  1 the outer surface of a roof.  2 (esp. in pl.) the level of
             a roof.

   rooibos   n.  S.Afr.  1 an evergreen shrub of the genus Aspalathus, with
             leaves used to make tea.  2 a shrub or small tree, Combretum
             apiculatum, with spikes of scented yellow flowers.  [Afrik., =
             red bush]

   rooinek   n.  S.Afr.  sl.  offens.  a British or English-speaking South
             African.  [Afrik., = red-neck]

   rook(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a black European and Asiatic bird, Corvus
             frugilegus, of the crow family, nesting in colonies in
             tree-tops.  2 a sharper, esp. at dice or cards; a person who
             lives off inexperienced gamblers etc.  --v.tr.  1 charge (a
             customer) extortionately.  2 win money from (a person) at cards
             etc. esp. by swindling.  [OE hroc]

   rook(2)   n.  a chess piece with its top in the shape of a battlement.
             [ME f. OF roc(k) ult. f. Arab.  rukk, orig. sense uncert.]

   rookery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a colony of rooks.  b a clump of trees
             having rooks' nests.  2 a colony of sea birds (esp. penguins) or

   rookie    n.  sl.  1 a new recruit, esp. in the army or police.  2 US a
             new member of a sports team.  [corrupt. of recruit, after

   room      n. & v.  --n.  1 a space that is or might be occupied by
             something; capaciousness or ability to accommodate contents (it
             takes up too much room; there is plenty of room; we have no room
             here for idlers).  b space in or on (houseroom; shelf-room).  2
             a a part of a building enclosed by walls or partitions, floor
             and ceiling.  b (in pl.) a set of these occupied by a person or
             family; apartments or lodgings.  c persons present in a room
             (the room fell silent).  3 (in comb.) a room or area for a
             specified purpose (auction-room).  4 (foll. by for, or to +
             infin.) opportunity or scope (room to improve things; no room
             for dispute).  --v.intr.  US have a room or rooms; lodge, board.
             Ьmake room (often foll. by for) clear a space (for a person or
             thing) by removal of others; make way, yield place.  not (or no)
             room to swing a cat a very confined space.  rooming-house a
             lodging house.  room-mate a person occupying the same room as
             another.  room service (in a hotel etc.) service of food or
             drink taken to a guest's room.  ЬЬ-roomed adj. (in comb.).
             roomful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [OE rum f. Gmc]

   roomer    n.  US a lodger occupying a room or rooms without board.

   roomette  n.  US 1 a private single compartment in a sleeping-car.  2 a
             small bedroom for letting.

   roomie    n.  US colloq.  a room-mate.

   roomy     adj.  (roomier, roomiest) having much room, spacious.  ЬЬroomily
             adv.  roominess n.

   roost(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a branch or other support on which a bird
             perches, esp.  a place where birds regularly settle to sleep.  2
             a place offering temporary sleeping-accommodation.  --v.  1
             intr.  a (of a bird) settle for rest or sleep.  b (of a person)
             stay for the night.  2 tr. provide with a sleeping-place.  Ьcome
             home to roost (of a scheme etc.) recoil unfavourably upon the
             originator.  [OE hrost]

   roost(2)  n.  a tidal race in the Orkneys and Shetlands.  [ON r”st]

   rooster   n.  esp.  US a domestic cock.

   root(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a the part of a plant normally below the
             ground, attaching it to the earth and conveying nourishment to
             it from the soil.  b (in pl.) such a part divided into branches
             or fibres.  c the corresponding organ of an epiphyte; the part
             attaching ivy to its support.  d the permanent underground stock
             of a plant.  e any small plant with a root for transplanting.  2
             a any plant, e.g. a turnip or carrot, with an edible root.  b
             such a root.  3 (in pl.) the sources of or reasons for one's
             long-standing emotional attachment to a place, community, etc.
             4 a the embedded part of a bodily organ or structure, e.g. hair,
             tooth, nail, etc.  b the part of a thing attaching it to a
             greater or more fundamental whole.  c (in pl.) the base of a
             mountain etc.  5 a the basic cause, source, or origin (love of
             money is the root of all evil; has its roots in the distant
             past).  b (attrib.) (of an idea etc.) from which the rest
             originated.  6 the basis of something, its means of continuance
             or growth (has its root(s) in selfishness; has no root in the
             nature of things).  7 the essential substance or nature of
             something (get to the root of things).  8 Math.  a a number or
             quantity that when multiplied by itself a usu.  specified number
             of times gives a specified number or quantity (the cube root of
             eight is two).  b a square root.  c a value of an unknown
             quantity satisfying a given equation.  9 Philol. any ultimate
             unanalysable element of language; a basis, not necessarily
             surviving as a word in itself, on which words are made by the
             addition of prefixes or suffixes or by other modification.  10
             Mus. the fundamental note of a chord.  11 Bibl. a scion, an
             offshoot (there shall be a root of Jesse).  12 Austral. & NZ
             coarse sl.  a an act of sexual intercourse.  b a (female) sexual
             partner.  --v.  1 a intr. take root or grow roots.  b tr. cause
             to do this (take care to root them firmly).  2 tr.  a fix
             firmly; establish (fear rooted him to the spot).  b (as rooted
             adj.) firmly established (her affection was deeply rooted;
             rooted objection to).  3 tr. (usu. foll. by out, up) drag or dig
             up by the roots.  4 tr.  Austral.  coarse sl.  a have sexual
             intercourse with (a woman).  b exhaust, frustrate.  Ьpull up by
             the roots 1 uproot.  2 eradicate, destroy.  put down roots 1
             begin to draw nourishment from the soil.  2 become settled or
             established.  root and branch thorough(ly), radical(ly).  root
             beer US an effervescent drink made from an extract of roots.
             root-mean-square Math.  the square root of the arithmetic mean
             of the squares of a set of values.  root out find and get rid
             of.  root sign Math. = radical sign.  strike at the root (or
             roots) of set about destroying.  strike (or take) root 1 begin
             to grow and draw nourishment from the soil.  2 become fixed or
             established.  ЬЬrootage n.  rootedness n.  rootless adj.
             rootlet n.  rootlike adj.  rooty adj.  [OE rot f. ON rўt, rel.
             to WORT & L radix: see RADIX]

   root(2)   v.  1 a intr. (of an animal, esp. a pig) turn up the ground with
             the snout, beak, etc., in search of food.  b tr. (foll. by up)
             turn up (the ground) by rooting.  2 a intr. (foll. by around,
             in, etc.) rummage.  b tr. (foll. by out or up) find or extract
             by rummaging.  3 intr. (foll. by for) US sl. encourage by
             applause or support.  ЬЬrooter n. (in sense 3).  [earlier wroot
             f. OE wrotan & ON rўta: rel. to OE wrot snout]

   rootle    v.intr. & tr.  Brit.  = ROOT(2) 1, 2.  [ROOT(2)]

   rootstock n.  1 a rhizome.  2 a plant into which a graft is inserted.  3 a
             primary form from which offshoots have arisen.

   rooves    see ROOF.

   rope      n. & v.  --n.  1 a stout cord made by twisting together strands
             of hemp, sisal, flax, cotton, nylon, wire, or similar material.
             b a piece of this.  c US a lasso.  2 (foll. by of) a quantity of
             onions, ova, or pearls strung together.  3 (in pl., prec. by
             the) a the conditions in some sphere of action (know the ropes;
             show a person the ropes).  b the ropes enclosing a boxing- or
             wrestling-ring or cricket ground.  4 (prec. by the) a a halter
             for hanging a person.  b execution by hanging.  --v.  1 tr.
             fasten, secure, or catch with rope.  2 tr. (usu. foll. by off,
             in) enclose (a space) with rope.  3 Mountaineering a tr. connect
             (a party) with a rope; attach (a person) to a rope.  b (absol.)
             put on a rope.  c intr. (foll. by down, up) climb down or up
             using a rope.  Ьgive a person plenty of rope (or enough rope to
             hang himself or herself) give a person enough freedom of action
             to bring about his or her own downfall.  on the rope
             Mountaineering roped together.  on the ropes 1 Boxing forced
             against the ropes by the opponent's attack.  2 near defeat.
             rope in persuade to take part.  rope into persuade to take part
             in (was roped into doing the washing-up).  rope-ladder two long
             ropes connected by short crosspieces, used as a ladder.
             rope-moulding a moulding cut spirally in imitation of
             rope-strands.  rope of sand delusive security.  rope's end hist.
             a short piece of rope used to flog (formerly, esp. a sailor)
             with.  rope-walk a long piece of ground where ropes are made.
             rope-walker a performer on a tightrope.  rope-walking the action
             of performing on a tightrope.  rope-yard a rope-making
             establishment.  rope-yarn 1 material obtained by unpicking
             rope-strands, or used for making them.  2 a piece of this.  3 a
             mere trifle.  [OE rap f. Gmc]

   ropeable  adj.  (also ropable) 1 capable of being roped.  2 Austral. & NZ
             sl. angry.

             n.  skill in rope-walking or climbing with ropes.

   ropeway   n.  a cable railway.

   roping    n.  a set or arrangement of ropes.

   ropy      adj.  (also ropey) (ropier, ropiest) 1 Brit.  colloq. poor in
             quality.  2 (of wine, bread, etc.) forming viscous or gelatinous
             threads.  3 like a rope.  ЬЬropily adv.  ropiness n.

   roque     n.  US croquet played on a hard court surrounded by a bank.
             [alt. form of ROQUET]

   Roquefort n.  propr.  1 a soft blue cheese made from ewes' milk.  2 a
             salad-dressing made of this.  [Roquefort in S. France]

   roquet    v. & n.  Croquet --v.  (roqueted, roqueting) 1 tr.  a cause
             one's ball to strike (another ball).  b (of a ball) strike
             (another).  2 intr. strike another ball thus.  --n. an instance
             of roqueting.  [app. arbitr. f.  CROQUET v., orig. used in the
             same sense]

   ro-ro     adj.  roll-on roll-off.  [abbr.]

   rorqual   n.  any of various whales of the family Balaenopteridae esp.
             Balaenoptera musculus, having a dorsal fin. Also called
             fin-back, fin whale.  [F f. Norw.  rнyrkval f. OIcel.  reythr
             the specific name + hvalr WHALE(1)]

   Rorschach test
             n.  Psychol.  a type of personality test in which a standard set
             of ink-blots is presented one by one to the subject, who is
             asked to describe what they suggest or resemble.  [H.
             Rorschach, Swiss psychiatrist d. 1922]

   rort      n.  Austral.  sl.  1 a trick, a fraud; a dishonest practice.  2
             a wild party.  [back-form. f.  RORTY]

   rorty     adj.  (rortier, rortiest) Brit.  sl.  1 splendid; boisterous,
             rowdy (had a rorty time).  2 coarse, earthy.  [19th c.: orig.

   rosace    n.  1 a rose-window.  2 a rose-shaped ornament or design.  [F f.
             L rosaceus: see ROSACEOUS]

   rosaceous adj.  Bot.  of the large plant family Rosaceae, which includes
             the rose.  [L rosaceus f.  rosa rose]

   rosaline  n.  a variety of fine needlepoint or pillow lace.  [prob. F]

             n.  1 a an organic base derived from aniline.  b a red dye
             obtained from this.  2 fuchsine.  [ROSE(1) + ANILINE]

   rosarian  n.  a person who cultivates roses, esp. professionally.  [L
             rosarium ROSARY]

   rosarium  n.  a rose-garden.  [L (as ROSARY)]

   rosary    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 RC Ch.  a a form of devotion in which five (or
             fifteen) decades of Hail Marys are repeated, each decade
             preceded by an Our Father and followed by a Glory Be.  b a
             string of 55 (or 165) beads for keeping count in this.  c a book
             containing this devotion.  2 a similar form of bead-string used
             in other religions.  3 a rose-garden or rose-bed.  [ME f. L
             rosarium rose-garden, neut. of rosarius (as ROSE(1))]

   roscoe    n.  US sl.  a gun, esp. a pistol or revolver.  [the name Roscoe]

   rose(1)   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 any prickly bush or shrub of the genus
             Rosa, bearing usu. fragrant flowers generally of a red, pink,
             yellow, or white colour.  2 this flower.  3 any flowering plant
             resembling this (Christmas rose; rock rose).  4 a a light
             crimson colour, pink.  b (usu. in pl.) a rosy complexion (roses
             in her cheeks).  5 a a representation of the flower in heraldry
             or decoration (esp. as the national emblem of England).  b a
             rose-shaped design, e.g. on a compass card or on the sound-hole
             of a lute etc.  6 the sprinkling-nozzle of a watering-can or
             hose.  7 a circular mounting on a ceiling through which the
             wiring of an electric light passes.  8 a a rose diamond.  b a
             rose-window.  9 (in pl.) used in various phrases to express
             favourable circumstances, ease, success, etc. (roses all the
             way; everything's roses).  10 an excellent person or thing, esp.
             a beautiful woman (English rose; rose between two thorns; not
             the rose but near it).  --adj. = rose-coloured 1.  --v.tr. (esp.
             as rosed adj.) make (one's face, a snow-slope, etc.) rosy.
             Ьrose-apple 1 a tropical tree of the genus Eugenia, cultivated
             for its foliage and fragrant fruit.  2 this fruit.  rose-bush a
             rose plant.  rose-chafer a green or copper-coloured beetle,
             Cetonia aurata, frequenting roses.  rose-colour the colour of a
             pale red rose, warm pink.  rose-coloured 1 of rose-colour.  2
             optimistic, sanguine, cheerful (takes rose-coloured views).
             rose comb a flat fleshy comb of a fowl.  rose-cut cut as a rose
             diamond.  rose diamond a hemispherical diamond with the curved
             part cut in triangular facets.  rose-engine an appendage to a
             lathe for engraving curved patterns.  rose-fish a bright red
             food fish, Sebastes marinus, of the N. Atlantic.  rose geranium
             a pink-flowered sweet-scented pelargonium, Pelargonium
             graveolus.  rose-hip = HIP(2).  rose-leaf (pl.  -leaves) 1 a
             petal of a rose.  2 a leaf of a rose.  rose madder a pale pink
             pigment.  rose-mallow = HIBISCUS.  rose nail a nail with a head
             shaped like a rose diamond.  rose of Jericho a resurrection
             plant, Anastatica hierochuntica.  rose of Sharon 1 a species of
             hypericum, Hypericum calycinum, with dense foliage and
             golden-yellow flowers: also called AARON'S BEARD.  2 Bibl. a
             flowering plant of unknown identity.  rose-pink = rose-colour,
             rose-coloured.  rose-point a point lace with a design of roses.
             rose-red adj.  red like a rose, rose-coloured.  --n. this
             colour.  rose-root a yellow-flowered plant, Rhodiola rosea, with
             roots smelling like a rose when dried or bruised.  rose-tinted =
             rose-coloured.  rose-tree a rose plant, esp. a standard rose.
             rose-water perfume made from roses.  rose-window a circular
             window, usu. with roselike or spokelike tracery.  see through
             rose-coloured (or -tinted ) spectacles regard (circumstances
             etc.) with unfounded favour or optimism.  under the rose in
             confidence; under pledge of secrecy.  Wars of the Roses hist.
             the 15th-c. civil wars between Yorkists with a white rose as an
             emblem and Lancastrians with a red rose.  ЬЬroseless adj.
             roselike adj.  [ME f. OE rose f. L rosa]

   rose(2)   past of RISE.

   ros‚      n.  any light pink wine, coloured by only brief contact with red
             grape-skins.  [F, = pink]

   roseate   adj.  1 = rose-coloured (see ROSE(1)).  2 having a partly pink
             plumage (roseate spoonbill; roseate tern).  [L roseus rosy (as

   rosebay   n.  an oleander, rhododendron, or willow-herb.

   rosebowl  n.  a bowl for displaying cut roses.

   rosebud   n.  1 a bud of a rose.  2 a pretty young woman.

   rosella   n.  1 any brightly coloured Australian parakeet of the genus
             Platycercus.  2 Austral. an easily-shorn sheep.  [corrupt. of
             Rosehill, NSW, where the bird was first found]

             n.  the art of painting wooden furniture etc. with flower
             motifs.  [Norw., = rose painting]

   rosemary  n.  an evergreen fragrant shrub, Rosmarinus officinalis, with
             leaves used as a culinary herb, in perfumery, etc., and taken as
             an emblem of remembrance.  [ME, earlier rosmarine ult. f. L ros
             marinus f.  ros dew + marinus MARINE, with assim. to ROSE(1) and
             Mary name of the Virgin]

   roseola   n.  1 a rosy rash in measles and similar diseases.  2 a mild
             febrile disease of infants.  ЬЬroseolar adj.  roseolous adj.
             [mod. var. of RUBEOLA f. L roseus rose-coloured]

   rosery    n.  (pl.  -ies) a rose-garden.

   Rosetta stone
             n.  a key to previously unattainable understanding.  [a stone
             found near Rosetta in Egypt, with a trilingual inscription of
             the 2nd c.  BC in Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic, and Greek,
             important in the decipherment of hieroglyphs]

   rosette   n.  1 a rose-shaped ornament made usu. of ribbon and worn esp.
             as a supporter's badge, or as an award or the symbol of an award
             in a competition, esp. by a prizewinning animal.  2 Archit.  a a
             carved or moulded ornament resembling or representing a rose.  b
             a rose-window.  3 an object or symbol or arrangement of parts
             resembling a rose.  4 Biol.  a a roselike cluster of parts.  b
             markings resembling a rose.  5 a rose diamond.  ЬЬrosetted adj.
             [F dimin. of rose ROSE(1)]

   rosewood  n.  any of several fragrant close-grained woods used in making

   Rosh Hashana
             n.  (also Rosh Hashanah) the Jewish New Year.  [Heb., =
             beginning (lit. 'head') of the year]

   Roshi     n.  (pl.  Roshis) the spiritual leader of a community of Zen
             Buddhist monks.  [Jap.]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 hist. a member of a 17th-18th-c. society
             devoted to the study of metaphysical and mystical lore (said to
             have been founded in 1484 by Christian Rosenkreuz).  2 a member
             of any of several later organizations deriving from this.
             --adj. of or relating to the Rosicrucians.  ЬЬRosicrucianism n.
             [mod.L rosa crucis (or crux), as Latinization of G Rosenkreuz]

   rosin     n. & v.  --n. resin, esp. the solid residue after distillation
             of oil of turpentine from crude turpentine.  --v.tr.  (rosined,
             rosining) 1 rub (esp. the bow of a violin etc.) with rosin.  2
             smear or seal up with rosin.  ЬЬrosiny adj.  [ME, alt. f.

   rosolio   n.  (also rosoglio) (pl.  -os) a sweet cordial of spirits,
             sugar, and flavouring.  [It., f. mod.L ros solis dew of the sun]

   RoSPA     abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Society for the Prevention of

   roster    n. & v.  --n. a list or plan showing turns of duty or leave for
             individuals or groups esp. of a military force.  --v.tr. place
             on a roster.  [Du.  rooster list, orig. gridiron f.  roosten
             ROAST, with ref. to its parallel lines]

   rostra    pl. of ROSTRUM.

   rostral   adj.  1 Zool. & Bot. of or on the rostrum.  2 Anat.  a nearer
             the hypophysial area in the early embryo.  b nearer the region
             of the nose and mouth in post-embryonic life.  3 (of a column
             etc.) adorned with the beaks of ancient war-galleys or with
             representations of these.  ЬЬrostrally adv.

   rostrated adj.  1 Zool. & Bot. having or ending in a rostrum.  2 = ROSTRAL
             3.  [L rostratus (as ROSTRUM)]

   rostrum   n.  (pl.  rostra or rostrums) 1 a a platform for public
             speaking.  b a conductor's platform facing the orchestra.  c a
             similar platform for other purposes, e.g. for supporting a film
             or television camera.  2 Zool. & Bot. a beak, stiff snout, or
             beaklike part, esp. of an insect or arachnid.  3 Rom. Antiq. the
             beak of a war-galley.  ЬЬ(all in sense 2) rostrate adj.
             rostriferous adj.  rostriform adj.  [L, = beak f.  rodere ros-
             gnaw: orig.  rostra (pl., in sense 1a) in the Roman forum
             adorned with beaks of captured galleys]

   rosy      adj.  (rosier, rosiest) 1 coloured like a pink or red rose (esp.
             of the complexion as indicating good health, of a blush, wine,
             the sky, light, etc.).  2 optimistic, hopeful, cheerful (a rosy
             future; a rosy attitude to life).  ЬЬrosily adv.  rosiness n.

   rot       v., n., & int.  --v.  (rotted, rotting) 1 intr.  a (of animal or
             vegetable matter) lose its original form by the chemical action
             of bacteria, fungi, etc.; decay.  b (foll. by off, away) crumble
             or drop from a stem etc. through decomposition.  2 intr.  a (of
             society, institutions, etc.) gradually perish from lack of
             vigour or use.  b (of a prisoner etc.) waste away (left to rot
             in prison); (of a person) languish.  3 tr. cause to rot, make
             rotten.  4 tr.  Brit.  sl. tease, abuse, denigrate.  5 intr.
             Brit.  sl. joke.  --n.  1 the process or state of rotting.  2
             sl. nonsense; an absurd or foolish statement, argument, or
             proposal.  3 a sudden series of (usu. unaccountable) failures; a
             rapid decline in standards etc. (a rot set in; we must try to
             stop the rot).  4 (often prec. by the) a virulent liver-disease
             of sheep.  --int. expressing incredulity or ridicule.  Ьrot-gut
             sl.  cheap harmful alcoholic liquor.  [OE rotian (v.): (n.) ME,
             perh. f. Scand.: cf. Icel., Norw.  rot]

   rota      n.  1 esp.  Brit. a list of persons acting, or duties to be
             done, in rotation; a roster.  2 (Rota) RC Ch. the supreme
             ecclesiastical and secular court.  [L, = wheel]

   Rotarian  n. & adj.  --n. a member of Rotary.  --adj. of Rotary.  [ROTARY
             + -AN]

   rotary    adj. & n.  --adj. acting by rotation (rotary drill; rotary
             pump).  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a rotary machine.  2 US a traffic
             roundabout.  3 (Rotary) (in full Rotary International) a
             worldwide charitable society of businessmen, orig. named from
             members entertaining in rotation.  ЬRotary club a local branch
             of Rotary.  rotary-wing (of an aircraft) deriving lift from
             rotary aerofoils.  [med.L rotarius (as ROTA)]

   rotate(1) v.  1 intr. & tr. move round an axis or centre, revolve.  2 a
             tr. take or arrange in rotation.  b intr. act or take place in
             rotation (the chairmanship will rotate).  ЬЬrotatable adj.
             rotative adj.  rotatory adj.  [L rotare f.  rota wheel]

   rotate(2) adj.  Bot.  wheel-shaped.  [formed as ROTA]

   rotation  n.  1 the act or an instance of rotating or being rotated.  2 a
             recurrence; a recurrent series or period; a regular succession
             of various members of a group in office etc.  3 a system of
             growing different crops in regular order to avoid exhausting the
             soil.  ЬЬrotational adj.  rotationally adv.  [L rotatio]

   rotator   n.  1 a machine or device for causing something to rotate.  2
             Anat. a muscle that rotates a limb etc.  3 a revolving apparatus
             or part.  [L (as ROTATE(1))]

   Rotavator n.  (also Rotovator) propr.  a machine with a rotating blade for
             breaking up or tilling the soil.  ЬЬrotavate v.tr.  [ROTARY +

   rote      n.  (usu. prec. by by) mechanical or habitual repetition (with
             ref. to acquiring knowledge).  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   rotenone  n.  a toxic crystalline substance obtained from the roots of
             derris and other plants, used as an insecticide.  [Jap.  rotenon
             f.  roten derris]

   rotifer   n.  any minute aquatic animal of the phylum Rotifera, with
             rotatory organs used in swimming and feeding.  [mod.L rotiferus
             f. L rota wheel + -fer bearing]

             n.  1 a restaurant etc. where meat is roasted or barbecued.  2 a
             cooking appliance with a rotating spit for roasting and
             barbecuing meat.  [F r“tisserie (as ROAST)]

             n.  1 a printing system using a rotary press with intaglio
             cylinders, usu. running at high speed.  2 a sheet etc. printed
             with this system.  [G Rotogravur (name of a company) assim. to

   rotor     n.  1 a rotary part of a machine, esp. in the distributor of an
             internal-combustion engine.  2 a set of radiating aerofoils
             round a hub on a helicopter, providing lift when rotated.
             [irreg. for ROTATOR]

   Rotovator var. of ROTAVATOR.

   rotten    adj.  (rottener, rottenest) 1 rotting or rotted; falling to
             pieces or liable to break or tear from age or use.  2 morally,
             socially, or politically corrupt.  3 sl.  a disagreeable,
             unpleasant (had a rotten time).  b (of a plan etc.) ill-advised,
             unsatisfactory (a rotten idea).  c disagreeably ill (feel rotten
             today).  Ьrotten borough hist.  (before 1832) an English borough
             able to elect an MP though having very few voters.  rotten-stone
             decomposed siliceous limestone used as a powder for polishing
             metals.  ЬЬrottenly adv.  rottenness n.  [ME f. ON rotinn, rel.
             to ROT, RET]

   rotter    n.  esp.  Brit.  sl.  an objectionable, unpleasant, or
             reprehensible person.  [ROT]

             n.  1 a dog of a tall black-and-tan breed.  2 this breed.  [G f.
             Rottweil in SW Germany]

   rotund    adj.  1 a circular, round.  b (of a person) large and plump,
             podgy.  2 (of speech, literary style, etc.) sonorous,
             grandiloquent.  ЬЬrotundity n.  rotundly adv.  [L rotundus f.
             rotare ROTATE(1)]

   rotunda   n.  1 a building with a circular ground-plan, esp. one with a
             dome.  2 a circular hall or room.  [earlier rotonda f. It.
             rotonda (camera) round (chamber), fem. of rotondo round (as

   rouble    n.  (also ruble) the chief monetary unit of the USSR.  [F f.
             Russ.  rubl']

   rou‚      n.  a debauchee, esp. an elderly one; a rake.  [F, past part. of
             rouer break on wheel, = one deserving this]

   rouge     n. & v.  --n.  1 a red powder or cream used for colouring the
             cheeks.  2 powdered ferric oxide etc. as a polishing agent esp.
             for metal.  --v.  1 tr. colour with rouge.  2 intr.  a apply
             rouge to one's cheeks.  b become red, blush.  Ьrouge-et-noir a
             gambling game using a table with red and black marks, on which
             players place stakes.  [F, = red, f. L rubeus, rel. to RED]

   rough     adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  1 a having an uneven or irregular
             surface, not smooth or level or polished.  b Tennis applied to
             the side of a racket from which the twisted gut projects.  2 (of
             ground, country, etc.) having many bumps, obstacles, etc.  3 a
             hairy, shaggy.  b (of cloth) coarse in texture.  4 a (of a
             person or behaviour) not mild or quiet or gentle; boisterous,
             unrestrained (rough manners; rough play).  b (of language etc.)
             coarse, indelicate.  c (of wine etc.) sharp or harsh in taste.
             5 (of the sea, weather, etc.) violent, stormy.  6 disorderly,
             riotous (a rough part of town).  7 harsh, insensitive,
             inconsiderate (rough words; rough treatment).  8 a unpleasant,
             severe, demanding (had a rough time).  b unfortunate,
             unreasonable, undeserved (had rough luck).  c (foll. by on) hard
             or unfair towards.  9 lacking finish, elaboration, comfort, etc.
             (rough lodgings; a rough welcome).  10 incomplete, rudimentary
             (a rough attempt; a rough makeshift).  11 a inexact,
             approximate, preliminary (a rough estimate; a rough sketch).  b
             (of stationery etc.) for use in writing rough notes etc.  12
             colloq.  a ill, unwell (am feeling rough).  b depressed,
             dejected.  --adv. in a rough manner (the land should be ploughed
             rough; play rough).  --n.  1 (usu. prec. by the) a hard part or
             aspect of life; hardship (take the rough with the smooth).  2
             rough ground (over rough and smooth).  3 a rough or violent
             person (met a bunch of roughs).  4 Golf rough ground off the
             fairway between tee and green.  5 an unfinished or provisional
             or natural state (have written it in rough; shaped from the
             rough).  6 (prec. by the) the general way or tendency (is true
             in the rough).  --v.tr.  1 (foll. by up) ruffle (feathers, hair,
             etc.) by rubbing against the grain.  2 a (foll. by out) shape or
             plan roughly.  b (foll. by in) sketch roughly.  3 give the first
             shaping to (a gun, lens, etc.).  Ьrough-and-ready rough or crude
             but effective; not elaborate or over-particular.
             rough-and-tumble adj.  irregular, scrambling, disorderly.  --n.
             a haphazard fight; a scuffle.  rough breathing see BREATHING.
             rough coat a first coat of plaster applied to a surface.  rough
             copy 1 a first or original draft.  2 a copy of a picture etc.
             showing only the essential features.  rough deal hard or unfair
             treatment.  rough diamond 1 an uncut diamond.  2 a person of
             good nature but rough manners.  rough-dry (-dries, -dried) dry
             (clothes) without ironing.  the rough edge (or side) of one's
             tongue severe or harsh words.  rough-handle treat or handle
             roughly.  rough-hew (past part.  -hewed or -hewn) shape out
             roughly; give crude form to.  rough-hewn uncouth, unrefined.
             rough house sl.  a disturbance or row; boisterous play.
             rough-house v.  sl.  1 tr. handle (a person) roughly.  2 intr.
             make a disturbance; act violently.  rough it do without basic
             comforts.  rough justice 1 treatment that is approximately fair.
             2 treatment that is not at all fair.  rough passage 1 a crossing
             over rough sea.  2 a difficult time or experience.  rough ride a
             difficult time or experience.  rough-rider a person who breaks
             in or can ride unbroken horses.  rough stuff colloq.  boisterous
             or violent behaviour.  rough tongue a habit of rudeness in
             speaking.  rough trade sl.  a tough or sadistic element among
             male homosexuals.  rough up sl.  treat (a person) with violence;
             attack violently.  rough work 1 preliminary or provisional work.
             2 colloq. violence.  3 a task requiring the use of force.  sleep
             rough sleep outdoors, or not in a proper bed.  ЬЬroughness n.
             [OE ruh f. WG]

   roughage  n.  1 coarse material with a high fibre content, the part of
             food which stimulates digestion.  2 coarse fodder.  [ROUGH +
             -AGE 3]

   roughcast n., adj., & v.  --n. plaster of lime and gravel, used on outside
             walls.  --adj.  1 (of a wall etc.) coated with roughcast.  2 (of
             a plan etc.) roughly formed, preliminary.  --v.tr.  (past and
             past part.  -cast) 1 coat (a wall) with roughcast.  2 prepare (a
             plan, essay, etc.) in outline.

   roughen   v.tr. & intr.  make or become rough.

   roughie   n.  dial.  sl.  1 a rough; a hooligan.  2 Austral.  a an
             outsider.  b an unfair or unreasonable act.

   roughish  adj.  somewhat rough.

   roughly   adv.  1 in a rough manner.  2 approximately (roughly 20 people
             attended).  Ьroughly speaking in an approximate sense (it is,
             roughly speaking, a square).

   roughneck n.  colloq.  1 a rough or rowdy person.  2 a worker on an oil

   roughshod adj.  (of a horse) having shoes with nail-heads projecting to
             prevent slipping.  Ьride roughshod over treat inconsiderately or

   roughy    n.  (pl.  -ies) Austral. & NZ a fish, Arripis georgianus, of the
             perch family.  [perh. f.  ROUGH]

   roulade   n.  1 a dish cooked or served in the shape of a roll, esp. a
             rolled piece of meat or sponge with a filling.  2 a florid
             passage of runs etc. in solo vocal music, usu.  sung to one
             syllable.  [F f.  rouler to roll]

   rouleau   n.  (pl.  rouleaux or rouleaus) 1 a cylindrical packet of coins.
             2 a coil or roll of ribbon etc., esp. as trimming.  [F f.  r“le
             ROLL n.]

   roulette  n.  1 a gambling game using a table in which a ball is dropped
             on to a revolving wheel with numbered compartments, players
             betting on the number at which the ball comes to rest.  2 Math.
             a curve generated by a point on a curve rolling on another.  3 a
             a revolving toothed wheel used in engraving.  b a similar wheel
             for making perforations between postage stamps in a sheet.
             ЬЬrouletted adj. (in sense 3b).  [F, dimin. of rouelle f. LL
             rotella dimin. of L rota wheel]

   round     adj., n., adv., prep., & v.  --adj.  1 shaped like or
             approximately like a circle, sphere, or cylinder; having a
             convex or circular outline or surface; curved, not angular.  2
             done with or involving circular motion.  3 a entire, continuous,
             complete (a round dozen); fully expressed or developed; all
             together, not broken or defective or scanty.  b (of a sum of
             money) considerable.  4 genuine, candid, outspoken; (of a
             statement etc.) categorical, unmistakable.  5 (usu.  attrib.)
             (of a number) expressed for convenience or as an estimate in
             fewer significant numerals or with a fraction removed (spent
             њ297.32, or in round figures њ300).  6 a (of a style) flowing.
             b (of a voice) not harsh.  7 Phonet. (of a vowel) pronounced
             with rounded lips.  --n.  1 a round object or form.  2 a a
             revolving motion, a circular or recurring course (the earth in
             its yearly round).  b a regular recurring series of activities
             or functions (one's daily round; a continuous round of
             pleasure).  c a recurring succession or series of meetings for
             discussion etc. (a new round of talks on disarmament).  3 a a
             fixed route on which things are regularly delivered (milk
             round).  b a route or sequence by which people or things are
             regularly supervised or inspected (a watchman's round; a
             doctor's rounds).  4 an allowance of something distributed or
             measured out, esp.: a a single provision of drinks etc. to each
             member of a group.  b ammunition to fire one shot; the act of
             firing this.  5 a a slice across a loaf of bread.  b a sandwich
             made from whole slices of bread.  c a thick disc of beef cut
             from the haunch as a joint.  6 each of a set or series, a
             sequence of actions by each member of a group in turn, esp.  a
             one spell of play in a game etc.  b one stage in a competition.
             7 Golf the playing of all the holes in a course once.  8 Archery
             a fixed number of arrows shot from a fixed distance.  9 (the
             round) a form of sculpture in which the figure stands clear of
             any ground (cf.  RELIEF 6a).  10 Mus. a canon for three or more
             unaccompanied voices singing at the same pitch or in octaves.
             11 (in pl.) Mil.  a a watch that goes round inspecting sentries.
             b a circuit made by this.  12 a rung of a ladder.  13 (foll. by
             of) the circumference, bounds, or extent of (in all the round of
             Nature).  --adv.  1 with circular motion (wheels go round).  2
             with return to the starting-point or an earlier state (summer
             soon comes round).  3 a with rotation, or change to an opposite
             position (he turned round to look).  b with change to an
             opposite opinion etc. (they were angry but I soon won them
             round).  4 to, at, or affecting all or many points of a
             circumference or an area or the members of a company etc. (tea
             was then handed round; may I look round?).  5 in every direction
             from a centre or within a radius (spread destruction round;
             everyone for a mile round).  6 by a circuitous way (will you
             jump over or go round?; go a long way round).  7 a to a person's
             house etc. (ask him round; will be round soon).  b to a more
             prominent or convenient position (brought the car round).  8
             measuring a (specified distance) in girth.  --prep.  1 so as to
             encircle or enclose (tour round the world; has a blanket round
             him).  2 at or to points on the circumference of (sat round the
             table).  3 with successive visits to (hawks them round the
             caf‚s).  4 in various directions from or with regard to (towns
             round Birmingham; shells bursting round them).  5 having as an
             axis of revolution or as a central point (turns round its centre
             of gravity; write a book round an event).  6 a so as to double
             or pass in a curved course (go round the corner).  b having
             passed in this way (be round the corner).  c in the position
             that would result from this (find them round the corner).  7 so
             as to come close from various sides but not into contact.  --v.
             1 a tr. give a round shape to.  b intr. assume a round shape.  2
             tr. double or pass round (a corner, cape, etc.).  3 tr. express
             (a number) in a less exact but more convenient form (also foll.
             by down when the number is decreased and up when it is
             increased).  4 tr. pronounce (a vowel) with rounded lips.  Ьgo
             the round (or rounds) (of news etc.) be passed on from person to
             person.  in the round 1 with all features shown; all things
             considered.  2 Theatr. with the audience round at least three
             sides of the stage.  3 (of sculpture) with all sides shown; not
             in relief.  make the round of go round.  make (or go) one's
             rounds take a customary route for inspection etc.  round about 1
             in a ring (about); all round; on all sides (of).  2 with a
             change to an opposite position.  3 approximately (cost round
             about њ50).  round and round several times round.  round-arm
             Cricket (of bowling) with the arm swung horizontally.  round the
             bend see BEND(1).  round brackets brackets of the form ().
             round dance 1 a dance in which couples move in circles round the
             ballroom.  2 a dance in which the dancers form one large circle.
             round down see sense 3 of v.  round off (or out) 1 bring to a
             complete or symmetrical or well-ordered state.  2 smooth out;
             blunt the corners or angles of.  round on a person make a sudden
             verbal attack on or unexpected retort to a person.  round out =
             round off 1.  round peg in a square hole = square peg in a round
             hole (see PEG).  round robin 1 a petition esp. with signatures
             written in a circle to conceal the order of writing.  2 US a
             tournament in which each competitor plays in turn against every
             other.  round-shouldered with shoulders bent forward so that the
             back is rounded.  Round Table (in allusion to that at which King
             Arthur and his knights sat so that none should have precedence)
             1 an international charitable association which holds
             discussions, debates, etc., and undertakes community service.  2
             (round table) an assembly for discussion, esp. at a conference
             (often attrib.: round-table talks).  round trip a trip to one or
             more places and back again (esp. by a circular route).  round
             the twist see TWIST.  round up collect or bring together, esp.
             by going round (see also sense 3 of v.).  round-up n.  1 a
             systematic rounding up of people or things.  2 a summary; a
             r‚sum‚ of facts or events.  ЬЬroundish adj.  roundness n.  [ME
             f. OF ro(u)nd- stem of ro(o)nt, reont f. L rotundus ROTUND]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 Brit. a road junction at which traffic moves
             in one direction round a central island.  2 Brit.  a a large
             revolving device in a playground, for children to ride on.  b =
             MERRY-GO-ROUND 1.  --adj. circuitous, circumlocutory, indirect.

   roundel   n.  1 a small disc, esp. a decorative medallion.  2 a circular
             identifying mark painted on military aircraft, esp. the red,
             white, and blue of the RAF.  3 a poem of eleven lines in three
             stanzas.  [ME f. OF rondel(le) (as ROUND)]

   roundelay n.  a short simple song with a refrain.  [F rondelet (as
             RONDEL), with assim. to LAY(3) or virelay]

   rounder   n.  1 (in pl.; treated as sing.) a game with a bat and ball in
             which players after hitting the ball run through a round of
             bases.  2 a complete run of a player through all the bases as a
             unit of scoring in rounders.

   Roundhead n.  hist.  a member of the Parliamentary party in the English
             Civil War.  [f. their custom of wearing the hair cut short]

             n.  1 a circular repair-shed for railway locomotives, built
             round a turntable.  2 sl.  a a blow given with a wide sweep of
             the arm.  b US Baseball a pitch made with a sweeping sidearm
             motion.  3 hist. a prison; a place of detention.  4 Naut. a
             cabin or set of cabins on the after part of the quarterdeck,
             esp. on a sailing-ship.

   roundly   adv.  1 bluntly, in plain language, severely (was roundly
             criticized; told them roundly that he refused).  2 in a
             thoroughgoing manner (go roundly to work).  3 in a circular way
             (swells out roundly).

   roundsman n.  (pl.  -men) 1 Brit. a tradesman's employee going round
             delivering and taking orders.  2 US a police officer in charge
             of a patrol.  3 Austral. a journalist covering a specified
             subject (political roundsman).

   roundworm n.  a worm, esp. a nematode, with a rounded body.

   roup(1)   n. & v.  Sc. & N.Engl.  --n. an auction.  --v.tr. sell by
             auction.  [ME 'to shout', of Scand. orig.]

   roup(2)   n.  an infectious poultry-disease, esp. of the respiratory
             tract.  ЬЬroupy adj.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rouse     v.  1 a tr. (often foll. by from, out of) bring out of sleep,
             wake.  b intr. (often foll. by up) cease to sleep, wake up.  2
             (often foll. by up) a tr. stir up, make active or excited,
             startle out of inactivity or confidence or carelessness (roused
             them from their complacency; was roused to protest).  b intr.
             become active.  3 tr. provoke to anger (is terrible when
             roused).  4 tr. evoke (feelings).  5 tr. (usu. foll. by in, out,
             up) Naut. haul vigorously.  6 tr. startle (game) from a lair or
             cover.  7 tr. stir (liquid, esp. beer while brewing).  Ьrouse
             oneself overcome one's indolence.  ЬЬrousable adj.  rouser n.
             [orig. as a hawking and hunting term, so prob. f. AF: orig.

             n.  Austral. & NZ an unskilled labourer or odd jobber, esp. on a

   rousing   adj.  1 exciting, stirring (a rousing cheer; a rousing song).  2
             (of a fire) blazing strongly.  ЬЬrousingly adv.

   roust     v.tr.  1 (often foll. by up, out) a rouse, stir up.  b root out.
             2 US sl. jostle, harass, rough up.  Ьroust around rummage.
             [perh. alt. of ROUSE]

             n.  1 a labourer on an oil rig.  2 an unskilled or casual
             labourer.  3 US a dock labourer or deck hand.  4 Austral. =

   rout(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a disorderly retreat of defeated troops.  2 a
             an assemblage or company esp. of revellers or rioters.  b Law an
             assemblage of three or more persons who have made a move towards
             committing an illegal act.  3 riot, tumult, disturbance,
             clamour, fuss.  4 Brit.  archaic a large evening party or
             reception.  --v.tr. put to rout.  Ьput to rout put to flight,
             defeat utterly.  [ME f. AF rute, OF route ult. f. L ruptus

   rout(2)   v.  1 intr. & tr. = ROOT(2).  2 tr. cut a groove, or any pattern
             not extending to the edges, in (a wooden or metal surface).
             Ьrout out force or fetch out of bed or from a house or
             hiding-place.  [var. of ROOT(2)]

   route     Mil. also n. & v.  --n.  1 a way or course taken (esp.
             regularly) in getting from a starting-point to a destination.  2
             US a round travelled in delivering, selling, or collecting
             goods.  3 Mil.  archaic marching orders.  --v.tr.  (routeing)
             send or forward or direct to be sent by a particular route.
             Ьroute man US = ROUNDSMAN 1.  route march a training-march for
             troops.  [ME f. OF r(o)ute road ult. f. L ruptus broken]

   router    n.  a type of plane with two handles used in routing.

   routine   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a regular course or procedure, an
             unvarying performance of certain acts.  2 a set sequence in a
             performance, esp. a dance, comedy act, etc.  3 Computing a
             sequence of instructions for performing a task.  --adj.  1
             performed as part of a routine (routine duties).  2 of a
             customary or standard kind.  --v.tr. organize according to a
             routine.  ЬЬroutinely adv.  [F (as ROUTE)]

   routinism n.  the prevalence of routine.  ЬЬroutinist n. & adj.

   routinize v.tr.  (also -ise) subject to a routine; make into a matter of
             routine.  ЬЬroutinization n.

   roux      n.  (pl. same) a mixture of fat (esp. butter) and flour used in
             making sauces etc.  [F, = browned (butter): see RUSSET]

   rove(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. wander without a settled destination,
             roam, ramble.  2 intr. (of eyes) look in changing directions.  3
             tr. wander over or through.  --n. an act of roving (on the
             rove).  Ьrove-beetle any long-bodied beetle of the family
             Staphylinidae, usu. found in decaying animal and vegetable
             matter.  roving commission authority given to a person or
             persons conducting an inquiry to travel as may be necessary.
             roving eye a tendency to ogle or towards infidelity.  [ME, orig.
             a term in archery = shoot at a casual mark with the range not
             determined, perh. f. dial.  rave stray, prob. of Scand. orig.]

   rove(2)   past of REEVE(2).

   rove(3)   n. & v.  --n. a sliver of cotton, wool, etc., drawn out and
             slightly twisted.  --v.tr. form into roves.  [18th c.: orig.

   rove(4)   n.  a small metal plate or ring for a rivet to pass through and
             be clenched over, esp. in boat-building.  [ON rў, with
             excrescent v]

   rover(1)  n.  1 a roving person; a wanderer.  2 Croquet a a ball that has
             passed all the hoops but not pegged out.  b a player whose ball
             is a rover.  3 Archery a a mark chosen at undetermined range.  b
             a mark for long-distance shooting.  4 (Rover) Brit. a senior
             Scout.  °Now called Venture Scout.

   rover(2)  n.  a sea robber, a pirate.  [ME f. MLG, MDu.  rover f.  roven
             rob, rel. to REAVE]

   rover(3)  n.  a person or machine that makes roves of fibre.

   row(1)    n.  1 a number of persons or things in a more or less straight
             line.  2 a line of seats across a theatre etc. (in the front
             row).  3 a street with a continuous line of houses along one or
             each side.  4 a line of plants in a field or garden.  5 a
             horizontal line of entries in a table etc.  Ьa hard row to hoe a
             difficult task.  in a row 1 forming a row.  2 colloq. in
             succession (two Sundays in a row).  row-house US a terrace
             house.  [ME raw, row, f. OE f. Gmc]

   row(2)    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. propel (a boat) with oars.  2 tr. convey (a
             passenger) in a boat in this way.  3 intr. propel a boat in this
             way.  4 tr. make (a stroke) or achieve (a rate of striking) in
             rowing.  5 tr. compete in (a race) by rowing.  6 tr. row a race
             with.  --n.  1 a spell of rowing.  2 an excursion in a
             rowing-boat.  Ьrow-boat US = rowing-boat.  row down overtake in
             a rowing, esp. bumping, race.  rowing-boat Brit.  a small boat
             propelled by oars.  rowing-machine a device for exercising the
             muscles used in rowing.  row out exhaust by rowing (the crew
             were completely rowed out at the finish).  row over complete the
             course of a boat race with little effort, owing to the absence
             or inferiority of competitors.  ЬЬrower n.  [OE rowan f. Gmc,
             rel. to RUDDER, L remus oar]

   row(3)    n. & v.  colloq.  --n.  1 a loud noise or commotion.  2 a fierce
             quarrel or dispute.  3 a a severe reprimand.  b the condition of
             being reprimanded (shall get into a row).  --v.  1 intr. make or
             engage in a row.  2 tr. reprimand.  Ьmake (or kick up) a row 1
             raise a noise.  2 make a vigorous protest.  [18th-c. sl.: orig.

   rowan     n. (in full rowan-tree) 1 Sc. & N.Engl. the mountain ash.  2 US
             a similar tree, Sorbus americana, native to America.  3 (in full
             rowan-berry) the scarlet berry of either of these trees.
             [Scand., corresp. to Norw.  rogn, raun, Icel.  reynir]

   rowdy     adj. & n.  --adj.  (rowdier, rowdiest) noisy and disorderly.
             --n.  (pl.  -ies) a rowdy person.  ЬЬrowdily adv.  rowdiness n.
             rowdyism n.  [19th-c. US, orig. = lawless backwoodsman: orig.

   rowel     n. & v.  --n.  1 a spiked revolving disc at the end of a spur.
             2 a circular piece of leather etc. with a hole in the centre
             inserted between a horse's skin and flesh to discharge an
             exudate.  --v.tr.  (rowelled, rowelling; US roweled, roweling) 1
             urge with a rowel.  2 insert a rowel in.  [ME f. OF roel(e) f.
             LL rotella dimin. of L rota wheel]

   rowen     n.  (in sing. or pl.) US a second growth of grass, an aftermath.
             [ME f. OF regain (as GAIN)]

   rowlock   n.  a device on a boat's gunwale, esp. a pair of thole-pins,
             serving as a fulcrum for an oar and keeping it in place.  [alt.
             of earlier OARLOCK, after ROW(2)]

   Rowton house
             n.  Brit.  hist.  a type of lodging-house for poor men,
             providing better conditions than a common lodging-house.  [Lord
             Rowton, English social reformer d. 1903]

   royal     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or suited to or worthy of a king or
             queen.  2 in the service or under the patronage of a king or
             queen.  3 belonging to the king or queen (the royal hands; the
             royal anger).  4 of the family of a king or queen.  5 kingly,
             majestic, stately, splendid.  6 on a great scale, of exceptional
             size or quality, first-rate (gave us royal entertainment; in
             royal spirits; had a royal time).  --n.  1 colloq. a member of
             the royal family.  2 a royal sail or mast.  3 a royal stag.  4 a
             size of paper, about 620 x 500 mm (25 x 20 in.).  5 (the Royals)
             the Royal Marines.  ЬRoyal Air Force the British air force.
             royal assent see ASSENT.  royal blue Brit.  a deep vivid blue.
             Royal British Legion a national association of ex-members of the
             armed forces, founded in 1921.  royal burgh hist.  (in Scotland)
             a burgh holding a charter from the Crown.  Royal Commission see
             COMMISSION.  royal duke see DUKE.  Royal Engineers the
             engineering branch of the British army.  royal family the family
             to which a sovereign belongs.  royal fern a fern, Osmunda
             regalis, with huge spreading fronds.  royal flush see FLUSH(3).
             royal icing a hard white icing made from icing sugar and
             egg-whites.  Royal Institution a British society founded in 1799
             for the diffusion of scientific knowledge.  royal jelly a
             substance secreted by honey-bee workers and fed by them to
             future queen bees.  Royal Marine a British marine (see MARINE n.
             2).  royal mast a mast above a topgallant mast.  Royal Navy the
             British navy.  royal oak a sprig of oak worn on 29 May to
             commemorate the restoration of Charles II (1660), who hid in an
             oak after the battle of Worcester (1651).  royal plural the
             first person plural 'we' used by a single person.  royal road to
             way of attaining without trouble.  royal sail a sail above a
             topgallant sail.  Royal Society (in full Royal Society of
             London) a society founded in 1662 to promote scientific
             discussion.  royal stag a stag with a head of 12 or more points.
             royal standard a banner bearing royal heraldic arms.  royal
             tennis real tennis.  Royal Victorian Chain (in the UK) an order
             founded by Edward VII in 1902 and conferred by the sovereign on
             special occasions.  Royal Victorian Order (in the UK) an order
             founded by Queen Victoria in 1896 and conferred usu. for great
             service rendered to the sovereign.  royal warrant a warrant
             authorizing a tradesperson to supply goods to a specified royal
             person.  ЬЬroyally adv.  [ME f. OF roial f. L regalis REGAL]

   royalist  n.  1 a a supporter of monarchy.  b hist. a supporter of the
             royal side in the English Civil War.  2 US a reactionary, esp. a
             reactionary business tycoon.  ЬЬroyalism n.

   royalty   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the office or dignity or power of a king or
             queen, sovereignty.  2 a royal persons.  b a member of a royal
             family.  3 a sum paid to a patentee for the use of a patent or
             to an author etc. for each copy of a book etc. sold or for each
             public performance of a work.  4 a a royal right (now esp. over
             minerals) granted by the sovereign to an individual or
             corporation.  b a payment made by a producer of minerals, oil,
             or natural gas to the owner of the site or of the mineral rights
             over it.  [ME f. OF roialt‚ (as ROYAL)]

   rozzer    n.  Brit.  sl.  a policeman.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

15.0 RP...

   RP        abbr.  received pronunciation.

   RPI       abbr.  retail price index.

   r.p.m.    abbr.  1 revolutions per minute.  2 resale price maintenance.

   RPO       abbr.  Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.

16.0 RR

   RR        abbr.  US 1 railroad.  2 rural route.

17.0 RS...

   RS        abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Society.  2 US Received Standard.  3
             (in the UK) Royal Scots.

   Rs.       abbr.  rupee(s).

   RSA       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Society of Arts.  2 Royal Scottish
             Academy; Royal Scottish Academician.

   RSC       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Royal Shakespeare Company.  2 (in the UK)
             Royal Society of Chemistry.

   RSFSR     abbr.  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

   RSJ       abbr.  rolled steel joist.

   RSM       abbr.  Regimental Sergeant-Major.

   RSPB      abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

   RSPCA     abbr.  (in the UK) Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
             to Animals.

   RSV       abbr.  Revised Standard Version (of the Bible).

   RSVP      abbr.  (in an invitation etc.) please answer.  [F r‚pondez s'il
             vous plaЊt]

18.0 RT...

   RT        abbr.  1 radio telegraphy.  2 radio telephony.

   rt.       abbr.  right.

   Rt. Hon.  abbr.  Brit.  Right Honourable.

   Rt. Revd. abbr.  (also Rt. Rev.) Right Reverend.

19.0 RU...

   RU        abbr.  Rugby Union.

   Ru        symb.  Chem.  the element ruthenium.

   rub(1)    v. & n.  --v.  (rubbed, rubbing) 1 tr. move one's hand or
             another object with firm pressure over the surface of.  2 tr.
             (usu. foll. by against, in, on, over) apply (one's hand etc.) in
             this way.  3 tr. clean or polish or make dry or bare by rubbing.
             4 tr. (often foll. by over) apply (polish, ointment, etc.) by
             rubbing.  5 tr. (foll. by in, into, through) use rubbing to make
             (a substance) go into or through something.  6 tr. (often foll.
             by together) move or slide (objects) against each other.  7
             intr. (foll. by against, on) move with contact or friction.  8
             tr. chafe or make sore by rubbing.  9 intr. (of cloth, skin,
             etc.) become frayed or worn or sore or bare with friction.  10
             tr. reproduce the design of (a sepulchral brass or a stone) by
             rubbing paper laid on it with heelball or coloured chalk etc.
             11 tr. (foll. by to) reduce to powder etc. by rubbing.  12 intr.
             Bowls (of a bowl) be slowed or diverted by the unevenness of the
             ground.  --n.  1 a spell or an instance of rubbing (give it a
             rub).  2 a an impediment or difficulty (there's the rub).  b
             Bowls an inequality of the ground impeding or diverting a bowl;
             the diversion or hindering of a bowl by this.  Ьrub along
             colloq.  cope or manage without undue difficulty.  rub down dry
             or smooth or clean by rubbing.  rub-down n.  an instance of
             rubbing down.  rub elbows with US = rub shoulders with.  rub
             one's hands rub one's hands together usu. in sign of keen
             satisfaction, or for warmth.  rub it in (or rub a person's nose
             in it) emphasize or repeat an embarrassing fact etc.  rub noses
             rub one's nose against another's in greeting.  rub off 1 (usu.
             foll. by on) be transferred by contact, be transmitted (some of
             his attitudes have rubbed off on me).  2 remove by rubbing.  rub
             of (or on) the green Golf an accidental interference with the
             course or position of a ball.  rub on colloq. = rub along.  rub
             out 1 erase with a rubber.  2 esp.  US sl. kill, eliminate.  rub
             shoulders with associate or come into contact with (another
             person).  rub up 1 polish (a tarnished object).  2 brush up (a
             subject or one's memory).  3 mix (pigment etc.) into paste by
             rubbing.  rub-up n.  the act or an instance of rubbing up.  rub
             up the wrong way irritate or repel as by stroking a cat against
             the lie of its fur.  [ME rubben, perh. f. LG rubben, of unkn.

   rub(2)    n.  = RUBBER(2).  [abbr.]

   rubato    adj. & n.  Mus.  --n.  (pl.  -os or rubati) the temporary
             disregarding of strict tempo.  --adj. performed with a flexible
             tempo.  [It., = robbed]

   rubber(1) n.  1 a tough elastic polymeric substance made from the latex of
             plants or synthetically.  2 esp.  Brit. a piece of this or
             another substance for erasing pencil or ink marks.  3 colloq. a
             condom.  4 (in pl.) US galoshes.  5 a person who rubs; a masseur
             or masseuse.  6 a an implement used for rubbing.  b part of a
             machine operating by rubbing.  Ьrubber band a loop of rubber for
             holding papers etc. together.  rubber plant 1 an evergreen
             plant, Ficus elastica, with dark-green shiny leaves, often
             cultivated as a house-plant.  2 (also rubber tree) any of
             various tropical trees yielding latex, esp.  Hevea brasiliensis.
             rubber solution a liquid drying to a rubber-like material, used
             esp. as an adhesive in mending rubber articles.  rubber stamp 1
             a device for inking and imprinting on a surface.  2 a a person
             who mechanically copies or agrees to others' actions.  b an
             indication of such agreement.  rubber-stamp v.tr.  approve
             automatically without proper consideration.  ЬЬrubbery adj.
             rubberiness n.  [RUB(1) + -ER(1), from its early use to rub out
             pencil marks]

   rubber(2) n.  1 a match of three or five successive games between the same
             sides or persons at whist, bridge, cricket, lawn tennis, etc.  2
             (prec. by the) a the act of winning two games in a rubber.  b a
             third game when each side has won one.  [orig. unkn.: used as a
             term in bowls from c. 1600]

   rubberize v.tr.  (also -ise) treat or coat with rubber.

             n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a person who stares inquisitively or
             stupidly.  --v.intr. act in this way.

   rubbing   n.  1 in senses of RUB(1) v.  2 an impression or copy made by
             rubbing (see RUB(1) v.  10).

   rubbish   n. & v.  --n. esp.  Brit.  1 waste material; debris, refuse,
             litter.  2 worthless material or articles; trash.  3 (often as
             int.) absurd ideas or suggestions; nonsense.  --v.tr.  colloq.
             1 criticize severely.  2 reject as worthless.  ЬЬrubbishy adj.
             [ME f. AF rubbous etc., perh. f.  RUBBLE]

   rubble    n.  1 waste or rough fragments of stone or brick etc.  2 pieces
             of undressed stone used, esp. as filling-in, for walls.  3 Geol.
             loose angular stones etc. as the covering of some rocks.  4
             water-worn stones.  ЬЬrubbly adj.  [ME robyl, rubel, of uncert.
             orig.: cf. OF robe spoils]

   rube      n.  US colloq.  a country bumpkin.  [abbr. of the name Reuben]

   rubefy    v.tr.  (also rubify) (-ies, -ied) 1 make red.  2 Med. (of a
             counterirritant) stimulate (the skin etc.) to redness.
             ЬЬrubefacient adj. & n.  rubefaction n.  [ME f. OF rubifier,
             rubefier f. med.L rubificare f. L rubefacere f.  rubeus red]

   rubella   n.  Med.  an acute infectious virus disease with a red rash;
             German measles.  [mod.L, neut. pl. of L rubellus reddish]

   rubellite n.  a red variety of tourmaline.  [L rubellus reddish]

   rubeola   n.  Med.  measles.  [med.L f. L rubeus red]

   Rubicon   n.  1 a boundary which once crossed betokens irrevocable
             commitment; a point of no return.  2 (rubicon) the act of
             winning a game in piquet before an opponent has scored 100.
             [the ancient name of a stream forming the boundary of Julius
             Caesar's province and crossed by him in 49 BC as the start of a
             war with Pompey]

   rubicund  adj.  (of a face, complexion, or person in these respects)
             ruddy, high-coloured.  ЬЬrubicundity n.  [F rubicond or L
             rubicundus f.  rubere be red]

   rubidium  n.  Chem.  a soft silvery element occurring naturally in various
             minerals and as the radioactive isotope rubidium-87.  °Symb.:
             Rb.  [L rubidus red (with ref. to its spectral lines)]

   rubify    var. of RUBEFY.

             adj.  formal rust-coloured.  [L rubigo- inis rust]

   Rubik's cube
             n.  a puzzle in which the aim is to restore the faces of a
             composite cube to single colours by rotating layers of
             constituent smaller cubes.  [E.  Rubik, its Hung. inventor]

   ruble     var. of ROUBLE.

   rubric    n.  1 a direction for the conduct of divine service inserted in
             a liturgical book.  2 a heading or passage in red or special
             lettering.  3 explanatory words.  4 an established custom.
             ЬЬrubrical adj.  [ME f. OF rubrique, rubrice or L rubrica
             (terra) red (earth or ochre) as writing-material, rel. to rubeus

   rubricate v.tr.  1 mark with red; print or write in red.  2 provide with
             rubrics.  ЬЬrubrication n.  rubricator n.  [L rubricare f.
             rubrica: see RUBRIC]

   ruby      n., adj., & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a rare precious stone
             consisting of corundum with a colour varying from deep crimson
             or purple to pale rose.  2 a glowing purple-tinged red colour.
             --adj. of this colour.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) dye or tinge
             ruby-colour.  Ьruby glass glass coloured with oxides of copper,
             iron, lead, tin, etc.  ruby-tail a wasp, Chrysis ignita, with a
             ruby-coloured hinder part.  ruby wedding the fortieth
             anniversary of a wedding.  [ME f. OF rubi f. med.L rubinus
             (lapis) red (stone), rel. to L rubeus red]

   RUC       abbr.  Royal Ulster Constabulary.

   ruche     n.  a frill or gathering of lace etc. as a trimming.  ЬЬruched
             adj.  ruching n.  [F f. med.L rusca tree-bark, of Celt. orig.]

   ruck(1)   n.  1 (prec. by the) the main body of competitors not likely to
             overtake the leaders.  2 an undistinguished crowd of persons or
             things.  3 Rugby Football a loose scrum with the ball on the
             ground.  4 Austral. Rules a group of three mobile players.  [ME,
             = stack of fuel, heap, rick: app. Scand., = Norw.  ruka in the
             same senses]

   ruck(2)   v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr. (often foll. by up) make or become
             creased or wrinkled.  --n. a crease or wrinkle.  [ON hrukka]

   ruckle    v. & n.  Brit.  = RUCK(2).

   rucksack  n.  a bag slung by straps from both shoulders and resting on the
             back.  [G f.  rucken dial. var. of RЃcken back + Sack SACK(1)]

   ruckus    n.  esp.  US a row or commotion.  [cf.  RUCTION, RUMPUS]

   ruction   n.  colloq.  1 a disturbance or tumult.  2 (in pl.) unpleasant
             arguments or reactions.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rudaceous adj.  (of rock) composed of fragments of relatively large size.
             [L rudus rubble]

   rudbeckia n.  a composite garden plant of the genus Rudbeckia, native to
             N. America.  [mod.L f. O.  Rudbeck, Sw. botanist d. 1740]

   rudd      n.  (pl. same) a freshwater fish, Scardinius erythrophthalmus,
             resembling a roach and having red fins.  [app. rel. to rud red
             colour f. OE rudu, rel. to RED]

   rudder    n.  1 a a flat piece hinged vertically to the stern of a ship
             for steering.  b a vertical aerofoil pivoted from the tailplane
             of an aircraft, for controlling its horizontal movement.  2 a
             guiding principle etc.  ЬЬrudderless adj.  [OE rother f. WG
             rothra- f. the stem of ROW(2)]

   ruddle    n. & v.  --n. a red ochre, esp. of a kind used for marking
             sheep.  --v.tr. mark or colour with or as with ruddle.  [rel. to
             obs.  rud: see RUDD]

   ruddock   n.  dial.  the robin redbreast.  [OE rudduc (as RUDDLE)]

   ruddy     adj. & v.  --adj.  (ruddier, ruddiest) 1 a (of a person or
             complexion) freshly or healthily red.  b (of health, youth,
             etc.) marked by this.  2 reddish.  3 Brit.  colloq. bloody,
             damnable.  --v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) make or grow ruddy.
             ЬЬruddily adv.  ruddiness n.  [OE rudig (as RUDD)]

   rude      adj.  1 (of a person, remark, etc.) impolite or offensive.  2
             roughly made or done; lacking subtlety or accuracy (a rude
             plough).  3 primitive or uneducated (rude chaos; rude
             simplicity).  4 abrupt, sudden, startling, violent (a rude
             awakening; a rude reminder).  5 colloq. indecent, lewd (a rude
             joke).  6 vigorous or hearty (rude health).  Ьbe rude to speak
             impolitely to; insult.  ЬЬrudely adv.  rudeness n.  rudery n.
             rudish adj.  [ME f. OF f. L rudis unwrought]

   ruderal   adj. & n.  --adj. (of a plant) growing on or in rubbish or
             rubble.  --n. a ruderal plant.  [mod.L ruderalis f. L rudera pl.
             of rudus rubble]

   rudiment  n.  1 (in pl.) the elements or first principles of a subject.  2
             (in pl.) an imperfect beginning of something undeveloped or yet
             to develop.  3 a part or organ imperfectly developed as being
             vestigial or having no function (e.g. the breast in males).  [F
             rudiment or L rudimentum (as RUDE, after elementum ELEMENT)]

             adj.  1 involving basic principles; fundamental.  2 incompletely
             developed; vestigial.  ЬЬrudimentarily adv.  rudimentariness n.

   rue(1)    v. & n.  --v.tr.  (rues, rued, rueing or ruing) repent of;
             bitterly feel the consequences of; wish to be undone or
             non-existent (esp.  rue the day).  --n.  archaic 1 repentance;
             dejection at some occurrence.  2 compassion or pity.  [OE hreow,

   rue(2)    n.  a perennial evergreen shrub, Ruta graveolens, with bitter
             strong-scented leaves formerly used in medicine.  [ME f. OF f. L
             ruta f. Gk rhute]

   rueful    adj.  expressing sorrow, genuine or humorously affected.
             ЬЬruefully adv.  ruefulness n.  [ME, f.  RUE(1)]

   rufescent adj.  Zool.  etc. reddish.  ЬЬrufescence n.  [L rufescere f.
             rufus reddish]

   ruff(1)   n.  1 a projecting starched frill worn round the neck esp. in
             the 16th c.  2 a projecting or conspicuously coloured ring of
             feathers or hair round a bird's or animal's neck.  3 a domestic
             pigeon like a jacobin.  4 (fem.  reeve) a wading bird,
             Philomachus pugnax, of which the male has a ruff and ear-tufts
             in the breeding season.  ЬЬrufflike adj.  [perh. f.  ruff =

   ruff(2)   n.  (also ruffe) any of various fish, esp. a perch-like
             freshwater fish, Gymnocephalus cernua, found in European lakes
             and rivers.  [ME, prob. f.  ROUGH]

   ruff(3)   v. & n.  --v.intr. & tr. trump at cards.  --n. an act of
             ruffing.  [orig. the name of a card-game: f. OF roffle, rouffle,
             = It.  ronfa (perh. alt. of trionfo TRUMP(1))]

   ruffian   n.  a violent lawless person.  ЬЬruffianism n.  ruffianly adv.
             [F ruf(f)ian f. It.  ruffiano, perh. f. dial.  rofia scurf]

   ruffle    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. disturb the smoothness or tranquillity of.
             2 tr. upset the calmness of (a person).  3 tr. gather (lace
             etc.) into a ruffle.  4 tr. (often foll. by up) (of a bird)
             erect (its feathers) in anger, display, etc.  5 intr. undergo
             ruffling.  6 intr. lose smoothness or calmness.  --n.  1 an
             ornamental gathered or goffered frill of lace etc. worn at the
             opening of a garment esp. round the wrist, breast, or neck.  2
             perturbation, bustle.  3 a rippling effect on water.  4 the ruff
             of a bird etc. (see RUFF(1) 2).  5 Mil. a vibrating drum-beat.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   rufous    adj.  (esp. of animals) reddish-brown.  [L rufus red, reddish]

   rug       n.  1 a floor-mat of shaggy material or thick pile.  2 a thick
             woollen coverlet or wrap.  Ьpull the rug from under deprive of
             support; weaken, unsettle.  [prob. f. Scand.: cf. Norw. dial.
             rugga coverlet, Sw.  rugg ruffled hair: rel. to RAG(1)]

   Rugby     n. (in full Rugby football) a team game played with an oval ball
             that may be kicked, carried, and passed from hand to hand.
             ЬRugby League partly professional Rugby football with teams of
             13.  Rugby Union amateur Rugby football with teams of 15.
             [Rugby School in S. England, where it was first played]

   rugged    adj.  1 (of ground or terrain) having a rough uneven surface.  2
             (of features) strongly marked; irregular in outline.  3 a
             unpolished; lacking gentleness or refinement (rugged grandeur).
             b harsh in sound.  c austere, unbending (rugged honesty).  d
             involving hardship (a rugged life).  4 (esp. of a machine)
             robust, sturdy.  ЬЬruggedly adv.  ruggedness n.  [ME, prob. f.
             Scand.: cf.  RUG, and Sw.  rugga, roughen]

   rugger    n.  Brit.  colloq.  Rugby football.

   rugose    adj.  esp. Biol.  wrinkled, corrugated.  ЬЬrugosely adv.
             rugosity n.  [L rugosus f.  ruga wrinkle]

   ruin      n. & v.  --n.  1 a destroyed or wrecked state.  2 a person's or
             thing's downfall or elimination (the ruin of my hopes).  3 a the
             complete loss of one's property or position (bring to ruin).  b
             a person who has suffered ruin.  4 (in sing. or pl.) the remains
             of a building etc. that has suffered ruin (an old ruin; ancient
             ruins).  5 a cause of ruin (will be the ruin of us).  --v.  1
             tr.  a bring to ruin (your extravagance has ruined me).  b
             utterly impair or wreck (the rain ruined my hat).  2 tr. (esp.
             as ruined adj.) reduce to ruins.  3 intr.  poet. fall headlong
             or with a crash.  Ьin ruins 1 in a state of ruin.  2 completely
             wrecked (their hopes were in ruins).  [ME f. OF ruine f. L ruina
             f.  ruere fall]

   ruination n.  1 the act of bringing to ruin.  2 the act of ruining or the
             state of being ruined.  [obs.  ruinate (as RUIN)]

   ruinous   adj.  1 bringing ruin; disastrous (at ruinous expense).  2 in
             ruins; dilapidated.  ЬЬruinously adv.  ruinousness n.  [ME f. L
             ruinosus (as RUIN)]

   rule      n. & v.  --n.  1 a principle to which an action conforms or is
             required to conform.  2 a prevailing custom or standard; the
             normal state of things.  3 government or dominion (under British
             rule; the rule of law).  4 a graduated straight measure used in
             carpentry etc.; a ruler.  5 Printing a a thin strip of metal for
             separating headings, columns, etc.  b a thin line or dash.  6 a
             code of discipline of a religious order.  7 Law an order made by
             a judge or court with reference to a particular case only.  8
             (Rules) Austral. = Australian Rules.  --v.  1 tr. exercise
             decisive influence over; keep under control.  2 tr. & (foll. by
             over) intr. have sovereign control of (rules over a vast
             kingdom).  3 tr. (often foll. by that + clause) pronounce
             authoritatively (was ruled out of order).  4 tr.  a make
             parallel lines across (paper).  b make (a straight line) with a
             ruler etc.  5 intr. (of prices or goods etc. in regard to price
             or quality etc.)  have a specified general level; be for the
             most part (the market ruled high).  6 tr. (in passive; foll. by
             by) consent to follow (advice etc.); be guided by.  Ьas a rule
             usually; more often than not.  by rule in a regulation manner;
             mechanically.  rule of the road see ROAD(1).  rule of three a
             method of finding a number in the same ratio to one given as
             exists between two others given.  rule of thumb a rule for
             general guidance, based on experience or practice rather than
             theory.  rule out exclude; pronounce irrelevant or ineligible.
             rule the roost (or roast) be in control.  run the rule over
             examine cursorily for correctness or adequacy.  ЬЬruleless adj.
             [ME f. OF reule, reuler f. LL regulare f. L regula straight

   ruler     n.  1 a person exercising government or dominion.  2 a straight
             usu. graduated strip or cylinder of wood, metal, etc., used to
             draw lines or measure distance.  ЬЬrulership n.

   ruling    n. & adj.  --n. an authoritative decision or announcement.
             --adj. prevailing; currently in force (ruling prices).  Ьruling
             passion a motive that habitually directs one's actions.

   rum(1)    n.  1 a spirit distilled from sugar-cane residues or molasses.
             2 US intoxicating liquor.  Ьrum baba see BABA.  [17th c.: perh.
             abbr. of contemporary forms rumbullion, rumbustion, of unkn.

   rum(2)    adj.  Brit.  colloq.  1 odd, strange, queer.  2 difficult,
             dangerous.  Ьrum go (or start) colloq.  a surprising occurrence
             or unforeseen turn of affairs.  ЬЬrumly adv.  rumness n.
             [16th-c. cant, orig. = fine, spirited, perh. var. of ROM]

   Rumanian  var. of ROMANIAN.

   Rumansh   var. of ROMANSH.

   rumba     n. & v.  (also rhumba) --n.  1 a Cuban Negro dance.  2 a a
             ballroom dance imitative of this.  b the music for it.  --v.tr.
             (rumbas, rumbaed or rumba'd, rumbaing) dance the rumba.  [Amer.

   rumble    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. make a continuous deep resonant sound as
             of distant thunder.  2 intr. (foll. by along, by, past, etc.)
             (of a person or vehicle) move with a rumbling noise.  3 tr.
             (often foll. by out) utter or say with a rumbling sound.  4 tr.
             Brit.  sl. find out about (esp. something illicit).  --n.  1 a
             rumbling sound.  2 US sl. a street-fight between gangs.  Ьrumble
             seat US an uncovered folding seat in the rear of a motor car.
             ЬЬrumbler n.  [ME romble, prob. f. MDu.  rommelen, rummelen

             adj.  colloq.  boisterous, noisy, uproarious.  ЬЬrumbustiously
             adv.  rumbustiousness n.  [prob. var. of robustious boisterous,

   rumen     n.  (pl.  rumens or rumina) the first stomach of a ruminant, in
             which food, esp. cellulose, is partly digested by bacteria.  [L
             rumen ruminis throat]

   ruminant  n. & adj.  --n. an animal that chews the cud regurgitated from
             its rumen.  --adj.  1 of or belonging to ruminants.  2
             contemplative; given to or engaged in meditation.  [L ruminari
             ruminant- (as RUMEN)]

   ruminate  v.  1 tr. & (foll. by over, on, etc.) intr. meditate, ponder.  2
             intr. (of ruminants) chew the cud.  ЬЬrumination n.  ruminative
             adj.  ruminatively adv.  ruminator n.

   rummage   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & (foll. by in, through, among) intr.
             search, esp. untidily and unsystematically.  2 tr. (foll. by
             out, up) find among other things.  3 tr. (foll. by about)
             disarrange; make untidy in searching.  --n.  1 an instance of
             rummaging.  2 things found by rummaging; a miscellaneous
             accumulation.  Ьrummage sale esp.  US a jumble sale.  ЬЬrummager
             n.  [earlier as noun in obs. sense 'arranging of casks etc. in a
             hold': OF arrumage f.  arrumer stow (as AD-, run ship's hold f.
             MDu.  ruim ROOM)]

   rummer    n.  a large drinking-glass.  [rel. to Du.  roemer, LG r”mer f.
             roemen praise, boast]

   rummy(1)  n.  a card-game played usu. with two packs, in which the players
             try to form sets and sequences of cards.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   rummy(2)  adj.  Brit.  colloq.  = RUM(2).

   rumour    n. & v.  (US rumor) --n.  1 general talk or hearsay of doubtful
             accuracy.  2 (often foll. by of, or that + clause) a current but
             unverified statement or assertion (heard a rumour that you are
             leaving).  --v.tr. (usu. in passive) report by way of rumour (it
             is rumoured that you are leaving; you are rumoured to be
             leaving).  [ME f. OF rumur, rumor f. L rumor -oris noise]

   rump      n.  1 the hind part of a mammal, esp. the buttocks.  2 a a small
             or contemptible remnant of a parliament or similar body.  b (the
             Rump) hist. the remnant of the English Long Parliament 1648-53
             or after its restoration in 1659.  Ьrump steak a cut of beef
             from the rump.  ЬЬrumpless adj.  [ME, prob. f. Scand.]

   rumple    v.tr. & intr.  make or become creased or ruffled.  ЬЬrumply adj.
             [obs.  rumple (n.) f. MDu.  rompel f.  rompe wrinkle]

   rumpus    n.  colloq.  a disturbance, brawl, row, or uproar.  Ьrumpus room
             US a room in the basement of a house for games and play.  [18th
             c.: prob. fanciful]

   run       v. & n.  --v.  (running; past ran; past part.  run) 1 intr. go
             with quick steps on alternate feet, never having both or all
             feet on the ground at the same time.  2 intr. flee, abscond.  3
             intr. go or travel hurriedly, briefly, etc.  4 intr.  a advance
             by or as by rolling or on wheels, or smoothly or easily.  b be
             in action or operation (left the engine running).  5 intr. be
             current or operative; have duration (the lease runs for 99
             years).  6 intr. (of a bus, train, etc.) travel or be travelling
             on its route (the train is running late).  7 intr. (of a play,
             exhibition, etc.) be staged or presented (is now running at the
             Apollo).  8 intr. extend; have a course or order or tendency
             (the road runs by the coast; prices are running high).  9 a
             intr. compete in a race.  b intr. finish a race in a specified
             position.  c tr. compete in (a race).  10 intr. (often foll. by
             for) seek election (ran for president).  11 a intr. (of a liquid
             etc. or its container) flow or be wet; drip.  b tr. flow with.
             12 tr.  a cause (water etc.) to flow.  b fill (a bath) with
             water.  13 intr. spread rapidly or beyond the proper place (ink
             ran over the table; a shiver ran down my spine).  14 intr.
             Cricket (of a batsman) run from one wicket to the other in
             scoring a run.  15 tr. traverse or make one's way through or
             over (a course, race, or distance).  16 tr. perform (an errand).
             17 tr. publish (an article etc.) in a newspaper or magazine.  18
             a tr. cause (a machine or vehicle etc.) to operate.  b intr. (of
             a mechanism or component etc.) move or work freely.  19 tr.
             direct or manage (a business etc.).  20 tr. own and use (a
             vehicle) regularly.  21 tr. take (a person) for a journey in a
             vehicle (shall I run you to the shops?).  22 tr. cause to run or
             go in a specified way (ran the car into a tree).  23 tr. enter
             (a horse etc.) for a race.  24 tr. smuggle (guns etc.).  25 tr.
             chase or hunt.  26 tr. allow (an account) to accumulate for a
             time before paying.  27 intr.  Naut. (of a ship etc.) go
             straight and fast.  28 intr. (of salmon) go up river from the
             sea.  29 intr. (of a colour in a fabric) spread from the dyed
             parts.  30 a intr. (of a thought, the eye, the memory, etc.)
             pass in a transitory or cursory way (ideas ran through my mind).
             b tr. cause (one's eye) to look cursorily (ran my eye down the
             page).  31 intr. (of hosiery) ladder.  32 intr. (of a candle)
             gutter.  33 intr. (of an orifice, esp. the eyes or nose) exude
             liquid matter.  34 tr. sew (fabric) loosely or hastily with
             running stitches.  35 tr. turn (cattle etc.) out to graze.  --n.
             1 an act or spell of running.  2 a short trip or excursion, esp.
             for pleasure.  3 a distance travelled.  4 a general tendency of
             development or movement.  5 a rapid motion.  6 a regular route.
             7 a continuous or long stretch or spell or course (a metre's run
             of wiring; had a run of bad luck).  8 (often foll. by on) a a
             high general demand (for a commodity, currency, etc.)  (a run on
             the dollar).  b a sudden demand for repayment by a large number
             of customers of (a bank).  9 a quantity produced in one period
             of production (a print run).  10 a general or average type or
             class (not typical of the general run).  11 a Cricket a point
             scored by the batsmen each running to the other's wicket, or an
             equivalent point awarded for some other reason.  b Baseball a
             point scored usu. by the batter returning to the plate after
             touching the other bases.  12 (foll. by of) free use of or
             access to (had the run of the house).  13 a an animal's regular
             track.  b an enclosure for fowls.  c a range of pasture.  14 a
             ladder in hosiery.  15 Mus. a rapid scale passage.  16 a class
             or line of goods.  17 a batch or drove of animals born or reared
             together.  18 a shoal of fish in motion.  19 a trough for water
             to run in.  20 US a small stream or brook.  21 a a single
             journey, esp. by an aircraft.  b (of an aircraft) a flight on a
             straight and even course at a constant speed before or while
             dropping bombs.  c an offensive military operation.  Ьat a (or
             the) run running.  on the run 1 escaping, running away.  2
             hurrying about from place to place.  run about 1 bustle; hurry
             from one person or place to another.  2 (esp. of children) play
             or wander without restraint.  run across 1 happen to meet.  2
             (foll. by to) make a brief journey or a flying visit (to a
             place).  run after 1 pursue with attentions; seek the society
             of.  2 give much time to (a pursuit etc.).  3 pursue at a run.
             run against happen to meet.  run along colloq.  depart.  run
             around 1 Brit. take from place to place by car etc.  2 deceive
             or evade repeatedly.  3 (often foll. by with) sl. engage in
             sexual relations (esp. casually or illicitly).  run-around n.
             (esp. in phr.  give a person the run-around) deceit or evasion.
             run at attack by charging or rushing.  run away 1 get away by
             running; flee, abscond.  2 elope.  3 (of a horse) bolt.  run
             away with 1 carry off (a person, stolen property, etc.).  2 win
             (a prize) easily.  3 accept (a notion) hastily.  4 (of expense
             etc.) consume (money etc.).  5 (of a horse) bolt with (a rider,
             a carriage or its occupants).  run a blockade see BLOCKADE.  run
             down 1 knock down or collide with.  2 reduce the strength or
             numbers of (resources).  3 (of an unwound clock etc.) stop.  4
             (of a person or a person's health) become feeble from overwork
             or underfeeding.  5 discover after a search.  6 disparage.
             run-down n.  1 a reduction in numbers.  2 a detailed analysis.
             --adj.  1 decayed after prosperity.  2 enfeebled through
             overwork etc.  run dry cease to flow, be exhausted.  run for it
             seek safety by fleeing.  a run (or a good run) for one's money 1
             vigorous competition.  2 pleasure derived from an activity.  run
             foul of collide or become entangled with (another vessel etc.).
             run the gauntlet see GAUNTLET(2).  run a person hard (or close)
             press a person severely in a race or competition, or in
             comparative merit.  run high 1 (of the sea) have a strong
             current with a high tide.  2 (of feelings) be strong.  run in 1
             run (a new engine or vehicle) carefully in the early stages.  2
             colloq. arrest.  3 (of a combatant) rush to close quarters.  4
             incur (a debt).  run-in n.  1 the approach to an action or
             event.  2 a quarrel.  run in the family (of a trait) be common
             in the members of a family.  run into 1 collide with.  2
             encounter.  3 reach as many as (a specified figure).  4 fall
             into (a practice, absurdity, etc.).  5 be continuous or coalesce
             with.  run into the ground colloq.  bring (a person) to
             exhaustion etc.  run it fine see FINE(1).  run its course follow
             its natural progress; be left to itself.  run low (or short)
             become depleted, have too little (our tea ran short; we ran
             short of tea).  run off 1 flee.  2 produce (copies etc.) on a
             machine.  3 decide (a race or other contest) after a series of
             heats or in the event of a tie.  4 flow or cause to flow away.
             5 write or recite fluently.  6 digress suddenly.  run-off n.  1
             an additional competition, election, race, etc., after a tie.  2
             an amount of rainfall that is carried off an area by streams and
             rivers.  3 NZ a separate area of land where young animals etc.
             are kept.  run off one's feet very busy.  run-of-the-mill
             ordinary, undistinguished.  run on 1 (of written characters) be
             joined together.  2 continue in operation.  3 elapse.  4 speak
             volubly.  5 talk incessantly.  6 Printing continue on the same
             line as the preceding matter.  run out 1 come to an end; become
             used up.  2 (foll. by of) exhaust one's stock of.  3 put down
             the wicket of (a batsman who is running).  4 escape from a
             containing vessel.  5 (of rope) pass out; be paid out.  6 jut
             out.  7 come out of a contest in a specified position etc. or
             complete a required score etc. (they ran out worthy winners).  8
             complete (a race).  9 advance (a gun etc.) so as to project.  10
             exhaust oneself by running.  run-out n.  the dismissal of a
             batsman by being run out.  run out on colloq.  desert (a
             person).  run over 1 overflow.  2 study or repeat quickly.  3
             (of a vehicle or its driver) pass over, knock down or crush.  4
             touch (the notes of a piano etc.) in quick succession.  5 (often
             foll. by to) go quickly by a brief journey or for a flying
             visit.  run ragged exhaust (a person).  run rings round see
             RING(1).  run riot see RIOT.  run a (or the) risk see RISK.  run
             the show colloq.  dominate in an undertaking etc.  run a
             temperature be feverish.  run through 1 examine or rehearse
             briefly.  2 peruse.  3 deal successively with.  4 consume (an
             estate etc.) by reckless or quick spending.  5 traverse.  6
             pervade.  7 pierce with a sword etc.  8 draw a line through
             (written words).  run-through n.  1 a rehearsal.  2 a brief
             survey.  run to 1 have the money or ability for.  2 reach (an
             amount or number).  3 (of a person) show a tendency to (runs to
             fat).  4 a be enough for (some expense or undertaking).  b have
             the resources or capacity for.  5 fall into (ruin).  run to
             earth 1 Hunting chase to its lair.  2 discover after a long
             search.  run to meet anticipate (one's troubles etc.).  run to
             seed see SEED.  run up 1 accumulate (a debt etc.) quickly.  2
             build or make hurriedly.  3 raise (a flag).  4 grow quickly.  5
             rise in price.  6 (foll. by to) amount to.  7 force (a rival
             bidder) to bid higher.  8 add up (a column of figures).  9
             (foll. by to) go quickly by a brief journey or for a flying
             visit.  run-up n.  1 (often foll. by to) the period preceding an
             important event.  2 Golf a low approach shot.  run up against
             meet with (a difficulty or difficulties).  run upon (of a
             person's thoughts etc.) be engrossed by; dwell upon.  run wild
             grow or stray unchecked or undisciplined or untrained.
             ЬЬrunnable adj.  [OE rinnan]

   runabout  n.  a light car or aircraft.

   runaway   n.  1 a fugitive.  2 an animal or vehicle that is running out of
             control.  3 (attrib.) a that is running away or out of control
             (runaway inflation; had a runaway success).  b done or performed
             after running away (a runaway wedding).

   runcible spoon
             n.  a fork curved like a spoon, with three broad prongs, one
             edged.  [nonsense word used by E. Lear, Engl. humorist d. 1888,
             perh. after rouncival large pea]

   runcinate adj.  Bot.  (of a leaf) saw-toothed, with lobes pointing towards
             the base.  [mod.L runcinatus f. L runcina PLANE(2) (formerly
             taken to mean saw)]

   rune      n.  1 any of the letters of the earliest Germanic alphabet used
             by Scandinavians and Anglo-Saxons from about the 3rd c. and
             formed by modifying Roman or Greek characters to suit carving.
             2 a similar mark of mysterious or magic significance.  3 a
             Finnish poem or a division of it.  Ьrune-staff 1 a magic wand
             inscribed with runes.  2 a runic calendar.  ЬЬrunic adj.  [ON
             rЈn (only in pl.  rЈnar) magic sign, rel. to OE run]

   rung(1)   n.  1 each of the horizontal supports of a ladder.  2 a
             strengthening crosspiece in the structure of a chair etc.
             ЬЬrunged adj.  rungless adj.  [OE hrung]

   rung(2)   past part. of RING(2).

   runlet    n.  a small stream.

   runnel    n.  1 a brook or rill.  2 a gutter.  [later form (assim. to RUN)
             of rinel f. OE rynel (as RUN)]

   runner    n.  1 a person who runs, esp. in a race.  2 a a creeping
             plant-stem that can take root.  b a twining plant.  3 a rod or
             groove or blade on which a thing slides.  4 a sliding ring on a
             rod etc.  5 a messenger, scout, collector, or agent for a bank
             etc.; a tout.  6 hist. a police officer.  7 a running bird.  8 a
             a smuggler.  b = blockade-runner.  9 a revolving millstone.  10
             Naut. a rope in a single block with one end round a tackle-block
             and the other having a hook.  11 (in full runner bean) Brit. a
             twining bean plant, Phaseolus multiflorus, with red flowers and
             long green seed pods. Also called scarlet runner.  12 each of
             the long pieces on the underside of a sledge etc.  that forms
             the contact in sliding.  13 a roller for moving a heavy article.
             14 a long narrow ornamental cloth or rug.  Ьdo a runner sl.
             leave hastily; flee.  runner-up (pl.  runners-up or runner-ups)
             the competitor or team taking second place.

   running   n. & adj.  --n.  1 the action of runners in a race etc.  2 the
             way a race etc. proceeds.  --adj.  1 continuing on an
             essentially continuous basis though changing in detail (a
             running battle).  2 consecutive; one after another (three days
             running).  3 done with a run (a running jump).  Ьin (or out of)
             the running (of a competitor) with a good (or poor) chance of
             winning.  make (or take up) the running take the lead; set the
             pace.  running account a current account.  running-board a
             footboard on either side of a vehicle.  running commentary an
             oral description of events as they occur.  running fire
             successive shots from a line of troops etc.  running gear the
             moving or running parts of a machine, esp. the wheels and
             suspension of a vehicle.  running hand writing in which the pen
             etc. is not lifted after each letter.  running head (or
             headline) a heading printed at the top of a number of
             consecutive pages of a book etc.  running knot a knot that slips
             along the rope etc. and changes the size of a noose.  running
             light 1 = navigation light.  2 each of a small set of lights on
             a motor vehicle that remain illuminated while the vehicle is
             running.  running mate US 1 a candidate for a secondary position
             in an election.  2 a horse entered in a race in order to set the
             pace for another horse from the same stable which is intended to
             win.  running repairs minor or temporary repairs etc. to
             machinery while in use.  running rope a rope that is freely
             movable through a pulley etc.  running sore a suppurating sore.
             running stitch 1 a line of small non-overlapping stitches for
             gathering etc.  2 one of these stitches.  running water water
             flowing in a stream or from a tap etc.  take a running jump
             (esp. as int.) sl.  go away.

   runny     adj.  (runnier, runniest) 1 tending to run or flow.  2
             excessively fluid.

   runt      n.  1 a small pig, esp. the smallest in a litter.  2 a weakling;
             an undersized person.  3 a large domestic pigeon.  4 a small ox
             or cow, esp. of various Scottish Highland or Welsh breeds.
             ЬЬrunty adj.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   runway    n.  1 a specially prepared surface along which aircraft take off
             and land.  2 a trail to an animals' watering-place.  3 an
             incline down which logs are slid.  4 a raised gangway in a
             theatre, fashion display, etc.

   rupee     n.  the chief monetary unit of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
             Nepal, Mauritius, and the Seychelles.  [Hind.  rupiyah f. Skr.