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English language - Dictionaries K...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 K...

   K(1)      n.  (also k) (pl.  Ks or K's) the eleventh letter of the

   K(2)      abbr.  (also K.) 1 kelvin(s).  2 King, King's.  3 K”chel
             (catalogue of Mozart's works).  4 (also k) (prec. by a numeral)
             a Computing a unit of 1,024 (i.e. 2(10)) bytes or bits, or
             loosely 1,000.  b 1,000.  [sense 4 as abbr. of KILO-]

   K(3)      symb.  Chem.  the element potassium.

   k         abbr.  1 kilo-.  2 knot(s).

   Kaaba     n.  (also Caaba) a sacred building at Mecca, the Muslim Holy of
             Holies containing the sacred black stone.  [Arab.  Ka' ba]

2.0 kabbala...

   kabbala   var. of CABBALA.

   kabuki    n.  a form of popular traditional Japanese drama with highly
             stylized song, acted by males only.  [Jap. f.  ka song + bu
             dance + ki art]

   kachina   n.  1 an American Indian ancestral spirit.  2 (in full kachina
             dancer) a person who represents a kachina in ceremonial dances.
             Ьkachina doll a wooden doll representing a kachina.  [Hopi, =

   Kaddish   n.  1 a Jewish mourner's prayer.  2 a doxology in the synagogue
             service.  [Aram.  kaddЊs holy]

   kadi      var. of CADI.

   Kaffir    n.  1 a a member of the Xhosa-speaking peoples of S. Africa.  b
             the language of these peoples.  2 S.Afr.  offens. any Black
             African.  [Arab.  kafir infidel f.  kafara not believe]

   kaffiyeh  var. of KEFFIYEH.

   Kafir     n.  a native of the Hindu Kush mountains of NE Afghanistan.
             [formed as KAFFIR]

             adj.  (of a situation, atmosphere, etc.) impenetrably
             oppressive, nightmarish, in a manner characteristic of the
             fictional world of Franz Kafka, German-speaking novelist (d.

   kaftan    var. of CAFTAN.

   kai       n.  NZ colloq.  food.  [Maori]

   kail      var. of KALE.

   kailyard  var. of KALEYARD.

   kaiser    n.  hist.  an emperor, esp. the German Emperor, the Emperor of
             Austria, or the head of the Holy Roman Empire.  ЬЬkaisership n.
             [in mod. Eng. f. G Kaiser and Du.  keizer; in ME f. OE casere f.
             Gmc adoption (through Gk kaisar) of L Caesar: see CAESAR]

   kaka      n.  (pl.  kakas) a large New Zealand parrot, Nestor
             meridionalis, with olive-brown plumage.  [Maori]

   kakapo    n.  (pl.  -os) an owl-like flightless New Zealand parrot,
             Strigops habroptilus.  [Maori, = night kaka]

   kakemono  n.  (pl.  -os) a vertical Japanese wall-picture, usu. painted or
             inscribed on paper or silk and mounted on rollers.  [Jap. f.
             kake- hang + mono thing]

   kala-azar n.  a tropical disease caused by the parasitic protozoan
             Leishmania donovani, which is transmitted to man by sandflies.
             [Assamese f.  kala black + azar disease]

   kale      n.  (also kail) 1 a variety of cabbage, esp. one with wrinkled
             leaves and no compact head. Also called curly kale.  2 US sl.
             money.  [ME, northern form of COLE]

             n.  1 a tube containing mirrors and pieces of coloured glass or
             paper, whose reflections produce changing patterns when the tube
             is rotated.  2 a constantly changing group of bright or
             interesting objects.  ЬЬkaleidoscopic adj.  kaleidoscopical adj.
             [Gk kalos beautiful + eidos form + -SCOPE]

   kalends   var. of CALENDS.

   kaleyard  n.  (also kailyard) Sc.  a kitchen garden.  Ьkaleyard school a
             group of 19th-c. fiction writers including J. M. Barrie, who
             described local town life in Scotland in a romantic vein and
             with much use of the vernacular.  [KALE + YARD(2)]

   kali      n.  a glasswort, Salsola kali, with fleshy jointed stems, having
             a high soda content.  [Arab.  kali ALKALI]

   kalmia    n.  a N. American evergreen shrub of the genus Kalmia, esp.  K.
             latifolia, with showy pink flowers.  [mod.L f. P.  Kalm, Sw.
             botanist d. 1779]

   Kalmuck   adj. & n.  --adj. of a Buddhist Mongolian people living in the
             western USSR.  --n.  1 a member of this people.  2 the
             Ural-Altaic language of this people.  [Russ.  kalmyk]

   kalong    n.  any of various fruit-eating bats of the family Pteropodidae,
             esp.  Pteropus edulis; a flying fox.  [Malay]

   kalpa     n.  Hinduism & Buddhism the period between the beginning and the
             end of the world considered as the day of Brahma (4,320 million
             human years).  [Skr.]

   Kama      n.  the Hindu god of love.  ЬKama Sutra an ancient Sanskrit
             treatise on the art of erotic love.  [Skr.]

   kame      n.  a short ridge of sand and gravel deposited from the water of
             a melted glacier.  [Sc. form of COMB]

   kamikaze  n. & adj.  --n.  hist.  1 a Japanese aircraft loaded with
             explosives and deliberately crashed by its pilot on its target.
             2 the pilot of such an aircraft.  --adj.  1 of or relating to a
             kamikaze.  2 reckless, dangerous, potentially self-destructive.
             [Jap. f.  kami divinity + kaze wind]

   kampong   n.  a Malayan enclosure or village.  [Malay: cf.  COMPOUND(2)]

             n. & adj.  = CAMBODIAN.  [Kampuchea, native name for Cambodia]

   Kan.      abbr.  Kansas.

   kana      n.  any of various Japanese syllabaries.  [Jap.]

   kanaka    n.  a South Sea Islander, esp. (formerly) one employed in forced
             labour in Australia.  [Hawaiian, = man]

   Kanarese  n.  (pl. same) 1 a member of a Dravidian people living in
             western India.  2 the language of this people.  [Kanara in

   kangaroo  n.  a plant-eating marsupial of the genus Macropus, native to
             Australia and New Guinea, with a long tail and strongly
             developed hind quarters enabling it to travel by jumping.
             Ьkangaroo closure Brit.  Parl.  a closure involving the
             chairperson of a committee selecting some amendments for
             discussion and excluding others.  kangaroo court an improperly
             constituted or illegal court held by strikers etc.  kangaroo
             mouse any small rodent of the genus Microdipodops, native to N.
             America, with long hind legs for hopping.  kangaroo paw any
             plant of the genus Angiozanthos, with green and red woolly
             flowers.  kangaroo-rat any burrowing rodent of the genus
             Dipodomys, having elongated hind feet.  kangaroo vine an
             evergreen climbing plant, Cissus antarctica, with tooth-edged
             leaves.  [Aboriginal name]

   kanji     n.  Japanese writing using Chinese characters.  [Jap. f.  kan
             Chinese + ji character]

   Kannada   n.  the Kanarese language.  [Kanarese kannada]

   kanoon    n.  an instrument like a zither, with fifty to sixty strings.
             [Pers. or Arab.  kanun]

   Kans.     abbr.  Kansas.

   KANU      abbr.  Kenya African National Union.

   kaolin    n.  a fine soft white clay produced by the decomposition of
             other clays or feldspar, used esp. for making porcelain and in
             medicines.  Also called china clay.  ЬЬkaolinic adj.  kaolinize
             v.tr.  (also -ise).  [F f. Chin.  gaoling the name of a mountain
             f.  gao high + ling hill]

   kaon      n.  Physics a meson having a mass several times that of a pion.
             [ka repr. the letter K (as symbol for the particle) + -ON]

             n.  (pl. same) the conductor of an orchestra, opera, choir,
             etc., esp. in German contexts.  [G f.  Kapelle court orchestra
             f. It.  cappella CHAPEL + Meister master]

   kapok     n.  a fine fibrous cotton-like substance found surrounding the
             seeds of a tropical tree, Ceiba pentandra, used for stuffing
             cushions, soft toys, etc.  [ult. f. Malay kapoq]

   kappa     n.  the tenth letter of the Greek alphabet (K).  [Gk]

   kaput     predic.adj.  sl.  broken, ruined; done for.  [G kaputt]

   karabiner n.  a coupling link with safety closure, used by mountaineers.
             [G, lit. 'carbine']

   karakul   n.  (also caracul) 1 a variety of Asian sheep with a dark curled
             fleece when young.  2 fur made from or resembling this. Also
             called Persian lamb.  [Russ.]

   karat     US var. of CARAT 2.

   karate    n.  a Japanese system of unarmed combat using the hands and feet
             as weapons.  [Jap. f.  kara empty + te hand]

   karma     n.  Buddhism & Hinduism 1 the sum of a person's actions in
             previous states of existence, viewed as deciding his or her fate
             in future existences.  2 destiny.  ЬЬkarmic adj.  [Skr., =
             action, fate]

   Karoo     n.  (also Karroo) an elevated semi-desert plateau in S. Africa.
             [Afrik. f. Hottentot karo dry]

   karri     n.  (pl.  karris) 1 a tall W. Australian tree, Eucalyptus
             diversicolor, with a hard red wood.  2 the timber from this.

   Karroo    var. of KAROO.

   karst     n.  a limestone region with underground drainage and many
             cavities and passages caused by the dissolution of the rock.
             [the Karst, a limestone region in NW Yugoslavia]

   karyo-    comb. form Biol.  denoting the nucleus of a cell.  [Gk karuon

             n.  Biol.  the division of a cell nucleus during mitosis.
             [KARYO- + Gk kinesis movement f.  kineo move]

   karyotype n.  the number and structure of the chromosomes in the nucleus
             of a cell.

   kasbah    n.  (also casbah) 1 the citadel of a N. African city.  2 an Arab
             quarter near this.  [F casbah f. Arab.  kas(a)ba citadel]

   katabatic adj.  Meteorol.  (of wind) caused by air flowing downwards (cf.
             ANABATIC).  [Gk katabatikos f.  katabaino go down]

             var. of CATABOLISM.

   katakana  n.  an angular form of Japanese kana.  [Jap., = side kana]

   kathode   var. of CATHODE.

   katydid   n.  any of various green grasshoppers of the family
             Tettigoniidae, native to the US.  [imit. of the sound it makes]

   kauri     n.  (pl.  kauris) a coniferous New Zealand tree, Agathis
             australis, which produces valuable timber and a resin.
             Ьkauri-gum this resin.  [Maori]

   kava      n.  1 a Polynesian shrub, Piper methysticum.  2 an intoxicating
             drink made from the crushed roots of this.  [Polynesian]

   kawa-kawa n.  a New Zealand shrub, Macropiper excelsum, with aromatic
             leaves.  [Maori]

   kayak     n.  1 an Eskimo one-man canoe consisting of a light wooden frame
             covered with sealskins.  2 a small covered canoe resembling
             this.  [Eskimo]

   kayo      v. & n.  colloq.  --v.tr.  (-oes, -oed) knock out; stun by a
             blow.  --n.  (pl.  -os) a knockout.  [repr. pronunc. of KO]

   kazoo     n.  a toy musical instrument into which the player sings or
             hums.  [19th c., app. with ref. to the sound produced]

3.0 KB...

   KB        abbr.  (in the UK) King's Bench.

   KBE       abbr.  (in the UK) Knight Commander of the Order of the British

4.0 KC...

   KC        abbr.  1 King's College.  2 King's Counsel.

   kc        abbr.  kilocycle(s).

   KCB       abbr.  (in the UK) Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.

   KCMG      abbr.  (in the UK) Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael
             and St George.

   kc/s      abbr.  kilocycles per second.

   KCVO      abbr.  (in the UK) Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian

5.0 KE...

   KE        abbr.  kinetic energy.

   kea       n.  a parrot, Nestor notabilis, of New Zealand, with
             brownish-green and red plumage.  [Maori, imit.]

   kebab     n.  (usu. in pl.) small pieces of meat, vegetables, etc., packed
             closely and cooked on a skewer.  [Urdu f. Arab.  kabab]

   kedge     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. move (a ship) by means of a hawser attached
             to a small anchor.  2 intr. (of a ship) move in this way.  --n.
             (in full kedge-anchor) a small anchor for this purpose.  [perh.
             a specific use of obs.  cagge, dial.  cadge bind, tie]

   kedgeree  n.  1 an Indian dish of rice, split pulse, onions, eggs, etc.  2
             a European dish of fish, rice, hard-boiled eggs, etc.  [Hindi
             khichri, Skr.  k' rsara dish of rice and sesame]

   keek      v. & n.  Sc.  --v.intr. peep.  --n. a peep.  [ME kike: cf. MDu.,
             MLG kiken]

   keel(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 the lengthwise timber or steel structure along
             the base of a ship, airship, or some aircraft, on which the
             framework of the whole is built up.  2 poet. a ship.  3 a ridge
             along the breastbone of many birds; a carina.  4 Bot. a
             prow-shaped pair of petals in a corolla etc.  --v.  1 (often
             foll. by over) a intr. turn over or fall down.  b tr. cause to
             do this.  2 tr. & intr. turn keel upwards.  ЬЬkeelless adj.  [ME
             kele f. ON kj”lr f. Gmc]

   keel(2)   n.  Brit.  hist.  1 a flat-bottomed vessel, esp. of the kind
             formerly used on the River Tyne etc. for loading coal-ships.  2
             an amount carried by such a vessel.  [ME kele f. MLG kel, MDu.
             kiel ship, boat, f. Gmc]

   keelhaul  v.tr.  1 drag (a person) through the water under the keel of a
             ship as a punishment.  2 scold or rebuke severely.

   keelson   n.  (also kelson) a line of timber fastening a ship's
             floor-timbers to its keel.  [ME kelswayn, perh. f. LG kielswin
             f.  kiel KEEL(1) + (prob.)  swin SWINE used as the name of a

   keen(1)   adj.  1 (of a person, desire, or interest) eager, ardent (a keen
             sportsman).  2 (foll. by on) much attracted by; fond of or
             enthusiastic about.  3 (of the senses) sharp; highly sensitive.
             4 intellectually acute.  5 a having a sharp edge or point.  b
             (of an edge etc.) sharp.  6 (of a sound, light, etc.)
             penetrating, vivid, strong.  7 (of a wind, frost, etc.)
             piercingly cold.  8 (of a pain etc.) acute, bitter.  9 Brit. (of
             a price) competitive.  10 colloq. excellent.  ЬЬkeenly adv.
             keenness n.  [OE cene f. Gmc]

   keen(2)   n. & v.  --n. an Irish funeral song accompanied with wailing.
             --v.  1 intr. utter the keen.  2 tr. bewail (a person) in this
             way.  3 tr. utter in a wailing tone.  ЬЬkeener n.  [Ir.  caoine
             f.  caoinim wail]

   keep      v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  kept) 1 tr. have continuous
             charge of; retain possession of.  2 tr. (foll. by for) retain or
             reserve for a future occasion or time (will keep it for
             tomorrow).  3 tr. & intr. retain or remain in a specified
             condition, position, course, etc. (keep cool; keep off the
             grass; keep them happy).  4 tr. put or store in a regular place
             (knives are kept in this drawer).  5 tr. (foll. by from) cause
             to avoid or abstain from something (will keep you from going too
             fast).  6 tr. detain; cause to be late (what kept you?).  7 tr.
             a observe or pay due regard to (a law, custom, etc.) (keep one's
             word).  b honour or fulfil (a commitment, undertaking, etc.).  c
             respect the commitment implied by (a secret etc.).  d act
             fittingly on the occasion of (keep the sabbath).  8 tr. own and
             look after (animals) for amusement or profit (keeps bees).  9
             tr.  a provide for the sustenance of (a person, family, etc.).
             b (foll. by in) maintain (a person) with a supply of.  10 tr.
             carry on; manage (a shop, business, etc.).  11 a tr. maintain
             (accounts, a diary, etc.) by making the requisite entries.  b
             tr. maintain (a house) in proper order.  12 tr. have (a
             commodity) regularly on sale (do you keep buttons?).  13 tr.
             guard or protect (a person or place, a goal in football, etc.).
             14 tr. preserve in being; continue to have (keep order).  15
             intr. (foll. by verbal noun) continue or do repeatedly or
             habitually (why do you keep saying that?).  16 tr. continue to
             follow (a way or course).  17 intr.  a (esp. of perishable
             commodities) remain in good condition.  b (of news or
             information etc.) admit of being withheld for a time.  18 tr.
             remain in (one's bed, room, house, etc.).  19 tr. retain one's
             place in (a seat or saddle, one's ground, etc.)  against
             opposition or difficulty.  20 tr. maintain (a person) in return
             for sexual favours (a kept woman).  --n.  1 maintenance or the
             essentials for this (esp. food) (hardly earn your keep).  2
             charge or control (is in your keep).  3 hist. a tower or
             stronghold.  Ьfor keeps colloq.  (esp. of something received or
             won) permanently, indefinitely.  how are you keeping?  how are
             you?  keep at persist or cause to persist with.  keep away
             (often foll. by from) 1 avoid being near.  2 prevent from being
             near.  keep back 1 remain or keep at a distance.  2 retard the
             progress of.  3 conceal; decline to disclose.  4 retain,
             withhold (kept back њ50).  keep one's balance 1 remain stable;
             avoid falling.  2 retain one's composure.  keep down 1 hold in
             subjection.  2 keep low in amount.  3 lie low; stay hidden.  4
             manage not to vomit (food eaten).  keep one's feet manage not to
             fall.  keep-fit regular exercises to promote personal fitness
             and health.  keep one's hair on see HAIR.  keep one's hand in
             see HAND.  keep in 1 confine or restrain (one's feelings etc.).
             2 remain or confine indoors.  3 keep (a fire) burning.  keep in
             with remain on good terms with.  keep off 1 stay or cause to
             stay away from.  2 ward off; avert.  3 abstain from.  4 avoid (a
             subject) (let's keep off religion).  keep on 1 continue to do
             something; do continually (kept on laughing).  2 continue to use
             or employ.  3 (foll. by at) pester or harass.  keep out 1 keep
             or remain outside.  2 exclude.  keep state 1 maintain one's
             dignity.  2 be difficult of access.  keep to 1 adhere to (a
             course, schedule, etc.).  2 observe (a promise).  3 confine
             oneself to.  keep to oneself 1 avoid contact with others.  2
             refuse to disclose or share.  keep together remain or keep in
             harmony.  keep track of see TRACK(1).  keep under hold in
             subjection.  keep up 1 maintain (progress etc.).  2 prevent
             (prices, one's spirits, etc.) from sinking.  3 keep in repair,
             in an efficient or proper state, etc.  4 carry on (a
             correspondence etc.).  5 prevent (a person) from going to bed,
             esp. when late.  6 (often foll. by with) manage not to fall
             behind.  keep up with the Joneses strive to compete socially
             with one's neighbours.  keep one's word see WORD.  ЬЬkeepable
             adj.  [OE cepan, of unkn. orig.]

   keeper    n.  1 a person who keeps or looks after something or someone.  2
             a custodian of a museum, art gallery, forest, etc.  3 a =
             GAMEKEEPER.  b a person in charge of animals in a zoo.  4 a =
             wicket-keeper.  b = GOALKEEPER.  5 a fruit etc. that remains in
             good condition.  6 a bar of soft iron across the poles of a
             horseshoe magnet to maintain its strength.  7 a a plain ring to
             preserve a hole in a pierced ear lobe; a sleeper.  b a ring worn
             to guard against the loss of a more valuable one.

   keeping   n.  1 custody, charge (in safe keeping).  2 agreement, harmony
             (esp.in or out of keeping).

   keepsake  n.  a thing kept for the sake of or in remembrance of the giver.

   keeshond  n.  1 a dog of a Dutch breed with long thick hair like a large
             Pomeranian.  2 this breed.  [Du.]

   kef       n.  (also kif) 1 a drowsy state induced by marijuana etc.  2 the
             enjoyment of idleness.  3 a substance smoked to produce kef.
             [Arab.  kayf enjoyment, well-being]

   keffiyeh  n.  (also kaffiyeh) a Bedouin Arab's kerchief worn as a
             head-dress.  [Arab.  keffiya, kufiyya, perh. f. LL cofea COIF]

   keg       n.  a small barrel, usu. of less than 10 gallons or (in the US)
             30 gallons.  Ьkeg beer beer supplied from a sealed metal
             container.  [ME cag f. ON kaggi, of unkn. orig.]

   keister   n.  US sl.  1 the buttocks.  2 a suitcase, satchel, handbag,
             etc.  [orig. unkn.]

   keloid    n.  fibrous tissue formed at the site of a scar or injury.  [Gk
             khele claw + -OID]

   kelp      n.  1 any of several large broad-fronded brown seaweeds esp. of
             the genus Laminaria, suitable for use as manure.  2 the calcined
             ashes of seaweed formerly used in glass-making and soap
             manufacture because of their high content of sodium, potassium,
             and magnesium salts.  [ME cЃlp(e), of unkn. orig.]

   kelpie    n.  Sc.  1 a water-spirit, usu. in the form of a horse, reputed
             to delight in the drowning of travellers etc.  2 an Australian
             sheepdog orig. bred from a Scottish collie.  [18th c.: orig.

   kelson    var. of KEELSON.

   Kelt      var. of CELT.

   kelt      n.  a salmon or sea trout after spawning.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   kelter    var. of KILTER.

   kelvin    n.  the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature, equal in magnitude
             to the degree celsius.  °Abbr.: K.  ЬKelvin scale a scale of
             temperature with absolute zero as zero.  [Lord Kelvin, Brit.
             physicist d. 1907]

   kemp      n.  coarse hair in wool.  ЬЬkempy adj.  [ME f. ON kampr beard,

   kempt     adj.  combed; neatly kept.  [past part. of (now dial.)  kemb
             COMB v. f. OE cemban f. Gmc]

   ken       n. & v.  --n. range of sight or knowledge (it's beyond my ken).
             --v.tr.  (kenning; past and past part.  kenned or kent) Sc. &
             N.Engl.  1 recognize at sight.  2 know.  [OE cennan f. Gmc]

   kendo     n.  a Japanese form of fencing with two-handed bamboo swords.
             [Jap., = sword-way]

   kennel    n. & v.  --n.  1 a small shelter for a dog.  2 (in pl.) a
             breeding or boarding establishment for dogs.  3 a mean dwelling.
             --v.  (kennelled, kennelling; US kenneled, kenneling) 1 tr. put
             into or keep in a kennel.  2 intr. live in or go to a kennel.
             [ME f. OF chenil f. med.L canile (unrecorded) f. L canis dog]

   kenning   n.  a compound expression in Old English and Old Norse poetry,
             e.g.  oar-steed = ship.  [ME, = 'teaching' etc. f.  KEN]

   kenosis   n.  Theol.  the renunciation of the divine nature, at least in
             part, by Christ in the Incarnation.  ЬЬkenotic adj.  [Gk.
             kenosis f.  kenoo to empty f.  kenos empty]

             adj.  Sc.  conspicuous.  [kenspeck of Scand. orig.: rel. to KEN]

   kent      past and past part. of KEN.

   Kentish   adj.  of Kent in England.  ЬKentish fire Brit.  a prolonged
             volley of rhythmic applause or a demonstration of dissent.  [OE
             Centisc f.  Cent f. L Cantium]

   kentledge n.  Naut.  pig-iron etc. used as permanent ballast.  [F
             quintelage ballast, with assim. to kentle obs. var. of QUINTAL]

   Kenyan    adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Kenya in E. Africa.  --n.  a
             a native or national of Kenya.  b a person of Kenyan descent.

   kepi      n.  (pl.  kepis) a French military cap with a horizontal peak.
             [F k‚pi f. Swiss G k„ppi dimin. of kappe cap]

   Kepler's laws
             n.pl.  three theorems describing orbital motion.  ЬЬKeplerian
             adj.  [J.  Kepler Ger. astronomer d. 1630]

   kept      past and past part. of KEEP.

   keratin   n.  a fibrous protein which occurs in hair, feathers, hooves,
             claws, horns, etc.  [Gk keras keratos horn + -IN]

             v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise) cover or become covered with a
             deposit of keratin.  ЬЬkeratinization n.

   keratose  adj.  (of sponge) composed of a horny substance.  [Gk keras
             keratos horn + -OSE(1)]

   kerb      n.  Brit.  a stone edging to a pavement or raised path.
             Ьkerb-crawler a person who indulges in kerb-crawling.
             kerb-crawling the practice of driving slowly along the edge of a
             road, soliciting passers-by.  kerb drill precautions, esp.
             looking to right and left, before crossing a road.  [var. of

   kerbstone n.  each of a series of stones forming a kerb.

   kerchief  n.  1 a cloth used to cover the head.  2 poet. a handkerchief.
             ЬЬkerchiefed adj.  [ME curchef f. AF courchef, OF couvrechief f.
             couvrir COVER + CHIEF head]

   kerf      n.  1 a slit made by cutting, esp. with a saw.  2 the cut end of
             a felled tree.  [OE cyrf f. Gmc (as CARVE)]

   kerfuffle n.  esp.  Brit.  colloq.  a fuss or commotion.  [Sc.  curfuffle
             f.  fuffle to disorder: imit.]

   kermes    n.  1 the female of a bug, Kermes ilicis, with a berry-like
             appearance.  2 (in full kermes oak) an evergreen oak, Quercus
             coccifera, of S. Europe and N. Africa, on which this insect
             feeds.  3 a red dye made from the dried bodies of these insects.
             4 (in full kermes mineral) a bright red hydrous trisulphide of
             antimony.  [F kermЉs f. Arab. & Pers.  kirmiz: rel. to CRIMSON]

   kermis    n.  1 a periodical country fair, esp. in the Netherlands.  2 US
             a charity bazaar.  [Du., orig. = mass on the anniversary of the
             dedication of a church, when yearly fair was held: f.  kerk
             formed as CHURCH + mis, misse MASS(2)]

   kern(1)   n.  Printing the part of a metal type projecting beyond its body
             or shank.  ЬЬkerned adj.  [perh. f. F carne corner f. OF charne
             f. L cardo cardinis hinge]

   kern(2)   n.  (also kerne) 1 hist. a light-armed Irish foot-soldier.  2 a
             peasant; a boor.  [ME f. Ir.  ceithern]

   kernel    n.  1 a central, softer, usu. edible part within a hard shell of
             a nut, fruit stone, seed, etc.  2 the whole seed of a cereal.  3
             the nucleus or essential part of anything.  [OE cyrnel, dimin.
             of CORN(1)]

   kerosine  n.  (also kerosene) esp.  US a fuel oil suitable for use in jet
             engines and domestic heating boilers; paraffin oil.  [Gk keros
             wax + -ENE]

   Kerry     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an animal of a breed of small black dairy
             cattle.  2 this breed.  [Kerry in Ireland]

   Kerry blue
             n.  1 a terrier of a breed with a silky blue-grey coat.  2 this

   kersey    n.  (pl.  -eys) 1 a kind of coarse narrow cloth woven from long
             wool, usu.  ribbed.  2 a variety of this.  [ME, prob. f.  Kersey
             in Suffolk]

             n.  a twilled fine woollen cloth.  [alt. of cassimere, var. of
             CASHMERE, assim. to KERSEY]

   keskidee  var. of KISKADEE.

   kestrel   n.  any small falcon, esp.  Falco tinnunculus, which hovers
             whilst searching for its prey.  [ME castrell, perh. f. F dial.
             casserelle, F cr‚c(er)elle, perh. imit. of its cry]

   ketch     n.  a two-masted fore-and-aft rigged sailing-boat with a
             mizen-mast stepped forward of the rudder and smaller than its
             foremast.  [ME catche, prob. f.  CATCH]

   ketchup   n.  (also catchup) a spicy sauce made from tomatoes, mushrooms,
             vinegar, etc., used as a condiment.  [Chin. dial.  koechiap
             pickled-fish brine]

   ketone    n.  any of a class of organic compounds in which two hydrocarbon
             groups are linked by a carbonyl group, e.g. propanone (acetone).
             Ьketone body Biochem.  any of several ketones produced in the
             body during the metabolism of fats.  ЬЬketonic adj.  [G Keton
             alt. of Aketon ACETONE]

   ketonuria n.  the excretion of abnormally large amounts of ketone bodies
             in the urine.

   ketosis   n.  a condition characterized by raised levels of ketone bodies
             in the body, associated with fat metabolism and diabetes.
             ЬЬketotic adj.

   kettle    n.  a vessel, usu. of metal with a lid, spout, and handle, for
             boiling water in.  Ьkettle hole a depression in the ground in a
             glaciated area.  a pretty kettle of fish an awkward state of
             affairs.  ЬЬkettleful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [ME f. ON ketill ult.
             f. L catillus dimin. of catinus deep food-vessel]

             n.  a large drum shaped like a bowl with a membrane adjustable
             for tension (and so pitch) stretched across.  ЬЬkettledrummer n.

   keV       abbr.  kilo-electronvolt.

   Kevlar    n.  propr.  a synthetic fibre of high tensile strength used esp.
             as a reinforcing agent in the manufacture of rubber products,
             e.g. tyres.

   kewpie    n.  a small chubby doll with wings and a curl or topknot.
             [CUPID + -IE]

   key(1)    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  keys) 1 an instrument, usu. of metal, for
             moving the bolt of a lock forwards or backwards to lock or
             unlock.  2 a similar implement for operating a switch in the
             form of a lock.  3 an instrument for grasping screws, pegs,
             nuts, etc., esp.  one for winding a clock etc.  4 a lever
             depressed by the finger in playing the organ, piano, flute,
             concertina, etc.  5 (often in pl.) each of several buttons for
             operating a typewriter, word processor, or computer terminal,
             etc.  6 what gives or precludes the opportunity for or access to
             something.  7 (attrib.) essential; of vital importance (the key
             element in the problem).  8 a place that by its position gives
             control of a sea, territory, etc.  9 a a solution or
             explanation.  b a word or system for solving a cipher or code.
             c an explanatory list of symbols used in a map, table, etc.  d a
             book of solutions to mathematical problems etc.  e a literal
             translation of a book written in a foreign language.  f the
             first move in a chess-problem solution.  10 Mus. a system of
             notes definitely related to each other, based on a particular
             note, and predominating in a piece of music (a study in the key
             of C major).  11 a tone or style of thought or expression.  12 a
             piece of wood or metal inserted between others to secure them.
             13 the part of a first coat of wall plaster that passes between
             the laths and so secures the rest.  14 the roughness of a
             surface, helping the adhesion of plaster etc.  15 the samara of
             a sycamore etc.  16 a mechanical device for making or breaking
             an electric circuit, e.g. in telegraphy.  --v.tr.  (keys, keyed)
             1 (foll. by in, on, etc.) fasten with a pin, wedge, bolt, etc.
             2 (often foll. by in) enter (data) by means of a keyboard.  3
             roughen (a surface) to help the adhesion of plaster etc.  4
             (foll. by to) align or link (one thing to another).  5 regulate
             the pitch of the strings of (a violin etc.).  6 word (an
             advertisement in a particular periodical) so that answers to it
             can be identified (usu. by varying the form of address given).
             Ьkey industry an industry essential to the carrying on of
             others, e.g. coal-mining, dyeing.  key map a map in bare
             outline, to simplify the use of a full map.  key money Brit.  a
             payment demanded from an incoming tenant for the provision of a
             key to the premises.  key-ring a ring for keeping keys on.  key
             signature Mus.  any of several combinations of sharps or flats
             after the clef at the beginning of each staff indicating the key
             of a composition.  key up (often foll. by to, or to + infin.)
             make (a person) nervous or tense; excite.  ЬЬkeyer n.  keyless
             adj.  [OE c‘g, of unkn. orig.]

   key(2)    n.  a low-lying island or reef, esp. in the W. Indies (cf.
             CAY).  [Sp.  cayo shoal, reef, infl. by QUAY]

   keyboard  n. & v.  --n. a set of keys on a typewriter, computer, piano,
             etc.  --v.tr. enter (data) by means of a keyboard.  ЬЬkeyboarder

   keyhole   n.  a hole by which a key is put into a lock.

   Keynesian adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the economic theories of J.
             M. Keynes (d.  1946), esp. regarding State control of the
             economy through money and taxation.  --n. an adherent of these
             theories.  ЬЬKeynesianism n.

   keynote   n.  1 a prevailing tone or idea (the keynote of the whole
             occasion).  2 (attrib.) intended to set the prevailing tone at a
             meeting or conference (keynote address).  3 Mus. the note on
             which a key is based.

   keypad    n.  a miniature keyboard or set of buttons for operating a
             portable electronic device, telephone, etc.

   keypunch  n. & v.  --n. a device for transferring data by means of punched
             holes or notches on a series of cards or paper tape.  --v.tr.
             transfer (data) by means of a keypunch.  ЬЬkeypuncher n.

   keystone  n.  1 the central principle of a system, policy, etc., on which
             all the rest depends.  2 a central stone at the summit of an
             arch locking the whole together.

   keystroke n.  a single depression of a key on a keyboard, esp. as a
             measure of work.

   keyway    n.  a slot for receiving a machined key.

   keyword   n.  1 the key to a cipher etc.  2 a a word of great
             significance.  b a significant word used in indexing.

6.0 KG...

   KG        abbr.  (in the UK) Knight of the Order of the Garter.

   kg        abbr.  kilogram(s).

   KGB       n.  the State security police of the USSR since 1954.  [Russ.,
             abbr. of Komitet gosudarstvennoi bezopasnosti committee of State

   Kgs.      abbr.  Kings (Old Testament).

7.0 khaddar...

   khaddar   n.  Indian homespun cloth.  [Hindi]

   khaki     adj. & n.  --adj. dust-coloured; dull brownish-yellow.  --n.
             (pl.  khakis) 1 khaki fabric of twilled cotton or wool, used
             esp. in military dress.  2 the dull brownish-yellow colour of
             this.  [Urdu kaki dust-coloured f.  kak dust]

   khalasi   n.  (pl.  khalasis) a native Indian servant or labourer, esp.
             one employed as a seaman.  [Hind.]

   khamsin   n.  (also hamsin) an oppressive hot south or south-east wind
             occurring in Egypt for about 50 days in March, April, and May.
             [Arab.  kamsin f.  kamsun fifty]

   khan(1)   n.  1 a title given to rulers and officials in Central Asia,
             Afghanistan, etc.  2 hist.  a the supreme ruler of the Turkish,
             Tartar, and Mongol tribes.  b the emperor of China in the Middle
             Ages.  ЬЬkhanate n.  [Turki kan lord]

   khan(2)   n.  a caravanserai.  [Arab.  kan inn]

   Khedive   n.  hist.  the title of the viceroy of Egypt under Turkish rule
             1867-1914.  ЬЬKhedival adj.  Khedivial adj.  [F kh‚dive, ult. f.
             Pers.  kadiv prince]

   Khmer     n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native of the ancient Khmer kingdom in SE
             Asia, or of modern Cambodia.  2 the language of this people.
             --adj. of the Khmers or their language.  [native name]

   kHz       abbr.  kilohertz.

8.0 kiang...

   kiang     n.  a wild Tibetan ass, Equus hemionus kiang, with a thick furry
             coat.  [Tibetan kyang]

   kibble(1) v.tr.  grind coarsely.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   kibble(2) n.  Brit.  an iron hoisting-bucket used in mines.  [G KЃbel (cf.
             OE cyfel) f. med.L cupellus, corn-measure, dimin. of cuppa cup]

   kibbutz   n.  (pl.  kibbutzim) a communal esp. farming settlement in
             Israel.  [mod.Heb.  kibbus gathering]

             n.  a member of a kibbutz.  [Yiddish (as KIBBUTZ)]

   kibe      n.  an ulcerated chilblain, esp. on the heel.  [ME, prob. f.
             Welsh cibi]

   kibitka   n.  1 a type of Russian hooded sledge.  2 a a Tartar's circular
             tent, covered with felt.  b a Tartar household.  [Russ. f.
             Tartar kibitz]

   kibitz    v.intr.  colloq.  act as a kibitzer.  [Yiddish f. G kiebitzen
             (as KIBITZER)]

   kibitzer  n.  colloq.  1 an onlooker at cards etc., esp. one who offers
             unwanted advice.  2 a busybody, a meddler.  [Yiddish kibitser f.
             G Kiebitz lapwing, busybody]

   kiblah    n.  (also qibla) 1 the direction of the Kaaba (the sacred
             building at Mecca), to which Muslims turn at prayer.  2 =
             MIHRAB.  [Arab.  kibla that which is opposite]

   kibosh    n.  (also kybosh) sl.  nonsense.  Ьput the kibosh on put an end
             to; finally dispose of.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   kick(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. strike or propel forcibly with the foot or
             hoof etc.  2 intr. (usu. foll. by at, against) a strike out with
             the foot.  b express annoyance at or dislike of (treatment, a
             proposal etc.); rebel against.  3 tr.  sl. give up (a habit).  4
             tr. (often foll. by out etc.) expel or dismiss forcibly.  5
             refl. be annoyed with oneself (I'll kick myself if I'm wrong).
             6 tr.  Football score (a goal) by a kick.  7 intr.  Cricket (of
             a ball) rise sharply from the pitch.  --n.  1 a a blow with the
             foot or hoof etc.  b the delivery of such a blow.  2 colloq.  a
             a sharp stimulant effect, esp. of alcohol (has some kick in it;
             a cocktail with a kick in it).  b (often in pl.) a pleasurable
             thrill (did it just for kicks; got a kick out of flying).  3
             strength, resilience (have no kick left).  4 colloq. a specified
             temporary interest or enthusiasm (on a jogging kick).  5 the
             recoil of a gun when discharged.  6 Brit.  Football colloq. a
             player of specified kicking ability (is a good kick).  Ьkick
             about (or around) colloq.  1 a drift idly from place to place.
             b be unused or unwanted.  2 a treat roughly or scornfully.  b
             discuss (an idea) unsystematically.  kick against the pricks see
             PRICK.  kick the bucket sl.  die.  kick-down a device for
             changing gear in a motor vehicle by full depression of the
             accelerator.  kick one's heels see HEEL.  kick in 1 knock down
             (a door etc.) by kicking.  2 esp.  US sl. contribute (esp.
             money); pay one's share.  kick in the pants (or teeth) colloq.
             a humiliating punishment or set-back.  kick off 1 a Football
             begin or resume a match.  b colloq. begin.  2 remove (shoes
             etc.) by kicking.  kick-off 1 Football the start or resumption
             of a match.  2 (in for a kick-off) colloq. for a start (that's
             wrong for a kick-off).  kick over the traces see TRACE(2).
             kick-pleat a pleat in a narrow skirt to allow freedom of
             movement.  kick-turn a standing turn in skiing.  kick up (or
             kick up a fuss, dust, etc.) create a disturbance; object or
             register strong disapproval.  kick up one's heels frolic.  kick
             a person upstairs shelve a person by giving him or her promotion
             or a title.  ЬЬkickable adj.  kicker n.  [ME kike, of unkn.

   kick(2)   n.  an indentation in the bottom of a glass bottle.  [19th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   kickback  n.  colloq.  1 the force of a recoil.  2 payment for
             collaboration, esp. collaboration for profit.

   kickshaw  n.  1 archaic, usu.  derog. a fancy dish in cookery.  2
             something elegant but insubstantial; a toy or trinket.  [F
             quelque chose something]

             n.  colloq.  a device for analysing electrical pulses according
             to amplitude.

   kickstand n.  a rod attached to a bicycle or motor cycle and kicked into a
             vertical position to support the vehicle when stationary.

             n. & v.  --n.  (also kick-starter) a device to start the engine
             of a motor cycle etc. by the downward thrust of a pedal.
             --v.tr. start (a motor cycle etc.) in this way.

   kid(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a young goat.  2 the leather made from its
             skin.  3 sl. a child or young person.  --v.intr.  (kidded,
             kidding) (of a goat) give birth.  Ьhandle with kid gloves handle
             in a gentle, delicate, or gingerly manner.  kid brother (or
             sister) sl.  a younger brother or sister.  kid-glove (attrib.)
             dainty or delicate.  kids' stuff sl.  something very simple.
             [ME kide f. ON kith f. Gmc]

   kid(2)    v.  (kidded, kidding) colloq.  1 tr. & also refl. deceive, trick
             (don't kid yourself; kidded his mother that he was ill).  2 tr.
             & intr. tease (only kidding).  Ьno kidding (or kid) sl.  that is
             the truth.  ЬЬkidder n.  kiddingly adv.  [perh. f.  KID(1)]

   kid(3)    n.  hist.  a small wooden tub, esp. a sailor's mess tub for grog
             or rations.  [perh. var. of KIT(1)]

   Kidderminster carpet
             n.  a carpet made of two cloths of different colours woven
             together so that the carpet is reversible.  [Kidderminster in S.

   kiddie    n.  (also kiddy) (pl.  -ies) sl.  = KID(1) n.  3.

   kiddle    n.  1 a barrier in a river with an opening fitted with nets etc.
             to catch fish.  2 an arrangement of fishing-nets hung on stakes
             along the seashore.  [ME f. AF kidel, OF quidel, guidel]

   kiddo     n.  (pl.  -os) sl.  = KID(1) n.  3.

   kiddy     var. of KIDDIE.

   kidnap    v.tr.  (kidnapped, kidnapping; US kidnaped, kidnaping) 1 carry
             off (a person etc.) by illegal force or fraud esp.  to obtain a
             ransom.  2 steal (a child).  ЬЬkidnapper n.  [back-form. f.
             kidnapper f.  KID(1) + nap = NAB]

   kidney    n.  (pl.  -eys) 1 either of a pair of organs in the abdominal
             cavity of mammals, birds, and reptiles, which remove nitrogenous
             wastes from the blood and excrete urine.  2 the kidney of a
             sheep, ox, or pig as food.  3 temperament, nature, kind (a man
             of that kidney; of the right kidney).  Ьkidney bean 1 a dwarf
             French bean.  2 a scarlet runner bean.  kidney dish a
             kidney-shaped dish, esp. one used in surgery.  kidney machine =
             artificial kidney.  kidney-shaped shaped like a kidney, with one
             side concave and the other convex.  kidney vetch a herbaceous
             plant, Anthyllis vulneraria: also called lady's finger.  [ME
             kidnei, pl.  kidneiren, app. partly f.  ei EGG(1)]

   kidskin   n.  = KID(1) n.  2.

   kiekie    n.  a New Zealand climbing plant with edible bracts, and leaves
             which are used for basket-making etc.  [Maori]

             n.  diatomaceous earth forming deposits in lakes and ponds and
             used as a filter, filler, insulator, etc., in various
             manufacturing processes.  [G f.  Kiesel gravel + dial.  Guhr
             earthy deposit]

   kif       var. of KEF.

   kike      n.  esp.  US sl.  offens.  a Jew.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   Kikuyu    n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same or Kikuyus) 1 a member of an
             agricultural Negro people, the largest Bantu-speaking group in
             Kenya.  2 the language of this people.  --adj. of or relating to
             this people or their language.  [native name]

   kilderkin n.  1 a cask for liquids etc., holding 16 or 18 gallons.  2 this
             measure.  [ME, alt. of kinderkin f. MDu.  kinde(r)kin, kinneken,
             dimin. of kintal QUINTAL]

   kill      v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a deprive of life or vitality; put to death;
             cause the death of.  b (absol.) cause or bring about death (must
             kill to survive).  2 destroy; put an end to (feelings etc.)
             (overwork killed my enthusiasm).  3 refl. (often foll. by pres.
             part.)  colloq.  a overexert oneself (don't kill yourself
             lifting them all at once).  b laugh heartily.  4 colloq.
             overwhelm (a person) with amusement, delight, etc. (the things
             he says really kill me).  5 switch off (a spotlight, engine,
             etc.).  6 colloq. delete (a line, paragraph, etc.) from a
             computer file.  7 colloq. cause pain or discomfort to (my feet
             are killing me).  8 pass (time, or a specified amount of it)
             usu. while waiting for a specific event (had an hour to kill
             before the interview).  9 defeat (a bill in Parliament).  10
             colloq. consume the entire contents of (a bottle of wine etc.).
             11 a Tennis etc. hit (the ball) so skilfully that it cannot be
             returned.  b stop (the ball) dead.  12 neutralize or render
             ineffective (taste, sound, colour, etc.) (thick carpet killed
             the sound of footsteps).  --n.  1 an act of killing (esp. an
             animal).  2 an animal or animals killed, esp. by a sportsman.  3
             colloq. the destruction or disablement of an enemy aircraft,
             submarine, etc.  Ьdressed to kill dressed showily, alluringly,
             or impressively.  in at the kill present at or benefiting from
             the successful conclusion of an enterprise.  kill off 1 get rid
             of or destroy completely (esp. a number of persons or things).
             2 (of an author) bring about the death of (a fictional
             character).  kill or cure (usu.  attrib.) (of a remedy etc.)
             drastic, extreme.  kill two birds with one stone achieve two
             aims at once.  kill with kindness spoil (a person) with
             overindulgence.  [ME cЃlle, kille, perh. ult. rel. to QUELL]

   killdeer  n.  a large American plover, Charadrius vociferus, with a
             plaintive song.  [imit.]

   killer    n.  1 a a person, animal, or thing that kills.  b a murderer.  2
             colloq.  a an impressive, formidable, or excellent thing (this
             one is quite difficult, but the next one is a real killer).  b a
             hilarious joke.  c a decisive blow (his brilliant header proved
             to be the killer).  Ьkiller instinct 1 an innate tendency to
             kill.  2 a ruthless streak.  killer whale a voracious cetacean,
             Orcinus orca, with a white belly and prominent dorsal fin.

   killick   n.  1 a heavy stone used by small craft as an anchor.  2 a small
             anchor.  3 Brit.  navalsl. a leading seaman.  [17th c.: orig.

   killifish n.  1 any small fresh- or brackish-water fish of the family
             Cyprinodontidae, many of which are brightly coloured.  2 a
             brightly-coloured tropical aquarium fish, Pterolebias peruensis.
             [perh. f.  kill stream f. Du.  kil + FISH(1)]

   killing   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a the causing of death.  b an instance of
             this.  2 a great (esp. financial) success (make a killing).
             --adj.  colloq.  1 overwhelmingly funny.  2 exhausting; very
             strenuous.  Ьkilling-bottle a bottle containing poisonous vapour
             to kill insects collected as specimens.  ЬЬkillingly adv.

   killjoy   n.  a person who throws gloom over or prevents other people's

   kiln      n.  a furnace or oven for burning, baking, or drying, esp. for
             calcining lime or firing pottery etc.  [OE cylene f. L culina

   kiln-dry  v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) dry in a kiln.

   kilo      n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a kilogram.  2 a kilometre.  [F: abbr.]

   kilo-     comb. form denoting a factor of 1,000 (esp. in metric units).
             °Abbr.: k, or K in Computing.  [F f. Gk khilioi thousand]

   kilobyte  n.  Computing 1,024 (i.e. 2(10)) bytes as a measure of memory

             n.  = CALORIE 2.

   kilocycle n.  a former measure of frequency, equivalent to 1 kilohertz.
             °Abbr.: kc.

   kilogram  n.  (also -gramme) the SI unit of mass, equivalent to the
             international standard kept at SЉvres near Paris (approx. 2.205
             lb.).  °Abbr.: kg.  [F kilogramme (as KILO, GRAM(1))]

   kilohertz n.  a measure of frequency equivalent to 1,000 cycles per
             second.  °Abbr.: kHz.

   kilojoule n.  1,000 joules, esp. as a measure of the energy value of
             foods.  °Abbr.: kJ.

   kilolitre n.  (US -liter) 1,000 litres (equivalent to 220 imperial
             gallons).  °Abbr.: kl.

   kilometre disp.  n.  (US kilometer) a metric unit of measurement equal to
             1,000 metres (approx. 0.62 miles).  °Abbr.: km.  ЬЬkilometric
             adj.  [F kilomЉtre (as KILO-, METRE(1))]

   kiloton   n.  (also kilotonne) a unit of explosive power equivalent to
             1,000 tons of TNT.

   kilovolt  n.  1,000 volts.  °Abbr.: kV.

   kilowatt  n.  1,000 watts.  °Abbr.: kW.

             n.  a measure of electrical energy equivalent to a power
             consumption of 1,000 watts for one hour.  °Abbr.: kWh.

   kilt      n. & v.  --n.  1 a skirtlike garment, usu. of pleated tartan
             cloth and reaching to the knees, as traditionally worn by
             Highland men.  2 a similar garment worn by women and children.
             --v.tr.  1 tuck up (skirts) round the body.  2 (esp. as kilted
             adj.) gather in vertical pleats.  ЬЬkilted adj.  [orig. as verb:
             ME, of Scand. orig.]

   kilter    n.  (also kelter) good working order (esp. out of kilter).
             [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   kiltie    n.  a wearer of a kilt, esp. a kilted Highland soldier.

             n.  Mineral.  a rare igneous blue-tinged rock sometimes
             containing diamonds, found in South Africa and Siberia. Also
             called blue ground (see BLUE(1)).  [Kimberley in S. Africa]

   kimono    n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a long loose Japanese robe worn with a sash.  2
             a European dressing-gown modelled on this.  ЬЬkimonoed adj.

   kin       n. & adj.  --n. one's relatives or family.  --predic.adj. (of a
             person) related (we are kin; he is kin to me) (see also AKIN).
             Ьkith and kin see KITH.  near of kin closely related by blood,
             or in character.  next of kin see NEXT.  ЬЬkinless adj.  [OE
             cynn f. Gmc]

   -kin      suffix forming diminutive nouns (catkin; manikin).  [from or
             after MDu.  -kijn, -ken, OHG -chin]

   kina      n.  the monetary unit of Papua New Guinea.  [Papuan]

             n.  (US kinesthesia) a sense of awareness of the position and
             movement of the voluntary muscles of the body.  ЬЬkinaesthetic
             adj.  [Gk kineo move + aisthesis sensation]

   kincob    n.  a rich Indian fabric embroidered with gold or silver.  [Urdu
             f. Pers.  kamkab f.  kamka damask]

   kind(1)   n.  1 a a race or species (human kind).  b a natural group of
             animals, plants, etc. (the wolf kind).  2 class, type, sort,
             variety (what kind of job are you looking for?).  °In sense 2,
             these (or those) kind is often encountered when followed by a
             plural, as in I don't like these kind of things, but this kind
             and these kinds are usually preferred.  3 each of the elements
             of the Eucharist (communion under (or in) both kinds).  4 the
             manner or fashion natural to a person etc. (act after their
             kind; true to kind).  Ьkind of colloq.  to some extent (felt
             kind of sorry; I kind of expected it).  a kind of used to imply
             looseness, vagueness, exaggeration, etc., in the term used (a
             kind of Jane Austen of our times; I suppose he's a kind of
             doctor).  in kind 1 in the same form, likewise (was insulted and
             replied in kind).  2 (of payment) in goods or labour as opposed
             to money (received their wages in kind).  3 character, quality
             (differ in degree but not in kind).  law of kind archaic nature
             in general; the natural order.  nothing of the kind 1 not at all
             like the thing in question.  2 (expressing denial) not at all.
             of its kind within the limitations of its own class (good of its
             kind).  of a kind 1 derog. scarcely deserving the name (a choir
             of a kind).  2 similar in some important respect (they're two of
             a kind).  one's own kind those with whom one has much in common.
             something of the kind something like the thing in question.  [OE
             cynd(e), gecynd(e) f. Gmc]

   kind(2)   adj.  1 of a friendly, generous, benevolent, or gentle nature.
             2 (usu. foll. by to) showing friendliness, affection, or
             consideration.  3 a affectionate.  b archaic loving.  [OE
             gecynde (as KIND(1)): orig. = 'natural, native']

   kinda     colloq.  = kind of.  [corrupt.]

             n.  an establishment for preschool learning.  [G, = children's

             adj.  of a kind disposition.  ЬЬkind-heartedly adv.
             kind-heartedness n.

   kindle    v.  1 tr. light or set on fire (a flame, fire, substance, etc.).
             2 intr. catch fire, burst into flame.  3 tr. arouse or inspire
             (kindle enthusiasm for the project; kindle jealousy in a rival).
             4 intr. (usu. foll. by to) respond, react (to a person, an
             action, etc.) (kindle to his courage).  5 intr. become animated,
             glow with passion etc. (her imagination kindled).  6 tr. & intr.
             make or become bright (kindle the embers to a glow).  ЬЬkindler
             n.  [ME f. ON kynda, kindle: cf. ON kindill candle, torch]

   kindling  n.  small sticks etc. for lighting fires.

   kindly(1) adv.  1 in a kind manner (spoke to the child kindly).  2 often
             iron. used in a polite request or demand (kindly acknowledge
             this letter; kindly leave me alone).  Ьlook kindly upon regard
             sympathetically.  take a thing kindly like or be pleased by it.
             take kindly to be pleased by or endeared to (a person or thing).
             thank kindly thank very much.  [OE gecyndelice (as KIND(2))]

   kindly(2) adj.  (kindlier, kindliest) 1 kind, kind-hearted.  2 (of climate
             etc.) pleasant, genial.  3 archaic native-born (a kindly Scot).
             ЬЬkindlily adv.  kindliness n.  [OE gecyndelic (as KIND(1))]

   kindness  n.  1 the state or quality of being kind.  2 a kind act .

   kindred   n. & adj.  --n.  1 one's relations, referred to collectively.  2
             a relationship by blood.  3 a resemblance or affinity in
             character.  --adj.  1 related by blood or marriage.  2 allied or
             similar in character (other kindred symptoms).  Ьkindred spirit
             a person whose character and outlook have much in common with
             one's own.  [ME f.  KIN + -red f. OE r‘den condition]

   kine      archaic pl. of COW(1).

             n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) the branch of mechanics concerned
             with the motion of objects without reference to the forces which
             cause the motion.  ЬЬkinematic adj.  kinematically adv.  [Gk
             kinema -matos motion f.  kineo move + -ICS]

             var. of CINEMATOGRAPH.

   kinesics  n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) 1 the study of body movements and
             gestures which contribute to communication.  2 these movements;
             body language.  [Gk kinesis motion (as KINETIC)]

             n.  the study of the mechanics of body movements.

             US var. of KINAESTHESIA.

   kinetic   adj.  of or due to motion.  Ьkinetic art a form of art that
             depends on movement for its effect.  kinetic energy the energy
             of motion.  kinetic theory a theory which explains the physical
             properties of matter in terms of the motions of its constituent
             particles.  ЬЬkinetically adv.  [Gk kinetikos f.  kineo move]

   kinetics  n.pl.  1 = DYNAMICS 1a.  2 (usu. treated as sing.) the branch of
             physical chemistry concerned with measuring and studying the
             rates of chemical reactions.

   kinetin   n.  Biochem.  a synthetic kinin used to stimulate cell division
             in plants.  [as KINETIC + -IN]

   kinfolk   US var. of KINSFOLK.

   king      n. & v.  --n.  1 (as a title usu.  King) a male sovereign, esp.
             the hereditary ruler of an independent State.  2 a person or
             thing pre-eminent in a specified field or class (railway king).
             3 a large (or the largest) kind of plant, animal, etc. (king
             penguin).  4 Chess the piece on each side which the opposing
             side has to checkmate to win.  5 a piece in draughts with extra
             capacity of moving, made by crowning an ordinary piece that has
             reached the opponent's baseline.  6 a court-card bearing a
             representation of a king and usu.  ranking next below an ace.  7
             (the King) (in the UK) the national anthem when there is a male
             sovereign.  8 (Kings or Books of Kings) two Old Testament books
             dealing with history, esp. of the kingdom of Judah.  --v.tr.
             make (a person) king.  ЬKing Charles spaniel a spaniel of a
             small black and tan breed.  king cobra a large and venomous
             hooded Indian snake, Ophiophagus hannah.  king-crab 1 =
             horseshoe crab.  2 US any of various large edible spider crabs.
             king-fish any of various large fish, esp. the opah or mulloway.
             king it 1 play or act the king.  2 (usu. foll. by over) govern,
             control.  King James Bible (or Version) = Authorized Version
             (see AUTHORIZE).  King of Arms Heraldry (in the UK) a chief
             herald (at the College of Arms: Garter, Clarenceux, and Norroy
             and Ulster; in Scotland: Lyon).  king of beasts the lion.  king
             of birds the eagle.  King of the Castle a children's game
             consisting of trying to displace a rival from a mound.  King of
             Kings 1 God.  2 the title assumed by many eastern kings.
             king-post an upright post from the tie-beam of a roof to the
             apex of a truss.  King's Bench see BENCH.  king's bishop, knight
             , etc. Chess (of pieces which exist in pairs) the piece starting
             on the king's side of the board.  King's bounty see BOUNTY.
             King's colour see COLOUR.  King's Counsel see COUNSEL.  King's
             English see ENGLISH.  King's evidence see EVIDENCE.  king's evil
             hist.  scrofula, formerly held to be curable by the royal touch.
             King's Guide see GUIDE.  King's highway see HIGHWAY.  king-size
             (or -sized) larger than normal; very large.  King's Messenger
             see MESSENGER.  king's pawn Chess the pawn in front of the king
             at the beginning of a game.  King's Proctor see PROCTOR.  king's
             ransom a fortune.  King's Scout see SCOUT(1).  King's speech see
             SPEECH.  ЬЬkinghood n.  kingless adj.  kinglike adj.  kingly
             adj.  kingliness n.  kingship n.  [OE cyning, cyng f. Gmc]

   kingbird  n.  any flycatcher of the genus Tyrannus, with olive-grey
             plumage and long pointed wings.

   kingbolt  n.  = KINGPIN.

   kingcraft n.  archaic the skilful exercise of kingship.

   kingcup   n.  Brit.  a marsh marigold.

   kingdom   n.  1 an organized community headed by a king.  2 the territory
             subject to a king.  3 a the spiritual reign attributed to God
             (Thy kingdom come).  b the sphere of this (kingdom of heaven).
             4 a domain belonging to a person, animal, etc.  5 a province of
             nature (the vegetable kingdom).  6 a specified mental or
             emotional province (kingdom of the heart; kingdom of fantasy).
             7 Biol. the highest category in taxonomic classification.  Ьcome
             into (or to) one's kingdom achieve recognition or supremacy.
             kingdom come sl.  eternity; the next world.  till kingdom come
             sl.  for ever.  ЬЬkingdomed adj.  [OE cyningdom (as KING)]

             n.  any bird of the family Alcedinidae esp.  Alcedo atthis with
             a long sharp beak and brightly coloured plumage, which dives for
             fish in rivers etc.

   kinglet   n.  1 a petty king.  2 US any of various small birds of the
             family Regulidae, esp. the goldcrest.

   kingmaker n.  a person who makes kings, leaders, etc., through the
             exercise of political influence, orig. with ref. to the Earl of
             Warwick in the reign of Henry VI of England.

   kingpin   n.  1 a a main or large bolt in a central position.  b a
             vertical bolt used as a pivot.  2 an essential person or thing,
             esp. in a complex system.

   kinin     n.  1 any of a group of polypeptides present in the blood after
             tissue damage.  2 any of a group of compounds which promote cell
             division and inhibit ageing in plants.  [Gk kineo move + -IN]

   kink      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a short backward twist in wire or tubing etc.
             such as may cause an obstruction.  b a tight wave in human or
             animal hair.  2 a mental twist or quirk.  --v.intr. & tr. form
             or cause to form a kink.  [MLG kinke (v.) prob. f. Du.  kinken]

   kinkajou  n.  a Central and S. American nocturnal fruit-eating mammal,
             Potos flavus, with a prehensile tail and living in trees.  [F
             quincajou f. N.Amer. Ind.: cf. Algonquin kwingwaage wolverine]

   kinky     adj.  (kinkier, kinkiest) 1 colloq.  a given to or involving
             abnormal sexual behaviour.  b (of clothing etc.) bizarre in a
             sexually provocative way.  2 strange, eccentric.  3 having kinks
             or twists.  ЬЬkinkily adv.  kinkiness n.  [KINK + -Y(1)]

   kino      n.  (pl.  -os) a catechu-like gum produced by various trees and
             used in medicine and tanning as an astringent.  [W. Afr.]

   -kins     suffix = -KIN, often with suggestions of endearment (babykins).

   kinsfolk  n.pl.  (US kinfolk) one's relations by blood.

   kinship   n.  1 blood relationship.  2 the sharing of characteristics or

   kinsman   n.  (pl.  -men; fem.  kinswoman, pl.  -women) 1 a blood relation
             or disp. a relation by marriage.  2 a member of one's own tribe
             or people.

   kiosk     n.  1 a light open-fronted booth or cubicle from which food,
             newspapers, tickets, etc. are sold.  2 a telephone box.  3
             Austral. a building in which refreshments are served in a park,
             zoo, etc.  4 a light open pavilion in Turkey and Iran.  [F
             kiosque f. Turk.  kiushk pavilion f. Pers.  gus]

   kip(1)    n. & v.  Brit.  sl.  --n.  1 a sleep or nap.  2 a bed or cheap
             lodging-house.  3 (also kip-house or -shop) a brothel.
             --v.intr.  (kipped, kipping) sleep, take a nap.  [cf. Da.  kippe
             mean hut]

   kip(2)    n.  the hide of a young or small animal as used for leather.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   kip(3)    n.  (pl. same or kips) the basic monetary unit of Laos.  [Thai]

   kip(4)    n.  Austral.  sl.  a small piece of wood from which coins are
             spun in the game of two-up.  [perh. f. E dial.: cf.  keper a
             flat piece of wood preventing a horse from eating the corn, or
             Ir. dial.  kippeen f. Ir.  cipЎn a little stick]

   kipper    n. & v.  --n.  1 a kippered fish, esp. herring.  2 a male salmon
             in the spawning season.  --v.tr. cure (a herring etc.) by
             splitting open, salting, and drying in the open air or smoke.
             [ME: orig. uncert.]

   kipsie    n.  (also kipsy) (pl.  -ies) Austral.  sl.  a house, home,
             lean-to, or shelter.  [perh. f.  KIP(1)]

   kir       n.  a drink made from dry white wine and crЉme de cassis.
             [Canon Felix Kir d. 1968, said to have invented the recipe]

             n.  (also Kirbigrip propr.) a type of sprung hairgrip.  [Kirby,
             part of orig. manufacturer's name]

   Kirghiz   n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 a member of a Mongol people living
             in central Asia between the Volga and the Irtysh rivers.  2 the
             language of this people.  --adj. of or relating to this people
             or their language.  [Kirghiz]

   kirk      n.  Sc. & N.Engl.  1 a church.  2 (the Kirk or the Kirk of
             Scotland) the Church of Scotland as distinct from the Church of
             England or from the Episcopal Church in Scotland.  ЬKirk-session
             1 the lowest court in the Church of Scotland.  2 hist. the
             lowest court in other Presbyterian Churches, composed of
             ministers and elders.  [ME f. ON kirkja f. OE cir(i)ce CHURCH]

   kirkman   n.  (pl.  -men) Sc. & N.Engl.  a member of the Church of

   kirsch    n.  (also kirschwasser) a brandy distilled from the fermented
             juice of cherries.  [G Kirsche cherry, Wasser water]

   kirtle    n.  archaic 1 a woman's gown or outer petticoat.  2 a man's
             tunic or coat.  [OE cyrtel f. Gmc, ult. perh. f. L curtus short]

   kiskadee  n.  (also keskidee) a tyrant flycatcher, Pitangus sulphuratus,
             of Central and S. America with brown and yellow plumage.  [imit.
             of its cry]

   kismet    n.  destiny, fate.  [Turk. f. Arab.  kisma(t) f.  kasama divide]

   kiss      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. touch with the lips, esp. as a sign of
             love, affection, greeting, or reverence.  2 tr. express
             (greeting or farewell) in this way.  3 absol. (of two persons)
             touch each others' lips in this way.  4 tr. (also absol.) (of a
             snooker ball etc. in motion) lightly touch (another ball).  --n.
             1 a touch with the lips in kissing.  2 the slight impact when
             one snooker ball etc. lightly touches another.  3 a small
             sweetmeat or piece of confectionery.  Ьkiss and tell recount
             one's sexual exploits.  kiss a person's arse coarse sl.  act
             obsequiously towards a person.  kiss away remove (tears etc.) by
             kissing.  kiss-curl a small curl of hair on the forehead, at the
             nape, or in front of the ear.  kiss the dust submit abjectly; be
             overthrown.  kiss goodbye to colloq.  accept the loss of.  kiss
             the ground prostrate oneself as a token of homage.  kissing
             cousin (or kin or kind) a distant relative (given a formal kiss
             on occasional meetings).  kissing-gate Brit.  a gate hung in a
             V- or U-shaped enclosure, to let one person through at a time.
             kiss of death an apparently friendly act which causes ruin.
             kiss off sl.  1 dismiss, get rid of.  2 go away, die.  kiss of
             life mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.  kiss of peace Eccl.  a
             ceremonial kiss, esp. during the Eucharist, as a sign of unity.
             kiss the rod accept chastisement submissively.  ЬЬkissable adj.
             [OE cyssan f. Gmc]

   kisser    n.  1 a person who kisses.  2 (orig.  Boxing) sl. the mouth; the

   kissogram n.  (also Kissagram propr.) a novelty telegram or greetings
             message delivered with a kiss.

   kissy     adj.  colloq.  given to kissing (not the kissy type).

   kist      var. of CIST(1).

   Kiswahili n.  one of the six languages preferred for use in Africa by the
             Organization for African Unity.  [Swahili ki- prefix for an
             abstract or inanimate object]

   kit(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a set of articles, equipment, or clothing
             needed for a specific purpose (first-aid kit; bicycle-repair
             kit).  2 the clothing etc. needed for any activity, esp. sport
             (football kit).  3 a set of all the parts needed to assemble an
             item, e.g.  a piece of furniture, a model, etc.  4 Brit. a
             wooden tub.  --v.tr.  (kitted, kitting) (often foll. by out, up)
             equip with the appropriate clothing or tools.  [ME f. MDu.
             kitte wooden vessel, of unkn. orig.]

   kit(2)    n.  1 a kitten.  2 a young fox, badger, etc.  [abbr.]

   kit(3)    n.  hist.  a small fiddle esp. as used by a dancing-master.
             [perh. f. L cithara; see CITTERN]

   kitbag    n.  a large, usu. cylindrical bag used for carrying a soldier's,
             traveller's, or sportsman's equipment.

   kit-cat   n. (in full kit-cat portrait) a portrait of less than half
             length, but including one hand; usu.  36 x 28 in.  [named after
             a series of portraits of the members of the Kit-Cat Club, an
             early 18th-c. Whig society]

   kitchen   n.  1 the room or area where food is prepared and cooked.  2
             (attrib.) of or belonging to the kitchen (kitchen knife; kitchen
             table).  3 sl. the percussion section of an orchestra.
             Ьeverything but the kitchen sink everything imaginable.  kitchen
             cabinet a group of unofficial advisers thought to be unduly
             influential.  kitchen garden a garden where vegetables and
             sometimes fruit or herbs are grown.  kitchen midden a
             prehistoric refuse-heap which marks an ancient settlement,
             chiefly containing bones, seashells, etc.  kitchen-sink (in art
             forms) depicting extreme realism, esp. drabness or sordidness
             (kitchen-sink school of painting; kitchen-sink drama).  kitchen
             tea Austral. & NZ a party held before a wedding to which female
             guests bring items of kitchen equipment as presents.  [OE cycene
             f. L coquere cook]

   Kitchener bun
             n.  Austral.  a cream-filled bun coated with cinnamon and sugar.
             [1st Earl Kitchener d. 1916]

             n.  a small kitchen or part of a room fitted as a kitchen.

             n.  the utensils used in the kitchen.

   kite      n. & v.  --n.  1 a toy consisting of a light framework with thin
             material stretched over it, flown in the wind at the end of a
             long string.  2 any of various soaring birds of prey esp. of the
             genus Milvus with long wings and usu. a forked tail.  3 Brit.
             sl. an aeroplane.  4 sl. a fraudulent cheque, bill, or receipt.
             5 Geom. a quadrilateral figure symmetrical about one diagonal.
             6 sl. a letter or note, esp. one that is illicit or
             surreptitious.  7 (in pl.) the highest sail of a ship, set only
             in a light wind.  8 archaic a dishonest person, a sharper.  --v.
             1 intr. soar like a kite.  2 tr. (also absol.) originate or pass
             (fraudulent cheques, bills, or receipts).  3 tr. (also absol.)
             raise (money by dishonest means) (kite a loan).  Ьkite balloon a
             sausage-shaped captive balloon for military observations.
             kite-flying fraudulent practice.  [OE cyta, of unkn. orig.]

   Kitemark  n.  (in the UK) the official kite-shaped mark on goods approved
             by the British Standards Institution.

   kith      n.  Ьkith and kin friends and relations.  [OE cythth f. Gmc]

   kitsch    n.  (often attrib.) garish, pretentious, or sentimental art,
             usu. vulgar and worthless (kitsch plastic models of the royal
             family).  ЬЬkitschy adj.  (kitschier, kitschiest).  kitschiness
             n.  [G]

   kitten    n. & v.  --n.  1 a young cat.  2 a young ferret etc.  --v.intr.
             & tr. (of a cat etc.) give birth or give birth to.  Ьhave
             kittens Brit.  colloq.  be extremely upset, anxious, or nervous.
             [ME kito(u)n, ketoun f. OF chitoun, chetoun dimin. of chat CAT]

   kittenish adj.  1 like a young cat; playful and lively.  2 flirtatious.
             ЬЬkittenishly adv.  kittenishness n.  [KITTEN]

   kittiwake n.  either of two small gulls, Rissa tridactyla and R.
             brevirostris, nesting on sea cliffs.  [imit. of its cry]

   kittle    adj.  (also kittle-cattle) 1 (of a person) capricious, rash, or
             erratic in behaviour.  2 difficult to deal with.  [ME (now Sc. &
             dial.)  kittle tickle, prob. f. ON kitla]

   kitty(1)  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a fund of money for communal use.  2 the pool
             in some card-games.  3 the jack in bowls.  [19th c.: orig.

   kitty(2)  n.  (pl.  -ies) a pet-name or a child's name for a kitten or

   kiwi      n.  (pl.  kiwis) 1 a flightless New Zealand bird of the genus
             Apteryx with hairlike feathers and a long bill. Also called
             APTERYX.  2 (Kiwi) colloq. a New Zealander, esp. a soldier or
             member of a national sports team.  Ьkiwi fruit (or berry) the
             fruit of a climbing plant, Actinidia chinensis, having a thin
             hairy skin, green flesh, and black seeds: also called Chinese
             gooseberry.  [Maori]

9.0 kJ

   kJ        abbr.  kilojoule(s).

10.0 KKK...

   KKK       abbr.  US Ku Klux Klan.

11.0 kl...

   kl        abbr.  kilolitre(s).

   Klaxon    n.  propr.  a horn or warning hooter, orig. on a motor vehicle.
             [name of the manufacturing company]

   Kleenex   n.  (pl. same or Kleenexes) orig.  US propr.  an absorbent
             disposable paper tissue, used esp. as a handkerchief.

   Klein bottle
             n.  Math.  a closed surface with only one side, formed by
             passing the neck of a tube through the side of the tube to join
             the hole in the base.  [F.  Klein, Ger. mathematician d. 1925]

   klepht    n.  1 a member of the original body of Greeks who refused to
             submit to the Turks in the 15th c.  2 any of their descendants.
             3 a brigand or bandit.  [mod. Gk klephtes f. Gk kleptes thief]

             n.  a recurrent urge to steal, usu. without regard for need or
             profit.  ЬЬkleptomaniac n. & adj.  [Gk kleptes thief + -MANIA]

   klieg     n.  (also klieg light) a powerful lamp in a film studio etc.
             [A. T. & J. H.  Kliegl, Amer. inventors d. 1927, 1959]

             n.  a S. African dwarf antelope, Oreotragus oreotragus, which
             can bound up and down rocky slopes.  [Afrik. f.  klip rock +
             springer jumper]

   Klondike  n.  a source of valuable material.  [Klondike in Yukon, Canada,
             where gold was found in 1896]

   kloof     n.  a steep-sided ravine or valley in S. Africa.  [Du., = cleft]

   kludge    n.  orig.  US sl.  1 an ill-assorted collection of poorly
             matching parts.  2 Computing a machine, system, or program that
             has been badly put together.

   klystron  n.  an electron tube that generates or amplifies microwaves by
             velocity modulation.  [Gk kluzo klus- wash over]

12.0 km...

   km        abbr.  kilometre(s).

   K-meson   n.  = KAON.  [K (see KAON) + MESON]

13.0 kn....

   kn.       abbr.  Naut.  knot(s).

   knack     n.  1 an acquired or intuitive faculty of doing a thing
             adroitly.  2 a trick or habit of action or speech etc. (has a
             knack of offending people).  3 archaic an ingenious device (see
             KNICK-KNACK).  [ME, prob. identical with knack sharp blow or
             sound f. LG, ult. imit.]

   knacker   n. & v.  Brit.  --n.  1 a buyer of useless horses for slaughter.
             2 a buyer of old houses, ships, etc. for the materials.  --v.tr.
             sl.  1 kill.  2 (esp. as knackered adj.) exhaust, wear out.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   knackery  n.  (pl.  -ies) a knacker's yard or business.

   knag      n.  1 a knot in wood; the base of a branch.  2 a short dead
             branch.  3 a peg for hanging things on.  ЬЬknaggy adj.  [ME,
             perh. f. LG Knagge]

   knap(1)   n.  chiefly dial.  the crest of a hill or of rising ground.  [OE
             cn‘p(p), perh. rel. to ON knappr knob]

   knap(2)   v.tr.  (knapped, knapping) 1 break (stones for roads or
             building, flints, or Austral. ore) with a hammer.  2 archaic
             knock, rap, snap asunder.  ЬЬknapper n.  [ME, imit.]

   knapsack  n.  a soldier's or hiker's bag with shoulder-straps, carried on
             the back, and usu. made of canvas or weatherproof material.
             [MLG, prob. f.  knappen bite + SACK(1)]

   knapweed  n.  any of various plants of the genus Centaurea, having
             thistle-like purple flowers.  [ME, orig.  knopweed f.  KNOP +

   knar      n.  a knot or protuberance in a tree trunk, root, etc.  [ME
             knarre, rel. to MLG, M.Du., MHG knorre knobbed protuberance]

   knave     n.  1 a rogue, a scoundrel.  2 = JACK(1) n.  2.  ЬЬknavery n.
             (pl.  -ies).  knavish adj.  knavishly adv.  knavishness n.  [OE
             cnafa boy, servant, f. WG]

   knawel    n.  any low-growing plant of the genus Scleranthus.  [G Knauel]

   knead     v.tr.  1 a work (a yeast mixture, clay, etc.) into dough, paste,
             etc.  by pummelling.  b make (bread, pottery, etc.) in this way.
             2 blend or weld together (kneaded them into a unified group).  3
             massage (muscles etc.) as if kneading.  ЬЬkneadable adj.
             kneader n.  [OE cnedan f. Gmc]

   knee      n. & v.  --n.  1 a (often attrib.) the joint between the thigh
             and the lower leg in humans.  b the corresponding joint in other
             animals.  c the area around this.  d the upper surface of the
             thigh of a sitting person; the lap (held her on his knee).  2
             the part of a garment covering the knee.  3 anything resembling
             a knee in shape or position, esp. a piece of wood or iron bent
             at an angle, a sharp turn in a graph, etc.  --v.tr.  (knees,
             kneed, kneeing) 1 touch or strike with the knee (kneed the ball
             past him; kneed him in the groin).  2 colloq. cause (trousers)
             to bulge at the knee.  Ьbend (or bow) the knee kneel, esp. in
             submission.  bring a person to his or her knees reduce a person
             to submission.  knee-bend the action of bending the knee, esp.
             as a physical exercise in which the body is raised and lowered
             without the use of the hands.  knee-breeches close-fitting
             trousers reaching to or just below the knee.  knee-deep 1 (usu.
             foll. by in) a immersed up to the knees.  b deeply involved.  2
             so deep as to reach the knees.  knee-high so high as to reach
             the knees.  knee-hole a space for the knees, esp. under a desk.
             knee-jerk 1 a sudden involuntary kick caused by a blow on the
             tendon just below the knee.  2 (attrib.) predictable, automatic,
             stereotyped.  knee-joint 1 = senses 1a, b of n.  2 a joint made
             of two pieces hinged together.  knee-length reaching the knees.
             knee-pan the kneecap.  knees-up Brit.  colloq.  a lively party
             or gathering.  on (or on one's) bended knee (or knees) kneeling,
             esp. in supplication, submission, or worship.  [OE cneo(w)]

   kneecap   n. & v.  --n.  1 the convex bone in front of the knee-joint.  2
             a protective covering for the knee.  --v.tr.  (-capped,
             -capping) colloq. shoot (a person) in the knee or leg as a
             punishment, esp. for betraying a terrorist group.  ЬЬkneecapping

   kneel     v.intr.  (past and past part.  knelt or esp.  US kneeled) fall
             or rest on the knees or a knee.  [OE cneowlian (as KNEE)]

   kneeler   n.  1 a hassock or cushion used for kneeling, esp. in church.  2
             a person who kneels.

   knell     n. & v.  --n.  1 the sound of a bell, esp. when rung solemnly
             for a death or funeral.  2 an announcement, event, etc.,
             regarded as a solemn warning of disaster.  --v.  1 intr.  a (of
             a bell) ring solemnly, esp. for a death or funeral.  b make a
             doleful or ominous sound.  2 tr. proclaim by or as by a knell
             (knelled the death of all their hopes).  Ьring the knell of
             announce or herald the end of.  [OE cnyll, cnyllan: perh. infl.
             by bell]

   knelt     past and past part. of KNEEL.

   Knesset   n.  the parliament of modern Israel.  [Heb., lit. gathering]

   knew      past of KNOW.

             n.  1 (in pl.) loose-fitting breeches gathered at the knee or
             calf.  2 (Knickerbocker) a a New Yorker.  b a descendant of the
             original Dutch settlers in New York.  ЬKnickerbocker Glory
             ice-cream served with other ingredients in a tall glass.
             [Diedrich Knickerbocker, pretended author of W. Irving's History
             of New York (1809)]

   knickers  n.pl.  1 Brit. a woman's or girl's undergarment covering the
             body from the waist or hips to the top of the thighs and having
             leg-holes or separate legs.  2 esp.  US a knickerbockers.  b a
             boy's short trousers.  3 (as int.) Brit.  sl. an expression of
             contempt.  [abbr. of KNICKERBOCKER]

             n.  1 a useless and usu. worthless ornament; a trinket.  2 a
             small, dainty article of furniture, dress, etc.
             ЬЬknick-knackery n.  knick-knackish adj.  [redupl. of knack in
             obs. sense 'trinket']

   knife     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  knives) 1 a a metal blade used as a cutting
             tool with usu. one long sharp edge fixed rigidly in a handle or
             hinged (cf.  PENKNIFE).  b a similar tool used as a weapon.  2 a
             cutting-blade forming part of a machine.  3 (as the knife) a
             surgical operation or operations.  --v.tr.  1 cut or stab with a
             knife.  2 sl. bring about the defeat of (a person) by underhand
             means.  Ьat knife-point threatened with a knife or an ultimatum
             etc.  before you can say knife colloq.  very quickly or
             suddenly.  get one's knife into treat maliciously or
             vindictively, persecute.  knife-board a board on which knives
             are cleaned.  knife-edge 1 the edge of a knife.  2 a position of
             extreme danger or uncertainty.  3 a steel wedge on which a
             pendulum etc. oscillates.  4 = AR°TE.  knife-grinder 1 a
             travelling sharpener of knives etc.  2 a person who grinds
             knives etc. during their manufacture.  knife-machine a machine
             for cleaning knives.  knife-pleat a narrow flat pleat on a skirt
             etc., usu. overlapping another.  knife-rest a metal or glass
             support for a carving-knife or -fork at table.  knife-throwing a
             circus etc. act in which knives are thrown at targets.  that one
             could cut with a knife colloq.  (of an accent, atmosphere, etc.)
             very obvious, oppressive, etc.  ЬЬknifelike adj.  knifer n.  [OE
             cnif f. ON knЎfr f. Gmc]

   knight    n. & v.  --n.  1 a man awarded a non-hereditary title (Sir) by a
             sovereign in recognition of merit or service.  2 hist.  a a man,
             usu. noble, raised esp. by a sovereign to honourable military
             rank after service as a page and squire.  b a military follower
             or attendant, esp. of a lady as her champion in a war or
             tournament.  3 a man devoted to the service of a woman, cause,
             etc.  4 Chess a piece usu. shaped like a horse's head.  5 a
             Rom.Hist. a member of the class of equites, orig. the cavalry of
             the Roman army.  b Gk Hist. a citizen of the second class in
             Athens.  6 (in full knight of the shire) hist. a gentleman
             representing a shire or county in parliament.  --v.tr. confer a
             knighthood on.  Ьknight bachelor (pl.  knights bachelor) a
             knight not belonging to a special order.  knight commander see
             COMMANDER.  knight errant 1 a medieval knight wandering in
             search of chivalrous adventures.  2 a man of a chivalrous or
             quixotic nature.  knight-errantry the practice or conduct of a
             knight errant.  Knight Hospitaller (pl.  Knights Hospitaller) a
             member of an order of monks with a military history, founded at
             Jerusalem c.1050.  knight marshal hist.  an officer of the royal
             household with judicial functions.  knight of the road colloq.
             1 a highwayman.  2 a commercial traveller.  3 a tramp.  4 a
             lorry driver or taxi driver.  knight-service hist.  the tenure
             of land by military service.  Knight Templar (pl.  Knights
             Templar) a member of a religious and military order for the
             protection of pilgrims to the Holy Land, suppressed in 1312.
             ЬЬknighthood n.  knightlike adj.  knightly adj. & adv.  poet.
             knightliness n.  [OE cniht boy, youth, hero f. WG]

   knightage n.  1 knights collectively.  2 a list and account of knights.

   knish     n.  a dumpling of flaky dough filled with cheese etc. and baked
             or fried.  [Yiddish f. Russ.]

   knit      v. & n.  --v.  (knitting; past and past part.  knitted or (esp.
             in senses 2-4) knit) 1 tr. (also absol.) a make (a garment,
             blanket, etc.) by interlocking loops of esp. wool with
             knitting-needles.  b make (a garment etc.) with a knitting
             machine.  c make (a plain stitch) in knitting (knit one, purl
             one).  2 a tr. contract (the forehead) in vertical wrinkles.  b
             intr. (of the forehead) contract; frown.  3 tr. & intr. (often
             foll. by together) make or become close or compact esp. by
             common interests etc.  (a close-knit group).  4 intr. (often
             foll. by together) (of parts of a broken bone) become joined;
             heal.  --n. knitted material or a knitted garment.  Ьknit up 1
             make or repair by knitting.  2 conclude, finish, or end.
             ЬЬknitter n.  [OE cnyttan f. WG: cf.  KNOT(1)]

   knitting  n.  1 a garment etc. in the process of being knitted.  2 a the
             act of knitting.  b an instance of this.  Ьknitting-machine a
             machine used for mechanically knitting garments etc.
             knitting-needle a thin pointed rod of steel, wood, plastic,
             etc., used esp. in pairs for knitting.

   knitwear  n.  knitted garments.

   knives    pl. of KNIFE.

   knob      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a rounded protuberance, esp. at the end or on
             the surface of a thing.  b a handle of a door, drawer, etc.,
             shaped like a knob.  c a knob-shaped attachment for pulling,
             turning, etc. (press the knob under the desk).  2 a small, usu.
             round, piece (of butter, coal, sugar, etc.).  --v.  (knobbed,
             knobbing) 1 tr. provide with knobs.  2 intr. (usu. foll. by out)
             bulge.  Ьwith knobs on Brit.  sl.  that and more (used as a
             retort to an insult, in emphatic agreement, etc.)  (and the same
             to you with knobs on).  ЬЬknobby adj.  knoblike adj.  [ME f. MLG
             knobbe knot, knob, bud: cf.  KNOP, NOB(2), NUB]

   knobble   n.  a small knob.  ЬЬknobbly adj.  [ME, dimin. of KNOB: cf. Du.
             & LG knobbel]

             n.  a short stick with a knobbed head used as a weapon esp. by
             S.  African tribes.  [after Afrik.  knopkierie]

   knobstick n.  1 = KNOBKERRIE.  2 archaic = BLACKLEG.

   knock     v. & n.  --v.  1 a tr. strike (a hard surface) with an audible
             sharp blow (knocked the table three times).  b intr. strike,
             esp. a door to gain admittance (can you hear someone knocking?;
             knocked at the door).  2 tr. make (a hole, a dent, etc.) by
             knocking (knock a hole in the fence).  3 tr. (usu. foll. by in,
             out, off, etc.) drive (a thing, a person, etc.) by striking
             (knocked the ball into the hole; knocked those ideas out of his
             head; knocked her hand away).  4 tr.  sl. criticize.  5 intr.  a
             (of a motor or other engine) make a thumping or rattling noise
             esp. as the result of a loose bearing.  b = PINK(3).  6 tr.
             Brit.  sl. make a strong impression on, astonish.  7 tr.  Brit.
             coarse sl.  offens. = knock off 7.  --n.  1 an act of knocking.
             2 a sharp rap, esp. at a door.  3 an audible sharp blow.  4 the
             sound of knocking in esp. a motor engine.  5 Cricket colloq. an
             innings.  Ьknock about (or around) 1 strike repeatedly; treat
             roughly (knocked her about).  2 lead a wandering adventurous
             life; wander aimlessly.  3 be present without design or volition
             (there's a cup knocking about somewhere).  4 (usu. foll. by
             with) be associated socially (knocks about with his brother).
             knock against 1 collide with.  2 come across casually.  knock
             back 1 Brit.  sl. eat or drink, esp. quickly.  2 Brit.  sl.
             disconcert.  3 Austral. & NZ colloq. refuse, rebuff.  knock-back
             n.  Austral. & NZ colloq.  a refusal, a rebuff.  knock the
             bottom out of see BOTTOM.  knock down 1 strike (esp. a person)
             to the ground with a blow.  2 demolish.  3 (usu. foll. by to)
             (at an auction) dispose of (an article) to a bidder by a knock
             with a hammer (knocked the Picasso down to him for a million).
             4 colloq. lower the price of (an article).  5 take (machinery,
             furniture, etc.) to pieces for transportation.  6 US sl. steal.
             7 Austral. & NZ sl. spend (a pay cheque etc.) freely.
             knock-down attrib.adj.  1 (of a blow, misfortune, argument,
             etc.) overwhelming.  2 Brit. (of a price) very low.  3 (of a
             price at auction) reserve.  4 (of furniture etc.) easily
             dismantled and reassembled.  --n.  Austral. & NZ sl. an
             introduction (to a person).  knock for knock agreement an
             agreement between insurance companies by which each pays its own
             policyholder regardless of liability.  knock one's head against
             come into collision with (unfavourable facts or conditions).
             knocking-shop Brit.  sl.  a brothel.  knock into a cocked hat
             see COCK(1).  knock into the middle of next week colloq.  send
             (a person) flying, esp. with a blow.  knock into shape see
             SHAPE.  knock-kneed having knock knees.  knock knees an abnormal
             condition with the legs curved inwards at the knee.  knock off 1
             strike off with a blow.  2 colloq.  a finish work (knocked off
             at 5.30).  b finish (work) (knocked off work early).  3 colloq.
             dispatch (business).  4 colloq. rapidly produce (a work of art,
             verses, etc.).  5 (often foll. by from) deduct (a sum) from a
             price, bill, etc.  6 sl. steal.  7 Brit.  coarse sl.  offens.
             have sexual intercourse with (a woman).  8 sl. kill.  knock on
             Rugby Football drive (a ball) with the hand or arm towards the
             opponents' goal-line.  knock-on n.  an act of knocking on.
             knock-on effect a secondary, indirect, or cumulative effect.
             knock on the head 1 stun or kill (a person) by a blow on the
             head.  2 colloq. put an end to (a scheme etc.).  knock on (or
             knock) wood US = touch wood.  knock out 1 make (a person)
             unconscious by a blow on the head.  2 knock down (a boxer) for a
             count of 10, thereby winning the contest.  3 defeat, esp. in a
             knockout competition.  4 sl. astonish.  5 (refl.) colloq.
             exhaust (knocked themselves out swimming).  6 colloq. make or
             write (a plan etc.) hastily.  7 empty (a tobacco-pipe) by
             tapping.  8 Austral., NZ, & US sl. earn.  knock sideways colloq.
             disconcert; astonish.  knock spots off defeat easily.  knock
             together put together or assemble hastily or roughly.  knock
             under submit.  knock up 1 make or arrange hastily.  2 drive
             upwards with a blow.  3 a become exhausted or ill.  b exhaust or
             make ill.  4 Brit. arouse (a person) by a knock at the door.  5
             Cricket score (runs) rapidly.  6 esp.  US sl. make pregnant.  7
             practise a ball game before formal play begins.  knock-up n.  a
             practice at tennis etc.  take a (or the) knock be hard hit
             financially or emotionally.  [ME f. OE cnocian: prob. imit.]

             adj. & n.  --attrib.adj.  1 (of comedy) boisterous; slapstick.
             2 (of clothes) suitable for rough use.  3 Austral. of a farm or
             station handyman.  --n.  1 Austral. a farm or station handyman.
             2 a knockabout performer or performance.

   knocker   n.  1 a metal or wooden instrument hinged to a door for knocking
             to call attention.  2 a person or thing that knocks.  3 (in pl.)
             coarse sl. a woman's breasts.  4 a person who buys or sells door
             to door.  Ьknocker-up Brit.  hist.  a person employed to rouse
             early workers by knocking at their doors or windows.  on the
             knocker 1 a (buying or selling) from door to door.  b (obtained)
             on credit.  2 Austral. & NZ colloq. promptly.  up to the knocker
             Brit.  sl.  in good condition; to perfection.

   knockout  n.  1 the act of making unconscious by a blow.  2 Boxing etc. a
             blow that knocks an opponent out.  3 a competition in which the
             loser in each round is eliminated (also attrib.: a knockout
             round).  4 colloq. an outstanding or irresistible person or
             thing.  Ьknockout drops a drug added to a drink to cause

   knoll(1)  n.  a small hill or mound.  [OE cnoll hilltop, rel. to MDu., MHG
             knolle clod, ON knollr hilltop]

   knoll(2)  v. & n.  archaic --v.  1 tr. & intr. = KNELL.  2 tr. summon by
             the sound of a bell.  --n. = KNELL.  [ME, var. of KNELL: perh.

   knop      n.  1 a knob, esp. ornamental.  2 an ornamental loop or tuft in
             yarn.  3 archaic a flower-bud.  [ME f. MLG, MDu.  knoppe]

             n.  S.Afr. = KNOBKERRIE.  [Afrik.]

   knot(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a an intertwining of a rope, string, tress of
             hair, etc., with another, itself, or something else to join or
             fasten together.  b a set method of tying a knot (a reef knot).
             c a ribbon etc. tied as an ornament and worn on a dress etc.  d
             a tangle in hair, knitting, etc.  2 a a unit of a ship's or
             aircraft's speed equivalent to one nautical mile per hour (see
             nautical mile).  b a division marked by knots on a log-line, as
             a measure of speed.  c colloq. a nautical mile.  3 (usu. foll.
             by of) a group or cluster (a small knot of journalists at the
             gate).  4 something forming or maintaining a union; a bond or
             tie, esp. of wedlock.  5 a hard lump of tissue in an animal or
             human body.  6 a a knob or protuberance in a stem, branch, or
             root.  b a hard mass formed in a tree trunk at the intersection
             with a branch.  c a round cross-grained piece in timber where a
             branch has been cut through.  d a node on the stem of a plant.
             7 a difficulty; a problem.  8 a central point in a problem or
             the plot of a story etc.  9 (in full porter's knot) Brit.  hist.
             a double shoulder-pad and forehead-loop used for carrying loads.
             --v.  (knotted, knotting) 1 tr. tie (a string etc.) in a knot.
             2 tr. entangle.  3 tr. knit (the brows).  4 tr. unite closely or
             intricately (knotted together in intrigue).  5 a intr. make
             knots for fringing.  b tr. make (a fringe) with knots.  Ьat a
             rate of knots colloq.  very fast.  get knotted!  sl.  an
             expression of disbelief, annoyance, etc.  knot-garden an
             intricately designed formal garden.  knot-hole a hole in a piece
             of timber where a knot has fallen out (sense 6).  tie in knots
             colloq.  baffle or confuse completely.  ЬЬknotless adj.  knotter
             n.  knotting n. (esp. in sense 5 of v.).  [OE cnotta f. WG]

   knot(2)   n.  a small sandpiper, Calidris canutus.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   knotgrass n.  1 a common weed, Polygonum aviculare, with creeping stems
             and small pink flowers.  2 = POLYGONUM. Also called KNOTWEED.

   knotty    adj.  (knottier, knottiest) 1 full of knots.  2 hard to explain;
             puzzling (a knotty problem).  ЬЬknottily adv.  knottiness n.

   knotweed  n.  = POLYGONUM.

   knotwork  n.  ornamental work representing or consisting of intertwined

   knout     n. & v.  --n.  hist. a scourge used in imperial Russia, often
             causing death.  --v.tr. flog with a knout.  [F f. Russ.  knut f.
             Icel.  knЈtr, rel. to KNOT(1)]

   know      v. & n.  --v.  (past knew; past part.  known) 1 tr. (often foll.
             by that, how, what, etc.)  a have in the mind; have learnt; be
             able to recall (knows a lot about cars; knows what to do).  b
             (also absol.) be aware of (a fact) (he knows I am waiting; I
             think he knows).  c have a good command of (a subject or
             language) (knew German; knows his tables).  2 tr. be acquainted
             or friendly with (a person or thing).  3 tr.  a recognize;
             identify (I knew him at once; knew him for an American).  b
             (foll. by to + infin.) be aware of (a person or thing) as being
             or doing what is specified (knew them to be rogues).  c (foll.
             by from) be able to distinguish (one from another) (did not know
             him from Adam).  4 tr. be subject to (her joy knew no bounds).
             5 tr. have personal experience of (fear etc.).  6 tr. (as known
             adj.) a publicly acknowledged (a known thief; a known fact).  b
             Math. (of a quantity etc.) having a value that can be stated.  7
             intr. have understanding or knowledge.  8 tr.  archaic have
             sexual intercourse with.  --n. (in phr.  in the know) colloq.
             well-informed; having special knowledge.  Ьall one knows (or
             knows how) 1 all one can (did all he knew to stop it).  2 adv.
             to the utmost of one's power (tried all she knew).  before one
             knows where one is with baffling speed.  be not to know 1 have
             no way of learning (wasn't to know they'd arrive late).  2 be
             not to be told (she's not to know about the party).  don't I
             know it!  colloq.  an expression of rueful assent.  don't you
             know colloq. or joc.  an expression used for emphasis (such a
             bore, don't you know).  for all (or aught) I know so far as my
             knowledge extends.  have been known to be known to have done
             (they have been known to not turn up).  I knew it!  I was sure
             that this would happen.  I know what I have a new idea,
             suggestion, etc.  know about have information about.  know-all
             colloq.  a person who seems to know everything.  know best be or
             claim to be better informed etc. than others.  know better than
             (foll. by that, or to + infin.)  be wise, well-informed, or
             well-mannered enough to avoid (specified behaviour etc.).  know
             by name 1 have heard the name of.  2 be able to give the name
             of.  know by sight recognize the appearance (only) of.  know how
             know the way to do something.  know-how n.  1 practical
             knowledge; technique, expertise.  2 natural skill or invention.
             know-it-all = know-all.  know-nothing 1 an ignorant person.  2
             an agnostic.  know of be aware of; have heard of (not that I
             know of).  know one's own mind be decisive, not vacillate.  know
             the ropes (or one's stuff) be fully knowledgeable or
             experienced.  know a thing or two be experienced or shrewd.
             know what's what have adequate knowledge of the world, life,
             etc.  know who's who be aware of who or what each person is.
             not if I know it only against my will.  not know that ...
             colloq.  be fairly sure that ... not (I don't know that I want
             to go).  not know what hit one be suddenly injured, killed,
             disconcerted, etc.  not want to know refuse to take any notice
             of.  what do you know (or know about that)?  colloq.  an
             expression of surprise.  you know colloq.  1 an expression
             implying something generally known or known to the hearer (you
             know, the pub on the corner).  2 an expression used as a
             gap-filler in conversation.  you know something (or what)?  I am
             going to tell you something.  you-know-what (or -who) a thing or
             person unspecified but understood.  you never know nothing in
             the future is certain.  ЬЬknowable adj.  knower n.  [OE
             (ge)cnawan, rel. to CAN(1), KEN]

   knowing   n. & adj.  --n. the state of being aware or informed of any
             thing.  --adj.  1 usu.  derog. cunning; sly.  2 showing
             knowledge; shrewd.  Ьthere is no knowing no one can tell.
             ЬЬknowingness n.

   knowingly adv.  1 consciously; intentionally (had never knowingly injured
             him).  2 in a knowing manner (smiled knowingly).

   knowledge n.  1 a (usu. foll. by of) awareness or familiarity gained by
             experience (of a person, fact, or thing) (have no knowledge of
             that).  b a person's range of information (is not within his
             knowledge).  2 a (usu. foll. by of) a theoretical or practical
             understanding of a subject, language, etc. (has a good knowledge
             of Greek).  b the sum of what is known (every branch of
             knowledge).  3 Philos. true, justified belief; certain
             understanding, as opp. to opinion.  4 = carnal knowledge.  Ьcome
             to one's knowledge become known to one.  to my knowledge 1 so
             far as I know.  2 as I know for certain.  [ME knaulege, with
             earlier knawlechen (v.) formed as KNOW + OE -l‘can f.  lac as in

             adj.  (also knowledgable) well-informed; intelligent.
             ЬЬknowledgeability n.  knowledgeableness n.  knowledgeably adv.

   known     past part. of KNOW.

   Knt.      abbr.  Knight.

   knuckle   n. & v.  --n.  1 the bone at a finger-joint, esp. that adjoining
             the hand.  2 a a projection of the carpal or tarsal joint of a
             quadruped.  b a joint of meat consisting of this with the
             adjoining parts, esp. of bacon or pork.  --v.tr. strike, press,
             or rub with the knuckles.  Ьgo the knuckle Austral.  sl.  fight,
             punch.  knuckle-bone 1 bone forming a knuckle.  2 the bone of a
             sheep or other animal corresponding to or resembling a knuckle.
             3 a knuckle of meat.  knuckle-bones 1 animal knuckle-bones used
             in the game of jacks.  2 the game of jacks.  knuckle down (often
             foll. by to) 1 apply oneself seriously (to a task etc.).  2
             (also knuckle under) give in; submit.  knuckle sandwich sl.  a
             punch in the mouth.  rap on (or over) the knuckles see RAP(1).
             ЬЬknuckly adj.  [ME knokel f. MLG, MDu.  kn”kel, dimin. of knoke

             n.  a metal guard worn over the knuckles in fighting, esp. to
             increase the effect of the blows.

   knur      n.  (also knurr) 1 a hard excrescence on the trunk of a tree.  2
             a hard concretion.  [ME knorre, var. of KNAR]

   knurl     n.  a small projecting knob, ridge, etc.  ЬЬknurled adj.  [KNUR]

14.0 KO...

   KO        abbr.  1 knockout.  2 kick-off.

   koa       n.  1 a Hawaiian tree, Acacia koa, which produces dark red wood.
             2 this wood.  [Hawaiian]

   koala     n. (in full koala bear) an Australian bearlike marsupial,
             Phascolarctos cinereus, having thick grey fur and feeding on
             eucalyptus leaves.  [Aboriginal kul(l)a]

   koan      n.  a riddle used in Zen Buddhism to demonstrate the inadequacy
             of logical reasoning.  [Jap., = public matter (for thought)]

   kobold    n.  (in Germanic mythology): 1 a familiar spirit; a brownie.  2
             an underground spirit in mines etc.  [G]

   K”chel number
             n.  Mus.  a number given to each of Mozart's compositions in the
             complete catalogue of his works compiled by K”chel and his
             successors.  [L. von K”chel, Austrian scientist d. 1877]

   KO'd      adj.  knocked out.  [abbr.]

   Kodiak    n. (in full Kodiak bear) a large Alaskan brown bear, Ursus
             arctos middendorffi.  [Kodiak Island, Alaska]

   koel      n.  a dark-coloured cuckoo, Eudynamys scolopacea.  [Hindi kўil
             f. Skr.  kokila]

   kohl      n.  a black powder, usu. antimony sulphide or lead sulphide,
             used as eye make-up esp. in Eastern countries.  [Arab.  kuhl]

   kohlrabi  n.  (pl.  kohlrabies) a variety of cabbage with an edible
             turnip-like swollen stem.  [G f. It.  cavoli rape (pl.) f. med.L
             caulorapa (as COLE, RAPE(2))]

   koine     n.  1 the common language of the Greeks from the close of the
             classical period to the Byzantine era.  2 a common language
             shared by various peoples; a lingua franca.  [Gk koine
             (dialektos) common (language)]

   kola      var. of COLA.

   kolinsky  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the Siberian mink, Mustela sibirica, having a
             brown coat in winter.  2 the fur of this.  [Russ.  kolinskii f.
             Kola in NW Russia]

   kolkhoz   n.  a collective farm in the USSR.  [Russ. f.  kollektivnoe
             khozyaistvo collective farm]

   komitadji (also komitaji) var. of COMITADJI.

   komodo dragon
             n.  (also komodo lizard) a large monitor lizard, Varanus
             komodoensis, native to the E. Indies.  [Komodo Island in

   Komsomol  n.  1 an organization for Communist youth in the Soviet Union.
             2 a member of this.  [Russ. f.  Kommunisticheskii soyuz
             molodezhi Communist League of Youth]

   koodoo    var. of KUDU.

   kook      n. & adj.  US sl.  --n. a crazy or eccentric person.  --adj.
             crazy; eccentric.  [20th c.: prob. f.  CUCKOO]

             n.  any Australian kingfisher of the genus Dacelo, esp.  D.
             novaeguineae, which makes a strange laughing cry. Also called
             laughing jackass.  [Aboriginal]

   kooky     adj.  (kookier, kookiest) sl.  crazy.  ЬЬkookily adv.  kookiness

   kop       n.  1 S.Afr. a prominent hill or peak.  2 (Kop) Football a high
             bank of terracing for standing spectators, esp. supporting the
             home side.  [Afrik. f. Du., = head: cf.  COP(2)]

   kopek     (also kopeck) var. of COPECK.

   kopi      n.  Austral.  powdered gypsum.  [Aboriginal]

   koppie    n.  (also kopje) S.Afr.  a small hill.  [Afrik.  koppie, Du.
             kopje, dimin. of kop head]

   koradji   n.  (pl.  koradjis) Austral.  an Aboriginal medicine man.

   Koran     n.  (also Qur'an) the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the
             word of God as dictated to Muhammad and written down in Arabic.
             ЬЬKoranic adj.  [Arab.  kur' an recitation f.  kara' a read]

   Korean    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native or national of N. or S. Korea in SE
             Asia.  2 the language of Korea.  --adj. of or relating to Korea
             or its people or language.

   korfball  n.  a game like basketball played by two teams consisting of 6
             men and 6 women each.  [Du.  korfbal f.  korf basket + bal ball]

   kosher    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of food or premises in which food is sold,
             cooked, or eaten) fulfilling the requirements of Jewish law.  2
             colloq. correct; genuine; legitimate.  --n.  1 kosher food.  2 a
             kosher shop.  [Heb.  kaser proper]

   koto      n.  (pl.  -os) a Japanese musical instrument with 13 long esp.
             silk strings.  [Jap.]

   kotow     var. of KOWTOW.

   koumiss   n.  (also kumiss, kumis) a fermented liquor prepared from esp.
             mare's milk, used by Asian nomads and medicinally.  [Tartar

   kourbash  n.  (also kurbash) a whip, esp. of hippopotamus hide, used as an
             instrument of punishment in Turkey and Egypt.  [Arab.  kurbaj f.
             Turk.  kirba‡ whip]

   kowhai    n.  any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Sophora, esp.
             S. microphylla native to New Zealand, with pendant clusters of
             yellow flowers.  [Maori]

   kowtow    n. & v.  (also kotow) hist.  --n. the Chinese custom of kneeling
             and touching the ground with the forehead in worship or
             submission.  --v.intr.  1 perform the kowtow.  2 (usu. foll. by
             to) act obsequiously.  [Chin.  ketou f.  ke knock + tou head]

15.0 KP...

   KP        n.  US Mil.  colloq.  1 enlisted men detailed to help the cooks.
             2 kitchen duty.  [abbr. of kitchen police]

   k.p.h.    abbr.  kilometres per hour.

16.0 Kr...

   Kr        symb.  Chem.  the element krypton.

   kraal     n.  S.Afr.  1 a village of huts enclosed by a fence.  2 an
             enclosure for cattle or sheep.  [Afrik. f. Port.  curral, of
             Hottentot orig.]

   kraft     n. (in full kraft paper) a kind of strong smooth brown wrapping
             paper.  [G f. Sw., = strength]

   krait     n.  any venomous snake of the genus Bungarus of E. Asia.  [Hindi

   kraken    n.  a large mythical sea-monster said to appear off the coast of
             Norway.  [Norw.]

   krans     n.  S.Afr.  a precipitous or overhanging wall of rocks.  [Afrik.
             f. Du.  krans coronet]

   Kraut     n.  sl.  offens.  a German.  [shortening of SAUERKRAUT]

   kremlin   n.  1 a citadel within a Russian town.  2 (the Kremlin) a the
             citadel in Moscow.  b the USSR Government housed within it.  [F,
             f. Russ.  Kreml', of Tartar orig.]

             n.  1 a war-game in which blocks representing armies etc. are
             moved about on maps.  2 a form of chess with an umpire, in which
             each player has only limited information about the opponent's
             moves.  [G f.  Krieg war + Spiel game]

   krill     n.  tiny planktonic crustaceans found in the seas around the
             Antarctic and eaten by baleen whales.  [Norw.  kril tiny fish]

   krimmer   n.  a grey or black fur obtained from the wool of young Crimean
             lambs.  [G f.  Krim Crimea]

   kris      n.  (also crease, creese) a Malay or Indonesian dagger with a
             wavy blade.  [ult. f. Malay k(i)ris]

             n.  Hinduism the worship of Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu.

   kromesky  n.  (pl.  -ies) a croquette of minced meat or fish, rolled in
             bacon and fried.  [app. f. Pol.  kromeczka small slice]

   krona     n.  1 (pl.  kronor) the chief monetary unit of Sweden.  2 (pl.
             kronur) the chief monetary unit of Iceland.  [Sw. & Icel., =

   krone     n.  (pl.  kroner) the chief monetary unit of Denmark and of
             Norway.  [Da. & Norw., = CROWN]

   Kroo      var. of KRU.

   Kru       n. & adj.  (also Kroo) --n.  (pl. same) a member of a Black
             seafaring people on the coast of Liberia.  --adj. of or
             concerning the Kru.  [W. Afr.]

             n.  a S. African gold coin depicting President Kruger.  [S. J.
             P.  Kruger, S. Afr. statesman d. 1904, + RAND(1)]

   krummhorn n.  (also crumhorn) a medieval wind instrument with a double
             reed and a curved end.  [G f.  krumm crooked + Horn HORN]

   krypton   n.  Chem.  an inert gaseous element of the noble gas group,
             forming a small portion of the earth's atmosphere and used in
             fluorescent lamps etc.  °Symb.: Kr.  [Gk krupton hidden, neut.
             adj. f.  krupto hide]

17.0 KS...

   KS        abbr.  1 US Kansas (in official postal use).  2 Brit. King's

   Kshatriya n.  a member of the second of the four great Hindu castes, the
             military caste.  [Skr. f.  kshatra rule]

   K. St. J. abbr.  Knight of the Order of St John.

18.0 KT...

   KT        abbr.  1 Knight Templar.  2 (in the UK) Knight of the Order of
             the Thistle.

   Kt.       abbr.  Knight.

   kt.       abbr.  knot.

19.0 Ku...

   Ku        symb.  Chem.  the element kurchatovium.

   kudos     n.  colloq.  glory; renown.  [Gk]

   kudu      n.  (also koodoo) either of two African antelopes, Tragelaphus
             strepsiceros or T. imberbis, with white stripes and
             corkscrew-shaped ridged horns.  [Xhosa-Kaffir iqudu]

   kudzu     n. (in full kudzu vine) a quick-growing climbing plant, Pueraria
             thunbergiana, with reddish-purple flowers.  [Jap.  kuzu]

   Kufic     n. & adj.  (also Cufic) --n. an early angular form of the Arabic
             alphabet found chiefly in decorative inscriptions.  --adj. of or
             in this type of script.  [Cufa, a city S. of Baghdad in Iraq]

   Ku Klux Klan
             n.  a secret society of White people in the southern States of
             the US, orig. formed after the Civil War and dedicated to
             persecuting and terrorizing Blacks.  ЬЬKu Klux Klansman n.  (pl.
             -men).  [perh. f. Gk kuklos circle + CLAN]

   kukri     n.  (pl.  kukris) a curved knife broadening towards the point,
             used by Gurkhas.  [Hindi kukri]

   kulak     n.  hist.  a peasant working for personal profit in Soviet
             Russia.  [Russ., = fist, tight-fisted person]

   kulan     n.  a wild ass of SW Asia, closely related to the kiang.

   kultur    n.  esp.  derog.  German civilization and culture, seen as
             racist, authoritarian, and militaristic.  [G f. L cultura

             n.  hist.  the conflict in 19th-c. Germany between the civil and
             ecclesiastical authorities esp. as regards the control of
             schools.  [G (as KULTUR, Kampf struggle)]

   kumara    n.  NZ a sweet potato.  [Maori]

   kumis     (also kumiss) var. of KOUMISS.

   kЃmmel    n.  a sweet liqueur flavoured with caraway and cumin seeds.  [G
             (as CUMIN)]

   kumquat   n.  (also cumquat) 1 an orange-like fruit with a sweet rind and
             acid pulp, used in preserves.  2 any shrub or small tree of the
             genus Fortunella yielding this.  [Cantonese var. of Chin.  kin
             kЃ golden orange]

   kung fu   n.  the Chinese form of karate.  [Chin.  gongfu f.  gong merit +
             fu master]

   kurbash   var. of KOURBASH.

             n.  Chem.  = RUTHERFORDIUM.  °Symb.: Ku.  [I. V.  Kurchatov,
             Russ. physicist d. 1960]

   Kurd      n.  a member of a mainly pastoral Aryan Islamic people living in
             Kurdistan (contiguous areas of Iraq, Iran, and Turkey).

             n.  Austral.  1 the tribal use of a bone in spells intended to
             cause sickness or death.  2 a man empowered to point the bone at
             a victim.  [Aboriginal]

   Kurdish   adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the Kurds or their language.
             --n. the Iranian language of the Kurds.

   kurrajong n.  (also currajong) an Australian tree, Brachychiton populneum,
             which produces a tough bast fibre.  [Aboriginal]

   kursaal   n.  1 a building for the use of visitors at a health resort,
             esp.  at a German spa.  2 a casino.  [G f.  Kur CURE + Saal

   kurta     n.  (also kurtha) a loose shirt or tunic worn by esp. Hindu men
             and women.  [Hind.]

   kurtosis  n.  Statistics the sharpness of the peak of a
             frequency-distribution curve.  [mod.L f. Gk kurtosis bulging f.
             kurtos convex]

20.0 kV...

   kV        abbr.  kilovolt(s).

   kvass     n.  a fermented beverage, low in alcohol, made from rye-flour or
             bread with malt in the Soviet Union.  [Russ.  kvas]

21.0 kW...

   kW        abbr.  kilowatt(s).

   KWAC      n.  Computing etc. keyword and context.  [abbr.]

   kwacha    n.  the chief monetary unit of Zambia.  [native word, = dawn]

             n.  a form of malnutrition caused by a protein deficiency of
             diet, esp. in young children in the tropics.  [native name in

   kWh       abbr.  kilowatt-hour(s).

   KWIC      n.  Computing etc. keyword in context.  [abbr.]

   KWOC      n.  Computing etc. keyword out of context.  [abbr.]

22.0 KY...

   KY        abbr.  US Kentucky (in official postal use).

   Ky.       abbr.  Kentucky.

   kyanite   n.  a blue crystalline mineral of aluminium silicate.
             ЬЬkyanitic adj.  [Gk kuanos dark blue]

   kyanize   v.tr.  (also -ise) treat (wood) with a solution of corrosive
             sublimate to prevent decay.  [J. H.  Kyan, Engl. inventor d.

   kybosh    var. of KIBOSH.

   kyle      n.  (in Scotland) a narrow channel between islands or between an
             island and the mainland.  [Gael.  caol strait]

   kylie     n.  W. Austral.  a boomerang.  [Aboriginal]

   kylin     n.  a mythical composite animal figured on Chinese and Japanese
             ceramics.  [Chin.  qilin f.  qi male + lin female]

   kyloe     n.  Brit.  1 an animal of a breed of small usu. black
             long-horned highland cattle.  2 this breed.  [Kyloe in

   kymograph n.  an instrument for recording variations in pressure, e.g. in
             sound waves or in blood within blood-vessels.  ЬЬkymographic
             adj.  [Gk kuma wave + -GRAPH]

   kyphosis  n.  Med.  excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing
             hunching of the back (opp.  LORDOSIS).  ЬЬkyphotic adj.  [mod.L
             f. Gk kuphosis f.  kuphos bent]

   Kyrie     (in full Kyrie eleison) n.  1 a a short repeated invocation used
             in the RC and Greek Orthodox Churches, esp. at the beginning of
             the Mass.  b a response sometimes used in the Anglican Communion
             Service.  2 a musical setting of the Kyrie.  [ME f. med.L f. Gk
             Kurie eleeson Lord, have mercy]

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