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English language - Dictionaries J...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 J...

   J(1)      n.  (also j) (pl.  Js or J's) 1 the tenth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 (as a Roman numeral) = i in a final position (ij;

   J(2)      abbr.  (also J.) 1 joule(s).  2 Judge.  3 Justice.

2.0 jab...

   jab       v. & n.  --v.tr.  (jabbed, jabbing) 1 a poke roughly.  b stab.
             2 (foll. by into) thrust (a thing) hard or abruptly.  --n.  1 an
             abrupt blow with one's fist or a pointed implement.  2 colloq. a
             hypodermic injection, esp. a vaccination.  [orig. Sc. var. of

   jabber    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. chatter volubly and incoherently.  2 tr.
             utter (words) fast and indistinctly.  --n. meaningless
             jabbering; a gabble.  [imit.]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a piece of nonsensical writing or speech, esp.
             for comic effect.  [title of a poem in Lewis Carroll's Through
             the Looking-Glass (1871)]

   jabiru    n.  1 a large stork, Jabiru mycteria, of Central and S. America.
             2 a black-necked stork, Xenorhyncus asiaticus, of Asia and
             Australia.  [Tupi-Guarani jabirЈ]

   jaborandi n.  (pl.  jaborandis) 1 any shrub of the genus Pilocarpus, of S.
             America.  2 the dried leaflets of this, having diuretic and
             diaphoretic properties.  [Tupi-Guarani jaburandi]

   jabot     n.  an ornamental frill or ruffle of lace etc. on the front of a
             shirt or blouse.  [F, orig. = crop of a bird]

   jacana    n.  any of various small tropical wading birds of the family
             Jacanidae, with elongated toes and hind-claws which enable them
             to walk on floating leaves etc.  [Port.  ja‡an°. f. Tupi-Guarani
             jasan ]

   jacaranda n.  1 any tropical American tree of the genus Jacaranda, with
             trumpet-shaped blue flowers.  2 any tropical American tree of
             the genus Dalbergia, with hard scented wood.  [Tupi-Guarani
             jacarand ]

   jacinth   n.  a reddish-orange variety of zircon used as a gem.  [ME
             iacynt etc. f. OF iacinte or med.L jacint(h)us f. L hyacinthus

   jack(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a device for lifting heavy objects, esp. the
             axle of a vehicle off the ground while changing a wheel etc.  2
             a court-card with a picture of a man, esp. a soldier, page, or
             knave, etc.  3 a ship's flag, esp. one flown from the bow and
             showing nationality.  4 a device using a single plug to connect
             an electrical circuit.  5 a small white ball in bowls, at which
             the players aim.  6 a = JACKSTONE.  b (in pl.) a game of
             jackstones.  7 (Jack) the familiar form of John esp. typifying
             the common man or the male of a species (I'm all right, Jack).
             8 the figure of a man striking the bell on a clock.  9 sl. a
             detective; a policeman.  10 US sl. money.  11 = LUMBERJACK.  12
             = STEEPLEJACK.  13 a device for turning a spit.  14 any of
             various marine perchlike fish of the family Carangidae,
             including the amberjack.  15 a device for plucking the string of
             a harpsichord etc., one being operated by each key.  --v.tr.
             (usu. foll. by up) 1 raise with or as with a jack (in sense 1).
             2 colloq. raise e.g. prices.  Ьevery man jack each and every
             person.  Jack Frost frost personified.  jack in (or up) sl.
             abandon (an attempt etc.).  jack-in-the-box a toy figure that
             springs out of a box when it is opened.  jack-in-office a
             self-important minor official.  jack of all trades a person who
             can do many different kinds of work.  jack-o'-lantern 1 a
             will-o'-the wisp.  2 a lantern made esp. from a pumpkin with
             holes for facial features.  jack plane a medium-sized plane for
             use in rough joinery.  jack plug a plug for use with a jack (see
             sense 4 of n.).  Jack tar a sailor.  on one's jack (or Jack
             Jones) sl.  alone; on one's own.  [ME Iakke, a pet-name for
             John, erron. assoc. with F Jacques James]

   jack(2)   n.  1 = BLACKJACK(3).  2 hist. a sleeveless padded tunic worn by
             foot-soldiers.  [ME f. OF jaque, of uncert. orig.]

   jackal    n.  1 any of various wild doglike mammals of the genus Canis,
             esp.  C. aureus, found in Africa and S. Asia, usu. hunting or
             scavenging for food in packs.  2 colloq.  a a person who does
             preliminary drudgery for another.  b a person who assists
             another's immoral behaviour.  [Turk.  ‡akal f. Pers.  sagal]

             n.  archaic 1 a pert or insolent fellow.  2 a mischievous child.
             3 a tame monkey.  [earliest as Jack Napes (1450): supposed to
             refer to the Duke of Suffolk, whose badge was an ape's clog and

   jackaroo  n.  (also jackeroo) Austral.  colloq.  a novice on a
             sheep-station or cattle-station.  [JACK(1) + KANGAROO]

   jackass   n.  1 a male ass.  2 a stupid person.

   jackboot  n.  1 a large boot reaching above the knee.  2 this as a symbol
             of fascism or military oppression.  ЬЬjackbooted adj.

   jackdaw   n.  a small grey-headed crow, Corvus monedula, often frequenting
             rooftops and nesting in tall buildings, and noted for its
             inquisitiveness (cf.  DAW).

   jackeroo  var. of JACKAROO.

   jacket    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a sleeved short outer garment.  b a thing
             worn esp. round the torso for protection or support
             (life-jacket).  2 a casing or covering, e.g. as insulation round
             a boiler.  3 = dust-jacket.  4 the skin of a potato, esp. when
             baked whole.  5 an animal's coat.  --v.tr.  (jacketed,
             jacketing) cover with a jacket.  Ьjacket potato a baked potato
             served with the skin on.  [ME f. OF ja(c)quet dimin. of jaque

   jackfish  n.  (pl. same) = PIKE(1).

   jackfruit n.  1 an East Indian tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus, bearing
             fruit resembling breadfruit.  2 this fruit.  [Port.  jaca f.
             Malayalam chakka + FRUIT]

             n.  US a pneumatic hammer or drill.

   jackknife n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -knives) 1 a large clasp-knife.  2 a dive
             in which the body is first bent at the waist and then
             straightened.  --v.intr.  (-knifed, -knifing) (of an articulated
             vehicle) fold against itself in an accidental skidding movement.

   jackpot   n.  a large prize or amount of winnings, esp. accumulated in a
             game or lottery etc.  Ьhit the jackpot colloq.  1 win a large
             prize.  2 have remarkable luck or success.  [JACK(1) n.  2 +
             POT(1): orig. in a form of poker with two jacks as minimum to
             open the pool]

             n.  US any of various large prairie hares of the genus Lepus
             with very long ears and hind legs.

   Jack Russell
             n.  1 a terrier of a breed with short legs.  2 this breed.

   jacksnipe n.  a small snipe, Lymnocryptes minimus.

   jackstaff n.  Naut.  1 a staff at the bow of a ship for a jack.  2 a staff
             carrying the flag that is to show above the masthead.

   jackstone n.  1 a small piece of metal etc. used with others in
             tossing-games.  Also called JACK(1).  2 (in pl.) a a game with a
             ball and jackstones.  b the game of jacks.

   jackstraw n.  a spillikin.

   Jacobean  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to the reign of James I of
             England.  2 (of furniture) in the style prevalent then, esp. of
             the colour of dark oak.  --n. a Jacobean person.  [mod.L
             Jacobaeus f. eccl.L Jacobus James f. Gk Iakobos Jacob]

   Jacobin   n.  1 a hist. a member of a radical democratic club established
             in Paris in 1789 in the old convent of the Jacobins (see sense
             2).  b any extreme radical.  2 archaic a Dominican friar.  3
             (jacobin) a pigeon with reversed feathers on the back of its
             neck like a cowl.  ЬЬJacobinic adj.  Jacobinical adj.
             Jacobinism n.  [orig. in sense 2 by assoc. with the Rue St
             Jacques in Paris: ME f. F f. med.L Jacobinus f. eccl.L Jacobus]

   Jacobite  n.  hist.  a supporter of James II of England after his removal
             from the throne in 1688, or of the Stuarts.  ЬЬJacobitical adj.
             Jacobitism n.  [L Jacobus James: see JACOBEAN]

   Jacob's ladder
             n.  1 a plant, Polemonium caeruleum, with corymbs of blue or
             white flowers, and leaves suggesting a ladder.  2 a rope-ladder
             with wooden rungs.  [f. Jacob's dream of a ladder reaching to
             heaven, as described in Gen. 28:12]

   Jacob's staff
             n.  1 a surveyor's iron-shod rod used instead of a tripod.  2 an
             instrument for measuring distances and heights.  [f. the staffs
             used by Jacob, as described in Gen. 30:37-43]

   jaconet   n.  a cotton cloth like cambric, esp. a dyed waterproof kind for
             poulticing etc.  [Urdu jagannathi f.  Jagannath (now Puri) in
             India, its place of origin: see JUGGERNAUT]

   Jacquard  n.  1 an apparatus with perforated cards, fitted to a loom to
             facilitate the weaving of figured fabrics.  2 (in full Jacquard
             loom) a loom fitted with this.  3 a fabric or article made with
             this, with an intricate variegated pattern.  [J. M.  Jacquard,
             Fr. inventor d. 1834]

             n.  1 Med.  a the restless tossing of the body in illness.  b
             the twitching of a limb or muscle.  2 archaic the offence of
             falsely claiming to be a person's wife or husband.  [med.L
             jactitatio false declaration f. L jactitare boast, frequent. of
             jactare throw: sense 1 f. earlier jactation]

   Jacuzzi   n.  (pl.  Jacuzzis) propr.  a large bath with underwater jets of
             water to massage the body.  [name of the inventor and

   jade(1)   n.  1 a hard usu. green stone composed of silicates of calcium
             and magnesium, or of sodium and aluminium, used for ornaments
             and implements.  2 the green colour of jade.  [F: le jade for
             l'ejade f. Sp.  piedra de ijada stone of the flank, i.e. stone
             for colic (which it was believed to cure)]

   jade(2)   n.  1 an inferior or worn-out horse.  2 derog. a disreputable
             woman.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   jaded     adj.  tired or worn out; surfeited.  ЬЬjadedly adv.  jadedness

   jadeite   n.  a green, blue, or white sodium aluminium silicate form of

   j'adoube  int.  Chess a declaration by a player intending to adjust the
             placing of a piece without making a move with it.  [F, = I

   jaeger    n.  (also yager) US = SKUA.  [G J„ger hunter f.  jagen to hunt]

   Jaffa     n.  a large oval thick-skinned variety of orange.  [Jaffa in
             Israel, near where it was first grown]

   jag(1)    n. & v.  --n. a sharp projection of rock etc.  --v.tr.  (jagged,
             jagging) 1 cut or tear unevenly.  2 make indentations in.
             ЬЬjagger n.  [ME, prob. imit.]

   jag(2)    n.  sl.  1 a drinking bout; a spree.  2 a period of indulgence
             in an activity, emotion, etc.  [orig. 16th c., = load for one
             horse: orig. unkn.]

   jagged    adj.  1 with an unevenly cut or torn edge.  2 deeply indented;
             with sharp points.  ЬЬjaggedly adv.  jaggedness n.

   jaggy     adj.  (jaggier, jaggiest) 1 = JAGGED.  2 (also jaggie) Sc.

   jaguar    n.  a large flesh-eating spotted feline, Panthera onca, of
             Central and S. America.  [Tupi-Guarani jaguara]

             n.  (pl.  jaguarundis) a long-tailed slender feline, Felis
             yaguarondi, of Central and S. America.  [Tupi-Guarani]

   jai alai  n.  a game like pelota played with large curved wicker baskets.
             [Sp. f. Basque jai festival + alai merry]

   jail      n. & v.  (also gaol) --n.  1 a place to which persons are
             committed by a court for detention.  2 confinement in a jail.
             --v.tr. put in jail.  [ME gayole f. OF jaiole, jeole & ONF gaole
             f. Rmc dimin. of L cavea CAGE]

   jailbird  n.  (also gaolbird) a prisoner or habitual criminal.

   jailbreak n.  (also gaolbreak) an escape from jail.

   jailer    n.  (also gaoler) a person in charge of a jail or of the
             prisoners in it.

   Jain      n. & adj.  --n. an adherent of a non-Brahminical Indian
             religion.  --adj. of or relating to this religion.  ЬЬJainism n.
             Jainist n.  [Hindi f. Skr.  jainas saint, victor f.  jina

   jake      adj.  Austral. & NZ sl.  all right; satisfactory.  [20th c.:
             orig. uncert.]

   jalap     n.  a purgative drug obtained esp. from the tuberous roots of a
             Mexican climbing plant, Exogonium purga.  [F f. Sp.  jalapa f.
             Jalapa, Xalapa, city in Mexico, f. Aztec Xalapan sand by the

   jalopy    n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq.  a dilapidated old motor vehicle.  [20th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   jalousie  n.  a blind or shutter made of a row of angled slats to keep out
             rain etc. and control the influx of light.  [F (as JEALOUSY)]

   Jam.      abbr.  1 Jamaica.  2 James (New Testament).

   jam(1)    v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  (jammed, jamming) 1 a tr. (usu. foll.
             by into) squeeze or wedge into a space.  b intr. become wedged.
             2 a tr. cause (machinery or a component) to become wedged or
             immovable so that it cannot work.  b intr. become jammed in this
             way.  3 tr. push or cram together in a compact mass.  4 intr.
             (foll. by in, on to) push or crowd (they jammed on to the bus).
             5 tr.  a block (a passage, road, etc.) by crowding or
             obstructing.  b (foll. by in) obstruct the exit of (we were
             jammed in).  6 tr. (usu. foll. by on) apply (brakes etc.)
             forcefully or abruptly.  7 tr. make (a radio transmission)
             unintelligible by causing interference.  8 colloq. (in jazz
             etc.) extemporize with other musicians.  --n.  1 a squeeze or
             crush.  2 a crowded mass (traffic jam).  3 colloq. an awkward
             situation or predicament.  4 a stoppage (of a machine etc.) due
             to jamming.  5 (in full jam session) colloq. improvised playing
             by a group of jazz musicians.  Ьjam-packed colloq.  full to
             capacity.  ЬЬjammer n.  [imit.]

   jam(2)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a conserve of fruit and sugar boiled to a thick
             consistency.  2 Brit.  colloq. something easy or pleasant (money
             for jam).  --v.tr.  (jammed, jamming) 1 spread jam on.  2 make
             (fruit etc.) into jam.  Ьjam tomorrow a pleasant thing often
             promised but usu. never forthcoming.  [perh. = JAM(1)]

   jamb      n.  Archit.  a side post or surface of a doorway, window, or
             fireplace.  [ME f. OF jambe ult. f. LL gamba hoof]

   jambalaya n.  a dish of rice with shrimps, chicken, etc.  [Louisiana F f.
             mod. Prov.  jambalaia]

   jamboree  n.  1 a celebration or merrymaking.  2 a large rally of Scouts.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jamjar    n.  a glass jar for containing jam.

   jammy     adj.  (jammier, jammiest) 1 covered with jam.  2 Brit.  colloq.
             a lucky.  b profitable.

   Jan.      abbr.  January.

   jane      n.  sl.  a woman (a plain jane).  [the name Jane]

   jangle    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. make, or cause (a bell etc.) to
             make, a harsh metallic sound.  2 tr. irritate (the nerves etc.)
             by discordant sound or speech etc.  --n. a harsh metallic sound.
             [ME f. OF jangler, of uncert. orig.]

   Janglish  n.  = JAPLISH.  [Japanese + English]

   janissary var. of JANIZARY.

   janitor   n.  1 a doorkeeper.  2 a caretaker of a building.  ЬЬjanitorial
             adj.  [L f.  janua door]

   janizary  n.  (also janissary) (pl.  -ies) 1 hist. a member of the Turkish
             infantry forming the Sultan's guard in the 14th-19th c.  2 a
             devoted follower or supporter.  [ult. f. Turk.  yeni‡eri f.
             yeni new + ‡eri troops]

   jankers   n.  Mil.  sl.  punishment for defaulters.  [20th c.: orig.

   January   n.  (pl.  -ies) the first month of the year.  [ME f. AF Jenever
             f. L Januarius (mensis) (month) of Janus the guardian god of
             doors and beginnings]

   Jap       n. & adj.  colloq. often offens.  = JAPANESE.  [abbr.]

   japan     n. & v.  --n.  1 a hard usu. black varnish, esp. of a kind
             brought orig.  from Japan.  2 work in a Japanese style.  --v.tr.
             (japanned, japanning) 1 varnish with japan.  2 make black and
             glossy as with japan.  [Japan in E. Asia]

   Japanese  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 a a native or national of Japan.
             b a person of Japanese descent.  2 the language of Japan.
             --adj. of or relating to Japan, its people, or its language.
             ЬJapanese cedar = CRYPTOMERIA.  Japanese print a colour print
             from woodblocks.  Japanese quince = JAPONICA.

   jape      n. & v.  --n. a practical joke.  --v.intr. play a joke.
             ЬЬjapery n.  [ME: orig. uncert.]

   Japlish   n.  a blend of Japanese and English, used in Japan.  [Japanese +

   japonica  n.  any flowering shrub of the genus Chaenomeles, esp.  C.
             speciosa, with round white, green, or yellow edible fruits and
             bright red flowers. Also called Japanese quince.  [mod.L, fem.
             of japonicus Japanese]

   jar(1)    n.  1 a a container of glass, earthenware, plastic, etc., usu.
             cylindrical.  b the contents of this.  2 Brit.  colloq. a glass
             of beer.  ЬЬjarful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [F jarre f. Arab.  jarra]

   jar(2)    v. & n.  --v.  (jarred, jarring) 1 intr. (often foll. by on) (of
             sound, words, manner, etc.) sound discordant or grating (on the
             nerves etc.).  2 a tr. (foll. by against, on) strike or cause to
             strike with vibration or a grating sound.  b intr. (of a body
             affected) vibrate gratingly.  3 tr. send a shock through (a part
             of the body) (the fall jarred his neck).  4 intr. (often foll.
             by with) (of an opinion, fact, etc.) be at variance; be in
             conflict or in dispute.  --n.  1 a jarring sound or sensation.
             2 a physical shock or jolt.  3 lack of harmony; disagreement.
             [16th c.: prob. imit.]

   jar(3)    n.  Ьon the jar ajar.  [late form of obs.  char turn: see
             AJAR(1), CHAR(2)]

             n.  1 an ornamental pot or stand for the display of growing
             plants.  2 a dish of mixed vegetables.  [F]

   jargon(1) n.  1 words or expressions used by a particular group or
             profession (medical jargon).  2 barbarous or debased language.
             3 gibberish.  ЬЬjargonic adj.  jargonistic adj.  jargonize v.tr.
             & intr.  (also -ise).  [ME f. OF: orig. unkn.]

   jargon(2) n.  (also jargoon) a translucent, colourless, or smoky variety
             of zircon.  [F f. It.  giargone, prob. ult. formed as ZIRCON]

             n.  an early-ripening variety of pear.  [F, dimin. of JARGON(2)]

   jarl      n.  hist.  a Norse or Danish chief.  [ON, orig. = man of noble
             birth, rel. to EARL]

   jarrah    n.  1 the Australian mahogany gum-tree, Eucalyptus marginata.  2
             the durable timber of this.  [Aboriginal djarryl]

   Jas.      abbr.  James (also in New Testament).

   jasmine   n.  (also jasmin, jessamin, jessamine) any of various ornamental
             shrubs of the genus Jasminum usu. with white or yellow flowers.
             Ьjasmine tea a tea perfumed with dried jasmine blossom.  [F
             jasmin, jessemin f. Arab.  yas(a)min f. Pers.  yasamin]

   jasp‚     adj.  like jasper; randomly coloured (esp. of cotton fabric).
             [F, past part. of jasper marble f.  jaspe JASPER]

   jasper    n.  an opaque variety of quartz, usu. red, yellow, or brown in
             colour.  [ME f. OF jasp(r)e f. L iaspis f. Gk, of oriental

   Jat       n.  a member of an Indo-Aryan people widely distributed in NW
             India.  [Hindi jat]

   jato      n.  (pl.  -os) Aeron.  1 jet-assisted take-off.  2 an auxiliary
             power unit providing extra thrust at take-off.  [abbr.]

   jaundice  n. & v.  --n.  1 Med. a condition with yellowing of the skin or
             whites of the eyes, often caused by obstruction of the bile duct
             or by liver disease.  2 disordered (esp. mental) vision.  3
             envy.  --v.tr.  1 affect with jaundice.  2 (esp. as jaundiced
             adj.) affect (a person) with envy, resentment, or jealousy.  [ME
             iaunes f. OF jaunice yellowness f.  jaune yellow]

   jaunt     n. & v.  --n. a short excursion for enjoyment.  --v.intr. take a
             jaunt.  Ьjaunting car a light two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle
             formerly used in Ireland.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jaunty    adj.  (jauntier, jauntiest) 1 cheerful and self-confident.  2
             sprightly.  ЬЬjauntily adv.  jauntiness n.  [earlier jentee f. F
             gentil GENTLE]

   Java Man  n.  a prehistoric type of man whose remains were found in Java.
             [Java in Indonesia]

   Javan     n. & adj.  = JAVANESE.

   Javanese  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 a a native of Java in Indonesia.
             b a person of Javanese descent.  2 the language of Java.  --adj.
             of or relating to Java, its people, or its language.

   Java sparrow
             n.  a finch, Padda oryzivora.

   javelin   n.  1 a light spear thrown in a competitive sport or as a
             weapon.  2 the athletic event or sport of throwing the javelin.
             [F javeline, javelot f. Gallo-Roman gabalottus]

   jaw       n. & v.  --n.  1 a each of the upper and lower bony structures
             in vertebrates forming the framework of the mouth and containing
             the teeth.  b the parts of certain invertebrates used for the
             ingestion of food.  2 a (in pl.) the mouth with its bones and
             teeth.  b the narrow mouth of a valley, channel, etc.  c the
             gripping parts of a tool or machine.  d gripping-power (jaws of
             death).  3 colloq.  a talkativeness; tedious talk (hold your
             jaw).  b a sermonizing talk; a lecture.  --v.  colloq.  1 intr.
             speak esp. at tedious length.  2 tr.  a persuade by talking.  b
             admonish or lecture.  Ьjaw-breaker colloq.  a word that is very
             long or hard to pronounce.  [ME f. OF joe cheek, jaw, of uncert.

   jawbone   n.  1 each of the two bones forming the lower jaw in most
             mammals.  2 these two combined into one in other mammals.

   jay       n.  1 a a noisy chattering European bird, Garrulus glandarius,
             with vivid pinkish-brown, blue, black, and white plumage.  b any
             other bird of the subfamily Garrulinae.  2 a person who chatters
             impertinently.  [ME f. OF f. LL gaius, gaia, perh. f. L
             praenomen Gaius: cf.  jackdaw, robin]

   jaywalk   v.intr.  cross or walk in the street or road without regard for
             traffic.  ЬЬjaywalker n.

   jazz      n. & v.  --n.  1 music of US Negro origin characterized by
             improvisation, syncopation, and usu. a regular or forceful
             rhythm.  2 sl. pretentious talk or behaviour, nonsensical stuff
             (all that jazz).  --v.intr. play or dance to jazz.  Ьjazz up
             brighten or enliven.  ЬЬjazzer n.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   jazzman   n.  (pl.  -men) a jazz-player.

   jazzy     adj.  (jazzier, jazziest) 1 of or like jazz.  2 vivid,
             unrestrained, showy.  ЬЬjazzily adv.  jazziness n.

3.0 JCB...

   JCB       n.  propr.  a type of mechanical excavator with a shovel at the
             front and a digging arm at the rear.  [J. C. Bamford, the

   JCL       abbr.  Computing job-control language.

   JCR       abbr.  Brit.  Junior Common (or Combination) Room.

4.0 jealous...

   jealous   adj.  1 (often foll. by of) fiercely protective (of rights
             etc.).  2 afraid, suspicious, or resentful of rivalry in love or
             affection.  3 (often foll. by of) envious or resentful (of a
             person or a person's advantages etc.).  4 (of God) intolerant of
             disloyalty.  5 (of inquiry, supervision, etc.) vigilant.
             ЬЬjealously adv.  [ME f. OF gelos f. med.L zelosus ZEALOUS]

   jealousy  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a jealous state or feeling.  2 an instance of
             this.  [ME f. OF gelosie (as JEALOUS)]

   jean      n.  twilled cotton cloth.  [ME, attrib. use of Jene f. OF Janne
             f. med.L Janua Genoa]

   jeans     n.pl.  trousers made of jean or (more usually) denim, for
             informal wear.

   Jeep      n.  propr.  a small sturdy esp. military motor vehicle with
             four-wheel drive.  [orig. US, f.  GP = general purposes, infl.
             by 'Eugene the Jeep', an animal in a comic strip]

   jeepers   int.  US sl.  expressing surprise etc.  [corrupt. of Jesus]

   jeer      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (usu. foll. by at) scoff derisively.  2
             tr. scoff at; deride.  --n. a scoff or taunt.  ЬЬjeeringly adv.
             [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Jeez      int.  sl.  a mild expression of surprise, discovery, etc. (cf.
             GEE(1)).  [abbr. of JESUS]

   jehad     var. of JIHAD.

   Jehovah   n.  the Hebrew name of God in the Old Testament.  ЬJehovah's
             Witness a member of a millenarian Christian sect rejecting the
             supremacy of the State and religious institutions over personal
             conscience, faith, etc.  [med.L Iehoua(h) f. Heb.  YHVH (with
             the vowels of adonai 'my lord' included: see YAHWEH]

   Jehovist  n.  = YAHWIST.

   jejune    adj.  1 intellectually unsatisfying; shallow.  2 puerile.  3 (of
             ideas, writings, etc.) meagre, scanty; dry and uninteresting.  4
             (of the land) barren, poor.  ЬЬjejunely adv.  jejuneness n.
             [orig. = fasting, f. L jejunus]

   jejunum   n.  Anat.  the part of the small intestine between the duodenum
             and ileum.  [L, neut. of jejunus fasting]

   Jekyll and Hyde
             n.  a person alternately displaying opposing good and evil
             personalities.  [R. L. Stevenson's story The Strange Case of Dr
             Jekyll and Mr Hyde]

   jell      v.intr.  colloq.  1 a set as a jelly.  b (of ideas etc.) take a
             definite form.  2 (of two different things) cohere.  [back-form.
             f.  JELLY]

   jellaba   var. of DJELLABA.

   jellify   v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) turn into jelly; make or become like
             jelly.  ЬЬjellification n.

   jelly     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a soft stiffish semi-transparent
             preparation of boiled sugar and fruit-juice or milk etc., often
             cooled in a mould and eaten as a dessert.  b a similar
             preparation of fruit-juice etc. for use as a jam or a condiment
             (redcurrant jelly).  c a similar preparation derived from meat,
             bones, etc., and gelatin (marrowbone jelly).  2 any substance of
             a similar consistency.  3 Brit.  sl. gelignite (cf.  GELLY).
             --v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 intr. & tr. set or cause to set as a jelly,
             congeal.  2 tr. set (food) in a jelly (jellied eels).  Ьjelly
             baby Brit.  a jelly-like sweet in the stylized shape of a baby.
             jelly bag a bag for straining juice for jelly.  jelly bean a
             jelly-like sweet in the shape of a bean.  ЬЬjelly-like adj.  [ME
             f. OF gelee frost, jelly, f. Rmc gelata f. L gelare freeze f.
             gelu frost]

   jellyfish n.  (pl.  usu.  same) 1 a marine coelenterate of the class
             Scyphozoa having an umbrella-shaped jelly-like body and stinging
             tentacles.  2 colloq. a feeble person.

   jemmy     n. & v.  (US jimmi) --n.  (pl.  -ies or jimmis) a burglar's
             short crowbar, usu. made in sections.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied)
             force open with a jemmy.  [pet-form of the name James]

   je ne sais quoi
             n.  an indefinable something.  [F, = I do not know what]

   jennet    n.  a small Spanish horse.  [F genet f. Sp.  jinete light
             horseman f. Arab.  zenata Berber tribe famous as horsemen]

   jenny     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 hist. = spinning-jenny.  2 a female donkey or
             ass.  3 a locomotive crane.  Ьjenny-wren a popular name for a
             female wren.  [pet-form of the name Janet]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) endanger; put into jeopardy.

   jeopardy  n.  1 danger, esp. of severe harm or loss.  2 Law danger
             resulting from being on trial for a criminal offence.  [ME
             iuparti f. OF ieu parti divided (i.e. even) game, f. L jocus
             game + partitus past part. of partire divide f.  pars partis

   Jer.      abbr.  Jeremiah (Old Testament).

   jerbil    var. of GERBIL.

   jerboa    n.  any small desert rodent of the family Dipodidae with long
             hind legs and the ability to make large jumps.  [mod.L f. Arab.
             yarbu' flesh of loins, jerboa]

   jeremiad  n.  a doleful complaint or lamentation; a list of woes.  [F
             j‚r‚miade f.  J‚r‚mie Jeremiah f. eccl.L Jeremias, with ref. to
             the Lamentations of Jeremiah in the Old Testament]

   Jeremiah  n.  a dismal prophet, a denouncer of the times.  [with ref. to
             Jeremiah (as JEREMIAD)]

   jerk(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a sharp sudden pull, twist, twitch, start, etc.
             2 a spasmodic muscular twitch.  3 (in pl.) Brit.  colloq.
             exercises (physical jerks).  4 sl. a fool; a stupid person.
             --v.  1 intr. move with a jerk.  2 tr. pull, thrust, twist,
             etc., with a jerk.  3 tr. throw with a suddenly arrested motion.
             4 tr.  Weight-lifting raise (a weight) from shoulder-level to
             above the head.  Ьjerk off coarse sl.  masturbate.  °Usually
             considered a taboo use.  ЬЬjerker n.  [16th c.: perh. imit.]

   jerk(2)   v.tr.  cure (beef) by cutting it in long slices and drying it in
             the sun.  [Amer. Sp.  charquear f.  charqui f. Quechua echarqui
             dried flesh]

   jerkin    n.  1 a sleeveless jacket.  2 hist. a man's close-fitting
             jacket, often of leather.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jerky     adj.  (jerkier, jerkiest) 1 having sudden abrupt movements.  2
             spasmodic.  ЬЬjerkily adv.  jerkiness n.

   jeroboam  n.  a wine bottle of 4-12 times the ordinary size.  [Jeroboam
             king of Israel (1 Kings 11:28, 14:16)]

   Jerry     n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  sl.  1 a German (esp. in military
             contexts).  2 the Germans collectively.  [prob. alt. of German]

   jerry     n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  sl.  a chamber-pot.

             n.  a builder of unsubstantial houses with poor-quality
             materials.  ЬЬjerry-building n.  jerry-built adj.

   jerrycan  n.  (also jerrican) a kind of (orig. German) petrol- or
             water-can.  [JERRY + CAN(2)]

             var. of GERRYMANDER.

   jersey    n.  (pl.  -eys) 1 a a knitted usu. woollen pullover or similar
             garment.  b a plain-knitted (orig. woollen) fabric.  2 (Jersey)
             a light brown dairy cow from Jersey.  [Jersey, largest of the
             Channel Islands]

   Jerusalem artichoke
             n.  1 a species of sunflower, Helianthus tuberosus, with edible
             underground tubers.  2 this tuber used as a vegetable.
             [corrupt. of It.  girasole sunflower]

   jess      n. & v.  --n. a short strap of leather, silk, etc., put round
             the leg of a hawk in falconry.  --v.tr. put jesses on (a hawk
             etc.).  [ME ges f. OF ges, get ult. f. L jactus a throw f.
             jacere jact- to throw]

   jessamin  (also jessamine) var. of JASMINE.

   jest      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a joke.  b fun.  2 a raillery, banter.  b an
             object of derision (a standing jest).  --v.intr.  1 joke; make
             jests.  2 fool about; play or act triflingly.  Ьin jest in fun.
             ЬЬjestful adj.  [orig. = exploit, f. OF geste f. L gesta neut.
             pl. past part. of gerere do]

   jester    n.  a professional joker or 'fool' at a medieval court etc.,
             traditionally wearing a cap and bells and carrying a 'sceptre'.

   Jesuit    n.  a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order
             founded by St Ignatius Loyola and others in 1534.  [F j‚suite or
             mod.L Jesuita f.  Jesus: see JESUS]

             adj.  1 of or concerning the Jesuits.  2 often offens.
             dissembling or equivocating, in the manner once associated with
             Jesuits.  ЬЬJesuitically adv.

   Jesus     int.  colloq.  an exclamation of surprise, dismay, etc.  [name
             of the founder of the Christian religion d.  c.  AD 30]

   jet(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a stream of water, steam, gas, flame, etc. shot
             out esp.  from a small opening.  2 a spout or nozzle for
             emitting water etc. in this way.  3 a a jet engine.  b an
             aircraft powered by one or more jet engines.  --v.  (jetted,
             jetting) 1 intr. spurt out in jets.  2 tr. & intr.  colloq. send
             or travel by jet plane.  Ьjet engine an engine using jet
             propulsion for forward thrust, esp. of an aircraft.  jet lag
             extreme tiredness and other bodily effects felt after a long
             flight involving marked differences of local time.
             jet-propelled 1 having jet propulsion.  2 (of a person etc.)
             very fast.  jet propulsion propulsion by the backward ejection
             of a high-speed jet of gas etc.  jet set colloq.  wealthy people
             frequently travelling by air, esp. for pleasure.  jet-setter
             colloq.  a member of the jet set.  jet stream 1 a narrow current
             of very strong winds encircling the globe several miles above
             the earth.  2 the stream from a jet engine.  [earlier as verb
             (in sense 1): F jeter throw ult. f. L jactare frequent. of
             jacere jact- throw]

   jet(2)    n.  1 a a hard black variety of lignite capable of being carved
             and highly polished.  b (attrib.) made of this.  2 (in full
             jet-black) a deep glossy black colour.  [ME f. AF geet, OF jaiet
             f. L gagates f. Gk gagates f.  Gagai in Asia Minor]

   jet‚      n.  Ballet a spring or leap with one leg forward and the other
             stretched backwards.  [F, past part. of jeter throw: see JET(1)]

   jetsam    n.  discarded material washed ashore, esp. that thrown overboard
             to lighten a ship etc. (cf.  FLOTSAM).  [contr. of JETTISON]

   jettison  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a throw (esp. heavy material) overboard to
             lighten a ship, hot-air balloon, etc.  b drop (goods) from an
             aircraft.  2 abandon; get rid of (something no longer wanted).
             --n. the act of jettisoning.  [ME f. AF getteson, OF getaison f.
             L jactatio -onis f.  jactare throw: see JET(1)]

   jetton    n.  a counter with a stamped or engraved design esp. for
             insertion like a coin to operate a machine etc.  [F jeton f.
             jeter throw, add up accounts: see JET(1)]

   jetty     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a pier or breakwater constructed to protect or
             defend a harbour, coast, etc.  2 a landing-pier.  [ME f. OF
             jetee, fem. past part. of jeter throw: see JET(1)]

   jeu d'esprit
             n.  (pl.  jeux d'esprit pronunc. same) a witty or humorous (usu.
             literary) trifle.  [F, = game of the spirit]

   jeunesse dor‚e
             n.  = gilded youth (see GILD(1)).  [F]

   Jew       n. & v.  --n.  1 a person of Hebrew descent or whose religion is
             Judaism.  2 sl.  offens. (as a stereotype) a person considered
             to be parsimonious or to drive a hard bargain in trading.  °The
             stereotype, which is now deeply offensive, arose from historical
             associations of Jews as moneylenders in medieval England.
             --v.tr. (jew) sl.  offens. get a financial advantage over.
             Ьjew's harp a small lyre-shaped musical instrument held between
             the teeth and struck with the finger.  [ME f. OF giu f. L
             judaeus f. Gk ioudaios ult. f. Heb.  yeh–dЊ f. yeh–dѓh Judah]

   jewel     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a precious stone.  b this as used for its
             hardness as a bearing in watchmaking.  2 a personal ornament
             containing a jewel or jewels.  3 a precious person or thing.
             --v.tr.  (jewelled, jewelling; US jeweled, jeweling) 1 (esp. as
             jewelled adj.) adorn or set with jewels.  2 (in watchmaking) set
             with jewels.  Ьjewel-fish a scarlet and green tropical cichlid
             fish, Hemichromis bimaculatus.  ЬЬjewelly adj.  [ME f. AF juel,
             jeuel, OF joel, of uncert. orig.]

   jeweller  n.  (US jeweler) a maker of or dealer in jewels or jewellery.
             Ьjeweller's rouge finely ground rouge for polishing.  [ME f. AF
             jueler, OF juelier (as JEWEL)]

   jewellery n.  (also jewelry) jewels or other ornamental objects, esp. for
             personal adornment, regarded collectively.  [ME f. OF juelerie
             and f.  JEWEL, JEWELLER]

   Jewess    n.  a female Jew.

   jewfish   n.  1 a grouper, Epinephelus itajara, of N. American, Atlantic,
             and Pacific coasts.  2 any of various large Australian fish used
             as food, esp.  the mulloway.

   Jewish    adj.  1 of or relating to Jews.  2 of Judaism.  ЬЬJewishly adv.
             Jewishness n.

   Jewry     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 Jews collectively.  2 hist. a Jews' quarter in
             a town etc.  [ME f. AF juerie, OF juierie (as JEW)]

   Jezebel   n.  a shameless or immoral woman.  [Jezebel, wife of Ahab in the
             Old Testament (1 Kings 16, 19, 21)]

5.0 jib...

   jib(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a triangular staysail from the outer end of the
             jib-boom to the top of the foremast or from the bowsprit to the
             masthead.  2 the projecting arm of a crane.  --v.tr. & intr.
             (jibbed, jibbing) to the other; gybe.  Ьjib-boom a spar run out
             from the end of the bowsprit.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jib(2)    v.intr.  (jibbed, jibbing) 1 a (of an animal, esp. a horse) stop
             and refuse to go on; move backwards or sideways instead of going
             on.  b (of a person) refuse to continue.  2 (foll. by at) show
             aversion to (a person or course of action).  ЬЬjibber n.  [19th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   jibba     n.  (also jibbah) a long coat worn by Muslim men.  [Egypt. var.
             of Arab.  jubba]

   jibe(1)   var. of GIBE.

   jibe(2)   US var. of GYBE.

   jibe(3)   v.intr.  with) US colloq.  agree; be in accord.  [19th c.: orig.

   jiff      n.  (also jiffy, pl.  -ies) colloq.  a short time; a moment (in
             a jiffy; half a jiff).  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Jiffy bag n.  propr.  a type of padded envelope for postal use.

   jig       n. & v.  --n.  1 a a lively dance with leaping movements.  b the
             music for this, usu. in triple time.  2 a device that holds a
             piece of work and guides the tools operating on it.  --v.
             (jigged, jigging) 1 intr. dance a jig.  2 tr. & intr. move
             quickly and jerkily up and down.  3 tr. work on or equip with a
             jig or jigs.  Ьjig about fidget.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jigger(1) n.  1 Naut.  a a small tackle consisting of a double and single
             block with a rope.  b a small sail at the stern.  c a small
             smack having this.  2 sl. a gadget.  3 Golf an iron club with a
             narrow face.  4 Billiards colloq. a cue-rest.  5 a a measure of
             spirits etc.  b a small glass holding this.  6 a person or thing
             that jigs.

   jigger(2) n.  1 = CHIGOE.  2 US = CHIGGER 2.  [corrupt.]

   jiggered  adj.  colloq.  (as a mild oath) confounded (I'll be jiggered).

             n.  Brit.  colloq.  deceitful or dishonest dealing, trickery.
             [cf. Sc.  joukery-pawkery f.  jouk dodge, skulk]

   jiggle    v.  about etc.)  1 tr. shake lightly; rock jerkily.  2 intr.
             fidget.  ЬЬjiggly adj.  [JIG or JOGGLE(1)]

   jigsaw    n.  1 a (in full jigsaw puzzle) a puzzle consisting of a picture
             on board or wood etc. cut into irregular interlocking pieces to
             be reassembled.  b a mental puzzle resolvable by assembling
             various pieces of information.  2 a machine saw with a fine
             blade enabling it to cut curved lines in a sheet of wood, metal,

   jihad     n.  (also jehad) a holy war undertaken by Muslims against
             unbelievers.  [Arab.  jihad]

   jill      var. of GILL(4).

   jilt      v. & n.  --v.tr. abruptly reject or abandon (a lover etc.).
             --n. a person (esp. a woman) who jilts a lover.  [17th c.: orig.

   Jim Crow  n.  US 1 the practice of segregating Blacks.  2 offens. a Black.
             3 an implement for straightening iron bars or bending rails by
             screw pressure.  ЬЬJim Crowism n. (in sense 1).  [nickname]

   jim-jams  n.pl.  1 sl. = delirium tremens.  2 colloq. a fit of depression
             or nervousness.  [fanciful redupl.]

   jimmy     US var. of JEMMY.

   jimson    n. (in full jimson weed) US a highly poisonous tall weed, Datura
             stramonium, with large trumpet-shaped flowers.  [Jamestown in

   jingle    n. & v.  --n.  1 a mixed noise as of bells or light metal
             objects being shaken together.  2 a a repetition of the same
             sound in words, esp. as an aid to memory or to attract
             attention.  b a short verse of this kind used in advertising
             etc.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. make or cause to make a jingling
             sound.  2 intr. (of writing) be full of alliterations, rhymes,
             etc.  ЬЬjingly adj.  (jinglier, jingliest).  [ME: imit.]

   jingo     n.  (pl.  -oes) a supporter of policy favouring war; a
             blustering patriot.  Ьby jingo!  a mild oath.  ЬЬjingoism n.
             jingoist n.  jingoistic adj.  [17th c.: orig. a conjuror's word:
             polit. sense from use of by jingo in a popular song, then
             applied to patriots]

   jink      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. move elusively; dodge.  2 tr. elude by
             dodging.  --n. an act of dodging or eluding.  [orig. Sc.: prob.
             imit. of nimble motion]

   jinnee    n.  (also jinn, djinn) (pl.  jinn or djinn) (in Muslim
             mythology) an intelligent being lower than the angels, able to
             appear in human and animal forms, and having power over people.
             [Arab.  jinni, pl.  jinn: cf.  GENIE]

   jinx      n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a person or thing that seems to cause bad
             luck.  --v.tr. (often in passive) subject (a person) to an
             unlucky force.  [perh. var. of jynx wryneck, charm]

   jitter    n. & v.  colloq.  --n. (the jitters) extreme nervousness.
             --v.intr. be nervous; act nervously.  ЬЬjittery adj.
             jitteriness n.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   jitterbug n. & v.  --n.  1 a nervous person.  2 hist.  a a fast popular
             dance.  b a person fond of dancing this.  --v.intr.  (-bugged,

   jiu-jitsu var. of JU-JITSU.

   jive      n. & v.  --n.  1 a jerky lively style of dance esp. popular in
             the 1950s.  2 music for this.  --v.intr.  1 dance the jive.  2
             play jive music.  ЬЬjiver n.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   jizz      n.  the characteristic impression given by an animal or plant.
             [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

6.0 Jnr.

   Jnr.      abbr.  Junior.

7.0 jo...

   jo        n.  (pl.  joes) Sc.  a sweetheart or beloved.  [var. of JOY]

   job(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of work, esp. one done for hire or
             profit.  2 a paid position of employment.  3 colloq. anything
             one has to do.  4 colloq. a difficult task (had a job to find
             them).  5 a product of work, esp. if well done.  6 Computing an
             item of work regarded separately.  7 sl. a crime, esp. a
             robbery.  8 a transaction in which private advantage prevails
             over duty or public interest.  9 a state of affairs or set of
             circumstances (is a bad job).  --v.  (jobbed, jobbing) 1 intr.
             do jobs; do piece-work.  2 a intr. deal in stocks.  b tr. buy
             and sell (stocks or goods) as a middleman.  3 a intr. turn a
             position of trust to private advantage.  b tr. deal corruptly
             with (a matter).  4 tr.  US sl. swindle.  Ьjob-control language
             Computing a language enabling the user to determine the tasks to
             be undertaken by the operating system.  job-hunt colloq.  seek
             employment.  job lot a miscellaneous group of articles, esp.
             bought together.  jobs for the boys colloq.  profitable
             situations etc. to reward one's supporters.  job-sharing an
             arrangement by which a full-time job is done jointly by several
             part-time employees who share the remuneration.  just the job
             colloq.  exactly what is wanted.  make a job (or good job) of do
             thoroughly or successfully.  on the job colloq.  1 at work; in
             the course of doing a piece of work.  2 engaged in sexual
             intercourse.  out of a job unemployed.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   job(2)    v. & n.  --v.  (jobbed, jobbing) 1 tr. prod; stab slightly.  2
             intr. (foll. by at) thrust.  --n. a prod or thrust; a jerk at a
             horse's bit.  [ME, app. imit.: cf.  JAB]

   jobber    n.  1 Brit. a principal or wholesaler dealing on the Stock
             Exchange.  °Up to Oct. 1986 permitted to deal only with brokers,
             not directly with the public. From Oct. 1986 the name has ceased
             to be in official use (see BROKER 2).  2 US a a wholesaler.  b
             derog. a broker (see BROKER 2).  3 a person who jobs.  [JOB(1)]

   jobbery   n.  corrupt dealing.

   jobbing   adj.  working on separate or occasional jobs (esp. of a
             computer, gardener, or printer).

   jobcentre n.  Brit.  any of several government offices displaying
             information about available jobs.

   jobless   adj.  without a job; unemployed.  ЬЬjoblessness n.

   Job's comforter
             n.  a person who under the guise of comforting aggravates
             distress.  [the patriarch Job in the Old Testament (Job 16:2)]

   jobsheet  n.  a sheet for recording details of jobs done.

   Job's tears
             n.pl.  the seeds of a grass, Coix lacryma-jobi, used as beads.
             [the patriarch Job in the Old Testament]

   jobwork   n.  work done and paid for by the job.

   Jock      n.  sl.  a Scotsman.  [Sc. form of the name Jack (see JACK(1))]

   jock      n.  colloq.  a jockey.  [abbr.]

   jockey    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -eys) --v.  (-eys, -eyed) 1 tr.  a trick or
             cheat (a person).  b outwit.  2 tr. (foll. by away, out, in,
             etc.) draw (a person) by trickery.  3 intr. cheat.  Ьjockey cap
             a cap with a long peak, as worn by jockeys.  jockey for position
             try to gain an advantageous position esp. by skilful manoeuvring
             or unfair action.  ЬЬjockeydom n.  jockeyship n.  [dimin. of

   jockstrap n.  a support or protection for the male genitals, worn esp. by
             sportsmen.  [sl.  jock genitals + STRAP]

   jocose    adj.  1 playful in style.  2 fond of joking, jocular.
             ЬЬjocosely adv.  jocoseness n.  jocosity n.  (pl.  -ies).  [L
             jocosus f.  jocus jest]

   jocular   adj.  1 merry; fond of joking.  2 of the nature of a joke;
             humorous.  ЬЬjocularity n.  (pl.  -ies).  jocularly adv.  [L
             jocularis f.  joculus dimin. of jocus jest]

   jocund    adj.  literary merry, cheerful, sprightly.  ЬЬjocundity n.  (pl.
             -ies).  jocundly adv.  [ME f. OF f. L jocundus, jucundus f.
             juvare delight]

   jodhpurs  n.pl.  long breeches for riding etc., close-fitting from the
             knee to the ankle.  [Jodhpur in India]

   Joe Bloggs
             n.  Brit.  colloq.  a hypothetical average man.

   Joe Blow  n.  US colloq.  = JOE BLOGGS.

   joey      n.  (pl.  -eys) Austral.  1 a young kangaroo.  2 a young animal.
             [Aboriginal joЉ]

   jog       v. & n.  --v.  (jogged, jogging) 1 intr. run at a slow pace,
             esp. as physical exercise.  2 intr. (of a horse) move at a
             jogtrot.  3 intr. (often foll. by on, along) proceed
             laboriously; trudge.  4 intr. go on one's way.  5 intr. proceed;
             get through the time (we must jog on somehow).  6 intr. move up
             and down with an unsteady motion.  7 tr. nudge (a person), esp.
             to arouse attention.  8 tr. shake with a push or jerk.  9 tr.
             stimulate (a person's or one's own memory).  --n.  1 a shake,
             push, or nudge.  2 a slow walk or trot.  [ME: app. imit.]

   jogger    n.  a person who jogs, esp. one who runs for physical exercise.

   joggle(1) v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr. shake or move by or as if by repeated
             jerks.  --n.  1 a slight shake.  2 the act or action of
             joggling.  [frequent. of JOG]

   joggle(2) n. & v.  --n.  1 a joint of two pieces of stone or timber,
             contrived to prevent their sliding on one another.  2 a notch in
             one of the two pieces, a projection in the other, or a small
             piece let in between the two, for this purpose.  --v.tr. join
             with a joggle.  [perh. f.  jog = JAG(1)]

   jogtrot   n.  1 a slow regular trot.  2 a monotonous progression.

   john      n.  US sl.  a lavatory.  [the name John]

   John Bull n.  a personification of England or the typical Englishman.
             [the name of a character repr. the English nation in J.
             Arbuthnot's satire Law is a Bottomless Pit (1712)]

   John Dory n.  (pl.  -ies) a European marine fish, Zeus faber, with a
             laterally flattened body and a black spot on each side.

   johnny    n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  colloq.  a fellow; a man.
             Ьjohnny-come-lately colloq.  a recently arrived person.
             [familiar form of the name John]

             adj.  1 of or relating to Samuel Johnson, English man of letters
             and lexicographer (d. 1784).  2 typical of his style of writing.

   joie de vivre
             n.  a feeling of healthy and exuberant enjoyment of life.  [F, =
             joy of living]

   join      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by to, together) put together;
             fasten, unite (one thing or person to another or several
             together).  2 tr. connect (points) by a line etc.  3 tr. become
             a member of (an association, society, organization, etc.).  4
             tr. take one's place with or in (a company, group, procession,
             etc.).  5 tr.  a come into the company of (a person).  b (foll.
             by in) take part with (others) in an activity etc. (joined me in
             condemnation of the outrage).  c (foll. by for) share the
             company of for a specified occasion (may I join you for lunch?).
             6 intr. (often foll. by with, to) come together; be united.  7
             intr. (often foll. by in) take part with others in an activity
             etc.  8 tr. be or become connected or continuous with (the Inn
             joins the Danube at Passau).  --n. a point, line, or surface at
             which two or more things are joined.  Ьjoin battle begin
             fighting.  join forces combine efforts.  join hands 1 a clasp
             each other's hands.  b clasp one's hands together.  2 combine in
             an action or enterprise.  join up 1 enlist for military service.
             2 (often foll. by with) unite, connect.  ЬЬjoinable adj.  [ME f.
             OF joindre (stem joign-) f. L jungere junct- join: cf.  YOKE]

   joinder   n.  Law the act of bringing together.  [AF f. OF joindre to

   joiner    n.  1 a person who makes furniture and light woodwork.  2
             colloq. a person who readily joins societies etc.  ЬЬjoinery n.
             (in sense 1).  [ME f. AF joignour, OF joigneor (as JOIN)]

   joint     n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a a place at which two things are joined
             together.  b a point at which, or a contrivance by which, two
             parts of an artificial structure are joined.  2 a structure in
             an animal body by which two bones are fitted together.  3 a any
             of the parts into which an animal carcass is divided for food.
             b any of the parts of which a body is made up.  4 sl. a place of
             meeting for drinking etc.  5 sl. a marijuana cigarette.  6 the
             part of a stem from which a leaf or branch grows.  7 a piece of
             flexible material forming the hinge of a book-cover.  8 Geol. a
             fissure in a mass of rock.  --adj.  1 held or done by, or
             belonging to, two or more persons etc.  in conjunction (a joint
             mortgage; joint action).  2 sharing with another in some action,
             state, etc. (joint author; joint favourite).  --v.tr.  1 connect
             by joints.  2 divide (a body or member) at a joint or into
             joints.  3 fill up the joints of (masonry etc.) with mortar
             etc.; trim the surface of (a mortar joint).  4 prepare (a board
             etc.) for being joined to another by planing its edge.  Ьjoint
             account a bank account held by more than one person, each of
             whom has the right to deposit and withdraw funds.  joint and
             several (of a bond etc.) signed by more than one person, of whom
             each is liable for the whole sum.  joint stock capital held
             jointly; a common fund.  joint-stock company one formed on the
             basis of a joint stock.  out of joint 1 (of a bone) dislocated.
             2 out of order.  ЬЬjointless adj.  jointly adv.  [ME f. OF, past
             part. of joindre JOIN]

   jointer   n.  1 a a plane for jointing.  b a tool for jointing or pointing
             masonry.  2 a worker employed in jointing wires, pipes, etc.

   jointress n.  a widow who holds a jointure.  [obs.  jointer joint

   jointure  n. & v.  --n. an estate settled on a wife for the period during
             which she survives her husband.  --v.tr. provide (a wife) with a
             jointure.  [ME f. OF f. L junctura (as JOIN)]

   joist     n.  each of a series of parallel supporting beams of timber,
             steel, etc., used in floors, ceilings, etc.  ЬЬjoisted adj.  [ME
             f. OF giste ult. f. L jacere lie]

   jojoba    n.  a plant, Simmondsia chinensis, with seeds yielding an oily
             extract used in cosmetics etc.  [Mex. Sp.]

   joke      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a thing said or done to excite laughter.  b a
             witticism or jest.  2 a ridiculous thing, person, or
             circumstance.  --v.  1 intr. make jokes.  2 tr. poke fun at;
             banter.  Ьno joke colloq.  a serious matter.  ЬЬjokingly adv.
             joky adj.  (also jokey).  jokily adv.  jokiness n.  [17th c.
             (joque), orig. sl.: perh. f. L jocus jest]

   joker     n.  1 a person who jokes.  2 sl. a fellow; a man.  3 a
             playing-card usu. with a figure of a jester, used in some games
             esp. as a wild card.  4 US a clause unobtrusively inserted in a
             bill or document and affecting its operation in a way not
             immediately apparent.  5 an unexpected factor or resource.  Ьthe
             joker in the pack an unpredictable factor or participant.

   jolie laide
             n.  (pl.  jolies laides pronunc. same) = BELLE LAIDE.  [F f.
             jolie pretty + laide ugly]

   jollify   v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) make or be merry, esp. in drinking.
             ЬЬjollification n.

   jollity   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 merrymaking; festiveness.  2 (in pl.)
             festivities.  [ME f. OF jolivet‚ (as JOLLY(1))]

   jolly(1)  adj., adv., v., & n.  --adj.  (jollier, jolliest) 1 cheerful and
             good-humoured; merry.  2 festive, jovial.  3 slightly drunk.  4
             colloq. (of a person or thing) very pleasant, delightful (often
             iron.: a jolly shame).  --adv.  colloq. very (they were jolly
             unlucky).  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 (usu. foll. by along) colloq.
             coax or humour (a person) in a friendly way.  2 chaff, banter.
             --n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq. a party or celebration.  ЬJolly Roger
             a pirates' black flag, usu. with the skull and crossbones.
             ЬЬjollily adv.  jolliness n.  [ME f. OF jolif gay, pretty, perh.
             f. ON jўl YULE]

   jolly(2)  n.  (pl.  -ies) jolly boat) a clinker-built ship's boat smaller
             than a cutter.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.: perh. rel. to YAWL]

   jolt      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. disturb or shake from the normal position
             (esp. in a moving vehicle) with a jerk.  2 tr. give a mental
             shock to; perturb.  3 intr. (of a vehicle) move along with
             jerks, as on a rough road.  --n.  1 such a jerk.  2 a surprise
             or shock.  ЬЬjolty adj.  (joltier, joltiest).  [16th c.: orig.

   Jon.      abbr.  1 Jonah (Old Testament).  2 Jonathan.

   Jonah     n.  a person who seems to bring bad luck.  [Jonah in the Old

   jongleur  n.  hist.  an itinerant minstrel.  [F, var. of jougleur JUGGLER]

   jonquil   n.  a bulbous plant, Narcissus jonquilla, with clusters of small
             fragrant yellow flowers.  [mod.L jonquilla or F jonquille f. Sp.
             junquillo dimin. of junco: see JUNCO]

   Jordanian adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the kingdom of Jordan in the
             Middle East.  --n.  1 a native or national of Jordan.  2 a
             person of Jordanian descent.  [Jordan, river flowing into the
             Dead Sea]

   jorum     n.  1 a large drinking-bowl.  2 its contents, esp. punch.
             [perh. f.  Joram (2 Sam. 8:10)]

   Jos.      abbr.  Joseph.

   Josh.     abbr.  Joshua (Old Testament).

   josh      n. & v.  sl.  --n. a good-natured or teasing joke.  --v.  1 tr.
             tease or banter.  2 intr. indulge in ridicule.  ЬЬjosher n.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   joss      n.  a Chinese idol.  Ьjoss-house a Chinese temple.  joss-stick a
             stick of fragrant tinder mixed with clay, burnt as incense.
             [perh. ult. f. Port.  deos f. L deus god]

   josser    n.  Brit.  sl.  1 a fool.  2 a fellow.  [JOSS + -ER(1): cf.
             Austral. sense 'clergyman']

   jostle    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. push against; elbow.  2 tr. (often foll. by
             away, from, etc.) push (a person) abruptly or roughly.  3 intr.
             (foll. by against) knock or push, esp. in a crowd.  4 intr.
             (foll. by with) struggle; have a rough exchange.  --n.  1 the
             act or an instance of jostling.  2 a collision.  [ME: earlier
             justle f.  JOUST + -LE(4)]

   jot       v. & n.  --v.tr.  (jotted, jotting) down) write briefly or
             hastily.  --n. (usu. with neg. expressed or implied) a very
             small amount (not one jot).  [earlier as noun: L f. Gk iota: see

   jotter    n.  a small pad or notebook for making notes etc.

   jotting   n.  pl.) a note; something jotted down.

   joule     n.  the SI unit of work or energy equal to the work done by a
             force of one newton when its point of application moves one
             metre in the direction of action of the force, equivalent to a
             watt-second.  °Symb.: J.  [J. P.  Joule, Engl. physicist d.

   jounce    v.tr. & intr.  bump, bounce, jolt.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   journal   n.  1 a newspaper or periodical.  2 a daily record of events.  3
             Naut. a logbook.  4 a book in which business transactions are
             entered, with a statement of the accounts to which each is to be
             debited and credited.  5 the part of a shaft or axle that rests
             on bearings.  6 (the Journals) Parl. a record of daily
             proceedings.  [ME f. OF jurnal f. LL diurnalis DIURNAL]

             n.  a hackneyed style of language characteristic of some
             newspaper writing.

             n.  the business or practice of writing and producing

             n.  a person employed to write for or edit a newspaper or
             journal.  ЬЬjournalistic adj.  journalistically adv.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) record in a private journal.

   journey   n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -eys) 1 an act of going from one place to
             another, esp. at a long distance.  2 the distance travelled in a
             specified time (a day's journey).  3 the travelling of a vehicle
             along a route at a stated time.  --v.intr.  (-eys, -eyed)
             ЬЬjourneyer n.  [ME f. OF jornee day, day's work or travel, ult.
             f. L diurnus daily]

             n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a qualified mechanic or artisan who works for
             another.  2 derog.  a a reliable but not outstanding worker.  b
             a mere hireling.  [JOURNEY in obs. sense 'day's work' + MAN]

   joust     n. & v.  hist.  --n. a combat between two knights on horseback
             with lances.  --v.intr. engage in a joust.  ЬЬjouster n.  [ME f.
             OF juster bring together ult. f. L juxta near]

   Jove      n.  (in Roman mythology) Jupiter.  Ьby Jove!  an exclamation of
             surprise or approval.  [ME f. L Jovis genit. of OL Jovis used as
             genit. of JUPITER]

   jovial    adj.  1 merry.  2 convivial.  3 hearty and good-humoured.
             ЬЬjoviality n.  jovially adv.  [F f. LL jovialis of Jupiter (as
             JOVE), with ref. to the supposed influence of the planet Jupiter
             on those born under it]

   Jovian    adj.  1 (in Roman mythology) of or like Jupiter.  2 of the
             planet Jupiter.

   jowar     n.  = DURRA.  [Hindi jawar]

   jowl(1)   n.  1 the jaw or jawbone.  2 the cheek (cheek by jowl).
             ЬЬ-jowled adj. (in comb.).  [ME chavel jaw f. OE ceafl]

   jowl(2)   n.  1 the external loose skin on the throat or neck when
             prominent.  2 the dewlap of oxen, wattle of a bird, etc.
             ЬЬjowly adj.  [ME cholle neck f. OE ceole]

   joy       n. & v.  --n.  1 (often foll. by at, in) a vivid emotion of
             pleasure; extreme gladness.  2 a thing that causes joy.  3 Brit.
             colloq. satisfaction, success (got no joy).  --v. esp.  poet.  1
             intr. rejoice.  2 tr. gladden.  Ьjoy-bells bells rung on festive
             occasions.  wish a person joy of iron.  be gladly rid of (what
             that person has to deal with).  ЬЬjoyless adj.  joylessly adv.
             [ME f. OF joie ult. f. L gaudium f.  gaudere rejoice]

   Joycean   adj. & n.  --adj. of or characteristic of James Joyce, Irish
             poet and novelist (d. 1941) or his writings.  --n. a specialist
             in or admirer of Joyce's works.

   joyful    adj.  full of, showing, or causing joy.  ЬЬjoyfully adv.
             joyfulness n.

   joyous    adj.  (of an occasion, circumstance, etc.) characterized by
             pleasure or joy; joyful.  ЬЬjoyously adv.  joyousness n.

   joyride   n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a ride for pleasure in a motor car, esp.
             without the owner's permission.  --v.intr.  (past -rode; past
             part.  -ridden) ЬЬjoyrider n.

   joystick  n.  1 colloq. the control column of an aircraft.  2 a lever that
             can be moved in several directions to control the movement of an
             image on a VDU screen.

8.0 JP

   JP        abbr.  Justice of the Peace.

9.0 Jr.

   Jr.       abbr.  Junior.

10.0 jt.

   jt.       abbr.  joint.

11.0 jube...

   jube      n.  Austral. & NZ = JUJUBE 2.  [abbr.]

   jubilant  adj.  exultant, rejoicing, joyful.  ЬЬjubilance n.  jubilantly
             adv.  [L jubilare jubilant- shout for joy]

   jubilate  v.intr.  exult; be joyful.  ЬЬjubilation n.  [L jubilare (as

   jubilee   n.  1 a time or season of rejoicing.  2 an anniversary, esp. the
             25th or 50th.  3 Jewish Hist. a year of emancipation and
             restoration, kept every 50 years.  4 RC Ch. a period of
             remission from the penal consequences of sin, granted under
             certain conditions for a year usu. at intervals of 25 years.  5
             exultant joy.  [ME f. OF jubil‚ f. LL jubilaeus (annus) (year)
             of jubilee ult. f. Heb.  yobel, orig. = ram, ram's-horn trumpet]

   Jud.      abbr.  Judith (Apocrypha).

   Judaeo-   comb. form (US Judeo-) Jewish; Jewish and.  [L judaeus Jewish]

   Judaic    adj.  of or characteristic of the Jews or Judaism.  [L Judaicus
             f. Gk Iouda‹kos f.  Ioudaios JEW]

   Judaism   n.  1 the religion of the Jews, with a belief in one God and a
             basis in Mosaic and rabbinical teachings.  2 the Jews
             collectively.  ЬЬJudaist n.  [ME f. LL Judaismus f. Gk
             Iouda‹smos (as JUDAIC)]

   Judaize   v.  (also -ise) 1 intr. follow Jewish customs or rites.  2 tr.
             a make Jewish.  b convert to Judaism.  ЬЬJudaization n.  [LL
             judaizare f. Gk iouda‹zo (as JUDAIC)]

   Judas     n.  1 a person who betrays a friend.  2 (judas) a peep-hole in a
             door.  ЬJudas-tree a Mediterranean tree, Cercis siliquastrum,
             with purple flowers usu. appearing before the leaves.  [Judas
             Iscariot who betrayed Christ (Luke 22)]

   judder    v. & n.  Brit.  --v.intr.  1 (esp. of a mechanism) vibrate
             noisily or violently.  2 (of a singer's voice) oscillate in
             intensity.  --n. an instance of juddering.  [imit.: cf.

   Judeo-    US var. of JUDAEO-.

   Judg.     abbr.  Judges (Old Testament).

   judge     n. & v.  --n.  1 a public officer appointed to hear and try
             causes in a court of justice.  2 a person appointed to decide a
             dispute or contest.  3 a a person who decides a question.  b a
             person regarded in terms of capacity to decide on the merits of
             a thing or question (am no judge of that; a good judge of art).
             4 Jewish Hist. a leader having temporary authority in Israel in
             the period between Joshua and the Kings.  --v.  1 tr.  a try (a
             cause) in a court of justice.  b pronounce sentence on (a
             person).  2 tr. form an opinion about; estimate, appraise.  3
             tr. act as a judge of (a dispute or contest).  4 tr. (often
             foll. by to + infin. or that + clause) conclude, consider, or
             suppose.  5 intr.  a form a judgement.  b act as judge.  ЬJudge
             Advocate General an officer in supreme control of the courts
             martial in the armed forces.  Judges' Rules Brit.  rules
             regarding the admissibility of an accused's statements as
             evidence.  ЬЬjudgelike adj.  judgeship n.  [ME f. OF juge (n.),
             juger (v.) f. L judex judicis f.  jus law + -dicus speaking]

   judgement n.  (also judgment) 1 the critical faculty; discernment (an
             error of judgement).  2 good sense.  3 an opinion or estimate
             (in my judgement).  4 the sentence of a court of justice; a
             decision by a judge.  5 often joc. a misfortune viewed as a
             deserved recompense (it is a judgement on you for getting up
             late).  6 criticism.  Ьagainst one's better judgement contrary
             to what one really feels to be advisable.  judgement by default
             see DEFAULT.  Judgement Day the day on which the Last Judgement
             is believed to take place.  judgement-seat a judge's seat; a
             tribunal.  the Last Judgement (in some beliefs) the judgement of
             mankind expected to take place at the end of the world.  [ME f.
             OF jugement (as JUDGE)]

             adj.  (also judgmental) 1 of or concerning or by way of
             judgement.  2 condemning, critical.  ЬЬjudgementally adv.

             n.  1 the administration of justice.  2 a judge's office or term
             of office.  3 judges collectively.  4 a court of justice.
             [med.L judicatura f. L judicare to judge]

   judicial  adj.  1 of, done by, or proper to a court of law.  2 having the
             function of judgement (a judicial assembly).  3 of or proper to
             a judge.  4 expressing a judgement; critical.  5 impartial.  6
             regarded as a divine judgement.  Ьjudicial factor Sc.  an
             official receiver.  judicial separation the separation of man
             and wife by decision of a court.  ЬЬjudicially adv.  [ME f. L
             judicialis f.  judicium judgement f.  judex JUDGE]

   judiciary n.  (pl.  -ies) the judges of a State collectively.  [L
             judiciarius (as JUDICIAL)]

   judicious adj.  1 sensible, prudent.  2 sound in discernment and
             judgement.  ЬЬjudiciously adv.  judiciousness n.  [F judicieux
             f. L judicium (as JUDICIAL)]

   judo      n.  a sport of unarmed combat derived from ju-jitsu.  ЬЬjudoist
             n.  [Jap. f.  ju gentle + do way]

   Judy      n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 see PUNCH(4).  2 (also judy) sl. a woman.
             [pet-form of the name Judith]

   jug       n. & v.  --n.  1 a a deep vessel for holding liquids, with a
             handle and often with a spout or lip shaped for pouring.  b the
             contents of this; a jugful.  2 US a large jar with a narrow
             mouth.  3 sl. prison.  4 (in pl.) US coarse sl. a woman's
             breasts.  --v.tr.  (jugged, jugging) 1 (usu. as jugged adj.)
             stew or boil (a hare or rabbit) in a covered vessel.  2 sl.
             imprison.  ЬЬjugful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [perh. f.  Jug, pet-form
             of the name Joan etc.]

             n.  the German name for art nouveau.  [G f.  Jugend youth + Stil

             n.  1 esp.  Brit. a large heavy motor vehicle, esp. an
             articulated lorry.  2 a huge or overwhelming force or object.  3
             (Juggernaut) an institution or notion to which persons blindly
             sacrifice themselves or others.  [Hindi Jagannath f. Skr.
             Jagannatha = lord of the world: name of an idol of Krishna in
             Hindu mythol., carried in procession on a huge cart under which
             devotees are said to have formerly thrown themselves]

   juggins   n.  Brit.  sl.  a simpleton.  [perh. f. proper name Juggins (as
             JUG): cf.  MUGGINS]

   juggle    v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. (often foll. by with) perform feats of
             dexterity, esp. by tossing objects in the air and catching them,
             keeping several in the air at the same time.  b tr. perform such
             feats with.  2 tr. continue to deal with (several activities) at
             once, esp. with ingenuity.  3 intr. (foll. by with) & tr.  a
             deceive or cheat.  b misrepresent (facts).  c rearrange
             adroitly.  --n.  1 a piece of juggling.  2 a fraud.  [ME,
             back-form. f.  JUGGLER or f. OF jogler, jugler f. L joculari
             jest f.  joculus dimin. of jocus jest]

   juggler   n.  1 a a person who juggles.  b a conjuror.  2 a trickster or
             impostor.  ЬЬjugglery n.  [ME f. OF jouglere -eor f. L joculator
             -oris (as JUGGLE)]

   Jugoslav  var. of YUGOSLAV.

   jugular   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of the neck or throat.  2 (of fish) having
             ventral fins in front of the pectoral fins.  --n. = jugular
             vein.  Ьjugular vein any of several large veins of the neck
             which carry blood from the head.  [LL jugularis f. L jugulum
             collar-bone, throat, dimin. of jugum YOKE]

   jugulate  v.tr.  1 kill by cutting the throat.  2 arrest the course of (a
             disease etc.) by a powerful remedy.  [L jugulare f.  jugulum (as

   juice     n.  1 the liquid part of vegetables or fruits.  2 the fluid part
             of an animal body or substance, esp. a secretion (gastric
             juice).  3 the essence or spirit of anything.  4 colloq. petrol
             or electricity as a source of power.  ЬЬjuiceless adj.  [ME f.
             OF jus f. L jus broth, juice]

   juicy     adj.  (juicier, juiciest) 1 full of juice; succulent.  2 colloq.
             substantial or interesting; racy, scandalous.  3 colloq.
             profitable.  ЬЬjuicily adv.  juiciness n.

   ju-jitsu  n.  (also jiu-jitsu, ju-jutsu) a Japanese system of unarmed
             combat and physical training.  [Jap.  jujutsu f.  ju gentle +
             jutsu skill]

   ju-ju     n.  1 a charm or fetish of some W. African peoples.  2 a
             supernatural power attributed to this.  [perh. f. F joujou toy]

   jujube    n.  1 a any plant of the genus Zizyphus bearing edible acidic
             berry-like fruits.  b this fruit.  2 a lozenge of gelatin etc.
             flavoured with or imitating this.  [F jujube or med.L jujuba
             ult. f. Gk zizuphon]

   ju-jutsu  var. of JU-JITSU.

   jukebox   n.  a machine that automatically plays a selected musical
             recording when a coin is inserted.  [Gullah juke disorderly +

   Jul.      abbr.  July.

   julep     n.  1 a a sweet drink, esp. as a vehicle for medicine.  b a
             medicated drink as a mild stimulant etc.  2 US iced and
             flavoured spirits and water (mint julep).  [ME f. OF f. Arab.
             julab f. Pers.  gulab f.  gul rose + ab water]

   Julian    adj.  of or associated with Julius Caesar.  ЬJulian calendar a
             calendar introduced by Julius Caesar, in which the year
             consisted of 365 days, every fourth year having 366 (cf.
             GREGORIAN CALENDAR).  [L Julianus f.  Julius]

   julienne  n. & adj.  --n. foodstuff, esp. vegetables, cut into short thin
             strips.  --adj. cut into thin strips.  [F f. the name Jules or

   Juliet cap
             n.  a small network ornamental cap worn by brides etc.  [the
             heroine of Shakesp.  Romeo & Juliet]

   July      n.  (pl.  Julys) the seventh month of the year.  [ME f. AF julie
             f. L Julius (mensis month), named after Julius Caesar]

   jumble    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by up) confuse; mix up.  2
             intr. move about in disorder.  --n.  1 a confused state or heap;
             a muddle.  2 Brit. articles collected for a jumble sale.
             Ьjumble sale Brit.  a sale of miscellaneous usu. second-hand
             articles, esp. for charity.  ЬЬjumbly adj.  [prob. imit.]

   jumbo     n. & adj.  colloq.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a large animal (esp. an
             elephant), person, or thing.  2 (in full jumbo jet) a large
             airliner with capacity for several hundred passengers.  °Usu.
             applied specifically to the Boeing 747.  --adj.  1 very large of
             its kind.  2 extra large (jumbo packet).  [19th c. (orig. of a
             person): orig. unkn.: popularized as the name of a zoo elephant
             sold in 1882]

   jumbuck   n.  Austral.  colloq.  a sheep.  [Aboriginal]

   jump      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. move off the ground or other surface
             (usu. upward, at least initially) by sudden muscular effort in
             the legs.  2 intr. (often foll. by up, from, in, out, etc.) move
             suddenly or hastily in a specified way (we jumped into the car).
             3 intr. give a sudden bodily movement from shock or excitement
             etc.  4 intr. undergo a rapid change, esp. an advance in status.
             5 intr. (often foll. by about) change or move rapidly from one
             idea or subject to another.  6 a intr. rise or increase suddenly
             (prices jumped).  b tr. cause to do this.  7 tr.  a pass over
             (an obstacle, barrier, etc.) by jumping.  b move or pass over
             (an intervening thing) to a point beyond.  8 tr. skip or pass
             over (a passage in a book etc.).  9 tr. cause (a thing, or an
             animal, esp. a horse) to jump.  10 intr. (foll. by to, at) reach
             a conclusion hastily.  11 tr. (of a train) leave (the rails)
             owing to a fault.  12 tr. ignore and pass (a red traffic-light
             etc.).  13 tr. get on or off (a train etc.) quickly, esp.
             illegally or dangerously.  14 tr. pounce on or attack (a person)
             unexpectedly.  15 tr. take summary possession of (a claim
             allegedly abandoned or forfeit by the former occupant).  --n.  1
             the act or an instance of jumping.  2 a a sudden bodily movement
             caused by shock or excitement.  b (the jumps) colloq. extreme
             nervousness or anxiety.  3 an abrupt rise in amount, price,
             value, status, etc.  4 an obstacle to be jumped, esp. by a
             horse.  5 a a sudden transition.  b a gap in a series, logical
             sequence, etc.  Ьget (or have) the jump on colloq.  get (or
             have) an advantage over (a person) by prompt action.  jump at
             accept eagerly.  jump bail see BAIL(1).  jump down a person's
             throat colloq.  reprimand or contradict a person fiercely.
             jumped-up colloq.  upstart; presumptuously arrogant.  jump the
             gun see GUN.  jumping-off place (or point etc.) the place or
             point of starting.  jump-jet a jet aircraft that can take off
             and land vertically.  jump-lead a cable for conveying current
             from the battery of a motor vehicle to boost (or recharge)
             another.  jump-off a deciding round in a showjumping
             competition.  jump on colloq.  attack or criticize severely and
             without warning.  jump out of one's skin colloq.  be extremely
             startled.  jump the queue 1 push forward out of one's turn.  2
             take unfair precedence over others.  jump-rope US a
             skipping-rope.  jump seat US a folding extra seat in a motor
             vehicle.  jump ship (of a seaman) desert.  jump-start v.tr.
             start (a motor vehicle) by pushing it or with jump-leads.  --n.
             the action of jump-starting.  jump suit a one-piece garment for
             the whole body, of a kind orig. worn by paratroopers.  jump to
             it colloq.  act promptly and energetically.  one jump ahead one
             stage further on than a rival etc.  on the jump colloq.  on the
             move; in a hurry.  ЬЬjumpable adj.  [16th c.: prob. imit.]

   jumper(1) n.  1 a knitted pullover.  2 a loose outer jacket of canvas etc.
             worn by sailors.  3 US a pinafore dress.  [prob. f. (17th-c.,
             now dial.)  jump short coat perh. f. F jupe f. Arab.  jubba]

   jumper(2) n.  1 a person or animal that jumps.  2 Electr. a short wire
             used to make or break a circuit.  3 a rope made fast to keep a
             yard, mast, etc., from jumping.  4 a heavy chisel-ended iron bar
             for drilling blast-holes.

   jumping bean
             n.  the seed of a Mexican plant that jumps with the movement of
             the larva inside.

   jumping jack
             n.  1 a small firework producing repeated explosions.  2 a toy
             figure of a man, with movable limbs.

   jumpy     adj.  (jumpier, jumpiest) 1 nervous; easily startled.  2 making
             sudden movements, esp. of nervous excitement.  ЬЬjumpily adv.
             jumpiness n.

   Jun.      abbr.  1 June.  2 Junior.

   junco     n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) any small American finch of the genus
             Junco.  [Sp. f. L juncus rush plant]

   junction  n.  1 a point at which two or more things are joined.  2 a place
             where two or more railway lines or roads meet, unite, or cross.
             3 the act or an instance of joining.  4 Electronics a region of
             transition in a semiconductor between regions where conduction
             is mainly by electrons and regions where it is mainly by holes.
             Ьjunction box a box containing a junction of electric cables
             etc.  [L junctio (as JOIN)]

   juncture  n.  1 a critical convergence of events; a critical point of time
             (at this juncture).  2 a place where things join.  3 an act of
             joining.  [ME f. L junctura (as JOIN)]

   June      n.  the sixth month of the year.  [ME f. OF juin f. L Junius
             var. of Junonius sacred to Juno]

   Jungian   adj. & n.  --adj. of the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung (d. 1961)
             or his system of analytical psychology.  --n. a supporter of
             Jung or of his system.

   jungle    n.  1 a land overgrown with underwood or tangled vegetation,
             esp.  in the tropics.  b an area of such land.  2 a wild tangled
             mass.  3 a place of bewildering complexity or confusion, or of a
             struggle for survival (blackboard jungle).  Ьjungle fever a
             severe form of malaria.  law of the jungle a state of ruthless
             competition.  ЬЬjungled adj.  jungly adj.  [Hindi jangal f. Skr.
             jangala desert, forest]

   junior    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 less advanced in age.  2 (foll. by to)
             inferior in age, standing, or position.  3 the younger (esp.
             appended to a name for distinction from an older person of the
             same name).  4 of less or least standing; of the lower or lowest
             position (junior partner).  5 Brit. (of a school) having pupils
             in a younger age-range, usu. 7 - 11.  6 US of the year before
             the final year at university, high school, etc.  --n.  1 a
             junior person.  2 one's inferior in length of service etc.  3 a
             junior student.  4 a barrister who is not a QC.  5 US colloq. a
             young male child, esp. in relation to his family.  Ьjunior
             college US a college offering a two-year course esp. in
             preparation for completion at senior college.  junior common (or
             combination) room Brit.  1 a room for social use by the junior
             members of a college.  2 the junior members collectively.
             junior lightweight see LIGHTWEIGHT.  junior middleweight see
             MIDDLEWEIGHT.  ЬЬjuniority n.  [L, compar. of juvenis young]

   juniper   n.  any evergreen shrub or tree of the genus Juniperus, esp.  J.
             communis with prickly leaves and dark purple berry-like cones.
             Ьoil of juniper oil from juniper cones used in medicine and in
             flavouring gin etc.  [ME f. L juniperus]

   junk(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 discarded articles; rubbish.  2 anything
             regarded as of little value.  3 sl. a narcotic drug, esp.
             heroin.  4 old cables or ropes cut up for oakum etc.  5 Brit. a
             lump or chunk.  6 Naut. hard salt meat.  7 a lump of fibrous
             tissue in the sperm whale's head, containing spermaceti.
             --v.tr. discard as junk.  Ьjunk food food with low nutritional
             value.  junk mail unsolicited advertising matter sent by post.
             junk shop a shop selling cheap second-hand goods or antiques.
             [ME: orig. unkn.]

   junk(2)   n.  a flat-bottomed sailing vessel used in the China seas, with
             a prominent stem and lugsails.  [obs. F juncque, Port.  junco,
             or Du.  jonk, f. Jav.  djong]

   junker    n.  hist.  1 a young German nobleman.  2 a member of an
             exclusive (Prussian) aristocratic party.  ЬЬjunkerdom n.  [G,
             earlier Junkher f. OHG (as YOUNG, HERR)]

   junket    n. & v.  --n.  1 a dish of sweetened and flavoured curds, often
             served with fruit or cream.  2 a feast.  3 a pleasure outing.  4
             US an official's tour at public expense.  --v.intr.  (junketed,
             junketing) ЬЬjunketing n.  [ME jonket f. OF jonquette
             rush-basket (used to carry junket) f.  jonc rush f. L juncus]

   junkie    n.  sl.  a drug addict.

   Junr.     abbr.  Junior.

   junta     n.  1 a a political or military clique or faction taking power
             after a revolution or coup d'‚tat.  b a secretive group; a
             cabal.  2 a deliberative or administrative council in Spain or
             Portugal.  [Sp. & Port. f. L juncta, fem. past part. (as JOIN)]

   Jupiter   n.  the largest planet of the solar system, orbiting about the
             sun between Mars and Saturn.  [ME f. L Jupiter king of the gods
             f. OL Jovis pater]

   jural     adj.  1 of law.  2 of rights and obligations.  [L jus juris law,

   Jurassic  adj. & n.  Geol.  --adj. of or relating to the second period of
             the Mesozoic era with evidence of many large dinosaurs, the
             first birds (including Archaeopteryx), and mammals.  °Cf.
             Appendix II.  --n. this era or system.  [F jurassique f.  Jura
             (Mountains): cf.  Triassic]

   jurat(1)  n.  Brit.  1 a municipal officer (esp. of the Cinque Ports)
             holding a position similar to that of an alderman.  2 an
             honorary judge or magistrate in the Channel Islands.  [ME f.
             med.L juratus past part. of L jurare swear]

   jurat(2)  n.  a statement of the circumstances in which an affidavit was
             made.  [L juratum neut. past part. (as JURAT(1))]

   juridical n.  1 of judicial proceedings.  2 relating to the law.
             ЬЬjuridically adv.  [L juridicus f.  jus juris law + -dicus
             saying f.  dicere say]

             n.  a person learned in law; a jurist.  [L jurisconsultus f.
             jus juris law + consultus skilled: see CONSULT]

             n.  1 (often foll. by over, of) the administration of justice.
             2 a legal or other authority.  b the extent of this; the
             territory it extends over.  ЬЬjurisdictional adj.  [ME
             jurisdiccioun f. OF jurediction, juridiction, L jurisdictio f.
             jus juris law + dictio DICTION]

             n.  1 the science or philosophy of law.  2 skill in law.
             ЬЬjurisprudent adj. & n.  jurisprudential adj.  [LL
             jurisprudentia f. L jus juris law + prudentia knowledge: see

   jurist    n.  1 an expert in law.  2 a legal writer.  3 US a lawyer.
             ЬЬjuristic adj.  juristical adj.  [F juriste or med.L jurista f.
             jus juris law]

   juror     n.  1 a member of a jury.  2 a person who takes an oath (cf.
             NONJUROR).  [ME f. AF jurour, OF jureor f. L jurator -oris f.
             jurare jurat- swear]

   jury      n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a body of usu. twelve persons sworn to render
             a verdict on the basis of evidence submitted to them in a court
             of justice.  2 a body of persons selected to award prizes in a
             competition.  Ьjury-box the enclosure for the jury in a
             lawcourt.  [ME f. AF & OF juree oath, inquiry, f.  jurata fem.
             past part. of L jurare swear]

   juryman   n.  (pl.  -men) a member of a jury.

             n.  Naut.  having temporary makeshift rigging.  [perh. ult. f.
             OF ajurie aid]

   jurywoman n.  (pl.  -women) a woman member of a jury.

   jussive   adj.  Gram.  expressing a command.  [L jubere juss- command]

   just      adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 acting or done in accordance with what is
             morally right or fair.  2 (of treatment etc.) deserved (a just
             reward).  3 (of feelings, opinions, etc.) well-grounded (just
             resentment).  4 right in amount etc.; proper.  --adv.  1 exactly
             (just what I need).  2 exactly or nearly at this or that moment;
             a little time ago (I have just seen them).  3 colloq. simply,
             merely (we were just good friends; it just doesn't make sense).
             4 barely; no more than (I just managed it; just a minute).  5
             colloq. positively (it is just splendid).  6 quite (not just
             yet; it is just as well that I checked).  7 colloq. really,
             indeed (won't I just tell him!).  8 in questions, seeking
             precise information (just how did you manage?).  Ьjust about
             colloq.  almost exactly; almost completely.  just in case as a
             precaution.  just now 1 at this moment.  2 a little time ago.
             just so 1 exactly arranged (they like everything just so).  2 it
             is exactly as you say.  ЬЬjustly adv.  justness n.  [ME f. OF
             juste f. L justus f.  jus right]

   justice   n.  1 just conduct.  2 fairness.  3 the exercise of authority in
             the maintenance of right.  4 judicial proceedings (was duly
             brought to justice; the Court of Justice).  5 a a magistrate.  b
             a judge, esp. (in England) of the Supreme Court of Judicature.
             Ьdo justice to treat fairly or appropriately; show due
             appreciation of.  do oneself justice perform in a manner worthy
             of one's abilities.  in justice to out of fairness to.  Justice
             of the Peace an unpaid lay magistrate appointed to preserve the
             peace in a county, town, etc., hear minor cases, grant licenses,
             etc.  Mr (or Mrs) Justice Brit.  a form of address or reference
             to a Supreme Court Judge.  with justice reasonably.
             ЬЬjusticeship n. (in sense 5).  [ME f. OF f. L justitia (as

             adj.  liable to legal consideration.  [OF f.  justicier bring to
             trial f. med.L justitiare (as JUSTICE)]

             n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) --adj. of the administration of
             justice.  [med.L justitiarius f. L justitia: see JUSTICE]

             adj.  that can be justified or defended.  Ьjustifiable homicide
             killing regarded as lawful and without criminal guilt, esp. the
             execution of a death sentence.  ЬЬjustifiability n.
             justifiableness n.  justifiably adv.  [F f.  justifier: see

   justify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 show the justice or rightness of (a
             person, act, etc.).  2 demonstrate the correctness of (an
             assertion etc.).  3 adduce adequate grounds for (conduct, a
             claim, etc.).  4 a (esp. in passive) (of circumstances) be such
             as to justify.  b vindicate.  5 (as justified adj.) just, right
             (am justified in assuming).  6 Theol. declare (a person)
             righteous.  7 Printing adjust (a line of type) to fill a space
             evenly.  ЬЬjustification n.  justificatory adj.  justifier n.
             [ME f. F justifier f. LL justificare do justice to f. L justus

   jut       v. & n.  --v.intr.  (jutted, jutting) out, forth) protrude,
             project.  --n. a projection; a protruding point.  [var. of

   Jute      n.  a member of a Low-German tribe that settled in Britain in
             the 5th-6th c.  ЬЬJutish adj.  [repr. med.L Jutae, Juti, in OE
             Eotas, Iotas = Icel.  Iўtar people of Jutland in Denmark]

   jute      n.  1 a rough fibre made from the bark of E. Indian plants of
             the genus Corchorus, used for making twine and rope, and woven
             into sacking, mats, etc.  2 either of two plants Corchorus
             capsularis or C. olitorius yielding this fibre.  [Bengali jhoto
             f. Skr.  juta = jata braid of hair]

             n.  1 youth.  2 the transition from infancy to youth.
             ЬЬjuvenescent adj.  [L juvenescere reach the age of youth f.
             juvenis young]

   juvenile  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a young, youthful.  b of or for young
             persons.  2 suited to or characteristic of youth.  3 often
             derog. immature (behaving in a very juvenile way).  --n.  1 a
             young person.  2 Commerce a book intended for young people.  3
             an actor playing the part of a youthful person.  Ьjuvenile court
             a court for the trial of children under 17.  juvenile
             delinquency offences committed by a person or persons below the
             age of legal responsibility.  juvenile delinquent such an
             offender.  ЬЬjuvenilely adv.  juvenility n.  [L juvenilis f.
             juvenis young]

   juvenilia n.pl.  works produced by an author or artist in youth.  [L,
             neut. pl. of juvenilis (as JUVENILE)]

   juxtapose v.tr.  1 place (things) side by side.  2 (foll. by to, with)
             place (a thing) beside another.  ЬЬjuxtaposition n.
             juxtapositional adj.  [F juxtaposer f. L juxta next: see


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