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English language - Dictionaries I...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 I...

   I(1)      n.  (also i) (pl.  Is or I's) 1 the ninth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 (as a Roman numeral) 1.  ЬI-beam a girder of
             I-shaped section.

   I(2)      pron. & n.  --pron.  (obj.  me; poss.  my, mine; pl.  we) used
             by a speaker or writer to refer to himself or herself.  --n.
             (the I) Metaphysics the ego; the subject or object of
             self-consciousness.  [OE f. Gmc]

   I(3)      symb.  Chem.  the element iodine.

   I(4)      abbr.  (also I.) 1 Island(s).  2 Isle(s).

   -i(1)     suffix forming the plural of nouns from Latin in -us or from
             Italian in -e or -o (foci; dilettanti; timpani).  °Plural in -s
             or -es is often also possible.

   -i(2)     suffix forming adjectives from names of countries or regions in
             the Near or Middle East (Israeli; Pakistani).  [adj. suffix in
             Semitic and Indo-Iranian languages]

   -i-       a connecting vowel esp. forming words in -ana, -ferous, -fic,
             -form, -fy, -gerous, -vorous (cf.  -O-).  [from or after F f. L]

2.0 IA...

   IA        abbr.  US Iowa (in official postal use).

   Ia.       abbr.  Iowa.

   -ia(1)    suffix 1 forming abstract nouns (mania; utopia), often in Med.
             (anaemia; pneumonia).  2 Bot. forming names of classes and
             genera (dahlia; fuchsia).  3 forming names of countries
             (Australia; India).  [from or after L & Gk]

   -ia(2)    suffix forming plural nouns or the plural of nouns: 1 from Greek
             in -ion or Latin in -ium (paraphernalia; regalia; amnia; labia).
             2 Zool. the names of groups (Mammalia).

   IAA       abbr.  indoleacetic acid.

   IAEA      abbr.  International Atomic Energy Agency.

   -ial      suffix forming adjectives (celestial; dictatorial; trivial).
             [from or after F -iel or L -ialis: cf.  -AL]

   iamb      n.  an iambus.  [Anglicized f.  IAMBUS]

   iambic    adj. & n.  Prosody --adj. of or using iambuses.  --n. (usu. in
             pl.) iambic verse.  [F iambique f. LL iambicus f. Gk iambikos
             (as IAMBUS)]

   iambus    n.  (pl.  iambuses or -bi) Prosody a foot consisting of one
             short (or unstressed) followed by one long (or stressed)
             syllable.  [L f. Gk iambos iambus, lampoon, f.  iapto assail in
             words, from its use by Gk satirists]

   -ian      suffix var. of -AN.  [from or after F -ien or L -ianus]

   -iasis    suffix the usual form of -ASIS.

   IATA      abbr.  International Air Transport Association.

             adj.  (of a disease etc.) caused by medical examination or
             treatment.  [Gk iatros physician + -GENIC]

3.0 ib....

   ib.       var. of IBID.

   IBA       abbr.  (in the UK) Independent Broadcasting Authority.

   Iberian   adj. & n.  --adj. of ancient Iberia, the peninsula now
             comprising Spain and Portugal; of Spain and Portugal.  --n.  1 a
             native of ancient Iberia.  2 any of the languages of ancient
             Iberia.  [L Iberia f. Gk Iberes Spaniards]

   Ibero-    comb. form Iberian; Iberian and (Ibero-American).

   ibex      n.  (pl.  ibexes) a wild goat, Capra ibex, esp. of mountainous
             areas of Europe, N. Africa, and Asia, with a chin beard and
             thick curved ridged horns.  [L]

   ibid.     abbr.  (also ib.) in the same book or passage etc.  [L ibidem in
             the same place]

   -ibility  suffix forming nouns from, or corresponding to, adjectives in
             -ible (possibility; credibility).  [F -ibilit‚ or L -ibilitas]

   ibis      n.  (pl.  ibises) any wading bird of the family
             Threskiornithidae with a curved bill, long neck, and long legs,
             and nesting in colonies.  Ьsacred ibis an ibis, Threskiornis
             aethiopicus, native to Africa and Madagascar, venerated by the
             ancient Egyptians.  [ME f. L f. Gk]

   -ible     suffix forming adjectives meaning 'that may or may be' (see
             -ABLE) (terrible; forcible; possible).  [F -ible or L -ibilis]

   -ibly     suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -ible.

   IBM       abbr.  International Business Machines.

   Ibo       n.  (also Igbo) (pl. same or -os) 1 a member of a Black people
             of SE Nigeria.  2 the language of this people.  [native name]

   IBRD      abbr.  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
             (also known as the World Bank).

4.0 IC...

   IC        abbr.  integrated circuit.

   i/c       abbr.  1 in charge.  2 in command.  3 internal combustion.

   -ic       suffix 1 forming adjectives (Arabic; classic; public) and nouns
             (critic; epic; mechanic; music).  2 Chem. in higher valence or
             degree of oxidation (ferric; sulphuric) (see also -OUS).  3
             denoting a particular form or instance of a noun in -ics
             (aesthetic; tactic).  [from or after F -ique or L -icus or Gk
             -ikos: cf.  -ATIC, -ETIC, -FIC, -OTIC]

   -ical     suffix 1 forming adjectives corresponding to nouns or
             adjectives, usu. in -ic (classical; comical; farcical; musical).
             2 forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in -y

   -ically   suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -ic or
             -ical (comically; musically; tragically).

   ICAO      abbr.  International Civil Aviation Organization.

   ICBM      abbr.  intercontinental ballistic missile.

   ICE       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Institution of Civil Engineers.  2
             internal-combustion engine.

   ice       n. & v.  --n.  1 a frozen water, a brittle transparent
             crystalline solid.  b a sheet of this on the surface of water
             (fell through the ice).  2 Brit. a portion of ice-cream or
             water-ice (would you like an ice?).  3 sl. diamonds.  --v.  1
             tr. mix with or cool in ice (iced drinks).  2 tr. & intr. (often
             foll. by over, up) a cover or become covered with ice.  b
             freeze.  3 tr. cover (a cake etc.) with icing.  Ьice age a
             glacial period, esp. in the Pleistocene epoch.  ice-axe a tool
             used by mountain-climbers for cutting footholds.  ice-bag an
             ice-filled rubber bag for medical use.  ice-blue a very pale
             blue.  ice-boat 1 a boat mounted on runners for travelling on
             ice.  2 a boat used for breaking ice on a river etc.  ice-bound
             confined by ice.  ice-breaker 1 = ice-boat 2.  2 something that
             serves to relieve inhibitions, start a conversation, etc.  ice
             bucket a bucket-like container with chunks of ice, used to keep
             a bottle of wine chilled.  ice-cap a permanent covering of ice
             e.g. in polar regions.  ice-cold as cold as ice.  ice-cream a
             sweet creamy frozen food, usu. flavoured.  ice-cube a small
             block of ice made in a refrigerator.  ice-fall a steep part of a
             glacier like a frozen waterfall.  ice-field an expanse of ice,
             esp. in polar regions.  ice-fish a capelin.  ice floe = FLOE.
             ice hockey a form of hockey played on ice with a puck.  ice
             house a building often partly or wholly underground for storing
             ice.  ice (or iced) lolly Brit.  a piece of flavoured ice, often
             with chocolate or ice-cream, on a stick.  ice-pack 1 = pack ice.
             2 a quantity of ice applied to the body for medical etc.
             purposes.  ice-pick a needle-like implement with a handle for
             splitting up small pieces of ice.  ice-plant a plant,
             Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, with leaves covered with crystals
             or vesicles looking like ice specks.  ice-rink = RINK n.  1.
             ice-skate n.  a skate consisting of a boot with a blade beneath,
             for skating on ice.  --v.intr. skate on ice.  ice-skater a
             person who skates on ice.  ice station a meteorological research
             centre in polar regions.  on ice 1 (of an entertainment, sport,
             etc.) performed by skaters.  2 colloq. held in reserve; awaiting
             further attention.  on thin ice in a risky situation.  [OE is f.

   -ice      suffix forming (esp. abstract) nouns (avarice; justice; service)
             (cf.  -ISE(2)).

   iceberg   n.  1 a large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier or
             ice-sheet and carried out to sea.  2 an unemotional or
             cold-blooded person.  Ьiceberg lettuce any of various crisp
             lettuces with a freely blanching head.  the tip of the iceberg a
             small perceptible part of something (esp. a difficulty) the
             greater part of which is hidden.  [prob. f. Du.  ijsberg f.  ijs
             ice + berg hill]

   iceblink  n.  a luminous appearance on the horizon, caused by a reflection
             from ice.

   iceblock  n.  Austral. & NZ = ice lolly.

   icebox    n.  US a refrigerator.

   Icelander n.  1 a native or national of Iceland, an island in the N.
             Atlantic.  2 a person of Icelandic descent.

   Icelandic adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Iceland.  --n. the language
             of Iceland.

   Iceland lichen
             n.  (also Iceland moss) a mountain and moorland lichen, Cetraria
             islandica, with edible branching fronds.

   Iceland poppy
             n.  an Arctic poppy, Papaver nudicaule, with red or yellow

   Iceland spar
             n.  a transparent variety of calcite with the optical property
             of strong double refraction.

   iceman    n.  (pl.  -men) esp.  US 1 a man skilled in crossing ice.  2 a
             man who sells or delivers ice.

   I.Chem.E. abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Chemical Engineers.

   I Ching   n.  an ancient Chinese manual of divination based on symbolic
             trigrams and hexagrams.  [Chin.  yijing book of changes]

   ichneumon n.  1 (in full ichneumon wasp) any small hymenopterous insect of
             the family Ichneumonidae, depositing eggs in or on the larva of
             another insect as food for its own larva.  2 a mongoose of N.
             Africa, Herpestes ichneumon, noted for destroying crocodile
             eggs.  [L f. Gk ikhneumon spider-hunting wasp f.  ikhneuo trace
             f.  ikhnos footstep]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the ground-plan of a building, map of a
             region, etc.  2 a drawing of this.  [F ichnographie or L
             ichnographia f. Gk ikhnographia f.  ikhnos track: see -GRAPHY]

   ichor     n.  1 (in Greek mythology) fluid flowing like blood in the veins
             of the gods.  2 poet. bloodlike fluid.  3 hist. a watery fetid
             discharge from a wound etc.  ЬЬichorous adj.  [Gk ikhor]

   ichthyo-  comb. form fish.  [Gk ikhthus fish]

   ichthyoid adj. & n.  --adj. fishlike.  --n. any fishlike vertebrate.

             n.  a fossil fish.

             n.  the study of fishes.  ЬЬichthyological adj.  ichthyologist

             adj.  fish-eating.  ЬЬichthyophagy n.

             n.  (also ichthyosaur) any extinct marine reptile of the order
             Ichthyosauria, with long head, tapering body, four flippers, and
             usu. a large tail.  [ICHTHYO- + Gk sauros lizard]

             n.  a skin disease which causes the epidermis to become dry and
             horny like fish scales.  ЬЬichthyotic adj.  [Gk ikhthus fish +

   ICI       abbr.  Imperial Chemical Industries.

   -ician    suffix forming nouns denoting persons skilled in or concerned
             with subjects having nouns (usu.) in -ic or -ics (magician;
             politician).  [from or after F -icien (as -IC, -IAN)]

   icicle    n.  a hanging tapering piece of ice, formed by the freezing of
             dripping water.  [ME f.  ICE + ickle (now dial.) icicle]

   icing     n.  1 a coating of sugar etc. on a cake or biscuit.  2 the
             formation of ice on a ship or aircraft.  Ьicing on the cake an
             attractive though inessential addition or enhancement.  icing
             sugar Brit.  finely powdered sugar for making icing for cakes

   -icist    suffix = -ICIAN (classicist).  [-IC + -IST]

   -icity    suffix forming abstract nouns esp. from adjectives in -ic
             (authenticity; publicity).  [-IC + -ITY]

   -ick      suffix archaic var. of -IC.

   icky      adj.  (also ikky) colloq.  1 sweet, sticky, sickly.  2 (as a
             general term of disapproval) nasty, repulsive.  [20th c.: orig.

   -icle     suffix forming (orig. diminutive) nouns (article; particle).
             [formed as -CULE]

   icon      n.  (also ikon) 1 a devotional painting or carving, usu. on
             wood, of Christ or another holy figure, esp. in the Eastern
             Church.  2 an image or statue.  3 Computing a symbol or graphic
             representation on a VDU screen of a program, option, or window,
             esp. one of several for selection.  4 Linguistics a sign which
             has a characteristic in common with the thing it signifies.  [L
             f. Gk eikon image]

   iconic    adj.  1 of or having the nature of an image or portrait.  2 (of
             a statue) following a conventional type.  3 Linguistics that is
             an icon.  ЬЬiconicity n. (esp. in sense 3).  [L iconicus f. Gk
             eikonikos (as ICON)]

   icono-    comb. form an image or likeness.  [Gk eikon]

             n.  1 the breaking of images.  2 the assailing of cherished
             beliefs.  [ICONOCLAST after enthusiasm etc.]

             n.  1 a person who attacks cherished beliefs.  2 a person who
             destroys images used in religious worship, esp.  hist. during
             the 8th-9th c. in the Churches of the East, or as a Puritan of
             the 16th-17th c.  ЬЬiconoclastic adj.  iconoclastically adv.
             [med.L iconoclastes f. eccl.Gk eikonoklastes (as ICONO-, klao

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the illustration of a subject by drawings or
             figures.  2 a the study of portraits, esp. of an individual.  b
             the study of artistic images or symbols.  3 a treatise on
             pictures or statuary.  4 a book whose essence is pictures.
             ЬЬiconographer n.  iconographic adj.  iconographical adj.
             iconographically adv.  [Gk eikonographia sketch (as ICONO- +

             n.  the worship of images.  ЬЬiconolater n.  [eccl.Gk
             eikonolatreia (as ICONO-, -LATRY)]

   iconology n.  1 an artistic theory developed from iconography (see
             ICONOGRAPHY 2b).  2 symbolism.

             n.  (pl.  iconostases) (in the Eastern Church) a screen bearing
             icons and separating the sanctuary from the nave.  [mod.Gk
             eikonostasis (as ICONO-, STASIS)]

             n.  a solid figure with twenty faces.  ЬЬicosahedral adj.  [LL
             icosahedrum f. Gk eikosaedron f.  eikosi twenty + -HEDRON]

   -ics      suffix (treated as sing. or pl.) forming nouns denoting arts or
             sciences or branches of study or action (athletics; politics)
             (cf.  -IC 3).  [from or after F pl.  -iques or L pl.  -ica or Gk
             pl.  -ika]

   icterus   n.  Med.  = JAUNDICE.  ЬЬicteric adj.  [L f. Gk ikteros]

   ictus     n.  (pl. same or ictuses) 1 Prosody rhythmical or metrical
             stress.  2 Med. a stroke or seizure; a fit.  [L, = blow f.
             icere strike]

   icy       adj.  (icier, iciest) 1 very cold.  2 covered with or abounding
             in ice.  3 (of a tone or manner) unfriendly, hostile (an icy
             stare).  ЬЬicily adv.  iciness n.

5.0 ID...

   ID        abbr.  1 esp.  US identification, identity (ID card).  2 US
             Idaho (in official postal use).

   id        n.  Psychol.  the inherited instinctive impulses of the
             individual as part of the unconscious.  [L, = that, transl. G

   id.       abbr.  = IDEM.

   i.d.      abbr.  inner diameter.

   I'd       contr.  1 I had.  2 I should; I would.

   -id(1)    suffix forming adjectives (arid; rapid).  [F -ide f. L -idus]

   -id(2)    suffix forming nouns: 1 general (pyramid).  2 Biol. of
             structural constituents (plastid).  3 Bot. of a plant belonging
             to a family with a name in -aceae (orchid).  [from or after F
             -ide f. L -is -idis f. Gk -is -ida or -idos]

   -id(3)    suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 Zool. an animal belonging to a
             family with a name in -idae or a class with a name in -ida
             (canid; arachnid).  2 a member of a person's family (Seleucid
             from Seleucus).  3 Astron.  a a meteor in a group radiating from
             a specified constellation (Leonid from Leo).  b a star of a
             class like one in a specified constellation (cepheid).  [from or
             after L -ides, pl.  -idae or -ida]

   -id(4)    suffix esp.  US var. of -IDE.

   IDA       abbr.  International Development Association.

   ide       n.  a freshwater fish, Leuciscus idus, used as food. Also called
             ORFE.  [mod.L idus f. Sw.  id]

   -ide      suffix (also esp.  US -id) Chem.  forming nouns denoting: 1
             binary compounds of an element (the suffix -ide being added to
             the abbreviated name of the more electronegative element etc.)
             (sodium chloride; lead sulphide; calcium carbide).  2 various
             other compounds (amide; anhydride; peptide; saccharide).  3
             elements of a series in the periodic table (actinide;
             lanthanide).  [orig. in OXIDE]

   idea      n.  1 a conception or plan formed by mental effort (have you any
             ideas?; had the idea of writing a book).  2 a a mental
             impression or notion; a concept.  b a vague belief or fancy (had
             an idea you were married; had no idea where you were).  3 an
             intention, purpose, or essential feature (the idea is to make
             money).  4 an archetype or pattern as distinguished from its
             realization in individual cases.  5 Philos.  a (in Platonism) an
             eternally existing pattern of which individual things in any
             class are imperfect copies.  b a concept of pure reason which
             transcends experience.  Ьget (or have) ideas colloq.  be
             ambitious, rebellious, etc.  have no idea colloq.  1 not know at
             all.  2 be completely incompetent.  not one's idea of colloq.
             not what one regards as (not my idea of a pleasant evening).
             put ideas into a person's head suggest ambitions etc. he or she
             would not otherwise have had.  that's an idea colloq.  that
             proposal etc. is worth considering.  the very idea!  colloq.  an
             exclamation of disapproval or disagreement.  ЬЬidea'd adj.
             ideaed adj.  idealess adj.  [Gk idea form, pattern f. stem id-

   ideal     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a answering to one's highest conception.  b
             perfect or supremely excellent.  2 a existing only in idea.  b
             visionary.  3 embodying an idea.  4 relating to or consisting of
             ideas; dependent on the mind.  --n.  1 a perfect type, or a
             conception of this.  2 an actual thing as a standard for
             imitation.  Ьideal gas a hypothetical gas consisting of
             molecules occupying negligible space and without attraction for
             each other, thereby obeying simple laws.  ЬЬideally adv.  [ME f.
             F id‚al f. LL idealis (as IDEA)]

   idealism  n.  1 the practice of forming or following after ideals, esp.
             unrealistically (cf.  REALISM).  2 the representation of things
             in ideal or idealized form.  3 imaginative treatment.  4 Philos.
             any of various systems of thought in which the objects of
             knowledge are held to be in some way dependent on the activity
             of mind (cf.  REALISM).  ЬЬidealist n.  idealistic adj.
             idealistically adv.  [F id‚alisme or G Idealismus (as IDEAL)]

   ideality  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the quality of being ideal.  2 an ideal thing.

   idealize  v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 regard or represent (a thing or person) in
             ideal form or character.  2 exalt in thought to ideal perfection
             or excellence.  ЬЬidealization n.  idealizer n.

   ideate    v.  Psychol.  1 tr. imagine, conceive.  2 intr. form ideas.
             ЬЬideation n.  ideational adj.  ideationally adv.  [med.L ideare
             form an idea (as IDEA)]

   id‚e fixe n.  (pl.  id‚es fixes pronunc. same) an idea that dominates the
             mind; an obsession.  [F, lit. 'fixed idea']

   id‚e re‡ue
             n.  (pl.  id‚es re‡ues pronunc. same) a generally accepted
             notion or opinion.  [F]

   idem      adv. & n.  --adv. in the same author.  --n. the same word or
             author.  [ME f. L]

   identical adj.  1 (often foll. by with) (of different things) agreeing in
             every detail.  2 (of one thing viewed at different times) one
             and the same.  3 (of twins) developed from a single fertilized
             ovum, therefore of the same sex and usu. very similar in
             appearance.  4 Logic & Math. expressing an identity.
             ЬЬidentically adv.  identicalness n.  [med.L identicus (as

             n.  1 the act or an instance of identifying.  2 a means of
             identifying a person.  3 (attrib.) serving to identify (esp. the
             bearer) (identification card).  Ьidentification parade an
             assembly of persons from whom a suspect is to be identified.

             n.  1 a person or thing that identifies.  2 Computing a sequence
             of characters used to identify or refer to a set of data.

   identify  v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. establish the identity of; recognize.  2
             tr. establish or select by consideration or analysis of the
             circumstances (identify the best method of solving the problem).
             3 tr. (foll. by with) associate (a person or oneself)
             inseparably or very closely (with a party, policy, etc.).  4 tr.
             (often foll. by with) treat (a thing) as identical.  5 intr.
             (foll. by with) a regard oneself as sharing characteristics of
             (another person).  b associate oneself.  ЬЬidentifiable adj.
             [med.L identificare (as IDENTITY)]

   Identikit n.  (often attrib.) propr.  a reconstructed picture of a person
             (esp. one sought by the police) assembled from transparent
             strips showing typical facial features according to witnesses'
             descriptions.  [IDENTITY + KIT(1)]

   identity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a the quality or condition of being a
             specified person or thing.  b individuality, personality (felt
             he had lost his identity).  2 identification or the result of it
             (a case of mistaken identity; identity card).  3 the state of
             being the same in substance, nature, qualities, etc.; absolute
             sameness (no identity of interests between them).  4 Algebra a
             the equality of two expressions for all values of the quantities
             expressed by letters.  b an equation expressing this, e.g. (x +
             1)(2) = x(2) + 2x + 1.  5 Math.  a (in full identity element) an
             element in a set, left unchanged by any operation to it.  b a
             transformation that leaves an object unchanged.  Ьidentity
             crisis a phase in which an individual feels a need to establish
             an identity in relation to society.  identity parade =
             identification parade.  [LL identitas f. L idem same]

   ideogram  n.  a character symbolizing the idea of a thing without
             indicating the sequence of sounds in its name (e.g. a numeral,
             and many Chinese characters).  [Gk idea form + -GRAM]

   ideograph n.  = IDEOGRAM.  ЬЬideographic adj.  ideography n.  [Gk idea
             form + -GRAPH]

   ideologue n.  1 a theorist; a visionary.  2 an adherent of an ideology.
             [F id‚ologue f. Gk idea (see IDEA) + -LOGUE]

   ideology  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the system of ideas at the basis of an
             economic or political theory (Marxist ideology).  2 the manner
             of thinking characteristic of a class or individual (bourgeois
             ideology).  3 visionary speculation.  4 archaic the science of
             ideas.  ЬЬideological adj.  ideologically adv.  ideologist n.
             [F id‚ologie (as IDEOLOGUE)]

   ides      n.pl.  the eighth day after the nones in the ancient Roman
             calendar (the 15th day of March, May, July, October, the 13th of
             other months).  [ME f. OF f. L idus (pl.), perh. f. Etruscan]

   idiocy    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 utter foolishness; idiotic behaviour or an
             idiotic action.  2 extreme mental imbecility.  [ME f.  IDIOT,
             prob. after lunacy]

   idiolect  n.  the form of language used by an individual person.  [Gk
             idios own + -lect in DIALECT]

   idiom     n.  1 a group of words established by usage and having a meaning
             not deducible from those of the individual words (as in over the
             moon, see the light).  2 a form of expression peculiar to a
             language, person, or group of people.  3 a the language of a
             people or country.  b the specific character of this.  4 a
             characteristic mode of expression in music, art, etc.  [F idiome
             or LL idioma f. Gk idioma -matos private property f.  idios own,

   idiomatic adj.  1 relating to or conforming to idiom.  2 characteristic of
             a particular language.  ЬЬidiomatically adv.  [Gk idiomatikos
             peculiar (as IDIOM)]

   idiopathy n.  Med.  any disease or condition of unknown cause or that
             arises spontaneously.  ЬЬidiopathic adj.  [mod.L idiopathia f.
             Gk idiopatheia f.  idios own + -PATHY]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a mental constitution, view or feeling, or
             mode of behaviour, peculiar to a person.  2 anything highly
             individualized or eccentric.  3 a mode of expression peculiar to
             an author.  4 Med. a physical constitution peculiar to a person.
             ЬЬidiosyncratic adj.  idiosyncratically adv.  [Gk idiosugkrasia
             f.  idios own + sun together + krasis mixture]

   idiot     n.  1 colloq. a stupid person; an utter fool.  2 a person
             deficient in mind and permanently incapable of rational conduct.
             Ьidiot board (or card) colloq.  a board displaying a television
             script to a speaker as an aid to memory.  ЬЬidiotic adj.
             idiotically adv.  [ME f. OF f. L idiota ignorant person f. Gk
             idiotes private person, layman, ignorant person f.  idios own,

   idle      adj. & v.  --adj.  (idler, idlest) 1 lazy, indolent.  2 not in
             use; not working; unemployed.  3 (of time etc.) unoccupied.  4
             having no special basis or purpose (idle rumour; idle
             curiosity).  5 useless.  6 (of an action, thought, or word)
             ineffective, worthless, vain.  --v.  1 a intr. (of an engine)
             run slowly without doing any work.  b tr. cause (an engine) to
             idle.  2 intr. be idle.  3 tr. (foll. by away) pass (time etc.)
             in idleness.  Ьidle wheel an intermediate wheel between two
             geared wheels, esp. to allow them to rotate in the same
             direction.  ЬЬidleness n.  idly adv.  [OE idel empty, useless]

   idler     n.  1 a habitually lazy person.  2 = idle wheel.

   Ido       n.  an artificial universal language based on Esperanto.  [Ido,
             = offspring]

   idol      n.  1 an image of a deity etc. used as an object of worship.  2
             Bibl. a false god.  3 a person or thing that is the object of
             excessive or supreme adulation (cinema idol).  4 archaic a
             phantom.  [ME f. OF idole f. L idolum f. Gk eidolon phantom f.
             eidos form]

   idolater  n.  (fem.  idolatress) 1 a worshipper of idols.  2 (often foll.
             by of) a devoted admirer.  ЬЬidolatrous adj.  [ME idolatrer f.
             OF or f.  idolatry or f. OF idolѓtre, ult. f. Gk eidololatres
             (as IDOL, -LATER)]

   idolatry  n.  1 the worship of idols.  2 great adulation.  [OF idolatrie
             (as IDOLATER)]

   idolize   v.  (also -ise) 1 tr. venerate or love extremely or excessively.
             2 tr. make an idol of.  3 intr. practise idolatry.
             ЬЬidolization n.  idolizer n.

   idyll     n.  (also idyl) 1 a short description in verse or prose of a
             picturesque scene or incident, esp. in rustic life.  2 an
             episode suitable for such treatment, usu. a love-story.
             ЬЬidyllist n.  idyllize v.tr.  (also -ise).  [L idyllium f. Gk
             eidullion, dimin. of eidos form]

   idyllic   adj.  1 blissfully peaceful and happy.  2 of or like an idyll.
             ЬЬidyllically adv.

6.0 i.e....

   i.e.      abbr.  that is to say.  [L id est]

   -ie       suffix 1 var. of -Y(2) (dearie; nightie).  2 archaic var. of
             -Y(1), -Y(3) (litanie; prettie).  [earlier form of -Y]

   IEE       abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Electrical Engineers.

   -ier      suffix forming personal nouns denoting an occupation or
             interest: 1 with stress on the preceding element (grazier).  2
             with stress on the suffix (cashier; brigadier).  [sense 1 ME of
             various orig.; sense 2 F -ier f. L -arius]

7.0 IF...

   IF        abbr.  intermediate frequency.

   if        conj. & n.  --conj.  1 introducing a conditional clause: a on
             the condition or supposition that; in the event that (if he
             comes I will tell him; if you are tired we will rest).  b (with
             past tense) implying that the condition is not fulfilled (if I
             were you; if I knew I would say).  2 even though (I'll finish
             it, if it takes me all day).  3 whenever (if I am not sure I
             ask).  4 whether (see if you can find it).  5 a expressing wish
             or surprise (if I could just try!; if it isn't my old hat!).  b
             expressing a request (if you wouldn't mind opening the door?).
             6 with implied reservation, = and perhaps not (very rarely if at
             all).  7 (with reduction of the protasis to its significant
             word) if there is or it is etc. (took little if any).  8 despite
             being (a useful if cumbersome device).  --n. a condition or
             supposition (too many ifs about it).  Ьif only 1 even if for no
             other reason than (I'll come if only to see her).  2 (often
             ellipt.) an expression of regret (if only I had thought of it;
             if only I could swim!).  if so if that is the case.  [OE gif]

   IFC       abbr.  International Finance Corporation.

   iff       conj.  Logic & Math.  = if and only if.  [arbitrary extension of

   iffy      adj.  (iffier, iffiest) colloq.  uncertain, doubtful.

8.0 Igbo...

   Igbo      var. of IBO.

   igloo     n.  an Eskimo dome-shaped dwelling, esp. one built of snow.
             [Eskimo, = house]

   igneous   adj.  1 of fire; fiery.  2 Geol. (esp. of rocks) produced by
             volcanic or magmatic action.  [L igneus f.  ignis fire]

   ignis fatuus
             n.  (pl.  ignes fatui) a will-o'-the-wisp.  [mod.L, = foolish
             fire, because of its erratic movement]

   ignite    v.  1 tr. set fire to; cause to burn.  2 intr. catch fire.  3
             tr.  Chem. heat to the point of combustion or chemical change.
             4 tr. provoke or excite (feelings etc.).  ЬЬignitable adj.
             ignitability n.  ignitible adj.  ignitibility n.  [L ignire
             ignit- f.  ignis fire]

   igniter   n.  1 a device for igniting a fuel mixture in an engine.  2 a
             device for causing an electric arc.

   ignition  n.  1 a mechanism for, or the action of, starting the combustion
             of mixture in the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine.  2
             the act or an instance of igniting or being ignited.  Ьignition
             key a key to operate the ignition of a motor vehicle.  [F
             ignition or med.L ignitio (as IGNITE)]

   ignitron  n.  Electr.  a mercury-arc rectifier able to carry large
             currents.  [IGNITE + -TRON]

   ignoble   adj.  (ignobler, ignoblest) 1 dishonourable, mean, base.  2 of
             low birth, position, or reputation.  ЬЬignobility n.  ignobly
             adv.  [F ignoble or L ignobilis (as IN-(1), nobilis noble)]

             adj.  1 causing or deserving ignominy.  2 humiliating.
             ЬЬignominiously adv.  ignominiousness n.  [ME f. F ignominieux
             or L ignominiosus]

   ignominy  n.  1 dishonour, infamy.  2 archaic infamous conduct.  [F
             ignominie or L ignominia (as IN-(1), nomen name)]

   ignoramus n.  (pl.  ignoramuses) an ignorant person.  [L, = we do not
             know: in legal use (formerly of a grand jury rejecting a bill)
             we take no notice of it; mod. sense perh. from a character in
             Ruggle's Ignoramus (1615) exposing lawyers' ignorance]

   ignorance n.  (often foll. by of) lack of knowledge (about a thing).  [ME
             f. OF f. L ignorantia (as IGNORANT)]

   ignorant  adj.  1 a lacking knowledge.  b (foll. by of, in) uninformed
             (about a fact or subject).  2 colloq. ill-mannered, uncouth.
             ЬЬignorantly adv.  [ME f. OF f. L ignorare ignorant- (as

   ignore    v.tr.  1 refuse to take notice of or accept.  2 intentionally
             disregard.  ЬЬignorer n.  [F ignorer or L ignorare not know,
             ignore (as IN-(1), gno- know)]

   iguana    n.  any of various large lizards of the family Iguanidae native
             to America, the W. Indies, and the Pacific islands, having a
             dorsal crest and throat appendages.  [Sp. f. Carib iwana]

   iguanodon n.  a large extinct plant-eating dinosaur of the genus
             Iguanodon, with forelimbs smaller than hind limbs.  [IGUANA
             (from its resemblance to this), after mastodon etc.]

9.0 i.h.p....

   i.h.p.    abbr.  indicated horsepower.

   IHS       abbr.  Jesus.  [ME f. LL, repr. Gk Ies(ous) Jesus: often taken
             as an abbr. of various Latin words]

10.0 ikebana...

   ikebana   n.  the art of Japanese flower arrangement, with formal display
             according to strict rules.  [Jap., = living flowers]

   ikky      var. of ICKY.

   ikon      var. of ICON.

11.0 IL...

   IL        abbr.  US Illinois (in official postal use).

   il-       prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before l.

   -il       suffix (also -ile) forming adjectives or nouns denoting relation
             (civil; utensil) or capability (agile; sessile).  [OF f. L

             var. of YLANG-YLANG.

   ILEA      abbr.  Inner London Education Authority.

   ilea      pl. of ILEUM.

   ileostomy n.  (pl.  -ies) a surgical operation in which the ileum is
             brought through the abdominal wall to create an artificial
             opening for the evacuation of the intestinal contents.  [ILEUM +
             Gk stoma mouth]

   ileum     n.  (pl.  ilea) Anat.  the third and last portion of the small
             intestine.  ЬЬileac adj.  [var. of ILIUM]

   ileus     n.  Med.  any painful obstruction of the intestine, esp. of the
             ileum.  [L f. Gk (e)ileos colic]

   ilex      n.  1 any tree or shrub of the genus Ilex, esp. the common
             holly.  2 the holm-oak.  [ME f. L]

   ilia      pl. of ILIUM.

   iliac     adj.  of the lower body or ilium (iliac artery).  [LL iliacus
             (as ILIUM)]

   ilium     n.  (pl.  ilia) 1 the bone forming the upper part of each half
             of the human pelvis.  2 the corresponding bone in animals.  [ME
             f. L]

   ilk       n.  1 colloq.  disp. a family, class, or set (not of the same
             ilk as you).  °Usu.  derog. and therefore best avoided.  2 (in
             of that ilk) Sc. of the same (name) (Guthrie of that ilk = of
             Guthrie).  [OE ilca same]

   Ill.      abbr.  Illinois.

   ill       adj., adv., & n.  --adj.  1 (usu.  predic.; often foll. by with)
             out of health; sick (is ill; was taken ill with pneumonia;
             mentally ill people).  2 (of health) unsound, disordered.  3
             wretched, unfavourable (ill fortune; ill luck).  4 harmful (ill
             effects).  5 hostile, unkind (ill feeling).  6 archaic morally
             bad.  7 faulty, unskilful (ill taste; ill management).  8 (of
             manners or conduct) improper.  --adv.  1 badly, wrongly
             (ill-matched).  2 a imperfectly (ill-provided).  b scarcely (can
             ill afford to do it).  3 unfavourably (it would have gone ill
             with them).  --n.  1 injury, harm.  2 evil; the opposite of
             good.  Ьdo an ill turn to harm (a person or a person's
             interests).  ill-advised 1 acting foolishly or imprudently.  2
             (of a plan etc.) not well formed or considered.  ill-advisedly
             in a foolish or badly considered manner.  ill-affected (foll. by
             towards) not well disposed.  ill-assorted not well matched.  ill
             at ease embarrassed, uneasy.  ill-behaved see BEHAVE.  ill blood
             bad feeling; animosity.  ill-bred badly brought up; rude.  ill
             breeding bad manners.  ill-considered = ill-advised.
             ill-defined not clearly defined.  ill-disposed 1 (often foll. by
             towards) unfavourably disposed.  2 disposed to evil; malevolent.
             ill-equipped (often foll. by to + infin.)  not adequately
             equipped or qualified.  ill fame see FAME.  ill-fated destined
             to or bringing bad fortune.  ill-favoured (US -favored)
             unattractive, displeasing, objectionable.  ill feeling bad
             feeling; animosity.  ill-founded (of an idea etc.) not well
             founded; baseless.  ill-gotten gained by wicked or unlawful
             means.  ill humour moroseness, irritability.  ill-humoured
             bad-tempered.  ill-judged unwise; badly considered.
             ill-mannered having bad manners; rude.  ill nature churlishness,
             unkindness.  ill-natured churlish, unkind.  ill-naturedly
             churlishly.  ill-omened attended by bad omens.  ill-starred
             unlucky; destined to failure.  ill success partial or complete
             failure.  ill temper moroseness.  ill-tempered morose,
             irritable.  ill-timed done or occurring at an inappropriate
             time.  ill-treat (or -use) treat badly; abuse.  ill-treatment
             (or ill use) abuse; bad treatment.  ill will bad feeling;
             animosity.  an ill wind an unfavourable or untoward circumstance
             (with ref. to the proverb it's an ill wind that blows nobody
             good).  speak ill of say something unfavourable about.  [ME f.
             ON illr, of unkn. orig.]

   I'll      contr.  I shall; I will.

   illation  n.  1 a deduction or conclusion.  2 a thing deduced.  [L illatio
             f.  illatus past part. of inferre INFER]

   illative  adj.  1 a (of a word) stating or introducing an inference.  b
             inferential.  2 Gram. (of a case) denoting motion into.
             ЬЬillatively adv.  [L illativus (as ILLATION)]

   illegal   adj.  1 not legal.  2 contrary to law.  ЬЬillegality n.  (pl.
             -ies).  illegally adv.  [F ill‚gal or med.L illegalis (as
             IN-(1), LEGAL)]

   illegible adj.  not legible.  ЬЬillegibility n.  illegibly adv.

             adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 (of a child) born of parents not
             married to each other.  2 not authorized by law; unlawful.  3
             improper.  4 wrongly inferred.  5 physiologically abnormal.
             --n.  a person whose position is illegitimate, esp. by birth.
             --v.tr.  declare or pronounce illegitimate.  ЬЬillegitimacy n.
             illegitimately adv.  [LL illegitimus, after LEGITIMATE]

   illiberal adj.  1 intolerant, narrow-minded.  2 without liberal culture.
             3 not generous; stingy.  4 vulgar, sordid.  ЬЬilliberality n.
             (pl.  -ies).  illiberally adv.  [F illib‚ral f. L illiberalis
             mean, sordid (as IN-(1), LIBERAL)]

   illicit   adj.  unlawful, forbidden (illicit dealings).  ЬЬillicitly adv.
             illicitness n.

             adj.  limitless.  ЬЬillimitability n.  illimitableness n.
             illimitably adv.  [LL illimitatus f. L limitatus (as IN-(1), L
             limitatus past part. of limitare LIMIT)]

   illiquid  adj.  (of assets) not easily converted into cash.  ЬЬilliquidity

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 unable to read.  2 uneducated.  --n. an
             illiterate person.  ЬЬilliteracy n.  illiterately adv.
             illiterateness n.  [L illitteratus (as IN-(1), litteratus

   illness   n.  1 a disease, ailment, or malady.  2 the state of being ill.

   illogical adj.  devoid of or contrary to logic.  ЬЬillogicality n.  (pl.
             -ies).  illogically adv.

   illude    v.tr.  literary trick or deceive.  [ME, = mock, f. L illudere
             (as ILLUSION)]

   illume    v.tr.  poet.  light up; make bright.  [shortening of ILLUMINE]

             n. & adj.  --n. a means of illumination.  --adj. serving to
             illuminate.  ЬЬilluminance n.  [L illuminant- part. stem of
             illuminare ILLUMINATE]

             v.tr.  1 light up; make bright.  2 decorate (buildings etc.)
             with lights as a sign of festivity.  3 decorate (an initial
             letter, a manuscript, etc.) with gold, silver, or brilliant
             colours.  4 help to explain (a subject etc.).  5 enlighten
             spiritually or intellectually.  6 shed lustre on.
             ЬЬilluminating adj.  illuminatingly adv.  illumination n.
             illuminative adj.  illuminator n.  [L illuminare (as IN-(2),
             lumen luminis light)]

             n.pl.  1 persons claiming to possess special knowledge or
             enlightenment.  2 (Illuminati) hist. any of various intellectual
             movements or societies of illuminati.  ЬЬilluminism n.
             illuminist n.  [pl. of L illuminatus or It.  illuminato past
             part. (as ILLUMINATE)]

   illumine  v.tr.  literary 1 light up; make bright.  2 enlighten
             spiritually.  [ME f. OF illuminer f. L (as ILLUMINATE)]

   illusion  n.  1 deception, delusion.  2 a misapprehension of the true
             state of affairs.  3 a the faulty perception of an external
             object.  b an instance of this.  4 a figment of the imagination.
             5 = optical illusion.  Ьbe under the illusion (foll. by that +
             clause) believe mistakenly.  ЬЬillusional adj.  [ME f. F f. L
             illusio -onis f.  illudere mock (as IN-(2), ludere lus- play)]

             n.  a person who produces illusions; a conjuror.  ЬЬillusionism
             n.  illusionistic adj.

   illusive  adj.  = ILLUSORY.  [med.L illusivus (as ILLUSION)]

   illusory  adj.  1 deceptive (esp. as regards value or content).  2 having
             the character of an illusion.  ЬЬillusorily adv.  illusoriness
             n.  [eccl.L illusorius (as ILLUSION)]

             v.tr.  1 a provide (a book, newspaper, etc.) with pictures.  b
             elucidate (a description etc.) by drawings or pictures.  2 serve
             as an example of.  3 explain or make clear, esp. by examples.
             [L illustrare (as IN-(2), lustrare light up)]

             n.  1 a drawing or picture illustrating a book, magazine
             article, etc.  2 an example serving to elucidate.  3 the act or
             an instance of illustrating.  ЬЬillustrational adj.  [ME f. OF
             f. L illustratio -onis (as ILLUSTRATE)]

             adj.  (often foll. by of) serving as an explanation or example.
             ЬЬillustratively adv.

             n.  a person who makes illustrations, esp. for magazines, books,
             advertising copy, etc.

             adj.  distinguished, renowned.  ЬЬillustriously adv.
             illustriousness n.  [L illustris (as ILLUSTRATE)]

   Illyrian  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to Illyria on the Balkan
             coast of the Adriatic (corresponding to parts of modern Albania
             and Yugoslavia).  2 of the language-group represented by modern
             Albanian.  --n.  1 a native of Illyria; a person of Illyrian
             descent.  2 a the language of Illyria.  b the language-group
             represented by modern Albanian.

             n.  Austral.  sl.  a professional trickster.  [20th c.: orig.

   ilmenite  n.  a black ore of titanium.  [Ilmen mountains in the Urals]

   ILO       abbr.  International Labour Organization.

   ILR       abbr.  Independent Local Radio.

   -ily      suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in - y (see
             -Y(1), -LY(2)).

12.0 im-...

   im-       prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before b, m, p.

   I'm       contr.  I am.

   image     n. & v.  --n.  1 a representation of the external form of an
             object, e.g.  a statue (esp. of a saint etc. as an object of
             veneration).  2 the character or reputation of a person or thing
             as generally perceived.  3 an optical appearance or counterpart
             produced by light or other radiation from an object reflected in
             a mirror, refracted through a lens, etc.  4 semblance, likeness
             (God created man in His own image).  5 a person or thing that
             closely resembles another (is the image of his father).  6 a
             typical example.  7 a simile or metaphor.  8 a a mental
             representation.  b an idea or conception.  9 Math. a set formed
             by mapping from another set.  --v.tr.  1 make an image of;
             portray.  2 reflect, mirror.  3 describe or imagine vividly.  4
             typify.  ЬЬimageable adj.  imageless adj.  [ME f. OF f. L imago
             -ginis, rel. to IMITATE]

   imagery   n.  1 figurative illustration, esp. as used by an author for
             particular effects.  2 images collectively.  3 statuary,
             carving.  4 mental images collectively.  [ME f. OF imagerie (as

             adj.  that can be imagined (the greatest difficulty imaginable).
             ЬЬimaginably adv.  [ME f. LL imaginabilis (as IMAGINE)]

   imaginal  adj.  1 of an image or images.  2 Zool. of an imago.  [L imago
             imagin-: see IMAGE]

   imaginary adj.  1 existing only in the imagination.  2 Math. being the
             square root of a negative quantity, and plotted graphically in a
             direction usu. perpendicular to the axis of real quantities (see
             REAL(1)).  ЬЬimaginarily adv.  [ME f. L imaginarius (as IMAGE)]

             n.  1 a mental faculty forming images or concepts of external
             objects not present to the senses.  2 the ability of the mind to
             be creative or resourceful.  3 the process of imagining.  [ME f.
             OF f. L imaginatio -onis (as IMAGINE)]

             adj.  1 having or showing in a high degree the faculty of
             imagination.  2 given to using the imagination.  ЬЬimaginatively
             adv.  imaginativeness n.  [ME f. OF imaginatif -ive f. med.L
             imaginativus (as IMAGINE)]

   imagine   v.tr.  1 a form a mental image or concept of.  b picture to
             oneself (something non-existent or not present to the senses).
             2 (often foll. by to + infin.) think or conceive (imagined them
             to be soldiers).  3 guess (cannot imagine what they are doing).
             4 (often foll. by that + clause) suppose; be of the opinion (I
             imagine you will need help).  5 (in imper.) as an exclamation of
             surprise (just imagine!).  ЬЬimaginer n.  [ME f. OF imaginer f.
             L imaginari (as IMAGE)]

   imagines  pl. of IMAGO.

             n.pl.  fancies, fantasies.

   imagism   n.  a movement in early 20th-c. poetry which sought clarity of
             expression through the use of precise images.  ЬЬimagist n.
             imagistic adj.

   imago     n.  (pl.  -os or imagines) 1 the final and fully developed stage
             of an insect after all metamorphoses, e.g. a butterfly or
             beetle.  2 Psychol. an idealized mental picture of oneself or
             others, esp. a parent.  [mod.L sense of imago IMAGE]

   imam      n.  1 a leader of prayers in a mosque.  2 a title of various
             Muslim leaders, esp. of one succeeding Muhammad as leader of
             Islam.  ЬЬimamate n.  [Arab. ' imam leader f. ' amma precede]

   imbalance n.  1 lack of balance.  2 disproportion.

   imbecile  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a person of abnormally weak intellect, esp.
             an adult with a mental age of about five.  2 colloq. a stupid
             person.  --adj. mentally weak; stupid, idiotic.  ЬЬimbecilely
             adv.  imbecilic adj.  imbecility n.  (pl.  -ies).  [F
             imb‚cil(l)e f. L imbecillus (as IN-(1), baculum stick) orig. in
             sense 'without supporting staff']

   imbed     var. of EMBED.

   imbibe    v.tr.  1 (also absol.) drink (esp. alcoholic liquor).  2 a
             absorb or assimilate (ideas etc.).  b absorb (moisture etc.).  3
             inhale (air etc.).  ЬЬimbiber n.  imbibition n.  [ME f. L
             imbibere (as IN-(2), bibere drink)]

   imbricate v. & adj.  --v.tr. & intr.  arrange (leaves, the scales of a
             fish, etc.), or be arranged, so as to overlap like roof-tiles.
             --adj.  having scales etc. arranged in this way.  ЬЬimbrication
             n.  [L imbricare imbricat- cover with rain-tiles f.  imbrex
             -icis rain-tile f.  imber shower]

   imbroglio n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a confused or complicated situation.  2 a
             confused heap.  [It.  imbrogliare confuse (as EMBROIL)]

   imbrue    v.tr.  (foll. by in, with) literary stain (one's hand, sword,
             etc.).  [OF embruer bedabble (as IN-(2), breu ult. f. Gmc, rel.
             to BROTH)]

   imbue     v.tr.  (imbues, imbued, imbuing) (often foll. by with) 1 inspire
             or permeate (with feelings, opinions, or qualities).  2
             saturate.  3 dye.  [orig. as past part., f. F imbu or L imbutus
             f.  imbuere moisten]

   I.Mech.E. abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

   IMF       abbr.  International Monetary Fund.

   imide     n.  Chem.  an organic compound containing the group
             (-CO.NH.CO.-) formed by replacing two of the hydrogen atoms in
             ammonia by carbonyl groups.  [orig. F: arbitrary alt. of AMIDE]

   imine     n.  Chem.  a compound containing the group (-NH-) formed by
             replacing two of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia by other groups.
             [G Imin arbitrary alt. of Amin AMINE]

   I.Min.E.  abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Mining Engineers.

   imitate   v.tr.  1 follow the example of; copy the action(s) of.  2 mimic.
             3 make a copy of; reproduce.  4 be (consciously or not) like.
             ЬЬimitable adj.  imitator n.  [L imitari imitat-, rel. to imago

   imitation n.  1 the act or an instance of imitating or being imitated.  2
             a copy.  3 counterfeit (often attrib.: imitation leather).  4
             Mus. the repetition of a phrase etc., usu. at a different pitch,
             in another part or voice.  [F imitation or L imitatio (as

   imitative adj.  1 (often foll. by of) imitating; following a model or
             example.  2 counterfeit.  3 of a word: a that reproduces a
             natural sound (e.g.  fizz).  b whose sound is thought to
             correspond to the appearance etc.  of the object or action
             described (e.g.  blob).  Ьimitative arts painting and sculpture.
             ЬЬimitatively adv.  imitativeness n.  [LL imitativus (as

             adj.  1 pure, spotless; perfectly clean.  2 perfectly or
             extremely well executed (an immaculate performance).  3 free
             from fault; innocent.  4 Biol. not spotted.  ЬImmaculate
             Conception RC Ch.  the doctrine that God preserved the Virgin
             Mary from the taint of original sin from the moment she was
             conceived.  ЬЬimmaculacy n.  immaculately adv.  immaculateness
             n.  [ME f. L immaculatus (as IN-(1), maculatus f.  macula spot)]

   immanent  adj.  1 (often foll. by in) indwelling, inherent.  2 (of the
             supreme being) permanently pervading the universe (opp.
             TRANSCENDENT).  ЬЬimmanence n.  immanency n.  immanentism n.
             immanentist n.  [LL immanere (as IN-(2), manere remain)]

             adj.  1 of no essential consequence; unimportant.  2 not
             material; incorporeal.  ЬЬimmateriality n.  immaterialize v.tr.
             (also -ise).  immaterially adv.  [ME f. LL immaterialis (as
             IN-(1), MATERIAL)]

             n.  the doctrine that matter has no objective existence.
             ЬЬimmaterialist n.

   immature  adj.  1 not mature or fully developed.  2 lacking emotional or
             intellectual development.  3 unripe.  ЬЬimmaturely adv.
             immaturity n.  [L immaturus (as IN-(1), MATURE)]

             adj.  not measurable; immense.  ЬЬimmeasurability n.
             immeasurableness n.  immeasurably adv.

   immediate adj.  1 occurring or done at once or without delay (an immediate
             reply).  2 nearest, next; not separated by others (the immediate
             vicinity; the immediate future; my immediate neighbour).  3 most
             pressing or urgent (our immediate concern was to get him to
             hospital).  4 (of a relation or action) having direct effect;
             without an intervening medium or agency (the immediate cause of
             death).  5 (of knowledge) intuitive, gained without reasoning.
             ЬЬimmediacy n.  immediateness n.  [ME f. F imm‚diat or LL
             immediatus (as IN-(1), MEDIATE)]

             adj. & conj.  --adv.  1 without pause or delay.  2 without
             intermediary.  --conj. as soon as.

             adj.  that cannot be healed or cured.  ЬЬimmedicably adv.  [L
             immedicabilis (as IN-(1), MEDICABLE)]

             adj.  1 ancient beyond memory or record.  2 very old.
             ЬЬimmemorially adv.  [med.L immemorialis (as IN-(1), MEMORIAL)]

   immense   adj.  1 immeasurably large or great; huge.  2 very great;
             considerable (made an immense difference).  3 colloq. very good.
             ЬЬimmenseness n.  immensity n.  [ME f. F f. L immensus
             immeasurable (as IN-(1), mensus past part. of metiri measure)]

   immensely adv.  1 very much (enjoyed myself immensely).  2 to an immense

   immerse   v.tr.  1 a (often foll. by in) dip, plunge.  b cause (a person)
             to be completely under water.  2 (often refl. or in passive;
             often foll. by in) absorb or involve deeply.  3 (often foll. by
             in) bury, embed.  [L immergere (as IN-(2), mergere mers- dip)]

   immersion n.  1 the act or an instance of immersing; the process of being
             immersed.  2 baptism by immersing the whole person in water.  3
             mental absorption.  4 Astron. the disappearance of a celestial
             body behind another or in its shadow.  Ьimmersion heater an
             electric heater designed for direct immersion in a liquid to be
             heated, esp. as a fixture in a hot-water tank.  [ME f. LL
             immersio (as IMMERSE)]

   immigrant n. & adj.  --n. a person who immigrates.  --adj.  1 immigrating.
             2 of or concerning immigrants.

   immigrate v.  1 intr. come as a permanent resident to a country other than
             one's native land.  2 tr. bring in (a person) as an immigrant.
             ЬЬimmigration n.  immigratory adj.  [L immigrare (as IN-(2),

   imminent  adj.  1 (of an event, esp. danger) impending; about to happen.
             2 archaic overhanging.  ЬЬimminence n.  imminently adv.  [L
             imminere imminent- overhang, project]

             adj.  (often foll. by with) that cannot be mixed.
             ЬЬimmiscibility n.  immiscibly adv.  [LL immiscibilis (as
             IN-(1), MISCIBLE)]

             adj.  that cannot be mitigated.  ЬЬimmitigably adv.  [LL
             immitigabilis (as IN-(1), MITIGATE)]

             n.  Electr.  admittance or impedance (when not distinguished).
             [impedance + ad mittance]

   immixture n.  1 the process of mixing up.  2 (often foll. by in) being

   immobile  adj.  1 not moving.  2 not able to move or be moved.
             ЬЬimmobility n.  [ME f. OF f. L immobilis (as IN-(1), MOBILE)]

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make or keep immobile.  2 make (a vehicle
             or troops) incapable of being moved.  3 keep (a limb or patient)
             restricted in movement for healing purposes.  4 restrict the
             free movement of.  5 withdraw (coins) from circulation to
             support banknotes.  ЬЬimmobilization n.  immobilizer n.  [F
             immobiliser (as IMMOBILE)]

             adj.  excessive; lacking moderation.  ЬЬimmoderately adv.
             immoderateness n.  immoderation n.  [ME f. L immoderatus (as
             IN-(1), MODERATE)]

   immodest  adj.  1 lacking modesty; forward, impudent.  2 lacking due
             decency.  ЬЬimmodestly adv.  immodesty n.  [F immodeste or L
             immodestus (as IN-(1), MODEST)]

   immolate  v.tr.  1 kill or offer as a sacrifice.  2 literary sacrifice (a
             valued thing).  ЬЬimmolation n.  immolator n.  [L immolare
             sprinkle with sacrificial meal (as IN-(2), mola MEAL(2))]

   immoral   adj.  1 not conforming to accepted standards of morality (cf.
             AMORAL).  2 morally wrong (esp. in sexual matters).  3 depraved,
             dissolute.  ЬЬimmorality n.  (pl.  -ies).  immorally adv.

   immortal  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a living for ever; not mortal.  b divine.
             2 unfading, incorruptible.  3 likely or worthy to be famous for
             all time.  --n.  1 a an immortal being.  b (in pl.) the gods of
             antiquity.  2 a person (esp. an author) of enduring fame.  3
             (Immortal) a member of the French Academy.  ЬЬimmortality n.
             immortalize v.tr.  (also -ise).  immortalization n.  immortally
             adv.  [ME f. L immortalis (as IN-(1), MORTAL)]

             n.  a composite flower of papery texture retaining its shape and
             colour after being dried, esp. a helichrysum.  [F, fem. of
             immortel IMMORTAL]

   immovable adj. & n.  (also immoveable) --adj.  1 that cannot be moved.  2
             steadfast, unyielding.  3 emotionless.  4 not subject to change
             (immovable law).  5 motionless.  6 Law (of property) consisting
             of land, houses, etc.  --n. (in pl.) Law immovable property.
             Ьimmovable feast a religious feast-day that occurs on the same
             date each year.  ЬЬimmovability n.  immovableness n.  immovably

   immune    adj.  1 a (often foll. by against, from, to) protected against
             an infection owing to the presence of specific antibodies, or
             through inoculation or inherited or acquired resistance.  b
             relating to immunity (immune mechanism).  2 (foll. by from, to)
             free or exempt from or not subject to (some undesirable factor
             or circumstance).  Ьimmune response the reaction of the body to
             the introduction into it of an antigen.  [ME f. L immunis exempt
             from public service or charge (as IN-(1), munis ready for
             service): sense 1 f. F immun]

   immunity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 Med. the ability of an organism to resist
             infection, by means of the presence of circulating antibodies
             and white blood cells.  2 freedom or exemption from an
             obligation, penalty, or unfavourable circumstance.  [ME f. L
             immunitas (as IMMUNE): sense 1 f. F immunit‚]

   immunize  v.tr.  (also -ise) make immune, esp. to infection, usu. by
             inoculation.  ЬЬimmunization n.  immunizer n.

   immuno-   comb. form immunity to infection.

             n.  Biochem.  the determination of the presence or quantity of a
             substance, esp. a protein, through its properties as an antigen
             or antibody.

             n.  the chemistry of immune systems, esp. in mammalian tissues.

             n.  a reduction in a person's normal immune defences.

             adj.  Biochem.  of, relating to, or possessing the ability to
             elicit an immune response.

             n.  Biochem.  any of a group of structurally related proteins
             which function as antibodies.

             n.  the scientific study of immunity.  ЬЬimmunologic adj.
             immunological adj.  immunologically adv.  immunologist n.

             adj.  (of an individual) rendered partially or completely unable
             to react immunologically.

             n.  Biochem.  the partial or complete suppression of the immune
             response of an individual, esp. to maintain the survival of an
             organ after a transplant operation.  ЬЬimmunosuppressant n.

             adj. & n.  --adj. partially or completely suppressing the immune
             response of an individual.  --n. an immunosuppressive drug.

             n.  Med.  the prevention or treatment of disease with substances
             that stimulate the immune response.

   immure    v.tr.  1 enclose within walls; imprison.  2 refl. shut oneself
             away.  ЬЬimmurement n.  [F emmurer or med.L immurare (as IN-(2),
             murus wall)]

   immutable adj.  1 unchangeable.  2 not subject to variation in different
             cases.  ЬЬimmutability n.  immutably adv.  [ME f. L immutabilis
             (as IN-(1), MUTABLE)]

   imp       n. & v.  --n.  1 a mischievous child.  2 a small mischievous
             devil or sprite.  --v.tr.  1 add feathers to (the wing of a
             falcon) to restore or improve its flight.  2 archaic enlarge;
             add by grafting.  [OE impa, impe young shoot, scion, impian
             graft: ult. f. Gk emphutos implanted, past part. of emphuo]

   impact    n. & v.  --n.  1 (often foll. by on, against) the action of one
             body coming forcibly into contact with another.  2 an effect or
             influence, esp. when strong.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in,
             into) press or fix firmly.  2 (as impacted adj.) a (of a tooth)
             wedged between another tooth and the jaw.  b (of a fractured
             bone) with the parts crushed together.  c (of faeces) lodged in
             the intestine.  ЬЬimpaction n.  [L impact- part. stem of
             impingere IMPINGE]

   impair    v.tr.  damage or weaken.  ЬЬimpairment n.  [ME empeire f. OF
             empeirier (as IN-(2), LL pejorare f. L pejor worse)]

   impala    n.  (pl. same) a small antelope, Aepyceros melampus, of S. and
             E. Africa, capable of long high jumps.  [Zulu]

   impale    v.tr.  1 (foll. by on, upon, with) transfix or pierce with a
             sharp instrument.  2 Heraldry combine (two coats of arms) by
             placing them side by side on one shield separated by a vertical
             line down the middle.  ЬЬimpalement n.  [F empaler or med.L
             impalare (as IN-(2), palus stake)]

             adj.  1 not easily grasped by the mind; intangible.  2
             imperceptible to the touch.  3 (of powder) very fine; not
             containing grains that can be felt.  ЬЬimpalpability n.
             impalpably adv.  [F impalpable or LL impalpabilis (as IN-(1),

   impanel   var. of EMPANEL.

   impark    v.tr.  1 enclose (animals) in a park.  2 enclose (land) for a
             park.  [ME f. AF enparker, OF emparquer (as IN-(2), parc PARK)]

   impart    v.tr.  (often foll. by to) 1 communicate (news etc.).  2 give a
             share of (a thing).  ЬЬimpartable adj.  impartation n.
             impartment n.  [ME f. OF impartir f. L impartire (as IN-(2),
             pars part)]

   impartial adj.  treating all sides in a dispute etc. equally;
             unprejudiced, fair.  ЬЬimpartiality n.  impartially adv.

             adj.  that cannot be traversed.  ЬЬimpassability n.
             impassableness n.  impassably adv.

   impasse   n.  a position from which progress is impossible; deadlock.  [F
             (as IN-(1), passer PASS(1))]

             adj.  1 impassive.  2 incapable of feeling or emotion.  3
             incapable of suffering injury.  4 Theol. not subject to
             suffering.  ЬЬimpassibility n.  impassibleness n.  impassibly
             adv.  [ME f. OF f. eccl.L impassibilis (as IN-(1), PASSIBLE)]

   impassion v.tr.  fill with passion; arouse emotionally.  [It.
             impassionare (as IN-(2), PASSION)]

             adj.  deeply felt; ardent (an impassioned plea).

   impassive adj.  1 a deficient in or incapable of feeling emotion.  b
             undisturbed by passion; serene.  2 without sensation.  3 not
             subject to suffering.  ЬЬimpassively adv.  impassiveness n.
             impassivity n.

   impasto   n.  Art 1 the process of laying on paint thickly.  2 this
             technique of painting.  [It.  impastare (as IN-(2), pastare

   impatiens n.  any plant of the genus Impatiens, including busy Lizzie and
             touch-me-not.  [mod.L f.  IMPATIENT]

   impatient adj.  1 a (often foll. by at, with) lacking patience or
             tolerance.  b (of an action) showing a lack of patience.  2
             (often foll. by for, or to + infin.) restlessly eager.  3 (foll.
             by of) intolerant.  ЬЬimpatience n.  impatiently adv.  [ME f. OF
             f. L impatiens (as IN-(1), PATIENT)]

   impeach   v.tr.  1 Brit. charge with a crime against the State, esp.
             treason.  2 US charge (the holder of a public office) with
             misconduct.  3 call in question, disparage (a person's integrity
             etc.).  ЬЬimpeachable adj.  impeachment n.  [ME f. OF empecher
             impede f. LL impedicare entangle (as IN-(2), pedica fetter f.
             pes pedis foot)]

             adj.  1 (of behaviour, performance, etc.) faultless, exemplary.
             2 not liable to sin.  ЬЬimpeccability n.  impeccably adv.  [L
             impeccabilis (as IN-(1), peccare sin)]

             adj.  having little or no money.  ЬЬimpecuniosity n.
             impecuniousness n.  [IN-(1) + obs.  pecunious having money f. L
             pecuniosus f.  pecunia money f.  pecu cattle]

   impedance n.  1 Electr. the total effective resistance of an electric
             circuit etc. to alternating current, arising from ohmic
             resistance and reactance.  2 an analogous mechanical property.
             [IMPEDE + -ANCE]

   impede    v.tr.  retard by obstructing; hinder.  [L impedire shackle the
             feet of (as IN-(2), pes foot)]

             n.  1 a hindrance or obstruction.  2 a defect in speech, e.g. a
             lisp or stammer.  ЬЬimpedimental adj.  [ME f. L impedimentum (as

             n.pl.  1 encumbrances.  2 travelling equipment, esp. of an army.
             [L, pl. of impedimentum: see IMPEDIMENT]

   impel     v.tr.  (impelled, impelling) 1 drive, force, or urge into
             action.  2 drive forward; propel.  ЬЬimpellent adj. & n.
             impeller n.  [ME f. L impellere (as IN-(2), pellere puls-

   impend    v.intr.  1 be about to happen.  2 (often foll. by over) a (of a
             danger) be threatening.  b hang; be suspended.  ЬЬimpending adj.
             [L impendere (as IN-(2), pendere hang)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be penetrated.  2 inscrutable, unfathomable.
             3 inaccessible to ideas, influences, etc.  4 Physics (of matter)
             having the property such that a body is incapable of occupying
             the same place as another body at the same time.
             ЬЬimpenetrability n.  impenetrableness n.  impenetrably adv.
             [ME f. F imp‚n‚trable f. L impenetrabilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  not repentant or penitent.  ЬЬimpenitence n.  impenitency
             n.  impenitently adv.  [eccl.L impaenitens (as IN-(1),

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 urgent.  2 obligatory.  3 commanding,
             peremptory.  4 Gram. (of a mood) expressing a command (e.g.
             come here!).  --n.  1 Gram. the imperative mood.  2 a command.
             ЬЬimperatival adj.  imperatively adv.  imperativeness n.  [LL
             imperativus f.  imperare command (as IN-(2), parare make ready)]

   imperator n.  Rom.Hist.  commander (a title conferred under the Republic
             on a victorious general and under the Empire on the emperor).
             ЬЬimperatorial adj.  [L (as IMPERATIVE)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be perceived.  2 very slight, gradual, or
             subtle.  ЬЬimperceptibility n.  imperceptibly adv.  [F
             imperceptible or med.L imperceptibilis (as IN-(1), PERCEPTIBLE)]

             adj.  lacking in perception.  ЬЬimpercipience n.

   imperfect adj. & n.  --adj.  1 not fully formed or done; faulty,
             incomplete.  2 Gram. (of a tense) denoting a (usu. past) action
             in progress but not completed at the time in question (e.g.
             they were singing).  3 Mus. (of a cadence) ending on the
             dominant chord.  --n. the imperfect tense.  Ьimperfect rhyme
             Prosody a rhyme that only partly satisfies the usual criteria
             (e.g.  love and move).  ЬЬimperfectly adv.  [ME imparfit etc. f.
             OF imparfait f. L imperfectus (as IN-(1), PERFECT)]

             n.  1 incompleteness.  2 a faultiness.  b a fault or blemish.
             [ME f. OF imperfection or LL imperfectio (as IMPERFECT)]

             adj. & n.  Gram.  --adj. (of a verb aspect etc.) expressing an
             action without reference to its completion (opp.  PERFECTIVE).
             --n. an imperfective aspect or form of a verb.

             adj.  1 not perforated.  2 Anat. lacking the normal opening.  3
             (of a postage stamp) lacking perforations.

   imperial  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or characteristic of an empire or
             comparable sovereign State.  2 a of or characteristic of an
             emperor.  b supreme in authority.  c majestic, august.  d
             magnificent.  3 (of non-metric weights and measures) used or
             formerly used by statute in the UK (imperial gallon).  --n. a
             former size of paper, 762 x 559 mm (30 x 22 inches).
             ЬЬimperially adv.  [ME f. OF f. L imperialis f.  imperium
             command, authority]

             n.  1 an imperial rule or system.  2 usu.  derog. a policy of
             acquiring dependent territories or extending a country's
             influence through trade, diplomacy, etc.  ЬЬimperialistic adj.
             imperialistically adv.  imperialize v.tr.  (also -ise).

             n. & adj.  --n. usu.  derog. an advocate or agent of imperial
             rule or of imperialism.  --adj. of or relating to imperialism or

   imperil   v.tr.  (imperilled, imperilling; US imperiled, imperiling) bring
             or put into danger.

   imperious adj.  1 overbearing, domineering.  2 urgent, imperative.
             ЬЬimperiously adv.  imperiousness n.  [L imperiosus f.  imperium
             command, authority]

             adj.  that cannot perish.  ЬЬimperishability n.
             imperishableness n.  imperishably adv.

   imperium  n.  absolute power or authority.  [L, = command, authority]

             adj.  not permanent; transient.  ЬЬimpermanence n.  impermanency
             n.  impermanently adv.

             adj.  1 that cannot be penetrated.  2 Physics that does not
             permit the passage of fluids.  ЬЬimpermeability n.  [F
             imperm‚able or LL impermeabilis (as IN-(1), PERMEABLE)]

             adj.  not allowable.  ЬЬimpermissibility n.

             adj.  1 having no personality.  2 having no personal feeling or
             reference.  3 Gram.  a (of a verb) used only with a formal
             subject (usu.  it) and expressing an action not attributable to
             a definite subject (e.g.  it is snowing).  b (of a pronoun) =
             INDEFINITE.  ЬЬimpersonality n.  impersonally adv.  [LL
             impersonalis (as IN-(1), PERSONAL)]

             v.tr.  1 pretend to be (another person) for the purpose of
             entertainment or fraud.  2 act (a character).  ЬЬimpersonation
             n.  impersonator n.  [IN-(2) + L persona PERSON]

             adj.  1 rude or insolent; lacking proper respect.  2 out of
             place; absurd.  3 esp. Law irrelevant, intrusive.
             ЬЬimpertinence n.  impertinently adv.  [ME f. OF or LL
             impertinens (as IN-(1), PERTINENT)]

             adj.  not excitable; calm.  ЬЬimperturbability n.
             imperturbableness n.  imperturbably adv.  [ME f. LL
             imperturbabilis (as IN-(1), PERTURB)]

             adj.  (usu. foll. by to) 1 not responsive to an argument etc.  2
             not affording passage to a fluid.  ЬЬimperviously adv.
             imperviousness n.  [L impervius (as IN-(1), PERVIOUS)]

   impetigo  n.  a contagious bacterial skin infection forming pustules and
             yellow crusty sores.  ЬЬimpetiginous adj.  [ME f. L impetigo
             -ginis f.  impetere assail]

   impetuous adj.  1 acting or done rashly or with sudden energy.  2 moving
             forcefully or rapidly.  ЬЬimpetuosity n.  impetuously adv.
             impetuousness n.  [ME f. OF impetueux f. LL impetuosus (as

   impetus   n.  1 the force or energy with which a body moves.  2 a driving
             force or impulse.  [L, = assault, force, f.  impetere assail (as
             IN-(2), petere seek)]

   impi      n.  (pl.  impis) S.Afr.  1 a band of armed men.  2 hist. an
             African tribal army or regiment.  [Zulu, = regiment, armed band]

   impiety   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a lack of piety or reverence.  2 an act etc.
             showing this.  [ME f. OF impiet‚ or L impietas (as IN-(1),

   impinge   v.tr.  (usu. foll. by on, upon) 1 make an impact; have an
             effect.  2 encroach.  ЬЬimpingement n.  impinger n.  [L
             impingere drive (a thing) at (as IN-(2), pangere fix, drive)]

   impious   adj.  1 not pious.  2 wicked, profane.  ЬЬimpiously adv.
             impiousness n.  [L impius (as IN-(1), PIOUS)]

   impish    adj.  of or like an imp; mischievous.  ЬЬimpishly adv.
             impishness n.

             adj.  that cannot be appeased; inexorable.  ЬЬimplacability n.
             implacably adv.  [ME f. F implacable or L implacabilis (as
             IN-(1), PLACABLE)]

   implant   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in) insert or fix.  2 (often
             foll. by in) instil (a principle, idea, etc.) in a person's
             mind.  3 plant.  4 Med.  a insert (tissue etc.) in a living
             body.  b (in passive) (of a fertilized ovum) become attached to
             the wall of the womb.  --n.  n.  1 a thing implanted.  2 a thing
             implanted in the body, e.g. a piece of tissue or a capsule
             containing material for radium therapy.  ЬЬimplantation n.  [F
             implanter or LL implantare engraft (as IN-(2), PLANT)]

             adj.  not plausible.  ЬЬimplausibility n.  implausibly adv.

   implead   v.tr.  Law 1 prosecute or take proceedings against (a person).
             2 involve (a person etc.) in a suit.  [ME f. AF empleder, OF
             empleidier (as EN-(1), PLEAD)]

   implement n. & v.  --n.  1 a tool, instrument, or utensil.  2 (in pl.)
             equipment; articles of furniture, dress, etc.  3 Law performance
             of an obligation.  --v.tr.  1 a put (a decision, plan, etc.)
             into effect.  b fulfil (an undertaking).  2 complete (a contract
             etc.).  3 fill up; supplement.  ЬЬimplementation n.  [ME f.
             med.L implementa (pl.) f.  implere employ (as IN-(2), L plere
             plet- fill)]

   implicate v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in) show (a person) to be
             concerned or involved (in a charge, crime, etc.).  2 (in
             passive; often foll. by in) be affected or involved.  3 lead to
             as a consequence or inference.  --n.  a thing implied.
             ЬЬimplicative adj.  implicatively adv.  [L implicatus past part.
             of implicare (as IN-(2), plicare, plicat- or plicit- fold)]

             n.  1 what is involved in or implied by something else.  2 the
             act of implicating or implying.  Ьby implication by what is
             implied or suggested rather than by formal expression.  [ME f. L
             implicatio (as IMPLICATE)]

   implicit  adj.  1 implied though not plainly expressed.  2 (often foll. by
             in) virtually contained.  3 absolute, unquestioning, unreserved
             (implicit obedience).  4 Math. (of a function) not expressed
             directly in terms of independent variables.  ЬЬimplicitly adv.
             implicitness n.  [F implicite or L implicitus (as IMPLICATE)]

   implode   v.intr. & tr.  burst or cause to burst inwards.  ЬЬimplosion n.
             implosive adj.  [IN-(2) + L - plodere, after EXPLODE]

   implore   v.tr.  1 (often foll. by to + infin.) entreat (a person).  2 beg
             earnestly for.  ЬЬimploringly adv.  [F implorer or L implorare
             invoke with tears (as IN-(2), plorare weep)]

   imply     v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 (often foll. by that + clause) strongly
             suggest the truth or existence of (a thing not expressly
             asserted).  2 insinuate, hint (what are you implying?).  3
             signify.  ЬЬimplied adj.  impliedly adv.  [ME f. OF emplier f. L
             implicare (as IMPLICATE)]

   impolder  v.tr.  (also empolder) Brit.  1 make a polder of.  2 reclaim
             from the sea.  [Du.  inpolderen (as IN-(2), POLDER)]

   impolite  adj.  (impolitest) ill-mannered, uncivil, rude.  ЬЬimpolitely
             adv.  impoliteness n.  [L impolitus (as IN-(1), POLITE)]

   impolitic adj.  1 inexpedient, unwise.  2 not politic.  ЬЬimpoliticly adv.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 that cannot be estimated or assessed in any
             definite way.  2 very light.  3 Physics having no weight.  --n.
             (usu. in pl.) something difficult or impossible to assess.
             ЬЬimponderability n.  imponderably adv.

   import    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 bring in (esp. foreign goods or services) to
             a country.  2 (often foll. by that + clause) a imply, indicate,
             signify.  b express, make known.  --n.  1 the process of
             importing.  2 a an imported article or service.  b (in pl.) an
             amount imported (imports exceeded њ50m.).  3 what is implied;
             meaning.  4 importance.  ЬЬimportable adj.  importation n.
             importer n. (all in sense 1 of v.).  [ME f. L importare bring
             in, in med.L = imply, be of consequence (as IN-(2), portare

             n.  1 the state of being important.  2 weight, significance.  3
             personal consequence; dignity.  [F f. med.L importantia (as

   important adj.  1 (often foll. by to) of great effect or consequence;
             momentous.  2 (of a person) having high rank or status, or great
             authority.  3 pretentious, pompous.  4 (absol. in parenthetic
             construction) what is a more important point or matter (they are
             willing and, more important, able).  °Use of importantly here is
             disp.  ЬЬimportantly adv.  (see note above).  [F f. med.L (as

             adj.  1 making persistent or pressing requests.  2 (of affairs)
             urgent.  ЬЬimportunately adv.  importunity n.  [L importunus
             inconvenient (as IN-(1), portunus f.  portus harbour)]

   importune v.tr.  1 solicit (a person) pressingly.  2 solicit for an
             immoral purpose.  [F importuner or med.L importunari (as

   impose    v.  1 tr. (often foll. by on, upon) require (a tax, duty,
             charge, or obligation) to be paid or undertaken (by a person
             etc.).  2 tr. enforce compliance with.  3 intr. & refl. (foll.
             by on, upon, or absol.) demand the attention or commitment of (a
             person); take advantage of (I do not want to impose on you any
             longer; I did not want to impose).  4 tr. (often foll. by on,
             upon) palm (a thing) off on (a person).  5 tr.  Printing lay
             (pages of type) in the proper order ready for printing.  6 intr.
             (foll. by on, upon) exert influence by an impressive character
             or appearance.  7 intr. (often foll. by on, upon) practise
             deception.  8 tr.  archaic (foll. by upon) place (a thing).  [ME
             f. F imposer f. L imponere imposit- inflict, deceive (as IN-(2),
             ponere put)]

   imposing  adj.  impressive, formidable, esp. in appearance.  ЬЬimposingly
             adv.  imposingness n.

             n.  1 the act or an instance of imposing; the process of being
             imposed.  2 an unfair or resented demand or burden.  3 a tax or
             duty.  4 Brit. work set as a punishment at school.  [ME f. OF
             imposition or L impositio f.  imponere: see IMPOSE]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the fact or condition of being impossible.  2
             an impossible thing or circumstance.  [F impossibilit‚ or L
             impossibilitas (as IMPOSSIBLE)]

             adj.  1 not possible; that cannot occur, exist, or be done (such
             a thing is impossible; it is impossible to alter them).  2
             (loosely) not easy; not convenient; not easily believable.  3
             colloq. (of a person or thing) outrageous, intolerable.
             ЬЬimpossibly adv.  [ME f. OF impossible or L impossibilis (as
             IN-(1), POSSIBLE)]

   impost(1) n.  1 a tax, duty, or tribute.  2 a weight carried by a horse in
             a handicap race.  [F f. med.L impost- part. stem of L imponere:
             see IMPOSE]

   impost(2) n.  the upper course of a pillar, carrying an arch.  [F imposte
             or It.  imposta fem. past part. of imporre f. L imponere: see

   impostor  n.  (also imposter) 1 a person who assumes a false character or
             pretends to be someone else.  2 a swindler.  ЬЬimpostorous adj.
             impostrous adj.  [F imposteur f. LL impostor (as IMPOST(1))]

   imposture n.  the act or an instance of fraudulent deception.  [F f. LL
             impostura (as IMPOST(1))]

   impotent  adj.  1 a powerless; lacking all strength.  b helpless,
             decrepit.  2 (esp. of a male) unable, esp. for a prolonged
             period, to achieve a sexual erection or orgasm.  ЬЬimpotence n.
             impotency n.  impotently adv.  [ME f. OF f. L impotens (as
             IN-(1), POTENT(1))]

   impound   v.tr.  1 confiscate.  2 take possession of.  3 shut up (animals)
             in a pound.  4 shut up (a person or thing) as in a pound.  5 (of
             a dam etc.) collect or confine (water).  ЬЬimpoundable adj.
             impounder n.  impoundment n.

             v.tr.  1 make poor.  2 exhaust the strength or natural fertility
             of.  ЬЬimpoverishment n.  [ME f. OF empoverir (as EN-(1), povre

             adj.  1 impossible in practice.  2 (of a road etc.) impassable.
             3 (of a person or thing) unmanageable.  ЬЬimpracticability n.
             impracticableness n.  impracticably adv.

             adj.  1 not practical.  2 esp.  US not practicable.
             ЬЬimpracticality n.  impractically adv.

   imprecate v.tr.  (often foll. by upon) invoke, call down (evil).
             ЬЬimprecatory adj.  [L imprecari (as IN-(2), precari pray)]

             n.  1 a spoken curse; a malediction.  2 imprecating.

   imprecise adj.  not precise.  ЬЬimprecisely adv.  impreciseness n.
             imprecision n.

             adj.  1 (of a fortified position) that cannot be taken by force.
             2 resistant to attack or criticism.  ЬЬimpregnability n.
             impregnably adv.  [ME f. OF imprenable (as IN-(1), prendre

             adj.  that can be impregnated.

             v. & adj.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by with) fill or saturate.  2
             (often foll. by with) imbue, fill (with feelings, moral
             qualities, etc.).  3 a make (a female) pregnant.  b Biol.
             fertilize (a female reproductive cell or ovum).  --adj.  1
             pregnant.  2 (often foll. by with) permeated.  ЬЬimpregnation n.
             [LL impregnare impregnat- (as IN-(2), pregnare be pregnant)]

             n.  (pl.  -os) an organizer of public entertainments, esp. the
             manager of an operatic, theatrical, or concert company.  [It. f.
             impresa undertaking]

             adj.  Law (of rights) that cannot be taken away by prescription
             or lapse of time.  [med.L imprescriptibilis (as IN-(1),

             v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by with) a affect or influence
             deeply.  b evoke a favourable opinion or reaction from (a
             person) (was most impressed with your efforts).  2 (often foll.
             by on) emphasize (an idea etc.) (must impress on you the need to
             be prompt).  3 (often foll. by on) a imprint or stamp.  b apply
             (a mark etc.) with pressure.  4 make a mark or design on (a
             thing) with a stamp, seal, etc.  5 Electr. apply (voltage etc.)
             from outside.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of impressing.  2
             a mark made by a seal, stamp, etc.  3 a characteristic mark or
             quality.  4 = IMPRESSION 1.  ЬЬimpressible adj.  [ME f. OF
             empresser (as EN-(1), PRESS(1))]

             v.tr.  hist.  1 force (men) to serve in the army or navy.  2
             seize (goods etc.) for public service.  ЬЬimpressment n.
             [IN-(2) + PRESS(2)]

             n.  1 an effect produced (esp. on the mind or feelings).  2 a
             notion or belief (esp. a vague or mistaken one) (my impression
             is they are afraid).  3 an imitation of a person or sound, esp.
             done to entertain.  4 a the impressing of a mark.  b a mark
             impressed.  5 an unaltered reprint from standing type or plates
             (esp.  as distinct from edition).  6 a the number of copies of a
             book, newspaper, etc., issued at one time.  b the printing of
             these.  7 a print taken from a wood engraving.  8 Dentistry a
             negative copy of the teeth or mouth made by pressing them into a
             soft substance.  ЬЬimpressional adj.  [ME f. OF f. L impressio
             -onis f.  imprimere impress- (as IN-(2), PRESS(1))]

             adj.  easily influenced; susceptible to impressions.
             ЬЬimpressionability n.  impressionably adv.  [F impressionnable
             f.  impressionner (as IMPRESSION)]

             n.  1 a style or movement in art concerned with expression of
             feeling by visual impression, esp. from the effect of light on
             objects.  2 a style of music or writing that seeks to describe a
             feeling or experience rather than achieve accurate depiction or
             systematic structure.  ЬЬimpressionist n.  [F impressionnisme
             (after Impression: Soleil levant, title of a painting by Monet,

             adj.  1 in the style of impressionism.  2 subjective,
             unsystematic.  ЬЬimpressionistically adv.

             adj.  1 impressing the mind or senses, esp. so as to cause
             approval or admiration.  2 (of language, a scene, etc.) tending
             to excite deep feeling.  ЬЬimpressively adv.  impressiveness n.

   imprest   n.  money advanced to a person for use in State business.
             [orig.  in prest f. OF prest loan, advance pay: see PRESS(2)]

             n.  1 RC Ch. an official licence to print (an ecclesiastical or
             religious book etc.).  2 official approval.  [L, = let it be

             n.  (in painting) a coloured transparent glaze as a primer.
             [It.  imprimitura f.  imprimere IMPRESS(1)]

   imprint   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by on) impress or establish
             firmly, esp. on the mind.  2 a (often foll. by on) make a stamp
             or impression of (a figure etc.) on a thing.  b make an
             impression on (a thing) with a stamp etc.  --n.  1 an impression
             or stamp.  2 the printer's or publisher's name and other details
             printed in a book.  [ME f. OF empreinter empreint f. L
             imprimere: see IMPRESSION]

             n.  1 in senses of IMPRINT v.  2 Zool. the development in a
             young animal of a pattern of recognition and trust for its own

   imprison  v.tr.  1 put into prison.  2 confine; shut up.  ЬЬimprisonment
             n.  [ME f. OF emprisoner (as EN-(1), PRISON)]

             adj.  1 not likely to be true or to happen.  2 difficult to
             believe.  ЬЬimprobability n.  improbably adv.  [F improbable or
             L improbabilis (as IN-(1), PROBABLE)]

   improbity n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 wickedness; lack of moral integrity.  2
             dishonesty.  3 a wicked or dishonest act.  [L improbitas (as
             IN-(1), PROBITY)]

   impromptu adj., adv., & n.  --adj. & adv. extempore, unrehearsed.  --n.  1
             an extempore performance or speech.  2 a short piece of usu.
             solo instrumental music, often songlike.  [F f. L in promptu in
             readiness: see PROMPT]

   improper  adj.  1 a unseemly; indecent.  b not in accordance with accepted
             rules of behaviour.  2 inaccurate, wrong.  3 not properly so
             called.  Ьimproper fraction a fraction in which the numerator is
             greater than or equal to the denominator.  ЬЬimproperly adv.  [F
             impropre or L improprius (as IN-(1), PROPER)]

             v.tr.  Brit.  1 annex (an ecclesiastical benefice) to a
             corporation or person as property.  2 place (tithes or
             ecclesiastical property) in lay hands.  ЬЬimpropriation n.  [AL
             impropriare (as IN-(2), proprius own)]

             n.  Brit.  a person to whom a benefice is impropriated.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 lack of propriety; indecency.  2 an instance
             of improper conduct etc.  3 incorrectness.  4 unfitness.  [F
             impropri‚t‚ or L improprietas (as IN-(1), proprius proper)]

             adj.  1 that can be improved.  2 suitable for cultivation.
             ЬЬimprovability n.

   improve   v.  1 a tr. & intr. make or become better.  b intr. (foll. by
             on, upon) produce something better than.  2 absol. (as improving
             adj.) giving moral benefit (improving literature).  [orig.
             emprowe, improwe f. AF emprower f. OF emprou f.  prou profit,
             infl. by PROVE]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of improving or being improved.  2
             something that improves, esp. an addition or alteration that
             adds to value.  3 something that has been improved.  [ME f. AF
             emprowement (as IMPROVE)]

   improver  n.  1 a person who improves.  2 Brit. a person who works for low
             wages while acquiring skill and experience in a trade.

             adj.  1 lacking foresight or care for the future.  2 not frugal;
             thriftless.  3 heedless, incautious.  ЬЬimprovidence n.
             improvidently adv.

   improvise v.tr.  (also absol.) 1 compose or perform (music, verse, etc.)
             extempore.  2 provide or construct (a thing) extempore.
             ЬЬimprovisation n.  improvisational adj.  improvisatorial adj.
             improvisatory adj.  improviser n.  [F improviser or It.
             improvvisare f.  improvviso extempore, f. L improvisus past
             part. (as IN-(1), PROVIDE)]

   imprudent adj.  rash, indiscreet.  ЬЬimprudence n.  imprudently adv.  [ME
             f. L imprudens (as IN-(1), PRUDENT)]

   impudent  adj.  1 insolently disrespectful; impertinent.  2 shamelessly
             presumptuous.  3 unblushing.  ЬЬimpudence n.  impudently adv.
             [ME f. L impudens (as IN-(1), pudere be ashamed)]

             n.  shamelessness, immodesty.  [F impudicit‚ f. L impudicus (as

   impugn    v.tr.  challenge or call in question (a statement, action,
             etc.).  ЬЬimpugnable adj.  impugnment n.  [ME f. L impugnare
             assail (as IN-(2), pugnare fight)]

             adj.  impotent, weak.  ЬЬimpuissance n.  [F (as IN-(1),

   impulse   n.  1 the act or an instance of impelling; a push.  2 an
             impetus.  3 Physics a an indefinitely large force acting for a
             very short time but producing a finite change of momentum (e.g.
             the blow of a hammer).  b the change of momentum produced by
             this or any force.  4 a wave of excitation in a nerve.  5 mental
             incitement.  6 a sudden desire or tendency to act without
             reflection (did it on impulse).  Ьimpulse buying the
             unpremeditated buying of goods as a result of a whim or impulse.
             [L impulsus (as IMPEL)]

   impulsion n.  1 the act or an instance of impelling.  2 a mental impulse.
             3 impetus.  [ME f. OF f. L impulsio -onis (as IMPEL)]

   impulsive adj.  1 (of a person or conduct etc.) apt to be affected or
             determined by sudden impulse.  2 tending to impel.  3 Physics
             acting as an impulse.  ЬЬimpulsively adv.  impulsiveness n.  [ME
             f. F impulsif -ive or LL impulsivus (as IMPULSION)]

   impunity  n.  exemption from punishment or from the injurious consequences
             of an action.  Ьwith impunity without having to suffer the
             normal injurious consequences (of an action).  [L impunitas f.
             impunis (as IN-(1), poena penalty)]

   impure    adj.  1 mixed with foreign matter; adulterated.  2 dirty.  3
             unchaste.  4 (of a colour) mixed with another colour.
             ЬЬimpurely adv.  impureness n.  [ME f. L impurus (as IN-(1),
             purus pure)]

   impurity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the quality or condition of being impure.  2
             an impure thing or constituent.  [F impurit‚ or L impuritas (as

   impute    v.tr.  (foll. by to) 1 regard (esp. something undesirable) as
             being done or caused or possessed by.  2 Theol. ascribe
             (righteousness, guilt, etc.) to (a person) by virtue of a
             similar quality in another.  ЬЬimputable adj.  imputation n.
             imputative adj.  [ME f. OF imputer f. L imputare enter in the
             account (as IN-(2), putare reckon)]

   I.Mun.E.  abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Municipal Engineers.

13.0 IN...

   IN        abbr.  US Indiana (in official postal use).

   In        symb.  Chem.  the element indium.

   in        prep., adv., & adj.  --prep.  1 expressing inclusion or position
             within limits of space, time, circumstance, etc. (in England; in
             bed; in the rain).  2 during the time of (in the night; in
             1989).  3 within the time of (will be back in two hours).  4 a
             with respect to (blind in one eye; good in parts).  b as a kind
             of (the latest thing in luxury).  5 as a proportionate part of
             (one in three failed; a gradient of one in six).  6 with the
             form or arrangement of (packed in tens; falling in folds).  7 as
             a member of (in the army).  8 concerned with (is in politics).
             9 as or regarding the content of (there is something in what you
             say).  10 within the ability of (does he have it in him?).  11
             having the condition of; affected by (in bad health; in danger).
             12 having as a purpose (in search of; in reply to).  13 by means
             of or using as material (drawn in pencil; modelled in bronze).
             14 a using as the language of expression (written in French).  b
             (of music) having as its key (symphony in C).  15 (of a word)
             having as a beginning or ending (words in un-).  16 wearing as
             dress (in blue; in a suit).  17 with the identity of (found a
             friend in Mary).  18 (of an animal) pregnant with (in calf).  19
             into (with a verb of motion or change: put it in the box; cut it
             in two).  20 introducing an indirect object after a verb
             (believe in; engage in; share in).  21 forming adverbial phrases
             (in any case; in reality; in short).  --adv. expressing position
             within limits, or motion to such a position: 1 into a room,
             house, etc. (come in).  2 at home, in one's office, etc. (is not
             in).  3 so as to be enclosed or confined (locked in).  4 in a
             publication (is the advertisement in?).  5 in or to the inward
             side (rub it in).  6 a in fashion, season, or office (long
             skirts are in; strawberries are not yet in).  b elected (the
             Democrat got in).  7 exerting favourable action or influence
             (their luck was in).  8 Cricket (of a player or side) batting.
             9 (of transport) at the platform etc. (the train is in).  10 (of
             a season, harvest, order, etc.) having arrived or been received.
             11 Brit. (of a fire) continuing to burn.  12 denoting effective
             action (join in).  13 (of the tide) at the highest point.  14
             (in comb.) colloq. denoting prolonged or concerted action, esp.
             by large numbers (sit-in; teach-in).  --adj.  1 internal; living
             in; inside (in-patient).  2 fashionable, esoteric (the in thing
             to do).  3 confined to or shared by a group of people (in-joke).
             Ьin all see ALL.  in at present at; contributing to (in at the
             kill).  in between see BETWEEN adv.  in-between attrib.adj.
             colloq.  intermediate (at an in-between stage).  in for 1 about
             to undergo (esp. something unpleasant).  2 competing in or for.
             3 involved in; committed to.  in on sharing in; privy to (a
             secret etc.).  ins and outs (often foll. by of) all the details
             (of a procedure etc.).  in so far as see FAR.  in that because;
             in so far as.  in with on good terms with.  [OE in, inn, orig.
             as adv. with verbs of motion]

   in.       abbr.  inch(es).

   in-(1)    prefix (also il-, im-, ir-) added to: 1 adjectives, meaning
             'not' (inedible; insane).  2 nouns, meaning 'without, lacking'
             (inaction).  [L]

   in-(2)    prefix (also il- before l, im- before b, m, p, ir- before r) in,
             on, into, towards, within (induce; influx; insight; intrude).
             [IN, or from or after L in IN prep.]

   -in       suffix Chem.  forming names of: 1 neutral substances (gelatin).
             2 antibiotics (penicillin).  [-INE(4)]

   -ina      suffix denoting: 1 feminine names and titles (Georgina;
             tsarina).  2 names of musical instruments (concertina).  3 names
             of zoological classification categories (globigerina).  [It. or
             Sp. or L]

   inability n.  1 the state of being unable.  2 a lack of power or means.

   in absentia
             adv.  in (his, her, or their) absence.  [L]

             adj.  1 not accessible; that cannot be reached.  2 (of a person)
             not open to advances or influence; unapproachable.
             ЬЬinaccessibility n.  inaccessibleness n.  inaccessibly adv.
             [ME f. F inaccessible or LL inaccessibilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  not accurate.  ЬЬinaccuracy n.  (pl.  -ies).  inaccurately

   inaction  n.  1 lack of action.  2 sluggishness, inertness.

             v.tr.  make inactive or inoperative.  ЬЬinactivation n.

   inactive  adj.  1 not active or inclined to act.  2 passive.  3 indolent.
             ЬЬinactively adv.  inactivity n.

             adj.  (often foll. by to) 1 not adequate; insufficient.  2 (of a
             person) incompetent; unable to deal with a situation.
             ЬЬinadequacy n.  (pl.  -ies).  inadequately adv.

             adj.  that cannot be admitted or allowed.  ЬЬinadmissibility n.
             inadmissibly adv.

             adj.  1 (of an action) unintentional.  2 a not properly
             attentive.  b negligent.  ЬЬinadvertence n.  inadvertency n.
             inadvertently adv.  [IN-(1) + obs.  advertent attentive (as

             adj.  not advisable.  ЬЬinadvisability n.  [ADVISABLE]

             adj.  that cannot be transferred to another; not alienable.
             ЬЬinalienability n.  inalienably adv.

             adj.  not alterable; that cannot be changed.  ЬЬinalterability
             n.  inalterably adv.  [med.L inalterabilis (as IN-(1),
             alterabilis alterable)]

   inamorato n.  (pl.  -os; fem.  inamorata) a lover.  [It., past part. of
             inamorare enamour (as IN-(2), amore f. L amor love)]

   inane     adj.  1 silly, senseless.  2 empty, void.  ЬЬinanely adv.
             inaneness n.  inanity n.  (pl.  -ies).  [L inanis empty, vain]

   inanimate adj.  1 destitute of life.  2 not endowed with animal life.  3
             spiritless, dull.  Ьinanimate nature everything other than the
             animal world.  ЬЬinanimately adv.  inanimation n.  [LL
             inanimatus (as IN-(1), ANIMATE)]

   inanition n.  emptiness, esp. exhaustion from lack of nourishment.  [ME f.
             LL inanitio f. L inanire make empty (as INANE)]

             adj.  that cannot be appealed against.  [obs.F inappelable (as
             IN-(1), appeler APPEAL)]

             adj.  (often foll. by to) not applicable; unsuitable.
             ЬЬinapplicability n.  inapplicably adv.

             adj.  not apposite; out of place.  ЬЬinappositely adv.
             inappositeness n.

             adj.  1 imperceptible; not worth reckoning.  2 that cannot be
             appreciated.  ЬЬinappreciably adv.

             n.  failure to appreciate.  ЬЬinappreciative adj.

             adj.  not appropriate.  ЬЬinappropriately adv.
             inappropriateness n.

   inapt     adj.  1 not apt or suitable.  2 unskilful.  ЬЬinaptitude n.
             inaptly adv.  inaptness n.

   inarch    v.tr.  graft (a plant) by connecting a growing branch without
             separation from the parent stock.  [IN-(2) + ARCH(1) v.]

             adj.  that cannot be argued about or disputed.  ЬЬinarguably

             adj.  1 unable to speak distinctly or express oneself clearly.
             2 (of speech) not articulate; indistinctly pronounced.  3 dumb.
             4 esp. Anat. not jointed.  ЬЬinarticulately adv.
             inarticulateness n.  [LL inarticulatus (as IN-(1), ARTICULATE)]

             adj.  1 not following the principles of art.  2 lacking skill or
             talent in art; not appreciating art.  ЬЬinartistically adv.

   inasmuch  adv.  (foll. by as) 1 since, because.  2 to the extent that.
             [ME, orig.  in as much]

             adj.  1 not paying due attention; heedless.  2 neglecting to
             show courtesy.  ЬЬinattention n.  inattentively adv.
             inattentiveness n.

   inaudible adj.  that cannot be heard.  ЬЬinaudibility n.  inaudibly adv.

   inaugural adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of inauguration.  2 (of a lecture etc.)
             given by a person being inaugurated.  --n. an inaugural speech
             etc.  [F f.  inaugurer (as INAUGURATE)]

             v.tr.  1 admit (a person) formally to office.  2 initiate the
             public use of (a building etc.).  3 begin, introduce.  4 enter
             with ceremony upon (an undertaking etc.).  ЬЬinauguration n.
             inaugurator n.  inauguratory adj.  [L inaugurare (as IN-(2),
             augurare take omens: see AUGUR)]

             adj.  1 ill-omened, unpropitious.  2 unlucky.  ЬЬinauspiciously
             adv.  inauspiciousness n.

   inboard   adv. & adj.  --adv. within the sides of or towards the centre of
             a ship, aircraft, or vehicle.  --adj. situated inboard.

   inborn    adj.  existing from birth; implanted by nature.

   inbreathe v.tr.  1 breathe in or absorb.  2 inspire (a person).

   inbred    adj.  1 inborn.  2 produced by inbreeding.

             n.  breeding from closely related animals or persons.  ЬЬinbreed
             v.tr. & intr.  (past and past part.  inbred).

   inbuilt   adj.  incorporated as part of a structure.

   Inc.      abbr.  US Incorporated.

   Inca      n.  a member of an American Indian people in Peru before the
             Spanish conquest.  ЬЬIncaic adj.  Incan adj.  [Quechua, = lord,
             royal person]

             adj.  1 too great for calculation.  2 that cannot be reckoned
             beforehand.  3 (of a person, character, etc.) uncertain.
             ЬЬincalculability n.  incalculably adv.

   in camera see CAMERA.

             v.intr. & tr.  glow or cause to glow with heat.  [back-form. f.

             adj.  1 glowing with heat.  2 shining brightly.  3 (of an
             electric or other light) produced by a glowing white-hot
             filament.  ЬЬincandescence n.  incandescently adv.  [F f. L
             incandescere (as IN-(2), candescere inceptive of candere be

             n.  1 a a magical formula.  b the use of this.  2 a spell or
             charm.  ЬЬincantational adj.  incantatory adj.  [ME f. OF f. LL
             incantatio -onis f.  incantare chant, bewitch (as IN-(2),
             cantare sing)]

   incapable adj.  1 (often foll. by of) a not capable.  b lacking the
             required quality or characteristic (favourable or adverse)
             (incapable of hurting anyone).  2 not capable of rational
             conduct or of managing one's own affairs (drunk and incapable).
             ЬЬincapability n.  incapably adv.  [F incapable or LL
             incapabilis (as IN-(1), capabilis CAPABLE)]

             v.tr.  1 render incapable or unfit.  2 disqualify.
             ЬЬincapacitant n.  incapacitation n.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 inability; lack of the necessary power or
             resources.  2 legal disqualification.  3 an instance of
             incapacity.  [F incapacit‚ or LL incapacitas (as IN-(1),

             v.tr.  imprison or confine.  ЬЬincarceration n.  incarcerator n.
             [med.L incarcerare (as IN-(2), L carcer prison)]

             adj. & v.  poet.  --adj. flesh-coloured or crimson.  --v.tr. dye
             this colour.  [F incarnadin -ine f. It.  incarnadino (for -tino)
             f.  incarnato INCARNATE adj.]

   incarnate adj. & v.  --adj.  1 (of a person, spirit, quality, etc.)
             embodied in flesh, esp. in human form (is the devil incarnate).
             2 represented in a recognizable or typical form (folly
             incarnate).  --v.tr.  1 embody in flesh.  2 put (an idea etc.)
             into concrete form; realize.  3 (of a person etc.) be the living
             embodiment of (a quality).  [ME f. eccl.L incarnare incarnat-
             make flesh (as IN-(2), L caro carnis flesh)]

             n.  1 a embodiment in (esp. human) flesh.  b (the Incarnation)
             Theol. the embodiment of God the Son in human flesh as Jesus
             Christ.  2 (often foll. by of) a living type (of a quality
             etc.).  3 Med. the process of forming new flesh.  [ME f. OF f.
             eccl.L incarnatio -onis (as INCARNATE)]

   incase    var. of ENCASE.

             adj.  heedless, rash.  ЬЬincaution n.  incautiously adv.
             incautiousness n.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of a substance or device, esp. a bomb)
             designed to cause fires.  2 a of or relating to the malicious
             setting on fire of property.  b guilty of this.  3 tending to
             stir up strife; inflammatory.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an incendiary
             bomb or device.  2 an incendiary person.  ЬЬincendiarism n.  [ME
             f. L incendiarius f.  incendium conflagration f.  incendere
             incens- set fire to]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a gum or spice producing a sweet smell when
             burned.  2 the smoke of this, esp. in religious ceremonial.
             --v.tr.  1 treat or perfume (a person or thing) with incense.  2
             burn incense to (a deity etc.).  3 suffuse with fragrance.
             ЬЬincensation n.  [ME f. OF encens, encenser f. eccl.L incensum
             a thing burnt, incense: see INCENDIARY]

             v.tr.  (often foll. by at, with, against) enrage; make angry.
             [ME f. OF incenser (as INCENDIARY)]

   incensory n.  (pl.  -ies) = CENSER.  [med.L incensorium (as INCENSE(1))]

   incentive n. & adj.  --n.  1 (often foll. by to) a motive or incitement,
             esp. to action.  2 a payment or concession to stimulate greater
             output by workers.  --adj. serving to motivate or incite.  [ME
             f. L incentivus setting the tune f.  incinere incent- sing to
             (as IN-(2), canere sing)]

   incept    v.  1 tr.  Biol. (of an organism) take in (food etc.).  2 intr.
             Brit.  hist. take a master's or doctor's degree at a university.
             ЬЬinceptor n. (in sense 2).  [L incipere incept- begin (as
             IN-(2), capere take)]

   inception n.  a beginning.  [ME f. OF inception or L inceptio (as INCEPT)]

   inceptive adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a beginning.  b initial.  2 Gram. (of a
             verb) that denotes the beginning of an action.  --n. an
             inceptive verb.  [LL inceptivus (as INCEPT)]

             n.  uncertainty, doubt.  [F incertitude or LL incertitudo (as
             IN-(1), CERTITUDE)]

   incessant adj.  unceasing, continual, repeated.  ЬЬincessancy n.
             incessantly adv.  incessantness n.  [F incessant or LL incessans
             (as IN-(1), cessans pres. part. of L cessare CEASE)]

   incest    n.  sexual intercourse between persons regarded as too closely
             related to marry each other.  [ME f. L incestus (as IN-(1),
             castus CHASTE)]

             adj.  1 involving or guilty of incest.  2 (of human relations
             generally) excessively restricted or resistant to wider
             influence.  ЬЬincestuously adv.  incestuousness n.  [LL
             incestuosus (as INCEST)]

   inch(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a unit of linear measure equal to one-twelfth
             of a foot (2.54 cm).  2 a (as a unit of rainfall) a quantity
             that would cover a horizontal surface to a depth of 1 inch.  b
             (of atmospheric or other pressure) an amount that balances the
             weight of a column of mercury 1 inch high.  3 (as a unit of
             map-scale) so many inches representing 1 mile on the ground (a
             4-inch map).  4 a small amount (usu. with neg.: would not yield
             an inch).  --v.tr. & intr. move gradually in a specified way
             (inched forward).  Ьevery inch 1 entirely (looked every inch a
             queen).  2 the whole distance or area (combed every inch of the
             garden).  give a person an inch and he or she will take a mile
             (or orig.  an ell) a person once conceded to will demand much.
             inch by inch gradually; bit by bit.  within an inch of almost to
             the point of.  [OE ynce f. L uncia twelfth part: cf.  OUNCE(1)]

   inch(2)   n.  esp.  Sc.  a small island (esp. in place-names).  [ME f.
             Gael.  innis]

   inchoate  adj. & v.  --adj.  1 just begun.  2 undeveloped, rudimentary,
             unformed.  --v.tr. begin; originate.  ЬЬinchoately adv.
             inchoateness n.  inchoation n.  inchoative adj.  [L inchoatus
             past part. of inchoare (as IN-(2), choare begin)]

   inchworm  n.  = measuring-worm (see MEASURE).

   incidence n.  1 (often foll. by of) the fact, manner, or rate, of
             occurrence or action.  2 the range, scope, or extent of
             influence of a thing.  3 Physics the falling of a line, or of a
             thing moving in a line, upon a surface.  4 the act or an
             instance of coming into contact with a thing.  Ьangle of
             incidence the angle which an incident line, ray, etc., makes
             with the perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.
             [ME f. OF incidence or med.L incidentia (as INCIDENT)]

   incident  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a an event or occurrence.  b a minor or
             detached event attracting general attention or noteworthy in
             some way.  2 a hostile clash, esp. of troops of countries at war
             (a frontier incident).  3 a distinct piece of action in a play
             or a poem.  4 Law a privilege, burden, etc., attaching to an
             obligation or right.  --adj.  1 a (often foll. by to) apt or
             liable to happen; naturally attaching or dependent.  b (foll. by
             to) Law attaching to.  2 (often foll. by on, upon) (of light
             etc.) falling or striking.  [ME f. F incident or L incidere (as
             IN-(2), cadere fall)]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to) a having a minor role in relation to
             a more important thing, event, etc.  b not essential.  2 (foll.
             by to) liable to happen.  3 (foll. by on, upon) following as a
             subordinate event.  Ьincidental music music used as a background
             to the action of a film, broadcast, etc.

             adv.  1 by the way; as an unconnected remark.  2 in an
             incidental way.

             v.tr.  1 consume (a body etc.) by fire.  2 reduce to ashes.
             ЬЬincineration n.  [med.L incinerare (as IN-(2), cinis -eris

             n.  a furnace or apparatus for burning esp. refuse to ashes.

   incipient adj.  1 beginning.  2 in an initial stage.  ЬЬincipience n.
             incipiency n.  incipiently adv.  [L incipere incipient- (as

   incise    v.tr.  1 make a cut in.  2 engrave.  [F inciser f. L incidere
             incis- (as IN-(2), caedere cut)]

   incision  n.  1 a cut; a division produced by cutting; a notch.  2 the act
             of cutting into a thing.  [ME f. OF incision or LL incisio (as

   incisive  adj.  1 mentally sharp; acute.  2 clear and effective.  3
             cutting, penetrating.  ЬЬincisively adv.  incisiveness n.
             [med.L incisivus (as INCISE)]

   incisor   n.  a cutting-tooth, esp. at the front of the mouth.  [med.L, =
             cutter (as INCISE)]

   incite    v.tr.  (often foll. by to) urge or stir up.  ЬЬincitation n.
             incitement n.  inciter n.  [ME f. F inciter f. L incitare (as
             IN-(2), citare rouse)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 rudeness, discourtesy.  2 a rude or
             discourteous act.  [F incivilit‚ or LL incivilitas (as IN-(1),

   inclement adj.  (of the weather or climate) severe, esp. cold or stormy.
             ЬЬinclemency n.  (pl.  -ies).  inclemently adv.  [F incl‚ment or
             L inclemens (as IN-(1), CLEMENT)]

             n.  1 (often foll. by to) a disposition or propensity.  2 (often
             foll. by for) a liking or affection.  3 a leaning, slope, or
             slant.  4 the difference of direction of two lines or planes,
             esp.  as measured by the angle between them.  5 the dip of a
             magnetic needle.  [ME f. OF inclination or L inclinatio (as

   incline   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (usu. in passive; often foll. by to, for,
             or to + infin.)  a make (a person, feelings, etc.) willing or
             favourably disposed (am inclined to think so; does not incline
             me to agree).  b give a specified tendency to (a thing) (the
             door is inclined to bang).  2 intr.  a be disposed (I incline to
             think so).  b (often foll. by to, towards) tend.  3 intr. & tr.
             lean or turn away from a given direction, esp. the vertical.  4
             tr. bend (the head, body, or oneself) forward or downward.  --n.
             1 a slope.  2 an inclined plane.  Ьinclined plane a sloping
             plane (esp. as a means of reducing the force needed to raise a
             load).  incline one's ear (often foll. by to) listen favourably.
             ЬЬincliner n.  [ME encline f. OF encliner f. L inclinare (as
             IN-(2), clinare bend)]

             n.  1 an instrument for measuring the angle between the
             direction of the earth's magnetic field and the horizontal.  2
             an instrument for measuring the inclination of an aircraft or
             ship to the horizontal.  3 an instrument for measuring a slope.
             [L inclinare INCLINE v. + -METER]

   inclose   var. of ENCLOSE.

   inclosure var. of ENCLOSURE.

   include   v.tr.  1 comprise or reckon in as part of a whole.  2 (as
             including prep.) if we include (six members, including the
             chairman).  3 treat or regard as so comprised.  4 (as included
             adj.) shut in; enclosed.  Ьinclude out colloq. or joc.
             specifically exclude.  ЬЬincludable adj.  includible adj.
             inclusion n.  [ME f. L includere inclus- (as IN-(2), claudere

   inclusive adj.  1 (often foll. by of) including, comprising.  2 with the
             inclusion of the extreme limits stated (pages 7 to 26
             inclusive).  3 including all the normal services etc. (a hotel
             offering inclusive terms).  ЬЬinclusively adv.  inclusiveness n.
             [med.L inclusivus (as INCLUDE)]

   incog     adj., adv., & n.  colloq.  = INCOGNITO.  [abbr.]

   incognito adj., adv., & n.  --adj. & adv. with one's name or identity kept
             secret (was travelling incognito).  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a person
             who is incognito.  2 the pretended identity or anonymous
             character of such a person.  [It., = unknown, f. L incognitus
             (as IN-(1), cognitus past part. of cognoscere know)]

             adj.  (foll. by of) unaware; not knowing.  ЬЬincognizance n.

             adj.  1 (of a person) unable to speak intelligibly.  2 (of
             speech etc.) lacking logic or consistency.  3 Physics (of waves)
             having no definite or stable phase relationship.  ЬЬincoherence
             n.  incoherency n.  (pl.  -ies).  incoherently adv.

             adj.  that cannot be burnt or consumed by fire.
             ЬЬincombustibility n.  [ME f. med.L incombustibilis (as IN-(1),

   income    n.  the money or other assets received, esp. periodically or in
             a year, from one's business, lands, work, investments, etc.
             Ьincome group a section of the population determined by income.
             income tax a tax levied on income.  [ME (orig. = arrival), prob.
             f. ON innkoma: in later use f.  come in]

   incomer   n.  1 a person who comes in.  2 a person who arrives to settle
             in a place; an immigrant.  3 an intruder.  4 a successor.

   -incomer  comb. form earning a specified kind or level of income

   incoming  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 coming in (the incoming tide; incoming
             telephone calls).  2 succeeding another person or persons (the
             incoming tenant).  3 immigrant.  4 (of profit) accruing.  --n.
             1 (usu. in pl.) revenue, income.  2 the act of arriving or

             adj.  (often foll. by with) 1 not comparable in respect of
             magnitude.  2 incapable of being measured (in comparison with).
             3 Math. (of a magnitude or magnitudes) having no common factor,
             integral or fractional.  4 Math. irrational.
             ЬЬincommensurability n.  incommensurably adv.  [LL
             incommensurabilis (as IN-(1), COMMENSURABLE)]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by with, to) out of proportion; inadequate.
             2 = INCOMMENSURABLE.  ЬЬincommensurately adv.
             incommensurateness n.

   incommode v.tr.  1 hinder, inconvenience.  2 trouble, annoy.  [F
             incommoder or L incommodare (as IN-(1), commodus convenient)]

             adj.  not affording good accommodation; uncomfortable.
             ЬЬincommodiously adv.  incommodiousness n.

             adj.  1 that cannot be communicated or shared.  2 that cannot be
             uttered or told.  3 that does not communicate; uncommunicative.
             ЬЬincommunicability n.  incommunicableness n.  incommunicably
             adv.  [LL incommunicabilis (as IN-(1), COMMUNICABLE)]

             adj.  1 without or deprived of the means of communication with
             others.  2 (of a prisoner) in solitary confinement.  [Sp.
             incomunicado past part. of incomunicar deprive of communication]

             adj.  not communicative; taciturn.  ЬЬincommunicatively adv.
             incommunicativeness n.

             adj.  1 not changeable.  2 not commutable.  ЬЬincommutably adv.
             [ME f. L incommutabilis (as IN-(1), COMMUTABLE)]

             adj.  1 without an equal; matchless.  2 (often foll. by with,
             to) not to be compared.  ЬЬincomparability n.  incomparableness
             n.  incomparably adv.  [ME f. OF f. L incomparabilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  1 opposed in character; discordant.  2 (often foll. by
             with) inconsistent.  3 (of persons) unable to live, work, etc.,
             together in harmony.  4 (of drugs) not suitable for taking at
             the same time.  5 (of equipment, machinery, etc.) not capable of
             being used in combination.  ЬЬincompatibility n.
             incompatibleness n.  incompatibly adv.  [med.L incompatibilis
             (as IN-(1), COMPATIBLE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by to + infin.) not qualified
             or able to perform a particular task or function (an incompetent
             builder).  2 showing a lack of skill (an incompetent
             performance).  3 Med. (esp. of a valve or sphincter) not able to
             perform its function.  --n. an incompetent person.
             ЬЬincompetence n.  incompetency n.  incompetently adv.  [F
             incomp‚tent or LL incompetens (as IN-(1), COMPETENT)]

             adj.  not complete.  ЬЬincompletely adv.  incompleteness n.  [ME
             f. LL incompletus (as IN-(1), COMPLETE)]

             adj.  (often foll. by to) that cannot be understood.
             ЬЬincomprehensibility n.  incomprehensibleness n.
             incomprehensibly adv.  [ME f. L incomprehensibilis (as IN-(1),

             n.  failure to understand.

             adj.  that cannot be compressed.  ЬЬincompressibility n.

             adj.  1 that cannot be imagined.  2 colloq. very remarkable.
             ЬЬinconceivability n.  inconceivableness n.  inconceivably adv.

             adj.  (of an argument, evidence, or action) not decisive or
             convincing.  ЬЬinconclusively adv.  inconclusiveness n.

             adj.  that cannot be condensed, esp. that cannot be reduced to a
             liquid or solid condition.

             adj.  1 out of place; absurd.  2 (often foll. by with)
             disagreeing; out of keeping.  ЬЬincongruity n.  (pl.  -ies).
             incongruously adv.  incongruousness n.  [L incongruus (as
             IN-(1), CONGRUOUS)]

             adj.  lacking sequence; inconsequent.  ЬЬinconsecutively adv.
             inconsecutiveness n.

             adj.  1 not following naturally; irrelevant.  2 lacking logical
             sequence.  3 disconnected.  ЬЬinconsequence n.  inconsequently
             adv.  [L inconsequens (as IN-(1), CONSEQUENT)]

             adj.  1 unimportant.  2 = INCONSEQUENT.  ЬЬinconsequentiality n.
             (pl.  -ies).  inconsequentially adv.  inconsequentialness n.

             adj.  1 of small size, value, etc.  2 not worth considering.
             ЬЬinconsiderableness n.  inconsiderably adv.  [obs. F
             inconsid‚rable or LL inconsiderabilis (as IN-(1), CONSIDERABLE)]

             adj.  1 (of a person or action) thoughtless, rash.  2 lacking in
             regard for the feelings of others.  ЬЬinconsiderately adv.
             inconsiderateness n.  inconsideration n.  [L inconsideratus (as
             IN-(1), CONSIDERATE)]

             adj.  1 acting at variance with one's own principles or former
             conduct.  2 (often foll. by with) not in keeping; discordant,
             incompatible.  3 (of a single thing) incompatible or discordant;
             having self-contradictory parts.  ЬЬinconsistency n.  (pl.
             -ies).  inconsistently adv.

             adj.  (of a person, grief, etc.) that cannot be consoled or
             comforted.  ЬЬinconsolability n.  inconsolableness n.
             inconsolably adv.  [F inconsolable or L inconsolabilis (as
             IN-(1), consolabilis f.  consolari CONSOLE(1))]

             adj.  (often foll. by with, to) not harmonious; not compatible.
             ЬЬinconsonance n.  inconsonantly adv.

             adj.  1 not conspicuous; not easily noticed.  2 Bot. (of
             flowers) small, pale, or green.  ЬЬinconspicuously adv.
             inconspicuousness n.  [L inconspicuus (as IN-(1), CONSPICUOUS)]

             adj.  1 (of a person) fickle, changeable.  2 frequently
             changing; variable, irregular.  ЬЬinconstancy n.  (pl.  -ies).
             inconstantly adv.  [ME f. OF f. L inconstans -antis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  that cannot be disputed.  ЬЬincontestability n.
             incontestably adv.  [F incontestable or med.L incontestabilis
             (as IN-(1), contestabilis f. L contestari CONTEST)]

             adj.  1 unable to control movements of the bowels or bladder or
             both.  2 lacking self-restraint (esp. in regard to sexual
             desire).  3 (foll. by of) unable to control.  ЬЬincontinence n.
             incontinently adv.  [ME f. OF or L incontinens (as IN-(1),

             adj.  indisputable, indubitable.  ЬЬincontrovertibility n.
             incontrovertibly adv.

             n. & v.  --n.  1 lack of suitability to personal requirements or
             ease.  2 a cause or instance of this.  --v.tr. cause
             inconvenience to.  [ME f. OF f. LL inconvenientia (as

             adj.  1 unfavourable to ease or comfort; not convenient.  2
             awkward, troublesome.  ЬЬinconveniently adv.  [ME f. OF f. L
             inconveniens -entis (as IN-(1), CONVENIENT)]

             adj.  1 not convertible.  2 (esp. of currency) not convertible
             into another form on demand.  ЬЬinconvertibility n.
             inconvertibly adv.  [F inconvertible or LL inconvertibilis (as
             IN-(1), CONVERTIBLE)]

             n.  lack of coordination, esp. of muscular action.

             v. & adj.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by in, with) unite; form
             into one body or whole.  2 intr. become incorporated.  3 tr.
             combine (ingredients) into one substance.  4 tr. admit as a
             member of a company etc.  5 tr.  a constitute as a legal
             corporation.  b (as incorporated adj.) forming a legal
             corporation.  --adj.  1 (of a company etc.) formed into a legal
             corporation.  2 embodied.  ЬЬincorporation n.  incorporator n.
             [ME f. LL incorporare (as IN-(2), L corpus -oris body)]

             adj.  1 not composed of matter.  2 of immaterial beings.  3 Law
             having no physical existence.  ЬЬincorporeality n.
             incorporeally adv.  incorporeity n.  [L incorporeus (as

   incorrect adj.  1 not in accordance with fact; wrong.  2 (of style etc.)
             improper, faulty.  ЬЬincorrectly adv.  incorrectness n.  [ME f.
             OF or L incorrectus (as IN-(1), CORRECT)]

             adj.  1 (of a person or habit) incurably bad or depraved.  2 not
             readily improved.  ЬЬincorrigibility n.  incorrigibleness n.
             incorrigibly adv.  [ME f. OF incorrigible or L incorrigibilis
             (as IN-(1), CORRIGIBLE)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be corrupted, esp. by bribery.  2 that
             cannot decay; everlasting.  ЬЬincorruptibility n.  incorruptibly
             adv.  [ME f. OF incorruptible or eccl.L incorruptibilis (as
             IN-(1), CORRUPT)]

   increase  v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become greater in size,
             amount, etc., or more numerous.  2 intr. advance (in quality,
             attainment, etc.).  3 tr. intensify (a quality).  --n.  1 the
             act or process of becoming greater or more numerous; growth,
             enlargement.  2 (of people, animals, or plants) growth in
             numbers; multiplication.  3 the amount or extent of an increase.
             Ьon the increase increasing, esp. in frequency.  ЬЬincreasable
             adj.  increaser n.  increasingly adv.  [ME f. OF encreiss- stem
             of encreistre f. L increscere (as IN-(2), crescere grow)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be believed.  2 colloq. hard to believe;
             amazing.  ЬЬincredibility n.  incredibleness n.  incredibly adv.
             [ME f. L incredibilis (as IN-(1), CREDIBLE)]

             adj.  (often foll. by of) unwilling to believe.  ЬЬincredulity
             n.  incredulously adv.  incredulousness n.  [L incredulus (as
             IN-(1), CREDULOUS)]

   increment n.  1 a an increase or addition, esp. one of a series on a fixed
             scale.  b the amount of this.  2 Math. a small amount by which a
             variable quantity increases.  ЬЬincremental adj.  [ME f. L
             incrementum f.  increscere INCREASE]

             v.tr.  1 tend to prove the guilt of (incriminating evidence).  2
             involve in an accusation.  3 charge with a crime.
             ЬЬincrimination n.  incriminatory adj.  [LL incriminare (as
             IN-(2), L crimen offence)]

   incrust   var. of ENCRUST.

             n.  1 the process of encrusting or state of being encrusted.  2
             a crust or hard coating, esp. of fine material.  3 a concretion
             or deposit on a surface.  4 a facing of marble etc. on a
             building.  [F incrustation or LL incrustatio (as ENCRUST)]

   incubate  v.  1 tr. sit on or artificially heat (eggs) in order to bring
             forth young birds etc.  2 tr. cause the development of (bacteria
             etc.) by creating suitable conditions.  3 intr. sit on eggs;
             brood.  [L incubare (as IN-(2), cubare cubit- or cubat- lie)]

             n.  1 a the act of incubating.  b brooding.  2 Med.  a a phase
             through which the germs causing a disease pass before the
             development of the first symptoms.  b the period of this.
             ЬЬincubational adj.  incubative adj.  incubatory adj.  [L
             incubatio (as INCUBATE)]

   incubator n.  1 an apparatus used to provide a suitable temperature and
             environment for a premature baby or one of low birth-weight.  2
             an apparatus used to hatch eggs or grow micro-organisms.

   incubus   n.  (pl.  incubuses or incubi) 1 an evil spirit supposed to
             descend on sleeping persons.  2 a nightmare.  3 a person or
             thing that oppresses like a nightmare.  [ME f. LL, = L incubo
             nightmare (as INCUBATE)]

   incudes   pl. of INCUS.

   inculcate v.tr.  (often foll. by upon, in) urge or impress (a fact, habit,
             or idea) persistently.  ЬЬinculcation n.  inculcator n.  [L
             inculcare (as IN-(2), calcare tread f.  calx calcis heel)]

   inculpate v.tr.  1 involve in a charge.  2 accuse, blame.  ЬЬinculpation
             n.  inculpative adj.  inculpatory adj.  [LL inculpare (as
             IN-(2), culpare blame f.  culpa fault)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) the office, tenure, or sphere of an incumbent.

   incumbent adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (foll. by on, upon) resting as a duty (it
             is incumbent on you to warn them).  2 (often foll. by on) lying,
             pressing.  --n. the holder of an office or post, esp. an
             ecclesiastical benefice.  [ME f. AL incumbens pres. part. of L
             incumbere lie upon (as IN-(2), cubare lie)]

   incunable n.  = INCUNABULUM 1.  [F, formed as INCUNABULUM]

             n.  (pl.  incunabula) 1 a book printed at an early date, esp.
             before 1501.  2 (in pl.) the early stages of the development of
             a thing.  [L incunabula swaddling-clothes, cradle (as IN-(2),
             cunae cradle)]

   incur     v.tr.  (incurred, incurring) suffer, experience, or become
             subject to (something unpleasant) as a result of one's own
             behaviour etc. (incurred huge debts).  ЬЬincurrable adj.  [ME f.
             L incurrere incurs- (as IN-(2), currere run)]

   incurable adj. & n.  --adj. that cannot be cured.  --n. a person who
             cannot be cured.  ЬЬincurability n.  incurableness n.  incurably
             adv.  [ME f. OF incurable or LL incurabilis (as IN-(1),

   incurious adj.  1 lacking curiosity.  2 heedless, careless.  ЬЬincuriosity
             n.  incuriously adv.  incuriousness n.  [L incuriosus (as
             IN-(1), CURIOUS)]

   incursion n.  an invasion or attack, esp. when sudden or brief.
             ЬЬincursive adj.  [ME f. L incursio (as INCUR)]

   incurve   v.tr.  1 bend into a curve.  2 (as incurved adj.) curved
             inwards.  ЬЬincurvation n.  [L incurvare (as IN-(2), CURVE)]

   incus     n.  (pl.  incudes) the small anvil-shaped bone in the middle
             ear, in contact with the malleus and stapes.  [L, = anvil]

   incuse    n., v., & adj.  --n. an impression hammered or stamped on a
             coin.  --v.tr.  1 mark (a coin) with a figure by stamping.  2
             impress (a figure) on a coin by stamping.  --adj. hammered or
             stamped on a coin.  [L incusus past part. of incudere (as
             IN-(2), cudere forge)]

   Ind.      abbr.  1 Independent.  2 a India.  b Indian.  3 Indiana.

   indaba    n.  S.Afr.  1 a conference between or with members of S. African
             native tribes.  2 colloq. one's problem or concern.  [Zulu, =

   indebted  adj.  (usu. foll. by to) 1 owing gratitude or obligation.  2
             owing money.  ЬЬindebtedness n.  [ME f. OF endett‚ past part. of
             endetter involve in debt (as EN-(1), detter f.  dette DEBT)]

   indecent  adj.  1 offending against recognized standards of decency.  2
             unbecoming; highly unsuitable (with indecent haste).  Ьindecent
             assault a sexual attack not involving rape.  indecent exposure
             the intentional act of publicly and indecently exposing one's
             body, esp. the genitals.  ЬЬindecency n.  (pl.  -ies).
             indecently adv.  [F ind‚cent or L indecens (as IN-(1), DECENT)]

             adj.  that cannot be deciphered.

             n.  lack of decision; hesitation.  [F ind‚cision (as IN-(1),

             adj.  1 not decisive.  2 undecided, hesitating.  ЬЬindecisively
             adv.  indecisiveness n.

             adj.  Gram.  1 that cannot be declined.  2 having no
             inflections.  [ME f. F ind‚clinable f. L indeclinabilis (as
             IN-(1), DECLINE)]

             adj.  1 improper.  2 in bad taste.  ЬЬindecorously adv.
             indecorousness n.  [L indecorus (as IN-(1), decorus seemly)]

   indecorum n.  1 lack of decorum.  2 improper behaviour.  [L, neut. of
             indecorus: see INDECOROUS]

   indeed    adv. & int.  --adv.  1 in truth; really (they are, indeed, a
             remarkable family).  2 expressing emphasis or intensification (I
             shall be very glad indeed; indeed it is).  3 admittedly (there
             are indeed exceptions).  4 in point of fact (if indeed such a
             thing is possible).  5 expressing an approving or ironic echo
             (who is this Mr Smith? -- who is he indeed?).  --int. expressing
             irony, contempt, incredulity, etc.

             adj.  (of a person, quality, etc.) that cannot be tired out;
             unwearying, unremitting.  ЬЬindefatigability n.  indefatigably
             adv.  [obs. F ind‚fatigable or L indefatigabilis (as IN-(1),
             defatigare wear out)]

             adj.  literary (esp. of a claim, rights, etc.) that cannot be
             lost.  ЬЬindefeasibility n.  indefeasibly adv.

             adj.  1 unfailing; not liable to defect or decay.  2 faultless.
             [IN-(1) + defectible f. LL defectibilis (as DEFECT)]

             adj.  that cannot be defended or justified.  ЬЬindefensibility
             n.  indefensibly adv.

             adj.  that cannot be defined or exactly described.
             ЬЬindefinably adv.

             adj.  1 vague, undefined.  2 unlimited.  3 Gram. not determining
             the person, thing, time, etc., referred to.  Ьindefinite article
             see ARTICLE.  indefinite integral see INTEGRAL.  indefinite
             pronoun Gram.  a pronoun indicating a person, amount, etc.,
             without being definite or particular, e.g.  any, some, anyone.
             ЬЬindefiniteness n.  [L indefinitus (as IN-(1), DEFINITE)]

             adv.  1 for an unlimited time (was postponed indefinitely).  2
             in an indefinite manner.

             adj.  Bot.  (of fruit) not splitting open when ripe.
             ЬЬindehiscence n.

   indelible adj.  1 that cannot be rubbed out or (in abstract senses)
             removed.  2 (of ink etc.) that makes indelible marks.
             ЬЬindelibility n.  indelibly adv.  [F ind‚l‚bile or L
             indelebilis (as IN-(1), delebilis f.  delere efface)]

             adj.  1 coarse, unrefined.  2 tactless.  3 tending to indecency.
             ЬЬindelicacy n.  (pl.  -ies).  indelicately adv.

   indemnify v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 (often foll. by from, against) protect or
             secure (a person) in respect of harm, a loss, etc.  2 (often
             foll. by for) secure (a person) against legal responsibility for
             actions.  3 (often foll. by for) compensate (a person) for a
             loss, expenses, etc.  ЬЬindemnification n.  indemnifier n.  [L
             indemnis unhurt (as IN-(1), damnum loss, damage)]

   indemnity n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a compensation for loss incurred.  b a sum
             paid for this, esp. a sum exacted by a victor in war etc. as one
             condition of peace.  2 security against loss.  3 legal exemption
             from penalties etc. incurred.  [ME f. F indemnit‚ or LL
             indemnitas -tatis (as INDEMNIFY)]

             adj.  that cannot be proved (esp. of primary or axiomatic

   indene    n.  Chem.  a colourless flammable liquid hydrocarbon obtained
             from coal tar and used in making synthetic resins.  [INDOLE +

   indent(1) v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. start (a line of print or writing) further
             from the margin than other lines, e.g. to mark a new paragraph.
             2 tr.  a divide (a document drawn up in duplicate) into its two
             copies with a zigzag line dividing them and ensuring
             identification.  b draw up (usu. a legal document) in exact
             duplicate.  3 Brit.  a intr. (often foll. by on, upon a person,
             for a thing) make a requisition (orig. a written order with a
             duplicate).  b tr. order (goods) by requisition.  4 tr. make
             toothlike notches in.  5 tr. form deep recesses in (a coastline
             etc.).  --n.  1 Brit.  a an order (esp. from abroad) for goods.
             b an official requisition for stores.  2 an indented line.  3
             indentation.  4 an indenture.  ЬЬindenter n.  indentor n.  [ME
             f. AF endenter f. AL indentare (as IN-(2), L dens dentis tooth)]

   indent(2) v.tr.  1 make a dent in.  2 impress (a mark etc.).  [ME f.
             IN-(2) + DENT]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of indenting; the process of being
             indented.  2 a cut or notch.  3 a zigzag.  4 a deep recess in a
             coastline etc.

   indention n.  1 the indenting of a line in printing or writing.  2 =

   indenture n. & v.  --n.  1 an indented document (see INDENT(1) v.  2).  2
             a sealed agreement or contract (usu. in pl.).  3 a formal list,
             certificate, etc.  --v.tr.  hist. bind (a person) by indentures,
             esp. as an apprentice.  ЬЬindentureship n.  [ME (orig. Sc.) f.
             AF endenture (as INDENT(1))]

             n.  1 (often foll. by of, from) the state of being independent.
             2 independent income.  ЬIndependence Day a day celebrating the
             anniversary of national independence, esp.  4 July in the US.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an independent State.  2 = INDEPENDENCE.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a (often foll. by of) not depending on
             authority or control.  b self-governing.  2 a not depending on
             another person for one's opinion or livelihood.  b (of income or
             resources) making it unnecessary to earn one's living.  3
             unwilling to be under an obligation to others.  4 Polit. not
             belonging to or supported by a party.  5 not depending on
             something else for its validity, efficiency, value, etc.
             (independent proof).  6 (of broadcasting, a school, etc.) not
             supported by public funds.  7 (Independent) hist.
             Congregational.  --n.  1 a person who is politically
             independent.  2 (Independent) hist. a Congregationalist.
             ЬЬindependently adv.

   in-depth  see DEPTH.

             adj.  1 too unusual or extreme to be described.  2 vague,
             indefinite.  ЬЬindescribability n.  indescribably adv.

             adj.  that cannot be destroyed.  ЬЬindestructibility n.
             indestructibly adv.

             adj.  1 that cannot be ascertained.  2 (of a dispute etc.) that
             cannot be settled.  ЬЬindeterminably adv.  [ME f. LL
             indeterminabilis (as IN-(1), L determinare DETERMINE)]

             adj.  1 not fixed in extent, character, etc.  2 left doubtful;
             vague.  3 Math. (of a quantity) not limited to a fixed value by
             the value of another quantity.  4 (of a judicial sentence) such
             that the convicted person's conduct determines the date of
             release.  Ьindeterminate vowel the obscure vowel heard in ' a
             mom ent ago'; a schwa.  ЬЬindeterminacy n.  indeterminately adv.
             indeterminateness n.  [ME f. LL indeterminatus (as IN-(1),

             n.  1 lack of determination.  2 the state of being

             n.  the belief that human action is not wholly determined by
             motives.  ЬЬindeterminist n.  indeterministic adj.

   index     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  indexes or esp. in technical use indices) 1
             an alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc., with references,
             usu. at the end of a book.  2 = card index.  3 (in full index
             number) a number showing the variation of prices or wages as
             compared with a chosen base period (retail price index;
             Dow-Jones index).  4 Math.  a the exponent of a number.  b the
             power to which it is raised.  5 a a pointer, esp. on an
             instrument, showing a quantity, a position on a scale, etc.  b
             an indicator of a trend, direction, tendency, etc.  c (usu.
             foll. by of) a sign, token, or indication of something.  6
             Physics a number expressing a physical property etc. in terms of
             a standard (refractive index).  7 Computing a set of items each
             of which specifies one of the records of a file and contains
             information about its address.  8 (Index) RC Ch.  hist. a list
             of books forbidden to Roman Catholics to read.  9 Printing a
             symbol shaped like a pointing hand, used to draw attention to a
             note etc.  --v.tr.  1 provide (a book etc.) with an index.  2
             enter in an index.  3 relate (wages etc.) to the value of a
             price index.  Ьindex finger the forefinger.  index-linked
             related to the value of a retail price index.  ЬЬindexation n.
             indexer n.  indexible adj.  indexical adj.  indexless adj.  [ME
             f. L index indicis forefinger, informer, sign: sense 8 f. L
             Index librorum prohibitorum list of prohibited books]

   India ink n.  US = Indian ink.  [India in Asia: see INDIAN]

   Indiaman  n.  (pl.  -men) Naut.  hist.  a ship engaged in trade with India
             or the East Indies.

   Indian    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a a native or national of India.  b a person
             of Indian descent.  2 (in full American Indian) a member of the
             aboriginal peoples of America or their descendants.  3 any of
             the languages of the aboriginal peoples of America.  --adj.  1
             of or relating to India, or to the subcontinent comprising
             India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.  2 of or relating to the
             aboriginal peoples of America.  ЬIndian clubs a pair of
             bottle-shaped clubs swung to exercise the arms in gymnastics.
             Indian corn maize.  Indian elephant the elephant, Elephas
             maximus, of India, which is smaller than the African elephant.
             Indian file = single file.  Indian hemp see HEMP 1.  Indian ink
             Brit.  1 a black pigment made orig. in China and Japan.  2 a
             dark ink made from this, used esp. in drawing and technical
             graphics.  Indian Ocean the ocean between Africa to the west,
             and Australia to the east.  Indian rope-trick the supposed
             Indian feat of climbing an upright unsupported length of rope.
             Indian summer 1 a period of unusually dry warm weather sometimes
             occurring in late autumn.  2 a late period of life characterized
             by comparative calm.  [ME f.  India ult. f. Gk Indos the River
             Indus f. Pers.  Hind: cf.  HINDU]

   India paper
             n.  1 a soft absorbent kind of paper orig. imported from China,
             used for proofs of engravings.  2 a very thin tough opaque

             n.  = RUBBER(1) 2.

   Indic     adj. & n.  --adj. of the group of Indo-European languages
             comprising Sanskrit and its modern descendants.  --n. this
             language-group.  [L Indicus f. Gk Indikos INDIAN]

   indicate  v.tr.  (often foll. by that + clause) 1 point out; make known;
             show.  2 be a sign or symptom of; express the presence of.  3
             (often in passive) suggest; call for; require or show to be
             necessary (stronger measures are indicated).  4 admit to or
             state briefly (indicated his disapproval).  5 (of a gauge etc.)
             give as a reading.  [L indicare (as IN-(2), dicare make known)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of indicating.  2 something
             indicated or suggested.  3 a reading given by a gauge or
             instrument.  [F f. L indicatio (as INDICATE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (foll. by of) suggestive; serving as an
             indication.  2 Gram. (of a mood) denoting simple statement of a
             fact.  --n.  Gram.  1 the indicative mood.  2 a verb in this
             mood.  ЬЬindicatively adv.  [ME f. F indicatif -ive f. LL
             indicativus (as INDICATE)]

   indicator n.  1 a person or thing that indicates.  2 a device indicating
             the condition of a machine etc.  3 a recording instrument
             attached to an apparatus etc.  4 a board in a railway station
             etc. giving current information.  5 a device (esp. a flashing
             light) on a vehicle to show that it is about to change
             direction.  6 a substance which changes colour at a given stage
             in a chemical reaction.  7 Physics & Med. a radioactive tracer.

             adj.  = INDICATIVE adj.  1.

   indices   pl. of INDEX.

   indicia   n.pl.  1 distinguishing or identificatory marks.  2 signs,
             indications.  [pl. of L indicium (as INDEX)]

   indicial  adj.  1 of the nature or form of an index.  2 of the nature of
             indicia; indicative.

   indict    v.tr.  accuse (a person) formally by legal process.  ЬЬindictee
             n.  indicter n.  [ME f. AF enditer indict f. OF enditier declare
             f. Rmc indictare (unrecorded: as IN-(2), DICTATE)]

             adj.  1 (of an offence) rendering the person who commits it
             liable to be charged with a crime.  2 (of a person) so liable.

             n.  1 the act of indicting.  2 a a formal accusation.  b a legal
             process in which this is made.  c a document containing a
             charge.  3 something that serves to condemn or censure.  [ME f.
             AF enditement (as INDICT)]

   indie     n.  colloq.  an independent record or film company.

   Indies    n.pl.  (prec. by the) archaic India and adjacent regions (see
             also East Indies, West Indies).  [pl. of obs.  Indy India]

             n.  1 lack of interest or attention.  2 unimportance (a matter
             of indifference).  3 neutrality.  [L indifferentia (as

             adj.  1 neither good nor bad; average, mediocre.  2 a not
             especially good.  b fairly bad.  3 (often prec. by very)
             decidedly inferior.  4 (foll. by to) having no partiality for or
             against; having no interest in or sympathy for.  5 chemically,
             magnetically, etc., neutral.  ЬЬindifferently adv.  [ME f. OF
             indifferent or L indifferens (as IN-(1), DIFFERENT)]

             n.  an attitude of indifference, esp. in religious matters.
             ЬЬindifferentist n.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make indigenous; subject to native
             influence.  2 subject to increased use of indigenous people in
             government etc.  ЬЬindigenization n.

             adj.  1 a (esp. of flora or fauna) originating naturally in a
             region.  b (of people) born in a region.  2 (foll. by to)
             belonging naturally to a place.  ЬЬindigenously adv.
             indigenousness n.  [L indigena f.  indi- = IN-(2) + gen- be

   indigent  adj.  needy, poor.  ЬЬindigence n.  [ME f. OF f. LL indigere f.
             indi- = IN-(2) + egere need]

             adj.  1 shapeless.  2 ill-considered.  3 not digested.

             adj.  1 difficult or impossible to digest.  2 too complex or
             awkward to read or comprehend easily.  ЬЬindigestibility n.
             indigestibly adv.  [F indigestible or LL indigestibilis (as
             IN-(1), DIGEST)]

             n.  1 difficulty in digesting food.  2 pain or discomfort caused
             by this.  ЬЬindigestive adj.  [ME f. OF indigestion or LL
             indigestio (as IN-(1), DIGESTION)]

   indignant adj.  feeling or showing scornful anger or a sense of injured
             innocence.  ЬЬindignantly adv.  [L indignari indignant- regard
             as unworthy (as IN-(1), dignus worthy)]

             n.  scornful anger at supposed unjust or unfair conduct or
             treatment.  [ME f. OF indignation or L indignatio (as

   indignity n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 unworthy treatment.  2 a slight or insult.  3
             the humiliating quality of something (the indignity of my
             position).  [F indignit‚ or L indignitas (as INDIGNANT)]

   indigo    n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a a natural blue dye obtained from the indigo
             plant.  b a synthetic form of this dye.  2 any plant of the
             genus Indigofera.  3 (in full indigo blue) a colour between blue
             and violet in the spectrum.  ЬЬindigotic adj.  [16th-c.  indico
             (f. Sp.), indigo (f. Port.) f. L indicum f. Gk indikon INDIAN

   indirect  adj.  1 not going straight to the point.  2 (of a route etc.)
             not straight.  3 not directly sought or aimed at (an indirect
             result).  4 (of lighting) from a concealed source and diffusely
             reflected.  Ьindirect object Gram.  a person or thing affected
             by a verbal action but not primarily acted on (e.g.  him in give
             him the book).  indirect question Gram.  a question in reported
             speech (e.g.  they asked who I was).  indirect speech (or
             oration) = reported speech (see REPORT).  indirect tax a tax
             levied on goods and services and not on income or profits.
             ЬЬindirectly adv.  indirectness n.  [ME f. OF indirect or med.L
             indirectus (as IN-(1), DIRECT)]

             adj.  that cannot be discerned or distinguished from another.
             ЬЬindiscernibility n.  indiscernibly adv.

             n.  lack of discipline.

             adj.  1 not discreet; revealing secrets.  2 injudicious, unwary.
             ЬЬindiscreetly adv.  [ME f. LL indiscretus (as IN-(1),

             adj.  not divided into distinct parts.  [L indiscretus (as
             IN-(1), DISCRETE)]

             n.  1 lack of discretion; indiscreet conduct.  2 an indiscreet
             action, remark, etc.  [ME f. OF indiscretion or LL indiscretio
             (as IN-(1), DISCRETION)]

             adj.  1 making no distinctions.  2 confused, promiscuous.
             ЬЬindiscriminately adv.  indiscriminateness n.  indiscrimination
             n.  indiscriminative adj.  [IN-(1) + discriminate (adj.) f. L
             discriminatus past part. (as DISCRIMINATE)]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to, for) that cannot be dispensed with;
             necessary.  2 (of a law, duty, etc.) that is not to be set
             aside.  ЬЬindispensability n.  indispensableness n.
             indispensably adv.  [med.L indispensabilis (as IN-(1),

   indispose v.tr.  1 (often foll. by for, or to + infin.) make unfit or
             unable.  2 (often foll. by towards, from, or to + infin.) make

             adj.  1 slightly unwell.  2 averse or unwilling.

             n.  1 ill health, a slight or temporary ailment.  2
             disinclination.  3 aversion.  [F indisposition or IN-(1) +

             adj.  1 that cannot be disputed.  2 unquestionable.
             ЬЬindisputability n.  indisputableness n.  indisputably adv.
             [LL indisputabilis (as IN-(1), DISPUTABLE)]

             n. & adj.  --n. a person who believes that the Church should not
             remarry divorcees.  --adj. of or holding this belief.

             adj.  1 that cannot be dissolved or decomposed.  2 lasting,
             stable (an indissoluble bond).  ЬЬindissolubility n.
             indissolubly adv.  [L indissolubilis (as IN-(1), DISSOLUBLE)]

             adj.  1 not distinct.  2 confused, obscure.  ЬЬindistinctly adv.
             indistinctness n.  [ME f. L indistinctus (as IN-(1), DISTINCT)]

             adj.  not having distinctive features.  ЬЬindistinctively adv.
             indistinctiveness n.

             adj.  (often foll. by from) not distinguishable.
             ЬЬindistinguishableness n.  indistinguishably adv.

   indite    v.tr.  formal or joc.  1 put (a speech etc.) into words.  2
             write (a letter etc.).  [ME f. OF enditier: see INDICT]

   indium    n.  Chem.  a soft silvery-white metallic element occurring
             naturally in zinc blende etc., used for electroplating and in
             semiconductors.  °Symb.: In.  [L indicum indigo with ref. to its
             characteristic spectral lines]

             adj.  that cannot be turned aside.  ЬЬindivertibly adv.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 single.  2 particular, special; not
             general.  3 having a distinct character.  4 characteristic of a
             particular person.  5 designed for use by one person.  --n.  1 a
             single member of a class.  2 a single human being as distinct
             from a family or group.  3 colloq. a person (a most unpleasant
             individual).  [ME, = indivisible, f. med.L individualis (as
             IN-(1), dividuus f.  dividere DIVIDE)]

             n.  1 the habit or principle of being independent and
             self-reliant.  2 a social theory favouring the free action of
             individuals.  3 self-centred feeling or conduct; egoism.
             ЬЬindividualist n.  individualistic adj.  individualistically

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 individual character, esp. when strongly
             marked.  2 (in pl.) individual tastes etc.  3 separate

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 give an individual character to.  2
             specify.  ЬЬindividualization n.

             adv.  1 personally; in an individual capacity.  2 in a
             distinctive manner.  3 one by one; not collectively.

             v.tr.  individualize; form into an individual.  ЬЬindividuation
             n.  [med.L individuare (as INDIVIDUAL)]

             adj.  1 not divisible.  2 not distributable among a number.
             ЬЬindivisibility n.  indivisibly adv.  [ME f. LL indivisibilis
             (as IN-(1), DIVISIBLE)]

   Indo-     comb. form Indian; Indian and.  [L Indus f. Gk Indos]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a member of any of the Aryan peoples of
             India.  2 the Indic group of languages.  --adj. of or relating
             to the Indo-Aryans or Indo-Aryan.

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Indo-China in SE Asia.  --n.
             a native of Indo-China; a person of Indo-Chinese descent.

   indocile  adj.  not docile.  ЬЬindocility n.  [F indocile or L indocilis
             (as IN-(1), DOCILE)]

             v.tr.  1 teach (a person or group) systematically or for a long
             period to accept (esp. partisan or tendentious) ideas
             uncritically.  2 teach, instruct.  ЬЬindoctrination n.
             indoctrinator n.  [IN-(2) + DOCTRINE + -ATE(3)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to the family of languages
             spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as N.
             India.  2 of or relating to the hypothetical parent language of
             this family.  --n.  1 the Indo-European family of languages.  2
             the hypothetical parent language of all languages belonging to
             this family.  3 (usu. in pl.) a speaker of an Indo-European

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the subfamily of
             Indo-European languages spoken chiefly in N. India and Iran.
             --n. this subfamily.

   indole    n.  Chem.  an organic compound with a characteristic odour
             formed on the reduction of indigo.  [INDIGO + L oleum oil]

   indoleacetic acid
             n.  Biochem.  any of the several isomeric acetic acid
             derivatives of indole, esp. one found as a natural growth
             hormone in plants.  °Abbr.: IAA.  [INDOLE + ACETIC]

   indolent  adj.  1 lazy; wishing to avoid activity or exertion.  2 Med.
             causing no pain (an indolent tumour).  ЬЬindolence n.
             indolently adv.  [LL indolens (as IN-(1), dolere suffer pain)]

   Indology  n.  the study of Indian history, literature, etc.  ЬЬIndologist

             adj.  1 that cannot be subdued; unyielding.  2 stubbornly
             persistent.  ЬЬindomitability n.  indomitableness n.
             indomitably adv.  [LL indomitabilis (as IN-(1), L domitare

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a a native or national of Indonesia in SE
             Asia.  b a person of Indonesian descent.  2 a member of the
             chief pre-Malay population of the E. Indies.  3 a language of
             the group spoken in the E. Indies, esp. the official language of
             the Indonesian Republic (see also BAHASA INDONESIA).  --adj. of
             or relating to Indonesia or its people or language.  [Indonesia
             f.  INDIES after Polynesia]

   indoor    adj.  situated, carried on, or used within a building or under
             cover (indoor aerial; indoor games).  [earlier within-door: cf.

   indoors   adv.  into or within a building.  [earlier within doors]

   indorse   var. of ENDORSE.

   indraught n.  (US indraft) 1 the drawing in of something.  2 an inward
             flow or current.

   indrawn   adj.  1 (of breath etc.) drawn in.  2 aloof.

   indri     n.  (pl.  indris) a large lemur, Indri indri, of Madagascar.
             [Malagasy indry behold, mistaken for its name]

             adj.  that cannot be doubted.  ЬЬindubitably adv.  [F
             indubitable or L indubitabilis (as IN-(1), dubitare to doubt)]

   induce    v.tr.  1 (often foll. by to + infin.) prevail on; persuade.  2
             bring about; give rise to.  3 Med. bring on (labour)
             artificially, esp. by use of drugs.  4 Electr. produce (a
             current) by induction.  5 Physics cause (radioactivity) by
             bombardment.  6 infer; derive as a deduction.  ЬЬinducer n.
             inducible adj.  [ME f. L inducere induct- (as IN-(2), ducere

             n.  1 (often foll. by to) an attraction that leads one on.  2 a
             thing that induces.

   induct    v.tr.  (often foll. by to, into) 1 introduce formally into
             possession of a benefice.  2 install into a room, office, etc.
             3 introduce, initiate.  4 US enlist (a person) for military
             service.  ЬЬinductee n.  [ME (as INDUCE)]

             n.  Electr.  the property of an electric circuit that causes an
             electromotive force to be generated by a change in the current

   induction n.  1 the act or an instance of inducting or inducing.  2 Med.
             the process of bringing on (esp. labour) by artificial means.  3
             Logic a the inference of a general law from particular instances
             (cf.  DEDUCTION).  b Math. a means of proving a theorem by
             showing that if it is true of any particular case it is true of
             the next case in a series, and then showing that it is indeed
             true in one particular case.  c (foll. by of) the production of
             (facts) to prove a general statement.  4 (often attrib.) a
             formal introduction to a new job, position, etc. (attended an
             induction course).  5 Electr.  a the production of an electric
             or magnetic state by the proximity (without contact) of an
             electrified or magnetized body.  b the production of an electric
             current in a conductor by a change of magnetic field.  6 the
             drawing of a fuel mixture into the cylinders of an
             internal-combustion engine.  7 US enlistment for military
             service.  Ьinduction-coil a coil for generating intermittent
             high voltage from a direct current.  induction heating heating
             by an induced electric current.  [ME f. OF induction or L
             inductio (as INDUCE)]

   inductive adj.  1 (of reasoning etc.) of or based on induction.  2 of
             electric or magnetic induction.  ЬЬinductively adv.
             inductiveness n.  [LL inductivus (as INDUCE)]

   inductor  n.  1 Electr. a component (in a circuit) which possesses
             inductance.  2 a person who inducts a member of the clergy.  [L
             (as INDUCE)]

   indue     var. of ENDUE.

   indulge   v.  1 intr. (often foll. by in) take pleasure freely.  2 tr.
             yield freely to (a desire etc.).  3 tr. gratify the wishes of;
             favour (indulged them with money).  4 intr.  colloq. take
             alcoholic liquor.  ЬЬindulger n.  [L indulgere indult- give free
             rein to]

             n.  1 a the act of indulging.  b the state of being indulgent.
             2 something indulged in.  3 RC Ch. the remission of temporal
             punishment in purgatory, still due for sins after absolution.  4
             a privilege granted.  ЬDeclaration of Indulgence the
             proclamation of religious liberties, esp. under Charles II in
             1672 and James II in 1687.  [ME f. OF f. L indulgentia (as

   indulgent adj.  1 ready or too ready to overlook faults etc.  2 indulging
             or tending to indulge.  ЬЬindulgently adv.  [F indulgent or L
             indulgere indulgent- (as INDULGE)]

             n.  (pl.  indumenta) Bot.  the covering of hairs on part of a
             plant, esp. when dense.  [L, = garment]

   induna    n.  1 S.Afr. a tribal councillor or headman.  2 a an African
             foreman.  b a person in authority.  [Nguni inDuna captain,

   indurate  v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become hard.  2 tr. make callous or
             unfeeling.  3 intr. become inveterate.  ЬЬinduration n.
             indurative adj.  [L indurare (as IN-(2), durus hard)]

   indusium  n.  (pl.  indusia) 1 a membranous shield covering the
             fruit-cluster of a fern.  2 a collection of hairs enclosing the
             stigma of some flowers.  3 the case of a larva.  ЬЬindusial adj.
             [L, = tunic, f.  induere put on (a garment)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to industry or industries.
             2 designed or suitable for industrial use (industrial alcohol).
             3 characterized by highly developed industries (the industrial
             nations).  --n. (in pl.) shares in industrial companies.
             Ьindustrial action Brit.  any action, esp. a strike or work to
             rule, taken by employees as a protest.  industrial archaeology
             the study of machines, factories, bridges, etc., formerly used
             in industry.  industrial estate Brit.  an area of land developed
             for the siting of industrial enterprises.  industrial relations
             the relations between management and workers in industries.  the
             Industrial Revolution the rapid development of a nation's
             industry (esp. in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th c.).
             ЬЬindustrially adv.  [INDUSTRY + -AL: in 19th c. partly f. F

             n.  a social or economic system in which manufacturing
             industries are prevalent.

             n.  a person engaged in the management of industry.

             v.  (also -ise) 1 tr. introduce industries to (a country or
             region etc.).  2 intr. become industrialized.
             ЬЬindustrialization n.

             adj.  diligent, hard-working.  ЬЬindustriously adv.
             industriousness n.  [F industrieux or LL industriosus (as

   industry  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a branch of trade or manufacture.  b trade
             and manufacture collectively (incentives to industry).  2
             concerted or copious activity (the building was a hive of
             industry).  3 a diligence.  b colloq. the diligent study of a
             particular topic (the Shakespeare industry).  4 habitual
             employment in useful work.  [ME, = skill, f. F industrie or L
             industria diligence]

   indwell   v.  (past and past part.  indwelt) literary 1 intr. (often foll.
             by in) be permanently present as a spirit, principle, etc.  2
             tr. inhabit spiritually.  ЬЬindweller n.

   -ine(1)   suffix forming adjectives, meaning 'belonging to, of the nature
             of' (Alpine; asinine).  [from or after F - in -ine, or f. L

   -ine(2)   suffix forming adjectives esp. from names of minerals, plants,
             etc. (crystalline).  [L -inus from or after Gk -inos]

   -ine(3)   suffix forming feminine nouns (heroine; margravine).  [F f. L
             -ina f. Gk -ine, or f. G -in]

   -ine(4)   suffix 1 forming (esp. abstract) nouns (discipline; medicine).
             2 Chem. forming nouns denoting derived substances, esp.
             alkaloids, halogens, amines, and amino acids.  [F f. L -ina
             (fem.) = -INE(1)]

   inebriate v., adj., & n.  --v.tr.  1 make drunk; intoxicate.  2 excite.
             --adj.  drunken.  --n.  a drunken person, esp. a habitual
             drunkard.  ЬЬinebriation n.  inebriety n.  [ME f. L inebriatus
             past part. of inebriare (as IN-(2), ebrius drunk)]

   inedible  adj.  not edible, esp. not suitable for eating (cf.  UNEATABLE).
             ЬЬinedibility n.

   inedited  adj.  1 not published.  2 published without editorial
             alterations or additions.

             adj.  incapable of being educated, esp. through mental
             retardation.  ЬЬineducability n.

   ineffable adj.  1 unutterable; too great for description in words.  2 that
             must not be uttered.  ЬЬineffability n.  ineffably adv.  [ME f.
             OF ineffable or L ineffabilis (as IN-(1), effari speak out,

             adj.  that cannot be effaced.  ЬЬineffaceability n.
             ineffaceably adv.

             adj.  1 not producing any effect or the desired effect.  2 (of a
             person) inefficient; not achieving results.  3 lacking artistic
             effect.  ЬЬineffectively adv.  ineffectiveness n.

             adj.  1 a without effect.  b not producing the desired or
             expected effect.  2 (of a person) lacking the ability to achieve
             results (an ineffectual leader).  ЬЬineffectuality n.
             ineffectually adv.  ineffectualness n.  [ME f. med.L
             ineffectualis (as IN-(1), EFFECTUAL)]

             adj.  (of a remedy etc.) not producing the desired effect.
             ЬЬinefficaciously adv.  inefficaciousness n.  inefficacy n.

             adj.  1 not efficient.  2 (of a person) not fully capable; not
             well qualified.  ЬЬinefficiency n.  inefficiently adv.

   inelastic adj.  1 not elastic.  2 unadaptable, inflexible, unyielding.
             ЬЬinelastically adv.  inelasticity n.

   inelegant adj.  1 ungraceful.  2 a unrefined.  b (of a style) unpolished.
             ЬЬinelegance n.  inelegantly adv.  [F in‚l‚gant f. L inelegans
             (as IN-(1), ELEGANT)]

             adj.  1 not eligible.  2 undesirable.  ЬЬineligibility n.
             ineligibly adv.

             adj.  1 against which it is useless to struggle.  2 that cannot
             be escaped from.  ЬЬineluctability n.  ineluctably adv.  [L
             ineluctabilis (as IN-(1), eluctari struggle out)]

   inept     adj.  1 unskilful.  2 absurd, silly.  3 out of place.
             ЬЬineptitude n.  ineptly adv.  ineptness n.  [L ineptus (as
             IN-(1), APT)]

   inequable adj.  1 not fairly distributed.  2 not uniform.  [L inaequabilis
             uneven (as IN-(1), EQUABLE)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a lack of equality in any respect.  b an
             instance of this.  2 the state of being variable.  3 (of a
             surface) irregularity.  4 Math. a formula affirming that two
             expressions are not equal.  [ME f. OF inequalit‚ or L
             inaequalitas (as IN-(1), EQUALITY)]

             adj.  unfair, unjust.  ЬЬinequitably adv.

   inequity  n.  (pl.  -ies) unfairness, bias.

             adj.  that cannot be rooted out.  ЬЬineradicably adv.

   inerrant  adj.  not liable to err.  ЬЬinerrancy n.  [L inerrans (as
             IN-(1), ERR)]

   inert     adj.  1 without inherent power of action, motion, or resistance.
             2 without active chemical or other properties.  3 sluggish,
             slow.  Ьinert gas = noble gas.  ЬЬinertly adv.  inertness n.  [L
             iners inert- (as IN-(1), ars ART(1))]

   inertia   n.  1 Physics a property of matter by which it continues in its
             existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line,
             unless that state is changed by an external force.  2 inertness,
             sloth.  Ьinertia reel a reel device which allows a vehicle seat
             belt to unwind freely but which locks under force of impact or
             rapid deceleration.  inertia selling the sending of unsolicited
             goods in the hope of making a sale.  ЬЬinertial adj.
             inertialess adj.  [L (as INERT)]

             adj.  that cannot be escaped or avoided.  ЬЬinescapability n.
             inescapably adv.

   -iness    suffix forming nouns corresponding to adjectives in -y (see
             -Y(1), -LY(2)).

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 not necessary.  2 dispensable.  --n. an
             inessential thing.

             adj.  too great, intense, precious, etc., to be estimated.
             ЬЬinestimably adv.  [ME f. OF f. L inaestimabilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  1 a unavoidable; sure to happen.  b that is bound to occur
             or appear.  2 colloq. that is tiresomely familiar.  3 (of
             character-drawing, the development of a plot, etc.)  so true to
             nature etc. as to preclude alternative treatment or solution;
             convincing.  ЬЬinevitability n.  inevitableness n.  inevitably
             adv.  [L inevitabilis (as IN-(1), evitare avoid)]

   inexact   adj.  not exact.  ЬЬinexactitude n.  inexactly adv.  inexactness

             adj.  (of a person, action, etc.) that cannot be excused or
             justified.  ЬЬinexcusably adv.  [ME f. L inexcusabilis (as
             IN-(1), EXCUSE)]

             adj.  that cannot be exhausted or used up.  ЬЬinexhaustibility
             n.  inexhaustibly adv.

             adj.  1 relentless.  2 (of a person or attribute) that cannot be
             persuaded by request or entreaty.  ЬЬinexorability n.
             inexorably adv.  [F inexorable or L inexorabilis (as IN-(1),
             exorare entreat)]

             adj.  not expedient.  ЬЬinexpediency n.

             adj.  1 not expensive, cheap.  2 offering good value for the
             price.  ЬЬinexpensively adv.  inexpensiveness n.

             n.  lack of experience, or of the resulting knowledge or skill.
             ЬЬinexperienced adj.  [F inexp‚rience f. LL inexperientia (as
             IN-(1), EXPERIENCE)]

   inexpert  adj.  unskilful; lacking expertise.  ЬЬinexpertly adv.
             inexpertness n.  [OF f. L inexpertus (as IN-(1), EXPERT)]

             adj.  (of an act or feeling) that cannot be expiated or
             appeased.  ЬЬinexpiably adv.  [L inexpiabilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  that cannot be explained or accounted for.
             ЬЬinexplicability n.  inexplicably adv.  [F inexplicable or L
             inexplicabilis that cannot be unfolded (as IN-(1), EXPLICABLE)]

             adj.  not definitely or clearly expressed.  ЬЬinexplicitly adv.
             inexplicitness n.

             adj.  that cannot be expressed in words.  ЬЬinexpressibly adv.

             adj.  not expressive.  ЬЬinexpressively adv.  inexpressiveness

             adj.  that cannot be expunged or obliterated.

   in extenso
             adv.  in full; at length.  [L]

             adj.  1 not quenchable; indestructible.  2 (of laughter etc.)

   in extremis
             adj.  1 at the point of death.  2 in great difficulties.  [L]

             adj.  1 (of a circumstance) that cannot be escaped from.  2 (of
             a knot, problem, etc.) that cannot be unravelled or solved.  3
             intricately confused.  ЬЬinextricability n.  inextricably adv.
             [ME f. L inextricabilis (as IN-(1), EXTRICATE)]

             adj.  1 incapable of error.  2 (of a method, test, proof, etc.)
             unfailing; sure to succeed.  3 RC Ch. (of the Pope) unable to
             err in pronouncing dogma as doctrinally defined.
             ЬЬinfallibility n.  infallibly adv.  [ME f. F infaillible or LL
             infallibilis (as IN-(1), FALLIBLE)]

   infamous  adj.  1 notoriously bad; having a bad reputation.  2 abominable.
             3 (in ancient law) deprived of all or some rights of a citizen
             on account of serious crime.  ЬЬinfamously adv.  infamy n.  (pl.
             -ies).  [ME f. med.L infamosus f. L infamis (as IN-(1), FAME)]

   infancy   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 early childhood; babyhood.  2 an early state
             in the development of an idea, undertaking, etc.  3 Law the
             state of being a minor.  [L infantia (as INFANT)]

   infant    n.  1 a a child during the earliest period of its life.  b Brit.
             a schoolchild below the age of seven years.  2 (esp.  attrib.) a
             thing in an early stage of its development.  3 Law a minor; a
             person under 18.  Ьinfant mortality death before the age of one.
             [ME f. OF enfant f. L infans unable to speak (as IN-(1), fans
             fantis pres. part. of fari speak)]

   infanta   n.  hist.  a daughter of the ruling monarch of Spain or Portugal
             (usu. the eldest daughter who is not heir to the throne).  [Sp.
             & Port., fem. of INFANTE]

   infante   n.  hist.  the second son of the ruling monarch of Spain or
             Portugal.  [Sp. & Port. f. L (as INFANT)]

             n.  1 the killing of an infant soon after birth.  2 the practice
             of killing newborn infants.  3 a person who kills an infant.
             ЬЬinfanticidal adj.  [F f. LL infanticidium, -cida (as INFANT)]

   infantile adj.  1 a like or characteristic of a child.  b childish,
             immature (infantile humour).  2 in its infancy.  Ьinfantile
             paralysis poliomyelitis.  ЬЬinfantility n.  (pl.  -ies).  [F
             infantile or L infantilis (as INFANT)]

             n.  1 childish behaviour.  2 Psychol. the persistence of
             infantile characteristics or behaviour in adult life.

   infantry  n.  (pl.  -ies) a body of soldiers who march and fight on foot;
             foot-soldiers collectively.  [F infanterie f. It.  infanteria f.
             infante youth, infantryman (as INFANT)]

             n.  (pl.  -men) a soldier of an infantry regiment.

   infarct   n.  Med.  a small localized area of dead tissue caused by an
             inadequate blood supply.  ЬЬinfarction n.  [mod.L infarctus (as
             IN-(2), L farcire farct- stuff)]

   infatuate v.tr.  1 inspire with intense usu. transitory fondness or
             admiration.  2 affect with extreme folly.  ЬЬinfatuation n.  [L
             infatuare (as IN-(2), fatuus foolish)]

             adj.  (often foll. by with) affected by an intense fondness or

   infauna   n.  any animals which live just below the surface of the seabed.
             [Da.  ifauna (as IN-(2), FAUNA)]

             adj.  not feasible; that cannot easily be done.  ЬЬinfeasibility

   infect    v.tr.  1 contaminate (air, water, etc.) with harmful organisms
             or noxious matter.  2 affect (a person) with disease etc.  3
             instil bad feeling or opinion into (a person).  ЬЬinfector n.
             [ME f. L inficere infect- taint (as IN-(2), facere make)]

   infection n.  1 a the process of infecting or state of being infected.  b
             an instance of this; an infectious disease.  2 communication of
             disease, esp. by the agency of air or water etc.  3 a moral
             contamination.  b the diffusive influence of example, sympathy,
             etc.  [ME f. OF infection or LL infectio (as INFECT)]

             adj.  1 infecting with disease.  2 (of a disease) liable to be
             transmitted by air, water, etc.  3 (of emotions etc.) apt to
             spread; quickly affecting others.  ЬЬinfectiously adv.
             infectiousness n.

   infective adj.  1 capable of infecting with disease.  2 infectious.
             ЬЬinfectiveness n.  [L infectivus (as INFECT)]

             adj.  not felicitous; unfortunate.  ЬЬinfelicitously adv.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a inaptness of expression etc.  b an instance
             of this.  2 a unhappiness.  b a misfortune.  [ME f. L
             infelicitas (as IN-(1), FELICITY)]

   infer     v.tr.  (inferred, inferring) (often foll. by that + clause) 1
             deduce or conclude from facts and reasoning.  2 disp. imply,
             suggest.  ЬЬinferable adj.  (also inferrable).  [L inferre (as
             IN-(2), ferre bring)]

   inference n.  1 the act or an instance of inferring.  2 Logic a the
             forming of a conclusion from premisses.  b a thing inferred.
             ЬЬinferential adj.  inferentially adv.  [med.L inferentia (as

   inferior  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by to) a lower; in a lower
             position.  b of lower rank, quality, etc.  2 poor in quality.  3
             (of a planet) having an orbit within the earth's.  4 Bot.
             situated below an ovary or calyx.  5 (of figures or letters)
             written or printed below the line.  --n.  1 a person inferior to
             another, esp. in rank.  2 an inferior letter or figure.
             ЬЬinferiorly adv.  [ME f. L, compar. of inferus that is below]

             n.  the state of being inferior.  Ьinferiority complex an
             unrealistic feeling of general inadequacy caused by actual or
             supposed inferiority in one sphere, sometimes marked by
             aggressive behaviour in compensation.

   infernal  adj.  1 a of hell or the underworld.  b hellish, fiendish.  2
             colloq. detestable, tiresome.  ЬЬinfernally adv.  [ME f. OF f.
             LL infernalis f. L infernus situated below]

   inferno   n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a raging fire.  2 a scene of horror or
             distress.  3 hell, esp. with ref. to Dante's Divine Comedy.
             [It. f. LL infernus (as INFERNAL)]

   infertile adj.  not fertile.  ЬЬinfertility n.  [F infertile or LL
             infertilis (as IN-(1), FERTILE)]

   infest    v.tr.  (of harmful persons or things, esp. vermin or disease)
             overrun (a place) in large numbers.  ЬЬinfestation n.  [ME f. F
             infester or L infestare assail f.  infestus hostile]

   infidel   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a person who does not believe in religion or
             in a particular religion; an unbeliever.  2 hist. an adherent of
             a religion other than Christianity, esp. a Muslim.  --adj.  1
             that is an infidel.  2 of unbelievers.  [ME f. F infidЉle or L
             infidelis (as IN-(1), fidelis faithful)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a disloyalty or unfaithfulness, esp. to a
             husband or wife.  b an instance of this.  2 disbelief in
             Christianity or another religion.  [ME f. F infid‚lit‚ or L
             infidelitas (as INFIDEL)]

   infield   n.  1 Cricket a the part of the ground near the wicket.  b the
             fielders stationed there.  2 Baseball a the area between the
             four bases.  b the four fielders stationed on its boundaries.  3
             farm land around or near a homestead.  4 a arable land.  b land
             regularly manured and cropped.  ЬЬinfielder n. (in sense 2).

             n.  1 hidden conflict or competitiveness within an organization.
             2 boxing at closer quarters than arm's length.  ЬЬinfighter n.

   infill    n. & v.  --n.  1 material used to fill a hole, gap, etc.  2 the
             placing of buildings to occupy the space between existing ones.
             --v.tr. fill in (a cavity etc.).

   infilling n.  = INFILL n.

             v.  1 tr.  a gain entrance or access to surreptitiously and by
             degrees (as spies etc.).  b cause to do this.  2 tr. permeate by
             filtration.  3 tr. (often foll. by into, through) introduce
             (fluid) by filtration.  ЬЬinfiltration n.  infiltrator n.
             [IN-(2) + FILTRATE]

   infinite  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 boundless, endless.  2 very great.  3 (usu.
             with pl.) innumerable; very many (infinite resources).  4 Math.
             a greater than any assignable quantity or countable number.  b
             (of a series) that may be continued indefinitely.  5 Gram. (of a
             verb part) not limited by person or number, e.g. infinitive,
             gerund, and participle.  --n.  1 (the Infinite) God.  2 (the
             infinite) infinite space.  ЬЬinfinitely adv.  infiniteness n.
             [ME f. L infinitus (as IN-(1), FINITE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. infinitely or very small.  --n. an
             infinitesimal amount.  Ьinfinitesimal calculus the differential
             and integral calculuses regarded as one subject.
             ЬЬinfinitesimally adv.  [mod.L infinitesimus f.  INFINITE: cf.

             n. & adj.  --n. a form of a verb expressing the verbal notion
             without reference to a particular subject, tense, etc. (e.g.
             see in we came to see, let him see).  --adj. having this form.
             ЬЬinfinitival adj.  infinitivally adv.  [L infinitivus (as
             IN-(1), finitivus definite f.  finire finit- define)]

             n.  1 the state of being infinite; boundlessness.  2 (often
             foll. by of) a boundless number or extent.  [L infinitus: see
             INFINITE, -TUDE]

   infinity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the state of being infinite.  2 an infinite
             number or extent.  3 infinite distance.  4 Math. infinite
             quantity.  °Symb.: 1!1!  [ME f. OF infinit‚ or L infinitas (as

   infirm    adj.  1 physically weak, esp. through age.  2 (of a person,
             mind, judgement, etc.) weak, irresolute.  ЬЬinfirmity n.  (pl.
             -ies).  infirmly adv.  [ME f. L infirmus (as IN-(1), FIRM(1))]

   infirmary n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a hospital.  2 a place for those who are ill
             in a monastery, school, etc.  [med.L infirmaria (as INFIRM)]

   infix     v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in) a fix (a thing in
             another).  b impress (a fact etc. in the mind).  2 Gram. insert
             (a formative element) into the body of a word.  --n.  Gram. a
             formative element inserted in a word.  ЬЬinfixation n.  [L
             infigere infix- (as IN-(2), FIX): (n.) after prefix, suffix]

   in flagrante delicto
             adj.  in the very act of committing an offence.  [L, = in
             blazing crime]

   inflame   v.  1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by with, by) provoke or become
             provoked to strong feeling, esp. anger.  2 Med.  a intr. become
             hot, reddened, and sore.  b tr. cause inflammation or fever in
             (a body etc.); make hot.  3 tr. aggravate.  4 intr. & tr. catch
             or set on fire.  5 tr. light up with or as if with flames.
             ЬЬinflamer n.  [ME f. OF enflammer f. L inflammare (as IN-(2),
             flamma flame)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 easily set on fire; flammable.  2 easily
             excited.  --n. (usu. in pl.) an inflammable substance.
             ЬЬinflammability n.  inflammableness n.  inflammably adv.
             [INFLAME after F inflammable]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of inflaming.  2 Med. a localized
             physical condition with heat, swelling, redness, and usu. pain,
             esp. as a reaction to injury or infection.  [L inflammatio (as

             adj.  1 (esp. of speeches, leaflets, etc.) tending to cause
             anger etc.  2 of or tending to inflammation of the body.

             adj. & n.  --adj. that can be inflated.  --n. an inflatable
             plastic or rubber object.

   inflate   v.tr.  1 distend (a balloon etc.) with air.  2 (usu. foll. by
             with; usu. in passive) puff up (a person with pride etc.).  3 a
             (often absol.) bring about inflation (of the currency).  b raise
             (prices) artificially.  4 (as inflated adj.) (esp. of language,
             sentiments, etc.) bombastic.  ЬЬinflatedly adv.  inflatedness n.
             inflater n.  inflator n.  [L inflare inflat- (as IN-(2), flare

   inflation n.  1 a the act or condition of inflating or being inflated.  b
             an instance of this.  2 Econ.  a a general increase in prices
             and fall in the purchasing value of money.  b an increase in
             available currency regarded as causing this.  ЬЬinflationary
             adj.  inflationism n.  inflationist n. & adj.  [ME f. L inflatio
             (as INFLATE)]

   inflect   v.  1 tr. change the pitch of (the voice, a musical note, etc.).
             2 Gram.  a tr. change the form of (a word) to express tense,
             gender, number, mood, etc.  b intr. (of a word, language, etc.)
             undergo such change.  3 tr. bend inwards; curve.  ЬЬinflective
             adj.  [ME f. L inflectere inflex- (as IN-(2), flectere bend)]

             n.  (also inflexion) 1 a the act or condition of inflecting or
             being inflected.  b an instance of this.  2 Gram.  a the process
             or practice of inflecting words.  b an inflected form of a word.
             c a suffix etc. used to inflect, e.g.  -ed.  3 a modulation of
             the voice.  4 Geom. a change of curvature from convex to concave
             at a particular point on a curve.  ЬЬinflectional adj.
             inflectionally adv.  inflectionless adj.  [F inflection or L
             inflexio (as INFLECT)]

             adj.  1 unbendable.  2 stiff; immovable; obstinate (old and
             inflexible in his attitudes).  3 unchangeable; inexorable.
             ЬЬinflexibility n.  inflexibly adv.  [L inflexibilis (as IN-(1),

   inflict   v.tr.  (usu. foll. by on, upon) 1 administer, deal (a stroke,
             wound, defeat, etc.).  2 (also refl.) often joc. impose
             (suffering, a penalty, oneself, one's company, etc.)  on (shall
             not inflict myself on you any longer).  ЬЬinflictable adj.
             inflicter n.  inflictor n.  [L infligere inflict- (as IN-(2),
             fligere strike)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of inflicting.  2 something
             inflicted, esp. a troublesome or boring experience.  [LL
             inflictio (as INFLICT)]

   inflight  attrib.adj.  occurring or provided during an aircraft flight.

             n.  1 Bot.  a the complete flower-head of a plant including
             stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers.  b the arrangement of this.
             2 the process of flowering.  [mod.L inflorescentia f. LL
             inflorescere (as IN-(2), FLORESCENCE)]

   inflow    n.  1 a flowing in.  2 something that flows in.  ЬЬinflowing n.
             & adj.

   influence n. & v.  --n.  1 a (usu. foll. by on, upon) the effect a person
             or thing has on another.  b (usu. foll. by over, with) moral
             ascendancy or power.  c a thing or person exercising such power
             (is a good influence on them).  2 Astrol. an ethereal fluid
             supposedly flowing from the stars and affecting character and
             destiny.  3 Electr.  archaic = INDUCTION.  --v.tr. exert
             influence on; have an effect on.  Ьunder the influence colloq.
             affected by alcoholic drink.  ЬЬinfluenceable adj.  influencer
             n.  [ME f. OF influence or med.L influentia inflow f. L influere
             flow in (as IN-(2), fluere flow)]

   influent  adj. & n.  --adj. flowing in.  --n. a tributary stream.  [ME f.
             L (as INFLUENCE)]

             adj.  having a great influence or power (influential in the
             financial world).  ЬЬinfluentially adv.  [med.L influentia

   influenza n.  a highly contagious virus infection causing fever, severe
             aching, and catarrh, often occurring in epidemics.  ЬЬinfluenzal
             adj.  [It. f. med.L influentia INFLUENCE]

   influx    n.  1 a continual stream of people or things (an influx of
             complaints).  2 (usu. foll. by into) a flowing in, esp. of a
             stream etc.  [F influx or LL influxus (as IN-(2), FLUX)]

   info      n.  colloq.  information.  [abbr.]

   infold    var. of ENFOLD.

   inform    v.  1 tr. (usu. foll. by of, about, on, or that, how + clause)
             tell (informed them of their rights; informed us that the train
             was late).  2 intr. (usu. foll. by against, on) make an
             accusation.  3 tr. (usu. foll. by with) literary inspire or
             imbue (a person, heart, or thing) with a feeling, principle,
             quality, etc.  4 tr. impart its quality to; permeate.
             ЬЬinformant n.  [ME f. OF enfo(u)rmer f. L informare give shape
             to, fashion, describe (as IN-(2), forma form)]

   informal  adj.  1 without ceremony or formality (just an informal chat).
             2 (of language, clothing, etc.) everyday; normal.  Ьinformal
             vote NZ & Austral.  an invalid vote or voting paper.
             ЬЬinformality n.  (pl.  -ies).  informally adv.

             n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) the science of processing data
             for storage and retrieval; information science.  [transl. Russ.
             informatika (as INFORMATION, -ICS)]

             n.  1 a something told; knowledge.  b (usu. foll. by on, about)
             items of knowledge; news (the latest information on the crisis).
             2 Law (usu. foll. by against) a charge or complaint lodged with
             a court or magistrate.  3 a the act of informing or telling.  b
             an instance of this.  Ьinformation retrieval the tracing of
             information stored in books, computers, etc.  information
             science the study of the processes for storing and retrieving
             information.  information theory Math.  the quantitative study
             of the transmission of information by signals etc.
             ЬЬinformational adj.  informationally adv.  [ME f. OF f. L
             informatio -onis (as INFORM)]

             adj.  (also informatory) giving information; instructive.
             ЬЬinformatively adv.  informativeness n.  [med.L informativus
             (as INFORM)]

   informed  adj.  1 knowing the facts; instructed (his answers show that he
             is badly informed).  2 educated; intelligent.  ЬЬinformedly also
             adv.  informedness also n.

   informer  n.  1 a person who informs against another.  2 a person who
             informs or advises.

   infra     adv.  below, further on (in a book or writing).  [L, = below]

   infra-    comb. form 1 below (opp.  SUPRA-).  2 Anat. below or under a
             part of the body.  [from or after L infra below, beneath]

             n.  esp. Law a violation or infringement.  ЬЬinfract v.tr.
             infractor n.  [L infractio (as INFRINGE)]

   infra dig predic.adj.  colloq.  beneath one's dignity; unbecoming.  [abbr.
             of L infra dignitatem]

             adj.  1 unbreakable.  2 inviolable.  ЬЬinfrangibility n.
             infrangibleness n.  infrangibly adv.  [obs.F infrangible or
             med.L infrangibilis (as IN-(1), FRANGIBLE)]

   infrared  adj.  1 having a wavelength just greater than the red end of the
             visible light spectrum but less than that of radio waves.  2 of
             or using such radiation.

             adj.  of or relating to sound waves with a frequency below the
             lower limit of human audibility.  ЬЬinfrasonically adv.

             n.  sound waves with frequencies below the lower limit of human

             n.  1 a the basic structural foundations of a society or
             enterprise; a substructure or foundation.  b roads, bridges,
             sewers, etc., regarded as a country's economic foundation.  2
             permanent installations as a basis for military etc. operations.
             [F (as INFRA-, STRUCTURE)]

             adj.  not frequent.  ЬЬinfrequency n.  infrequently adv.  [L
             infrequens (as IN-(1), FREQUENT)]

   infringe  v.  1 tr.  a act contrary to; violate (a law, an oath, etc.).  b
             act in defiance of (another's rights etc.).  2 intr. (usu. foll.
             by on, upon) encroach; trespass.  ЬЬinfringement n.  infringer
             n.  [L infringere infract- (as IN-(2), frangere break)]

   infula    n.  (pl.  infulae) Eccl.  either of the two ribbons on a
             bishop's mitre.  [L, = woollen fillet worn by priest etc.]

             adj.  funnel-shaped.  [L infundibulum funnel f.  infundere pour
             in (as IN-(2), fundere pour)]

   infuriate v. & adj.  --v.tr.  fill with fury; enrage.  --adj.  literary
             excited to fury; frantic.  ЬЬinfuriating adj.  infuriatingly
             adv.  infuriation n.  [med.L infuriare infuriat- (as IN-(2), L
             furia FURY)]

   infuse    v.  1 tr. (usu. foll. by with) imbue; pervade (anger infused
             with resentment).  2 tr. steep (herbs, tea, etc.) in liquid to
             extract the content.  3 tr. (usu. foll. by into) instil (grace,
             spirit, life, etc.).  4 intr. undergo infusion (let it infuse
             for five minutes).  5 tr. (usu. foll. by into) pour (a thing).
             ЬЬinfusable adj.  infuser n.  infusive adj.  [ME f. L infundere
             infus- (as IN-(2), fundere pour)]

   infusible adj.  not able to be fused or melted.  ЬЬinfusibility n.

   infusion  n.  1 a liquid obtained by infusing.  2 an infused element; an
             admixture.  3 Med. a slow injection of a substance into a vein
             or tissue.  4 a the act of infusing.  b an instance of this.
             [ME f. F infusion or L infusio (as INFUSE)]

   infusorial earth
             n.  = KIESELGUHR.  [mod.L infusoria, formerly a class of
             protozoa found in decaying animal or vegetable matter (as

   -ing(1)   suffix forming gerunds and nouns from verbs (or occas. from
             nouns), denoting: 1 a the verbal action or its result (asking;
             carving; fighting; learning).  b the verbal action as described
             or classified in some way (tough going).  2 material used for or
             associated with a process etc. (piping; washing).  3 an
             occupation or event (banking; wedding).  4 a set or arrangement
             of (colouring; feathering).  [OE -ung, -ing f. Gmc]

   -ing(2)   suffix 1 forming the present participle of verbs (asking;
             fighting), often as adjectives (charming; strapping).  2 forming
             adjectives from nouns (hulking) and verbs (balding).  [ME alt.
             of OE -ende, later - inde]

   -ing(3)   suffix forming nouns meaning 'one belonging to' or 'one having
             the quality of', surviving esp. in names of coins and fractional
             parts (farthing; gelding; riding).  [OE f. Gmc]

   ingather  v.tr.  gather in; assemble.

             n.  the act or an instance of gathering in, esp. of a harvest.

             v.tr.  literary repeat; reiterate.  Ьingeminate peace constantly
             urge peace.  [L ingeminare ingeminat- (as IN-(2), GEMINATE)]

   ingenious adj.  1 clever at inventing, constructing, organizing, etc.;
             skilful; resourceful.  2 (of a machine, theory, etc.) cleverly
             contrived.  ЬЬingeniously adv.  ingeniousness n.  [ME, =
             talented, f. F ing‚nieux or L ingeniosus f.  ingenium
             cleverness: cf.  ENGINE]

   ing‚nue   n.  1 an innocent or unsophisticated young woman.  2 Theatr.  a
             such a part in a play.  b the actress who plays this part.  [F,
             fem. of ing‚nu INGENUOUS]

   ingenuity n.  skill in devising or contriving; ingeniousness.  [L
             ingenuitas ingenuousness (as INGENUOUS): Engl. meaning by
             confusion of INGENIOUS with INGENUOUS]

   ingenuous adj.  1 innocent; artless.  2 open; frank.  ЬЬingenuously adv.
             ingenuousness n.  [L ingenuus free-born, frank (as IN-(2), root
             of gignere beget)]

   ingest    v.tr.  1 take in (food etc.); eat.  2 absorb (facts, knowledge,
             etc.).  ЬЬingestion n.  ingestive adj.  [L ingerere ingest- (as
             IN-(2), gerere carry)]

   inglenook n.  a space within the opening on either side of a large
             fireplace.  [dial. (orig. Sc.)  ingle fire burning on a hearth,
             perh. f. Gael.  aingeal fire, light, + NOOK]

             adj.  1 shameful; ignominious.  2 not famous.  ЬЬingloriously
             adv.  ingloriousness n.

   -ingly    suffix forming adverbs esp. denoting manner of action or nature
             or condition (dotingly; charmingly; slantingly).

   ingoing   adj.  1 going in; entering.  2 penetrating; thorough.

   ingot     n.  a usu. oblong piece of cast metal, esp. of gold, silver, or
             steel.  [ME: perh. f.  IN(1) + goten past part. of OE geotan

   ingraft   var. of ENGRAFT.

   ingrain   adj.  1 inherent; ingrained.  2 (of textiles) dyed in the fibre,
             before being woven.  Ьingrain carpet a reversible carpet, with
             different colours interwoven.

   ingrained attrib.  adj.  1 deeply rooted; inveterate.  2 thorough.  3 (of
             dirt etc.) deeply embedded.  ЬЬingrainedly adv.  [var. of
             engrained: see ENGRAIN]

   ingrate   n. & adj.  formal or literary --n. an ungrateful person.  --adj.
             ungrateful.  [ME f. L ingratus (as IN-(1), gratus grateful)]

             v.refl.  (usu. foll. by with) bring oneself into favour.
             ЬЬingratiating adj.  ingratiatingly adv.  ingratiation n.  [L in
             gratiam into favour]

             n.  a lack of due gratitude.  [ME f. OF ingratitude or LL
             ingratitudo (as INGRATE)]

             adj.  Med.  (of a disease etc.) growing worse.  ЬЬingravescence
             n.  [L ingravescere (as IN-(2), gravescere grow heavy f.  gravis

             n.  a component part or element in a recipe, mixture, or
             combination.  [ME f. L ingredi ingress- enter (as IN-(2), gradi

   ingress   n.  1 the act or right of going in or entering.  2 Astron. the
             start of an eclipse or transit.  ЬЬingression n.  [ME f. L
             ingressus (as INGREDIENT)]

   in-group  n.  a small exclusive group of people with a common interest.

   ingrowing adj.  growing inwards, esp. (of a toenail) growing into the
             flesh.  ЬЬingrown adj.  ingrowth n.

   inguinal  adj.  of the groin.  ЬЬinguinally adv.  [L inguinalis f.  inguen
             -inis groin]

   ingulf    var. of ENGULF.

             v.tr.  1 swallow greedily.  2 engulf.  ЬЬingurgitation n.  [L
             ingurgitare ingurgitat- (as IN-(2), gurges gurgitis whirlpool)]

   inhabit   v.tr.  (inhabited, inhabiting) (of a person or animal) dwell in;
             occupy (a region, town, house, etc.).  ЬЬinhabitability n.
             inhabitable adj.  inhabitant n.  inhabitation n.  [ME inhabite,
             enhabite f. OF enhabiter or L inhabitare (as IN-(2), habitare
             dwell): see HABIT]

             n.  (also inhabitance) residence as an inhabitant, esp. during a
             specified period so as to acquire rights etc.

   inhalant  n.  a medicinal preparation for inhaling.

   inhale    v.tr.  (often absol.) breathe in (air, gas, tobacco-smoke,
             etc.).  ЬЬinhalation n.  [L inhalare breathe in (as IN-(2),
             halare breathe)]

   inhaler   n.  a portable device used for relieving esp. asthma by

             adj.  esp. Mus.  not harmonic.

             adj.  esp. Mus.  not harmonious.  ЬЬinharmoniously adv.

   inhere    v.intr.  (often foll. by in) 1 exist essentially or permanently
             in (goodness inheres in that child).  2 (of rights etc.) be
             vested in (a person etc.).  [L inhaerere inhaes- (as IN-(2),
             haerere to stick)]

   inherent  adj.  (often foll. by in) 1 existing in something, esp. as a
             permanent or characteristic attribute.  2 vested in (a person
             etc.) as a right or privilege.  ЬЬinherence n.  inherently adv.
             [L inhaerere inhaerent- (as INHERE)]

   inherit   v.  (inherited, inheriting) 1 tr. receive (property, rank,
             title, etc.) by legal descent or succession.  2 tr. derive (a
             quality or characteristic) genetically from one's ancestors.  3
             absol. succeed as an heir (a younger son rarely inherits).
             ЬЬinheritor n.  (fem.  inheritress or inheritrix).  [ME f. OF
             enheriter f. LL inhereditare (as IN-(2), L heres heredis heir)]

             adj.  1 capable of being inherited.  2 capable of inheriting.
             ЬЬinheritability n.  [ME f. AF (as INHERIT)]

             n.  1 something that is inherited.  2 a the act of inheriting.
             b an instance of this.  Ьinheritance tax a tax levied on
             property etc. acquired by gift or inheritance.  °Introduced in
             the UK in 1986 to replace Capital Transfer Tax.  [ME f. AF
             inheritaunce f. OF enheriter: see INHERIT]

   inhesion  n.  formal the act or fact of inhering.  [LL inhaesio (as

   inhibit   v.tr.  (inhibited, inhibiting) 1 hinder, restrain, or prevent
             (an action or progress).  2 (as inhibited adj.) subject to
             inhibition.  3 a (usu. foll. by from + verbal noun) forbid or
             prohibit (a person etc.).  b (esp. in ecclesiastical law) forbid
             (an ecclesiastic) to exercise clerical functions.  ЬЬinhibitive
             adj.  inhibitor n.  inhibitory adj.  [L inhibere (as IN-(2),
             habere hold)]

             n.  1 Psychol. a restraint on the direct expression of an
             instinct.  2 colloq. an emotional resistance to a thought, an
             action, etc. (has inhibitions about singing in public).  3 Law
             an order forbidding alteration to property rights.  4 a the act
             of inhibiting.  b the process of being inhibited.  [ME f. OF
             inhibition or L inhibitio (as INHIBIT)]

             adj.  not homogeneous.  ЬЬinhomogeneity n.

             adj.  1 not hospitable.  2 (of a region, coast, etc.) not
             affording shelter etc.  ЬЬinhospitableness n.  inhospitably adv.
             [obs. F (as IN-(1), HOSPITABLE)]

             n.  the act or process of being inhospitable.  [L inhospitalitas
             (as IN-(1), HOSPITALITY)]

   in-house  adj. & adv.  --adj. done or existing within an institution,
             company, etc. (an in-house project).  --adv. internally, without
             outside assistance.

   inhuman   adj.  1 (of a person, conduct, etc.) brutal; unfeeling;
             barbarous.  2 not of a human type.  ЬЬinhumanly adv.  [L
             inhumanus (as IN-(1), HUMAN)]

   inhumane  adj.  not humane.  ЬЬinhumanely adv.  [L inhumanus (see INHUMAN)
             & f.  IN-(1) + HUMANE, orig. = INHUMAN]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 brutality; barbarousness; callousness.  2 an
             inhumane act.

   inhume    v.tr.  literary bury.  ЬЬinhumation n.  [L inhumare (as IN-(2),
             humus ground)]

   inimical  adj.  (usu. foll. by to) 1 hostile.  2 harmful.  ЬЬinimically
             adv.  [LL inimicalis f. L inimicus (as IN-(1), amicus friend)]

             adj.  impossible to imitate.  ЬЬinimitability n.  inimitableness
             n.  inimitably adv.  [F inimitable or L inimitabilis (as IN-(1),
             imitabilis imitable)]

   iniquity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 wickedness; unrighteousness.  2 a gross
             injustice.  ЬЬiniquitous adj.  iniquitously adv.  iniquitousness
             n.  [ME f. OF iniquit‚ f. L iniquitas -tatis f.  iniquus (as
             IN-(1), aequus just)]

   initial   adj., n., & v.  --adj. of, existing, or occurring at the
             beginning (initial stage; initial expenses).  --n.  1 = initial
             letter.  2 (usu. in pl.) the first letter or letters of the
             words of a (esp. a person's) name or names.  --v.tr.
             (initialled, initialling; US initialed, initialing) mark or sign
             with one's initials.  Ьinitial letter (or consonant) a letter or
             consonant at the beginning of a word.  initial teaching alphabet
             a 44-letter phonetic alphabet used to help those beginning to
             read and write English.  ЬЬinitially adv.  [L initialis f.
             initium beginning f.  inire init- go in]

             n.  a group of initial letters used as an abbreviation for a
             name or expression, each letter being pronounced separately
             (e.g.  BBC) (cf.  ACRONYM).

             v.tr.  (also -ise) (often foll. by to) Computing set to the
             value or put in the condition appropriate to the start of an
             operation.  ЬЬinitialization n.

   initiate  v., n., & adj.  --v.tr.  1 begin; set going; originate.  2 a
             (usu. foll. by into) admit (a person) into a society, an office,
             a secret, etc., esp. with a ritual.  b (usu. foll. by in, into)
             instruct (a person) in science, art, etc.  --n.  a person who
             has been newly initiated.  --adj.  (of a person) newly initiated
             (an initiate member).  ЬЬinitiation n.  initiator n.  initiatory
             adj.  [L initiare f.  initium: see INITIAL]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 the ability to initiate things; enterprise
             (I'm afraid he lacks all initiative).  2 a first step;
             origination (a peace initiative).  3 the power or right to begin
             something.  4 Polit. (esp. in Switzerland and some US States)
             the right of citizens outside the legislature to originate
             legislation.  --adj. beginning; originating.  Ьhave the
             initiative esp. Mil.  be able to control the enemy's movements.
             on one's own initiative without being prompted by others.  take
             the initiative (usu. foll. by in + verbal noun) be the first to
             take action.  [F (as INITIATE)]

   inject    v.tr.  1 Med.  a (usu. foll. by into) drive or force (a
             solution, medicine, etc.) by or as if by a syringe.  b (usu.
             foll. by with) fill (a cavity etc.) by injecting.  c administer
             medicine etc. to (a person) by injection.  2 place or insert (an
             object, a quality, etc.) into something (may I inject a note of
             realism?).  ЬЬinjectable adj. & n.  injector n.  [L injicere (as
             IN-(2), jacere throw)]

   injection n.  1 a the act of injecting.  b an instance of this.  2 a
             liquid or solution (to be) injected (prepare a morphine
             injection).  Ьinjection moulding the shaping of rubber or
             plastic articles by injecting heated material into a mould.  [F
             injection or L injectio (as INJECT)]

             adj.  unwise; ill-judged.  ЬЬinjudiciously adv.  injudiciousness

   Injun     n.  colloq.  US or dial.  an American Indian.  [corrupt.]

             n.  1 an authoritative warning or order.  2 Law a judicial order
             restraining a person from an act or compelling redress to an
             injured party.  ЬЬinjunctive adj.  [LL injunctio f. L injungere

   injure    v.tr.  1 do physical harm or damage to; hurt (was injured in a
             road accident).  2 harm or impair (illness might injure her
             chances).  3 do wrong to.  ЬЬinjurer n.  [back-form. f.  INJURY]

   injured   adj.  1 harmed or hurt (the injured passengers).  2 offended;
             wronged (in an injured tone).

   injurious adj.  1 hurtful.  2 (of language) insulting; libellous.  3
             wrongful.  ЬЬinjuriously adv.  injuriousness n.  [ME f. F
             injurieux or L injuriosus (as INJURY)]

   injury    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a physical harm or damage.  b an instance of
             this (suffered head injuries).  2 esp. Law a wrongful action or
             treatment.  b an instance of this.  3 damage to one's good name
             etc.  Ьinjury time Brit.  Football extra playing-time allowed by
             a referee to compensate for time lost in dealing with injuries.
             [ME f. AF injurie f. L injuria a wrong (as IN-(1), jus juris

   injustice n.  1 a lack of fairness or justice.  2 an unjust act.  Ьdo a
             person an injustice judge a person unfairly.  [ME f. OF f. L
             injustitia (as IN-(1), JUSTICE)]

   ink       n. & v.  --n.  1 a a coloured fluid used for writing with a pen,
             marking with a rubber stamp, etc.  b a thick paste used in
             printing, duplicating, in ball-point pens, etc.  2 Zool. a black
             liquid ejected by a cuttlefish, octopus, etc. to confuse a
             predator.  --v.tr.  1 (usu. foll. by in, over, etc.) mark with
             ink.  2 cover (type etc.) with ink before printing.  3 apply ink
             to.  4 (as inked adj.) Austral.  sl. drunk.  Ьink-blot test =
             RORSCHACH TEST.  ink-cap any fungus of the genus Coprinus.
             ink-horn hist.  a small portable horn container for ink.  ink
             out obliterate with ink.  ink-pad an ink-soaked pad, usu. in a
             box, used for inking a rubber stamp etc.  ink-well a pot for ink
             usu. housed in a hole in a desk.  ЬЬinker n.  [ME enke, inke f.
             OF enque f. LL encau(s)tum f. Gk egkauston purple ink used by
             Roman emperors for signature (as EN-(2), CAUSTIC)]

   inkling   n.  (often foll. by of) a slight knowledge or suspicion; a hint.
             [ME inkle utter in an undertone, of unkn. orig.]

   inkstand  n.  a stand for one or more ink bottles, often incorporating a
             pen tray etc.

   inky      adj.  (inkier, inkiest) of, as black as, or stained with ink.
             ЬЬinkiness n.

   inlaid    past and past part. of INLAY.

   inland    adj., n., & adv.  --adj.  1 situated in the interior of a
             country.  2 esp.  Brit. carried on within the limits of a
             country; domestic (inland trade).  --n. the parts of a country
             remote from the sea or frontiers; the interior.  --adv.  in or
             towards the interior of a country.  Ьinland duty a tax payable
             on inland trade.  inland revenue Brit.  revenue consisting of
             taxes and inland duties.  Inland Revenue (in the UK) the
             government department responsible for assessing and collecting
             such taxes.  ЬЬinlander n.  inlandish adj.

   in-law    n.  (often in pl.) a relative by marriage.

   inlay     v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  inlaid) 1 a (usu. foll.
             by in) embed (a thing in another) so that the surfaces are even.
             b (usu. foll. by with) ornament (a thing with inlaid work).  2
             (as inlaid adj.) (of a piece of furniture etc.) ornamented by
             inlaying.  3 insert (a page, an illustration, etc.) in a space
             cut in a larger thicker page.  --n.  1 inlaid work.  2 material
             inlaid.  3 a filling shaped to fit a tooth-cavity.  ЬЬinlayer n.
             [IN-(2) + LAY(1)]

   inlet     n.  1 a small arm of the sea, a lake, or a river.  2 a piece
             inserted, esp. in dressmaking etc.  3 a way of entry.  [ME f.
             IN + LET(1) v.]

   inlier    n.  Geol.  a structure or area of older rocks completely
             surrounded by newer rocks.  [IN, after outlier]

   in-line   adj.  1 having parts arranged in a line.  2 constituting an
             integral part of a continuous sequence of operations or

   in loco parentis
             adv.  in the place or position of a parent (used of a teacher
             etc. responsible for children).  [L]

   inly      adv.  poet.  1 inwardly; in the heart.  2 intimately;
             thoroughly.  [OE innlice (as IN, -LY(2))]

   inlying   adj.  situated within, or near a centre.

   inmate    n.  (usu. foll. by of) 1 an occupant of a hospital, prison,
             institution, etc.  2 an occupant of a house etc., esp. one of
             several.  [prob. orig.  INN + MATE(1), assoc. with IN]

   in medias res
             adv.  1 into the midst of things.  2 into the middle of a story,
             without preamble.  [L]

   in memoriam
             prep. & n.  --prep. in memory of (a dead person).  --n. a
             written article or notice etc. in memory of a dead person; an
             obituary.  [L]

   inmost    adj.  1 most inward.  2 most intimate; deepest.  [OE innemest
             (as IN, -MOST)]

   inn       n.  1 a public house providing alcoholic liquor for consumption
             on the premises, and sometimes accommodation etc.  2 hist. a
             house providing accommodation, esp. for travellers.  ЬInn of
             Court Brit.  Law 1 each of the four legal societies having the
             exclusive right of admitting people to the English bar.  2 any
             of the sets of buildings in London belonging to these societies.
             3 a similar society in Ireland.  Inns of Chancery Brit.  hist.
             buildings in London formerly used as hostels for law students.
             [OE inn (as IN)]

   innards   n.pl.  colloq.  1 entrails.  2 works (of an engine etc.).
             [dial. etc. pronunc. of inwards: see INWARD n.]

   innate    adj.  1 inborn; natural.  2 Philos. originating in the mind.
             ЬЬinnately adv.  innateness n.  [ME f. L innatus (as IN-(2),
             natus past part. of nasci be born)]

   inner     adj. & n.  --adj. (usu.  attrib.) 1 further in; inside; interior
             (the inner compartment).  2 (of thoughts, feelings, etc.)
             deeper; more secret.  --n.  Archery 1 a division of the target
             next to the bull's-eye.  2 a shot that strikes this.  Ьinner bar
             Brit.  Law Queen's or King's Counsel collectively.  inner city
             the central most densely populated area of a city (also (with
             hyphen) attrib.: inner-city housing).  inner-directed Psychol.
             governed by standards formed in childhood.  inner man (or woman)
             1 the soul or mind.  2 joc. the stomach.  inner planet an
             inferior planet (see INFERIOR adj.  3).  inner space 1 the
             region between the earth and outer space, or below the surface
             of the sea.  2 the part of the mind not normally accessible to
             consciousness.  inner-spring US = interior-sprung.  Inner Temple
             one of the two Inns of Court on the site of the Temple in London
             (cf.  Middle Temple).  inner tube a separate inflatable tube
             inside the cover of a pneumatic tyre.  ЬЬinnerly adv.  innermost
             adj.  innerness n.  [OE innera (adj.), compar. of IN]

   innervate v.tr.  supply (an organ etc.) with nerves.  ЬЬinnervation n.
             [IN-(2) + L nervus nerve + -ATE(3)]

   inning    n.  US an innings at baseball etc.  [in (v.) go in (f.  IN)]

   innings   n.  (pl. same or colloq.  inningses) 1 esp. Cricket a the part
             of a game during which a side is in or batting.  b the play of
             or score achieved by a player during a turn at batting.  2 a
             period during which a government, party, cause, etc. is in
             office or effective.  3 a a period during which a person can
             achieve something.  b colloq. a person's life span (had a good
             innings and died at 94).

   innkeeper n.  a person who keeps an inn.

   innocent  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 free from moral wrong; sinless.  2 (usu.
             foll. by of) not guilty (of a crime etc.).  3 a simple;
             guileless; na‹ve.  b pretending to be guileless.  4 harmless.  5
             (foll. by of) colloq. without, lacking (appeared, innocent of
             shoes).  --n.  1 an innocent person, esp. a young child.  2 (in
             pl.) the young children killed by Herod after the birth of Jesus
             (Matt. 2:16).  ЬInnocents' (or Holy Innocents') Day the day, 28
             Dec., commemorating the massacre of the innocents.  ЬЬinnocence
             n.  innocency n.  innocently adv.  [ME f. OF innocent or L
             innocens innocent- (as IN-(1), nocere hurt)]

   innocuous adj.  1 not injurious; harmless.  2 inoffensive.  ЬЬinnocuity n.
             innocuously adv.  innocuousness n.  [L innocuus (as IN-(1),
             nocuus formed as INNOCENT)]

             adj.  unnamed.  Ьinnominate bone n.  Anat.  the bone formed from
             the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis; the hip-bone.  [LL
             innominatus (as IN-(1), NOMINATE)]

   innovate  v.intr.  1 bring in new methods, ideas, etc.  2 (often foll. by
             in) make changes.  ЬЬinnovation n.  innovational adj.  innovator
             n.  innovative adj.  innovatory adj.  [L innovare make new,
             alter (as IN-(2), novus new)]

   innoxious adj.  harmless.  ЬЬinnoxiously adv.  innoxiousness n.  [L
             innoxius (as IN-(1), NOXIOUS)]

   innuendo  n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -oes or -os) 1 an allusive or oblique
             remark or hint, usu. disparaging.  2 a remark with a double
             meaning, usu. suggestive.  --v.intr.  (-oes, -oed) make
             innuendoes.  [L, = by nodding at, by pointing to: ablat. gerund
             of innuere nod at (as IN-(2), nuere nod)]

   Innuit    var. of INUIT.

             adj.  too many to be counted.  ЬЬinnumerability n.  innumerably
             adv.  [ME f. L innumerabilis (as IN-(1), NUMERABLE)]

             adj.  having no knowledge of or feeling for mathematical
             operations; not numerate.  ЬЬinnumeracy n.  [IN-(1), NUMERATE]

             n.  lack of nutrition.  ЬЬinnutritious adj.

             n.  1 inattention.  2 (usu. foll. by of) non-observance (of a
             law etc.).  [F inobservance or L inobservantia (as IN-(1),

   inoculate v.tr.  1 a treat (a person or animal) with a small quantity of
             the agent of a disease, in the form of vaccine or serum, usu. by
             injection, to promote immunity against the disease.  b implant
             (a disease) by means of vaccine.  2 instil (a person) with ideas
             or opinions.  ЬЬinoculable adj.  inoculation n.  inoculative
             adj.  inoculator n.  [orig. in sense 'insert (a bud) into a
             plant': L inoculare inoculat- engraft (as IN-(2), oculus eye,

   inoculum  n.  (pl.  inocula) any substance used for inoculation.  [mod.L
             (as INOCULATE)]

   inodorous adj.  having no smell; odourless.

   in-off    n.  Billiards the act of pocketing a ball by bouncing it off
             another ball.

             adj.  not objectionable; harmless.  ЬЬinoffensively adv.
             inoffensiveness n.

             adj.  1 Surgery that cannot suitably be operated on (inoperable
             cancer).  2 that cannot be operated; inoperative.
             ЬЬinoperability n.  inoperably adv.  [F inop‚rable (as IN-(1),

             adj.  not working or taking effect.

             adj.  not appropriate, esp. as regards time; unseasonable.
             ЬЬinopportunely adv.  inopportuneness n.  [L inopportunus (as
             IN-(1), OPPORTUNE)]

             adj.  1 immoderate; excessive.  2 intemperate.  3 disorderly.
             ЬЬinordinately adv.  [ME f. L inordinatus (as IN-(1), ordinatus
             past part. of ordinare ORDAIN)]

   inorganic adj.  1 Chem. (of a compound) not organic, usu. of mineral
             origin (opp.  ORGANIC).  2 without organized physical structure.
             3 not arising by natural growth; extraneous.  4 Philol. not
             explainable by normal etymology.  Ьinorganic chemistry the
             chemistry of inorganic compounds.  ЬЬinorganically adv.

             v.intr. & tr.  1 join by running together.  2 join closely.
             ЬЬinosculation n.  [IN-(2) + L osculare provide with a mouth f.
             osculum dimin. of os mouth]

             n.  a patient who lives in hospital while under treatment.

   in propria persona
             adv.  in his or her own person.  [L]

   input     n. & v.  --n.  1 what is put in or taken in, or operated on by
             any process or system.  2 Electronics a a place where, or a
             device through which, energy, information, etc., enters a system
             (a tape recorder with inputs for microphone and radio).  b
             energy supplied to a device or system; an electrical signal.  3
             the information fed into a computer.  4 the action or process of
             putting in or feeding in.  5 a contribution of information etc.
             --v.tr.  (inputting; past and past part.  input or inputted)
             (often foll. by into) 1 put in.  2 Computing supply (data,
             programs, etc., to a computer, program, etc.).  Ьinput- (or
             input/) output Computing etc. of, relating to, or for input and
             output.  ЬЬinputter n.

   inquest   n.  1 Law a an inquiry by a coroner's court into the cause of a
             death.  b a judicial inquiry to ascertain the facts relating to
             an incident etc.  c a coroner's jury.  2 colloq. a discussion
             analysing the outcome of a game, an election, etc.  [ME f. OF
             enqueste (as ENQUIRE)]

             n.  uneasiness of mind or body.  [ME f. OF inquietude or LL
             inquietudo f. L inquietus (as IN-(1), quietus quiet)]

   inquiline n.  an animal living in the home of another; a commensal.
             ЬЬinquilinous adj.  [L inquilinus sojourner (as IN-(2), colere

   inquire   v.  1 intr. seek information formally; make a formal
             investigation.  2 intr. & tr. = ENQUIRE.  ЬЬinquirer n.  [var.
             of ENQUIRE]

   inquiry   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an investigation, esp. an official one.  2 =
             ENQUIRY.  Ьinquiry agent Brit.  a private detective.

             n.  1 usu.  derog. an intensive search or investigation.  2 a
             judicial or official inquiry.  3 (the Inquisition) RC Ch.  hist.
             an ecclesiastical tribunal for the suppression of heresy, esp.
             in Spain, operating through torture and execution.
             ЬЬinquisitional adj.  [ME f. OF f. L inquisitio -onis
             examination (as INQUIRE)]

             adj.  1 unduly curious; prying.  2 seeking knowledge; inquiring.
             ЬЬinquisitively adv.  inquisitiveness n.  [ME f. OF inquisitif
             -ive f. LL inquisitivus (as INQUISITION)]

             n.  1 an official investigator.  2 hist. an officer of the
             Inquisition.  ЬGrand Inquisitor the director of the court of
             Inquisition in some countries.  Inquisitor General the head of
             the Spanish Inquisition.  [F inquisiteur f. L inquisitor -oris
             (as INQUIRE)]

             adj.  1 of or like an inquisitor.  2 offensively prying.  3 Law
             (of a trial etc.) in which the judge has a prosecuting role
             (opp.  ACCUSATORIAL).  ЬЬinquisitorially adv.  [med.L
             inquisitorius (as INQUISITOR)]

   inquorate adj.  not constituting a quorum.

   in re     prep.  = RE(1).  [L, = in the matter of]

   INRI      abbr.  Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.  [L Iesus Nazarenus
             Rex Iudaeorum]

   inroad    n.  1 (often in pl.; usu. foll. by on, into) an encroachment; a
             using up of resources etc. (makes inroads on my time).  2 a
             hostile attack; a raid.  [IN + ROAD(1) in sense 'riding']

   inrush    n.  a rushing in; an influx.  ЬЬinrushing adj. & n.

   ins.      abbr.  1 inches.  2 insurance.

             adj.  (of a climate or place) unhealthy.  ЬЬinsalubrity n.  [L
             insalubris (as IN-(1), SALUBRIOUS)]

   insane    adj.  1 not of sound mind; mad.  2 colloq. extremely foolish;
             irrational.  ЬЬinsanely adv.  insaneness n.  insanity n.  (pl.
             -ies).  [L insanus (as IN-(1), sanus healthy)]

             adj.  not sanitary; dirty or germ-carrying.

             adj.  1 unable to be satisfied.  2 (usu. foll. by of) extremely
             greedy.  ЬЬinsatiability n.  insatiably adv.  [ME f. OF
             insaciable or L insatiabilis (as IN-(1), SATIATE)]

   insatiate adj.  never satisfied.  [L insatiatus (as IN-(1), SATIATE)]

   inscape   n.  literary the unique inner quality or essence of an object
             etc. as shown in a work of art, esp. a poem.  [perh. f.  IN-(2)
             + -SCAPE]

   inscribe  v.tr.  1 a (usu. foll. by in, on) write or carve (words etc.) on
             stone, metal, paper, a book, etc.  b (usu. foll. by with) mark
             (a sheet, tablet, etc.) with characters.  2 (usu. foll. by to)
             write an informal dedication (to a person) in or on (a book
             etc.).  3 enter the name of (a person) on a list or in a book.
             4 Geom. draw (a figure) within another so that some or all
             points of it lie on the boundary of the other (cf.
             CIRCUMSCRIBE).  5 (esp. as inscribed adj.) Brit. issue (stock
             etc.) in the form of shares with registered holders.
             ЬЬinscribable adj.  inscriber n.  [L inscribere inscript- (as
             IN-(2), scribere write)]

             n.  1 words inscribed, esp. on a monument, coin, stone, or in a
             book etc.  2 a the act of inscribing, esp. the informal
             dedication of a book etc.  b an instance of this.
             ЬЬinscriptional adj.  inscriptive adj.  [ME f. L inscriptio (as

             adj.  wholly mysterious, impenetrable.  ЬЬinscrutability n.
             inscrutableness n.  inscrutably adv.  [ME f. eccl.L
             inscrutabilis (as IN-(1), scrutari search: see SCRUTINY)]

   insect    n.  1 a any arthropod of the class Insecta, having a head,
             thorax, abdomen, two antennae, three pairs of thoracic legs, and
             usu. one or two pairs of thoracic wings.  b (loosely) any other
             small segmented invertebrate animal.  2 an insignificant or
             contemptible person or creature.  ЬЬinsectile adj.  [L insectum
             (animal) notched (animal) f.  insecare insect- (as IN-(2),
             secare cut)]

             n.  (also insectary) (pl.  insectariums or insectaries) a place
             for keeping insects.

             n.  a substance used for killing insects.  ЬЬinsecticidal adj.

             n.  1 any mammal of the order Insectivora feeding on insects
             etc., e.g. a hedgehog or mole.  2 any plant which captures and
             absorbs insects.  ЬЬinsectivorous adj.  [F f. mod.L insectivorus
             (as INSECT, -VORE: see -VOROUS)]

   insecure  adj.  1 (of a person or state of mind) uncertain; lacking
             confidence.  2 a unsafe; not firm or fixed.  b (of ice, ground,
             etc.) liable to give way.  ЬЬinsecurely adv.  insecurity n.

   inselberg n.  an isolated hill or mountain rising abruptly from its
             surroundings.  [G, = island mountain]

             v.tr.  1 introduce semen into (a female) by natural or
             artificial means.  2 sow (seed etc.).  ЬЬinsemination n.
             inseminator n.  [L inseminare (as IN-(2), SEMEN)]

   insensate adj.  1 without physical sensation; unconscious.  2 without
             sensibility; unfeeling.  3 stupid.  ЬЬinsensately adv.  [eccl.L
             insensatus (as IN-(1), sensatus f.  sensus SENSE)]

             n.  1 unconsciousness.  2 a lack of mental feeling or emotion;
             hardness.  3 (often foll. by to) indifference.  [F insensibilit‚
             or LL insensibilitas (as INSENSIBLE)]

             adj.  1 a without one's mental faculties; unconscious.  b (of
             the extremities etc.) numb; without feeling.  2 (usu. foll. by
             of, to) unaware; indifferent (insensible of her needs).  3
             without emotion; callous.  4 too small or gradual to be
             perceived; inappreciable.  ЬЬinsensibly adv.  [ME f. OF
             insensible or L insensibilis (as IN-(1), SENSIBLE)]

             adj.  (often foll. by to) 1 unfeeling; boorish; crass.  2 not
             sensitive to physical stimuli.  ЬЬinsensitively adv.
             insensitiveness n.  insensitivity n.

             adj.  not sentient; inanimate.  ЬЬinsentience n.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (esp. of friends) unable or unwilling to be
             separated.  2 Gram. (of a prefix, or a verb in respect of it)
             unable to be used as a separate word, e.g.: dis-, mis-, un-.
             --n. (usu. in pl.) an inseparable person or thing, esp. a
             friend.  ЬЬinseparability n.  inseparably adv.  [ME f. L
             inseparabilis (as IN-(1), SEPARABLE)]

   insert    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (usu. foll. by in, into, between, etc.)
             place, fit, or thrust (a thing) into another.  2 (usu. foll. by
             in, into) introduce (a letter, word, article, advertisement,
             etc.) into a newspaper etc.  3 (as inserted adj.) Anat.  etc.
             (of a muscle etc.) attached (at a specific point).  --n.
             something inserted, e.g. a loose page in a magazine, a piece of
             cloth in a garment, a shot in a cinema film.  ЬЬinsertable adj.
             inserter n.  [L inserere (as IN-(2), serere sert- join)]

   insertion n.  1 the act or an instance of inserting.  2 an amendment etc.
             inserted in writing or printing.  3 each appearance of an
             advertisement in a newspaper etc.  4 an ornamental section of
             needlework inserted into plain material (lace insertions).  5
             the manner or place of attachment of a muscle, an organ, etc.  6
             the placing of a spacecraft in an orbit.  [LL insertio (as

             adj.  (of training) intended for those actively engaged in the
             profession or activity concerned.

   inset     n. & v.  --n.  1 a an extra page or pages inserted in a folded
             sheet or in a book; an insert.  b a small map, photograph, etc.,
             inserted within the border of a larger one.  2 a piece let into
             a dress etc.  --v.tr.  (insetting; past and past part.  inset or
             insetted) 1 put in as an inset.  2 decorate with an inset.
             ЬЬinsetter n.

   inshallah int.  if Allah wills it.  [Arab.  in sa' Allah]

   inshore   adv. & adj.  at sea but close to the shore.  Ьinshore of nearer
             to shore than.

   inside    n., adj., adv., & prep.  --n.  1 a the inner side or surface of
             a thing.  b the inner part; the interior.  2 a (of a path) the
             side next to the wall or away from the road.  b (of a
             double-decker bus) the lower section.  3 (usu. in pl.) colloq.
             the stomach and bowels (something wrong with my insides).  4
             colloq. a position affording inside information (knows someone
             on the inside).  --adj.  1 situated on or in, or derived from,
             the inside.  2 Football & Hockey nearer to the centre of the
             field (inside forward; inside left; inside right).  --adv.  1
             on, in, or to the inside.  2 sl. in prison.  --prep.  1 on the
             inner side of; within (inside the house).  2 in less than
             (inside an hour).  Ьinside country Austral.  settled areas near
             the coast.  inside information information not accessible to
             outsiders.  inside job colloq.  a crime committed by a person
             living or working on the premises burgled etc.  inside of
             colloq.  1 in less than (a week etc.).  2 Brit. the middle part
             of.  inside out with the inner surface turned outwards.  inside
             track 1 the track which is shorter, because of the curve.  2 a
             position of advantage.  know a thing inside out know a thing
             thoroughly.  turn inside out 1 turn the inner surface outwards.
             2 colloq. cause confusion or a mess in.  [IN + SIDE]

   insider   n.  1 a person who is within a society, organization, etc. (cf.
             OUTSIDER).  2 a person privy to a secret, esp. when using it to
             gain advantage.  Ьinsider dealing Stock Exch.  the illegal
             practice of trading to one's own advantage through having access
             to confidential information.

   insidious adj.  1 proceeding or progressing inconspicuously but harmfully
             (an insidious disease).  2 treacherous; crafty.  ЬЬinsidiously
             adv.  insidiousness n.  [L insidiosus cunning f.  insidiae
             ambush (as IN-(2), sedere sit)]

   insight   n.  (usu. foll. by into) 1 the capacity of understanding hidden
             truths etc., esp. of character or situations.  2 an instance of
             this.  ЬЬinsightful adj.  insightfully adv.  [ME, =
             'discernment', prob. of Scand. & LG orig. (as IN-(2), SIGHT)]

   insignia  n.  (treated as sing. or pl.; usu. foll. by of) 1 badges (wore
             his insignia of office).  2 distinguishing marks.  [L, pl. of
             insigne neut. of insignis distinguished (as IN-(2), signis f.
             signum SIGN)]

             adj.  1 unimportant; trifling.  2 (of a person) undistinguished.
             3 meaningless.  ЬЬinsignificance n.  insignificancy n.
             insignificantly adv.

   insincere adj.  not sincere; not candid.  ЬЬinsincerely adv.  insincerity
             n.  (pl.  -ies).  [L insincerus (as IN-(1), SINCERE)]

   insinuate v.tr.  1 (often foll. by that + clause) convey indirectly or
             obliquely; hint (insinuated that she was lying).  2 (often
             refl.; usu. foll. by into) a introduce (oneself, a person, etc.)
             into favour, office, etc., by subtle manipulation.  b introduce
             (a thing, oneself, etc.) subtly or deviously into a place
             (insinuated himself into the Royal Box).  ЬЬinsinuation n.
             insinuative adj.  insinuator n.  insinuatory adj.  [L insinuare
             insinuat- (as IN-(2), sinuare to curve)]

   insipid   adj.  1 lacking vigour or interest; dull.  2 lacking flavour;
             tasteless.  ЬЬinsipidity n.  insipidly adv.  insipidness n.  [F
             insipide or LL insipidus (as IN-(1), sapidus SAPID)]

   insist    v.tr.  (usu. foll. by that + clause; also absol.) maintain or
             demand positively and assertively (insisted that he was
             innocent; give me the bag! I insist!).  Ьinsist on demand or
             maintain (I insist on being present; insists on his
             suitability).  ЬЬinsister n.  insistingly adv.  [L insistere
             stand on, persist (as IN-(2), sistere stand)]

   insistent adj.  1 (often foll. by on) insisting; demanding positively or
             continually (is insistent on taking me with him).  2 obtruding
             itself on the attention (the insistent rattle of the window
             frame).  ЬЬinsistence n.  insistency n.  insistently adv.

   in situ   adv.  1 in its place.  2 in its original place.  [L]

             n.  intemperance, esp. in drinking.

   insofar   adv.  = in so far (see FAR).

             n.  exposure to the sun's rays, esp. for bleaching.  [L
             insolatio f.  insolare (as IN-(2), solare f.  sol sun)]

   insole    n.  1 a removable sole worn in a boot or shoe for warmth etc.  2
             the fixed inner sole of a boot or shoe.

   insolent  adj.  offensively contemptuous or arrogant; insulting.
             ЬЬinsolence n.  insolently adv.  [ME, = 'arrogant', f. L
             insolens (as IN-(1), solens pres. part. of solere be

   insoluble adj.  1 incapable of being solved.  2 incapable of being
             dissolved.  ЬЬinsolubility n.  insolubilize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             insolubleness n.  insolubly adv.  [ME f. OF insoluble or L
             insolubilis (as IN-(1), SOLUBLE)]

             adj.  = INSOLUBLE.

   insolvent adj. & n.  --adj.  1 unable to pay one's debts.  2 relating to
             insolvency (insolvent laws).  --n. a debtor.  ЬЬinsolvency n.

   insomnia  n.  habitual sleeplessness; inability to sleep.  ЬЬinsomniac n.
             & adj.  [L f.  insomnis sleepless (as IN-(1), somnus sleep)]

   insomuch  adv.  1 (foll. by that + clause) to such an extent.  2 (foll. by
             as) inasmuch.  [ME, orig.  in so much]

             adj.  carefree; unconcerned.  ЬЬinsouciance n.  insouciantly
             adv.  [F (as IN-(1), souciant pres. part. of soucier care)]

   inspan    v.  (inspanned, inspanning) S.Afr.  1 tr. (also absol.) a yoke
             (oxen etc.) in a team to a vehicle.  b harness an animal or
             animals to (a wagon).  2 tr. harness (people or resources) into
             service.  [Du.  inspannen stretch (as IN-(2), SPAN(2))]

   inspect   v.tr.  1 look closely at or into.  2 examine (a document etc.)
             officially.  ЬЬinspection n.  [L inspicere inspect- (as IN-(2),
             specere look at), or its frequent.  inspectare]

   inspector n.  1 a person who inspects.  2 an official employed to
             supervise a service, a machine, etc., and make reports.  3 Brit.
             a police officer below a superintendent and above a sergeant in
             rank.  Ьinspector general a chief inspector.  inspector of taxes
             (in the UK) an official of the Inland Revenue responsible for
             collecting taxes.  ЬЬinspectorate n.  inspectorial adj.
             inspectorship n.  [L (as INSPECT)]

             n.  1 a a supposed creative force or influence on poets,
             artists, musicians, etc., stimulating the production of works of
             art.  b a person, principle, faith, etc. stimulating artistic or
             moral fervour and creativity.  c a similar divine influence
             supposed to have led to the writing of Scripture etc.  2 a
             sudden brilliant, creative, or timely idea.  3 a drawing in of
             breath; inhalation.  ЬЬinspirational adj.  inspirationism n.
             inspirationist n.  [ME f. OF f. LL inspiratio -onis (as

             n.  an apparatus for drawing in air or vapour.  [LL (as

   inspire   v.tr.  1 stimulate or arouse (a person) to esp. creative
             activity, esp. by supposed divine or supernatural agency (your
             faith inspired him; inspired by God).  2 a (usu. foll. by with)
             animate (a person) with a feeling.  b (usu. foll. by into)
             instil (a feeling) into a person etc.  c (usu. foll. by in)
             create (a feeling) in a person.  3 prompt; give rise to (the
             poem was inspired by the autumn).  4 (as inspired adj.) a (of a
             work of art etc.) as if prompted by or emanating from a
             supernatural source; characterized by inspiration (an inspired
             speech).  b (of a guess) intuitive but accurate.  5 (also
             absol.) breathe in (air etc.); inhale.  ЬЬinspiratory adj.
             inspiredly adv.  inspirer n.  inspiring adj.  inspiringly adv.
             [ME f. OF inspirer f. L inspirare breathe in (as IN-(2), spirare

   inspirit  v.tr.  (inspirited, inspiriting) 1 put life into; animate.  2
             (usu. foll. by to, or to + infin.) encourage (a person).
             ЬЬinspiriting adj.  inspiritingly adv.

             v.tr.  literary thicken; condense.  ЬЬinspissation n.  [LL
             inspissare inspissat- (as IN-(2), L spissus thick)]

             n.  an apparatus for thickening serum etc. by heat.

   inst.     abbr.  1 = INSTANT adj.  4 (the 6th inst.).  2 institute.  3

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a lack of stability.  2 Psychol.
             unpredictability in behaviour etc.  3 an instance of
             instability.  [ME f. F instabilit‚ f. L instabilitas -tatis f.
             instabilis (as IN-(1), STABLE(1))]

   install   v.tr.  (also instal) (installed, installing) 1 place (equipment,
             machinery, etc.) in position ready for use.  2 place (a person)
             in an office or rank with ceremony (installed in the office of
             chancellor).  3 establish (oneself, a person, etc.) in a place,
             condition, etc. (installed herself at the head of the table).
             ЬЬinstallant adj. & n.  installer n.  [med.L installare (as
             IN-(2), stallare f.  stallum STALL(1))]

             n.  1 a the act or an instance of installing.  b the process or
             an instance of being installed.  2 a piece of apparatus, a
             machine, etc. installed.  [med.L installatio (as INSTALL)]

             n.  (US installment) 1 a sum of money due as one of several usu.
             equal payments for something, spread over an agreed period of
             time.  2 any of several parts, esp. of a television or radio
             serial or a magazine story, published or shown in sequence at
             intervals.  Ьinstalment plan payment by instalments, esp. hire
             purchase.  [alt. f. obs.  estallment f. AF estalement f.
             estaler fix: prob. assoc. with INSTALLATION]

   instance  n. & v.  --n.  1 an example or illustration of (just another
             instance of his lack of determination).  2 a particular case
             (that's not true in this instance).  3 Law a legal suit.
             --v.tr. cite (a fact, case, etc.) as an instance.  Ьat the
             instance of at the request or suggestion of.  court of first
             instance Law a court of primary jurisdiction.  for instance as
             an example.  in the first (or second etc.) instance in the first
             (or second etc.) place; at the first (or second etc.)  stage of
             a proceeding.  [ME f. OF f. L instantia (as INSTANT)]

   instancy  n.  1 urgency.  2 pressing nature.  [L instantia: see INSTANCE]

   instant   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 occurring immediately (gives an instant
             result).  2 a (of food etc.) ready for immediate use, with
             little or no preparation.  b prepared hastily and with little
             effort (I have no instant solution).  3 urgent; pressing.  4
             Commerce of the current month (the 6th instant).  5 archaic of
             the present moment.  --n.  1 a precise moment of time, esp. the
             present (come here this instant; went that instant; told you the
             instant I heard).  2 a short space of time (was there in an
             instant; not an instant too soon).  Ьinstant replay the
             immediate repetition of part of a filmed sports event, often in
             slow motion.  [ME f. F f. L instare instant- be present, press
             upon (as IN-(2), stare stand)]

             adj.  1 occurring or done in an instant or instantly.  2 Physics
             existing at a particular instant.  ЬЬinstantaneity n.
             instantaneously adv.  instantaneousness n.  [med.L instantaneus
             f. L instans (as INSTANT) after eccl.L momentaneus]

   instanter adv.  archaic or joc.  immediately; at once.  [L f.  instans (as

             v.tr.  represent by an instance.  ЬЬinstantiation n.  [L
             instantia: see INSTANCE]

   instantly adv.  1 immediately; at once.  2 archaic urgently; pressingly.

   instar    n.  a stage in the life of an insect etc. between two periods of
             moulting.  [L, = form]

   instate   v.tr.  (often foll. by in) install; establish.  [IN-(2) + STATE]

   in statu pupillari
             adj.  1 under guardianship, esp. as a pupil.  2 in a junior
             position at university; not having a master's degree.  [L]

             n.  formal 1 restoration; renewal.  2 an act of instauration.
             ЬЬinstaurator n.  [L instauratio f.  instaurare (as IN-(2): cf.

   instead   adv.  1 (foll. by of) as a substitute or alternative to; in
             place of (instead of this one; stayed instead of going).  2 as
             an alternative (took me instead) (cf. STEAD).  [ME, f.  IN +

   instep    n.  1 the inner arch of the foot between the toes and the ankle.
             2 the part of a shoe etc. fitting over or under this.  3 a thing
             shaped like an instep.  [16th c.: ult. formed as IN-(2) + STEP,
             but immed. orig. uncert.]

   instigate v.tr.  1 bring about by incitement or persuasion; provoke (who
             instigated the inquiry?).  2 (usu. foll. by to) urge on, incite
             (a person etc.) to esp. an evil act.  ЬЬinstigation n.
             instigative adj.  instigator n.  [L instigare instigat-]

   instil    v.tr.  (US instill) (instilled, instilling) (often foll. by
             into) 1 introduce (a feeling, idea, etc.) into a person's mind
             etc.  gradually.  2 put (a liquid) into something in drops.
             ЬЬinstillation n.  instiller n.  instilment n.  [L instillare
             (as IN-(2), stillare drop): cf.  DISTIL]

   instinct  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a an innate, usu. fixed, pattern of behaviour
             in most animals in response to certain stimuli.  b a similar
             propensity in human beings to act without conscious intention;
             innate impulsion.  2 (usu. foll. by for) unconscious skill;
             intuition.  --predic.adj.  (foll. by with) imbued, filled (with
             life, beauty, force, etc.).  ЬЬinstinctual adj.  instinctually
             adv.  [ME, = 'impulse', f. L instinctus f.  instinguere incite
             (as IN-(2), stinguere stinct- prick)]

             adj.  1 relating to or prompted by instinct.  2 apparently
             unconscious or automatic (an instinctive reaction).
             ЬЬinstinctively adv.

   institute n. & v.  --n.  1 a a society or organization for the promotion
             of science, education, etc.  b a building used by an institute.
             2 Law (usu. in pl.) a digest of the elements of a legal subject
             (Institutes of Justinian).  3 a principle of instruction.  4 US
             a brief course of instruction for teachers etc.  --v.tr.  1
             establish; found.  2 a initiate (an inquiry etc.).  b begin
             (proceedings) in a court.  3 (usu. foll. by to, into) appoint (a
             person) as a cleric in a church etc.  [ME f. L institutum
             design, precept, neut. past part. of instituere establish,
             arrange, teach (as IN-(2), statuere set up)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of instituting.  2 a a society or
             organization founded esp. for charitable, religious,
             educational, or social purposes.  b a building used by an
             institution.  3 an established law, practice, or custom.  4
             colloq. (of a person, a custom, etc.) a familiar object.  5 the
             establishment of a cleric etc. in a church.  [ME f. OF f. L
             institutio -onis (as INSTITUTE)]

             adj.  1 of or like an institution.  2 typical of institutions,
             esp. in being regimented or unimaginative (the food was
             dreadfully institutional).  3 (of religion) expressed or
             organized through institutions (churches etc.).  4 US (of
             advertising) intended to create prestige rather than immediate
             sales.  ЬЬinstitutionalism n.  institutionally adv.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 (as institutionalized adj.) (of a prisoner,
             a long-term patient, etc.) made apathetic and dependent after a
             long period in an institution.  2 place or keep (a person) in an
             institution.  3 convert into an institution; make institutional.
             ЬЬinstitutionalization n.

   Inst.P.   abbr.  (in the UK) Institute of Physics.

   instruct  v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in) teach (a person) a subject etc.
             (instructed her in French).  2 (usu. foll. by to + infin.)
             direct; command (instructed him to fill in the hole).  3 (often
             foll. by of, or that etc. + clause) inform (a person) of a fact
             etc.  4 Brit.  a (of a client or solicitor) give information to
             (a solicitor or counsel).  b authorize (a solicitor or counsel)
             to act for one.  [ME f. L instruere instruct- build, teach (as
             IN-(2), struere pile up)]

             n.  1 (often in pl.) a direction; an order (gave him his
             instructions).  2 teaching; education (took a course of
             instruction).  3 Law (in pl.) directions to a solicitor or
             counsel.  4 Computing a direction in a computer program defining
             and effecting an operation.  ЬЬinstructional adj.  [ME f. OF f.
             LL instructio -onis (as INSTRUCT)]

             adj.  tending to instruct; conveying a lesson; enlightening
             (found the experience instructive).  ЬЬinstructively adv.
             instructiveness n.

             n.  (fem.  instructress) 1 a person who instructs; a teacher,
             demonstrator, etc.  2 US a university teacher ranking below
             professor.  ЬЬinstructorship n.

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a tool or implement, esp. for delicate or
             scientific work.  2 (in full musical instrument) a device for
             producing musical sounds by vibration, wind, percussion, etc.  3
             a a thing used in performing an action (the meeting was an
             instrument in his success).  b a person made use of (is merely
             their instrument).  4 a measuring-device, esp. in an aeroplane,
             serving to determine its position in darkness etc.  5 a formal,
             esp. legal, document.  --v.tr.  1 arrange (music) for
             instruments.  2 equip with instruments (for measuring,
             recording, controlling, etc.).  Ьinstrument board (or panel) a
             surface, esp. in a car or aeroplane, containing the dials etc.
             of measuring-devices.  [ME f. OF instrument or L instrumentum
             (as INSTRUCT)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (usu. foll. by to, in, or in + verbal noun)
             serving as an instrument or means (was instrumental in finding
             the money).  2 (of music) performed on instruments, without
             singing (cf.  VOCAL).  3 of, or arising from, an instrument
             (instrumental error).  4 Gram. of or in the instrumental.  --n.
             1 a piece of music performed by instruments, not by the voice.
             2 Gram. the case of nouns and pronouns (and words in grammatical
             agreement with them) indicating a means or instrument.
             ЬЬinstrumentalist n.  instrumentality n.  instrumentally adv.
             [ME f. F f. med.L instrumentalis (as INSTRUMENT)]

             n.  1 a the arrangement or composition of music for a particular
             group of musical instruments.  b the instruments used in any one
             piece of music.  2 a the design, provision, or use of
             instruments in industry, science, etc.  b such instruments
             collectively.  [F f.  instrumenter (as INSTRUMENT)]

             adj.  disobedient; rebellious.  ЬЬinsubordinately adv.
             insubordination n.

             adj.  1 lacking solidity or substance.  2 not real.
             ЬЬinsubstantiality n.  insubstantially adv.  [LL insubstantialis
             (as IN-(1), SUBSTANTIAL)]

             adj.  1 intolerable.  2 unbearably arrogant or conceited etc.
             ЬЬinsufferableness n.  insufferably adv.

             n.  1 the condition of being insufficient.  2 Med. the inability
             of an organ to perform its normal function (renal
             insufficiency).  [ME f. LL insufficientia (as INSUFFICIENT)]

             adj.  not sufficient; inadequate.  ЬЬinsufficiently adv.  [ME f.
             OF f. LL insufficiens (as IN-(1), SUFFICIENT)]

             v.tr.  1 Med.  a blow or breathe (air, gas, powder, etc.) into a
             cavity of the body etc.  b treat (the nose etc.) in this way.  2
             Theol. blow or breathe on (a person) to symbolize spiritual
             influence.  ЬЬinsufflation n.  [LL insufflare insufflat- (as
             IN-(2), sufflare blow upon)]

             n.  1 a device for blowing powder on to a surface in order to
             make fingerprints visible.  2 an instrument for insufflating.

   insular   adj.  1 a of or like an island.  b separated or remote, like an
             island.  2 ignorant of or indifferent to cultures, peoples,
             etc., outside one's own experience; narrow-minded.  3 of a
             British variant of Latin handwriting current in the Middle Ages.
             4 (of climate) equable.  ЬЬinsularism n.  insularity n.
             insularly adv.  [LL insularis (as INSULATE)]

   insulate  v.tr.  1 prevent the passage of electricity, heat, or sound from
             (a thing, room, etc.) by interposing non-conductors.  2 detach
             (a person or thing) from its surroundings; isolate.  3 archaic
             make (land) into an island.  Ьinsulating tape an adhesive tape
             used to cover exposed electrical wires etc.  ЬЬinsulation n.  [L
             insula island + -ATE(3)]

   insulator n.  1 a thing or substance used for insulation against
             electricity, heat, or sound.  2 an insulating device to support
             telegraph wires etc.  3 a device preventing contact between
             electrical conductors.

   insulin   n.  Biochem.  a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets
             of Langerhans, regulating the amount of glucose in the blood and
             the lack of which causes diabetes.  [L insula island + -IN]

   insult    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 speak to or treat with scornful abuse or
             indignity.  2 offend the self-respect or modesty of.  --n.  1 an
             insulting remark or action.  2 colloq. something so worthless or
             contemptible as to be offensive.  3 Med.  a an agent causing
             damage to the body.  b such damage.  ЬЬinsulter n.  insultingly
             adv.  [F insulte or L insultare (as IN-(2), saltare frequent. of
             salire salt- leap)]

             adj.  1 (of a barrier) impossible to surmount.  2 (of a
             difficulty etc.) impossible to overcome.  ЬЬinsuperability n.
             insuperably adv.  [ME f. OF insuperable or L insuperabilis (as
             IN-(1), SUPERABLE)]

             adj.  1 unable to be endured.  2 unjustifiable.
             ЬЬinsupportableness n.  insupportably adv.  [F (as IN-(1),

   insurance n.  1 the act or an instance of insuring.  2 a a sum paid for
             this; a premium.  b a sum paid out as compensation for theft,
             damage, loss, etc.  3 = insurance policy.  4 a measure taken to
             provide for a possible contingency (take an umbrella as
             insurance).  Ьinsurance agent Brit.  a person employed to
             collect premiums door to door.  insurance company Brit.  a
             company engaged in the business of insurance.  insurance policy
             Brit.  1 a contract of insurance.  2 a document detailing such a
             policy and constituting a contract.  insurance stamp Brit.
             hist.  a stamp certifying the payment of a sum, usu. paid
             weekly, for National Insurance.  [earlier ensurance f. OF
             enseЃrance (as ENSURE)]

   insure    v.tr.  1 (often foll. by against; also absol.) secure the
             payment of a sum of money in the event of loss or damage to
             (property, life, a person, etc.) by regular payments or premiums
             (insured the house for њ100,000; we have insured against flood
             damage) (cf.  ASSURANCE).  2 (of the owner of a property, an
             insurance company, etc.)  secure the payment of (a sum of money)
             in this way.  3 (usu. foll. by against) provide for (a possible
             contingency) (insured themselves against the rain by taking
             umbrellas).  4 US = ENSURE.  ЬЬinsurable adj.  insurability n.
             [ME, var. of ENSURE]

   insured   adj. & n.  --adj. covered by insurance.  --n. (usu. prec. by
             the) a person etc. covered by insurance.

   insurer   n.  1 a person or company offering insurance policies for
             premiums; an underwriter.  2 a person who takes out insurance.

   insurgent adj. & n.  --adj.  1 rising in active revolt.  2 (of the sea
             etc.) rushing in.  --n. a rebel; a revolutionary.  ЬЬinsurgence
             n.  insurgency n.  (pl.  -ies).  [F f. L insurgere insurrect-
             (as IN-(2), surgere rise)]

             adj.  unable to be surmounted or overcome.  ЬЬinsurmountably

             n.  a rising in open resistance to established authority; a
             rebellion.  ЬЬinsurrectional adj.  insurrectionary adj.
             insurrectionist n.  [ME f. OF f. LL insurrectio -onis (as

             adj.  (usu. foll. by of, to) not susceptible (of treatment, to
             an influence, etc.).  ЬЬinsusceptibility n.

   inswinger n.  1 Cricket a ball bowled with a swing towards the batsman.  2
             Football a pass or kick that sends the ball curving towards the

   int.      abbr.  1 interior.  2 internal.  3 international.

   intact    adj.  1 entire; unimpaired.  2 untouched.  ЬЬintactness n.  [ME
             f. L intactus (as IN-(1), tactus past part. of tangere touch)]

             adj.  decorated with surface carving.  [It.  intagliato past
             part. of intagliare cut into]

   intaglio  n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a gem with an incised design (cf.
             CAMEO).  2 an engraved design.  3 a carving, esp. incised, in
             hard material.  4 a process of printing from an engraved design.
             --v.tr.  (-oes, -oed) 1 engrave (material) with a sunk pattern
             or design.  2 engrave (such a design).  [It. (as INTAGLIATED)]

   intake    n.  1 a the action of taking in.  b an instance of this.  2 a
             number or the amount taken in or received.  3 a place where
             water is taken into a channel or pipe from a river, or fuel or
             air enters an engine etc.  4 an airway into a mine.  5 N.Engl.
             land reclaimed from a moor etc.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 unable to be touched; not solid.  2 unable
             to be grasped mentally.  --n. something that cannot be precisely
             measured or assessed.  ЬЬintangibility n.  intangibly adv.  [F
             intangible or med.L intangibilis (as IN-(1), TANGIBLE)]

   intarsia  n.  the craft of using wood inlays, esp. as practised in 15th-c.
             Italy.  [It.  intarsio]

   integer   n.  1 a whole number.  2 a thing complete in itself.  [L (adj.)
             = untouched, whole: see ENTIRE]

   integral  adj. & n.  --adj.  disp.  1 a of a whole or necessary to the
             completeness of a whole.  b forming a whole (integral design).
             c whole, complete.  2 Math.  a of or denoted by an integer.  b
             involving only integers, esp. as coefficients of a function.
             --n.  Math.  1 a quantity of which a given function is the
             derivative, either containing an indeterminate additive constant
             (indefinite integral), or calculated as the difference between
             its values at specified limits (definite integral).  2 a
             function satisfying a given differential equation.  Ьintegral
             calculus mathematics concerned with finding integrals, their
             properties and application, etc. (cf.  differential calculus).
             ЬЬintegrality n.  integrally adv.  [LL integralis (as INTEGER)]

   integrand n.  Math.  a function that is to be integrated.  [L integrandus
             gerundive of integrare: see INTEGRATE]

   integrant adj.  (of parts) making up a whole; component.  [F int‚grant f.
             int‚grer (as INTEGRATE)]

   integrate v. & adj.  --v.  1 tr.  a combine (parts) into a whole.  b
             complete (an imperfect thing) by the addition of parts.  2 tr. &
             intr. bring or come into equal participation in or membership of
             society, a school, etc.  3 tr. desegregate, esp. racially (a
             school etc.).  4 tr.  Math.  a find the integral of.  b (as
             integrated adj.) indicating the mean value or total sum of
             (temperature, an area, etc.).  --adj.  1 made up of parts.  2
             whole; complete.  Ьintegrated circuit Electronics a small chip
             etc. of material replacing several separate components in a
             conventional electrical circuit.  ЬЬintegrable adj.
             integrability n.  integrative adj.  [L integrare integrat- make
             whole (as INTEGER)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of integrating.  2 the intermixing
             of persons previously segregated.  3 Psychol. the combination of
             the diverse elements of perception etc. in a personality.
             ЬЬintegrationist n.  [L integratio (as INTEGRATE)]

             n.  1 an instrument for indicating or registering the total
             amount or mean value of some physical quality, as area,
             temperature, etc.  2 a person or thing that integrates.

   integrity n.  1 moral uprightness; honesty.  2 wholeness; soundness.  [ME
             f. F int‚grit‚ or L integritas (as INTEGER)]

             n.  a natural outer covering, as a skin, husk, rind, etc.
             ЬЬintegumental adj.  integumentary adj.  [L integumentum f.
             integere (as IN-(2), tegere cover)]

   intellect n.  1 a the faculty of reasoning, knowing, and thinking, as
             distinct from feeling.  b the understanding or mental powers (of
             a particular person etc.) (his intellect is not great).  2 a a
             clever or knowledgeable person.  b the intelligentsia regarded
             collectively (the combined intellect of four universities).  [ME
             f. OF intellect or L intellectus understanding (as INTELLIGENT)]

             n.  the action or process of understanding (opp.  IMAGINATION).
             ЬЬintellective adj.  [ME f. med.L intellectio (as INTELLIGENT)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or appealing to the intellect.  2
             possessing a high level of understanding or intelligence;
             cultured.  3 requiring, or given to the exercise of, the
             intellect.  --n. a person possessing a highly developed
             intellect.  ЬЬintellectuality n.  intellectualize v.tr. & intr.
             (also -ise).  intellectually adv.  [ME f. L intellectualis (as

             n.  1 the exercise, esp. when excessive, of the intellect at the
             expense of the emotions.  2 Philos. the theory that knowledge is
             wholly or mainly derived from pure reason.  ЬЬintellectualist n.

             n.  1 a the intellect; the understanding.  b (of a person or an
             animal) quickness of understanding; wisdom.  2 a the collection
             of information, esp. of military or political value.  b people
             employed in this.  c archaic information; news.  3 an
             intelligent or rational being.  Ьintelligence department a usu.
             government department engaged in collecting esp. secret
             information.  intelligence quotient a number denoting the ratio
             of a person's intelligence to the normal or average.
             intelligence test a test designed to measure intelligence rather
             than acquired knowledge.  ЬЬintelligential adj.  [ME f. OF f. L
             intelligentia (as INTELLIGENT)]

             adj.  1 having or showing intelligence, esp. of a high level.  2
             quick of mind; clever.  3 a (of a device or machine) able to
             vary its behaviour in response to varying situations and
             requirements and past experience.  b (esp. of a computer
             terminal) having its own data-processing capability;
             incorporating a microprocessor (opp.  DUMB).  ЬЬintelligently
             adv.  [L intelligere intellect- understand (as INTER-, legere
             gather, pick out, read)]

             n.  1 the class of intellectuals regarded as possessing culture
             and political initiative.  2 people doing intellectual work;
             intellectuals.  [Russ. f. Pol.  inteligencja f. L intelligentia
             (as INTELLIGENT)]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to) able to be understood;
             comprehensible.  2 Philos. able to be understood only by the
             intellect, not by the senses.  ЬЬintelligibility n.
             intelligibly adv.  [L intelligibilis (as INTELLIGENT)]

   Intelpost n.  the international electronic transmission of messages and
             graphics by fax, telex, etc.  [International Electronic Post]

   Intelsat  n.  an international organization of countries operating a
             system of commercial communication satellites.  [International
             Telecommunications Satellite Consortium]

             adj.  1 (of a person, conduct, or speech) immoderate; unbridled;
             violent (used intemperate language).  2 a given to excessive
             indulgence in alcohol.  b excessively indulgent in one's
             appetites.  ЬЬintemperance n.  intemperately adv.
             intemperateness n.  [ME f. L intemperatus (as IN-(1),

   intend    v.tr.  1 have as one's purpose; propose (we intend to go; we
             intend going; we intend that it shall be done).  2 (usu. foll.
             by for, as) design or destine (a person or a thing) (I intend
             him to go; I intend it as a warning).  3 mean (what does he
             intend by that?).  4 (in passive; foll. by for) a be meant for a
             person to have or use etc. (they are intended for the children).
             b be meant to represent (the picture is intended for you).  5
             (as intending adj.) who intends to be (an intending visitor).
             [ME entende, intende f. OF entendre, intendre f. L intendere
             intent- or intens- strain, direct, purpose (as IN-(2), tendere
             stretch, tend)]

   intendant n.  1 (esp. as a title of foreign officials) a superintendent or
             manager of a department of public business etc.  2 the
             administrator of an opera house or theatre.  ЬЬintendancy n.  [F
             f. L intendere (as INTEND)]

   intended  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 done on purpose; intentional.  2 designed,
             meant.  --n.  colloq. the person one intends to marry; one's
             fianc‚ or fianc‚e (is this your intended?).  ЬЬintendedly adv.

   intense   adj.  (intenser, intensest) 1 (of a quality etc.) existing in a
             high degree; violent; forceful (intense cold).  2 (of a person)
             feeling, or apt to feel, strong emotion (very intense about her
             music).  3 (of a feeling or action etc.) extreme (intense joy;
             intense thought).  ЬЬintensely adv.  intenseness n.  [ME f. OF
             intens or L intensus (as INTEND)]

             n.  1 a person or thing that intensifies.  2 Gram. = INTENSIVE

   intensify v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. & intr. make or become intense or more
             intense.  2 tr.  Photog. increase the opacity of (a negative).
             ЬЬintensification n.

   intension n.  1 Logic the internal content of a concept.  2 formal the
             intensity, or high degree, of a quality.  3 formal the strenuous
             exertion of the mind or will.  ЬЬintensional adj.  intensionally
             adv.  [L intensio (as INTEND)]

   intensity n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the quality or an instance of being intense.
             2 esp. Physics the measurable amount of some quality, e.g.
             force, brightness, a magnetic field, etc.

   intensive adj. & n.  --adj.  1 thorough, vigorous; directed to a single
             point, area, or subject (intensive study; intensive
             bombardment).  2 of or relating to intensity as opp. to extent;
             producing intensity.  3 serving to increase production in
             relation to costs (intensive farming methods).  4 (usu. in
             comb.) Econ. making much use of (a labour-intensive industry).
             5 Gram. (of an adjective, adverb, etc.) expressing intensity;
             giving force, as really in my feet are really cold.  --n.  Gram.
             an intensive adjective, adverb, etc.  Ьintensive care medical
             treatment with constant monitoring etc. of a dangerously ill
             patient (also (with hyphen) attrib.: intensive-care unit).
             ЬЬintensively adv.  intensiveness n.  [F intensif -ive or med.L
             intensivus (as INTEND)]

   intent    n. & adj.  --n. (usu. without article) intention; a purpose
             (with intent to defraud; my intent to reach the top; with evil
             intent).  --adj.  1 (usu. foll. by on) a resolved; bent;
             determined (was intent on succeeding).  b attentively occupied
             (intent on his books).  2 (esp. of a look) earnest; eager;
             meaningful.  Ьto all intents and purposes practically;
             virtually.  ЬЬintently adv.  intentness n.  [ME entent f. OF f.
             L intentus (as INTEND)]

   intention n.  1 (often foll. by to + infin., or of + verbal noun) a thing
             intended; an aim or purpose (it was not his intention to
             interfere; have no intention of staying).  2 the act of
             intending (done without intention).  3 colloq. (usu. in pl.) a
             person's, esp. a man's, designs in respect to marriage (are his
             intentions strictly honourable?).  4 Logic a conception.  Ьfirst
             intention Med.  the healing of a wound by natural contact of the
             parts.  first intentions Logic one's primary conceptions of
             things (e.g. a tree, an oak).  intention tremor Med.  a
             trembling of a part of a body when commencing a movement.
             second intention Med.  the healing of a wound by granulation.
             second intentions Logic one's secondary conceptions (e.g.
             difference, identity, species).  special (or particular)
             intention RC Ch.  a special aim or purpose for which a mass is
             celebrated, prayers are said, etc.  ЬЬintentioned adj. (usu. in
             comb.).  [ME entencion f. OF f. L intentio stretching, purpose
             (as INTEND)]

             adj.  done on purpose.  ЬЬintentionality n.  intentionally adv.
             [F intentionnel or med.L intentionalis (as INTENTION)]

   inter     v.tr.  (interred, interring) deposit (a corpse etc.) in the
             earth, a tomb, etc.; bury.  [ME f. OF enterrer f. Rmc (as
             IN-(2), L terra earth)]

   inter.    abbr.  intermediate.

   inter-    comb. form 1 between, among (intercontinental).  2 mutually,
             reciprocally (interbreed).  [OF entre- or L inter between,

   interact  v.intr.  act reciprocally; act on each other.  ЬЬinteractant
             adj. & n.

             n.  1 reciprocal action or influence.  2 Physics the action of
             atomic and subatomic particles on each other.

             adj.  1 reciprocally active; acting upon or influencing each
             other.  2 (of a computer or other electronic device) allowing a
             two-way flow of information between it and a user, responding to
             the user's input.  ЬЬinteractively adv.  [INTERACT, after

   inter alia
             adv.  among other things.  [L]

             adj.  relating to two or more allies (in war etc.).

             adj.  between the contiguous surfaces of a joint.

             adj.  between atoms.

   interbank adj.  agreed, arranged, or operating between banks (interbank

   interbed  v.tr.  (-bedded, -bedding) embed (one thing) among others.

             v.  1 tr. (usu. foll. by with) mingle (things) together.  2
             intr. blend with each other.

             v.  (past and past part.  -bred) 1 intr. & tr. breed or cause to
             breed with members of a different race or species to produce a
             hybrid.  2 tr. breed within one family etc. in order to produce
             desired characteristics (cf.  CROSS-BREED).

             adj.  1 a (of a day or a month) inserted in the calendar to
             harmonize it with the solar year, e.g. 29 Feb. in leap years.  b
             (of a year) having such an addition.  2 interpolated;
             intervening.  [L intercalari(u)s (as INTERCALATE)]

             v.tr.  1 (also absol.) insert (an intercalary day etc.).  2
             interpose (anything out of the ordinary course).  3 (as
             intercalated adj.) (of strata etc.) interposed.  ЬЬintercalation
             n.  [L intercalare intercalat- (as INTER-, calare proclaim)]

   intercede v.intr.  (usu. foll. by with) interpose or intervene on behalf
             of another; plead (they interceded with the king for his life).
             ЬЬinterceder n.  [F interc‚der or L intercedere intercess-
             intervene (as INTER-, cedere go)]

             adj.  Biol.  located or occurring between cells.

             adj.  between two censuses.

   intercept v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 seize, catch, or stop (a person, message,
             vehicle, ball, etc.) going from one place to another.  2 (usu.
             foll. by from) cut off (light etc.).  3 check or stop (motion
             etc.).  4 Math. mark off (a space) between two points etc.  --n.
             Math. the part of a line between two points of intersection with
             usu.  the coordinate axes or other lines.  ЬЬinterception n.
             interceptive adj.  [L intercipere intercept- (as INTER-, capere

             n.  1 an aircraft used to intercept enemy raiders.  2 a person
             or thing that intercepts.

             n.  1 the act of interceding, esp. by prayer.  2 an instance of
             this.  3 a prayer.  ЬЬintercessional adj.  intercessor n.
             intercessorial adj.  intercessory adj.  [F intercession or L
             intercessio (as INTERCEDE)]

             v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (of two people) exchange (things) with each
             other.  2 put each of (two things) in the other's place;
             alternate.  --n.  1 (often foll. by of) a reciprocal exchange
             between two people etc.  2 alternation (the interchange of woods
             and fields).  3 a road junction designed so that traffic streams
             do not intersect.  ЬЬinterchangeable adj.  interchangeability n.
             interchangeableness n.  interchangeably adv.  [ME f. OF
             entrechangier (as INTER-, CHANGE)]

             adj.  existing or travelling between cities.

             adj.  existing or conducted between different social classes.

             adj.  existing or conducted between colleges or universities.

             adj.  existing or conducted between colonies.

   intercom  n.  colloq.  a system of intercommunication by radio or
             telephone between or within offices, aircraft, etc.  [abbr.]

             v.intr.  1 communicate reciprocally.  2 (of rooms etc.) have
             free passage into each other; have a connecting door.
             ЬЬintercommunication n.  intercommunicative adj.

             n.  1 mutual communion.  2 a mutual action or relationship, esp.
             between Christian denominations.

             n.  1 the quality of being common to various groups etc.  2
             having things in common.

             v.tr. & intr.  connect with each other.  ЬЬinterconnection n.

             adj.  connecting or travelling between continents.
             ЬЬintercontinentally adv.

             v.tr. & intr.  convert into each other.  ЬЬinterconversion n.
             interconvertible adj.

             n.  the cooling of gas between successive compressions, esp. in
             a car or truck engine.  ЬЬintercool v.tr.  intercooler n.

             v.tr. & intr.  correlate with one another.  ЬЬintercorrelation

             adj.  between the ribs (of the body or a ship).  ЬЬintercostally

             adj.  existing or conducted between counties.

             n.  1 communication or dealings between individuals, nations,
             etc.  2 = sexual intercourse.  3 communion between human beings
             and God.  [ME f. OF entrecours exchange, commerce, f. L
             intercursus (as INTER-, currere curs- run)]

   intercrop v.tr.  (also absol.) (-cropped, -cropping) raise (a crop) among
             plants of a different kind, usu. in the space between rows.
             ЬЬintercropping n.

             v.  1 tr. & intr. lay or lie across each other.  2 a intr. (of
             animals) breed with each other.  b tr. cause to do this.

             adj.  between the legs.

             adj.  1 (of a time or event) intervening.  2 Med.  a (of a
             disease) occurring during the progress of another.  b recurring
             at intervals.  ЬЬintercurrence n.  [L intercurrere intercurrent-
             (as INTERCOURSE)]

   intercut  v.tr.  (-cutting; past and past part.  -cut) Cinematog.
             alternate (shots) with contrasting shots by cutting.

             adj.  concerning more than one (religious) denomination.
             ЬЬinterdenominationally adv.

             adj.  concerning more than one department.
             ЬЬinterdepartmentally adv.

             v.intr.  depend on each other.  ЬЬinterdependence n.
             interdependency n.  interdependent adj.

   interdict n. & v.  --n.  1 an authoritative prohibition.  2 RC Ch. a
             sentence debarring a person, or esp. a place, from
             ecclesiastical functions and privileges.  3 Sc.  Law an
             injunction.  --v.tr.  1 prohibit (an action).  2 forbid the use
             of.  3 (usu. foll. by from + verbal noun) restrain (a person).
             4 (usu. foll. by to) forbid (a thing) to a person.
             ЬЬinterdiction n.  interdictory adj.  [ME f. OF entredit f. L
             interdictum past part. of interdicere interpose, forbid by
             decree (as INTER-, dicere say)]

             adj.  between the fingers or toes.  ЬЬinterdigitally adv.

             v.intr.  interlock like clasped fingers.  [INTER- + L digitus
             finger + -ATE(3)]

             adj.  of or between more than one branch of learning.

   interest  n. & v.  --n.  1 a concern; curiosity (have no interest in
             fishing).  b a quality exciting curiosity or holding the
             attention (this magazine lacks interest).  2 a subject, hobby,
             etc., in which one is concerned (his interests are gardening and
             sport).  3 advantage or profit, esp. when financial (it is in
             your interest to go; look after your own interests).  4 money
             paid for the use of money lent, or for not requiring the
             repayment of a debt.  5 (usu. foll. by in) a a financial stake
             (in an undertaking etc.).  b a legal concern, title, or right
             (in property).  6 a a party or group having a common interest
             (the brewing interest).  b a principle in which a party or group
             is concerned.  7 the selfish pursuit of one's own welfare,
             self-interest.  --v.tr.  1 excite the curiosity or attention of
             (your story interests me greatly).  2 (usu. foll. by in) cause
             (a person) to take a personal interest or share (can I interest
             you in a holiday abroad?).  3 (as interested adj.) having a
             private interest; not impartial or disinterested (an interested
             party).  Ьat interest (of money borrowed) on the condition that
             interest is payable.  declare an (or one's) interest make known
             one's financial etc. interests in an undertaking before it is
             discussed.  in the interest (or interests) of as something that
             is advantageous to.  lose interest become bored or boring.  with
             interest with increased force etc. (returned the blow with
             interest).  ЬЬinterestedly adv.  interestedness n.  [ME, earlier
             interesse f. AF f. med.L, alt. app. after OF interest, both f. L
             interest, 3rd sing. pres. of interesse matter, make a difference
             (as INTER-, esse be)]

             adj.  causing curiosity; holding the attention.  Ьin an
             interesting condition archaic pregnant.  ЬЬinterestingly adv.
             interestingness n.

   interface n. & v.  --n.  1 esp. Physics a surface forming a common
             boundary between two regions.  2 a point where interaction
             occurs between two systems, processes, subjects, etc. (the
             interface between psychology and education).  3 esp. Computing
             an apparatus for connecting two pieces of equipment so that they
             can be operated jointly.  --v.tr. & intr. (often foll. by with)
             connect with (another piece of equipment etc.) by an interface.

             adj.  1 included between two faces of a crystal or other solid.
             2 of or forming an interface.  ЬЬinterfacially adv. (esp. in
             sense 2).

             n.  a stiffish material, esp. buckram, between two layers of
             fabric in collars etc.

             adj.  between the thighs.

   interfere v.intr.  1 (usu. foll. by with) a (of a person) meddle; obstruct
             a process etc.  b (of a thing) be a hindrance; get in the way.
             2 (usu. foll. by in) take part or intervene, esp. without
             invitation or necessity.  3 (foll. by with) euphem. molest or
             assault sexually.  4 Physics (of light or other waves) combine
             so as to cause interference.  5 (of a horse) knock one leg
             against another.  ЬЬinterferer n.  interfering adj.
             interferingly adv.  [OF s' entreferir strike each other (as
             INTER-, ferir f. L ferire strike)]

             n.  1 (usu. foll. by with) a the act of interfering.  b an
             instance of this.  2 the fading or disturbance of received radio
             signals by the interference of waves from different sources, or
             esp. by atmospherics or unwanted signals.  3 Physics the
             combination of two or more wave motions to form a resultant wave
             in which the displacement is reinforced or cancelled.
             ЬЬinterferential adj.

             n.  an instrument for measuring wavelengths etc. by means of
             interference phenomena.  ЬЬinterferometric adj.
             interferometrically adv.  interferometry n.

             n.  Biochem.  any of various proteins that can inhibit the
             development of a virus in a cell etc.  [INTERFERE + -ON]

             adj.  between fibrils.

   interfile v.tr.  1 file (two sequences) together.  2 file (one or more
             items) into an existing sequence.

   interflow v. & n.  --v.intr. flow into each other.  --n. the process or
             result of this.

             adj.  flowing into each other.  [L interfluere interfluent- (as
             INTER-, fluere flow)]

   interfuse v.  1 tr.  a (usu. foll. by with) mix (a thing) with;
             intersperse.  b blend (things) together.  2 intr. (of two
             things) blend with each other.  ЬЬinterfusion n.  [L
             interfundere interfus- (as INTER-, fundere pour)]

             adj.  of or situated between two or more galaxies.
             ЬЬintergalactically adv.

             adj.  between glacial periods.

             adj.  concerning or conducted between two or more governments.
             ЬЬintergovernmentally adv.

             n.  the process of merging together by gradual change of the

             v. & n.  --v.intr. pass into another form by intervening grades.
             --n. such a grade.

             n.  the growing of things into each other.

   interim   n., adj., & adv.  --n. the intervening time (in the interim he
             had died).  --adj. intervening; provisional, temporary.  --adv.
             archaic meanwhile.  Ьinterim dividend a dividend declared on the
             basis of less than a full year's results.  [L, as INTER- + adv.
             suffix -im]

   interior  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 inner (opp.  EXTERIOR).  2 remote from the
             coast or frontier; inland.  3 internal; domestic (opp.
             FOREIGN).  4 (usu. foll. by to) situated further in or within.
             5 existing in the mind or soul; inward.  6 drawn, photographed,
             etc. within a building.  7 coming from inside.  --n.  1 the
             interior part; the inside.  2 the interior part of a country or
             region.  3 a the home affairs of a country.  b a department
             dealing with these (Minister of the Interior).  4 a
             representation of the inside of a building or a room (Dutch
             interior).  5 the inner nature; the soul.  Ьinterior angle the
             angle between adjacent sides of a rectilinear figure.  interior
             decoration (or design) the decoration or design of the interior
             of a building, a room, etc.  interior monologue a form of
             writing expressing a character's inner thoughts.
             interior-sprung (of a mattress etc.) with internal springs.
             ЬЬinteriorize v.tr.  (also -ise).  interiorly adv.  [L, compar.
             f.  inter among]

   interject v.tr.  1 utter (words) abruptly or parenthetically.  2 interrupt
             with.  ЬЬinterjectory adj.  [L interjicere (as INTER-, jacere

             n.  an exclamation, esp. as a part of speech (e.g.  ah!, dear
             me!).  ЬЬinterjectional adj.  [ME f. OF f. L interjectio -onis
             (as INTERJECT)]

   interknit v.tr. & intr.  (-knitting; past and past part.  -knitted or
             -knit) knit together; intertwine.

   interlace v.  1 tr. bind intricately together; interweave.  2 tr. mingle,
             intersperse.  3 intr. cross each other intricately.
             ЬЬinterlacement n.  [ME f. OF entrelacier (as INTER-, LACE v.)]

             n.  a language or use of language having features of two others,
             often a pidgin or dialect form.

   interlap  v.intr.  (-lapped, -lapping) overlap.

   interlard v.tr.  (usu. foll. by with) mix (writing or speech) with unusual
             words or phrases.  [F entrelarder (as INTER-, LARD v.)]

   interleaf n.  (pl.  -leaves) an extra (usu. blank) leaf between the leaves
             of a book.

             v.tr.  insert (usu. blank) leaves between the leaves of (a book

             n.  Biochem.  any of several glycoproteins produced by
             leucocytes for regulating immune responses.  [INTER- +

             adj.  between libraries (esp. interlibrary loan).

             v.tr.  1 insert words between the lines of (a document etc.).  2
             insert (words) in this way.  ЬЬinterlineation n.  [ME f. med.L
             interlineare (as INTER-, LINE(1))]

             v.tr.  put an extra lining between the ordinary lining and the
             fabric of (a garment).

             adj.  written or printed between the lines of a text.  [ME f.
             med.L interlinearis (as INTER-, LINEAR)]

             n.  material used to interline a garment.

   interlink v.tr. & intr.  link or be linked together.

             adj.  situated between lobes.

   interlock v., adj., & n.  --v.  1 intr. engage with each other by
             overlapping or by the fitting together of projections and
             recesses.  2 tr. (usu. in passive) lock or clasp within each
             other.  --adj. (of a fabric) knitted with closely interlocking
             stitches.  --n. a device or mechanism for connecting or
             coordinating the function of different components.
             ЬЬinterlocker n.

             n.  (fem.  interlocutrix) a person who takes part in a dialogue
             or conversation.  ЬЬinterlocution n.  [mod.L f. L interloqui
             interlocut- interrupt in speaking (as INTER-, loqui speak)]

             adj.  1 of dialogue or conversation.  2 Law (of a decree etc.)
             given provisionally in a legal action.  [med.L interlocutorius
             (as INTERLOCUTOR)]

             n.  1 an intruder.  2 a person who interferes in others'
             affairs, esp. for profit.  ЬЬinterlope v.intr.  [INTER- + loper
             as in landloper vagabond f. MDu.  landlooper]

   interlude n.  1 a a pause between the acts of a play.  b something
             performed or done during this pause.  2 a an intervening time,
             space, or event that contrasts with what goes before or after.
             b a temporary amusement or entertaining episode.  3 a piece of
             music played between other pieces, the verses of a hymn, etc.
             [ME, = a light dramatic item between the acts of a morality
             play, f. med.L interludium (as INTER-, ludus play)]

             n.  1 marriage between people of different races, castes,
             families, etc.  2 (loosely) marriage between near relations.

             v.intr.  (-ies, -ied) (foll. by with) (of races, castes,
             families, etc.) become connected by marriage.

             n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) an intermediate person or thing,
             esp. a mediator.  --adj. acting as mediator; intermediate.  [F
             interm‚diaire f. It.  intermediario f. L intermedius (as

             adj., n., & v.  --adj. coming between two things in time, place,
             order, character, etc.  --n.  1 an intermediate thing.  2 a
             chemical compound formed by one reaction and then used in
             another, esp. during synthesis.  --v.intr.  (foll. by between)
             act as intermediary; mediate.  Ьintermediate frequency the
             frequency to which a radio signal is converted during heterodyne
             reception.  ЬЬintermediacy n.  intermediately adv.
             intermediateness n.  intermediation n.  intermediator n.  [med.L
             intermediatus (as INTER-, medius middle)]

   interment n.  the burial of a corpse, esp. with ceremony.

   intermesh v.tr. & intr.  make or become meshed together.

             n.  (pl.  intermezzi or -os) 1 a a short connecting instrumental
             movement in an opera or other musical work.  b a similar piece
             performed independently.  c a short piece for a solo instrument.
             2 a short light dramatic or other performance inserted between
             the acts of a play.  [It. f. L intermedium interval (as

             adj.  1 endless.  2 tediously long or habitual.  3 with no
             prospect of an end.  ЬЬinterminableness n.  interminably adv.
             [ME f. OF interminable or LL interminabilis (as IN-(1),

             v.tr. & intr.  (often foll. by with) mix together; mingle.

             n.  1 a pause or cessation.  2 an interval between parts of a
             play, film, concert, etc.  3 a period of inactivity.  [F
             intermission or L intermissio (as INTERMIT)]

   intermit  v.  (intermitted, intermitting) 1 intr.  esp. Med. stop or cease
             activity briefly (e.g. of a fever, or a pulse).  2 tr. suspend;
             discontinue for a time.  [L intermittere intermiss- (as INTER-,
             mittere let go)]

             adj.  occurring at intervals; not continuous or steady.
             ЬЬintermittence n.  intermittency n.  intermittently adv.  [L
             intermittere intermittent- (as INTERMIT)]

   intermix  v.tr. & intr.  mix together.  ЬЬintermixable adj.  intermixture
             n.  [back-form. f.  intermixed, intermixt f. L intermixtus past
             part. of intermiscere mix together (as INTER-, miscere mix)]

             adj.  between molecules.

   intern    n. & v.  --n.  (also interne) US a recent graduate or advanced
             student living in a hospital and acting as an assistant
             physician or surgeon.  --v.  1 tr.  confine; oblige (a prisoner,
             alien, etc.) to reside within prescribed limits.  2 intr.  US
             serve as an intern.  ЬЬinternment n.  internship n.  [F interne
             f. L internus internal]

   internal  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or situated in the inside or invisible
             part.  2 relating or applied to the inside of the body (internal
             injuries).  3 of a nation's domestic affairs.  4 (of a student)
             attending a university etc. as well as taking its examinations.
             5 used or applying within an organization.  6 a of the inner
             nature of a thing; intrinsic.  b of the mind or soul.  --n. (in
             pl.) intrinsic qualities.  Ьinternal-combustion engine an engine
             with its motive power generated by the explosion of gases or
             vapour with air in a cylinder.  internal energy the energy in a
             system arising from the relative positions and interactions of
             its parts.  internal evidence evidence derived from the contents
             of the thing discussed.  internal exile see EXILE n.  1.
             internal rhyme a rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line
             and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next.
             ЬЬinternality n.  internalize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             internalization n.  internally adv.  [mod.L internalis (as

   internat. abbr.  international.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 existing, involving, or carried on between
             two or more nations.  2 agreed on or used by all or many nations
             (international date-line; international driving licence).  --n.
             1 a a contest, esp. in sport, between teams representing
             different countries.  b a member of such a team.  2 a
             (International) any of four associations founded (1864-1936) to
             promote socialist or communist action.  b a member of any of
             these.  Ьinternational law a body of rules established by custom
             or treaty and agreed as binding by nations in their relations
             with one another.  international system of units a system of
             physical units based on the metre, kilogram, second, ampere,
             kelvin, candela, and mole, with prefixes to indicate
             multiplication or division by a power of ten.  international
             unit a standard quantity of a vitamin etc.  ЬЬinternationality
             n.  internationally adv.

             n.  1 (prec. by the) an (orig. French) revolutionary song
             adopted by socialists.  2 = INTERNATIONAL n.  2a.  [F, fem. of
             international (adj.) f.  INTERNATIONAL]

             n.  1 the advocacy of a community of interests among nations.  2
             (Internationalism) the principles of any of the Internationals.
             ЬЬinternationalist n.

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make international.  2 bring under the
             protection or control of two or more nations.
             ЬЬinternationalization n.

   interne   US var. of INTERN n.

             adj.  mutually destructive.  [orig. = deadly, f. L internecinus
             f.  internecio massacre f.  internecare slaughter (as INTER-,
             necare kill)]

   internee  n.  a person interned.

   internist n.  Med.  1 a specialist in internal diseases.  2 US a general

   internode n.  1 Bot. a part of a stem between two of the knobs from which
             leaves arise.  2 Anat. a slender part between two joints, esp.
             the bone of a finger or toe.

             adj.  between nuclei.

             adj.  (of nerves) communicating between different parts of the
             system.  [internuncio ambassador f. It.  internunzio]

             adj.  between or connecting two oceans.

             adj.  Biol.  relating to stimuli produced within an organism,
             esp. in the viscera.  [irreg. f. L internus interior +

             v.intr.  = INOSCULATE.

             adj.  between bones.

             adj.  between the right and left parietal bones of the skull.
             ЬЬinterparietally adv.

             v.tr.  (in European parliaments) interrupt the order of the day
             by demanding an explanation from (the Minister concerned).
             ЬЬinterpellation n.  interpellator n.  [L interpellare
             interpellat- (as INTER-, pellere drive)]

             v.  1 intr. (of two things) penetrate each other.  2 tr.
             pervade; penetrate thoroughly.  ЬЬinterpenetration n.
             interpenetrative adj.

             adj.  (of relations) occurring between persons, esp.
             reciprocally.  ЬЬinterpersonally adv.

             v.tr. & intr.  plait together.

             adj.  1 between planets.  2 relating to travel between planets.

   interplay n.  1 reciprocal action.  2 the operation of two things on each

             v.  1 intr. litigate with each other to settle a point
             concerning a third party.  2 tr. cause to do this.
             ЬЬinterpleader n.  [ME f. AF enterpleder (as INTER-, PLEAD)]

   Interpol  n.  International Criminal Police Organization.  [abbr.]

             v.tr.  1 a insert (words) in a book etc., esp. to give false
             impressions as to its date etc.  b make such insertions in (a
             book etc.).  2 interject (a remark) in a conversation.  3
             estimate (values) from known ones in the same range.
             ЬЬinterpolation n.  interpolative adj.  interpolator n.  [L
             interpolare furbish up (as INTER-, polire POLISH(1))]

   interpose v.  1 tr. (often foll. by between) place or insert (a thing)
             between others.  2 tr. say (words) as an interruption.  3 tr.
             exercise or advance (a veto or objection) so as to interfere.  4
             intr. (foll. by between) intervene (between parties).  [F
             interposer f. L interponere put (as INTER-, POSE(1))]

             n.  1 the act of interposing.  2 a thing interposed.  3 an
             interference.  [ME f. OF interposition or L interpositio (as
             INTER-, POSITION)]

   interpret v.  (interpreted, interpreting) 1 tr. explain the meaning of
             (foreign or abstruse words, a dream, etc.).  2 tr. make out or
             bring out the meaning of (creative work).  3 intr. act as an
             interpreter, esp. of foreign languages.  4 tr. explain or
             understand (behaviour etc.) in a specified manner (interpreted
             his gesture as mocking).  ЬЬinterpretable adj.  interpretability
             n.  interpretation n.  interpretational adj.  interpretative
             adj.  interpretive adj.  interpretively adv.  [ME f. OF
             interpreter or L interpretari explain, translate f.  interpres
             -pretis explainer]

             n.  a person who interprets, esp. one who translates speech
             orally.  [ME f. AF interpretour, OF interpreteur f. LL
             interpretator -oris (as INTERPRET)]

             adj.  situated or carried on between provinces.

             adj.  existing between or affecting different races.
             ЬЬinterracially adv.

             n.  (pl.  interregnums or interregna) 1 an interval when the
             normal government is suspended, esp.  between successive reigns
             or regimes.  2 an interval or pause.  [L (as INTER-, regnum

             v.tr.  relate (two or more things) to each other.
             ЬЬinterrelation n.  interrelationship n.

             v.tr.  ask questions of (a person) esp. closely, thoroughly, or
             formally.  ЬЬinterrogator n.  [ME f. L interrogare interrogat-
             ask (as INTER-, rogare ask)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of interrogating; the process of
             being interrogated.  2 a question or enquiry.  Ьinterrogation
             point (or mark etc.) = question mark.  ЬЬinterrogational adj.
             [ME f. F interrogation or L interrogatio (as INTERROGATE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a of or like a question; used in questions.
             b Gram. (of an adjective or pronoun) asking a question (e.g.
             who?, which?).  2 having the form or force of a question.  3
             suggesting enquiry (an interrogative tone).  --n. an
             interrogative word (e.g.  what?, why?).  ЬЬinterrogatively adv.
             [LL interrogativus (as INTERROGATE)]

             adj. & n.  --adj. questioning; of or suggesting enquiry (an
             interrogatory eyebrow).  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a formal set of
             questions, esp.  Law one formally put to an accused person etc.
             [LL interrogatorius (as INTERROGATE)]

   interrupt v.tr.  1 act so as to break the continuous progress of (an
             action, speech, a person speaking, etc.).  2 obstruct (a
             person's view etc.).  3 break the continuity of.
             ЬЬinterruptible adj.  interruption n.  interruptive adj.
             interruptory adj.  [ME f. L interrumpere interrupt- (as INTER-,
             rumpere break)]

             n.  (also interruptor) 1 a person or thing that interrupts.  2 a
             device for interrupting, esp. an electric circuit.

   intersect v.  1 tr. divide (a thing) by passing or lying across it.  2
             intr. (of lines, roads, etc.) cross or cut each other.  [L
             intersecare intersect- (as INTER-, secare cut)]

             n.  1 the act of intersecting.  2 a place where two roads
             intersect.  3 a point or line common to lines or planes that
             intersect.  ЬЬintersectional adj.  [L intersectio (as

             adj.  between septa or partitions.

   intersex  n.  1 the abnormal condition of being intermediate between male
             and female.  2 an individual in this condition.

             adj.  1 existing between the sexes.  2 of intersex.
             ЬЬintersexuality n.  intersexually adv.

             n. & v.  --n. an interval of space or time.  --v.tr. put
             interspaces between.

             adj.  formed from different species.

             v.tr.  1 (often foll. by between, among) scatter; place here and
             there.  2 (foll. by with) diversify (a thing or things with
             others so scattered).  ЬЬinterspersion n.  [L interspergere
             interspers- (as INTER-, spargere scatter)]

             adj.  (also interspinous) between spines or spinous processes.

             adj. & n.  US --adj. existing or carried on between States, esp.
             of the US.  --n. a motorway, esp. crossing a State boundary.

             adj.  occurring or situated between stars.

             n.  1 an intervening space.  2 a chink or crevice.  [L
             interstitium (as INTER-, sistere stit- stand)]

             adj.  of, forming, or occupying interstices.  ЬЬinterstitially

             n.  the relationship between esp. literary texts.

             adj.  of or relating to the area which is covered at high tide
             and uncovered at low tide.

             adj.  existing or occurring between different tribes.

             n.  (pl.  -os) Med.  inflammation from the rubbing of one area
             of skin on another.  [L f.  interterere intertrit- (as INTER-,
             terere rub)]

             v.  1 tr. (often foll. by with) entwine (together).  2 intr.
             become entwined.  ЬЬintertwinement n.

             v.tr.  twist together.

   interval  n.  1 an intervening time or space.  2 Brit. a pause or break,
             esp. between the parts of a theatrical or musical performance.
             3 the difference in pitch between two sounds.  4 the distance
             between persons or things in respect of qualities.  Ьat
             intervals here and there; now and then.  ЬЬintervallic adj.  [ME
             ult. f. L intervallum space between ramparts, interval (as
             INTER-, vallum rampart)]

   intervene v.intr.  (often foll. by between, in) 1 occur in time between
             events.  2 interfere; come between so as to prevent or modify
             the result or course of events.  3 be situated between things.
             4 come in as an extraneous factor or thing.  5 Law interpose in
             a lawsuit as a third party.  ЬЬintervener n.  intervenient adj.
             intervenor n.  [L intervenire (as INTER-, venire come)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of intervening.  2 interference,
             esp. by a State in another's affairs.  3 mediation.  [ME f. F
             intervention or L interventio (as INTERVENE)]

             n.  a person who favours intervention.

             adj.  between vertebrae.

   interview n. & v.  --n.  1 an oral examination of an applicant for
             employment, a college place, etc.  2 a conversation between a
             reporter etc. and a person of public interest, used as a basis
             of a broadcast or publication.  3 a meeting of persons face to
             face, esp. for consultation.  --v.tr.  1 hold an interview with.
             2 question to discover the opinions or experience of (a person).
             ЬЬinterviewee n.  interviewer n.  [F entrevue f.  s' entrevoir
             see each other (as INTER-, voir f. L videre see: see VIEW)]

   interwar  adj.  existing in the period between two wars, esp. the two
             world wars.

             v.tr.  (past -wove; past part.  -woven) 1 (often foll. by with)
             weave together.  2 blend intimately.

   interwind v.tr. & intr.  (past and past part.  -wound) wind together.

   interwork v.  1 intr. work together or interactively.  2 tr. interweave.

   intestate adj. & n.  --adj. (of a person) not having made a will before
             death.  --n. a person who has died intestate.  ЬЬintestacy n.
             [ME f. L intestatus (as IN-(1), testari testat- make a will f.
             testis witness)]

   intestine n.  (in sing. or pl.) the lower part of the alimentary canal
             from the end of the stomach to the anus.  Ьlarge intestine the
             caecum, colon, and rectum collectively.  small intestine the
             duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively.  ЬЬintestinal also
             adj.  [L intestinum f.  intestinus internal]

   inthrall  US var. of ENTHRAL.

   intimacy  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the state of being intimate.  2 an intimate
             act, esp. sexual intercourse.  3 an intimate remark; an

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 closely acquainted; familiar, close (an
             intimate friend; an intimate relationship).  2 private and
             personal (intimate thoughts).  3 (usu. foll. by with) having
             sexual relations.  4 (of knowledge) detailed, thorough.  5 (of a
             relationship between things) close.  6 (of mixing etc.)
             thorough.  7 essential, intrinsic.  8 (of a place etc.)
             friendly; promoting close personal relationships.  --n. a very
             close friend.  ЬЬintimately adv.  [L intimus inmost]

             v.tr.  1 (often foll. by that + clause) state or make known.  2
             imply, hint.  ЬЬintimater n.  intimation n.  [LL intimare
             announce f. L intimus inmost]

             v.tr.  frighten or overawe, esp. to subdue or influence.
             ЬЬintimidation n.  intimidator n.  [med.L intimidare (as IN-(2),
             timidare f.  timidus TIMID)]

             n.  Eccl.  the dipping of the Eucharistic bread in the wine so
             that the communicant receives both together.  [LL intinctio f. L
             intingere intinct- (as IN-(2), TINGE)]

   intitule  v.tr.  Brit.  entitle (an Act of Parliament etc.).  [OF
             intituler f. LL intitulare (as IN-(2), titulare f.  titulus

   into      prep.  1 expressing motion or direction to a point on or within
             (walked into a tree; ran into the house).  2 expressing
             direction of attention or concern (will look into it).  3
             expressing a change of state (turned into a dragon; separated
             into groups; forced into cooperation).  4 colloq. interested in;
             knowledgeable about (is really into art).  [OE into (as IN, TO)]

             adj.  that cannot be endured.  ЬЬintolerableness n.  intolerably
             adv.  [ME f. OF intolerable or L intolerabilis (as IN-(1),

             adj.  not tolerant, esp. of views, beliefs, or behaviour
             differing from one's own.  ЬЬintolerance n.  intolerantly adv.
             [L intolerans (as IN-(1), TOLERANT)]

   intonate  v.tr.  intone.  [med.L intonare: see INTONE]

             n.  1 modulation of the voice; accent.  2 the act of intoning.
             3 accuracy of pitch in playing or singing (has good intonation).
             4 the opening phrase of a plainsong melody.  ЬЬintonational adj.
             [med.L intonatio (as INTONE)]

   intone    v.tr.  1 recite (prayers etc.) with prolonged sounds, esp. in a
             monotone.  2 utter with a particular tone.  ЬЬintoner n.  [med.L
             intonare (as IN-(2), L tonus TONE)]

   in toto   adv.  completely.  [L]

             adj. & n.  --adj. intoxicating.  --n. an intoxicating substance.

             v.tr.  1 make drunk.  2 excite or elate beyond self-control.
             ЬЬintoxicatingly adv.  intoxication n.  [med.L intoxicare (as
             IN-(2), toxicare poison f. L toxicum): see TOXIC]

   intra-    prefix forming adjectives usu. from adjectives, meaning 'on the
             inside, within' (intramural).  [L intra inside]

             adj.  Biol.  located or occurring within a cell or cells.

             adj.  within the skull.  ЬЬintracranially adv.

             adj.  1 hard to control or deal with.  2 difficult, stubborn.
             ЬЬintractability n.  intractableness n.  intractably adv.  [L
             intractabilis (as IN-(1), TRACTABLE)]

   intrados  n.  the lower or inner curve of an arch.  [F (as INTRA-, dos
             back f. L dorsum)]

             adj.  within a molecule.

             adj.  1 situated or done within walls.  2 forming part of normal
             university or college studies.  ЬЬintramurally adv.

             adj.  in or into a muscle or muscles.

             adj. & n.  --adj. uncompromising, stubborn.  --n. an
             intransigent person.  ЬЬintransigence n.  intransigency n.
             intransigently adv.  [F intransigeant f. Sp.  los intransigentes
             extreme republicans in Cortes, ult. formed as IN-(1) + L
             transigere transigent- come to an understanding (as TRANS-,
             agere act)]

             adj.  (of a verb or sense of a verb) that does not take or
             require a direct object (whether expressed or implied), e.g.
             look in look at the sky (opp.  TRANSITIVE).  ЬЬintransitively
             adv.  intransitivity n.  [LL intransitivus (as IN-(1),

             adj.  within the womb.

             adj.  in or into a vein or veins.  ЬЬintravenously adv.  [INTRA-
             + L vena vein]

   in-tray   n.  a tray for incoming documents, letters, etc.

   intrepid  adj.  fearless; very brave.  ЬЬintrepidity n.  intrepidly adv.
             [F intr‚pide or L intrepidus (as IN-(1), trepidus alarmed)]

   intricate adj.  very complicated; perplexingly detailed.  ЬЬintricacy n.
             (pl.  -ies).  intricately adv.  [ME f. L intricare intricat- (as
             IN-(2), tricare f.  tricae tricks)]

   intrigant n.  (fem.  intrigante) an intriguer.  [F intriguant f.
             intriguer: see INTRIGUE]

   intrigue  v. & n.  --v.  (intrigues, intrigued, intriguing) 1 intr. (foll.
             by with) a carry on an underhand plot.  b use secret influence.
             2 tr. arouse the curiosity of; fascinate.  --n.  1 an underhand
             plot or plotting.  2 archaic a secret love affair.  ЬЬintriguer
             n.  intriguing adj. (esp. in sense 2 of v.).  intriguingly adv.
             [F intrigue (n.), intriguer (v.) f. It.  intrigo, intrigare f. L
             (as INTRICATE)]

   intrinsic adj.  inherent, essential; belonging naturally (intrinsic
             value).  ЬЬintrinsically adv.  [ME, = interior, f. F intrinsЉque
             f. LL intrinsecus f. L intrinsecus (adv.) inwardly]

   intro     n.  (pl.  -os) colloq.  an introduction.  [abbr.]

   intro-    comb. form into (introgression).  [L intro to the inside]

   introduce v.tr.  1 (foll. by to) make (a person or oneself) known by name
             to another, esp. formally.  2 announce or present to an
             audience.  3 bring (a custom, idea, etc.) into use.  4 bring (a
             piece of legislation) before a legislative assembly.  5 (foll.
             by to) draw the attention or extend the understanding of (a
             person) to a subject.  6 insert; place in.  7 bring in; usher
             in; bring forward.  8 begin; occur just before the start of.
             ЬЬintroducer n.  introducible adj.  [ME f. L introducere
             introduct- (as INTRO-, ducere lead)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of introducing; the process of
             being introduced.  2 a formal presentation of one person to
             another.  3 an explanatory section at the beginning of a book
             etc.  4 a preliminary section in a piece of music, often
             thematically different from the main section.  5 an introductory
             treatise on a subject.  6 a thing introduced.  [ME f. OF
             introduction or L introductio (as INTRODUCE)]

             adj.  serving as an introduction; preliminary.  [LL
             introductorius (as INTRODUCTION)]

   introit   n.  a psalm or antiphon sung or said while the priest approaches
             the altar for the Eucharist.  [ME f. OF f. L introitus f.
             introire introit- enter (as INTRO-, ire go)]

             n.  the unconscious incorporation of external ideas into one's
             mind.  [INTRO- after projection]

   intromit  v.tr.  (intromitted, intromitting) 1 archaic (foll. by into) let
             in, admit.  2 insert.  ЬЬintromission n.  intromittent adj.  [L
             intromittere intromiss- introduce (as INTRO-, mittere send)]

             n.  the examination or observation of one's own mental and
             emotional processes etc.  ЬЬintrospective adj.  introspectively
             adv.  introspectiveness n.  [L introspicere introspect- look
             inwards (as INTRO-, specere look)]

   introvert n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 Psychol. a person predominantly
             concerned with his or her own thoughts and feelings rather than
             with external things.  2 a shy inwardly thoughtful person.
             --adj.  (also introverted) typical or characteristic of an
             introvert.  --v.tr.  1 Psychol. direct (one's thoughts or mind)
             inwards.  2 Zool. withdraw (an organ etc.) within its own tube
             or base, like the finger of a glove.  ЬЬintroversion n.
             introversive adj.  introverted adj.  introvertive adj.  [INTRO-
             + vert as in INVERT]

   intrude   v.  (foll. by on, upon, into) 1 intr. come uninvited or
             unwanted; force oneself abruptly on others.  2 tr. thrust or
             force (something unwelcome) on a person.  ЬЬintrudingly adv.  [L
             intrudere intrus- (as IN-(2), trudere thrust)]

   intruder  n.  a person who intrudes, esp. into a building with criminal

   intrusion n.  1 the act or an instance of intruding.  2 an unwanted
             interruption etc.  3 Geol. an influx of molten rock between or
             through strata etc. but not reaching the surface.  4 the
             occupation of a vacant estate etc. to which one has no claim.  5
             Phonet. the addition of a sound between words or syllables to
             facilitate pronunciation, e.g. the r in saw a film ().  [ME f.
             OF intrusion or med.L intrusio (as INTRUDE)]

   intrusive adj.  1 that intrudes or tends to intrude.  2 characterized by
             intrusion.  ЬЬintrusively adv.  intrusiveness n.

   intrust   var. of ENTRUST.

   intubate  v.tr.  Med.  insert a tube into the trachea for ventilation,
             usu. during anaesthesia.  ЬЬintubation n.  [IN-(2) + L tuba

   intuit    v.  1 tr. know by intuition.  2 intr. receive knowledge by
             direct perception.  ЬЬintuitable adj.  [L intueri intuit-
             consider (as IN-(2), tueri look)]

   intuition n.  1 immediate apprehension by the mind without reasoning.  2
             immediate apprehension by a sense.  3 immediate insight.
             ЬЬintuitional adj.  [LL intuitio (as INTUIT)]

             n.  (also intuitionalism) Philos.  the belief that primary
             truths and principles (esp. of ethics and metaphysics) are known
             directly by intuition.  ЬЬintuitionist n.

   intuitive adj.  1 of, characterized by, or possessing intuition.  2
             perceived by intuition.  ЬЬintuitively adv.  intuitiveness n.
             [med.L intuitivus (as INTUIT)]

             n.  the doctrine that ethical principles can be established by
             intuition.  ЬЬintuitivist n.

   intumesce v.intr.  swell up.  ЬЬintumescence n.  intumescent adj.  [L
             intumescere (as IN-(2), tumescere incept. of tumere swell)]

             n.  1 Med. the inversion of one portion of the intestine within
             another.  2 Bot. the deposition of new cellulose particles in a
             cell wall, to increase the surface area of the cell.  [F
             intussusception or mod.L intussusceptio f. L intus within +
             susceptio f.  suscipere take up]

   intwine   var. of ENTWINE.

   Inuit     n.  (also Innuit) (pl. same or Inuits) a N. American Eskimo.
             [Eskimo inuit people]

   inundate  v.tr.  (often foll. by with) 1 flood.  2 overwhelm (inundated
             with enquiries).  ЬЬinundation n.  [L inundare flow (as IN-(2),
             unda wave)]

   inure     v.  1 tr. (often in passive; foll. by to) accustom (a person) to
             something esp. unpleasant.  2 intr.  Law come into operation;
             take effect.  ЬЬinurement n.  [ME f. AF eneurer f. phr.  en eure
             (both unrecorded) in use or practice, f.  en in + OF e(u)vre
             work f. L opera]

   in utero  adv.  in the womb; before birth.  [L]

   in vacuo  adv.  in a vacuum.  [L]

   invade    v.tr.  (often absol.) 1 enter (a country etc.) under arms to
             control or subdue it.  2 swarm into.  3 (of a disease) attack (a
             body etc.).  4 encroach upon (a person's rights, esp. privacy).
             ЬЬinvader n.  [L invadere invas- (as IN-(2), vadere go)]

             v.tr.  1 put in a sheath.  2 turn (a tube) inside out.
             ЬЬinvagination n.  [IN-(2) + L vagina sheath]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a person enfeebled or disabled by illness or
             injury.  2 (attrib.) a of or for invalids (invalid car; invalid
             diet).  b being an invalid (caring for her invalid mother).
             --v.  (invalided, invaliding) 1 tr. (often foll. by out etc.)
             remove from active service (one who has become an invalid).  2
             tr. (usu. in passive) disable (a person) by illness.  3 intr.
             become an invalid.  ЬЬinvalidism n.  [L invalidus weak, infirm
             (as IN-(1), VALID)]

             adj.  not valid, esp. having no legal force.  ЬЬinvalidly adv.
             [L invalidus (as INVALID(1))]

             v.tr.  1 make (esp. an argument etc.) invalid.  2 remove the
             validity or force of (a treaty, contract, etc.).  ЬЬinvalidation
             n.  [med.L invalidare invalidat- (as IN-(1), validus VALID)]

             n.  1 lack of validity.  2 bodily infirmity.  [F invalidit‚ or
             med.L invaliditas (as INVALID(1))]

             adj.  above valuation; inestimable.  ЬЬinvaluableness n.
             invaluably adv.

   Invar     n.  propr.  an iron-nickel alloy with a negligible coefficient
             of expansion, used in the manufacture of clocks and scientific
             instruments.  [abbr. of INVARIABLE]

             adj.  1 unchangeable.  2 always the same.  3 Math. constant,
             fixed.  ЬЬinvariability n.  invariableness n.  invariably adv.
             [F invariable or LL invariabilis (as IN-(1), VARIABLE)]

   invariant adj. & n.  --adj. invariable.  --n.  Math. a function which
             remains unchanged when a specified transformation is applied.
             ЬЬinvariance n.

   invasion  n.  1 the act of invading or process of being invaded.  2 an
             entry of a hostile army into a country.  ЬЬinvasive adj.  [F
             invasion or LL invasio (as INVADE)]

   invective n.  1 a strongly attacking words.  b the use of these.  2
             abusive rhetoric.  [ME f. OF f. LL invectivus attacking (as

   inveigh   v.intr.  (foll. by against) speak or write with strong
             hostility.  [L invehi go into, assail (as IN-(2), vehi passive
             of vehere vect- carry)]

   inveigle  v.tr.  (foll. by into, or to + infin.)  entice; persuade by
             guile.  ЬЬinveiglement n.  [earlier enve(u)gle f. AF envegler,
             OF aveugler to blind f.  aveugle blind prob. f. Rmc ab oculis
             (unrecorded) without eyes]

   invent    v.tr.  1 create by thought, devise; originate (a new method, an
             instrument, etc.).  2 concoct (a false story etc.).
             ЬЬinventable adj.  [ME, = discover, f. L invenire invent- find,
             contrive (as IN-(2), venire vent- come)]

   invention n.  1 the process of inventing.  2 a thing invented; a
             contrivance, esp. one for which a patent is granted.  3 a
             fictitious story.  4 inventiveness.  5 Mus. a short piece for
             keyboard, developing a simple idea.  [ME f. L inventio (as

   inventive adj.  1 able or inclined to invent; original in devising.  2
             showing ingenuity of devising.  ЬЬinventively adv.
             inventiveness n.  [ME f. F inventif -ive or med.L inventivus (as

   inventor  n.  (fem.  inventress) a person who invents, esp. as an

   inventory n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a complete list of goods in stock,
             house contents, etc.  2 the goods listed in this.  3 US the
             total of a firm's commercial assets.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1
             make an inventory of.  2 enter (goods) in an inventory.  [ME f.
             med.L inventorium f. LL inventarium (as INVENT)]

   inverse   adj. & n.  --adj. inverted in position, order, or relation.
             --n.  1 the state of being inverted.  2 (often foll. by of) a
             thing that is the opposite or reverse of another.  3 Math. an
             element which, when combined with a given element in an
             operation, produces the identity element for that operation.
             Ьinverse proportion (or ratio) a relation between two quantities
             such that one increases in proportion as the other decreases.
             inverse square law a law by which the intensity of an effect,
             such as gravitational force, illumination, etc., changes in
             inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the
             source.  ЬЬinversely adv.  [L inversus past part. of invertere:
             see INVERT]

   inversion n.  1 the act of turning upside down or inside out.  2 the
             reversal of a normal order, position, or relation.  3 the
             reversal of the order of words, for rhetorical effect.  4 the
             reversal of the normal variation of air temperature with
             altitude.  5 the process or result of inverting.  6 the reversal
             of direction of rotation of a plane of polarized light.  7
             homosexuality.  ЬЬinversive adj.  [L inversio (as INVERT)]

   invert    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 turn upside down.  2 reverse the position,
             order, or relation of.  3 Mus. change the relative position of
             the notes of (a chord or interval) by placing the lowest note
             higher, usu. by an octave.  4 subject to inversion.  --n.  1 a
             homosexual.  2 an inverted arch, as at the bottom of a sewer.
             Ьinverted comma = quotation mark.  inverted snob a person who
             likes or takes pride in what a snob might be expected to
             disapprove of.  invert sugar a mixture of dextrose and
             laevulose.  ЬЬinverter n.  invertible adj.  invertibility n.  [L
             invertere invers- (as IN-(2), vertere turn)]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of an animal) not having a backbone.  2
             lacking firmness of character.  --n. an invertebrate animal.
             [mod.L invertebrata (pl.) (as IN-(1), VERTEBRA)]

   invest    v.  1 tr. (often foll. by in) apply or use (money), esp. for
             profit.  2 intr. (foll. by in) a put money for profit (into
             stocks etc.).  b colloq. buy (invested in a new car).  3 tr.  a
             (foll. by with) provide, endue, or attribute (a person with
             qualities, insignia, or rank).  b (foll. by in) attribute or
             entrust (qualities or feelings to a person).  4 tr. cover as a
             garment.  5 tr. lay siege to.  ЬЬinvestable adj.  investible
             adj.  investor n.  [ME f. F investir or L investire investit-
             (as IN-(2), vestire clothe f.  vestis clothing): sense 1 f. It.

             v.  1 tr.  a inquire into; examine; study carefully.  b make an
             official inquiry into.  2 intr. make a systematic inquiry or
             search.  ЬЬinvestigator n.  investigatory adj.  [L investigare
             investigat- (as IN-(2), vestigare track)]

             n.  1 the process or an instance of investigating.  2 a formal
             examination or study.

             adj.  seeking or serving to investigate, esp. (of journalism)
             inquiring intensively into controversial issues.

             n.  1 the formal investing of a person with honours or rank,
             esp.  a ceremony at which a sovereign confers honours.  2 (often
             foll. by with) the act of enduing (with attributes).  [ME f.
             med.L investitura (as INVEST)]

             n.  1 the act or process of investing.  2 money invested.  3
             property etc. in which money is invested.  4 the act of
             besieging; a blockade.  Ьinvestment trust a trust that buys and
             sells shares in selected companies to make a profit for its

             adj.  1 (of a person) confirmed in an (esp. undesirable) habit
             etc.  (an inveterate gambler).  2 a (of a habit etc.)
             long-established.  b (of an activity, esp. an undesirable one)
             habitual.  ЬЬinveteracy n.  inveterately adv.  [ME f. L
             inveterare inveterat- make old (as IN-(2), vetus veteris old)]

   invidious adj.  (of an action, conduct, attitude, etc.) likely to excite
             resentment or indignation against the person responsible, esp.
             by real or seeming injustice (an invidious position; an
             invidious task).  ЬЬinvidiously adv.  invidiousness n.  [L
             invidiosus f.  invidia ENVY]

             v.intr.  Brit.  supervise candidates at an examination.
             ЬЬinvigilation n.  invigilator n.  [orig. = keep watch, f. L
             invigilare invigilat- (as IN-(2), vigilare watch f.  vigil

             v.tr.  give vigour or strength to.  ЬЬinvigorating adj.
             invigoratingly adv.  invigoration n.  invigorative adj.
             invigorator n.  [IN-(2) + med.L vigorare vigorat- make strong]

             adj.  unconquerable; that cannot be defeated.  ЬЬinvincibility
             n.  invincibleness n.  invincibly adv.  [ME f. OF f. L
             invincibilis (as IN-(1), VINCIBLE)]

             adj.  not to be violated or profaned.  ЬЬinviolability n.
             inviolably adv.  [F inviolable or L inviolabilis (as IN-(1),

   inviolate adj.  not violated or profaned.  ЬЬinviolacy n.  inviolately
             adv.  inviolateness n.  [ME f. L inviolatus (as IN-(1), violare,
             violat- treat violently)]

   invisible adj.  1 not visible to the eye, either characteristically or
             because hidden.  2 too small to be seen or noticed.  3 artfully
             concealed (invisible mending).  Ьinvisible exports (or imports
             etc.) items, esp. services, involving payment between countries
             but not constituting tangible commodities.  ЬЬinvisibility n.
             invisibleness n.  invisibly adv.  [ME f. OF invisible or L
             invisibilis (as IN-(1), VISIBLE)]

             n.  the process of inviting or fact of being invited, esp. to a
             social occasion.

   invite    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by to, or to + infin.) ask (a
             person) courteously to come, or to do something (were invited to
             lunch; invited them to reply).  2 tr. make a formal courteous
             request for (invited comments).  3 tr. tend to call forth
             unintentionally (something unwanted).  4 a tr. attract.  b intr.
             be attractive.  --n.  colloq. an invitation.  ЬЬinvitee n.
             inviter n.  [F inviter or L invitare]

   inviting  adj.  1 attractive.  2 enticing, tempting.  ЬЬinvitingly adv.
             invitingness n.

   in vitro  adv.  Biol.  (of processes or reactions) taking place in a
             test-tube or other laboratory environment (opp.  IN VIVO).  [L,
             = in glass]

   in vivo   adv.  Biol.  (of processes) taking place in a living organism.
             [L, = in a living thing]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of invoking, esp. in prayer.  2 an
             appeal to a supernatural being or beings, e.g. the Muses, for
             psychological or spiritual inspiration.  3 Eccl. the words 'In
             the name of the Father' etc. used as the preface to a sermon
             etc.  ЬЬinvocatory adj.  [ME f. OF f. L invocatio -onis (as

   invoice   n. & v.  --n. a list of goods shipped or sent, or services
             rendered, with prices and charges; a bill.  --v.tr.  1 make an
             invoice of (goods and services).  2 send an invoice to (a
             person).  [earlier invoyes pl. of invoy = ENVOY(2)]

   invoke    v.tr.  1 call on (a deity etc.) in prayer or as a witness.  2
             appeal to (the law, a person's authority, etc.).  3 summon (a
             spirit) by charms.  4 ask earnestly for (vengeance, help, etc.).
             ЬЬinvocable adj.  invoker n.  [F invoquer f. L invocare (as
             IN-(2), vocare call)]

   involucre n.  1 a covering or envelope.  2 Anat. a membranous envelope.  3
             Bot. a whorl of bracts surrounding an inflorescence.
             ЬЬinvolucral adj.  [F involucre or L involucrum (as INVOLVE)]

             adj.  1 done without the exercise of the will; unintentional.  2
             (of a limb, muscle, or movement) not under the control of the
             will.  ЬЬinvoluntarily adv.  involuntariness n.  [LL
             involuntarius (as IN-(1), VOLUNTARY)]

   involute  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 involved, intricate.  2 curled spirally.  3
             Bot. rolled inwards at the edges.  --n.  Geom. the locus of a
             point fixed on a straight line that rolls without sliding on a
             curve and is in the plane of that curve (cf.  EVOLUTE).  [L
             involutus past part. of involvere: see INVOLVE]

   involuted adj.  1 complicated, abstruse.  2 = INVOLUTE adj.  2.

             n.  1 the process of involving.  2 an entanglement.  3
             intricacy.  4 curling inwards.  5 a part that curls upwards.  6
             Math. the raising of a quantity to any power.  7 Physiol. the
             reduction in size of an organ in old age, or when its purpose
             has been fulfilled (esp. the uterus after childbirth).
             ЬЬinvolutional adj.  [L involutio (as INVOLVE)]

   involve   v.tr.  1 (often foll. by in) cause (a person or thing) to
             participate, or share the experience or effect (in a situation,
             activity, etc.).  2 imply, entail, make necessary.  3 (foll. by
             in) implicate (a person in a charge, crime, etc.).  4 include or
             affect in its operations.  5 (as involved adj.) a (often foll.
             by in) concerned or interested.  b complicated in thought or
             form.  [ME f. L involvere involut- (as IN-(2), volvere roll)]

             n.  1 (often foll. by in, with) the act or an instance of
             involving; the process of being involved.  2 financial
             embarrassment.  3 a complicated affair or concern.

             adj.  that cannot be wounded or hurt, physically or mentally.
             ЬЬinvulnerability n.  invulnerably adv.  [L invulnerabilis (as
             IN-(1), VULNERABLE)]

   inward    adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 directed toward the inside; going in.  2
             situated within.  3 mental, spiritual.  --adv.  (also inwards) 1
             (of motion or position) towards the inside.  2 in the mind or
             soul.  [OE innanweard (as IN, -WARD)]

   inwardly  adv.  1 on the inside.  2 in the mind or soul.  3 (of speaking)
             not aloud; inaudibly.  [OE inweardlice (as INWARD)]

             n.  1 inner nature; essence.  2 the condition of being inward.
             3 spirituality.

   inwards   var. of INWARD adv.

   inweave   v.tr.  (also enweave) (past -wove; past part.  -woven) 1 weave
             (two or more things) together.  2 intermingle.

   inwrap    var. of ENWRAP.

   inwreathe var. of ENWREATHE.

   inwrought attrib.  adj.  1 a (often foll. by with) (of a fabric) decorated
             (with a pattern).  b (often foll. by in, on) (of a pattern)
             wrought (in or on a fabric).  2 closely blended.

   inyala    n.  (also nyala) (pl. same) a large antelope, Tragelaphus
             angasi, native to S. Africa, with curved horns having a single
             complete turn.  [Zulu]

14.0 IOC...

   IOC       abbr.  International Olympic Committee.

   iodic     adj.  Chem.  containing iodine in chemical combination (iodic
             acid).  ЬЬiodate n.

   iodide    n.  Chem.  any compound of iodine with another element or group.

   iodinate  v.tr.  treat or combine with iodine.  ЬЬiodination n.

   iodine    n.  1 Chem. a non-metallic element of the halogen group, forming
             black crystals and a violet vapour, used in medicine and
             photography, and important as an essential element for living
             organisms.  °Symb.: I.  2 a solution of this in alcohol used as
             a mild antiseptic.  [F iode f. Gk iodes violet-like f.  ion
             violet + -INE(4)]

   iodism    n.  Med.  a condition caused by an overdose of iodides.

   iodize    v.tr.  (also -ise) treat or impregnate with iodine.
             ЬЬiodization n.

   iodo-     comb. form (usu.  iod- before a vowel) Chem.  iodine.

   iodoform  n.  a pale yellow volatile sweet-smelling solid compound of
             iodine with antiseptic properties.  °Chem. formula: CHI[3].
             [IODINE after chloroform]

   IOM       abbr.  Isle of Man.

   ion       n.  an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more
             electrons (= CATION), or gained one or more electrons (= ANION).
             Ьion exchange the exchange of ions of the same charge between a
             usu. aqueous solution and a solid, used in water-softening etc.
             ion exchanger a substance or equipment for this process.  [Gk,
             neut. pres. part. of eimi go]

   -ion      suffix (usu. as -sion, -tion, -xion; see -ATION, -ITION,
             -UTION.)  forming nouns denoting: 1 verbal action (excision).  2
             an instance of this (a suggestion).  3 a resulting state or
             product (vexation; concoction).  [from or after F -ion or L -io

   Ionian    n. & adj.  --n. a native or inhabitant of ancient Ionia in W.
             Asia Minor.  --adj. of or relating to Ionia or the Ionians.
             ЬIonian mode Mus.  the mode represented by the natural diatonic
             scale C-C.  [L Ionius f. Gk Ionios]

   Ionic     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of the order of Greek architecture
             characterized by a column with scroll-shapes on either side of
             the capital.  2 of the ancient Greek dialect used in Ionia.
             --n. the Ionic dialect.  [L Ionicus f. Gk Ionikos]

   ionic     adj.  of, relating to, or using ions.  ЬЬionically adv.

             n.  (also -isation) the process of producing ions as a result of
             solvation, heat, radiation, etc.  Ьionization chamber an
             instrument for detecting ionizing radiation.

   ionize    v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise) convert or be converted into an ion
             or ions.  Ьionizing radiation a radiation of sufficient energy
             to cause ionization in the medium through which it passes.
             ЬЬionizable adj.

   ionizer   n.  any thing which produces ionization, esp. a device used to
             improve the quality of the air in a room etc.

             n.  an ionized region of the atmosphere above the stratosphere,
             extending to about 1,000 km above the earth's surface and able
             to reflect radio waves for long-distance transmission round the
             earth (cf.  TROPOSPHERE).  ЬЬionospheric adj.

   -ior(1)   suffix forming adjectives of comparison (senior; ulterior).  [L]

   -ior(2)   var. of -IOUR.

   iota      n.  1 the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet (I).  2 (usu. with
             neg.) the smallest possible amount.  [Gk iota]

   IOU       n.  a signed document acknowledging a debt.  [= I owe you]

   -iour     suffix (also -ior) forming nouns (saviour; warrior).  [-I- (as a
             stem element) + -OUR(2), -OR(1)]

   -ious     suffix forming adjectives meaning 'characterized by, full of',
             often corresponding to nouns in -ion (cautious; curious;
             spacious).  [from or after F -ieux f. L -iosus]

   IOW       abbr.  Isle of Wight.

15.0 IPA...

   IPA       abbr.  International Phonetic Alphabet (or Association).

   IPCS      abbr.  (in the UK) Institution of Professional Civil Servants.

   ipecac    n.  colloq.  ipecacuanha.  [abbr.]

             n.  the root of a S. American shrub, Cephaelis ipecacuanha, used
             as an emetic and purgative.  [Port. f. Tupi-Guarani ipekaagu‚ne
             emetic creeper]

   ipomoea   n.  any twining plant of the genus Ipomoea, having
             trumpet-shaped flowers, e.g. the sweet potato and morning glory.
             [mod.L f. Gk ips ipos worm + homoios like]

   i.p.s.    abbr.  inches per second.

   ipse dixit
             n.  a dogmatic statement resting merely on the speaker's
             authority.  [L, he himself said it (orig. of Pythagoras)]

             adj.  belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body.
             [irreg. f. L ipse self + LATERAL]

   ipsissima verba
             n.pl.  the precise words.  [L]

   ipso facto
             adv.  1 by that very fact or act.  2 thereby.  [L]

16.0 IQ

   IQ        abbr.  intelligence quotient.

   -ique     archaic var. of -IC.

17.0 IR...

   IR        abbr.  infrared.

   Ir        symb.  Chem.  the element iridium.

   ir-       prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before r.

   IRA       abbr.  Irish Republican Army.

   irade     n.  hist.  a written decree of the Sultan of Turkey.  [Turk. f.
             Arab. ' irada will]

   Iranian   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to Iran (formerly Persia) in
             the Middle East.  2 of the Indo-European group of languages
             including Persian, Pashto, Avestan, and Kurdish.  --n.  1 a
             native or national of Iran.  2 a person of Iranian descent.

   Iraqi     adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Iraq in the Middle East.
             --n.  (pl.  Iraqis) 1 a a native or national of Iraq.  b a
             person of Iraqi descent.  2 the form of Arabic spoken in Iraq.

   irascible adj.  irritable; hot-tempered.  ЬЬirascibility n.  irascibly
             adv.  [ME f. F f. LL irascibilis f. L irasci grow angry f.  ira

   irate     adj.  angry, enraged.  ЬЬirately adv.  irateness n.  [L iratus
             f.  ira anger]

   IRBM      abbr.  intermediate-range ballistic missile.

   ire       n.  literary anger.  ЬЬireful adj.  [ME f. OF f. L ira]

   irenic    adj.  (also irenical, eirenic) literary aiming or aimed at
             peace.  [Gk eirenikos: see EIRENICON]

   irenicon  var. of EIRENICON.

             adj.  Bot.  of or relating to the family Iridaceae of plants
             growing from bulbs, corms, or rhizomes, e.g. iris, crocus, and
             gladiolus.  [mod.L iridaceus (as IRIS)]

             adj.  1 showing rainbow-like luminous or gleaming colours.  2
             changing colour with position.  ЬЬiridescence n.  iridescently
             adv.  [L IRIS + -ESCENT]

   iridium   n.  Chem.  a hard white metallic element of the transition
             series used esp.  in alloys.  °Symb.: Ir.  [mod.L f. L IRIS +

   iris      n.  1 the flat circular coloured membrane behind the cornea of
             the eye, with a circular opening (pupil) in the centre.  2 any
             herbaceous plant of the genus Iris, usu. with tuberous roots,
             sword-shaped leaves, and showy flowers.  3 (in full iris
             diaphragm) an adjustable diaphragm of thin overlapping plates
             for regulating the size of a central hole esp. for the admission
             of light to a lens.  [ME f. L iris iridis f. Gk iris iridos
             rainbow, iris]

   Irish     adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Ireland; of or like its
             people.  --n.  1 the Celtic language of Ireland.  2 (prec. by
             the; treated as pl.) the people of Ireland.  ЬIrish bull =
             BULL(3).  Irish coffee coffee mixed with a dash of whisky and
             served with cream on top.  Irish moss dried carrageen.  Irish
             Sea the sea between England and Wales and Ireland.  Irish stew a
             stew of mutton, potato, and onion.  Irish terrier a rough-haired
             light reddish-brown breed of terrier.  [ME f. OE Iras the Irish]

   Irishman  n.  (pl.  -men) a man who is Irish by birth or descent.

             n.  (pl.  -women) a woman who is Irish by birth or descent.

   iritis    n.  inflammation of the iris.

   irk       v.tr.  (usu.  impers.; often foll. by that + clause) irritate,
             bore, annoy.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   irksome   adj.  tedious, annoying, tiresome.  ЬЬirksomely adv.
             irksomeness n.  [ME, = tired etc., f.  IRK + -SOME(1)]

   IRO       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Inland Revenue Office.  2 International
             Refugee Organization.

   iroko     n.  (pl.  -os) 1 either of two African trees, Chlorophora
             excelsa or C. regia.  2 the light-coloured hardwood from these
             trees.  [Ibo]

   iron      n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 Chem. a silver-white ductile metallic
             element occurring naturally as haematite, magnetite, etc., much
             used for tools and implements, and an essential element in all
             living organisms.  °Symb.: Fe.  2 this as a type of
             unyieldingness or a symbol of firmness (man of iron; will of
             iron).  3 a tool or implement made of iron (branding iron;
             curling iron).  4 a household, now usu. electrical, implement
             with a flat base which is heated to smooth clothes etc.  5 a
             golf club with an iron or steel sloping face used for lofting
             the ball.  6 (usu. in pl.) a fetter (clapped in irons).  7 (usu.
             in pl.) a stirrup.  8 (often in pl.) an iron support for a
             malformed leg.  9 a preparation of iron as a tonic or dietary
             supplement (iron tablets).  --adj.  1 made of iron.  2 very
             robust.  3 unyielding, merciless (iron determination).  --v.tr.
             1 smooth (clothes etc.) with an iron.  2 furnish or cover with
             iron.  3 shackle with irons.  Ьin irons handcuffed, chained,
             etc.  Iron Age Archaeol.  the period following the Bronze Age
             when iron replaced bronze in the making of implements and
             weapons.  iron-bark any of various eucalyptus trees with a thick
             solid bark and hard dense timber.  iron-bound 1 bound with iron.
             2 rigorous; hard and fast.  3 (of a coast) rock-bound.  Iron
             Cross the highest German military decoration for bravery.  Iron
             Curtain a notional barrier to the passage of people and
             information between the Soviet bloc and the West.  iron hand
             firmness or inflexibility (cf.  velvet glove).  iron in the fire
             an undertaking, opportunity, or commitment (usu. in pl.: too
             many irons in the fire).  ironing-board a flat surface usu. on
             legs and of adjustable height on which clothes etc. are ironed.
             iron lung a rigid case fitted over a patient's body, used for
             administering prolonged artificial respiration by means of
             mechanical pumps.  iron maiden hist.  an instrument of torture
             consisting of a coffin-shaped box lined with iron spikes.
             iron-mould (US -mold) a spot caused by iron-rust or an
             ink-stain, esp. on fabric.  iron-on able to be fixed to the
             surface of a fabric etc. by ironing.  iron out remove or smooth
             over (difficulties etc.).  iron pyrites see PYRITES.  iron
             ration a small emergency supply of food.  ЬЬironer n.  ironing
             n. (in sense 1 of v.).  ironless adj.  iron-like adj.  [OE iren,
             isern f. Gmc, prob. f. Celt.]

   ironclad  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 clad or protected with iron.  2
             impregnable; rigorous.  --n.  hist. an early name for a 19th-c.
             warship built of iron or protected by iron plates.

   ironic    adj.  (also ironical) 1 using or displaying irony.  2 in the
             nature of irony.  ЬЬironically adv.  [F ironique or LL ironicus
             f. Gk eironikos dissembling (as IRONY(1))]

   ironist   n.  a person who uses irony.  ЬЬironize v.intr.  (also -ise).
             [Gk eiron dissembler + -IST]

             n.  a manufacturer of iron.

             n.  Brit.  a dealer in hardware etc.  ЬЬironmongery n.  (pl.

   Ironsides n.  a man of great bravery, esp.  (as pl.) Cromwell's troopers
             in the English Civil War.

   ironstone n.  1 any rock containing a substantial proportion of an iron
             compound.  2 a kind of hard white opaque stoneware.

   ironware  n.  articles made of iron, esp. domestic implements.

   ironwork  n.  1 things made of iron.  2 work in iron.

   ironworks n.  (as sing. or pl.) a place where iron is smelted or iron
             goods are made.

   irony(1)  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an expression of meaning, often humorous or
             sarcastic, by the use of language of a different or opposite
             tendency.  2 an ill-timed or perverse arrival of an event or
             circumstance that is in itself desirable.  3 the use of language
             with one meaning for a privileged audience and another for those
             addressed or concerned.  [L ironia f. Gk eironeia simulated
             ignorance f.  eiron dissembler]

   irony(2)  adj.  of or like iron.

   Iroquoian n. & adj.  --n.  1 a language family of eastern N. America,
             including Cherokee and Mohawk.  2 a member of the Iroquois
             Indians.  --adj. of or relating to the Iroquois or the Iroquoian
             language family or one of its members.

   Iroquois  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl. same) 1 a an American Indian confederacy
             of five peoples formerly inhabiting New York State.  b a member
             of any of these peoples.  2 any of the languages of these
             peoples.  --adj. of or relating to the Iroquois or their
             languages.  [F f. Algonquin]

   irradiant adj.  literary shining brightly.  ЬЬirradiance n.

   irradiate v.tr.  1 subject to (any form of) radiation.  2 shine upon;
             light up.  3 throw light on (a subject).  ЬЬirradiative adj.  [L
             irradiare irradiat- (as IN-(2), radiare f.  radius RAY(1))]

             n.  1 the process of irradiating.  2 shining, illumination.  3
             the apparent extension of the edges of an illuminated object
             seen against a dark background.  [F irradiation or LL irradiatio
             (as IRRADIATE)]

             adj.  1 illogical; unreasonable.  2 not endowed with reason.  3
             Math. (of a root etc.) not rational; not commensurate with the
             natural numbers (e.g. a non-terminating decimal).
             ЬЬirrationality n.  irrationalize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             irrationally adv.  [L irrationalis (as IN-(1), RATIONAL)]

             adj.  that cannot be reclaimed or reformed.  ЬЬirreclaimably

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 implacably hostile.  2 (of ideas etc.)
             incompatible.  --n.  1 an uncompromising opponent of a political
             measure etc.  2 (usu. in pl.) any of two or more items, ideas,
             etc., that cannot be made to agree.  ЬЬirreconcilability n.
             irreconcilableness n.  irreconcilably adv.

             adj.  that cannot be recovered or remedied.  ЬЬirrecoverably

             adj.  that must be accepted.  [F irr‚cusable or LL irrecusabilis
             (as IN-(1), recusare refuse)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be redeemed.  2 hopeless, absolute.  3 a (of
             a government annuity) not terminable by repayment.  b (of paper
             currency) for which the issuing authority does not undertake
             ever to pay coin.  ЬЬirredeemability n.  irredeemably adv.

             n.  a person, esp. in 19th-c. Italy, advocating the restoration
             to his or her country of any territory formerly belonging to it.
             ЬЬirredentism n.  [It.  irredentista f. (Italia) irredenta
             unredeemed (Italy)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be reduced or simplified.  2 (often foll. by
             to) that cannot be brought to a desired condition.
             ЬЬirreducibility n.  irreducibly adv.

             adj.  1 (of a statement, argument, or person) unanswerable,
             indisputable.  2 (of rules etc.) inviolable.  ЬЬirrefragably
             adv.  [LL irrefragabilis (as IN-(1), refragari oppose)]

             adj.  1 inviolable.  2 Optics incapable of being refracted.

             adj.  that cannot be refuted.  ЬЬirrefutability n.  irrefutably
             adv.  [LL irrefutabilis (as IN-(1), REFUTE)]

   irregular adj. & n.  --adj.  1 not regular; unsymmetrical, uneven; varying
             in form.  2 (of a surface) uneven.  3 contrary to a rule, moral
             principle, or custom; abnormal.  4 uneven in duration, order,
             etc.  5 (of troops) not belonging to the regular army.  6 Gram.
             (of a verb, noun, etc.) not inflected according to the usual
             rules.  7 disorderly.  8 (of a flower) having unequal petals
             etc.  --n. (in pl.) irregular troops.  ЬЬirregularity n.  (pl.
             -ies).  irregularly adv.  [ME f. OF irreguler f. LL irregularis
             (as IN-(1), REGULAR)]

             adj.  1 (often foll. by to) unconnected, unrelated.  2 having no
             relations; absolute.  3 irrelevant.  ЬЬirrelatively adv.

             adj.  (often foll. by to) not relevant; not applicable (to a
             matter in hand).  ЬЬirrelevance n.  irrelevancy n.  irrelevantly

             n.  disregard of or hostility to religion.  ЬЬirreligionist n.
             [F irr‚ligion or L irreligio (as IN-(1), RELIGION)]

             adj.  1 indifferent or hostile to religion.  2 lacking a
             religion.  ЬЬirreligiously adv.  irreligiousness n.

             adj.  that cannot be remedied.  ЬЬirremediably adv.  [L
             irremediabilis (as IN-(1), REMEDY)]

             adj.  1 unpardonable.  2 unalterably obligatory.  ЬЬirremissibly
             adv.  [ME f. OF irremissible or eccl.L irremissibilis (as
             IN-(1), REMISSIBLE)]

             adj.  that cannot be removed, esp. from office.
             ЬЬirremovability n.  irremovably adv.

             adj.  (of an injury, loss, etc.) that cannot be rectified or
             made good.  ЬЬirreparability n.  irreparableness n.  irreparably
             adv.  [ME f. OF f. L irreparabilis (as IN-(1), REPARABLE)]

             adj.  1 that cannot be replaced.  2 of which the loss cannot be
             made good.  ЬЬirreplaceably adv.

             adj.  that cannot be repressed or restrained.
             ЬЬirrepressibility n.  irrepressibleness n.  irrepressibly adv.

             adj.  faultless, blameless.  ЬЬirreproachability n.
             irreproachableness n.  irreproachably adv.  [F irr‚prochable (as
             IN-(1), REPROACH)]

             adj.  1 too strong or convincing to be resisted.  2 delightful;
             alluring.  ЬЬirresistibility n.  irresistibleness n.
             irresistibly adv.  [med.L irresistibilis (as IN-(1), RESIST)]

             adj.  1 hesitant, undecided.  2 lacking in resoluteness.
             ЬЬirresolutely adv.  irresoluteness n.  irresolution n.

             adj.  1 that cannot be resolved into its components.  2 (of a
             problem) that cannot be solved.

             adj.  (foll. by of) not taking into account; regardless of.
             ЬЬirrespectively adv.

             adj.  1 acting or done without due sense of responsibility.  2
             not responsible for one's conduct.  ЬЬirresponsibility n.
             irresponsibly adv.

             adj.  (often foll. by to) not responsive.  ЬЬirresponsively adv.
             irresponsiveness n.

             adj.  that cannot be retrieved or restored.  ЬЬirretrievability
             n.  irretrievably adv.

             adj.  lacking reverence.  ЬЬirreverence n.  irreverential adj.
             irreverently adv.  [L irreverens (as IN-(1), REVERENT)]

             adj.  not reversible or alterable.  ЬЬirreversibility n.
             irreversibly adv.

             adj.  1 unalterable.  2 gone beyond recall.  ЬЬirrevocability n.
             irrevocably adv.  [ME f. L irrevocabilis (as IN-(1), REVOKE)]

   irrigate  v.tr.  1 a water (land) by means of channels.  b (of a stream
             etc.) supply (land) with water.  2 Med. supply (a wound etc.)
             with a constant flow of liquid.  3 refresh as with moisture.
             ЬЬirrigable adj.  irrigation n.  irrigative adj.  irrigator n.
             [L irrigare (as IN-(2), rigare moisten)]

   irritable adj.  1 easily annoyed or angered.  2 (of an organ etc.) very
             sensitive to contact.  3 Biol. responding actively to physical
             stimulus.  ЬЬirritability n.  irritably adv.  [L irritabilis (as

   irritant  adj. & n.  --adj. causing irritation.  --n. an irritant
             substance.  ЬЬirritancy n.

   irritate  v.tr.  1 excite to anger; annoy.  2 stimulate discomfort or pain
             in (a part of the body).  3 Biol. stimulate (an organ) to
             action.  ЬЬirritatedly adv.  irritating adj.  irritatingly adv.
             irritation n.  irritative adj.  irritator n.  [L irritare

   irrupt    v.intr.  (foll. by into) enter forcibly or violently.
             ЬЬirruption n.  [L irrumpere irrupt- (as IN-(2), rumpere break)]

18.0 Is....

   Is.       abbr.  1 a Island(s).  b Isle(s).  2 (also Isa.) Isaiah (Old

   is        3rd sing. present of BE.

   isagogic  adj.  introductory.  [L isagogicus f. Gk eisagogikos f.
             eisagoge introduction f.  eis into + agoge leading f.  ago lead]

   isagogics n.  an introductory study, esp. of the literary and external
             history of the Bible.

   isatin    n.  Chem.  a red crystalline derivative of indole used in the
             manufacture of dyes.  [L isatis woad f. Gk]

   ISBN      abbr.  international standard book number.

   ischaemia n.  (US ischemia) Med.  a reduction of the blood supply to part
             of the body.  ЬЬischaemic adj.  [mod.L f. Gk iskhaimos f.  iskho
             keep back]

   ischium   n.  (pl.  ischia) the curved bone forming the base of each half
             of the pelvis.  ЬЬischial adj.  [L f. Gk iskhion hip-joint: cf.

   -ise(1)   suffix var. of -IZE.  °See the note at -ize.

   -ise(2)   suffix forming nouns of quality, state, or function (exercise;
             expertise; franchise; merchandise).  [from or after F or OF -ise
             f. L -itia etc.]

   -ise(3)   suffix var. of -ISH(2).

             adj.  having equal entropy.  [ISO- + ENTROPY]

   -ish(1)   suffix forming adjectives: 1 from nouns, meaning: a having the
             qualities or characteristics of (boyish).  b of the nationality
             of (Danish).  2 from adjectives, meaning 'somewhat' (thickish).
             3 colloq. denoting an approximate age or time of day (fortyish;
             six-thirtyish).  [OE -isc]

   -ish(2)   suffix (also -ise) forming verbs (vanish; advertise).  [from or
             after F -iss- (in extended stems of verbs in -ir) f. L -isc-
             incept. suffix]

   isinglass n.  1 a kind of gelatin obtained from fish, esp. sturgeon, and
             used in making jellies, glue, etc.  2 mica.  [corrupt. of obs.
             Du.  huisenblas sturgeon's bladder, assim. to GLASS]

   Islam     n.  1 the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded
             as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.  2 the
             Muslim world.  ЬЬIslamic adj.  Islamism n.  Islamist n.
             Islamize v.tr.  (also -ise).  Islamization n.  [Arab.  islam
             submission (to God) f.  aslama resign oneself]

   island    n.  1 a piece of land surrounded by water.  2 anything compared
             to an island, esp. in being surrounded in some way.  3 = traffic
             island.  4 a a detached or isolated thing.  b Physiol. a
             detached portion of tissue or group of cells (cf.  ISLET).  5
             Naut. a ship's superstructure, bridge, etc.  [OE igland f.  ig
             island + LAND: first syll. infl. by ISLE]

   islander  n.  a native or inhabitant of an island.

   isle      n.  poet.  (and in place-names) an island or peninsula, esp. a
             small one.  [ME ile f. OF ile f. L insula: later ME & OF isle
             after L]

   islet     n.  1 a small island.  2 Anat. a portion of tissue structurally
             distinct from surrounding tissues.  3 an isolated place.
             Ьislets of Langerhans Physiol.  groups of pancreatic cells
             secreting insulin and glucagon.  [OF, dimin. of isle ISLE]

   ism       n.  colloq. usu.  derog.  any distinctive but unspecified
             doctrine or practice of a kind with a name in -ism.

   -ism      suffix forming nouns, esp. denoting: 1 an action or its result
             (baptism; organism).  2 a system, principle, or ideological
             movement (Conservatism; jingoism; feminism).  3 a state or
             quality (heroism; barbarism).  4 a basis of prejudice or
             discrimination (racism; sexism).  5 a peculiarity in language
             (Americanism).  6 a pathological condition (alcoholism;
             Parkinsonism).  [from or after F -isme f. L -ismus f. Gk -ismos
             or -isma f.  -izo -IZE]

   Ismaili   n.  (pl.  Ismailis) a member of a Muslim Shiite sect that arose
             in the 8th c.  [Ismail a son of the patriarch Ibrahim (=

   isn't     contr.  is not.

   ISO       abbr.  1 (in the UK) Imperial Service Order.  2 International
             Organization for Standardization.

   iso-      comb. form 1 equal (isometric).  2 Chem. isomeric, esp. of a
             hydrocarbon with a branched chain of carbon atoms (isobutane).
             [Gk isos equal]

   isobar    n.  1 a line on a map connecting positions having the same
             atmospheric pressure at a given time or on average over a given
             period.  2 a curve for a physical system at constant pressure.
             3 one of two or more isotopes of different elements, with the
             same atomic weight.  ЬЬisobaric adj.  [Gk isobares of equal
             weight (as ISO-, baros weight)]

   isocheim  n.  a line on a map connecting places having the same average
             temperature in winter.  [ISO- + Gk kheima winter weather]

             adj.  of the same colour.

             adj.  1 occurring at the same time.  2 occupying equal time.
             ЬЬisochronously adv.  [ISO- + Gk khronos time]

   isoclinal adj.  (also isoclinic) 1 Geol. (of a fold) in which the two
             limbs are parallel.  2 corresponding to equal values of magnetic
             dip.  [ISO- + CLINE]

   isoclinic var. of ISOCLINAL.

             adj.  corresponding to equal values of (magnetic) force.

   isoenzyme n.  Biochem.  one of two or more enzymes with identical function
             but different structure.

             n.  a line or surface connecting points in the interior of the
             earth having the same temperature.  ЬЬisogeothermal adj.

   isogloss  n.  a line on a map marking an area having a distinct linguistic

   isogonic  adj.  corresponding to equal values of magnetic declination.

   isohel    n.  a line on a map connecting places having the same duration
             of sunshine.  [ISO- + Gk helios sun]

   isohyet   n.  a line on a map connecting places having the same amount of
             rainfall in a given period.  [ISO- + Gk huetos rain]

   isolate   v.tr.  1 a place apart or alone, cut off from society.  b place
             (a patient thought to be contagious or infectious) in
             quarantine.  2 a identify and separate for attention (isolated
             the problem).  b Chem. separate (a substance) from a mixture.  3
             insulate (electrical apparatus).  ЬЬisolable adj.  isolatable
             adj.  isolator n.  [orig. in past part., f. F isol‚ f. It.
             isolato f. LL insulatus f. L insula island]

   isolated  adj.  1 lonely; cut off from society or contact; remote (feeling
             isolated; an isolated farmhouse).  2 untypical, unique (an
             isolated example).

   isolating adj.  (of a language) having each element as an independent word
             without inflections.

   isolation n.  the act or an instance of isolating; the state of being
             isolated or separated.  Ьin isolation considered singly and not
             relatively.  isolation hospital (or ward etc.) a hospital, ward,
             etc., for patients with contagious or infectious diseases.

             n.  the policy of holding aloof from the affairs of other
             countries or groups esp. in politics.  ЬЬisolationist n.

             n.  Biochem.  an amino acid that is a constituent of proteins
             and an essential nutrient.  [G Isoleucin (see ISO-, LEUCINE)]

   isomer    n.  1 Chem. one of two or more compounds with the same molecular
             formula but a different arrangement of atoms and different
             properties.  2 Physics one of two or more atomic nuclei that
             have the same atomic number and the same mass number but
             different energy states.  ЬЬisomeric adj.  isomerism n.
             isomerize v.  (also -ise).  [G f. Gk isomeres sharing equally
             (as ISO-, meros share)]

   isomerous adj.  Bot.  (of a flower) having the same number of petals in
             each whorl.  [Gk isomeres: see ISOMER]

   isometric adj.  1 of equal measure.  2 Physiol. (of muscle action)
             developing tension while the muscle is prevented from
             contracting.  3 (of a drawing etc.) with the plane of projection
             at equal angles to the three principal axes of the object shown.
             4 Math. (of a transformation) without change of shape or size.
             ЬЬisometrically adv.  isometry n. (in sense 4).  [Gk isometria
             equality of measure (as ISO-, -METRY)]

             n.pl.  a system of physical exercises in which muscles are
             caused to act against each other or against a fixed object.

   isomorph  n.  an isomorphic substance or organism.  [ISO- + Gk morphe

             adj.  (also isomorphous) 1 exactly corresponding in form and
             relations.  2 Crystallog. having the same form.  ЬЬisomorphism

   -ison     suffix forming nouns, = -ATION (comparison; garrison; jettison;
             venison).  [OF -aison etc. f. L -atio etc.: see -ATION]

   isophote  n.  a line (imaginary or in a diagram) of equal brightness or
             illumination.  [ISO- + Gk phos photos light]

   isopleth  n.  a line on a map connecting places having equal incidence of
             a meteorological feature.  [ISO- + Gk plethos fullness]

   isopod    n.  any crustacean of the order Isopoda, including woodlice and
             slaters, often parasitic and having a flattened body with seven
             pairs of legs.  [F isopode f. mod.L Isopoda (as ISO-, Gk pous
             podos foot)]

   isosceles adj.  (of a triangle) having two sides equal.  [LL f. Gk
             isoskeles (as ISO-, skelos leg)]

             adj. & n.  (also isoseismic) --adj. having equal strength of
             earthquake shock.  --n. a line on a map connecting places having
             an equal strength of earthquake shock.

   isostasy  n.  Geol.  the general state of equilibrium of the earth's
             crust, with the rise and fall of land relative to sea.
             ЬЬisostatic adj.  [ISO- + Gk stasis station]

   isothere  n.  a line on a map connecting places having the same average
             temperature in the summer.  [ISO- + Gk theros summer]

   isotherm  n.  1 a line on a map connecting places having the same
             temperature at a given time or on average over a given period.
             2 a curve for changes in a physical system at a constant
             temperature.  ЬЬisothermal adj.  isothermally adv.  [F isotherme
             (as ISO-, Gk therme heat)]

   isotonic  adj.  1 having the same osmotic pressure.  2 Physiol. (of muscle
             action) taking place with normal contraction.  ЬЬisotonically
             adv.  isotonicity n.  [Gk isotonos (as ISO-, TONE)]

   isotope   n.  Chem.  one of two or more forms of an element differing from
             each other in relative atomic mass, and in nuclear but not
             chemical properties.  ЬЬisotopic adj.  isotopically adv.
             isotopy n.  [ISO- + Gk topos place (i.e. in the periodic table
             of elements)]

   isotropic adj.  having the same physical properties in all directions
             (opp.  ANISOTROPIC).  ЬЬisotropically adv.  isotropy n.  [ISO- +
             Gk tropos turn]

   I-spy     n.  a game in which players try to identify something observed
             by one of them and identified by its initial letter.

   Israeli   adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the modern State of Israel
             in the Middle East.  --n.  1 a native or national of Israel.  2
             a person of Israeli descent.  [Israel, a later name of Jacob,
             ult. f. Heb.  yisra' el he that strives with God (Gen. 32:28) +

   Israelite n.  hist.  a native of ancient Israel; a Jew.

   ISSN      abbr.  international standard serial number.

   issuant   adj.  Heraldry (esp. of a beast with only the upper part shown)
             rising from the bottom or top of a bearing.

   issue     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a giving out or circulation of shares, notes,
             stamps, etc.  b a quantity of coins, supplies, copies of a
             newspaper or book etc., circulated or put on sale at one time.
             c an item or amount given out or distributed.  d each of a
             regular series of a magazine etc. (the May issue).  2 a an
             outgoing, an outflow.  b a way out, an outlet esp. the place of
             the emergence of a stream etc.  3 a point in question; an
             important subject of debate or litigation.  4 a result; an
             outcome; a decision.  5 Law children, progeny (without male
             issue).  6 archaic a discharge of blood etc.  --v.  (issues,
             issued, issuing) 1 intr. (often foll. by out, forth) literary go
             or come out.  2 tr.  a send forth; publish; put into
             circulation.  b supply, esp. officially or authoritatively
             (foll. by to, with: issued passports to them; issued them with
             passports; issued orders to the staff).  3 intr.  a (often foll.
             by from) be derived or result.  b (foll. by in) end, result.  4
             intr. (foll. by from) emerge from a condition.  Ьat issue 1
             under discussion; in dispute.  2 at variance.  issue of fact (or
             law) a dispute at law when the significance of a fact or facts
             is denied or when the application of the law is contested.  join
             (or take) issue identify an issue for argument (foll. by with,
             on).  make an issue of make a fuss about; turn into a subject of
             contention.  ЬЬissuable adj.  issuance n.  issueless adj.
             issuer n.  [ME f. OF ult. f. L exitus past part. of exire EXIT]

   -ist      suffix forming personal nouns (and in some senses related
             adjectives) denoting: 1 an adherent of a system etc. in - ism:
             see -ISM 2 (Marxist; fatalist).  2 a a member of a profession
             (pathologist).  b a person concerned with something
             (tobacconist).  3 a person who uses a thing (violinist;
             balloonist; motorist).  4 a person who does something expressed
             by a verb in -ize (plagiarist).  5 a person who subscribes to a
             prejudice or practises discrimination (racist; sexist).  [OF
             -iste, L -ista f. Gk -istes]

   isthmian  adj.  of or relating to an isthmus, esp.  (Isthmian) to the
             Isthmus of Corinth in southern Greece.

   isthmus   n.  1 a narrow piece of land connecting two larger bodies of
             land.  2 Anat. a narrow part connecting two larger parts.  [L f.
             Gk isthmos]

   istle     n.  a fibre used for cord, nets, etc., obtained from agave.
             [Mex.  ixtli]

19.0 IT...

   IT        abbr.  information technology.

   It.       abbr.  Italian.

   it(1)     pron.  (poss.  its; pl.  they) 1 the thing (or occas. the animal
             or child) previously named or in question (took a stone and
             threw it).  2 the person in question (Who is it? It is I; is it
             a boy or a girl?).  3 as the subject of an impersonal verb (it
             is raining; it is winter; it is Tuesday; it is two miles to
             Bath).  4 as a substitute for a deferred subject or object (it
             is intolerable, this delay; it is silly to talk like that; I
             take it that you agree).  5 as a substitute for a vague object
             (brazen it out; run for it!).  6 as the antecedent to a relative
             word (it was an owl I heard).  7 exactly what is needed
             (absolutely it).  8 the extreme limit of achievement.  9 colloq.
             sexual intercourse; sex appeal.  10 (in children's games) a
             player who has to perform a required feat, esp. to catch the
             others.  Ьthat's it colloq.  that is: 1 what is required.  2 the
             difficulty.  3 the end, enough.  this is it colloq.  1 the
             expected event is at hand.  2 this is the difficulty.  [OE hit
             neut. of HE]

   it(2)     n.  colloq.  Italian vermouth (gin and it).  [abbr.]

   i.t.a.    abbr.  (also ITA) initial teaching alphabet.

   ital.     abbr.  italic (type).

   Italian   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a a native or national of Italy.  b a person
             of Italian descent.  2 the Romance language used in Italy and
             parts of Switzerland.  --adj. of or relating to Italy or its
             people or language.  ЬItalian vermouth a sweet kind of vermouth.
             [ME f. It.  Italiano f.  Italia Italy]

             adj.  of Italian style or appearance.  [It.  Italianato]

   italic    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a Printing of the sloping kind of letters
             now used esp. for emphasis or distinction and in foreign words.
             b (of handwriting) compact and pointed like early Italian
             handwriting.  2 (Italic) of ancient Italy.  --n.  1 a letter in
             italic type.  2 this type.  [L italicus f. Gk italikos Italian
             (because introduced by Aldo Manuzio of Venice)]

   italicize v.tr.  (also -ise) print in italics.  ЬЬitalicization n.

   Italiot   n. & adj.  --n. an inhabitant of the Greek colonies in ancient
             Italy.  --adj. of or relating to the Italiots.  [Gk Italiotes f.
             Italia Italy]

   Italo-    comb. form Italian; Italian and.

   itch      n. & v.  --n.  1 an irritation in the skin.  2 an impatient
             desire; a hankering.  3 (prec. by the) (in general use) scabies.
             --v.intr.  1 feel an irritation in the skin, causing a desire to
             scratch it.  2 (usu. foll. by to + infin.) (of a person) feel a
             desire to do something (am itching to tell you the news).
             Ьitching palm avarice.  itch-mite a parasitic arthropod,
             Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows under the skin causing scabies.
             [OE gycce, gyccan f. WG]

   itchy     adj.  (itchier, itchiest) having or causing an itch.  Ьhave
             itchy feet colloq.  1 be restless.  2 have a strong urge to
             travel.  ЬЬitchiness n.

   it'd      contr.  colloq.  1 it had.  2 it would.

   -ite(1)   suffix forming nouns meaning 'a person or thing connected with':
             1 in names of persons: a as natives of a country (Israelite).  b
             often derog. as followers of a movement etc. (pre-Raphaelite;
             Trotskyite).  2 in names of things: a fossil organisms
             (ammonite).  b minerals (graphite).  c constituent parts of a
             body or organ (somite).  d explosives (dynamite).  e commercial
             products (ebonite; vulcanite).  f salts of acids having names in
             - ous (nitrite; sulphite).  [from or after F -ite f. L -ita f.
             Gk -ites]

   -ite(2)   suffix 1 forming adjectives (erudite; favourite).  2 forming
             nouns (appetite).  3 forming verbs (expedite; unite).  [from or
             after L -itus past part. of verbs in -ere, -ere, and -ire]

   item      n. & adv.  --n.  1 a any of a number of enumerated or listed
             things.  b an entry in an account.  2 an article, esp. one for
             sale (household items).  3 a separate or distinct piece of news,
             information, etc.  --adv.  archaic (introducing the mention of
             each item) likewise, also.  [orig. as adv.: L, = in like manner,

   itemize   v.tr.  (also -ise) state or list item by item.  ЬЬitemization n.
             itemizer n.

   iterate   v.tr.  repeat; state repeatedly.  ЬЬiteration n.  [L iterare
             iterat- f.  iterum again]

   iterative adj.  Gram.  = FREQUENTATIVE.  ЬЬiteratively adv.

             adj.  Gk Hist.  1 a of the phallus carried in Bacchic festivals.
             b (of a statue etc.) having an erect penis.  2 lewd, licentious.
             3 (of a poem or metre) used for Bacchic hymns.  [LL
             ithyphallicus f. Gk ithuphallikos f.  ithus straight, phallos

   -itic     suffix forming adjectives and nouns corresponding to nouns in
             -ite, -itis, etc. (Semitic; arthritic; syphilitic).  [from or
             after F -itique f. L -iticus f. Gk -itikos: see -IC]

   itinerant adj. & n.  --adj. travelling from place to place.  --n. an
             itinerant person; a tramp.  Ьitinerant judge (or minister etc.)
             a judge, minister, etc. travelling within a circuit.
             ЬЬitineracy n.  itinerancy n.  [LL itinerari travel f. L iter
             itiner- journey]

   itinerary n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a detailed route.  2 a record of
             travel.  3 a guidebook.  --adj. of roads or travelling.  [LL
             itinerarius (adj.), -um (n.) f. L iter: see ITINERANT]

   itinerate v.intr.  travel from place to place or (of a minister etc.)
             within a circuit.  ЬЬitineration n.  [LL itinerari: see

   -ition    suffix forming nouns, = -ATION (admonition; perdition;
             position).  [from or after F -ition or L -itio -itionis]

             suffix forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in -ition
             (ambitious; suppositious).  [L -itio etc. + -OUS]

             suffix forming adjectives meaning 'related to, having the nature
             of' (adventitious; supposititious).  [L -icius + -OUS, commonly
             written with t in med.L manuscripts]

   -itis     suffix forming nouns, esp.: 1 names of inflammatory diseases
             (appendicitis; bronchitis).  2 colloq. in extended uses with
             ref. to conditions compared to diseases (electionitis).  [Gk
             -itis, forming fem. of adjectives in -ites (with nosos 'disease'

   -itive    suffix forming adjectives, = -ATIVE (positive; transitive).
             [from or after F -itif -itive or L -itivus f. participial stems
             in -it-: see -IVE]

   it'll     contr.  colloq.  it will; it shall.

   ITN       abbr.  (in the UK) Independent Television News .

   ITO       abbr.  International Trade Organization.

   -itor     suffix forming agent nouns, usu. from Latin words (sometimes via
             French) (creditor).  See also -OR(1).

   -itory    suffix forming adjectives meaning 'relating to or involving (a
             verbal action)' (inhibitory).  See also -ORY(2).  [L -itorius]

   -itous    suffix forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in - ity
             (calamitous; felicitous).  [from or after F -iteux f. L -itosus]

   its       poss.pron.  of it; of itself (can see its advantages).

   it's      contr.  1 it is.  2 it has.

   itself    pron.  emphatic and refl. form of IT(1).  Ьby itself apart from
             its surroundings, automatically, spontaneously.  in itself
             viewed in its essential qualities (not in itself a bad thing).
             [OE f.  IT(1) + SELF, but often treated as ITS + SELF (cf.  its
             own self)]

             adj.  (also itty-bitty) colloq. usu.  derog.  tiny,
             insubstantial, slight.  [redupl. of LITTLE, infl. by BIT(1)]

   ITU       abbr.  International Telecommunication Union.

   ITV       abbr.  (in the UK) Independent Television.

   -ity      suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 quality or condition
             (authority; humility; purity).  2 an instance or degree of this
             (a monstrosity; humidity).  [from or after F -it‚ f. L -itas

20.0 IU...

   IU        abbr.  international unit.

   IUD       abbr.  1 intra-uterine (contraceptive) device.  2 intra-uterine
             death (of the foetus before birth).

   -ium      suffix forming nouns denoting esp.: 1 (also -um) names of
             metallic elements (uranium; tantalum).  2 a region of the body
             (pericardium; hypogastrium).  3 a biological structure
             (mycelium; prothallium).  [from or after L -ium f. Gk -ion]

   IUPAC     abbr.  International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.

21.0 IV...

   IV        abbr.  intravenous.

   I've      contr.  I have.

   -ive      suffix forming adjectives meaning 'tending to, having the nature
             of', and corresponding nouns (suggestive; corrosive; palliative;
             coercive; talkative).  ЬЬ-ively suffix forming adverbs.
             -iveness suffix forming nouns.  [from or after F -if -ive f. L

   IVF       abbr.  in vitro fertilization.

   ivied     adj.  overgrown with ivy.

   ivory     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a hard creamy-white substance composing the
             main part of the tusks of an elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, and
             narwhal.  2 the colour of this.  3 (usu. in pl.) a an article
             made of ivory.  b sl. anything made of or resembling ivory, esp.
             a piano key or a tooth.  Ьfossil ivory ivory from the tusks of a
             mammoth.  ivory black black pigment from calcined ivory or bone.
             ivory-nut the seed of a corozo palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa,
             used as a source of vegetable ivory for carving: also called
             corozo-nut.  ivory tower a state of seclusion or separation from
             the ordinary world and the harsh realities of life.  vegetable
             ivory a hard white material obtained from the endosperm of the
             ivory-nut.  ЬЬivoried adj.  [ME f. OF yvoire ult. f. L ebur

   ivy       n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a climbing evergreen shrub, Hedera helix, with
             usu. dark-green shining five-angled leaves.  2 any of various
             other climbing plants including ground ivy and poison ivy.  ЬIvy
             League a group of universities in the eastern US.  [OE ifig]

22.0 IWW...

   IWW       abbr.  Industrial Workers of the World.

23.0 ixia...

   ixia      n.  any iridaceous plant of the genus Ixia of S. Africa, with
             large showy flowers.  [L f. Gk, a kind of thistle]

24.0 izard...

   izard     n.  a chamois.  [F isard, of unkn. orig.]

   -ize      suffix (also -ise) forming verbs, meaning: 1 make or become such
             (Americanize; pulverize; realize).  2 treat in such a way
             (monopolize; pasteurize).  3 a follow a special practice
             (economize).  b have a specified feeling (sympathize).  4 affect
             with, provide with, or subject to (oxidize; hospitalize).  °The
             form -ize has been in use in English since the 16th c.; it is
             widely used in American English, but is not an Americanism. The
             alternative spelling -ise (reflecting a French influence) is in
             common use, esp. in British English, and is obligatory in
             certain cases: (a) where it forms part of a larger word-element,
             such as -mise (= sending) in compromise, and -prise (= taking)
             in surprise; and (b) in verbs corresponding to nouns with -i- in
             the stem, such as advertise and televise.  ЬЬ-ization suffix
             forming nouns.  -izer suffix forming agent nouns.  [from or
             after F -iser f. LL -izare f. Gk -izo]


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