British Library Cataloguing Data
The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
1. English language--Dictionaries
I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain
I(1) n. (also i) (pl. Is or I's) 1 the ninth letter of the
alphabet. 2 (as a Roman numeral) 1. ЬI-beam a girder of
I(2) pron. & n. --pron. (obj. me; poss. my, mine; pl. we) used
by a speaker or writer to refer to himself or herself. --n.
(the I) Metaphysics the ego; the subject or object of
self-consciousness. [OE f. Gmc]
I(3) symb. Chem. the element iodine.
I(4) abbr. (also I.) 1 Island(s). 2 Isle(s).
-i(1) suffix forming the plural of nouns from Latin in -us or from
Italian in -e or -o (foci; dilettanti; timpani). °Plural in -s
or -es is often also possible.
-i(2) suffix forming adjectives from names of countries or regions in
the Near or Middle East (Israeli; Pakistani). [adj. suffix in
Semitic and Indo-Iranian languages]
-i- a connecting vowel esp. forming words in -ana, -ferous, -fic,
-form, -fy, -gerous, -vorous (cf. -O-). [from or after F f. L]
-ia(1) suffix 1 forming abstract nouns (mania; utopia), often in Med.
(anaemia; pneumonia). 2 Bot. forming names of classes and
genera (dahlia; fuchsia). 3 forming names of countries
(Australia; India). [from or after L & Gk]
-ia(2) suffix forming plural nouns or the plural of nouns: 1 from Greek
in -ion or Latin in -ium (paraphernalia; regalia; amnia; labia).
2 Zool. the names of groups (Mammalia).
IAA abbr. indoleacetic acid.
IAEA abbr. International Atomic Energy Agency.
-ial suffix forming adjectives (celestial; dictatorial; trivial).
[from or after F -iel or L -ialis: cf. -AL]
iamb n. an iambus. [Anglicized f. IAMBUS]
iambic adj. & n. Prosody --adj. of or using iambuses. --n. (usu. in
pl.) iambic verse. [F iambique f. LL iambicus f. Gk iambikos
iambus n. (pl. iambuses or -bi) Prosody a foot consisting of one
short (or unstressed) followed by one long (or stressed)
syllable. [L f. Gk iambos iambus, lampoon, f. iapto assail in
words, from its use by Gk satirists]
-ian suffix var. of -AN. [from or after F -ien or L -ianus]
-iasis suffix the usual form of -ASIS.
IATA abbr. International Air Transport Association.
adj. (of a disease etc.) caused by medical examination or
treatment. [Gk iatros physician + -GENIC]
IBA abbr. (in the UK) Independent Broadcasting Authority.
Iberian adj. & n. --adj. of ancient Iberia, the peninsula now
comprising Spain and Portugal; of Spain and Portugal. --n. 1 a
native of ancient Iberia. 2 any of the languages of ancient
Iberia. [L Iberia f. Gk Iberes Spaniards]
Ibero- comb. form Iberian; Iberian and (Ibero-American).
ibex n. (pl. ibexes) a wild goat, Capra ibex, esp. of mountainous
areas of Europe, N. Africa, and Asia, with a chin beard and
thick curved ridged horns. [L]
ibid. abbr. (also ib.) in the same book or passage etc. [L ibidem in
the same place]
-ibility suffix forming nouns from, or corresponding to, adjectives in
-ible (possibility; credibility). [F -ibilit‚ or L -ibilitas]
ibis n. (pl. ibises) any wading bird of the family
Threskiornithidae with a curved bill, long neck, and long legs,
and nesting in colonies. Ьsacred ibis an ibis, Threskiornis
aethiopicus, native to Africa and Madagascar, venerated by the
ancient Egyptians. [ME f. L f. Gk]
-ible suffix forming adjectives meaning 'that may or may be' (see
-ABLE) (terrible; forcible; possible). [F -ible or L -ibilis]
-ibly suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -ible.
IBM abbr. International Business Machines.
Ibo n. (also Igbo) (pl. same or -os) 1 a member of a Black people
of SE Nigeria. 2 the language of this people. [native name]
IBRD abbr. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(also known as the World Bank).
i/c abbr. 1 in charge. 2 in command. 3 internal combustion.
-ic suffix 1 forming adjectives (Arabic; classic; public) and nouns
(critic; epic; mechanic; music). 2 Chem. in higher valence or
degree of oxidation (ferric; sulphuric) (see also -OUS). 3
denoting a particular form or instance of a noun in -ics
(aesthetic; tactic). [from or after F -ique or L -icus or Gk
-ikos: cf. -ATIC, -ETIC, -FIC, -OTIC]
-ical suffix 1 forming adjectives corresponding to nouns or
adjectives, usu. in -ic (classical; comical; farcical; musical).
2 forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in -y
-ically suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in -ic or
-ical (comically; musically; tragically).
ICAO abbr. International Civil Aviation Organization.
ICBM abbr. intercontinental ballistic missile.
ICE abbr. 1 (in the UK) Institution of Civil Engineers. 2
ice n. & v. --n. 1 a frozen water, a brittle transparent
crystalline solid. b a sheet of this on the surface of water
(fell through the ice). 2 Brit. a portion of ice-cream or
water-ice (would you like an ice?). 3 sl. diamonds. --v. 1
tr. mix with or cool in ice (iced drinks). 2 tr. & intr. (often
foll. by over, up) a cover or become covered with ice. b
freeze. 3 tr. cover (a cake etc.) with icing. Ьice age a
glacial period, esp. in the Pleistocene epoch. ice-axe a tool
used by mountain-climbers for cutting footholds. ice-bag an
ice-filled rubber bag for medical use. ice-blue a very pale
blue. ice-boat 1 a boat mounted on runners for travelling on
ice. 2 a boat used for breaking ice on a river etc. ice-bound
confined by ice. ice-breaker 1 = ice-boat 2. 2 something that
serves to relieve inhibitions, start a conversation, etc. ice
bucket a bucket-like container with chunks of ice, used to keep
a bottle of wine chilled. ice-cap a permanent covering of ice
e.g. in polar regions. ice-cold as cold as ice. ice-cream a
sweet creamy frozen food, usu. flavoured. ice-cube a small
block of ice made in a refrigerator. ice-fall a steep part of a
glacier like a frozen waterfall. ice-field an expanse of ice,
esp. in polar regions. ice-fish a capelin. ice floe = FLOE.
ice hockey a form of hockey played on ice with a puck. ice
house a building often partly or wholly underground for storing
ice. ice (or iced) lolly Brit. a piece of flavoured ice, often
with chocolate or ice-cream, on a stick. ice-pack 1 = pack ice.
2 a quantity of ice applied to the body for medical etc.
purposes. ice-pick a needle-like implement with a handle for
splitting up small pieces of ice. ice-plant a plant,
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, with leaves covered with crystals
or vesicles looking like ice specks. ice-rink = RINK n. 1.
ice-skate n. a skate consisting of a boot with a blade beneath,
for skating on ice. --v.intr. skate on ice. ice-skater a
person who skates on ice. ice station a meteorological research
centre in polar regions. on ice 1 (of an entertainment, sport,
etc.) performed by skaters. 2 colloq. held in reserve; awaiting
further attention. on thin ice in a risky situation. [OE is f.
iceberg n. 1 a large floating mass of ice detached from a glacier or
ice-sheet and carried out to sea. 2 an unemotional or
cold-blooded person. Ьiceberg lettuce any of various crisp
lettuces with a freely blanching head. the tip of the iceberg a
small perceptible part of something (esp. a difficulty) the
greater part of which is hidden. [prob. f. Du. ijsberg f. ijs
ice + berg hill]
iceblink n. a luminous appearance on the horizon, caused by a reflection
iceblock n. Austral. & NZ = ice lolly.
icebox n. US a refrigerator.
Icelander n. 1 a native or national of Iceland, an island in the N.
Atlantic. 2 a person of Icelandic descent.
Icelandic adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to Iceland. --n. the language
n. (also Iceland moss) a mountain and moorland lichen, Cetraria
islandica, with edible branching fronds.
n. an Arctic poppy, Papaver nudicaule, with red or yellow
n. a transparent variety of calcite with the optical property
of strong double refraction.
iceman n. (pl. -men) esp. US 1 a man skilled in crossing ice. 2 a
man who sells or delivers ice.
I.Chem.E. abbr. (in the UK) Institution of Chemical Engineers.
I Ching n. an ancient Chinese manual of divination based on symbolic
trigrams and hexagrams. [Chin. yijing book of changes]
ichneumon n. 1 (in full ichneumon wasp) any small hymenopterous insect of
the family Ichneumonidae, depositing eggs in or on the larva of
another insect as food for its own larva. 2 a mongoose of N.
Africa, Herpestes ichneumon, noted for destroying crocodile
eggs. [L f. Gk ikhneumon spider-hunting wasp f. ikhneuo trace
f. ikhnos footstep]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 the ground-plan of a building, map of a
region, etc. 2 a drawing of this. [F ichnographie or L
ichnographia f. Gk ikhnographia f. ikhnos track: see -GRAPHY]
ichor n. 1 (in Greek mythology) fluid flowing like blood in the veins
of the gods. 2 poet. bloodlike fluid. 3 hist. a watery fetid
discharge from a wound etc. ЬЬichorous adj. [Gk ikhor]
ichthyo- comb. form fish. [Gk ikhthus fish]
ichthyoid adj. & n. --adj. fishlike. --n. any fishlike vertebrate.
n. a fossil fish.
n. the study of fishes. ЬЬichthyological adj. ichthyologist
adj. fish-eating. ЬЬichthyophagy n.
n. (also ichthyosaur) any extinct marine reptile of the order
Ichthyosauria, with long head, tapering body, four flippers, and
usu. a large tail. [ICHTHYO- + Gk sauros lizard]
n. a skin disease which causes the epidermis to become dry and
horny like fish scales. ЬЬichthyotic adj. [Gk ikhthus fish +
ICI abbr. Imperial Chemical Industries.
-ician suffix forming nouns denoting persons skilled in or concerned
with subjects having nouns (usu.) in -ic or -ics (magician;
politician). [from or after F -icien (as -IC, -IAN)]
icicle n. a hanging tapering piece of ice, formed by the freezing of
dripping water. [ME f. ICE + ickle (now dial.) icicle]
icing n. 1 a coating of sugar etc. on a cake or biscuit. 2 the
formation of ice on a ship or aircraft. Ьicing on the cake an
attractive though inessential addition or enhancement. icing
sugar Brit. finely powdered sugar for making icing for cakes
-icist suffix = -ICIAN (classicist). [-IC + -IST]
-icity suffix forming abstract nouns esp. from adjectives in -ic
(authenticity; publicity). [-IC + -ITY]
-ick suffix archaic var. of -IC.
icky adj. (also ikky) colloq. 1 sweet, sticky, sickly. 2 (as a
general term of disapproval) nasty, repulsive. [20th c.: orig.
icon n. (also ikon) 1 a devotional painting or carving, usu. on
wood, of Christ or another holy figure, esp. in the Eastern
Church. 2 an image or statue. 3 Computing a symbol or graphic
representation on a VDU screen of a program, option, or window,
esp. one of several for selection. 4 Linguistics a sign which
has a characteristic in common with the thing it signifies. [L
f. Gk eikon image]
iconic adj. 1 of or having the nature of an image or portrait. 2 (of
a statue) following a conventional type. 3 Linguistics that is
an icon. ЬЬiconicity n. (esp. in sense 3). [L iconicus f. Gk
eikonikos (as ICON)]
icono- comb. form an image or likeness. [Gk eikon]
n. 1 the breaking of images. 2 the assailing of cherished
beliefs. [ICONOCLAST after enthusiasm etc.]
n. 1 a person who attacks cherished beliefs. 2 a person who
destroys images used in religious worship, esp. hist. during
the 8th-9th c. in the Churches of the East, or as a Puritan of
the 16th-17th c. ЬЬiconoclastic adj. iconoclastically adv.
[med.L iconoclastes f. eccl.Gk eikonoklastes (as ICONO-, klao
n. (pl. -ies) 1 the illustration of a subject by drawings or
figures. 2 a the study of portraits, esp. of an individual. b
the study of artistic images or symbols. 3 a treatise on
pictures or statuary. 4 a book whose essence is pictures.
ЬЬiconographer n. iconographic adj. iconographical adj.
iconographically adv. [Gk eikonographia sketch (as ICONO- +
n. the worship of images. ЬЬiconolater n. [eccl.Gk
eikonolatreia (as ICONO-, -LATRY)]
iconology n. 1 an artistic theory developed from iconography (see
ICONOGRAPHY 2b). 2 symbolism.
n. (pl. iconostases) (in the Eastern Church) a screen bearing
icons and separating the sanctuary from the nave. [mod.Gk
eikonostasis (as ICONO-, STASIS)]
n. a solid figure with twenty faces. ЬЬicosahedral adj. [LL
icosahedrum f. Gk eikosaedron f. eikosi twenty + -HEDRON]
-ics suffix (treated as sing. or pl.) forming nouns denoting arts or
sciences or branches of study or action (athletics; politics)
(cf. -IC 3). [from or after F pl. -iques or L pl. -ica or Gk
icterus n. Med. = JAUNDICE. ЬЬicteric adj. [L f. Gk ikteros]
ictus n. (pl. same or ictuses) 1 Prosody rhythmical or metrical
stress. 2 Med. a stroke or seizure; a fit. [L, = blow f.
icy adj. (icier, iciest) 1 very cold. 2 covered with or abounding
in ice. 3 (of a tone or manner) unfriendly, hostile (an icy
stare). ЬЬicily adv. iciness n.
ID abbr. 1 esp. US identification, identity (ID card). 2 US
Idaho (in official postal use).
id n. Psychol. the inherited instinctive impulses of the
individual as part of the unconscious. [L, = that, transl. G
id. abbr. = IDEM.
i.d. abbr. inner diameter.
I'd contr. 1 I had. 2 I should; I would.
-id(1) suffix forming adjectives (arid; rapid). [F -ide f. L -idus]
-id(2) suffix forming nouns: 1 general (pyramid). 2 Biol. of
structural constituents (plastid). 3 Bot. of a plant belonging
to a family with a name in -aceae (orchid). [from or after F
-ide f. L -is -idis f. Gk -is -ida or -idos]
-id(3) suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 Zool. an animal belonging to a
family with a name in -idae or a class with a name in -ida
(canid; arachnid). 2 a member of a person's family (Seleucid
from Seleucus). 3 Astron. a a meteor in a group radiating from
a specified constellation (Leonid from Leo). b a star of a
class like one in a specified constellation (cepheid). [from or
after L -ides, pl. -idae or -ida]
-id(4) suffix esp. US var. of -IDE.
IDA abbr. International Development Association.
ide n. a freshwater fish, Leuciscus idus, used as food. Also called
ORFE. [mod.L idus f. Sw. id]
-ide suffix (also esp. US -id) Chem. forming nouns denoting: 1
binary compounds of an element (the suffix -ide being added to
the abbreviated name of the more electronegative element etc.)
(sodium chloride; lead sulphide; calcium carbide). 2 various
other compounds (amide; anhydride; peptide; saccharide). 3
elements of a series in the periodic table (actinide;
lanthanide). [orig. in OXIDE]
idea n. 1 a conception or plan formed by mental effort (have you any
ideas?; had the idea of writing a book). 2 a a mental
impression or notion; a concept. b a vague belief or fancy (had
an idea you were married; had no idea where you were). 3 an
intention, purpose, or essential feature (the idea is to make
money). 4 an archetype or pattern as distinguished from its
realization in individual cases. 5 Philos. a (in Platonism) an
eternally existing pattern of which individual things in any
class are imperfect copies. b a concept of pure reason which
transcends experience. Ьget (or have) ideas colloq. be
ambitious, rebellious, etc. have no idea colloq. 1 not know at
all. 2 be completely incompetent. not one's idea of colloq.
not what one regards as (not my idea of a pleasant evening).
put ideas into a person's head suggest ambitions etc. he or she
would not otherwise have had. that's an idea colloq. that
proposal etc. is worth considering. the very idea! colloq. an
exclamation of disapproval or disagreement. ЬЬidea'd adj.
ideaed adj. idealess adj. [Gk idea form, pattern f. stem id-
ideal adj. & n. --adj. 1 a answering to one's highest conception. b
perfect or supremely excellent. 2 a existing only in idea. b
visionary. 3 embodying an idea. 4 relating to or consisting of
ideas; dependent on the mind. --n. 1 a perfect type, or a
conception of this. 2 an actual thing as a standard for
imitation. Ьideal gas a hypothetical gas consisting of
molecules occupying negligible space and without attraction for
each other, thereby obeying simple laws. ЬЬideally adv. [ME f.
F id‚al f. LL idealis (as IDEA)]
idealism n. 1 the practice of forming or following after ideals, esp.
unrealistically (cf. REALISM). 2 the representation of things
in ideal or idealized form. 3 imaginative treatment. 4 Philos.
any of various systems of thought in which the objects of
knowledge are held to be in some way dependent on the activity
of mind (cf. REALISM). ЬЬidealist n. idealistic adj.
idealistically adv. [F id‚alisme or G Idealismus (as IDEAL)]
ideality n. (pl. -ies) 1 the quality of being ideal. 2 an ideal thing.
idealize v.tr. (also -ise) 1 regard or represent (a thing or person) in
ideal form or character. 2 exalt in thought to ideal perfection
or excellence. ЬЬidealization n. idealizer n.
ideate v. Psychol. 1 tr. imagine, conceive. 2 intr. form ideas.
ЬЬideation n. ideational adj. ideationally adv. [med.L ideare
form an idea (as IDEA)]
id‚e fixe n. (pl. id‚es fixes pronunc. same) an idea that dominates the
mind; an obsession. [F, lit. 'fixed idea']
n. (pl. id‚es re‡ues pronunc. same) a generally accepted
notion or opinion. [F]
idem adv. & n. --adv. in the same author. --n. the same word or
author. [ME f. L]
identical adj. 1 (often foll. by with) (of different things) agreeing in
every detail. 2 (of one thing viewed at different times) one
and the same. 3 (of twins) developed from a single fertilized
ovum, therefore of the same sex and usu. very similar in
appearance. 4 Logic & Math. expressing an identity.
ЬЬidentically adv. identicalness n. [med.L identicus (as
n. 1 the act or an instance of identifying. 2 a means of
identifying a person. 3 (attrib.) serving to identify (esp. the
bearer) (identification card). Ьidentification parade an
assembly of persons from whom a suspect is to be identified.
n. 1 a person or thing that identifies. 2 Computing a sequence
of characters used to identify or refer to a set of data.
identify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. establish the identity of; recognize. 2
tr. establish or select by consideration or analysis of the
circumstances (identify the best method of solving the problem).
3 tr. (foll. by with) associate (a person or oneself)
inseparably or very closely (with a party, policy, etc.). 4 tr.
(often foll. by with) treat (a thing) as identical. 5 intr.
(foll. by with) a regard oneself as sharing characteristics of
(another person). b associate oneself. ЬЬidentifiable adj.
[med.L identificare (as IDENTITY)]
Identikit n. (often attrib.) propr. a reconstructed picture of a person
(esp. one sought by the police) assembled from transparent
strips showing typical facial features according to witnesses'
descriptions. [IDENTITY + KIT(1)]
identity n. (pl. -ies) 1 a the quality or condition of being a
specified person or thing. b individuality, personality (felt
he had lost his identity). 2 identification or the result of it
(a case of mistaken identity; identity card). 3 the state of
being the same in substance, nature, qualities, etc.; absolute
sameness (no identity of interests between them). 4 Algebra a
the equality of two expressions for all values of the quantities
expressed by letters. b an equation expressing this, e.g. (x +
1)(2) = x(2) + 2x + 1. 5 Math. a (in full identity element) an
element in a set, left unchanged by any operation to it. b a
transformation that leaves an object unchanged. Ьidentity
crisis a phase in which an individual feels a need to establish
an identity in relation to society. identity parade =
identification parade. [LL identitas f. L idem same]
ideogram n. a character symbolizing the idea of a thing without
indicating the sequence of sounds in its name (e.g. a numeral,
and many Chinese characters). [Gk idea form + -GRAM]
ideograph n. = IDEOGRAM. ЬЬideographic adj. ideography n. [Gk idea
form + -GRAPH]
ideologue n. 1 a theorist; a visionary. 2 an adherent of an ideology.
[F id‚ologue f. Gk idea (see IDEA) + -LOGUE]
ideology n. (pl. -ies) 1 the system of ideas at the basis of an
economic or political theory (Marxist ideology). 2 the manner
of thinking characteristic of a class or individual (bourgeois
ideology). 3 visionary speculation. 4 archaic the science of
ideas. ЬЬideological adj. ideologically adv. ideologist n.
[F id‚ologie (as IDEOLOGUE)]
ides n.pl. the eighth day after the nones in the ancient Roman
calendar (the 15th day of March, May, July, October, the 13th of
other months). [ME f. OF f. L idus (pl.), perh. f. Etruscan]
idiocy n. (pl. -ies) 1 utter foolishness; idiotic behaviour or an
idiotic action. 2 extreme mental imbecility. [ME f. IDIOT,
prob. after lunacy]
idiolect n. the form of language used by an individual person. [Gk
idios own + -lect in DIALECT]
idiom n. 1 a group of words established by usage and having a meaning
not deducible from those of the individual words (as in over the
moon, see the light). 2 a form of expression peculiar to a
language, person, or group of people. 3 a the language of a
people or country. b the specific character of this. 4 a
characteristic mode of expression in music, art, etc. [F idiome
or LL idioma f. Gk idioma -matos private property f. idios own,
idiomatic adj. 1 relating to or conforming to idiom. 2 characteristic of
a particular language. ЬЬidiomatically adv. [Gk idiomatikos
peculiar (as IDIOM)]
idiopathy n. Med. any disease or condition of unknown cause or that
arises spontaneously. ЬЬidiopathic adj. [mod.L idiopathia f.
Gk idiopatheia f. idios own + -PATHY]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 a mental constitution, view or feeling, or
mode of behaviour, peculiar to a person. 2 anything highly
individualized or eccentric. 3 a mode of expression peculiar to
an author. 4 Med. a physical constitution peculiar to a person.
ЬЬidiosyncratic adj. idiosyncratically adv. [Gk idiosugkrasia
f. idios own + sun together + krasis mixture]
idiot n. 1 colloq. a stupid person; an utter fool. 2 a person
deficient in mind and permanently incapable of rational conduct.
Ьidiot board (or card) colloq. a board displaying a television
script to a speaker as an aid to memory. ЬЬidiotic adj.
idiotically adv. [ME f. OF f. L idiota ignorant person f. Gk
idiotes private person, layman, ignorant person f. idios own,
idle adj. & v. --adj. (idler, idlest) 1 lazy, indolent. 2 not in
use; not working; unemployed. 3 (of time etc.) unoccupied. 4
having no special basis or purpose (idle rumour; idle
curiosity). 5 useless. 6 (of an action, thought, or word)
ineffective, worthless, vain. --v. 1 a intr. (of an engine)
run slowly without doing any work. b tr. cause (an engine) to
idle. 2 intr. be idle. 3 tr. (foll. by away) pass (time etc.)
in idleness. Ьidle wheel an intermediate wheel between two
geared wheels, esp. to allow them to rotate in the same
direction. ЬЬidleness n. idly adv. [OE idel empty, useless]
idler n. 1 a habitually lazy person. 2 = idle wheel.
Ido n. an artificial universal language based on Esperanto. [Ido,
idol n. 1 an image of a deity etc. used as an object of worship. 2
Bibl. a false god. 3 a person or thing that is the object of
excessive or supreme adulation (cinema idol). 4 archaic a
phantom. [ME f. OF idole f. L idolum f. Gk eidolon phantom f.
idolater n. (fem. idolatress) 1 a worshipper of idols. 2 (often foll.
by of) a devoted admirer. ЬЬidolatrous adj. [ME idolatrer f.
OF or f. idolatry or f. OF idolѓtre, ult. f. Gk eidololatres
(as IDOL, -LATER)]
idolatry n. 1 the worship of idols. 2 great adulation. [OF idolatrie
idolize v. (also -ise) 1 tr. venerate or love extremely or excessively.
2 tr. make an idol of. 3 intr. practise idolatry.
ЬЬidolization n. idolizer n.
idyll n. (also idyl) 1 a short description in verse or prose of a
picturesque scene or incident, esp. in rustic life. 2 an
episode suitable for such treatment, usu. a love-story.
ЬЬidyllist n. idyllize v.tr. (also -ise). [L idyllium f. Gk
eidullion, dimin. of eidos form]
idyllic adj. 1 blissfully peaceful and happy. 2 of or like an idyll.
-ie suffix 1 var. of -Y(2) (dearie; nightie). 2 archaic var. of
-Y(1), -Y(3) (litanie; prettie). [earlier form of -Y]
IEE abbr. (in the UK) Institution of Electrical Engineers.
-ier suffix forming personal nouns denoting an occupation or
interest: 1 with stress on the preceding element (grazier). 2
with stress on the suffix (cashier; brigadier). [sense 1 ME of
various orig.; sense 2 F -ier f. L -arius]
if conj. & n. --conj. 1 introducing a conditional clause: a on
the condition or supposition that; in the event that (if he
comes I will tell him; if you are tired we will rest). b (with
past tense) implying that the condition is not fulfilled (if I
were you; if I knew I would say). 2 even though (I'll finish
it, if it takes me all day). 3 whenever (if I am not sure I
ask). 4 whether (see if you can find it). 5 a expressing wish
or surprise (if I could just try!; if it isn't my old hat!). b
expressing a request (if you wouldn't mind opening the door?).
6 with implied reservation, = and perhaps not (very rarely if at
all). 7 (with reduction of the protasis to its significant
word) if there is or it is etc. (took little if any). 8 despite
being (a useful if cumbersome device). --n. a condition or
supposition (too many ifs about it). Ьif only 1 even if for no
other reason than (I'll come if only to see her). 2 (often
ellipt.) an expression of regret (if only I had thought of it;
if only I could swim!). if so if that is the case. [OE gif]
IFC abbr. International Finance Corporation.
iff conj. Logic & Math. = if and only if. [arbitrary extension of
igloo n. an Eskimo dome-shaped dwelling, esp. one built of snow.
[Eskimo, = house]
igneous adj. 1 of fire; fiery. 2 Geol. (esp. of rocks) produced by
volcanic or magmatic action. [L igneus f. ignis fire]
n. (pl. ignes fatui) a will-o'-the-wisp. [mod.L, = foolish
fire, because of its erratic movement]
ignite v. 1 tr. set fire to; cause to burn. 2 intr. catch fire. 3
tr. Chem. heat to the point of combustion or chemical change.
4 tr. provoke or excite (feelings etc.). ЬЬignitable adj.
ignitability n. ignitible adj. ignitibility n. [L ignire
ignit- f. ignis fire]
igniter n. 1 a device for igniting a fuel mixture in an engine. 2 a
device for causing an electric arc.
ignition n. 1 a mechanism for, or the action of, starting the combustion
of mixture in the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine. 2
the act or an instance of igniting or being ignited. Ьignition
key a key to operate the ignition of a motor vehicle. [F
ignition or med.L ignitio (as IGNITE)]
ignitron n. Electr. a mercury-arc rectifier able to carry large
currents. [IGNITE + -TRON]
ignoble adj. (ignobler, ignoblest) 1 dishonourable, mean, base. 2 of
low birth, position, or reputation. ЬЬignobility n. ignobly
adv. [F ignoble or L ignobilis (as IN-(1), nobilis noble)]
adj. 1 causing or deserving ignominy. 2 humiliating.
ЬЬignominiously adv. ignominiousness n. [ME f. F ignominieux
or L ignominiosus]
ignominy n. 1 dishonour, infamy. 2 archaic infamous conduct. [F
ignominie or L ignominia (as IN-(1), nomen name)]
ignoramus n. (pl. ignoramuses) an ignorant person. [L, = we do not
know: in legal use (formerly of a grand jury rejecting a bill)
we take no notice of it; mod. sense perh. from a character in
Ruggle's Ignoramus (1615) exposing lawyers' ignorance]
ignorance n. (often foll. by of) lack of knowledge (about a thing). [ME
f. OF f. L ignorantia (as IGNORANT)]
ignorant adj. 1 a lacking knowledge. b (foll. by of, in) uninformed
(about a fact or subject). 2 colloq. ill-mannered, uncouth.
ЬЬignorantly adv. [ME f. OF f. L ignorare ignorant- (as
ignore v.tr. 1 refuse to take notice of or accept. 2 intentionally
disregard. ЬЬignorer n. [F ignorer or L ignorare not know,
ignore (as IN-(1), gno- know)]
iguana n. any of various large lizards of the family Iguanidae native
to America, the W. Indies, and the Pacific islands, having a
dorsal crest and throat appendages. [Sp. f. Carib iwana]
iguanodon n. a large extinct plant-eating dinosaur of the genus
Iguanodon, with forelimbs smaller than hind limbs. [IGUANA
(from its resemblance to this), after mastodon etc.]
il- prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before l.
-il suffix (also -ile) forming adjectives or nouns denoting relation
(civil; utensil) or capability (agile; sessile). [OF f. L
var. of YLANG-YLANG.
ILEA abbr. Inner London Education Authority.
ilea pl. of ILEUM.
ileostomy n. (pl. -ies) a surgical operation in which the ileum is
brought through the abdominal wall to create an artificial
opening for the evacuation of the intestinal contents. [ILEUM +
Gk stoma mouth]
ileum n. (pl. ilea) Anat. the third and last portion of the small
intestine. ЬЬileac adj. [var. of ILIUM]
ileus n. Med. any painful obstruction of the intestine, esp. of the
ileum. [L f. Gk (e)ileos colic]
ilex n. 1 any tree or shrub of the genus Ilex, esp. the common
holly. 2 the holm-oak. [ME f. L]
ilia pl. of ILIUM.
iliac adj. of the lower body or ilium (iliac artery). [LL iliacus
ilium n. (pl. ilia) 1 the bone forming the upper part of each half
of the human pelvis. 2 the corresponding bone in animals. [ME
ilk n. 1 colloq. disp. a family, class, or set (not of the same
ilk as you). °Usu. derog. and therefore best avoided. 2 (in
of that ilk) Sc. of the same (name) (Guthrie of that ilk = of
Guthrie). [OE ilca same]
Ill. abbr. Illinois.
ill adj., adv., & n. --adj. 1 (usu. predic.; often foll. by with)
out of health; sick (is ill; was taken ill with pneumonia;
mentally ill people). 2 (of health) unsound, disordered. 3
wretched, unfavourable (ill fortune; ill luck). 4 harmful (ill
effects). 5 hostile, unkind (ill feeling). 6 archaic morally
bad. 7 faulty, unskilful (ill taste; ill management). 8 (of
manners or conduct) improper. --adv. 1 badly, wrongly
(ill-matched). 2 a imperfectly (ill-provided). b scarcely (can
ill afford to do it). 3 unfavourably (it would have gone ill
with them). --n. 1 injury, harm. 2 evil; the opposite of
good. Ьdo an ill turn to harm (a person or a person's
interests). ill-advised 1 acting foolishly or imprudently. 2
(of a plan etc.) not well formed or considered. ill-advisedly
in a foolish or badly considered manner. ill-affected (foll. by
towards) not well disposed. ill-assorted not well matched. ill
at ease embarrassed, uneasy. ill-behaved see BEHAVE. ill blood
bad feeling; animosity. ill-bred badly brought up; rude. ill
breeding bad manners. ill-considered = ill-advised.
ill-defined not clearly defined. ill-disposed 1 (often foll. by
towards) unfavourably disposed. 2 disposed to evil; malevolent.
ill-equipped (often foll. by to + infin.) not adequately
equipped or qualified. ill fame see FAME. ill-fated destined
to or bringing bad fortune. ill-favoured (US -favored)
unattractive, displeasing, objectionable. ill feeling bad
feeling; animosity. ill-founded (of an idea etc.) not well
founded; baseless. ill-gotten gained by wicked or unlawful
means. ill humour moroseness, irritability. ill-humoured
bad-tempered. ill-judged unwise; badly considered.
ill-mannered having bad manners; rude. ill nature churlishness,
unkindness. ill-natured churlish, unkind. ill-naturedly
churlishly. ill-omened attended by bad omens. ill-starred
unlucky; destined to failure. ill success partial or complete
failure. ill temper moroseness. ill-tempered morose,
irritable. ill-timed done or occurring at an inappropriate
time. ill-treat (or -use) treat badly; abuse. ill-treatment
(or ill use) abuse; bad treatment. ill will bad feeling;
animosity. an ill wind an unfavourable or untoward circumstance
(with ref. to the proverb it's an ill wind that blows nobody
good). speak ill of say something unfavourable about. [ME f.
ON illr, of unkn. orig.]
I'll contr. I shall; I will.
illation n. 1 a deduction or conclusion. 2 a thing deduced. [L illatio
f. illatus past part. of inferre INFER]
illative adj. 1 a (of a word) stating or introducing an inference. b
inferential. 2 Gram. (of a case) denoting motion into.
ЬЬillatively adv. [L illativus (as ILLATION)]
illegal adj. 1 not legal. 2 contrary to law. ЬЬillegality n. (pl.
-ies). illegally adv. [F ill‚gal or med.L illegalis (as
illegible adj. not legible. ЬЬillegibility n. illegibly adv.
adj., n., & v. --adj. 1 (of a child) born of parents not
married to each other. 2 not authorized by law; unlawful. 3
improper. 4 wrongly inferred. 5 physiologically abnormal.
--n. a person whose position is illegitimate, esp. by birth.
--v.tr. declare or pronounce illegitimate. ЬЬillegitimacy n.
illegitimately adv. [LL illegitimus, after LEGITIMATE]
illiberal adj. 1 intolerant, narrow-minded. 2 without liberal culture.
3 not generous; stingy. 4 vulgar, sordid. ЬЬilliberality n.
(pl. -ies). illiberally adv. [F illib‚ral f. L illiberalis
mean, sordid (as IN-(1), LIBERAL)]
illicit adj. unlawful, forbidden (illicit dealings). ЬЬillicitly adv.
adj. limitless. ЬЬillimitability n. illimitableness n.
illimitably adv. [LL illimitatus f. L limitatus (as IN-(1), L
limitatus past part. of limitare LIMIT)]
illiquid adj. (of assets) not easily converted into cash. ЬЬilliquidity
adj. & n. --adj. 1 unable to read. 2 uneducated. --n. an
illiterate person. ЬЬilliteracy n. illiterately adv.
illiterateness n. [L illitteratus (as IN-(1), litteratus
illness n. 1 a disease, ailment, or malady. 2 the state of being ill.
illogical adj. devoid of or contrary to logic. ЬЬillogicality n. (pl.
-ies). illogically adv.
illude v.tr. literary trick or deceive. [ME, = mock, f. L illudere
illume v.tr. poet. light up; make bright. [shortening of ILLUMINE]
n. & adj. --n. a means of illumination. --adj. serving to
illuminate. ЬЬilluminance n. [L illuminant- part. stem of
v.tr. 1 light up; make bright. 2 decorate (buildings etc.)
with lights as a sign of festivity. 3 decorate (an initial
letter, a manuscript, etc.) with gold, silver, or brilliant
colours. 4 help to explain (a subject etc.). 5 enlighten
spiritually or intellectually. 6 shed lustre on.
ЬЬilluminating adj. illuminatingly adv. illumination n.
illuminative adj. illuminator n. [L illuminare (as IN-(2),
lumen luminis light)]
n.pl. 1 persons claiming to possess special knowledge or
enlightenment. 2 (Illuminati) hist. any of various intellectual
movements or societies of illuminati. ЬЬilluminism n.
illuminist n. [pl. of L illuminatus or It. illuminato past
part. (as ILLUMINATE)]
illumine v.tr. literary 1 light up; make bright. 2 enlighten
spiritually. [ME f. OF illuminer f. L (as ILLUMINATE)]
illusion n. 1 deception, delusion. 2 a misapprehension of the true
state of affairs. 3 a the faulty perception of an external
object. b an instance of this. 4 a figment of the imagination.
5 = optical illusion. Ьbe under the illusion (foll. by that +
clause) believe mistakenly. ЬЬillusional adj. [ME f. F f. L
illusio -onis f. illudere mock (as IN-(2), ludere lus- play)]
n. a person who produces illusions; a conjuror. ЬЬillusionism
n. illusionistic adj.
illusory adj. 1 deceptive (esp. as regards value or content). 2 having
the character of an illusion. ЬЬillusorily adv. illusoriness
n. [eccl.L illusorius (as ILLUSION)]
v.tr. 1 a provide (a book, newspaper, etc.) with pictures. b
elucidate (a description etc.) by drawings or pictures. 2 serve
as an example of. 3 explain or make clear, esp. by examples.
[L illustrare (as IN-(2), lustrare light up)]
n. 1 a drawing or picture illustrating a book, magazine
article, etc. 2 an example serving to elucidate. 3 the act or
an instance of illustrating. ЬЬillustrational adj. [ME f. OF
f. L illustratio -onis (as ILLUSTRATE)]
adj. (often foll. by of) serving as an explanation or example.
n. a person who makes illustrations, esp. for magazines, books,
advertising copy, etc.
adj. distinguished, renowned. ЬЬillustriously adv.
illustriousness n. [L illustris (as ILLUSTRATE)]
Illyrian adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or relating to Illyria on the Balkan
coast of the Adriatic (corresponding to parts of modern Albania
and Yugoslavia). 2 of the language-group represented by modern
Albanian. --n. 1 a native of Illyria; a person of Illyrian
descent. 2 a the language of Illyria. b the language-group
represented by modern Albanian.
n. Austral. sl. a professional trickster. [20th c.: orig.
ilmenite n. a black ore of titanium. [Ilmen mountains in the Urals]
ILO abbr. International Labour Organization.
ILR abbr. Independent Local Radio.
-ily suffix forming adverbs corresponding to adjectives in - y (see
im- prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before b, m, p.
I'm contr. I am.
image n. & v. --n. 1 a representation of the external form of an
object, e.g. a statue (esp. of a saint etc. as an object of
veneration). 2 the character or reputation of a person or thing
as generally perceived. 3 an optical appearance or counterpart
produced by light or other radiation from an object reflected in
a mirror, refracted through a lens, etc. 4 semblance, likeness
(God created man in His own image). 5 a person or thing that
closely resembles another (is the image of his father). 6 a
typical example. 7 a simile or metaphor. 8 a a mental
representation. b an idea or conception. 9 Math. a set formed
by mapping from another set. --v.tr. 1 make an image of;
portray. 2 reflect, mirror. 3 describe or imagine vividly. 4
typify. ЬЬimageable adj. imageless adj. [ME f. OF f. L imago
-ginis, rel. to IMITATE]
imagery n. 1 figurative illustration, esp. as used by an author for
particular effects. 2 images collectively. 3 statuary,
carving. 4 mental images collectively. [ME f. OF imagerie (as
adj. that can be imagined (the greatest difficulty imaginable).
ЬЬimaginably adv. [ME f. LL imaginabilis (as IMAGINE)]
imaginal adj. 1 of an image or images. 2 Zool. of an imago. [L imago
imagin-: see IMAGE]
imaginary adj. 1 existing only in the imagination. 2 Math. being the
square root of a negative quantity, and plotted graphically in a
direction usu. perpendicular to the axis of real quantities (see
REAL(1)). ЬЬimaginarily adv. [ME f. L imaginarius (as IMAGE)]
n. 1 a mental faculty forming images or concepts of external
objects not present to the senses. 2 the ability of the mind to
be creative or resourceful. 3 the process of imagining. [ME f.
OF f. L imaginatio -onis (as IMAGINE)]
adj. 1 having or showing in a high degree the faculty of
imagination. 2 given to using the imagination. ЬЬimaginatively
adv. imaginativeness n. [ME f. OF imaginatif -ive f. med.L
imaginativus (as IMAGINE)]
imagine v.tr. 1 a form a mental image or concept of. b picture to
oneself (something non-existent or not present to the senses).
2 (often foll. by to + infin.) think or conceive (imagined them
to be soldiers). 3 guess (cannot imagine what they are doing).
4 (often foll. by that + clause) suppose; be of the opinion (I
imagine you will need help). 5 (in imper.) as an exclamation of
surprise (just imagine!). ЬЬimaginer n. [ME f. OF imaginer f.
L imaginari (as IMAGE)]
imagines pl. of IMAGO.
n.pl. fancies, fantasies.
imagism n. a movement in early 20th-c. poetry which sought clarity of
expression through the use of precise images. ЬЬimagist n.
imago n. (pl. -os or imagines) 1 the final and fully developed stage
of an insect after all metamorphoses, e.g. a butterfly or
beetle. 2 Psychol. an idealized mental picture of oneself or
others, esp. a parent. [mod.L sense of imago IMAGE]
imam n. 1 a leader of prayers in a mosque. 2 a title of various
Muslim leaders, esp. of one succeeding Muhammad as leader of
Islam. ЬЬimamate n. [Arab. ' imam leader f. ' amma precede]
imbalance n. 1 lack of balance. 2 disproportion.
imbecile n. & adj. --n. 1 a person of abnormally weak intellect, esp.
an adult with a mental age of about five. 2 colloq. a stupid
person. --adj. mentally weak; stupid, idiotic. ЬЬimbecilely
adv. imbecilic adj. imbecility n. (pl. -ies). [F
imb‚cil(l)e f. L imbecillus (as IN-(1), baculum stick) orig. in
sense 'without supporting staff']
imbed var. of EMBED.
imbibe v.tr. 1 (also absol.) drink (esp. alcoholic liquor). 2 a
absorb or assimilate (ideas etc.). b absorb (moisture etc.). 3
inhale (air etc.). ЬЬimbiber n. imbibition n. [ME f. L
imbibere (as IN-(2), bibere drink)]
imbricate v. & adj. --v.tr. & intr. arrange (leaves, the scales of a
fish, etc.), or be arranged, so as to overlap like roof-tiles.
--adj. having scales etc. arranged in this way. ЬЬimbrication
n. [L imbricare imbricat- cover with rain-tiles f. imbrex
-icis rain-tile f. imber shower]
imbroglio n. (pl. -os) 1 a confused or complicated situation. 2 a
confused heap. [It. imbrogliare confuse (as EMBROIL)]
imbrue v.tr. (foll. by in, with) literary stain (one's hand, sword,
etc.). [OF embruer bedabble (as IN-(2), breu ult. f. Gmc, rel.
imbue v.tr. (imbues, imbued, imbuing) (often foll. by with) 1 inspire
or permeate (with feelings, opinions, or qualities). 2
saturate. 3 dye. [orig. as past part., f. F imbu or L imbutus
f. imbuere moisten]
I.Mech.E. abbr. (in the UK) Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
IMF abbr. International Monetary Fund.
imide n. Chem. an organic compound containing the group
(-CO.NH.CO.-) formed by replacing two of the hydrogen atoms in
ammonia by carbonyl groups. [orig. F: arbitrary alt. of AMIDE]
imine n. Chem. a compound containing the group (-NH-) formed by
replacing two of the hydrogen atoms in ammonia by other groups.
[G Imin arbitrary alt. of Amin AMINE]
I.Min.E. abbr. (in the UK) Institution of Mining Engineers.
imitate v.tr. 1 follow the example of; copy the action(s) of. 2 mimic.
3 make a copy of; reproduce. 4 be (consciously or not) like.
ЬЬimitable adj. imitator n. [L imitari imitat-, rel. to imago
imitation n. 1 the act or an instance of imitating or being imitated. 2
a copy. 3 counterfeit (often attrib.: imitation leather). 4
Mus. the repetition of a phrase etc., usu. at a different pitch,
in another part or voice. [F imitation or L imitatio (as
imitative adj. 1 (often foll. by of) imitating; following a model or
example. 2 counterfeit. 3 of a word: a that reproduces a
natural sound (e.g. fizz). b whose sound is thought to
correspond to the appearance etc. of the object or action
described (e.g. blob). Ьimitative arts painting and sculpture.
ЬЬimitatively adv. imitativeness n. [LL imitativus (as
adj. 1 pure, spotless; perfectly clean. 2 perfectly or
extremely well executed (an immaculate performance). 3 free
from fault; innocent. 4 Biol. not spotted. ЬImmaculate
Conception RC Ch. the doctrine that God preserved the Virgin
Mary from the taint of original sin from the moment she was
conceived. ЬЬimmaculacy n. immaculately adv. immaculateness
n. [ME f. L immaculatus (as IN-(1), maculatus f. macula spot)]
immanent adj. 1 (often foll. by in) indwelling, inherent. 2 (of the
supreme being) permanently pervading the universe (opp.
TRANSCENDENT). ЬЬimmanence n. immanency n. immanentism n.
immanentist n. [LL immanere (as IN-(2), manere remain)]
adj. 1 of no essential consequence; unimportant. 2 not
material; incorporeal. ЬЬimmateriality n. immaterialize v.tr.
(also -ise). immaterially adv. [ME f. LL immaterialis (as
n. the doctrine that matter has no objective existence.
immature adj. 1 not mature or fully developed. 2 lacking emotional or
intellectual development. 3 unripe. ЬЬimmaturely adv.
immaturity n. [L immaturus (as IN-(1), MATURE)]
adj. not measurable; immense. ЬЬimmeasurability n.
immeasurableness n. immeasurably adv.
immediate adj. 1 occurring or done at once or without delay (an immediate
reply). 2 nearest, next; not separated by others (the immediate
vicinity; the immediate future; my immediate neighbour). 3 most
pressing or urgent (our immediate concern was to get him to
hospital). 4 (of a relation or action) having direct effect;
without an intervening medium or agency (the immediate cause of
death). 5 (of knowledge) intuitive, gained without reasoning.
ЬЬimmediacy n. immediateness n. [ME f. F imm‚diat or LL
immediatus (as IN-(1), MEDIATE)]
adj. & conj. --adv. 1 without pause or delay. 2 without
intermediary. --conj. as soon as.
adj. that cannot be healed or cured. ЬЬimmedicably adv. [L
immedicabilis (as IN-(1), MEDICABLE)]
adj. 1 ancient beyond memory or record. 2 very old.
ЬЬimmemorially adv. [med.L immemorialis (as IN-(1), MEMORIAL)]
immense adj. 1 immeasurably large or great; huge. 2 very great;
considerable (made an immense difference). 3 colloq. very good.
ЬЬimmenseness n. immensity n. [ME f. F f. L immensus
immeasurable (as IN-(1), mensus past part. of metiri measure)]
immensely adv. 1 very much (enjoyed myself immensely). 2 to an immense
immerse v.tr. 1 a (often foll. by in) dip, plunge. b cause (a person)
to be completely under water. 2 (often refl. or in passive;
often foll. by in) absorb or involve deeply. 3 (often foll. by
in) bury, embed. [L immergere (as IN-(2), mergere mers- dip)]
immersion n. 1 the act or an instance of immersing; the process of being
immersed. 2 baptism by immersing the whole person in water. 3
mental absorption. 4 Astron. the disappearance of a celestial
body behind another or in its shadow. Ьimmersion heater an
electric heater designed for direct immersion in a liquid to be
heated, esp. as a fixture in a hot-water tank. [ME f. LL
immersio (as IMMERSE)]
immigrant n. & adj. --n. a person who immigrates. --adj. 1 immigrating.
2 of or concerning immigrants.
immigrate v. 1 intr. come as a permanent resident to a country other than
one's native land. 2 tr. bring in (a person) as an immigrant.
ЬЬimmigration n. immigratory adj. [L immigrare (as IN-(2),
imminent adj. 1 (of an event, esp. danger) impending; about to happen.
2 archaic overhanging. ЬЬimminence n. imminently adv. [L
imminere imminent- overhang, project]
adj. (often foll. by with) that cannot be mixed.
ЬЬimmiscibility n. immiscibly adv. [LL immiscibilis (as
adj. that cannot be mitigated. ЬЬimmitigably adv. [LL
immitigabilis (as IN-(1), MITIGATE)]
n. Electr. admittance or impedance (when not distinguished).
[impedance + ad mittance]
immixture n. 1 the process of mixing up. 2 (often foll. by in) being
immobile adj. 1 not moving. 2 not able to move or be moved.
ЬЬimmobility n. [ME f. OF f. L immobilis (as IN-(1), MOBILE)]
v.tr. (also -ise) 1 make or keep immobile. 2 make (a vehicle
or troops) incapable of being moved. 3 keep (a limb or patient)
restricted in movement for healing purposes. 4 restrict the
free movement of. 5 withdraw (coins) from circulation to
support banknotes. ЬЬimmobilization n. immobilizer n. [F
immobiliser (as IMMOBILE)]
adj. excessive; lacking moderation. ЬЬimmoderately adv.
immoderateness n. immoderation n. [ME f. L immoderatus (as
immodest adj. 1 lacking modesty; forward, impudent. 2 lacking due
decency. ЬЬimmodestly adv. immodesty n. [F immodeste or L
immodestus (as IN-(1), MODEST)]
immolate v.tr. 1 kill or offer as a sacrifice. 2 literary sacrifice (a
valued thing). ЬЬimmolation n. immolator n. [L immolare
sprinkle with sacrificial meal (as IN-(2), mola MEAL(2))]
immoral adj. 1 not conforming to accepted standards of morality (cf.
AMORAL). 2 morally wrong (esp. in sexual matters). 3 depraved,
dissolute. ЬЬimmorality n. (pl. -ies). immorally adv.
immortal adj. & n. --adj. 1 a living for ever; not mortal. b divine.
2 unfading, incorruptible. 3 likely or worthy to be famous for
all time. --n. 1 a an immortal being. b (in pl.) the gods of
antiquity. 2 a person (esp. an author) of enduring fame. 3
(Immortal) a member of the French Academy. ЬЬimmortality n.
immortalize v.tr. (also -ise). immortalization n. immortally
adv. [ME f. L immortalis (as IN-(1), MORTAL)]
n. a composite flower of papery texture retaining its shape and
colour after being dried, esp. a helichrysum. [F, fem. of
immovable adj. & n. (also immoveable) --adj. 1 that cannot be moved. 2
steadfast, unyielding. 3 emotionless. 4 not subject to change
(immovable law). 5 motionless. 6 Law (of property) consisting
of land, houses, etc. --n. (in pl.) Law immovable property.
Ьimmovable feast a religious feast-day that occurs on the same
date each year. ЬЬimmovability n. immovableness n. immovably
immune adj. 1 a (often foll. by against, from, to) protected against
an infection owing to the presence of specific antibodies, or
through inoculation or inherited or acquired resistance. b
relating to immunity (immune mechanism). 2 (foll. by from, to)
free or exempt from or not subject to (some undesirable factor
or circumstance). Ьimmune response the reaction of the body to
the introduction into it of an antigen. [ME f. L immunis exempt
from public service or charge (as IN-(1), munis ready for
service): sense 1 f. F immun]
immunity n. (pl. -ies) 1 Med. the ability of an organism to resist
infection, by means of the presence of circulating antibodies
and white blood cells. 2 freedom or exemption from an
obligation, penalty, or unfavourable circumstance. [ME f. L
immunitas (as IMMUNE): sense 1 f. F immunit‚]
immunize v.tr. (also -ise) make immune, esp. to infection, usu. by
inoculation. ЬЬimmunization n. immunizer n.
immuno- comb. form immunity to infection.
n. Biochem. the determination of the presence or quantity of a
substance, esp. a protein, through its properties as an antigen
n. the chemistry of immune systems, esp. in mammalian tissues.
n. a reduction in a person's normal immune defences.
adj. Biochem. of, relating to, or possessing the ability to
elicit an immune response.
n. Biochem. any of a group of structurally related proteins
which function as antibodies.
n. the scientific study of immunity. ЬЬimmunologic adj.
immunological adj. immunologically adv. immunologist n.
adj. (of an individual) rendered partially or completely unable
to react immunologically.
n. Biochem. the partial or complete suppression of the immune
response of an individual, esp. to maintain the survival of an
organ after a transplant operation. ЬЬimmunosuppressant n.
adj. & n. --adj. partially or completely suppressing the immune
response of an individual. --n. an immunosuppressive drug.
n. Med. the prevention or treatment of disease with substances
that stimulate the immune response.
immure v.tr. 1 enclose within walls; imprison. 2 refl. shut oneself
away. ЬЬimmurement n. [F emmurer or med.L immurare (as IN-(2),
immutable adj. 1 unchangeable. 2 not subject to variation in different
cases. ЬЬimmutability n. immutably adv. [ME f. L immutabilis
(as IN-(1), MUTABLE)]
imp n. & v. --n. 1 a mischievous child. 2 a small mischievous
devil or sprite. --v.tr. 1 add feathers to (the wing of a
falcon) to restore or improve its flight. 2 archaic enlarge;
add by grafting. [OE impa, impe young shoot, scion, impian
graft: ult. f. Gk emphutos implanted, past part. of emphuo]
impact n. & v. --n. 1 (often foll. by on, against) the action of one
body coming forcibly into contact with another. 2 an effect or
influence, esp. when strong. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in,
into) press or fix firmly. 2 (as impacted adj.) a (of a tooth)
wedged between another tooth and the jaw. b (of a fractured
bone) with the parts crushed together. c (of faeces) lodged in
the intestine. ЬЬimpaction n. [L impact- part. stem of
impair v.tr. damage or weaken. ЬЬimpairment n. [ME empeire f. OF
empeirier (as IN-(2), LL pejorare f. L pejor worse)]
impala n. (pl. same) a small antelope, Aepyceros melampus, of S. and
E. Africa, capable of long high jumps. [Zulu]
impale v.tr. 1 (foll. by on, upon, with) transfix or pierce with a
sharp instrument. 2 Heraldry combine (two coats of arms) by
placing them side by side on one shield separated by a vertical
line down the middle. ЬЬimpalement n. [F empaler or med.L
impalare (as IN-(2), palus stake)]
adj. 1 not easily grasped by the mind; intangible. 2
imperceptible to the touch. 3 (of powder) very fine; not
containing grains that can be felt. ЬЬimpalpability n.
impalpably adv. [F impalpable or LL impalpabilis (as IN-(1),
impanel var. of EMPANEL.
impark v.tr. 1 enclose (animals) in a park. 2 enclose (land) for a
park. [ME f. AF enparker, OF emparquer (as IN-(2), parc PARK)]
impart v.tr. (often foll. by to) 1 communicate (news etc.). 2 give a
share of (a thing). ЬЬimpartable adj. impartation n.
impartment n. [ME f. OF impartir f. L impartire (as IN-(2),
impartial adj. treating all sides in a dispute etc. equally;
unprejudiced, fair. ЬЬimpartiality n. impartially adv.
adj. that cannot be traversed. ЬЬimpassability n.
impassableness n. impassably adv.
impasse n. a position from which progress is impossible; deadlock. [F
(as IN-(1), passer PASS(1))]
adj. 1 impassive. 2 incapable of feeling or emotion. 3
incapable of suffering injury. 4 Theol. not subject to
suffering. ЬЬimpassibility n. impassibleness n. impassibly
adv. [ME f. OF f. eccl.L impassibilis (as IN-(1), PASSIBLE)]
impassion v.tr. fill with passion; arouse emotionally. [It.
impassionare (as IN-(2), PASSION)]
impassive adj. 1 a deficient in or incapable of feeling emotion. b
undisturbed by passion; serene. 2 without sensation. 3 not
subject to suffering. ЬЬimpassively adv. impassiveness n.
impasto n. Art 1 the process of laying on paint thickly. 2 this
technique of painting. [It. impastare (as IN-(2), pastare
impatiens n. any plant of the genus Impatiens, including busy Lizzie and
touch-me-not. [mod.L f. IMPATIENT]
impatient adj. 1 a (often foll. by at, with) lacking patience or
tolerance. b (of an action) showing a lack of patience. 2
(often foll. by for, or to + infin.) restlessly eager. 3 (foll.
by of) intolerant. ЬЬimpatience n. impatiently adv. [ME f. OF
f. L impatiens (as IN-(1), PATIENT)]
impeach v.tr. 1 Brit. charge with a crime against the State, esp.
treason. 2 US charge (the holder of a public office) with
misconduct. 3 call in question, disparage (a person's integrity
etc.). ЬЬimpeachable adj. impeachment n. [ME f. OF empecher
impede f. LL impedicare entangle (as IN-(2), pedica fetter f.
pes pedis foot)]
adj. 1 (of behaviour, performance, etc.) faultless, exemplary.
2 not liable to sin. ЬЬimpeccability n. impeccably adv. [L
impeccabilis (as IN-(1), peccare sin)]
adj. having little or no money. ЬЬimpecuniosity n.
impecuniousness n. [IN-(1) + obs. pecunious having money f. L
pecuniosus f. pecunia money f. pecu cattle]
impedance n. 1 Electr. the total effective resistance of an electric
circuit etc. to alternating current, arising from ohmic
resistance and reactance. 2 an analogous mechanical property.
[IMPEDE + -ANCE]
impede v.tr. retard by obstructing; hinder. [L impedire shackle the
feet of (as IN-(2), pes foot)]
n. 1 a hindrance or obstruction. 2 a defect in speech, e.g. a
lisp or stammer. ЬЬimpedimental adj. [ME f. L impedimentum (as
n.pl. 1 encumbrances. 2 travelling equipment, esp. of an army.
[L, pl. of impedimentum: see IMPEDIMENT]
impel v.tr. (impelled, impelling) 1 drive, force, or urge into
action. 2 drive forward; propel. ЬЬimpellent adj. & n.
impeller n. [ME f. L impellere (as IN-(2), pellere puls-
impend v.intr. 1 be about to happen. 2 (often foll. by over) a (of a
danger) be threatening. b hang; be suspended. ЬЬimpending adj.
[L impendere (as IN-(2), pendere hang)]
adj. 1 that cannot be penetrated. 2 inscrutable, unfathomable.
3 inaccessible to ideas, influences, etc. 4 Physics (of matter)
having the property such that a body is incapable of occupying
the same place as another body at the same time.
ЬЬimpenetrability n. impenetrableness n. impenetrably adv.
[ME f. F imp‚n‚trable f. L impenetrabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. not repentant or penitent. ЬЬimpenitence n. impenitency
n. impenitently adv. [eccl.L impaenitens (as IN-(1),
adj. & n. --adj. 1 urgent. 2 obligatory. 3 commanding,
peremptory. 4 Gram. (of a mood) expressing a command (e.g.
come here!). --n. 1 Gram. the imperative mood. 2 a command.
ЬЬimperatival adj. imperatively adv. imperativeness n. [LL
imperativus f. imperare command (as IN-(2), parare make ready)]
imperator n. Rom.Hist. commander (a title conferred under the Republic
on a victorious general and under the Empire on the emperor).
ЬЬimperatorial adj. [L (as IMPERATIVE)]
adj. 1 that cannot be perceived. 2 very slight, gradual, or
subtle. ЬЬimperceptibility n. imperceptibly adv. [F
imperceptible or med.L imperceptibilis (as IN-(1), PERCEPTIBLE)]
adj. lacking in perception. ЬЬimpercipience n.
imperfect adj. & n. --adj. 1 not fully formed or done; faulty,
incomplete. 2 Gram. (of a tense) denoting a (usu. past) action
in progress but not completed at the time in question (e.g.
they were singing). 3 Mus. (of a cadence) ending on the
dominant chord. --n. the imperfect tense. Ьimperfect rhyme
Prosody a rhyme that only partly satisfies the usual criteria
(e.g. love and move). ЬЬimperfectly adv. [ME imparfit etc. f.
OF imparfait f. L imperfectus (as IN-(1), PERFECT)]
n. 1 incompleteness. 2 a faultiness. b a fault or blemish.
[ME f. OF imperfection or LL imperfectio (as IMPERFECT)]
adj. & n. Gram. --adj. (of a verb aspect etc.) expressing an
action without reference to its completion (opp. PERFECTIVE).
--n. an imperfective aspect or form of a verb.
adj. 1 not perforated. 2 Anat. lacking the normal opening. 3
(of a postage stamp) lacking perforations.
imperial adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or characteristic of an empire or
comparable sovereign State. 2 a of or characteristic of an
emperor. b supreme in authority. c majestic, august. d
magnificent. 3 (of non-metric weights and measures) used or
formerly used by statute in the UK (imperial gallon). --n. a
former size of paper, 762 x 559 mm (30 x 22 inches).
ЬЬimperially adv. [ME f. OF f. L imperialis f. imperium
n. 1 an imperial rule or system. 2 usu. derog. a policy of
acquiring dependent territories or extending a country's
influence through trade, diplomacy, etc. ЬЬimperialistic adj.
imperialistically adv. imperialize v.tr. (also -ise).
n. & adj. --n. usu. derog. an advocate or agent of imperial
rule or of imperialism. --adj. of or relating to imperialism or
imperil v.tr. (imperilled, imperilling; US imperiled, imperiling) bring
or put into danger.
imperious adj. 1 overbearing, domineering. 2 urgent, imperative.
ЬЬimperiously adv. imperiousness n. [L imperiosus f. imperium
adj. that cannot perish. ЬЬimperishability n.
imperishableness n. imperishably adv.
imperium n. absolute power or authority. [L, = command, authority]
adj. not permanent; transient. ЬЬimpermanence n. impermanency
n. impermanently adv.
adj. 1 that cannot be penetrated. 2 Physics that does not
permit the passage of fluids. ЬЬimpermeability n. [F
imperm‚able or LL impermeabilis (as IN-(1), PERMEABLE)]
adj. not allowable. ЬЬimpermissibility n.
adj. 1 having no personality. 2 having no personal feeling or
reference. 3 Gram. a (of a verb) used only with a formal
subject (usu. it) and expressing an action not attributable to
a definite subject (e.g. it is snowing). b (of a pronoun) =
INDEFINITE. ЬЬimpersonality n. impersonally adv. [LL
impersonalis (as IN-(1), PERSONAL)]
v.tr. 1 pretend to be (another person) for the purpose of
entertainment or fraud. 2 act (a character). ЬЬimpersonation
n. impersonator n. [IN-(2) + L persona PERSON]
adj. 1 rude or insolent; lacking proper respect. 2 out of
place; absurd. 3 esp. Law irrelevant, intrusive.
ЬЬimpertinence n. impertinently adv. [ME f. OF or LL
impertinens (as IN-(1), PERTINENT)]
adj. not excitable; calm. ЬЬimperturbability n.
imperturbableness n. imperturbably adv. [ME f. LL
imperturbabilis (as IN-(1), PERTURB)]
adj. (usu. foll. by to) 1 not responsive to an argument etc. 2
not affording passage to a fluid. ЬЬimperviously adv.
imperviousness n. [L impervius (as IN-(1), PERVIOUS)]
impetigo n. a contagious bacterial skin infection forming pustules and
yellow crusty sores. ЬЬimpetiginous adj. [ME f. L impetigo
-ginis f. impetere assail]
impetuous adj. 1 acting or done rashly or with sudden energy. 2 moving
forcefully or rapidly. ЬЬimpetuosity n. impetuously adv.
impetuousness n. [ME f. OF impetueux f. LL impetuosus (as
impetus n. 1 the force or energy with which a body moves. 2 a driving
force or impulse. [L, = assault, force, f. impetere assail (as
IN-(2), petere seek)]
impi n. (pl. impis) S.Afr. 1 a band of armed men. 2 hist. an
African tribal army or regiment. [Zulu, = regiment, armed band]
impiety n. (pl. -ies) 1 a lack of piety or reverence. 2 an act etc.
showing this. [ME f. OF impiet‚ or L impietas (as IN-(1),
impinge v.tr. (usu. foll. by on, upon) 1 make an impact; have an
effect. 2 encroach. ЬЬimpingement n. impinger n. [L
impingere drive (a thing) at (as IN-(2), pangere fix, drive)]
impious adj. 1 not pious. 2 wicked, profane. ЬЬimpiously adv.
impiousness n. [L impius (as IN-(1), PIOUS)]
impish adj. of or like an imp; mischievous. ЬЬimpishly adv.
adj. that cannot be appeased; inexorable. ЬЬimplacability n.
implacably adv. [ME f. F implacable or L implacabilis (as
implant v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in) insert or fix. 2 (often
foll. by in) instil (a principle, idea, etc.) in a person's
mind. 3 plant. 4 Med. a insert (tissue etc.) in a living
body. b (in passive) (of a fertilized ovum) become attached to
the wall of the womb. --n. n. 1 a thing implanted. 2 a thing
implanted in the body, e.g. a piece of tissue or a capsule
containing material for radium therapy. ЬЬimplantation n. [F
implanter or LL implantare engraft (as IN-(2), PLANT)]
adj. not plausible. ЬЬimplausibility n. implausibly adv.
implead v.tr. Law 1 prosecute or take proceedings against (a person).
2 involve (a person etc.) in a suit. [ME f. AF empleder, OF
empleidier (as EN-(1), PLEAD)]
implement n. & v. --n. 1 a tool, instrument, or utensil. 2 (in pl.)
equipment; articles of furniture, dress, etc. 3 Law performance
of an obligation. --v.tr. 1 a put (a decision, plan, etc.)
into effect. b fulfil (an undertaking). 2 complete (a contract
etc.). 3 fill up; supplement. ЬЬimplementation n. [ME f.
med.L implementa (pl.) f. implere employ (as IN-(2), L plere
implicate v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in) show (a person) to be
concerned or involved (in a charge, crime, etc.). 2 (in
passive; often foll. by in) be affected or involved. 3 lead to
as a consequence or inference. --n. a thing implied.
ЬЬimplicative adj. implicatively adv. [L implicatus past part.
of implicare (as IN-(2), plicare, plicat- or plicit- fold)]
n. 1 what is involved in or implied by something else. 2 the
act of implicating or implying. Ьby implication by what is
implied or suggested rather than by formal expression. [ME f. L
implicatio (as IMPLICATE)]
implicit adj. 1 implied though not plainly expressed. 2 (often foll. by
in) virtually contained. 3 absolute, unquestioning, unreserved
(implicit obedience). 4 Math. (of a function) not expressed
directly in terms of independent variables. ЬЬimplicitly adv.
implicitness n. [F implicite or L implicitus (as IMPLICATE)]
implode v.intr. & tr. burst or cause to burst inwards. ЬЬimplosion n.
implosive adj. [IN-(2) + L - plodere, after EXPLODE]
implore v.tr. 1 (often foll. by to + infin.) entreat (a person). 2 beg
earnestly for. ЬЬimploringly adv. [F implorer or L implorare
invoke with tears (as IN-(2), plorare weep)]
imply v.tr. (-ies, -ied) 1 (often foll. by that + clause) strongly
suggest the truth or existence of (a thing not expressly
asserted). 2 insinuate, hint (what are you implying?). 3
signify. ЬЬimplied adj. impliedly adv. [ME f. OF emplier f. L
implicare (as IMPLICATE)]
impolder v.tr. (also empolder) Brit. 1 make a polder of. 2 reclaim
from the sea. [Du. inpolderen (as IN-(2), POLDER)]
impolitic adj. 1 inexpedient, unwise. 2 not politic. ЬЬimpoliticly adv.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 that cannot be estimated or assessed in any
definite way. 2 very light. 3 Physics having no weight. --n.
(usu. in pl.) something difficult or impossible to assess.
ЬЬimponderability n. imponderably adv.
import v. & n. --v.tr. 1 bring in (esp. foreign goods or services) to
a country. 2 (often foll. by that + clause) a imply, indicate,
signify. b express, make known. --n. 1 the process of
importing. 2 a an imported article or service. b (in pl.) an
amount imported (imports exceeded њ50m.). 3 what is implied;
meaning. 4 importance. ЬЬimportable adj. importation n.
importer n. (all in sense 1 of v.). [ME f. L importare bring
in, in med.L = imply, be of consequence (as IN-(2), portare
n. 1 the state of being important. 2 weight, significance. 3
personal consequence; dignity. [F f. med.L importantia (as
important adj. 1 (often foll. by to) of great effect or consequence;
momentous. 2 (of a person) having high rank or status, or great
authority. 3 pretentious, pompous. 4 (absol. in parenthetic
construction) what is a more important point or matter (they are
willing and, more important, able). °Use of importantly here is
disp. ЬЬimportantly adv. (see note above). [F f. med.L (as
adj. 1 making persistent or pressing requests. 2 (of affairs)
urgent. ЬЬimportunately adv. importunity n. [L importunus
inconvenient (as IN-(1), portunus f. portus harbour)]
importune v.tr. 1 solicit (a person) pressingly. 2 solicit for an
immoral purpose. [F importuner or med.L importunari (as
impose v. 1 tr. (often foll. by on, upon) require (a tax, duty,
charge, or obligation) to be paid or undertaken (by a person
etc.). 2 tr. enforce compliance with. 3 intr. & refl. (foll.
by on, upon, or absol.) demand the attention or commitment of (a
person); take advantage of (I do not want to impose on you any
longer; I did not want to impose). 4 tr. (often foll. by on,
upon) palm (a thing) off on (a person). 5 tr. Printing lay
(pages of type) in the proper order ready for printing. 6 intr.
(foll. by on, upon) exert influence by an impressive character
or appearance. 7 intr. (often foll. by on, upon) practise
deception. 8 tr. archaic (foll. by upon) place (a thing). [ME
f. F imposer f. L imponere imposit- inflict, deceive (as IN-(2),
imposing adj. impressive, formidable, esp. in appearance. ЬЬimposingly
adv. imposingness n.
n. 1 the act or an instance of imposing; the process of being
imposed. 2 an unfair or resented demand or burden. 3 a tax or
duty. 4 Brit. work set as a punishment at school. [ME f. OF
imposition or L impositio f. imponere: see IMPOSE]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 the fact or condition of being impossible. 2
an impossible thing or circumstance. [F impossibilit‚ or L
impossibilitas (as IMPOSSIBLE)]
adj. 1 not possible; that cannot occur, exist, or be done (such
a thing is impossible; it is impossible to alter them). 2
(loosely) not easy; not convenient; not easily believable. 3
colloq. (of a person or thing) outrageous, intolerable.
ЬЬimpossibly adv. [ME f. OF impossible or L impossibilis (as
impost(1) n. 1 a tax, duty, or tribute. 2 a weight carried by a horse in
a handicap race. [F f. med.L impost- part. stem of L imponere:
impost(2) n. the upper course of a pillar, carrying an arch. [F imposte
or It. imposta fem. past part. of imporre f. L imponere: see
impostor n. (also imposter) 1 a person who assumes a false character or
pretends to be someone else. 2 a swindler. ЬЬimpostorous adj.
impostrous adj. [F imposteur f. LL impostor (as IMPOST(1))]
imposture n. the act or an instance of fraudulent deception. [F f. LL
impostura (as IMPOST(1))]
impotent adj. 1 a powerless; lacking all strength. b helpless,
decrepit. 2 (esp. of a male) unable, esp. for a prolonged
period, to achieve a sexual erection or orgasm. ЬЬimpotence n.
impotency n. impotently adv. [ME f. OF f. L impotens (as
impound v.tr. 1 confiscate. 2 take possession of. 3 shut up (animals)
in a pound. 4 shut up (a person or thing) as in a pound. 5 (of
a dam etc.) collect or confine (water). ЬЬimpoundable adj.
impounder n. impoundment n.
v.tr. 1 make poor. 2 exhaust the strength or natural fertility
of. ЬЬimpoverishment n. [ME f. OF empoverir (as EN-(1), povre
adj. 1 impossible in practice. 2 (of a road etc.) impassable.
3 (of a person or thing) unmanageable. ЬЬimpracticability n.
impracticableness n. impracticably adv.
adj. 1 not practical. 2 esp. US not practicable.
ЬЬimpracticality n. impractically adv.
imprecate v.tr. (often foll. by upon) invoke, call down (evil).
ЬЬimprecatory adj. [L imprecari (as IN-(2), precari pray)]
n. 1 a spoken curse; a malediction. 2 imprecating.
imprecise adj. not precise. ЬЬimprecisely adv. impreciseness n.
adj. 1 (of a fortified position) that cannot be taken by force.
2 resistant to attack or criticism. ЬЬimpregnability n.
impregnably adv. [ME f. OF imprenable (as IN-(1), prendre
adj. that can be impregnated.
v. & adj. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by with) fill or saturate. 2
(often foll. by with) imbue, fill (with feelings, moral
qualities, etc.). 3 a make (a female) pregnant. b Biol.
fertilize (a female reproductive cell or ovum). --adj. 1
pregnant. 2 (often foll. by with) permeated. ЬЬimpregnation n.
[LL impregnare impregnat- (as IN-(2), pregnare be pregnant)]
n. (pl. -os) an organizer of public entertainments, esp. the
manager of an operatic, theatrical, or concert company. [It. f.
adj. Law (of rights) that cannot be taken away by prescription
or lapse of time. [med.L imprescriptibilis (as IN-(1),
v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by with) a affect or influence
deeply. b evoke a favourable opinion or reaction from (a
person) (was most impressed with your efforts). 2 (often foll.
by on) emphasize (an idea etc.) (must impress on you the need to
be prompt). 3 (often foll. by on) a imprint or stamp. b apply
(a mark etc.) with pressure. 4 make a mark or design on (a
thing) with a stamp, seal, etc. 5 Electr. apply (voltage etc.)
from outside. --n. 1 the act or an instance of impressing. 2
a mark made by a seal, stamp, etc. 3 a characteristic mark or
quality. 4 = IMPRESSION 1. ЬЬimpressible adj. [ME f. OF
empresser (as EN-(1), PRESS(1))]
v.tr. hist. 1 force (men) to serve in the army or navy. 2
seize (goods etc.) for public service. ЬЬimpressment n.
[IN-(2) + PRESS(2)]
n. 1 an effect produced (esp. on the mind or feelings). 2 a
notion or belief (esp. a vague or mistaken one) (my impression
is they are afraid). 3 an imitation of a person or sound, esp.
done to entertain. 4 a the impressing of a mark. b a mark
impressed. 5 an unaltered reprint from standing type or plates
(esp. as distinct from edition). 6 a the number of copies of a
book, newspaper, etc., issued at one time. b the printing of
these. 7 a print taken from a wood engraving. 8 Dentistry a
negative copy of the teeth or mouth made by pressing them into a
soft substance. ЬЬimpressional adj. [ME f. OF f. L impressio
-onis f. imprimere impress- (as IN-(2), PRESS(1))]
adj. easily influenced; susceptible to impressions.
ЬЬimpressionability n. impressionably adv. [F impressionnable
f. impressionner (as IMPRESSION)]
n. 1 a style or movement in art concerned with expression of
feeling by visual impression, esp. from the effect of light on
objects. 2 a style of music or writing that seeks to describe a
feeling or experience rather than achieve accurate depiction or
systematic structure. ЬЬimpressionist n. [F impressionnisme
(after Impression: Soleil levant, title of a painting by Monet,
adj. 1 in the style of impressionism. 2 subjective,
unsystematic. ЬЬimpressionistically adv.
adj. 1 impressing the mind or senses, esp. so as to cause
approval or admiration. 2 (of language, a scene, etc.) tending
to excite deep feeling. ЬЬimpressively adv. impressiveness n.
imprest n. money advanced to a person for use in State business.
[orig. in prest f. OF prest loan, advance pay: see PRESS(2)]
n. 1 RC Ch. an official licence to print (an ecclesiastical or
religious book etc.). 2 official approval. [L, = let it be
n. (in painting) a coloured transparent glaze as a primer.
[It. imprimitura f. imprimere IMPRESS(1)]
imprint v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by on) impress or establish
firmly, esp. on the mind. 2 a (often foll. by on) make a stamp
or impression of (a figure etc.) on a thing. b make an
impression on (a thing) with a stamp etc. --n. 1 an impression
or stamp. 2 the printer's or publisher's name and other details
printed in a book. [ME f. OF empreinter empreint f. L
imprimere: see IMPRESSION]
n. 1 in senses of IMPRINT v. 2 Zool. the development in a
young animal of a pattern of recognition and trust for its own
imprison v.tr. 1 put into prison. 2 confine; shut up. ЬЬimprisonment
n. [ME f. OF emprisoner (as EN-(1), PRISON)]
adj. 1 not likely to be true or to happen. 2 difficult to
believe. ЬЬimprobability n. improbably adv. [F improbable or
L improbabilis (as IN-(1), PROBABLE)]
improbity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wickedness; lack of moral integrity. 2
dishonesty. 3 a wicked or dishonest act. [L improbitas (as
impromptu adj., adv., & n. --adj. & adv. extempore, unrehearsed. --n. 1
an extempore performance or speech. 2 a short piece of usu.
solo instrumental music, often songlike. [F f. L in promptu in
readiness: see PROMPT]
improper adj. 1 a unseemly; indecent. b not in accordance with accepted
rules of behaviour. 2 inaccurate, wrong. 3 not properly so
called. Ьimproper fraction a fraction in which the numerator is
greater than or equal to the denominator. ЬЬimproperly adv. [F
impropre or L improprius (as IN-(1), PROPER)]
v.tr. Brit. 1 annex (an ecclesiastical benefice) to a
corporation or person as property. 2 place (tithes or
ecclesiastical property) in lay hands. ЬЬimpropriation n. [AL
impropriare (as IN-(2), proprius own)]
n. Brit. a person to whom a benefice is impropriated.
n. (pl. -ies) 1 lack of propriety; indecency. 2 an instance
of improper conduct etc. 3 incorrectness. 4 unfitness. [F
impropri‚t‚ or L improprietas (as IN-(1), proprius proper)]
adj. 1 that can be improved. 2 suitable for cultivation.
improve v. 1 a tr. & intr. make or become better. b intr. (foll. by
on, upon) produce something better than. 2 absol. (as improving
adj.) giving moral benefit (improving literature). [orig.
emprowe, improwe f. AF emprower f. OF emprou f. prou profit,
infl. by PROVE]
n. 1 the act or an instance of improving or being improved. 2
something that improves, esp. an addition or alteration that
adds to value. 3 something that has been improved. [ME f. AF
emprowement (as IMPROVE)]
improver n. 1 a person who improves. 2 Brit. a person who works for low
wages while acquiring skill and experience in a trade.
adj. 1 lacking foresight or care for the future. 2 not frugal;
thriftless. 3 heedless, incautious. ЬЬimprovidence n.
improvise v.tr. (also absol.) 1 compose or perform (music, verse, etc.)
extempore. 2 provide or construct (a thing) extempore.
ЬЬimprovisation n. improvisational adj. improvisatorial adj.
improvisatory adj. improviser n. [F improviser or It.
improvvisare f. improvviso extempore, f. L improvisus past
part. (as IN-(1), PROVIDE)]
imprudent adj. rash, indiscreet. ЬЬimprudence n. imprudently adv. [ME
f. L imprudens (as IN-(1), PRUDENT)]
impudent adj. 1 insolently disrespectful; impertinent. 2 shamelessly
presumptuous. 3 unblushing. ЬЬimpudence n. impudently adv.
[ME f. L impudens (as IN-(1), pudere be ashamed)]
n. shamelessness, immodesty. [F impudicit‚ f. L impudicus (as
impugn v.tr. challenge or call in question (a statement, action,
etc.). ЬЬimpugnable adj. impugnment n. [ME f. L impugnare
assail (as IN-(2), pugnare fight)]
adj. impotent, weak. ЬЬimpuissance n. [F (as IN-(1),
impulse n. 1 the act or an instance of impelling; a push. 2 an
impetus. 3 Physics a an indefinitely large force acting for a
very short time but producing a finite change of momentum (e.g.
the blow of a hammer). b the change of momentum produced by
this or any force. 4 a wave of excitation in a nerve. 5 mental
incitement. 6 a sudden desire or tendency to act without
reflection (did it on impulse). Ьimpulse buying the
unpremeditated buying of goods as a result of a whim or impulse.
[L impulsus (as IMPEL)]
impulsion n. 1 the act or an instance of impelling. 2 a mental impulse.
3 impetus. [ME f. OF f. L impulsio -onis (as IMPEL)]
impulsive adj. 1 (of a person or conduct etc.) apt to be affected or
determined by sudden impulse. 2 tending to impel. 3 Physics
acting as an impulse. ЬЬimpulsively adv. impulsiveness n. [ME
f. F impulsif -ive or LL impulsivus (as IMPULSION)]
impunity n. exemption from punishment or from the injurious consequences
of an action. Ьwith impunity without having to suffer the
normal injurious consequences (of an action). [L impunitas f.
impunis (as IN-(1), poena penalty)]
impure adj. 1 mixed with foreign matter; adulterated. 2 dirty. 3
unchaste. 4 (of a colour) mixed with another colour.
ЬЬimpurely adv. impureness n. [ME f. L impurus (as IN-(1),
impurity n. (pl. -ies) 1 the quality or condition of being impure. 2
an impure thing or constituent. [F impurit‚ or L impuritas (as
impute v.tr. (foll. by to) 1 regard (esp. something undesirable) as
being done or caused or possessed by. 2 Theol. ascribe
(righteousness, guilt, etc.) to (a person) by virtue of a
similar quality in another. ЬЬimputable adj. imputation n.
imputative adj. [ME f. OF imputer f. L imputare enter in the
account (as IN-(2), putare reckon)]
I.Mun.E. abbr. (in the UK) Institution of Municipal Engineers.
in prep., adv., & adj. --prep. 1 expressing inclusion or position
within limits of space, time, circumstance, etc. (in England; in
bed; in the rain). 2 during the time of (in the night; in
1989). 3 within the time of (will be back in two hours). 4 a
with respect to (blind in one eye; good in parts). b as a kind
of (the latest thing in luxury). 5 as a proportionate part of
(one in three failed; a gradient of one in six). 6 with the
form or arrangement of (packed in tens; falling in folds). 7 as
a member of (in the army). 8 concerned with (is in politics).
9 as or regarding the content of (there is something in what you
say). 10 within the ability of (does he have it in him?). 11
having the condition of; affected by (in bad health; in danger).
12 having as a purpose (in search of; in reply to). 13 by means
of or using as material (drawn in pencil; modelled in bronze).
14 a using as the language of expression (written in French). b
(of music) having as its key (symphony in C). 15 (of a word)
having as a beginning or ending (words in un-). 16 wearing as
dress (in blue; in a suit). 17 with the identity of (found a
friend in Mary). 18 (of an animal) pregnant with (in calf). 19
into (with a verb of motion or change: put it in the box; cut it
in two). 20 introducing an indirect object after a verb
(believe in; engage in; share in). 21 forming adverbial phrases
(in any case; in reality; in short). --adv. expressing position
within limits, or motion to such a position: 1 into a room,
house, etc. (come in). 2 at home, in one's office, etc. (is not
in). 3 so as to be enclosed or confined (locked in). 4 in a
publication (is the advertisement in?). 5 in or to the inward
side (rub it in). 6 a in fashion, season, or office (long
skirts are in; strawberries are not yet in). b elected (the
Democrat got in). 7 exerting favourable action or influence
(their luck was in). 8 Cricket (of a player or side) batting.
9 (of transport) at the platform etc. (the train is in). 10 (of
a season, harvest, order, etc.) having arrived or been received.
11 Brit. (of a fire) continuing to burn. 12 denoting effective
action (join in). 13 (of the tide) at the highest point. 14
(in comb.) colloq. denoting prolonged or concerted action, esp.
by large numbers (sit-in; teach-in). --adj. 1 internal; living
in; inside (in-patient). 2 fashionable, esoteric (the in thing
to do). 3 confined to or shared by a group of people (in-joke).
Ьin all see ALL. in at present at; contributing to (in at the
kill). in between see BETWEEN adv. in-between attrib.adj.
colloq. intermediate (at an in-between stage). in for 1 about
to undergo (esp. something unpleasant). 2 competing in or for.
3 involved in; committed to. in on sharing in; privy to (a
secret etc.). ins and outs (often foll. by of) all the details
(of a procedure etc.). in so far as see FAR. in that because;
in so far as. in with on good terms with. [OE in, inn, orig.
as adv. with verbs of motion]
in. abbr. inch(es).
in-(1) prefix (also il-, im-, ir-) added to: 1 adjectives, meaning
'not' (inedible; insane). 2 nouns, meaning 'without, lacking'
in-(2) prefix (also il- before l, im- before b, m, p, ir- before r) in,
on, into, towards, within (induce; influx; insight; intrude).
[IN, or from or after L in IN prep.]
-ina suffix denoting: 1 feminine names and titles (Georgina;
tsarina). 2 names of musical instruments (concertina). 3 names
of zoological classification categories (globigerina). [It. or
Sp. or L]
inability n. 1 the state of being unable. 2 a lack of power or means.
adv. in (his, her, or their) absence. [L]
adj. 1 not accessible; that cannot be reached. 2 (of a person)
not open to advances or influence; unapproachable.
ЬЬinaccessibility n. inaccessibleness n. inaccessibly adv.
[ME f. F inaccessible or LL inaccessibilis (as IN-(1),
adj. not accurate. ЬЬinaccuracy n. (pl. -ies). inaccurately
inaction n. 1 lack of action. 2 sluggishness, inertness.
v.tr. make inactive or inoperative. ЬЬinactivation n.
inactive adj. 1 not active or inclined to act. 2 passive. 3 indolent.
ЬЬinactively adv. inactivity n.
adj. (often foll. by to) 1 not adequate; insufficient. 2 (of a
person) incompetent; unable to deal with a situation.
ЬЬinadequacy n. (pl. -ies). inadequately adv.
adj. that cannot be admitted or allowed. ЬЬinadmissibility n.
adj. 1 (of an action) unintentional. 2 a not properly
attentive. b negligent. ЬЬinadvertence n. inadvertency n.
inadvertently adv. [IN-(1) + obs. advertent attentive (as
adj. not advisable. ЬЬinadvisability n. [ADVISABLE]
adj. that cannot be transferred to another; not alienable.
ЬЬinalienability n. inalienably adv.
adj. not alterable; that cannot be changed. ЬЬinalterability
n. inalterably adv. [med.L inalterabilis (as IN-(1),
inamorato n. (pl. -os; fem. inamorata) a lover. [It., past part. of
inamorare enamour (as IN-(2), amore f. L amor love)]
inane adj. 1 silly, senseless. 2 empty, void. ЬЬinanely adv.
inaneness n. inanity n. (pl. -ies). [L inanis empty, vain]
inanimate adj. 1 destitute of life. 2 not endowed with animal life. 3
spiritless, dull. Ьinanimate nature everything other than the
animal world. ЬЬinanimately adv. inanimation n. [LL
inanimatus (as IN-(1), ANIMATE)]
inanition n. emptiness, esp. exhaustion from lack of nourishment. [ME f.
LL inanitio f. L inanire make empty (as INANE)]
adj. that cannot be appealed against. [obs.F inappelable (as
IN-(1), appeler APPEAL)]
adj. (often foll. by to) not applicable; unsuitable.
ЬЬinapplicability n. inapplicably adv.
adj. not apposite; out of place. ЬЬinappositely adv.
adj. 1 imperceptible; not worth reckoning. 2 that cannot be
appreciated. ЬЬinappreciably adv.
n. failure to appreciate. ЬЬinappreciative adj.
adj. not appropriate. ЬЬinappropriately adv.
inapt adj. 1 not apt or suitable. 2 unskilful. ЬЬinaptitude n.
inaptly adv. inaptness n.
inarch v.tr. graft (a plant) by connecting a growing branch without
separation from the parent stock. [IN-(2) + ARCH(1) v.]
adj. that cannot be argued about or disputed. ЬЬinarguably
adj. 1 unable to speak distinctly or express oneself clearly.
2 (of speech) not articulate; indistinctly pronounced. 3 dumb.
4 esp. Anat. not jointed. ЬЬinarticulately adv.
inarticulateness n. [LL inarticulatus (as IN-(1), ARTICULATE)]
adj. 1 not following the principles of art. 2 lacking skill or
talent in art; not appreciating art. ЬЬinartistically adv.
inasmuch adv. (foll. by as) 1 since, because. 2 to the extent that.
[ME, orig. in as much]
adj. 1 not paying due attention; heedless. 2 neglecting to
show courtesy. ЬЬinattention n. inattentively adv.
inaudible adj. that cannot be heard. ЬЬinaudibility n. inaudibly adv.
inaugural adj. & n. --adj. 1 of inauguration. 2 (of a lecture etc.)
given by a person being inaugurated. --n. an inaugural speech
etc. [F f. inaugurer (as INAUGURATE)]
v.tr. 1 admit (a person) formally to office. 2 initiate the
public use of (a building etc.). 3 begin, introduce. 4 enter
with ceremony upon (an undertaking etc.). ЬЬinauguration n.
inaugurator n. inauguratory adj. [L inaugurare (as IN-(2),
augurare take omens: see AUGUR)]
inboard adv. & adj. --adv. within the sides of or towards the centre of
a ship, aircraft, or vehicle. --adj. situated inboard.
inborn adj. existing from birth; implanted by nature.
inbreathe v.tr. 1 breathe in or absorb. 2 inspire (a person).
inbred adj. 1 inborn. 2 produced by inbreeding.
n. breeding from closely related animals or persons. ЬЬinbreed
v.tr. & intr. (past and past part. inbred).
inbuilt adj. incorporated as part of a structure.
Inc. abbr. US Incorporated.
Inca n. a member of an American Indian people in Peru before the
Spanish conquest. ЬЬIncaic adj. Incan adj. [Quechua, = lord,
adj. 1 too great for calculation. 2 that cannot be reckoned
beforehand. 3 (of a person, character, etc.) uncertain.
ЬЬincalculability n. incalculably adv.
in camera see CAMERA.
v.intr. & tr. glow or cause to glow with heat. [back-form. f.
adj. 1 glowing with heat. 2 shining brightly. 3 (of an
electric or other light) produced by a glowing white-hot
filament. ЬЬincandescence n. incandescently adv. [F f. L
incandescere (as IN-(2), candescere inceptive of candere be
n. 1 a a magical formula. b the use of this. 2 a spell or
charm. ЬЬincantational adj. incantatory adj. [ME f. OF f. LL
incantatio -onis f. incantare chant, bewitch (as IN-(2),
incapable adj. 1 (often foll. by of) a not capable. b lacking the
required quality or characteristic (favourable or adverse)
(incapable of hurting anyone). 2 not capable of rational
conduct or of managing one's own affairs (drunk and incapable).
ЬЬincapability n. incapably adv. [F incapable or LL
incapabilis (as IN-(1), capabilis CAPABLE)]
v.tr. 1 render incapable or unfit. 2 disqualify.
ЬЬincapacitant n. incapacitation n.
n. (pl. -ies) 1 inability; lack of the necessary power or
resources. 2 legal disqualification. 3 an instance of
incapacity. [F incapacit‚ or LL incapacitas (as IN-(1),
v.tr. imprison or confine. ЬЬincarceration n. incarcerator n.
[med.L incarcerare (as IN-(2), L carcer prison)]
adj. & v. poet. --adj. flesh-coloured or crimson. --v.tr. dye
this colour. [F incarnadin -ine f. It. incarnadino (for -tino)
f. incarnato INCARNATE adj.]
incarnate adj. & v. --adj. 1 (of a person, spirit, quality, etc.)
embodied in flesh, esp. in human form (is the devil incarnate).
2 represented in a recognizable or typical form (folly
incarnate). --v.tr. 1 embody in flesh. 2 put (an idea etc.)
into concrete form; realize. 3 (of a person etc.) be the living
embodiment of (a quality). [ME f. eccl.L incarnare incarnat-
make flesh (as IN-(2), L caro carnis flesh)]
n. 1 a embodiment in (esp. human) flesh. b (the Incarnation)
Theol. the embodiment of God the Son in human flesh as Jesus
Christ. 2 (often foll. by of) a living type (of a quality
etc.). 3 Med. the process of forming new flesh. [ME f. OF f.
eccl.L incarnatio -onis (as INCARNATE)]
incase var. of ENCASE.
adj. heedless, rash. ЬЬincaution n. incautiously adv.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (of a substance or device, esp. a bomb)
designed to cause fires. 2 a of or relating to the malicious
setting on fire of property. b guilty of this. 3 tending to
stir up strife; inflammatory. --n. (pl. -ies) 1 an incendiary
bomb or device. 2 an incendiary person. ЬЬincendiarism n. [ME
f. L incendiarius f. incendium conflagration f. incendere
incens- set fire to]
n. & v. --n. 1 a gum or spice producing a sweet smell when
burned. 2 the smoke of this, esp. in religious ceremonial.
--v.tr. 1 treat or perfume (a person or thing) with incense. 2
burn incense to (a deity etc.). 3 suffuse with fragrance.
ЬЬincensation n. [ME f. OF encens, encenser f. eccl.L incensum
a thing burnt, incense: see INCENDIARY]
v.tr. (often foll. by at, with, against) enrage; make angry.
[ME f. OF incenser (as INCENDIARY)]
incensory n. (pl. -ies) = CENSER. [med.L incensorium (as INCENSE(1))]
incentive n. & adj. --n. 1 (often foll. by to) a motive or incitement,
esp. to action. 2 a payment or concession to stimulate greater
output by workers. --adj. serving to motivate or incite. [ME
f. L incentivus setting the tune f. incinere incent- sing to
(as IN-(2), canere sing)]
incept v. 1 tr. Biol. (of an organism) take in (food etc.). 2 intr.
Brit. hist. take a master's or doctor's degree at a university.
ЬЬinceptor n. (in sense 2). [L incipere incept- begin (as
IN-(2), capere take)]
inception n. a beginning. [ME f. OF inception or L inceptio (as INCEPT)]
inceptive adj. & n. --adj. 1 a beginning. b initial. 2 Gram. (of a
verb) that denotes the beginning of an action. --n. an
inceptive verb. [LL inceptivus (as INCEPT)]
n. uncertainty, doubt. [F incertitude or LL incertitudo (as
incessant adj. unceasing, continual, repeated. ЬЬincessancy n.
incessantly adv. incessantness n. [F incessant or LL incessans
(as IN-(1), cessans pres. part. of L cessare CEASE)]
incest n. sexual intercourse between persons regarded as too closely
related to marry each other. [ME f. L incestus (as IN-(1),
adj. 1 involving or guilty of incest. 2 (of human relations
generally) excessively restricted or resistant to wider
influence. ЬЬincestuously adv. incestuousness n. [LL
incestuosus (as INCEST)]
inch(1) n. & v. --n. 1 a unit of linear measure equal to one-twelfth
of a foot (2.54 cm). 2 a (as a unit of rainfall) a quantity
that would cover a horizontal surface to a depth of 1 inch. b
(of atmospheric or other pressure) an amount that balances the
weight of a column of mercury 1 inch high. 3 (as a unit of
map-scale) so many inches representing 1 mile on the ground (a
4-inch map). 4 a small amount (usu. with neg.: would not yield
an inch). --v.tr. & intr. move gradually in a specified way
(inched forward). Ьevery inch 1 entirely (looked every inch a
queen). 2 the whole distance or area (combed every inch of the
garden). give a person an inch and he or she will take a mile
(or orig. an ell) a person once conceded to will demand much.
inch by inch gradually; bit by bit. within an inch of almost to
the point of. [OE ynce f. L uncia twelfth part: cf. OUNCE(1)]
inch(2) n. esp. Sc. a small island (esp. in place-names). [ME f.
inchoate adj. & v. --adj. 1 just begun. 2 undeveloped, rudimentary,
unformed. --v.tr. begin; originate. ЬЬinchoately adv.
inchoateness n. inchoation n. inchoative adj. [L inchoatus
past part. of inchoare (as IN-(2), choare begin)]
inchworm n. = measuring-worm (see MEASURE).
incidence n. 1 (often foll. by of) the fact, manner, or rate, of
occurrence or action. 2 the range, scope, or extent of
influence of a thing. 3 Physics the falling of a line, or of a
thing moving in a line, upon a surface. 4 the act or an
instance of coming into contact with a thing. Ьangle of
incidence the angle which an incident line, ray, etc., makes
with the perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.
[ME f. OF incidence or med.L incidentia (as INCIDENT)]
incident n. & adj. --n. 1 a an event or occurrence. b a minor or
detached event attracting general attention or noteworthy in
some way. 2 a hostile clash, esp. of troops of countries at war
(a frontier incident). 3 a distinct piece of action in a play
or a poem. 4 Law a privilege, burden, etc., attaching to an
obligation or right. --adj. 1 a (often foll. by to) apt or
liable to happen; naturally attaching or dependent. b (foll. by
to) Law attaching to. 2 (often foll. by on, upon) (of light
etc.) falling or striking. [ME f. F incident or L incidere (as
IN-(2), cadere fall)]
adj. 1 (often foll. by to) a having a minor role in relation to
a more important thing, event, etc. b not essential. 2 (foll.
by to) liable to happen. 3 (foll. by on, upon) following as a
subordinate event. Ьincidental music music used as a background
to the action of a film, broadcast, etc.
adv. 1 by the way; as an unconnected remark. 2 in an
v.tr. 1 consume (a body etc.) by fire. 2 reduce to ashes.
ЬЬincineration n. [med.L incinerare (as IN-(2), cinis -eris
n. a furnace or apparatus for burning esp. refuse to ashes.
incipient adj. 1 beginning. 2 in an initial stage. ЬЬincipience n.
incipiency n. incipiently adv. [L incipere incipient- (as
incise v.tr. 1 make a cut in. 2 engrave. [F inciser f. L incidere
incis- (as IN-(2), caedere cut)]
incision n. 1 a cut; a division produced by cutting; a notch. 2 the act
of cutting into a thing. [ME f. OF incision or LL incisio (as
incisor n. a cutting-tooth, esp. at the front of the mouth. [med.L, =
cutter (as INCISE)]
incite v.tr. (often foll. by to) urge or stir up. ЬЬincitation n.
incitement n. inciter n. [ME f. F inciter f. L incitare (as
IN-(2), citare rouse)]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 rudeness, discourtesy. 2 a rude or
discourteous act. [F incivilit‚ or LL incivilitas (as IN-(1),
inclement adj. (of the weather or climate) severe, esp. cold or stormy.
ЬЬinclemency n. (pl. -ies). inclemently adv. [F incl‚ment or
L inclemens (as IN-(1), CLEMENT)]
n. 1 (often foll. by to) a disposition or propensity. 2 (often
foll. by for) a liking or affection. 3 a leaning, slope, or
slant. 4 the difference of direction of two lines or planes,
esp. as measured by the angle between them. 5 the dip of a
magnetic needle. [ME f. OF inclination or L inclinatio (as
incline v. & n. --v. 1 tr. (usu. in passive; often foll. by to, for,
or to + infin.) a make (a person, feelings, etc.) willing or
favourably disposed (am inclined to think so; does not incline
me to agree). b give a specified tendency to (a thing) (the
door is inclined to bang). 2 intr. a be disposed (I incline to
think so). b (often foll. by to, towards) tend. 3 intr. & tr.
lean or turn away from a given direction, esp. the vertical. 4
tr. bend (the head, body, or oneself) forward or downward. --n.
1 a slope. 2 an inclined plane. Ьinclined plane a sloping
plane (esp. as a means of reducing the force needed to raise a
load). incline one's ear (often foll. by to) listen favourably.
ЬЬincliner n. [ME encline f. OF encliner f. L inclinare (as
IN-(2), clinare bend)]
n. 1 an instrument for measuring the angle between the
direction of the earth's magnetic field and the horizontal. 2
an instrument for measuring the inclination of an aircraft or
ship to the horizontal. 3 an instrument for measuring a slope.
[L inclinare INCLINE v. + -METER]
inclose var. of ENCLOSE.
inclosure var. of ENCLOSURE.
include v.tr. 1 comprise or reckon in as part of a whole. 2 (as
including prep.) if we include (six members, including the
chairman). 3 treat or regard as so comprised. 4 (as included
adj.) shut in; enclosed. Ьinclude out colloq. or joc.
specifically exclude. ЬЬincludable adj. includible adj.
inclusion n. [ME f. L includere inclus- (as IN-(2), claudere
inclusive adj. 1 (often foll. by of) including, comprising. 2 with the
inclusion of the extreme limits stated (pages 7 to 26
inclusive). 3 including all the normal services etc. (a hotel
offering inclusive terms). ЬЬinclusively adv. inclusiveness n.
[med.L inclusivus (as INCLUDE)]
incog adj., adv., & n. colloq. = INCOGNITO. [abbr.]
incognito adj., adv., & n. --adj. & adv. with one's name or identity kept
secret (was travelling incognito). --n. (pl. -os) 1 a person
who is incognito. 2 the pretended identity or anonymous
character of such a person. [It., = unknown, f. L incognitus
(as IN-(1), cognitus past part. of cognoscere know)]
adj. (foll. by of) unaware; not knowing. ЬЬincognizance n.
adj. 1 (of a person) unable to speak intelligibly. 2 (of
speech etc.) lacking logic or consistency. 3 Physics (of waves)
having no definite or stable phase relationship. ЬЬincoherence
n. incoherency n. (pl. -ies). incoherently adv.
adj. that cannot be burnt or consumed by fire.
ЬЬincombustibility n. [ME f. med.L incombustibilis (as IN-(1),
income n. the money or other assets received, esp. periodically or in
a year, from one's business, lands, work, investments, etc.
Ьincome group a section of the population determined by income.
income tax a tax levied on income. [ME (orig. = arrival), prob.
f. ON innkoma: in later use f. come in]
incomer n. 1 a person who comes in. 2 a person who arrives to settle
in a place; an immigrant. 3 an intruder. 4 a successor.
-incomer comb. form earning a specified kind or level of income
incoming adj. & n. --adj. 1 coming in (the incoming tide; incoming
telephone calls). 2 succeeding another person or persons (the
incoming tenant). 3 immigrant. 4 (of profit) accruing. --n.
1 (usu. in pl.) revenue, income. 2 the act of arriving or
adj. (often foll. by with) 1 not comparable in respect of
magnitude. 2 incapable of being measured (in comparison with).
3 Math. (of a magnitude or magnitudes) having no common factor,
integral or fractional. 4 Math. irrational.
ЬЬincommensurability n. incommensurably adv. [LL
incommensurabilis (as IN-(1), COMMENSURABLE)]
adj. 1 (often foll. by with, to) out of proportion; inadequate.
2 = INCOMMENSURABLE. ЬЬincommensurately adv.
incommode v.tr. 1 hinder, inconvenience. 2 trouble, annoy. [F
incommoder or L incommodare (as IN-(1), commodus convenient)]
adj. not affording good accommodation; uncomfortable.
ЬЬincommodiously adv. incommodiousness n.
adj. 1 that cannot be communicated or shared. 2 that cannot be
uttered or told. 3 that does not communicate; uncommunicative.
ЬЬincommunicability n. incommunicableness n. incommunicably
adv. [LL incommunicabilis (as IN-(1), COMMUNICABLE)]
adj. 1 without or deprived of the means of communication with
others. 2 (of a prisoner) in solitary confinement. [Sp.
incomunicado past part. of incomunicar deprive of communication]
adj. not communicative; taciturn. ЬЬincommunicatively adv.
adj. 1 not changeable. 2 not commutable. ЬЬincommutably adv.
[ME f. L incommutabilis (as IN-(1), COMMUTABLE)]
adj. 1 without an equal; matchless. 2 (often foll. by with,
to) not to be compared. ЬЬincomparability n. incomparableness
n. incomparably adv. [ME f. OF f. L incomparabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. 1 opposed in character; discordant. 2 (often foll. by
with) inconsistent. 3 (of persons) unable to live, work, etc.,
together in harmony. 4 (of drugs) not suitable for taking at
the same time. 5 (of equipment, machinery, etc.) not capable of
being used in combination. ЬЬincompatibility n.
incompatibleness n. incompatibly adv. [med.L incompatibilis
(as IN-(1), COMPATIBLE)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (often foll. by to + infin.) not qualified
or able to perform a particular task or function (an incompetent
builder). 2 showing a lack of skill (an incompetent
performance). 3 Med. (esp. of a valve or sphincter) not able to
perform its function. --n. an incompetent person.
ЬЬincompetence n. incompetency n. incompetently adv. [F
incomp‚tent or LL incompetens (as IN-(1), COMPETENT)]
adj. not complete. ЬЬincompletely adv. incompleteness n. [ME
f. LL incompletus (as IN-(1), COMPLETE)]
adj. (often foll. by to) that cannot be understood.
ЬЬincomprehensibility n. incomprehensibleness n.
incomprehensibly adv. [ME f. L incomprehensibilis (as IN-(1),
n. failure to understand.
adj. that cannot be compressed. ЬЬincompressibility n.
adj. 1 that cannot be imagined. 2 colloq. very remarkable.
ЬЬinconceivability n. inconceivableness n. inconceivably adv.
adj. (of an argument, evidence, or action) not decisive or
convincing. ЬЬinconclusively adv. inconclusiveness n.
adj. that cannot be condensed, esp. that cannot be reduced to a
liquid or solid condition.
adj. 1 out of place; absurd. 2 (often foll. by with)
disagreeing; out of keeping. ЬЬincongruity n. (pl. -ies).
incongruously adv. incongruousness n. [L incongruus (as
adj. lacking sequence; inconsequent. ЬЬinconsecutively adv.
adj. 1 not following naturally; irrelevant. 2 lacking logical
sequence. 3 disconnected. ЬЬinconsequence n. inconsequently
adv. [L inconsequens (as IN-(1), CONSEQUENT)]
adj. 1 unimportant. 2 = INCONSEQUENT. ЬЬinconsequentiality n.
(pl. -ies). inconsequentially adv. inconsequentialness n.
adj. 1 of small size, value, etc. 2 not worth considering.
ЬЬinconsiderableness n. inconsiderably adv. [obs. F
inconsid‚rable or LL inconsiderabilis (as IN-(1), CONSIDERABLE)]
adj. 1 (of a person or action) thoughtless, rash. 2 lacking in
regard for the feelings of others. ЬЬinconsiderately adv.
inconsiderateness n. inconsideration n. [L inconsideratus (as
adj. 1 acting at variance with one's own principles or former
conduct. 2 (often foll. by with) not in keeping; discordant,
incompatible. 3 (of a single thing) incompatible or discordant;
having self-contradictory parts. ЬЬinconsistency n. (pl.
-ies). inconsistently adv.
adj. (of a person, grief, etc.) that cannot be consoled or
comforted. ЬЬinconsolability n. inconsolableness n.
inconsolably adv. [F inconsolable or L inconsolabilis (as
IN-(1), consolabilis f. consolari CONSOLE(1))]
adj. (often foll. by with, to) not harmonious; not compatible.
ЬЬinconsonance n. inconsonantly adv.
adj. 1 not conspicuous; not easily noticed. 2 Bot. (of
flowers) small, pale, or green. ЬЬinconspicuously adv.
inconspicuousness n. [L inconspicuus (as IN-(1), CONSPICUOUS)]
adj. 1 (of a person) fickle, changeable. 2 frequently
changing; variable, irregular. ЬЬinconstancy n. (pl. -ies).
inconstantly adv. [ME f. OF f. L inconstans -antis (as IN-(1),
adj. that cannot be disputed. ЬЬincontestability n.
incontestably adv. [F incontestable or med.L incontestabilis
(as IN-(1), contestabilis f. L contestari CONTEST)]
adj. 1 unable to control movements of the bowels or bladder or
both. 2 lacking self-restraint (esp. in regard to sexual
desire). 3 (foll. by of) unable to control. ЬЬincontinence n.
incontinently adv. [ME f. OF or L incontinens (as IN-(1),
adj. indisputable, indubitable. ЬЬincontrovertibility n.
n. & v. --n. 1 lack of suitability to personal requirements or
ease. 2 a cause or instance of this. --v.tr. cause
inconvenience to. [ME f. OF f. LL inconvenientia (as
adj. 1 unfavourable to ease or comfort; not convenient. 2
awkward, troublesome. ЬЬinconveniently adv. [ME f. OF f. L
inconveniens -entis (as IN-(1), CONVENIENT)]
adj. 1 not convertible. 2 (esp. of currency) not convertible
into another form on demand. ЬЬinconvertibility n.
inconvertibly adv. [F inconvertible or LL inconvertibilis (as
n. lack of coordination, esp. of muscular action.
v. & adj. --v. 1 tr. (often foll. by in, with) unite; form
into one body or whole. 2 intr. become incorporated. 3 tr.
combine (ingredients) into one substance. 4 tr. admit as a
member of a company etc. 5 tr. a constitute as a legal
corporation. b (as incorporated adj.) forming a legal
corporation. --adj. 1 (of a company etc.) formed into a legal
corporation. 2 embodied. ЬЬincorporation n. incorporator n.
[ME f. LL incorporare (as IN-(2), L corpus -oris body)]
adj. 1 not composed of matter. 2 of immaterial beings. 3 Law
having no physical existence. ЬЬincorporeality n.
incorporeally adv. incorporeity n. [L incorporeus (as
incorrect adj. 1 not in accordance with fact; wrong. 2 (of style etc.)
improper, faulty. ЬЬincorrectly adv. incorrectness n. [ME f.
OF or L incorrectus (as IN-(1), CORRECT)]
adj. 1 (of a person or habit) incurably bad or depraved. 2 not
readily improved. ЬЬincorrigibility n. incorrigibleness n.
incorrigibly adv. [ME f. OF incorrigible or L incorrigibilis
(as IN-(1), CORRIGIBLE)]
adj. 1 that cannot be corrupted, esp. by bribery. 2 that
cannot decay; everlasting. ЬЬincorruptibility n. incorruptibly
adv. [ME f. OF incorruptible or eccl.L incorruptibilis (as
increase v. & n. --v. 1 tr. & intr. make or become greater in size,
amount, etc., or more numerous. 2 intr. advance (in quality,
attainment, etc.). 3 tr. intensify (a quality). --n. 1 the
act or process of becoming greater or more numerous; growth,
enlargement. 2 (of people, animals, or plants) growth in
numbers; multiplication. 3 the amount or extent of an increase.
Ьon the increase increasing, esp. in frequency. ЬЬincreasable
adj. increaser n. increasingly adv. [ME f. OF encreiss- stem
of encreistre f. L increscere (as IN-(2), crescere grow)]
adj. 1 that cannot be believed. 2 colloq. hard to believe;
amazing. ЬЬincredibility n. incredibleness n. incredibly adv.
[ME f. L incredibilis (as IN-(1), CREDIBLE)]
adj. (often foll. by of) unwilling to believe. ЬЬincredulity
n. incredulously adv. incredulousness n. [L incredulus (as
increment n. 1 a an increase or addition, esp. one of a series on a fixed
scale. b the amount of this. 2 Math. a small amount by which a
variable quantity increases. ЬЬincremental adj. [ME f. L
incrementum f. increscere INCREASE]
v.tr. 1 tend to prove the guilt of (incriminating evidence). 2
involve in an accusation. 3 charge with a crime.
ЬЬincrimination n. incriminatory adj. [LL incriminare (as
IN-(2), L crimen offence)]
incrust var. of ENCRUST.
n. 1 the process of encrusting or state of being encrusted. 2
a crust or hard coating, esp. of fine material. 3 a concretion
or deposit on a surface. 4 a facing of marble etc. on a
building. [F incrustation or LL incrustatio (as ENCRUST)]
incubate v. 1 tr. sit on or artificially heat (eggs) in order to bring
forth young birds etc. 2 tr. cause the development of (bacteria
etc.) by creating suitable conditions. 3 intr. sit on eggs;
brood. [L incubare (as IN-(2), cubare cubit- or cubat- lie)]
n. 1 a the act of incubating. b brooding. 2 Med. a a phase
through which the germs causing a disease pass before the
development of the first symptoms. b the period of this.
ЬЬincubational adj. incubative adj. incubatory adj. [L
incubatio (as INCUBATE)]
incubator n. 1 an apparatus used to provide a suitable temperature and
environment for a premature baby or one of low birth-weight. 2
an apparatus used to hatch eggs or grow micro-organisms.
incubus n. (pl. incubuses or incubi) 1 an evil spirit supposed to
descend on sleeping persons. 2 a nightmare. 3 a person or
thing that oppresses like a nightmare. [ME f. LL, = L incubo
nightmare (as INCUBATE)]
incudes pl. of INCUS.
inculcate v.tr. (often foll. by upon, in) urge or impress (a fact, habit,
or idea) persistently. ЬЬinculcation n. inculcator n. [L
inculcare (as IN-(2), calcare tread f. calx calcis heel)]
inculpate v.tr. 1 involve in a charge. 2 accuse, blame. ЬЬinculpation
n. inculpative adj. inculpatory adj. [LL inculpare (as
IN-(2), culpare blame f. culpa fault)]
n. (pl. -ies) the office, tenure, or sphere of an incumbent.
incumbent adj. & n. --adj. 1 (foll. by on, upon) resting as a duty (it
is incumbent on you to warn them). 2 (often foll. by on) lying,
pressing. --n. the holder of an office or post, esp. an
ecclesiastical benefice. [ME f. AL incumbens pres. part. of L
incumbere lie upon (as IN-(2), cubare lie)]
incunable n. = INCUNABULUM 1. [F, formed as INCUNABULUM]
n. (pl. incunabula) 1 a book printed at an early date, esp.
before 1501. 2 (in pl.) the early stages of the development of
a thing. [L incunabula swaddling-clothes, cradle (as IN-(2),
incur v.tr. (incurred, incurring) suffer, experience, or become
subject to (something unpleasant) as a result of one's own
behaviour etc. (incurred huge debts). ЬЬincurrable adj. [ME f.
L incurrere incurs- (as IN-(2), currere run)]
incurable adj. & n. --adj. that cannot be cured. --n. a person who
cannot be cured. ЬЬincurability n. incurableness n. incurably
adv. [ME f. OF incurable or LL incurabilis (as IN-(1),
incurious adj. 1 lacking curiosity. 2 heedless, careless. ЬЬincuriosity
n. incuriously adv. incuriousness n. [L incuriosus (as
incursion n. an invasion or attack, esp. when sudden or brief.
ЬЬincursive adj. [ME f. L incursio (as INCUR)]
incurve v.tr. 1 bend into a curve. 2 (as incurved adj.) curved
inwards. ЬЬincurvation n. [L incurvare (as IN-(2), CURVE)]
incus n. (pl. incudes) the small anvil-shaped bone in the middle
ear, in contact with the malleus and stapes. [L, = anvil]
incuse n., v., & adj. --n. an impression hammered or stamped on a
coin. --v.tr. 1 mark (a coin) with a figure by stamping. 2
impress (a figure) on a coin by stamping. --adj. hammered or
stamped on a coin. [L incusus past part. of incudere (as
IN-(2), cudere forge)]
Ind. abbr. 1 Independent. 2 a India. b Indian. 3 Indiana.
indaba n. S.Afr. 1 a conference between or with members of S. African
native tribes. 2 colloq. one's problem or concern. [Zulu, =
indebted adj. (usu. foll. by to) 1 owing gratitude or obligation. 2
owing money. ЬЬindebtedness n. [ME f. OF endett‚ past part. of
endetter involve in debt (as EN-(1), detter f. dette DEBT)]
indecent adj. 1 offending against recognized standards of decency. 2
unbecoming; highly unsuitable (with indecent haste). Ьindecent
assault a sexual attack not involving rape. indecent exposure
the intentional act of publicly and indecently exposing one's
body, esp. the genitals. ЬЬindecency n. (pl. -ies).
indecently adv. [F ind‚cent or L indecens (as IN-(1), DECENT)]
adj. that cannot be deciphered.
n. lack of decision; hesitation. [F ind‚cision (as IN-(1),
adj. 1 not decisive. 2 undecided, hesitating. ЬЬindecisively
adv. indecisiveness n.
adj. Gram. 1 that cannot be declined. 2 having no
inflections. [ME f. F ind‚clinable f. L indeclinabilis (as
adj. 1 improper. 2 in bad taste. ЬЬindecorously adv.
indecorousness n. [L indecorus (as IN-(1), decorus seemly)]
indecorum n. 1 lack of decorum. 2 improper behaviour. [L, neut. of
indecorus: see INDECOROUS]
indeed adv. & int. --adv. 1 in truth; really (they are, indeed, a
remarkable family). 2 expressing emphasis or intensification (I
shall be very glad indeed; indeed it is). 3 admittedly (there
are indeed exceptions). 4 in point of fact (if indeed such a
thing is possible). 5 expressing an approving or ironic echo
(who is this Mr Smith? -- who is he indeed?). --int. expressing
irony, contempt, incredulity, etc.
adj. (of a person, quality, etc.) that cannot be tired out;
unwearying, unremitting. ЬЬindefatigability n. indefatigably
adv. [obs. F ind‚fatigable or L indefatigabilis (as IN-(1),
defatigare wear out)]
adj. literary (esp. of a claim, rights, etc.) that cannot be
lost. ЬЬindefeasibility n. indefeasibly adv.
adj. 1 unfailing; not liable to defect or decay. 2 faultless.
[IN-(1) + defectible f. LL defectibilis (as DEFECT)]
adj. that cannot be defended or justified. ЬЬindefensibility
n. indefensibly adv.
adj. that cannot be defined or exactly described.
adj. 1 vague, undefined. 2 unlimited. 3 Gram. not determining
the person, thing, time, etc., referred to. Ьindefinite article
see ARTICLE. indefinite integral see INTEGRAL. indefinite
pronoun Gram. a pronoun indicating a person, amount, etc.,
without being definite or particular, e.g. any, some, anyone.
ЬЬindefiniteness n. [L indefinitus (as IN-(1), DEFINITE)]
adv. 1 for an unlimited time (was postponed indefinitely). 2
in an indefinite manner.
adj. Bot. (of fruit) not splitting open when ripe.
indelible adj. 1 that cannot be rubbed out or (in abstract senses)
removed. 2 (of ink etc.) that makes indelible marks.
ЬЬindelibility n. indelibly adv. [F ind‚l‚bile or L
indelebilis (as IN-(1), delebilis f. delere efface)]
adj. 1 coarse, unrefined. 2 tactless. 3 tending to indecency.
ЬЬindelicacy n. (pl. -ies). indelicately adv.
indemnify v.tr. (-ies, -ied) 1 (often foll. by from, against) protect or
secure (a person) in respect of harm, a loss, etc. 2 (often
foll. by for) secure (a person) against legal responsibility for
actions. 3 (often foll. by for) compensate (a person) for a
loss, expenses, etc. ЬЬindemnification n. indemnifier n. [L
indemnis unhurt (as IN-(1), damnum loss, damage)]
indemnity n. (pl. -ies) 1 a compensation for loss incurred. b a sum
paid for this, esp. a sum exacted by a victor in war etc. as one
condition of peace. 2 security against loss. 3 legal exemption
from penalties etc. incurred. [ME f. F indemnit‚ or LL
indemnitas -tatis (as INDEMNIFY)]
adj. that cannot be proved (esp. of primary or axiomatic
indene n. Chem. a colourless flammable liquid hydrocarbon obtained
from coal tar and used in making synthetic resins. [INDOLE +
indent(1) v. & n. --v. 1 tr. start (a line of print or writing) further
from the margin than other lines, e.g. to mark a new paragraph.
2 tr. a divide (a document drawn up in duplicate) into its two
copies with a zigzag line dividing them and ensuring
identification. b draw up (usu. a legal document) in exact
duplicate. 3 Brit. a intr. (often foll. by on, upon a person,
for a thing) make a requisition (orig. a written order with a
duplicate). b tr. order (goods) by requisition. 4 tr. make
toothlike notches in. 5 tr. form deep recesses in (a coastline
etc.). --n. 1 Brit. a an order (esp. from abroad) for goods.
b an official requisition for stores. 2 an indented line. 3
indentation. 4 an indenture. ЬЬindenter n. indentor n. [ME
f. AF endenter f. AL indentare (as IN-(2), L dens dentis tooth)]
indent(2) v.tr. 1 make a dent in. 2 impress (a mark etc.). [ME f.
IN-(2) + DENT]
n. 1 the act or an instance of indenting; the process of being
indented. 2 a cut or notch. 3 a zigzag. 4 a deep recess in a
indention n. 1 the indenting of a line in printing or writing. 2 =
indenture n. & v. --n. 1 an indented document (see INDENT(1) v. 2). 2
a sealed agreement or contract (usu. in pl.). 3 a formal list,
certificate, etc. --v.tr. hist. bind (a person) by indentures,
esp. as an apprentice. ЬЬindentureship n. [ME (orig. Sc.) f.
AF endenture (as INDENT(1))]
n. 1 (often foll. by of, from) the state of being independent.
2 independent income. ЬIndependence Day a day celebrating the
anniversary of national independence, esp. 4 July in the US.
n. (pl. -ies) 1 an independent State. 2 = INDEPENDENCE.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 a (often foll. by of) not depending on
authority or control. b self-governing. 2 a not depending on
another person for one's opinion or livelihood. b (of income or
resources) making it unnecessary to earn one's living. 3
unwilling to be under an obligation to others. 4 Polit. not
belonging to or supported by a party. 5 not depending on
something else for its validity, efficiency, value, etc.
(independent proof). 6 (of broadcasting, a school, etc.) not
supported by public funds. 7 (Independent) hist.
Congregational. --n. 1 a person who is politically
independent. 2 (Independent) hist. a Congregationalist.
in-depth see DEPTH.
adj. 1 too unusual or extreme to be described. 2 vague,
indefinite. ЬЬindescribability n. indescribably adv.
adj. that cannot be destroyed. ЬЬindestructibility n.
adj. 1 that cannot be ascertained. 2 (of a dispute etc.) that
cannot be settled. ЬЬindeterminably adv. [ME f. LL
indeterminabilis (as IN-(1), L determinare DETERMINE)]
adj. 1 not fixed in extent, character, etc. 2 left doubtful;
vague. 3 Math. (of a quantity) not limited to a fixed value by
the value of another quantity. 4 (of a judicial sentence) such
that the convicted person's conduct determines the date of
release. Ьindeterminate vowel the obscure vowel heard in ' a
mom ent ago'; a schwa. ЬЬindeterminacy n. indeterminately adv.
indeterminateness n. [ME f. LL indeterminatus (as IN-(1),
n. 1 lack of determination. 2 the state of being
n. the belief that human action is not wholly determined by
motives. ЬЬindeterminist n. indeterministic adj.
index n. & v. --n. (pl. indexes or esp. in technical use indices) 1
an alphabetical list of names, subjects, etc., with references,
usu. at the end of a book. 2 = card index. 3 (in full index
number) a number showing the variation of prices or wages as
compared with a chosen base period (retail price index;
Dow-Jones index). 4 Math. a the exponent of a number. b the
power to which it is raised. 5 a a pointer, esp. on an
instrument, showing a quantity, a position on a scale, etc. b
an indicator of a trend, direction, tendency, etc. c (usu.
foll. by of) a sign, token, or indication of something. 6
Physics a number expressing a physical property etc. in terms of
a standard (refractive index). 7 Computing a set of items each
of which specifies one of the records of a file and contains
information about its address. 8 (Index) RC Ch. hist. a list
of books forbidden to Roman Catholics to read. 9 Printing a
symbol shaped like a pointing hand, used to draw attention to a
note etc. --v.tr. 1 provide (a book etc.) with an index. 2
enter in an index. 3 relate (wages etc.) to the value of a
price index. Ьindex finger the forefinger. index-linked
related to the value of a retail price index. ЬЬindexation n.
indexer n. indexible adj. indexical adj. indexless adj. [ME
f. L index indicis forefinger, informer, sign: sense 8 f. L
Index librorum prohibitorum list of prohibited books]
India ink n. US = Indian ink. [India in Asia: see INDIAN]
Indiaman n. (pl. -men) Naut. hist. a ship engaged in trade with India
or the East Indies.
Indian n. & adj. --n. 1 a a native or national of India. b a person
of Indian descent. 2 (in full American Indian) a member of the
aboriginal peoples of America or their descendants. 3 any of
the languages of the aboriginal peoples of America. --adj. 1
of or relating to India, or to the subcontinent comprising
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. 2 of or relating to the
aboriginal peoples of America. ЬIndian clubs a pair of
bottle-shaped clubs swung to exercise the arms in gymnastics.
Indian corn maize. Indian elephant the elephant, Elephas
maximus, of India, which is smaller than the African elephant.
Indian file = single file. Indian hemp see HEMP 1. Indian ink
Brit. 1 a black pigment made orig. in China and Japan. 2 a
dark ink made from this, used esp. in drawing and technical
graphics. Indian Ocean the ocean between Africa to the west,
and Australia to the east. Indian rope-trick the supposed
Indian feat of climbing an upright unsupported length of rope.
Indian summer 1 a period of unusually dry warm weather sometimes
occurring in late autumn. 2 a late period of life characterized
by comparative calm. [ME f. India ult. f. Gk Indos the River
Indus f. Pers. Hind: cf. HINDU]
n. 1 a soft absorbent kind of paper orig. imported from China,
used for proofs of engravings. 2 a very thin tough opaque
n. = RUBBER(1) 2.
Indic adj. & n. --adj. of the group of Indo-European languages
comprising Sanskrit and its modern descendants. --n. this
language-group. [L Indicus f. Gk Indikos INDIAN]
indicate v.tr. (often foll. by that + clause) 1 point out; make known;
show. 2 be a sign or symptom of; express the presence of. 3
(often in passive) suggest; call for; require or show to be
necessary (stronger measures are indicated). 4 admit to or
state briefly (indicated his disapproval). 5 (of a gauge etc.)
give as a reading. [L indicare (as IN-(2), dicare make known)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of indicating. 2 something
indicated or suggested. 3 a reading given by a gauge or
instrument. [F f. L indicatio (as INDICATE)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (foll. by of) suggestive; serving as an
indication. 2 Gram. (of a mood) denoting simple statement of a
fact. --n. Gram. 1 the indicative mood. 2 a verb in this
mood. ЬЬindicatively adv. [ME f. F indicatif -ive f. LL
indicativus (as INDICATE)]
indicator n. 1 a person or thing that indicates. 2 a device indicating
the condition of a machine etc. 3 a recording instrument
attached to an apparatus etc. 4 a board in a railway station
etc. giving current information. 5 a device (esp. a flashing
light) on a vehicle to show that it is about to change
direction. 6 a substance which changes colour at a given stage
in a chemical reaction. 7 Physics & Med. a radioactive tracer.
adj. = INDICATIVE adj. 1.
indices pl. of INDEX.
indicia n.pl. 1 distinguishing or identificatory marks. 2 signs,
indications. [pl. of L indicium (as INDEX)]
indicial adj. 1 of the nature or form of an index. 2 of the nature of
indict v.tr. accuse (a person) formally by legal process. ЬЬindictee
n. indicter n. [ME f. AF enditer indict f. OF enditier declare
f. Rmc indictare (unrecorded: as IN-(2), DICTATE)]
adj. 1 (of an offence) rendering the person who commits it
liable to be charged with a crime. 2 (of a person) so liable.
n. 1 the act of indicting. 2 a a formal accusation. b a legal
process in which this is made. c a document containing a
charge. 3 something that serves to condemn or censure. [ME f.
AF enditement (as INDICT)]
indie n. colloq. an independent record or film company.
Indies n.pl. (prec. by the) archaic India and adjacent regions (see
also East Indies, West Indies). [pl. of obs. Indy India]
n. 1 lack of interest or attention. 2 unimportance (a matter
of indifference). 3 neutrality. [L indifferentia (as
adj. 1 neither good nor bad; average, mediocre. 2 a not
especially good. b fairly bad. 3 (often prec. by very)
decidedly inferior. 4 (foll. by to) having no partiality for or
against; having no interest in or sympathy for. 5 chemically,
magnetically, etc., neutral. ЬЬindifferently adv. [ME f. OF
indifferent or L indifferens (as IN-(1), DIFFERENT)]
n. an attitude of indifference, esp. in religious matters.
v.tr. (also -ise) 1 make indigenous; subject to native
influence. 2 subject to increased use of indigenous people in
government etc. ЬЬindigenization n.
adj. 1 a (esp. of flora or fauna) originating naturally in a
region. b (of people) born in a region. 2 (foll. by to)
belonging naturally to a place. ЬЬindigenously adv.
indigenousness n. [L indigena f. indi- = IN-(2) + gen- be
indigent adj. needy, poor. ЬЬindigence n. [ME f. OF f. LL indigere f.
indi- = IN-(2) + egere need]
adj. 1 shapeless. 2 ill-considered. 3 not digested.
adj. 1 difficult or impossible to digest. 2 too complex or
awkward to read or comprehend easily. ЬЬindigestibility n.
indigestibly adv. [F indigestible or LL indigestibilis (as
n. 1 difficulty in digesting food. 2 pain or discomfort caused
by this. ЬЬindigestive adj. [ME f. OF indigestion or LL
indigestio (as IN-(1), DIGESTION)]
indignant adj. feeling or showing scornful anger or a sense of injured
innocence. ЬЬindignantly adv. [L indignari indignant- regard
as unworthy (as IN-(1), dignus worthy)]
n. scornful anger at supposed unjust or unfair conduct or
treatment. [ME f. OF indignation or L indignatio (as
indignity n. (pl. -ies) 1 unworthy treatment. 2 a slight or insult. 3
the humiliating quality of something (the indignity of my
position). [F indignit‚ or L indignitas (as INDIGNANT)]
indigo n. (pl. -os) 1 a a natural blue dye obtained from the indigo
plant. b a synthetic form of this dye. 2 any plant of the
genus Indigofera. 3 (in full indigo blue) a colour between blue
and violet in the spectrum. ЬЬindigotic adj. [16th-c. indico
(f. Sp.), indigo (f. Port.) f. L indicum f. Gk indikon INDIAN
indirect adj. 1 not going straight to the point. 2 (of a route etc.)
not straight. 3 not directly sought or aimed at (an indirect
result). 4 (of lighting) from a concealed source and diffusely
reflected. Ьindirect object Gram. a person or thing affected
by a verbal action but not primarily acted on (e.g. him in give
him the book). indirect question Gram. a question in reported
speech (e.g. they asked who I was). indirect speech (or
oration) = reported speech (see REPORT). indirect tax a tax
levied on goods and services and not on income or profits.
ЬЬindirectly adv. indirectness n. [ME f. OF indirect or med.L
indirectus (as IN-(1), DIRECT)]
adj. that cannot be discerned or distinguished from another.
ЬЬindiscernibility n. indiscernibly adv.
n. lack of discipline.
adj. 1 not discreet; revealing secrets. 2 injudicious, unwary.
ЬЬindiscreetly adv. [ME f. LL indiscretus (as IN-(1),
adj. not divided into distinct parts. [L indiscretus (as
n. 1 lack of discretion; indiscreet conduct. 2 an indiscreet
action, remark, etc. [ME f. OF indiscretion or LL indiscretio
(as IN-(1), DISCRETION)]
adj. 1 making no distinctions. 2 confused, promiscuous.
ЬЬindiscriminately adv. indiscriminateness n. indiscrimination
n. indiscriminative adj. [IN-(1) + discriminate (adj.) f. L
discriminatus past part. (as DISCRIMINATE)]
adj. 1 (often foll. by to, for) that cannot be dispensed with;
necessary. 2 (of a law, duty, etc.) that is not to be set
aside. ЬЬindispensability n. indispensableness n.
indispensably adv. [med.L indispensabilis (as IN-(1),
indispose v.tr. 1 (often foll. by for, or to + infin.) make unfit or
unable. 2 (often foll. by towards, from, or to + infin.) make
adj. 1 slightly unwell. 2 averse or unwilling.
n. 1 ill health, a slight or temporary ailment. 2
disinclination. 3 aversion. [F indisposition or IN-(1) +
adj. 1 that cannot be disputed. 2 unquestionable.
ЬЬindisputability n. indisputableness n. indisputably adv.
[LL indisputabilis (as IN-(1), DISPUTABLE)]
n. & adj. --n. a person who believes that the Church should not
remarry divorcees. --adj. of or holding this belief.
adj. 1 that cannot be dissolved or decomposed. 2 lasting,
stable (an indissoluble bond). ЬЬindissolubility n.
indissolubly adv. [L indissolubilis (as IN-(1), DISSOLUBLE)]
adj. 1 not distinct. 2 confused, obscure. ЬЬindistinctly adv.
indistinctness n. [ME f. L indistinctus (as IN-(1), DISTINCT)]
adj. not having distinctive features. ЬЬindistinctively adv.
adj. (often foll. by from) not distinguishable.
ЬЬindistinguishableness n. indistinguishably adv.
indite v.tr. formal or joc. 1 put (a speech etc.) into words. 2
write (a letter etc.). [ME f. OF enditier: see INDICT]
indium n. Chem. a soft silvery-white metallic element occurring
naturally in zinc blende etc., used for electroplating and in
semiconductors. °Symb.: In. [L indicum indigo with ref. to its
characteristic spectral lines]
adj. that cannot be turned aside. ЬЬindivertibly adv.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 single. 2 particular, special; not
general. 3 having a distinct character. 4 characteristic of a
particular person. 5 designed for use by one person. --n. 1 a
single member of a class. 2 a single human being as distinct
from a family or group. 3 colloq. a person (a most unpleasant
individual). [ME, = indivisible, f. med.L individualis (as
IN-(1), dividuus f. dividere DIVIDE)]
n. 1 the habit or principle of being independent and
self-reliant. 2 a social theory favouring the free action of
individuals. 3 self-centred feeling or conduct; egoism.
ЬЬindividualist n. individualistic adj. individualistically
n. (pl. -ies) 1 individual character, esp. when strongly
marked. 2 (in pl.) individual tastes etc. 3 separate
v.tr. (also -ise) 1 give an individual character to. 2
specify. ЬЬindividualization n.
adv. 1 personally; in an individual capacity. 2 in a
distinctive manner. 3 one by one; not collectively.
v.tr. individualize; form into an individual. ЬЬindividuation
n. [med.L individuare (as INDIVIDUAL)]
adj. 1 not divisible. 2 not distributable among a number.
ЬЬindivisibility n. indivisibly adv. [ME f. LL indivisibilis
(as IN-(1), DIVISIBLE)]
Indo- comb. form Indian; Indian and. [L Indus f. Gk Indos]
n. & adj. --n. 1 a member of any of the Aryan peoples of
India. 2 the Indic group of languages. --adj. of or relating
to the Indo-Aryans or Indo-Aryan.
adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to Indo-China in SE Asia. --n.
a native of Indo-China; a person of Indo-Chinese descent.
indocile adj. not docile. ЬЬindocility n. [F indocile or L indocilis
(as IN-(1), DOCILE)]
v.tr. 1 teach (a person or group) systematically or for a long
period to accept (esp. partisan or tendentious) ideas
uncritically. 2 teach, instruct. ЬЬindoctrination n.
indoctrinator n. [IN-(2) + DOCTRINE + -ATE(3)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or relating to the family of languages
spoken over the greater part of Europe and Asia as far as N.
India. 2 of or relating to the hypothetical parent language of
this family. --n. 1 the Indo-European family of languages. 2
the hypothetical parent language of all languages belonging to
this family. 3 (usu. in pl.) a speaker of an Indo-European
adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to the subfamily of
Indo-European languages spoken chiefly in N. India and Iran.
--n. this subfamily.
indole n. Chem. an organic compound with a characteristic odour
formed on the reduction of indigo. [INDIGO + L oleum oil]
n. Biochem. any of the several isomeric acetic acid
derivatives of indole, esp. one found as a natural growth
hormone in plants. °Abbr.: IAA. [INDOLE + ACETIC]
indolent adj. 1 lazy; wishing to avoid activity or exertion. 2 Med.
causing no pain (an indolent tumour). ЬЬindolence n.
indolently adv. [LL indolens (as IN-(1), dolere suffer pain)]
Indology n. the study of Indian history, literature, etc. ЬЬIndologist
adj. 1 that cannot be subdued; unyielding. 2 stubbornly
persistent. ЬЬindomitability n. indomitableness n.
indomitably adv. [LL indomitabilis (as IN-(1), L domitare
n. & adj. --n. 1 a a native or national of Indonesia in SE
Asia. b a person of Indonesian descent. 2 a member of the
chief pre-Malay population of the E. Indies. 3 a language of
the group spoken in the E. Indies, esp. the official language of
the Indonesian Republic (see also BAHASA INDONESIA). --adj. of
or relating to Indonesia or its people or language. [Indonesia
f. INDIES after Polynesia]
indoor adj. situated, carried on, or used within a building or under
cover (indoor aerial; indoor games). [earlier within-door: cf.
indoors adv. into or within a building. [earlier within doors]
indorse var. of ENDORSE.
indraught n. (US indraft) 1 the drawing in of something. 2 an inward
flow or current.
indrawn adj. 1 (of breath etc.) drawn in. 2 aloof.
indri n. (pl. indris) a large lemur, Indri indri, of Madagascar.
[Malagasy indry behold, mistaken for its name]
adj. that cannot be doubted. ЬЬindubitably adv. [F
indubitable or L indubitabilis (as IN-(1), dubitare to doubt)]
induce v.tr. 1 (often foll. by to + infin.) prevail on; persuade. 2
bring about; give rise to. 3 Med. bring on (labour)
artificially, esp. by use of drugs. 4 Electr. produce (a
current) by induction. 5 Physics cause (radioactivity) by
bombardment. 6 infer; derive as a deduction. ЬЬinducer n.
inducible adj. [ME f. L inducere induct- (as IN-(2), ducere
n. 1 (often foll. by to) an attraction that leads one on. 2 a
thing that induces.
induct v.tr. (often foll. by to, into) 1 introduce formally into
possession of a benefice. 2 install into a room, office, etc.
3 introduce, initiate. 4 US enlist (a person) for military
service. ЬЬinductee n. [ME (as INDUCE)]
n. Electr. the property of an electric circuit that causes an
electromotive force to be generated by a change in the current
induction n. 1 the act or an instance of inducting or inducing. 2 Med.
the process of bringing on (esp. labour) by artificial means. 3
Logic a the inference of a general law from particular instances
(cf. DEDUCTION). b Math. a means of proving a theorem by
showing that if it is true of any particular case it is true of
the next case in a series, and then showing that it is indeed
true in one particular case. c (foll. by of) the production of
(facts) to prove a general statement. 4 (often attrib.) a
formal introduction to a new job, position, etc. (attended an
induction course). 5 Electr. a the production of an electric
or magnetic state by the proximity (without contact) of an
electrified or magnetized body. b the production of an electric
current in a conductor by a change of magnetic field. 6 the
drawing of a fuel mixture into the cylinders of an
internal-combustion engine. 7 US enlistment for military
service. Ьinduction-coil a coil for generating intermittent
high voltage from a direct current. induction heating heating
by an induced electric current. [ME f. OF induction or L
inductio (as INDUCE)]
inductive adj. 1 (of reasoning etc.) of or based on induction. 2 of
electric or magnetic induction. ЬЬinductively adv.
inductiveness n. [LL inductivus (as INDUCE)]
inductor n. 1 Electr. a component (in a circuit) which possesses
inductance. 2 a person who inducts a member of the clergy. [L
indue var. of ENDUE.
indulge v. 1 intr. (often foll. by in) take pleasure freely. 2 tr.
yield freely to (a desire etc.). 3 tr. gratify the wishes of;
favour (indulged them with money). 4 intr. colloq. take
alcoholic liquor. ЬЬindulger n. [L indulgere indult- give free
n. 1 a the act of indulging. b the state of being indulgent.
2 something indulged in. 3 RC Ch. the remission of temporal
punishment in purgatory, still due for sins after absolution. 4
a privilege granted. ЬDeclaration of Indulgence the
proclamation of religious liberties, esp. under Charles II in
1672 and James II in 1687. [ME f. OF f. L indulgentia (as
indulgent adj. 1 ready or too ready to overlook faults etc. 2 indulging
or tending to indulge. ЬЬindulgently adv. [F indulgent or L
indulgere indulgent- (as INDULGE)]
n. (pl. indumenta) Bot. the covering of hairs on part of a
plant, esp. when dense. [L, = garment]
induna n. 1 S.Afr. a tribal councillor or headman. 2 a an African
foreman. b a person in authority. [Nguni inDuna captain,
indurate v. 1 tr. & intr. make or become hard. 2 tr. make callous or
unfeeling. 3 intr. become inveterate. ЬЬinduration n.
indurative adj. [L indurare (as IN-(2), durus hard)]
indusium n. (pl. indusia) 1 a membranous shield covering the
fruit-cluster of a fern. 2 a collection of hairs enclosing the
stigma of some flowers. 3 the case of a larva. ЬЬindusial adj.
[L, = tunic, f. induere put on (a garment)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or relating to industry or industries.
2 designed or suitable for industrial use (industrial alcohol).
3 characterized by highly developed industries (the industrial
nations). --n. (in pl.) shares in industrial companies.
Ьindustrial action Brit. any action, esp. a strike or work to
rule, taken by employees as a protest. industrial archaeology
the study of machines, factories, bridges, etc., formerly used
in industry. industrial estate Brit. an area of land developed
for the siting of industrial enterprises. industrial relations
the relations between management and workers in industries. the
Industrial Revolution the rapid development of a nation's
industry (esp. in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th c.).
ЬЬindustrially adv. [INDUSTRY + -AL: in 19th c. partly f. F
n. a social or economic system in which manufacturing
industries are prevalent.
n. a person engaged in the management of industry.
v. (also -ise) 1 tr. introduce industries to (a country or
region etc.). 2 intr. become industrialized.
adj. diligent, hard-working. ЬЬindustriously adv.
industriousness n. [F industrieux or LL industriosus (as
industry n. (pl. -ies) 1 a a branch of trade or manufacture. b trade
and manufacture collectively (incentives to industry). 2
concerted or copious activity (the building was a hive of
industry). 3 a diligence. b colloq. the diligent study of a
particular topic (the Shakespeare industry). 4 habitual
employment in useful work. [ME, = skill, f. F industrie or L
indwell v. (past and past part. indwelt) literary 1 intr. (often foll.
by in) be permanently present as a spirit, principle, etc. 2
tr. inhabit spiritually. ЬЬindweller n.
-ine(1) suffix forming adjectives, meaning 'belonging to, of the nature
of' (Alpine; asinine). [from or after F - in -ine, or f. L
-ine(2) suffix forming adjectives esp. from names of minerals, plants,
etc. (crystalline). [L -inus from or after Gk -inos]
-ine(3) suffix forming feminine nouns (heroine; margravine). [F f. L
-ina f. Gk -ine, or f. G -in]
-ine(4) suffix 1 forming (esp. abstract) nouns (discipline; medicine).
2 Chem. forming nouns denoting derived substances, esp.
alkaloids, halogens, amines, and amino acids. [F f. L -ina
(fem.) = -INE(1)]
inebriate v., adj., & n. --v.tr. 1 make drunk; intoxicate. 2 excite.
--adj. drunken. --n. a drunken person, esp. a habitual
drunkard. ЬЬinebriation n. inebriety n. [ME f. L inebriatus
past part. of inebriare (as IN-(2), ebrius drunk)]
inedible adj. not edible, esp. not suitable for eating (cf. UNEATABLE).
inedited adj. 1 not published. 2 published without editorial
alterations or additions.
adj. incapable of being educated, esp. through mental
retardation. ЬЬineducability n.
ineffable adj. 1 unutterable; too great for description in words. 2 that
must not be uttered. ЬЬineffability n. ineffably adv. [ME f.
OF ineffable or L ineffabilis (as IN-(1), effari speak out,
adj. that cannot be effaced. ЬЬineffaceability n.
adj. 1 not producing any effect or the desired effect. 2 (of a
person) inefficient; not achieving results. 3 lacking artistic
effect. ЬЬineffectively adv. ineffectiveness n.
adj. 1 a without effect. b not producing the desired or
expected effect. 2 (of a person) lacking the ability to achieve
results (an ineffectual leader). ЬЬineffectuality n.
ineffectually adv. ineffectualness n. [ME f. med.L
ineffectualis (as IN-(1), EFFECTUAL)]
adj. (of a remedy etc.) not producing the desired effect.
ЬЬinefficaciously adv. inefficaciousness n. inefficacy n.
adj. 1 not efficient. 2 (of a person) not fully capable; not
well qualified. ЬЬinefficiency n. inefficiently adv.
inelastic adj. 1 not elastic. 2 unadaptable, inflexible, unyielding.
ЬЬinelastically adv. inelasticity n.
inelegant adj. 1 ungraceful. 2 a unrefined. b (of a style) unpolished.
ЬЬinelegance n. inelegantly adv. [F in‚l‚gant f. L inelegans
(as IN-(1), ELEGANT)]
adj. 1 not eligible. 2 undesirable. ЬЬineligibility n.
adj. 1 against which it is useless to struggle. 2 that cannot
be escaped from. ЬЬineluctability n. ineluctably adv. [L
ineluctabilis (as IN-(1), eluctari struggle out)]
inept adj. 1 unskilful. 2 absurd, silly. 3 out of place.
ЬЬineptitude n. ineptly adv. ineptness n. [L ineptus (as
inequable adj. 1 not fairly distributed. 2 not uniform. [L inaequabilis
uneven (as IN-(1), EQUABLE)]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 a lack of equality in any respect. b an
instance of this. 2 the state of being variable. 3 (of a
surface) irregularity. 4 Math. a formula affirming that two
expressions are not equal. [ME f. OF inequalit‚ or L
inaequalitas (as IN-(1), EQUALITY)]
adj. that cannot be rooted out. ЬЬineradicably adv.
inerrant adj. not liable to err. ЬЬinerrancy n. [L inerrans (as
inert adj. 1 without inherent power of action, motion, or resistance.
2 without active chemical or other properties. 3 sluggish,
slow. Ьinert gas = noble gas. ЬЬinertly adv. inertness n. [L
iners inert- (as IN-(1), ars ART(1))]
inertia n. 1 Physics a property of matter by which it continues in its
existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line,
unless that state is changed by an external force. 2 inertness,
sloth. Ьinertia reel a reel device which allows a vehicle seat
belt to unwind freely but which locks under force of impact or
rapid deceleration. inertia selling the sending of unsolicited
goods in the hope of making a sale. ЬЬinertial adj.
inertialess adj. [L (as INERT)]
adj. that cannot be escaped or avoided. ЬЬinescapability n.
-iness suffix forming nouns corresponding to adjectives in -y (see
adj. & n. --adj. 1 not necessary. 2 dispensable. --n. an
adj. too great, intense, precious, etc., to be estimated.
ЬЬinestimably adv. [ME f. OF f. L inaestimabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. 1 a unavoidable; sure to happen. b that is bound to occur
or appear. 2 colloq. that is tiresomely familiar. 3 (of
character-drawing, the development of a plot, etc.) so true to
nature etc. as to preclude alternative treatment or solution;
convincing. ЬЬinevitability n. inevitableness n. inevitably
adv. [L inevitabilis (as IN-(1), evitare avoid)]
inexact adj. not exact. ЬЬinexactitude n. inexactly adv. inexactness
adj. (of a person, action, etc.) that cannot be excused or
justified. ЬЬinexcusably adv. [ME f. L inexcusabilis (as
adj. that cannot be exhausted or used up. ЬЬinexhaustibility
n. inexhaustibly adv.
adj. 1 relentless. 2 (of a person or attribute) that cannot be
persuaded by request or entreaty. ЬЬinexorability n.
inexorably adv. [F inexorable or L inexorabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. not expedient. ЬЬinexpediency n.
adj. 1 not expensive, cheap. 2 offering good value for the
price. ЬЬinexpensively adv. inexpensiveness n.
n. lack of experience, or of the resulting knowledge or skill.
ЬЬinexperienced adj. [F inexp‚rience f. LL inexperientia (as
inexpert adj. unskilful; lacking expertise. ЬЬinexpertly adv.
inexpertness n. [OF f. L inexpertus (as IN-(1), EXPERT)]
adj. (of an act or feeling) that cannot be expiated or
appeased. ЬЬinexpiably adv. [L inexpiabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. that cannot be explained or accounted for.
ЬЬinexplicability n. inexplicably adv. [F inexplicable or L
inexplicabilis that cannot be unfolded (as IN-(1), EXPLICABLE)]
adj. not definitely or clearly expressed. ЬЬinexplicitly adv.
adj. that cannot be expressed in words. ЬЬinexpressibly adv.
adj. not expressive. ЬЬinexpressively adv. inexpressiveness
adj. that cannot be expunged or obliterated.
adj. 1 at the point of death. 2 in great difficulties. [L]
adj. 1 (of a circumstance) that cannot be escaped from. 2 (of
a knot, problem, etc.) that cannot be unravelled or solved. 3
intricately confused. ЬЬinextricability n. inextricably adv.
[ME f. L inextricabilis (as IN-(1), EXTRICATE)]
adj. 1 incapable of error. 2 (of a method, test, proof, etc.)
unfailing; sure to succeed. 3 RC Ch. (of the Pope) unable to
err in pronouncing dogma as doctrinally defined.
ЬЬinfallibility n. infallibly adv. [ME f. F infaillible or LL
infallibilis (as IN-(1), FALLIBLE)]
infamous adj. 1 notoriously bad; having a bad reputation. 2 abominable.
3 (in ancient law) deprived of all or some rights of a citizen
on account of serious crime. ЬЬinfamously adv. infamy n. (pl.
-ies). [ME f. med.L infamosus f. L infamis (as IN-(1), FAME)]
infancy n. (pl. -ies) 1 early childhood; babyhood. 2 an early state
in the development of an idea, undertaking, etc. 3 Law the
state of being a minor. [L infantia (as INFANT)]
infant n. 1 a a child during the earliest period of its life. b Brit.
a schoolchild below the age of seven years. 2 (esp. attrib.) a
thing in an early stage of its development. 3 Law a minor; a
person under 18. Ьinfant mortality death before the age of one.
[ME f. OF enfant f. L infans unable to speak (as IN-(1), fans
fantis pres. part. of fari speak)]
infanta n. hist. a daughter of the ruling monarch of Spain or Portugal
(usu. the eldest daughter who is not heir to the throne). [Sp.
& Port., fem. of INFANTE]
infante n. hist. the second son of the ruling monarch of Spain or
Portugal. [Sp. & Port. f. L (as INFANT)]
n. 1 the killing of an infant soon after birth. 2 the practice
of killing newborn infants. 3 a person who kills an infant.
ЬЬinfanticidal adj. [F f. LL infanticidium, -cida (as INFANT)]
infantile adj. 1 a like or characteristic of a child. b childish,
immature (infantile humour). 2 in its infancy. Ьinfantile
paralysis poliomyelitis. ЬЬinfantility n. (pl. -ies). [F
infantile or L infantilis (as INFANT)]
n. 1 childish behaviour. 2 Psychol. the persistence of
infantile characteristics or behaviour in adult life.
infantry n. (pl. -ies) a body of soldiers who march and fight on foot;
foot-soldiers collectively. [F infanterie f. It. infanteria f.
infante youth, infantryman (as INFANT)]
n. (pl. -men) a soldier of an infantry regiment.
infarct n. Med. a small localized area of dead tissue caused by an
inadequate blood supply. ЬЬinfarction n. [mod.L infarctus (as
IN-(2), L farcire farct- stuff)]
infatuate v.tr. 1 inspire with intense usu. transitory fondness or
admiration. 2 affect with extreme folly. ЬЬinfatuation n. [L
infatuare (as IN-(2), fatuus foolish)]
adj. (often foll. by with) affected by an intense fondness or
infauna n. any animals which live just below the surface of the seabed.
[Da. ifauna (as IN-(2), FAUNA)]
adj. not feasible; that cannot easily be done. ЬЬinfeasibility
infect v.tr. 1 contaminate (air, water, etc.) with harmful organisms
or noxious matter. 2 affect (a person) with disease etc. 3
instil bad feeling or opinion into (a person). ЬЬinfector n.
[ME f. L inficere infect- taint (as IN-(2), facere make)]
infection n. 1 a the process of infecting or state of being infected. b
an instance of this; an infectious disease. 2 communication of
disease, esp. by the agency of air or water etc. 3 a moral
contamination. b the diffusive influence of example, sympathy,
etc. [ME f. OF infection or LL infectio (as INFECT)]
adj. 1 infecting with disease. 2 (of a disease) liable to be
transmitted by air, water, etc. 3 (of emotions etc.) apt to
spread; quickly affecting others. ЬЬinfectiously adv.
infective adj. 1 capable of infecting with disease. 2 infectious.
ЬЬinfectiveness n. [L infectivus (as INFECT)]
adj. not felicitous; unfortunate. ЬЬinfelicitously adv.
n. (pl. -ies) 1 a inaptness of expression etc. b an instance
of this. 2 a unhappiness. b a misfortune. [ME f. L
infelicitas (as IN-(1), FELICITY)]
infer v.tr. (inferred, inferring) (often foll. by that + clause) 1
deduce or conclude from facts and reasoning. 2 disp. imply,
suggest. ЬЬinferable adj. (also inferrable). [L inferre (as
IN-(2), ferre bring)]
inference n. 1 the act or an instance of inferring. 2 Logic a the
forming of a conclusion from premisses. b a thing inferred.
ЬЬinferential adj. inferentially adv. [med.L inferentia (as
inferior adj. & n. --adj. 1 (often foll. by to) a lower; in a lower
position. b of lower rank, quality, etc. 2 poor in quality. 3
(of a planet) having an orbit within the earth's. 4 Bot.
situated below an ovary or calyx. 5 (of figures or letters)
written or printed below the line. --n. 1 a person inferior to
another, esp. in rank. 2 an inferior letter or figure.
ЬЬinferiorly adv. [ME f. L, compar. of inferus that is below]
n. the state of being inferior. Ьinferiority complex an
unrealistic feeling of general inadequacy caused by actual or
supposed inferiority in one sphere, sometimes marked by
aggressive behaviour in compensation.
infernal adj. 1 a of hell or the underworld. b hellish, fiendish. 2
colloq. detestable, tiresome. ЬЬinfernally adv. [ME f. OF f.
LL infernalis f. L infernus situated below]
inferno n. (pl. -os) 1 a raging fire. 2 a scene of horror or
distress. 3 hell, esp. with ref. to Dante's Divine Comedy.
[It. f. LL infernus (as INFERNAL)]
infertile adj. not fertile. ЬЬinfertility n. [F infertile or LL
infertilis (as IN-(1), FERTILE)]
infest v.tr. (of harmful persons or things, esp. vermin or disease)
overrun (a place) in large numbers. ЬЬinfestation n. [ME f. F
infester or L infestare assail f. infestus hostile]
infidel n. & adj. --n. 1 a person who does not believe in religion or
in a particular religion; an unbeliever. 2 hist. an adherent of
a religion other than Christianity, esp. a Muslim. --adj. 1
that is an infidel. 2 of unbelievers. [ME f. F infidЉle or L
infidelis (as IN-(1), fidelis faithful)]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 a disloyalty or unfaithfulness, esp. to a
husband or wife. b an instance of this. 2 disbelief in
Christianity or another religion. [ME f. F infid‚lit‚ or L
infidelitas (as INFIDEL)]
infield n. 1 Cricket a the part of the ground near the wicket. b the
fielders stationed there. 2 Baseball a the area between the
four bases. b the four fielders stationed on its boundaries. 3
farm land around or near a homestead. 4 a arable land. b land
regularly manured and cropped. ЬЬinfielder n. (in sense 2).
n. 1 hidden conflict or competitiveness within an organization.
2 boxing at closer quarters than arm's length. ЬЬinfighter n.
infill n. & v. --n. 1 material used to fill a hole, gap, etc. 2 the
placing of buildings to occupy the space between existing ones.
--v.tr. fill in (a cavity etc.).
infilling n. = INFILL n.
v. 1 tr. a gain entrance or access to surreptitiously and by
degrees (as spies etc.). b cause to do this. 2 tr. permeate by
filtration. 3 tr. (often foll. by into, through) introduce
(fluid) by filtration. ЬЬinfiltration n. infiltrator n.
[IN-(2) + FILTRATE]
infinite adj. & n. --adj. 1 boundless, endless. 2 very great. 3 (usu.
with pl.) innumerable; very many (infinite resources). 4 Math.
a greater than any assignable quantity or countable number. b
(of a series) that may be continued indefinitely. 5 Gram. (of a
verb part) not limited by person or number, e.g. infinitive,
gerund, and participle. --n. 1 (the Infinite) God. 2 (the
infinite) infinite space. ЬЬinfinitely adv. infiniteness n.
[ME f. L infinitus (as IN-(1), FINITE)]
adj. & n. --adj. infinitely or very small. --n. an
infinitesimal amount. Ьinfinitesimal calculus the differential
and integral calculuses regarded as one subject.
ЬЬinfinitesimally adv. [mod.L infinitesimus f. INFINITE: cf.
n. & adj. --n. a form of a verb expressing the verbal notion
without reference to a particular subject, tense, etc. (e.g.
see in we came to see, let him see). --adj. having this form.
ЬЬinfinitival adj. infinitivally adv. [L infinitivus (as
IN-(1), finitivus definite f. finire finit- define)]
n. 1 the state of being infinite; boundlessness. 2 (often
foll. by of) a boundless number or extent. [L infinitus: see
infinity n. (pl. -ies) 1 the state of being infinite. 2 an infinite
number or extent. 3 infinite distance. 4 Math. infinite
quantity. °Symb.: 1!1! [ME f. OF infinit‚ or L infinitas (as
infirm adj. 1 physically weak, esp. through age. 2 (of a person,
mind, judgement, etc.) weak, irresolute. ЬЬinfirmity n. (pl.
-ies). infirmly adv. [ME f. L infirmus (as IN-(1), FIRM(1))]
infirmary n. (pl. -ies) 1 a hospital. 2 a place for those who are ill
in a monastery, school, etc. [med.L infirmaria (as INFIRM)]
infix v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in) a fix (a thing in
another). b impress (a fact etc. in the mind). 2 Gram. insert
(a formative element) into the body of a word. --n. Gram. a
formative element inserted in a word. ЬЬinfixation n. [L
infigere infix- (as IN-(2), FIX): (n.) after prefix, suffix]
in flagrante delicto
adj. in the very act of committing an offence. [L, = in
inflame v. 1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by with, by) provoke or become
provoked to strong feeling, esp. anger. 2 Med. a intr. become
hot, reddened, and sore. b tr. cause inflammation or fever in
(a body etc.); make hot. 3 tr. aggravate. 4 intr. & tr. catch
or set on fire. 5 tr. light up with or as if with flames.
ЬЬinflamer n. [ME f. OF enflammer f. L inflammare (as IN-(2),
adj. & n. --adj. 1 easily set on fire; flammable. 2 easily
excited. --n. (usu. in pl.) an inflammable substance.
ЬЬinflammability n. inflammableness n. inflammably adv.
[INFLAME after F inflammable]
n. 1 the act or an instance of inflaming. 2 Med. a localized
physical condition with heat, swelling, redness, and usu. pain,
esp. as a reaction to injury or infection. [L inflammatio (as
adj. 1 (esp. of speeches, leaflets, etc.) tending to cause
anger etc. 2 of or tending to inflammation of the body.
adj. & n. --adj. that can be inflated. --n. an inflatable
plastic or rubber object.
inflate v.tr. 1 distend (a balloon etc.) with air. 2 (usu. foll. by
with; usu. in passive) puff up (a person with pride etc.). 3 a
(often absol.) bring about inflation (of the currency). b raise
(prices) artificially. 4 (as inflated adj.) (esp. of language,
sentiments, etc.) bombastic. ЬЬinflatedly adv. inflatedness n.
inflater n. inflator n. [L inflare inflat- (as IN-(2), flare
inflation n. 1 a the act or condition of inflating or being inflated. b
an instance of this. 2 Econ. a a general increase in prices
and fall in the purchasing value of money. b an increase in
available currency regarded as causing this. ЬЬinflationary
adj. inflationism n. inflationist n. & adj. [ME f. L inflatio
inflect v. 1 tr. change the pitch of (the voice, a musical note, etc.).
2 Gram. a tr. change the form of (a word) to express tense,
gender, number, mood, etc. b intr. (of a word, language, etc.)
undergo such change. 3 tr. bend inwards; curve. ЬЬinflective
adj. [ME f. L inflectere inflex- (as IN-(2), flectere bend)]
n. (also inflexion) 1 a the act or condition of inflecting or
being inflected. b an instance of this. 2 Gram. a the process
or practice of inflecting words. b an inflected form of a word.
c a suffix etc. used to inflect, e.g. -ed. 3 a modulation of
the voice. 4 Geom. a change of curvature from convex to concave
at a particular point on a curve. ЬЬinflectional adj.
inflectionally adv. inflectionless adj. [F inflection or L
inflexio (as INFLECT)]
adj. 1 unbendable. 2 stiff; immovable; obstinate (old and
inflexible in his attitudes). 3 unchangeable; inexorable.
ЬЬinflexibility n. inflexibly adv. [L inflexibilis (as IN-(1),
inflict v.tr. (usu. foll. by on, upon) 1 administer, deal (a stroke,
wound, defeat, etc.). 2 (also refl.) often joc. impose
(suffering, a penalty, oneself, one's company, etc.) on (shall
not inflict myself on you any longer). ЬЬinflictable adj.
inflicter n. inflictor n. [L infligere inflict- (as IN-(2),
n. 1 the act or an instance of inflicting. 2 something
inflicted, esp. a troublesome or boring experience. [LL
inflictio (as INFLICT)]
inflight attrib.adj. occurring or provided during an aircraft flight.
n. 1 Bot. a the complete flower-head of a plant including
stems, stalks, bracts, and flowers. b the arrangement of this.
2 the process of flowering. [mod.L inflorescentia f. LL
inflorescere (as IN-(2), FLORESCENCE)]
inflow n. 1 a flowing in. 2 something that flows in. ЬЬinflowing n.
influence n. & v. --n. 1 a (usu. foll. by on, upon) the effect a person
or thing has on another. b (usu. foll. by over, with) moral
ascendancy or power. c a thing or person exercising such power
(is a good influence on them). 2 Astrol. an ethereal fluid
supposedly flowing from the stars and affecting character and
destiny. 3 Electr. archaic = INDUCTION. --v.tr. exert
influence on; have an effect on. Ьunder the influence colloq.
affected by alcoholic drink. ЬЬinfluenceable adj. influencer
n. [ME f. OF influence or med.L influentia inflow f. L influere
flow in (as IN-(2), fluere flow)]
influent adj. & n. --adj. flowing in. --n. a tributary stream. [ME f.
L (as INFLUENCE)]
adj. having a great influence or power (influential in the
financial world). ЬЬinfluentially adv. [med.L influentia
influenza n. a highly contagious virus infection causing fever, severe
aching, and catarrh, often occurring in epidemics. ЬЬinfluenzal
adj. [It. f. med.L influentia INFLUENCE]
influx n. 1 a continual stream of people or things (an influx of
complaints). 2 (usu. foll. by into) a flowing in, esp. of a
stream etc. [F influx or LL influxus (as IN-(2), FLUX)]
info n. colloq. information. [abbr.]
infold var. of ENFOLD.
inform v. 1 tr. (usu. foll. by of, about, on, or that, how + clause)
tell (informed them of their rights; informed us that the train
was late). 2 intr. (usu. foll. by against, on) make an
accusation. 3 tr. (usu. foll. by with) literary inspire or
imbue (a person, heart, or thing) with a feeling, principle,
quality, etc. 4 tr. impart its quality to; permeate.
ЬЬinformant n. [ME f. OF enfo(u)rmer f. L informare give shape
to, fashion, describe (as IN-(2), forma form)]
informal adj. 1 without ceremony or formality (just an informal chat).
2 (of language, clothing, etc.) everyday; normal. Ьinformal
vote NZ & Austral. an invalid vote or voting paper.
ЬЬinformality n. (pl. -ies). informally adv.
n.pl. (usu. treated as sing.) the science of processing data
for storage and retrieval; information science. [transl. Russ.
informatika (as INFORMATION, -ICS)]
n. 1 a something told; knowledge. b (usu. foll. by on, about)
items of knowledge; news (the latest information on the crisis).
2 Law (usu. foll. by against) a charge or complaint lodged with
a court or magistrate. 3 a the act of informing or telling. b
an instance of this. Ьinformation retrieval the tracing of
information stored in books, computers, etc. information
science the study of the processes for storing and retrieving
information. information theory Math. the quantitative study
of the transmission of information by signals etc.
ЬЬinformational adj. informationally adv. [ME f. OF f. L
informatio -onis (as INFORM)]
informed adj. 1 knowing the facts; instructed (his answers show that he
is badly informed). 2 educated; intelligent. ЬЬinformedly also
adv. informedness also n.
informer n. 1 a person who informs against another. 2 a person who
informs or advises.
infra adv. below, further on (in a book or writing). [L, = below]
infra- comb. form 1 below (opp. SUPRA-). 2 Anat. below or under a
part of the body. [from or after L infra below, beneath]
n. esp. Law a violation or infringement. ЬЬinfract v.tr.
infractor n. [L infractio (as INFRINGE)]
infra dig predic.adj. colloq. beneath one's dignity; unbecoming. [abbr.
of L infra dignitatem]
adj. 1 unbreakable. 2 inviolable. ЬЬinfrangibility n.
infrangibleness n. infrangibly adv. [obs.F infrangible or
med.L infrangibilis (as IN-(1), FRANGIBLE)]
infrared adj. 1 having a wavelength just greater than the red end of the
visible light spectrum but less than that of radio waves. 2 of
or using such radiation.
adj. of or relating to sound waves with a frequency below the
lower limit of human audibility. ЬЬinfrasonically adv.
n. sound waves with frequencies below the lower limit of human
n. 1 a the basic structural foundations of a society or
enterprise; a substructure or foundation. b roads, bridges,
sewers, etc., regarded as a country's economic foundation. 2
permanent installations as a basis for military etc. operations.
[F (as INFRA-, STRUCTURE)]
adj. not frequent. ЬЬinfrequency n. infrequently adv. [L
infrequens (as IN-(1), FREQUENT)]
infringe v. 1 tr. a act contrary to; violate (a law, an oath, etc.). b
act in defiance of (another's rights etc.). 2 intr. (usu. foll.
by on, upon) encroach; trespass. ЬЬinfringement n. infringer
n. [L infringere infract- (as IN-(2), frangere break)]
infula n. (pl. infulae) Eccl. either of the two ribbons on a
bishop's mitre. [L, = woollen fillet worn by priest etc.]
adj. funnel-shaped. [L infundibulum funnel f. infundere pour
in (as IN-(2), fundere pour)]
infuriate v. & adj. --v.tr. fill with fury; enrage. --adj. literary
excited to fury; frantic. ЬЬinfuriating adj. infuriatingly
adv. infuriation n. [med.L infuriare infuriat- (as IN-(2), L
infuse v. 1 tr. (usu. foll. by with) imbue; pervade (anger infused
with resentment). 2 tr. steep (herbs, tea, etc.) in liquid to
extract the content. 3 tr. (usu. foll. by into) instil (grace,
spirit, life, etc.). 4 intr. undergo infusion (let it infuse
for five minutes). 5 tr. (usu. foll. by into) pour (a thing).
ЬЬinfusable adj. infuser n. infusive adj. [ME f. L infundere
infus- (as IN-(2), fundere pour)]
infusible adj. not able to be fused or melted. ЬЬinfusibility n.
infusion n. 1 a liquid obtained by infusing. 2 an infused element; an
admixture. 3 Med. a slow injection of a substance into a vein
or tissue. 4 a the act of infusing. b an instance of this.
[ME f. F infusion or L infusio (as INFUSE)]
n. = KIESELGUHR. [mod.L infusoria, formerly a class of
protozoa found in decaying animal or vegetable matter (as
-ing(1) suffix forming gerunds and nouns from verbs (or occas. from
nouns), denoting: 1 a the verbal action or its result (asking;
carving; fighting; learning). b the verbal action as described
or classified in some way (tough going). 2 material used for or
associated with a process etc. (piping; washing). 3 an
occupation or event (banking; wedding). 4 a set or arrangement
of (colouring; feathering). [OE -ung, -ing f. Gmc]
-ing(2) suffix 1 forming the present participle of verbs (asking;
fighting), often as adjectives (charming; strapping). 2 forming
adjectives from nouns (hulking) and verbs (balding). [ME alt.
of OE -ende, later - inde]
-ing(3) suffix forming nouns meaning 'one belonging to' or 'one having
the quality of', surviving esp. in names of coins and fractional
parts (farthing; gelding; riding). [OE f. Gmc]
ingather v.tr. gather in; assemble.
n. the act or an instance of gathering in, esp. of a harvest.
ingenious adj. 1 clever at inventing, constructing, organizing, etc.;
skilful; resourceful. 2 (of a machine, theory, etc.) cleverly
contrived. ЬЬingeniously adv. ingeniousness n. [ME, =
talented, f. F ing‚nieux or L ingeniosus f. ingenium
cleverness: cf. ENGINE]
ing‚nue n. 1 an innocent or unsophisticated young woman. 2 Theatr. a
such a part in a play. b the actress who plays this part. [F,
fem. of ing‚nu INGENUOUS]
ingenuity n. skill in devising or contriving; ingeniousness. [L
ingenuitas ingenuousness (as INGENUOUS): Engl. meaning by
confusion of INGENIOUS with INGENUOUS]
ingenuous adj. 1 innocent; artless. 2 open; frank. ЬЬingenuously adv.
ingenuousness n. [L ingenuus free-born, frank (as IN-(2), root
of gignere beget)]
ingest v.tr. 1 take in (food etc.); eat. 2 absorb (facts, knowledge,
etc.). ЬЬingestion n. ingestive adj. [L ingerere ingest- (as
IN-(2), gerere carry)]
inglenook n. a space within the opening on either side of a large
fireplace. [dial. (orig. Sc.) ingle fire burning on a hearth,
perh. f. Gael. aingeal fire, light, + NOOK]
adj. 1 shameful; ignominious. 2 not famous. ЬЬingloriously
adv. ingloriousness n.
-ingly suffix forming adverbs esp. denoting manner of action or nature
or condition (dotingly; charmingly; slantingly).
inhabit v.tr. (inhabited, inhabiting) (of a person or animal) dwell in;
occupy (a region, town, house, etc.). ЬЬinhabitability n.
inhabitable adj. inhabitant n. inhabitation n. [ME inhabite,
enhabite f. OF enhabiter or L inhabitare (as IN-(2), habitare
dwell): see HABIT]
n. (also inhabitance) residence as an inhabitant, esp. during a
specified period so as to acquire rights etc.
inhalant n. a medicinal preparation for inhaling.
inhale v.tr. (often absol.) breathe in (air, gas, tobacco-smoke,
etc.). ЬЬinhalation n. [L inhalare breathe in (as IN-(2),
inhaler n. a portable device used for relieving esp. asthma by
adj. esp. Mus. not harmonic.
adj. esp. Mus. not harmonious. ЬЬinharmoniously adv.
inhere v.intr. (often foll. by in) 1 exist essentially or permanently
in (goodness inheres in that child). 2 (of rights etc.) be
vested in (a person etc.). [L inhaerere inhaes- (as IN-(2),
haerere to stick)]
inherent adj. (often foll. by in) 1 existing in something, esp. as a
permanent or characteristic attribute. 2 vested in (a person
etc.) as a right or privilege. ЬЬinherence n. inherently adv.
[L inhaerere inhaerent- (as INHERE)]
inherit v. (inherited, inheriting) 1 tr. receive (property, rank,
title, etc.) by legal descent or succession. 2 tr. derive (a
quality or characteristic) genetically from one's ancestors. 3
absol. succeed as an heir (a younger son rarely inherits).
ЬЬinheritor n. (fem. inheritress or inheritrix). [ME f. OF
enheriter f. LL inhereditare (as IN-(2), L heres heredis heir)]
adj. 1 capable of being inherited. 2 capable of inheriting.
ЬЬinheritability n. [ME f. AF (as INHERIT)]
n. 1 something that is inherited. 2 a the act of inheriting.
b an instance of this. Ьinheritance tax a tax levied on
property etc. acquired by gift or inheritance. °Introduced in
the UK in 1986 to replace Capital Transfer Tax. [ME f. AF
inheritaunce f. OF enheriter: see INHERIT]
inhesion n. formal the act or fact of inhering. [LL inhaesio (as
inhibit v.tr. (inhibited, inhibiting) 1 hinder, restrain, or prevent
(an action or progress). 2 (as inhibited adj.) subject to
inhibition. 3 a (usu. foll. by from + verbal noun) forbid or
prohibit (a person etc.). b (esp. in ecclesiastical law) forbid
(an ecclesiastic) to exercise clerical functions. ЬЬinhibitive
adj. inhibitor n. inhibitory adj. [L inhibere (as IN-(2),
n. 1 Psychol. a restraint on the direct expression of an
instinct. 2 colloq. an emotional resistance to a thought, an
action, etc. (has inhibitions about singing in public). 3 Law
an order forbidding alteration to property rights. 4 a the act
of inhibiting. b the process of being inhibited. [ME f. OF
inhibition or L inhibitio (as INHIBIT)]
adj. not homogeneous. ЬЬinhomogeneity n.
adj. 1 not hospitable. 2 (of a region, coast, etc.) not
affording shelter etc. ЬЬinhospitableness n. inhospitably adv.
[obs. F (as IN-(1), HOSPITABLE)]
n. the act or process of being inhospitable. [L inhospitalitas
(as IN-(1), HOSPITALITY)]
in-house adj. & adv. --adj. done or existing within an institution,
company, etc. (an in-house project). --adv. internally, without
inhuman adj. 1 (of a person, conduct, etc.) brutal; unfeeling;
barbarous. 2 not of a human type. ЬЬinhumanly adv. [L
inhumanus (as IN-(1), HUMAN)]
inhumane adj. not humane. ЬЬinhumanely adv. [L inhumanus (see INHUMAN)
& f. IN-(1) + HUMANE, orig. = INHUMAN]
n. (pl. -ies) 1 brutality; barbarousness; callousness. 2 an
inimical adj. (usu. foll. by to) 1 hostile. 2 harmful. ЬЬinimically
adv. [LL inimicalis f. L inimicus (as IN-(1), amicus friend)]
adj. impossible to imitate. ЬЬinimitability n. inimitableness
n. inimitably adv. [F inimitable or L inimitabilis (as IN-(1),
iniquity n. (pl. -ies) 1 wickedness; unrighteousness. 2 a gross
injustice. ЬЬiniquitous adj. iniquitously adv. iniquitousness
n. [ME f. OF iniquit‚ f. L iniquitas -tatis f. iniquus (as
IN-(1), aequus just)]
initial adj., n., & v. --adj. of, existing, or occurring at the
beginning (initial stage; initial expenses). --n. 1 = initial
letter. 2 (usu. in pl.) the first letter or letters of the
words of a (esp. a person's) name or names. --v.tr.
(initialled, initialling; US initialed, initialing) mark or sign
with one's initials. Ьinitial letter (or consonant) a letter or
consonant at the beginning of a word. initial teaching alphabet
a 44-letter phonetic alphabet used to help those beginning to
read and write English. ЬЬinitially adv. [L initialis f.
initium beginning f. inire init- go in]
n. a group of initial letters used as an abbreviation for a
name or expression, each letter being pronounced separately
(e.g. BBC) (cf. ACRONYM).
v.tr. (also -ise) (often foll. by to) Computing set to the
value or put in the condition appropriate to the start of an
operation. ЬЬinitialization n.
initiate v., n., & adj. --v.tr. 1 begin; set going; originate. 2 a
(usu. foll. by into) admit (a person) into a society, an office,
a secret, etc., esp. with a ritual. b (usu. foll. by in, into)
instruct (a person) in science, art, etc. --n. a person who
has been newly initiated. --adj. (of a person) newly initiated
(an initiate member). ЬЬinitiation n. initiator n. initiatory
adj. [L initiare f. initium: see INITIAL]
n. & adj. --n. 1 the ability to initiate things; enterprise
(I'm afraid he lacks all initiative). 2 a first step;
origination (a peace initiative). 3 the power or right to begin
something. 4 Polit. (esp. in Switzerland and some US States)
the right of citizens outside the legislature to originate
legislation. --adj. beginning; originating. Ьhave the
initiative esp. Mil. be able to control the enemy's movements.
on one's own initiative without being prompted by others. take
the initiative (usu. foll. by in + verbal noun) be the first to
take action. [F (as INITIATE)]
inject v.tr. 1 Med. a (usu. foll. by into) drive or force (a
solution, medicine, etc.) by or as if by a syringe. b (usu.
foll. by with) fill (a cavity etc.) by injecting. c administer
medicine etc. to (a person) by injection. 2 place or insert (an
object, a quality, etc.) into something (may I inject a note of
realism?). ЬЬinjectable adj. & n. injector n. [L injicere (as
IN-(2), jacere throw)]
injection n. 1 a the act of injecting. b an instance of this. 2 a
liquid or solution (to be) injected (prepare a morphine
injection). Ьinjection moulding the shaping of rubber or
plastic articles by injecting heated material into a mould. [F
injection or L injectio (as INJECT)]
adj. unwise; ill-judged. ЬЬinjudiciously adv. injudiciousness
Injun n. colloq. US or dial. an American Indian. [corrupt.]
n. 1 an authoritative warning or order. 2 Law a judicial order
restraining a person from an act or compelling redress to an
injured party. ЬЬinjunctive adj. [LL injunctio f. L injungere
injure v.tr. 1 do physical harm or damage to; hurt (was injured in a
road accident). 2 harm or impair (illness might injure her
chances). 3 do wrong to. ЬЬinjurer n. [back-form. f. INJURY]
injured adj. 1 harmed or hurt (the injured passengers). 2 offended;
wronged (in an injured tone).
injurious adj. 1 hurtful. 2 (of language) insulting; libellous. 3
wrongful. ЬЬinjuriously adv. injuriousness n. [ME f. F
injurieux or L injuriosus (as INJURY)]
injury n. (pl. -ies) 1 a physical harm or damage. b an instance of
this (suffered head injuries). 2 esp. Law a wrongful action or
treatment. b an instance of this. 3 damage to one's good name
etc. Ьinjury time Brit. Football extra playing-time allowed by
a referee to compensate for time lost in dealing with injuries.
[ME f. AF injurie f. L injuria a wrong (as IN-(1), jus juris
injustice n. 1 a lack of fairness or justice. 2 an unjust act. Ьdo a
person an injustice judge a person unfairly. [ME f. OF f. L
injustitia (as IN-(1), JUSTICE)]
ink n. & v. --n. 1 a a coloured fluid used for writing with a pen,
marking with a rubber stamp, etc. b a thick paste used in
printing, duplicating, in ball-point pens, etc. 2 Zool. a black
liquid ejected by a cuttlefish, octopus, etc. to confuse a
predator. --v.tr. 1 (usu. foll. by in, over, etc.) mark with
ink. 2 cover (type etc.) with ink before printing. 3 apply ink
to. 4 (as inked adj.) Austral. sl. drunk. Ьink-blot test =
RORSCHACH TEST. ink-cap any fungus of the genus Coprinus.
ink-horn hist. a small portable horn container for ink. ink
out obliterate with ink. ink-pad an ink-soaked pad, usu. in a
box, used for inking a rubber stamp etc. ink-well a pot for ink
usu. housed in a hole in a desk. ЬЬinker n. [ME enke, inke f.
OF enque f. LL encau(s)tum f. Gk egkauston purple ink used by
Roman emperors for signature (as EN-(2), CAUSTIC)]
inkling n. (often foll. by of) a slight knowledge or suspicion; a hint.
[ME inkle utter in an undertone, of unkn. orig.]
inkstand n. a stand for one or more ink bottles, often incorporating a
pen tray etc.
inky adj. (inkier, inkiest) of, as black as, or stained with ink.
inlaid past and past part. of INLAY.
inland adj., n., & adv. --adj. 1 situated in the interior of a
country. 2 esp. Brit. carried on within the limits of a
country; domestic (inland trade). --n. the parts of a country
remote from the sea or frontiers; the interior. --adv. in or
towards the interior of a country. Ьinland duty a tax payable
on inland trade. inland revenue Brit. revenue consisting of
taxes and inland duties. Inland Revenue (in the UK) the
government department responsible for assessing and collecting
such taxes. ЬЬinlander n. inlandish adj.
in-law n. (often in pl.) a relative by marriage.
inlay v. & n. --v.tr. (past and past part. inlaid) 1 a (usu. foll.
by in) embed (a thing in another) so that the surfaces are even.
b (usu. foll. by with) ornament (a thing with inlaid work). 2
(as inlaid adj.) (of a piece of furniture etc.) ornamented by
inlaying. 3 insert (a page, an illustration, etc.) in a space
cut in a larger thicker page. --n. 1 inlaid work. 2 material
inlaid. 3 a filling shaped to fit a tooth-cavity. ЬЬinlayer n.
[IN-(2) + LAY(1)]
inlet n. 1 a small arm of the sea, a lake, or a river. 2 a piece
inserted, esp. in dressmaking etc. 3 a way of entry. [ME f.
IN + LET(1) v.]
inlier n. Geol. a structure or area of older rocks completely
surrounded by newer rocks. [IN, after outlier]
in-line adj. 1 having parts arranged in a line. 2 constituting an
integral part of a continuous sequence of operations or
in loco parentis
adv. in the place or position of a parent (used of a teacher
etc. responsible for children). [L]
inly adv. poet. 1 inwardly; in the heart. 2 intimately;
thoroughly. [OE innlice (as IN, -LY(2))]
inlying adj. situated within, or near a centre.
inmate n. (usu. foll. by of) 1 an occupant of a hospital, prison,
institution, etc. 2 an occupant of a house etc., esp. one of
several. [prob. orig. INN + MATE(1), assoc. with IN]
in medias res
adv. 1 into the midst of things. 2 into the middle of a story,
without preamble. [L]
prep. & n. --prep. in memory of (a dead person). --n. a
written article or notice etc. in memory of a dead person; an
inmost adj. 1 most inward. 2 most intimate; deepest. [OE innemest
(as IN, -MOST)]
inn n. 1 a public house providing alcoholic liquor for consumption
on the premises, and sometimes accommodation etc. 2 hist. a
house providing accommodation, esp. for travellers. ЬInn of
Court Brit. Law 1 each of the four legal societies having the
exclusive right of admitting people to the English bar. 2 any
of the sets of buildings in London belonging to these societies.
3 a similar society in Ireland. Inns of Chancery Brit. hist.
buildings in London formerly used as hostels for law students.
[OE inn (as IN)]
innards n.pl. colloq. 1 entrails. 2 works (of an engine etc.).
[dial. etc. pronunc. of inwards: see INWARD n.]
innate adj. 1 inborn; natural. 2 Philos. originating in the mind.
ЬЬinnately adv. innateness n. [ME f. L innatus (as IN-(2),
natus past part. of nasci be born)]
inner adj. & n. --adj. (usu. attrib.) 1 further in; inside; interior
(the inner compartment). 2 (of thoughts, feelings, etc.)
deeper; more secret. --n. Archery 1 a division of the target
next to the bull's-eye. 2 a shot that strikes this. Ьinner bar
Brit. Law Queen's or King's Counsel collectively. inner city
the central most densely populated area of a city (also (with
hyphen) attrib.: inner-city housing). inner-directed Psychol.
governed by standards formed in childhood. inner man (or woman)
1 the soul or mind. 2 joc. the stomach. inner planet an
inferior planet (see INFERIOR adj. 3). inner space 1 the
region between the earth and outer space, or below the surface
of the sea. 2 the part of the mind not normally accessible to
consciousness. inner-spring US = interior-sprung. Inner Temple
one of the two Inns of Court on the site of the Temple in London
(cf. Middle Temple). inner tube a separate inflatable tube
inside the cover of a pneumatic tyre. ЬЬinnerly adv. innermost
adj. innerness n. [OE innera (adj.), compar. of IN]
innervate v.tr. supply (an organ etc.) with nerves. ЬЬinnervation n.
[IN-(2) + L nervus nerve + -ATE(3)]
inning n. US an innings at baseball etc. [in (v.) go in (f. IN)]
innings n. (pl. same or colloq. inningses) 1 esp. Cricket a the part
of a game during which a side is in or batting. b the play of
or score achieved by a player during a turn at batting. 2 a
period during which a government, party, cause, etc. is in
office or effective. 3 a a period during which a person can
achieve something. b colloq. a person's life span (had a good
innings and died at 94).
innkeeper n. a person who keeps an inn.
innocent adj. & n. --adj. 1 free from moral wrong; sinless. 2 (usu.
foll. by of) not guilty (of a crime etc.). 3 a simple;
guileless; na‹ve. b pretending to be guileless. 4 harmless. 5
(foll. by of) colloq. without, lacking (appeared, innocent of
shoes). --n. 1 an innocent person, esp. a young child. 2 (in
pl.) the young children killed by Herod after the birth of Jesus
(Matt. 2:16). ЬInnocents' (or Holy Innocents') Day the day, 28
Dec., commemorating the massacre of the innocents. ЬЬinnocence
n. innocency n. innocently adv. [ME f. OF innocent or L
innocens innocent- (as IN-(1), nocere hurt)]
innocuous adj. 1 not injurious; harmless. 2 inoffensive. ЬЬinnocuity n.
innocuously adv. innocuousness n. [L innocuus (as IN-(1),
nocuus formed as INNOCENT)]
adj. unnamed. Ьinnominate bone n. Anat. the bone formed from
the fusion of the ilium, ischium, and pubis; the hip-bone. [LL
innominatus (as IN-(1), NOMINATE)]
innovate v.intr. 1 bring in new methods, ideas, etc. 2 (often foll. by
in) make changes. ЬЬinnovation n. innovational adj. innovator
n. innovative adj. innovatory adj. [L innovare make new,
alter (as IN-(2), novus new)]
innuendo n. & v. --n. (pl. -oes or -os) 1 an allusive or oblique
remark or hint, usu. disparaging. 2 a remark with a double
meaning, usu. suggestive. --v.intr. (-oes, -oed) make
innuendoes. [L, = by nodding at, by pointing to: ablat. gerund
of innuere nod at (as IN-(2), nuere nod)]
Innuit var. of INUIT.
adj. too many to be counted. ЬЬinnumerability n. innumerably
adv. [ME f. L innumerabilis (as IN-(1), NUMERABLE)]
adj. having no knowledge of or feeling for mathematical
operations; not numerate. ЬЬinnumeracy n. [IN-(1), NUMERATE]
n. lack of nutrition. ЬЬinnutritious adj.
n. 1 inattention. 2 (usu. foll. by of) non-observance (of a
law etc.). [F inobservance or L inobservantia (as IN-(1),
inoculate v.tr. 1 a treat (a person or animal) with a small quantity of
the agent of a disease, in the form of vaccine or serum, usu. by
injection, to promote immunity against the disease. b implant
(a disease) by means of vaccine. 2 instil (a person) with ideas
or opinions. ЬЬinoculable adj. inoculation n. inoculative
adj. inoculator n. [orig. in sense 'insert (a bud) into a
plant': L inoculare inoculat- engraft (as IN-(2), oculus eye,
inoculum n. (pl. inocula) any substance used for inoculation. [mod.L
inodorous adj. having no smell; odourless.
in-off n. Billiards the act of pocketing a ball by bouncing it off
adj. not objectionable; harmless. ЬЬinoffensively adv.
adj. 1 Surgery that cannot suitably be operated on (inoperable
cancer). 2 that cannot be operated; inoperative.
ЬЬinoperability n. inoperably adv. [F inop‚rable (as IN-(1),
adj. not working or taking effect.
adj. not appropriate, esp. as regards time; unseasonable.
ЬЬinopportunely adv. inopportuneness n. [L inopportunus (as
adj. 1 immoderate; excessive. 2 intemperate. 3 disorderly.
ЬЬinordinately adv. [ME f. L inordinatus (as IN-(1), ordinatus
past part. of ordinare ORDAIN)]
inorganic adj. 1 Chem. (of a compound) not organic, usu. of mineral
origin (opp. ORGANIC). 2 without organized physical structure.
3 not arising by natural growth; extraneous. 4 Philol. not
explainable by normal etymology. Ьinorganic chemistry the
chemistry of inorganic compounds. ЬЬinorganically adv.
v.intr. & tr. 1 join by running together. 2 join closely.
ЬЬinosculation n. [IN-(2) + L osculare provide with a mouth f.
osculum dimin. of os mouth]
n. a patient who lives in hospital while under treatment.
in propria persona
adv. in his or her own person. [L]
input n. & v. --n. 1 what is put in or taken in, or operated on by
any process or system. 2 Electronics a a place where, or a
device through which, energy, information, etc., enters a system
(a tape recorder with inputs for microphone and radio). b
energy supplied to a device or system; an electrical signal. 3
the information fed into a computer. 4 the action or process of
putting in or feeding in. 5 a contribution of information etc.
--v.tr. (inputting; past and past part. input or inputted)
(often foll. by into) 1 put in. 2 Computing supply (data,
programs, etc., to a computer, program, etc.). Ьinput- (or
input/) output Computing etc. of, relating to, or for input and
output. ЬЬinputter n.
inquest n. 1 Law a an inquiry by a coroner's court into the cause of a
death. b a judicial inquiry to ascertain the facts relating to
an incident etc. c a coroner's jury. 2 colloq. a discussion
analysing the outcome of a game, an election, etc. [ME f. OF
enqueste (as ENQUIRE)]
n. uneasiness of mind or body. [ME f. OF inquietude or LL
inquietudo f. L inquietus (as IN-(1), quietus quiet)]
inquiline n. an animal living in the home of another; a commensal.
ЬЬinquilinous adj. [L inquilinus sojourner (as IN-(2), colere
inquire v. 1 intr. seek information formally; make a formal
investigation. 2 intr. & tr. = ENQUIRE. ЬЬinquirer n. [var.
inquiry n. (pl. -ies) 1 an investigation, esp. an official one. 2 =
ENQUIRY. Ьinquiry agent Brit. a private detective.
n. 1 usu. derog. an intensive search or investigation. 2 a
judicial or official inquiry. 3 (the Inquisition) RC Ch. hist.
an ecclesiastical tribunal for the suppression of heresy, esp.
in Spain, operating through torture and execution.
ЬЬinquisitional adj. [ME f. OF f. L inquisitio -onis
examination (as INQUIRE)]
adj. 1 unduly curious; prying. 2 seeking knowledge; inquiring.
ЬЬinquisitively adv. inquisitiveness n. [ME f. OF inquisitif
-ive f. LL inquisitivus (as INQUISITION)]
n. 1 an official investigator. 2 hist. an officer of the
Inquisition. ЬGrand Inquisitor the director of the court of
Inquisition in some countries. Inquisitor General the head of
the Spanish Inquisition. [F inquisiteur f. L inquisitor -oris
adj. 1 of or like an inquisitor. 2 offensively prying. 3 Law
(of a trial etc.) in which the judge has a prosecuting role
(opp. ACCUSATORIAL). ЬЬinquisitorially adv. [med.L
inquisitorius (as INQUISITOR)]
inquorate adj. not constituting a quorum.
in re prep. = RE(1). [L, = in the matter of]
INRI abbr. Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. [L Iesus Nazarenus
inroad n. 1 (often in pl.; usu. foll. by on, into) an encroachment; a
using up of resources etc. (makes inroads on my time). 2 a
hostile attack; a raid. [IN + ROAD(1) in sense 'riding']
inrush n. a rushing in; an influx. ЬЬinrushing adj. & n.
ins. abbr. 1 inches. 2 insurance.
adj. (of a climate or place) unhealthy. ЬЬinsalubrity n. [L
insalubris (as IN-(1), SALUBRIOUS)]
insane adj. 1 not of sound mind; mad. 2 colloq. extremely foolish;
irrational. ЬЬinsanely adv. insaneness n. insanity n. (pl.
-ies). [L insanus (as IN-(1), sanus healthy)]
adj. not sanitary; dirty or germ-carrying.
adj. 1 unable to be satisfied. 2 (usu. foll. by of) extremely
greedy. ЬЬinsatiability n. insatiably adv. [ME f. OF
insaciable or L insatiabilis (as IN-(1), SATIATE)]
insatiate adj. never satisfied. [L insatiatus (as IN-(1), SATIATE)]
inscape n. literary the unique inner quality or essence of an object
etc. as shown in a work of art, esp. a poem. [perh. f. IN-(2)
inscribe v.tr. 1 a (usu. foll. by in, on) write or carve (words etc.) on
stone, metal, paper, a book, etc. b (usu. foll. by with) mark
(a sheet, tablet, etc.) with characters. 2 (usu. foll. by to)
write an informal dedication (to a person) in or on (a book
etc.). 3 enter the name of (a person) on a list or in a book.
4 Geom. draw (a figure) within another so that some or all
points of it lie on the boundary of the other (cf.
CIRCUMSCRIBE). 5 (esp. as inscribed adj.) Brit. issue (stock
etc.) in the form of shares with registered holders.
ЬЬinscribable adj. inscriber n. [L inscribere inscript- (as
IN-(2), scribere write)]
n. 1 words inscribed, esp. on a monument, coin, stone, or in a
book etc. 2 a the act of inscribing, esp. the informal
dedication of a book etc. b an instance of this.
ЬЬinscriptional adj. inscriptive adj. [ME f. L inscriptio (as
adj. wholly mysterious, impenetrable. ЬЬinscrutability n.
inscrutableness n. inscrutably adv. [ME f. eccl.L
inscrutabilis (as IN-(1), scrutari search: see SCRUTINY)]
insect n. 1 a any arthropod of the class Insecta, having a head,
thorax, abdomen, two antennae, three pairs of thoracic legs, and
usu. one or two pairs of thoracic wings. b (loosely) any other
small segmented invertebrate animal. 2 an insignificant or
contemptible person or creature. ЬЬinsectile adj. [L insectum
(animal) notched (animal) f. insecare insect- (as IN-(2),
n. (also insectary) (pl. insectariums or insectaries) a place
for keeping insects.
n. a substance used for killing insects. ЬЬinsecticidal adj.
n. 1 any mammal of the order Insectivora feeding on insects
etc., e.g. a hedgehog or mole. 2 any plant which captures and
absorbs insects. ЬЬinsectivorous adj. [F f. mod.L insectivorus
(as INSECT, -VORE: see -VOROUS)]
insecure adj. 1 (of a person or state of mind) uncertain; lacking
confidence. 2 a unsafe; not firm or fixed. b (of ice, ground,
etc.) liable to give way. ЬЬinsecurely adv. insecurity n.
inselberg n. an isolated hill or mountain rising abruptly from its
surroundings. [G, = island mountain]
v.tr. 1 introduce semen into (a female) by natural or
artificial means. 2 sow (seed etc.). ЬЬinsemination n.
inseminator n. [L inseminare (as IN-(2), SEMEN)]
insensate adj. 1 without physical sensation; unconscious. 2 without
sensibility; unfeeling. 3 stupid. ЬЬinsensately adv. [eccl.L
insensatus (as IN-(1), sensatus f. sensus SENSE)]
n. 1 unconsciousness. 2 a lack of mental feeling or emotion;
hardness. 3 (often foll. by to) indifference. [F insensibilit‚
or LL insensibilitas (as INSENSIBLE)]
adj. 1 a without one's mental faculties; unconscious. b (of
the extremities etc.) numb; without feeling. 2 (usu. foll. by
of, to) unaware; indifferent (insensible of her needs). 3
without emotion; callous. 4 too small or gradual to be
perceived; inappreciable. ЬЬinsensibly adv. [ME f. OF
insensible or L insensibilis (as IN-(1), SENSIBLE)]
adj. (often foll. by to) 1 unfeeling; boorish; crass. 2 not
sensitive to physical stimuli. ЬЬinsensitively adv.
insensitiveness n. insensitivity n.
adj. not sentient; inanimate. ЬЬinsentience n.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (esp. of friends) unable or unwilling to be
separated. 2 Gram. (of a prefix, or a verb in respect of it)
unable to be used as a separate word, e.g.: dis-, mis-, un-.
--n. (usu. in pl.) an inseparable person or thing, esp. a
friend. ЬЬinseparability n. inseparably adv. [ME f. L
inseparabilis (as IN-(1), SEPARABLE)]
insert v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (usu. foll. by in, into, between, etc.)
place, fit, or thrust (a thing) into another. 2 (usu. foll. by
in, into) introduce (a letter, word, article, advertisement,
etc.) into a newspaper etc. 3 (as inserted adj.) Anat. etc.
(of a muscle etc.) attached (at a specific point). --n.
something inserted, e.g. a loose page in a magazine, a piece of
cloth in a garment, a shot in a cinema film. ЬЬinsertable adj.
inserter n. [L inserere (as IN-(2), serere sert- join)]
insertion n. 1 the act or an instance of inserting. 2 an amendment etc.
inserted in writing or printing. 3 each appearance of an
advertisement in a newspaper etc. 4 an ornamental section of
needlework inserted into plain material (lace insertions). 5
the manner or place of attachment of a muscle, an organ, etc. 6
the placing of a spacecraft in an orbit. [LL insertio (as
adj. (of training) intended for those actively engaged in the
profession or activity concerned.
inset n. & v. --n. 1 a an extra page or pages inserted in a folded
sheet or in a book; an insert. b a small map, photograph, etc.,
inserted within the border of a larger one. 2 a piece let into
a dress etc. --v.tr. (insetting; past and past part. inset or
insetted) 1 put in as an inset. 2 decorate with an inset.
inshallah int. if Allah wills it. [Arab. in sa' Allah]
inshore adv. & adj. at sea but close to the shore. Ьinshore of nearer
to shore than.
inside n., adj., adv., & prep. --n. 1 a the inner side or surface of
a thing. b the inner part; the interior. 2 a (of a path) the
side next to the wall or away from the road. b (of a
double-decker bus) the lower section. 3 (usu. in pl.) colloq.
the stomach and bowels (something wrong with my insides). 4
colloq. a position affording inside information (knows someone
on the inside). --adj. 1 situated on or in, or derived from,
the inside. 2 Football & Hockey nearer to the centre of the
field (inside forward; inside left; inside right). --adv. 1
on, in, or to the inside. 2 sl. in prison. --prep. 1 on the
inner side of; within (inside the house). 2 in less than
(inside an hour). Ьinside country Austral. settled areas near
the coast. inside information information not accessible to
outsiders. inside job colloq. a crime committed by a person
living or working on the premises burgled etc. inside of
colloq. 1 in less than (a week etc.). 2 Brit. the middle part
of. inside out with the inner surface turned outwards. inside
track 1 the track which is shorter, because of the curve. 2 a
position of advantage. know a thing inside out know a thing
thoroughly. turn inside out 1 turn the inner surface outwards.
2 colloq. cause confusion or a mess in. [IN + SIDE]
insider n. 1 a person who is within a society, organization, etc. (cf.
OUTSIDER). 2 a person privy to a secret, esp. when using it to
gain advantage. Ьinsider dealing Stock Exch. the illegal
practice of trading to one's own advantage through having access
to confidential information.
insidious adj. 1 proceeding or progressing inconspicuously but harmfully
(an insidious disease). 2 treacherous; crafty. ЬЬinsidiously
adv. insidiousness n. [L insidiosus cunning f. insidiae
ambush (as IN-(2), sedere sit)]
insight n. (usu. foll. by into) 1 the capacity of understanding hidden
truths etc., esp. of character or situations. 2 an instance of
this. ЬЬinsightful adj. insightfully adv. [ME, =
'discernment', prob. of Scand. & LG orig. (as IN-(2), SIGHT)]
insignia n. (treated as sing. or pl.; usu. foll. by of) 1 badges (wore
his insignia of office). 2 distinguishing marks. [L, pl. of
insigne neut. of insignis distinguished (as IN-(2), signis f.
adj. 1 unimportant; trifling. 2 (of a person) undistinguished.
3 meaningless. ЬЬinsignificance n. insignificancy n.
insincere adj. not sincere; not candid. ЬЬinsincerely adv. insincerity
n. (pl. -ies). [L insincerus (as IN-(1), SINCERE)]
insinuate v.tr. 1 (often foll. by that + clause) convey indirectly or
obliquely; hint (insinuated that she was lying). 2 (often
refl.; usu. foll. by into) a introduce (oneself, a person, etc.)
into favour, office, etc., by subtle manipulation. b introduce
(a thing, oneself, etc.) subtly or deviously into a place
(insinuated himself into the Royal Box). ЬЬinsinuation n.
insinuative adj. insinuator n. insinuatory adj. [L insinuare
insinuat- (as IN-(2), sinuare to curve)]
insipid adj. 1 lacking vigour or interest; dull. 2 lacking flavour;
tasteless. ЬЬinsipidity n. insipidly adv. insipidness n. [F
insipide or LL insipidus (as IN-(1), sapidus SAPID)]
insist v.tr. (usu. foll. by that + clause; also absol.) maintain or
demand positively and assertively (insisted that he was
innocent; give me the bag! I insist!). Ьinsist on demand or
maintain (I insist on being present; insists on his
suitability). ЬЬinsister n. insistingly adv. [L insistere
stand on, persist (as IN-(2), sistere stand)]
insistent adj. 1 (often foll. by on) insisting; demanding positively or
continually (is insistent on taking me with him). 2 obtruding
itself on the attention (the insistent rattle of the window
frame). ЬЬinsistence n. insistency n. insistently adv.
in situ adv. 1 in its place. 2 in its original place. [L]
n. intemperance, esp. in drinking.
insofar adv. = in so far (see FAR).
n. exposure to the sun's rays, esp. for bleaching. [L
insolatio f. insolare (as IN-(2), solare f. sol sun)]
insole n. 1 a removable sole worn in a boot or shoe for warmth etc. 2
the fixed inner sole of a boot or shoe.
insolent adj. offensively contemptuous or arrogant; insulting.
ЬЬinsolence n. insolently adv. [ME, = 'arrogant', f. L
insolens (as IN-(1), solens pres. part. of solere be
insoluble adj. 1 incapable of being solved. 2 incapable of being
dissolved. ЬЬinsolubility n. insolubilize v.tr. (also -ise).
insolubleness n. insolubly adv. [ME f. OF insoluble or L
insolubilis (as IN-(1), SOLUBLE)]
adj. = INSOLUBLE.
insolvent adj. & n. --adj. 1 unable to pay one's debts. 2 relating to
insolvency (insolvent laws). --n. a debtor. ЬЬinsolvency n.
insomnia n. habitual sleeplessness; inability to sleep. ЬЬinsomniac n.
& adj. [L f. insomnis sleepless (as IN-(1), somnus sleep)]
insomuch adv. 1 (foll. by that + clause) to such an extent. 2 (foll. by
as) inasmuch. [ME, orig. in so much]
adj. carefree; unconcerned. ЬЬinsouciance n. insouciantly
adv. [F (as IN-(1), souciant pres. part. of soucier care)]
inspan v. (inspanned, inspanning) S.Afr. 1 tr. (also absol.) a yoke
(oxen etc.) in a team to a vehicle. b harness an animal or
animals to (a wagon). 2 tr. harness (people or resources) into
service. [Du. inspannen stretch (as IN-(2), SPAN(2))]
inspect v.tr. 1 look closely at or into. 2 examine (a document etc.)
officially. ЬЬinspection n. [L inspicere inspect- (as IN-(2),
specere look at), or its frequent. inspectare]
inspector n. 1 a person who inspects. 2 an official employed to
supervise a service, a machine, etc., and make reports. 3 Brit.
a police officer below a superintendent and above a sergeant in
rank. Ьinspector general a chief inspector. inspector of taxes
(in the UK) an official of the Inland Revenue responsible for
collecting taxes. ЬЬinspectorate n. inspectorial adj.
inspectorship n. [L (as INSPECT)]
n. 1 a a supposed creative force or influence on poets,
artists, musicians, etc., stimulating the production of works of
art. b a person, principle, faith, etc. stimulating artistic or
moral fervour and creativity. c a similar divine influence
supposed to have led to the writing of Scripture etc. 2 a
sudden brilliant, creative, or timely idea. 3 a drawing in of
breath; inhalation. ЬЬinspirational adj. inspirationism n.
inspirationist n. [ME f. OF f. LL inspiratio -onis (as
n. an apparatus for drawing in air or vapour. [LL (as
inspire v.tr. 1 stimulate or arouse (a person) to esp. creative
activity, esp. by supposed divine or supernatural agency (your
faith inspired him; inspired by God). 2 a (usu. foll. by with)
animate (a person) with a feeling. b (usu. foll. by into)
instil (a feeling) into a person etc. c (usu. foll. by in)
create (a feeling) in a person. 3 prompt; give rise to (the
poem was inspired by the autumn). 4 (as inspired adj.) a (of a
work of art etc.) as if prompted by or emanating from a
supernatural source; characterized by inspiration (an inspired
speech). b (of a guess) intuitive but accurate. 5 (also
absol.) breathe in (air etc.); inhale. ЬЬinspiratory adj.
inspiredly adv. inspirer n. inspiring adj. inspiringly adv.
[ME f. OF inspirer f. L inspirare breathe in (as IN-(2), spirare
inspirit v.tr. (inspirited, inspiriting) 1 put life into; animate. 2
(usu. foll. by to, or to + infin.) encourage (a person).
ЬЬinspiriting adj. inspiritingly adv.
v.tr. literary thicken; condense. ЬЬinspissation n. [LL
inspissare inspissat- (as IN-(2), L spissus thick)]
n. an apparatus for thickening serum etc. by heat.
inst. abbr. 1 = INSTANT adj. 4 (the 6th inst.). 2 institute. 3
n. (pl. -ies) 1 a lack of stability. 2 Psychol.
unpredictability in behaviour etc. 3 an instance of
instability. [ME f. F instabilit‚ f. L instabilitas -tatis f.
instabilis (as IN-(1), STABLE(1))]
install v.tr. (also instal) (installed, installing) 1 place (equipment,
machinery, etc.) in position ready for use. 2 place (a person)
in an office or rank with ceremony (installed in the office of
chancellor). 3 establish (oneself, a person, etc.) in a place,
condition, etc. (installed herself at the head of the table).
ЬЬinstallant adj. & n. installer n. [med.L installare (as
IN-(2), stallare f. stallum STALL(1))]
n. 1 a the act or an instance of installing. b the process or
an instance of being installed. 2 a piece of apparatus, a
machine, etc. installed. [med.L installatio (as INSTALL)]
n. (US installment) 1 a sum of money due as one of several usu.
equal payments for something, spread over an agreed period of
time. 2 any of several parts, esp. of a television or radio
serial or a magazine story, published or shown in sequence at
intervals. Ьinstalment plan payment by instalments, esp. hire
purchase. [alt. f. obs. estallment f. AF estalement f.
estaler fix: prob. assoc. with INSTALLATION]
instance n. & v. --n. 1 an example or illustration of (just another
instance of his lack of determination). 2 a particular case
(that's not true in this instance). 3 Law a legal suit.
--v.tr. cite (a fact, case, etc.) as an instance. Ьat the
instance of at the request or suggestion of. court of first
instance Law a court of primary jurisdiction. for instance as
an example. in the first (or second etc.) instance in the first
(or second etc.) place; at the first (or second etc.) stage of
a proceeding. [ME f. OF f. L instantia (as INSTANT)]
instancy n. 1 urgency. 2 pressing nature. [L instantia: see INSTANCE]
instant adj. & n. --adj. 1 occurring immediately (gives an instant
result). 2 a (of food etc.) ready for immediate use, with
little or no preparation. b prepared hastily and with little
effort (I have no instant solution). 3 urgent; pressing. 4
Commerce of the current month (the 6th instant). 5 archaic of
the present moment. --n. 1 a precise moment of time, esp. the
present (come here this instant; went that instant; told you the
instant I heard). 2 a short space of time (was there in an
instant; not an instant too soon). Ьinstant replay the
immediate repetition of part of a filmed sports event, often in
slow motion. [ME f. F f. L instare instant- be present, press
upon (as IN-(2), stare stand)]
adj. 1 occurring or done in an instant or instantly. 2 Physics
existing at a particular instant. ЬЬinstantaneity n.
instantaneously adv. instantaneousness n. [med.L instantaneus
f. L instans (as INSTANT) after eccl.L momentaneus]
instanter adv. archaic or joc. immediately; at once. [L f. instans (as
v.tr. represent by an instance. ЬЬinstantiation n. [L
instantia: see INSTANCE]
instantly adv. 1 immediately; at once. 2 archaic urgently; pressingly.
instar n. a stage in the life of an insect etc. between two periods of
moulting. [L, = form]
in statu pupillari
adj. 1 under guardianship, esp. as a pupil. 2 in a junior
position at university; not having a master's degree. [L]
n. formal 1 restoration; renewal. 2 an act of instauration.
ЬЬinstaurator n. [L instauratio f. instaurare (as IN-(2): cf.
instead adv. 1 (foll. by of) as a substitute or alternative to; in
place of (instead of this one; stayed instead of going). 2 as
an alternative (took me instead) (cf. STEAD). [ME, f. IN +
instep n. 1 the inner arch of the foot between the toes and the ankle.
2 the part of a shoe etc. fitting over or under this. 3 a thing
shaped like an instep. [16th c.: ult. formed as IN-(2) + STEP,
but immed. orig. uncert.]
instigate v.tr. 1 bring about by incitement or persuasion; provoke (who
instigated the inquiry?). 2 (usu. foll. by to) urge on, incite
(a person etc.) to esp. an evil act. ЬЬinstigation n.
instigative adj. instigator n. [L instigare instigat-]
instil v.tr. (US instill) (instilled, instilling) (often foll. by
into) 1 introduce (a feeling, idea, etc.) into a person's mind
etc. gradually. 2 put (a liquid) into something in drops.
ЬЬinstillation n. instiller n. instilment n. [L instillare
(as IN-(2), stillare drop): cf. DISTIL]
instinct n. & adj. --n. 1 a an innate, usu. fixed, pattern of behaviour
in most animals in response to certain stimuli. b a similar
propensity in human beings to act without conscious intention;
innate impulsion. 2 (usu. foll. by for) unconscious skill;
intuition. --predic.adj. (foll. by with) imbued, filled (with
life, beauty, force, etc.). ЬЬinstinctual adj. instinctually
adv. [ME, = 'impulse', f. L instinctus f. instinguere incite
(as IN-(2), stinguere stinct- prick)]
adj. 1 relating to or prompted by instinct. 2 apparently
unconscious or automatic (an instinctive reaction).
institute n. & v. --n. 1 a a society or organization for the promotion
of science, education, etc. b a building used by an institute.
2 Law (usu. in pl.) a digest of the elements of a legal subject
(Institutes of Justinian). 3 a principle of instruction. 4 US
a brief course of instruction for teachers etc. --v.tr. 1
establish; found. 2 a initiate (an inquiry etc.). b begin
(proceedings) in a court. 3 (usu. foll. by to, into) appoint (a
person) as a cleric in a church etc. [ME f. L institutum
design, precept, neut. past part. of instituere establish,
arrange, teach (as IN-(2), statuere set up)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of instituting. 2 a a society or
organization founded esp. for charitable, religious,
educational, or social purposes. b a building used by an
institution. 3 an established law, practice, or custom. 4
colloq. (of a person, a custom, etc.) a familiar object. 5 the
establishment of a cleric etc. in a church. [ME f. OF f. L
institutio -onis (as INSTITUTE)]
adj. 1 of or like an institution. 2 typical of institutions,
esp. in being regimented or unimaginative (the food was
dreadfully institutional). 3 (of religion) expressed or
organized through institutions (churches etc.). 4 US (of
advertising) intended to create prestige rather than immediate
sales. ЬЬinstitutionalism n. institutionally adv.
v.tr. (also -ise) 1 (as institutionalized adj.) (of a prisoner,
a long-term patient, etc.) made apathetic and dependent after a
long period in an institution. 2 place or keep (a person) in an
institution. 3 convert into an institution; make institutional.
Inst.P. abbr. (in the UK) Institute of Physics.
instruct v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in) teach (a person) a subject etc.
(instructed her in French). 2 (usu. foll. by to + infin.)
direct; command (instructed him to fill in the hole). 3 (often
foll. by of, or that etc. + clause) inform (a person) of a fact
etc. 4 Brit. a (of a client or solicitor) give information to
(a solicitor or counsel). b authorize (a solicitor or counsel)
to act for one. [ME f. L instruere instruct- build, teach (as
IN-(2), struere pile up)]
n. 1 (often in pl.) a direction; an order (gave him his
instructions). 2 teaching; education (took a course of
instruction). 3 Law (in pl.) directions to a solicitor or
counsel. 4 Computing a direction in a computer program defining
and effecting an operation. ЬЬinstructional adj. [ME f. OF f.
LL instructio -onis (as INSTRUCT)]
adj. tending to instruct; conveying a lesson; enlightening
(found the experience instructive). ЬЬinstructively adv.
n. (fem. instructress) 1 a person who instructs; a teacher,
demonstrator, etc. 2 US a university teacher ranking below
professor. ЬЬinstructorship n.
n. & v. --n. 1 a tool or implement, esp. for delicate or
scientific work. 2 (in full musical instrument) a device for
producing musical sounds by vibration, wind, percussion, etc. 3
a a thing used in performing an action (the meeting was an
instrument in his success). b a person made use of (is merely
their instrument). 4 a measuring-device, esp. in an aeroplane,
serving to determine its position in darkness etc. 5 a formal,
esp. legal, document. --v.tr. 1 arrange (music) for
instruments. 2 equip with instruments (for measuring,
recording, controlling, etc.). Ьinstrument board (or panel) a
surface, esp. in a car or aeroplane, containing the dials etc.
of measuring-devices. [ME f. OF instrument or L instrumentum
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (usu. foll. by to, in, or in + verbal noun)
serving as an instrument or means (was instrumental in finding
the money). 2 (of music) performed on instruments, without
singing (cf. VOCAL). 3 of, or arising from, an instrument
(instrumental error). 4 Gram. of or in the instrumental. --n.
1 a piece of music performed by instruments, not by the voice.
2 Gram. the case of nouns and pronouns (and words in grammatical
agreement with them) indicating a means or instrument.
ЬЬinstrumentalist n. instrumentality n. instrumentally adv.
[ME f. F f. med.L instrumentalis (as INSTRUMENT)]
n. 1 a the arrangement or composition of music for a particular
group of musical instruments. b the instruments used in any one
piece of music. 2 a the design, provision, or use of
instruments in industry, science, etc. b such instruments
collectively. [F f. instrumenter (as INSTRUMENT)]
adj. disobedient; rebellious. ЬЬinsubordinately adv.
adj. 1 lacking solidity or substance. 2 not real.
ЬЬinsubstantiality n. insubstantially adv. [LL insubstantialis
(as IN-(1), SUBSTANTIAL)]
adj. 1 intolerable. 2 unbearably arrogant or conceited etc.
ЬЬinsufferableness n. insufferably adv.
n. 1 the condition of being insufficient. 2 Med. the inability
of an organ to perform its normal function (renal
insufficiency). [ME f. LL insufficientia (as INSUFFICIENT)]
adj. not sufficient; inadequate. ЬЬinsufficiently adv. [ME f.
OF f. LL insufficiens (as IN-(1), SUFFICIENT)]
v.tr. 1 Med. a blow or breathe (air, gas, powder, etc.) into a
cavity of the body etc. b treat (the nose etc.) in this way. 2
Theol. blow or breathe on (a person) to symbolize spiritual
influence. ЬЬinsufflation n. [LL insufflare insufflat- (as
IN-(2), sufflare blow upon)]
n. 1 a device for blowing powder on to a surface in order to
make fingerprints visible. 2 an instrument for insufflating.
insular adj. 1 a of or like an island. b separated or remote, like an
island. 2 ignorant of or indifferent to cultures, peoples,
etc., outside one's own experience; narrow-minded. 3 of a
British variant of Latin handwriting current in the Middle Ages.
4 (of climate) equable. ЬЬinsularism n. insularity n.
insularly adv. [LL insularis (as INSULATE)]
insulate v.tr. 1 prevent the passage of electricity, heat, or sound from
(a thing, room, etc.) by interposing non-conductors. 2 detach
(a person or thing) from its surroundings; isolate. 3 archaic
make (land) into an island. Ьinsulating tape an adhesive tape
used to cover exposed electrical wires etc. ЬЬinsulation n. [L
insula island + -ATE(3)]
insulator n. 1 a thing or substance used for insulation against
electricity, heat, or sound. 2 an insulating device to support
telegraph wires etc. 3 a device preventing contact between
insulin n. Biochem. a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets
of Langerhans, regulating the amount of glucose in the blood and
the lack of which causes diabetes. [L insula island + -IN]
insult v. & n. --v.tr. 1 speak to or treat with scornful abuse or
indignity. 2 offend the self-respect or modesty of. --n. 1 an
insulting remark or action. 2 colloq. something so worthless or
contemptible as to be offensive. 3 Med. a an agent causing
damage to the body. b such damage. ЬЬinsulter n. insultingly
adv. [F insulte or L insultare (as IN-(2), saltare frequent. of
salire salt- leap)]
adj. 1 (of a barrier) impossible to surmount. 2 (of a
difficulty etc.) impossible to overcome. ЬЬinsuperability n.
insuperably adv. [ME f. OF insuperable or L insuperabilis (as
adj. 1 unable to be endured. 2 unjustifiable.
ЬЬinsupportableness n. insupportably adv. [F (as IN-(1),
insurance n. 1 the act or an instance of insuring. 2 a a sum paid for
this; a premium. b a sum paid out as compensation for theft,
damage, loss, etc. 3 = insurance policy. 4 a measure taken to
provide for a possible contingency (take an umbrella as
insurance). Ьinsurance agent Brit. a person employed to
collect premiums door to door. insurance company Brit. a
company engaged in the business of insurance. insurance policy
Brit. 1 a contract of insurance. 2 a document detailing such a
policy and constituting a contract. insurance stamp Brit.
hist. a stamp certifying the payment of a sum, usu. paid
weekly, for National Insurance. [earlier ensurance f. OF
enseЃrance (as ENSURE)]
insure v.tr. 1 (often foll. by against; also absol.) secure the
payment of a sum of money in the event of loss or damage to
(property, life, a person, etc.) by regular payments or premiums
(insured the house for њ100,000; we have insured against flood
damage) (cf. ASSURANCE). 2 (of the owner of a property, an
insurance company, etc.) secure the payment of (a sum of money)
in this way. 3 (usu. foll. by against) provide for (a possible
contingency) (insured themselves against the rain by taking
umbrellas). 4 US = ENSURE. ЬЬinsurable adj. insurability n.
[ME, var. of ENSURE]
insured adj. & n. --adj. covered by insurance. --n. (usu. prec. by
the) a person etc. covered by insurance.
insurer n. 1 a person or company offering insurance policies for
premiums; an underwriter. 2 a person who takes out insurance.
insurgent adj. & n. --adj. 1 rising in active revolt. 2 (of the sea
etc.) rushing in. --n. a rebel; a revolutionary. ЬЬinsurgence
n. insurgency n. (pl. -ies). [F f. L insurgere insurrect-
(as IN-(2), surgere rise)]
adj. unable to be surmounted or overcome. ЬЬinsurmountably
n. a rising in open resistance to established authority; a
rebellion. ЬЬinsurrectional adj. insurrectionary adj.
insurrectionist n. [ME f. OF f. LL insurrectio -onis (as
adj. (usu. foll. by of, to) not susceptible (of treatment, to
an influence, etc.). ЬЬinsusceptibility n.
inswinger n. 1 Cricket a ball bowled with a swing towards the batsman. 2
Football a pass or kick that sends the ball curving towards the
intact adj. 1 entire; unimpaired. 2 untouched. ЬЬintactness n. [ME
f. L intactus (as IN-(1), tactus past part. of tangere touch)]
adj. decorated with surface carving. [It. intagliato past
part. of intagliare cut into]
intaglio n. & v. --n. (pl. -os) 1 a gem with an incised design (cf.
CAMEO). 2 an engraved design. 3 a carving, esp. incised, in
hard material. 4 a process of printing from an engraved design.
--v.tr. (-oes, -oed) 1 engrave (material) with a sunk pattern
or design. 2 engrave (such a design). [It. (as INTAGLIATED)]
intake n. 1 a the action of taking in. b an instance of this. 2 a
number or the amount taken in or received. 3 a place where
water is taken into a channel or pipe from a river, or fuel or
air enters an engine etc. 4 an airway into a mine. 5 N.Engl.
land reclaimed from a moor etc.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 unable to be touched; not solid. 2 unable
to be grasped mentally. --n. something that cannot be precisely
measured or assessed. ЬЬintangibility n. intangibly adv. [F
intangible or med.L intangibilis (as IN-(1), TANGIBLE)]
intarsia n. the craft of using wood inlays, esp. as practised in 15th-c.
Italy. [It. intarsio]
integer n. 1 a whole number. 2 a thing complete in itself. [L (adj.)
= untouched, whole: see ENTIRE]
integral adj. & n. --adj. disp. 1 a of a whole or necessary to the
completeness of a whole. b forming a whole (integral design).
c whole, complete. 2 Math. a of or denoted by an integer. b
involving only integers, esp. as coefficients of a function.
--n. Math. 1 a quantity of which a given function is the
derivative, either containing an indeterminate additive constant
(indefinite integral), or calculated as the difference between
its values at specified limits (definite integral). 2 a
function satisfying a given differential equation. Ьintegral
calculus mathematics concerned with finding integrals, their
properties and application, etc. (cf. differential calculus).
ЬЬintegrality n. integrally adv. [LL integralis (as INTEGER)]
integrand n. Math. a function that is to be integrated. [L integrandus
gerundive of integrare: see INTEGRATE]
integrant adj. (of parts) making up a whole; component. [F int‚grant f.
int‚grer (as INTEGRATE)]
integrate v. & adj. --v. 1 tr. a combine (parts) into a whole. b
complete (an imperfect thing) by the addition of parts. 2 tr. &
intr. bring or come into equal participation in or membership of
society, a school, etc. 3 tr. desegregate, esp. racially (a
school etc.). 4 tr. Math. a find the integral of. b (as
integrated adj.) indicating the mean value or total sum of
(temperature, an area, etc.). --adj. 1 made up of parts. 2
whole; complete. Ьintegrated circuit Electronics a small chip
etc. of material replacing several separate components in a
conventional electrical circuit. ЬЬintegrable adj.
integrability n. integrative adj. [L integrare integrat- make
whole (as INTEGER)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of integrating. 2 the intermixing
of persons previously segregated. 3 Psychol. the combination of
the diverse elements of perception etc. in a personality.
ЬЬintegrationist n. [L integratio (as INTEGRATE)]
n. 1 an instrument for indicating or registering the total
amount or mean value of some physical quality, as area,
temperature, etc. 2 a person or thing that integrates.
integrity n. 1 moral uprightness; honesty. 2 wholeness; soundness. [ME
f. F int‚grit‚ or L integritas (as INTEGER)]
n. a natural outer covering, as a skin, husk, rind, etc.
ЬЬintegumental adj. integumentary adj. [L integumentum f.
integere (as IN-(2), tegere cover)]
intellect n. 1 a the faculty of reasoning, knowing, and thinking, as
distinct from feeling. b the understanding or mental powers (of
a particular person etc.) (his intellect is not great). 2 a a
clever or knowledgeable person. b the intelligentsia regarded
collectively (the combined intellect of four universities). [ME
f. OF intellect or L intellectus understanding (as INTELLIGENT)]
n. the action or process of understanding (opp. IMAGINATION).
ЬЬintellective adj. [ME f. med.L intellectio (as INTELLIGENT)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or appealing to the intellect. 2
possessing a high level of understanding or intelligence;
cultured. 3 requiring, or given to the exercise of, the
intellect. --n. a person possessing a highly developed
intellect. ЬЬintellectuality n. intellectualize v.tr. & intr.
(also -ise). intellectually adv. [ME f. L intellectualis (as
n. 1 the exercise, esp. when excessive, of the intellect at the
expense of the emotions. 2 Philos. the theory that knowledge is
wholly or mainly derived from pure reason. ЬЬintellectualist n.
n. 1 a the intellect; the understanding. b (of a person or an
animal) quickness of understanding; wisdom. 2 a the collection
of information, esp. of military or political value. b people
employed in this. c archaic information; news. 3 an
intelligent or rational being. Ьintelligence department a usu.
government department engaged in collecting esp. secret
information. intelligence quotient a number denoting the ratio
of a person's intelligence to the normal or average.
intelligence test a test designed to measure intelligence rather
than acquired knowledge. ЬЬintelligential adj. [ME f. OF f. L
intelligentia (as INTELLIGENT)]
adj. 1 having or showing intelligence, esp. of a high level. 2
quick of mind; clever. 3 a (of a device or machine) able to
vary its behaviour in response to varying situations and
requirements and past experience. b (esp. of a computer
terminal) having its own data-processing capability;
incorporating a microprocessor (opp. DUMB). ЬЬintelligently
adv. [L intelligere intellect- understand (as INTER-, legere
gather, pick out, read)]
n. 1 the class of intellectuals regarded as possessing culture
and political initiative. 2 people doing intellectual work;
intellectuals. [Russ. f. Pol. inteligencja f. L intelligentia
adj. 1 (often foll. by to) able to be understood;
comprehensible. 2 Philos. able to be understood only by the
intellect, not by the senses. ЬЬintelligibility n.
intelligibly adv. [L intelligibilis (as INTELLIGENT)]
Intelpost n. the international electronic transmission of messages and
graphics by fax, telex, etc. [International Electronic Post]
Intelsat n. an international organization of countries operating a
system of commercial communication satellites. [International
Telecommunications Satellite Consortium]
adj. 1 (of a person, conduct, or speech) immoderate; unbridled;
violent (used intemperate language). 2 a given to excessive
indulgence in alcohol. b excessively indulgent in one's
appetites. ЬЬintemperance n. intemperately adv.
intemperateness n. [ME f. L intemperatus (as IN-(1),
intend v.tr. 1 have as one's purpose; propose (we intend to go; we
intend going; we intend that it shall be done). 2 (usu. foll.
by for, as) design or destine (a person or a thing) (I intend
him to go; I intend it as a warning). 3 mean (what does he
intend by that?). 4 (in passive; foll. by for) a be meant for a
person to have or use etc. (they are intended for the children).
b be meant to represent (the picture is intended for you). 5
(as intending adj.) who intends to be (an intending visitor).
[ME entende, intende f. OF entendre, intendre f. L intendere
intent- or intens- strain, direct, purpose (as IN-(2), tendere
intendant n. 1 (esp. as a title of foreign officials) a superintendent or
manager of a department of public business etc. 2 the
administrator of an opera house or theatre. ЬЬintendancy n. [F
f. L intendere (as INTEND)]
intended adj. & n. --adj. 1 done on purpose; intentional. 2 designed,
meant. --n. colloq. the person one intends to marry; one's
fianc‚ or fianc‚e (is this your intended?). ЬЬintendedly adv.
intense adj. (intenser, intensest) 1 (of a quality etc.) existing in a
high degree; violent; forceful (intense cold). 2 (of a person)
feeling, or apt to feel, strong emotion (very intense about her
music). 3 (of a feeling or action etc.) extreme (intense joy;
intense thought). ЬЬintensely adv. intenseness n. [ME f. OF
intens or L intensus (as INTEND)]
n. 1 a person or thing that intensifies. 2 Gram. = INTENSIVE
intensify v. (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. & intr. make or become intense or more
intense. 2 tr. Photog. increase the opacity of (a negative).
intension n. 1 Logic the internal content of a concept. 2 formal the
intensity, or high degree, of a quality. 3 formal the strenuous
exertion of the mind or will. ЬЬintensional adj. intensionally
adv. [L intensio (as INTEND)]
intensity n. (pl. -ies) 1 the quality or an instance of being intense.
2 esp. Physics the measurable amount of some quality, e.g.
force, brightness, a magnetic field, etc.
intensive adj. & n. --adj. 1 thorough, vigorous; directed to a single
point, area, or subject (intensive study; intensive
bombardment). 2 of or relating to intensity as opp. to extent;
producing intensity. 3 serving to increase production in
relation to costs (intensive farming methods). 4 (usu. in
comb.) Econ. making much use of (a labour-intensive industry).
5 Gram. (of an adjective, adverb, etc.) expressing intensity;
giving force, as really in my feet are really cold. --n. Gram.
an intensive adjective, adverb, etc. Ьintensive care medical
treatment with constant monitoring etc. of a dangerously ill
patient (also (with hyphen) attrib.: intensive-care unit).
ЬЬintensively adv. intensiveness n. [F intensif -ive or med.L
intensivus (as INTEND)]
intent n. & adj. --n. (usu. without article) intention; a purpose
(with intent to defraud; my intent to reach the top; with evil
intent). --adj. 1 (usu. foll. by on) a resolved; bent;
determined (was intent on succeeding). b attentively occupied
(intent on his books). 2 (esp. of a look) earnest; eager;
meaningful. Ьto all intents and purposes practically;
virtually. ЬЬintently adv. intentness n. [ME entent f. OF f.
L intentus (as INTEND)]
intention n. 1 (often foll. by to + infin., or of + verbal noun) a thing
intended; an aim or purpose (it was not his intention to
interfere; have no intention of staying). 2 the act of
intending (done without intention). 3 colloq. (usu. in pl.) a
person's, esp. a man's, designs in respect to marriage (are his
intentions strictly honourable?). 4 Logic a conception. Ьfirst
intention Med. the healing of a wound by natural contact of the
parts. first intentions Logic one's primary conceptions of
things (e.g. a tree, an oak). intention tremor Med. a
trembling of a part of a body when commencing a movement.
second intention Med. the healing of a wound by granulation.
second intentions Logic one's secondary conceptions (e.g.
difference, identity, species). special (or particular)
intention RC Ch. a special aim or purpose for which a mass is
celebrated, prayers are said, etc. ЬЬintentioned adj. (usu. in
comb.). [ME entencion f. OF f. L intentio stretching, purpose
adj. done on purpose. ЬЬintentionality n. intentionally adv.
[F intentionnel or med.L intentionalis (as INTENTION)]
inter v.tr. (interred, interring) deposit (a corpse etc.) in the
earth, a tomb, etc.; bury. [ME f. OF enterrer f. Rmc (as
IN-(2), L terra earth)]
inter. abbr. intermediate.
inter- comb. form 1 between, among (intercontinental). 2 mutually,
reciprocally (interbreed). [OF entre- or L inter between,
interact v.intr. act reciprocally; act on each other. ЬЬinteractant
adj. & n.
n. 1 reciprocal action or influence. 2 Physics the action of
atomic and subatomic particles on each other.
adj. 1 reciprocally active; acting upon or influencing each
other. 2 (of a computer or other electronic device) allowing a
two-way flow of information between it and a user, responding to
the user's input. ЬЬinteractively adv. [INTERACT, after
adv. among other things. [L]
adj. relating to two or more allies (in war etc.).
adj. between the contiguous surfaces of a joint.
adj. between atoms.
interbank adj. agreed, arranged, or operating between banks (interbank
interbed v.tr. (-bedded, -bedding) embed (one thing) among others.
v. 1 tr. (usu. foll. by with) mingle (things) together. 2
intr. blend with each other.
v. (past and past part. -bred) 1 intr. & tr. breed or cause to
breed with members of a different race or species to produce a
hybrid. 2 tr. breed within one family etc. in order to produce
desired characteristics (cf. CROSS-BREED).
adj. 1 a (of a day or a month) inserted in the calendar to
harmonize it with the solar year, e.g. 29 Feb. in leap years. b
(of a year) having such an addition. 2 interpolated;
intervening. [L intercalari(u)s (as INTERCALATE)]
v.tr. 1 (also absol.) insert (an intercalary day etc.). 2
interpose (anything out of the ordinary course). 3 (as
intercalated adj.) (of strata etc.) interposed. ЬЬintercalation
n. [L intercalare intercalat- (as INTER-, calare proclaim)]
intercede v.intr. (usu. foll. by with) interpose or intervene on behalf
of another; plead (they interceded with the king for his life).
ЬЬinterceder n. [F interc‚der or L intercedere intercess-
intervene (as INTER-, cedere go)]
adj. Biol. located or occurring between cells.
adj. between two censuses.
intercept v. & n. --v.tr. 1 seize, catch, or stop (a person, message,
vehicle, ball, etc.) going from one place to another. 2 (usu.
foll. by from) cut off (light etc.). 3 check or stop (motion
etc.). 4 Math. mark off (a space) between two points etc. --n.
Math. the part of a line between two points of intersection with
usu. the coordinate axes or other lines. ЬЬinterception n.
interceptive adj. [L intercipere intercept- (as INTER-, capere
n. 1 an aircraft used to intercept enemy raiders. 2 a person
or thing that intercepts.
n. 1 the act of interceding, esp. by prayer. 2 an instance of
this. 3 a prayer. ЬЬintercessional adj. intercessor n.
intercessorial adj. intercessory adj. [F intercession or L
intercessio (as INTERCEDE)]
v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (of two people) exchange (things) with each
other. 2 put each of (two things) in the other's place;
alternate. --n. 1 (often foll. by of) a reciprocal exchange
between two people etc. 2 alternation (the interchange of woods
and fields). 3 a road junction designed so that traffic streams
do not intersect. ЬЬinterchangeable adj. interchangeability n.
interchangeableness n. interchangeably adv. [ME f. OF
entrechangier (as INTER-, CHANGE)]
adj. existing or travelling between cities.
adj. existing or conducted between different social classes.
adj. existing or conducted between colleges or universities.
adj. existing or conducted between colonies.
intercom n. colloq. a system of intercommunication by radio or
telephone between or within offices, aircraft, etc. [abbr.]
v.intr. 1 communicate reciprocally. 2 (of rooms etc.) have
free passage into each other; have a connecting door.
ЬЬintercommunication n. intercommunicative adj.
n. 1 mutual communion. 2 a mutual action or relationship, esp.
between Christian denominations.
n. 1 the quality of being common to various groups etc. 2
having things in common.
v.tr. & intr. connect with each other. ЬЬinterconnection n.
adj. connecting or travelling between continents.
v.tr. & intr. convert into each other. ЬЬinterconversion n.
n. the cooling of gas between successive compressions, esp. in
a car or truck engine. ЬЬintercool v.tr. intercooler n.
v.tr. & intr. correlate with one another. ЬЬintercorrelation
adj. between the ribs (of the body or a ship). ЬЬintercostally
adj. existing or conducted between counties.
n. 1 communication or dealings between individuals, nations,
etc. 2 = sexual intercourse. 3 communion between human beings
and God. [ME f. OF entrecours exchange, commerce, f. L
intercursus (as INTER-, currere curs- run)]
intercrop v.tr. (also absol.) (-cropped, -cropping) raise (a crop) among
plants of a different kind, usu. in the space between rows.
v. 1 tr. & intr. lay or lie across each other. 2 a intr. (of
animals) breed with each other. b tr. cause to do this.
adj. between the legs.
adj. 1 (of a time or event) intervening. 2 Med. a (of a
disease) occurring during the progress of another. b recurring
at intervals. ЬЬintercurrence n. [L intercurrere intercurrent-
intercut v.tr. (-cutting; past and past part. -cut) Cinematog.
alternate (shots) with contrasting shots by cutting.
adj. concerning more than one (religious) denomination.
adj. concerning more than one department.
v.intr. depend on each other. ЬЬinterdependence n.
interdependency n. interdependent adj.
interdict n. & v. --n. 1 an authoritative prohibition. 2 RC Ch. a
sentence debarring a person, or esp. a place, from
ecclesiastical functions and privileges. 3 Sc. Law an
injunction. --v.tr. 1 prohibit (an action). 2 forbid the use
of. 3 (usu. foll. by from + verbal noun) restrain (a person).
4 (usu. foll. by to) forbid (a thing) to a person.
ЬЬinterdiction n. interdictory adj. [ME f. OF entredit f. L
interdictum past part. of interdicere interpose, forbid by
decree (as INTER-, dicere say)]
adj. between the fingers or toes. ЬЬinterdigitally adv.
v.intr. interlock like clasped fingers. [INTER- + L digitus
finger + -ATE(3)]
adj. of or between more than one branch of learning.
interest n. & v. --n. 1 a concern; curiosity (have no interest in
fishing). b a quality exciting curiosity or holding the
attention (this magazine lacks interest). 2 a subject, hobby,
etc., in which one is concerned (his interests are gardening and
sport). 3 advantage or profit, esp. when financial (it is in
your interest to go; look after your own interests). 4 money
paid for the use of money lent, or for not requiring the
repayment of a debt. 5 (usu. foll. by in) a a financial stake
(in an undertaking etc.). b a legal concern, title, or right
(in property). 6 a a party or group having a common interest
(the brewing interest). b a principle in which a party or group
is concerned. 7 the selfish pursuit of one's own welfare,
self-interest. --v.tr. 1 excite the curiosity or attention of
(your story interests me greatly). 2 (usu. foll. by in) cause
(a person) to take a personal interest or share (can I interest
you in a holiday abroad?). 3 (as interested adj.) having a
private interest; not impartial or disinterested (an interested
party). Ьat interest (of money borrowed) on the condition that
interest is payable. declare an (or one's) interest make known
one's financial etc. interests in an undertaking before it is
discussed. in the interest (or interests) of as something that
is advantageous to. lose interest become bored or boring. with
interest with increased force etc. (returned the blow with
interest). ЬЬinterestedly adv. interestedness n. [ME, earlier
interesse f. AF f. med.L, alt. app. after OF interest, both f. L
interest, 3rd sing. pres. of interesse matter, make a difference
(as INTER-, esse be)]
adj. causing curiosity; holding the attention. Ьin an
interesting condition archaic pregnant. ЬЬinterestingly adv.
interface n. & v. --n. 1 esp. Physics a surface forming a common
boundary between two regions. 2 a point where interaction
occurs between two systems, processes, subjects, etc. (the
interface between psychology and education). 3 esp. Computing
an apparatus for connecting two pieces of equipment so that they
can be operated jointly. --v.tr. & intr. (often foll. by with)
connect with (another piece of equipment etc.) by an interface.
adj. 1 included between two faces of a crystal or other solid.
2 of or forming an interface. ЬЬinterfacially adv. (esp. in
n. a stiffish material, esp. buckram, between two layers of
fabric in collars etc.
adj. between the thighs.
interfere v.intr. 1 (usu. foll. by with) a (of a person) meddle; obstruct
a process etc. b (of a thing) be a hindrance; get in the way.
2 (usu. foll. by in) take part or intervene, esp. without
invitation or necessity. 3 (foll. by with) euphem. molest or
assault sexually. 4 Physics (of light or other waves) combine
so as to cause interference. 5 (of a horse) knock one leg
against another. ЬЬinterferer n. interfering adj.
interferingly adv. [OF s' entreferir strike each other (as
INTER-, ferir f. L ferire strike)]
n. 1 (usu. foll. by with) a the act of interfering. b an
instance of this. 2 the fading or disturbance of received radio
signals by the interference of waves from different sources, or
esp. by atmospherics or unwanted signals. 3 Physics the
combination of two or more wave motions to form a resultant wave
in which the displacement is reinforced or cancelled.
n. an instrument for measuring wavelengths etc. by means of
interference phenomena. ЬЬinterferometric adj.
interferometrically adv. interferometry n.
n. Biochem. any of various proteins that can inhibit the
development of a virus in a cell etc. [INTERFERE + -ON]
adj. between fibrils.
interfile v.tr. 1 file (two sequences) together. 2 file (one or more
items) into an existing sequence.
interflow v. & n. --v.intr. flow into each other. --n. the process or
result of this.
adj. flowing into each other. [L interfluere interfluent- (as
INTER-, fluere flow)]
interfuse v. 1 tr. a (usu. foll. by with) mix (a thing) with;
intersperse. b blend (things) together. 2 intr. (of two
things) blend with each other. ЬЬinterfusion n. [L
interfundere interfus- (as INTER-, fundere pour)]
adj. of or situated between two or more galaxies.
adj. between glacial periods.
adj. concerning or conducted between two or more governments.
n. the process of merging together by gradual change of the
v. & n. --v.intr. pass into another form by intervening grades.
--n. such a grade.
n. the growing of things into each other.
interim n., adj., & adv. --n. the intervening time (in the interim he
had died). --adj. intervening; provisional, temporary. --adv.
archaic meanwhile. Ьinterim dividend a dividend declared on the
basis of less than a full year's results. [L, as INTER- + adv.
interior adj. & n. --adj. 1 inner (opp. EXTERIOR). 2 remote from the
coast or frontier; inland. 3 internal; domestic (opp.
FOREIGN). 4 (usu. foll. by to) situated further in or within.
5 existing in the mind or soul; inward. 6 drawn, photographed,
etc. within a building. 7 coming from inside. --n. 1 the
interior part; the inside. 2 the interior part of a country or
region. 3 a the home affairs of a country. b a department
dealing with these (Minister of the Interior). 4 a
representation of the inside of a building or a room (Dutch
interior). 5 the inner nature; the soul. Ьinterior angle the
angle between adjacent sides of a rectilinear figure. interior
decoration (or design) the decoration or design of the interior
of a building, a room, etc. interior monologue a form of
writing expressing a character's inner thoughts.
interior-sprung (of a mattress etc.) with internal springs.
ЬЬinteriorize v.tr. (also -ise). interiorly adv. [L, compar.
f. inter among]
n. an exclamation, esp. as a part of speech (e.g. ah!, dear
me!). ЬЬinterjectional adj. [ME f. OF f. L interjectio -onis
interknit v.tr. & intr. (-knitting; past and past part. -knitted or
-knit) knit together; intertwine.
interlace v. 1 tr. bind intricately together; interweave. 2 tr. mingle,
intersperse. 3 intr. cross each other intricately.
ЬЬinterlacement n. [ME f. OF entrelacier (as INTER-, LACE v.)]
n. a language or use of language having features of two others,
often a pidgin or dialect form.
interlap v.intr. (-lapped, -lapping) overlap.
interlard v.tr. (usu. foll. by with) mix (writing or speech) with unusual
words or phrases. [F entrelarder (as INTER-, LARD v.)]
interleaf n. (pl. -leaves) an extra (usu. blank) leaf between the leaves
of a book.
v.tr. insert (usu. blank) leaves between the leaves of (a book
n. Biochem. any of several glycoproteins produced by
leucocytes for regulating immune responses. [INTER- +
adj. between libraries (esp. interlibrary loan).
v.tr. 1 insert words between the lines of (a document etc.). 2
insert (words) in this way. ЬЬinterlineation n. [ME f. med.L
interlineare (as INTER-, LINE(1))]
v.tr. put an extra lining between the ordinary lining and the
fabric of (a garment).
adj. written or printed between the lines of a text. [ME f.
med.L interlinearis (as INTER-, LINEAR)]
n. material used to interline a garment.
interlink v.tr. & intr. link or be linked together.
adj. situated between lobes.
interlock v., adj., & n. --v. 1 intr. engage with each other by
overlapping or by the fitting together of projections and
recesses. 2 tr. (usu. in passive) lock or clasp within each
other. --adj. (of a fabric) knitted with closely interlocking
stitches. --n. a device or mechanism for connecting or
coordinating the function of different components.
n. (fem. interlocutrix) a person who takes part in a dialogue
or conversation. ЬЬinterlocution n. [mod.L f. L interloqui
interlocut- interrupt in speaking (as INTER-, loqui speak)]
adj. 1 of dialogue or conversation. 2 Law (of a decree etc.)
given provisionally in a legal action. [med.L interlocutorius
n. 1 an intruder. 2 a person who interferes in others'
affairs, esp. for profit. ЬЬinterlope v.intr. [INTER- + loper
as in landloper vagabond f. MDu. landlooper]
interlude n. 1 a a pause between the acts of a play. b something
performed or done during this pause. 2 a an intervening time,
space, or event that contrasts with what goes before or after.
b a temporary amusement or entertaining episode. 3 a piece of
music played between other pieces, the verses of a hymn, etc.
[ME, = a light dramatic item between the acts of a morality
play, f. med.L interludium (as INTER-, ludus play)]
n. 1 marriage between people of different races, castes,
families, etc. 2 (loosely) marriage between near relations.
v.intr. (-ies, -ied) (foll. by with) (of races, castes,
families, etc.) become connected by marriage.
n. & adj. --n. (pl. -ies) an intermediate person or thing,
esp. a mediator. --adj. acting as mediator; intermediate. [F
interm‚diaire f. It. intermediario f. L intermedius (as
adj., n., & v. --adj. coming between two things in time, place,
order, character, etc. --n. 1 an intermediate thing. 2 a
chemical compound formed by one reaction and then used in
another, esp. during synthesis. --v.intr. (foll. by between)
act as intermediary; mediate. Ьintermediate frequency the
frequency to which a radio signal is converted during heterodyne
reception. ЬЬintermediacy n. intermediately adv.
intermediateness n. intermediation n. intermediator n. [med.L
intermediatus (as INTER-, medius middle)]
interment n. the burial of a corpse, esp. with ceremony.
intermesh v.tr. & intr. make or become meshed together.
n. (pl. intermezzi or -os) 1 a a short connecting instrumental
movement in an opera or other musical work. b a similar piece
performed independently. c a short piece for a solo instrument.
2 a short light dramatic or other performance inserted between
the acts of a play. [It. f. L intermedium interval (as
adj. 1 endless. 2 tediously long or habitual. 3 with no
prospect of an end. ЬЬinterminableness n. interminably adv.
[ME f. OF interminable or LL interminabilis (as IN-(1),
n. 1 a pause or cessation. 2 an interval between parts of a
play, film, concert, etc. 3 a period of inactivity. [F
intermission or L intermissio (as INTERMIT)]
intermit v. (intermitted, intermitting) 1 intr. esp. Med. stop or cease
activity briefly (e.g. of a fever, or a pulse). 2 tr. suspend;
discontinue for a time. [L intermittere intermiss- (as INTER-,
mittere let go)]
adj. occurring at intervals; not continuous or steady.
ЬЬintermittence n. intermittency n. intermittently adv. [L
intermittere intermittent- (as INTERMIT)]
intermix v.tr. & intr. mix together. ЬЬintermixable adj. intermixture
n. [back-form. f. intermixed, intermixt f. L intermixtus past
part. of intermiscere mix together (as INTER-, miscere mix)]
adj. between molecules.
intern n. & v. --n. (also interne) US a recent graduate or advanced
student living in a hospital and acting as an assistant
physician or surgeon. --v. 1 tr. confine; oblige (a prisoner,
alien, etc.) to reside within prescribed limits. 2 intr. US
serve as an intern. ЬЬinternment n. internship n. [F interne
f. L internus internal]
internal adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or situated in the inside or invisible
part. 2 relating or applied to the inside of the body (internal
injuries). 3 of a nation's domestic affairs. 4 (of a student)
attending a university etc. as well as taking its examinations.
5 used or applying within an organization. 6 a of the inner
nature of a thing; intrinsic. b of the mind or soul. --n. (in
pl.) intrinsic qualities. Ьinternal-combustion engine an engine
with its motive power generated by the explosion of gases or
vapour with air in a cylinder. internal energy the energy in a
system arising from the relative positions and interactions of
its parts. internal evidence evidence derived from the contents
of the thing discussed. internal exile see EXILE n. 1.
internal rhyme a rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line
and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next.
ЬЬinternality n. internalize v.tr. (also -ise).
internalization n. internally adv. [mod.L internalis (as
internat. abbr. international.
adj. & n. --adj. 1 existing, involving, or carried on between
two or more nations. 2 agreed on or used by all or many nations
(international date-line; international driving licence). --n.
1 a a contest, esp. in sport, between teams representing
different countries. b a member of such a team. 2 a
(International) any of four associations founded (1864-1936) to
promote socialist or communist action. b a member of any of
these. Ьinternational law a body of rules established by custom
or treaty and agreed as binding by nations in their relations
with one another. international system of units a system of
physical units based on the metre, kilogram, second, ampere,
kelvin, candela, and mole, with prefixes to indicate
multiplication or division by a power of ten. international
unit a standard quantity of a vitamin etc. ЬЬinternationality
n. internationally adv.
n. 1 (prec. by the) an (orig. French) revolutionary song
adopted by socialists. 2 = INTERNATIONAL n. 2a. [F, fem. of
international (adj.) f. INTERNATIONAL]
n. 1 the advocacy of a community of interests among nations. 2
(Internationalism) the principles of any of the Internationals.
v.tr. (also -ise) 1 make international. 2 bring under the
protection or control of two or more nations.
interne US var. of INTERN n.
adj. mutually destructive. [orig. = deadly, f. L internecinus
f. internecio massacre f. internecare slaughter (as INTER-,
internee n. a person interned.
internist n. Med. 1 a specialist in internal diseases. 2 US a general
internode n. 1 Bot. a part of a stem between two of the knobs from which
leaves arise. 2 Anat. a slender part between two joints, esp.
the bone of a finger or toe.
adj. between nuclei.
adj. (of nerves) communicating between different parts of the
system. [internuncio ambassador f. It. internunzio]
adj. between or connecting two oceans.
adj. Biol. relating to stimuli produced within an organism,
esp. in the viscera. [irreg. f. L internus interior +
v.intr. = INOSCULATE.
adj. between bones.
adj. between the right and left parietal bones of the skull.
v.tr. (in European parliaments) interrupt the order of the day
by demanding an explanation from (the Minister concerned).
ЬЬinterpellation n. interpellator n. [L interpellare
interpellat- (as INTER-, pellere drive)]
v. 1 intr. (of two things) penetrate each other. 2 tr.
pervade; penetrate thoroughly. ЬЬinterpenetration n.
adj. 1 between planets. 2 relating to travel between planets.
interplay n. 1 reciprocal action. 2 the operation of two things on each
v. 1 intr. litigate with each other to settle a point
concerning a third party. 2 tr. cause to do this.
ЬЬinterpleader n. [ME f. AF enterpleder (as INTER-, PLEAD)]
Interpol n. International Criminal Police Organization. [abbr.]
v.tr. 1 a insert (words) in a book etc., esp. to give false
impressions as to its date etc. b make such insertions in (a
book etc.). 2 interject (a remark) in a conversation. 3
estimate (values) from known ones in the same range.
ЬЬinterpolation n. interpolative adj. interpolator n. [L
interpolare furbish up (as INTER-, polire POLISH(1))]
interpose v. 1 tr. (often foll. by between) place or insert (a thing)
between others. 2 tr. say (words) as an interruption. 3 tr.
exercise or advance (a veto or objection) so as to interfere. 4
intr. (foll. by between) intervene (between parties). [F
interposer f. L interponere put (as INTER-, POSE(1))]
n. 1 the act of interposing. 2 a thing interposed. 3 an
interference. [ME f. OF interposition or L interpositio (as
interpret v. (interpreted, interpreting) 1 tr. explain the meaning of
(foreign or abstruse words, a dream, etc.). 2 tr. make out or
bring out the meaning of (creative work). 3 intr. act as an
interpreter, esp. of foreign languages. 4 tr. explain or
understand (behaviour etc.) in a specified manner (interpreted
his gesture as mocking). ЬЬinterpretable adj. interpretability
n. interpretation n. interpretational adj. interpretative
adj. interpretive adj. interpretively adv. [ME f. OF
interpreter or L interpretari explain, translate f. interpres
n. a person who interprets, esp. one who translates speech
orally. [ME f. AF interpretour, OF interpreteur f. LL
interpretator -oris (as INTERPRET)]
adj. situated or carried on between provinces.
adj. existing between or affecting different races.
n. (pl. interregnums or interregna) 1 an interval when the
normal government is suspended, esp. between successive reigns
or regimes. 2 an interval or pause. [L (as INTER-, regnum
v.tr. relate (two or more things) to each other.
ЬЬinterrelation n. interrelationship n.
v.tr. ask questions of (a person) esp. closely, thoroughly, or
formally. ЬЬinterrogator n. [ME f. L interrogare interrogat-
ask (as INTER-, rogare ask)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of interrogating; the process of
being interrogated. 2 a question or enquiry. Ьinterrogation
point (or mark etc.) = question mark. ЬЬinterrogational adj.
[ME f. F interrogation or L interrogatio (as INTERROGATE)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 a of or like a question; used in questions.
b Gram. (of an adjective or pronoun) asking a question (e.g.
who?, which?). 2 having the form or force of a question. 3
suggesting enquiry (an interrogative tone). --n. an
interrogative word (e.g. what?, why?). ЬЬinterrogatively adv.
[LL interrogativus (as INTERROGATE)]
adj. & n. --adj. questioning; of or suggesting enquiry (an
interrogatory eyebrow). --n. (pl. -ies) a formal set of
questions, esp. Law one formally put to an accused person etc.
[LL interrogatorius (as INTERROGATE)]
interrupt v.tr. 1 act so as to break the continuous progress of (an
action, speech, a person speaking, etc.). 2 obstruct (a
person's view etc.). 3 break the continuity of.
ЬЬinterruptible adj. interruption n. interruptive adj.
interruptory adj. [ME f. L interrumpere interrupt- (as INTER-,
n. (also interruptor) 1 a person or thing that interrupts. 2 a
device for interrupting, esp. an electric circuit.
intersect v. 1 tr. divide (a thing) by passing or lying across it. 2
intr. (of lines, roads, etc.) cross or cut each other. [L
intersecare intersect- (as INTER-, secare cut)]
n. 1 the act of intersecting. 2 a place where two roads
intersect. 3 a point or line common to lines or planes that
intersect. ЬЬintersectional adj. [L intersectio (as
adj. between septa or partitions.
intersex n. 1 the abnormal condition of being intermediate between male
and female. 2 an individual in this condition.
adj. 1 existing between the sexes. 2 of intersex.
ЬЬintersexuality n. intersexually adv.
n. & v. --n. an interval of space or time. --v.tr. put
adj. formed from different species.
v.tr. 1 (often foll. by between, among) scatter; place here and
there. 2 (foll. by with) diversify (a thing or things with
others so scattered). ЬЬinterspersion n. [L interspergere
interspers- (as INTER-, spargere scatter)]
adj. (also interspinous) between spines or spinous processes.
adj. & n. US --adj. existing or carried on between States, esp.
of the US. --n. a motorway, esp. crossing a State boundary.
adj. occurring or situated between stars.
n. 1 an intervening space. 2 a chink or crevice. [L
interstitium (as INTER-, sistere stit- stand)]
adj. of, forming, or occupying interstices. ЬЬinterstitially
n. the relationship between esp. literary texts.
adj. of or relating to the area which is covered at high tide
and uncovered at low tide.
adj. existing or occurring between different tribes.
n. (pl. -os) Med. inflammation from the rubbing of one area
of skin on another. [L f. interterere intertrit- (as INTER-,
v. 1 tr. (often foll. by with) entwine (together). 2 intr.
become entwined. ЬЬintertwinement n.
v.tr. twist together.
interval n. 1 an intervening time or space. 2 Brit. a pause or break,
esp. between the parts of a theatrical or musical performance.
3 the difference in pitch between two sounds. 4 the distance
between persons or things in respect of qualities. Ьat
intervals here and there; now and then. ЬЬintervallic adj. [ME
ult. f. L intervallum space between ramparts, interval (as
INTER-, vallum rampart)]
intervene v.intr. (often foll. by between, in) 1 occur in time between
events. 2 interfere; come between so as to prevent or modify
the result or course of events. 3 be situated between things.
4 come in as an extraneous factor or thing. 5 Law interpose in
a lawsuit as a third party. ЬЬintervener n. intervenient adj.
intervenor n. [L intervenire (as INTER-, venire come)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of intervening. 2 interference,
esp. by a State in another's affairs. 3 mediation. [ME f. F
intervention or L interventio (as INTERVENE)]
n. a person who favours intervention.
adj. between vertebrae.
interview n. & v. --n. 1 an oral examination of an applicant for
employment, a college place, etc. 2 a conversation between a
reporter etc. and a person of public interest, used as a basis
of a broadcast or publication. 3 a meeting of persons face to
face, esp. for consultation. --v.tr. 1 hold an interview with.
2 question to discover the opinions or experience of (a person).
ЬЬinterviewee n. interviewer n. [F entrevue f. s' entrevoir
see each other (as INTER-, voir f. L videre see: see VIEW)]
interwar adj. existing in the period between two wars, esp. the two
v.tr. (past -wove; past part. -woven) 1 (often foll. by with)
weave together. 2 blend intimately.
interwind v.tr. & intr. (past and past part. -wound) wind together.
interwork v. 1 intr. work together or interactively. 2 tr. interweave.
intestate adj. & n. --adj. (of a person) not having made a will before
death. --n. a person who has died intestate. ЬЬintestacy n.
[ME f. L intestatus (as IN-(1), testari testat- make a will f.
intestine n. (in sing. or pl.) the lower part of the alimentary canal
from the end of the stomach to the anus. Ьlarge intestine the
caecum, colon, and rectum collectively. small intestine the
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively. ЬЬintestinal also
adj. [L intestinum f. intestinus internal]
inthrall US var. of ENTHRAL.
intimacy n. (pl. -ies) 1 the state of being intimate. 2 an intimate
act, esp. sexual intercourse. 3 an intimate remark; an
adj. & n. --adj. 1 closely acquainted; familiar, close (an
intimate friend; an intimate relationship). 2 private and
personal (intimate thoughts). 3 (usu. foll. by with) having
sexual relations. 4 (of knowledge) detailed, thorough. 5 (of a
relationship between things) close. 6 (of mixing etc.)
thorough. 7 essential, intrinsic. 8 (of a place etc.)
friendly; promoting close personal relationships. --n. a very
close friend. ЬЬintimately adv. [L intimus inmost]
v.tr. 1 (often foll. by that + clause) state or make known. 2
imply, hint. ЬЬintimater n. intimation n. [LL intimare
announce f. L intimus inmost]
v.tr. frighten or overawe, esp. to subdue or influence.
ЬЬintimidation n. intimidator n. [med.L intimidare (as IN-(2),
timidare f. timidus TIMID)]
n. Eccl. the dipping of the Eucharistic bread in the wine so
that the communicant receives both together. [LL intinctio f. L
intingere intinct- (as IN-(2), TINGE)]
intitule v.tr. Brit. entitle (an Act of Parliament etc.). [OF
intituler f. LL intitulare (as IN-(2), titulare f. titulus
into prep. 1 expressing motion or direction to a point on or within
(walked into a tree; ran into the house). 2 expressing
direction of attention or concern (will look into it). 3
expressing a change of state (turned into a dragon; separated
into groups; forced into cooperation). 4 colloq. interested in;
knowledgeable about (is really into art). [OE into (as IN, TO)]
adj. that cannot be endured. ЬЬintolerableness n. intolerably
adv. [ME f. OF intolerable or L intolerabilis (as IN-(1),
adj. not tolerant, esp. of views, beliefs, or behaviour
differing from one's own. ЬЬintolerance n. intolerantly adv.
[L intolerans (as IN-(1), TOLERANT)]
intonate v.tr. intone. [med.L intonare: see INTONE]
n. 1 modulation of the voice; accent. 2 the act of intoning.
3 accuracy of pitch in playing or singing (has good intonation).
4 the opening phrase of a plainsong melody. ЬЬintonational adj.
[med.L intonatio (as INTONE)]
intone v.tr. 1 recite (prayers etc.) with prolonged sounds, esp. in a
monotone. 2 utter with a particular tone. ЬЬintoner n. [med.L
intonare (as IN-(2), L tonus TONE)]
in toto adv. completely. [L]
adj. & n. --adj. intoxicating. --n. an intoxicating substance.
v.tr. 1 make drunk. 2 excite or elate beyond self-control.
ЬЬintoxicatingly adv. intoxication n. [med.L intoxicare (as
IN-(2), toxicare poison f. L toxicum): see TOXIC]
intra- prefix forming adjectives usu. from adjectives, meaning 'on the
inside, within' (intramural). [L intra inside]
adj. Biol. located or occurring within a cell or cells.
adj. within the skull. ЬЬintracranially adv.
adj. 1 hard to control or deal with. 2 difficult, stubborn.
ЬЬintractability n. intractableness n. intractably adv. [L
intractabilis (as IN-(1), TRACTABLE)]
intrados n. the lower or inner curve of an arch. [F (as INTRA-, dos
back f. L dorsum)]
adj. within a molecule.
adj. 1 situated or done within walls. 2 forming part of normal
university or college studies. ЬЬintramurally adv.
adj. in or into a muscle or muscles.
adj. & n. --adj. uncompromising, stubborn. --n. an
intransigent person. ЬЬintransigence n. intransigency n.
intransigently adv. [F intransigeant f. Sp. los intransigentes
extreme republicans in Cortes, ult. formed as IN-(1) + L
transigere transigent- come to an understanding (as TRANS-,
adj. (of a verb or sense of a verb) that does not take or
require a direct object (whether expressed or implied), e.g.
look in look at the sky (opp. TRANSITIVE). ЬЬintransitively
adv. intransitivity n. [LL intransitivus (as IN-(1),
adj. within the womb.
adj. in or into a vein or veins. ЬЬintravenously adv. [INTRA-
+ L vena vein]
in-tray n. a tray for incoming documents, letters, etc.
intrepid adj. fearless; very brave. ЬЬintrepidity n. intrepidly adv.
[F intr‚pide or L intrepidus (as IN-(1), trepidus alarmed)]
intricate adj. very complicated; perplexingly detailed. ЬЬintricacy n.
(pl. -ies). intricately adv. [ME f. L intricare intricat- (as
IN-(2), tricare f. tricae tricks)]
intrigant n. (fem. intrigante) an intriguer. [F intriguant f.
intriguer: see INTRIGUE]
intrigue v. & n. --v. (intrigues, intrigued, intriguing) 1 intr. (foll.
by with) a carry on an underhand plot. b use secret influence.
2 tr. arouse the curiosity of; fascinate. --n. 1 an underhand
plot or plotting. 2 archaic a secret love affair. ЬЬintriguer
n. intriguing adj. (esp. in sense 2 of v.). intriguingly adv.
[F intrigue (n.), intriguer (v.) f. It. intrigo, intrigare f. L
intrinsic adj. inherent, essential; belonging naturally (intrinsic
value). ЬЬintrinsically adv. [ME, = interior, f. F intrinsЉque
f. LL intrinsecus f. L intrinsecus (adv.) inwardly]
intro n. (pl. -os) colloq. an introduction. [abbr.]
intro- comb. form into (introgression). [L intro to the inside]
introduce v.tr. 1 (foll. by to) make (a person or oneself) known by name
to another, esp. formally. 2 announce or present to an
audience. 3 bring (a custom, idea, etc.) into use. 4 bring (a
piece of legislation) before a legislative assembly. 5 (foll.
by to) draw the attention or extend the understanding of (a
person) to a subject. 6 insert; place in. 7 bring in; usher
in; bring forward. 8 begin; occur just before the start of.
ЬЬintroducer n. introducible adj. [ME f. L introducere
introduct- (as INTRO-, ducere lead)]
n. 1 the act or an instance of introducing; the process of
being introduced. 2 a formal presentation of one person to
another. 3 an explanatory section at the beginning of a book
etc. 4 a preliminary section in a piece of music, often
thematically different from the main section. 5 an introductory
treatise on a subject. 6 a thing introduced. [ME f. OF
introduction or L introductio (as INTRODUCE)]
adj. serving as an introduction; preliminary. [LL
introductorius (as INTRODUCTION)]
introit n. a psalm or antiphon sung or said while the priest approaches
the altar for the Eucharist. [ME f. OF f. L introitus f.
introire introit- enter (as INTRO-, ire go)]
n. the unconscious incorporation of external ideas into one's
mind. [INTRO- after projection]
intromit v.tr. (intromitted, intromitting) 1 archaic (foll. by into) let
in, admit. 2 insert. ЬЬintromission n. intromittent adj. [L
intromittere intromiss- introduce (as INTRO-, mittere send)]
n. the examination or observation of one's own mental and
emotional processes etc. ЬЬintrospective adj. introspectively
adv. introspectiveness n. [L introspicere introspect- look
inwards (as INTRO-, specere look)]
introvert n., adj., & v. --n. 1 Psychol. a person predominantly
concerned with his or her own thoughts and feelings rather than
with external things. 2 a shy inwardly thoughtful person.
--adj. (also introverted) typical or characteristic of an
introvert. --v.tr. 1 Psychol. direct (one's thoughts or mind)
inwards. 2 Zool. withdraw (an organ etc.) within its own tube
or base, like the finger of a glove. ЬЬintroversion n.
introversive adj. introverted adj. introvertive adj. [INTRO-
+ vert as in INVERT]
intrude v. (foll. by on, upon, into) 1 intr. come uninvited or
unwanted; force oneself abruptly on others. 2 tr. thrust or
force (something unwelcome) on a person. ЬЬintrudingly adv. [L
intrudere intrus- (as IN-(2), trudere thrust)]
intruder n. a person who intrudes, esp. into a building with criminal
intrusion n. 1 the act or an instance of intruding. 2 an unwanted
interruption etc. 3 Geol. an influx of molten rock between or
through strata etc. but not reaching the surface. 4 the
occupation of a vacant estate etc. to which one has no claim. 5
Phonet. the addition of a sound between words or syllables to
facilitate pronunciation, e.g. the r in saw a film (). [ME f.
OF intrusion or med.L intrusio (as INTRUDE)]
intrusive adj. 1 that intrudes or tends to intrude. 2 characterized by
intrusion. ЬЬintrusively adv. intrusiveness n.
intrust var. of ENTRUST.
intubate v.tr. Med. insert a tube into the trachea for ventilation,
usu. during anaesthesia. ЬЬintubation n. [IN-(2) + L tuba
intuit v. 1 tr. know by intuition. 2 intr. receive knowledge by
direct perception. ЬЬintuitable adj. [L intueri intuit-
consider (as IN-(2), tueri look)]
intuition n. 1 immediate apprehension by the mind without reasoning. 2
immediate apprehension by a sense. 3 immediate insight.
ЬЬintuitional adj. [LL intuitio (as INTUIT)]
n. (also intuitionalism) Philos. the belief that primary
truths and principles (esp. of ethics and metaphysics) are known
directly by intuition. ЬЬintuitionist n.
intuitive adj. 1 of, characterized by, or possessing intuition. 2
perceived by intuition. ЬЬintuitively adv. intuitiveness n.
[med.L intuitivus (as INTUIT)]
n. the doctrine that ethical principles can be established by
intuition. ЬЬintuitivist n.
intumesce v.intr. swell up. ЬЬintumescence n. intumescent adj. [L
intumescere (as IN-(2), tumescere incept. of tumere swell)]
n. 1 Med. the inversion of one portion of the intestine within
another. 2 Bot. the deposition of new cellulose particles in a
cell wall, to increase the surface area of the cell. [F
intussusception or mod.L intussusceptio f. L intus within +
susceptio f. suscipere take up]
intwine var. of ENTWINE.
Inuit n. (also Innuit) (pl. same or Inuits) a N. American Eskimo.
[Eskimo inuit people]
inundate v.tr. (often foll. by with) 1 flood. 2 overwhelm (inundated
with enquiries). ЬЬinundation n. [L inundare flow (as IN-(2),
inure v. 1 tr. (often in passive; foll. by to) accustom (a person) to
something esp. unpleasant. 2 intr. Law come into operation;
take effect. ЬЬinurement n. [ME f. AF eneurer f. phr. en eure
(both unrecorded) in use or practice, f. en in + OF e(u)vre
work f. L opera]
in utero adv. in the womb; before birth. [L]
in vacuo adv. in a vacuum. [L]
invade v.tr. (often absol.) 1 enter (a country etc.) under arms to
control or subdue it. 2 swarm into. 3 (of a disease) attack (a
body etc.). 4 encroach upon (a person's rights, esp. privacy).
ЬЬinvader n. [L invadere invas- (as IN-(2), vadere go)]
v.tr. 1 put in a sheath. 2 turn (a tube) inside out.
ЬЬinvagination n. [IN-(2) + L vagina sheath]
n. & v. --n. 1 a person enfeebled or disabled by illness or
injury. 2 (attrib.) a of or for invalids (invalid car; invalid
diet). b being an invalid (caring for her invalid mother).
--v. (invalided, invaliding) 1 tr. (often foll. by out etc.)
remove from active service (one who has become an invalid). 2
tr. (usu. in passive) disable (a person) by illness. 3 intr.
become an invalid. ЬЬinvalidism n. [L invalidus weak, infirm
(as IN-(1), VALID)]
adj. not valid, esp. having no legal force. ЬЬinvalidly adv.
[L invalidus (as INVALID(1))]
v.tr. 1 make (esp. an argument etc.) invalid. 2 remove the
validity or force of (a treaty, contract, etc.). ЬЬinvalidation
n. [med.L invalidare invalidat- (as IN-(1), validus VALID)]
n. 1 lack of validity. 2 bodily infirmity. [F invalidit‚ or
med.L invaliditas (as INVALID(1))]
adj. above valuation; inestimable. ЬЬinvaluableness n.
Invar n. propr. an iron-nickel alloy with a negligible coefficient
of expansion, used in the manufacture of clocks and scientific
instruments. [abbr. of INVARIABLE]
adj. 1 unchangeable. 2 always the same. 3 Math. constant,
fixed. ЬЬinvariability n. invariableness n. invariably adv.
[F invariable or LL invariabilis (as IN-(1), VARIABLE)]
invariant adj. & n. --adj. invariable. --n. Math. a function which
remains unchanged when a specified transformation is applied.
invasion n. 1 the act of invading or process of being invaded. 2 an
entry of a hostile army into a country. ЬЬinvasive adj. [F
invasion or LL invasio (as INVADE)]
invective n. 1 a strongly attacking words. b the use of these. 2
abusive rhetoric. [ME f. OF f. LL invectivus attacking (as
inveigh v.intr. (foll. by against) speak or write with strong
hostility. [L invehi go into, assail (as IN-(2), vehi passive
of vehere vect- carry)]
inveigle v.tr. (foll. by into, or to + infin.) entice; persuade by
guile. ЬЬinveiglement n. [earlier enve(u)gle f. AF envegler,
OF aveugler to blind f. aveugle blind prob. f. Rmc ab oculis
(unrecorded) without eyes]
invent v.tr. 1 create by thought, devise; originate (a new method, an
instrument, etc.). 2 concoct (a false story etc.).
ЬЬinventable adj. [ME, = discover, f. L invenire invent- find,
contrive (as IN-(2), venire vent- come)]
invention n. 1 the process of inventing. 2 a thing invented; a
contrivance, esp. one for which a patent is granted. 3 a
fictitious story. 4 inventiveness. 5 Mus. a short piece for
keyboard, developing a simple idea. [ME f. L inventio (as
inventive adj. 1 able or inclined to invent; original in devising. 2
showing ingenuity of devising. ЬЬinventively adv.
inventiveness n. [ME f. F inventif -ive or med.L inventivus (as
inventor n. (fem. inventress) a person who invents, esp. as an
inventory n. & v. --n. (pl. -ies) 1 a complete list of goods in stock,
house contents, etc. 2 the goods listed in this. 3 US the
total of a firm's commercial assets. --v.tr. (-ies, -ied) 1
make an inventory of. 2 enter (goods) in an inventory. [ME f.
med.L inventorium f. LL inventarium (as INVENT)]
inverse adj. & n. --adj. inverted in position, order, or relation.
--n. 1 the state of being inverted. 2 (often foll. by of) a
thing that is the opposite or reverse of another. 3 Math. an
element which, when combined with a given element in an
operation, produces the identity element for that operation.
Ьinverse proportion (or ratio) a relation between two quantities
such that one increases in proportion as the other decreases.
inverse square law a law by which the intensity of an effect,
such as gravitational force, illumination, etc., changes in
inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the
source. ЬЬinversely adv. [L inversus past part. of invertere:
inversion n. 1 the act of turning upside down or inside out. 2 the
reversal of a normal order, position, or relation. 3 the
reversal of the order of words, for rhetorical effect. 4 the
reversal of the normal variation of air temperature with
altitude. 5 the process or result of inverting. 6 the reversal
of direction of rotation of a plane of polarized light. 7
homosexuality. ЬЬinversive adj. [L inversio (as INVERT)]
invert v. & n. --v.tr. 1 turn upside down. 2 reverse the position,
order, or relation of. 3 Mus. change the relative position of
the notes of (a chord or interval) by placing the lowest note
higher, usu. by an octave. 4 subject to inversion. --n. 1 a
homosexual. 2 an inverted arch, as at the bottom of a sewer.
Ьinverted comma = quotation mark. inverted snob a person who
likes or takes pride in what a snob might be expected to
disapprove of. invert sugar a mixture of dextrose and
laevulose. ЬЬinverter n. invertible adj. invertibility n. [L
invertere invers- (as IN-(2), vertere turn)]
adj. & n. --adj. 1 (of an animal) not having a backbone. 2
lacking firmness of character. --n. an invertebrate animal.
[mod.L invertebrata (pl.) (as IN-(1), VERTEBRA)]
invest v. 1 tr. (often foll. by in) apply or use (money), esp. for
profit. 2 intr. (foll. by in) a put money for profit (into
stocks etc.). b colloq. buy (invested in a new car). 3 tr. a
(foll. by with) provide, endue, or attribute (a person with
qualities, insignia, or rank). b (foll. by in) attribute or
entrust (qualities or feelings to a person). 4 tr. cover as a
garment. 5 tr. lay siege to. ЬЬinvestable adj. investible
adj. investor n. [ME f. F investir or L investire investit-
(as IN-(2), vestire clothe f. vestis clothing): sense 1 f. It.
v. 1 tr. a inquire into; examine; study carefully. b make an
official inquiry into. 2 intr. make a systematic inquiry or
search. ЬЬinvestigator n. investigatory adj. [L investigare
investigat- (as IN-(2), vestigare track)]
n. 1 the process or an instance of investigating. 2 a formal
examination or study.
adj. seeking or serving to investigate, esp. (of journalism)
inquiring intensively into controversial issues.
n. 1 the formal investing of a person with honours or rank,
esp. a ceremony at which a sovereign confers honours. 2 (often
foll. by with) the act of enduing (with attributes). [ME f.
med.L investitura (as INVEST)]
n. 1 the act or process of investing. 2 money invested. 3
property etc. in which money is invested. 4 the act of
besieging; a blockade. Ьinvestment trust a trust that buys and
sells shares in selected companies to make a profit for its
adj. 1 (of a person) confirmed in an (esp. undesirable) habit
etc. (an inveterate gambler). 2 a (of a habit etc.)
long-established. b (of an activity, esp. an undesirable one)
habitual. ЬЬinveteracy n. inveterately adv. [ME f. L
inveterare inveterat- make old (as IN-(2), vetus veteris old)]
invidious adj. (of an action, conduct, attitude, etc.) likely to excite
resentment or indignation against the person responsible, esp.
by real or seeming injustice (an invidious position; an
invidious task). ЬЬinvidiously adv. invidiousness n. [L
invidiosus f. invidia ENVY]
v.intr. Brit. supervise candidates at an examination.
ЬЬinvigilation n. invigilator n. [orig. = keep watch, f. L
invigilare invigilat- (as IN-(2), vigilare watch f. vigil
v.tr. give vigour or strength to. ЬЬinvigorating adj.
invigoratingly adv. invigoration n. invigorative adj.
invigorator n. [IN-(2) + med.L vigorare vigorat- make strong]
adj. unconquerable; that cannot be defeated. ЬЬinvincibility
n. invincibleness n. invincibly adv. [ME f. OF f. L
invincibilis (as IN-(1), VINCIBLE)]
adj. not to be violated or profaned. ЬЬinviolability n.
inviolably adv. [F inviolable or L inviolabilis (as IN-(1),
inviolate adj. not violated or profaned. ЬЬinviolacy n. inviolately
adv. inviolateness n. [ME f. L inviolatus (as IN-(1), violare,
violat- treat violently)]
invisible adj. 1 not visible to the eye, either characteristically or
because hidden. 2 too small to be seen or noticed. 3 artfully
concealed (invisible mending). Ьinvisible exports (or imports
etc.) items, esp. services, involving payment between countries
but not constituting tangible commodities. ЬЬinvisibility n.
invisibleness n. invisibly adv. [ME f. OF invisible or L
invisibilis (as IN-(1), VISIBLE)]
n. the process of inviting or fact of being invited, esp. to a
invite v. & n. --v. 1 tr. (often foll. by to, or to + infin.) ask (a
person) courteously to come, or to do something (were invited to
lunch; invited them to reply). 2 tr. make a formal courteous
request for (invited comments). 3 tr. tend to call forth
unintentionally (something unwanted). 4 a tr. attract. b intr.
be attractive. --n. colloq. an invitation. ЬЬinvitee n.
inviter n. [F inviter or L invitare]
in vitro adv. Biol. (of processes or reactions) taking place in a
test-tube or other laboratory environment (opp. IN VIVO). [L,
= in glass]
in vivo adv. Biol. (of processes) taking place in a living organism.
[L, = in a living thing]
n. 1 the act or an instance of invoking, esp. in prayer. 2 an
appeal to a supernatural being or beings, e.g. the Muses, for
psychological or spiritual inspiration. 3 Eccl. the words 'In
the name of the Father' etc. used as the preface to a sermon
etc. ЬЬinvocatory adj. [ME f. OF f. L invocatio -onis (as
invoice n. & v. --n. a list of goods shipped or sent, or services
rendered, with prices and charges; a bill. --v.tr. 1 make an
invoice of (goods and services). 2 send an invoice to (a
person). [earlier invoyes pl. of invoy = ENVOY(2)]
invoke v.tr. 1 call on (a deity etc.) in prayer or as a witness. 2
appeal to (the law, a person's authority, etc.). 3 summon (a
spirit) by charms. 4 ask earnestly for (vengeance, help, etc.).
ЬЬinvocable adj. invoker n. [F invoquer f. L invocare (as
IN-(2), vocare call)]
involucre n. 1 a covering or envelope. 2 Anat. a membranous envelope. 3
Bot. a whorl of bracts surrounding an inflorescence.
ЬЬinvolucral adj. [F involucre or L involucrum (as INVOLVE)]
adj. 1 done without the exercise of the will; unintentional. 2
(of a limb, muscle, or movement) not under the control of the
will. ЬЬinvoluntarily adv. involuntariness n. [LL
involuntarius (as IN-(1), VOLUNTARY)]
involute adj. & n. --adj. 1 involved, intricate. 2 curled spirally. 3
Bot. rolled inwards at the edges. --n. Geom. the locus of a
point fixed on a straight line that rolls without sliding on a
curve and is in the plane of that curve (cf. EVOLUTE). [L
involutus past part. of involvere: see INVOLVE]
n. 1 the process of involving. 2 an entanglement. 3
intricacy. 4 curling inwards. 5 a part that curls upwards. 6
Math. the raising of a quantity to any power. 7 Physiol. the
reduction in size of an organ in old age, or when its purpose
has been fulfilled (esp. the uterus after childbirth).
ЬЬinvolutional adj. [L involutio (as INVOLVE)]
involve v.tr. 1 (often foll. by in) cause (a person or thing) to
participate, or share the experience or effect (in a situation,
activity, etc.). 2 imply, entail, make necessary. 3 (foll. by
in) implicate (a person in a charge, crime, etc.). 4 include or
affect in its operations. 5 (as involved adj.) a (often foll.
by in) concerned or interested. b complicated in thought or
form. [ME f. L involvere involut- (as IN-(2), volvere roll)]
n. 1 (often foll. by in, with) the act or an instance of
involving; the process of being involved. 2 financial
embarrassment. 3 a complicated affair or concern.
adj. that cannot be wounded or hurt, physically or mentally.
ЬЬinvulnerability n. invulnerably adv. [L invulnerabilis (as
inward adj. & adv. --adj. 1 directed toward the inside; going in. 2
situated within. 3 mental, spiritual. --adv. (also inwards) 1
(of motion or position) towards the inside. 2 in the mind or
soul. [OE innanweard (as IN, -WARD)]
inwardly adv. 1 on the inside. 2 in the mind or soul. 3 (of speaking)
not aloud; inaudibly. [OE inweardlice (as INWARD)]
n. 1 inner nature; essence. 2 the condition of being inward.
inwards var. of INWARD adv.
inweave v.tr. (also enweave) (past -wove; past part. -woven) 1 weave
(two or more things) together. 2 intermingle.
inwrap var. of ENWRAP.
inwreathe var. of ENWREATHE.
inwrought attrib. adj. 1 a (often foll. by with) (of a fabric) decorated
(with a pattern). b (often foll. by in, on) (of a pattern)
wrought (in or on a fabric). 2 closely blended.
inyala n. (also nyala) (pl. same) a large antelope, Tragelaphus
angasi, native to S. Africa, with curved horns having a single
complete turn. [Zulu]
iodic adj. Chem. containing iodine in chemical combination (iodic
acid). ЬЬiodate n.
iodide n. Chem. any compound of iodine with another element or group.
iodinate v.tr. treat or combine with iodine. ЬЬiodination n.
iodine n. 1 Chem. a non-metallic element of the halogen group, forming
black crystals and a violet vapour, used in medicine and
photography, and important as an essential element for living
organisms. °Symb.: I. 2 a solution of this in alcohol used as
a mild antiseptic. [F iode f. Gk iodes violet-like f. ion
violet + -INE(4)]
iodism n. Med. a condition caused by an overdose of iodides.
iodize v.tr. (also -ise) treat or impregnate with iodine.
iodo- comb. form (usu. iod- before a vowel) Chem. iodine.
iodoform n. a pale yellow volatile sweet-smelling solid compound of
iodine with antiseptic properties. °Chem. formula: CHI.
[IODINE after chloroform]
IOM abbr. Isle of Man.
ion n. an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more
electrons (= CATION), or gained one or more electrons (= ANION).
Ьion exchange the exchange of ions of the same charge between a
usu. aqueous solution and a solid, used in water-softening etc.
ion exchanger a substance or equipment for this process. [Gk,
neut. pres. part. of eimi go]
-ion suffix (usu. as -sion, -tion, -xion; see -ATION, -ITION,
-UTION.) forming nouns denoting: 1 verbal action (excision). 2
an instance of this (a suggestion). 3 a resulting state or
product (vexation; concoction). [from or after F -ion or L -io
Ionian n. & adj. --n. a native or inhabitant of ancient Ionia in W.
Asia Minor. --adj. of or relating to Ionia or the Ionians.
ЬIonian mode Mus. the mode represented by the natural diatonic
scale C-C. [L Ionius f. Gk Ionios]
Ionic adj. & n. --adj. 1 of the order of Greek architecture
characterized by a column with scroll-shapes on either side of
the capital. 2 of the ancient Greek dialect used in Ionia.
--n. the Ionic dialect. [L Ionicus f. Gk Ionikos]
ionic adj. of, relating to, or using ions. ЬЬionically adv.
n. (also -isation) the process of producing ions as a result of
solvation, heat, radiation, etc. Ьionization chamber an
instrument for detecting ionizing radiation.
ionize v.tr. & intr. (also -ise) convert or be converted into an ion
or ions. Ьionizing radiation a radiation of sufficient energy
to cause ionization in the medium through which it passes.
ionizer n. any thing which produces ionization, esp. a device used to
improve the quality of the air in a room etc.
n. an ionized region of the atmosphere above the stratosphere,
extending to about 1,000 km above the earth's surface and able
to reflect radio waves for long-distance transmission round the
earth (cf. TROPOSPHERE). ЬЬionospheric adj.
-ior(1) suffix forming adjectives of comparison (senior; ulterior). [L]
-ior(2) var. of -IOUR.
iota n. 1 the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet (I). 2 (usu. with
neg.) the smallest possible amount. [Gk iota]
IOU n. a signed document acknowledging a debt. [= I owe you]
ir- prefix assim. form of IN-(1), IN-(2) before r.
IRA abbr. Irish Republican Army.
irade n. hist. a written decree of the Sultan of Turkey. [Turk. f.
Arab. ' irada will]
Iranian adj. & n. --adj. 1 of or relating to Iran (formerly Persia) in
the Middle East. 2 of the Indo-European group of languages
including Persian, Pashto, Avestan, and Kurdish. --n. 1 a
native or national of Iran. 2 a person of Iranian descent.
Iraqi adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to Iraq in the Middle East.
--n. (pl. Iraqis) 1 a a native or national of Iraq. b a
person of Iraqi descent. 2 the form of Arabic spoken in Iraq.
irascible adj. irritable; hot-tempered. ЬЬirascibility n. irascibly
adv. [ME f. F f. LL irascibilis f. L irasci grow angry f. ira
irate adj. angry, enraged. ЬЬirately adv. irateness n. [L iratus
f. ira anger]
IRBM abbr. intermediate-range ballistic missile.
ire n. literary anger. ЬЬireful adj. [ME f. OF f. L ira]
irenic adj. (also irenical, eirenic) literary aiming or aimed at
peace. [Gk eirenikos: see EIRENICON]
irenicon var. of EIRENICON.
adj. Bot. of or relating to the family Iridaceae of plants
growing from bulbs, corms, or rhizomes, e.g. iris, crocus, and
gladiolus. [mod.L iridaceus (as IRIS)]
adj. 1 showing rainbow-like luminous or gleaming colours. 2
changing colour with position. ЬЬiridescence n. iridescently
adv. [L IRIS + -ESCENT]
iridium n. Chem. a hard white metallic element of the transition
series used esp. in alloys. °Symb.: Ir. [mod.L f. L IRIS +
iris n. 1 the flat circular coloured membrane behind the cornea of
the eye, with a circular opening (pupil) in the centre. 2 any
herbaceous plant of the genus Iris, usu. with tuberous roots,
sword-shaped leaves, and showy flowers. 3 (in full iris
diaphragm) an adjustable diaphragm of thin overlapping plates
for regulating the size of a central hole esp. for the admission
of light to a lens. [ME f. L iris iridis f. Gk iris iridos
Irish adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to Ireland; of or like its
people. --n. 1 the Celtic language of Ireland. 2 (prec. by
the; treated as pl.) the people of Ireland. ЬIrish bull =
BULL(3). Irish coffee coffee mixed with a dash of whisky and
served with cream on top. Irish moss dried carrageen. Irish
Sea the sea between England and Wales and Ireland. Irish stew a
stew of mutton, potato, and onion. Irish terrier a rough-haired
light reddish-brown breed of terrier. [ME f. OE Iras the Irish]
Irishman n. (pl. -men) a man who is Irish by birth or descent.
n. (pl. -women) a woman who is Irish by birth or descent.
iritis n. inflammation of the iris.
irk v.tr. (usu. impers.; often foll. by that + clause) irritate,
bore, annoy. [ME: orig. unkn.]
irksome adj. tedious, annoying, tiresome. ЬЬirksomely adv.
irksomeness n. [ME, = tired etc., f. IRK + -SOME(1)]
IRO abbr. 1 (in the UK) Inland Revenue Office. 2 International
iroko n. (pl. -os) 1 either of two African trees, Chlorophora
excelsa or C. regia. 2 the light-coloured hardwood from these
iron n., adj., & v. --n. 1 Chem. a silver-white ductile metallic
element occurring naturally as haematite, magnetite, etc., much
used for tools and implements, and an essential element in all
living organisms. °Symb.: Fe. 2 this as a type of
unyieldingness or a symbol of firmness (man of iron; will of
iron). 3 a tool or implement made of iron (branding iron;
curling iron). 4 a household, now usu. electrical, implement
with a flat base which is heated to smooth clothes etc. 5 a
golf club with an iron or steel sloping face used for lofting
the ball. 6 (usu. in pl.) a fetter (clapped in irons). 7 (usu.
in pl.) a stirrup. 8 (often in pl.) an iron support for a
malformed leg. 9 a preparation of iron as a tonic or dietary
supplement (iron tablets). --adj. 1 made of iron. 2 very
robust. 3 unyielding, merciless (iron determination). --v.tr.
1 smooth (clothes etc.) with an iron. 2 furnish or cover with
iron. 3 shackle with irons. Ьin irons handcuffed, chained,
etc. Iron Age Archaeol. the period following the Bronze Age
when iron replaced bronze in the making of implements and
weapons. iron-bark any of various eucalyptus trees with a thick
solid bark and hard dense timber. iron-bound 1 bound with iron.
2 rigorous; hard and fast. 3 (of a coast) rock-bound. Iron
Cross the highest German military decoration for bravery. Iron
Curtain a notional barrier to the passage of people and
information between the Soviet bloc and the West. iron hand
firmness or inflexibility (cf. velvet glove). iron in the fire
an undertaking, opportunity, or commitment (usu. in pl.: too
many irons in the fire). ironing-board a flat surface usu. on
legs and of adjustable height on which clothes etc. are ironed.
iron lung a rigid case fitted over a patient's body, used for
administering prolonged artificial respiration by means of
mechanical pumps. iron maiden hist. an instrument of torture
consisting of a coffin-shaped box lined with iron spikes.
iron-mould (US -mold) a spot caused by iron-rust or an
ink-stain, esp. on fabric. iron-on able to be fixed to the
surface of a fabric etc. by ironing. iron out remove or smooth
over (difficulties etc.). iron pyrites see PYRITES. iron
ration a small emergency supply of food. ЬЬironer n. ironing
n. (in sense 1 of v.). ironless adj. iron-like adj. [OE iren,
isern f. Gmc, prob. f. Celt.]
ironclad adj. & n. --adj. 1 clad or protected with iron. 2
impregnable; rigorous. --n. hist. an early name for a 19th-c.
warship built of iron or protected by iron plates.
ironic adj. (also ironical) 1 using or displaying irony. 2 in the
nature of irony. ЬЬironically adv. [F ironique or LL ironicus
f. Gk eironikos dissembling (as IRONY(1))]
ironist n. a person who uses irony. ЬЬironize v.intr. (also -ise).
[Gk eiron dissembler + -IST]
n. a manufacturer of iron.
n. Brit. a dealer in hardware etc. ЬЬironmongery n. (pl.
Ironsides n. a man of great bravery, esp. (as pl.) Cromwell's troopers
in the English Civil War.
ironstone n. 1 any rock containing a substantial proportion of an iron
compound. 2 a kind of hard white opaque stoneware.
ironware n. articles made of iron, esp. domestic implements.
ironwork n. 1 things made of iron. 2 work in iron.
ironworks n. (as sing. or pl.) a place where iron is smelted or iron
goods are made.
irony(1) n. (pl. -ies) 1 an expression of meaning, often humorous or
sarcastic, by the use of language of a different or opposite
tendency. 2 an ill-timed or perverse arrival of an event or
circumstance that is in itself desirable. 3 the use of language
with one meaning for a privileged audience and another for those
addressed or concerned. [L ironia f. Gk eironeia simulated
ignorance f. eiron dissembler]
irony(2) adj. of or like iron.
Iroquoian n. & adj. --n. 1 a language family of eastern N. America,
including Cherokee and Mohawk. 2 a member of the Iroquois
Indians. --adj. of or relating to the Iroquois or the Iroquoian
language family or one of its members.
Iroquois n. & adj. --n. (pl. same) 1 a an American Indian confederacy
of five peoples formerly inhabiting New York State. b a member
of any of these peoples. 2 any of the languages of these
peoples. --adj. of or relating to the Iroquois or their
languages. [F f. Algonquin]
irradiant adj. literary shining brightly. ЬЬirradiance n.
irradiate v.tr. 1 subject to (any form of) radiation. 2 shine upon;
light up. 3 throw light on (a subject). ЬЬirradiative adj. [L
irradiare irradiat- (as IN-(2), radiare f. radius RAY(1))]
n. 1 the process of irradiating. 2 shining, illumination. 3
the apparent extension of the edges of an illuminated object
seen against a dark background. [F irradiation or LL irradiatio
adj. 1 illogical; unreasonable. 2 not endowed with reason. 3
Math. (of a root etc.) not rational; not commensurate with the
natural numbers (e.g. a non-terminating decimal).
ЬЬirrationality n. irrationalize v.tr. (also -ise).
irrationally adv. [L irrationalis (as IN-(1), RATIONAL)]
adj. that cannot be reclaimed or reformed. ЬЬirreclaimably
adj. & n. --adj. 1 implacably hostile. 2 (of ideas etc.)
incompatible. --n. 1 an uncompromising opponent of a political
measure etc. 2 (usu. in pl.) any of two or more items, ideas,
etc., that cannot be made to agree. ЬЬirreconcilability n.
irreconcilableness n. irreconcilably adv.
adj. that cannot be recovered or remedied. ЬЬirrecoverably
adj. that must be accepted. [F irr‚cusable or LL irrecusabilis
(as IN-(1), recusare refuse)]
adj. 1 that cannot be redeemed. 2 hopeless, absolute. 3 a (of
a government annuity) not terminable by repayment. b (of paper
currency) for which the issuing authority does not undertake
ever to pay coin. ЬЬirredeemability n. irredeemably adv.
n. a person, esp. in 19th-c. Italy, advocating the restoration
to his or her country of any territory formerly belonging to it.
ЬЬirredentism n. [It. irredentista f. (Italia) irredenta
adj. 1 that cannot be reduced or simplified. 2 (often foll. by
to) that cannot be brought to a desired condition.
ЬЬirreducibility n. irreducibly adv.
adj. 1 inviolable. 2 Optics incapable of being refracted.
adj. that cannot be refuted. ЬЬirrefutability n. irrefutably
adv. [LL irrefutabilis (as IN-(1), REFUTE)]
irregular adj. & n. --adj. 1 not regular; unsymmetrical, uneven; varying
in form. 2 (of a surface) uneven. 3 contrary to a rule, moral
principle, or custom; abnormal. 4 uneven in duration, order,
etc. 5 (of troops) not belonging to the regular army. 6 Gram.
(of a verb, noun, etc.) not inflected according to the usual
rules. 7 disorderly. 8 (of a flower) having unequal petals
etc. --n. (in pl.) irregular troops. ЬЬirregularity n. (pl.
-ies). irregularly adv. [ME f. OF irreguler f. LL irregularis
(as IN-(1), REGULAR)]
adj. 1 (often foll. by to) unconnected, unrelated. 2 having no
relations; absolute. 3 irrelevant. ЬЬirrelatively adv.
adj. (often foll. by to) not relevant; not applicable (to a
matter in hand). ЬЬirrelevance n. irrelevancy n. irrelevantly
n. disregard of or hostility to religion. ЬЬirreligionist n.
[F irr‚ligion or L irreligio (as IN-(1), RELIGION)]
adj. 1 indifferent or hostile to religion. 2 lacking a
religion. ЬЬirreligiously adv. irreligiousness n.
adj. that cannot be remedied. ЬЬirremediably adv. [L
irremediabilis (as IN-(1), REMEDY)]
adj. 1 unpardonable. 2 unalterably obligatory. ЬЬirremissibly
adv. [ME f. OF irremissible or eccl.L irremissibilis (as
adj. that cannot be removed, esp. from office.
ЬЬirremovability n. irremovably adv.
adj. (of an injury, loss, etc.) that cannot be rectified or
made good. ЬЬirreparability n. irreparableness n. irreparably
adv. [ME f. OF f. L irreparabilis (as IN-(1), REPARABLE)]
adj. 1 that cannot be replaced. 2 of which the loss cannot be
made good. ЬЬirreplaceably adv.
adj. that cannot be repressed or restrained.
ЬЬirrepressibility n. irrepressibleness n. irrepressibly adv.
adj. faultless, blameless. ЬЬirreproachability n.
irreproachableness n. irreproachably adv. [F irr‚prochable (as
adj. 1 too strong or convincing to be resisted. 2 delightful;
alluring. ЬЬirresistibility n. irresistibleness n.
irresistibly adv. [med.L irresistibilis (as IN-(1), RESIST)]
adj. 1 hesitant, undecided. 2 lacking in resoluteness.
ЬЬirresolutely adv. irresoluteness n. irresolution n.
adj. 1 that cannot be resolved into its components. 2 (of a
problem) that cannot be solved.
adj. (foll. by of) not taking into account; regardless of.
adj. 1 acting or done without due sense of responsibility. 2
not responsible for one's conduct. ЬЬirresponsibility n.
adj. (often foll. by to) not responsive. ЬЬirresponsively adv.
adj. that cannot be retrieved or restored. ЬЬirretrievability
n. irretrievably adv.
adj. not reversible or alterable. ЬЬirreversibility n.
adj. 1 unalterable. 2 gone beyond recall. ЬЬirrevocability n.
irrevocably adv. [ME f. L irrevocabilis (as IN-(1), REVOKE)]
irrigate v.tr. 1 a water (land) by means of channels. b (of a stream
etc.) supply (land) with water. 2 Med. supply (a wound etc.)
with a constant flow of liquid. 3 refresh as with moisture.
ЬЬirrigable adj. irrigation n. irrigative adj. irrigator n.
[L irrigare (as IN-(2), rigare moisten)]
irritable adj. 1 easily annoyed or angered. 2 (of an organ etc.) very
sensitive to contact. 3 Biol. responding actively to physical
stimulus. ЬЬirritability n. irritably adv. [L irritabilis (as
irritant adj. & n. --adj. causing irritation. --n. an irritant
substance. ЬЬirritancy n.
irritate v.tr. 1 excite to anger; annoy. 2 stimulate discomfort or pain
in (a part of the body). 3 Biol. stimulate (an organ) to
action. ЬЬirritatedly adv. irritating adj. irritatingly adv.
irritation n. irritative adj. irritator n. [L irritare
irrupt v.intr. (foll. by into) enter forcibly or violently.
ЬЬirruption n. [L irrumpere irrupt- (as IN-(2), rumpere break)]
Is. abbr. 1 a Island(s). b Isle(s). 2 (also Isa.) Isaiah (Old
is 3rd sing. present of BE.
isagogic adj. introductory. [L isagogicus f. Gk eisagogikos f.
eisagoge introduction f. eis into + agoge leading f. ago lead]
isagogics n. an introductory study, esp. of the literary and external
history of the Bible.
isatin n. Chem. a red crystalline derivative of indole used in the
manufacture of dyes. [L isatis woad f. Gk]
ISBN abbr. international standard book number.
ischaemia n. (US ischemia) Med. a reduction of the blood supply to part
of the body. ЬЬischaemic adj. [mod.L f. Gk iskhaimos f. iskho
ischium n. (pl. ischia) the curved bone forming the base of each half
of the pelvis. ЬЬischial adj. [L f. Gk iskhion hip-joint: cf.
-ise(1) suffix var. of -IZE. °See the note at -ize.
-ise(2) suffix forming nouns of quality, state, or function (exercise;
expertise; franchise; merchandise). [from or after F or OF -ise
f. L -itia etc.]
-ise(3) suffix var. of -ISH(2).
adj. having equal entropy. [ISO- + ENTROPY]
-ish(1) suffix forming adjectives: 1 from nouns, meaning: a having the
qualities or characteristics of (boyish). b of the nationality
of (Danish). 2 from adjectives, meaning 'somewhat' (thickish).
3 colloq. denoting an approximate age or time of day (fortyish;
six-thirtyish). [OE -isc]
-ish(2) suffix (also -ise) forming verbs (vanish; advertise). [from or
after F -iss- (in extended stems of verbs in -ir) f. L -isc-
isinglass n. 1 a kind of gelatin obtained from fish, esp. sturgeon, and
used in making jellies, glue, etc. 2 mica. [corrupt. of obs.
Du. huisenblas sturgeon's bladder, assim. to GLASS]
Islam n. 1 the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded
as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah. 2 the
Muslim world. ЬЬIslamic adj. Islamism n. Islamist n.
Islamize v.tr. (also -ise). Islamization n. [Arab. islam
submission (to God) f. aslama resign oneself]
island n. 1 a piece of land surrounded by water. 2 anything compared
to an island, esp. in being surrounded in some way. 3 = traffic
island. 4 a a detached or isolated thing. b Physiol. a
detached portion of tissue or group of cells (cf. ISLET). 5
Naut. a ship's superstructure, bridge, etc. [OE igland f. ig
island + LAND: first syll. infl. by ISLE]
islander n. a native or inhabitant of an island.
isle n. poet. (and in place-names) an island or peninsula, esp. a
small one. [ME ile f. OF ile f. L insula: later ME & OF isle
islet n. 1 a small island. 2 Anat. a portion of tissue structurally
distinct from surrounding tissues. 3 an isolated place.
Ьislets of Langerhans Physiol. groups of pancreatic cells
secreting insulin and glucagon. [OF, dimin. of isle ISLE]
ism n. colloq. usu. derog. any distinctive but unspecified
doctrine or practice of a kind with a name in -ism.
-ism suffix forming nouns, esp. denoting: 1 an action or its result
(baptism; organism). 2 a system, principle, or ideological
movement (Conservatism; jingoism; feminism). 3 a state or
quality (heroism; barbarism). 4 a basis of prejudice or
discrimination (racism; sexism). 5 a peculiarity in language
(Americanism). 6 a pathological condition (alcoholism;
Parkinsonism). [from or after F -isme f. L -ismus f. Gk -ismos
or -isma f. -izo -IZE]
Ismaili n. (pl. Ismailis) a member of a Muslim Shiite sect that arose
in the 8th c. [Ismail a son of the patriarch Ibrahim (=
isn't contr. is not.
ISO abbr. 1 (in the UK) Imperial Service Order. 2 International
Organization for Standardization.
iso- comb. form 1 equal (isometric). 2 Chem. isomeric, esp. of a
hydrocarbon with a branched chain of carbon atoms (isobutane).
[Gk isos equal]
isobar n. 1 a line on a map connecting positions having the same
atmospheric pressure at a given time or on average over a given
period. 2 a curve for a physical system at constant pressure.
3 one of two or more isotopes of different elements, with the
same atomic weight. ЬЬisobaric adj. [Gk isobares of equal
weight (as ISO-, baros weight)]
isocheim n. a line on a map connecting places having the same average
temperature in winter. [ISO- + Gk kheima winter weather]
adj. of the same colour.
adj. 1 occurring at the same time. 2 occupying equal time.
ЬЬisochronously adv. [ISO- + Gk khronos time]
isoclinal adj. (also isoclinic) 1 Geol. (of a fold) in which the two
limbs are parallel. 2 corresponding to equal values of magnetic
dip. [ISO- + CLINE]
isoclinic var. of ISOCLINAL.
adj. corresponding to equal values of (magnetic) force.
isoenzyme n. Biochem. one of two or more enzymes with identical function
but different structure.
n. a line or surface connecting points in the interior of the
earth having the same temperature. ЬЬisogeothermal adj.
isogloss n. a line on a map marking an area having a distinct linguistic
isogonic adj. corresponding to equal values of magnetic declination.
isohel n. a line on a map connecting places having the same duration
of sunshine. [ISO- + Gk helios sun]
isohyet n. a line on a map connecting places having the same amount of
rainfall in a given period. [ISO- + Gk huetos rain]
isolate v.tr. 1 a place apart or alone, cut off from society. b place
(a patient thought to be contagious or infectious) in
quarantine. 2 a identify and separate for attention (isolated
the problem). b Chem. separate (a substance) from a mixture. 3
insulate (electrical apparatus). ЬЬisolable adj. isolatable
adj. isolator n. [orig. in past part., f. F isol‚ f. It.
isolato f. LL insulatus f. L insula island]
isolated adj. 1 lonely; cut off from society or contact; remote (feeling
isolated; an isolated farmhouse). 2 untypical, unique (an
isolating adj. (of a language) having each element as an independent word
isolation n. the act or an instance of isolating; the state of being
isolated or separated. Ьin isolation considered singly and not
relatively. isolation hospital (or ward etc.) a hospital, ward,
etc., for patients with contagious or infectious diseases.
n. the policy of holding aloof from the affairs of other
countries or groups esp. in politics. ЬЬisolationist n.
n. Biochem. an amino acid that is a constituent of proteins
and an essential nutrient. [G Isoleucin (see ISO-, LEUCINE)]
isomer n. 1 Chem. one of two or more compounds with the same molecular
formula but a different arrangement of atoms and different
properties. 2 Physics one of two or more atomic nuclei that
have the same atomic number and the same mass number but
different energy states. ЬЬisomeric adj. isomerism n.
isomerize v. (also -ise). [G f. Gk isomeres sharing equally
(as ISO-, meros share)]
isomerous adj. Bot. (of a flower) having the same number of petals in
each whorl. [Gk isomeres: see ISOMER]
isometric adj. 1 of equal measure. 2 Physiol. (of muscle action)
developing tension while the muscle is prevented from
contracting. 3 (of a drawing etc.) with the plane of projection
at equal angles to the three principal axes of the object shown.
4 Math. (of a transformation) without change of shape or size.
ЬЬisometrically adv. isometry n. (in sense 4). [Gk isometria
equality of measure (as ISO-, -METRY)]
n.pl. a system of physical exercises in which muscles are
caused to act against each other or against a fixed object.
isomorph n. an isomorphic substance or organism. [ISO- + Gk morphe
adj. (also isomorphous) 1 exactly corresponding in form and
relations. 2 Crystallog. having the same form. ЬЬisomorphism
-ison suffix forming nouns, = -ATION (comparison; garrison; jettison;
venison). [OF -aison etc. f. L -atio etc.: see -ATION]
isophote n. a line (imaginary or in a diagram) of equal brightness or
illumination. [ISO- + Gk phos photos light]
isopleth n. a line on a map connecting places having equal incidence of
a meteorological feature. [ISO- + Gk plethos fullness]
isopod n. any crustacean of the order Isopoda, including woodlice and
slaters, often parasitic and having a flattened body with seven
pairs of legs. [F isopode f. mod.L Isopoda (as ISO-, Gk pous
isosceles adj. (of a triangle) having two sides equal. [LL f. Gk
isoskeles (as ISO-, skelos leg)]
adj. & n. (also isoseismic) --adj. having equal strength of
earthquake shock. --n. a line on a map connecting places having
an equal strength of earthquake shock.
isostasy n. Geol. the general state of equilibrium of the earth's
crust, with the rise and fall of land relative to sea.
ЬЬisostatic adj. [ISO- + Gk stasis station]
isothere n. a line on a map connecting places having the same average
temperature in the summer. [ISO- + Gk theros summer]
isotherm n. 1 a line on a map connecting places having the same
temperature at a given time or on average over a given period.
2 a curve for changes in a physical system at a constant
temperature. ЬЬisothermal adj. isothermally adv. [F isotherme
(as ISO-, Gk therme heat)]
isotonic adj. 1 having the same osmotic pressure. 2 Physiol. (of muscle
action) taking place with normal contraction. ЬЬisotonically
adv. isotonicity n. [Gk isotonos (as ISO-, TONE)]
isotope n. Chem. one of two or more forms of an element differing from
each other in relative atomic mass, and in nuclear but not
chemical properties. ЬЬisotopic adj. isotopically adv.
isotopy n. [ISO- + Gk topos place (i.e. in the periodic table
isotropic adj. having the same physical properties in all directions
(opp. ANISOTROPIC). ЬЬisotropically adv. isotropy n. [ISO- +
Gk tropos turn]
I-spy n. a game in which players try to identify something observed
by one of them and identified by its initial letter.
Israeli adj. & n. --adj. of or relating to the modern State of Israel
in the Middle East. --n. 1 a native or national of Israel. 2
a person of Israeli descent. [Israel, a later name of Jacob,
ult. f. Heb. yisra' el he that strives with God (Gen. 32:28) +
Israelite n. hist. a native of ancient Israel; a Jew.
ISSN abbr. international standard serial number.
issuant adj. Heraldry (esp. of a beast with only the upper part shown)
rising from the bottom or top of a bearing.
issue n. & v. --n. 1 a a giving out or circulation of shares, notes,
stamps, etc. b a quantity of coins, supplies, copies of a
newspaper or book etc., circulated or put on sale at one time.
c an item or amount given out or distributed. d each of a
regular series of a magazine etc. (the May issue). 2 a an
outgoing, an outflow. b a way out, an outlet esp. the place of
the emergence of a stream etc. 3 a point in question; an
important subject of debate or litigation. 4 a result; an
outcome; a decision. 5 Law children, progeny (without male
issue). 6 archaic a discharge of blood etc. --v. (issues,
issued, issuing) 1 intr. (often foll. by out, forth) literary go
or come out. 2 tr. a send forth; publish; put into
circulation. b supply, esp. officially or authoritatively
(foll. by to, with: issued passports to them; issued them with
passports; issued orders to the staff). 3 intr. a (often foll.
by from) be derived or result. b (foll. by in) end, result. 4
intr. (foll. by from) emerge from a condition. Ьat issue 1
under discussion; in dispute. 2 at variance. issue of fact (or
law) a dispute at law when the significance of a fact or facts
is denied or when the application of the law is contested. join
(or take) issue identify an issue for argument (foll. by with,
on). make an issue of make a fuss about; turn into a subject of
contention. ЬЬissuable adj. issuance n. issueless adj.
issuer n. [ME f. OF ult. f. L exitus past part. of exire EXIT]
-ist suffix forming personal nouns (and in some senses related
adjectives) denoting: 1 an adherent of a system etc. in - ism:
see -ISM 2 (Marxist; fatalist). 2 a a member of a profession
(pathologist). b a person concerned with something
(tobacconist). 3 a person who uses a thing (violinist;
balloonist; motorist). 4 a person who does something expressed
by a verb in -ize (plagiarist). 5 a person who subscribes to a
prejudice or practises discrimination (racist; sexist). [OF
-iste, L -ista f. Gk -istes]
isthmian adj. of or relating to an isthmus, esp. (Isthmian) to the
Isthmus of Corinth in southern Greece.
isthmus n. 1 a narrow piece of land connecting two larger bodies of
land. 2 Anat. a narrow part connecting two larger parts. [L f.
istle n. a fibre used for cord, nets, etc., obtained from agave.
it(1) pron. (poss. its; pl. they) 1 the thing (or occas. the animal
or child) previously named or in question (took a stone and
threw it). 2 the person in question (Who is it? It is I; is it
a boy or a girl?). 3 as the subject of an impersonal verb (it
is raining; it is winter; it is Tuesday; it is two miles to
Bath). 4 as a substitute for a deferred subject or object (it
is intolerable, this delay; it is silly to talk like that; I
take it that you agree). 5 as a substitute for a vague object
(brazen it out; run for it!). 6 as the antecedent to a relative
word (it was an owl I heard). 7 exactly what is needed
(absolutely it). 8 the extreme limit of achievement. 9 colloq.
sexual intercourse; sex appeal. 10 (in children's games) a
player who has to perform a required feat, esp. to catch the
others. Ьthat's it colloq. that is: 1 what is required. 2 the
difficulty. 3 the end, enough. this is it colloq. 1 the
expected event is at hand. 2 this is the difficulty. [OE hit
neut. of HE]
it(2) n. colloq. Italian vermouth (gin and it). [abbr.]
Italian n. & adj. --n. 1 a a native or national of Italy. b a person
of Italian descent. 2 the Romance language used in Italy and
parts of Switzerland. --adj. of or relating to Italy or its
people or language. ЬItalian vermouth a sweet kind of vermouth.
[ME f. It. Italiano f. Italia Italy]
adj. of Italian style or appearance. [It. Italianato]
italic adj. & n. --adj. 1 a Printing of the sloping kind of letters
now used esp. for emphasis or distinction and in foreign words.
b (of handwriting) compact and pointed like early Italian
handwriting. 2 (Italic) of ancient Italy. --n. 1 a letter in
italic type. 2 this type. [L italicus f. Gk italikos Italian
(because introduced by Aldo Manuzio of Venice)]
italicize v.tr. (also -ise) print in italics. ЬЬitalicization n.
Italiot n. & adj. --n. an inhabitant of the Greek colonies in ancient
Italy. --adj. of or relating to the Italiots. [Gk Italiotes f.
Italo- comb. form Italian; Italian and.
itch n. & v. --n. 1 an irritation in the skin. 2 an impatient
desire; a hankering. 3 (prec. by the) (in general use) scabies.
--v.intr. 1 feel an irritation in the skin, causing a desire to
scratch it. 2 (usu. foll. by to + infin.) (of a person) feel a
desire to do something (am itching to tell you the news).
Ьitching palm avarice. itch-mite a parasitic arthropod,
Sarcoptes scabiei, which burrows under the skin causing scabies.
[OE gycce, gyccan f. WG]
itchy adj. (itchier, itchiest) having or causing an itch. Ьhave
itchy feet colloq. 1 be restless. 2 have a strong urge to
travel. ЬЬitchiness n.
it'd contr. colloq. 1 it had. 2 it would.
-ite(1) suffix forming nouns meaning 'a person or thing connected with':
1 in names of persons: a as natives of a country (Israelite). b
often derog. as followers of a movement etc. (pre-Raphaelite;
Trotskyite). 2 in names of things: a fossil organisms
(ammonite). b minerals (graphite). c constituent parts of a
body or organ (somite). d explosives (dynamite). e commercial
products (ebonite; vulcanite). f salts of acids having names in
- ous (nitrite; sulphite). [from or after F -ite f. L -ita f.
-ite(2) suffix 1 forming adjectives (erudite; favourite). 2 forming
nouns (appetite). 3 forming verbs (expedite; unite). [from or
after L -itus past part. of verbs in -ere, -ere, and -ire]
item n. & adv. --n. 1 a any of a number of enumerated or listed
things. b an entry in an account. 2 an article, esp. one for
sale (household items). 3 a separate or distinct piece of news,
information, etc. --adv. archaic (introducing the mention of
each item) likewise, also. [orig. as adv.: L, = in like manner,
itemize v.tr. (also -ise) state or list item by item. ЬЬitemization n.
iterate v.tr. repeat; state repeatedly. ЬЬiteration n. [L iterare
iterat- f. iterum again]
adj. Gk Hist. 1 a of the phallus carried in Bacchic festivals.
b (of a statue etc.) having an erect penis. 2 lewd, licentious.
3 (of a poem or metre) used for Bacchic hymns. [LL
ithyphallicus f. Gk ithuphallikos f. ithus straight, phallos
-itic suffix forming adjectives and nouns corresponding to nouns in
-ite, -itis, etc. (Semitic; arthritic; syphilitic). [from or
after F -itique f. L -iticus f. Gk -itikos: see -IC]
itinerant adj. & n. --adj. travelling from place to place. --n. an
itinerant person; a tramp. Ьitinerant judge (or minister etc.)
a judge, minister, etc. travelling within a circuit.
ЬЬitineracy n. itinerancy n. [LL itinerari travel f. L iter
itinerary n. & adj. --n. (pl. -ies) 1 a detailed route. 2 a record of
travel. 3 a guidebook. --adj. of roads or travelling. [LL
itinerarius (adj.), -um (n.) f. L iter: see ITINERANT]
itinerate v.intr. travel from place to place or (of a minister etc.)
within a circuit. ЬЬitineration n. [LL itinerari: see
-ition suffix forming nouns, = -ATION (admonition; perdition;
position). [from or after F -ition or L -itio -itionis]
suffix forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in -ition
(ambitious; suppositious). [L -itio etc. + -OUS]
suffix forming adjectives meaning 'related to, having the nature
of' (adventitious; supposititious). [L -icius + -OUS, commonly
written with t in med.L manuscripts]
-itis suffix forming nouns, esp.: 1 names of inflammatory diseases
(appendicitis; bronchitis). 2 colloq. in extended uses with
ref. to conditions compared to diseases (electionitis). [Gk
-itis, forming fem. of adjectives in -ites (with nosos 'disease'
-itive suffix forming adjectives, = -ATIVE (positive; transitive).
[from or after F -itif -itive or L -itivus f. participial stems
in -it-: see -IVE]
it'll contr. colloq. it will; it shall.
ITN abbr. (in the UK) Independent Television News .
ITO abbr. International Trade Organization.
-itor suffix forming agent nouns, usu. from Latin words (sometimes via
French) (creditor). See also -OR(1).
-itory suffix forming adjectives meaning 'relating to or involving (a
verbal action)' (inhibitory). See also -ORY(2). [L -itorius]
-itous suffix forming adjectives corresponding to nouns in - ity
(calamitous; felicitous). [from or after F -iteux f. L -itosus]
its poss.pron. of it; of itself (can see its advantages).
it's contr. 1 it is. 2 it has.
itself pron. emphatic and refl. form of IT(1). Ьby itself apart from
its surroundings, automatically, spontaneously. in itself
viewed in its essential qualities (not in itself a bad thing).
[OE f. IT(1) + SELF, but often treated as ITS + SELF (cf. its
adj. (also itty-bitty) colloq. usu. derog. tiny,
insubstantial, slight. [redupl. of LITTLE, infl. by BIT(1)]
ITU abbr. International Telecommunication Union.
ITV abbr. (in the UK) Independent Television.
-ity suffix forming nouns denoting: 1 quality or condition
(authority; humility; purity). 2 an instance or degree of this
(a monstrosity; humidity). [from or after F -it‚ f. L -itas
IUD abbr. 1 intra-uterine (contraceptive) device. 2 intra-uterine
death (of the foetus before birth).
-ium suffix forming nouns denoting esp.: 1 (also -um) names of
metallic elements (uranium; tantalum). 2 a region of the body
(pericardium; hypogastrium). 3 a biological structure
(mycelium; prothallium). [from or after L -ium f. Gk -ion]
IUPAC abbr. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
-ive suffix forming adjectives meaning 'tending to, having the nature
of', and corresponding nouns (suggestive; corrosive; palliative;
coercive; talkative). ЬЬ-ively suffix forming adverbs.
-iveness suffix forming nouns. [from or after F -if -ive f. L
IVF abbr. in vitro fertilization.
ivied adj. overgrown with ivy.
ivory n. (pl. -ies) 1 a hard creamy-white substance composing the
main part of the tusks of an elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, and
narwhal. 2 the colour of this. 3 (usu. in pl.) a an article
made of ivory. b sl. anything made of or resembling ivory, esp.
a piano key or a tooth. Ьfossil ivory ivory from the tusks of a
mammoth. ivory black black pigment from calcined ivory or bone.
ivory-nut the seed of a corozo palm, Phytelephas macrocarpa,
used as a source of vegetable ivory for carving: also called
corozo-nut. ivory tower a state of seclusion or separation from
the ordinary world and the harsh realities of life. vegetable
ivory a hard white material obtained from the endosperm of the
ivory-nut. ЬЬivoried adj. [ME f. OF yvoire ult. f. L ebur
ivy n. (pl. -ies) 1 a climbing evergreen shrub, Hedera helix, with
usu. dark-green shining five-angled leaves. 2 any of various
other climbing plants including ground ivy and poison ivy. ЬIvy
League a group of universities in the eastern US. [OE ifig]
-ize suffix (also -ise) forming verbs, meaning: 1 make or become such
(Americanize; pulverize; realize). 2 treat in such a way
(monopolize; pasteurize). 3 a follow a special practice
(economize). b have a specified feeling (sympathize). 4 affect
with, provide with, or subject to (oxidize; hospitalize). °The
form -ize has been in use in English since the 16th c.; it is
widely used in American English, but is not an Americanism. The
alternative spelling -ise (reflecting a French influence) is in
common use, esp. in British English, and is obligatory in
certain cases: (a) where it forms part of a larger word-element,
such as -mise (= sending) in compromise, and -prise (= taking)
in surprise; and (b) in verbs corresponding to nouns with -i- in
the stem, such as advertise and televise. ЬЬ-ization suffix
forming nouns. -izer suffix forming agent nouns. [from or
after F -iser f. LL -izare f. Gk -izo]