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English language - Dictionaries G...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 G...

   G(1)      n. (also g) (pl.  Gs or G's) 1 the seventh letter of the
             alphabet.  2 Mus. the fifth note in the diatonic scale of C

   G(2)      abbr.  (also G.) 1 gauss.  2 giga-.  3 gravitational constant.
             4 US sl. = GRAND n. 2.

   g         abbr. (also g.) 1 gelding.  2 gram(s).  3 a gravity.  b
             acceleration due to gravity.

2.0 GA...

   GA        abbr.  US Georgia (in official postal use).

   Ga        symb.  Chem.  the element gallium.

   Ga.       abbr.  Georgia (US).

   gab       n.  colloq.  talk, chatter, twaddle.  Ьgift of the gab the
             facility of speaking eloquently or profusely.  ЬЬgabber n.
             [17th-c. var. of GOB(1)]

   gabardine n.  (also gaberdine) 1 a smooth durable twill-woven cloth esp.
             of worsted or cotton.  2 a garment made of this, esp. a
             raincoat.  [var. of GABERDINE]

   gabble    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a talk volubly or inarticulately.  b
             read aloud too fast.  2 tr. utter too fast, esp. in reading
             aloud.  --n. fast unintelligible talk.  ЬЬgabbler n.  [MDu.
             gabbelen (imit.)]

   gabbro    n.  (pl.  -os) a dark granular plutonic rock of crystalline
             texture.  ЬЬgabbroic adj.  gabbroid adv.  [It. f.  Gabbro in

   gabby     adj.  (gabbier, gabbiest) colloq.  talkative.  [GAB + -Y(1)]

   gaberdine n.  1 var. of GABARDINE.  2 hist. a loose long upper garment
             worn esp. by Jews and almsmen.  [OF gauvardine perh. f. MHG
             wallevart pilgrimage]

   gabion    n.  a cylindrical wicker or metal basket for filling with earth
             or stones, used in engineering or (formerly) in fortification.
             ЬЬgabionage n.  [F f. It.  gabbione f.  gabbia CAGE]

   gable     n.  1 a the triangular upper part of a wall at the end of a
             ridged roof.  b (in full gable-end) a gable-topped wall.  2 a
             gable-shaped canopy over a window or door.  ЬЬgabled adj. (also
             in comb.).  [ME gable f. ON gafl]

   gad(1)    v. & n.  --v.intr.  (gadded, gadding) (foll. by about, abroad,
             around) go about idly or in search of pleasure.  --n. idle
             wandering or adventure (esp. in on the gad).  [back-form. f.
             obs.  gadling companion f. OE g‘deling f.  g‘d fellowship]

   gad(2)    int.  (also by gad) an expression of surprise or emphatic
             assertion.  [= God]

   gadabout  n.  a person who gads about; an idle pleasure-seeker.

   Gadarene  adj.  involving or engaged in headlong or suicidal rush or
             flight.  [LL Gadarenus f. Gk Gadarenos of Gadara in anc.
             Palestine, with ref. to Matthew 8:28-32]

   gadfly    n.  (pl.  -flies) 1 a cattle-biting fly, esp. a warble fly,
             horsefly, or bot-fly.  2 an irritating or harassing person.
             [obs.  gad goad, spike f. ON gaddr, rel. to YARD(1)]

   gadget    n.  any small and usu. ingenious mechanical device or tool.
             ЬЬgadgeteer n.  gadgetry n.  gadgety adj.  [19th-c. Naut.: orig.

   gadoid    n. & adj.  --n. any marine fish of the cod family Gadidae,
             including haddock and whiting.  --adj. belonging to or
             resembling the Gadidae.  [mod.L gadus f. Gk gados cod + -OID]

             n.  a dark crystalline mineral consisting of ferrous silicate of
             beryllium.  [J.  Gadolin, Finnish mineralogist d. 1852]

             n.  Chem.  a soft silvery metallic element of the lanthanoid
             series, occurring naturally in gadolinite.  °Symb.: Gd.  [mod.L
             f.  GADOLINITE]

   gadroon   n.  a decoration on silverware etc., consisting of convex curves
             in a series forming an ornamental edge like inverted fluting.
             [F godron: cf.  goder pucker]

   gadwall   n.  a brownish-grey freshwater duck, Anas strepera.  [17th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   gadzooks  int.  archaic an expression of asseveration etc.  [GAD(2) +
             zooks of unkn. orig.]

   Gael      n.  1 a Scottish Celt.  2 a Gaelic-speaking Celt.  ЬЬGaeldom n.
             [Gael.  Gaidheal]

   Gaelic    n. & adj.  --n. any of the Celtic languages spoken in Ireland,
             Scotland, and the Isle of Man.  --adj. of or relating to the
             Celts or the Celtic languages.

   Gaeltacht n.  any of the regions in Ireland where the vernacular language
             is Irish.  [Ir.]

   gaff(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a stick with an iron hook for landing large
             fish.  b a barbed fishing-spear.  2 a spar to which the head of
             a fore-and-aft sail is bent.  --v.tr. seize (a fish) with a
             gaff.  [ME f. Prov.  gaf hook]

   gaff(2)   n.  Brit.  sl.  Ьblow the gaff let out a plot or secret.  [19th
             c., = nonsense: orig. unkn.]

   gaffe     n.  a blunder; an indiscreet act or remark.  [F]

   gaffer    n.  1 an old fellow; an elderly rustic.  2 Brit.  colloq. a
             foreman or boss.  3 colloq. the chief electrician in a film or
             television production unit.  [prob. contr. of GODFATHER]

   gag       n. & v.  --n.  1 a piece of cloth etc. thrust into or held over
             the mouth to prevent speaking or crying out, or to hold it open
             in surgery.  2 a joke or comic scene in a play, film, etc., or
             as part of a comedian's act.  3 an actor's interpolation in a
             dramatic dialogue.  4 a thing or circumstance restricting free
             speech.  5 a a joke or hoax.  b a humorous action or situation.
             6 an imposture or deception.  7 Parl. a closure or guillotine.
             --v.  (gagged, gagging) 1 tr. apply a gag to.  2 tr. silence;
             deprive of free speech.  3 tr. apply a gag-bit to (a horse).  4
             a intr. choke or retch.  b tr. cause to do this.  5 intr.
             Theatr. make gags.  Ьgag-bit a specially powerful bit for
             horse-breaking.  gag man a deviser or performer of theatrical
             gags.  [ME, orig. as verb: orig. uncert.]

   gaga      adj.  sl.  1 senile.  2 fatuous; slightly crazy.  [F, = senile]

   gage(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a pledge; a thing deposited as security.  2 a a
             challenge to fight.  b a symbol of this, esp. a glove thrown
             down.  --v.tr.  archaic stake, pledge; offer as a guarantee.
             [ME f. OF gage (n.), F gager (v.) ult. f. Gmc, rel. to WED]

   gage(2)   US var. of GAUGE.

   gage(3)   n.  = GREENGAGE.  [abbr.]

   gaggle    n. & v.  --n.  1 a flock of geese.  2 colloq. a disorderly group
             of people.  --v.intr. (of geese) cackle.  [ME, imit.: cf.
             gabble, cackle]

   gagster   n.  = gag man.

   gaiety    n.  (US gayety) 1 the state of being light-hearted or merry;
             mirth.  2 merrymaking, amusement.  3 a bright appearance.
             Ьgaiety of nations the cheerfulness or pleasure of numerous
             people.  [F gaiet‚ (as GAY)]

             n.  any composite plant of the genus Gaillardia, with showy
             flowers.  [mod.L f.  Gaillard de Marentoneau, 18th-c. Fr.

   gaily     adv.  1 in a gay or light-hearted manner.  2 with a bright or
             colourful appearance.

   gain      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. obtain or secure (usu. something desired or
             favourable) (gain an advantage; gain recognition).  2 tr.
             acquire (a sum) as profits or as a result of changed conditions;
             earn.  3 tr. obtain as an increment or addition (gain momentum;
             gain weight).  4 tr.  a win (a victory).  b reclaim (land from
             the sea).  5 intr. (foll. by in) make a specified advance or
             improvement (gained in stature).  6 intr. & tr. (of a clock
             etc.) become fast, or be fast by (a specified amount of time).
             7 intr. (often foll. by on, upon) come closer to a person or
             thing pursued.  8 tr.  a bring over to one's interest or views.
             b (foll. by over) win by persuasion etc.  9 tr. reach or arrive
             at (a desired place).  --n.  1 something gained, achieved, etc.
             2 an increase of possessions etc.; a profit, advance, or
             improvement.  3 the acquisition of wealth.  4 (in pl.) sums of
             money acquired by trade etc., emoluments, winnings.  5 an
             increase in amount.  6 Electronics a the factor by which power
             etc. is increased.  b the logarithm of this.  Ьgain ground see
             GROUND(1).  gain time improve one's chances by causing or
             accepting delay.  ЬЬgainable adj.  gainer n.  gainings n.pl.
             [OF gaigner, gaaignier to till, acquire, ult. f. Gmc]

   gainful   adj.  1 (of employment) paid.  2 lucrative, remunerative.
             ЬЬgainfully adv.  gainfulness n.

   gainsay   v.tr.  (past and past part.  gainsaid) archaic or literary deny,
             contradict.  ЬЬgainsayer n.  [ME f. obs.  gain- against f. ON
             gegn straight f. Gmc + SAY]

   'gainst   prep.  poet. = AGAINST. [abbr.]

   gait      n.  1 a manner of walking; one's bearing or carriage as one
             walks.  2 the manner of forward motion of a runner, horse,
             vehicle, etc.  Ьgo one's (or one's own) gait pursue one's own
             course.  [var. of GATE(2)]

   gaiter    n.  a covering of cloth, leather, etc. for the leg below the
             knee, for the ankle, for part of a machine, etc.  ЬЬgaitered
             adj.  [F gu€tre, prob. rel. to WRIST]

   Gal.      abbr.  Galatians (New Testament).

   gal(1)    n.  sl.  a girl.  [repr. var. pronunc.]

   gal(2)    n.  Physics a unit of acceleration for a gravitational field,
             equal to one centimetre per second per second.  [Galileo: see

   gal.      abbr.  gallon(s).

   gala      n.  1 a festive occasion.  2 Brit. a festive gathering for
             sports, esp. swimming.  [F or It. f. Sp. f. OF gale rejoicing f.

             adj. & n.  --adj. inducing a flow of milk.  --n. a galactagogue
             substance.  [Gk gala galaktos milk, + agogos leading]

   galactic  adj.  of or relating to a galaxy or galaxies, esp. the Galaxy.
             [Gk galaktias, var. of galaxias: see GALAXY]

   galago    n.  (pl.  -os) any small tree-climbing primate of the genus
             Galago, found in southern Africa, with large eyes and ears and a
             long tail. Also called bush-baby.  [mod.L]

   galah     n.  Austral.  1 a small rose-breasted grey-backed cockatoo,
             Cacatua roseicapilla.  2 sl. a fool or simpleton.  [Aboriginal]

   Galahad   n.  a person characterized by nobility, integrity, courtesy,
             etc.  [name of a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend]

   galantine n.  white meat or fish boned, cooked, pressed, and served cold
             in aspic etc.  [ME f. OF, alt. f.  galatine jellied meat f.
             med.L galatina]

   galaxy    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 any of many independent systems of stars, gas,
             dust, etc., held together by gravitational attraction.  2 (the
             Galaxy) the galaxy of which the solar system is a part.  3 (the
             Galaxy) the irregular luminous band of stars indistinguishable
             to the naked eye encircling the heavens, the Milky Way.  4
             (foll. by of) a brilliant company or gathering.  [ME f. OF
             galaxie f. med.L galaxia, LL galaxias f. Gk f.  gala galaktos

   galbanum  n.  a bitter aromatic gum resin produced from kinds of ferula.
             [ME f. L f. Gk khalbane, prob. of Semitic orig.]

   gale(1)   n.  1 a very strong wind, esp. (on the Beaufort scale) one of
             32-54 m.p.h.  2 Naut. a storm.  3 an outburst, esp. of laughter.
             [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gale(2)   n. (in full sweet-gale) bog myrtle.  [OE gagel(le), MDu.

   galea     n. (pl. galeae or -as) Bot. & Zool.  a structure like a helmet
             in shape, form, or function.  ЬЬgaleate adj.  galeated adj.  [L,
             = helmet]

   galena    n.  a bluish, grey or black mineral ore of lead sulphide.
             °Chem. formula: PbS.  [L, = lead ore (in a partly purified

   galenic   adj. & n. (also galenical) --adj.  1 of or relating to Galen, a
             Greek physician of the 2nd c.  AD, or his methods.  2 made of
             natural as opposed to synthetic components.  --n. a drug or
             medicament produced directly from animal or vegetable tissues.

   galenical var. of GALENIC.

             adj.  of or relating to Galileo, Italian astronomer d. 1642, or
             his methods.

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of Galilee in Palestine.  2 Christian.
             --n.  1 a native of Galilee.  2 a Christian.  3 (prec. by the)
             derog. Christ.

   galingale n.  1 an aromatic rhizome of an E. Asian plant of the genus
             Alpinia, formerly used in cookery and medicine.  2 (in full
             English galingale) a sedge (Cyperus longus) having a root with
             similar properties.  [OE gallengar OF galingal f. Arab.
             kalanjan f. Chin.  ge-liang-jiang mild ginger from Ge in Canton]

   galiot    var. of GALLIOT.

   galipot   n.  a hardened deposit of resin formed on the stem of the
             cluster pine.  [F: orig. unkn.]

   gall(1)   n.  1 sl. impudence.  2 asperity, rancour.  3 bitterness;
             anything bitter (gall and wormwood).  4 the bile of animals.  5
             the gall-bladder and its contents.  Ьgall-bladder the vessel
             storing bile after its secretion by the liver and before release
             into the intestine.  [ON, corresp. to OE gealla, f. Gmc]

   gall(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a sore on the skin made by chafing.  2 a mental
             soreness or vexation.  b a cause of this.  3 a place rubbed
             bare.  --v.tr.  1 rub sore; injure by rubbing.  2 vex, annoy,
             humiliate.  ЬЬgallingly adv.  [ME f. LG or Du.  galle, corresp.
             to OE gealla sore on a horse]

   gall(3)   n.  1 a growth produced by insects or fungus etc. on plants and
             trees, esp. on oak.  2 (attrib.) of insects producing galls
             (gall-fly).  [ME f. OF galle f. L galla]

   gall.     abbr. gallon(s).

   gallant   adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 brave, chivalrous.  2 a (of a ship,
             horse, etc.) grand, fine, stately.  b archaic finely dressed.  3
             a markedly attentive to women.  b concerned with sexual love;
             amatory.  --n.  1 a ladies' man; a lover or paramour.  2 archaic
             a man of fashion; a fine gentleman.  --v.  1 tr. flirt with.  2
             tr. escort; act as a cavalier to (a lady).  3 intr.  a play the
             gallant.  b (foll. by with) flirt.  ЬЬgallantly adv.  [ME f. OF
             galant part. of galer make merry]

   gallantry n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 bravery; dashing courage.  2 courtliness;
             devotion to women.  3 a polite act or speech.  4 the conduct of
             a gallant; sexual intrigue; immorality.  [F galanterie (as

   galleon   n.  hist.  1 a ship of war (usu. Spanish).  2 a large Spanish
             ship used in American trade.  3 a vessel shorter and higher than
             a galley.  [MDu.  galjoen f. F galion f.  galie galley, or f.
             Sp.  galeўn]

   gallery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a room or building for showing works of art.
             2 a balcony, esp. a platform projecting from the inner wall of a
             church, hall, etc., providing extra room for spectators etc.  or
             reserved for musicians etc. (minstrels' gallery).  3 a the
             highest balcony in a theatre.  b its occupants.  4 a a covered
             space for walking in, partly open at the side; a portico or
             colonnade.  b a long narrow passage in the thickness of a wall
             or supported on corbels, open towards the interior of the
             building.  5 a long narrow room, passage, or corridor.  6 Mil. &
             Mining a horizontal underground passage.  7 a group of
             spectators at a golf-match etc.  Ьplay to the gallery seek to
             win approval by appealing to popular taste.  ЬЬgalleried adj.
             [F galerie f. It.  galleria f. med.L galeria]

             n.  a person occupying a seat in a gallery; a playgoer.

   galley    n.  (pl.  -eys) 1 hist.  a a low flat single-decked vessel using
             sails and oars, and usu. rowed by slaves or criminals.  b an
             ancient Greek or Roman warship with one or more banks of oars.
             c a large open rowing-boat, e.g. that used by the captain of a
             man-of-war.  2 a ship's or aircraft's kitchen.  3 Printing a an
             oblong tray for set type.  b the corresponding part of a
             composing-machine.  c (in full galley proof) a proof in the form
             of long single-column strips from type in a galley, not in
             sheets or pages.  Ьgalley-slave 1 hist. a person condemned to
             row in a galley.  2 a drudge.  [ME f. OF galie f. med.L galea,
             med.Gk galaia]

   galliard  n.  hist.  1 a lively dance usu. in triple time for two persons.
             2 the music for this.  [ME f. OF gaillard valiant]

   Gallic    adj.  1 French or typically French.  2 of the Gauls; Gaulish.
             ЬЬGallicize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).  [L Gallicus f.  Gallus
             a Gaul]

   gallic acid
             n.  Chem.  an acid extracted from gallnuts etc., formerly used
             in making ink.  [F gallique f.  galle GALL(3)]

   gallice   adv.  in French.  [L, = in Gaulish]

   Gallicism n.  a French idiom, esp. one adopted in another language.  [F
             gallicisme (as GALLIC)]

             n.pl.  hist. or joc.  breeches, trousers.  [orig. wide hose of
             the 16th-17th c., f. obs. F garguesque for greguesque f. It.
             grechesca fem. of grechesco Greek]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a heterogeneous mixture; a jumble or medley.  [F
             galimafr‚e, of unkn. orig.]

             adj.  of or relating to the order Galliformes, which includes
             domestic poultry, pheasants, partridges, etc.  [L gallinaceus f.
             gallina hen f.  gallus cock]

   gallinule n.  1 a moorhen.  2 any of various similar birds of the genus
             Porphyrula or Porphyrio.  [mod.L gallinula, dimin. of L gallina
             hen f.  gallus cock]

   galliot   n.  (also galiot) 1 a Dutch cargo-boat or fishing-vessel.  2 a
             small (usu. Mediterranean) galley.  [ME f. OF galiote f. It.
             galeotta f. med.L galea galley]

   gallipot  n.  a small pot of earthenware, metal, etc., used for ointments
             etc.  [prob.  GALLEY + POT(1), because brought in galleys from
             the Mediterranean]

   gallium   n.  Chem.  a soft bluish-white metallic element occurring
             naturally in zinc blende, bauxite, and kaolin.  °Symb.: Ga.
             [mod.L f. L Gallia France (so named patriotically by its
             discoverer Lecoq de Boisbaudran d. 1912)]

   gallivant v.intr.  colloq.  1 gad about.  2 flirt.  [orig. uncert.]

   galliwasp n.  a W. Indian lizard, Diploglossus monotropis.  [18th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   gallnut   n. = GALL(3).

   Gallo-    comb. form 1 French; French and.  2 Gaul (Gallo-Roman).  [L
             Gallus a Gaul]

   gallon    n. 1 a (in full imperial gallon) Brit. a measure of capacity
             equal to eight pints and equivalent to 4546 cc, used for liquids
             and corn etc.  b US a measure of capacity equivalent to 3785 cc,
             used for liquids.  2 (usu. in pl.) colloq. a large amount.
             ЬЬgallonage n.  [ME f. ONF galon, OF jalon, f. base of med.L
             galleta, galletum, perh. of Celtic orig.]

   galloon   n.  a narrow close-woven braid of gold, silver, silk, cotton,
             nylon, etc., for binding dresses etc.  [F galon f.  galonner
             trim with braid, of unkn. orig.]

   gallop    n. & v.  --n.  1 the fastest pace of a horse or other quadruped,
             with all the feet off the ground together in each stride.  2 a
             ride at this pace.  3 a track or ground for this.  --v.
             (galloped, galloping) 1 a intr. (of a horse etc. or its rider)
             go at the pace of a gallop.  b tr. make (a horse etc.) gallop.
             2 intr. (foll. by through, over) read, recite, or talk at great
             speed.  3 intr. move or progress rapidly (galloping inflation).
             Ьat a gallop at the pace of a gallop.  ЬЬgalloper n.  [OF galop,
             galoper: see WALLOP]

   galloway  n.  1 an animal of a breed of hornless black beef cattle from
             Galloway in SW Scotland. 2 this breed.

   gallows   n.pl. (usu. treated as sing.) 1 a structure, usu. of two
             uprights and a crosspiece, for the hanging of criminals.  2
             (prec. by the) execution by hanging.  Ьgallows humour grim and
             ironical humour.  [ME f. ON g lgi]

   gallstone n. a small hard mass forming in the gall-bladder.

   Gallup poll
             n.  an assessment of public opinion by questioning a
             representative sample, esp. as the basis for forecasting the
             results of voting.  [G. H.  Gallup, Amer. statistician d. 1984]

   galluses  n.pl. dial. & US trouser-braces. [pl. of gallus var. of GALLOWS]

   galoot    n.  colloq.  a person, esp. a strange or clumsy one.  [19th-c.
             Naut. sl.: orig. unkn.]

   galop     n. & v. --n.  1 a lively dance in duple time.  2 the music for
             this. --v.intr.  (galoped, galoping) perform this dance.  [F:
             see GALLOP]

   galore    adv. in abundance (placed after noun : flowers galore).  [Ir. go
             leўr to sufficiency]

   galosh    n. (also golosh) (usu. in pl.) a waterproof overshoe, usu. of
             rubber.  [ME f. OF galoche f. LL gallicula small Gallic shoe]

   galumph   v.intr. colloq.  1 move noisily or clumsily.  2 go prancing in
             triumph.  [coined by Lewis Carroll (in sense 2), perh. f. GALLOP
             + TRIUMPH]

   galvanic  adj. 1 a sudden and remarkable (had a galvanic effect).  b
             stimulating; full of energy.  2 of or producing an electric
             current by chemical action.  ЬЬgalvanically adv.

   galvanism n. hist.  1 electricity produced by chemical action.  2 the use
             of electricity for medical purposes.  ЬЬgalvanist n.  [F
             galvanisme f. L.  Galvani, It. physiologist d. 1798]

   galvanize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 (often foll. by into) rouse forcefully,
             esp. by shock or excitement (was galvanized into action).  2
             stimulate by or as if by electricity.  3 coat (iron) with zinc
             (usu. without the use of electricity) as a protection against
             rust.  ЬЬgalvanization n.  galvanizer n.  [F galvaniser: see

             n.  an instrument for detecting and measuring small electric
             currents.  ЬЬgalvanometric adj.

   gambade   n.  (also gambado) (pl.  gambades; -os or -oes) 1 a horse's leap
             or bound.  2 a fantastic movement.  3 an escapade.  [F gambade &
             Sp.  gambado f. It. & Sp.  gamba leg]

   gambier   n.  an astringent extract of an Eastern plant used in tanning
             etc.  [Malay gambir name of the plant]

   gambit    n.  1 a chess opening in which a player sacrifices a piece or
             pawn to secure an advantage.  2 an opening move in a discussion
             etc.  3 a trick or device.  [earlier gambett f. It.  gambetto
             tripping up f.  gamba leg]

   gamble    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. play games of chance for money, esp. for
             high stakes.  2 tr.  a bet (a sum of money) in gambling.  b
             (often foll. by away) lose (assets) by gambling.  3 intr. take
             great risks in the hope of substantial gain.  4 intr. (foll. by
             on) act in the hope or expectation of (gambled on fine weather).
             --n.  1 a risky undertaking or attempt.  2 a spell of gambling.
             ЬЬgambler n.  [obs.  gamel to sport, gamene GAME(1)]

   gamboge   n.  a gum resin produced by various E. Asian trees and used as a
             yellow pigment and as a purgative.  [mod.L gambaugium f.
             Cambodia in SE Asia]

   gambol    v. & n.  --v.intr.  (gambolled, gambolling; US gamboled,
             gamboling) skip or frolic playfully.  --n. a playful frolic.

   gambrel   n. (in full gambrel roof) 1 Brit. a roof like a hipped roof but
             with gable-like ends.  2 US = curb roof.  [ONF gamberel f.
             gambier forked stick f.  gambe leg (from the resemblance to the
             shape of a horse's hind leg)]

   game(1)   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a form or spell of play or sport, esp. a
             competitive one played according to rules and decided by skill,
             strength, or luck.  2 a single portion of play forming a scoring
             unit in some contests, e.g. bridge or tennis.  3 (in pl.) a
             athletics or sports as organized in a school etc.  b a meeting
             for athletic etc. contests (Olympic Games).  4 a winning score
             in a game; the state of the score in a game (the game is two
             all).  5 the equipment for a game.  6 one's level of achievement
             in a game, as specified (played a good game).  7 a a piece of
             fun; a jest (was only playing a game with you).  b (in pl.)
             dodges, tricks (none of your games!).  8 a scheme or undertaking
             etc. regarded as a game (so that's your game).  9 a policy or
             line of action.  10 (collect.) a wild animals or birds hunted
             for sport or food.  b the flesh of these.  11 a hunted animal; a
             quarry or object of pursuit or attack.  12 a kept flock of
             swans.  --adj.  1 spirited; eager and willing.  2 (foll. by for,
             or to + infin.) having the spirit or energy; eagerly prepared.
             --v.intr. play at games of chance for money; gamble.  Ьthe game
             is up the scheme is revealed or foiled.  game plan esp.  US 1 a
             winning strategy worked out in advance for a particular match.
             2 a plan of campaign, esp. in politics.  game point Tennis etc.
             a point which, if won, would win the game.  game (or games)
             theory the mathematical analysis of conflict in war, economics,
             games of skill, etc.  game-warden an official locally
             supervising game and hunting.  gaming-house a place frequented
             for gambling; a casino.  gaming-table a table used for gambling.
             make game (or a game) of mock, taunt.  off (or on) one's game
             playing badly (or well).  on the game Brit.  sl.  involved in
             prostitution or thieving.  play the game behave fairly or
             according to the rules.  ЬЬgamely adv.  gameness n.  gamester n.
             [OE gamen]

   game(2)   adj.  (of a leg, arm, etc.) lame, crippled.  [18th-c. dial.:
             orig. unkn.]

   gamebook  n.  a book for recording game killed by a sportsman.

   gamecock  n.  (also gamefowl) a cock bred and trained for cock-fighting.

             n.  a person employed to breed and protect game.

   gamelan   n.  1 a type of orchestra found in SE Asia (esp. Indonesia),
             with string and woodwind instruments, and a wide range of
             percussion instruments.  2 a kind of xylophone used in this.

   gamesman  n.  (pl.  -men) an exponent of gamesmanship.

             n.  the art or practice of winning games or other contests by
             gaining a psychological advantage over an opponent.

   gamesome  adj.  merry, sportive.  ЬЬgamesomely adv.  gamesomeness n.

             n.  (pl.  gametangia) Bot.  an organ in which gametes are
             formed.  [as GAMETE + aggeion vessel]

   gamete    n.  Biol.  a mature germ cell able to unite with another in
             sexual reproduction.  ЬЬgametic adj.  [mod.L gameta f. Gk gamete
             wife f.  gamos marriage]

   gameto-   comb. form Biol.  gamete.

             n.  Biol.  any cell that is in the process of developing into
             one or more gametes.

             n.  Biol.  the process by which cells undergo meiosis to form

             n.  the gamete-producing form of a plant that has alternation of
             generations between this and the asexual form.  ЬЬgametophytic

   gamin     n.  1 a street urchin.  2 an impudent child.  [F]

   gamine    n.  1 a girl gamin.  2 a girl with mischievous or boyish charm.

   gamma     n.  1 the third letter of the Greek alphabet.  2 a third-class
             mark given for a piece of work or in an examination.  3 Astron.
             the third brightest star in a constellation.  4 the third member
             of a series.  Ьgamma radiation (or rays) electromagnetic
             radiation of very short wavelength emitted by some radioactive
             substances.  [ME f. Gk]

   gammer    n.  archaic an old woman, esp. as a rustic name.  [prob. contr.
             of GODMOTHER: cf.  GAFFER]

   gammon(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 the bottom piece of a flitch of bacon including
             a hind leg.  2 the ham of a pig cured like bacon.  --v.tr. cure
             (bacon).  [ONF gambon f.  gambe leg: cf.  JAMB]

   gammon(2) n. & v.  --n. a kind of victory scoring two games at backgammon.
             --v.tr. defeat in this way.  [app. = ME gamen GAME(1)]

   gammon(3) n. & v.  colloq.  --n. humbug, deception.  --v.  1 intr.  a talk
             speciously.  b pretend.  2 tr. hoax, deceive.  [18th c.: orig.

   gammy     adj.  (gammier, gammiest) Brit.  sl.  (esp. of a leg) lame;
             permanently injured.  [dial. form of GAME(2)]

   gamp      n.  Brit.  colloq.  an umbrella, esp. a large unwieldy one.
             [Mrs Gamp in Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit]

   gamut     n.  1 the whole series or range or scope of anything (the whole
             gamut of crime).  2 Mus.  a the whole series of notes used in
             medieval or modern music.  b a major diatonic scale.  c a
             people's or a period's recognized scale.  d a voice's or
             instrument's compass.  3 Mus. the lowest note in the medieval
             sequence of hexachords, = modern G on the lowest line of the
             bass staff.  [med.L gamma ut f.  GAMMA taken as the name for a
             note one tone lower than A of the classical scale + ut the first
             of six arbitrary names of notes forming the hexachord, being
             syllables (ut, re, mi, fa, so, la) of the Latin hymn beginning
             Ut queant laxis)]

   gamy      adj.  (gamier, gamiest) 1 having the flavour or scent of game
             kept till it is high.  2 US scandalous, sensational.  3 =
             GAME(1) adj.  ЬЬgamily adv.  gaminess n.

   gander    n. & v.  --n.  1 a male goose.  2 sl. a look, a glance (take a
             gander).  --v.intr. look or glance.  [OE gandra, rel. to GANNET]

   gang(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a band of persons acting or going about
             together, esp. for criminal purposes.  b colloq. such a band
             pursuing a purpose causing disapproval.  2 a set of workers,
             slaves, or prisoners.  3 a set of tools arranged to work
             simultaneously.  --v.tr. arrange (tools etc.) to work in
             coordination.  Ьgang-bang sl.  an occasion on which several men
             successively have sexual intercourse with one woman.  gang up
             colloq.  1 (often foll. by with) act in concert.  2 (foll. by
             on) combine against.  [orig. = going, journey, f. ON gangr,
             ganga GOING, corresp. to OE gang]

   gang(2)   v.intr.  Sc.  go.  Ьgang agley (of a plan etc.) go wrong.  [OE
             gangan: cf.  GANG(1)]

   gangboard n.  = GANGPLANK.

   ganger    n.  Brit.  the foreman of a gang of workers, esp. navvies.

   gangle    v.intr.  move ungracefully.  [back-form. f.  GANGLING]

   gangling  adj.  (of a person) loosely built; lanky.  [frequent. of

   ganglion  n.  (pl.  ganglia or ganglions) 1 a an enlargement or knot on a
             nerve etc. containing an assemblage of nerve-cells.  b a mass of
             grey matter in the central nervous system forming a
             nerve-nucleus.  2 Med. a cyst, esp. on a tendon sheath.  3 a
             centre of activity or interest.  ЬЬgangliar adj.  gangliform
             adj.  ganglionated adj.  ganglionic adj.  [Gk gagglion]

   gangly    adj.  (ganglier, gangliest) = GANGLING.

   gangplank n.  a movable plank usu. with cleats nailed on it for boarding
             or disembarking from a ship etc.

   gangrene  n. & v.  --n.  1 Med. death and decomposition of a part of the
             body tissue, usu. resulting from obstructed circulation.  2
             moral corruption.  --v.tr. & intr. affect or become affected
             with gangrene.  ЬЬgangrenous adj.  [F gangrЉne f. L gangraena f.
             Gk gaggraina]

   gangster  n.  a member of a gang of violent criminals.  ЬЬgangsterism n.

   gangue    n.  valueless earth etc. in which ore is found.  [F f. G Gang
             lode = GANG(1)]

   gangway   n. & int.  --n.  1 Brit. a passage, esp. between rows of seats.
             2 a an opening in the bulwarks by which a ship is entered or
             left.  b a bridge laid from ship to shore.  c a passage on a
             ship, esp. a platform connecting the quarterdeck and forecastle.
             3 a temporary bridge on a building site etc.  --int. make way!

   ganister  n.  a close-grained hard siliceous stone found in the coal
             measures of northern England, and used for furnace-linings.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   ganja     n.  marijuana.  [Hindi ganjha]

   gannet    n.  1 any sea bird of the genus Sula, esp.  Sula bassana,
             catching fish by plunge-diving.  2 sl. a greedy person.
             ЬЬgannetry n.  (pl.  -ies).  [OE ganot f. Gmc, rel. to GANDER]

   ganoid    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of fish scales) enamelled; smooth and
             bright.  2 having ganoid scales.  --n. a fish having ganoid
             scales.  [F gano‹de f. Gk ganos brightness]

   gantlet   US var. of GAUNTLET(2).

   gantry    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an overhead structure with a platform
             supporting a travelling crane, or railway or road signals.  2 a
             structure supporting a space rocket prior to launching.  3 (also
             gauntry) a wooden stand for barrels.  [prob. f.  gawn, dial.
             form of GALLON + TREE]

   gaol      Brit.  var. of JAIL .

   gaoler    Brit.  var. of JAILER.

   gap       n.  1 an unfilled space or interval; a blank; a break in
             continuity.  2 a breach in a hedge, fence, or wall.  3 a wide
             (usu. undesirable) divergence in views, sympathies, development,
             etc. (generation gap).  4 a gorge or pass.  Ьfill (or close
             etc.) a gap make up a deficiency.  gap-toothed having gaps
             between the teeth.  ЬЬgapped adj.  gappy adj.  [ME f. ON, =
             chasm, rel. to GAPE]

   gape      v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 a open one's mouth wide, esp. in amazement
             or wonder.  b be or become wide open.  2 (foll. by at) gaze
             curiously or wondrously.  3 split; part asunder.  4 yawn.  --n.
             1 an open-mouthed stare.  2 a yawn.  3 (in pl.; prec. by the) a
             a disease of birds with gaping as a symptom, caused by
             infestation with gapeworm.  b joc. a fit of yawning.  4 a an
             expanse of open mouth or beak.  b the part of a beak that opens.
             5 a rent or opening.  ЬЬgapingly adv.  [ME f. ON gapa]

   gaper     n.  1 any bivalve mollusc of the genus Mya, with the shell open
             at one or both ends.  2 the comber fish, which gapes when dead.
             3 a person who gapes.

   gapeworm  n.  a nematode worm, Syngamus tracheae, that infests the trachea
             and bronchi of birds and causes the gapes.

   gar       n.  = GARFISH 2.

   garage    n. & v.  --n.  1 a building or shed for the storage of a motor
             vehicle or vehicles.  2 an establishment selling petrol etc., or
             repairing and selling motor vehicles.  --v.tr. put or keep (a
             motor vehicle) in a garage.  Ьgarage sale US a sale of
             miscellaneous household goods, usu. for charity, held in the
             garage of a private house.  [F f.  garer shelter]

   garb      n. & v.  --n.  1 clothing, esp. of a distinctive kind.  2 the
             way a person is dressed.  --v.tr.  1 (usu. in passive or refl.)
             put (esp. distinctive) clothes on (a person).  2 attire.  [obs.
             F garbe f. It.  garbo f. Gmc, rel. to GEAR]

   garbage   n.  1 a refuse, filth.  b domestic waste.  2 foul or rubbishy
             literature etc.  Ьgarbage can US a dustbin.  [AF: orig. unkn.]

   garble    v.tr.  1 unintentionally distort or confuse (facts, messages,
             etc.).  2 a mutilate in order to misrepresent.  b make (usu.
             unfair or malicious) selections from (facts, statements, etc.).
             ЬЬgarbler n.  [It.  garbellare f. Arab.  garbala sift, perh. f.
             LL cribellare to sieve f. L cribrum sieve]

   garboard  n. (in full garboard strake) the first range of planks or plates
             laid on a ship's bottom next to the keel.  [Du.  gaarboord,
             perh. f.  garen GATHER + boord BOARD]

   gar‡on    n.  a waiter in a French restaurant, hotel, etc.  [F, lit.

   Garda     n.  1 the State police force of the Irish Republic.  2 (also
             garda) (pl.  -dai) a member of this.  [Ir.  Garda SЎoch na Civic

   garden    n. & v.  --n.  1 esp.  Brit. a piece of ground, usu. partly
             grassed and adjoining a private house, used for growing flowers,
             fruit, or vegetables, and as a place of recreation.  2 (esp. in
             pl.) ornamental grounds laid out for public enjoyment (botanical
             gardens).  3 a similar place with the service of refreshments
             (tea garden).  4 (attrib.) a (of plants) cultivated, not wild.
             b for use in a garden (garden seat).  5 (usu. in pl. prec. by a
             name) Brit. a street, square, etc. (Onslow Gardens).  6 an
             especially fertile region.  7 US a large public hall.  8 (the
             Garden) the philosophy or school of Epicurus.  --v.intr.
             cultivate or work in a garden.  Ьgarden centre an establishment
             where plants and garden equipment etc. are sold.  garden city an
             industrial or other town laid out systematically with spacious
             surroundings, parks, etc.  garden cress a cruciferous plant,
             Lepidium sativum, used in salads.  garden party a social event
             held on a lawn or in a garden.  garden suburb Brit.  a suburb
             laid out spaciously with open spaces, parks, etc.  garden
             warbler a European woodland songbird, Sylvia borin.
             ЬЬgardenesque adj.  gardening n.  [ME f. ONF gardin (OF jardin)
             ult. f. Gmc: cf.  YARD(2)]

   gardener  n.  a person who gardens or is employed to tend a garden.
             Ьgardener-bird a bowerbird making a 'garden' of moss etc. in
             front of a bower.  [ME ult. f. OF jardinier (as GARDEN)]

   gardenia  n.  any tree or shrub of the genus Gardenia, with large white or
             yellow flowers and usu. a fragrant scent.  [mod.L f. Dr A.
             Garden, Sc. naturalist d. 1791]

   garfish   n.  (pl. same) 1 any mainly marine fish of the family Belonidae,
             esp.  Belone belone, having long beaklike jaws with sharp teeth.
             Also called NEEDLEFISH.  2 US any similar freshwater fish of the
             genus Lepisosteus, with ganoid scales. Also called GAR or
             GARPIKE.  3 NZ & Austral. either of two marine fish of the genus
             Hemiramphus. Also called HALFBEAK.  [app. f. OE gar spear + fisc

   garganey  n.  (pl.  -eys) a small duck, Anas querquedula, the drake of
             which has a white stripe from the eye to the neck.  [It., dial.
             var. of garganello]

             adj.  enormous, gigantic.  [the name of a giant in Rabelais'
             book Gargantua (1534)]

   garget    n.  1 inflammation of a cow's or ewe's udder.  2 US pokeweed.
             [perh. f. obs.  garget throat f. OF gargate, -guete]

   gargle    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (also absol.) wash (one's mouth and
             throat), esp. for medicinal purposes, with a liquid kept in
             motion by breathing through it.  2 intr. make a sound as when
             doing this.  --n.  1 a liquid used for gargling.  2 sl. an
             alcoholic drink.  [F gargouiller f.  gargouille: see GARGOYLE]

   gargoyle  n.  a grotesque carved human or animal face or figure projecting
             from the gutter of (esp. a Gothic) building usu. as a spout to
             carry water clear of a wall.  [OF gargouille throat, gargoyle]

             n.  Med.  = HURLER'S SYNDROME.

   garibaldi n.  (pl.  garibaldis) 1 a kind of woman's or child's loose
             blouse, orig. of bright red material imitating the shirts worn
             by Garibaldi and his followers.  2 Brit. a biscuit containing a
             layer of currants.  3 US a small red Californian fish, Hypsypops
             rubicundus.  [G.  Garibaldi, It. patriot d. 1882]

   garish    adj.  1 obtrusively bright; showy.  2 gaudy; over-decorated.
             ЬЬgarishly adv.  garishness n.  [16th-c.  gaurish app. f. obs.
             gaure stare]

   garland   n. & v.  --n.  1 a wreath of flowers, leaves, etc., worn on the
             head or hung as a decoration.  2 a prize or distinction.  3 a
             literary anthology or miscellany.  --v.tr.  1 adorn with
             garlands.  2 crown with a garland.  [ME f. OF garlande, of unkn.

   garlic    n.  1 any of various alliaceous plants, esp.  Allium sativum.  2
             the strong-smelling pungent-tasting bulb of this plant, used as
             a flavouring in cookery.  ЬЬgarlicky adj.  [OE garleac f.  gar
             spear + leac LEEK]

   garment   n. & v.  --n.  1 a an article of dress.  b (in pl.) clothes.  2
             the outward and visible covering of anything.  --v.tr. (usu. in
             passive) rhet. attire.  [ME f. OF garnement (as GARNISH)]

   garner    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 collect.  2 store, deposit.  --n.  literary
             a storehouse or granary.  [ME (orig. as noun) f. OF gernier f. L
             granarium GRANARY]

   garnet    n.  a vitreous silicate mineral, esp. a transparent deep-red
             kind used as a gem.  [ME f. OF grenat f. med.L granatum
             POMEGRANATE, from its resemblance to the pulp of the fruit]

   garnish   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 decorate or embellish (esp. food).  2 Law a
             serve notice on (a person) for the purpose of legally seizing
             money belonging to a debtor or defendant.  b summon (a person)
             as a party to litigation started between others.  --n.  (also
             garnishing) a decoration or embellishment, esp. to food.
             ЬЬgarnishment n. (in sense 2).  [ME f. OF garnir f. Gmc]

   garnishee n. & v.  Law --n. a person garnished.  --v.tr.  (garnishees,
             garnisheed) 1 garnish (a person).  2 attach (money etc.) by way
             of garnishment.

   garniture n.  1 decoration or trimmings, esp. of food.  2 accessories,
             appurtenances.  [F (as GARNISH)]

   garotte   var. of GARROTTE.

   garpike   n.  a gar or garfish (see GARFISH 2).  [OE gar spear + PIKE(1)]

   garret    n.  1 a top-floor or attic room, esp. a dismal one.  2 an attic.
             [ME f. OF garite watch-tower f. Gmc]

   garrison  n. & v.  --n.  1 the troops stationed in a fortress, town, etc.,
             to defend it.  2 the building occupied by them.  --v.tr.  1
             provide (a place) with or occupy as a garrison.  2 place on
             garrison duty.  Ьgarrison town a town having a permanent
             garrison.  [ME f. OF garison f.  garir defend, furnish f. Gmc]

   garrotte  v. & n.  (also garotte; US garrote) --v.tr.  1 execute or kill
             by strangulation, esp. with an iron or wire collar etc.  2
             throttle in order to rob.  --n.  1 a a Spanish method of
             execution by garrotting.  b the apparatus used for this.  2
             highway robbery in which the victim is throttled.  [F garrotter
             or Sp.  garrotear f.  garrote a cudgel, of unkn. orig.]

   garrulous adj.  1 talkative, esp. on trivial matters.  2 loquacious,
             wordy.  ЬЬgarrulity n.  garrulously adv.  garrulousness n.  [L
             garrulus f.  garrire chatter]

   garter    n. & v.  --n.  1 a band worn to keep a sock or stocking up.  2
             (the Garter) Brit.  a the highest order of English knighthood.
             b the badge of this.  c membership of this.  3 US a suspender
             for a sock or stocking.  --v.tr. fasten (a stocking) or encircle
             (a leg) with a garter.  Ьgarter-belt US a suspender belt.
             Garter King of Arms see King of Arms.  garter-snake any
             water-snake of the genus Thamnophis, native to N. America,
             having lengthwise stripes.  garter stitch a plain knitting
             stitch or pattern, forming ridges in alternate rows.  [ME f. OF
             gartier f.  garet bend of the knee]

   garth     n.  Brit.  1 an open space within cloisters.  2 archaic a a
             close or yard.  b a garden or paddock.  [ME f. ON garthr = OE
             geard YARD(2)]

   gas       n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  gases) 1 any airlike substance which moves
             freely to fill any space available, irrespective of its
             quantity.  2 a such a substance (esp. found naturally or
             extracted from coal) used as a domestic or industrial fuel (also
             attrib.  : gas cooker; gas fire).  b an explosive mixture of
             firedamp with air.  3 nitrous oxide or another gas used as an
             anaesthetic (esp.  in dentistry).  4 a gas or vapour used as a
             poisonous agent to disable an enemy in warfare.  5 US colloq.
             petrol, gasoline.  6 sl. pointless idle talk; boasting.  7 sl.
             an enjoyable, attractive, or amusing thing or person.  --v.
             (gases, gassed, gassing) 1 tr. expose to gas, esp. to kill or
             make unconscious.  2 intr. give off gas.  3 tr. (usu. foll. by
             up) US colloq. fill (the tank of a motor vehicle) with petrol.
             4 intr.  colloq. talk idly or boastfully.  Ьgas chamber an
             airtight chamber that can be filled with poisonous gas to kill
             people or animals.  gas chromatography chromatography employing
             gas as the eluent.  gas-cooled (of a nuclear reactor etc.)
             cooled by a current of gas.  gas fire a domestic fire using gas
             as its fuel.  gas-fired using gas as the fuel.  gas gangrene a
             rapidly spreading gangrene of injured tissue infected by a soil
             bacterium and accompanied by the evolution of gas.  gas mask a
             respirator used as a defence against poison gas.  gas meter an
             apparatus recording the amount of gas consumed.  gas oil a type
             of fuel oil distilled from petroleum and heavier than paraffin
             oil.  gas plant Bot.  fraxinella.  gas-proof impervious to gas.
             gas ring a hollow ring perforated with gas jets, used esp. for
             cooking.  gas station US a filling-station.  gas-tight proof
             against the leakage of gas.  gas turbine a turbine driven by a
             flow of gas or by gas from combustion.  [invented by J. B. van
             Helmont, Belgian chemist d. 1644, after Gk khaos chaos]

   gasbag    n.  1 a container of gas, esp. for holding the gas for a balloon
             or airship.  2 sl. an idle talker.

   Gascon    n.  1 a native of Gascony.  2 (gascon) a braggart.  [F f. L
             Vasco -onis]

   gaseous   adj.  of or like gas.  ЬЬgaseousness n.

   gash(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a long and deep slash, cut, or wound.  2 a a
             cleft such as might be made by a slashing cut.  b the act of
             making such a cut.  --v.tr. make a gash in; cut.  [var. of ME
             garse f. OF garcer scarify, perh. ult. f. Gk kharasso]

   gash(2)   adj.  Brit.  sl.  spare, extra.  [20th-c. Naut. sl.: orig.

   gasholder n.  a large receptacle for storing gas; a gasometer.

   gasify    v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) convert or be converted into gas.
             ЬЬgasification n.

   gasket    n.  1 a sheet or ring of rubber etc., shaped to seal the
             junction of metal surfaces.  2 a small cord securing a furled
             sail to a yard.  Ьblow a gasket sl.  lose one's temper.  [perh.
             f. F garcette thin rope (orig. little girl)]

   gaskin    n.  the hinder part of a horse's thigh.  [perh. erron. f.

   gaslight  n.  1 a jet of burning gas, usu. heating a mantle, to provide
             light.  2 light emanating from this.

   gasman    n.  (pl.  -men) a man who instals or services gas appliances, or
             reads gas meters.

   gasolene  var. of GASOLINE.

   gasoline  n.  (also gasolene) 1 a volatile inflammable liquid distilled
             from petroleum and used for heating and lighting.  2 US petrol.
             [GAS + -OL(2) + -INE(4), -ENE]

   gasometer n.  a large tank in which gas is stored for distribution by
             pipes to users.  [F gazomЉtre f.  gaz gas + -mЉtre -METER]

   gasp      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. catch one's breath with an open mouth as
             in exhaustion or astonishment.  2 intr. (foll. by for) strain to
             obtain by gasping (gasped for air).  3 tr. (often foll. by out)
             utter with gasps.  --n. a convulsive catching of breath.  Ьat
             one's last gasp 1 at the point of death.  2 exhausted.  [ME f.
             ON geispa: cf.  geip idle talk]

   gasper    n.  1 a person who gasps.  2 Brit.  sl. a cigarette.

   gasser    n.  1 colloq. an idle talker.  2 sl. a very attractive or
             impressive person or thing.

   gassy     adj.  (gassier, gassiest) 1 a of or like gas.  b full of gas.  2
             colloq. (of talk etc.) pointless, verbose.  ЬЬgassiness n.

             var. of GASTROPOD.

   gasthaus  n.  a small inn or hotel in German-speaking countries.  [G f.
             Gast GUEST + Haus HOUSE]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a surgical operation in which the whole or part
             of the stomach is removed.  [GASTRO- + -ECTOMY]

   gastric   adj.  of the stomach.  Ьgastric flu a popular name for an
             intestinal disorder of unknown cause.  gastric juice a thin
             clear virtually colourless acid fluid secreted by the stomach
             glands and active in promoting digestion.  [mod.L gastricus f.
             Gk gaster gast(e)ros stomach]

   gastritis n.  inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

   gastro-   comb. form (also gastr- before a vowel) stomach.  [Gk gaster
             gast(e)ros stomach]

             adj.  of or relating to the stomach and intestines.

             n.  Med.  inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

             n.  a gourmet.  [F f.  gastronomie GASTRONOMY]

             n.  the practice, study, or art of eating and drinking well.
             ЬЬgastronomic adj.  gastronomical adj.  gastronomically adv.  [F
             gastronomie f. Gk gastronomia (as GASTRO-, -nomia f.  nomos

   gastropod n.  (also gasteropod) any mollusc of the class Gastropoda that
             moves along by means of a large muscular foot, e.g. a snail,
             slug, etc.  ЬЬgastropodous adj.  [F gast‚ropode f. mod.L
             gasteropoda (as GASTRO-, Gk pous podos foot)]

             n.  an optical instrument used for inspecting the interior of
             the stomach.

   gastrula  n.  (pl.  gastrulae) Zool.  an embryonic stage developing from
             the blastula.  [mod.L f. Gk gaster gast(e)ros belly]

   gasworks  n.  a place where gas is manufactured and processed.

   gat(1)    n.  sl.  a revolver or other firearm.  [abbr. of GATLING]

   gat(2)    archaic past of GET v.

   gate(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a barrier, usu. hinged, used to close an
             opening made for entrance and exit through a wall, fence, etc.
             2 such an opening, esp. in the wall of a city, enclosure, or
             large building.  3 a means of entrance or exit.  4 a numbered
             place of access to aircraft at an airport.  5 a mountain pass.
             6 an arrangement of slots into which the gear lever of a motor
             vehicle moves to engage the required gear.  7 a device for
             holding the frame of a cine film momentarily in position behind
             the lens of a camera or projector.  8 a an electrical signal
             that causes or controls the passage of other signals.  b an
             electrical circuit with an output which depends on the
             combination of several inputs.  9 a device regulating the
             passage of water in a lock etc.  10 a the number of people
             entering by payment at the gates of a sports ground etc.  b (in
             full gate-money) the proceeds taken for admission.  11 sl. the
             mouth.  12 US sl. dismissal.  13 = starting-gate.  --v.tr.  1
             Brit. confine to college or school entirely or after certain
             hours.  2 (as gated adj.) (of a road) having a gate or gates to
             control the movement of traffic or animals.  [OE g‘t, geat, pl.
             gatu, f. Gmc]

   gate(2)   n.  (prec. or prefixed by a name) Brit.  a street (Westgate).
             [ME f. ON gata, f. Gmc]

   gateau    n.  (pl.  gateaus or gateaux) any of various rich cakes, usu.
             containing cream or fruit.  [F gѓteau cake]

             n.  an uninvited guest at a party etc.  ЬЬgatecrash v.tr. &

   gatefold  n.  a page in a book or magazine etc. that folds out to be
             larger than the page-format.

   gatehouse n.  1 a house standing by a gateway, esp. to a large house or
             park.  2 hist. a room over a city gate, often used as a prison.

             n.  1 an attendant at a gate, controlling entrance and exit.  2
             any of several large brown species of butterfly, esp.  Maniola
             tithonus, frequenting hedgerows and woodland.

   gateleg   n. (in full gateleg table) a table with folding flaps supported
             by legs swung open like a gate.  ЬЬgatelegged adj.

   gateman   n.  (pl.  -men) = GATEKEEPER 1.

   gatepost  n.  a post on which a gate is hung or against which it shuts.
             Ьbetween you and me and the gatepost in strict confidence.

   gateway   n.  1 an entrance with or opening for a gate.  2 a frame or
             structure built over a gate.

   gather    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. bring or come together; assemble,
             accumulate.  2 tr. (usu. foll. by up) a bring together from
             scattered places or sources.  b take up together from the
             ground, a surface, etc.  c draw into a smaller compass.  3 tr.
             acquire by gradually collecting; amass.  4 tr.  a pick a
             quantity of (flowers etc.).  b collect (grain etc.) as a
             harvest.  5 tr. (often foll. by that + clause) infer or
             understand.  6 tr. be subjected to or affected by the
             accumulation or increase of (unread books gathering dust; gather
             speed; gather strength).  7 tr. (often foll. by up) summon up
             (one's thoughts, energy, etc.) for a purpose.  8 tr. gain or
             recover (one's breath).  9 tr.  a draw (material, or one's brow)
             together in folds or wrinkles.  b pucker or draw together (part
             of a dress) by running a thread through.  10 intr. come to a
             head; develop a purulent swelling.  --n. (in pl.) a part of a
             garment that is gathered or drawn in.  Ьgather way (of a ship)
             begin to move.  ЬЬgatherer n.  [OE gaderian f. WG]

   gathering n.  1 an assembly or meeting.  2 a purulent swelling.  3 a group
             of leaves taken together in bookbinding.

   Gatling   n. (in full Gatling gun) a machine-gun with clustered barrels.
             [R. J.  Gatling, Amer. inventor d. 1903]

   GATT      abbr.  (also Gatt) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

   gauche    adj.  1 lacking ease or grace; socially awkward.  2 tactless.
             ЬЬgauchely adv.  gaucheness n.  [F, = left-handed, awkward]

   gaucherie n.  1 gauche manners.  2 a gauche action.  [F]

   gaucho    n.  (pl.  -os) a cowboy from the S. American pampas.  [Sp. f.

   gaud      n.  1 a gaudy thing; a showy ornament.  2 (in pl.) showy
             ceremonies.  [perh. through AF f. OF gaudir rejoice f. L

   gaudy(1)  adj.  (gaudier, gaudiest) tastelessly or extravagantly bright or
             showy.  ЬЬgaudily adv.  gaudiness n.  [prob. f.  GAUD + -Y(1)]

   gaudy(2)  n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  an annual feast or entertainment, esp. a
             college dinner for old members etc.  [L gaudium joy or gaude
             imper. of gaudere rejoice]

   gauge     n. & v.  (US gage: see also sense 7) --n.  1 a standard measure
             to which certain things must conform, esp.: a the measure of the
             capacity or contents of a barrel.  b the fineness of a textile.
             c the diameter of a bullet.  d the thickness of sheet metal.  2
             any of various instruments for measuring or determining this, or
             for measuring length, thickness, or other dimensions or
             properties.  3 the distance between a pair of rails or the
             wheels on one axle.  4 the capacity, extent, or scope of
             something.  5 a means of estimating; a criterion or test.  6 a
             graduated instrument measuring the force or quantity of
             rainfall, stream, tide, wind, etc.  7 (usu.  gage) Naut. a
             relative position with respect to the wind.  --v.tr.  1 measure
             exactly (esp. objects of standard size).  2 determine the
             capacity or content of.  3 estimate or form a judgement of (a
             person, temperament, situation, etc.).  4 make uniform; bring to
             a standard size or shape.  Ьgauge pressure the amount by which a
             pressure exceeds that of the atmosphere.  take the gauge of
             estimate.  ЬЬgaugeable adj.  gauger n.  [ME f. ONF gauge,
             gauger, of unkn. orig.]

   Gaul      n.  a native or inhabitant of ancient Gaul.  [Gaul the country
             f. F Gaule f. Gmc]

   gauleiter n.  1 an official governing a district under Nazi rule.  2 a
             local or petty tyrant.  [G f.  Gau administrative district +
             Leiter leader]

   Gaulish   adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to the ancient Gauls.  --n.
             their language.

   Gaullism  n.  1 the principles and policies of Charles de Gaulle, French
             military and political leader (d. 1970), characterized by their
             conservatism, nationalism, and advocacy of centralized
             government.  2 adherence to these.  ЬЬGaullist n.  [F Gaullisme]

   gault     n.  Geol.  1 a series of clay and marl beds between the upper
             and lower greensand in S. England.  2 clay obtained from these
             beds.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gaunt     adj.  1 lean, haggard.  2 grim or desolate in appearance.
             ЬЬgauntly adv.  gauntness n.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

             n.  1 a stout glove with a long loose wrist.  2 hist. an
             armoured glove.  3 the part of a glove covering the wrist.  4 a
             challenge (esp. in throw down the gauntlet).  [ME f. OF gantelet
             dimin. of gant glove f. Gmc]

             n.  (US gantlet) Ьrun the gauntlet 1 be subjected to harsh
             criticism.  2 pass between two rows of people and receive blows
             from them, as a punishment or ordeal.  [earlier gantlope f. Sw.
             gatlopp f.  gata lane, lopp course, assim. to GAUNTLET(1)]

   gauntry   var. of GANTRY 3.

   gaur      n.  a wild species of Indian cattle, Bos gaurus.  [Hind.]

   gauss     n.  (pl. same or gausses) a unit of magnetic induction, equal to
             one ten-thousandth of a tesla.  °Abbr.: G.  [K.  Gauss, Ger.
             mathematician d. 1855]

   Gaussian distribution
             n.  Statistics = normal distribution.  [as GAUSS]

   gauze     n.  1 a thin transparent fabric of silk, cotton, etc.  2 a fine
             mesh of wire etc.  3 a slight haze.  [F gaze f.  Gaza in

   gauzy     adj.  (gauzier, gauziest) 1 like gauze; thin and translucent.  2
             flimsy, delicate.  ЬЬgauzily adv.  gauziness n.

   gave      past of GIVE.

   gavel     n. & v.  --n. a small hammer used by an auctioneer, or for
             calling a meeting to order.  --v.  (gavelled, gavelling; US
             gaveled, gaveling) 1 intr. use a gavel.  2 tr. (often foll. by
             down) end (a meeting) or dismiss (a speaker) by use of a gavel.
             [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gavial    var. of GHARIAL.

   gavotte   n.  1 an old French dance in common time beginning on the third
             beat of the bar.  2 the music for this, or a piece of music in
             the rhythm of this as a movement in a suite.  [F f. Prov.
             gavoto f.  Gavot native of a region in the Alps]

   gawk      v. & n.  --v.intr.  colloq. stare stupidly.  --n. an awkward or
             bashful person.  ЬЬgawkish adj.  [rel. to obs.  gaw gaze f. ON
             g  heed]

   gawky     adj.  (gawkier, gawkiest) awkward or ungainly.  ЬЬgawkily adv.
             gawkiness n.

   gawp      v.intr.  Brit.  colloq.  stare stupidly or obtrusively.
             ЬЬgawper n.  [earlier gaup, galp f. ME galpen yawn, rel. to

   gay       adj. & n.  --adj.  1 light-hearted and carefree; mirthful.  2
             characterized by cheerfulness or pleasure (a gay life).  3
             brightly coloured; showy, brilliant (a gay scarf).  4 colloq.  a
             homosexual.  b intended for or used by homosexuals (a gay bar).
             °Generally informal in use, but favoured by homosexuals with
             ref.  to themselves.  5 colloq. dissolute, immoral.  --n.
             colloq. a homosexual, esp. male.  ЬGay Liberation the advocacy
             of homosexuals' freedom from social discrimination.  ЬЬgayness
             n.  [ME f. OF gai, of unkn. orig.]

   gayal     n.  a wild species of Indian cattle, Bos fontalis.  [Hindi]

   gayety    US var. of GAIETY.

   gazania   n.  any herbaceous plant of the genus Gazania, with showy yellow
             or orange daisy-shaped flowers.  [18th c.: f. Theodore of Gaza,
             Greek scholar d. 1478]

   gaze      v. & n.  --v.intr. (foll. by at, into, on, upon, etc.) look
             fixedly.  --n. a fixed or intent look.  ЬЬgazer n.  [ME: orig.
             unkn.; cf. obs.  gaw GAWK]

   gazebo    n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) a small building or structure such as a
             summer-house or turret, designed to give a wide view.  [perh.
             joc. f.  GAZE, in imitation of L futures in -ebo: cf.  LAVABO]

   gazelle   n.  any of various small graceful soft-eyed antelopes of Asia or
             Africa, esp. of the genus Gazella.  [F prob. f. Sp.  gacela f.
             Arab.  gazal]

   gazette   n. & v.  --n.  1 a newspaper, esp. the official one of an
             organization or institution (University Gazette).  2 hist. a
             news-sheet; a periodical publication giving current events.  3
             Brit. an official journal with a list of government
             appointments, bankruptcies, and other public notices (London
             Gazette).  --v.tr.  Brit. announce or publish in an official
             gazette.  [F f. It.  gazzetta f.  gazeta, a Venetian small coin]

   gazetteer n.  a geographical index or dictionary.  [earlier = journalist,
             for whom such an index was provided: f.  F gazettier f. It.
             gazzettiere (as GAZETTE)]

   gazpacho  n.  (pl.  -os) a Spanish soup made with oil, garlic, onions,
             etc., and served cold.  [Sp.]

   gazump    v.tr.  (also absol.) Brit.  colloq.  1 (of a seller) raise the
             price of a property after having accepted an offer by (an
             intending buyer).  2 swindle.  ЬЬgazumper n.  [20th c.: orig.

   gazunder  v.tr.  (also absol.) Brit.  colloq.  (of a buyer) lower the
             amount of an offer made to (the seller) for a property, esp.
             just before exchange of contracts.  [GAZUMP + UNDER]

3.0 GB...

   GB        abbr.  Great Britain.

   GBE       abbr.  (in the UK) Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross (of the Order)
             of the British Empire.

   GBH       abbr.  grievous bodily harm.

4.0 GC...

   GC        abbr.  (in the UK) George Cross.

   GCB       abbr.  (in the UK) Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross (of the Order)
             of the Bath.

   GCE       abbr.  (in the UK) General Certificate of Education.

   GCHQ      abbr.  (in the UK) Government Communications Headquarters.

   GCMG      abbr.  (in the UK) Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross (of the Order)
             of St Michael & St George.

   GCSE      abbr.  (in the UK) General Certificate of Secondary Education.

   GCVO      abbr.  (in the UK) Knight (or Dame) Grand Cross of the Royal
             Victorian Order.

5.0 Gd...

   Gd        symb.  Chem.  the element gadolinium.

   Gdn.      abbr.  Garden.

   Gdns.     abbr.  Gardens.

   GDP       abbr.  gross domestic product.

   GDR       abbr.  German Democratic Republic.

6.0 Ge...

   Ge        symb.  Chem.  the element germanium.

   gear      n. & v.  --n.  1 (often in pl.) a a set of toothed wheels that
             work together to transmit and control motion from an engine,
             esp. to the road wheels of a vehicle.  b a mechanism for doing
             this.  2 a particular function or state of adjustment of engaged
             gears (low gear; second gear).  3 a mechanism of wheels, levers,
             etc., usu. for a special purpose (winding-gear).  4 a particular
             apparatus or mechanism, as specified (landing-gear).  5
             equipment or tackle for a special purpose.  6 colloq. clothing,
             esp. when modern or fashionable.  7 goods; household utensils.
             8 rigging.  9 a harness for a draught animal.  --v.  1 tr.
             (foll. by to) adjust or adapt to suit a special purpose or need.
             2 tr. (often foll. by up) equip with gears.  3 tr. (foll. by up)
             make ready or prepared.  4 tr. put (machinery) in gear.  5 intr.
             a be in gear.  b (foll. by with) work smoothly with.  Ьbe geared
             (or all geared) up (often foll. by for, or to + infin.)  colloq.
             be ready or enthusiastic.  first (or bottom) gear the lowest
             gear in a series.  gear down (or up) provide with a low (or
             high) gear.  gear lever (or shift) a lever used to engage or
             change gear, esp. in a motor vehicle.  high (or low) gear a gear
             such that the driven end of a transmission revolves faster (or
             slower) than the driving end.  in gear with a gear engaged.  out
             of gear 1 with no gear engaged.  2 out of order.  top gear the
             highest gear in a series.  [ME f. ON gervi f. Gmc]

   gearbox   n.  1 the casing that encloses a set of gears.  2 a set of gears
             with its casing, esp. in a motor vehicle.

   gearing   n.  1 a set or arrangement of gears in a machine.  2 Brit.
             Commerce a the allocation of part of a dividend to preferred
             recipients.  b the amount of this part.

   gearwheel n.  1 a toothed wheel in a set of gears.  2 (in a bicycle) the
             cog-wheel driven directly by the chain.

   gecko     n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) any of various house lizards found in
             warm climates, with adhesive feet for climbing vertical
             surfaces.  [Malay chichak etc., imit. of its cry]

   gee(1)    int.  (also gee whiz) US colloq.  a mild expression of surprise,
             discovery, etc.  [perh. abbr. of JESUS]

   gee(2)    int.  (often foll. by up) a command to a horse etc., esp. to go
             faster.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gee(3)    n.  US sl. (usu. in pl.) a thousand dollars.  [the letter G, as
             initial of GRAND]

   gee-gee   n.  Brit.  colloq.  a horse.  [orig. a child's word, f.  GEE(2)]

   geek      n.  Austral.  sl.  a look.  [E dial.]

   geese     pl. of GOOSE.

             var. of G-STRING 2.

   geezer    n.  sl.  a person, esp. an old man.  [dial. pronunc. of guiser

   Gehenna   n.  1 (in the New Testament) hell.  2 a place of burning,
             torment, or misery.  [eccl.L f. Gk f. Heb.  g€' hinnom hell,
             orig. the valley of Hinnom near Jerusalem, where children were

   Geiger counter
             n.  a device for measuring radioactivity by detecting and
             counting ionizing particles.  [H.  Geiger, Ger. physicist d.

   geisha    n.  (pl. same or geishas) 1 a Japanese hostess trained in
             entertaining men with dance and song.  2 a Japanese prostitute.

   Geissler tube
             n.  a sealed tube of glass or quartz with a central
             constriction, filled with vapour for the production of a
             luminous electrical discharge.  [H.  Geissler, Ger. mechanic d.

   gel       n. & v.  --n. a semi-solid colloidal suspension or jelly, of a
             solid dispersed in a liquid.  --v.intr.  (gelled, gelling) form
             a gel.  ЬЬgelation n.  [abbr. of GELATIN]

   gelatin   n.  (also gelatine) a virtually colourless tasteless transparent
             water-soluble protein derived from collagen and used in food
             preparation, photography, etc.  Ьgelatin paper a paper coated
             with sensitized gelatin for photography.  ЬЬgelatinize v.tr. &
             intr.  (also -ise).  gelatinization n.  [F g‚latine f. It.
             gelatina f.  gelata JELLY]

             adj.  1 of or like gelatin.  2 of a jelly-like consistency.
             ЬЬgelatinously adv.

   gelation  n.  solidification by freezing.  [L gelatio f.  gelare freeze]

   geld      v.tr.  1 deprive (usu. a male animal) of the ability to
             reproduce.  2 castrate or spay; excise the testicles or ovaries
             of.  [ME f. ON gelda f.  geldr barren f. Gmc]

   gelding   n.  a gelded animal, esp. a male horse.  [ME f. ON geldingr: see

   gelid     adj.  1 icy, ice-cold.  2 chilly, cool.  [L gelidus f.  gelu

   gelignite n.  an explosive made from nitroglycerine, cellulose nitrate,
             sodium nitrate, and wood pulp.  [GELATIN + L ignis fire +

   gelly     n.  Brit.  sl.  gelignite.  [abbr.]

   gem       n. & v.  --n.  1 a precious stone, esp. when cut and polished or
             engraved.  2 an object or person of great beauty or worth.
             --v.tr.  (gemmed, gemming) adorn with or as with gems.
             ЬЬgemlike adj.  gemmy adj.  [ME f. OF gemme f. L gemma bud,

   Gemara    n.  a rabbinical commentary on the Mishnah, forming the second
             part of the Talmud.  [Aram.  gemarѓ completion]

   geminal   adj.  Chem.  (of molecules) having two functional groups
             attached to the same atom.  ЬЬgeminally adv.  [as GEMINATE +

   geminate  adj. & v.  --adj.  combined in pairs.  --v.tr.  1 double,
             repeat.  2 arrange in pairs.  ЬЬgemination n.  [L geminatus past
             part. of geminare f.  geminus twin]

   Gemini    n.  1 a constellation, traditionally regarded as contained in
             the figures of twins.  2 a the third sign of the zodiac (the
             Twins).  b a person born when the sun is in this sign.
             ЬЬGeminean n. & adj.  [ME f. L, = twins]

   gemma     n.  (pl.  gemmae) a small cellular body in cryptogams that
             separates from the mother-plant and starts a new one; an asexual
             spore.  [L: see GEM]

   gemmation n.  reproduction by gemmae.  [F f.  gemmer to bud, gemme bud]

             adj.  1 producing precious stones.  2 bearing buds.  [L gemmifer
             (as GEMMA, -FEROUS)]

             adj.  of or propagating by gemmation.  [mod.L gemmiparus f. L
             gemma bud + parere bring forth]

   gemmology n.  the study of gems.  ЬЬgemmologist n.  [L gemma gem + -LOGY]

   gemmule   n.  an encysted embryonic cell-cluster in sponges.  [F gemmule
             or L gemmula little bud (as GEM)]

   gemstone  n.  a precious stone used as a gem.

   gemЃtlich adj.  1 pleasant and comfortable.  2 genial, agreeable.  [G]

   Gen.      abbr.  1 General.  2 Genesis (Old Testament).

   gen       n. & v.  Brit.  sl.  --n. information.  --v.tr. & intr.
             (genned, genning) (foll. by up) provide with or obtain
             information.  [perh. f. first syll. of general information]

   -gen      comb. form 1 Chem. that which produces (hydrogen; antigen).  2
             Bot. growth (endogen; exogen; acrogen).  [F -gЉne f. Gk -genes
             -born, of a specified kind f.  gen- root of gignomai be born,

   gendarme  n.  1 a soldier, mounted or on foot, employed in police duties
             esp. in France.  2 a rock-tower on a mountain, occupying and
             blocking an ar€te.  [F f.  gens d'armes men of arms]

             n.  1 a force of gendarmes.  2 the headquarters of such a force.

   gender    n.  1 a the grammatical classification of nouns and related
             words, roughly corresponding to the two sexes and sexlessness.
             b each of the classes of nouns (see MASCULINE, FEMININE, NEUTER,
             COMMON adj.  6).  2 (of nouns and related words) the property of
             belonging to such a class.  3 colloq. a person's sex.  [ME f. OF
             gendre ult. f. L GENUS]

   gene      n.  a unit of heredity composed of DNA or RNA and forming part
             of a chromosome etc., that determines a particular
             characteristic of an individual.  [G Gen: see -GEN]

             adj.  1 of or concerning genealogy.  2 tracing family descent.
             Ьgenealogical tree a chart like an inverted branching tree
             showing the descent of a family or of an animal species.
             ЬЬgenealogically adv.  [F g‚n‚alogique f. Gk genealogikos (as

   genealogy n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a line of descent traced continuously from
             an ancestor.  b an account or exposition of this.  2 the study
             and investigation of lines of descent.  3 a plant's or animal's
             line of development from earlier forms.  ЬЬgenealogist n.
             genealogize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).  [ME f. OF genealogie f.
             LL genealogia f. Gk genealogia f.  genea race]

   genera    pl. of GENUS.

   general   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a completely or almost universal.  b
             including or affecting all or nearly all parts or cases of
             things.  2 prevalent, widespread, usual.  3 not partial,
             particular, local, or sectional.  4 not limited in application;
             relating to whole classes or all cases.  5 including points
             common to the individuals of a class and neglecting the
             differences (a general term).  6 not restricted or specialized
             (general knowledge).  7 a roughly corresponding or adequate.  b
             sufficient for practical purposes.  8 not detailed (a general
             resemblance; a general idea).  9 vague, indefinite (spoke only
             in general terms).  10 chief or principal; having overall
             authority (general manager; Secretary-General).  --n.  1 a an
             army officer ranking next below Field Marshal or above
             lieutenant-general.  b US = lieutenant-general, major-general.
             2 a commander of an army.  3 a tactician or strategist of
             specified merit (a great general).  4 the head of a religious
             order, e.g. of the Jesuits or Dominicans or the Salvation Army.
             5 (prec. by the) archaic the public.  Ьas a general rule in most
             cases.  General American a form of US speech not markedly
             dialectal or regional.  General Certificate of Education 1 an
             examination set esp. for secondary-school pupils at advanced
             level in England and Wales.  2 the certificate gained by passing
             it.  General Certificate of Secondary Education an examination
             replacing and combining the GCE ordinary level and CSE
             examinations.  general delivery US the delivery of letters to
             callers at a post office.  general election the election of
             representatives to a legislature (esp. in the UK to the House of
             Commons) from constituencies throughout the country.  general
             headquarters the headquarters of a military commander.  general
             meeting a meeting open to all the members of a society etc.
             general of the army (or air force) US the officer of the highest
             rank in the army or air force.  general practice the work of a
             general practitioner.  general practitioner a doctor working in
             the community and treating cases of all kinds in the first
             instance, as distinct from a consultant or specialist.  general
             staff the staff assisting a military commander in planning and
             administration.  general strike a strike of workers in all or
             most trades.  General Synod the highest governing body in the
             Church of England.  in general 1 as a normal rule; usually.  2
             for the most part.  ЬЬgeneralness n.  [ME f. OF f. L generalis
             (as GENUS)]

             n.  (pl.  -os) the commander of a combined military force
             consisting of army, navy, and air-force units.  [It., superl. of
             generale GENERAL]

             n.  a person competent in several different fields or activities
             (opp.  SPECIALIST).

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a statement or principle etc. having general
             validity or force.  2 applicability to a whole class of
             instances.  3 vagueness; lack of detail.  4 the state of being
             general.  5 (foll. by of) the main body or majority.  [F
             g‚n‚ralit‚ f. LL generalitas -tatis (as GENERAL)]

             n.  (also -isation) 1 a general notion or proposition obtained
             by inference from (esp. limited or inadequate) particular cases.
             2 the act or an instance of generalizing.  [F g‚n‚ralisation (as

             v.  (also -ise) 1 intr.  a speak in general or indefinite terms.
             b form general principles or notions.  2 tr. reduce to a general
             statement, principle, or notion.  3 tr.  a give a general
             character to.  b call by a general name.  4 tr. infer (a law or
             conclusion) by induction.  5 tr.  Math. & Philos. express in a
             general form; extend the application of.  6 tr. (in painting)
             render only the typical characteristics of.  7 tr. bring into
             general use.  ЬЬgeneralizable adj.  generalizability n.
             generalizer n.  [F g‚n‚raliser (as GENERAL)]

   generally adv.  1 usually; in most cases.  2 in a general sense; without
             regard to particulars or exceptions (generally speaking).  3 for
             the most part; extensively (not generally known).  4 in most
             respects (they were generally well-behaved).

             n.  1 the art or practice of exercising military command.  2
             military skill; strategy.  3 skilful management; tact,

   generate  v.tr.  1 bring into existence; produce, evolve.  2 produce
             (electricity).  3 Math. (of a point or line or surface conceived
             as moving) make (a line or surface or solid).  4 Math. &
             Linguistics produce (a set or sequence of items) by the
             formulation and application of precise criteria.  ЬЬgenerable
             adj.  [L generare beget (as GENUS)]

             n.  1 all the people born at a particular time, regarded
             collectively (my generation; the rising generation).  2 a single
             step in descent or pedigree (have known them for three
             generations).  3 a stage in (esp. technological) development
             (fourth-generation computers).  4 the average time in which
             children are ready to take the place of their parents (usu.
             reckoned at about 30 years).  5 production by natural or
             artificial process, esp. the production of electricity or heat.
             6 a procreation; the propagation of species.  b the act of
             begetting or being begotten.  Ьgeneration gap differences of
             outlook or opinion between those of different generations.
             ЬЬgenerational adj.  [ME f. OF f. L generatio -onis (as

             adj.  1 of or concerning procreation.  2 able to produce,
             productive.  Ьgenerative grammar a set of rules whereby
             permissible sentences may be generated from the elements of a
             language.  [ME f. OF generatif or LL generativus (as GENERATE)]

   generator n.  1 a machine for converting mechanical into electrical
             energy; a dynamo.  2 an apparatus for producing gas, steam, etc.
             3 a person who generates an idea etc.; an originator.

   generic   adj.  1 characteristic of or relating to a class; general, not
             specific or special.  2 Biol. characteristic of or belonging to
             a genus.  3 (of goods, esp. a drug) having no brand name; not
             protected by a registered trade mark.  ЬЬgenerically adv.  [F
             g‚n‚rique f. L GENUS]

   generous  adj.  1 giving or given freely.  2 magnanimous, noble-minded,
             unprejudiced.  3 a ample, abundant, copious (a generous
             portion).  b (of wine) rich and full.  ЬЬgenerosity n.
             generously adv.  generousness n.  [OF genereus f. L generosus
             noble, magnanimous (as GENUS)]

   genesis   n.  1 the origin, or mode of formation or generation, of a
             thing.  2 (Genesis) the first book of the Old Testament, with an
             account of the creation of the world.  [L f. Gk f.  gen- be
             produced, root of gignomai become]

   genet     n.  (also genette) 1 any catlike mammal of the genus Genetta,
             native to Africa and S. Europe, with spotted fur and a long
             ringed bushy tail.  2 the fur of the genet.  [ME f. OF genete f.
             Arab.  jarnait]

   genetic   adj.  1 of genetics or genes; inherited.  2 of, in, or
             concerning origin; causal.  Ьgenetic code Biochem.  the means by
             which genetic information is stored as sequences of nucleotide
             bases in the chromosomal DNA.  genetic engineering the
             deliberate modification of the characters of an organism by the
             manipulation of DNA and the transformation of certain genes.
             genetic fingerprinting (or profiling) the analysis of
             characteristic patterns in DNA as a means of identifying
             individuals.  ЬЬgenetically adv.  [GENESIS after antithetic]

   genetics  n.pl.  (treated as sing.) the study of heredity and the
             variation of inherited characteristics.  ЬЬgeneticist n.

   genette   var. of GENET.

   geneva    n.  Hollands gin.  [Du.  genever f. OF genevre f. L juniperus,
             with assim. to the place name Geneva]

   Geneva bands
             n.pl.  two white cloth strips attached to the collar of some
             Protestants' clerical dress.  [Geneva in Switzerland, where
             orig. worn by Calvinists]

   Geneva Convention
             n.  an international agreement first made at Geneva in 1864 and
             later revised, governing the status and treatment of captured
             and wounded military personnel in wartime.

   genial(1) adj.  1 jovial, sociable, kindly, cheerful.  2 (of the climate)
             mild and warm; conducive to growth.  3 cheering, enlivening.
             ЬЬgeniality n.  genially adv.  [L genialis (as GENIUS)]

   genial(2) adj.  Anat.  of or relating to the chin.  [Gk geneion chin f.
             genus jaw]

   genic     adj.  of or relating to genes.

   -genic    comb. form forming adjectives meaning: 1 producing
             (carcinogenic; pathogenic).  2 well suited to (photogenic;
             radiogenic).  3 produced by (iatrogenic).  ЬЬ-genically suffix
             forming adverbs.  [-GEN + -IC]

   genie     n.  (pl.  usu.  genii) a jinnee, goblin, or familiar spirit of
             Arabian folklore.  [F g‚nie f. L GENIUS: cf.  JINNEE]

   genii     pl. of GENIE, GENIUS.

   genista   n.  any almost leafless shrub of the genus Genista, with a
             profusion of yellow pea-shaped flowers, e.g. dyer's broom.  [L]

   genital   adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to animal reproduction.  --n.
             (in pl.) the external reproductive organs.  [OF g‚nital or L
             genitalis f.  gignere genit- beget]

   genitalia n.pl.  the genitals.  [L, neut. pl. of genitalis: see GENITAL]

   genitive  n. & adj.  Gram.  --n. the case of nouns and pronouns (and words
             in grammatical agreement with them) corresponding to of, from,
             and other prepositions and indicating possession or close
             association.  --adj. of or in the genitive.  ЬЬgenitival adj.
             genitivally adv.  [ME f. OF genetif, -ive or L genitivus f.
             gignere genit- beget]

   genito-   comb. form genital.

             adj.  of the genital and urinary organs.

   genius    n.  (pl.  geniuses or genii) 1 (pl.  geniuses) a an exceptional
             intellectual or creative power or other natural ability or
             tendency.  b a person having this.  2 the tutelary spirit of a
             person, place, institution, etc.  3 a person or spirit regarded
             as powerfully influencing a person for good or evil.  4 the
             prevalent feeling or associations etc. of a nation, age, etc.
             [L (in sense 2) f. the root of gignere beget]

   genizah   n.  a room attached to a synagogue and housing damaged,
             discarded, or heretical books etc., and sacred relics.  [Heb.
             genizah, lit. hiding-place f.  ganaz hide, set aside]

   Genoa cake
             n.  a rich fruit cake with almonds on top.  [Genoa in Italy]

   Genoa jib n.  a large jib or foresail used esp. on yachts.

   genocide  n.  the deliberate extermination of a people or nation.
             ЬЬgenocidal adj.  [Gk genos race + -CIDE]

   genome    n.  1 the haploid set of chromosomes of an organism.  2 the
             genetic material of an organism.  [GENE + CHROMOSOME]

   genotype  n.  Biol.  the genetic constitution of an individual.
             ЬЬgenotypic adj.  [G Genotypus (as GENE, TYPE)]

   -genous   comb. form forming adjectives meaning 'produced' (endogenous).

   genre     n.  1 a kind or style, esp. of art or literature (e.g. novel,
             drama, satire).  2 (in full genre painting) the painting of
             scenes from ordinary life.  [F, = a kind (as GENDER)]

   gens      n.  (pl.  gentes) 1 Rom.Hist. a group of families sharing a name
             and claiming a common origin.  2 Anthropol. a number of people
             sharing descent through the male line.  [L, f. the root of
             gignere beget]

   gent      n.  colloq.  (often joc.) 1 a gentleman.  2 (in pl.) (in shop
             titles) men (gents' outfitters).  3 (the Gents) Brit.  colloq. a
             men's public lavatory.  [abbr. of GENTLEMAN]

   genteel   adj.  1 affectedly or ostentatiously refined or stylish.  2
             often iron. of or appropriate to the upper classes.  ЬЬgenteelly
             adv.  genteelness n.  [earlier gentile, readoption of F gentil

             n.  a word used because it is thought to be less vulgar than the
             commoner word (e.g.  perspire for sweat).

   gentes    pl. of GENS.

   gentian   n.  1 any plant of the genus Gentiana or Gentianella, found esp.
             in mountainous regions, and having usu. vivid blue flowers.  2
             (in full gentian bitter) a liquor extracted from the root of the
             gentian.  Ьgentian violet a violet dye used as an antiseptic,
             esp. in the treatment of burns.  [OE f. L gentiana f.  Gentius
             king of Illyria]

   gentile   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (Gentile) not Jewish; heathen.  2 of or
             relating to a nation or tribe.  3 Gram. (of a word) indicating
             nationality.  --n.  1 (Gentile) a person who is not Jewish.  2
             Gram. a word indicating nationality.  [ME f. L gentilis f.  gens
             gentis family: see GENS]

   gentility n.  1 social superiority.  2 good manners; habits associated
             with the nobility.  3 people of noble birth.  [ME f. OF
             gentilit‚ (as GENTLE)]

   gentle    adj., v., & n.  --adj.  (gentler, gentlest) 1 not rough; mild or
             kind, esp. in temperament.  2 moderate; not severe or drastic (a
             gentle rebuke; a gentle breeze).  3 (of birth, pursuits, etc.)
             honourable, of or fit for people of good social position.  4
             quiet; requiring patience (gentle art).  5 archaic generous,
             courteous.  --v.tr.  1 make gentle or docile.  2 handle (a horse
             etc.) firmly but gently.  --n. a maggot, the larva of the
             meat-fly or bluebottle used as fishing-bait.  ЬЬgentleness n.
             gently adv.  [ME f. OF gentil f. L gentilis: see GENTILE]

             n.pl.  literary people of good family.

   gentleman n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a man (in polite or formal use).  2 a
             chivalrous or well-bred man.  3 a man of good social position or
             of wealth and leisure (country gentleman).  4 a man of gentle
             birth attached to a royal household (gentleman in waiting).  5
             (in pl.  as a form of address) a male audience or the male part
             of an audience.  Ьgentleman-at-arms one of a sovereign's
             bodyguard.  gentleman farmer a country gentleman who farms.
             gentleman's (or -men's) agreement one which is binding in honour
             but not legally enforceable.  [GENTLE + MAN after OF gentilz

             adj.  like a gentleman in looks or behaviour; befitting a
             gentleman.  ЬЬgentlemanliness n.

             n.  (pl.  -women) archaic a woman of good birth or breeding.

   gentoo    n.  a penguin, Pygoscelis papua, esp. abundant in the Falkland
             Islands.  [perh. f. Anglo-Ind.  Gentoo = Hindu, f. Port.  gentio

             n.  the social advancement of an inner urban area by the arrival
             of affluent middle-class residents.  ЬЬgentrify v.tr.  (-ies,

   gentry    n.pl.  1 the people next below the nobility in position and
             birth.  2 derog. people (these gentry).  [prob. f. obs.
             gentrice f. OF genterise var. of gentelise nobility f.  gentil

   genuflect v.intr.  bend the knee, esp. in worship or as a sign of respect.
             ЬЬgenuflection n.  (also genuflexion).  genuflector n.  [eccl.L
             genuflectere genuflex- f. L genu the knee + flectere bend]

   genuine   adj.  1 really coming from its stated, advertised, or reputed
             source.  2 properly so called; not sham.  3 pure-bred.
             ЬЬgenuinely adv.  genuineness n.  [L genuinus f.  genu knee,
             with ref. to a father's acknowledging a new-born child by
             placing it on his knee: later associated with GENUS]

   genus     n.  (pl.  genera) 1 Biol. a taxonomic grouping of organisms
             having common characteristics distinct from those of other
             genera, usu. containing several or many species and being one of
             a series constituting a taxonomic family.  2 a kind or class
             having common characteristics.  3 Logic kinds of things
             including subordinate kinds or species.  [L genus -eris birth,
             race, stock]

   -geny     comb. form forming nouns meaning 'mode of production or
             development of' (anthropogeny; ontogeny; pathogeny).  [F -g‚nie
             (as -GEN, -Y(3))]

   Geo.      abbr.  George.

   geo-      comb. form earth.  [Gk geo- f.  ge earth]

   geobotany n.  the study of the geographical distribution of plants.
             ЬЬgeobotanist n.

             adj.  1 considered as viewed from the centre of the earth.  2
             having or representing the earth as the centre; not
             heliocentric.  Ьgeocentric latitude the latitude at which a
             planet would appear if viewed from the centre of the earth.
             ЬЬgeocentrically adv.

             n.  the chemistry of the earth and its rocks, minerals, etc.
             ЬЬgeochemical adj.  geochemist n.

             n.  1 the study and measurement of geological time by means of
             geological events.  2 the ordering of geological events.
             ЬЬgeochronological adj.  geochronologist n.

   geode     n.  1 a small cavity lined with crystals or other mineral
             matter.  2 a rock containing such a cavity.  ЬЬgeodic adj.  [L
             geodes f. Gk geodes earthy f.  ge earth]

   geodesic  adj.  (also geodetic) 1 of or relating to geodesy.  2 of,
             involving, or consisting of a geodesic line.  Ьgeodesic dome a
             dome constructed of short struts along geodesic lines.  geodesic
             line the shortest possible line between two points on a curved

   geodesy   n.  the branch of mathematics dealing with the figures and areas
             of the earth or large portions of it.  ЬЬgeodesist n.  [mod.L f.
             Gk geodaisia (as GEO-, daio divide)]

   geodetic  var. of GEODESIC.

             var. of GEOGRAPHICAL.

             adj.  (also geographic) of or relating to geography.
             Ьgeographical latitude the angle made with the plane of the
             equator by a perpendicular to the earth's surface at any point.
             geographical mile a distance equal to one minute of longitude or
             latitude at the equator (about 1850 metres).  ЬЬgeographically
             adv.  [geographic f. F g‚ographique or LL geographicus f. Gk
             geographikos (as GEO-, -GRAPHIC)]

   geography n.  1 the study of the earth's physical features, resources, and
             climate, and the physical aspects of its population.  2 the main
             physical features of an area.  3 the layout or arrangement of
             rooms in a building.  ЬЬgeographer n.  [F g‚ographie or L
             geographia f. Gk geographia (as GEO-, -GRAPHY)]

   geoid     n.  1 the shape of the earth.  2 a shape formed by the mean sea
             level and its imagined extension under land areas.  3 an oblate
             spheroid.  [Gk geoeides (as GEO-, -OID)]

   geology   n.  1 the science of the earth, including the composition,
             structure, and origin of its rocks.  2 this science applied to
             any other planet or celestial body.  3 the geological features
             of a district.  ЬЬgeologic adj.  geological adj.  geologically
             adv.  geologist n.  geologize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).
             [mod.L geologia (as GEO-, -LOGY)]

             n.  the study of the magnetic properties of the earth.
             ЬЬgeomagnetic adj.  geomagnetically adv.

   geomancy  n.  divination from the configuration of a handful of earth or
             random dots.  ЬЬgeomantic adj.

   geometer  n.  1 a person skilled in geometry.  2 any moth, esp. of the
             family Geometridae, having twiglike larvae which move in a
             looping fashion, seeming to measure the ground.  [ME f. LL
             geometra f. L geometres f. Gk geometres (as GEO-, metres

   geometric adj.  (also geometrical) 1 of, according to, or like geometry.
             2 (of a design, architectural feature, etc.) characterized by or
             decorated with regular lines and shapes.  Ьgeometric mean the
             central number in a geometric progression, also calculable as
             the nth root of a product of n numbers (as 9 from 3 and 27).
             geometric progression a progression of numbers with a constant
             ratio between each number and the one before (as 1, 3, 9, 27,
             81).  geometric tracery tracery with openings of geometric form.
             ЬЬgeometrically adv.  [F g‚ometrique f. L geometricus f. Gk
             geometrikos (as GEOMETER)]

   geometry  n.  1 the branch of mathematics concerned with the properties
             and relations of points, lines, surfaces, and solids.  2 the
             relative arrangement of objects or parts.  ЬЬgeometrician n.
             [ME f. OF geometrie f. L geometria f. Gk (as GEO-, -METRY)]

             n.  the study of the physical features of the surface of the
             earth and their relation to its geological structures.
             ЬЬgeomorphological adj.  geomorphologist n.

   geophagy  n.  the practice of eating earth.  [GEO- + Gk phago eat]

             n.  the physics of the earth.  ЬЬgeophysical adj.  geophysicist

             n.  1 the politics of a country as determined by its
             geographical features.  2 the study of this.  ЬЬgeopolitical
             adj.  geopolitically adv.  geopolitician n.

   Geordie   n.  Brit.  colloq.  a native of Tyneside.  [GEORGE + -IE]

   George    n.  Brit.  sl.  the automatic pilot of an aircraft.  [the name

   George Cross
             n.  (also George Medal) (in the UK) decorations for bravery
             awarded esp. to civilians, instituted in 1940 by King George VI.

   georgette n.  a thin silk or cr€pe dress-material.  [Georgette de la
             Plante, Fr. dressmaker]

             adj.  1 of or characteristic of the time of Kings George I-IV
             (1714-1830).  2 of or characteristic of the time of Kings George
             V and VI (1910-52), esp. of the literature of 1910-20.

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Georgia in the Caucasus
             (USSR).  --n.  1 a native of Georgia; a person of Georgian
             descent.  2 the language of Georgia.

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Georgia in the US.  --n. a
             native of Georgia.

   geosphere n.  1 the solid surface of the earth.  2 any of the almost
             spherical concentric regions of the earth and its atmosphere.

             adj.  Electronics (of an artificial satellite of the earth)
             moving in such an orbit as to remain above the same point on the
             earth's surface (see also GEOSYNCHRONOUS).

             adj.  Meteorol.  depending upon the rotation of the earth.
             [GEO- + Gk strophe a turning f.  strepho to turn]

             adj.  (of an artificial satellite of the earth) moving in an
             orbit equal to the earth's period of rotation (see also

             adj.  relating to, originating from, or produced by the internal
             heat of the earth.

             n.  plant growth in relation to gravity.  Ьnegative geotropism
             the tendency of stems etc. to grow away from the centre of the
             earth.  positive geotropism the tendency of roots to grow
             towards the centre of the earth.  ЬЬgeotropic adj.  [GEO- + Gk
             tropikos f.  trope a turning f.  trepo to turn]

   Ger.      abbr.  German.

   geranium  n.  1 any herb or shrub of the genus Geranium bearing fruit
             shaped like the bill of a crane, e.g. cranesbill.  2 (in general
             use) a cultivated pelargonium.  3 the colour of the scarlet
             geranium.  [L f. Gk geranion f.  geranos crane]

   gerbera   n.  any composite plant of the genus Gerbera of Africa or Asia,
             esp. the Transvaal daisy.  [T.  Gerber, Ger. naturalist d. 1743]

   gerbil    n.  (also jerbil) a mouselike desert rodent of the subfamily
             Gerbillinae, with long hind legs.  [F gerbille f. mod.L
             gerbillus dimin. of gerbo JERBOA]

   gerenuk   n.  an antelope, Litocranius walleri, native to E. Africa, with
             a very long neck and small head.  [Somali]

   gerfalcon var. of GYRFALCON.

   geriatric adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to old people.  2 colloq.
             old, outdated.  --n.  1 an old person, esp. one receiving
             special care.  2 colloq. a person or thing considered as
             relatively old or outdated.  [Gk geras old age + iatros doctor]

             n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) a branch of medicine or social
             science dealing with the health and care of old people.
             ЬЬgeriatrician n.

   germ      n.  1 a micro-organism, esp. one which causes disease.  2 a a
             portion of an organism capable of developing into a new one; the
             rudiment of an animal or plant.  b an embryo of a seed (wheat
             germ).  3 an original idea etc. from which something may
             develop; an elementary principle.  Ьgerm-cell 1 a cell
             containing half the number of chromosomes of a somatic cell and
             able to unite with one from the opposite sex to form a new
             individual; a gamete.  2 any embryonic cell with the potential
             of developing into a gamete.  germ warfare the systematic
             spreading of micro-organisms to cause disease in an enemy
             population.  in germ not yet developed.  ЬЬgermy adj.  [F germe
             f. L germen germinis sprout]

   German    n. & adj.  --n.  1 a native or national of Germany; a person of
             German descent.  2 the language of Germany, also used in Austria
             and Switzerland.  --adj. of or relating to Germany or its people
             or language.  ЬGerman measles a contagious disease, rubella,
             with symptoms like mild measles.  German shepherd (or shepherd
             dog) an Alsatian.  German silver a white alloy of nickel, zinc,
             and copper.  High German a literary and cultured form of German.
             Low German German dialects other than High German.  [L Germanus
             with ref. to related peoples of Central and N. Europe, a name
             perh. given by Celts to their neighbours: cf. OIr.  gair

   german    adj.  (placed after brother, sister, or cousin) 1 having both
             parents the same (brother german).  2 having both grandparents
             the same on one side (cousin german).  3 archaic germane.  [ME
             f. OF germain f. L germanus genuine, of the same parents]

   germander n.  any plant of the genus Teucrium.  Ьgermander speedwell a
             creeping plant, Veronica chamaedrys, with germander-like leaves
             and blue flowers.  [ME f. med.L germandra ult. f. Gk khamaidrus
             f.  khamai on the ground + drus oak]

   germane   adj.  (usu. foll. by to) relevant (to a subject under
             consideration).  ЬЬgermanely adv.  germaneness n.  [var. of

   Germanic  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 having German characteristics.  2 hist. of
             the Germans.  3 of the Scandinavians, Anglo-Saxons, or Germans.
             4 of the languages or language group called Germanic.  --n.  1
             the branch of Indo-European languages including English, German,
             Dutch, and the Scandinavian languages.  2 the (unrecorded) early
             language from which other Germanic languages developed.  ЬEast
             Germanic an extinct group including Gothic.  North Germanic the
             Scandinavian languages.  West Germanic a group including High
             and Low German, English, Frisian, and Dutch.  [L Germanicus (as

   germanic  adj.  Chem.  of or containing germanium, esp. in its
             quadrivalent state.

   Germanist n.  an expert in or student of the language, literature, and
             civilization of Germany, or Germanic languages.

   germanium n.  Chem.  a lustrous brittle semi-metallic element occurring
             naturally in sulphide ores and used in semiconductors.  °Symb.:
             Ge.  [mod.L f.  Germanus GERMAN]

   Germanize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise) make or become German; adopt or cause
             to adopt German customs etc.  ЬЬGermanization n.  Germanizer n.

   Germano-  comb. form German; German and.

   germanous adj.  Chem.  containing germanium in the bivalent state.

   germicide n.  a substance destroying germs, esp. those causing disease.
             ЬЬgermicidal adj.

   germinal  adj.  1 relating to or of the nature of a germ or germs (see
             GERM 1).  2 in the earliest stage of development.  3 productive
             of new ideas.  ЬЬgerminally adv.  [L germen germin- sprout: see

   germinate v.  1 a intr. sprout, bud, or put forth shoots.  b tr. cause to
             sprout or shoot.  2 a tr. cause (ideas etc.) to originate or
             develop.  b intr. come into existence.  ЬЬgermination n.
             germinative adj.  germinator n.  [L germinare germinat- (as

   germon    n.  = ALBACORE 1.  [F]

             n.  the scientific study of old age, the process of ageing, and
             the special problems of old people.  ЬЬgerontological adj.
             gerontologist n.  [Gk geron -ontos old man + -LOGY]

   -gerous   comb. form forming adjectives meaning 'bearing' (lanigerous).

             v. & n.  (also jerrymander) --v.tr.  1 manipulate the boundaries
             of (a constituency etc.) so as to give undue influence to some
             party or class.  2 manipulate (a situation etc.) to gain
             advantage.  --n. this practice.  ЬЬgerrymanderer n.  [the name
             of Governor Gerry of Massachusetts + (SALA)MANDER, from the
             shape of a district on a political map drawn when he was in
             office (1812)]

   gerund    n.  Gram.  a form of a verb functioning as a noun, orig. in
             Latin ending in -ndum (declinable), in English ending in -ing
             and used distinctly as a part of a verb (e.g.  do you mind my
             asking you?).  [LL gerundium f.  gerundum var. of gerendum, the
             gerund of L gerere do]

   gerundive n.  Gram.  a form of a Latin verb, ending in -ndus (declinable)
             and functioning as an adjective meaning 'that should or must be
             done' etc.  [LL gerundivus (modus mood) f.  gerundium: see

   gesso     n.  (pl.  -oes) plaster of Paris or gypsum as used in painting
             or sculpture.  [It. f. L gypsum: see GYPSUM]

   gestalt   n.  Psychol.  an organized whole that is perceived as more than
             the sum of its parts.  Ьgestalt psychology a system maintaining
             that perceptions, reactions, etc., are gestalts.  ЬЬgestaltism
             n.  gestaltist n.  [G, = form, shape]

   Gestapo   n.  1 the German secret police under Nazi rule.  2 derog. an
             organization compared to this.  [G, f.  Geheime Staats polizei]

   gestate   v.tr.  1 carry (a foetus) in gestation.  2 develop (an idea

   gestation n.  1 a the process of carrying or being carried in the womb
             between conception and birth.  b this period.  2 the private
             development of a plan, idea, etc.  [L gestatio f.  gestare
             frequent. of gerere carry]

             v.  1 intr. use gestures instead of or in addition to speech.  2
             tr. express with gestures.  ЬЬgesticulation n.  gesticulative
             adj.  gesticulator n.  gesticulatory adj.  [L gesticulari f.
             gesticulus dimin. of gestus GESTURE]

   gesture   n. & v.  --n.  1 a significant movement of a limb or the body.
             2 the use of such movements esp. to convey feeling or as a
             rhetorical device.  3 an action to evoke a response or convey
             intention, usu.  friendly.  --v.tr. & intr. gesticulate.
             ЬЬgestural adj.  gesturer n.  [ME f. med.L gestura f. L gerere
             gest- wield]

             int.  expressing a wish of good health, esp. before drinking or
             to a person who has sneezed.  [G, = health]

   get       v. & n.  --v.  (getting; past got; past part.  got or US (and in
             comb.) gotten) 1 tr. come into the possession of; receive or
             earn (get a job; got њ200 a week; got first prize).  2 tr.
             fetch, obtain, procure, purchase (get my book for me; got a new
             car).  3 tr. go to reach or catch (a bus, train, etc.).  4 tr.
             prepare (a meal etc.).  5 intr. & tr. reach or cause to reach a
             certain state or condition; become or cause to become (get rich;
             get one's feet wet; get to be famous; got them ready; got him
             into trouble; cannot get the key into the lock).  6 tr. obtain
             as a result of calculation.  7 tr. contract (a disease etc.).  8
             tr. establish or be in communication with via telephone or
             radio; receive (a radio signal).  9 tr. experience or suffer;
             have inflicted on one; receive as one's lot or penalty (got four
             years in prison).  10 a tr. succeed in bringing, placing, etc.
             (get it round the corner; get it on to the agenda; flattery will
             get you nowhere).  b intr. & tr. succeed or cause to succeed in
             coming or going (will get you there somehow; got absolutely
             nowhere).  11 tr. (prec. by have) a possess (have not got a
             penny).  b (foll. by to + infin.) be bound or obliged (have got
             to see you).  12 tr. (foll. by to + infin.) induce; prevail upon
             (got them to help me).  13 tr.  colloq. understand (a person or
             an argument) (have you got that?; I get your point; do you get
             me?).  14 tr.  colloq. inflict punishment or retribution on,
             esp. in retaliation (I'll get you for that).  15 tr.  colloq.  a
             annoy.  b move; affect emotionally.  c attract, obsess.  d
             amuse.  16 tr. (foll. by to + infin.) develop an inclination as
             specified (am getting to like it).  17 intr. (foll. by verbal
             noun) begin (get going).  18 tr. (esp. in past or perfect) catch
             in an argument; corner, puzzle.  19 tr. establish (an idea etc.)
             in one's mind.  20 intr.  sl. be off; go away.  21 tr.  archaic
             beget.  22 tr.  archaic learn; acquire (knowledge) by study.
             --n.  1 a an act of begetting (of animals).  b an offspring (of
             animals).  2 sl. a fool or idiot.  Ьget about (or around) 1
             travel extensively or fast; go from place to place.  2 manage to
             walk, move about, etc. (esp. after illness).  3 (of news) be
             circulated, esp. orally.  get across 1 manage to communicate (an
             idea etc.).  2 (of an idea etc.) be communicated successfully.
             3 colloq. annoy, irritate.  get along (or on) 1 (foll. by
             together, with) live harmoniously, accord.  2 be off! nonsense!
             get at 1 reach; get hold of.  2 colloq. imply (what are you
             getting at?).  get away 1 escape.  2 (as imper.) colloq.
             expressing disbelief or scepticism.  3 (foll. by with) escape
             blame or punishment for.  get back at colloq.  retaliate
             against.  get by colloq.  1 just manage, even with difficulty.
             2 be acceptable.  get down 1 alight, descend (from a vehicle,
             ladder, etc.).  2 record in writing.  get a person down depress
             or deject him or her.  get down to begin working on or
             discussing.  get even (often foll. by with) 1 achieve revenge;
             act in retaliation.  2 equalize the score.  get his (or hers
             etc.) sl.  be killed.  get hold of 1 grasp (physically).  2
             grasp (intellectually); understand.  3 make contact with (a
             person).  4 acquire.  get in 1 enter.  2 be elected.  get into
             become interested or involved in.  get it sl.  be punished or in
             trouble.  get it into one's head (foll. by that + clause) firmly
             believe or maintain; realize.  get off 1 colloq. be acquitted;
             escape with little or no punishment.  2 start.  3 alight; alight
             from (a bus etc.).  4 go, or cause to go, to sleep.  5 (foll. by
             with, together) Brit.  colloq. form an amorous or sexual
             relationship, esp. abruptly or quickly.  get a person off
             colloq.  cause a person to be acquitted.  get on 1 make
             progress; manage.  2 enter (a bus etc.).  3 = get along 1.  get
             on to colloq.  1 make contact with.  2 understand; become aware
             of.  get out 1 leave or escape.  2 manage to go outdoors.  3
             alight from a vehicle.  4 transpire; become known.  5 succeed in
             uttering, publishing, etc.  6 solve or finish (a puzzle etc.).
             7 Cricket be dismissed.  get-out n.  a means of avoiding
             something.  get a person out 1 help a person to leave or escape.
             2 Cricket dismiss (a batsman).  get out of 1 avoid or escape (a
             duty etc.).  2 abandon (a habit) gradually.  get a thing out of
             manage to obtain it from (a person) esp. with difficulty.  get
             outside (or outside of) sl.  eat or drink.  get over 1 recover
             from (an illness, upset, etc.).  2 overcome (a difficulty).  3
             manage to communicate (an idea etc.).  get a thing over (or over
             with) complete (a tedious task) promptly.  get one's own back
             colloq.  have one's revenge.  get-rich-quick adj.  designed to
             make a lot of money fast.  get rid of see RID.  get round (US
             around) 1 successfully coax or cajole (a person) esp. to secure
             a favour.  2 evade (a law etc.).  get round to deal with (a task
             etc.) in due course.  get somewhere make progress; be initially
             successful.  get there colloq.  1 succeed.  2 understand what is
             meant.  get through 1 pass or assist in passing (an examination,
             an ordeal, etc.).  2 finish or use up (esp. resources).  3 make
             contact by telephone.  4 (foll. by to) succeed in making (a
             person) listen or understand.  get a thing through cause it to
             overcome obstacles, difficulties, etc.  get to 1 reach.  2 = get
             down to.  get together gather, assemble.  get-together n.
             colloq.  a social gathering.  get up 1 rise or cause to rise
             from sitting etc., or from bed after sleeping or an illness.  2
             ascend or mount, e.g. on horseback.  3 (of fire, wind, or the
             sea) begin to be strong or agitated.  4 prepare or organize.  5
             enhance or refine one's knowledge of (a subject).  6 work up (a
             feeling, e.g. anger).  7 produce or stimulate (get up steam; get
             up speed).  8 (often refl.) dress or arrange elaborately; make
             presentable; arrange the appearance of.  9 (foll. by to) colloq.
             indulge or be involved in (always getting up to mischief).
             get-up n.  colloq.  a style or arrangement of dress etc., esp.
             an elaborate one.  get-up-and-go colloq.  energy, vim,
             enthusiasm.  get the wind up see WIND(1).  get with child
             archaic make pregnant.  have got it bad (or badly) sl.  be
             obsessed or affected emotionally.  ЬЬgettable adj.  [ME f. ON
             geta obtain, beget, guess, corresp. to OE gietan (recorded only
             in compounds), f. Gmc]

             adj.  colloq.  accessible.

   getaway   n.  an escape, esp. after committing a crime.

   getter    n. & v.  --n.  1 in senses of GET v.  2 Physics a substance used
             to remove residual gas from an evacuated vessel.  --v.tr.
             Physics remove (gas) or evacuate (a vessel) with a getter.

   geum      n.  any rosaceous plant of the genus Geum including herb bennet,
             with rosettes of leaves and yellow, red, or white flowers.
             [mod.L, var. of L gaeum]

   GeV       abbr.  gigaelectronvolt (equivalent to 10(9) electronvolts).

   gewgaw    n.  a gaudy plaything or ornament; a bauble.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   geyser    n.  1 an intermittently gushing hot spring that throws up a tall
             column of water.  2 Brit. an apparatus for heating water rapidly
             for domestic use.  [Icel.  Geysir, the name of a particular
             spring in Iceland, rel. to geysa to gush]

7.0 GG

   GG        abbr.  Governor-General.

8.0 Ghanaian...

   Ghanaian  adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Ghana in W. Africa.  --n. a
             native or national of Ghana; a person of Ghanaian descent.

   gharial   n.  (also gavial) a large Indian crocodile, Gavialis gangeticus,
             having a long narrow snout widening at the nostrils.  Ьfalse
             gharial a similar crocodile, Tomistoma schlegelii, of Indonesia
             and Malaya.  [Hind.]

   ghastly   adj. & adv.  --adj.  (ghastlier, ghastliest) 1 horrible,
             frightful.  2 colloq. objectionable, unpleasant.  3 deathlike,
             pallid.  --adv. in a ghastly or sickly way (ghastly pale).
             ЬЬghastlily adv.  ghastliness n.  [ME gastlich f. obs.  gast
             terrify: gh after ghost]

   ghat      n.  (also ghaut) in India: 1 steps leading down to a river.  2 a
             landing-place.  3 a defile or mountain pass.  [Hindi ghat]

   Ghazi     n.  (pl.  Ghazis) a Muslim fighter against non-Muslims.  [Arab.
             al-gazi part. of gaza raid]

   ghee      n.  (also ghi) Indian clarified butter esp. from the milk of a
             buffalo or cow.  [Hindi ghi f. Skr.  ghrit - sprinkled]

   gherao    n.  (pl.  -os) (in India and Pakistan) coercion of employers, by
             which their workers prevent them from leaving the premises until
             certain demands are met.  [Hind.  gherna besiege]

   gherkin   n.  1 a small variety of cucumber, or a young green cucumber,
             used for pickling.  2 a a trailing plant, Cucumis sativus, with
             cucumber-like fruits used for pickling.  b this fruit.  [Du.
             gurkkijn (unrecorded), dimin. of gurk, f. Slavonic, ult. f. med.
             Gk aggourion]

   ghetto    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a part of a city, esp. a slum area,
             occupied by a minority group or groups.  2 hist. the Jewish
             quarter in a city.  3 a segregated group or area.  --v.tr.
             (-oes, -oed) put or keep (people) in a ghetto.  Ьghetto-blaster
             sl.  a large portable radio, esp. used to play loud pop music.
             [perh. f. It.  getto foundry (applied to the site of the first
             ghetto in Venice in 1516)]

   ghi       var. of GHEE.

   ghillie   var. of GILLIE.

   ghost     n. & v.  --n.  1 the supposed apparition of a dead person or
             animal; a disembodied spirit.  2 a shadow or mere semblance (not
             a ghost of a chance).  3 an emaciated or pale person.  4 a
             secondary or duplicated image produced by defective television
             reception or by a telescope.  5 archaic a spirit or soul.  --v.
             1 intr. (often foll. by for) act as ghost-writer.  2 tr. act as
             ghost-writer of (a work).  Ьghost town a deserted town with few
             or no remaining inhabitants.  ghost-write v.tr. & intr.  act as
             ghost-writer (of).  ghost-writer a person who writes on behalf
             of the credited author of a work.  ЬЬghostlike adj.  [OE gast f.
             WG: gh- occurs first in Caxton, prob. infl. by Flem.  gheest]

   ghosting  n.  the appearance of a 'ghost' (see GHOST n.  4) or secondary
             image in a television picture.

   ghostly   adj.  (ghostlier, ghostliest) like a ghost; spectral.
             ЬЬghostliness n.  [OE gastlic (as GHOST)]

   ghoul     n.  1 a person morbidly interested in death etc.  2 an evil
             spirit or phantom.  3 a spirit in Muslim folklore preying on
             corpses.  ЬЬghoulish adj.  ghoulishly adv.  ghoulishness n.
             [Arab.  gul protean desert demon]

   GHQ       abbr.  General Headquarters.

   ghyll     Brit.  var. of GILL(3).

9.0 GI...

   GI        n. & adj.  --n. a private soldier in the US Army.  --adj. of or
             for US servicemen.  [abbr. of government (or general) issue]

   giant     n. & adj.  --n.  1 an imaginary or mythical being of human form
             but superhuman size.  2 (in Greek mythology) one of such beings
             who fought against the gods.  3 an abnormally tall or large
             person, animal, or plant.  4 a person of exceptional ability,
             integrity, courage, etc.  5 a large star.  --attrib.adj.  1 of
             extraordinary size or force, gigantic; monstrous.  2 colloq.
             extra large (giant packet).  3 (of a plant or animal) of a very
             large kind.  Ьgiant-killer a person who defeats a seemingly much
             more powerful opponent.  ЬЬgiantism n.  giant-like adj.  [ME
             geant (later infl. by L) f. OF, ult. f. L gigas gigant- f. Gk]

   giaour    n.  derog. or literary a non-Muslim, esp. a Christian (orig. a
             Turkish name).  [Pers.  gaur, gor]

   Gib.      n.  colloq.  Gibraltar.  [abbr.]

   gib       n.  a wood or metal bolt, wedge, or pin for holding a machine
             part etc. in place.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gibber(1) v. & n.  --v.intr. speak fast and inarticulately; chatter
             incoherently.  --n. such speech or sound.  [imit.]

   gibber(2) n.  Austral.  a boulder or large stone.  [Aboriginal]

             n.  one of a group of plant hormones that stimulate the growth
             of leaves and shoots.  [Gibberella a genus of fungi, dimin. of
             genus-name Gibbera f. L gibber hump]

   gibberish n.  unintelligible or meaningless speech; nonsense.  [perh. f.
             GIBBER(1) (but attested earlier) + -ISH(1) as used in Spanish,
             Swedish, etc.]

   gibbet    n. & v.  --n.  hist.  1 a a gallows.  b an upright post with an
             arm on which the bodies of executed criminals were hung up.  2
             (prec. by the) death by hanging.  --v.tr.  (gibbeted, gibbeting)
             1 put to death by hanging.  2 a expose on a gibbet.  b hang up
             as on a gibbet.  3 hold up to contempt.  [ME f. OF gibet gallows
             dimin. of gibe club, prob. f. Gmc]

   gibbon    n.  any small ape of the genus Hylobates, native to SE Asia,
             having a slender body and long arms.  [F f. a native name]

   gibbous   adj.  1 convex or protuberant.  2 (of a moon or planet) having
             the bright part greater than a semicircle and less than a
             circle.  3 humped or humpbacked.  ЬЬgibbosity n.  gibbously adv.
             gibbousness n.  [ME f. LL gibbosus f.  gibbus hump]

   gibe      v. & n.  (also jibe) --v.intr. (often foll. by at) jeer, mock.
             --n. an instance of gibing; a taunt.  ЬЬgiber n.  [perh. f. OF
             giber handle roughly]

   giblets   n.pl.  the liver, gizzard, neck, etc., of a bird, usu. removed
             and kept separate when the bird is prepared for cooking.  [OF
             gibelet game stew, perh. f.  gibier game]

   giddy     adj. & v.  --adj.  (giddier, giddiest) 1 having a sensation of
             whirling and a tendency to fall, stagger, or spin round.  2 a
             overexcited as a result of success, pleasurable emotion, etc.;
             mentally intoxicated.  b excitable, frivolous.  3 tending to
             make one giddy.  --v.tr. & intr.  (-ies, -ied) make or become
             giddy.  ЬЬgiddily adv.  giddiness n.  [OE gidig insane, lit.
             'possessed by a god']

   gie       v.tr. & intr.  Sc. = GIVE.

   gift      n. & v.  --n.  1 a thing given; a present.  2 a natural ability
             or talent.  3 the power to give (in his gift).  4 the act or an
             instance of giving.  5 colloq. an easy task.  --v.tr.  1 endow
             with gifts.  2 a (foll. by with) give to as a gift.  b bestow as
             a gift.  Ьgift of tongues see TONGUE.  gift token (or voucher) a
             voucher used as a gift and exchangeable for goods.  gift-wrap
             (-wrapped, -wrapping) wrap attractively as a gift.  look a
             gift-horse in the mouth (usu.  neg.) find fault with what has
             been given.  [ME f. ON gipt f. Gmc, rel. to GIVE]

   gifted    adj.  exceptionally talented or intelligent.  ЬЬgiftedly adv.
             giftedness n.

   gig(1)    n.  1 a light two-wheeled one-horse carriage.  2 a light ship's
             boat for rowing or sailing.  3 a rowing-boat esp. for racing.
             [ME in var. senses: prob. imit.]

   gig(2)    n. & v.  colloq.  --n. an engagement of an entertainer, esp. of
             musicians to play jazz or dance music, usu. for a single
             appearance.  --v.intr.  (gigged, gigging) perform a gig.  [20th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   gig(3)    n.  a kind of fishing-spear.  [short for fizgig, fishgig: cf.
             Sp.  fisga harpoon]

   giga-     comb. form denoting a factor of 10(9).  [Gk gigas giant]

   gigametre n.  a metric unit equal to 10(9) metres.

   gigantic  adj.  1 very large; enormous.  2 like or suited to a giant.
             ЬЬgigantesque adj.  gigantically adv.  [L gigas gigantis GIANT]

   gigantism n.  abnormal largeness, esp.  Med. excessive growth due to
             hormonal imbalance, or to polyploidy in plants.

   giggle    v. & n.  --v.intr. laugh in half-suppressed spasms, esp. in an
             affected or silly manner.  --n.  1 such a laugh.  2 colloq. an
             amusing person or thing; a joke.  ЬЬgiggler n.  giggly adj.
             (gigglier, giggliest).  giggliness n.  [imit.: cf. Du.
             gichelen, G gickeln]

   gigolo    n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a young man paid by an older woman to be her
             escort or lover.  2 a professional male dancing-partner or
             escort.  [F, formed as masc. of gigole dance-hall woman]

   gigot     n.  a leg of mutton or lamb.  Ьgigot sleeve a leg-of-mutton
             sleeve.  [F, dimin. of dial.  gigue leg]

   gigue     n.  1 = JIG 1.  2 Mus. a lively dance usu. in a dotted rhythm
             with two sections each repeated.  [F: see JIG(1)]

   gild(1)   v.tr.  (past part.  gilded or as adj. in sense 1 gilt) 1 cover
             thinly with gold.  2 tinge with a golden colour or light.  3
             give a specious or false brilliance to.  Ьgilded cage luxurious
             but restrictive surroundings.  gilded youth young people of
             wealth, fashion, and flair.  gild the lily try to improve what
             is already beautiful or excellent.  ЬЬgilder n.  [OE gyldan f.

   gild(2)   var. of GUILD.

   gilding   n.  1 the act or art of applying gilt.  2 material used in
             applying gilt.

   gilet     n.  a light often padded waistcoat, usu. worn for warmth by
             women.  [F, = waistcoat]

   gilgai    n.  Austral.  a saucer-like natural reservoir for rainwater.

   gill(1)   n. & v.  --n. (usu. in pl.) 1 the respiratory organ in fishes
             and other aquatic animals.  2 the vertical radial plates on the
             underside of mushrooms and other fungi.  3 the flesh below a
             person's jaws and ears (green about the gills).  4 the wattles
             or dewlap of fowls.  --v.tr.  1 gut (a fish).  2 cut off the
             gills of (a mushroom).  3 catch in a gill-net.  Ьgill-cover a
             bony case protecting a fish's gills; an operculum.  gill-net a
             net for entangling fishes by the gills.  ЬЬgilled adj. (also in
             comb.).  [ME f. ON gil (unrecorded) f. Gmc]

   gill(2)   n.  1 a unit of liquid measure, equal to a quarter of a pint.  2
             Brit.  dial. half a pint.  [ME f. OF gille, med.L gillo f. LL
             gello, gillo water-pot]

   gill(3)   n.  (also ghyll) Brit.  1 a deep usu. wooded ravine.  2 a narrow
             mountain torrent.  [ME f. ON gil glen]

   gill(4)   n.  (also Gill, jill, Jill) 1 derog. a young woman.  2 colloq.
             or dial. a female ferret.  [ME, abbr. of Gillian f. OF Juliane
             f. L Juliana (Julius)]

   gillie    n.  (also ghillie) Sc.  1 a man or boy attending a person
             hunting or fishing.  2 hist. a Highland chief's attendant.
             [Gael.  gille lad, servant]

   gillion   n.  1 a thousand million.  2 a large number.  °Mainly used to
             avoid the ambiguity of billion.  [GIGA- + MILLION]

             n.  1 (in full clove gillyflower) a clove-scented pink (see
             CLOVE(1) 2).  2 any of various similarly scented flowers such as
             the wallflower or white stock.  [ME gilofre, gerofle f. OF
             gilofre, girofle, f. med.L f. Gk karuophullon clove-tree f.
             karuon nut + phullon leaf, assim. to FLOWER]

   gilt(1)   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 covered thinly with gold.  2 gold-coloured.
             --n.  1 gold or a goldlike substance applied in a thin layer to
             a surface.  2 (often in pl.) a gilt-edged security.  Ьgilt-edged
             1 (of securities, stocks, etc.) having a high degree of
             reliability as an investment.  2 having a gilded edge.  [past
             part. of GILD(1)]

   gilt(2)   n.  a young unbred sow.  [ME f. ON gyltr]

   gimbals   n.pl.  a contrivance, usu. of rings and pivots, for keeping
             instruments such as a compass and chronometer horizontal at sea,
             in the air, etc.  [var. of earlier gimmal f. OF gemel double
             finger-ring f. L gemellus dimin. of geminus twin]

   gimcrack  adj. & n.  --adj. showy but flimsy and worthless.  --n. a cheap
             showy ornament; a knick-knack.  ЬЬgimcrackery n.  gimcracky adj.
             [ME gibecrake a kind of ornament, of unkn. orig.]

   gimlet    n.  1 a small tool with a screw-tip for boring holes.  2 a
             cocktail usu. of gin and lime-juice.  Ьgimlet eye an eye with a
             piercing glance.  [ME f. OF guimbelet, dimin. of guimble]

   gimmick   n.  colloq.  a trick or device, esp. to attract attention,
             publicity, or trade.  ЬЬgimmickry n.  gimmicky adj.  [20th-c.
             US: orig. unkn.]

   gimp(1)   n.  (also guimp, gymp) 1 a twist of silk etc. with cord or wire
             running through it, used esp. as trimming.  2 fishing-line of
             silk etc. bound with wire.  3 a coarser thread outlining the
             design of lace.  [Du.: orig. unkn.]

   gimp(2)   n.  sl.  a lame person or leg.

   gin(1)    n.  an alcoholic spirit distilled from grain or malt and
             flavoured with juniper berries.  Ьgin rummy a form of the
             card-game rummy.  [abbr. of GENEVA]

   gin(2)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a snare or trap.  2 a machine for separating
             cotton from its seeds.  3 a kind of crane and windlass.  --v.tr.
             (ginned, ginning) 1 treat (cotton) in a gin.  2 trap.  ЬЬginner
             n.  [ME f. OF engin ENGINE]

   gin(3)    n.  Austral.  an Aboriginal woman.  [Aboriginal]

   ginger    n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a a hot spicy root usu. powdered for use
             in cooking, or preserved in syrup, or candied.  b the plant,
             Zingiber officinale, of SE Asia, having this root.  2 a light
             reddish-yellow colour.  3 spirit, mettle.  4 stimulation.
             --adj. of a ginger colour.  --v.tr.  1 flavour with ginger.  2
             (foll. by up) rouse or enliven.  Ьblack ginger unscraped ginger.
             ginger ale an effervescent non-alcoholic clear drink flavoured
             with ginger extract.  ginger beer an effervescent mildly
             alcoholic cloudy drink, made by fermenting a mixture of ginger
             and syrup.  ginger group Brit.  a group within a party or
             movement that presses for stronger or more radical policy or
             action.  ginger-nut a ginger-flavoured biscuit.  ginger-pop
             colloq. = ginger ale.  ginger-snap a thin brittle biscuit
             flavoured with ginger.  ginger wine a drink of fermented sugar,
             water, and bruised ginger.  ЬЬgingery adj.  [ME f. OE gingiber &
             OF gingi(m)bre, both f. med.L gingiber ult. f. Skr.  srngaveram
             f.  srngam horn + -vera body, with ref. to the antler-shape of
             the root]

             n.  1 a cake made with treacle or syrup and flavoured with
             ginger.  2 (often attrib.) a gaudy or tawdry decoration or

   gingerly  adv. & adj.  --adv. in a careful or cautious manner.  --adj.
             showing great care or caution.  ЬЬgingerliness n.  [perh. f. OF
             gensor delicate, compar. of gent graceful f. L genitus

   gingham   n.  a plain-woven cotton cloth esp. striped or checked.  [Du.
             gingang f. Malay ginggang (orig. adj. = striped)]

   gingili   n.  1 sesame.  2 sesame oil.  [Hindi jinjali f. Arab.  juljulan]

   gingiva   n.  (pl.  gingivae) the gum.  ЬЬgingival adj.  [L]

             n.  inflammation of the gums.

   gingko    var. of GINKGO.

   ginglymus n.  (pl.  ginglymi) Anat.  a hingelike joint in the body with
             motion in one plane only, e.g.  the elbow or knee.  [mod.L f. Gk
             gigglumos hinge]

   gink      n.  sl. often derog.  a fellow; a man.  [20th-c. US: orig.

   ginkgo    n.  (also gingko) (pl.  -os or -oes) an orig. Chinese and
             Japanese tree, Ginkgo biloba, with fan-shaped leaves and yellow
             flowers. Also called maidenhair tree.  [Jap.  ginkyo f. Chin.
             yinxing silver apricot]

   ginormous adj.  Brit.  sl.  very large; enormous.  [GIANT + ENORMOUS]

   ginseng   n.  1 any of several medicinal plants of the genus Panax, found
             in E. Asia and N. America.  2 the root of this.  [Chin.  renshen
             perh. = man-image, with allusion to its forked root]

   gippy tummy
             n.  (also gyppy tummy) colloq.  diarrhoea affecting visitors to
             hot countries.  [abbr. of EGYPTIAN]

   gipsy     var. of GYPSY.

   giraffe   n.  (pl. same or giraffes) a ruminant mammal, Giraffa
             camelopardalis of Africa, the tallest living animal, with a long
             neck and forelegs and a skin of dark patches separated by
             lighter lines.  [F girafe, It.  giraffa, ult. f. Arab.  zarafa]

   girandole n.  1 a revolving cluster of fireworks.  2 a branched
             candle-bracket or candlestick.  3 an earring or pendant with a
             large central stone surrounded by small ones.  [F f. It.
             girandola f.  girare GYRATE]

   girasol   n.  (also girasole) a kind of opal reflecting a reddish glow; a
             fire-opal.  [orig. = sunflower, f. F girasol or It.  girasole f.
             girare (as GIRANDOLE) + sole sun]

   gird(1)   v.tr.  (past and past part.  girded or girt) literary 1
             encircle, attach, or secure with a belt or band.  2 secure
             (clothes) on the body with a girdle or belt.  3 enclose or
             encircle.  4 a (foll. by with) equip with a sword in a belt.  b
             fasten (a sword) with a belt.  5 (foll. by round) place (cord
             etc.) round.  Ьgird (or gird up) one's loins prepare for action.
             [OE gyrdan f. Gmc (as GIRTH)]

   gird(2)   v. & n.  --v.intr. (foll. by at) jeer or gibe.  --n. a gibe or
             taunt.  [ME, = strike etc.: orig. unkn.]

   girder    n.  a large iron or steel beam or compound structure for bearing
             loads, esp. in bridge-building.  [GIRD(1) + -ER(1)]

   girdle(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a belt or cord worn round the waist.  2 a
             woman's corset extending from waist to thigh.  3 a thing that
             surrounds like a girdle.  4 the bony support for a limb (pelvic
             girdle).  5 the part of a cut gem dividing the crown from the
             base and embraced by the setting.  6 a ring round a tree made by
             the removal of bark.  --v.tr.  1 surround with a girdle.  2
             remove a ring of bark from (a tree), esp. to make it more
             fruitful.  [OE gyrdel: see GIRD(1)]

   girdle(2) n.  Sc. & N.Engl.  a circular iron plate placed over a fire or
             otherwise heated for baking, toasting, etc.  [var. of GRIDDLE]

   girl      n.  1 a female child or youth.  2 colloq. a young (esp.
             unmarried) woman.  3 colloq. a girlfriend or sweetheart.  4 a
             female servant.  Ьgirl Friday see FRIDAY.  ЬЬgirlhood n.  [ME
             gurle, girle, gerle, perh. rel. to LG g”r child]

             n.  1 a regular female companion or lover.  2 a female friend.

   girlie    adj.  colloq.  (of a magazine etc.) depicting nude or partially
             nude young women in erotic poses.

   girlish   adj.  of or like a girl.  ЬЬgirlishly adv.  girlishness n.

   giro      n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a system of credit transfer between
             banks, post offices, etc.  2 a cheque or payment by giro.
             --v.tr.  (-oes, -oed) pay by giro.  [G f. It., = circulation (of

   girt(1)   past part. of GIRD(1).

   girt(2)   var. of GIRTH.

   girth     n. & v.  (also girt) --n.  1 the distance around a thing.  2 a
             band round the body of a horse to secure the saddle etc.  --v.
             1 tr.  a secure (a saddle etc.) with a girth.  b put a girth on
             (a horse).  2 tr. surround, encircle.  3 intr. measure (an
             amount) in girth.  [ME f. ON gj”rth, Goth.  gairda f. Gmc]

   gismo     n.  (also gizmo) (pl.  -os) sl.  a gadget.  [20th c.: orig.

   gist      n.  1 the substance or essence of a matter.  2 Law the real
             ground of an action etc.  [OF, 3rd sing. pres. of gesir lie f. L

   git       n.  Brit.  sl.  a silly or contemptible person.  [var. of GET

   gЊte      n.  a furnished holiday house in France, usu. small and in a
             rural district.  [orig. = lodging: F f. OF giste, rel. to g‚sir

   gittern   n.  a medieval stringed instrument, a forerunner of the guitar.
             [ME f. OF guiterne: cf.  CITTERN, GUITAR]

   give      v. & n.  --v.  (past gave; past part.  given) 1 tr. (also
             absol.; often foll. by to) transfer the possession of freely;
             hand over as a present (gave them her old curtains; gives to
             cancer research).  2 tr.  a transfer the ownership of with or
             without actual delivery; bequeath (gave him њ200 in her will).
             b transfer, esp. temporarily or for safe keeping; hand over;
             provide with (gave him the dog to hold; gave them a drink).  c
             administer (medicine).  d deliver (a message) (give her my best
             wishes).  3 tr. (usu. foll. by for) make over in exchange or
             payment; pay; sell (gave him њ30 for the bicycle).  4 tr.  a
             confer; grant (a benefit, an honour, etc.).  b accord; bestow
             (one's affections, confidence, etc.).  c award; administer
             (one's approval, blame, etc.); tell, offer (esp. something
             unpleasant) (gave him a talking-to; gave him my blessing; gave
             him the sack).  d pledge, assign as a guarantee (gave his word).
             5 tr.  a effect or perform (an action etc.) (gave him a kiss;
             gave a jump).  b utter (gave a shriek).  6 tr. allot; assign;
             grant (was given the contract).  7 tr. (in passive; foll. by to)
             be inclined to or fond of (is given to speculation).  8 tr.
             yield as a product or result (the lamp gives a bad light; the
             field gives fodder for twenty cows).  9 intr.  a yield to
             pressure; become relaxed; lose firmness (this elastic doesn't
             give properly).  b collapse (the roof gave under the pressure).
             10 intr. (usu. foll. by of) grant; bestow (gave freely of his
             time).  11 tr.  a commit, consign, or entrust (gave him into
             custody; give her into your care).  b sanction the marriage of
             (a daughter etc.).  12 tr. devote; dedicate (gave his life to
             table tennis; shall give it my attention).  13 tr. (usu.
             absol.) colloq. tell what one knows (What happened? Come on,
             give!).  14 tr. present; offer; show; hold out (gives no sign of
             life; gave her his arm; give him your ear).  15 tr.  Theatr.
             read, recite, perform, act, etc. (gave them Hamlet's soliloquy).
             16 tr. impart; be a source of (gave him my sore throat; gave its
             name to the battle; gave me much pain; gives him a right to
             complain).  17 tr. allow (esp. a fixed amount of time) (can give
             you five minutes).  18 tr. (usu. foll. by for) value (something)
             (gives nothing for their opinions).  19 tr. concede; yield (I
             give you the victory).  20 tr. deliver (a judgement etc.)
             authoritatively (gave his verdict).  21 tr.  Cricket (of an
             umpire) declare (a batsman) out or not out.  22 tr. toast (a
             person, cause, etc.) (I give you our President).  23 tr. provide
             (a party, meal, etc.) as host (gave a banquet).  --n.  1
             capacity to yield or bend under pressure; elasticity (there is
             no give in a stone floor).  2 ability to adapt or comply (no
             give in his attitudes).  Ьgive and take v.tr.  exchange (words,
             blows, or concessions).  --n. an exchange of words etc.; a
             compromise.  give as good as one gets retort adequately in words
             or blows.  give away 1 transfer as a gift.  2 hand over (a
             bride) ceremonially to a bridegroom.  3 betray or expose to
             ridicule or detection.  4 Austral. abandon, desist from, give
             up, lose faith or interest in.  give-away n.  colloq.  1 an
             inadvertent betrayal or revelation.  2 an act of giving away.  3
             a free gift; a low price.  give back return (something) to its
             previous owner or in exchange.  give a person the best see BEST.
             give birth (to) see BIRTH.  give chase pursue a person, animal,
             etc.; hunt.  give down (often absol.) (of a cow) let (milk)
             flow.  give forth emit; publish; report.  give the game (or
             show) away reveal a secret or intention.  give a hand see HAND.
             give a person (or the devil) his or her due acknowledge, esp.
             grudgingly, a person's rights, abilities, etc.  give in 1 cease
             fighting or arguing; yield.  2 hand in (a document etc.) to an
             official etc.  give in marriage sanction the marriage of (one's
             daughter etc.).  give it to a person colloq.  scold or punish.
             give me I prefer or admire (give me the Greek islands).  give
             off emit (vapour etc.).  give oneself (of a woman) yield
             sexually.  give oneself airs act pretentiously or snobbishly.
             give oneself up to 1 abandon oneself to an emotion, esp.
             despair.  2 addict oneself to.  give on to (or into) (of a
             window, corridor, etc.) overlook or lead into.  give or take
             colloq.  add or subtract (a specified amount or number) in
             estimating.  give out 1 announce; emit; distribute.  2 cease or
             break down from exhaustion etc.  3 run short.  give over 1
             colloq. cease from doing; abandon (a habit etc.); desist (give
             over sniffing).  2 hand over.  3 devote.  give rise to cause,
             induce, suggest.  give tongue 1 speak one's thoughts.  2 (of
             hounds) bark, esp. on finding a scent.  give a person to
             understand inform authoritatively.  give up 1 resign; surrender.
             2 part with.  3 deliver (a wanted person etc.).  4 pronounce
             incurable or insoluble; renounce hope of.  5 renounce or cease
             (an activity).  give up the ghost archaic or colloq.  die.  give
             way see WAY.  give a person what for colloq.  punish or scold
             severely.  give one's word (or word of honour) promise solemnly.
             not give a damn (or monkey's or toss etc.) colloq.  not care at
             all.  what gives?  colloq.  what is the news?; what's happening?
             would give the world (or one's ears, eyes, etc.) for covet or
             wish for desperately.  ЬЬgiveable adj.  giver n.  [OE g(i)efan
             f. Gmc]

   given     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 as previously stated or assumed; granted;
             specified (given that he is a liar, we cannot trust him; a given
             number of people).  2 Law (of a document) signed and dated
             (given this day the 30th June).  --n. a known fact or situation.
             Ьgiven name US a name given at, or as if at, baptism; a
             Christian name.  [past part. of GIVE]

   gizmo     var. of GISMO.

   gizzard   n.  1 the second part of a bird's stomach, for grinding food
             usu.  with grit.  2 a muscular stomach of some fish, insects,
             molluscs, and other invertebrates.  Ьstick in one's gizzard
             colloq.  be distasteful.  [ME giser f. OF giser, gesier etc.,
             ult. f. L gigeria cooked entrails of fowl]

10.0 glabella...

   glabella  n.  (pl.  glabellae) the smooth part of the forehead above and
             between the eyebrows.  ЬЬglabellar adj.  [mod.L f. L glabellus
             (adj.) dimin. of glaber smooth]

   glabrous  adj.  free from hair or down; smooth skinned.  [L glaber glabri

   glac‚     adj.  1 (of fruit, esp. cherries) preserved in sugar, usu.
             resulting in a glossy surface.  2 (of cloth, leather, etc.)
             smooth; polished.  Ьglac‚ icing icing made with icing sugar and
             water.  [F, past part. of glacer to ice, gloss f.  glace ice:
             see GLACIER]

   glacial   adj.  1 of ice; icy.  2 Geol. characterized or produced by the
             presence or agency of ice.  3 Chem. forming icelike crystals
             upon freezing (glacial acetic acid).  Ьglacial epoch (or period)
             a period when ice-sheets were exceptionally extensive.
             ЬЬglacially adv.  [F glacial or L glacialis icy f.  glacies ice]

   glaciated adj.  1 marked or polished by the action of ice.  2 covered or
             having been covered by glaciers or ice sheets.  ЬЬglaciation n.
             [past part. of glaciate f. L glaciare freeze f.  glacies ice]

   glacier   n.  a mass of land ice formed by the accumulation of snow on
             high ground.  [F f.  glace ice ult. f. L glacies]

             n.  the science of the internal dynamics and effects of
             glaciers.  ЬЬglaciological adj.  glaciologist n.  [L glacies ice
             + -LOGY]

   glacis    n.  (pl. same) a bank sloping down from a fort, on which
             attackers are exposed to the defenders' missiles etc.  [F f. OF
             glacier to slip f.  glace ice: see GLACIER]

   glad(1)   adj. & v.  --adj.  (gladder, gladdest) 1 (predic.; usu. foll. by
             of, about, or to + infin.) pleased; willing (shall be glad to
             come; would be glad of a chance to talk about it).  2 a marked
             by, filled with, or expressing, joy (a glad expression).  b (of
             news, events, etc.) giving joy (glad tidings).  3 (of objects)
             bright; beautiful.  --v.tr.  (gladded, gladding) archaic make
             glad.  Ьthe glad eye colloq.  an amorous glance.  glad hand the
             hand of welcome.  glad-hand v.tr.  greet cordially; welcome.
             glad rags colloq.  best clothes; evening dress.  ЬЬgladly adv.
             gladness n.  gladsome adj.  poet.  [OE gl‘d f. Gmc]

   glad(2)   n.  (also Austral.  gladdie) colloq.  a gladiolus.  [abbr.]

   gladden   v.tr. & intr.  make or become glad.  ЬЬgladdener n.

   gladdie   Austral.  var. of GLAD(2).

   glade     n.  an open space in a wood or forest.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gladiator n.  1 hist. a man trained to fight with a sword or other weapons
             at ancient Roman shows.  2 a person defending or opposing a
             cause; a controversialist.  ЬЬgladiatorial adj.  [L f.  gladius

   gladiolus n.  (pl.  gladioli or gladioluses) any iridaceous plant of the
             genus Gladiolus with sword-shaped leaves and usu. brightly
             coloured flower-spikes.  [L, dimin. of gladius sword]

   Gladstone bag
             n.  a bag like a briefcase having two equal compartments joined
             by a hinge.  [W. E.  Gladstone, Engl. statesman d. 1898]

             adj.  of or relating to the alphabet ascribed to St Cyril and
             formerly used in writing some Slavonic languages.  [mod.L
             glagoliticus f. Serbo-Croatian glagolica Glagolitic alphabet f.
             OSlav.  glagol word]

   glair     n.  (also glaire) 1 white of egg.  2 an adhesive preparation
             made from this, used in bookbinding etc.  ЬЬglaireous adj.
             glairy adj.  [ME f. OF glaire, ult. f. L clara fem. of clarus

   glaire    var. of GLAIR.

   glaive    n.  archaic poet.  1 a broadsword.  2 any sword.  [ME f. OF,
             app. f. L gladius sword]

   Glam.     abbr.  Glamorgan.

   glam      adj., n., & v.  colloq.  --adj. glamorous.  --n. glamour.
             --v.tr.  (glammed, glamming) glamorize.  [abbr.]

   glamorize v.tr.  (also glamourize, -ise) make glamorous or attractive.
             ЬЬglamorization n.

   glamour   n. & v.  (US glamor) --n.  1 physical attractiveness, esp. when
             achieved by make-up etc.  2 alluring or exciting beauty or charm
             (the glamour of New York).  --v.tr.  1 poet. affect with
             glamour; bewitch; enchant.  2 colloq. make glamorous.  Ьcast a
             glamour over enchant.  glamour girl (or boy) an attractive young
             woman (or man), esp. a model etc.  ЬЬglamorous adj.  glamorously
             adv.  [18th c.: var. of GRAMMAR, with ref. to the occult
             practices associated with learning in the Middle Ages]

   glance(1) v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (often foll. by down, up, etc.) cast a
             momentary look (glanced up at the sky).  2 intr. (often foll. by
             off) (esp. of a weapon) glide or bounce (off an object).  3
             intr. (usu. foll. by over, off, from) (of talk or a talker) pass
             quickly over a subject or subjects (glanced over the question of
             payment).  4 intr. (of a bright object or light) flash, dart, or
             gleam; reflect (the sun glanced off the knife).  5 tr. (esp. of
             a weapon) strike (an object) obliquely.  6 tr.  Cricket deflect
             (the ball) with an oblique stroke.  --n.  1 (usu. foll. by at,
             into, over, etc.) a brief look (took a glance at the paper;
             threw a glance over her shoulder).  2 a a flash or gleam (a
             glance of sunlight).  b a sudden movement producing this.  3 a
             swift oblique movement or impact.  4 Cricket a stroke with the
             bat's face turned slantwise to deflect the ball.  Ьat a glance
             immediately upon looking.  glance at 1 give a brief look at.  2
             make a passing and usu. sarcastic allusion to.  glance one's eye
             (foll. by at, over, etc.)  look at briefly (esp. a document).
             glance over (or through) read cursorily.  ЬЬglancingly adv.  [ME
             glence etc., prob. a nasalized form of obs.  glace in the same
             sense, f. OF glacier to slip: see GLACIS]

   glance(2) n.  any lustrous sulphide ore (copper glance; lead glance).  [G
             Glanz lustre]

   gland(1)  n.  1 a an organ in an animal body secreting substances for use
             in the body or for ejection.  b a structure resembling this,
             such as a lymph gland.  2 Bot. a secreting cell or group of
             cells on the surface of a plant-structure.  [F glande f. OF
             glandre f. L glandulae throat-glands]

   gland(2)  n.  a sleeve used to produce a seal round a moving shaft.  [19th
             c.: perh. var. of glam, glan a vice, rel. to CLAMP(1)]

   glanders  n.pl.  (also treated as sing.) 1 a contagious disease of horses,
             caused by a bacterium and characterized by swellings below the
             jaw and mucous discharge from the nostrils.  2 this disease in
             humans or other animals.  ЬЬglandered adj.  glanderous adj.  [OF
             glandre: see GLAND(1)]

   glandular adj.  of or relating to a gland or glands.  Ьglandular fever an
             infectious viral disease characterized by swelling of the lymph
             glands and prolonged lassitude, infectious mononucleosis (see
             MONONUCLEOSIS).  [F glandulaire (as GLAND(1))]

   glans     n.  (pl.  glandes) the rounded part forming the end of the penis
             or clitoris.  [L, = acorn]

   glare(1)  v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (usu. foll. by at, upon) look fiercely or
             fixedly.  2 intr. shine dazzlingly or disagreeably.  3 tr.
             express (hate, defiance, etc.) by a look.  4 intr. be
             over-conspicuous or obtrusive.  --n.  1 a strong fierce light,
             esp. sunshine.  b oppressive public attention (the glare of
             fame).  2 a fierce or fixed look (a glare of defiance).  3
             tawdry brilliance.  ЬЬglary adj.  [ME, prob. ult. rel. to GLASS:
             cf. MDu. and MLG glaren gleam, glare]

   glare(2)  adj.  US (esp. of ice) smooth and glassy.  [perh. f.  glare
             frost (16th c., of uncert. orig.)]

   glaring   adj.  1 obvious, conspicuous (a glaring error).  2 shining
             oppressively.  3 staring fiercely.  ЬЬglaringly adv.
             glaringness n.

   glasnost  n.  (in the Soviet Union) the policy or practice of more open
             consultative government and wider dissemination of information.
             [Russ.  glasnost', lit. = publicity, openness]

   glass     n., v., & adj.  --n.  1 a (often attrib.) a hard, brittle, usu.
             transparent, translucent, or shiny substance, made by fusing
             sand with soda and lime and sometimes other ingredients (a glass
             jug) (cf.  crown glass, flint glass, plate glass).  b a
             substance of similar properties or composition.  2 (often
             collect.) an object or objects made from, or partly from, glass,
             esp.: a a drinking vessel.  b a mirror; a looking-glass.  c an
             hour- or sand-glass.  d a window.  e a greenhouse (rows of
             lettuce under glass).  f glass ornaments.  g a barometer.  h a
             glass disc covering a watch-face.  i a magnifying lens.  j a
             monocle.  3 (in pl.) a spectacles.  b field-glasses;
             opera-glasses.  4 the amount of liquid contained in a glass; a
             drink (he likes a glass).  --v.tr.  1 (usu. as glassed adj.) fit
             with glass; glaze.  2 poet. reflect as in a mirror.  3 Mil. look
             at or for with field-glasses.  --adj. of or made from glass.
             Ьglass-blower a person who blows semi-molten glass to make
             glassware.  glass-blowing this occupation.  glass case an
             exhibition display case made mostly from glass.  glass-cloth 1 a
             linen cloth for drying glasses.  2 a cloth covered with powdered
             glass or abrasive, like glass-paper.  glass cloth a woven fabric
             of fine-spun glass.  glass-cutter 1 a worker who cuts glass.  2
             a tool used for cutting glass.  glass eye a false eye made from
             glass.  glass fibre 1 a filament or filaments of glass made into
             fabric.  2 such filaments embedded in plastic as reinforcement.
             glass-gall = SANDIVER.  glass-making the manufacture of glass.
             glass-paper paper covered with glass-dust or abrasive and used
             for smoothing and polishing.  glass snake any snakelike lizard
             of the genus Ophisaurus, with a very brittle tail.  glass wool
             glass in the form of fine fibres used for packing and
             insulation.  has had a glass too much is rather drunk.
             ЬЬglassful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  glassless adj.  glasslike adj.
             [OE gl‘s f. Gmc: cf.  GLAZE]

             n.  1 a greenhouse.  2 Brit.  sl. a military prison.  3 a
             building where glass is made.

   glassie   var. of GLASSY n.

   glassine  n.  a glossy transparent paper.  [GLASS]

   glassware n.  articles made from glass, esp. drinking glasses, tableware,

   glasswort n.  any plant of the genus Salicornia or Salsola formerly burnt
             for use in glass-making.

   glassy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (glassier, glassiest) 1 of or resembling
             glass, esp. in smoothness.  2 (of the eye, the expression, etc.)
             abstracted; dull; fixed (fixed her with a glassy stare).  --n.
             (also glassie) Austral. a glass marble.  Ьthe (or just the)
             glassy Austral.  the most excellent person or thing.  ЬЬglassily
             adv.  glassiness n.

             adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Glasgow in Scotland.  --n. a
             native of Glasgow.  [Glasgow after Norwegian etc.]

   Glauber's salt
             n.  (also Glauber's salts) a crystalline hydrated form of sodium
             sulphate used esp. as a laxative.  [J. R.  Glauber, Ger. chemist
             d. 1668]

   glaucoma  n.  an eye-condition with increased pressure within the eyeball,
             causing gradual loss of sight.  ЬЬglaucomatous adj.  [L f. Gk
             glaukoma -atos, ult. f.  glaukos: see GLAUCOUS]

   glaucous  adj.  1 of a dull greyish green or blue.  2 covered with a
             powdery bloom as of grapes.  [L glaucus f. Gk glaukos]

   glaze     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a fit (a window, picture, etc.) with
             glass.  b provide (a building) with glass windows.  2 tr.  a
             cover (pottery etc.) with a glaze.  b fix (paint) on pottery
             with a glaze.  3 tr. cover (pastry, meat, etc.) with a glaze.  4
             intr. (often foll. by over) (of the eyes) become fixed or glassy
             (his eyes glazed over).  5 tr. cover (cloth, paper, leather, a
             painted surface, etc.) with a glaze.  6 tr. give a glassy
             surface to, e.g. by rubbing.  --n.  1 a vitreous substance, usu.
             a special glass, used to glaze pottery.  2 a smooth shiny
             coating of milk, sugar, gelatine, etc., on food.  3 a thin
             topcoat of transparent paint used to modify the tone of the
             underlying colour.  4 a smooth surface formed by glazing.  5 US
             a thin coating of ice.  Ьglazed frost a glassy coating of ice
             caused by frozen rain or a sudden thaw succeeded by a frost.
             glaze in enclose (a building, a window frame, etc.) with glass.
             ЬЬglazer n.  glazy adj.  [ME f. an oblique form of GLASS]

   glazier   n.  a person whose trade is glazing windows etc.  ЬЬglaziery n.

   glazing   n.  1 the act or an instance of glazing.  2 windows (see also
             double glazing).  3 material used to produce a glaze.

   GLC       abbr.  hist.  (in the UK) Greater London Council.

   gleam     n. & v.  --n.  1 a faint or brief light (a gleam of sunlight).
             2 a faint, sudden, intermittent, or temporary show (not a gleam
             of hope).  --v.intr.  1 emit gleams.  2 shine with a faint or
             intermittent brightness.  3 (of a quality) be indicated (fear
             gleamed in his eyes).  ЬЬgleamingly adv.  gleamy adj.  [OE gl‘m:
             cf.  GLIMMER]

   glean     v.  1 tr. collect or scrape together (news, facts, gossip, etc.)
             in small quantities.  2 a tr. (also absol.) gather (ears of corn
             etc.) after the harvest.  b tr. strip (a field etc.) after a
             harvest.  ЬЬgleaner n.  [ME f. OF glener f. LL glennare, prob.
             of Celt. orig.]

   gleanings n.pl.  things gleaned, esp. facts.

   glebe     n.  1 a piece of land serving as part of a clergyman's benefice
             and providing income.  2 poet. earth; land; a field.  [ME f. L
             gl(a)eba clod, soil]

   glee      n.  1 mirth; delight (watched the enemy's defeat with glee).  2
             a song for three or more, esp. adult male, voices, singing
             different parts simultaneously, usu. unaccompanied.  Ьglee club
             a society for singing part-songs.  ЬЬgleesome adj.  [OE glio,
             gleo minstrelsy, jest f. Gmc]

   gleeful   adj.  joyful.  ЬЬgleefully adv.  gleefulness n.

             n.  the standardization of political, economic, and social
             institutions in authoritarian States.  [G]

   glen      n.  a narrow valley.  [Gael. & Ir.  gleann]

   glengarry n.  (pl.  -ies) a brimless Scottish hat with a cleft down the
             centre and usu.  two ribbons hanging at the back.  [Glengarry in

   glenoid cavity
             n.  a shallow depression on a bone, esp. the scapula and
             temporal bone, receiving the projection of another bone to form
             a joint.  [F gl‚no‹de f. Gk glenoeides f.  glene socket]

   gley      n.  a tacky waterlogged soil grey to blue in colour.
             [Ukrainian, = sticky blue clay, rel. to CLAY]

   glia      n.  = NEUROGLIA.  ЬЬglial adj.  [Gk, = glue]

   glib      adj.  (glibber, glibbest) 1 (of a speaker, speech, etc.) fluent
             and voluble but insincere and shallow.  2 archaic smooth;
             unimpeded.  ЬЬglibly adv.  glibness n.  [rel. to obs.  glibbery
             slippery f. Gmc: perh. imit.]

   glide     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (of a stream, bird, snake, ship, train,
             skater, etc.) move with a smooth continuous motion.  2 intr. (of
             an aircraft, esp. a glider) fly without engine-power.  3 intr.
             of time etc.: a pass gently and imperceptibly.  b (often foll.
             by into) pass and change gradually and imperceptibly (night
             glided into day).  4 intr. move quietly or stealthily.  5 tr.
             cause to glide (breezes glided the ship on its course).  6 tr.
             cross in a glider.  --n.  1 a the act of gliding.  b an instance
             of this.  2 Phonet. a gradually changing sound made in passing
             from one position of the speech-organs to another.  3 a gliding
             dance or dance-step.  4 a flight in a glider.  5 Cricket =
             GLANCE n.  4.  Ьglide clip Austral.  a paper fastener made of
             bent wire.  glide path an aircraft's line of descent to land,
             esp. as indicated by ground radar.  ЬЬglidingly adv.  [OE glidan
             f. WG]

   glider    n.  1 a an aircraft that flies without an engine.  b a glider
             pilot.  2 a person or thing that glides.

   glim      n.  1 a faint light.  2 archaic sl. a candle; a lantern.  [17th
             c.: perh. abbr. of GLIMMER or GLIMPSE]

   glimmer   v. & n.  --v.intr. shine faintly or intermittently.  --n.  1 a
             feeble or wavering light.  2 (usu. foll. by of) a faint gleam
             (of hope, understanding, etc.).  3 a glimpse.  ЬЬglimmeringly
             adv.  [ME prob. f. Scand. f. WG: see GLEAM]

             n.  1 = GLIMMER n.  2 an act of glimmering.

   glimpse   n. & v.  --n. (often foll. by of) 1 a momentary or partial view
             (caught a glimpse of her).  2 a faint and transient appearance
             (glimpses of the truth).  --v.  1 tr. see faintly or partly
             (glimpsed his face in the crowd).  2 intr. (often foll. by at)
             cast a passing glance.  3 intr.  a shine faintly or
             intermittently.  b poet. appear faintly; dawn.  [ME glimse
             corresp. to MHG glimsen f. WG (as GLIMMER)]

   glint     v. & n.  --v.intr. & tr. flash or cause to flash; glitter;
             sparkle; reflect (eyes glinted with amusement; the sword glinted
             fire).  --n. a brief flash of light; a sparkle.  [alt. of ME
             glent, prob. of Scand. orig.]

   glissade  n. & v.  --n.  1 an act of sliding down a steep slope of snow or
             ice, usu.  on the feet with the support of an ice-axe etc.  2 a
             gliding step in ballet.  --v.intr. perform a glissade.  [F f.
             glisser slip, slide]

   glissando n.  (pl.  glissandi or -os) Mus.  a continuous slide of adjacent
             notes upwards or downwards.  [It. f. F glissant sliding (as

   gliss‚    n.  (also pas gliss‚) Ballet a sliding step in which the flat of
             the foot is often used.  [F, past part. of glisser: see

   glisten   v. & n.  --v.intr. shine, esp. like a wet object, snow, etc.;
             glitter.  --n. a glitter; a sparkle.  [OE glisnian f.  glisian

   glister   v. & n.  archaic --v.intr. sparkle; glitter.  --n. a sparkle; a
             gleam.  [ME f. MLG glistern, MDu glisteren, rel. to GLISTEN]

   glitch    n.  colloq.  a sudden irregularity or malfunction (of equipment
             etc.).  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   glitter   v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 shine, esp. with a bright reflected light;
             sparkle.  2 (usu. foll. by with) a be showy or splendid
             (glittered with diamonds).  b be ostentatious or flashily
             brilliant (glittering rhetoric).  --n.  1 a gleam; a sparkle.  2
             showiness; splendour.  3 tiny pieces of sparkling material as on
             Christmas-tree decorations.  ЬЬglitteringly adv.  glittery adj.
             [ME f. ON glitra f. Gmc]

             n.pl.  sl.  the fashionable set of literary or show-business
             people.  [GLITTER + LITERATI]

   glitz     n.  sl.  extravagant but superficial display; show-business
             glamour.  [back-form. f.  GLITZY]

   glitzy    adj.  (glitzier, glitziest) sl.  extravagant, ostentatious;
             tawdry, gaudy.  ЬЬglitzily adv.  glitziness n.  [GLITTER, after
             RITZY: cf. G glitzerig glittering]

   gloaming  n.  poet.  twilight; dusk.  [OE glomung f.  glom twilight, rel.
             to GLOW]

   gloat     v. & n.  --v.intr. (often foll. by on, upon, over) consider or
             contemplate with lust, greed, malice, triumph, etc. (gloated
             over his collection).  --n.  1 the act of gloating.  2 a look or
             expression of triumphant satisfaction.  ЬЬgloater n.  gloatingly
             adv.  [16th c.: orig. unkn., but perh. rel. to ON glotta grin,
             MHG glotzen stare]

   glob      n.  a mass or lump of semi-liquid substance, e.g. mud.  [20th
             c.: perh. f.  BLOB and GOB(1)]

   global    adj.  1 worldwide (global conflict).  2 relating to or embracing
             a group of items etc.; total.  Ьglobal warming the increase in
             temperature of the earth's atmosphere caused by the greenhouse
             effect.  ЬЬglobally adv.  [F (as GLOBE)]

   globe     n. & v.  --n.  1 a (prec. by the) the planet earth.  b a planet,
             star, or sun.  c any spherical body; a ball.  2 a spherical
             representation of the earth or of the constellations with a map
             on the surface.  3 a golden sphere as an emblem of sovereignty;
             an orb.  4 any spherical glass vessel, esp. a fish bowl, a lamp,
             etc.  5 the eyeball.  --v.tr. & intr. make (usu. in passive) or
             become globular.  Ьglobe artichoke the partly edible head of the
             artichoke plant.  globe-fish any tropical fish of the family
             Tetraodontidae, able to inflate itself into a spherical form:
             also called PUFFER-FISH.  globe-flower any ranunculaceous plant
             of the genus Trollius with globular usu. yellow flowers.  globe
             lightning = ball lightning (see BALL(1)).  globe-trotter a
             person who travels widely.  globe-trotting such travel.
             ЬЬglobelike adj.  globoid adj. & n.  globose adj.  [F globe or L

             n.  any planktonic protozoan of the genus Globigerina, living
             near the surface of the sea.  [mod.L f. L globus globe + -ger
             carrying + -INA]

   globular  adj.  1 globe-shaped, spherical.  2 composed of globules.
             ЬЬglobularity n.  globularly adv.

   globule   n.  1 a small globe or round particle; a drop.  2 a pill.
             ЬЬglobulous adj.  [F globule or L globulus (as GLOBE)]

   globulin  n.  any of a group of proteins found in plant and animal tissues
             and esp. responsible for the transport of molecules etc.

             n.  a musical instrument consisting of a series of bells or
             metal bars or tubes suspended or mounted in a frame and struck
             by hammers.  [G, = bell-play]

   glom      v.  US sl.  (glommed, glomming) 1 tr. steal; grab.  2 intr.
             (usu. foll. by on to) steal; grab.  [var. of Sc.  glaum (18th
             c., of unkn. orig.)]

   glomerate adj.  Bot. & Anat.  compactly clustered.  [L glomeratus past
             part. of glomerare f.  glomus -eris ball]

   glomerule n.  a clustered flower-head.

             n.  (pl.  glomeruli) a cluster of small organisms, tissues, or
             blood vessels, esp.  of the capillaries of the kidney.
             ЬЬglomerular adj.  [mod.L, dimin. of L glomus -eris ball]

   gloom     n. & v.  --n.  1 darkness; obscurity.  2 melancholy;
             despondency.  3 poet. a dark place.  --v.  1 intr. be gloomy or
             melancholy; frown.  2 intr. (of the sky etc.) be dull or
             threatening; lour.  3 intr. appear darkly or obscurely.  4 tr.
             cover with gloom; make dark or dismal.  [ME gloum(b)e, of unkn.
             orig.: cf.  GLUM]

   gloomy    adj.  (gloomier, gloomiest) 1 dark; unlighted.  2 depressed;
             sullen.  3 dismal; depressing.  ЬЬgloomily adv.  gloominess n.

   glop      n.  US sl.  a liquid or sticky mess, esp. inedible food.
             [imit.: cf. obs.  glop swallow greedily]

   Gloria    n.  1 any of various doxologies beginning with Gloria, esp. the
             hymn beginning with Gloria in excelsis Deo (Glory be to God in
             the highest).  2 an aureole.  [L, = glory]

   glorify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 exalt to heavenly glory; make glorious.  2
             transform into something more splendid.  3 extol; praise.  4 (as
             glorified adj.) seeming or pretending to be more splendid than
             in reality (just a glorified office boy).  ЬЬglorification n.
             glorifier n.  [ME f. OF glorifier f. eccl.L glorificare f. LL
             glorificus f. L gloria glory]

   gloriole  n.  an aureole; a halo.  [F f. L gloriola dimin. of gloria

   glorious  adj.  1 possessing glory; illustrious.  2 conferring glory;
             honourable.  3 colloq. splendid; magnificent; delightful (a
             glorious day; glorious fun).  4 iron. intense; unmitigated (a
             glorious muddle).  5 colloq. happily intoxicated.  ЬЬgloriously
             adv.  gloriousness n.  [ME f. AF glorious, OF glorios, -eus f. L
             gloriosus (as GLORY)]

   glory     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 high renown or fame; honour.  2
             adoring praise and thanksgiving (Glory to the Lord).  3
             resplendent majesty or magnificence; great beauty (the glory of
             Versailles; the glory of the rose).  4 a thing that brings
             renown or praise; a distinction.  5 the bliss and splendour of
             heaven.  6 colloq. a state of exaltation, prosperity, happiness,
             etc. (is in his glory playing with his trains).  7 an aureole, a
             halo.  8 an anthelion.  --v.intr. (often foll. by in, or to +
             infin.) pride oneself; exult (glory in their skill).  Ьglory be!
             1 a devout ejaculation.  2 colloq. an exclamation of surprise or
             delight.  glory-box Austral. & NZ a box for women's clothes
             etc., stored in preparation for marriage.  glory-hole 1 colloq.
             an untidy room, drawer, or receptacle.  2 US an open quarry.
             glory-of-the-snow = CHIONODOXA.  go to glory sl.  die; be
             destroyed.  [ME f. AF & OF glorie f. L gloria]

   Glos.     abbr.  Gloucestershire.

   gloss(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a surface shine or lustre.  b an instance of
             this; a smooth finish.  2 a deceptively attractive appearance.
             b an instance of this.  3 (in full gloss paint) paint formulated
             to give a hard glossy finish (cf.  MATT).  --v.tr. make glossy.
             Ьgloss over 1 seek to conceal beneath a false appearance.  2
             conceal or evade by mentioning briefly or misleadingly.
             ЬЬglosser n.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   gloss(2)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a an explanatory word or phrase inserted
             between the lines or in the margin of a text.  b a comment,
             explanation, interpretation, or paraphrase.  2 a
             misrepresentation of another's words.  3 a a glossary.  b an
             interlinear translation or annotation.  --v.  1 tr.  a add a
             gloss or glosses to (a text, word, etc.).  b read a different
             sense into; explain away.  2 intr. (often foll. by on) make
             (esp. unfavourable) comments.  3 intr. write or introduce
             glosses.  ЬЬglosser n.  [alt. of GLOZE after med.L glossa]

   glossal   adj.  Anat.  of the tongue; lingual.  [Gk glossa tongue]

   glossary  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 (also gloss) an alphabetical list of terms or
             words found in or relating to a specific subject or text, esp.
             dialect, with explanations; a brief dictionary.  2 a collection
             of glosses.  ЬЬglossarial adj.  glossarist n.  [L glossarium f.
             glossa GLOSS(2)]

   glossator n.  1 a writer of glosses.  2 hist. a commentator on, or
             interpreter of, medieval law-texts.  [ME f. med.L f.  glossare
             f.  glossa GLOSS(2)]

   glosseme  n.  any meaningful feature of a language that cannot be analysed
             into smaller meaningful units.  [Gk glossema f.  glossa

   glossitis n.  inflammation of the tongue.  [Gk glossa tongue + -ITIS]

             n.  a writer of glosses or commentaries.  [GLOSS(2) + -GRAPHER]

             n.  = gift of tongues (see TONGUE).  [mod.L f. Gk glossa tongue
             + -lalia speaking]

             adj.  of the tongue and larynx.  [Gk glossa tongue + LARYNGEAL]

   glossy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (glossier, glossiest) 1 having a shine;
             smooth.  2 (of paper etc.) smooth and shiny.  3 (of a magazine
             etc.) printed on such paper.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq.  1 a
             glossy magazine.  2 a photograph with a glossy surface.
             ЬЬglossily adv.  glossiness n.

   glottal   adj.  of or produced by the glottis.  Ьglottal stop a sound
             produced by the sudden opening or shutting of the glottis.

   glottis   n.  the space at the upper end of the windpipe and between the
             vocal cords, affecting voice modulation through expansion or
             contraction.  ЬЬglottic adj.  [mod.L f. Gk glottis f.  glotta
             var. of glossa tongue]

             n. (usu.  double Gloucester, orig. a richer kind) a kind of hard
             cheese orig. made in Gloucestershire in S. England.

   glove     n. & v.  --n.  1 a covering for the hand, of wool, leather,
             cotton, etc., worn esp. for protection against cold or dirt, and
             usu. having separate fingers.  2 a padded protective glove,
             esp.: a a boxing glove.  b a wicket-keeper's glove.  --v.tr.
             cover or provide with a glove or gloves.  Ьfit like a glove fit
             exactly.  glove box 1 a box for gloves.  2 a closed chamber with
             sealed-in gloves for handling radioactive material etc.  3 =
             glove compartment.  glove compartment a recess for small
             articles in the dashboard of a motor vehicle.  glove puppet a
             small cloth puppet fitted on the hand and worked by the fingers.
             throw down (or take up) the glove issue (or accept) a challenge.
             with the gloves off mercilessly; unfairly; with no compunction.
             ЬЬgloveless adj.  glover n.  [OE glof, corresp. to ON glўfi,
             perh. f. Gmc]

   glow      v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 a throw out light and heat without flame;
             be incandescent.  b shine like something heated in this way.  2
             (of the cheeks) redden, esp. from cold or exercise.  3 (often
             foll. by with) a (of the body) be heated, esp. from exertion;
             sweat.  b express or experience strong emotion (glowed with
             pride; glowing with indignation).  4 showing a warm colour (the
             painting glows with warmth).  5 (as glowing adj.) expressing
             pride or satisfaction (a glowing report).  --n.  1 a glowing
             state.  2 a bright warm colour, esp. the red of cheeks.  3
             ardour; passion.  4 a feeling induced by good health, exercise,
             etc.; well-being.  Ьglow discharge a luminous sparkless
             electrical discharge from a pointed conductor in a gas at low
             pressure.  glow-worm any beetle of the genus Lampyris whose
             wingless female emits light from the end of the abdomen.  in a
             glow colloq.  hot or flushed; sweating.  ЬЬglowingly adv.  [OE
             glowan f. Gmc]

   glower    v. & n.  --v.intr. (often foll. by at) stare or scowl, esp.
             angrily.  --n. a glowering look.  ЬЬgloweringly adv.  [orig.
             uncert.: perh. Sc. var. of ME glore f. LG or Scand., or f. obs.
             (ME) glow stare + -ER(4)]

   gloxinia  n.  any tropical plant of the genus Gloxinia, native to S.
             America, with large bell flowers of various colours.  [mod.L f.
             B. P.  Gloxin, 18th-c. Ger. botanist]

   gloze     v.  1 tr.  (also gloze over) explain away; extenuate; palliate.
             2 intr.  archaic a (usu. foll. by on, upon) comment.  b talk
             speciously; fawn.  [ME f. OF gloser f.  glose f. med.L glosa,
             gloza f. L glossa tongue, GLOSS(2)]

   glucagon  n.  a polypeptide hormone formed in the pancreas, which aids the
             breakdown of glycogen.  [Gk glukus sweet + agon leading]

   glucose   n.  1 a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms, found mainly
             in its dextrorotatory form (see DEXTROSE), which is an important
             energy source in living organisms and obtainable from some
             carbohydrates by hydrolysis.  °Chem. formula: C[6]H[12]O[6].  2
             a syrup containing glucose sugars from the incomplete hydrolysis
             of starch.  [F f. Gk gleukos sweet wine, rel. to glukus sweet]

   glucoside n.  a compound giving glucose and other products upon
             hydrolysis.  ЬЬglucosidic adj.

   glue      n. & v.  --n. an adhesive substance used for sticking objects or
             materials together.  --v.tr.  (glues, glued, gluing or glueing)
             1 fasten or join with glue.  2 keep or put very close (an eye
             glued to the keyhole).  Ьglue-pot 1 a pot with an outer vessel
             holding water to heat glue.  2 colloq. an area of sticky mud
             etc.  glue-sniffer a person who inhales the fumes from adhesives
             as a drug.  ЬЬgluelike adj.  gluer n.  gluey adj.  (gluier,
             gluiest).  glueyness n.  [ME f. OF glu (n.), gluer (v.), f. LL
             glus glutis f. L gluten]

   glum      adj.  (glummer, glummest) looking or feeling dejected; sullen;
             displeased.  ЬЬglumly adv.  glumness n.  [rel. to dial.  glum
             (v.) frown, var. of gloume GLOOM v.]

   glume     n.  1 a membranous bract surrounding the spikelet of grasses or
             the florets of sedges.  2 the husk of grain.  ЬЬglumaceous adj.
             glumose adj.  [L gluma husk]

   gluon     n.  Physics any of a group of elementary particles that are
             thought to bind quarks together.  [GLUE + -ON]

   glut      v. & n.  --v.tr.  (glutted, glutting) 1 feed (a person, one's
             stomach, etc.) or indulge (an appetite, a desire, etc.) to the
             full; satiate; cloy.  2 fill to excess; choke up.  3 Econ.
             overstock (a market) with goods.  --n.  1 Econ. supply exceeding
             demand; a surfeit (a glut in the market).  2 full indulgence;
             one's fill.  [ME prob. f. OF gloutir swallow f. L gluttire: cf.

   glutamate n.  any salt or ester of glutamic acid, esp. a sodium salt used
             to enhance the flavour of food.

   glutamic acid
             n.  a naturally occurring amino acid, a constituent of many
             proteins.  [GLUTEN + AMINE + -IC]

   gluten    n.  1 a mixture of proteins present in cereal grains.  2 archaic
             a sticky substance.  [F f. L gluten glutinis glue]

   gluteus   n.  (pl.  glutei) any of the three muscles in each buttock.
             ЬЬgluteal adj.  [mod.L f. Gk gloutos buttock]

   glutinous adj.  sticky; like glue.  ЬЬglutinously adv.  glutinousness n.
             [F glutineux or L glutinosus (as GLUTEN)]

   glutton   n.  1 an excessively greedy eater.  2 (often foll. by for)
             colloq. a person insatiably eager (a glutton for work).  3 a
             voracious animal Gulo gulo, of the weasel family. Also called
             WOLVERINE.  Ьa glutton for punishment a person eager to take on
             hard or unpleasant tasks.  ЬЬgluttonize v.intr.  (also -ise).
             gluttonous adj.  gluttonously adv.  [ME f. OF gluton, gloton f.
             L glutto -onis f.  gluttire swallow, gluttus greedy]

   gluttony  n.  habitual greed or excess in eating.  [OF glutonie (as

   glyceride n.  any fatty-acid ester of glycerol.

   glycerine n.  (US glycerin) = GLYCEROL.  [F glycerin f. Gk glukeros sweet]

   glycerol  n.  a colourless sweet viscous liquid formed as a by-product in
             the manufacture of soap, used as an emollient and laxative, in
             explosives, etc.  °Chem. formula: C[3]H[8]O[3]. Also called
             GLYCERINE.  [GLYCERINE + -OL(1)]

   glycine   n.  the simplest naturally occurring amino acid, a general
             constituent of proteins.  [G Glycin f. Gk glukus sweet]

   glyco-    comb. form sugar.  [Gk glukus sweet]

   glycogen  n.  a polysaccharide serving as a store of carbohydrates, esp.
             in animal tissues, and yielding glucose on hydrolysis.
             ЬЬglycogenic adj.

             n.  Biochem.  the formation of glycogen from sugar.

   glycol    n.  a diol, esp. ethylene glycol.  ЬЬglycolic adj.  glycollic
             adj.  [GLYCERINE + -OL(1), orig. as being intermediate between
             glycerine and alcohol]

             n.  Biochem.  the breakdown of glucose by enzymes in most living
             organisms to release energy and pyruvic acid.

             n.  any of a group of compounds consisting of a protein combined
             with a carbohydrate.

   glycoside n.  any compound giving sugar and other products on hydrolysis.
             ЬЬglycosidic adj.  [GLYCO-, after GLUCOSIDE]

             n.  a condition characterized by an excess of sugar in the
             urine, associated with diabetes, kidney disease, etc.
             ЬЬglycosuric adj.  [F glycose glucose + -URIA]

   glyph     n.  1 a sculptured character or symbol.  2 a vertical groove,
             esp. that on a Greek frieze.  ЬЬglyphic adj.  [F glyphe f. Gk
             gluphe carving f.  glupho carve]

   glyptal   n.  an alkyd resin, esp. one formed from glycerine and phthalic
             acid or anhydride.  [perh. f.  glycerol + ph th alic]

   glyptic   adj.  of or concerning carving, esp. on precious stones.  [F
             glyptique or Gk gluptikos f.  gluptes carver f.  glupho carve]

             n.  any extinct armadillo-like edentate animal of the genus
             Glyptodon native to S. America, having fluted teeth and a body
             covered in a hard thick bony shell.  [mod.L f. Gk gluptos carved
             + odous odontos tooth]

             n.  the art or scientific study of gem-engraving.  [Gk gluptos
             carved + -GRAPHY]

11.0 GM...

   GM        abbr.  1 (in the UK) George Medal.  2 (in the US) General
             Motors.  3 general manager.

   gm        abbr.  gram(s).

   G-man     n.  (pl.  G-men) 1 US colloq. a federal criminal-investigation
             officer.  2 Ir. a political detective.  [Government + MAN]

   GMT       abbr.  Greenwich mean time.

   GMWU      abbr.  (in the UK) General & Municipal Workers' Union.

12.0 gnamma...

   gnamma    n.  (also namma) Austral.  a natural hole in a rock, containing
             water; a waterhole.  [Aboriginal]

   gnarled   adj.  (also gnarly) (of a tree, hands, etc.) knobbly, twisted,
             rugged.  [var. of knarled, rel. to KNURL]

   gnash     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. grind (the teeth).  2 intr. (of the teeth)
             strike together; grind.  --n. an act of grinding the teeth.
             [var. of obs.  gnacche or gnast, rel. to ON gnastan a gnashing

   gnat      n.  1 any small two-winged biting fly of the genus Culex, esp.
             C. pipiens.  2 an insignificant annoyance.  3 a tiny thing.  [OE

   gnathic   adj.  of or relating to the jaws.  [Gk gnathos jaw]

   gnaw      v.  (past part.  gnawed or gnawn) 1 a tr. (usu. foll. by away,
             off, in two, etc.) bite persistently; wear away by biting.  b
             intr. (often foll. by at, into) bite, nibble.  2 a intr. (often
             foll. by at, into) (of a destructive agent, pain, fear, etc.)
             corrode; waste away; consume; torture.  b tr. corrode, consume,
             torture, etc. with pain, fear, etc. (was gnawed by doubt).  3
             tr. (as gnawing adj.) persistent; worrying.  ЬЬgnawingly adv.
             [OE gnagen, ult. imit.]

   gneiss    n.  a usu. coarse-grained metamorphic rock foliated by mineral
             layers, principally of feldspar, quartz, and ferromagnesian
             minerals.  ЬЬgneissic adj.  gneissoid adj.  gneissose adj.  [G]

   gnocchi   n.pl.  an Italian dish of small dumplings usu. made from potato,
             semolina flour, etc., or from spinach and cheese.  [It., pl. of
             gnocco f.  nocchio knot in wood]

   gnome(1)  n.  1 a a dwarfish legendary creature supposed to guard the
             earth's treasures underground; a goblin.  b a figure of a gnome,
             esp. as a garden ornament.  2 (esp. in pl.) colloq. a person
             with sinister influence, esp. financial (gnomes of Zurich).
             ЬЬgnomish adj.  [F f. mod.L gnomus (word invented by

   gnome(2)  n.  a maxim; an aphorism.  [Gk gnome opinion f.  gignosko know]

   gnomic    adj.  1 of, consisting of, or using gnomes or aphorisms;
             sententious (see GNOME(2)).  2 Gram. (of a tense) used without
             the implication of time to express a general truth, e.g.  men
             were deceivers ever.  ЬЬgnomically adv.  [Gk gnomikos (as

   gnomon    n.  1 the rod or pin etc. on a sundial that shows the time by
             the position of its shadow.  2 Geom. the part of a parallelogram
             left when a similar parallelogram has been taken from its
             corner.  3 Astron. a column etc. used in observing the sun's
             meridian altitude.  ЬЬgnomonic adj.  [F or L gnomon f. Gk gnomon
             indicator etc. f.  gignosko know]

   gnosis    n.  knowledge of spiritual mysteries.  [Gk gnosis knowledge (as

   gnostic   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 relating to knowledge, esp. esoteric
             mystical knowledge.  2 (Gnostic) concerning the Gnostics;
             occult; mystic.  --n. (Gnostic) (usu. in pl.) a Christian
             heretic of the 1st-3rd c. claiming gnosis.  ЬЬGnosticism n.
             gnosticize v.tr. & intr.  [eccl.L gnosticus f. Gk gnostikos (as

   GNP       abbr.  gross national product.

   Gnr.      abbr.  Brit.  Gunner.

   gns.      abbr.  Brit.  hist.  guineas.

   gnu       n.  any antelope of the genus Connochaetes, native to S. Africa,
             with a large erect head and brown stripes on the neck and
             shoulders. Also called WILDEBEEST.  [Bushman nqu, prob. through
             Du.  gnoe]

13.0 go...

   go(1)     v., n., & adj.  --v.  (3rd sing. present goes; past went; past
             part.  gone) 1 intr.  a start moving or be moving from one place
             or point in time to another; travel, proceed.  b (foll. by to +
             infin., or and + verb) proceed in order to (went to find him; go
             and buy some bread).  c (foll. by and + verb) colloq. expressing
             annoyance (you went and told him; they've gone and broken it;
             she went and won).  2 intr. (foll. by verbal noun) make a
             special trip for; participate in; proceed to do (went skiing;
             then went shopping; often goes running).  3 intr. lie or extend
             in a certain direction (the road goes to London).  4 intr.
             leave; depart (they had to go).  5 intr. move, act, work, etc.
             (the clock doesn't go; his brain is going all the time).  6
             intr.  a make a specified movement (go like this with your
             foot).  b make a sound (often of a specified kind) (the gun went
             bang; the door bell went).  c colloq. say (so he goes to me 'Why
             didn't you like it?').  d (of an animal) make (its
             characteristic cry) (the cow went 'moo').  7 intr. be in a
             specified state (go hungry; went in fear of his life).  8 intr.
             a pass into a specified condition (gone bad; went mad; went to
             sleep).  b colloq. die.  c proceed or escape in a specified
             condition (the poet went unrecognized; the crime went
             unnoticed).  9 intr. (of time or distance) pass, elapse; be
             traversed (ten days to go before Easter; the last mile went
             quickly).  10 intr.  a (of a document, verse, song, etc.) have a
             specified content or wording; run (the tune goes like this).  b
             be current or accepted (so the story goes).  c be suitable; fit;
             match (the shoes don't go with the hat).  d be regularly kept or
             put (the forks go here).  e find room; fit (this won't go into
             the cupboard).  11 intr.  a turn out, proceed; take a course or
             view (things went well; Liverpool went Labour).  b be successful
             (make the party go; went like a bomb).  c progress (we've still
             a long way to go).  12 intr.  a be sold (went for њ1; went
             cheap).  b (of money) be spent (њ200 went on a new jacket).  13
             intr.  a be relinquished, dismissed, or abolished (the car will
             have to go).  b fail, decline; give way, collapse (his sight is
             going; the bulb has gone).  14 intr. be acceptable or permitted;
             be accepted without question (anything goes; what I say goes).
             15 intr. (often foll. by by, with, on, upon) be guided by; judge
             or act on or in harmony with (have nothing to go on; a good rule
             to go by).  16 intr. attend or visit or travel to regularly
             (goes to church; goes to school; this train goes to Bristol).
             17 intr. (foll. by pres. part.)  colloq. proceed (often
             foolishly) to do (went running to the police; don't go making
             him angry).  18 intr. act or proceed to a certain point (will go
             so far and no further; went as high as њ100).  19 intr. (of a
             number) be capable of being contained in another (6 into 12 goes
             twice; 6 into 5 won't go).  20 tr.  Cards bid; declare (go nap;
             has gone two spades).  21 intr. (usu. foll. by to) be allotted
             or awarded; pass (first prize went to the girl; the job went to
             his rival).  22 intr. (foll. by to, towards) amount to;
             contribute to (12 inches go to make a foot; this will go towards
             your holiday).  23 intr. (in imper.) begin motion (a starter's
             order in a race) (ready, steady, go!).  24 intr. (usu. foll. by
             to) refer or appeal (go to him for help).  25 intr. (often foll.
             by on) take up a specified profession (went on the stage; gone
             soldiering; went to sea).  26 intr. (usu. foll. by by, under) be
             known or called (goes by the name of Droopy).  27 tr.  colloq.
             proceed to (go jump in the lake).  28 intr. (foll. by for) apply
             to; have relevance for (that goes for me too).  --n.  (pl.
             goes) 1 the act or an instance of going.  2 mettle; spirit;
             dash; animation (she has a lot of go in her).  3 vigorous
             activity (it's all go).  4 colloq. a success (made a go of it).
             5 colloq. a turn; an attempt (I'll have a go; it's my go; all in
             one go).  6 colloq. a state of affairs (a rum go).  7 colloq. an
             attack of illness (a bad go of flu).  8 colloq. a quantity of
             liquor, food, etc. served at one time.  --adj.  colloq.  1
             functioning properly (all systems are go).  2 fashionable;
             progressive.  Ьall the go colloq.  in fashion.  as (or so) far
             as it goes an expression of caution against taking a statement
             too positively (the work is good as far as it goes).  as (a
             person or thing) goes as the average is (a good actor as actors
             go).  from the word go colloq.  from the very beginning.  give
             it a go colloq.  make an effort to succeed.  go about 1 busy
             oneself with; set to work at.  2 be socially active.  3 (foll.
             by pres. part.) make a habit of doing (goes about telling lies).
             4 Naut. change to an opposite tack.  go ahead proceed without
             hesitation.  go-ahead n.  permission to proceed.  --adj.
             enterprising.  go along with agree to; take the same view as.
             go around 1 (foll. by with) be regularly in the company of.  2 =
             go about 3.  go-as-you-please untrammelled; free.  go at take in
             hand energetically; attack.  go away depart, esp. from home for
             a holiday etc.  go back on fail to keep (one's word, promise,
             etc.).  go bail see BAIL(1).  go begging see BEG.  go-between an
             intermediary; a negotiator.  go by 1 pass.  2 be dependent on;
             be guided by.  go-by colloq.  a snub; a slight (gave it the
             go-by).  go by default see DEFAULT.  go-cart 1 a handcart; a
             pushchair.  2 = go-kart.  3 archaic a baby-walker.  go-devil US
             an instrument used to clean the inside of pipes etc.  go down 1
             a (of an amount) become less (the coffee has gone down a lot).
             b subside (the flood went down).  c decrease in price; lose
             value.  2 a (of a ship) sink.  b (of the sun) set.  3 (usu.
             foll. by to) be continued to a specified point.  4 deteriorate;
             fail; (of a computer network etc.) cease to function.  5 be
             recorded in writing.  6 be swallowed.  7 (often foll. by with)
             find acceptance.  8 Brit.  colloq. leave university.  9 colloq.
             be sent to prison (went down for ten years).  10 (often foll. by
             before) fall (before a conqueror).  go down with Brit.  begin to
             suffer from (a disease).  go Dutch see DUTCH.  go far be very
             successful.  go for 1 go to fetch.  2 be accounted as or achieve
             (went for nothing).  3 prefer; choose (that's the one I go for).
             4 colloq. strive to attain (go for it!).  5 colloq. attack (the
             dog went for him).  go-getter colloq.  an aggressively
             enterprising person, esp. a businessman.  go-go colloq.  1 (of a
             dancer, music, etc.) in modern style, lively, and rhythmic.  2
             unrestrained; energetic.  3 (of investment) speculative.  go
             great guns see GUN.  go halves (or shares) (often foll. by with)
             share equally.  go in 1 enter a room, house, etc.  2 (usu. foll.
             by for) enter as a competitor.  3 Cricket take or begin an
             innings.  4 (of the sun etc.) become obscured by cloud.  go in
             for take as one's object, style, pursuit, principle, etc.
             going!, gone!  an auctioneer's announcement that bidding is
             closing or closed.  go into 1 enter (a profession, Parliament,
             etc.).  2 take part in; be a part of.  3 investigate.  4 allow
             oneself to pass into (hysterics etc.).  5 dress oneself in
             (mourning etc.).  6 frequent (society).  go it colloq.  1 act
             vigorously, furiously, etc.  2 indulge in dissipation.  go it
             alone see ALONE.  go it strong colloq.  go to great lengths;
             exaggerate.  go-kart a miniature racing car with a skeleton
             body.  go a long way 1 (often foll. by towards) have a great
             effect.  2 (of food, money, etc.) last a long time, buy much.  3
             = go far.  go off 1 explode.  2 leave the stage.  3 gradually
             cease to be felt.  4 (esp. of foodstuffs) deteriorate;
             decompose.  5 go to sleep; become unconscious.  6 begin.  7 die.
             8 be got rid of by sale etc.  9 Brit.  colloq. begin to dislike
             (I've gone off him).  go-off colloq.  a start (at the first
             go-off).  go off at Austral. & NZ sl.  reprimand, scold.  go off
             well (or badly etc.) (of an enterprise etc.) be received or
             accomplished well (or badly etc.).  go on 1 (often foll. by
             pres. part.) continue, persevere (decided to go on with it; went
             on trying; unable to go on).  2 colloq.  a talk at great length.
             b (foll. by at) admonish (went on and on at him).  3 (foll. by
             to + infin.) proceed (went on to become a star).  4 happen.  5
             conduct oneself (shameful, the way they went on).  6 Theatr.
             appear on stage.  7 Cricket begin bowling.  8 (of a garment) be
             large enough for its wearer.  9 take one's turn to do something.
             10 (also go upon) colloq. use as evidence (police don't have
             anything to go on).  11 colloq. (esp. in neg.) a concern oneself
             about.  b care for (don't go much on red hair).  12 become
             chargeable to (the parish etc.).  go on!  colloq.  an expression
             of encouragement or disbelief.  go out 1 leave a room, house,
             etc.  2 be broadcast.  3 be extinguished.  4 (often foll. by
             with) be courting.  5 (of a government) leave office.  6 cease
             to be fashionable.  7 (usu. foll. by to) depart, esp. to a
             colony etc.  8 colloq. lose consciousness.  9 (of workers)
             strike.  10 (usu. foll. by to) (of the heart etc.) expand with
             sympathy etc. towards (my heart goes out to them).  11 Golf play
             the first nine holes in a round.  12 Cards be the first to
             dispose of one's hand.  13 (of a tide) turn to low tide.  go
             over 1 inspect the details of; rehearse; retouch.  2 (often
             foll. by to) change one's allegiance or religion.  3 (of a play
             etc.) be successful (went over well in Dundee).  go round 1
             spin, revolve.  2 be long enough to encompass.  3 (of food etc.)
             suffice for everybody.  4 (usu. foll. by to) visit informally.
             5 = go around.  go slow work slowly, as a form of industrial
             action.  go-slow Brit.  such industrial action.  go through 1 be
             dealt with or completed.  2 discuss in detail; scrutinize in
             sequence.  3 perform (a ceremony, a recitation, etc.).  4
             undergo.  5 colloq. use up; spend (money etc.).  6 make holes
             in.  7 (of a book) be successively published (in so many
             editions).  8 Austral.  sl. abscond.  go through with not leave
             unfinished; complete.  go to!  archaic an exclamation of
             disbelief, impatience, admonition, etc.  go to the bar become a
             barrister.  go to blazes (or hell or Jericho etc.) sl.  an
             exclamation of dismissal, contempt, etc.  go to the country see
             COUNTRY.  go together 1 match; fit.  2 be courting.  go to it!
             colloq.  begin work!  go-to-meeting (of a hat, clothes, etc.)
             suitable for going to church in.  go to show (or prove) serve to
             demonstrate (or prove).  go under sink; fail; succumb.  go up 1
             increase in price.  2 Brit.  colloq. enter university.  3 be
             consumed (in flames etc.); explode.  go well (or ill etc.)
             (often foll. by with) turn out well, (or ill etc.).  go with 1
             be harmonious with; match.  2 agree to; take the same view as.
             3 a be a pair with.  b be courting.  4 follow the drift of.  go
             without manage without; forgo (also absol.  : we shall just have
             to go without).  go with the tide (or times) do as others do;
             follow the drift.  have a go at 1 attack, criticize.  2 attempt,
             try.  on the go colloq.  1 in constant motion.  2 constantly
             working.  to go US (of refreshments etc.) to be eaten or drunk
             off the premises.  who goes there?  a sentry's challenge.  [OE
             gan f. Gmc: went orig. past of WEND]

   go(2)     n.  a Japanese board game of territorial possession and capture.

   goad      n. & v.  --n.  1 a spiked stick used for urging cattle forward.
             2 anything that torments, incites, or stimulates.  --v.tr.  1
             urge on with a goad.  2 (usu. foll. by on, into) irritate;
             stimulate (goaded him into retaliating; goaded me on to win).
             [OE gad, rel. to Lombard gaida arrowhead f. Gmc]

   goal      n.  1 the object of a person's ambition or effort; a
             destination; an aim (fame is his goal; London was our goal).  2
             a Football a pair of posts with a crossbar between which the
             ball has to be sent to score.  b a cage or basket used similarly
             in other games.  c a point won (scored 3 goals).  3 a point
             marking the end of a race.  Ьgoal average Football the ratio of
             the numbers of goals scored for and against a team in a series
             of matches.  goal difference Football the difference of goals
             scored for and against.  goal-kick 1 Assoc. Football a kick by
             the defending side after attackers send the ball over the
             goal-line without scoring.  2 Rugby Football an attempt to kick
             a goal.  goal-line Football a line between each pair of
             goalposts, extended to form the end-boundary of a field of play
             (cf.  touch-line).  goal-minder (or -tender) US a goalkeeper at
             ice hockey.  goal-mouth Football the space between or near the
             goalposts.  in goal in the position of goalkeeper.  ЬЬgoalless
             adj.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.: perh. identical with ME gol

   goalball  n.  a team ball game for blind and visually handicapped players.

   goalie    n.  colloq.  = GOALKEEPER.

             n.  a player stationed to protect the goal in various sports.

   goalpost  n.  either of the two upright posts of a goal.  Ьmove the
             goalposts alter the basis or scope of a procedure during its
             course, so as to fit adverse circumstances encountered.

   goanna    n.  Austral.  a monitor lizard.  [corrupt. of IGUANA]

   goat      n.  1 a a hardy lively frisky short-haired domesticated mammal,
             Capra aegagrus, having horns and (in the male) a beard, and kept
             for its milk and meat.  b either of two similar mammals, the
             mountain goat and the Spanish goat.  2 any other mammal of the
             genus Capra, including the ibex.  3 a lecherous man.  4 colloq.
             a foolish person.  5 (the Goat) the zodiacal sign or
             constellation Capricorn.  6 US a scapegoat.  Ьget a person's
             goat colloq.  irritate a person.  goat-antelope any
             antelope-like member of the goat family, including the chamois
             and goral.  goat-god Pan.  goat moth any of various large moths
             of the family Cossidae.  goat's-beard 1 a meadow plant,
             Tragopogon pratensis.  2 a herbaceous plant, Aruncus dioicus,
             with long plumes of white flowers.  ЬЬgoatish adj.  goaty adj.
             [OE gat she-goat f. Gmc]

   goatee    n.  a small pointed beard like that of a goat.

   goatherd  n.  a person who tends goats.

   goatskin  n.  1 the skin of a goat.  2 a garment or bottle made out of

             n.  = NIGHTJAR.

   gob(1)    n.  esp.  Brit.  sl.  the mouth.  Ьgob-stopper a very large hard
             sweet.  [perh. f. Gael. & Ir., = beak, mouth]

   gob(2)    n. & v.  Brit.  sl.  --n. a clot of slimy matter.  --v.intr.
             (gobbed, gobbing) spit.  [ME f. OF go(u)be mouthful]

   gob(3)    n.  sl.  a US sailor.  [20th c.: cf.  GOBBY]

   gobbet    n.  1 a piece or lump of raw meat, flesh, food, etc.  2 an
             extract from a text, esp. one set for translation or comment in
             an examination.  [ME f. OF gobet (as GOB(2))]

   gobble(1) v.tr. & intr.  eat hurriedly and noisily.  ЬЬgobbler n.  [prob.
             dial. f.  GOB(2)]

   gobble(2) v.intr.  1 (of a turkeycock) make a characteristic swallowing
             sound in the throat.  2 make such a sound when speaking, esp.
             when excited, angry, etc.  [imit.: perh. based on GOBBLE(1)]

             n.  (also gobbledygook) colloq.  pompous or unintelligible
             jargon.  [prob. imit. of a turkeycock]

   gobbler   n.  colloq.  a turkeycock.

   gobby     n.  (pl.  -ies) sl.  1 a coastguard.  2 an American sailor.
             [perh. f.  GOB(2) + -Y(1)]

   Gobelin   n. (in full Gobelin tapestry) 1 a tapestry made at the Gobelins
             factory.  2 a tapestry imitating this.  [name of a State factory
             in Paris, called Gobelins after its orig. owners]

             n.  (pl.  gobemouches pronunc. same) a gullible listener.  [F
             gobe-mouches, = fly-catcher f.  gober swallow + mouches flies]

   goblet    n.  1 a drinking-vessel with a foot and a stem, usu. of glass.
             2 archaic a metal or glass bowl-shaped drinking-cup without
             handles, sometimes with a foot and a cover.  3 poet. a
             drinking-cup.  [ME f. OF gobelet dimin. of gobel cup, of unkn.

   goblin    n.  a mischievous ugly dwarflike creature of folklore.  [ME
             prob. f. AF gobelin, med.L gobelinus, prob. f. name dimin. of
             Gobel, rel. to G Kobold: see COBALT]

   goby      n.  (pl.  -ies) any small marine fish of the family Gabiidae,
             having ventral fins joined to form a sucker or disc.  [L gobius,
             cobius f. Gk kobios GUDGEON(1)]

   GOC       abbr.  General Officer Commanding.

   god       n.  1 a (in many religions) a superhuman being or spirit
             worshipped as having power over nature, human fortunes, etc.; a
             deity.  b an image, idol, animal, or other object worshipped as
             divine or symbolizing a god.  2 (God) (in Christian and other
             monotheistic religions) the creator and ruler of the universe;
             the supreme being.  3 a an adored, admired, or influential
             person.  b something worshipped like a god (makes a god of
             success).  4 Theatr. (in pl.) a the gallery.  b the people
             sitting in it.  5 (God!) an exclamation of surprise, anger, etc.
             Ьby God!  an exclamation of surprise etc.  for God's sake!  see
             SAKE(1).  God-awful sl.  extremely unpleasant, nasty, etc.  God
             bless an expression of good wishes on parting.  God bless me (or
             my soul) see BLESS.  God damn (you, him , etc.) may (you etc.)
             be damned.  god-damn (or -dam or -damned) sl.  accursed,
             damnable.  god-daughter a female godchild.  God the Father, Son,
             and Holy Ghost (in the Christian tradition) the Persons of the
             Trinity.  God-fearing earnestly religious.  God forbid (foll. by
             that + clause, or absol.) may it not happen!  God-forsaken
             devoid of all merit; dismal; dreary.  God grant (foll. by that +
             clause) may it happen.  God help (you, him , etc.) an expression
             of concern for or sympathy with a person.  God knows 1 it is
             beyond all knowledge (God knows what will become of him).  2 I
             call God to witness that (God knows we tried hard enough).
             God's Acre a churchyard.  God's book the Bible.  God's gift
             often iron.  a godsend.  God's own country an earthly paradise,
             esp. the United States.  God squad sl.  1 a religious
             organization, esp. an evangelical Christian group.  2 its
             members.  God's truth the absolute truth.  God willing if
             Providence allows.  good God!  an exclamation of surprise,
             anger, etc.  in God's name an appeal for help.  my (or oh) God!
             an exclamation of surprise, anger, etc.  play God assume
             importance or superiority.  thank God!  an exclamation of
             pleasure or relief.  with God dead and in Heaven.  ЬЬgodhood n.
             godship n.  godward adj. & adv.  godwards adv.  [OE f. Gmc]

   godchild  n.  a person in relation to a godparent.

   goddess   n.  1 a female deity.  2 a woman who is adored, esp. for her

   godet     n.  a triangular piece of material inserted in a dress, glove,
             etc.  [F]

   godetia   n.  any plant of the genus Godetia, having showy rose-purple or
             reddish flowers.  [mod.L f. C. H.  Godet, Swiss botanist d.

   godfather n.  1 a male godparent.  2 esp.  US a person directing an
             illegal organization, esp. the Mafia.  Ьmy godfathers!  euphem.
             my God!

   godhead   n.  (also Godhead) 1 a the state of being God or a god.  b
             divine nature.  2 a deity.  3 (the Godhead) God.

   godless   adj.  1 impious; wicked.  2 without a god.  3 not recognizing
             God.  ЬЬgodlessness n.

   godlike   adj.  1 resembling God or a god in some quality, esp. in
             physical beauty.  2 befitting or appropriate to a god.

   godly     adj.  religious, pious, devout.  ЬЬgodliness n.

   godmother n.  a female godparent.

   godown    n.  a warehouse in parts of E. Asia, esp. in India.  [Port.
             gudao f. Malay godong perh. f. Telugu gidangi place where goods
             lie f.  kidu lie]

   godparent n.  a person who presents a child at baptism and responds on the
             child's behalf.

   godsend   n.  an unexpected but welcome event or acquisition.

   godson    n.  a male godchild.

   Godspeed  int.  an expression of good wishes to a person starting a

   godwit    n.  any wading bird of the genus Limosa, with long legs and a
             long straight or slightly upcurved bill.  [16th c.: of unkn.

             n.  joc.  affected, archaic, or excessively elaborate speech or
             writing, esp. regarding gardens.  [God wot (in a poem on
             gardens, by T. E. Brown 1876)]

   goer      n.  1 a person or thing that goes (a slow goer).  2 (often in
             comb.) a person who attends, esp. regularly (a churchgoer).  3
             colloq.  a a lively or persevering person.  b a sexually
             promiscuous person.  4 Austral.  colloq. a project likely to be
             accepted or to succeed.

   goes      3rd sing. present of GO(1).

   goest     archaic 2nd sing. present of GO(1).

   goeth     archaic 3rd sing. present of GO(1).

   Goethean  adj. & n.  (also Goethian) --adj. of, relating to, or
             characteristic of the German writer J. W.  von Goethe (d. 1832).
             --n. an admirer or follower of Goethe.

   gofer     n.  esp.  US sl.  a person who runs errands, esp. on a film set
             or in an office; a dogsbody.  [go for (see GO(1))]

   goffer    v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 make wavy, flute, or crimp (a lace edge, a
             trimming, etc.)  with heated irons.  2 (as goffered adj.) (of
             the edges of a book) embossed.  --n.  1 an iron used for
             goffering.  2 ornamental plaiting used for frills etc.  [F
             gaufrer stamp with a patterned tool f.  gaufre honeycomb, rel.
             to WAFER, WAFFLE(2)]

   goggle    v., adj., & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a (often foll. by at) look with
             wide-open eyes.  b (of the eyes) be rolled about; protrude.  2
             tr. turn (the eyes) sideways or from side to side.  --adj. (usu.
             attrib.) (of the eyes) protuberant or rolling.  --n.  1 (in pl.)
             a spectacles for protecting the eyes from glare, dust, water,
             etc.  b colloq. spectacles.  2 (in pl.) a sheep disease, the
             staggers.  3 a goggling expression.  Ьgoggle-box Brit.  colloq.
             a television set.  goggle-dive an underwater dive in goggles.
             goggle-eyed having staring or protuberant eyes.  [ME, prob. from
             a base gog (unrecorded) expressive of oscillating movement]

   goglet    n.  Ind.  a long-necked usu. porous earthenware vessel used for
             keeping water cool.  [Port.  gorgoleta]

   Goidel    n.  a Celt who speaks Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, or Manx.
             ЬЬGoidelic n.  [OIr.  Gўidel]

   going     n. & adj.  --n.  1 a the act or process of going.  b an instance
             of this; a departure.  2 a the condition of the ground for
             walking, riding, etc.  b progress affected by this (found the
             going hard).  --adj.  1 in or into action (set the clock going).
             2 existing, available; to be had (there's cold beef going; one
             of the best fellows going).  3 current, prevalent (the going
             rate).  Ьget going start steadily talking, working, etc. (can't
             stop him when he gets going).  going away a departure, esp. on a
             honeymoon.  going concern a thriving business.  going for one
             colloq.  acting in one's favour (he has got a lot going for
             him).  going on fifteen etc. esp.  US approaching one's
             fifteenth etc. birthday.  going on for approaching (a time, an
             age, etc.) (must be going on for 6 years).  going-over 1 colloq.
             an inspection or overhaul.  2 sl. a thrashing.  3 US colloq. a
             scolding.  goings-on behaviour, esp. morally suspect.  going to
             intending or intended to; about to; likely to (it's going to
             sink!).  heavy going slow or difficult to progress with (found
             Proust heavy going).  to be going on with to start with; for the
             time being.  while the going is good while conditions are
             favourable.  [GO(1): in some senses f. earlier a-going: see

   goitre    n.  (US goiter) Med.  a swelling of the neck resulting from
             enlargement of the thyroid gland.  ЬЬgoitred adj.  goitrous adj.
             [F, back-form. f.  goitreux or f. Prov.  goitron, ult. f. L
             guttur throat]

   Golconda  n.  a mine or source of wealth, advantages, etc.  [city near
             Hyderabad, India]

   gold      n. & adj.  --n.  1 a yellow malleable ductile high density
             metallic element resistant to chemical reaction, occurring
             naturally in quartz veins and gravel, and precious as a monetary
             medium, in jewellery, etc.  °Symb.: Au.  2 the colour of gold.
             3 a coins or articles made of gold.  b money in large sums,
             wealth.  4 something precious, beautiful, or brilliant (all that
             glitters is not gold).  5 = gold medal.  6 gold used for coating
             a surface or as a pigment, gilding.  7 the bull's-eye of an
             archery target (usu. gilt).  --adj.  1 made wholly or chiefly of
             gold.  2 coloured like gold.  Ьage of gold = golden age.  gold
             amalgam an easily-moulded combination of gold with mercury.
             gold-beater a person who beats gold out into gold leaf.
             gold-beater's skin a membrane used to separate leaves of gold
             during beating, or as a covering for slight wounds.  gold bloc a
             bloc of countries having a gold standard.  gold brick sl.  1 a
             thing with only a surface appearance of value, a sham or fraud.
             2 US a lazy person.  gold-digger 1 sl. a woman who wheedles
             money out of men.  2 a person who digs for gold.  gold-dust 1
             gold in fine particles as often found naturally.  2 a plant,
             Alyssum saxatile, with many small yellow flowers.  gold-field a
             district in which gold is found as a mineral.  gold foil gold
             beaten into a thin sheet.  gold leaf gold beaten into a very
             thin sheet.  gold medal a medal of gold, usu. awarded as first
             prize.  gold-mine 1 a place where gold is mined.  2 colloq. a
             source of wealth.  gold of pleasure an annual yellow-flowered
             plant, Camelina sativa.  gold plate 1 vessels made of gold.  2
             material plated with gold.  gold-plate v.tr.  plate with gold.
             gold reserve a reserve of gold coins or bullion held by a
             central bank etc.  gold-rush a rush to a newly-discovered
             gold-field.  gold standard a system by which the value of a
             currency is defined in terms of gold, for which the currency may
             be exchanged.  Gold Stick 1 (in the UK) a gilt rod carried on
             State occasions by the colonel of the Life Guards or the captain
             of the gentlemen-at-arms.  2 the officer carrying this rod.
             gold thread 1 a thread of silk etc. with gold wire wound round
             it.  2 a bitter plant, Coptis tinfolia.  [OE f. Gmc]

   goldcrest n.  a small bird, Regulus regulus, with a golden crest.

   golden    adj.  1 a made or consisting of gold (golden sovereign).  b
             yielding gold.  2 coloured or shining like gold (golden hair).
             3 precious; valuable; excellent; important (a golden memory; a
             golden opportunity).  Ьgolden age 1 a supposed past age when
             people were happy and innocent.  2 the period of a nation's
             greatest prosperity, literary merit, etc.  golden-ager US an old
             person.  golden balls a pawnbroker's sign.  golden boy (or girl)
             colloq.  a popular or successful person.  golden calf wealth as
             an object of worship (Exod. 32).  golden chain the laburnum.
             golden delicious a variety of dessert apple.  golden disc an
             award given to a performer after the sale of 500,000 copies of a
             record.  golden eagle a large eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, with
             yellow-tipped head-feathers.  golden-eye any marine duck of the
             genus Bucephala.  Golden Fleece (in Greek mythology) a fleece of
             gold sought and won by Jason.  golden goose a continuing source
             of wealth or profit.  golden hamster a usu. tawny hamster,
             Mesocricetus auratus, kept as a pet or laboratory animal.
             golden handshake colloq.  a payment given on redundancy or early
             retirement.  golden hello colloq.  a payment made by an employer
             to a keenly sought recruit.  Golden Horde the Tartar horde that
             overran E. Europe in the 13th c.  (from the richness of the
             leader's tent).  Golden Horn the harbour of Istanbul.  golden
             jubilee 1 the fiftieth anniversary of a sovereign's accession.
             2 any other fiftieth anniversary.  golden mean 1 the principle
             of moderation, as opposed to excess.  2 = golden section.
             golden number the number of a year in the Metonic lunar cycle,
             used to fix the date of Easter.  golden oldie colloq.  an old
             hit record or film etc. that is still well known and popular.
             golden opinions high regard.  golden oriole a European oriole,
             Oriolus oriolus, of which the male has yellow and black plumage
             and the female has mainly green plumage.  golden perch Austral.
             = CALLOP.  golden retriever a retriever with a thick
             golden-coloured coat.  golden rod any plant of the genus
             Solidago with a rodlike stem and a spike of small bright-yellow
             flowers.  golden rule a basic principle of action, esp. 'do as
             you would be done by'.  golden section the division of a line so
             that the whole is to the greater part as that part is to the
             smaller part.  Golden State US California.  golden syrup Brit.
             a pale treacle.  golden wedding the fiftieth anniversary of a
             wedding.  ЬЬgoldenly adv.  goldenness n.

   goldfinch n.  any of various bright-coloured songbirds of the genus
             Carduelis, esp. the Eurasian C. carduelis, with a yellow band
             across each wing.  [OE goldfinc (as GOLD, FINCH)]

   goldfish  n.  a small reddish-golden Chinese carp kept for ornament,
             Carassius auratus.  Ьgoldfish bowl 1 a globular glass container
             for goldfish.  2 a situation lacking privacy.

             n.  1 a person with golden hair.  2 a a kind of buttercup,
             Ranunculus auricomus.  b a composite plant, Aster linosyris,
             like the golden rod.  [goldy f.  GOLD + LOCK(2)]

   goldsmith n.  a worker in gold, a manufacturer of gold articles.  [OE (as
             GOLD, SMITH)]

   golem     n.  1 a clay figure supposedly brought to life in Jewish legend.
             2 an automaton; a robot.  [Yiddish goylem f. Heb.  golem
             shapeless mass]

   golf      n. & v.  --n. a game played on a course set in open country, in
             which a small hard ball is driven with clubs into a series of 18
             or 9 holes with the fewest possible strokes.  --v.intr. play
             golf.  Ьgolf-bag a bag used for carrying clubs and balls.  golf
             ball 1 a ball used in golf.  2 colloq. a small ball used in some
             electric typewriters to carry the type.  golf cart 1 a trolley
             used for carrying clubs in golf.  2 a motorized cart for golfers
             and equipment.  golf club 1 a club used in golf.  2 an
             association for playing golf.  3 the premises used by a golf
             club.  golf-course (or -links) the course on which golf is
             played.  [15th-c. Sc.: orig. unkn.]

   golfer    n.  1 a golf-player.  2 a cardigan.

   Golgi body
             n.  (also Golgi apparatus) Biol.  an organelle of vesicles and
             folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells,
             involved esp. in the secretion of substances.  [C.  Golgi, It.
             cytologist d. 1926]

   Goliath beetle
             n.  any large beetle of the genus Goliathus, esp.  G. giganteus
             native to Africa.  [LL f. Heb.  golyat giant slain by David (1
             Sam. 17)]

   golliwog  n.  a black-faced brightly dressed soft doll with fuzzy hair.
             [19th c.: perh. f.  GOLLY(1) + POLLIWOG]

   gollop    v. & n.  colloq.  --v.tr.  (golloped, golloping) swallow hastily
             or greedily.  --n. a hasty gulp.  [perh. f.  GULP, infl. by

   golly(1)  int.  expressing surprise.  [euphem. for GOD]

   golly(2)  n.  (pl.  -ies) colloq.  = GOLLIWOG.  [abbr.]

   golosh    Brit.  var. of GALOSH.

   GOM       abbr.  Grand Old Man (name orig. applied to W. E. Gladstone).

   gombeen   n.  Ir.  usury.  Ьgombeen-man a moneylender.  [Ir.  gaimbЎn
             perh. f. the same OCelt. source as med.L cambire CHANGE]

   -gon      comb. form forming nouns denoting plane figures with a specified
             number of angles (hexagon; polygon; n-gon).  [Gk -gonos -angled]

   gonad     n.  an animal organ producing gametes, e.g. the testis or ovary.
             ЬЬgonadal adj.  [mod.L gonas gonad- f. Gk gone, gonos
             generation, seed]

   gonadotrophic hormone
             n.  (also gonadotropic) Biochem.  any of various hormones
             stimulating the activity of the gonads.

             n.  = GONADOTROPHIC HORMONE.

   gondola   n.  1 a light flat-bottomed boat used on Venetian canals, with a
             central cabin and a high point at each end, worked by one oar at
             the stern.  2 a car suspended from an airship or balloon.  3 an
             island of shelves used to display goods in a supermarket.  4
             (also gondola car) US a flat-bottomed open railway goods wagon.
             5 a car attached to a ski-lift.  [Venetian It., of obscure

   gondolier n.  the oarsman on a gondola.  [F f. It.  gondoliere (as

   gone      adj.  1 (of time) past (not until gone nine).  2 a lost;
             hopeless.  b dead.  3 colloq. pregnant for a specified time
             (already three months gone).  4 sl. completely enthralled or
             entranced, esp. by rhythmic music, drugs, etc.  Ьbe gone depart;
             leave temporarily (cf.  BEGONE).  gone away!  a huntsman's cry,
             indicating that a fox has been started.  gone goose (or gosling)
             colloq.  a person or thing beyond hope.  gone on sl.  infatuated
             with.  [past part. of GO(1)]

   goner     n.  sl.  a person or thing that is doomed, ended, irrevocably
             lost, etc.; a dead person.

   gonfalon  n.  1 a banner, often with streamers, hung from a crossbar.  2
             hist. such a banner as the standard of some Italian republics.
             ЬЬgonfalonier n.  [It.  gonfalone f. Gmc (cf.  VANE)]

   gong      n. & v.  --n.  1 a metal disc with a turned rim, giving a
             resonant note when struck.  2 a saucer-shaped bell.  3 Brit.
             sl. a medal; a decoration.  --v.tr.  1 summon with a gong.  2
             (of traffic police) sound a gong etc. to direct (a motorist) to
             stop.  [Malay gong, gung of imit. orig.]

             n.  an instrument for measuring angles.  ЬЬgoniometry n.
             goniometric adj.  goniometrical adj.  [F goniomЉtre f. Gk gonia

             n.  (pl.  gonococci) a bacterium causing gonorrhoea.
             ЬЬgonococcal adj.  [Gk gonos generation, semen + COCCUS]

             n.  (US gonorrhea) a venereal disease with inflammatory
             discharge from the urethra or vagina.  ЬЬgonorrhoeal adj.  [LL
             f. Gk gonorrhoia f.  gonos semen + rhoia flux]

   goo       n.  1 a sticky or slimy substance.  2 sickly sentiment.  [20th
             c.: perh. f.  burgoo (Naut. sl.) = porridge]

   good      adj., n., & adv.  --adj.  (better, best) 1 having the right or
             desired qualities; satisfactory, adequate.  2 a (of a person)
             efficient, competent (good at French; a good driver).  b (of a
             thing) reliable, efficient (good brakes).  c (of health etc.)
             strong (good eyesight).  3 a kind, benevolent (good of you to
             come).  b morally excellent; virtuous (a good deed).  c
             charitable (good works).  d well-behaved (a good child).  4
             enjoyable, agreeable (a good party; good news).  5 thorough,
             considerable (gave it a good wash).  6 a not less than (waited a
             good hour).  b considerable in number, quality, etc. (a good
             many people).  7 healthy, beneficial (milk is good for you).  8
             a valid, sound (a good reason).  b financially sound (his credit
             is good).  9 in exclamations of surprise (good heavens!).  10
             right, proper, expedient (thought it good to have a try).  11
             fresh, eatable, untainted (is the meat still good?).  12
             (sometimes patronizing) commendable, worthy (good old George;
             your good lady wife; good men and true; my good man).  13 well
             shaped, attractive (has good legs; good looks).  14 in courteous
             greetings and farewells (good afternoon).  --n.  1 (only in
             sing.) that which is good; what is beneficial or morally right
             (only good can come of it; did it for your own good; what good
             will it do?).  2 (only in sing.) a desirable end or object; a
             thing worth attaining (sacrificing the present for a future
             good).  3 (in pl.) a movable property or merchandise.  b Brit.
             things to be transported, as distinct from passengers.  c (prec.
             by the) colloq. what one has undertaken to supply (esp.  deliver
             the goods).  d (prec. by the) sl. the real thing; the genuine
             article.  4 (as pl.; prec. by the) virtuous people.  --adv.  US
             colloq. well (doing pretty good).  Ьas good as practically (he
             as good as told me).  be so good as (or be good enough) to
             (often in a request) be kind and do (a favour) (be so good as to
             open the window).  be (a certain amount) to the good have as net
             profit or advantage.  do good show kindness, act
             philanthropically.  do a person good be beneficial to.  for good
             (and all) finally, permanently.  good and colloq.  used as an
             intensifier before an adj. or adv. (raining good and hard; was
             good and angry).  the good book the Bible.  good breeding
             correct or courteous manners.  good faith see FAITH.  good for 1
             beneficial to; having a good effect on.  2 able to perform;
             inclined for (good for a ten-mile walk).  3 able to be trusted
             to pay (is good for њ100).  good form see FORM.
             good-for-nothing (or -nought) adj.  worthless.  --n. a worthless
             person.  good for you!  (or him!, her!, etc.) exclamation of
             approval towards a person.  Good Friday the Friday before Easter
             Sunday commemorating the Crucifixion of Christ.  good-hearted
             kindly, well-meaning.  good humour a genial mood.  a good job a
             fortunate state of affairs (it's a good job you came early).
             good-looker a handsome or attractive person.  good-looking
             handsome; attractive.  good luck 1 good fortune, happy chance.
             2 exclamation of well-wishing.  good money 1 genuine money;
             money that might usefully have been spent elsewhere.  2 colloq.
             high wages.  good nature a friendly disposition.  good oil
             Austral.  sl.  reliable information.  good on you!  (or him!
             etc.) = good for you!  goods and chattels see CHATTEL.
             good-time recklessly pursuing pleasure.  good-timer a person who
             recklessly pursues pleasure.  good times a period of prosperity.
             good will the intention and hope that good will result (see also
             GOODWILL).  a good word (often in phr.  put in a good word for)
             words in recommendation or defence of a person.  good works
             charitable acts.  have a good mind see MIND.  have the goods on
             a person sl.  have advantageous information about a person.
             have a good time enjoy oneself.  in a person's good books see
             BOOK.  in good faith with honest or sincere intentions.  in good
             time 1 with no risk of being late.  2 (also all in good time) in
             due course but without haste.  make good 1 make up for,
             compensate for, pay (an expense).  2 fulfil (a promise); effect
             (a purpose or an intended action).  3 demonstrate the truth of
             (a statement); substantiate (a charge).  4 gain and hold (a
             position).  5 replace or restore (a thing lost or damaged).  6
             (absol.) accomplish what one intended.  no good 1 mischief (is
             up to no good).  2 useless; to no advantage (it is no good
             arguing).  no-good --adj. useless.  --n. a useless thing or
             person.  take in good part not be offended by.  to the good
             having as profit or benefit.  ЬЬgoodish adj.  [OE god f. Gmc]

   goodbye   int. & n.  (US goodby) --int. expressing good wishes on parting,
             ending a telephone conversation, etc., or said with reference to
             a thing got rid of or irrevocably lost.  --n.  (pl.  goodbyes or
             US goodbys) the saying of 'goodbye'; a parting; a farewell.
             [contr. of God be with you! with good substituted after good
             night etc.]

             adj.  genial, cheerful, amiable.  ЬЬgood-humouredly adv.

   goodie    var. of GOODY(1) n.

   goodly    adj.  (goodlier, goodliest) 1 comely, handsome.  2 of imposing
             size etc.  ЬЬgoodliness n.  [OE godlic (as GOOD, -LY(1))]

   goodman   n.  (pl.  -men) Sc.  archaic the head of a household.

             adj.  kind, patient; easygoing.  ЬЬgood-naturedly adv.

   goodness  n. & int.  --n.  1 virtue; excellence, esp. moral.  2 kindness,
             generosity (had the goodness to wait).  3 what is good or
             beneficial in a thing (vegetables with all the goodness boiled
             out).  --int.  (as a substitution for 'God') expressing
             surprise, anger, etc. (goodness me!; goodness knows; for
             goodness' sake!).  [OE godnes (as GOOD, -NESS)]

   goodo     adj.  Austral. & NZ = GOOD adj.  10.

             adj.  having a good temper; not easily annoyed.
             ЬЬgood-temperedly adv.

   goodwife  n.  (pl.  -wives) Sc.  archaic the mistress of a household.

   goodwill  n.  1 kindly feeling.  2 the established reputation of a
             business etc. as enhancing its value.  3 cheerful consent or
             acquiescence; readiness, zeal.

   goody(1)  n. & int.  --n.  (also goodie) (pl.  -ies) 1 colloq. a good or
             favoured person, esp. a hero in a story, film, etc.  2 (usu. in
             pl.) something good or attractive, esp. to eat.  3 = GOODY-GOODY
             n.  --int. expressing childish delight.

   goody(2)  n.  (pl.  goodies) archaic (often as a title prefixed to a
             surname) an elderly woman of humble station (Goody Blake).  [for
             GOODWIFE: cf.  HUSSY]

             n. & adj.  colloq.  --n. a smug or obtrusively virtuous person.
             --adj. obtrusively or smugly virtuous.

   gooey     adj.  (gooier, gooiest) sl.  1 viscous, sticky.  2 sickly,
             sentimental.  ЬЬgooeyness n.  (also gooiness).  [GOO + -Y(2)]

   goof      n. & v.  sl.  --n.  1 a foolish or stupid person.  2 a mistake.
             --v.  1 tr. bungle, mess up.  2 intr. blunder, make a mistake.
             3 intr. (often foll. by off) idle.  4 tr. (as goofed adj.)
             stupefied with drugs.  [var. of dial.  goff f. F goffe f. It.
             goffo f. med.L gufus coarse]

   goofy     adj.  (goofier, goofiest) 1 stupid, silly, daft.  2 having
             protruding or crooked front teeth.  ЬЬgoofily adv.  goofiness n.

   goog      n.  Austral.  sl.  an egg.  Ьfull as a goog very drunk.  [20th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   googly    n.  (pl.  -ies) Cricket an off-break ball bowled with apparent
             leg-break action.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   googol    n.  ten raised to the hundredth power (10(100)).  °Not in formal
             use.  [arbitrary formation]

   gook      n.  US sl.  offens.  a foreigner, esp. a coloured person from E.
             Asia.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   goolie    n.  (also gooly) (pl.  -ies) 1 (usu. in pl.) sl. a testicle.  2
             Austral.  sl. a stone or pebble.  [app. of Ind. orig.; cf. Hind.
             golЎ bullet, ball, pill]

   goon      n.  sl.  1 a stupid or playful person.  2 esp.  US a person
             hired by racketeers etc. to terrorize political or industrial
             opponents.  [perh. f. dial.  gooney booby: infl. by the subhuman
             cartoon character 'Alice the Goon']

   goop      n.  sl.  a stupid or fatuous person.  [20th c.: cf.  GOOF]

   goopy     adj.  sl.  (goopier, goopiest) stupid, fatuous.  ЬЬgoopiness n.

   goosander n.  a large diving duck, Mergus merganser, with a narrow
             serrated bill.  [prob. f.  GOOSE + -ander in bergander

   goose     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  geese) 1 a any of various large water-birds
             of the family Anatidae, with short legs, webbed feet, and a
             broad bill.  b the female of this (opp.  GANDER).  c the flesh
             of a goose as food.  2 colloq. a simpleton.  3 (pl.  gooses) a
             tailor's smoothing-iron, having a handle like a goose's neck.
             --v.tr.  sl. poke (a person) in the bottom.  Ьgoose bumps US =
             goose-flesh.  goose-egg US a zero score in a game.  goose-flesh
             (or -pimples or -skin) a bristling state of the skin produced by
             cold or fright.  goose-step a military marching step in which
             the knees are kept stiff.  [OE gos f. Gmc]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a round edible yellowish-green berry with a
             thin usu. translucent skin enclosing seeds in a juicy flesh.  2
             the thorny shrub, Ribes grossularia, bearing this fruit.  Ьplay
             gooseberry Brit.  colloq.  be an unwanted extra (usu. third)
             person.  [perh. f.  GOOSE + BERRY]

   goosefoot n.  (pl.  -foots) any plant of the genus Chenopodium, having
             leaves shaped like the foot of a goose.

   goosegog  n.  Brit.  colloq.  a gooseberry.  [joc. corrupt.]

             n.  cleavers.

   GOP       abbr.  US Grand Old Party (the Republican Party).

   gopher(1) n.  1 (in full pocket gopher) any burrowing rodent of the family
             Geomyidae, native to N.  America, having external cheek pouches
             and sharp front teeth.  2 a N. American ground squirrel.  3 a
             tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, native to the southern US, that
             excavates tunnels as shelter from the sun.  Ьgopher snake a
             cribo.  [18th c.: orig. uncert.]

   gopher(2) n.  1 Bibl. a tree from the wood of which Noah's ark was made.
             2 (in full gopher-wood) a tree, Cladrastis lutea, yielding
             yellowish timber.  [Heb.  goper]

   goral     n.  a goat-antelope, Nemorhaedus goral, native to mountainous
             regions of N. India, having short horns curving to the rear.
             [native name]

   gorblimey int. & n.  Brit.  colloq.  --int. an expression of surprise,
             indignation, etc.  --n.  (pl.  -eys) a soft service cap.
             [corrupt. of God blind me]

   gorcock   n.  Sc. & N.Engl.  the male of the red grouse.  [gor- (of unkn.
             orig.) + COCK(1)]

   Gordian knot
             n.  1 an intricate knot.  2 a difficult problem or task.  Ьcut
             the Gordian knot solve a problem by force or by evasion.
             [Gordius, king of Phrygia, who tied an intricate knot that
             remained tied until cut by Alexander the Great]

   Gordon setter
             n.  1 a setter of a black and tan breed, used as a gun dog.  2
             this breed.  [4th Duke of Gordon, d. 1827, promoter of the

   gore(1)   n.  blood shed and clotted.  [OE gor dung, dirt]

   gore(2)   v.tr.  pierce with a horn, tusk, etc.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   gore(3)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a wedge-shaped piece in a garment.  2 a
             triangular or tapering piece in an umbrella etc.  --v.tr. shape
             with a gore.  [OE gara triangular piece of land, rel. to OE gar
             spear, a spearhead being triangular]

   gorge     n. & v.  --n.  1 a narrow opening between hills or a rocky
             ravine, often with a stream running through it.  2 an act of
             gorging; a feast.  3 the contents of the stomach; what has been
             swallowed.  4 the neck of a bastion or other outwork; the rear
             entrance to a work.  5 US a mass of ice etc. blocking a narrow
             passage.  --v.  1 intr. feed greedily.  2 tr.  a (often refl.)
             satiate, glut.  b swallow, devour greedily.  Ьcast the gorge at
             reject with loathing.  one's gorge rises at one is sickened by.
             ЬЬgorger n.  [ME f. OF gorge throat ult. f. L gurges whirlpool]

   gorgeous  adj.  1 richly coloured, sumptuous, magnificent.  2 colloq. very
             pleasant, splendid (gorgeous weather).  3 colloq. strikingly
             beautiful.  ЬЬgorgeously adv.  gorgeousness n.  [earlier
             gorgayse, -yas f. OF gorgias fine, elegant, of unkn. orig.]

   gorget    n.  1 hist.  a a piece of armour for the throat.  b a woman's
             wimple.  2 a patch of colour on the throat of a bird, insect,
             etc.  [OF gorgete (as GORGE)]

   Gorgio    n.  (pl.  -os) the Gypsy name for a non-Gypsy.  [Romany]

   gorgon    n.  1 (in Greek mythology) each of three snake-haired sisters
             (esp. Medusa) with the power to turn anyone who looked at them
             to stone.  2 a frightening or repulsive person, esp. a woman.
             ЬЬgorgonian adj.  [L Gorgo -onis f. Gk Gorgo f.  gorgos

   gorgonian n. & adj.  --n. a usu. brightly coloured horny coral of the
             order Gorgonacea, having a treelike skeleton bearing polyps,
             e.g. a sea fan.  --adj. of or relating to the Gorgonacea.
             [mod.L (as GORGON), with ref. to its petrifaction]

   gorgonize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 stare at like a gorgon.  2 paralyse with
             terror etc.

             n.  a type of rich cheese with bluish-green veins.  [Gorgonzola
             in Italy]

   gorilla   n.  the largest anthropoid ape, Gorilla gorilla, native to
             Central Africa, having a large head, short neck, and prominent
             mouth.  [adopted as the specific name in 1847 f. Gk Gorillai an
             African tribe noted for hairiness]

             v. & n.  (also -ise) --v.  1 intr. & tr. eat or devour
             voraciously.  2 intr. indulge in good eating.  --n. =
             GOURMANDISE.  ЬЬgormandizer n.  [as GOURMANDISE]

   gormless  adj.  esp.  Brit.  colloq.  foolish, lacking sense.
             ЬЬgormlessly adv.  gormlessness n.  [orig.  gaumless f. dial.
             gaum understanding]

   gorse     n.  any spiny yellow-flowered shrub of the genus Ulex, esp.
             growing on European wastelands. Also called FURZE.  ЬЬgorsy adj.
             [OE gors(t) rel. to OHG gersta, L hordeum, barley]

   Gorsedd   n.  a meeting of Welsh etc. bards and druids (esp. as a daily
             preliminary to the eisteddfod).  [Welsh, lit. 'throne']

   gory      adj.  (gorier, goriest) 1 involving bloodshed; bloodthirsty (a
             gory film).  2 covered in gore.  ЬЬgorily adv.  goriness n.

   gosh      int.  expressing surprise.  [euphem. for GOD]

   goshawk   n.  a large short-winged hawk, Accipiter gentilis.  [OE
             gos-hafoc (as GOOSE, HAWK(1))]

   gosling   n.  a young goose.  [ME, orig.  gesling f. ON g‘slingr]

   gospel    n.  1 the teaching or revelation of Christ.  2 (Gospel) a the
             record of Christ's life and teaching in the first four books of
             the New Testament.  b each of these books.  c a portion from one
             of them read at a service.  3 a thing regarded as absolutely
             true (take my word as gospel).  4 a principle one acts on or
             advocates.  5 (in full gospel music) Black American evangelical
             religious singing.  ЬGospel side the north side of the altar, at
             which the Gospel is read.  gospel truth something as true as the
             Gospel.  [OE godspel (as GOOD, spel news, SPELL(1)), rendering
             eccl.L bona annuntiatio, bonus nuntius = evangelium EVANGEL:
             assoc. with GOD]

   gospeller n.  the reader of the Gospel in a Communion service.  Ьhot
             gospeller a zealous puritan; a rabid propagandist.

   gossamer  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a filmy substance of small spiders' webs.  2
             delicate filmy material.  3 a thread of gossamer.  --adj. light
             and flimsy as gossamer.  ЬЬgossamered adj.  gossamery adj.  [ME
             gos(e)somer(e), app. f.  GOOSE + SUMMER(1) (goose summer = St
             Martin's summer, i.e. early November when geese were eaten,
             gossamer being common then)]

   gossip    n. & v.  --n.  1 a easy or unconstrained talk or writing esp.
             about persons or social incidents.  b idle talk; groundless
             rumour.  2 an informal chat, esp. about persons or social
             incidents.  3 a person who indulges in gossip.  --v.intr.
             (gossiped, gossiping) talk or write gossip.  Ьgossip column a
             section of a newspaper devoted to gossip about well-known
             people.  gossip columnist a regular writer of gossip columns.
             gossip-monger a perpetrator of gossip.  ЬЬgossiper n.  gossipy
             adj.  [earlier sense 'godparent': f. OE godsibb person related
             to one in GOD: see SIB]

   gossoon   n.  Ir.  a lad.  [earlier garsoon f. F gar‡on boy]

   got       past and past part. of GET.

   Goth      n.  1 a member of a Germanic tribe that invaded the Roman Empire
             in the 3rd-5th c.  2 an uncivilized or ignorant person.  [LL
             Gothi (pl.) f. Gk Go(t)thoi f. Goth.]

   Gothic    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of the Goths or their language.  2 in the
             style of architecture prevalent in W. Europe in the 12th-16th
             c., characterized by pointed arches.  3 (of a novel etc.) in a
             style popular in the 18th-19th c., with supernatural or
             horrifying events.  4 barbarous, uncouth.  5 Printing (of type)
             old-fashioned German, black letter, or sanserif.  --n.  1 the
             Gothic language.  2 Gothic architecture.  3 Printing Gothic
             type.  ЬЬGothically adv.  Gothicism n.  Gothicize v.tr. & intr.
             (also -ise).  [F gothique or LL gothicus f.  Gothi: see GOTH]

   gotta     colloq.  have got a; have got to (I gotta pain; we gotta go).

   gotten    US past part. of GET.

             n.  1 the twilight (i.e. downfall) of the gods.  2 the complete
             downfall of a regime etc.  [G, esp. as the title of an opera by

   gouache   n.  1 a method of painting in opaque pigments ground in water
             and thickened with a gluelike substance.  2 these pigments.  3 a
             picture painted in this way.  [F f. It.  guazzo]

   Gouda     n.  a flat round usu. Dutch cheese with a yellow rind.  [Gouda
             in Holland, where orig. made]

   gouge     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a chisel with a concave blade, used in
             carpentry, sculpture, and surgery.  b an indentation or groove
             made with or as with this.  2 US colloq. a swindle.  --v.  1 tr.
             cut with or as with a gouge.  2 tr.  a (foll. by out) force out
             (esp. an eye with the thumb) with or as with a gouge.  b force
             out the eye of (a person).  3 tr.  US colloq. swindle; extort
             money from.  4 intr.  Austral. dig for opal.  ЬЬgouger n.  [F f.
             LL gubia, perh. of Celt. orig.]

   goulash   n.  1 a highly-seasoned Hungarian dish of meat and vegetables,
             usu. flavoured with paprika.  2 (in contract bridge) a re-deal,
             several cards at a time, of the four hands (unshuffled, but with
             each hand arranged in suits and order of value) when no player
             has bid.  [Magyar guly s-hЈs f.  guly s herdsman + hЈs meat]

   gourami   n.  1 a a large freshwater fish, Osphronemus goramy, native to
             SE Asia, used as food.  b any small fish of the family
             Osphronemidae, usu. kept in aquariums.  2 any small brightly
             coloured freshwater fish of the family Belontiidae, usu. kept in
             aquariums. Also called LABYRINTH FISH.  [Malay gurami]

   gourd     n.  1 a any of various fleshy usu. large fruits with a hard
             skin, often used as containers, ornaments, etc.  b any of
             various climbing or trailing plants of the family Cucurbitaceae
             bearing this fruit. Also called CUCURBIT.  2 the hollow hard
             skin of the gourd-fruit, dried and used as a drinking-vessel,
             water container, etc.  ЬЬgourdful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [ME f. AF
             gurde, OF gourde ult. f. L cucurbita]

   gourmand  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a glutton.  2 disp. a gourmet.  --adj.
             gluttonous; fond of eating, esp. to excess.  ЬЬgourmandism n.
             [ME f. OF, of unkn. orig.]

             n.  the habits of a gourmand; gluttony.  [F (as GOURMAND)]

   gourmet   n.  a connoisseur of good or delicate food.  [F, = wine-taster:
             sense infl. by GOURMAND]

   gout      n.  1 a disease with inflammation of the smaller joints, esp.
             the toe, as a result of excess uric acid salts in the blood.  2
             archaic a a drop, esp. of blood.  b a splash or spot.  ЬЬgouty
             adj.  goutily adv.  goutiness n.  [ME f. OF goute f. L gutta
             drop, with ref. to the medieval theory of the flowing down of

   Gov.      abbr.  1 Government.  2 Governor.

   gov.      abbr.  governor.

   govern    v.  1 a tr. rule or control (a State, subject, etc.) with
             authority; conduct the policy and affairs of (an organization
             etc.).  b intr. be in government.  2 a tr. influence or
             determine (a person or a course of action).  b intr. be the
             predominating influence.  3 tr. be a standard or principle for;
             constitute a law for; serve to decide (a case).  4 tr. check or
             control (esp. passions).  5 tr.  Gram. (esp. of a verb or
             preposition) have (a noun or pronoun or its case) depending on
             it.  6 tr. be in military command of (a fort, town).  Ьgoverning
             body the managers of an institution.  ЬЬgovernable adj.
             governability n.  governableness n.  [ME f. OF governer f. L
             gubernare steer, rule f. Gk kubernao]

             n.  1 the act or manner of governing.  2 the office or function
             of governing.  3 sway, control.  [ME f. OF (as GOVERN)]

   governess n.  a woman employed to teach children in a private household.
             [earlier governeress f. OF governeresse (as GOVERNOR)]

             adj.  characteristic of a governess; prim.

             n.  1 the act or manner of governing.  2 the system by which a
             State or community is governed.  3 a a body of persons governing
             a State.  b (usu.  Government) a particular ministry in office.
             4 the State as an agent.  5 Gram. the relation between a
             governed and a governing word.  ЬGovernment House the official
             residence of a governor.  government issue US (of equipment)
             provided by the government.  government paper (or securities)
             bonds etc. issued by the government.  government surplus unused
             equipment sold by the government.  ЬЬgovernmental adj.
             governmentally adv.  [ME f. OF governement (as GOVERN)]

   governor  n.  1 a person who governs; a ruler.  2 a an official governing
             a province, town, etc.  b a representative of the Crown in a
             colony.  3 the executive head of each State of the US.  4 an
             officer commanding a fortress or garrison.  5 the head or a
             member of a governing body of an institution.  6 the official in
             charge of a prison.  7 a sl. one's employer.  b sl. one's
             father.  c colloq.  (as a form of address) sir.  8 Mech. an
             automatic regulator controlling the speed of an engine etc.
             ЬGovernor-General the representative of the Crown in a
             Commonwealth country that regards the Queen as Head of State.
             ЬЬgovernorate n.  governorship n.  [ME f. AF gouvernour, OF
             govern‰o(u)r f. L gubernator -oris (as GOVERN)]

   Govt.     abbr.  Government.

   gowan     n.  Sc.  1 a daisy.  2 any white or yellow field-flower.  [prob.
             var. of dial.  gollan ranunculus etc., and rel. to gold in

   gowk      n.  dial.  1 a cuckoo.  2 an awkward or halfwitted person; a
             fool.  [ME f. ON gaukr f. Gmc]

   gown      n. & v.  --n.  1 a loose flowing garment, esp. a long dress worn
             by a woman.  2 the official robe of an alderman, judge, cleric,
             member of a university, etc.  3 a surgeon's overall.  4 the
             members of a university as distinct from the permanent residents
             of the university town (cf.  TOWN).  --v.tr. (usu. as gowned
             adj.) attire in a gown.  [ME f. OF goune, gon(n)e f. LL gunna
             fur garment: cf. med. Gk gouna fur]

   goy       n.  (pl.  goyim or goys) sl.  derog.  a Jewish name for a
             non-Jew.  ЬЬgoyish adj.  (also goyisch).  [Heb.  goy people,

14.0 GP...

   GP        abbr.  1 general practitioner.  2 Grand Prix.

   Gp. Capt. abbr.  (in the RAF) Group Captain.

   GPI       abbr.  general paralysis of the insane.

   GPO       abbr.  1 General Post Office.  2 US Government Printing Office.

15.0 GR...

   GR        abbr.  King George.  [L Georgius Rex]

   gr        abbr.  (also gr.) 1 gram(s).  2 grains.  3 gross.  4 grey.

   Graafian follicle
             n.  a follicle in the mammalian ovary in which an ovum develops
             prior to ovulation.  [R. de Graaf, Du. anatomist d. 1673]

   grab      v. & n.  --v.  (grabbed, grabbing) 1 tr.  a seize suddenly.  b
             capture, arrest.  2 tr. take greedily or unfairly.  3 tr.  sl.
             attract the attention of, impress.  4 intr. (foll. by at) make a
             sudden snatch at.  5 intr. (of the brakes of a motor vehicle)
             act harshly or jerkily.  --n.  1 a sudden clutch or attempt to
             seize.  2 a mechanical device for clutching.  3 the practice of
             grabbing; rapacious proceedings esp. in politics and commerce.
             4 a children's card-game in which certain cards may be snatched
             from the table.  Ьgrab-bag US a lucky dip.  grab handle (or rail
             etc.) a handle or rail etc. to steady passengers in a moving
             vehicle.  up for grabs sl.  easily obtainable; inviting capture.
             ЬЬgrabber n.  [MLG, MDu.  grabben: cf.  GRIP, GRIPE, GROPE]

   grabble   v.intr.  1 grope about, feel for something.  2 (often foll. by
             for) sprawl on all fours, scramble (for something).  [Du. & LG
             grabbeln scramble for a thing (as GRAB)]

   grabby    adj.  colloq.  tending to grab; greedy, grasping.

   graben    n.  (pl. same or grabens) Geol.  a depression of the earth's
             surface between faults.  [G, orig. = ditch]

   grace     n. & v.  --n.  1 attractiveness, esp. in elegance of proportion
             or manner or movement; gracefulness.  2 courteous good will (had
             the grace to apologize).  3 an attractive feature; an
             accomplishment (social graces).  4 a (in Christian belief) the
             unmerited favour of God; a divine saving and strengthening
             influence.  b the state of receiving this.  c a divinely given
             talent.  5 goodwill, favour (fall from grace).  6 delay granted
             as a favour (a year's grace).  7 a short thanksgiving before or
             after a meal.  8 (Grace) (in Greek mythology) each of three
             beautiful sister goddesses, bestowers of beauty and charm.  9
             (Grace) (prec. by His, Her, Your) forms of description or
             address for a duke, duchess, or archbishop.  --v.tr. (often
             foll. by with) add grace to, enhance; confer honour or dignity
             on (graced us with his presence).  Ьdays of grace the time
             allowed by law for payment of a sum due.  grace and favour house
             etc. Brit.  a house etc. occupied by permission of a sovereign
             etc.  grace-note Mus.  an extra note as an embellishment not
             essential to the harmony or melody.  in a person's good (or bad)
             graces regarded by a person with favour (or disfavour).  with
             good (or bad) grace as if willingly (or reluctantly).  [ME f. OF
             f. L gratia f.  gratus pleasing: cf.  GRATEFUL]

   graceful  adj.  having or showing grace or elegance.  ЬЬgracefully adv.
             gracefulness n.

   graceless adj.  lacking grace or elegance or charm.  ЬЬgracelessly adv.
             gracelessness n.

   gracile   adj.  slender; gracefully slender.  [L gracilis slender]

   gracility n.  1 slenderness.  2 (of literary style) unornamented

   gracious  adj. & int.  --adj.  1 kind; indulgent and beneficent to
             inferiors.  2 (of God) merciful, benign.  3 poet. kindly,
             courteous.  4 a polite epithet used of royal persons or their
             acts (the gracious speech from the throne).  --int. expressing
             surprise.  Ьgracious living an elegant way of life.
             ЬЬgraciosity n.  graciously adv.  graciousness n.  [ME f. OF f.
             L gratiosus (as GRACE)]

   grackle   n.  1 any of various orioles, esp. of the genus Quiscalus,
             native to America, the males of which are shiny black with a
             blue-green sheen. Also called BLACKBIRD.  2 any of various
             minas, esp. of the genus Gracula, native to Asia.  [mod.L
             Gracula f. L graculus jackdaw]

   grad      n.  colloq.  = GRADUATE n.  1.  [abbr.]

   gradate   v.  1 v.intr. & tr. pass or cause to pass by gradations from one
             shade to another.  2 tr. arrange in steps or grades of size etc.
             [back-form. f.  GRADATION]

   gradation n.  (usu. in pl.) 1 a stage of transition or advance.  2 a a
             certain degree in rank, intensity, merit, divergence, etc.  b
             such a degree; an arrangement in such degrees.  3 (of paint
             etc.) the gradual passing from one shade, tone, etc., to
             another.  4 Philol. ablaut.  ЬЬgradational adj.  gradationally
             adv.  [L gradatio f.  gradus step]

   grade     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a certain degree in rank, merit, proficiency,
             quality, etc.  b a class of persons or things of the same grade.
             2 a a mark indicating the quality of a student's work.  b an
             examination, esp. in music.  3 US a class in school, concerned
             with a particular year's work and usu. numbered from the first
             upwards.  4 a a gradient or slope.  b the rate of ascent or
             descent.  5 a a variety of cattle produced by crossing native
             stock with a superior breed.  b a group of animals at a similar
             level of development.  6 Philol. a relative position in a series
             of forms involving ablaut.  --v.  1 tr. arrange in or allocate
             to grades; class, sort.  2 intr. (foll. by up, down, off, into,
             etc.) pass gradually between grades, or into a grade.  3 tr.
             give a grade to (a student).  4 tr. blend so as to affect the
             grade of colour with tints passing into each other.  5 tr.
             reduce (a road etc.) to easy gradients.  6 tr. (often foll. by
             up) cross (livestock) with a better breed.  Ьat grade US on the
             same level.  grade crossing US = level crossing.  grade school
             US elementary school.  make the grade colloq.  succeed; reach
             the desired standard.  [F grade or L gradus step]

   grader    n.  1 a person or thing that grades.  2 a wheeled machine for
             levelling the ground, esp. in road-making.  3 (in comb.) US a
             pupil of a specified grade in a school.

   gradient  n.  1 a a stretch of road, railway, etc., that slopes from the
             horizontal.  b the amount of such a slope.  2 the rate of rise
             or fall of temperature, pressure, etc., in passing from one
             region to another.  [prob. formed on GRADE after salient]

   gradine   n.  (also gradin) 1 each of a series of low steps or a tier of
             seats.  2 a ledge at the back of an altar.  [It.  gradino dimin.
             of grado GRADE]

   gradual   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 taking place or progressing slowly or by
             degrees.  2 not rapid or steep or abrupt.  --n.  Eccl.  1 a
             response sung or recited between the Epistle and Gospel in the
             Mass.  2 a book of music for the sung Mass service.  ЬЬgradually
             adv.  gradualness n.  [med.L gradualis, -ale f. L gradus step,
             the noun referring to the altar-steps on which the response is

             n.  a policy of gradual reform rather than sudden change or
             revolution.  ЬЬgradualist n.  gradualistic adj.

   graduand  n.  Brit.  a person about to receive an academic degree.  [med.L
             graduandus gerundive of graduare GRADUATE]

   graduate  n. & v.  --n.  1 a person who has been awarded an academic
             degree (also attrib.: graduate student).  2 US a person who has
             completed a school course.  --v.  1 a intr. take an academic
             degree.  b tr.  US admit to an academic degree or a certificate
             of completion of School Studies.  2 intr.  a (foll. by from) be
             a graduate of a specified university.  b (foll. by in) be a
             graduate in a specified subject.  3 tr.  US send out as a
             graduate from a university etc.  4 intr.  a (foll. by to) move
             up to (a higher grade of activity etc.).  b (foll. by as, in)
             gain specified qualifications.  5 tr. mark out in degrees or
             parts.  6 tr. arrange in gradations; apportion (e.g. tax)
             according to a scale.  7 intr. (foll. by into, away) pass by
             degrees.  Ьgraduated pension (in the UK) a system of pension
             contributions by employees in proportion to their wages or
             salary.  graduate school a department of a university for
             advanced work by graduates.  ЬЬgraduator n.  [med.L graduari
             take a degree f. L gradus step]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of graduating or being graduated.
             2 a ceremony at which degrees are conferred.  3 each or all of
             the marks on a vessel or instrument indicating degrees of
             quantity etc.

   Graecism  n.  (also Grecism) 1 a Greek idiom, esp. as imitated in another
             language.  2 a the Greek spirit, style, mode of expression, etc.
             b the imitation of these.  [F gr‚cisme or med.L Graecismus f.
             Graecus GREEK]

   Graecize  v.tr.  (also Grecize, -ise) give a Greek character or form to.
             [L Graecizare (as GRAECISM)]

   Graeco-   comb. form (also Greco-) Greek; Greek and.  [L Graecus GREEK]

             adj.  1 of or relating to the Greeks and Romans.  2 Wrestling
             denoting a style attacking only the upper part of the body.

   graffito  n.  (pl.  graffiti) 1 (usu. in pl.) a piece of writing or
             drawing scribbled, scratched, or sprayed on a surface.  °Not a
             mass noun in this sense, and so a plural construction is needed,
             e.g.  graffiti are (not is) an art form.  2 Art a form of
             decoration made by scratches on wet plaster, showing a
             different-coloured under-surface.  [It. f.  graffio a scratch]

   graft(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 Bot.  a a shoot or scion inserted into a slit
             of stock, from which it receives sap.  b the place where a graft
             is inserted.  2 Surgery a piece of living tissue, organ, etc.,
             transplanted surgically.  3 sl. hard work.  --v.  1 tr.  a
             (often foll. by into, on, together, etc.) insert (a scion) as a
             graft.  b insert a graft on (a stock).  2 intr. insert a graft.
             3 tr.  Surgery transplant (living tissue).  4 tr. (foll. by in,
             on) insert or fix (a thing) permanently to another.  5 intr.
             sl. work hard.  Ьgrafting-clay (or -wax) a substance for
             covering the united parts of a graft and stock.  ЬЬgrafter n.
             [ME (earlier graff) f. OF grafe, grefe f. L graphium f. Gk
             graphion stylus f.  grapho write]

   graft(2)  n. & v.  colloq.  --n.  1 practices, esp. bribery, used to
             secure illicit gains in politics or business.  2 such gains.
             --v.intr. seek or make such gains.  ЬЬgrafter n.  [19th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   Grail     n. (in full Holy Grail) 1 (in medieval legend) the cup or
             platter used by Christ at the Last Supper, and in which Joseph
             of Arimathea received Christ's blood at the Cross, esp. as the
             object of quests by medieval knights.  2 any object of a quest.
             [ME f. OF graal etc. f. med.L gradalis dish, of unkn. orig.]

   grain     n. & v.  --n.  1 a fruit or seed of a cereal.  2 a (collect.)
             wheat or any allied grass used as food, corn.  b (collect.)
             their fruit.  c any particular species of corn.  3 a a small
             hard particle of salt, sand, etc.  b a discrete particle or
             crystal, usu. small, in a rock or metal.  c a piece of solid
             propellant for use in a rocket engine.  4 the smallest unit of
             weight in the troy system (equivalent to 1/480 of an ounce), and
             in the avoirdupois system (equivalent to 1/437.5 of an ounce).
             5 the smallest possible quantity (not a grain of truth in it).
             6 a roughness of surface.  b Photog. a granular appearance on a
             photograph or negative.  7 the texture of skin, wood, stone,
             etc.; the arrangement and size of constituent particles.  8 a a
             pattern of lines of fibre in wood or paper.  b lamination or
             planes of cleavage in stone, coal, etc.  9 nature, temper,
             tendency.  10 a hist. kermes or cochineal, or dye made from
             either of these.  b poet. dye; colour.  --v.  1 tr. paint in
             imitation of the grain of wood or marble.  2 tr. give a granular
             surface to.  3 tr. dye in grain.  4 tr. & intr. form into
             grains.  5 tr. remove hair from (hides).  Ьagainst the grain
             contrary to one's natural inclination or feeling.  grain-leather
             leather dressed with grain-side out.  grain-side the side of a
             hide on which the hair was.  grains of Paradise capsules of a W.
             African plant (Aframomum melegueta), used as a spice and a drug.
             in grain thorough, genuine, by nature, downright, indelible.
             ЬЬgrained adj. (also in comb.).  grainer n.  grainless adj.  [ME
             f. OF f. L granum]

   grainy    adj.  (grainier, grainiest) 1 granular.  2 resembling the grain
             of wood.  3 Photog. having a granular appearance.  ЬЬgraininess

             adj.  Zool.  of or relating to long-legged wading birds, e.g.
             storks, flamingos, etc.  [mod.L grallatorius f. L grallator
             stilt-walker f.  grallae stilts]

   gram(1)   n.  (also gramme) a metric unit of mass equal to one-thousandth
             of a kilogram.  Ьgram-atom Chem.  the quantity of a chemical
             element equal to its relative atomic mass in grams (see
             MOLE(4)).  gram-equivalent Chem.  the quantity of a substance
             equal to its equivalent weight in grams.  gram-molecule Chem.
             the quantity of a substance equal to its relative molecular mass
             in grams.  [F gramme f. Gk gramma small weight]

   gram(2)   n.  any of various pulses used as food.  [Port.  gr°.o f. L
             granum grain]

   -gram     comb. form forming nouns denoting a thing written or recorded
             (often in a certain way) (anagram; epigram; monogram; telegram).
             ЬЬ-grammatic comb. form forming adjectives.  [from or after Gk
             gramma -atos thing written, letter of the alphabet, f.  grapho

             adj.  of or like grass; grassy.  [L gramen -inis grass]

             adj.  = GRAMINACEOUS.  [L gramineus f.  gramen -inis grass]

             adj.  feeding on grass, cereals, etc.  [L gramen -inis grass +

             n.  1 a word represented by a single shorthand sign.  2 a
             logogram.  [irreg. f. Gk gramma letter of the alphabet + logos

   grammar   n.  1 a the study or rules of a language's inflections or other
             means of showing the relation between words, including its
             phonetic system.  b a body of form and usages in a specified
             language (Latin grammar).  2 a person's manner or quality of
             observance or application of the rules of grammar (bad grammar).
             3 a book on grammar.  4 the elements or rudiments of an art or
             science.  5 Brit.  colloq. = grammar school.  Ьgrammar school 1
             Brit. esp.  hist. a selective State secondary school with a
             mainly academic curriculum.  2 Brit.  hist. a school founded in
             or before the 16th c. for teaching Latin, later becoming a
             secondary school teaching academic subjects.  3 US a school
             intermediate between primary and high school.  ЬЬgrammarless
             adj.  [ME f. AF gramere, OF gramaire f. L grammatica f. Gk
             grammatike (tekhne) (art) of letters f.  gramma -atos letter of
             the alphabet]

             n.  an expert in grammar or linguistics; a philologist.  [ME f.
             OF gramarien]

             adj.  1 a of or relating to grammar.  b determined by grammar,
             esp. by form or inflection (grammatical gender).  2 conforming
             to the rules of grammar, or to the formal principles of an art,
             science, etc.  ЬЬgrammatically adv.  grammaticalness n.  [F
             grammatical or LL grammaticalis f. L grammaticus f. Gk
             grammatikos (as GRAMMAR)]

   gramme    var. of GRAM(1).

             n.  an instrument reproducing recorded sound by a stylus resting
             on a rotating grooved disc.  °Now more usually called
             record-player.  ЬЬgramophonic adj.  [formed by inversion of

   grampus   n.  (pl.  grampuses) 1 a dolphin, Grampus griseus, with a blunt
             snout and long pointed black flippers.  2 a person breathing
             heavily and loudly.  [earlier graundepose, grapeys f. OF grapois
             etc. f. med.L craspiscis f. L crassus piscis fat fish]

   Gram's method
             n.  Biol.  a method of differentiating bacteria by staining with
             a dye, then attempting to remove the dye with a solvent, for
             purposes of identification.  ЬGram-positive (or negative) (of
             bacteria) that do (or do not) retain the dye.  [H. C. J.  Gram,
             Da. physician d. 1938]

   gran      n.  colloq.  grandmother (cf.  GRANNY).  [abbr.]

             n.  (also grenadilla) a passion-fruit.  [Sp., dimin. of granada

   granary   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a storehouse for threshed grain.  2 a region
             producing, and esp. exporting, much corn.  [L granarium f.
             granum grain]

   grand     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a splendid, magnificent, imposing,
             dignified.  b solemn or lofty in conception, execution, or
             expression; noble.  2 main; of chief importance (grand
             staircase; grand entrance).  3 (Grand) of the highest rank, esp.
             in official titles (Grand Cross; grand vizier; Grand
             Inquisitor).  4 colloq. excellent, enjoyable (had a grand time;
             in grand condition).  5 belonging to high society; wealthy (the
             grand folk at the big house).  6 (in comb.) in names of family
             relationships, denoting the second degree of ascent or descent
             (granddaughter).  7 (Grand) (in French phrases or imitations)
             great (grand army; Grand Monarch; Grand Hotel).  8 Law serious,
             important (grand larceny) (cf. COMMON, PETTY).  --n.  1 = grand
             piano.  2 (pl. same) (usu. in pl.) esp.  US sl. a thousand
             dollars or pounds.  Ьgrand aunt a great-aunt (see GREAT adj.
             11).  grand duchy a State ruled by a grand duke or duchess.
             grand duke (or duchess) 1 a prince (or princess) or noble person
             ruling over a territory.  2 (Grand Duke) hist. the son or
             grandson of a Russian tsar.  grand jury esp.  US Law a jury
             selected to examine the validity of an accusation prior to
             trial.  grand master 1 a chess-player of the highest class.  2
             the head of a military order of knighthood, of Freemasons, etc.
             Grand National a steeplechase held annually at Aintree,
             Liverpool.  grand nephew (or niece) a great-nephew or -niece
             (see GREAT adj.  11).  grand opera opera on a serious theme, or
             in which the entire libretto (including dialogue) is sung.
             grand piano a large full-toned piano standing on three legs,
             with the body, strings, and soundboard arranged horizontally and
             in line with the keys.  grand slam 1 Sport the winning of all of
             a group of championships.  2 Bridge the winning of 13 tricks.
             grand total the final amount after everything is added up; the
             sum of other totals.  grand tour hist.  a cultural tour of
             Europe, esp. in the 18th c. for educational purposes.  ЬЬgrandly
             adv.  grandness n.  [ME f. AF graunt, OF grant f. L grandis

   grandad   n.  (also grand-dad) colloq.  1 grandfather.  2 an elderly man.

   grandam   n.  1 (also grandame) archaic grandmother.  2 an old woman.  3
             an ancestress.  [ME f. AF graund dame (as GRAND, DAME)]

             n.  (pl.  -children) a child of one's son or daughter.

             n.  a female grandchild.

   grande dame
             n.  a dignified lady of high rank.  [F]

   grandee   n.  1 a Spanish or Portuguese nobleman of the highest rank.  2 a
             person of high rank or eminence.  [Sp. & Port.  grande, assim.
             to -EE]

   grandeur  n.  1 majesty, splendour; dignity of appearance or bearing.  2
             high rank, eminence.  3 nobility of character.  [F f.  grand
             great, GRAND]

             n.  a male grandparent.  Ьgrandfather clock a clock in a tall
             wooden case, driven by weights.  ЬЬgrandfatherly adj.

   Grand Guignol
             n.  a dramatic entertainment of a sensational or horrific
             nature.  [the name (= Great Punch) of a theatre in Paris]

             adj.  bearing large flowers.  [mod.L (often used in specific
             names of large-flowered plants) f. L grandis great + FLORA]

             adj.  1 pompous or inflated in language.  2 given to boastful
             talk.  ЬЬgrandiloquence n.  grandiloquently adv.  [L
             grandiloquus (as GRAND, -loquus -speaking f.  loqui speak),
             after eloquent etc.]

   grandiose adj.  1 producing or meant to produce an imposing effect.  2
             planned on an ambitious or magnificent scale.  ЬЬgrandiosely
             adv.  grandiosity n.  [F f. It.  grandioso (as GRAND, -OSE(1))]

   grandma   n.  colloq.  grandmother.

   grand mal n.  a serious form of epilepsy with loss of consciousness (cf.
             PETIT MAL).  [F, = great sickness]

   grandmama n.  archaic colloq.  = GRANDMA.

             n.  a female grandparent.  Ьgrandmother clock a clock like a
             grandfather clock but in a smaller case.  teach one's
             grandmother to suck eggs presume to advise a more experienced
             person.  ЬЬgrandmotherly adj.

   grandpa   n.  colloq.  grandfather.

   grandpapa n.  archaic colloq.  = GRANDPA.

             n.  a parent of one's father or mother.

   Grand Prix
             n.  any of several important international motor or motor-cycle
             racing events.  [F, = great or chief prize]

   grand siЉcle
             n.  the classical or golden age, esp. the 17th c. in France.
             [F, = great century or age]

   grandsire n.  archaic 1 grandfather, old man, ancestor.  2 Bell-ringing a
             method of change-ringing.

   grandson  n.  a male grandchild.

             n.  the main stand, usu. roofed, for spectators at a racecourse
             etc.  Ьgrandstand finish a close and exciting finish to a race

   grange    n.  1 a country house with farm-buildings.  2 archaic a barn.
             [ME f. AF graunge, OF grange f. med.L granica (villa) ult. f. L
             granum GRAIN]

             adj.  producing grain or a grainlike seed.  ЬЬgraniform adj.  [L
             granum GRAIN]

   granite   n.  1 a granular crystalline igneous rock of quartz, mica,
             feldspar, etc., used for building.  2 a determined or resolute
             quality, attitude, etc.  ЬЬgranitic adj.  granitoid adj. & n.
             [It.  granito, lit. grained f.  grano f. L granum GRAIN]

             n.  1 a speckled form of earthenware imitating the appearance of
             granite.  2 a kind of enamelled ironware.

             adj.  feeding on grain.  ЬЬgranivore n.  [L granum GRAIN]

   granny    n.  (also grannie) (pl.  -ies) colloq.  grandmother.  Ьgranny
             bond Brit.  colloq.  a form of National Savings certificate
             orig. available only to pensioners.  granny flat (or annexe)
             Brit.  part of a house made into self-contained accommodation
             for an elderly relative.  granny knot a reef-knot crossed the
             wrong way and therefore insecure.  [obs.  grannam for GRANDAM +

   Granny Smith
             n.  an Australian green variety of apple.  [Maria Ann ('Granny')
             Smith d. 1870]

   grant     v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a consent to fulfil (a request, wish, etc.)
             (granted all he asked).  b allow (a person) to have (a thing)
             (granted me my freedom).  c (as granted) colloq. apology
             accepted; pardon given.  2 give (rights, property, etc.)
             formally; transfer legally.  3 (often foll. by that + clause)
             admit as true; concede, esp. as a basis for argument.  --n.  1
             the process of granting or a thing granted.  2 a sum of money
             given by the State for any of various purposes, esp. to finance
             education.  3 Law a a legal conveyance by written instrument.  b
             formal conferment.  Ьgrant-in-aid (pl.  grants-in-aid) a grant
             by central government to local government or an institution.
             take for granted 1 assume something to be true or valid.  2
             cease to appreciate through familiarity.  ЬЬgrantable adj.
             grantee n. (esp. in sense 2 of v.).  granter n.  grantor n.
             (esp. in sense 2 of v.).  [ME f. OF gr(e)anter var. of creanter
             ult. f. part. of L credere entrust]

   Granth    n.  (also Grunth) the sacred scriptures of the Sikhs.  [Hindi, =
             book, code f. Skr.  grantha tying, literary composition]

   gran turismo
             n.  (pl.  -os) a touring-car.  [It., = great touring]

   granular  adj.  1 of or like grains or granules.  2 having a granulated
             surface or structure.  ЬЬgranularity n.  granularly adv.  [LL
             granulum GRANULE]

   granulate v.  1 tr. & intr. form into grains (granulated sugar).  2 tr.
             roughen the surface of.  3 intr. (of a wound etc.) form small
             prominences as the beginning of healing; heal, join.
             ЬЬgranulation n.  granulator n.

   granule   n.  a small grain.  [LL granulum, dimin. of L granum grain]

             n.  Physiol.  any of various white blood cells having granules
             in their cytoplasm.  ЬЬgranulocytic adj.

             adj.  relating to the distribution of grain sizes in sand etc.
             [F granulom‚trique (as GRANULE, METRIC)]

   grape     n.  1 a berry (usu. green, purple, or black) growing in clusters
             on a vine, used as fruit and in making wine.  2 (prec. by the)
             colloq. wine.  3 = GRAPESHOT.  4 (in pl.) a diseased growth like
             a bunch of grapes on the pastern of a horse etc., or on a pleura
             in cattle.  Ьgrape hyacinth any liliaceous plant of the genus
             Muscari, with clusters of usu. blue flowers.  grape-sugar
             dextrose.  ЬЬgrapey adj.  (also grapy).  [ME f. OF grape bunch
             of grapes prob. f.  graper gather (grapes) f.  grap(p)e hook,
             ult. f. Gmc]

             n.  (pl. same) 1 a large round yellow citrus fruit with an acid
             juicy pulp.  2 the tree, Citrus paradisi, bearing this fruit.

   grapeshot n.  hist.  small balls used as charge in a cannon and scattering
             when fired.

   grapevine n.  1 any of various vines of the genus Vitis, esp.  Vitis
             vinifera.  2 colloq. the means of transmission of unofficial
             information or rumour (heard it through the grapevine).

   graph(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a diagram showing the relation between variable
             quantities, usu. of two variables, each measured along one of a
             pair of axes at right angles.  2 Math. a collection of points
             whose coordinates satisfy a given relation.  --v.tr. plot or
             trace on a graph.  Ьgraph paper paper printed with a network of
             lines as a basis for drawing graphs.  [abbr. of graphic formula]

   graph(2)  n.  Linguistics a visual symbol, esp. a letter or letters,
             representing a unit of sound or other feature of speech.  [Gk
             graphe writing]

   -graph    comb. form forming nouns and verbs meaning: 1 a thing written or
             drawn etc. in a specified way (autograph; photograph).  2 an
             instrument that records (heliograph; seismograph; telegraph).

   grapheme  n.  Linguistics 1 a class of letters etc. representing a unit of
             sound.  2 a feature of a written expression that cannot be
             analysed into smaller meaningful units.  ЬЬgraphematic adj.
             graphemic adj.  graphemically adv.  [GRAPH(2) + -EME]

   -grapher  comb. form forming nouns denoting a person concerned with a
             subject (geographer; radiographer).  [from or after Gk - graphos
             writer + -ER(1)]

   graphic   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to the visual or descriptive
             arts, esp. writing and drawing.  2 vividly descriptive.  3 (of
             minerals) showing marks like writing on the surface or in a
             fracture.  4 = GRAPHICAL.  --n. a product of the graphic arts
             (cf.  GRAPHICS).  Ьgraphic arts the visual and technical arts
             involving design, writing, drawing, printing, etc.  graphic
             equalizer a device for the separate control of the strength and
             quality of selected frequency bands.  ЬЬgraphically adv.
             graphicness n.  [L graphicus f. Gk graphikos f.  graphe writing]

   -graphic  comb. form (also -graphical) forming adjectives corresponding to
             nouns in -graphy (see -GRAPHY).  ЬЬ-graphically comb. form
             forming adverbs.  [from or after Gk -graphikos (as GRAPHIC)]

             n.  the ability to read a map, graph, etc., or to present
             information by means of diagrams.  [GRAPHIC, after literacy,

   graphical adj.  1 of or in the form of graphs (see GRAPH(1)).  2 graphic.
             ЬЬgraphically adv.

   graphics  n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) 1 the products of the graphic
             arts, esp. commercial design or illustration.  2 the use of
             diagrams in calculation and design.  3 (in full computer
             graphics) Computing a mode of processing and output in which a
             significant part of the information is in pictorial form.

   graphite  n.  a crystalline allotropic form of carbon used as a solid
             lubricant, in pencils, and as a moderator in nuclear reactors
             etc. Also called PLUMBAGO, black lead.  ЬЬgraphitic adj.
             graphitize v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise).  [G Graphit f. Gk grapho

             n.  1 the study of handwriting esp. as a supposed guide to
             character.  2 a system of graphic formulae; notation for graphs
             (see GRAPH(1)).  3 Linguistics the study of systems of writing.
             ЬЬgraphological adj.  graphologist n.  [Gk graphe writing]

   -graphy   comb. form forming nouns denoting: 1 a descriptive science
             (bibliography; geography).  2 a technique of producing images
             (photography; radiography).  3 a style or method of writing,
             drawing, etc. (calligraphy).  [from or after F or G -graphie f.
             L -graphia f. Gk -graphia writing]

   grapnel   n.  1 a device with iron claws, attached to a rope and used for
             dragging or grasping.  2 a small anchor with several flukes.
             [ME f. AF f. OF grapon f. Gmc: cf.  GRAPE]

   grappa    n.  a brandy distilled from the fermented residue of grapes
             after they have been pressed in wine-making.  [It.]

   grapple   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (often foll. by with) fight at close
             quarters or in close combat.  2 intr. (foll. by with) try to
             manage or overcome a difficult problem etc.  3 tr.  a grip with
             the hands; come to close quarters with.  b seize with or as with
             a grapnel; grasp.  --n.  1 a a hold or grip in or as in
             wrestling.  b a contest at close quarters.  2 a
             clutching-instrument; a grapnel.  Ьgrappling-iron (or -hook) =
             GRAPNEL.  ЬЬgrappler n.  [OF grapil (n.) f. Prov., dimin. of
             grapa hook (as GRAPNEL)]

             n.  an extinct marine invertebrate animal found as a fossil in
             lower Palaeozoic rocks.  [Gk graptos marked with letters +

   grasp     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a clutch at; seize greedily.  b hold
             firmly; grip.  2 intr. (foll. by at) try to seize; accept
             avidly.  3 tr. understand or realize (a fact or meaning).  --n.
             1 a firm hold; a grip.  2 (foll. by of) a mastery or control (a
             grasp of the situation).  b a mental hold or understanding (a
             grasp of the facts).  3 mental agility (a quick grasp).  Ьgrasp
             at a straw see STRAW.  grasp the nettle tackle a difficulty
             boldly.  within one's grasp capable of being grasped or
             comprehended by one.  ЬЬgraspable adj.  grasper n.  [ME graspe,
             grapse perh. f. OE gr‘psan (unrecorded) f. Gmc, rel. to GROPE:
             cf. LG grapsen]

   grasping  adj.  avaricious, greedy.  ЬЬgraspingly adv.  graspingness n.

   grass     n. & v.  --n.  1 a vegetation belonging to a group of small
             plants with green blades that are eaten by cattle, horses,
             sheep, etc.  b any species of this.  c any plant of the family
             Gramineae, which includes cereals, reeds, and bamboos.  2
             pasture land.  3 grass-covered ground, a lawn (keep off the
             grass).  4 grazing (out to grass; be at grass).  5 sl.
             marijuana.  6 Brit.  sl. an informer, esp. a police informer.  7
             the earth's surface above a mine; the pit-head.  8 sl.
             asparagus.  --v.  1 tr. cover with turf.  2 tr.  US provide with
             pasture.  3 Brit.  sl.  a tr. betray, esp. to the police.  b
             intr. inform the police.  4 tr. knock down; fell (an opponent).
             5 tr.  a bring (a fish) to the bank.  b bring down (a bird) by a
             shot.  Ьat grass out of work, on holiday, etc.  grass bird
             Austral.  any of various warblers, esp. of the genus Megalurus,
             living among reeds.  grass-box a receptacle for cut grass on a
             lawnmower.  grass-cloth a linen-like cloth woven from ramie etc.
             grass court a grass-covered lawn-tennis court.  grass of
             Parnassus a herbaceous plant, Parnassia palustris.  grass
             parakeet Austral.  a parakeet, esp. of the genus Neophema,
             frequenting grassland.  grass roots 1 a fundamental level or
             source.  2 ordinary people, esp. as voters; the rank and file of
             an organization, esp. a political party.  grass skirt a skirt
             made of long grass and leaves fastened to a waistband.  grass
             snake 1 Brit. the common ringed snake, Natrix natrix.  2 US the
             common greensnake, Opheodrys vernalis.  grass tree = BLACKBOY.
             grass widow (or widower) a person whose husband (or wife) is
             away for a prolonged period.  grass-wrack eel-grass.  not let
             the grass grow under one's feet be quick to act or to seize an
             opportunity.  ЬЬgrassless adj.  grasslike adj.  [OE gr‘s f. Gmc,
             rel. to GREEN, GROW]

             n.  a jumping and chirping plant-eating insect of the order

   grassland n.  a large open area covered with grass, esp. one used for

   grassy    adj.  (grassier, grassiest) 1 covered with or abounding in
             grass.  2 resembling grass.  3 of grass.  ЬЬgrassiness n.

   grate(1)  v.  1 tr. reduce to small particles by rubbing on a serrated
             surface.  2 intr. (often foll. by against, on) rub with a harsh
             scraping sound.  3 tr. utter in a harsh tone.  4 intr. (often
             foll. by on) a sound harshly or discordantly.  b have an
             irritating effect.  5 tr. grind (one's teeth).  6 intr. (of a
             hinge etc.) creak.  [ME f. OF grater ult. f. WG]

   grate(2)  n.  1 the recess of a fireplace or furnace.  2 a metal frame
             confining fuel in a grate.  [ME, = grating f. OF ult. f. L
             cratis hurdle]

   grateful  adj.  1 thankful; feeling or showing gratitude (am grateful to
             you for helping).  2 pleasant, acceptable.  ЬЬgratefully adv.
             gratefulness n.  [obs.  grate (adj.) f. L gratus + -FUL]

   grater    n.  a device for reducing cheese or other food to small

   graticule n.  1 fine lines or fibres incorporated in a telescope or other
             optical instrument as a measuring scale or as an aid in locating
             objects.  2 Surveying a network of lines on paper representing
             meridians and parallels.  [F f. med.L graticula for craticula
             gridiron f. L cratis hurdle]

   gratify   v.tr.  (-fies, -fied) 1 a please, delight.  b please by
             compliance; assent to the wish of.  2 indulge in or yield to (a
             feeling or desire).  ЬЬgratification n.  gratifier n.
             gratifying adj.  gratifyingly adv.  [F gratifier or L
             gratificari do a favour to, make a present of, f.  gratus

             adj.  1 sounding harsh or discordant (a grating laugh).  2
             having an irritating effect.  ЬЬgratingly adv.

             n.  1 a framework of parallel or crossed metal bars.  2 Optics a
             set of parallel wires, lines ruled on glass, etc., for producing
             spectra by diffraction.

   gratis    adv. & adj.  free; without charge.  [L, contracted ablat. pl. of
             gratia favour]

   gratitude n.  being thankful; readiness to show appreciation for and to
             return kindness.  [F gratitude or med.L gratitudo f.  gratus

             adj.  1 given or done free of charge.  2 uncalled for;
             unwarranted; lacking good reason (a gratuitous insult).
             ЬЬgratuitously adv.  gratuitousness n.  [L gratuitus
             spontaneous: cf.  fortuitous]

   gratuity  n.  (pl.  -ies) money given in recognition of services; a tip.
             [OF gratuit‚ or med.L gratuitas gift f. L gratus grateful]

             adj.  expressing congratulation.  [LL gratulatorius f. L gratus

   graunch   v.intr. & tr.  make or cause to make a crunching or grinding
             sound.  [imit.]

   gravamen  n.  (pl.  gravamens or gravamina) 1 the essence or most serious
             part of an argument.  2 a grievance.  [LL, = inconvenience, f. L
             gravare to load f.  gravis heavy]

   grave(1)  n.  1 a a trench dug in the ground to receive a coffin on
             burial.  b a mound or memorial stone placed over this.  2 (prec.
             by the) death, esp. as indicating mortal finality.  3 something
             compared to or regarded as a grave.  Ьturn in one's grave (of a
             dead person) be thought of in certain circumstances as likely to
             have been shocked or angry when alive.  ЬЬgraveless adj.
             graveward adv. & adj.  [OE gr‘f f. WG]

   grave(2)  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a serious, weighty, important (a grave
             matter).  b dignified, solemn, sombre (a grave look).  2
             extremely serious or threatening (grave danger).  3 (of sound)
             low-pitched, not acute.  --n.  = grave accent.  Ьgrave accent a
             mark (`) placed over a vowel in some languages to denote
             pronunciation, length, etc., orig. indicating low or falling
             pitch.  ЬЬgravely adv.  graveness n.  [F grave or L gravis
             heavy, serious]

   grave(3)  v.tr.  (past part.  graven or graved) 1 (foll. by in, on) fix
             indelibly (on one's memory).  2 archaic engrave, carve.  Ьgraven
             image an idol.  [OE grafan dig, engrave f. Gmc: cf.  GROOVE]

   grave(4)  v.tr.  clean (a ship's bottom) by burning off accretions and by
             tarring.  Ьgraving dock = dry dock.  [perh. F dial.  grave = OF
             greve shore]

             n.  1 a person who digs graves.  2 (in full gravedigger beetle)
             a sexton beetle.

   gravel    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a mixture of coarse sand and small water-worn
             or pounded stones, used for paths and roads and as an aggregate.
             b Geol. a stratum of this.  2 Med. aggregations of crystals
             formed in the urinary tract.  --v.tr.  (gravelled, gravelling;
             US graveled, graveling) 1 lay or strew with gravel.  2 perplex,
             puzzle, nonplus (from an obs. sense 'run (a ship) aground').
             Ьgravel-blind literary almost completely blind ('more than
             sand-blind', in Shakesp.  Merchant of Venice II. ii. 33).  [ME
             f. OF gravel(e) dimin. of grave (as GRAVE(4))]

   gravelly  adj.  1 of or like gravel.  2 having or containing gravel.  3
             (of a voice) deep and rough-sounding.

   graven    past part. of GRAVE(3).

   graver    n.  1 an engraving tool; a burin.  2 archaic an engraver; a

   Graves    n.  a light usu. white wine from Graves in France.

   Graves' disease
             n.  exophthalmic goitre with characteristic swelling of the neck
             and protrusion of the eyes, resulting from an overactive thyroid
             gland.  [R. J.  Graves, Ir. physician d. 1853]

             n.  a stone (usu. inscribed) marking a grave.

   graveyard n.  a burial-ground, esp. by a church.

   gravid    adj.  literary or Zool.  pregnant.  [L gravidus f.  gravis

             n.  an instrument for measuring the difference in the force of
             gravity from one place to another.  [F gravimЉtre f. L gravis

             adj.  1 of or relating to the measurement of weight.  2 denoting
             chemical analysis based on weight.

             n.  the measurement of weight.

   gravitas  n.  solemn demeanour; seriousness.  [L f.  gravis serious]

   gravitate v.  1 intr. (foll. by to, towards) move or be attracted to some
             source of influence.  2 tr. & intr.  a move or tend by force of
             gravity towards.  b sink by or as if by gravity.  [mod.L
             gravitare GRAVITAS]

             n.  Physics 1 a force of attraction between any particle of
             matter in the universe and any other.  2 the effect of this,
             esp. the falling of bodies to the earth.  [mod.L gravitatio (as

             adj.  of or relating to gravitation.  Ьgravitational constant
             the constant in Newton's law of gravitation relating gravity to
             the masses and separation of particles.  °Symb.: G.
             gravitational field the region of space surrounding a body in
             which another body experiences a force of attraction.
             ЬЬgravitationally adv.

   gravity   n.  1 a the force that attracts a body to the centre of the
             earth or other celestial body.  b the degree of intensity of
             this measured by acceleration.  c gravitational force.  2 the
             property of having weight.  3 a importance, seriousness; the
             quality of being grave.  b solemnity, sobriety; serious
             demeanour.  Ьgravity feed the supply of material by its fall
             under gravity.  [F gravit‚ or L gravitas f.  gravis heavy]

   gravure   n.  = PHOTOGRAVURE.  [abbr.]

   gravy     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a the juices exuding from meat during and
             after cooking.  b a dressing or sauce for food, made from these
             or from other materials, e.g. stock.  2 sl. unearned or
             unexpected money.  Ьgravy-boat a boat-shaped vessel for serving
             gravy.  gravy train sl.  a source of easy financial benefit.
             [ME, perh. from a misreading as grav‚ of OF gran‚, prob. f.
             grain spice: see GRAIN]

   gray(1)   n.  Physics the SI unit of the absorbed dose of ionizing
             radiation, corresponding to one joule per kilogram.  °Abbr.: Gy.
             [L. H.  Gray, Engl. radiobiologist d. 1965]

   gray(2)   US var. of GREY.

   grayling  n.  1 any silver-grey freshwater fish of the genus Thymallus,
             with a long high dorsal fin.  2 a butterfly, Hipparchia semele,
             having wings with grey undersides and bright eye-spots on the
             upper side.  [gray var. of GREY + -LING(2)]

   graywacke US var. of GREYWACKE.

   graze(1)  v.  1 intr. (of cattle, sheep, etc.) eat growing grass.  2 tr.
             a feed (cattle etc.) on growing grass.  b feed on (grass).  3
             intr. pasture cattle.  ЬЬgrazer n.  [OE grasian f.  gr‘s GRASS]

   graze(2)  v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. rub or scrape (a part of the body, esp. the
             skin) so as to break the surface without causing bleeding.  2 a
             tr. touch lightly in passing.  b intr. (foll. by against, along,
             etc.) move with a light passing contact.  --n. an act or
             instance of grazing.  [perh. a specific use of GRAZE(1), as if
             'take off the grass close to the ground' (of a shot etc.)]

   grazier   n.  1 a person who feeds cattle for market.  2 Austral. a
             large-scale sheep-farmer or cattle-farmer.  ЬЬgraziery n.
             [GRASS + -IER]

   grazing   n.  grassland suitable for pasturage.

   grease    n. & v.  --n.  1 oily or fatty matter esp. as a lubricant.  2
             the melted fat of a dead animal.  3 oily matter in unprocessed
             wool.  --v.tr.  smear or lubricate with grease.  Ьgrease-gun a
             device for pumping grease under pressure to a particular point.
             grease the palm of colloq.  bribe.  like greased lightning
             colloq.  very fast.  ЬЬgreaseless adj.  [ME f. AF grece, gresse,
             OF graisse ult. f. L crassus (adj.) fat]

             n.  a waxy composition used as make-up for actors.

             adj.  impervious to the penetration of grease.

   greaser   n.  1 a person or thing that greases.  2 sl. a member of a gang
             of youths with long hair and riding motor cycles.  3 US sl.
             offens. a Mexican or Spanish-American.  4 sl. a gentle landing
             of an aircraft.

   greasy    adj.  (greasier, greasiest) 1 a of or like grease.  b smeared or
             covered with grease.  c containing or having too much grease.  2
             a slippery.  b (of a person or manner) unpleasantly unctuous,
             smarmy.  c objectionable.  ЬЬgreasily adv.  greasiness n.

   great     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a of a size, amount, extent, or intensity
             considerably above the normal or average; big (made a great
             hole; take great care; lived to a great age).  b also with
             implied surprise, admiration, contempt, etc., esp. in
             exclamations (you great idiot!; great stuff!; look at that great
             wasp).  c reinforcing other words denoting size, quantity, etc.
             (a great big hole; a great many).  2 important, pre-eminent;
             worthy or most worthy of consideration (the great thing is not
             to get caught).  3 grand, imposing (a great occasion; the great
             hall).  4 a (esp. of a public or historic figure) distinguished;
             prominent.  b (the Great) as a title denoting the most important
             of the name (Alfred the Great).  5 a (of a person) remarkable in
             ability, character, achievement, etc. (great men; a great
             thinker).  b (of a thing) outstanding of its kind (the Great
             Fire).  6 (foll. by at, on) competent, skilled, well-informed.
             7 fully deserving the name of; doing a thing habitually or
             extensively (a great reader; a great believer in tolerance; not
             a great one for travelling).  8 (also greater) the larger of the
             name, species, etc. (great auk; greater celandine).  9 (Greater)
             (of a city etc.) including adjacent urban areas (Greater
             Manchester).  10 colloq.  a very enjoyable or satisfactory;
             attractive, fine (had a great time; it would be great if we
             won).  b (as an exclam.) fine, very good.  11 (in comb.) (in
             names of family relationships) denoting one degree further
             removed upwards or downwards (great-uncle;
             great-great-grandmother).  --n.  1 a great or outstanding person
             or thing.  2 (in pl.) (Greats) colloq. (at Oxford University) an
             honours course or final examinations in classics and philosophy.
             Ьgreat and small all classes or types.  the Great Bear see
             BEAR(2).  Great Britain England, Wales, and Scotland.  great
             circle see CIRCLE.  Great Dane see DANE.  great deal see
             DEAL(1).  great-hearted magnanimous; having a noble or generous
             mind.  great-heartedness magnanimity.  the great majority by far
             the most.  great northern diver a diving sea bird, Gavia immer,
             of the northern hemisphere.  great organ the chief manual in a
             large organ, with its related pipes and mechanism.  Great
             Russian n.  a member or the language of the principal ethnic
             group in the USSR; Russian.  --adj. of or relating to this
             people or language.  great tit a Eurasian songbird, Parus major,
             with black and white head markings.  great toe the big toe.
             Great War the world war of 1914-18.  to a great extent largely.
             ЬЬgreatness n.  [OE great f. WG]

   greatcoat n.  a long heavy overcoat.

   greatly   adv.  by a considerable amount; much (greatly admired; greatly

   greave    n.  (usu. in pl.) armour for the shin.  [ME f. OF greve shin,
             greave, of unkn. orig.]

   grebe     n.  any diving bird of the family Podicipedidae, with a long
             neck, lobed toes, and almost no tail.  Ьlittle grebe a small
             water bird of the grebe family, Tachybaptus ruficollis.  [F
             grЉbe, of unkn. orig.]

   Grecian   adj.  (of architecture or facial outline) following Greek models
             or ideals.  ЬGrecian nose a straight nose that continues the
             line of the forehead without a dip.  [OF grecien or med.L
             graecianus (unrecorded) f. L Graecia Greece]

   Grecism   var. of GRAECISM.

   Grecize   var. of GRAECIZE.

   Greco-    var. of GRAECO-.

   greed     n.  an excessive desire, esp. for food or wealth.  [back-form.
             f.  GREEDY]

   greedy    adj.  (greedier, greediest) 1 having or showing an excessive
             appetite for food or drink.  2 wanting wealth or pleasure to
             excess.  3 (foll. by for, or to + infin.) very keen or eager;
             needing intensely (greedy for affection; greedy to learn).
             ЬЬgreedily adv.  greediness n.  [OE gr‘dig f. Gmc]

   Greek     n. & adj.  --n.  1 a a native or national of modern Greece; a
             person of Greek descent.  b a native or citizen of any of the
             ancient States of Greece; a member of the Greek people.  2 the
             Indo-European language of Greece.  --adj. of Greece or its
             people or language; Hellenic.  ЬGreek (or Greek Orthodox) Church
             the national Church of Greece (see also Orthodox Church).  Greek
             cross a cross with four equal arms.  Greek fire hist.  a
             combustible composition for igniting enemy ships etc.  Greek to
             me colloq.  incomprehensible to me.  ЬЬGreekness n.  [OE Grecas
             (pl.) f. Gmc f. L Graecus Greek f. Gk Graikoi, the prehistoric
             name of the Hellenes (in Aristotle)]

   green     adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 of the colour between blue and yellow
             in the spectrum; coloured like grass, emeralds, etc.  2 a
             covered with leaves or grass.  b mild and without snow (a green
             Christmas).  3 (of fruit etc. or wood) unripe or unseasoned.  4
             not dried, smoked, or tanned.  5 inexperienced, na‹ve, gullible.
             6 a (of the complexion) pale, sickly-hued.  b jealous, envious.
             7 young, flourishing.  8 not withered or worn out (a green old
             age).  9 vegetable (green food; green salad).  10 (also Green)
             concerned with or supporting protection of the environment as a
             political principle.  11 archaic fresh; not healed (a green
             wound).  --n.  1 a green colour or pigment.  2 green clothes or
             material (dressed in green).  3 a a piece of public or common
             grassy land (village green).  b a grassy area used for a special
             purpose (putting-green; bowling-green).  c Golf a putting-green.
             d Golf a fairway.  4 (in pl.) green vegetables.  5 vigour,
             youth, virility (in the green).  6 a green light.  7 a green
             ball, piece, etc., in a game or sport.  8 (also Green) a member
             or supporter of an environmentalist group or party.  9 (in pl.)
             sl. sexual intercourse.  10 sl. low-grade marijuana.  11 sl.
             money.  12 green foliage or growing plants.  --v.  1 tr. & intr.
             make or become green.  2 tr.  sl. hoax; take in.  Ьgreen belt an
             area of open land round a city, designated for preservation.
             Green Beret colloq.  a British or American commando.  green card
             an international insurance document for motorists.  green cheese
             1 cheese coloured green with sage.  2 whey cheese.  3 unripened
             cheese.  Green Cloth (in full Board of Green Cloth) (in the UK)
             the Lord Steward's department of the Royal Household.  green
             crop a crop used as fodder in a green state rather than as hay
             etc.  green drake the common mayfly.  green earth a hydrous
             silicate of potassium, iron, and other metals.  green-eyed
             jealous.  the green-eyed monster jealousy.  green fat part of a
             turtle, highly regarded by gourmets.  green-fee Golf a charge
             for playing one round on a course.  green fingers skill in
             growing plants.  green goose a goose killed under four months
             old and eaten without stuffing.  green in a person's eye a sign
             of gullibility (do you see any green in my eye?).  green leek
             any of several green-faced Australian parakeets.  green light 1
             a signal to proceed on a road, railway, etc.  2 colloq.
             permission to go ahead with a project.  green linnet =
             GREENFINCH.  green manure growing plants ploughed into the soil
             as fertilizer.  green meat grass and green vegetables as food.
             Green Paper (in the UK) a preliminary report of Government
             proposals, for discussion.  green plover a lapwing.  green pound
             the exchange rate for the pound for payments for agricultural
             produce in the EEC.  green revolution greatly increased crop
             production in underdeveloped countries.  green-room a room in a
             theatre for actors and actresses who are off stage.  green-stick
             fracture a bone-fracture, esp. in children, in which one side of
             the bone is broken and one only bent.  green tea tea made from
             steam-dried, not fermented, leaves.  green thumb = green
             fingers.  green turtle a green-shelled sea turtle, Chelonia
             mydas, highly regarded as food.  green vitriol ferrous sulphate
             crystals.  ЬЬgreenish adj.  greenly adv.  greenness n.  [OE
             grene (adj. & n.), grenian (v.), f. Gmc, rel. to GROW]

   greenback n.  US 1 a US legal-tender note.  2 any of various green-backed

             n.  any fly of the genus Lucilia, esp.  L. sericata which lays
             eggs in the flesh of sheep.

   greenery  n.  green foliage or growing plants.

   greenfeed n.  Austral. & NZ forage grown to be fed fresh to livestock.

             n.  (attrib.) (of a site, in terms of its potential development)
             having no previous building development on it.

             n.  a finch, Carduelis chloris, with green and yellow plumage.

   greenfly  n.  (pl.  -flies) Brit.  1 a green aphid.  2 these collectively.

   greengage n.  a roundish green fine-flavoured variety of plum.  [Sir W.
             Gage d. 1727]

             n.  Brit.  a retailer of fruit and vegetables.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) Brit.  1 the business of a greengrocer.  2 goods
             sold by a greengrocer.

   greenhead n.  1 any biting fly of the genus Chrysops.  2 an Australian
             ant, Chalcoponera metallica, with a painful sting.

             n.  1 any of several tropical American trees, esp.  Ocotea
             rodiaei.  2 the hard greenish wood of one of these.

   greenhorn n.  an inexperienced or foolish person; a new recruit.

             n.  a light structure with the sides and roof mainly of glass,
             for rearing delicate plants or hastening the growth of plants.
             Ьgreenhouse effect the trapping of the sun's warmth in the lower
             atmosphere of the earth caused by an increase in carbon dioxide,
             which is more transparent to solar radiation than to the
             reflected radiation from the earth.  greenhouse gas any of
             various gases, esp. carbon dioxide, that contribute to the
             greenhouse effect.

   greening  n.  a variety of apple that is green when ripe.  [prob. f. MDu.
             groeninc (as GREEN)]

             n.  the keeper of a golf-course.

   greenlet  n.  = VIREO.

   greensand n.  1 a greenish kind of sandstone, often imperfectly cemented.
             2 a stratum largely formed of this sandstone.

             n.  a large sandpiper, Tringa nebularia.

   greensick adj.  affected with chlorosis.  ЬЬgreensickness n.

             n.  1 a greenish igneous rock containing feldspar and
             hornblende.  2 a variety of jade found in New Zealand, used for
             tools, ornaments, etc.

             n.  vegetation; green vegetables.

             n.  1 grassy turf.  2 an expanse of this.

   greenweed n. (dyer's greenweed) a bushy plant, Genista tinctoria, with
             deep yellow flowers.

   Greenwich Mean Time
             n.  (also Greenwich Time) the local time on the meridian of
             Greenwich, used as an international basis of time-reckoning.
             [Greenwich in London, former site of the Royal Observatory]

   greenwood n.  a wood in summer, esp. as the scene of outlaw life.

   greeny    adj.  greenish (greeny-yellow).

   greenyard n.  Brit.  an enclosure for stray animals, a pound.

   greet(1)  v.tr.  1 address politely or welcomingly on meeting or arrival.
             2 receive or acknowledge in a specified way (was greeted with
             derision).  3 (of a sight, sound, etc.) become apparent to or
             noticed by.  ЬЬgreeter n.  [OE gretan handle, attack, salute f.

   greet(2)  v.intr.  Sc.  weep.  [OE gretan, greotan, of uncert. orig.]

   greeting  n.  1 the act or an instance of welcoming or addressing
             politely.  2 words, gestures, etc., used to greet a person.  3
             (often in pl.) an expression of goodwill.  Ьgreetings card a
             decorative card sent to convey greetings.

             adj.  1 fond of company.  2 living in flocks or communities.  3
             growing in clusters.  ЬЬgregariously adv.  gregariousness n.  [L
             gregarius f.  grex gregis flock]

   Gregorian calendar
             n.  the calendar introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII, as a
             correction of the Julian calendar.  [med.L Gregorianus f. LL
             Gregorius f. Gk Gregorios Gregory]

   Gregorian chant
             n.  plainsong ritual music, named after Pope Gregory I.

   Gregorian telescope
             n.  a reflecting telescope in which light reflected from a
             secondary mirror passes through a hole in a primary mirror.  [J.
             Gregory, Sc. mathematician d. 1675, who devised it]

             n.  hist.  a compound powder of rhubarb, magnesia, and ginger,
             used as a laxative.  [J.  Gregory, Sc. physician d. 1822]

   gremlin   n.  colloq.  1 an imaginary mischievous sprite regarded as
             responsible for mechanical faults, esp. in aircraft.  2 any
             similar cause of trouble.  [20th c.: orig. unkn., but prob.
             after goblin]

   grenade   n.  1 a small bomb thrown by hand (hand-grenade) or shot from a
             rifle.  2 a glass receptacle containing chemicals which disperse
             on impact, for testing drains, extinguishing fires, etc.  [F f.
             OF grenate and Sp.  granada POMEGRANATE]

   grenadier n.  1 a Brit. (Grenadiers or Grenadier Guards) the first
             regiment of the royal household infantry.  b hist. a soldier
             armed with grenades.  2 any deep-sea fish of the family
             Macrouridae, with a long tapering body and pointed tail, and
             secreting luminous bacteria when disturbed.  [F (as GRENADE)]

             var. of GRANADILLA.

             n.  a French cordial syrup of pomegranates etc.  [F f.  grenade:
             see GRENADE]

             n.  a dress-fabric of loosely woven silk or silk and wool.  [F,
             earlier grenade grained silk f.  grenu grained]

   Gresham's law
             n.  the tendency for money of lower intrinsic value to circulate
             more freely than money of higher intrinsic and equal nominal
             value.  [Sir T.  Gresham, Engl. financier d. 1579]

             adj.  Zool.  1 walking.  2 adapted for walking.  [mod.L
             gressorius f. L gradi gress- walk]

   grew      past of GROW.

   grey      adj., n., & v.  (US gray) --adj.  1 of a colour intermediate
             between black and white, as of ashes or lead.  2 a (of the
             weather etc.) dull, dismal; heavily overcast.  b bleak,
             depressing; (of a person) depressed.  3 a (of hair) turning
             white with age etc.  b (of a person) having grey hair.  4
             anonymous, nondescript, unidentifiable.  --n.  1 a a grey colour
             or pigment.  b grey clothes or material (dressed in grey).  2 a
             cold sunless light.  3 a grey or white horse.  --v.tr. & intr.
             make or become grey.  Ьgrey area 1 a situation or topic sharing
             features of more than one category and not clearly attributable
             to any one category.  2 S.Afr. an area where Black and Coloured
             people live (usu. illicitly) alongside White.  3 Brit. an area
             in economic decline.  grey eminence = ђMINENCE GRISE.  Grey
             Friar a Franciscan friar.  grey goose = GREYLAG.  grey-hen the
             female of the black grouse (cf.  BLACKCOCK).  grey matter 1 the
             darker tissues of the brain and spinal cord consisting of
             nerve-cell bodies and branching dendrites.  2 colloq.
             intelligence.  grey squirrel an American squirrel, Sciurus
             carolinensis, brought to Europe in the 19th c.  ЬЬgreyish adj.
             greyly adv.  greyness n.  [OE gr‘g f. Gmc]

   greybeard n.  archaic 1 an old man.  2 a large stoneware jug for spirits.
             3 Brit. clematis in seed.

   greyhound n.  1 a dog of a tall slender breed having keen sight and
             capable of high speed, used in racing and coursing.  2 this
             breed.  [OE grighund f.  grieg bitch (unrecorded: cf. ON grey) +
             hund dog, rel. to HOUND]

   greylag   n. (in full greylag goose) a wild goose, Anser anser, native to
             Europe.  [GREY + LAG(1) (because of its late migration)]

   greywacke n.  (US graywacke) Geol.  a dark and coarse-grained sandstone,
             usu. with an admixture of clay.  [Anglicized f. G Grauwacke f.
             grau grey: see WACKE]

   grid      n.  1 a framework of spaced parallel bars; a grating.  2 a
             system of numbered squares printed on a map and forming the
             basis of map references.  3 a network of lines, electric-power
             connections, gas-supply lines, etc.  4 a pattern of lines
             marking the starting-places on a motor-racing track.  5 the wire
             network between the filament and the anode of a thermionic valve
             etc.  6 an arrangement of town streets in a rectangular pattern.
             Ьgrid bias Electr.  a fixed voltage applied between the cathode
             and the control grid of a thermionic valve which determines its
             operating conditions.  ЬЬgridded adj.  [back-form. f.  GRIDIRON]

   griddle   n. & v.  --n.  1 = GIRDLE(2).  2 a miner's wire-bottomed sieve.
             --v.tr.  1 cook with a griddle; grill.  2 sieve with a griddle.
             [ME f. OF gredil, gridil gridiron ult. f. L craticula dimin. of
             cratis hurdle; cf.  GRATE(2), GRILL(1)]

   gridiron  n.  1 a cooking utensil of metal bars for broiling or grilling.
             2 a frame of parallel beams for supporting a ship in dock.  3 US
             a football field (with parallel lines marking out the area of
             play).  4 Theatr. a plank structure over a stage supporting the
             mechanism for drop-scenes etc.  5 = GRID 6.  [ME gredire, var.
             of gredil GRIDDLE, later assoc. with IRON]

   grief     n.  1 deep or intense sorrow or mourning.  2 the cause of this.
             Ьcome to grief meet with disaster; fail.  good (or great) grief!
             an exclamation of surprise, alarm, etc.  [ME f. AF gref, OF
             grief f.  grever GRIEVE(1)]

   grievance n.  a real or fancied cause for complaint.  [ME, = injury, f. OF
             grevance (as GRIEF)]

   grieve(1) v.  1 tr. cause grief or great distress to.  2 intr. suffer
             grief, esp. at another's death.  ЬЬgriever n.  [ME f. OF grever
             ult. f. L gravare f.  gravis heavy]

   grieve(2) n.  Sc.  a farm-bailiff; an overseer.  [OE groe.fa: cf.

   grievous  adj.  1 (of pain etc.) severe.  2 causing grief or suffering.  3
             injurious.  4 flagrant, heinous.  Ьgrievous bodily harm Law
             serious injury inflicted intentionally on a person.
             ЬЬgrievously adv.  grievousness n.  [ME f. OF grevos (as

   griffin   n.  (also gryphon) a fabulous creature with an eagle's head and
             wings and a lion's body.  [ME f. OF grifoun ult. f. LL gryphus
             f. L gryps f. Gk grups]

   griffon   n.  1 a a dog of a small terrier-like breed with coarse or
             smooth hair.  b this breed.  2 (in full griffon vulture) a large
             vulture, Gyps fulvus.  3 = GRIFFIN.  [F (in sense 1) or var. of

   grig      n.  1 a small eel.  2 a grasshopper or cricket.  Ьmerry (or
             lively) as a grig full of fun; extravagantly lively.  [ME, orig.
             = dwarf: orig. unkn.]

   grill(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a device on a cooker for radiating heat
             downwards.  b = GRIDIRON(1).  2 a dish of food cooked on a
             grill.  3 (in full grill room) a restaurant serving grilled
             food.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. cook or be cooked under a grill or on
             a gridiron.  2 tr. & intr. subject or be subjected to extreme
             heat, esp. from the sun.  3 tr. subject to severe questioning or
             interrogation.  ЬЬgriller n.  grilling n. (in sense 3 of v.).
             [F gril (n.), griller (v.), f. OF forms of GRILLE]

   grill(2)  var. of GRILLE.

   grillage  n.  a heavy framework of cross-timbering or metal beams forming
             a foundation for building on difficult ground.  [F (as GRILLE)]

   grille    n.  (also grill) 1 a grating or latticed screen, used as a
             partition or to allow discreet vision.  2 a metal grid
             protecting the radiator of a motor vehicle.  [F f. OF gra‹lle f.
             med.L graticula, craticula: see GRIDDLE]

   grilse    n.  a young salmon that has returned to fresh water from the sea
             for the first time.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   grim      adj.  (grimmer, grimmest) 1 of a stern or forbidding appearance.
             2 harsh, merciless, severe.  3 ghastly, joyless, sinister (has a
             grim truth in it).  4 unpleasant, unattractive.  Ьlike grim
             death with great determination.  ЬЬgrimly adv.  grimness n.  [OE
             f. Gmc]

   grimace   n. & v.  --n. a distortion of the face made in disgust etc. or
             to amuse.  --v.intr. make a grimace.  ЬЬgrimacer n.  [F f. Sp.
             grimazo f.  grima fright]

   grimalkin n.  archaic (esp. in fiction) 1 an old she-cat.  2 a spiteful
             old woman.  [GREY + Malkin dimin. of the name Matilda]

   grime     n. & v.  --n. soot or dirt ingrained in a surface, esp. of
             buildings or the skin.  --v.tr. blacken with grime; befoul.
             [orig. as verb: f. MLG & MDu.]

   grimy     adj.  (grimier, grimiest) covered with grime; dirty.  ЬЬgrimily
             adv.  griminess n.

   grin      v. & n.  --v.  (grinned, grinning) 1 intr.  a smile broadly,
             showing the teeth.  b make a forced, unrestrained, or stupid
             smile.  2 tr. express by grinning (grinned his satisfaction).
             --n. the act or action of grinning.  Ьgrin and bear it take pain
             or misfortune stoically.  ЬЬgrinner n.  grinningly adv.  [OE
             grennian f. Gmc]

   grind     v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  ground) 1 a tr. reduce to
             small particles or powder by crushing esp. by passing through a
             mill.  b intr. (of a mill, machine, etc.) move with a crushing
             action.  2 a tr. reduce, sharpen, or smooth by friction.  b tr.
             & intr. rub or rub together gratingly (grind one's teeth).  3
             tr. (often foll. by down) oppress; harass with exactions
             (grinding poverty).  4 intr.  a (often foll. by away) work or
             study hard.  b (foll. by out) produce with effort (grinding out
             verses).  c (foll. by on) (of a sound) continue gratingly or
             monotonously.  5 tr. turn the handle of e.g. a coffee-mill,
             barrel-organ, etc.  6 intr.  sl. (of a dancer) rotate the hips.
             7 intr.  coarse sl. have sexual intercourse.  --n.  1 the act or
             an instance of grinding.  2 colloq. hard dull work; a laborious
             task (the daily grind).  3 the size of ground particles.  4 sl.
             a dancer's rotary movement of the hips.  5 coarse sl. an act of
             sexual intercourse.  Ьgrind to a halt stop laboriously.  ground
             glass 1 glass made non-transparent by grinding etc.  2 glass
             ground to a powder.  ЬЬgrindingly adv.  [OE grindan, of unkn.

   grinder   n.  1 a person or thing that grinds, esp. a machine (often in
             comb.: coffee-grinder; organ-grinder).  2 a molar tooth.

             n.  1 a thick revolving disc used for grinding, sharpening, and
             polishing.  2 a kind of stone used for this.  Ьkeep one's nose
             to the grindstone work hard and continuously.

   gringo    n.  (pl.  -os) colloq.  a foreigner, esp. a British or N.
             American person, in a Spanish-speaking country.  [Sp., =

   grip      v. & n.  --v.  (gripped, gripping) 1 a tr. grasp tightly; take a
             firm hold of.  b intr. take a firm hold, esp. by friction.  2
             tr. (of a feeling or emotion) deeply affect (a person) (was
             gripped by fear).  3 tr. compel the attention or interest of (a
             gripping story).  --n.  1 a a firm hold; a tight grasp or clasp.
             b a manner of grasping or holding.  2 the power of holding
             attention.  3 a mental or intellectual understanding or mastery.
             b effective control of a situation or one's behaviour etc.
             (lose one's grip).  4 a a part of a machine that grips or holds
             something.  b a part or attachment by which a tool, implement,
             weapon, etc., is held in the hand.  5 = HAIRGRIP.  6 a
             travelling bag.  7 an assistant in a theatre, film studio, etc.
             8 Austral.  sl. a job or occupation.  Ьcome (or get) to grips
             with approach purposefully; begin to deal with.  in the grip of
             dominated or affected by (esp. an adverse circumstance or
             unpleasant sensation).  ЬЬgripper n.  grippingly adv.  [OE
             gripe, gripa handful (as GRIPE)]

   gripe     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  colloq. complain, esp. peevishly.  2 tr.
             affect with gastric or intestinal pain.  3 tr.  archaic clutch,
             grip.  4 Naut.  a tr. secure with gripes.  b intr. turn to face
             the wind in spite of the helm.  --n.  1 (usu. in pl.) gastric or
             intestinal pain; colic.  2 colloq.  a a complaint.  b the act of
             griping.  3 a grip or clutch.  4 (in pl.) Naut. lashings
             securing a boat in its place.  ЬGripe Water propr.  a
             carminative solution to relieve colic and stomach ailments in
             infants.  ЬЬgriper n.  gripingly adv.  [OE gripan f. Gmc: cf.

   grippe    n.  archaic or colloq.  influenza.  [F f.  gripper seize]

   grisaille n.  1 a method of painting in grey monochrome, often to imitate
             sculpture.  2 a painting or stained-glass window of this kind.
             [F f.  gris grey]

             n.  an antibiotic used against fungal infections of the hair and
             skin.  [mod.L griseofulvum f. med.L griseus grey + L fulvus

   grisette  n.  a young working-class Frenchwoman.  [F, orig. a grey
             dress-material, f.  gris grey]

   grisly    adj.  (grislier, grisliest) causing horror, disgust, or fear.
             ЬЬgrisliness n.  [OE grislic terrifying]

   grison    n.  any weasel-like mammal of the genus Galictis, with dark fur
             and a white stripe across the forehead.  [F, app. f.  grison

   grist     n.  1 corn to grind.  2 malt crushed for brewing.  Ьgrist to the
             (or a person's) mill a source of profit or advantage.  [OE f.
             Gmc, rel. to GRIND]

   gristle   n.  tough flexible tissue in vertebrates; cartilage.  ЬЬgristly
             adj.  [OE gristle]

   grit      n. & v.  --n.  1 particles of stone or sand, esp. as causing
             discomfort, clogging machinery, etc.  2 coarse sandstone.  3
             colloq. pluck, endurance; strength of character.  --v.
             (gritted, gritting) 1 tr. spread grit on (icy roads etc.).  2
             tr. clench (the teeth).  3 intr. make or move with a grating
             sound.  ЬЬgritter n.  gritty adj.  (grittier, grittiest).
             grittily adv.  grittiness n.  [OE greot f. Gmc: cf.  GRITS,

   grits     n.pl.  1 coarsely ground grain, esp. oatmeal.  2 oats that have
             been husked but not ground.  [OE grytt(e): cf.  GRIT, GROATS]

   grizzle   v.intr.  Brit.  colloq.  1 (esp. of a child) cry fretfully.  2
             complain whiningly.  ЬЬgrizzler n.  grizzly adj.  [19th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   grizzled  adj.  having, or streaked with, grey hair.  [grizzle grey f. OF
             grisel f.  gris grey]

   grizzly   adj. & n.  --adj.  (grizzlier, grizzliest) grey, greyish,
             grey-haired.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) (in full grizzly bear) a large
             variety of brown bear, found in N. America and N.  Russia.

   groan     v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. make a deep sound expressing pain,
             grief, or disapproval.  b tr. utter with groans.  2 intr.
             complain inarticulately.  3 intr. (usu. foll. by under, beneath,
             with) be loaded or oppressed.  --n. the sound made in groaning.
             Ьgroan inwardly be distressed.  ЬЬgroaner n.  groaningly adv.
             [OE granian f. Gmc, rel. to GRIN]

   groat     n.  hist.  1 a silver coin worth four old pence.  2 archaic a
             small sum (don't care a groat).  [ME f. MDu.  groot, orig. =
             great, i.e. thick (penny): cf.  GROSCHEN]

   groats    n.pl.  hulled or crushed grain, esp. oats.  [OE grotan (pl.):
             cf.  grot fragment, greot GRIT, grytt bran]

   grocer    n.  a dealer in food and household provisions.  [ME & AF
             grosser, orig. one who sells in the gross, f. OF grossier f.
             med.L grossarius (as GROSS)]

   grocery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a grocer's trade or shop.  2 (in pl.)
             provisions, esp. food, sold by a grocer.

   grockle   n.  dial. & sl.  a visitor or holiday-maker, esp. from the North
             or Midlands to SW England.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   grog      n.  1 a drink of spirit (orig. rum) and water.  2 Austral. & NZ
             colloq. alcoholic liquor, esp. beer.  [said to be from 'Old
             Grog', the reputed nickname (f. his GROGRAM cloak) of Admiral
             Vernon, who in 1740 first had diluted instead of neat rum served
             out to sailors]

   groggy    adj.  (groggier, groggiest) incapable or unsteady from being
             dazed or semi-conscious.  ЬЬgroggily adv.  grogginess n.

   grogram   n.  a coarse fabric of silk, mohair, and wool, or a mixture of
             these, often stiffened with gum.  [F gros grain coarse grain (as
             GROSS, GRAIN)]

   groin(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 the depression between the belly and the thigh.
             2 Archit.  a an edge formed by intersecting vaults.  b an arch
             supporting a vault.  --v.tr.  Archit. build with groins.  [ME
             grynde, perh. f. OE grynde depression]

   groin(2)  US var. of GROYNE.

   grommet   n.  (also grummet) 1 a metal, plastic, or rubber eyelet placed
             in a hole to protect or insulate a rope or cable etc. passed
             through it.  2 a tube passed through the eardrum in surgery to
             make a communication with the middle ear.  [obs. F grommette f.
             gourmer to curb, of unkn. orig.]

   gromwell  n.  any of various plants of the genus Lithospermum, with hard
             seeds formerly used in medicine.  [ME f. OF gromil, prob. f.
             med.L gruinum milium (unrecorded) crane's millet]

   groom     n. & v.  --n.  1 a person employed to take care of horses.  2 =
             BRIDEGROOM.  3 Brit.  Mil. any of certain officers of the Royal
             Household.  --v.tr.  1 a curry or tend (a horse).  b give a neat
             appearance to (a person etc.).  2 (of an ape or monkey etc.)
             clean and comb the fur (of its fellow) with the fingers.  3
             prepare or train (a person) for a particular purpose or activity
             (was groomed for the top job).  [ME, orig. = boy: orig. unkn.]

   groove    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a channel or hollow, esp. one made to guide
             motion or receive a corresponding ridge.  b a spiral track cut
             in a gramophone record.  2 an established routine or habit, esp.
             a monotonous one.  --v.  1 tr. make a groove or grooves in.  2
             intr.  sl.  a enjoy oneself.  b (often foll. by with) make
             progress; get on well.  °Often with ref. to popular music or
             jazz; now largely disused in general contexts.  Ьin the groove
             sl.  1 doing or performing well.  2 fashionable.  [ME, =
             mine-shaft, f. obs. Du.  groeve furrow f. Gmc]

   groovy    adj.  (groovier, grooviest) 1 sl. fashionable and exciting;
             enjoyable, excellent.  2 of or like a groove.  ЬЬgroovily adv.
             grooviness n.

   grope     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (usu. foll. by for) feel about or search
             blindly or uncertainly with the hands.  2 intr. (foll. by for,
             after) search mentally (was groping for the answer).  3 tr. feel
             (one's way) towards something.  4 tr.  sl. fondle clumsily for
             sexual pleasure.  --n. the process or an instance of groping.
             ЬЬgroper n.  gropingly adv.  [OE grapian f. Gmc]

   groper    n.  esp.  Austral. & NZ = GROUPER.  [var. of GROUPER]

   grosbeak  n.  any of various finches of the families Cardinalidae and
             Fringillidae, having stout conical bills and usu. brightly
             coloured plumage.  [F grosbec (as GROSS)]

   groschen  n.  1 an Austrian coin and monetary unit, one hundredth of a
             schilling.  2 colloq. a German 10-pfennig piece.  3 hist. a
             small German silver coin.  [G f. MHG gros, grosse f. med.L
             (denarius) grossus thick (penny): cf.  GROAT]

   grosgrain n.  a corded fabric of silk etc.  [F, = coarse grain (as GROSS,

   gros point
             n.  cross-stitch embroidery on canvas.  [F (as GROSS, POINT)]

   gross     adj., v., & n.  --adj.  1 overfed, bloated; repulsively fat.  2
             (of a person, manners, or morals) noticeably coarse, unrefined,
             or indecent.  3 flagrant; conspicuously wrong (gross
             negligence).  4 total; without deductions; not net (gross
             tonnage; gross income).  5 a luxuriant, rank.  b thick, solid,
             dense.  6 (of the senses etc.) dull; lacking sensitivity.
             --v.tr. produce or earn as gross profit or income.  --n.  (pl.
             same) an amount equal to twelve dozen.  Ьby the gross in large
             quantities; wholesale.  gross domestic product the total value
             of goods produced and services provided in a country in one
             year.  gross national product the gross domestic product plus
             the total of net income from abroad.  gross out US sl.  disgust,
             esp. by repulsive or obscene behaviour.  gross up increase (a
             net amount) to its value before deductions.  ЬЬgrossly adv.
             grossness n.  [ME f. OF gros grosse large f. LL grossus: (n.) f.
             F grosse douzaine large dozen]

   grot      n. & adj.  Brit.  sl.  --n. rubbish, junk.  --adj. dirty .
             [back-form. f.  GROTTY]

   grotesque adj. & n.  --adj.  1 comically or repulsively distorted;
             monstrous, unnatural.  2 incongruous, ludicrous, absurd.  --n.
             1 a decorative form interweaving human and animal features.  2 a
             comically distorted figure or design.  3 Printing a family of
             sanserif typefaces.  ЬЬgrotesquely adv.  grotesqueness n.
             grotesquerie n.  [earlier crotesque f. F crotesque f. It.
             grottesca grotto-like (painting etc.) fem. of grottesco (as
             GROTTO, -ESQUE)]

   grotto    n.  (pl.  -oes or -os) 1 a small picturesque cave.  2 an
             artificial ornamental cave, e.g. in a park or large garden.
             ЬЬgrottoed adj.  [It.  grotta ult. f. L crypta f. Gk krupte

   grotty    adj.  (grottier, grottiest) Brit.  sl.  unpleasant, dirty,
             shabby, unattractive.  ЬЬgrottiness n.  [shortening of GROTESQUE
             + -Y(1)]

   grouch    v. & n.  colloq.  --v.intr. grumble.  --n.  1 a discontented
             person.  2 a fit of grumbling or the sulks.  3 a cause of
             discontent.  [var. of grutch: see GRUDGE]

   grouchy   adj.  (grouchier, grouchiest) colloq.  discontented, grumpy.
             ЬЬgrouchily adv.  grouchiness n.

   ground(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a the surface of the earth, esp. as contrasted
             with the air around it.  b a part of this specified in some way
             (low ground).  2 the substance of the earth's surface; soil,
             earth (stony ground; dug deep into the ground).  3 a a position,
             area, or distance on the earth's surface.  b the extent of
             activity etc. achieved or of a subject dealt with (the book
             covers a lot of ground).  4 (often in pl.) a foundation, motive,
             or reason (there is ground for concern; there are grounds for
             believing; excused on the grounds of ill-health).  5 an area of
             a special kind or designated for special use (often in comb.:
             cricket-ground; fishing-grounds).  6 (in pl.) an area of usu.
             enclosed land attached to a house etc.  7 an area or basis for
             consideration, agreement, etc. (common ground; on firm ground).
             8 a (in painting) the prepared surface giving the predominant
             colour or tone.  b (in embroidery, ceramics, etc.) the
             undecorated surface.  9 (in full ground bass) Mus. a short theme
             in the bass constantly repeated with the upper parts of the
             music varied.  10 (in pl.) solid particles, esp. of coffee,
             forming a residue.  11 Electr. = EARTH.  12 the bottom of the
             sea (the ship touched ground).  13 Brit. the floor of a room
             etc.  14 a piece of wood fixed to a wall as a base for boards,
             plaster, or joinery.  15 (attrib.) a (of animals) living on or
             in the ground; (of fish) living at the bottom of water; (of
             plants) dwarfish or trailing.  b relating to or concerned with
             the ground (ground staff).  --v.  1 tr. refuse authority for (a
             pilot or an aircraft) to fly.  2 a tr. run (a ship) aground;
             strand.  b intr. (of a ship) run aground.  3 tr. (foll. by in)
             instruct thoroughly (in a subject).  4 tr. (often as grounded
             adj.) (foll. by on) base (a principle, conclusion, etc.) on.  5
             tr.  Electr. = EARTH v.  6 intr. alight on the ground.  7 tr.
             place or lay (esp. weapons) on the ground.  Ьbreak new (or
             fresh) ground treat a subject previously not dealt with.  cut
             the ground from under a person's feet anticipate and pre-empt a
             person's arguments, plans, etc.  down to the ground Brit.
             colloq.  thoroughly; in every respect.  fall to the ground (of a
             plan etc.) fail.  gain (or make) ground 1 advance steadily; make
             progress.  2 (foll. by on) catch (a person) up.  get in on the
             ground floor become part of an enterprise in its early stages.
             get off the ground colloq.  make a successful start.  give (or
             lose) ground 1 retreat, decline.  2 lose the advantage or one's
             position in an argument, contest, etc.  go to ground 1 (of a fox
             etc.) enter its earth or burrow etc.  2 (of a person) become
             inaccessible for a prolonged period.  ground-bait bait thrown to
             the bottom of a fishing-ground.  ground control the personnel
             directing the landing etc. of aircraft or spacecraft.  ground
             cover plants covering the surface of the earth, esp. low-growing
             spreading plants that inhibit the growth of weeds.  ground elder
             a garden weed, Aegopodium podagraria, spreading by means of
             underground stems.  ground floor the floor of a building at
             ground level.  ground frost frost on the surface of the ground
             or in the top layer of soil.  ground level 1 the level of the
             ground; the ground floor.  2 Physics the lowest energy state of
             an atom etc.  ground-plan 1 the plan of a building at ground
             level.  2 the general outline of a scheme.  ground-rent rent for
             land leased for building.  ground rule a basic principle.
             ground speed an aircraft's speed relative to the ground.
             ground-squirrel 1 a squirrel-like rodent, e.g. a chipmunk,
             gopher, etc.  2 any squirrel of the genus Spermophilus living in
             burrows.  ground staff the non-flying personnel of an airport or
             airbase.  ground state Physics = ground level 2.  ground stroke
             Tennis a stroke played near the ground after the ball has
             bounced.  ground swell 1 a heavy sea caused by a distant or past
             storm or an earthquake.  2 an increasingly forceful presence
             (esp. of public opinion).  ground zero the point on the ground
             under an exploding (usu. nuclear) bomb.  hold one's ground not
             retreat or give way.  on the ground at the point of production
             or operation; in practical conditions.  on one's own ground on
             one's own territory or subject; on one's own terms.  thin on the
             ground not numerous.  work (or run etc.) oneself into the ground
             colloq.  work etc. to the point of exhaustion.  ЬЬgrounder n.
             [OE grund f. Gmc]

   ground(2) past and past part. of GRIND.

   groundage n.  Brit.  duty levied on a ship entering a port or lying on a

   groundhog n.  1 = AARDVARK.  2 US a marmot; a woodchuck.

   grounding n.  basic training or instruction in a subject.

             adj.  without motive or foundation.  ЬЬgroundlessly adv.
             groundlessness n.  [OE grundleas (as GROUND(1), -LESS)]

             n.  1 a a creeping or dwarf plant.  b an animal that lives near
             the ground, at the bottom of a lake, etc., esp. a ground-fish.
             2 a person on the ground as opposed to one in an aircraft.  3 a
             spectator or reader of inferior taste (with ref. to Shakesp.
             Hamlet III. ii. 11).

   groundnut n.  1 Brit. = PEANUT.  2 a a N. American wild bean.  b its
             edible tuber.

   groundsel n.  any composite plant of the genus Senecio, esp.  S. vulgaris,
             used as a food for cage-birds.  [OE grundeswylige, gund‘swelgi‘
             (perh. = pus-absorber f.  gund pus, with ref. to use for

             n.  a waterproof sheet for spreading on the ground, esp. in a

             n.  (pl.  -men) a person who maintains a sports ground.

             n.  water found in soil or in pores, crevices, etc., in rock.

             n.  1 preliminary or basic work.  2 a foundation or basis.

   group     n. & v.  --n.  1 a number of persons or things located close
             together, or considered or classed together.  2 (attrib.)
             concerning or done by a group (a group photograph; group sex).
             3 a number of people working together or sharing beliefs, e.g.
             part of a political party.  4 a number of commercial companies
             under common ownership.  5 an ensemble playing popular music.  6
             a division of an air force or air-fleet.  7 Math. a set of
             elements, together with an associative binary operation, which
             contains an inverse for each element and an identity element.  8
             Chem.  a a set of ions or radicals giving a characteristic
             qualitative reaction.  b a set of elements having similar
             properties.  c a combination of atoms having a recognizable
             identity in a number of compounds.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. form or
             be formed into a group.  2 tr. (often foll. by with) place in a
             group or groups.  3 tr. form (colours, figures, etc.) into a
             well-arranged and harmonious whole.  4 tr. classify.  Ьgroup
             captain an RAF officer next below air commodore.  group dynamics
             Psychol.  the field of social psychology concerned with the
             nature, development, and interactions of human groups.  group
             practice a medical practice in which several doctors are
             associated.  group therapy therapy in which patients with a
             similar condition are brought together to assist one another
             psychologically.  group velocity the speed of travel of the
             energy of a wave or wave-group.  ЬЬgroupage n.  [F groupe f. It.
             gruppo f. Gmc, rel. to CROP]

   grouper   n.  any marine fish of the family Serranidae, with heavy body,
             big head, and wide mouth.  [Port.  garupa, prob. f. native name
             in S. America]

   groupie   n.  sl.  an ardent follower of touring pop groups, esp. a young
             woman seeking sexual relations with them.

   grouping  n.  a process or system of allocation to groups.

   grouse(1) n.  (pl. same) 1 any of various game-birds of the family
             Tetraonidae, with a plump body and feathered legs.  2 the flesh
             of a grouse used as food.  [16th c.: orig. uncert.]

   grouse(2) v. & n.  colloq.  --v.intr. grumble or complain pettily.  --n. a
             complaint.  ЬЬgrouser n.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   grout(1)  n. & v.  --n. a thin fluid mortar for filling gaps in tiling
             etc.  --v.tr. provide or fill with grout.  ЬЬgrouter n.  [perh.
             f.  GROUT(2), but cf. F dial.  grouter grout a wall]

   grout(2)  n.  sediment, dregs.  [OE grut, rel. to GRITS, GROATS]

   grouter   n.  Austral.  sl.  an unfair advantage.  [20th c.: orig.

   grove     n.  a small wood or group of trees.  ЬЬgrovy adj.  [OE graf,
             rel. to gr‘fa brushwood]

   grovel    v.intr.  (grovelled, grovelling; US groveled, groveling) 1
             behave obsequiously in seeking favour or forgiveness.  2 lie
             prone in abject humility.  ЬЬgroveller n.  grovelling adj.
             grovellingly adv.  [back-form. f. obs.  grovelling (adv.) f.
             gruf face down f.  on grufe f. ON   grЈfu, later taken as pres.

   grow      v.  (past grew; past part.  grown) 1 intr. increase in size,
             height, quantity, degree, or in any way regarded as measurable
             (e.g. authority or reputation) (often foll. by in: grew in
             stature).  2 intr.  a develop or exist as a living plant or
             natural product.  b develop in a specific way or direction
             (began to grow sideways).  c germinate, sprout; spring up.  3
             intr. be produced; come naturally into existence; arise.  4
             intr. (as grown adj.) fully matured; adult.  5 intr.  a become
             gradually (grow rich; grow less).  b (foll. by to + infin.) come
             by degrees (grew to like it).  6 intr. (foll. by into) a become,
             having grown or developed (the acorn has grown into a tall oak;
             will grow into a fine athlete).  b become large enough for or
             suited to (will grow into the coat; grew into her new job).  7
             intr. (foll. by on) become gradually more favoured by.  8 tr.  a
             produce (plants, fruit, wood, etc.) by cultivation.  b bring
             forth.  c cause (a beard etc.) to develop.  9 tr. (in passive;
             foll. by over, up) be covered with a growth.  Ьgrowing bag a bag
             containing peat-based potting compost in which plants may be
             grown.  growing pains 1 early difficulties in the development of
             an enterprise etc.  2 neuralgic pain in children's legs due to
             fatigue etc.  grown-up adj.  adult.  --n. an adult person.  grow
             out of 1 become too large to wear (a garment).  2 become too
             mature to retain (a childish habit etc.).  3 be the result or
             development of.  grow together coalesce.  grow up 1 a advance to
             maturity.  b (esp. in imper.) begin to behave sensibly.  2 (of a
             custom) arise, become common.  ЬЬgrowable adj.  [OE growan f.
             Gmc, rel. to GRASS, GREEN]

   grower    n.  1 (often in comb.) a person growing produce (fruit-grower).
             2 a plant that grows in a specified way (a fast grower).

   growl     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a (often foll. by at) (esp. of a dog)
             make a low guttural sound, usu. of anger.  b murmur angrily.  2
             intr. rumble.  3 tr. (often foll. by out) utter with a growl.
             --n.  1 a growling sound, esp. made by a dog.  2 an angry
             murmur; complaint.  3 a rumble.  ЬЬgrowlingly adv.  [prob.

   growler   n.  1 a person or thing that growls, esp.  sl. a dog.  2 a small

   grown     past part. of GROW.

   growth    n.  1 the act or process of growing.  2 an increase in size or
             value.  3 something that has grown or is growing.  4 Med. a
             morbid formation.  5 the cultivation of produce.  6 a crop or
             yield of grapes.  Ьfull growth the size ultimately attained;
             maturity.  growth hormone Biol.  a substance which stimulates
             the growth of a plant or animal.  growth industry an industry
             that is developing rapidly.  growth stock etc. stock etc. that
             tends to increase in capital value rather than yield high

   groyne    n.  (US groin) a timber framework or low broad wall built out
             from a shore to check erosion of a beach.  [dial.  groin snout
             f. OF groign f. LL grunium pig's snout]

   grub      n. & v.  --n.  1 the larva of an insect, esp. of a beetle.  2
             colloq. food.  --v.  (grubbed, grubbing) 1 tr. & intr. dig
             superficially.  2 tr.  a clear (the ground) of roots and stumps.
             b clear away (roots etc.).  3 tr. (foll. by up, out) a fetch by
             digging (grubbing up weeds).  b extract (information etc.) by
             searching in books etc.  4 intr. search, rummage.  5 intr.
             (foll. by on, along, away) toil, plod.  Ьgrub-screw a small
             headless screw, esp. used to attach a handle etc. to a spindle.
             ЬЬgrubber n. (also in comb.).  [ME, (v.) perh. corresp. to OE
             grybban (unrecorded) f. Gmc]

   grubby    adj.  (grubbier, grubbiest) 1 dirty, grimy, slovenly.  2 of or
             infested with grubs.  ЬЬgrubbily adv.  grubbiness n.

   grubstake n. & v.  US colloq.  --n. material or provisions supplied to an
             enterprise in return for a share in the resulting profits (orig.
             in prospecting for ore).  --v.tr. provide with a grubstake.
             ЬЬgrubstaker n.

   Grub Street
             n.  (often attrib.) the world or class of literary hacks and
             impoverished authors.  [name of a street (later Milton St.) in
             Moorgate, London, inhabited by these in the 17th c.]

   grudge    n. & v.  --n. a persistent feeling of ill will or resentment,
             esp. one due to an insult or injury (bears a grudge against me).
             --v.tr.  1 be resentfully unwilling to give, grant, or allow (a
             thing).  2 (foll. by verbal noun or to + infin.) be reluctant to
             do (a thing) (grudged paying so much).  ЬЬgrudger n.  [ME grutch
             f. OF grouchier murmur, of unkn. orig.]

   grudging  adj.  reluctant; not willing.  ЬЬgrudgingly adv.  grudgingness

   gruel     n.  a liquid food of oatmeal etc. boiled in milk or water
             chiefly for invalids.  [ME f. OF, ult. f. Gmc, rel. to GROUT(1)]

   gruelling adj. & n.  (US grueling) --adj. extremely demanding, severe, or
             tiring.  --n. a harsh or exhausting experience; punishment.
             ЬЬgruellingly adv.  [GRUEL as verb, = exhaust, punish]

   gruesome  adj.  horrible, grisly, disgusting.  ЬЬgruesomely adv.
             gruesomeness n.  [Sc.  grue to shudder f. Scand. + -SOME(1)]

   gruff     adj.  1 a (of a voice) low and harsh.  b (of a person) having a
             gruff voice.  2 surly, laconic, rough-mannered.  ЬЬgruffly adv.
             gruffness n.  [Du., MLG grof coarse f. WG (rel. to ROUGH)]

   grumble   v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a (often foll. by at, about, over)
             complain peevishly.  b be discontented.  2 intr.  a utter a dull
             inarticulate sound; murmur, growl faintly.  b rumble.  3 tr.
             (often foll. by out) utter complainingly.  4 intr. (as grumbling
             adj.) colloq. giving intermittent discomfort without causing
             illness (a grumbling appendix).  --n.  1 a complaint.  2 a a
             dull inarticulate sound; a murmur.  b a rumble.  ЬЬgrumbler n.
             grumbling adj.  grumblingly adv.  grumbly adj.  [obs.  grumme:
             cf. MDu.  grommen, MLG grommelen, f. Gmc]

   grummet   var. of GROMMET.

   grump     n.  colloq.  1 a grumpy person.  2 (in pl.) a fit of sulks.
             ЬЬgrumpish adj.  grumpishly adv.  [imit.]

   grumpy    adj.  (grumpier, grumpiest) morosely irritable; surly.
             ЬЬgrumpily adv.  grumpiness n.

   Grundy    n.  (pl.  -ies) (in full Mrs Grundy) a person embodying
             conventional propriety and prudery.  ЬЬGrundyism n.  [a person
             repeatedly mentioned in T. Morton's comedy Speed the Plough

   grunion   n.  a slender Californian marine fish, Leuresthes tenuis, that
             comes ashore to spawn.  [prob. f. Sp.  gru¤ўn grunter]

   grunt     n. & v.  --n.  1 a low guttural sound made by a pig.  2 a sound
             resembling this.  3 any fish of the genus Haemulon that grunts
             when caught.  --v.  1 intr. (of a pig) make a grunt or grunts.
             2 intr. (of a person) make a low inarticulate sound resembling
             this, esp. to express discontent, dissent, fatigue, etc.  3 tr.
             utter with a grunt.  [OE grunnettan, prob. orig. imit.]

   grunter   n.  1 a person or animal that grunts, esp. a pig.  2 a grunting
             fish, esp. = GRUNT n.  3.

   Grunth    var. of GRANTH.

   GruyЉre   n.  a firm pale cheese made from cow's milk.  [GruyЉre, a
             district in Switzerland where it was first made]

   gryphon   var. of GRIFFIN.

   grysbok   n.  any small antelope of the genus Raphicerus, native to S.
             Africa.  [S.Afr. Du. f. Du.  grijs grey + bok BUCK(1)]

16.0 gs...

   gs.       abbr.  Brit.  hist.  guineas.

   G-string  n.  1 Mus. a string sounding the note G.  2 (also gee-string) a
             narrow strip of cloth etc. covering only the genitals and
             attached to a string round the waist, as worn esp. by striptease

   G-suit    n.  a garment with inflatable pressurized pouches, worn by
             pilots and astronauts to enable them to withstand high
             acceleration.  [g = gravity + SUIT]

17.0 GT...

   GT        n.  a high-performance saloon car.  [abbr. f. It.  gran turismo
             great touring]

   Gt.       abbr.  Great.

18.0 guacamole...

   guacamole n.  a dish of mashed avocado pears mixed with chopped onion,
             tomatoes, chilli peppers, and seasoning.  [Amer. Sp. f. Nahuatl
             ahuacamolli f.  ahuacatl avocado + molli sauce]

   guacharo  n.  (pl.  -os) a nocturnal bird, Steatornis caripensis, native
             to S. America and feeding on fruit. Also called oil-bird.
             [S.Amer. Sp.]

   guaiac    var. of GUAIACUM 2.

   guaiacum  n.  1 any tree of the genus Guaiacum, native to tropical
             America.  2 (also guaiac) a the hard dense oily timber of some
             of these, esp.  G. officinale. Also called LIGNUM VITAE.  b the
             resin from this used medicinally.  [mod.L f. Sp.  guayaco of
             Haitian orig.]

   guan      n.  any of various game-birds of the family Cracidae, of
             tropical America.  [prob. f. a native name]

   guanaco   n.  (pl.  -os) a llama-like camelid, Lama guanicoe, with a coat
             of soft pale-brown hair used for wool.  [Quechua huanaco]

   guanine   n.  Biochem.  a purine derivative found in all living organisms
             as a component base of DNA and RNA.  [GUANO + -INE(4)]

   guano     n. & v.  (pl.  -os) --n.  1 the excrement of sea-fowl, found
             esp. in the islands off Peru and used as manure.  2 an
             artificial manure, esp. that made from fish.  --v.tr.  (-oes,
             -oed) fertilize with guano.  [Sp. f. Quechua huanu dung]

   Guarani   n.  1 a a member of a S. American Indian people.  b the language
             of this people.  2 (guarani) the monetary unit of Paraguay.

   guarantee n. & v.  --n.  1 a a formal promise or assurance, esp. that an
             obligation will be fulfilled or that something is of a specified
             quality and durability.  b a document giving such an
             undertaking.  2 = GUARANTY.  3 a person making a guaranty or
             giving a security.  --v.tr.  (guarantees, guaranteed) 1 a give
             or serve as a guarantee for; answer for the due fulfilment of (a
             contract etc.) or the genuineness of (an article).  b assure the
             permanence etc. of.  c provide with a guarantee.  2 (foll. by
             that + clause, or to + infin.) give a promise or assurance.  3 a
             (foll. by to) secure the possession of (a thing) for a person.
             b make (a person) secure against a risk or in possession of a
             thing.  Ьguarantee fund a sum pledged as a contingent indemnity
             for loss.  [earlier garante, perh. f. Sp.  garante = F garant
             WARRANT: later infl. by F garantie guaranty]

   guarantor n. a person who gives a guarantee or guaranty.

   guaranty  n. (pl. -ies) 1 a written or other undertaking to answer for the
             payment of a debt or for the performance of an obligation by
             another person liable in the first instance.  2 a thing serving
             as security for a guaranty.  [AF guarantie, var. of warantie

   guard     v. & n. --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by from, against) watch over
             and defend or protect from harm.  2 tr. keep watch by (a door
             etc.) so as to control entry or exit.  3 tr. supervise
             (prisoners etc.) and prevent from escaping.  4 tr. provide
             (machinery) with a protective device.  5 tr. keep (thoughts or
             speech) in check.  6 tr. provide with safeguards.  7 intr.
             (foll. by against) take precautions.  8 tr. (in various games)
             protect (a piece, card, etc.) with set moves.  --n.  1 a state
             of vigilance or watchfulness.  2 a person who protects or keeps
             watch.  3 a body of soldiers etc. serving to protect a place or
             person; an escort.  4 US a prison warder.  5 a part of an army
             detached for some purpose (advance guard).  6 (in pl.) (usu.
             Guards) any of various bodies of troops nominally employed to
             guard a monarch.  7 a thing that protects or defends.  8 (often
             in comb.) a device fitted to a machine, vehicle, weapon, etc.,
             to prevent injury or accident to the user (fire-guard).  9 Brit.
             an official who rides with and is in general charge of a train.
             10 in some sports: a a protective or defensive player.  b a
             defensive posture or motion.  Ьbe on (or keep or stand) guard
             (of a sentry etc.) keep watch.  guard cell Bot.  either of a
             pair of cells surrounding the stomata in plants.  guard-rail a
             rail, e.g. a handrail, fitted as a support or to prevent an
             accident.  guard ring Electronics a ring-shaped electrode used
             to limit the extent of an electric field, esp. in a capacitor.
             guard's van Brit.  a coach or compartment occupied by a guard.
             lower one's guard reduce vigilance against attack.  off (or off
             one's) guard unprepared for some surprise or difficulty.  on (or
             on one's) guard prepared for all contingencies; vigilant.  raise
             one's guard become vigilant against attack.  ЬЬguarder n.
             guardless adj.  [ME f. OF garde, garder ult. f. WG, rel. to WARD

   guardant  adj. Heraldry depicted with the body sideways and the face
             towards the viewer.

   guarded   adj.  (of a remark etc.) cautious, avoiding commitment.
             ЬЬguardedly adv. guardedness n.

             n.  a building used to accommodate a military guard or to detain

   guardian  n.  1 a defender, protector, or keeper.  2 a person having legal
             custody of another person and his or her property when that
             person is incapable of managing his or her own affairs.  3 the
             superior of a Franciscan convent.  Ьguardian angel a spirit
             conceived as watching over a person or place.  ЬЬguardianship n.
             [ME f. AF gardein, OF garden f. Frank., rel. to WARD, WARDEN]

   guardroom n. a room with the same purpose as a guardhouse.

   guardsman n. (pl. -men) 1 a soldier belonging to a body of guards.  2 (in
             the UK) a soldier of a regiment of Guards.

   guava     n.  1 a small tropical American tree, Psidium guajava, bearing
             an edible pale yellow fruit with pink juicy flesh.  2 this
             fruit. [Sp.  guayaba prob. f. a S. Amer. name]

   guayule   n. 1 a silver-leaved shrub, Parthenium argentatum, native to
             Mexico.  2 a rubber substitute made from the sap of this plant.
             [Amer. Sp. f. Nahuatl cuauhuli]

   gubbins   n. Brit.  1 a set of equipment or paraphernalia.  2 a gadget.  3
             something of little value. 4 colloq. a foolish person (often
             with ref. to oneself).  [orig. = fragments, f. obs.  gobbon:
             perh. rel. to GOBBET]

             adj. esp. US of or relating to a governor.  [L gubernator

             n.  1 a small European freshwater fish, Gobio gobio, often used
             as bait.  2 a credulous or easily fooled person.  [ME f. OF
             goujon f. L gobio -onis GOBY]

             n.  1 any of various kinds of pivot working a wheel, bell, etc.
             2 the tubular part of a hinge into which the pin fits to effect
             the joint.  3 a socket at the stern of a boat, into which a
             rudder is fitted.  4 a pin holding two blocks of stone etc.
             together.  Ьgudgeon-pin (in an internal-combustion engine) a pin
             holding a piston-rod and a connecting-rod together.  [ME f. OF
             goujon dimin. of gouge GOUGE]

   guelder rose
             n. a deciduous shrub, Viburnum opulus, with round bunches of
             creamy-white flowers. Also called snowball tree. [Du.  geldersch
             f.  Gelderland a province in the Netherlands]

   guenon    n. any African monkey of the genus Cercopithecus, having a
             characteristic long tail, e.g. the vervet.  [F: orig. unkn.]

   guerdon   n. & v. poet.  --n. a reward or recompense.  --v.tr. give a
             reward to.  [ME f. OF guerdon f. med.L widerdonum f. WG widarlon
             (as WITH, LOAN(1)), assim. to L donum gift]

   Guernsey  n. (pl. -eys) 1 a an animal of a breed of dairy cattle from
             Guernsey in the Channel Islands.  b this breed.  2 (guernsey) a
             a thick (usu. blue) woollen sweater of a distinctive pattern.  b
             Austral. a football shirt.  Ьget a guernsey Austral. colloq.  1
             be selected for a football team.  2 gain recognition.  guernsey
             lily a kind of nerine orig. from S. Africa, with large pink
             lily-like flowers.

   guerrilla n. (also guerilla) a member of a small independently acting
             (usu. political) group taking part in irregular fighting, esp.
             against larger regular forces.  Ьguerrilla war (or warfare)
             fighting by or with guerrillas. [Sp.  guerrilla, dimin. of
             guerra war]

   guess     v. & n. --v.  1 tr. (often absol.) estimate without calculation
             or measurement, or on the basis of inadequate data.  2 tr.
             (often foll. by that etc. + clause, or to + infin.) form a
             hypothesis or opinion about; conjecture; think likely (cannot
             guess how you did it; guess them to be Italian).  3 tr.
             conjecture or estimate correctly by guessing (you have to guess
             the weight).  4 intr. (foll. by at) make a conjecture about.
             --n. an estimate or conjecture reached by guessing.  Ьanybody's
             (or anyone's) guess something very vague or difficult to
             determine.  I guess colloq.  I think it likely; I suppose. keep
             a person guessing colloq. withhold information.  ЬЬguessable
             adj. guesser n. [ME gesse, of uncert. orig.: cf. OSw.  gissa,
             MLG, MDu.  gissen: f. the root of GET v.]

             var. of GUEST-ROPE.

   guesswork n. the process of or results got by guessing.

   guest     n. & v.  --n.  1 a person invited to visit another's house or
             have a meal etc. at the expense of the inviter.  2 a person
             lodging at a hotel, boarding-house, etc.  3 a an outside
             performer invited to take part with a regular body of
             performers.  b a person who takes part by invitation in a radio
             or television programme (often attrib.: guest artist).  4
             (attrib.) a serving or set aside for guests (guest-room;
             guest-night).  b acting as a guest (guest speaker).  5 an
             organism living in close association with another.  --v.intr. be
             a guest on a radio or television show or in a theatrical
             performance etc.  Ьbe my guest colloq.  make what use you wish
             of the available facilities.  guest-house a private house
             offering paid accommodation.  guest of honour the most important
             guest at an occasion.  ЬЬguestship n.  [ME f. ON gestr f. Gmc]

             n. (also guesstimate) colloq.  an estimate based on a mixture of
             guesswork and calculation.  [GUESS + ESTIMATE]

             n. (also guess-rope) 1 a second rope fastened to a boat in tow
             to steady it.  2 a rope slung outside a ship to give a hold for
             boats coming alongside. [17th c.: orig. uncert.]

   guff      n. sl. empty talk; nonsense.  [19th c., orig. = 'puff': imit.]

   guffaw    n. & v.  --n. a coarse or boisterous laugh.  --v. 1 intr. utter
             a guffaw.  2 tr. say with a guffaw.  [orig. Sc.: imit.]

   guidance  n.  1 advice or information aimed at resolving a problem,
             difficulty, etc.  2 the process of guiding or being guided.

   guide     n. & v. --n.  1 a person who leads or shows the way, or directs
             the movements of a person or group.  2 a person who conducts
             travellers on tours etc.  3 a professional mountain-climber in
             charge of a group.  4 an adviser.  5 a directing principle or
             standard (one's feelings are a bad guide).  6 a book with
             essential information on a subject, esp. = GUIDEBOOK.  7 a thing
             marking a position or guiding the eye.  8 a soldier, vehicle, or
             ship whose position determines the movements of others.  9 Mech.
             a a bar, rod, etc., directing the motion of something.  b a
             gauge etc. controlling a tool.  10 (Guide) Brit. a member of a
             girls' organization similar to the Scouts.  --v.tr.  1 a act as
             guide to; lead or direct.  b arrange the course of (events).  2
             be the principle, motive, or ground of (an action, judgement,
             etc.).  3 direct the affairs of (a State etc.).  Ьguided missile
             a missile directed to its target by remote control or by
             equipment within itself.  guide-dog a dog trained to guide a
             blind person.  guide-rope a rope guiding the movement of a
             crane, airship, etc.  Queen's (or King's) Guide a Guide (sense
             10) who has reached the highest rank of proficiency.  ЬЬguidable
             adj.  guider n.  [ME f. OF guide (n.), guider (v.), earlier
             guier ult. f. Gmc, rel. to WIT(2)]

   guidebook n.  a book of information about a place for visitors, tourists,

   guideline n. a principle or criterion guiding or directing action.

   guidepost n. = SIGNPOST.

   Guider    n. an adult leader of Guides (see GUIDE n. 10).

   guideway  n. a groove or track that guides movement.

   guidon    n.  a pennant narrowing to a point or fork at the free end, esp.
             one used as the standard of a regiment of dragoons.  [F f. It.
             guidone f.  guida GUIDE]

   guild     n. (also gild) 1 an association of people for mutual aid or the
             pursuit of a common goal.  2 a medieval association of craftsmen
             or merchants.  [ME prob. f. MLG, MDu.  gilde f. Gmc: rel. to OE
             gild payment, sacrifice]

   guilder   n.  1 the chief monetary unit of the Netherlands.  2 hist. a
             gold coin of the Netherlands and Germany.  [ME, alt. of Du.
             gulden: see GULDEN]

   guildhall n.  1 the meeting-place of a guild or corporation; a town hall.
             2 (the Guildhall) the hall of the Corporation of the City of
             London, used for ceremonial occasions.

   guildsman n. (pl. -men; fem. guildswoman, pl. -women) a member of a guild.

   guile     n.  treachery, deceit; cunning or sly behaviour.  ЬЬguileful
             adj.  guilefully adv.  guilefulness n.  guileless adj.
             guilelessly adv.  guilelessness n.  [ME f. OF, prob. f. Gmc]

   guillemot n. any fast-flying sea bird of the genus Uria or Cepphus,
             nesting on cliffs or islands.  [F f.  Guillaume William]

   guilloche n.  an architectural or metalwork ornament imitating braided
             ribbons.  [F guillochis (or guilloche the tool used)]

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a machine with a heavy knife-blade sliding
             vertically in grooves, used for beheading.  2 a device for
             cutting paper, metal, etc.  3 a surgical instrument for excising
             the uvula etc.  4 Parl. a method of preventing delay in the
             discussion of a legislative bill by fixing times at which
             various parts of it must be voted on.  --v.tr.  1 use a
             guillotine on.  2 Parl. end discussion of (a bill) by applying a
             guillotine.  ЬЬguillotiner n.  [F f. J.-I.  Guillotin, Fr.
             physician d. 1814, who recommended its use for executions in

   guilt     n.  1 the fact of having committed a specified or implied
             offence.  2 a culpability.  b the feeling of this. Ьguilt
             complex Psychol.  a mental obsession with the idea of having
             done wrong.  [OE gylt, of unkn. orig.]

   guiltless adj. 1 (often foll. by of an offence) innocent. 2 (foll. by of)
             not having knowledge or possession of.  ЬЬguiltlessly adv.
             guiltlessness n. [OE gyltleas (as GUILT, -LESS)]

   guilty    adj. (guiltier, guiltiest) 1 culpable of or responsible for a
             wrong.  2 conscious of or affected by guilt (a guilty
             conscience; a guilty look).  3 concerning guilt (a guilty
             secret).  4 a (often foll. by of) having committed a (specified)
             offence.  b Law adjudged to have committed a specified offence,
             esp. by a verdict in a trial.  ЬЬguiltily adv.  guiltiness n.
             [OE gyltig (as GUILT, -Y(1))]

   guimp     var. of GIMP(1).

   guinea    n.  1 Brit.  hist. the sum of 21 old shillings (њ1.05), used
             esp. in determining professional fees.  2 hist. a former British
             gold coin worth 21 shillings, first coined for the African
             trade.  Ьguinea-fowl any African fowl of the family Numididae,
             esp.  Numida meleagris, with slate-coloured white-spotted
             plumage.  guinea-pig 1 a domesticated S. American cavy, Cavia
             porcellus, kept as a pet or for research in biology etc.  2 a
             person or thing used as a subject for experiment.  [Guinea in W.

   guipure   n.  a heavy lace of linen pieces joined by embroidery.  [F f.
             guiper cover with silk etc. f. Gmc]

   guise     n.  1 an assumed appearance; a pretence (in the guise of; under
             the guise of).  2 external appearance.  3 archaic style of
             attire, garb.  [ME f. OF ult. f. Gmc]

   guitar    n.  a usu. six-stringed musical instrument with a fretted
             finger-board, played by plucking with the fingers or a plectrum.
             ЬЬguitarist n.  [Sp.  guitarra (partly through F guitare) f. Gk
             kithara: see CITTERN, GITTERN]

   guiver    n. (also gyver) Austral. & NZ sl.  1 plausible talk.  2
             affectation of speech or manner.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Gujarati  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  Gujaratis) 1 the language of Gujarat in
             W. India.  2 a native of Gujarat.  --adj. of or relating to
             Gujarat or its language.  [Hind.: see -I(2)]

   gulch     n. US a ravine, esp. one in which a torrent flows.  [perh. dial.
             gulch to swallow]

   gulden    n. = GUILDER.  [Du. & G, = GOLDEN]

   gules     n. & adj. (usu. placed after noun) Heraldry red. [ME f. OF
             goules red-dyed fur neck ornaments f.  gole throat]

   gulf      n. & v.  --n.  1 a stretch of sea consisting of a deep inlet
             with a narrow mouth.  2 (the Gulf) the Persian Gulf.  3 a deep
             hollow; a chasm or abyss.  4 a wide difference of feelings,
             opinion, etc.  --v.tr. engulf; swallow up.  ЬGulf Stream an
             oceanic warm current flowing from the Gulf of Mexico to
             Newfoundland where it is deflected into the Atlantic Ocean.  [ME
             f. OF golfe f. It.  golfo ult. f. Gk kolpos bosom, gulf]

   gulfweed  n. = SARGASSO.

   gull(1)   n.  any of various long-winged web-footed sea birds of the
             family Laridae, usu. having white plumage with a mantle varying
             from pearly-grey to black, and a bright bill.  ЬЬgullery n. (pl.
             -ies).  [ME ult. f. OCelt.]

   gull(2)   v.tr. (usu. in passive; foll. by into) dupe, fool. [perh. f.
             obs.  gull yellow f. ON gulr]

   Gullah    n.  1 a member of a Negro people living on the coast of S.
             Carolina or the nearby sea islands.  2 the Creole language
             spoken by them.  [perh. a shortening of Angola, or f. a tribal
             name Golas]

   gullet    n.  1 the food-passage extending from the mouth to the stomach;
             the oesophagus.  2 the throat.  [ME f. OF dimin. of go(u)le
             throat f. L gula]

   gullible  adj.  easily persuaded or deceived, credulous.  ЬЬgullibility n.
             gullibly adv.  [GULL(2) + -IBLE]

   gully     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a water-worn ravine.  2 a deep
             artificial channel; a gutter or drain.  3 Austral. & NZ a river
             valley.  4 Cricket a the fielding position between point and
             slips.  b a fielder in this position.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1
             form (channels) by water action.  2 make gullies in.
             Ьgully-hole an opening in a street to a drain or sewer.  [F
             goulet bottle-neck (as GULLET)]

   gulp      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. (often foll. by down) swallow hastily,
             greedily, or with effort.  2 intr. swallow gaspingly or with
             difficulty; choke.  3 tr. (foll. by down, back) stifle, suppress
             (esp. tears).  --n.  1 an act of gulping (drained it at one
             gulp).  2 an effort to swallow.  3 a large mouthful of a drink.
             ЬЬgulper n.  gulpingly adv.  gulpy adj.  [ME prob. f. MDu.
             gulpen (imit.)]

   gum(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a viscous secretion of some trees and shrubs
             that hardens on drying but is soluble in water (cf.  RESIN).  b
             an adhesive substance made from this.  2 US chewing gum.  3 =
             GUMDROP.  4 = gum arabic.  5 = gum-tree.  6 a secretion
             collecting in the corner of the eye.  7 US = GUMBOOT.  --v.
             (gummed, gumming) 1 tr. smear or cover with gum.  2 tr. (usu.
             foll. by down, together, etc.) fasten with gum.  3 intr. exude
             gum.  Ьgum arabic a gum exuded by some kinds of acacia and used
             as glue and in incense.  gum benjamin benzoin.  gum dragon
             tragacanth.  gum juniper sandarac.  gum resin a vegetable
             secretion of resin mixed with gum, e.g. gamboge.  gum-tree a
             tree exuding gum, esp. a eucalyptus.  gum up 1 (of a mechanism
             etc.) become clogged or obstructed with stickiness.  2 colloq.
             interfere with the smooth running of (gum up the works).  up a
             gum-tree colloq.  in great difficulties.  [ME f. OF gomme ult.
             f. L gummi, cummi f. Gk kommi f. Egypt. kemai]

   gum(2)    n. (usu. in pl.) the firm flesh around the roots of the teeth.
             Ьgum-shield a pad protecting a boxer's teeth and gums.  [OE goma
             rel. to OHG guomo, ON gўmr roof or floor of the mouth]

   gum(3)    n. colloq.  (in oaths) God (by gum!).  [corrupt. of God]

   gumbo     n.  (pl.  -os) US 1 okra.  2 a soup thickened with okra pods.  3
             (Gumbo) a patois of Blacks and Creoles spoken esp. in Louisiana.
             [of Afr. orig.]

   gumboil   n. a small abscess on the gums.

   gumboot   n. a rubber boot; a wellington.

   gumdrop   n.  a soft coloured sweet made with gelatin or gum arabic.

   gumma     n. (pl.  gummas or gummata) Med.  a small soft swelling
             occurring in the connective tissue of the liver, brain, testes,
             and heart, and characteristic of the late stages of syphilis.
             ЬЬgummatous adj.  [mod.L f. L gummi GUM(1)]

   gummy(1)  adj.  (gummier, gummiest) 1 viscous, sticky.  2 abounding in or
             exuding gum.  ЬЬgumminess n.  [ME f.  GUM(1) + -Y(1)]

   gummy(2)  adj. & n.  --adj.  (gummier, gummiest) toothless.  --n.  (pl.
             -ies) 1 Austral. a small shark, Mustelus antarcticus, having
             rounded teeth with which it crushes hard-shelled prey.  2
             Austral. & NZ a toothless sheep.  ЬЬgummily adv.  [GUM(2) +

   gumption  n.  colloq.  1 resourcefulness, initiative; enterprising spirit.
             2 common sense.  [18th-c. Sc.: orig. unkn.]

   gumshoe   n. US 1 a galosh. 2 sl. a detective.

   gun       n. & v.  --n.  1 any kind of weapon consisting of a metal tube
             and often held in the hand with a grip at one end, from which
             bullets or other missiles are propelled with great force, esp.
             by a contained explosion.  2 any device imitative of this, e.g.
             a starting pistol.  3 a device for discharging insecticide,
             grease, electrons, etc., in the required direction (often in
             comb.: grease-gun).  4 a member of a shooting-party.  5 US a
             gunman.  6 the firing of a gun.  7 (in pl.) Naut.  sl. a gunnery
             officer.  --v.  (gunned, gunning) 1 tr.  a (usu. foll. by down)
             shoot (a person) with a gun.  b shoot at with a gun.  2 tr.
             colloq. accelerate (an engine or vehicle).  3 intr. go shooting.
             4 intr. (foll. by for) seek out determinedly to attack or
             rebuke.  Ьgo great guns colloq.  proceed forcefully or
             vigorously or successfully.  gun-carriage a wheeled support for
             a gun.  gun-cotton an explosive used for blasting, made by
             steeping cotton in nitric and sulphuric acids.  gun crew a team
             manning a gun.  gun dog a dog trained to follow sportsmen using
             guns.  gun-shy (esp. of a sporting dog) alarmed at the report of
             a gun.  gun-site a (usu. fortified) emplacement for a gun.  jump
             the gun colloq.  start before a signal is given, or before an
             agreed time.  stick to one's guns colloq.  maintain one's
             position under attack.  ЬЬgunless adj.  gunned adj.  [ME gunne,
             gonne, perh. f. the Scand. name Gunnhildr]

   gunboat   n.  a small vessel of shallow draught and with relatively heavy
             guns.  Ьgunboat diplomacy political negotiation supported by the
             use or threat of military force.

   gunfight  n.  US a fight with firearms.  ЬЬgunfighter n.

   gunfire   n.  1 the firing of a gun or guns, esp. repeatedly.  2 the noise
             from this.

   gunge     n. & v.  Brit.  colloq.  --n. sticky or viscous matter, esp.
             when messy or indeterminate.  --v.tr. (usu. foll. by up) clog or
             obstruct with gunge.  ЬЬgungy adj.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.: cf.
             GOO, GUNK]

   gung-ho   adj.  enthusiastic, eager.  [Chin.  gonghe work together, slogan
             adopted by US Marines in 1942]

   gunk      n.  sl.  viscous or liquid material.  [20th c.: orig. the name
             of a detergent (propr.)]

   gunlock   n.  a mechanism by which the charge of a gun is exploded.

   gunman    n.  (pl.  -men) a man armed with a gun, esp. in committing a

   gun-metal n.  1 a dull bluish-grey colour.  2 an alloy of copper and tin
             or zinc (formerly used for guns).

   gunnel(1) n.  any small eel-shaped marine fish of the family Pholidae,
             esp.  Pholis gunnellus. Also called BUTTERFISH.  [17th c.: orig.

   gunnel(2) var. of GUNWALE.

   gunner    n.  1 an artillery soldier (esp. as an official term for a
             private).  2 Naut. a warrant-officer in charge of a battery,
             magazine, etc.  3 a member of an aircraft crew who operates a
             gun.  4 a person who hunts game with a gun.

   gunnera   n.  any plant of the genus Gunnera from S. America and New
             Zealand, having large leaves and often grown for ornament.  [J.
             E.  Gunnerus, Norw. botanist d. 1773]

   gunnery   n.  1 the construction and management of large guns.  2 the
             firing of guns.

   gunny     n. (pl.  -ies) 1 coarse sacking, usu. of jute fibre.  2 a sack
             made of this.  [Hindi & Marathi goni f. Skr.  goni sack]

   gunplay   n. the use of guns.

   gunpoint  n. the point of a gun.  Ьat gunpoint threatened with a gun or an
             ultimatum etc.

   gunpowder n.  1 an explosive made of saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal.  2
             a fine green tea of granular appearance.

   gunpower  n.  the strength or quantity of available guns.

   gunroom   n.  Brit.  1 a room in a house for storing sporting-guns.  2
             quarters for junior officers (orig. for gunners) in a warship.

   gunrunner n.  a person engaged in the illegal sale or importing of
             firearms.  ЬЬgunrunning n.

   gunship   n.  a heavily-armed helicopter or other aircraft.

   gunshot   n.  1 a shot fired from a gun.  2 the range of a gun (within

             n. esp.  US sl.  a gunman.  ЬЬgunslinging n.

   gunsmith  n.  a person who makes, sells, and repairs small firearms.

   gunstock  n.  the wooden mounting of the barrel of a gun.

   Gunter's chain
             n.  Surveying 1 a measuring chain of 66 ft.  2 this length as a
             unit.  [E.  Gunter, Engl. mathematician d. 1626]

   gunwale   n. (also gunnel) the upper edge of the side of a boat or ship.
             [GUN + WALE (because formerly used to support guns)]

   gunyah    n.  Austral.  an Aboriginal bush hut.  [Aboriginal]

   guppy     n.  (pl.  -ies) a freshwater fish, Poecilia reticulata, of the
             W. Indies and S. America, frequently kept in aquariums, and
             giving birth to live young.  [R. J. L.  Guppy, 19th-c. Trinidad
             clergyman who sent the first specimen to the British Museum]

   gurdwara  n.  a Sikh temple.  [Punjabi gurduara f. Skr.  guru teacher +
             dvara door]

   gurgle    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. make a bubbling sound as of water from a
             bottle.  2 tr. utter with such a sound.  --n. a gurgling sound.
             ЬЬgurgler n.  [imit., or f. Du.  gorgelen, G gurgeln, or med.L
             gurgulare f. L gurgulio gullet]

   Gurkha    n.  1 a member of the dominant Hindu race in Nepal.  2 a
             Nepalese soldier serving in the British army.  [native name, f.
             Skr.  gaus cow + raksh protect]

   gurnard   n.  (also gurnet) any marine fish of the family Triglidae,
             having a large spiny head with mailed sides, and three
             finger-like pectoral rays used for walking on the sea bed etc.
             [ME f. OF gornart f.  grondir to grunt f. L grunnire]

   guru      n.  1 a Hindu spiritual teacher or head of a religious sect.  2
             a an influential teacher.  b a revered mentor.  [Hindi guru
             teacher f. Skr.  gurЈs grave, dignified]

   gush      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. emit or flow in a sudden and
             copious stream.  2 intr. speak or behave with effusiveness or
             sentimental affectation.  --n.  1 a sudden or copious stream.  2
             an effusive or sentimental manner.  ЬЬgushing adj.  gushingly
             adv.  [ME gosshe, gusche, prob. imit.]

   gusher    n.  1 an oil well from which oil flows without being pumped.  2
             an effusive person.

   gushy     adj.  (gushier, gushiest) excessively effusive or sentimental.
             ЬЬgushily adv.  gushiness n.

   gusset    n.  1 a piece let into a garment etc. to strengthen or enlarge a
             part.  2 a bracket strengthening an angle of a structure.
             ЬЬgusseted adj.  [ME f. OF gousset flexible piece filling up a
             joint in armour f.  gousse pod, shell]

   gust      n. & v.  --n.  1 a sudden strong rush of wind.  2 a burst of
             rain, fire, smoke, or sound.  3 a passionate or emotional
             outburst.  --v.intr. blow in gusts.  [ON gustr, rel. to gjўsa to

   gustation n. the act or capacity of tasting.  ЬЬgustative adj.  gustatory
             adj.  [F gustation or L gustatio f.  gustare f.  gustus taste]

   gusto     n. (pl.  -oes) 1 zest; enjoyment or vigour in doing something.
             2 (foll. by for) archaic relish or liking.  3 archaic a style of
             artistic execution.  [It. f. L gustus taste]

   gusty     adj. (gustier, gustiest) 1 characterized by or blowing in strong
             winds.  2 characterized by gusto. ЬЬgustily adv. gustiness n.

   gut       n. & v. --n.  1 the lower alimentary canal or a part of this;
             the intestine.  2 (in pl.) the bowel or entrails, esp. of
             animals.  3 (in pl.) colloq. personal courage and determination;
             vigorous application and perseverance.  4 (in pl.) colloq. the
             belly as the source of appetite.  5 (in pl.) a the contents of
             anything, esp. representing substantiality.  b the essence of a
             thing, e.g. of an issue or problem.  6 a material for violin or
             racket strings or surgical use made from the intestines of
             animals.  b material for fishing-lines made from the silk-glands
             of silkworms.  7 a a narrow water-passage; a sound, straits.  b
             a defile or narrow passage.  8 (attrib.) a instinctive (a gut
             reaction).  b fundamental (a gut issue).  --v.tr.  (gutted,
             gutting) 1 remove or destroy (esp. by fire) the internal
             fittings of (a house etc.).  2 take out the guts of (a fish).  3
             extract the essence of (a book etc.).  Ьgut-rot colloq.  1 =
             rot-gut.  2 a stomach upset.  hate a person's guts colloq.
             dislike a person intensely.  sweat (or work) one's guts out
             colloq. work extremely hard.  [OE guttas (pl.), prob. rel. to
             geotan pour]

   gutless   adj. colloq.  lacking courage or determination; feeble.
             ЬЬgutlessly adv. gutlessness n.

   gutsy     adj. (gutsier, gutsiest) colloq.  1 courageous. 2 greedy.
             ЬЬgutsily adv.  gutsiness n.

             n.  a tough plastic substance obtained from the latex of various
             Malaysian trees.  [Malay getah gum + percha name of a tree]

   guttate   adj. Biol.  having droplike markings. [L guttatus speckled f.
             gutta drop]

   gutter    n. & v. --n.  1 a shallow trough below the eaves of a house, or
             a channel at the side of a street, to carry off rainwater.  2
             (prec. by the) a poor or degraded background or environment.  3
             an open conduit along which liquid flows out.  4 a groove.  5 a
             track made by the flow of water.  --v.  1 intr. flow in streams.
             2 tr. furrow, channel.  Ьgutter press sensational journalism
             concerned esp. with the private lives of public figures.  [ME f.
             AF gotere, OF gotiere ult. f. L gutta drop]

   guttering n. 1 a the gutters of a building etc.  b a section or length of
             a gutter.  2 material for gutters.

             n. a street urchin.

   guttural  adj. & n. --adj.  1 throaty, harsh-sounding. 2 a Phonet. (of a
             consonant) produced in the throat or by the back of the tongue
             and palate.  b (of a sound) coming from the throat.  c of the
             throat. --n.  Phonet. a guttural consonant (e.g.  k, g).
             ЬЬgutturally adv. [F guttural or med.L gutturalis f. L guttur

   guv       n. Brit. sl.  = GOVERNOR 7. [abbr.]

   guy(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 colloq. a man; a fellow.  2 (usu. in pl.) US a
             person of either sex.  3 Brit. an effigy of Guy Fawkes in ragged
             clothing, burnt on a bonfire on 5 Nov.  4 Brit. a grotesquely
             dressed person.  --v.tr.  1 ridicule.  2 exhibit in effigy.
             [Guy Fawkes, conspirator in the Gunpowder Plot to blow up
             Parliament in 1605]

   guy(2)    n. & v.  --n. a rope or chain to secure a tent or steady a
             crane-load etc.  --v.tr. secure with a guy or guys.  [prob. of
             LG orig.: cf. LG & Du.  gei brail etc.]

   guzzle    v.tr. & intr.  eat, drink, or consume excessively or greedily.
             ЬЬguzzler n. [perh. f. OF gosiller chatter, vomit f.  gosier

19.0 Gy...

   Gy        abbr. = GRAY(1).

   gybe      v. & n.  (US jibe) --v.  1 intr. (of a fore-and-aft sail or
             boom) swing across in wearing or running before the wind.  2 tr.
             cause (a sail) to do this.  3 intr. (of a ship or its crew)
             change course so that this happens.  --n. a change of course
             causing gybing.  [obs. Du.  gijben]

   gym       n.  colloq.  1 a gymnasium.  2 gymnastics.  [abbr.]

   gymkhana  n.  1 a meeting for competition or display in sport, esp.
             horse-riding.  2 a public place with facilities for athletics.
             [Hind.  gendkhana ball-house, racket-court, assim. to GYMNASIUM]

   gymnasium n. (pl.  gymnasiums or gymnasia) 1 a room or building equipped
             for gymnastics.  2 a school in Germany or Scandinavia that
             prepares pupils for university entrance.  ЬЬgymnasial adj. [L f.
             Gk gumnasion f. gumnazo exercise f.  gumnos naked]

   gymnast   n. an expert in gymnastics.  [F gymnaste or Gk gumnastes
             athlete-trainer f.  gumnazo: see GYMNASIUM]

   gymnastic adj.  of or involving gymnastics.  ЬЬgymnastically adv.  [L
             gymnasticus f. Gk gumnastikos (as GYMNASIUM)]

             n.pl. (also treated as sing.) 1 exercises developing or
             displaying physical agility and coordination, usu. in
             competition.  2 other forms of physical or mental agility.

   gymno-    comb. form Biol. bare, naked.  [Gk gumnos naked]

             n.  a member of an ancient Hindu sect wearing little clothing
             and devoted to contemplation. ЬЬgymnosophy n. [ME f. F
             gymnosophiste f. L gymnosophistae (pl.) f. Gk gumnosophistai:
             see GYMNO-, SOPHIST]

             n.  any of various plants having seeds unprotected by an ovary,
             including conifers, cycads, and ginkgos (opp. ANGIOSPERM).
             ЬЬgymnospermous adj.

   gymp      var. of GIMP(1).

   gymslip   n.  a sleeveless tunic, usu. belted, worn by schoolgirls.

   gynaeceum var. of GYNOECIUM.

   gynaeco-  comb. form (US gyneco-) woman, women; female.  [Gk gune gunaikos

             n. (US gynecology) the science of the physiological functions
             and diseases of women and girls, esp. those affecting the
             reproductive system.  ЬЬgynaecological adj. gynaecologically
             adv.  gynaecologist n. gynecologic adj. US.

             n. (US gynecomastia) Med. enlargement of a man's breasts, usu.
             due to hormone imbalance or hormone therapy.

             n. Biol.  an individual, esp. an insect, having male and female
             characteristics.  ЬЬgynandromorphic adj. gynandromorphism n.
             [formed as GYNANDROUS + Gk morphe form]

             adj.  Bot.  with stamens and pistil united in one column as in
             orchids.  [Gk gunandros of doubtful sex, f.  gune woman + aner
             andros man]

   gyneco-   comb. form US var. of GYNAECO-.

   gynoecium n.  (also gynaecium) (pl.  -cia) Bot.  the carpels of a flower
             taken collectively.  [mod.L f. Gk gunaikeion women's apartments
             (as GYNAECO-, Gk oikos house)]

   -gynous   comb. form Bot.  forming adjectives meaning 'having specified
             female organs or pistils' (monogynous).  [Gk -gunos f.  gune

   gyp(1)    n. Brit. colloq.  1 pain or severe discomfort.  2 a scolding
             (gave them gyp).  [19th c.: perh. f. gee-up (see GEE(2))]

   gyp(2)    n. Brit.  a college servant at Cambridge and Durham. [perh. f.
             obs.  gippo scullion, orig. a man's short tunic, f. obs. F

   gyp(3)    v. & n. sl.  --v.tr. (gypped, gypping) cheat, swindle.  --n. an
             act of cheating; a swindle.  [19th c.: perh. f. GYP(2)]

   gyppy tummy
             var. of GIPPY TUMMY.

             n. any plant of the genus Gypsophila, with a profusion of small
             usu. white composite flowers.  [mod.L f. Gk gupsos chalk +
             philos loving]

   gypsum    n.  a hydrated form of calcium sulphate occurring naturally and
             used to make plaster of Paris and in the building industry.
             ЬЬgypseous adj. gypsiferous adj.  [L f. Gk gupsos]

   Gypsy     n. (also Gipsy) (pl. -ies) 1 a member of a nomadic people of
             Europe and N. America, of Hindu origin with dark skin and hair,
             and speaking a language related to Hindi.  2 (gypsy) a person
             resembling or living like a Gypsy.  Ьgypsy moth a kind of
             tussock moth, Lymantria dispar, of which the larvae are very
             destructive to foliage.  ЬЬGypsydom n.  Gypsyfied adj.
             Gypsyhood n.  Gypsyish adj.  [earlier gipcyan, gipsen f.
             EGYPTIAN, from the supposed origin of Gypsies when they appeared
             in England in the early 16th c.]

   gyrate    v. & adj.  --v.intr.  go in a circle or spiral; revolve, whirl.
             --adj.  Bot. arranged in rings or convolutions.  ЬЬgyration n.
             gyratorn.  gyratory adj. [L gyrare gyrat- revolve f. gyrus ring
             f. Gk guros]

   gyre      v. & n. esp.  poet.  --v.intr. whirl or gyrate.  --n. a
             gyration.  [L gyrus ring f. Gk guros]

   gyrfalcon n. (also gerfalcon) a large falcon, Falco rusticolus, of the
             northern hemisphere.  [ME f. OF gerfaucon f. Frank.  gerfalco f.
             ON geirf lki: see FALCON]

   gyro      n. (pl. -os) colloq.  1 = GYROSCOPE. 2 = GYROCOMPASS. [abbr.]

   gyro-     comb. form rotation. [Gk guros ring]

             n. a non-magnetic compass giving true north and bearings from it
             by means of a gyroscope.

   gyrograph n. an instrument for recording revolutions.

             adj. 1 Physics of the magnetic and mechanical properties of a
             rotating charged particle.  2 (of a compass) combining a
             gyroscope and a normal magnetic compass.

   gyropilot n.  a gyrocompass used for automatic steering.

   gyroplane n.  a form of aircraft deriving its lift mainly from freely
             rotating overhead vanes.

   gyroscope n.  a rotating wheel whose axis is free to turn but maintains a
             fixed direction unless perturbed, esp. used for stabilization or
             with the compass in an aircraft, ship, etc.  ЬЬgyroscopic adj.
             gyroscopically adv.  [F (as GYRO-, SCOPE(2))]

             n.  a gyroscopic device for maintaining the equilibrium of a
             ship, aircraft, platform, etc.

   gyrus     n. (pl.  gyri) a fold or convolution, esp. of the brain.  [L f.
             Gk guros ring]

   gyttja    n. Geol.  a lake deposit of a usu. black organic sediment.
             [Sw., = mud, ooze]

   gyver     var. of GUIVER.


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