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English language - Dictionaries F...

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

1.0 F...

   F         abbr.  Electr.  faraday.

   F(1)      n.  (also f) (pl.  Fs or F's) 1 the sixth letter of the
             alphabet.  2 Mus. the fourth note of the diatonic scale of C

   F(2)      abbr.  (also F.) 1 Fahrenheit.  2 farad(s).  3 female.  4 fine
             (pencil-lead).  5 Biol. filial generation (as F[1] for the first
             filial generation, F[2] for the second, etc.).

   F(3)      symb.  Chem.  the element fluorine.

   f         abbr.  (also f.) 1 female.  2 feminine.  3 following page etc.
             4 Mus. forte.  5 folio.  6 focal length (cf.  F-NUMBER).  7
             femto-.  8 filly.  9 foreign.  10 frequency.

2.0 FA...

   FA        abbr.  1 (in the UK) Football Association.  2 = FANNY ADAMS 1.

   fa        var. of FAH.

   FAA       abbr.  Fleet Air Arm.

   fab       adj.  colloq.  fabulous, marvellous.  [abbr.]

   Fabian    n. & adj.  --n. a member or supporter of the Fabian Society, an
             organization of socialists aiming at a gradual rather than
             revolutionary achievement of socialism.  --adj.  1 relating to
             or characteristic of the Fabians.  2 employing a cautiously
             persistent and dilatory strategy to wear out an enemy (Fabian
             tactics).  ЬЬFabianism n.  Fabianist n.  [L Fabianus f. the name
             of Q.  Fabius Maximus Cunctator (= delayer), Roman general of
             the 3rd c.  BC, noted for cautious strategies]

   fable     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a story, esp. a supernatural one, not based
             on fact.  b a tale, esp. with animals as characters, conveying a
             moral.  2 (collect.) myths and legendary tales (in fable).  3 a
             a false statement; a lie.  b a thing only supposed to exist.
             --v.  1 intr. tell fictitious tales.  2 tr. describe
             fictitiously.  3 tr. (as fabled adj.) celebrated in fable;
             famous, legendary.  ЬЬfabler n.  [ME f. OF fabler f. L fabulari
             f.  fabula discourse f.  fari speak]

   fabliau   n.  (pl.  fabliaux) a metrical tale in early French poetry,
             often coarsely humorous.  [F f. OF dialect fabliaux, -ax pl. of
             fablel dimin. (as FABLE)]

   fabric    n.  1 a a woven material; a textile.  b other material
             resembling woven cloth.  2 a structure or framework, esp. the
             walls, floor, and roof of a building.  3 (in abstract senses)
             the essential structure or essence of a thing (the fabric of
             society).  [ME f. F fabrique f. L fabrica f.  faber metal-worker

   fabricate v.tr.  1 construct or manufacture, esp. from prepared
             components.  2 invent or concoct (a story, evidence, etc.).  3
             forge (a document).  ЬЬfabrication n.  fabricator n.  [L
             fabricare fabricat- (as FABRIC)]

   fabulist  n.  1 a composer of fables.  2 a liar.  [F fabuliste f. L
             fabula: see FABLE]

   fabulous  adj.  1 incredible, exaggerated, absurd (fabulous wealth).  2
             colloq. marvellous (looking fabulous).  3 a celebrated in fable.
             b legendary, mythical.  ЬЬfabulosity n.  fabulously adv.
             fabulousness n.  [F fabuleux or L fabulosus (as FABLE)]

   fa‡ade    n.  1 the face of a building, esp. its principal front.  2 an
             outward appearance or front, esp. a deceptive one.  [F (as

   face      n. & v.  --n.  1 the front of the head from the forehead to the
             chin.  2 the expression of the facial features (had a happy
             face).  3 composure, coolness, effrontery.  4 the surface of a
             thing, esp. as regarded or approached, esp.: a the visible part
             of a celestial body.  b a side of a mountain etc. (the north
             face).  c the (usu. vertical) surface of a coal-seam.  d Geom.
             each surface of a solid.  e the fa‡ade of a building.  f the
             plate of a clock or watch bearing the digits, hands, etc.  5 a
             the functional or working side of a tool etc.  b the distinctive
             side of a playing card.  c the obverse of a coin.  6 = TYPEFACE.
             7 the outward appearance or aspect (the unacceptable face of
             capitalism).  8 a person, esp. conveying some quality or
             association (a face from the past; some young faces for a
             change).  --v.  1 tr. & intr. look or be positioned towards or
             in a certain direction (face towards the window; facing the
             window; the room faces north).  2 tr. be opposite (facing page
             20).  3 tr.  a (often foll. by out) meet resolutely or
             defiantly; confront (face one's critics).  b not shrink from
             (face the facts).  4 tr. present itself to; confront (the
             problem that faces us; faces us with a problem).  5 tr.  a cover
             the surface of a thing with a coating, extra layer, etc.  b put
             a facing on (a garment).  6 intr. & tr. turn or cause to turn in
             a certain direction.  Ьface-ache 1 neuralgia.  2 sl. a
             mournful-looking person.  face-card = court-card.  face-cloth 1
             a cloth for washing one's face.  2 a smooth-surfaced woollen
             cloth.  face-cream a cosmetic cream applied to the face to
             improve the complexion.  face down (or downwards) with the face
             or surface turned towards the ground, floor, etc.  face facts
             (or the facts) recognize the truth.  face-flannel = face-cloth
             1.  face-lift 1 (also face-lifting) cosmetic surgery to remove
             wrinkles etc. by tightening the skin of the face.  2 a procedure
             to improve the appearance of a thing.  face the music colloq.
             put up with or stand up to unpleasant consequences, esp.
             criticism.  face-pack a preparation beneficial to the
             complexion, spread over the face and removed when dry.
             face-powder a cosmetic powder for reducing the shine on the
             face.  face-saving preserving one's reputation, credibility,
             etc.  face to face (often foll. by with) facing; confronting
             each other.  face up (or upwards) with the face or surface
             turned upwards to view.  face up to accept bravely; confront;
             stand up to.  face value 1 the nominal value as printed or
             stamped on money.  2 the superficial appearance or implication
             of a thing.  face-worker a miner who works at the coalface.
             have the face be shameless enough.  in one's (or the) face 1
             straight against one; as one approaches.  2 confronting.  in
             face (or the face) of 1 despite.  2 confronted by.  let's face
             it colloq.  we must be honest or realistic about it.  on the
             face of it as it would appear.  put a bold (or brave) face on it
             accept difficulty etc. cheerfully or with courage.  put one's
             face on colloq.  apply make-up to one's face.  put a good face
             on make (a matter) look well.  put a new face on alter the
             aspect of.  save face preserve esteem; avoid humiliation.  save
             a person's face enable a person to save face; forbear from
             humiliating a person.  set one's face against oppose or resist
             with determination.  to a person's face openly in a person's
             presence.  ЬЬfaced adj. (also in comb.).  facing adj. (also in
             comb.).  [ME f. OF ult. f. L facies]

   faceless  adj.  1 without identity; purposely not identifiable.  2 lacking
             character.  3 without a face.  ЬЬfacelessly adv.  facelessness

   facer     n.  colloq.  1 a sudden difficulty or obstacle.  2 a blow in the

   facet     n.  1 a particular aspect of a thing.  2 one side of a
             many-sided body, esp. of a cut gem.  3 one segment of a compound
             eye.  ЬЬfaceted adj. (also in comb.).  [F facette dimin. (as
             FACE, -ETTE)]

   facetiae  n.pl.  1 pleasantries, witticisms.  2 (in bookselling)
             pornography.  [L, pl. of facetia jest f.  facetus witty]

   facetious adj.  1 characterized by flippant or inopportune humour.  2 (of
             a person) intending to be amusing, esp. inopportunely.
             ЬЬfacetiously adv.  facetiousness n.  [F fac‚tieux f.  fac‚tie
             f. L facetia jest]

   facia     var. of FASCIA.

   facial    adj. & n.  --adj. of or for the face.  --n. a beauty treatment
             for the face.  ЬЬfacially adv.  [med.L facialis (as FACE)]

   -facient  comb. form forming adjectives and nouns indicating an action or
             state produced (abortifacient).  [from or after L - faciens
             -entis part. of facere make]

   facies    n.  (pl. same) 1 Med. the appearance or facial expression of an
             individual.  2 Geol. the character of rock etc. expressed by its
             composition, fossil content, etc.  [L, = FACE]

   facile    adj.  usu.  derog.  1 easily achieved but of little value.  2
             (of speech, writing, etc.) fluent, ready, glib.  ЬЬfacilely adv.
             facileness n.  [F facile or L facilis f.  facere do]

             v.tr.  make easy or less difficult or more easily achieved.
             ЬЬfacilitation n.  facilitative adj.  facilitator n.  [F
             faciliter f. It.  facilitare f.  facile easy f. L facilis]

   facility  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 ease; absence of difficulty.  2 fluency,
             dexterity, aptitude (facility of expression).  3 (esp. in pl.)
             an opportunity, the equipment, or the resources for doing
             something.  4 US a plant, installation, or establishment.  [F
             facilit‚ or L facilitas (as FACILE)]

   facing    n.  1 a a layer of material covering part of a garment etc. for
             contrast or strength.  b (in pl.) the cuffs, collar, etc., of a
             military jacket.  2 an outer layer covering the surface of a
             wall etc.

   facsimile n. & v.  --n.  1 an exact copy, esp. of writing, printing, a
             picture, etc.  (often attrib.  : facsimile edition).  2 a
             production of an exact copy of a document etc. by electronic
             scanning and transmission of the resulting data (see also FAX).
             b a copy produced in this way.  --v.tr.  (facsimiled,
             facsimileing) make a facsimile of.  Ьin facsimile as an exact
             copy.  [mod.L f. L fac imper. of facere make + simile neut. of
             similis like]

   fact      n.  1 a thing that is known to have occurred, to exist, or to be
             true.  2 a datum of experience (often foll. by an explanatory
             clause or phrase : the fact that fire burns; the fact of my
             having seen them).  3 (usu. in pl.) an item of verified
             information; a piece of evidence.  4 truth, reality.  5 a thing
             assumed as the basis for argument or inference.  Ьbefore (or
             after) the fact before (or after) the committing of a crime.  a
             fact of life something that must be accepted.  facts and figures
             precise details.  fact-sheet a paper setting out relevant
             information.  the facts of life information about sexual
             functions and practices.  in (or in point of) fact 1 in reality;
             as a matter of fact.  2 (in summarizing) in short.  [L factum f.
             facere do]

   factice   n.  Chem.  a rubber-like substance obtained by vulcanizing
             unsaturated vegetable oils.  [G Faktis f. L facticius

             n.  1 a small organized dissentient group within a larger one,
             esp. in politics.  2 a state of dissension within an
             organization.  [F f. L factio -onis f.  facere fact- do, make]

             n.  a book, film, etc., using real events as a basis for a
             fictional narrative or dramatization.  [blend of FACT and

   -faction  comb. form forming nouns of action from verbs in -fy
             (petrifaction; satisfaction).  [from or after L -factio
             -factionis f. - facere do, make]

   factional adj.  1 of or characterized by faction.  2 belonging to a
             faction.  ЬЬfactionalism n.  factionalize v.tr. & intr.  (also
             -ise).  factionally adv.  [FACTION(1)]

   factious  adj.  of, characterized by, or inclined to faction.
             ЬЬfactiously adv.  factiousness n.

             adj.  1 specially contrived, not genuine (factitious value).  2
             artificial, not natural (factitious joy).  ЬЬfactitiously adv.
             factitiousness n.  [L facticius f.  facere fact- do, make]

   factitive adj.  Gram.  (of a verb) having a sense of regarding or
             designating, and taking a complement as well as an object (e.g.
             appointed me captain).  [mod.L factitivus, irreg. f. L factitare
             frequent. of facere fact- do, make]

   factoid   n. & adj.  --n. an assumption or speculation that is reported
             and repeated so often that it becomes accepted as fact; a
             simulated or imagined fact.  --adj. being or having the
             character of a factoid; containing factoids.

   factor    n. & v.  --n.  1 a circumstance, fact, or influence contributing
             to a result.  2 Math. a whole number etc. that when multiplied
             with another produces a given number or expression.  3 Biol. a
             gene etc. determining hereditary character.  4 (foll. by
             identifying number) Med. any of several substances in the blood
             contributing to coagulation (factor eight).  5 a a business
             agent; a merchant buying and selling on commission.  b Sc. a
             land-agent or steward.  c an agent or a deputy.  6 a company
             that buys a manufacturer's invoices and takes responsibility for
             collecting the payments due on them.  --v.tr.  1 Math. resolve
             into factors or components.  2 tr. sell (one's receivable debts)
             to a factor.  Ьfactor analysis Statistics a process by which the
             relative importance of variables in the study of a sample is
             assessed by mathematical techniques.  ЬЬfactorable adj.  [F
             facteur or L factor f.  facere fact- do, make]

   factorage n.  commission or charges payable to a factor.

   factorial n. & adj.  Math.  --n.  1 the product of a number and all the
             whole numbers below it (factorial four = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1).
             °Symb.: !  (as in 4!).  2 the product of a series of factors in
             an arithmetical progression.  --adj. of a factor or factorial.
             ЬЬfactorially adv.

   factorize v.  (also -ise) Math.  1 tr. resolve into factors.  2 intr. be
             capable of resolution into factors.  ЬЬfactorization n.

   factory   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a building or buildings containing plant or
             equipment for manufacturing machinery or goods.  2 hist. a
             merchant company's foreign trading station.  Ьfactory farm a
             farm employing factory farming.  factory farming a system of
             rearing livestock using industrial or intensive methods.
             factory floor workers in industry as distinct from management.
             factory ship Brit.  a fishing ship with facilities for immediate
             processing of the catch.  [Port.  feitoria and LL factorium]

   factotum  n.  (pl.  factotums) an employee who does all kinds of work.
             [med.L f. L fac imper. of facere do, make + totum neut. of totus

   factual   adj.  1 based on or concerned with fact or facts.  2 actual,
             true.  ЬЬfactuality n.  factually adv.  factualness n.  [FACT,
             after actual]

   factum    n.  (pl.  factums or facta) Law 1 an act or deed.  2 a statement
             of the facts.  [F f. L: see FACT]

   facture   n.  the quality of execution esp. of the surface of a painting.
             [ME f. OF f. L factura f.  facere fact- do, make]

   facula    n.  (pl.  faculae) Astron.  a bright spot or streak on the sun.
             ЬЬfacular adj.  faculous adj.  [L, dimin. of fax facis torch]

             adj.  1 Law enabling an act to take place.  2 that may occur.  3
             Biol. not restricted to a particular function, mode of life,
             etc.  4 of a faculty.  ЬЬfacultatively adv.  [F facultatif -ive
             (as FACULTY)]

   faculty   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an aptitude or ability for a particular
             activity.  2 an inherent mental or physical power.  3 a a group
             of university departments concerned with a major division of
             knowledge (faculty of modern languages).  b US the staff of a
             university or college.  c a branch of art or science; those
             qualified to teach it.  4 the members of a particular
             profession, esp. medicine.  5 authorization, esp. by a Church
             authority.  ЬFaculty of Advocates Law the society constituting
             the Scottish Bar.  [ME f. OF facult‚ f. L facultas -tatis f.
             facilis easy]

   FAD       abbr.  flavin adenine dinucleotide.

   fad       n.  1 a craze.  2 a peculiar notion or idiosyncrasy.  ЬЬfaddish
             adj.  faddishly adv.  faddishness n.  faddism n.  faddist n.
             [19th c. (orig. dial.): prob. f.  fidfad f.  FIDDLE-FADDLE]

   faddy     adj.  (faddier, faddiest) having arbitrary likes and dislikes,
             esp. about food.  ЬЬfaddily adv.  faddiness n.

   fade      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. lose or cause to lose colour.  2
             intr. lose freshness or strength; (of flowers etc.) droop,
             wither.  3 intr.  a (of colour, light, etc.) disappear
             gradually; grow pale or dim.  b (of sound) grow faint.  4 intr.
             (of a feeling etc.) diminish.  5 intr. (foll. by away, out) (of
             a person etc.) disappear or depart gradually.  6 tr. (foll. by
             in, out) Cinematog. & Broadcasting a cause (a picture) to come
             gradually in or out of view on a screen, or to merge into
             another shot.  b make (the sound) more or less audible.  7 intr.
             (of a radio signal) vary irregularly in intensity.  8 intr. (of
             a brake) temporarily lose effectiveness.  9 Golf a intr. (of a
             ball) deviate from a straight course, esp. in a deliberate
             slice.  b tr. cause (a ball) to fade.  --n. the action or an
             instance of fading.  Ьdo a fade sl.  depart.  fade away colloq.
             languish, grow thin.  fade-in Cinematog. & Broadcasting the
             action or an instance of fading in a picture or sound.  fade-out
             1 colloq. disappearance, death.  2 Cinematog. & Broadcasting the
             action or an instance of fading out a picture or sound.
             ЬЬfadeless adj.  fader n. (in sense 6 of v.).  [ME f. OF fader
             f.  fade dull, insipid prob. ult. f. L fatuus silly + vapidus

   fadge     n.  Austral. & NZ 1 a limp package of wool.  2 a loosely packed
             wool bale.  [16th-c. Engl. dial.: orig. uncert.]

   faeces    n.pl.  (US feces) waste matter discharged from the bowels.
             ЬЬfaecal adj.  [L, pl. of faex dregs]

   faerie    n.  (also faery) archaic 1 Fairyland; the fairies esp. as
             represented by Spenser (the Faerie Queene).  2 (attrib.)
             visionary, fancied.  [var. of FAIRY]

   Faeroese  adj. & n.  (also Faroese) --adj. of or relating to the Faeroes,
             an island group in the N. Atlantic between Norway and Iceland.
             --n.  (pl. same) 1 a native of the Faeroes; a person of Faeroese
             descent.  2 the Norse language of this people.

   faff      v. & n.  Brit.  colloq.  --v.intr. (often foll. by about,
             around) fuss, dither.  --n. a fuss.  [imit.]

   fag(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 esp.  Brit.  colloq. a piece of drudgery; a
             wearisome or unwelcome task.  2 sl. a cigarette.  3 Brit. (at
             public schools) a junior pupil who runs errands for a senior.
             --v.  (fagged, fagging) 1 a tr. (often foll. by out) tire out;
             exhaust.  b intr. toil.  2 intr.  Brit. (in public schools) act
             as a fag.  3 tr.  Naut. (often foll. by out) fray (the end of a
             rope etc.).  Ьfag-end sl.  1 Brit. a cigarette-end.  2 an
             inferior or useless remnant.  [orig. unkn.: cf.  FLAG(1)]

   fag(2)    n.  US sl. often offens.  a male homosexual.  [abbr. of FAGGOT]

   faggot    n. & v.  (US fagot) --n.  1 (usu. in pl.) a ball or roll of
             seasoned chopped liver etc., baked or fried.  2 a bundle of
             sticks or twigs bound together as fuel.  3 a bundle of iron rods
             for heat treatment.  4 a bunch of herbs.  5 sl.  derog.  a an
             unpleasant woman.  b US often offens. a male homosexual.
             --v.tr.  (faggoted, faggoting) 1 bind in or make into faggots.
             2 join by faggoting (see FAGGOTING).  ЬЬfaggoty adj.  [ME f. OF
             fagot, of uncert. orig.]

   faggoting n.  1 embroidery in which threads are fastened together like a
             faggot.  2 the joining of materials in a similar manner.

   fagot     US var. of FAGGOT.

   fah       n.  (also fa) Mus.  1 (in tonic sol-fa) the fourth note of a
             major scale.  2 the note F in the fixed-doh system.  [ME fa f. L
             famuli: see GAMUT]

   Fahr.     abbr.  Fahrenheit.

             adj.  of or measured on a scale of temperature on which water
             freezes at 32ш and boils at 212ш under standard conditions.  [G.
             Fahrenheit, Ger. physicist d. 1736]

   faience   n.  decorated and glazed earthenware and porcelain, e.g. delft
             or majolica.  [F fa‹ence f.  Faenza in Italy]

   fail      v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. not succeed (failed in persuading; failed
             to qualify; tried but failed).  2 a tr. & intr. be unsuccessful
             in (an examination, test, interview, etc.); be rejected as a
             candidate.  b tr. (of a commodity etc.) not pass (a test of
             quality).  c tr. reject (a candidate etc.); adjudge
             unsuccessful.  3 intr. be unable to; neglect to; choose not to
             (I fail to see the reason; he failed to appear).  4 tr.
             disappoint; let down; not serve when needed.  5 intr. (of
             supplies, crops, etc.) be or become lacking or insufficient.  6
             intr. become weaker; cease functioning; break down (her health
             is failing; the engine has failed).  7 intr.  a (of an
             enterprise) collapse; come to nothing.  b become bankrupt.  --n.
             a failure in an examination or test.  Ьfail-safe reverting to a
             safe condition in the event of a breakdown etc.  without fail
             for certain, whatever happens.  [ME f. OF faillir (v.), fail(l)e
             (n.) ult. f. L fallere deceive]

   failed    adj.  1 unsuccessful; not good enough (a failed actor).  2 weak,
             deficient; broken down (a failed crop; a failed battery).

   failing   n. & prep.  --n. a fault or shortcoming; a weakness, esp. in
             character.  --prep. in default of; if not.

   failure   n.  1 lack of success; failing.  2 an unsuccessful person,
             thing, or attempt.  3 non-performance, non-occurrence.  4
             breaking down or ceasing to function (heart failure; engine
             failure).  5 running short of supply etc.  6 bankruptcy,
             collapse.  [earlier failer f. AF, = OF faillir FAIL]

   fain      adj. & adv.  archaic --predic.adj. (foll. by to + infin.)  1
             willing under the circumstances to.  2 left with no alternative
             but to.  --adv. gladly (esp. would fain).  [OE f‘gen f. Gmc]

   fain‚ant  n. & adj.  --n. an idle or ineffective person.  --adj. idle,
             inactive.  [F f.  fait does + n‚ant nothing]

   faint     adj., v., & n.  --adj.  1 indistinct, pale, dim; not clearly
             perceived.  2 (of a person) weak or giddy; inclined to faint.  3
             slight, remote, inadequate (a faint chance).  4 feeble,
             half-hearted (faint praise).  5 timid (a faint heart).  6 (also
             feint) (of ruled paper) with inconspicuous lines to guide
             writing.  --v.intr.  1 lose consciousness.  2 become faint.
             --n. a sudden loss of consciousness; fainting.  Ьfaint-hearted
             cowardly, timid.  faint-heartedly in a faint-hearted manner.
             faint-heartedness cowardliness, timidity.  not have the faintest
             colloq.  have no idea.  ЬЬfaintness n.  [ME f. OF, past part. of
             faindre FEIGN]

   faintly   adv.  1 very slightly (faintly amused).  2 indistinctly, feebly.

   fair(1)   adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  1 just, unbiased, equitable; in
             accordance with the rules.  2 blond; light or pale in colour or
             complexion.  3 a of (only) moderate quality or amount; average.
             b considerable, satisfactory (a fair chance of success).  4 (of
             weather) fine and dry; (of the wind) favourable.  5 clean,
             clear, unblemished (fair copy).  6 beautiful, attractive.  7
             archaic kind, gentle.  8 a specious (fair speeches).  b
             complimentary (fair words).  9 Austral. & NZ complete,
             unquestionable.  --adv.  1 in a fair manner (play fair).  2
             exactly, completely (was hit fair on the jaw).  --n.  1 a fair
             thing.  2 archaic a beautiful woman.  --v.  1 tr. make (the
             surface of a ship, aircraft, etc.) smooth and streamlined.  2
             intr.  dial. (of the weather) become fair.  Ьfair and square
             adv. & adj.  1 exactly.  2 straightforward, honest, above-board.
             fair crack of the whip see CRACK.  a fair deal equitable
             treatment.  fair dos colloq.  fair shares.  fair enough colloq.
             that is reasonable or acceptable.  fair game a thing or person
             one may legitimately pursue, exploit, etc.  fair-minded just,
             impartial.  fair-mindedly justly, impartially.  fair-mindedness
             a sense of justice; impartiality.  fair name a good reputation.
             fair play reasonable treatment or behaviour.  fair rent the
             amount of rent which a tenant may reasonably be expected to pay
             according to established guidelines.  the fair sex women.
             fair's fair colloq.  all involved should act fairly.
             fair-spoken courteous.  a fair treat colloq.  a very enjoyable
             or attractive thing or person.  fair-weather friend a friend or
             ally who is unreliable in times of difficulty.  for fair US sl.
             completely.  in a fair way to likely to.  ЬЬfairish adj.
             fairness n.  [OE f‘ger f. Gmc]

   fair(2)   n.  1 a gathering of stalls, amusements, etc., for public (usu.
             outdoor) entertainment.  2 a periodical gathering for the sale
             of goods, often with entertainments.  3 an exhibition, esp. to
             promote particular products.  [ME f. OF feire f. LL feria sing.
             f. L feriae holiday]

             n.  an outdoor area where a fair is held.

             n.  1 a streamlining structure added to a ship, aircraft,
             vehicle, etc.  2 the process of streamlining.  [FAIR(1) v.  1 +

             n.  Brit.  archaic a present bought at a fair.

   Fair Isle n.  (also attrib.) a piece of knitwear knitted in a
             characteristic particoloured design.  [Fair Isle in the
             Shetlands, where the design was first devised]

   fairlead  n.  Naut.  a device to guide rope etc., e.g. to prevent cutting
             or chafing.

   fairly    adv.  1 in a fair manner; justly.  2 moderately, acceptably
             (fairly good).  3 to a noticeable degree (fairly narrow).  4
             utterly, completely (fairly beside himself).  5 actually (fairly
             jumped for joy).  Ьfairly and squarely = fair and square (see

   fairwater n.  a structure on a ship etc. assisting its passage through

   fairway   n.  1 a navigable channel; a regular course or track of a ship.
             2 the part of a golf-course between a tee and its green, kept
             free of rough grass.

   fairy     n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a small imaginary being with
             magical powers.  2 sl.  derog. a male homosexual.  --adj. of
             fairies, fairy-like, delicate, small.  Ьfairy cake a small
             individual iced sponge cake.  fairy cycle a small bicycle for a
             child.  fairy godmother a benefactress.  fairy lights small
             coloured lights esp. for outdoor decoration.  fairy ring a ring
             of darker grass caused by fungi.  fairy story (or tale) 1 a tale
             about fairies.  2 an incredible story; a fabrication.
             ЬЬfairy-like adj.  [ME f. OF faerie f.  fae FAY]

   fairyland n.  1 the imaginary home of fairies.  2 an enchanted region.

   fait accompli
             n.  a thing that has been done and is past arguing against or
             altering.  [F]

   faith     n.  1 complete trust or confidence.  2 firm belief, esp. without
             logical proof.  3 a a system of religious belief (the Christian
             faith).  b belief in religious doctrines.  c spiritual
             apprehension of divine truth apart from proof.  d things
             believed or to be believed.  4 duty or commitment to fulfil a
             trust, promise, etc. (keep faith).  5 (attrib.) concerned with a
             supposed ability to cure by faith rather than treatment
             (faith-healing).  Ьbad faith intent to deceive.  good faith
             honesty or sincerity of intention.  [ME f. AF fed f. OF feid f.
             L fides]

   faithful  adj.  1 showing faith.  2 (often foll. by to) loyal,
             trustworthy, constant.  3 accurate; true to fact (a faithful
             account).  4 (the Faithful) the believers in a religion, esp.
             Muslims and Christians.  ЬЬfaithfulness n.

             adv.  in a faithful manner.  Ьyours faithfully a formula for
             ending a business or formal letter.

   faithless adj.  1 false, unreliable, disloyal.  2 without religious faith.
             ЬЬfaithlessly adv.  faithlessness n.

   fake(1)   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a thing or person that is not genuine.
             2 a trick.  --adj. counterfeit; not genuine.  --v.tr.  1 make (a
             false thing) appear genuine; forge, counterfeit.  2 make a
             pretence of having (a feeling, illness, etc.).  ЬЬfaker n.
             fakery n.  [obs.  feak, feague thrash f. G fegen sweep, thrash]

   fake(2)   n. & v.  Naut.  --n. one round of a coil of rope.  --v.tr. coil
             (rope).  [ME: cf. Scottish faik fold]

   fakir     n.  (also faquir) a Muslim or (rarely) Hindu religious mendicant
             or ascetic.  [Arab.  fakir needy man]

   falafel   var. of FELAFEL.

   Falange   n.  the Fascist movement in Spain, founded in 1933.  ЬЬFalangism
             n.  Falangist n.  [Sp., = PHALANX]

   falcate   adj.  Anat.  curved like a sickle.  [L falcatus f.  falx falcis

   falchion  n.  hist.  a broad curved sword with a convex edge.  [ME
             fauchoun f. OF fauchon ult. f. L falx falcis sickle]

   falciform adj.  Anat.  curved like a sickle.  [L falx falcis sickle]

   falcon    n.  1 any diurnal bird of prey of the family Falconidae, having
             long pointed wings, and sometimes trained to hunt small game for
             sport.  2 (in falconry) a female falcon (cf.  TERCEL).  [ME f.
             OF faucon f. LL falco -onis, perh. f. L falx scythe or f. Gmc]

   falconer  n.  1 a keeper and trainer of hawks.  2 a person who hunts with
             hawks.  [ME f. AF fauconer, OF fauconier (as FALCON)]

   falconet  n.  1 hist. a light cannon.  2 Zool. a small falcon.  [sense 1
             f. It.  falconetto dimin. of falcone FALCON: sense 2 f.  FALCON
             + -ET(1)]

   falconry  n.  the breeding and training of hawks; the sport of hawking.
             [F fauconnerie (as FALCON)]

   falderal  n.  (also folderol) 1 a gewgaw or trifle.  2 a nonsensical
             refrain in a song.  [perh. f.  falbala trimming on a dress]

   faldstool n.  1 a bishop's backless folding chair.  2 Brit. a small
             movable desk for kneeling at prayer.  [OE f‘ldestol f. med.L
             faldistolium f. WG (as FOLD(1), STOOL)]

   fall      v. & n.  --v.intr.  (past fell; past part.  fallen) 1 a go or
             come down freely; descend rapidly from a higher to a lower level
             (fell from the top floor; rain was falling).  b drop or be
             dropped (supplies fell by parachute; the curtain fell).  2 a
             (often foll. by over) cease to stand; come suddenly to the
             ground from loss of balance etc.  b collapse forwards or
             downwards esp. of one's own volition (fell into my arms; fell
             over the chair).  3 become detached and descend or disappear.  4
             take a downward direction: a (of hair, clothing, etc.) hang
             down.  b (of ground etc.) slope.  c (foll. by into) (of a river
             etc.) discharge into.  5 a find a lower level; sink lower.  b
             subside, abate.  6 (of a barometer, thermometer, etc.) show a
             lower reading.  7 occur; become apparent or present (darkness
             fell).  8 decline, diminish (demand is falling; standards have
             fallen).  9 a (of the face) show dismay or disappointment.  b
             (of the eyes or a glance) look downwards.  10 a lose power or
             status (the government will fall).  b lose esteem, moral
             integrity, etc.  11 commit sin; yield to temptation.  12 take or
             have a particular direction or place (his eye fell on me; the
             accent falls on the first syllable).  13 a find a place; be
             naturally divisible (the subject falls into three parts).  b
             (foll. by under, within) be classed among.  14 occur at a
             specified time (Easter falls early this year).  15 come by
             chance or duty (it fell to me to answer).  16 a pass into a
             specified condition (fall into decay; fell ill).  b become (fall
             asleep).  17 a (of a position etc.) be overthrown or captured;
             succumb to attack.  b be defeated; fail.  18 die (fall in
             battle).  19 (foll. by on, upon) a attack.  b meet with.  c
             embrace or embark on avidly.  20 (foll. by to + verbal noun)
             begin (fell to wondering).  21 (foll. by to) lapse, revert
             (revenues fall to the Crown).  --n.  1 the act or an instance of
             falling; a sudden rapid descent.  2 that which falls or has
             fallen, e.g. snow, rocks, etc.  3 the recorded amount of
             rainfall etc.  4 a decline or diminution.  5 overthrow, downfall
             (the fall of Rome).  6 a succumbing to temptation.  b (the Fall)
             the sin of Adam and its consequences, as described in Genesis.
             7 (of material, land, light, etc.) a downward direction; a
             slope.  8 (also Fall) US autumn.  9 (esp. in pl.) a waterfall,
             cataract, or cascade.  10 Mus. a cadence.  11 a a
             wrestling-bout; a throw in wrestling which keeps the opponent on
             the ground for a specified time.  b a controlled act of falling,
             esp. as a stunt or in judo etc.  12 a the birth of young of
             certain animals.  b the number of young born.  13 a rope of a
             hoisting-tackle.  Ьfall about colloq.  be helpless, esp. with
             laughter.  fall apart (or to pieces) 1 break into pieces.  2 (of
             a situation etc.) disintegrate; be reduced to chaos.  3 lose
             one's capacity to cope.  fall away 1 (of a surface) incline
             abruptly.  2 become few or thin; gradually vanish.  3 desert,
             revolt; abandon one's principles.  fall back retreat.  fall-back
             (attrib.) emergency, esp. (of wages) the minimum paid when no
             work is available.  fall back on have recourse to in difficulty.
             fall behind 1 be outstripped by one's competitors etc.; lag.  2
             be in arrears.  fall down (often foll. by on) colloq.  fail;
             perform poorly; fail to deliver (payment etc.).  fall for
             colloq.  1 be captivated or deceived by.  2 admire; yield to the
             charms or merits of.  fall foul of come into conflict with;
             quarrel with.  fall guy sl.  1 an easy victim.  2 a scapegoat.
             fall in 1 a take one's place in military formation.  b (as int.)
             the order to do this.  2 collapse inwards.  falling star a
             meteor.  fall in love see LOVE.  fall into line 1 take one's
             place in the ranks.  2 conform or collaborate with others.  fall
             into place begin to make sense or cohere.  fall in with 1 meet
             by chance.  2 agree with; accede to; humour.  3 coincide with.
             fall off 1 (of demand etc.) decrease, deteriorate.  2 withdraw.
             fall-off n.  a decrease, deterioration, withdrawal, etc.  fall
             out 1 quarrel.  2 (of the hair, teeth, etc.) become detached.  3
             Mil. come out of formation.  4 result; come to pass; occur.
             fall out of gradually discontinue (a habit etc.).  fall over
             oneself colloq.  1 be eager or competitive.  2 be awkward,
             stumble through haste, confusion, etc.  fall-pipe a downpipe.
             fall short 1 be or become deficient or inadequate.  2 (of a
             missile etc.) not reach its target.  fall short of fail to reach
             or obtain.  fall through fail; come to nothing; miscarry.  fall
             to begin an activity, e.g. eating or working.  [OE fallan,
             feallan f. Gmc]

   fallacy   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a mistaken belief, esp. based on unsound
             argument.  2 faulty reasoning; misleading or unsound argument.
             3 Logic a flaw that vitiates an argument.  ЬЬfallacious adj.
             fallaciously adv.  fallaciousness n.  [L fallacia f.  fallax
             -acis deceiving f.  fallere deceive]

   fallen    past part. of FALL v.  --adj.  1 (attrib.) having lost one's
             honour or reputation.  2 killed in war.  ЬЬfallenness n.

   fallfish  n.  US a N. American freshwater fish like the chub.

   fallible  adj.  1 capable of making mistakes.  2 liable to be erroneous.
             ЬЬfallibility n.  fallibly adv.  [med.L fallibilis f. L fallere

   Fallopian tube
             n.  Anat.  either of two tubes in female mammals along which ova
             travel from the ovaries to the uterus.  [Fallopius, Latinized
             name of G.  Fallopio, It. anatomist d. 1562]

   fallout   n.  1 radioactive debris caused by a nuclear explosion or
             accident.  2 the adverse side-effects of a situation etc.

   fallow(1) adj., n., & v.  --adj.  1 a (of land) ploughed and harrowed but
             left unsown for a year.  b uncultivated.  2 (of an idea etc.)
             potentially useful but not yet in use.  3 inactive.  4 (of a
             sow) not pregnant.  --n. fallow or uncultivated land.  --v.tr.
             break up (land) for sowing or to destroy weeds.  ЬЬfallowness n.
             [ME f. OE fealh (n.), fealgian (v.)]

   fallow(2) adj.  of a pale brownish or reddish yellow.  Ьfallow deer any
             small deer of the genus Dama, having a white-spotted
             reddish-brown coat in the summer.  [OE falu, fealu f. Gmc]

   false     adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 not according with fact; wrong, incorrect
             (a false idea).  2 a spurious, sham, artificial (false gods;
             false teeth; false modesty).  b acting as such; appearing to be
             such, esp. deceptively (a false lining).  3 illusory; not
             actually so (a false economy).  4 improperly so called (false
             acacia).  5 deceptive.  6 (foll. by to) deceitful, treacherous,
             or unfaithful.  7 illegal (false imprisonment).  --adv. in a
             false manner (esp. play false).  Ьfalse acacia see ACACIA.
             false alarm an alarm given needlessly.  false bedding Geol. =
             CROSS-BEDDING.  false colours deceitful pretence.  false dawn a
             transient light in the east before dawn.  false gharial see
             GHARIAL.  false pretences misrepresentations made with intent to
             deceive (esp. under false pretences).  false rib = floating rib.
             false start 1 an invalid or disallowed start in a race.  2 an
             unsuccessful attempt to begin something.  false step a slip; a
             mistake.  false topaz = CITRINE.  ЬЬfalsely adv.  falseness n.
             falsity n.  (pl.  -ies).  [OE fals and OF fals, faus f. L falsus
             past part. of fallere deceive]

   falsehood n.  1 the state of being false, esp. untrue.  2 a false or
             untrue thing.  3 a the act of lying.  b a lie or lies.

   falsetto  n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a method of voice production used by male
             singers, esp.  tenors, to sing notes higher than their normal
             range.  2 a singer using this method.  [It., dimin. of falso

   falsework n.  a temporary framework or support used during building to
             form arches etc.

   falsies   n.pl.  colloq.  padded material to increase the apparent size of
             the breasts.

   falsify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 fraudulently alter or make false (a
             document, evidence, etc.).  2 misrepresent.  3 make wrong;
             pervert.  4 show to be false.  5 disappoint (a hope, fear,
             etc.).  ЬЬfalsifiable adj.  falsifiability n.  falsification n.
             [ME f. F falsifier or med.L falsificare f. L falsificus making
             false f.  falsus false]

   falter    v.  1 intr. stumble, stagger; go unsteadily.  2 intr. waver;
             lose courage.  3 tr. & intr. stammer; speak hesitatingly.
             ЬЬfalterer n.  falteringly adv.  [ME: orig. uncert.]

   fame      n.  1 renown; the state of being famous.  2 reputation.  3
             archaic public report; rumour.  Ьhouse of ill fame archaic a
             brothel.  ill fame disrepute.  [ME f. OF f. L fama]

   famed     adj.  1 (foll. by for) famous; much spoken of (famed for its
             good food).  2 archaic currently reported.

   familial  adj.  of, occurring in, or characteristic of a family or its
             members.  [F f. L familia FAMILY]

   familiar  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a (often foll. by to) well known; no longer
             novel.  b common, usual; often encountered or experienced.  2
             (foll. by with) knowing a thing well or in detail (am familiar
             with all the problems).  3 (often foll. by with) a well
             acquainted (with a person); in close friendship; intimate.  b
             sexually intimate.  4 excessively informal; impertinent.  5
             unceremonious, informal.  --n.  1 a close friend or associate.
             2 RC Ch. a person rendering certain services in a pope's or
             bishop's household.  3 (in full familiar spirit) a demon
             supposedly attending and obeying a witch etc.  ЬЬfamiliarly adv.
             [ME f. OF familier f. L familiaris (as FAMILY)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the state of being well known (the familiarity
             of the scene).  2 (foll. by with) close acquaintance.  3 a close
             relationship.  4 a sexual intimacy.  b (in pl.) acts of physical
             intimacy.  5 familiar or informal behaviour, esp. excessively
             so.  [ME f. OF familiarit‚ f. L familiaritas -tatis (as

             v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 (foll. by with) make (a person) conversant
             or well acquainted.  2 make (a thing) well known.
             ЬЬfamiliarization n.  [F familiariser f.  familiaire (as

   famille   n.  a Chinese enamelled porcelain with a predominant colour:
             (famille jaune) yellow, (famille noire) black, (famille rose)
             red, (famille verte) green.  [[F, = family]]

   family    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a set of parents and children, or of
             relations, living together or not.  2 a the members of a
             household, esp. parents and their children.  b a person's
             children.  c (attrib.) serving the needs of families (family
             butcher).  3 a all the descendants of a common ancestor.  b a
             race or group of peoples from a common stock.  4 all the
             languages ultimately derived from a particular early language,
             regarded as a group.  5 a brotherhood of persons or nations
             united by political or religious ties.  6 a group of objects
             distinguished by common features.  7 Math. a group of curves
             etc. obtained by varying one quantity.  8 Biol. a group of
             related genera of organisms within an order in taxonomic
             classification.  Ьfamily allowance Brit.  a former name for
             child benefit.  family credit (or income supplement) (in the UK)
             a regular payment by the State to a family with an income below
             a certain level.  Family Division (in the UK) a division of the
             High Court dealing with adoption, divorce, etc.  family man a
             man having a wife and children, esp. one fond of family life.
             family name a surname.  family planning birth control.  family
             tree a chart showing relationships and lines of descent.  in the
             family way colloq.  pregnant.  [ME f. L familia household f.
             famulus servant]

   famine    n.  1 a extreme scarcity of food.  b a shortage of something
             specified (water famine).  2 archaic hunger, starvation.  [ME f.
             OF f.  faim f. L fames hunger]

   famish    v.tr. & intr.  (usu. in passive) 1 reduce or be reduced to
             extreme hunger.  2 colloq. feel very hungry.  [ME f. obs.  fame
             f. OF afamer ult. f. L fames hunger]

   famous    adj.  1 (often foll. by for) celebrated; well known.  2 colloq.
             excellent.  ЬЬfamousness n.  [ME f. AF, OF fameus f. L famosus
             f.  fama fame]

   famously  adv.  1 colloq. excellently (got on famously).  2 notably.

   famulus   n.  (pl.  famuli) hist.  an attendant on a magician or scholar.
             [L, = servant]

   fan(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 an apparatus, usu. with rotating blades, giving
             a current of air for ventilation etc.  2 a device, usu. folding
             and forming a semicircle when spread out, for agitating the air
             to cool oneself.  3 anything spread out like a fan, e.g. a
             bird's tail or kind of ornamental vaulting (fan tracery).  4 a
             device for winnowing grain.  5 a fan-shaped deposit of alluvium
             esp. where a stream begins to descend a gentler slope.  6 a
             small sail for keeping the head of a windmill towards the wind.
             --v.  (fanned, fanning) 1 tr.  a blow a current of air on, with
             or as with a fan.  b agitate (the air) with a fan.  2 tr. (of a
             breeze) blow gently on; cool.  3 tr.  a winnow (grain).  b
             winnow away (chaff).  4 tr. sweep away by or as by the wind from
             a fan.  5 intr. & tr. (usu. foll. by out) spread out in the
             shape of a fan.  Ьfan belt a belt that drives a fan to cool the
             radiator in a motor vehicle.  fan dance a dance in which the
             dancer is (apparently) nude and partly concealed by fans.  fan
             heater an electric heater in which a fan drives air over an
             element.  fan-jet = TURBOFAN.  fan palm a palm-tree with
             fan-shaped leaves.  ЬЬfanlike adj.  fanner n.  [OE fann (in
             sense 4 of n.) f. L vannus winnowing-fan]

   fan(2)    n.  a devotee of a particular activity, performer, etc. (film
             fan; football fan).  Ьfan club an organized group of devotees.
             fan mail letters from fans.  ЬЬfandom n.  [abbr. of FANATIC]

   fanatic   n. & adj.  --n. a person filled with excessive and often
             misguided enthusiasm for something.  --adj. excessively
             enthusiastic.  ЬЬfanatical adj.  fanatically adv.  fanaticism n.
             fanaticize v.intr. & tr.  (also -ise).  [F fanatique or L
             fanaticus f.  fanum temple (orig. in religious sense)]

   fancier   n.  a connoisseur or follower of some activity or thing

   fanciful  adj.  1 existing only in the imagination or fancy.  2 indulging
             in fancies; whimsical, capricious.  3 fantastically designed,
             ornamented, etc.; odd-looking.  ЬЬfancifully adv.  fancifulness

   fancy     n., adj., & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 an individual taste or
             inclination (take a fancy to).  2 a caprice or whim.  3 a thing
             favoured, e.g. a horse to win a race.  4 an arbitrary
             supposition.  5 a the faculty of using imagination or of
             inventing imagery.  b a mental image.  6 delusion; unfounded
             belief.  7 (prec. by the) those who have a certain hobby;
             fanciers, esp. patrons of boxing.  --adj. (usu.  attrib.)
             (fancier, fanciest) 1 ornamental; not plain.  2 capricious,
             whimsical, extravagant (at a fancy price).  3 based on
             imagination, not fact.  4 US (of foods etc.) above average
             quality.  5 (of flowers etc.) particoloured.  6 (of an animal)
             bred for particular points of beauty etc.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied)
             1 (foll. by that + clause) be inclined to suppose; rather think.
             2 Brit.  colloq. feel a desire for (do you fancy a drink?).  3
             Brit.  colloq. find sexually attractive.  4 colloq. have an
             unduly high opinion of (oneself, one's ability, etc.).  5 (in
             imper.) an exclamation of surprise (fancy their doing that!).  6
             picture to oneself; conceive, imagine.  Ьcatch (or take) the
             fancy of please; appeal to.  fancy dress fanciful costume, esp.
             for masquerading as a different person or as an animal etc. at a
             party.  fancy-free without (esp. emotional) commitments.  fancy
             goods ornamental novelties etc.  fancy man sl.  derog.  1 a
             woman's lover.  2 a pimp.  fancy woman sl.  derog.  a mistress.
             fancy-work ornamental sewing etc.  ЬЬfanciable adj. (in sense 3
             of v.).  fancily adv.  fanciness n.  [contr. of FANTASY]

   fandangle n.  1 a fantastic ornament.  2 nonsense, tomfoolery.  [perh. f.
             FANDANGO after newfangle]

   fandango  n.  (pl.  -oes or -os) 1 a a lively Spanish dance for two.  b
             the music for this.  2 nonsense, tomfoolery.  [Sp.: orig. unkn.]

   fane      n.  poet.  = TEMPLE(1).  [ME f. L fanum]

   fanfare   n.  1 a short showy or ceremonious sounding of trumpets, bugles,
             etc.  2 an elaborate welcome.  [F, imit.]

             n.  1 arrogant talk; brag.  2 a fanfare.  [F fanfaronnade f.
             fanfaron braggart (as FANFARE)]

   fang      n.  1 a canine tooth, esp. of a dog or wolf.  2 the tooth of a
             venomous snake, by which poison is injected.  3 the root of a
             tooth or its prong.  4 Brit.  colloq. a person's tooth.
             ЬЬfanged adj. (also in comb.).  fangless adj.  [OE f. ON fang f.
             a Gmc root = to catch]

   fanlight  n.  a small, orig. semicircular window over a door or another

   fanny     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 Brit.  coarse sl. the female genitals.  2 US
             sl. the buttocks.  °Usually considered a taboo word in Brit.
             use.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Fanny Adams
             n.  Brit.  sl.  1 (also sweet Fanny Adams) nothing at all.
             °Sometimes understood as a euphemism for fuck all.  2 Naut.  a
             tinned meat.  b stew.  [name of a murder victim c.1870]

   fantail   n.  1 a pigeon with a broad-shaped tail.  2 any flycatcher of
             the genus Rhipidura, with a fan-shaped tail.  3 a fan-shaped
             tail or end.  4 the fan of a windmill.  5 the projecting part of
             a boat's stern.  ЬЬfantailed adj.

   fan-tan   n.  1 a Chinese gambling game in which players try to guess the
             remainder after the banker has divided a number of hidden
             objects into four groups.  2 a card-game in which players build
             on sequences of sevens.  [Chin., = repeated divisions]

   fantasia  n.  a musical or other composition free in form and often in
             improvisatory style, or which is based on several familiar
             tunes.  [It., = FANTASY]

   fantasize v.  (also phantasize, -ise) 1 intr. have a fantasy or fanciful
             vision.  2 tr. imagine; create a fantasy about.  ЬЬfantasist n.

   fantast   n.  (also phantast) a visionary; a dreamer.  [med.L f. Gk
             phantastes boaster f.  phantazomai make a show f.  phaino show]

   fantastic adj.  (also fantastical) 1 colloq. excellent, extraordinary.  2
             extravagantly fanciful; capricious, eccentric.  3 grotesque or
             quaint in design etc.  ЬЬfantasticality n.  fantastically adv.
             [ME f. OF fantastique f. med.L fantasticus f. LL phantasticus f.
             Gk phantastikos (as FANTAST)]

             v.tr.  make fantastic.  ЬЬfantastication n.

   fantasy   n. & v.  (also phantasy) --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the faculty of
             inventing images, esp. extravagant or visionary ones.  2 a
             fanciful mental image; a day-dream.  3 a whimsical speculation.
             4 a fantastic invention or composition; a fantasia.  --v.tr.
             (-ies, -ied) imagine in a visionary manner.  [ME f. OF fantasie
             f. L phantasia appearance f. Gk (as FANTAST)]

   Fanti     n.  (also Fante) (pl. same or Fantis) 1 a member of a Black
             tribe native to Ghana.  2 the language of this tribe.  [native

   FAO       abbr.  Food and Agriculture Organization (of the United

   far       adv. & adj.  (further, furthest or farther, farthest) --adv.  1
             at or to or by a great distance (far away; far off; far out).  2
             a long way (off) in space or time (are you travelling far?; we
             talked far into the night).  3 to a great extent or degree; by
             much (far better; far the best; far too early).  --adj.  1
             situated at or extending over a great distance in space or time;
             remote (a far cry; a far country).  2 more distant (the far end
             of the hall).  Ьas far as 1 to the distance of (a place).  2 to
             the extent that (travel as far as you like).  by far by a great
             amount.  far and away by a very large amount.  far and near
             everywhere.  far and wide over a large area.  far-away 1 remote;
             long-past.  2 (of a look) dreamy.  3 (of a voice) sounding as if
             from a distance.  far be it from me (foll. by to + infin.)  I am
             reluctant to (esp. express criticism etc.).  far cry a long way.
             the Far East China, Japan, and other countries of E. Asia.  Far
             Eastern of or in the Far East.  far-fetched (of an explanation
             etc.) strained, unconvincing.  far-flung extending far; widely
             distributed.  far from very different from being; tending to the
             opposite of (the problem is far from being solved).  far gone 1
             advanced in time.  2 colloq. in an advanced state of illness,
             drunkenness, etc.  far-off remote.  far-out 1 distant.  2
             avant-garde, unconventional, excellent.  far-reaching 1 widely
             applicable.  2 having important consequences or implications.
             far-seeing shrewd in judgement; prescient.  go far 1 achieve
             much.  2 contribute greatly.  3 be adequate.  go too far go
             beyond the limits of what is reasonable, polite, etc.  how far
             to what extent.  so far 1 to such an extent or distance; to this
             point.  2 until now.  so (or in so) far as (or that) to the
             extent that.  so far so good progress has been satisfactory up
             to now.  ЬЬfarness n.  [OE feorr]

   farad     n.  Electr.  the SI unit of capacitance, such that one coulomb
             of charge causes a potential difference of one volt.  °Abbr.: F.
             [shortening of FARADAY]

   faradaic  adj.  (also faradic) Electr.  inductive, induced.  [see FARADAY]

   faraday   n.  (also Faraday's constant) Electr.  the quantity of electric
             charge carried by one mole of electrons.  °Abbr.: F.  ЬFaraday
             cage Electr.  an earthed metal screen used for excluding
             electrostatic influences.  Faraday effect Physics the rotation
             of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic waves in certain
             substances in a magnetic field.  [M.  Faraday, Engl. physicist
             d. 1867]

   farandole n.  1 a lively Proven‡al dance.  2 the music for this.  [F f.
             mod. Prov.  farandoulo]

   farce     n.  1 a a coarsely comic dramatic work based on ludicrously
             improbable events.  b this branch of drama.  2 absurdly futile
             proceedings; pretence, mockery.  [F, orig. = stuffing, f. OF
             farsir f. L farcire to stuff, used metaph. of interludes etc.]

   farceur   n.  1 a joker or wag.  2 an actor or writer of farces.  [F f.
             farcer act farces]

   farcical  adj.  1 extremely ludicrous or futile.  2 of or like farce.
             ЬЬfarcicality n.  farcically adv.

   farcy     n.  glanders with inflammation of the lymph vessels.  Ьfarcy bud
             (or button) a small lymphatic tumour as a result of farcy.  [ME
             f. earlier & OF farcin f. LL farciminum f.  farcire to stuff]

   farded    adj.  archaic (of a face etc.) painted with cosmetics.  [past
             part. of obs.  fard f. OF farder]

   fare      n. & v.  --n.  1 a the price a passenger has to pay to be
             conveyed by bus, train, etc.  b a passenger paying to travel in
             a public vehicle.  2 a range of food provided by a restaurant
             etc.  --v.intr.  literary 1 progress; get on (how did you
             fare?).  2 happen; turn out.  3 journey, go, travel.
             Ьfare-stage Brit.  1 a section of a bus etc. route for which a
             fixed fare is charged.  2 a stop marking this.  [OE f‘r, faru
             journeying, faran (v.), f. Gmc]

   farewell  int. & n.  --int. goodbye, adieu.  --n.  1 leave-taking,
             departure (also attrib.  : a farewell kiss).  2 parting good
             wishes.  [ME f. imper. of FARE + WELL(1)]

   farina    n.  1 the flour or meal of cereal, nuts, or starchy roots.  2 a
             powdery substance.  3 Brit. starch.  ЬЬfarinaceous adj.  [L f.
             far corn]

   farl      n.  Sc.  a thin cake, orig. quadrant-shaped, of oatmeal or
             flour.  [obs.  fardel quarter (as FOURTH, DEAL(1))]

   farm      n. & v.  --n.  1 an area of land and its buildings used under
             one management for growing crops, rearing animals, etc.  2 a
             place or establishment for breeding a particular type of animal,
             growing fruit, etc. (trout-farm; mink-farm).  3 = FARMHOUSE.  4
             a place for the storage of oil or oil products.  5 = sewage
             farm.  --v.  1 a tr. use (land) for growing crops, rearing
             animals, etc.  b intr. be a farmer; work on a farm.  2 tr. breed
             (fish etc.) commercially.  3 tr. (often foll. by out) a delegate
             or subcontract (work) to others.  b contract (the collection of
             taxes) to another for a fee.  c arrange for (a person, esp. a
             child) to be looked after by another, with payment.  4 tr. let
             the labour of (a person) for hire.  5 tr. contract to maintain
             and care for (a person, esp. a child) for a fixed sum.
             Ьfarm-hand a worker on a farm.  ЬЬfarmable adj.  farming n.  [ME
             f. OF ferme f. med.L firma fixed payment f. L firmus FIRM(1):
             orig. applied only to leased land]

   farmer    n.  1 a person who cultivates a farm.  2 a person to whom the
             collection of taxes is contracted for a fee.  3 a person who
             looks after children for payment.  [ME f. AF fermer, OF fermier
             f. med.L firmarius, firmator f.  firma FIRM(2)]

   farmhouse n.  a dwelling-place (esp. the main one) attached to a farm.

   farmstead n.  a farm and its buildings regarded as a unit.

   farmyard  n.  a yard or enclosure attached to a farmhouse.

   faro      n.  a gambling card-game in which bets are placed on the order
             of appearance of the cards.  [F pharaon PHARAOH (said to have
             been the name of the king of hearts)]

   Faroese   var. of FAEROESE.

   farouche  adj.  sullen, shy.  [F f. OF faroche, forache f. med.L
             forasticus f. L foras out of doors]

   farrago   n.  (pl.  -os or US -oes) a medley or hotchpotch.  ЬЬfarraginous
             adj.  [L farrago farraginis mixed fodder f.  far corn]

   farrier   n.  Brit.  1 a smith who shoes horses.  2 a horse-doctor.
             ЬЬfarriery n.  [OF ferrier f. L ferrarius f.  ferrum iron,

   farrow    n. & v.  --n.  1 a litter of pigs.  2 the birth of a litter.
             --v.tr. (also absol.) (of a sow) produce (pigs).  [OE fearh,
             f‘rh pig f. WG]

   farruca   n.  a type of flamenco dance.  [Sp.]

   Farsi     n.  the modern Persian language.  [Pers.: cf.  PARSEE]

             adj.  1 having foresight, prudent.  2 esp.  US = LONG-SIGHTED.
             ЬЬfar-sightedly adv.  far-sightedness n.

   fart      v. & n.  coarse sl.  --v.intr.  1 emit wind from the anus.  2
             (foll. by about, around) behave foolishly; waste time.  --n.  1
             an emission of wind from the anus.  2 an unpleasant person.
             °Usually considered a taboo word.  [OE (recorded in feorting
             verbal noun) f. Gmc]

   farther   var. of FURTHER (esp. with ref. to physical distance).

   farthest  var. of FURTHEST (esp. with ref. to physical distance).

   farthing  n.  1 (in the UK) a coin and monetary unit formerly worth a
             quarter of an old penny.  °Withdrawn in 1961.  2 the least
             possible amount (it doesn't matter a farthing).  [OE feorthing
             f.  feortha fourth]

             n.  hist.  a hooped petticoat or a stiff curved roll to extend a
             woman's skirt.  [earlier vardingale, verd- f. F verdugale f. Sp.
             verdugado f.  verdugo rod]

   fartlek   n.  Athletics a method of training for middle- and long-distance
             running, mixing fast with slow work.  [Sw. f.  fart speed + lek

   fasces    n.pl.  Rom.Hist.  1 a bundle of rods with a projecting
             axe-blade, carried by a lictor as a symbol of a magistrate's
             power.  2 hist. (in Fascist Italy) emblems of authority.  [L,
             pl. of fascis bundle]

   fascia    n.  (also facia) 1 Brit.  a the instrument panel of a motor
             vehicle.  b any similar panel or plate for operating machinery.
             2 the upper part of a shop-front with the proprietor's name etc.
             3 Archit.  a a long flat surface between mouldings on the
             architrave in classical architecture.  b a flat surface, usu. of
             wood, covering the ends of rafters.  4 a stripe or band.  5
             Anat. a thin sheath of fibrous tissue.  ЬЬfascial adj.  [L, =
             band, door-frame, etc.]

   fasciate  adj.  (also fasciated) 1 Bot. (of contiguous parts) compressed
             or growing into one.  2 striped or banded.  ЬЬfasciation n.  [L
             fasciatus past part. of fasciare swathe (as FASCIA)]

   fascicle  n.  1 (also fascicule) a separately published instalment of a
             book, usu. not complete in itself.  2 a bunch or bundle.  3
             (also fasciculus) Anat. a bundle of fibres.  ЬЬfascicled adj.
             fascicular adj.  fasciculate adj.  fasciculation n.  [L
             fasciculus bundle, dimin. of fascis: see FASCES]

   fascinate v.tr.  1 capture the interest of; attract irresistibly.  2 (esp.
             of a snake) paralyse (a victim) with fear.  ЬЬfascinated adj.
             fascinating adj.  fascinatingly adv.  fascination n.  fascinator
             n.  [L fascinare f.  fascinum spell]

   fascine   n.  a long faggot used for engineering purposes and (esp. in
             war) for lining trenches, filling ditches, etc.  [F f. L fascina
             f.  fascis bundle: see FASCES]

   Fascism   n.  1 the totalitarian principles and organization of the
             extreme right-wing nationalist movement in Italy (1922-43).  2
             (also fascism) a any similar nationalist and authoritarian
             movement.  b disp. any system of extreme right-wing or
             authoritarian views.  ЬЬFascist n. & adj.  (also fascist).
             Fascistic adj.  (also fascistic).  [It.  fascismo f.  fascio
             political group f. L fascis bundle: see FASCES]

   fashion   n. & v.  --n.  1 the current popular custom or style, esp. in
             dress or social conduct.  2 a manner or style of doing something
             (in a peculiar fashion).  3 (in comb.) in a specified manner
             (walk crab-fashion).  4 fashionable society (a woman of
             fashion).  --v.tr. (often foll. by into) make into a particular
             or the required form.  Ьafter (or in) a fashion as well as is
             practicable, though not satisfactorily.  in (or out of) fashion
             fashionable (or not fashionable) at the time in question.
             ЬЬfashioner n.  [ME f. AF fasun, OF fa‡on, f. L factio -onis f.
             facere fact- do, make]

             adj.  1 following, suited to, or influenced by the current
             fashion.  2 characteristic of or favoured by those who are
             leaders of social fashion.  ЬЬfashionableness n.  fashionably

   fast(1)   adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 rapid, quick-moving.  2 capable of high
             speed (a fast car).  3 enabling or causing or intended for high
             speed (a fast road; fast lane).  4 (of a clock etc.) showing a
             time ahead of the correct time.  5 (of a pitch or ground etc. in
             a sport) likely to make the ball bounce or run quickly.  6 a (of
             a photographic film) needing only a short exposure.  b (of a
             lens) having a large aperture.  7 a firmly fixed or attached.  b
             secure; firmly established (a fast friendship).  8 (of a colour)
             not fading in light or when washed.  9 (of a person) immoral,
             dissipated.  --adv.  1 quickly; in quick succession.  2 firmly,
             fixedly, tightly, securely (stand fast; eyes fast shut).  3
             soundly, completely (fast asleep).  Ьfast breeder (or fast
             breeder reactor) a reactor using fast neutrons to produce the
             same fissile material as it uses.  fast buck see BUCK(2).  fast
             food food that can be prepared and served quickly and easily,
             esp.  in a snack bar or restaurant.  fast neutron a neutron with
             high kinetic energy, esp. not slowed by a moderator etc.  fast
             reactor a nuclear reactor using mainly fast neutrons.  fast-talk
             US colloq.  persuade by rapid or deceitful talk.  fast-wind wind
             (magnetic tape) rapidly backwards or forwards.  fast worker
             colloq.  a person who achieves quick results, esp. in love
             affairs.  pull a fast one colloq.  try to deceive or gain an
             unfair advantage.  [OE f‘st f. Gmc]

   fast(2)   v. & n.  --v.intr. abstain from all or some kinds of food or
             drink, esp. as a religious observance.  --n. an act or period of
             fasting.  ЬЬfaster n.  [ON fasta f. Gmc (as FAST(1))]

   fastback  n.  1 a motor car with the rear sloping continuously down to the
             bumper.  2 such a rear.

   fasten    v.  1 tr. make or become fixed or secure.  2 tr. (foll. by in,
             up) lock securely; shut in.  3 tr.  a (foll. by on, upon) direct
             (a look, thoughts, etc.) fixedly or intently.  b focus or direct
             the attention fixedly upon (fastened him with her eyes).  4 tr.
             (foll. by on, upon) fix (a designation or imputation etc.).  5
             intr. (foll. by on, upon) a take hold of.  b single out.
             ЬЬfastener n.  [OE f‘stnian f. Gmc]

   fastening n.  a device that fastens something; a fastener.

             adj.  1 very careful in matters of choice or taste; fussy.  2
             easily disgusted; squeamish.  ЬЬfastidiously adv.
             fastidiousness n.  [ME f. L fastidiosus f.  fastidium loathing]

             adj.  Bot.  1 having a conical or tapering outline.  2 having
             parallel upright branches.  [L fastigium gable-top]

   fastness  n.  1 a stronghold or fortress.  2 the state of being secure.
             [OE f‘stnes (as FAST(1))]

   fat       n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a natural oily or greasy substance
             occurring esp. in animal bodies.  2 the part of anything
             containing this.  3 excessive presence of fat in a person or
             animal; corpulence.  4 Chem. any of a group of natural esters of
             glycerol and various fatty acids existing as solids at room
             temperature.  --adj.  (fatter, fattest) 1 (of a person or
             animal) having excessive fat; corpulent.  2 (of an animal) made
             plump for slaughter; fatted.  3 containing much fat.  4 greasy,
             oily, unctuous.  5 (of land or resources) fertile, rich;
             yielding abundantly.  6 a thick, substantial in content (a fat
             book).  b substantial as an asset or opportunity (a fat cheque;
             was given a fat part in the play).  7 a (of coal) bituminous.  b
             (of clay etc.) sticky.  8 colloq.  iron. very little; not much
             (a fat chance; a fat lot).  --v.tr. & intr.  (fatted, fatting)
             make or become fat.  Ьfat cat sl.  1 US a wealthy person, esp.
             as a benefactor.  2 Austral. a highly paid executive or
             official.  fat-head colloq.  a stupid person.  fat-headed
             stupid.  fat-headedness stupidity.  fat hen the white goosefoot,
             Chenopodium album.  the fat is in the fire trouble is imminent.
             kill the fatted calf celebrate, esp. at a prodigal's return
             (Luke 15).  live off (or on) the fat of the land have the best
             of everything.  ЬЬfatless adj.  fatly adv.  fatness n.  fattish
             adj.  [OE f‘t (adj.), f‘ttian (v.) f. Gmc]

   fatal     adj.  1 causing or ending in death (a fatal accident).  2 (often
             foll. by to) destructive; ruinous; ending in disaster (was fatal
             to their chances; made a fatal mistake).  3 fateful, decisive.
             ЬЬfatally adv.  fatalness n.  [ME f. OF fatal or L fatalis (as

   fatalism  n.  1 the belief that all events are predetermined and therefore
             inevitable.  2 a submissive attitude to events as being
             inevitable.  ЬЬfatalist n.  fatalistic adj.  fatalistically adv.

   fatality  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a an occurrence of death by accident or in war
             etc.  b a person killed in this way.  2 a fatal influence.  3 a
             predestined liability to disaster.  4 subjection to or the
             supremacy of fate.  [F fatalit‚ or LL fatalitas f. L fatalis

   fate      n. & v.  --n.  1 a power regarded as predetermining events
             unalterably.  2 a the future regarded as determined by such a
             power.  b an individual's appointed lot.  c the ultimate
             condition or end of a person or thing (that sealed our fate).  3
             death, destruction.  4 (usu.  Fate) a goddess of destiny, esp.
             one of three Greek or Scandinavian goddesses.  --v.tr.  1 (usu.
             in passive) preordain (was fated to win).  2 (as fated adj.)
             doomed to destruction.  Ьfate worse than death see DEATH.  [ME
             f. It.  fato & L fatum that which is spoken, f.  fari speak]

   fateful   adj.  1 important, decisive; having far-reaching consequences.
             2 controlled as if by fate.  3 causing or likely to cause
             disaster.  4 prophetic.  ЬЬfatefully adv.  fatefulness n.

   father    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a man in relation to a child or children born
             from his fertilization of an ovum.  b (in full adoptive father)
             a man who has continuous care of a child, esp. by adoption.  2
             any male animal in relation to its offspring.  3 (usu. in pl.) a
             progenitor or forefather.  4 an originator, designer, or early
             leader.  5 a person who deserves special respect (the father of
             his country).  6 (Fathers or Fathers of the Church) early
             Christian theologians whose writings are regarded as especially
             authoritative.  7 (also Father) a (often as a title or form of
             address) a priest, esp. of a religious order.  b a religious
             leader.  8 (the Father) (in Christian belief) the first person
             of the Trinity.  9 (Father) a venerable person, esp. as a title
             in personifications (Father Time).  10 the oldest member or
             doyen (Father of the House).  11 (usu. in pl.) the leading men
             or elders in a city or State (city fathers).  --v.tr.  1 beget;
             be the father of.  2 behave as a father towards.  3 originate (a
             scheme etc.).  4 appear as or admit that one is the father or
             originator of.  5 (foll. by on) assign the paternity of (a
             child, book) to a person.  Ьfather-figure an older man who is
             respected like a father; a trusted leader.  father-in-law (pl.
             fathers-in-law) the father of one's husband or wife.  father of
             chapel see CHAPEL.  Father's Day a day (usu. the third Sunday in
             June) established for a special tribute to fathers.  Father Time
             see TIME.  ЬЬfatherhood n.  fatherless adj.  fatherlessness n.
             fatherlike adj. & adv.  fathership n.  [OE f‘der with many Gmc
             cognates: rel. to L pater, Gk pater]

             n.  one's native country.

   fatherly  adj.  1 like or characteristic of a father in affection, care,
             etc.  (fatherly concern).  2 of or proper to a father.
             ЬЬfatherliness n.

   fathom    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  often fathom when prec. by a number) 1 a
             measure of six feet, esp. used in taking depth soundings.  2
             Brit. a quantity of wood six feet square in cross-section.
             --v.tr.  1 grasp or comprehend (a problem or difficulty).  2
             measure the depth of (water) with a sounding-line.  ЬЬfathomable
             adj.  fathomless adj.  [OE f‘thm outstretched arms f. Gmc]

             n.  a type of echo-sounder.

   fatigue   n. & v.  --n.  1 extreme tiredness after exertion.  2 weakness
             in materials, esp. metal, caused by repeated variations of
             stress.  3 a reduction in the efficiency of a muscle, organ,
             etc., after prolonged activity.  4 an activity that causes
             fatigue.  5 a a non-military duty in the army, often as a
             punishment.  b (in full fatigue-party) a group of soldiers
             ordered to do fatigues.  --v.tr.  (fatigues, fatigued,
             fatiguing) cause fatigue in; tire, exhaust.  ЬЬfatiguable adj.
             (also fatigable).  fatiguability n.  (also fatigability).
             fatigueless adj.  [F fatigue, fatiguer f. L fatigare tire out]

   Fatiha    n.  (also Fatihah) the short first sura of the Koran, used by
             Muslims as a prayer.  [Arab.  fatiha opening f.  fataha to open]

   Fatimid   n.  (also Fatimite) 1 a descendant of Fatima, the daughter of
             Muhammad.  2 a member of a dynasty ruling in N. Africa in the
             10th-12th c.

   fatling   n.  a young fatted animal.

   fatso     n.  (pl.  -oes) sl.  joc. or offens.  a fat person.  [prob. f.
             FAT or the designation Fats]

   fatstock  n.  livestock fattened for slaughter.

   fatten    v.  1 tr. & intr. (esp. with ref. to meat-producing animals)
             make or become fat.  2 tr. enrich (soil).

   fatty     adj. & n.  --adj.  (fattier, fattiest) 1 like fat; oily, greasy.
             2 consisting of or containing fat; adipose.  3 marked by
             abnormal deposition of fat, esp. in fatty degeneration.  --n.
             (pl.  -ies) colloq. a fat person (esp. as a nickname).  Ьfatty
             acid Chem.  any of a class of organic compounds consisting of a
             hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, esp. those
             occurring as constituents of lipids.  fatty oil = fixed oil.
             ЬЬfattily adv.  fattiness n.

   fatuous   adj.  vacantly silly; purposeless, idiotic.  ЬЬfatuity n.  (pl.
             -ies).  fatuously adv.  fatuousness n.  [L fatuus foolish]

   fatwa     n.  (in Islamic countries) an authoritative ruling on a
             religious matter.  [Arab.  fatwa]

   faubourg  n.  a suburb, esp. of Paris.  [F: cf. med.L falsus burgus not
             the city proper]

   fauces    n.pl.  Anat.  a cavity at the back of the mouth.  ЬЬfaucial adj.
             [L, = throat]

   faucet    n.  esp.  US a tap.  °In Brit. use only in special applications.
             [ME f. OF fausset vent-peg f. Prov.  falset f.  falsar to bore]

   fault     n. & v.  --n.  1 a defect or imperfection of character or of
             structure, appearance, etc.  2 a break or other defect in an
             electric circuit.  3 a transgression, offence, or thing wrongly
             done.  4 a Tennis etc. a service of the ball not in accordance
             with the rules.  b (in showjumping) a penalty for an error.  5
             responsibility for wrongdoing, error, etc. (it will be your own
             fault).  6 a defect regarded as the cause of something wrong
             (the fault lies in the teaching methods).  7 Geol. an extended
             break in the continuity of strata or a vein.  --v.  1 tr. find
             fault with; blame.  2 tr. declare to be faulty.  3 tr.  Geol.
             break the continuity of (strata or a vein).  4 intr. commit a
             fault.  5 intr.  Geol. show a fault.  Ьat fault guilty; to
             blame.  fault-finder a person given to continually finding
             fault.  fault-finding continual criticism.  find fault (often
             foll. by with) make an adverse criticism; complain.  to a fault
             (usu. of a commendable quality etc.) excessively (generous to a
             fault).  [ME faut(e) f. OF ult. f. L fallere FAIL]

   faultless adj.  without fault; free from defect or error.  ЬЬfaultlessly
             adv.  faultlessness n.

   faulty    (faultier, faultiest) adj.  having faults; imperfect, defective.
             ЬЬfaultily adv.  faultiness n.

   faun      n.  a Latin rural deity with a human face and torso and a goat's
             horns, legs, and tail.  [ME f. OF faune or L Faunus, a Latin god
             identified with Gk Pan]

   fauna     n.  (pl.  faunae or faunas) 1 the animal life of a region or
             geological period (cf.  FLORA).  2 a treatise on or list of
             this.  ЬЬfaunal adj.  faunist n.  faunistic adj.  [mod.L f. the
             name of a rural goddess, sister of Faunus: see FAUN]

   faute de mieux
             adv.  for want of a better alternative.  [F]

   fauteuil  n.  a kind of wooden seat in the form of an armchair with open
             sides and upholstered arms.  [F f. OF faudestuel, faldestoel

   fauve     n.  a person who practises or favours fauvism.

   fauvism   n.  a style of painting with vivid use of colour.  ЬЬfauvist n.
             [F fauve wild beast, applied to painters of the school of

   faux pas  n.  (pl. same) 1 a tactless mistake; a blunder.  2 a social
             indiscretion.  [F, = false step]

   fave      n. & adj.  sl. = FAVOURITE (esp. in show business).  [abbr.]

   favela    n.  a Brazilian shack, slum, or shanty town.  [Port.]

   favour    n. & v.  (US favor) --n.  1 an act of kindness beyond what is
             due or usual (did it as a favour).  2 esteem, liking, approval,
             goodwill; friendly regard (gained their favour; look with favour
             on).  3 partiality; too lenient or generous treatment.  4 aid,
             support (under favour of night).  5 a thing given or worn as a
             mark of favour or support, e.g.  a badge or a knot of ribbons.
             6 archaic leave, pardon (by your favour).  7 Commerce archaic a
             letter (your favour of yesterday).  --v.tr.  1 regard or treat
             with favour or partiality.  2 give support or approval to;
             promote, prefer.  3 a be to the advantage of (a person).  b
             facilitate (a process etc.).  4 tend to confirm (an idea or
             theory).  5 (foll. by with) oblige (favour me with a reply).  6
             (as favoured adj.) having special advantages.  7 colloq.
             resemble in features.  Ьin favour 1 meeting with approval.  2
             (foll. by of) a in support of.  b to the advantage of.  out of
             favour lacking approval.  ЬЬfavourer n.  [ME f. OF f. L favor
             -oris f.  favere show kindness to]

             adj.  (US favorable) 1 a well-disposed; propitious.  b
             commendatory, approving.  2 giving consent (a favourable
             answer).  3 promising, auspicious, satisfactory (a favourable
             aspect).  4 (often foll. by to) helpful, suitable.
             ЬЬfavourableness n.  favourably adv.  [ME f. OF favorable f. L
             favorabilis (as FAVOUR)]

   favourite adj. & n.  (US favorite) --adj. preferred to all others (my
             favourite book).  --n.  1 a specially favoured person.  2 Sport
             a competitor thought most likely to win.  Ьfavourite son US a
             person preferred as the presidential candidate by delegates from
             the candidate's home State.  [obs. F favorit f. It.  favorito
             past part. of favorire favour]

             n.  (US favoritism) the unfair favouring of one person or group
             at the expense of another.

   fawn(1)   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a young deer in its first year.  2 a
             light yellowish brown.  --adj. fawn-coloured.  --v.tr. (also
             absol.) (of a deer) bring forth (young).  Ьin fawn (of a deer)
             pregnant.  [ME f. OF faon etc. ult. f. L fetus offspring: cf.

   fawn(2)   v.intr.  1 (often foll. by on, upon) (of a person) behave
             servilely, cringe.  2 (of an animal, esp. a dog) show extreme
             affection.  ЬЬfawner n.  fawning adj.  fawningly adv.  [OE
             fagnian, f‘gnian (as FAIN)]

   fax       n. & v.  --n.  1 facsimile transmission (see FACSIMILE n.  2).
             2 a copy produced by this.  --v.tr. transmit (a document) in
             this way.  [abbr. of FACSIMILE]

   fay       n.  literary a fairy.  [ME f. OF fae, faie f. L fata (pl.) the

   faze      v.tr. (often as fazed adj.) colloq.  disconcert, perturb,
             disorientate.  [var. of feeze drive off, f. OE fesian, of unkn.

3.0 FBA...

   FBA       abbr.  Fellow of the British Academy.

   FBI       abbr.  (in the US) Federal Bureau of Investigation.

4.0 FC...

   FC        abbr.  Football Club.

   FCC       abbr.  (in the US) Federal Communications Commission.

   FCO       abbr.  (in the UK) Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

   fcp.      abbr.  foolscap.

5.0 FD...

   FD        abbr.  Defender of the Faith.  [L Fidei Defensor]

   FDA       abbr.  1 (in the US) Food and Drugs Administration.  2 (in the
             UK) First Division (Civil Servants) Association (cf.  AFDCS).

6.0 Fe...

   Fe        symb.  Chem.  the element iron.

   fealty    n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 hist.  a a feudal tenant's or vassal's
             fidelity to a lord.  b an acknowledgement of this.  2
             allegiance.  [ME f. OF feault‚ f. L fidelitas -tatis f.  fidelis
             faithful f.  fides faith]

   fear      n. & v.  --n.  1 a an unpleasant emotion caused by exposure to
             danger, expectation of pain, etc.  b a state of alarm (be in
             fear).  2 a cause of fear (all fears removed).  3 (often foll.
             by of) dread or fearful respect (towards) (had a fear of
             heights).  4 anxiety for the safety of (in fear of their lives).
             5 danger; likelihood (of something unwelcome) (there is little
             fear of failure).  --v.  1 a tr. feel fear about or towards (a
             person or thing).  b intr. feel fear.  2 intr. (foll. by for)
             feel anxiety or apprehension about (feared for my life).  3 tr.
             apprehend; have uneasy expectation of (fear the worst).  4 tr.
             (usu. foll. by that + clause) apprehend with fear or regret (I
             fear that you are wrong).  5 tr.  a (foll. by to + infin.)
             hesitate.  b (foll. by verbal noun) shrink from; be apprehensive
             about (he feared meeting his ex-wife).  6 tr. show reverence
             towards.  Ьfor fear of (or that) to avoid the risk of (or that).
             never fear there is no danger of that.  no fear colloq.
             expressing strong denial or refusal.  without fear or favour
             impartially.  [OE f. Gmc]

   fearful   adj.  1 (usu. foll. by of, or that + clause) afraid.  2
             terrible, awful.  3 colloq. extremely unwelcome or unpleasant (a
             fearful row).  ЬЬfearfully adv.  fearfulness n.

   fearless  adj.  1 courageous, brave.  2 (foll. by of) without fear.
             ЬЬfearlessly adv.  fearlessness n.

   fearsome  adj.  appalling or frightening, esp. in appearance.
             ЬЬfearsomely adv.  fearsomeness n.

             n.  the state or degree of being feasible.  Ьfeasibility study a
             study of the practicability of a proposed project.

   feasible  adj.  1 practicable, possible; easily or conveniently done.  2
             disp. likely, probable (it is feasible that it will rain).
             ЬЬfeasibly adv.  [ME f. OF faisable, -ible f.  fais- stem of
             faire f. L facere do, make]

   feast     n. & v.  --n.  1 a large or sumptuous meal.  2 a gratification
             to the senses or mind.  3 a an annual religious celebration.  b
             a day dedicated to a particular saint.  4 an annual village
             festival.  --v.  1 intr. partake of a feast; eat and drink
             sumptuously.  2 tr.  a regale.  b pass (time) in feasting.
             Ьfeast-day a day on which a feast (esp. in sense 3) is held.
             feast one's eyes on take pleasure in beholding.  feast of reason
             intellectual talk.  ЬЬfeaster n.  [ME f. OF feste, fester f. L
             festus joyous]

   feat      n.  a noteworthy act or achievement.  [ME f. OF fait, fet (as

   feather   n. & v.  --n.  1 any of the appendages growing from a bird's
             skin, with a horny hollow stem and fine strands.  2 one or more
             of these as decoration etc.  3 (collect.) a plumage.  b
             game-birds.  --v.  1 tr. cover or line with feathers.  2 tr.
             Rowing turn (an oar) so that it passes through the air edgeways.
             3 tr.  Aeron. & Naut.  a cause (the propeller blades) to rotate
             in such a way as to lessen the air or water resistance.  b vary
             the angle of incidence of (helicopter blades).  4 intr. float,
             move, or wave like feathers.  Ьfeather bed a bed with a mattress
             stuffed with feathers.  feather-bed v.tr.  (-bedded, -bedding)
             provide with (esp. financial) advantages.  feather-bedding the
             employment of excess staff.  feather-brain (or -head) a silly or
             absent-minded person.  feather-brained (or -headed) silly,
             absent-minded.  feather-edge the fine edge of a wedge-shaped
             board.  a feather in one's cap an achievement to one's credit.
             feather one's nest enrich oneself.  feather-stitch ornamental
             zigzag sewing.  in fine (or high) feather colloq.  in good
             spirits.  ЬЬfeathered adj. (also in comb.).  featherless adj.
             feathery adj.  featheriness n.  [OE fether, gefithrian, f. Gmc]

             n.  1 bird's plumage.  2 the feathers of an arrow.  3 a
             feather-like structure in an animal's coat.  4 Archit. cusps in

             n.  1 a a weight in certain sports intermediate between
             bantamweight and lightweight, in the amateur boxing scale 54-7kg
             but differing for professionals, wrestlers, and weightlifters.
             b a sportsman of this weight.  2 a very light person or thing.
             3 (usu.  attrib.) a trifling or unimportant thing.

   feature   n. & v.  --n.  1 a distinctive or characteristic part of a
             thing.  2 (usu. in pl.) a distinctive part of the face, esp.
             with regard to shape and visual effect.  3 a distinctive or
             regular article in a newspaper or magazine.  4 a (in full
             feature film) a full-length film intended as the main item in a
             cinema programme.  b (in full feature programme) a broadcast
             devoted to a particular topic.  --v.  1 tr. make a special
             display or attraction of; give special prominence to.  2 tr. &
             intr. have as or be an important actor, participant, or topic in
             a film, broadcast, etc.  3 intr. be a feature.  ЬЬfeatured adj.
             (also in comb.).  featureless adj.  [ME f. OF feture, faiture
             form f. L factura formation: see FACTURE]

   Feb.      abbr.  February.

   febrifuge n.  a medicine or treatment that reduces fever; a cooling drink.
             ЬЬfebrifugal adj.  [F f‚brifuge f. L febris fever + -FUGE]

   febrile   adj.  of or relating to fever; feverish.  ЬЬfebrility n.  [F
             f‚brile or med.L febrilis f. L febris fever]

   February  n.  (pl.  -ies) the second month of the year.  [ME f. OF
             feverier ult. f. L februarius f.  februa a purification feast
             held in this month]

   feces     US var. of FAECES.

   feckless  adj.  1 feeble, ineffective.  2 unthinking, irresponsible
             (feckless gaiety).  ЬЬfecklessly adv.  fecklessness n.  [Sc.
             feck f.  effeck var. of EFFECT]

   feculent  adj.  1 murky; filthy.  2 containing sediments or dregs.
             ЬЬfeculence n.  [F f‚culent or L faeculentus (as FAECES)]

   fecund    adj.  1 prolific, fertile.  2 fertilizing.  ЬЬfecundability n.
             fecundity n.  [ME f. F f‚cond or L fecundus]

   fecundate v.tr.  1 make fruitful.  2 = FERTILIZE.  ЬЬfecundation n.  [L
             fecundare f.  fecundus fruitful]

   Fed       n.  US sl.  a federal official, esp. a member of the FBI.
             [abbr. of FEDERAL]

   fed       past and past part. of FEED.  Ьfed up (or fed to death) (often
             foll. by with) discontented or bored, esp. from a surfeit of
             something (am fed up with the rain).  fed-upness the state of
             being fed up.

   fedayeen  n.pl.  Arab guerrillas operating esp. against Israel.  [colloq.
             Arab.  fida' iyin pl. f. Arab.  fida' i adventurer]

   federal   adj.  1 of a system of government in which several States form a
             unity but remain independent in internal affairs.  2 relating to
             or affecting such a federation (federal laws).  3 relating to or
             favouring centralized government.  4 (Federal) US of the
             Northern States in the Civil War.  5 comprising an association
             of largely independent units.  Ьfederal reserve (in the US) a
             national system of reserve cash available to banks.
             ЬЬfederalism n.  federalist n.  federalize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             federalization n.  federally adv.  [L foedus -eris league,

   federate  v. & adj.  --v.tr. & intr.  organize or be organized on a
             federal basis.  --adj.  having a federal organization.
             ЬЬfederative adj.  [LL foederare foederat- (as FEDERAL)]

             n.  1 a federal group of States.  2 a federated society or
             group.  3 the act or an instance of federating.  ЬЬfederationist
             n.  [F f‚d‚ration f. LL foederatio (as FEDERAL)]

   fedora    n.  a low soft felt hat with a crown creased lengthways.
             [F‚dora, drama by V. Sardou (1882)]

   fee       n. & v.  --n.  1 a payment made to a professional person or to a
             professional or public body in exchange for advice or services.
             2 money paid as part of a special transaction, for a privilege,
             admission to a society, etc. (enrolment fee).  3 (in pl.) money
             regularly paid (esp. to a school) for continuing services.  4
             Law an inherited estate, unlimited (fee simple) or limited (fee
             tail) as to the category of heir.  5 hist. a fief; a feudal
             benefice.  --v.tr.  (fee'd or feed) 1 pay a fee to.  2 engage
             for a fee.  [ME f. AF, = OF feu, fieu, etc. f. med.L feodum,
             feudum, perh. f. Frank.: cf.  FEUD(2), FIEF]

   feeble    adj.  1 weak, infirm.  2 lacking energy, force, or
             effectiveness.  3 dim, indistinct.  4 deficient in character or
             intelligence.  ЬЬfeebleness n.  feeblish adj.  feebly adv.  [ME
             f. AF & OF feble, fieble, fleible f. L flebilis lamentable f.
             flere weep]

             adj.  1 unintelligent.  2 mentally deficient.  ЬЬfeeble-mindedly
             adv.  feeble-mindedness n.

   feed      v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  fed) 1 tr.  a supply with
             food.  b put food into the mouth of.  2 tr.  a give as food,
             esp. to animals.  b graze (cattle).  3 tr. serve as food for.  4
             intr. (usu. foll. by on) (esp. of animals, or colloq. of people)
             take food; eat.  5 tr. nourish; make grow.  6 a tr. maintain
             supply of raw material, fuel, etc., to (a fire, machine, etc.).
             b tr. (foll. by into) supply (material) to a machine etc.  c
             intr. (often foll. by into) (of a river etc.) flow into another
             body of water.  d tr. insert further coins into (a meter) to
             continue its function, validity, etc.  7 intr. (foll. by on) a
             be nourished by.  b derive benefit from.  8 tr. use (land) as
             pasture.  9 tr.  Theatr.  sl. supply (an actor etc.) with cues.
             10 tr.  Sport send passes to (a player) in a ball-game.  11 tr.
             gratify (vanity etc.).  12 tr. provide (advice, information,
             etc.) to.  --n.  1 an amount of food, esp. for animals or
             infants.  2 the act or an instance of feeding; the giving of
             food.  3 colloq. a meal.  4 pasturage; green crops.  5 a a
             supply of raw material to a machine etc.  b the provision of
             this or a device for it.  6 the charge of a gun.  7 Theatr.  sl.
             an actor who supplies another with cues.  Ьfeed back produce
             feedback.  feed the fishes 1 meet one's death by drowning.  2 be
             seasick.  feeding-bottle a bottle with a teat for feeding
             infants.  feed up 1 fatten.  2 satiate (cf.  fed up (see FED)).
             ЬЬfeedable adj.  [OE fedan f. Gmc]

   feedback  n.  1 information about the result of an experiment etc.;
             response.  2 Electronics a the return of a fraction of the
             output signal from one stage of a circuit, amplifier, etc., to
             the input of the same or a preceding stage.  b a signal so
             returned.  3 Biol.  etc. the modification or control of a
             process or system by its results or effects, esp. by the
             difference between the desired and the actual result.

   feeder    n.  1 a person or thing that feeds.  2 a person who eats in a
             specified manner.  3 a child's feeding-bottle.  4 Brit. a bib
             for an infant.  5 a tributary stream.  6 a branch road, railway
             line, etc., linking outlying districts with a main communication
             system.  7 Electr. a main carrying electricity to a distribution
             point.  8 a hopper or feeding apparatus in a machine.

   feel      v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  felt) 1 tr.  a examine or
             search by touch.  b (absol.) have the sensation of touch (was
             unable to feel).  2 tr. perceive or ascertain by touch; have a
             sensation of (could feel the warmth; felt that it was cold).  3
             tr.  a undergo, experience (shall feel my anger).  b exhibit or
             be conscious of (an emotion, sensation, conviction, etc.).  4 a
             intr. have a specified feeling or reaction (felt strongly about
             it).  b tr. be emotionally affected by (felt the rebuke deeply).
             5 tr. (foll. by that + clause) have a vague or unreasoned
             impression (I feel that I am right).  6 tr. consider, think (I
             feel it useful to go).  7 intr. seem; give an impression of
             being; be perceived as (the air feels chilly).  8 intr. be
             consciously; consider oneself (I feel happy; do not feel well).
             9 intr.  a (foll. by with) have sympathy with.  b (foll. by for)
             have pity or compassion for.  10 tr. (often foll. by up) sl.
             fondle the genitals of.  --n.  1 the act or an instance of
             feeling; testing by touch.  2 the sensation characterizing a
             material, situation, etc.  3 the sense of touch.  Ьfeel free
             (often foll. by to + infin.)  not be reluctant or hesitant (do
             feel free to criticize).  feel like have a wish for; be inclined
             towards.  feel one's oats see OAT.  feel oneself be fit or
             confident etc.  feel out investigate cautiously.  feel strange
             see STRANGE.  feel up to be ready to face or deal with.  feel
             one's way proceed carefully; act cautiously.  get the feel of
             become accustomed to using.  make one's influence (or presence
             etc.) felt assert one's influence; make others aware of one's
             presence etc.  [OE felan f. WG]

   feeler    n.  1 an organ in certain animals for testing things by touch or
             for searching for food.  2 a tentative proposal or suggestion,
             esp. to elicit a response (put out feelers).  3 a person or
             thing that feels.  Ьfeeler gauge a gauge equipped with blades
             for measuring narrow gaps etc.

   feeling   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a the capacity to feel; a sense of touch
             (lost all feeling in his arm).  b a physical sensation.  2 a
             (often foll. by of) a particular emotional reaction (a feeling
             of despair).  b (in pl.) emotional susceptibilities or
             sympathies (hurt my feelings; had strong feelings about it).  3
             a particular sensitivity (had a feeling for literature).  4 a an
             opinion or notion, esp. a vague or irrational one (my feelings
             on the subject; had a feeling she would be there).  b vague
             awareness (had a feeling of safety).  c sentiment (the general
             feeling was against it).  5 readiness to feel sympathy or
             compassion.  6 a the general emotional response produced by a
             work of art, piece of music, etc.  b emotional commitment or
             sensibility in artistic execution (played with feeling).  --adj.
             1 sensitive, sympathetic.  2 showing emotion or sensitivity.
             ЬЬfeelingless adj.  feelingly adv.

   feet      pl. of FOOT.

   feign     v.  1 tr. simulate; pretend to be affected by (feign madness).
             2 tr.  archaic invent (an excuse etc.).  3 intr. indulge in
             pretence.  [ME f.  feign- stem of OF feindre f. L fingere mould,

   feijoa    n.  1 any evergreen shrub or tree of the genus Feijoa, bearing
             edible guava-like fruit.  2 this fruit.  [mod.L f. J. da Silva
             Feijo, 19th-c. Sp. naturalist]

   feint(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a sham attack or blow etc. to divert attention
             or fool an opponent or enemy.  2 pretence.  --v.intr. make a
             feint.  [F feinte, fem. past part. of feindre FEIGN]

   feint(2)  adj.  esp. Printing = FAINT adj.  6 (feint lines).  [ME f. OF
             (as FEINT(1)): see FAINT]

   feisty    adj.  (feistier, feistiest) US sl.  1 aggressive, exuberant.  2
             touchy.  ЬЬfeistiness n.  [feist (= fist) small dog]

   felafel   n.  (also falafel) (in Near Eastern countries) a spicy dish of
             fried rissoles made from mashed chick peas or beans.  [Arab.

   feldspar  n.  (also felspar) Mineral.  any of a group of aluminium
             silicates of potassium, sodium, or calcium, which are the most
             abundant minerals in the earth's crust.  ЬЬfeldspathic adj.
             feldspathoid n.  [G Feldspat, -spath f.  Feld FIELD + Spat,
             Spath SPAR(3): felspar by false assoc. with G Fels rock]

             v.tr.  (usu. foll. by on) congratulate.  ЬЬfelicitation n. (usu.
             in pl.).  [LL felicitare make happy f. L felix -icis happy]

             adj.  (of an expression, quotation, civilities, or a person
             making them) strikingly apt; pleasantly ingenious.
             ЬЬfelicitously adv.  felicitousness n.

   felicity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 intense happiness; being happy.  2 a cause of
             happiness.  3 a a capacity for apt expression; appropriateness.
             b an appropriate or well-chosen phrase.  4 a fortunate trait.
             [ME f. OF felicit‚ f. L felicitas -tatis f.  felix -icis happy]

   feline    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to the cat family.  2
             catlike, esp. in beauty or slyness.  --n. an animal of the cat
             family Felidae.  ЬЬfelinity n.  [L felinus f.  feles cat]

   fell(1)   past of FALL v.

   fell(2)   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 cut down (esp. a tree).  2 strike or knock
             down (a person or animal).  3 stitch down (the edge of a seam)
             to lie flat.  --n. an amount of timber cut.  ЬЬfeller n.  [OE
             fellan f. Gmc, rel. to FALL]

   fell(3)   n.  N.Engl.  1 a hill.  2 a stretch of hills or moorland.  [ME
             f. ON fjall, fell hill]

   fell(4)   adj.  poet. or rhet.  1 fierce, ruthless.  2 terrible,
             destructive.  Ьat (or in) one fell swoop in a single (orig.
             deadly) action.  [ME f. OF fel f. Rmc FELON(1)]

   fell(5)   n.  an animal's hide or skin with its hair.  [OE fel, fell f.

   fellah    n.  (pl.  fellahin) an Egyptian peasant.  [Arab.  fallah
             husbandman f.  falaha till the soil]

   fellatio  n.  oral stimulation of the penis.  ЬЬfellate v.tr.  fellator n.
             [mod.L f. L fellare suck]

   feller    n.  = FELLOW 1, 2.  [repr. an affected or sl. pronunc.]

   felloe    n.  (also felly) (pl.  -oes or -ies) the outer circle (or a
             section of it) of a wheel, to which the spokes are fixed.  [OE
             felg, of unkn. orig.]

   fellow    n.  1 colloq. a man or boy (poor fellow!; my dear fellow).  2
             derog. a person regarded with contempt.  3 (usu. in pl.) a
             person associated with another; a comrade (were separated from
             their fellows).  4 a counterpart or match; the other of a pair.
             5 an equal; one of the same class.  6 a contemporary.  7 a an
             incorporated senior member of a college.  b an elected graduate
             receiving a stipend for a period of research.  c a member of the
             governing body in some universities.  8 a member of a learned
             society.  9 (attrib.) belonging to the same class or activity
             (fellow soldier; fellow-countryman).  Ьfellow-feeling sympathy
             from common experience.  fellow-traveller 1 a person who travels
             with another.  2 a sympathizer with, or a secret member of, the
             Communist Party.  [OE feolaga f. ON f‚lagi f.  f‚ cattle,
             property, money: see LAY(1)]

             n.  1 companionship, friendliness.  2 participation, sharing;
             community of interest.  3 a body of associates; a company.  4 a
             brotherhood or fraternity.  5 a guild or corporation.  6 the
             status or emoluments of a fellow of a college or society.

   felly     var. of FELLOE.

   felon(1)  n. & adj.  --n. a person who has committed a felony.  --adj.
             archaic cruel, wicked.  ЬЬfelonry n.  [ME f. OF f. med.L felo
             -onis, of unkn. orig.]

   felon(2)  n.  an inflammatory sore on the finger near the nail.  [ME,
             perh. as FELON(1): cf. med.L felo, fello in the same sense]

   felonious adj.  1 criminal.  2 Law a of or involving felony.  b who has
             committed felony.  ЬЬfeloniously adv.

   felony    n.  (pl.  -ies) a crime regarded by the law as grave, and usu.
             involving violence.  [ME f. OF felonie (as FELON(1))]

   felspar   var. of FELDSPAR.

   felt(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a kind of cloth made by rolling and pressing
             wool etc., or by weaving and shrinking it.  2 a similar material
             made from other fibres.  --v.  1 tr. make into felt; mat
             together.  2 tr. cover with felt.  3 intr. become matted.
             Ьfelt-tipped (or felt-tip) pen a pen with a writing-point made
             of felt or fibre.  ЬЬfelty adj.  [OE f. WG]

   felt(2)   past and past part. of FEEL.

   felucca   n.  a small Mediterranean coasting vessel with oars or lateen
             sails or both.  [It.  felucca f. obs. Sp.  faluca f. Arab.
             fulk, perh. f. Gk epholkion sloop]

   felwort   n.  a purple-flowered gentian, Gentianella amarella.  [OE
             feldwyrt (as FIELD, WORT)]

   female    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of the sex that can bear offspring or
             produce eggs.  2 (of plants or their parts) fruit-bearing;
             having a pistil and no stamens.  3 of or consisting of women or
             female animals or female plants.  4 (of a screw, socket, etc.)
             manufactured hollow to receive a corresponding inserted part.
             --n. a female person, animal, or plant.  Ьfemale impersonator a
             male performer impersonating a woman.  ЬЬfemaleness n.  [ME f.
             OF femelle (n.) f. L femella dimin. of femina a woman, assim. to

   feme      n.  Law a woman or wife.  Ьfeme covert a married woman.  feme
             sole a woman without a husband (esp. if divorced).  [ME f. AF &
             OF f. L femina woman]

   feminal   adj.  archaic womanly.  ЬЬfeminality n.  [med.L feminalis f. L
             femina woman]

   femineity n.  archaic womanliness; womanishness.  [L femineus womanish f.
             femina woman]

   feminine  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or characteristic of women.  2 having
             qualities associated with women.  3 womanly, effeminate.  4
             Gram. of or denoting the gender proper to women's names.  --n.
             Gram. a feminine gender or word.  ЬЬfemininely adv.
             feminineness n.  femininity n.  [ME f. OF feminin -ine or L
             femininus f.  femina woman]

   feminism  n.  1 the advocacy of women's rights on the ground of the
             equality of the sexes.  2 Med. the development of female
             characteristics in a male person.  ЬЬfeminist n. (in sense 1).
             [L femina woman (in sense 1 after F f‚minisme)]

   feminity  n.  = FEMININITY (see FEMININE).  [ME f. OF feminit‚ f. med.L
             feminitas -tatis f. L femina woman]

   feminize  v.tr. & intr.  (also -ise) make or become feminine or female.
             ЬЬfeminization n.

   femme fatale
             n.  (pl.  femmes fatales pronunc. same) a seductively attractive
             woman.  [F]

   femto-    comb. form denoting a factor of 10(-15) (femtometre).  [Da. or
             Norw.  femten fifteen]

   femur     n.  (pl.  femurs or femora) 1 Anat. the thigh-bone, the thick
             bone between the hip and the knee.  2 the corresponding part of
             an insect.  ЬЬfemoral adj.  [L femur femoris thigh]

   fen       n.  1 a low marshy or flooded area of land.  2 (the Fens) flat
             low-lying areas in and around Cambridgeshire.  Ьfen-berry (pl.
             -berries) a cranberry.  fen-fire will-o'-the-wisp.  ЬЬfenny adj.
             [OE fenn f. Gmc]

   fence     n. & v.  --n.  1 a barrier or railing or other upright structure
             enclosing an area of ground, esp. to prevent or control access.
             2 a large upright obstacle in steeplechasing or showjumping.  3
             sl. a receiver of stolen goods.  4 a guard or guide in
             machinery.  --v.  1 tr. surround with or as with a fence.  2 tr.
             a (foll. by in, off) enclose or separate with or as with a
             fence.  b (foll. by up) seal with or as with a fence.  3 tr.
             (foll. by from, against) screen, shield, protect.  4 tr. (foll.
             by out) exclude with or as with a fence; keep out.  5 tr. (also
             absol.) sl. deal in (stolen goods).  6 intr. practise the sport
             of fencing; use a sword.  7 intr. (foll. by with) evade
             answering (a person or question).  8 intr. (of a horse etc.)
             leap fences.  Ьsit on the fence remain neutral or undecided in a
             dispute etc.  ЬЬfenceless adj.  fencer n.  [ME f.  DEFENCE]

   fencible  n.  hist.  a soldier liable only for home service.  [ME f.

   fencing   n.  1 a set or extent of fences.  2 material for making fences.
             3 the art or sport of swordplay.

   fend      v.  1 intr. (foll. by for) look after (esp. oneself).  2 tr.
             (usu. foll. by off) keep away; ward off (an attack etc.).  [ME
             f.  DEFEND]

   fender    n.  1 a low frame bordering a fireplace to keep in falling coals
             etc.  2 Naut. a piece of old cable, matting, etc., hung over a
             vessel's side to protect it against impact.  3 a a thing used to
             keep something off, prevent a collision, etc.  b US a bumper or
             mudguard of a motor vehicle.

             n.  Archit.  a niche in a wall south of an altar, holding the
             piscina and often the credence.  [L, dimin. of fenestra window]

   fenestra  n.  (pl.  fenestrae) 1 Anat. a small hole or opening in a bone
             etc., esp. one of two (fenestra ovalis, fenestra rotunda) in the
             inner ear.  2 a perforation in a surgical instrument.  3 a hole
             made by surgical fenestration.  [L, = window]

             adj.  Bot. & Zool.  having small window-like perforations or
             transparent areas.  [L fenestratus past part. of fenestrare f.
             fenestra window]

             adj.  1 Archit. having windows.  2 perforated.  3 = FENESTRATE.
             4 Surgery having fenestrae.

             n.  1 Archit. the arrangement of windows in a building.  2 Bot.
             & Zool. being fenestrate.  3 a surgical operation in which a new
             opening is formed, esp.  in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear,
             as a form of treatment in some cases of deafness.

   Fenian    n. & adj.  --n.  hist. a member of a 19th-c. league among the
             Irish in the US & Ireland for promoting revolution and
             overthrowing British government in Ireland.  --adj. of or
             relating to the Fenians.  ЬЬFenianism n.  [OIr.  f‚ne name of an
             ancient Irish people, confused with fЎann guard of legendary

   fennec    n.  a small fox, Vulpes zerda, native to N. Africa, having large
             pointed ears.  [Arab.  fanak]

   fennel    n.  1 a yellow-flowered fragrant umbelliferous plant, Foeniculum
             vulgare, with leaves or leaf-stalks used in salads, soups, etc.
             2 the seeds of this used as flavouring.  [OE finugl etc. & OF
             fenoil f. L feniculum f.  fenum hay]

   fenugreek n.  1 a leguminous plant, Trigonella foenum-graecum, having
             aromatic seeds.  2 these seeds used as flavouring, esp. ground
             and used in curry powder.  [OE fenogrecum, superseded in ME f.
             OF fenugrec f. L faenugraecum (fenum graecum Greek hay), used by
             the Romans as fodder]

   feoffment n.  hist.  a mode of conveying a freehold estate by a formal
             transfer of possession.  ЬЬfeoffee n.  feoffor n.  [ME f. AF
             feoffement, rel. to FEE]

   feral     adj.  1 (of an animal or plant) wild, untamed, uncultivated.  2
             a (of an animal) in a wild state after escape from captivity.  b
             born in the wild of such an animal.  3 brutal.  [L ferus wild]

   fer de lance
             n.  a large highly venomous snake, Bothrops atrox, native to
             Central and S. America.  [F, = iron (head) of a lance]

   feretory  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a shrine for a saint's relics.  2 a chapel
             containing such a shrine.  [ME f. OF fiertre f. L feretrum f. Gk
             pheretron f.  phero bear]

   ferial    adj.  Eccl.  1 (of a day) ordinary; not appointed for a festival
             or fast.  2 (of a service etc.) for use on a ferial day.  [ME f.
             OF ferial or med.L ferialis f. L feriae: see FAIR(2)]

   fermata   n.  (pl.  fermatas) Mus.  1 an unspecified prolongation of a
             note or rest.  2 a sign indicating this.  [It.]

   ferment   n. & v.  --n.  1 agitation, excitement, tumult.  2 a fermenting,
             fermentation.  b a fermenting-agent or leaven.  --v.  1 intr. &
             tr. undergo or subject to fermentation.  2 intr. & tr.
             effervesce or cause to effervesce.  3 tr. excite; stir up;
             foment.  ЬЬfermentable adj.  fermenter n.  [ME f. OF ferment or
             L fermentum f. L fervere boil]

             n.  1 the breakdown of a substance by micro-organisms, such as
             yeasts and bacteria, usu. in the absence of oxygen, esp. of
             sugar to ethyl alcohol in making beers, wines, and spirits.  2
             agitation, excitement.  ЬЬfermentative adj.  [ME f. LL
             fermentatio (as FERMENT)]

   fermi     n.  (pl.  fermis) a unit of length equal to 10(-15) metre,
             formerly used in nuclear physics.  [E.  Fermi, Ital.-Amer.
             physicist d. 1954]

   fermion   n.  Physics any of several elementary particles with
             half-integral spin, e.g.  nucleons (cf.  BOSON).  [as FERMI +

   fermium   n.  Chem.  a transuranic radioactive metallic element produced
             artificially.  °Symb.: Fm.  [as FERMI + -IUM]

   fern      n.  (pl. same or ferns) any flowerless plant of the order
             Filicales, reproducing by spores and usu. having feathery
             fronds.  ЬЬfernery n.  (pl.  -ies).  fernless adj.  ferny adj.
             [OE fearn f. WG]

   ferocious adj.  fierce, savage; wildly cruel.  ЬЬferociously adv.
             ferociousness n.  [L ferox -ocis]

   ferocity  n.  (pl.  -ies) a ferocious nature or act.  [F f‚rocit‚ or L
             ferocitas (as FEROCIOUS)]

   -ferous   comb. form (usu.  -iferous) forming adjectives with the sense
             'bearing', 'having' (auriferous; odoriferous).  ЬЬ-ferously
             suffix -ferousness suffix [from or after F -fЉre or L -fer
             producing f.  ferre bear]

   ferrate   n.  Chem.  a salt of (the hypothetical) ferric acid.  [L ferrum

   ferrel    var. of FERRULE.

   ferret    n. & v.  --n.  1 a small half-domesticated polecat, Mustela
             putorius furo, used in catching rabbits, rats, etc.  2 a person
             who searches assiduously.  --v.  1 intr. hunt with ferrets.  2
             intr. rummage; search about.  3 tr. (often foll. by about, away,
             out, etc.)  a clear out (holes or an area of ground) with
             ferrets.  b take or drive away (rabbits etc.) with ferrets.  4
             tr. (foll. by out) search out (secrets, criminals, etc.).
             ЬЬferreter n.  ferrety adj.  [ME f. OF fu(i)ret alt. f.
             fu(i)ron f. LL furo -onis f. L fur thief]

   ferri-    comb. form Chem.  containing iron, esp. in ferric compounds.  [L
             ferrum iron]

   ferriage  n.  1 conveyance by ferry.  2 a charge for using a ferry.

   ferric    adj.  1 of iron.  2 Chem. containing iron in a trivalent form
             (cf.  FERROUS).

             n.  Physics a form of ferromagnetism with non-parallel alignment
             of neighbouring atoms or ions.  ЬЬferrimagnetic adj.  [F
             ferrimagn‚tisme (as FERRI-, MAGNETISM)]

   Ferris wheel
             n.  a fairground ride consisting of a tall revolving vertical
             wheel with passenger cars suspended on its outer edge.  [G. W.
             G.  Ferris, Amer. engineer d. 1896]

   ferrite   n.  Chem.  1 a salt of (the hypothetical) ferrous acid
             H[2]Fe[2]O[4], often with magnetic properties.  2 an allotrope
             of pure iron occurring in low-carbon steel.  ЬЬferritic adj.  [L
             ferrum iron]

   ferro-    comb. form Chem.  1 iron, esp. in ferrous compounds.  2 (of
             alloys) containing iron (ferrocyanide; ferromanganese).  [L
             ferrum iron]

             n. & adj.  --n. concrete reinforced with steel.  --adj. made of
             reinforced concrete.

             adj. & n.  Physics --adj. exhibiting permanent electric
             polarization which varies in strength with the applied electric
             field.  --n. a ferroelectric substance.  ЬЬferroelectricity n.
             [ELECTRIC after ferromagnetic]

             n.  Physics a phenomenon in which there is a high susceptibility
             to magnetization, the strength of which varies with the applied
             magnetizing field, and which may persist after removal of the
             applied field.  ЬЬferromagnetic adj.

   ferrous   adj.  1 containing iron (ferrous and non-ferrous metals).  2
             Chem. containing iron in a divalent form (cf.  FERRIC).  [L
             ferrum iron]

             adj.  1 of or containing iron-rust, or iron as a chemical
             constituent.  2 rust-coloured; reddish-brown.  [L ferrugo -ginis
             rust f.  ferrum iron]

   ferrule   n.  (also ferrel) 1 a ring or cap strengthening the end of a
             stick or tube.  2 a band strengthening or forming a joint.
             [earlier verrel etc. f. OF virelle, virol(e), f. L viriola
             dimin. of viriae bracelet: assim. to L ferrum iron]

   ferry     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a boat or aircraft etc. for
             conveying passengers and goods, esp. across water and as a
             regular service.  2 the service itself or the place where it
             operates.  --v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 tr. & intr. convey or go in a
             boat etc. across water.  2 intr. (of a boat etc.) pass to and
             fro across water.  3 tr. transport from one place to another,
             esp. as a regular service.  ЬЬferryman n.  (pl.  -men).  [ME f.
             ON ferja f. Gmc]

   fertile   adj.  1 a (of soil) producing abundant vegetation or crops.  b
             fruitful.  2 a (of a seed, egg, etc.) capable of becoming a new
             individual.  b (of animals and plants) able to conceive young or
             produce fruit.  3 (of the mind) inventive.  4 (of nuclear
             material) able to become fissile by the capture of neutrons.
             ЬFertile Crescent the fertile region extending in a crescent
             shape from the E. Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf.
             ЬЬfertility n.  [ME f. F f. L fertilis]

             n.  (also -isation) 1 Biol. the fusion of male and female
             gametes during sexual reproduction to form a zygote.  2 a the
             act or an instance of fertilizing.  b the process of being

   fertilize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 make (soil etc.) fertile or productive.  2
             cause (an egg, female animal, or plant) to develop a new
             individual by introducing male reproductive material.
             ЬЬfertilizable adj.  fertilizer n.

   ferula    n.  1 any plant of the genus Ferula, esp. the giant fennel (F.
             communis), having a tall sticklike stem and thick roots.  2 =
             FERULE.  [ME f. L, = giant fennel, rod]

   ferule    n. & v.  --n. a flat ruler with a widened end formerly used for
             beating children.  --v.tr. beat with a ferule.  [ME (as FERULA)]

   fervent   adj.  1 ardent, impassioned, intense (fervent admirer; fervent
             hatred).  2 hot, glowing.  ЬЬfervency n.  fervently adv.  [ME f.
             OF f. L fervere boil]

   fervid    adj.  1 ardent, intense.  2 poet. hot, glowing.  ЬЬfervidly adv.
             [L fervidus (as FERVENT)]

   fervour   n.  (US fervor) 1 vehemence, passion, zeal.  2 a glowing
             condition; intense heat.  [ME f. OF f. L fervor -oris (as

   fescue    n.  any grass of the genus Festuca, valuable for pasture and
             fodder.  [ME festu(e) f. OF festu ult. f. L festuca stalk,

   fess      n.  (also fesse) Heraldry a horizontal stripe across the middle
             of a shield.  Ьfess point a point at the centre of a shield.  in
             fess arranged horizontally.  [ME f. OF f. L fascia band]

   festal    adj.  1 joyous, merry.  2 engaging in holiday activities.  3 of
             a feast.  ЬЬfestally adv.  [OF f. LL festalis (as FEAST)]

   fester    v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become septic.  2 intr. cause
             continuing annoyance.  3 intr. rot, stagnate.  [ME f. obs.
             fester (n.) or OF festrir, f. OF festre f. L fistula: see

   festival  n. & adj.  --n.  1 a day or period of celebration, religious or
             secular.  2 a concentrated series of concerts, plays, etc., held
             regularly in a town etc. (Bath Festival).  --attrib.adj. of or
             concerning a festival.  [earlier as adj.: ME f. OF f. med.L
             festivalis (as FESTIVE)]

   festive   adj.  1 of or characteristic of a festival.  2 joyous.  3 fond
             of feasting, jovial.  ЬЬfestively adv.  festiveness n.  [L
             festivus f.  festum (as FEAST)]

   festivity n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 gaiety, rejoicing.  2 a a festive celebration.
             b (in pl.) festive proceedings.  [ME f. OF festivit‚ or L
             festivitas (as FESTIVE)]

   festoon   n. & v.  --n.  1 a chain of flowers, leaves, ribbons, etc., hung
             in a curve as a decoration.  2 a carved or moulded ornament
             representing this.  --v.tr. (often foll. by with) adorn with or
             form into festoons; decorate elaborately.  ЬЬfestoonery n.  [F
             feston f. It.  festone f.  festa FEAST]

             n.  (also festschrift) (pl.  -schriften or -schrifts) a
             collection of writings published in honour of a scholar.  [G f.
             Fest celebration + Schrift writing]

   feta      n.  (also fetta) a soft white ewe's-milk or goat's-milk cheese
             made esp. in Greece.  [mod.Gk pheta]

   fetch(1)  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 go for and bring back (a person or thing)
             (fetch a doctor).  2 be sold for; realize (a price) (fetched
             њ10).  3 cause (blood, tears, etc.) to flow.  4 draw (breath),
             heave (a sigh).  5 colloq. give (a blow, slap, etc.) (usu. with
             recipient stated : fetched him a slap on the face).  6 excite
             the emotions of, delight or irritate.  --n.  1 an act of
             fetching.  2 a dodge or trick.  3 Naut.  a the distance
             travelled by wind or waves across open water.  b the distance a
             vessel must sail to reach open water.  Ьfetch and carry run
             backwards and forwards with things, be a mere servant.  fetch up
             colloq.  1 arrive, come to rest.  2 vomit.  ЬЬfetcher n.  [OE
             fecc(e)an var. of fetian, prob. rel. to a Gmc root = grasp]

   fetch(2)  n.  a person's wraith or double.  [18th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fetching  adj.  attractive.  ЬЬfetchingly adv.

   f€te      n. & v.  --n.  1 an outdoor function with the sale of goods,
             amusements, etc., esp. to raise funds for charity.  2 a great
             entertainment; a festival.  3 a saint's day.  --v.tr. honour or
             entertain lavishly.  [F f€te (as FEAST)]

   f€te champ€tre
             n.  an outdoor entertainment; a rural festival.  [F (as F°TE,
             champ€tre rural)]

   fetid     adj.  (also foetid) stinking.  ЬЬfetidly adv.  fetidness n.  [L
             fetidus f.  fetere stink]

   fetish    n.  1 Psychol. a thing abnormally stimulating or attracting
             sexual desire.  2 a an inanimate object worshipped by primitive
             peoples for its supposed inherent magical powers or as being
             inhabited by a spirit.  b a thing evoking irrational devotion or
             respect.  ЬЬfetishism n.  fetishist n.  fetishistic adj.  [F
             f‚tiche f. Port.  feiti‡o charm: orig. adj. = made by art, f. L
             factitius FACTITIOUS]

   fetlock   n.  part of the back of a horse's leg above the hoof where a
             tuft of hair grows.  [ME fetlak etc. rel. to G Fessel fetlock f.

   fetor     n.  a stench.  [L (as FETID)]

   fetta     var. of FETA.

   fetter    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a shackle for holding a prisoner by the
             ankles.  b any shackle or bond.  2 (in pl.) captivity.  3 a
             restraint or check.  --v.tr.  1 put into fetters.  2 restrict,
             restrain, impede.  [OE feter f. Gmc]

             n.  1 a D-shaped fetter for tethering a horse by the leg.  2 a
             heraldic representation of this.

   fettle    n. & v.  --n. condition or trim (in fine fettle).  --v.tr. trim
             or clean (the rough edge of a metal casting, pottery before
             firing, etc.).  [earlier as verb, f. dial.  fettle (n.) =
             girdle, f. OE fetel f. Gmc]

   fettler   n.  1 Brit. & Austral. a railway maintenance worker.  2 a person
             who fettles.

   fetus     US var. of FOETUS.

   feu       n. & v.  Sc.  --n.  1 a perpetual lease at a fixed rent.  2 a
             piece of land so held.  --v.tr.  (feus, feued, feuing) grant
             (land) on feu.  [OF: see FEE]

   feud(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 prolonged mutual hostility, esp. between two
             families, tribes, etc., with murderous assaults in revenge for a
             previous injury (a family feud; be at feud with).  2 a prolonged
             or bitter quarrel or dispute.  --v.intr. conduct a feud.  [ME
             fede f. OF feide, fede f. MDu., MLG vede f. Gmc, rel. to FOE]

   feud(2)   n.  a piece of land held under the feudal system or in fee; a
             fief.  [med.L feudum: see FEE]

   feudal    adj.  1 of, according to, or resembling the feudal system.  2 of
             a feud or fief.  3 outdated (had a feudal attitude).  Ьfeudal
             system the social system in medieval Europe whereby a vassal
             held land from a superior in exchange for allegiance and
             service.  ЬЬfeudalism n.  feudalist n.  feudalistic adj.
             feudalize v.tr.  (also -ise).  feudalization n.  feudally adv.
             [med.L feudalis, feodalis f.  feudum, feodum FEE, perh. f. Gmc]

   feudality n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the feudal system or its principles.  2 a
             feudal holding, a fief.  [F f‚odalit‚ f.  f‚odal (as FEUDAL)]

   feudatory adj. & n.  --adj. (often foll. by to) feudally subject, under
             overlordship.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a feudal vassal.  [med.L
             feudatorius f.  feudare enfeoff (as FEUD(2))]

   feu de joie
             n.  (pl.  feux pronunc. same) a salute by firing rifles etc. on
             a ceremonial occasion.  [F, = fire of joy]

   feudist   n.  US a person who is conducting a feud.

             n.  1 a part of a newspaper etc. devoted to fiction, criticism,
             light literature, etc.  2 an item printed in this.  [F, =

   fever     n. & v.  --n.  1 a an abnormally high body temperature, often
             with delirium etc.  b a disease characterized by this (scarlet
             fever; typhoid fever).  2 nervous excitement; agitation.
             --v.tr. (esp. as fevered adj.) affect with fever or excitement.
             Ьfever pitch a state of extreme excitement.  [OE fefor & AF
             fevre, OF fievre f. L febris]

   feverfew  n.  an aromatic bushy plant, Tenacetum parthenium, with feathery
             leaves and white daisy-like flowers, formerly used to reduce
             fever.  [OE feferfuge f. L febrifuga (as FEBRIFUGE)]

   feverish  adj.  1 having the symptoms of a fever.  2 excited, fitful,
             restless.  3 (of a place) infested by fever; feverous.
             ЬЬfeverishly adv.  feverishness n.

   feverous  adj.  1 infested with or apt to cause fever.  2 archaic

   few       adj. & n.  --adj. not many (few doctors smoke; visitors are
             few).  --n. (as pl.) 1 (prec. by a) some but not many (a few
             words should be added; a few of his friends were there).  2 a
             small number, not many (many are called but few are chosen).  3
             (prec. by the) a the minority.  b the elect.  4 (the Few)
             colloq. the RAF pilots who took part in the Battle of Britain.
             Ьevery few once in every small group of (every few days).  few
             and far between scarce.  a good few colloq.  a fairly large
             number.  have a few colloq.  take several alcoholic drinks.  no
             fewer than as many as (a specified number).  not a few a
             considerable number.  some few some but not at all many.
             ЬЬfewness n.  [OE feawe, feawa f. Gmc]

   fey       adj.  1 a strange, other-worldly; elfin; whimsical.  b
             clairvoyant.  2 Sc.  a fated to die soon.  b overexcited or
             elated, as formerly associated with the state of mind of a
             person about to die.  ЬЬfeyly adv.  feyness n.  [OE f‘ge f. Gmc]

   fez       n.  (pl.  fezzes) a flat-topped conical red cap with a tassel,
             worn by men in some Muslim countries.  ЬЬfezzed adj.  [Turk.,
             perh. f.  Fez (now FЉs) in Morocco]

7.0 ff...

   ff        abbr.  Mus.  fortissimo.

   ff.       abbr.  1 following pages etc.  2 folios.

8.0 fiacre....

   fiacre    n.  hist.  a small four-wheeled cab.  [the H“tel de St Fiacre,

   fianc‚    n.  (fem.  fianc‚e pronunc. same) a person to whom another is
             engaged to be married.  [F, past part. of fiancer betroth f. OF
             fiance a promise, ult. f. L fidere to trust]

             n. & v.  Chess --n.  (pl.  -oes) the development of a bishop to
             a long diagonal of the board.  --v.tr.  (-oes, -oed) develop (a
             bishop) in this way.  [It., dimin. of fianco FLANK]

   fiasco    n.  (pl.  -os) a ludicrous or humiliating failure or breakdown
             (orig. in a dramatic or musical performance); an ignominious
             result.  [It., = bottle (with unexplained allusion): see FLASK]

   fiat      n.  1 an authorization.  2 a decree or order.  Ьfiat money US
             inconvertible paper money made legal tender by a Government
             decree.  [L, = let it be done]

   fib       n. & v.  --n. a trivial or venial lie.  --v.intr.  (fibbed,
             fibbing) tell a fib.  ЬЬfibber n.  fibster n.  [perh. f. obs.
             fible-fable nonsense, redupl. of FABLE]

   fiber     US var. of FIBRE.

   Fibonacci series
             n.  Math.  a series of numbers in which each number (Fibonacci
             number) is the sum of the two preceding numbers, esp. 1, 1, 2,
             3, 5, 8, etc.  [L.  Fibonacci, It. mathematician fl. 1200]

   fibre     n.  (US fiber) 1 Biol. any of the threads or filaments forming
             animal or vegetable tissue and textile substances.  2 a piece of
             glass in the form of a thread.  3 a a substance formed of
             fibres.  b a substance that can be spun, woven, or felted.  4
             the structure, grain, or character of something (lacks moral
             fibre).  5 dietary material that is resistant to the action of
             digestive enzymes; roughage.  Ьfibre optics optics employing
             thin glass fibres, usu. for the transmission of light, esp.
             modulated to carry signals.  ЬЬfibred adj. (also in comb.).
             fibreless adj.  fibriform adj.  [ME f. F f. L fibra]

             n.  (US fiberboard) a building material made of wood or other
             plant fibres compressed into boards.

             n.  (US fiberglass) 1 a textile fabric made from woven glass
             fibres.  2 a plastic reinforced by glass fibres.

   fibril    n.  1 a small fibre.  2 a subdivision of a fibre.  ЬЬfibrillar
             adj.  fibrillary adj.  [mod.L fibrilla dimin. of L fibra fibre]

             v.  1 intr.  a (of a fibre) split up into fibrils.  b (of a
             muscle, esp. in the heart) undergo a quivering movement in
             fibrils.  2 tr. break (a fibre) into fibrils.  ЬЬfibrillation n.

   fibrin    n.  an insoluble protein formed during blood-clotting from
             fibrinogen.  ЬЬfibrinoid adj.  [FIBRE + -IN]

             n.  a soluble blood-plasma protein which produces fibrin when
             acted upon by the enzyme thrombin.

   fibro     n.  (pl.  -os) Austral.  1 fibro-cement.  2 a house constructed
             mainly of this.  [abbr.]

   fibro-    comb. form fibre.

             n.  a mixture of any of various fibrous materials, such as glass
             fibre, cellulose fibre, etc. and cement, used in sheets for
             building etc.

   fibroid   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or characterized by fibrous tissue.  2
             resembling or containing fibres.  --n. a benign tumour of
             muscular and fibrous tissues, one or more of which may develop
             in the wall of the womb.

   fibroin   n.  a protein which is the chief constituent of silk.  [FIBRO- +

   fibroma   n.  (pl.  fibromas or fibromata) a fibrous tumour.  [mod.L f. L
             fibra fibre + -OMA]

   fibrosis  n.  Med.  a thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usu.
             as a result of injury.  ЬЬfibrotic adj.  [mod.L f. L fibra fibre
             + -OSIS]

             n.  an inflammation of fibrous connective tissue, usu. rheumatic
             and painful.  ЬЬfibrositic adj.  [mod.L f. L fibrosus fibrous +

   fibrous   adj.  consisting of or like fibres.  ЬЬfibrously adv.
             fibrousness n.

   fibula    n.  (pl.  fibulae or fibulas) 1 Anat. the smaller and outer of
             the two bones between the knee and the ankle in terrestrial
             vertebrates.  2 Antiq. a brooch or clasp.  ЬЬfibular adj.  [L,
             perh. rel. to figere fix]

   -fic      suffix (usu. as -ific) forming adjectives meaning 'producing',
             'making' (prolific; pacific).  ЬЬ-fically suffix forming
             adverbs.  [from or after F -fique or L -ficus f.  facere do,

   -fication suffix (usu. as -ification) forming nouns of action from verbs
             in -fy (acidification; purification; simplification).  [from or
             after F -fication or L -ficatio -onis f. - ficare: see -FY]

   fiche     n.  (pl. same or fiches) a microfiche.  [F, = slip of paper]

   fichu     n.  a woman's small triangular shawl of lace etc. for the
             shoulders and neck.  [F]

   fickle    adj.  inconstant, changeable, esp. in loyalty.  ЬЬfickleness n.
             fickly adv.  [OE ficol; cf.  befician deceive, f‘cne deceitful]

   fictile   adj.  1 made of earth or clay by a potter.  2 of pottery.  [L
             fictilis f.  fingere fict- fashion]

   fiction   n.  1 an invented idea or statement or narrative; an imaginary
             thing.  2 literature, esp. novels, describing imaginary events
             and people.  3 a conventionally accepted falsehood (legal
             fiction; polite fiction).  4 the act or process of inventing
             imaginary things.  ЬЬfictional adj.  fictionality n.
             fictionalize v.tr.  (also -ise).  fictionalization n.
             fictionally adv.  fictionist n.  [ME f. OF f. L fictio -onis (as

             adj.  1 imaginary, unreal.  2 counterfeit; not genuine.  3 (of a
             name or character) assumed.  4 of or in novels.  5 regarded as
             what it is called by a legal or conventional fiction.
             ЬЬfictitiously adv.  fictitiousness n.  [L ficticius (as

   fictive   adj.  1 creating or created by imagination.  2 not genuine.
             ЬЬfictively adv.  fictiveness n.  [F fictif -ive or med.L
             fictivus (as FICTILE)]

   fid       n.  1 a small thick piece or wedge or heap of anything.  2 Naut.
             a a square wooden or iron bar to support the topmast.  b a
             conical wooden pin used in splicing.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Fid. Def. abbr.  Brit.  Defender of the Faith.  [L Fidei Defensor]

   fiddle    n. & v.  --n.  1 colloq. or derog. a stringed instrument played
             with a bow, esp. a violin.  2 colloq. an instance of cheating or
             fraud.  3 Naut. a contrivance for stopping things from rolling
             or sliding off a table in bad weather.  --v.  1 intr.  a (often
             foll. by with, at) play restlessly.  b (often foll. by about)
             move aimlessly.  c act idly or frivolously.  d (usu. foll. by
             with) make minor adjustments; tinker (esp. in an attempt to make
             improvements).  2 tr.  sl.  a cheat, swindle.  b falsify.  c get
             by cheating.  3 a intr. play the fiddle.  b tr. play (a tune
             etc.) on the fiddle.  Ьas fit as a fiddle in very good health.
             face as long as a fiddle a dismal face.  fiddle-back a
             fiddle-shaped back of a chair or front of a chasuble.
             fiddle-head a scroll-like carving at a ship's bows.  fiddle
             pattern the pattern of spoons and forks with fiddle-shaped
             handles.  play second (or first) fiddle take a subordinate (or
             leading) role.  [OE fithele f. Gmc f. a Rmc root rel. to VIOL]

             int. & n.  nonsense.

             n., v., int., & adj.  --n. trivial matters.  --v.intr. fuss,
             trifle.  --int. nonsense!  --adj. (of a person or thing) petty,
             fussy.  [redupl. of FIDDLE]

   fiddler   n.  1 a fiddle-player.  2 sl. a swindler, a cheat.  3 any small
             N. American crab of the genus Uca, the male having one of its
             claws held in a position like a violinist's arm.  [OE fithelere
             (as FIDDLE)]

             n.  1 (usu. in pl.; as int.) nonsense!  2 colloq. a bow for a

   fiddling  adj.  1 a petty, trivial.  b contemptible, futile.  2 colloq. =
             FIDDLY.  3 that fiddles.

   fiddly    adj.  (fiddlier, fiddliest) colloq.  intricate, awkward, or
             tiresome to do or use.

   fideism   n.  the doctrine that all or some knowledge depends on faith or
             revelation.  ЬЬfideist n.  fideistic adj.  [L fides faith +

   fidelity  n.  1 (often foll. by to) faithfulness, loyalty.  2 strict
             conformity to truth or fact.  3 exact correspondence to the
             original.  4 precision in reproduction of sound (high fidelity).
             Ьfidelity insurance insurance taken out by an employer against
             losses incurred through an employee's dishonesty etc.  [F
             fid‚lit‚ or L fidelitas (as FEALTY)]

   fidget    v. & n.  --v.  (fidgeted, fidgeting) 1 intr. move or act
             restlessly or nervously, usu. while maintaining basically the
             same posture.  2 intr. be uneasy, worry.  3 tr. make (a person)
             uneasy or uncomfortable.  --n.  1 a person who fidgets.  2 (usu.
             in pl.) a bodily uneasiness seeking relief in spasmodic
             movements; such movements.  b a restless mood.  ЬЬfidgety adj.
             fidgetiness n.  [obs. or dial.  fidge to twitch]

   Fido      n.  a device enabling aircraft to land by dispersing fog by
             means of petrol-burners on the ground.  [initials of Fog
             Intensive Dispersal Operation]

   fiducial  adj.  Surveying, Astron.  , etc. (of a line, point, etc.)
             assumed as a fixed basis of comparison.  [LL fiducialis f.
             fiducia trust f.  fidere to trust]

   fiduciary adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a of a trust, trustee, or trusteeship.  b
             held or given in trust.  2 (of a paper currency) depending for
             its value on public confidence or securities.  --n.  (pl.  -ies)
             a trustee.  [L fiduciarius (as FIDUCIAL)]

   fidus Achates
             n.  a faithful friend; a devoted follower.  [L, = faithful
             Achates (a companion of Aeneas in Virgil's Aeneid)]

   fie       int.  expressing disgust, shame, or a pretence of outraged
             propriety.  [ME f. OF f. L fi exclam. of disgust at a stench]

   fief      n.  1 a piece of land held under the feudal system or in fee.  2
             a person's sphere of operation or control.  [F (as FEE)]

   fiefdom   n.  a fief.

   field     n. & v.  --n.  1 an area of open land, esp. one used for pasture
             or crops, often bounded by hedges, fences, etc.  2 an area rich
             in some natural product (gas field; diamond field).  3 a piece
             of land for a specified purpose, esp. an area marked out for
             games (football field).  4 a the participants in a contest or
             sport.  b all the competitors in a race or all except those
             specified.  5 Cricket a the side fielding.  b a fielder.  6 an
             expanse of ice, snow, sea, sky, etc.  7 a the ground on which a
             battle is fought; a battlefield (left his rival in possession of
             the field).  b the scene of a campaign.  c (attrib.) (of
             artillery etc.) light and mobile for use on campaign.  d a
             battle.  8 an area of operation or activity; a subject of study
             (each supreme in his own field).  9 a the region in which a
             force is effective (gravitational field; magnetic field).  b the
             force exerted in such an area.  10 a range of perception (field
             of view; wide field of vision; filled the field of the
             telescope).  11 Math. a system subject to two operations
             analogous to those for the multiplication and addition of real
             numbers.  12 (attrib.) a (of an animal or plant) found in the
             countryside, wild (field mouse).  b carried out or working in
             the natural environment, not in a laboratory etc. (field test).
             13 a the background of a picture, coin, flag, etc.  b Heraldry
             the surface of an escutcheon or of one of its divisions.  14
             Computing a part of a record, representing an item of data.
             --v.  1 Cricket, Baseball , etc. a intr. act as a fieldsman.  b
             tr. stop (and return) (the ball).  2 tr. select (a team or
             individual) to play in a game.  3 tr. deal with (a succession of
             questions etc.).  Ьfield-book a book used in the field by a
             surveyor for technical notes.  field-cornet S.Afr.  hist.  a
             minor magistrate.  field-day 1 wide scope for action or success;
             a time occupied with exciting events (when crowds form,
             pickpockets have a field-day).  2 Mil. an exercise, esp. in
             manoeuvring; a review.  3 a day spent in exploration, scientific
             investigation, etc., in the natural environment.  field events
             athletic sports other than races (e.g. shot-putting, jumping,
             discus-throwing).  field-glasses binoculars for outdoor use.
             field goal US Football & Basketball a goal scored when the ball
             is in normal play.  field hockey US = HOCKEY(1).  field hospital
             a temporary hospital near a battlefield.  Field Marshal Brit.
             an army officer of the highest rank.  field mouse a small
             rodent, Apodemus sylvaticus, with beady eyes, prominent ears,
             and a long tail.  field mushroom the edible fungus Agaricus
             campestris.  field mustard charlock.  field officer an army
             officer of field rank.  field of honour the place where a duel
             or battle is fought.  field rank any rank in the army above
             captain and below general.  field sports outdoor sports, esp.
             hunting, shooting, and fishing.  field telegraph a movable
             telegraph for use on campaign.  hold the field not be
             superseded.  in the field 1 campaigning.  2 working etc. away
             from one's laboratory, headquarters, etc.  keep the field
             continue a campaign.  play the field colloq.  avoid exclusive
             attachment to one person or activity etc.  take the field 1
             begin a campaign.  2 (of a sports team) go on to a pitch to
             begin a game.  [OE feld f. WG]

   fielder   n.  = FIELDSMAN.

   fieldfare n.  a thrush, Turdus pilaris, having grey plumage with a
             speckled breast.  [ME feldefare, perh. as FIELD + FARE]

   fieldsman n.  (pl.  -men) Cricket, Baseball , etc. a member (other than
             the bowler or pitcher) of the side that is fielding.

             n.  stone used in its natural form.

   fieldwork n.  1 the practical work of a surveyor, collector of scientific
             data, sociologist, etc., conducted in the natural environment
             rather than a laboratory, office, etc.  2 a temporary
             fortification.  ЬЬfieldworker n.

   fiend     n.  1 a an evil spirit, a demon.  b (prec. by the) the Devil.  2
             a a very wicked or cruel person.  b a person causing mischief or
             annoyance.  3 (with a qualifying word) sl. a devotee or addict
             (a fitness fiend).  4 something difficult or unpleasant.
             ЬЬfiendish adj.  fiendishly adv.  fiendishness n.  fiendlike
             adj.  [OE feond f. Gmc]

   fierce    adj.  (fiercer, fiercest) 1 vehemently aggressive or frightening
             in temper or action, violent.  2 eager, intense, ardent.  3
             unpleasantly strong or intense; uncontrolled (fierce heat).  4
             (of a mechanism) not smooth or easy in action.  ЬЬfiercely adv.
             fierceness n.  [ME f. AF fers, OF fiers fier proud f. L ferus

   fieri facias
             n.  Law a writ to a sheriff for executing a judgement.  [L, =
             cause to be made or done]

   fiery     adj.  (fierier, fieriest) 1 a consisting of or flaming with
             fire.  b (of an arrow etc.) fire-bearing.  2 like fire in
             appearance, bright red.  3 a hot as fire.  b acting like fire;
             producing a burning sensation.  4 a flashing, ardent (fiery
             eyes).  b eager, pugnacious, spirited, irritable (fiery temper).
             c (of a horse) mettlesome.  5 (of gas, a mine, etc.)
             inflammable; liable to explosions.  6 Cricket (of a pitch)
             making the ball rise dangerously.  Ьfiery cross a wooden cross
             charred or set on fire as a symbol.  ЬЬfierily adv.  fieriness

   fiesta    n.  1 a holiday or festivity.  2 a religious festival in
             Spanish-speaking countries .  [Sp., = feast]

   FIFA      abbr.  International Football Federation.  [F F‚d‚ration
             Internationale de Football Association]

   fi. fa.   abbr.  fieri facias.

   fife      n. & v.  --n.  1 a kind of small shrill flute used with the drum
             in military music.  2 its player.  --v.  1 intr. play the fife.
             2 tr. play (an air etc.) on the fife.  ЬЬfifer n.  [G Pfeife
             PIPE, or F fifre f. Swiss G Pfifre piper]

   fife-rail n.  Naut.  a rail round the mainmast with belaying-pins.  [18th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   fifteen   n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than fourteen, or five more than
             ten; the product of three units and five units.  2 a symbol for
             this (15, xv, XV).  3 a size etc. denoted by fifteen.  4 a team
             of fifteen players, esp. in Rugby football.  5 (the Fifteen)
             hist. the Jacobite rebellion of 1715.  6 (15) Brit. (of films)
             classified as suitable for persons of 15 years and over.  --adj.
             that amount to fifteen.  ЬЬfifteenth adj. & n.  [OE fiftene (as
             FIVE, -TEEN)]

   fifth     n. & adj.  --n.  1 the position in a sequence corresponding to
             that of the number 5 in the sequence 1-5.  2 something occupying
             this position.  3 the fifth person etc. in a race or
             competition.  4 any of five equal parts of a thing.  5 Mus.  a
             an interval or chord spanning five consecutive notes in the
             diatonic scale (e.g. C to G).  b a note separated from another
             by this interval.  6 US colloq.  a a fifth of a gallon of
             liquor.  b a bottle containing this.  --adj. that is the fifth.
             Ьfifth column a group working for an enemy within a country at
             war etc.  (from General Mola's reference to such support in
             besieged Madrid in 1936).  fifth-columnist a member of a fifth
             column; a traitor or spy.  Fifth Monarchy the last of the five
             great kingdoms predicted in Daniel 2:44.  Fifth-monarchy-man
             hist.  a 17th-c. zealot expecting the immediate second coming of
             Christ and repudiating all other government.  fifth part = sense
             3 of n.  fifth wheel 1 an extra wheel of a coach.  2 a
             superfluous person or thing.  3 a horizontal turntable over the
             front axle of a carriage as an extra support to prevent its
             tipping.  take the fifth (in the US) exercise the right
             guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution of
             refusing to answer questions in order to avoid incriminating
             oneself.  ЬЬfifthly adv.  [earlier and dial.  fift f. OE fifta
             f. Gmc, assim. to FOURTH]

   fifty     n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the product of five and ten.  2 a
             symbol for this (50, l, L).  3 (in pl.) the numbers from 50 to
             59, esp. the years of a century or of a person's life.  4 a set
             of fifty persons or things.  5 a large indefinite number (have
             fifty things to tell you).  --adj. that amount to fifty.
             Ьfifty-fifty adj.  equal, with equal shares or chances (on a
             fifty-fifty basis).  --adv. equally, half and half (go
             fifty-fifty).  fifty-first, -second , etc. the ordinal numbers
             between fiftieth and sixtieth.  fifty-one, -two , etc. the
             cardinal numbers between fifty and sixty.  ЬЬfiftieth adj. & n.
             fiftyfold adj. & adv.  [OE fiftig (as FIVE, -TY(2))]

   fig(1)    n.  1 a a soft pear-shaped fruit with many seeds, eaten fresh or
             dried.  b (in full fig-tree) any deciduous tree of the genus
             Ficus, esp.  F. carica, having broad leaves and bearing figs.  2
             a valueless thing (don't care a fig for).  Ьfig-leaf 1 a leaf of
             a fig-tree.  2 a device for concealing something, esp. the
             genitals (Gen.  3:7).  [ME f. OF figue f. Prov.  fig(u)a ult. f.
             L ficus]

   fig(2)    n. & v.  --n.  1 dress or equipment (in full fig).  2 condition
             or form (in good fig).  --v.tr.  (figged, figging) 1 (foll. by
             out) dress up (a person).  2 (foll. by out, up) make (a horse)
             lively.  [var. of obs.  feague (v.) f. G fegen: see FAKE(1)]

   fig.      abbr.  figure.

   fight     v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  fought) 1 intr. (often
             foll. by against, with) contend or struggle in war, battle,
             single combat, etc.  2 tr. contend with (an opponent) in this
             way.  3 tr. take part or engage in (a battle, war, duel, etc.).
             4 tr. contend about (an issue, an election); maintain (a
             lawsuit, cause, etc.) against an opponent.  5 intr. campaign or
             strive determinedly to achieve something.  6 tr. strive to
             overcome (disease, fire, fear, etc.).  7 tr. make (one's way) by
             fighting.  8 tr. cause (cocks or dogs) to fight.  9 tr. handle
             (troops, a ship, etc.) in battle.  --n.  1 a a combat, esp.
             unpremeditated, between two or more persons, animals, or
             parties.  b a boxing-match.  c a battle.  2 a conflict or
             struggle; a vigorous effort in the face of difficulty.  3 power
             or inclination to fight (has no fight left; showed fight).
             Ьfight back 1 counter-attack.  2 suppress (one's feelings,
             tears, etc.).  fight down suppress (one's feelings, tears,
             etc.).  fight for 1 fight on behalf of.  2 fight to secure (a
             thing).  fighting chair US a fixed chair on a boat for use when
             catching large fish.  fighting chance an opportunity of
             succeeding by great effort.  fighting fish (in full Siamese
             fighting fish) a freshwater fish, Betta splendens, native to
             Thailand, the males of which sometimes kill each other during
             fights for territory.  fighting fit fit enough to fight; at the
             peak of fitness.  fighting fund money raised to support a
             campaign.  fighting-top Naut.  a circular gun-platform high on a
             warship's mast.  fighting words colloq.  words indicating a
             willingness to fight.  fight off repel with effort.  fight out
             (usu.  fight it out) settle (a dispute etc.) by fighting.  fight
             shy of avoid; be unwilling to approach (a person, task, etc.).
             make a fight of it (or put up a fight) offer resistance.  [OE
             feohtan, feoht(e), f. WG]

   fighter   n.  1 a person or animal that fights.  2 a fast military
             aircraft designed for attacking other aircraft.  Ьfighter-bomber
             an aircraft serving as both fighter and bomber.

   figment   n.  a thing invented or existing only in the imagination.  [ME
             f. L figmentum, rel. to fingere fashion]

   figura    n.  1 a person or thing representing or symbolizing a fact etc.
             2 Theol. a type of a person etc.  [mod.L f. L, = FIGURE]

   figural   adj.  1 figurative.  2 relating to figures or shapes.  3 Mus.
             florid in style.  [OF figural or LL figuralis f.  figura FIGURE]

   figurant  n.  (fem.  figurante pronunc. same) a ballet-dancer appearing
             only in a group.  [F, pres. part. of figurer FIGURE]

   figurante n.  (pl.  figuranti) = FIGURANT.  [It., pres. part. of figurare

             n.  1 a the act of formation.  b a mode of formation; a form.  c
             a shape or outline.  2 a ornamentation by designs.  b Mus.
             ornamental patterns of scales, arpeggios, etc., often derived
             from an earlier motif.  3 allegorical representation.  [ME f. F
             or f. L figuratio (as FIGURE)]

             adj.  1 a metaphorical, not literal.  b metaphorically so
             called.  2 characterized by or addicted to figures of speech.  3
             of pictorial or sculptural representation.  4 emblematic,
             serving as a type.  ЬЬfiguratively adv.  figurativeness n.  [ME
             f. LL figurativus (as FIGURE)]

   figure    n. & v.  --n.  1 a the external form or shape of a thing.  b
             bodily shape (has a well-developed figure).  2 a a person as
             seen in outline but not identified (saw a figure leaning against
             the door).  b a person as contemplated mentally (a public
             figure).  3 appearance as giving a certain impression (cut a
             poor figure).  4 a a representation of the human form in
             drawing, sculpture, etc.  b an image or likeness.  c an emblem
             or type.  5 Geom. a two-dimensional space enclosed by a line or
             lines, or a three-dimensional space enclosed by a surface or
             surfaces; any of the classes of these, e.g. the triangle, the
             sphere.  6 a a numerical symbol, esp. any of the ten in Arabic
             notation.  b a number so expressed.  c an amount of money, a
             value (cannot put a figure on it).  d (in pl.) arithmetical
             calculations.  7 a diagram or illustrative drawing.  8 a
             decorative pattern.  9 a a division of a set dance, an
             evolution.  b (in skating) a prescribed pattern of movements
             from a stationary position.  10 Mus. a short succession of notes
             producing a single impression, a brief melodic or rhythmic
             formula out of which longer passages are developed.  11 (in full
             figure of speech) a recognized form of rhetorical expression
             giving variety, force, etc., esp. metaphor or hyperbole.  12
             Gram. a permitted deviation from the usual rules of
             construction, e.g. ellipsis.  13 Logic the form of a syllogism,
             classified according to the position of the middle term.  14 a
             horoscope.  --v.  1 intr. appear or be mentioned, esp.
             prominently.  2 tr. represent in a diagram or picture.  3 tr.
             imagine; picture mentally.  4 tr.  a embellish with a pattern
             (figured satin).  b Mus. embellish with figures.  5 tr. mark
             with numbers (figured bass) or prices.  6 a tr. calculate.  b
             intr. do arithmetic.  7 tr. be a symbol of, represent typically.
             8 esp.  US a tr. understand, ascertain, consider.  b intr.
             colloq. be likely or understandable (that figures).  Ьfigured
             bass Mus. = CONTINUO.  figure of fun a ridiculous person.
             figure on US count on, expect.  figure out 1 work out by
             arithmetic or logic.  2 estimate.  3 understand.  figure-skater
             a person who practises figure-skating.  figure-skating skating
             in prescribed patterns from a stationary position.  ЬЬfigureless
             adj.  [ME f. OF figure (n.), figurer (v.) f. L figura, figurare,
             rel. to fingere fashion]

             n.  1 a nominal leader or head without real power.  2 a carving,
             usu. a bust or a full-length figure, at a ship's prow.

   figurine  n.  a statuette.  [F f. It.  figurina dimin. of figura FIGURE]

   figwort   n.  any aromatic green-flowered plant of the genus Scrophularia,
             once believed to be useful against scrofula.

   filagree  var. of FILIGREE.

   filament  n.  1 a slender threadlike body or fibre (esp. in animal or
             vegetable structures).  2 a conducting wire or thread with a
             high melting-point in an electric bulb or thermionic valve,
             heated or made incandescent by an electric current.  3 Bot. the
             part of the stamen that supports the anther.  4 archaic (of air,
             light, etc.) a notional train of particles following each other.
             ЬЬfilamentary adj.  filamented adj.  filamentous adj.  [F
             filament or mod.L filamentum f. LL filare spin f. L filum

   filaria   n.  (pl.  filariae) any threadlike parasitic nematode worm of
             the family Filariidae introduced into the blood by certain
             biting flies and mosquitoes.  ЬЬfilarial adj.  [mod.L f. L filum

             n.  a disease common in the tropics, caused by the presence of
             filarial worms in the lymph vessels.

   filature  n.  an establishment for or the action of reeling silk from
             cocoons.  [F f. It.  filatura f.  filare spin]

   filbert   n.  1 the cultivated hazel, Corylus maxima, bearing edible ovoid
             nuts.  2 this nut.  [ME philliberd etc. f. AF philbert, dial. F
             noix de filbert, a nut ripe about St Philibert's day (20 Aug.)]

   filch     v.tr.  pilfer, steal.  ЬЬfilcher n.  [16th-c. thieves' sl.:
             orig. unkn.]

   file(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a folder, box, etc., for holding loose papers,
             esp. arranged for reference.  2 a set of papers kept in this.  3
             Computing a collection of (usu. related) data stored under one
             name.  4 a series of issues of a newspaper etc. in order.  5 a
             stiff pointed wire on which documents etc. are impaled for
             keeping.  --v.tr.  1 place (papers) in a file or among (esp.
             public) records.  2 submit (a petition for divorce, an
             application for a patent, etc.) to the appropriate authority.  3
             (of a reporter) send (a story, information, etc.) to a
             newspaper.  Ьfiling cabinet a case with drawers for storing
             documents.  ЬЬfiler n.  [F fil f. L filum thread]

   file(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a line of persons or things one behind another.
             2 (foll. by of) Mil. a small detachment of men (now usu. two).
             3 Chess a line of squares from player to player (cf.  RANK(1)).
             --v.intr. walk in a file.  Ьfile off (or away) Mil.  go off by
             files.  [F file f. LL filare spin or L filum thread]

   file(3)   n. & v.  --n. a tool with a roughened surface or surfaces, usu.
             of steel, for smoothing or shaping wood, fingernails, etc.
             --v.tr.  1 smooth or shape with a file.  2 elaborate or improve
             (a thing, esp. a literary work).  Ьfile away remove (roughness
             etc.) with a file.  file-fish any fish of the family
             Ostracionidae, with sharp dorsal fins and usu. bright
             coloration.  ЬЬfiler n.  [OE fil f. WG]

   filet     n.  1 a kind of net or lace with a square mesh.  2 a fillet of
             meat.  Ьfilet mignon a small tender piece of beef from the end
             of the undercut.  [F, = thread]

   filial    adj.  1 of or due from a son or daughter.  2 Biol. bearing the
             relation of offspring (cf.  F(2) 5).  ЬЬfilially adv.  [ME f. OF
             filial or LL filialis f.  filius son, filia daughter]

   filiation n.  1 being the child of one or two specified parents.  2 (often
             foll. by from) descent or transmission.  3 the formation of
             offshoots.  4 a branch of a society or language.  5 a
             genealogical relation or arrangement.  [F f. LL filiatio -onis
             f. L filius son]

   filibeg   n.  (also philabeg) Sc.  a kilt.  [Gael.  feileadh-beag little

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a the obstruction of progress in a legislative
             assembly, esp.  by prolonged speaking.  b esp.  US a person who
             engages in a filibuster.  2 esp.  hist. a person engaging in
             unauthorized warfare against a foreign State.  --v.  1 intr. act
             as a filibuster.  2 tr. act in this way against (a motion etc.).
             ЬЬfilibusterer n.  [ult. f. Du.  vrijbuiter FREEBOOTER, infl. by
             F flibustier, Sp.  filibustero]

   filigree  n.  (also filagree) 1 ornamental work of gold or silver or
             copper as fine wire formed into delicate tracery; fine metal
             openwork.  2 anything delicate resembling this.  ЬЬfiligreed
             adj.  [earlier filigreen, filigrane f. F filigrane f. It.
             filigrana f. L filum thread + granum seed]

   filing    n.  (usu. in pl.) a particle rubbed off by a file.

   Filipino  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -os; fem.  Filipina) a native or national
             of the Philippines, a group of islands in the SW Pacific.
             --adj. of or relating to the Philippines or the Filipinos.
             [Sp., = Philippine]

   fill      v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by with) make or
             become full.  2 tr. occupy completely; spread over or through;
             pervade.  3 tr. block up (a cavity or hole in a tooth) with
             cement, amalgam, gold, etc.; drill and put a filling into (a
             decayed tooth).  4 tr. appoint a person to hold (a vacant post).
             5 tr. hold (a position); discharge the duties of (an office).  6
             tr. carry out or supply (an order, commission, etc.).  7 tr.
             occupy (vacant time).  8 intr. (of a sail) be distended by wind.
             9 tr. (usu. as filling adj.) (esp. of food) satisfy, satiate.
             10 tr.  Poker etc. complete (a holding) by drawing the necessary
             cards.  11 tr. stock abundantly.  --n.  1 (prec. by possessive)
             as much as one wants or can bear (eat your fill).  2 enough to
             fill something (a fill of tobacco).  3 earth etc. used to fill a
             cavity.  Ьfill the bill be suitable or adequate.  fill in 1 add
             information to complete (a form, document, blank cheque, etc.).
             2 a complete (a drawing etc.) within an outline.  b fill (an
             outline) in this way.  3 fill (a hole etc.) completely.  4
             (often foll. by for) act as a substitute.  5 occupy oneself
             during (time between other activities).  6 colloq. inform (a
             person) more fully.  7 sl. thrash, beat.  fill out 1 enlarge to
             the required size.  2 become enlarged or plump.  3 US fill in (a
             document etc.).  fill up 1 make or become completely full.  2
             fill in (a document etc.).  3 fill the petrol tank of (a car
             etc.).  4 provide what is needed to occupy vacant parts or
             places or deal with deficiencies in.  5 do away with (a pond
             etc.) by filling.  fill-up n.  a thing that fills something up.
             [OE fyllan f. Gmc, rel. to FULL(1)]

   fille de joie
             n.  a prostitute.  [F, lit. 'daughter of joy']

   filler    n.  1 material or an object used to fill a cavity or increase
             bulk.  2 an item filling space in a newspaper etc.  3 a person
             or thing that fills.  Ьfiller cap a cap closing the filling-pipe
             leading to the petrol tank of a motor vehicle.

   fillet    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a fleshy boneless piece of meat from near the
             loins or the ribs.  b (in full fillet steak) the undercut of a
             sirloin.  c a boned longitudinal section of a fish.  2 a a
             headband, ribbon, string, or narrow band, for binding the hair
             or worn round the head.  b a band or bandage.  3 a a thin narrow
             strip of anything.  b a raised rim or ridge on any surface.  4
             Archit.  a a narrow flat band separating two mouldings.  b a
             small band between the flutes of a column.  5 Carpentry an added
             triangular piece of wood to round off an interior angle.  6 a a
             plain line impressed on the cover of a book.  b a roller used to
             impress this.  7 Heraldry a horizontal division of a shield, a
             quarter of the depth of a chief.  --v.tr.  (filleted, filleting)
             1 a remove bones from (fish or meat).  b divide (fish or meat)
             into fillets.  2 bind or provide with a fillet or fillets.  3
             encircle with an ornamental band.  ЬЬfilleter n.  [ME f. OF
             filet f. Rmc dimin. of L filum thread]

   filling   n.  1 any material that fills or is used to fill, esp.: a a
             piece of material used to fill a cavity in a tooth.  b the
             edible substance between the bread in a sandwich or between the
             pastry in a pie.  2 US weft.  Ьfilling-station an establishment
             selling petrol etc. to motorists.

   fillip    n. & v.  --n.  1 a stimulus or incentive.  2 a a sudden release
             of a finger or thumb when it has been bent and checked by a
             thumb or finger.  b a slight smart stroke given in this way.
             --v.  (filliped, filliping) 1 tr. stimulate (fillip one's
             memory).  2 tr. strike slightly and smartly.  3 tr. propel (a
             coin, marble, etc.) with a fillip.  4 intr. make a fillip.

   fillis    n.  Hort.  loosely-twisted string used as a tying material.  [F
             filasse tow]

   fillister n.  a rabbet or rabbet plane for window-sashes etc.  [19th c.:
             perh. f. F feuilleret]

   filly     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a young female horse, usu. before it is four
             years old.  2 colloq. a girl or young woman.  [ME, prob. f. ON
             fylja f. Gmc (as FOAL)]

   film      n. & v.  --n.  1 a thin coating or covering layer.  2 Photog. a
             strip or sheet of plastic or other flexible base coated with
             light-sensitive emulsion for exposure in a camera, either as
             individual visual representations or as a sequence which form
             the illusion of movement when shown in rapid succession.  3 a a
             representation of a story, episode, etc., on a film, with the
             illusion of movement.  b a story represented in this way.  c (in
             pl.) the cinema industry.  4 a slight veil or haze etc.  5 a
             dimness or morbid growth affecting the eyes.  6 a fine thread or
             filament .  --v.  1 a tr. make a photographic film of (a scene,
             person, etc.).  b tr. (also absol.) make a cinema or television
             film of (a book etc.).  c intr. be (well or ill) suited for
             reproduction on film.  2 tr. & intr. cover or become covered
             with or as with a film.  Ьfilm-goer a person who frequents the
             cinema.  film star a celebrated actor or actress in films.
             film-strip a series of transparencies in a strip for projection.
             [OE filmen membrane f. WG, rel. to FELL(5)]

   filmic    adj.  of or relating to films or cinematography.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a list of films by one director etc. or on one
             subject.  [FILM + -GRAPHY after bibliography]

   filmset   v.tr.  (-setting; past and past part.  -set) Printing set
             (material for printing) by filmsetting.  ЬЬfilmsetter n.

             n.  Printing typesetting using characters on photographic film.

   filmy     adj.  (filmier, filmiest) 1 thin and translucent.  2 covered
             with or as with a film.  ЬЬfilmily adv.  filminess n.

   Filofax   n.  propr.  a portable loose-leaf filing system for personal or
             office use.  [FILE(1) + facts pl. of FACT]

   filoselle n.  floss silk.  [F]

   fils      n.  (added to a surname to distinguish a son from a father) the
             son, junior (cf.  P°RE).  [F, = son]

   filter    n. & v.  --n.  1 a porous device for removing impurities or
             solid particles from a liquid or gas passed through it.  2 =
             filter tip.  3 a screen or attachment for absorbing or modifying
             light, X-rays, etc.  4 a device for suppressing electrical or
             sound waves of frequencies not required.  5 Brit.  a an
             arrangement for filtering traffic.  b a traffic-light signalling
             this.  --v.intr. & tr.  1 pass or cause to pass through a
             filter.  2 (foll. by through, into, etc.) make way gradually.  3
             (foll. by out) leak or cause to leak.  4 Brit. allow (traffic)
             or (of traffic) be allowed to pass to the left or right at a
             junction while traffic going straight ahead is halted (esp. at
             traffic lights).  Ьfilter-bed a tank or pond containing a layer
             of sand etc. for filtering large quantities of liquid.
             filter-paper porous paper for filtering.  filter tip 1 a filter
             attached to a cigarette for removing impurities from the inhaled
             smoke.  2 a cigarette with this.  filter-tipped having a filter
             tip.  [F filtre f. med.L filtrum felt used as a filter, f. WG]

             adj.  (also filtrable) 1 Med. (of a virus) able to pass through
             a filter that retains bacteria.  2 that can be filtered.

   filth     n.  1 repugnant or extreme dirt.  2 vileness, corruption,
             obscenity.  3 foul or obscene language.  4 (prec. by the) sl.
             the police.  [OE fylth (as FOUL, -TH(2))]

   filthy    adj. & adv.  --adj.  (filthier, filthiest) 1 extremely or
             disgustingly dirty.  2 obscene.  3 colloq. (of weather) very
             unpleasant.  4 vile.  --adv.  1 filthily (filthy dirty).  2
             colloq. extremely (filthy rich).  Ьfilthy lucre 1 dishonourable
             gain (Tit. 1:11).  2 joc. money.  ЬЬfilthily adv.  filthiness n.

   filtrable var. of FILTERABLE.

   filtrate  v. & n.  --v.tr. filter.  --n. filtered liquid.  ЬЬfiltration n.
             [mod.L filtrare (as FILTER)]

   fimbriate adj.  (also fimbriated) 1 Bot. & Zool. fringed or bordered with
             hairs etc.  2 Heraldry having a narrow border.  [L fimbriatus f.
             fimbriae fringe]

   fin       n. & v.  --n.  1 an organ on various parts of the body of many
             aquatic vertebrates and some invertebrates, including fish and
             cetaceans, for propelling, steering, and balancing (dorsal fin;
             anal fin).  2 a small projecting surface or attachment on an
             aircraft, rocket, or motor car for ensuring aerodynamic
             stability.  3 an underwater swimmer's flipper.  4 a sharp
             lateral projection on the share or coulter of a plough.  5 a
             finlike projection on any device, for improving heat transfer
             etc.  --v.  (finned, finning) 1 tr. provide with fins.  2 intr.
             swim under water.  Ьfin-back (or fin whale) a rorqual,
             Balaenoptera physalus.  ЬЬfinless adj.  finned adj. (also in
             comb.).  [OE fin(n)]

   finable   see FINE(2).

   finagle   v.intr. & tr.  colloq.  act or obtain dishonestly.  ЬЬfinagler
             n.  [dial.  fainaigue cheat]

   final     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 situated at the end, coming last.  2
             conclusive, decisive, unalterable, putting an end to doubt.  3
             concerned with the purpose or end aimed at.  --n.  1 the last or
             deciding heat or game in sports or in a competition (Cup Final).
             2 the edition of a newspaper published latest in the day.  3
             (usu. in pl.) the series of examinations at the end of a degree
             course.  4 Mus. the principal note in any mode.  Ьfinal cause
             Philos.  the end towards which a thing naturally develops or at
             which an action aims.  final clause Gram.  a clause expressing
             purpose, introduced by in order that, lest, etc.  final drive
             the last part of the transmission system in a motor vehicle.
             final solution the Nazi policy (1941-5) of exterminating
             European Jews.  ЬЬfinally adv.  [ME f. OF or f. L finalis f.
             finis end]

   finale    n.  1 a the last movement of an instrumental composition.  b a
             piece of music closing an act in an opera.  2 the close of a
             drama etc.  3 a conclusion.  [It. (as FINAL)]

   finalism  n.  the doctrine that natural processes (e.g. evolution) are
             directed towards some goal.  ЬЬfinalistic adj.

   finalist  n.  a competitor in the final of a competition etc.

   finality  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the quality or fact of being final.  2 the
             belief that something is final.  3 a final act, state, or
             utterance.  4 the principle of final cause viewed as operative
             in the universe.  [F finalit‚ f. LL finalitas -tatis (as FINAL)]

   finalize  v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 put into final form.  2 complete; bring to
             an end.  3 approve the final form or details of.  ЬЬfinalization

   finance   n. & v.  --n.  1 the management of (esp. public) money.  2
             monetary support for an enterprise.  3 (in pl.) the money
             resources of a State, company, or person.  --v.tr. provide
             capital for (a person or enterprise).  Ьfinance company (or
             house) a company concerned mainly with providing money for
             hire-purchase transactions.  [ME f. OF f.  finer settle a debt
             f.  fin end: see FINE(2)]

   financial adj.  1 of finance.  2 Austral. & NZ sl. possessing money.
             Ьfinancial year a year as reckoned for taxing or accounting
             (e.g. the British tax year, reckoned from 6 April).
             ЬЬfinancially adv.

   financier n. & v.  --n.  a person engaged in large-scale finance.
             --v.intr.  usu.  derog. conduct financial operations.  [F (as

   finch     n.  any small seed-eating passerine bird of the family
             Fringillidae (esp. one of the genus Fringilla), including
             crossbills, canaries, and chaffinches.  [OE finc f. WG]

   find      v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  found) 1 a discover by
             chance or effort (found a key).  b become aware of.  c (absol.)
             discover game, esp. a fox.  2 a get possession of by chance
             (found a treasure).  b obtain, receive (idea found acceptance).
             c succeed in obtaining (cannot find the money; can't find time
             to read).  d summon up (found courage to protest).  e sl. steal.
             3 a seek out and provide (will find you a book).  b supply,
             furnish (each finds his own equipment).  4 ascertain by study or
             calculation or inquiry (could not find the answer).  5 a
             perceive or experience (find no sense in it; find difficulty in
             breathing).  b (often in passive) recognize or discover to be
             present (the word is not found in Shakespeare).  c regard or
             discover from experience (finds England too cold; you'll find it
             pays; find it impossible to reply).  6 Law (of a jury, judge,
             etc.) decide and declare (found him guilty; found that he had
             done it; found it murder).  7 reach by a natural or normal
             process (water finds its own level).  8 a (of a letter) reach (a
             person).  b (of an address) be adequate to enable a letter etc.
             to reach (a person).  9 archaic reach the conscience of.  --n.
             1 a a discovery of treasure, minerals, etc.  b Hunting the
             finding of a fox.  2 a thing or person discovered, esp. when of
             value.  Ьall found (of an employee's wages) with board and
             lodging provided free.  find against Law decide against (a
             person), judge to be guilty.  find fault see FAULT.  find favour
             prove acceptable.  find one's feet 1 become able to walk.  2
             develop one's independent ability.  find for Law decide in
             favour of (a person), judge to be innocent.  find it in one's
             heart (esp. with neg.; foll. by to + infin.)  prevail upon
             oneself, be willing.  find oneself 1 discover that one is (woke
             to find myself in hospital; found herself agreeing).  2 discover
             one's vocation.  3 provide for one's own needs.  find out 1
             discover or detect (a wrongdoer etc.).  2 (often foll. by about)
             get information (find out about holidays abroad).  3 discover
             (find out where we are).  4 (often foll. by about) discover the
             truth, a fact, etc. (he never found out).  5 devise.  6 solve.
             find-spot Archaeol.  the place where an object is found.  find
             one's way 1 (often foll. by to) manage to reach a place.  2
             (often foll. by into) be brought or get.  ЬЬfindable adj.  [OE
             findan f. Gmc]

   finder    n.  1 a person who finds.  2 a small telescope attached to a
             large one to locate an object for observation.  3 the viewfinder
             of a camera.  Ьfinders keepers colloq.  whoever finds a thing is
             entitled to keep it.

   fin de siЉcle
             adj.  1 characteristic of the end of the nineteenth century.  2
             decadent.  [F, = end of century]

   finding   n.  1 (often in pl.) a conclusion reached by an inquiry.  2 (in
             pl.) US small parts or tools used by workmen.

   fine(1)   adj., n., adv., & v.  --adj.  1 of high quality.  2 a excellent;
             of notable merit (a fine painting).  b good, satisfactory (that
             will be fine).  c fortunate (has been a fine thing for him).  d
             well conceived or expressed (a fine saying).  3 a pure, refined.
             b (of gold or silver) containing a specified proportion of pure
             metal.  4 of handsome appearance or size; imposing, dignified
             (fine buildings; a person of fine presence).  5 in good health
             (I'm fine, thank you).  6 (of weather etc.) bright and clear
             with sunshine; free from rain.  7 a thin; sharp.  b in small
             particles.  c worked in slender thread.  d (esp. of print)
             small.  e (of a pen) narrow-pointed.  8 Cricket behind the
             wicket and near the line of flight of the ball.  9 tritely
             complimentary; euphemistic (say fine things about a person; call
             things by fine names).  10 ornate, showy, smart.  11 fastidious,
             dainty, pretending refinement; (of speech or writing) affectedly
             ornate.  12 a capable of delicate perception or discrimination.
             b perceptible only with difficulty (a fine distinction).  13 a
             delicate, subtle, exquisitely fashioned.  b (of feelings)
             refined, elevated.  14 (of wine or other goods) of a high
             standard; conforming to a specified grade.  --n.  1 fine weather
             (in rain or fine).  2 (in pl.) very small particles in mining,
             milling, etc.  --adv.  1 finely.  2 colloq. very well (suits me
             fine).  --v.  1 (often foll. by down) a tr. make (beer or wine)
             clear.  b intr. (of liquid) become clear.  2 tr. & intr. (often
             foll. by away, down, off) make or become finer, thinner, or less
             coarse; dwindle or taper, or cause to do so.  Ьcut (or run) it
             fine allow very little margin of time etc.  fine arts those
             appealing to the mind or to the sense of beauty, as poetry,
             music, and esp. painting, sculpture, and architecture.  fine
             chemicals see CHEMICAL.  fine-draw sew together (two pieces of
             cloth, edges of a tear, parts of a garment) so that the join is
             imperceptible.  fine-drawn 1 extremely thin.  2 subtle.  fine
             print detailed printed information, esp. in legal documents,
             instructions, etc.  fine-spun 1 delicate.  2 (of a theory etc.)
             too subtle, unpractical.  fine-tooth comb a comb with narrow
             close-set teeth.  fine-tune make small adjustments to (a
             mechanism etc.) in order to obtain the best possible results.
             fine up Austral.  colloq.  (of the weather) become fine.  go
             over with a fine-tooth comb check or search thoroughly.  not to
             put too fine a point on it (as a parenthetic remark) to speak
             bluntly.  ЬЬfinely adv.  fineness n.  [ME f. OF fin ult. f. L
             finire finish]

   fine(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a sum of money exacted as a penalty.  2 hist. a
             sum of money paid by an incoming tenant in return for the rent's
             being small.  --v.tr. punish by a fine (fined him њ5).  Ьin fine
             to sum up; in short.  ЬЬfinable adj.  [ME f. OF fin f. med.L
             finis sum paid on settling a lawsuit f. L finis end]

   fine(3)   n.  = FINE CHAMPAGNE.  [abbr.]

   fine champagne
             n.  old liqueur brandy.  [F, = fine (brandy from) Champagne
             (vineyards in Charente)]

   finery(1) n.  showy dress or decoration.  [FINE(1) + -ERY, after BRAVERY]

   finery(2) n.  (pl.  -ies) hist.  a hearth where pig iron was converted
             into wrought iron.  [F finerie f.  finer refine, FINE(1)]

   fines herbes
             n.pl.  mixed herbs used in cooking, esp. chopped as
             omelette-flavouring.  [F, = fine herbs]

   finesse   n. & v.  --n.  1 refinement.  2 subtle or delicate manipulation.
             3 artfulness, esp. in handling a difficulty tactfully.  4 Cards
             an attempt to win a trick with a card that is not the highest
             held.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. use or achieve by finesse.  2 Cards a
             intr. make a finesse.  b tr. play (a card) by way of finesse.  3
             tr. evade or trick by finesse.  [F, rel. to FINE(1)]

   finger    n. & v.  --n.  1 any of the terminal projections of the hand
             (including or excluding the thumb).  2 the part of a glove etc.
             intended to cover a finger.  3 a a finger-like object (fish
             finger).  b a long narrow structure.  4 colloq. a measure of
             liquor in a glass, based on the breadth of a finger.  5 sl.  a
             an informer.  b a pickpocket.  c a policeman.  --v.tr.  1 touch,
             feel, or turn about with the fingers.  2 Mus.  a play (a
             passage) with fingers used in a particular way.  b mark (music)
             with signs showing which fingers are to be used.  c play upon
             (an instrument) with the fingers.  3 US sl. indicate (a victim,
             or a criminal to the police).  Ьall fingers and thumbs clumsy.
             finger alphabet a form of sign language using the fingers.
             finger-board a flat strip at the top end of a stringed
             instrument, against which the strings are pressed to determine
             tones.  finger-bowl (or -glass) a small bowl for rinsing the
             fingers during a meal.  finger language language expressed by
             means of the finger alphabet.  finger-mark a mark left on a
             surface by a finger.  finger-paint n.  paint that can be applied
             with the fingers.  --v.intr. apply paint with the fingers.
             finger-plate a plate fixed to a door above the handle to prevent
             finger-marks.  finger-post a signpost at a road junction.  one's
             fingers itch (often foll. by to + infin.)  one is longing or
             impatient.  finger-stall a cover to protect a finger, esp. when
             injured.  get (or pull) one's finger out sl.  cease
             prevaricating and start to act.  have a finger in the pie be
             (esp. officiously) concerned in the matter.  lay a finger on
             touch however slightly.  put one's finger on locate or identify
             exactly.  put the finger on sl.  1 inform against.  2 identify
             (an intended victim).  twist (or wind) round one's finger (or
             little finger) persuade (a person) without difficulty, dominate
             (a person) completely.  work one's fingers to the bone see BONE.
             ЬЬfingered adj. (also in comb.).  fingerless adj.  [OE f. Gmc]

             n.  1 a manner or technique of using the fingers, esp. to play
             an instrument.  2 an indication of this in a musical score.

             n.  fine wool for knitting.  [earlier fingram, perh. f. F fin
             grain, as GROGRAM f.  gros grain]

             n.  a parr.

             n.  the nail at the tip of each finger.

             n. & v.  --n.  1 an impression made on a surface by the
             fingertips, esp.  as used for identifying individuals.  2 a
             distinctive characteristic.  --v.tr. record the fingerprints of
             (a person).

   fingertip n.  the tip of a finger.  Ьhave at one's fingertips be
             thoroughly familiar with (a subject etc.).

   finial    n.  Archit.  1 an ornament finishing off the apex of a roof,
             pediment, gable, tower-corner, canopy, etc.  2 the topmost part
             of a pinnacle.  [ME f. OF fin f. L finis end]

   finical   adj.  = FINICKY.  ЬЬfinicality n.  finically adv.  finicalness
             n.  [16th c.: prob. orig. university sl. f.  FINE(1) + -ICAL]

   finicking adj.  = FINICKY.  [FINICAL + -ING(2)]

   finicky   adj.  1 over-particular, fastidious.  2 needing much attention
             to detail; fiddly.  ЬЬfinickiness n.

   finis     n.  1 (at the end of a book) the end.  2 the end of anything,
             esp. of life.  [L]

   finish    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a (often foll. by off) bring to an end;
             come to the end of; complete.  b (usu. foll. by off) colloq.
             kill; overcome completely.  c (often foll. by off, up) consume
             or get through the whole or the remainder of (food or drink)
             (finish up your dinner).  2 intr.  a come to an end, cease.  b
             reach the end, esp. of a race.  c = finish up.  3 tr.  a
             complete the manufacture of (cloth, woodwork, etc.) by surface
             treatment.  b put the final touches to; make perfect or highly
             accomplished (finished manners).  c prepare (a girl) for entry
             into fashionable society.  --n.  1 a the end, the last stage.  b
             the point at which a race etc. ends.  c the death of a fox in a
             hunt (be in at the finish).  2 a method, material, or texture
             used for surface treatment of wood, cloth, etc. (mahogany
             finish).  3 what serves to give completeness.  4 an accomplished
             or completed state.  Ьfight to a finish fight till one party is
             completely beaten.  finishing-school a private college where
             girls are prepared for entry into fashionable society.  finish
             off provide with an ending.  finish up (often foll. by in, by)
             end in something, end by doing something (he finished up last in
             the race; the plan finished up in the waste-paper basket;
             finished up by apologizing).  finish with have no more to do
             with, complete one's use of or association with.  [ME f. OF
             fenir f. L finire f.  finis end]

   finisher  n.  1 a person who finishes something.  2 a worker or machine
             doing the last operation in manufacture.  3 colloq. a
             discomfiting thing, a crushing blow, etc.

   finite    adj.  1 limited, bounded; not infinite.  2 Gram. (of a part of a
             verb) having a specific number and person.  3 not infinitely
             small.  ЬЬfinitely adv.  finiteness n.  finitude n.  [L finitus
             past part. of finire FINISH]

   finitism  n.  belief in the finiteness of the world, God, etc.  ЬЬfinitist

   fink      n. & v.  US sl.  --n.  1 an unpleasant person.  2 an informer.
             3 a strikebreaker; a blackleg.  --v.intr. (foll. by on) inform
             on.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Finn      n.  a native or national of Finland; a person of Finnish
             descent.  [OE Finnas pl.]

   finnan    n. (in full finnan haddock) a haddock cured with the smoke of
             green wood, turf, or peat.  [Findhorn or Findon in Scotland]

   finnesko  n.  (pl. same) a boot of tanned reindeer-skin with the hair on
             the outside.  [Norw.  finnsko (as FINN, sko SHOE)]

   Finnic    adj.  1 of the group of peoples related to the Finns.  2 of the
             group of languages related to Finnish.

   Finnish   adj. & n.  --adj. of the Finns or their language.  --n. the
             language of the Finns.

             adj. & n.  (also Finno-Ugrian) --adj. belonging to the group of
             Ural-Altaic languages including Finnish, Estonian, Lapp, and
             Magyar.  --n. this group.

   finny     adj.  1 having fins; like a fin.  2 poet. of or teeming with

   fino      n.  (pl.  -os) a light-coloured dry sherry.  [Sp., = fine]

   fiord     n.  (also fjord) a long narrow inlet of sea between high cliffs,
             as in Norway.  [Norw. f. ON fj”rthr f. Gmc: cf.  FIRTH, FORD]

   fioritura n.  (pl.  fioriture pronunc. same) Mus.  the usu. improvised
             decoration of a melody.  [It., = flowering f.  fiorire to

   fipple    n.  a plug at the mouth-end of a wind instrument.  Ьfipple flute
             a flute played by blowing endwise, e.g. a recorder.  [17th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   fir       n.  1 (in full fir-tree) any evergreen coniferous tree, esp. of
             the genus Abies, with needles borne singly on the stems (cf.
             PINE(1)).  2 the wood of the fir.  Ьfir-cone the fruit of the
             fir.  ЬЬfirry adj.  [ME, prob. f. ON fyri- f. Gmc]

   fire      n. & v.  --n.  1 a the state or process of combustion, in which
             substances combine chemically with oxygen from the air and usu.
             give out bright light and heat.  b the active principle
             operative in this.  c flame or incandescence.  2 a
             conflagration, a destructive burning (forest fire).  3 a burning
             fuel in a grate, furnace, etc.  b = electric fire.  c = gas
             fire.  4 firing of guns.  5 a fervour, spirit, vivacity.  b
             poetic inspiration, lively imagination.  c vehement emotion.  6
             burning heat, fever.  7 luminosity, glow (St Elmo's fire).  --v.
             1 a tr. discharge (a gun etc.).  b tr. propel (a missile) from a
             gun etc.  c intr. (often foll. by at, into, on) fire a gun or
             missile.  d tr. produce (a broadside, salute, etc.) by discharge
             of guns.  e intr. (of a gun etc.) be discharged.  2 tr. cause
             (explosive) to explode.  3 tr. deliver or utter in rapid
             succession (fired insults at us).  4 tr.  sl. dismiss (an
             employee) from a job.  5 tr.  a set fire to with the intention
             of destroying.  b kindle (explosives).  6 intr. catch fire.  7
             intr. (of an internal-combustion engine, or a cylinder in one)
             undergo ignition of its fuel.  8 tr. supply (a furnace, engine,
             boiler, or power station) with fuel.  9 tr.  a stimulate (the
             imagination).  b fill (a person) with enthusiasm.  10 tr.  a
             bake or dry (pottery, bricks, etc.).  b cure (tea or tobacco) by
             artificial heat.  11 intr. become heated or excited.  12 tr.
             cause to glow or redden.  Ьcatch fire begin to burn.  fire-alarm
             a device for giving warning of fire.  fire and brimstone the
             supposed torments of hell.  fire away colloq.  begin; go ahead.
             fire-ball 1 a large meteor.  2 a ball of flame, esp. from a
             nuclear explosion.  3 an energetic person.  4 ball lightning.  5
             Mil.  hist. a ball filled with combustibles.  fire-balloon a
             balloon made buoyant by the heat of a fire burning at its mouth.
             fire-blight a disease of plants, esp. hops and fruit trees,
             causing a scorched appearance.  fire-bomb an incendiary bomb.
             fire-break an obstacle to the spread of fire in a forest etc.,
             esp. an open space.  fire-brick a fireproof brick used in a
             grate.  fire brigade esp.  Brit.  an organized body of firemen
             trained and employed to extinguish fires.  fire-bug colloq.  a
             pyromaniac.  fire company 1 = fire brigade.  2 a fire-insurance
             company.  fire-control a system of regulating the fire of a
             ship's or a fort's guns.  fire department US = fire brigade.
             fire door a fire-resistant door to prevent the spread of fire.
             fire-drake (in Germanic mythology) a fiery dragon.  fire-drill 1
             a rehearsal of the procedures to be used in case of fire.  2 a
             primitive device for kindling fire with a stick and wood.
             fire-eater 1 a conjuror who appears to swallow fire.  2 a person
             fond of quarrelling or fighting.  fire-engine a vehicle carrying
             equipment for fighting large fires.  fire-escape an emergency
             staircase or apparatus for escape from a building on fire.  fire
             extinguisher an apparatus with a jet for discharging liquid
             chemicals, water, or foam to extinguish a fire.  fire-fighter a
             person whose task is to extinguish fires.  fire-guard 1 a
             protective screen or grid placed in front of a fireplace.  2 US
             a fire-watcher.  3 US a fire-break.  fire-hose a hose-pipe used
             in extinguishing fires.  fire-irons tongs, poker, and shovel,
             for tending a domestic fire.  fire-lighter Brit.  a piece of
             inflammable material to help start a fire in a grate.
             fire-office a fire-insurance company.  fire-opal girasol.
             fire-plug a hydrant for a fire-hose.  fire-power 1 the
             destructive capacity of guns etc.  2 financial, intellectual, or
             emotional strength.  fire-practice a fire-drill.  fire-raiser
             Brit.  an arsonist.  fire-raising Brit.  arson.  fire-screen 1 a
             screen to keep off the direct heat of a fire.  2 a fire-guard.
             3 an ornamental screen for a fireplace.  fire-ship hist.  a ship
             loaded with combustibles and sent adrift to ignite an enemy's
             ships etc.  fire station the headquarters of a fire brigade.
             fire-step = firing-step.  fire-stone stone that resists fire,
             used for furnaces etc.  fire-storm a high wind or storm
             following a fire caused by bombs.  fire-tongs tongs for picking
             up pieces of coal etc. in tending a fire.  fire-trap a building
             without proper provision for escape in case of fire.  fire up
             show sudden anger.  fire-walking the (often ceremonial) practice
             of walking barefoot over white-hot stones, wood-ashes, etc.
             fire warden US a person employed to prevent or extinguish fires.
             fire-watcher a person keeping watch for fires, esp. those caused
             by bombs.  fire-water colloq.  strong alcoholic liquor.  go on
             fire Sc. & Ir.  catch fire.  go through fire and water face all
             perils.  on fire 1 burning.  2 excited.  set fire to (or set on
             fire) ignite, kindle, cause to burn.  set the world (or Thames)
             on fire do something remarkable or sensational.  take fire catch
             fire.  under fire 1 being shot at.  2 being rigorously
             criticized or questioned.  ЬЬfireless adj.  firer n.  [OE fyr,
             fyrian, f. WG]

   firearm   n.  (usu. in pl.) a gun, esp. a pistol or rifle.

   fireback  n.  1 a the back wall of a fireplace.  b an iron sheet for this.
             2 a SE Asian pheasant of the genus Lophura.

   firebox   n.  the fuel-chamber of a steam engine or boiler.

   firebrand n.  1 a piece of burning wood.  2 a cause of trouble, esp. a
             person causing unrest.

   fireclay  n.  clay capable of withstanding high temperatures, often used
             to make fire-bricks.

             n.  US an explosive firework.

   firecrest n.  a warbler, Regulus ignicapillus, with red and orange crown
             feathers which may be erected.

   firedamp  n.  a miners' name for methane, which is explosive when mixed in
             certain proportions with air.

   firedog   n.  a metal support for burning wood or for a grate or

   firefly   n.  (pl.  -flies) any soft-bodied beetle of the family
             Lampyridae, emitting phosphorescent light, including glow-worms.

   firehouse n.  US a fire station.

   firelight n.  light from a fire in a fireplace.  [OE fyr-leoht (as FIRE,

   firelock  n.  hist.  a musket in which the priming was ignited by sparks.

   fireman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a member of a fire brigade; a person employed
             to extinguish fires.  2 a person who tends a furnace or the fire
             of a steam engine or steamship.

   fireplace n.  Archit.  1 a place for a domestic fire, esp. a grate or
             hearth at the base of a chimney.  2 a structure surrounding
             this.  3 the area in front of this.

   fireproof adj. & v.  --adj. able to resist fire or great heat.  --v.tr.
             make fireproof.

   fireside  n.  1 the area round a fireplace.  2 a person's home or
             home-life.  Ьfireside chat an informal talk.

   firewood  n.  wood for use as fuel.

   firework  n.  1 a device containing combustible chemicals that cause
             explosions or spectacular effects.  2 (in pl.) a an outburst of
             passion, esp. anger.  b a display of wit or brilliance.

   firing    n.  1 the discharging of guns.  2 material for a fire, fuel.  3
             the heating process which hardens clay into pottery etc.
             Ьfiring-line 1 the front line in a battle.  2 the leading part
             in an activity etc.  firing-party a group detailed to fire the
             salute at a military funeral.  firing-squad 1 a group detailed
             to shoot a condemned person.  2 a firing-party.  firing-step a
             step on which soldiers in a trench stand to fire.

   firkin    n.  1 a small cask for liquids, butter, fish, etc.  2 Brit. (as
             a measure) half a kilderkin (8 or 9 gallons).  [ME ferdekyn,
             prob. f. MDu.  vierdekijn (unrecorded) dimin. of vierde fourth]

   firm(1)   adj., adv., & v.  --adj.  1 a of solid or compact structure.  b
             fixed, stable.  c steady; not shaking.  2 a resolute,
             determined.  b not easily shaken (firm belief).  c steadfast,
             constant (a firm friend).  3 a (of an offer etc.) not liable to
             cancellation after acceptance.  b (of a decree, law, etc.)
             established, immutable.  4 Commerce (of prices or goods)
             maintaining their level or value.  --adv. firmly (stand firm;
             hold firm to).  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become firm, secure,
             compact, or solid.  2 tr. fix (plants) firmly in the soil.
             ЬЬfirmly adv.  firmness n.  [ME f. OF ferme f. L firmus]

   firm(2)   n.  1 a a business concern.  b the partners in such a concern.
             2 a group of persons working together, esp. of hospital doctors
             and assistants.  [earlier = signature, style: Sp. & It.  firma
             f. med.L, f. L firmare confirm f.  firmus FIRM(1)]

   firmament n.  literary the sky regarded as a vault or arch.  ЬЬfirmamental
             adj.  [ME f. OF f. L firmamentum f.  firmare (as FIRM(2))]

   firman    n.  1 an oriental sovereign's edict.  2 a grant or permit.
             [Pers.  ferman, Skr.  pramanam right measure]

   firmware  n.  Computing a permanent kind of software programmed into a
             read-only memory.

   firry     see FIR.

   first     adj., n., & adv.  --adj.  1 a earliest in time or order.  b
             coming next after a specified or implied time (shall take the
             first train; the first cuckoo).  2 foremost in position, rank,
             or importance (First Lord of the Treasury; first mate).  3 Mus.
             performing the highest or chief of two or more parts for the
             same instrument or voice.  4 most willing or likely (should be
             the first to admit the difficulty).  5 basic or evident (first
             principles).  --n.  1 (prec. by the) the person or thing first
             mentioned or occurring.  2 the first occurrence of something
             notable.  3 a a place in the first class in an examination.  b a
             person having this.  4 the first day of a month.  5 first gear.
             6 a first place in a race.  b the winner of this.  7 (in pl.)
             goods of the best quality.  --adv.  1 before any other person or
             thing (first of all; first and foremost; first come first
             served).  2 before someone or something else (must get this done
             first).  3 for the first time (when did you first see her?).  4
             in preference; rather (will see him damned first).  5
             first-class (I usually travel first).  Ьat first at the
             beginning.  at first hand directly from the original source.
             first aid help given to an injured person until proper medical
             treatment is available.  first and last taking one thing with
             another, on the whole.  first blood see BLOOD.  first-born adj.
             eldest.  --n. the eldest child of a person.  First Cause the
             Creator of the universe.  first class 1 a set of persons or
             things grouped together as the best.  2 the best accommodation
             in a train, ship, etc.  3 the class of mail given priority in
             handling.  4 a the highest division in an examination list.  b a
             place in this.  first-class adj.  1 belonging to or travelling
             by the first class.  2 of the best quality; very good.  --adv.
             by the first class (travels first-class).  first cousin see
             COUSIN.  first-day cover an envelope with stamps postmarked on
             their first day of issue.  first-degree Med.  denoting burns
             that affect only the surface of the skin, causing reddening.
             first finger the finger next to the thumb.  first floor see
             FLOOR.  first-foot Sc.  n.  the first person to cross a
             threshold in the New Year.  --v.intr. be a first-foot.
             first-fruit (usu. in pl.) 1 the first agricultural produce of a
             season, esp. as offered to God.  2 the first results of work
             etc.  3 hist. a payment to a superior by the new holder of an
             office.  first gear see GEAR.  first intention see INTENTION.
             First Lady (in the US) the wife of the President.  first lesson
             the first of several passages from the Bible read at a service
             in the Church of England.  first lieutenant US an army or air
             force officer next below captain.  first light the time when
             light first appears in the morning.  first mate (on a merchant
             ship) the officer second in command to the master.  first name a
             personal or Christian name.  first night the first public
             performance of a play etc.  first-nighter a habitual attender of
             first nights.  first off US colloq.  at first, first of all.
             first offender a criminal against whom no previous conviction is
             recorded.  first officer the mate on a merchant ship.  first or
             last sooner or later.  first past the post 1 winning a race etc.
             by being the first to reach the finishing line.  2 (of an
             electoral system) selecting a candidate or party by simple
             majority (see also proportional representation, single
             transferable vote).  first person see PERSON.  first post see
             POST(3).  first-rate adj.  of the highest class, excellent.
             --adv.  colloq.  1 very well (feeling first-rate).  2
             excellently.  first reading the occasion when a Bill is
             presented to a legislature to permit its introduction.  first
             refusal see REFUSAL.  first school Brit.  a school for children
             from 5 to 9 years old.  first sergeant US the highest-ranking
             non-commissioned officer in a company.  first-strike denoting a
             first aggressive attack with nuclear weapons.  first thing
             colloq.  before anything else; very early in the morning (shall
             do it first thing).  the first thing even the most elementary
             fact or principle (does not know the first thing about it).
             first things first the most important things before any others
             (we must do first things first).  first up Austral.  first of
             all; at the first attempt.  from the first from the beginning.
             from first to last throughout.  get to first base US achieve the
             first step towards an objective.  in the first place as the
             first consideration.  of the first water see WATER.  [OE fyrst
             f. Gmc]

   firsthand attrib.  adj. & adv.  from the original source; direct.

   firstling n.  (usu. in pl.) 1 the first result of anything, first-fruits.
             2 the first offspring; the first born in a season.

   firstly   adv.  (in enumerating topics, arguments, etc.) in the first
             place, first (cf.  FIRST adv.).

   firth     n.  (also frith) 1 a narrow inlet of the sea.  2 an estuary.
             [ME (orig. Sc.) f. ON fj”rthr FIORD]

   fisc      n.  Rom.Hist.  the public treasury; the emperor's privy purse.
             [F fisc or L fiscus rush-basket, purse, treasury]

   fiscal    adj. & n.  --adj. of public revenue.  --n.  1 a legal official
             in some countries.  2 Sc. = procurator fiscal.  Ьfiscal year =
             financial year.  ЬЬfiscally adv.  [F fiscal or L fiscalis (as

   fiscality n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 (in pl.) fiscal matters.  2 excessive regard
             for these.

   fish(1)   n. & v.  --n.  (pl. same or fishes) 1 a vertebrate cold-blooded
             animal with gills and fins living wholly in water.  2 any animal
             living wholly in water, e.g. cuttlefish, shellfish, jellyfish.
             3 the flesh of fish as food.  4 colloq. a person remarkable in
             some way (usu. unfavourable) (an odd fish).  5 (the Fish or
             Fishes) the zodiacal sign or constellation Pisces.  6 Naut.  sl.
             a torpedo; a submarine.  --v.  1 intr. try to catch fish, esp.
             with a line or net.  2 tr. fish for (a certain kind of fish) or
             in (a certain stretch of water).  3 intr. (foll. by for) a
             search for in water or a concealed place.  b seek by indirect
             means (fishing for compliments).  4 tr. (foll. by up, out, etc.)
             retrieve with careful or awkward searching.  Ьdrink like a fish
             drink excessively.  fish-bowl a usu. round glass bowl for
             keeping pet fish in.  fish cake a cake of shredded fish and
             mashed potato, usu. eaten fried.  fish eagle 1 any large eagle
             of the genus Haliaeetus, with long broad wings, strong legs, and
             a strong tail.  2 any of several other eagles catching and
             feeding on fish.  fish-eye lens a very wide-angle lens with a
             curved front.  fish farm a place where fish are bred for food.
             fish finger Brit.  a small oblong piece of fish in batter or
             breadcrumbs.  fish-glue isinglass.  fish-hawk an osprey, Pandion
             haliaeetus.  fish-hook a barbed hook for catching fish.
             fish-kettle an oval pan for boiling fish.  fish-knife a knife
             for eating or serving fish.  fish-meal ground dried fish used as
             fertilizer or animal feed.  fish out of water a person in an
             unsuitable or unwelcome environment or situation.  fish-pond (or
             -pool) a pond or pool in which fish are kept.  fish-slice a flat
             utensil for lifting fish and fried foods during and after
             cooking.  other fish to fry other matters to attend to.  [OE
             fisc, fiscian f. Gmc]

   fish(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a flat plate of iron, wood, etc., to strengthen
             a beam or joint.  2 Naut. a piece of wood, convex and concave,
             used to strengthen a mast etc.  --v.tr.  1 mend or strengthen (a
             spar etc.) with a fish.  2 join (rails) with a fish-plate.
             Ьfish-bolt a bolt used to fasten fish-plates and rails together.
             fish-plate a a flat piece of iron etc. connecting railway rails.
             b a flat piece of metal with ends like a fish's tail, used to
             position masonry.  ЬЬfishlike adj.  [orig. as verb: f. F ficher
             fix ult. f. L figere]

   fish(3)   n.  a piece of ivory etc. used as a counter in games.  [F fiche
             (ficher; see FISH(2))]

   fisher    n.  1 an animal that catches fish, esp. a pekan.  2 archaic a
             fisherman.  [OE fiscere f. Gmc (as FISH(1))]

   fisherman n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a person who catches fish as a livelihood or
             for sport.  2 a fishing-boat.

   fishery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a place where fish are caught or reared.  2
             the occupation or industry of catching or rearing fish.

   fishing   n.  the activity of catching fish, esp. for food or as a sport.
             Ьfishing-line a long thread of silk etc. with a baited hook,
             sinker, float, etc., used for catching fish.  fishing-rod a long
             tapering usu. jointed rod to which a fishing-line is attached.

             n.  esp.  Brit.  a dealer in fish.

   fishnet   n.  (often attrib.) an open-meshed fabric (fishnet stockings).

   fishpot   n.  a wicker trap for eels, lobsters, etc.

   fishtail  n. & v.  --n. a device etc. shaped like a fish's tail.
             --v.intr. move the tail of a vehicle from side to side.
             Ьfishtail burner a kind of burner producing a broadening jet of

   fishwife  n.  (pl.  -wives) 1 a coarse-mannered or noisy woman.  2 a woman
             who sells fish.

   fishy     adj.  (fishier, fishiest) 1 a smelling or tasting like fish.  b
             like that of a fish.  c (of an eye) dull, vacant-looking.  d
             consisting of fish (a fishy repast).  e joc. or poet. abounding
             in fish.  2 sl. of dubious character, questionable, suspect.
             ЬЬfishily adv.  fishiness n.

   fisk      n.  Sc.  the State treasury, the exchequer.  [var. of FISC]

   fissile   adj.  1 capable of undergoing nuclear fission.  2 cleavable;
             tending to split.  ЬЬfissility n.  [L fissilis (as FISSURE)]

   fission   n. & v.  --n.  1 Physics the spontaneous or impact-induced
             splitting of a heavy atomic nucleus, accompanied by a release of
             energy.  2 Biol. the division of a cell etc. into new cells etc.
             as a mode of reproduction.  --v.intr. & tr. undergo or cause to
             undergo fission.  Ьfission bomb an atomic bomb.  ЬЬfissionable
             adj.  [L fissio (as FISSURE)]

             adj.  1 Biol. reproducing by fission.  2 tending to split.
             ЬЬfissiparity n.  fissiparously adv.  fissiparousness n.  [L
             fissus past part. (as FISSURE) after viviparous]

   fissure   n. & v.  --n.  1 an opening, usu. long and narrow, made esp. by
             cracking, splitting, or separation of parts.  2 Bot. & Anat. a
             narrow opening in an organ etc., esp. a depression between
             convolutions of the brain.  3 a cleavage.  --v.tr. & intr. split
             or crack.  [ME f. OF fissure or L fissura f.  findere fiss-

   fist      n. & v.  --n.  1 a tightly closed hand.  2 sl. handwriting
             (writes a good fist; I know his fist).  3 sl. a hand (give us
             your fist).  --v.tr.  1 strike with the fist.  2 Naut. handle (a
             sail, an oar, etc.).  Ьmake a good (or poor etc.) fist (foll. by
             at, of) colloq.  make a good (or poor etc.) attempt at.
             ЬЬfisted adj. (also in comb.).  fistful n.  (pl.  -fuls).  [OE
             fyst f. WG]

   fistic    adj.  (also fistical) joc.  pugilistic.

             n.pl.  fighting with the fists.  [prob. obs.  fisty adj. =
             FISTIC, + CUFF(2)]

   fistula   n.  (pl.  fistulas or fistulae) 1 an abnormal or surgically made
             passage between a hollow organ and the body surface or between
             two hollow organs.  2 a natural pipe or spout in whales,
             insects, etc.  ЬЬfistular adj.  fistulous adj.  [L, = pipe,

   fit(1)    adj., v., n., & adv.  --adj.  (fitter, fittest) 1 a (usu. foll.
             by for, or to + infin.) well adapted or suited.  b (foll. by to
             + infin.) qualified, competent, worthy.  c (foll. by for, or to
             + infin.) in a suitable condition, ready.  d (foll. by for) good
             enough (a dinner fit for a king).  e (foll. by to + infin.)
             sufficiently exhausted, troubled, or angry (fit to drop).  2 in
             good health or athletic condition.  3 proper, becoming, right
             (it is fit that).  --v.  (fitted, fitting) 1 a tr. (also absol.)
             be of the right shape and size for (the dress fits her; the key
             doesn't fit the lock; these shoes don't fit).  b tr. make, fix,
             or insert (a thing) so that it is of the right size or shape
             (fitted shelves in the alcoves).  c intr. (often foll. by in,
             into) (of a component) be correctly positioned (that bit fits
             here).  d tr. find room for (can't fit another person on the
             bench).  2 tr. (foll. by for, or to + infin.)  a make suitable;
             adapt.  b make competent (fitted him to be a priest).  3 tr.
             (usu. foll. by with) supply, furnish (fitted the boat with a new
             rudder).  4 tr. fix in place (fit a lock on the door).  5 tr. =
             fit on.  6 tr. be in harmony with, befit, become (it fits the
             occasion; the punishment fits the crime).  --n. the way in which
             a garment, component, etc., fits (a bad fit; a tight fit).
             --adv. (foll. by to + infin.)  colloq. in a suitable manner,
             appropriately (was laughing fit to bust).  Ьfit the bill = fill
             the bill.  fit in 1 (often foll. by with) be (esp. socially)
             compatible or accommodating (doesn't fit in with the rest of the
             group; tried to fit in with their plans).  2 find space or time
             for (an object, engagement, etc.) (the dentist fitted me in at
             the last minute).  fit on try on (a garment).  fit out (or up)
             (often foll. by with) equip.  fit-up Theatr.  sl.  1 a temporary
             stage etc.  2 a travelling company.  see (or think) fit (often
             foll. by to + infin.)  decide or choose (a specified course of
             action).  ЬЬfitly adv.  fitness n.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   fit(2)    n.  1 a sudden seizure of epilepsy, hysteria, apoplexy,
             fainting, or paralysis, with unconsciousness or convulsions.  2
             a sudden brief attack of an illness or of symptoms (fit of
             coughing).  3 a sudden short bout or burst (fit of energy; fit
             of giggles).  4 colloq. an attack of strong feeling (fit of
             rage).  5 a capricious impulse; a mood (when the fit was on
             him).  Ьby (or in) fits and starts spasmodically.  give a person
             a fit colloq.  surprise or outrage him or her.  have a fit
             colloq.  be greatly surprised or outraged.  in fits laughing
             uncontrollably.  [ME, = position of danger, perh. = OE fitt
             conflict (?)]

   fit(3)    n.  (also fytte) archaic a section of a poem.  [OE fitt]

   fitch     n.  1 a polecat.  2 a the hair of a polecat.  b a brush made
             from this or similar hair.  [MDu.  fisse etc.: cf.  FITCHEW]

   fitchew   n.  a polecat.  [14th c. f. OF ficheau, fissel dimin. of MDu.

   fitful    adj.  active or occurring spasmodically or intermittently.
             ЬЬfitfully adv.  fitfulness n.

   fitment   n.  (usu. in pl.) a fixed item of furniture.

   fitted    adj.  1 made or shaped to fill a space or cover something
             closely or exactly (a fitted carpet).  2 provided with
             appropriate equipment, fittings, etc. (a fitted kitchen).  3
             built-in; filling an alcove etc. (fitted cupboards).

   fitter    n.  1 a person who supervises the cutting, fitting, altering,
             etc. of garments.  2 a mechanic who fits together and adjusts

   fitting   n. & adj.  --n.  1 the process or an instance of having a
             garment etc. fitted (needed several fittings).  2 a (in pl.) the
             fixtures and fitments of a building.  b a piece of apparatus or
             furniture.  --adj. proper, becoming, right.  Ьfitting-shop a
             place where machine parts are put together.  ЬЬfittingly adv.
             fittingness n.

   FitzGerald contraction
             n.  (also FitzGerald effect) (in full FitzGerald-Lorentz)
             Physics the shortening of a moving body in the direction of its
             motion esp. at speeds close to that of light.  [G. F.
             FitzGerald, Ir. physicist d. 1901 and H. A.  Lorentz, Du.
             physicist d. 1928]

   five      n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than four or one half of ten; the
             sum of three units and two units.  2 a symbol for this (5, v,
             V).  3 a size etc. denoted by five.  4 a set or team of five
             individuals.  5 the time of five o'clock (is it five yet?).  6 a
             card with five pips.  7 Cricket a hit scoring five runs.  --adj.
             that amount to five.  Ьbunch of fives Brit.  sl.  a hand or
             fist.  five-corner (or -corners) Austral.  1 a shrub of the
             genus Styphelia.  2 the pentagonal fruit of this.  five-eighth
             Austral. & NZ Rugby Football either of two players between the
             scrum-half and the centre three-quarter.  five-finger exercise 1
             an exercise on the piano involving all the fingers.  2 an easy
             task.  five hundred a form of euchre in which 500 points make a
             game.  five o'clock shadow beard-growth visible on a man's face
             in the latter part of the day.  five-star of the highest class.
             five-year plan 1 (in the USSR) a government plan for economic
             development over five years, inaugurated in 1928.  2 a similar
             plan in another country.  [OE fif f. Gmc]

   fivefold  adj. & adv.  1 five times as much or as many.  2 consisting of
             five parts.  3 amounting to five.

   fiver     n.  colloq.  1 Brit. a five-pound note.  2 US a five-dollar

   fives     n.  a game in which a ball is hit with a gloved hand or a bat
             against the walls of a court with three walls (Eton fives) or
             four walls (Rugby fives).  [pl. of FIVE used as sing.:
             significance unkn.]

             n.  Brit.  jacks played with five pieces of metal etc. and usu.
             without a ball.

   fix       v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. make firm or stable; fasten, secure (fixed
             a picture to the wall).  2 tr. decide, settle, specify (a price,
             date, etc.).  3 tr. mend, repair.  4 tr. implant (an idea or
             memory) in the mind (couldn't get the rules fixed in his head).
             5 tr.  a (foll. by on, upon) direct steadily, set (one's eyes,
             gaze, attention, or affection).  b attract and hold (a person's
             attention, eyes, etc.).  c (foll. by with) single out with one's
             eyes etc.  6 tr. place definitely or permanently, establish,
             station.  7 tr. determine the exact nature, position, etc., of;
             refer (a thing or person) to a definite place or time; identify,
             locate.  8 a tr. make (eyes, features, etc.) rigid.  b intr. (of
             eyes, features, etc.) become rigid.  9 tr.  US colloq. prepare
             (food or drink) (fixed me a drink).  10 a tr. deprive of
             fluidity or volatility; congeal.  b intr. lose fluidity or
             volatility, become congealed.  11 tr.  colloq. punish, kill,
             silence, deal with (a person).  12 tr.  colloq.  a secure the
             support of (a person) fraudulently, esp. by bribery.  b arrange
             the result of (a race, match, etc.) fraudulently (the
             competition was fixed).  13 sl.  a tr. inject (a person, esp.
             oneself) with a narcotic.  b intr. take an injection of a
             narcotic.  14 tr. make (a colour, photographic image, or
             microscope-specimen) fast or permanent.  15 tr. (of a plant or
             micro-organism) assimilate (nitrogen or carbon dioxide) by
             forming a non-gaseous compound.  16 tr. castrate or spay (an
             animal).  17 tr. arrest changes or development in (a language or
             literature).  18 tr. determine the incidence of (liability
             etc.).  19 intr.  archaic take up one's position.  --n.  1
             colloq. a position hard to escape from; a dilemma or
             predicament.  2 a the act of finding one's position by bearings
             or astronomical observations.  b a position found in this way.
             3 sl. a dose of a narcotic drug to which one is addicted.  4 US
             sl. bribery.  Ьbe fixed (usu. foll. by for) be disposed or
             affected (regarding) (how is he fixed for money?; how are you
             fixed for Friday?).  fixed capital machinery etc. that remains
             in the owner's use.  fixed-doh Mus.  applied to a system of
             sight-singing in which C is called 'doh', D is called 'ray',
             etc., irrespective of the key in which they occur (cf.
             movable-doh).  fixed focus a camera focus at a distance from a
             lens that is not adjustable.  fixed idea = IDђE FIXE.  fixed
             income income deriving from a pension, investment at fixed
             interest, etc.  fixed odds predetermined odds in racing etc.
             (opp.  starting price).  fixed oil an oil of animal or plant
             origin used in varnishes, lubricants, illuminants, soaps, etc.
             fixed point Physics a well-defined reproducible temperature.
             fixed star Astron.  a star so far from the earth as to appear
             motionless.  fix on (or upon) choose, decide on.  fix up 1
             arrange, organize, prepare.  2 accommodate.  3 (often foll. by
             with) provide (a person) (fixed me up with a job).  ЬЬfixable
             adj.  fixedly adv.  fixedness n.  [ME, partly f. obs.  fix fixed
             f. OF fix or L fixus past part. of figere fix, fasten, partly f.
             med.L fixare f.  fixus]

   fixate    v.tr.  1 direct one's gaze on.  2 Psychol.  a (usu. in passive;
             often foll. by on, upon) cause (a person) to acquire an abnormal
             attachment to persons or things (was fixated on his son).  b
             arrest (part of the libido) at an immature stage, causing such
             attachment.  [L fixus (see FIX) + -ATE(3)]

   fixation  n.  1 the act or an instance of being fixated.  2 an obsession,
             concentration on a single idea.  3 fixing or being fixed.  4 the
             process of rendering solid; coagulation.  5 the process of
             assimilating a gas to form a solid compound.  [ME f. med.L
             fixatio f.  fixare: see FIX]

   fixative  adj. & n.  --adj. tending to fix or secure.  --n. a substance
             used to fix colours, hair, microscope-specimens, etc.

   fixer     n.  1 a person or thing that fixes.  2 Photog. a substance used
             for fixing a photographic image etc.  3 colloq. a person who
             makes arrangements, esp. of an illicit kind.

   fixings   n.pl.  US 1 apparatus or equipment.  2 the trimmings for a dish.
             3 the trimmings of a dress etc.

   fixity    n.  1 a fixed state.  2 stability; permanence.  [obs.  fix
             fixed: see FIX]

   fixture   n.  1 a something fixed or fastened in position.  b (usu.
             predic.) colloq. a person or thing confined to or established in
             one place (he seems to be a fixture).  2 a a sporting event,
             esp. a match, race, etc.  b the date agreed for this.  3 (in
             pl.) Law articles attached to a house or land and regarded as
             legally part of it.  [alt. of obs.  fixure f. LL fixura f. L
             figere fix- fix]

   fizgig    n. & adj.  archaic --n.  1 a silly or flirtatious young woman.
             2 a kind of small firework; a cracker.  3 Austral.  sl. a police
             informer.  --adj. flighty.  [prob. f.  FIZZ + obs.  gig flighty

   fizz      v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 make a hissing or spluttering sound.  2
             (of a drink) make bubbles; effervesce.  --n.  1 effervescence.
             2 colloq. an effervescent drink, esp. champagne.  [imit.]

   fizzle    v. & n.  --v.intr. make a feeble hissing or spluttering sound.
             --n. such a sound.  Ьfizzle out end feebly (the party fizzled
             out at 10 o'clock).  [formed as FIZZ + -LE(4)]

   fizzy     adj.  (fizzier, fizziest) effervescent.  ЬЬfizzily adv.
             fizziness n.

9.0 FJI...

   FJI       abbr.  Fellow of the Institute of Journalists.

   fjord     var. of FIORD.

10.0 FL...

   FL        abbr.  US Florida (in official postal use).

   fl.       abbr.  1 floor.  2 floruit.  3 fluid.

   Fla.      abbr.  Florida.

   flab      n.  colloq.  fat; flabbiness.  [imit., or back-form. f.  FLABBY]

             v.tr. (esp. as flabbergasted adj.) colloq.  overwhelm with
             astonishment; dumbfound.  [18th c.: perh. f.  FLABBY + AGHAST]

   flabby    adj.  (flabbier, flabbiest) 1 (of flesh etc.) hanging down;
             limp; flaccid.  2 (of language or character) feeble.  ЬЬflabbily
             adv.  flabbiness n.  [alt. of earlier flappy f.  FLAP]

   flaccid   adj.  1 a (of flesh etc.) hanging loose or wrinkled; limp,
             flabby.  b (of plant tissue) soft; less rigid.  2 relaxed,
             drooping.  3 lacking vigour; feeble.  ЬЬflaccidity n.  flaccidly
             adv.  [F flaccide or L flaccidus f.  flaccus flabby]

   flack(1)  n.  US sl.  a publicity agent.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   flack(2)  var. of FLAK.

   flag(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a piece of cloth, usu. oblong or square,
             attachable by one edge to a pole or rope and used as a country's
             emblem or as a standard, signal, etc.  b a small toy, device,
             etc., resembling a flag.  2 Brit. an oblong strip of metal etc.
             that can be raised or lowered to indicate whether a taxi is for
             hire or occupied.  3 Naut. a flag carried by a flagship as an
             emblem of an admiral's rank afloat.  --v.  (flagged, flagging) 1
             intr.  a grow tired; lose vigour; lag (his energy flagged after
             the first lap).  b hang down; droop; become limp.  2 tr.  a
             place a flag on or over.  b mark out with or as if with a flag
             or flags.  3 tr. (often foll. by that) a inform (a person) by
             flag-signals.  b communicate (information) by flagging.  Ьblack
             flag 1 a pirate's ensign.  2 hist. a flag hoisted outside a
             prison to announce an execution.  flag-boat a boat serving as a
             mark in sailing-matches.  flag-captain the captain of a
             flagship.  flag-day Brit.  a day on which money is raised for a
             charity by the sale of small paper flags etc. in the street.
             Flag Day US 14 June, the anniversary of the adoption of the
             Stars and Stripes in 1777.  flag down signal to (a vehicle or
             driver) to stop.  flag-lieutenant Naut.  an admiral's ADC.
             flag-list Naut.  a roll of flag-officers.  flag of convenience a
             foreign flag under which a ship is registered, usu. to avoid
             financial charges etc.  flag-officer Naut.  an admiral, vice
             admiral, or rear admiral, or the commodore of a yacht-club.
             flag of truce a white flag indicating a desire for a truce.
             flag-pole = FLAGSTAFF.  flag-rank Naut.  the rank attained by
             flag-officers.  flag-station a station at which trains stop only
             if signalled.  flag-wagging sl.  1 signalling with hand-held
             flags.  2 = flag-waving.  flag-waver a populist agitator; a
             chauvinist.  flag-waving populist agitation, chauvinism.  keep
             the flag flying continue the fight.  put the flag out celebrate
             victory, success, etc.  show the flag 1 make an official visit
             to a foreign port etc.  2 ensure that notice is taken of one's
             country, oneself, etc.; make a patriotic display.  ЬЬflagger n.
             [16th c.: perh. f. obs.  flag drooping]

   flag(2)   n. & v.  --n.  (also flagstone) 1 a flat usu. rectangular stone
             slab used for paving.  2 (in pl.) a pavement made of these.
             --v.tr.  (flagged, flagging) pave with flags.  [ME, = sod: cf.
             Icel.  flag spot from which a sod has been cut out, ON flaga
             slab of stone, and FLAKE(1)]

   flag(3)   n.  1 any plant with a bladed leaf (esp. several of the genus
             Iris) growing on moist ground.  2 the long slender leaf of such
             a plant.  [ME: cf. MDu.  flag, Da.  fl‘g]

   flag(4)   n. (in full flag-feather) a quill-feather of a bird's wing.
             [perh. rel. to obs.  fag loose flap: cf.  FLAG(1) v.]

             n. & adj.  --n.  1 a person who scourges himself or herself or
             others as a religious discipline.  2 a person who engages in
             flogging as a sexual stimulus.  --adj. of or concerning
             flagellation.  [L flagellare to whip f.  FLAGELLUM]

             v.tr.  scourge, flog (cf.  FLAGELLANT).  ЬЬflagellation n.
             flagellator n.  flagellatory adj.

             adj. & n.  --adj. having flagella (see FLAGELLUM).  --n. a
             protozoan having one or more flagella.

   flagellum n.  (pl.  flagella) 1 Biol. a long lashlike appendage found
             principally on microscopic organisms.  2 Bot. a runner; a
             creeping shoot.  ЬЬflagellar adj.  flagelliform adj.  [L, =
             whip, dimin. of flagrum scourge]

             n.  1 a small flute blown at the end, like a recorder but with
             two thumb-holes.  2 an organ stop having a similar sound.  [F,
             dimin. of OF flag(e)ol f. Prov.  flajol, of unkn. orig.]

             n.  a kind of French kidney bean.  [F]

             adj.  deeply criminal; utterly villainous.  ЬЬflagitiously adv.
             flagitiousness n.  [ME f. L flagitiosus f.  flagitium shameful

   flagman   n.  (pl.  -men) a person who signals with or as with a flag,
             e.g. at races.

   flagon    n.  1 a large bottle in which wine, cider, etc., are sold, usu.
             holding 1.13 litres.  2 a a large vessel usu. with a handle,
             spout, and lid, to hold wine etc.  b a similar vessel used for
             the Eucharist.  [ME flakon f. OF flacon ult. f. LL flasco -onis

   flagrant  adj.  (of an offence or an offender) glaring; notorious;
             scandalous.  ЬЬflagrancy n.  flagrantly adv.  [F flagrant or L
             flagrant- part. stem of flagrare blaze]

   flagship  n.  1 a ship having an admiral on board.  2 something that is
             held to be the best or most important of its kind; a leader.

   flagstaff n.  a pole on which a flag may be hoisted.

   flagstone n.  = FLAG(2).

   flail     n. & v.  --n. a threshing-tool consisting of a wooden staff with
             a short heavy stick swinging from it.  --v.  1 tr. beat or
             strike with or as if with a flail.  2 intr. wave or swing wildly
             or erratically (went into the fight with arms flailing).  [OE
             prob. f. L FLAGELLUM]

   flair     n.  1 an instinct for selecting or performing what is excellent,
             useful, etc.; a talent (has a flair for knowing what the public
             wants; has a flair for languages).  2 talent or ability, esp.
             artistic or stylistic.  [F flairer to smell ult. f. L fragrare:
             see FRAGRANT]

   flak      n.  (also flack) 1 anti-aircraft fire.  2 adverse criticism;
             abuse.  Ьflak jacket a protective jacket of heavy camouflage
             fabric reinforced with metal, worn by soldiers etc.  [abbr. of G
             Fliegerabwehrkanone, lit. aviator-defence-gun]

   flake(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a small thin light piece of snow.  b a
             similar piece of another material.  2 a thin broad piece of
             material peeled or split off.  3 Archaeol. a piece of hard stone
             chipped off and used as a tool.  4 a natural division of the
             flesh of some fish.  5 the dogfish or other shark as food.
             --v.tr. & intr. (often foll. by away, off) 1 take off or come
             away in flakes.  2 sprinkle with or fall in snowlike flakes.
             Ьflake out colloq.  fall asleep or drop from exhaustion; faint.
             [ME: orig. unkn.: cf. ON flakna flake off]

   flake(2)  n.  1 a stage for drying fish etc.  2 a rack for storing
             oatcakes etc.  [ME, perh. f. ON flaki, fleki wicker shield]

   flaky     adj.  (flakier, flakiest) 1 of or like flakes; separating easily
             into flakes.  2 esp.  US sl. crazy, eccentric.  Ьflaky pastry
             pastry consisting of thin light layers.  ЬЬflakily adv.
             flakiness n.

   flamb‚    adj.  (of food) covered with alcohol and set alight briefly.
             [F, past part. of flamber singe (as FLAMBEAU)]

   flambeau  n.  (pl.  flambeaus or flambeaux) 1 a flaming torch, esp.
             composed of several thick waxed wicks.  2 a branched
             candlestick.  [F f.  flambe f. L flammula dimin. of flamma

             adj.  1 ostentatious; showy.  2 floridly decorated.  3
             gorgeously coloured.  4 Archit. (of decoration) marked by wavy
             flamelike lines.  ЬЬflamboyance n.  flamboyancy n.  flamboyantly
             adv.  [F (in Archit. sense), pres. part. of flamboyer f.
             flambe: see FLAMBEAU]

   flame     n. & v.  --n.  1 a ignited gas (the fire burnt with a steady
             flame).  b one portion of this (the flame flickered and died).
             c (usu. in pl.) visible combustion (burst into flames).  2 a a
             bright light; brilliant colouring.  b a brilliant orange-red
             colour.  3 a strong passion, esp. love (fan the flame).  b
             colloq. a boyfriend or girlfriend.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. (often
             foll. by away, forth, out, up) emit or cause to emit flames.  2
             intr. (often foll. by out, up) a (of passion) break out.  b (of
             a person) become angry.  3 intr. shine or glow like flame
             (leaves flamed in the autumn sun).  4 intr.  poet. move like
             flame.  5 tr. send (a signal) by means of flame.  6 tr. subject
             to the action of flame.  Ьflame gun a device for throwing flames
             to destroy weeds etc.  flame out (of a jet engine) lose power
             through the extinction of the flame in the combustion chamber.
             flame-proof (esp. of a fabric) treated so as to be
             non-flammable.  flame-thrower (or -projector) a weapon for
             throwing a spray of flame.  flame-tree any of various trees with
             brilliant red flowers esp. flame-of-the-forest, Delonix regia.
             go up in flames be consumed by fire.  ЬЬflameless adj.
             flamelike adj.  flamy adj.  [ME f. OF flame, flam(m)er f. L

   flamen    n.  Rom.Hist.  a priest serving a particular deity.  [ME f. L]

   flamenco  n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a style of music played (esp. on the guitar)
             and sung by Spanish gypsies.  2 a dance performed to this music.
             [Sp., = Flemish]

   flaming   adj.  1 emitting flames.  2 very hot (flaming June).  3 colloq.
             a passionate; intense (a flaming row).  b expressing annoyance,
             or as an intensifier (that flaming dog).  4 bright-coloured
             (flaming red hair).

   flamingo  n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) any tall long-necked web-footed wading
             bird of the family Phoenicopteridae, with crooked bill and pink,
             scarlet, and black plumage.  [Port.  flamengo f. Prov.  flamenc
             f.  flama flame + -enc = -ING(3)]

   flammable adj.  inflammable.  °Often used because inflammable can be
             mistaken for a negative (the true negative being non-flammable).
             ЬЬflammability n.  [L flammare f.  flamma flame]

   flan      n.  1 a a pastry case with a savoury or sweet filling.  b a
             sponge base with a sweet topping.  2 a disc of metal from which
             a coin etc. is made.  [F (orig. = round cake) f. OF flaon f.
             med.L flado -onis f. Frank.]

   flanch    v.tr. & intr.  (also flaunch) (esp. with ref. to a chimney)
             slope inwards or cause to slope inwards towards the top.
             ЬЬflanching n.  [perh. f. OF flanchir f.  flanche, flanc FLANK]

   flѓnerie  n.  idling, idleness.  [F f.  flѓner lounge]

   flѓneur   n.  an idler; a lounger.  [F (as FL°NERIE)]

   flange    n. & v.  Engin.  --n. a projecting flat rim, collar, or rib,
             used for strengthening or attachment.  --v.tr. provide with a
             flange.  ЬЬflangeless n.  [17th c.: perh. f.  flange widen out
             f. OF flangir (as FLANCH)]

   flank     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the side of the body between the ribs and the
             hip.  b the side of an animal carved as meat (flank of beef).  2
             the side of a mountain, building, etc.  3 the right or left side
             of an army or other body of persons.  --v.tr.  1 (often in
             passive) be situated at both sides of (a road flanked by
             mountains).  2 Mil.  a guard or strengthen on the flank.  b
             menace the flank of.  c rake with sweeping gunfire; enfilade.
             Ьflank forward Rugby Football a wing forward.  in flank at the
             side.  [ME f. OF flanc f. Frank.]

   flanker   n.  1 Mil. a fortification guarding or menacing the flank.  2
             anything that flanks another thing.  3 (in Rugby and American
             Football) a flank forward.  4 sl. a trick; a swindle (pulled a

   flannel   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a kind of woven woollen fabric, usu. without
             a nap.  b (in pl.) flannel garments, esp. trousers.  2 Brit. a
             small usu. towelling cloth, used for washing oneself.  3 Brit.
             sl. nonsense; flattery.  --v.  (flannelled, flannelling; US
             flanneled, flanneling) 1 Brit.  sl.  a tr. flatter.  b intr. use
             flattery.  2 tr. wash or clean with a flannel.  Ьflannel-mouth
             US sl.  a flatterer; a braggart.  ЬЬflannelly adj.  [perh. f.
             Welsh gwlanen f.  gwlan wool]

             n.  a piece of flannel as a base for paper or cloth cut-outs,
             used as a toy or a teaching aid.

             n.  a napped cotton fabric imitating flannel.  [FLANNEL]

             n.  = FLANNELBOARD.

             adj.  (US also flanneled) wearing flannel trousers.  [FLANNEL]

   flap      v. & n.  --v.  (flapped, flapping) 1 a tr. move (wings, the
             arms, etc.) up and down when flying, or as if flying.  b intr.
             (of wings, the arms, etc.) move up and down; beat.  2 intr.
             colloq. be agitated or panicky.  3 intr. (esp. of curtains,
             loose cloth, etc.) swing or sway about; flutter.  4 tr. (usu.
             foll. by away, off) strike (flies etc.) with something broad;
             drive.  5 intr.  colloq. (of ears) listen intently.  --n.  1 a
             piece of cloth, wood, paper, etc. hinged or attached by one side
             only and often used to cover a gap, e.g. a pocket-cover, the
             folded part of an envelope, a table-leaf.  2 one up-and-down
             motion of a wing, an arm, etc.  3 colloq. a state of agitation;
             panic (don't get into a flap).  4 a hinged or sliding section of
             a wing used to control lift; an aileron.  5 a light blow with
             something broad.  6 an open mushroom-top.  ЬЬflappy adj.  [ME,
             prob. imit.]

             n.  colloq.  nonsense.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   flapjack  n.  1 a cake made from oats and golden syrup etc.  2 esp.  US a
             pancake.  [FLAP + JACK(1)]

   flapper   n.  1 a person or thing that flaps.  2 an instrument that is
             flapped to kill flies, scare birds, etc.  3 a person who panics
             easily or is easily agitated.  4 sl. (in the 1920s) a young
             unconventional or lively woman.  5 a young mallard or partridge.

   flare     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. widen or cause to widen gradually
             towards the top or bottom (flared trousers).  2 intr. & tr. burn
             or cause to burn suddenly with a bright unsteady flame.  3 intr.
             burst into anger; burst forth.  --n.  1 a a dazzling irregular
             flame or light, esp. in the open air.  b a sudden outburst of
             flame.  2 a a signal light used at sea.  b a bright light used
             as a signal.  c a flame dropped from an aircraft to illuminate a
             target etc.  3 Astron. a sudden burst of radiation from a star.
             4 a a gradual widening, esp. of a skirt or trousers.  b (in pl.)
             wide-bottomed trousers.  5 an outward bulge in a ship's sides.
             6 Photog. unnecessary illumination on a lens caused by internal
             reflection etc.  Ьflare-path an area illuminated to enable an
             aircraft to land or take off.  flare up 1 burst into a sudden
             blaze.  2 become suddenly angry or active.  flare-up n.  an
             outburst of flame, anger, activity, etc.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   flash     v., n., & adj.  --v.  1 intr. & tr. emit or reflect or cause to
             emit or reflect light briefly, suddenly, or intermittently;
             gleam or cause to gleam.  2 intr. break suddenly into flame;
             give out flame or sparks.  3 tr. send or reflect like a sudden
             flame or blaze (his eyes flashed fire).  4 intr.  a burst
             suddenly into view or perception (the explanation flashed upon
             me).  b move swiftly (the train flashed through the station).  5
             tr.  a send (news etc.) by radio, telegraph, etc. (flashed a
             message to her).  b signal to (a person) by shining lights or
             headlights briefly.  6 tr.  colloq. show ostentatiously (flashed
             her engagement ring).  7 intr. (of water) rush along; rise and
             flow.  8 intr.  sl. indecently expose oneself.  --n.  1 a sudden
             bright light or flame, e.g. of lightning.  2 a very brief time;
             an instant (all over in a flash).  3 a a brief, sudden burst of
             feeling (a flash of hope).  b a sudden display (of wit,
             understanding, etc.).  4 = NEWSFLASH.  5 Photog. = FLASHLIGHT 1.
             6 a a rush of water, esp. down a weir to take a boat over
             shallows.  b a contrivance for producing this.  7 Brit.  Mil. a
             coloured patch of cloth on a uniform etc. as a distinguishing
             emblem.  8 vulgar display, ostentation.  9 a bright patch of
             colour.  10 Cinematog. the momentary exposure of a scene.  11
             excess plastic or metal oozing from a mould during moulding.
             --adj.  colloq.  1 gaudy; showy; vulgar (a flash car).  2
             counterfeit (flash notes).  3 connected with thieves, the
             underworld, etc.  Ьflash-board a board used for sending more
             water from a mill-dam into a mill-race.  flash bulb Photog.  a
             bulb for a flashlight.  flash burn a burn caused by sudden
             intense heat, esp. from a nuclear explosion.  flash card a card
             containing a small amount of information, held up for pupils to
             see, as an aid to learning.  flash-cube Photog.  a set of four
             flash bulbs arranged as a cube and operated in turn.
             flash-flood a sudden local flood due to heavy rain etc.
             flash-gun Photog.  a device used to operate a camera flashlight.
             flashing-point = FLASHPOINT.  flash in the pan a promising start
             followed by failure (from the priming of old guns).  flash-lamp
             a portable flashing electric lamp.  flash out (or up) show
             sudden passion.  flash over Electr.  make an electric circuit by
             sparking across a gap.  flash-over n.  an instance of this.  [ME
             orig. with ref. to the rushing of water: cf.  SPLASH]

   flashback n.  Cinematog.  a scene set in a time earlier than the main

   flasher   n.  1 Brit.  sl. a man who indecently exposes himself.  2 a an
             automatic device for switching lights rapidly on and off.  b a
             sign or signal using this.  3 a person or thing that flashes.

   flashing  n.  a usu. metallic strip used to prevent water penetration at
             the junction of a roof with a wall etc.  [dial.  flash seal with
             lead sheets or obs.  flash flashing]

             n.  1 a a light giving an intense flash, used for photographing
             by night, indoors, etc.  b a picture so taken.  2 US an electric
             torch.  3 a flashing light used for signals and in lighthouses.

             n.  1 the temperature at which vapour from oil etc. will ignite
             in air.  2 the point at which anger, indignation, etc. becomes

   flashy    adj.  (flashier, flashiest) showy; gaudy; cheaply attractive.
             ЬЬflashily adv.  flashiness n.

   flask     n.  1 a narrow-necked bulbous bottle for wine etc. or as used in
             chemistry.  2 = hip-flask (see HIP(1)).  3 = vacuum flask.  4
             hist. = powder-flask.  [F flasque & (prob.) It.  fiasco f. med.L
             flasca, flasco: cf.  FLAGON]

   flat(1)   adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  (flatter, flattest) 1 a
             horizontally level (a flat roof).  b even; smooth; unbroken;
             without projection or indentation (a flat stomach).  c with a
             level surface and little depth; shallow (a flat cap; a flat
             heel).  2 unqualified; plain; downright (a flat refusal; a flat
             denial).  3 a dull; lifeless; monotonous (spoke in a flat tone).
             b without energy; dejected.  4 (of a fizzy drink) having lost
             its effervescence.  5 (of an accumulator, a battery, etc.)
             having exhausted its charge.  6 Mus.  a below true or normal
             pitch (the violins are flat).  b (of a key) having a flat or
             flats in the signature.  c (as B, E , etc. flat) a semitone
             lower than B, E, etc.  7 Photog. lacking contrast.  8 a (of
             paint etc.) not glossy; matt.  b (of a tint) uniform.  9 (of a
             tyre) punctured; deflated.  10 (of a market, prices, etc.)
             inactive; sluggish.  11 of or relating to flat-racing.  --adv.
             1 lying at full length; spread out, esp. on another surface (lay
             flat on the floor; the ladder was flat against the wall).  2
             colloq.  a completely, absolutely (turned it down flat; flat
             broke).  b exactly (in five minutes flat).  3 Mus. below the
             true or normal pitch (always sings flat).  --n.  1 the flat part
             of anything; something flat (the flat of the hand).  2 level
             ground, esp. a plain or swamp.  3 Mus.  a a note lowered a
             semitone below natural pitch.  b the sign (!!!) indicating this.
             4 (as the flat) Brit.  a flat racing.  b the flat racing season.
             5 Theatr. a flat section of scenery mounted on a frame.  6 esp.
             US colloq. a flat tyre.  7 sl. a foolish person.  --v.tr.
             (flatted, flatting) 1 make flat, flatten (esp. in technical
             use).  2 US Mus. make (a note) flat.  Ьfall flat fail to live up
             to expectations; not win applause.  flat arch Archit.  an arch
             with a flat lower or inner curve.  flat (or flat-bottomed) boat
             a boat with a flat bottom for transport in shallow water.
             flat-fish any marine fish of various families having an
             asymmetric appearance with both eyes on one side of a flattened
             body, including sole, turbot, plaice, etc.  flat foot a foot
             with a less than normal arch.  flat-four (of an engine) having
             four cylinders all horizontal, two on each side of the
             crankshaft.  flat-head 1 any marine fish of the family
             Platycephalidae, having a flattened body with both eyes on the
             top side.  2 sl. a foolish person.  flat-iron hist.  an iron
             heated externally and used for pressing clothes etc.  flat out 1
             at top speed.  2 using all one's strength, energy, or resources.
             flat race a horse race over level ground, as opposed to a
             steeplechase or hurdles.  flat-racing the racing of horses in
             flat races.  flat rate a rate that is the same in all cases, not
             proportional.  flat spin 1 Aeron. a nearly horizontal spin.  2
             colloq. a state of agitation or panic.  flat-top 1 US Aeron.
             sl. an aircraft-carrier.  2 sl. a man's short flat haircut.
             that's flat colloq.  let there be no doubt about it.  ЬЬflatly
             adv.  flatness n.  flattish adj.  [ME f. ON flatr f. Gmc]

   flat(2)   n. & v.  --n. a set of rooms, usu. on one floor, used as a
             residence.  --v.intr.  (flatted, flatting) (often foll. by with)
             Austral. share a flat with.  ЬЬflatlet n.  [alt. f. obs.  flet
             floor, dwelling f. Gmc (as FLAT(1))]

   flatcar   n.  a railway wagon without raised sides or ends.

   flatfoot  n.  (pl.  -foots or -feet) sl.  a policeman.

             adj.  1 having flat feet.  2 colloq. downright, positive.  3
             colloq. unprepared; off guard (was caught flat-footed).
             ЬЬflat-footedly adv.  flat-footedness n.

   flatmate  n.  Brit.  a person in relation to one or more others living in
             the same flat.

   flatten   v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become flat.  2 tr.  colloq.  a
             humiliate.  b knock down.  Ьflatten out bring an aircraft
             parallel to the ground.  ЬЬflattener n.

   flatter   v.tr.  1 compliment unduly; overpraise, esp. for gain or
             advantage.  2 (usu.  refl.; usu. foll. by that + clause) please,
             congratulate, or delude (oneself etc.) (I flatter myself that I
             can sing).  3 a (of a colour, a style, etc.) make (a person)
             appear to the best advantage (that blouse flatters you).  b
             (esp. of a portrait, a painter, etc.) represent too favourably.
             4 gratify the vanity of; make (a person) feel honoured.  5
             inspire (a person) with hope, esp. unduly (was flattered into
             thinking himself invulnerable).  6 please or gratify (the ear,
             the eye, etc.).  Ьflattering unction a salve that one
             administers to one's own conscience or self-esteem (Shakesp.
             esp.  Hamlet III. iv. 136).  ЬЬflatterer n.  flattering adj.
             flatteringly adv.  [ME, perh. rel. to OF flater to smooth]

   flattery  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 exaggerated or insincere praise.  2 the act or
             an instance of flattering.

   flattie   n.  (also flatty) (pl.  -ies) colloq.  1 a flat-heeled shoe.  2
             a flat-bottomed boat.  3 a policeman.

   flatulent adj.  1 a causing formation of gas in the alimentary canal.  b
             caused by or suffering from this.  2 (of speech etc.) inflated,
             pretentious.  ЬЬflatulence n.  flatulency n.  flatulently adv.
             [F f. mod.L flatulentus (as FLATUS)]

   flatus    n.  wind in or from the stomach or bowels.  [L, = blowing f.
             flare blow]

   flatware  n.  1 plates, saucers, etc. (opp.  HOLLOWWARE).  2 US domestic

   flatworm  n.  any worm of the phylum Platyhelminthes, having a flattened
             body and no body-cavity or blood vessels, including turbellaria,
             flukes, etc.

   flaunch   var. of FLANCH.

   flaunt    v. & n.  --v.tr. & intr.  1 (often refl.) display ostentatiously
             (oneself or one's finery); show off; parade (liked to flaunt his
             gold cuff-links; flaunted themselves before the crowd).  °Often
             confused with flout.  2 wave or cause to wave proudly (flaunted
             the banner).  --n. an act or instance of flaunting.  ЬЬflaunter
             n.  flaunty adj.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   flautist  n.  a flute-player.  [It.  flautista f.  flauto FLUTE]

             adj.  turning yellow; yellowish.  [L flavescere f.  flavus

   flavin    n.  (also flavine) 1 the chemical compound forming the nucleus
             of various natural yellow pigments.  2 a yellow dye obtained
             from dyer's oak.  Ьflavin adenine dinucleotide a coenzyme
             derived from riboflavin, important in various biochemical
             reactions.  °Abbr.: FAD.  [L flavus yellow + -IN]

   flavine   n.  Pharm.  an antiseptic derived from acridine.  [as FLAVIN +

   flavone   n.  Biochem.  any of a group of naturally occurring white or
             yellow pigments found in plants.  [as FLAVINE + -ONE]

             n.  Biochem.  any of a group of conjugated proteins containing
             flavin that are involved in oxidation reactions in cells.
             [FLAVINE + PROTEIN]

   flavorous adj.  having a pleasant or pungent flavour.

   flavour   n. & v.  (US flavor) --n.  1 a distinctive mingled sensation of
             smell and taste (has a cheesy flavour).  2 an indefinable
             characteristic quality (music with a romantic flavour).  3 (usu.
             foll. by of) a slight admixture of a usu. undesirable quality
             (the flavour of failure hangs over the enterprise).  4 esp.  US
             = FLAVOURING.  --v.tr. give flavour to; season.  Ьflavour of the
             month (or week) a temporary trend or fashion.  ЬЬflavourful adj.
             flavourless adj.  flavoursome adj.  [ME f. OF flaor perh. f. L
             flatus blowing & foetor stench: assim. to savour]

             n.  a substance used to flavour food or drink.

   flaw(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 an imperfection; a blemish (has a character
             without a flaw).  2 a crack or similar fault (the cup has a
             flaw).  3 Law an invalidating defect in a legal matter.  --v.tr.
             & intr. crack; damage; spoil.  ЬЬflawless adj.  flawlessly adv.
             flawlessness n.  [ME perh. f. ON flaga slab f. Gmc: cf.
             FLAKE(1), FLAG(2)]

   flaw(2)   n.  a squall of wind; a short storm.  [prob. f. MDu.  vlaghe,
             MLG vlage, perh. = stroke]

   flax      n.  1 a a blue-flowered plant, Linum usitatissimum, cultivated
             for its textile fibre and its seeds (see LINSEED).  b a plant
             resembling this.  2 a dressed or undressed flax fibres.  b
             archaic linen, cloth of flax.  Ьflax-lily (pl.  -ies) NZ any
             plant of the genus Phormium, yielding valuable fibre.  flax-seed
             linseed.  [OE fl‘x f. WG]

   flaxen    adj.  1 of flax.  2 (of hair) coloured like dressed flax; pale

   flay      v.tr.  1 strip the skin or hide off, esp. by beating.  2
             criticize severely (the play was flayed by the critics).  3 peel
             off (skin, bark, peel, etc.).  4 strip (a person) of wealth by
             extortion or exaction.  ЬЬflayer n.  [OE flean f. Gmc]

   F-layer   n.  the highest and most strongly ionized region of the
             ionosphere.  [F (arbitrary) + LAYER]

   flea      n.  1 a small wingless jumping insect of the order Siphonaptera,
             feeding on human and other blood.  2 a (in full flea beetle) a
             small jumping beetle infesting hops, cabbages, etc.  b (in full
             water flea) daphnia.  Ьflea-bite 1 the bite of a flea.  2 a
             trivial injury or inconvenience.  flea-bitten 1 bitten by or
             infested with fleas.  2 shabby.  flea-bug US = FLEA 2a.
             flea-circus a show of performing fleas.  flea-collar an
             insecticidal collar for pets.  a flea in one's ear a sharp
             reproof.  flea market a street market selling second-hand goods
             etc.  flea-pit a dingy dirty place, esp. a run-down cinema.
             flea-wort any of several plants supposed to drive away fleas.
             [OE flea, fleah f. Gmc]

   fleabag   n.  sl.  a shabby or unattractive person or thing.

   fleabane  n.  any of various composite plants of the genus Inula or
             Pulicaria, supposed to drive away fleas.

   flЉche    n.  a slender spire, often perforated with windows, esp. at the
             intersection of the nave and the transept of a church.  [F,
             orig. = arrow]

   fleck     n. & v.  --n.  1 a small patch of colour or light (eyes with
             green flecks).  2 a small particle or speck, esp. of dust.  3 a
             spot on the skin; a freckle.  --v.tr. mark with flecks; dapple;
             variegate.  [perh. f. ON flekkr (n.), flekka (v.), or MLG, MDu.
             vlecke, OHG flec, fleccho]

   flection  US var. of FLEXION.

   fled      past and past part. of FLEE.

   fledge    v.  1 intr. (of a bird) grow feathers.  2 tr. provide (an arrow)
             with feathers.  3 tr. bring up (a young bird) until it can fly.
             4 tr. (as fledged adj.) a able to fly.  b independent; mature.
             5 tr. deck or provide with feathers or down.  [obs.  fledge
             (adj.) 'fit to fly', f. OE flycge (recorded in unfligge) f. a
             Gmc root rel. to FLY(1)]

   fledgling n.  (also fledgeling) 1 a young bird.  2 an inexperienced
             person.  [FLEDGE + -LING(1)]

   flee      v.  (past and past part.  fled) 1 intr. (often foll. by from,
             before) a run away.  b seek safety by fleeing.  2 tr. run away
             from; leave abruptly; shun (fled the room; fled his attentions).
             3 intr. vanish; cease; pass away.  ЬЬfleer n.  [OE fleon f. Gmc]

   fleece    n. & v.  --n.  1 a the woolly covering of a sheep or a similar
             animal.  b the amount of wool sheared from a sheep at one time.
             2 something resembling a fleece, esp.: a a woolly or rough head
             of hair.  b a soft warm fabric with a pile, used for lining
             coats etc.  c a white cloud, a blanket of snow, etc.  3 Heraldry
             a representation of a fleece suspended from a ring.  --v.tr.  1
             (often foll. by of) strip (a person) of money, valuables, etc.;
             swindle.  2 remove the fleece from (a sheep etc.); shear.  3
             cover as if with a fleece (a sky fleeced with clouds).
             Ьfleece-picker Austral. & NZ = FLEECY.  Golden Fleece see
             GOLDEN.  ЬЬfleeceable adj.  fleeced adj. (also in comb.).  [OE
             fleos, fles f. WG]

   fleecy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (fleecier, fleeciest) 1 of or like a fleece.
             2 covered with a fleece.  --n.  (also fleecie) (pl.  -ies)
             Austral. & NZ a person whose job is to pick up fleeces in a
             shearing shed.  ЬЬfleecily adv.  fleeciness n.

   fleer     v. & n.  --v.intr. laugh impudently or mockingly; sneer; jeer.
             --n. a mocking look or speech.  [ME, prob. f. Scand.: cf. Norw.
             & Sw. dial.  flira to grin]

   fleet(1)  n.  1 a a number of warships under one commander-in-chief.  b
             (prec. by the) all the warships and merchant-ships of a nation.
             2 a number of ships, aircraft, buses, lorries, taxis, etc.
             operating together or owned by one proprietor.  ЬFleet Admiral
             see ADMIRAL.  Fleet Air Arm hist.  the aviation service of the
             Royal Navy.  [OE fleot ship, shipping f.  fleotan float,

   fleet(2)  adj.  poet.  literary swift; nimble.  ЬЬfleetly adv.  fleetness
             n.  [prob. f. ON fljўtr f. Gmc: cf.  FLEET(5)]

   fleet(3)  n.  dial.  1 a creek; an inlet.  2 (the Fleet) a an underground
             stream running into the Thames east of Fleet St.  b hist. a
             prison that stood near it.  ЬFleet Street 1 the London press.  2
             British journalism or journalists.  [OE fleot f. Gmc: cf.

   fleet(4)  adj. & adv.  dial.  --adj. (of water) shallow.  --adv. at or to
             a small depth (plough fleet).  [orig. uncert.: perh. f. OE fleat
             (unrecorded), rel. to FLEET(5)]

   fleet(5)  v.intr.  archaic 1 glide away; vanish; be transitory.  2 (usu.
             foll. by away) (of time) pass rapidly; slip away.  3 move
             swiftly; fly.  [OE fleotan float, swim f. Gmc]

   fleeting  adj.  transitory; brief.  ЬЬfleetingly adv.  [FLEET(5) +

   Fleming   n.  1 a native of medieval Flanders in the Low Countries.  2 a
             member of a Flemish-speaking people inhabiting N. and W. Belgium
             (see also WALLOON).  [OE f. ON Fl‘mingi & MDu.  Vlaming f. root
             of Vlaanderen Flanders]

   Flemish   adj. & n.  --adj. of or relating to Flanders.  --n. the language
             of the Flemings.  ЬFlemish bond Building a bond in which each
             course consists of alternate headers and stretchers.  [MDu.
             Vlamisch (as FLEMING)]

   flense    v.tr.  (also flench, flinch) 1 cut up (a whale or seal).  2 flay
             (a seal).  [Da.  flense: cf. Norw.  flinsa, flunsa flay]

   flesh     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the soft, esp. muscular, substance between
             the skin and bones of an animal or a human.  b plumpness; fat
             (has put on flesh).  c archaic meat, esp. excluding poultry,
             game, and offal.  2 the body as opposed to the mind or the soul,
             esp. considered as sinful.  3 the pulpy substance of a fruit or
             a plant.  4 a the visible surface of the human body with ref. to
             its colour or appearance.  b (also flesh-colour) a yellowish
             pink colour.  5 animal or human life.  --v.tr.  1 embody in
             flesh.  2 incite (a hound etc.) by the taste of blood.  3
             initiate, esp. by aggressive or violent means, esp.: a use (a
             sword etc.) for the first time on flesh.  b use (wit, the pen,
             etc.) for the first time.  c inflame (a person) by the foretaste
             of success.  Ьall flesh all human and animal creation.  flesh
             and blood --n.  1 the body or its substance.  2 humankind.  3
             human nature, esp. as being fallible.  --adj. actually living,
             not imaginary or supernatural.  flesh-fly (pl.  -flies) any fly
             of the family Sarcophagidae that deposits eggs or larvae in dead
             flesh.  flesh out make or become substantial.  flesh side the
             side of a hide that adjoined the flesh.  flesh tints
             flesh-colours as rendered by a painter.  flesh-wound a wound not
             reaching a bone or a vital organ.  in the flesh in bodily form,
             in person.  lose (or put on) flesh grow thinner or fatter.  make
             a person's flesh creep frighten or horrify a person, esp. with
             tales of the supernatural etc.  one flesh (of two people)
             intimately united, esp. by virtue of marriage (Gen. 2:24).
             one's own flesh and blood near relatives; descendants.  sins of
             the flesh unchastity.  the way of all flesh experience common to
             all mankind.  ЬЬfleshless adj.  [OE fl‘sc f. Gmc]

   flesher   n.  Sc.  a butcher.

   fleshings n.pl.  an actor's flesh-coloured tights.

   fleshly   adj.  (fleshlier, fleshliest) 1 (of desire etc.) bodily;
             lascivious; sensual.  2 mortal, not divine.  3 worldly.
             ЬЬfleshliness n.  [OE fl‘sclic (as FLESH)]

   fleshpots n.pl.  luxurious living (Exod. 16:3).

   fleshy    adj.  (fleshier, fleshiest) 1 plump, fat.  2 of flesh, without
             bone.  3 (of plant or fruit tissue) pulpy.  4 like flesh.
             ЬЬfleshiness n.

   fletcher  n.  archaic a maker or seller of arrows.  [ME f. OF flech(i)er
             f.  fleche arrow]

             n.  (also fleur-de-lys) (pl.  fleurs- pronunc. same) 1 the iris
             flower.  2 Heraldry a a lily composed of three petals bound
             together near their bases.  b the former royal arms of France.
             [ME f. OF flour de lys flower of lily]

   fleuret   n.  an ornament like a small flower.  [F fleurette f.  fleur

   fleuron   n.  a flower-shaped ornament on a building, a coin, a book, etc.
             [ME f. OF floron f.  flour FLOWER]

   fleury    adj.  (also flory) Heraldry decorated with fleurs-de-lis.  [ME
             f. OF flo(u)r‚ (as FLEURON)]

   flew      past of FLY(1).

   flews     n.pl.  the hanging lips of a bloodhound etc.  [16th c.: orig.

   flex(1)   v.  1 tr. & intr. bend (a joint, limb, etc.) or be bent.  2 tr.
             & intr. move (a muscle) or (of a muscle) be moved to bend a
             joint.  3 tr.  Geol. bend (strata).  4 tr.  Archaeol. place (a
             corpse) with the legs drawn up under the chin.  [L flectere
             flex- bend]

   flex(2)   n.  Brit.  a flexible insulated cable used for carrying electric
             current to an appliance.  [abbr. of FLEXIBLE]

   flexible  adj.  1 able to bend without breaking; pliable; pliant.  2
             easily led; manageable; docile.  3 adaptable; versatile;
             variable (works flexible hours).  ЬЬflexibility n.  flexibly
             adv.  [ME f. OF flexible or L flexibilis (as FLEX(1))]

   flexile   adj.  archaic 1 supple; mobile.  2 tractable; manageable.  3
             versatile.  ЬЬflexility n.  [L flexilis (as FLEX(1))]

   flexion   n.  (US flection) 1 a the act of bending or the condition of
             being bent, esp.  of a limb or joint.  b a bent part; a curve.
             2 Gram. inflection.  3 Math. = FLEXURE.  ЬЬflexional adj. (in
             sense 2).  flexionless adj. (in sense 2).  [L flexio (as

   flexitime n.  Brit.  1 a system of working a set number of hours with the
             starting and finishing times chosen within agreed limits by the
             employee.  2 the hours worked in this way.  [FLEXIBLE + TIME]

             n.  Printing a rotary letterpress technique using rubber or
             plastic plates and synthetic inks or dyes for printing on
             fabrics, plastics, etc., as well as on paper.  ЬЬflexographic
             adj.  [L flexus a bending f.  flectere bend + -GRAPHY]

   flexor    n. (in full flexor muscle) a muscle that bends part of the body
             (cf.  EXTENSOR).  [mod.L (as FLEX(1))]

   flexuous  adj.  full of bends; winding.  ЬЬflexuosity n.  flexuously adv.
             [L flexuosus f.  flexus bending formed as FLEX(1)]

   flexure   n.  1 a the act of bending or the condition of being bent.  b a
             bend, curve, or turn.  2 Math. the curving of a line, surface,
             or solid, esp. from a straight line, plane, etc.  3 Geol. the
             bending of strata under pressure.  ЬЬflexural adj.  [L flexura
             (as FLEX(1))]

             n.  a gossiping, frivolous, or restless person.  [imit. of

   flick     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a light, sharp, quickly retracted blow with a
             whip etc.  b the sudden release of a bent finger or thumb, esp.
             to propel a small object.  2 a sudden movement or jerk.  3 a
             quick turn of the wrist in playing games, esp. in throwing or
             striking a ball.  4 a slight, sharp sound.  5 Brit.  colloq.  a
             a cinema film.  b (in pl.; prec. by the) the cinema.  --v.  1
             tr. (often foll. by away, off) strike or move with a flick
             (flicked the ash off his cigar; flicked away the dust).  2 tr.
             give a flick with (a whip, towel, etc.).  3 intr. make a
             flicking movement or sound.  Ьflick-knife a weapon with a blade
             that springs out from the handle when a button is pressed.
             flick through 1 turn over (cards, pages, etc.).  2 a turn over
             the pages etc. of, by a rapid movement of the fingers.  b look
             cursorily through (a book etc.).  [ME, imit.]

             v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 (of light) shine unsteadily or fitfully.
             2 (of a flame) burn unsteadily, alternately flaring and dying
             down.  3 a (of a flag, a reptile's tongue, an eyelid, etc.) move
             or wave to and fro; quiver; vibrate.  b (of the wind) blow
             lightly and unsteadily.  4 (of hope etc.) increase and decrease
             unsteadily and intermittently.  --n. a flickering movement or
             light.  Ьflicker out die away after a final flicker.  [OE
             flicorian, flycerian]

             n.  any woodpecker of the genus Colaptes, native to N. America.
             [imit. of its note]

   flier     var. of FLYER.

   flight(1) n. & v.  --n.  1 a the act or manner of flying through the air
             (studied swallows' flight).  b the swift movement or passage of
             a projectile etc. through the air (the flight of an arrow).  2 a
             a journey made through the air or in space.  b a timetabled
             journey made by an airline.  c an RAF unit of about six
             aircraft.  3 a a flock or large body of birds, insects, etc.,
             esp. when migrating.  b a migration.  4 (usu. foll. by of) a
             series, esp. of stairs between floors, or of hurdles across a
             race track (lives up six flights).  5 an extravagant soaring, a
             mental or verbal excursion or sally (of wit etc.) (a flight of
             fancy; a flight of ambition).  6 the trajectory and pace of a
             ball in games.  7 the distance that a bird, aircraft, or missile
             can fly.  8 (usu. foll. by of) a volley (a flight of arrows).  9
             the tail of a dart.  10 the pursuit of game by a hawk.  11 swift
             passage (of time).  --v.tr.  1 vary the trajectory and pace of
             (a cricket-ball etc.).  2 provide (an arrow) with feathers.  3
             shoot (wildfowl etc.) in flight.  Ьflight bag a small, zipped,
             shoulder bag carried by air travellers.  flight control an
             internal or external system directing the movement of aircraft.
             flight-deck 1 the deck of an aircraft-carrier used for take-off
             and landing.  2 the accommodation for the pilot, navigator, etc.
             in an aircraft.  flight-feather a bird's wing or tail feather.
             flight lieutenant an RAF officer next in rank below squadron
             leader.  flight officer a rank in the WRAF, corresponding to
             flight lieutenant.  flight path the planned course of an
             aircraft or spacecraft.  flight-recorder a device in an aircraft
             to record technical details during a flight, that may be used in
             the event of an accident to discover its cause.  flight sergeant
             Mil.  an RAF rank next above sergeant.  flight-test test (an
             aircraft, rocket, etc.) during flight.  in the first (or top)
             flight taking a leading place.  take (or wing) one's flight fly.
             [OE flyht f. WG: rel to FLY(1)]

   flight(2) n.  1 a the act or manner of fleeing.  b a hasty retreat.  2
             Econ. the selling of currency, investments, etc. in anticipation
             of a fall in value (flight from sterling).  Ьput to flight cause
             to flee.  take (or take to) flight flee.  [OE f. Gmc: rel. to

             adj.  (of a bird etc.) naturally unable to fly.

   flighty   adj.  (flightier, flightiest) 1 (usu. of a girl) frivolous,
             fickle, changeable.  2 crazy.  ЬЬflightily adv.  flightiness n.
             [FLIGHT(1) + -Y(1)]

   flimflam  n. & v.  --n.  1 a trifle; nonsense; idle talk.  2 humbug;
             deception.  --v.tr.  (flimflammed, flimflamming) cheat; deceive.
             ЬЬflimflammer n.  flimflammery n.  (pl.  -ies).  [imit. redupl.]

   flimsy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (flimsier, flimsiest) 1 lightly or carelessly
             assembled; insubstantial, easily damaged (a flimsy structure).
             2 (of an excuse etc.) unconvincing (a flimsy pretext).  3
             paltry; trivial; superficial (a flimsy play).  4 (of clothing)
             thin (a flimsy blouse).  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a very thin paper.
             b a document, esp. a copy, made on this.  2 a flimsy thing, esp.
             women's underwear.  ЬЬflimsily adv.  flimsiness n.  [17th c.:
             prob. f.  FLIMFLAM: cf.  TIPSY]

   flinch(1) v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 draw back in pain or expectation of a blow
             etc.; wince.  2 (often foll. by from) give way; shrink, turn
             aside (flinched from his duty).  --n. an act or instance of
             flinching.  ЬЬflincher n.  flinchingly adv.  [OF flenchir,
             flainchir f. WG]

   flinch(2) var. of FLENSE.

   flinders  n.pl.  fragments; splinters.  [ME, prob. f. Scand.]

   fling     v. & n.  --v.  (past and past part.  flung) 1 tr. throw or hurl
             (an object) forcefully.  2 refl.  a (usu. foll. by into) rush
             headlong (into a person's arms, a train, etc.).  b (usu. foll.
             by into) embark wholeheartedly (on an enterprise).  c (usu.
             foll. by on) throw (oneself) on a person's mercy etc.  3 tr.
             utter (words) forcefully.  4 tr. (usu. foll. by out) suddenly
             spread (the arms).  5 tr. (foll. by on, off) put on or take off
             (clothes) carelessly or rapidly.  6 intr. go angrily or
             violently; rush (flung out of the room).  7 tr. put or send
             suddenly or violently (was flung into jail).  8 tr. (foll. by
             away) discard or put aside thoughtlessly or rashly (flung away
             their reputation).  9 intr. (usu. foll. by out) (of a horse
             etc.) kick and plunge.  10 tr.  archaic send, emit (sound,
             light, smell).  --n.  1 an act or instance of flinging; a throw;
             a plunge.  2 a spell of indulgence or wild behaviour (he's had
             his fling).  3 an impetuous, whirling Scottish dance, esp. the
             Highland fling.  Ьhave a fling at 1 make an attempt at.  2 jeer
             at.  ЬЬflinger n.  [ME, perh. f. ON]

   flint     n.  1 a a hard grey stone of nearly pure silica occurring
             naturally as nodules or bands in chalk.  b a piece of this esp.
             as flaked or ground to form a primitive tool or weapon.  2 a
             piece of hard alloy of rare-earth metals used to give an
             igniting spark in a cigarette-lighter etc.  3 a piece of flint
             used with steel to produce fire, esp. in a flintlock gun.  4
             anything hard and unyielding.  Ьflint corn a variety of maize
             having hard translucent grains.  flint glass a pure lustrous
             kind of glass orig. made with flint.  ЬЬflinty adj.  (flintier,
             flintiest).  flintily adv.  flintiness n.  [OE]

   flintlock n.  hist.  1 an old type of gun fired by a spark from a flint.
             2 the lock producing such a spark.

   flip(1)   v., n., & adj.  --v.  (flipped, flipping) 1 tr.  a flick or toss
             (a coin, pellet, etc.) with a quick movement so that it spins in
             the air.  b remove (a small object) from a surface with a flick
             of the fingers.  2 tr.  a strike or flick (a person's ear,
             cheek, etc.) lightly or smartly.  b move (a fan, whip, etc.)
             with a sudden jerk.  3 tr. turn (a small object) over.  4 intr.
             a make a fillip or flicking noise with the fingers.  b (foll. by
             at) strike smartly at.  5 intr. move about with sudden jerks.  6
             intr.  sl. become suddenly excited or enthusiastic.  --n.  1 a
             smart light blow; a flick.  2 colloq.  a a short pleasure flight
             in an aircraft.  b a quick tour etc.  3 an act of flipping over
             (gave the stone a flip).  --adj.  colloq. glib; flippant.  Ьflip
             chart a large pad erected on a stand and bound so that one page
             can be turned over at the top to reveal the next.  flip one's
             lid sl.  1 lose self-control.  2 go mad.  flip side colloq.  the
             less important side of a gramophone record.  flip through =
             flick through.  [prob. f.  FILLIP]

   flip(2)   n.  1 a drink of heated beer and spirit.  2 = egg-flip.  [perh.
             f.  FLIP(1) in the sense whip up]

   flip-flop n. & v.  --n.  1 a usu. rubber sandal with a thong between the
             big and second toe.  2 esp.  US a backward somersault.  3 an
             electronic switching circuit changed from one stable state to
             another, or through an unstable state back to its stable state,
             by a triggering pulse.  --v.intr.  (-flopped, -flopping) move
             with a sound or motion suggested by 'flip-flop'.  [imit.]

   flippant  adj.  lacking in seriousness; treating serious things lightly;
             disrespectful.  ЬЬflippancy n.  flippantly adv.  [FLIP(1) +

   flipper   n.  1 a broadened limb of a turtle, penguin, etc., used in
             swimming.  2 a flat rubber etc. attachment worn on the foot for
             underwater swimming.  3 sl. a hand.

   flipping  adj. & adv.  Brit.  sl.  expressing annoyance, or as an
             intensifier (where's the flipping towel?; he flipping beat me).
             [FLIP(1) + -ING(2)]

   flirt     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (usu. foll. by with) behave in a
             frivolously amorous or sexually enticing manner.  2 intr. (usu.
             foll. by with) a superficially interest oneself (with an idea
             etc.).  b trifle (with danger etc.) (flirted with disgrace).  3
             tr. wave or move (a fan, a bird's tail, etc.) briskly.  4 intr.
             & tr. move or cause to move with a jerk.  --n.  1 a person who
             indulges in flirting.  2 a quick movement; a sudden jerk.
             ЬЬflirtation n.  flirtatious adj.  flirtatiously adv.
             flirtatiousness n.  flirty adj.  (flirtier, flirtiest).  [imit.]

   flit      v. & n.  --v.intr.  (flitted, flitting) 1 move lightly, softly,
             or rapidly (flitted from one room to another).  2 fly lightly;
             make short flights (flitted from branch to branch).  3 Brit.
             colloq. leave one's house etc. secretly to escape creditors or
             obligations.  4 esp.  Sc. & N.Engl. change one's home; move.
             --n.  1 an act of flitting.  2 (also moonlight flit) a secret
             change of abode in order to escape creditors etc.  ЬЬflitter n.
             [ME f. ON flytja: rel. to FLEET(5)]

   flitch    n.  1 a side of bacon.  2 a slab of timber from a tree-trunk,
             usu. from the outside.  3 (in full flitch-plate) a strengthening
             plate in a beam etc.  Ьflitch-beam a compound beam, esp. of an
             iron plate between two slabs of wood.  [OE flicce f. Gmc]

   flitter   v.intr.  flit about; flutter.  Ьflitter-mouse = BAT(2).  [FLIT +

   flivver   n.  US sl.  1 a cheap car or aircraft.  2 a failure.  [20th c.:
             orig. uncert.]

   flixweed  n.  a cruciferous plant, Descurainia sophia, formerly thought to
             cure dysentery.  [earlier fluxweed]

   float     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. & tr.  a rest or move or cause (a buoyant
             object) to rest or move on the surface of a liquid without
             sinking.  b get afloat or set (a stranded ship) afloat.  2 intr.
             move with a liquid or current of air; drift (the clouds floated
             high up).  3 intr.  colloq.  a move in a leisurely or casual way
             (floated about humming quietly).  b (often foll. by before)
             hover before the eye or mind (the prospect of lunch floated
             before them).  4 intr. (often foll. by in) move or be suspended
             freely in a liquid or a gas.  5 tr.  a bring (a company, scheme,
             etc.) into being; launch.  b offer (stock, shares, etc.) on the
             stock market.  6 Commerce a intr. (of currency) be allowed to
             have a fluctuating exchange rate.  b tr. cause (currency) to
             float.  c intr. (of an acceptance) be in circulation.  7 tr. (of
             water etc.) support; bear along (a buoyant object).  8 intr. &
             tr. circulate or cause (a rumour or idea) to circulate.  9 tr.
             waft (a buoyant object) through the air.  10 tr.  archaic cover
             with liquid; inundate.  --n.  1 a thing that floats, esp.: a a
             raft.  b a cork or quill on a fishing-line as an indicator of a
             fish biting.  c a cork supporting the edge of a fishing-net.  d
             the hollow or inflated part or organ supporting a fish etc.  in
             the water; an air bladder.  e a hollow structure fixed
             underneath an aircraft enabling it to float on water.  f a
             floating device on the surface of water, petrol, etc.,
             controlling the flow.  2 a small vehicle or cart, esp. one
             powered by electricity (milk float).  3 a platform mounted on a
             lorry and carrying a display in a procession etc.  4 a a sum of
             money used at the beginning of a period of selling in a shop, a
             f€te, etc. to provide change.  b a small sum of money for minor
             expenditure; petty cash.  5 Theatr. (in sing. or pl.)
             footlights.  6 a tool used for smoothing plaster.  Ьfloat-board
             one of the boards of a water-wheel or paddle-wheel.  float glass
             a kind of glass made by drawing the molten glass continuously on
             to a surface of molten metal for hardening.  float process the
             process used to make float glass.  float-stone a light, porous
             stone that floats.  ЬЬfloatable adj.  floatability n.  [OE flot,
             flotian float, OE flota ship, ON flota, floti rel. to FLEET(5):
             in ME infl. by OF floter]

   floatage  n.  1 the act or state of floating.  2 Brit.  a floating objects
             or masses; flotsam.  b the right of appropriating flotsam.  3 a
             ships etc. afloat on a river.  b the part of a ship above the
             water-line.  4 buoyancy; floating power.

             var. of FLOTATION.

   floater   n.  1 a person or thing that floats.  2 a floating voter.  3 sl.
             a mistake; a gaffe.  4 a person who frequently changes
             occupation.  5 Stock Exch. a government stock certificate etc.
             recognized as a security.

   floating  adj.  not settled in a definite place; fluctuating; variable
             (the floating population).  Ьfloating anchor a sea anchor.
             floating bridge 1 a bridge on pontoons etc.  2 a ferry working
             on chains.  floating debt a debt repayable on demand, or at a
             stated time.  floating dock a floating structure usable as a dry
             dock.  floating kidney 1 an abnormal condition in which the
             kidneys are unusually movable.  2 such a kidney.  floating light
             1 a lightship.  2 a lifebuoy with a lantern.  floating point
             Computing a decimal etc. point that does not occupy a fixed
             position in the numbers processed.  floating rib any of the
             lower ribs, which are not attached to the breastbone.  floating
             voter a voter without allegiance to any political party.
             ЬЬfloatingly adv.

   floaty    adj.  (esp. of a woman's garment or a fabric) light and airy.

   floc      n.  a flocculent mass of fine particles.  [abbr. of FLOCCULUS]

             v.tr. & intr.  form into flocculent masses.  ЬЬflocculation n.

   floccule  n.  a small portion of matter resembling a tuft of wool.

             adj.  1 like tufts of wool.  2 consisting of or showing tufts,
             downy.  3 Chem. (of precipitates) loosely massed.  ЬЬflocculence
             n.  [L floccus FLOCK(2)]

   flocculus n.  (pl.  flocculi) 1 a floccule.  2 Anat. a small ovoid lobe in
             the under-surface of the cerebellum.  3 Astron. a small cloudy
             wisp on the sun's surface.  [mod.L, dimin. of FLOCCUS]

   floccus   n.  (pl.  flocci) a tuft of woolly hairs or filaments.  [L, =

   flock(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a a number of animals of one kind, esp. birds,
             feeding or travelling together.  b a number of domestic animals,
             esp. sheep, goats, or geese, kept together.  2 a large crowd of
             people.  3 a a Christian congregation or body of believers, esp.
             in relation to one minister.  b a family of children, a number
             of pupils, etc.  --v.intr.  1 congregate; mass.  2 (usu. foll.
             by to, in, out, together) go together in a crowd; troop
             (thousands flocked to Wembley).  [OE flocc]

   flock(2)  n.  1 a lock or tuft of wool, cotton, etc.  2 a (also in pl.;
             often attrib.) material for quilting and stuffing made of
             wool-refuse or torn-up cloth (a flock pillow).  b powdered wool
             or cloth.  Ьflock-paper (or -wallpaper) wallpaper sized and
             sprinkled with powdered wool to make a raised pattern.  ЬЬflocky
             adj.  [ME f. OF floc f. L floccus]

   floe      n.  a sheet of floating ice.  [prob. f. Norw.  flo f. ON flў

   flog      v.  (flogged, flogging) 1 tr.  a beat with a whip, stick, etc.
             (as a punishment or to urge on).  b make work through violent
             effort (flogged the engine).  2 tr.  Brit.  sl. sell.  3 tr.
             (usu. foll. by into, out of) drive (a quality, knowledge, etc.)
             into or out of a person, esp. by physical punishment.  4 intr. &
             refl.  sl. proceed by violent or painful effort.  Ьflog a dead
             horse waste energy on something unalterable.  flog to death
             colloq.  talk about or promote at tedious length.  ЬЬflogger n.
             [17th-c. cant: prob. imit. or f. L flagellare to whip]

   flong     n.  Printing prepared paper for making stereotype moulds.  [F
             flan FLAN]

   flood     n. & v.  --n.  1 a an overflowing or influx of water beyond its
             normal confines, esp. over land; an inundation.  b the water
             that overflows.  2 a an outpouring of water; a torrent (a flood
             of rain).  b something resembling a torrent (a flood of tears; a
             flood of relief).  3 the inflow of the tide (also in comb.  :
             flood-tide).  4 colloq. a floodlight.  5 (the Flood) the flood
             described in Genesis.  6 poet. a river; a stream; a sea.  --v.
             1 tr.  a cover with or overflow in a flood (rain flooded the
             cellar).  b overflow as if with a flood (the market was flooded
             with foreign goods).  2 tr. irrigate (flooded the paddy fields).
             3 tr. deluge (a burning house, a mine, etc.) with water.  4
             intr. (often foll. by in, through) arrive in great quantities
             (complaints flooded in; fear flooded through them).  5 intr.
             become inundated (the bathroom flooded).  6 tr. overfill (a
             carburettor) with petrol.  7 intr. experience a uterine
             haemorrhage.  8 tr. (of rain etc.) fill (a river) to
             overflowing.  Ьflood and field sea and land.  flood out drive
             out (of one's home etc.) with a flood.  flood-tide the
             periodical exceptional rise of the tide because of lunar or
             solar attraction.  [OE flod f. Gmc]

   floodgate n.  1 a gate opened or closed to admit or exclude water, esp.
             the lower gate of a lock.  2 (usu. in pl.) a last restraint
             holding back tears, rain, anger, etc.

             n. & v.  --n.  1 a large powerful light (usu. one of several) to
             illuminate a building, sportsground, stage, etc.  2 the
             illumination so provided.  --v.tr. illuminate with floodlight.

   floor     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the lower surface of a room.  b the boards
             etc. of which it is made.  2 a the bottom of the sea, a cave, a
             cavity, etc.  b any level area.  3 all the rooms etc. on the
             same level of a building; a storey (lives on the ground floor;
             walked up to the sixth floor).  4 a (in a legislative assembly)
             the part of the house in which members sit and from which they
             speak.  b the right to speak next in debate (gave him the
             floor).  5 Stock Exch. the large central hall where trading
             takes place.  6 the minimum of prices, wages, etc.  7 colloq.
             the ground.  --v.tr.  1 furnish with a floor; pave.  2 bring to
             the ground; knock (a person) down.  3 colloq. confound, baffle
             (was floored by the puzzle).  4 colloq. get the better of;
             overcome.  5 serve as the floor of (leopard skins floored the
             hall).  Ьfirst (US second) floor the floor above the ground
             floor.  floor-lamp US a standard lamp.  floor-leader US the
             leader of a party in a legislative assembly.  floor manager 1
             the stage manager of a television production.  2 a shopwalker.
             floor plan a diagram of the rooms etc. on one storey of a
             building.  floor-polish a manufactured substance used for
             polishing floors.  floor show an entertainment presented on the
             floor (as opposed to the stage) of a nightclub etc.
             floor-walker US a shopwalker.  from the floor (of a speech etc.)
             given by a member of the audience, not by those on the platform
             etc.  take the floor 1 begin to dance on a dance-floor etc.  2
             speak in a debate.  ЬЬfloorless adj.  [OE flor f. Gmc]

             n.  a long wooden board used for flooring.

             n.  a cloth for washing the floor.

   flooring  n.  the boards etc. of which a floor is made.

   floozie   n.  (also floozy) (pl.  -ies) colloq.  a girl or a woman, esp. a
             disreputable one.  [20th c.: cf.  FLOSSY and dial.  floosy

   flop      v., n., & adv.  --v.intr.  (flopped, flopping) 1 sway about
             heavily or loosely (hair flopped over his face).  2 move in an
             ungainly way (flopped along the beach in flippers).  3 (often
             foll. by down, on, into) sit, kneel, lie, or fall awkwardly or
             suddenly (flopped down on to the bench).  4 sl. (esp. of a play,
             film, book, etc.) fail; collapse (flopped on Broadway).  5 sl.
             sleep.  6 make a dull sound as of a soft body landing, or of a
             flat thing slapping water.  --n.  1 a a flopping movement.  b
             the sound made by it.  2 sl. a failure.  3 sl. esp.  US a bed.
             --adv. with a flop.  Ьflop-house sl. esp.  US a doss-house.
             [var. of FLAP]

   floppy    adj. & n.  --adj.  (floppier, floppiest) tending to flop; not
             firm or rigid.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) (in full floppy disk)
             Computing a flexible removable magnetic disc for the storage of
             data.  ЬЬfloppily adv.  floppiness n.

   flor.     abbr.  floruit.

   flora     n.  (pl.  floras or florae) 1 the plants of a particular region,
             geological period, or environment.  2 a treatise on or list of
             these.  [mod.L f. the name of the goddess of flowers f. L flos
             floris flower]

   floral    adj.  1 of flowers.  2 decorated with or depicting flowers.  3
             of flora or floras.  ЬЬflorally adv.  [L floralis or flos floris

   floreat   v.intr.  may (he, she, or it) flourish.  [L, 3rd sing. pres.
             subj. of florere flourish]

             adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to Florence in Italy.  2
             (florentine) (of a dish) served on a bed of spinach.  --n. a
             native or citizen of Florence.  [F Florentin -ine or L
             Florentinus f.  Florentia Florence]

             n.  the process, state, or time of flowering.  [mod.L
             florescentia f. L florescere f.  florere bloom]

   floret    n.  Bot.  1 each of the small flowers making up a composite
             flower-head.  2 each of the flowering stems making up a head of
             cauliflower, broccoli, etc.  3 a small flower.  [L flos floris

   floriate  v.tr.  decorate with flower-designs etc.

             n.  a plant, esp. a rose, bearing dense clusters of flowers.
             [mod.L f.  floribundus freely flowering f. L flos floris flower,
             infl. by L abundus copious]

             n.  the cultivation of flowers.  ЬЬfloricultural adj.
             floriculturist n.  [L flos floris flower + CULTURE, after

   florid    adj.  1 ruddy; flushed; high-coloured (a florid complexion).  2
             (of a book, a picture, music, architecture, etc.) elaborately
             ornate; ostentatious; showy.  3 adorned with or as with flowers;
             flowery.  ЬЬfloridity n.  floridly adv.  floridness n.  [F
             floride or L floridus f.  flos floris flower]

             adj.  (of a seed or plant) producing many flowers.  [L florifer
             f.  flos floris flower]

             n.  (pl.  florilegia or florilegiums) an anthology.  [mod.L f. L
             flos floris flower + legere gather, transl. of Gk anthologion

   florin    n.  hist.  1 a a British silver or alloy two-shilling coin of
             the 19th-20th c. (now worth 10 pence at face value).  b an
             English gold coin of the 14th c., worth 6s. 8d. (33 pence).  2 a
             foreign coin of gold or silver, esp. a Dutch guilder.  [ME f. OF
             f. It.  fiorino dimin. of fiore flower f. L flos floris, the
             orig. coin having a figure of a lily on it]

   florist   n.  a person who deals in or grows flowers.  ЬЬfloristry n.  [L
             flos floris flower + -IST]

   floristic adj.  relating to the study of the distribution of plants.
             ЬЬfloristically adv.  floristics n.

   floruit   v. & n.  --v.intr. (he or she) was alive and working; flourished
             (used of a person, esp. a painter, a writer, etc., whose exact
             dates are unknown).  --n. the period or date at which a person
             lived or worked.  [L, = he or she flourished]

   flory     var. of FLEURY.

   floscular adj.  (also flosculous) having florets or composite flowers.  [L
             flosculus dimin. of flos flower]

   floss     n. & v.  --n.  1 the rough silk enveloping a silkworm's cocoon.
             2 untwisted silk thread used in embroidery.  3 = dental floss.
             --v.tr. (also absol.) clean (the teeth) with dental floss.
             Ьfloss silk a rough silk used in cheap goods.  [F (soie) floche
             floss(-silk) f. OF flosche down, nap of velvet]

   flossy    adj.  (flossier, flossiest) 1 of or like floss.  2 colloq.
             fancy, showy.

   flotation n.  (also floatation) 1 the process of launching or financing a
             commercial enterprise.  2 the separation of the components of
             crushed ore etc. by their different capacities to float.  3 the
             capacity to float.  Ьcentre of flotation the centre of gravity
             in a floating body.  [alt. of floatation f.  FLOAT, after
             rotation etc.]

   flotilla  n.  1 a small fleet.  2 a fleet of boats or small ships.  [Sp.,
             dimin. of flota fleet, OF flote multitude]

   flotsam   n.  wreckage found floating.  Ьflotsam and jetsam 1 odds and
             ends; rubbish.  2 vagrants etc.  [AF floteson f.  floter FLOAT]

             v. & n.  --v.intr. (often foll. by away, about, off, out) go or
             move with an agitated, violent, or impatient motion (flounced
             out in a huff).  --n. a flouncing movement.  [16th c.: orig.
             unkn.: perh. imit., as bounce, pounce]

             n. & v.  --n. a wide ornamental strip of material gathered and
             sewn to a skirt, dress, etc.; a frill.  --v.tr. trim with a
             flounce or flounces.  [alt. of earlier frounce fold, pleat, f.
             OF fronce f.  froncir wrinkle]

             v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 struggle in mud, or as if in mud, or when
             wading.  2 perform a task badly or without knowledge; be out of
             one's depth.  --n. an act of floundering.  ЬЬflounderer n.
             [imit.: perh. assoc. with founder, blunder]

             n.  1 an edible flat-fish, Pleuronectes flesus, native to
             European shores.  2 any of various flat-fish native to N.
             American shores.  [ME f. AF floundre, OF flondre, prob. of
             Scand. orig.]

   flour     n. & v.  --n.  1 a meal or powder obtained by grinding and usu.
             sifting cereals, esp. wheat.  2 any fine powder.  --v.tr.  1
             sprinkle with flour.  2 US grind into flour.  ЬЬfloury adj.
             (flourier, flouriest).  flouriness n.  [ME, different. spelling
             of FLOWER in the sense 'finest part']

   flourish  v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a grow vigorously; thrive.  b prosper;
             be successful.  c be in one's prime.  d be in good health.  2
             intr. (usu. foll. by in, at, about) spend one's life; be active
             (at a specified time) (flourished in the Middle Ages) (cf.
             FLORUIT). 3 tr. show ostentatiously (flourished his
             cheque-book).  4 tr. wave (a weapon, one's limbs, etc.)
             vigorously.  --n.  1 an ostentatious gesture with a weapon, a
             hand, etc. (removed his hat with a flourish).  2 an ornamental
             curving decoration of handwriting.  3 a florid verbal
             expression; a rhetorical embellishment.  4 Mus.  a a fanfare
             played by brass instruments.  b an ornate musical passage.  c an
             extemporized addition played esp. at the beginning or end of a
             composition.  5 archaic an instance of prosperity; a
             flourishing.  ЬЬflourisher n.  flourishy adj.  [ME f. OF florir
             ult. f. L florere f.  flos floris flower]

   flout     v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. express contempt for (the law, rules, etc.)
             by word or action; mock; insult (flouted convention by shaving
             her head).  °Often confused with flaunt.  2 intr. (often foll.
             by at) mock or scoff at.  --n. a flouting speech or act.  [perh.
             f. Du.  fluiten whistle, hiss: cf.  FLUTE]

   flow      v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 glide along as a stream (the Thames flows
             under London Bridge).  2 a (of a liquid, esp. water) gush out;
             spring.  b (of blood, liquid, etc.) be spilt.  3 (of blood,
             money, electric current, etc.) circulate.  4 (of people or
             things) come or go in large numbers or smoothly (traffic flowed
             down the hill).  5 (of talk, literary style, etc.) proceed
             easily and smoothly.  6 (of a garment, hair, etc.) hang easily
             or gracefully; undulate.  7 (often foll. by from) result from;
             be caused by (his failure flows from his diffidence).  8 (esp.
             of the tide) be in flood; run full.  9 (of wine) be poured out
             copiously.  10 (of a rock or metal) undergo a permanent change
             of shape under stress.  11 (foll. by with) archaic be
             plentifully supplied with (land flowing with milk and honey).
             --n.  1 a a flowing movement in a stream.  b the manner in which
             a thing flows (a sluggish flow).  c a flowing liquid (couldn't
             stop the flow).  d a copious outpouring; a stream (a continuous
             flow of complaints).  2 the rise of a tide or a river (ebb and
             flow).  3 the gradual deformation of a rock or metal under
             stress.  4 Sc. a bog or morass.  Ьflow chart (or diagram or
             sheet) 1 a diagram of the movement or action of things or
             persons engaged in a complex activity.  2 a graphical
             representation of a computer program in relation to its sequence
             of functions (as distinct from the data it processes).  flow of
             spirits habitual cheerfulness.  flow-on Austral.  a wage or
             salary adjustment made as a consequence of one already made in a
             similar or related occupation.  [OE flowan f. Gmc, rel. to

   flower    n. & v.  --n.  1 the part of a plant from which the fruit or
             seed is developed.  2 the reproductive organ in a plant
             containing one or more pistils or stamens or both, and usu. a
             corolla and calyx.  3 a blossom, esp. on a stem and used in
             bunches for decoration.  4 a plant cultivated or noted for its
             flowers.  5 (in pl.) ornamental phrases (flowers of speech).
             --v.  1 intr. (of a plant) produce flowers; bloom or blossom.  2
             intr. reach a peak.  3 tr. cause or allow (a plant) to flower.
             4 tr. decorate with worked flowers or a floral design.
             Ьflower-bed a garden bed in which flowers are grown.
             flower-girl a woman who sells flowers, esp. in the street.
             flower-head = HEAD n.  4d.  the flower of the best or best part
             of.  flower people hippies carrying or wearing flowers as
             symbols of peace and love.  flower power the ideas of the flower
             people regarded as an instrument in changing the world.  flowers
             of sulphur Chem.  a fine powder produced when sulphur evaporates
             and condenses.  in flower with the flowers out.  ЬЬflowered adj.
             (also in comb.).  flowerless adj.  flowerlike adj.  [ME f. AF
             flur, OF flour, flor, f. L flos floris]

   flowerer  n.  a plant that flowers at a specified time (a late flowerer).

   floweret  n.  a small flower.

   flowering adj.  (of a plant) capable of producing flowers.

   flowerpot n.  a pot in which a plant may be grown.

   flowery   adj.  1 decorated with flowers or floral designs.  2 (of
             literary style, manner of speech, etc.) high-flown; ornate.  3
             full of flowers (a flowery meadow).  ЬЬfloweriness n.

   flowing   adj.  1 (of literary style etc.) fluent; easy.  2 (of a line, a
             curve, or a contour) smoothly continuous, not abrupt.  3 (of
             hair, a garment, a sail, etc.) unconfined.  ЬЬflowingly adv.

   flown     past part. of FLY(1).

   flowstone n.  rock deposited in a thin sheet by a flow of water.

   FLQ       abbr.  Front de Lib‚ration du Qu‚bec.

   Flt. Lt.  abbr.  Flight Lieutenant.

   Flt. Off. abbr.  Flight Officer.

   Flt. Sgt. abbr.  Flight Sergeant.

   flu       n.  colloq.  influenza.  [abbr.]

   flub      v. & n.  US colloq.  --v.tr. & intr.  (flubbed, flubbing) botch;
             bungle.  --n. something badly or clumsily done.  [20th c.: orig.

   fluctuate v.intr.  vary irregularly; be unstable, vacillate; rise and
             fall, move to and fro.  ЬЬfluctuation n.  [L fluctuare f.
             fluctus flow, wave f.  fluere fluct- flow]

   flue      n.  1 a smoke-duct in a chimney.  2 a channel for conveying
             heat, esp. a hot-air passage in a wall; a tube for heating water
             in some kinds of boiler.  Ьflue-cure cure (tobacco) by
             artificial heat from flues.  flue-pipe an organ pipe into which
             the air enters directly, not striking a reed.  [16th c.: orig.

   fluence   n.  colloq.  influence.  Ьput the fluence on apply hypnotic etc.
             power to (a person).  [shortening of INFLUENCE]

   fluency   n.  1 a smooth, easy flow, esp. in speech or writing.  2 a ready
             command of words or of a specified foreign language.

   fluent    adj.  1 a (of speech or literary style) flowing naturally and
             readily.  b having command of a foreign language (is fluent in
             German).  c able to speak quickly and easily.  2 flowing easily
             or gracefully (the fluent line of her arabesque).  3 archaic
             liable to change; unsettled.  ЬЬfluently adv.  [L fluere flow]

   fluff     n. & v.  --n.  1 soft, light, feathery material coming off
             blankets etc.  2 soft fur or feathers.  3 sl.  a a mistake in
             delivering theatrical lines, in playing music, etc.  b a mistake
             in playing a game.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. (often foll. by up)
             shake into or become a soft mass.  2 tr. & intr.  colloq. make a
             mistake in (a theatrical part, a game, playing music, a speech,
             etc.); blunder (fluffed his opening line).  3 tr. make into
             fluff.  4 tr. put a soft surface on (the flesh side of leather).
             Ьbit of fluff sl.  offens.  a woman regarded as an object of
             sexual desire.  [prob. dial. alt. of flue fluff]

   fluffy    adj.  (fluffier, fluffiest) 1 of or like fluff.  2 covered in
             fluff; downy.  ЬЬfluffily adv.  fluffiness n.

             n.  a valved brass wind instrument like a cornet but with a
             broader tone.  [G FlЃgelhorn f.  FlЃgel wing + Horn horn]

   fluid     n. & adj.  --n.  1 a substance, esp. a gas or liquid, lacking
             definite shape and capable of flowing and yielding to the
             slightest pressure.  2 a fluid part or secretion.  --adj.  1
             able to flow and alter shape freely.  2 constantly changing or
             fluctuating (the situation is fluid).  3 (of a clutch, coupling,
             etc.) in which liquid is used to transmit power.  Ьfluid drachm
             see DRACHM.  fluid ounce see OUNCE(1).  ЬЬfluidify v.tr.  (-ies,
             -ied).  fluidity n.  fluidly adv.  fluidness n.  [F fluide or L
             fluidus f.  fluere flow]

   fluidics  n.pl.  (usu. treated as sing.) the study and technique of using
             small interacting flows and fluid jets for functions usu.
             performed by electronic devices.  ЬЬfluidic adj.

   fluidize  v.tr.  (also -ise) cause (a finely divided solid) to acquire the
             characteristics of a fluid by the upward passage of a gas etc.
             ЬЬfluidization n.

             n.  US a fluid ounce (see OUNCE(1)).

   fluidram  n.  US a fluid drachm (see DRACHM).

   fluke(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 a lucky accident (won by a fluke).  2 a chance
             breeze.  --v.tr. achieve by a fluke (fluked that shot).  [19th
             c.: perh. f. dial.  fluke guess]

   fluke(2)  n.  1 any parasitic flatworm of the class Digenea or Monogenea,
             including liver flukes and blood flukes.  2 a flat-fish, esp. a
             flounder.  [OE floc]

   fluke(3)  n.  1 Naut. a broad triangular plate on the arm of an anchor.  2
             the barbed head of a lance, harpoon, etc.  3 Zool. either of the
             lobes of a whale's tail.  [16th c.: perh. f.  FLUKE(2)]

   fluky     adj.  (flukier, flukiest) of the nature of a fluke; obtained
             more by chance than skill.  ЬЬflukily adv.  flukiness n.

   flume     n. & v.  --n.  1 an artificial channel conveying water etc. for
             industrial use.  2 a ravine with a stream.  --v.  1 intr. build
             flumes.  2 tr. convey down a flume.  [ME f. OF flum, flun f. L
             flumen river f.  fluere flow]

   flummery  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 empty compliments; trifles; nonsense.  2 a
             sweet dish made with beaten eggs, sugar, etc.  [Welsh llymru, of
             unkn. orig.]

   flummox   v.tr.  colloq.  bewilder, confound, disconcert.  [19th c.: prob.
             dial., imit.]

   flump     v. & n.  --v. (often foll. by down) 1 intr. fall or move
             heavily.  2 tr. set or throw down with a heavy thud.  --n. the
             action or sound of flumping.  [imit.]

   flung     past and past part. of FLING.

   flunk     v. & n.  US colloq.  --v.  1 tr.  a fail (an examination etc.).
             b fail (an examination candidate).  2 intr. (often foll. by out)
             fail utterly; give up.  --n. an instance of flunking.  Ьflunk
             out be dismissed from school etc. after failing an examination.
             [cf.  FUNK(1) and obs.  flink be a coward]

   flunkey   n.  (also flunky) (pl.  -eys or -ies) usu.  derog.  1 a liveried
             servant; a footman.  2 a toady; a snob.  3 US a cook, waiter,
             etc.  ЬЬflunkeyism n.  [18th c. (orig. Sc.): perh. f.  FLANK
             with the sense 'sidesman, flanker']

   fluoresce v.intr.  be or become fluorescent.

             n.  1 the visible or invisible radiation produced from certain
             substances as a result of incident radiation of a shorter
             wavelength as X-rays, ultraviolet light, etc.  2 the property of
             absorbing light of short (invisible) wavelength and emitting
             light of longer (visible) wavelength.  [FLUORSPAR (which
             fluoresces) after opalescence]

             adj.  (of a substance) having or showing fluorescence.
             Ьfluorescent lamp (or bulb) a lamp or bulb radiating largely by
             fluorescence, esp. a tubular lamp in which phosphor on the
             inside surface of the tube is made to fluoresce by ultraviolet
             radiation from mercury vapour.  fluorescent screen a screen
             coated with fluorescent material to show images from X-rays etc.

             v.tr.  add traces of fluoride to (drinking-water etc.).

             n.  (also fluoridization) the addition of traces of fluoride to
             drinking-water in order to prevent or reduce tooth-decay.

   fluoride  n.  any binary compound of fluorine.

             v.tr.  1 = FLUORIDATE.  2 introduce fluorine into (a compound)
             (fluorinated hydrocarbons).  ЬЬfluorination n.

   fluorine  n.  a poisonous pale-yellow gaseous element of the halogen group
             occurring naturally in fluorite and cryolite, and the most
             reactive of all elements.  °Symb.: F.  [F (as FLUORSPAR)]

   fluorite  n.  a mineral form of calcium fluoride.  [It. (as FLUORSPAR)]

   fluoro-   comb. form 1 fluorine (fluorocarbon).  2 fluorescence
             (fluoroscope).  [FLUORINE, FLUORESCENCE]

             n.  a compound formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen
             atoms in a hydrocarbon with fluorine atoms.

             n.  an instrument with a fluorescent screen on which X-ray
             images may be viewed without taking and developing X-ray

   fluorosis n.  poisoning by fluorine or its compounds.  [F fluorose (as
             FLUORO- 1)]

   fluorspar n.  = FLUORITE.  [fluor a flow, any of the minerals used as
             fluxes, fluorspar, f. L fluor f.  fluere flow + SPAR(3)]

   flurry    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a gust or squall (of snow, rain,
             etc.).  2 a sudden burst of activity.  3 a commotion;
             excitement; nervous agitation (a flurry of speculation; the
             flurry of the city).  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) confuse by haste or
             noise; agitate.  [imit.: cf. obs.  flurr ruffle, hurry]

   flush(1)  v. & n.  --v.  1 intr.  a blush, redden (he flushed with
             embarrassment).  b glow with a warm colour (sky flushed pink).
             2 tr. (usu. as flushed adj.) cause to glow or blush (often foll.
             by with : flushed with pride).  3 tr.  a cleanse (a drain,
             lavatory, etc.) by a rushing flow of water.  b (often foll. by
             away, down) dispose of (an object) in this way (flushed away the
             cigarette).  4 intr. rush out, spurt.  5 tr. flood (the river
             flushed the meadow).  6 intr. (of a plant) throw out fresh
             shoots.  --n.  1 a a blush.  b a glow of light or colour.  2 a a
             rush of water.  b the cleansing of a drain, lavatory, etc. by
             flushing.  3 a a rush of emotion.  b the elation produced by a
             victory etc. (the flush of triumph).  4 sudden abundance.  5
             freshness; vigour (in the first flush of womanhood).  6 a (also
             hot flush) a sudden feeling of heat during the menopause.  b a
             feverish temperature.  c facial redness, esp. caused by fever,
             alcohol, etc.  7 a fresh growth of grass etc.  ЬЬflusher n.
             [ME, perh. = FLUSH(4) infl. by flash and blush]

   flush(2)  adj. & v.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by with) in the same plane;
             level; even (the sink is flush with the cooker; fitted it flush
             with the wall).  2 (usu.  predic.) colloq.  a having plenty of
             money.  b (of money) abundant, plentiful.  3 full to
             overflowing; in flood.  --v.tr.  1 make (surfaces) level.  2
             fill in (a joint) level with a surface.  ЬЬflushness n.  [prob.
             f.  FLUSH(1)]

   flush(3)  n.  a hand of cards all of one suit, esp. in poker.  Ьroyal
             flush a straight poker flush headed by an ace.  straight flush a
             flush that is a numerical sequence.  [OF flus, flux f. L fluxus

   flush(4)  v.  1 tr. cause (esp. a game bird) to fly up.  2 intr. (of a
             bird) fly up and away.  Ьflush out 1 reveal.  2 drive out.  [ME,
             imit.: cf.  fly, rush]

   fluster   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become nervous or confused;
             flurry (was flustered by the noise; he flusters easily).  2 tr.
             confuse with drink; half-intoxicate.  3 intr. bustle.  --n. a
             confused or agitated state.  [ME: orig. unkn.: cf. Icel.
             flaustr(a) hurry, bustle]

   flute     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a high-pitched woodwind instrument of metal
             or wood, having holes along it stopped by the fingers or keys,
             and held across the body.  b an organ stop having a similar
             sound.  c any of various wind instruments resembling a flute.  d
             a flute-player.  2 a Archit. an ornamental vertical groove in a
             column.  b a trumpet-shaped frill on a dress etc.  c any similar
             cylindrical groove.  3 a tall narrow wineglass.  --v.  1 intr.
             play the flute.  2 intr. speak, sing, or whistle in a fluting
             way.  3 tr. make flutes or grooves in.  4 tr. play (a tune etc.)
             on a flute.  ЬЬflutelike adj.  fluting n.  flutist n.  US (cf.
             FLAUTIST).  fluty adj. (in sense 1a of n.).  [ME f. OF fl‰ute,
             fl„ute, flahute, prob. f. Prov.  fl„ut]

   flutter   v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. flap the wings in flying or trying to
             fly (butterflies fluttered in the sunshine).  b tr. flap (the
             wings).  2 intr. fall with a quivering motion (leaves fluttered
             to the ground).  3 intr. & tr. move or cause to move irregularly
             or tremblingly (the wind fluttered the flag).  4 intr. go about
             restlessly; flit; hover.  5 tr. agitate, confuse.  6 intr. (of a
             pulse or heartbeat) beat feebly or irregularly.  7 intr. tremble
             with excitement or agitation.  --n.  1 a the act of fluttering.
             b an instance of this.  2 tremulous excitement; a sensation (was
             in a flutter; caused a flutter with his behaviour).  3 Brit.
             sl. a small bet, esp. on a horse.  4 an abnormally rapid but
             regular heartbeat.  5 Aeron. an undesired oscillation in a part
             of an aircraft etc. under stress.  6 Mus. a rapid movement of
             the tongue (as when rolling one's rs) in playing a wind
             instrument.  7 Electronics a rapid variation of pitch, esp. of
             recorded sound (cf.  WOW(2)).  8 a vibration.  Ьflutter the
             dovecots cause alarm among normally imperturbable people.
             ЬЬflutterer n.  fluttery adj.  [OE floterian, flotorian,
             frequent. form rel. to FLEET(5)]

   fluvial   adj.  of or found in a river or rivers.  [ME f. L fluvialis f.
             fluvius river f.  fluere flow]

             adj.  of, found in, or produced by a river or rivers.  [F f. L
             fluviatilis f.  fluviatus moistened f.  fluvius]

   fluvio-   comb. form river (fluviometer).  [L fluvius river f.  fluere

             adj.  of or caused by streams from glacial ice, or the combined
             action of rivers and glaciers.

             n.  an instrument for measuring the rise and fall of rivers.

   flux      n. & v.  --n.  1 a process of flowing or flowing out.  2 an
             issue or discharge.  3 continuous change (in a state of flux).
             4 Metallurgy a substance mixed with a metal etc. to promote
             fusion.  5 Physics a the rate of flow of any fluid across a
             given area.  b the amount of fluid crossing an area in a given
             time.  6 Physics the amount of radiation or particles incident
             on an area in a given time.  7 Electr. the total electric or
             magnetic field passing through a surface.  8 Med. an abnormal
             discharge of blood or excrement from the body.  --v.  1 tr. &
             intr. make or become fluid.  2 tr.  a fuse.  b treat with a
             fusing flux.  [ME f. OF flux or L fluxus f.  fluere flux- flow]

   fluxion   n.  Math.  the rate at which a variable quantity changes; a
             derivative.  [F fluxion or L fluxio (as FLUX)]

   fly(1)    v. & n.  --v.  (flies; past flew; past part.  flown) 1 intr.
             move through the air under control, esp. with wings.  2 (of an
             aircraft or its occupants): a intr. travel through the air or
             through space.  b tr. traverse (a region or distance) (flew the
             Channel).  3 tr.  a control the flight of (esp. an aircraft).  b
             transport in an aircraft.  4 a tr. cause to fly or remain aloft.
             b intr. (of a flag, hair, etc.) wave or flutter.  5 intr. pass
             or rise quickly through the air or over an obstacle.  6 intr. go
             or move quickly; pass swiftly (time flies).  7 intr.  a flee.  b
             colloq. depart hastily.  8 intr. be driven or scattered; be
             forced off suddenly (sent me flying; the door flew open).  9
             intr. (foll. by at, upon) a hasten or spring violently.  b
             attack or criticize fiercely.  10 tr. flee from; escape in
             haste.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 (usu. in pl.) a a flap on a garment,
             esp. trousers, to contain or cover a fastening.  b this
             fastening.  2 a flap at the entrance of a tent.  3 (in pl.) the
             space over the proscenium in a theatre.  4 the act or an
             instance of flying.  5 (pl.  usu.  flys) Brit.  hist. a
             one-horse hackney carriage.  6 a speed-regulating device in
             clockwork and machinery.  Ьfly-away (of hair etc.) tending to
             fly out or up; streaming.  fly-by (pl.  -bys) a flight past a
             position, esp. the approach of a spacecraft to a planet for
             observation.  fly-by-night adj.  unreliable.  --n. an unreliable
             person.  fly-half Rugby Football a stand-off half.  fly high 1
             pursue a high ambition.  2 excel, prosper.  fly in the face of
             openly disregard or disobey; conflict roundly with (probability,
             the evidence, etc.).  fly into a rage (or temper etc.) become
             suddenly or violently angry.  fly a kite 1 try something out;
             test public opinion.  2 raise money by an accommodation bill.
             fly off the handle colloq.  lose one's temper suddenly and
             unexpectedly.  fly-past a ceremonial flight of aircraft past a
             person or a place.  fly-pitcher sl.  a street-trader.
             fly-pitching sl.  street-trading.  ЬЬflyable adj.  [OE fleogan
             f. Gmc]

   fly(2)    n.  (pl.  flies) 1 any insect of the order Diptera with two usu.
             transparent wings.  2 any other winged insect, e.g. a firefly or
             mayfly.  3 a disease of plants or animals caused by flies.  4 a
             natural or artificial fly used as bait in fishing.  Ьfly agaric
             a poisonous fungus Amanita Muscaria, forming bright-red
             mushrooms with white flecks.  fly-blow flies' eggs contaminating
             food, esp. meat.  fly-blown adj.  tainted, esp. by flies.
             fly-fish v.intr.  fish with a fly.  fly in the ointment a minor
             irritation that spoils enjoyment.  fly on the wall an unnoticed
             observer.  fly-paper sticky treated paper for catching flies.
             fly-post display (posters etc.) rapidly in unauthorized places.
             fly-tip illegally dump (waste).  fly-tipper a person who engages
             in fly-tipping.  fly-trap any of various plants that catch
             flies, esp. the Venus fly-trap.  like flies in large numbers
             (usu. of people dying in an epidemic etc.).  no flies on colloq.
             nothing to diminish (a person's) astuteness.  [OE flyge, fleoge
             f. WG]

   fly(3)    adj.  Brit.  sl.  knowing, clever, alert.  ЬЬflyness n.  [19th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

             n.  any bird of the families Tyrannidae and Muscicapidae,
             catching insects esp. in short flights from a perch.

   flyer     n.  (also flier) colloq.  1 an airman or airwoman.  2 a thing
             that flies in a specified way (a poor flyer).  3 a fast-moving
             animal or vehicle.  4 an ambitious or outstanding person.  5 US
             a small handbill.  6 US a speculative investment.  7 a flying

   flying    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 fluttering or waving in the air; hanging
             loose.  2 hasty, brief (a flying visit).  3 designed for rapid
             movement.  4 (of an animal) able to make very long leaps by
             using winglike membranes etc.  --n. flight, esp. in an aircraft.
             Ьflying boat a seaplane with a boatlike fuselage.  flying bomb a
             pilotless aircraft with an explosive warhead.  flying buttress a
             buttress slanting from a separate column, usu. forming an arch
             with the wall it supports.  flying doctor a doctor (esp. in a
             large sparsely populated area) who visits distant patients by
             aircraft.  flying fish any tropical fish of the family
             Exocoetidae, with winglike pectoral fins for gliding through the
             air.  flying fox any of various fruit-eating bats esp. of the
             genus Pteropus, with a fox-like head.  flying lemur either of
             two mammals of the genus Cyanocephalus of S. Asia, with a
             lemur-like appearance and having a membrane between the fore and
             hind limbs for gliding from tree to tree.  flying lizard any
             lizard of the genus Draco, having membranes on elongated ribs
             for gliding.  flying officer the RAF rank next below flight
             lieutenant.  flying phalanger any of various phalangers having a
             membrane between the fore and hind limbs for gliding.  flying
             picket an industrial picket that can be moved rapidly from one
             site to another, esp. to reinforce local pickets.  flying saucer
             any unidentified, esp. circular, flying object, popularly
             supposed to have come from space.  flying squad a police
             detachment or other body organized for rapid movement.  flying
             squirrel any of various squirrels, esp. of the genus Pteromys,
             with skin joining the fore and hind limbs for gliding from tree
             to tree.  flying start 1 a start (of a race etc.) in which the
             starting-point is passed at full speed.  2 a vigorous start
             giving an initial advantage.  flying wing an aircraft with
             little or no fuselage and no tailplane.  with flying colours
             with distinction.

   flyleaf   n.  (pl.  -leaves) a blank leaf at the beginning or end of a

   flyover   n.  1 Brit. a bridge carrying one road or railway over another.
             2 US = fly-past (see FLY(1)).

   flysheet  n.  1 a tract or circular of two or four pages.  2 a canvas
             cover pitched outside and over a tent to give extra protection
             against bad weather.

   flyweight n.  1 a weight in certain sports intermediate between light
             flyweight and bantamweight, in the amateur boxing scale 48-51 kg
             but differing for professionals, wrestlers, and weightlifters.
             2 a sportsman of this weight.  Ьlight flyweight 1 a weight in
             amateur boxing up to 48 kg.  2 an amateur boxer of this weight.

   flywheel  n.  a heavy wheel on a revolving shaft used to regulate
             machinery or accumulate power.

11.0 FM...

   FM        abbr.  1 Field Marshal.  2 frequency modulation.

   Fm        symb.  Chem.  the element fermium.

   fm.       abbr.  (also fm) fathom(s).

12.0 f-number

   f-number  n.  Photog.  the ratio of the focal length to the effective
             diameter of a lens (e.g.  f5, indicating that the focal length
             is five times the diameter).  [f (denoting focal length) +

13.0 FO...

   FO        abbr.  1 Flying Officer.  2 hist. (in the UK) Foreign Office.

   fo.       abbr.  folio.

   foal      n. & v.  --n. the young of a horse or related animal.  --v.tr.
             (of a mare etc.) give birth to (a foal).  Ьin (or with) foal (of
             a mare etc.) pregnant.  [OE fola f. Gmc: cf.  FILLY]

   foam      n. & v.  --n.  1 a mass of small bubbles formed on or in liquid
             by agitation, fermentation, etc.  2 a froth of saliva or sweat.
             3 a substance resembling these, e.g. rubber or plastic in a
             cellular mass.  --v.intr.  1 emit foam; froth.  2 run with foam.
             3 (of a vessel) be filled and overflow with foam.  Ьfoam at the
             mouth be very angry.  ЬЬfoamless adj.  foamy adj.  (foamier,
             foamiest ).  [OE fam f. WG]

   fob(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 (in full fob-chain) a chain attached to a watch
             for carrying in a waistcoat or waistband pocket.  2 a small
             pocket for carrying a watch.  3 a tab on a key-ring.  --v.tr.
             (fobbed, fobbing) put in one's fob; pocket.  [orig. cant, prob.
             f. G]

   fob(2)    v.tr.  (fobbed, fobbing) Ьfob off 1 (often foll. by with a
             thing) deceive into accepting something inferior.  2 (often
             foll. by on to a person) palm or pass off (an inferior thing).
             [16th c.: cf. obs.  fop to dupe, G foppen to banter]

   f.o.b.    abbr.  free on board.

   focal     adj.  of, at, or in terms of a focus.  Ьfocal distance (or
             length) the distance between the centre of a mirror or lens and
             its focus.  focal plane the plane through the focus
             perpendicular to the axis of a mirror or lens.  focal point =
             FOCUS n.  1.  [mod.L focalis (as FOCUS)]

   focalize  v.tr.  (also -ise) = FOCUS v.  ЬЬfocalization n.

   fo'c's'le var. of FORECASTLE.

   focus     n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  focuses or foci) 1 Physics a the point at
             which rays or waves meet after reflection or refraction.  b the
             point from which diverging rays or waves appear to proceed.
             Also called focal point.  2 a Optics the point at which an
             object must be situated for an image of it given by a lens or
             mirror to be well defined (bring into focus).  b the adjustment
             of the eye or a lens necessary to produce a clear image (the
             binoculars were not in focus).  c a state of clear definition
             (the photograph was out of focus).  3 the centre of interest or
             activity (focus of attention).  4 Geom. one of the points from
             which the distances to any point of a given curve are connected
             by a linear relation.  5 Med. the principal site of an infection
             or other disease.  6 Geol. the place of origin of an earthquake.
             --v.  (focused, focusing or focussed, focussing) 1 tr. bring
             into focus.  2 tr. adjust the focus of (a lens, the eye, etc.).
             3 tr. & intr. (often foll. by on) concentrate or be concentrated
             on.  4 intr. & tr. converge or make converge to a focus.
             ЬЬfocuser n.  [L, = hearth]

   fodder    n. & v.  --n. dried hay or straw etc. for cattle, horses, etc.
             --v.tr. give fodder to.  [OE fodor f. Gmc, rel. to FOOD]

   foe       n.  esp.  poet. or formal an enemy or opponent.  [OE fah
             hostile, rel. to FEUD(1)]

   foehn     var. of FOEHN.

   foetid    var. of FETID.

   foetus    n.  (US fetus) an unborn or unhatched offspring of a mammal esp.
             a human one more than eight weeks after conception.  ЬЬfoetal
             adj.  foeticide n.  [ME f. L fetus offspring]

   fog(1)    n. & v.  --n.  1 a a thick cloud of water droplets or smoke
             suspended in the atmosphere at or near the earth's surface
             restricting or obscuring visibility.  b obscurity in the
             atmosphere caused by this.  2 Photog. cloudiness on a developed
             negative etc. obscuring the image.  3 an uncertain or confused
             position or state.  --v.  (fogged, fogging) 1 tr.  a envelop or
             cover with fog or condensed vapour.  b bewilder or confuse as if
             with a fog.  2 intr. become covered with fog or condensed
             vapour.  3 tr.  Photog. make (a negative etc.) obscure or
             cloudy.  Ьfog-bank a mass of fog at sea.  fog-bound unable to
             proceed because of fog.  fog-bow a manifestation like a rainbow,
             produced by light on fog.  fog-lamp a lamp used to improve
             visibility in fog.  fog-signal a detonator placed on a railway
             line in fog to warn train drivers.  in a fog puzzled; at a loss.
             [perh. back-form. f.  FOGGY]

   fog(2)    n. & v.  esp.  Brit.  --n.  1 a second growth of grass after
             cutting; aftermath.  2 long grass left standing in winter.
             --v.tr.  (fogged, fogging) 1 leave (land) under fog.  2 feed
             (cattle) on fog.  [ME: orig. unkn.]

   fogey     var. of FOGY.

   foggy     adj.  (foggier, foggiest) 1 (of the atmosphere) thick or obscure
             with fog.  2 of or like fog.  3 vague, confused, unclear.  Ьnot
             have the foggiest colloq.  have no idea at all.  ЬЬfoggily adv.
             fogginess n.

   foghorn   n.  1 a deep-sounding instrument for warning ships in fog.  2
             colloq. a loud penetrating voice.

   fogy      n.  (also fogey) (pl.  -ies or -eys) a dull old-fashioned person
             (esp. old fogy).  ЬЬfogydom n.  fogyish adj.  [18th c.: rel. to
             sl.  fogram, of unkn. orig.]

   f”hn      n.  (also foehn) 1 a hot southerly wind on the northern slopes
             of the Alps.  2 a warm dry wind on the lee side of mountains.
             [G, ult. f. L Favonius mild west wind]

   foible    n.  1 a minor weakness or idiosyncrasy.  2 Fencing the part of a
             sword-blade from the middle to the point.  [F, obs. form of
             faible (as FEEBLE)]

   foie gras n.  colloq.  = pѓt‚ de foie gras.

   foil(1)   v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 frustrate, baffle, defeat.  2 Hunting a run
             over or cross (ground or a scent) to confuse the hounds.  b
             (absol.) (of an animal) spoil the scent in this way.  --n.  1
             Hunting the track of a hunted animal.  2 archaic a repulse or
             defeat.  [ME, = trample down, perh. f. OF fouler to full cloth,
             trample, ult. f. L fullo FULLER(1)]

   foil(2)   n.  1 a metal hammered or rolled into a thin sheet (tin foil).
             b a sheet of this, or of tin amalgam, attached to mirror glass
             as a reflector.  c a leaf of foil placed under a precious stone
             etc. to brighten or colour it.  2 a person or thing that
             enhances the qualities of another by contrast.  3 Archit. a
             leaf-shaped curve formed by the cusping of an arch or circle.
             [ME f. OF f. L folium leaf, and f. OF foille f. L folia (pl.)]

   foil(3)   n.  a light blunt-edged sword with a button on its point used in
             fencing.  ЬЬfoilist n.  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   foil(4)   n.  = HYDROFOIL.  [abbr.]

   foist     v.tr.  (foll. by (off) on, (off) upon) 1 present (a thing)
             falsely as genuine or superior.  2 falsely fix the ownership of.
             3 (foll. by in, into) introduce surreptitiously or
             unwarrantably.  [orig. of palming a false die, f. Du. dial.
             vuisten take in the hand f.  vuist FIST]

   fol.      abbr.  folio.

   folacin   n.  = FOLIC ACID.  [folic acid + -IN]

   fold(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr.  a bend or close (a flexible thing) over
             upon itself.  b (foll. by back, over, down) bend a part of (a
             flexible thing) in the manner specified (fold down the flap).  2
             intr. become or be able to be folded.  3 tr. (foll. by away, up)
             make compact by folding.  4 intr. (often foll. by up) colloq.  a
             collapse, disintegrate.  b (of an enterprise) fail; go bankrupt.
             5 tr.  poet. embrace (esp. fold in the arms or to the breast).
             6 tr. (foll. by about, round) clasp (the arms); wrap, envelop.
             7 tr. (foll. by in) mix (an ingredient with others) using a
             gentle cutting and turning motion.  --n.  1 the act or an
             instance of folding.  2 a line made by or for folding.  3 a
             folded part.  4 a hollow among hills.  5 Geol. a curvature of
             strata.  Ьfold one's arms place one's arms across the chest,
             side by side or entwined.  fold one's hands clasp them.  folding
             door a door with jointed sections, folding on itself when
             opened.  folding money esp.  US colloq.  banknotes.  fold-out an
             oversize page in a book etc. to be unfolded by the reader.
             ЬЬfoldable adj.  [OE falden, fealden f. Gmc]

   fold(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 = SHEEPFOLD.  2 a body of believers or members
             of a Church.  --v.tr. enclose (sheep) in a fold.  [OE fald]

   -fold     suffix forming adjectives and adverbs from cardinal numbers,
             meaning: 1 in an amount multiplied by (repaid tenfold).  2
             consisting of so many parts (threefold blessing).  [OE - fald,
             -feald, rel. to FOLD(1): orig. sense 'folded in so many layers']

   foldaway  adj.  adapted or designed to be folded away.

   folder    n.  1 a folding cover or holder for loose papers.  2 a folded

   folderol  var. of FALDERAL.

             adj.  1 of or like leaves.  2 having organs like leaves.  3
             laminated.  [L foliaceus leafy f.  folium leaf]

   foliage   n.  1 leaves, leafage.  2 a design in art resembling leaves.
             Ьfoliage leaf a leaf excluding petals and other modified leaves.
             [ME f. F feuillage f.  feuille leaf f. OF foille: see FOIL(2)]

   foliar    adj.  of or relating to leaves.  Ьfoliar feed feed supplied to
             leaves of plants.  [mod.L foliaris f. L folium leaf]

   foliate   adj. & v.  --adj.  1 leaflike.  2 having leaves.  3 (in comb.)
             having a specified number of leaflets (trifoliate).  --v.  1
             intr. split into laminae.  2 tr. decorate (an arch or door-head)
             with foils.  3 tr. number leaves (not pages) of (a volume)
             consecutively.  ЬЬfoliation n.  [L foliatus leaved f.  folium

   folic acid
             n.  a vitamin of the B complex, found in leafy green vegetables,
             liver, and kidney, a deficiency of which causes pernicious
             anaemia. Also called FOLACIN or PTEROYLGLUTAMIC ACID.  [L folium
             leaf (because found esp. in green leaves) + -IC]

   folio     n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -os) 1 a leaf of paper etc., esp. one
             numbered only on the front.  2 a leaf-number of a book.  3 a
             sheet of paper folded once making two leaves of a book.  4 a
             book made of such sheets.  --adj. (of a book) made of folios, of
             the largest size.  Ьin folio made of folios.  [L, ablat. of
             folium leaf, = on leaf (as specified)]

   foliole   n.  a division of a compound leaf; a leaflet.  [F f. LL foliolum
             dimin. of L folium leaf]

   folk      n.  (pl.  folk or folks) 1 (treated as pl.) people in general or
             of a specified class (few folk about; townsfolk).  2 (in pl.)
             (usu.  folks) one's parents or relatives.  3 (treated as sing.)
             a people.  4 (treated as sing.) colloq. traditional music.  5
             (attrib.) of popular origin; traditional (folk art).
             Ьfolk-dance 1 a dance of popular origin.  2 the music for such a
             dance.  folk etymology a popular modifying of the form of a word
             or phrase to make it seem to be derived from a more familiar
             word (e.g.  forlorn hope).  folk memory recollection of the past
             persisting among a people.  folk-singer a singer of folk-songs.
             folk-song a song of popular or traditional origin or style.
             folk-tale a popular or traditional story.  folk-ways the
             traditional behaviour of a people.  [OE folc f. Gmc]

   folkish   adj.  of the common people; traditional, unsophisticated.

   folklore  n.  the traditional beliefs and stories of a people; the study
             of these.  ЬЬfolkloric adj.  folklorist n.  folkloristic adj.

   folksy    adj.  (folksier, folksiest) 1 friendly, sociable, informal.  2 a
             having the characteristics of folk art, culture, etc.  b
             ostensibly or artificially folkish.  ЬЬfolksiness n.

   folkweave n.  a rough loosely woven fabric.

   folky     adj.  (folkier, folkiest) 1 = FOLKSY 2.  2 = FOLKISH.
             ЬЬfolkiness n.

   follicle  n.  1 a small sac or vesicle.  2 a small sac-shaped secretory
             gland or cavity.  3 Bot. a single-carpelled dry fruit opening on
             one side only to release its seeds.  ЬЬfollicular adj.
             folliculate adj.  folliculated adj.  [L folliculus dimin. of
             follis bellows]

   follow    v.  1 tr. or (foll. by after) intr. go or come after (a person
             or thing proceeding ahead).  2 tr. go along (a route, path,
             etc.).  3 tr. & intr. come after in order or time (Nero followed
             Claudius; dessert followed; my reasons are as follows).  4 tr.
             take as a guide or leader.  5 tr. conform to (follow your
             example).  6 tr. practise (a trade or profession).  7 tr.
             undertake (a course of study etc.).  8 tr. understand the
             meaning or tendency of (a speaker or argument).  9 tr. maintain
             awareness of the current state or progress of (events etc. in a
             particular sphere).  10 tr. (foll. by with) provide with a
             sequel or successor.  11 intr. happen after something else;
             ensue.  12 intr.  a be necessarily true as a result of something
             else.  b (foll. by from) be a result of.  13 tr. strive after;
             aim at; pursue (followed fame and fortune).  Ьfollow-my-leader a
             game in which players must do as the leader does.  follow one's
             nose trust to instinct.  follow on 1 continue.  2 (of a cricket
             team) have to bat again immediately after the first innings.
             follow-on n.  an instance of this.  follow out carry out; adhere
             precisely to (instructions etc.).  follow suit 1 Cards play a
             card of the suit led.  2 conform to another person's actions.
             follow through 1 continue (an action etc.) to its conclusion.  2
             Sport continue the movement of a stroke after the ball has been
             struck.  follow-through n.  the action of following through.
             follow up (foll. by with) 1 pursue, develop, supplement.  2 make
             further investigation of.  follow-up n.  a subsequent or
             continued action, measure, experience, etc.  [OE folgian f. Gmc]

   follower  n.  1 an adherent or devotee.  2 a person or thing that follows.

   following prep., n., & adj.  --prep. coming after in time; as a sequel to.
             --n. a body of adherents or devotees.  --adj. that follows or
             comes after.

   folly     n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 foolishness; lack of good sense.  2 a foolish
             act, behaviour, idea, etc.  3 an ornamental building, usu. a
             tower or mock Gothic ruin.  4 (in pl.) Theatr.  a a revue with
             glamorous female performers, esp. scantily-clad.  b the
             performers.  [ME f. OF folie f.  fol mad, FOOL(1)]

   foment    v.tr.  1 instigate or stir up (trouble, sedition, etc.).  2 a
             bathe with warm or medicated liquid.  b apply warmth to.
             ЬЬfomenter n.  [ME f. F fomenter f. LL fomentare f. L fomentum
             poultice, lotion f.  fovere heat, cherish]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of fomenting.  2 materials prepared
             for application to a wound etc.  [ME f. OF or LL fomentatio (as

   fond      adj.  1 (foll. by of) having affection or a liking for.  2
             affectionate, loving, doting.  3 (of beliefs etc.) foolishly
             optimistic or credulous; na‹ve.  ЬЬfondly adv.  fondness n.  [ME
             f. obs.  fon fool, be foolish]

   fondant   n.  a soft sweet of flavoured sugar.  [F, pres. part. of fondre
             melt f. L fundere pour]

   fondle    v.tr.  touch or stroke lovingly; caress.  ЬЬfondler n.
             [back-form. f.  fondling fondled person (as FOND, -LING(1))]

   fondue    n.  a dish of flavoured melted cheese.  [F, fem. past part. of
             fondre melt f. L fundere pour]

   font(1)   n.  1 a receptacle in a church for baptismal water.  2 the
             reservoir for oil in a lamp.  ЬЬfontal adj. (in sense 1).  [OE
             font, fant f. OIr.  fant, font f. L fons fontis fountain,
             baptismal water]

   font(2)   var. of FOUNT(2).

   fontanel  US var. of FONTANELLE.

             n.  (US fontanel) a membranous space in an infant's skull at the
             angles of the parietal bones.  [F fontanelle f. mod.L fontanella
             f. OF fontenelle dimin. of fontaine fountain]

   food      n.  1 a nutritious substance, esp. solid in form, that can be
             taken into an animal or a plant to maintain life and growth.  2
             ideas as a resource for or stimulus to mental work (food for
             thought).  Ьfood additive a substance added to food to enhance
             its colour, flavour, or presentation, or for any other
             non-nutritional purpose.  food-chain Ecol.  a series of
             organisms each dependent on the next for food.  food poisoning
             illness due to bacteria or other toxins in food.  food processor
             a machine for chopping and mixing food materials.  food value
             the relative nourishing power of a food.  [OE foda f. Gmc: cf.

   foodie    n.  (also foody) (pl.  -ies) colloq.  a person who is particular
             about food; a gourmet.

   foodstuff n.  any substance suitable as food.

   fool(1)   n., v., & adj.  --n.  1 a person who acts unwisely or
             imprudently; a stupid person.  2 hist. a jester; a clown.  3 a
             dupe.  --v.  1 tr. deceive so as to cause to appear foolish.  2
             tr. (foll. by into + verbal noun, or out of) trick; cause to do
             something foolish.  3 tr. play tricks on; dupe.  4 intr. act in
             a joking, frivolous, or teasing way.  5 intr. (foll. by about,
             around) behave in a playful or silly way.  --adj.  US colloq.
             foolish, silly.  Ьact (or play) the fool behave in a silly way.
             fool's errand a fruitless venture.  fool's gold iron pyrites.
             fool's paradise happiness founded on an illusion.  fool's
             parsley a species of hemlock resembling parsley.  make a fool of
             make (a person or oneself) look foolish; trick or deceive.  no
             (or nobody's) fool a shrewd or prudent person.  [ME f. OF fol f.
             L follis bellows, empty-headed person]

   fool(2)   n.  a dessert of usu. stewed fruit crushed and mixed with cream,
             custard, etc.  [16th c.: perh. f.  FOOL(1)]

   foolery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 foolish behaviour.  2 a foolish act.

   foolhardy adj.  (foolhardier, foolhardiest) rashly or foolishly bold;
             reckless.  ЬЬfoolhardily adv.  foolhardiness n.  [ME f. OF
             folhardi f.  fol foolish + hardi bold]

   foolish   adj.  (of a person, action, etc.) lacking good sense or
             judgement; unwise.  ЬЬfoolishly adv.  foolishness n.

   foolproof adj.  (of a procedure, mechanism, etc.) so straightforward or
             simple as to be incapable of misuse or mistake.

   foolscap  n.  Brit.  a size of paper, about 330 x 200 (or 400) mm.  [named
             from the former watermark representing a fool's cap]

   foot      n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  feet) 1 a the lower extremity of the leg
             below the ankle.  b the part of a sock etc. covering the foot.
             2 a the lower or lowest part of anything, e.g. a mountain, a
             page, stairs, etc.  b the lower end of a table.  c the end of a
             bed where the user's feet normally rest.  3 the base, often
             projecting, of anything extending vertically.  4 a step, pace,
             or tread; a manner of walking (fleet of foot).  5 (pl.  feet or
             foot) a unit of linear measure equal to 12 inches (30.48 cm).  6
             Prosody a a group of syllables (one usu. stressed) constituting
             a metrical unit.  b a similar unit of speech etc.  7 Brit.
             hist. infantry (a regiment of foot).  8 Zool. the locomotive or
             adhesive organ of invertebrates.  9 Bot. the part by which a
             petal is attached.  10 a device on a sewing-machine for holding
             the material steady as it is sewn.  11 (pl.  foots) a dregs; oil
             refuse.  b coarse sugar.  --v.tr.  1 (usu. as foot it) a
             traverse (esp. a long distance) by foot.  b dance.  2 pay (a
             bill, esp. one considered large).  Ьat a person's feet as a
             person's disciple or subject.  feet of clay a fundamental
             weakness in a person otherwise revered.  foot-and-mouth disease
             a contagious viral disease of cattle etc.  foot-fault (in lawn
             tennis) incorrect placement of the feet while serving.
             foot-pound the amount of energy required to raise 1 lb. a
             distance of 1 foot.  foot-pound-second system a system of
             measurement with these as basic units.  foot-rot a bacterial
             disease of the feet in sheep and cattle.  foot-rule a ruler 1
             foot long.  foot-soldier a soldier who fights on foot.  get
             one's feet wet begin to participate.  have one's (or both) feet
             on the ground be practical.  have a foot in the door have a
             prospect of success.  have one foot in the grave be near death
             or very old.  my foot!  int.  expressing strong contradiction.
             not put a foot wrong make no mistakes.  off one's feet so as to
             be unable to stand, or in a state compared with this (was rushed
             off my feet).  on foot walking, not riding etc.  put one's best
             foot forward make every effort; proceed with determination.  put
             one's feet up colloq.  take a rest.  put one's foot down colloq.
             1 be firmly insistent or repressive.  2 accelerate a motor
             vehicle.  put one's foot in it colloq.  commit a blunder or
             indiscretion.  set foot on (or in) enter; go into.  set on foot
             put (an action, process, etc.) in motion.  under one's feet in
             the way.  under foot on the ground.  ЬЬfooted adj. (also in
             comb.).  footless adj.  [OE fot f. Gmc]

   footage   n.  1 length or distance in feet.  2 an amount of film made for
             showing, broadcasting, etc.

   football  n. & v.  --n.  1 any of several outdoor games between two teams
             played with a ball on a pitch with goals at each end, esp.  =
             Association Football.  2 a large inflated ball of a kind used in
             these.  3 a topical issue or problem that is the subject of
             continued argument or controversy.  --v.intr. play football.
             Ьfootball pool (or pools) a form of gambling on the results of
             football matches, the winners receiving sums accumulated from
             entry money.  ЬЬfootballer n.

   footboard n.  1 a board to support the feet or a foot.  2 an upright board
             at the foot of a bed.

   footbrake n.  a brake operated by the foot in a motor vehicle.

             n.  a bridge for use by pedestrians.

   footer(1) n.  (in comb.) a person or thing of so many feet in length or
             height (six-footer).

   footer(2) n.  Brit.  colloq.  = FOOTBALL 1.

   footfall  n.  the sound of a footstep.

   foothill  n.  (often in pl.) any of the low hills around the base of a

   foothold  n.  1 a place, esp. in climbing, where a foot can be supported
             securely.  2 a secure initial position or advantage.

   footing   n.  1 a foothold; a secure position (lost his footing).  2 the
             basis on which an enterprise is established or operates; the
             position or status of a person in relation to others (on an
             equal footing).  3 the foundations of a wall, usu. with a course
             of brickwork wider than the base of the wall.

   footle    v.intr.  (usu. foll. by about) colloq.  behave foolishly or
             trivially.  [19th c.: perh. f. dial.  footer idle]

             n.pl.  a row of lights along the front of a stage at the level
             of the actors' feet.

   footling  adj.  colloq.  trivial, silly.

   footloose adj.  free to go where or act as one pleases.

   footman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a liveried servant attending at the door, at
             table, or on a carriage.  2 hist. an infantryman.

   footmark  n.  a footprint.

   footnote  n. & v.  --n. a note printed at the foot of a page.  --v.tr.
             supply with a footnote or footnotes.

   footpad   n.  hist.  an unmounted highwayman.

   footpath  n.  a path for pedestrians; a pavement.

   footplate n.  esp.  Brit.  the platform in the cab of a locomotive for the

   footprint n.  1 the impression left by a foot or shoe.  2 Computing the
             area of desk space etc. occupied by a microcomputer or other
             piece of hardware.

   footrest  n.  a support for the feet or a foot.

   footsie   n.  colloq.  amorous play with the feet.  [joc. dimin. of FOOT]

   footslog  v. & n.  --v.intr.  (-slogged, -slogging) walk or march, esp.
             laboriously for a long distance.  --n. a laborious walk or
             march.  ЬЬfootslogger n.

   footsore  adj.  having sore feet, esp. from walking.

   footstalk n.  1 Bot. a stalk of a leaf or peduncle of a flower.  2 Zool.
             an attachment of a barnacle etc.

   footstep  n.  1 a step taken in walking.  2 the sound of this.  Ьfollow
             (or tread) in a person's footsteps do as another person did

   footstool n.  a stool for resting the feet on when sitting.

   footway   n.  a path or way for pedestrians.

   footwear  n.  shoes, socks, etc.

   footwork  n.  the use of the feet, esp. skilfully, in sports, dancing,

   fop       n.  an affectedly elegant or fashionable man; a dandy.
             ЬЬfoppery n.  foppish adj.  foppishly adv.  foppishness n.
             [17th c.: perh. f. earlier fop fool]

   for       prep. & conj.  --prep.  1 in the interest or to the benefit of;
             intended to go to (these flowers are for you; wish to see it for
             myself; did it all for my country; silly for you to go).  2 in
             defence, support, or favour of (fight for one's rights).  3
             suitable or appropriate to (a dance for beginners; not for me to
             say).  4 in respect of or with reference to; regarding; so far
             as concerns (usual for ties to be worn; don't care for him at
             all; ready for bed; MP for Lincoln).  5 representing or in place
             of (here for my uncle).  6 in exchange against (swopped it for a
             bigger one).  7 a as the price of (give me њ5 for it).  b at the
             price of (bought it for њ5).  c to the amount of (a bill for
             њ100; all out for 45).  8 as the penalty of (fined them heavily
             for it).  9 in requital of (that's for upsetting my sister).  10
             as a reward for (here's њ5 for your trouble).  11 a with a view
             to; in the hope or quest of; in order to get (go for a walk; run
             for a doctor; did it for the money).  b on account of (could not
             speak for laughing).  12 corresponding to (word for word).  13
             to reach; in the direction of; towards (left for Rome; ran for
             the end of the road).  14 conducive or conducively to; in order
             to achieve (take the pills for a sound night's sleep).  15 so as
             to start promptly at (the meeting is at seven-thirty for eight).
             16 through or over (a distance or period); during (walked for
             miles; sang for two hours).  17 in the character of; as being
             (for the last time; know it for a lie; I for one refuse).  18
             because of; on account of (could not see for tears).  19 in
             spite of; notwithstanding (for all we know; for all your fine
             words).  20 considering or making due allowance in respect of
             (good for a beginner).  21 in order to be (gone for a soldier).
             --conj. because, since, seeing that.  Ьbe for it Brit.  colloq.
             be in imminent danger of punishment or other trouble.  for ever
             see EVER; (cf.  FOREVER).  o (or oh) for I wish I had.  [OE,
             prob. a reduction of Gmc fora (unrecorded) BEFORE (of place and

   for-      prefix forming verbs and their derivatives meaning: 1 away, off,
             apart (forget; forgive).  2 prohibition (forbid).  3 abstention
             or neglect (forgo; forsake).  4 excess or intensity (forlorn).
             [OE for-, f‘r-]

   f.o.r.    abbr.  free on rail.

   forage    n. & v.  --n.  1 food for horses and cattle.  2 the act or an
             instance of searching for food.  --v.  1 intr. go searching;
             rummage (esp. for food).  2 tr. collect food from; ravage.  3
             tr.  a get by foraging.  b supply with food.  Ьforage cap an
             infantry undress cap.  ЬЬforager n.  [ME f. OF fourrage,
             fourrager, rel. to FODDER]

   foramen   n.  (pl.  foramina) Anat.  an opening, hole, or passage, esp. in
             a bone.  ЬЬforaminate adj.  [L foramen -minis f.  forare bore a

             n.  (also foraminiferan) any protozoan of the order
             Foraminifera, having a perforated shell through which
             amoeba-like pseudopodia emerge.  ЬЬforaminiferous adj.

             var. of FORAMINIFER.

   forasmuch as
             conj.  archaic because, since.  [= for as much]

   foray     n. & v.  --n. a sudden attack; a raid or incursion.  --v.intr.
             make or go on a foray.  [ME, prob. earlier as verb: back-form.
             f.  forayer f. OF forrier forager, rel. to FODDER]

   forbade   (also forbad) past of FORBID.

             v.intr. & tr.  (past forbore; past part.  forborne) (often foll.
             by from, or to + infin.)  literary abstain or desist (from)
             (could not forbear (from) speaking out; forbore to mention it).
             [OE forberan (as FOR-, BEAR(1))]

             var. of FOREBEAR.

             n.  patient self-control; tolerance.

   forbid    v.tr.  (forbidding; past forbade or forbad; past part.
             forbidden) 1 (foll. by to + infin.) order not (I forbid you to
             go).  2 refuse to allow (a thing, or a person to have a thing)
             (I forbid it; was forbidden any wine).  3 refuse a person entry
             to (the gardens are forbidden to children).  Ьforbidden degrees
             see DEGREE.  forbidden fruit something desired or enjoyed all
             the more because not allowed.  God forbid!  may it not happen!
             [OE forbeodan (as FOR-, BID)]

             adj.  uninviting, repellent, stern.  ЬЬforbiddingly adv.

   forbore   past of FORBEAR(1).

   forborne  past part. of FORBEAR(1).

   forbye    prep. & adv.  archaic or Sc.  --prep. besides.  --adv. in

   force(1)  n. & v.  --n.  1 power; exerted strength or impetus; intense
             effort.  2 coercion or compulsion, esp. with the use or threat
             of violence.  3 a military strength.  b (in pl.) troops;
             fighting resources.  c an organized body of people, esp.
             soldiers, police, or workers.  4 binding power; validity.  5
             effect; precise significance (the force of their words).  6 a
             mental or moral strength; influence, efficacy (force of habit).
             b vividness of effect (described with much force).  7 Physics a
             an influence tending to cause the motion of a body.  b the
             intensity of this equal to the mass of the body and its
             acceleration.  8 a person or thing regarded as exerting
             influence (is a force for good).  --v.  1 tr. constrain (a
             person) by force or against his or her will.  2 tr. make a way
             through or into by force; break open by force.  3 tr. (usu. with
             prep. or adv.) drive or propel violently or against resistance
             (forced it into the hole; the wind forced them back).  4 tr.
             (foll. by on, upon) impose or press (on a person) (forced their
             views on us).  5 tr.  a cause or produce by effort (forced a
             smile).  b attain by strength or effort (forced an entry; must
             force a decision).  6 tr. strain or increase to the utmost;
             overstrain.  7 tr. artificially hasten the development or
             maturity of (a plant).  8 tr. seek or demand quick results from;
             accelerate the process of (force the pace).  9 intr.  Cards make
             a play that compels another particular play.  Ьby force of by
             means of.  force the bidding (at an auction) make bids to raise
             the price rapidly.  forced labour compulsory labour, esp. under
             harsh conditions.  forced landing the unavoidable landing of an
             aircraft in an emergency.  forced march a long and vigorous
             march esp. by troops.  force-feed force (esp. a prisoner) to
             take food.  force field (in science fiction) an invisible
             barrier of force.  force a person's hand make a person act
             prematurely or unwillingly.  force the issue render an immediate
             decision necessary.  force-land land an aircraft in an
             emergency.  force-pump a pump that forces water under pressure.
             in force 1 valid, effective.  2 in great strength or numbers.
             join forces combine efforts.  ЬЬforceable adj.  forceably adv.
             forcer n.  [ME f. OF force, forcer ult. f. L fortis strong]

   force(2)  n.  N.Engl.  a waterfall.  [ON fors]

   forceful  adj.  1 vigorous, powerful.  2 (of speech) compelling,
             impressive.  ЬЬforcefully adv.  forcefulness n.

   force majeure
             n.  1 irresistible compulsion or coercion.  2 an unforeseeable
             course of events excusing a person from the fulfilment of a
             contract.  [F, = superior strength]

   forcemeat n.  meat etc. chopped and seasoned for use as a stuffing or a
             garnish.  [obs.  force, farce stuff f. OF farsir: see FARCE]

   forceps   n.  (pl. same) 1 surgical pincers, used for grasping and
             holding.  2 Bot. & Zool. an organ or structure resembling
             forceps.  ЬЬforcipate adj.  [L forceps forcipis]

   forcible  adj.  done by or involving force; forceful.  ЬЬforcibleness n.
             forcibly adv.  [ME f. AF & OF (as FORCE(1))]

   ford      n. & v.  --n. a shallow place where a river or stream may be
             crossed by wading or in a vehicle.  --v.tr. cross (water) at a
             ford.  ЬЬfordable adj.  fordless adj.  [OE f. WG]

   fore      adj., n., int., & prep.  --adj. situated in front.  --n. the
             front part, esp. of a ship; the bow.  --int.  Golf a warning to
             a person in the path of a ball.  --prep.  archaic (in oaths) in
             the presence of (fore God).  Ьcome to the fore take a leading
             part.  fore and aft at bow and stern; all over the ship.
             fore-and-aft adj.  (of a sail or rigging) set lengthwise, not on
             the yards.  to the fore in front; conspicuous.  [OE f. Gmc.:
             (adj. & n.) ME f. compounds with FORE-]

   fore-     prefix forming: 1 verbs meaning: a in front (foreshorten).  b
             beforehand; in advance (foreordain; forewarn).  2 nouns meaning:
             a situated in front of (forecourt).  b the front part of
             (forehead).  c of or near the bow of a ship (forecastle).  d
             preceding (forerunner).

             n.  1 the part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist or the
             fingertips.  2 the corresponding part in a foreleg or wing.

             v.tr.  prepare or arm beforehand.

   forebear  n.  (also forbear) (usu. in pl.) an ancestor.  [FORE + obs.
             bear, beer (as BE, -ER(1))]

   forebode  v.tr.  1 betoken; be an advance warning of (an evil or unwelcome
             event).  2 have a presentiment of (usu. evil).

             n.  an expectation of trouble or evil; a presage or omen.
             ЬЬforebodingly adv.

   forecast  v. & n.  --v.tr.  (past and past part.  -cast or -casted)
             predict; estimate or calculate beforehand.  --n. a calculation
             or estimate of something future, esp. coming weather.
             ЬЬforecaster n.

             n.  (also fo'c's'le) Naut.  1 the forward part of a ship where
             the crew has quarters.  2 hist. a short raised deck at the bow.

   foreclose v.tr.  1 (also absol.; foll. by on) stop (a mortgage) from being
             redeemable or (a mortgager) from redeeming, esp. as a result of
             defaults in payment.  2 exclude, prevent.  3 shut out; bar.
             ЬЬforeclosure n.  [ME f. OF forclos past part. of forclore f.
             for- out f. L foras + CLOSE(2)]

   forecourt n.  1 an enclosed space in front of a building.  2 the part of a
             filling-station where petrol is supplied.  3 (in lawn tennis)
             the part of a tennis-court between the service line and the net.

   foredoom  v.tr.  (often foll. by to) doom or condemn beforehand.

   fore-edge n.  (also foredge) the front or outer edge (esp. of the pages of
             a book).

             n.  (usu. in pl.) 1 an ancestor.  2 a member of a past
             generation of a family or people.

             n.  the finger next to the thumb.

   forefoot  n.  (pl.  -feet) 1 either of the front feet of a four-footed
             animal.  2 Naut. the foremost section of a ship's keel.

   forefront n.  1 the foremost part.  2 the leading position.

             var. of FORGATHER.

   forego(1) v.tr. & intr.  (-goes; past -went; past part.  -gone) precede in
             place or time.  ЬЬforegoer n.  [OE foregan]

   forego(2) var. of FORGO.

   foregoing adj.  preceding; previously mentioned.

   foregone  past part. of FOREGO(1).  --attrib.adj.  previous, preceding,
             completed.  Ьforegone conclusion an easily foreseen or
             predictable result.

             n.  1 the part of a view, esp. in a picture, that is nearest the
             observer.  2 the most conspicuous position.  [Du.  voorgrond (as
             FORE-, GROUND(1))]

   forehand  n.  1 Tennis etc. a a stroke played with the palm of the hand
             facing the opponent.  b (attrib.) (also forehanded) of or made
             with a forehand.  2 the part of a horse in front of the seated

   forehead  n.  the part of the face above the eyebrows.  [OE forheafod (as
             FORE-, HEAD)]

   forehock  n.  a foreleg cut of pork or bacon.

   foreign   adj.  1 of or from or situated in or characteristic of a country
             or a language other than one's own.  2 dealing with other
             countries (foreign service).  3 of another district, society,
             etc.  4 (often foll. by to) unfamiliar, strange,
             uncharacteristic (his behaviour is foreign to me).  5 coming
             from outside (a foreign body lodged in my eye).  Ьforeign aid
             money, food, etc. given or lent by one country to another.
             foreign exchange 1 the currency of other countries.  2 dealings
             in these.  foreign legion a body of foreign volunteers in an
             army (esp. the French army).  foreign minister (or secretary) a
             government minister in charge of his or her country's relations
             with other countries.  foreign office a government department
             dealing with other countries.  ЬЬforeignness n.  [ME f. OF
             forein, forain ult. f. L foras, -is outside: for -g- cf.

   foreigner n.  1 a person born in or coming from a foreign country or
             place.  2 dial. a non-native of a place.  3 a a foreign ship.  b
             an imported animal or article.

   forejudge v.tr.  judge or determine before knowing the evidence.

   foreknow  v.tr.  (past -knew; past part.  -known) know beforehand; have
             prescience of.  ЬЬforeknowledge n.

   forelady  n.  (pl.  -ies) US = FOREWOMAN.

   foreland  n.  1 a cape or promontory.  2 a piece of land in front of

   foreleg   n.  each of the front legs of a quadruped.

   forelimb  n.  any of the front limbs of an animal.

   forelock  n.  a lock of hair growing just above the forehead.  Ьtake time
             by the forelock seize an opportunity.

   foreman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a worker with supervisory responsibilities.  2
             the member of a jury who presides over its deliberations and
             speaks on its behalf.

   foremast  n.  the forward (lower) mast of a ship.

   foremost  adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 the chief or most notable.  2 the most
             advanced in position; the front.  --adv. before anything else in
             position; in the first place (first and foremost).  [earlier
             formost, formest, superl. of OE forma first, assim. to FORE,

   forename  n.  a first or Christian name.

   forenoon  n.  Naut. or Law or archaic the part of the day before noon.

   forensic  adj.  of or used in connection with courts of law (forensic
             science).  Ьforensic medicine the application of medical
             knowledge to legal problems.  ЬЬforensically adv.  [L forensis
             f.  FORUM]

             v.tr.  predestinate; ordain beforehand.  ЬЬforeordination n.

   forepaw   n.  either of the front paws of a quadruped.

   forepeak  n.  Naut.  the end of the forehold in the angle of the bows.

   foreplay  n.  stimulation preceding sexual intercourse.

   forerun   v.tr.  (-running; past -ran; past part.  -run) 1 go before.  2
             indicate the coming of; foreshadow.

             n.  1 a predecessor.  2 an advance messenger.

   foresail  n.  Naut.  the principal sail on a foremast (the lowest square
             sail, or the fore-and-aft bent on the mast, or the triangular
             before the mast).

   foresee   v.tr.  (past -saw; past part.  -seen) (often foll. by that +
             clause) see or be aware of beforehand.  ЬЬforeseeable adj.
             foreseeability n.  foreseer n.  [OE foreseon (as FORE- +

             v.tr.  be a warning or indication of (a future event).

             n.pl.  Naut.  the inner part of the bows of a boat with gratings
             for the bowman to stand on.

   foreshore n.  the part of the shore between high- and low-water marks, or
             between the water and cultivated or developed land.

             v.tr.  show or portray (an object) with the apparent shortening
             due to visual perspective.

   foreshow  v.tr.  (past part.  -shown) 1 foretell.  2 foreshadow, portend,

   foresight n.  1 regard or provision for the future.  2 the process of
             foreseeing.  3 the front sight of a gun.  4 Surveying a sight
             taken forwards.  ЬЬforesighted adj.  foresightedly adv.
             foresightedness n.  [ME, prob. after ON forsj , forsjў (as
             FORE-, SIGHT)]

   foreskin  n.  the fold of skin covering the end of the penis. Also called

   forest    n. & v.  --n.  1 a (often attrib.) a large area covered chiefly
             with trees and undergrowth.  b the trees growing in it.  c a
             large number or dense mass of vertical objects (a forest of
             masts).  2 a district formerly a forest but now cultivated
             (Sherwood Forest).  3 hist. an area usu. owned by the sovereign
             and kept for hunting.  --v.tr.  1 plant with trees.  2 convert
             into a forest.  Ьforest-tree a large tree suitable for a forest.
             [ME f. OF f. LL forestis silva wood outside the walls of a park
             f. L foris outside]

   forestall v.tr.  1 act in advance of in order to prevent.  2 anticipate
             (the action of another, or an event).  3 anticipate the action
             of.  4 deal with beforehand.  5 hist. buy up (goods) in order to
             profit by an enhanced price.  ЬЬforestaller n.  forestalment n.
             [ME in sense 5: cf. AL forestallare f. OE foresteall an ambush
             (as FORE-, STALL)]

   forestay  n.  Naut.  a stay from the head of the foremast to the ship's
             deck to support the foremast.

   forester  n.  1 a person in charge of a forest or skilled in forestry.  2
             a person or animal living in a forest.  3 (Forester) a member of
             the Ancient Order of Foresters (a friendly society).  [ME f. OF
             forestier (as FOREST)]

   forestry  n.  1 the science or management of forests.  2 wooded country;

   foretaste n. & v.  --n.  partial enjoyment or suffering in advance;
             anticipation.  --v.tr.  taste beforehand; anticipate the
             experience of.

   foretell  v.tr.  (past and past part.  -told) 1 tell of (an event etc.)
             before it takes place; predict, prophesy.  2 presage; be a
             precursor of.  ЬЬforeteller n.

             n.  1 care or provision for the future.  2 previous thinking or
             devising.  3 deliberate intention.

   foretoken n. & v.  --n.  a sign of something to come.  --v.tr.  portend;
             indicate beforehand.  [OE foretacn (as FORE-, TOKEN)]

   foretold  past and past part. of FORETELL.

   foretop   n.  Naut.  a platform at the top of a foremast (see TOP(1) n.
             9).  Ьforetop-gallant mast the mast above the fore-topmast.
             foretop-gallant-sail the sail above the fore-topsail.

             n.  Naut.  the mast above the foremast.

             n.  Naut.  the sail above the foresail.

   forever   adv.  continually, persistently (is forever complaining) (cf.
             for ever).

             adv.  esp.  US an emphatic form of FOREVER or for ever (see

   forewarn  v.tr.  warn beforehand.  ЬЬforewarner n.

   forewent  past of FOREGO(1), FOREGO(2).

   forewoman n.  (pl.  -women) 1 a female worker with supervisory
             responsibilities.  2 a woman who presides over a jury's
             deliberations and speaks on its behalf.

   foreword  n.  introductory remarks at the beginning of a book, often by a
             person other than the author.  [FORE- + WORD after G Vorwort]

   foreyard  n.  Naut.  the lowest yard on a foremast.

   forfeit   n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 a penalty for a breach of contract or
             neglect; a fine.  2 a a trivial fine for a breach of rules in
             clubs etc. or in games.  b (in pl.) a game in which forfeits are
             exacted.  3 something surrendered as a penalty.  4 the process
             of forfeiting.  5 Law property or a right or privilege lost as a
             legal penalty.  --adj. lost or surrendered as a penalty.
             --v.tr.  (forfeited, forfeiting) lose the right to, be deprived
             of, or have to pay as a penalty.  ЬЬforfeitable adj.  forfeiter
             n.  forfeiture n.  [ME (= crime) f. OF forfet, forfait past
             part. of forfaire transgress (f. L foris outside) + faire f. L
             facere do]

   forfend   v.tr.  1 US protect by precautions.  2 archaic avert; keep off.

   forgather v.intr.  (also foregather) assemble; meet together; associate.
             [16th-c. Sc. f. Du.  vergaderen, assim. to FOR-, GATHER]

   forgave   past of FORGIVE.

   forge(1)  v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 a make (money etc.) in fraudulent imitation.
             b write (a document or signature) in order to pass it off as
             written by another.  2 fabricate, invent.  3 shape (esp. metal)
             by heating in a fire and hammering.  --n.  1 a blacksmith's
             workshop; a smithy.  2 a a furnace or hearth for melting or
             refining metal.  b a workshop containing this.  ЬЬforgeable adj.
             forger n.  [ME f. OF forge (n.), forger (v.) f. L fabricare

   forge(2)  v.intr.  move forward gradually or steadily.  Ьforge ahead 1
             take the lead in a race.  2 move forward or make progress
             rapidly.  [18th c.: perh. an aberrant pronunc. of FORCE(1)]

   forgery   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the act or an instance of forging,
             counterfeiting, or falsifying a document etc.  2 a forged or
             spurious thing, esp. a document or signature.

   forget    v.  (forgetting; past forgot; past part.  forgotten or esp.  US
             forgot) 1 tr. & (often foll. by about) intr. lose the
             remembrance of; not remember (a person or thing).  2 tr. (foll.
             by clause or to + infin.) not remember; neglect (forgot to come;
             forgot how to do it).  3 tr. inadvertently omit to bring or
             mention or attend to.  4 tr. (also absol.) put out of mind;
             cease to think of (forgive and forget).  Ьforget-me-not any
             plant of the genus Myosotis, esp.  M. alpestris with small
             yellow-eyed bright blue flowers.  forget oneself 1 neglect one's
             own interests.  2 act unbecomingly or unworthily.  ЬЬforgettable
             adj.  forgetter n.  [OE forgietan f. WG (as FOR-, GET)]

   forgetful adj.  1 apt to forget, absent-minded.  2 (often foll. by of)
             forgetting, neglectful.  ЬЬforgetfully adj.  forgetfulness n.

   forgive   v.tr.  (also absol. or with double object) (past forgave; past
             part.  forgiven) 1 cease to feel angry or resentful towards;
             pardon (an offender or offence) (forgive us our mistakes).  2
             remit or let off (a debt or debtor).  ЬЬforgivable adj.
             forgivably adv.  forgiver n.  [OE forgiefan (as FOR-, GIVE)]

             n.  the act of forgiving; the state of being forgiven.  [OE
             forgiefenes (as FORGIVE)]

   forgiving adj.  inclined readily to forgive.  ЬЬforgivingly adv.

   forgo     v.tr.  (also forego) (-goes; past -went; past part.  -gone) 1
             abstain from; go without; relinquish.  2 omit or decline to take
             or use (a pleasure, advantage, etc.).  [OE forgan (as FOR-,

   forgot    past of FORGET.

   forgotten past part. of FORGET.

   forint    n.  the chief monetary unit of Hungary.  [Magyar f. It.
             fiorino: see FLORIN]

   fork      n. & v.  --n.  1 an instrument with two or more prongs used in
             eating or cooking.  2 a similar much larger instrument used for
             digging, lifting, etc.  3 any pronged device or component
             (tuning-fork).  4 a forked support for a bicycle wheel.  5 a a
             divergence of anything, e.g. a stick or road, or US a river,
             into two parts.  b the place where this occurs.  c either of the
             two parts (take the left fork).  6 a flash of forked lightning.
             7 Chess a simultaneous attack on two pieces by one.  --v.  1
             intr. form a fork or branch by separating into two parts.  2
             intr. take one or other road etc. at a fork (fork left for
             Banbury).  3 tr. dig or lift etc. with a fork.  4 tr.  Chess
             attack (two pieces) simultaneously with one.  Ьfork-lift truck a
             vehicle with a horizontal fork in front for lifting and carrying
             loads.  fork lunch (or supper etc.) a light meal eaten with a
             fork at a buffet etc.  fork out (or up) sl.  hand over or pay,
             usu. reluctantly.  [OE forca, force f. L furca]

   forked    adj.  1 having a fork or forklike end or branches.  2 divergent,
             cleft.  3 (in comb.) having so many prongs (three-forked).
             Ьforked lightning a lightning-flash in the form of a zigzag or
             branching line.

   forlorn   adj.  1 sad and abandoned or lonely.  2 in a pitiful state; of
             wretched appearance.  3 desperate, hopeless, forsaken.  Ьforlorn
             hope 1 a faint remaining hope or chance.  2 a desperate
             enterprise.  ЬЬforlornly adv.  forlornness n.  [past part. of
             obs.  forlese f. OE forleosan (as FOR-, LOSE): forlorn hope f.
             Du.  verloren hoop lost troop, orig. of a storming-party etc.]

   form      n. & v.  --n.  1 a a shape; an arrangement of parts.  b the
             outward aspect (esp. apart from colour) or shape of a body.  2 a
             person or animal as visible or tangible (the familiar form of
             the postman).  3 the mode in which a thing exists or manifests
             itself (took the form of a book).  4 a species, kind, or
             variety.  5 a a printed document with blank spaces for
             information to be inserted.  b a regularly drawn document.  6
             esp.  Brit. a class in a school.  7 a customary method; what is
             usually done (common form).  8 a set order of words; a formula.
             9 behaviour according to a rule or custom.  10 (prec. by the)
             correct procedure (knows the form).  11 a (of an athlete, horse,
             etc.) condition of health and training (is in top form).  b
             Racing details of previous performances.  12 general state or
             disposition (was in great form).  13 sl. a criminal record.  14
             formality or mere ceremony.  15 Gram.  a one of the ways in
             which a word may be spelt or pronounced or inflected.  b the
             external characteristics of words apart from meaning.  16
             arrangement and style in literary or musical composition.  17
             Philos. the essential nature of a species or thing.  18 a long
             bench without a back.  19 esp.  US Printing = FORME.  20 a
             hare's lair.  21 = FORMWORK.  --v.  1 tr. make or fashion into a
             certain shape or form.  2 intr. take a certain shape; be formed.
             3 tr. be the material of; make up or constitute (together form a
             unit; forms part of the structure).  4 tr. train or instruct.  5
             tr. develop or establish as a concept, institution, or practice
             (form an idea; formed an alliance; form a habit).  6 tr. (foll.
             by into) embody, organize.  7 tr. articulate (a word).  8 tr. &
             intr. (often foll. by up) esp. Mil. bring or be brought into a
             certain arrangement or formation.  9 tr. construct (a new word)
             by derivation, inflection, etc.  Ьbad form an offence against
             current social conventions.  form class Linguistics a class of
             linguistic forms with grammatical or syntactical features in
             common.  form criticism textual analysis of the Bible etc. by
             tracing the history of its content by forms (e.g. proverbs,
             myths).  form letter a standardized letter to deal with
             frequently occurring matters.  good form what complies with
             current social conventions.  in form fit for racing etc.  off
             form not playing or performing well.  on form playing or
             performing well.  out of form not fit for racing etc.  [ME f. OF
             forme f. L forma mould, form]

   -form     comb. form (usu. as -iform) forming adjectives meaning: 1 having
             the form of (cruciform; cuneiform).  2 having such a number of
             (uniform; multiform).  [from or after F - forme f. L -formis f.
             forma FORM]

   formal    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 used or done or held in accordance with
             rules, convention, or ceremony (formal dress; a formal
             occasion).  2 ceremonial; required by convention (a formal
             call).  3 precise or symmetrical (a formal garden).  4 prim or
             stiff in manner.  5 perfunctory, having the form without the
             spirit.  6 valid or correctly so called because of its form;
             explicit and definite (a formal agreement).  7 in accordance
             with recognized forms or rules.  8 of or concerned with
             (outward) form or appearance, esp.  as distinct from content or
             matter.  9 Logic concerned with the form and not the matter of
             reasoning.  10 Philos. of the essence of a thing; essential not
             material.  --n.  US 1 evening dress.  2 an occasion on which
             evening dress is worn.  ЬЬformally adv.  formalness n.  [ME f. L
             formalis (as FORM)]

             n.  a colourless pungent gas used as a disinfectant and
             preservative and in the manufacture of synthetic resins.  °Chem.
             formula: CH[2]O. Also called METHANAL.  [FORMIC (ACID) +

   formalin  n.  a colourless solution of formaldehyde in water used as a
             preservative for biological specimens etc.

   formalism n.  1 a excessive adherence to prescribed forms.  b the use of
             forms without regard to inner significance.  2 derog. an
             artist's concentration on form at the expense of content.  3 the
             treatment of mathematics as a manipulation of meaningless
             symbols.  4 Theatr. a symbolic and stylized manner of
             production.  5 Physics & Math. the mathematical description of a
             physical situation etc.  ЬЬformalist n.  formalistic adj.

   formality n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a a formal or ceremonial act, requirement of
             etiquette, regulation, or custom (often with an implied lack of
             real significance).  b a thing done simply to comply with a
             rule.  2 the rigid observance of rules or convention.  3
             ceremony; elaborate procedure.  4 being formal; precision of
             manners.  5 stiffness of design.  [F formalit‚ or med.L
             formalitas (as FORMAL)]

   formalize v.tr.  (also -ise) 1 give definite shape or legal formality to.
             2 make ceremonious, precise, or rigid; imbue with formalism.
             ЬЬformalization n.

   formant   n.  1 the characteristic pitch-constituent of a vowel.  2 a
             morpheme occurring only in combination in a word or word-stem.
             [G f. L formare formant- to form]

   format    n. & v.  --n.  1 the shape and size of a book, periodical, etc.
             2 the style or manner of an arrangement or procedure.  3
             Computing a defined structure for holding data etc. in a record
             for processing or storage.  --v.tr.  (formatted, formatting) 1
             arrange or put into a format.  2 Computing prepare (a storage
             medium) to receive data.  [F f. G f. L formatus (liber) shaped
             (book), past part. of formare FORM]

   formate   see FORMIC ACID.

   formation n.  1 the act or an instance of forming; the process of being
             formed.  2 a thing formed.  3 a structure or arrangement of
             parts.  4 a particular arrangement, e.g. of troops, aircraft in
             flight, etc.  5 Geol. an assemblage of rocks or series of strata
             having some common characteristic.  ЬЬformational adj.  [ME f.
             OF formation or L formatio (as FORM)]

   formative adj. & n.  --adj.  1 serving to form or fashion; of formation.
             2 Gram. (of a flexional or derivative suffix or prefix) used in
             forming words.  --n.  Gram. a formative element.  ЬЬformatively
             adv.  [ME f. OF formatif -ive or med.L formativus (as FORM)]

   forme     n.  (US form: see FORM n.  19.)  Printing 1 a body of type
             secured in a chase for printing at one impression.  2 a quantity
             of film arranged for making a plate etc.  [var. of FORM]

   former(1) attrib.adj.  1 of or occurring in the past or an earlier period
             (in former times).  2 having been previously (her former
             husband).  3 (prec. by the; often absol.) the first or first
             mentioned of two (opp.  LATTER).  [ME f.  forme first, after

   former(2) n.  1 a person or thing that forms.  2 Electr. a frame or core
             for winding a coil on.  3 Aeron. a transverse strengthening
             member in a wing or fuselage.  4 (in comb.) a pupil of a
             specified form in a school (fourth-former).

   formerly  adv.  in the past; in former times.

   Formica   n.  propr.  a hard durable plastic laminate used for working
             surfaces, cupboard doors, etc.  [20th c.: orig. uncert.]

   formic acid
             n.  a colourless irritant volatile acid (HCOOH) contained in the
             fluid emitted by some ants. Also called METHANOIC ACID.
             ЬЬformate n.  [L formica ant]

             n.  a sensation as of ants crawling over the skin.  [L
             formicatio f.  formica ant]

             disp.  adj.  1 inspiring fear or dread.  2 inspiring respect or
             awe.  3 likely to be hard to overcome, resist, or deal with.
             ЬЬformidableness n.  formidably adv.  [F formidable or L
             formidabilis f.  formidare fear]

   formless  adj.  shapeless; without determinate or regular form.
             ЬЬformlessly adv.  formlessness n.

   formula   n.  (pl.  formulas or (esp. in senses 1, 2) formulae) 1 Chem. a
             set of chemical symbols showing the constituents of a substance
             and their relative proportions.  2 Math. a mathematical rule
             expressed in symbols.  3 a a fixed form of words, esp. one used
             on social or ceremonial occasions.  b a rule unintelligently or
             slavishly followed; an established or conventional usage.  c a
             form of words embodying or enabling agreement, resolution of a
             dispute, etc.  4 a a list of ingredients; a recipe.  b US an
             infant's food made up from a recipe.  5 a classification of
             racing car, esp. by the engine capacity.  ЬЬformulaic adj.
             formularize v.tr.  (also -ise).  formulize v.tr.  (also -ise).
             [L, dimin. of forma FORM]

   formulary n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a collection of formulas or set
             forms, esp. for religious use.  2 Pharm. a compendium of
             formulae used in the preparation of medicinal drugs.  --adj.  1
             using formulae.  2 in or of formulae.  [(n.) F formulaire or f.
             med.L formularius (liber book) f. L (as FORMULA): (adj.) f.

   formulate v.tr.  1 express in a formula.  2 express clearly and precisely.
             ЬЬformulation n.

   formulism n.  adherence to or dependence on conventional formulas.
             ЬЬformulist n.  formulistic adj.

   formwork  n.  = SHUTTERING 1.

   fornicate v.intr.  archaic or joc.  (of people not married or not married
             to each other) have sexual intercourse voluntarily.
             ЬЬfornication n.  fornicator n.  [eccl.L fornicari f. L fornix
             -icis brothel]

   forrader  colloq.  compar. of FORWARD.

   forsake   v.tr.  (past forsook; past part.  forsaken) 1 give up; break off
             from; renounce.  2 withdraw one's help, friendship, or
             companionship from; desert, abandon.  ЬЬforsakenness n.
             forsaker n.  [OE forsacan deny, renounce, refuse, f. WG; cf. OE
             sacan quarrel]

   forsooth  adv.  archaic or joc.  truly; in truth; no doubt.  [OE forsoth
             (as FOR, SOOTH)]

   forswear  v.tr.  (past forswore; past part.  forsworn) 1 abjure; renounce
             on oath.  2 (as forsworn adj.) perjured.  Ьforswear oneself
             swear falsely; perjure oneself.  [OE forswerian (as FOR-,

   forsythia n.  any ornamental shrub of the genus Forsythia bearing
             bright-yellow flowers in early spring.  [mod.L f. W.  Forsyth,
             Engl. botanist d. 1804]

   fort      n.  1 a fortified building or position.  2 hist. a
             trading-station, orig. fortified.  [F fort or It.  forte f. L
             fortis strong]

   forte(1)  n.  1 a person's strong point; a thing in which a person excels.
             2 Fencing the part of a sword-blade from the hilt to the middle
             (cf.  FOIBLE 2).  [F fort strong f. L fortis]

   forte(2)  adj., adv., & n.  Mus.  --adj. performed loudly.  --adv. loudly.
             --n. a passage to be performed loudly.  Ьforte piano adj. & adv.
             loud and then immediately soft.  [It., = strong, loud]

             n.  (pl.  -os) Mus. = PIANOFORTE esp. with ref. to an instrument
             of the 18th to early 19th c.  [FORTE(2) + PIANO(2)]

   forth     adv.  archaic except in set phrases and after certain verbs,
             esp.  bring, come, go, and set 1 forward; into view.  2 onwards
             in time (from this time forth; henceforth).  3 forwards.  4 out
             from a starting-point (set forth).  Ьand so forth and so on; and
             the like.  [OE f. Gmc]

             attrib.  adj.  1 a about or likely to appear or become
             available.  b approaching.  2 produced when wanted (no reply was
             forthcoming).  3 (of a person) informative, responsive.
             ЬЬforthcomingness n.

             adj. & adv.  --adj.  1 direct and outspoken; straightforward.  2
             decisive, unhesitating.  --adv.  in a direct manner; bluntly.
             ЬЬforthrightly adv.  forthrightness n.  [OE forthriht (as FORTH,

   forthwith adv.  immediately; without delay.  [earlier forthwithal (as
             FORTH, WITH, ALL)]

             n.  1 the act or an instance of fortifying; the process of being
             fortified.  2 Mil.  a the art or science of fortifying.  b (usu.
             in pl.) defensive works fortifying a position.  [ME f. F f. LL
             fortificatio -onis act of strengthening (as FORTIFY)]

   fortify   v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) 1 provide or equip with defensive works so
             as to strengthen against attack.  2 strengthen or invigorate
             mentally or morally; encourage.  3 strengthen the structure of.
             4 strengthen (wine) with alcohol.  5 increase the nutritive
             value of (food, esp. with vitamins).  ЬЬfortifiable adj.
             fortifier n.  [ME f. OF fortifier f. LL fortificare f. L fortis

             adj., adv., & n.  Mus.  --adj. performed very loudly.  --adv.
             very loudly.  --n.  (pl.  -os or fortissimi) a passage to be
             performed very loudly.  [It., superl. of FORTE(2)]

   fortitude n.  courage in pain or adversity.  [ME f. F f. L fortitudo
             -dinis f.  fortis strong]

   fortnight n.  1 a period of two weeks.  2 (prec. by a specified day) two
             weeks after (that day) (Tuesday fortnight).  [OE feowertiene
             niht fourteen nights]

             adj., adv., & n.  --adj. done, produced, or occurring once a
             fortnight.  --adv. every fortnight.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) a
             magazine etc. issued every fortnight.

   Fortran   n.  (also FORTRAN) Computing a high-level programming language
             used esp. for scientific calculations.  [formula translation]

   fortress  n.  a military stronghold, esp. a strongly fortified town fit
             for a large garrison.  [ME f. OF forteresse, ult. f. L fortis

             adj.  due to or characterized by chance; accidental, casual.
             ЬЬfortuitously adv.  fortuitousness n.  [L fortuitus f.  forte
             by chance]

   fortuity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a chance occurrence.  2 accident or chance;

   fortunate adj.  1 favoured by fortune; lucky, prosperous.  2 auspicious,
             favourable.  [ME f. L fortunatus (as FORTUNE)]

             adv.  1 luckily, successfully.  2 (qualifying a whole sentence)
             it is fortunate that.

   fortune   n.  1 a chance or luck as a force in human affairs.  b a
             person's destiny.  2 (Fortune) this force personified, often as
             a deity.  3 (in sing. or pl.) luck (esp. favourable) that
             befalls a person or enterprise.  4 good luck.  5 prosperity; a
             prosperous condition.  6 (also colloq.  small fortune) great
             wealth; a huge sum of money.  Ьfortune-hunter colloq.  a person
             seeking wealth by marriage.  fortune-teller a person who claims
             to predict future events in a person's life.  fortune-telling
             the practice of this.  make a (or one's) fortune acquire wealth
             or prosperity.  tell a person's fortune make predictions about a
             person's future.  [ME f. OF f. L fortuna luck, chance]

   forty     n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the product of four and ten.  2 a
             symbol for this (40, xl, XL).  3 (in pl.) the numbers from 40 to
             49, esp. the years of a century or of a person's life.  4 (the
             Forties) Brit. the sea area between the NE coast of Scotland and
             the SW coast of Norway (so called from its depth of forty
             fathoms or more).  --adj. that amount to forty.  Ьforty-first,
             -second , etc. the ordinal numbers between fortieth and
             fiftieth.  forty-five a gramophone record played at 45 r.p.m.
             the Forty-five the Jacobite rebellion of 1745.  forty-niner US a
             seeker for gold etc., esp. in the Californian gold-rush of 1849.
             forty-one, -two , etc. the cardinal numbers between forty and
             fifty.  forty winks colloq.  a short sleep.  ЬЬfortieth adj. &
             n.  fortyfold adj. & adv.  [OE feowertig (as FOUR, -TY(2))]

   forum     n.  1 a place of or meeting for public discussion.  2 a
             periodical etc. giving an opportunity for discussion.  3 a court
             or tribunal.  4 hist. a public square or market-place in an
             ancient Roman city used for judicial and other business.  [L, in
             sense 4]

   forward   adj., n., adv., & v.  --adj.  1 lying in one's line of motion.
             2 a onward or towards the front.  b Naut. belonging to the fore
             part of a ship.  3 precocious; bold in manner; presumptuous.  4
             Commerce relating to future produce, delivery, etc. (forward
             contract).  5 a advanced; progressing towards or approaching
             maturity or completion.  b (of a plant etc.) well advanced or
             early.  --n. an attacking player positioned near the front of a
             team in football, hockey, etc.  --adv.  1 to the front; into
             prominence (come forward; move forward).  2 in advance; ahead
             (sent them forward).  3 onward so as to make progress (not
             getting any further forward).  4 towards the future;
             continuously onwards (from this time forward).  5 (also
             forwards) a towards the front in the direction one is facing.  b
             in the normal direction of motion or of traversal.  c with
             continuous forward motion (backwards and forwards; rushing
             forward).  6 Naut. & Aeron. in, near, or towards the bow or
             nose.  --v.tr.  1 a send (a letter etc.) on to a further
             destination.  b dispatch (goods etc.) (forwarding agent).  2
             help to advance; promote.  Ьforward-looking progressive;
             favouring change.  ЬЬforwarder n.  forwardly adv.  forwardness
             n. (esp. in sense 3 of adj.).  [OE forweard, var. of forthweard
             (as FORTH, -WARD)]

   forwards  var. of FORWARD adv.  5.

   forwent   past of FORGO.

   fossa     n.  (pl.  fossae) Anat.  a shallow depression or cavity.  [L, =
             ditch, fem. past part. of fodere dig]

   fosse     n.  1 a long narrow trench or excavation, esp. in a
             fortification.  2 Anat. = FOSSA.  [ME f. OF f. L fossa: see

   fossick   v.intr.  Austral. & NZ colloq.  1 (foll. by about, around)
             rummage, search.  2 search for gold etc. in abandoned workings.
             ЬЬfossicker n.  [19th c.: cf. dial.  fossick bustle about]

   fossil    n. & adj.  --n.  1 the remains or impression of a (usu.
             prehistoric) plant or animal hardened in rock (often attrib.  :
             fossil bones; fossil shells).  2 colloq. an antiquated or
             unchanging person or thing.  3 a word that has become obsolete
             except in set phrases or forms, e.g.  hue in hue and cry.
             --adj.  1 of or like a fossil.  2 antiquated; out of date.
             Ьfossil fuel a natural fuel such as coal or gas formed in the
             geological past from the remains of living organisms.  fossil
             ivory see IVORY.  ЬЬfossiliferous adj.  fossilize v.tr. & intr.
             (also -ise).  fossilization n.  [F fossile f. L fossilis f.
             fodere foss- dig]

   fossorial adj.  1 (of animals) burrowing.  2 (of limbs etc.) used in
             burrowing.  [med.L fossorius f.  fossor digger (as FOSSIL)]

   foster    v. & adj.  --v.tr.  1 a promote the growth or development of.  b
             encourage or harbour (a feeling).  2 (of circumstances) be
             favourable to.  3 a bring up (a child that is not one's own by
             birth).  b Brit. (of a local authority etc.) assign (a child) to
             be fostered.  4 cherish; have affectionate regard for (an idea,
             scheme, etc.).  --adj.  1 having a family connection by
             fostering and not by birth (foster-brother; foster-child;
             foster-parent).  2 involving or concerned with fostering a child
             (foster care; foster home).  ЬЬfosterage n. (esp. in sense 3 of
             v.).  fosterer n.  [OE fostrian, foster, rel. to FOOD]

             n.  a foster-child; a nursling or prot‚g‚.  [OE fosterling (as

   fouett‚   n.  Ballet a quick whipping movement of the raised leg.  [F,
             past part. of fouetter whip]

   fought    past and past part. of FIGHT.

   foul      adj., n., adv., & v.  --adj.  1 offensive to the senses;
             loathsome, stinking.  2 dirty, soiled, filthy.  3 colloq.
             revolting, disgusting.  4 a containing or charged with noxious
             matter (foul air).  b clogged, choked.  5 morally polluted;
             disgustingly abusive or offensive (foul language; foul deeds).
             6 unfair; against the rules of a game etc. (by fair means or
             foul).  7 (of the weather) wet, rough, stormy.  8 (of a rope
             etc.) entangled.  9 (of a ship's bottom) overgrown with weeds,
             barnacles, etc.  --n.  1 Sport an unfair or invalid stroke or
             piece of play.  2 a collision or entanglement, esp. in riding,
             rowing, or running.  3 a foul thing.  --adv. unfairly; contrary
             to the rules.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become foul or dirty.
             2 tr. (of an animal) make dirty with excrement.  3 a tr.  Sport
             commit a foul against (a player).  b intr. commit a foul.  4 a
             tr. (often foll. by up) cause (an anchor, cable, etc.) to become
             entangled or muddled.  b intr. become entangled.  5 tr. jam or
             block (a crossing, railway line, or traffic).  6 tr. (usu. foll.
             by up) colloq. spoil or bungle.  7 tr. run foul of; collide
             with.  8 tr. pollute with guilt; dishonour.  Ьfoul brood a fatal
             disease of larval bees caused by bacteria.  foul mouth a person
             who uses foul language.  foul play 1 unfair play in games.  2
             treacherous or violent activity, esp. murder.  foul-up a muddled
             or bungled situation.  ЬЬfoully adv.  foulness n.  [OE ful f.

   foulard   n.  1 a thin soft material of silk or silk and cotton.  2 an
             article made of this.  [F]

   foumart   n.  a polecat.  [ME fulmert etc. (as FOUL, mart MARTEN)]

   found(1)  past and past part. of FIND.

   found(2)  v.  1 tr.  a establish (esp. with an endowment).  b originate or
             initiate (an institution).  2 tr. be the original builder or
             begin the building of (a town etc.).  3 tr. lay the base of (a
             building etc.).  4 (foll. by on, upon) a tr. construct or base
             (a story, theory, rule, etc.) according to a specified principle
             or ground.  b intr. have a basis in.  Ьfounding father a person
             associated with a founding, esp. an American statesman at the
             time of the Revolution.  [ME f. OF fonder f. L fundare f.
             fundus bottom]

   found(3)  v.tr.  1 a melt and mould (metal).  b fuse (materials for
             glass).  2 make by founding.  ЬЬfounder n.  [ME f. OF fondre f.
             L fundere fus- pour]

             n.  1 a the solid ground or base, natural or artificial, on
             which a building rests.  b (usu. in pl.) the lowest load-bearing
             part of a building, usu. below ground level.  2 a body or ground
             on which other parts are overlaid.  3 a basis or underlying
             principle; groundwork (the report has no foundation).  4 a the
             act or an instance of establishing or constituting (esp.  an
             endowed institution) on a permanent basis.  b such an
             institution, e.g. a monastery, college, or hospital.  5 (in full
             foundation garment) a woman's supporting undergarment, e.g. a
             corset.  Ьfoundation cream a cream used as a base for applying
             cosmetics.  foundation-stone 1 a stone laid with ceremony to
             celebrate the founding of a building.  2 the main ground or
             basis of something.  ЬЬfoundational adj.  [ME f. OF fondation f.
             L fundatio -onis (as FOUND(2))]

             n.  a person who founds an institution.  ЬЬfoundership n.

             v. & n.  --v.  1 a intr. (of a ship) fill with water and sink.
             b tr. cause (a ship) to founder.  2 intr. (of a plan etc.) fail.
             3 intr. (of earth, a building, etc.) fall down or in, give way.
             4 a intr. (of a horse or its rider) fall to the ground, fall
             from lameness, stick fast in mud etc.  b tr. cause (a horse) to
             break down, esp. with founder.  --n.  1 inflammation of a
             horse's foot from overwork.  2 rheumatism of the chest-muscles
             in horses.  [ME f. OF fondrer, esfondrer submerge, collapse,
             ult. f. L fundus bottom]

   foundling n.  an abandoned infant of unknown parentage.  [ME, perh. f.
             obs.  funding (as FIND, -ING(3)), assim. to -LING(1)]

   foundry   n.  (pl.  -ies) a workshop for or a business of casting metal.

   fount(1)  n.  poet.  a spring or fountain; a source.  [back-form. f.
             FOUNTAIN after MOUNT(2)]

   fount(2)  n.  (also font) Printing a set of type of one face or size.  [F
             fonte f.  fondre FOUND(3)]

   fountain  n.  1 a a jet or jets of water made to spout for ornamental
             purposes or for drinking.  b a structure provided for this.  2 a
             structure for the constant public supply of drinking-water.  3 a
             natural spring of water.  4 a source (in physical or abstract
             senses).  5 = soda-fountain.  6 a reservoir for oil, ink, etc.
             Ьfountain-head an original source.  fountain-pen a pen with a
             reservoir or cartridge holding ink.  ЬЬfountained adj. (also in
             comb.).  [ME f. OF fontaine f. LL fontana fem. of L fontanus
             (adj.) f.  fons fontis a spring]

   four      n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than three, or six less than ten;
             the product of two units and two units.  2 a symbol for this (4,
             iv, IV, rarely iiii, IIII).  3 a size etc. denoted by four.  4 a
             four-oared rowing-boat or its crew.  5 the time of four o'clock
             (is it four yet?).  6 a card with four pips.  7 a hit at cricket
             scoring four runs.  --adj. that amount to four.  Ьfour-eyes sl.
             a person wearing glasses.  four-flush US Cards a poker hand of
             little value, having four cards of the same suit and one of
             another.  four-flusher US a bluffer or humbug.  four hundred US
             the social ‚lite of a community.  four-in-hand 1 a vehicle with
             four horses driven by one person.  2 US a necktie worn with a
             knot and two hanging ends superposed.  four-leaf (or -leaved)
             clover a clover leaf with four leaflets thought to bring good
             luck.  four-letter word any of several short words referring to
             sexual or excretory functions, regarded as coarse or offensive.
             four o'clock = marvel of Peru.  four-part Mus.  arranged for
             four voices to sing or instruments to play.  four-poster a bed
             with a post at each corner supporting a canopy.  four-square
             adj.  1 solidly based.  2 steady, resolute; forthright.  3
             square-shaped.  --adv. steadily, resolutely.  four-stroke (of an
             internal-combustion engine) having a cycle of four strokes
             (intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust).  four-wheel
             drive drive acting on all four wheels of a vehicle.  on all
             fours on hands and knees.  [OE feower f. Gmc]

             n.  Anat.  a thin fold of skin at the back of the vulva.  [F,
             dimin. of fourche (as FORK)]

   fourfold  adj. & adv.  1 four times as much or as many.  2 consisting of
             four parts.  3 amounting to four.

   Fourier analysis
             n.  Math.  the resolution of periodic data into harmonic
             functions using a Fourier series.  [J. B. J.  Fourier, Fr.
             mathematician d. 1830]

   Fourier series
             n.  Math.  an expansion of a periodic function as a series of
             trigonometric functions.

   fourpence n.  Brit.  the sum of four pence, esp. before decimalization.

   fourpenny adj.  Brit.  costing four pence, esp. before decimalization.
             Ьfourpenny one colloq.  a hit or blow.

   fourscore n.  archaic eighty.

   foursome  n.  1 a group of four persons.  2 a golf match between two pairs
             with partners playing the same ball.

   fourteen  n. & adj.  --n.  1 one more than thirteen, or four more than
             ten; the product of two units and seven units.  2 a symbol for
             this (14, xiv, XIV).  3 a size etc. denoted by fourteen.  --adj.
             that amount to fourteen.  ЬЬfourteenth adj. & n.  [OE
             feowertiene (as FOUR, -TEEN)]

   fourth    n. & adj.  --n.  1 the position in a sequence corresponding to
             that of the number 4 in the sequence 1-4.  2 something occupying
             this position.  3 the fourth person etc. in a race or
             competition.  4 each of four equal parts of a thing; a quarter.
             5 the fourth (and often highest) in a sequence of gears.  6 Mus.
             a an interval or chord spanning four consecutive notes in the
             diatonic scale (e.g. C to F).  b a note separated from another
             by this interval.  --adj. that is the fourth.  Ьfourth dimension
             1 a postulated dimension additional to those determining area
             and volume.  2 time regarded as equivalent to linear dimensions.
             fourth estate joc.  the press; journalism.  ЬЬfourthly adv.  [OE
             feortha, feowertha f. Gmc]

   4to       abbr.  quarto.

   fovea     n.  (pl.  foveae) Anat.  a small depression or pit, esp. the pit
             in the retina of the eye for focusing images.  ЬЬfoveal adj.
             foveate adj.  [L]

   fowl      n. & v.  (pl. same or fowls) --n.  1 any domestic cock or hen of
             various gallinaceous birds, kept for eggs and flesh.  2 the
             flesh of birds, esp. a domestic cock or hen, as food.  3 archaic
             (except in comb. or collect.) a bird (guineafowl; wildfowl).
             --v.intr. catch or hunt wildfowl.  Ьfowl cholera see CHOLERA.
             fowl pest an infectious virus disease of fowls.  fowl-run 1 a
             place where fowls may run.  2 a breeding establishment for
             fowls.  ЬЬfowler n.  fowling n.  [OE fugol f. Gmc]

   fox       n. & v.  --n.  1 a any of various wild flesh-eating mammals of
             the dog family, esp. of the genus Vulpes, with a sharp snout,
             bushy tail, and red or grey fur.  b the fur of a fox.  2 a
             cunning or sly person.  3 US sl. an attractive young woman.
             --v.  1 a intr. act craftily.  b tr. deceive, baffle, trick.  2
             tr. (usu. as foxed adj.) discolour (the leaves of a book,
             engraving, etc.) with brownish marks.  Ьfox-terrier 1 a terrier
             of a short-haired breed originally used for unearthing foxes.  2
             this breed.  ЬЬfoxing n. (in sense 2 of v.).  foxlike adj.  [OE
             f. WG]

   foxglove  n.  any tall plant of the genus Digitalis, with erect spikes of
             purple or white flowers like glove-fingers.

   foxhole   n.  1 Mil. a hole in the ground used as a shelter against enemy
             fire or as a firing-point.  2 a place of refuge or concealment.

   foxhound  n.  a kind of hound bred and trained to hunt foxes.

   fox-hunt  n. & v.  --n.  1 the hunting of foxes with hounds.  2 a
             particular group of people engaged in this.  --v.intr. engage in
             a fox-hunt.  ЬЬfox-hunter n.  fox-hunting n. & adj.

   foxtail   n.  any of several grasses of the genus Alopecurus, with
             brushlike spikes.

   foxtrot   n. & v.  --n.  1 a ballroom dance with slow and quick steps.  2
             the music for this.  --v.intr.  (foxtrotted, foxtrotting)
             perform this dance.

   foxy      adj.  (foxier, foxiest) 1 of or like a fox.  2 sly or cunning.
             3 reddish-brown.  4 (of paper) damaged, esp. by mildew.  5 US
             sl. (of a woman) sexually attractive.  ЬЬfoxily adv.  foxiness

   foyer     n.  the entrance hall or other large area in a hotel, theatre,
             etc.  [F, = hearth, home, ult. f. L focus fire]

14.0 FP...

   FP        abbr.  freezing-point.

   fp        abbr.  forte piano.

   FPA       abbr.  (in the UK) Family Planning Association.

   FPS       abbr.  Fellow of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

   fps       abbr.  (also f.p.s.) 1 feet per second.  2 foot-pound-second.

15.0 Fr...

   Fr        symb.  Chem.  the element francium.

   Fr.       abbr.  (also Fr) 1 Father.  2 French.

   fr.       abbr.  franc(s).

   Fra       n.  a prefixed title given to an Italian monk or friar.  [It.,
             abbr. of frate brother]

   frabjous  adj.  delightful, joyous.  ЬЬfrabjously adv.  [devised by Lewis
             Carroll, app. to suggest fair and joyous]

   fracas    n.  (pl. same) a noisy disturbance or quarrel.  [F f.  fracasser
             f. It.  fracassare make an uproar]

   fraction  n.  1 a numerical quantity that is not a whole number (e.g. «,
             0.5).  2 a small, esp. very small, part, piece, or amount.  3 a
             portion of a mixture separated by distillation etc.  4 Polit.
             any organized dissentient group, esp. a group of communists in a
             non-communist organization.  5 the division of the Eucharistic
             bread.  ЬЬfractionary adj.  fractionize v.tr.  (also -ise).  [ME
             f. OF f. LL fractio -onis f. L frangere fract- break]

             adj.  1 of or relating to or being a fraction.  2 very slight;
             incomplete.  3 Chem. relating to the separation of parts of a
             mixture by making use of their different physical properties
             (fractional crystallization; fractional distillation).
             ЬЬfractionalize v.tr.  (also -ise).  fractionally adv. (esp. in
             sense 2).

             v.tr.  1 break up into parts.  2 separate (a mixture) by
             fractional distillation etc.  ЬЬfractionation n.

   fractious adj.  1 irritable, peevish.  2 unruly.  ЬЬfractiously adv.
             fractiousness n.  [FRACTION in obs. sense 'brawling', prob.
             after factious etc.]

   fracto-   comb. form Meteorol.  (of a cloud form) broken or fragmentary
             (fracto-cumulus; fracto-nimbus).  [L fractus broken: see

   fracture  n. & v.  --n.  1 a breakage or breaking, esp. of a bone or
             cartilage.  b the result of breaking; a crack or split.  2 the
             surface appearance of a freshly broken rock or mineral.  3
             Linguistics a the substitution of a diphthong for a simple vowel
             owing to an influence esp. of a following consonant.  b a
             diphthong substituted in this way.  --v.intr. & tr.  1 Med.
             undergo or cause to undergo a fracture.  2 break or cause to
             break.  [ME f. F fracture or f. L fractura (as FRACTION)]

   fraenulum n.  (also frenulum) (pl.  -la) Anat.  a small fraenum.  [mod.L,
             dimin. of FRAENUM]

   fraenum   n.  (also frenum) (pl.  -na) Anat.  a fold of mucous membrane or
             skin esp. under the tongue, checking the motion of an organ.
             [L, = bridle]

   fragile   adj.  1 easily broken; weak.  2 of delicate frame or
             constitution; not strong.  ЬЬfragilely adv.  fragility n.  [F
             fragile or L fragilis f.  frangere break]

   fragment  n. & v.  --n.  1 a part broken off; a detached piece.  2 an
             isolated or incomplete part.  3 the remains of an otherwise lost
             or destroyed whole, esp.  the extant remains or unfinished
             portion of a book or work of art.  --v.tr. & intr.  break or
             separate into fragments.  ЬЬfragmental adj.  fragmentize v.tr.
             (also -ise).  [ME f. F fragment or L fragmentum (as FRAGILE)]

             adj.  1 consisting of fragments.  2 disconnected.  3 Geol.
             composed of fragments of previously existing rocks.
             ЬЬfragmentarily adv.

             n.  the process or an instance of breaking into fragments.
             Ьfragmentation bomb a bomb designed to break up into small
             rapidly-moving fragments when exploded.

   fragrance n.  1 sweetness of smell.  2 a sweet scent.  [F fragrance or L
             fragrantia (as FRAGRANT)]

   fragrancy n.  (pl.  -ies) = FRAGRANCE.

   fragrant  adj.  sweet-smelling.  ЬЬfragrantly adv.  [ME f. F fragrant or L
             fragrare smell sweet]

   frail     adj. & n.  --adj.  1 fragile, delicate.  2 in weak health.  3
             morally weak; unable to resist temptation.  4 transient,
             insubstantial.  --n.  US sl. a woman.  ЬЬfrailly adv.  frailness
             n.  [ME f. OF fraile, frele f. L fragilis FRAGILE]

   frailty   n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 the condition of being frail.  2 liability to
             err or yield to temptation.  3 a fault, weakness, or foible.
             [ME f. OF frailet‚ f. L fragilitas -tatis (as FRAGILE)]

   Fraktur   n.  a German style of black-letter type.  [G]

             n.  (US frambesia) Med. = YAWS.  [mod.L f. F framboise raspberry
             f. L fraga ambrosia ambrosial strawberry]

   frame     n. & v.  --n.  1 a case or border enclosing a picture, window,
             door, etc.  2 the basic rigid supporting structure of anything,
             e.g. of a building, motor vehicle, or aircraft.  3 (in pl.) the
             structure of spectacles holding the lenses.  4 a human or animal
             body, esp. with reference to its size or structure (his frame
             shook with laughter).  5 a framed work or structure (the frame
             of heaven).  6 a an established order, plan, or system (the
             frame of society).  b construction, constitution, build.  7 a
             temporary state (esp. in frame of mind).  8 a single complete
             image or picture on a cinema film or transmitted in a series of
             lines by television.  9 a a triangular structure for positioning
             the balls in snooker etc.  b the balls positioned in this way.
             c a round of play in snooker etc.  10 Hort. a boxlike structure
             of glass etc. for protecting plants.  11 a removable box of
             slats for the building of a honeycomb in a beehive.  12 US sl. =
             frame-up.  --v.tr.  1 a set in or provide with a frame.  b serve
             as a frame for.  2 construct by a combination of parts or in
             accordance with a design or plan.  3 formulate or devise the
             essentials of (a complex thing, idea, theory, etc.).  4 (foll.
             by to, into) adapt or fit.  5 sl. concoct a false charge or
             evidence against; devise a plot with regard to.  6 articulate
             (words).  Ьframe-house a house constructed of a wooden skeleton
             covered with boards etc.  frame of reference 1 a set of
             standards or principles governing behaviour, thought, etc.  2
             Geom. a system of geometrical axes for defining position.
             frame-saw a saw stretched in a frame to make it rigid.  frame-up
             colloq.  a conspiracy, esp. to make an innocent person appear
             guilty.  ЬЬframable adj.  frameless adj.  framer n.  [OE framian
             be of service f.  fram forward: see FROM]

   framework n.  1 an essential supporting structure.  2 a basic system.

   framing   n.  a framework; a system of frames.

   franc     n.  the chief monetary unit of France, Belgium, Switzerland,
             Luxemburg, and several other countries.  [ME f. OF f.  Francorum
             Rex king of the Franks, the legend on the earliest gold coins so
             called (14th c.): see FRANK]

   franchise n. & v.  --n.  1 a the right to vote at State (esp.
             parliamentary) elections.  b the principle of qualification for
             this.  2 full membership of a corporation or State; citizenship.
             3 authorization granted to an individual or group by a company
             to sell its goods or services in a particular way.  4 hist.
             legal immunity or exemption from a burden or jurisdiction.  5 a
             right or privilege granted to a person or corporation.  --v.tr.
             grant a franchise to.  ЬЬfranchisee n.  franchiser n.  (also
             franchisor).  [ME f. OF f.  franc, franche free: see FRANK]

             n. & adj.  --n. a monk, nun, or sister of an order founded in
             1209 by St Francis of Assisi (see also Grey Friar).  --adj. of
             St Francis or his order.  [F franciscain f. mod.L Franciscanus
             f.  Franciscus Francis]

   francium  n.  Chem.  a radioactive metallic element occurring naturally in
             uranium and thorium ores.  °Symb.: Fr.  [mod.L f.  France (the
             discoverer's country)]

   Franco-   comb. form 1 French; French and (Franco-German).  2 regarding
             France or the French (Francophile).  [med.L Francus FRANK]

   francolin n.  any medium-sized partridge of the genus Francolinus.  [F f.
             It.  francolino]

             n.  a person who is fond of France or the French.

             n. & adj.  --n. a French-speaking person.  --adj.
             French-speaking.  [FRANCO- + Gk phone voice]

   frangible adj.  breakable, fragile.  [OF frangible or med.L frangibilis f.
             L frangere to break]

             n.  1 a an almond-flavoured cream or paste.  b a flan filled
             with this.  2 = FRANGIPANI.  [F prob. f. Marquis Frangipani,
             16th-c. It. inventor of the perfume]

             n.  (pl.  frangipanis) 1 any tree or shrub of the genus
             Plumeria, native to tropical America, esp.  P. rubra with
             clusters of fragrant white, pink, or yellow flowers.  2 the
             perfume from this plant.  [var. of FRANGIPANE]

   franglais n.  a corrupt version of French using many words and idioms
             borrowed from English.  [F f.  fran‡ais French + anglais

   Frank     n.  1 a member of the Germanic nation or coalition that
             conquered Gaul in the 6th c.  2 (in the Levant) a person of
             Western nationality.  ЬЬFrankish adj.  [OE Franca, OHG Franko,
             perh. f. the name of a weapon: cf. OE franca javelin]

   frank     adj., v., & n.  --adj.  1 candid, outspoken (a frank opinion).
             2 undisguised, avowed (frank admiration).  3 ingenuous, open (a
             frank face).  4 Med. unmistakable.  --v.tr.  1 stamp (a letter)
             with an official mark (esp. other than a normal postage stamp)
             to record the payment of postage.  2 hist. superscribe (a letter
             etc.) with a signature ensuring conveyance without charge; send
             without charge.  3 archaic facilitate the coming and going of (a
             person).  --n.  1 a franking signature or mark.  2 a franked
             cover.  ЬЬfrankable adj.  franker n.  frankness n.  [ME f. OF
             franc f. med.L francus free, f.  FRANK (since only Franks had
             full freedom in Frankish Gaul)]

             n. (in full Frankenstein's monster) a thing that becomes
             terrifying to its maker; a monster.  [Baron Frankenstein, a
             character in and the title of a novel (1818) by Mary Shelley]

             n.  a seasoned smoked sausage made of beef and pork.  [G
             Frankfurter Wurst Frankfurt sausage]

             n.  an aromatic gum resin obtained from trees of the genus
             Boswellia, used for burning as incense.  [ME f. OF franc encens
             pure incense]

   franklin  n.  hist.  a landowner of free but not noble birth in the 14th
             and 15th c.  in England.  [ME francoleyn etc. f. AL francalanus
             f.  francalis held without dues f.  francus free: see FRANK]

   frankly   adv.  1 in a frank manner.  2 (qualifying a whole sentence) to
             be frank.

   frantic   adj.  1 wildly excited; frenzied.  2 characterized by great
             hurry or anxiety; desperate, violent.  3 colloq. extreme; very
             great.  ЬЬfrantically adv.  franticly adv.  franticness n.  [ME
             frentik, frantik f. OF frenetique f. L phreneticus: see

   frap      v.tr.  (frapped, frapping) Naut.  bind tightly.  [F frapper
             bind, strike]

   frapp‚    adj. & n.  --adj. (esp. of wine) iced, cooled.  --n.  1 an iced
             drink.  2 a soft water-ice.  [F, past part. of frapper strike,
             ice (drinks)]

   frass     n.  1 a fine powdery refuse left by insects boring.  2 the
             excrement of insect larvae.  [G f.  fressen devour (as FRET(1))]

   fraternal adj.  1 of a brother or brothers.  2 suitable to a brother;
             brotherly.  3 (of twins) developed from separate ova and not
             necessarily closely similar.  4 US of or concerning a fraternity
             (see FRATERNITY 3).  ЬЬfraternalism n.  fraternally adv.  [med.L
             fraternalis f. L fraternus f.  frater brother]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a religious brotherhood.  2 a group or company
             with common interests, or of the same professional class.  3 US
             a male students' society in a university or college.  4 being
             fraternal; brotherliness.  [ME f. OF fraternit‚ f. L fraternitas
             -tatis (as FRATERNAL)]

             v.intr.  (also -ise) (often foll. by with) 1 associate; make
             friends; behave as intimates.  2 (of troops) enter into friendly
             relations with enemy troops or the inhabitants of an occupied
             country.  ЬЬfraternization n.  [F fraterniser & med.L
             fraternizare f. L fraternus: see FRATERNAL]

             n.  1 the killing of one's brother or sister.  2 a person who
             does this.  ЬЬfratricidal adj.  [F fratricide or LL
             fratricidium, L fratricida, f.  frater fratris brother]

   Frau      n.  (pl.  Frauen) (often as a title) a married or widowed German
             woman.  [G]

   fraud     n.  1 criminal deception; the use of false representations to
             gain an unjust advantage.  2 a dishonest artifice or trick.  3 a
             person or thing not fulfilling what is claimed or expected of
             it.  [ME f. OF fraude f. L fraus fraudis]

             adj.  1 characterized or achieved by fraud.  2 guilty of fraud;
             intending to deceive.  ЬЬfraudulence n.  fraudulently adv.  [ME
             f. OF fraudulent or L fraudulentus (as FRAUD)]

   fraught   adj.  1 (foll. by with) filled or attended with (fraught with
             danger).  2 colloq. causing or affected by great anxiety or
             distress.  [ME, past part. of obs.  fraught (v.) load with cargo
             f. MDu.  vrachten f.  vracht FREIGHT]

   Fr„ulein  n.  (often as a title or form of address) an unmarried (esp.
             young) German woman.  [G, dimin. of FRAU]

   Fraunhofer lines
             n.pl.  the dark lines visible in solar and stellar spectra.  [J.
             von Fraunhofer, Bavarian physicist d. 1826]

             n.  an aromatic plant Dictamnus albus, having foliage that emits
             an ethereal inflammable oil. Also called DITTANY, gas plant,
             burning bush.  [mod.L, dimin. of L fraxinus ash-tree]

   fray(1)   v.  1 tr. & intr. wear through or become worn, esp. (of woven
             material) unweave at the edges.  2 intr. (of nerves, temper,
             etc.) become strained; deteriorate.  [F frayer f. L fricare rub]

   fray(2)   n.  1 conflict, fighting (eager for the fray).  2 a noisy
             quarrel or brawl.  [ME f.  fray to quarrel f.  affray (v.) (as

   frazil    n.  US ice crystals that form in a stream or on its bed.  [Can.F
             frasil snow floating in the water; cf. F fraisil cinders]

   frazzle   n. & v.  colloq.  --n. a worn or exhausted state (burnt to a
             frazzle).  --v.tr. (usu. as frazzled adj.) wear out; exhaust.
             [orig. uncert.]

   freak     n. & v.  --n.  1 (also freak of nature) a monstrosity; an
             abnormally developed individual or thing.  2 (often attrib.) an
             abnormal, irregular, or bizarre occurrence (a freak storm).  3
             colloq.  a an unconventional person.  b a person with a
             specified enthusiasm or interest (health freak).  c a person who
             undergoes hallucinations; a drug addict (see sense 2 of v.).  4
             a a caprice or vagary.  b capriciousness.  --v. (often foll. by
             out) colloq.  1 intr. & tr. become or make very angry.  2 intr.
             & tr. undergo or cause to undergo hallucinations or a strong
             emotional experience, esp. from use of narcotics.  3 intr. adopt
             a wildly unconventional lifestyle.  Ьfreak-out colloq.  an act
             of freaking out; a hallucinatory or strong emotional experience.
             [16th c.: prob. f. dial.]

   freakish  adj.  1 of or like a freak.  2 bizarre, unconventional.
             ЬЬfreakishly adv.  freakishness n.

   freaky    adj.  (freakier, freakiest) = FREAKISH.  ЬЬfreakily adv.
             freakiness n.

   freckle   n. & v.  --n. (often in pl.) a light brown spot on the skin,
             usu. caused by exposure to the sun.  --v.  1 tr. (usu. as
             freckled adj.) spot with freckles.  2 intr. be spotted with
             freckles.  ЬЬfreckly adj.  [ME fracel etc. f. dial.  freken f.
             ON freknur (pl.)]

   free      adj., adv., & v.  --adj.  (freer; freest) 1 not in bondage to or
             under the control of another; having personal rights and social
             and political liberty.  2 (of a State, or its citizens or
             institutions) subject neither to foreign domination nor to
             despotic government; having national and civil liberty (a free
             press; a free society).  3 a unrestricted, unimpeded; not
             restrained or fixed.  b at liberty; not confined or imprisoned.
             c released from ties or duties; unimpeded.  d unrestrained as to
             action; independent (set free).  4 (foll. by of, from) a not
             subject to; exempt from (free of tax).  b not containing or
             subject to a specified (usu. undesirable) thing (free of
             preservatives; free from disease).  5 (foll. by to + infin.)
             able or permitted to take a specified action (you are free to
             choose).  6 unconstrained (free gestures).  7 a available
             without charge; costing nothing.  b not subject to tax, duty,
             trade-restraint, or fees.  8 a clear of engagements or
             obligations (are you free tomorrow?).  b not occupied or in use
             (the bathroom is free now).  c clear of obstructions.  9
             spontaneous, unforced (free compliments).  10 open to all
             comers.  11 lavish, profuse; using or used without restraint
             (very free with their money).  12 frank, unreserved.  13 (of a
             literary style) not observing the strict laws of form.  14 (of a
             translation) conveying the broad sense; not literal.  15
             forward, familiar, impudent.  16 (of talk, stories, etc.)
             slightly indecent.  17 Physics a not modified by an external
             force.  b not bound in an atom or molecule.  18 Chem. not
             combined (free oxygen).  19 (of power or energy) disengaged or
             available.  --adv.  1 in a free manner.  2 without cost or
             payment.  3 Naut. not close-hauled.  --v.tr.  1 make free; set
             at liberty.  2 (foll. by of, from) relieve from (something
             undesirable).  3 disengage, disentangle.  Ьfree agent a person
             with freedom of action.  free and easy informal, unceremonious.
             free association Psychol.  a method of investigating a person's
             unconscious by eliciting from him or her spontaneous
             associations with ideas proposed by the examiner.  free-born
             inheriting a citizen's rights and liberty.  Free Church a Church
             dissenting or seceding from an established Church.  free
             enterprise a system in which private business operates in
             competition and largely free of State control.  free fall
             movement under the force of gravity only, esp.: 1 the part of a
             parachute descent before the parachute opens.  2 the movement of
             a spacecraft in space without thrust from the engines.  free
             fight a general fight in which all present join.  free-for-all a
             free fight, unrestricted discussion, etc.  free-form (attrib.)
             of an irregular shape or structure.  free hand freedom to act at
             one's own discretion (see also FREEHAND).  free-handed generous.
             free-handedly generously.  free-handedness generosity.  free
             house Brit.  an inn or public house not controlled by a brewery
             and therefore not restricted to selling particular brands of
             beer or liquor.  free kick Football a set kick allowed to be
             taken by one side without interference from the other.  free
             labour the labour of workmen not in a trade union.  free-living
             1 indulgence in pleasures, esp. that of eating.  2 Biol. living
             freely and independently; not attached to a substrate.  free
             love sexual relations according to choice and unrestricted by
             marriage.  free market a market in which prices are determined
             by unrestricted competition.  free on board (or rail) without
             charge for delivery to a ship or railway wagon.  free pass an
             authorization of free admission, travel, etc.  free port 1 a
             port area where goods in transit are exempt from customs duty.
             2 a port open to all traders.  free radical Chem.  an unchanged
             atom or group of atoms with one or more unpaired electrons.
             free-range esp.  Brit.  (of hens etc.) kept in natural
             conditions with freedom of movement.  free rein see REIN.  free
             school 1 a school for which no fees are charged.  2 a school run
             on the basis of freedom from restriction for the pupils.  free
             speech the right to express opinions freely.  free-spoken
             speaking candidly; not concealing one's opinions.  free-standing
             not supported by another structure.  free trade international
             trade left to its natural course without restriction on imports
             or exports.  free verse = VERS LIBRE.  free vote a Parliamentary
             vote not subject to party discipline.  free wheel the driving
             wheel of a bicycle, able to revolve with the pedals at rest.
             free-wheel v.intr.  1 ride a bicycle with the pedals at rest,
             esp. downhill.  2 move or act without constraint or effort.
             free will 1 the power of acting without the constraint of
             necessity or fate.  2 the ability to act at one's own discretion
             (I did it of my own free will).  free world esp.  US the
             non-Communist countries.  ЬЬfreely adv.  freeness n.  [OE freo,
             freon f. Gmc]

   -free     comb. form free of or from (duty-free; fancy-free).

   freebase  n. & v.  sl.  --n. cocaine that has been purified by heating
             with ether, and is taken by inhaling the fumes or smoking the
             residue.  --v.tr. purify (cocaine) for smoking or inhaling.

   freebie   n.  esp.  US colloq.  a thing provided free of charge.
             [arbitrary f.  FREE]

   freeboard n.  the part of a ship's side between the water-line and the

             n.  a pirate or lawless adventurer.  ЬЬfreeboot v.intr.  [Du.
             vrijbuiter (as FREE, BOOTY): cf.  FILIBUSTER]

   freedman  n.  (pl.  -men) an emancipated slave.

   freedom   n.  1 the condition of being free or unrestricted.  2 personal
             or civic liberty; absence of slave status.  3 the power of
             self-determination; independence of fate or necessity.  4 the
             state of being free to act (often foll. by to + infin.  : we
             have the freedom to leave).  5 frankness, outspokenness; undue
             familiarity.  6 (foll. by from) the condition of being exempt
             from or not subject to (a defect, burden, etc.).  7 (foll. by
             of) a full or honorary participation in (membership, privileges,
             etc.).  b unrestricted use of (facilities etc.).  8 a privilege
             possessed by a city or corporation.  9 facility or ease in
             action.  10 boldness of conception.  Ьthe four freedoms freedom
             of speech and religion, and freedom from fear and want.  freedom
             fighter a person who takes part in violent resistance to an
             established political system etc.  [OE freodom (as FREE, -DOM)]

   freehand  adj. & adv.  --adj. (of a drawing or plan etc.) done by hand
             without special instruments or guides.  --adv. in a freehand

   freehold  n. & adj.  --n.  1 tenure of land or property in fee simple or
             fee tail or for life.  2 land or property or an office held by
             such tenure.  --adj. held by or having the status of freehold.
             ЬЬfreeholder n.

   freelance n., v., & adv.  --n.  1 a (also freelancer) a person, usu.
             self-employed, offering services on a temporary basis, esp. to
             several businesses etc. for particular assignments.  b (attrib.)
             (a freelance editor).  2 (usu.  free lance) hist. a medieval
             mercenary.  --v.intr. act as a freelance.  --adv. as a
             freelance.  [19th c.: orig. in sense 2 of n.]

             n.  US sl.  a person who eats or drinks at others' expense; a
             sponger.  ЬЬfreeload v.intr.

   freeman   n.  (pl.  -men) 1 a person who has the freedom of a city,
             company, etc.  2 a person who is not a slave or serf.

             n.  a hermaphrodite or imperfect female calf of oppositely sexed
             twins.  [17th c.: orig. unkn.]

   Freemason n.  a member of an international fraternity for mutual help and
             fellowship (the Free and Accepted Masons), with elaborate secret

             n.  1 the system and institutions of the Freemasons.  2
             (freemasonry) instinctive sympathy or understanding.

   freepost  n.  a system of sending business post in envelopes prepaid by
             the recipient.

   freer     compar. of FREE.

   freesia   n.  any bulbous plant of the genus Freesia, native to Africa,
             having fragrant coloured flowers.  [mod.L f. F. H. T.  Freese,
             Ger. physician d. 1876]

   freest    superl. of FREE.

   freestone n.  1 any fine-grained stone which can be cut easily, esp.
             sandstone or limestone.  2 a stone-fruit, esp. a peach, in which
             the stone is loose when the fruit is ripe (cf.  CLINGSTONE).

   freestyle adj.  (of a race or contest) in which all styles are allowed,
             esp.: 1 Swimming in which any stroke may be used.  2 Wrestling
             with few restrictions on the holds permitted.

             n.  a person who rejects dogma or authority, esp. in religious
             belief.  ЬЬfreethinking n. & adj.

   freeway   n.  US 1 an express highway, esp. with controlled access.  2 a
             toll-free highway.

   freeze    v. & n.  --v.  (past froze; past part.  frozen) 1 tr. & intr.  a
             turn or be turned into ice or another solid by cold.  b (often
             foll. by over, up) make or become rigid or solid as a result of
             the cold.  2 intr. be or feel very cold.  3 tr. & intr. cover or
             become covered with ice.  4 intr. (foll. by to, together) adhere
             or be fastened by frost (the curtains froze to the window).  5
             tr. preserve (food) by refrigeration below freezing-point.  6
             tr. & intr.  a make or become motionless or powerless through
             fear, surprise, etc.  b react or cause to react with sudden
             aloofness or detachment.  7 tr. stiffen or harden, injure or
             kill, by chilling (frozen to death).  8 tr. make (credits,
             assets, etc.) temporarily or permanently unrealizable.  9 tr.
             fix or stabilize (prices, wages, etc.) at a certain level.  10
             tr. arrest (an action) at a certain stage of development.  11
             tr. arrest (a movement in a film) by repeating a frame or
             stopping the film at a frame.  --n.  1 a state of frost; a
             period or the coming of frost or very cold weather.  2 the
             fixing or stabilization of prices, wages, etc.  3 a film-shot in
             which movement is arrested by the repetition of a frame.
             Ьfreeze-dry (-dries, -dried) freeze and dry by the sublimation
             of ice in a high vacuum.  freeze-frame = sense 3 of n.  freeze
             on to colloq.  take or keep tight hold of.  freeze out US
             colloq.  exclude from business, society, etc. by competition or
             boycott etc.  freeze up obstruct or be obstructed by the
             formation of ice.  freeze-up n.  a period or conditions of
             extreme cold.  freezing-mixture salt and snow or some other
             mixture used to freeze liquids.  freezing-point the temperature
             at which a liquid, esp. water, freezes.  freezing works Austral.
             & NZ a place where animals are slaughtered and carcasses frozen
             for export.  frozen mitt colloq.  a cool reception.  ЬЬfreezable
             adj.  frozenly adv.  [OE freosan f. Gmc]

   freezer   n.  a refrigerated cabinet or room for preserving food at very
             low temperatures; = DEEP-FREEZE n.

   freight   n. & v.  --n.  1 the transport of goods in containers or by
             water or air or US by land.  2 goods transported; cargo.  3 a
             charge for transportation of goods.  4 the hire of a ship or
             aircraft for transporting goods.  5 a load or burden.  --v.tr.
             1 transport (goods) as freight.  2 load with freight.  3 hire or
             let out (a ship) for the carriage of goods and passengers.
             Ьfreight ton see TON(1).  [MDu., MLG vrecht var. of vracht: cf.

             n.  1 a the transportation of freight.  b the cost of this.  2
             freight transported.

   freighter n.  1 a ship or aircraft designed to carry freight.  2 US a
             wagon for freight.  3 a person who loads or charters and loads a
             ship.  4 a person who consigns goods for carriage inland.  5 a
             person whose business is to receive and forward freight.

             n.  a train carrying goods in containers.

   French    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or relating to France or its people or
             language.  2 having the characteristics attributed to the French
             people.  --n.  1 the language of France, also used in Belgium,
             Switzerland, Canada, and elsewhere.  2 (the French) (pl.) the
             people of France.  3 colloq. bad language (excuse my French).  4
             colloq. dry vermouth (gin and French).  ЬFrench bean Brit.  1 a
             beanplant, Phaseolus vulgaris, having many varieties cultivated
             for their pods and seeds.  2 a the pod used as food.  b the seed
             used as food: also called HARICOT, kidney bean.  French bread
             white bread in a long crisp loaf.  French Canadian n.  a
             Canadian whose principal language is French.  --adj. of or
             relating to French-speaking Canadians.  French chalk a kind of
             steatite used for marking cloth and removing grease and as a dry
             lubricant.  French cricket an informal type of cricket without
             stumps and played with a soft ball.  French cuff a cuff of
             double thickness.  French curve a template used for drawing
             curved lines.  French door = French window.  French dressing a
             salad dressing of vinegar and oil, usu. seasoned.  French fried
             potatoes (US French fries) potato chips.  French horn a coiled
             brass wind instrument with a wide bell.  French kiss a kiss with
             one partner's tongue inserted in the other's mouth.  French
             knickers wide-legged knickers.  French leave absence without
             permission.  French letter Brit.  colloq.  a condom.  French
             mustard Brit.  a mild mustard mixed with vinegar.  French polish
             shellac polish for wood.  French-polish v.tr.  polish with this.
             French roof a mansard.  French seam a seam with the raw edges
             enclosed.  French toast 1 Brit. bread buttered on one side and
             toasted on the other.  2 bread dipped in egg and milk and fried.
             French vermouth dry vermouth.  French window a glazed door in an
             outside wall, serving as a window and door.  ЬЬFrenchness n.
             [OE frencisc f. Gmc]

   Frenchify v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) (usu. as Frenchified adj.) make French in
             form, character, or manners.

   Frenchman n.  (pl.  -men) a man who is French by birth or descent.

             n.  (pl.  -women) a woman who is French by birth or descent.

   frenetic  adj.  1 frantic, frenzied.  2 fanatic.  ЬЬfrenetically adv.  [ME
             f. OF frenetique f. L phreneticus f. Gk phrenitikos f.
             phrenitis delirium f.  phren phrenos mind]

   frenulum  var. of FRAENULUM.

   frenum    var. of FRAENUM.

   frenzy    n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 mental derangement; wild excitement
             or agitation.  2 delirious fury.  --v.tr.  (-ies, -ied) (usu. as
             frenzied adj.) drive to frenzy; infuriate.  ЬЬfrenziedly adv.
             [ME f. OF frenesie f. med.L phrenesia f. L phrenesis f. Gk phren

   Freon     n.  propr.  any of a group of halogenated hydrocarbons
             containing fluorine, chlorine, and sometimes bromine, used in
             aerosols, refrigerants, etc.  (see also CFC).

   frequency n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 commonness of occurrence.  2 a the state of
             being frequent; frequent occurrence.  b the process of being
             repeated at short intervals.  3 Physics the rate of recurrence
             of a vibration, oscillation, cycle, etc.; the number of
             repetitions in a given time, esp. per second.  °Abbr.: f.  4
             Statistics the ratio of the number of actual to possible
             occurrences of an event.  Ьfrequency band Electronics = BAND(1)
             3a.  frequency distribution Statistics a measurement of the
             frequency of occurrence of the values of a variable.  frequency
             modulation Electronics a modulation in which the frequency of
             the carrier wave is varied.  °Abbr.: FM.  frequency response
             Electronics the dependence on signal-frequency of the
             output-input ratio of an amplifier etc.  [L frequentia (as

   frequent  adj. & v.  --adj.  1 occurring often or in close succession.  2
             habitual, constant (a frequent caller).  3 found near together;
             numerous, abundant.  4 (of the pulse) rapid.  --v.tr.  attend or
             go to habitually.  ЬЬfrequentation n.  frequenter n.  frequently
             adv.  [F fr‚quent or L frequens -entis crowded]

             adj. & n.  Gram.  --adj. expressing frequent repetition or
             intensity of action.  --n. a verb or verbal form or conjugation
             expressing this (e.g.  chatter, twinkle).  [F fr‚quentatif -ive
             or L frequentativus (as FREQUENT)]

   fresco    n.  (pl.  -os or -oes) 1 a painting done in water-colour on a
             wall or ceiling while the plaster is still wet.  2 this method
             of painting (esp. in fresco).  Ьfresco secco = SECCO.
             ЬЬfrescoed adj.  [It., = cool, fresh]

   fresh     adj., adv., & n.  --adj.  1 newly made or obtained (fresh
             sandwiches).  2 a other, different; not previously known or used
             (start a fresh page; we need fresh ideas).  b additional (fresh
             supplies).  3 (foll. by from) lately arrived from (a specified
             place or situation).  4 not stale or musty or faded (fresh
             flowers; fresh memories).  5 (of food) not preserved by salting,
             tinning, freezing, etc.  6 not salty (fresh water).  7 a pure,
             untainted, refreshing, invigorating (fresh air).  b bright and
             pure in colour (a fresh complexion).  8 (of the wind) brisk; of
             fair strength.  9 alert, vigorous, fit (never felt fresher).  10
             colloq.  a cheeky, presumptuous.  b amorously impudent.  11
             young and inexperienced.  --adv. newly, recently (esp. in comb.
             : fresh-baked; fresh-cut).  --n. the fresh part of the day,
             year, etc. (in the fresh of the morning).  ЬЬfreshly adv.
             freshness n.  [ME f. OF freis fresche ult. f. Gmc]

   freshen   v.  1 tr. & intr. make or become fresh or fresher.  2 intr. &
             tr. (foll. by up) a wash, change one's clothes, etc.  b revive,
             refresh, renew.

   fresher   n.  Brit.  colloq.  = FRESHMAN.

   freshet   n.  1 a rush of fresh water flowing into the sea.  2 the flood
             of a river from heavy rain or melted snow.  [prob. f. OF
             freschete f.  frais FRESH]

   freshman  n.  (pl.  -men) a first-year student at university or US at high

             adj.  1 of or found in fresh water; not of the sea.  2 US (esp.
             of a school or college) rustic or provincial.  Ьfreshwater flea
             = DAPHNIA.

   fret(1)   v. & n.  --v.  (fretted, fretting) 1 intr.  a be greatly and
             visibly worried or distressed.  b be irritated or resentful.  2
             tr.  a cause anxiety or distress to.  b irritate, annoy.  3 tr.
             wear or consume by gnawing or rubbing.  4 tr. form (a channel or
             passage) by wearing away.  5 intr. (of running water) flow or
             rise in little waves.  --n. irritation, vexation, querulousness
             (esp. in a fret).  [OE fretan f. Gmc, rel. to EAT]

   fret(2)   n. & v.  --n.  1 an ornamental pattern made of continuous
             combinations of straight lines joined usu. at right angles.  2
             Heraldry a device of narrow bands and a diamond interlaced.
             --v.tr.  (fretted, fretting) 1 embellish or decorate with a
             fret.  2 adorn (esp. a ceiling) with carved or embossed work.
             [ME f. OF frete trellis-work and freter (v.)]

   fret(3)   n.  each of a sequence of bars or ridges on the finger-board of
             some stringed musical instruments (esp. the guitar) fixing the
             positions of the fingers to produce the desired notes.
             ЬЬfretless adj.  [15th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fretful   adj.  visibly anxious, distressed, or irritated.  ЬЬfretfully
             adv.  fretfulness n.

   fretsaw   n.  a saw consisting of a narrow blade stretched on a frame, for
             cutting thin wood in patterns.

   fretwork  n.  ornamental work in wood, done with a fretsaw.

   Freudian  adj. & n.  Psychol.  --adj. of or relating to the Austrian
             psychologist Sigmund Freud (d.  1939) or his methods of
             psychoanalysis, esp. with reference to the importance of
             sexuality in human behaviour.  --n. a follower of Freud or his
             methods.  ЬFreudian slip an unintentional error regarded as
             revealing subconscious feelings.  ЬЬFreudianism n.

   Fri.      abbr.  Friday.

   friable   adj.  easily crumbled.  ЬЬfriability n.  friableness n.  [F
             friable or L friabilis f.  friare crumble]

   friar     n.  a member of any of certain religious orders of men, esp. the
             four mendicant orders (Augustinians, Carmelites, Dominicans, and
             Franciscans).  Ьfriar's (or friars') balsam a tincture of
             benzoin etc. used esp. as an inhalant.  ЬЬfriarly adj.  [ME & OF
             frere f. L frater fratris brother]

   friary    n.  (pl.  -ies) a convent of friars.

             n. & v.  --n.  (pl.  fricandeaux) 1 a cushion-shaped piece of
             meat, esp. veal, cut from the leg.  2 a dish made from this,
             usu. fried or stewed and served with a sauce.  --v.tr.
             (fricandeaus, fricandeaued, fricandeauing) make into
             fricandeaux.  [F]

   fricassee n. & v.  --n. a dish of stewed or fried pieces of meat served in
             a thick white sauce.  --v.tr.  (fricassees, fricasseed) make a
             fricassee of.  [F, fem. past part. of fricasser (v.)]

   fricative adj. & n.  Phonet.  --adj. made by the friction of breath in a
             narrow opening.  --n. a consonant made in this way, e.g.  f and
             th.  [mod.L fricativus f. L fricare rub]

   friction  n.  1 the action of one object rubbing against another.  2 the
             resistance an object encounters in moving over another.  3 a
             clash of wills, temperaments, or opinions; mutual animosity
             arising from disagreement.  4 (in comb.) of devices that
             transmit motion by frictional contact (friction-clutch;
             friction-disc).  Ьfriction-ball a ball used in bearings to
             lessen friction.  ЬЬfrictional adj.  frictionless adj.  [F f. L
             frictio -onis f.  fricare frict- rub]

   Friday    n. & adv.  --n. the sixth day of the week, following Thursday.
             --adv.  colloq.  1 on Friday.  2 (Fridays) on Fridays; each
             Friday.  Ьgirl (or man) Friday a helper or follower (after Man
             Friday in Defoe's Robinson Crusoe).  [OE friged‘g f. Gmc (named
             after Frigg the wife of Odin)]

   fridge    n.  Brit.  colloq.  = REFRIGERATOR.  Ьfridge-freezer an upright
             unit comprising a refrigerator and a freezer, each
             self-contained.  [abbr.]

   friend    n. & v.  --n.  1 a person with whom one enjoys mutual affection
             and regard (usu. exclusive of sexual or family bonds).  2 a
             sympathizer, helper, or patron (no friend to virtue; a friend of
             order).  3 a person who is not an enemy or who is on the same
             side (friend or foe?).  4 a a person already mentioned or under
             discussion (my friend at the next table then left the room).  b
             a person known by sight.  c used as a polite or ironic form of
             address.  5 (usu. in pl.) a regular contributor of money or
             other assistance to an institution.  6 (Friend) a member of the
             Society of Friends, a Quaker.  7 (in pl.) one's near relatives,
             those responsible for one.  8 a helpful thing or quality.
             --v.tr.  archaic or poet. befriend, help.  Ьbe (or keep) friends
             with be friendly with.  friend at court a friend whose influence
             may be made use of.  my honourable friend Brit.  used in the
             House of Commons to refer to another member of one's own party.
             my learned friend used by a lawyer in court to refer to another
             lawyer.  my noble friend Brit.  used in the House of Lords to
             refer to another member of one's own party.  ЬЬfriended adj.
             friendless adj.  [OE freond f. Gmc]

   friendly  adj., n., & adv.  --adj.  (friendlier, friendliest) 1 acting as
             or like a friend, well-disposed, kindly.  2 a (often foll. by
             with) on amicable terms.  b not hostile.  3 characteristic of
             friends, showing or prompted by kindness.  4 favourably
             disposed, ready to approve or help.  5 a (of a thing)
             serviceable, convenient, opportune.  b = user-friendly.  --n.
             (pl.  -ies) = friendly match.  --adv. in a friendly manner.
             Ьfriendly action Law an action brought merely to get a point
             decided.  friendly match a match played for enjoyment and not in
             competition for a cup etc.  Friendly Society Brit. = benefit
             society.  ЬЬfriendlily adv.  friendliness n.

             n.  1 being friends, the relationship between friends.  2 a
             friendly disposition felt or shown.  [OE freondscipe (as FRIEND,

   frier     var. of FRYER.

   Friesian  n. & adj.  Brit.  --n.  1 a large animal of a usu. black and
             white breed of dairy cattle orig. from Friesland.  2 this breed.
             --adj. of or concerning Friesians.  [var. of FRISIAN]

   frieze(1) n.  1 the part of an entablature between the architrave and the
             cornice.  2 a horizontal band of sculpture filling this.  3 a
             band of decoration elsewhere, esp. along a wall near the
             ceiling.  [F frise f. med.L frisium, frigium f. L Phrygium
             (opus) (work) of Phrygia]

   frieze(2) n.  coarse woollen cloth with a nap, usu. on one side only.  [ME
             f. F frise, prob. rel. to FRISIAN]

   frig(1)   v. & n.  coarse sl.  °Usually considered a taboo word.  --v.
             (frigged, frigging) 1 a tr. & intr. have sexual intercourse
             (with).  b masturbate.  2 tr. (usu. as an exclamation) = FUCK v.
             3.  3 intr. (foll. by about, around) mess about; fool around.  4
             intr. (foll. by off) go away.  --n. an act of frigging.  [perh.
             imit.: orig. senses 'move about, rub']

   frig(2)   n.  Brit.  colloq.  = REFRIGERATOR.  [abbr.]

   frigate   n.  1 a Brit. a naval escort-vessel between a corvette and a
             destroyer in size.  b US a similar ship between a destroyer and
             a cruiser in size.  2 hist. a warship next in size to ships of
             the line.  Ьfrigate-bird any marine bird of the family
             Fregatidae, found in tropical seas, with a wide wingspan and
             deeply forked tail: also called hurricane-bird.  [F fr‚gate f.
             It.  fregata, of unkn. orig.]

   fright    n. & v.  --n.  1 a sudden or extreme fear.  b an instance of
             this (gave me a fright).  2 a person or thing looking grotesque
             or ridiculous.  --v.tr.  poet. frighten.  Ьtake fright become
             frightened.  [OE fryhto, metathetic form of fyrhto, f. Gmc]

   frighten  v.tr.  1 fill with fright; terrify (was frightened at the bang;
             is frightened of dogs).  2 (foll. by away, off, out of, into)
             drive or force by fright (frightened it out of the room;
             frightened them into submission; frightened me into agreeing).
             ЬЬfrightening adj.  frighteningly adv.

             n.  a person or thing that frightens.  Ьput the frighteners on
             sl.  intimidate.

   frightful adj.  1 a dreadful, shocking, revolting.  b ugly, hideous.  2
             colloq. extremely bad (a frightful idea).  3 colloq. very great,
             extreme.  ЬЬfrightfully adv.

             n.  1 being frightful.  2 (transl. G Schrecklichkeit) the
             terrorizing of a civilian population as a military resource.

   frigid    adj.  1 a lacking friendliness or enthusiasm; apathetic, formal,
             forced.  b dull, flat, insipid.  c chilling, depressing.  2 (of
             a woman) sexually unresponsive.  3 (esp. of climate or air)
             cold.  Ьfrigid zones the parts of the earth north of the Arctic
             Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle.  ЬЬfrigidity n.
             frigidly adv.  frigidness n.  [L frigidus f.  frigere be cold f.
             frigus (n.) cold]

   frijoles  n.pl.  beans.  [Sp., pl. of frijol bean ult. f. L phaseolus]

   frill     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a strip of material with one side gathered or
             pleated and the other left loose with a fluted appearance, used
             as an ornamental edging.  b a similar paper ornament on a
             ham-knuckle, chop, etc.  c a natural fringe of feathers, hair,
             etc., on an animal (esp.  a bird) or a plant.  2 (in pl.) a
             unnecessary embellishments or accomplishments.  b airs,
             affectation (put on frills).  --v.tr.  1 decorate with a frill.
             2 form into a frill.  Ьfrill (or frilled) lizard a large N.
             Australian lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingii, with an erectile
             membrane round the neck.  ЬЬfrilled adj.  frillery n.  [16th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

   frilling  n.  1 a set of frills.  2 material for frills.

   frilly    adj. & n.  --adj.  (frillier, frilliest) 1 having a frill or
             frills.  2 resembling a frill.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) (in pl.)
             colloq. frilled underwear.  ЬЬfrilliness n.

   fringe    n. & v.  --n.  1 a an ornamental bordering of threads left loose
             or formed into tassels or twists.  b such a bordering made
             separately.  c any border or edging.  2 a a portion of the front
             hair hanging over the forehead.  b a natural border of hair etc.
             in an animal or plant.  3 an outer edge or margin; the outer
             limit of an area, population, etc. (often attrib.  : fringe
             theatre).  4 a thing, part, or area of secondary or minor
             importance.  5 a a band of contrasting brightness or darkness
             produced by diffraction or interference of light.  b a strip of
             false colour in an optical image.  6 US a fringe benefit.
             --v.tr.  1 adorn or encircle with a fringe.  2 serve as a fringe
             to.  Ьfringe benefit an employee's benefit supplementing a money
             wage or salary.  fringe medicine systems of treatment of disease
             etc. not regarded as orthodox by the medical profession.
             fringing reef a coral reef that fringes the shore.  ЬЬfringeless
             adj.  fringy adj.  [ME & OF frenge ult. f. LL fimbria (earlier
             only in pl.) fibres, fringe]

   fringing  n.  material for a fringe or fringes.

   frippery  n. & adj.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 showy, tawdry, or unnecessary
             finery or ornament, esp. in dress.  2 empty display in speech,
             literary style, etc.  3 a knick-knacks, trifles.  b a
             knick-knack or trifle.  --adj.  1 frivolous.  2 contemptible.
             [F friperie f. OF freperie f.  frepe rag]

   frippet   n.  sl.  a frivolous or showy young woman.  [20th c.: orig.

   Frisbee   n.  propr.  a concave plastic disc for skimming through the air
             as an outdoor game.  [perh. f.  Frisbie bakery (Bridgeport,
             Conn.), whose pie-tins could be used similarly]

   Frisian   adj. & n.  --adj. of Friesland (an area comprising the NW
             Netherlands and adjacent islands).  --n.  1 a native or
             inhabitant of Friesland.  2 the language of Friesland.  [L
             Frisii pl. f. OFris.  Frisa, Fresa]

   frisk     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. leap or skip playfully.  2 tr.  sl. feel
             over or search (a person) for a weapon etc. (usu. rapidly).
             --n.  1 a playful leap or skip.  2 sl. the frisking of a person.
             ЬЬfrisker n.  [obs.  frisk (adj.) f. OF frisque lively, of unkn.

   frisket   n.  Printing a thin iron frame keeping the sheet in position
             during printing on a hand-press.  [F frisquette f. Prov.
             frisqueto f. Sp.  frasqueta]

   frisky    adj.  (friskier, friskiest) lively, playful.  ЬЬfriskily adv.
             friskiness n.

   frisson   n.  an emotional thrill.  [F, = shiver]

   frit      n. & v.  --n.  1 a calcined mixture of sand and fluxes as
             material for glass-making.  2 a vitreous composition from which
             soft porcelain, enamel, etc., are made.  --v.tr.  (fritted,
             fritting) make into frit, partially fuse, calcine.  [It.  fritta
             fem. past part. of friggere FRY(1)]

   frit-fly  n.  (pl.  -flies) a small fly, Oscinella frit, of which the
             larvae are destructive to cereals.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   frith     var. of FIRTH.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 any liliaceous plant of the genus Fritillaria,
             esp. snake's head, having pendent bell-like flowers.  2 any of
             various butterflies, esp. of the genus Argynnis, having
             red-brown wings chequered with black.  [mod.L fritillaria f. L
             fritillus dice-box]

             v.tr.  1 (usu. foll. by away) waste (money, time, energy, etc.)
             triflingly, indiscriminately, or on divided aims.  2 archaic
             subdivide.  [obs. n.  fritter(s) fragments = obs.  fitters
             (n.pl.), perh. rel. to MHG vetze rag]

             n.  a piece of fruit, meat, etc., coated in batter and
             deep-fried (apple fritter).  [ME f. OF friture ult. f. L frigere
             frict- FRY(1)]

   fritto misto
             n.  a mixed grill.  [It., = mixed fry]

   fritz     n.  Ьon the fritz US sl.  out of order, unsatisfactory.  [20th
             c.: orig. unkn.]

   frivol    v.  (frivolled, frivolling; US frivoled, frivoling) 1 intr. be a
             trifler; trifle.  2 tr. (foll. by away) spend (money or time)
             foolishly.  [back-form. f.  FRIVOLOUS]

   frivolous adj.  1 paltry, trifling, trumpery.  2 lacking seriousness;
             given to trifling; silly.  ЬЬfrivolity n.  (pl.  -ies).
             frivolously adv.  frivolousness n.  [L frivolus silly, trifling]

   frizz     v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 form (hair) into a mass of small curls.  2
             dress (wash-leather etc.) with pumice or a scraping-knife.  --n.
             1 a frizzed hair.  b a row of curls.  2 a frizzed state.  [F
             friser, perh. f. the stem of frire FRY(1)]

             v.intr. & tr.  1 fry, toast, or grill, with a sputtering noise.
             2 (often foll. by up) burn or shrivel.  [frizz (in the same
             sense) f.  FRY(1), with imit. ending + -LE(4)]

             v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. form (hair) into tight curls.  2 intr.
             (often foll. by up) (of hair etc.) curl tightly.  --n. frizzled
             hair.  [16th c.: orig. unkn. (earlier than FRIZZ)]

   frizzly   adj.  in tight curls.

   frizzy    adj.  (frizzier, frizziest) in a mass of small curls.
             ЬЬfrizziness n.

   Frl.      abbr.  Fr„ulein.

   fro       adv.  back (now only in to and fro: see TO).  [ME f. ON fr 

   frock     n. & v.  --n.  1 a woman's or girl's dress.  2 a a monk's or
             priest's long gown with loose sleeves.  b priestly office.  3 a
             smock.  4 a a frock-coat.  b a military coat of similar shape.
             5 a sailor's woollen jersey.  --v.tr. invest with priestly
             office (cf.  UNFROCK).  Ьfrock-coat a man's long-skirted coat
             not cut away in front.  [ME f. OF froc f. Frank.]

   froe      n.  (also frow) US a cleaving tool with a handle at right angles
             to the blade.  [abbr. of frower f.  FROWARD 'turned away']

   Froebel system
             n.  a system of education of children by means of kindergartens.
             ЬЬFroebelian adj.  Froebelism n.  [F. W. A.  Fr”bel, Ger.
             teacher d. 1852]

   frog(1)   n.  1 any of various small amphibians of the order Anura, having
             a tailless smooth-skinned body with legs developed for jumping.
             2 (Frog) Brit.  sl.  offens. a Frenchman.  3 a hollow in the top
             face of a brick for holding the mortar.  4 the nut of a
             violin-bow etc.  Ьfrog-fish = angler-fish.  frog in the (or
             one's) throat colloq.  hoarseness.  frog-spawn the spawn of a
             frog.  [OE frogga f. Gmc]

   frog(2)   n.  an elastic horny substance in the sole of a horse's foot.
             [17th c.: orig. uncert. (perh. a use of FROG(1))]

   frog(3)   n.  1 an ornamental coat-fastening of a spindle-shaped button
             and loop.  2 an attachment to a waist-belt to support a sword,
             bayonet, etc.  ЬЬfrogged adj.  frogging n.  [18th c.: orig.

   frog(4)   n.  a grooved piece of iron at a place in a railway where tracks
             cross.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   froggy    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 of or like a frog or frogs.  2 a cold as a
             frog.  b abounding in frogs.  3 Brit.  sl.  offens. French.
             --n. (Froggy) (pl.  -ies) sl.  derog. a Frenchman.

             n.  any jumping insect of the family Cercopidae, sucking sap and
             as larvae producing a protective mass of froth (see

   frogman   n.  (pl.  -men) a person equipped with a rubber suit, flippers,
             and an oxygen supply for underwater swimming.

   frogmarch v. & n.  esp.  Brit.  --v.tr.  1 hustle (a person) forward
             holding and pinning the arms from behind.  2 carry (a person) in
             a frogmarch.  --n. the carrying of a person face downwards by
             four others each holding a limb.

   frogmouth n.  any of various birds of Australia and SE Asia, esp. of the
             family Podargidae, having large wide mouths.

   frolic    v., n., & adj.  --v.intr.  (frolicked, frolicking) play about
             cheerfully, gambol.  --n.  1 cheerful play.  2 a prank.  3 a
             merry party.  4 an outburst of gaiety.  5 merriment.  --adj.
             archaic 1 full of pranks, sportive.  2 joyous, mirthful.
             ЬЬfrolicker n.  [Du.  vrolijk (adj.) f.  vro glad + -lijk

             adj.  merry, playful.  ЬЬfrolicsomely adv.  frolicsomeness n.

   from      prep.  expressing separation or origin, followed by: 1 a person,
             place, time, etc., that is the starting-point of motion or
             action, or of extent in place or time (rain comes from the
             clouds; repeated from mouth to mouth; dinner is served from 8;
             from start to finish).  2 a place, object, etc. whose distance
             or remoteness is reckoned or stated (ten miles from Rome; I am
             far from admitting it; absent from home; apart from its moral
             aspect).  3 a a source (dig gravel from a pit; a man from Italy;
             draw a conclusion from premisses; quotations from Shaw).  b a
             giver or sender (presents from Father Christmas; have not heard
             from her).  4 a a thing or person avoided, escaped, lost, etc.
             (released him from prison; cannot refrain from laughing;
             dissuaded from folly).  b a person or thing deprived (took his
             gun from him).  5 a reason, cause, or motive (died from fatigue;
             suffering from mumps; did it from jealousy; from his looks you
             might not believe it).  6 a thing distinguished or unlike (know
             black from white).  7 a lower limit (saw from 10 to 20 boats;
             tickets from њ5).  8 a state changed for another (from being the
             victim he became the attacker; raised the penalty from a fine to
             imprisonment).  9 an adverb or preposition of time or place
             (from long ago; from abroad; from under the bed).  10 the
             position of a person who observes or considers (saw it from the
             roof; from his point of view).  11 a model (painted it from
             nature).  Ьfrom a child since childhood.  from day to day (or
             hour to hour etc.) daily (or hourly etc.); as the days (or hours
             etc.) pass.  from home out, away.  from now on henceforward.
             from time to time occasionally.  from year to year each year; as
             the years pass.  [OE fram, from f. Gmc]

   frond     n.  1 Bot.  a a large usu. divided foliage leaf in various
             flowerless plants, esp. ferns and palms.  b the leaflike thallus
             of some algae.  2 Zool. a leaflike expansion.  ЬЬfrondage n.
             frondose adj.  [L frons frondis leaf]

   frondeur  n.  a political rebel.  [F, = slinger, applied to a party (the
             Fronde) rebelling during the minority of Louis XIV of France]

   front     n., adj., & v.  --n.  1 the side or part normally nearer or
             towards the spectator or the direction of motion (the front of
             the car; the front of the chair; the front of the mouth).  2 any
             face of a building, esp. that of the main entrance.  3 Mil.  a
             the foremost line or part of an army etc.  b line of battle.  c
             the part of the ground towards a real or imaginary enemy.  d a
             scene of actual fighting (go to the front).  e the direction in
             which a formed line faces (change front).  4 a a sector of
             activity regarded as resembling a military front.  b an
             organized political group.  5 a demeanour, bearing (show a bold
             front).  b outward appearance.  6 a forward or conspicuous
             position (come to the front).  7 a a bluff.  b a pretext.  8 a
             person etc. serving to cover subversive or illegal activities.
             9 (prec. by the) the promenade of a seaside resort.  10
             Meteorol. the forward edge of an advancing mass of cold or warm
             air.  11 (prec. by the) the auditorium of a theatre.  12 a a
             face.  b poet. or rhet. a forehead.  13 a the breast of a man's
             shirt.  b a false shirt-front.  14 impudence.  --attrib.adj.  1
             of the front.  2 situated in front.  3 Phonet. formed at the
             front of the mouth.  --v.  1 intr. (foll. by on, to, towards,
             upon) have the front facing or directed.  2 intr. (foll. by for)
             sl. act as a front or cover for.  3 tr. furnish with a front
             (fronted with stone).  4 tr. lead (a band).  5 tr.  a stand
             opposite to, front towards.  b have its front on the side of (a
             street etc.).  6 tr.  archaic confront, meet, oppose.  Ьfront
             bench Brit.  the foremost seats in Parliament, occupied by
             leading members of the government and opposition.  front-bencher
             Brit.  such a member.  front door 1 the chief entrance of a
             house.  2 a chief means of approach or access to a place,
             situation, etc.  front line Mil.  = sense 3 of n.  front-line
             States countries in Southern Africa bordering on and opposed to
             South Africa.  front man a person acting as a front or cover.
             front matter Printing the title-page, preface, etc. preceding
             the text proper.  front office a main office, esp. police
             headquarters.  front page the first page of a newspaper, esp. as
             containing important or remarkable news.  front passage colloq.
             the vagina.  front runner 1 the contestant most likely to
             succeed.  2 an athlete or horse running best when in the lead.
             in front 1 in an advanced position.  2 facing the spectator.  in
             front of 1 ahead of, in advance of.  2 in the presence of,
             confronting.  on the front burner see BURNER.  ЬЬfrontless adj.
             frontward adj. & adv.  frontwards adv.  [ME f. OF front (n.),
             fronter (v.) f. L frons frontis]

   frontage  n.  1 the front of a building.  2 a land abutting on a street or
             on water.  b the land between the front of a building and the
             road.  3 extent of front (a shop with little frontage).  4 a the
             way a thing faces.  b outlook.  Ьfrontage road US a service
             road.  ЬЬfrontager n.

             adj.  1 a of, at, or on the front (a frontal attack).  b of the
             front as seen by an onlooker (a frontal view).  2 of the
             forehead or front part of the skull (frontal bone).  ЬЬfrontally
             adv.  [mod.L frontalis (as FRONT)]

             n.  1 a covering for the front of an altar.  2 the fa‡ade of a
             building.  [ME f. OF frontel f. L frontale (as FRONT)]

   frontier  n.  1 a the border between two countries.  b the district on
             each side of this.  2 the limits of attainment or knowledge in a
             subject.  3 US the borders between settled and unsettled
             country.  ЬЬfrontierless adj.  [ME f. AF frounter, OF frontiere
             ult. f. L frons frontis FRONT]

             n.  (pl.  -men) a person living in the region of a frontier,
             esp. between settled and unsettled country.

             n.  1 an illustration facing the title-page of a book or of one
             of its divisions.  2 Archit.  a the principal face of a
             building.  b a decorated entrance.  c a pediment over a door
             etc.  [F frontispice or LL frontispicium fa‡ade f. L frons
             frontis FRONT + -spicium f.  specere look: assim. to PIECE]

   frontlet  n.  1 a piece of cloth hanging over the upper part of an altar
             frontal.  2 a band worn on the forehead.  3 a phylactery.  4 an
             animal's forehead.  [OF frontelet (as FRONTAL(2))]

   fronton   n.  a pediment.  [F f. It.  frontone f.  fronte forehead]

   frore     adj.  poet.  frozen, frosty.  [archaic past part. of FREEZE]

   frost     n. & v.  --n.  1 a (also white frost) a white frozen dew coating
             esp. the ground at night (windows covered with frost).  b a
             consistent temperature below freezing-point causing frost to
             form.  2 a chilling dispiriting atmosphere.  3 sl. a failure.
             --v.  1 intr. (usu. foll. by over, up) become covered with
             frost.  2 tr.  a cover with or as if with frost, powder, etc.  b
             injure (a plant etc.) with frost.  3 tr. give a roughened or
             finely granulated surface to (glass, metal) (frosted glass).  4
             tr.  US cover or decorate (a cake etc.) with icing.  Ьblack
             frost a frost without white dew.  degrees of frost Brit.
             degrees below freezing-point (ten degrees of frost tonight).
             frost-work tracery made by frost on glass etc.  ЬЬfrostless adj.
             [OE f. Gmc]

   frostbite n.  injury to body tissues, esp. the nose, fingers, or toes, due
             to freezing and often resulting in gangrene.

   frosting  n.  1 US icing.  2 a rough surface on glass etc.

   frosty    adj.  (frostier, frostiest) 1 cold with frost.  2 covered with
             or as with hoar-frost.  3 unfriendly in manner, lacking in
             warmth of feeling.  ЬЬfrostily adv.  frostiness n.

   froth     n. & v.  --n.  1 a a collection of small bubbles in liquid,
             caused by shaking, fermenting, etc.; foam.  b impure matter on
             liquid, scum.  2 a idle talk or ideas.  b anything unsubstantial
             or of little worth.  --v.  1 intr. emit or gather froth
             (frothing at the mouth).  2 tr. cause (beer etc.) to foam.
             Ьfroth-blower Brit.  joc.  a beer-drinker (esp. as a designation
             of a member of a charitable organization).  ЬЬfrothily adv.
             frothiness n.  frothy adj.  (frothier, frothiest).  [ME f. ON
             frotha, frauth f. Gmc]

   frottage  n.  1 Psychol. an abnormal desire for contact between the
             clothed bodies of oneself and another.  2 Art the technique or
             process of taking a rubbing from an uneven surface to form the
             basis of a work of art.  [F, = rubbing f.  frotter rub f. OF

   frou-frou n.  a rustling, esp. of a dress.  [F, imit.]

   frow(1)   n.  1 a Dutchwoman.  2 a housewife.  [ME f. Du.  vrouw woman]

   frow(2)   var. of FROE.

   froward   adj.  archaic perverse; difficult to deal with.  ЬЬfrowardly
             adv.  frowardness n.  [ME f.  FRO + -WARD]

   frown     v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. wrinkle one's brows, esp. in displeasure
             or deep thought.  2 intr. (foll. by at, on, upon) express
             disapproval.  3 intr. (of a thing) present a gloomy aspect.  4
             tr. compel with a frown (frowned them into silence).  5 tr.
             express (defiance etc.) with a frown.  --n.  1 an action of
             frowning; a vertically furrowed or wrinkled state of the brow.
             2 a look expressing severity, disapproval, or deep thought.
             ЬЬfrowner n.  frowningly adv.  [ME f. OF frongnier, froignier f.
             froigne surly look f. Celt.]

   frowst    n. & v.  Brit.  colloq.  --n. fusty warmth in a room.  --v.intr.
             stay in or enjoy frowst.  ЬЬfrowster n.  [back-form. f.

   frowsty   adj.  Brit.  (frowstier, frowstiest) fusty, stuffy.
             ЬЬfrowstiness n.  [var. of FROWZY]

   frowzy    adj.  (also frowsy) (-ier, -iest) 1 fusty, musty, ill-smelling,
             close.  2 slatternly, unkempt, dingy.  ЬЬfrowziness n.  [17th
             c.: orig. unkn.: cf. earlier frowy]

   froze     past of FREEZE.

   frozen    past part. of FREEZE.

   FRS       abbr.  (in the UK) Fellow of the Royal Society.

   FRSE      abbr.  Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.

             adj.  bearing fruit.  [L fructifer f.  fructus FRUIT]

             n.  Bot.  1 the process of fructifying.  2 any spore-bearing
             structure esp. in ferns, fungi, and mosses.  [LL fructificatio
             (as FRUCTIFY)]

   fructify  v.  (-ies, -ied) 1 intr. bear fruit.  2 tr. make fruitful;
             impregnate.  [ME f. OF fructifier f. L fructificare f.  fructus

   fructose  n.  Chem.  a simple sugar found in honey and fruits. Also called
             LAEVULOSE, fruit sugar.  [L fructus FRUIT + -OSE 2]

   fructuous adj.  full of or producing fruit.  [ME f. OF fructuous or L
             fructuosus (as FRUIT)]

   frugal    adj.  1 (often foll. by of) sparing or economical, esp. as
             regards food.  2 sparingly used or supplied, meagre, costing
             little.  ЬЬfrugality n.  frugally adv.  frugalness n.  [L
             frugalis f.  frugi economical]

             adj.  feeding on fruit.  [L frux frugis fruit + -VOROUS]

   fruit     n. & v.  --n.  1 a the usu. sweet and fleshy edible product of a
             plant or tree, containing seed.  b (in sing.) these in quantity
             (eats fruit).  2 the seed of a plant or tree with its covering,
             e.g. an acorn, pea pod, cherry, etc.  3 (usu. in pl.)
             vegetables, grains, etc. used for food (fruits of the earth).  4
             (usu. in pl.) the result of action etc., esp. as financial
             reward (fruits of his labours).  5 sl. esp.  US a male
             homosexual.  6 Bibl. an offspring (the fruit of the womb; the
             fruit of his loins).  --v.intr. & tr. bear or cause to bear
             fruit.  Ьfruit bar a piece of dried and pressed fruit.
             fruit-bat any large bat of the suborder Megachiroptera, feeding
             on fruit.  fruit- (or fruiting-) body (pl.  -ies) the
             spore-bearing part of a fungus.  fruit cake 1 a cake containing
             dried fruit.  2 sl. an eccentric or mad person.  fruit cocktail
             a finely-chopped usu. tinned fruit salad.  fruit fly (pl.
             flies) any of various flies, esp. of the genus Drosophila,
             having larvae that feed on fruit.  fruit machine Brit.  a
             coin-operated gaming machine giving random combinations of
             symbols often representing fruit.  fruit salad 1 various fruits
             cut up and served in syrup, juice, etc.  2 sl. a display of
             medals etc.  fruit sugar fructose.  fruit-tree a tree grown for
             its fruit.  fruit-wood the wood of a fruit-tree, esp. when used
             in furniture.  ЬЬfruitage n.  fruited adj. (also in comb.).  [ME
             f. OF f. L fructus fruit, enjoyment f.  frui enjoy]

             n.  a person who eats only fruit.  [FRUIT, after vegetarian]

   fruiter   n.  1 a tree producing fruit, esp. with reference to its quality
             (a poor fruiter).  2 Brit. a fruit grower.  3 a ship carrying
             fruit.  [ME f. OF fruitier (as FRUIT, -ER(5)): later f.  FRUIT +

   fruiterer n.  esp.  Brit.  a dealer in fruit.

   fruitful  adj.  1 producing much fruit; fertile; causing fertility.  2
             producing good results, successful; beneficial, remunerative.  3
             producing offspring, esp. prolifically.  ЬЬfruitfully adv.
             fruitfulness n.

   fruition  n.  1 a the bearing of fruit.  b the production of results.  2
             the realization of aims or hopes.  3 enjoyment.  [ME f. OF f. LL
             fruitio -onis f.  frui enjoy, erron. assoc. with FRUIT]

   fruitless adj.  1 not bearing fruit.  2 useless, unsuccessful,
             unprofitable.  ЬЬfruitlessly adv.  fruitlessness n.

   fruitlet  n.  = DRUPEL.

   fruity    adj.  (fruitier, fruitiest) 1 a of fruit.  b tasting or smelling
             like fruit, esp. (of wine) tasting of the grape.  2 (of a voice
             etc.) of full rich quality.  3 colloq. full of rough humour or
             (usu. scandalous) interest; suggestive.  ЬЬfruitily adv.
             fruitiness n.

   frumenty  n.  (also furmety) hulled wheat boiled in milk and seasoned with
             cinnamon, sugar, etc.  [ME f. OF frumentee f.  frument f. L
             frumentum corn]

   frump     n.  a dowdy unattractive old-fashioned woman.  ЬЬfrumpish adj.
             frumpishly adv.  [16th c.: perh. f. dial.  frumple (v.) wrinkle
             f. MDu.  verrompelen (as FOR-, RUMPLE)]

   frumpy    adj.  (frumpier, frumpiest) dowdy, unattractive, and
             old-fashioned.  ЬЬfrumpily adv.  frumpiness n.

   frustrate v. & adj.  --v.tr.  1 make (efforts) ineffective.  2 prevent (a
             person) from achieving a purpose.  3 (as frustrated adj.) a
             discontented because unable to achieve one's desire.  b sexually
             unfulfilled.  4 disappoint (a hope).  --adj.  archaic
             frustrated.  ЬЬfrustratedly adv.  frustrater n.  frustrating
             adj.  frustratingly adv.  frustration n.  [ME f. L frustrari
             frustrat- f.  frustra in vain]

   frustule  n.  Bot.  the siliceous cell wall of a diatom.  [F f. L
             frustulum (as FRUSTUM)]

   frustum   n.  (pl.  frusta or frustums) Geom.  1 the remainder of a cone
             or pyramid whose upper part has been cut off by a plane parallel
             to its base.  2 the part of a cone or pyramid intercepted
             between two planes.  [L, = piece cut off]

             adj.  Bot.  of the nature of a shrub.  [irreg. f. L frutex bush]

   frutex    n.  (pl.  frutices) Bot.  a woody-stemmed plant smaller than a
             tree; a shrub.  [L frutex fruticis]

   fruticose adj.  Bot.  resembling a shrub.  [L fruticosus (as FRUTEX)]

   fry(1)    v. & n.  --v.  (fries, fried) 1 tr. & intr. cook or be cooked in
             hot fat.  2 tr. & intr.  sl. electrocute or be electrocuted.  3
             tr. (as fried adj.) sl. drunk.  --n.  (pl.  fries) 1 various
             internal parts of animals usu. eaten fried (lamb's fry).  2 a
             dish of fried food, esp. meat.  3 US a social gathering to eat
             fried food.  Ьfrying- (US fry-) pan a shallow pan used in
             frying.  fry up heat or reheat (food) in a frying-pan.  fry-up
             n.  Brit.  colloq.  a dish of miscellaneous fried food.  out of
             the frying-pan into the fire from a bad situation to a worse
             one.  [ME f. OF frire f. L frigere]

   fry(2)    n.pl.  1 young or newly hatched fishes.  2 the young of other
             creatures produced in large numbers, e.g. bees or frogs.  Ьsmall
             fry people of little importance; children.  [ME f. ON frjў]

   fryer     n.  (also frier) 1 a person who fries.  2 a vessel for frying
             esp. fish.  3 US a chicken suitable for frying.

16.0 FSA...

   FSA       abbr.  Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.

   FSH       abbr.  follicle-stimulating hormone.

17.0 Ft....

   Ft.       abbr.  Fort.

   ft.       abbr.  foot, feet.

   FTC       abbr.  US Federal Trade Commission.

18.0 fubsy....

   fubsy     adj.  (fubsier, fubsiest) Brit.  fat or squat.  [obs.  fubs
             small fat person + -Y(1)]

   fuchsia   n.  any shrub of the genus Fuchsia, with drooping red or purple
             or white flowers.  [mod.L f. L.  Fuchs, Ger. botanist d. 1566]

   fuchsine  n.  a deep red aniline dye used in the pharmaceutical and
             textile-processing industries, rosaniline.  [FUCHSIA (from its
             resemblance to the colour of the flower)]

   fuck      v., int., & n.  coarse sl.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. have sexual
             intercourse (with).  2 intr. (foll. by about, around) mess
             about; fool around.  3 tr. (usu. as an exclam.) curse, confound
             (fuck the thing!).  4 intr. (as fucking adj., adv.) used as an
             intensive to express annoyance etc.  --int. expressing anger or
             annoyance.  --n.  1 a an act of sexual intercourse.  b a partner
             in sexual intercourse.  2 the slightest amount (don't give a
             fuck).  Ьfuck all nothing.  fuck off go away.  fuck up make a
             mess of.  fuck-up n.  a mess or muddle.  °A highly taboo word.
             ЬЬfucker n.  (often as a term of abuse).  [16th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fucus     n.  (pl.  fuci) any seaweed of the genus Fucus, with flat
             leathery fronds.  ЬЬfucoid adj.  [L, = rock-lichen, f. Gk
             phukos, of Semitic orig.]

   fuddle    v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. confuse or stupefy, esp. with alcoholic
             liquor.  2 intr. tipple, booze.  --n.  1 confusion.  2
             intoxication.  3 a spell of drinking (on the fuddle).  [16th c.:
             orig. unkn.]

             adj. & n.  sl.  --adj. old-fashioned or quaintly fussy.  --n.
             (pl.  -ies) a fuddy-duddy person.  [20th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fudge     n., v., & int.  --n.  1 a soft toffee-like sweet made with milk,
             sugar, butter, etc.  2 nonsense.  3 a piece of dishonesty or
             faking.  4 a piece of late news inserted in a newspaper page.
             --v.  1 tr. put together in a makeshift or dishonest way; fake.
             2 tr. deal with incompetently.  3 intr. practise such methods.
             --int. expressing disbelief or annoyance.  [perh. f. obs.  fadge
             (v.) fit]

   fuehrer   var. of FљHRER.

   fuel      n. & v.  --n.  1 material, esp. coal, wood, oil, etc., burnt or
             used as a source of heat or power.  2 food as a source of
             energy.  3 material used as a source of nuclear energy.  4
             anything that sustains or inflames emotion or passion.  --v.
             (fuelled, fuelling; US fueled, fueling) 1 tr. supply with fuel.
             2 tr. sustain or inflame (an argument, feeling, etc.) (drink
             fuelled his anger).  3 intr. take in or get fuel.  Ьfuel cell a
             cell producing an electric current direct from a chemical
             reaction.  fuel element an element of nuclear fuel etc. for use
             in a reactor.  fuel injection the direct introduction of fuel
             under pressure into the combustion units of an
             internal-combustion engine.  fuel oil oil used as fuel in an
             engine or furnace.  [ME f. AF fuaille, fewaile, OF fouaille,
             ult. f. L focus hearth]

   fug       n. & v.  colloq.  --n. stuffiness or fustiness of the air in a
             room.  --v.intr.  (fugged, fugging) stay in or enjoy a fug.
             ЬЬfuggy adj.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fugacious adj.  literary fleeting, evanescent, hard to capture or keep.
             ЬЬfugaciously adv.  fugaciousness n.  fugacity n.  [L fugax
             fugacis f.  fugere flee]

   fugal     adj.  of the nature of a fugue.  ЬЬfugally adv.

   -fuge     comb. form forming adjectives and nouns denoting expelling or
             dispelling (febrifuge; vermifuge).  [from or after mod.L - fugus
             f. L fugare put to flight]

   fugitive  adj. & n.  --adj.  1 fleeing; that runs or has run away.  2
             transient, fleeting; of short duration.  3 (of literature) of
             passing interest, ephemeral.  4 flitting, shifting.  --n.  1
             (often foll. by from) a person who flees, esp. from justice, an
             enemy, danger, or a master.  2 an exile or refugee.
             ЬЬfugitively adv.  [ME f. OF fugitif -ive f. L fugitivus f.
             fugere fugit- flee]

   fugle     v.intr.  act as a fugleman.  [back-form. f.  FUGLEMAN]

   fugleman  n.  (pl.  -men) 1 hist. a soldier placed in front of a regiment
             etc. while drilling to show the motions and time.  2 a leader,
             organizer, or spokesman.  [G FlЃgelmann f.  FlЃgel wing + Mann

   fugue     n. & v.  --n.  1 Mus. a contrapuntal composition in which a
             short melody or phrase (the subject) is introduced by one part
             and successively taken up by others and developed by
             interweaving the parts.  2 Psychol. loss of awareness of one's
             identity, often coupled with flight from one's usual
             environment.  --v.intr.  (fugues, fugued, fuguing) Mus. compose
             or perform a fugue.  ЬЬfuguist n.  [F or It. f. L fuga flight]

   fugued    adj.  in the form of a fugue.

   fЃhrer    n.  (also fuehrer) a leader, esp. a tyrannical one.  [G, =
             leader: part of the title assumed in 1934 by Hitler (see

   -ful      comb. form forming: 1 adjectives from nouns, meaning: a full of
             (beautiful).  b having the qualities of (masterful).  2
             adjectives from adjectives or Latin stems with little change of
             sense (direful; grateful).  3 adjectives from verbs, meaning
             'apt to', 'able to', 'accustomed to' (forgetful; mournful;
             useful).  4 nouns (pl.  -fuls) meaning 'the amount needed to
             fill' (handful; spoonful).

   fulcrum   n.  (pl.  fulcra or fulcrums) 1 the point against which a lever
             is placed to get a purchase or on which it turns or is
             supported.  2 the means by which influence etc. is brought to
             bear.  [L, = post of a couch, f.  fulcire to prop]

   fulfil    v.tr.  (US fulfill) (fulfilled, fulfilling) 1 bring to
             consummation, carry out (a prophecy or promise).  2 satisfy (a
             desire or prayer).  3 a execute, obey (a command or law).  b
             perform, carry out (a task).  4 comply with (conditions).  5
             answer (a purpose).  6 bring to an end, finish, complete (a
             period or piece of work).  Ьfulfil oneself develop one's gifts
             and character to the full.  ЬЬfulfillable adj.  fulfiller n.
             fulfilment n.  (US fulfillment).  [OE fullfyllan (as FULL(1),

   fulgent   adj.  poet. or rhet.  shining, brilliant.  [ME f. L fulgere

             n.  Surgery the destruction of tissue by means of high-voltage
             electric sparks.  [L fulguratio sheet lightning f.  fulgur

   fulgurite n.  Geol.  a rocky substance of sand fused or vitrified by
             lightning.  [L fulgur lightning]

             adj.  sooty, dusky.  [LL fuliginosus f.  fuligo -ginis soot]

   full(1)   adj., adv., n., & v.  --adj.  1 (often foll. by of) holding all
             its limits will allow (the bucket is full; full of water).  2
             having eaten to one's limits or satisfaction.  3 abundant,
             copious, satisfying, sufficient (a full programme of events; led
             a full life; turned it to full account; give full details; the
             book is very full on this point).  4 (foll. by of) having or
             holding an abundance of, showing marked signs of (full of
             vitality; full of interest; full of mistakes).  5 (foll. by of)
             a engrossed in thinking about (full of himself; full of his
             work).  b unable to refrain from talking about (full of the
             news).  6 a complete, perfect, reaching the specified or usual
             or utmost limit (full membership; full daylight; waited a full
             hour; it was full summer; in full bloom).  b Bookbinding used
             for the entire cover (full leather).  7 a (of tone or colour)
             deep and clear, mellow.  b (of light) intense.  c (of motion
             etc.) vigorous (a full pulse; at full gallop).  8 plump,
             rounded, protuberant (a full figure).  9 (of clothes) made of
             much material arranged in folds or gathers.  10 (of the heart
             etc.) overcharged with emotion.  11 sl. drunk.  12 (foll. by of)
             archaic having had plenty of (full of years and honours).
             --adv.  1 very (you know full well).  2 quite, fully (full six
             miles; full ripe).  3 exactly (hit him full on the nose).  4
             more than sufficiently (full early).  --n.  1 height, acme
             (season is past the full).  2 the state or time of full moon.  3
             the whole (cannot tell you the full of it).  --v.intr. & tr. be
             or become or make (esp. clothes) full.  Ьat full length 1 lying
             stretched out.  2 without abridgement.  come full circle see
             CIRCLE.  full age adult status (esp. with ref. to legal rights
             and duties).  full and by Naut.  close-hauled but with sails
             filling.  full back a defensive player, or a position near the
             goal, in football, hockey, etc.  full blood pure descent.
             full-blooded 1 vigorous, hearty, sensual.  2 not hybrid.
             full-bloodedly forcefully, wholeheartedly.  full-bloodedness
             being full-blooded.  full-blown fully developed, complete, (of
             flowers) quite open.  full board provision of accommodation and
             all meals at a hotel etc.  full-bodied rich in quality, tone,
             etc.  full-bottomed (of a wig) long at the back.  full brother a
             brother born of the same parents.  full-cream of or made from
             unskimmed milk.  full dress formal clothes worn on great
             occasions.  full-dress adj.  (of a debate etc.) of major
             importance.  full employment 1 the condition in which there is
             no idle capital or labour of any kind that is in demand.  2 the
             condition in which virtually all who are able and willing to
             work are employed.  full face with all the face visible to the
             spectator.  full-fashioned = fully-fashioned.  full-fledged
             mature.  full-frontal 1 (of nudity or a nude figure) with full
             exposure at the front.  2 unrestrained, explicit; with nothing
             concealed.  full-grown having reached maturity.  full hand Poker
             a hand with three of a kind and a pair.  full-hearted full of
             feeling; confident, zealous.  full-heartedly in a full-hearted
             manner.  full-heartedness fullness of feeling, ardour, zeal.
             full house 1 a maximum or large attendance at a theatre, in
             Parliament, etc.  2 = full hand.  full-length 1 not shortened or
             abbreviated.  2 (of a mirror, portrait, etc.) showing the whole
             height of the human figure.  full lock see LOCK(1).  full marks
             the maximum award in an examination, in assessment of a person,
             etc.  full measure not less than the professed amount.  full
             moon 1 the moon with its whole disc illuminated.  2 the time
             when this occurs.  full-mouthed 1 (of cattle or sheep) having a
             full set of teeth.  2 (of a dog) baying loudly.  3 (of oratory
             etc.) sonorous, vigorous.  full out 1 Printing flush with the
             margin.  2 at full power.  3 complete.  full page an entire page
             of a newspaper etc.  full pitch = full toss.  full point = full
             stop 1.  full professor a professor of the highest grade in a
             university etc.  full-scale not reduced in size, complete.  full
             score Mus.  a score giving the parts for all performers on
             separate staves.  full service a church service performed by a
             choir without solos, or performed with music wherever possible.
             full sister a sister born of the same parents.  full speed (or
             steam) ahead!  an order to proceed at maximum speed or to pursue
             a course of action energetically.  full stop 1 a punctuation
             mark (.) used at the end of a sentence or an abbreviation.  2 a
             complete cessation.  full term the completion of a normal
             pregnancy.  full tilt see TILT.  full time 1 the total normal
             duration of work etc.  2 the end of a football etc. match.
             full-time adj.  occupying or using the whole of the available
             working time.  full-timer a person who does a full-time job.
             full toss Cricket n.  a ball pitched right up to the batsman.
             --adv. without the ball's having touched the ground.  full up
             colloq.  completely full.  in full 1 without abridgement.  2 to
             or for the full amount (paid in full).  in full swing at the
             height of activity.  in full view entirely visible.  on a full
             stomach see STOMACH.  to the full to the utmost extent.  [OE f.

   full(2)   v.tr.  cleanse and thicken (cloth).  [ME, back-form. f.
             FULLER(1): cf. OF fouler (FOIL(1))]

   fuller(1) n.  a person who fulls cloth.  Ьfuller's earth a type of clay
             used in fulling cloth and as an adsorbent.  [OE fullere f. L

   fuller(2) n. & v.  --n.  1 a grooved or rounded tool on which iron is
             shaped.  2 a groove made by this esp. in a horseshoe.  --v.tr.
             stamp with a fuller.  [19th c.: orig. unkn.]

   fullness  n.  (also fulness) 1 being full.  2 (of sound, colour, etc.)
             richness, volume, body.  3 all that is contained (in the world
             etc.).  Ьthe fullness of the heart emotion, genuine feelings.
             the fullness of time the appropriate or destined time.

   fully     adv.  1 completely, entirely (am fully aware).  2 no less or
             fewer than (fully 60).  Ьfully-fashioned (of women's clothing)
             shaped to fit the body.  fully-fledged mature.  [OE fullice (as
             FULL(1), -LY(2))]

   -fully    comb. form forming adverbs corresp. to adjectives in -ful.

   fulmar    n.  any medium-sized sea bird of the genus Fulmarus, with stout
             body, robust bill, and rounded tail.  [orig. Hebridean dial.:
             perh. f. ON fЈll FOUL (with ref. to its smell) + m r gull (cf.

   fulminant adj.  1 fulminating.  2 Med. (of a disease or symptom)
             developing suddenly.  [F fulminant or L fulminant- (as

   fulminate v. & n.  --v.intr.  1 (often foll. by against) express censure
             loudly and forcefully.  2 explode violently; flash like
             lightning (fulminating mercury).  3 Med. (of a disease or
             symptom) develop suddenly.  --n.  Chem. a salt or ester of
             fulminic acid.  ЬЬfulmination n.  fulminatory adj.  [L fulminare
             fulminat- f.  fulmen -minis lightning]

   fulminic acid
             n.  Chem.  an isomer of cyanic acid that is stable only in
             solution.  °Chem. formula: HONC.  [L fulmen: see FULMINATE]

   fulness   var. of FULLNESS.

   fulsome   adj.  1 disgusting by excess of flattery, servility, or
             expressions of affection; excessive, cloying.  2 disp. copious.
             °In fulsome praise, fulsome means 'excessive', not 'generous'.
             ЬЬfulsomely adv.  fulsomeness n.  [ME f.  FULL(1) + -SOME(1)]

   fulvous   adj.  reddish-yellow, tawny.  ЬЬfulvescent adj.  [L fulvus]

   fumarole  n.  an opening in or near a volcano, through which hot vapours
             emerge.  ЬЬfumarolic adj.  [F fumarolle]

   fumble    v. & n.  --v.  1 intr. (often foll. by at, with, for, after) use
             the hands awkwardly, grope about.  2 tr.  a handle or deal with
             clumsily or nervously.  b Sport fail to stop (a ball) cleanly.
             --n. an act of fumbling.  ЬЬfumbler n.  fumblingly adv.  [LG
             fummeln, fommeln, Du.  fommelen]

   fume      n. & v.  --n.  1 (usu. in pl.) exuded gas or smoke or vapour,
             esp. when harmful or unpleasant.  2 a fit of anger (in a fume).
             --v.  1 a intr. emit fumes.  b tr. give off as fumes.  2 intr.
             (often foll. by at) be affected by (esp. suppressed) anger (was
             fuming at their inefficiency).  3 tr.  a fumigate.  b subject to
             fumes esp. those of ammonia (to darken tints in oak,
             photographic film, etc.).  4 tr. perfume with incense.  Ьfume
             cupboard (or chamber etc.) a ventilated structure in a
             laboratory, for storing or experimenting with noxious chemicals.
             ЬЬfumeless adj.  fumingly adv.  fumy adj. (in sense 1 of n.).
             [ME f. OF fum f. L fumus smoke & OF fume f.  fumer f. L fumare
             to smoke]

   fumigate  v.tr.  1 disinfect or purify with fumes.  2 apply fumes to.
             ЬЬfumigant n.  fumigation n.  fumigator n.  [L fumigare fumigat-
             f.  fumus smoke]

   fumitory  n.  any plant of the genus Fumaria, esp.  F. officinalis,
             formerly used against scurvy.  [ME f. OF fumeterre f. med.L
             fumus terrae earth-smoke]

   fun       n. & adj.  --n.  1 amusement, esp. lively or playful.  2 a
             source of this.  3 (in full fun and games) exciting or amusing
             goings-on.  --adj.  disp.  colloq. amusing, entertaining,
             enjoyable (a fun thing to do).  Ьfor fun (or for the fun of it)
             not for a serious purpose.  fun run colloq.  an uncompetitive
             run, esp. for sponsored runners in support of a charity.  have
             fun enjoy oneself.  in fun as a joke, not seriously.  is great
             (or good) fun is very amusing.  like fun 1 vigorously, quickly.
             2 much.  3 iron. not at all.  what fun!  how amusing!  [obs.
             fun (v.) var. of fon befool: cf.  FOND]

             n.  a rope-walker.  [F funambule or L funambulus f.  funis rope
             + ambulare walk]

   function  n. & v.  --n.  1 a an activity proper to a person or
             institution.  b a mode of action or activity by which a thing
             fulfils its purpose.  c an official or professional duty; an
             employment, profession, or calling.  2 a a public ceremony or
             occasion.  b a social gathering, esp. a large, formal, or
             important one.  3 Math. a variable quantity regarded in relation
             to another or others in terms of which it may be expressed or on
             which its value depends (x is a function of y and z).  4 a part
             of a program that corresponds to a single value.  --v.intr.
             fulfil a function, operate; be in working order.  ЬЬfunctionless
             adj.  [F fonction f. L functio -onis f.  fungi funct- perform]

             adj.  1 of or serving a function.  2 (esp. of buildings)
             designed or intended to be practical rather than attractive;
             utilitarian.  3 Physiol.  a (esp. of disease) of or affecting
             only the functions of an organ etc., not structural or organic.
             b (of mental disorder) having no discernible organic cause.  c
             (of an organ) having a function, not functionless or
             rudimentary.  4 Math. of a function.  Ьfunctional group Chem.  a
             group of atoms that determine the reactions of a compound
             containing the group.  ЬЬfunctionality n.  functionally adv.

             n.  belief in or stress on the practical application of a thing.
             ЬЬfunctionalist n.

             n.  (pl.  -ies) a person who has to perform official functions
             or duties; an official.

   fund      n. & v.  --n.  1 a permanent stock of something ready to be
             drawn upon (a fund of knowledge; a fund of tenderness).  2 a
             stock of money, esp. one set apart for a purpose.  3 (in pl.)
             money resources.  4 (in pl.; prec. by the) Brit. the stock of
             the National Debt (as a mode of investment).  --v.tr.  1 provide
             with money.  2 convert (a floating debt) into a more or less
             permanent debt at fixed interest.  3 put into a fund.
             Ьfund-raiser a person who seeks financial support for a cause,
             enterprise, etc.  fund-raising the seeking of financial support.
             in funds colloq.  having money to spend.  [L fundus bottom,
             piece of land]

   fundament n.  joc.  the buttocks.  [ME f. OF fondement f. L fundamentum
             (as FOUND(2))]

             adj. & n.  --adj. of, affecting, or serving as a base or
             foundation, essential, primary, original (a fundamental change;
             the fundamental rules; the fundamental form).  --n.  1 (usu. in
             pl.) a fundamental rule, principle, or article.  2 Mus. a
             fundamental note or tone.  Ьfundamental note Mus.  the lowest
             note of a chord in its original (uninverted) form.  fundamental
             particle an elementary particle.  fundamental tone Mus.  the
             tone produced by vibration of the whole of a sonorous body (opp.
             HARMONIC).  ЬЬfundamentality n.  fundamentally adv.  [ME f. F
             fondamental or LL fundamentalis (as FUNDAMENT)]

             n.  1 strict maintenance of traditional Protestant beliefs such
             as the inerrancy of Scripture and literal acceptance of the
             creeds as fundamentals of Christianity.  2 strict maintenance of
             ancient or fundamental doctrines of any religion, esp. Islam.
             ЬЬfundamentalist n.

   fundus    n.  (pl.  fundi) Anat.  the base of a hollow organ; the part
             furthest from the opening.  [L, = bottom]

   funeral   n. & adj.  --n.  1 a the burial or cremation of a dead person
             with its ceremonies.  b a burial or cremation procession.  c US
             a burial or cremation service.  2 sl. one's (usu. unpleasant)
             concern (that's your funeral).  --attrib.adj. of or used etc. at
             a funeral (funeral oration).  Ьfuneral director an undertaker.
             funeral parlour (US home) an establishment where the dead are
             prepared for burial or cremation.  funeral pile (or pyre) a pile
             of wood etc. on which a corpse is burnt.  funeral urn an urn
             holding the ashes of a cremated body.  [ME f. OF funeraille f.
             med.L funeralia neut. pl. of LL funeralis f. L funus -eris
             funeral: (adj.) OF f. L funeralis]

   funerary  adj.  of or used at a funeral or funerals.  [LL funerarius (as

   funereal  adj.  1 of or appropriate to a funeral.  2 gloomy, dismal, dark.
             ЬЬfunereally adv.  [L funereus (as FUNERAL)]

   funfair   n.  Brit.  a fair, or part of one, consisting of amusements and

   fungi     pl. of FUNGUS.

   fungible  adj.  Law (of goods etc. contracted for, when an individual
             specimen is not meant) that can serve for, or be replaced by,
             another answering to the same definition.  ЬЬfungibility n.
             [med.L fungibilis f.  fungi (vice) serve (in place of)]

   fungicide n.  a fungus-destroying substance.  ЬЬfungicidal adj.

             adj.  inhibiting the growth of fungi.  ЬЬfungistatically adv.

   fungoid   adj. & n.  --adj.  1 resembling a fungus in texture or in rapid
             growth.  2 Brit. of a fungus or fungi.  --n. a fungoid plant.

   fungous   adj.  1 having the nature of a fungus.  2 springing up like a
             mushroom; transitory.  [ME f. L fungosus (as FUNGUS)]

   fungus    n.  (pl.  fungi or funguses) 1 any of a group of unicellular,
             multicellular, or multinucleate non-photosynthetic organisms
             feeding on organic matter, which include moulds, yeast,
             mushrooms, and toadstools.  2 anything similar usu. growing
             suddenly and rapidly.  3 Med. a spongy morbid growth.  4 sl. a
             beard.  ЬЬfungal adj.  fungiform adj.  fungivorous adj.  [L,
             perh. f. Gk sp(h)oggos SPONGE]

   funicular adj. & n.  --adj.  1 (of a railway, esp. on a mountainside)
             operating by cable with ascending and descending cars
             counterbalanced.  2 of a rope or its tension.  --n. a funicular
             railway.  [L funiculus f.  funis rope]

   funk(1)   n. & v.  sl.  --n.  1 fear, panic.  2 a coward.  --v.  Brit.  1
             intr. flinch, shrink, show cowardice.  2 tr. try to evade (an
             undertaking), shirk.  3 tr. be afraid of.  [18th-c. Oxford sl.:
             perh. f. sl.  FUNK(2) = tobacco-smoke]

   funk(2)   n.  sl.  1 funky music.  2 US a strong smell.  [funk blow smoke
             on, perh. f. F dial.  funkier f. L (as FUMIGATE)]

   funkia    n.  = HOSTA.  [mod.L f. H. C.  Funck, Prussian botanist d. 1839]

   funky(1)  adj.  (funkier, funkiest) sl.  1 (esp. of jazz or rock music)
             earthy, bluesy, with a heavy rhythmical beat.  2 fashionable.  3
             US having a strong smell.  ЬЬfunkily adv.  funkiness n.

   funky(2)  adj.  (funkier, funkiest) sl.  1 terrified.  2 cowardly.

   funnel    n. & v.  --n.  1 a narrow tube or pipe widening at the top, for
             pouring liquid, powder, etc., into a small opening.  2 a metal
             chimney on a steam engine or ship.  3 something resembling a
             funnel in shape or use.  --v.tr. & intr.  (funnelled,
             funnelling; US funneled, funneling) guide or move through or as
             through a funnel.  ЬЬfunnel-like adj.  [ME f. Prov.  fonilh f.
             LL fundibulum f. L infundibulum f.  infundere (as IN-(2),
             fundere pour)]

             n.  (pl.  -ies) joc.  1 comicality.  2 a comical thing.  [FUNNY
             + -OSITY]

   funny     adj. & n.  --adj.  (funnier, funniest) 1 amusing, comical.  2
             strange, perplexing, hard to account for.  3 colloq. slightly
             unwell, eccentric, etc.  --n.  (pl.  -ies) (usu. in pl.) colloq.
             1 a comic strip in a newspaper.  2 a joke.  Ьfunny-bone the part
             of the elbow over which the ulnar nerve passes.  funny business
             1 sl. misbehaviour or deception.  2 comic behaviour, comedy.
             funny-face joc.  colloq.  an affectionate form of address.
             funny farm sl.  a mental hospital.  funny-ha-ha colloq.  = sense
             1 of adj.  funny man a clown or comedian, esp. a professional.
             funny money colloq.  inflated currency.  funny paper a newspaper
             etc. containing humorous matter.  funny-peculiar colloq.  =
             senses 2, 3 of adj.  ЬЬfunnily adv.  funniness n.  [FUN + -Y(1)]

   fur       n. & v.  --n.  1 a the short fine soft hair of certain animals,
             distinguished from the longer hair.  b the skin of such an
             animal with the fur on it; a pelt.  2 a the coat of certain
             animals as material for making, trimming, or lining clothes.  b
             a trimming or lining made of the dressed coat of such animals,
             or of material imitating this.  c a garment made of or trimmed
             or lined with fur.  3 (collect.) furred animals.  4 a a coating
             formed on the tongue in sickness.  b Brit. a coating formed on
             the inside surface of a pipe, kettle, etc., by hard water.  c a
             crust adhering to a surface, e.g. a deposit from wine.  5
             Heraldry a representation of tufts on a plain ground.  --v.
             (furred, furring) 1 tr. (esp. as furred adj.) a line or trim (a
             garment) with fur.  b provide (an animal) with fur.  c clothe (a
             person) with fur.  d coat (a tongue, the inside of a kettle)
             with fur.  2 intr. (often foll. by up) (of a kettle etc.) become
             coated with fur.  3 tr. level (floor-timbers) by inserting
             strips of wood.  Ьfur and feather game animals and birds.
             fur-seal a sea lion with a valuable undercoat.  make the fur fly
             colloq.  cause a disturbance, stir up trouble.  ЬЬfurless adj.
             [ME (earlier as v.) f. OF forrer f.  forre, fuerre sheath f.

   fur.      abbr.  furlong(s).

   furbelow  n. & v.  --n.  1 a gathered strip or pleated border of a skirt
             or petticoat.  2 (in pl.) derog. showy ornaments.  --v.tr. adorn
             with a furbelow or furbelows.  [18th-c. var. of falbala flounce,

   furbish   v.tr.  (often foll. by up) 1 remove rust from, polish, burnish.
             2 give a new look to, renovate, revive (something antiquated).
             ЬЬfurbisher n.  [ME f. OF forbir f. Gmc]

   furcate   adj. & v.  --adj.  also forked, branched.  --v.intr. form a
             fork, divide.  ЬЬfurcation n.  [L furca fork: (adj.) f. LL

             adj.  1 Med. (of skin) resembling bran or dandruff; scaly.  2
             Bot. covered with branlike scales.  [furfur scurf f. L furfur

   furious   adj.  1 extremely angry.  2 full of fury.  3 raging, violent,
             intense.  Ьfast and furious adv.  1 rapidly.  2 eagerly,
             uproariously.  --adj. (of mirth etc.) eager, uproarious.
             ЬЬfuriously adv.  furiousness n.  [ME f. OF furieus f. L
             furiosus (as FURY)]

   furl      v.  1 tr. roll up and secure (a sail, umbrella, flag, etc.).  2
             intr. become furled.  3 tr.  a close (a fan).  b fold up
             (wings).  c draw away (a curtain).  d relinquish (hopes).
             ЬЬfurlable adj.  [F ferler f. OF fer(m) FIRM(1) + lier bind f. L

   furlong   n.  an eighth of a mile, 220 yards.  [OE furlang f.  furh FURROW
             + lang LONG(1): orig. = length of a furrow in a common field]

   furlough  n. & v.  --n. leave of absence, esp. granted to a member of the
             services or to a missionary.  --v.  US 1 tr. grant furlough to.
             2 intr. spend furlough.  [Du.  verlof after G Verlaub (as FOR-,

   furmety   var. of FRUMENTY.

   furnace   n.  1 an enclosed structure for intense heating by fire, esp.
             of metals or water.  2 a very hot place.  [ME f. OF fornais f. L
             fornax -acis f.  fornus oven]

   furnish   v.tr.  1 provide (a house, room, etc.) with all necessary
             contents, esp. movable furniture.  2 (foll. by with) cause to
             have possession or use of.  3 provide, afford, yield.  [OF
             furnir ult. f. WG]

   furnished adj.  (of a house, flat, etc.) let with furniture.

   furnisher n.  1 a person who sells furniture.  2 a person who furnishes.

             n.pl.  the furniture and fitments in a house, room, etc.

   furniture n.  1 the movable equipment of a house, room, etc., e.g. tables,
             chairs, and beds.  2 Naut. a ship's equipment, esp. tackle etc.
             3 accessories, e.g. the handles and lock of a door.  4 Printing
             pieces of wood or metal placed round or between type to make
             blank spaces and fasten the matter in the chase.  Ьfurniture
             beetle a beetle, Anobium punctatum, the larvae of which bore
             into wood (see WOODWORM).  furniture van a large van used to
             move furniture from one house to another.  part of the furniture
             colloq.  a person or thing taken for granted.  [F fourniture f.
             fournir (as FURNISH)]

   furore    n.  (US furor) 1 an uproar; an outbreak of fury.  2 a wave of
             enthusiastic admiration, a craze.  [It. f. L furor -oris f.
             furere be mad]

   furphy    n.  (pl.  -ies) Austral.  sl.  1 a false report or rumour.  2 an
             absurd story.  [water and sanitary Furphy carts of the war of
             1914-18, made at a foundry set up by the Furphy family]

   furrier   n.  a dealer in or dresser of furs.  [ME furrour f. OF forreor
             f.  forrer trim with fur, assim. to -IER]

   furriery  n.  the work of a furrier.

   furrow    n. & v.  --n.  1 a narrow trench made in the ground by a plough.
             2 a rut, groove, or deep wrinkle.  3 a ship's track.  --v.tr.  1
             plough.  2 a make furrows, grooves, etc. in.  b mark with
             wrinkles.  Ьfurrow-slice the slice of earth turned up by the
             mould-board of a plough.  ЬЬfurrowless adj.  furrowy adj.  [OE
             furh f. Gmc]

   furry     adj.  (furrier, furriest) 1 of or like fur.  2 covered with or
             wearing fur.  ЬЬfurriness n.

   further   adv., adj., & v.  --adv.  (also farther esp. with ref. to
             physical distance) 1 to or at a more advanced point in space or
             time (unsafe to proceed further).  2 at a greater distance
             (nothing was further from his thoughts).  3 to a greater extent,
             more (will enquire further).  4 in addition; furthermore (I may
             add further).  --adj.  (also farther) 1 more distant or advanced
             (on the further side).  2 more, additional, going beyond what
             exists or has been dealt with (threats of further punishment).
             --v.tr. promote, favour, help on (a scheme, undertaking,
             movement, or cause).  Ьfurther education Brit.  education for
             persons above school age but usu. below degree level.  further
             to formal following on from (esp. an earlier letter etc.).  till
             further notice (or orders) to continue until explicitly changed.
             ЬЬfurtherer n.  furthermost adj.  [OE furthor (adv.), furthra
             (adj.), fyrthrian (v.), formed as FORTH, -ER(3)]

             n.  furthering or being furthered; the advancement of a scheme

             adv.  in addition, besides (esp. introducing a fresh
             consideration in an argument).

   furthest  adj. & adv.  (also farthest esp. with ref. to physical distance)
             --adj. most distant.  --adv. to or at the greatest distance.
             Ьat the furthest (or at furthest) at the greatest distance; at
             the latest; at most.  [ME, superl. f.  FURTHER]

   furtive   adj.  1 done by stealth, clandestine, meant to escape notice.  2
             sly, stealthy.  3 stolen, taken secretly.  4 thievish,
             pilfering.  ЬЬfurtively adv.  furtiveness n.  [F furtif -ive or
             L furtivus f.  furtum theft]

   furuncle  n.  Med.  = BOIL(2).  ЬЬfuruncular adj.  furunculous adj.  [L
             furunculus f.  fur thief]

             n.  1 a diseased condition in which boils appear.  2 a bacterial
             disease of salmon and trout.  [mod.L (as FURUNCLE)]

   fury      n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 a wild and passionate anger, rage.  b a fit of
             rage (in a blind fury).  c impetuosity in battle etc.  2
             violence of a storm, disease, etc.  3 (Fury) (usu. in pl.) (in
             Greek mythology) each of three goddesses sent from Tartarus to
             avenge crime, esp. against kinship.  4 an avenging spirit.  5 an
             angry or malignant woman, a virago.  Ьlike fury colloq.  with
             great force or effect.  [ME f. OF furie f. L furia f.  furere be

   furze     n.  Brit.  = GORSE.  ЬЬfurzy adj.  [OE fyrs, of unkn. orig.]

   fuscous   adj.  sombre, dark-coloured.  [L fuscus dusky]

   fuse(1)   v. & n.  --v.  1 tr. & intr. melt with intense heat; liquefy.  2
             tr. & intr. blend or amalgamate into one whole by or as by
             melting.  3 tr. provide (a circuit, plug, etc.) with a fuse.  4
             a intr. (of an appliance) cease to function when a fuse blows.
             b tr. cause (an appliance) to do this.  --n. a device or
             component for protecting an electric circuit, containing a strip
             of wire of easily melted metal and placed in the circuit so as
             to break it by melting when an excessive current passes through.
             Ьfuse-box a box housing the fuses for circuits in a building.
             [L fundere fus- pour, melt]

   fuse(2)   n. & v.  (also fuze) --n.  1 a device for igniting a bomb or
             explosive charge, consisting of a tube or cord etc. filled or
             saturated with combustible matter.  2 a component in a shell,
             mine, etc., designed to detonate an explosive charge on impact,
             after an interval, or when subjected to a magnetic or vibratory
             stimulation.  --v.tr. fit a fuse to.  ЬЬfuseless adj.  [It.
             fuso f. L fusus spindle]

   fusee     n.  (US fuzee) 1 a conical pulley or wheel esp. in a watch or
             clock.  2 a large-headed match for lighting a cigar or pipe in a
             wind.  3 US a railway signal-flare.  [F fus‚e spindle ult. f. L

   fuselage  n.  the body of an aeroplane.  [F f.  fuseler cut into a spindle
             f.  fuseau spindle f. OF fusel ult. f. L fusus]

   fusel oil n.  a mixture of several alcohols, chiefly amyl alcohol,
             produced usu. in small amounts during alcoholic fermentation.
             [G Fusel bad brandy etc.: cf.  fuseln to bungle]

   fusible   adj.  that can be easily fused or melted.  ЬЬfusibility n.

   fusiform  adj.  Bot. & Zool.  shaped like a spindle or cigar, tapering at
             both ends.  [L fusus spindle + -FORM]

   fusil     n.  hist.  a light musket.  [F ult. f. L focus hearth, fire]

   fusilier  n.  (US fusileer) 1 a member of any of several British regiments
             formerly armed with fusils.  2 hist. a soldier armed with a
             fusil.  [F (as FUSIL)]

   fusillade n. & v.  --n.  1 a a continuous discharge of firearms.  b a
             wholesale execution by this means.  2 a sustained outburst of
             criticism etc.  --v.tr.  1 assault (a place) by a fusillade.  2
             shoot down (persons) with a fusillade.  [F f.  fusiller shoot]

   fusion    n.  1 the act or an instance of fusing or melting.  2 a fused
             mass.  3 the blending of different things into one.  4 a
             coalition.  5 Physics = nuclear fusion.  Ьfusion bomb a bomb
             involving nuclear fusion, esp. a hydrogen bomb.  ЬЬfusional adj.
             [F fusion or L fusio (as FUSE(1))]

   fuss      n. & v.  --n.  1 excited commotion, bustle, ostentatious or
             nervous activity.  2 a excessive concern about a trivial thing.
             b abundance of petty detail.  3 a sustained protest or dispute.
             4 a person who fusses.  --v.  1 intr.  a make a fuss.  b busy
             oneself restlessly with trivial things.  c (often foll. by
             about, up and down) move fussily.  2 tr. agitate, worry.  Ьmake
             a fuss complain vigorously.  make a fuss of (or over) treat (a
             person or animal) with great or excessive attention.  ЬЬfusser
             n.  [18th c.: perh. Anglo-Ir.]

   fusspot   n.  colloq.  a person given to fussing.

   fussy     adj.  (fussier, fussiest) 1 inclined to fuss.  2 full of
             unnecessary detail or decoration.  3 fastidious.  ЬЬfussily adv.
             fussiness n.

             n.  a man's stiff white kilt worn in Albania and Greece.  [It.
             dimin. of mod. Gk phoustani prob. f. It.  fustagno FUSTIAN]

   fustian   n. & adj.  --n.  1 thick twilled cotton cloth with a short nap,
             usu. dyed in dark colours.  2 turgid speech or writing, bombast.
             --adj.  1 made of fustian.  2 bombastic.  3 worthless.  [ME f.
             OF fustaigne f. med.L fustaneus (adj.) relating to cloth from
             Fostat a suburb of Cairo]

   fustic    n.  a yellow dye obtained from either of two kinds of wood, esp.
             old fustic.  Ьold fustic 1 a tropical tree, Chlorophora
             tinctoria, native to America.  2 the wood of this tree.  young
             fustic 1 a sumac, Cotinus coggyria, native to Europe (also
             called Venetian sumac).  2 the wood of this tree.  [F f. Sp.
             fustoc f. Arab.  fustuk f. Gk pistake pistachio]

   fusty     adj.  (fustier, fustiest) 1 stale-smelling, musty, mouldy.  2
             stuffy, close.  3 antiquated, old-fashioned.  ЬЬfustily adv.
             fustiness n.  [ME f. OF fust‚ smelling of the cask f.  fust
             cask, tree-trunk, f. L fustis cudgel]

   futhorc   n.  the Scandinavian runic alphabet.  [its first six letters f,
             u, th, ”, r, k]

   futile    adj.  1 useless, ineffectual, vain.  2 frivolous, trifling.
             ЬЬfutilely adv.  futility n.  [L futilis leaky, futile, rel. to
             fundere pour]

   futon     n.  a Japanese quilted mattress rolled out on the floor for use
             as a bed.  [Jap.]

   futtock   n.  each of the middle timbers of a ship's frame, between the
             floor and the top timbers.  [ME votekes etc. pl. f. MLG f.  fot
             FOOT + - ken -KIN]

   future    adj. & n.  --adj.  1 a going or expected to happen or be or
             become (his future career).  b that will be something specified
             (my future wife).  c that will be after death (a future life).
             2 a of time to come (future years).  b Gram. (of a tense or
             participle) describing an event yet to happen.  --n.  1 time to
             come (past, present, and future).  2 what will happen in the
             future (the future is uncertain).  3 the future condition of a
             person, country, etc.  4 a prospect of success etc. (there's no
             future in it).  5 Gram. the future tense.  6 (in pl.) Stock
             Exch.  a goods and stocks sold for future delivery.  b contracts
             for these.  Ьfor the future = in future.  future perfect Gram.
             a tense giving the sense will have done.  future shock inability
             to cope with rapid progress.  in future from now onwards.
             ЬЬfutureless adj.  [ME f. OF futur -ure f. L futurus future
             part. of esse be f. stem fu- be]

   futurism  n.  a movement in art, literature, music, etc., with violent
             departure from traditional forms so as to express movement and
             growth.  [FUTURE + -ISM, after It.  futurismo, F futurisme]

   futurist  n.  (often attrib.) 1 an adherent of futurism.  2 a believer in
             human progress.  3 a student of the future.  4 Theol. one who
             believes that biblical prophecies, esp. those of the Apocalypse,
             are still to be fulfilled.

             adj.  1 suitable for the future; ultra-modern.  2 of futurism.
             3 relating to the future.  ЬЬfuturistically adv.

   futurity  n.  (pl.  -ies) 1 future time.  2 (in sing. or pl.) future
             events.  3 future condition; existence after death.  Ьfuturity
             stakes US stakes raced for long after entries or nominations are

             n.  systematic forecasting of the future esp. from present
             trends in society.  ЬЬfuturologist n.

   fuze      var. of FUSE(2).

   fuzee     US var. of FUSEE.

   fuzz      n.  1 fluff.  2 fluffy or frizzled hair.  3 sl.  a the police.
             b a policeman.  Ьfuzz-ball a puff-ball fungus.  [17th c.: prob.
             f. LG or Du.: sense 3 perh. a different word]

   fuzzy     adj.  (fuzzier, fuzziest) 1 a like fuzz.  b frayed, fluffy.  c
             frizzy.  2 blurred, indistinct.  Ьfuzzy-wuzzy (pl.  -ies)
             offens.  1 colloq.  hist. a Sudanese soldier.  2 sl. a Coloured
             native of any country.  ЬЬfuzzily adv.  fuzziness n.

19.0 fwd...

   fwd       abbr.  forward.

   f.w.d.    abbr.  1 four-wheel drive.  2 front-wheel drive.

20.0 f.y....

   f.y.      abbr.  US fiscal year.

   -fy       suffix forming: 1 verbs from nouns, meaning: a make, produce
             (pacify; satisfy).  b make into (deify; petrify).  2 verbs from
             adjectives, meaning 'bring or come into such a state'
             (Frenchify; solidify).  3 verbs in causative sense (horrify;
             stupefy).  [from or after F -fier f. L -ficare, -facere f.
             facere do, make]

   fylfot    n.  a swastika.  [perh. f.  fill-foot, pattern to fill the foot
             of a painted window]

   fyrd      n.  hist.  1 the English militia before 1066.  2 the duty to
             serve in this.  [OE f. Gmc (as FARE)]

   fytte     var. of FIT(3).


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